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the bundahis, bahman ykst, and 
shAyast lA-shAyast 



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i. The Parsi Scriptures 

2. The Pahlavi Language and Literature 

3. The Bundahiy . 

4. The Selections of Zad?-sparam 

5. The Bahman Ya^t 

6. The Shayast la-shayast 

7. Concluding Remarks 









bundahls" ......... i 

Selections of ZAz>-sparam 153 

Bahman Vast 189 

Shayast la-shayast 237 

Index 407 

Errata 434 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East 







i. The Parsi Scriptures. 

THOUGH we must look to the Avesta for information 
regarding the main outlines of the Parsi religion, it is to 
Pahlavi writings we must refe'r for most of the details 
relating to the traditions, ceremonies, and customs of this 
ancient faith, which styles itself emphatically ' the good 
religion of the Mazdayasnians,' and calls its laity bahdinan, 
or 'those of the good religion. 5 In the fragments of the 
Avesta which still exist, we may trace the solid foundations 
of the religion, laid by philosophic bards and lawgivers of 
old, with many a mouldering column and massive fragment 
of the superstructure erected upon them by the ancient 
priesthood. These are the last remnants of the faith held 
by Cyrus, the anointed of the Lord (Isaiah xlv. i), the 
righteous one (Is. xli. 2), or eagle (Is. xlvi. 11), whom He 
called from the east, and the shepherd who performed His 
pleasure (Is. xliv. 38) ; scattered fragments of the creed 
professed by Darius in his inscriptions, when he attributes 
his successes to ' the will of Auramazda ; ' and mouldering 
ruins of the comparatively pure religion of oriental * bar- 
barism,' which Alexander and his civilising Greek successors 
were unable wholly to destroy, and replace by their own 
idolatrous superstitions. While in the Pahlavi texts we find 
much of the mediaeval edifice built by later Persian priest- 
craft upon the old foundations, with a strange mixture of 
old and new materials, and exhibiting the usual symptom 
of declining powers, a strong insistence upon complex forms 
and minute details, with little of the freedom of treatment 
and simplicity of outline characteristic of the ancient bards. 


To understand the relationship between these two classes 
of Parsi sacred writings, it must be observed that the Avesta 
and Pahlavi of the same scripture, taken together, form its 
Avesta and Zand, terms which are nearly synonymous with 
* revelation and commentary.' Both words are derived from 
verbal roots implying ' knowledge ; ' Avesta being the Pahlavi 
avistak, which may most probably be traced to the past 
participle of a, 'to,' -f vid, 'to know,' with the meaning of 
' what is announced ' or c declaration ; ' and Zand, being the 
Pahlavi form of A v. zai/zti (traceable in the word azaintis), 
must be referred to the root zan, ' to know,' with the meaning 
of ' knowledge, understanding V European scholars, misled 
probably by Muhammadan writers, have converted the 
phrase 'Avesta and Zand 5 into 'Zend-Avesta/ and have 
further identified Zand with the language of the Avesta. 
This use of the word Zand is, however, quite at variance 
with the practice of all Parsi writers who have been inde- 
pendent of European influence, as they apply the term 
Zand only to the Pahlavi translations and explanations of 
their sacred books, the original text of which they call 
Avesta. So that when they use the phrase 'Avesta and 
Zand* they mean the whole of any scripture, both the Avesta 
text and Pahlavi translation and commentary. And the 
latter, being often their only means of understanding the 
former, has now become of nearly equal authority with the 
Avesta itself. It is probable, indeed, that the first Zand 
was really written in the Avesta language, as we find many 
traces of such Avesta commentaries interpolated both in 
the Avesta and Pahlavi texts of the Parsi scriptures ; but 
this is rather a matter of European inference than of Parsi 
belief. The later (or Pahlavi) Zand appears also, in many 
places, to be merely a translation of this earlier (or Avesta) 
Zand, with additional explanations offered by the Pahlavi 

Regarding the sacredness of these Pahlavi translations, 
in the eyes of the Parsis, there can be no manner of doubt, 
so far as they cannot be shown to be inconsistent with the 

1 See Haug's Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the 
Parsis, second edition, London, 1878 ; pp. 121, 122. 


original Avesta text. But besides these translations there 
is another class of Pahlavi religious writings whose authority- 
is more open to dispute. These writings are either trans- 
lations and Zands of Avesta texts no longer extant, or they 
contain the opinions and decisions of high-priests of later 
times, when the Pahlavi language was on the decline. Such 
writings would hardly be considered of indisputable authority 
by any Parsi of the present day, unless they coincided with 
his own preconceived opinions. But for outsiders they have 
the inestimable value either of supplying numerous details 
of religious traditions and customs which would be vainly 
sought for elsewhere, or of being contemporary records of 
the religious ideas of the Parsis in the declining days of 
their Mazdayasnian faith. It is with a few of such writings 
this volume has to deal ; but before describing them more 
minutely it will be desirable to give some account of the 
Pahlavi language in which they are written. 

2. The Pahlavi Language and Literature. 

The term c Pahlavi,' in its widest extent, is applied to all 
the varying forms of the mediaeval Persian language, from 
the time when the grammatical inflexions of ancient Persian 
were dropped, till the period when the modern alphabet 
was invented, and the language became corrupted into 
modern Persian by the adoption of numerous Arabic words 
and phrases. Some traces of Pahlavi words and phrases, 
written in old Semitic characters, have been found in the 
legends of coins struck by certain kings of Persian provinces, 
subordinate to the Greek successors of Alexander, as early 
as the third century B.C. 1 Further traces have been dis- 
covered in the legends on some provincial coins of the time 
of the Arsacidan dynasty. But, practically, our acquaintance 
with Pahlavi commences with the inscriptions, on rocks and 
coins, of Ar^akhshir-i Papakan (a.D. 226-240), the founder 
of the Sasanian dynasty, and ends with certain religious 

1 See Levy's Beitrage zur aramaischen Miinzkunde Eran's, und zur Kunde 
der altern Pehlewi-Schrift ; Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft, Leipzig, 1867 ; XXI, 421-465. 


writings of priests and other devout Parsis of post-Muham- 
madan times, among the latest of which is one dated A.Y. 
250 (a.d. 881). Any fragments of Pahlavi composition of 
later date than A.D. iooo, must be considered merely as 
modern imitations of a dead language, and cannot be quoted 
as authorities for the use of any particular Pahlavi words or 

With regard to the origin of the word Pahlavi, or lan- 
guage of Pahlav, many suggestions have been offered ; but 
the most probable explanation 1 is that which connects it 
with the Parthva of the cuneiform inscriptions, the land of 
the Parthians known to the Greeks and Romans, and of the 
Pahlavas mentioned by Sanskrit writers; the change of 
Parthva into Pahlav being very similar to that of Av. 
Mithra into Pers. Mihr. No doubt the language of the 
Parthians themselves was not Pahlavi, but they were the 
actual rulers of Persia for some centuries at the time when 
the Pahlavi language was forming there ; and, being formid- 
able to their neighbours, it is not surprising that their name 
became identified with everything Persian, in the same way 
as the Roman name has been applied by the Persians, not 
only to the later Greek empire of Constantinople, but even 
to the earlier conqueror, Alexander the Great. 

Strictly speaking, the mediaeval Persian language is only 
called Pahlavi when it is written in one of the characters 
used before the invention of the modern Persian alphabet, 
and in the peculiarly enigmatical mode adopted in Pahlavi 
writings. Whenever it is transcribed, either in Avesta 
characters, or in those of the modern Persian alphabet, and 
freed from this peculiarity, it is called Pazand. 

The peculiar mode of writing Pahlavi, here alluded to, 
long made the character of the language a standing puzzle 
for European scholars, and was first satisfactorily explained 
by Professor Haug, of Munich, in his admirable Essay on 
the Pahlavi Language already cited. 

Like the Assyrians of old, the Persians of Parthian times 
appear to have borrowed their writing from a foreign race. 

1 See Haugs Essay on the Pahlavi Language, Stuttgart, 1870 ; pp. 33-37. 


But, whereas the Semitic Assyrians adopted a Turanian 
syllabary, these later Aryan Persians accepted a Semitic 
alphabet. Besides the alphabet, however, which they could 
use for spelling their own words, they also transferred a 
certain number of complete Semitic words to their writings, 
as representatives of the corresponding words in their own 
language. These Semitic representatives (the number of 
which might at any time be increased or diminished at the 
discretion of the writer) were probably never very numerous, 
and not more than four hundred of them are to be found in 
the Pahlavi writings now extant ; but, as they represent 
nearly all the commonest words in the language (excepting 
those specially relating to religious matters), they often 
constitute more than half the bulk of a Pahlavi text. 

The use of such Semitic words, scattered about in Persian 
sentences, gives Pahlavi the motley appearance of a com- 
pound language ; more especially as Persian terminations 
are often added to the Semitic words. But there are good 
reasons for supposing that the language was never spoken 
as it was written. The spoken language appears to have 
been purely Persian ; the Semitic words being merely used 
as written representatives, or logograms, of the Persian 
words which were spoken. Thus the Persians would write 
malk&n malka, 'king of kings/ but they would read 
shahan shah. This is still the mode in which most Parsis 
read their Pahlavi literature ; and it is only by assuming it 
to have been their universal practice, in former times, that 
we can account for the total and immediate disappearance 
of the Semitic portion of the Pahlavi, from their language, 
when the Persians adopted their modern alphabet. As the 
Semitic words were merely a Pahlavi mode of writing their 
Persian equivalents (just as 'viz.' is a mode of writing 
' namely ' in English), they disappeared with the Pahlavi 
writing, and the Persians began at once to write all their 
words, with their new alphabet, just as they pronounced 

In the meantime, the greater part of the nation had 
become Muhammadans, and a new influx of Semitic words 
commenced, but of a very different character. The Semitic 


portion of the Pahlavi writing was nearly pure Chaldee, and 
was confined (as already stated) to the graphic representa- 
tion of most of the simplest and commonest words uncon- 
nected with religion ; but it seems to have formed no part 
of the spoken language, at all events in later times. Whereas 
the Semitic portion of modern Persian is borrowed from 
Arabic, and includes most words connected with religion, 
science, and literature ; in fact, every class of words except 
that which was usually Semitic in Pahlavi writings ; and 
these Arabic words form an essential part of the spoken 
language, being as indispensable to the modern Persian as 
words of Norman-French origin are to the English. 

In Pahlavi writings, moreover, besides the four hundred 
Semitic logograms already mentioned, we also find about 
one hundred obsolete forms of Iranian words used as logo- 
grams ; much in the same way as ' ye ' may be used for 
' the/ and ' Xmas ' for ' Christmas' in English. The use of 
all these logograms was, however, quite optional, as their 
usual Persian equivalents might be substituted for any of 
them at any time, according to each particular writer's taste 
and discretion. But whenever they are employed they form 
what is called the HuzvarLy portion of the Pahlavi ; while 
the other words, intended to be pronounced as they are 
spelt, form the Pazand portion. 

Many attempts have been made to explain the word 
Huzvari^, but it cannot be said that any satisfactory 
etymology has yet been proposed. Like the word Pahlavi 
it seems hardly to occur in any old Pahlavi text, but only 
in colophons, chapter-headings, and similar notes of modern 
writers ; it seems, therefore, more reasonable to trace it to 
modern Persian than direct to any more ancient source. Its 
Pahlavi form, huzvarii" or auzvari^n, appears to represent 
the modern Persian uzvari^, which is rarely used ; the usual 
Persian form of the word being zuvari^. Now zuvarij* is 
precisely the form of an abstract noun derived from the 
crude form of a verb zuvaridan, which has been admitted 
into some Persian dictionaries on the authority of Golius l , 

1 See Castelli Lexicon Heptaglotton, Pars altera, London, 1669. 


with the meaning ' to grow old, to become thread-bare.' If 
such a verb really exists in Persian, although its meaning 
may imply ' decrepitude or decay' rather than ' antiquity or 
obsoleteness/ yet its abstract noun would not be altogether 
inapplicable to the logograms used in Pahlavi, which are, 
in fact, last remnants of older writings. 

The word Paz and is probably derived from Av. paiti- 
za^ti, with the meaning 're-explanation, 5 that is, a further 
interpretation of the Pahlavi Zand in the Persian vernacular. 
This term is applied not only to the purely Persian words 
in Pahlavi texts, but also (as already noticed) to translitera- 
tions of the said texts, either in Avesta or modern Persian 
characters, in which all the Huzvam words are replaced by 
their Pazand equivalents. These transliterations form what 
are called Pazand texts ; they retain the exact idiom and 
construction of the Pahlavi original, and represent the mode 
in which it was read. It may be remarked, however, that 
all such Pazand texts, as have been examined, seem to have 
been written in India, so that they may be suspected of 
representing some corrupt Gu^arati pronunciation of Persian, 
rather than the peculiar orthography of any period of the 
Persian language. 

This theory of the origin and development of Pahlavi 
writing could hardly be upheld, unless we could trace the 
same artificial mixture of Huzvam and Pazand in all acces- 
sible Pahlavi records, from their earliest appearance to the 
present time. This we are able to do, even in the scanty 
materials afforded by the legends on the provincial Persian 
coins of the third century B.C. and second century A.D. 
already mentioned. But we can trace it with greater cer- 
tainty not only in the coin legends, but also in the rock 
inscriptions of the earlier Sasanian kings (a.d. 326-388), in 
the latest of which we find the written language differing 
very slightly from that contained in the manuscripts pre- 
served by the Parsis of the present day, although the 
characters differ very much in form. And, finally, in the 
legends on the coins of the later Sasanian kings (a.d. 388— 
651) and on seals of their times, we find even this difference 
in the shapes of the letters disappearing by degrees. In 


fact, all the materials at our disposal tend to show that 
Huzvam has been an essential constituent of all Pahlavi 
writings from the time of Alexander's successors to that of 
the disuse of Pahlavi characters ; but we have no reason to 
suppose that the spoken language of the great mass of the 
Persian people ever contained the Semitic words which 
they thus used as Huzvam in their writings. 

Although the use of Huzvark, until explained recently, 
rendered the nature of the Pahlavi language very obscure, 
it added very little to the difficulty of understanding the 
Pahlavi texts, because the meaning of nearly every Huz- 
v&ris logogram was well known ; being recorded in an 
old glossary preserved by the Parsis, in which every 
logogram is explained by its proper Pazand equivalent. 
The extant copies of this old glossary generally contain 
the Huzv&rLf and Palzand words written in the Pahlavi 
character, together with their traditional pronunciation, 
either in Avesta or modern Persian letters ; there is, there- 
fore, no particular difficulty in reading or translating the 
Huzvark portion of a Pahlavi text, although doubts may 
often be entertained as to the accuracy of the traditional 

The real difficulty of reading Pahlavi texts lies in the 
Pazand portion (so far as it may be unexplained by 
existing vocabularies), and is chiefly occasioned by the 
ambiguity of some of the Pahlavi letters. The alphabet 
used in Pahlavi books contains only fourteen distinct 
letters, so that some letters represent several different 
sounds ; and this ambiguity is increased by the letters 
being joined together, when a compound of two letters 
is sometimes exactly like some other single letter. The 
complication arising from these ambiguities may be under- 
stood from the following list of the sounds, simple and 
compound, represented by each of the fourteen letters of 
the Pahlavi alphabet respectively : — 

U a, a, h, kh. Jb. ft|p,f. V'U. <2~>k,g 9 * 9 v. ?r, 

1. J z. -3d s, yi, yad, yag, ya^*, di, dad, dag, fag, gi, gad, 
gag, ga# g% £"ad, ^ag, gag. -JQ sh, s, ya, yah, yakh, ih, fkh, 


da, dah, dakh, ga., gah, gakh, ga, gah, ^akh. £ gh. J k. 
6 m. ) n, v, w, u, 6, r, 1. 3 y, i, e, d, g, £\ 

From this list it is easy to see the confusion produced 
by the letter jds s being exactly like the letter 3 y doubled, 
and by the letter -\) sh being identical with a com- 
pound of 3 y and A) a ; and there are, in fact, some 
compounds of two letters which have from ten to fifteen 
sounds in common use, besides others which might pos- 
sibly occur. If it be further considered that there are 
only three letters (which are also consonants, as in most 
Semitic languages) to represent five long vowels, and that 
there are probably five short vowels to be understood, 
the difficulty of reading Pahlavi correctly may be readily 

When Pahlavi writing was in common use this difficulty 
was probably no more felt by the Persians, than the com- 
plexity of Chinese characters is felt as an evil by a Chinese 
mandarin, or the corrupt system of English orthography 
by an educated Englishman. It is only the foreigner, or 
learner, who fully appreciates the difficulty of understand- 
ing such cumbrous systems of writing. 

With regard, however, to their Huzvaru logograms the 
Persians seem to have experienced more difficulty. As 
the actual sounds of these Semitic words were rarely 
pronounced, in consequence of their Pazand equivalents 
being substituted in reading, there must have been some 
risk of their true pronunciation being forgotten. That 
this risk was understood by the Persians, or Parsis, is 
proved by the existence of the Huzvam-Pazand glossary 
already described, which was evidently compiled as a 
record both of the pronunciation and meaning of the 
Huzvam logograms. But its compilation does not appear 
to have been undertaken until the true pronunciation of 
some of these logograms had been already lost. Thus, 
although the traditional readings of most of the Semitic 
portion of the Huzvam can be readily traced to well- 
known Chaldee words, there are yet many other such 
readings which are altogether inexplicable as Semitic 
[5] b 


words. In most such cases, however, European scholars 
have found that the HuzvarLr word can be easily read in 
some other way which at once connects it with some 
ordinary Chaldee equivalent. It may, therefore, be reason- 
ably assumed that the compilers of the glossary had in 
some instances lost the correct pronunciation of these old 
Semitic words, and that, in such cases, they adopted (as 
a Parsi would probably do at the present day) the most 
obvious reading of the letters before them, which thence- 
forth became an artificial word to be handed down to 
posterity, by successive generations of writers, with all 
the authority of old tradition. 

In the same manner the artificial pronunciation of the 
Iranian portion of the HuzvarLr may be explained. The 
compilers of the glossary found a number of words in 
the Pahlavi texts, which were written in some obsolete 
or contracted manner ; they knew the meanings of these 
words, but could not trace the true readings in the altered 
letters ; they, therefore, adopted the most obvious readings 
of the written characters, and thus produced another series 
of artificial words, such as anh6ma for auharmazd, 
yahan for yazdan, maddnad for maindk, shatan for 
shatr6, &c. 

Naturally enough the Parsis are loth to admit the 
possibility of any error in their traditional readings of 
Huzvarii", and very few of them have yet adopted the 
views of European scholars further than to admit that 
they are ingenious hypotheses, which still require satis- 
factory proof. They are quite right in demanding such 
proof, and they may reasonably argue that the conflicting 
opinions of various European scholars do not tend to in- 
crease the certainty of their explanations. But, on the 
other hand, they are bound to examine all proofs that 
may be offered, and to consider the arguments of scholars, 
before utterly rejecting them in favour of their own pre- 
conceived notions of traditional authority. 

Fortunately, we possess some means of ascertaining the 
ancient pronunciation of a few HuzvarLr words, independent 
of the opinions of comparative philologists, in the inscrip- 


tions already mentioned as having been engraved on 
rocks, and impressed on coins, by the earlier kings of the 
Sasanian dynasty in Persia. The earliest of these rock 
inscriptions records the name and titles of Artakhshatar 
son 1 of P&pak, the first Sasanian monarch (a. d. 226-340); 
it is engraved in Greek and two kinds of old Pahlavi 
characters, which have been called Chaldaeo-Pahlavi and 
Sasanian-Pahlavi, because the one bears more resemblance 
to Chaldee, both in its letters and the language they 
express, and the other is more frequently used by the 
subsequent Sasanian monarchs. A similar tri-lingual in- 
scription records the names and titles of his son and 
successor Shahpuhar I (a. D. 340-271), who has also left 
a long bi-lingual inscription, in Chaldaeo and Sasanian- 
Pahlavi, in a cave near Persepolis. Another long bi-lingual 
inscription, fragments of which have been found on stones 
among the ruins of Pal Kuli, is attributed to his early 
successors, who have also left us several uni-lingual in- 
scriptions in Sasanian-Pahlavi, two of which are of great 
length, but none later than the end of the fourth century. 

The language of the earlier of these inscriptions differs 
from that of the manuscripts preserved by the Parsis, 
chiefly in the use of several Semitic words unknown to 
the manuscript HuzvariLy, the non-existence of Iranian 
Huzvaru (which is evidently a growth of later times), and 
the less frequent use of Persian terminations affixed to 
Semitic words. These differences, however, are hardly 
greater than those which distinguish the English of Chaucer 
from that of our own day. Moreover, they gradually dis- 
appear in process of time, as we find the later inscriptions 
of the fourth century approaching much closer, in language, 
to the manuscripts. 

As the alphabets of these inscriptions are less imperfect 
and ambiguous than that of the Pahlavi manuscripts, they 
render the pronunciation of many words much more cer- 
tain. They consist of eighteen letters, having the following 
sounds : — 

1 So stated in the inscription, but Pahlavi MSS. call him the son of Papak's 
daughter and of Sasan (see Bund. XXXI, 30). 



i. a, a, %. b. 3. p, f. 4. t, d. 5. k, g, 2. 6. kh, h. 
7. d. 8. r, v, w, u, 6. 9. z. 10. s., j. 12. k. 13. g. 
14. 1, r. 15. m. 16. n. 17. y, 1, e. 18. doubtful, being 
equivalent to Chaldee Nv and to Pahl. MS. -man 1 . 

Comparing this list of sounds with that of the sounds of 
the manuscript alphabet (pp. xvi, xvii) it is evident that the 
inscriptions must afford a means of distinguishing a from 
kh, s from any binary compound of y, d, g, or g, sh from 
any compound of y, d, g, or g with a, h, or kh, n from v, r, 
or 1, and y, d, g from each other; all which letters and 
compounds are left in doubt by the manuscript alphabet. 
Unfortunately we do not possess trustworthy copies of 
some of the inscriptions which are evidently the most 
important from a linguistic point of view 2 ; but such 
copies as have been obtained supply corrections of tra- 
ditional misreadings of about twenty-five Huzvam logo- 
grams, and at the same time they confirm the correctness 
of three traditional readings which have been called in 
question by most European scholars. So far, therefore, 
the inscriptions would teach the Parsis that the decisions 
of comparative philologists are not likely to be right more 
than seven times out of eight, even when they are tolerably 

The Chaldaeo-Pahlavi character appears to have soon 

1 Whether the sound of this letter can ever be satisfactorily settled remains 
doubtful. Levy, in his Beitrage, cited on p. xi, considers it to be the Semitic 
n, on palseographical grounds ; but there are serious objections to all the identi- 
fications that have been proposed. 

2 The Sasanian inscriptions, of which new and correct copies are most ur- 
gently wanted, are: — 1. An inscription of thirty-one lines high up in the left 
side-compartment (behind the king) of the centre bas-relief of Naqs-i Rag-ab, 
near Persepolis. 2. Two inscriptions, of eleven and twelve lines respectively, 
on the stones of the edifice near the south-west corner of the great platform at 
Persepolis, south of the Hall of Columns (see Ouseley's Travels in Persia, vol. ii. 
p. 237 and plate 42). 3. All the fragments of the Pai Kuli inscription, of which 
probably not more than half have yet been copied. 

Of the very long inscription behind the king's horse in the bas-relief of 
Naqs-i Rustam, containing more than seventy lines very much damaged, a copy 
taken by Westergaard in 1843, wltn his usual accuracy, probably gives nearly all 
that is legible. And of the Hagiabad and shorter inscriptions, little or nothing 
remains doubtful. 


gone out of use, after the establishment of the Sasanian 
dynasty, as the latest known inscription, in which it occurs, 
is that of Pai Kuli, which contains the name of Au- 
harmazd I (a. d. 271-273) ; while the long inscriptions 
of Naq^-i Ra^ab and Naq^-i Rustam,. which contain the 
name of Varahran II (A. D. 275-283), are engraved only 
in Sasanian-Pahlavi. From these facts it seems probable 
that Chaldaeo-Pahlavi went out of use about A. D. 275. 
The Sasanian characters continue to appear, with very 
little alteration, upon the coins until the end of the fifth 
century, when most of them begin to assume the cursive 
form of the manuscript Pahlavi, which appears to have 
altered very slightly since the eighth century. 

The oldest Pahlavi manuscript known to be extant, 
consists of several fragments of papyrus recently found in 
a grave in the Fayum district in Egypt, and now in the 
Royal Museum at Berlin ; it is supposed to have been 
written in the eighth century. Next to this, after a long 
interval, come four manuscripts written on Indian paper, 
all by the same hand, in A. D. 1323-1324; they are two 
copies of the Yasna and two of the Vendidad, containing 
the Avesta with its Zand, or Pahlavi translation and com- 
mentary ; two of these old MSS. are now preserved in 
Kopenhagen, one in London, and one in Bombay. Next 
to these in age are two MSS. of miscellaneous Pahlavi 
texts, written probably about fifty years later ; one of 
these is now in Kopenhagen and one in Bombay. Another 
MS. of nearly the same age is also a miscellaneous col- 
lection of Pahlavi texts, written in A.D. 1397, and now in 
Munich ; where there is also one of the oldest Pazand- 
Sanskrit MSS., a copy of the Ar<^a-Viraf-namak, written 
in A.D. 1410. Another Pazand-Sanskrit MS., a copy of 
the Khurdah Avesta, of about the same age, exists in 
Bombay. Pahlavi and Pazand manuscripts of the sixteenth 
century are rather more numerous. 

Pahlavi literature reached the zenith of its prosperity 
about thirteen centuries ago, when it included the whole 
literature of Persia. Seventy years later its destruction 
commenced with the fall of the Sasanian dynasty (a.d. 


636-651) ; and the subsequent adoption of the modern Per- 
sian alphabet gave it its death-blow. The last remnants of 
Pahlavi writings are now contained in the few manuscripts 
still preserved by the Parsis in Western India, and their 
almost-extinct brethren in Persia. A careful estimate of 
the length of these remnants, so far as they are known to 
Europeans, has shown that the total extent of existing 
Pahlavi literature is about thirty-six times that of the 
BundahLs-, as translated in this volume. One-fifth of this 
literature consists of translations accompanying Avesta 
texts, and the remaining four-fifths are purely Pahlavi 
works which are nearly all connected with religion. How 
much of this literature may have descended from Sasanian 
times can hardly be ascertained as yet ; in fact, it is only 
very recently that any trustworthy data, for determining 
the age of a few Pahlavi writings, have been discovered, 
as will be explained hereafter, when considering the age 
of the BundahLs". 

3. The Bundahls. 

The term Bundahis, 'creation of the beginning,' or 
* original creation,' is applied by the Parsis to a Pahlavi 
work x which, in its present state, appears to be a collection 
of fragments relating to the cosmogony, mythology, and 
legendary history taught by Mazdayasnian tradition, but 
which cannot be considered, in any way, a complete 
treatise on these subjects. This term is applicable enough 
to much of the earlier part of the work, which treats of 
the progressive development of creation under good and 
evil influences ; but it is probably not the original name 
of the book. Its adoption was no doubt partly owing to 
the occurrence of the word bun-dahi^n, or bun-dahi^nih, 
twice in the first sentence, and partly to its appropriateness 
to the subject. But the same sentence seems to inform 

1 When this work forms part of a collection of Pahlavi texts, the whole 
manuscript is sometimes called ' the great Bundahis.' There also exists a Sad- 
dar Bundahis, or Bundahis of a hundred chapters, which is a comparatively 
modern compilation, detailing the chief customs and religious laws of the Parsis 
in a hundred sections. 


us that the actual name of the treatise was Zand-akas, 
' knowing the tradition.' 

The work commences by describing the state of things 
in the beginning ; the good spirit being in endless light 
and omniscient, and the evil spirit in endless darkness and 
with limited knowledge. Both produced their own crea- 
tures, which remained apart, in a spiritual or ideal state, 
for three thousand years, after which the evil spirit began 
his opposition to the good creation under an agreement 
that his power was not to last more than nine thousand 
years, of which only the middle three thousand were to 
see him successful. By uttering a sacred formula the good 
spirit throws the evil one into a state of confusion for a 
second three thousand years, while he produces the arch- 
angels and the material creation, including the sun, moon, 
and stars. At the end of that period the evil spirit, 
encouraged by the demons he had produced, once more 
rushes upon the good creation, to destroy it. The demons 
carry on conflicts with each of the six classes of creation, 
namely, the sky, water, earth, plants, animals represented 
by the primeval ox, and mankind represented by Gay6- 
marrf; producing little effect but movement in the sky, 
saltness in the water, mountains in the earth, withering 
in plants, and death to the primeval ox, and also to 
Gayomaft/ after an interval. 

Then follows a series of chapters describing the seven 
regions of the earth, its mountains and seas, the five classes 
of animals, the origin of mankind, generation, the five kinds 
of fire and three sacred fires, the white Horn tree and the 
tree of many seeds, the three-legged ass, the ox Hadhayo^, 
the bird Kkmros, and other birds and animals opposed to 
the evil creation, the rivers of the world, the seventeen 
species of liquids, the lakes, the origin of the ape and bear, 
the chiefs of the several kinds of creatures and creations, 
the calendar, lineal measures, trees and plants, the cha- 
racteristics of various demons, the spiritual chiefs of the 
various regions of the earth, and the resurrection and 
future existence ; all which descriptions are given on the 
authority of the Dtn, which may have been some particular 


book, or revelation generally. The concluding chapters 
give the genealogies of the legendary Persian kings and 
heroes, and of Zaratu^t and certain priests, together with 
an epitome of Persian chronology from the creation to the 
Muhammadan conquest. 

As the work now stands it is evidently of a fragmentary 
character, bearing unmistakable marks both of omissions 
and dislocations ; and the extant manuscripts, as will be 
seen^ differ among themselves both as to the extent and 
arrangement of the text. Many passages have the appear- 
ance of being translations from an Avesta original, and 
it is very probable that we have in the BundahLr either 
a translation, or an epitome, of the Damdad' Nask, one of 
the twenty-one books into which the whole of the Zoroas- 
trian scriptures are said to have been divided before the 
time of Darius. This may be guessed from a comparison 
of the contents of the BundahLs* with those of the Damda^/ 
Nask, which are detailed in the Dini-va^arkan/ as fol- 
lows 1 : — 'It contained an explanation of the spiritual 
existence and heaven, good and evil, the material existence 
of this world, the sky and the earth, and everything which 
Auharmazd produced in water, fire, and vegetation, men 
and quadrupeds, reptiles and birds, and everything which 
is produced from the waters, and the characteristics of all 
things. Secondly, the production of the resurrection and 
future existence ; the concourse and separation at the 
Kinvad bridge ; on the reward of the meritorious and 
the punishment of sinners in the future existence, and 
such-like explanations. , Moreover, the Damda^ Nask is 
twice quoted as an authority in the Selections of Zad- 
sparam (IX, i, 16), when treating of animals, in nearly the 
same words as those used in the BundahLf. 

The first manuscript of the BundahLs" seen in Europe 
was brought from Surat by Anquetil Duperron in 1761, 
and he published a French translation of it in his great 
work on the Zend-Avesta in 1771 2 . This manuscript, 

1 See Haug's Essays, &c., second edition, pp. 127, 128. 

2 Zend-Avesta, ouvrage de Zoroastre, Sec, par Anquetil Duperron; Paris, 
1 77 1. Tome seconde, pp. 343-422, Boun-dehesch. 


which is now in the National Library at Paris, was a 
modern copy, written A. D. 1734, and contained a miscel- 
laneous collection of Pahlavi writings besides the Bundahu". 
And Anquetil's translation, though carefully prepared m 
accordance with the information he had obtained from his 
Parsi instructor, is very far from giving the correct meaning 
of the original text in many places. 

In 1820 the very old codex from which Anquetil's MS. 
had been copied was brought to Europe, from Bombay, 
by the Danish scholar Rask, and was subsequently de- 
posited in the University Library at Kopenhagen. This 
most important codex, which will be more particularly 
described under the appellation of K20, appears to have 
been written during the latter half of the fourteenth century ; 
and a facsimile of the Pahlavi text of the BundahLy, which 
it contains, was very carefully traced from it, lithographed, 
and published by Westergaard in 1851 1 . 

In a review of this lithographed edition of the Pahlavi 
text, published in the Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen in 
1 854 2 , Haug gave a German translation of the first three 
chapters of the BundahLr. And Spiegel, in his Traditional 
Literature of the Parsis 3 , published in i860 a German 
translation of many passages in the BundahLsv, together with 
a transcript of the Pahlavi text of Chaps. I, II, III, and 
XXX in Hebrew characters. But the complete German 
translation of the BundahLr by Windischmann, with his 
commentary on its contents, published in his Zoroastrian 
Studies 4 in 1863, was probably the most important step 
in advance since the time of Anquetil, and the utmost 

1 Bundehesh, Liber Pehlvicus. E vetustissimo codice Havniensi descripsit, 
duas inscriptiones regis Saporis Primi adjecit, N. L. Westergaard ; Havnise, 

2 Ueber die Pehlewi-Sprache und den Bundehesh, von Martin Haug ; Got- 
tingen, 1854. 

3 Die Traditionelle Literatur der Parsen in ihrem Zusammenhange mit den 
angranzenden Literaturen, dargestellt von Fr. Spiegel; Wien, i860. 

4 Zoroastriche Studien. Abhandlungen zur Mythologie und Sagengeschichte 
des alten Iran, von Fr. Windischmann (nach dem Tode des Verfassers heraus- 
gegeben von Fr. Spiegel) ; Berlin, 1863. 


that could be done on the authority of a single MS. which 
is far from perfect. 

In 1866 another very old codex, containing the Pahlavi 
texts of the BundahLf and other works, was brought to 
Europe by Haug, to whom it had been presented at Surat 
in 1864. It is now in the State Library at Munich, and 
will be more minutely described under the appellation of 
M6. In this codex the BundahLr is arranged in a different 
order from that in K20, and Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX, and 
XXXI-XXXIII are omitted. 

A second complete German translation of the Bundahu*, 
with a lithographed copy of the Pahlavi text, a trans- 
literation of the text in modern Persian characters, and 
a glossary of all the words it contains, was published by 
Justi in 1868 1 . Its author, having had access to other 
MSS. (descended from M6) at London and Oxford, was 
able to rectify many of the deficiencies in Windischmann's 
translation ; but, otherwise, he made but little progress in 
elucidating difficult passages. 

Other European writers have published the result of 
their studies of particular parts of the BundahLy, but it 
does not appear that any of them have attempted a con- 
tinuous translation of several chapters. 

Whether the existence of previous translations be more 
of an assistance than a hindrance in preparing a new one, 
may well be a matter of doubt. Previous translations may 
prevent oversights, and in difficult passages it is useful 
to see how others have floundered through the mire ; but, 
on the other hand, they occasion much loss of time, by 
the necessity of examining many of their dubious render- 
ings before finally fixing upon others that seem more 
satisfactory. The object of the present translation is to 
give the meaning of the original text as literally as pos- 
sible, and with a minimum of extra words ; the different 
renderings of other translators being very rarely noticed, 
unless there be some probability of their being of service 

1 Der Bundehesh, zum ersten Male herausgegeben, transcribirt, ubersetzt, 
und mit Glossar versehen, von Ferdinand Justi ; Leipzig, 1868. 


to the reader. Some doubtful words and passages still 
defy all attempts at satisfactory solution, but of these the 
reader is warned ; and, no doubt, a few oversights and 
mistakes will be discovered. 

With regard to the original text, we have to recover 
it from four manuscripts which are, more or less, inde- 
pendent authorities, and may be styled K20, Ksob, M6, 
and TD. The first three of these have evidently descended, 
either directly or through one or more intermediate copies, 
from the same original ; but the source of TD, so far as 
it can be ascertained, seems to have been far removed from 
that of the others. All the. other MSS. of the BundahLr, 
which have been examined, whether Pahlavi or Pazand, 
are descended either from K20 or M6, and are, therefore, 
of no independent authority. 

K20 is the very old codex already mentioned as having 
been brought from Bombay by Rask in 1820, and is now 
No. 20 of the collection of Avesta and Pahlavi MSS. in 
the University Library at Kopenhagen. It consists now 
of 173 folios of very old and much-worn Indian paper of 
large octavo size, but five other folios are certainly missing, 
besides an uncertain number lost from the end of the 
volume. This MS. contains twenty Pahlavi texts, written 
twenty lines to the page, and some of them accompanied 
by Avesta ; the BundahLr is the ninth of these texts, and 
occupies fols. 88-129, of which fol. 121 is missing. Three 
of the texts, occurring before the BundahLy, have dated 
colophons, but the dates are A.Y. 690, 720, and 700, all 
within 36 folios ; it is, therefore, evident that these dates 
have been copied from older MSS.; but at the same time 
the appearance of the paper indicates that the actual date 
of the MS. cannot be much later than A.Y. 720 (a.d. 1351), 
and there are reasons for believing that it was written 
several years before A.Y. 766 (a.d. 1397), as will be ex- 
plained in the description of M6. Owing to its age and 
comparative completeness this MS. of the BundahLy is 
certainly the most important one extant, although com- 
parison with other MSS. proves that its writer was rather 
careless, and frequently omitted words and phrases. The 


loss of fol. 121, though it has hitherto left an inconve- 
nient gap in the text (not filled up by other MSS.), is 
more than compensated by the three extra chapters which 
this MS. and its copies have hitherto alone supplied. The 
text on the lost folio was supposed by Anquetil to have 
contained a whole chapter besides portions of the two 
adjacent ones ; this is now known to be a mistake, An- 
quetil's Chap. XXVIII being quite imaginary ; the end of 
Chap. XXVII has long been supplied from other MSS., 
but the beginning of the next chapter has hitherto been 

Only two copies of K20 appear to be known to Eu- 
ropeans ; the best of these is the copy brought from Surat 
by Anquetil, No. 7 of his collection of manuscripts, now 
in the National Library at Paris ; this was written in A. D. 
1734, when K30 appears to have been nearly in its present 
imperfect state, though it may have had some 15 folios 
more at the end. This copy seems to have been carefully 
written ; but the same cannot be said of the other copy, 
No. 21 in the University Library at Kopenhagen, which 
is full of blunders, both of commission and omission, and 
can hardly have been written by so good a Pahlavi scholar 
as Dastur Darab, Anquetil's instructor, although attributed 
to him. 

Ksob consists of nineteen loose folios 1 , found by 
Westergaard among some miscellaneous fragments in the 
collection of Avesta and Pahlavi MSS. in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen, and now forming No. 20 b in that 
collection. The first two folios are lost, but the third folio 
commences with the Pahlavi equivalent of the words 
* knew that Aharman exists ' (Bund. Chap. I, 8), and the 
text continues to the end of Chap. XI, 1, where it leaps at 
once (in the middle of a line on the fifteenth folio) to 
Chap. XXX, 15, 'one brother who is righteous/ whence 
the text continues to the end of Chap. XXXI, 15, which 
is followed by Chaps. XXXII, XXXIV, as in Kao. This 

1 I am indebted to the late Professor N. L. Westergaard for all information 
about this MS., and also for a tracing of the Pahlavi text of so much of Chap. 
XXXI as is contained in it. 


MS. is not very old, and contains merely a fragment of 
the text ; but its value consists in its not being a de- 
scendant of either K20 or M6, as it clearly represents a 
third line of descent from their common original. It agrees 
with K20 in the general arrangement of its chapters, so 
far as they go, and also in containing Chap. XXXI ; but 
it differs from it in some of the details of that chapter, 
and agrees with M6 in some verbal peculiarities elsewhere; 
it has not, however, been collated in any other chapter. 
The omission of nearly twenty chapters, in the centre of 
the work, indicates that some one of the MSS. from which 
it is descended, had lost many of its central folios before 
it was copied, and that the copyist did not notice the 
deficiency ; such unnoticed omissions frequently occur in 
Pahlavi manuscripts. 

M6 is the very old codex brought to Europe by Haug 
in 1866, and now No. 6 of the Haug collection in the 
State Library at Munich. It consists of 340 folios of very 
old, but well-preserved, Indian paper of large octavo size 
(to which thirteen others, of rather later date, have been 
prefixed) bound in two volumes. This MS. contains nine- 
teen Pahlavi texts, written from seventeen to twenty-two 
lines to the page, and some of them accompanied by 
Avesta ; eleven of these texts are also found in K20, and 
the BundahLs- is the fourteenth of the nineteen, occupying 
fols. 53-99 of the second volume. Two of the other texts 
have dated colophons, the dates being fifty days apart in 
A. Y. 766 (a. D. 1397), and as there are 150 folios between 
the two dates there is every probability that they are the 
actual dates on which the two colophons were written. 
The arrangement of the Bundahii 1 in this MS. is different 
from that in K20, giving the chapters in the following 
order :— Chaps. XV-XXIII, I-XIV, XXIV-XXVII, XXX, 
XXXII, XXXIV, and omitting Chaps.XXVIII,XXIX, and 
XXXI. These omissions and the misplacement of Chaps. 
I-XIV render it probable that the MS., from which the 
BundahLs* in M6 was copied, was already in a state of 
decay ; and this supposition is confirmed by upwards of 
fifty peculiar mistakes, scattered over most parts of the 


text in M6, which are evidently due to the illegibility of 
the original from which it was copied, or to its illegible 
words having been touched up by an ignorant writer, 
instances of which are not uncommon in old Pahlavi MSS. 
Eliminating these errors, for which the writer of M6 cannot 
be held responsible, he seems to have been a more careful 
copyist than the writer of K20, and supplies several words 
and phrases omitted by the latter. The close corres- 
pondence of K20 and M6 in most other places, renders it 
probable that they were copied from the same original, 
in which case K20 must have been written several years 
earlier than M6, before the original MS. became decayed 
and difficult to read. It is possible, however, that K20 
was copied from an early copy of the original of M6 ; 
in which case the date of K20 is more uncertain, and may 
even be later than that of M6. 

Several MSS. of the Bundahii- descended from M6 are 
in existence. One is in the MS. No. 121 of the Ousel ey 
collection in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and contains 
the chapters in the following order : — Chaps. XV-XXIII, 
I-VII,i7 (to < Aragriver 5 ),XII-XIV,XXIV-XXVII,XXX, 
VII, 12-XI; followed by Sis. Chap. XX, 4-17, also derived 
from M6. Another is in the library of Dastur Jamaspji Mino- 
chiharji at Bombay, and contains the chapters also in a 
dislocated state (due to the misplacement of folios in some 
former MS.) as follows :- Chaps. XV-XXIII, I-XI, 5 (to 
'and the evil spirit 5 ), XII, 2 (from ' Si£idav')-XII, 12 (first 
word), XI, 5 (from 'produced most for Khvaniras')~XII, 2 
(to 'am^Kdndras, Mount'), XXX, 32 (from 'the renovation 
arises in')-XXX, 33, XXXII, XXXIV, Sis. Chap. XVIII, 
Bund. Chaps. XII, 12 (from ' Aira£')- XIV > XXIV-XXVII, 
XXX. A third is in the library of Dastur Ndshirvanji 
Jamaspji at Poona, and contains the text in the same order 
as M6. A fragment of the Pahlavi text of the BundahLs", 
also descended from M6, occupies eight folios in the Addi- 
tional Oriental MS. No. 22,378 in the Library of the British 
Museum ; it contains Chaps. XVIII, XIX, 17, and XX, 1-2 
(to ' one from the other'). 

There are also several Pazand manuscripts of the Bun- 


dahLr, written in Avesta characters, and likewise derived 
from M6. One of the best of these is No. 12 of the collec- 
tion of Avesta and Pahlavi MSS. in the India Office Library 
at London ; it is old, and has the date A.Y. 936 (a.D. 1567) 
in a Pahlavi colophon on fol. 111, but this may have been 
copied from an older MS.; its contents are arranged as 
follows :— Chaps. XVIII-XXIII, I-XIV, XXIV-XXVII, 
XXX, XXXII, XXXIV, followed by several short Pazand 
texts, only part of which are derived from M6, and the last 
of them being left incomplete by the loss of the folios which 
originally formed the end of the volume ; instead of these 
lost folios others, containing Chaps. XV-XVII, have been 
added and bound up with the rest. Another MS., No. 7 
in the same collection, which is dated A.Y. 11 74 (a.D. 1805), 
is a modern copy derived from No. 1% through one or more 
intervening MSS. 1 ; it contains precisely the same text, but 
with many variations in orthography, indicative of the very 
uncertain character of Pazand spelling. Two fragments of 
the Pazand text are also contained in the MSS. No. 131 at 
Oxford, already mentioned ; they consist of Chaps. V, 3-7 
(to ' would have known the secret') and XXV, 18 -%%. 
Another fragment, evidently copied from an old MS., is 
found on fols. 34, 35 of the Rivayat MS. No. 8 of the col- 
lection in the India Office Library ; it consists of Chap. 
XVIII, 1-8. 

The Pazand text of the Bundahii", derived from M6, is 
also written in Persian characters in M7 (No. 7 of the Haug 
collection at Munich), dated A.Y. 11 78 (a.D. 1809). It is 
interlined by Persian glosses, word for word, and consists 
XXX on fols. 81-119, with Chaps. XV-XVII on fols. 120- 
126, a repetition of Chap. XV and part of XVI on fols. 
2,2,3-2,27, and Chap. XXXII on fol. 232. 

Thus far, it will be noticed, we have two good indepen- 
dent authorities, K20 and M6, for ascertaining the text of 
the BundahLy in the fourteenth century, so far as Chaps. I- 

1 This is proved by an omission in fol. 40, which clearly indicates the loss of 
a folio in an intermediate MS. 


XXVII, XXX, XXXII, and XXXIV are concerned ; and 
we have also, in Ksob, a second authority for so much of 
Chap. XXXI as occurs in K20 ; but for Chaps. XXVIII 
and XXIX we have nothing but K20 to rely on, and part of 
Chap. XXVIII is lost in that manuscript. Such was the 
unsatisfactory state of that part of the text until Dec. 1877, 
when information about the MS. TD was received, followed 
by further details and a copy of Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX, 
and XXXI-XXXIII in Oct. 1878 \ 

TD is a manuscript of the Bundahii* which contains a 
much more extensive text than the MSS. already described, 
but whether it be an extension of the hitherto-received text, 
or the received text be an abridgement of this longer one, 
is likely to be a matter of dispute among Pahlavi scholars 
until the whole of the new text has been thoroughly 
examined. At any rate, the contents of this MS., combined 
with those of some MSS. of the Da^istan-i Dinik, afford a 
means of fixing the date of this recension of the Bundahi^, 
as will be seen hereafter. 

This MS. belongs to a young Mobad named Tehmuras 
Dinshawji Anklesaria in Bombay, and was brought from 
Persia a few years ago by a Mobad named Khodabakhsh 
Farod Abadan. It occupies the first 103 folios of the 
volume containing it, and is followed by 112 more folios 
containing the Nirangistan. The first original folio, which 
contained the text as far as Chap. I, 5 (to ' endless light 5 ), 
has been lost and replaced by another (which, however, is 
now old) containing some introductory sentences, besides 
the missing text. The last original folio of the Bundahi^, 
containing the last five lines of the last chapter, has also been 
lost and replaced by another modern folio, which contains 
the missing text followed by two colophons, both expressing 
approval of the text, and asserting that the MS. was written 
by Gopatshah Rustam Bondar. The first of these colophons 

1 I am indebted to Mr. Khurshedji Rustamji Cama, of Bombay (who is well 
known for the interest he takes in all matters relating to the ancient customs 
and history of his fellow-countrymen), for obtaining this information, and to the 
owner of the MS. for his liberality in supplying me with all the details and 
extracts mentioned in the text. 


is undated, but gives the testimony of Dastur Rustam x 
Qu-stasp An/ashir, who is known to have written another 
MS. dated A.Y. 1068 (a.d. 1699). The second colophon is 
by Dastur Jamshe^/ Jamasp Hakim, and is dated A.Y. 1113 
(a. d. 1743), which was probably the date when this last 
folio was supplied to complete the old defective MS. 

With regard to the age of the older part of this MS. we 
can arrive at an approximation in the following manner : — 
A valuable MS. of the Da^istan-i Dinik, which also belongs 
to Tehmuras Dinshawji, was written (according to a colophon 
which it contains) by Gopatshah Rustom 2 Bandar Malka- 
man/an in the land of Kirman, who was evidently the same 
person as the writer of TD. Another MS. of the DcU/istan-i 
Dinik was written by Mar^apan Fre^un Vahrom Rustam 
Bondar Malka-mar^/an Din-ayar, also in the land of Kirman, 
in A.Y. 941 (a.d. 157a). Comparing these two genealogies 
together it seems evident that Gdpatshah was a brother of 
Vahrom, the grandfather of Marsapan, and, therefore, a 
grand-uncle of Mar^apan himself. Allowing for these two 
generations, it is probable that G6patshah wrote TD about 
A.Y. 900 (say A. D. 15.30) ; although instances have occurred 
in which a son has written a MS. at an earlier date than 
that of one written by his father. 

The introductory sentences on the first restored folio are 
evidently a modern addition to the text, after it had acquired 
the name of BundahLr ; but they seem to have been copied 
from some other MS., as the copyist appears to have 
hardly understood them, having written them continuously 
with the beginning of the text, without break or stop. 
The spelling is modern, but that may be due to the copyist ; 
and the language is difficult, but may be translated as 
follows 3 : — 

' The propitiation of the creator Auharmazd, the radiant, 

1 This Dastur is said to have sprung from the laity, and not from a priestly- 

2 The vowels a and 6 (or u) often interchange in Pahlavi MSS. from Persia, 
probably owing to peculiarities of dialect, and the very broad sound of Persian 
a, like English a in call. 

3 English words in italics are additions to complete the sense. 

[5] c 


glorious, omniscient, wise, powerful, and supreme, by what 
is well-thought, well-said, and well-done in thought, word, 
and deed, and the good augury of all the celestial angels 
and terrestrial angels upon the virtuous creation, I beseech. 

'Written at the second fortunate conjunction (akhtar) 
in the high-priestship (dasturih) of the God-devoted, all- 
sagacious cultivator of righteousness, the lover of good works 
who is God-discerning, spirit-surveying, and approved by 
the good, the high-priest of the good religion of the Maz- 
dayasnians, the glorified J Spendycu/ son of Mcih-vindcu/, son 
of Rustdm, son of Shatrdyar. 

'The writing 2 of the Bundahi^ was set going by the 
coming of the Arabs to the country of Iran, whose hetero- 
doxy (duj-dinih) and ignorance have arisen from not 
understanding the mysteries of Kayan 3 orthodoxy (hu- 
dinoih) and of those revered by the upholders of the 
religion. From their deep seats it draws the purport of 
benedictions, and from dubious thinking of actions it 
draws words of true meaning, the disclosure of which is 
entertaining knowledge. 

i On account of evil times, even he of the undecayed 
family of the Kay&ns and the Kayan upholders of the 
religion are mingled with the obedient and just of those 
heterodox ; and by the upper class the words of the 
orthodox, uttered in assembled worship, are considered as 
filthy vice. He also whose wish was to learn propriety 
(vara^-) through this treatise (farhang), might provide it 
for himself, from various places, by trouble and day and 
night painstaking, but was not able.' 

The text of Chap. I then commences (without any inter- 
mediate stop) with the words zak zand-akasih, 'that 
knowledge of tradition/ As the whole text of the BundahLs- 
occupies about 203 pages in TD, and each page contains 

1 Literally, ' immortal-soulled,' a term implying generally that the person is 
dead ; but it seems to have been applied to King Khusro I (Noshirvan) during 
his lifetime. The time when this priest lived has yet to be discovered. 

2 Reading zektibun-i, equivalent to P&z. nivis-i; the MS. has zak 

3 The hero tribe or princely race of the Kayanian dynasty, from which later 
Persian rulers have fancied themselves descended. 


seventeen lines rather longer than those in K20, it is evident 
that the text in TD must be more than twice the length of 
that in K20, which occupied originally about eighty-three 
pages of twenty lines each. This additional text consists 
not only of additional matter in many of the chapters, but 
also of extra chapters, which give the work a more complete 
appearance than it presents in the manuscripts hitherto 
known. The whole number of chapters in TD appear to 
be forty-two, the general character of the contents of which 
may be gathered from the following list of the headings of 
each chapter, with the space it occupies in TD, and a 
reference to the corresponding chapter of the translation 
in this volume (such chapters as seem to be entirely wanting 
in K20 being marked with an asterisk) : — 

1. The knowledge of tradition, first about Auharmazd's 
original creation and the antagonism of the evil spirit, after- 
wards about the nature of the creatures of the world, from 
the original creation till the end ; 19 pages ; see Chap. I. 

%. On the formation of light ; 1 1 pages ; see Chap. II. 

3. The rush of the destroyer at the creatures ; 6 pages ; 
see Chaps. Ill, IV. 

4. On the opposition of the two spirits, that is, in what 
manner the arch-fiends have come spiritually in opposition 
to the celestial angels ; 10 pages ; see Chap. V for two of 
the middle pages. 

5. On the waging of the conflict (krdik) of the crea- 
tions of the world, encountering the evil spirit ; 1 page ; 
see Chap. VI. 

6. The second conflict the water waged ; 3 pages ; see 
Chap. VII. 

7. The third conflict the earth waged; 1 page; see 
Chap. VIII. 

8. The fourth conflict the plants waged ; J page ; see 
Chap. IX. 

9. The fifth conflict the primeval ox waged; i page; 
see Chap. X. 

* 10. The sixth conflict Gayomarc/ waged ; 1 J page. 
*n. The seventh conflict the fire waged ; i page. 
*i3. The eighth conflict the constellations waged ; ipage. 

c 2 


^13. The ninth conflict the celestial angels waged with 
the evil spirit ; three lines. 

*I4. Tenth, the stars practised non-intermeddling (agu- 
megisn); £ page. 

^15. On the species of those creations; 2$ pages. 

16. On the nature of lands ; 1 J page ; see Chap. XI. 

17. On the nature of mountains ; 4^ pages ; see Chap. XII. 

18. On the nature of seas ; 2\ pages ; see Chap. XIII. 

19. On the nature of rivers ; $\ pages ; see Chaps. XX, 

20. On the nature of lakes ; 1 \ page ; see Chap. XXII. 

21. On the nature of the five classes of animals ; 5 J pages ; 
see Chap. XIV. 

22. On the nature of men ; 7i pages; see Chap. XV 1 . 

23. On the nature of generation of every kind ; 5 pages ; 
see Chap. XVI. 

24. On the nature of plants ; 3^ pages ; see Chap. XXVII. 

25. On the chieftainship of men and animals and every 
single thing ; 2\ pages ; see Chap. XXIV. 

26. On the nature of fire ; 4§ pages ; see Chap. XVII. 
*2J. On the nature of sleep ; %i pages. 

*28. On the nature of wind and cloud and rain ; 9! pages. 
^29. On the nature of noxious creatures; 4£ pages 2 . 
■^30. On the nature of the wolf species; 2 pages. 

31. On things of every kind that are created by the 
spirits 3 , and the opposition which came upon them; 7! 
pages ; see Chaps. XVIII, XIX. 

32. On the religious year ; 4 pages ; see Chaps. XXV, 

*33. On the great exploits of the celestial angels; 17! 

34. On the evil-doing of Aharman and the demons; 
7 pages, as in Chap. XXVIII. 

1 TD contains half a page more near the beginning, and a page and a half 
more at the end. 

2 Probably Chap. XXIII of the translation forms a part either of this chapter 
or the next. 

3 This word is doubtful. 


*<$5. On the body of man and the opinion of the world 1 ; 
7 pages. 

36. On the spiritual chieftainship of the regions of the 
earth; $\ pages, as in Chap. XXIX. 

*37. On the ATinva^ bridge and the souls of the departed; 
5§ pages. 

*38. On the celebrated provinces of the country of Iran, 
the residence of the Kayans ; 5 pages 2 . 

^39. On the calamities of various millenniums happening 
to the country of Iran ; 8§ pages 3 . 

40. On the resurrection and future existence ; 6§ pages ; 
see Chap. XXX. 

41. On the race and offspring of the Kayans ; 8| pages, 
as in Chaps. XXXI-XXXIII. 

4%. On the computation of years of the Arabs ; 2\ pages; 
see Chap. XXXIV. 

Comparing this list of contents with the text in K20, 
as published in Westergaard's lithographed facsimile edi- 
tion, it appears that TD contains, not only fifteen extra 
chapters, but also very much additional matter in the 
chapters corresponding to Chaps. I, II, V, XVI, XXVIII, 
and XXXI of the translation in this volume, and smaller 
additions to those corresponding to Chaps. Ill, IV, XV, 
XVII, and XXXIV. The arrangement of the chapters in 
TD is also much more methodical than in the Indian 
MSS., especially with regard to Chaps. XX, XXI, XXII, 
and XXVII, which evidently occupy their proper position 
in TD ; and so far as Chap. XX is concerned, this arrange- 
ment is confirmed by the insertion of its first sentence 
between Chaps. XIII and XIV in the Indian MSS., which 
indicates that the whole chapter must have been in that 
position in some older copy. In fact, the Indian MSS. 
must probably be now regarded merely as collections of 

1 The meaning is doubtful and must depend upon the context. 

2 This chapter begins with a translation of the first fargard of the Vendidad, 
and concludes with an account of buildings erected by various kings. 

3 Containing an account of the kings reigning in the various millenniums, and 
concluding with prophecies similar to those in the Bahman Yast. 


extracts from the original work ; this has been long 
suspected from the fragmentary character of the text 
they contain, but it could hardly be proved until a more 
complete text had been discovered. 

Whether TD may be considered as a copy of the text 
as it stood originally, or merely of an after recension of 
the work, can hardly be determined with certainty until 
the whole contents of the manuscript have been carefully 
examined ; it is, therefore, to be hoped that its owner will 
be induced to publish a lithographed facsimile of the whole, 
after the manner of Westergaard's edition. So far as 
appears in the lengthy and valuable extracts, with which 
he has kindly favoured me, no decided difference of style 
can be detected between the additional matter and the 
text hitherto known, nor any inconsistencies more striking 
than such as sometimes occur in the Indian MSS. On the 
other hand, it will be noticed that heading No. 25 in the 
list of contents seems to be misplaced, which is an argu- 
ment against the text being in its original state ; and the 
style of the BundahL? is so much less involved and obscure 
than that of the Selections of Za^-sparam (see Appendix 
to the Bundahu), which treat of some of the same subjects, 
that it may be fairly suspected of having been written 
originally in a different age. But the writer of the text, 
as it appears in TD, calls Za^-sparam 1 one of his con- 
temporaries (see Chap. XXXIII, 10, 11 of the translation); 
it may, therefore, be suspected that he merely re-edited 
an old text with some additions of his own, which, how- 
ever, are rather difficult to distinguish from the rest. No 
stress can be laid upon peculiarities of orthography in TD, 
as they are, in all likelihood, attributable to copyists long 
subsequent to Za<^-sparam's contemporaries. 

Any future translator of the Bundahu will probably 
have to take the text in TD as the nearest accessible 
approach to the original work ; but the present translation 
is based, as heretofore, upon the text in K20, corrected 
in many places from M6, but with due care not to adopt 

1 He writes the name Zatf-sparham. 


readings which seem due to the illegibility of the original 
from which M6 was copied, as already explained. In 
however, TD has been taken as a principal authority, 
merely checked by K20, and having its additional passages 
carefully indicated; and in Chap. XXXI, Ksob has also 
been consulted. 

Since the present translation was printed, any lingering 
doubts, as to the genuineness of the text in TD, have been, 
in a great measure, dissipated by the discovery that a small 
fragment 1 of an old MS. of the Bundahu", which has long 
been in Europe, is evidently a portion of a text of similar 
character to TD, and of exactly the same extent. This 
small fragment consists of two folios belonging to an old 
MS. brought from Persia by the late Professor Westergaard 
in 1843-44, and which is evidently the codex mentioned by 
him in the preface to his Zend-Avesta, p. 8, note 3. These 
two folios, which are numbered 130 and 131 in Persian 
words, now form the commencement of this old mutilated 
MS., of which the first 129 folios have been lost. They 
contain very little more than one page of the BundahL? text, 
namely, the last sentences of the last chapter (corresponding 
to Bund. XXXIV, 7-9), followed by a colophon occupying 
less than two pages. This fragment of the text contains 
some additional details not found in the Indian MSS. 5 as 
well as a few other variations of no great importance. It 
may be translated as follows : — 

'[.... Sahm 2 was in those reigns 0/Auzobo, Kava<^, 
and Manu^ihar.] Kai-Kayus, till his going to the sky, 
seventy-five years, and after that, seventy-five years, alto- 
gether a hundred and fifty years; Kai-Khusrobo sixty 

1 I am indebted to Professor G. Hoffmann, of Kiel, for directing my atten- 
tion to this fragment, and also for kindly sending me a facsimile of it. It had 
been recognised as a portion of the Bundahis by Dr. Andreas some years ago, 
and probably by the owner of the MS., the late Professor Westergaard, long 
before that. 

2 See Bund. XXXI, 27. As the beginning of this sentence is lost, its trans- 
lation is uncertain. Details not found in K20 and M6 are here enclosed in 
brackets, and words added by the translator to complete the sense are printed 
in italics. 


years ; Kai-L6harasp a hundred and twenty years ; Kai- 
Viit&sp, till the coming of the religion, thirty years ; [total 
(mar) one thousand years 1 . Then the millennium reign 
came to Capricornus, and Zaratuha^t 2 the Spit&man, with 
tidings (petkhambarih) from the creator Auharmazd, came 
to King Viit&sp ; and VLstasp was king,] after receiving the 
religion, ninety years. 

* Vohuman, son of Spend-deu/, a hundred and twelve years ; 
Humai, daughter of Vohuman, thirty years ; Darai, son of 
inhar-a.Scid', that is, of the daughter of Vohuman, twelve 
years ; Dar&i, son of Darai, fourteen years ; and Alexander 
the Ruman 3 fourteen years. 

' The A^kinians should bear the title in an uninterrupted 
sovereignty two hundred and so many 4 years ; and Artakh- 
shatar, son of Papak, and the number of the Sasanians bear 
it four hundred and sixty years, until the withering Arabs 
obtained a place 5 [as far as the year 447 of the Persians ; 
now it is the Persian year 527] 6 .' 

The colophon, which follows, states that the MS. was 
finished on the thirteenth day of the ninth month A.Y. 936 
(a. d. 1567), and was written by Mitrd-apctn, son of Anoshak- 
rub&n, son of Rustam. This MS. is, therefore, of nearly the 
same age as TD ; but there has been no opportunity of 
collating the fragment of it, which is still extant, with the 
corresponding portion of TD. That it was a MS. of the 
same character as TD (that is, one containing the same text 
as K20, but with much additional matter) appears clearly 

1 From the beginning of FreWun's reign, when the millennium of Sagittarius 

2 The usual way of spelling Zaratust in old MSS., excepting K20 and a few 

3 Here written correctly Alaksandar-i A rum a i. 

4 Reading va and ; as the final letter is d and not d it cannot be read 
navai as a variant of navarf, 'ninety.' 

5 The words are, vad finale ayaft khusko-i Tazik&nS, but the exact 
meaning is rather doubtful. 

6 The last date is doubtful, as the Pahlavi text gives the ciphers only for 
'five and twenty-seven/ omitting that for 'hundred/ These Persian dates 
must either have been added by some former copyist, or Chap. XXXIV must 
have been appended to the Bundahis at a later date than the ninth century, 
when the preceding genealogical chapters were probably added to the original 
work (see p. xliii). The Persian year 527 was a. d. 1158. 


from the fragment translated above. Regarding its original 
extent, it is possible to make an approximate estimate, by- 
calculating the quantity of text which the 129 lost folios 
must have contained, from the quantity actually existing on 
folio 130. According to this calculation, the original extent 
of the text of the BundahLr in this MS. must have been 
very nearly 30,000 words ; and it is remarkable that a 
similar calculation of the extent of the text in TD, based 
upon the actual contents of ten folios out of 103, gives pre- 
cisely the same result. This coincidence is a strong argu- 
ment in favour of the absolute identity of the text lost from 
Westergaard's MS. with that actually existing in TD ; it 
shows, further, that the original extent of the BundahiV may 
now be safely estimated at 30,000 words, instead of the 
13,000 contained in K20 when that MS. was complete. 

That this fragment belonged to a separate MS., and is 
not the folio missing from the end of TD, is shown not 
only by its containing more of the text than is said to be 
missing, but also by the first folio of the fragment being 
numbered 130, instead of 103, and by its containing fifteen 
lines to the page, instead of seventeen, as would be necessary 
in order to correspond with TD. 

Regarding the age of the Bundahii* many opinions have 
been hazarded, but as they have been chiefly based upon 
minute details of supposed internal evidence evolved from 
each writer's special misinterpretation of the text, it is 
unnecessary to detail them. The only indication of its 
age that can be fairly obtained from internal evidence, 
is that the text of the Bundahii" could not have been 
completed, in its present form, until after the Muham- 
madan conquest of Persia (a. D. 651). This is shown not 
only by the statements that the sovereignty ' went to the 
Arabs ' (Chap. XXXIV, 9), that ( now, through the invasion 
of the Arabs, they (the negroes) are again diffused through 
the country of Iran ' (Chap. XXIII, 3), and that ' whoever 
keeps the year by the revolution of the moon mingles 
summer with winter and winter with summer ' (Chap. XXV, 
19, referring probably to the Muhammadan year not cor- 
responding with the seasons), but also, more positively 


by the following translation of an extract from Chap. 
39 in TD : — 

'And when the sovereignty came to Yazdakar^ he 
exercised sovereignty twenty years, and then the Arabs 
rushed into the country of Iran in great multitude. Yaz- 
dakaraf did not prosper (la ^akafto) in warfare with them, 
and went to Khurasan and Turkistdn to seek horses, men, 
and assistance, and was slain by them there. The son of 
Yazdakan/ went to the Hindus and fetched an army of 
champions ; before it came, conducted unto Khurasan, that 
army of champions dispersed. The country of Iran re- 
mained with the Arabs, and their own irreligious law was 
propagated by them, and many ancestral customs were 
destroyed ; the religion of the Mazdayasnians was weakened, 
and washing of corpses, burial of corpses, and eating of 
dead matter were put in practice. From the original 
creation until this day evil more grievous than this has 
not happened, for through their evil deeds — on account 
of want, foreign habits (Aniranth), hostile acts, bad de- 
crees, and bad religion — ruin, want, and other evils have 
taken lodgment.' 

None of these passages could have been written before 
the Muhammadan conquest ; but the writer, or editor, of 
the text as it appears in TD, supplies the means of ap- 
proximating much more closely to the date of his work, 
in a passage in Chap. 41 of TD, in which he mentions the 
names of several of his contemporaries (see Chap. XXXIII, 
10, 11). Among these, as already noticed, he mentions 
' Zcu/-sparham son of Yudan-Yim,' who must have been 
the writer of the Selections of Za^-sparam, a translation 
of which is added as an appendix to the Bundahu" in this 
volume. This writer was the brother of Manu^ihar son 
of Yudan-Yim, who wrote the D&dftstan-i Dinik \ and from 
colophons found in certain MSS. of the DaaSstan (which 
will be more particularly described in the next section of 
this introduction) it appears that this Manu^ihar was 

1 It is quite possible that MantisKhar was also the reviser of the Bundahis ; 
see the note on Dac?akth-i Ashovahisto in Chap. XXXIII, 10. 


high-priest of Pars and Ktrman in A. Y. 250 (a. d. 881). 
This date may, therefore, be taken as a very close ap- 
proximation to the time at which the Bundahu probably 
assumed the form we find in TD ; but that MS., having 
been written about 650 years later, can hardly have been 
copied direct from the original. Whether that original 
was merely a new edition of an older Pahlavi work, as 
may be suspected from the simplicity of its language, or 
whether it was first translated, for the most part, from the 
Avesta of the Damda*/ Nask, in the ninth century, we 
have no means of determining with certainty. Judging, 
however, from Chap. I, 1, the original BundahLr probably 
ended with the account of the resurrection (Chap. XXX), 
and the extra chapters, containing genealogical and chro- 
nological details (matters not mentioned in Chap. I, 1), 
together with all allusions to the Arabs, were probably 
added by the revising editor in the ninth century. The 
last, or chronological, chapter may even have been added 
at a later date. 

A Gu£*arati translation, or rather paraphrase, of the 
BundahLs* was published in 18 19 by Edal Darab Jamshed 
Jamasp Asa, and a revised edition of it was published by 
Peshutan Rustam in 1877 \ In the preface to the latter 
edition it is stated that the translator made use of two 
MSS., one being a copy of a manuscript written in Iran 
in A. Y. 776 by Rustamji Meherwanji Mar^aban She- 
heriar 2 , and the other a MS. written in India by Dastur 
Jamshedji Jamaspji in A. Y. 1139 3 . It is also mentioned 
that he was four years at work upon his translation. The 
editor of the new edition states that he has laboured to 

1 Bundehes ketab, iane dunia-ni awal-thi te akher sudhi pedaes-ni sahruat-ni 
hakikat ; bigi-var sudharine Mapawanar, Peshutan bin Rustam ; Murabai, 1877. 

2 There is no doubt whatever that the writer of the preface is referring to 
M6, although his description is incorrect. M6 was written at Bhro£ in India 
a. y. 766 by Peshotan Ram Kamdin Shaharyar Neryosang Shahmard Shaharyar 
Bahrain Aurmazdyar Ramyar ; but some portion of it (probably not the Bun- 
dahis) was copied from a MS. written a. y. 618 (a. d. 1249) by Rustam Mihir- 
apan Marzapan Dahisn-ayar, who must be the copyist mentioned in the preface 
to the Gug-arati translation. 

3 This is probably the copy derived from M6, and mentioned in p. xxx as 
being now in the library of Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji. 


improve the work by collecting all the further information 
he could find, on the various subjects, in many other 
Pahlavi works. The result of all this labour is not so 
much a mere translation of the Bundalm, as a larger work 
upon the same subject, or a paraphrase more methodically 
arranged, as may be seen from the following summary of 
its contents : — 

The headings of the fifty-nine chapters, which form 
the first part of the work, are : — Ahuramazd's covenant, 
account of the sky, of the first twelve things created, of 
Mount Albon**, of the twelve signs of the zodiac, of the 
stars, of the soul, of the first practices adopted by the 
creatures of the evil spirit Ahereman, of Ahereman's first 
breaking into the sky, of Ahereman's coming upon the 
primeval ox, of Ahereman's arrival in the fire, of Ahere- 
man's coming upon Gaiomard, of the coming of Ahura- 
mazd and Ahereman upon Gaiomard at the time of his 
creation, of the lustre residing in both spirits ; further 
account of the arrangement of the sky, another account 
of all the mountains, of depressions for water, of great and 
small rivers, of the eighteen rivers of fresh water, of the 
seven external and seven internal liquids in the bodies of 
men, of the period in which water falling on the earth 
arrives at its destination, of the three spiritual rivers, of 
the star Tehestar's destroying the noxious creatures which 
Ahereman had distributed over the earth, of the prophet 
Zarathost's asking the creator Ahuramazd how long these 
noxious creatures will remain in the latter millenniums, 
of driving the poison of the noxious creatures out of the 
earth, of the divisions of the land, of the creator Ahura- 
mazd's placing valiant stars as club-bearers over the heads 
of the demons, of all the things produced by the passing 
away of the primeval ox, of the 282 species of beasts and 
birds, of the bird named Kamros, of the bird named 
Karcapad and the hollow of Var^amkard, of the birds who 
are enemies opposed to the demons and fiends, of the 
bitter and sweet plants among the fifty-five kinds of grain 
and twelve kinds of herbs, of the flowers of the thirty days, 
of the revolution of the sun and moon and stars, and how 


night falls, and how the day becomes light, of the seven 
regions of the earth, of depressions, of the creatures of the 
sea, of the flow and ebb of the tide, of the three-legged 
ass, of the Gahambars, of Rapithvan, of '.he revolution of 
the seasons, of the production of mankind from the passing 
away of Gaiomard, of the production of offspring from the 
seed of men, of all fires, of all the clever work produced 
in the reign of King Jamshed and the production of the 
ape and bear, of the production of the Abyssinian and 
negro from Zohak, of the splendour and glory of King 
Jamshed, of the soul of Kersasp, of Kersasp's soul being 
the first to rise, of the names of the prophet Zarathost's 
pedigree, of his going out into the world, of his children, 
of the orders given by Ahereman to the demons when the 
creator Ahuramazd created the creatures, of the weeping 
and raging of the evil spirit Ahereman, of the weeping of 
the demon of Wrath in the presence of Ahereman when 
the prophet Zarathost brought the religion, of the compu- 
tation of twelve thousand years. 

The headings of the thirteen chapters, which form the 
second part, are : — Account of the last millenniums, of 
the appearance of Hoj-edar-bami, of his going out into the 
world, of the appearance of Ho^edar-mah, of Soi'ios, of the 
fifty-seven years, of giving the light of the sun to men 
on the day of the resurrection, of the rising again of the 
whole of mankind on that day, of the resurrection, of the 
means of resurrection, of the annihilation of the evil spirit 
Ahereman and the demons and fiends on the day of 
resurrection, of the creator Ahuramazd's making the earth 
and sky one after the resurrection, of the proceedings of 
all creatures after the resurrection. 

The third part contains an abstract of the contents of 
the hundred chapters of the Sad-dar BundahLf, and con- 
cludes with an account of the ceremonial formula practised 
when tying the kusti or sacred thread-girdle. 


4. The Selections of ZAd-sparam. 

In some manuscripts of the Dat/istan-i Dinik the ninety- 
two questions and answers, which usually go by that name, 
are preceded and followed by Pahlavi texts which are each 
nearly equal in extent to the questions and answers, and 
treat of a variety of subjects, somewhat in the manner of 
a Rivayat. Of the texts which follow the questions and 
answers the following are the principal : — 

Incantations for fever, &c. ; indications afforded by 
natural marks on the body; about the hamtstakan ('the 
ever-stationary,' or neutral state of future existence) and 
the different grades in heaven ; copy of an epistle * from 
Herbad Manu^ihar son of Yudan-Yim 2 , which he ad- 
dressed to the good people of Sirkan 3 , about the decisions 
pronounced by Herbad Za^/-sparam son of Yudan-Yim ; 
copy of a letter from Herbad Manu^ihar son of Yudan- 
Yim to his brother, Herbad Za^-sparam, on the same 
subject, and replying to a letter of his written from 
Nivshapuhar; copy of a notice by Herbad Manu^thar, 
son of Yudan-Yim and high-priest (rad) of Pars and 
Ktrman, of the necessity of fifteenfold ablution on account 
of grievous sin, written and sealed in the third month A.Y. 
250 (a.d. 881) ; memoranda and writings called 'Selections 
of Zcu/-sparam son of Yudan-Yim,' the first part treating 
of many of the same subjects as the Bundahu, together 

1 This long epistle contains one statement which is important in its bearing 
upon the age of certain Pahlavi writings. It states that Nishahpuhar was in 
the council of Anoshak-ruban Khusro, king of kings and son of Kavaa?, also 
that he was Mobad of Mobads and a commentator. Now this is the name of 
a commentator quoted in the Pahlavi Vend. Ill, 151, V, 112, VIII, 64, and very 
frequently in the Nirangistan ; it is also a title applied to Arda-Viraf (see AV. 
], 35). These facts seem to limit the age of the last revision of the Pahlavi 
Vendidad, and of the composition of the Pahlavi Nirangistan and ArJa-Viraf- 
namak to the time of King Khusro Noshirvan (a.d. 531-579). The statement 
depends, of course, upon the accuracy of a tradition three centuries old, as 
this epistle must have been written about a. d. 880. 

2 Some Parsis read this name Goshnajam, others Yudan-dam. 

3 Mr. Tehmuras Dinshawji thinks this is the place now called Strg-an, about 
thirty parasangs south of Kirman, on tne road to Bandar Abbas, which is no 
doubt the case. 


with legends regarding Zaratfot and his family ; the second 
part about the formation of men out of body, life, and 
soul ; and the third part about the details of the renovation 
of the universe. The last part of these Selections is in- 
complete in all known MSS., and is followed by some 
fragments of a further series of questions and answers 
regarding the omniscient wisdom, the evil spirit, Kangde^, 
the enclosure formed by Yim, &c. 

A translation of so much of the Selections of Za^/-sparam 
as treats of the same subjects as the Bundahii*, has been 
added as an appendix to the translation of that work in 
this volume, because the language used in these Selections 
seems to have an important bearing upon the question of 
the age of the BundahLs*. The time when the Selections 
themselves were written is fixed with considerable precision 
by the date (a.d. 88 1), when their author's brother, Manu- 
skihar, issued his public notice, as mentioned above. But 
ZauZ-sparam uses, in many places, precisely the same words 
as those employed in the BundahLs-, interspersed with much 
matter written in a more declamatory style ; it is, there- 
fore, evident that he had the BundahLs- before him to quote 
from, and that work must consequently have been written 
either by one of his contemporaries, or by an older writer. 
So far the Selections merely confirm the information already 
obtained more directly from TD (see p. xxxviii) ; but the 
involved style of their language seems to prove more than 
this. In fact, in none of the text of the Da^istan-i Dinik 
and its accompaniments is there much of the simplicity of 
style and directness of purpose which are the chief cha- 
racteristics of most of the language of the BundahLs*. So 
far, therefore, as style can be considered a mark of age, 
rather than a mere personal peculiarity of a contemporary 
writer, the contrast between the straightforward language 
of the BundahLs- and the laboured sentences of ManarMiar 
and Za^-sparam, sons of Yudan-Yim, tends to prove that 
the bulk of the BundahLs* was already an old work in their 
days, and was probably saved from oblivion through their 
writings or influence. That this original BundahLs- or Zand- 
akas was an abridged translation of the Avesta of the 


Damda^ Nask appears pretty evident from Za^-sparam's 
remarks in Chap. IX, i, 16 of his Selections. 

The first part of these Selections consists of 'sayings 
about the meeting of the beneficent and evil spirits.' and 
the first portion of these 'sayings' (divided into eleven 
chapters in the translation) is chiefly a paraphrase of 
Chaps. I-XVII of the Bundahu (omitting Chaps. II, V, and 
XVI). It describes the original state of the two spirits, 
their meeting and covenant, with a paraphrase of the 
Ahunavar formula; the production of the first creatures, 
including time ; the incursion of the evil spirit and his 
temporary success in deranging the creation, with the reason 
why he was unable to destroy the primitive man for thirty 
years ; followed by the seven contests he carried on with 
the sky, water, earth, plants, animals, man, and fire, respec- 
tively, detailing how each of these creations was modified 
in consequence of the incursion of the evil spirit. In the 
account of the first of these contests the Pahlavi translation 
of one stanza in the Gathas is quoted verbatim, showing that 
the same Pahlavi version of the Yasna was used in the ninth 
century as now exists. The remainder of these c sayings,' 
having no particular connection with the BundahLr, has not 
been translated. 

With regard to the Pahlavi text of the Selections, the 
present translator has been compelled to rely upon a single 
manuscript of the Da^istan-i Dintk, brought by Wester- 
gaard from Kirman x in 1843, and now No. 35 of the collec- 
tion of Ayesta and Pahlavi MSS. in the University Library 
at Kopenhagen ; it may, therefore, be called K35. This 
MS. is incomplete, having lost nearly one-third of its original 
bulk, but still contains 181 folios of large octavo size, written 
fifteen to seventeen lines to the page ; the first seventy-one 
folios of the work have been lost, and about thirty-five folios 
are also missing from the end ; but the whole of the ninety- 
two questions and answers, together with one- third of the 

1 That is, so far as the late Professor Westergaard could remember in 1878, 
when he kindly lent me the MS. for collation with my copy of the text, already 
obtained from more recent MSS. in Bombay, the best of which turned out to be 
a copy of K35. 


texts which usually precede them, and three-fifths of those 
which usually follow them, are still remaining. This MS. 
has lost its date, but a copy l of it exists in Bombay (written 
when it was complete) which ends with a colophon dated 
A. Y. 941 (a.D. 1572), as detailed in p. xxxiii; this may either 
be the actual date of that copy, or it may have been merely 
copied from K35, which cannot be much older. The latter 
supposition appears the more probable, as this colophon 
seems to be left incomplete by the loss of the last folio in 
the Bombay copy, and may, therefore, have been followed 
by another colophon giving a later date. 

This copy of K35 was, no doubt, originally complete, but 
has lost many of its folios in the course of time ; most of 
the missing text has been restored from another MS., but 
there are still twelve or more folios missing from the latter 
part of the work ; it contains, however, all that portion of 
the Selections which is translated in this volume, but has, 
of course, no authority independent of K35. The other 
MS. in Bombay, from which some of the missing text was 
recovered, is in the library of Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji ; 
it is a modern copy, written at different periods from forty 
to sixty years ago, and is incomplete, as it contains only 
one-fourth of the texts which usually follow the ninety-two 
questions and answers, and includes no portion of the Selec- 
tions of Za^-sparam. 

Another MS. of the Daafistan-i Dinik and its accompani- 
ments, written also at Kirman, but two generations earlier 
than K35 (say, about A.D. 1530), has been already mentioned 
(see p. xxxiii). It is said still to contain 227 folios, though 
its first seventy folios are missing ; it must, therefore, begin 
very near the same place as K35, but extends much further, 
as it supplies about half the text still missing from the 

1 The fact of its being a copy of K35 is proved by strong circumstantial evi- 
dence. In the first place, it contains several false readings which are clearly 
due to mis-shapen letters and accidental marks in K35, so that it is evidently 
descended from that MS. But it is further proved to have been copied direct 
from that MS., by the last words in thirty-two of its pages having been marked 
with interlined circles in K35 , the circle having been the copyist's mark for 
finding his place, when beginning a new page after turning over his folios. 

[5] d 


Bombay copy of K35, though it has lost about fourteen 
folios at the end. This MS. must be either the original 
from which K35 was copied, or an independent authority of 
equal value, but it has not been available for settling the 
text of the Selections for the present translation. 

5. The Bahman Yast. 

The Bahman, usually called the ' Zand of the 
Vohuman Yast, 1 professes to be a prophetical work, in 
which Auharmazd gives Zaratiijt an account of what 
was to happen to the Iranian nation and religion in the 

It begins with an introduction (Chap. I) which states 
that, according to the StiWgar Nask, Zaratuit having asked 
Auharmazd for immortality, was supplied temporarily with 
omniscient wisdom, and had a vision of a tree with four 
branches of different metals which were explained to him 
as symbolical of four different periods, the times ofVLst&sp, 
of Aft/akhshir the Kay&nian, of Khusro N6shirvan, and of 
certain demons or idolators who were to appear at the end 
of a thousand years. It states, further, that the commen- 
taries of the Vohuman, Horvadaaf, and Astad Ya^ts men- 
tioned the heretic Mazdak, and that Khusro N6shirvan 
summoned a council of high-priests and commentators, and 
ordered them not to conceal these Ya^ts, but to teach the 
commentary only among their own relations. 

The text then proceeds (Chap. II) to give the details of 
the commentary on the Vohuman Ya^t as follows : — Zara- 
tust, having again asked Auharmazd for immortality, is 
refused, but is again supplied with omniscient wisdom for a 
week, during which time he sees, among other things, a tree 
with seven branches of different metals, which are again 
explained to him as denoting the seven ages of the religion, 
its six ages of triumph in the reigns of VLstasp, of An/akhshir 
the Kayanian, of one of the A^kanian kings, of An/akhshir 
P&pakan and Shahpur I and II, of Vahram Gor, and of 
Khusro Noshirvan, and its seventh age of adversity when 


Iran is to be invaded from the east by hordes of demons or 
idolators with dishevelled hair, who are to work much mis- 
chief, so as to destroy the greater part of the nation and 
mislead the rest, until the religion becomes nearly extinct. 
The details of this mischief, written in a tone of lamentation, 
constitute the greater part of the text, which also notices 
that the sovereignty will pass from the Arabs, Rumans, and 
these leathern-belted demons (Turks) to other Turks and 
non-Turanians who are worse than themselves. 

Distressed at this narrative Zaratu-st asks Auharmazd 
(Chap. Ill, i) how the religion is to be restored, and these 
demons destroyed ? He is informed that, in the course of 
time, other fiends with red banners, red weapons, and red 
hats, who seem to be Christians, will appear in the north- 
west, and will advance either to the Arvand (Tigris) or the 
Euphrates, driving back the former demons who will assem- 
ble all their allies to a great conflict, one of the three 
great battles of the religions of the world, in which the 
wicked will be so utterly destroyed that none will be left 
to pass into the next millennium. 

Zaratilst enquires (III, 12) how so many can perish, and 
is informed that, after the demons with dishevelled hair 
appear, Hushe^ar, the first of the last three apostles, is 
born near Lake Frazdan ; and when he begins to confer with 
Auharmazd a Kayan prince is born in the direction of 
Alnistan (Samarkand), who is called Vahram the Var^avand, 
and when he is thirty years old he collects a large army of 
Hindu (Bactrian) and KM (Samarkandian) troops, and 
advances into Iran, where he is reinforced by a numerous 
army of Iranian warriors, and defeats the demon races with 
immense slaughter, in the great conflict already mentioned, 
so that there will be only one man left to a thousand 

The writer then proceeds to describe the supernatural 
agencies employed to produce this result: how the evil 
spirit (III, 24) comes to the assistance of the demon- 
worshippers ; how Auharmazd sends his angels to Kangde^, 
to summon P£shyotanu, the immortal son of VLrtasp, with 
his disciples, to re-establish the sacred fires and restore the 

d 2 


religious ceremonies ; and how the angels assist them against 
the evil spirits, so that Vahram the Var^avand is enabled 
to destroy the fiendish races, as already detailed, and 
Peshyotanu becomes supreme high-priest of the Iranian 

Finally, the writer gives some details regarding the mis- 
sions of the last three apostles, returning for that purpose 
(III, 44) to the birth of Hushe^/ar, the first of the three, whose 
millennium witnesses both the invasion and the destruction 
of the fiendish races. HusheV/ar proves his apostolic au- 
thority, to the satisfaction of Var^avand and the people, by 
making the sun stand still for ten days and nights. His 
mission is to 'bring the creatures back to their proper 
state;' and it is not till near the end of his millennium that 
P£shy6tanu appears, as before described. As this millen- 
nium begins with the invasion of the fiendish races and the 
fall of the Sasanian dynasty, it must have terminated in the 
seventeenth century, unless it was to last more than a 
thousand years. A very brief account is then given of 
the millennium of Hushe^/ar-mah, the second of the three 
apostles, whose mission is to make 'the creatures more 
progressive' and to destroy 'the fiend of serpent origin' 
(A^-i Dahak). During his millennium (which appears to be 
now in progress) mankind become so skilled in medicine 
that they do not readily die ; but owing to their toleration 
of heretics the evil spirit once more attains power, and 
releases A^-i Dahak, from his confinement in Mount Dima- 
vand, to work evil in the world, till Auharmazd sends his 
angels to rouse Keresasp the Saman, who rises from his 
trance and kills A#-i Dahak with his club at the end of the 
millennium. Afterwards, Soshyans, the last apostle, appears 
to ; make the creatures again pure ; ' when the resurrection 
takes place and the future existence commences. 

Whether this text, as now extant, be the original com- 
mentary or zand of the Vohuman Vast admits of doubt, 
since it appears to quote that commentary (Chap. II, 1) as 
an authority for its statements ; it is, therefore, most pro- 
bably, only an epitome of the original commentary. Such 
an epitome would naturally quote many passages verbatim 


from the original work, which ought to bear traces of trans- 
lation from an A vesta text, as its title zand implies a 
Pahlavi translation from the Avesta (see p. x). There are, 
in fact, many such traces in this epitome, as indicated by 
the numerous sentences beginning with a verb, the mode of 
addressing Auharmazd, the quotation of different opinions 
from various commentators, and other minor peculiarities. 
Some of these might be the result of careful imitation of 
other commentaries, but it seems more likely that they are 
occasioned by literal translation from an original Avesta 
text. In speculating, therefore, upon the contents of the 
Bahman Yast it is necessary to remember that we are most 
probably dealing with a composite work, whose statements 
may be referred to the three different ages of the Avesta 
original, the Pahlavi translation and commentary, and the 
Pahlavi epitome of the latter ; and that this last form of the 
text is the only old version now extant. 

With regard to the age of the work we have the external 
evidence that a copy of it exists in a manuscript (K20) 
written about five hundred years ago, and that this copy is 
evidently descended from older manuscripts as it contains 
several clerical blunders incompatible with any idea of its 
being the original manuscript, as witness the omissions noted 
in Chaps. II, 10, 13, 14, 32, 27, 45, III, 30, 33, the misplace- 
ment of II, 18, and many miswritings of single words. 
Owing to the threefold character of the work, already 
noticed, the internal evidence of its age can only apply to 
its last recension in the form of an epitome, as an oriental 
editor (to say nothing of others) generally considers himself 
at liberty to alter and add to his text, if he does not under- 
stand it, or thinks he can improve it. That this liberty 
has been freely exercised, with regard to these professed 
prophecies, is shown by the identification of the four pro- 
phetical ages of the Studgar Nask in the first chapter of 
the Bahman Ya^t being different from that given in the 
Dinkan/. The Dinkarc/ quotes the StiWgar Nask (that is, 
its Pahlavi version) as identifying the iron age with some 
period of religious indifference subsequent to the time of 
Ataro-pa^ son of Maraspend, the supreme high-priest and 


prime minister of Shahpurll (a.D. 309-379); but the Bahman 
Ya^t (Chap. I, 5) quotes the Nask as identifying the same 
age with the reign of an idolatrous race subsequent to the 
time ofKhusrd Noshirvan (a.d. 531-579). This example 
is sufficient to show that the compiler of the extant epitome 
of the Bahman Ya^t commentary largely availed himself of 
his editorial license, and it indicates the difficulty of dis- 
tinguishing his statements from those of the former editors. 
At the same time it proves that the epitome could not have 
been compiled till after Iran had been overrun by a foreign 
race subsequent to the reign of Khusro Noshirvan. It is 
remarkable that the compiler does not mention any later 
Sasanian king, that he does not allude to Muhammadanism, 
and speaks of the foreign invaders as Turanians and Chris- 
tians, only mentioning Arabs incidentally in later times ; 
at the same time the foreign invasion (which lasts a thou- 
sand years) is of too permanent a character to allow of 
its having reference merely to the troublous times of 
Noshirvan's successor. 

Perhaps the most reasonable hypotheses that can be 
founded upon these facts are, first, that the original zand 
or commentary of the Bahman Ya^t was written and trans- 
lated from the Avesta in the latter part of the reign of 
Khusro Noshirvan, or very shortly afterwards, which would 
account for no later king being mentioned by name ; and, 
secondly, that the epitome now extant was compiled by 
some writer who lived so long after the Arab invasion that 
the details of their inroad had become obscured by the more 
recent successes of Turanian rulers, such as the Ghaznavis 
and Sal^uqs of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. It is 
hardly possible that the epitomist could have lived as late 
as the time of Gingiz Khan, the great Mongol conqueror 
(a.D. 1206-1227), as that would bring him within 150 years 
of the date of the extant manuscript of his work, which has 
no appearance of being an immediate copy of the original ; 
but the rule of the Sal^*uqs would certainly have afforded 
him sufficient materials for his long description of the iron 
age. The Avesta of the Bahman Yast was probably com- 
piled from older sources (like the rest of the Avesta) during 


the reigns of the earlier Sasanian monarchs ; but it was, no 
doubt, very different in its details from the epitome of its 
commentary which still exists. 

These hypotheses, regarding the threefold origin of the 
present form of this Yart, derive some confirmation from 
the inconsistencies in its chronological details ; especially 
those relating to the periods of the invaders' reign and of 
Hushe^/ar's birth. The Zoroastrians have for ages been 
expecting the appearance of Hush&/ar, the first of their 
last three apostles, but have always had to postpone their 
expectations from time to time, like the Jews and other 
interpreters of prophecy; so that they are still looking 
forward into the future for his advent, although his millen- 
nium has long since expired according to the chronology 
adopted in the Bahman Ya^t. This chronology, of course, 
represents the expectations of Zoroastrians in past times, 
and seems to express three different opinions. First, we 
have the statement that the last great battle of the demon- 
races is to take place at the end of Zaratfot's millennium 
(see Chap. Ill, g), when the wicked will be so destroyed 
(compare III, 22, 23) that none will pass into the next 
millennium (III, u), which is that of Hush&/ar (III, 43). 
And that the reign of evil is to precede the end of Zaratuit's 
millennium is evidently assumed also in Chap. II, 41, 63. 
Such opinions may reasonably be traced to the original 
Avesta writer, who must have expected only a short reign 
of evil to arise and fall near the latter end of Zaratuit's 
millennium, which was still far in the future, and to be 
followed by the appearance of Hushe^/ar to restore the 
'good' religion. Secondly, we are told (I, 5, II, 22, 24, 31) 
that the invasion of the demon-races, with its attendant 
evils, is to take place when Zaratuit's millennium is ended ; 
on their appearance Hushe^/ar is born (III, 13), and when 
he is thirty years old (compare III, 14 with III, 44) Vahram 
the Vatg*avand is also born, who at the age of thirty (III, 17) 
advances into Iran with an innumerable army to destroy the 
invaders. Such statements may be attributed to the original 
Pahlavi translator and commentator who, writing about 
A.D. 570-590, would have before his eyes the disastrous 


reign of Auharmazd IV, the son and successor of Khusro 
Noshirvan, together with the prowess of the famous Persian 
general Bahrain K6p\n, which drove out all invaders. This 
writer evidently expected the reign of the demon-races to 
last less than a century, but still at some period in the near 
future ; merely illustrating his theme by details of the 
disasters and wars of his own time. Thirdly, we find it 
stated (III, 44) that HusheWar will be born in 1600, which 
seems to mean the sixteen hundredth year of Zaratu^t's 
millennium, or six hundredth of his own (say A.D. 1193- 
1235), also that the reign of the demon-races is to last a 
thousand years (III, 34), and that P£shy6tanu does not 
come to restore the religion till near the end of the millen- 
nium (III, 51); it also appears (III, 49) that Var^avand 
occupies a prominent position when Hushe^ar comes from 
his conference with Auharmazd at thirty years of age (III, 
44, 45). Such details were probably inserted by the com- 
piler of the epitome, who had to admit the facts that the 
reign of the demon-races had already lasted for centuries, 
and that Hush&/ar had not yet appeared. To get over 
these difficulties he probably adopted the opinions current 
in his day, and postponed the advent of Husheafar till the 
beginning of the next century in his millennium, and put 
off the destruction of the wicked, as a more hopeless matter, 
till near the end of the millennium. Both these periods 
are now long since past, and the present Zoroastrians have 
still to postpone the fulfilment of the prophecies connected 
with their last three apostles, or else to understand them 
in a less literal fashion than heretofore. 

For the Pahlavi text of the Bahman Yast the translator 
has to rely upon the single old manuscript K20, already 
described (p. xxvii), in which it occupies the 13 J folios 
immediately following the BundahLr ; these folios are much 
worn, and a few words have been torn off some of them, 
but nearly all of these missing words can be restored by aid 
of the Pazand version. The Pahlavi text is also found in 
the modern copies of K30 at Paris and Kopenhagen, but 
these copies (P7 and K21) have no authority independent 
of K20. In India this text has long been exceedingly rare, 


and whether any copy of it exists, independent of K20, is 

The Pazand version is more common in Parsi libraries, 
but contains a very imperfect text. Of this version two 
modern copies have been consulted ; one of these occupies 
fols. 38-62 of a small manuscript, No. 22 of the Haug col- 
lection in the State Library at Munich ; the other is a copy 
of a manuscript in the library of the high-priest of the Parsis 
in Bombay. Both these MSS. are evidently descended 
from the same original, which must have been a very imper- 
fect transliteration of a Pahlavi text closely resembling that 
of K20, but yet independent of that MS., as a few words 
omitted in K20 are supplied by these Pazand MSS. (see 
B.Yt. II, 13, 14, 22, &c.) To a certain extent, therefore, 
these Pazand MSS. are of some assistance in settling the 
text of a few sentences, but the greater part of their con- 
tents is so imperfect as to be utterly unintelligible ; they 
not only omit Chaps. I, 1-8, II, 17, 30-32, 40, III, 9, 12, 17- 
44, 58-63 entirely, but also words and phrases from nearly 
every other section of the text. Adhering scrupulously to 
the Pahlavi original for a few consecutive words, and then 
widely departing from it by misreading or omitting all 
difficult words and passages, this Pazand version is a com- 
plete contrast to the Pazand writings of Neryosang, being 
of little use to the reader beyond showing the extremely 
low ebb to which Pahlavi learning must have fallen, among 
the Parsis, before such unintelligible writings could have 
been accepted as Pazand texts. 

There is also a Persian version of the Bahman Ya^t, a 
copy of which, written A. D. 1676, is contained in a large 
Rivayat MS. No. 29, belonging to the University Library 
at Bombay. According to the colophon of this Persian 
version it was composed in A.D. 1496 by Rustam Isfendiyar 
of Yazd, from an Avesta (Pazand) MS. belonging to his 
brother Jamshed. This Persian version contains less than 
three per cent of Arabic words, and is more of a paraphrase 
than a translation, but it adheres very closely to the meaning 
of the Pahlavi text from Chaps. I, 1 to III, 9, where a dis- 
location occurs, evidently owing either to the displacement 



of two folios in an older MS., or to the second page of a 
folio being copied before the first, so that §§ 10-14 follow 
§§ 15-22. From the middle of § %% the folios of the older 
MS. seem to have been lost as far as the end of Hushe^/ar's 
millennium (§ 51), to which point the Persian version leaps, 
but the remainder of this paraphrase is much more diffuse 
than the Bahman, and is evidently derived from some 
other Pahlavi work. 

This conclusion of the Persian version describes how 
adversity departs from the world, and ten people are 
satisfied with the milk of one cow, when Hushe^ar-mah 
appears and his millennium commences. On his coming 
from his conference with Auharmazd the sun stands still 
for twenty days and nights, in consequence of which two- 
thirds of the people in the world believe in the religion. 
Meat is no longer eaten, but only milk and butter, and a 
hundred people are satisfied with the milk of one cow. 
Hushe^/ar-mah destroys the terrible serpent, which ac- 
companies apostasy, by means of the divine glory and 
Avesta formulas ; he clears all noxious creatures out of the 
world, and wild animals live harmlessly among mankind ; 
the fiends of apostasy and deceit depart from the world, 
which becomes populous and delightful, and mankind 
abstain from falsehood. After the five-hundredth year of 
Hushe^ar-mah has passed away, Soshyans (Sasan) appears, 
and destroys the fiend who torments fire. The sun stands 
still for thirty days and nights, when all mankind believe 
in the religion, and the year becomes exactly 360 days. 
Dahak escapes from his confinement, and reigns for a day 
and a half in the world with much tyranny ; when Soshyans 
rouses Sam Nartman, who accepts the religion and becomes 
immortal. Sam calls upon Dahak to accept the religion, 
but the latter proposes that they should together seize 
upon heaven for themselves, whereupon Sam kills him. 
All evil having departed from the world mankind become 
like the archangels, and the resurrection takes place, which 
is described with many of the same details as are mentioned 
in Bund. XXX. 

Accompanying this Persian version in B29 is another 


fragment from the same source, which treats of the same 
subjects as the third chapter of the Bahman Yait, but is 
differently arranged. It confines itself to the millennium 
of HusheWar, and may possibly be some modification of the 
contents of the folios missing from the version described 
above. After some introductory matter this fragment con- 
tains a paraphrase (less accurate than the preceding) of 
Chap. Ill, 33-49 of the Bahman Ya^t ; it then proceeds to 
state that Hushe^/ar destroys the wolf race, so that wolves, 
thieves, highway robbers, and criminals cease to exist. 
When Hush&Zar's three-hundredth year has passed away 
the winter of Malkos arrives and destroys all animals and 
vegetation, and only one man survives out of ten thousand ; 
after which the world is repeopled from the enclosure made 
by Yim. Then comes the gathering of the nations to the 
great battle on the Euphrates, where the slaughter is so 
great that the water of the river becomes red, and the sur- 
vivors wade in blood up to their horses' girths. Afterwards, 
the Kayan king, Vai^avand, advances from the frontiers of 
India and takes possession of Iran to the great delight of 
the inhabitants, but only after a great battle; and then 
Peshyotanu is summoned from Kangde^ to restore the 
religious ceremonies. 

A German translation of some passages in the Bahman 
Ya^-t, with a brief summary of the greater part of the re- 
mainder, was published in i860 in Spiegel's Traditionelle 
Literatur der Parsen, pp. 138-135. 

6. The Shayast la-shayast. 

Another treatise which must be referred to about the 
same age as the Bundahu, though of a very different cha- 
racter, is the Shayast la-shayast or ' the proper and impro- 
per.' It is a compilation of miscellaneous laws and customs 
regarding sin and impurity, with other memoranda about 
ceremonies and religious subjects in general. Its name has, 
no doubt, been given to it in modern times x , and has pro- 

1 But perhaps before the compilation of the prose Sad-dar Bundahis, or 
Bundahis of a hundred chapters, which seems to refer to the Shayast la-shayast 


bably arisen from the frequent use it makes of the words 
shayad, e it is fit or proper,' and la shaya^/, 'it is not fit 
or proper.' And, owing to its resemblance to those Persian 
miscellanies of traditional memoranda called Rivayats, it 
has also been named the Pahlavi Rivayat, though chiefly 
by Europeans. 

It consists of two parts, which are often put together in 
modern MSS., and bear the same name, but are widely 
separated in the oldest MSS. These two parts, consisting 
respectively of Chaps. I-X and XI-XIV in the present 
translation, are evidently two distinct treatises on the same 
and similar subjects, but of nearly the same age. That 
they were compiled by two different persons, who had access 
to nearly the same authorities, appears evident from Chaps. 
XI, i, 2, XII, it, 13-16, 18, 20 being repetitions of Chaps. 
I, 1, 2, X, 4, 20-23, 7, 31, with only slight alterations ; such 
repetitions as would hardly be made in a single treatise by 
the same writer. Minor repetitions in the first part, such 
as those of some phrases in Chaps. II, 65, IV, 14, repeated 
in Chap. X, 24, 33, might readily be made by the same 
writer in different parts'of the same treatise. To these two 
parts of the Shayast la-shayast a third part has been added 
in the present translation, as an appendix, consisting of a 
number of miscellaneous passages of a somewhat similar 
character, which are found in the same old MSS. that con- 
tain the first two parts, but which cannot be attributed 
either to the same writers or the same age as those parts. 

The first part commences with the names and amounts 
of the various degrees of sin, and the names of the chief 
commentators on the Vendidad. It then gives long details 
regarding the precautions to be taken with reference to 
corpses and menstruous women, and the impurity they occa- 
sion ; besides mentioning (Chap. II, 33-35) the pollution 

in its opening words, as follows : — ' This book is on " the proper and im- 
proper" which is brought out from the good, pure religion of the Mazda- 
yasnians ;' though this term may possibly relate to its own contents. There is 
also a Persian treatise called Shayast na-shayast, which gives a good deal 
of information obtained from the Persian Rivayats, and copies of which are 
contained in the MSS. Nos. 56 and r 16 of the Ouseley collection in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford. 


caused by a serpent. It next describes the proper size 
and materials of the sacred thread-girdle and shirt, giving 
some details about the sins of running about uncovered and 
walking with one boot, and thence proceeding to the sin of 
unseasonable chatter. Details are then given about good 
works, and those who can and cannot perform them ; in 
which reference is made to Christians, Jews, and those of 
other persuasions (Chap. VI, 7). The next subjects treated 
of are reverencing the sun and fire, the sin of extinguishing 
fire, confession and renunciation of sin, atonement for sins, 
especially mortal sins, both those affecting others and those 
only affecting one's own soul ; with a digression (Chap. VIII, 
3) prohibiting the rich from hunting. The remainder of this 
first treatise is of a miscellaneous character, referring to the 
following subjects : — The Hasar of time, priests passing away 
in idolatry, the discussion of religion, ceremonies not done 
aright, throwing a corpse into the sea, evil of eating in the 
dark, the four kinds of worship, when the angels should 
be invoked in worship, the ephemeral nature of life, proper 
looseness for a girdle, when the sacred cake set aside for the 
guardian spirits can be used, maintaining a fire where a woman 
is pregnant, providing a tank for ablution, the Gathas not 
to be recited over the dead, food and drink not to be thrown 
away to the north at night, unlawful slaughter of animals, 
how the corpse of a pregnant woman should be carried, 
forgiveness of trespasses, evil of walking without boots, 
when the sacred girdle is to be assumed, breaking the spell 
of an inward prayer, ten women wanted at childbirth, and 
how the infant is to be treated, sin of beating an innocent 
person, evil of a false judge, men and women who do not 
marry, a toothpick must be free from bark, acknowledging 
the children of a handmaid, advantage of offspring and of 
excess in almsgiving, prayer on lying down and getting up, 
Avesta not to be mumbled, doubtful actions to be avoided 
or consulted about, evil of laughing during prayer, crowing 
of a hen, treatment of a hedgehog, after a violent death 
corruption does not set in immediately, necessity of a dog's 
gaze, putrid meat and hairy cakes or butter unfit for cere- 
monies, when a woman can do priestly duty, &c. 


The second part also commences with the names and 
amounts of the various degrees of sin, followed by the pro- 
per meat-offerings for various angels and guardian spirits. 
Next come miscellaneous observations on the following 
subjects : — The simplest form of worship, necessity of sub- 
mitting to a high-priest, advantage of a fire in the house, 
sin of clothing the dead, presentation of holy-water to the 
nearest fire after a death, nail-parings to be prayed over, 
advantage of light at childbirth, offerings to the angels, 
maintaining a fire where a woman is pregnant and a child 
is born, a toothpick must be free from bark, acknowledging 
the children of a handmaid, advantage of offspring and of 
excess in almsgiving, evil of drawing well-water at night, 
food not to be thrown away to the north at night, advantage 
of prayer at feasts, treatment of a hedgehog, praying when 
washing the face, the proper choice of a purifying priest, no 
one should be hopeless of heaven, necessity of a wife being 
religious as well as her husband, the ceremonies which are 
good works, and the cause of sneezing, yawning, and sigh- 
ing. These are followed by a long account of the mystic 
signification of the Githas, with some information as to the 
errors which may be committed in consecrating the sacred 
cakes, and how the beginning of the morning watch is to be 

The third part, or appendix, commences with an account 
of how each of the archangels can be best propitiated, by a 
proper regard for the particular worldly existence which he 
specially protects. This is followed by a statement of the 
various degrees of sin, and of the amount of good works 
attributed to various ceremonies. Then come some account 
of the ceremonies after a death, particulars of those who 
have no part in the resurrection, the duty of submission to 
the priesthood, whether evil may be done for the sake of 
good, the place where people will rise from the dead, 
Aeshm's complaint to Aharman of the three things he could 
not injure in the world, the occasions on which the Ahuna- 
var formula should be recited, and the number of recitals 
that are requisite, &c. And, finally, statements of the 
lengths of midday and afternoon shadows, blessings invoked 


from the thirty angels and archangels who preside over the 
days of the month, and the special epithets of the same. 

With regard to the age of this treatise we have no precise 
information. All three parts are found in a MS. (M6) 
which was written in A. D. 1397 (see p. xxix), and nearly 
the whole is also found in the MS. K20, which may be a 
few years older (see p. xxvii), and in which the first part of 
the Shayast la-shayast is followed by a Persian colophon 
dated A.Y. 700 (a.D. 1331), copied probably from an older 
MS. The text in both these old MSS. seems to have been 
derived almost direct from the same original, which must 
have been so old when M6 was written that the copyist 
found some words illegible (see notes on Chaps. VIII, 19, 
X, 34, XII, 14, 15, &c.) Now it is known from a colophon 
that a portion of M6, containing the book of Arc/a-Viraf 
and the tale of Fryan6, was copied from a MS. 
written in A.D. 1249 5 an( l we ma y safely conclude that the 
Shayast la-shayast was copied, either from the same MS., 
or from one fully as old. So far, therefore, as external evi- 
dence goes, there is every reason to suppose that the whole 
of the Shayast la-shayast, with its appendix *, was existing 
in a MS. written about 630 years ago. 

But internal evidence points to a far higher antiquity 
for the first two parts, as the compilers of those treatises 
evidently had access, not only to several old commentaries, 
but also to many of the Nasks, which have long been lost. 
Thus, the first treatise contains quotations from the com- 
mentaries of Afarg, Gogdjcisp, Kushtano-bu^eaT, M&/6k- 
mah, R6shan, and S6shyans, which are all frequently 
quoted in the Pahlavi translation of the Vendidad (see Sis. 
I, 3, 4, notes) ; besides mentioning the opinions of Mar^- 
bud, Nerydsang, Nosat Bur^-Mitro, and Vand-Auharmazd, 
who are rarely or never mentioned in the Pahlavi Vendidad. 
It also quotes no less than eleven of the twenty Nasks or 
books of the complete Mazdayasnian literature which are 
no longer extant, besides the Vendidad, the only Nask that 
still survives in the full extent it had in Sasanian times. 

1 Except Chaps. XXII, XXIII (see the note on the heading of Chap. XXII). 


The Nasks quoted are the Studgar (Sis. X, 8), the Bagh 
(X, 26), the Damda^ (X, 22), the Pastfn (IX, 9), the Ratu^- 
taftih (X, 29), the Kldrast (X, 28), the Spend (X, 4), the 
Nihadfam (X, 3, 22, 23), the Dubasru^&Z (X, 13), the Hus- 
param (X, 21), and the Sakaafam (X, 25), very few of which 
are mentioned even in the Pahlavi Vendidad. The second 
treatise mentions only one commentator, Vand-Auharmazd, 
but it quotes eight of the Nasks no longer extant ; these 
are the Studgar (Sis. XII, 32), the Damda^/(XII, 5, 15), 
the Spend (XII, 3, 11, 15, 29), the Bag-yasno (XII, 17), 
the Nihatffam (XII, 15, J 6), the Husparam (XII, 1, 7, 14, 
31, XIII, 17), the Sakaafam (XII, 2, 10, 12, XIII, 30), and 
the Ha^okht (XII, 19, 30, XIII, 6, 10). 

Of two of these Nasks, the Bagh and Ha^/okht, a few 
fragments may still survive (see notes on Sis. X, 26, Haug's 
Essays, p. T34, B. Yt. Ill, 25), but those of the latter Nask do 
not appear to contain the passages quoted in the Shayast 
la-shayast. With regard to the rest we only know that the 
Damda^/, Husparam, and Saka^um must have been still in 
existence about A.D. 881, as they are quoted in the writings 
of Za^-sparam and Manu^ihar, sons of Yudan-Yim, who 
lived at that time (see pp. xlii, xlvi) ; and the Niha^um 
and Husparam are also quoted in the Pahlavi Vendidad. 
It is true that the Dinkan/ gives copious information about 
the contents of all the Nasks, with two or three exceptions ; 
and the Dinkan/ seems to have assumed its present form 
about A.D. 900 (see Bund. XXXIII, 11, notes) ; but its last 
editor was evidently merely a compiler of old fragments, 
so there is no certainty that many of the Nasks actually 
existed in his time. 

Thus far, therefore, the internal evidence seems to prove 
that the two treatises called Shayast la-shayast, which con- 
stitute the first two parts of the present translation, are 
more than a thousand years old. On the other hand, they 
cannot be more than three centuries older, because they 
frequently quote passages from the Pahlavi Vendidad 
which, as we have seen (p. xlvi, note 1), could not have as- 
sumed its present form before the time of Khusro Noshir- 
van (A.D. 53 I_ 579)- As they contain no reference to any 


interference of the governing powers with the religion or 
priesthood, it is probable that they were written before the 
Muhammadan conquest (a. D. 636-651), although they do 
not mention the existence of any ' king of the kings,' the 
usual title of the Sasanian monarchs. And this probability 
is increased by there being no direct mention of Muham- 
madanism among the contemporary religions named in 
Chap. VI, 7, unless we assume that passage to be a quota- 
tion from an earlier book. We may, therefore, conclude, 
with tolerable certainty, that the Pahlavi text of the first 
two parts of the present translation of the Shayast la- 
shayast was compiled some time in the seventh century ; 
but, like the BundahLs- and Bahman Ya.rt, it was, for the 
most part, a compilation of extracts and translations from 
far older writings, and may also have been rearranged 
shortly after the Muhammadan conquest. 

The fragments which are collected in the appendix, or 
third part of the present translation, are probably of various 
ages, and several of them may not be more than seven cen- 
turies old. The commentator Bakht-afri^, whose work 
(now lost) is quoted in Chap. XX, 11, may have lived in 
the time of Khusro Noshirvan (see B. Yt. I, 7). And 
Chap. XXI must certainly have been written in Persia, as 
the lengths of noonday shadows which it mentions are only 
suitable for 3a north latitude. As regards the last two 
chapters we have no evidence that they are quite five cen- 
turies old. 

For the Pahlavi text of the Shayast la- shayast and its 
appendix we have not only the very old codex M6 (see 
p. xxix) for the whole of it, but also the equally old codex 
K20 (see p. xxvii) for all but Chaps. XV-XVII, XX, XXII, 
and XXIII in the appendix. In M6 the first two parts are 
separated by twenty folios, containing the Farhang-i Oim- 
khaduk, and the second part is separated from the first 
three chapters of the appendix by four folios, containing 
the Patit-i KMd; the next three chapters of the appendix 
are from the latter end of the second volume of M6, Chap. 
XXI is from the middle of the same, and the last two chap- 
ters are from some additional folios at the beginning of the 
[5] e 


first volume. In K20 the first two parts are separated by 
ninety-two folios, containing the Farhang-i Oim-khaduk, 
Bundahii 1 , Bahman Ya^t, and several other Pahlavi and 
Avesta texts ; Chap. XVIII precedes the first part, Chap. 
XIX precedes the second part, and Chap. XXI is in an 
earlier part of the MS. 

Derived from K20 are the two modern copies P7 and 
K21 (see p. xxviii). Derived from M6 are the modern 
copy of the first two parts in M9 (No. 9 of the Haug col- 
lection in the State Library at Munich), a copy of Chaps. 
XIV, XV in L15 (No. 15 of the collection of Avesta and 
Pahlavi MSS. in the India Office Library at London), a 
copy of Chap. XX, 4-17 in O121 (No. 121 of the Ouseley 
collection in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, see p. xxx), 
and a copy of Chap. XVIII in Dastur Jamaspji's MS. of 
the Bundahu at Bombay. While an independent Pahlavi 
version of Chap. XXIII occurs in a very old codex in the 
library of the high-priest of the Parsis at Bombay, which 
version has been used for the text of the present transla- 
tion, because that chapter is incomplete in M6. 

Pazand versions of some of the chapters, chiefly in the 
appendix, are to be found in some MSS., but all derived 
apparently from M6. Thus, in the Pazand MSS. L7 and 
L22 (Nos. 7 and 22 in the India Office Library at London, 
see p. xxxi), written in Avesta characters, Chaps. XVIII, 
XX, XV follow the last chapter of the Bundahii", and Chap. 
XIV occurs a few folios further on. And in the Pazand 
MS. M7 (No. 7 of the Haug collection in the State Library 
at Munich), written in Persian characters, the following 
detached passages occur in a miscellaneous collection of 
extracts (fols. 126-133) : — Chaps. XX, 14-16, X, 18, 19, 
IX, 9, 10, XX, 12, 13, 4, 5, VIII, 2, 4-14, XX, 11. A Per- 
sian version of Chap. XVIII also occurs in M5 (No. 5 of 
the same collection) on fol. 54. 

It does not appear that the Shayast la-shayast has ever 
been hitherto translated into any European language \ nor 

1 Except Chap. XVIII, which was translated into German by Justi, as the 
last chapter of his translation of the Bundahis (see p. xxvi). 


is any Persian or Gu^arati translation of it known to the 
present translator, though a good deal of the matter it con- 
tains may be found in the Persian Rivayats, but generally 
given in a different form. Owing to the technical charac- 
ter of the treatise, it is hazardous for any one but a Parsi 
priest to attempt to translate it, so that errors will, no 
doubt, be apparent to the initiated in the present transla- 
tion. At the same time it must not be forgotten that the 
laws and customs mentioned in the text were those current 
in Persia twelve centuries ago, which may be expected to 
differ, in many details, from those of the Parsis in India at 
the present day. This is a consideration which a Parsi 
translator might be too apt to ignore ; so that his thorough 
knowledge of present customs, though invaluable for the 
decipherment of ambiguous phrases, might lead him astray 
when dealing with clear statements of customs and rules 
now obsolete and, therefore, at variance with his precon- 
ceived ideas of propriety. 

7. Concluding Remarks. 

The Pahlavi texts selected for translation in this volume 
are specimens of three distinct species of writings. Thus, 
the Bundahij and its appendix, which deal chiefly with 
cosmogony, myths, and traditions, may be roughly com- 
pared to the book of Genesis. The Bahman Ya.rt, which 
professes to be prophetical, may be likened unto the Apoca- 
lypse. And the Shayast la-shayast, which treats of reli- 
gious laws regarding impurity, sin, ritual, and miscellaneous 
matters, bears some resemblance to Leviticus. But, though 
thus dealing with very different subjects, these texts appear 
to have all originated in much the same manner, a manner 
which is characteristic of the oldest class of the Pahlavi 
writings still extant. All three are full of translations from 
old Avesta texts, collected together probably in the latter 
days of the Sasanian dynasty, and finally rearranged some 
time after the Muhammadan conquest of Persia ; so that, 
practically, they may be taken as representing the ideas 
entertained of their prehistoric religion by Persians in the 

e 2 


sixth century, but modified so far as to suit the taste and 
exigencies of the tenth. 

But, notwithstanding the wide range of subjects embraced 
by these texts, it would be rash for the reader to assume 
that they afford him sufficient information for forming a 
decided opinion as to the character of the Parsi religion. 
The texts translated in this volume contain barely one- 
eleventh part of the religious literature extant in the Pah- 
la vi language, without taking the Pahlavi versions of existing 
Avesta texts into account, which latter are even more 
important than the former, from a religious point of view, 
as they are considered more authoritative by the Parsis 
themselves. What proportion the literature extant may 
bear to that which is lost it is impossible to guess ; but, 
omitting all consideration of the possible contents of the 
lost literature, it is obvious that the remaining ten-elevenths 
of that which is extant may contain much which would 
modify any opinion based merely upon the one-eleventh 
here translated. What the untranslated portion actually 
contains no one really knows. The best Pahlavi scholar 
can never be sure that he understands the contents of 
a Pahlavi text until he has fully translated it ; no amount 
of careful reading can make him certain that he does not 
misunderstand some essential part of it, and were he to 
assert the contrary he would be merely misleading others 
and going astray himself. How far the translations in this 
volume will enable the reader to judge of the Parsi religion 
may perhaps be best understood by considering how far 
a careful perusal of the books of Genesis, Leviticus, and 
the Revelation, which constitute one- eleventh part of the 
Protestant Bible, would enable him to judge of Christianity, 
without any further information. 

But, though these translations must be considered merely 
as a contribution towards a correct account of mediaeval 
Zoroastrianism, the Bundahu does afford some very defi- 
nite information upon one of the fundamental doctrines of 
that faith. The Parsi religion has long been represented by 
its opponents as a dualism ; and this accusation, made in 
good faith by Muhammadan writers, and echoed more 



incautiously by Christians, has been advanced so strenu- 
ously that it has often been admitted even by Parsis them- 
selves, as regards the mediaeval form of their faith. But 
neither party seems to have fairly considered how any 
religion which admits the personality of an evil spirit, in 
order to account for the existence of evil, can fail to become 
a dualism to a certain extent. If, therefore, the term is to 
be used in controversy, it behoves those who use it to define 
the limits of objectionable dualism with great precision, so 
as not to include most of the religions of the world, their 
own among the number. 

If it be necessary for a dualism that the evil spirit be 
omnipresent, omniscient, almighty, or eternal, then is the 
Parsi religion no dualism. The BundahLr distinctly asserts 
that the evil spirit is not omniscient and almighty (Chap. 
I, 16) ; that his understanding is backward (I, 3, 9), so that 
he was not aware of the existence of Auharmazd till he 
arose from the abyss and saw the light (I, 9) ; that he is 
unobservant and ignorant of the future (I, 19) till it is 
revealed to him by Auharmazd (I, 21); that his creatures 
perish at the resurrection (I, 7, 21), and he himself becomes 
impotent (I, 21, III, 1) and will not be (I, 3, XXX, 32). 
Nowhere is he supposed to be in two places at once, or to 
know what is occurring elsewhere than in his own presence. 
So far, his powers are considerably less than those gene- 
rally assigned by Christians to the devil, who is certainly 
represented as being a more intelligent and ubiquitous 
personage. On the other hand, Aharman is able to pro- 
duce fiends and demons (Chap. I, 10, 24), and the noxious 
creatures are said to be his (III, 15, XIV, 30, XVIII, 2); in 
which respects he has probably rather more power than 
the devil, although the limits of the latter's means of pro- 
ducing evil are by no means well defined. 

The origin and end of Aharman appear to be left as 
uncertain as those of the devil, and, altogether, the resem- 
blance between these two ideas of the evil spirit is remark- 
ably close ; in fact, almost too close to admit of the possibility 
of their being ideas of different origin. The only important 
differences are that Zoroastrianism does not believe in an 


eternity of evil as Christianity does, and that Christianity 
has been content to leave all its other ideas about the devil 
in a very hazy and uncertain form, while Zoroastrianism 
has not shrunk from carrying similar ideas to their logical 
conclusion. If, therefore, a belief in Aharman, as the author 
of evil, makes the Parsi religion a dualism, it is difficult to 
understand why a belief in the devil, as the author of evil, 
does not make Christianity also a dualism. At any rate, 
it is evident from the BundahLr that a Christian is treading 
on hazardous ground when he objects to Zoroastrianism on 
the score of its dualism. 

Another misrepresentation of the Parsi religion is shown 
to have no foundation in fact, by a passage in the Selections 
of Za^/-sparam. Several writers, both Greek and Armenian, 
contemporaries of the Sasanian dynasty, represent the Per- 
sians as believing that both Auharmazd and Aharman were 
produced by an eternal being, who is evidently a personifi- 
cation of the Avesta phrase for ' boundless time.' This 
view was apparently confirmed by a passage in Anquetil 
Duperron's French translation of the Vendidad (XIX, 
32-34), but this has long been known to be a mistrans- 
lation due to Anquetil's ignorance of Avesta grammar ; so 
that the supposed doctrine of ' boundless time ' being the 
originator of everything is not to be found in the Avesta ; 
still it might have sprung up in Sasanian times. But the 
Selections of Za<^-sparam (I, 24) distinctly state that Auhar- 
mazd produced the creature Zorvan (precisely the term used 
in the phrase ' boundless time' in the Avesta). Here 'time, 5 
although personified, is represented as a creature of Auhar- 
mazd, produced after the first appearance of Aharman ; 
which contradicts the statement of the Greek and Armenian 
writers completely, and shows how little reliance can be 
placed upon the assertions of foreigners regarding matters 
which they view with antipathy or prejudice. 

With reference to the general plan of these translations 
of Pahlavi texts a few remarks seem necessary. In the first 
place, it will be obvious to any attentive reader of this 
introduction that a translator of Pahlavi has not merely to 
translate, but also to edit, the original text ; and, in some 


cases, he has even to discover it. Next, as regards the 
translation, it has been already mentioned (p. xxvi) that 
the translator's object is to make it as literal as possible ; 
in order, therefore, to check the inevitable tendency of free 
translation to wander from the meaning of the original 
text, all extra words added to complete the sense, unless 
most distinctly understood in the original, are italicised in 
the translation. And in all cases that seem doubtful the 
reader's attention is called to the fact by a note, though it 
is possible that some doubtful matters may be overlooked. 
The notes deal not only with explanations that may be 
necessary for the general reader, but also with various 
readings and other details that may be useful to scholars ; 
they are, therefore, very numerous, though some passages 
may still be left without sufficient explanation. References 
to the Vendidad,Yasna, and Visparad are made to Spiegel's 
edition of the original texts, not because that edition is supe- 
rior, or even equal, in accuracy to that of Westergaard, but 
because it is the only edition which gives the Pahlavi 
translations, because its sections are shorter and, therefore, 
reference to them is more definite, and because the only 
English translation of the Avesta hitherto existing 1 is 
based upon Spiegel's edition, and is divided into the same 

No attempt has been made to trace any of the myths 
or traditions farther back than the Avesta, whence their 
descent is a fact that can hardly be disputed. To trace 
them back to earlier times, to a supposed Indo-Iranian 
personification or poetic distortion of meteorological phe- 
nomena, would be, in the present state of our knowledge, 
merely substituting plausible guesses for ascertained facts. 
In many cases, indeed, we have really no right to assume 
that an Avesta myth has descended from any such Indo- 
Iranian origin, as there have been ample opportunities for 
the infiltration of myths from other sources, yet unknown, 

1 Bleeck's Avesta; the Religious Books of the Parsees ; from Professor 
Spiegel's German Translation; London, 1864. Not much reliance can be 
placed upon the correctness of this translation, owing to defects in the 
German one. 


among the many nations with which the religion of the 
Avesta has come in contact, both before and since the 
time of Zaratuit. For, notwithstanding the ingenious rhe- 
toric of the expounders of myths, it is still as unsafe, from 
a scientific point of view, to disbelieve the former existence 
of Zaratoft as it is to doubt that of Moses, or any other 
practically prehistoric personage, merely because mythic 
tales have gathered about his name in later times, as they 
always do about the memory of any individual who has 
become famous or revered. 

In many cases the original Pahlavi word is appended, in 
parentheses, to its English equivalent in the translation. 
This has been done for the sake of explanation, when the 
word is technical or rare, or the translation is unusual. For, 
with regard to technical terms, it has been considered best, 
in nearly all cases, to translate them by some explanatory 
phrase, in preference to filling the translation with foreign 
words which would convey little or no distinct meaning to 
the general reader. Some of these technical terms have 
almost exact equivalents in English, such as those trans- 
lated ' resurrection ' and ' demon/ or can be well expressed 
by descriptive phrases, such as ' sacred twigs ' and ' sacred 
cakes/ Other terms are only approximately rendered by 
such words as 'archangel' and 'angel;' others can hardly 
be expressed at all times by the same English words, but 
must change according to the context, such as the term 
variously rendered by 'worship, ceremonial, prayer, or 
rites.' While the meaning of some few terms is so tech- 
nical, complicated, or uncertain, that it is safer to use 
the Pahlavi word itself, such as Tanapuhar, Frasast, Gett- 
kharW, Dvasdah-hdmast, &c. 

The following is a list of nearly all the technical terms that 
have been translated, with the English equivalents generally 
used to express them :— Afrin, 'blessing;' aharmok, 
'apostate, heretic;' aharubo, 'righteous;' aharubo-da^, 
'alms, almsgiving;' akdino, 'infidel;' ameshospend, 
'archangel; 5 arm est, 'helpless ;' ast-homand, 'material;' 
ausdfri^, 'propitiation, offering;' bagh6-bakht6, 'divine 
providence;' baresom, 'sacred twigs or twig-bundle ;' 


bares6mdan, 'twig stand;' dakhmak (Huz. khazan), 
'depository for the dead;' dashtanistan, 'place for men- 
struation ; ' d i n 6, ' religion, revelation, religious rites ; ' 
drayan-^uyi^nih, 'unseasonable chatter ;' drevand, 
'wicked;' dr 6 no, 'sacred cake ;' dru^*, 'fiend;' frasha- 
kard, 'renovation of the universe;' fravahar, 'guardian 
spirit;' fravar^/ikan, 'days devoted to the guardian spirits;' 
ganrak main6k, 'evil spirit;' g&rzisn, 'confession of 
sin;' gas, 'period of the day, time;' gasanbar, 'season- 
festival ;' g a s no, 'feast ;' gau^-dak (Av. gau^ hudh^u), 
'meat-offering, sacred butter;' ^avi^-rastakan, 'the he- 
terodox;' g\v (Av. gau^ £*ivya), 'sacred milk;' g6me#, 
'bull's urine;' hamemal, 'accuser;' hamrerf, 'direct pol- 
lution, contagion;' ha^arak, 'millennium;' htkhar, 'bo- 
dily refuse;' kar, 'duty;' k£shvar, 'region;' khayebit, 
'destroyer;' khraf star/ noxious creature;' khvetuk-das, 
'next-of-kin marriage;' kirfak, 'good works;' kustik, 
' sacred thread-girdle ;' magh, ' stone ablution-seat ;' mai- 
nok, c spirit;' marg-ar^*an, 'worthy of death, mortal sin;' 
myazd, 'feast, sacred feast ;' nasaf, ' corpse, dead matter ;' 
nasai katak, ' corpse chamber ;' nirang, 'religious formula, 
ritual;' nirangistan, 'code of religious formulas;' niya- 
yii*n, 'salutation;' padam, 'mouth-veil;' pa^iyaz/ih, 
' ablution, ceremonial ablution;' pahlum ah van, 'best ex- 
istence;' paitr£</, ' indirect pollution, infection ; ' parahdm, 
'h6m-juice;' partk, 'witch;' patitih, 'renunciation of 
sin;' patiyarak, 'adversary;' p6ryo^keshih, 'primitive 
faith;' raaT, 'chief, spiritual chief, primate, high-priest/ 
rist&kh£,s, 'resurrection*/ satufh, 'the three nights;' 
.redd, ' demon;' shapik, 'sacred shirt;' shnayij'n, ' pro- 
pitiation, gratification;' shnuman, 'dedication formula, 
propitiation;' spenakmatnok, 'beneficent spirit;' tanu-i 
pasino, 'future existence;' to^ijn, 'retribution ;' tor a- i 
khadu-da<^, 'primeval ox;' va^, 'inward prayer;' vi^ari^n, 
'atonement for sin;' visha^-dubari^nih, 'running about 
uncovered;' yasno, 'ritual;' ya^t, 'prayers, ritual, form 
of prayer, worship, consecration;' ya^tano, ' to consecrate, 
solemnize, propitiate, reverence;' yatuk, ' wizard;' yaz- 
dan, 'angels, sacred beings, celestial beings, God ;' ya^un, 

[5] f 


'ceremonial, ceremony, sacred ceremony, ceremonial wor- 
ship, worship, reverence, rites, prayer;' ye da to, 'angel;' 
zand, ' commentary ;' zohar or z6r, f holy-water ;' zot, 
' officiating priest.' 

With regard to the orthography of Pahlavi names and 
words, advantage has been taken of the system of trans- 
literation adopted for this series of Translations of the 
Sacred Books of the East, by making use of italics for the 
purpose of distinguishing between certain Pahlavi letters 
which were probably pronounced very nearly alike. Thus, 
besides the usual letters ) for v and S f° r z > tne Pahlavi 
letter £ is often used to denote those same sounds which, 
in such cases, are represented by the italic letters v and 
z. An extension of the same mode of distinction to the 
letters 1 and r would be desirable, but has not been 
attempted in this volume ; these two letters are usually 
written 'J, but in a few words they are represented by \ or 
by Si m which cases they would be better expressed by 
the italics / and r. Some attempt has been made to adhere 
to one uniform orthography in such names as occur fre- 
quently, but as there is no such uniformity in the various 
languages and writings quoted, nor even in the same manu- 
script, some deviations can hardly be avoided. 

In conclusion it may be remarked that a translator of 
Pahlavi generally begins his career by undervaluing the 
correctness of Pahlavi texts and the literary ability of their 
authors, but he can hardly proceed far without finding 
abundant reason for altering his opinion of both. His 
depreciatory view of Pahlavi literature is generally due 
partly to want of knowledge, and partly to his trusting 
too much to the vile perversions of Pahlavi texts usually 
supplied by Pazand writers. But as his knowledge of 
Pahlavi increases he becomes better able to appreciate 
the literary merits of the texts. If the reader should have 
already formed some such low estimate of the ability of 
Pahlavi writers, it may be hoped that these translations 
will afford him sufficient reason for changing his opinion ; 
if not, they will have signally failed in doing those writers 






i. For all divisions into chapters and sections the translator is 
responsible, as the original text is written continuously, with very 
few stops marked. 

2. Italics are used for any English words which are not ex- 
pressed, or fully understood, in the original text, but are added to 
complete the sense of the translation. 

3. Oriental words are usually 'spaced/ Italics occurring in 
them, or in names, are intended to represent certain peculiar Ori- 
ental letters. The italic consonants d, n, v may be pronounced 
as in English ;• but g should be sounded like j, hv like wh, k like 
ch in ' church/ n like ng, s like sh, z like French j. For further 
information, see * Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for 
the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East ' at the end of 
the volume. 

4. In Pahlavi words all circumflexed vowels and any final 6 are 
expressed in the Pahlavi original, but all other vowels are merely 

5. In the translation, words in parentheses are merely explana- 
tory of those which precede them. 

6. Abbreviations used are: — A v. for Avesta. Da^. for DM- 
stan-i Dfnik. Huz. for Huzvaiir. Mkh. for Mainyo-i-khar^, ed. 
West. Pahl. for Pahlavi. Paz. for P&zand. Pers. for Persian. 
Sans, for Sanskrit. Vend, for Vendidad, ed. Spiegel. Visp. for 
Visparad, ed. Sp. Yas. for Yasna, ed. Sp. Yt. for Yart, ed. 

7. The manuscripts mentioned in the notes are : — 

K20 (about 500 years old), No. 20 in the University Library at 

K2ob (uncertain date), a fragment of the text, No. 20b in the 
same library. 

M6 (written a.d. 1397), No. 6 of the Haug Collection in the 
State Library at Munich. 

TD (written about a.d. 1530), belonging to Mobad Tehmuras 
Dinshawji Anklesaria at Bombay. 


Chapter I. 

o. In the name of the creator Auharmazd. 
i. The Zand-ak&s ('Zand-knowing or tradition- 
informed ') *, which is first about Aiiharmazd's original 
creation and the antagonism of the evil spirit 2 , and 
afterwards about the nature of the creatures from 
the original creation till the end, which is the future 
existence (tanft-i pasino). 2. As revealed by the 
religion of the Mazdayasnians, so it is declared that 
Atiharmazd is supreme in omniscience and goodness, 

1 The Pazand and most of the modern Pahlavi manuscripts 
have, 'From the Zand-akas/ but the word min, 'from/ does not 
occur in the old manuscript K20, and is a modern addition to 
M6. From this opening sentence it would appear that the author 
of the work gave it the name Zand-akas. 

2 The Avesta Angra-mainyu, the spirit who causes adversity or 
anxiety (see Darmesteter's Ormazd et Ahriman, pp. 92-95) ; the 
Pahlavi name is, most probably, merely a corrupt transliteration of 
the Avesta form, and may be read Ganr&k-mainok, as the Avesta 
Spewta-mainyu, the spirit who causes prosperity, has become 
Sp6nsik-main6kin Pahlavi. This latter spirit is represented by 
Auharmazd himself in the Bundahw. The Pahlavi word for 'spirit/ 
which is read mad on ad by the Parsis, and has been pronounced 
minavad by some scholars and min6i by others, is probably a 
corruption of ma in 6k, as its Sasanian form was min6. If it were 
not for the extra medial letter in ganr&k, and for the obvious 
partial transliteration of sp6n&k, it would be preferable to read 
gan&k, 'smiting/ and to derive it from a supposed verb gandan, 'to 
smite' (Av. ghna), as proposed by most Zendists. A Parsi would 
probably suggest gandan, 'to stink/ 

B 2 


and unrivalled 1 in splendour; the region of light is 
the place of Atlharmazd, which they call 'endless 
light/ and the omniscience and goodness of the 
unrivalled Aftharmazd is what they call 'revelation 2 / 
3. Revelation is the explanation of both spirits 
together ; one is he who is independent of unlimited 
time 3 , because Atiharmazd and the region, religion, 
and time of Atiharmazd were and are and ever 
will be; while Aharman 4 in darkness, with backward 
understanding and desire for destruction, was in the 
abyss, and it is he who will not be ; and the place 
of that destruction, and also of that darkness, is 
what they call the 'endlessly dark/ 4. And between 
them was empty space, that is, what they call ' air/ 
in which is now their meeting. 

5. Both are limited and unlimited spirits, for the 
supreme is that which they call endless light, and 
the abyss that which is endlessly dark, so that be- 
tween them is a void, and one is not connected with 

1 Reading aham-kai, 'without a fellow-sovereign, peerless, un- 
rivalled, independent/ This rare word occurs three times in §§ 2, 
3, and some Pazand writers suggest the meaning ' everlasting ' (by 
means of the Persian gloss h ami.? ah), which is plausible enough, 
but hamaki would be an extraordinary mode of writing the very 
common word hamstf, ' ever/ 

2 The word din 6 (properly d£n6), Av. da6na, being traceable 
to a root di, 'to see/ must originally have meant ' a vision ' (see 
Haug's Essays on the Religion of the Parsis, 2nd ed. p. 152, note 2), 
whence the term has been transferred to ' religion ' and all religious 
observances, rules, and writings ; so it may be translated either by 
' religion ' or by ' revelation/ 

3 This appears to be the meaning, but the construction of § 3 is 
altogether rather obscure, and suggestive of omissions in the text. 

4 The usual name of the evil spirit ; it is probably an older cor- 
ruption of Angra-mainyu than Ganrak-mainok, and a less 
technical term. Its Sasanian form was Aharmant 

CHAPTER I, 3-10. 

the other ; and, again, both spirits are limited as to 
their own selves. 6. And, secondly, on account of 
the omniscience of Auharmazd, both things are in 
the creation of Atiharmazd, the finite and the infinite; 
for this they know is that which is in the covenant 
of both spirits. 7. And, again, the complete sove- 
reignty of the creatures of Auharmazd is in the 
future existence, and that also is unlimited for ever 
and everlasting ; and the creatures of Aharman will 
perish at the time when 1 the future existence occurs, 
and that also is eternity. 

8. Atiharmazd, through omniscience, knew that 
Aharman exists, and whatever he schemes he in- 
fuses with malice and greediness till the end; and 
because He accomplishes the end by many means, 
He also produced spiritually the creatures which 
were necessary for those means, and they remained 
three thousand years in a spiritual state, so that they 
were unthinking 2 and unmoving, with intangible 

9. The evil spirit, on account of backward know- 
ledge, was not aware of the existence of Atiharmazd ; 
and, afterwards, he arose from the abyss, and came 
in unto the light which he saw. 10. Desirous of 
destroying, and because of his malicious nature, he 

1 Substituting amat, 'when/ for mun, 'which/ two Huzvaii? 
forms which are frequently confounded by Pahlavi copyists be- 
cause their Pazand equivalents, ka and ke, are nearly alike. 

2 Reading amini^/ar in accordance with M6, which has amini- 
</ar in Chap. XXXIV, 1, where the same phrase occurs. Windisch- 
mann and Justi read amuitar, 'uninjured, invulnerable/ in both 
places. This sentence appears to refer to a preparatory creation of 
embryonic and immaterial existences, the prototypes, fravashis, 
spiritual counterparts, or guardian angels of the spiritual and 
material creatures afterwards produced. 


rushed in to destroy that light of Atiharmazd unas- 
sailed by fiends, and he saw its bravery and glory 
were greater than his own ; so he fled back to the 
gloomy darkness, and formed many demons and 
fiends ; and the creatures of the destroyer arose for 

1 1. Atiharmazd, by whom the creatures of the evil 
spirit were seen, creatures terrible, corrupt, and bad, 
also considered them not commendable (btirzi^nlk). 
12. Afterwards, the evil spirit saw the creatures of 
Atiharmazd ; they appeared many creatures of de- 
light (v&yah), enquiring creatures, and they seemed 
to him commendable, and he commended the crea- 
tures and creation of Atiharmazd. 

13. Then Auharmazd, with a knowledge 1 of which 
way the end of the matter woitld be, went to meet 
the evil spirit, and proposed peace to him, and spoke 
thus : * Evil spirit ! bring assistance unto my crea- 
tures, and offer praise! so that, in reward for it, 
ye (you and your creatures) may become immortal 
and undecaying, hungerless and thirstless/ 

14. And the evil spirit shouted thus 2 : ' I will wot 
depart, I will not provide assistance for thy crea- 
tures, I will not offer praise among thy creatures, 
and I am not of the same opinion with thee as to 
good things. I will destroy thy creatures for ever 
and everlasting; moreover, I will force all thy 
creatures into disaffection to thee and affection for 
myself/ 15. And the explanation thereof is this, 
that the evil spirit reflected in this manner, that 

1 The Huz. khavitunast stands for the Paz. danist with the 
meaning, here, of ' what is known, knowledge/ as in Persian. 

2 Literally, ' And it was shouted by him, the evil spirit, thus : ' 
the usual idiom when the nominative follows the verb. 

CHAPTER I, 1 1 -20. 

Auharmazd was helpless as regarded him 1 , therefore 
He proffers peace ; and he did not agree, but bore 
on even into conflict with Him. 

16. And Atiharmazd spoke thus: 'You are not 
omniscient and almighty, O evil spirit ! so that it is 
not possible for thee to destroy me, and it is not 
possible for thee to force my creatures so that they 
will not return to my possession/ 

17. Then Atiharmazd, through omniscience, knew 
that : If I do not grant a period of contest, then it 
will be possible for him to act so that he may be 
able to cause the seduction of my creatures to him- 
self. As even now there are many of the inter- 
mixture of mankind who practise wrong more than 
right. 18. And Atiharmazd spoke to the evil spirit 
thus : ' Appoint a period ! so that the intermingling 
of the conflict may be for nine thousand years/ For 
he knew that by appointing this period the evil 
spirit would be undone. 

19. Then the evil spirit, unobservant and through 
ignorance, was content with that agreement; just 
like two men quarrelling together, who propose a 
time thus : Let us appoint such-and-such a day for a 

20. Aftharmazd also knew this, through omni- 
science, that within these nine thousand years, for 
three thousand years everything proceeds by the will 
of Auharmazd, three thousand years there is an 
intermingling of the wills of Afiharmazd and Ahar- 
man, and the last three thousand years the evil 
spirit is disabled, and they keep the adversary away 2 
from the creatures. 

1 The words d£n val stand for d£n valman. 

2 That is, 'the adversary is kept away/ In Pahlavi the third 


21. Afterwards, Aftharmazd recited the Ahunavar 
thus : Yathci ahti vairyd (' as a heavenly lord is to 
be chosen '), &c. 1 once, and uttered the twenty-one 
words 2 ; He also exhibited to the evil spirit His 
own triumph in the end, and the impotence of the 
evil spirit, the annihilation of the demons, and the 
resurrection and undisturbed future existence of the 
creatures for ever and everlasting. 22. And the evil 
spirit, who perceived his own impotence and the 
annihilation of the demons, became confounded, and 
fell back to the gloomy darkness; even so as is 
declared in revelation, that, when one of its (the 
Ahunavar s) three parts was uttered, the evil spirit 
contracted his body through fear, and when two 
parts of it were uttered he fell upon his knees, and 
when all of it was uttered he became confounded 

person plural is the indefinite person, as in English. These 9000 
years are in addition to the 3000 mentioned in § 8, as appears more 
clearly in Chap. XXXIV, 1. 

1 This is the most sacred formula of the Parsis, which they have 
to recite frequently, not only during the performance of their cere- 
monies, but also in connection with most of their ordinary duties 
and habits. It is neither a prayer, nor a creed, but a declaratory 
formula in metre, consisting of one stanza of three lines, containing 
twenty-one Avesta words, as follows : — 

Yath& ahu vairy6, ath& ratiw, ash&V J&d ha£a, 
Vanghaij dazda mananghd, .rkyaothnanam zngheus mazdai, 
Khshathrem£& ahurai &, yim dregubyo dada<? v&starem. 
And it may be translated in the following manner : 'As a heavenly 
lord is to be chosen, so is an earthly master (spiritual guide), for 
the sake of righteousness, to be a giver of the good thoughts of 
the actions of life towards Mazda ; and the dominion is for the 
lord (Ahura) whom he (Mazda) has given as a protector for the 
poor' (see Haug's Essays on the Religion of the Parsis, 2nd ed. 
pp. 125, 141). 

2 The word mdrik must mean 'word' here, but in some other 
places it seems to mean ' syllable ' or ' accented syllable/ 

CHAPTER I, 21-26. 

and impotent as to the harm he caused the creatures 
of Afiharmazd, and he remained three thousand 
years in confusion 1 . 

23. Afiharmazd created his creatures in the con- 
fusion of Aharman; first he produced Vohtiman 
('good thought*), by whom the progress of the 
creatures of Atiharmazd was advanced. 

24. The evil spirit first created 2 Mitokht (' false- 
hood '), and then Akoman (' evil thought '). 

25. The first of Aliharmazd's creatures of the 
world was the sky, and his good thought (Vohu- 
man), by good procedure 3 , produced the light of 
the world, along with which was the good religion 
of the Mazdayasnians ; this was because the renova- 
tion (frashakar^) 4 which happens to the creatures 
was known to him. 26. Afterwards arose An/ava- 

1 This is the first third of the 9000 years appointed in §§ 18, 20, 
and the second 3000 years mentioned in Chap. XXXIV, 1. 

2 It is usual to consider da^/an (Huz. yehabuntan), when 
traceable to Av. d&=Sans. dhd, as meaning 'to create/ but it can 
hardly be proved that it means to create out of nothing, any more 
than any other of the Avesta verbs which it is sometimes con- 
venient to translate by ' create/ Before basing any argument upon 
the use of this word it will, therefore^ be safer to substitute the 
word 'produce* in all cases. 

8 Or it may be translated, ' and from it Vohuman, by good pro- 
cedure/ &c. The position here ascribed to Vohuman, or the good 
thought of Auharmazd, bears some resemblance to that of the Word 
in John i. 1-5, but with this essential difference, that Vohuman is 
merely a creature of Auharmazd, not identified with him ; for the 
latter idea would be considered, by a Parsi, as rather inconsistent 
with strict monotheism. The ' light of the world ' now created 
must be distinguished from the ' endless light' already existing with 
Auharmazd in § 2. 

4 The word frashakar^, 'what is made durable, perpetuation/ 
is applied to the renovation of the universe which is to take place 
about the time of the resurrection, as a preparation for eternity. 


hist, and then Shatvair6, and then Spendarma^, and 
then Horvadaaf, and then Ameroda^ 1 . 

27. From the dark world of Aharman were Ako- 
man and Andar, and then S6var, and then Nakahe^, 
and then T&irez> and Zairt£ 2 . 

28. Of Auharmazd's creatures of the world, the 
first was the sky; the second, water; the third, 
earth ; the fourth, plants ; the fifth, animals ; the 
sixth, mankind. 

Chapter II. 

o. On the formation of the luminaries. 

1. Auharmazd produced illumination between the 
sky and the earth, the constellation stars and those 
also not of the constellations 3 , then the moon, and 
afterwards the sun, as I shall relate. 

1 These five, with Vohuman and Auharmazd in his angelic capa- 
city, constitute the seven Ameshaspends, 'undying causers of pros- 
perity, immortal benefactors/ or archangels, who have charge of 
the whole material creation. They are personifications of old Avesta 
phrases, such as Vohu-man6, 'good thought;' Asha-vahi^ta, 
'perfect rectitude;' Khshathra-vairya, ' desirable dominion;' 
Spe#ta-armaiti, 'bountiful devotion;' Haurvat&di 'complete- 
ness or health;' and Ameret&V, 'immortality.' 

2 These six demons are the opponents of the six archangels 
respectively (see Chap. XXX, 29) ; their names in the Avesta are, 
Akem-mano, 'evil thought;' I«dra, Sauru, Naunghaithya, Tauru, 
Zairi&i (see Vendidad X, 17, 18 Sp., and XIX, 43 W.), which have 
been compared with the Vedic god Indra, iSarva (a name of *Siva), 
the Nasatyas, and Sans, tura, 'diseased/ and ^aras, 'decay/ 
respectively. For further details regarding them, see Chap. XXVIII, 

8 The word akhtar is the usual term in Pahlavi for a constella- 
tion of the zodiac; but the term apdkhtar, 'away from the akhtar/ 
means not only ' the north/ or away from the zodiac, but also ' a 

CHAPTER I, 2 7-11, 4. II 

2. First he produced the celestial sphere, and the 
constellation stars are assigned to it by him ; espe- 
cially these twelve whose names are Varak (the 
Lamb), Tora (the Bull), D6-patkar (the Two-figures 
or Gemini), Kalaiang (the Crab), .5er (the Lion), 
Khtlsak (Virgo), Tar&suk (the Balance), Gazdum 
(the Scorpion), Nimasp (the Centaur or Sagittarius), 
Vahik 1 (Capricornus), Dul (the Waterpot), and 
Mihlk (the Fish) ; 3. which, from their original 
creation, were divided into the twenty-eight sub- 
divisions of the astronomers 2 , of which the names 
are Pad£var, Pesh- Parviz, Parviz, Paha, Avesar, 
Besn, Rakhva*/, Taraha, Avra, Nahn, Miyan, Av- 
dem, Mash&ha, Sp&r, Husru,Srob, Nur, Gel, Garafra, 
Vara^t, G#u, Goi, Muru, Bunda, Kahtsar, Vaht, 
Miyan, Kaht 3 . 4. And all his original creations, 

planet/ which is in the zodiac, but apart from the constellations. 
The meaning of akhtar, most suitable to the context here, appears 
to be the general term ' constellation/ 

1 Written Nahasik here, both in K20 and M6, which may be 
compared with Pers. nahaz, ' the leading goat of a flock ; ' but the 
usual word for * Capricornus ' is Vahik, as in Chap. V, 6. None of the 
other names of the signs of the zodiac are written here in Pazand, 
but it may be noted that if the ah in Vahik were written in Pazand 
(that is, in Avesta characters), the word would become the same as 
Nahasik in Pahlavi. 

2 Literally, * fragments of the calculators/ khurdak-i h&marikan. 
These subdivisions are the spaces traversed daily by the moon 
among the stars, generally called ' lunar mansions/ 

3 All these names are written in Pazand, which accounts for 
their eccentric orthography, in which both K20 and M6 agree very 
closely. The subdivision Parviz is evidently the Pers. parven, 
which includes the Pleiades, and corresponds therefore to the 
Sanskrit Nakshatra KWttika\ This correspondence leads to the 
identification of the first subdivision, Pad6var, with the Nakshatra 
A^vini. The Pazand names are so corrupt that no reliance can 
be placed upon them, and the first step towards recovering the true 


residing in the world, are committed to them 1 ; so 
that when the destroyer arrives they overcome the 
adversary and their own persecution, and the crea- 
tures are saved from those adversities. 

5. As a specimen of a warlike army, which is 
destined for battle, they have ordained every single 
constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as 
assistance ; and among those constellations four 
chieftains, appointed on the four sides, are leaders. 
6. On the recommendation of those chieftains the 
many unnumbered stars are specially assigned to the 
various quarters and various places, as the united 
strength and appointed power of those constella- 
tions. 7. As it is said that Tfotar is the chieftain of 
the east, Sataves the chieftain of the west, Vanand 
the chieftain of the south, and Haptok-ring the 
chieftain of the north 2 . 8. The great one which they 

Pahlavi names would be to transliterate the P&zand back into Pah- 
lavi characters. The ninth subdivision is mentioned in Chap. VII, 1 
by the name Avrak. 

1 That is, to the zodiacal constellations, which are supposed to 
have special charge of the welfare of creation. 

2 Of these four constellations or stars, which are said to act as 
leaders, there is no doubt that Hapt6k-ring, the chieftain of the 
north, is Ursa Major ; and it is usually considered that Tfotar, the 
chieftain of the east, is Sirius ; but the other two chieftains are not 
so well identified, and there may be some doubt as to the proper 
stations of the eastern and western chieftains. It is evident, how- 
ever, that the most westerly stars, visible at any one time of the 
year, are those which set in the dusk of the evening ; and east of 
these, all the stars are visible during the night as far as those which 
rise at daybreak, which are the most easterly stars visible at that 
time of the year. Tirtar or Sirius can, therefore, be considered 
the chieftain of the eastern stars only when it rises before day- 
break, which it does at the latter end of summer ; and Haptok- 
ring or Ursa Major is due north at midnight (on the meridian below 
the pole) at about the same time of the year. These stars, there- 

CHAPTER II, 5-8. 13 

call a Gah (period of the day), which they say is the 
great one of the middle of the sky, till just before 
the destroyer came was the midday (or south) one of 
the five, that is, the Rapitvtn *. 

fore, fulfil the conditions necessary for being chieftains of the east 
and north at the end of summer, and we must look for stars capable 
of being chieftains of the south and west at the same season. Now, 
when Ursa Major is near the meridian below the pole, Fomalhaut 
is the most conspicuous star near the meridian in the far south, 
and is probably to be identified with Vanand the chieftain of the 
south. And when Sirius rises some time before daybreak, Antares 
(in Scorpio) sets some time after dusk in the evening, and may 
well be identified with Sataves the chieftain of the west. Assuming 
that there has been a precession of the equinoxes equivalent to 
two hours of time, since the idea of these chieftains (which may 
perhaps be traced to Avesta times) was first formed, it may be 
calculated that the time of year when these leading stars then best 
fulfilled that idea was about a month before the autumnal equinox, 
when Ursa Major would be due north three-quarters of an hour 
after midnight, and Fomalhaut due south three-quarters of an hour 
before midnight, Sirius would rise three hours before the sun, and 
Antares would set three hours after the sun. In the Avesta these 
leading stars are named Tijtrya, SatavaSsa, Vanarct, and Haptoi- 
rircga (see Tfotar Yt. o, 8, 9, 12, 32, &c, Rashnu Yt. 26-28, 
Sirdz. 13). 

1 This translation, though very nearly literal, must be accepted 
with caution. If the word mas be not a name it can hardly mean 
anything but ' great;' and that it refers to a constellation appears 
from Chap. V, 1. The word khomsakisan irregular form of the 
Huz. kh6m,ry&, ' five/ and may refer either to the five chieftains 
(including ' the great one ') or to the five Gahs or periods of the 
day, of which Rapitvin is the midday one (see Chap. XXV, 9). 
The object of the text seems to be to connect the Rapitvin Gah 
with some great mid-sky and midday constellation or star, possibly 
Regulus, which, about b. c. 960, must have been more in the day- 
light than any other important star during the seven months of 
summer, the only time that the Rapitvin Gah can be celebrated 
(see Chap. XXV, 7-14). Justi has, 'They call that the great one of 
the place, which is great in the middle of the sky ; they say that 
before the enemy came it was always midday, that is, Rapitvin/ 


9. Atiharmazd performed the spiritual Yazisn cere- 
mony with the archangels (ameshospenddn) in the 
Rapltvin Gclh, and in the Ya^Lm he supplied every 
means necessary for overcoming the adversary 1 . 
10. He deliberated with the consciousness (bod) 
and guardian spirits (frav&har) of men 2 , and the 
omniscient wisdom, brought forward among men, 
spoke thus : * Which seems to you the more advanta- 
geous, when 3 I shall present you to the world ? that 
you shall contend in a bodily form with the fiend 
(drti^"), and the fiend shall perish, and in the end 
I shall have you prepared again perfect and im- 
mortal, and in the end give you back to the world, 
and you will be wholly immortal, undecaying, and 
undisturbed ; or that it be always necessary to pro- 
vide you protection from the destroyer ? ' 

11. Thereupon, the guardian spirits of men be- 
came of the same opinion with the omniscient wis- 
dom about going to the world, on account of the 
evil that comes upon them, in the world, from the 
fiend (drii£-) Aharman, and their becoming, at last, 
again unpersecuted by the adversary, perfect, and 
immortal, in the future existence, for ever and ever- 

Windischmann has nearly the same, as both follow the Pazand 
MSS. in reading hdmi^ak (as a variant of hami^ak), 'always/ 
instead of kh6msik. 

1 Or c adversity/ 

2 These were among the fravashis already created (see Chap. 

3 Reading am at, 'when/ instead of m fin, 'which' (see note to 
Chap. I, 7). 

CHAPTER II, 9 -III, 5. 15 

Chapter III. 

1. On the rush of the destroyer at the creatures 
it is said, in revelation, that the evil spirit, when he 
saw the impotence of himself and the confederate 1 
(him-dast) demons, owing to the righteous man 2 , 
became confounded, and seemed in confusion three 
thousand years. 2. During that confusion the arch- 
fiends 3 of the demons severally shouted thus: 'Rise 
up, thou father of us ! for we will cause a conflict in 
the world, the distress and injury from which will 
become those of Aiiharmazd and the archangels/ 

3. Severally they twice recounted their own evil 
deeds, and it pleased him not ; and that wicked evil 
spirit, through fear of the righteous man, was not 
able to lift up his head until the wicked Gth 4 came, 
at the completion of the three thousand years. 
4. And she shouted to the evil spirit thus : ' Rise 
up, thou father of us ! for I will cause that conflict 
in the world wherefrom the distress and injury of 
Atiharmazd and the archangels will arise/ 5. And 
she twice recounted severally her own evil deeds, 
and it pleased him not ; and that wicked evil spirit 

1 The P&zand MSS. have garoist, for the Huz. h6mnunast, 
' trusted.' Windischmann and Justi have ' all/ 

2 Probably Gayoman/. 

3 The word kamarak&n is literally i those with an evil pate/ 
and is derived from Av. kameredha, 'the head of an evil being/ 
also applied to ' the evil summit' of Mount Arezura (Vend. XIX, 
140, 142), which is supposed to be at the gate of hell (see 
Chap. XII, 8). That the chief demons or arch-fiends are meant, 
appears more clearly in Chap. XXVIII, 12, 44, where the word 
is kamirik&n. 

4 The personification of the impurity of menstruation. 


rose not from that confusion, through fear of the 
righteous man. 

6. And, again, the wicked Geh shouted thus : 
' Rise up, thou father of us ! for in that conflict I 
will shed thus much vexation 1 on the righteous 
man and the labouring ox that, through my deeds, 
life will not be wanted, and I will destroy their living 
souls (nisrno) 2 ; I will vex the water, I will vex the 
plants, I will vex the fire of Atiharmazd, I will 
make the whole creation of Atiharmazd vexed/ 
7. And she so recounted those evil deeds a second 
time, that the evil spirit was delighted and started 
up from that confusion ; and he kissed G&h upon 
the head, and the pollution which they call men- 
struation became apparent in Geh. 

8. He shouted to ^eh thus : ' What is thy wish ? 
so that I may give it thee/ And G£h shouted to 
the evil spirit thus: 'A man is the wish, so give it 
to me/ 

9. The form of the evil spirit was a log-like 
lizard's (vazak) body, and he appeared a young 
man of fifteen years to £eh, and that brought the 
thoughts of £eh to him 3 . 

1 The word v6sh or vish may stand either for besh, Mistress, 
vexation/ as here assumed, or for vish, ' poison/ as translated by 
Windischmann and Justi in accordance with the Paz. MSS. 

a That this is the Huzvarij of rub&n, 'soul,' appears from Chap. 
XV, 3-5, where both words are used indifferently ; but it is not 
given in the Huz.-Paz. Glossary. It is evidently equivalent to 
Chald. ni^m^, and ought probably to have the traditional pronun- 
ciation nisman, an abbreviation of n ism man. 

3 This seems to be the literal meaning of the sentence, and is 
confirmed by Chap. XXVIII, 1, but Windischmann and Justi 
understand that the evil spirit formed a youth for Geh out of a 
toad's body. The incident in the text may be compared with 
Milton's idea of Satan and Sin in Paradise Lost, Book II, 745-765. 

CHAPTER III, 6-l6. 17 

10. Afterwards, the evil spirit, with the confede- 
rate demons, went towards the luminaries, and he 
saw the sky; and he led them up, fraught with 
malicious intentions. 11. He stood upon one-third 1 
of the inside of the sky, and he sprang, like a snake, 
out of the sky down to the earth. 

12. In the month Fravar^ln and the day Afthar- 
mazd 2 he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was 
as shattered and frightened by him, as a sheep by 
a wolf. 13. He came on to the water which was 
arranged 3 below the earth, and then the middle 
of this earth was pierced and entered by him. 
14. Afterwards, he came to the vegetation, then to 
the ox, then to G&y6man/, and then he came to 
fire 4 ; so, just like a fly, he rushed out upon the 
whole creation ; and he made the world quite as 
injured and dark 6 at midday as though it were in 
dark night. 15. And noxious creatures were dif- 
fused by him over the earth, biting and venomous, 
such as the snake, scorpion, frog (kalvak), and 
lizard (vazak), so that not so much as the point 
of a needle remained free from noxious creatures. 
16. And blight 6 was diffused by him over the 

1 Perhaps referring to the proportion of the sky which is over- 
spread by the darkness of night. The whole sentence is rather 

2 The vernal equinox (see Chap. XXV, 7). 

3 Literally, ' and it was arranged/ 

4 For the details of these visitations, see Chaps. VI-X. 

5 Reading khust t6m; but it may be hangi</tum, 'most turbid, 

6 The word makhsi, 'blow, stroke/ is a Huzvarw logogram not 
found in the glossaries; M6 has d&r, 'wood/ but this may be a 
misreading, due to the original, from which M6 was copied, being 
difficult to read. 

[5] c 

1 8 BUNDAHL?. 

vegetation, and it withered away immediately. 1 7. 
And avarice, want, pain, hunger, disease, lust, and 
lethargy were diffused by him abroad upon the ox 
and Gayoman/. 

18. Before his coming to the ox, Atiharmazd 
ground up the healing fruit 1 , which some call 'bin&k,' 
small in water openly before its eyes, so that its 
damage and discomfort from the calamity (zanisn) 
might be less; and when it became at the same 
time lean and ill, as its breath went forth and it 
passed away, the ox also spoke thus : * The cattle 
are to be created, and their work, labour, and care 
are to be appointed/ 

19. And before his coming to G&yoman/, Atihar- 
mazd brought forth a sweat upon Gay6mar^, so 
long as he might recite a prayer (vd^) of one stanza 
(vi^ast); moreover, Atiharmazd formed that sweat 
into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, 
radiant and tall. 20. When G&ydman/ issued from 
the sweat he saw the world dark as night, and the 
earth as though not a needle's point remained free 
from noxious creatures ; the celestial sphere was 
in revolution, and the sun and moon remained in 
motion : and the world's struggle, owing to the 
clamour of the Mdzinfkdn demons 2 , was with the 

21. And the evil spirit thought that the crea- 
tures of Atiharmazd were all rendered useless except 

1 The word mivang is an unusual form of mivak, 'fruit.' It 
is probably to be traced to an Av. mivangh, which might mean 
' fatness/ as Windischmann suggests. 

2 The Mazainya daeva of the Avesta, and Mazendar&n demons, 
or idolaters, of Persian legends. 

CHAPTER III, I7~2 7. 19 

G4y6man/; and Asto-vidd^ 1 with a thousand demons, 
causers of death, were let forth by him on Gdyoman/. 

22. But his appointed time had not come, and he 
(Ast6-vidcUzf) obtained no means of noosing (avizi- 
d2.n0) him; as it is said that, when the opposition 
of the evil spirit came, the period of the life and 
rule of GcLyoman/ was appointed for thirty years. 

23. After the coming of the adversary he lived 
thirty years, and Gayoman/ spoke thus : 'Although 
the destroyer has come, mankind will be all of my 
race ; and this one thing is good, when they perform 
duty and good works/ 

24. And, afterwards, he (the evil spirit) came to 
fire, and he mingled smoke and darkness with it. 
25. The planets, with many demons, dashed against 
the celestial sphere, and they mixed the constella- 
tions ; and the whole creation was as disfigured as 
though fire disfigured every place and smoke arose 
over it. 26. And ninety days and nights the 
heavenly angels were contending in the world with 
the confederate demons of the evil spirit, and hurled 
them confounded to hell; and the rampart of the sky 
was formed so that the adversary should not be able 
to mingle with it. 

27. Hell is in the middle of the earth; there 
where the evil spirit pierced the earth 2 and rushed 
in upon it, as all the possessions of the world were 

1 The demon of death, Ast6-vidh6tu in the Avesta (Vend. IV, 
r 37> V, 25, 31), who is supposed 'to cast a halter around the 
necks of the dead to drag them to hell, but if their good works 
have exceeded their sins they throw off the noose and go to heaven' 
(Haug's Essays, 2nd ed. p. 321). This name is misread Asti- 
viha^ by Paxand writers. 

2 See § 13. 

C 2 


changing into duality, and persecution, contention, 
and mingling of high and low became manifest. 

Chapter IV. 

i . This also is said, that when the primeval ox * 
passed away it fell to the right hand, and Gayoman/ 
afterwards, when he passed away, to the left hand. 
2 . GoiHrvan 2 , as the soul of the primeval ox came 
out from the body of the ox, stood up before the ox 
and cried to Aftharmazd, as much as a thousand 
men when they sustain a cry at one time, thus : 
' With whom is the guardianship of the creatures 
left by thee, when ruin has broken into the earth, 
and vegetation is withered, and water is troubled ? 
Where is the man 3 of whom it was said by thee 
thus : I will produce him, so that he may preach 
carefulness ?' 

3. And Atiharmazd spoke thus : ' You are made 
ill 4 , O G6^6rvan ! you have the illness which the 
evil spirit brought on ; if it were proper to produce 
that man in this earth at this time, the evil spirit 
would not have been oppressive in it/ 

1 Literally, ' the sole-created ox ' from whom all the animals and 
some plants are supposed to have proceeded (see Chaps. X^ and 
XIV), as mankind proceeded from Gay6man/. It is the ox of 
the primitive creation, mentioned in Chap. Ill, 14, 18. 

2 The spiritual representative of the primeval ox, called Geus- 
urva, ' soul of the bull/ in the Avesta, of which name G6.rurvan is 
a corruption. The complaint of G6^urvan is recorded in the 
Gathas, the oldest part of the Avesta (see Yas. XXIX). 

3 Referring to Zaratfot. 

4 In K20, < You are ill.' 


4. Forth Gosurvan walked to the star station 
(payak) and cried in the same manner, and forth to 
the moon station and cried in the same manner, and 
forth to the sun station, and then the guardian spirit 
of Zaratfot was exhibited to her, and Auharmazd 
said thus 1 : ' I will produce for the world him who 
will preach carefulness/ 5. Contented became the 
spirit Gosurvan, and assented thus : ' I will nourish 
the creatures ;' that is, she became again consenting 
to a worldly creation in the world. 

Chapter V. 

1 . Seven chieftains of the planets have come unto 
the seven chieftains of the constellations 2 , as the 
planet Mercury (Tir) unto Ttotar, the planet Mars 
(Vahram) unto Haptok-ring, the planet Jupiter 
(Afiharmazd) unto Vanand, the planet Venus (Ana- 
hid?) unto Sataves, the planet Saturn (Kevdn) unto 
the great one of the middle of the sky, Go^ihar 3 

1 As the text stands in the MSS. it means, ' and then the guardian 
spirit of Zaratust demonstrated to her thus;' but whether it be 
intended to represent the fravahar as producing the creature 
is doubtful. The angel Gos, who is identified with G6.nirvan, is 
usually considered a female, but this is hardly consistent with being 
the soul of a bull (see Chap. X, 1, 2), though applicable enough to 
a representative of the earth. In the Selections of Za^-sparam, II, 
6, however, this mythological animal is said to have been a female 
(see Appendix to Bundahu). 

2 Five of these are mentioned in Chap. II, 7, 8, to which the 
sun and moon are here added. 

3 As this name stands in the MSS. it may be read Gur^dar (as 
in the Paz. MSS.), Gur^ihar, or Dur^ihar ; the reading is very un- 
certain, and Windischmann suggests Gurg-^ihar, * wolf progeny ' 
(compare vehrk6-£ithra in Ardabahut Ya*t 8). A shooting star, 


and the thievish (dti£*gun) Mfrspar 1 , provided with 
tails, unto the sun and moon and stars. 2. The sun 
has attached Mfopar to its own radiance by mutual 
agreement, so that he may be less able to do harm 

3. Of Mount AlMr^ 2 it is declared, that around 
the world and Mount Terak 3 , which is the middle of 
the world, the revolution of the sun is like a moat 4 
around the world ; it turns back in a circuit 5 owing 
to the enclosure (var) of Mount Albftre around 
Terak. 4. As it is said that it is the Terak of 
Albftrs from behind which my sun and moon and 
stars return again 6 . 5. For there are a hundred 

or meteor, is probably meant (see Chap. XXX, 18, 31), and as it is 
the special disturber of the moon, it may be G6-£ihar (Av. gao- 
^ithra, 'of ox-lineage r ), a common epithet of the moon; the 
Pahlavi letter k being often written something like the compound 
rk ; and this supposition is confirmed by the G&k-^ihar of TD in 
Chap. XXVIII, 44. 

1 This is written Mfo-parik in TD in Chap. XXVIII, 44, and 
seems to be the mus pairika of Yas. XVII, 46, LXVII, 23, as 
noticed by Windischmann ; it is probably meant here for a comet, 
as it is attached to the sun. The zodiacal light and milky way have 
too little of the wandering character of planets to be considered 
planetary opponents of the sun and moon. 

2 The hara berezaiti, 'lofty mountain-range/ of the Avesta, 
which is an ideal representative of the loftiest mountains known to 
the ancient Iranians, the Alburz range in M&zendardn, south of the 
Caspian. See Chaps. VIII, 2, XII, 1, 3. 

s The Taera of Yas. XLI, 24, Ram Yt. 7, Zamydd Yt. 6. See 
Chap. XII, 2, 4. 

4 The word maya-gir is a Huz. hybrid for av-gir, 'a water- 
holder, or ditch/ 

5 The word may be either sive^ak or khavi^-ak, with this 

6 This appears to be a quotation from the Rashnu Yajt, 25. 
The Huz. word for ' month ' is here used for the ' moon.' 

CHAPTER V, 2-6. 23 

and eighty apertures (ro^fn) in the east, and a hun- 
dred and eighty in the west, through AlMr^; and 
the sun, every day, comes in through an aperture, 
and goes out through an aperture 1 ; and the whole 
connection and motion of the moon and constel- 
lations and planets is with it : every day it always 
illumines (or warms) three regions (keshvar) 2 and 
a half, as is evident to the eyesight. 6. And twice 
in every year the day and night are equal, for on the 
original attack 3 , when 4 it (the sun) went forth from 
its first degree (khftn/ak), the day and night were 
equal, it was the season of spring ; when it arrives 
at the first degree of Kala^ang (Cancer) the time of 
day is greatest, it is the beginning of summer; when 
it arrives at the sign (khfirafak) Tara^tik (Libra) the 
day and night are equal, it is the beginning of 
autumn ; when it arrives at the sign Vahlk (Capri- 
corn) the night is a maximum, it is the beginning of 
winter ; and when it arrives at Varak (Aries) the 
night and day have again become equal, as when it 

1 This mode of accounting for the varying position of sunrise 
and sunset resembles that in the Book of Enoch, LXXI, but only 
six eastern and six western gates of heaven are there mentioned, 
and the sun changes its gates of entrance and exit only once a 
month, instead of daily. 

2 See § 9 and Chap. XL 

8 The reading of this word is doubtful, although its meaning is 
tolerably clear. The Paz. MSS. read har do, ' both ;' Justi reads 
ardab, ' quarrel ;' and in the Selections of Z^-sparam it is written 
irdik. It seems probable that the word is kharah, ' attack/ which 
being written exactly like ard6 (Av. ashya, see Yas. LVI, i, i) has 
had a circumflex added to indicate the supposed d, and this false 
reading has led to the more modern form ardik (Pers. ard, 'anger'). 
But probabilities in obscure matters are often treacherous guides. 

* Reading amat, ' when/ instead of mun, ' which/ throughout 
the sentence (see note to Chap. I, 7). 


went forth from Varak. 7. So that when it comes 
back to Varak, in three hundred and sixty days and 
the five Gcitha days 1 , it goes in and comes out 
through one and the same aperture ; the aperture is 
not mentioned, for if it had been mentioned the 
demons would have known the secret, and been 
able to introduce disaster. 

8. From there where the sun comes on on the 
longest day to where it comes on on the shortest day 
is the east region Savah ; from there where it comes 
on on the shortest day to where it goes off on the 
shortest day is the direction of the south regions 
Fradaafafsh and Vldadafsh ; from there where it goes 
in on the shortest day to where it goes in on the 
longest day is the west region Arzah ; from there 
where it comes in on the longest day to there where 
it goes in on the longest day are the north regions 
Vortibanst and V6rti£ant 2 . 9. When the sun comes 
on, it illumines (or warms) the regions of Savah, 
Fradadiafsh, Vldadafsh, and half of Khvaniras 3 ; 
when it goes in on the dark side, it illumines the 
regions of Arzah, Vorfibanrt, Vorti^anst, and one 
half of Khvaniras ; when it is day here it is night 

1 The five supplementary days added to the last of the twelve 
months, of thirty days each, to complete the year. For these days 
no additional apertures are provided in Alburn, and the sun appears 
to have the choice of either of the two centre apertures out of the 
180 on each side of the world. This arrangement seems to indi- 
cate that the idea of the apertures is older than the rectification of 
the calendar which added the five Gdtha days to an original year 
of 360 days. 

2 This sentence occurs, without the names of the k6shvars or 
regions, in the Pahl. Vend. XIX, 19. For the keshvars see 
Chap. XI. 

3 Often corrupted into Khaniras in the MSS. 

CHAPTER V, 7 ~VII, I. 25 

Chapter VI. 

1 . On the conflict 1 of the creations of the world 
with the antagonism of the evil spirit it is said in 
revelation, that the evil spirit, even as he rushed in 
and looked upon the pure bravery of the angels and 
his own violence 2 , wished to rush back. 2. The 
spirit of the sky is himself like one of the warriors 
who has put on armour ; he arrayed the sky against 
the evil spirit, and led on in the contest, until 
Atiharmazd had completed a rampart around, 
stronger than the sky and in front of the sky. 
3. And his guardian spirits (fravihar) of warriors 
and the righteous, on war horses and spear in hand, 
were around the sky; such-like as the hair on the 
head is the similitude (inguni-altak) of those who 
hold the watch of the rampart. 4. And no passage 
was found by the evil spirit, who rushed back ; and 
he beheld the annihilation of the demons and his 
own impotence, as Atiharmazd did his own final 
triumph, producing the renovation of the tcniverse 
for ever and everlasting. 

Chapter VII. 
1. The second conflict was waged with the water, 
because, as the star Tfatar was in Cancer, the water 
which is in the subdivision they call Avrak 3 was 

1 This is the doubtful word translated ' attack ' in Chap. V, 6 
(see the note there) ; it also occurs at the beginning of each of the 
following four chapters. 

2 Reading z6rih ; but it may be zurih, ' falsity/ 

3 The ninth lunar mansion (see Chap. II, 3) corresponding with 
the middle of Cancer. Tfatar (Sirius) being in Cancer probably 


pouring, on the same day when the destroyer rushed 
in, and came again into notice for mischief (avctrak) 
in the direction of the west. 2. For every single 
month is the owner of one constellation ; the month 
Tir is the fourth month 1 of the year, and Cancer the 
fourth constellation from Aries, so it is the owner of 
Cancer, into which Ttrtar sprang, and displayed the 
characteristics of a producer of rain ; and he brought 
on the water aloft by the strength of the wind. 
3. Co-operators with Tiitar were Vohilman and 
the angel Horn, with the assistance of the angel 
Btir^* and the righteous guardian spirits in orderly 

4. Tlstar was converted into three forms, the form 
of a man and the form of a horse and the form of a 
bull 2 ; thirty days and nights he was distinguished 
in brilliance 3 , and in each form he produced rain ten 
days and nights ; as the astrologers say that every 
constellation has three forms. 5. Every single drop 
of that rain became as big as a bowl, and the water 
stood the height of a man over the whole of this 
earth ; and the noxious creatures on the earth being 
all killed by the rain, went into the holes of the 
earth 4 . 

means that it rises about the same time as the stars of Cancer, as 
is actually the case. 

1 See Chap. XXV, 20. 

2 See Tfatar Yt. 13, 16, 18, where it is stated that Tlrtar assumes 
the form of a man for the first ten nights, of a bull for the second 
ten nights, and of a horse for the third ten nights. Also in Vend. 
XIX, 126 Tfatar is specially invoked in his form of a bull. 

3 Or it may be translated, ' he hovered in the light/ as Windisch- 
mann and Justi have it. 

* In comparing the inundation produced by Tfatar with the 
Noachian deluge, it must be recollected that the former is repre- 
sented as occurring before mankind had propagated on the earth. 


6. And, afterwards, the wind spirit, so that it may 
not be contaminated (gtimikht), stirs up the wind 
and atmosphere as the life stirs in the body ; and 
the water was all swept away by it, and was brought 
out to the borders of the earth, and the wide-formed 1 
ocean arose therefrom. 7. The noxious creatures 
remained dead within the earth, and their venom 
and stench were mingled with the earth, and in 
order to carry that poison away from the earth 
Tlstar went down into the ocean in the form of a 
white horse with long hoofs 2 . 

8. And Apctosh 3 , the demon, came meeting him 
in the likeness of a black horse with clumsy (kund) 
hoofs; a mile (parasang) 4 away from him fled 
Tistar, through the fright which drove him away. 

9. And Tiitar begged for success from Atiharmazd, 
and Auharmazd gave him strength and power, as it 
is said, that unto Tistar was brought at once the 
strength of ten vigorous horses, ten vigorous camels, 
ten vigorous bulls, ten mountains, and ten rivers 5 . 

10. A mile away from him fled Ap&osh, the demon, 
through fright at his strength ; on account of this 
they speak of an arrow-shot with Tatar's strength in 
the sense of a mile. 

1 The term farakhu-kard; 'wide-formed/ is a free Pahlavi 
translation of Av. vouru-kasha, 'wide-shored/ or ' having wide 
abysses/ applied to the boundless ocean (see Chap. XIII, 1). 

2 For the Avesta account of this expedition of Tfatar, see Tirtar 
Yt. 20-29. 

3 Miswritten Apaw or Apava^ in Pazand, by all MSS. in this 
chapter, but see Chap. XXVIII, 39. 

4 The word parasang is here used for Av. hathra, which was 
about an English mile (see Chap. XXVI, 1). 

5 A quotation from Tirtar Yt. 25. 


ii. Afterwards, with a cloud for a jar (khumb) — 
thus they call the measure which was a means of the 
work — he seized upon the water and made it rain 
most prodigiously, in drops like bull's heads and 
men's heads, pouring in handfuls and pouring in 
armfuls, both great and small. 12. On the produc- 
tion of that rain the demons Aspen^argak l and 
Apaosh contended with it, and the fire V&zLst 2 
turned its club over ; and owing to the blow of the 
club Aspen£*argak made a very grievous noise, as 
even now, in a conflict with the producer of rain, a 
groaning and raging 3 are manifest. 13. And ten 
nights and days rain was produced by him in that 
manner, and the poison and venom of the noxious 
creatures which were in the earth were all mixed up 
in the water, and the water became quite salt, be- 
cause there remained in the earth some of those 
germs which noxious creatures ever collect. 

14. Afterwards, the wind, in the same manner as 
before, restrained the water, at the end of three days, 
on various sides of the earth ; and the three great 
seas and twenty-three small seas 4 arose therefrom, 
and two fountains (Yashmak) of the sea thereby 
became manifest, one the Ae>£ast lake, and one 
the Sovbar 5 , whose sources are connected with the 

1 Mentioned in Vend. XIX, 135, thus: 'thou shouldst propi- 
tiate the fire VazLrta, the smiter of the demon Spen^aghra.' It is 
also written SpSn^argak in Chap. XVII, 1, and Aspen^ar6ga in 
Chap. XXVIII, 39. 

2 That is, the lightning (see Chap. XVII, 1). 

8 Or, ' a tumult and flashing/ Justi has ' howling and shrieking; 7 
the two words being very ambiguous in the original. 

4 See Chap. XIII, 6. 

5 See Chap. XXII, 1-3. 

CHAPTER VII, 1 1 -VIII, 2. 29 

fountain of the sea. 15. And at its north side 1 
two rivers flowed out, and went one to the east and 
one to the west ; they are the Arag river and the 
Veh river; as it is said thus: ' Through those finger- 
breadth tricklings do thou pour and draw forth two 
such waters, O Aliharmazd P 16. Both those rivers 
wind about through all the extremities of the earth, 
and intermingle again with the water of the wide- 
formed ocean. 1 7. As those two rivers flowed out, 
and from the same place of origin as theirs, eigh- 
teen 2 navigable rivers flowed out, and after the 
other waters have flowed out from those navigable 
streams they all flow back to the Arag 3 river and 
Veh river, whose fertilization (khvdpard&rfh) of 
the world arises therefrom. 

Chapter VIII. 

o. On the conflict which the evil spirit waged with 
the earth. 

1. As the evil spirit rushed in, the earth shook 4 , 
and the substance of mountains was created in the 
earth. 2. First, Mount Albftre arose; afterwards, 

1 Probably meaning the north side of the Ar6dvivsur fountain 
of the sea, which is said to be on the lofty Hugar, a portion of 
Alburn, from the northern side of which these two semi-mythical 
rivers are said to flow (see Chaps. XII, 5, XX, 1). 

2 See Chap. XX, 2. 

3 Here written Ar6ng, but the usual Pahlavi reading is Arag ; 
the nasal of the Av. Rangha being generally omitted in Pahlavi, as 
other nasals are sometimes; thus we often find sag for sang, 
' stone.' 

4 The word gudnid is a transposition of gundid, a graphical 
variant of ^unbid, ' shook/ 


the other ranges of mountains (kof&nihi) of the 
middle of the earth ; for as Albtire grew forth all 
the mountains remained in motion, for they have all 
grown forth from the root of Albftre. 3. At that 
time they came up from the earth, like a tree which 
has grown up to the clouds and its root 1 to the 
bottom; and their root passed on that way from one 
to the other, and they are arranged in mutual con- 
nection. 4. Afterwards, about that wonderful shak- 
ing out from the earth, they say that a great moun- 
tain is the knot of lands ; and the passage for the 
waters within the mountains is the root which is 
below the mountains ; they forsake the upper parts 
so that they may flow into it, just as the roots of 
trees pass into the earth; a counterpart (anguni- 
aitak) of the blood in the arteries of men, which 
gives strength to the whole body. 5. In numbers 2 , 
apart from Albfira 1 , all the mountains grew up out of 
the earth in eighteen years 3 , from which arises the 
perfection 4 of mens advantage. 

Chapter IX. 

1. The conflict waged with plants was that when 5 
they became quite dry. 2. Ameroda^ the arch- 

1 M6 has raMk, but this and many other strange words are 
probably due to the copyist of that MS. having an original before 
him which was nearly illegible in many places. 

2 Or, 'as it were innumerable ; ' the word amar meaning both 
' number ' and ' innumerable.' 

3 See Chap. XII, 1. 

4 The word must be farh&khtag&n, 'proprieties/ both here and 
in Chap. IX, 6, as farhdkhti^n is an ungrammatical form. 

5 Reading amat, ' when/ instead of mun, ' which ' (see the note 
to Chap. I, 7). 


angel, as the vegetation was his own, pounded the 
plants small, and mixed them up with the water 
which Ttrtar seized, and TLstar made that water rain 
down upon the whole earth. 3. On the whole earth 
plants grew up like hair upon the heads of men. 
4. Ten thousand 1 of them grew forth of one special 
description, for keeping away the ten thousand 
species of disease which the evil spirit produced for 
the creatures; and from those ten thousand, the 
100,000 species 2 of plants have grown forth. 

5. From that same germ of plants the tree of all 
germs 3 was given forth, and grew up in the wide- 
formed ocean, from which the germs of all species of 
plants ever increased. 6. And near to that tree of 
all germs the Gokan/tree 4 was produced, for keeping 
away deformed (dtisparf) decrepitude; and the full 
perfection of the world arose therefrom. 

Chapter X. 

0. On the conflict waged with the primeval ox. 

1. As it passed away 6 , owing to the vegetable 
principle (ifharak) proceeding from every limb of 
the ox, fifty and five species of grain 6 and twelve 
species of medicinal plants grew forth from the 
earth, and their splendour and strength were the 

1 See Chap. XXVII, 2. 

2 Here 120,000 are mentioned, but see Chap. XXVII, 2, and 
Selections of Za</-sparam, VIII, 2. 

3 Or, 'of all seeds' (see Chap. XVIII, 9). 

4 The white-Horn tree (see Chaps. XVIII, 1-6, XXVII, 4). 

5 See Chap. IV, 1. 6 See Chaps. XIV, 1, XXVII, 2. 


seminal energy (t 6 kh ml h) of the ox. 2. Delivered 
to the moon station 1 , that seed was thoroughly puri- 
fied by the light of the moon, fully prepared in 
every way, and produced life in a body. 3. Thence 
arose two oxen, one male and one female ; and, 
afterwards, two hundred and eighty-two species of 
each kind 2 became manifest upon the earth. 4. The 
dwelling (m&nist) of the birds is in the air, and the 
fish are in the midst of the water. 

Chapter XI. 

1. On the nature of the earth it says in revela- 
tion, that there are thirty and three kinds 3 of land. 
2. On the day when Tfotar produced the rain, when 
its seas arose therefrom, the whole place, half taken 
up by water, was converted into seven portions; 
this portion 4 , as much as one-half, is the middle, 
and six portions are around; those six portions 
are together as much as Khvanlras. 3. The name 

1 See Chap. XIV, 3. In the Mah Yt. o, 7, blessings are in- 
voked for 'the moon of ox lineage' (gao/fcithra) in conjunction 
with the ' sole-created ox and the ox of many species/ In the 
Avesta the gender of these two primeval oxen appears doubtful, 
owing probably to the dual gen. masc. of their epithets being of the 
same form as a sing. gen. fern. 

2 That is, of each sex. See Chap. XIV, 13, 27. In all three 
occurrences of this number K20 has 272, but all other MSS. have 
282 (except M6 in this place only). 

3 K2ob has ' thirty- two kinds.' 

* That is, Khvantras; or it may be 'one portion/ as hana, 
'this/ is often used for a 6, 'one/ because the Pazand form of 
both words is e. 

CHAPTER X, 2 -XI, 5. 33 

keshvar ('zone or region ') is also applied to them, 
and they existed side by side (kash kash) 1 ; as on 
the east side of this portion (Khvaniras) is the 
Savah region, on the west is the Arzah region ; the 
two portions on the south side are the Frada^/afsh 
and Vldadafsh regions, the two portions on the north 
side are the Vorubarrt and Vorti^ant regions, and 
that in the middle is Khvantras. 4. And Khvanfras 
has the sea, for one part of the wide-formed ocean 
wound about around it ; and from Vorubarst and 
VdrA^arct a lofty mountain grew up ; so that it is 
not possible for any one to go from region to 
region 2 . 

5. And of these seven regions every benefit was 
created most in Khvaniras, and the evil spirit also 
produced most for Khvanfras, on account of the 
superiority (sarih) 3 which he saw in it. 6. For the 
Kayanians and heroes were created in Khvaniras ; 
and the good religion of the Mazdayasnians was 
created in Khvaniras, and afterwards conveyed to 
the other regions ; Soshyans 4 is born in Khvaniras, 
who makes the evil spirit impotent, and causes the 
resurrection and future existence. 

1 Possibly an attempt to connect the term k6shvar with kash; 
but the sentence may also be translated thus : ' and they formed 
various districts like this portion ; on the east side is the Savah 
region/ &c. 

2 In the Pahlavi Vend. I, 4a, and in the Mainyo-i-khan/, IX, 6, 
it is added, ' except with the permission of the angels ' or the 

3 So in M6 ; but K20 has za^arih, which would imply, ' for the 
destruction of what he saw of it/ 

4 Always spelt so in the BundahLr MSS. K20 and M6, and 
corrupted into Soshyos in Pazand ; but it is more usually written 
Soshans in other Pahlavi works, and its Avesta form is Saoshyas 
(see Chap. XXXII, 8). 

[5] D 


Chapter XII. 

i . On the nature of mountains it says in revela- 
tion, that, at first, the mountains have grown forth 
in eighteen years ; and AlMre ever grew till the 
completion of eight hundred years; two hundred 
years up to the star station (p&yak), two hundred 
years to the moon station, two hundred years to the 
sun station, and two hundred years to the endless 
light 1 . 2. While the other mountains have grown 
out of AlMr^, in number 2244 mountains, and are 
Hfigar the lofty 2 , T£rak of Albtir*, i^aka^-i-Diftik, 
and the Are^tir ridge, the Ausindom mountain, 
Mount Aparseh which they say is the mountain of 
Pars, Mount Zand also which is Mount Mantis, 
Mount Aira/£, Mount Kaf, Mount Vadg6s, Mount 
Afishdaitar, Mount Are^tir-Mm, Mount R6yLm- 
homand, Mount Padashkhv&rgar which is the 
greatest in Khvirlh, the mountain which they call 
TSfino, Mount Revand, Mount D&rspet the Bakyir 
mountain, Mount Kabed-rikaft, Mount Siyak-mtii- 
mand, Mount Vafar-homand, Mount Spendya^ and 
Kondr&sp, Mount Asnavand and Kondras, Mount 

1 These are the four grades of the Mazdayasnian heaven. 

2 In all the geographical details, mentioned in the BundahLr, 
there is a strange mixture of mythical tradition with actual fact. 
The author of the work finds names mentioned in the Avesta, by 
old writers of another country, and endeavours to identify them 
with places known to himself; much in the same way as attempts 
have been made to identify the geographical details of the garden 
of Eden. Most of the names of these mountains occur in the 
Zamyad Ya^t, or in other parts of the Avesta, as will be noticed 
in detail further on. The number 2244 is also mentioned in § 7 
of that Yast. A very able commentary on this chapter will be 
found in Windischmann's Zoroastriche Studien, pp. 1-19. 

CHAPTER XII, 1-6. 35 

SL£idav l , a mountain among those which are in 
Kangde^ 2 , of which they say that they are a comfort 
and delight of the good creator, the smaller hills. 

3. I will mention them also a second time ; Al- 
\Axz 3 is around this earth and is connected with the 
sky. 4. The Terak 4 of AlMre is that through 
which the stars, moon, and sun pass 5 in, and 
through it they come back. 5. Htigar the lofty 6 is 
that from which the water of Aredvivstir 7 leaps 
down the height of a thousand men. 6. The Au- 
sfndom 8 mountain is that which, being of ruby 

1 The Av. Si&dava of Zamy&d Yt. 5. 

2 See Chap. XXIX, 4, 10; the name is here written Kandes in 
K20. In M6 the word is kof, ' mountain/ which is almost iden- 
tical in form ; if this be the correct reading, the translation will be, 
' a mountain among those in the mountain which they say is agree- 
able and the delight/ &c. This mountain is, however, probably 
intended for the Av. A^tare-kangha, ' within Kangha/ of Zamyad 

Yt. 4. 

3 The Haraiti-bare.? of Zamyad Yt. 1 ; but it is more usually 
called Hara berezaiti (see Chap. V, 3). 

4 A central peak of the mythic Alburs, around which the heavenly 
bodies are said to revolve (see Chap. V, 3). It is the Av. TaSra, 
mentioned in Yas. XLI, 24, R&m Yt. 7, Zamy&d Yt. 6. 

5 So in M6, but K20 has 'go in.' 

6 This appears to be another peak of the mythic Alburn, pro- 
bably in the west, as it is connected with Satav^s, the western chief- 
tain of the constellations (see Chaps. XXIV, 17, and II, 7). It is 
the Av. Hukairya berez6, of Yas. LXIV, 14, AMn Yt. 3, 25, 96, G6j 
Yt. 8, Mihir Yt. 88, RashnuYt. 24, FravardinYt. 6, R&mYt. 15. 

7 See Chap. XIII, 3-5. 

8 In Auharmazd Yt. 31 and Zamyad Yt. 2, 66, an Ushidh&o 
mountain is mentioned as having many mountain waters around it, 
but this seems to be a near neighbour of the Ushidarena mountain 
(see § 15). The details in the text correspond with the description 
of the Hindva mountain, given in Tfatar Yt. 32, thus : usHindva^ 
paiti gardid yd rmtaiti maidhim zrayangh6 vouru-kashahe, 
' up on the Hindva mountain, which stands amid the wide-shored 

D 2 

36 BUNDAHIff. 

(khun-ahino), of the substance of the sky 1 , is in 
the midst of the wide-formed ocean, so that its 
water, which is from Hugar, pours down into it (the 
ocean). 7. A"aka^-i-Da!tfk ('the judicial peak') is 
that of the middle of the world, the height of a hun- 
dred men, on which the iTinvar bridge 2 stands ; and 
they take account of the soul at that place. 8. The 
Are^fir 3 ridge [of the Alburn mountain] is a summit 
at the gate of hell, where they always hold the con- 
course of the demons. 9. This also is said, that, 
excepting Albftrs, the Aparsen 4 mountain is the 

ocean;' and the Pahlavi name, Ausind6m, has probably arisen from 
the us Hind vat/ of this passage, as suggested by Justi. (See 
Chaps. XIII, 5, and XVIII, 10, 11.) 

1 The sky is considered to be a true firmament, or hard and 
indestructible dome. 

2 The iTinvato-peretu of the Avesta, mentioned even in the 
Gathas. In the Pahlavi Vend. XIX, 101, it is stated that 'they 
pass across by the K'mx&d bridge, whose two extremities are their 
own heavenly angels, one stands at iTaka^-i-Daitik, and one at 
Alburs ; ' the former mountain seems not to be mentioned in the 
Avesta, but the bridge is the path of the soul to the other world ; 
if righteous the soul passes by it easily over Alburn (the confines 
of this world) into paradise, but if wicked it drops off the bridge 
into hell. 

8 See Vend. Ill, 23, XIX, 140. The words in brackets may 
perhaps be inserted by mistake, but they occur in all MSS. exa- 
mined, -and there is nothing inconsistent with tradition in supposing 
Arezur to be the extreme northern range of the mythic Alburs 
which surrounds the earth, being the place where demons chiefly 

4 Justi adopts the reading Harpars^n, which occurs in K20 four 
times out of eleven, but is corrected thrice. Windischmann suggests 
that this mountain is the Av. ^kyata (or ijkatst) upairi-saSna of 
Yas. X, 29, and Zamyad Yt. 3, which the Pahlavi translator of the 
Yasna explains as 'the Parsen crag/ It seems to be a general 
name for the principal mountain ranges in the south and east of 
Iran, as may be seen on comparing this passage and Chap. XXIV, 

CHAPTER XII, 7-15. 37 

greatest; the Apirsen mountain they call the 
mountain of P&rs, and its beginning is in Sagastdn l 
and its end in Khi^fistan. 10. Mount Mantis 1 2 is 
great ; the mountain on which Mantlsv£ihar was 

1 1. The remaining mountains have chiefly grown 
from those; as it is said that the elevation (afsarih) 
of the districts had arisen most around those three 
mountains 3 . 12. Mount Aira^ 4 is in the middle 
from Hamadan to Khvarkem, and has grown from 
Mount Aparsen. 13. Mount [Kino] 5 , which is on its 
east, on the frontier of Turkfst&n, is connected also 
with Ap&rsen. 14. Mount Kaf 6 has grown from 
the same Mount Aparsen. 15. Mount Aushdl?- 

28, with Chap. XX, 16, 17, 21, 22, where the Haro, H6tumand, 
Marv, and Balkh rivers are said to spring from Mount Aparsen ; 
but its application to the southern range is perhaps due to the 
etymological attempt, in the text, to connect it with Pars. The 
Selections of Za</-sparam, VII, 7, have iTinistan for Khu^istan. 

1 This name can also be read Sistan. 

2 In § 2 it is also called Zari^, but in Zamyad Yt. 1 Zeredho and 
Aredho-manusha are mentioned as neighbouring mountains. The 
word ' great ' is omitted in M6. 

8 That is, around the ranges of Alburn, AparsSn, and Mdnui\ 

4 Perhaps intended for the Erezish6 of Zamyad Yt. 2. The de- 
scription would apply to any of the mountains near NMpur. 

5 This name is omitted in the MSS., but is taken from § 2 as 
suggested by Justi. Perhaps it may be connected with ' the country 
of Seni' (Chap. XV, 29), which is explained as being ^inist&n, 
probably the land of Samarkand, which place was formerly called 
^Tin, according to a passage in some MSS. of Tabarfs Chronicle, 
quoted in Ouseley's Oriental Geography, p. 298. 

6 Not Kaf, nor is it mentioned in the Pahlavi Vend. V, 57, as 
supposed by Justi ; the k&f kop aray &d of Spiegel's edition of the 
Pahlavi text being a misprint for kafako par ay a*/, ' it traverses a 
fissure' (see Haug's Essays, 2nd ed. p. 326, note 2). 


t&r 1 is in Sagast&n. 16. Mount Areolar 2 is that 
which is in the direction of Arum. 1 7. The Padash- 
khv&rgar 3 mountain is that which is in Taparistcin 
and the side of Gildn. 18. The Revand 4 mountain 
is in Khurasan 6 , on which the Bur^ln fire 6 was esta- 
blished ; and its name Revand means this, that it is 
glorious. 19. The V&dg&s 7 mountain is that which 
is on the frontier of the Va^gesians ; that quarter is 
full of timber and full of trees. 20. The Bakytr 8 
mountain is that which Fr^siya^ of Tur used as a 
stronghold, and he made his residence within it; 
and in the days of Yim & a myriad towns and cities 
were erected on its pleasant and prosperous ter- 
ritory. 21. Mount Kabed-iikaft 10 (' very rugged ') 

1 The Av. Ushi-darena of Yas. I, 41, II, £4, III, £5, IV, 45, 
XXII, 31, XXV, 22, Auharmazd Yt. 31, Zamyad Yt. o, 2, 97. 

2 Called Arezur-bum in § 2, which name stands for the sixth 
and seventh mountains, Erezur6 and Bumyo, in Zamyad Yt. 2. 
The land of Arum was the eastern empire of the Romans. 

3 Evidently the mountain range south of the Caspian, now called 
Alburn ; but whether this actual Alburn is to be considered a part 
of the mythic Alburn is not very clear. 

4 The Av. RaSwzus, 'shining/ of Zamyad Yt. 6. It is also 
called the Ridge of VLrtasp (see § 34). 

5 Or, 'the east/ 6 See Chap. XVII, 8. 

7 The Av. Vaiti-ga£s6, the twelfth mountain in Zamyad Yt. 2 ; 
BadghSs in Persian. 

8 In § 2 it is Bakyir, which Justi thinks is another name for 
Mount Darsp6t (' white poplar ') ; the latter name not being re- 
peated here makes this supposition probable. 

a K20 has rum and M6 has lanman, but both explained by 
the Paz. gloss Yim, which is also the reading of the Paz. MSS. If 
the gloss be rejected the most probable translation would be, ' and 
in our days Shatr6-r&m (or ramlm), the victorious, erected on it a 
myriad towns and cities.' 

1& Windischmann suggests that this may be intended for the Av. 
jkyata or ukatd mentioned in the note on Aparsen in § 9. 

CHAPTER XII, 16-28. 39 

is that in Pars, out of the same Mount Apirs£n. 
22. Mount Sty&k-homand ('being black') and Mount 
Vafar-homand ('having snow') 1 , as far as their 
Kivul borders, have grown out of it (Ap&rsen) 
towards the direction of Kixvo. 23. The Spend- 
y&d 2 mountain is in the circuit (var) of Revand 3 . 
24. The Kondrasp 4 mountain, on the summit of 
which is Lake S6vbar 5 , is in the district (or by the 
town) of Tils. 25. The Kondras 6 mountain is in 
Airan-ve^". 26. The Asnavand 1 mountain is in 
Ataro-patakdn. 27. The Royisn-homand 8 (' having 
growth ') mountain is that on which vegetation has 

28. Whatever 9 mountains are those which are in 
every place of the various districts and various 

1 The Av. Syamaka and Vafraymi of Zamyad Yt. 5 ; and pro- 
bably the Siyah-koh and Safed-koh of Afghanistan. With regard 
to ^ino, see the note on § 13. The former mountain is called 
Siyak-mui-mand, ' having black hair,' in § 2, which is certainly a 
more grammatical form than Siyak-homand. 

2 The Av. Spezzto-data of Zamyad Yt. 6. 

8 The term var often means Make/ but we are not informed of 
any Lake R6vand, though a mountain of that name is described in 
§ 18 ; so it seems advisable to take var here in its wider sense of 
* enclosure, circuit, district/ 

4 The Av. Kadrva-aspa of Zamyad Yt. 6. 

B See Chap. XXII, 3. All MSS. have Sobar here. 

6 If the circumflex be used in Pahlavi to indicate not only the 
consonant d, but also the vowel i, 6 when it follows a vowel, as 
seems probable, this name can be read Koiras ; in any case, it is 
evidently intended for the Av. Kaoirisa in Zamyad Yt. 6. It is 
written Kondras in § 2. 

7 The Av. Asnavau of Zamydd Yt. 5, Atash Nyay. 5, Siroz. 9. 
See also Chape XVII, 7. 

8 The Av. Raoidhito, the eighth mountain of Zamy&d Yt. 2. 

9 So in M6 and the Paz. MSS., but K20 has, * The country 


countries, and cause the tillage and prosperity there- 
in, are many in name and many in number, and 
have grown from these same mountains. 29. As 
Mount Ganavaaf, Mount Asparq^*, Mount Pahargar, 
Mount Dimavand, Mount Ravak, Mount Zarin, 
Mount Gesbakht, Mount Dava^/, Mount Mf^*in, and 
Mount Marak 1 9 which have all grown from Mount 
Aparsen, of which the other mountains are enume- 
rated. 30. For the Dava^/ 2 mountain has grown 
into Khfi^tstan likewise from the Aparsen mountain. 
31. The Dimavand 3 mountain is that in which 
Bevar&sp is bound. 32. From the same Padashkh- 
vargar mountain unto Mount Kumfr 4 , which they 
call Mount Madofrya</ (' Come-to-help ') — that in 
which VLstasp routed Ar^asp — is Mount Miyan-i- 
clait ('mid-plain') 5 , and was broken off from that 
mountain there. 33. They say, in the war of the reli- 
gion, when there was confusion among the Iranians 
it broke off from that mountain, and slid down into 
the middle of the plain ; the Iranians were saved by 

1 This list is evidently intended to include the chief mountains 
known to the author of the BundahLy, which he could not identify 
with any of those mentioned in the Avesta. 

2 This is the Pazand reading of the name, on which very little 
reliance can be placed ; the Pahlavi can also be read Danaa 7 , and it 
may be the Deana mountain, 12,000 feet high, near Ka^ki-zard. 

3 See Chap. XXIX, 9. This volcanic mountain, about 20,000 
feet high and near Teheran, still retains this ancient Persian name, 
meaning ' wintry.' It is the chief mountain of the Padashkhvargar 
range, which the Bundahis* evidently considers as an offshoot of 
the Aparsen ranges. 

4 The present name of a mountain between NMpur and the 

5 The name of a place about midway between Astarabad and 
Nlrapur. This mountain is called Mi^in in § 29, probably from a 
place called Mezinan in the same neighbourhood. 

CHAPTER XII, 2 9 -XIII, I. 4 1 

it, and it was called ' Come-to-help ' by them. 34. 
The Gandva^/ 1 mountain is likewise there, on the 
Ridge of Virtisp (pu^t-i Vi^tispdn) 2 at the abode 
of the Btirdn-Mitro fire, nine leagues (parasang) to 
the west. 35. Ravak Bfoan 3 is in Zravaka^f; this 
place, some say, is Zravaaf, some call it Bfoan, some 
Kalak ; from this the road of two sides of the moun- 
tain is down the middle of a fortress ; for this reason, 
that is, because it is there formed, they call Kalak 
a fortress ; this place they also call within the land 
of Sarak. 36. Mount Asparo^" 4 is established from 
the country of Lake Ae/£ast 5 unto Pars. 37. Pahar- 
gar ('the Pahar range') is in Khurasan. 38. Mount 
Marak 6 is in L&r&n. 39. Mount Zarin is in Tiirkis- 
tan. 40. Mount Bakht-tan 7 is in Spihan. 

41. The rest, apart from this enumeration, which 
they reckon as fostering hills of the country in the 
religion of the Mazdayasnians, are the small hills, 
those which have grown piecemeal in places. 

Chapter XIII. 

1. On the nature of seas it says in revelation, that 
the wide-formed ocean keeps one-third of this earth 
on the south side of the border of Alburn 8 , and so 

1 The Pers. Kanabad, or Gunabad, is near (jrumin. 

2 Another name for Mount Revand (§ 18). See Chap. XVII, 8. 

3 Probably in Kirman. 

4 The mountain ranges of western Persia, including the Mount 
Zagros of classical writers. 

5 See Chap. XXII, 2. 

6 Probably the Merkhinah range in northern Laristan. 

7 The Bakhtiyari range in the province of Ispahan. 

8 Or perhaps better < thus : ' the wide-formed ocean is in the 


wide-formed is the ocean that the water of a thou- 
sand lakes is held by it, such as the source Aredviv- 
sftr 1 , which some say is the fountain lake. 2. Every 
particular lake is of a particular kind 2 , some are 
great, and some are small ; some are so large that 
a man with a horse might compass them around in 
forty days 3 , which is 1700 leagues (paras ang) in 

3. Through the warmth and clearness of the 
water, purifying more than other waters, everything 
continually flows from the source Aredvivsftr. 4. At 
the south of Mount Albtire a hundred thousand 
golden channels are there formed, and that water 
goes with warmth and clearness, through the chan- 
nels, on to Hugar the lofty 4 ; on the summit of that 
mountain is a lake 5 ; into that lake it flows, becomes 
quite purified, and comes back through a different 
golden channel. 5. At the height of a thousand 
men an open golden branch from that channel is 
connected with Mount Atisindom 6 amid the wide- 
formed ocean ; from there one portion flows forth to 
the ocean for the purification of the sea, and one 
portion drizzles in moisture upon the whole of this 
earth, and all the creations of Auharmazd acquire 

direction of the south limit of Alburn, and possesses one-third of 
this earth.' 

1 The Av. Ardvi sura of Aban Yt. 1, &c. 

2 Literally, 'for every single lake there is a single kind;' but 
we may perhaps read la, 'not/ instead of the very similar rai, 
' for/ and translate as follows : ' every single lake is not of one 
kind;' which expresses very nearly the same meaning. 

8 Compare Aban Yt. 101. 

4 See Chap. XII, 5. 

5 Lake Urvis (see Chap. XXII, 11). 

6 See Chaps. XII, 6, and XVIII, 10, n. 

CHAPTER XIII, 2-1 1. 43 

health from it, and it dispels the dryness of the 

6. Of the salt seas three are principal, and twenty- 
three are small. 7. Of the three which are principal, 
one is the Ptitik, one the Kamrfo/, and one the 
.Sahi-Mn. 8. Of all three the Putik l is the largest, 
in which is a flow and ebb, on the same side as the 
wide-formed ocean, and it is joined to the wide- 
formed ocean. 9. Amid this wide-formed ocean, on 
the Ptitik side, it has a sea which they call the Gulf 
(var) of Sataves 2 . 10. Thick and salt the stench 3 
wishes to go from the sea Putik to the wide-formed 
ocean; with a mighty high wind therefrom, the Gulf 
of Sataves drives away whatever is stench, and 
whatever is pure and clean goes into the wide- 
formed ocean and the source Ar^dvivstar ; and that 
flows back a second time to Ptitik 4 . 11. The con- 
trol 5 of this sea (the Pfitik) is connected with the 

1 The Av. Puitika of Vend. V, 52, 57, and evidently the Persian 

2 So called from the constellation SatavSs (§ 12), see Chap. II, 7. 
The details given in the text are applicable to the Gulf and Sea 
of 'Uman, the Arabian Sea of Europeans. The description of 
this Gulf, given in the Pahl. Vend. V, 57, which is rather obscure, 
is as follows: 'In purification the impurities flow, in the purity 
of water, from the sea Putik into the wide-formed ocean ; at the 
southernmost side the water stands back in mist, and the blue body 
of SatavSs stands back around it. Putik stands out from the side 
of Satav6s, this is where /'/ is. From which side it stands is not 
clear to me. The water comes to Sataves through the bottom ; 
some say that it traverses a fissure/ 

3 Perhaps a better reading would be sturg sur-i gondakih, 
' the intense saltness which is stench/ The author appears to have 
had some vague idea of the monsoon. 

4 Or, perhaps, ' the other (the stench) flows back to Putik/ 

5 Reading band; but it may be bod, 'consciousness, sensi- 


moon and wind ; it comes again and goes down, in 
increase and decrease, because of her revolving. 
12. The control 1 also of the Gulf of Sataves is 
attached to the constellation Sataves, in whose pro- 
tection are the seas of the southern quarter, just as 
those on the northern side are in the protection of 
Haptok-ring 2 . 13. Concerning the flow and ebb it 
is said, that everywhere from the presence of the 
moon two winds continually blow, whose abode is in 
the Gulf of Sataves, one they call the down-draught, 
and one the up-draught; when the up-draught blows 
it is the flow, and when the down-draught blows it 
is the ebb 3 . 14. In the other seas there is nothing 
of the nature of a revolution of the moon therein, 
and there are no flow and ebb. 15. The sea of 
KamrtW 4 is that which they pass by, in the north, 
in Taparistan ; that of .Sahi-bun 5 is in Artim. 

16. Of the small seas that which was most whole- 

1 See p. 43, note 5. 

2 See Chap. II, 7. 

3 This is not a confused attempt to explain the tides as the effect 
of the land and sea breezes, as might be suspected at first, but is a 
reasonable conclusion from imaginary facts. Assuming that the 
wind always blows eastward and westward from the moon, it fol- 
lows that as the moon rises an easterly wind must blow, which may 
be supposed to drive the flood tide westward into the Persian Gulf; 
until the moon passes the meridian, when the wind, changing to 
the west, ought to drive the ebb tide eastward out of the Gulf, 
thus accounting for one flow and ebb every day, dependent on the 
position of the moon. 

4 Evidently the Caspian, which lies north of Taparistan, a pro- 
vince including part of Mazendaran. 

5 Or perhaps (^ahi-bun, meaning probably the Mediterranean or 
Euxine, if not both of them ; the author appears merely to have 
heard of the existence of such a sea in Asia Minor (Arum). In the 
Selections of Za^-sparam, VI, 14, it is called G6han-bun. 

CHAPTER XIII, 12 -XIV, 2. 45 

some 1 was the sea Kyansih 2 , such as is in Sagas- 
tan ; at first, noxious creatures, snakes, and lizards 
(vazagh) were not in it, and the water was 
sweeter than in any of the other seas; later (da^l- 
gar) it became salt ; at the closest, on account of the 
stench, it is not possible to go so near as one league, 
so very great are the stench and saltness through the 
violence of the hot wind. 1 7. When the renovation 
of the universe occurs it will again become sweet 3 . 

Chapter XIV. 

1. On the nature of the five classes of animals 
(g6spend) it says in revelation, that, when the 
primeval ox passed away 4 , there where the marrow 
came out grain grew up 5 of fifty and five species, 
and twelve 6 species of medicinal plants grew ; as it 
says, that out of the marrow is every separate crea- 
ture, every single thing whose lodgment is in the 
marrow 7 . 2. From the horns arose peas (mt^uk), 

1 Comparing nistum with Pers. ni^t, c healthy.' 

2 The Av. Kasu of Vend. XIX, 18, and Zamyad Yt. 66, 92 (see 
also Chaps. XX, 34, and XXI, 7). A brackish lake and swamp now 
called Hamun, ' the desert/ or Zarah, ' the sea/ and which formerly 
contained fresher water than it does now. 

3 The MSS. here add the first sentence of Chap. XX, and 
there is every reason to believe that Chaps. XX-XXII originally 
occupied this position, between XIII and XIV, (see the list of the 
contents of TD in the Introduction.) 

4 See Chaps. IV, 1, and X, 1. 

5 All MSS. have lakhvar, ' again/ but this is probably a blunder 
for lala, ' up/ 

6 K20 has 'fifteen' here, but ' twelve ' in Chaps. X, 1, and 
XXVII, 2. 

7 K20 has 'of every single thing the lodgment is in the 


from the nose the leek, from the blood the grape- 
vine 1 from which they make wine — on this account 
wine abounds with blood — from the lungs the rue- 
like herbs, from the middle of the heart 2 thyme for 
keeping away stench, and every one of the others 
as revealed in the Avesta. 

3. The seed of the ox was carried up to the moon 
station 3 ; there it was thoroughly purified, and pro- 
duced the manifold species of animals 4 . 4. First, 
two oxen, one male and one female, and, afterwards, 
one pair of every single species was let go into the 
earth, and was discernible in Mx§M-v&g for a Hasar 
(' mile '), which is like a Parasang (' league ; ) 5 ; as it 
says, that, on account of the valuableness of the ox, 
it was created twice, one time as an ox, and one 
time as the manifold species of animals. 5. A thou- 
sand days and nights they were without eating, and 
first water and afterwards herbage (aftrvar) were 
devoured by them. 

6. And, afterwards, the three classes (kar^ak) of 
animals were produced therefrom, as it says that 
first were the goat and sheep, and then the camel 

1 Probably ka^uk-i raz may mean ' the pumpkin and grape/ 

2 Reading dil; but the word may also be read sar, 'the head/ 
or jigar, 'the liver/ 

3 See Chap. X, 2. 

4 This translation suits both text and context very well, but 
g6spend pur-sar^/ak is evidently intended for the Av. gauj 
pouru-saredho, 'the ox of many species/ of Mah Yt. o, 7, and 
Sir6z. 12. 

5 Reading mun a6 parasang hum&nak; if 3 be read for a§ 
the translation must be, ' three of which are like a Parasang/ for 
a Hasar cannot be equal to three Parasangs (see Chaps. XVI, 7, 
and XXVI). The phrase in the text probably means merely that 
a Hasar is a measure for long distances, just as a Parasang is. 

CHAPTER XIV, 3-I3. 47 

and swine, and then the horse and ass. 7. For, 
first, those suitable for grazing were created there- 
from, those are now kept in the valley (Id!) ; the 
second created were those of the hill summits (sar- 
i de^) x , which are wide-travellers, and habits (nihd- 
dak) are not taught to them by hand ; the third 
created were those dwelling in the water. 

8. As for the genera (khadtiinak), the first genus 
is that which has the foot cloven in two, and is suit- 
able for grazing ; of which a camel larger than a 
horse is small and new-born. 9. The second genus 
is ass-footed, of which the swift 2 horse is the largest, 
and the ass the least. 10. The third genus is that 
of the .five-dividing paw, of which the dog is the 
largest, and the civet-cat the least, 11. The fourth 
genus is the flying, of which the griffon of three 
natures 3 is the largest, and the chaffinch 4 the least. 
12. The fifth genus is that of the water, of which 
the Kar fish 5 is the largest, and the Nemadu 6 the 

13. These five genera are apportioned out into 

1 Justi reads girisa£, the Av. gairisM£6, ' mountain-frequent- 
ing/ of Tfatar Yt. 36 ; but this is doubtful. 

2 Pahl. zibaT = Pers. zibai. 

8 The P&z. sin-i se avind is the Pahl. sen-i 3 khaduinak of 
Chap. XXIV, 11, 29, the Sin bird or Simurgh of Persian legends, 
the Av. sa6na. The word avind is a Paz. misreading either of 
Srnak, 'kind, sort/ or of ang-an&k, 'dividing/ The mixture of 
Pdzand and Pahlavi in this and some other chapters is rather per- 
plexing, but the P£zand misreadings can usually be corrected after 
transliterating them back into Pahlavi characters. 

4 Reading va taru (Pers. tar). 

6 See Chaps. XVIII, 3, and XXIV, 13. 

6 If this Pdzand word be written in Pahlavi letters it may be 
read va mag an, which may stand for va magil, ' and the leech; 1 
but this is very uncertain. 


two hundred and eighty-two x species (saraTak). 
14. First are five species of goat, the ass-goat 2 , the 
milch-goat, the mountain-goat, the fawn, and the 
common goat. 15. Second, five species of sheep, 
that with a tail, that which has no tail, the dog- 
sheep, the wether, and the Kftrisk sheep, a sheep 
whose horn is great ; it possesses a grandeur 3 like 
unto a horse, and they use it mostly for a steed 
(bara), as it is said that Manu^ihar kept a Kumk 
as a steed. 16. Third, two species of camel, the 
mountain one and that suitable for grazing ; for one 
is fit to keep in the mountain, and one in the plain ; 
they are one-humped and two-humped. 1 7. Fourth, 
fifteen species of ox, the white, mud-coloured 4 , red, 
yellow, black, and dappled, the elk, the buffalo, 
the camel-leopard ox, the fish-chewing 5 ox, the 
Fans' ox, the Ka^tfu, and other species of ox. 
18. Fifth, eight species of horse, the Arab, the 
Persian, the mule 6 , the ass, the wild ass (gor), the 
hippopotamus (asp-i &vi), and other species of 
horse. 19. Sixth, ten species of dog, the shepherd's 
dog, the village-dog which is the house-protector, 
the blood-hound, the slender hound 7 , the water- 

1 K20 alone has 272 (see Chap. X, 3). 

2 The khar-buz (see Chap. XXIV, 2). 

3 Supposing se koh to be a Paz. misreading of Pahl. jukuh. 
Justi's translation is : ' it inhabits the three mountains^ like the 

4 P&z. ashgun is evidently for Pahl. ha^gun. 

6 Transcribing the Paz. mahi khu ushan into Pahlavi it may 
be read ma,hika,n-khvashsin (khashan?). 

6 Instead of these first three species M6 has ' the white, black, 
yellow, bay, and chestnut/ K20 omits 'the ass' by mistake. 

7 These first four species are the Av. pasu.r-haurvd, vis- 
haurvo, vohunazgo, and tauruno of Vend. V, 92-98, XIII, 
21, 26-74, 117, 164, 165. 

CHAPTER XIV, 14-2 2. 49 

beaver 1 which they call the water-dog, the fox, the 
ichneumon (, the hedgehog which they call 
' thorny-back/ the porcupine 2 , and the civet-cat ; of 
which, two species are those accustomed 3 to bur- 
rows, one the fox and one the ichneumon; and those 
accustomed to jungle are such as the porcupine 
which has spines on its back, and the hedgehog 
which is similar. 20. Seventh, five species of the 
black 4 hare; two are wild species, one dwelling 
in a burrow 5 and one dwelling in the jungle. 
21. Eighth, eight species of weasel; one the mar- 
ten, one the black marten, the squirrel, the Bez 
ermine 6 , the white ermine, and other species of 
weasel. 22. Ninth, eight species of musk animals; 
one is that which is recognised by its musk 7 , one 

1 The Av. bawrii" upapo of AMnYt. 129. 

2 The word indra has usually been taken as a Paz. misreading 
of the Pahl. audrak (Av. udra, 'otter/ of Vend. XIII, 48, 167, 
169, XIV, 2), but this would be more probably read andra. 
The Pahl. sugar, 'porcupine/ is just as likely to be misread 
indra, and its meaning suits the context better. 

3 The Paz. amokhte^n, which is an ungrammatical form, is 
evidently a misreading of the Pahl. amukhtagan. 

4 K20 has seya, M6 has zy&gi hest. Perhaps some old copyist 
has corrected siyak-g6sh into khar-gosh, and 10 both the epi- 
thets have crept into the text, the word ' black' being superfluous. 

5 Reading khan-mani^t, the P&z. khu being an obvious mis- 
reading of khan. 

6 The Paz. b*z is written bedh in the Pazand MS. (the z in 
M6 being shaped something like dh), and Justi supposes it repre- 
sents the Arabic abyadh or baidha, 'white/ and is explained by 
the Pers. sap£d, 'white/ which follows; but there is nothing in 
the text to indicate that the second name is an explanation of the 
first. It is more probable that b*z represents the Pers. bi^ad, 
' reddish, rufous, variegated/ an epithet quite applicable to the 
ermine in its summer fur. 

7 Or, ' is known as the musk animaU 

[5] E 


the musk animal with a bag in which is their 
pleasant scent, the BLr-musk 1 which eats the Bis- 
herb, the black musk which is the enemy of the ser- 
pent that is numerous in rivers, and other species of 
musk animals. 23. Tenth, one hundred and ten 
species of birds; flying creatures (vey = vai) such 
as the griffon bird 2 , the Karript 3 , the eagle, the 
Kahrkas 4 which they call the vulture, the crow, 
the Arda, the crane, and the tenth 5 is the bat. 
24. There are two of them which have milk in the 
teat and suckle their young, the griffon bird and the 
bat which flies in the night ; as they say that the 
bat is created of three races (sar^/ak), the race 
(iyina) of the dog, the bird, and the musk animal; 
for it flies like a bird, has many teeth like a dog, 
and is dwelling in holes like a musk-rat. 25. These 
hundred and ten species of birds are distributed into 
eight groups (khadtil nak), mostly as scattered 
about as when a man scatters seed, and drops the 
seed in his fingers to the ground, large, middling, 
and small. 26. Eleventh 6 , fish were created of ten 

1 A kind of musk-rat; the \>\s it eats is said to be the Na- 
pellus Moysis. 

2 Pahl. s£no muruk, the simurgh of Persian tradition, and 
Av. meregho sa&no of Bahram Yt. 41. 

3 See Chap. XIX, 16. 4 See Chap. XIX, 25. 

5 Counting the ' flying creatures ' and ' the vulture' as distinct 
species, ' the bat ' is the tenth. It has been generally supposed 
that we should read ' eleventh,' and consider the bats as an eleventh 
group, especially as the MSS. call the next group (the fish) the 
' twelfth;' but this view is contradicted by the remarks about the 
bats being mingled with those about the birds, and also by Z&d- 
sparam in his Selections, Chap. IX, 14 (see App. to Bund.), not 
mentioning any group of bats among the other animals. 

6 All the MSS. have ' twelfth/ but they give no ' eleventh ' nor 
'thirteenth/ though they have ' fourteenth ' in § 29. These irre- 

CHAPTER XIV, 23-29. 51 

species ; first, the fish Ark 1 , the Arzuva, the Ar- 
zuka, the Marzuki, and other Avesta names 2 . 
27. Afterwards, within each species, species within 
species are created, so the total is two hundred and 
eighty-two species 3 . 

28. Of the dog they say that out of the star 
station, that is, away from the direction of the con- 
stellation Haptok-ring, was given to him further by 
a stage (yo^ist) 4 than to men, on account of his 
protection of sheep, and as associating with sheep 
and men ; for this the dog is purposely adapted 6 , 
as three more kinds of advantage are given to him 
than to man, he has his own boots, his own cloth- 
ing 6 , and may wander about without self-exertion. 
29. The twelfth 7 is the sharp-toothed beast of 

gularities seem to indicate that part of this chapter has been om itted 
by some old copyist. 

1 See Chaps. XVIII, 5, and XXIV, 13. 

2 None of these names are found in the portion of the Avesta 
now extant. 

8 K20 alone has 272 (see Chap. X, 3). The actual total 
number of species mentioned is 186, leaving ninety-six for the 
' species within species/ ZaW-sparam in his Selections, Chap. IX, 
14, differs from the numbers given in the text merely in giving ten 
species of ox, instead of fifteen; so the total of his details is 181, 
leaving 10 1 sub-species to make up his grand total of 282 (see 
App. to Bund.) 

4 A yo^-ist (compare Sans, yo^ana) was probably from fifteen 
to sixteen English miles, as it consisted of sixteen hasar, each 
of one thousand steps of the two feet (see Chap. XXVI, 1). This 
sentence seems to imply that on account of the useful qualities 
of the dog he has a part of the lowermost grade of paradise 
allotted to him, further from the demon-haunted north than that 
allotted to the men whose inferior order of merit does not entitle 
them to enter the higher grades of paradise. 

6 Reading dhang-homand, ' having a purpose.' 

6 Compare Vend. XIII, 106. 

7 All the MSS. have ' fourteenth/ but they give no ' thirteenth.' 

E 2 


which the leader of the flock is in such great fear, 
for that flock of sheep is very badly maintained 
which has no dog. 

30. Atiharmazd said when the bird Varesha 1 was 
created by him, which is a bird of prey, thus : ' Thou 
art created by me, O bird Varesha! so that my vexa- 
tion may be greater than my satisfaction with thee, 
for thou doest the will of the evil spirit more than 
that of me ; like the wicked man who did not be- 
come satiated with wealth, thou also dost not 
become satiated with the slaughter of birds ; but if 
thou be not created by me, O bird Varesha ! thou 
wouldst be created by him, the evil spirit, as a 
kite 2 with the body of a Varpa 3 , by which no 
creature would be left alive/ 

31. Many animals are created in all these species 
for this reason, that when one shall be perishing 
through the evil spirit, one shall remain. 

Chapter XV. 

1. On the nature of men it says in revelation, 
that Gayomar^, in passing away 4 , gave forth seed ; 
that seed was thoroughly purified by the motion of 

1 No doubt ' a hawk 1 (Pers. v;hah or ba^ah), as mentioned by 
Justi ; Av. vare would become va or ba in Persian. 

2 Compare gurik with Pers. varik, varka, vark&k, varkak, 
vargah, ' an eagle, falcon, kite, or hawk/ 

3 Transcribing the Paz. varpa §yi into Pahlavi we have 
varpak-ae, which is very nearly the same in form as vari/£ak-ae, 
'a hut or cottage' (Pers. guri£ah-e); so the formidable bird 
which the evil spirit might have created was ' a kite with a body 
like a cottage/ 

* See Chap. IV, 1. 

CHAPTER XIV, 30 -XV, 4. 5.3 

the light of the sun, and N&ryosang 1 kept charge of 
two portions, and Spendarma^ 2 received one por- 
tion. 2. And in forty years, with the shape of a 
one-stemmed Rivcis-fl/ant 3 , and the fifteen years of 
its fifteen leaves, Matro and Matroyao 4 grew up 
from the earth in such a manner that their arms 
rested behind on their shoulders (dosh), and one 
joined to the other they were connected together 
and both alike. 3. And the waists of both of them 
were brought close and so connected together that it 
was not clear which is the male and which the female, 
and which is the one whose living soul (nismo) of 
Atiharmazd is not away 5 . 4. As it is said thus : 
'Which is created before, the soul (nismd) or the 
body? And Ailharmazd said that the soul is 
created before, and the body after, for him who was 

1 Av. Nairyo-sangha of Yas. XVII, 68, LXX, 92, Vend. XIX, 
in, 112, XXII, 22, &c. ; the angel who is said to be Auharmazd's 
usual messenger to mankind. 

2 The female archangel who is supposed to have special charge 
of the earth (see Chap. I, 26). 

3 A plant allied to the rhubarb, the shoots of which supply an 
acid juice used by the Persians for acidulating preserves and drinks. 

4 These names are merely variants of the M&shya and M&shyor 
of the latter part of this chapter (nom. dual, m. and f., of Av. 
mashya, ' mortal'). This is shown by the Pandnamak-i Zaratort, 
saying : ' and my human nature is from Matroih and Matr6- 
ya6ih, from which first generation and seed from Gayomar^ I 
have sprung/ And the names are also found in the more Persian 
forms Maharih and Mahariyaoyih (see the note to § 22). Windisch- 
mann considered the meaning to be that ' they grew up on the day 
Mitro of the month Mitro/ that is, the sixteenth day of the seventh 
month of the Parsi year ; this is not confirmed, however, by Z&d- 
sparam in his Selections, Chap. X, 4 (see App. to Bund.) 

5 That is, whether they had souls or not. That nismo is the 
Huzvariy for ruban, 'soul/ appears clearly in § 4, where both 
words are used for the same thing. 


created; it is given into the body that it may pro- 
duce activity, and the body is created only for 
activity;' hence the conclusion is this, that the soul 
(r ft ban) is created before and the body after. 
5. And both of them changed from the shape of a 
plant into the shape of man, and the breath (nismo) 
went spiritually into them, which is the soul (r ft ban); 
and now, moreover, in that similitude a tree had 
grown up whose fruit was the ten varieties of 
man 1 . 

6. Ailharmazd spoke to Mashya and Mashyo! 
thus : ' You are man, you are the ancestry of the 
world, and you are created perfect in devotion 2 by 
me ; perform devotedly the duty of the law, think 
good thoughts, speak good words, do good deeds, 
and worship no demons!' 7. Both of them first 
thought this, that one of them should please the 
other, as he is a man for him ; and the first deed 
done by them was this, when they went out they 
washed 3 themselves thoroughly ; and the first 
words spoken by them were these, that Auharmazd 
created the water and earth, plants and animals, the 
stars, moon, and sun, and all prosperity whose 
origin and effect are from the manifestation of 
righteousness 4 . 8. And, afterwards, antagonism 
rushed into their minds, and their minds were 

1 This evidently refers to another tree, which is supposed to have 
produced the ten varieties of human monstrosities (see § 31). 

2 This would be a translation of the Avesta phrase, ' the best of 
Armaiti (the spirit of the earth).' 

3 Comparing m&gid with Pers. ma^id; but the verb is very am- 
biguous, as it may mean, ' they feasted themselves/ or < they made 

4 The last phrase appears to be quoted from the Pahlavi Uidokht 
Nask, I, 2. 

CHAPTER XV, 5-I3. 55 

thoroughly corrupted, and they exclaimed that the 
evil spirit created the water and earth, plants and 
animals, and the other things as aforesaid. 9. That 
false speech was spoken through the will of the 
demons, and the evil spirit possessed himself of this 
first enjoyment from them ; through that false 
speech they both became wicked, and their souls 
are in hell until the future existence. 

10. And they had gone thirty days without food 1 , 
covered with clothing of herbage (giyah); and after 
the thirty days they went forth into the wilderness, 
came to a white-haired goat, and milked the milk 
from the udder with their mouths. 11. When they 
had devoured the milk Mashya said to Mdshy6i 
thus : ' My delight was owing to it when I had not 
devoured the milk, and my delight is more de- 
lightful now when it is devoured by my vile body/ 
12. That second false speech enhanced the power 
of the demons, and the taste of the food was taken 
away by them, so that out of a hundred parts one 
part remained. 

13. Afterwards, in another thirty days and nights 
they came to a sheep, fat 2 and white-jawed, and 
they slaughtered it; and fire was extracted by them 
out of the wood of the lote-plum 3 and box-tree, 
through the guidance of the heavenly angels, since 
both woods were most productive of fire for them ; 

1 Reading akhurun instead of the khumn of all MSS. which 
is hardly intelligible. Perhaps &v-khuri.m, 'drinking water,' ought 
to be read, as it is alluded to in Chap. XXX, 1. 

2 Comparing gefar with Av. garewa and Pers. ^arb, but this 
identification may not be correct. 

3 The kun&r, a thorny tree, allied to the jujube, which bears a 
small plum-like fruit. 


and the fire was stimulated by their mouths ; and 
the first fuel kindled by them was dry grass, kend&r, 
lotos, date palm leaves, and myrtle ; and they made 
a roast of the sheep. 14. And they dropped three 
handfuls of the meat into the fire, and said : ' This is 
the share of the fire V One piece of the rest they 
tossed to the sky, and said : ' This is the share of 
the angels/ A bird, the vulture, advanced and 
carried some of it away from before them, as a dog 
ate the first meat. 15. And, first, a clothing of 
skins covered them ; afterwards, it is said, woven 
garments were prepared from a cloth woven 2 in the 
wilderness. 16. And they dug out a pit in the 
earth, and iron was obtained by them and beaten 
out with a stone, and without a forge they beat out 
a cutting edge 3 from it ; and they cut wood with 
it, and prepared a wooden shelter from the sun 

1 7. Owing to the gracelessness which they prac- 
tised, the demons became more oppressive, and they 
themselves carried on unnatural malice between 
themselves; they advanced one against the other, 
and smote and tore their hair and cheeks 4 . 
18. Then the demons shouted out of the darkness 

1 Most of this sentence is omitted in K20 by mistake. 

2 Reading khe^-i-i t a d, which Pahlavi words might be easily 
misread ashab6 tad, as given in Pazand in the text. That Paz. 
tadha stands for Pahl. ta^ak (Pers. tadah, 'spun, woven') is 
quite certain. 

3 Or ' an axe/ according as we read t£kh or tash. The order 
of the foregoing words, bar& tapak-i, 'without a forge/ appears 
to have been reversed by mistake. 

4 Reading rod as equivalent to Pers. rui, ' face/ but it ought 
to be rod. Perhaps the word is lut, 'bare/ and the translation 
should be, ' tore their hair bare.' 

CHAPTER XV, I4-24. 57 

thus : ' You are man ; worship the demon ! so that 
your demon of malice may repose/ 19. M&shya 
went forth and milked a cow's milk, and poured it 
out towards the northern quarter ; through that the 
demons became more powerful, and owing to them 
they both became so dry-backed that in fifty win- 
ters they had no desire for intercourse, and though 
they had had intercourse they would have had no 
children. 20. And on the completion of fifty years 
the source of desire arose, first in Mctshya and then 
in Mishyoi, for M&shya said to Mashyo! thus: 
* When I see thy shame my desires arise/ Then 
Mishy6f spoke thus : ' Brother Mashya ! when I 
see thy great desire I am also agitated 1 / 21. After- 
wards, it became their mutual wish that the satis- 
faction of their desires should be accomplished, as 
they reflected thus : ' Our duty even for those fifty 
years was this/ 

22. From them was born in nine months a pair, 
male and female ; and owing to tenderness for off- 
spring 2 the mother devoured one, and the father one. 
23. And, afterwards, Atiharmazd took tenderness 
for offspring away from them, so that one may 
nourish a child, and the child may remain. 

24. And from them arose seven pairs, male and 

1 This is merely a paraphrase of the original. 

2 Or, 'the deliciousness of children ' (shirinih-i farzand). 
Justi has, ' owing to an eruption on the children the mother de- 
serted one/ &c. ; but the legend of devouring the first children is 
still more clearly mentioned in the Pahlavi Rivayat, which forms 
the first book of the DMstan-i Dinik (preceding the ninety-two 
questions and answers to which that name is usually applied) as 
follows: Maharih va Mahariyaoyih dusharam rdi nazdisto 
farzand-i nafrman bard va^tamund, 'Mashya and Mashy6i, 
through affection, at first ate up their own offspring/ 


female, and each was a brother and sister-wife ; and 
from every one of them, in fifty years, children were 
born, and they themselves died in a hundred years. 

25. Of those seven pairs one was Siyclkmak, the 
name of the man, and NaicLk x of the woman ; and 
from them a pair was born, whose names were Fra- 
vak of the man and Fravakain of the woman. 

26. From them fifteen pairs were born, every single 
pair of whom became a race (sar^/ak) ; and from 
them the constant continuance of the generations 
of the world arose. 

27. Owing to the increase (zayisn) of the whole 
fifteen races, nine races proceeded on the back of 
the ox Sarsaok 2 , through the wide-formed ocean, 
to the other six regions (keshvar), and stayed 
there ; and six races of men remained in Khvaniras. 
28. Of those six races the name of the man of one 
pair was Ta£ and of the woman Ta^ak, and they 
went to the plain of the TcLdk&n (Arabs) ; and of 
one pair H6shyang 3 was the name of the man and 
Giteak of the woman, and from them arose the 
Airdnakan (Iranians); and from one pair the Mcl- 
zendarans 4 have arisen. 29. Among the number 
(pavan ae mar) were those who are in the coun- 

1 Or 'Va^ak.' 

2 See Chaps. XVII, 4, XIX, 13; the name is here written 
Srisaok in the MSS., and is a Pazand reading in all three places. 

3 Av. Haoshyangha of Aban Yt. 21, G6s Yt. 3, Fravardin Yt. 
137, Ram Yt. 7, Ashi Yt. 24, 26, Zamy&d Yt. 26. His usual 
epithet is paradhata (Pahl. p£,?-da^), which is thus explained in 
the Pahlavi Vend. XX, 7: i this early law (p6.r- da fifth) was this, 
that he first set going the law of sovereignty.' For this reason 
he is considered to be the founder of the earliest, or Pe\ydadian, 
dynasty. See Chaps. XXXI, 1, XXXIV, 3, 4. 

4 The people of the southern coast of the Caspian, the Maz- 
ainya da6va, * Mazainyan demons or idolators/ of the Avesta. 

CHAPTER XV, 25-3I. 59 

tries of Stirak 1 , those who are in the country of 
Aner 2 , those who are in the countries of Ttir, those 
who are in the country of Salm which is Artim, 
those who are in the country of Seni, that which is 
iTinistan, those who are in the country of D&l 3 , and 
those who are in the country of Sind 4 . 30. Those, 
indeed, throughout the seven regions are all from 
the lineage of Fravak, son of Siyakmak, son of 

31. As there were ten varieties of man 5 , and 
fifteen races from Frav&k, there were twenty-five 
races all from the seed of Gdyomar^ ; the varieties 
are such as those of the earth, of the water, the 
breast-eared, the breast-eyed, the one-legged, those 
also who have wings like a bat, those of the forest, 
with tails, and who have hair on the body 6 . 

1 Not Syria (which is Suristan, see Chap. XX, 10), but the 
Surik of the Pahlavi Vend. I, 14, which translates Av. Sughdha, 
the land east of the Oxus (see Chap. XX, 8). Windischmann reads 
it as Paz. Er&k. 

2 Probably for Av. anairya, 'non- Aryan,' which seems specially 
applied to the lands east of the Caspian. 

8 The countries of Tur, Salm, SSni, and Dai are all mentioned 
successively in Fravardin Yt. 143, 144, in their Avesta forms 
Tuirya, Sairima, Saini, and D&hi. The country of Tur was part 
of the present Turkistan, that of Salm is rightly identified with 
Arum (the eastern Roman Empire, or Asia Minor) in the text ; the 
country of S6ni (miswritten S6nd), being identified with -ffmistan, 
was probably the territory of Samarkand, and may perhaps be 
connected with Mount Kmo (see Chap. XII, 2, 13) ; and the land 
of Dai must be sought somewhere in the same neighbourhood. 

4 Bactria or any part of north-western India may be intended ; 
wherever Brahmans and Buddhists existed (as they did in Bactria) 
was considered a part of India in Sasanian times. 

6 Grown on a separate tree (see § 5). 

6 Only seven varieties of human monsters are here enumerated, 

60 BUNDAHIff. 

Chapter XVI. 

i. On the nature of generation it says in revela- 
tion, that a woman when she comes out from men- 
struation, during ten days and nights, when they go 
near unto her, soon becomes pregnant. 2. When 
she is cleansed from her menstruation, and when the 
time for pregnancy has come, always when the seed 
of the man is the more powerful a son arises from 
it ; when that of the woman is the more powerful, a 
daughter ; when both seeds are equal, twins and 
triplets. 3. If the male seed comes the sooner, it 
adds to the female, and she becomes robust ; if the 
female seed comes the sooner, it becomes blood, and 
the leanness of the female arises therefrom. 

4. The female seed is cold and moist, and its 
flow is from the loins, and the colour is white, red, 
and yellow ; and the male seed is hot and dry, its 
flow is from the brain of the head, and the colour is 
white and mud-coloured (ha^gtln). 5. All 1 the 
seed of the females which issues beforehand, takes a 
place within the womb, and the seed of the males 
will remain above it, and will fill the space of the 
womb ; whatever refrains therefrom becomes blood 
again, enters into the veins of the females, and at 
the time any one is born it becomes milk and 

for the last three details seem to refer to one variety, the monkeys. 
The Parst MS. of miscellaneous texts, M7 (fol. 1 20), says, ' The 
names of the ten species of men are the breast-eyed, the three-eyed, 
the breast-eared, the elephant-eared, the one-legged, the web- 
footed, the leopard-headed, the lion-headed, the camel-headed, 
and the dog-headed.' 
1 M6 has * always/ 


nourishes him, as all milk arises from the seed of 
the males, and the blood is that of the females. 

6. These four things, they say, are male, and 
these female : the sky, metal, wind, and fire are male, 
and are never otherwise ; the water, earth, plants, 
and fish are female, and are never otherwise; the 
remaining creation consists of male and female. 

7. As regards the fish 1 it says that, at the time of 
excitement, they go forwards and come back in the 
water, two and two, the length of a mile (h&sar), 
which is one-fourth of a league (parasang), in the 
running water ; in that coming and going they then 
rub their bodies together, and a kind of sweat drops 
out betwixt them, and both become pregnant. 

Chapter XVII. 

1. On the nature of fire it says in revelation, that 
fire is produced of five kinds, namely, the fire 
Berezi-savang 2 , the fire which shoots up before Ati- 
harmazd the lord; the fire Vohu-fryan 3 , the fire 
which is in the bodies of men and animals ; the fire 
UrvazL9t 4 , the fire which is in plants; the fire 

1 K20 has ' the male fish,' which is inconsistent with the pre- 
ceding sentence. 

2 These Avesta names of the five kinds of fire are enumerated 
in Yas. XVII, 63-67, and the Pahlavi translation of that passage 
interchanges the attributes ascribed to the first and fifth in the text, 
thus it calls the first ' the fire of sublime benefit in connection with 
Varahr&n (Bahrain)/ See also Selections of Z&/-sparam, XI, 1. 

3 ' The fire of the good diffuser ( or offerer), that within the 
bodies of men ' (Pahl. Yas. XVII, 64). 

4 ' The fire of prosperous (or abundant) life, that within plants ' 
(Pahl. Yas. XVII, 65). 


V&zLrt 1 y the fire which is in a cloud which stands 
opposed to Sp£n£*arg&k in conflict; the fire Sp6nL?t 2 , 
the fire which they keep in use in the world, like- 
wise the fire of Vahram 3 . 2. Of those five fires one 
consumes both water and food, as that which is in 
the bodies of men ; one consumes water and con- 
sumes no food, as that which is in plants, which live 
and grow through water; one consumes food and 
consumes no water, as that which they keep in use 
in the world, and likewise the fire of Vahram ; one 
consumes no water and no food, as the fire Vazist. 
3. The Berezi-savang is that in the earth and moun- 
tains and other things, which 4 Auharmazd created, 
in the original creation, like three breathing souls 
(nismo); through the watchfulness and protection 
due to them the world ever develops (vakhshe^). 

4. And in the reign of Takhmorup 5 , when men 
continually passed, on the back of the ox Sarsaok 6 , 
from Khvanfras to the other regions, one night 

1 ' The fire V&zijt, that which smites the demon Spen^arga ' 
(Pahl. Yas. XVII, 66). See Chap. VII, 12. 

2 ' The propitious fire which stands in heaven before Auhar- 
mazd in a spiritual state' (Pahl. Yas. XVII, 67). 

3 The Bahrain fire, or sacred fire at places of worship. 

4 M6 has min, instead of mun, which alters the translation, 
but not the meaning. This appears to be a different account of 
the fire Berezi-savang to that given in § 1, but it merely implies 
that it is fire in its spiritual state, and the name can, therefore, be 
applied to any natural fire which can be attributed to supernatural 
agency, such as burning springs of petroleum, volcanic eruptions, 
ignis fatuus, phosphorescence of the sea, &c. 

5 The second Pe\rdadian monarch (see Chaps. XXXI, 2, 3, 
XXXIV, 4). 

6 Written Srisaok in the MSS. in Chap. XV, 27; where it also 
appears that the sea was ' the wide-formed ocean/ See likewise 
Chap. XIX, 13. 

CHAPTER XVII, 2-y. 63 

amid the sea the wind rushed upon 1 the fireplace — 
the fireplace in which the fire was, such as was pro- 
vided in three places on the back of the ox — which 
the wind dropped with the fire into the sea ; and all 
those three fires, like three breathing souls, con- 
tinually shot up in the place and position of the fire 
on the back of the ox, so that it becomes quite 
light, and the men pass again through the sea. 

5. And in the reign of Yim 2 every duty was per- 
formed more fully through the assistance of all those 
three fires ; and the fire Frobak 3 was established by 
him at the appointed place (da^-gas) on the Gad- 
man-homand ('glorious') mountain in Khvarkem 4 , 
which Yim constructed for them ; and the glory of 
Yim saves the fire Fr6bak from the hand of Dahak 5 . 

6. In the reign of King Vist&sp, upon revelation 
from the religion 6 , it was established, out of 
Khvari^em, at the Roshan (' shining ') mountain in 
Kavulistin, the country of Kavul (Kabul), just as it 
remains there even now. 

7. The fire Gfoasp, until the reign of Kai-Khtis- 
rob 7 , continually afforded the world protection in 
the manner aforesaid 8 ; and when Ka!-Kh{isr6b 7 was 

1 Compare staft with Pers. jitaftan, 'to hasten/ 

2 The third Pe\rd&dian monarch (see Chaps. XXXI, 3, 4, 
XXXIV, 4). 

3 Also written Fr6bo, Froba, Frobak, or Frobag. 

4 The Av. Zfo&irizem of Mihir Yt. 14, a province east of the 

5 It is doubtful whether va gadman, 'and the glory/ or nismo, 
'the soul, reason' (see Chaps. XXIII, 1, XXXIV, 4), should be 
read. And it may even be that ' the fire Fr6bak saves the soul of 
Yim/ &c. For Dahak see Chaps. XXXI, 6, XXXIV, 5. 

6 Or, ' upon declaration from revelation/ 

7 Here written Kai-Khusr6br. 

8 In § 3. The ' three breathing souls ' of spiritual fire are sup- 


extirpating the idol-temples of Lake jSfe^ast 1 it 
settled upon the mane of his horse, and drove away 
the darkness and gloom, and made it quite light, so 
that they might extirpate the idol-temples ; in the 
same locality the fire G&sasp was established at the 
appointed place on the Asnavand mountain 2 . 

8. The fire Btirein-Mitro, until the reign of King 
Viitasp, ever assisted 3 , in like manner, in the world, 
and continually afforded protection ; and when the 
glorified 4 Zarat&st was introduced to produce con- 
fidence in the progress of the religion, King Viitasp 
and his offspring were steadfast in the religion 
of God 5 , and VLstasp established this fire at the 
appointed place on Mount Revand, where they say 
the Ridge of Vistasp (pu^t-i Vi^taspan) is 6 . 

9. All those three fires are the whole body of the 
fire of Vahram, together with the fire of the world, 
and those breathing souls are lodged in them ; a 
counterpart of the body of man when it forms in the 
womb of the mother, and a soul from the spirit- 
world settles within it, which controls the body while 
living ; when that body dies, the body mingles with 
the earth, and the soul goes back to the spirit. 

posed to be incorporated in its three earthly representatives, the 
fires Frobak, Gfoasp, and Burzin-Mitrd respectively. 

1 That is, of the province around that lake (see Chap. XXII, 2). 

2 See Chap. XII, 26. Compare Selections of Za^-sparam, VI, 22. 
8 Taking \zg\d as equivalent to Pers. guzid; but it may be 

equivalent to Pers. vazid, ' grew, shot up.' 

4 The epithet an6shak-rub£n (Pers. noshirv&n) means lite- 
rally l immortal-souled/ 

5 Or, ' of the angels/ which plural form is often used to express 
1 God/ 

6 See Chap. XII, 18, 34. 


Chapter XVIII. 

1. On the nature of the tree they call Gokan/ 1 it 
says in revelation, that it was the first day when the 
tree they call Gokaraf grew in the deep mud 2 within 
the wide-formed ocean ; and it is necessary as a pro- 
ducer of the renovation of the universe, for they pre- 
pare its immortality therefrom. 2. The evil spirit 
has formed therein, among those which enter as 
opponents, a lizard 3 as an opponent in that deep 
water, so that it may injure the H6m 4 . 3. And for 
keeping away that lizard, Auharmazd has created 
there ten Kar fish 5 which, at all times, continually 
circle around the H6m, so that the head of one of 
those fish is continually towards the lizard. 4. And 
together with the lizard those fish are spiritually 
fed 6 , that is, no food is necessary for them ; and till 
the renovation of the universe they remain in con- 
tention. 5. There are places where that fish is 

1 A corruption of the Av. gaokerena of Vend. XX, 17, Auhar- 
mazd Yt. 30, Haptan Yt. 3, Siroz. 7. In the old MSS. of the 
Bundahir the form go kar d occurs thrice, g6 karn once, and 
gogrv once. 

2 Reading gil, 'mud.* Windischmann and Justi prefer gar, 
4 mountain/ and have ' depth of the mountain/ 

8 That the writer of the BundahLr applies the term vazagh to a 
lizard, rather than a frog, appears from the < log-like lizard's body ' 
of Chap. Ill, 9. 

4 That is, the Gokan/ tree, which is the white H6m (see Chap. 
XXVII, 4). 

5 The Av. karo masyo of Vend. XIX, 140, Barnim Yt. 29, 
Dm Yt. 7 ; see also Chap. XXIV, 13. 

6 Windischmann and Justi prefer translating thus : ' Moreover, 
the lizard is the spiritual food of those fish / but this can hardly 
be reconciled with the Pahlavi text. 

[5] F 

66 BUNDAHLff. 

written of as 'the Ark 1 of the water;' as it says 
that the greatest of the creatures of Atiharmazd 
is that fish, and the greatest of those proceeding 
from the evil spirit is that lizard; with the jaws 
of their bodies, moreover, they snap in two what- 
ever of the creatures of both spirits has entered 
between them, except that one fish which is the 
Vis of Pan/£cLsaafvar£n 2 . 6. This, too, is said, that 
those fish are so serpent-like 3 in that deep water, 
they know the scratch (malign) of a needle's point 
by which the water shall increase, or by which it 
is diminishing. 

7. Regarding the V&s of Pan^dsa^varan it is 
declared that it moves within the wide-formed 
ocean, and its length is as much as what a man, 
while in a swift race, will walk from dawn till 
when the sun goes down; so much that it does 
not itself move 4 the length of the whole of its 
great body. 8. This, too, is said, that the crea- 
tures of the waters live also specially under its 

9. The tree of many seeds has grown amid the 
wide-formed ocean, and in its seed are all plants ; 
some say it is the proper-curing, some the energetic- 
curing, some the all-curing 5 . 

1 See Chaps. XIV, 26, and XXIV, 13. 

2 The Av. v&sfm yam parcMsadvaram of Yas. XLI, 27. 

3 Transcribing the Paz. mar&du into Pahlavi we have mar 
ayin, < snake's manner/ Compare the text with Bahr&m Yt. 29. 

4 K20 omits the words from 'walk' to ' move/ 

5 This is the tree of the saSna or Simurgh, as described in 
RashnuYt. 17, and these three epithets are translations of its three 
titles, hubij, eredhw6-bu, and visp6-bi.r. See also Chap. 
XXVII, 2, 3. 


10. Between 1 these trees of such kinds 2 is formed 
the mountain with cavities, 9999 thousand myriads 
in number, each myriad being ten thousand. 
11. Unto that mountain is given the protection 
of the waters, so that water streams forth from 
there, in the rivulet channels, to the land of the 
seven regions, as the source of all the sea-water in 
the land of the seven regions is from there 3 . 

Chapter XIX. 

1. Regarding the three-legged ass 4 they say, that 
it stands amid the wide-formed ocean, and its feet 
are three, eyes six, mouths 5 nine, ears two, and horn 

1 This must have been the original meaning of the Huz. dSn 
(ben in the Sasanian inscriptions) before it was used as a synonym 
of P&z. andar, ' within/ The mountain is between the white-H6m 
tree and the tree of many seeds. 

2 Transcribing the Paz. oinoh into Pahlavi we have &n-gunak, 
' that kind ;' or the word may be a mis writing of P&z. dno, ' there/ 

3 This description of the mountain seems to identify it with the 
Ausindom mountain of Chaps. XII, 6, and XIII, 5. 

4 The Av. khara, 'which is righteous and which stands in the 
middle of the wide-shored ocean' (Yas. XLI, 28). Darmesteter, 
in his Ormazd et Ahriman (pp. 1 48-1 51), considers this mytho- 
logical monster as a meteorological myth, a personification of 
clouds and storm ; and, no doubt, a vivid imagination may trace a 
striking resemblance between some of the monster's attributes and 
certain fanciful ideas regarding the phenomena of nature; the 
difficulty is to account for the remaining attributes, and to be sure 
that these fanciful ideas were really held by Mazdayasnians of old. 
Another plausible view is to consider such mythological beings as 
foreign gods tolerated by the priesthood, from politic motives, as 
objects worthy of reverence; even as the goddess An&hita was 
tolerated in the form of the angel of water. 

6 This is the traditional meaning of the word, which (if this 

F 2 


one, body white, food spiritual, and it is righteous. 
2. And two of its six eyes are in the position of 
eyes, two on the top of the head, and two in the 
position of the hump x ; with the sharpness of those 
six eyes it overcomes and destroys. 3. Of the nine 
mouths three are in the head, three in the hump, 
and three in the inner part of the flanks ; and each 
mouth is about the size of a cottage, and it is itself 
as large as Mount Alvand 2 . 4. Each one of the 
three feet, when it is placed on the ground, is as 
much as a flock (gird) of a thousand sheep comes 
under when they repose together; and each pas- 
tern 3 is so great in its circuit that a thousand men 
with a thousand horses may pass inside. 5. As for 
the two ears it is Mazendaran which they will en- 
compass. 6. The one horn is as it were of gold 
and hollow, and a thousand branch horns 4 have 
grown upon it, some befitting 6 a camel, some be- 
fitting a horse, some befitting an ox, some befitting 
an ass, both great and small. 7. With that horn it 
will vanquish and dissipate all the vile corruption 
due to the efforts of noxious creatures. 

meaning be correct) ought probably to be read y6ng, and be 
traced to Av. eeaungh (Yas. XXVIII, 11). In the MSS. the 
word is marked as if it were pronounced gund, which means ' a 

1 The hump is probably supposed to be over the shoulders, as 
in the Indian ox, and not like that of the camel. 

2 Near Hamad&n, rising 11,000 feet above the sea, or 6000 
above Hamaddn. It may be one of the Av. Aurva«to of Zamyad 
Yt. 3. The Pazand MSS. read Hunavand. 

3 Literally, ' the small of the foot/ khur^ak-i ragelman. 

* Or, <a thousand cavities (srubo, Pers. surub, 'cavern') have 
grown in it.' 

5 Reading ziyak; compare Pers. ziyidan, ' to suit, befit.' 

CHAPTER XIX, 2-13. 69 

8. When that ass shall hold its neck in the ocean 
its ears will terrify (asahmed), and all the water 
of the wide-formed ocean will shake with agitation, 
and the side of Gan&vaa? 1 will tremble (shf vaneaQ. 

9. When it utters a cry all female water-creatures, 
of the creatures of Auharmazd, will become preg- 
nant; and all pregnant noxious water-creatures, 
when they hear that cry, will cast their young. 

10. When it stales in the ocean all the sea-water 
will become purified, which is in the seven regions 
of the earth — it is even on that account when all 
asses which come into water stale in the water — as 
it says thus : * If, O three-legged ass ! you were not 
created for the water, all the water in the sea would 
have perished from the contamination which the 
poison of the evil spirit has brought into its water, 
through the death of the creatures of Atiharmazd/ 

11. Tlstar seizes the water 2 more completely from 
the ocean with the assistance of the three-legged 
ass. 12. Of ambergris also (ambar-i/£) it is de- 
clared, that it is the dung of the three-legged ass ; 
for if it has much spirit food, then also the moisture 
of the liquid nourishment goes through the veins 
pertaining to the body into the urine, and the dung 
is cast away. 

13. Of the ox Hadhayo^ 3 , which they call Sar- 
saok 4 , it says, that in the original creation men 
passed from region to region upon it y and in the 

1 A mountain (see Chap. XII, 29, 34). 

2 See Chap. VII, 11. 

3 Written Haday&v* in the MSS. in Chap. XXX, 25, and Ha- 
dhayaLy in the D&/istan-i Dinik, Part II, reply 89 ; it is a Pazand 
reading in all three places. 

4 See Chaps. XV, 27, XVII, 4. 


renovation of the universe they prepare H6sh (the 
beverage producing immortality) from it. 14. It is 
said, that life is in the hand of that foremost man, at 
the end of his years 1 ) who has constructed the most 
defences around this earth, until the renovation of 
the universe is requisite. 

15. Regarding the bird Kkmrds 2 it says, that it 
is on the summit of Mount Albtir£; and every three 
years many come from the non-Iranian districts for 
booty (gird?) -8 , by going to bring damage (ziyin) on 
the Iranian districts, and to effect the devastation of 
the world; then the angel Btir^* 4 , having come up 
from the low country of Lake Arag 5 , arouses that 
very bird K&mxos, and it flies upon the loftiest of 
all the lofty mountains, and picks up all those non- 
Iranian districts as a bird does corn. 

16. Regarding Kansipt 6 they say, that it knew 
how to speak words, and brought the religion to 
the enclosure which Yim made, and circulated it ; 
there they utter the Avesta in the language of 

1 Transcribing the Paz. jvadyi into Pahlavi we have jnatih, 
* term of years/ The whole sentence is very obscure. 

2 Written Kamros in Chap. XXIV, 29. It is the Av. Aamraoi* 
(gen. of ^amru) of Fravardin Yt. 109. See also Chap. XXVII, 3. 

3 Or, ' to an assembly/ 

4 The Av. Bere^ya of Yas. I, 21, II, 27, III, 35, 'a spirit co- 
operating with the Ushahina Gah, who causes the increase of 
herds and corn/ 

5 Or, * of the district of Arag' (see the note on Chap. XII, 23). 
Although no Lake Arag is described in Chap. XXII, some of the 
epithets referring to its Avesta equivalent Rangha are more appli- 
cable to a lake than to a river, as in Bahram Yt. 29. Possibly the 
low lands between the Caspian and Aral, or on the shores of the 
Caspian, are meant. 

6 The Av. vis karjipta of Vend. II, 139, where, however, wis 

CHAPTER XIX, I4-23. 71 

1 7. Regarding the ox-fish they say, that it exists 
in all seas ; when it utters a cry all fish become 
pregnant, and all noxious water-creatures cast their 

18. The grififon bird 1 , which is a bat, is noticed 
(kara?) twice in another chapter (babi). 

19. Regarding the bird Ashozuit 2 , which is the 
bird Zobara 3 -vahman and also the bird 60k 4 , they 
say that it has given an A vesta with its tongue ; when 
it speaks the demons tremble at it and take nothing 
away there ; a n&A-paring, when it is not prayed 
over (afstW), the demons and wizards seize, and 
like an arrow it shoots at and kills that bird. 
20. On this account the bird seizes and devours 
a nai\-paring when it is prayed over, so that the 
demons may not control its use ; when it is not 
prayed over it does not devour it, and the demons 
are able to commit an offence with it. 

2 1 . Also other beasts and birds are created all in 
opposition to noxious creatures, as it says, that when 
the birds and beasts are all in opposition to noxious 
creatures and wizards, &c. 5 22. This, too, it says, 
that of all precious 6 birds the crow (valigh) is the 
most precious. 23. Regarding the white falcon it 

does not mean 'bird/ and the Pahlavi translator calls it 'a 
quadruped/ In the Pahl. Visp. I, 1, ' the Kampt is the chief of 
flying creatures/ and the BundahLr also takes it as a bird (see 
Chaps. XIV, 23, XXIV, 11). 

1 See Chaps. XIV, 11, 23, 24, XXIV, 11, 29. 

2 The Av. Asho-zarta of Vend. XVII, 26, 28. 
8 Compare Pers. zulah, 'a sparrow or lark/ 

4 Compare Pers. .yak, 'a magpie/ 

5 This quotation is evidently left incomplete. 

6 The Pahlavi word is ambiguous ; it may be read zf 1, ' cheap, 
common/ or it may be zagar = yakar, 'dear, precious/ but the 


says, that it kills the serpent with wings. 24. The 
magpie (k&skinak) bird kills the locust, and is 
created in opposition to it. 25. The Kahrk&s 1 , 
dwelling in decay, which is the vulture, is created 
for devouring dead matter (nasal) ; so also are the 
crow (valak) 2 and the mountain kite. 

26. The mountain ox, the mountain goat, the 
deer, the wild ass, and other beasts devour all 
snakes. 27. So also, of other animals, dogs are 
created in opposition to the wolf species, and for 
securing the protection of sheep ; the fox is created 
in opposition to the demon Khava ; the ichneumon 
is created in opposition to the venomous snake 
(gar^ak) and other noxious creatures in burrows; 
so also the great musk-animal is created in opposi- 
tion 3 to ravenous intestinal worms (ka^/ilk-d&nak 
gar^ak). 28. The hedgehog is created in opposi- 
tion to the ant which carries off grain 4 , as it says, 
that the hedgehog, every time that it voids urine 
into an ant's nest, will destroy a thousand ants; 
when the grain-carrier travels over the earth it pro- 

latter seems most probable, although the crow is perhaps as 
' common ' as it is ' precious,' as a scavenger in the East. Singu- 
larly enough Pers. arzan is a synonym to both words, as it means 
both ' cheap ' and ' worthy.' 

1 The Av. kahrkasa of Vend. Ill, 66, IX, 181, Aban Yt. 61, 
Mihir Yt. 129 ; its epithet zarman-manijn, ' dwelling in decay/ 
is evidently intended as a translation of the Av. zarenumainij, 
applied to it in Bahram Yt. 33, Din Yt. 13. 

2 The text should probably be val&k-i siy&k va sar-i gar, 'the 
black crow and the mountain kite/ which are given as different 
birds in Shayast-ld-shayast, II, 5. 

8 K20 omits the words from this l opposition' to the next one. 
4 The mor-i danak-kash is the Av. maoiri,? dand-karsho of 
Vend. XIV, 14, XVI, 28, XVIII, 146. 

CHAPTER XIX, 24-34. J$ 

duces a hollow track 1 ; when the hedgehog travels 
over it the track goes away from it, and it becomes 
level. 29. The water-beaver is created in opposition 
to the demon which is in the water. 30. The con- 
clusion is this, that, of all beasts and birds and 
fishes, every one is created in opposition to some 
noxious creature. 

31. Regarding the vulture (karkas) it says, that, 
even from his highest flight, he sees when flesh the 
size of a fist is on the ground ; and the scent of 
musk is created under his wing, so that if, in de- 
vouring dead matter, the stench of the dead matter 
comes out from it, he puts his head back under the 
wing and is comfortable again. 32. Regarding the 
Arab horse they say, that if, in a dark night, a single 
hair occurs on the ground, he sees it. 

S3. The cock is created in opposition to demons 
and wizards, co-operating with the dog; as it says 
in revelation, that, of the creatures of the world, 
those which are co-operating with Srosh 2 , in de- 
stroying the fiends, are the cock and the dog. 
34. This, too, it says, that it would not have been 
managed if I had not created the shepherd's dog, 
which is the Pasu^-haurva 3 , and the house watch- 
dog, the VL?-haurva 3 ; for it says in revelation, that 
the dog is a destroyer of such a fiend as covetous- 

1 Comparing surak with Pers. sur&gh in preference to sur&kh 
or sulakh, < a hole.' 

2 Av. Sraosha, the angel who is said specially to protect the 
world from demons at night ; he is usually styled ' the righteous,' 
and is the special opponent of the demon A6shm, ' Wrath ' (see 
Chap. XXX, 29). 

3 These are the Avesta names of those two kinds of dog (see 
Chap. XIV, 19). 


ness, among those which are in the nature (aitfh) of 
man and of animals. 35. Moreover it says, that, in- 
asmuch as it will destroy all the disobedient, when 
it barks it will destroy pain 1 ; and its flesh and fat 
are remedies for driving away decay and pain from 
men 2 . 

36. Atiharmazd created nothing useless whatever, 
for all these (kola ae) are created for advantage; 
when one does not understand the reason of them, 
it is necessary to ask the Dasttir (' high-priest '), for 
his five dispositions (khtik) 3 are created in this 
way that he may continually destroy the fiend (or 

Chapter XX. 

1. On the nature of rivers it says in revelation, 
that these two rivers flow forth from the north, part 
from Albftre and part from the Alburn of Auhar- 

1 Or it may be thus : ' For it says thus : Wherewith will it de- 
stroy ? When it barks it will destroy the assembly (gird) of all the 

2 This is the most obvious meaning, but Spiegel (in a note to 
Windischmann's Zoroastrische Studien, p. 95) translates both this 
sentence and the next very differently, so as to harmonize with 
Vend. XIII, 78, 99. 

8 The five dispositions (khim) of priests are thus detailed in old 
Pahlavi MSS. : ' First, innocence ; second, discreetness of thoughts, 
words, and deeds ; third, holding the priestly office as that of a very 
wise and very true-speaking master, who has learned religion atten- 
tively and teaches it truly ; fourth, celebrating the worship of God 
(yazdan) with a ritual (nirang) of rightly spoken words and 
scriptures known by heart (n arm naskiha); fifth, remaining day 
and night propitiatingly in his vocation, struggling with his own 
resistance (hamestar), and, all life long, not turning away from 
steadfastness in religion, and being energetic in his vocation,' 

chapter xix, 35 -xx, 4. 75 

mazd * ; one towards the west, that is the Arag 2 ; 
and one towards the east, that is the V£h river. 
2. After them eighteen rivers flowed forth from 
the same source, just as the remaining waters have 
flowed forth from them in great multitude ; as they 
say that they flowed out so very fast, one from the 
other, as when a man recites one Ashem- vohft 3 of a 
series (pa^tsdr). 3. All of those, with the same 
water, are again mingled with these rivers, that is, 
the Arag river and V eh riven 4. Both of them 
continually circulate through the two extremities of 
the earth, and pass into the sea ; and all the regions 
feast owing to the discharge (zahak) of both, which, 
after both arrive together at the wide-formed ocean, 
returns to the sources whence they flowed out ; as 
it says in revelation, that just as the light comes in 
through Alburn and goes out through Albtir^ 4 , the 

1 So in K20, and if correct (being only partially confirmed by 
the fragment of this chapter found in all MSS. between Chaps. XIII 
and XIV) this reading implies that the rivers are derived partly 
from the mountains of Alburn, and partly from the celestial Alburn, 
or the clouds in the sky. M6 has ' flow forth from the north part 
of the eastern Alburs.' 

2 For further details regarding these two semi-mythical rivers 
see §§ 8, 9. 

3 The sacred formula most frequently recited by the Parsis, and 
often several times in succession, like the Pater-noster of some 
Christians ; it is not, however, a prayer, but a declaratory formula 
in ' praise of righteousness ' (which phrase is often used as its 
name in Pahlavi). It consists of twelve Avesta words, as follows : 

Ashem vohu vahutem asti, 

asta asti; u^ta ahmai 

hyzd ashai vahutdi ashem. 
And it may be translated in the following manner : * Righteousness 
is the best good, a blessing it is ; a blessing be to that which is 
righteousness to perfect rectitude ' (Asha-vahLrta the archangel). 

4 See Chap. V, 5. 


water also comes out through AlMre and goes away 
through Albtirs'. 5. This, too, it says, that the 
spirit of the Arag begged of Aftharmazd thus : ' O 
first omniscient creative power x ! from whom the 
Veh river begged for the welfare that thou mightest 
grant, do thou then grant it in my quantity!' 6. 
The spirit of the Veh river similarly begged of 
Auharmazd for the Arag river ; and on account of 
loving assistance, one towards the other, they flowed 
forth with equal strength, as before the coming of 
the destroyer they proceeded without rapids, and 
when the fiend shall be destroyed 2 they will again 
be without rapids. 

7. Of those eighteen principal rivers, distinct 
from the Arag river and Veh river, and the other 
rivers which flow out from them, I will mention the 
more famous 3 : the Arag river, the Veh river, the 
Diglat 4 river they call also again the Veh river 5 , 
the Fr&t river, the Difttk river, the Dargdm river, 
the Zondak river, the Harot river, the Marv river, 
the Hetfimand river, the Akhdshir river, the Navada 6 
river, the Zfamand river, the Khve^and river, the 
Balkh river, the Mehrva river they call the Hendva 
river, the Sped 7 river, the Rad 8 river which they call 
also the Koir, the Khvarae river which they call 

1 So in M6, but K20 has, ' First is the propitiation of all kinds/ 

2 Literally, ' when they shall destroy the fiend/ 

3 For details regarding these rivers see the sequel. 

4 The Paz. Deyrid is evidently a misreading of Pahl. Diglat or 
Digrat, which occurs in § 12. 

5 So in K 20, but M6 (omitting two words) has, 'they call also 
the Didgar/ 

6 No further details are given, in this chapter, about this river, 
but it seems to be the river Nahvtak of Chap. XXI, 6, the Naivtak 
of Chap. XXIX, 4, 5. 

7 K20 has < Spend/ 8 Called Tort in £ 24, 

CHAPTER XX, 5-9. jj 

also the Mesrgan, the Harhaz 1 river, the Teremet 
river, the Khvanaidis 2 river, the Dara^a river, the 
Kasik river, the Scd 3 (' shining ') river Peda-meyan 
or Aatru-meyan river of Mokarstan. 

8. I will mention them also a second time : the 
Arag 4 river is that of which it is said that it comes 
out from Albftr^ in the land of S6rak 5 , in which 
they call it also the Ami ; it passes on through the 
land of Sp£tos, which they also call Mesr, and they 
call it there the river Niv 6 . 9. The Veh 7 river 

1 Miswritten Araz in Pazand, both here and in § 27. 

2 M6 has KhvanainidLr, but in K20 it is doubtful whether the 
extra syllable (which is interlined) is intended to be inserted or 
substituted ; the shorter form is, however, more reconcilable with 
the Pahlavi form of Vendeses in § 29. 

8 As there is no description of any £6d river it is probably only 
an epithet of the P6d&-meyan or iTatru-meyan (peVak being the 
usual Pahlavi equivalent of Av. £ithro). Justi suggests that Mo- 
karstan (Mokarsta riWin M6) stands for Pers. Moghulstan, ' the 
country of the Moghuls/ but this is doubtful. 

4 Sometimes written Arang or Ar6ng, but the nasal is usually 
omitted; it is the A v. Rangha of Aban Yt. 63, Rashnu Yt. 18, 
Ram Yt. 27, which is described more like a lake or sea in Vend. 
I, 77, Bahram Yt. 29. This semi-mythical river is supposed to 
encompass a great part of the known world (see Chap. VII, 16), 
and the BundahLr probably means to trace its course down the Amu 
(Oxus) from Sogdiana, across the Caspian, up the Aras (Araxes) 
or the Kur (Cyrus), through the Euxine and Mediterranean, and 
up the Nile to the Indian Ocean. The Amu (Oxus) is also some- 
times considered a part of the Veh river or Indus (see §§ 22, 28). 

6 Sogdiana (see Chap. XV, 29), the country of the Amu river. 

6 The combination of the three names in this clause, as Justi 
observes, renders it probable that we should read, 'the land of 
Egypt/ which is called Misr, and where the river is the Nile. 
The letter S in Paz. Sp£tos is very like an obsolete form of Av. g, 
or it may be read as Pahl. ik or ig, so the name may originally 
have been Gpetos or Ikp6tos ; and the Paz. Niv, if transcribed into 
Pahlavi, can also be read Nil. 

7 The ' good ' river, which, with the Arag and the ocean, completes 


passes on in the east, goes through the land of 
Sind 1 , and flows to the sea in Hindtist&n, and they 
call it there the Mehrd 2 river. 10. The sources of 
the Frit 3 river are from the frontier of Artim, they 
feed upon it in Sftrist&n, and it flows to the Diglat 
river ; and of this Frat it is 4 that they produce irri- 
gation over the land. u. It is declared that M&nti- 
skftxzx excavated the sources, and cast back the 
water all to one place, as it says thus : ' I reverence 
the Frat, full of fish, which ManHsv£!har excavated 
for the benefit of his own soul, and he seized the 
water and gave to drink 5 ' 12. The Diglat 6 river 
comes out from Salmon 7 , and flows to the sea in 
Khfi^ist&n. 13. The D&itfk 8 river is the river 

the circuit of the known world, and is evidently identified with the 
Indus ; sometimes it seems also to include the Amu (Oxus), as 
Bactria was considered a part of India ; thus we find the Balkh and 
Teremet rivers flowing into the Veil (see §§ 22, 28). 

1 See § 30. 

2 No doubt the Mehrvd or Hendvd river of § 7, and the Mihrdn 
of Ouseley's Oriental Geography of the pseudo Ibn 'Hauqal, 
pp. 148-155, which appears to combine the Sat% and lower Indus. 
The final n is usually omitted by the Bundahi.? after & in P&zand 
words. This river is also called K&sak (see § 30). 

3 The Euphrates, which rises in Armenia (part of the eastern 
empire of the Romans), traverses Syria, and joins the Tigris. 

4 Or, 'and its convenience is this;' a play upon the words 
farhat and Fr&t, which are identical in Pahlavi. 

5 Referring probably to canals for irrigation along the course of 
the Euphrates. 

6 The Tigris (Arabic Diglat), Hiddekel of Gen. ii. 14, Dan. 
x. 4, and perhaps the Av. tighm of Tfatar Yt. 6, 37 ; misread 
D6irid in Pazand. 

7 The country of Salm (see Chap. XV, 29), son of Fr6</un (see 
Chap. XXXI, 9, 10). The name can also be read Dilman, which 
is the name of a place in the same neighbourhood. 

8 The Av. Daitya of Vend. XIX, 5, Auharmazd Yt. 21, Aban 
Yt. 1 1 2, G6s Yt. 29. The ' good ddity a of Airyana-vae^-6 ' is also 


which comes out from Afr&n-ve^", and goes out 
through the hill-country 1 ; of all rivers the noxious 
creatures in it are most, as it says, that the Daitik 
river is full of noxious creatures. 14. The Dargam 
river is in Slide. 15. The Zend 2 river passes 
through the mountains of Pangist&n, and flows away 
to the Haro river. 16. The Haro 3 river flows out 
from the Aparsen range 4 . 17. The Hettimand 5 
river is in Sagastan, and its sources are from the 
Apdrsen range; this is distinct from that which 
Frasiyae^ conducted away 6 . 18. The river Akhoshir 
is in Kumfi" 7 . 19. The Zl^mand 8 river, in the direc- 

mentioned in Vend. I, 6, II, 42, 43, Ab&n Yt. 17, 104, Ram Yt. 2, 
but this may not be a river, though the phrase has, no doubt, led to 
locating the river Daitik in Aircin-ve^. 

1 Paz. gopestan in K20, which is evidently Pahl. kofist&n, but 
not the Kohistan of southern Persia. M6 has ' the mountain of 
Pakistan/ which must be incorrect, as according to §§ 15, 16, this is 
in north-east Khurasan, and too far from Airan-veg* in Ataro-pataHn 
(Adar-bi^an), see Chap. XXIX, 12. Justi proposes to read Gur- 
^istan (Georgia), and identifies the Daitik with the Araxes. But, 
adhering to the text of K20, the Daitik rises in Adar-bi^an and 
departs through a hill-country, a description applicable, not only 
to the Araxes, but also more particularly to the Saf6d Rud or 
white river; although this river seems to be mentioned again as 
the Sp6d or Spend river in § 23. 

2 Written Z6ndak in § 7. This can hardly be the Zendah river 
of Ispahan, but is probably the Te^end river, which flows past 
Meshhed into the Heri river. 

3 This is the Heri, which flows past Herat. 
* See Chap. XII, 9. 

6 The Etymander of classical writers, now the Helmand in Af- 
ghanistan. The Av. Haetumat of Vend. I, 50, XIX, 130, Zamyad 
Yt. 66, is the name of the country through which it flows. 

6 See § 34 and Chap. XXI, 6. 

7 The district about Damaghan. 

8 Perhaps the Zarafran. 


tion of Soghd, flows away towards the Khve^and 
river. 20. The Khve^and 1 river goes on through 
the midst of Samarkand and Parg&na, and they call 
it also the river Ashdrd. 21. The Marv 2 river, a 
glorious river in the east 3 , flows out from the Ap&r- 
sen range. 22. The Balkh river comes out from 
the Aparsen mountain of BamiMn 4 , ^ flows on to 
the Veh 5 river. 23. The Sped 6 river is in Ataro- 
patak&n; they say that Dahak begged a favour 7 
here from Aharman and the demons. 24. The Tort 8 
river, which they call also the Koir, comes out from 

1 This is evidently not the small affluent now called the Khu^and, 
but the great Syr-darya or Iaxartes, which flows through the pro- 
vinces of Farghanah and Samarkand, past Kokand, Khu^and, and 
Tashkand, into the Aral. The Paz. Ashard represents Pahl. 
Khshart, or Ashdrt (Iaxartes). 

2 The Murghab. 

8 Or, ' in Khurasan.' 

4 Bamian, near which the river of Balkh has its source. 

5 Justi observes that it should be l the Arag river ; ' but accord- 
ing to an Armenian writer of the seventh century the Persians 
called the Oxus the V6h river, and considered it to be in India, 
because Buddhists occupied the country on its banks (see Garrez 
in Journal Asiatique for 1869, pp. 161- 198). It would seem, 
therefore, that the Oxus was sometimes (or in early times) con- 
sidered a part of the Arag (Araxes), and sometimes (or in later 
times) a part of the V6h (Indus). 

6 So in M6, but K20 has ' Spend/ both here and in § 7. The 
name of this river corresponds with that of the Saf6d Rud, although 
the position of that river agrees best with the account given of the 
Daitik in § 13. 

7 Compare Ram Yt. 19, 20. K20 has ' there/ instead of 'here/ 

8 Called Rad in § 7 (by the loss of the first letter of the original 
Pahlavi name) ; by its alternative name, Koir, Justi identifies it as 
the Kur in Georgia, flowing into the Caspian, or sea of Vergsin, 
the Av. Vehrkana (Hyrcania) of Vend. I, 42, which is Gurgan in 

CHAPTER XX, 2O-3O, 8l 

the sea of Glklan x , and flows to the sea of Verg&n 2 . 

25. The Zahavayi 3 is the river which comes out 
from Ataro-patakan, and flows to the sea in Pars. 

26. The sources of the Khvarae 4 river are from 
Spahan 5 ; it passes on through Khu^istdn, flows forth 
to the Diglat 6 river, and in Spahan they call it the 
Mesrkan 7 river. 27. The Harhaz 8 river is in Tapa- 
ristan, and its sources are from Mount Dimavand. 

28. The Teremet 9 river flows away to the Veh riven 

29. The Vendesei* 10 river is in that part of Pars 
which they call Sagastan. 30. The Kasak n river 
comes out through a ravine (ka f ) in the province of 
Tus 12 , and they call it there the Kasp river ; more- 

1 M6 has Paz. Keyaseh, but this is in Sagast&n (see Chap. 
XIII, 16). 

2 The MSS. have Verg&, but the final nasal after a is often 
omitted in Pazand readings in the Bundahk. 

3 Not mentioned in § 7. Possibly one of the rivers Zab, which 
rise on the borders of Adarbi^an, flow into the Tigris, and so reach 
the Persian Gulf, the sea on the coast of Pars. Or it may be the 
Shirvan, another affluent of the Tigris, which flows through the 
district of Zohab. 

4 The Kuran, upon which the town of Shustar was founded by 
one of the early Sasanian kings, who also dug a canal, east of the 
town, so as to form a loop branch of the river ; this canal was 
called Nahr-i Masruqan by Oriental geographers (see Rawlinson, 
Journal Roy. Geogr. Soc. vol. ix. pp. 73-75). 

5 Ispahan in Persian. 

6 Miswritten Dayrid in Pazand (see § 12). 

7 Written in Pazand without the final n, as usual. This is the 
old name of the canal forming the eastern branch of the Kuran at 
Shustar ; it is now called Ab-i Gargar. 

8 Flows into the Caspian near Amul. 

9 Probably the river which flows into the Amu (Oxus) at Tar- 
maz ; but, in that case, the Oxus is here again identified with the 
Veh (Indus) as in § 22, instead of the Arag (Araxes) as in § 8. 

10 Called Khvanaidu, or Khvanainidij, in § 7. 

11 Called Kasik in § 7. 12 Close to Meshhed, 

[5] G 


over, the river, which is there the Veh, they call the 
Kasak 1 ; even in Slnd they call it the Kasak. 31. 
The Pe^ak-mfyan 2 , which is the river Aatru-mfyan, 
is that which is in Kangde^ 3 . 32. The Dara^a 
river is in Airan-ve^*, on the bank (bar) of which 
was the dwelling of Porushasp, the father of Zara- 
ttist 4 . 33. The other innumerable waters and rivers, 
springs and channels are one in origin with those 5 ; 
so in various districts and various places they call 
them by various names. 

34. Regarding Frdslya^ 6 they say, that a thou- 
sand springs were conducted away by him into the 
sea Kyansih 7 , suitable for horses, suitable for 
camels, suitable for oxen, suitable for asses, both 
great and small 8 ; and he conducted the spring 
Zarinmand (or golden source), which is the Hetti- 
mand 9 river they say, into the same sea ; and he 
conducted the seven navigable waters of the source 
of the Va£a£ni 10 river into the same sea, and made 
men settle there. 

1 Or, ( this same Veh river they call there the Kasak ; even in 
Sent they call // the Kasak;' S6ni is apt to be miswritten S6nd 
or Sind (see Chap. XV, 29). 

2 See § 7. The latter half of both names can also be read 
mahan, maho, or mah&n. Peshydtan, son ofVLstasp, seems to 
have taken a surname from this river (see Chap. XXIX, 5). 

3 See Chap. XXIX, 10. 

4 See Chaps. XXIV, 15, XXXII, 1, 2. 

5 Or, ' are from those as a source/ 

6 The MSS. have 'P6rushasp/ but compare § 17 and Chap. 
XXI, 6. The two names are somewhat alike in Pahlavi writing. 

7 See Chap. XIII, 16. 

8 Compare Chap. XIX, 6. K20 omits the words ' suitable for 
asses ' here. 

9 Another H6tumand according to § 17. Possibly a dried-up 
bed of that river. 

10 K20 has Vataeni; k and t being much alike in Pdzand. The 

CHAPTER XX, 31 -XXI, 2. 8$ 

Chapter XXI \ 

1. In revelation they mention seventeen 2 species 
of liquid (maya), as one liquid resides in plants 3 ; 
second, that which is flowing from the mountains, 
that is, the rivers ; third, that which is rain-water ; 
fourth, that of tanks and other special constructions ; 
fifth, the semen of animals and men; sixth, the urine 
of animals and men 4 ; seventh, the sweat of animals 
and men ; the eighth liquid is that in the skin of 
animals and men ; ninth, the tears of animals and 
men ; tenth, the blood of animals and men; eleventh, 
the oil in animals and men, a necessary in both 
worlds 5 ; twelfth, the saliva of animals and men, 
with which they nourish the embryo 6 ; the thirteenth 
is that which is under the bark 7 of plants, as it is 
said that every bark has a liquid, through which a 
drop appears on a twig (tekh) when placed four 
finger-breadths before a fire 8 ; fourteenth, the milk of 
animals and men. 2. All these, through growth, or 

'navigable (navtak) waters' may be 'the Ndvadd river' of § 7, 
'the river Nahvtak' of Chap. XXI, 6, and Naivtak of Chap. 
XXIX, 4, 5. 

1 This chapter is evidently a continuation of the preceding one. 

2 Only fourteen are mentioned in the details which follow. 

3 Most of these details are derived from the Pahl. Yas. XXXVIII, 
7-9, 13, 14; and several varieties of water are also described in 
Yas. LXVII, 15. 

4 This sixth liquid is omitted by K20. 

5 Departed souls are said to be fed with oil in paradise. 

6 K20 omits the word pus, ' embryo/ 

7 The meaning 'bark' for Paz. ay van is merely a guess; An- 
quetil has 'sap' (compare Pers. avind, 'juice'), but this is hardly 
consistent with the rest of the sentence. 

8 See Chap. XXVII, 23. 

G 2 


the body which is formed, mingle again with the 
rivers, for the body which is formed and the growth 
are both one. 

3. This, too, they say, that of these three rivers, 
that is, the Arag river, the Marv river, and the 
Veh x river, the spirits were dissatisfied, so that they 
would not flow into the world, owing to the defile- 
ment of stagnant water (armei't) which they beheld, 
so that they were in tribulation through it until Zara- 
tost was exhibited to them, whom I (Atiharmazd) 
will create, who will pour sixfold holy-water (zor) 
into it and make it again wholesome; he will preach 
carefulness 2 . 4. This, too, it says, that, of water 
whose holy-water is more and pollution less, the 
holy-water has come in excess, and in three years it 
goes back to the sources 3 ; that of which the pollu- 
tion and holy-water have both become equal, arrives 
back in six years ; that of which the pollution is 
more and holy-water less, arrives back in nine years. 
5. So, also, the growth of plants is connected, in this 
manner, strongly with the root 4 ; so, likewise, the 
blessings (afrin) which the righteous utter, come 
back, in this proportion, to themselves. 

6. Regarding the river Nahvtak 5 it says, that 
Fr&siy&z> of Tur conducted it away ; and when 6 

1 K20 has « H6tumand/ but M6 has < *Sapir/ the Huz. equiva- 
lent of * V6h/ which is more probable, 

2 Or, ' abstinence from impurity! 

3 The source Ar6dvivsur (see Chap. XIII, 3, 10). 

4 That is, by the sap circulating like the waters of the earth. 
The greater part of this sentence is omitted in K20. 

5 Probably ( the Navada' and 'navigable waters' of Chap. XX, 
7, 34, and Naivtak of Chap. XXIX, 4, 5. 

6 Reading amat, 'when/ instead of mun, 'which' (see note 
to Chap. I, 7). 

CHAPTER XXI, 3 -XXII, 3. 85 

Hushe^ar 1 comes it will flow again suitable for 
horses ; so, also, will the fountains of the sea 
Kyansih 2 . 7. Kyansih 2 is the one where the home 
(^in&k) of the Kayan race is. 

Chapter XXII. 

1. On the nature of lakes it says in revelation, 
that thus many fountains of waters have come into 
notice, which they call lakes (var); counterparts of 
the eyes (^ashm) of men are those fountains (Yash- 
mak) of waters; such as Lake A^ast, Lake Sovbar, 
Lake Khvarkem 3 , Lake Frazdan, Lake Zarinmand, 
Lake As vast, Lake Husru, Lake Sataves, Lake 

2. I will mention them also a second time : Lake 
A^e^ast 4 is in Ataro-patakan, warm is the water and 
opposed to harm, so that nothing whatever is living 
in it; and its source is connected with the wide- 
formed ocean 5 . 3. Lake Sovbar is in the upper 
district and country on the summit of the mountain 
of Tus 6 ; as it says, that the SiW-b&har 7 (' share of 
benefit ') is propitious and good from which abound- 

1 Written KMrsheWar, as usual in Bundahu (see Chap. XXXII, 8). 

2 Written Kayaseh in Pazand (see Chap. XIII, 16). 
8 Paz. Khvarazm both here and in § 4. 

4 Av, A'ae&tsta of Aban Yt. 49, Gos Yt. 18, 21, 22, Ashi 
Yt. 38, 41, Siroz. 9. The present Lake Urumiyah in Adarbi^an, 
which is called Khe^est, or Ze^est, by c Hamdu-l-lah Mustaufi. 

5 Implying that the water is salt. 

6 The Kondrasp mountain (see Chap. XII, 24). This lake is 
probably a small sheet of water on the mountains near Meshhed. 

7 Evidently a punning etymology of the name of this lake. 


ing liberality is produced. 4. Regarding Lake Khvd- 
ri^em 1 it says that excellent benefit is produced 
from it, that is, ArshLsang 2 the rich in wealth, the 
well-portioned with abounding pleasure. 5. Lake 
Frazdan 3 is in Sagastan ; they say, where a generous 
man, who is righteous, throws anything into it, it 
receives it ; when not righteous, it throws it out 
again ; its source also is connected with the wide- 
formed ocean. 6. Lake Zarlnmand is in Hama^/an 4 . 
7. Regarding Lake Asvast it is declared that the 
undefiled 5 water which it contains is always con- 
stantly flowing into the sea, so bright and copious 6 
that one might say that the sun had come into it and 
looked at Lake Asvast, into that water which is 
requisite for restoring the dead in the renovation 
of the universe. 8. Lake Husru 7 is within fifty 8 

1 The province of Rhvarisem was between the Aral and Cas- 
pian, along the ancient course of the Oxus (see Chap. XVII, 5). 
This lake has been identified with the Aral. 

2 Av. ashij vanguhi, ' good rectitude/ personified as a female 
angel whose praises are celebrated in the Ashi Ya^t; in later 
times she has been considered as the angel dispensing wealth and 
possessions. She is also called hxd (Av. areta, which is synony- 
mous with asha), see Chap. XXVII, 24. 

3 The 'Frazdanava water* of Aban Yt. 108 and Farhang-i Orm- 
khaduk, p. 17. Justi identifies it with the Ab-istadah ('standing 
water') lake, south of Ghazni. It is here represented as a salt 

4 K20 adds, 'they say/ This lake cannot be the spring Zarin- 
mand of Chap. XX, 34. 

5 Paz. avnasti transcribed into Pahlavi is avinastag, 'unspoiled/ 
the equivalent of Av. anahita in Yas. LXIV, 1, 16, Visp. I, 18. 

6 K20 has 'glorious' as a gloss to 'copious/ 

7 The Av. Haosravangha of Siroz. 9, ' the lake which is named 
Husravtfu' of Zamyad Yt. 56. It may be either Lake Van or 
Lake Sevan, which are nearly equidistant from Lake Urumiyah. 

8 M6 has ' four leagues/ 


leagues (para sang) of Lake TTe^ast. 9. Lake (or, 
rather, Gulf) Sataves * is that already written about, 
between the wide-formed ocean and the Putlk. 10. 
It is said that in Kamind&n is an abyss (zafar), 
from which everything they throw in always comes 
back, and it will not receive it unless alive (^anvar); 
when they throw a living creature into it, it carries 
it down ; men say that a fountain from hell is in it. 
11. Lake Urvis is on Hfigar the lofty 2 . 

Chapter XXIII. 

1. On the nature of the ape and the bear they 
say, that Yim, when reason (nismo) departed from 
him 3 , for fear of the demons took a demoness as 
wife, and gave Yimak, who was his sister, to a 
demon as wife ; and from them have originated 
the tailed ape and bear and other species of 

2. This, too, they say, that in the reign of As-i 
Dahak 4 a young woman was admitted to a demon, 
and a young man was admitted to a witch (parfk), 
and on seeing them they had intercourse ; owing to 
that one intercourse the black-skinned negro arose 
from them. 3. When Fredton 5 came to them they 
fled from the country of Iran, and settled upon the 
sea-coast ; now, through the invasion of the Arabs, 
they are again diffused through the country of Iran. 

1 See Chap. XIII, 9-13. 

2 See Chaps. XII, 5, XIII, 4. 

3 See Chap. XXXIV, 4. This is the JamsMd of the Shah- 
namah. Perhaps for ' reason ' we should read ' glory.' 

4 See Chaps. XXXI, 6, XXXIV, 5. 
6 See Chap. XXXIV, 6. 


Chapter XXIV. 

i. On the chieftainship of men and animals and 
every single thing it says in revelation, that first of 
the human species Gayoman/ was produced, brilliant 
and white, with eyes which looked out for the great 
one, him who was here the Zaratu^trotum (chief 
high-priest); the chieftainship of all things was from 
Zaratust 1 . 2. The white ass-goat 2 , which holds its 
head down, is the chief of goats, the first of those 
species created 3 . 3. The black sheep which is fat 
and white-jawed is the chief of sheep ; it was the 
first of those species created 3 . 4. The camel with 
white-haired knees and two humps is the chief of 
camels. 5. First the black-haired ox with yellow 
knees was created; he is the chief of oxen. 6. 
First the dazzling white (arias) horse, with yellow 
ears, glossy hair, and white eyes, was produced ; he 
is the chief of horses. 7. The white, cat-footed 4 
ass is the chief of asses. 8. First of dogs the fair 
(arus) dog with yellow hair was produced; he is the 
chief of dogs. 9. The hare was produced brown 

1 So in all MSS., but by reading mun, 'who/ instead of min, 
' from,' we should have, ' him who was here the chief high-priest 
and chieftainship of all things, who was Zaraturt.' The Pahlavi 
Visp. I, 1, gives the following list of chiefs : ' The chief of spirits is 
Auharmazd, the chief of worldly existences is Zaraturt, the chief of 
water-creatures is the Kar-fish, the chief of /aw^-animals is the 
ermine, the chief of flying-creatures is the Kampt, the chief of the 
wide-travellers is the . . . , the chief of those suitable for grazing 
is the ass-goat/ 

2 See Chap. XIV, 14. 

3 It is doubtful whether the phrase, i the first of those species 
created/ belongs to this sentence or the following one. 

4 Or, ' cat-legged/ 


(blir); he is the chief of the wide-travellers. 10. 
Those beasts which have no dread whatever of the 
hand are evil. 1 1. First of birds the griffon of three 
natures 1 was created, not for here (this world), for 
the Kanript 2 is the chief, which they call the falcon 
(>£ark), that which revelation says was brought to 
the enclosure formed by Yim. 12. First of fur 
animals the white ermine was produced ; he is the 
chief of fur animals ; as it says that it is the white 
ermine which came unto the assembly of the arch- 
angels. 13. The Kar-fish, or Ark 3 , is the chief of 
the water-creatures. 14. The Daitik 4 river is the 
chief of streams. 15. The Dara^a 5 river is the 
chief of exalted rivers, for the dwelling of the father 
of ZaratiLrt w r as on its banks 6 , and Zaratiist was 
born there. 16. The hoary forest 7 is the chief of 
forests. 17. Hugar the lofty 8 , on which the water 
of Aredvivsur flows and leaps, is the chief of sum- 
mits, since it is that above which is the revolution 
of the constellation Sataves 9 , the chief of reser- 

1 The Simurgh (see § 29 and Chap. XIV, 11, 23, 24). In Mkh. 
LXII, 37-39, it is mentioned as follows : ' And Sinamru's resting- 
place is on the tree which is opposed to harm, of all seeds ; and 
always when he rises aloft a thousand twigs will shoot forth from 
that tree ; and when he alights he will break off the thousand twigs, 
and he sheds their seed therefrom/ 

2 See Chap. XIX, 16. In § 29 ifamr6,f is said to be the chief. 

3 See Chaps. XIV, 12, 26, XVIII, 3-6. 

4 See Chap. XX, 13. 

5 See Chap. XX, 32. 

6 The MSS. have < in Balkh ' instead of ' on the banks.' 

7 The arus-i razur is the Av. spaetitem razurem of Ram 
Yt. 31. 

8 See Chap. XII, 5. 

9 See Chap. II, 7. 


voirs 1 . 18. The Horn which is out-squeezed is the 
chief of medicinal plants 2 . 19. Wheat is the chief 
of large-seeded 3 grains. 20. The desert wormwood 
is the chief of unmedicinal 4 plants. 21. The sum- 
mer vetch, which they also call 'pag' (gavirs), is 
the chief of small-seeded grains 5 . 22. The Kfistik 
(sacred thread-girdle) is the chief of clothes. 23. 
The Bazayvana 6 is the chief of seas. 24. Of two 
men, when they come forward together, the wiser 
and more truthful is chief. 

25. This, too, it says in revelation, that Atihar- 
mazd created the whole material world one abode, 
so that all may be one ; for there is much splendour 
and glory of industry in the world. 26. Whatsoever 
he performs, who practises that which is good, is 
the value of the water of life 7 ; since water is not 
created alike 8 in value, for the undefiled water of 
Aredvivstir is worth the whole water of the sky and 
earth of Khvaniras 9 , except the Arag river 10 , created 
by Aiiharmazd. 27. Of trees the myrtle and date, 

1 The meaning of Paz. gobard is doubtful, but it is here taken 
as standing for Pahl. gobalan, equivalent to the plural of Pers. 
gol or k 6 1, ' a reservoir ;' Sataves being a specially 'watery' con- 
stellation (see Tfatar Yt. o). Justi traces gobaran to Av. gufra, 
and translates it by ' protecting stars! 

2 Paz. khvad and ba^aga evidently stand for Pahl. hud (Av. 
huta) and besashk. 

3 Compare Av. a^-danunam-^a yavananam (Ttatar Yt. 29). 

4 Paz. aba^aga stands for Pahl. abesashk. 

5 Compare Av. kasu-danunam-^a vastranam (Tutar Yt. 29). 

6 Justi identifies this with Lake Van, but perhaps Lake Sevan 
may be meant. 

7 Or, ' its value is water/ K20 omits the word ' water.' 

8 Reading ham instead of hamak, 'all.' 

9 See Chap. XI, 2-6. 

10 See Chap. XX, 8. 

CHAPTER XXIV, 1 8 -XXV, 3. 9 1 

on which model, it is said, trees were formed, are 
worth all the trees of Khvaniras, except the Gokaraf 
tree 1 with which they restore the dead. 

28. Of mountains Mount Aparsen's beginning is 
in Sagastan and end in Khu^istan, some say it is all 
the mountains of Pars, and is chief of all mountains 
except Alb{ir£. 29. Of birds Aamros 2 is chief, who 
is worth all the birds in Khvaniras, except the grif- 
fon of three natures. 30. The conclusion is this, 
that every one who performs a great duty has then 
much value. 

Chapter XXV. 

1. On matters of religion 3 it says in revelation 
thus : 'The creatures of the world were created by 
me complete in three hundred and sixty-five days/ 
that is, the six periods of the Gahanbars which are 
completed in a year. 2. It is always necessary first 
to count the day and afterwards the night, for first 
the day goes off, and then the night comes on 4 . 
3. And from the season (gas) of Me^ok-shem 5 , 

1 See Chap. XVIII, 1-4. 

2 See Chap. XIX, 15, where it is written K&xmos. This § is at 
variance with § 11, which gives the chieftainship to Kanipt. 

3 That is, ' on the periods for observance of religious duties.* 

4 The Jewish and Muhammadan practice is just the contrary. 

5 The Av. maidhyo-shema of Yas. I, 27, II, 36, III, 41, 
Visp. I, 3, II, 1, Afringan Gahanbar 2, 8. It is the second 
season-festival, held on the five days ending with the 105th day of 
the Parsi year, which formerly corresponded approximately to mid- 
summer, according to the Bundahir. Later writings assert that it 
commemorates the creation of water. 


which is the auspicious 1 day Khur of the month 
Tir 2 , to the season of Me^iyarem 3 , which is the 

1 A dispute as to the meaning of this word formed no small 
part of the Kabisah controversy, carried on between the leaders of 
the two rival sects of Parsis in Bombay about fifty years ago. 
Dastur Edalji Darabji, the high-priest of the predominant sect (who 
adhered to the traditional calendar of the Indian Parsis), insisted 
that it meant ' solar/ or ' belonging to the calendar rectified for 
solar time by the intercalation of a month every 120 years ;' Mulla 
Firuz, the high-priest of the new sect (who had adopted the calendar 
of the Persian Parsis, which is one month in advance of the other), 
asserted that the word had no connection with intercalation, but 
meant ' commencing,' or ' pertaining to New-year's day/ as trans- 
lated into Sanskrit, by N6ry6sang, in Mkh. XLIX, 27. Anquetii 
translates it either as ' inclusive' or 'complete;' Windischmann 
simply skips it over ; and Justi translates it everywhere as ' in- 
clusive.' Dastur Edalji reads the word vehi^aki or vehi^ak; 
Neryosang has vah^a; Mulla Firuz reads nai/£akik in the Bun- 
dahLr, but vehi^akik in the Dinkan/, where the word also occurs; 
Justi has nai^akik. The meaning 'inclusive' suits the context in 
nearly all cases in the BundahLr, but not elsewhere ; if it had that 
meaning the most probable reading would be vikhe^-akik or 
nikhe^-akik, * arising, leaping over, including.' It is nearly always 
used in connection with dates or periods of time, and must be some 
epithet of a very general character, not only applicable to inter- 
calary periods, but also to New-year's day and dates in general ; 
something like the Arabic epithet mubarak, 'fortunate/ so com- 
monly used in Persian dates. Dastur Edalji compares it with Pers. 
bihrak or bihtarak, 'intercalary month/ which is probably a corrup- 
tion of it; and this suggests veh, 'good/ as one component of the 
epithet. The word maybe read veh-yasakik, 'for reverencing 
the good/ but as veh, 'good/ is an adjective, this would be an 
irregular form; a more probable reading is veh-i^akik, 'for 
anything good/ which, when applied to a day, or any period of 
time, would imply that it is suitable for anything good, that is, it is 
* auspicious/ Sometimes the word is written vehi^ak, v£hi/£akik, 
or v£hi/£6; and epithets of similar forms in Pahlavi are applied by 
the writers, of colophons to themselves, but these should be read 
vakhesak or ni^ivak, 'lowly, abject/ 

2 The eleventh day of the fourth month, when the festival 

3 The Av. maidhyairya of Yas. I, 30, II, 39, III, 44, Visp. I, 

CHAPTER XXV, 4-6. 93 

auspicious day V&hram of the month Din 1 — the 
shorts day — the night increases ; and from the sea- 
son of MeaXyarem to the season of Me^/ok-shem the 
night decreases and the day increases. 4. The 
summer day is as much as two of the shortest 2 
winter days, and the winter night is as much as two 
of the shortest summer nights 3 . 5. The summer 
day is twelve Hasars, the night six Hasars ; the 
winter night is twelve Hasars, the day six; a Hasar 
beings measure of time and, in like manner, of land 4 . 
6. In the season of Hamespamad&yem 5 , that is, the 

6, II, 1, Af. Gahan. 2, 11. It is the fifth season-festival, held on 
the five days ending with the 290th day of the Parsi year, which 
formerly corresponded approximately to midwinter, according to 
the Bundahii*. Later writings assert that it commemorates the 
creation of animals. 

1 The twentieth day of the tenth month, when the festival ends. 

2 The word kah-ait is merely a hybrid Huzvaru form of k ah is t, 
' shortest/ which occurs in the next phrase. 

3 This statement must be considered merely as an approxima- 
tion. The longest day is twice the length of the shortest one in 
latitude 49 , that is, north of Paris, Vienna, and Odessa, if the 
length of the day be computed from sunrise to sunset ; and, if 
twilight be included, it is necessary to go still further north. In 
Adarbig-an, the northern province of Persia, the longest day is 
about 14^ hours from sunrise to sunset, and the shortest is about 
9 \ hours. 

4 According to this passage a hasar of time is one hour and 
twenty minutes ; it is the Av. hathra of the Farhang-i Oim-khaduk 
(p. 43, ed. Hoshangji), which says, ' of twelve Hasars is the longest 
day, and the day and night in which is the longest day are twelve 
of the longest Hasars, eighteen of the medium, and twenty-four of 
the least — an enumeration of the several measures of the Hasar.' 
For the h&sar measure of land, see Chap. XXVI. 

5 So in K20, but this name is rarely written twice alike; it is 
the Av. hamaspathmaedaya of Yas. I, 31, II, 40, III, 45, Visp. 
I, 7, II, 1, Af. Gahan. 2, 12. It is the sixth season-festival, held 
on the five Gaiha days which conclude the Parsi year, just before 


five supplementary days at the end of the month 
Spendarma*/, the day and night are again equal. 

7. As from the auspicious day AClharmazd of the 
month Fravan/in to the auspicious day Aniran of 
the month Mitro 1 is the summer of seven months, 
so from the auspicious day Atiharmazd of the month 
A van to the auspicious month Spendarma^, on to 
the end of the five supplementary days 2 , is the 
winter of five months. 8. The priest fulfils the 
regulation (va^ar) about a corpse and other things, 
by this calculation as to summer and winter. 9. In 
those seven months 3 of summer the periods (gas) 
of the days and nights are five — since one cele- 
brates the Rapltvin — namely, the period of day- 
break is Havan, the period of midday is Rapttvin, 
the period of afternoon is Auzerin, when the ap- 
pearance of the stars has come into the sky 4 until 
midnight is the period of Aibisrtitem, from mid- 
night until the stars become imperceptible is the 
period of Aftshahin 5 . 10. In winter are four periods, 
for from daybreak till Afizerin is all Havan, and the 
rest as I have said ; and the reason of it is this, that 
the appearance 6 of winter is in the direction of the 

the vernal equinox, according to* the BundahLr. Later writings 
assert that it commemorates the creation of man. 

1 That is, from the first day of the first month to the last day of 
the seventh month. 

2 That is, from the first day of the eighth month to the last of 
the five G&tha days, which are added to the twelfth month to com- 
plete the year of 365 days. 

3 All MSS. have ' five months ' here. 

4 K20 has ' when the stars have come into sight/ 

5 The Avesta names of the five Gahs are Havani, Rapithwina, 
Uzay6irina, Aiwisruthrema, and Ushahina. 

6 Pdz. asharu is evidently a misreading of Pahl. dshkarih. 

CHAPTER XXV, 7-14. 95 

north, where the regions Vor&barst 1 and V6ru^anst 
are ; the original dwelling of summer, too, is in the 
south, where the regions Frada^afsh and Vidadafsh 
are ; on the day Afiharmazd of the auspicious month 
Avdn the winter acquires strength and enters into 
the world, and the spirit of Rapftvtn goes from 
above-ground to below-ground, where the spring 
(khani) of waters is, and diffuses 2 warmth and 
moisture in the water, and so many roots of trees do 
not wither with cold and drought. 11. And on the 
auspicious day Ataro of the month Din 3 the winter 
arrives, with much cold, at Airan-ve^ ; and until the 
end, in the auspicious month Spendarma^, winter 
advances through the whole world ; on this account 
they kindle a fire everywhere on the day Ataro of 
the month Din, and it forms an indication that 
winter has come. 12. In those five months the 
water of springs and conduits is all warm 4 , for Ra- 
pitvin keeps warmth and moisture there, and one 
does not celebrate the period of Rapitvin. 13. As 
the day Atiharmazd of the month Fravan/in ad- 
vances it diminishes the strength which winter 
possesses, and summer comes in from its own 
original dwelling, and receives strength and do- 
minion. 14. Rapitvin comes up from below-ground, 
and ripens the fruit of the trees ; on this account 

1 See Chaps. V, 8, XI, 3. The north, being opposed to the 
south or midday quarter, is opposed to the midday period of 
Rapitvin, which, therefore, disappears as winter approaches from 
the north. 

2 If, instead of khani for khanik, 'spring/ we read ahu-i, 
' lord of/ the translation will be, ' so that the angel of waters may 
diffuse/ &c. 

3 The ninth day of the tenth month. 

4 That is, warmer than the air, as it is cooler in summer. 


the water of springs is cold in summer 1 , for Rapitvin 
is not there; and those seven 2 months one celebrates 
the Rapttvfn, and summer advances through the 
whole earth. 15. And yet in the direction of Hin- 
dustan, there where the original dwelling of summer 
is nearer, it is always neither cold nor hot ; for in the 
season which is the dominion of summer, the rain 
always dispels most of the heat, and it does not 
become perceptible ; in the winter rain does not fall, 
and the cold does not become very perceptible 3 . 
16. In the northern direction, where the preparation 
of winter is, it is always cold 4 ; for in the summer 
mostly, on account of the more oppressive winter 
there, it is not possible so to dispel the cold that 
one might make it quite warm. 17. In the middle 
localities the cold of winter and heat of summer 
both come on vehemently. 

18. Again, the year dependent on the revolving 
moon is not equal to the computed year on this 
account, for the moon 5 returns one time in twenty- 
nine, and one time in thirty days, and there are four 

1 K20 has l winter ' by mistake. 

2 K20 has ' six/ and M6 'five/ instead of ' seven.' 

3 This is a fairly accurate account of the effect of the monsoons 
over the greater part of India, as understood by a foreigner unac- 
quainted with the different state of matters in a large portion of 
the Madras provinces. 

4 M6 has khurasan instead of arayi^n, ( preparation,' which 
alters the sense into ' that is, Khur&san, of which the winter is always 

5 The MSS. have the Huzv&rL? term for ' month/ which is 
sometimes used, by mistake, for ' moon/ It is doubtful which 
word the author intended to use here, but it is usual to count the 
days of a lunar month from the first actual appearance of the new 
moon, which usually occurs a full day after the change of the 

CHAPTER XXV, 1 5-2 2. 97 

hours (z a man) more than such a one of its years 1 ; 
as it says, that every one deceives where they speak 
about the moon (or month), except when they say 
that it comes twice in sixty days. 19. Whoever 
keeps the year by the revolution of the moon 
mingles summer with winter and winter with 
summer 2 . 

20. This, too, it says, that the auspicious month 
Fravar^in, the month ArafavahLst, and the month 
Horvada^ 3 are spring; the month Tir, the month 
Amerodartf, and the month Shatvairo are summer ; 
the month Mitro, the month A van, and the month 
Ataro are autumn; the month Din, the month 
Vohiiman, and the month Spendarma^ are winter 4 . 
21. And the sun comes from the sign (khtir^ak) of 
Aries, into which it proceeded in the beginning, 
back to that same place in three hundred and sixty- 
five days and six short times (hours), which are one 
year. 22. As every three months it (the sun) ad- 
vances through three constellations, more or less, 
the moon comes, in a hundred and eighty days, 
back to the place out of which it travelled in the 
beginning 5 . 

1 Meaning, probably, that the lunar year is four hours more 
than twelve months of 29 and 30 days each, alternately. It should 
be 8 hours, 48 minutes, and 37 seconds. The sentence seems 
defective, but it is evident from § 21 that zaman means ' hour/ 

2 That is, the lunar year being eleven days shorter than the 
solar one, its months are constantly retrograding through the 

8 Generally written AvardaW in Pazand, and Khurdad in Persian. 

4 The names of the months are selected from the names of the 
days of the month (see Chap. XXVII, 24), but are arranged in a 
totally different order. 

8 Probably meaning, that the new moon next the autumnal 

[5] H 


Chapter XXVI. 

1. A H&sar 1 on the ground is a Parasang of one 
thousand steps of the two feet. 2. A Parasang 2 is 
a measure as much as a far-seeing man may look 
out, see a beast of burden, and make known that it 
is black or white. 3. And the measure of a man is 
eight medium spans 3 . 

equinox is to be looked for in the same quarter as the new moon 
nearest the vernal equinox, the moon's declination being nearly 
the same in both cases. 

1 Av. hdthra of Vend. II, 65, VIII, 280, 287, 291, Tfotar Yt. 
23, 29. The statements regarding the length of a Hasar are 
rather perplexing, for we are told that it i is like a Parasang' 
(Chap. XIV, 4), that ' the length of a Hasar is one-fourth of a Para- 
sang ' (Chap. XVI, 7), and that ' a medium Hasar on the ground, 
which they also call a Parasang, is a thousand steps of the two 
feet when walking with propriety' (Farhang-i Oim-khaduk, ed. 
Hosh. p. 42). To reconcile these statements we must conclude 
that the H&sar is like a Parasang merely in the sense of being 
a long measure of distance, that it is really the mille pass us or 
mile of the Romans, and that it is a quarter of the actual Parasang. 
At the same time, as it was usual to call a Hasar by the name of a 
Parasang, we are often left in doubt whether a mile or a league is 
meant, when a Hasar or Parasang is mentioned. The Farhang-i 
Oim-khaduk (p. 41) also mentions other measures of distance, 
such as the ta^ar (Av. ta^ara) of two Hasars, the asv&st (or 
a6ast) of four Hasars, the dashmest (Av. dakhshmaiti) of eight 
Hasars, and the yog&st (Av. yi^aiasti or yu^aiasti) of sixteen 

2 A Parasang is usually from 3 J to 4 English miles, but perhaps 
a H&sar is meant here. 

3 Reading vitast-i miy&nak instead of vitast dam&nak. 
The Farhang-i Oim-khaduk (p. 41) mentions three kinds of spans, 
the Av. vitasti (Vend. VIII, 243, 245, XVII, 13) of twelve finger- 
breadths (an gust), or about 9 inches, which is a full span between 
the thumb and little finger (the one mentioned in the text) ; the Av. 
di^ti (Vend. XVII, 13) often finger-breadths, or about 7 \ inches, 
which is a span between the thumb and middle finger ; and the 


Chapter XXVII. 

i. On the nature of plants it says in revelation, 
that, before the coming of the destroyer, vegetation 
had no thorn and bark about it; and, afterwards, 
when the destroyer came, it became coated with 
bark and thorny 1 , for antagonism mingled with 
every single thing ; owing to that cause vegetation 
is also much mixed with poison, like Bis the height 
of hemp (kand) 2 , that is poisonous, for men when 
they eat it die. 

2. In like manner even as the animals, with grain 
of fifty and five species and twelve species of medi- 
cinal plants, have arisen from the primeval ox 3 , ten 
thousand 4 species among the species of principal 

Av. uza^rti (Pahl. lal&-a,rt) of eight finger-breadths, or about 6 
inches, which is a span between the thumb and fore-finger. Other 
measures mentioned by the same authority are the pat (Av. padha, 
Vend. IX, 15, 20, 29), 'foot/ of fourteen finger-breadths, or about 
\o\ inches; the gam (A v. gdya, Vend. Ill, 57, &c), ' step/ which 
'in the Vendidad is three par/ or about 2 feet 7 \ inches, 'and in 
other places is said to be two frarast' (Av. frarstthni in Vend. 
VII, 76, 79,87); so the frdrast, which is probably the distance 
from the neck to the extended elbow, is half a gam, or from 15 to 
16 inches. Two other measures are mentioned in Vend. VII, 79, 
87, 90, IX, 8, the Av. fr&b&zu, * fore-arm or cubit' from elbow to 
finger-ends, which is about 18 inches (or it may be a half fathom); 
and Av. vibazu, which is probably the 'fathom/ or extent of the 
two arms out-stretched, from 5§ to 6 feet. 

1 M6 has ' poisonous/ but is evidently copied from an original 
almost illegible in some places. 

2 Perhaps ' hemp the height of Bis ' would better express the 
Pahlavi words, but Bis (Napellus Moysis) is often mentioned as a 
poisonous plant. The phrase may also be translated ' like Bis and 
tall hemp.' 

3 See Chap. XIV, 1. 

4 M6 has ' a thousand/ but marks an omission. See Chap. IX, 4. 

H 2 


plants, and a hundred thousand species among 
ordinary plants have grown from all these seeds of 
the tree opposed to harm 1 , the many-seeded, which 
has grown in the wide-formed ocean. 3. When the 
seeds of all these plants, with those from the pri- 
meval ox, have arisen upon it, every year the bird 2 
strips that tree and mingles all the seeds in the 
water; Tlstar seizes them with the rain-water and 
rains them on to all regions. 4. Near to that tree 
the white Horn, the healing and undefiled, has 
grown at the source of the water of Aredvlvsur 3 ; 
every one who eats it becomes immortal, and they 
call it the Gokan/ 4 tree, as it is said that Horn is 
expelling death 5 ; also in the renovation of the uni- 
verse they prepare its immortality therefrom 6 ; and 
it is the chief of plants 7 . 

5. These are as many genera of plants as exist : 
trees and shrubs, fruit-trees, corn, flowers, aromatic 
herbs, salads, spices, grass, wild plants, medicinal 

1 See Chaps. IX, 5, XVIII, 9, XXIX, 5. 

2 The apparently contradictory account in Chap. IX, 2, refers 
only to the first production of material plants from their spiritual 
or ideal representative. The bird here mentioned is iTamro.? (see 
Chaps. XIX, 15, XXIV, 29), as appears from the following 
passage (Mkh. LXII, 40-42): 'And the bird ^Tamro^ for ever 
sits in that vicinity ; and his work is this, that he collects that seed 
which sheds from the tree of all seeds, which is opposed to harm, 
and conveys it there where Tirtar seizes the water, so that Tartar 
may seize the water with that seed of all kinds, and may rain it on 
the world with the rain/ 

8 See Chaps. XII, 5, XIII, 3-5. 

4 Here written G6karn in all MSS. See Chaps. IX, 6, XVIII, 
1, 2. 

5 That is, in Yas. IX, where Haoma is entitled duraosha. 

6 See Chap. XXIV, 27. 

7 See Chap. XXIV, 18. 


plants, gum plants, and all producing x oil, dyes, and 
clothing. 6. I will mention them also a second 
time : all whose fruit is not welcome as food of men, 
and are perennial (scllvar), as the cypress, the plane, 
the white poplar, the box, and others of this genus, 
they call trees and shrubs (dar va dirakht). 7. 
The produce of everything welcome as food of men, 
that is perennial, as the date, the myrtle, the lote- 
plum 2 , the grape, the quince, the apple, the citron, 
the pomegranate, the peach, the fig, the walnut, the 
almond, and others in this genus, they call fruit 
(mtvak). 8. Whatever requires labour with the 
spade 3 , and is perennial, they call a shrub (dirakht). 

9. Whatever requires that they take its crop 
through labour, and its root withers away, such as 
wheat, barley, grain, various kinds 4 of pulse, vetches, 
and others of this genus, they call corn (^"ur^dk). 

10. Every plant with fragrant leaves, which is culti- 
vated by the hand-labour of men, and is perennial 
(hamvar), they call an aromatic herb (siparam). 1 1. 
Whatever sweet-scented blossom arises at various 
seasons through the hand-labour of men, or has 
a perennial root and blossoms in its season with 
new shoots and sweet-scented blossoms, as the rose, 
the narcissus, the jasmine, the dog-rose (nestarun), 

1 Comparing this list with the subsequent repetition it appears 
probable that hamak bar a is a corruption of aesam b6d (see 
§§ 19, 21), and that we ought to read ' gum plants, woods, scents, 
and plants for oil, dyes, and clothing/ M6 has ' oil and dyes for 

2 The kunar (see Chap. XV, 13). 

3 The Paz. pehani (which is omitted in K20) is evidently a mis- 
reading of Pahl. pashang, 'a hoe-like spade/ 

4 M6 adds Paz. gavina (Pahl. gunak) to gvid'gvi^mungan, 
without altering the meaning materially. 

102 BUNDAHI.S'. 

the tulip, the colocynth (kavastlk), the pandanus 
(kedi), the iamba, the ox-eye (heri), the crocus, 
the swallow-wort (zarda), the violet, the karda, 
and others of this genus, they call a flower (gul). 
12. Everything whose sweet-scented fruit, or sweet- 
scented blossom, arises in its season, without the 
hand-labour of men, they call a wild plant (vahar 
or nihil). 13. Whatever is welcome as food of 
cattle and beasts of burden they call grass (giyah). 
14. Whatever enters into cakes (pes-p&rakiha) 
they call spices (dvzarfhd). 15. Whatever is wel- 
come in eating of bread, as torn shoots 1 of the cori- 
ander, water-cress (kaki^), the leek, and others of 
this genus, they call salad (terak) 2 . 16. Whatever 
is like spinning 3 cotton, and others of this genus, 
they call clothing plants (^amak). 17. Whatever 
lentil 4 is greasy, as sesame, dushdang, hemp, 
zandak 5 , and others of this genus, they call an 
oil-seed (r6kan6). 18. Whatever one can dye 
clothing with, as saffron, sapan-wood, za^ava, 
vaha, and others of this genus, they call a dye- 
plant (rag). 19. Whatever root, or gum 6 , or wood 

1 Reading stak dari^; Justi has ' baked shoots;' Anquetil has 
'the three following;' M6 has stak va karafs, ' shoots and 

2 Or tarak in § 5, Pers. tarah. 

3 Reading Huz. neskhunan, 'twisting/ but the word is doubtful ; 
Justi has ' sitting on the plant j which is a rather singular description 
for cotton. 

4 Reading ma^ag; Anquetil, Windischmann, and Justi read 
mazg, 'marrow/ but this is usually written otherwise. 

5 Perhaps for z6td, 'olive/ as Anquetil supposes, and Justi 

6 Reading tuf (compare Pers. tuf, ' saliva'). 

CHAPTER XXVII, 12-24. io 3 

is scented, as frankincense 1 , vareUt 2 , kust, sandal- 
wood, cardamom 3 , camphor, orange-scented mint, 
and others of this genus, they call a scent (bod). 
20. Whatever stickiness comes out from plants 4 
they call gummy (za^ak). 21. The timber which 
proceeds from the trees, when it is either dry or wet, 
they call wood (/£iba). 22. Every one of all these 
plants which is so, they call medicinal (dartik) 5 . 

23. The principal fruits are 0/* thirty kinds (kha- 
dutnak), and ten species (sarafak) of them are fit 
to eat inside and outside, as the fig, the apple, the 
quince, the citron, the grape, the mulberry, the pear, 
and others of this kind ; ten are fit to eat outside, 
but not fit to eat inside, as the date, the peach, the 
white apricot, and others of this kind ; those which 
are fit to eat inside, but not fit to eat outside, are 
the walnut, the almond, the pomegranate, the cocoa- 
nut 6 , the filbert 7 , the chesnut 8 , the pistachio nut, 
the vargan, and whatever else of this description 
are very remarkable. 

24 9 . This, too, it says, that every single flower is 
appropriate to an angel (ameshospend) 10 , as the 

1 Paz. kendri for Pahl. kundur probably. 

2 Justi compares Pers. bargha^t. 

8 Paz. k&kura may be equivalent to Pers. qaqulah, 'carda- 
moms/ or to Pers. k&kul or kakul, ' marjoram/ 

4 K20 omits a line, from here to the word ' either/ 

5 The line which contained this sentence is torn off in K20. 

6 Paz. anarsar is a misreading of Pahl. an argil (Pers. n argil, 
* cocoa-nut '). 

7 Paz. pendak, a misreading of Pahl. funduk. 

8 Paz. shahbrod, a misreading of Pahl. shahbalut; omitted 
in M6. 

9 M6 begins a new chapter here. 

10 These are the thirty archangels and angels whose names are 
applied to the thirty days of the Parsi month, in the order in 


white * jasmine (saman) is for Vohtiman, the myrtle 
and jasmine (yasmin) are Aftharmazd's own, the 
mouse-ear (or sweet marjoram) is AshavahLst's 2 own, 
the basil-royal is Shatvairo's own, the musk flower 
is SpendarmaaTs, the lily is HorvadaaTs, the /£amba 
is AmerodadTs, Din-pavan-Ataro has the orange- 
scented mint (va^rang-bod), Atar6 has the mari- 
gold 3 (adargun), the water-lily is Av&n's, the white 
marv is Khurshe^'s, the ranges 4 is Mah's, the 
violet is Tir's, the meren 5 is Goss, the karda is 
Din-pavan-Mitro's, all violets are Mitrd's, the red 
chrysanthemum (kher) is Srosh's, the dog-rose 
(nestran) is Rashntfs, the cockscomb is Fravar- 
din's, the sisebar is Vahram's, the yellow chrysan- 
themum is Ram's, the orange-scented mint is VaaTs 6 , 
the trigonella is Din-pa van -Din's, the hundred- 
petalled rose is Din's, all kinds of wild flowers 
(vahir) are AraTs 7 , Ast&d has all the white H6m 8 , 
the bread-baker's basil is Amman's, Zamyd^ has the 
crocus, Maraspend has the flower* of Ardashir, 

which they are mentioned here, except that Auharmazd is the first 
day, and Vohuman is the second. 

1 M6 has ' yellow/ 

2 Synonymous with the Ar^avahwt of Chap. I, 26. 

3 Anquetil, Windischmann, and Justi have ' the poppy/ 

4 M6 has Paz. lg as only the first part of the word, and Justi 
translates it by 'red lac/ which is not a plant. Transcribing 
the Pazand into Pahlavi, perhaps the nearest probable word is 
rand, ' laurel/ 

5 M6 has Paz. m6nr; Anquetil has 'vine blossom/ and is 
followed by Windischmann and Justi, but the word is very 

6 The remainder of this chapter is lost from K20. 

7 This female angel is also called Arshuang (see Chap. XXII, 4). 

8 See § 4. 

9 M6 leaves a blank space for the name of the flower ; perhaps 
it is the marv-i Ardashiran. 


Antr&n has this Horn of the angel Horn 1 , of three 

25. It is concerning plants that every single kind 
with a drop of water on a twig (teh) they should 
hold four finger-breadths in front of the fire 2 ; most 
of all it is the lotos (kunar) they speak of. 

Chapter XXVIII 3 . 

[1. On the evil-doing of Aharman and the demons 
it says in revelation, that the evil which the evil 
spirit has produced for the creation of Atiharmazd it 
is possible to tell by this winter 4 ; and his body is 
that of a lizard (vazagh) 5 whose place is filth (kal/£). 
2. He does not think, nor speak, nor act for the 
welfare (n ad ukih) of the creatures of Atiharmazd; 
and his business is unmercifulness and the destruc- 
tion of this welfare, so that the creatures which 
Auharmazd shall increase he will destroy ; and his 
eyesight (iashm mi/Hi'n) 6 does not refrain from 
doing the creatures harm. 3. As it says that, ' ever 

1 Reading, in Pahlavi, H6m y6dat6 a£ h6m. 

2 See Chap. XXI, 1 . Referring to the necessity of drying fire- 
wood before putting it on the fire. The kunar is specially men- 
tioned, as one of the first fire-woods used by mankind, in Chap. 
XV, 13. 

3 Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX, and XXXI are omitted in M6 and 
all MSS. descended from it, whether Pahlavi or Pazand; and, 
owing to the loss of a folio from K20 before any of its extant 
copies were written, the first quarter of Chap. XXVIII has hitherto 
been missing, but is here supplied (enclosed in brackets) from TD, 
a MS. belonging to Mobad Tahmuras Dinshaw (see Introduction). 

4 Winter being one of the primary eVils brought upon creation 
by Angra-mainyu (see Vend. I, 8-12). 

5 See Chap. Ill, 9. 6 Referring to ' the evil eye/ 


since a creature was created by us, I, who am 
Atiharmazd, have not rested at ease, on account of 
providing protection for my own creatures; and 
likewise not even he, the evil spirit, on account of 
contriving evil for the creatures/ 4. And by their 
devotion to witchcraft (yatuk-dlnoih) he seduces 
mankind into affection for himself and disaffection 
to Auharmazd 1 , so that they forsake the religion 
of Ailharmazd, and practise that of Aharman. 5. 
He casts this into the thoughts of men, that this 
religion of Auharmazd is nought, and it is not 
necessary to be steadfast in it. 6. Whoever gives 
that man anything, in whose law (da^) this saying 
is established, then the evil spirit is propitiated by 
him, that is, he has acted by his pleasure. 

7. The business of Akoman 2 is this, that he gave 
vile thoughts and discord to the creatures. 8. The 
business of the demon Andar is this, that he con- 
strains the thoughts of the creatures from deeds of 
virtue, just like a leader who has well-constrained 
(sardar-i khfip afsar^o); and he casts this into 
the thoughts of men, that it is not necessary to 
have the sacred shirt and thread '- girdle. 9. The 
business of the demon Savar 3 , that is a leader of 
the demons, is this, that is, misgovernment, oppres- 
sive anarchy, and drunkenness. 10. The business of 
the demon Nalkiyas 4 is this, that he gives discon- 
tent to the creatures ; as it says, that should this one 

1 Compare Chap. I, 14. 

2 The six arch-fiends of this paragraph are those mentioned in 
Chaps. I, 27, XXX, 29. 

3 Written Sovar in Chap. I, 27. 

4 Written Nakahe*/ in Chap. I, 27, Naikiya^ when repeated in 
this sentence, and Paz. Naunghas in Chap. XXX, 29. 


give anything to those men whose opinion (d&af) is 
this, that it is not necessary to have the sacred shirt 
and tkread-g\r&\e, then Andar, Savar, and N&ikiyas 
are propitiated by him. n. The demon Taprez/ 1 is 
he who mingles poison with plants and creatures ; 
as it says thus : ' Taprez> the frustrater, and Zairli 
the maker of poison/ 12. All those six, it is said, 
are arch-fiends 2 of the demons; the rest are co- 
operating and confederate with them. 13. This, 
too, it says, that] 3 should one give [anything to] a 
man who says [that it is proper to have one boot], 
and in his law walking with one boot [is established, 
then] 4 the fiend Taprez> is propitiated [by him]. 

14. The demon Tar6mat 5 [is he who] produces 
disobedience; the demon Mitokht 6 is the liar (dro- 
^an) of the evil spirit 7 ; the demon Ara^k 8 ('malice') 
is the spiteful fiend of the evil eye. 15. Theirs are 
the same 9 appliances as the demon Aeshm's 10 , as it 

1 Written Tairez> in Chap. I, 27. 2 See Chap. Ill, 2. 

8 From this point the Pahlavi text is extant in K20, except some 
illegible words, the translation of which (supplied from TD) is here 
enclosed in brackets. 

4 Anquetil, misled by the lacuna in his MS., thought that there 
was a change of subject here, and began a new chapter at this 
point. On this account the numbers of his chapters are hence- 
forth one in excess of those in this translation. 

5 Written Tarokmato in TD, and identified with Naunghas 
(Nalkiyas) in Chap. XXX, 29 ; a personification of the Av. tar 6- 
maiti, ' disobedience,' of Yas. XXXIII, 4, LIX, 8. 

6 A personification of the Av. mithaokhta, 'false-spoken/ of 
Yas. LIX, 8, Vend. XIX, 146, Visp. XXIII, 9, Zamyad Yt. 96. 

7 TD has dru£- giimanikih, ' the fiend of scepticism/ 

8 Av. araska of Yas. IX, 18, Ram Yt. 16, personified. 

9 The word homanam in K 20 is a false Huzvam reading of 
ham, owing to the copyist reading am, 'I am;' TD has ham- 
afzar, ' having like means/ 

10 Or Khashm, 'wrath;' so written in K20, but it is usually 


says that seven powers are given to Aeshm x , that 
he may utterly destroy the creatures therewith ; 
with those seven powers he will destroy seven 2 of 
the Kayan heroes in his own time, but one will 
remain. 16. There where Mitokht ('falsehood') 
arrives, Arask (' malice ') becomes welcome, [and 
there where Ara*?k is welcome] 3 Aeshm lays a 
foundation 4 , and there where Aeshm has a founda- 
tion 5 many creatures perish, and he causes much 
non-Iranianism 6 . 17. Aeshm mostly contrives all 
evil for the creatures of Atiharmazd, and the evil 
deeds of those Kayan heroes have been more com- 
plete through Aeshm, as it says, that Aeshm, the 
impetuous assailant, causes them most 7 . 

18. The demon Vizaresh 8 is he who struggles 
with the souls of men which have departed, those 

ASshm elsewhere; the Av. aeshma of Vend. IX, 37, X, 23, 27, &c. 
The Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit appears to be the Av. A6shm6 
da6v6, ' demon of wrath.' 

1 TD has ' there were seven powers of A6shm/ 

2 TD has * six/ which looks like an unlucky attempt to amend 
a correct text. Tradition tells us that only five Kayans reigned 
(see Chap. XXXIV, 7), and the Shahnamah also mentions Siya- 
wush (Pahl. Kai-Siyavakhsh), who did not reign ; but eight Kayans, 
besides Loharasp and Vwtasp, who were of collateral descent (see 
Chap. XXXI, 28), are mentioned in the Avesta, whence the author 
of the Bundahu would obtain much of his information (see Fra- 
vardm Yt. 132, Zamyad Yt. 71^ 74). 

8 The phrase in brackets occurs only in TD. 

4 Reading bunak as in TD; K20 has ' sends down a root/ 

5 So in TD; K20 has ' where Aeshm keeps on.' 

6 That is, ' many foreign customs/ 

7 The word vesh, 'most/ is only in TD. 

8 So in TD; K20 has Vi^esh. He is the Av. Vizaresha of 
Vend. XIX, 94, who is said to convey the souls of the departed to 
the ^Tinva^ bridge. 


days and nights * when they remain in the world ; 
he carries them on, terror-stricken, and sits at the 
gate of hell. 19. The demon Uda 2 is he who, when 
a man sits in a private place, or when he eats at 
meals, strikes his knee spiritually on his back 3 , so 
that he bawls out [and looks out, that chattering 
he may eat, chattering] he may evacuate (rl£af), and 
chattering he may make water (meze^f), so that he 
may not attain [unto the] best existence 4 . 

[20. The demon Akatash 5 is the fiend of perver- 
sion (nikfrayfh), who makes the creatures averse 
(niktrai) from proper things ; as it says, that who- 
ever has given anything to that person (tanu) 
whose opinion (d&d) is this, that it is not necessary 
to have a high-priest (dastdbar), then the demon 
Aeshm is propitiated by him. 21. Whoever has 
given anything to that person whose opinion is this, 
and who says, that it is not necessary to have a 
snake-killer (mar-van), then Aharman, with the 
foregoing demons, is propitiated by him ; this is 
said of him who, when he sees a noxious creature, 
does not kill it. 22. A snake-killer (mar6-gno) 6 
is a stick on the end of which a leathern thong is 

1 TD has ' those three nights/ referring to the period that the 
soul is said to remain hovering about the body after death (see 
Ha^6kht Nask, ed. Haug, II, 1-18, III, 1-17). 

2 So in K20; TD has Afo/ak (see Pahl.Vend. XVIII, 70). 

3 TD has merely l strikes a slipper (pa^in-posh) spiritually,' 
that is, invisibly, for the purpose of startling the man. 

4 The short phrases in brackets are taken from TD to supply 
words torn off from K20, which passes on to Chap. XXIX at this 
point, but TD supplies a continuation of Chap. XXVIII, which is 
added here, and enclosed in brackets. 

5 The Av. Akatasha of Vend. X, 23 Sp., XIX, 43 w - 

6 See Pahlavi Vend. XVIII, 5, 6. 


provided ; and it is declared that every one of the 
good religion must possess one, that they may 
strike and kill noxious creatures and sinners more 
meritoriously with it. 

23. Zarmdn 1 is the demon who makes decrepit 
(dfispadf), whom they call old age (pirih). 24. 
A^lshmak 2 is he who makes disastrous (vazandak), 
and also causes the whirlwind 3 which passes over 
for disturbance. 25. The demon Vareno 4 is he 
who causes illicit intercourse, as it says thus : 
' Vareno the defiling (dial)/ 26. The demon Bfish- 
isp 5 is she who causes slothfulness ; Se^* is the 
fiend (drti^*) who causes annihilation; and the 
demon Nly&z is he who causes distress. 

2 7. The demon Az 6 (' greediness ') is he who 
swallows everything, and when, through destitution, 
nothing has come he eats himself; he is that 
fiendishness which, although the whole wealth of 
the world be given up to it, does not fill up and is 
not satisfied; as it says, that the eye of the covetous 
is a noose (gamand), and in it the world is nought. 
28. Pfo 7 is the demon who makes a hoard, and 

1 A personification of the Av. zaurva of Vend. XIX, 43 W., 
Yas. IX, 18 Sp., Gds Yt. 10, Ram Yt. 16. 

2 The reading of this name is uncertain. 

3 The small whirlwinds, which usually precede a change of wind 
in India, are commonly known by the name of shaiTan, which 
indicates that such whirling columns of dust are popularly attri- 
buted to demoniacal agency. 

4 A personification of A v. varena, 'desire/ in an evil sense. 

5 Av. Bushyasta of Vend. XI, 28, 29, 36, 37, XVIII, 38, &c. 
The names of the three demons in this sentence are Persian words 
for ' sloth/ ' trouble/ and ' want/ 

a 6 Av. Azi of Vend. XVIII, 45, 50, Yas. XVII, 46, LXVII, 22, 
Artad Yt. 1. 

7 Compare Pers. payuj, l covetous/ and piyus, ' avarice/ Tus 
is evidently the demon of misers, and Az that of the selfish. 


does not consume it, and does not give to any one ; 
as it says, that the power of the demon Az is owing 
to that person who, not content with his own wife, 
snatches away even those of others. 

29. The demon Nas 1 is he who causes the pollu- 
tion and contamination (nisrtistih), which they call 
nas&i ('dead matter'). 30. The demon Friftir 
(' deceiver') is he who seduces mankind. 31. The 
demon Spazg 2 (' slander') is he who brings and 
conveys discourse (milaya), and it is nothing in 
appearance such as he says ; and he shows that 
mankind fights and apologizes (avakhshineaf), indi- 
vidual with individual. 32. The demon Arist 3 ('un- 
true') is he who speaks falsehood. 33. The demon 
Aighash 4 is the malignant-eyed fiend who smites 
mankind with his eye. 34. The demon Btit 5 is he 
whom they worship among the Hindus, and his 
growth is lodged in idols, as one worships the horse 
as an idol 6 . 35. Asto-vida^ 7 is the evil flyer (vae-i 
sari tar) who seizes the life ; as it says that, when 

1 Av. Nasu of Vend. V, 85-106, VI, 65, 72, 74, 79, VII, 2-27, 
70, VIII, 46, 48, 132-228, IX, 49-117, &c. 

2 Av. spazga of Ardabahwt Yt. 8, 11, 15. 

3 Always written like anast. 

4 Av. aghashi of Vend. XX, 14, 20, 24, which appears to be 
'the evil eye;' but see § 36. 

6 Av. Buiti of Vend. XIX, 4, 6, 140, who must be identified with 
Pers. but, ' an idol/ Sans, bhuta, ' a goblin/ and not with Buddha. 

6 Reading afaj vakhsh pavan butihd m&hm&no, /fcigun 
but asp parasteVo, which evidently admits of many variations, 
but the meaning is rather obscure. 

7 Here written Asti-vida</ (see Chap. Ill, 21). Vend. V, 25, 31 
says, ' Ast6-vtdh6tu binds him (the dying man) ; Vayo (the flying 
demon) conveys him bound ;' from which it would appear that 
Ast6-vida^ and * the evil flyer ' were originally considered as dis- 
tinct demons. 


his hand strokes a man it is lethargy, when he casts 
it on the sick one it is fever, when he looks in his 
eyes he drives away the life, and they call it death. 
36. The demon of the malignant eye (siir-^ashmlh) 
is he who will spoil anything which men see, when 
they do not say * in the name of God' (yazdan). 

37. With every one of them are many demons 
and fiends co-operating, to specify whom a second 
time would be tedious ; demons, too, who are furies 
(khashmakan), are in great multitude it is said. 
38. They are demons of ruin, pain, and growing old 
(zvaran), producers of vexation and bile, revivers of 
grief (ntvagth), the progeny of gloom, and bringers 
of stench, decay, and vileness, who are many, very- 
numerous, and very notorious ; and a portion of all 
of them is mingled in the bodies of men, and their 
characteristics are glaring in mankind. 

39. The demon Apaosh 1 and the demon Aspen- 
£*argak 2 are those who remain in contest with the 
rain. 40. Of the evil spirit 3 are the law of vileness, 
the religion of sorcery, the weapons of fiendishness, 
and the perversion (khamih) of God's works ; and 

1 Av. Apaosha of Tfotar Yt. 21, 22, 27, 28, A^tad Yt. 2, 6 ; see 
also Chap. VII, 8, 10, 12. 

2 Here written Aspen^ar6ga, but see Chaps. VII, 12, XVII, 1. 
He is the Av. Spen^aghra of Vend. XIX, 135, and, being a demon, 
is not to be confounded with the demon-worshipper, Spi^aurujka, 
of Qbs Yt. 31, Ashi Yt. 51. 

3 The ' evil spirit/ Ganrak-mainok, seems to be here treated as 
a demon distinct from Aharman, which is inconsistent with what 
is stated in §§ 1-6, and is contrary to general opinion. This 
inconsistency would indicate the possibility of this continuation of 
Chap. XXVIII in TD, or a portion of it, having been added by 
an editor in later times (although it is difficult to discover any 
difference of style in the language), if we did not find a similar con- 
fusion of the two names in Chap. XXX, 29, 30. 


his wish is this, that is : ' Do not ask about me, and 
do not understand me ! for if ye ask about and 
understand me, ye will not come after me 1 / 41. 
This, too, it says, that the evil spirit remains at the 
distance of a cry, even at the cry of a three-year-old 
cock (kfileng), even at the cry of an ass, even at 
the cry of a righteous man when one strikes him 
involuntarily and he utters a cry 2 . 42. The de- 
mon Ktindak 3 is he who is the steed (barak) of 

43. Various new demons arise from the various 
new sins the creatures may commit, and are pro- 
duced for such purposes ; who make even those 
planets rush on which are in the celestial sphere, and 
they stand very numerously in the conflict. 44. 
Their ringleaders (kamarik&n) are those seven 
planets, the head and tail of G6/£fhar, and M&rpar 4 

1 Compare Mkh. XL, 24-28: 'The one wish that Hormezd, 
the lord, desires from men is this, that "ye shall understand me 
(Hormezd), since every one who shall understand me comes after 
me, and strives for my satisfaction." And the one wish that Ahar- 
man desires from men is this, that "ye shall not understand me 
(Aharman), since whoever shall understand me wicked, his actions 
proceed not after me, and, moreover, no advantage and friendship 
come to me from that man." ' 

2 The sentence is rather obscure, but it seems to imply that such 
cries keep the evil spirit at a distance ; it is, however, just possible 
that it means that the cry of the evil spirit can be heard as far as 
such cries. 

3 Av. Kunda of Vend. XI, 28, 36, XIX, 138. 

4 TD has G6k-/£ihar and Mus-parik here, but see Chap. V, 1, 
where these beings are included among the seven planetary leaders, 
and not counted in addition to them. This is another inconsis- 
tency which leads to the suspicion that this continuation of the 
chapter may have been written by a later hand. According to 
this later view, the sun and moon must be included among those 
malevolent orbs, the planets. 

[5] I 


provided with a tail, which are ten. 45. And by 
them these ten worldly creations, that is, the sky, 
water, earth, vegetation, animals, metals, wind, light, 
fire, and mankind, are corrupted with all this vile- 
ness ; and from them calamity, captivity, disease, 
death, and other evils and corruptions ever come to 
water, vegetation, and the other creations which 
exist in the world, owing to the fiendishness of 
those ten. 46. They whom I have enumerated are 
furnished with the assistance and crafty (afzar- 
homand) nature of Aharman. 

47. Regarding the cold, dry, stony, and dark 
interior of mysterious (tarik d£n afr&£"-peafak) 
hell it says, that the darkness is fit to grasp with 
the hand 1 , and the stench is fit to cut with a knife ; 
and if they inflict the punishment of a thousand 
men within a single span, they (the men) think in 
this way, that they are alone ; and the loneliness is 
worse than its punishment 2 . 48. And its connec- 
tion (band) is with the seven planets, be it through 
much cold like Saturn 3 (K6v&n), be it through 
much heat like Aharman; and their food is brim- 
stone (gandak), and of succulents the lizard (va- 
zagh), and other evil #^ wretchedness (patydn).] 

1 Compare Mkh. VII, 31:' and always their darkness is such- 
like as though it be possible to grasp with the hand/ 

2 Compare Ar^a-Viraf-n&mak (LIV, 5-8) : 'As close as the ear 
to the eye, and as many as the hairs on the mane of a horse, so 
close and many in number, the souls of the wicked stand, but they 
see not, and hear no sound, one from the other; every one thinks 
thus, " I am alone/' ' 

3 Or, ' with more cold than Saturn/ 


Chapter XXIX 1 . 

1. On [the spiritual chieftainship 2 of the regions 
of the earth] it says in revelation, that every one of 
those six chieftainships 3 has one spiritual chief; 
as the chief of Arzah is Ashashagaha^-e Z^a^d^an 4 , 
the chief of Savah is Hoazarodathhri-hana Parert- 
yaro 5 , the chief of Frada^afsh is Spltof^-i Atispd- 
sinan 6 , [the chief of Vida^afsh is Airte-r&sp Alaspo- 
slnan 7 ,] the chief of Vorftbarst is Huvasp 8 , the 
chief of Vorii^arst is isfakhravak 9 . 2. Zaratuit is 

1 For this chapter, which is numbered XXX by previous trans- 
lators, we have to depend only on K20 and TD (see the note on 
the heading of Chap. XXVIII) ; and the words enclosed in brackets 
are supplied from TD, being either illegible or omitted in K20. 

2 Perhaps ' patriarchate ' or ' episcopate ' would be a better 
translation of ra^ih, and ' patriarch' or ' bishop ' of ra^, in this 
chapter, as the chief high-priest (dastur-i dasturan) and his office 
are evidently meant by these words. 

8 Of the six other regions, distinct from this one of Khvaniras, 
see Chap. XI, 2-4. 

4 TD has Ashashag,h<?-6 aigh NSva^dan; both MSS. giving 
these names in a barbarous Pazand form which cannot be relied 
on. Perhaps this Dastur is the Av. Ashavanghu Bivawdangha of 
Fravardin Yt. no. 

5 TD has H6azar6kakhhr-hana Pare\rtyro, all in Pazand in both 
MSS., except Huz. hana, which stands for Paz. 6, here used for 
the idhafat i. Perhaps this Dastur is the Av. £ard-danghu PairLr- 
tira of Fravardin Yt. no. 

6 So in TD; K20 has Paz. Spaitanid-i Huspasnyan. This 
Dastur is, no doubt, the Av. (gen.) SpitoLy Uspasnaoj of Fravardin 
Yt. 121. 

7 Omitted in K20, but, no doubt, this Dastur is the Av. Erez- 
raspa Uspasnu of Fravardin Yt. 121. 

8 Av. Hvaspa of Fravardin Yt. 122. 

9 So in both MSS. As in the case of each of the preceding two 
pair of regions, two consecutive names of Dasturs have been taken 
from the Fravardin Yart, it may be supposed that the names 

I 2 


spiritual chief of the region of Khvaniras, and also 
of all the regions ; he is chief of the world of the 
righteous, and it is said that the whole religion was 
received by them from Zaratust 1 . 

3. In the region of Khvaniras are many places, 
from which, in this evil time of violent struggling 
with the adversary, a passage (vi^arg) is con- 
structed by the power of the spiritual world 
(mainokth), and one calls them the beaten tracks 2 
of Khvaniras. 

4. Counterparts of those other regions 3 are such 
places as Kangde^, the land of S^ukavastan, the 
plain of the Arabs (T&dk&n), the plain of P&yansai, 
the river Naivtdk 4 , Airan-ve^*, the enclosure (var) 
formed by Yim, and Ka^mlr in India 5 . 5. And 
one immortal chief acts in the government of each 

taken for this third pair of regions will also be consecutive, and 
this Dastur must, therefore, be identified with the Av. ^"athwaraspa 
of Fravardin Yt. 122. 

1 TD has ' Zaratfot is chief of this region of Khvaniras, and also 
of the whole world of the righteous ; all chieftainship, also, is from 
Zaratfrrt, so that the whole religion/ &c. 

2 Justi has ' zones, climates ;' but transcribing Paz. habavanha 
back into Pahlavi we have a word which may be read khab&noha, 
pi. of khaban, ' a trampling-place ' (comp. Pers. khabidan). TD 
has khvabfono-g&s, which has the same meaning. 

8 Meaning, probably, that they resemble the six smaller regions 
in being isolated and difficult of access; in other words, either 
mythical, or independent of Iranian rule. 

4 So in TD, which also omits the second, third, and fourth of 
these isolated territories. In K20 we might read ra^Z va khu</ak, 
1 chief and lord,' as an epithet of Airan-ve^. This river must be 
the N&hvtak of Chap. XXI, 6. 

5 Reading Ka^mir-i andar Hindu, but TD has Ka^mir-i 
andaruno; perhaps the last word was originally aniranak, in 
which case we should read ' the non-Iranian Karniir/ 

CHAPTER XXIX, 3-5. 1 1 7 

of them ; as it says, that Peshydtanti * son of Vis- 
tasp, whom they call Ajftrd-maino 2 , is in the country 
of Kangde^ 3 ; Aghrera^ 4 son of Pashang is in the 
land of S#ukavastclii 6 , and they call him Gopat- 
shah 6 ; ParcadgS. 7 .Z/z>embya is in the plain of 

1 The Av. Peshotanu of Visht&sp Yt. 4, where he is described 
as free from disease and death. TD has Peshydk-tanu. See also 
Chaps. XXXI, 29, XXXII, 5. 

2 TD has ^itro-maono, and it may be doubted whether the 
latter portion of the name be derived from Av. mainyu, 'spirit,' 
or mtfungho, ' moon.' The DaWist&n-i Dinik (Reply 89) calls him 
' Patshay6tanu who is called from the ^Titr6k-mahan6 (or miyand)/ 
the.iPatru-mfya'n river of Chap. XX, 7, 31. 

3 See § 10. TD has Kangde#-i b&mik, ' Kangdez the 

4 The Av. Aghraeratha Narava of G6s Yt. 18, 22, Fravardin 
Yt. 131, Ashi Yt. 38, Zamyad Yt. 77; he is Aghrirath, brother of 
AMsiyab, in the Shahn&mah ; see also Chap. XXXI, 15. 

5 TD has Pahl. Sakikstan here, but Sokapastan in § 13 (the 
letters lk and p being often much alike in Pahlavi writing). K20 
has Paz. Savkavatan, S#ukavasta, and Savkavastan. 

6 TD has G6pat-malka, 'king of G6pat;' and Da^. (Reply 89) 
states that * the reign of G6patshah is over the country of Gopato, 
coterminous with Airan-veg-, on the bank of the water of the D&itik ; 
and he keeps watch over the ox HadhaysLr, on whom occurred the 
various emigrations of men of old/ Mkh. {LXII, 31-36) says, 
4 Gopatshah remains in Airan-ve^-, within the region of Khvaniras ; 
from foot to mid-body he is a bull, and from mid-body to top he is 
a man; at all times he stays on the sea-shore, and always performs 
the worship of God, and always pours holy-water into the sea; 
through the pouring of that holy-water innumerable noxious 
creatures in the sea will die ; for if he should not mostly perform 
that ceremonial, and should not pour that holy-water into the sea, 
and those innumerable noxious creatures should not perish, then 
always when rain falls the noxious creatures would fall like rain/ 
In Chap. XXXI, 20, he is said to be a son of AghrSra^. 

7 So in K20; and Av. Parshadgmi occurs in Fravardtn Yt. 96, 
127 ; but TD has Fradaklutar Khumbikan, and Did. (Reply 89) 
mentions ' Fradhakhrto son of Khumbikan' as one of the seven 


Pesyansai x , and he is /7z>embya for this reason, be- 
cause they brought him up in a hvemb ('jar') for 
fear of Khashm (' Wrath ') ; [Asam-i 2 Yamahurt is 
in the place which they call the River Niivtak] ; 
the tree opposed to harm 3 is in Airan-ve^*; Urvatad- 
nar 4 son of Zaratu^t is in the enclosure formed by 
Yim. 6. Regarding them it says, they are those 
who are immortal, as are Narsih 5 son of Vivanghafi, 
Ttis 6 son of Nodar 7 , Gfw 8 son of Gtidars, Ibairaz 9 
the causer of strife, and Ashavazd son of Pouru- 
dhakhurt 10 ; and they will all 11 come forth, to the 

immortal lords of Khvaniras, which name corresponds with the 
Av. Fradhakrwti Khu^bya of Fravardin Yt. 138. 

1 TD has always Pahl. Pe\ransih. No doubt the Pmn valley is 
meant (see § n). 

2 Or it may be read A6shm-i. This phrase occurs only in TD, 
but Da</. (Reply 89) mentions ' the Avesta Yakhmayfaa^, son of the 
same Fryan6,' as one of the seven immortal lords of Khvaniras. 

3 See Chap. XXVII, 2. 
* See Chap. XXXII, 5. 

5 Or Narsae in TD ; K20 has Paz. Narei, but see Chap. XXXI, 


6 Av. Tusa of Aban Yt. 53, 58, and an Iranian warrior in the 

7 Av. Naotara, whose descendants are mentioned in Aban Yt. 
76, 98, Fravardin Yt. 102, Mm Yt. 35. 

8 Av. Gaevani of Fravardin Yt. 115 is something like this name 
of one of the Iranian warriors in the Shahnamah. 

9 TD has Paz. Bairazd. Perhaps it is not a name, but a Pazand 
corruption of Pahl. a6varz, 'warrior, trooper* (traditionally); in 
which case we should have to read ' the warrior who was a causer 
of strife/ 

10 So in TD; K20 has 'Ashavand son of Porudakh^t/ and Dad! 
(Reply 89) mentions ' Ashavazang son of Porudakhstoih ' as one 
of the seven immortal lords of Khvaniras. He is the Av. ' Asha- 
vazdangh the Pourudhakh^tiyan ' of Aban Yt. 7 2, Fravardin Yt. 

11 So in TD, but K20 has 'always/ 


assistance of Soshyans, on the production of the 
renovation of the universe. 

7. Regarding Sam l it says, that he became im- 
mortal, but owing to his disregard of the Mazda- 
yasnian religion, a Turk whom they call Nihag* 2 
wounded him with an arrow, when he was asleep 
there, in the plain of Pesyansai ; and it had brought 
upon him the unnatural lethargy (bush asp) which 
overcame him in the midst of the heat 3 . 8. And 
the glory (fa r) of heaven stands over him 4 for the 
purpose that, when A#-i Dahak 5 becomes unfettered 
(arazak), he may arise and slay him ; and a myriad 
guardian spirits of the righteous are as a protection 
to him. 9. Of Dahak, whom they call Bevar&sp, 
this, too, it says, that Fr&tfftn when he captured 
Dahak was not able to kill him, and afterwards 
confined him in Mount Dimavand 6 ; when he be- 
comes unfettered, Sam arises, and smites and slays 

10. As to Kangdes, it is in the direction of the 
east, at many leagues from the bed (var) 7 of the 

1 This is not Sam the grandfather of Rustam, but the Av. Sama, 
who appears to have been an ancestor of Keresaspa (see Yas. IX, 
30), called Sam, grandfather of Ganasp, in a passage interpolated 
in some copies of the Shahn&mah (compare Chap. XXXI, 26, 27). 
Here, however, it appears from the Bahman Ya^t (III, 59, 60) 
that Keresaspa himself is meant, he being called Sama Keresaspa 
in Fravardin Yt. 61, 136. 

2 It can also be read Nihafl or Niya^ in K20, and Nihav or 
NiMn in TD. 

3 TD has ' as he lay in the midst of the heat.' 

4 TD has 'and the snow (vafar) has settled (nishast) over 

6 See Chaps. XXXI, 6, XXXIV, 5. 

6 See Chap. XII, 31. 

7 TD has a^-var, 'above/ instead of min var, ' from the bed/ 


wide-formed ocean towards that side. 1 1 . The plain 
of Pesyansal is in K&vulist&n, as it says, that the 
most remarkable upland (bilist) in K&vulist&n is 
where Pe^ydnsat is ; there it is hotter, on the more 
lofty elevations there is no heat 1 . 12. Airan-ve^ is 
in the direction of Ataro-patakan 2 . 13. The land 
of Stfukavastan is on the way from Ttirkistan to 
iTinistan, in the direction of the north. 14. [The 
enclosure] 3 formed by Yim is in the middle of Pars, 
in Sruvi 4 ; thus, they say, that what Yim formed 
(Yim-kan/) is below Mount Yimakdn 5 . 1 5. Kasmir 
is in Hindtist&n. 

Chapter XXX 6 . 

1. On the nature of the resurrection and future 
existence it says in revelation, that, whereas Mashya 
and Mishyot, who grew up from the earth 7 , first 
fed upon water, then plants, then milk, and then 
meat, men also, when their time of death has come, 
first desist from eating meat, then milk, then from 

1 Or, ' the hottest there, through the very lofty elevation, is not 

2 Pers. Adarbi£-an. 

3 The word var is omitted in K20. 

4 TD has Pahl. Sriibak. 

5 Or it may be read Damak&n, but TD has ^amak&n. It can 
hardly be Damaghan, as that is a town and district in Khuras&n ; 
Justi also suggests the district of (ramagan in P&rs, and thinks 
Sruva means * cypress wood/ there being a Salvastan between 
Shiraz and Fasa. 

6 This chapter is found in all MSS., and has been numbered 
XXXI by former translators. 

7 See Chaps. XV, 2-16, XXXIV, 3. 

CHAPTER XXIX, 1 1 -XXX, 5. 121 

bread, till when 1 they shall die they always feed 
upon water. 2. So, likewise, in the millennium of 
Hushediar-mah 2 , the strength of appetite (az) will 
thus diminish, when men will remain three days 
and nights in superabundance (sirih) through one 
taste of consecrated food. 3. Then they will desist 
from meat food, and eat vegetables and milk ; after- 
wards, they abstain from milk food and abstain from 
vegetable food, and are feeding on water ; and for 
ten years before Soshyans 3 comes they remain 
without food, and do not die. 

4. After Soshyans comes they prepare the raising 
of the dead, as it says, that Zaratu^t asked of Auhar- 
mazd thus : ' Whence does a body form again, 
which the wind has carried crnd the water conveyed 
(va^idT) 4 ? and how does the resurrection occur?' 
5. Aiiharmazd answered thus : ' When through me 
the sky arose from the substance of the ruby 5 , with- 
out columns, on the spiritual support of far-com- 
passed light; when through me the earth arose, 
which 6 bore the material life, and there is no 

1 Reading ama-t, ' when/ instead ofmun, ' which' (see the note 
on Chap. I, 7). 

2 Written Khursh6</ar-mah, or Khurshe^-mah, in the Bundahi?; 
see Chap. XXXII, 8, and Bahman Yt. Ill, 52, 53. 

8 See Chaps. XI, 6, XXXII, 8, Bahman Yt. Ill, 62. 

4 Compare (Vend. V, 26) ' the water carries him up, the water 
carries him down, the water casts him away/ 

5 Compare Mkh. IX, 7. 

6 All MSS. have min, 'out of/ but translators generally suppose 
it should be mun, 'which/ as the meaning of 'brought out of 
material life' is by no means clear. Perhaps the two phrases 
might be construed together, thus : ' there is no other maintainer 
of the worldly creation, brought from the material life, than it.' 
Windischmann refers to Fravardin Yt. 9. 


maintainer of the worldly creation but it ; when by 
me the sun and moon and stars are conducted in 
the firmament (andarvai) of luminous bodies; when 
by me corn was created so that, scattered about in 
the earth, it grew again and returned with increase ; 
when by me colour 1 of various kinds was created in 
plants ; when by me fire was created in plants and 
other things 2 without combustion ; when by me a 
son was created and fashioned 3 in the womb of a 
mother, and the structure (plsak) severally of the 
skin, nails, blood, feet, eyes, ears, and other things 
was produced ; when by me legs were created for 
the water, so that it flows away, and the cloud was 
created which carries the water of the world and 
rains there where it has a purpose ; when by me 
the air was created which conveys in ones eyesight, 
through the strength of the wind, the lowermost 
upwards according to its will, and one is not able to 
grasp it with the hand out-stretched ; each one of 
them, when created by me, was herein more difficult 
than causing the resurrection, for 4 it is an assistance 
to me in the resurrection that they exist, but when 
they were formed it was not forming the future out 
of the past 5 . 6. Observe that when that which was 
not was then produced, why is it not possible to 

1 Former translators all read rag, ' vein, pore;' but it probably 
stands for rang, ' colour, dye,' as in Chap. XXVII, 5, 18. 

2 See Chap. XVII, 1, 2. 

8 Paz. srahtid is evidently a misreading of Pahl. sristtd, 
1 formed, shaped.' Windischmann compares Fravardin Yt. 11, 
22, 28. 

4 Here k\m is the Pazand of Huz. mamanam, 'for to me;' 
being a different word from the interrogative /£im, 'why?' of the 
next §. 

5 Literally, * what becomes out of what was.' 

CHAPTER XXX, 6-1 1. 1 23 

produce again that which was ? for at that time one 
will demand the bone from the spirit of earth, the 
blood from the water, the hair from the plants, and 
the life from fire, since they were delivered to them 
in the original creation/ 

7. First, the bones of Gayoman/ are roused up, 
then those of Mashya and Mashyoi, then those of 
the rest of mankind ; in the fifty-seven years of 
S6shyans x they prepare all the dead, and all men 
stand up ; whoever is righteous and whoever is 
wicked, every human creature, they rouse up from 
the spot where its life departs. 8. Afterwards, when 
all material living beings assume again their bodies 
and forms, then they assign (barayehabiind) them 
a single class 2 . 9. Of the light accompanying 
(levatman) the sun, one half will be for Gciyoman^, 
and one half will give enlightenment among the rest 
of men, so that the soul and body will know that 
this is my father, and this is my mother, and this is 
my brother, and this is my wife, and these are some 
other of my nearest relations. 

10. Then is the assembly of the Sa^vastaran 3 , 
where all mankind will stand at this time ; in that 
assembly every one sees his own good deeds and 
his own evil deeds ; and then, in that assembly, a 
wicked man becomes as conspicuous as a white 
sheep among those which are black. 11. In that 

1 K20 omits ' Soshyans/ 

2 The phrase is obscure, and K20 omits the numeral 'one' 
(the idhafat of unity) ; but the meaning is probably that all former 
distinctions of class, or caste, are abolished. 

3 Windischmann suggests that it may be ' the assembly of Isa</- 
vastar,' the eldest son of Zaratfot (see Chap. XXXII, 5) ; perhaps 
supposed to be presided over by him as the first supreme high- 
priest after Zaratfot's death. 


assembly whatever righteous man was friend of a 
wicked one in the world, and the wicked man com- 
plains of him who is righteous, thus : ' Why did he 
not make me acquainted, when in the world, with 
the good deeds which he practised himself ? ' if he 
who is righteous did not inform him, then it is 
necessary for him to suffer shame accordingly in 
that assembly 1 . 

12. Afterwards, they set the righteous man apart 
from the wicked ; and then the righteous is for 
heaven (garo^mcln), and they cast the wicked back 
to hell. 13. Three days and nights they inflict 
punishment bodily in hell, and then he beholds 
bodily those three days' happiness in heaven 2 . 14. 
As it says that, on the day when the righteous man 
is parted from the wicked, the tears of every one, 
thereupon, run down unto his legs. 15. When, 
after they set apart a father from his consort (ham - 
ba#), a brother from his brother, and a friend from 

1 In the An/a-Viraf-namak (Chap. LXVIII) it is related that 
An/a-Viraf saw the souls of a husband and wife, that of the husband 
destined for heaven, and that of the wife for hell ; but the wife 
clung to her husband and asked why they should be separated, 
and he told her it was on account of her neglect of religious duties ; 
whereupon she reproached him for not teaching and chastising her. 
' And, afterwards, the man went to heaven and the woman to hell. 
And owing to the repentance of that woman she was in no other 
affliction in hell but darkness and stench. And that man sat in 
the midst of the righteous of heaven in shame, from not converting 
and not teaching the woman, who might have become virtuous in 
his keeping/ 

2 As an aggravation of his punishment in hell. It has generally 
been supposed that this last phrase refers to the reward of the 
righteous man, but this cannot be the case unless akhar be taken 
in the sense of ; other,' which is unlikely ; besides, beholding the 
happiness of others would be no reward to an Oriental mind. 

CHAPTER XXX, 12-1 9. I25 

his friend, they suffer, every one for his own deeds, 
and weep, the righteous for the wicked, and the 
wicked about himself; for there may be a father 
who is righteous and a son wicked, and there may 
be one brother who is righteous and one wicked. 
16. Those for whose peculiar deeds it is appointed, 
such as Dahak and Fr&siyaz> of Tur, and others of 
this sort, as those deserving death (marg-ar^anan), 
undergo a punishment no other men undergo ; they 
call it ' the punishment of the three nights V 

17. Among his producers of the renovation of the 
universe, those righteous men of whom it is written 2 
that they are living, fifteen men and fifteen damsels, 
will come to the assistance of Soshyans. 18. As 
Goiihar 3 falls in the celestial sphere from a moon- 
beam on to the earth, the distress of the earth 
becomes such-like as that of a sheep when a wolf 
falls upon it. 19. Afterwards, the fire and halo 4 
melt the metal of Shatvairo, in the hills and moun- 
tains, and it remains on this earth like a river. 

1 According to the Pahlavi Vend. VII, 136 (p. 96, Sp.) it appears 
that a person who has committed a marg-ar^an or mortal sin, 
without performing pat it or renunciation of sin thereafter, remains 
in hell till the future existence, when he is brought out, beheaded 
three times for each mortal sin unrepented of, and then cast back 
into hell to undergo the punishment ti shram khshafnam (' of the 
three nights ') before he becomes righteous ; some say, however, 
that this punishment is not inflicted for a single mortal sin. This 
period of three nights' punishment is quite a different matter from 
the three nights' hovering of the soul about the body after death. 

2 See Chap. XXIX, 5, 6. As the text stands in the MSS. it is 
uncertain whether the fifteen men and fifteen damsels are a portion 
of these righteous immortals, or an addition to them. 

3 Probably a meteor (see Chap. V, 1). 

4 Reading khirman; M6 has 'the fire and angel Airman (Av. 
Airyaman) melt the metal in the hills,' &c. 


20. Then all men will pass into that melted metal 
and will become pure ; when one is righteous, then it 
seems to him just as though he walks continually in 
warm milk ; but when wicked, then it seems to him 
in such manner as though, in the world, he walks 
continually in melted metal. 

21. Afterwards, with the greatest affection, all 
men come together, father and son and brother and 
friend ask one another thus : * Where has it * been 
these many years, and what was the judgment upon 
thy soul ? hast thou been righteous or wicked ?' 
22. The first soul the body sees, it enquires of it 
with those words (g6ft). 23. All men become of 
one voice and administer loud praise to Aliharmazd 
and the archangels. 

24. Auharmazd completes his work at that time, 
and the creatures become so that it is not necessary 
to make any effort about them ; and among those 
by whom the dead are prepared, it is not necessary 
that any effort be made. 25. Soshyans, with his 
assistants, performs a Ya^im ceremony in preparing 
the dead, and they slaughter the ox Hadhayos 2 in 
that Ya^n ; from the fat of that ox and the white 
Horn 3 they prepare Hush, and give it to all men, 
and all men become immortal for ever and ever- 
lasting. 26. This, too, it says, that whoever has 
been the size of a man, they restore him then with 
an age of forty years; they who have been little 
when not dead, they restore then with an age of 
fifteen years ; and they give every one his wife, and 

1 K20 has 'have I;' probably homanih, 'hast thou/ was the 
original reading. 

2 See Chap. XIX, 13. 

3 See Chap. XXVII, 4. 

CHAPTER XXX, 20-28. I 27 

show him his children with the wife ; so they act as 
now in the world, but there is no begetting of 

27. Afterwards, Soshyans and his assistants, by 
order of the creator Aliharmazd, give every man 
the reward and recompense suitable to his deeds ; 
this is even the righteous existence (ait) where it is 
said that they convey him to paradise (vahi^t), and 
the heaven (garo^m^n) of Aftharmazd takes up 
the body (kerp) as itself requires; with that assist- 
ance he continually advances for ever and ever- 
lasting. 28. This, too, it says, that whoever has 
performed no worship (ya^t), and has ordered no 
Geti-khari^ 1 , and has bestowed no clothes as a 
righteous gift, is naked there ; and he performs the 
worship (yast) of Aftharmazd, and the heavenly 
angels 2 provide him the use of his clothing. 

1 The Sad-dar Bundahir says that by Gett-khari^/ ' heaven is 
purchased in the world, and one's own place brought to hand in 
heaven/ The Rivayat of Dastur Barzu (as quoted in MS. 29 of 
Bombay University Parsi Collection) gives the following details in 
Persian : ' To celebrate G6ti-kharid it is necessary that two h6r- 
bads (priests) perform the Nabar, and with each khshnuman 
which they pray it is fit and necessary that both hSrbads have 
had the Nabar; and the first day they recite the Nonabar ya^t, 
and consecrate the N6nibar dr6n and the Nonabar afringdn 
which they recite in each G&h ; in the Havan Gah it is necessary 
to recite fravaran6 (as in Yas. Ill, 24 W. to end), ahurahe 
mazdtfu raSvato (as in Auharmazd Yt. o, to) frasastaya6/£a, then 
Yas. Ill, 25 W., XVII, 1-55 Sp., ashem vohu thrice, dfrinami 
khshathryan (as in Afringan I, 14, to end). The second day 
the Srosh ya^t and Srosh dron and afringan are to be recited; 
and the third day it is necessary to recite the Sirozah ya^t, the 
Sir6zah dr6n and afring&n dahman; and it is needful to recite 
the second and third afringans in each Gah, and each day to 
consecrate the barsom and dron afresh with seven twigs, so that 
it may not be ineffective/ 

2 Paz. gehan is probably a misreading of Pahl. yazdan, as 


29. Afterwards, Auharmazd seizes on 1 the evil 
spirit, Vohilman on Akoman 2 , AshavahL?t on Andar 3 , 
Shatvalro on S&var, Spendarmaaf on Tar6mat 
who is Natinghas 4 , Horvada^ and Ameroda^ on 
Tatrez/ and Zalri£ 5 , true-speaking on what is evil- 
speaking, Srosh 6 on Aeshm 7 . 30. Then two fiends 
remain at large, Aharman 8 and A^ 9 ; Auharmazd 
comes to the world, himself the Zota and Srosh 
the Raspi 10 , and holds the Kiist! in his hand ; 

neither ' the spirit of the world/ nor ' the spirit of the Galis ' is a 
likely phrase. It is possible, however, that mainok geh&n is 
a misreading ofmin aivyah&n, ' from the girdle/ and we should 
translate as follows: 'and out of its girdle (that is, the kusti of 
the barsom used in the ceremony) he produces the effect of his 

1 Instead of vakhdund, ' seize on/ we should probably read 
van end, ' smite/ as in the parallel passages mentioned below. 

2 Compare Zamyad Yt. 96. Each archangel (see Chap. I, 25, 
26) here seizes the arch-fiend (see Chaps. I, 27, XXVIII, 7-12) 
who is his special opponent. 

3 Here written P&z. Inder. Compare Pahlavi Yas. XLVII, 1 : 
1 When among the creation, in the future existence, righteousness 
smites the fiend, Ashavahut smites Indar/ 

4 Written Nakahe^ in Chap. I, 27, and Ndikiyas in Chap. 
XXVIII, 10, where he is described as a distinct demon from 
Taromat in XXVIII, 14. 

6 Here written Tar6# and Zari/£. 

6 Av, Sraosha, a personification of attentive hearing and obe- 
dience, who is said to watch over the world and defend it from 
the demons, especially at night; see Vend. XVIII, 48, 51, 70, &c, 
Yas. LVI, Srosh Yt. Had6kht, &c. 

7 See Chap. XXVIII, 15-17. 

8 Comparing § 29 with § 30 it is not very clear whether the 
author of the Bundahij considered Aharman and the evil spirit as 
the same or different demons; compare also Chap. XXVIII, 1-6 
with 40, 41. 

9 See Chap. XXVIII, 27. 

10 The Zota is the chief officiating priest in all ceremonies, and 
the Rispi is the assistant priest. 

CHAPTER XXX, 29-33. I2 9 

defeated by the Kfisti * formula the resources of the 
evil spirit and hz act most impotently, and by the 
passage through which he rushed into the sky 2 he 
runs back to gloom and darkness. 31. Goilhar 3 
burns the serpent (mar) 4 in the melted metal, and 
the stench and pollution which were in hell are 
burned in that metal, and it (hell) becomes quite 
pure. 32. He (Atiharmazd) sets the vault 5 into 
which the evil spirit fled, in that metal ; he brings the 
land of hell back for the enlargement of the world 6 ; 
the renovation arises in the universe by his will, and 
the world is immortal for ever and everlasting. 

33. This, too, it says, that this earth becomes an 
iceless 7 , slopeless plain 8 ; even the mountain 9 , 

1 The words zak g,hlni, for &n g^Mni, are probably a mis- 
reading of aivyahan, 'the kusti or sacred thread-girdle/ which is 
tied round the waist in a peculiar manner, during the recital of a 
particular formula, in which Auharmazd is blessed and Aharman 
and the demons are cursed. 

2 See Chap. Ill, 10-12^ 3 See § 18 and Chap. V, 1. 

4 Probably referring to As, which means both ' greediness ' and 
' serpent.' It is, however, possible to read ' G6>£ihar the serpent 
burns in ' &c, and there can be no doubt that G6£thar is repre- 
sented as a malevolent being. 

B Or, perhaps, ' hiding-place/ Comparing K20 and M6 together 
the word seems to be al6m, which may be compared with Heb. 
DirtK « a vault/ or Chald. N&^K ' a P orcn I ' it may, however, be 
v&16m, which may be traced to thy 1 to conceal.' In the old 
MSS. it is certainly not sh61man, 'hell/ which is an emendation 
due to the modern copy in Paris. 

6 Or, ' to the prosperity of the world.' 

7 Former translators read anhikhar, 'undefiled/ but this does 
not suit the Pahlavi orthography so well as anhas&r, 'iceless' 
(compare Pers. hasar, khasar, or khasar, Vice'); cold and ice, 
being produced by the evil spirit, will disappear with him. 

8 Paz. &mavan is a misreading of Pahl. h&mun, so the reading 
is ansip (compare Pers. Jib) h&mun. Mountains, being the work 
of the evil spirit, disappear with him. 

9 i£aka</-i-Dslitik, see Chap. XII, 7. 

[5] K 


whose summit is the support of the Alnvar bridge, 
they keep down, and it will not exist. 

Chapter XXXI 1 . 

o. On the race and genealogy of the Kayans. 
i. H6shyang 2 was son of Fravak, son of Siyak- 
mak 3 , son of M&shya 4 , son of Gayoman/. [2. Takh- 
mdrup 5 was son of Vivangh&ti 6 , son of Yangha^ 7 , son 
^/"Hoshyang. 3. Yim,] 8 Takhmorup, Spittir 9 , and 
Narsih 10 , whom they also call 'the Rashnti of jfirino 11 / 

1 For this chapter, which is numbered XXXII by previous trans- 
lators, we have to depend only on K20, TD, and K2ob (a fragment 
evidently derived from the same original as K20 and M6, but 
through some independent line of descent). 

2 So in K20, but usually H6shang (see Chaps. XV, 28, XXXIV, 

3 See Chap. XV, 25, 30. 

4 See Chaps. XV, 2-24, 30, XXXIV, 3. 

6 Av. Takhm6-urupa of Ram Yt. 11, Zamy&d Yt. 28, Afrin Zarat. 
2 ; written Takhmorup in TD, which is the only MS. in which the 
passage enclosed in brackets is found, the omission of which by 
K20 was suspected by Windischmann (Zoroastriche Studien, p. 199). 
This king is the Tahmuras of the Shahnamah. See also Chaps. 
XVII, 4, XXXIV, 4. 

6 Av.Vivan^-km of Yas. IX, 11, 20, XXXII, 8, Vend. II, 8, 28, 
94, Fravardin Yt. 130, Zamy&dYt. 35. 

7 As this Pdzand name or title begins with a medial y, its initial 
vowel is probably omitted (see p. 141, note 8). 

8 Av. Yima or Yima khshaeta of Vend. II, &c, the Jamsh6d of 
the Shahnamah (see Chaps. XVII, 5, XXXIV, 4). 

9 Av. Spityura of Zamyad Yt. 46. 

10 Here written Narsi in K20 and K20D, and N6sih in TD ; but 
see § 5 and Chap. XXIX, 6. Windischmann suggests that he may 
be the Av. Aoshnara pouru-^ira of Fravardin Yt. 131, Af. Zarat. 2. 

11 An epithet equivalent to 'the Minos of China;' Rashnu being 
the angel of justice, who is said to weigh the meritorious deeds of 


were all brothers. 4. From Yim and Yimak 1 ) who 
was his sister, was born a pair, man and woman, and 
they became husband and wife together ; Mirak the 
Aspiycln 2 and Ziydnak Zardahim were their names, 
and the lineage went on. 5. Spft&r was he who, 
with Dah&k, cut up Yim 3 ; Narsih 4 lived then 6 also, 
whom they call N^sr-gyivin 6 ; they say that such 
destiny (gadman) is allotted to him 7 , that he shall 
pass every day in troubles, and shall make all food 
purified and pure. 

6. Dahak 8 was son of Khrtitasp, son of Zainigav, 

the departed soul against its sins. Neither word is, however, quite 
certain, as rashnuk may stand for rasnik, 'spear/ and has also 
been translated by * light' and * hero; ' JTin6, moreover, was probably 
not China, but Samarkand (see Chaps. XII, 13, 22, XV, 29). 

1 See Chap. XXIII, 1. 

2 Av. Athwyana of AMn Yt. 33, Gos Yt. 13, Fravardm Yt. 131, 
Zamyad Yt. 36, &c, where it is the family name of Thra6taona, who 
is said to be a son of Athwya in Yas. IX, 23, 24. In the text this 
name seems to be used rather as a title than a patronymic, and in 
§ 7 it appears to be a family surname. 

3 As stated in Zamyad Yt. 46. 

4 Here written Narsak in K20 and K2ob, and N6sih in TD. 

5 TD has ' together/ instead of ' then/ 

6 So in K20, but K2ob has Narst-gy&v&n, and TD has N6sih- 
viy&v&nik (or niy&z&nik). Perhaps we may assume the epithet to 
have been nigir-viy&v&nik (or niy&zdnik), 'one with a bewil- 
dering (or longing) glance/ 

7 Justi supposes this clause of the sentence refers to Yim and 
the disease which attacked his hand. If this be the case it may be 
translated as follows : 'they say aighashis produced on his hand 
(yadman), so that/ &c; aighash being a disease, or evil, men- 
tioned in Vend. XX, 14, 20, 24 ; compare Chap. XXVIII, 33. 

8 Or As-i Dahak, the Av. Asi Dahaka, ' destructive serpent/ of 
Yas. IX, 25, Vend. I, 69, Abdn Yt. 29, 34, Bahram Yt. 40, Zamydd 
Yt. 46-50. A name applied to a foreign dynasty (probably Semitic) 
personified as a single king, which conquered the dominions of 
Yim (see Chap. XXXIV, 5). 

K 2 


son of Virafrang, son of Taz, son of Fravik, son of 
Slyakmak x ; by his mother Dahak was of Udat 2 , 5<?^ 
of Bayak, son of Tambayak, ^» of Owokhm 3 , son of 
Pairi-urvaesm 4 , itf/z of Gadhwithw 5 , son of Dru^as- 
kan 6 , son of the evil spirit. 

7. Fredton the Aspiyan 7 was son of Pur-t6ra 8 the 
Aspiyan, son of Sok-tora 9 the Aspiy&n, son of Bor- 
tori the Aspiyan, son of Slyak-tora the Aspiy&n, son 
of Sp&/-tora the Aspiyan, son of Gefar-t6r& the 
Aspiyan, son of Ramak-tora the Aspiyin, son of 

1 For the last three names, see Chap. XV, 25, 28. 

2 Pahl. KM in TD ; compare « the demon Uda' of Chap. XXVIII, 
19. The following two names look like 'fear' and 'gloom-fear/ 
both appropriate names for demons. 

8 TD has Paz.Owoikh ; compare Av. aoiwra, * a species of night- 
mare/ observing that r and 6 are often written alike in Pahlavi. 

4 TD and K2ob have Paz. Pairi-urva-urva$sm, and K20 has 

6 TD has P£z. Gawithw. 

6 So in TD, but K20 has Pdz. Drus-i ayaska, and K2ob has 
Dru^-i ayaska\ It corresponds to A v. dru^aska in Vend. XIX, 139, 
Vut&sp Yt. 26. This genealogy appears to trace Dahdk's maternal 
descent through a series of demons. 

7 A v. Thraetaona, son of Athwya,but generally called 'the Athwyd- 
nian/ who slew the destructive serpent (a#i dah&ka), see Yas. IX, 
24, 25, Vend. I, 69, Abdn Yt. 33, 61, Gos Yt. 13, Fravardin Yt. 131, 
Bahram Yt. 40, Ram Yt. 23, Ashi Yt. 33, Zamyad Yt. 36, 92, Af. 
Zarat. 2. In the Shdhndmah he is called Feridun son of Abtin. 

8 This name is omitted in K20, but occurs in the other two MSS. ; 
it is a Huzvarij hybrid equivalent to Paz. Pur-gau and Av. Pouru- 
gau, which is a title of an Athwyanian in Af. Zarat. 4, VLyt&sp Yt. 
2. This genealogy consists almost entirely of such hybrid names, 
which have a very artificial appearance, though suitable enough for 
a race of herdsmen, meaning, as they severally do, ' one with abun- 
dant oxen, with useful oxen, with the brown ox, with the black ox, 
with the white ox, with the fat ox, and with a herd of oxen/ 

9 So in TD, but the other two MSS. have Siy&k-tora\ which is 
probably wrong, as the same name occurs again in this genealogy. 


Vanfraghesn * the Aspiy&n, son of Yim, son of 
Vivanghau ; as these, apart from the Aspiy&n Pfir- 
tora, were ten generations, they every one lived a 
hundred years, which becomes one thousand years ; 
those thousand years were the evil reign of Dahik. 
8. By the Aspiyan Ptir-t6ra was begotten Fr£tfftn, 
who exacted vengeance for Yim; together with him 2 
also were the sons Barm&ytin and Kat&ytin, but 
Freafon was fuller of glory than they. 

9. By Freafan three sons were begotten, Salm and 
Ttig and Airii 3 ; and by AirL£ one son and one 
pair 4 were begotten ; the names of the couple of 
sons were Vanf^ar and Anastokh 6 , and the name of 
the daughter was Gtteak 6 . 10. Salm and Tilg slew 
them all, hSxik and his happy sons, but Fr£afan kept 
the daughter in concealment, and from that daughter 
a daughter was born 7 ; they became aware of it, 
and the mother was slain by them. n. VrtdiXn 
provided for the daughter 8 , also in concealment, for 

1 In TD this name can be read Vanfrdki.m or Vanfrokgan. 

2 TD has 'as well as htm' K2ob omits most of this sentence 
by mistake. 

3 These sons, as Windischmann observes, are not mentioned in the 
extant Avesta, but their Avesta names, Sairima, Tuirya or Ttira, and 
Airya or Airyu, may be gathered from the names of the countries over 
which they are supposed to have ruled (see Fravardin Yt. 143). 

* TD has ' two sons and one daughter/ 

5 TD has AnMir and Anastabo. 

6 Or G%ak, in TD; the other MSS. have Paz. Gan^a here, but 
Guzak in § 14 ; it is identical with the name of H6shyang , s sister 
and wife in Chap. XV, 28. In the Pazand G&m&sp-namah the 
name of FreWun's daughter is written Virak. 

7 Reading min zak dukht dukht-i z&d, as in K2ob and TD; 
some uncertainty arises here from the words dukht, c daughter/ 
and dv&d, 'pair,' being written alike in Pahlavi. 

8 TD has bartman, ' daughter/ indicating that the word in K20 
must be read dukht, and not dvaV, 'pair/ 

134 BUNDAHI^. 

ten generations, when M&nite-i Khiirshe^-vinlk was 
born from his mother, [so called because, as he was 
born, some of J 1 the light of the sun (khftrshe^) fell 
upon his nose (vinik). 12. From Manti^-i Khur- 
she^-vinik and his sister 2 was Manus-khtirnar, and 
from Manfo-khtirnar [and his sister] was Manusv£ihar 
born 3 , by whom Salm and Tu^ were slain in revenge 
for AiriM 13. By Manu^ihar were Fris, Nodfar 5 , 
and Dtirasrob 6 begotten. 

14. Just as Manuiv£ihar was of Manus-khtirnar, of 
Man^-khurnak 7 , who was M&m-sozak 8 , of Airak, of 
Thritak, of Bitak, of Fraztimk, of Zfoak 9 , of Fragii- 
zak, of Gtizak, of KSxik, of Freafan, so Frdsiya^ 10 was 

1 The phrase in brackets occurs only in TD; and the whole 
passage from 'vinik' to 'sun' is omitted in K20, evidently by 

2 TD has 'from Manor and his sister/ and K2ob has 'from 
M&nik-huyfcihar and M&n&r-kburshM,' 

8 The words in brackets occur only in TD, and K2ob has 'from 
M&nuj-khurnar also was Ma^U£-khurnak,/n?zrc Mdnu^-khurndk was 
Manu^ihar born/ but this introduction of an extra generation is 
not confirmed by the list of names in § 14. The term khurn&k (or 
khurnak) seems to be merely a transcript of the Avesta word of 
which khursheV- vinik, 'sun-nose/ is a translation. The other 
term khurnar can also be read khurvar, but K20 has P&z. ^z;ar- 
nar. M&nu\y$har is the Av. Manu^^ithra of Fravardin Yt. 131, 
where he is styled the Airyavan, or descendant of Airyu (Airi£). 

4 TD has ' and vengeance exacted for Airi£/ 

5 See Chap. XXIX, 6. 

6 Paz. Durasro, but the Pahlavi form, given in the text, occurs 
in § 31 and Chap. XXXII, 1 in TD, which MS. omits this § by 

7 The same as Mdnu^-i khursheW- vinik, as noted above. 

8 This Pazand epithet seems to mean 'mother-burning/ and 
may have some connection with the legend mentioned in § 11. 
TD has mun am Gu^ak, ' whose mother was Gu^ak.' 

9 K2ob omits the five names from Airak to Zmak. 

10 Av. Frangrasyan, the Turyan, of Yas. XI, 21, Aban Yt. 41, 

CHAPTER XXXI, 12-21. 135 

of Pashang, of Za&sm *, of Ttirak, of Spaenyasp, of 
Dfiroshasp, of Ttyr, of Freaftn. 15. He (Frasiya^) 
as well as Karsdvaz 2 , whom they call Kadan 3 , and 
Aghrera^ 4 were all three brothers. 

[16 5 . Pashang andVlsak were both brothers. 17. 
By Visak were Plran 6 , Human, .San 7 , and other 
brothers begotten. 18. By Frisiya^ were Frasp-i 
Kixr, 6an, She^ak 8 , and other sons begotten ; and 
Visp&n-fryi 9 , from whom Kaf-Khilsrob was born, 
was daughter of Frasfyaz;, and was of the same 
mother with Frasp-i Kvx. 19. From Frasp-i A"ur 
were Sfirak, Asurik, and other children ; and by them 
were Khvast-airikht, Yazdan-airikht, Yazdan-^araaf, 
Freh-kh6r^,Li-vahak 10 , and others begotten, a recital 
of whom would be tedious. 

20. By AghreraaT was G6patshah n begotten. 21. 
When Frasiyaz> made Mdnti^thar, with the Iranians, 
captive in the mountain-range (gar) of Padashkh- 

Gds Yt. 18, 22, Ashi Yt. 38, 42, Zamydd Yt. 56-63, 82, 93; called 
Afrasiyab in the Sh&hnamah. 

1 Zad^am in the Shahnamah. 

2 Garsfvaz in the Shahnamah. 
8 TD has Pahl. Kk&n. 

* See Chap. XXIX, 5. 

5 The remainder of this chapter is found only in TD. 

6 Pir&n Visah is AfrasiyaVs chief general in the Shahnamah, 
and Hum&n and Pilsam are his brothers. 

7 This name is very ambiguous in Pahlavi, as it can be read 
many other ways. 

8 Sh6dah in the Shahnamah. 

9 She is called Farangis in the Shahnamah. 

10 The reading of several of these names is more or less uncer- 
tain, but the object of the author is evidently to apply opprobrious 
epithets to all the male descendants of Afrasiyab. 

11 TD has Gopat-malka here, as also in Chap. XXIX, 5, where 
it is said to be a title of Aghrera</ (always written Agr6ra</ in TD). 

1 36 BUNDAHL?. 

v&r 1 , and scattered ruin and want among them, 
Aghreraaf begged a favour of God (yazdan), and 
he obtained the benefit that the army and cham- 
pions of the Iranians were saved by him from that 
distress. 22. Fr&siycU> slew Aghrera^ for that 
fault ; and Aghrera*/, as his recompense, begat 
such a son as Gdpatshah. 

23. A&zobo the T&hmaspian 2 , Kanak-i BarzLst, 
Arawisanasp, and Vaeta/z^-i R&ghindia? were the 
three sons and the daughter of Agaimasv&k 3 , the son 
of N6dar, son of M&nu5v£ihar, who begat Atizobo. 
24. Kavi^ 4 was a child in a waist-cloth (kuspu^); 
they abandoned him on a river, and he froze upon 
the door-sills (kava^akin) ; Atizobo perceived and 
took him, brought him up, and settled the name of 
the trembling child. 

25. By Kava^ was Kai-Aplveh begotten; by 
Kai-Apiv£h were Kal-Arsh, Kat-Vy&rsh, Kat-Pisin, 
and Kai-K&fts begotten; by Kai-KMs was Siya- 
vakhsh begotten ; by Siy&vakhsh was Kai-Khtisrob 5 

1 The mountains south of the Caspian (see Chap. XTI, 17). 

2 Av. Uzava Tuma'spana of Fravardin Yt. 131, called Zav, or 
Zab, son of Tahmasp, in the Shahnamah. 

3 None of these names, which TD gives in P&zand, are to be 
found in the portion of the Avesta yet extant. 

4 Av. Kavi Kavata of Fravardin Yt. 132, Zamyad Yt. 71, called 
Kai-Qubad in the Shahnamah. There appears to be an attempt, 
in the text, to derive his name from the ' door-sill ' on which he is 
said to have been found. 

5 The Avesta names of these seven other Kayans are, respectively, 
Kavi Aipi-vanghu, Kavi Arshan, Kavi By&rshan, Kavi Pisanangh, 
Kavi Usadhan, Kavi Syavarshan, and Kavi Husravangh (see Fra- 
vardin Yt. 132, Zamyad Yt. 71, 74); omitting the third, they are 
called, respectively, Armin, Avis, Parfn, Kai-Kavus, Siyavush, and 
Kai-Khusro in the Sh&hn&mah. TD, omitting the first letter, has 
Sano for Pisan ; it also writes Kai-Kayuks and Kai-Khusrovi. 

CHAPTER XXXI, 22-3O. 137 

begotten. 26. Keres&sp 1 and Afrrvakhsh 2 were 
both brothers. 27. Athrat 3 was son of S&hm, son 
of Tfirak, son of Spa6nyasp, ^^ of Duroshasp 4 , ^;z 
of Tfiif, 5y?/z of Fr&zfan. 28. Lohar&sp 5 was son of 
Afizav 6 , son of M&nta, ,&w of Kal-Pisin 7 , son of 
Kai-Aplv£h, son of Kal-Kava^. 29. By Kal- 
Lohardsp were Vist&sp, Zarlr 8 , and other brothers 
begotten ; by Vist&sp were Spend-d&af 9 and Peshyd- 
tanu 10 begotten ; and by Spend-d&af were Vohtlman 11 , 
Ataro-tarsah, Mitro-tarsah, and others begotten. 

30. Artakhshatar descendant of Pipak — of whom 
his mother was daughter — was son of Sasan 12 , son of 

1 Av. Keresispa of Yas. IX, 31, 36, 39, Vend. I, 36, Aban Yt. 
37, Fravardin Yt. 61, 136, Mm Yt 27, Zamyad Yt. 38-44, Af. 
Zarat. 3 ; he is called Garc&sp in the Shahnamah. 

2 Av. Urvakhsbaya ofYas. IX, 31, RimYt. 28, Af. Zarat. 3. These 
brothers were sons of Thrita or Athrat, mentioned in the next §. 

3 Av. Thrita of the Sama race (see Yas. IX, 30, Vend. XX, 1 1) 
and father of Keres&spa, whose genealogy is given in a passage 
interpolated in some copies of the Shahnamah as follows : Garcasp, 
Atrat, *Sam, Turag, £idasb, Tur, JamshSd. 

4 Written Duroshap in TD, both here and in § 14. 

5 Av. Aurva</-aspa of Aban Yt. 105, VLstasp Yt. 34, 46, called 
Luhr&sp in the Shahnamah. 

6 Reading doubtful. 

7 Written Ka-Pisfn here, but he is the same person as Kai- 
Pis&n of § 25 ; the latter part of the name is written both Pisanangh 
and Pisina in the Avesta. 

8 Probably Zargar (being Av. Zairivairi of Aban Yt. 112, 117, 
Fravardin Yt. 101), but called Zarir in the Shahnamah. 

9 Av. Spe«to-data of Fravardin Yt. 103, VLstasp Yt. 25, called 
Isfendiyar in the Shahnamah. 

10 See Chaps. XXIX, 5, XXXII, 5. 

11 Called Bahman in the Shahnamah, and Ardashir the KaySnian 
in Bahman Yt. II, 17 ; the successor of his grandfather Vwtdsp (see 
Chap. XXXIV, 8). 

12 The text is rather obscure, but the K&rn&mak of Ar^ashir-i 
Papakan states clearly that Ar</ashir was son of Sasan by the 


Veh-cifri^ and 1 Zarir, son of Sas&n, son of Artakhsha- 
tar who was the said Vohtiman son of Spend-da^. 

31. The mother of Kal-Aplveh was Farhank 2 , 
daughter of him who is exalted on the heavenly 
path 3 , Urva^-g&i-frait 4 , son of Rak, son of Durasrob, 
son of M&nilsv£ihar. 32. This, too, it says, that the 
glory 6 of Freafan settled on the root of a reed 
(kanyd) in the wide-formed ocean; and Noktarga 6 , 
through sorcery, formed a cow for tillage, and begat 
children there ; three years he carried the reeds 
there, and gave them to the cow, until the glory 
went on to the cow ; he brought the cow, milked her 
milk, and gave it to his three sons ; as their walking 
was on hoofs, the glory did not go to the sons, but 
to Farhank. 33. Noktarga wished to injure 7 Far- 
hank, but Farhank went with the glory away from 

daughter of Papak, a tributary ruler of P&rs under Ardavan, the 
last of the AiMniyan monarchs. 

1 So in the Pahlavi text, which therefore makes V6h-afru/ a 
woman's name (like Pers. Beh-afrin) ; but this is doubtful, as the 
MSS. often confound va, 'and/ and i, 'son of/ 

2 In the Shahnamah Farhang is mother of Kai-Kavus. The 
Pahlavi name can also be read Faranak, the name of the mother 
of Feridun in the Shahnamah. 

3 Paz. vidharg-afr&Jtaka, which looks more like an epithet 
than a name. 

4 Or, perhaps, ' Urva^-g^ son of Fra\rt/ 

5 The divine glory which was supposed to accompany all legiti- 
mate sovereigns of Iran, from the time of H6shyang even to that 
of the Sasanian dynasty ; it is the Av. ^arenangh of the ZamyM 
Ya^t, and is said to have fled to the ocean for refuge during the 
reign of foreign dynasties and wicked kings (see Aban Yt. 42, 
Zamyad Yt. 51, 56, 59, 62). 

6 The last syllable is so written, in Pazand, in § 33. 

7 Reading hang-iWano, 'to injure/ instead of khun^ano, 
which may mean ' to embrace ; ' the difference between the two 
words being merely the letter i\ 

CHAPTER XXXI, 31-38. 1 39 

the fierce (ttb) father, and made a vow (patyastak) 
thus : ' I will give my first son to Aushbam V 34. 
Then Atishbam saved her from the father ; and the 
first son, Kai-Apiveh, she bore and gave to Aush- 
bam, was a hero associating with Aushbam, and 
travelled in Atishbam's company. 

35. The mother of Atizobo was the daughter 
of Namtin the wizard, when Nimak 2 was with 

36. And, moreover, together with those begotten 
by Sam 3 were six children in pairs, male and female ; 
the name of one was Damnak, of one Khusrov, and 
of one Mirgandak, and the name of each man and 
woman together was one. 37. And the name of one 
besides them was Dastan 4 ; he was considered more 
eminent than they, and Sagansih 5 and the southern 
quarter were given to him ; and Avar-shatr6 6 and 
the governorship were given by him to Avarnak. 
38. Of Avar-shatro this is said, that it is the district 
of Avarnak, and they offered blessings to Srosh and 
An/avahist in succession ; on this account is their 
possession of horses and possession of arms ; and 
on account of firm religion, purity, and manifest joy, 
good estimation and extensive fame are greatly 

1 This name means 'the dawn;' perhaps it may be identified 
with Av. Usinemangh or Usenemangh of Fravardin Yt. 113, 140, 
whose wife Fr<?ni may possibly be the Farhank (or Franak) of the 

2 So in TD, but it is probably only a variant of Namun. 

3 The grandfather of Rustam (see § 41). In the Avesta he is 
usually called Sama Keresaspa with the title Nairimanau; while 
in the Shahnamah Sam is son of Nariman. 

4 Another name for Zal, the father of Rustam, in the Shahnamah. 

5 The same as Sagastan. 

6 Or, perhaps, ' the upper district.' 


among them. 39. To Damnak the governorship of 
Asfiristctn was given ; sovereignty and arranging the 
law of sovereignty, wilfulness and the stubborn de- 
fects they would bring, were among them. 40. To 
Sparnak * the governorship of Spahan 2 was given ; 
to Khllsrov the governorship of Rdi 3 was given ; to 
Margandak the kingdom, forest settlements, and 
mountain settlements of Padashkhvargar were 
given ; where they travel nomadically, and there 
are the forming of sheep-folds, prolificness, easy 
procreation, and continual triumph over enemies. 
41. From Dast&n proceeded RiWastim 4 and Huza- 
varak 5 .] 

Chapter XXXII 6 . 

1. On the kindred of P6rtishasp 7 , son of Patti- 
r£sp & , son of Aurvadasp 9 , son of H&6/£adi£sp 10 , son of 

1 He would seem not to have been a son of Sam, as he is not 
mentioned before. The reading of all these names is uncertain. 

2 The Pahlavi form of Ispahan. 

3 Av. Ragha of Yas. XIX, 51, Vend. I, 60, whose ruins are near 
the modern Teheran. 

4 The usual Pahlavi form of Rustam. 

5 Or Auzv&rak; Rustam's brother is called Zavarah in the 

6 This chapter, which is numbered XXXIII by previous trans- 
lators, is found in all MSS., but in TD it forms a continuation of 
the preceding chapter, beginning with the name P6rushasp. 

7 Av. Pourushaspa of Yas. IX, 42, 43, Vend. XIX, 15, 22, 143, 
Aban Yt. i8 ? &c. 

8 K20 has Paz. Spitarsp, and M6 has Paz. Pirtrasp (see note on 
Chap. XXXIII, 1). The reading in the text is doubtful. 

9 Omitted in K20 and TD. 

10 Av. Hae&u/aspa of Yas. XLV, 15, LII, 3. 


Kakhshnils *, son of Paitirasp, son of Hardarai 2 , ^^ 
of Harder 3 , ^» of Spitam&n 4 , $<?# of Vidait 5 , #?# of 
Ayazem, son of Ra^an 6 , son of Dfrrasrdb 7 , $<?# of 
Manlisv£ihar 8 . 2. As Paitirasp ^^ two sons, one 
Porftshasp and one Arasti 9 , by Por&shasp was Za- 
ratfot begotten for a sanctuary of good religion 10 , 
and by Aristi was Medyok-mih n begotten. 3. Zara- 
tUst, when he brought the religion, first celebrated 

1 Windischmann suggests Av. ^Ikhshn6i.r (gen.) of Fravardin 
Yt. 114. 

2 K20 has Paz. Han-n and TD has Harakk/anmo. 

3 TD has Har&Mr, or Arai^ar. 

* Or SpMm (as the last syllable is the patronymical suffix), Av. 
SpMma, the usual patronymic of Zaratfot. 

5 May be read V&dLrt in TD. 

6 Possibly the same person as RAk in Chap. XXXI, 31 ; but 
see XXXIII, 3. 

7 So in TD, but Paz. Durasrun in K20, M6. 

8 This genealogy is somewhat differently given in theVa^arkar^-i 
Dinik (pp. 28, 2 9), as published in Bombay by Dastur Peshotanji Beh- 
ramji Sanj&na in 1848; and is extended back, through the genera- 
tions mentioned in Chap. XXXI, 1, 2, 7, 1 4, to Gayoman/, as follows : 
' Porushaspo son of Paitirasp, and Ar&sp6 son of Paitirasp, Urva«- 
dasp, Ha&fca^asp, iftkhshnuj, PaStirasp, Harden, Harid&r, SpM- 
m&n5, VaSdist, Nayazem, Ra^im, Dur&sr6b, M&nu,y£ihar sovereign 
of Iran, Manuj-khurnar, M&nm-khurn&k, N6ry6sang, Varsi^-din, 
Vizak, Airyak, Aithritak, Ibitak, Frazfoak, Zixak, Frasizak, Izak, 
AM£, FreWun lord of Khvaniras, Pur-tora the Aspikan, N6vak-tora 
the Aspik&n, S6g-t6r& the Aspikan, GeTar-tor& the Aspikan, Van6- 
i-fravi^n the Aspikan, Yim lord of the seven regions, Vivangh&u, 
Ayangha^, Anangha^, Takhmorup, Hoshang the Pe^dad; lord of 
the seven regions, Fravak, Siyamak, Mashyo whose wife was 
Mashyak, Gay6kman/ the first man, and father of all mankind in 
the material world/ 

9 Av. Arastaya of Fravardin Yt. 95 ; TD has Arastih. 

10 The Pazand words dargd hidaini.? appear to be merely a 
misreading of Pahl. darg&s-i hudin6ih. 

11 Av. Maidhy6-mtfungha of Yas. L, 19, Fravardin Yt. 95, 106. 
He is said to have been Zaratikt's first disciple. 


worship l and expounded in Airan-ve^*, and Medyok- 
mah received the religion from him. 4. The 
Mobads 2 of Pars are all traced back to this race 
of ManHsv£lhar. 

5. Again, I say, by Zarat&rt 3 were begotten three 
sons and three daughters 4 ; one son was Isaafvcistar 5 , 
one Atirvataaf-nar 6 , and one Khtirshe</-v£ihar 7 ; as 
Isa^/vastar was chief of the priests he became the 
Mobad of Mobads, and passed away in the hun- 
dredth year of the religion ; Atirvataaf-nar was an 
agriculturist, and the chief of the enclosure formed 
by Yim 8 , which is below the earth ; Kh6rshe</-/£ihar 
was a warrior, commander of the army of P£shyo- 
tanti, son of VLrtasp, and dwells in Kangde^ 8 ; and 
of the three daughters the name of one was Fren, of 
one Srit, and of one Poruiist 9 . 6. Atirvataaf-nar and 
Khftrshedf-ithar were from a serving (/£akar) wife 10 , 
the rest were from a privileged (pcl^akhshah) wife. 

1 Reading ix&g ya^t ; but it may be fra^- ga^t, 'wandered 

2 The class of priests whose special duty is to perform all reli- 
gious rites and ceremonies. 

3 This paragraph is quoted, with a few alterations, in the Va^ar- 
k&rd-i Dintk, pp. 21-23. 

4 K20 omits the 'three daughters' here, by mistake. 

5 Av. Isa^-vastra of Yas. XXIII, 4, XXVI, 17, Fravardtn Yt. 98. 

6 Av. Urvata^-nara of Vend. II, 143, Fravardtn Yt. 98. K20 
and M6 have AurvartaJ-nar, and TD has Aurvata^-nar. 

7 Av. Hvare-flthra of Fravardtn Yt. 98 ; TD has Khur-^thar. 

8 See Chap. XXIX, 5. Windischmann and Justi consider the 
clause about P6shy6tanu as inserted by mistake, and it is omitted 
in the Vagurkan/-i Dtntk (p. 21); it is found, however, in all MSS. 
of the Bundahii*. 

9 These daughters are the Av. Fraii, Thriti, and Pouru-^ista of 
Fravardtn Yt. 139 ; the last is also mentioned in Yas. LI I, 3. 

10 The following is a summary of the Persian descriptions of the 
five kinds of marriage, as given in the Rivayats : — 

A padshah (' ruling, or privileged ') wife is when a man marries, 


7 \ By Isa^v&star was begotten a son whose name 
was Ururvi^a 2 , and they call him Aran^-i Blr&a&n 3 
( 4 fore-arm of brothers') for this reason, that, as they 

with the parents' consent, an unbetrothed maiden out of a family, 
and she and her children remain his in both worlds. 

A yukan or ayuk ('only child') wife is an only child, married 
with the parents' consent, and her first child belongs to them; 
after its birth she becomes ap&dshah wife. She is entitled to one- 
third of her parents' property for giving up the child. 

A satar ('adopted') wife is when a man over fifteen years of 
age dies childless and unmarried, and his relatives provide a maiden 
with a dowry, and marry her to another man ; when half her chil- 
dren belong to the dead man, and half to the living, and she herself 
is the dead man's wife in the other world. 

A £akar or Mkar ('serving') wife is a widow who marries 
again ; if she had no children by her first husband she is acting as 
a satar wife, and half her children by her second husband belong 
to her first one ; and she herself, in any case, belongs to her first 
husband in the other world. 

A khud-^arai or khud-sarar ('self-disposing') wife is one 
who marries without her parents' consent ; she inherits no property 
from her parents until her eldest son has given her as a pad shah 
wife to his father. 

1 Instead of this sentence the Va^urkanf-i Dinik (pp. 21, 22) has 
the following, which appears to rest upon a misinterpretation of 
the text : — 

' And Zaratu^t the righteous had three wives ; all three were in 
the lifetime of ZaratCtrt, and all three wives were living throughout 
the lifetime of Zaratu^t ; the name of one was Hv6v, of the second 
Urvig-, of the third Arni£--bareda\ And from Urvig-, who was a 
privileged wife, four children were born ; one was the son Isa</- 
v&star, and the three daughters, namely, Fr&n, Sritak, and Poru&st ; 
these four were from Urvi§\ And from the wife Arni^-bareda two 
sons were born, one Aurvart-nar, and the second Khursh6^-/£ihar ; 
and Arni^-bareda was a serving wife, and the name of the former 
husband of Arni^-bareda was Mitro-ayar. And from Hv6v, who 
was a privileged wife, were three sons, namely, HusheWar, Hush- 
6dar-mah, and S6sha"ns, as it says,' &c. (as in § 8). 

2 TD has Pahl. Aurvarvf^ak or Khururupak. 

3 So in TD. 

144 BUNDAHIiS'. 

were from a serving wife, she then delivered them 
over to Isaafvastar through adoption. 8. This, too, 
one knows, that three sons of Zaratfot, namely, 
HAsh£dfar, Htish^^ar-mih x , and Soshyans 2 , were 
from Hv6v 3 ; as it says, that Zarattlst went near 
unto Hvov three times, and each, time the seed went 
to the ground ; the angel Neryosang 4 received the 
brilliance and strength of that seed, delivered it 
with care to the angel Anahf^ 5 , and in time will 
blend it with a mother. 9. Nine thousand, nine 
hundred, and ninety-nine, and nine myriads 6 of 
the guardian spirits of the righteous are intrusted 
with its protection, so that the demons may not 
injure it 1 , 

10. The name of the mother of Zarattiit was 
Dughda 8 , and the name of the father of the mother 
of Zaratfot was Frahimrav& 9 . 

1 Av. Ukhshya^-ereta and Ukhshya^-nemangh of Fravardin 
Yt. 128. 

2 Av. Saoshyas of Vend. XIX, 18, Fravardin Yt. 129, &c. See 
Chaps. XI, 6, XXIX, 6, XXX, 3, 4, 7, 17, 25, 27. 

3 Av. Hv6vi of Fravardin Yt. 139, Din Yt. 15; the Pahlavi form 
of the name, as given once in TD, is Huvaobo. 

4 See Chap. XV, i ; 

5 Av. anahita of Aban Yt. 1, &c. ; a female personification of 
' unsullied ' water, known generally by the epithet ardvi sura 
(the Aredvivsur of Chap. XIII), and whose name is also applied 
to the planet Venus (see Chap. V, 1). 

6 So in M6 ; other MSS. have '9,999 myriads,' but see Fra- 
vardin Yt. 62. 

7 This last phrase, about the demons, is omitted in TD and the 
Va^arkar^/-i Dinik. 

8 The Avesta word for ' daughter/ 

9 TD has P&z. Fereahimruv&na\ 


[Chapter XXXIII 1 . 

o. The family of the Mobads (' priests'). 

1. Bahak 2 was son of Hfibakht, son of Ataro- 
bondak, son of Mahdaaf, son of M&fyok-m&h, son 
of Frah-vakhsh-vinda^ 3 , son of Me^y6k-mih, son of 
K&af 4 , son of Me^y6k-mah, son of Arastlh, son of 
Paitirasp 6 . 2. As Bahak was M6bad of Mobads 
(high-priest) unto Sh&hptihar 6 , son of Aftharmazd, 
so YAd was the great preceptor (farm&af&r) unto 
DAril 7 . 

3. Atar6-p&^ 8 was son of Maraspend, son of D&d- 
arafa, son of D&a?lr&^, j<w of Htidfnd, son of Atard- 
di^, son of M&n{t&£fhar, $<?# of Vohtiman-ilhar, son of 
Fryan6 9 , son of B&hak 10 , ^^ of Freafan, son of Fra- 

1 This chapter is found only in TD, where it forms a continua- 
tion of the preceding, and affords a means (see §§ 10, 11) for 
determining the age of the recension of the text contained in that 
MS. As nearly all the names are written in Pahlavi letters, the 
pronunciation of many of them is merely a matter of guess. 

2 Here written B6hak, but it is Bahak or Bak in § 2 ; compare 
Bahak in § 3, and Av. Baungha of Fravardin Yt 124. 

3 Compare Av. FrasMvakhsha of Fravardin Yt. 109. 

4 Compare Av. K&ta of Fravardin Yt. 124. 

5 See Chap. XXXII, 2, for the last three generations ; TD has 
Pirtar&sp here, like the variant of M6 in Chap. XXXII, 1. 

6 The Sasanian king SMpur II, who reigned a.d. 309-379. 

7 According to the chronology of the Bundahi.? (Chap. XXXIV, 
8, 9), Darai lived only some four centuries before SMpur II, for 
which period only seven generations of priests are here provided. 
This period, moreover, is certainly about three centuries less than 
the truth. 

8 This priest was prime minister of Shipur II. 

9 Compare Av. Fryana of Yas. XLV, 12. 

10 This name is repeated in TD, probably by mistake (compare 
Bahak in §§ 1, 2). 

[5] L 


shaitar 1 , son of P6rushasp, son of Vtn&sp, son of 
Nivar, son of Vakhsh, son of Vahidhros, son of Frait, 
son of G&k 2 , son of Vakhsh, son of Fry&n, #w of 
Ra^an, son of Dtir&srob, son of M&nft5v£lhar 3 . 

4. Mitro-varas was son of Nig&s-afzlW-d&k, son of 
Shfrtash6sp, ^^ of Parctva, son of UrvatfT-g&, .swz of 
T&ham, son of Zarir, son of Diir&srob, ^^ of M&nll? 4 . 
5. Dtirn&mtk o/^w ^^ of Z&gh, ^^ of Masv&k, son of 
N6dar 5 , $00 of M4nfov£!har. 

6. Mitro - ak&vW z> ^^ of Mar^tn-veh 6 , son of 
Afr6bag-vind&</, 5W of Vind&^-i-ped&k, son of V&e- 
btikht 7 , *?# of Bahak, *<?# of V&e-bftkht 7. The 
mother from whom I was born is Htim&f, daughter 
of Freh-m&h, who also was the righteous daughter 8 

1 This is probably a semi-HuzvarLr form of Frash6xtar. 

2 Perhaps this name should be read along with the next one, so 
as to give the single P&zand name *Skina^ or -Skiva^. 

3 See Chap. XXXII, 1, for the last three generations. According 
to this genealogy Atar6pa^-i M&raspendln was the twenty-third in 
descent from Manuj£ihar, whereas his contemporary, Bahak (§ 1), 
was twenty-second in descent from the same. 

4 No doubt Manujvfcihar is meant ; if not, we must read M&n&r- 
durn&mik in connection with § 5. 

6 Here written Nidar, but see Chaps. XXIX, 6, XXXI, 13. 

6 Here written Man/-v6h, but see § 8. 

7 Here written A6-vukht, but see § 8 ; it may be Vis-bukht, or 

8 The text is ami^/ar muna,? li a^aj zerkhun</ Humoi 
dukht-i Freh-m&h-i£ aharob vukht (dukht?). We might 
perhaps read ' Freh-mah son of ^aharob-bukht/ but it seems more 
probable that §§ 7, 8 should be connected, and that the meaning 
intended is that Humai was daughter of Freh-mah (of a certain 
family) and of PuyLm-sha^ (of another family) ; she was also the 
mother of the editor of that recension of the Bundahir which is con- 
tained in TD ; but who was his father ? The singularly unnecessary 
repetition of the genealogy of the two brothers, Mitrd-aMvta and 
Puyun-sM*/, in §§ 6, 8, leads to the suspicion that if the latter 


of M&h-ay&r son of M&h-bondak, son of M&h-Mkht. 
8. PtiyLm-sMaf is son of Mar^n-veh, son of Afr6bag- 
vind&/, son of Vind^i-pe^k, son of V&e-bukht, son 
of Bahak, son of V&e-bukht. 

9. All the other Mobads who have been renowned 
in the empire (kh\W4ylh) were from the same 
family it is said, and were of this race of M&nto- 
^ihar 1 . 10. Those Mobads, likewise, who now 
exist are all from the same family they assert, and 

I, too, they boast, whom they call 2 ' the administra- 
tion of perfect rectitude' (DIWaklh-i Ash6vahi,st6) 3 . 

II. Ytid&n-Yim son of V4hr4m-sh4^, son of Zaratu^t, 
Ataro-p^ son of Matraspend, son of Za^-sparham 4 , 

were his mother's father, the former was probably his own father 
or grandfather. Unfortunately the text makes no clear statement 
on the subject, and § 10 affords further material for guessing 
otherwise at his name and connections. 

1 Compare Chap. XXXII, 4. 

2 Reading v a \\k laband-i karitund. 

3 This looks more like a complimentary title than a name, and 
if the editor of the TD recension of the Bundahk were the son or 
grandson of Mitro-akavfr/ (§ 6) we have no means of ascertaining 
his name ; but if he were not descended from Mitr6-akavu/ it is 
possible that §§ 10, n should be read together, and that he was 
the son of Yudan-Yim. Now we know, from the heading and 
colophon of the ninety-two questions and answers on religious 
subjects which are usually called the DaJistan-i Dinik, and from 
the colophons of other writings which usually accompany that 
work, that those answers were composed and certain epistles were 
written by Manu^ihar, son of Yudan-Yim, who was high-priest of 
Pars and Kirman in a.y. 250 (a.d. 881), and apparently a more 
important personage than his (probably younger) brother Z&d- 
sparham, who is mentioned in § 1 1 as one of the priests contem- 
porary with the editor of the TD recension. If this editor, therefore, 
were a son of Yudan-Yim (which is a possible interpretation of the 
text) he was most probably this same M&nu^ihar, author of the 
DMstan-i Dinik (see the Introduction, § 4). 

4 The last name is very probably superfluous, Za^-sparham 

L 2 


Z&af-sparham son of Yftd&n-Yim 1 9 Ataro-p&d son of 
Hkmld 2 , AshovahLst son of Freh-Sr6sh, and the 
other Mobads have sprung from the same family. 

12. This, too, it says, that 'in one winter I will 
locate (^siklnam) the religion of the Mazdayasnians, 
which came out into the other six regions/] 

having been written twice most likely by mistake. This Atar6-pa</ 
son of Maraspend was probably the one mentioned in the following 
extract from the old Persian Rivayat MS., No. 8 of the collection 
in the Indian Office Library at London (fol. 142 a) : — 

' The book Dinkan/ which the dasturs of the religion and the 
ancients have compiled, likewise the blessed Adarb&d son of Mah- 
rasfend, son of Asavahist of the people of the good religion, in the 
year three hundred of Yazda^ard Shahryar, collected some of the 
more essential mysteries of the religion as instruction, and of these 
he formed this book/ That is, he was the last editor of the Dinkan/, 
which seems to have remained unrevised since his time, as the 
present copies have descended from the MS. preserved by his 
family and first copied in a.y. 369. 

1 Zda 7 -sparham was brother of the author of the Dadista'n-i Dintk ; 
he was high-priest at SirMn in the south, and evidently had access 
to the Bundahi,?, of part of which he wrote a paraphrase (see 
Appendix). His name is usually written Za^-sparam. 

2 In the history of the Dinkan/, given at the end of its third 
book (see Introd. to Farhang-i Oim-khaduk, p. xxxiv), we are told 
as follows: — 

* After that, the well-meaning Ataro-pa// son of H6imW, who 
was the leader of the people of the good religion, compiled, with 
the assistance of God, through inquiry, investigation, and much 
trouble, a new means of producing remembrance of the Maz- 
dayasnian religion/ He did this, we are further told, by collecting 
all the decaying literature and perishing traditions into a work 
' like the great original Dinkan/, of a thousand chapters' (m&nak-i 
zak raba bun Din6-kart6 1 ooo-darako). We thus learn from 
external sources that the group of contemporary priests, mentioned 
in the text, was actively employed (about a.d. 900) in an attempted 
revival of the religious literature of the Mazdayasnians, to which we 
owe either the revision or compilation of such works as the Din- 
kan/, DMstan-i Dinik, and Bundahi^. 


Chapter XXXIV 1 . 

o. On the reckoning of the years 2 . 
1. Time was for twelve thousand years; and it 
says in revelation, that three thousand years was the 
duration of the spiritual state, where the creatures 
were unthinking, unmoving, and intangible 3 ; and 
three thousand years 4 was the duration of G&yoman/, 
with the ox, in the world. 2. As this was six thou- 
sand years the series of millennium reigns 5 of 
Cancer, Leo, and Virgo had elapsed, because it was 
six thousand years when the millennium reign came 
to Libra, the adversary rushed in, and G&yomar^ 
lived thirty years in tribulation 6 . 3. After the thirty 
years 7 M&shya and M&shyoi grew up ; it was fifty 
years while they were not wife and husband 8 , and 
they were ninety-three years together as wife and 
husband till the time when Hoshyang 9 came. 

4. Hoshyang was forty years 10 , Takhmorup 11 thirty 
years, Yim till his glory 12 departed six hundred and 

1 This chapter is found in all the MSS. 

2 TD adds ' of the Arabs (TasiMn).' 

3 See Chap. I, 8. 4 See Chaps. I, 22, III, 1. 

5 This system of a millennium reign for each constellation of the 
zodiac can hardly have any connection with the precession of the 
equinoxes, as the equinoxes travel backwards through the zodiac, 
whereas these millennium reigns travel forwards. 

6 See Chap. Ill, 21-23. 

7 That is, forty years after the thirty (see Chap. XV, 2). 

8 See Chap. XV, 19, 20. 9 See Chaps. XV, 28, XXXI, 1. 

10 K20 omits, by mistake, from 'together' in § 3 to this point. 

11 See Chap. XXXI, 2. 

12 So in K20, but M6 has nismo, ' soul, reason/ as in Chap. 
XXIII, 1; the word 'glory' would refer to the supposed divine 
glory of the Iranian monarchs (see Chap. XXXI, 32). 


sixteen years and six months, and after that he 
was a hundred years in concealment. 5. Then the 
millennium * reign came to Scorpio, and Dah&k 2 
ruled a thousand years. 6. After the millennium 
reign came to Sagittarius, Fre^un 3 reigned five hun- 
dred years ; in the same five hundred years of 
FrediXn were the twelve years of AirL£; M^nu^ihar 4 
was a hundred and twenty years, and in the same 
reign of M&ntxsv£ihar, when he was in the mountain 
fastness (dftshkhv&r-gar) 5 , were the twelve years 
of Fr&s!y&z> ; Zob 6 the Tiihm&spian was five years. 

7. Kal-KaMaf 7 was fifteen years ; Kai-KMs, till 
he went to the sky, seventy-five years, and seventy- 
five years after that, altogether a hundred and fifty 
years ; Kaf-Khusrov sixty years ; Kai-Lorctsp 8 a 
hundred and twenty years ; Kai-VLst&sp, till the 
coming of the religion, thirty years 9 , altogether a 
hundred and twenty years. 

8. Vohiiman 10 son of Spend-dikf a hundred and 

1 The seventh millennium, ruled by Libra, is computed by Wind- 
ischmann as follows: 30 + 40^ + 50 + 93 + 40 +30 + 616 J + 100= 
1000. The eighth millennium, ruled by Scorpio, is the thousand 
years of Dahak. 

2 See Chap. XXXI, 6. 3 See Chap. XXXI, 7-1 1. 
4 See Chap. XXXI, 12-14. 5 See Chap. XXXI, 21. 

6 Written Auz6b6 in Chap. XXXI, 23, 24. 

7 Usually written Kai-Kavsu/ in Pahlavi (see Chap. XXXI, 24, 25). 

8 Also written Ka$-L6harasp (see Chap. XXXI, 28, 29). 

9 This is the end of the ninth millennium, ruled by Sagittarius, 
which is computed by Windischmann as follows : 500 -f 1 20 + 5 4- 
*5+ 150 + 60+120 + 30=1000. 

10 See Chap. XXXI, 29, 30, where he is said to have been also 
called Artakhshatar, which seems to identify him with Artaxerxes 
Longimanus and his successors down to Artaxerxes Mnemon ; so 
that Humai may perhaps be identified with Parysatis, and Darai 
-Afihar-asaWan with Artaxerxes Ochus, as Darai Darayan must be 

CHAPTER XXXIV, 5-9. 151 

twelve years ; Htim&t, who was daughter of Vohfi- 
man, thirty years; D&rlf son of Kihzr-kz&d 1 , that 
is, of the daughter of Vohtiman, twelve years ; D&rai 
son of D&r&i fourteen years ; Alexander the Rfiman 2 
fourteen years. 

9. The Addtnians bore the title in an uninter- 
rupted (a-ariiMk) sovereignty two hundred and 
eighty-four years 3 , Ardashir son of P&pak and the 
number of the S&s&nians four hundred and sixty 
years 4 , and then it went to the Arabs. 

Darius Codomannus, while the reign of Kai-Vi,ytdsp seems intended 
to cover the period from Cyrus to Xerxes. 

1 A surname of Humai. 

2 Sikandar-i Arum&k, that is, Alexander the Roman (of the 
eastern or Greek empire), as Pahlavi writers assume. 

3 This period is nearly two centuries too short. 

4 The actual period of Sasanian rule was 425 years (a. d. 226- 
651). According to the figures given in the text, the tenth millen- 
nium, ruled by Capricornus, must have terminated in the fourth 
year of the last king, Yazdakan/. This agrees substantially with the 
Bahman Ya^t, which makes the millennium of Zaratuit expire 
some time after the reign of Khusr6 N6shirv&n; probably in 
the time of Khusr6 Parviz, or some forty years earlier than the 
fourth year of Yazdakan/. According to the text we must now 
be near the end of the first quarter of the twelfth and last mil- 




PARS and kirmAn, 

A.D. 88l. 

Part I, Chapters I -XL 
(Paraphrase of Bundahij, I -XVII.) 


1-5. (The same as on p. 2.) 

6. Abbreviations used are: — A v. for Avesta. Bund, for Bun- 
dahLr, as translated in this volume. B. Yt. for Bahman Ya^t, as 
translated in this volume. Haug's Essays, for Essays on the Sacred 
Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, by Martin Haug, 
2nd edition. Mkh. for Mainyo-i-khan/, ed. West. Pers. for 
Persian. Vend, for Vendidad, ed. Spiegel. Yas. for Yasna, ed. 
Spiegel. Yt. for Ya^t, ed.Westergaard. 

7. The MS. mentioned in the notes is K35 (written probably 
a.d. 1572), No. 35 in the University Library at Kopenhagen. 




They call these memoranda and writings the 
Selections (/£lafakiha) of Za^-sparam, son of Yfidan- 

Chapter I. 

o. In propitiation of the creator Atiharmazd and 
all the angels — who are the whole of the heavenly 
and earthly sacred beings (yazdan) — are the sayings 
of Herbad Za^-sparam, son of Yudan-Yim, who is of 
the south 1 , about the meeting of the beneficent spirit 
and the evil spirit. 

i. It is in scripture thus declared, that light was 
above and darkness below, and between those two 
was open space. 2. Atiharmazd was in the light, 
and Aharman in the darkness 2 ; Auharmazd was 
aware of the existence of Aharman and of his 
coming for strife ; Aharman was not aware of the 
existence of light and of Auharmazd 3 . 3. It hap- 
pened to Aharman, in the gloom and darkness, that 

1 ZaW-sparam appears to have been dastur of Sirkan, about 
thirty parasangs south of Kirman, and one of the most southern 
districts in Persia (see Ouseley's Oriental Geography, pp. 138, 139, 
141, 143-145). 

2 See Bund. I, 2-4. 

8 Or ' of the light of Auharmazd' (compare Bund. I, 8, 9). 


he was walking humbly (fro-tan ft) on the borders, 
and meditating other things he came up to the top, 
and a ray of light was seen by him; and because of its 
antagonistic nature to him he strove that he might 
reach it, so that it might also be within his absolute 
power. 4. And as he came forth to the boundary, 
accompanied by certain others 1 , Atiharmazd came 
forth to the struggle for keeping Aharman away 
from His territory; and He did it through pure 
words, confounding witchcraft, and cast him back to 
the gloom. 

5. For protection from the fiend (drft^) the spirits 
rushed in, the spirits of the sky, water, earth, plants, 
animals, mankind, and fire He had appointed, and 
they maintained it (the protection) three thousand 
years. 6. Aharman, also, ever collected means in 
the gloom ; and at the end of the three thousand 
years he came back to the boundary, blustered 
(patlst&rf), and exclaimed thus: * I will smite thee, 
I will smite the creatures which thou thinkest have 
produced fame for thee — thee who art the beneficent 
spirit — I will destroy everything about them/ 

7. Aftharmazd answered thus : ' Thou art not a 
doer of everything, O fiend 2 ! ' 

8. And, again, Aharman retorted thus : ' I will 
seduce all material life into disaffection to thee and 
affection to myself 3 / 

9. Auharmazd perceived, through the spirit of 
wisdom, thus : ' Even the blustering of Aharman is 
capable of performance, if I do not allow disunion 

1 Reading pavan ^at&r&no ham-tanu, but the phrase is 
somewhat doubtful, and rather inconsistent with Bund. I, 10. 

2 Bund. I, 16. 3 Bund. I, 14. 


(Id barfninam) during a period of struggle/ 10. 
And he demanded of him a period for friendship \ 
for it was seen by him that Aharman does not rely 
upon the intervention of any vigorous ones, and the 
existence of a period is obtaining the benefit of the 
mutual friendship and just arrangement of both ; 
and he formed it into three periods, each period 
being three millenniums, n. Aharman relied upon 
it, and Aliharmazd perceived that, though it is not 
possible to have Aharman sent down, ever when he 
wants he goes back to his own requisite, which is 
darkness ; and from the poison which is much 
diffused endless strife arises 2 . 

12. And after the period was appointed by him, 
he brought forward the Ahftnavar formula*; and in 
his Ahfinavar these 4 kinds of benefit were shown: — 
13. The first is that, of all things, that is proper 
which is something declared as the will of Atihar- 
mazd; so that, whereas that is proper which is 
declared the will of Afiharmazd, where anything 
exists which is not within the will of Aiiharmazd, it 
is created injurious from the beginning, a sin of a 
distinct nature. 14. The second is this, that who- 
ever shall do that which is the will of Atiharmazd, 
his reward and recompense are his own ; and of him 
who shall not do that which is the will of Atihar- 
mazd, the punishment at the bridge 5 owing thereto 

1 Bund. I, 17, 18. 

2 Or ' the poison of the serpent, which is much diffused, becomes 
endless strife/ 

3 Bund. I, 21. 

4 The word in, 'those/ however, is probably a miswriting of 
the cipher for ' three/ 

6 The iftnva*/ or .ff!nvar bridge (see Bund. XII, 7). 


is his own; which is shown from this l formula; and 
the reward of doers of good works, the punishment 
of sinners, and the tales of heaven and hell are from 
it. 15. Thirdly, it is shown that the sovereignty of 
Atiharmazd increases that which is for the poor, and 
adversity is removed ; by which it is shown that 
there are treasures for the needy one, and treasures 
are to be his friends ; as the intelligent creations are 
to the unintelligent, so also are the treasures of a 
wealthy person to a needy one, treasures liberally 
given which are his own. 16. And the creatures of 
the trained hand of Aftharmazd are contending and 
angry (ir^ik), one with the other, as the renovation 
of the universe must occur through these three 
things. 1 7. That is, first, true religiousness in one- 
self, and reliance upon a man's original hold on the 
truly glad tidings (nav-barham), that Allharmazd 
is all goodness without vileness, and his will is a 
will altogether excellent ; and Aharman is all vile- 
ness without goodness. 18. Secondly, hope of the 
reward and recompense of good works, serious fear 
of the bridge and the punishment of crime, strenuous 
perseverance in good works, and abstaining from 
sin. 19. Thirdly, the existence of the mutual assist- 
ance of the creatures, or along with and owing to 
mutual assistance, their collective warfare ; it is the 
triumph of warfare over the enemy which is one's 
own renovation 2 . 

1 The MS. has human, ' well-meditating/ instead of denman, 
' this;' but the two words are much alike in Pahlavi writing. 

2 This commentary on the Ahunavar, or YatM-ahu-vairyo 
formula, is rather clumsily interpolated by Za^-sparam, and is 
much more elaborate than the usual Pahlavi translation and expla- 
nation of this formula, which may be translated as follows : — 


20. By this formula he (Aharman) was con- 
founded, and he fell back to the gloom 1 ; and Atihar- 
mazd produced the creatures bodily for the world ; 
first, the sky ; the second, water ; the third, earth ; 
the fourth, plants ; the fifth, animals ; the sixth, 
mankind 2 . 21. Fire was in all, diffused originally 
through the six substances, of which it was as much 
the confiner of each single substance in which it was 
established, it is said, as an eyelid when they lay one 
down upon the other. 

22. Three thousand years the creatures were 
possessed of bodies and not walking on their navels ; 
and the sun, moon, and stars stood still. 23. In the 
mischievous incursion, at the end of the period, 
Aftharmazd observed thus : ' What advantage is 
there from the creation of a creature, although 
thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous ?' 24. 

' As is the will of the living spirit (as is the will of Auharmazd) 
so should be the pastor (so excellent should he be) owing to 
whatsoever are the duties and good works of righteousness (the 
duties and good works should be as excellent as the will of Auhar- 
mazd). Whose is the gift of good thought (that is, the reward 
and recompense good thought gives, it gives also unto him) which 
among living spirits is the work of Auharmazd (that is, they would 
do that which Auharmazd requires) ; there are some who say it is 
thus : Whose gift is through good thought (that is, the reward and 
recompense which they will give to good thought, they would give 
also unto him); Ataro-psu/ son of Zaratast said that by the gift of 
good thought, when among living spirits, they comprehend the 
doing of deeds. The sovereignty is for Auharmazd (that is, the 
sovereignty which is his, Auharmazd has kept with advantage) 
who gives necessaries [or comfort, or clothing] to the poor (that 
is, they would make intercession for them)/ 

Additional phrases are sometimes inserted, and some words 
altered, but the above is the usual form of this commentary. 

1 Bund. I, 22. 2 Bund. I, 28. 


And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the 
creature Time (zorvdn) 1 ; and Time is unrestricted, 
so that he made the creatures of Aiiharmazd moving, 
distinct from the motion of Aharman's creatures, for 
the shedders of perfume (bol-d&^&n) were standing 
one opposite to the other while emitting it. 25. And, 
observantly of the end, he brought forward to 
Aharman a means out of himself, the property of 
darkness, with which the extreme limits (virlinako) 
of Time were connected by him, an envelope (p6sto) 
of the black-pated and ash-coloured kind. 26. And 
in bringing it forward he spoke thus : * Through 
their weapons the co-operation of the serpent (a 26) 
dies away, and this which is thine, indeed thy own 
daughter, dies through religion ; and if at the end of 
nine thousand years, as it is said and written, is a 
time of upheaval (madam karafano), she is up- 
heaved, not ended/ 

2 7. At the same time Aharman came from accom- 
panying Time out to the front, out to the star 
station ; the connection of the sky with the star 
station was open, which showed, since it hung down 
into empty space, the strong communication of the 
lights and glooms, the place of strife in which is the 
pursuit of both. 28. And having darkness with him- 
self he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so 
to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky 
extends as much as one-third 2 over the star station. 

1 This is the Av. zrvana akarana, 'boundless time or antiquity,' 
of Vend. XIX, 33, 44. He is a personification of duration and 
age, and is here distinctly stated to be a creature of Auharmazd. 
This throws some doubt upon the statements of Armenian writers, 
who assert that the two spirits sprang from Zrvana. 

2 Compare Bund. Ill, 11. 

SELECTIONS OF zAd-SPARAM, I, 2 5 -II, 6. l6l 

Chapter IL 

i. On the coming in of Aharman to the creatures 
it is thus declared in revelation, that in the month 
Fravan/fn and the day Auharmazd, at noon 1 , he 
came forth to the frontier of the sky. 2. The sky 
sees him and, on account of his nature, fears as 
much as a sheep trembles at a wolf ; and Aharman 
came on, scorching and burning into it. 3. Then he 
came to the water which was arranged below the 
earth 2 , and darkness without an eyelid was brought 
on by him ; and he came on, through the middle of 
the earth, as a snake all-leaping comes on out of a 
hole ; and he stayed within the whole earth. 4. 
The passage where he came on is his own, the way 
to hell, through which the demons make the wicked 

5. Afterwards, he came to a tree, such as was of a 
single root, the height of which was several feet, and 
it was without branches and without bark, juicy and 
sweet ; and to keep the strength of all kinds of trees 
in its race, it was in the vicinity of the middle of the 
earth ; and at the self-same time it became quite 
withered 3 . 

6. Afterwards, he came to the ox, the sole- 
created 4 , as it stood as high as Giyoman/ on the 

1 Bund. Ill, 12. 2 Bund. Ill, 13. 

8 Bund. Ill, 14, 16. 

4 The primeval ox, or first-created representative of animals, as 
Gay oman/ was of mankind ; from which two representatives all 
mankind and animals are said to have been afterwards developed. 
There seems to have been some doubt as to the sex of this mytho- 
logical ox ; here it is distinctly stated to have been a female, but from 
Bund. X, 1, 2, XIV, 3, it would appear to have been a male, and this 
seems to be admitted by Da</-sparam himself, in Chap. IX, 7. 

[5] M 


bank of the water of D&itih 1 in the middle of the 
earth ; and its distance from Gdydmar^f being as 
much as its own height, it was also distant from the 
bank of the water of Daitih by the same measure ; 
and it was a female, white and brilliant as the moon. 
7. As the adversary came upon it Aftharmazd gave 
it a narcotic, which is also called * bang/ to eat, and 
to rub the ' bang ' before the eye 2 , so that the 
annoyance from the assault of crimes may be less ; 
it became lean and ill, and fell upon its right breast 3 

8. Before the advance to G&y6man/, who was 
then about one-third the height of Zarat&rt, and was 
brilliant as the sun, Atiharmazd forms, from the 
sweat 4 on the man, a figure of fifteen years, radiant 
and tall, and sends it on to Gctyoman/ ; and he also 
brings his sweat 5 on to him as long as one Yatha- 
ahti-vairyo 6 is being recited. 9. When he issued 
from the sweat, and raised his eyes, he saw the 
world when it was dark as night 7 ; on the whole 
earth were the snake, the scorpion, the lizard 
(va^ak), and noxious creatures of many kinds; and 
so the other kinds of quadrupeds stood among the 

1 The Daitfk river (see Bund. XX, 13). 

2 This is a misunderstanding of the corresponding phrase in 
Bund. Ill, 18. The narcotic here mentioned is usually prepared 
from the hemp plant, and is well known in India and the neigh- 
bouring countries. 

3 See Bund. IV, 1. 

4 The word which, as it stands in the MS., looks like homanae, 
is here taken as a transposition of min khv&e, in accordance with 
Bund. Ill, 19; but it may be a variant of anumae, < embryo,' in 
which case the translation should be, ' forms an embryo into the 
shape of a man of fifteen years/ 

5 Or it may be ' sleep/ both here and in § 9. 

6 See Bund. I, 21. 7 Bund. Ill, 20. 


reptiles ; every approach of the whole earth was as 
though not as much as a needle's point remained, in 
which there was no rush of noxious creatures. 10. 
There were the coming of a planetary star into 
planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets at 
sixes and sevens * ; many dark forms with the face 
and curls of Az-\ Dahak suffered punishment in com- 
pany with certain non-Iranians; and he was amazed 
at calling the wicked out from the righteous. 

1 1 . Lastly, he ( Aharman) came up to the fire, and 
mingled darkness and smoke with it 2 . 

Chapter III. 

1. And G6stirvan, as she was herself the soul of 
the primeval ox, when the ox passed away, came out 
from the ox, even as the soul from the body of the 
dead, and kept up the clamour of a cry to Aiihar- 
mazd in such fashion as that of an army, a thousand 
strong, when they cry out together 3 . 2. And Au- 
harmazd, in order to be much more able to keep 
watch over the mingled creatures than in front of 
Giyoman/, went from the earth up to the sky. 3. 
And Gds&rvan continually went after him crying, 
and she kept up the cry thus: 'With whom may the 
guardianship over the creatures be left by thee?' 

Chapter IV. 

1. This was the highest predominance of Ahar- 
man, for he came on, with all the strength which he 

1 Literally, ' in fours and fives/ 

2 Bund. Ill, 24. 3 Bund. IV, 2. 

M 2 


had, for the disfigurement of the creatures ; and he 
took as much as one-third of the base of the sky l , 
in a downward direction, into a confined and captive 
state, so that it was all dark and apart from the 
light, for it was itself, at the coming of the adversary, 
his enemy among the struggles for creation. 2. And 
this is opposing the renovation of the universe, for 
the greatest of all the other means of the fiend, 
when he has come in, are of like origin and strength 
this day, in the sleep 2 of the renovation, as on that 
when the enemy, who is fettered on coming in, is 
kept back. 

3. Amid all this struggling were mingled the in- 
stigations of Aharman, crying thus : ' My victory 
has come completely, for the sky is split and dis- 
figured by me with gloom and darkness, and taken 
by me as a stronghold ; water is disfigured by me, 
and the earth, injured by darkness, is pierced by me; 
vegetation is withered by me, the ox is put to death 
by me, Gay6mara? is made ill by me, and opposed to 
those revolving 3 are the glooms and planets ar- 
ranged by me ; no one has remained for me to take 
and pervert in combat except Auharmazd, and of 
the earth there is only one man, who is alone, what 
is he able to do ?' 

4. And he sends Asto-vlda^ 4 upon him with the 
thousand decrepitudes (auzv&rano) and diseases 

1 Compare Bund. Ill, n. The involved style of ZaW-sparam is 
particularly conspicuous in this chapter. 

2 The word seems to be khvdpi^no. 

3 Meaning probably the zodiacal signs, but the word is doubtful, 
being spelt vardunano instead of var<fi.rn&n6. A very small 
alteration would change it into varoi^nano, ' believers/ but there 
were no earthly believers at the time alluded to. 

4 See Bund. Ill, 21, and XXVIII, 35. 


which are his own, sicknesses of various kinds, so that 
they may make him ill and cause death. 5. Gayo- 
maraf was not secured by them, and the reason 
was because it was a decree of appointing Time 
(zorvdno) in the beginning of the coming in of 
Aharman, that : * Up to thirty winters I appoint 
G&y6maraf unto brilliance and preservation of life/ 
6. And his manifestation in the celestial sphere was 
through the forgiveness of criminals and instigators 
of confusion by his good works, and for that reason 
no opportunity was obtained by them during the 
extent of thirty years. 

7. For in the beginning it was so appointed that 
the star Jupiter (Atiharmazd) was life towards the 
creatures, not through its own nature, but on 
account of its being within the control (band) of 
the luminaries 1 ; and Saturn (Kevan) was death 
towards the creatures. 8. Both were in their 
supremacy (b a list) 2 at the beginning of the crea- 

1 These luminaries are the fixed stars, especially the signs of the 
zodiac, to whose protection the good creation is committed (see 
Bund. II, 0-4) ; whereas Jupiter and all other planets are supposed 
to be, by nature, disturbers of the creation, being employed by 
Aharman for that purpose (see Mkh. VIII, 17-21, XII, 7-10, 
XXIV, 8, XXXVIII, 5). 

2 The most obvious meaning of b&list is 'greatest altitude/ 
and this is quite applicable to Jupiter when it attains its highest 
northern declination on entering Cancer, but it is not applicable 
to Saturn in Libra, when it has only its mean altitude. At the 
vernal equinox, however, which was the time of the beginning 
mentioned in the text, when Aharman invaded the creation (see 
Chap. II, 1), Libra is in opposition to the sun, and Saturn in Libra 
would be at its nearest approach to the earth, and would, therefore, 
attain its maximum brightness ; while Jupiter in Cancer would be 
at its greatest altitude and shining with four-fifths of its maximum 
brightness. Both planets, therefore, were near their most con- 
spicuous position (which would seem to be the meaning of balist 


tures, as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which 
is also called Giv&n (' living ') 1 y for it is the place in 
which life is bestowed upon it ; and Saturn was in 
Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own 
venom and deadliness became more evident and 
more dominant thereby. 9. And it was when both 
shall not be supreme that G&yoman/ was to com- 
plete his own life, which is the thirty years 2 Saturn 
came not again to supremacy, that is, to Libra. 10. 
And at the time when Saturn came into Libra, 
Jupiter was in Capricornus * on account of whose 
own lowness 4 , and the victory of Saturn over 
Jupiter, Gayoman/ suffered through those very 
defects which came and are to continue advancing, 
the continuance of that disfigurement which Ahar- 
man can bring upon the creatures of Atiharmazd. 

here), and might each be supposed to be exercising its maximum 
astrological influence, so that the presumed deadly power of Saturn 
would be neutralised by the supposed reviving influence of Jupiter. 

1 This reading suits the context best, but the name can also be 
read Snahan, and in many other ways. It may possibly be the 
tenth lunar mansion, whose name is read Nahn in Bund. II, 3, 
by Pazand writers, and which corresponds to the latter part of 

2 Saturn revolves round the sun in about 29 years and 167 
days, so it cannot return into opposition to the sun (or to its 
maximum brightness), at or near the vernal equinox, in less than 
thirty years. 

3 That is, while Saturn performs one revolution round the sun, 
Jupiter performs two and a half, which is very nearly correct, as 
Jupiter revolves round the sun in about 11 years and 315 days. 
Therefore, when the supposed deadly influence of Saturn has 
returned to its maximum, the supposed reviving influence of Jupiter 
is at its minimum, owing to the small altitude of Capricornus, and 
no longer counterbalances the destructive power of Saturn. 

4 There seems to be no other reasonable translation, but the 
MS. has la instead of rat, and nukasp instead of nuip. 


Chapter V, 

1. When in like manner, and equally oppressively, 
as his (A&harmazd's) creatures were disfigured, then 
through that same deterioration his own great glory 
was exhibited ; for as he came within the sky 1 he 
maintains the spirit of the sky, like an intrepid war- 
rior who has put on metal armour 2 ; and the sky in 
its fortress 3 spoke these hasty, deceitful words to 
Aharman, thus : * Now when thou shalt have come 
in I will not let thee back ; ' and it obstructed him 
until Aftharmazd prepared another rampart, that is 
stronger, around the sky, which is called ' righteous 
understanding' (ashok &k£sih). 2. And he ar- 
ranged the guardian spirits 4 of the righteous who 
are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses 
and spear in hand, in such manner as the hair on 
the head ; and they acquired the appearance of 
prison guards who watch a prison from outside, and 
would not surrender the outer boundaries to an 
enemy descended from the inside. 

3. Immediately, Aharman endeavours that he 
may go back to his own complete darkness, but 
he found no passage ; and he recapitulated, with 
seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness 
which is to arise at the appearance of the renova- 
tion of the tmiverse at the end of the nine thousand 

4. As it is said in the Gathas, thus 5 : ' So also 

1 See Chap. Ill, 2. 2 Compare Bund. VI, 2. 

s Or i zodiacal signs/ for bur^o means both. 

4 Bund. VI, 3, 4. 

5 This quotation from the G&thas is from the Pahlavi Yas. 
XXX, 4, and agrees with the Pahlavi text, given in Dastur Jam- 


both those spirits have approached together unto 
that which was the first creation — that is, both 
spirits have come to the body of G&y6marc£ What- 
ever is in life is so through this purpose of Atihar- 
mazd, that is : So that I may keep it alive ; what- 
ever is in lifelessness is so through this purpose 1 of 
the evil spirit, that is : So that I may utterly destroy 
it ; and whatever is thus, is so until the last in 
the world, so that they (both spirits) come also on 
to the rest of mankind. And on account of the 
utter depravity of the wicked their destruction is 
fully seen, and so is the perfect meditation of him 
who is righteous, the hope of the eternity of 

5. And this was the first contest 2 , that 0/the sky 
with Aharman. 

Chapter VL 

1. And as he (Aharman) came secondly to the 
water, together with him rushed in, on the horse 
Cancer, he who is the most watery Tlstar; the 
equally watery one, that is called Avrak 3 , gave 
forth a cloud and went down in the day; that is 

aspji's old MS. of the Yasna in Bombay, very nearly as closely as 
Spiegel's edition does. It appears, therefore, that DaaT-sparam 
used the same Pahlavi translation of the Yasna as the Parsis do 
at the present day. 

1 The MS. here omits the words ' through this purpose,' by 

2 The word ar^fik, which Da^-sparam uses instead of the 
kharah, 'conflict/ of Bund. V, 6, VI, 1, &c, may be connected 
with Pers. ard, ' anger/ 

' 6 The ninth lunar mansion (, 3> VII, i)*. 


declared as the movement of the first-comers of the 
creatures. 2. Cancer became a zodiacal constella- 
tion (akhtar); it is the fourth constellation of the 
zodiac for this reason, because the month Tir is the 
fourth month of the year \ 

3. And as Tistar begged for assistance, Vohti- 
man and Horn are therefore co-operating with him 
in command, Buir^* of the waters and the water in 
mutual aid, and the righteous guardian spirits in 
keeping the peace. 4. He was converted into three 
forms, which are the form of a man, the form of a 
bull, and the form of a horse ; and each form was 
distinguished in brilliance for ten nights, and lets its 
rain fall on the night for the destruction of noxious 
creatures. 5. The drops became each separately 
like a great bowl in which water is. drawn ; and as 
to that on which they are driven, they kill all the 
noxious creatures except the reptiles 2 , who entered 
into the muddiness of the earth. 

6. Afterwards, the wind spirit, in the form of a 
man, became manifest on the earth ; radiant and tall 
he had a kind of wooden boot (m&kvo-a£-i< d&rln6) 
on his feet ; and as when the life shall stir the body, 
the body is advancing with like vigour, so that spirit 
of the wind stirs forth the inner nature of the atmo- 
spheric wind, the wind pertaining to the whole earth 
is forth, and the water in its grasp is flung out from 
it to the sides of the earth, and its wide-formed 
ocean arose therefrom. 

7. It (the ocean) keeps one-third of this earth 3 , 

1 Bund. VII r 2-6 is paraphrased in §§ 2-6. 

2 Reading neksund bara min khasandakano instead of 
the MS. bara nasund min khasandakano. 

3 Compare Bund. XIII, 1, 2. 


and among its contents are a thousand sources and 
fountains, such as are called lakes (var) ; a thousand 
water-fountains, whose water is from the ocean, 
come up from the lakes and are poured forth into 
it. 8. And the size of some of all the lakes and all 
the fountains of water is as much as a fast rider on 
an Arab horse, who continually compasses and can- 
ters around them, will attain in forty days, which is 
1900 l long leagues (parasang-i akarlk), each 
league being at least 20,000 feet. 

9. And after the noxious creatures died 2 , and the 
poison therefrom was mixed up in the earth, in 
order to utterly destroy that poison Ttstar went 
down into the ocean ; and Apaosh, the demon, 
hastened to meet him, and at the alarm of the first 
contest Tfitar was in terror (par*/). 10. And he 
applied unto Auharmazd, who brought such power 
unto Tiitar as arises through propitiation and praise 
and invoking by name 3 , and they call forth such 
power unto Tistar as that often vigorous horses, 
ten vigorous camels, ten vigorous bulls, ten moun- 
tains when hurled, and ten single-stream rivers 
when together. 11. And without alarm he drove 
out Apaosh, the demon, and kept him away from 
the sources of the ocean. 

12. And with a cup and measuring bowl, which 
possessed the diligence even of a guardian spirit 
(fravahar), he seized many more handfuls of water, 

1 Bund. XIII, 2 has 1700, but as neither number is a multiple of 
forty in round numbers, it is probable that both are wrong, and 
that we ought to read 1600. 

2 Bund. VII, 7-14 is paraphrased in §§ 9-14. 

3 The Av. aokhto-namaaia yasna of Tutar Yt. 11, 23., 24. 


and made it rain down 1 much more prodigiously, 
for destruction, drops as large as men's heads and 
bulls heads, great and small. 1 3. And in that cloud 
and rain were the chastisement and beating which 
Ttotar and the fire Vazi^rt inflicted on the opposition 
of Apiosh; the all-deciding (vispo-vi^ir) fire VazLrt 
struck down with a club of fire, all-deciding among 
the malevolent (kebarano). 

14. Ten days and nights there was rain, and its 
darting 2 was the shooting of the noxious creatures ; 
afterwards, the wind drove it to the shore of the 
wide-formed ocean, and it is portioned out into 
three, and three seas arose from it ; they are called 
the Ptiitik, the Kamiriaf, and the Gehan-biin 3 . 15. 
Of these the Puitik itself is salt water, in which is 
a flow and ebb 4 ; and the control of its flow and 
ebb is connected with the moon, and by its con- 
tinual rotation, in coming up and going down, that 
of the moon is manifested. 16. The wide-formed 
ocean stands forth on the south side as to (pa van) 
Albtir? 5 , and the Piiitfk stands contiguous to it, and 
amidst it is the gulf (var) of Sataves, whose con- 
nection is with Sataves, which is the southern 
quarter. 17. In the activity of the sea, and in the 
increase and decrease of the moon, whose circuit 
is the whole of Iran, are the flow and ebb ; of the 

1 Or perhaps 'made the cloud rain/ if madam varanini*/ 
stands for az>ar varanini*/. 

2 Reading parta# instead of the MS. patiita^, 'powerful fury/ 
8 This is a variant of the *Sahi-bun or £ahr-bun of Bund. XIII, 

7, 15; the other two names differ but little from those given in 
Bund. XIII. In the MS. Puitik occurs once, and Puitik twice. 

4 Compare §§ 15-18 with Bund. XIII, 8-14. 

5 Compare Bund. XIII, 1. 


curving tails in front of the moon two issue forth, 
and have an abode in Sataves; one is the up- 
drag and one the down-drag; through the up-drag 
occurs the flood, and through the down-drag occurs 
the ebb 1 . 18. And Sataves itself is a gulf (var) 
and side arm of the wide-formed ocean, for it drives 
back the impurity and turbidness which come from 
the salt sea, when they are continually going into 
the wide-formed ocean, with a mighty high wind 2 , 
while that which is clear through purity goes into 
the Aredvisiir sources of the wide-formed ocean. 
19. Besides these four 3 there are the small seas 4 . 

20. And, afterwards, there were made to flow from 
Albtirz, out of its northern border, two rivers 5 , which 
were the Arvand 6 — that is, the Digllt, and the flow 

1 This is even a more mechanical theory of the tides than that 
detailed in Bund. XIII, 13. Whether the 'curving tails' (ga^-ak 
dunbak) are the ' horns' of the crescent moon is uncertain. 

2 By an accidental transposition of letters the MS. has ataro, 
* fire/ instead of vat6, ' wind/ 

3 The ocean and three principal seas. 

4 Said to be twenty-three in number in Bund. XIII, 6* 

5 Bund. VII, 15, 16, XX, 1. 

6 This appears to be a later identification of the Arag, Arang, 
or Ar6ng river of Bund. XX with the Tigris, under its name Arvand, 
which is also found in the Bahman Ya^t (III, 21, 38) and the 
Afrin of the Seven Ameshaspends (§ 9). The Bundahu (XX, 8) 
seems to connect the Arag (Araxes ?) with the Oxus and Nile, and 
describes the Diglat or Tigris as a distinct river (Bund. XX, 12). 
This difference is one of the indications of the Bundahu having 
been so old a book in the time of Za^-sparam that he sometimes 
misunderstood its meaning, which could hardly have been the case 
if it had been written by one of his contemporaries. As the Persian 
empire has several times included part of Egypt, the Nile must 
have then been well known to the Persians as the great western 
river of their world. The last time they had possession of part 
of Egypt was, for about half a century, in the reigns of Khusro 


of that river was to those of the setting sun (val 
fro^-yehevun^ano) — and the Veh l was the river 
of the first-comers to the sun ; formed as two horns 
they went on to the ocean. 21. After them eigh- 
teen 2 great rivers came out from the same Alburn ; 
and these twenty rivers, whose source is in Alburn, 
go down into the earth, and arrive in Khvanlras. 

22. Afterwards, two fountains of the sea are 
opened out for the earth 3 , which are called the 
i£e/£ast 4 — a lake which has no cold wind, and on 
whose shore rests the triumphant fire Gamasp 5 — 
and, secondly, the Sovar 6 which casts on its shores 
all turbidness, and keeps its own salt lake clear and 
pure, for it is like the semblance of an eye which 
casts out to its edges every ache and every im- 
purity ; and on account of its depth it is not reached 
to the bottom, for it goes into the ocean ; and in its 
vicinity rests the beneficial fire Burdn-Mitro 7 . 

23. And this was the second contest, which was 
with the water. 

Chapter VII. 

1. And as he (Aharman) came thirdly to the 
earth, which arrayed the whole earth against him — ■ 

N6shirv&n, Auharmazd IV, and Khusr6 Parviz; but since the 
early part of the seventh century the Tigris has practically been 
their extreme western limit ; hence the change of the old Arag or 
Arang into the very similarly written Arvand, a name of the 

1 See Bund. XX, 9. 2 Bund. XX, 2, 7. 

3 Bund. VII, 14. * Bund. XXII, 2. 

5 Written Gtaasp in Bund. XVII, 7, and Gfrmasp in B. Yt. Ill, 
30, 40, while the older form Visnasp occurs in B.Yt. Ill, 10. 

6 The Sovbar of Bund. VII, 14, XII, 24, XXII, 3. 

7 Bund. XVII, 8. 


since there was an animation of the earth through 
the shattering — AlMre grew up 1 , which is the 
boundary of the earth, and the other 2 mountains, 
which are amid the circuit of the earth, come up 
2244 in number 3 . 2. And by them the earth was 
bound together and arranged, and on them was the 
sprouting and growth of plants, wherefrom was the 
nourishment of cattle, and therefrom was the great 
advantage of assistance to men. 

3. Even so it is declared that before the coming 
of the destroyer to the creatures, for a thousand 
years the substance of mountains was created in the 
earth — especially as antagonism came on the earth, 
and settled on it with injury — and it came up over 
the earth just like a tree whose branch has grown at 
the top, and its root at the bottom. 4. The root of 
the mountains is passed on from one to the other, 
and is arranged in connection with them, and through 
it is produced the path and passage of water from 
below to above, so that the water may flow in it in 
such manner as blood in the veins, from all parts of 
the body to the heart, the latent vigour which they 
possess. 5. And, moreover, in six hundred years 4 , 
at first, all the mountains apart from AJbure were 
completed. 6. Alburn was growing during eight 
hundred years 5 ; in two hundred years it grew up to 

1 Bund. VIII, 1-4 is paraphrased in §§ 1-4. 

2 The MS. has &v&no, 'waters/ instead of av£rik, 'other/ 
which alters the meaning into, 'which is the boundary of the 
waters of the earth, and the mountains/ &c. 

3 Bund. XII, 2. 

4 Bund. VIII, 5, and XII, 1, have 'eighteen years/ As both 
numbers are written in ciphers it would be easy for either to be 
corrupted into the other. 

5 Bund. XII, 1. 


the star station, in two hundred years up to the 
moon station, two hundred years up to the sun 
station, and two hundred years up to the sky. 7. 
After Albfirs' the Aparsen mountain 1 is the greatest, 
as it is also called the Avar-royiin 2 (' up-growth ') 
mountain, whose beginning is in Sagastan and its 
end unto Pars and to i^inlstan 3 . 

8. This, too, is declared, that after the great rain 
in the beginning of the creation 4 , and the wind's 
sweeping away the water to the ocean, the earth is 
in seven portions 5 a little above zV, as the compact 
earth, after the rain, is torn up by the noise and 
wind in various places. 9. One portion, moreover, 
as much as one-half the whole earth, is in the middle, 
and in each of the six portions around is as much as 
Sagast&n ; moreover, as much as Sagastctn is the 
measure of what is called a keshvar ('region') for 
the reason that one was defined from the other by a 
kesh (' furrow'). 10. The middle one is Khvaniras, 
of which Pars is the centre, and those six regions 
are like a coronet (a^fsar) arotcnd it. 11. One part 
of the wide-formed ocean wound around it, among 
those six regions ; the sea and forest seized upon 
the south side, and a lofty mountain grew up on the 
north, so that they might become separate, one from 
the other, and imperceptible. 

1 2. This is the third contest, about the earth. 

1 The Ap&rsen of Bund. XII, 9. 

2 Written Apu-royLm, as if it were an Arabic hybrid meaning 
' father of growth.' 

3 Bund. XII, 9, XXIV, 28, have KM^istan instead of ^infstan; 
the latter appears to be an old name of the territory of Samarkand 
(see note to Bund. XII, 13). 

* Literally, ' creature/ 

5 Bund. XI, 2-4 is paraphrased in §§ 8-1 1. 


Chapter VIII. 

1. As he (Aharman) came fourthly to the plants — 
which have struggled (ktikhshi-aito) against him 
with the whole vegetation — because the vegetation 
was quite dry \ Amer6da^, by whom the essence of 
the world's vegetation 2 was seized upon, pounded it 
up small, and mixed it up with the rain-water of 
TLstar. 2. After the rain the whole earth is discerned 
sprouting, and ten thousand 3 special species and a 
hundred thousand 4 additional species (levatman 
sar^ako) so grew as if there were a species of every 
kind ; and those ten thousand species are provided 
for 5 keeping away the ten thousand 3 diseases. 

3. Afterwards, the seed was taken up from those 
hundred thousand species of plants, and from the 
collection of seed the tree of all germs, amid the 
wide-formed ocean, was produced, from which all 
species of plants continually grow. 4. And the 
griffon bird (s£n6 mtiruvo) has his resting-place 
upon it ; when he wanders forth from within it, he 
scatters the dry seed into the water, and it is rained 
back to the earth with the rain. 

5. And in its vicinity the tree was produced which 
is the white Horn, the counteractor of decrepitude, 

1 This chapter is a paraphrase of Bund. IX. 

2 Or, perhaps, ' the worldly characteristics of vegetation,' 

3 Written like ' one thousand/ but see the context and Bund. 

IX, 4 . 

4 In Bund. IX, 4, the MSS. have ' 120,000/ which is probably- 
wrong, as Bund. XXVII, 2, agrees with the text above. 

5 The MS. has bar a instead of pavan, a blunder due probably 
to some copyist reading the Huzvarir in Persian, in which language 
bih(=bara) and bah (= pavan) are written alike. In Pazand 
they are usually written he and pa, respectively. 


the reviver of the dead, and the immortalizer of the 

6. This was the fourth contest, about the plants. 

Chapter IX. 

1. As he (Aharman) came fifthly to cattle — which 
struggled against him with all the animals — and 
likewise as the primeval ox 1 passed away, from the 
nature of the vegetable principle it possessed, fifty- 
five 2 species of grain and twelve species of medi- 
cinal plants grew from its various members ; and 
forasmuch as they should see from which member 
each one proceeds, it is declared in the Damd&/ 
Nask*. 2. And every plant grown from a member 

1 See Chaps. II, 6, III, 1, and Bund. IV, 1, X, 1, XIV, 1. 

2 The MS. has ' fifty-seven' in ciphers, but Bund. X, 1, XIV, 1, 
XXVII, 2, have * fifty-five ' in words. 

3 This was the fourth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazda- 
yasnian literature, according to the Dinkar^/, which gives a very 
short and superficial account of its contents. But, according to 
the Dini-vao-arkard and the Rivayats of K&mah Bahrah, Narfman 
Hoshang, and Barzu Qiyamu-d-din, it was the fifth nask, and was 
called Dvazdah-hamast (or homast). For its contents, as given by 
the Dint-va^-arkard, see Haug's Essays, p. 127. The Rivayat of 
Kamah Bahrah, which has a few more words than the other 
Riv&yats, gives the following account (for the Persian text of which, 
see ' Fragmens relatifs a la religion de Zoroastre/ par Olshausen 
et Jules Mohl) :— 

' Of the fifth the name is Dvazdah-homast, and the interpreta- 
tion of this is "the book about help" (dar imdad, but this is 
probably a corruption of dam dad). And this book has thirty- two 
sections (kardah) that the divine and omnipotent creator sent 
down, in remembrance of the beginning of the creatures of the 
superior world and inferior world, and it is a description of the 
whole of them and of that which God, the most holy and omnipo- 
tent, mentioned about the sky, earth, and water, vegetation and 

[5] N 


promotes that member, as it is said that there where 
the ox scattered its marrow 1 on to the earth, grain 
afterwards grew up, corn 2 and sesame, vetches 3 and 
peas; so sesame, on account of 4 its marrow quality, 
is itself a great thing for developing marrow. 3. 
And it is also said that from the blood is the vine 5 , 
a great vegetable thing — as wine itself is blood — 
for more befriending the sound quality of the blood. 
4. And it is said that from the nose is the pulse 
(rnayj 1 or masah) which is called donak, and was a 
variety of sesame (^amaga) 6 , and it is for other noses. 

fire, man and quadrupeds, grazing and flying animals, and what 
he produced for their advantage and use, and the like. Secondly, 
the resurrection and heavenly path, the gathering and dispersion, 
and the nature of the circumstances of the resurrection, as regards 
the virtuous and evil-doers, through the weight of every action they 
perform for good and evil/ 

This description corresponds very closely with what the Bun- 
da!^ must have been, before the addition of the genealogical and 
chronological chapters at the end; and D&f-sparam mentions in 
his text here, and again in § 16, particulars regarding the D&mdaW 
which also occur in the Bundahw (XIV, 2, 14-18, 21-24). There 
can be very little doubt, therefore, that the Bundahij was originally 
a translation of the Damdsuf, though probably abridged ; and the 
text translated in this volume is certainly a further abridgment of 
the original Bundahu, or Zand-akas. Whether the Avesta text of 
the Damda^ was still in existence in the time of Da<f-sparam is 
uncertain, as he would apply the name to the Pahlavi text. At the 
present time it is very unusual for a copyist to write the Pahlavi 
text without its Avesta, when the latter exists, but this may not 
always have been the case. 

1 Or ' brains/ 

2 Supposing the MS. gal61ag is a corruption of gallak (Pers. 

8 Assuming the MS. aluno or arvano to be a corruption of 
alum or arsantf. 
4 Reading r&i instead of la. 5 Compare Bund. XIV, 2. 

6 Either this sentence is very corrupt in the MS. or it cannot be 


5. And it is also said that from the lungs are the rue- 
like herbs 1 which heal, and are for the lung-disease 
of cattle. 6. This, rooted amid the heart, is thyme, 
from which is Vohftman's thorough withstanding of 
the stench of Ak6man 2 , and it is for that which 
proceeds from the sick and yawners. 

7. Afterwards, the brilliance of the seed, seized 
upon, by strength, from the seed which was the ox's, 
they would carry ^from it, and the brilliance was 
intrusted to the angel of the moon 3 ; in a place 
therein that seed was thoroughly purified by the 
light of the moon, and was restored in its many 
qualities, and made fully infused with life (^invar- 
h6mand). 8. Fortl\, from there it produced for 
Airdn-vef , first, two oxen, a pair, male and female 4 , 
and, afterwards, other species, until the completion 
of the 282 species 6 ; and they were discernible as 
far as two long leagues on the earth. 9. Quadrupeds 
walked forth on the land, fish swam in the water, 
and birds flew in the atmosphere ; in every two, at 
the time good eating is enjoyed, a longing (Ae/- 
dahan) arose therefrom, and pregnancy and birth. 

10. Secondly, their subdivision is thus : — First, 
they are divided into three, that is, quadrupeds 
walking on the earth, fish swimming in the water, 

reconciled with the corresponding clause of Bund. XIV, 2. 
Altering d6nak and gunak into gandanak, and ^amagd into 
jama^dar, we might read, 'from the nose is mdyj, which is 
called the leek, and the leek was an onion ; ' but this is doubtful, 
and leaves the word mayj unexplained. 

1 The MS. has g6spend&no, 'cattle/ instead of sipand&no, 
'rue herbs/ 

2 See Bund. I, 24, 27, XXVIII, 7, XXX, 29. 

3 Bund. X, 2, XIV, 3. * Bund. X, 3, XIV, 4. 
6 Bund. X, 3, XIV, 13, 

N 2 


and birds flying in the atmosphere, n. Then, into 
five classes \ that is, the quadruped which is round- 
hoofed, the double-hoofed, the five-clawed, the bird, 
and the fish, whose dwellings are in five places, and 
which are called aquatic, burrowing, oviparous, wide- 
travelling, and suitable for grazing. 12. The aquatic 
are fish and every beast of burden, cattle, wild 
beast, dog, and bird which enters the water ; the 
burrowing are the marten (samtir) and musk ani- 
mals, and all other dwellers and movers in holes ; 
the oviparous are birds of every kind ; the wide- 
travelling sprang away for help, and are also those 
of a like kind ; those suitable for grazing are what- 
ever are kept grazing in a flock. 

13. And, afterwards, they were divided into 
genera, as the round-hoofed are one, which is all 
called 'horse;' the double-hoofed are many, as the 
camel and ox, the sheep and goat, and others 
double-hoofed; the five-clawed are the dog, hare, 
musk animals, marten, and others; then are the 
birds, and then the fish. 14. And then they were 
divided into species 2 , as eight species of horse, two 
species of camel, ten 3 species of ox, five species of 
sheep, five species of goat, ten of the dog, five of the 
hare, eight of the marten, eight of the musk animals, 
no of the birds, and ten of the fish; some are 
counted for the pigs, and with all those declared and 
all those undeclared there were, at first, 282 species 4 ; 
and with the species within species there were a 
thousand varieties. 

1 Bund. XIV, 8-12. 

2 Bund. XIV, 13-23, 26, 27. 

8 Bund. XIV, 17 says ' fifteen/ which is probably correct. 
4 Only 181 species are detailed or ' declared' here. 


15. The birds are distributed 1 into eight groups 
(rfstako), and from that which is largest to that 
which is smallest they are so spread about as when a 
man, who is sowing grain, first scatters abroad that 
of heavy weight, then that which is middling, and 
afterwards that which is small. 

16. And of the whole of the species, as enume- 
rated a second time in the Dirndl Nask 2 , and 
written by me in the manuscript (nipik) of 'the 
summary enumeration of races 3 ' — this is a lordly 4 
summary — the matter which is shown is, about the 
species of horses, the first is the Arab, and the chief 
of them 6 is white and yellow-eared, and secondly 
the Persian, the mule, the ass, the wild ass, the 
water-horse, and others. 1 7. Of the camel there are 
specially two, that for the plain, and the mountain 
one which is double-humped. 18. Among the species 
of ox are the white, mud-coloured, red, yellow, black, 
and dappled, the elk, the buffalo, the camel-leopard 6 , 
the ox-fish, and others. 19. Among sheep are those 
having tails and those which are tailless, also the 
wether and the Kftrisk which, because of its tram- 
pling the hills, its great horn, and also being suitable 

1 Bund. XIV, 25. 

2 See § 1 ; the particulars which follow are also found in Bund. 
XIV, 14-18, 21-24, showing that the Bundahij must be derived 
from the Damda</. 

3 The title of this work, in Pahlavi, is T6khm-au,rmam- 
nih-i hangar*/iko, but it is not known to be extant. 

4 Reading marak (Chaldee K"?.?), but this is doubtful, though 
the Iranian final k is often added to Semitic Huzv&ris forms ending 
with L It may be min&k, l thinking, thoughtful/ or a corruption 
of manik, 'mine,' in which last case we should translate, 'this is 
a summary of mine.' 

5 Bund. XXIV, 6. 

6 Literally, ' camel-ox-leopard/ 


for ambling, became the steed of Maniisv£lhar. 20. 
Among goats are the ass-goat, the Arab, the fawn 
(varfko), the roe, and the mountain goat. 21. 
Among martens are the white ermine, the black 
marten, the squirrel, the beaver (khaz), and others. 
22. Of musk animals with a bag, one is the Btsh- 
musk — which eats the Bish poison and does not die 
through it, and it is created for the great advantage 
that it should eat the Bfsh, and less of it should 
succeed in poisoning the creatures — and one is a 
musk animal of a black colour which they desired 
(ay&ftS) who were bitten by the fanged serpent — 
as the serpent of the mountain water-courses (mako) 
is called — which is numerous on the river-banks ; 
one throws the same unto it for food, which it eats, 
and then the serpent enters its body, when his 1 
serpent, at the time this happens, feeds upon the 
same belly in which the serpent is, and he will 
become clear from that malady. 23. Among birds 
two were produced of a different character from the 
rest, and those are the griffon bird and the bat, 
which have teeth in the mouth, and suckle their 
young with animal milk from the teat. 
24. This is the fifth contest, as to animals. 

Chapter X. 

1. As he (Aharman) came sixthly to Gayoman/ 
there was arrayed against him, with G&yoman/, the 

1 This appears to be the meaning here of am at zak garsako, 
but the whole sentence is a fair sample of Da^-sparam's most 
involved style of writing. By feeding the black musk animal with 
snakes the effect of a snake-bite, experienced by the feeder, is 
supposed to be neutralized. 


pure propitious liturgy (man sar spend), as heard 
from Gayoman/; and Auharmazd, in pure medita- 
tion, considered that which is good and righteous- 
ness as destruction of the fiend (drfi^6). 2. And 
when he (G&yoman/) passed away eight kinds of 
mineral of a metallic character arose from his 
various members ; they are gold, silver, iron, brass, 
tin, lead, quicksilver (d^ginako), and adamant; and 
on account of the perfection of gold it is produced 
from the life and seed. 

3. Spendarma^ received the gold of the dead 
Gayoman/ 1 , and it was forty years in the earth. 4. 
At the end of the forty years, in the manner of a 
Riv&s-fllant, Mashya and Mashyoi 2 came up, and, 
one joined to the other, were of like stature and 
mutually adapted 3 ; and its middle, on which a glory 
came, through their like stature 4 , was such that it 
was not clear which is the male and which the 
female, and which is the one with the glory which 
Auharmazd created. 5. This is that glory for which 
man is, indeed, created, as it is thus said in revela- 

1 Compare Bund. XV, 1. 

2 The MS. has Mashai MashayS, but see Bund. XV, 6. The 
Avesta forms were probably mashya mashy6i (or mashy6), which 
are regular nominatives dual, masculine and feminine, of mashya, 
'mortal,' and indicate that they were usually coupled together in 
some part of the Avesta which is no longer extant. Pazand 
writers have found it easy to read Mashyani instead of Mashyoi. 

3 Reading ham-ba^no ham-dakhik, but whether this is more 
likely to be the original reading than the ham-badun va ham- 
dasak of Bund. XV, 2, is doubtful. The last epithet here might 
also be read ham-sabik, ' having the same shirt/ but this is an 
improbable meaning. 

4 It is evident that ham-bandi^nih, 'mutual connection/ in 
accordance with Bund. XV, 3, would be preferable to the ham- 
bajnoih, 'like stature/ of this text. 


tion : 'Which existed before, the glory 1 or the 
body?' And Atiharmazd spoke thus: 'The glory 
was created by me before ; afterwards, for him who 
is created, the glory is given a body so that it may 
produce activity, and its body is created only for 
activity/ 6. And, afterwards, they changed from 
the shape of a plant into the shape of man 2 , and the 
glory went spiritually into them. 

Chapter XL 

1. As he (Aharman) came seventhly to fire, which 
was all together against him, the fire separated into 
five kinds 3 , which are called the Propitious, the 
Good diffuser, the Atirvazfrt, the Vazist, and the 
Supremely-Sene/iting. 2. And it produced the Pro- 
pitious fire itself in heaven (garoafm&n); its mani- 
festation is in the fire which is burning on the 
earth, and its propitiousness is this, that all the 
kinds are of its nature. 3. The Good diffuser is that 
which is in men and animals 4 , and its business con- 
sists in the digestion of the food, the sleeping of the 

1 The old word nismo, ' soul ' (see Bund. XV, 3, 4), has become 
corrupted here (by the omission of the initial stroke) into g a dm an, 
' glory/ This corruption may be due either to Da</-sparam not 
understanding the word (in which case the Bundahi^ must have 
been an old book in his time), or else to some later copyist con- 
founding the old word for ' soul ' with the better-known l glory ' 
of the Iranian sovereigns. 

2 Bund. XV, 5. 

3 Bund. XVII, 1. Three of the Avesta names are here trans- 
lated, the first two being the SpenLrt and Vohu-fryan, which are 
the fifth and second in the Bundahk, and the fifth being the Berezi- 
savang, which is the first in the Bundahir. 

* See Bund. XVII, 2. 


body, and the brightening of the eyes. 4. The 
Aftrvclzfat is that which is in plants, in whose seed 
it is formed, and its business consists in piercing the 
earth, warming the chilled water 1 and producing the 
qualities and fragrance of plants and blossoms there- 
from, and elaborating the ripened produce into 
many fruits. 5. And the Vazist is that which has 
its motion in a cloud, and its business consists in 
destroying the atmospheric gloom and darkness, and 
making the thickness of the atmosphere fine and 
propitious in quality, sifting the hail, moderately 
warming the water which the cloud holds, and 
making sultry weather showery. 6. The Supremely- 
benefiting, like the sky, is that glory whose lodg- 
ment is in the Behr&m fire 2 , as the master of the 
house is over the house, and whose propitious 
power arises from the growing brightness of the 
fire, the blazing forth in 3 the purity of the place, the 
praise of God (yazdano), and the practice of good 
works. 7. And its business is that it struggles with 
the spiritual fiend, it watches the forms of the 
witches — who walk up from the river 4 , wear woven 
clothing, disturb the luminaries by the concealment 
of stench, and by witchcraft injure the creatures — 
and the occurrences of destruction, burning, and cele- 
bration of witchcraft, especially at night ; being an 
assistant of Srosh the righteous. 

1 Reading may &-i afsan/ini</6 t&ftano instead of the seem- 
ingly unmeaning may a a^ar^/ini^o aftano of the MS. 

2 The Verehrano dt&sh, or sacred fire of the fire-temples. 

3 Reading pa van instead of bard (see p. 176, note 5). 

4 Or 'sea' (dariyaz>6). This long-winded sentence is more 
involved and obscure in the original than in the translation. 


8. And in the beginning of the creation 1 the whole 
earth was delivered over into the guardianship of 
the sublime Fr6bak fire, the mighty Gusnasp fire, 
and the beneficial Bftreln-Mitrd fire 2 , which are like 
priest, warrior, and husbandman. 9. The place of 
the fire Frobak was formed on the Gadman-homand 
(' glorious ') mountain in Khvarbem 3 , the fire Gus- 
nasp was on the Asnavand mountain in Ataro-patakan, 
and the fire Burdn-Mitr6 on the Revand mountain 
which is in the Ridge of Vistasp, and its material 
manifestation in the world was the most complete. 

10. In the reign of Hosh&ng 4 , when men were 
continually going forth to the other regions (kesh- 
var) on the ox Srftvo 5 , one night, half-way, while 
admiring the fires, the fire-stands which were pre- 
pared in three places on the back of the ox, and in 
which the fire was, fell into the sea, and the sub- 
stance of that one great fire which was manifest, is 
divided into three, and they established it on the 
three fire-stands, and it became itself three glories 
whose lodgments are in the Frobak fire, the 
G&masp fire, and the Bureln-Mitro 6 . 

1 Literally, ' creature/ 

2 The epithets of these three sacred fires are, respectively, 
varg-an, tagiko, and pur-su<^6 in Pahlavi. 

8 See Bund. XVII, 5, 7, 8. 

* Bund. XVII, 4 says, 'in the reign of Takhmorup/ his 

5 Sarsaok or Srisaok in the Bundahij. 

6 The remainder of 'the sayings of Za^-sparam, about the 
meeting of the beneficent spirit and the evil spirit/ have no 
special reference to the BundahLr. They treat of the following 
matters : — 

The coming of the religion, beginning in the time of Fra- 
sryaz> and Manu^ihar, with an anecdote of Kai-us and the hero 
Srit6 (Av. Thrita). The manifestation of the glory of Zaratujt 


before his birth. The begetting of Zarat&rt through the drinking 
of hom-juice and cow's milk infused, respectively, with his guardian 
spirit and glory, as declared in the manuscript on 'the guidance 
of worship/ The connection of Zarattat with Auharmazd, traced 
back through his genealogy as far as Gay6man/. The persistent 
endeavours of the fiends to destroy Zaratfot at the time of his birth, 
and how they were frustrated. His receiving the religion from 
Auharmazd, with another anecdote of Kai-us and Srito, and of 
Zaratfot's exclamation on coming into the world. The enmity 
borne to him by five brothers of the Karapan family, and how it 
was frustrated ; his own four brothers, and some of his wonderful 
deeds. The worthiness of his righteousness ; his compassionate 
and liberal nature; his giving up worldly desires; his pity; his 
good selection of a wife ; and what is most edifying for the soul. 
What occurred when he was thirty years old, and his being con- 
ducted by the archangel Vohuman to the assembly of the spirits. 
The questions asked by Zaratfot, and Auharmazd's replies thereto. 
The seven questions he asked of the seven archangels in seven 
different places, in the course of one winter. [Westergaard's MS. 
K35 ends in the middle of the second of these questions.] The 
five dispositions of priests, and the ten admonitions. The three 
preservatives of religion, with particulars about the Gathas and the 
connection of the Ahunavar with the Nasks. Zaratust's obtaining 
one disciple, Me^/yok-mah, in the first ten years, and the acceptance 
of the religion by Virtasp two years afterwards. 

The second of the writings of ZsuZ-sparam consists of his l say- 
ings about the formation of men out of body, life, and soul ; ' and 
the third (which is imperfect in all known MSS.) contains his 
' sayings about producing the renovation of the universe? 






1-5. (The same as on p. 2.) 

6. Abbreviations used are: — Av. for Avesta. Bund, for Bun- 
da!^, as translated in this volume. DaW. for DMst&n-i Dinik. 
Gr. for Greek. Haug's Essays, for Essays on the Sacred Language, 
Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, by Martin Haug, 2nd edition. 
Huz. for HuzvarLr. Pahl. for Pahlavi. Paz. for Pazand. Pers. 
for Persian. Sans, for Sanskrit. Sis. for Shayast la-sMyast, as 
translated in this volume. SZS. for Selections of ZaW-sparam, as 
translated in this volume. Vend, for Vendid&d, ed. Spiegel. Yas. 
for Yasna, ed. Spiegel. Yt. for Ya^t, ed. Westergaard. 

7. The manuscripts mentioned in the notes are : — 

K20 (about 500 years old), No. 20 in the University Library at 

P&z. MSS. (modern), No. 22 of the Haug Collection in the State 
Library at Munich, and a copy of one in the library of the high- 
priest of the Parsis at Bombay. 

Pers. version (composed a. d. 1496, copied a.d. 1679) in a 
Rivayat MS., No. 29 of the University Library at Bombay. 


Chapter I. 

o. May the gratification of the creator Afthar- 
mazd, the beneficent, the developer, the splendid, 
and glorious, and the benediction of the archangels, 
which constitute the pure, good religion of the Maz- 
dayasnians, be vigour of body, long life, and pros- 
perous wealth for him whose writing I am \ 

i. As 2 it is declared by the Stftdgar Nask* that 

1 Or, possibly, 'for whom I am written/ the meaning of mun 
yektibunihem being not quite clear. In fact, the construction 
of the whole of this initial benediction is rather obscure. 

2 It is possible that this is to be read in connection with Chap. 
II, i, with the meaning that 'as it is declared by the Studgar Nask 
that Zaratu^t asked for immortality from Auharmazd, so in the 
Vohuman Ya^t commentary it is declared that he asked for it a 
second time/ This introductory chapter is altogether omitted in 
both the Paz. MSS. which have been examined, but it is given in 
the Pers. version. It is also omitted in the epitome of the Bahman 
Ya^t contained in the Dabistan (see Shea's translation, vol. i. 
pp. 264-271). 

8 This was the first nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayas- 
nian literature, according to the Dinkar^, which calls it SiWkar; 
but according to the Dini-vag-arkan/ and the Rivayats it was the 
second nask, called Studgar or Istudgar. For its contents, as 
given by the Dini-va^arkan/ (which agrees with the account in the 
Rivayats), see Haug's Essays, p. 126. In the Dinkan/, besides 
a short description of this Nask, given in the eighth book, there is 
also a detailed account of the contents of each of its fargan/s, or 
chapters, occupying twenty-five quarto pages of twenty-two lines 
each, in the ninth book. From this detailed statement it appears 


Zaratfot asked for immortality from Atiharmazd, 
then Atiharmazd displayed the omniscient wisdom 
to Zaratfct, and through it he beheld the root of a 
tree, on which were four branches, one golden, one 
of silver, one of steel, and one was mixed up with 
iron. 2. Thereupon he reflected in this way, that 
this was seen in a dream, and when he arose from 
sleep Zarattiit spoke thus : * Lord of the spirits and 
earthly existences ! it appears that I saw the root of 
a tree, on which were four branches/ 

3. Atiharmazd spoke to Zaratftrt the SpitHm&n 1 
thus : i That root of a tree which thou sawest, and 
those four branches, are the four periods which will 

that the passage mentioned here, in the text, constituted the 
seventh fargar*/ of the Nask, the contents of which are detailed as 
follows : — 

'The seventh farganf, Ta-ve-rato (Av. tft ve urvatd, Yas. XXXI, 
1), is about the exhibition to Zarat&rt of the nature of the four 
periods in the Zaratu^tian millennium (hazangr6k zim, "thousand 
winters" ). First, the golden, that in which Auharmazd displayed 
the religion to Zaratfot. Second, the silver, that in which VLrtasp 
received the religion from Zaratfryt. Third, the steel, the period 
within which the organizer of righteousness, Ataro-paW son of Mar- 
spend, was born. Fourth, the period mingled with iron is this, 
in which is much propagation of the authority of the apostate and 
other villains (s art tar a no), along with destruction of the reign 
of religion, the weakening of every kind of goodness and virtue, 
and the departure of honour and wisdom from the countries of 
Iran. In the same period is a recital of the many perplexities and 
torments of the period for that desire (gir&yih) of the life of the 
good which consists in seemliness. Perfect is the excellence of 
righteousness (Av. ashem vohu vahi^tem asti, Yas. XXVII, 
14. w.y 

If this be a correct account of the contents of this farganf, the 
writer was evidently consulting a Pahlavi version of the Nask, 
composed during the later Sasanian times. 

1 Generally understood to mean ' descendant of Spitama/ who 
was his ancestor in the ninth generation (see Bund. XXXII, 1). 

CHAPTER I, 2-6. 19- 

come. 4. That of gold is when I and thou con- 
verse, and King Viitasp shall accept the religion, 
and shall demolish the figures of the demons, but 
they themselves remain for 1 . . . concealed pro- 
ceedings. 5. And that of silver is the reign of 
An/akhshir 2 the Kay&n king (Kai shah), and that 
of steel is the reign of the glorified (anoshak- 
ruban) Khfisro son of Kev&af 3 , and that which was 
mixed with iron is the evil sovereignty of the de- 
mons with dishevelled hair 4 of the race of Wrath 5 , 
and when it is the end of the tenth hundredth 
winter (sato zim) of thy millennium, O Zaratost 
the Spit4m&n!' 

6. It is declared in the commentary (zand) 6 of 
the Vohtiman Yast, Horvada^ Ya5t, and Kstkd Yait 

1 A word is lost here in K20 and does not occur in the other 
copies and versions, nor can it be supplied from the similar phrase 
in Chap. II, 16. The meaning of the sentence appears to be 
that VLstasp destroyed the idols, but the demons they represented 
still remained, in a spiritual state, to produce evil. 

2 See Chap. II, 17. 

3 Khusro Noshirvan son of Qubad, in modern Persian, who 
reigned in a. d. 531-579. K6va^ is usually written Kavad. 

4 The epithet vi^ar^-vars may also mean ' dressed-hair/ but 
the term in the text is the more probable, as the Persian version 
translates it bykushadah mui, ' uncovered hair/ That it is not 
a name, as assumed by Spiegel, appears clearly from the further 
details given in Chap. II, 25. 

5 Or, ' the progeny of A6shm/ the demon. Wrath is not to be 
understood here in its abstract sense, but is personified as a demon. 
It is uncertain whether the remainder of this sentence belongs to 
this § or the next. 

6 If there were any doubt about zand meaning the Pahlavi 
translation, this passage would be important, as the Avesta of the 
Horvada*/ (Khordad) and kst&d Yarts is still extant, but contains 
nothing about the heretic Mazdik or Mazdak (see Chap. II, 21). 
No Avesta of the Vohuman Yart is now known. 

[5] o 


that, during this time, the accursed Mazdlk son of 
B&mdkd, who is opposed to the religion, comes into 
notice, and is to cause disturbance among those in 
the religion of God (yazd&n). 7. And he, the 
glorified one 1 , summoned Khtisro son of Mah-d^U/ 
and D&^-A&harmazd of Nishapftr, who were high- 
priests of Ataro-p&tak&n, and Atar6-frob&g the un- 
deceitful (akadM), Atar6-p&^, Atar6-Mitro, and 
Bakht-4fri^ to his presence, and he demanded of 
them a promise 2 , thus : ' Do not keep these Yasts 
in concealment, and do not teach the commentary 
except among your relations 3 / 8. And they made 
the promise unto KhAsr6. 

Chapter II. 

1. In the Vohftman Yast commentary (zand) it is 
declared 4 that Zaratikt asked for immortality from 

1 That is, Khusr6 Noshirv&n. As the names of his priests and 
councillors stand in K20 they can hardly be otherwise distributed 
than they are in the text, but the correctness of the MS. is open to 
suspicion. Da^-Auharmazd was a commentator who is quoted in 
Chap. Ill, 16, and in the Pahl. Yas. XI, 22 ; Ataro-fr6b&g was 
another commentator mentioned in Sis. I, 3 ; and Atar6-pa<? and 
Bakht-afrkf are names well known in Pahlavi literature, the former 
having been borne by more than one individual (see Sis. I, 3, 4). 

2 The Pers. version says nothing about this promise, but states 
that Khusro sent a message to the accursed Mazdak, requiring 
him to reply to the questions of this priestly assembly on pain of 
death, to which he assented, and he was asked ten religious 
questions, but was unable to answer one ; so the king put him 
to death immediately. 

3 A similar prohibition, addressed to Zaraturt, as regards the 
Avesta text, is actually found in the Horvada^ Yt. 10. 

* This seems to imply that this text is not the commentary 

CHAPTER I, 7 — II, 3. 195 

Atiharmazd a second time, and spoke thus : ' I am 
Zaratfot, more righteous and more efficient among 
these thy creatures, O creator ! when thou shalt 
make me x immortal, as the tree opposed to harm 2 , 
and Gopatshah, G6it-i Fry&n, and Altr6k-miyan 
son of VLst&sp, who is Peshy6tanti, were made 3 . 2. 
When thou shalt make me immortal they in thy 
good religion will believe that the upholder of 
religion, who receives from Atiharmazd his pure and 
good religion of the Mazdayasnians, will become 
immortal ; then those men will believe in thy good 

3. Atiharmazd spoke 4 thus : ' When I shall make 
thee immortal, O Zarat&st the Spit&man! then Ttir-i 
Bnu/arvash the Karap 5 will become immortal, and 

itself, but merely an epitome of it. The P&z. MSS. which have been 
examined, begin with this chapter. 

1 Or, 'when I shall become;' the verb is omitted by mistake in 

2 Three of these immortals are mentioned in Bund. XXIX, 5, 
and Gojt-i Fryan is included in a similar enumeration in Da</. 
(Reply 89). The tale of Go^t-i Fryan (Av. Y61rt6 yd Fryananam, 
of AMn Yt. 8 1 and Fravardin Yt. 1 20) has been published with 
* The Book of An/d-Viraf/ ed. Hoshangji and Haug. 

3 Or, ' became;' most of this verb is torn off in K20. 

4 The verb is placed before its nominative in the Pahlavi text, 
both here and in most similar sentences, which is an imitation o f 
the Avesta, due probably to the text being originally translated 
from an Avesta book now lost, or, at any rate, to its author's wish 
that it might appear to be so translated. In such cases of inverted 
construction, when the verb is in a past tense, the Pahlavi idiom 
often requires a pronominal suffix, corresponding to the nominative, 
to be added to the first word in the sentence; thus, guftoj Auhar- 
mazd, or afaj guft Auharmazd, does not mean 'Auharmazd 
spoke to him (or said it)/ but merely 'Auharmazd spoke ' (lit. ' it was 
said by him, Auharmazd '). 

5 According to an untranslated passage in the Selections of 
Za^-sparam, mentioned in the note on p. 187, this is the name of 

O 2 


when Tur-i BriWarvash the Karap shall become 
immortal the resurrection and future existence are 
not possible/ 

4. Zarat&st seemed uneasy about it in his mind 1 ; 
and Afiharmazd, through the wisdom of omniscience, 
knew what was thought by Zarattlst the Spitam4n 
with the righteous spirit, and he 2 took hold of 
Zaratllrt's hand. 5. And he, Atiharmazd the pro- 
pitious spirit, creator of the material world, the 
righteous one, even he put the omniscient wisdom, 
in the shape of water, on the hand of Zaraturt, and 
said to him thus : * Devour it/ 

one of the five brothers in the Karapan family of sorcerers, who 
were enemies of Zaratmt during his childhood. Their names, as 
written in SZS., may be read as follows, ( Bra^arvakhsh, Bra^/royijno, 
Tur Bragresh, Azano, and Nasm/ and the first is also called ' Tur-i 
Bradarvakhsh ; ' they are described as descendants of the sister of 
Manu^^ihar. In the seventh book of the Dinkan/ a wizard, who 
endeavours to injure Zaratfot in his childhood, is called ' Tur-i 
Bra^r6k-r6sh, the Karapo/ and was probably the third brother, 
whose name (thus corrected) indicates brathro-raesha as its Avesta 
form. Karap or Karapan in all these passages is evidently the 
name of a family or caste, probably the Av. karapano which Haug 
translates by ' performers of (idolatrous) sacrificial rites/ in connec- 
tion with Sans, kalpa, ' ceremonial ritual' (see Haug's Essays, 
pp. 289-291). 

1 K20 has ' among the spirits/ the word minion having become 
main ok an by the insertion of an extra stroke. 

2 Reading afa^ instead of minaj (Huz. of a^aj, 'from or by 
him/ which is written with the same letters as afa^, 'and by him'), 
not only here, but also in §§ 5, 7, 9. The copyist of K20 was evi- 
dently not aware that afaj is a conjunctive form, but confounded 
it with the prepositional form ag-a,f, as most Parsis and some Euro- 
pean scholars do still. The Sasanian inscriptions confirm the 
reading afa^ for the conjunctive form ; and Neryosang, the learned 
Parsi translator of Pahlavi texts into Pazand and Sanskrit some 
four centuries ago, was aware of the difference between the two 
forms, as he transcribes them correctly into Paz. va^ and asaj. 

CHAPTER II, 4-12. 197 

6. And Zaratfot devoured some of it ; thereby the 
omniscient wisdom was intermingled with Zaratost, 
and seven days and nights Zarat&st was in the 
wisdom of Atiharmazd. 7. And Zarat&rt beheld the 
men and cattle in the seven regions of the earth, 
where the many fibres of hair of every one are, and 
whereunto the end of each fibre holds on the back. 
8. And he beheld whatever trees and shrubs there 
were, and how many roots of plants were in the 
earth of Spendarma^/, where and how they had 
grown, and where they were mingled. 

9. And the seventh day and night he (Auhar- 
mazd) took back the omniscient wisdom from 
Zaratfot, and Zarattist reflected in this way, that 
I have seen it in a pleasant dream produced by 
Atiharmazd, and I am not surfeited with the dream. 
10. And he took both hands, rubbed his body 
(kerp) again, and spoke 1 thus : ' I have slept a long 
time, and am not surfeited with this pleasant dream 
produced by A^iharmazd. , 

11. Atiharmazd said to the righteous Zaratfot 
thus: 'What was seen in the pleasant dream pro- 
duced by Atiharmazd?' 

12. Zaratfot spoke thus: 'O Atiharmazd, propi- 
tious spirit ! creator of the material world, righteous 
creator! I have seen a celebrity (khuni^) with 
much wealth, whose soul, infamous in the body, was 
hungry (gurs) 2 and jaundiced and in hell, and he did 
not seem to me exalted ; and I saw a beggar with 
no wealth and helpless, and his soul was thriving 
(farpth) in paradise, and 3 he seemed to me exalted. 

1 This verb is omitted in K20 by mistake. 

2 Or else < dirty.' 

3 Reading afam instead of minam, both here and in § 14; the 


13. [And I saw a wealthy man without children, and 
he did not seem to me exalted;] 1 and I saw a 
pauper with many children, and he seemed to me 
exalted. 14. And I saw a tree on which were seven 
branches, one golden, one of silver, one brazen, one 
of copper, [one of tin] 2 , one of steel, and one was 
mixed up with iron/ 

15. Atiharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratost the 
Spit&m&n ! this is what I say beforehand, the one 
tree which thou sawest is the world which I, Atihar- 
mazd, created ; and those seven branches thou 
sawest are the seven periods which will come. 
16. And that which was golden is the reign of King 
Vist&sp, when I and thou converse about religion, 
and Viitasp shall accept that religion and shall 
demolish the figures of the demons, and the demons 
desist from demonstration into concealed proceed- 
ings ; Aharman and the demons rush back to dark- 
ness, and care for water, fire, plants, and the earth 
of Spendarmad' 3 becomes apparent. 17. And that 
which was of silver 4 is the reign of An/ashir 5 the 

copyist of K20 having confounded these two words, like those 
mentioned in the note on § 4. 

1 The passage in brackets is omitted in K20, but is supplied 
from the P&z. MSS., being evidently necessary to complete the 
contrast. It occurs also in the Pers. version. 

2 Supplied from the Paz. and Pers. versions, being omitted here 
in K20, though occurring in § 20. 

3 The female archangel who has charge of the earth (see Bund. 
I, 26). 

4 The Paz. MSS. omit the description of the silver age. 

5 Usually identified with Artaxerxes Longimanus, but his long 
reign of 1 1 2 years may include most of the Achaemenian sovereigns 
down to Artaxerxes Mnemon, several of whom are called Aha- 
suerus or Artaxerxes in the biblical books of Ezra and Esther. See 
Bund. XXXI, 30, XXXIV, 8. 

CHAPTER II, I3-I9. 199 

Kay&n (Kai), whom 1 they call Vohiiman son of 
Spend-d&tff 2 , who is he who separates the demons 
from men, scatters them about, and makes the reli- 
gion current in the whole world. 18. And that 
which was brazen 3 is the reign of An/akhshir 4 , the 
arranger and restorer of the world, and that of King 
Shahptir, when he arranges the world which I, 
Atiharmazd, created ; he makes happiness (bukhta- 
kih) 6 prevalent in the boundaries of the world, and 
goodness shall become manifest ; and Atar6-p&af of 
triumphant destiny, the restorer of the true religion, 
with the prepared brass 6 , brings this religion, to- 
gether with the transgressors, back to the truth. 
19. And that which was of copper is the reign of 
the Ask&nian king 7 , who removes from the world 

1 Reading mun, 'whom/ instead of a mat, ' when' (see the note 
on Bund. I, 7). 

2 Contracted here into Spenda^, as it is also in Bund. XXXIV, 8 
in the old MSS. This name of the king is corrupted into Bahman 
son of Isfendiyar in the Shahn&mah. 

3 This brazen age is evidently out of its proper chronological 
order. The Pazanpl and Persian versions correct this blunder by 
describing the copper age before the brazen one here, but they 
place the brazen branch before the copper one in § 14, so it is 
doubtful how the text stood originally. 

4 Artakhshatar son of Papaki and Shahpuhari son of Artakh- 
shatar are the Sasanian forms of the names of the first two 
monarchs (a.d.. 226-271) of the Sasanian dynasty, whose reigns 
constitute this brazen age. 

5 Literally, ' deliverance from sin ' or ' salvation ' by one's own 
good works, and, therefore, not in a Christian sense. 

6 Referring to the ordeal of pouring molten brass on his chest, 
undergone by Ataro-pa</ son of Maraspend, high-priest and prime 
minister of Shapur I, for the purpose of proving the truth of his 
religion to those who doubted it. 

7 It is uncertain which of the Askanian sovereigns is meant, or 
whether several of the dynasty may not be referred to. The Greek 


the heterodoxy (^avi^-rastakih) which existed, 
and the wicked Akandgar-i Kilisy&kih 1 is utterly 
destroyed by this religion, and goes unseen and 
unknown from the world. 20. And that which was 
of tin is the reign of King V&hr&m Gor 2 , when he 

successors of Alexander were subdued in Persia by Ask (Arsaces I), 
who defeated Seleucus Callinicus about b.c. 236. But the third 
book of the Dinkar^ (in a passage quoted by Haug in his Essay on 
the Pahlavi Language) mentions Valkhaj (Vologeses) the A^kanian 
as collecting the Avesta and Zand, and encouraging the Mazda- 
yasnian religion. This Valkhaj was probably Vologeses I, a con- 
temporary of Nero, as shown by Darmesteter in the introduction 
to his translation of the Vendidad. 

1 I am indebted to Professor J. Darmesteter for pointing out 
that N6ry6sang, in his Sanskrit translation of Yas. IX, 75, explains 
Kala^iyaka^ as 'those whose faith is the Christian religion ;' the 
original Pahlavi word in the oldest MSS. is Kilisayaik, altogether 
a misunderstanding of the Avesta name Keresani, which it trans- 
lates, but sufficiently near the name in our text to warrant the 
assumption that Nerydsang would have translated Kilisyakih by 
'Christianity ;' literally it means ' ecclesiasticism, or the church 
religion' (from Pers. kilisya, Gr. eKKkrjala). Akandgar is probably 
a miswriting of Alaksandar or Sikandar ; though Darmesteter 
suggests that Skandgar (Av. skeffdo-kara, Pers. jikandgar), 
1 causer of destruction/ would be an appropriate punning title for 
Alexander from a Persian point of view. The anachronisms 
involved in making Alexander the Great a Christian, conquered by 
an A^kanian king, are not more startling than the usual Pahlavi 
statement that he was a Roman. To a Persian in Sasanian times 
Alexander was the representative of an invading enemy which had 
come from the countries occupied, in those times, by the eastern 
empire of the Christian Romans, which enemy had been subdued 
in Persia by the A^kanian dynasty ; and such information would 
naturally lead to the anachronisms just mentioned. The name 
Kilisyakih is again used, in Chap. Ill, 3, 5, 8, to denote some 
Christian enemy. 

2 This Sasanian monarch (a. d. 420-439), after considerable 
provocation, revived the persecution of the heretics and foreign 
creeds which had been tolerated by his predecessor, and this 
conduct naturally endeared him to the priesthood. 

CHAPTER II, 2O-24. 201 

makes the sight * of the spirit of pleasure manifest, 
and Aharman with the wizards rushes back to dark- 
ness and gloom. 2 1 . And that which was of steel is 
the reign of King Khfisro son of K&vkd 2 , when he 
keeps away from this religion the accursed Mazdlk 3 , 
son of B&md&d, who remains opposed to the religion 
along with the heterodox. 22. And that which was 
mixed with iron [is the reign of the demons with 
dishevelled hair 4 of the race of Wrath, when it is 
the end of the tenth hundredth winter of thy mil- 
lennium], O Zaratast the SpMm&n ! ' 

23. Zaratllst said thus: ' Creator of the material 
world ! O propitious spirit ! what token would you 
give of the tenth hundredth winter ? ' 

24. Atiharmazd spoke thus: 'Righteous Zaratdst! 
I will make it clear : the token that it is the end of 
thy millennium, and the most evil period is coming, 
is that a hundred kinds, a thousand kinds, a myriad 
of kinds of demons with dishevelled hair, of the 

1 Reading v6nap (Pers. binab), but it may be va davag-, in 
which case the phrase must be translated as follows : ' when he 
makes the spirit of pleasure and joy manifest/ 

2 See Chap. I, 5. The characteristic of the steel age, like that 
of the tin one, was the persecution of heretics who had been 
tolerated by the reigning monarch's predecessor. 

3 Generally written Mazdak, a heretic whose teaching was very 
popular in the time of King K6vaW (or Kava</, a. d. 487-531). 
His doctrine appears to have been extreme socialism built upon a 
Mazdayasnian foundation. He was put to death by Khusro I, as 
hinted in the text. It is remarkable that none of the successors of 
Khusr6 Noshirvan are mentioned in the Bahman Ya^t, so that a 
Parsi, who even did not believe in the verbal inspiration of the book, 
might possibly consider the remainder of it as strictly prophetical. 

4 The passage in brackets is omitted in K20 by mistake, and is 
here supplied from Chap. I, 5, in accordance with the Paz. and 
Pers. versions. 


race of Wrath, rush into the country of Iran (Afr&n 
shatr6) from the direction of the east 1 , which has 
an inferior race and race of Wrath. 25. They have 
uplifted banners, they slay those living in the world 2 , 
they have their hair dishevelled on the back, and 
they are mostly a small and inferior (nltum) race, 
forward in destroying the strong doer; O Zaratfot 
the Spitam&n! the race of Wrath is miscreated (vi- 
shixd) and its origin is not manifest. 26. Through 
witchcraft they rush into these countries of Iran 
which I, Afiharmazd, created, since they burn and 
damage many things ; and the house of the house- 
owner, the land of the land-digger, prosperity, nobi- 
lity, sovereignty, religion 3 , truth, agreement, security, 
enjoyment, and every characteristic which I, Atihar- 
mazd, created, this pure religion of the Mazda- 
yasnians, and the fire of V&hram, which is set in 
the appointed place, encounter annihilation, and the 
direst destruction and trouble will come into notice. 
27. And that which is a great district will become 
a town ; that which is a great town, a village ; that 

1 Or 'of Khurasan/ It is difficult to identify these demons 
with the Arabs, who came from the west, though a dweller in 
Kirman might imagine that they came from Khurasan. In fact, 
hardly any of the numerous details which follow, except their long- 
continued rule, apply exclusively to Muhammadans. It appears, 
moreover, from § 50 and Chap. Ill, 8, that these demons are 
intended for Turks, that is, invaders from Turkistan, who would 
naturally come from the east into Persia. 

2 Reading g6h&n-zivo zektel&nd, but the beginning of the 
latter word is torn off in K20, and the other versions have no 
equivalent phrase. The Pazand substitutes the phrase 'black 
banners and black garments/ 

3 This word, being torn off in K20, is supplied from the Paz. 

CHAPTER II, 25-31. 203 

which is a great village, a family; and that which is 
a [great] 1 family, a single threshold. 28. O Zarattlst 
the Spit&m&n ! they will lead these Iranian countries 
of Atiharmazd into a desire for evil, into tyranny 
and misgovernment, those demons with dishevelled 
hair who are deceivers, so that what they say they 
do not do, and they are of a vile religion, so that 
what they do not say they do. 29. And their assist- 
ance and promise have no sincerity, there is no 
law, they preserve no security, and on the support 
they provide no one relies ; with deceit, rapacity, 
and misgovernment they will devastate these my 
Iranian countries, who am Aftharmazd. 

30. ' And at that time, O Zaratust the Spitaman! 
all men will become deceivers, great friends will 
become of different parties, and respect, affection, 
hope 2 , and regard for the soul will depart from the 
world ; the affection of the father will depart from 
the son ; and that of the brother from his brother ; 
the son-in-law will become a beggar (kid yak or 
kasfk) from his father-in-law 3 , and the mother will 
be parted and estranged from the daughter. 

31. 'When it is the end of thy tenth hundredth 
winter, O Zaratilst the Splt&man! the sun is more 
unseen and more spotted (vasangtar); the year, 
month, and day are shorter; and the earth of Spen- 
darma^/ is more barren, and fuller of highway- 

1 This word is omitted in K20, but supplied from the PSzand. 
The whole section is omitted in the Pers. version. 

2 This word, being torn off in K20, is doubtfully supplied from 
the Pers. paraphrase. The Paz. MSS. omit §§ 30-32. 

3 Or, perhaps, ' parents-in-law ; ' the original is khusrufne, 
followed by some word (probably nafrman) which is torn off in 
K20. The Pers. version gives no equivalent phrase. 


men l ; and the crop will not yield the seed, so that 
of the crop of the corn-fields in ten cases seven will 
diminish and three 2 will increase, and that which 
increases does not become ripe 3 ; and vegetation, 
trees, and shrubs will diminish ; when one shall take 
a hundred, ninety will diminish and ten will increase, 
and that which increases gives no pleasure and 
flavour. 32. And men are born smaller, and their 
skill and strength are less ; they become more de- 
ceitful and more given to vile practices ; they have 
no gratitude and respect for bread and salt, and they 
have no affection for their country (desak). 

33. 'And in that most evil time a boundary has 
most disrespect 4 where it is the property of a suf- 
fering man of religion ; gifts are few among their 
deeds, and duties and good works proceed but little 
from their hands ; and sectarians of all kinds are 
seeking mischief for them 5 . 34. And all the world 
will be burying and clothing the dead, and burying 
the dead and washing the dead will he by law ; the 
burning, bringing to water and fire, and eating of 
dead matter they practise by law and do not abstain 
from. 35. They recount largely about duties and 
good works, and pursue wickedness and the road to 
hell ; and through the iniquity, cajolery, and craving 
of wrath and avarice they rush to hell. 

36. 'And in that perplexing time, O Zaratust the 

1 Or, ' tax-collectors ; ' Pahl. tangtar va r&s-vanagtar. 

2 In K20 'va 3' is corrupted into the very similar va vai, 
' and a portion.' 

3 Literally, 'white/ 

4 Reading anas arm instead of nana asarm. 

5 That is, for the Iranians in general, who are the ' they ' in 
§§ 32-35- 

CHAPTER II, 32-36. 205 

Spitaman! — the reign of Wrath with infuriate spear 1 
and the demon with dishevelled hair, of the race of 
Wrath, — the meanest slaves walk forth with the 
authority of nobles of the land ; and the religious, 
who wear sacred thread-girdles on the waist, are 
then not able to perform their ablution (pd^iya^lh), 
for in those last times dead matter and bodily refuse 
become so abundant, that one who shall set step to 
step walks upon dead matter; or when he washes 
in the barashntim ceremony, and puts down a foot 
from the stone seat (magh) 2 , he walks on dead 
matter; or when he arranges the sacred twigs (bare- 
som) and consecrates the sacred cakes (drono) in 
their corpse-chamber (nas&i katak) 3 it is allowable. 

1 The Av. A6shmo khrvidruj, ' ASshma the impetuous 
assailant' (see Bund. XXVIII, 15-17); this demon's Pahlavi 
epithet is partly a transcription, and partly a paraphrase of the 
A vesta term. 

2 According to Dastur Hoshangji (Zand-Pahlavi Glossary, p. 65) 
the term magh is now applied to the stones on which the person 
undergoing purification has to squat during ablution in the bar ash - 
num ceremony. Originally, however, Av. magha appears to have 
meant a shallow hole dug in the earth, near or over which the 
person squatted upon a seat, either of stone or some other hard 
material (see Vend. IX). The term for the hole was probably 
extended to the whole arrangement, including the seat, which 
latter has thus acquired the name of magh, although magh and 
maghak still mean ' a channel or pit' in Persian. 

3 The Av. kata of Vend. V, 36-40; a special chamber for the 
temporary reception of the corpse, when it was impossible to 
remove it at once to the dakhma, owing to the inclemency of 
the weather. It should be large enough for standing upright, and 
for stretching out the feet and hands, without touching either walls 
or ceiling ; that is, not less than six feet cube. The text means 
that those times will be so distressing, that it will be considered 
lawful to perform the sacred ceremonies even in a place of such 
concentrated impurity as a dead-house not actually occupied by 
a corpse. 


3J. Or, in those last times, it becomes allowable to 
perform a ceremonial (ya^i^n) with two men, so that 
this religion may not come to nothing and collapse 1 ; 
there will be only one in a hundred, in a thousand, 
in a myriad, who believes in this religion, and even 
he does nothing of it though it be a duty 2 ; and the 
fire of Vihram, which will come to nothing and 
collapse, falls off from a thousand to one care-taker, 
and even he does not supply it properly with fire- 
wood and incense ; or when a man, who has per- 
formed worship and does not know the Ntrangistan 3 
('code of religious formulas'), shall kindle it with 
good intentions, it is allowable. 

38. i Honourable 4 wealth will all proceed to those 
of perverted faith (kevi^-keshin); it comes to the 
transgressors, and virtuous doers of good works, 
from the families of noblemen even unto the priests 
(mog-mar^an), remain running about uncovered; 
the lower orders take in marriage the daughters 
of nobles, grandees, and priests ; and the nobles, 
grandees, and priests come to destitution and bon- 
dage. 39. The misfortunes of the ignoble will over- 
take greatness and authority, and the helpless and 
ignoble will come to the foremost place and advance- 
ment ; the words of the upholders of religion, and 
the seal and decision of a just judge will become the 

1 The Paz. MSS. add, < and helplessness/ 

2 The Paz. MSS. add, 'and the prayers and ceremonies that 
he orders of priests and disciples they do not fulfil/ 

8 The name of a work which treats of various ceremonial details, 
and appears to be a portion of the Pahlavi translation of the seven- 
teenth or Husparam Nask, containing many Avesta quotations 
which are not now to be found elsewhere. 

4 The Paz. MSS. have misread asir damik, 'underground/ 
instead of dzarmik. 

CHAPTER II, 37-41. 207 

words of random speakers (ande^o-gokan) among 
the just and even the righteous ; and the words of 
the ignoble and slanderers, of the disreputable and 
mockers, and of those of divers opinions they con- 
sider true and credible, about which they take x an 
oath, although with falsehood, and thereby give 
false evidence, and speak falsely and irreverently 
about me, Auharmazd. 40. They who bear the 
title of priest and disciples wish evil concerning 2 
one another; he speaks vice and they look upon 
vice ; and the antagonism of Aharman and the 
demons is much brought on by them; of the sin 
which men commit, out of five 3 sins the priests and 
disciples commit three sins, and they become ene- 
mies of the good, so that they may thereby speak of 
bad faults relating to one another; the ceremonies 
they undertake they do not perform, and they have 
no fear of hell. 

41. 'And in that tenth hundredth winter, which is 
the end of thy millennium, O righteous Zaratfist! 
all mankind will bind torn hair, disregarding reve- 
lation 4 , so that a willingly-disposed cloud and a 

1 Literally, ' devour an oath/ which Persian idiom was occasioned 
by the original form of oath consisting in drinking water prepared 
in a particular manner, after having invoked all the heavenly 
powers to bear witness to the truth of what had been asserted 
(see the Saugand-namah). 

2 Reading rai instead of la, ' not/ The whole section is omitted 
by the Paz. MSS., possibly from politic motives, as the language is 
plain enough. 

3 The Persian paraphrase has l eight/ 

4 Referring probably to the injunctions regarding cutting the 
hair and paring the nails, with all the proper precautions for pre- 
venting any fragments of the hair or nails from lying about, as given 
in Vend. XVII. One of the penalties for neglecting such precau- 
tions is supposed to be a failure of the necessary rains. The 


righteous wind are not able to produce rain in its 
proper time and season. 42. And a dark cloud 
makes the whole sky night, and the hot wind and 
the cold wind arrive, and bring along fruit and seed 
of corn, even the rain in its proper time ; and it does 
not rain, and that which rains also rains more 
noxious creatures than water; and the water of 
rivers and springs will diminish, and there will be 
no increase. 43. And the beast of burden and ox 
and sheep bring forth more painfully 1 and awk- 
wardly, and acquire less fruitfulness ; and their hair 
is coarser and skin thinner ; the milk does not in- 
crease and has less cream (/£arbist); the strength 
of the labouring ox is less, and the agility of the 
swift horse is less, and it carries less in a race. 

44. 'And on the men in that perplexing time, 
O Zaratuit the Spitaman ! who wear the sacred 
thread-girdle on the waist, the evil-seeking of mis- 
government and much of its false judgment have 
come as a wind in which their living is not possible, 
and they seek death as a boon ; and youths and 
children will be apprehensive, and gossiping chitchat 
and gladness of heart do not arise among them. 
45. And they practise the appointed feasts (^a^no) 
of their ancestors, the propitiation (ausofri^) of 
angels, and the prayers and ceremonies of the season 
festivals and guardian spirits, in various places, yet 
that which they practise they do not believe in un- 
hesitatingly ; they do not give rewards lawfully, and 

words anastak din6 can also be translated by 'despising the 

1 The word appears to be darfifaktar, but is almost illegible in 
K20; it may possibly be kutaktar, ' more scantily/ as the Paz. 
MSS. have k6daktar bah64 'become smaller/ 

CHAPTER II, 42-49. 209 

bestow no gifts and alms, and even those [they 
bestow] 1 they repent of again. 46. And even those 
men of the good religion, who have reverenced the 
good religion of the Mazdayasnians, proceed in con- 
formity with (bar-hamako rtibisn) those ways and 
customs 2 , and do not believe their own religion. 
47. And the noble, great, and charitable 3 , who are 
the virtuous of their own country and locality, will 
depart from their own original place and family 4 as 
idolatrous ; through want they beg something from 
the ignoble and vile, and come to poverty and help- 
lessness ; through them 5 nine in ten of these men 
will perish in the northern quarter. 

48. ' Through their way of misrule everything 
comes to nothingness and destitution, levity and 
infirmity; and the earth of Spendarma^ opens its 
mouth wide, and every jewel and metal becomes 
exposed, such as gold and silver, brass, tin, and 
lead. 49. And rule and sovereignty come to slaves, 
such as the Tfirk and non-Turanian (Atur) of the 
army 6 , and are turbulent as among the moun- 

1 This verb is omitted in K20. 

2 It is rather doubtful whether their own customs are meant, or 
those of their conquerors. 

3 Or dahak&n may mean 'the skilful/ 

4 Reading du</ak instead of ru</ak. At first sight the mis- 
writing of r for d seems to indicate copying from a text in the 
modern Persian character, in which those two letters are often 
much alike; but it happens that the compounds du and ru also 
resemble one another in some Pahlavi handwriting. 

5 Whether through poverty and helplessness, or through the 
conquerors, is not quite clear. 

6 Very little reliance can be placed upon the details of this sen- 
tence, but it is difficult to make any other complete and consistent 
translation. Darmesteter suggests the reading hSn6, ' army/ but 
another possible reading is Khyon (Av. Zfoyaona), the old name 

[5] * 


taineers 1 ; and the Alni 2 , the K^ull, the Softf, the 
Rtiman (Artimdyak), and the white-clothed Kar- 
mak 3 then attain sovereignty in my countries of Iran, 
and their will and pleasure will become current in the 
world. 50. The sovereignty will come from those 
leathern-belted ones 4 and Arabs (Ta^igan) and 
Rtimans to them, and they will be so misgoverning 
that when they kill a righteous man who is virtuous 
and a fly, it is all one 6 in their eyes. 51. And the 
security, fame, and prosperity, the country and 
families, the wealth and handiwork, the streams, 
rivers, and springs of Iran, and of those of the good 
religion, come to those non-Iranians ; and the army 
and standards of the frontiers come to them, and a 
rule with a craving for wrath advances in the world. 
52. And their eyes of avarice are not sated with 
wealth, and they form hoards of the world's wealth, 
and conceal them underground ; and through wicked- 
ness they commit sodomy, hold much intercourse 
with menstruous women, and practise many unna- 
tural lusts. 

of some country probably in Turkist&n, as Arg-asp, the opponent of 
Vijtasp, is called ' lord or king of Khyon ' in the Ya</kar-i Zariran 
(see also Gos Yt. 30, 31, Ashi Yt. 50, 51, Zamyad Yt. 87). 

1 Or, ' as the mountain-holding Khudarak/ Darmesteter suggests 
that Khudarak may be an ' inhabitant of Khazar.' 

2 Probably the people of Samarkand, which place was formerly 
called J£in according to a passage in some MSS. of Tabarfs 
Chronicle, quoted in Ouseley's Oriental Geography, p. 298. See 
also Bund. XII, 22. 

3 The Kabuli and Byzantine Rum an are plain enough ; not so 
the Softi and Karmak (Kalmak or Krimak). 

4 That is, the Turks, as appears more clearly from Chap. Ill, 
8, 9. The Arabs are mentioned here, incidently, for the first time, 
and again in Chap. Ill, 9, 51. 

5 Literally, ' both are one.' 

CHAPTER II, 5O-57. 211 

53. 'And in that perplexing time the night is 
brighter \ and the year, month, and day will di- 
minish one-third ; the earth of Spendarma^ arises, 
and suffering, death, and destitution become more 
severe in the world/ 

54. Atiharmazd said to Zaratfot the Spitaman : 
' This is what I foretell : that wicked evil spirit, 
when it shall be necessary for him to perish, be- 
comes more oppressive and more tyrannical/ 

55. So Afiharmazd spoke to Zarat&st the Spita- 
m&n thus : ' Enquire fully and learn by heart 2 
thoroughly! teach it by Zand, Plsand, and explana- 
tion ! tell it to the priests and disciples who speak 
forth in the world, and those who are not aware of 
the hundred winters, tell it then to them ! so that, 
for the hope of a future existence, and for the pre- 
servation of their own souls, they may remove the 
trouble, evil, and oppression which those of other 
religions cause in the ceremonies of religion (din 6 
yesndn). 56. And, moreover, I tell thee this, O 
Zaratfot the Spitaman ! that whoever, in that time, 
appeals for the body is not able to save the soul, 
for he is as it were fat, and his soul is hungry and 
lean in hell ; whoever appeals for the soul, his body 
is hungry and lean through the misery of the world, 
and destitute, and his soul is fat in heaven/ 

57. Zaratfirt enquired of Auharmazd thus: 'O 
Auharmazd, propitious spirit I creator of the mate- 
rial world who art righteous F — He is Atiharmazd 
through righteous invocation, and the rest through 

1 The Paz. version adds, ' the motion of the sun is quicker/ 

2 Literally, ' make easy.' 

P 2 


praise; some say ' righteous creator 1 ! ' — 'O creator ! 
in that perplexing time are they righteous ? and are 
there religious people who wear the sacred thread- 
girdle (kfistik) on the waist, and celebrate religious 
rites (din6) 2 with the sacred twigs (baresdm)? and 
does the religious practice of next-of-kin marriage 
(khvettik-das) continue in their families ?' 

58. Atiharmazd said to Zaratust thus : * Of the 
best men is he who, in that perplexing time, wears 
the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, and celebrates 
religious rites with the sacred twigs, though not as in 
the reign of King Vistasp. 59. Whoever in that 
perplexing time recites Ita-a^-yazam (Av. itha &d 
yazamaide, Yas. Vand XXXVII) 3 and one Ashem- 
vohft 4 , and has learned it by heart, is as though, 
in the reign of King Vi^tasp, it were a Dvasrdah- 
homast 5 with holy- water (zohar). 60. And by 

1 This interpolated commentary is a pretty clear indication that 
the writer is translating from an Avesta text. 

2 Both Paz. and Pers. have drono, ' sacred cakes/ 

8 The third ha or chapter of the Yasna of seven chapters. It 
worships Auharmazd as the creator of all good things. 

4 See Bund. XX, 2. 

6 For the following explanation of the various kinds of h6mdst 
I am indebted to Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji Jamasp-Asa-n& of 
Bombay : — 

There are four kinds of homast recited by priests for the atone- 
ment of any sin that may have been committed by a woman during 
menstruation, after her purification : — 

1. Homast consists of prayers recited for 144 days, in honour 
of the twelve following angels : Auharmazd, TLrtar, Khurshed, 
Mali, Ab&n, Adar, Khurdad, Amerdad, Spendarmad, Bdd, Srosh, 
and Ardsi-fravash. Each angel, in turn, is reverenced for twelve 
days successively, with one Yasna each day. 

2. Khaduk-h6m&st, ' one homast/ differs from the last merely 
in adding a Vendidad every twelfth day, to be recited in the Ush- 

CHAPTER II, 58-62. 213 

whomever prayer is offered up, and the Gatha- 
hymns are chanted, it is as though the whole ritual 
had been recited, and the G&xhdi-kymns consecrated 
by him in the reign of King Vistasp. 61. The most 
perfectly righteous of the righteous is he who 
remains in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, 
and continues the religious practice of next-of-kin 
marriage in his family/ 

62. Afiharmazd said to the righteous Zaratu^t : 
' In these nine thousand years which I, Auharmazd, 
created, mankind become most perplexed in that 
perplexing time ; for in the evil reigns of A^-i 
DaMk and Fristyi^ of Tur mankind, in those per- 
plexing times, were living better and living more 

ahin Gah ( 1 2 p. m. to 6 a. m.) in honour of the angel whose propi- 
tiation ends that day. 

3. Dah-h6mast,' ten homasts/ differs from the preceding merely 
in having a Vendidad, in addition to the Yasna, every day. 

4. Dvazdah-homast, ' twelve homasts/ are prayers recited for 
264 days in honour of twenty-two angels, namely, the twelve afore- 
said and the following ten : Bahman, Ardibahirt, Shahrivar, Mihir, 
Bahrain, Ram, Din, Rashnu, Gos, and A^tad. Each angel, in 
turn, is reverenced as in the last. 

The celebration of h6mast costs 350 rupis, that of khaduk- 
h6mast 422 rupis, that of dah-h6m&st 1000 rupis, and that of 
dvazdah-h6mast 2000 rupis ; but the first and third are now no 
longer used. The merit obtained by having such recitations per- 
formed is equivalent to 1000 tan&puhars for each Yasna, 10,000 
for each Visparad, and 70,000 for each Vendidad recited. A tand- 
puhar is now considered as a weight of 1200 dirhams, with 
which serious sins and works of considerable merit are estimated ; 
originally it must have meant a sin which was ' inexpiable ' by 
ordinary good works, and, conversely, any extraordinary good 
work which was just sufficient to efface such a sin. 

The amount of merit attaching to such recitations is variously 
stated in different books, and when recited with holy-water (that is, 
with all their ceremonial rites) they are said to be usually a 
hundred times as meritorious as when recited without it. 


numerously, and their disturbance by Aharman and 
the demons was less. 63. For in their evil reigns, 
within the countries of Iran, there were not seven 1 
towns which were desolate as they will be when it is 
the end of thy millennium, O Zarattlst the Spiti- 
man ! for all the towns of Iran will be ploughed up 
by their horses' hoofs, and their banners will reach 
unto Pa^ashkhvdrgar 2 , and they will carry away 
the sovereignty of the seat of the religion I approve 
from there ; and their destruction comes from that 
place, O Zaratfot the Spitam&n ! this is what I 

64. Whoever 3 of those existing, thus, with rever- 
ence unto the good, performs much worship for 
Auharmazd, Atiharmazd, aware of it through right- 
eousness, gives him whatsoever Auharmazd is aware 
of through righteousness, as remuneration and re- 
ward of duty and good works, and such members of 

1 So in the Pazand, but ' seventeen ' in Persian; in K20 the 
word is partly illegible, but can be no other number than ,rib&, 
* seven/ 

2 The mountainous region south of the Caspian (see Bund. 
XII, 2, 17). 

8 This section is the Pahlavi version of an Avesta formula which 
is appended to nearly two-thirds of the has or chapters of the 
Yasna, and, therefore, indicates the close of the chapter at this 
point. The version here given contains a few verbal deviations 
from that given in the Yasna, but none of any importance. The 
Avesta text of this formula is as follows : — 
Y6Nh6 hatam aW, y£sn6 paiti, 
vangh6 mazdau ahur6 vaStha, asha</ ha£&, 
yaunghamH, tasM tausM yazamaid6. 
And it may be translated in the following manner : — 

' Of whatever male of the existences, therefore, Ahuramazda was 
better cognizant, through righteousness in worship, and of what- 
ever females, both those males and those females we reverence/ 

CHAPTER II, 63 — III, 3. 215 

the congregation, males and females, I reverence ; 
and the archangels, who are also male and female, 
they are good. 

Chapter III, 

1. Zaratfot enquired of Auharmazd thus : * O 
Afiharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the mate- 
rial world, righteous one ! whence do they restore 
this good religion of the Mazdayasnians ? and by 
what means will they destroy these demons with 
dishevelled hair 1 , of the race of Wrath? 2. O 
creator ! grant me death ! and grant my favoured 
ones death ! that they may not live in that per- 
plexing time ; grant them exemplary living ! that 
they may not prepare wickedness and the way to 

3. Auharmazd spoke thus : ' O Zaraturt the Sptta- 
man ! after the ill-omened 2 sovereignty of those of 
the race of Wrath 3 there is a fiend, She^/asplh 4 of 
the Kilisydkih, from the countries of Salman 6 ;' Mah- 

1 The P&z. MSS. insert, 'and blaek clothing ' here. 

2 Literally, ' black-marked/ or possibly, ' black standard/ 

3 The Paz. MSS. add, < the leathern-belted Turks,' that is, people 
of Turkistan. 

4 This fiend appears to be a personification of Christianity or 
* ecclesiasticism ' (Kilisy&kih, see Chap. II, 19), and the writer 
seems to place his appearance some time in the middle ages, 
probably before the end of the thirteenth century (see the note on 
§ 44). Darmesteter suggests that SheWasp may have been intended 
as a modern counterpart of Bevarasp (Az-i Dahak), the ancient 
tyrant ; and that this Christian invasion may be a reminiscence of 
the crusades. 

6 I have formerly read Musulman instead of min Salman, 
and hence concluded that the text must have been written long 


vand-dcu/ said that these people are Rtiman (A r Ta- 
rn iyik), and Roshan 1 said that they have red 
weapons, red banners, and red hats (kul&h). 4. ' It is 
when a symptom of them appears, as they advance, 
O Zaratort the Spitaman ! the sun and the dark 
show signs, and the moon becomes manifest of 
various colours; earthquakes (btim-gu^and), too, 
become numerous, and the wind comes more vio- 
lently; in the world want, distress, and discomfort 
come more into view; and Mercury and Jupiter 
advance the sovereignty for the vile 2 , and they are 
in hundreds and thousands and myriads. 5. They 
have the red banner of the fiend Shea&spih of Kili- 
syclkih, and they hasten much their progress to these 
countries of Iran which I, Afrharmazd, created, up 
to the bank of the Arvand V some have said 4 the 
Frat 5 river, 'unto the Greeks (Ytinan) dwelling in 
Asuristan ; ' they are Greeks by strict reckoning 6 , 

after the Muhammadan conquest of Persia; but this reading is 
irreconcileable with the context. The position of Salman (Av. 
Sairima) is defined by Bund. XX, 12, which places the sources of 
the Tigris in that country. 

1 The name of a commentator, or commentary, often quoted 
in the Pahlavi Vendidad, and other texts. Mahvand-daa? is men- 
tioned in the Pahlavi Yasna (see Sis. I, 4). 

2 The Paz. MSS. state that ' Mercury and Jupiter beat down the 
strength of Venus.' 

3 Here written Arang, Arand, or Arvad, but as it is Arvand in 
§§ 21, 38, that reading seems preferable, the difference between 
the two names in Pahlavi being merely a single stroke. The 
Arvand is the Tigris, and the Arang probably the Araxes (see 
SZS.VI, 20, Bund. XX, 8). 

4 Literally, ' there are and were some who ? said ; ' this phrase 
occurs several times in the latter part of this text. 

5 The Euphrates. 

6 Or, ' of strict reckoning/ reading sa;kht amar, but both 
reading and meaning are very uncertain. As it stands in K20 it 

CHAPTER III, 4-9. 217 

and their Assyrian dwelling is this, that they slay the 
Assyrian people therein, and thus they will destroy 
their abode, some have said the lurking-ho\es 
(gr£stak) of the demons. 

6. ' They turn back those of the race of Wrath 1 in 
hundreds and thousands and myriads ; and the ban- 
ners, standards, and an innumerable army of those 
demons with dishevelled hair will come to these 
countries of Iran which I, Aftharrnazd, created. 7. 
And the army of the invader 2 is an extending enemy 
of the Tiirk 3 and even the Karrn 4 , be it with ban- 
ners aloft when he shall set up a banner, be it 
through the excessive multitude which will remain — 
like hairs in the mane of a horse — in the countries 
of Iran which I, Atiharmazd, created. 

8. 'The leathern-belted Ttark and the Rftman 
She^aspih of Kilisyakih come forth with simul- 
taneous movement 5 , and in three places, with 
similar strife, there was and will be three times 
a great contest (&rdih), O Zarat&rt the Spitaman ! 
9. One in the reign of Kaf-Kaus 6 , when through 

may be sakht ^umil, 'extreme beauty/ or Sakhtfmar (the name 
of a place), or this may stand for sakht timar, ' severe misfor- 
tune ; ' and other readings are possible. 

1 It is not quite clear which party will turn the other back. 

2 Literally, ' extender/ that is, one engaged in extending his 
own dominions. 

8 The remainder of this § (except the verb ' remain ') is P&zand 
written in Persian characters in K20. 

4 Possibly the Karmak of Chap. II, 49. In § 2fo the Run/ and 
Karm&n (or Karms) may refer to the Turk and Karm of this §, so 
it is doubtful whether Turk or Kur</ is meant. 

5 Or, ' for the encounter/ pa van ham-rasknrh. 

6 See Bund. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7. The letters are here joined 
together, so as to become Kai-gaus, and this form of the name is 


the assistance of demons it was with the archangels ; 
and the second when thou, O Zaratuit the Spita- 
m&n! receivedst the religion and hadst thy con- 
ference, and King VLstasp and Ar^asp x , miscreated 
by wrath, were, through the war of the religion, in 
the combat of Spe^-ra^tar (" the hoary forest 2 ")/ 
some have said it was in Pars ; ' and the third when 
it is the end of thy millennium, O Zaratust the Spiti- 
man ! when all the three, Ttirk, Arab, and Mman, 
come to this 3 place/ some have said the plain of 
Nfoanak 4 . 10. 'And all those of the countries of 
Iran, which I, Atiharmazd, created, come from their 
own place unto Pa^ashkhvdrgar 5 , owing to those 
of the race of Wrath, O Zaratust the Spitaman ! so 
that a report of something of the cave dwellings, 
mountain dwellings, and river dwellings of these 
people will remain at Pa</ashkhvargar and Pars; 
some have said the fire VLmasp 6 , on the deep Lake 
Ae/£ast which has medicinal water opposed to the 
demons, is there (in Pa^ashkhv&rgar ?) as it were 
conspicuous,' some have said 'originating 7 ,' 'so that 

often read Kahus or Kahos in Pazand (see Mkh.VIII, 27, XXVII, 
5.4, LVII, 21). The Paz. MSS. omit § 9. 

1 See Bund. XII, 32, 33. 

2 See Bund. XXIV, 16. 

3 Perhaps 'one' is meant, as hana, ' this,' is sometimes substi- 
tuted for ae, ' one/ both being read e in Pazand. 

4 The reading of this name is quite uncertain. 

5 See Chap. II, 63. The whole of the final clause of this 
section, about the fire VLmasp, is inserted parenthetically at this 
point in the Pahlavi text. 

6 Elsewhere called Gumasp, Gu\masp, or Gtaasp (see SZS. 
VI, 22). 

7 The most obvious reading of this word is mahik, ' fish/ which 
can hardly be reconciled with the context. The view here taken 
is that the writer was translating from an Avesta text, and met 


they may use it anew, and the fire may become 
shining in these countries of Iran which I, Auhar- 
mazd, created. 11. For when one shall be able to 
save his own life, he has then no recollection of 
wife, child, and wealth, that they may not live, in 
that perplexing time, O Zarat&st ! yet the day when 
the hundredth winter becomes the end of thy mil- 
lennium, which is that of Zaratfirt, is so that 
nothing wicked may go from this millennium into 
that millennium 1 / 

with the word £ithra, which means both peWak, ' clear/ and 
tokhmak, s originating/ but to express the latter meaning he used 
the synonym mayakik, which can be written exactly like mahik. 
Owing to the involved character of this section it is not very clear 
in English, but it is still more obscure in the Pahlavi text, in which 
the whole of this clause about the fire is inserted parenthetically 
after the first mention of Padashkhvargar. 

1 This last clause may be read several ways, and it is by no 
means easy to ascertain clearly the chronological order of the 
events which are jumbled together in this last chapter. But it 
would appear that Zaratfot's millennium was to end at a time 
when the religion was undisturbed, and just before the incursion 
of the demons or idolators, the details of which have been given 
in Chap. II, 22-III, 11, and which is the first event of HusheWar's 
millennium (see § 13). Now according to Bund. XXXIV, 7-9, 
the interval from l the coming of the religion/ in the reign of Kai- 
VLrtasp, to the end of the Sasanian monarchy was 90+112 + 30 
+ 12 + 14 + 14 + 284 + 460=1016 years. If by 'the coming of 
the religion ' be meant the time when Zaratujt received it, as he 
was then thirty years old, he must have been born 1046 years 
before the end of the Sasanian monarchy (a. p. 651), and the end 
of his millennium must have been in a. d. 605, the sixteenth year 
of Khusro Parviz, when the Sasanian power was near its maximum, 
and only a score of years before it began suddenly to 3 collapse. 
This close coincidence indicates that the writer of the Bahman 
Ya^t must have adopted the same incorrect chronology as is found 
in the Bundahw. If, however, ' the coming of the religion ' mean 
its acceptance by VLrtasp, which occurred in Zaratiut's fortieth or 


12. Zaratftst enquired of Atiharmazd thus: 'O 
Auharmazd, propitious spirit ! creator of the material 
world, righteous one! when they are so many in 
number, by what means will they be able to 
perish x ? ' 

13. Afiharmazd spoke thus : ' O Zaratllst the Spi- 
tam&n ! when the demon with dishevelled hair of 
the race of Wrath comes into notice in the eastern 
quarter, first a black token becomes manifest, and 
Htishedar son of Zarattlst is born on Lake Frazddn 2 . 
14. It is when he comes to his conference with me 3 , 
Aftharmazd, O ZaratUst the Spit&m&n ! ' that in the 
direction of Alnist&n 4 , it is said — some have said 
among the Hindus — 'is born a prince (kai) ; it is his 
father, a prince of the Kay&n race, approaches the 

forty-second year, his birth must have been ten or twelve years 
earlier, and his millennium must have ended a. d. 593-595. But 
according to the imperfect chronology of Bund. XXXIV the tenth 
millennium of the world, that of Capricornus, commenced with ' the 
coming of the religion,' and ended, therefore, in a. d, 635, the 
fourth year of Yazdakan/, the last Sasanian king, when the Muham- 
madans were just preparing for their first invasion ; so the millen- 
nium of Aquarius is very nearly coincident with that of HusheWar, 
and may probably be intended to represent it. It appears, there- 
fore, that the millennium of HusheVar is altogether past, having 
extended from a. d. 593-635 to a.d. 1593-1635. 

1 The P3z. MSS. omit§ 12. The writer having detailed the evils 
of the iron age, now returns to its commencement in order to describe 
the means adopted for partially counteracting those evils. 

2 See Bund. XXII, 5, XXXII, 8. The P^z. MSS. add, 'they 
bring him up in Zavulistan and Kavulist&n;' and the Pers. version 
says, ' on the frontier of K&bulistan/ With regard to the time of 
HusheVar's birth, see § 44. His name is always written Khur- 
sh&/ar in K20. 

3 The Paz. and Pers. versions say, ' at thirty years of age/ as in 
§ 44- 

4 Possibly Samarkand (see Chap. II, 49, note 2). 

CHAPTER III, 12-17. 221 

women, and a religious prince is born to him; he calls 
his name Vihrim the Var^avand V some have said 
Shahpur. 15. ' That a sign may come to the earth, 
the night when that prince is born, a star falls from 
the sky; when that prince is born the star shows a 
signal/ 16. It is Da^-Atiharmazd 2 who said that 
the month A van and day Va^ 3 is his father's end; 
' they rear him with the damsels of the king, and a 
woman becomes ruler. 

1 7. ' That prince when he is thirty years old ' — 
some have told the time — ' comes with innumerable 
banners and divers armies, Hindu and .Alni 4 , hav- 
ing uplifted banners — for they set up their banners 
— having exalted banners, and having exalted 
weapons ; they hasten up with speed 5 as far as the 
Veh river' — some have said the country of Bambo 6 — 
' as far as Bukh&r and the Bukharans within its bank, 

1 Bahram the illustrious or splendid (Av. vare^anghanJ, com- 
pare Pers. v a !*£•), an epithet applied, in the A vesta, to the moon, 
TLrtrya, the scriptures, the royal glory of the Kayanians, the Ka- 
yanians themselves, and the hero Thrita. This personage may 
possibly be an incarnation of the angel Bahram, mingled with some 
reminiscences of the celebrated Persian general Bahram Ko^m ; 
but see §§ 32, 49. 

2 A commentator who is quoted in the Pahlavi Yas. XI, 22 ; see 
also Chap. I, 7. 

3 The 22nd day of the eighth month of the Parsi year, corres- 
ponding to October 7th when the year began at the vernal equinox, 
as the Bundahi,r (XXV, 6, 7, 20, 21) describes. 

4 That is, Bactrian and Samarkandian. 

5 Or, ' light up with glitter/ according as we read td^end or 
taz>end. The Paz. MSS. omit §§ 17-44, except one or two iso- 
lated phrases. 

6 Spiegel was inclined to identify this name with Bombay, but 
this is impossible, as the MS. K20 (in which the name occurs) was 
written some two centuries before the Portuguese invented the 
name of Bombay. Its original name, by which it is still called by 


O ZaratUrt the Spit&m&n ! 18. When the star Jupi- 
ter comes up to its culminating point (belli st) 2 and 
casts Venus down, the sovereignty comes to the 
prince. 19. Quite innumerable are the champions, 
furnished with arms and with banners displayed/ 
some have said from Sagastan, Pars, and Khurdsdn, 
some have said from the lake of Padashkhv&rgar 2 , 
some have said from the H iritis 3 and K6histan, 
some have said from Taparistcin 4 ; and from those 
directions ' every supplicant for a child 5 comes into 6 
view. 20. It is concerning the displayed banners 
and very numerous army, which were the armed 
men, champions, and soldiers from the countries of 
Iran at Padfashkhv&rgar — whom / told thee 7 that 
they call both Kun/ and Karman- — it is declared 

its native inhabitants, being Mumbar. The locality mentioned in 
the text is evidently to be sought on the banks of the Oxus near 
Bukhara^ the Oxus having been sometimes considered the upper 
course of the Arag, and sometimes that of the Veh (see Bund. XX, 
22, note 5). It is hardly probable that either B&m? (Balkh) or 
B&miyan would be changed into Bambo, and the only exact repre- 
sentative of this name appears to be Bamm, a town about 120 
miles S. E. of Kirman; this is quite a different locality from that 
mentioned in the text, but it is hazardous to set bounds to the 
want of geographical knowledge displayed by some of the Pahlavi 

1 Compare SZS. IV, 8. Here the triumph of Jupiter over Venus 
appears to be symbolical of the displacement of the queen dowager 
by her son. 

2 That is, from the southern shore of the Caspian. 

3 Reading Hiriyan, but this is doubtful, as it may be ' from the 
citadels (arigano), or defiles (khalakano), of K6hist&n/ 

4 See Bund. XII, 17, XIII, 15. 

5 That is, every man able to bear arms. 

6 Reading pavan, 'into/ instead of bara, 'besides 7 (see SZS. 
VIII, 2, note 5). 

7 See § 10, but as nothing is said there about KutY/or Karman, 
it is possible that the writer meant to say, l of whom I told thee, 

CHAPTER III, 1 8-2 2. 2 23 

that they will slay an excessive number, in com- 
panionship and under the same banner, for these 
countries of Iran. 

21. * Those of the race of Wrath and the extensive 
army 1 of Sheafaspih, whose names are the two-legged 
wolf and the leathern-belted demon on the bank of 
the Arvand 2 , wage three battles, one in Spe^-ra^ur 3 
and one in the plain of Nfoanak;' some have said 
that it was on the lake of the three races, some 
have said that it was in Mar&v 4 the brilliant, and 
some have said in Pars. 22. * For the support of 
the countries of Iran is the innumerable army of the 
east; its having exalted banners 6 is that they have a 
banner of tiger skin (bopar post), and their wind 
banner is white cotton 6 ; innumerable are the mounted 
troops, and they ride up to the lur&ing-ho\es 7 of the 
demons ; they will slay so that a thousand women 
can afterwards see and kiss but one man. 

and whom they call both Kurd and Karman/ It is more probable, 
however, that he is referring to § 7. 

1 Compare § 7. The ' extensive army' and ' two-legged wolf 
are terms borrowed apparently from Yas. IX, 62, 63. 

2 That is, * the rapid' (A v. aurvan^/). The other names of 
this river, Tigris and Hiddekel, have the same meaning. See 


3 See § 9, of which this is a recapitulation, but the first of the 
three battles is here omitted by mistake. 

4 Marv in the present Turkistan. 

5 Referring to § 17. 

6 Supposing that band6k may be equivalent to Pers. bandak, 
but the usual Pahlavi term for 'cotton' is pumbak (Pers. punbah). 

7 Reading grestak as in § 5, but the word can also be read 
dar dWak, 'gate watch-tower.' It is possible that the dru^-6 
geredha, ' pit of the fiend/ of Vend. Ill, 24, may be here meant; 
the gate of hell, whence the demons congregate upon the Aresur 
ridge (Bund. XII, 8). 


23. 'When it is the end of the time 1 , Zaratiist 
the Spttaman! those enemies will be as much de- 
stroyed as the root of a shrub when it is in the night 
on which a cold winter arrives, and in this night it 
sheds its leaves ; and they will reinstate these 
countries of Iran which I, Auharmazd, created 2 . 

24. 'And with speed rushes the evil spirit, with 
the vilest races of demons and Wrath with infuriate 
spear 3 , and comes on to the support and assistance 
of those demon -worshippers and miscreations of 
wrath, O Zaratfot the Spitamin! 25. And I, the 
creator Auharmazd, send Neryosang the angel and 
Srosh the righteous 4 unto Kangde^ 5 , which the 
illustrious Siyavakhsh 6 formed, and to iifltro-miyan 7 
son of Vutasp, the glory of the Kayans, the just 
restorer of the religion, to speak thus : " Walk forth, 
O illustrious PeshyotaniiL to these countries of Iran 
which I, Auharmazd, created; consecrate the fire 
and waters for the H^okht 8 and Dvasdah-homast ! 

1 Compare, ' and at the time of the end ' (Dan. xi. 40). The 
writer appears to be here finally passing from a description of the 
past into speculations as to the future, which he has hitherto only 
casually indulged in. 

2 The supernatural means supposed to be employed for the 
destruction of the wicked and the restoration of the good are 
detailed in the following paragraphs. 

3 See Chap. II, 36. 

4 The two angels who are the special messengers of Auhar- 
mazd to mankind (see Bund. XV, 1, XXX, 29). This message 
was expected to be sent to P6shy6tanu near the end of HusheVar's 
millennium (see § 51). 

5 See Bund. XXIX, 10. 

6 See Bund. XXXI, 25. 

7 A title of P6shyotanu, written ^itro-matnd in Bund. XXIX, 5. 

8 This was the twentieth nask or ' book ' of the complete Maz- 
dayasnian literature, according to the Dinkan/; but the Dini- 
va^arkan/ and the Rivayats make it the twenty-first, and say very 

CHAPTER III, 23-25. 2 25 

that is, celebrate them with the fire and waters, and 
such as is appointed about the fire and waters ! " 

little about its contents (see Haug's Essays, pp. 133, 134). The 
Dinkan/, in its eighth book, gives the following account of this 
Nask : — 

'The Ha</6kht as it exists has three divisions among its 133 
sections. The first has thirteen (twelve ?) sections, treatises upon 
the nature of the recital of the Ahunavar, which is the spiritual 
benefit from chanting it aloud, and whatever is on the same 
subject. Admonition about selecting and keeping a spiritual and 
worldly high-priest, performing every duty as to the high-priest, 
and maintaining even those of various high-priests. On the twenty- 
one chieftainships of the spirits in Auharmazd, and of the worldly 
existences in Zaratfot, among which are the worship of God and 
the management of the devout. On the duty requisite in each of 
the five different periods of the day and night, and the fate at the 
celestial bridge of him who shall be zealous in the celebration of 
the season-festivals ; he who does not provide the preparations for 
the feast of the season-festivals, and who is yet efficient in the other 
worship of God. On how to consider, and what to do with, a leader 
of the high-priest class and a man of the inferior classes ; he who 
atones for unimportant sin, and he who does not atone even for 
that which is important, and whatever is on the same subject. On 
the apparatus with which ploughed land (?) is prepared. On the 
manifestation of virtuous manhood, and the merit and advantage 
from uttering good words for blessing the eating and drinking of 
food and drink, and rebuking the inward talk of the demons. On 
the recitations at the five periods of the day, and the ceremonial 
invocation by name of many angels, each separately, and great 
information on the same subject; the worthiness of a man re- 
strained by authority, the giving of life and body to the angels, the 
good rulers, and their examination and satisfaction; the blessing 
and winning words which are most successful in carrying off the 
affliction which proceeds from a fiend. On all-pleasing creative- 
ness and omniscience, and all precedence (?), leadership, foresight (?), 
worthy liberality, virtue (?), and every proper cause and effect of 
righteousness ; the individuality of righteousness, the opposition to 
the demons of Auharmazd' s opinion, and also much other informa- 
tion in the same section. 

'The middle division has 102 sections, treatises on spiritual and 
worldly diligence, the leadership of the diligent, and their mighty 

[5] Q 


26. ' And Neryosang proceeds, with Srosh the 
righteous, from the good isfaka^-i-Daitik 1 to Kang- 
de£, which the illustrious Siydvakhsh formed, and 
cries out from it thus : " Walk forth, O illustrious 
Peshyotanfi ! O iTftro-miydn son of VLstasp, glory of 
the Kayins, just restorer of the religion ! walk forth 
to these countries of Iran which I, Auharmazd, 
created! restore again the throne of sovereignty of 
the religion ! " 

27. 'Those spirits move on, and they propitiate 
them ; with holy-water the illustrious Peshy6tanu 
celebrates the DvcL^dah-h6mist, with a hundred and 
fifty righteous who are disciples of Peshyotanu, in 
black marten fur, and they have garments as it 
were of the good spirit. 28. They walk up with 
the words: "Hiimat, htikht, hftvarrt 2 /' and consecrate 

means, all former deeds of righteousness ; righteousness kindling 
the resolution is the reward of merit, each for each, and is adapted 
by it for that of which it is said that it is the H&fokht which is the 
maintaining of righteousness, so that they may make righteous- 
ness more abiding in the body of a man. 

* The last division has nineteen sections of trusty remedies, that 
is, remedies whose utterance aloud by the faithful is a chief resource 
among the creatures of God ; also the nature of sayings full of 
humility, well-favoured, most select, and adapted for that of which 
it is said that I reverence that chief, the excellent and eminent 
Hadokht, of which they trust in the sustaining strength of every 
word of Zaratfrrt. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness (Av. 
ashem vohu vahi^tem asti).' 

According to tradition three chapters of this Nask are still extant, 
being the Yast fragments XXI, XXII of Westergaard's edition of 
the Avesta Texts ; but they do not correspond to any part of the 
description in the Dtnkar^. For a description of Dvazdah-homast 
see Chap. II, 59. 

1 See Bund. XII, 7. 

2 That is, 'good thoughts, good words, and good deeds/ a 
formula often uttered when commencing an important action. 

CHAPTER III, 26-31. 22 7 

the fire of the waters ; with the illustrious Ha^dkht 
they bless me, Atiharmazd, with the archangels ; 
and after that it demolishes one-third of the opposi- 
tion. 29. And the illustrious P6shyotanu walks 
forth, with the hundred and fifty men who wear 
black marten fur, and they celebrate the rituals 
(yasnan) of the Gadman-h6mand ("glorious") fire, 
which they call the Roshano - kerp (" luminous 
form") 1 , which is established at the appointed place 
(dato-gas), the triumphant ritual of the FroM fire, 
Horvadaaf, and Ameroda^, and the ceremonial (ya- 
zisn) with his priestly co-operation; they arrange 
and pray over the sacred twigs ; and the ritual of 
Horvadaaf and Ameroda^, in the chapter of the 
code of religious formulas (nirangist&n) 2 demo- 
lishes three-thirds of the opposition. 30. Peshyd- 
tanti son of VLstasp walks forth, with the assistance 
of the Froba fire, the fire Gitmasp, and the fire 
Bur^in-Mitro 3 , to the great idol-temples, the abode 
of the demons^; and the wicked evil spirit, Wrath 
with infuriate spear 5 , and all demons and fiends, 
evil races and wizards, arrive at the deepest abyss 
of hell ; and those idol-temples are extirpated by the 
exertions of the illustrious Peshy6tanti. 

31. 'And I, the creator Aftharmazd, come to 
Mount Htikairyd^ 6 with the archangels, and I issue 

1 See Bund. XVII, 5, 6. This appears to be an allusion to the 
removal of the sacred fire by VLrtasp, from the ' glorious ' moun- 
tain in Khvarisem to the ' shining ' mountain in K&vulistan. 

2 See Chap. II, 37. 

3 Regarding these three manifestations of the sacred fire, see 
Bund. XVII, 3-9, SZS. XI, 8-10. 

4 Supplying the word ^6ddan, 'the demons/ in accordance with 
§§ 36? 37 ; there being clearly some word omitted in K20. 

5 See Chap. II, 36. 6 Hugar the lofty in Bund. XII, 2, 5. 



orders to the archangels that they should speak to 
the angels of the spiritual existences thus : " Proceed 
to the assistance of the illustrious Peshyotanti \" 32. 
Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures, Srosh the vigorous, 
Rashn the just, Vahr&m 1 the mighty, Ast&d the vic- 
torious, and the glory of the religion of the Mazda- 
yasnians, the stimulator of religious formulas (ni- 
rang), the arranger of the world, proceed* to the 
assistance of the illustrious Peshyotanft, through the 
order of which I, the creator, have just written 3 . 

33. 'Out of the demons of gloomy race the evil 
spirit cries to Mitr6 of the vast cattle-pastures thus : 
" Stay above in truth 4 , thou Mitr6 of the vast cattle- 
pastures !" 

34. 'And then Mitrd of the vast cattle-pastures 
cries thus : " Of these nine thousand years support, 
which during its beginning produced Dahak of evil 
religion, Frasiy&z> of Ttir, and Alexander 5 the Rti- 
man, the period of one thousand years of those 
leathern-belted demons with dishevelled hair is a 
more than moderate reign to produce 6 ." 

35. * The wicked evil spirit becomes confounded 
when he heard this; Mitro of the vast cattle-pas- 
tures will smite Wrath of the infuriate spear with 

1 The fact that the angel Vahram goes in his spiritual form to 
the assistance of P6shyotanu, rather militates against the idea that 
he also goes in the form of VahrSm the Var^dvand. 

2 This verb is omitted by mistake in K20. 

3 Literally, ' arrive at the writing/ 

4 Or, * stand up with honesty V 

5 The latter two names are here written Fr&ssb and Alasandar. 

6 From this it appears that the writer expected the evil reign of 
the unbelievers to last a thousand years, that is, till the end of 
Hush&Zar's millennium, about a. d. 1593-1635, which corresponds 
very closely with the reign of the great Shah 'Abbas. 

CHAPTER III, 32-39. 229 

stupefaction ; and the wicked evil spirit flees, with 
the miscreations and evil progeny he flees back to 
the darkest recess of hell. 36. And Mitro of the 
vast cattle-pastures cries to the illustrious Peshyo- 
tanti thus : " Extirpate and utterly destroy the idol- 
temples, the abode of the demons! proceed to these 
countries of Iran which I, Atiharmazd, created! 
restore again the throne of sovereignty of the 
religion over the wicked ! when they see thee they 
will be terrified/' 

37. 'And the illustrious Peshyotanft advances, and 
the fire Froba, the fire Gomasp, and the triumphant 
fire Btirsin-Mitro will smite the fiend of excessive 
strength ; he will extirpate the idol-temples that are 
the abode of demons ; and they celebrate the cere- 
monial (ya^isn), arrange the sacred twigs, solemnize 
the Dvi^dah-homast, and praise me, Atiharmazd, 
with the archangels ; this is what I foretell \ 38. 
The illustrious Peshyotanfi walks forth to these 
countries of Iran which I, Auharmazd, created, to 
the Arvand and Veh river 2 ; when the wicked see 
him they will be terrified, those of the progeny of 
gloom and those not worthy. 

39. 'And regarding thatVahr&m the Var^avand it 
is declared that he comes forth in full glory, fixes 
upon Vandl^-khim 3 (" a curbed temper"), and having 
intrusted him with the seat of mobadship of the 

1 Or, perhaps, * what I said before,' being already narrated in 
§ 29 as performed by Peshyotanu before advancing far into Iran. 

2 The Tigris and the Oxus — Indus (see §§ 5, 21). 

8 Probably a title of Peshyotanu; a more obvious translation 
would be, 'restrains a curbed temper, and is intrusted/ &c, but 
it is hardly probable that the warrior prince V&hr&m could become 
a priest. It is Vahr&m's business to restore the empire, leaving 
Peshyotanu to restore the religion. 


mobads 1 , and the seat of true explanation of the 
religion, he restores again these countries of Iran 
which I, Atiharmazd, created; and he drives 2 away 
from the world covetousness, want, hatred, wrath, 
lust, envy, and wickedness. 40. And the wolf 
period goes away, and the sheep period comes on ; 
they establish the fire FroM, the fire Gtlmasp, and 
the fire Bfirdn-Mitro again at their proper places, 
and they will properly supply the firewood and 
incense ; and the wicked evil spirit becomes con- 
founded and unconscious, with the demons and the 
progeny of gloom. 41. And so the illustrious Peshyo- 
tanii speaks thus: " Let the demon be destroyed, 
and the witch be destroyed! let the fiendishness 
and vileness of the demons be destroyed ! and let 
the gloomy progeny of the demons be destroyed ! 
The glory 3 of the religion of the Mazdayasnians 
prospers, and let it prosper! let the family 4 of the 
liberal and just, who are doers of good deeds, 
prosper! and let the throne of the religion and 
sovereignty have a good restorer!" 42. Forth 
comes the illustrious Peshyotanti, forth he comes 
with a hundred and fifty men of the disciples who 
wear black marten fur, and they take the throne of 
their own religion and sovereignty.' 

43. Auharmazd said to Zaratost the Spitaman : 
* This is what I foretell, when it is the end of thy 
millennium it is the beginning of that of Hushe^ar 5 . 

1 The supreme high-priesthood, or primacy. 

2 Merely a guess, as the verb varafs6^ is difficult to understand. 
8 K20 has nismo, l soul/ but the very-similarly written gadman, 

' glory,' is a more likely reading here (see § 32). 

4 Reading du^/ak instead of ru^/ak, as in Chap. II, 47. 

6 The writer having detailed the supernatural means employed 
for restoring the religion, now returns to the birth of Hush&/ar 

CHAPTER III, 4O-46. 231 

44. Regarding Hfisheafar it is declared that he will 
be born in 1 600 *, and at thirty years of age he 
comes to a conference with me, Auharmazd, and 
receives the religion. 45. When he comes away 
from the conference he cries to the sun with the 
swift horse 2 , thus : " Stand still ! " 

46. ' The sun with the swift horse stands still ten 

(§ 13) for the purpose of mentioning some of his actions, and 
making the chronology of his millennium rather more clear. 
Nothing is said here about his miraculous birth, the details of 
which are given in the seventh book of the Dinkar^ very much 
as they are found in the Persian Riv&yats. The Dinkan/ states 
that thirty years before the end of Zaratrnt's millennium a young 
maiden bathing in certain water, and drinking it, becomes preg- 
nant through the long-preserved seed of Zaratu^t (see Bund. 
XXXII, 8, 9), and subsequently gives birth to Hush&/ar. 

1 There seems to be no other rational way of understanding this 
number than by supposing that it represents the date of Hushe- 
dar's birth, counting from the beginning of Zarat&rt's millennium. 
According to this view Hushedar was to be born in the six hun- 
dredth year of his own millennium, and not at its beginning, as 
§ 13 seems to imply, nor nearly thirty years earlier, as the Dinkanf 
asserts. As the beginning of his millennium may be fixed about 
A - D - 593-635 (see note on § 11), the writer must have expected 
him to be born about a.d. 1 193-1235; a time which was probably 
far in the future when he was writing. And as V&hr&m the Var- 
^■avand was to be born when Hush6dar was thirty years of age 
(compare §§ 14, 44), and was to march into Iran at the age of 
thirty (§ 17), the great conflict of the nations (§§ 8, 19-22) was 
expected to begin about a.d. i 253-1 295, and to continue till near 
the end of the millennium, about a.d. i 593-1 635, when P6shyo- 
tanu was expected to appear (§ 51) and to restore the 'good' 
religion (§§ 26, 37, 42). An enthusiastic Parsi interpreter of 
prophecy might urge that though this period did not witness any 
revival of his religion, it did witness a restoration of the Persian 
empire under Shah 'Abbas, and also the first beginning of British 
power in India, which has been so great a benefit to the scanty 
remnant of his fellow-countrymen. 

2 The usual epithet of the sun in the Avesta. 


days and nights; and when this happens all the 
people of the world abide by the good religion of 
the Mazdayasnians. 47. Mitro of the vast cattle- 
pastures cries to Hiisha/ar, son of Zarat&st, thus : 
" O Hushe^ar, restorer of the true religion ! cry to 
the sun with the swift horse thus : ' Move on !' for it 
is dark in the regions of Arzah and Savah, Frada- 
dafsh and Vida^afsh, Vortibant and Vorti^anst, and 
the illustrious Khvantras V 

48. 'Husheafar son of Zaratust cries, to the sun he 
cries, thus : "Move on !" 49. The sun with the swift 
horse moves on, and VargAvand 2 and all mankind 
fully believe in the good religion of the Mazda- 

50. Auharmazd spoke thus : ' O Zaratost the 
Spitaman ! this is what I foretell, that this one 
brings the creatures back to their proper state. 
51. When it is near the end of the millennium 
Peshyotanti 3 son ofVLrt&sp comes into notice, who 
is a Kay&n that advances triumphantly; and those 
enemies who relied upon fiendishness, such as the 
Turk, Arab, and Rinnan, and the vile ones who 
control 4 the Iranian sovereign with insolence and 
oppression and enmity to the sovereignty, destroy 
the fire and make the religion weak ; and they con- 
vey their power and success to him and every one 
who accepts the law and religion willingly; if he 

1 The seven regions of the earth (see Bund. XI, 2, 3). 

2 It is just possible to read, ' the sun with the swift horse, the 
splendid, moves on, and all mankind fully believe,' &c. But if the 
reading in the text be correct it effectually disposes of the idea of 
Vahram being an incarnation of the angel, as an angel would 
require no miracle to make him believe in the religion. 

3 See §§ 25-30. 

4 This verb is doubtful, as most of the word is torn off in K20. 

CHAPTER III, 47-55. 233 

accept it unwillingly the law and religion ever destroy 
him 1 till it is the end of the whole millennium. 

52. 'And, afterwards, when the millennium of 
Htishe^ar-mah comes, through Hushe^ar-mah 2 the 
creatures become more progressive, and he utterly 
destroys the fiend of serpent origin 3 ; and Peshyo- 
tanu son of VLstasp becomes, in like manner, high- 
priest and primate (raaf) of the world 4 . 53. In that 
millennium of Hfishe</ar-m&h mankind become so 
versed in medicine, and keep and bring physic and 
remedies so much in use, that when they are con- 
fessedly at the point of death they do not thereupon 
die, nor when they smite and slay them with the 
sword and knife 5 . 

54. 'Afterwards, one begs a gift of any description 
out of the allowance of heretics, and owing to 
depravity and heresy they do not give it. 55. And 
Aharman rises through that spite 6 on to the moun- 

1 This appears to be the meaning, but the latter part of the 
sentence is not very clear. 

2 See Bund. XXXII, 8. The name is written KhursheW-m&h 
in K20. The Dinkan/ gives the same account of the miraculous 
birth of HusheWar-mali as of the first HusheWar (see note on § 43); 
it also repeats the legend of the sun standing still, but for the 
longer period of twenty days; all which details are also found in 
the Persian Riv&yats. 

3 Av. asUithra; such creatures are mentioned in An/avahLrt 
Yt. 8, 10, 11, 15; but Az-i Dahak, 'the destructive serpent/ is 
probably meant here (see §§ 56-61). 

4 As in the previous millennium. According to the chronology 
deduced from § 44 the millennium of Hushedar-mah, which corres- 
ponds to the twelfth and last millennium of Bund. XXXIV, is now 
near the middle of its third century. 

5 The sentence is either defective or obscure, but this appears 
to be its meaning. 

6 The evil spirit is encouraged, by an act of religious toleration, 
apparently, to recommence his manoeuvres for injuring mankind. 


tain of Dimavand \ which is the direction of Beva- 
risp, and shouts thus : " Now it is nine thousand 
years, and Freafan is not living; why do you not 
rise up, although these thy fetters are not re- 
moved, when 2 this world is full of people, and they 
have brought them from the enclosure which Yim 
formed 3 ? " 

56. * After that apostate shouts like this, and be- 
cause of it, As-i Dahak 4 stands up before him, but, 
through fear of the likeness of Fre^un in the body 
of Fredfon, he does not first remove those fetters 
and stake from his trunk until Aharman removes 
them. 5 7. And the vigour of Az-i Dahak increases, 
the fetters being removed from his trunk, and his 
impetuosity remains ; he swallows down the apos- 
tate on the spot 5 , and rushing into the world to 
perpetrate sin, he commits innumerable grievous 
sins; he swallows down one -third of mankind, 
cattle, sheep, and other creatures of Aftharmazd ; he 
smites the water, fire, and vegetation, and commits 
grievous sin. 

58. 'And, afterwards, the water, fire, and vegeta- 
tion stand before Auharmazd the lord in lamenta- 
tion, and make this complaint : " Make Fredftn alive 
again ! so that he may destroy Kz-\ Dahak ; for if 
thou, O Auharmazd! dost not do this, we cannot 

1 Here written Dimbhavand (see Bund. XII, 31). 

2 Reading a mat, ' when/ instead of raun, ' which' (see the note 
on Bund. I, 7). 

3 The var-i Yim kar</(see Bund. XXIX, 14). The men and 
creatures who are supposed to be preserved in this enclosure are 
expected to replenish the world whenever it has been desolated by 
wars and oppression. 

4 Whose surname is Bevarasp (see Bund. XXIX, 9). 

5 The Paz. MSS. end here. 

CHAPTER III, 56-63. 235 

exist in the world ; the fire says thus : I will not 
heat ; and the water says thus : I will not flow." 

59. 'And then I, Aftharmazd the creator, say to 
Srosh and Neryosang the angel : " Shake the body 
of Keresasp the S&m&n, till he rises up!" 

60. ' Then Srdsh and Neryosang the angel go to 
Keres&sp x ; three times they utter a cry, and the 
fourth time Sim rises up with triumph, and goes to 
meet A^-i Dahak. 61. And 2 Sim does not listen 
to his words, and the triumphant club strikes him 
on the head, and smites and kills him; afterwards, 
desolation and adversity depart from this world, 
while I make a beginning of the millennium 3 . 62. 
Then S6shyans 4 makes the creatures again pure, 
and the resurrection and future existence occur/ 

63. May the end be in peace, pleasure, and joy, 
by the will of God (yazdano)! so may it be! even 
more so may it be ! 

1 Also called Sam in this same section ; he was lying in a trance 
in the plain of Pe\syansai (see Bund. XXIX, 7-9). 

2 Reading afaj instead of minaj (see Chap. II, 4, note 2). 

3 The thirteenth millennium, or first of the future existence, 
when Soshyans appears. The Dinkan/ and the Persian Riva- 
yats recount the same legends regarding the miraculous birth of 
Soshyans, and of the sun standing still (for thirty days), as they do 
with regard to HushSdar (see note on § 43). 

* See Bund. XXXII, 8. 








1-5. (The same as on p. 2.) 

6. Abbreviations used are : — Af. for Afrlng&n. Av. for Avesta. 
AV. for the Book of An/&-Viraf, ed. Hoshangji and Haug. Bund, 
for Bundahij, as translated in this volume. B. Yt. for Bahman 
Yajt, as translated in this volume. Chald. for Chaldee. Farh. 
Okh. for Farhang-i Oim-khaduk, ed. Hoshangji and Haug. Haug's 
Essays, for Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Reli- 
gion of the Parsis, by Martin Haug, 2nd edition. Huz. for Huz- 
v&rij. Lev. for Leviticus. Mkh. for Mainyo-i-khan/, ed. West. 
Nir. for Nrrangistan. Pahl. for Pahlavi. Paz. for Pazand. Pers. 
for Persian. Sis. for Shayast 1^-shayast, as here translated. SZS. 
for Selections of ZaW-sparam, as translated in this volume. W. for 
Westergaard. Vend, for Vendfdad, ed. Spiegel. Visp. for Vispa- 
rad, ed. Spiegel. Yas. for Yasna, ed. Spiegel. Yt. for Yatf, ed. 

7. The manuscripts mentioned in the notes are : — 

B29 (written a.d. 1679), a Rivayat MS., No. 29 of the Univer- 
sity Library at Bombay. 

K20 (about 500 years old), No. 20 in the University Library at 

L7, Li 5, L22, &c. are MSS. No. 7, 15, 22, &c. in the India 
Office Library at London. 

M5 (written a.d. 1723), No. 5 of the Haug Collection in the 
State Library at Munich. 

M6 (written a.d. 1397), No. 6 of the same Collection. 

M9 (modern), No. 9 of the same Collection. 

TD (written about a.d. 1530), a MS. of the BundahLr belonging 
to Mobad Tehmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria at Bombay. 


Part I. — The Original Treatise. 

Chapter I. 

o. In the name of God (yazdan) and the good 
creation may there be the good health, long life, 
and abundant wealth of all the good and the right- 
doers specially for him whose writing I am 1 . 

i. As revealed by the A vesta, it is said in the 
Vendidad 2 that these seven degrees (p&yak) of sin 

1 See the note on B. Yt. I, o. 

2 Referring to Vend. IV, 54-114, where seven classes of assault 
and their respective punishments are detailed. In our text eight 
classes of sin are named, although only seven degrees are men- 
tioned; the second and third classes being apparently arranged 
together, as one degree of sin in § 2. Or the inconsistency may 
have arisen from the addition of the Farm&n, a class of sin or crime 
not mentioned in the Vendidad, unless, indeed, it be the farm an 
sp6khtano, 'neglect of commandment' (referring probably to 
priest's commands), of Pahl. Vend. VI, 15. The other seven 
classes are thus described in Pahl Vend. IV, 54~57> 79> 8 5> 93> 
99, 106 :— 

6 By the man whose weapon (or blow) is upraised for striking 
a man, that which is his Agerept is thus implanted in him. When 
it has moved forward — that is, he makes it advance — it is thus his 
Avoirlrt, that is, Av6iri^t is implanted in him and the Agerept 
merges into it, some say that it does not exist. When he comes 
on to him with thoughts of malice — that is, he places a hand upon 
him — it is thus his Ared&r, that is, Areduj is implanted in him and 
the Avoirfat merges into it, some say that it does not exist. At 
the fifth Aredfo the man even becomes a Tanapuhar ; things at 


are mentioned in revelation, which are Farm&n, 
Agerept, Avdirirt 1 , Aredfo, Kh6r, Ba^i, Yat, and 
Tanclptihar 2 . 2. A Farman is the weight of four 

sunrise (a^ar-khurshe^ih) and in the forenoon (£aitih = Mstih) 
are no more apart. . . . Whoever inflicts the Aredfo blow on a 
man it is one -fifth of a wound (res h). . . . Whoever inflicts that 
which is a cruel Khor ('hurt') on a man // is one-fourth of a 
wound. . . . Whoever inflicts that which is a bleeding Kh6r on 
a man it is one-third of a wound. . . . Whoever shall give a 
man a bone-breaking Khor it is half a wound. . . . Whoever strikes 
a man the blow which puts him out of consciousness shall give a 
whole wound.' 

This description does not mention B&s&i and Yat, unless they 
be the two severer kinds of Khor ; but Basai occurs in Pahl.Vend. 
IV, 115, V, 107, XIII, 38, though Yat seems not to be mentioned 
in the Vendidad. Ared&r occurs again in Pahl. Vend. Ill, 151, 
and Kh6r in Pahl.Vend. Ill, 48^X111, 38, and Yas. LVI, iv, 2. 

1 Also written avoirut, avirijt, aivirist, avokiriyt, and avakdriit in 
other places. 

2 Five of these names are merely slight alterations of the Av. 
dgerepta, avaoiruta, areduj, ^z>ara, and tanuperetha (pere- 
t6tanu or pesh6tanu). The last seven degrees are also noticed 
in a very obscure passage in Farh. Okh. pp. 36, 37 (correcting the 
text from the old MSS. M6 and K20) as follows :— ■ 

'Agerept, "seized," is that when they shall take up a weapon 
for smiting an innocent person ; Avoiri^t, "turning," is that when 
one turns the weapon upon an innocent person; when through 
sinfulness one lays the weapon on a sinner the name is Areduj; 
for whatever reaches the source of life the name is Khor; one 
explains Bajsai as " smiting/' and Yat as " going to," and the soul 
of man ought to be withstanding, as a counterstroke is the penalty 
for a Yat when it has been so much away from the abode of life. 
In like manner Agerept, Avoirfat, Areduj, Khor, B&sai, and Yat 
are also called good works, which are performed in like propor- 
tions, and are called by the names of weights and measures in the 
same manner. Of pesh6tanu^ tanum pairy6it6 the meaning is 
a Tanapuhar ; as they call a good work of three hundred a Tana- 
puhar, on account of the three hundred like proportions of the 
same kind, the meaning of its name, Tanapuhar, thereupon enters 
into sin. ... A Khor is just that description of wound from which 

CHAPTER I, 2. 24I 

stirs, and each stir is four dirhams (gixgdi\\) l \ of 
Agerept and Avoirfot that which is lea:st is a 
scourging (ta^ano), and the amount of them which 
was specially that which is most is said to be one 
dirham 2 ; an Aredtis is thirty stirs 3 ; a Kh6r is 
sixty stirs ; a Basai is ninety stirs ; a Yat is a hun- 
dred and eighty stirs ; and a Tanaptihar is three 
hundred stirs 4 . 

the blood comes, irrespective of where, how, how much, and where- 
with it is inflicted ; it is that which is a wound from the beginning, 
and that which will result therefrom.' 

The application of this scale of offences is, however, not con- 
fined to these particular forms of assault, but has been extended 
(since the Avesta was compiled) to all classes of sins, and also to 
the good works which are supposed to counterbalance them. 

1 The dirham has been variously estimated, at different times, 
as a weight of forty-five to sixty-seven grains, but perhaps fifty 
grains may be taken as the meaning of the text, and the stir may, 
therefore, be estimated at 200 grains. The Greeks used both these 
weights, which they called tyaxw an d (TTarfjp. 

2 The amounts of these first three degrees of sin are differently 
stated in other places (see Chaps. XI, 2, XVI, 1-3, 5). It is diffi- 
cult to understand why the amounts of Agerept and Avoirirt should 
here be stated as less than that of Farman, and some Parsis, there- 
fore, read vihast (as an irregular form of vist, 'twenty') instead 
of v6^-ast, ' is most,' so that they may translate the amount as 
'twenty dirhams;' but to obtain this result they would have to 
make further alterations in the Pahlavi text. In a passage quoted 
by Spiegel (in his Traditionelle Literatur der Parsen, p. 88) from 
the Rivayat MS. Pi 2, in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, it is 
stated that Farman is seven stirs, Agerept twelve stirs, and Avoi- 
11st fifteen stirs. Another Rivayat makes the Farman eight stirs. 

8 All MSS. have Aredik si 30, ' an Aredflr is thirty (30)/ leaving 
it doubtful whether dirhams or stirs are meant ; and the same 
mode of writing is adopted in Chap. XI, 2. 

4 All authorities agree about the amounts of the last five degrees 
of sin. These amounts are the supposed weights of the several 
sins in the golden scales of the angel Rashnu (see AV. V, 5), when 
the soul is called to account, for its actions during life, after the 

[3] R 


3. In the administration of the primitive faith 1 
there are some who have been of different opinions 

third night after death (see Mkh. II, 1 14-122). Its sins are sup- 
posed to be then weighed against its good works, which are esti- 
mated by the same scale of degrees (see the passage already quoted 
from Farh. Okh. in p. 240, note 2), and it is sent direct to heaven, or 
hell, or an intermediate place, according as the good works or sins 
preponderate, or are both equal. In the Avesta of the Vendidad, 
however, whence these degrees are derived, we find them forming 
merely a graduated scale of assaults, extending from first lifting 
the hand to smite even unto manslaughter ; and for each of these 
seven degrees of assault a scale of temporal punishments is pre- 
scribed, according to the number of times the offence has been 
committed. These punishments consist of a uniform series of 
lashes with a horse-whip or scourge, extending from a minimum 
of five lashes to a maximum of two hundred (see Vend. IV, 
58-114); each degree of assault commencing at a different point 
on the scale of punishments for the first offence, and gradually 
rising through the scale with each repetition of the offence, so that 
the more aggravated assaults attain the maximum punishment by 
means of a smaller number of repetitions. Thus, the punishments 
prescribed for Agerepta, from the first to the eighth offence, are 5, 
iQ> I 5> 3°> 5°> 7°> 9°> an d 200 lashes respectively; those for Ava- 
oiruta, from the first to the seventh offence, extend on the same 
scale from 10 to 200 lashes; those for Areduj, from the first to 
the sixth offence, are from 15 to 200 lashes; those for a bruised 
hurt (y$z>ara), from the first to the fifth offence, are from 30 to 200 
lashes; those for a bleeding hurt, from the first to the fourth 
offence, are from 50 to 200 lashes; those for a bone-breaking 
hurt, from the first to the third offence, are from 70 to 200 lashes ; 
and those for a hurt depriving of consciousness or life, for the 
first and second offences, are 90 and 200 lashes. The maximum 
punishment of 200 lashes is prescribed only when the previous 
offences have not been atoned for^ and it is to be inflicted in all 
such cases, however few or trifling the previous assaults have 

1 In M6 pdrydikfishih, but p6ryo^keshan, 'of those of the 
primitive faith/ in K20; from the Av. paoiryo</ka6sha of Yas. 
I, 47, III, 65, IV, 53, XXII, 33, Fravardin Yt. o, 90, 156, Af. 
Rapithwin, 2. It is a term applied to what is considered as the 

CHAPTER I, 3. 243 

about it, for Gogosasp 1 spoke otherwise than the 
teaching 2 (>£cUtak) of Ataro-Auharmazd 3 , and Sosh- 
yans 4 otherwise than the teaching of Ataro-frobag 
N6sal 5 , and Me^ok-mah 6 otherwise than the teaching 
of Gogosasp 7 , and Afarg 8 otherwise than the teaching 

true Mazdayasnian religion in all ages, both before and after the 
time of Zaratfot. 

1 One of the old commentators whose opinions are frequently 
quoted in Pahlavi books, as in Chap. II, 74, 82, 1 19, Pahl.Vend. Ill, 
48, 138, 151, IV, 35, V, 14, 121, VI, 9, 64, VII, 6, 136, VIII, 64, 
236, XV, 35, 48, 56, 67, XVI, 5, XVIII, 98, 124, and thirteen 
times in the Nirangistan. His name is sometimes written Gosasp 
(as it is here both in M6 and K20) and sometimes Gogososp. 

2 Probably a written exposition or commentary is meant. 

8 This commentator is mentioned once in the Nirangist&n as 
Ataro Auharmazdan. 

4 This commentator is mentioned in Chaps, II, 56,74,80, 118, 
119, III, 13, VI, 4, 5; also in Pahl.Vend. Ill, 64, 69, 151, IV, 6, 
V, 48, 80, 107, 121, 146, 153, VI, i5> 64, 73, VII, 4, 136, 168, 
VIII, 28, 59, 303, IX, 184, XIII, 20, XVI, 7, 10, 17, 20-22, 27, 
XVIII, 98, and forty-six times in the Nirangistan. He was a name- 
sake of the last of the future apostles and sons of Zaratu^t (see 
Bund. XXXII, 8), and his name is often written Soshans and read 
Saoshyos or Sdsyds by Pazand writers. 

5 This commentator is mentioned once in the Nirangistan, and 
may probably be the Ataro-frobag of B. Yt. I, 7 ; compare also 
Nosai Burs-Mitr6, the name of another commentator, in Chap. 

VIII, 18. 

6 This commentator is mentioned in Chaps. II, 1, 11, 12, 89, V, 
5, 6 ; also in Pahl. Vend. Ill, 151, V, 6, 58, 107, VIII, 48, no, 

IX, 132, XIII, 99, XIV, 37, and four times in the Nirangistan. 
His name is sometimes written MeWy6k-mah or Mak/6k-mah, and 
he was a namesake of Zaratfot's cousin and first disciple (see 
Bund. XXXII, 2, 3). The Va^arkar^/-i Dinik professes to have 
been compiled by MeWyok-mah, but there appear to have been 
several priests of this name (see Bund. XXXIII, 1). 

7 Gorasp in M6. 

8 This commentator is mentioned in Chaps. II, 2, 64, 73, 88, 
115, V, 5, 6 ; also in Pahl. Vend. Ill, 48, 115, V, 6, 14, 22, 58, 

R 2 


of Soshyans. 4. And all those of the primitive 
faith rely upon these six 1 teachings, and there are 
some who rely more weakly and some more strongly 
ttpon some of them. 

146, VI, 9, VII, 6, 61, 93, 136, VIII, 48, 64, no, 250, IX, 132, 
XIII, 99, XIV, 14, 37, XIX, 84, Pahl. Yas. LXIV, 37, once in 
Farh. Okh., and thirty-eight times in the Nirangistan. 

1 Both MSS. have ' three/ although four teachings and six 
commentators are mentioned in the previous section, and a fifth 
' teaching ' is mentioned in Chap. II, 2. The original reading 
was more probably ' six ' than ' four/ as a Pahlavi ' six ' requires 
merely the omission of a cipher to become ' three/ whereas a Pah- 
lavi * four ' must be altered to produce the same blunder. 

Several other commentators are mentioned in Pahlavi books, such 
as Atar6-pa^, son of Da</-farukh, twice in the Nirangistan; Az&d- 
man/ nine times in Nir. ; Bar6shand Auharmazd once in Nir. ; DaW 
Auharmazd in B. Yt. I, 7, III, 16, Pahl. Yas. X, 57, XI, 22 ; Da</- 
farukh in Pahl. Vend. V, 112, VI, 64, and twice in Nir.; Da«^-i-v6h 
seventeen times in Nir. ; Farukho thrice in Nir. ; KMtano-bu^S^ 
in Pahl. Vend. V, 80, VI, 15, IX, 184, XIII, 20, he is called the Kir- 
m&nik in Pahl. Vend. IV, 35, and Dastur Hoshangji thinks his name 
is merely a variant of the next; Kushtano-b%-&/ in Sis. II, 57, 81, 
118, VI, 6, VIII, 17, Pahl. Vend. Ill, 64, 69, IV, 6, V, 48, VI, 53, 
64, 73, VIII, 28, XVI, 17, 21, 22, 27, and twenty-two times in 
Nir.; Mah-AuharmazdinPahl.Vend.VII,82; Mah-g6,rasp6, M&h- 
gdsosipo, Mah-gospo, or Mah-vasp in Pahl. Yas. IX, 33, Pahl. Vend. 
Ill, 138, and ten times in Nir.; Mahvand-da^ or Mah-vinda^/ in 
B. Yt.HI, 3, Pahl. Yas. IX, 33, X, 57, XI, 22, XIX, 27; Man/-bu</ 
in Sis. II, 86, and twice in Nir., where he is called the son of Da</- 
gun; Neryosang in Sis. VIII, 13, Pahl. Vend. V, 22; Nikhsha- 
puhar, or Nishapuhar in Pahl. Vend. Ill, 151, V, 112, VI, 71, 
VIII, 64, XVI, 10, 17, AV.I, 35, and twenty-four times in Nir.; 
Nosai Burs-Mitr6 in Sis. VIII, 18; Parik or Pirik in Pahl. Vend. 
Ill, 138, V, 14, 134, VII, 82, 93, VIII, 64, and once in Nir. ; 
Roshan or R6shano (which, as the *S"ikand-gumani states, was the 
name of a commentary written by R6shan son of Atar6-frobag) in 
Sis. II, 39, 86, 107, B. Yt. Ill, 3, Pahl. Yas. IX, 5, 14, Pahl. Vend. 
Ill, 48, V, 112, 134, 176, VII, 93, XVII, n, and eleven times in 
Nir. ; disciples of Vakht-afru/6 (possibly the Bakht-afri^ of Sis. XX, 
1 1, B.Yt. I, 7) are mentioned once in Nir.; Vand-Auharmazd in Sis. 
II, 2, 6, 44, XIV, 5, Pahl. Vend. VI, 73; and V6h-dost once in 

CHAPTERS I, 4- II, 2. 245 

Chapter II. 

1. For in the third fargaraf ('chapter') of the Ven- 
didad of Me^ok-m&h * it is declared that when life is 
resigned without effort 2 , at the time when the life 
departs, when a dog is tied to his foot, even then 
the Nastis 3 rushes upon it, and afterwards, when 
seen by it, the Nasus is destroyed by it. 2. This is 
where it is stated which is the dog which destroys 
the Nasujr 4 , the shepherd's dog, the village-dog, the 
blood-hound, the slender hound 5 , and the rtikunik 6 ; 

the Nirangistan. It must, however, be observed that the reading 
of some of these names is very uncertain. 

1 Alluding probably to MeWok-mah's complete commentary on 
the Vendidad (now no longer extant), as the commentary on Pahl. 
Vend. Ill, 48, which treats of Sag-dta or dog-gaze, does not men- 
tion MeV6k-mah or any of the details described here in the text ; 
these details, however, are to be found in Pahl. Vend. VII, 4. 

2 Reading am at bara, zor ^an da</. This phrase occurs 
only in M6 (as a marginal note) and in the text of its descendants. 
Assuming that bara may be a miswriting of pa van (see p. 176, 
note 5), we might read amat pavan zor shuyad', 'when he shall 
wash with holy-water/ 

3 The ' corruption ' which is supposed to enter a corpse shortly 
after death, whence it issues in the form of a fiend and seizes upon 
any one who touches the corpse, unless it has been destroyed, or 
driven away, by the gaze of a dog, as mentioned in the text (com- 
pare Vend. VIII, 38-48). The carcase of a dog is considered 
equally contagious with the corpse of a human being, and when 
the fiend of corruption (Nas&r or Nas of Bund. XXVIII, 29) has 
seized upon any one, it can be driven out only by a long and 
troublesome form of purification described in Vend. VIII, 111- 
228, IX, 4-117. 

4 This statement is now to be found in Pahl. Vend. VII, 4. 

5 See Bund. XIV, 19. The Persian Rivayats of Kamah Bahrah 
and KMs Kaman (quoted in B29) describe these dogs as ' the 
shepherd's dog, the house-dog, the strange or tame (gharib) dog, 
and the puppy/ 

6 Probably the Av. sukuruna of Vend. V, 100, XIII, 48, which 


and as to the riikiintk there have been divers 
opinions, as Vand-Aiiharmazd * asserted, from the 
teaching of Afarg, that it does not destroy it. 3. 
The dog destroys the Nasfts at the time when it 
sees the flesh, and when it sees the hair or nails it 
does not destroy it 2 . 4. A blind dog also destroys 
it at the time when it places a paw 3 on the corpse ; 
and when it places it upon the hair or nails it does 
not destroy it*. 5. The birds which destroy the 
Nasfo are three: the mountain kite, the black crow, 
and the vulture 5 ; the bird, moreover, destroys it at 
the time when its shadow falls upon it ; when it sees 
it in the water, a mirror, or a looking-glass, it does 
not destroy it 6 . 

is translated by hukar or hukur in the Pahlavi version. This 
fifth kind of dog is called 'the blind (kur) dog' in the Persian 
Rivayats ; but Pahl. Vend. VII, 4 asserts that ' S6shans said the 
rukunik also destroys it,' and then speaks of the blind dog as 
in§ 4. 

1 See the note on Chap. I, 4. 

2 This is also stated in Pahl. Vend. Ill, 138. 

3 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 4. 

4 The Persian Rivayats say this is because the Nasor is con- 
cealed beneath the hair and nails (compare Vend. VII, 70). 

6 These are the birds * created for devouring dead matter ' 
(see Bund. XIX, 25). Pahl. Vend. VII, 4 substitutes an eagle 
(d aim an) for the vulture. 

6 This sentence is probably defective, as the last clause evi- 
dently refers to the dog's gaze (see Pahl. Vend. Ill, 138), and not 
to the bird's shadow; the rule, however, is applicable to both. 
Thus the Persian Rivayats state that if the bird's shadow falls upon 
the hair or the nails of the corpse, or if the bird's shadow, or the 
dog's gaze falls upon a corpse in the water, or upon its reflection 
in a mirror, the Nasu^ is not destroyed. Dastur Jamaspji is of 
opinion that the utility of the bird's shadow is intended to apply 
only to cases of death in uninhabited places, where a dog is not 
procurable. As all three birds are such as feed upon corpses, it 
seems probable that the rule as to their utility was intended to pre- 

CHAPTER II, 3-7. 247 

6. Vand-Aiiharmazd said, where a pregnant woman 
is to be carried by two men 1 , both are to be cleansed 
by the Bareshniim ceremony 2 , and the head of the 
corpse, when they carry it away, is to be set towards 
the Dakhma 3 . .7. And on account of contamination 

vent any neglect of corpses found in wild places, where some of 
these birds would be sure to approach and let their shadows fall 
upon the dead, after which the finder of the corpse would suppose 
that the Nasur was destroyed or driven away, and the corpse safer 
to approach. 

1 This is an exceptional case, when not more than two men 
are available; the usual custom (see Chap. X, 10) is to employ 
four men and two dogs (double the usual number) in disposing of 
the corpse of a pregnant woman, on account of the double risk 
of contamination, owing to the Nasuj, or fiend of corruption, 
having seized upon two corpses at once. In consequence of the 
exceptional nature of the case, the mode of purification is also 

2 A long purification ceremony lasting nine nights, and described 
in Vend. IX, 1-145. Its name, according to Dastur Hoshangji, 
is derived from the first word of the instructions for sprinkling the 
unclean person, which commence (Vend. IX, 48) as follows : Bare- 
shnum he vaghdhanem paourum paiti-hi///£6i.y, 'sprinkle in 
front on the top of his head.' As it is usual to quote chapters by 
their initial words, the initial word of these instructions for the cere- 
mony became a name for the ceremony itself. 

3 The building in which the dead are finally deposited; here 
called by its Huzvarir name, khazan. The Dakhmas used by the 
Parsis in India are like low circular towers in external appearance, 
and consist of a high wall enclosing a larger or smaller circular 
space which is open to the sky. The only opening in the wall is 
a small doorway, closed with an iron door. In the centre of the 
circular area is a circular well a few feet in depth, and the space 
around it is paved so as to slope gently downwards from the 
enclosing wall to the brink of the well. This paved annular area 
is divided (by shallow gutters grooved into its surface) into spaces, 
each large enough for one corpse to be laid upon it, with the head 
towards the wall and the feet towards the well. These spaces are 
arranged in two or more concentric rings around the well, and the 
gutters (which isolate each space on all four sides) drain into the 


(pa^vishak) 1 two are not to be carried at one time, 
and two by one person are not proper ; one dog and 
one person are proper 2 . 8. Every one who under- 
stands the care of a corpse is proper ; two boys of 
eight years old, who understand the care, are proper ; 
a woman free from menstruation, or free from dead 

well. After a sufficient time has elapsed the dry bones are said to 
be thrown into the well, and when the well is full the Dakhma 
ought to be finally closed, and another one brought into use. 
These Dakhmas are erected upon some dry and barren spot, 
remote from habitations and water ; upon the summit of a hill, 
if possible, as prescribed in Vend. VI, 93, and usually more than 
a mile from the town. In Bombay the town has gradually 
approached the Dakhmas, and to some extent surrounded them, 
but has been kept away from their immediate vicinity by the 
judicious measures of influential Parsis, who have acquired all the 
neighbouring land, and refrain from building on it. The reason 
for thus exposing their dead to the sun and carnivorous birds is 
that the Parsis consider fire, water, and earth too sacred to be 
defiled by corpses ; and they have less consideration for the air. 
Next to burning, the Parsi mode of disposing of the dead is the 
most rapid and effectual, as it avoids most of the concentrated 
evils which must accumulate in crowded cemeteries in the course 
of time, and which require ages to dissipate. As it is, most of the 
offensive effluvium in the immediate vicinity of a Dakhma arises 
not from direct contamination of the air, but indirectly through 
the ground, which becomes polluted, in the course of time, by 
impure filiations. 

1 Dastiir Jamaspji prefers reading patoshak, and thinks it 
means ' necessity/ as in cases where two deaths occur nearly 
simultaneously in the same house, when both corpses cannot be 
removed the same day. Such a meaning might suit this passage, 
but the word occurs again, in § 33 and Chap. IX, 7, where it can 
refer only to ' contamination/ and the etymology of pat/vishak 
(Av. paiti + vish) is plain enough. 

2 That is, when two persons cannot be found to carry a corpse, 
one can do it alone, provided he holds a dog by a string. This 
course is adopted, Dastur Jamaspji says, when a person happens 
to die in a p-lace where only one Parsi is available. 

CHAPTER 11,8-11. 249 

matter *, or a man, with a woman or a child of eight 
years old, is proper. 

9. It is not to be carried all covered up 2 , for 
that is burying the corpse ; to carry it in the rain 
is worthy of death 3 . 10. When clouds have been 
around 4 , it is allowable to carry it away from the 
house; and when rain sets in upon the road it is not 
allowable to carry it back to the house ; but when it 
is before a veranda (d&hlte) one should put it down 
there ; that is allowable when he who owns the 
veranda is apprehensive, and when he does not 
allow it inside; and, afterwards, it is to be carried 
away to its place, and when the water stands the 
height of a javelin (nteak) inside 5 , one puts it down 
and brings it away yet again. 11. Me^6k-mdh 6 
says that there should be a shelter (var) 7 one should 

1 In the terms a^i-dasht&no and a7>r-nasar the compound 
&v is written in an obsolete manner, both in M6 and K20. The 
meaning of the text is that either or both of the corpse-carriers 
may be any Parsi man, woman, or child who understands the 
proper precautions. Compare Pahl. Vend. VIII, 28. 

2 K20 has ' when curved it is not to be carried/ 

3 That is, it is a mortal sin to allow rain to fall upon a corpse 
before it is deposited in the Dakhma. 

4 Or * withheld/ or ' continuous/ according as we compare 
hamun with Pers. amun (dm an), amstn, or h&m&n. 

5 Inside the Dakhma apparently. The meaning seems to be, 
that when the Dakhma is flooded the corpse is to be laid down 
in some dry place in its vicinity until the flood has abated. But 
according to Pahl. Vend. VIII, 17, it is allowable to throw the 
corpse in when the Dakhma is full of water. 

6 See Chaps. I, 3, II, 1. Here, again, the quotation must be 
from his complete commentary, as it is not extant in the present 
Pahlavi Vendidad. 

7 From Av. var, c to cover, to shelter;' compare Pers. gull ah, 
' a bower or shed.' Nowadays the Parsis have a permanent 
shelter near the Dakhma. Pahl. Vend. VIII, 1 7 says, ' to carry 


fasten above that place, and it would make it dry 
below * ; one should place the corpse under that 
shelter, and they may take the shelter and bring it 

12. From the fifth fargaraf of the Vendidad of 
Metf?6k-mah 2 they state thus, that at the place 
where one's life goes forth, when he shall die upon 
a cloth, and a hair or a limb remains upon the bed- 
place and the ground 3 , the ground conveys the pollu- 
tion, even not originating with ^^(ahambiini^), 
in like manner down unto the water 4 . 13. And when 
he is on a bedstead, and its legs are not connected 
with the ground, when a hair or a limb remains 
behind on the bedstead, it does not convey the pol- 
lution down. 14. When he shall die on a plastered 
floor the plaster is polluted, and when they dig up 
that plaster and spread it again afterwards, it is 
clean. 15. When he shall die on a stone, and the 
stone is connected with the ground, the stone will 
become clean, along with the ground, in the length 
of a year ; and when they dig up the place, the 
stone being polluted is to be washed at the time. 
16. When a stone is connected with the ground, or 
is separated, and one shall die upon it, so much space 
of the stone as the corpse occupied is polluted 5 ; 

an umbrella (a^argash) from behind, or to hold up a shelter, is of 
no use/ 

1 Or, 'it would make it very dry/ if we read aflir, 'very,' instead 
of a^-ir, 'below;' these two words being written alike in Pahlavi. 

2 Quoting again from his lost commentary. 

3 Or, perhaps, ' floor/ 

4 This translation is somewhat doubtful, but the text seems to 
imply that the ground is polluted as deep as it contains no water. 

5 K20 has had, ' the stone is all polluted, and will become clean 
at the time when they dig it up, the stone is all polluted, in so 

CHAPTER II, 12-19. 2 5 x 

when they shall leave it, in the length of a year it 
will become clean along with the ground ; and when 
they dig it up, the stone is all polluted, and is to be 
washed at the time ; when the stone is not made 
even with the ground, above the ground the stone is 
all polluted, and is to be washed at the time. 

17. Dung-fuel and ashes, when the limbs of a 
menstruous woman come upon them, are both pol- 
luted ; and the salt and lime for washing her shift 
(kartak-shlii) are to be treated 'just like stone 1 . 

18. If one shall die on a terrace roof (ban) 2 , when 
one of his limbs, or a hair, remains behind at the 
edge of the roof, the roof is polluted for the size of 
the body as far as the water ; and they should carry 
down all the sacred twigs (baresom) 3 in the house, 
from the place where the pollution is, until there are 
thirty steps of three feet 4 to the sacred twigs, so 
that the sacred twigs may not be polluted; and 
when his hair or limb has not come to the eaves 
(parakan) the roof is polluted to the bottom (tohlk). 
19. And when one shall die on a rita 5 it is polluted 

much space as the corpse occupied // is polluted ; ' but the addi- 
tional matter seems to be struck out. Something analogous to the 
details in this paragraph will be found in Pahl.Vend.VI, 9. 

1 This section would be more appropriate in Chap. III. 

2 Or ' an upper floor ;' Pahl. Vend. VI, 9 has, ' when he shall 
die on an upper floor, when nothing of him remains behind at the 
partitions (par dak an), the floor is polluted as far as the balcony 
(askup) and the balcony alone is clean; when anything of him 
remains behind at the partitions, the floor is polluted as far as the 
balcony, the ground is polluted as far as the water, about the balcony 
alone it is not clear/ 

3 See note on Chap. Ill, 32. 

4 The gam, ' step/ being 2 feet 7§ inches (see note on Bund. 
XXVI, 3) these thirty steps are about 79 English feet. 

5 Meaning uncertain; the word looks like Huzvarir, but it is 
possible to read ri</-ae instead of rita-i. 


for the size of the body as far as the water ; in the 
length of a year it will become clean along with the 
ground. 20. A built bridge is liable just like a 
terrace roof. 21. When one shall die on the terrace 
roof of a trellised apartment (varam), that is also 
liable just like a terrace roof. 22. When he shall 
die in a trellised apartment, when one of his limbs, 
or a hair, does not remain on the borders (parakcln), 
it does not convey the pollution down, but when any 
of him remains behind it conveys it down ; it is 
allowable when they dig it up \ and one also spreads 
it again afterwards, and it is clean. 

23. When one shall die by strangulation and a 
rope in a crowd, when there is no fear of his falling 
down they should not carry him down ; and when 
there is a fear of his falling down, when that fear is 
as regards one side of him, they should carry him 
down on that side ; and when he has fallen down 
they should carry him down in such place as he has 
fallen. 24. When one is seated upright and shall 
die, when there is fear of his falling on one side they 
should carry him down on that one side, and when 
there is fear on all four sides, then on all four sides ; 
and when he has fallen down they should carry him 
down in such place as he has fallen 2 . 

25. And when one shall die on a tree, when its 

1 That is, the floor of the apartment ; which would probably be 
formed of earth beaten down, which, in India, is nearly always 
overspread with diluted cow-dung to hinder cracks in the smooth 
surface. A better class of floor is spread with lime plaster on 
a stony surface. 

2 The object of these rules is evidently to avoid disturbing the 
corpse more than is absolutely necessary, provided there be no 
fear of its polluting more of the ground by falling upon it. 

CHAPTER II, 20-32. 253 

bark is green and there is no fear of falling off, they 
should not carry him down ; and when there is fear 
of it, they should carry down the whole of the body 
(tanti masdi). 26. And when the bark of the tree 
is withered, when there is fear of it and when there is 
no fear of it, they should carry it down. 2 7. When 
he shall die on a branch of a tree which is green, 
when there is no fear of his falling off they should 
not carry him down. 28. And when there is fear of 
it, or it is a branch of a withered tree, when also, a 
hair originating with him, or a limb, remains behind 
on the particular tree, they should carry down the 
whole of the body \ 29. And when it does not re- 
main behind him on the particular tree, but when 
there is fear of its falling off, they should not carry it 
below (vad frdd) 2 . 

30. When a corpse (nasai-1) 3 , from outside of it, 
remains behind on a jar (khumbo) in which there 
may be wine, the jar is polluted, and the wine is 
clean. 31. And when one shall die inside, in the 
wine in the jar, if not even a hair or a curl originat- 
ing with him remains behind on the jar, the wine is 
polluted and the jar not polluted 4 . 32. When it is 

1 K20 has a portion of § 30 inserted here by mistake. 

2 The object of these rules is likewise to prevent the risk of the 
corpse defiling more of the ground than is absolutely necessary by 
falling upon it, as it might do by the breaking of a dead branch. 

3 Nasai (Av. nasu) means not only a corpse or carcase of 
a human being, dog, or other animal of the good creation, but 
also any portion of such corpse or carcase ; that is, solid l dead 
matter ' in general, as distinguished from dirt or refuse from the 
living body, or any liquid exudation from a corpse or carcase, 
which is called hikhar (Av. hikhra). 

4 Pahl. Vend. VI, 9 states, that ' when one shall die on a jar of 
wine, the jar is useless, and the wine becomes just as though its 


a jar in which there is oil \ and dead matter (nasal), 
from outside of it, remains behind on it, this is even 
as though it remains inside it, because the oil comes 
outside and goes back to the inside, and both are 
polluted, the jar and the oil ; and even on making 
the jar dry 2 it is not fit to put anything in. 

33. When a serpent (gar^ak) is in a jar in which 
there is wine, both are useless and polluted, for it 
makes them contaminated (pa^/vishak). 34. And 
when corn shall be in it, the jar is polluted and the 
corn clean ; and when nothing originating with the 
serpent inside the jar remains behind on the jar, so 
much of the corn as includes the serpent, and upon 
which the touch (malign) of the serpent has gone — 
because the touch of the serpent's seed might be 
the death of one — is to be taken out and to be 
thrown away. 35. And when hair or dead matter, 
even not originating with the serpent, remains be- 
hind on the jar, the jar is polluted, but is service- 
able (sh&yaaO on making it dry 3 . 

36. Brick, earth, and mortar are separated by 

course ( had been within three steps of the corpse. And 
when he shall die in the wine, when nothing of him remains behind 
on the jar, the jar is proper on making it dry ' (or, perhaps, ' the 
jar is fit for bran-flour '). 

1 Or 'clarified butter;' in this case the 'jar' is probably a 
globular vessel, or carboy, made of hide, through which the oil, 
or liquid butter, penetrates so far as to keep the outer surface 
greasy, which accounts for the remark about the oil passing in and 
out. Such vessels, called dabar, are commonly used for oil and 
liquid butter in India. 

2 Assuming that khu^kar stands for khu,rk-kar, as it does in 
Pahl.Vend. VI, 71; otherwise we should have to read thus: 'and 
the jar is not even fit to put any bran-flour in.' 

3 Again assuming as in § 32 ; otherwise we must read thus : 
'but is fit for bran-flour (khCukar)/ 

CHAPTER II, 33-38. 255 

their own substance (pavan mindavam-i nafr- 
man), and are connected with the ground ; being 
separated by their own substance is this, that so 
much space as dead matter 1 comes upon is pol- 
luted ; being connected with the ground is this, that 
they would convey the pollution down unto the 
water. 37. Dung-fuel, ashes, flour, and other pow- 
dered things are connected with their own sub- 
stance, and are separated from the ground ; being 
connected with their own substance is this, that 
when dead matter comes upon them the whole of 
them is polluted ; and being separated from the 
ground is this, that when dead matter comes upon 
them it does not make the ground polluted 2 . 

38. At a house in which the sacred ceremony 
(ya^i^n) is prepared, and a dog or a person passes 3 
away in it, the first business to be done is this, that 
the fire is to be preserved from harm ; moreover, if 
it be only possible to carry the fire so that they 
would carry it away within three steps of the 
corpse 4 , even then it is to be carried away, and the 

1 Or ' a corpse;' K20 has ' stands upon.' The meaning is that 
these substances do not communicate the contamination throughout 
their own substance, but only downwards to the ground, which con- 
veys it farther down, so far as it contains no water. 

2 That is, these substances communicate the contamination 
throughout their own substance, but not down to the ground. 

3 The verb vi^ar^/ano (Huz. vabruntano), ' to cross over, to 
pass away' (Av. vi4-tar, Pers. gUDHa^tan), can only be used 
when referring to the death of good people or animals ; but the 
verb mur^/ano (Huz. yemituntano), 'to die, to expire' (Av. 
mar, Pers.murdan), can be used generally, though usually applied 
to the wicked and to evil creatures. Pahl. Vend.V, 134 contains 
nearly the same text as §§ 38, 39. 

4 Under ordinary circumstances fire must not be brought within 
thirty steps, or about 79 English feet, of a corpse (see Vend. VIII, 


wall is not to be cut. 39. Rdshan 1 said that an 
earthen one is to be cut into, but a mortar one is 
not to be cut ; below and aboye no account is taken 
of damaging (boafdze^ih) 2 the wall 3 . 40. To bring 
the fire within 4 the three steps from the corpse is a 
Tanaptihar sin ; and when exudation happens to the 
corpse, it is worthy of death 5 . 41. The prepared 
food in that house is all useless, and that which is 
not prepared is usable in the length of nine nights 

17). But the spirit of the Mazdayasnian law is reasonable, and, 
although strict, it allows for practical difficulties and chooses the 
least of two evils in a more judicious manner than might be 
expected (a fact which it would be well for Parsis and others to 
observe in doubtful cases). Here, breaking through the wall of a 
house is considered a greater evil than the possible pollution of 
the fire by passing at a distance of three steps, or eight English 
feet, from a corpse. 

1 The name of a commentator, or commentary, often quoted in 
Pahlavi translations (see the note on Chap. I, 4). 

2 Literally, ' destroying the consciousness,' or 6 injuring the 
existence.' B6d6z&d or bddydz&d is a particular kind of sin 
which appears to consist chiefly of the ill-treatment of animals and 
injury of useful property. It is" mentioned in Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 
ib, Pahl. Vend. V, 107, XIII, 38, Farh. Okh. pp. 32, 33; and in 
some editions of the Khurdah Avesta it is defined as selling stolen 
men or animals into misery, or one's own domestic cattle to the 
butcher, also spoiling and tearing up good clothing, or wasting 
and spoiling good food. 

3 The meaning is, that if it became necessary to break through 
the wall in order to remove the fire unpolluted, the sin committed 
through damaging the wall will not be punished either in this 
world or the next. 

4 That is, nearer than three steps, which is considered to be 
the minimum distance at which any degree of purity can be 

6 A marg-ar^an sin, on committing which the sinner is required 
to place his life at the disposal of the high-priest (see Chap. VIII, 
2, 5, 6, 21). It is usually considered equivalent to fifteen Tana- 
puhars (see Chap. I, 1, 2). 

chapter ii, 39-45- 2 57 

or a month \ 42. Clothing also in like manner, ex- 
cept that which one wears on the body ; that, even 
in that time, is not clean, since it remains in use. 
43. And the holy-water (zdhar) 2 , too, which is 
taken and remains in that place, is to be carried 
away immediately to the water ; also the sacred 
milk (^iv) 3 and butter (^um) 4 in like manner. 44. 
Of the prayer 5 clothing Vand-A&harmazd 6 said that 
it is usable in the length of nine nights or a month ; 
the writer 7 (dapfr) said that it is when they perform 
the washing of hands, and wash it thoroughly, it 
will become clean at the time. 

45. If in a house there are three rooms (gun^t- 
nak), and one shall die in the entrance place 
(dargds), if it be so that they may set the door 
open, and the corpse comes to this side, only this 

1 According to the season of the year, the period of uncleanness 
being nine nights in the five winter months, and a month in the 
seven summer months (see Vend. V, 129). 

2 Av. zaothra; this holy- water is consecrated by the priest 
reciting certain prayers while holding the empty metal cups in his 
hands, while filling them with water, and after filling them (see 
Haug's Essays, p. 397). 

8 The Av. gauj ^ivya, 'product of the living cow/ which is 
kept in a metal saucer during the ceremonies, and used for 
sprinkling the sacred twigs (baresom), and for mixing with the 
holy-water and H6m-juice in the mortar (see Haug's Essays, 

pp. 403, 405, 406). 

4 Compare Pers. Mm, 'fat;' it is the Av. g&uj hudhau, 'pro- 
duct ofihe well-yielding cow/ a small piece of which is placed 
upon one of the sacred pancakes, or wafers (dron), during the 
ceremonies (see Haug's Essays, pp. 396, 407). 

6 Reading ya^t; but it may be ga^t, ' changed/ 
* See the note on Chap. I, 4. 

7 There appear to be, as yet, no means of ascertaining the 
name of the writer of the Shayast la-shayast, who gives his own 
opinion here. 

[5] s 


side is polluted ; and if the corpse comes to that 
side, only that side is polluted; when it comes to 
both sides at once (aevcl^), only th£ entrance place 
is polluted alone, both the dwelling-rooms (khanak) 
are clean. 

46. And the vault of the sacred fires x alone does 
not become polluted. 

47. If one shall die in a wild spot (vaskar), pre- 
pared food which is within three steps is all useless, 
and beyond four steps it is not polluted. 48. Pre- 
pared food is this, such as bread, boiled and roast 
meat, and prepared broth 2 . 

49. And the ashes (var) of the sacred fire 3 be- 
come in a measure polluted. 

50. Should they carry in the fire into that house 
in which the length of nine nights or a month is 
requisite for becoming clean, there is a sin of one 
Tan&ptihar 4 through carrying it in, and one Tana- 
pilhar through kindling it ; and every trifling crea- 
ture (khtir or khftl) which shall die and shall remain 
causes a sin of one Tan&ptihar. 5 1 . Also through 
carrying water in, there is a sin of one Farman ; and 
to pour water on the place where any one's life 
departs is a sin of one Tanaptihar, and to pour it 
on a different place is a sin of one Yat. 52. And to 

1 Literally, ' the vault of the fires of Vahram.' Pahl. Vend. 
V, 134 says 'the vault of the fires is liable just like an empty 
house/ Both this section and § 49 seem out of place. 

2 See Pahl. Vend. V, 134. 

8 Literally, 'the produce of the fire of Vahram/ a term for 
' ashes,' which is used in Pahl. Vend. V, 150 along with the 
equivalent phrase, 'clothing of the fire' (see Chap. Ill, 27). 

4 See Chap. I, 1, 2 for the degrees of sin mentioned in §§ 50, 
5h 53- 

CHAPTER II, 46-56. 259 

undergo ablution l inside the unclean house is all non- 
ablution. 53. And whoever goes into it needlessly, 
his body and clothes are to be every time thoroughly 
washed, and his sin is one Tan&ptihar ; and when he 
goes in needfully it is neither good work nor sin 2 . 

54. And this pollution is all in the sharp account 
(ttkhak amir) when the life departs 3 ; the only 
thing which amounts to polluting is contact with the 
flesh, and even with the hair and nails. 55. Of the 
contact which is stated in the A vesta 4 , the account 
is that it is from one side, and it ever cleaves to 
one; the curse (ga^isn) 5 which is stated in the 
Avesta advances from all four sides. 56. Soshyans 6 
said it is, until its exhibition to a dog, just as it be- 
comes at the time when its life departs 7 ; a priest, a 

1 That is, the ceremonial ablution (paViyaflih), or ' washing, 
with water, the hands and arms up to the elbows, the face as far 
as behind the ears, and the feet up to the ankles/ whilst a certain 
form of prayer is recited (see AV. p. 148, note). 

2 Here again, as in § 38, the strict letter of the law is relaxed in 
case of necessity. 

3 Meaning, apparently, that any pollution is taken into account, 
as a sin, in the investigation the soul has to undergo upon entering 
the other world. Much of this paragraph will be found in Pahl. 
Vend. V, 107. 

4 Referring to Vend. V, 82-107, which gives an account of the 
number of persons through whom the pollution of a corpse or 
carcase will pass, which is in proportion to the importance of the 
dead individual. The statement here made is that the infection, 
passing from one to the other, enters each person only on one 
side, but the demon of corruption attacks them on all sides. 

6 Meaning, probably, the Nasur, or demon of corruption (see §1), 
who is said to rush upon all those polluted as detailed in Vend. V, 

6 See Chap. I, 3. 

7 That is, until seen by the dog the corpse remains pervaded 
by the demon of corruption and hazardous to approach (see 

§§ i-4). 

S 2 


warrior, and a husbandman are no use, for merely 
a dog is stated. 57. Ktishtano-bi^e^ 1 said the 
account is at the time when its life departs ; and 
that which Kftshtano-bu^ed? specially said is, 'when 
anything is inside it (the place) the pollution is as 
far as to the place where that thing stands/ 58. 
When a dog, or a goat, or a pig is requisite 
(darvai) 2 it is proper, for the pollution does not 
attack further there ; and the pollution of a child in 
the womb is along with the mother. 

59. The direct pollution of a hedgehog 3 cleaves 
to one, and not the indirect pollution. 60. Direct 
pollution (hamr^) 4 is that when the body is in 
contact with a corpse, and indirect pollution (pait- 

1 See Chap. I, 4, note. This name is nearly always written 
Kushtano-b%-&/ in Sis. in K20 and M6 ; it is not mentioned in 
Pahl. Vend. V, 107, although the details here quoted are there 
given in part. 

2 The meaning is not quite clear, but this sentence is probably 
to be read in connection with the preceding one, as implying that 
where such domestic animals are kept they can be used for stopping 
the infection, as effectually as any inanimate object. The pig is 
here mentioned as a common domestic animal, but Parsis have 
long since adopted the prejudices of Hindus and Muhammadans 
as regards the uncleanness of the pig. 

3 As Vend. V, 108-112 says the same of the dog urupi, it 
would seem that the writer of our text considered the urupi to be 
a hedgehog (zuzak); the Pahlavi translation of the Vendidad 
renders it by rapuk or ripuk, which appears to be merely an 
approximate transcript of the Avesta word ; traditionally, this is 
read raspuk and compared with Pers. rasu, 'ichneumon;' its 
identification with the hedgehog is certainly doubtful, although it 
appears to be admitted in Pahl. Vend. V, 112, where the same 
words are used as in this section. 

4 The technical terms ham r 6V and paitreV, for contagion and 
infection, are merely corruptions of Av. ham-ra6thwaye v iti and 
paiti-raethway6iti. The definition of the latter one is omitted 
in K20 by mistake. 

CHAPTER II, 57-63, 26l 

red) is that when 1 one is in contact with him who 
touched the corpse ; and from contact with him who 
is the eleventh 2 indirect pollution cleaves to one in 
the same manner. 61. The indirect pollution of an 
ape 3 and a menstruous woman, not acting the same 
way, remains. 62. The shepherd's dog, and like- 
wise the village-dog, and others also of the like kind 
carry contamination to eight 4 ; and when they shall 
carry the carcase down on the ground the place 5 is 
clean immediately; and that, too, which dies on a 
balcony (eUktip), until they shall carry it down to 
the bottom, is polluted for the length of a year. 

63. Whoever brings dead matter (nasai) on any 
person is worthy of death ; he is thrice worthy of 

1 Reading amat, ' when/ instead ofmun, ' which ' (see note to 
Bund. I, 7). 

2 Vend. V, 86, 87 limits the pollution to the eleventh person 
infected, in the extreme case of the corpse having been a priest ; 
but Pahl. Vend. V, 107 quotes the opinion of Soshans that until 
a dog has gazed at the corpse the pollution extends to the twelfth, 
but only the first ten require the ceremonial purification of the 
bareshnum, the others being cleansed by ordinary washing with 
bull's urine and water. 

3 Pahl. Vend. V, 167 states, however, that 'everything of the 
ape (kapik) is just like mankind/ The meaning of § 61 is very 
uncertain, as the text can be both read and translated several ways, 
and none of them are very satisfactory. 

4 That is, in the case of the shepherd's dog (see Vend. V, 92, 93); 
the carcases of other dogs occasion the indirect pollution of fewer 
persons, in proportion to their inferior importance; but Pahl. Vend. 
V, 107 states, with regard to this importance, that when ' in doubt, 
every man is to be considered as a priest, and every dog as a shep- 
herd's dog/ so as to be on the safe side, by exacting the maximum 
amount of purification in all doubtful cases. 

5 The Pahlavi text leaves it doubtful whether the place, the 
people, or the carcase becomes clean, but the first is the most 


death 1 at the time when a dog has not seen the 
corpse (nas&i) ; and if through negligence of ap- 
pliances and means (Hr va ttibano) he disturbs it, 
and disturbs it by touching it, he knows that it is a 
sin worthy of death ; and for a corpse that a dog 
has seen, and one that a dog has not seen, the ac- 
countability is to be understood to be as much 2 , and 
for the death and sickness 3 of a feeble man and a 
powerful one. 64. Afarg has said there is no ac- 
count of appliances and means 4 , for it is not allow- 
able to commit a sin worthy of death in cases of 
death and sickness. 

65. When they move a corpse which a dog has 
not seen with a thousand men, even then the bodies 
of the whole number are polluted 5 , and are to be 
w T ashed for them with ceremony (pi^ak) 6 . 66. And 
for that which a dog has seen, except that one only 
when a man shall move it all 7 by touching it, his 
washing is then not to be with ceremony. 67. And 
when he is in contact and does not move it, he is to 
be washed with bull's urine and water. 68. And 

1 That is, he has committed a sin equivalent to three mortal 
sins (marg-ar^an). 

2 Reading ves as equivalent to vej\ 

3 Reading rakhtakfh (compare Pers. rakhtah, 'sick, wounded'). 

4 This opinion of Afarg (see Chap. I, 3) is also quoted in Pahl. 
Vend. Ill, 48. 

5 This statement is repeated in Chap. X, 33. 

6 That is, with the Bareshnum ceremony. 

7 This exception (which is repeated in §§ 68, 7 1) seems to imply 
that §§ 66, 68, 71 refer to the collection of any fragments of 
a corpse found in the wilderness, or in water ; and the exemption 
from the troublesome purification ceremony in such cases, is pro- 
bably intended to encourage people to undertake the disagreeable 
duty of attending to such fragments. 

CHAPTER II, 64-71. 263 

when he shall move with a stake (dar) 1 a corpse 
which a dog has not seen, except that one only 
when he shall move it all, the washing for him is 
not to be with ceremony. 

69. And when a man shall move a corpse, which 
a dog has not seen, by the hand of another man, he 
who moves it by the hand of a man, and he also 
whose own hand's strength does it are polluted in 
the bodies of both ; and it is the root of a Tan&pft- 
har 2 sin for him himself and of a Tanapiihar for the 
other one, for this reason, because his own body and 
that also of the other are both made polluted 
through sinfulness. 70. And when there is not in 
him, nor even originating with him (ahambtini^), 
the strength of him whose own hand it is, it is just 
as though he would move it (the corpse) with a 
stake 3 ; and he who held it in the way of contact 
with his hand is to be washed with ceremony ; and 
it is the root of a Tanapuhar sin for him whose 
own hand it is, and of a Khor 4 for himself. 71. 
When he shall move a corpse by the hand of a man, 
and the corpse is of those which a dog has seen — 
except that one only when he shall move it all 5 — 
the washing for him is not to be with ceremony. 

1 The interposition of the stake, or piece of wood, prevents the 
direct attack of the Nasus, or demon of corruption, which has not 
been driven away by a dog. That inanimate objects are supposed 
to stop the progress of the pollution appears from § 57. 

2 See Chap. I, 1, 2. A sin is figuratively said to take root in 
the body, when it has to be eradicated, or figuratively dug up. 

3 See § 68. If he employs another man to move the corpse 
merely because he is physically unable to do it himself, he escapes 
with less pollution than when he is able to do the work himself; 
but the man employed suffers the same in both cases. 

4 See Chap. I, 1, 2. 6 See § 66. 


72. When one is going by a place at night, and 
comes back there on the morrow, and a corpse 
lies there, and he does not know whether the evil 
(du^) was there when he came by 1 , or not, it is to 
be considered by him that it was not there. 

73. Of a flock in which is a sheep by whom dead 
matter is eaten, of a forest in which is a tree with 
which dead matter is mingled, and of a firewood- 
stand (a es am dan) in which is a stick of firewood 
with which grease is mingled, Afarg said that it is 
not proper to make the flock and the forest fruitful, 
and the firewood is useless 2 . 

74. A bout a door on which a corpse impinges ; as 
to the door of a town and city they have been of the 
same opinion, that it is to be discarded by his com- 
rades (hamkar) 3 ; as to a door which is mostly closed 
(badtiim) 4 they have been of different opinions, 

1 Literally, ' when I came by;' the usual Persian idiom in such 

2 This statement of Afarg's, so far as it relates to greasy fire- 
wood, will be found in Pahl. Vend. V, 14. 

3 Or, * by the community/ The same rule is mentioned in Pahl. 
Vend.V, 14. 

4 There is some uncertainty about this word. It is not the 
Pers. badtum, ' worst, vilest,' because that is written va^/tum or 
vatum in Pahlavi; besides, the rule must apply to other than the 
vilest doors, otherwise it would not harmonize with § 75. It is not 
a miswriting of nit urn, 'lowest, most debased/ for the same reason, 
and because it occurs elsewhere. It is not a miswriting of b6tman, 
a possible variant of b6td, 'a house' (although 'a house-door' 
would suit the context very well), because it occurs also in Pahl. 
Vend.V, 14, XI, 10, in which latter place it is clearly an adjective 
partially translating Av. b<?ndv6. And it would be hazardous to 
connect it with Pers. bidun, 'outside/ which seems merely a cor- 
ruption or misreading of birun. The view taken here is that 
badtum stands for bandtiim, 'most shut up/ the nasal being 
often dropped in Pahlavi, as in sag for sang, ' stone,' &c. 

CHAPTER II, 72-78. 265 

G6g6sasp 1 said that discarding it by his comrades 
is likewise proper, and Soshyans said that it is not 
proper; and as to other doors they have been 
of the same opinion, that it is not proper. 75. 
The door of one's own chief apartment (shah-g&s) 
is fit for that of the place for menstruation (da^tan- 
istan), and that of the place for menstruation is fit 
for that of the depository for the dead (khazano) 2 , 
and that of the depository of the dead is not fit for 
any purpose whatever 3 ; that of the more pleasant 
is fit for that of the more grievous. 

76. Any one who, through sinfulness, throws a 
corpse into the water, is worthy of death on the 
spot 4 ; when he throws only one it is one sin worthy 
of death, and when he throws ten at one time it is 
then one sin worthy of death ; when he throws them 
separately it is a sin worthy of death for each one. 
77. Of the water, into which one throws dead matter, 
the extent of pollution is three steps of three feet in 
the water advancing, nine steps of three feet in the 
water passed over, and six steps of three feet in the 
water alongside 5 ; six steps of three feet in the depth 
of the water, and three steps of three feet in the 
water pouring over the dead matter are polluted as 
regards the depth 6 . 78. When it is thrown into the 
midst of a great standing water, in like manner, the 
proportion it comes is ever as much as it goes, and 

1 See Chap. I, 3. 

2 The Huz. equivalent of Paz. dakhmak (see § 6). 

3 See Pahl. Vend. V, 14. 

4 Compare Pahl. Vend. VII, 66. 5 See Vend. VI, 80. 

6 That is, the pollution extends about eight English feet up-stream 
and upwards, sixteen feet sideways and downwards, and twenty- 
four feet down-stream. Some of the latter part of the sentence is 
omitted in K20 by mistake. 


is the proportion of it they should always carry 
away with the dead matter \ 

79. And when a man comes forth, and a corpse 
lies in the water, when he is able to bring it out, 
and it is not an injury to him, it is not allowable to 
abandon it except when he brings it out 2 . 80. 
Soshyans 3 said that, when it is an injury, it is allow- 
able when 4 he does not bring it out ; and when it is 
not an injury, and he does not bring it, his sin is a 
TanapCihar 5 . 81. Ktishtano-bii^e^ 6 said that even 
in case of injury it is not allowable to abandon it, 
except when he brings it out ; when he does not 
bring it he is worthy of death. 82. And G6gosasp 7 
said that it is even in case of injury not allowable, 
except when he brings it out ; and when, in case of 
injury, he does not bring it out his sin is a Tand- 
puhar ; and when it is no injury to him, and he does 
not bring it, he is worthy of death. 

83. And when he shall wish to bring it his cloth- 
ing is to be laid aside 8 , for it makes the clothing 

1 The sentence is obscure, but this seems to be the meaning ; 
that is, when a corpse or any dead matter is thrown into a pond 
or tank, the pollution extends sixteen feet from it in all directions ; 
and that quantity of water ought to be drawn off, in order to 
purify the tank (see Vend. VI, 65-71). As the corpse, in nearly 
all cases, must be either at the bottom or on the surface, the quan- 
tity of polluted water to be drawn off must be a hemispherical 
mass sixteen feet in radius, or about forty-eight tons of water. 

2 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64, where it states that bringing it out 
is a good work of one Tanapuhar, and leaving it is a sin of the 
same amount. 

3 See Chap. I, 3. 

4 Reading amat, 'when/ instead of mun, 'which' (see Bund. 
I, 7, note). 

5 See Chap. I, 1, 2. 6 See Chap. I, 4, note. 

7 See Chap. I, 3. 8 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64. 

CHAPTER II, 79-87. 267 

polluted, and whatever he is first able and best able 
to bring is to be brought out by him. 84. When, too, 
he is able to bring it out through the breadth of the 
water, then also it is to be brought out so * ; and 
when he is not able, it is to be brought out through 
the length of the water ; and showing it to a dog 
and the two men are not to be waited for 2 . 

85. And it is to be carried by him so much away 
from the neighbourhood of the water that, when he 
puts it down, the water which comes out dropping 
from the corpse does not reach back to the water ; 
for when the water which comes out from the corpse 
reaches continuously back to the water he is worthy 
of death ; and after that (min zak ir&g) it is to be 
shown to a dog, and it is to be carried away by two 
men. 86. And when he wishes to throw it out from 
the water, Man/-blW 3 said it is allowable to throw it 
out thus, so that the water of the dripping corpse 
does not reach continuously back to the water ; 
Roshan said it would be allowable to throw it out 

87. To drag it over the water is allowable, to 
grasp and relinquish it is not allowable 4 ; and when 
it is possible to act so that he may convey it from 
a great water to a small water, when the water is 

1 So that less water may be polluted by the corpse taking the 
shortest route through it; but if that be impossible it must come 
out quickly, at any rate. 

2 That is, the otherwise indispensable dog's gaze and two 
bearers must be dispensed with, if not at hand, in order to save 
time, until the corpse is out of the water (see § 85). 

3 It might be, ' there was a man who said,' but Man/-bu<f occurs 
in the Nirangistan as tbe name of a commentator (see Chap. I, 4, 

4 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64 for this prohibition. 


connected it is allowable, and when separated it is 
not allowable. 88. Afarg 1 said it is allowable to 
drag it below through the water, but to drag it over 
is not allowable, for this has come on the water as a 
danger 2 , and that has not come on it as a danger. 
89. Merfok-mah 1 said it is allowable to drag it 
above, but to drag it below is not allowable, for the 
danger has gone out across the water, and the 
danger is not now to be brought upon it ; and on 
that which is below, on which the danger has not 
come, the danger will at last arrive. 

90. When he goes into the water he is to go into 
it with this idea, that ' should there be many below, 
then I will even bring all ;' for whoever goes in not 
with this idea, and shall disturb any other one which 
lies there, will become polluted 3 . 91. And if the 
corpse be heavy and it is not possible to bring it out 
by one person, and he goes out with this idea, that 
* I will go and prepare means, and bring this corpse 
out of the water;' and when through sinfulness 4 he 
does not go back his body is polluted and worthy of 

1 See Chap. I, 3. 

2 Or ' fear/ The difference of opinion between the two com- 
mentators on this question in casuistry, appears to have arisen from 
Afarg regarding the water merely as the representative of a spirit, 
who might be endangered or frightened by the source of impurity 
becoming more visible when above the water, while MeVok-mah 
considered the water in its material aspect, and wished to save it 
from the further pollution consequent upon drawing the corpse 
through more of it. 

3 SeePahl.Vend.VI, 64. 

4 These rules generally distinguish clearly between offences 
committed ' through sinfulness/ that is, wilfully, and those arising 
from accidental inability ; more stress being laid upon the inten- 
tion than upon the action. 

CHAPTER II, 88-95. 269 

death, and when he is unable to go back he is not 

92. When the corpse is so decomposed (plWak), 
when it is thus necessary to bring it out, that he 
must cut off various fragments, even after he cuts 
them off they are to be brought out ; and for every 
fragment his hands and knife are to be washed with 
bull's urine (gome^), and with dust and moisture 
(nambo) they are clean 1 . 93. And they are to be 
torn off 2 by him, and for every single fragment which 
he brings out his good work is one Tanaptihar. 

94. And when rain is falling the corpse lies in the 
water ; to take it from the water to deposit it in the 
rain is not 3 allowable. 

95. Clothing which is useless 4 , this is that in which 
they should carry a corpse, and that even when very 
much or altogether useless ; of that on which they 
shall decompose 5 (bara vishtipend), and of that on 
which the excretions (hikhar) of the dead come, so 
much space is to be cut away 6 , and the rest is to be 

1 See Pahl.Vend. VI, 64 for §§ 92, 93. 

2 Or 'twisted off;' the Huz. neskhuntano must be traced to 
Chald. np3 « to pluck out, to tear away/ and seems to have a similar 
meaning in Pahlavi; its Paz. equivalent vikhtano (Av. vi^-) ought 
to be compared rather with Pers. kikhtan, 'to bruise or break/ 
than with bSkhtan or p6khtan, 'to twist/ 

3 This negative is omitted in M6 by mistake. 

4 Compare Pahl. Vend. VII, 32. 

5 Or 'go to pieces;' that this is the meaning of vishup6nd 
appears clearly from Pahl. Vend. VII, 123, but a Persian gloss in 
the modern MS. M9 explains it as ' deposit fragments from the 
beak of a bird/ meaning, of course, fragments of dead matter 
dropped by a carrion bird. 

6 As useless, being incapable of purification ; such cuttings are 
to be buried, according to the Avesta of Vend. VII, 32, though the 
Pahlavi commentary explains that they are to be thrown away. 


thoroughly washed for the six-months 9 period 1 . 96. 
That which a menstruous woman has in wear (mah- 
minih) 2 is to be discarded in like fashion. 

97. The clothing which is to be washed for the 
six-months' period is such as is declared in the 
Avesta 3 . 98. If the clothing be leathern it is to 
be thoroughly washed three times with bull's urine 
(gomes), every time to be made quite dry with dust, 
and to be thoroughly washed three times with water, 
and to be laid out three months in a place to be 
viewed by the sun 4 ; and then it is proper for an 
unclean person (arm est) 5 who has not performed 

1 Khshva\r-m&ug6k is merely a corruption of the Av. khshvax 
maungho, 'six months/ of Vend. VII, 36, where this form of 
cleansing is thus described: 'If (the clothing) be woven, they 
should wash it out six times with bull's urine, they should scour 
it six times with earth, they should wash it out six times with 
water, they should fumigate it six months at the window of the 

2 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 32. 

8 That is, woven clothing, as declared in Vend. VII, 36 (quoted 
above in note 1). 

4 See Vend. VII, 35. 

5 A Persian gloss defines arme,rt as ' a woman who has brought 
forth a dead child/ and this is the general opinion ; but that seems 
to be only a particular example of an unclean person who would 
be included under the general term arme^t, for according to Pahl. 
Vend. IX, 133, 137, 141 a man when only partially purified must 
remain apart in the place for the arme^t (Av. air i ma, compare 
Sans, il or ri) for a certain time. N6ryosang, in his Sanskrit 
translation of Mkh. (XXXVII, 36, XXXIX, 40, LI, 7), explains 
armeVt as 'lame, crippled, immobility ;' it also means 'stagnant/ 
when applied to water ; and its primitive signification was, probably, 
' most stationary/ an appropriate term for such unclean persons as 
are required to remain in a particular place apart from all others, 
as well as for helpless cripples, and insane persons under restraint 
(see Chap. VI, 1). The meaning 'most polluted' would hardly 
apply to tank water. 

CHAPTER II, 96--IO4. 271 

worship, or it is proper for a menstruous woman. 99. 
Other clothing, when hair is on it\ is liable just like 
woven cloth (taafak) ; all the washing of wool, floss 
silk, silk, hair, and camel's hair is just like that of 
woven cloth; and woven clothing is to be washed 
six times 2 . 

100. Wool which is connected together, when one 
part is twisted over another, and a corpse rests 3 
upon it, is all polluted on account of the connection ; 
and when fleece (mesh) rests upon fleece, then so 
much space as the corpse rests upon is polluted. 
1 01. When one shall die upon a rich carpet (blip) 
when the carpet is on a coarse rug (nam a a?) and 
is made connected, the rug and carpet are both pol- 
luted, and when separated the rug is clean. 102. 
When several cushions are heaped (rvikid) one 
upon the other, and are not made connected, and 
dead matter comes upon them, they have been 
unanimous that only that one is polluted on which 
the dead matter came* 103. A cushion together 
with wool 4 is liable just like a carpet with a rug 5 
104. Of several cushions which are tied down to- 
gether, when dead matter comes to the tie, both are 
polluted, the cord and the cushions ; and when the 
dead matter comes to a cushion, and does not come 
to the tie, the cushions are all polluted on account 
of the connection, and the tie is clean 6 . 

1 Pahl. Vend. VII, 35 says ' when a single hair is on it/ 

2 As mentioned in a note on § 95. 

8 'Literally, 'impinges/ Here, as in many other places, 'dead 
matter' may be read instead of 'corpse/ as nasai means both or 
either of them. 

4 That is, laid upon wool. 

5 See § 101. 

6 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 27. 


105. A pregnant woman who devours dead matter 
through sinfulness is polluted and worthy of death, 
and there is no washing for her 1 ; and as for the 
child, when it has become acquainted with duties 
(pteak-shinas), ashes 2 and bull's urine are for its 
eating and for its washing. 106. As for a child who 
is born of solitary carriers of the dead 3 , although its 
father and mother may both have devoured dead 
matter through sinfulness, that which is born is 
clean on the spot, for it does not become polluted 
by birth. 

107. R6shan 4 said that every one, who, through 
sinfulness, has become polluted by means of dead 
matter, is worthy of death, and his polluted body 
never becomes clean ; for this one is more wretched 
than the fox which one throws into the water living, 
and in the water it will die. 108. One worthy of 
death never becomes clean ; and a solitary carrier of 
the dead is to be kept at thirty steps from ceremonial 
ablution (pi^ty&z>ih). 

109. Whichsoever of the animal species has eaten 
their dead matter 5 , its milk, dung, hair, and wool are 
polluted the length of a year ; and if pregnant when 
it has eaten it, the young one has also eaten it, and 
the young one is clean after the length of a year 
from being born of the mother, no. When a male 
which has eaten it mounts a female, the female is 
not polluted, in. When dead matter is eaten by it, 

1 That is, she cannot be purified. 

2 Reading var (see note on § 49). 

8 Carrying a corpse by a single person being prohibited (see 
§§ 7> 8) ; but why he is supposed to devour it is not clear. 
4 See Chap. I, 4, note. 
8 Compare Pahl. Vend. VII, 192. 


and even while it is not digested it shall die, it is 
liable just like a leathern bag (an bin) in which is 
dead matter. 

112. Gold, when dead matter comes upon it, is to 
be once thoroughly washed with bull's urine (g6- 
me^), to be once made quite dry with dust, and to 
be once thoroughly washed with water, and it is 
clean 1 . 113. Silver is to be twice thoroughly washed 
with bull's urine, and to be made quite dry with 
dust, and is to be twice thoroughly washed with 
water, and it is clean 2 . 1 14. And iron, in like man- 
ner, three times, steel four times, and stone six 
times 3 . 115. Afarg said : ' Should it be quicksilver 
(£z/ginak) 4 it is liable just like gold, and amber 
(kahrup&i) just like stone, and all jewels just like 
iron/ 116. The pearl (mftrvirW) 5 , amber, the 

1 The purification here detailed is prescribed for golden vessels 
in Vend. VII, 186. 

2 This is the purification prescribed for silver vessels in Vend. 
VII, 74 W. ; it is found in the Vendidad Sadah, but is omitted 
(evidently by mistake) in the Vendidad with Pahlavi translation, 
and has, therefore, been omitted in Spiegel's edition of the texts. 
By this accidental omission in the MSS. silver is connected with 
the purification for stone (see § 114). 

8 See Vend. VII, 75 W., much of which is omitted in the Ven- 
didad with Pahlavi translation, and in Spiegel's edition (see the 
preceding note), the sixfold washing of stone being 'erroneously 
applied to silver (see Vend. VII, 187 Sp.)> owing to this omission 
of the intervening text. It appears from this section that the Av. 
haosafna, which has usually been translated as 'copper/ was 
understood to be pula^, ' steel/ by the Pahlavi translators. 

* Or ' a mirror ' (Pers. abginah), but the word is evidently used 
for a metal in SZS. X, 2, and very likely here also. 

5 Most of the substances mentioned in §§ 115, 116 are detailed 
in Pahl. Vend. VII, 188, where it is stated that 'as to the pearl 
there have been different opinions, some say that it is liable just 
like gold, some say that it is just like the other jewels, and some 
say that there is no washing/br *'// 

[5] T 


ruby (yak and) gem, the turquoise 1 , the agate (sha- 
pak), coral-stone (vasa^fn sag), bone, and other 
substances (gohar) which are not particularly men- 
tioned, are to be washed just like wood 2 ; and when 
they are taken into use there is no washing 3 , and 
when they are not taken their washing is once. 117. 
Of earthen and horny articles there is no washing ; 
and of other substances which are not taken for 
use the washing is once, and tkey are declared out 
of use. 

118. Firewood, when green, is to be cut off the 
length of a span (vitast), one by one, as many 
sticks as there are — and when dry one span and two 
finger-breadths* — and is to be deposited in some 
place the length of a year, and water is not to be 
dropped upon it ; and it is drawn out after the 
length of a year ; Soshyans 5 said that it is proper 
as firewood for ordinary fires, and Kfishtan6-b{if*e^ 6 
said that it is just as declared m the Avesta : ' The 

1 This is doubtful; the word can> be read pirinak, and has the 
Pers. gloss piruzah, ' turquoise/ in some MSS. If read pilinak it 
might perhaps be taken for 'ivory/ But in Pahl. Vend. VII, 188 
it is vafarino, 'snowy,' and the reading there seems to be 'jet- 
black and snow-white stone-coral ;' so here the original meaning 
may have been ' snow-white and jet-black coral-stone/ 

2 Vend. VII, 188 says that 'earthen or wooden or porcelain 
vessels are impure for everlasting/ 

3 Meaning, apparently, that they cannot be purified for imme- 
diate use. 

4 That is, one-sixth longer than when green, the vitast being 
twelve finger -breadths, or nine inches (see Bund. XXVI, 3, note). 
The purification of firewood, here prescribed, is simply drying it 
for a year in short lengths; but Vend. VII, 72-82 requires it also 
to be sprinkled once with water, and to be cut into longer pieces. 

5 See Chap. I, 3. 

6 See Chap. I, 4, note. 

CHAPTER II, I I 7~I 22. 275 

washed one, even then, is proper in dried clothing V 
119. About corn 2 they have been unanimous that 
so much space is polluted as the dead matter comes 
upon ; and of that which is lowered into pits 3 , or 
is wanted to be so, and of that which is scattered 
(afridf) at such a place there are different opinions; 
Soshyans said : ' Should it be of such a place it is 
polluted as much as the dead matter has come upon 
it;' and Gogosasp 4 said: * Should it be so it is 
all polluted, and the straw is all polluted/ 

120. A walnut 5 , through zfc # mode of connection, 
is all polluted, and the washing of both its shell and 
kernel (p6st va mazg) is just like that of wood. 
121. A pomegranate also is of such nature as a 
walnut. 122. As to the date, when its stalk 6 is not 
connected the date is polluted and the stalk and 
stone (istak) are clean; the washing of the date is 
just like that of corn ; and when it is touched upon 
the stalk, when the stalk, stone, and date are con- 
nected, the whole is polluted ; as to the date when 
not connected with the stalk, and touched at the 

1 Something similar is said in Pahl. Vend. VI, 7 1 . 

3 According to Vend. VII, 83-93 polluted oorn anc * fodder are 
to be treated like polluted firewood, but to be cut into pieces of 
about double the length. 

3 Reading dSn g6pan far6stak; the practice of storing corn 
in dry pits underground is common in the East and in some parts 
of Europe. In Pahl. Vend. VII, 93 it is den g6p&n avist, ' con- 
cealed in pits/ 

4 See Chap. I, 3. 

5 Pahl. Vend. VII, 93 classes the almond with the walnut as 
a connected fruit, and the date with the pomegranate as a sepa- 
rated one. 

6 The word is kur&pak or kurasak, but its meaning is 

T 2 

276 shAyast la-shAyast. 

stalk, the date is clean, and the washing of the 
stone is just like that of wood. 123. The pome- 
granate, citron, quince, apple, pear, and other fruit, 
when in bearing and the rind (pazaz/isno) is per- 
ceptible on it, when dead matter comes upon it there 
is no pollution of it; and when the rind (paz£- 
mi^no) is not perceptible on it, its washing is just 
like that of corn; and rind is ever with the citron 1 . 
124. For meat, butter, milk, cheese, and preserves 
(ri/£aLr) there is no washing 2 . 

Chapter III. 

1. The clothing of a menstruous woman which 
they shall take new for her use is polluted, and that 
which is in use is not polluted a . 2. When a bed- 
chamber (sha^-aurvan) is overspread, and a carpet 
(blip) is laid upon it and a cushion on the two 4 , and 

1 Pahl. Vend. VII, 93 says, 'fruit whose find (paz&z>) exists is 
also just like that in a pod (kuvak), and/tfr that which does not 
remain in a rind, when pollution shall come upon it, there is no 
cleansing whatever. Afarg said that there is ever a rind (pazd- 
^i^no) with the citron/ 

2 Pahl. Vend. VII, 93 says, 'for everything separated there is 
a washing, except meat and milk/ Articles for which there is no 
washing cannot be purified. 

3 Pahl. Vend. XVI, 5 says, ' when in the place she remains in 
for the purpose, she does not make the clothing she wears on her 
body polluted, it remains for use within the place/ The meaning 
is, probably, that clothing already set apart for the purpose does not 
become further polluted, so as to be unfit for her use. It appears 
also (Pahl. Vend. XVI, 5) that on the spot where menstruation 
first appears, not even the twigs uplifted in the sacred ceremony 
are polluted, unless the circumstances are abnormal. 

4 This phrase, about the carpet and cushion, is omitted in K20 
by mistake. 

CHAPTER II, 1 .2 3 -III, 6. 2 77 

a woman sits upon it and menstruation occurs, when 
she puts a foot from the cushion on to the carpet, 
and from the carpet out into the bed-chamber, the 
carpet and bed-chamber are both polluted, for they 
are taken newly for her use, but of the cushion there 
is no pollution for this reason, because it is in use. 
3. And when she sits on the cushion so that she 
shall have both the carpet and cushion in use, the 
bed-chamber is polluted by itself; and when all three 
shall be in use there is no pollution whatever \ 

4. Just as she knows that it is menstruation, in the 
place she is in for the purpose 2 , first the necklace, 
then the ear-rings, then the head-fillet (/£ambar), 
and then the outer garments (^Amak) are to be put 
off by her. 5. When in the place she remains in 
for the purpose, even though she may remain a very 
long time for that purpose, yet then the outer gar- 
ments are clean, and there is no need of leather 
covering and leather shoes 3 . 

6. When she knows for certain (aevar) that it is 
menstruation, until the complete changing (guhari- 
afano) of all her garments, and she shall have sat 
down in the place for menstruation 4 , a prayer is to 

1 §§ 2 > 3 are merely corollaries from § 1. 

2 Or, possibly, * on the spot she is in on the occasion ; * although 
it would appear from § 5 that the place referred to is the dashtan- 
ist&n, or place of retirement for the unclean. 

3 Reading ma.rk va jalmihd, but both reading and meaning 
are doubtful. The first word may be mu^ko, ' musk,' and the 
other can be read sharing ah, but, if so, the construction of the 
sentence is defective, as it stands in the MSS. 

4 The dashtanistan, a comfortless room or cell provided in 
every Parsi house for unclean persons to retire to, where they 
can see neither sun, moon, stars, fire, water, sacred vessels, nor 
righteous men; it ought to be fifteen steps (39 \ feet) from fire, 


be retained inwardly x . 7. When worship is cele- 
brated a prayer is to be retained 2 inwardly, and 
should menstruation occur the prayer is to be 
spoken out by her. 8. When in speaking out the 
prayer should menstruation occur, both afterwards, 
when the time was certain (a^igftman), and now 
she is certain 3 . 9. When she retains a prayer in- 
zvardly, and a call of nature arises, there is no need 
for her to speak out the prayer, for the formula for 
the call is to be spoken by her 4 . 

10. Hands sprinkled in ceremonial ablution (paafi- 
yaz>), when a menstruous woman sees them, become 
quite unclean (apl^iyi^) by her look 5 , and even 
when she looks hastily, and does not see the sacred 
twigs (baresom), it is the same. 11. And on the 
subject of a house (khanak-i baba), when a men- 
struous woman is above in it, and the sacred twigs 

water, and the sacred twigs, and three steps (8 feet) from righteous 
men (see § 33 and Vend. XVI, 1-10). 

1 This kind of prayer (Av. v&£, l a word or phrase,' Pahl. \ag y 
Pers. b&z) is a short formula, the beginning of which is to be 
muttered in a kind of whisper, or (according to the Pahlavi idiom) 
it l is to be taken ' and ' retained ' inwardly (as a protection while 
eating, praying, or performing other necessary acts) by strictly 
abstaining from all conversation, until the completion of the act, 
when the prayer or va^ ( is to be spoken out,' that is, the conclusion 
of the formula is to be uttered aloud, and the person is then free 
to speak as he likes. Different formulas are used on different 

2 K20 has, f she retains a prayer.* See Pahl. Vend. XVI, 5. 

3 The meaning is, however, uncertain. 

4 The Pahlavi text is as follows : Amat v% yakhsenuneW, p&- 
jinkar (Pers. p6^yar) bara yatuneW, a^ va^ guftano Mr loit 
mamanai* nask-i pavan £ami,m yemalelunimo. Compare Pahl. 
Vend. XVI, 5. 

5 See Pahl. Vend. XVI, io a 

CHAPTER III, 7-I4. 279 

stand right below, if even fully fifteen steps below, 
even then the sacred twigs are unclean (apaaftyaz/) 1 ; 
but when not right below fifteen steps are plenty. 

12. Prepared food which is within three steps of a 
menstruous woman is polluted by her, and food which 
she delivers up (bard parda^e^) from her morning 
meal (/£asht) is not fit for the evening meal (^am), 
nor that which she delivers up from her evening 
meal for the morning meal ; it is not fit even for the 
same woman 2 ; and water which is within three 
steps of her, when they shall put it into a pail 
(d&bal) or ablution-vessel (pa^iycl^dan), and shall 
do it without handling (ayadman), is fit for the 
hands in ceremonial ablution. 1 3. When she touches 
the bedding 3 and garments of any one, Soshyans 4 
said that so much space is to be washed with bull's 
urine (gome^) and water; her bedding which touches 
the bedding of any one does not make it polluted. 

14. A menstruous woman who becomes clean in 
three nights is not to be washed till the fifth day ; 
from the fifth day onwards to the ninth day, when- 

1 Pahl. Vend. XVI, 10 says, i eveiy thing, when at the right dis- 
tance, is proper, except only that one case, when uncleanness is 
above and cleanness also right below ; although it be even much 
below, yet it is not proper.' In such a case the prescribed distance 
of fifteen steps is not sufficient; therefore, the dasht&nist&n 
should be on the ground floor, not over an underground water- 
tank, nor within fifteen steps of the water in such a tank. 

2 Or, possibly, ham neman may mean ' a companion woman/ 
when two or more are secluded at the same time. Pahl. Vend. 
XVI, 1 7 says, * food delivered up by a menstruous woman is of no 
use whatever, it is not proper; in parts free from pollution {g&vxd- 
v&snb), in those likewise it is not proper;' the reading g&v\d~ 
vasno (proposed by Dastur Hoshangji) is, however, doubtful. 

3 Or 'clothing,' vistarg. 

4 See Chap. I, 3. 


ever she becomes clean, she is to sit down in cleanli- 
ness one day for the sake of her depletion (tihik), 
and then she is ft for washing; and after nine nights 
the depletion is no matter 1 . 

15. A woman who has brought forth or miscarried 
(n a Sell), during forty days sees whenever she is pol- 
luted ; but when she knows for certain that she is 
free from menstruation she is, thereupon, to be asso- 
ciated with meanwhile (vada^), from the forty days 2 
onward ; but when she knows for certain that there 
is something of it, she is to be considered meanwhile 
as menstruous. 

16. A menstruous woman when she has sat one 
month as menstruous, and becomes clean on the 
thirtieth day, when at the very same time she be- 
came quite clean she also becomes again men- 
struous, her depletion (tfhik) is from its beginning, 
and till the fifth day washing is not allowable. 17. 
And when she is washed from the menstruation, 
and has sat three days in cleanliness, and again be- 
comes menstruous as from the beginning, four days 
are to be watched through by her, and the fifth day 
is for washing 3 . 18. When she has become free 

1 See Pahl. Vend. XVI, 22. The Hebrew law (Lev. xv. 19) pre- 
scribes a fixed period of seven days, except in abnormal cases. 

2 The same period of seclusion as appointed by the Hebrew 
law, after the birth of a man child (see Lev. xii. 2-4). The Avesta 
law (Vend. V, 135-159) prescribes only twelve nights' seclusion, 
divided into two periods of three and nine nights respectively, as 
the Hebrew woman's seclusion is divided into periods of seven and 
thirty-three days. 

3 The substance of §§ 16, 17 is given in Pahl. Vend. XVI, 22, 
but in language even more obscure than here. The washing men- 
tioned here is merely for the first menstruation ; that for the second 
one being prescribed in § 18. 

CHAPTER III, 15-22. 28l 

from the second menstruation she is not in cleanli- 
ness for nine days and nights, — these days and 
nights are for watching, — and then she is to be 
washed ; when the nine days and nights are com- 
pleted, on the same day washing is good 1 . 

19. Of leucorrhcea (/£lharak) 2 , when it has quite 
changed colour, that which comes on before and 
also that which is after menstruation, the pollution 
is just like that of menstruation. 

20. When she has become so completely clean 
from menstruation that her washing may be as 
usual (dastobarag hie), she does not make the 
sacred twigs (baresom), nor even other things, 
polluted when beyond three steps. 

21. On account of severe cold it is allowable for 
her to sit out towards 3 the fire ; and while she 
washes a prayer (va^) is to be taken inwardly by 
her 4 , and the washing of her hands, except with 
bull's urine (gomes), is not proper till then; and 
when they are washed by her, two hundred noxious 
creatures are to be destroyed by her as atonement 
for sin. 

22. A woman who goes beyond the period of 
menstruation 5 , and, afterwards, sees she is polluted, 
when her pregnancy is certain — except when her 

1 In such abnormal cases the Hebrew law (Lev. xv. 25-28) 
prescribes seven days' seclusion after recovery. 

2 Av.^ithr a, see explanation of ^iharak-homand(Av. £ithra- 
vznd) in Pahl. Vend. XVI, 1, 34. 

8 Dastur Jamaspji reads val bavan-i at&sh, 'to the part of the 
fire/ From what follows it would seem doubtful whether this 
distant approach to the fire is allowable until she is ready for 

4 See § 6, note. 

6 Or, ' goes up from the place of menstruation.' 


miscarriage (nasaJ yehevftntano) is evident — is 
then to be washed with bull's urine and water; 
when her pregnancy is not certain she is to be con- 
sidered as menstruous. 23. Some say 1 , moreover, 
that when miscarriage is certainly manifest she is, 
meanwhile, to be considered as menstruous. 24. 
Some say that when she is doubtful about the mis- 
carriage she is to be washed with ceremony 2 . 

25. And for any one 3 who comes in contact with a 
menstruous woman, or with the person whom it is 
necessary to wash with water and bull's urine, it is 
the root of a sin of sixty stfrs 4 . 26. And for whom- 
ever knowingly has sexual intercourse with a men- 
struous woman it is the root of a sin of fifteen 
Tanapuhars and sixty stirs 5 . 

27. Of a menstruous woman who sees a fire the 
sin is one Farman 6 , and when she goes within three 
steps it is one Tanapuhar, and when she puts a 
hand on the fire itself 7 it is a sin of fifteen Tana- 
puhars ; and in like manner as to the ashes 8 and 
water goblet 9 . 28. When she looks at water it is a 

1 Literally, ' there is one who says thus.' 

2 See Chap. II, 65. 

8 Reading afj instead of adinaj, 'then for him.' 

4 That is, the sin is a Khor (see Chap. I, 2). 

5 According to the Avesta (Vend. XV, 23, 24) he becomes a 
peshotanu (Pahl. tanapuhar). The Hebrew law (Lev. xv. 24) 
makes him unclean for seven days. 

6 See Chap. I, 2. That it was sinful for her to look at fire, 
even in Avesta times, appears from Vend. XVI, 8. 

7 Literally, f on the body of the fire/ 

8 That libu^yd means 'ashes' appears from Pahl. Vend. V, 150; 
literally it is Huzvari^ for ' clothing or covering,' and is so used 
in Pahl. Vend. VI, 106, VII, 122. Metaphorically, ashes are the 
clothing of the fire. 

9 Reading dubalak; but the word is doubtful. Possibly it 

CHAPTER III, 23-32. 283 

sin of one Farman; when she sits in water it is a sin 
of fifteen Tanapfihars; and when through disobe- 
dience she walks out in the rain every single drop 
is a sin of fifteen Tan&ptihars for her. 29. And the 
sun and other luminaries are not to be looked at by 
her, and animals and plants are not to be looked at 
by her, and conversation with a righteous man is 
not to be held by her ; for a fiend so violent is that 
fiend of menstruation 1 , that, where another fiend 
does not smite anything with a look (akhsh), it 
smites with a look. 

30. As to a house 2 in which is a menstruous 
woman, the fire of that house is not to be kindled ; 
food which is delivered up from before a men- 
struous woman is not proper for the same woman 3 . 
31. A tray-cloth (khv&no ^irnak) which stands 
before her, when it is not in contact with her, is not 
polluted; a table-napkin (pata^khtir) when apart 
from her thigh, and contact does not occur, is 
proper 4 . 

32. When one 5 wishes to consecrate the sacred 
cakes (dron) 6 , when one holds up the sacred twigs 

should be read gobarak for gav-bar, 'bull's produce/ referring 
to the bull's urine which, with ashes, is prescribed (Vend. V, 148) 
as the first food for a woman after miscarriage. 

1 The demoness G&h (see Bund. Ill, 3-9). 

2 By kh&nak, ' house, abode/ must here be understood merely 
the woman's place of seclusion. K20 inserts ata^ den after 
mun, which renders it possible (by assuming another preposition) 
to translate as follows : 'As to a house in which is a fire, the fire 
in that house is not to be kindled by a menstruous woman.' 

3 See § 12. 

4 Fit to use again. 

5 Perhaps we should read ' she ' throughout this section, as a 
woman can perform these rites among women (see Chap. X, 35). 

6 The dron (Av. draona, corrupted into drun or darun by 


(baresdm) 1 from the twig-stand (bares om-ddn), 
and menstruation occurs, and just as it came to 
ones knowledge one puts down the sacred twigs and 
goes out, the sacred twigs are not polluted. 

Paz. writers) is a small round pancake or wafer of unleavened 
bread, about the size of the palm of the hand. It is made of 
wheaten flour and water, with a little clarified butter, and is flexible. 
A dron is converted into a frasast by marking it on one side, 
before frying, with nine superficial cuts (in three rows of three 
each) made with a finger-nail while thrice repeating the words 
humat hukht huvar^t, 'well-thought, well-said, well-done/ one 
word to each of the nine cuts. Any dron or frasast that is torn 
must not be used in any ceremony. In the dr6n ceremony two 
drons are placed separately by the priest upon a very low table 
before him, on its left side, the nearer one having a small piece of 
butter (gauj hudh^u) upon it; two frasasts are similarly placed 
upon its right-hand side, the farther one having a pomegranate 
twig (urvaram) upon it; and between this and the farther dron 
an egg is placed. The sacred twigs (baresdm) must also be 
present on their stand to the left of the priest, and a fire or lamp 
must stand opposite him, on the other side of the table. The 
priest recites a certain formula of consecration (chiefly Yas. Ill, 
1 -VIII, 9), during which he uplifts the sacred twigs, and mentions 
the name of the angel, or of the guardian spirit of a deceased 
person, in whose honour the ceremony is performed. After con- 
secration, pieces are broken off the drdns by the officiating priest, 
and are eaten by himself and those present, beginning with the 
priests (see Haugs Essays, pp. 396, 407, 408, AV. p. 147). 

1 The baresom (Av. baresma) consists of a number of slender 
rods or tat (Pahl. tak), formerly twigs of some particular trees, 
but now thin metal wires are generally used. The number of these 
twigs varies according to the nature of the ceremony, but is usually 
from five to thirty-three. These twigs are laid upon the crescent- 
shaped tops of two adjacent metal stands, each called a mah-ru, 
4 moon-face/ and both together forming the baresom-dan or 
' twig- stand/ The baresom is prepared for the sacred rites by 
the recital of certain prayers by the officiating priest, during which 
he washes the twigs with water, and ties them together with a 
kustik or girdle formed of six thread-like ribbons split out of 
a leaflet of the date-palm and twisted together ; this girdle, being 

CHAPTER III, 3 3 -IV, I. 285 

33. And during her menstruation she is to be so 
seated that, from her body, there are fifteen steps of 
three feet to water, fifteen steps to fire, fifteen steps 
to the sacred twigs, and three steps to a righteous 
man 1 . 34. And her food is to be carried forth in 
iron or leaden vessels; and the person (valman) 
who shall carry forth the food stands at three steps 
away from her 2 . 35. When worship is celebrated, 
every time at the dedication (shntimane) 3 of the 
consecration of sacred cakes (dron yart) it is to 
be uttered aloud by her ; some say the Ithi and 
Ashem-vohti 4 . 

Chapter IV. 

1. A sacred thread-girdle (ktist Ik), should it be 
made of silk (parvand), is not proper; the hair 
(pashm) of a hairy goat and a hairy camel is 

passed twice round the twigs, is secured with a right-handed and 
left-handed knot on one side, and is then passed round a third 
time and secured with a similar double knot on the other side, 
exactly as the kiistik or sacred thread-girdle is secured round the 
waist of a Parsi man or woman (see Haug's Essays, pp. 396-399). 

1 See Vend. XVI, 9, 10. All the ceremonial apparatus must be 
kept as far removed as the sacred twigs. 

2 See Vend. XVI, ti-14, which states that the food is to be 
carried forth on iron, lead, or the basest metal. 

3 This is the time when the name of the angel or spirit is men- 
tioned, in whose honour the cakes are consecrated (see § 32, note 
on dr6n, and Chap. VII-, 8). 

4 The Itha is Yas.V (so called from its first word), which forms 
a part of the dron yajt or formula of consecration (see § 32, note 
on dron). The Ashem-vohu is probably that in Yas. VIII, 9, 
which concludes the consecration. The same details are given in 
Pahl. Vend. XVI, 17. These prayers also form a portion of all 
ceremonial worship, including the YasLm. 


proper, and from other hairy creatures (miiyino) it 
is proper among the lowly (nakhe-slk). 2. The 
least fulness 1 necessary for it is exactly three 
finger-breadths; when it is exactly three finger- 
breadths altogether 2 from one side, and when the 
rest is cut ofF, it is proper, 3. When one retains the 
prayer inwardly* and has tied his girdle, and ties 
it anew once again, he will untie that which he has 
tied, and it is not proper 4 . 

4. Cloth of thick silk brocade (dipako) and 
figured silk (parntkano) is not good for girdling 5 ; 
and cloth of hide when the hair is stripped from it, 
of wool, of hair, of cotton, of dyed silk, and of wood 6 
is proper for shirting (sapikth). 5. Four finger- 
breadths of shirt 7 is the measure of its width away 

1 Literally, ' width;' that is, extra width, or slackness round the 
waist, as the girdle sits very loosely over a loose shirt ; or, as the 
text implies, the slackness ought to admit three fingers together, 
projecting edgeways from the waist. After tying it so loosely, any 
unnecessary length of string may be cut off, when the girdle is 
put on for the first time. The necessary looseness is again men- 
tioned in Chap. X, 1. 

2 Literally, 'extreme to extreme;' r66^man-a-r66jman being 
Huzvam for sar&sar. 

3 That is, has begun the prayer formula (requisite while tying 
on the girdle) with a b&s or muttered prayer (see Chap. Ill, 6, 

4 The meaning appears to be that he must not tie the girdle 
a second time without recommencing the prayer formula. 

5 This word, ay ibya6g,h^nih, is chiefly a transcript from the 
Avesta name of the kustik or girdle, aiwy^unghana. Probably 
garments in general are meant. 

45 Perhaps darin may mean cloth of bark, hemp, or flax here. 

7 The sacred shirt, worn by Parsis of both sexes (young children 
excepted) in India, is a very loose tunic of white muslin, with very 
short loose sleeves covering part of the upper arm. It is called 
sadaro (Pers. sudarah) in Gu^arati, and shapik (Pers. shabi) 
in Pahlavi. 

CHAPTER IV, 2-9. 287 

from each side, from the neck to the skirt (parik); 
and as to the length before and behind, as much as 
is proper to cover up is good. 6. So much length 
and breadth, when it is double or thickened \ are 
not proper; when on the separation (diirm&nak) of 
the two folds one remains clothed on one side, both 
when he wears the girdle (kiistik), and when he 
does not wear the girdle, even then it is not undress 
(vishd^akih) 2 . 

7. When a shirt of one fold is put on, and the 
skirt has concealed both sides, the girdle is tied over 
it, and it is proper. 8. When two shirts are put on, 
and they shall tie the girdle over that which is 
above, then it is for him a root of the sin owing 
to 3 running about uncovered 4 . 

9. By a man and woman, until fifteen years of 
age, there is no committal of the sin of running 
about uncovered 5 ; and the sin of unseasonable 

1 Assuming that aitabari^/ stands for astabari</; the Huz. 
aft being substituted for the Paz. ast. The text appears to refer 
to lined or stuffed shirts,, such as would be very suitable for the 
cold winters of Persia, like the clothing padded with cotton wool 
used by natives of the cooler parts of India in the cold season. 

2 That is, the degree of nakedness which is sinful (see §§ 8-10). 

3 K20 has 1&, 'not/ instead of r&r, 'owing to;' this would 
reverse the meaning of the sentence, but it is not the usual place 
for the negative particle. 

* This sin is called visha\/-duba v ri,rnrh ; it is mentioned in 
Pahl. Vend. V, 167, VII, 48, but not described there. The usual 
definition of the sin is ' walking about without the sacred thread- 
girdle;' and it is generally classed with the two other Parsi sins of 
' walking with one boot ' and l making water on foot ' (see AV. 
XXV, 5,6); sometimes a fourth Parsi sin, ' unseasonable chatter/ 
is associated with them, as in the text, but this is supposed to be 
punished in a different manner in hell (see AV. XXIII). 

6 Indicating that it is not absolutely necessary to wear the sacred 
thread-girdle till one is fifteen years old (see Chap. X, 13). 


chatter 1 arises after fifteen years of age 2 . 10. The 
sin of running about uncovered, as far as three 
steps, is a Farman each step ; at the fourth step it 
is a Tanapfihar 3 sin. 

1 1. A girdle to which there is no fringe is proper ; 
and when they shall tie a woman's ringlet (gurs) 4 it 
is not proper. 

1 2. Walking with one boot 6 as far as four steps is 

1 This sin is called draydn-^uyi^nih, literally, 'eagerness for 
chattering,' and consists in talking while eating, praying, or at any 
other time when a prayer (va^-) has been taken inwardly and is not 
yet spoken out ; many details regarding it are given in the next 
chapter. The sin consists in breaking the spell, or destroying the 
effect, of the v&g. 

2 This is modified by Chap. V, i, 2. 

3 See Chap. I, 1, 2. These particulars are deduced by the 
Pahlavi commentator from Vend. XVIII, 115, which refers, how- 
ever, to a special case of going without girdle and shirt. He says 
(Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 116), ' so that as far as the fourth step it is 
not more than (ai) a Srosho-^aranam, and at the fourth step it 
amounts to the root of a Tan&puhar within him ; some say that he 
is within what is allowed him in going three steps. When he walks 
on very many steps it is also not more than a Tan&puhar, and 
when he stops again it is counted from the starting-point ' (com- 
pare § 12). 

4 Probably referring to the possibility of tying the girdle over 
a woman's hair, when hanging loose down to her waist. The 
present custom among Parsi women in India is to cover up the 
whole of their hair with a white handkerchief tied closely over the 
head ; but whether this is an ancient custom is uncertain. 

5 This sin, which is mentioned in Bund. XXVIII, 13, is called 
aS-muk-dubari^nih or khadu-muk-dubarunih, literally, 'run- 
ning in one boot/ and is usually so understood, but how there 
can be any risk of the committal of so inconvenient an offence is 
not explained. Dastur Hoshangji thinks that ae-muk, 'one boot/ 
was formerly written avi-muk, 'without boots;' and no doubt 
avi is sometimes written exactly like khadu, ' one/ (indicating, 
possibly, a phonetic change of avi into agvi). Perhaps, however, 
the word alludes to the Persian practice of wearing an outer boot 


a Tanapllhar sin, when with one x movement ; and 
after the fourth step as much as one shall walk is a 
Tanaptihar; and when he sits down and walks on 
the sin is the same that it would be from his starting- 
point (btinih); and there were some who said it is a 
Tan&puhar for each league (parasang). 

13. At night, when they lie down, the shirt and 
girdle are to be worn, for they are more protecting 
for the body, and good for the soul. 14. When 
they lie down with the shirt and girdle, before sleep 
one shall utter one Ashem-vohft 2 , and with every 
coming and going of the breath (vay6) is a good 
work of three Srosho-^aranams 3 ; and if in that 

(muk) over an inner one of thinner leather, when walking out of 
doors ; so that the sin of * running in one pair of boots' would be 
something equivalent to walking out in one's stockings ; and this 
seems all the more probable from the separate account of walking 
'without boots or stockings/ avimu^ak, given in Chap. X, 12. 
But whatever may have been the original meaning of the word, 
Parsis nowadays understand that it forbids their walking without 
shoes; this should be recollected by any European official in 
India who fancies that Parsis ought to take off their shoes in his 
presence, as by insisting on such a practice he is compelling them 
to commit what they believe to be a serious sin. 

1 Assuming that hand, 'this/ stands for a6, 'one' (see p. 218, 
note 3). The amount of sinfulness in walking improperly shod 
appears to be deduced from that incurred by walking improperly 
dressed (see § 10). 

* See Bund. XX, 2. The same details are given in Chap. 
X, 24. 

8 The Av. sraosho -Parana appears to have been a scourge 
with which offenders were lashed by the assistant priests (see Vend. 
Ill, 125, 129, IV, 38, &c), and a Srosho-^aranam was, therefore, 
originally one lash with a scourge. As the gravity of an offence 
was measured by the number of lashes administered, when this 
term was transferred from the temporal to the spiritual gravity of 
sin, it was considered as the unit of weight by which sins were 
estimated ; and, by a further process of reasoning, the good works 

[5] V 


sleep decease occurs, his renunciation of sin is 
accomplished \ 

Chapter V. 

1. Of unseasonable chatter 2 that of children of 
five years of age has no root ; and from five years 
till seven years, when one is under the tuition of his 

necessary for counterbalancing sins were estimated by the same 
unit of weight. Regarding the amount of a Sr6sh6-£aranam there 
is much uncertainty; according to Chap. XVI, 5 and Pahl.Vend. 
VI, 1 5 it is the same as a Farmdn, and this appears to be the case 
also from a comparison of§ 10 with Pahl.Vend. XVIII, 116 (see 
note on § 10); but according to Chap. XI, 2 it is half a Farm&n, 
and the Farm&n is also probably the degree meant by the frequent 
mention of three Srosho-^aranams as the least weight of sin or good 
works that will turn the scale in which the soul's actions are weighed 
after death (see Chap. VI, 3). This uncertainty may perhaps have 
arisen from a 6, ' one/ and the cipher 3 being often written alike in 
Pahlavi. But, besides this uncertainty, there is some discordance 
between the various accounts of the actual weight of a Srosh6- 
£aran&m, as may be seen in Chaps. X, 24, XI, 2, XVI, 5. As a 
weight the Srosh6-^arandm is not often mentioned in the Pahlavi 
Vendidad, for wherever it translates the Av. sraosho-^arana it 
means Mashes with a scourge/ but the weight of one Sr6sh6- 
£aranam is mentioned in Pahl.Vend. VI, 15, three Sr6sho-/£aranams 
in IV, 142, VII, 136, XVII, 11, XVIII, 55, 116, and five Srosh6- 
^aranams in XVI, 8. 

1 Patitrkih, ' the dropping' or renunciation of sin, is effected 
by confessing serious offences to a high-priest, and also by the 
recitation of a particular formula called the Patit, in which every 
imaginable sin is mentioned with a declaration of repentance of 
any such sins as the reciter may have committed. The priest 
ordains such atonement as he thinks necessary, but the remission 
of the sins depends upon the after performance of the atone- 
ment and the effectual determination to avoid such sins in future 
(see Chap. VIII, 1, 2, 8). 

2 See Chap. IV, 9. 

CHAPTER V, I-5. 29I 

father and innocent 1 , it has no root in him, and 
when sinful it has root in the father 2 . 2. And from 
eight years till they are man and woman of fifteen 
years, if even one is innocent during the performance 
of the ritual (yasto), but is able to say its Itha and 
Ashem-vohft 3 , and does not say them, it is the root 
of unseasonable chatter for him 4 ; and when he is 
able to perform his ritual by heart (narm), and says 
only the Ithi and Ashem-vohti, some have said that 
such is as when his ritual is not performed and there 
is no offering (yastofriaf), and some have said that 
it is not unseasonable chatter. 

3. Unseasonable chatter may occur at every cere- 
monial (ya^isno); for him who has performed the 
ritual it is a Tan&ptihar sin 6 ; for him who has not 
performed the ritual it is less, some have said three 
Sr6sh6->£aranams 6 . 4. The measure of unseasonable 
chatter is a Tan&pfihar sin; this is where every 
ceremony, or every morsel, or every drop purine is 
not completed 7 . 5. Of the unseasonable chatter of 

1 That is, intending no harm, as contrasted with sinful or wilful 
chatter in defiance of instruction. 

2 Because the father is supposed to be responsible, in the next 
world, for the sins of the child, even as he will profit by its good 
works (see Chaps. X, 22, XII, 15). 

s See Chap. Ill, 35. 

4 Inattention to prayers evinced by improper silence is thus put 
upon the same footing as inattention evinced by improper talking. 
This portion of the sentence is omitted in K20. 

6 See Chap. I, 1, 2. It is a greater sin in the officiating priests 
than in the other persons present at the ceremony. 

6 Probably a Farman sin (see Chap. IV, 14, note). 

7 Referring to the three principal occasions when a prayer (va^-) 
is taken inwardly and retained until the completion of the action ; 
during which time it is unlawful to say anything but the prescribed 
prayers (see Chap. Ill, 6, note). 

U 2 


him who has not performed the ritual Afarg * said 
this degree is slighter ; M6^6k-mah * said both are 
alike, and he spoke further of this, since for him 
who has not performed the ritual, and does not 
attend to 2 saying its Ith& and Ashem-vohu, it is 
more severe than for him who has performed the 
ritual, and does not attend to consecrating its sacred 
cake (dr6n). 6. Meafdk-m&h said that it (the cere- 
monial) 3 does not become Geto-kharW 4 ; Afarg 
said that it amounts to an offering (yastofrlaQ 5 for 
every one, except for that person who knows the 
ritual by heart, and through sinfulness will not per- 
form it; and it becomes his at the time when, 
during his life and by his command, it is recited 
with this intention, namely : ' I wish to do it, my 
faith (astobanth) is in the religion 6 / 

7. The deaf and dumb when it is not possible for 
him to say an Ashem does not commit unseasonable 
chatter 1 ; and when it is possible for him to say an 
Ashem he shall three times say of it, ' Ashem, 
ashem, ashem ; ' and if it be possible for him to say 

1 See Chap. I, 3. 

* Literally, ' believe or trust to/ 

8 During which unseasonable chatter occurs. 

4 Generally written GSti-kharta (see Bund. XXX, 28); but, per- 
haps, we should here read yast6fri</, ' offering/ though gStok- 
khari*/ occurs in Chap. XII, 30. 

5 The MSS. have merely stdMd, which differs from the fore- 
going g6t6-khari</ only in one Pahlavi letter, so we should 
probably read the same word in both cases, but which of them it 
ought to be is uncertain. 

6 Meaning, apparently, that he can obtain the benefit of any 
past ceremony, forfeited by wilful negligence, by repentance and 
a repetition of the ceremony during his lifetime. 

7 By omitting to say it (see § 2). This clause of the sentence 
is omitted in K20. 

CHAPTER V, 6-VI, 2. 293 

* itha ' and ' ashem-vohu ' it is well, and when it is 
only possible for him to say 'ith&' it matters not 1 . 

Chapter VI. 

1. The deaf and dumb and helpless (arm^t) 2 , 
though of unblemished conduct and proper disposi- 
tion, is incapable of doing good works, and from 
the time when he is born till the time when he shall 
die, all the duty and good works which they may 
perform in the world become his property (n a fa- 
man) as much as his even by whom they are per- 
formed ; some say that it is thus : as much as they 
belong to Zaratfot 3 . 2. Though he does not do 
the good works not really originating with (aham- 
buni^) him, and does not commit the sin not really 
originating with him, it is better than though he 
were able to do the good works not really origin- 
ating with him, and should not do them ; but should 
commit the sin not really originating with him; 
when, afterwards, he passes away, and then also 
comes to his account as to sin and good works, 
when the good works not really originating with 
him are more he is in heaven (vahist), when the sin 

1 That is, any one barely able to speak must repeat so much of 
the indispensable prayers as he is able to pronounce, otherwise he 
will commit sin. 

2 That is, any one compelled to remain stationary or secluded, 
owing to bodily or mental infirmity (see Chap. II, 98); an idiot, 
or insane person, is probably meant here. 

8 This comment seems to imply that its writer was translating 
from an Avesta text, and here met with a word which some persons 
thought contained a reference to Zarattat, but which he first trans- 
lated so as to suit the context; perhaps Av. zarazdaiti may be 


not really originating with him is more he is in hell, 
and when both are equal he is among the ever- 
stationary (hamlstakctn) 1 . 3. When the good works 
are three Sr6sh6-^aranams 2 more than the sins he 
is in heaven (vahist), when the good works are one 
Tanaptihar more he attains to the best existence 
(p&hlftm ahvan) 3 , when his ceremony (ya^t) is per- 

1 That is, he is treated, with regard to the actions merely 
imputed to him, precisely as all others are with regard to their 
own actions. With reference to the hamrstak&n, An/d-Viraf 
states (AV.VI, 2, 5-12) that on his journey to the other world he 
' saw the souls of several people who remain in the same position,' 
and he was informed that ' they call this the place of the Harms- 
tak&n ("those ever-stationary"), and these souls remain in this 
place till the future existence; and they are the souls of those 
people whose good works and sin were equal. Speak out to the 
worldlings thus : " Consider not the easier good works with avarice 
and vexation ! for every one whose good works are three Sr6sho- 
^aran&ms more than his sin is for heaven, they whose sin is more 
are for hell, they in whom both are equal remain among these 
HamistaMn till the future existence." And their punishment is 
cold or heat from the changing of the atmosphere ; and they have 
no other adversity/ 

2 Probably equivalent to a Farm&n sin (see Chaps, I, 1, 2, 
IV, 14, note). 

3 This appears to be another name for Gar6dm&n, ' the abode 
of song/ which is the highest heaven, or dwelling of Auharmazd. 
The lower heaven is here called Vahwt, which is a general term 
for heaven in general. AV.VII-X, XVII, 27, and Mkh. VII, 9-12, 
20, 21 describe four grades in heaven and four in hell, besides 
the intermediate neutral position of the Hamistak&n (AV. VI, Mkh. 
VII, 18, 19). The four grades of heaven, proceeding upwards, 
are Humat for good thoughts in the station of the stars, Hukht 
for good words in the station of the moon, Huvarct for good 
deeds in the station of the sun, and Gar6*/man where Auharmazd 
dwells (Vend. XIX, 121)* And the four grades of hell, proceeding 
downwards, are Duj-humat for evil thoughts, Duj-hukht for evil 
words, Duj-huvarct for evil deeds, and the darkest hell (Vend. 
XIX, 147) where the evil spirit dwells. The pahlum ahv&n of 

CHAPTER VI, 3-6* 295 

formed 1 . 4. Sdshyans 2 said that to come into that 
best existence it is not necessary to perform the 
ceremony, for when his good works are one 3 Tani- 
puhar more than the sin he attains to the best 
existence, and no account is taken of performing his 
ceremony; because in the heavenly existence (ga- 
r6dm£nikth) it is not necessary to perform a 
ceremony, for an excess of good works must attain 
Gar6dm&n 4 . 5. As S6shyans said, in heaven 
(vahii't) he who is below is elevated to him who is 
above ; and it says thus : ' Happy indeed art thou, 
O man! who art in any way near unto that im- 
perishable existence V 

6. Kftshtano-bti^^ 6 said that an infidel (ak- 
dlno) 7 , when his good works are one Tan&pfthar 
more than his sin, is saved from helL 

the text is merely the Pahlavi form of Av. vahistem ahum 
(Vend. VII, 133, XVIII, 69, XIX, 120, Yas. IX, 64), whence the 
term vahu t (Pers. bahi^t) is also derived. 

1 That is, when his surviving relatives have performed the proper 
religious ceremonies after his death. 

8 See Chap. I, 3. 

8 Reading a 6, 'one/ and supposing that this Paz. form has been 
substituted for an original Huz. khaduk, ' one/ This supposition 
being necessary to account for the a 6 preceding its noun, instead 
of following it; and without it we ought to read 'three' instead of 
' one/ which seems, however, hardly reconcileable with the context 
(but compare Pahl. Vend. VII, 136). This is an instance of the 
ambiguity occasioned by a 6, ' one/ and the cipher 3 being often 
written alike in Pahlavi, as already noticed in p. 289, note 3. The 
word might also be taken as the conditional verbal form a 6, 'shall 
be/ but in that case it is likewise misplaced* 

4 See note on pdhlum ahvan in § 3. 

5 A somewhat similar exclamation to that in Vend. VII, 136. 

6 See Chap. I, 4, note. 

7 That is, one of another religion; not an apostate, nor an 


7. Of a pure law (d&d) are we of the good reli- 
gion, and we are of the primitive faith ; of a mixed 
law are those of the Sinik congregation 1 ; of a vile 

1 It is not easy to identify this Sinik va^kar^ih, but Professor 
J. Darmesteter suggests that the term may have been applied to the 
Manicheans settled in eastern Turkistan and western China, whence 
they may have been called Sinik (the country of the S6ni, Av. 
S&ini, being identified with jSTinist&n or China in Bund. XV, 29, 
because TSin is the Arabic name of the latter). This is con- 
firmed, to some extent, by a passage in the Dinkan/ (see Dastur 
P6shotan's edition of the Pahlavi text, p. 27), where three foreign 
religions are mentioned, that of the Jews from Arum, that of the 
Messiah from the west, and that of Manih from Turkistan. Dar- 
mesteter further points out the following passages in Barbier de 
Meynard's French translation of Mas'audi, which show that the 
Manicheans had considerable influence in eastern Turkistan as late 
as a.d. 944 : — 

(Meynard, I, 268) : '. . . the Turks, the Khuzlu^, and the Ta- 
ghazghaz, who occupy the town of Koran, situated between 
Khurasan and China, and who are now (a.d. 944) the moSt 
valiant, most powerful, and best governed of all the Turkish races 
and tribes. Their kings bear the title of irkhan ("sub-khan?"), 
and they alone, among all these nations, profess the religion of 

Again, after stating that the Chinese were at first Samanians 
(Buddhists), it is added (Meynard, II, 258) : 'Their kingdom is 
contiguous to that of the Taghazghaz, who, as we have said above, 
are Manicheans, and proclaim the simultaneous existence of the 
two principles of light and darkness. These people were living 
in simplicity, and in a faith like that of the Turkish races, when 
there turned up among them a demon of the dualist sect, who 
showed them, in tempting language, two opposing principles in 
everything that exists in the world, such as life and death, health 
and sickness, riches and poverty, light and darkness, anion and 
separation, connection and severance, rising and setting, existence 
and non-existence, night and day, &c. Then, he spoke to them of 
the various ailments which afflict rational beings, animals, children, 
idiots, and madmen; and he added that God could not be re- 
sponsible for this evil, which was in distressing contradiction to 
the excellence which distinguishes his works, and that he was 

CHAPTER VI, 7- VII, I. 297 

law are the Zandik 1 , the Christian (Tarsak), the 
Jew (YahtiaQ, and others of this sort (sano) 2 . 

Chapter VII. 

1. The morning sun it is necessary to reverence 
(yastano) till midday, and that of midday it is 
necessary to reverence till the afternoon time, and 
that of the afternoon time it is necessary to re- 
verence till night 3 ; whenever one is quite prepared 

above any such imputation. By these quibbles, and others like 
them, he carried away their minds, and made them adopt his 

The tenets of the Manicheans ought, no doubt, to have been 
considered by the Zoroastrians as a mixture of truth and error, 
just as those of the Sinik congregation are represented to be in 
our text ; but such tenets being an heretical offshoot of Zoroas- 
trianism, it argues unusual liberality in the priests if they preferred 
Manicheans to Christians, that is, heretics to infidels. 

K20 has altered sinik vaskardih into nisinik(or vidinik) 
jikaftih, which appears to be an attempt to bring the words 
within the limits of the writer's knowledge, without paying much 
attention to their collective meaning. 

1 A sect which (according to its name) probably adhered to a 
certain heretical interpretation (zand) in preference to the orthodox 
Avesta and Zand. Nery6sang, in his Sanskrit version of Mkh. 
XXXVI, 1 6, explains a Zandik as one who ' thinks well of Ahar- 
man and the demons/ 

2 Unless this paragraph be a continuation of the quotation from 
Kushtano-bug-Si's commentary, which seems unlikely, its contents 
have an important bearing upon the age of the Shayast la-shayast. 
As it does not mention Muhammadanism by name it could hardly 
have been written after the fall of the Sasanian dynasty, when that 
new faith had become much more important, in Persia, than those 
Df the Christians and Jews. 

3 Referring to the recitation of the Khurshe^ Nyayij, or ' saluta- 
tion of the sun/ which should be performed thrice a day, in the 
Havan, Rapitvin, and Auzerin Gahs, or periods of the day (see 

298 shAyast lA-shAyast. 

for activity (khve^karth), and shall then do rever- 
ence, it is proper. 2. And when anything of that 
happens which indicates when it is not proper to 
wash the hands, and about this he considers that 
when he does not reverence the sun it will stop \ at 
the time previous to that in which it occurs the sun 
is to be fully reverenced by him, and, afterwards, 
when his hands are washed, it is to be reverenced 
again ; and when he does not reverence it, except 
when innocent through not reverencing zV 2 , then it 
becomes irreverence (Id yait) of the sun for him 3 . 

3. As to the sun it is better when one reverences 
it every time at the proper period (pavan gas-i 
nafVman); when he does not reverence it for once 
it is a sin of thirty stirs 4 . 4. Reverencing the sun is 
every time a good work of one Tan&pfihar 5 ; and so 
of the moon and fire in like manner 6 . 5. When on 
account of cloudiness the sun is not visible (pe^ak), 
and one shall reverence it, it is proper. 

Bund. XXV, 9); a few sentences in the Nyayij, or formula of 
salutation, are altered to suit the particular G&h in which it is 

1 K20 has, ' it will protect *'//' having read netruneV instead of 
ketruneV in its original. To pray with unwashed hands would 
be sinful (see Pahl. Vend. XIX, 84). 

3 That is, except when the omission is to avoid a worse evil, as 
in the instance just mentioned. 

3 Or, perhaps, ' it does not become a Khurshe^ Ya^t (" a formula 
of praise in honour of the sun") for him/ This Yart forms a 
part of the Ny&yw. 

4 That is, an Aredu^ sin (see Chap. I, 2). M6 has, * when he 
does not reverence it again/ 

5 That is, a good work sufficient to counterbalance a Tan&puhar 
sin, which puts the performance of a Nyayij on the same footing 
as the consecration of a sacred cake or dr6n (see Chap. XVI, 6). 

6 The moon and fire have each a separate Ny&yis. 

CHAPTER VII, 2-8, 299 

6. And while one does not reverence the sun, the 
good works which they do that day are not their 
own ; some say that of the good works which they 
do within the law (d&d) of the good religion he has 
no share. 7. While they do not wash dirty hands 
any good work which they do is not their own, for 
while one does not utterly destroy corruption (na- 
stis) 1 there is no coming of the angels to his body, 
and when there is no coming of the angels to his 
body he has no steadfastness in the religion, and 
when he has no steadfastness in the religion no 
good work whatever reaches unto him. 

8. When one wishes to perform the propitiation 
(shntiman) 2 of fire, it is allowable to perform one 
'&thr6 ' by itself, and, when two and the * marf vls- 
paeiby6 aterebyd/ these three are thus the pro- 
pitiation everywhere 3 ; some say that it would be 
proper to perform it while allowable, except that of 
the heterodox. 

1 That is, the demon of corruption, who is supposed to enter 
and reside in all filth of the nature of dead matter, until expelled or 
destroyed by cleansing. 

2 A shnuman or khshnumano (Av. khshnuman) is a short 
formula of praise, reciting all the usual titles of the spirit intended 
to be propitiated by it, and is used for dedicating the prayers or 
ceremony specially to his service (see Chaps. Ill, 35, X, 2, XIV, 
3). The propitiatory formulas for the thirty angels and arch- 
angels who preside over the days of the month constitute the 
Sfrozah, or form of prayer 'relating to the thirty days/ 

3 The propitiation of fire (as given in Sfroz. I, 9, Atax Ny&yLy 
5, 6) consists of five sentences, each beginning with the word 
dthr6, 'of the fire/ and the last sentence also contains the words 
ma</ vispaSibyd atereby6, ' with all fires/ The meaning of the 
text appears to be that it is allowable to use only one of these 
sentences (probably the last), but if two are used besides the last 
they are amply sufficient for practical purposes. 


9. Whoever shall extinguish 1 a fire, by him ten 
fires are to be gathered together, by him ten punish- 
ments are to be endured, by him ten ants are to be 
destroyed 2 , and by him holy-water (zohar) is to be 
presented to the sacred fire (atas-i Vahr&m). 

Chapter VIII. 

1. Sin which affects accusers 3 is to be atoned for 
(vi^ari^n) among the accusers, and that relating to 

1 Literally, < kill/ 

8 The ant being a creature of the evil spirit, on account of its 
carrying away corn. 

3 Vinas-i hamemalan, 'sin relating to adversaries/ Sins 
appear to be divided into two great classes, ham£mal and 
rub&nik. A ham£mal sin seems to be any secular offence 
which injures some person or animal who, thereupon, becomes a 
hamemal, ' accuser 1 (Av. hameretha, 'opponent/ Yas. LVI, x, 
10), and who must first be satisfied by atonement, before con- 
fession to the high-priest, or renunciation of sin, can be of any 
avail for removing the sin (compare Matthew v. 23-26). The 
Riv&yats assert that if a person dies without atoning for a 
hamSmal sin, his soul will be stopped at the Kinv&d bridge (see 
Bund. XII, 7) on its way to the other world, and kept in a state of 
torment until the arrival of the ' accuser/ and after he is satisfied 
the sinner's soul will be disposed of, in the usual manner, accord- 
ing to the balance of its good and bad actions. It is also probable 
that only a man of ' the good religion/ or an animal of the good 
creation, can be an 'accuser/ A rubanik sin, on the other hand, 
seems to be one which affects only the sinner's own soul, and for 
which the high-priest can prescribe a sufficient atonement. It is 
doubtful, however, whether the Parsis nowadays have any very 
clear notions of the exact distinction between these two classes of 
sins, although aware of their names, which are mentioned in their 
Patit, or renunciation of sin. The explanations given in some 
editions of their Khurdah Avesta, or prayer-book, are confined to 
mentioning certain special instances of each class of sin; thus, 


the soul is to be atoned for among the high-priests 
(ra^dn), and when they do whatever the high- 
priests of the religion command the sin will depart, 
and the good works which they may thenceforth do 
will attain completion (avasportk). 2. The sin of 
him who is worthy of death (marg-ar^*in) is to be 
confessed (gar^no) unto the high-priests, and he 
is to deliver up his body 1 ; except to the high-priests 
he is not to deliver up his body. 

3. On account of the dexterity (farhang) of 
horsemen it is not their business to hunt (nakh/§lr 
kar^ano); and it is not allowable for any one else 
to hunt for game, except for him whose wealth is 
less than three hundred stirs 2 . 

murder, seduction, unnecessary slaughter of cattle, embezzlement, 
slander, seizing land by force, and a few other evil deeds are stated 
to be hamSmal sins; while unnatural offences and intercourse 
with women of another race and religion are said toberub&nlk 
sins. In the Pahlavi Vendidad these classes of sins are rarely 
mentioned, but hamemalan occurs in Pahl. Vend. Ill, 151, IV, 
23, XIII, 38; hamemalih in III, 119; and rub&nik in XIII, 
38 ; although, perhaps, not always in the sense of sin. 

1 By committing a marg-ar^an or mortal sin, that is, a sin 
worthy of death, he has forfeited his life, and ought to place it at 
the disposal of the ra</, or high-priest. 

2 This section, intended to preserve game for the poor, is evi- 
dently out of place here, as it has no connection with the context 
With reference to the property qualification for hunting, it appears, 
from a passage in the Persian MS. M5 about the proper dowry for 
a privileged wife, that 2000 dirhams of silver were worth 2300 
rupis, and that 2 dirhams were z\ tolas; this was written in a.d. 
1723, when neither the rupt nor the tola were of uniform amount, 
though now the rupf is exactly a tola weight of silver. As the stir 
was four dirhams (see Chap. I, 2), three hundred stirs would have 
been 1380 rupis or 1350 tolas of silver, according to the standards 
mentioned in M5 ; so that hunting was intended to be confined 
to those whose property was less than 1350-1380 rupis ; but how 


4. The ceremonial worship (ya^isn) of those 
worthy of death, which they do not perform by way 
of renunciation of sin \ is the ceremonial which is 
demon worship; and when the officiating priest 
(a£rpat) does not know it the merit (kirfak) of the 
ceremonial goes to the store (gan^*) of the angels, 
and they give the enjoyment which arises from that 
merit in the spiritual existence to the soul of that 
person who has at once (a£va/£) become righteous 
in mind. 

5. When the mortal sinner (marg-ar£*ano) has 
delivered his body and wealth at once to the high- 
priests, and engages mentally in renunciation as to 
the sin which has occurred, and the high-priests give 
him their decision (dastobarlh) as to duty and 
good works, the duty and good works which were 
before performed by him come back to him; and 
when they inflict punishment for three nights 2 , he 
does not enter hell. 6. And if the high-priest 
orders the cutting off of his head he is righteous on 
the spot 3 , and the three nights (satftih) ceremony is 
to be celebrated for him, and the account of the 

this limitation is to be reconciled with the fact that hunting was a 
favourite pursuit of kings and nobles does not appear, unless it be 
considered as a sacerdotal protest against that practice. 

1 That is, in those cases when they do not have the yasisn per- 
formed as an atonement for sin, by order of the high-priest after 

2 This appears to refer to temporal punishment, inflicted by 
order of the high-priest, for the purpose of saving him from the 
* punishment of the three nights' in the other world, mentioned in 
Bund. XXX, 16. 

3 Reading pavan £-in&k; but M6 marks the phrase as pavan 
din&k (for dina), 'through the decree/ which is probably an 

CHAPTER VIII, 4~9. 303 

three nights (satftth) does not affect him 1 . 7. And 
if he does not engage in renunciation he is in hell till 
the future existence ; and in his future body they 
will bring him from hell, and for every mortal sin 
they will cut off his head once, and the last time 
they will make him alive again, and will inflict 
(numiyend) three nights' severe punishment 2 . 

8. However a man engages in renunciation of sin 
the duty of his state of renunciation (patitlh) is to 
be engaged therein openly and mentally in renuncia- 
tion ; the duty of openness is this, that the sin which 
he knows has assailed him 3 , is to be specially con- 
fessed (bard g6bbno) by him ; and the mental 
duty is this, that he engages in renunciation with 
this thought, that i henceforth I will not commit 
sin/ 9. And that which occurs before the renuncia- 
tion, except pious alms, it is well for him not to be 
overlooked 4 by him, and not to be kept 5 secret by 
him ; for when he shall overlook 6 , or shall keep 
secret, about sin committed, it becomes for him as 

1 That is, the usual ceremonies after death are not to be with- 
held in this world, and his soul is able to pass through the usual 
investigation, as to his sins and good works, on its way to the 
other world, without delay. This period of three nights (saturh, 
'the triplet'), which P&zand writers miscall sed6,r or sadis, is the 
time during which the soul is supposed to hover about the body, 
before finally departing for the other world (see Mkh. II, 114, 158- 
160, AV. IV, 9-14, XVII, 2-9). 

2 The same statement is made in nearly the same words in 
Pahl. Vend. VII, 136. This is the future three nights' punishment 
for impenitent sinners, mentioned in Bund. XXX, 16. 

3 Literally, * which he knows thus : " It assailed me." ' 

4 Reading avSni^no, but the word can also be read khunin- 
ijno, 'to be made celebrated, to be boasted of/ 

5 Literally, ' carried on, borne away/ 

6 Reading av6n6^, but it may be khunineV, 'boast of/ 


much, some say, as three Srosh6-/£aran&ms 1 ; some 
say that when he keeps secret about a sin of three 
Sr6sh6-v£arancLms he is worthy of death ; some say 
much otherwise 2 . 10. Ataro-p&af son of Zaratfort 8 
had remarked (p&d&kinld) to a disciple, about this 
duty, thus: * Conform to the renunciation of sin!' 
and one 4 time a secret was kept by him, and he 
ordered him thus : * Henceforth be thou never appa- 
rent in this duty!' and after that he looked upon 
the supplication (avakhshih) and much repentance 
of that disciple, and even then he did not become 
the high-priest (das to bar) over him. 

1 1 . The rule is 6 this, that of those who would be 
proper for this priestly duty (dast6barih), that 
person is proper who is perfect in (narm) the com- 
mentary (zand) of the law, and the punishment of 
sin is easy for him, and he has controlled himself ; 
some say thus : ' By whom a course of priestly 
studies (aerpatastdn) is performed/ 12. And the 
punishment of sin being easy for him, and his having 
controlled himself are proper ; and when, in danger 
before a menstruous woman, he engages in renun- 
ciation it is proper. 

1 Probably the same as a Farm&n sin (see Chaps. I, 1, 2, IV, 14). 

2 Or ' many other things! 

8 This Atard-pa</-i Zaratust&n is mentioned in a manuscript 
about 500 years old, belonging to Dastur Jamaspji, in Bombay, as 
having lived for 160 years, and having been supreme high-priest 
for ninety years : he is also mentioned in the sixth book of the 
Dinkan/. He may, possibly, have been the Atar6-pa</ mentioned 
in B. Yt. I, 7, but it is hazardous to identify an individual by a 
single name so common as Ataro-pa</ used to be. 

4 Reading ae, ' one/ instead of nana, * this ' (see p. 218, note 3). 

6 Assuming that the word ainak has been omitted at the begin- 
ning of this section (see Chap. X, 1). 


13. Neryosang 1 said thus: 'Thou deemest it 
most surprising that, of the renunciation of sin with 
energy, whatever may be its efficacy, they have 
been so much of the same 2 opinion, so that when- 
ever they perform renunciation, however they per- 
form it, and before whomever they perform it, 
whenever a sin is not even mentally originating 
with one 3 a renunciation should be performed by 
him ; and when very many mortal sins (marg- 
ar^an) are committed by him, and he engages 
mentally in renunciation of every one separately, he 
is not on 4 the way to hell, owing to his renuncia- 
tion; and if there be one of which he is not in 
renunciation the way to hell 5 is not closed to him, 
for he does not rely upon the beneficence (sUd) of 
Auharmazd, and it is allowable to appoint a priestly 
retribution (ra*/ to^isn) to fully atone for it, and 
when thou appointest a priestly retribution for it, 
and dost not fully atone, it is allowable to inflict it 
justly and strongly (drubo)/ 

14. When his sin is committed against (den) 

1 This cannot be the learned Parsi translator of several Pahlavi 
texts into Sanskrit, who bore the same name, and is supposed to 
have lived in the fifteenth century. Being quoted in the Pahlavi 
Vendidad (see Chap. I, 4, note) he must have been one of the 
old commentators. 

2 K20 has homanam, 'I am/ instead of ham, 'the same;' a 
mistake arising from reading am, ' I am,' for ham. 

8 This applies to all cases of merely imputed sin, such as those 
committed by children, which are imputed to the father, and for 
which he is spiritually, as well as temporally, responsible. 

4 Reading pavan, 'on,' instead of bara, 'out of (see p. 176, 
note 5). 

5 Most of this clause is omitted in K20 by mistake. 

[5] x 


accusers x it will be necessary to act so that the head 
of the family (mirak) shall not become evil-minded 2 , 
and shall not divorce the wife from matrimony, and 
they shall not bring 3 him on unto him ; before his 
accusers he is to be engaged in renunciation, and 
when not, he is to be engaged in renunciation of the 
sin before the high-priests (ra^dn), and it will 
become debts, and debt does not make a man 
wicked 4 ; its effect is this, that in the future exist- 
ence they may quite forsake him, and this becomes 
a great shame, and they disturb (ki^end) his enjoy- 
ment. 15. As to the sin which affects the accusers, 
when the female has atoned for it, its stem (pa yak) 
is atoned for; some say that the stem (payakghih) 
has no root; some say that it is just like a tree 
whose leaves wither away. 

16. Sin relating to the soul 5 , when one engages in 
renunciation, stays away from him ; when it shall be 
fully atoned for it is well, and when he does not 
fully atone they will make him righteous by the 
three nights (satillh) punishment. 17. Ktishtano- 
\Agtd* said that even that which affects accusers, 
when one engages in renunciation, stays away from 

1 Hamemalan (see § 1) ; the particular instance of ham£mal 
sin here referred to is seduction. 

2 Reading du^minan instead of the unmeaning dujmiy&n of 
the MSS. 

3 Reading yaityuna instead of the unmeaning y ait am of the 
MSS. ; a being often written very much like m in Pahlavi. 

4 This clause about the ham6m&l sin becoming a debt, to be 
settled with the ' accuser/ either here or hereafter, is taken from 
Pahl. Vend. Ill, 151. 

6 That is, rub&nik sin (see § 1, note). 
6 See Chap. I, 4, note. 

CHAPTER VIII, 15-2 2. 307 

18. Nosai Bur^-Mitro * spoke these three sayings, 
that is, ' Next-of-kin marriage will extirpate mortal 
sins (marg-ar^anan), and the sacred twigs when 
their ablution is such as renders them improper for 
firewood, and a man when his wife becomes pregnant 
by him/ 

19. Whoever commits a sin against (den) water, 
and kills a lizard, or other noxious water-creature, 
has atoned for it; also when thou atonest to (den) 
fire for that against water it is proper 2 , and when 
thou atonest to water for that against fire it is 
proper ; some say that even a scorpion is proper to 
be killed. 20. And when a sin of one Tan&pfihar 3 
is committed by him, and he shall consecrate a 
sacred cake (dron), or shall accomplish a good work 
of one Tancipfihar 4 , it has atoned for it. 

21. When he has committed a mortal sin (marg- 
ar£*an), and engages mentally in renunciation, and 
the high-priest (raaf) knows that, though he ought 
to give up his body, he will not give it up, it is 
allowable when he shall kill him; that is, because 
he relies upon the beneficence (s&d) of Atiharmazd. 
22. Moreover, from the rule (mank) 'yazemna 5 kzd 
n£ hakaaT (' through being worshipped what then at 

1 See Chap. I, 4, note. 

2 A blank space is left for this verb in M6, indicating that that 
MS. was copied from an original already old and not very legible. 

8 See Chap. I, 1, 2. 

4 Consecrating a sacred cake is a Tanapuhar good work (see 
Chap. XVI, 6). The theory of counterbalancing sins by good 
works of the same weight is here clearly enunciated. 

5 Written izimn in the MSS. This quotation appears to be, 
from some part of the Avesta, no longer extant, and being only the 
first words of the passage its exact meaning is very uncertain. The 
section, generally, seems to refer to the beneficence of Auharmazd. 

X 2 


once/ &c.) it is evident, and it becomes his through 
ceremonial ablution of the hands ; it amounts to a 
whole quarry (kano) of good works, and the worship 
of God (ya^isn-i yazdano) is to be performed for 
him 1 . 23. Ataro-pi^ 2 son of Maraspend said that 
it is always necessary to be more diligent in per- 
forming one's worship of God at the time that many 
mortal sins are committed ; all sins being admissible 
into renunciation, when thou shalt atone by com- 
plete self-sacrifice (ptir-^an-da^fha), and when one 
engages in renunciation of the sin from its root, he 
becomes free from the sin in renunciation of which 
sin he engaged ; for Atiharmazd will not leave his 
own creatures unto the evil spirit, unless on the 
path of non-renunciation. 

Chapter IX. 

1. The greater Hisar is one part in twelve parts 
of the day and night, and the lesser Hisar is one 
part in eighteen parts 3 . 

1 It seems that the execution of the sinner after repentance 
is here considered as furnishing him with a store of good works, so 
that it is allowable to perform such ceremonies for him, after death, 
as are usually performed for righteous men ; the reason being 
given in § 23. The end of this section and beginning of the next 
are omitted in K20. 

2 Whether the prime minister of Sh&pur II, or the last editor of 
the Dinkan/(see Bund. XXXIII, 3, 11), is not clear. 

3 The H&sar is not only a measure of distance (see Bund. 
XXVI, 1), but also a measure of time (see Bund. XX V ; 5). 
According to the text here the greater H&sar must be two hours, 
and the lesser Hasar (which is not mentioned in M6) must be one 
hour and twenty minutes. But Farh. Okh. (p. 43) says, ' dvada- 
sang-h&threm asti aghrem ayare, "of twelve H&sars is the 

CHAPTER VIII, 2 3- IX, 4. 309 

2. The priest (asrtik) who passes away in idola- 
try 1 (aii^dayakih) thou hast considered as desolate 
(viran) 2 ; and there is a high-priest (dastobar) who 
is of a different opinion, there is one who says he 
is as a non- Iranian (an air dn) country 3 . 3. It is 
declared that, when a supreme high-priest (zara- 
tustrottim) passes away in idolatry, an apostate 
(ah arm ok) will be born in that dwelling, and a 
rumour of this calamity is uttered 4 by that supreme 

4. In order to be steadfast in the good religion it 
is to be discussed with priests and high-priests, and 
when one does not discuss it is proper that he do 
not teach it. 

longest day ; " the day and night in which is the longest day are 
twelve of the greatest Hasars, eighteen of the medium, and twenty- 
four of the least;' according to which statement there are three 
kinds of Hasar, that are respectively equivalent to two hours, one 
hour and twenty minutes, and one hour. As the longest day is 
said (Bund. XXV, 4) to be twice the length of the shortest day, 
and the greatest Hasar is twice the length of the least one, it may 
be conjectured that the Hasar varied with the length of the day, 
being a subdivision (one-eighth) of the time the sun was above the 
horizon; this would account for the greatest and least Hasars, 
which are one-eighth of the longest and shortest days, respectively ; 
but it does not account for the medium H&sar, which is not a 
mean between the two extremes, but one-ninth (instead of one- 
eighth) of the mean day of twelve hours. If the Hasar of distance 
were really a Parasang, as is sometimes stated, the connection 
between it and the Hasar of time would be obvious, as the average 
Hasar of one hour and twenty minutes is just the time requisite for 
walking a Parasang, which seems indeed to be stated in Farh. Okh. 
p. 42. 

1 Or it may be ' passes over into idolatry/ 

2 K20 has giran, 'grievous/ 

3 That is, he reads anairan instead of viran in the foregoing 

4 Or, perhaps, ' this calamity is at once announced/ 


5. The ceremonial worship (yazisn) which they 
perform in a fire- temple 1 , when not done aright, does 
not reach unto the demons ; but that which they 
perform in other places, when they do not perform 
it aright, does reach unto the demons ; for there is 
no medium in worship, it reaches either unto the 
angels or unto the demons. 6. Of a man who has 
relinquished a bad habit, and through his good 
capabilities engages in renunciation of sin 2 , the good 
work advances unto the future existence. 

7. Any one who shall die in a vessel (kastlk) it is 
allowable, for fear of contamination (pa^/vlshak), to 
throw into the water ; some say that the water itself 
is the receptacle for the dead (khazinfh). 

8. This, too, is declared : ' When in the dark it is 
not allowable to eat food ; for the demons and fiends 
seize upon one-third of the wisdom and glory of him 
who eats food in the dark;' and it is declared by 
that passage (^inak) which Afiharmazd spoke to 
Zarattist, thus : * After the departure of the light let 
him not devour, with unwashed hands, the water 
and vegetables of Horvadaaf and Amer6daaf 3 ; for if 
after the departure of the light thou devourest, with 
unwashed hands, the water and vegetables of Hor- 
vadaaf and Ameroda^/, the fiend seizes away from 
thee two-thirds of the existing original wisdom 

1 Literally, ' in the dwelling of fires.' The fire must always be 
sheltered from the sun's rays, and in a fire-temple it is kept in a 
vaulted cell, with a door and one or two windows opening into the 
larger closed chamber which surrounds it. 

2 K20 has, ' and it shall happen through his good capabilities/ 

3 The two archangels whose chief duties are the protection of 
water and plants, respectively (see Chap. XV, 5, 25-29, Bund. 

IX, 2). 

CHAPTER IX, 5-9. 311 

which, when he seizes it away, is the glory and 
religion which are auspicious for thee that day, so 
that diligence becomes a vexation this day 1 / 

9. In a passage of the fifth fargan/of the Pas6n 
Nask 2 it is declared that one mentions these charac- 

1 This passage does not appear to be now extant in the A vesta, 

2 This was the sixth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazda- 
yasnian literature, according to the Dinkan/, which calls it P&01 or 
Pasag; but according to the Dini-va^arkan/ and the Rivayats it 
was the seventh nask, called Pa^am. For its contents, as given by 
the Dmi-va^arkan/, see Haug's Essays, pp. 128, 129. The follow- 
ing is a short summary of the account of it given in the eighth book 
of the Dinkan/ (that published in the Pahl.-Paz. Glossary, pp. 184, 
185, being taken from the fifteenth nask, whose contents were 
mixed up with those of the seventh through the abstraction of 
several folios from the Iranian MS. of the Dinkan/ before Mi 3, or 
any other copy, was written in India) : — 

The Past (or Pasag) is about the lawful slaughtering of animals 
in the ceremonial rites of fire and water at the season-festivals ; 
also where, when, and how the festivals are to be celebrated, their 
advantages, and the duties of the officiating priests. The rotation 
of days, months, and years, summer and winter, the ten days at the 
end of the winter, when the guardian spirits visit the world, and the 
ceremonies to be then performed. The time for gathering medicinal 
plants. The retribution necessary for the various sins affecting the 
soul, the advantage of providing for such retribution, and the harm 
from not providing it. The thirty-three principal chiefs of the 
spiritual and worldly existences. The miracles of great good works, 
and the heinous sinfulness of apostasy. How far a wife can give 
away her husband's property, and when it is lawful for him to 
recover it. Whither winter flees when summer comes on, and 
where summer goes when winter comes on. The amount of 
disaster (voighn) in one century, and the duration of everything 
connected with such disaster. The summer and winter months, 
the names of the twelve months, their meaning, and the angels they 
are devoted to ; also the thirty days of the month, and the five 
Gatha days at the end of the year, when the guardian spirits are to 
be reverenced. 

The fifth farganf, quoted in the text, was probably that portion 
of the Nask which described the duties of the officiating priests. 


teristics of four kinds of worship of the celestial 
beings (yazdan) : — one is that whose A vesta is cor- 
rect, but the man is bad ; the second is that whose 
A vesta is faulty (zlfano) 1 , but the man is good ; the 
third is that whose Avesta is correct, and the man is 
good ; and the fourth is that whose Avesta is faulty 
and the man is bad. 10. That whose Avesta is 
correct, bid the man bad, the archangels will ap- 
proach and will listen to, but do not accept; that 
whose Avesta is faulty, but the man good, the arch- 
angels and angels 2 will approach, but do not listen 
to, and will accept ; that whose Avesta is correct, 
and the man good, the archangels and angels will 
approach, will come to, will listen to, and will ac- 
cept ; that whose Avesta is faulty, and the man bad, 
they do not approach, do not listen to, and do not 

ii. In every ceremonial (ya^isno), at the begin- 
ning of the ceremony 3 , and the beginning of the 
sacred-cake consecration (dr6n) 4 , the angels and 
guardian spirits of the righteous are to be invited to 
the ceremony. 12. When they invoke the angels 
they will accept the ceremony, and when they do 

1 K20 has huzvan, 'tongue, speech/ for zifan, 'faulty' (com- 
pare Pers. zif, ' sin'), in all occurrences of the word. 

2 K20 omits from this word to 'will approach' in the next 
clause of the sentence. 

3 That is, shortly before beginning the regular recitation of the 
Yasna, the angels, in whose honour the ceremony is being per- 
formed, are invited to approach by reciting their proper Khshnu- 
mans, or propitiatory formulas (see Chap. VII, 8, and Haug's 
Essays, p. 404). 

4 This begins with Yas. Ill, 1, and the spirits are to be invited 
by adding their proper Khshnumans to those contained in Yas. 
Ill, 3-20 (see Haug's Essays, p, 408). 


not invoke them, all the guardian spirits of the 
righteous are to be invoked at the beginning of 
' staomi 1 ;' and when not, they watch until the words 
' frasho-/£arethram saoshya/ztam V and when they 
shall invoke them there they will accept the cere- 
mony ; and when not, they will watch until the words 
' visptfu fravashayo ashaonam yazamaide V and 
when they shall invoke them there they will accept 4 
the ceremony ; and when not, they will watch until 
the words 't#us>£ci yazamaide V and when they in- 
voke them 6 at the threefold 'ashem vohu' and the 
word d&manamV at the twice-told ' aokhto-namano V 
the 'ash&rf ha^a 9 ,' or the 'yatumanahe ^asaiti 1( V 

1 This may be at the ' staomi ' of Yas. XII, 6, which is recited 
before the Yasna is commenced ; but K20 alters the meaning (by 
inserting the relative particle) into * they are to be invoked at 
" staomi," the beginning of " all the guardian spirits of the 
righteous " (Yas. XXVI, 1).' 

2 Yas. XXVI, 20. 

3 Yas. XXVI, 34. 

4 K20 has, ' shall not invoke/ and ' will not accept.' 

5 The concluding words of the yexhe hdtam formula, probably 
of that one at the end of Yas. XXVII, just preceding the recital 
of the Gathas, up to which time the spirits wait, but, if not invoked, 
they are then supposed to ascend, away from the ceremony, as 
mentioned in the text. 

6 K20 has, * when they do not invoke them/ 

7 Yas. VIII, 10; which is preceded by a thrice- told * ashem 
vohu/ at which the officiating priest tastes the sacred cake, being 
the end of the Dr6n ceremony (see Haug's Essays, pp. 404, 408). 

8 Yas. XXII, 33 (§§ 14-33 being recited twice). At this point 
the officiating priest brings out the mortar for pounding the H6m 
twigs (see Haug's Essays, p. 405) ; Yas. XXII being called the 
beginning of the Homast in the Viitasp Yaxt Sadah. 

9 Yas. XXIV, 30, when the officiating priest turns the mortar 
right side upwards. 

10 Yas. VIII, 9, which is practically the same place as the three- 
fold * ashem vohu ' before mentioned. 


they will accept 1 ; and when not, they go up the 
height of a spear (nl^ak) and will remain. 13. And 
they speak thus : ' This man does not understand 
that it will be necessary even for him 2 to go from 
the world, and our prayer (apistin) is for reminding 
men ; it is not that our uneasiness arises from this, 
that we are in want of their ceremony, but our un- 
easiness arises from this, that when they do not 
reverence and do not invoke us, when evil comes 
upon them it is not possible for us to keep it away/ 
14. 'O creator! how much is the duration in life 
of him who is dead V And Aftharmazd spoke thus : 
' As much as the wing of a fly, O Zaratuit the Spfta- 
man ! or as much as the hearing a wing unto a sight- 
less one 3 .' 

Chapter X. 

1. The rule 4 is this, that a sacred thread-girdle 
(k&stik) be three finger-breadths loose transversely 

1 K20 has, ' they will not accept. 1 

2 Literally, * for me,' which seems to refer to the man, and not 
to the spirits. 

3 This appears to be the complete translation of the Avesta sen- 
tence partially quoted in Pahl. Vend. VIII, 64 : ' yatha makhshy<zu 
perenem, yatha vd perenahe,' &c. The last clause is doubtful; 
the reading adopted here is £and zak-i shinavak-z' par andarg 
avenak, as nothing more satisfactory suggests itself; it might 
also be translated by ' as much as the sound of a wing in the 

4 Reading ainak ; Pazand writers convert it into yak, which 
can, however, have the same meaning, though they evidently take 
the word to be Huz. khaduk, 'one,' which is written precisely like 
ainak in Pahlavi characters. Most of the miscellaneous state- 
ments, contained in the latter part of Sis., commence with this 

CHAPTER IX, I3-X, 3. 315 

(pa van targftn) 1 , as is said in every teaching 
(i&stak) 2 , and when it is less it is not proper. 

2. The rule is this, that the sacred cake (dron), 
set aside at the dedication formula (shnumane) on 
the days devoted to the guardian spirits 3 , is to be used 
at the season-festivals, the Non&bar 4 , the three 
nights ceremony* \ the Hom-dron, and other rites of 
the righteous guardian spirits ; and when they shall 
not do so, according to some teachings, it is not 

3. In the exposition (/^a^tak) of the Nihaafam 
Nask 6 it says that a man is going to commit rob- 

1 That is, round the waist (see Chap. IV, 1). 

2 That is, 'interpretation or exposition* (see Chap. I, 3, 4)- 
K20 has, ' and by every teaching it is proper/ 

3 These fravart/ikan are, strictly speaking, the five supple- 
mentary days at the end of the Parsi year, but the last five days of 
the last month are usually added to them, so as to make a period 
of ten days at the end of the year, during which the guardian 
spirits of the departed are supposed to revisit their old homes, and 
for whom the sacred cake is set aside. 

4 The initiatory ceremony of a young priest (see Chap. XIII, 2). 

5 The ceremonies performed by the survivors for three nights 
after a death (see Chaps. VIII, 6, XVII, 3, 4). 

6 This was the fifteenth nask or 'book' of the complete Maz- 
dayasnian literature, according to the Dinkan/, which calls it NiM- 
*fum ; but according to the Dini-va^arkan/ and the Riv&yats it was 
the sixteenth nask, called Niyarum. For its contents, as given by 
the Dini-va^arkan/, see Haug's Essays, p. 132. The following 
is a brief summary of the account of it given in the eighth book 
of the Dinkan/, where it occupies twenty-five quarto pages of that 
work : — 

The beginning of the law (da</) is the Nika^um of thirty far- 
gan/s. The section Patkar-ra^istan ('the arbitrator's code') is 
about umpires and arbitration, contracts by words of four kinds 
and by signs of six kinds ; and twelve sorts of arbitrators are 
described in four sub-sections, according as they decide by hearing 
or seeing, and with regard to women and children, foreigners and 


bery, and a wall falls in upon him, it is his destroyer ; 
when a man strikes at him he is his adversary, and 
both are in sinfulness ; when he is going to perform 
the worship of God (ya^isno-i yazdano) both of 
them are in innocence. 

4. The rule is this, that when a woman becomes 
pregnant, as long as it is possible, the fire is to be 
maintained most carefully in the dwelling, because 
it is declared in the Spend Nask 1 that towards 

those worthy of death. The second section, Za^amistan ('the 
assault code'), is a treatise on assault and the consequences of 
assault, pain, blood, and unconsciousness ; on blows and conflicts, 
man with man, women with women, and child with child, with 
their proper penalties; also the murder of slaves and children. 
The third section, R6shistdn ('the wound code'), is a treatise on 
various kinds of wounds and their characteristics. The fourth 
section, Hamemalistan ('the accuser's code'), is a treatise on 
accusation and false accusation of various specified crimes, on 
lying and slander, the care of pregnant women, impenitence and 
various offences against priests and disciples, remitting penalties, 
abetting and assisting criminals, mediation, punishment of children, 
smiting foreigners, murder, medical treatment, and many other 
things (see Pahl.-Paz. Glossary, p. 184, where they are errone- 
ously ascribed to the Pason Nask, owing to the defective text of 
the MS. Mi 3). The fifth section contained twenty -four treatises 
on miscellaneous subjects connected with crime and sin (see Pahl.- 
Paz. Glossary, pp. 184, 185). 

The passage mentioned in the text cannot be recognised in any 
of the details supplied by the Dinkan/. 

1 This was the thirteenth nask or 'book' of the complete Maz- 
dayasnian literature, according to all authorities, but is called Sfend 
in the Rivayats. For its contents, as given by the Dini-va^arkan/, 
see Haug's Essays, pp. 131, 132. The following is a summary 
of the short account of it given in the eighth book of the 
Dinkan/: — 

The Spend is a treatise on the origin and combination of the 
existence, guardian spirit, and glory of ZaratiLst ; on his generation 
and birth ; on the coming of the two spirits, the good one to sus- 
tain, and the bad one to destroy him, and the victory of the good 

CHAPTER X, 4, 5. Z l 7 

Dilkdav 1 , the mother of Zaratilst, when she was 
pregnant with Zarattist, for three nights, every 
night a leader (khWa) 2 with a hundred and fifty 3 
demons rushed for the destruction of Zarat&rt, but 
owing to the existence of the fire in the dwelling 
they knew no means of accomplishing it. 

5. The rule is this, that they have a tank (mo^) 
for the disciples, when they are going to perform 
the worship of God, and are sprinkling the stone 
seat (magok) 4 ; and lest they should make a wet 
place by that sprinkling through taking water out 
from it, it is to be done sitting ; for in the Vendi- 
dad 5 the high-priests have taught, about making 

spirit ; on his going, at thirty years of age, to confer with Auhar- 
mazd, and his seven conferences in ten years; on the seven 
questions he proposed to the archangels on those occasions ; 
on the conveyance of the omniscient wisdom into him, showing 
him heaven and hell, and the intermediate place of those ' ever- 
stationary/ the account taken of sin and good works, the future 
existence, and the fate of the religion on earth till the renovation 
of the universe, with the coming of his future sons, the last three 

1 The Paz. Dughda of Bund. XXXII, 10 would indicate PahL 
Dukdan, but the Dinkan/ has Duk^aubo and Duk^aubag 
(pointing to Av. Dughdhavan), and the Persian forms are 
Dughdu and Dughdavih. Here the name is Diikdavo, which 
is transposed into Du</k&v in Chap. XII, n ; it must have meant 
either ' milk-maid ' or * suckler ' originally. 

2 K20 has s&d& y 'a demon/ and in Chap. XII, n, where this 
section is repeated, the word can be read either j6da, 'a demon/ 
or shah, 'a king or ruler; ' of course ' an arch-fiend' is meant. 

8 M6 appears to have ' sixty/ instead of ' fifty/ but see Chap. 
XII, n. 

4 Or magh, on which they squat in the purification ceremony 
(see B. Yt. II, 36). 

5 Referring probably to Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 98 ; the ground is 
not to be wetted further than the length of the fore-part of the foot 
beyond the toes, that is, not more than a hand's breadth ; this 


water when standing on foot 1 , that the measure it 
refers to applies to everything else, not even of a 
like origin; by him who makes water the A vesta 2 
for making water is to be uttered, and then it is the 
root of a Tan&puhar sin 3 for him, and when he does 
not utter it he is more grievously sinful. 

6. The rule is this, that to recite the Gathas 
over those passed away is not to be considered 
as beneficial, since it is not proper to recite the 
three Has 4 which are the beginning of the Afotu^at 
Gatha whenever one is on the road ; whenever one 
recites them over a man in the house they are 

7. The rule is this, that in the night wine and 
aromatic herbs (sparam) and anything like food are 
not to be cast away towards the north quarter, be- 
cause a fiend 5 will become pregnant ; and when one 
casts them away one Yathi-ahti-vairyo 6 is to be 

measure is here extended to washing water, hence the necessity of 
squatting during such ablutions. 

1 This is a sin which is usually classed with 'running about 
uncovered ' and ' walking with one boot * (see Chap. IV, 8, note). 

2 This Avesta is prescribed in Vend. XVIII, 97, and is still in 
constant use ; it consists of three Ashem-vohus (see Bund. XX, 2), 
two Humatanams (Yas. XXXV, 4-6), three Hukhshathrotemais 
(Yas. XXXV, 13-15), four Ahunavars (see Bund. I, 21), and one 
YeNhe-hatam (see B.Yt. II, 64), 

3 See Chap. I, 1, 2. 

4 The three chapters (Yas. XLII-XLIV) which begin the Uxta- 
vaiti GMa (Yas. XLII-XLV). 

5 A dr&g, or fiend, is usually considered as a female demon 
(see Vend. XVIII, 70-77); and the demons are supposed to come 
from the north, where they congregate on the summit of Aresur, 
at the gates of hell (see Vend. XIX, 1, 140, 142, Bund. XII, 8). 

6 See Bund. I, 21, This statement is repeated in Chap. XII, 18. 

CHAPTER X, 6-1 1. 319 

8. The rule is this, that reverential should be 
the abstinence from unlawfully slaughtering of any 
species of animals ; for in the Stfidg ar Nask 1 it is 
said, concerning those who have unlawfully slaugh- 
tered animals, the punishment is such that each hair 
of those animals becomes like a sharp dagger (t6kh), 
and he who is unlawfully a slaughterer is slain, 9. 
Of animals, the slaughtering of the lamb, the goat 
(vahlk), the ploughing ox, the war-horse, the hare, 
the bat (/£ihar&£), the cock or bird of Vohfiman, 
and the magpie (kasklnak) bird, and of birds that 
0/the kite, eagle (hfimcii), and swallow is most to 
be abstained from. 

10. A pregnant woman who passes away is not to 
be carried away by less than four men 2 , who are at 
it constantly with united strength ; for with other 
corpses, after a dog's gaze, when they carry them 
along by two men with united strength, they do not 
become polluted ; but for a pregnant woman two 
dogs are necessary, to whose united power she is to 
be exposed ; and they carry her along by four men 
with united strength, and they do not become pol- 
luted ; but when they carry her along by two men 
they are to be washed with ceremony (pi .yak) 3 . 

11. The rule is this, that when they beg forgive- 
ness for a person (mar^tim) who has passed away, 

1 See B.Yt. I, 1. The passage here referred to is probably one 
in the middle of the seventeenth fargar^ of this Nask, which is 
mentioned as follows, in the ninth book of the Dinkan/: ' And 
this too, namely, those who unlawfully slay sheep and cattle, which 
diminishes their life and glory/ 

2 This is the usual custom, while that mentioned in Chap. II, 6 
is the exceptional case, mentioned at the end of this section, which 
necessitates extraordinary purification. 

3 That is, with the Bareshnum ceremony (see Chap. II, 6). 


such a prayer is more significant when one says thus : 
' Whenever a trespass (vin&s) of mine has occurred 
against him, you will take account of it along with 
those of his which have occurred against me, and 
the trespasses have passed away one through the 
other ; any further trespasses of his which have oc- 
curred against me are then made a righteous gift 
by me 1 / 

12. The rule is this, that one should not walk 
without boots 2 ; and his advantage therefrom is 
even this, that when a boot (mti^ak) is on his foot, 
and he puts the foot upon dead matter, and does 
not disturb the dead matter, he does not become 
polluted ; when a boot is not on his foot, and he puts 
the foot upon dead matter, and does not disturb it, 
he is polluted z y except when he knows for certain 
(aevar) that a dog has seen it, or if not it is to be 
considered as not seen by a dog 4 . 

13. The rule is this, as revealed in the Dubasrfi- 
g&d Nask* y where a day in the year is indicated, 

1 That is, I pardon them in charity. 

2 Or, perhaps, 'without stockings,' avfmu^ak; this seems to 
be something different from the sin of a6-muk-dubari.rnih, 
' running in one boot ' (see Chap. IV, 1 2). 

3 Without these words, which do not exist in the MSS., the sen- 
tence seems to have no clear meaning. 

4 And, therefore, still containing the Nasi!?, or fiend of corrup- 
tion, who will enter into any one who merely touches the dead 
matter, without disturbing it, and can be driven out only by the 
tedious and troublesome Bareshnum ceremony. 

6 This was the sixteenth nask or 'book 7 of the complete Maz- 
dayasnian literature, according to the Dinkan/, which calls it 
Dubasr%</ or Dubasru^/; but according to the Dini-va£-arkan/, 
which calls it Dvasruzd, and the Rivayats, which call it Dvasru^ad, 
Dv&srun^-ad, or Dvdsrub, it was the eighteenth nask. For its con- 
tents, as given by the Dini-va^arkan/, see Haug's Essays, pp. 132, 
133. The following is a brief summary of the account of it given 

CHAPTER X, I2-I4. 2 21 

that the sacred thread-girdle of every one who shall 
be one day more than fourteen years and three 
months eld is to be tied on — it is better so than 
when he remains unto fifteen years, and then ties on 
the girdle — who is more cared for, that way, than a 
five-months , child 1 , on whom they should put it in 
the womb of its mother. 

14. The rule is this, that when one retains a 
prayer inwardly 2 , and wind shall come from below, 
or wind shall come from the mouth, it is all one 3 . 

in the eighth book of the Dinkan/, which occupies ten quarto pages 
of that work : — 

Of the first eighteen sections of the Dubasru^ the first is a 
treatise on thieves, their arrest, imprisonment, and punishment, 
with the various kinds of robbery ; the second section is about the 
irresponsibility of a father for the crimes of a grown-up son, and 
of a husband for those of a separated wife, about the time for 
instructing children, and when they first become responsible for 
sin, the crime of giving weapons to women, children, and foreigners, 
about warriors plundering, the various kinds of judges and their 
duties, and offences against accusers. Of the twelve next sections 
one, called Pasuj-horvistan ('the shepherd's dog code'), is about 
shepherd's dogs, their duties and rights. Of the last thirty-five 
sections the first, called Storistan (' the beast of burden code '), is 
about the sin, affecting the soul, of unlawfully beating and wounding 
cattle and beasts of burden, birds and fish ; the second section, 
Ar^istan ('the value code'), is a treatise on the value of animate 
and inanimate objects; the third section, ArateVtaristan ('the 
warrior code '), is a treatise on warriors, arms, armies, generals, 
battles, plunder, &c. ; the fourth section is about warm baths, fires, 
clothing, winter stores, reaping fodder and corn, &c. 

The passage mentioned in the text was probably in that part of 
the second section which referred to the responsibility of children. 
The words from ' as revealed ' to ' indicated ' are omitted in K20. 

1 K 20 has ' nine-months' child/ 

2 See Chap. Ill, 6. 

8 Literally, 'both are one;' that is, in either case the spell of 
the v&g or prayer is broken. 

[5] Y 


15. Also this, that ten women are necessary for 
affording assistance to a woman who is in labour : 
five women for directing the making of the cradle 
(gavarak), one woman should be opposite the left 
shoulder, and one to hold the right shoulder, one 
woman to throw a hand on her neck, one woman to 
hold her waist, and one woman, when the infant 
shall be born, to take it up and cut the navel cord, 
and to make the fire blaze \ 1 6. Three days and 
three nights no one is to pass between the fire and 
the child, nor to show the child to a sinful man or 
woman ; they are to triturate a little sulphur in the 
sap (ma yd) of a plant, and to smear it over the 
child ; and the first food to give it is H6m-juice 
(par&hom) and aloes (shapy&r). 

17. The rule is this, that in case any one shall 
beat an innocent man, until the pain shall cease it 
becomes every day the root of a Tandpuhar sin 2 
for him. 

1 8. The rule is this, that when in a country they 
trust a false judge, and keep him among their su- 
periors, owing to the sin and breach of faith which 
that judge commits, the clouds and rain, in that 
country, are deficient, a portion (bavan) of the deli- 
ciousness, fatness, wholesomeness, and milk of the 
cattle and goats diminishes 3 , and many children be- 
come destroyed in the mothers womb. 

19. The rule is this, that a man, when he does 
not wed a wife, does not become worthy of death ; 
but when a woman does not wed a husband it 

1 Literally, ' make the fire high/ 

2 See Chap. I, 1, 2. 

8 Most of these evils are also ascribed (see B. Yt. II, 41-43) to 
neglect of the precautions prescribed with regard to hair-cuttings. 

CHAPTER X, 15-21. 323 

amounts to a sin worthy of death ; because for a 
woman there is no offspring except by intercourse 
with men, and no lineage proceeds from her ; but 
for a man without a wife, when he shall recite the 
A vesta, as it is mentioned in the Vendidad \ there 
may be a lineage which proceeds onwards to the 
future existence. 

20. The rule is this, that a toothpick is to be cut 
out clear of bark (post pak) 2 , for the high-priests 
have taught that when one's toothpick — made for 
the mouth with the bark — shall fall, and when a 
pregnant woman puts a foot upon it, she is appre- 
hensive about its being dead matter 3 . 

21. The rule is this, that in accepting the child of 
a handmaid (£akar) 4 discrimination is to be exer- 
cised; for in the fourteenth of the Nask Hftsp&ram 5 

1 This reference is probably to the circumstances detailed in 
Vend. XVIII, 99-112, but the Pahlavi commentary on §§ 111, 112 
of that passage is missing in all MSS. The Avesta to be recited 
in such cases is precisely the same as that detailed in a note 
on § 5. 

2 This translation is in accordance with the seventeenth chapter 
of the prose Sad-dar BundahLr, or * Bundahij of a hundred chapters/ 
a Pazand work of later times ; but the text here might be translated 
' cut out of clean skin,' and in Chap. XII, 13, where the statement 
is repeated, the word used is also ambiguous. 

3 The Sad-dar BundahLf says, ' the fear arises that the infant 
may come to harm/ This section and the three which follow are 
repeated in Chap. XII, 13-16. 

4 This might mean a £akar, or 'serving* wife (see Bund. 
XXXII, 6), but the further details given in Chap. XII, 14, where 
this statement is repeated, make it more probable that a concubine 
is meant. 

5 As this was the seventeenth nask or 'book* of the complete 
Mazdayasnian literature, according to all authorities, it is probable 
that the word ' fourteenth/ in the text here, refers to some parti- 
cular chapter or fargan/, most likely to the last group of fourteen 

Y 2 


the high-priests have taught thus : ' My son is suit- 
able also as thy son, but my daughter is not suitable 
also as thy daughter/ 

sections, mentioned below, in the summary of its contents ; and 
this is confirmed by another reference in Chap. XII, 7. This 
nask is called Asp&ram in the Riv&yats, and Asparum in the 
Dini-va^arkan/; for its contents, as given by the latter, see Haug's 
Essays, p. 133. The following is a brief summary of the account 
of it given in the eighth book of the Dinkan/, where it occupies 
sixteen quarto pages of that work : — 

Of the first thirty sections of the Husp&ram, one is the Aerpa- 
tistan ('the priest's code'), a treatise on priestly studies, priests, 
disciples, and their five dispositions. One section is the Niran- 
gist&n ('religious formula code'), a treatise on the formulas of 
worship, the Avesta to be recited by the officiating priests twice, 
thrice, and four times, the five periods of the day and their proper 
ceremonies, the season-festivals, the sacred girdle and shirt, cutting 
the sacred twigs, reverencing water, the families of Zaratiwt, Hvov, 
and Vwtasp, &c. One section is' the Goharikistan ('quality 
code'), a treatise on nobility and superiority, buying and selling, 
cattle, slaves, servants, and other property, houses where men or 
dogs have been sick, dealings with foreigners, &c. And other 
sections are about appropriating the property of others, obedient 
and disobedient wives, foreign wives, advantages of male and 
female offspring, breeding of cattle, treatment of labourers and 
children, the evil eye, judges, the origin and cultivation of corn, the 
degrees of crime and punishment, &c. Of the next twenty sec- 
tions, one is about the treatment of furious cattle and mad dogs, 
and the damage they may do. One section on the means of 
accumulating wealth, the giving of sons and daughters in marriage, 
the goodness of charity and evil of waste, the five best actions 
and the five worst, unlawful felling of trees, the sin of burying the 
dead, &c. And one section on the begetting, birth, and treatment 
of children. Of the last fourteen sections, one is a treatise, in six 
fargan/s, on the ownership of property and disputes about it, 
on one's own family, acquiring wife and children, adoption, &c. 
And a section of seven fargan/s, at the end, is a treatise on the 
sufferings of men, women, children, and dogs, on the connection 
of owner and herds, priest and disciple, on various offences and 
sins, spiritual and worldly healing, physic and physicians, astrology, 

CHAPTER X, 22-24. 3 2 5 

22. The rule is this, that one perseveres much in 
the begetting of offspring, for the acquisition of 
abundance of good works at once ; because, in the 
Nihdafam Nask 1 , the high-priests have taught that 
the duty and good works which a son performs are 
as much the father's as though they had been done 
by his own hand ; and in the Damdaaf Nask 2 it is 
revealed thus : ' Likewise, too, the good works, in 
like measure, which come into the fathers pos- 

23. The rule is this, that they shall give to the 
worthy as much of anything as is proper for eating 
and accumulating ; because in the Nihaafam Nask 3 
the high-priests have taught thus : ' A man gives a 
hungry one bread, and it is too much, yet all the 
good works, which he shall perform through that 
superabundance, become as much his who gave it as 
though they had been done by his own hand/ 

24. The rule is this, where one lies down, in cir- 
cumstances of propriety and innocence, one Ashem- 
vohu is to be uttered 4 , and in like manner when he 

the proper feeding of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and pigs, the 
duty of a frontier governor during a foreign invasion, &c. 

The passage mentioned in the text was probably in that portion 
of the last group of fourteen sections which treated of wives, 
children, and adoption. 

1 See § 3 ; the passage mentioned here cannot be traced in the 
account of this Nask given in the Dinkan/. 

2 See SZS. IX, 1. The passage here quoted cannot be traced 
in any of the short accounts of the contents of this Nask. This 
section is repeated, with a few verbal alterations, in Chap. XII, 15. 

3 See § 3 ; the passage here quoted is also not to be traced in 
the account of this Nask given in the Dinkan/. This section 
is repeated, with a few verbal alterations, in Chap. XII, 16. 

* Compare Chap. IV, 14, where much the same is stated as 
what occurs in this section. 


gets up well ; when he does so, every single draw- 
ing of the breath (vayo) becomes a good work of 
three Srosho-iaran&ms, that is, a weight of ten 
dirhams of the full weight of four mads 1 . 

25. The rule is this, that when an action or an 
opinion comes forward, and one does not know 
whether it be a sin or a good work, when possible 
it is to be abandoned and not executed by him ; 
as it says in the Sak&atom Nask 2 that Zarat&rt has 

1 Reading i mad -4, instead of va maz-4 ; the word mad (see 
Pahl.-Paz. Glossary, p. 21) being Huz. for the dang or quarter- 
dirham. The amount of the Sr6sh6-£aranam, as deduced from 
this statement, differs from those given in Chaps. XI, 2, XVI, 5, 
and must be awkwardly fractional, unless the sentence be altered 
into io^u^-an sang n6m z\s pur sang yehevuneV, 'a weight 
of ten dirhams and a half, which is its full weight;' in which case 
one Srosho-^aranam would be 3^ dirhams, as in Chap. XVI, 5. 

2 This was the eighteenth nask or 'book* of the complete 
Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dinkan/; but according 
to the Dini-va^arkan/ and the Rivayats it was the nineteenth nask, 
called Askarum or Askaram. For its contents, as given by the 
Dini-vag-arkan/, see Haug's Essays, p. 133. The following is a 
brief summary of the account of it given in the eighth book of the 
Dinkan/, where it occupies twenty quarto pages of that work : — 

Of the first thirty sections of the Saka^um one is a treatise 
on the necessity of obedience and understanding the laws, on new- 
born infants and their proper treatment, on the care of fire and 
sharp-pointed things, on race-courses, the use of water, salt and 
sweet, warm and cold, flowing and stagnant, &c. One section is 
the Ha/£i^akanistan (' annoyances code'), a treatise on irritating 
words and ill-treatment of living creatures and trees, the finding of 
buried treasure at various depths and in different places, &c. And 
one section is the Ziyanakistdn (' damage code'), a treatise on 
damage to animate and inanimate objects. Of the last twenty-two 
sections, one is the Vakhshistan ('increase code'), a treatise on 
the progress of growth, breeding of cattle and other animals, plead- 
ings regarding debts, growth of corn, &c. One section is the 
Varistdn ('ordeal code'), a treatise on the detection of witchcraft 
by ordeal, by heat and cold, &c. One section on asking assistance 

CHAPTER X, 25, 26. 327 

not provided about everything whatever, but three 
times it has been done by Zaratfot about this duty, 
that is, so that the Avesta and Zand, when one has 
learned it thoroughly by heart 1 , is for recitation, and 
is not to be mumbled 2 (^uyi^no), for in mumbling 
(^ft^ano) the parts of the Ahunavar 3 are more 
chattering 4 . 26. As it says in the Bagh Nask 5 

and rewarding it, on the unjust judge and the sagacious one, on 
daughters given in marriage by mothers and brothers, on the dis- 
obedient son, &c. And one section on the spirits of the earthly 
existences, the merit of killing noxious water-creatures, the animal 
world proceeding from the primeval ox, the evil spirit not to be 
worshipped, and much other advice. 

The passage mentioned in the text appears to have been in the 
first section of this Nask, as the Dinkar*/ says it treated, among 
other matters, ' about a man's examining an action before doing it, 
and when he does not know whether it be a sin or a good work, 
when possible, he is to set it aside and not to do it? But nothing 
is said there about Zaraturt, and what is said here seems to have 
very little connection with the 'rule' laid down in this section. 

1 Literally, ' made it quite easy.' 

2 Literally, ' not to be devoured or gnawed/ 

8 The formula commencing with the words Yatha ahu v airy 6 
(see Bund. I, 21); its parts or bag ha are the phrases into which 
it may be divided (see Yas. XIX, 4, 6, 9, 12). 

4 Reading draitar, ' more clamourous or chattering;' but the 
word is ambiguous, as it may be daraktar, 'more rending/ or 
giraitar, 'more weighty, more threatening/ &c. 

5 M6 has Bak. This was the third nask or 'book' of the 
complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dfnkan/, 
which calls it Bak6 ; but according to the Dini-va^arkan/ 
and the Rivayats it was the fourth nask. For its contents, as 
given by the Dini-va^arkan/, see Haug's Essays, p. 127. In 
the Dinkardi besides a very brief account of it, in the eighth 
book, which states that it was a treatise on the recitation of the 
revealed texts, there is, in the ninth book, a long description of 
the contents of each of its twenty-two fargards, occupying fifty 
quarto pages in the MSS. of the Dinkan/. From this it appears 
that the passage quoted in our text probably occurred in the first 


thus: 'Whoever shall mutter, O Zarattist! my allot- 
ment of the Ahunavar 1 — that is, shall softly take it 
inwardly — and shall let it escape 2 again — that is, 
shall utter it aloud — so much as a half, or one-third, 
or one-fourth, or one-fifth, his soul will I shield, 
I who am Auharmazd, from the best existence — 
that is, I will keep it away — by so much of an 
interval as the width of this earth/ 

27. The rule is this, that one is to proceed with 
great deliberation when he does not know whether 
it be a sin or a good work, that is, it is not to be 

28. The rule is this, that an opinion (andi^ak) 
of anything is to be formed through consultation 

fargan/. It also occurs, in nearly the same words, in Pahl. Yas. 
XIX, 12-15, an( l as Yas. XIX is called 'the beginning of the 
Bakan' in some MSS., it is possible that the three Has (Yas. 
XIX-XXI) which relate to the three short Avesta formulas are 
really the first three fargan/s of the Bagh Nask, which are said to 
have treated of the same subjects. 

1 The text is corrupted into min zak-i li, Zaratu,rt! be^t&rih-i 
min Ahunavar dru^ist, which might be translated, in connection 
with the following phrase, thus : ' Of my vexation, O Zaratfot ! from 
the Ahunavar, the most fiendish is that one shall softly take i'// &c. 
But very slight alterations of the Pahlavi letters (in accordance with 
Pahl Yas. XIX, 12) convert min into mun, be^tarih into bakh- 
tarih, and dru^ist into dren^a^. Instead of 'allotment of the 
Ahunavar ' we might read ' predestination, or providence, from the 
Ahunavar;' because the Pahlavi translator, by using the word 
bakhtarih or bakhtarih, appears to have understood the Av. 
bagh a in its sense of ' divinity, providence/ rather than in that of 
' part, portion.' 

2 Reading r&nineV or rahoineV. The Pahlavi translator 
seems to think the sin consists in breaking the spell of the \&g or 
inward prayer (see Chap. Ill, 6) by speaking part of it aloud ; but 
the original Avesta of this passage attributes the sin to obscuring 
the meaning by imperfect recitation. 

CHAPTER X, 2 7, 28. 329 

with the good ; even so it is revealed in the KidrdiSt 
Nask 1 that Spendarma^ spoke to M^nu^ihar thus : 
* Even the swiftest horse requires the whip (t&£&- 

1 This was the twelfth nask or 'book 7 of the complete Maz- 
dayasnian literature, according to the Dinkan/, which calls it 
j5Tidrajt6 or ITidr&std; but according to the Dini-va^arkan/ and 
the Rivayats it was the fourteenth nask called Girast. For its 
contents, as given by the Dint- va^arkan/, see Haug's Essays, p. 131. 
The following is a summary of the short account of it given in 
the eighth book of the Dinkan/ : — 

The JTidr&std is a treatise on the race of man ; how Auharmazd 
produced the first man, Gayoman/, how the first pair, Mashya and 
Mashy6i, arose, with their progeny, till the region of Khvaniras was 
full, when they supplied the six surrounding regions, till they filled 
and cultivated the whole world. The Pe^da^ian dynasty of H6- 
shang, Takhm6rupo, and Yim, the evil reign of Dahak, descended 
from Tas, the brother of H6sMng and father of the Arabs, then 
FreVun who divided Khvaniras between his three sons, Salm, Tug, 
and Airi£, who married the daughters of Patsrobd (compare Pahl. 
Vend. XX, 4) king of the Arabs, then Manur/£ihar, descendant 
(napo) of AirW, the penal reign of Frasiyaz> ruler of Turan, then 
Auzobo the Tumaspian, descendant of Manu^ihar, then Kai- 
KavaV and the penal reign of Karsaspo. The Kayanian dynasty 
of Kai-Us, Kai-Khusrob son of Siyavakhsh, with many tales of the 
specially famous races of Iran, Turan, and Salman, even to the 
reigns of Kai-L6harasp and Kai-VLytasp. The apostle Zaratujt, 
and the progress of time and events from the reign of FreWun till 
Zaratuyt's conference with Auharmazd. The race of Manus^ihar, 
N6</ar, and others. Avarethrabmi's (see Fravardin Yt. 106) father, 
Atar6-pa^ son of M&raspend. On future events and the reign of 
the renovation of the universe; the origin of the knowledge of 
occupation, and the care and industry of the period ; the great 
acquaintance of mankind with the putting aside of injury from the 
adversary, the preservation of the body, and the deliverance of the 
soul, both before and after the time of Zaratfot. 

As Manu\sv£ihar is several times mentioned there are several 
places in this Nask where the statement, quoted in the text as 
a saying of Spendarma^, the female archangel who has special 
charge of the earth (see Chap. XV, 5, 20-24, an d Bund. I, 26), 
may have occurred. 


nak), the sharpest steel knife requires the whetstone 
(afsan), and the wisest man requires counsel (ham- 

29. The rule is this, that when one laughs outright 
(bara khandeaf) the Avesta and Zand are not to 
be mumbled, for the wisdom of Afiharmazd is omni- 
scient, and good works are a great exercise of 
liberality, but an extreme abstinence from producing 
irritation (han^l^ar-dahlsnih) ; because in the Ra- 
tfotaitih Nask x many harsh things are said about 
the severe punishment of producers of irritation, in 
the spiritual existence. 

30. The rule is this, that as there may be some 
even of those of the good religion who, through 
unacquaintance with the religion, when a female 

fowl crows in the manner of a cock, will kill the 

1 This was the seventh nask or 'book* of the complete Maz- 
dayasnian literature, according to the Dinkan/, which calls it 
Rattataiti ; but according to the Dini-va^arkanf and the Rivayats 
it was the eighth nask called Raturtat. For its contents, as given 
by the Dini-va^arkar^, see Haug's Essays, p. 129. The following 
is a summary of the short account of it given in the eighth book 
of the Dinkara?: — 

The Ratu.ytaiti is a treatise on indispensable religious practices, 
the reason of the worthiness and superexcellence in a purifying 
priest, and how to distinguish worthiness and superexcellence from 
unworthiness, in the priesthood of each of the seven regions of the 
earth ; on the indication and manifestation of an assemblage of the 
archangels, the formulas and means to be employed in reverencing 
the angels, the position and duties of the two officiating priests in 
the ceremonies, and all the business of the orderers of ceremonies, 
with their various duties; on the greatness and voluntariness of 
good works, the kinds of voluntariness, and the proximity of 
Auharmazd to the thoughts, words, and deeds of the material 

It is uncertain under which of these heads the passage mentioned 
in the text may have occurred. 

CHAPTER X, 29-32. 331 

fowl, so those of the primitive faith * have said that 
there may be mischief (vin&starih) from wizards in 
that dwelling, which the cock is incapable of keeping 
away, and the female fowl makes that noise for the 
assistance of the cock 2 , especially when the bringing 
of another cock into that dwelling is necessary. 

3 1 . The rule is this, that when one sees a hedge- 
hog, then along with it 3 a place in the plain, free 
from danger, is to be preserved ; for in the Ven- 
didad 4 the high-priests have taught that it is when 
the hedgehog every day voids urine into an ant's 
nest that a thousand ants will die. 

32. The rule is this, that in the Vendidad 5 seven 
kinds of things are mentioned, and when they are 
the cause of a man's death, until the forthcoming 
period of the day (g&s-i levin) comes on, contami- 

1 See Chap. I, 3. 

2 The cock is considered to be an opponent of demons and 
wizards (see Bund. XIX, 33), and to warn men against the seduc- 
tions of the demoness of lethargy (see Vend. XVIII, 33-42, 52). 

3 Assuming that levatman val means levatman valman, but 
the reading 'he takes it back to (lakhvar val) the plain/ which 
occurs in the repetition of this section in Chap. XII, 20, seems 

4 The details which follow are to be found in Bund. XIX, 28, 
but they appear to be no longer extant in the Pahlavi Vendidad ; 
though the hedgehog is called ' the slayer of the thousands of the 
evil spirit/ in Vend. XIII, 5, of which passage the statement in our 
text seems to be an illustration. The ant is considered noxious. 

5 Vend. VII, 5, 6, where, however, eight modes of death are 
mentioned, which delay the arrival of the Nasiw, or fiend of corrup- 
tion, till the next period of the day ; these are when the person 
has been killed by a dog, a wolf, a wizard, anxiety, falling into 
a pit, the hand of man as sentenced by law, illegal violence, or 
strangulation. In all other cases it is supposed that the fiend of 
corruption enters the corpse immediately after death (see Vend. 
VII, 2-4). 


nation (nisrti^t) x does not rush upon him ; and for 
this reason, this, too, is well for the good, that is, to 
show a dog rightly again a previous corpse in the 
forthcoming period of the day 2 . 

33. The rule is this, that by those who attend to 
a corpse among the pure it is then to be shown to a 
dog very observant of the corpse ; for when even a 
thousand persons shall carry away a corpse which 
a dog has not seen, they are all polluted 3 . 

34. The rule is this, that meat, when there is 
stench or decomposition not even originating with 
it, is not to be prayed over 4 ; and the sacred cake 
(dron) and butter (gau^-d&k) which are hairy are 
also not to be prayed over 5 . 

35. A woman is fit for priestly duty (zotth) among 
women G , and when she is consecrating 7 the sacred 

1 See Bund. XXVIII, 29. 

2 In order that there may be no risk of the fiend of corruption 
having entered the corpse after it was first exhibited to a dog. 

3 This statement has been already made in Chap. II, 65. 

* That is, it is not to be used in any religious ceremony. Small 
pieces of meat are consecrated, along with the sacred cakes, in the 
Dron and Afnngan ceremonies at certain festivals. 

6 So in K20; but M6 has, 'the sacred cake they present, even 
that is not to be prayed over.' Although M6 is more carefully 
written than K20, it seems to have been copied from an original 
which was hardly legible in some places, of which this is one. 
The presence of a hair in the cake or butter would render it use- 
less for religious purposes. 

6 But only for some of the minor priestly offices, such as conse- 
crating the sacred cake. According to Avesta passages, quoted in 
the Nirangistan, any man who is not a Tanapuhar sinner can per- 
form certain priestly duties for virtuous men, and any woman who 
;s not feeble-minded (kasu-khrathwa) can perform them for 

7 M6 has, ' when she does not consecrate.' 

CHAPTER X, 33-40. 333 

cake (dron), and one Ashem-vohii 1 is uttered by 
her, she puts the sacred twigs (bare so m) back on 
the twig-stand, brings them away, and the utterance 
of another one is good ; when she says it is not 
expedient to do it with attention before a meal, it 
is proper. 36. The sacred cake of a disreputable 
woman is not to be consecrated, but is to be ren- 
dered ineligible (avi^inako). 

.37. When one places a thing before the fire ob- 
servantly, and does not see the splendour itself, 
' tava athro 2 ' is not to be said. 

38. At night, when 3 one lies down, the hands are 
to be thoroughly washed. 39. That which comes 
from a menstruous woman to any one, or to any- 
thing, is all to be thoroughly washed with bull's 
urine (gome^) and water 4 . 

[40. The rule is this, as Ataro-p&af son of Mara- 
spend 5 said when every one passed away : — * The 
mouth-veil 6 and also the clothing are to be well 

1 See Bund. XX, 2 ; it is rather doubtful whether we should 
read ' one ' or * two/ 

2 These Avesta words, meaning ' for thee, the fire,' are used 
when presenting anything to the fire, such as firewood and incense 
(see Yas. VII, 3, XXII, 10, 22, &c.) 

3 Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mun, 'who* (see Bund. 
I, 7, note). 

4 Here ends the original Shayast la-shayast. § 40 is found only 
in M6, and is evidently a later addition to that MS. by another 
hand. Then follows the Farhang-i Otm-khaduk, both in M6 and 
K20 ; this is an old Avesta-Pahlavi Glossary which has no connec- 
tion with Sis., although it may be of the same age, as it quotes 
many Avesta sentences which are no longer extant elsewhere, and 
amongst others passages from the Niha</um Nask (see Sis. X, 3) 
and the commentary of Afarg (see Sis. I, 3). 

5 See Bund. XXXIII, 3. 

6 The pad&m (Av. paitidana, Pdz. pen6m) 'consists of two 


set apart from the gifts (dasaran), so that his 
soul may become easier.' Completed in peace and 

Part II. — A Supplementary Treatise 1 . 

Chapter XI. 

i . The degrees of sin are these 2 , such as a Far- 
man, Srosho-^aranam, Agerept, AivirLst, Aredii^, 
Khor, Basal, Yat, and Tan&ptihar, and I will men- 
tion each of them a second time. 2. A Farman is 
the weight of three dirhams of four mads 3 ; a 

pieces of white cotton cloth, hanging loosely from the bridge of 
the nose to at least two inches below the mouth, and tied with two 
strings at the back of the head. It must be worn by a priest 
whenever he approaches the sacred fire, so as to prevent his breath 
from contaminating the fire. On certain occasions a layman has 
to use a substitute for the pendm by screening his mouth and nose 
with a portion of his muslin shirt.' (Haug's Essays, p. 243, note 1 ; 
see also Pahl.Vend. XVIII, 1-4.) 

1 This second part is evidently by another writer, for he not 
only repeats several passages (Chaps. XI, 1, 2, XII, 11, 13-16, 18, 
20), which are given in the first part, but he also writes generally 
in a less simple style. In some MSS. of Sis. alone, such as M9, 
the second part immediately follows the first, as in this translation ; 
indicating that it has been accepted as a part of the same work. 
But in M6 the two parts are separated by the Farh. Okh., occupy- 
ing twenty folios; and in K20 there is an interval of ninety- two 
folios, containing the Farh. Okh., Bund., B. Yt, and several other 

2 §§ 1, 2 are a repetition of Chap. I, 1, 2, with a few variations. 
The number of degrees is here raised to nine by the addition of 
the Srosho-yfcaranam (see Chap. X, 24), which is written Srosha^ara- 
nam in both these sections. 

3 Reading i mad -4, instead of va m-4; the mad being a 
quarter-dirham (see Chap. X, 24, note) ; or we can read ' weight and 
quantity (m&yah) of three dirhams/ The amount of the Farman 

CHAPTER XI, I-4. 335 

Srosh6->£aranam is one dirham and two mads ; three 
Srosho-^aran&ms are the weight of four dirhams 
and two mads 1 ; an Agerept is thirty-three stirs 2 ; an 
Aiviriit is the weight of thirty-three dirhams ; an 
Aredtis is thirty stirs 3 ; a Khor is sixty stirs ; a 
Ba^ai is ninety stirs ; a Yat is a hundred and eighty 
stirs, and a Tan&pfihar is three hundred stirs. 

3. Every one ought to be unhesitating and una- 
nimous about this, that righteousness is the one 
thing, and heaven (garo^/mdn) 4 the one place, 
which is good, and contentment the one thing 
more comfortable. 

4. When a sheep 5 is slaughtered and divided, its 
meat-offering (g&vfts-dak) 6 is to be thus pre- 
sented: — the tongue, jaw, and left eye are the 

here given appears to agree with that stated in Chap. XVI, 1, but 
differs very much from the sixteen dirhams mentioned in Chap. I, 2, 
and the twenty-eight dirhams quoted by Spiegel. 

1 That is, one Srosho-^aranam is one dirham and a half, and 
three of them, therefore, are four dirhams and a half; the mad 
being a quarter-dirham. This computation differs considerably 
from the amounts stated in Chaps. X, 24, XVI, 5, but corresponds 
better with the supposition (see Chap. IV, 14, note) that a Srosho- 
^aranam is one-third of a Farman. 

2 Both this amount and the next are evidently wrong, and no 
doubt the Pahlavi ciphers have been corrupted. Chap. XVI, 5 
gives ' sixteen ' and ' twenty-five ' stirs, which are probably correct, 
though the computation in Chap. I, 2 is very different. 

3 Written Areduj 30 si, ' an Aredik is 30 (thirty),' as in Chap. 
I, 2 ; with which also all the remaining amounts correspond. 

4 See note on pahlum ahvan in Chap. VI, 3. 
6 Or ' goat/ 

6 Av. gauj hudhtfu, which is generally represented by a small 
piece of butter placed upon one of the sacred cakes; but on 
certain occasions small pieces of meat are used. The object of 
this section is to point out what part of the animal is suitable for 
use in a ceremony dedicated to any one of the angels, or spirits, 


angel Horn's 1 own ; the neck is Ashavahist's 2 own ; 
the head is the angel Vae's 3 own ; the right shoulder 
(arm) is Ardvisfirs 4 , the left is Drvasp's 5 ; the 
right thigh (hakht) is for the guardian spirit* of 
Vistasp, and the left for the guardian spirit of £a- 
masp 7 ; the back is for the supreme chief 8 ; the loin 
is the spirits' own ; the belly is SpendarmaaTs 9 ; the 
testicles 10 are for the star Vanand 11 ; the kidneys are 

1 Av. haoma, the angel of the Horn plant (see Yas. IX-XI, 
Bund. XVIII, 1-3, XXVII, 4, 24), the juice of which is used 
in ceremonial worship by the Parsis. 

2 The same as An/avahijt (see Bund. I, 26). 

8 M6 has * Ram ' as a gloss ; he is the Vayo of the Ram Yt., 
' the good VaS' of Mkh. II, 115, who assists the righteous souls in 
their progress to the other world ; his name, Ram, is given to the 
twenty-first day of the Parsi month (see Chap. XXII, 21). 

4 Av. Ardvi sura of the Aban Yt, a title of Anahita, the female 
angel of the waters (see Bund. XXXII, 8). This title is written 
Ar6dvivstir in the Bundahu, and applied to the source of pure 
water (Bund. XIII) ; while the name A van, ' waters,' is given 
to the eighth month and the tenth day of each month in the Parsi 

5 Av. Drvaspa of the G6s Yt., the name of the female angel of 
cattle, called G6jurvan in Bund. IV ; her alternative name, Gos, 
is given to the fourteenth day of the Parsi month. 

6 The word fravash-i, 'the guardian spirit of,' is evidently 
omitted here, as it occurs with the next name. For Vutasp, see 
Bund. XXXI, 29, XXXIV, 7. 

a 7 Av. Gamaspa of Yas. XIII, 24, XLV, 17, XLVIII, 9, L, 18, 
Aban Yt. 68, &c, the prime minister of Vi^tasp. 

8 Ratpok bereza*/ stands for the Av. rathwo berezato of 
Yas. I, 46, &c, a ' supreme chief who is often associated with 
the chiefs of the various subdivisions of time, and seems to be 
Auharmazd himself (see Yas. LVI, i, to). 

9 The female archangel who has charge of the earth (see Chap. 
XV, 5, 20-24, an d Bund. I, 26). 

10 The word gund has here, in most MSS., the usual Persian 
gloss dahan, 'mouth' (see Bund. XIX, 1), which is a very im- 
probable meaning in this place. 

11 Probably Fomalhaut (see Bund. II, 7, note). 

chapter xi, 4, 5. 337 

Haptdfrings 1 ; the ventricle (naska^ako) 2 is for 
the guardian spirit of priests ; the lungs are for the 
guardian spirit of warriors ; the liver is for com- 
passion and sustenance 3 of the poor ; the spleen is 
M&nsarspencTs 4 ; the fore-legs (ba^ai) are for the 
waters ; the heart is for the fires ; the entrail fat is 
Ar^ai-fravan/V; the tail-bone (dunb-ga^ako) is for 
the guardian spirit of Zarattot the SpltamAn 6 ; the 
tail (dunbak) is forVad 1 the righteous ; the right 
eye is in the share of the moon 8 ; and any 9 that 
may be left over from those is for the other arch- 
angels. 5. There have been those who may have 
spoken about protection, and there have been those 
who may have done so about meat-offerings ; who- 
ever has spoken about protection is such as has 

1 Ursa Major, called Hapt6k-ring in Bund. II, 7. 

2 Translating in accordance with the Persian gloss £ustah, 
given in the modern MS. M9; but nas-ka^ako may perhaps 
mean ' the womb.' 

3 Reading sar-ayisno, ' maturity/ the usual equivalent of Av. 
thrao^ta (see Yas. XXXIV, 3), and not srayuno, ' chanting.' 

4 Av. mathra spe/zta, 'the beneficent sayings, or holy word/ 
of which this angel is a personification; his name is often cor- 
rupted into Mahraspend or Maraspend, and is given to the twenty- 
ninth day of the Parsi month (see Chap. XXII, 29). 

5 A personification of the Av. ashaonam fravashay6, 'guar- 
dian angels of the righteous' (see Fravardin Yt. 1, &c), whence 
the first month, and the nineteenth day of each month, in the Parsi 
year, are called Fravanfin. 

6 This clause and the next are omitted in K20. 

7 The angel of the wind, whose name is given to the twenty- 
second day of the Parsi month (see Chap. XXII, 22). 

8 Or its angel, Mali, whose name is given to the twelfth day of 
the Parsi month. 

9 M6 has va a6-maman = va a6£ (Pers. i£, 'any'); K20 has 
kol& maman, 'whatever/ and omits the words ' may be left over' 
and ' other/ 

[5] z 


spoken well, and whoever has spoken about meat- 
offerings has not spoken everything which is note- 
worthy 1 . 6. Whea one shall offer up 2 what pertains 
to one (khadtikag) on account of another it is 
proper ; except the tongue, jaw, and left eye, for 
that those are the angel Horn's own is manifest 
from the passage: ' Hizvam frarenaod? V &c. 

Chapter XII. 

1 . The rule is this, that when one's form of wor- 
ship (ya^t) 4 is performed, and it is not possible for 
him to prepare it, the practice of those of the primi- 
tive faith 5 is, when the girdle (alpiyaung) is twined 
about a sacred twig-bundle (baresom) 6 of seven 
twigs (tak), to consecrate a sacred cake (dr6no) 
thrice, which becomes his form of worship that is 
performed one degree better through the sacred 
cake ; and of the merit of a threefold consecration 

1 Meaning, apparently, that to pray for protection as a favour is 
better than to pray for. it as a return for an offering. 

2 K20 has ' shall give up/ 

3 It is doubtful if this passage can be found in the extant 
Avesta; but a passage of similar meaning, and containing the 
words frvrenao*/ and hizvo, occurs in Yas. XI, 16, which states 
that ' the righteous father, Ahuramazda, produced for me, Haoma, 
as a Draona, the two jaws, with the tongue and the left eye;' and 
it then proceeds (Yas. XI, 17-19) to curse any one 'who shall 
deprive me of that Draona, or shall himself enjoy, or shall give 
away what the righteous Ahuramazda gave me, the two jaws, with 
the tongue and the left eye/ 

* A Yai-t is a formula of praise in honour of the sun, moon, 
water, fire, or some other angel, as well as a term for prayers and 
worship in general 

5 See Chap. I, 3. 6 See Chap. Ill, 32, note. 

CHAPTER XI, 6-XII, 3. 339 

of the sacred cake the high-priests have specially 
taught, in the Htispdram Nask 1 , that it is as much 
as that of a lesser form 4/* worship. 

2. The rule is this, that he who is himself more 
acquainted with religion is he who considers him 
who is more acquainted with religion than himself 
as high-priest, and considers him as high-priest 2 so 
that he may not destroy the bridge of the soul 3 ; as 
it says in the Sak&aftim Nask 4 that no one of them, 
that is an inattentive (asrtishd&r) man who has 
no high -priest, attains to the best existence 6 , not 
though his recitations should be so many that they 
have made his duty and good works as much as the 
verdure (sap dak) of the plants when it shoots 
forth in spring, the verdure which Auharmazd has 
given abundantly. 

3. The rule is this, that they keep a fire 6 in the 
house, because, from not keeping the fire properly, 
there arise less pregnancy of women and a weeping 
(az>-di</ano) for the loss of strength (tan 6) of 
men 7 ; and the chilled charcoal (angi^t) and the 
rest which are without advantage (bar) are to be 

1 See Chap. X, 21. Thfc passage mentioned in the text was 
probably in the section called Nlrangist&n. 

2 K20 omits this repetition. 

3 That is, may not render the passage of his soul to heaven, 
over the .Zinva*/ bridge (see Bund. XII, 7), impossible, owing to 
the sin of arrogance in this world. 

4 See Chap. X, 25 ; the passage alluded to was probably at 
the beginning of the Nask, which treated of ' the reward of the 
precepts of religion, and the bridge of the destroyers of good 
preceptors, adapted to their destruction.' 

5 See Chap. VI, 3. 

6 K20 has ' that a fire is to be properly kept/ 

7 K20 has ' and a loss of the strength and wealth of men/ 

Z 2 


carried away from the fire ; and in the Spend Nask 1 
it is revealed that a fire, when they shall make it 
quite clean from its chilled charcoal, has as much 
comfort as a man whose clothing they should make 

4. The rule is this, that when any one passes 
away it is proper to render useless 2 as much as the 
smallest mouth-veil 3 , for it says in the Vendidad 4 
that ' if even those Mazdayasnians should leave on 
him who is dead, in parting with him, as much as 
that which a damsel would leave in parting with the 
food-bowl (pa^manako) — that is, a bag (anba- 
nako-hana) 5 ' — the decree is this, that it is a Tana- 

1 See Chap. X, 4 ; the passage mentioned was probably in that 
part of the Nask which described the protection afforded by the 
fire to the new-born Zaraturt. 

2 Probably a negative is omitted, or ak&rini^ano should be 
translated ' to make no use of.' 

3 See Chap. X, 40. K20 has ' garment/ 

4 Always written Vadikda^ in this second part of Sis., except 
in Chap, XIII, 7 ; whereas in the first part it is written in its un- 
corrupted form Gavii-d6f-da^ or Gavi<f-.r6d£UdaV, 'the law 
opposed to the demons.' The passage here quoted is Pahl. Vend. 
V, 171, 172, with one or two verbal variations. 

5 Standing for anbanak-ae, which is corrupted in the Vendidad 
MSS. into the unintelligible form andanako-i, so that this old 
quotation throws a rather unexpected light upon a passage in the 
Vendidad which translators would be almost certain to misunder- 
stand. The allusion is to the bags used by a menstruous woman, 
when eating, to prevent contamination of the food. The Persian 
Rivayats state that three bags (kisah) are made of two thicknesses 
of strong linen, one bag to wear on each hand, and the third, which 
is larger, to hold the metal food-bowl and water-goblet. After 
thoroughly washing her hands and face, she puts the two bags on 
her hands, taking care that they do not touch her food, or clothes, 
or any other part of her body. She then feeds herself with a 
metal spoon, which must not touch her nose ; and when the meal 

CHAPTER XII, 4, 5. 341 

pilhar sin l at root, which is hell ; and in the Vendi- 
dad 2 it says that the clothing of the charitable 
(dahisn-hdmand) soul, and even the clothing 
which they will give it, are out of almsgivings 
(dasaran) 3 . 

5. The rule is this, that when any one passes 
away, after keeping fasting the three nights^, still 
the presentation of holy-water (zohar) to the fire is 
to be performed, which is the presenting of the 
holy-water to the nearest fire ; for in the Damdi^ 
Nask 5 it is revealed that when they sever (te- 
brtind) the consciousness of men it goes out to the 
nearest fire, then out to the stars, then out to the 

is finished the food-bowl and water-goblet are placed on the large 
bag, and the two smaller bags inside it, till wanted again. 

1 See Chap. I, 1, 2. 

2 This passage does not appear to be now extant in the 
Vendidad, and it is possible to read Nask Did instead of Vadikda^. 
The DaVi or Dadak Nask was the eleventh nask or 'book' of 
the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Drnkan/, 
which merely says that its ' Avesta and Zand are not communicated 
to us by the high-priest/ According to the Dini-va^arkan/, which 
calls it Khusto, and the Rivayats, which call it Khaxt, it was the 
twelfth Nask, and they give its contents in more detail than usual 
(see Haug's Essays, pp. 130, 131). 

8 Meaning that the dead require no clothing, as their future 
bodies will be clothed out of the garments they have given away 
in charity. The resemblance of this statement to that contained 
in Bund. XXX, 28, which must have been abridged from the 
Damda*/ Nask (see SZS. IX, 1), renders it possible that it may 
have been taken from that Nask. 

4 No fresh meat is to be cooked or eaten for the first three days 
after a death in the house, according to the Sad-dar BundamV, 
LXXVIII (compare Chap. XVII, 1-3). 

5 See SZS. IX, 1. The passage here quoted may perhaps be 
found in the complete text of the Bundahu, as given in TD (Chap. 
37 ; see Introduction, p. xxxvii). 


moon, and then out to the sun l ; and it is needful 
that the nearest fire, which is that to which it has 
come out, should become stronger (zor-homand- 
tar) 2 . 

6. The rule is this, that they should not leave a 
nail-paring unprayed over (anafstiafak), for if it be 
not prayed over (afsand) 3 it turns into the arms 
and equipments of the Mazanan demons 4 ; this is 
explicitly shown in the Vendidad 5 . 

7» The rule is this, that the labour of child-birth 6 
is not to be accomplished at night, except while 
with the light of a fire, or the stars and moon, upon 
it; for great opposition is connected with it, and in 
the twentieth of the Htisparam Nask n it is shown 
that over the soul of him who works in the dark 
there is more predominance of the evil spirit. 

8. The rule is this, that they should allow the egg 
and other food 8 for those gifts and favours of the 

1 A righteous soul is supposed to step out first to the star 
station, then to the moon station, and then to the sun station, on 
its way to Gar6</m&n, the highest heaven ; but if its righteousness is 
imperfect it has to stop at one of these three stations, which are 
the three lower grades of heaven (see note on pahlum ah van, 
Chap. VI, 3). 

2 Or * more provided with zor/ which may mean ' holy- water/ as 
the two words z6r and zohar are occasionally confounded. 

3 Or, perhaps, ' if they shall not pray over //.' 

4 See Bund. Ill, 20, XIX, 19, 20. 

5 Vend. XVII, 29. 

6 Barman-zerkhununfh may also mean 'begetting a son/ 

7 See Chap. X, 21. The word 'twentieth' appears to refer to 
the second group of twenty sections, one of which treated of the 
begetting, birth, and treatment of children. 

8 Referring to the egg t drons, frasasts, and gius hudhau or 
' meat-offering ' (which may be either butter or meat, see Chap. 
XI, 4) that are used in the dron ceremony, or consecration of the 
sacred cakes (see note on dr6n, Chap. Ill, 32). The object of 

chapter xii, 6 -i i. 343 

sovereign moon (mah-i khtid&i) and the other 
angels ; if so, it is to be allowed by them thus : ' I 
will consecrate so much food for such an angel/ and 
not thus: * One sacred cake (drono) in so much 
food/ 9. And the reason of it is this, that they who 
shall allow thus : ' One sacred cake out of so much 
food/ and of which it is one thing less, even though 
one shall consecrate it many times, still then he has 
not repaid ; and they who should allow thus : ' I will 
consecrate so much food for such an angel/ though 
one shall reverence him with many sacred cakes, it is 
proper. 10. And in the twenty-two sections of the 
Sakaaftim Nask 1 grievous things are shown about 
those who do not make offerings (austofrl^) unto 
the angels. 

11. The rule is this, that when a woman becomes 
pregnant, as long as it is possible, a fire one cares 
for well is to be maintained in the house, because it 
is revealed 2 in the Spend Nask that to Dukd&v 3 , 
the mother of Zarattlst, when she was pregnant with 
ZaratUst, for three nights, every night a leader 
(shah) 4 with a hundred and fifty demons came for 
the destruction of Zaraturt, and yet, owing to the 
existence of the fire in the dwelling, they knew no 
means for it. 

this paragraph is, evidently, to reprove niggardliness in such offer- 
ings, and to prevent their being mere pretexts for feasting. 

1 See Chap. X, 25. The passage alluded to here was probably 
in that section, of the last twenty-two, which treated of the spirits 
of the earthly existences, one portion of which was ' about prepar- 
ing offerings (austofrtto) to the angels/ 

2 M6 has ' the fire of Aiiharmazd is to be fully maintained, and 
it is revealed/ &c. This section is a repetition of Chap. X, 4, with 
a few variations. 

8 Here written Du^fkav. 

4 Or it may be read j£da, ' a demon/ meaning ' an arch-fiend/ 


12. The rule is this, where a child is born, during 
three days, for protection from demons, wizards, and 
witches, a fire is to be made at night until daylight, 
and is to be maintained there in the day, and pure 
incense is to be put upon it, as is revealed in the 
thirtieth of the Sakaafam Nask \ 

13. The rule is this 2 , that from a toothpick the 
bark 3 is to be well cut off, for there are some of 
those of the primitive faith 4 who have said that, 
when 5 they shall make it for the teeth with the bark 
on, and they throw it away, a pregnant woman, 
who puts a foot upon it, is doubtful about its being 
dead matter. 

14. The rule is this, that it is well if any one of 
those who have their handmaid (^akar) in coha- 
bitation (zanih), and offspring is born of her, shall 
accept all those who are male as sons ; but those 
who are female are no advantage, because an? 
adopted son (sator) is requisite, and in the four- 
teenth of the Hftsparam Nask* the high-priests 

1 That is, in the first thirty sections of the Nask (see Chap. X, 
25); the passage alluded to must have been in that portion which 
treated of new-born infants and their proper treatment. 

2 §§ 13-16 are a repetition of Chap. X, 20-23, with a ^ ew varia- 

8 The word appears to be top 6 or tufo, which would rather 
mean 'scum' or 'gum' (see Bund. XXVII, 19), unless it be con- 
sidered a miswriting of \tgo or tdzo, which would mean 'thin 
bark' or 'bast.' It can also be read tupar, 'a leather bag,' and 
the sentence can be so translated as to imply that a toothpick should 
be cut out of a leather bag, an alternative similar to that suggested 
by the text of Chap. X, 20. 

4 See Chap. I, 3. 

5 Reading amat, 'when/ instead of mun, 'who' (see Bund. 
I, 7, note). 

6 See Chap. X, 21. 

CHAPTER XII, 12-17. 345 

have taught thus : * My son is suitable also as thy 
son, but my daughter is not suitable also as thy 
daughter;' and there are many who 1 do not appoint 
an adopted son with this idea, that : ' The child of 
a handmaid may be accepted by us as a son/ 

15. The rule is this, that one is to persevere much 
in the begetting of offspring, since it is for the acqui- 
sition 2 of many good works at once ; because in the 
Spend 3 and NihcU/ftm Nasks 4 the high-priests have 
taught that the duty and good works which a son 
performs are as much the fathers as though they 
had been done by his own hand; and in the 
Damda^/ Nask 5 it is revealed thus : ' Likewise, too, 
the good works, in like manner, which come to the 
father as his own/ 

16. The rule is this, that what they shall give to 
the worthy is as much as is proper and beyond, for 
eating and accumulating; because in the Nihaafum 
Nask* the high-priests have taught thus : ' When a 
man gives bread to a man, even though that man 
has too much bread, all the good works, which he 
shall perform through that superabundance, become 
as much his who gave it as though they had been 
done by his own hand/ 

17. The rule is this, that in the night water is 

1 The writer of M6 evidently found his original illegible at this 
place, as he wrote . . . ma man instead of mun denman. 

2 3VI6 has ' performance,' which is probably a misreading, due to 
the original of that MS. being partially illegible. 

3 See Chap. X, 4. This Nask is not mentioned in Chap. X, 
22, and the passage here alluded to is not to be traced in any of 
the short accounts of its contents. 

4 See Chap. X, 3, 22. 

6 See SZS. IX, 1, and Chap. X, 22. 
6 See Chap. X, 3, 23. 


not to be drawn 1 from a well, as in the B&g-yasn6 2 
notice is given about the uncleanness(ayosdasarth) 
of well-water at night. 

1 8. The rule is this, that in the night anything 
eatable is not to be cast away to the north, because 
a fiend will become pregnant ; and when it is cast 
away one Yatha-ahti-vairyo 3 is to be uttered. 19. 
Those of the primitive faith 4 who used to act more 
orthodoxically (hu-rastaklhitar), when food was 
eaten by them in the night, for the sake of preserva- 
tion from sin owing to the coming of strainings and 
sprinklings on to the ground, directed a man to chant 
the Ahunavar 5 from the beginning of the feast 

1 K20 has 'that water is not to be drawn on foot.' 

2 Probably the Bak&n-yasto is meant, which was the fourteenth 
nask or ' book ' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according 
to the Dinkar^; but according to the Dini-va^arkan/ and the 
Rivayats it was the fifteenth nask, called BagMn-yast. For its con- 
tents, as given by the Dina-va^arkan/, see Haug's Essays, p. 132. 
The following is the account of it given in the eighth book of the 
Dinkan/ : — 

'The Bak&n-yast6 is a treatise, first, on the worship (yast6) of 
Auharmazd, the most pre-eminent of divinities (bak&n a z; art urn), 
and, secondly, the worship of the angels of the other invisible and 
visible worldly existences, out of whom are even the names of the 
days, and the glory, power, triumph, and miraculousness of their 
life also is extreme ; the angels 'who are invoked by name in their 
worship, and the attention and salutation due to them ; the worthi- 
ness and dispensation of favour for worshippers, and the business 
of their many separate recitations unto the angels ; the business of 
unlimited acquaintance with knowledge about the promoters of the 
treasures of the period, unto whom the creator Auharmazd is to 
intrust them, and they remain to cause industry. Perfect is the 
excellence of righteousness/ 

3 See Bund. I, 21. This section is a repetition of Chap. X, 7, 
with a few variations. 

4 See Chap. I, 3. 

6 That is, the Yatha-ahu-vairy6 (see Bund. I, 21). 

CHAPTER XII, l8-2 2. 347 

(myazd) unto the end, more especially at the feast 
of the season-festivals ; as it says in the H&dokht 
Nask 1 , that of the sayings which are spoken out the 
Ahunavar is that which is most triumphant. 

20. The rule is this, that when one sees a hedge- 
hog he takes it back to the plain, and its own place 
is to be preserved free from danger ; for in the Ven- 
didad the high-priests have taught, that every day, 
when the hedgehog voids urine into an ant's nest, a 
thousand ants will die 2 . 

21. The rule is this, that some who are of the 
good religion say, where one is washing his face, one 
Ashem-vohA 3 is always to be uttered, and that 
Ashem-vohu is to be uttered before the washing ; 
for when he utters it while washing his face, he is 
doubtful (var-h6mand) about the water coming to 
his mouth. 

22. The rule is this, that they select from the 
purifiers 4 — when their business (mindavam) is as 
important (raba) as purity and impurity — him with 
whom the control 5 of ablution (pa^iyaz>ih) 6 and 
non-ablution is connected ; they select him especially 

1 See B.Yt. Ill, 25. The passage here quoted must have been 
in the first division of the Nask. 

2 This section is a repetition of Chap. X, 31. 
8 See Bund. XX, 2. 

4 The y6jd&saran, 'purifiers' (Av. yaozd&thrya), are those 
priests who retain so much of the purifying effect of the Bareshnum 
ceremony (see Chap. II, 6) as to be able to assist in purifying 
others by means of the same ceremony. When that effect has 
passed away a priest can no longer perform the sacred rites, until 
he has again undergone the nine nights' purification of the 

5 Reading band, but it may be bod, 'vitality, essence/ 

6 See Chap. II, 52. 


with regard to the good disposition and truthful 
speaking of the man, and to the particular work ; 
and on account of his being in innocence he is to be 
considered more righteous. 23. As in the Vendi- 
dad 1 it says, about the two shares of righteousness, 
how one should tell that he is ' a righteous man, O 
Zarat&rt the Spltam&n ! who is a purifier, who should 
be a speaker that speaks truly, an enquirer of the 
sacred texts — that is, he has performed his ritual 
(yai"t) — a righteous one who specially understands 
purification from the religion of the Mazdayas- 
nians, that is, he understands its religious formulas 
(nirang).' 24. When it is so that the control of 
their ablution is connected with him, so that they 
consider what pertains to the purifying bowl (zak-i 
ta^tik) as his, and ever abstain from it, though the 
angels hear and consider them as clean, and they 
select for him those who consecrate the water and 
bull's urine (gome^) on account of their control of 
purification (yo^dasarkarih), and it is to be per- 
formed very observantly by the consecrators at the 
place which is to be measured with a measure and 
very exactly (khtiptar) 2 . 25. And the purifier is so 
much the better when washed again, and when it 
is by some one through whose periodic (zamanik) 

1 The passage here quoted is from Pahl.Vend. IX, 4-6. 

2 Referring to the Bareshnum-gah, or place prepared for the 
Bareshnum ceremony of purification with bull's urine and water, 
which are handed to the person undergoing purification by an 
officiating priest (see Chap. II, 6). The place is marked out with 
furrows in the ground, and furnished with stones (magh) to squat 
upon during the ablutions (see B. Yt. II, 36). The construction 
of this paragraph is very obscure in many places, and its proper 
division into sentences is, therefore, uncertain. 

CHAPTER XII, 23-28. 349 

care he is thus done ; for in the periodic interval 
many secret 1 kinds of pollution are produced. 26. 
Of the celebrators of the Vendidad the good are 
they who shall again perform the Navasha^/ar rite 2 ; 
for, on account of the same nicety (na^ukih) which 
is written above by me, and on account of much also 
that is secret, which has happened and mostly 
arises about it, there is no harm from performing it. 
27. And any one of those who shall receive the 
water and bull's urine it is very important to wash 
beforehand (pavan pes) 3 ; because, if there be im- 
purity about him 4 , and he puts a hand to the cup 
(^amak), the water, and the bull's urine, they are 
unclean (apa^clz>6) 5 ; when it is so that there be 
some one, when so, it is better that they always 
wash his eyelids (moyak gas), and to wash them 
by the clean is good. 

28. The rule is this, that thou shouldst not con- 
sider even any one hopeless (anaime^) of heaven, 

1 Reading nihan, but we might perhaps read ' causes (vahan) 
of pollution of many kinds/ The meaning of the section is, that 
it is necessary for the purifying priest to maintain his own purity 
by frequently undergoing the Bareshnum ceremony himself. 

2 Ya^t-i Navasha</ar in all MSS., but the latter word is most 
probably a corruption of Av. navakhshapara, 'a period of nine 
nights,' for which length of time the Bareshnum ceremony must be 
continued (see Vend. IX, 144, XIX, 80). The ( Navash&far rite ' 
is, therefore, ' the ceremony of the nine nights/ which should be 
frequently undergone by the priests who celebrate the Vendidad 

3 M6 has pavan pfoak, ' with ceremony. 7 

4 M6 has ' them.' 

6 M6 has 'one knows it is unto the cup and bull's urine;' but 
as M6 was evidently copied from a MS. already nearly illegible in 
some places, it is generally safer to follow K20, except when M6 
supplies words omitted by the more careless writer of K20. 


and they should not set their minds steadfastly on 
hell; thereby much sinfulness for which there is a 
desire would be undesirable, because there is nothing 
which is a sin in my religion for which there is no 
retribution, as it says in the Gdthas * thus : — * Of 
those who are aware that thou art, O Afrharmazd ! is 
even he who is infamous (raspako) ; and they know 
the punishment of him even who is very sinful/ 29. 
And as to him even who is a very sinful person, 
through the desire 2 of good works which is enter- 
tained by him, there then comes more fully to him 
the joy of a soul newly worthy (nuk shayaaf) ; as 
in the Spend Nask 3 it was shown to Zarat&st about 
one man, that all his limbs were in torment, and one 
foot was outside; a^Zarat&st enquired of Afihar- 
mazd about the reason of 'it; and A&harmazd said 
that he was a man, Davans 4 by name ; he was ruler 
over thirty-three 5 districts, and he never practised 

1 The passage here quoted from the Gathas will be found in 
Pahl.Yas. XXXII, 7. 

2 M6 has merely ' through the good works which are practised 
by him;' but K20 has ' rhamak' inserted at this point, which 
seems to indicate the existence of the nearly identical Pahlavi 
letters k&mak, 'desire,' in the original from which it was copied. 

8 See Chap. X, 4. The passage here quoted was no doubt con- 
tained in that part of the Nask which treated of the exhibition of 
heaven and hell to Zaratfot, which must have been very similar to 
the Ar^-Viraf-namak, in which most of the details of this story 
about Davans are given (see AV. XXXII). 

4 This is, no doubt, the Av. davas of Yas. XXXI, 10, which 
may be translated ' hypocrite.' The Pahlavi translation of the line 
in which the word occurs is thus rendered in Haug's Essays (p. 351) : 
' Auharmazd does not allot to him who is an idler, the infidel who 
is any hypocrite (davas) in the sacred recitations. In the good 
religion it is asserted that even as much reward as they give to the 
hypocrite they do not give to the infidel.' 

6 K20 has 'thirty -four.' 

CHAPTER XII, 29~3I. 35I 

any good work, except one time when fodder was 
conveyed by him to a sheep with that one foot. 

30. The rule is this, that when a man has per- 
formed his form of worship (yast), and his wife has 
not performed it, it is extremely necessary to per- 
form the suitable form of worship, or to order a 
Getd-khari^ 1 , so that they may become such as are 
dwelling more closely together in the spiritual exist- 
ence than in the world ; and in the Hd^okht Nask 2 
it says that a woman (nairtk) who shall be reverent 
(tarsak) is to be considered as much as she who is 
suitable (zlyak). 

31. The rule is this, that these five ceremonies 
(ya^i^n), when they shall perform them y &re good 
works 3 ; when one does not perform them, and the 
time is manifest to him, and when he shall set them 
aside to perform them out of the proper time, they 
shall go to the bridge 4 as sin ; the ceremonies which 
go to the bridge are these, and in the Htispciram 
Nask 5 it says that they are the non-celebration of 
the rites (let yastano) of the season-festivals 6 , the 

1 Here written g6t6k-khari</, but see Chap. V, 6, and Bund. 
XXX, 28. 

2 See B. Yt. Ill, 25 ; but the passage here quoted is not clearly 
indicated in the accounts we have of the contents of this Nask. 

3 The distinction between these ceremonies and those whose 
values as good works are given in Chap. XVI, 6, appears to be 
that any omission in performing these five at their proper times 
amounts to an absolute sin, whereas the others are not so indis- 

4 That is, they will be taken into account at the judgment on the 
soul's actions at the K'mv&d bridge (see Bund. XII, 7). 

5 See Chap. X, 21. The passage here quoted was probably in 
the section called Nirangistan. 

6 The Gasanbars or Gahanb&rs (see Bund. XXV, 1-6). 


Rapitvln \ the three nights 2 after a death, the days 
devoted to the guardian spirits 3 , and the sun and 
moon 4 . 

32. The rule is this, that at every one of these 
three things, which come through hungry living, that 
is, sneezing, yawning, and sighing, one is to speak 
out a Yathi-ahti-vairyo and one Ashem-vohti 5 ; and 
also when one hears the sneezing of any one, to 
speak in like manner is so considered as an action of 
the good 6 ; and in the SttWgar Nask 7 it says thus : 
* " What prepares sneezing ? that is, through what 
process (k£r) does it come ? " And Aftharmazd said 
thus : " Hungry living, O Zarat&st ! because the re- 
medy for its existence is the Ahunavar, O Zarattot ! 
and righteousness 8 . " ' 

Chapter XIII. 

o. The signification of the Gdthas 9 . 
1. These three Ashem-vohfis (Yas. XI, end) which 

1 The midday period (see Bund. II, 8, 9, XXV, 9-14). 

2 See Chap. VIII, 6. 3 See Chap. X, 2. 

4 See Chap. VII, 1-5. 5 See Bund. I, 21, XX, 2. 

6 That is, it is commendable, though not obligatory. The 
practice of uttering a blessing on hearing a sneeze is still common 
in many parts of Europe. 

7 See B. Yt. I, 1. The passage here quoted is not to be traced 
in any of the accounts of this Nask. 

8 ' The Ahunavar and praise of righteousness ' would be a 
Pahlavi equivalent for ' the YatM-ahu-vairyo and Ashem-vohu.' 

9 That is, the mystical meaning or influence supposed to attach 
to various parts of the ancient hymns, or to the manner in which 
they are chanted. The term Gatha or 'hymn' (Pahl. g&s) is 
applied, in this chapter, not only to the five Gdthas properly so 
called, but also to the Yasna of seven chapters, and apparently to 

CHAPTER XII, 3 2 -XIII, 2. 353 

represent^ the Fravarane (Yas. XI, end) of the 
preliminary ritual (pe^ nirang) and the rotation 
of these three Has ('chapters'), the Fravarane, 
Frastuye, and Astuye — fravarane being the begin- 
ning of the Fravarane 2 which extends as far as fras- 
astayae/£a 3 , frastuye 4 , the beginning of the Fras- 
tuye (Yas. XII, i-XIII, 26) which extends up to the 
Astuye, and astuye 5 , the beginning of the Astaoth- 
wanem 6 (Yas. XIII, 27-XIV, end) which extends as 
far as astaothwanem^a daenay#u Mazdayas- 
n6is — also represent the Visai-w-amesha-spe/zta 
(Yas. XV), which is the beginning of the Stotan- 
yasno (' the ritual of praisers ') 7 , and these three 
His of the Bagham (Yas. XIX-XXI). 

2. In the exposition (/^ashi^ak) and through the 

other portions of the Yasna written in the G&tha dialect of the 

1 This appears to be the meaning, but the construction of this 
section is altogether very obscure, and the text is more or less 
corrupt in all MSS. In the celebration of the Yasna or YasLm the 
officiating priest tastes the Horn juice during the recitation of Yas. 
XI (see Haug's Essays, p. 404), and shortly afterwards he com- 
mences the preliminary prayers mentioned in the text. 

2 Both K20 and M6 have Freran in Pazand. 

3 Both K20 and M6 omit the initial f. 

4 U6 has &stuy6. 

5 M6 omits this word. 

6 This is the Avesta name of the Ha or chapter consisting of 
Yas. XIII, 27-XIV, 19 ; as Fraoreti is the name of the preceding 
Ha, consisting of Yas. XII, i-XIII, 26. 

7 Probably consisting of the three Has, Yas. XV-XVII ; in 
which case, the meaning seems to be that the three Ashem-vohus, 
at the beginning of this preliminary ritual, are symbolical of each 
of the three triplets of chapters which follow them ; first, of the 
Fravaran6, Fraoreti, and Astaothwanem chapters ; secondly, of 
the three chapters of the Stotan-yasno ; and thirdly, of those of the 
BagMn Yaxt. 

[5] a a 


evidence of revelation (din6) the wise of those of 
the primitive faith 1 have thus said, that a man of 
fifteen years 2 , and a son and brother of Mazdayas- 
nians — when he confesses his failings (man dak) to 
the high-priests (ra^an), and they shall bring him 
the whip and scourge 3 , and these five Gathas 4 are 
chanted and the good waters consecrated by him, 
and the whole of the renewed-birth ceremony (naviaf- 
zaafih) 5 is performed by him — becomes a mature 
youth and not a child, and a share of the prayers of 
initiation (napar) and of the fires is to be given 
over to him 6 ; and when thus much is not performed 
by him, a share is not to be given. 3. These five 7 
Gclthas are made up from the body of a righteous 

1 See Chap. I, 3. 

2 Referring to one about to become a priest. 

3 The Av. a^tra and sraosh6-£arana of Vend. IV, 38-114, 
&c, which were formerly used for the temporal punishment of 
sinners. Whether they are here brought to the neophyte as a token 
of his admission to the priesthood, or are administered to him as a 
punishment for his offences, is not quite clear. 

4 The five Gathas are the Ahunavaiti (Yas. XXVIII-XXXIV), 
the Urtavaiti (Yas. XLII-XLV), the Spe^ta-mainyu (Yas. XL VI- 
XLIX), the Vohu-khshathra (Yas. L), and the Vahutoi^ti (Yas. 
LII) ; these collections of hymns are thus named from the words 
with which each of them commences, excepting the first, which 
derives its name from the Ahunavar (see Bund. I, 21) which is 
written in the same metre. 

5 This is the Pahlavi form of the Parsi navazudi, a term 
applied to the whole initiatory ceremonial of a no n& bar, or newly 
initiated priest; the term evidently implies that the ceremony is 
considered somewhat in the light of f regeneration/ 

6 That is, he can take his part in the regular priestly duties, 
including the initiation of other neophytes. 

7 Both K20 and M6 have four in ciphers, which can hardly be 
right ; the sentence is clear enough, but the idea of its writer is 
rather obscure. 

CHAPTER XIII, 3-5. 355 

4. Ahya-ydsd (Yas. XXVIII), Khshmaibyd (Yas. 
XXIX), and Atff-ta-vakhshy& (Yas. XXX) have, 
severally, eleven stanzas (va^est), because eleven 
things move spiritually within the bodies of men, 
as life, consciousness, religion, soul, guardian spirit, 
thought, word, deed, seeing, smelling, and hearing ; 
and the bodies of men and other creatures are 
formed of water, fire, and wind 1 . 

5. Ashem-Ahurem-mazdam (Visp. XV) is to be 
recited' 2, three times before the coming of H&shedar, 
Hfish£dar-mah, and Sdshyans ; and when they also 
recite the chapter (h&d) well, and by line (gas) 
and stanza, those apostles are present 3 , and the 

1 These first three chapters of the Ahunavaiti collection of hymns 
are here supposed to symbolize the three material elements, whose 
union distinguishes a man's body from inorganic substances ; while 
the eleven stanzas, which each of these chapters contains, symbolize 
the eleven immaterial existences said to be contained in the same 

2 This is doubtful, as no verb is expressed, and the word bar, 
'time,' is struck out in M6, so it is possible to read ' the "three 
foremost " of the Ashem-Ahurem-mazdam are the coming of Hush- 
eWar,' &c. The ' three foremost' (3 levinog) would be a possible 
Pahlavi translation of the Av. ti^ro paoiry6 and ti^ra paoirya of 
Visp. XV, 4-6, instead of the actual ' three first' (3-i f rat urn), as 
may be seen from Pahl. Visp. VIII, 17, 20, where both p6,y (= 
levino) and fratum are used indifferently for Av. paoiry6. At 
any rate the idea embodied in the text is that these 'three first' 
have some reference to the three future apostles of the Parsi 
religion (see Bund. XXXII. 8, B. Yt. HI, 13, 44, 52, 62). In fact, 
however, they seem to refer to the first three chapters of the 
Ahunavaiti Gatha, immediately after which this chapter (Visp. XV) 
is recited in the full Parsi ritual ; the phrase being rendered in the 
Pahlavi translation thus :— ' I reverence the three first by not speak- 
ing out, that is, I do not say anything during them, and not wearing 
out, that is, I do not doze away during them.' 

3 K20 has ' arrive early/ 

A a 2 


country becomes more flourishing and more do- 
minant in the world. 

6. The twenty-two stanzas of Ta-w-urvata (Yas. 
XXXI) are the twenty-two judgments (da^istan) 
of which it speaks in the Ha^okht Nask 1 thus: — 
'Anaomo mananghe daya vtspai kva, kva 
paro ? ' (' where are they to be produced beyond 
every thought ? and where before ? ') ' Lodging in 
the judge, that while he has twenty-two judgments 
he may be more just ;' — so that when they pray the 
Ta-w-urvata chapter well, and recite it by line and 
stanza, the judges possess those twenty-two judg- 
ments more correctly, and judiciousness is more 
lodging in them. 

7. The sixteen stanzas of the 77z>aetumaithi chap- 
ter (Yas. XXXII) 2 are lodging in warriors, so that 
it becomes possible, during their good protection, to 
force the enemy away from those sixteen countries 
which the Vendidad 3 mentions in its first fargan/. 

1 See B. Yt. Ill, 25. Both the Avesta text here quoted and the 
translation suggested must be received with caution, as the MSS. do 
not agree in the three central words; K20 has manaNh£ dya 
visp&i kaua, and M6 has manaNhe kya vis&i kaia. The 
former reading has been adopted, with very slight correction, as it 
seems the more intelligible; but the meaning of the preceding 
word, anaomo, is far from certain. The writer seems to have been 
quoting from a Pahlavi version of the Nask which contained this 
Avesta quotation. 

2 This H&, which begins with the words zhvyfrki /iva.&tus, is 
not called by its initial words, as the preceding chapters are, but 
has this special name (see the prayers at the end of it) derived 
from its second word, and which is corrupted in Pahlavi into 

3 Here written Gavi^Sda-da^ as in Sis. Part I, and not Va- 
dikd&/ as in other parts of Sis. Part II (see § 19 and Chap. XII, 
4, 6, 20, 23, 26). Vend. I contains an account of the sixteen 

CHAPTER XIII, 6-9. 357 

8. The fourteen stanzas of Yatha-aLr (Yas. 
XXXIII) are for this reason, because seven arch- 
angels are more diligent in activity for the spirit, 
and seven archangels x for the world, so that they 
may attain 'to heaven, the home (m£hono) of Au- 
harmazd, the home of the archangels, the home of 
those righteous ones/ avi gar6-nmanem, mae- 
thanem Ahurahe mazd#u, maethanem ame- 
shanam spe^tanam, maethanem anyaesham 
ashaonam 2 . 9. The three repetitions (danar) of 
Y£-s£vLrt6 (Yas. XXXIII, 11) 3 , and the holding up 
of the holy- water (z6har) at these repetitions, are 
for the four classes 4 , and for this reason at Ahurai 
mazddi and ashemM fradaaf 5 the holy-water is 

'best of regions and countries' where the Iranian power and 
religion extended at an early date. 

1 The seven archangels besides their spiritual duties have 
severally charge of the seven worldly existences, man, animals, fire, 
metal, earth, water, and plants (see § 14 and Chap. XV). But 
perhaps we should read ' angels/ as they are often mentioned as 
' the angels of the spiritual and worldly existences/ 

2 This quotation, of which the Pahlavi translation is first given, 
and then the Avesta text, is from Vend. XIX, 107. 

3 This stanza is recited thrice, and about the same time the 
officiating priest strains the Horn juice, and prepares to pour holy- 
water into the mortar in which the Horn twigs were pounded (see 
Haug's Essays, pp. 402, 406). 

4 Or ' professions ' of the community, of which there were ori- 
ginally only three, the priest, warrior, and husbandman; but at 
a later date the artizan was added. Both K20 and M6 have ' four 
classes,' but this is inconsistent with the ' three repetitions/ The 
Avesta generally knows only three classes, but four are mentioned 
in the BaghanYa^t (Yas. XIX, 46). 

5 That is, probably, at the words Ahuro mazd#us/£a in the 
first line, and ashemM frada*/ in the second line of the stanza; 
but this is doubtful, as the MSS. give the words corruptly, in a 
mixture of Av. and Pahl, as follows: pavan Ahurai mazdai 
aharayih-i da^oih. 


to be held level with the heart of him who is the 
officiating priest (zot), and at sraota 1 it is to be 
held level with the arm of him who is the officiating 
priest, so that while the warriors are in battle with 
foreigners (an air an) they may be fuller of breath 
(vayo-girtar), and the husbandmen stronger-armed 
in the tillage and cultivation of the world. 

10. The fifteen stanzas of Ya-^kyaothana (Yas. 
XXXIV) are for this reason, because it is given 2 
for the destruction of those fifteen fiends who are dis- 
closed in the medical part (besha^) of the Ha^okht 
Nask*. 11. The four repetitions (bar) of Mazda-aaf- 
m6i (Yas. XXXIV, 15) 4 are for the right coming 
on of the share of these five chieftainships (ra^ih), 
the house-ruler, the village-ruler, the tribe-ruler, the 
province-ruler, and the supreme Zaratust 5 . 

12. The two repetitions of Ahya-yasa (Yas. 
XXVIII, i) 6 are for this reason, that the sovereign 
(dahyftpat) may not at once seize body, conscious- 

1 The first word in the third line of the stanza ; but this, again, 
has to be guessed from a Pahlavi version in the MSS. which may 
be read v a va-sr6d&&n. 

2 Or 'produced.' 

3 In the last division of that Nask (see B.Yt. Ill, 25, note). 

4 This last stanza of the Ahunavaiti Gatha is recited four 

5 See Yas. XIX, 50-52. The last of these rulers must have been 
the supreme pontiff or patriarch of the province, and in the pro- 
vince of Ragha (Rages or Rai, near Teheran) he was both temporal 
and spiritual ruler. 

6 This first stanza of the Ahunavaiti G&tha is recited twice, not 
only in its proper place (as the first stanza of each chapter is, in 
the Gathas), but also at the end of every chapter of the Ahunavaiti 
G&tha, while the officiating priest sprinkles the sacred twigs with 
the sacred milk or g&us ^ivya, ' living-cow produce ' (see Haug's 
Essays, pp. 405, 406). 


ness, and soul. 13. Those four Yatha-ahfi-vairyos 
of the first Gdtha 1 are for this reason, that is, so 
that inferiors may become more tolerant of the 
commands of superiors, and good thoughts, good 
words, and good deeds be more domesticated (mah- 
mantar) in the world, and the fiend more powerless 

14. In short (ae-mar) 2 , Ahya-yasa is as (pa van) 3 
Atiharmazd and the righteous man, Khshmaibya as 
Vohliman and cattle, A^-ta-vakhshya as Ardavahiit 
and fire, T&-w-urv&t& as Shatvafro 4 and metal, the 
//z>aetumaithi as the Gatha of Spendarma^ and the 
earth, Yatha-ais as Horvada^ and water, and Ya- 
skyaothand as Amerdda^ and plants. 

15. The progress which is in 5 the Ahunavaiti 
Gatha the house-rulers should carry on ; that which 
is in the Ustavaiti Gatha the village-rulers should 
carry on ; that which is in the Spe^ta-mainyu 6 
G&tha the tribe-rulers should carry on ; that which 
is in the Vohu-khshathra Gatha the province-rulers 
should carry on ; that which is in the Vahiito-Lrti 
Gatha the supreme Zaratuits should carry on ; and 

1 After the two Ahyd-yasas, at the end of each chapter of the 
Ahunavaiti Gatha, the Yatha-ahu-vairyo formula (see Bund. I, 21) 
is recited four times. 

2 Or ' to sum up/ 

8 It is not quite clear how pa van, 'in, on, with, by, through, as, 
for/ &c, should be translated in each clause of this section ; but 
the intention is evidently to compare the seven chapters of the 
Ahunavaiti Gatha with the seven archangels and the seven earthly 
creations which they severally protect (see Chap. XV). 

4 Here written Shatrivar. 

5 Meaning probably ' the prosperity which is occasioned by ; ' 
but the exact signification of the word frak-sham or freh- 
kasham (or however it may be read) is uncertain. 

6 Spendomat or Spendamat in Pahlavi. 


that which is in the Yasna, which is the place of 
righteous blessing 1 , these four classes themselves 
should carry on. 

16* Of the Yasna of seven chapters (Yas. XXXV- 
XLI, 17) the beginning section (kar^ako) has nine 
stanzas; and its beginning 2 is Humatanam (Yas. 
XXXV, 4), and its end is Humatanam (Yas. XLI, 
1 7 supl.) 

17. The six stanzas of Ahyi-thwa-Athro (Yas. 

XXXVI) are owing to the six hot ordeals (var) 
which, in the H&sparam Nask z , are effected by ^a- 
thrayaim athraiam 4 . 

18. The five stanzas of Itha-a^-yazamaid6 (Yas. 

XXXVII) are thanksgiving and praise for the pro- 
duction of the good creations by Aiiharmazd. 

19. The five stanzas of Imam-ia^-zam (Yas. 

XXXVIII) are owing to those five comforts and 
five discomforts of the earth, which, it is declared in 
the third fargan/ in the Vendidad 5 , are accomplished 

1 That is, the Yasna of seven chapters (Yas. XXXV-XLI), 
which is called simply 'the Yasna' in this chapter. This last 
clause, which is omitted in M6, connects these later hymns with 
the four classes of the community (see § 9), just as the five older 
hymns are connected with the five chiefs of the community (see 
§ 11) in the former clauses. This section may be a translation 
from the Avesta, as the verbs precede their nominatives. 

2 That is, the beginning of the Yasna of seven chapters. 

3 See Chap. X, 21 ; but the Sakadftm Nask (see Chap. X, 25) 
is probably meant, as it contained a section on ordeals by heat 
and cold. 

4 These Avesta words are evidently corrupt, but perhaps f a quad- 
ruple fire' is meant. K20 has /fcathr&yaim athraiam. 

5 Here written Vandikda^/ (see § 7). The passage here cited is 
not a quotation, but only a brief summary of Vend. Ill, 1-37; 
and appears to have been derived direct from the Avesta, without 
the assistance of the Pahlavi version, as several words differ from 
that translation. 

CHAPTER XIII, l6-22. 361 

thus : — ' The first comfort of the earth is from the 
land on which a righteous man walks forth ; the 
second is when they shall make the dwelling of the 
good and fires upon it ; the third is when they sow 
corn upon it, and shall take heed of dead matter ; 
the fourth is when all beasts of burden are born 
upon it ; the fifth is when every beast of burden is 
on it x ; and its first discomfort is from the Arezftr 
ridge 2 and the gate of hell ; the second is when 
they dig 3 it up for a dead body ; the third is when 
one constructs a depository for the dead (kh a zan) 4 
upon it; the fourth is from the holes of its noxious 
creatures ; the fifth is when they shall forsake a man 
in affliction (var^/akih) upon it, who is righteous,' 

20. The five stanzas of Ithi (Yas. XXXIX) are 
just as those which go before. 

21. The four stanzas of Ahu-a^-paiti (Yas. XL) 
are about the benefit (ar^-homandth) which is on 
account of water, earth, plants, and animals. 

22. The six stanzas of Sttito-garo (Yas. XLI, 
1-17), the two repetitions of Humatanam (Yas. 
XXXV, 4-6), am/ the three repetitions of Hukhsh- 
athrotem&i (Yas. XXXV, 13-15) are on account of 
the existence of the sons of Zaratfot 5 . 

1 The verb is probably omitted by mistake, and we ought to 
read ' voids urine upon it/ in accordance with Vend. Ill, 20. 

2 See Bund. XII, 8. 

3 Reading kalSndend (Pers. kalandand), as Vend. Ill, 27 
refers to burial of the dead, and the same idea might be obtained, 
more fancifully, by reading kilin£nd, ' they turn to clay * (compare 
Pers. gil, 'clay'); but the most obvious reading is karinend, 
' they cut/ and as the sentence stands it would imply that * they 
cut up its dead/ 

4 See Chap. II, 6. 

5 The three apostles expected in the future (see § 5 and Bund. 
XXXII, 8). It is doubtful whether these three passages in the 


23. The two repetitions of Ashahya-aaaf-sairl * 
(Yas. XXXV, 22, 23) are for the laudation of right- 
eousness and the destruction of the fiend. 24. The 
two repetitions of YeNhe-hatam 2 are for the lau- 
dation of Auharmazd and the archangels, and the 
destruction of the evil spirit and the miscreations 
(vishti^akan). 25. The two repetitions of z Thwoi- 
staotarasM (Yas. XLI, 12-14) are for the laudation 
of ceremonial worship (ya^no) and the sacred 
feast (mazd). 

26. The two repetitions of Atarem/£a (Visp. XIX, 
1-8) 4 are for the laudation of the Frobak fire and 
the fire VazLrt 5 . 

27. Of the sixteen stanzas of the Ustavaiti chapter 
(Yas. XLI I) 6 it is related just as about the //z>aetu- 
maithi chapter 7 . 

Yasna are here intended all to refer to the same subject, but no 
other subject is mentioned for the two former. Having completed 
the enumeration of the sections of the Yasna of seven chapters, 
the writer is now proceeding to notice those passages which are 
recited more than once in the performance of the ritual, 

1 M6 has gairi, 'in a song,' with the obsolete g, which is very 
like s, and is also used in the word gar 6 in § 22 ; this is a variant 
well worth consideration by translators of the A vesta. K20 has 
only Ashahya. 

2 This formula (see B.Yt. II, 64) is recited after every chapter 
of the Gathas, but does not appear to be anywhere recited twice ; 
so the words 2 danar, 'two repetitions/ may perhaps be inserted 
here in the wrong place, as they are wanting in § 25. 

8 These words are omitted in the Pahlavi text, evidently through 

4 Visp. XIX, XX follow Yas. XLI in the full Parsi ritual, and 
the first of them is recited twice. 

6 The Frobak is the oldest sacred fire on earth, and the VazLrt 
is the lightning (see Bund. XVII, 1, 5, SZS. XI, 5, 8-10). 

6 The first chapter of the Urtavaiti Gatha (see § 2, note 4), so 
called from its first word u,rta. 

7 See § 7. 

CHAPTER XIII, 23-29. 363 

28. The twenty stanzas of Ta^-thwa-peres& (Yas. 
XLIII) are the twenty judgments (da^istan) be- 
tween the beneficent spirit and the evil spirit ; and 
for this reason they should every time utter Ta^- 
thwa-peresi again 1 , because they should utter the 
original judgment again, and the twentieth time the 
evil spirit becomes confounded. 

29. The eleven stanzas of Aaf-fravakhshya (Yas. 
XLIV) are made up from the six chieftainships 2 
and the five accomplishments (farhang) owing to 
religion ; one is thus, not to do unto others 3 all that 
which is not well for ones self; the second is to under- 
stand fully what is well-done and not well-done ; the 
third is to turn from the vile and their conversation 
(andarag-guftano) ; the fourth is to confess ones 
failings to the high-priests, and let them bring the 
whip ; the fifth is not to neglect the season-festivals 
at their proper hour (den h&sar), nor the other 
things which go to the bridge 4 ; and the six chief- 
tainships are not his property who has not these 

1 That is, the first line (ta<? thw& peresd ere* moi vaoH 
Ahura! 'that 1 shall ask thee, tell it me right, O Ahura!') is 
repeated at the beginning of each of the first nineteen stanzas, and 
the first stanza being recited twice (as in all chapters of the Gathas) 
these words are recited twenty times before the last stanza is 
reached. The phrases 'and for this reason' and 'because they 
should utter the original judgment again ' are omitted in M6. 

2 These cannot be the same 'chieftainships' (ra</ih) as those 
mentioned in § 11, of which there are only five; but perhaps they 
are the spiritual chieftainships, or primacies, of the six other regions 
of the earth (see Bund. XXIX, 1). 

8 Assuming that afoan stands for ai^an. 

4 The JTmvzd bridge, or route of the soul to the other world (see 
Chap. XII, 31). Part of these fourth and fifth clauses is omitted 
in K20 by mistake. 


five accomplishments, and he is not fit even for 

30. The nineteen stanzas of Kam-nemoi-zam (Yas. 
XLV) are for this reason, that every one may so 
persevere in his own duty (khvesak&nih) 1 , that 
while those are our nineteen propitiations (aiUo- 
frfrf) 2 , which it says in the Sakadum Nask 3 should 
be my own, the strength and power of the angels 
shall become more considerable, and the destroyer 
more perishable. 

31. The Uitavaiti Gatha is a Gatha (g&s) of four 
chapters 4 , and each stanza of five lines (g&s), except 
Hae^a^-aspa-vakhshya (Yas. XLV, 15) 5 . 32. The 
two repetitions of Usta-ahmai (Yas. X LI I, i) G are, one 
as a retention and embrace of Auharmazd, and one 
as a destruction of the fiends ; and Usta-Ahurem- 
mazdam (Visp. XXI, 1-5) 7 in like manner. 

33. Spe#ta-mamyu (Yas. XLV I) has six stanzas, 
Yezi-adais (Yas. XLV 1 1) twelve stanzas, A^-ma- 
yavd (Yas. XLV 1 1 1) twelve stanzas, and Ka^-moi- 
urv& (Yas. XLIX) eleven stanzas. 34. The Spe^ta- 
mainyft Gatha is a G&tha of four chapters 8 , and 

1 Or, it may be, c through his own intellect (khve\rak hush),' or 
merely another mode of writing khve^k&rih, 'industry.' 

2 Considering each of the stanzas as an offering to, or propiti- 
ation of, (Av. usefriti) the angels. 

3 See Chap. X, 25. 

4 Those detailed in §§ 27-30. 

5 Which stanza has only four lines. Pahl. gas means both the 
whole hymn and also each line o-f the hymn. 

6 The first stanza of the Urtavaiti G&tha, which is recited twice, 
both in its proper place and at the end of each chapter of that 
G&tha (see §12, note). 

7 Visp. XXI follows Yas. XLV in the full Parsi ritual, and is 
recited twice. 

g Those detailed in § 33. 


each stanza of four lines ; it is made up from the 
five chieftainships and four classes 1 . 35. The two 
repetitions of Spe^ta-mainyu (Yas. XLVI, i) 2 are, 
one for the laudation of the beneficent spirit (s pen - 
da mat), and one for that of the earth 3 . 

36. One Spe^tem-Ahurem-mazdam (Visp. XXII, 
1-11) 4 is the laudation of the creatures of the bene- 
ficent spirit, and one is the destruction of the crea- 
tures of the evil spirit. 

37. The twenty-two stanzas of the Vohfi-khshathra 
Gatha (Yas. L) are those twenty-two judgments 
which are lodging within judges, as written above 5 . 
38. The two repetitions of Vohfi-khshathrem (Yas. 
L, i) 6 are, one the laudation of living (ztndakih), 
and one of the supreme Zaraturt. 

39. One Vohu - khshathrem yazamaide (Visp. 
XXIII, 1-9) 7 is for the laudation of Shatvairo 8 , 
and one of metal. 40. The two repetitions of Avi- 

1 See §§ 9, 11. 

2 The first stanza of the Spe#t&-mainyu Gatha, which is recited 
twice, both in its proper place and at the end of each chapter 
of that Gatha (see §12, note). 

3 It seems probable that the Pahlavi writer has here confounded 
Spendamat, c the beneficent spirit/ with the archangel Spendarma*/ 
who has special charge of the earth ; their names being even more 
alike in Pahlavi than in English, though corrupted from the distinct 
Avesta forms spe^ta mainyu and spe/zta drmaiti, respectively. 

4 Visp. XXII follows Yas. XLIX in the full Parsi ritual, and is 
recited twice. 

5 See § 6. 

6 The first stanza of the Vohu-khshathra Gatha, which is recited 
twice, both at the beginning and end of the chapter (see § 12, 

7 Visp. XXIII, 1-9 follows Yas. L in the full Parsi ritual, and 
is recited twice. 

8 The archangel who has special charge of metal (see § 14, 
Chap. XV, 5, 14-19, and Bund. I, 26, XXX, 19); the name 
is here written Shatrivar. 


apam (Visp. XXIV, 1-12) 1 are, one for the lauda- 
tion of waters, and one of plants. 

41. The nine stanzas of the VahLstdLsti (Yas. LI I) 
are on account of those nine things which are 2 . . . 
the supreme Zaratu^tship lodging in the supreme 
ZaratiLsts, the source of fountains, the bridge over 
waters, and even the navigable river, the righteous 
man, and the righteous woman. 4,2. And it is a 
Gatha of one chapter, and each stanza of four lines, 
except Itha-i-haithy&-nar6 (Yas. LII, 6) 3 , for there is 
always one lord and sovereign in the world. 43. 
And those four lines are for this reason, because it 
is declared : ^athru^ bamay^u khshapo dahma- 
y&d paro afritoi^ 4 , 'four times every night is the 
" blessing of the holy" (Yas. LIX),' and three times 
Srosh 6 , twice B&sh&sp 6 , and once Aeshm 7 will come 

1 After the two recitations of Visp. XXIII, 1-9 there follow 
Vend. XV, XVI, and Visp. XXIII, 10, and then Visp. XXIV, 1-12 
is recited twice, in the full Parsi ritual, followed by Visp. XXV. 

2 Some words are evidently lost, here ; M6 has m followed by a 
blank space, and K20 has madam, 'on/ It is not quite certain 
whether the things mentioned are to be reckoned as four, five, 
or six; but assuming they are five, it is possible that the four 
things missing in the text are the four remaining chieftainships 
(see § n), the rulerships of the house, village, tribe, and province 
lodged in the rulers of the same, respectively. 

3 Which stanza has five lines, and is, therefore, here considered 
symbolical of the ruling monarch, or pontiff. 

4 This Avesta passage does not appear to be extant elsewhere, 
and its Pahlavi translation, given in the text, is not quite correct ; 
it would be better thus : ' through the " blessing of the holy " 
four times every night;' dahma afriti (Pahl. dahmsin &frind, 
1 blessing of the holy ') is the technical name of Yas. LIX. 

5 See Bund. XIX, 33, XXX, 29. This angel, invoked by the 
'blessing* (Yas. LIX, 8), comes to defend mankind against the 
wiles of Bushasp and Aeshm. 

6 The demoness of sloth (see Bund. XXVIII, 26). 

7 The demon of wrath (see Bund. XXVIII, 15-17, 20). 

CHAPTER XIII, 41-49. 367 

to the material world. 44. And the five lines of that 
one stanza (Yas. LI I, 6) are for this reason, because 
the assistants of the supreme Zaratfot are five, the 
house -ruler, the village -ruler, the tribe-ruler, the 
province -ruler, and she even who is his own wife 
(narik) 1 . 45, The two repetitions of VahLsta-frtis 
(Yas. LI I, i) 2 are, one for the laudation of sove- 
reigns, and one for the laudation of peace (paaf- 

46. The two repetitions of VahLrtem-Ahurem- 
mazdam (Visp. XXVI) 3 are, one for the laudation 
of Auharmazd and the archangels, and one for the 
destruction of the fiends. 47. The four repetitions of 
the Airyamana (Yas. LI 1 1) 4 are for the existence 
of more submission (airminih) in the house, vil- 
lage, tribe, and province. 48. The four repetitions 
of Ava^-mkdem (Visp. XXVII) are for the healing 
of those 5 who dwell in the house, village, tribe, and 

49. The section (karafako) whose beginning is 
Ta^-soidhis (Yas. LVII, 1-9) 6 is, for the completion 

1 Though bound to be strictly obedient to her husband or 
guardian, a Mazdayasnian woman occupied a more honourable 
position in the community than was sanctioned by any other 
oriental religion. 

2 The first stanza of the Vahutoi^ti Gdtha, which is recited 
twice, both at the beginning and end of the chapter (see § 12, 

8 Visp. XXVI follows Yas. LII in the full Parsi ritual, and 
is recited twice, followed by Vend. XIX, XX. 

4 So called from its first words & airy^ma; it is recited four 
times after Vend. XX, and shortly afterwards Visp. XXVII is also 
recited four times, as mentioned in § 48. 

5 M6 has ' of the soul/ which is, no doubt, a blunder due to the 
illegibility of the MS. from which it was copied. 

6 This is the Fshusho-mathra (' a spell or prayer for prosperity ') 


of the Gathas, taught as pertaining to the Gathas 
(gas&nik k&sX). 

50. The beginning of the Gathas is Ahyd-yasa 
(Yas. XXVIII, 1), and their end is drigave vahyo 
(Yas. LI I, 9, end); and there are 278 stanzas, 1016 
lines, 5567 words (va^ak), 9999 mdrik, and 16,554 
khur^ak 1 . 51. For the lines and stanzas of the 
Gathas were collected by us, and were : — one hundred 
stanzas of the Ahunavaiti G&tha (Yas. XXVIII- 
XXXIV), of which each stanza is three lines; forty 
stanzas of the Yasna of seven chapters (Yas. XXXV- 

of Visp. I, 28, II, 30, Yas. LVI, ix, 6, LVIII, 13. Whether the 
remainder of Yas. LVII is to be considered as pertaining to the 
Gathas is uncertain ; it is recited in seven sections by the assistant 
priest, each section from a different position ; these seven positions 
being the stations of the seven assistant priests who are sup- 
posed to be present spiritually, and to be arranged three on each 
side, and one at the south end, of the ceremonial area, while the 
chief officiating priest occupies the north end (see Haug's Essays, 

P- 332). 

1 The numbers of the stan2as and lines are correct, as may 
be seen from the details given in § 51. Regarding the words 
there is the uncertainty as to what constitutes a compound word, 
but, taking each compound in Westergaard's edition of the texts 
as a single word, the total number of words in the 10 16 lines 
is about 614*7; an d this could be reduced to 5567 only by omit- 
ting the Yasna of seven chapters, and somewhat relaxing the rule 
as to compound words. The meaning of the last two terms, 
marik and khur^ak, is doubtful, but they are certainly not 
syllables and letters, as the number of syllables exceeds 13,000. 
In other places (see Bund. I, 21) m&rik usually means 'a word/ 
but that meaning is expressed by the term va^ak here. If the 
number 9999 be correct, marik must signify some particular class 
of syllable which would include about three-fourths of the whole 
number of syllables. It may be noted, however, that Za^-sparam, 
in the particulars he gives about the Gathas (see SZS. XI, 10, note 6), 
states the number of m&rik at 6666. The khur^/ak or ' small' 
things are probably the consonants. 


XLI, 17), of which each stanza is three lines; sixty- 
six stanzas of the U^tavaiti G&tha (Yas. XLII- 
XLV), of which each stanza is five lines, except 
Haeia^-asp& (Yas. XLV, 15), for that one is four 
lines ; forty-one stanzas of the Spe^ta-mainyu Gatha 
(Yas. XLVI-XLIX), of which each stanza is four 
lines ; twenty-two stanzas of the Vohti-khshathra 
(Yas. L), of which each stanza is three x lines ; and 
nine stanzas of the Vahist6i5ti (Yas. LI I), of which 
each stanza is four lines, except Ith&-1 (Yas. LI I, 6), 
for that one is a stanza of five ; — the amount of the 
foregoing 2 is 2 78 stanzas 3 . 

Chapter XIV 4 . 

0. May it be in the name of God (yazddn) and 
the good creation ! 

1. When they consecrate a sacred cake (drono), 
and it becomes demon worship 5 , what and how 
many things are not proper ? 

1 All MSS. have ' four/ and then add the exception about 
Itha-i to the account of this Gatha, instead of mentioning it in the 
details of the VahLst6i,rti ; which blunder is here corrected. 

2 Reading kadmon yehevuni^no, but the latter word, with 
part of the ciphers which follow, is torn away in K20, and in M6 
it is written so as to resemble the Avesta letters gnn gnn, which 
are unintelligible, though something like Pahl. yehevuni.rn6; 
there can, however, be little doubt as to the general meaning 
of the phrase. 

3 The number of lines is easily computed from the same details, 
as follows: — 300+120 + 329 + 164 + 66 + 37 = 1016 lines, as 
stated in § 50, and as they still exist in the Gatha texts. 

4 This chapter is also found in L15, fols. 1-4, and a Pazand 
version of §§ 1-3 exists in L22, fols. 126, 127, and L7, fols. 78, 79. 

5 That is, it becomes desecrated through some fault in the cere- 

[5] B b 


2. The decision is this: — Whoever knowingly 
consecrates a sacred cake with unpurified sacred 
twigs (baresom-i apci</iyaz>) 1 , or with a twig- 
bundle the number of whose twigs (t&k) is too many 
or too few, or of another plant not proper for sacred 
twigs ; or holds the end of the twig-bundle to the 
north 2 and utters the A vesta attentively; or who- 
ever consecrates with efficacy unawares, it is not to 
be considered as uttered by him. 3. Nor by him 
who advertently or inadvertently takes a taste 
(/£ashnik), not from the sacred cake with the butter 
(gaui'-dae) 3 , but from the frasast; or takes the 
prayer (va^) 4 inwardly regarding that cake (drono) 
before the officiating priest (zot) takes a taste from 
the same cake ; or shall utter the length of a stanza 
in excess, and does not again make a beginning of 
the consecration of the sacred cake ; or takes up the 

mony, for any ceremony, which is too imperfect for acceptance 
by the celestial beings, is supposed to be appropriated by the 
demons, as performed for their benefit (see Chap. IX, 5). Demon 
worship is a term also applied to many other evil actions which 
are supposed to give the demons special power over the perpetrator 
of them. 

1 See Chap. Ill, 32, note. 

2 The supposed direction of the demons (see Chaps. X, 7, XII, 
18). When praying, a Parsi must face either the sun, or a fire or 
lamp ; and when the direction of the sun is doubtful, or when it is 
nearly overhead, he must face to the south, even when he is in so 
low a latitude that the sun may be somewhat to the north of him. 

3 Which usually takes the place of the meat-offering mentioned 
in Chap. XI, 4-6, and is placed upon -one of the cakes on the left 
side of the table during consecration, while the frasasts are the 
cakes on the right-hand side of the table (see Chap. Ill, 32, note). 

4 That is, prepares for eating by muttering the portion of the 
grace which is to be recited in a low murmur before eating (see 
Chap. Ill, 6, note). This clause is omitted in K20. 

CHAPTER XIV, 2-6. 37I 

dedication formula (shnftmano) 1 too soon or too 
late ; or does not utter the Avesta for the fire when 
he sees the fire. 

4. This is how it is when the period of the day 
(gels) 2 is retained, and how it should be when one 
may relinquish it; that is, when even one of the 
stars created by Aftharmazd is apparent, it is re- 
tained, and when not it is relinquished. 5. It is 
Vand-Auharmazd 3 who said that when, besides 
Ttstar, Vanand, or Sataves 4 , one of the zodiacal 
stars (akhtartk) is apparent, it is retained, and 
when not it is relinquished. 6. There have been 
some who said that when, besides one of those three, 
three zodiacal stars are apparent, it is retained, and 
when not it is relinquished 5 . 

1 See Chaps. Ill, 35, VII, 8. 

2 See Bund. XXV, 9. The text appears to refer to the transi- 
tion from the Ushahina to the Havani Gdh at daybreak ; and 
as certain portions of the prayers are varied according to the 
period of the day, it is very necessary to know precisely when each 
period commences, so as to avoid vitiating the whole ceremonial 
by the use of a wrong prayer. 

8 See Chap. I, 4, note. 

4 Three of the leading stars, probably Sirius, Fomalhaut, and 
Antares (see Bund. II, 7). 

6 This chapter is followed (in both the old MSS. M6 and K20) 
by the Pahlavi text of the Patit-i KM</, or renunciation of one's 
own sin, a translation of which will be found in Bleeck's English 
version of the Avesta, London, 1864, III, pp. 159-162, derived 
from Spiegel's German translation of the P&zand text. This trans- 
lation is fairly correct on the whole, although some passages might 
be improved, thus (p. 162), instead of 'all sins which may attack 
the character of man [or] have attacked my character, if I, on 
account of much death, have not recognised the death,' &c, we 
should read ' of all sins which may become the lot of men, and 
have become my lot, on account of whose excessive number I 
do not know the number/ &c. 

B b 2 


Part III. — Appendix 1 . 

Chapter XV 2 . 

i. It is revealed by a passage of the A vesta that 
Zaratust, seated before Aiiharmazd, always wanted 
information (va^) from him; and he spoke to Afi- 
harmazd thus : ' Thy head, hands, feet, hair, face, 
and tongue are in my eyes just like those even 
which are my own, and you have the clothing men 
have ; give me a hand, so that I may grasp thy 

2. Aiiharmazd said thus : ' I am an intangible 
spirit; it is not possible to grasp my hand/ 

3. Zaratfct spoke thus : * Thou art intangible, and 
Vohuman, ArdavahLrt, Shatvairo 3 , Spendarma^, Hor- 
vadaaf, and Ameroda^ are intangible, and when I 
depart from thy presence, and do not see thee nor 
even them — since of the person whom 4 I see and 
worship there is something — should thou and the 
seven archangels be worshipped by me, or not 5 ?' 

1 This Appendix consists of a number of fragments found in the 
old MS. M6, and of somewhat the same character as the Shayast 
la-shayast, but they have no claim to be considered as a por- 
tion of that work. Excepting Chaps. XVIII, XIX, XXI, they are 
not found in the other old MS. K20, and beyond the fact that they 
must be more than five centuries old their age is quite uncertain, 
though some of them are probably older than others. 

2 This chapter follows the Patit-i KM<^ in M6, and is also found 
in L15, fols. 16-28; for a Pazand version of it, see L22, fols. 
1 1 3-1 2 2, and L7, fols. 70-76. 

B Written Shatroivar throughout this chapter; these six (see 
Bund. I, 26) with Auharmazd himself, are the seven archangels. 

4 Reading mun, 'whom,' instead of amat, 'when' (see Bund. 
I, 7, note). 

5 Zarat&rt is doubtful whether he ought to worship beings of 

CHAPTER XV, I-7. 373 

4. Auharmazd said thus : ' They should be ; I tell 
thee, O Zarat&rt the Spitclman! that each individual 
of us has produced his own one creation (dayak) 
for the world, by means of which they may set 
going in its body, in the world, that activity which 
they would exercise in the spiritual existence. 5. In 
the world that which is mine, who am Auharmazd, 
is the righteous man, of Vohftman are the cattle, of 
An/avahLst is the fire, of Shatvaird is the metal, of 
Spendarma^ are the earth and virtuous woman, of 
Horvadaa^ is the water, and of Amerodaaf is the 
vegetation. 6. Whoever has learned 1 the care of 
all these seven, acts and pleases well, his soul never 
comes into the possession of Aharman and the 
demons ; when he has exercised his care of them, he 
has exercised his care of the seven archangels, and 
ought to teach all mankind in the world. 

7. ' Whoever wishes to propitiate Auharmazd in 
the world, wishes to promote the things of Auhar- 
mazd ; and whoever he be, with whom Auharmazd 
ever is in every place (gas) 2 , it is necessary that he 
should 3 propitiate the righteous man, in whatever 

whose existence he had had no tangible evidence, when he no 
longer saw them; fearing, perhaps, that they might have been 
mere dreams or optical illusions. But he is told that each of these 
spiritual beings is the protector of one class of worldly existences, 
and that the proper treatment of these existences is a man's 
best means of reverencing the spiritual beings interested in their 

1 Or ' taught/ for the verb has both meanings. 

2 Or 'at all times;' it is always doubtful whether gas means 
' time ' or ' place.' 

3 Throughout this chapter a conditional meaning is given to the 
verbs by prefixing han&, a&, or 1 (all representing Paz. ae or e) to 
the present tense, instead of affixing it. 


has happened and whatever occurs to him, and 
should act for his happiness, and afford him protec- 
tion from the vile. 8. Since the righteous man is a 
counterpart of Atiharmazd the lord, and when the 
righteous man acts it is caused by him who is 
Atiharmazd, whoever propitiates the righteous man, 
his fame and welfare exist a long time in the world, 
and the splendour of Auharmazd and pleasure and 
joy become his own in heaven (vahi^t). 

9. * Whoever wishes to propitiate Vohftman in the 
world, and wishes to act for his happiness, is he who 
wishes to promote the things of Vohtiman ; and it 
is necessary for him, so that Vohuman may be ever 
with him, that he should propitiate, at every place 
(gas) #/zaf time, the well-yielding (hfidh&k) cattle, in 
whatever has happened and whatever occurs, and 
should act for their happiness ; and in the terrible 
days and the hurried times (gas) which befall them, 
he should afford them protection from the oppres- 
sive and idle. 10. He should not give them as a 
bribe to a man who is a wicked tyrant, but should 
keep them in a pleasant and warm locality and place 
(gas); and in summer he should provide them a 
store of straw and corn, so that it be not necessary 
to keep them on the pastures (/£arak) in winter; 
and he should not deliver them up for this pur- 
pose, that is, " So that I may give them up to the 
vile," because it is necessary to give to the good ; 
and he should not drive them apart from their 
young, and should not put the young apart from 
their milk. 11. Since they are counterparts of him 
(Vohiiman) himself in the world, the well-yielding 
cattle, whoever propitiates those which are well- 
yielding cattle his fame subsists in the world, and 

CHAPTER XV, 8-I5. 375 

the splendour of Auharmazd becomes his ownm the 
best existence 1 . 

12. ' Whoever wishes to propitiate Ar^avahLrt in 
the world is he who wishes to promote his things ; 
and it is necessary for him, so that An/avahLrt may 
be with him at every place (gels) and time, that he 
should propitiate the fire of Atiharmazd, in what- 
ever has happened and whatever occurs, and should 
act for its happiness ; he should not put upon it 
wood, incense, and holy- water 2 which are stolen and 
extorted, and he should not cook at it a ration (ba- 
ll ar) which is violently extorted from men. 13. For 
it is a counterpart of him (Ardavahiit) himself in 
the world, the fire of Ailharmazd ; and whoever 
propitiates those which are fires of Auharmazd his 
fame subsists in the world, and the splendour of 
Afiharmazd becomes his own in heaven. 

14. * Whoever wishes to propitiate Shatvairo in 
the world, and wishes to act for his happiness, is he 
who wishes to promote the things of Shatvairo ; and 
whoever he be, it is necessary, so that Shatvairo 
may be with him at every place and time, that he 
should propitiate melted metal 3 at every place and 
time. 15. And the propitiation of melted metal is 
this, that he shall practise habits (diyino) of the 

1 See Chap. VI, 3. 

2 Holy-water is not put upon the fire, for that would be sinful, 
but it is presented to the fire, and the outside of the fire-place is 
sprinkled or washed with it (see Haug's Essays, p. 403). The 
* fire of Auharmazd ' means any fire, whether sacred or used for 
household purposes. 

3 The word may be read either aiy6n or a sin (Av. ayangh, 
Pers. ayan, ahan, or ahin), which is usually translated ' iron,' but 
also means ' metal ' generally, as it certainly does here, and very 
probably likewise in B. Yt. I, 1, 5, II, 14, 22. 


heart so unsullied and pure that, when they shall 
drop melted metal upon it, it does not burn. 16. 
And Ataropaaf son of Maraspend 1 even acted in this 
priestly fashion (dastobarih), so that the melted 
metal, when they drop it upon the region (khan 6) 
of his pure heart, becomes as pleasant to him as 
though 2 they were milking milk upon it. 17. When 
they drop it upon the region of the heart of the 
wicked and sinners, it burns, and they die. 18. And 
one should not commit sin with metal, and with its 
burning ; and should not give gold and silver to the 
vile. 19. For it is a counterpart of Shatvairo him- 
self in the world for him, and since he propitiates 
those which are melted metals, his fame subsists in 
the world, and the splendour of Atiharmazd becomes 
his own in heaven. 

20. 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Spendarmarf in 
the world, wishes to promote the things of Spend- 
armaaf; and whoever he be, it is necessary, so that 
SpendarmaaT may be with him, that he should pro- 
pitiate, at every place and time, the earth and 
virtuous woman, in whatever has happened and in 
whatever occurs, and should act for their happiness. 
21. For when he does not spread out (bara la 
veshe^) this earth, and it does not separate one 
piece from another, his body also will not be always 

1 The primate and prime minister of Shapur II (a.d. 309-379), 
who is said to have undergone the ordeal of having melted metal 
poured upon his chest, in order to prove the truth of the Mazda- 
yasnian religion. The metal used is generally called rui, ' brass/ 
but here it is aiyen, 'iron/ though a more fusible metal than 
either was, no doubt, used. 

2 Reading am at, 'though/ instead ofraun, 'which' (see Bund. 
I, 7, note). 

CHAPTER XV, 16-25. 377 

living upon it at every place and time 1 . 22. On 
account of the lodgment of Spendarma^ in the earth, 
when a robber, violent and worthy of death, and 
wives who are disrespectful to their husbands walk 
about in sinfulness in the world, and their husbands 
are active and virtuous, it becomes much distressed 
(zanoik). 23. This, too, is declared, that, whenever 
this earth becomes distressed (zanik), it is most so 
at the time when sinners worthy of death are most ; 
for it is declared, when sinners worthy of death walk 
upon it, its pain and uneasiness become as dis- 
tressing (dtiskhvar) to it as the dead son on her 
bosom to a mother ; and the lodgment of Spend- 
armaaf in the earth is little in that place whereon 
sinners worthy of death walk. 24. And her 2 happi- 
ness arises from that place when they shall perform 
tillage and cultivation on it, and a virtuous son is 
born upon it, and they rear cattle upon it ; and it 
is so one's fame subsists in the world, and the 
splendour of Auharmazd becomes one's own in 

25. 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Horvada^/ and 
Amerodaaf in the world, whereas that is necessary 
which promotes their things, whoever he be it is 
necessary that he should propitiate, at every place 
and time, the water and vegetation of Horvadaaf 
and Ameroda^, in whatever has happened and in 

1 Meaning that the earth must be tilled in order to support its 
inhabitants, but there is some doubt as to the exact wording of the 

2 Spendarma*/ is a female archangel ; perhaps, however, the 
earth is meant here, as it is said to be most pleased by the exist- 
ence of fire-temples, dwellings of righteous people, cultivation, 
stables, and pastures (see Vend. Ill, 1-20). 


whatever occurs, and should seize upon those who 
consume and steal water and vegetation *. 26. And 
he should not act oppressively, he should not walk 
the world in sinfulness, and should not bring bodily 
refuse (hlkhar), dead matter (nasal) 2 , or any other 
pollution to water; he should not destroy vegetation 
unlawfully, and should not give fruit to the idle and 
vile. 27. For when he commits sin against water 
and vegetation, even when it is committed against 
merely a single twig of it, and he has not atoned for 
it, when 3 he departs from the world the spirits of all 
the plants in the world stand up high in front of that 
man, and do not let him go to heaven. 28. And 
when he has committed sin against water, even 
when it is committed against a single drop of it, and 
he has not atoned for it, that also stands up as high 
as the plants stood, and does not let him go to 
heaven, 29. Since they are counterparts of Hor- 
vadaaf and Amerodarf themselves, the water and 
vegetation, whoever propitiates those which be water 
and vegetation, his fame subsists in the world, and a 
share of the splendour of Auharmazd becomes his 
in heaven/ 

30. Auharmazd said this also to Zaratust, namely: 

1 Reading mun, * who,' instead of amat, ' when/ and dug-end, 
'they steal,' instead of dug-d (perhaps for dug-ak, ' thievish'); 
and supposing the verb to be vakhduned, ' takes, seizes/ and not 
vaduneV, ' makes, acts.' If the reverse be assumed, the transla- 
tion would be thus : * should act for their happiness. When they 
consume water and vegetation he should not act thievishly and 

2 For the meaning of hikhar and nasai, see note on Chap. 
H, 30. 

8 Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mun, 'who' (see Bund. I, 
7, note). 

CHAPTER XV, 26-XVI, 2. 379 

' My will and pleasure is that the observance and 
propitiation of these seven archangels shall be as I 
have told thee ; and do thou, too, speak thus unto 
men, so that they may commit no sin and may not 
become wicked, and the splendour of Auharmazd 
may become their own in heaven/ 

31. Completed in peace, pleasure, and joy 1 . 

Chapter XVI. 

0. In the name of God (yazdcin) I write a para- 
graph (b aba) where the sins which are as it were 
small are mentioned one by one. 

1. The least sin is a Farman ; and a Farman is 
three coins of five annas 2 , some say three coins. 2. 
An Agerept is, as regards whatever weapon (snei*) 
men strike with in the world, whenever the weapon 
is taken in hand ; and taken up by any one four 
finger-breadths from the ground it is the root 3 of an 

1 This is the most usual concluding phrase of short Pahlavi 
texts, and indicates that this account of the best mode of propiti- 
ating the archangels is to be considered as a separate text. It is 
followed in M6 by the paragraphs which constitute the next two 

2 Reading 3 numai-i 5 anak, but this is uncertain, and if 
correct must have been written in India, as the anna is an Indian 
coin worth nearly three halfpence. The coin of five annas was 
probably a dirham, as the dirham being about fifty grains of silver 
(see note on g&gan in Chap. I, 2), and the rupi having formerly 
been less than 180 grains in Gujarat, the former would be nearly 
five-sixteenths of the latter, that is, five annas. It may, therefore, 
be assumed that the amount of the Farman is here taken at three 
dirhams, as in Chap. XI, 2 ; but in § 5 it appears to be 3^ dirhams, 
and in Chap. I, 2 as much as sixteen dirhams. 

3 See Chap. II, 69, note, 


Agerept for him ; and the retribution and punish- 
ment for an Agerept should be fifty-three dirhams 
(^an) 1 . 3. When the weapon turns downwards 
it is the root of an AvoirLst for him, and his sen- 
tence (dind) is to be changed; his retribution and 
punishment should be seventy-three dirhams 2 , which 
is when anything further occurs. 4. When he shall 
lay the weapon on any one it is the root of an 
Aredfo for him, and his retribution and punishment 
are thirty stirs ; if the wound thereby made by him 
be one-fifth of a span (dfot) 3 it is no root of an 
Aredus for him, and his retribution and punishment 
are the same thirty stirs. 

5. I write the degrees of sin: — A Sr6sho-^aranam 4 
is three coins and a half, a Farman is a Srosho- 
>£aranam, an Agerept is sixteen stirs, an Avoiriit is 
twenty -five stirs, an Aredfo is thirty, a Khor is 
sixty, a Ba^ai is ninety, a Yat is a hundred and 
eighty, and a Tanaptihar is three hundred 5 . 

6. The good works which are in the ceremonial 

1 § 5 says sixteen stirs, which, if equivalent to these fifty-three 
dirhams, would imply s T \ dirhams to the stir, instead of four as 
usually stated (see Chap. I, 2). The amounts mentioned in 
Chaps. I, 2, XI, 2 are very different. 

2 § 5 says twenty-five stirs, which, at 3y 5 F dirhams to the stir (as 
in the case of Agerept), would be very nearly eighty-three dirhams, 
which is probably the number we ought to read in the text, and 
also, possibly, in Chap. XI, 2. 

3 The di^t is a span of ten finger-breadths (about 7 \ inches) 
between the thumb and middle finger (see Bund. XXVI, 3, note). 

4 See Chap. IV, 14, note. Comparing the amount here men- 
tioned with that of the Farman in § 1, the Srosho-^aranam, which 
is here made equal to the Farman, appears to amount to 3^ dir- 
hams, which agrees very nearly with the statement in Chap. X, 24, 
but differs from that in Chap. XI, 2. 

5 For similar scales of degrees, see Chaps. I, 2, XI, 2. 

CHAPTER XVI, 3-6. 381 

worship of the sacred beings (ya^isn-i yazd&n): — 
Consecrating a sacred cake (dron) 1 is a good work 
of one Tan&pilhar 2 ; a. form 0/" worship (ya^t) 3 is a 
hundred Tanapiihars; a Vispara*/ 4 is a thousand 
Tanaptihars ; a D6-homast 5 is ten thousand ; a 
Dva^dah-hom&st is a hundred thousand, and the 
merit (kirfak) of every one which is performed with 
holy- water is said to be a hundred to one ; a Haaf- 
okht 6 is two thousand Tan&piihars, and with holy- 
water it becomes a hundred to one 7 . 

1 See Chap. Ill, 32. The Persian Rivayats explain that this is 
when the proper ritual is merely recited, without using the sacred 
twigs and other ceremonial apparatus ; when the twigs are used 
the merit is ten times as great. 

2 That is, sufficient to counterbalance a Tanapuhar sin (see 
Chap. I, 1, 2). 

3 A Ya^t is a formula of praise in honour of some particular 
angel ; when recited with all the accessories of sacred twigs and 
other ceremonial apparatus, the merit is ten times as great as is 
mentioned in the text. 

4 The Vispara^ service includes the Yasna, and when performed 
with the use of the sacred twigs, holy-water, and other ceremonial 
apparatus the merit is ten times as great as here stated; some 
authorities say it is a hundred times as great. 

5 This kind of H6mast is not mentioned in Dastur Jamaspji's 
explanation of this species of religious service (see B. Yt. II, 59, 
note) ; it occurs, however, in the Nf rangist&n as a distinct kind, 
though called merely Homast in the Persian Rivayats. 

6 SeeB.Yt. Ill, 25. 

7 The merits of other prayers and ceremonies are detailed in the 
Persian Rivayats ; thus, that of the ordinary recital of a Vendidad 
(which includes both Yasna and Vispara^/) is sixty thousand Tana- 
piihars, and when with sacred twigs and holy-water it is a hundred 
thousand ; that of the recital of any NyayLr (see Chap. VII, 4), or 
of taking and retaining a prayer (va^*, see Chap. Ill, 6) inwardly, 
is one Tandpuhar. 


Chapter XVI I. 

1. This, too, ZaratfLrt asked of Atiharmazd, that 
is : ' Which is the time when one must not eat 
meat ?' 

2. Aftharmazd gave a reply thus: 'In a house 
when a person shall die, until three nights are com- 
pleted, nothing whatever of meat is to be placed on 
a sacred cake (dron) therein and in its vicinity 1 ; 
but these, such as milk, cheese, fruit, eggs, and pre- 
serves, are to be placed ; and nothing whatever of 
meat is to be eaten by his relations 2 . 3. In all the 
three days it is necessary to perform the ceremonial 
(ya^isn) of Srosh for this reason, because Srosh will 
be able to save his soul from the hands of the 
demons for the three days 3 ; and when one con- 

1 Reading va hamgoshak, the latter word being apparently 
used in a parallel passage in Pahl. Vend. VIII, 64 in old MSS. ; 
this reading is, however, somewhat doubtful here, and perhaps we 
ought to read ' on a sacred cake in that roofed place (pavan zak 
vamkinih);' the last word being a possible term for ' roofing ' 
as it stands, though it may be a miswriting of vamp6j (Pers. 
bamp6.y, ' roofing '). 

2 The Parsis, nowadays (Dastur Hoshangji says), do not cook 
for three days under a roof where a death has occurred, but obtain 
food from their neighbours and friends ; but if the cookroom be 
under a separate roof, as often happens in India, they have no 
objection to cooking there. 

3 The soul is supposed to hover about the body for the first 
three nights after death, during which time it has to rely upon the 
angel Srosh (see Bund. XXX, 29) for protection from the demons, 
which the angel, it is presumed, will afford more efficiently if 
properly propitiated by the surviving relatives. At the third dawn 
after death (that is, the dawn of the fourth day inclusive of the day 
of death) the soul is supposed to depart finally for the other world 
(see AV. IV, 8-36, XVII, 5-27). 

CHAPTER XVII, 1-6. 383 

stantly performs a ceremonial at every period 
(gds) 1 in the three days it is as good as though 
they should celebrate the whole religious ritual 
(hamak dino) at one time. 4. And after the third 
night, at dawn, one is to consecrate three sacred 
cakes (dron), one for Rashnti and hst&d, the second 
for Vae the good 2 , and the third for the righteous 
guardian spirit (ar^/at fravar^); and clothing 3 is 
to be placed upon the sacred cake of the righteous 
guardian spirit. 5. For the fourth day it is allow- 
able to slaughter a sheep 4 , and the fourth day the 
ceremonial (ya^isn) of the righteous guardian spirit 
is to be performed; and afterwards are the tenth- 
day, the monthly, and, then, the annual ceremonies ; 
and the first monthly is exactly on the thirtieth day, 
and the annual on the particular day 5 . 6. When he 

1 These periods of the day are five in summer, and four in 
winter (see Bund. XXV, 9, 10). 

2 The usual name of the angel Rim (the Vayu of Ram Yt.) 
who, with the angels Rashnu and Asta^, is supposed to be sta- 
tioned at the Kmva.d bridge, where the soul has to give an account 
of its actions during life shortly after the dawn following the third 
night after death (see AV. V, 3, CI, 21, note, Mkh. II, 115). 

8 This clothing must be new and good, and is supposed to be 
supplied to the spirit to prevent its appearing unclothed in the 
other world, where the clothing of the soul is said to be formed 
* out of almsgivings ' (Chap. XII, 4) ; to fulfil which condition the 
clothes provided are presented to the officiating priests (see Sad- 
dar BundahLr LXXXVII). 

4 Or ' goat.' 

5 That is, on the exact anniversary of the death ; the sentence 
is rather obscure, but this appears to be the meaning. With 
regard to the ceremonies after a death, the Persian Riv&yats give 
more details, which may be summarized as follows: — On each of 
the first three days a Sr6sh Yast is performed and a Srosh Dron 
consecrated (see Chap. Ill, 32, note). On the third night, in the 
middle of the Aiwisruthrem Gah (dusk to midnight), a renuncia- 


shall die at a place distant from that where the 
information arrives, when the three days' ceremonies 
(satilih) are celebrated at that place where he shall 
die it is well, when not, their celebration is to be at 
this place, and from the time when the information 
arrives, until three nights are completed, it is neces- 
sary to perform the ceremonial of Srosh, and after 
three days and nights it is necessary to perform the 
ceremonial of the righteous guardian spirit/ 

7. In one place it is declared, that of him whose 
begetting is owing to the demons, of him who com- 
mits sodomy, and of him who performs the religious 
rites (din 6) of apostasy, of none of the three do 

tion of sin is performed in the house of the deceased ; and in the 
Ushahin Gah (midnight to dawn) four Drons are consecrated, 
one dedicated to the good VaS (Na-i veh), one to Rashn and 
Ast&d, one to Srosh, and one to the righteous (asho&n), and in 
front of the last are placed new and clean clothes with fruit, but 
without an egg. On the fourth day, at sunrise, the Dahman 
Afringan (Yas. LIX) is recited, and then the KhursheW and Mihir 
NyayLr, after which the people in the house can first eat fresh- 
cooked meat. During the fourth day also the Ya^t of the righteous 
is performed, and the Dron of the righteous is consecrated ; and 
the same again on the tenth day, together with the recitation of 
the Dahman Afringan. On the thirtieth day the Sirozah (praise 
of the thirty days) is to be celebrated, with the dedication to the 
thirty days ; thirty- three beans (luvak) and thirty-three eggs, with 
fruit, being placed in front of the Dron, which is consecrated in 
the presence of fire ; and, afterwards, the assistant priest conse- 
crates a Drdn for Srosh. The next day the chief priest consecrates 
a Dron for the righteous ; a suit of clothes and fruit being placed 
in front of the Dron. And each day a Ya^t of the righteous is 
performed, a Dron of the righteous is consecrated, and an Afringan 
recited. On the same day every month the same Ya^t, Dr6n, and 
Afringan are celebrated ; a priest also undergoes the Bareshnum 
for the deceased, a Geti-khari^ (see Bund. XXX, 28) is per- 
formed, and three Vendidads dedicated to Srosh. On each day 
at the end of a year the Sirdzah Yast is performed, and a Dron 

CHAPTER XVII, 7-9. 385 

they restore the dead *, for this reason, because he 
whose begetting is owing to the demons is himself a 
demon 2 , and the soul of him who commits sodomy 
will become a demon 3 , and the soul of him who 
performs the religious rites of apostasy will become 
a darting snake 4 . 

8. This, too, is revealed by the Avesta 5 , that 
Aftharmazd spoke thus : ' Give ye up the persons 
of all men, with the submissiveness of worshippers, 
to that man to whom the whole Avesta and Zand is 
easy 6 , so that he may make you acquainted with 
duties and good works ; because men go to hell for 
this reason, when they do not submit their persons 
to priestly control (aerpatistan), and do not be- 
come acquainted with duties and good works.' 

9. Query: — There is an action which, according 
to the Avesta 7 , is not good for a person to do, and 
the sentence of 'worthy of death' is set upon it; for 
ones better preservation is one not to do that action, 

dedicated to the thirty days is consecrated, thirty-three beans being 
placed, with one Dron, one Frasast (see Chap. Ill, 32, note), one 
pentagonal Dron as the sun, one crescent-shaped as the moon, 
thirty-three eggs, and fruit, in front of the Dron, which is conse- 
crated in the presence of fire; afterwards, the assistant priest 
consecrates a Dr6n for Sr6sh, and recites the Dahman Afringan, 
and the next day the chief priest consecrates a Dron for the 
righteous, a suit of clothes being placed before the Dron, and 
recites the Dahman Afring&n. 

1 That is, there is no resurrection for them. 

2 And, therefore, not immortal according to the Parsi faith. 

3 Compare Vend. VIII, 98-106. 

4 Which being a creature of the evil spirit is doomed to de- 

6 But it is doubtful if the passage be extant. 

6 That is, the man who knows the whole scripture and com- 
mentary by heart. 

7 Reading pavan Avistak, instead of Avistak pavan. 

[5] cc 

386 shayast la-shAyast. 

or to accomplish and urge it on, for the advance of 
religion in a state of uncertainty (var-h6mandih) ? 
10. The answer is this, that when they act well for 
their better preservation there is no fear, on account 
of acting well, but one is not to forsake that l y too, 
though it be not goodness ; a forsaken duty is very 
bad, for a contempt of it enters into one. 

ii. This, too, is declared, that Zaratfot enquired 
of Atiharmazd thus : ' From what place do these 
people rise again ? from that place where they first 
went into their mothers, or from that place where 
the mothers have given them birth, or from that 
place where their bodies happen to be (aufte^)?' 
12. Afiharmazd gave a reply thus : ' Not from that 
place where they have gone into their mothers, nor 
from that place where they have been born from 
their mothers, nor from that place where their 
bodies and flesh happen to be, for they rise from 
that place where the life went out from their 
bodies/ 13. And this, too, he asked, that is : 
' Whence do they raise 2 him again who is sus- 
pended from anything, and shall die in the air?' 
14. The reply was: * From that place where his 
bones and flesh first fall to the ground ; hence, ex- 
cept when he shall die on a divan (gis) or a bed 
(vistarg), before they carry him away, whatever it 

1 The religion in a position of difficulty appears to be the 
meaning, but the reply to this question of casuistry is by no means 

2 Literally, ' they rise/ both here and in the next section, but 
the change to the plural number is perplexing, unless it refers to 
those who prepare the resurrection of the dead (Bund. XXX, 4, 
7, 17), as here assumed by reading 'they raise.' 


is, a fragment x is to be taken and to be laid across 
his limbs ; for when the usage is not so, they raise 
him again from that place where his body arrives at 
the ground/ 

15. Completed in peace, pleasure, and joy 2 . 

Chapter XVI I P. 

1. It is said in revelation that Aeshm 4 rushed 
into the presence of Aharman 5 , and exclaimed thus : 
' I will not go into the world, because Afiharmazd, 
the lord, has produced three things in the world, 
to which it is not possible for me to do anything 

2. Aharman exclaimed thus : ' Say which are 
those three things/ 

3. A&shm exclaimed thus : ' The season-festival 

1 Apparently a fragment of the place whereon the death took 
place is meant by ka^/am-i p&rak. 

2 The miscellaneous passages which follow Sis. in M6 terminate 
at this point, which is the end of the first volume of that MS. The 
next three chapters are taken from the latter end of the other 
volume of M6. 

3 Both this chapter and the next are also found in K20, the 
first being placed before the first part of Sis., and the second 
before the second part. Chap. XVIII also occurs in Dastur 
J&m&spji's MS. of the Bundahu, just after Chap. XXXIV of that 
text (see Introduction, p. xxx), and a Pazand version of it occu- 
pies the same position in L7 and L22, and is translated by Justi 
as the last chapter of the Bundahi.?, in his German translation of 
that work (see Introduction, p. xxvi); 

4 The demon of wrath (see Bund. XXVIII, 15-1^ 

5 See Bund. I, 3. A6shm, as the chief agent of 
in his machinations against mankind, rushes into 
presence in hell to complain of the difficulties he enco 

C C 2 


(gasanbar) 1 , the sacred feast (myazd), and next- 
of-kin marriage (khvetuk-das)/ 

1 See Bund. XXV, i, 3, 6. The six Gahanbars or season- 
festivals are held, respectively, on the 45th, 105th, 180th, 210th, 
290th, and 365th days of the Parsi year. An explanation of the 
cause of the inequality of these intervals has been proposed by 
Mr. Khurshedji Rustamji Cama, which is well worthy of attention, 
and appears to have been first published in 1867 in Nos. 7 and 8 of 
his Zarto^ti Abhyas. His view is that the mediaeval Zoroastrians, 
beginning their year at the vernal equinox (Bund. XXV, 6, 13, 21), 
recognised originally only two seasons, a summer of seven months 
and a winter of five (Bund. XXV, 7), and they held a festival, not 
only at the end of each season, that is, on the 210th and 365th 
days of their year, but also in the middle of each season, that is, 
on the 105th and 290th days of their year. That these two latter 
were mid-season festivals is proved by their A vesta names, Maidhyo- 
shema and Maidhyairya, beginning with the word maidhya, 
1 middle/ Later on, the Zoroastrians divided their year into four 
equal seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter (Bund. XXV, 
20), and without interfering with their old festivals, they would, no 
doubt, have wished to celebrate the end and middle of each of 
their new seasons. The ends of these four seasons occur on the 
90th, 180th, 270th, and 365th days of the year, and their mid- 
points are the 45th, 135th, 225th, and 320th days; but the Zoro- 
astrians already held a festival on the 365th day, and celebrated 
midsummer and midwinter (the 135th and 320th days of their new 
calendar) on the 105th and 290th days of their year, and they 
would consider the 90th, 225th, and 270th days too close to their 
old festivals of the 105th, 210th, and 290th days to allow of the 
former being held as new festivals ; so that they would have only 
the midspring festival, on the 45th day, and that of the end of 
summer, on the 180th day, to add to their old festivals. It may 
be objected that the end of summer was already celebrated on the 
210th day, and, for this reason, it is more probable that the festi- 
vals were intended to celebrate the beginnings and mid-points of 
the seasons, rather than their ends and mid-points. According 
to this view, the six season-festivals were intended, respectively, to 
celebrate midspring, midsummer, the beginning of autumn, the 
beginning of winter, midwinter, and the beginning of spring. 
That they were also intended to commemorate, respectively, the 








4. Aharman exclaimed thus : ' Enter into the 
season-festival ! if one of those present shall steal 
a single thing the season-festival is violated, and the 
affair is in accordance with l thy wish ; enter into the 
sacred feast 2 ! if only one of those present shall chatter 
the sacred feast is violated, and the affair is in 
accordance with thy wish; but avoid next-of-kin mar- 
riage 3 ! because I do not know a remedy for it; for 
whoever has gone four times near to it will not 
become parted from the possession of Auharmazd 
and the archangels 4 / 

creations of the sky, water, earth, vegetation, animals, and man, is 
a belief of later times, derived probably from a foreign source. 

1 Reading pavan, ' with,' instead of bara, 'beyond/ as in the 
next clause of the sentence (see p. 176, note 5). 

2 By the sacred feast is meant the consecration of sacred cakes, 
with meat-offerings and the recital of the Afringans or blessings 
(see Chaps. Ill, 32, XI, 4). 

3 By next-of-kin marriage Parsis nowadays understand the 
marriage of first cousins, which they consider a specially righteous 
act ; and the passages in Pahlavi texts, which appear to approve of 
marriages between brother and sister, father and daughter, and 
mother and son, they explain as referring to the practices of here- 
tics (see Dastur Peshotan's English translation of the Dinkara 7 , 
p. 96, note). How far this explanation may be correct has not 
been ascertained, for the passages in question are rather obscure, 
and have not been thoroughly examined. But it is quite con- 
ceivable that the Parsi priesthood, about the time of the Muham- 
madan conquest (when the practice of next-of-kin marriage was 
most extolled), were anxious to prevent marriages with strangers, 
in order to hinder conversions to the foreign faith ; and that they 
may, therefore, have extended the range of marriage among near 
relations beyond the limits now approved by their descendants. 

4 The object of this chapter is evidently to extol the religious 
merit of next-of-kin marriage. A Persian version of the passage, 
contained in M5, fols. 54, 55, adds the following details: ' There- 
fore it is necessary to understand, that the chief next-of-kin mar- 
riage is that of a sister's daughter and brother's son ; a medium 


Chapter XIX. 

i. The Yatha-ahii-vairyo x formulas that are 
necessary in each place, and how they are to be 
spoken in performing anything 2 . 

2. One by him who goes forth to an assembly, 
or before grandees and chieftains, or on any busi- 
ness ; or when he goes to ask for what he wants 
(val khvahi^no); also when he quits any business; 
in each of these situations he is to say only one 
formula, so that his business may proceed more 
promptly 3 . 

next-of-kin marriage is that of a brother's son and a younger (di gar) 
brother's daughter, or of a sister's son and a younger sister's daughter; 
and inferior to a medium next-of-kin marriage is that of a sister's 
son and a younger brother's daughter. It is necessary to know 
that any person who contracts a next-of-kin marriage, if his soul 
be fit for hell, will arrive among the ever-stationary (see Chap. 
VI, 2), if it is one of the ever-stationary it will arrive at heaven. 
Another particular is to be added ; if any one, in departing, settles 
and strives for the next-of-kin marriage betrothal (paivand) of 
a next brother it is a good work of a thousand Tanapuhars ; if 
any one strives to break off a next-of-kin marriage betrothal he is 
worthy of death/ 

1 See Bund. I, 21. 

2 It appears from the ninth book of the Dinkan/, that the con- 
tents of this chapter are derived from the first fargar</ of the 
Su^/kar Nask (see B. Yt. I, 1, note). The account given by the 
Dinkan/ contains fewer details, but, so far as it goes, it is in accord- 
ance with our text, except that it seems to transfer the object of 
§ 10 to § 12, and removes the objects of §§ 12, 13 one step onwards ; 
it also adds 'going on a bridge' to § 2. The Persian Rivayat of 
Bahman Pun^yah gives further details, as will be mentioned in the 
notes below. 

3 The Persian Rivayat adds to these occasions, when he goes 
on the water, or a river, or goes to borrow, or to ask repayment 
of a loan, or goes out from his house, or comes into it. 

CHAPTER XIX, 1-6. 391 

3. That a blessing (if r in 6) may be more benedic- 
tory, for this reason one utters two formulas ; for 
there are two kinds of blessing, one is that which 
is in the thoughts *, and one is that which is in 

4. Four are for coming out more thankfully when 
at a season-festival 2 . 

5. Five by him who goes to atone for sin, in order 
to expel the fiend ; because it is necessary to un- 
dergo punishment by the decision (dastobarth) of 
these five persons, the house-ruler, the village-ruler, 
the tribe-ruler*, the province-ruler, and the supreme 
Zaratfot ; and five Ashem-vohfts 4 are to be uttered 
by him at the end. 

6. Six by him who goes to seek power, and to 
battle, so that he may be more successful. 

1 The words pavan minion are guessed, for this first clause is 
omitted by mistake in M6, and these two words are illegible in 
K20, except part of the last letter. 

2 K20 substitutes for val, 'at,' the following mutilated phrase : 
[. . . . aNhtfU khshapo ka^ar^ai pavan ka^arMi] madam 
vazlune</ra^ih-i; the portion in brackets being evidently a frag- 
ment from the Hadokht Srosh Yt. 5 with Pahlavi translation 
(a passage which treats of the efficacy of reciting the YatM-ahu- 
vairyo). If this fragment be not merely a marginal gloss, which 
has crept into the text by mistake, we must translate the whole 
section as follows : ' Four are for the more thankful coming out 
of the liberality of a season-festival, when the passage, " on that day 
nor on that night comes there anything whatever on any one," goes 
on/ The Dinkan/ has merely : ' Four by him who is at the 
invocation of the chiefs of creation and the celebration of a season- 
festival/ The Persian Rivayats omit the section altogether. 

3 This person is omitted both in M6 and K20, but he is wanted 
to make up the five. This section is omitted by the Persian 

4 See Bund. XX, 2. These are to be recited after the punish- 
ment is over. 


7. Seven by him who goes to perform the worship 
of God (yazd&n), so that the archangels may come 
more forward x at the worship. 

8. Eight by him who goes to perform the cere- 
monial of the righteous guardian spirit. 

9. Nine by him who goes to sow corn ; these he 
utters for this reason, because the corn will ripen 
(raseaQ in nine months, and so that the corn may 
come forward he will make the mischief of the 
noxious creatures less 2 . 

10. Ten by him who goes to seek a wife, so that 
the presents may be favourable for the purpose. 
1 1 . Ten by him who wishes to allow the male access 
to beasts of burden and cattle, so that it may be 
more procreative 3 . 

12. Eleven by him who goes to the lofty moun- 
tains, so that the glory of mountains and hills may 
bless him and be friendly 4 . 

13. Twelve by him who goes to the low districts, 
so that the glory of that country and district may 
bless him and be friendly 5 . 

14. Thirteen by him who shall become pathless ; 
at that same place he shall utter them ; or by him 

1 Or 'may arrive earlier/ there being seven archangels has 
suggested the number seven. This section and the next are 
omitted by the Persian Rivayats. 

2 The Persian Rivayats add general cultivation, planting trees, 
and cohabitation with one's wife. 

3 Instead of §§ 10, 11 the Persian Rivayats have buying quadru- 
peds, and driving pegs into the ground for picketing them. 

4 The Persian Rivayats substitute conference with a maiden, 
seeking a wife, giving one's children in marriage, and obtaining 
anything from another. 

6 The Persian Rivayats add going up hills, mounting anything 
lofty, going on a bridge, and losing one's way. 

CHAPTER XIX, 7 -XX, I. 393 

who shall pass over a bridge and a river, so that 
the spirit of that water may bless him 1 ; because 
the YatM-ahft-vairyo is greater and more successful 
than everything in the Avesta as to all rivers, all 
wholesomeness, and all protection. 

15. Religion is as connected with the Yatha-ahu- 
vairyo as the hair is more connected with the glory 
of the face; any one, indeed, would dread (samarf) 
to separate hairiness and the glory of the face. 

Chapter XX 2 . 

1. In one place it is declared that it is said by 
revelation (din 6) that a man is to go as much as 
possible (>£and vei'-ast) to the abode of fires 3 , and 
the salutation (nfy&yisno) of fire 4 is to be per- 
formed with reverence ; because three times every 
day the archangels form an assembly in the abode 
of fires, and shed good works and righteousness 
there; and then the good works and righteousness, 
which are shed there, become more lodged in the 
body of him who goes much thither, and performs 
many salutations of fire with reverence. 

1 The Persian Rivayats substitute going to and entering a city 
or town ; they also add twenty-one recitations on setting out on 
a journey, so that the angel Bahrain may grant a safe arrival 

2 The contents of this chapter conclude the MS. M6 ; a few 
lines even having been lost at the end of that MS., though pre- 
served in some of its older copies. A more modern copy, in the 
MS. No. 121 of the Ouseley collection in the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford, contains §§ 4-17, appended to the Bundahw. Complete 
P&zand versions, derived from M6, occur in L7 and L22, immedi- 
ately following the P&zand of Chap. XVIII. 

3 The fire-temple. 

4 That is, the AtsU Nyayu is to be recited. 


2. This, too, that the nature of wisdom is just like 
fire ; for, in this world, there is nothing which shall 
become so complete as that thing which is made 
with wisdom ; and every fire, too, that they kindle 
and one sees from far, makes manifest what is safe 
and uninjured (alrdkht); whatever is safe in fire is 
safe for ever, and whatever is uninjured in fire is 
uninjured for ever. 

3. This, too, that a disposition in which is no 
wisdom is such-like as a clear, unsullied (an ah 6k) 
fountain which is choked (basto) and never goes 
into use; and the disposition with which there is 
wisdom is such-like as a clear, unsullied fountain, 
over which an industrious man stands and takes it 
into use ; cultivation restrains it, and it gives crops 
(bar) to the world. 

4. This, too, that these three things are to be 
done by men, to force the demon of corruption 
(nasti^) 1 far away from the body, to be steadfast 
in the religion, and to perform good works. 5. To 
force the demon of corruption far away from the 
body is this, that before the sun has come up one is 
to wash the hands 2 and face with bull's urine and 
water; to be steadfast in the religion is this, that 
one is to reverence the sun 3 ; and to perform good 
works is this, that one is to destroy several noxious 

6. This, too, that the three greatest concerns of 
men are these, to make him who is an enemy a 
friend, to make him who is wicked righteous, and to 
make him who is ignorant learned. 7. To make 

1 See Chap. II, 1. 2 See Chap. VII, 7. 

3 See Chap. VII, 1-6. 

CHAPTER XX, 2-1 1. 395 

an enemy a friend is this, that out of the worldly 
wealth one has before him he keeps a friend in 
mind ; to make a wicked one righteous is this, that 
from the sin, whereby he becomes wicked, one turns 
him away; and to make an ignorant one learned is 
this, that one is to manage himself so that he who is 
ignorant may learn of him. 

8. This, too, that the walks of men are to be 
directed chiefly to these three places, to the abode 
of the well-informed, to the abode of the good, and 
to the abode of fires \ 9. To the abode of the 
well-informed, that so one may become wiser, and 
religion be more lodged in ones person ; to the 
abode of the good for this reason, that so, among 
good and evil, he may thereby renounce the evil 
and carry home the good 2 ; and to the abode of fires 
for this reason, that so the spiritual fiend may turn 
away from him. 

10. This, too, that he whose actions are for the 
soul, the world is then his own, and the spiritual 
existence more his own ; and he whose actions are 
for the body, the spiritual existence has him at 
pleasure, and they snatch the world from him 

11. This, too, that Bakht-afri^ 3 said, that every 
G&tha (gasan) 4 of Atiharmazd has been an opposi- 

1 The fire-temple. 

2 Assuming that the word ^apirih, ' the good/ has been omitted 
by mistake ; the sentence appearing to be unintelligible without it. 

3 See B. Yt. I, 7. 

4 The word gasan being plural, Gatha must be taken in its 
collective sense as an assemblage of hymns. The word can also 
be read dahun, * creation/ but this meaning seems improbable 


tion of the one adversary, and the renunciation of sin 
(patitlk) 1 for the opposition of every fiend. 

12. This, too, that, regarding the world, anxiety 
is not to be suffered, it is not to be considered as 
anything whatever, and is not to be let slip from the 
hand. 13. Anxiety is not to be suffered for this 
reason, because that which is ordained will happen ; 
it is not to be considered as anything whatever for 
this reason, because should it be expedient it is 
necessary to abandon it; and it is not to be let slip 
from the hand for this reason, because it is proper, 
in the world, to provide a spiritual existence for 

14. This, too, that the best thing is truth, and the 
worst thing is deceit ; and there is he who speaks 
true and thereby becomes wicked, and there is he 
who speaks false and thereby becomes righteous. 

15. This, too, that fire is not to be extinguished 2 , 
for this is a sin ; and there is he who extinguishes 
it, and is good. 

1 6. This, too, is declared, that nothing is to be 
given to the vile ; and there is he by whom the best 
and most pleasant ragout (khtiraftk) is to be given 
to the vile. 

17. On these, too, is the attention of men to be 
fixed, because there is a remedy for everything but 
death, a hope for everything but wickedness, every- 
thing will lapse 3 except righteousness, it is possible 

1 That is, the Patit or formula of renunciation (see Chap. 
IV, 14). 

2 Literally, < killed.' 

3 M6 ends at this point, the next folio being lost. The re- 
mainder of the chapter has been recovered from a copy in Bombay, 
checked by the Paz. MSS. L7 and L22, all of which must have 

CHAPTER XX, 1 2 -XXI, 2. 397 

to manage everything but temper (gohar), and it is 
possible for everything to change but divine pro- 
vidence (bak6-bakhto). 

18. This, too, is declared, that Freafan 1 wished 
to slay As-i Dahik 2 , but Auharmazd spoke thus : 
' Do not slay him now, for the earth will become 
full of noxious creatures/ 

Chapter XXI 3 . 

1. I write the indication of the midday shadow; 
may it be fortunate ! 

2. Should the sun come 4 into Cancer the shadow 
is one foot of the man, at the fifteenth degree of 
Cancer it is one foot ; when the sun is at Leo it is 

been derived from M6 before it lost its last folio ; whereas the MS. 
No. 121 of the Ouseley collection at Oxford, which ends at the 
same point, must have been written after the folio was lost. 

1 See Bund. XXXI, 7. 

2 See Bund. XXIX, 9, XXXI, 6, B. Yt. Ill, 55-61. 

3 The contents of this chapter, regarding the lengths of midday 
and afternoon shadows, immediately follow a tale of G6^t-i Fryano, 
which is appended to the book of Anfa-Virafs journey to the 
other world, both in M6 and K20. As will be seen from the 
notes, these details about shadows were probably compiled at 
Yazd in Persia, as they are suitable only for that latitude. 

4 Reading aya^-ae (a very rare form), or it may be intended 
for h6man&e, 'should it be/ but it is written in both MSS. exactly 
like the two ciphers for the numeral 5. MuM Firuz in his Avi^eh 
Din, p. 279 seq., takes 5 khaduk pat as implying that the shadow 
is under the sole of the foot, or the sun overhead ; but neither this 
reading, nor the more literal ' one-fifth of a foot/ can be recon- 
ciled with the other measures ; though if we take 5 as standing 
for pan^ak, ' the five toes or sole/ we might translate as follows : 
( When the sun is at Cancer, the shadow is the sole of one foot of 
the man.' 

398 shayast la-shAyast. 

one foot and a half, at the fifteenth of Leo it is two 
feet ; when the sun is at Virgo it is two feet and a 
half, at the fifteenth of Virgo it is three feet and 
a half; at Libra it is four 1 feet and a half, at the fif- 
teenth of Libra it is five feet and a half 2 ; at Scorpio 
it is six feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Scorpio it 
is seven 3 feet and a half; at Sagittarius it is eight 
feet and a half, #/ the fifteenth of Sagittarius it is 
nine feet and a half; at Capricornus it is ten feet, 
at the fifteenth of Capricornus it is nine 4 feet and a 
half; at Aquarius it is eight 5 feet and a half, at the 
fifteenth of Aquarius it is seven feet and a half; #/ 
Pisces zV is six feet and a half, at the fifteenth of 
Pisces it is five feet and a half ; #^ Aries it is four 
feet and a half, 0/ the fifteenth of Aries it is three 
feet and a half ; at Taurus it is two feet and a half, 
at the fifteenth of Taurus it is two feet ; at Gemini 
it is one foot and a half, at the fifteenth of Gemini 
it is one foot 6 . 

1 K20 has ' three ' by mistake. 

2 M6 omits < and a half by mistake. 

3 K20 has * six ' by mistake. 

4 Both MSS. omit one cipher, and have only 'six/ but the 
shadow must be the same here as at the fifteenth of Sagittarius. 

5 Both MSS. have ' seven/ which is clearly wrong. 

6 It is obvious that, as the length of a man's shadow depends 
upon the height of the sun, each of these observations of his 
noonday shadow determines the altitude of the sun at noon, and 
is, therefore, a rude observation for finding the latitude of the 
place, provided we know the ratio of a man's foot to his stature. 
According to Bund. XXVI, 3 a man's stature is eight spans 
(vitast), and according to Farh. Okh. p. 41 a vitast is twelve 
finger-breadths, and a foot is fourteen (see Bund. XXVI, 3, note), 
so that a man's stature of eight spans is equivalent to 6f feet. 
Assuming this to have been the ratio adopted by the observer, 
supposing the obliquity of the ecliptic to have been 23 35' (as it 

CHAPTER XXI, 3-6. 399 

3. The midday shadow is written 1 , may its end be 
good ! 

4. I write the indication of the Auzerln (after- 
noon) 2 period of the day ; may it be „ well and 
fortunate by the help of God (yazdan)! 

5. When the day is at a maximum (pa van 
afztino), and the sun comes unto the head 3 of 
Cancer, and ones shadow becomes six feet and two 
parts 4 , he makes it the Auzerin period (gas). 6. 

was about a. d. iooo), and calculating the latitude from each of 
the thirteen different lengths of shadow, the mean result is 32 1' 
north latitude, which is precisely the position assigned to Yazd 
(the head-quarters of the small remnant of Zoroastrians in Persia) 
on some English maps, though some foreign maps place it 15' or 20' 
farther south. With regard to the rough nature of this mode of 
observation it may be remarked that, as the lengths of the shadows 
are noted only to half a foot, there is a possible error of a quarter- 
foot in any of them; this would produce a possible error of 
2 4' in the midsummer observation of latitude, and of 39' in the 
midwinter one; or a mean possible error of i° 22' in any of the 
observations; so that the possible error in the mean of thirteen 
observations is probably not more than 6', and the probable error 
is even less, provided the data have been assumed correctly. 

1 Reading nipi^t, but only the first and last letters are legible 
in M6, and the middle letter is omitted in K20. 

2 See Bund. XXV, 9. 

3 The word sar, ' head/ usually means 'the end/ but it must 
be here taken as 'the beginning/ perhaps, because the zodiacal 
signs are supposed to come head- foremost. 

4 What portion of a foot is meant by bah a r, ' part/ is doubtful. 
It can hardly be a quarter, because ' two quarters ' would be too 
clumsy a term for ' a half. 7 But it appears from §§ 5-7 that the 
shadow, necessary to constitute the AuzSrln period, is taken 
as increasing uniformly from six feet and two parts to fourteen 
feet and two parts, an increase of eight feet in six months, or 
exactly one foot and one-third per month, as stated in the text. 
And, deducting this monthly increase of one foot and one-third 
from the seven and a half feet shadow at the end of the first month, 
we have six feet and one-sixth remaining for the shadow at the 


Every thirty days it always increases one foot and 
one-third, therefore about every ten days the reckon- 
ing is always half a foot \ and when the sun is at the 
head of Leo the shadow is seven 2 feet and a half. 
7. In this series every zodiacal constellation is 
treated alike, and the months alike, until the sun 
comes unto the head of Capricornus, and the 
shadow becomes fourteen feet and two parts. 8. 
In Capricornus it diminishes again a foot and one- 
third 3 ; and from there where it turns back, because 
of the decrease of the night and increase of the day, 
it always diminishes one foot and one-third every 
one of the months, and about every ten days the 
reckoning is always half a foot, until it comes back 
to six feet and two parts ; every zodiacal constella- 
tion being treated alike, and the months alike 4 . 

beginning of the month. Hence we may conclude that the ' two 
parts ' are equal to one-sixth, and each ' part ' is one-twelfth of 
a foot. 

1 Meaning that the increase of shadow is to be taken into 
account as soon as it amounts to half a foot, that is, about every 
ten days. Practically, half a foot would be added on the tenth 
and twentieth days, and the remaining one-third of a foot at the 
end of the month. 

2 Both MSS. have l eight/ but this would be inconsistent with 
the context, as it is impossible that ' six feet and two parts ' can 
become ' eight feet and a half by the addition of ' one foot and 
one-third,' whatever may be the value of the 'two parts' of a 

3 Both MSS. have 3 yak-i pai, instead of p&i 3 yak-i. 

4 This mode of determining the beginning of the afternoon 
period is not so clumsy as it appears, as it keeps the length of 
that period exceedingly uniform for the six winter months with 
some increase in the summer time. In latitude 32 north, where 
the longest day is about 13 hours 56 minutes, and the shortest is 
10 hours 4 minutes, these observations of a man's shadow make 
the afternoon period begin about 3f hours before sunset at mid- 

CHAPTER XXI,- 7 -XXII, J. 401 

Chapter XXII 1 . 

1. May Auharmazd give thee the august rank and 
throne of a champion 2 ! 

2. May Vohfiman give thee wisdom ! may the 
benefit of knowing Vohtiman 3 be good thought, 
and mayest thou be acting well, that is, saving the 
soul ! 

3. May Ar^avahut, the beautiful, give thee un- 
derstanding and intellect ! 

4. May Shatvairo grant thee wealth from every 
generous one ! 

5. May Spendarmaaf grant thee praise through 
the seed of thy body ! may she give thee as wife 
a woman from the race of the great ! 

6. May Horvada^ grant thee plenty and pros- 
perity ! 

7. May Ameroda^ grant thee herds of four-footed 
beasts ! 

summer, diminishing to 2§ hours at the autumnal equinox, and 
then remaining very nearly constant till the vernal equinox. 

1 These last two chapters are found written upon some folios 
which have been added to the beginning of M6 ; but, though not 
belonging to that MS. originally, they are still very old. The first 
of these two chapters has not been found elsewhere ; it is an ela- 
borate benediction, in which the writer calls down, upon some one, 
a series of blessings from each of the thirty archangels and angels 
whose names are given to the days of the Parsi month in the order 
in which they here stand (compare the same names in Bund. 
XXVII, 24). 

2 The meaning of the word pa^/rog- or pa^/ran^ (which occurs 
also in §§ 12, 26, and appears to be a title) may be guessed from 
the following passage in the Ya^/kar-i Zariran, or Vutasp-shah- 
namak : Pavan har rasm va pa^razm-i lak pirq^ va veh -p&drdg 
sem yaityuni-ae, * in every attack and counter-attack of thine mayest 
thou bring away the title of conqueror and good champion !' 

3 The reading is uncertain. 

[5] Dd 


8. May Dlno always secure 1 thee the support of 
the creator Auharmazd ! 

9. May the light of the sublime Ataro 2 hold thy 
throne in heaven ! 

10. May Az/an grant thee wealth from every 
generous one! 

11. May Khtir hold thee without mystery and 
doubt among the great and thy compeers (ham- 

12. May Mah give thee an assistant, who is the 
assistant of champions ! 

13. May Tlrtar hold thee a traveller in the 
countries of the seven regions ! 

14. Go^tirvan the archangel 3 is the protection of 
four-footed beasts. 

15. May Dlno always remain for thee as the sup- 
port of the creator Auharmazd ! 

16. May Mitro be thy judge, who shall wish thy 
existence to be vigorous ! 

17. May Srosh the righteous, the smiter of de- 
mons, keep greed, wrath, and want 4 far from thee ! 
may he destroy them, and may he not seize thee as 
unjust ! 

18. May Rashnil be thy conductor 5 to the re- 
splendent heaven! 

1 This verb is doubtful ; here and in § 23 it is netrunaV, ' may 
she guard/ but in § 15 it is ketruna^/, ' may she remain/ 

2 Bur z d tar 6, ' the sublime fire/ seems to be a personification 
of the fire Berezi-savang of Bund. XVII, 1, 3, the Supremely- 
benefiting of SZS. XI, 1, 6. 

3 She is usually called an angel. Either the verb is omitted in 
this section, or it is not a blessing ; and the same may be said of 
§§ 20, 25. 

4 These are the three fiends, As, Aeshm, and Niy&z (see Bund. 
XXVIII, 15-17, 26, 27). 

5 It is very possible that the verb should be yehabuna^/, 

CHAPTER XXII, 8-27. 403 

19. May Fravar^in give thee offspring, which 
may bear the name of thy race ! 

20. Vahr&m the victorious is the stimulator of the 

2 1 . May Ram, applauding the life of a praiser of 
the persistent 1 lord, keep thee perfect (aspar), that 
is, living three hundred years 2 , undying and unde- 
caying unto the end of thy days ! 

22. May V&d bring thee peace 3 from the re- 
splendent heaven ! 

23. May Din6 always secure thee the support of 
the creator Atiharmazd 1 

24. May Dtn6 become thy guest in thy home and 
dwelling ! 

25. Arshisang, the beautiful, is the resplendent 
glory of the Kayins. 

26. May Astad be thy helper, who is the assistant 
of champions ! 

2 j. May Asman bless thee with all skill and 
wealth ! 

instead of yehevunS^, in which case we should have 'give thee 
a passport/ 

1 The meaning of khvapar (Av. ^z>apara) is by no means 
certain ; it is an epithet of Auharmazd, angels, and spirits, and is 
then often assumed to mean ' protecting ; ' but it is also a term 
applied to the earth and offspring ; perhaps ' self-sustaining ' would 
suit both its etymology and its various applications best, but the root 
par has many other meanings. 

2 That is, two great cycles. It is usual for the copyists of 
Pahlavi MSS. to wish, in their colophons, that the persons for 
whom the MSS. are written, whether themselves or others, may 
retain the MSS. for a hundred and fifty years before leaving them 
to their children ; which period is mentioned because it is supposed 
to constitute a great cycle of the moon and planets. 

3 Written drud instead of diUd. 

D d 2 


28. May Zamyd^ destroy for thee the demon and 
fiend out of thy dwelling ! 

29. May M&raspend hold thee a throne in the 
resplendent heaven ! 

30. May Anirdn the immortal, with every kind of 
all wealth, become thy desire! the horses of God 
(yazdan) 1 who shall come that he may go, and thou 
mayest obtain a victory. 

31. May destiny give thee a helper! he is the 
guardian of the celestial sphere for all these arch- 
angels whose names I have brought forward ; may 
he be thy helper at all times, in every good work 
and duty ! 

32. Homage to Srft 2 the teacher! may he live 
long ! may he be prosperous in the land ! may his 
be every pleasure and joy, and every glory of the 
Kayans, through the will of the persistent Aith- 
armazd ! 

Chapter XXIII. 

0. In the name of God and the good creation be 
health 3 ! 

1. Auharmazd is more creative, Vohiiman is more 

1 Both nouns are in the plural, and both verbs in the singular. 
Annan is a personification of Av. anaghra rao/£#u, ' the begin- 
ningless lights/ or fixed stars (which, however, are said to have 
been created by Auharmazd in Bund. II, 1), and these stars appear 
to have been considered as horses of the angels (Bund. VI, 3, 
SZS. VI, 1). There are several uncertain phrases in §§ 30-32. 

2 This would appear to be the name of the person to whom the 
benediction is addressed, as it can hardly be meant for the ancient 
hero Thrita, the Athrat of Bund. XXXI, 27, and the Srito of SZS. 
XI, 10, note. 

3 Two versions of this chapter, detailing the qualities of the 


embellished 1 , ArdavahLst is more brilliant 2 , Shat- 
vairo is more exalted 3 , Spendarmaaf is more fruit- 
ful 4 , Horvada^ is moister 5 , Amerodaaf is fatter 6 . 

A A 

2. Dfn-pa-Ataro is just like Auharmazd 7 , Ataro is 
hotter 8 , Az>ctn is more golden 9 , Khur is more obser- 
vant 10 , Mah is more protective n , Ttr is more liberal, 
Gos is swifter 12 . 3. Dtn 13 -pa-Mitro is just like Afth- 
armazd, Mitrd is more judicial, Srosh is more 
vigorous, Rashn is more just, Fravan/tn is more 
powerful, V&hram is more victorious, Ram is more 
pleasing, Vad is more fragrant 4. Dm-pa-Dzno is 
just like Atiharmazd, Dtno is more valuable, An/ 14 
is more beautiful, Asta.d is purer, Asman is more 
lofty, Zamy&af is more conclusive, Maraspend is more 

thirty angels and archangels, are extant ; one in M6, which has 
lost §§ 3-5, and the other in a very old MS. in the library of the 
high-priest of the Parsis at Bombay. This latter, being complete, 
is here taken as the text, while the variations of M6, which occur 
in nearly every epithet, are given in the notes. Which version is 
the oldest can hardly be ascertained with certainty from the state 
of the MSS. M6 omits this opening benediction. 

1 M6 has ' more nimble/ 

2 M6 has 'more discriminative/ 

3 M6 has 6 more active/ 

4 M6 has ' more complete/ 

5 M6 has < fatter/ 

6 M6 has ' more fruitful/ 

7 M6 has ' Din6 is more desirous/ 

8 M6 has ' more heating/ 

9 Referring perhaps to the golden channels (Bund. XIII, 4, 5) 
through which the water of Aredvivsur (a title of the angel A#an, 
' waters ') is supposed to flow. M6 has ' more glittering/ 

10 M6 has ' more embellished/ 

11 M6 has varpantar, the meaning of which is uncertain. 

12 M6 has ' more listening/ 

13 The version in M6 ends here ; the next folio being lost. 

14 The same as ArshLrang (see Bund. XXII, 4). 


conveying the religion, Anir&n is the extreme of 
exertion and listening 1 . 

5. May it be completed in peace and pleasure ! 

1 The reading of both these nouns is uncertain. The days of 
the Parsi month, which bear the names of these thirty angels, are 
divided, it will be observed, into four nearly equal divisions, re- 
sembling weeks, which are here separated in §§ 1-4. The first 
weekly period begins with a day dedicated to Auharmazd, and 
called by his own name ; and each of the three other weekly periods 
also begins with a day dedicated to Auharmazd, but called by the 
name of Din, ' religion,' with the name of the following day added 
as a cognomen. The first week, therefore, consists of the day 
Auharmazd followed by six days named after the six archangels 
respectively (see Bund. I, 23, 26). The second week consists of 
the day Din- with- A tar 6 followed by six days named after the 
angels of fire, waters, the sun, the moon, Mercury, and the primeval 
ox. The third week consists of the day Din- with -Mitro fol- 
lowed by seven days named after the angels of solar light, obe- 
dience, and justice, the guardian spirits, and the angels of victory, 
pleasure, and wind. And the fourth week consists of the day Din- 
with-Din6 followed by seven days named after the angels of religion, 
righteousness, rectitude, the sky, the earth, the liturgy, and the 
fixed stars. 



i. The references in this index are to the pages of the introduction, 
and to the chapters and sections of the translations; the chapters being 
denoted by the larger ciphers. 

2. References to passages which contain special information are given 
in parentheses. 

3. Though different forms of the same name may occur in the trans- 
lations, only one form is usually given in the index, to which the refer- 
ences to all forms are attached ; except when the forms differ so much 
as to require to be widely separated in the index. 

4. Pahlavi forms are always given in preference to Pazand and Per- 
sian, when only one is mentioned ; but where only a Pazand form occurs 
it is printed in italics, as Pazand orthography is usually corrupt. In all 
such italicised names any letters, which would elsewhere be italic, are 
printed in roman type. 

5. Abbreviations used are : — Av. for A vesta word ; Bd. for Bundahb ; 
Byt. for Bahman Yajt ; ch. for chapter of Visparad ; com. for com- 
mentator and commentary ; Gug. for Gu^arati ; Huz. for Huzvarij ; 
Int. for Introduction ; lun. man. for lunar mansion ; m. for mountain ; 
meas. for measure ; n for foot-note ; Pahl. for Pahlavi ; Paz. for 
Pazand ; Pers. for Persian ; r. for river ; SI. for Shayast la-shayast ; 
trans, for translation ; wt. for weight ; zod. for zodiacal constellation; 
Zs. for Selections of Zai-sparam. 


AbAn, angel, Byt. 2, 5911. See 

Ab-istadah lake, Bd. 22, 5 n. 
Ablution, Byt. 2, 36; SI. 2, (52,) 

108; 3, 10, 12; 8, 18, 22; 12, 

22, 24. 
— seat, Byt. 2, (36 ;) SI. 10, 5. — 

tank, SI. 10, 5. — vessel, SI. 

3, 12. 
Abode of fires, SI. 9, 5 ; 20, 1, 8, 9. 
Abtin, man, Bd. 31, 7 n. 
Achaemenians, Byt. 2, i7n. 
Adar, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n. See Ataro. 
Adarbig-an, land, Bd. 20, 13 n, 25 n; 

22, 2n; 25, 411; 29, 12 n. 
A^-fravakhshya ha, SI. 13, 29. 
A*/-raa-yava ha, SI. 13, 33. 
Adopted son, SI. 12, 14. 
Adf-ta-vakhshya ha, SI. 13, 4, 14. 
Aeshm, demon, Bd. 19, 33 n; 28, 

(15-17,) 20; 30,29; Byt.l, sn; 

2, 36 n; SI. 13, 43; 18, 1, 3. 
Afarg, com., SI. 1, (3 ;) 2, 2, 64, 73, 

88, 115, i23n; 5,5,6; 10, 39n. 
Afghanistan, Bd. 12, 22 n ; 20, 17 n. 
Afrasiyab, king, Bd. 31, 14 n, 17 n, 

Afrin, ritual, SI. 13, 43 n ; 19, 3. 
Afringan, rite, SI. 10, 34 n ; 17, 5 n; 

18, 4 n. 
Afrobag-vindaW, man, Bd. 33, 6, 8. 
AgdimaS'vdk, man, Bd. 31, 23. 
Agerept sin, SI. 1, 1, 2 ; 11, 1, 2 ; 

16, 2, 5. 
Aghrera*/, man, Bd. 29, 5; 31, 15, 

Aharman, origin of evil, Bd. 1, 3, 7, 

8, 20, 23, 27; 2, 11; Zs. 1, 2-4, 

6, 8-1 1, 17, 20, 24, 25; wor- 
shipped by Dahak, Bd. 20, 23 ; 

nature of, Bd. 28, 1-6, 46, 48 ; 

by whom served, Bd. 28, 2 1 ; 

differs sometimes from the evil 

spirit, Bd. 28, 40 n; 30, 30; 

his attack on creation, Zs. 1, 

27; 2, 1-6, 11; 4, 1-5, 10; 5, 

i ? 3, 5; 6, 1, 23; 7, 1, 12; 8, 

1,6; 9, 1, 24 ; 10, 1 ; 11, 1 ; 

defeated by religion, Byt. 2, 16, 
20; SI. 15, 6; his future evil- 
doings, Byt. 2, 40, 62 ; 3, 55, 
56 ; his advice, SI. 18, 1, 2, 4. 
See Evil spirit. 

Ahasuerus, Byt. 2, 17 n. 

Ahu-a</-paiti ha, SI. 13, 21. 

Ahunavaiti gatha, SI. 13, 211, 4, 6-15, 

Ahunavar, Bd. 1, 21, 22 ; Zs. 1, 12 ; 

11, ion; SI. 10, 5n, 25, 26; 

12, 19, 32 n ; 13, 2 n ; text and 
trans., Bd. 1, 2 1 n ; com., Zs. 
1, 13-19. 

Ahya-thwa-athro ha, SI. 13, 17. 
Ahya-yasa ha, SI. 13, 4, 12, 14, 50. 
Aibisrutem gah, Bd. 25, 9. 
Aighash, demon, Bd. 28, 33; 31, 

Airak, man, Bd. 31, 14. 
Aira/£ m., Bd. 12, 2, 12. 
Airan-veg-, land, Bd. 12, 25 ; 14, 4; 

20, 13, 32; 25, 11; 29, (4, 5, 

12;) 32, 3; Zs. 9, 8. 
Airi£, prince, Bd. 31, (9, 10,) 12, 14; 

32, in; 34, 6; SI. 10, 28 n. 
Airiz-rasp, chief, Bd. 29, 1. 
Airman, angel, Bd. 30, 19 n. 
Airya, tribe, Bd. 31, 9 n. 
Airyak, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Airyamana ha, SI. 13, 47. 
Aithritak, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Aiwisrfithrema gah, Bd. 25, 911; SI. 

17, 5 n. 
Akandgar, king, Byt. 2, 19. 
Akatash, demon, Bd. 28, 20. 
Akhoshir r., Bd. 20, 7, 18. 
Akoman, demon, Bd. 1, 24, 27 ; 28, 

7; 30, 29; Zs. 9, 6. 
Alburn m., Bd. 5, 3-5; 7, 15 n; 8, 

2,5; 12, (1-4,) 7n, 8, 9; 13,i, 

4; 19,i5; 20,i,4,8; 24, 28; 

Zs. 6, 16, 20, 21 ; 7, 1, 5-7. 
Alexander the Great, Int. 9, 11, 12, 

16; Bd. 34, 8; Byt 2, 19 n; 




Almsgiving never excessive, SI. 10, 

23 ; 12, 16. 
Alvand m., Bd. 19, 3. 
Ambergris, origin of, Bd. 19, 12. 
Amerdad, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n. 
Ameroda*/, angel, Bd. 1, 26 ; 9, 2 ; 

27, 24; 30, 29 ; Zs. 8, 1; Byt. 

3, 29; SI. 9, 8; 13, 14; 15, 3, 

5,25,29; 22,7; 23,i; month, 

Bd. 25, 20. 
yfwi r., Bd. 20, 8. 
Amur., Bd. 20, 8n, 28m 
Amul, town, Bd. 20, 27 n. 
AnamV, planet, Bd. 5, 1 [ angel, Bd. 

32, 8. See Aban, A^an. 
Anahita, angel, Bd. 19, in; SI. 11, 

Ananghad, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Anastokh, man, Bd. 31, 9. 
Andar, demon, Bd. 1, 27 ; 28, (8,) 

10 ; 30, 29. See Indar. 
Aner, land, Bd. 15, 29. 
Angels, Bd. 15, 13; 30, 28; Zs. 1, o; 

Byt. 3, 31; SI. 7, 7 5 8,4; 12, 

24 ; 13, 8 n, 30 ; fight with de- 
mons, Bd. 3, 26; 6, 1; their 
flowers, Bd. 27, 24; prayers 
and offerings to them, SI. 9, 10- 
12; 11, 4; 12,8-io; their gifts, 
SI. 22, 8-30; their qualities, SI. 
23, 2-4. 

Angra-mainyu, Bd. 1, 1 n, 3 n ; 28, 

Animals, origin and classes, Bd. 10, 

3; 14, 3-31; Zs. 9, 1, 7-24; 

chiefs of, Bd. 24, 2-13 ; eating 

dead matter, SI. 2, 109-m; 

not to be killed, SI. 10, 8, 9. 
Aniran, angel, Bd. 27, 24; SI. 22, 

30 : 23, 4 ; day, Bd. 25, 7. 
Anquetil Duperron, Int. 24, 25, 28. 
Antares, star, Bd. 2, 7 n ; SI. 14, 

Aoiwra, Av., Bd. 31, 6 n. 
Aoshnara, man, Bd. 31, 3 n. 
Apaosh, demon, Bd. 7, 8, 10, 12; 28, 

(39;) Zs. 6, 9>n>i3- 
Aparsen m., Bd. 12, 2, (9,) 12-14, 

21, 22, 29, 30, 3m; 20, 16, 17, 

21, 22 ; 24, 28 ; Zs. 7, 7. 
Ape, origin of, Bd. 23, 1 ; pollutes, 

SI. 2, 61. 
Apostasy, SI. 17, 7. 
Apostate, Byt. 3, 56, 57 ; SI. 9, 3. 
Aquarius, Bd. 2, 2 ; Byt. 3, 1 1 n ; 

SI. 21, 2. 

Arabic, Int. 14. 

Arabs, Bd. 15, 28; 23, 3; 29, 4; 

34, on, 9; Byt. 3, 9, 51. 
Arag lake, Bd. 19, 15. 
— r., Bd. 7, 15, 17; 20, (1, 3-8,) 

9 n, 22 n, 28 n; 21, 3 ; 24, 26; 

Zs. 6, 20 n; Byt. 3, 17 n. 
AraWar, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Aral sea, Bd. 19, 15 n ; 20, 20 n ; 22, 

Arang r., Bd. 20, 8 n ; Zs. 6, 20 n ; 

Byt. 3, 5 n. 
Arang-i BiraVan, man, Bd. 32, 7. 
Arajk, demon, Bd. 28, 14, 16. 
Arast, demon, Bd. 28, 32. 
Arasti, man, Bd. 32, 2 ; 33, 1. 
Arcwuisanasp, man, Bd. 31, 23. 
Araxes r., Bd. 20, 8n, i3n, 2 2n, 

28n; Zs. 6, 2on; Byt. 3, 511. 
Archangels, Bd. 1, (26 n ;) 2, 9 ; 3, 2, 

4; 30,23; Byt. l,o; 2,64; 3, 

9, 31; SI. 13, 8, 24, 46; 18, 4; 

22, 3 1 ; their flowers, Bd. 27, 2 4 ; 

subdue demons, Bd. 30, 29 ; 

prayers and offerings to them, 

Byt. 3, 28, 37; SI. 9, 10; 11, 4; 

19, 7 ; 20, 1 ; means of serving 

them, SI. 15, 1-30; their gifts, 

SI. 22, 1-7 ; their qualities, SI. 

23 1 
Arch-fiends, Bd. 3, 2 ; 28, 1-1 3 ; 30, 

29; SI. 10, 4n; 12, nn. 
hvd, angel, Bd. 22, 4n; 27, 24; SI. 

23, 4. See Arshbang. 
Arda-fravash, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n. 
Ar^ai-fravari, angel, SI. 11, 4. 
Ar^akhshir-i Kai, king, Bd. 31, 29 n ; 

Byt. 1,5; 2, 17. 
Ar^akhshir-i Papakan, Int. 11, 19; 

Bd. 31, 3on; Byt. 2, 18. 
An/avahijt, angel, Bd. 1, 26 ; 31, 38 ; 

SI. ll,4n; 13,i4; 15, 3,5,12, 

13; 22, 3 ; 23, 1 ; month, Bd. 

25, 20. See Ashavahijt. 
Ardavan, king, Bd. 31, 30 n. 
Aria-Viraf, man, SI. 21, on. 
Ardibahirt, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n. See 

Aredho-manusha m., Bd. 12, ion. 
Areduj sin, SI. 1, 1, 2 ; 7, 311 ; 11, 1, 

2 ; 16, 4, 5. 
Aredvivsur, angel, SI. 11, 4; 23, 211; 

water, Bd. 7, 1 5 n ; 12, 5 ; 13, 

1, 3, 10; 21, 4n; 24, 17, 26; 

27, 4; Zs. 6, 18. 
Aresur m., Bd. 3, 211; 12, 2, (8;) 



Byt. 3, 2211; SI. 10, 711; 13, 

Arexur-bum m., Bd. 12, 2, 16. 
Ar^asp, king, Bd. 12, 32 ; Byt. 2, 

4S>n; 3, 9. 
Aries, Bd. 2, 2 ; 5, 6 ; 7, 2 ; 25, 2 1 ; 

SI. 21, 2. 
Arij, prince, Bd. 31, 25n. 
Ariz, fish, Bd. 14, 26 ; 18, 5; 24, 13. 
Armaiti, angel, Bd. 15, 6n. See 

Armenia, Bd. 20, ion. 
ArmeVt, SI. 2, (98 n ;) 6, 1. 
Armin, prince, Bd. 31, 2 5n. 
Arni%-baredd, woman, Bd. 32, 7n. 
Arsaces I, Byt. 2, i9n. 
Arsacidans, Int. 11. See Ajkanians. 
Arshijang, angel, Bd. 22, 4; 27, 

24n; SI. 22, 25; 23, 4 n. See 

Artakhshatar son of Papak, Bd. 31, 

30 ; Byt. 2, 1 8 n ; — the Kayan, 

Bd. 31, 30; 34, 8n. See Ar- 

Artaxerxes Longimanus, Bd. 34, 8n; 

Byt. 2, i7n. 
— - Mnemon, Bd. 34, 8n; Byt. 2, 

— Ochus, Bd. 34, 8n. 
Arum, land, Bd. 12, 16 ; 13, 15 ; 15, 

29; 20, 10; SI. 6, 7n. 
Arvand r., Zs. 6, (20;) Byt. 3, 5, 21, 

Arzah, region, Bd. 5, 8, 9 ; 11, 3 ; 

29, 1 ; Byt. 3, 47. 
Asam, man, Bd. 29, 5. 
As hard r., Bd. 20, 20. 
Ashdsbagahad, man, Bd. 29, 1. 
Ashavahirt, angel, Bd. 27, 24; 30, 

29 ; SI. 11, 4. See Ar^avahut. 
Ashavanghu, man, Bd. 29, 1 n. 
As harvard, man, Bd. 29, 6. 
Ashem-Ahurem-mazdam ch., SI. 


Ashem-vohu, Byt. 2, 59 ; SI. 3, 35 ; 

4, 14; 5, 2, 5, 7; 10, 5n, 24, 

35; 12, 21, 32; 13, 1; 19,5; 

text and trans., Bd. 20, 2. 
Ashovahut, man, Bd. 33, 11. 
Asbozust, bird, Bd. 19, 19. 
Asia Minor, Bd. 13, isn. 
Ajk, king, Byt. 2, i9n. 
Ajkanians, Bd. 31, 30 n ; 34, 9 ; Byt. 

2, 19. See Arsacidans. 
Askarum nask, SI. 10, 25 n. See 


Asman, angel, Bd. 27, 24; SI. 22, 

27; 23,4- 
Asnavand m., Bd. 12, 2, (26 ;) 17, 7 ; 

Zs. 11, 9. 
Asparqg- m., Bd. 12, 29, 36. 
Asparum nask, SI. 10, 2 in. See 

Aspeng-argak, demon, Bd. 7, 12 ; 28, 

39. See Speng-argak. 
Aspikan, Bd. 32, in. 
Aspiyan, Bd. 31, 4, 7, 8. 
Assaults, SI. 1, in, 211. 
Assyrians, Int. 12, 13; Byt. 3, 5. 
Astad, angel, Bd. 27, 24; Byt. 2, 

59 n; 3, 32; SI. 17, 4, 5 n ; 22, 

26; 23, 4. 
■7- yajt, Byt. 1, 6. 
Astaothwanem ha, SI. 13, 1. 
Astarabad, town, Bd. 12, 32 n. 
Ast6-vidaW, demon, Bd. 3, 21, 22; 
a 28, 35 ; Zs. 4, 4. 
Astuye ha, SI. 13, 1. 
Asurik, man, Bd. 31, 19. 
Asuristan, land, Bd. 31, 39; Byt. 

. 3,5. 

Asvast lake, Bd. 22, 1, 7. 
Ajvini, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3 n. 
Atarem^a ch., SI. 13, 26. 
Atar6, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; SI. 22, 9 ; 
23, 2; day, Bd. 25, 11. 

— Auharmazd, com., SI. 1, 3. 

— bondak, man, Bd. 33, 1. 

— daV, man, Bd. 33, 3. 

— frobag, man, Byt. 1, 7 ; SI. 1, 3n. 
nosai, com., SI. 1, 3. 

— Mitro, man, Byt. 1, 7. 

— -pad, man, Byt. 1, 7. 

i Da^-farukh, com., SI. 1, 411. 

i Maraspendan, priest, Bd. 33, 

3, 11; Byt. 1, in; 2, 18; SI. 

8, 23; 10, 28 n, 40; 15, 16. 
i Zaratujtan, priest, Zs. 1, 1911; 

SI. 8, (10.) 

— patakan, land, Bd. 12, 26 ; 20, 

i 3 n, 23, 25; 22, 2; 29, 12; 
Zs. 11, 9 ; Byt. 1, 7. 

— tarsah, man, Bd. 31, 29. 
Ataj nyayij, SI. 7, 4^ ; 20, 1 n. 

— i Vahram, see Vahram fire. 
Athrat, man, Bd. 31, 27; SI. 22, 

Athwya, man, Bd. 31, 4n. 
Atonement for sin, SI. 8, in, 4n, 13, 

15, 16, 19, 20, 23. 
Atrat, man, Bd. 31, 27 n. 
Auharmazd, Zs. 6, 10; Byt. 2, 64; 



SI. 8, 13, 21, 23; 10, 29; 12, 
28; 13, 8; 18,45 20, 11, 18; 
22, 32 ; the creator, Bd. 1, 0-3, 
6-12, 23, 25, 28; 2, 1; 7, 15; 
13, 5; 15, 3, 4, 6, 7, 23; 17, 1, 
3; 18, 3, 5; 19,9,io, 36; 20, 

1, 5, 6; 21, 3; 24,25,26; 28, 
1-3, 17 ; Zs. 1, o, 20, 23, 24 ; 2, 
7, 8 ; 10, 4, 5 ; Byt. 1, o ; SI. 

10, 2811; 12, 2 ; 14, 4 ; 18, 1 ; 

22, 8, 15, 23 ; contends with 
Aharman, Bd. 1, 13, 15-18, 
20-22; 3, 2, 4, 6, 18, 19, 21; 4, 
2-4 ; 6, 2, 4 ; 7, 9 I Zs. 1, 2, 4, 
7, 9, 11 ; 3,-i, 2; 4, 3, 10; 5, 
1 ; instituted rites, Bd. % 9 ; 
chief of spirits, Bd. 24, in; SI. 

11, 4n; archangel, Bd. 27, 24 ; 
SI. 13,14; 15, 5, 7, 8; 22, 1; 

23, 1 ; religion of, Bd. 28, 4, 5 ; 
talks with Zaratujt, Bd. 30, 4, 
5; Zs. 11, ion; Byt. 1, 1-5; 

2, 1-63; 3, 1-62; SI. 9, 8, 14; 
10, 26; 12, 29, 32; 15, 1-30; 

17, 1-6, 8, 11-14; worshipped, 
Bd. 30, 23, 28; Zs. 10, 1 ; 
Byt. 2, 6 4 ; 3, 28, 37; SI. 13, 

18, 24, 32, 46 ; arranges the fu- 
ture existence, Bd. 30, 24, 27, 
2 9, 3°, 32 ; his nature, Zs. 1, 
13-17 ; 5, 4 ; SI. 23, 1-4 ; fore- 
tells future events, Byt. 1, 3-5 ; 
2, 15-22, 24-63 ; 3, 1-62. 

Auharmazd day, Bd. 3, 12 ; 25, 7, 
10, 13 ; Zs. 2, 1. 

— king, Bd. 33, 2. 

— planet, Bd. 5, 1 ; Zs. 4, 7. 
Aurvadasp, man, Bd. 32, 1. 
Aurva^-aspa, king, Bd. 31, 2 8n. 
Aurvakhsh, man, Bd. 31, 26. 
Aurvata*/-nar, man, Bd. 32, 5, 6, 7 n. 
Aurvazijt fire, Zs. 11, 1, 4. See 

Aushahin gah, Bd. 25, 9. 
Aushbam, man, Bd. 31, 33, 34. 
Aushdlftar m., Bd. 12, 2, 15. 
Ausindom m., Bd. 12, 2, 6 ; 13, 5 ; 

18, 1 in. 
Ausofry, rite, Byt. 2, 45 ; SI. 13, 

Ausposin, man, Bd. 29, 1. 
Aujtu^at gatha, SI. 10, 6. See 

AustofrW, rite, SI. 12, 10. See 

Auzav, man, Bd. 31, 28. 

Auzerin gah, Bd. 25, 9, 10; SI. 7, 

in; 21, 4, 5. 
Auzobo, king, Bd. 31, 23, 24, 35 ; 

34, 6n; SI. 10, 28n. 
Auzvarak, man, Bd. 31, 4111. 
Ava^-mizdem ch., SI. 13, 48. 
Ai>an, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; SI. 22, 10 ; 

23, 2 ; day, SI. 11, 4n; month, 

Bd. 25, 7, 10, 20 ; Byt. 3, 16 ; 

SI. 11, 4n. See Aban. 
Avarda*/, month, Bd. 25, 20 n. See 

Avarethrab<zu, man, SI. 10, 2 8n. 
Avarnak, man, Bd. 31, 37, 38. 
Avar-shatro, land, Bd. 31, 37, 38. 
Avdem, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Avesar, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Avesta, Int. 9, (10,) 54, 55, 58, 

70-72; Bd. 14, 26; 19, 16, 19; 

Byt. 3, 45 n; SI. 13, 15 n; 

— texts, Int. 10, 11, 22, 24, 43, 

47, 52, 53, 6 7, 68; SI. 6, in; 

— and Zand, Int. 10; SI. 10, 
25, 29; — letters, Int. 15, 16, 
31,66; — MSS.,Int.2i, 27-29, 

48, 57, 66 ; referred to, Bd. 14, 
2; SI. 1, 1 ; 2, 55, 97, n8; 9, 
8 ; 15, 1 ; 17, 8, 9 ; words 
quoted, SI. 5, 2, 5, 7 ; 7, 8 ; 9, 
12; 10, 37 ; 13, 1, 4-14, 16-26, 
28-36, 38-40, 42, 45-5i; pas- 
sages quoted, SI. 8, 22 ; 11, 6 ; 
13, 6, 8, 43 ; prayers, SI. 9, 9, 
10; 10, 5, 19, 26n; 14, 2, 3; 

19, 14. 
Avi-apam ch., SI. 13, 40. 
Avoirijt sin, SI. 1, 1, 2 ; 11, 1, 2 ; 16, 

3, 5. 
Avrak, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3 ; 7, 1 ; 

Zs. 6, 1. 
Ayanghad, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Aya%em y man, Bd. 32, 1. 
As, demon, Bd. 28, 27, 28 ; 30, 30 ; 

SI. 22, i7n. 
Azaaf-mar^, com., SI. 1, 4n. 
Azano, man, Byt. 2, 3 n. 
As-i Dahak, king, Bd. 23, 2 ; 29, 8 ; 

31, (6n,) 7n; Zs. 2, 10; Byt. 

2, 62; 3, 52n, 56-58, 60; SI. 

20, 18. See Bevarasp and 

Bactria, Bd. 15, 29 n ; 20, 9n. 
Bactrian, Byt. 3, i7n. 
Bad, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n. See Va^. 
Badghes, land, Bd. 12, 19m 



Bagh nask, SI. 10, 26. 

Baghan yajt, SI. 13, in, 911. See 

Bag-yasn6 nask, SI. 12, 17. 
Bahak, man, Bd. 33, 1, 2, 6, 8. 
Bahak, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
Bahman, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n; king, 

Bd. 31, 29 n ; Byt. 2, i7n. See 


— Pungyah, SI. 19, in. 

— yajt, Byt. 3, 11 n; contents, Int. 

50-52 ; age, Int. 53-56 ; MSS., 
Int. 56; Paz. version, Int. 57; 
Pers. version, Int. 57-59 ; Ger- 
man trans., Int. 59. 
Bahram, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n; king, 
Byt. 3, i4n ; — fire, Zs. 11, 6. 
See Vahram. 

— Zopin, man, Byt. 3, i4n. 
Bakan yasto nask, SI. 12, i7n. See 

Bakht-afrW, com., Byt. 1, 7 ; SI. 1, 

4n ; 20, 11. 
Bakhtiyari m., Bd. 12, 40 n. 
Bakht-tan m., Bd. 12, 40. 
Bako nask, SI. 10, 26 n. See Bagh. 
Bakyir m., Bd. 12, 2, 20. 
Balkh, town, Bd. 24, 15 n; Byt. 3, 

17 n ; river, Bd. 12, 9n ; 20, 7, 

9n, 22. 
Bambo, land, Byt. 3, 17. 
Bamdai, man, Byt. 1, 6 ; 2, 21. 
Bami, town, Byt. 3, i7n. 
Bamikan, town, Bd. 20, 22. 
Bamiyan, Bd. 20, 22 n ; Byt. 3, 17 n. 
Bamm, town, Byt. 3, i7n. 
Bareshnum, rite, Byt. 2, 36 ; SI. 2, 

(6,) 6on, 65n, 70; 3, 24; 10, 

ion, 12 n; 12, 2211, 24 n, 2 5n, 

26n; 17, 5n. 
Baresom, see Sacred twigs. 
Baresomdan, see Sacred twig-stand. 
Barmayun, man, Bd. 31, 8. 
Baroshand Auharmazd, com., SI. 1, 

4 n. 
Barzu Qiyamu-d-din, Zs. 9, 1 n. 
Bmmgha, man, Bd. 33, 1 n. 
Bayaky demon, Bd. 31, 6. 
Bas, SI. 3, 6 n. See Inward prayer. 
Ba«ai sin, SI. 1, 1, 2 ; 11, 1, 2 ; 16, 5. 
Bd%dyvdna sea, Bd. 24, 23. 
Bear, origin of, Bd. 23, 1. 
Beating the innocent, SI. 10, 17. 
Beh-afrin, woman, Bd. 31, 30 n. 
Beneficent spirit, Zs. 1, o; SI. 13, 

28, 35> 36. 

Bere%i-sa e vang fire, Bd. 17, 1, 3 ; Zs. 

11, 1 n. 
Besn, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Best existence, SI. 6, 3 ; 10, 26 ; 12, 

2; 15, 11. See Garo^/man. 
B6varasp, Bd. 12, 31; 29, 9 ; Byt. 

3, 3", 55j56n. See As-i Dahak. 
Birds, classification, Bd. 10, 4 ; 14, 

11, 23-25; Zs. 9, 9-15, 23; 

— of prey, Bd. 14, 30 ; chiefs 

of, Bd. 24, 11, 29 ; destroy Na- 

sur, SI. 2, 5 ; not to be killed, 

SI. 10, 9. 
Bij herb, Bd. 14, 22 ; 27, 1 ; Zs. 9, 

Buan, Bd. 12, 35. 
Bitak, man, Bd. 31, 14. 
Bivawdangha, man, Bd. 29, 1 n. 
Bodily refuse, Byt. 2, 36; SI. 2, 

(30 n;) 15, 26. 
Boddzed sin, SI. 2, 39 n. 
Bombay, Byt. 3, 17 n ; SI. 2, 6 n. 
Bor-tora, man, Bd. 31, 7. 
BraVarvakhsh, man, Byt. 2, 3 n. 
BnWrok-resh, man, Byt. 2, 3 n. 
BnL/royijno, man, Byt. 2, 3 n. 
Brazen age, Byt. 2, 18. 
Buddha, Bd. 28, 34 n. 
Buddhists, Bd. 20, 22 n. 
Bukhar, land, Byt. 3, 17. 
Bukharans, Byt. 3, 17. 
Bull's urine (gomes;), SI. 2, 67, 92, 

98, 105, 112, 113; 3, 13, 21, 

22, 25; 10, 39; 12, 24, 27. 
Bumyo m., Bd. 12, 16 n. 
Bunda, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Bundahij, Int. 22; contents, Int. 

23, 24; MSS., Int. 24-41; Av. 
original, Int. 24, 43 ; Zs. 9, 1 n, 
16 n; French trans., Int. 24, 
25 ; German trans., Int. 25, 26 ; 
Gu^. trans., Int. 43-45 ; Paz. 
version, Int. 30, 31 ; longer text, 
Int. 32-41; contents of long 
text, Int. 35 - 37 ; extent of 
texts, Int. 34, 35, 41; age, Int. 
41-43; Zs. 10, 511. See also 

Bur#, angel, Bd. 7, 3 ; 19, 15; Zs. 

Burying the dead, SI. 2, 9; 13, 19. 
Buran-Mitro fire, Bd. 12, 18, 34; 

17, 7 n, 8 ; Zs. 6, 22 ; 11, 8-10 ; 

Byt. 3, 30, 37, 40. 
Bushasp, demoness, Bd. 28, 26; SI. 

13, 43. 



But, demon, Bd. 28, 34. 
Butter, see Sacred butter. 

Cake, see Sacred cake. 

Cancer, Bd. 2, 2 ; 5, 6 ; 7, 1, 2 ; 

34, 2 ; Zs. 4, 8; 6, 1, 2 ; SI. 21, 

2, 5. 
Capricornus, Bd. 2, 2 ; 5, 6 ; 34, 

9 n ; Zs. 4, 10 ; Byt. 3, 1 1 n ; 

SI. 21, 2, 7, 8. 
Carriers of the dead, single, SI. 2, 

84, 106, 108; one with a dog, 

SI. 2, 7 ; two, SI. 2, 6-8, 84, 85 ; 

four, SI. 2, 6n; 10, 10. 
Caspian sea, Bd. 13, 15 n; 15, 28 n, 

29 n; 17, 511; 19, 15 n; 20, 

8 n, 24 n, 27 n; 22, 4n; 31, 21 

n; Byt. 2, 63 n; 3, 19 n. 
Ceremonial (yasijn), Byt. 2, 37 ; 3, 

37; SI. 3, 35 n; 5, 3; 8, 4; 9, 

5, 11; 13,25; 19,8. 
Ceremonies, SI. 2, 38 ; 12, 31 ; — 

after a death, SI. 6, 3, 4 ; 8, 6 n ; 

12, 5, 31; 17, 2-6; — of nine 

nights, SI. 12, 26 n ; see Baresh- 

Ch in Oriental words is printed K. 
Chaldaeo-Pahlavi, Int. 19-21. 
Chaldee, Int. 14, 19. 
Chapter (ha), SI. 10, 6 n; 13, 1, 5, 6, 

3i> 34- 
Chiefs of creation, Bd. 24, 1-24, 28, 

29; spiritual, Bd. 29, 1, 2, 5. 
Chieftainships, spiritual, Bd. 29, 1 ; 

SI. 13, 29 ; temporal, SI. 13, 11, 

i.5, 34? 4i n> 44; 19, 5. 
Childbirth, SI. 10, 15; 12, 7. 
Children, advantage of, SI. 10, 2 2 ; 

12, 15; illegitimate, SL 10, 21; 

12, 14. 
China, Bd. 31, 3 n. 
Christian, Byt. 2, 19 n; 3, 3 n ; SI. 


Christianity, Byt. 2, 19 n ; 3, 3 n. 
Chronology of Iran, Bd. 34, 1-9. 
Classes of people, SI. 13, 9, 15, 34. 
Clothing corpses, SI. 2, 9, 95 ; 10, 

40 ; 12, 4 ; — for spirits, Bd. 

30, 28 ; SI. 17, 4, 5 n ; purifying, 

SI. 2, 95, 97-99- 
Commentary, see Zand. 
Commentators, SI. 1, 3, 4 n ; quoted, 

Byt. 1,7; 3,3, 16; SI. 2, 1,2, 

6, 11, 12, 39, 44, 56, 57, 64, 73, 
74, 80-82, 86, 88, 89, 107, 115, 
118, 119; 3, 13; 5, 5, 6; 6, 

4-6; 8, 13, 17, 18, 23; 10, 40; 
14, 5; 20, 11. 

Confession of sin, SI. 8, 2, 4 n, (8-10.) 

Conflicts of evil, with the sky, Bd. 
6, 1-4 ; Zs. 5, 1-5 ; with water, 
Bd. 7, 1-13; Zs. 6, 1-23; with 
the earth, Bd. 8, 1-5 ; Zs. 7, 1- 
12; with plants, Bd. 9, 1-6; 
Zs. 8, 1-6; with animals, Bd. 
10, 1-4; Zs. 9, 1-24; with man, 
Zs. 10, 1-6 ; with fire, Zs. 11, 

Constantinople, Int. 12. 

Consulting the good, SI. 10, 28. 

Contagion, SI. 2, 59, (60.) 

Copper age, Byt. 2, 19. 

Corpse, carrying, SI. 2, 6-1 1, 83-95 ; 
10, 10, 33 ; lowering, SI. 2, 23- 
29; moving, SI. 2, 63, 65, 66, 
68-71; thrown into water, SI. 
2, 76-78 ; 9, 7 ; bringing out of 
water, SI. 2, 79*94; in rain, SL 
2, 9, 10, 94; clothing for, SI. 
2, 9, 95; 10, 40; 12, 4. See 
also Pollution. 

Corpse chamber, Byt. 2, 36. 

Creation of prototypes, Bd. 1, 8 ; 
Zs. 1, 5 ; of archangels, Bd. 
1, 23, 26; of the world, Bd. 1, 
25, 28; Zs. 1, 20; of demons, 
Bd. 1, 10, 24, 27 ; of time, Zs. 
1, 24. 

Crowing of a hen, SI. 10, 30. 

Cyrus, Int. 9 ; Bd. 34, 8 n. 

Dabistan, book, Byt. 1, 1 n. 

DaWak nask, SI. 12, 4 n. 

DaVakih-i Ashovahijto, man, Bd. 33, 

DaW-an/a, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
Da^-Auharmazd, com., Byt. 1, 7 ; 3, 

16; SI. 1, 4 m 
Da^-farukh, com., SI. 1, 4 n. 
DaWgun, man, SI. 1, 4 n. 
Dadmd, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
DaWistan-i dinik, book, Int. 32, 33, 

46, 47 ; Bd. 15, 22 n ; 29, 5 n, 

6n; author of, Bd. 33, ion, 

11 n. 
DaW-i veh, com., SI. 1, 4 n. 
Dahak, king, Bd. 17, 5; 20, 23; 

29, 9 ; 30, 16; 31,5-7; 34,5; 

Byt. 3, 34; SI. 10, 28 n. See 

A*-i Dahak. 
Dah-homast, rite, Byt. 2, 59 n. 
Dahman afnngan, SI. 13, 43 n ; 17, 5 n. 



Dai, land, Bd. 15, 29. 

Daitik m., see Kakad-i Daitik. 

— r., Bd. 20, 7, 13, 2311; 24, 14; 

29, 5 n ; Zs. 2, 6. 

Dakhma, Byt. 2, 36 n ; SI. 2, (6,) 
911, ion, 1 in, 75 n. See De- 
pository for the dead. 

Damaghan, town, Bd. 20, 18 n ; 29, 
14 n. 

Damdai nask, Int. 24, 48; Zs. 9, 
(1,) 16; SI. 10, 22; 12, 5. 

Damnak, man, Bd. 31, 36, 39. 

Dara^a r., Bd. 20, 7, 32; 24, 15. 

Darai, king, Bd. 33, 2 ; 34, 8. 

Dargam r., Bd. 20, 7, 14. 

Darius Codomannus, Int. 24; Bd. 
34, 8 n. 

— Hystaspes, Int. 9. 
Darspet m., Bd. 12, 2, 20 n. 
Dashtanistan, SI. 2, 75 ; 3, 4 n, (6 n,) 

11 n. 

Dastan, man, Bd. 31, 37. 

Dastur, Bd. 19, 36. See High- 

Ddvad m., Bd. 12, 29, 30. 

Davans, man, SI. 12, 29. 

Day rid r., Bd. 20, 26 n. 

Days, lengths of, Bd. 25, 3-6 ; names 
of angels applied to them, Bd. 
27, 24; SI. 22, 1-30; 23, 1-4. 

Dead matter, Byt. 2, 36; SI. 2, 
(30 n,) 32, 35, 63, 73, 77, 78, 
102, 104-107, 109^-112; 10, 12, 
20; 12, 13. 

Deaf and dumb, SI. 5, 7; 6, 1. 

Deana m., Bd. 12, 30 n. 

Death, accidental, SI. 10, 32 ; on a 
bedstead, SI. 2, 13; 17, 14; on 
a bridge, SI. 2, 20 ; on a carpet, 
SI. 2, 101 ; on a cloth, SI. 2, 12 ; 
on the ground, SI. 2, 14-16 ; in 
a hall, SI. 2, 45 ; in a house, SI. 
2, 38-44 ; in a jar, SI. 2, 31 ; on 
a roof, SI. 2, 18, 21 ; in a room, 
SI. 2, 22; when seated, SI. 2, 
24 ; by strangulation, SI. 2, 23 ; 
17, 13 ; on a tree, SI. 2, 25-29 ; 
in a vessel, SI. 9, 7 ; in a wilder- 
ness, SI. 2, 47. 

Demonized men, SI. 17, 7- 

Demons, Bd. 5, 7 ; Zs. 2, 4 ; Byt. 
2, 40, 62; 3, 9,21,33; SI. 9, 5, 
8; 12, 12 ; 15, 6 ; 17, 3; origin, 
Bd. 1, 10; end, Bd. 1, 21, 22; 
6, 4 ; 30, 29-32 ; names, Bd. 1, 
24, 27; 3, 3, 6-9, 21; 7, 8, 10, 

12; 28, 7-20, 23-36, 39, 40, 
42; 30, 29, 30; Zs. 4, 4; 6,9, 
11, 13 ; council, Bd. 3, 1-9 ; 12, 
8; incursion, Bd. 3, 10, 21, 25, 
26 ; 7, 8, 12 ; mislead men, Bd. 
15, 9, 12, 17, 18; use nail-par- 
ings as weapons, Bd. 19, 19, 20 ; 
SI. 12, 6 ; opposed by cock, Bd. 
19, 33 ; SI. 10, 30 n ; beget the 
ape, bear, and negro, Bd. 23, 1, 
2; described, Bd. 28, 1-46; 
figures of, Byt. 1, 4 ; 2, 1 6 ; — 
with dishevelled hair, Byt. 1, 5 ; 
2,22, 24-29,36; 3,i,6, 13,34; 
discomfited, Byt. 2, 16, 17; 3, 
40, 41 ; reside in idol-temples, 
Byt. 3, 30, 36, 37 ; attack Zara- 
tujt, SI. 10, 4 ; 12, 1 1 ; in the 
north, SI. 10, 7 ; 12, 18 ; 14, 2 n. 

Demon worship, SI. 8, 4 ; 14, 1. 

— worshippers, Byt. 3, 24. 

Depository for the dead, SI. 2, 75 ; 
13, 19. See Dakhma and Re- 

Destroyer, Bd. 2, 4, 8 ; 3, 1, 23 ; 7, 
1 ; 20, 6 ; 27, 1 ; Zs. 7, 3 ; SI. 

10, 3 ; 13, 30. 

Development of animals, Bd. 10, 2, 
3 ; 14, 3-7 ; Zs. 9, 7-9 J fire, 
Zs. 11, 1-10 ; lakes, Zs. 6, 7, 8, 
22 ; land, Bd. 11, 2 ; Zs. 7, 8-1 1 ; 
man, Bd. 15, 1-5 ; Zs. 10, 3-6 ; 
minerals, Zs. 10, 2 ; mountains, 
Bd. 8, 1-5 , 12, 1, 2, 11, 28, 41 ; 
Zs. 7, 1-7 ; plants, Bd. 9, 2-6 ; 
10, 1 ; 14, 1, 2 ; Zs. 8, 1-5 ; 9, 
1-6; rivers, Bd. 7, i5-!7; Zs. 
6, 20, 21; seas, Bd. 7, 6, 14; 
Zs. 6, 6-8, 14-19. 

Deyrid r., Bd. 20, 7 n, 12 n. 

Diglat r., Bd. 20, 7, 10, 12, 26 ; Zs. 
6, 20 n. 

Dilman town, Bd. 20, 12 n. 

Dimavand m., Bd. 12, 29, 31; 20, 
27 ; 29, 9 ; Byt. 3, 55- 

Din, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; Byt. 2, 59 
n; month, Bd. 25, 3, 11, 20. 
See Dino. 

Dini-va^arkan/, book, Zs. 9, in; 
Byt. 1, in; 3, 25 n ; SI. 9, 9 n ; 
10, 311,411, 13 n, 21 n, 25 n, 26 
n, 28 n, 29 n ; 12, 4 n, 17 n. 

Dinkar^, book, SI. 10, 22 n, 23 n; 
last editor of, Int. 64 ; Bd. 33, 
(11 n;) SI. 8, 23 n; quoted, 
Zs. 9, 1 n ; Byt. 1, 1 n 5 2, 3 n, 



19 n; 3,2511,4311,5211,6111; 
SI. 6, 7 n ; 9, 9 n ; 10, 3 n, 4 n, 
8 n, 13 n, 2 in, 25 n, 26 n, 28 n, 
2911; 12, 411, 17 n; 19, 111, 

Dino, angel, SI. 22, 8, 15, 23, 24 ; 23, 

4. SeeDin. 
Din-pavan-Ataro, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; 

SI. 23, 2, 4 n. 
Din-pavan-Dino, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; 

SI. 23, 4. 
Din-pavan-Mitro, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; 

SI. 23, 3, 4 n. 
Dirham, SI. 1, (2 ;) 8, (3 n ;) 10, 24 ; 

11, 2; 16, in, 2, 3. 
Dijt, span, Bd. 26, 3 n ; SI. 16, 4. 
Dog's gaze, SI. 2, 1-3, 56, 63, 66, 71, 

84, 85; 10, 10, 12, 32, 33. 
D6-homast, rite, SI. 16, 6. 
D6-patkar, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 
Doubtful actions, SI. 10, 25, 27. 
Drono, see Sacred cake. 
Dr%aska.n, demon, Bd. 31, 6. 
Drvasp, angel, SI. 11, 4. 
Dualism, Int. 68-70. 
"Dubasrug&d nask, SI. 10, 13. 
Dughdd or Dukdav, woman, Bd. 32, 

10; SI. 10, 4; 12, 11. 
Dul, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 
Durasrob, man, Bd. 31, 13, 31 ; 32, 

1 ; 33, 3, 4- 
Durnamik, man, Bd. 33, 5. 
Duroshasp, man, Bd. 31, 14, 27. 
Dvasrub or Dvasr%a^ nask, see 

Dvasdah-homast nask, Zs. 9, in; 

rite, Byt. 2, (59;) 3,25,27,37; 

SI. 16, 6. 

Eating in the dark, SI. 9, 8. 
Egypt, Int. 21 ; Bd. 20, 8 n ; Zs. 6, 

20 n. 

Erezisho m., Bd. 12, 12 n. 
Erezraspa, man, Bd. 29, 1 11. 
Erezuro m,, Bd. 12, 16 n. 
Esther, book, Byt. 2, 17 n. 
Etymander r., Bd. 20, 17 n. 
Euphrates r., Bd. 20, ion, n n; 

Byt. 3, 5 n. 
Euxine, Bd. 18, 15 n ; 20, 8 n. 
Ever-stationary, SI. 6, 2 ; 18, 4 n. 
Evil eye, Bd. 28, 2 n, 14, 36. 
Evil spirit, Zs. 1, o ; SI. 8, 23 ; 12, 

7 ; 13, 28 ; like the devil, Int. 

69, 70 ; origin of evil, Bd. 1, 1, 

9-22, 24 ; cast down, Bd. 3, 1- 

5; 11, 6; 30, 29, 30, 32; Byt. 
3, 35, 40; SI. 13, 24, 36 ; com- 
forted, Bd. 3, 6-8 ; described, 
Bd. 3, 9 ; 28, 40, 41 ; attacks 
creation, Bd. 3, 10-17, 21, 24- 
27; 6, 1-4; 8, 1; 11, $,; 18, 

2, 5 ; 19, 10 ; 28, 1, 3; misleads 
men, Bd. 15, 8, 9 ; 28, 6 ; an- 
cestor of Dahak, Bd. 31, 6 ; his 
future evil-doings, Byt. 2, 54 ; 

3, 24, 33. See Aharman. 
Extinguishing fire, SI. 7, 9 ; 20, 15. 
Extirpation of sin, SI. 8, 18. 
Ezra, book, Byt. 2, 17 n. 

Faranak, woman, Bd. 31, 3 m. 
Farangis, woman, Bd. 31, i8n. 
Farghanah, land, Bd. 20, 2011. 
Farhank, woman, Bd. 31, 31-33. 
Farman sin, SI. 1, (1, 2;) 2, 51 ; 3, 

27, 28 ; 4, 10, 14 n; 5, 3 n ; 

6, 3 n; 8, 9 n; 11, 1, (2;) 16, 

(h) 5. 
Farukho, com., SI. 1, 4n. 
Fasa, town, Bd. 29, i4n. 
Fayum, land, Int. 21. 
Feast, Byt. 2, 45. See Sacred feast. 
Female things, Bd. 16, 6. 
Feridun, king, Bd. 31, 7 n, 3 1 n. See 

Fiends, Bd. 2, 1 1 ; 30, 30 ; Zs. 1, 5 ; 

4, 2 ; Byt. 3, 30, 37 ; SI. 9, 8 ; 
13, 10, 13; 19, 5 ; 20, 9, 11; . 
origin, Bd. 1, 10; destroyed, 
Bd. 2, 10; 19, 33, 34,36; 20, 

6 ; Zs. 10, 1 ; SI. 13, 23, 32, 46 ; 
described, Bd. 28, 13, 14, 20, 
33, 37 ; Christians, Byt. 3, 3, 5; 
serpents, Byt. 3, 52; of men- 
struation, SI. 3, 29 ; become 
pregnant, SI. 10, 7 ; 12, 18. See 

Finger-breadth, meas., Bd. 21, 1 ; 
26, ( 3 n;) 27, 25; SI. 2, 118; 
4, 2, 5; 10, 1. 

Fire, injured, Bd. 3, 24 ; described, 
Bd. 17, 1-9; Zs. 11, 1-10; 
reverence, SI. 7, 4 ; 10, 37 ; to 
be kept up, SI. 12, 3, 12. See 
Sacred fire. 

Fire-temple, see Abode of fires. 

Fish, classification, Bd. 10, 4 ; 14, 
12, 26; Zs. 9,9-14; genera- 
tion, Bd. 16, 7 ; chief, Bd. 24, 

Flowers, Bd. 27, 11, 24. 



Fomalhaut, star, Bd. 2, 7 n ; SI. 11, 

411; 14, 511. 
Food not to be cast to the north at 

night, SI. 10, 7; 12, 18. 
Foot, meas., Bd. 26, 3n; SI. 2, 18, 

77. 78n; 3, 33; 21, 2, 5-8. 
Forgiveness of trespasses, SI. 10, 11. 
Frabazu, meas., Bd. 26, 3n. 
Frada^afsh, region, Bd. 5, 8, 9 ; 11, 

3; 25, 10; 29, 1; Byt. 3, 47. 
Fradhakhjti, man, Bd. 29, sn. 
Fraguzak, woman, Bd. 31, 14. 
Frahimra'vd, man, Bd. 32, 10. 
Frah-vakhsh-vinda^, man, Bd. 33, 1. 
Frangrasyan, king, Bd. 31, i4n. 
Fraoretiha, SI. 13, in. 
Frarast, meas., Bd. 26, 3n. 
Frasast, cake, SI. 3, (32 n;) 14, 3; 17, 

Frashaitar, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
Frashakan/, see Renovation. 
Frashavakhsha, man, Bd. 33, 1 n. 
Frashojtar, man, Bd. 33, 3 n. 
Frasiya?>, king, Bd. 12, 20; 20, 17, 

34; 21, 6; 30, 16; 31, (14,) i5, 

18, 21, 22, 35; Zs. 11, ion; 

Byt. 2, 62 ; 3, 34 ; SI. 10, 28 n. 
Frasizak, woman, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Frasp-i isfur, man, Bd. 31, 18, 19. 
Frajt, man, Bd. 33, 3. See next. 
Frajt, man, Bd. 31, 3 in. 
Frastuye ha, SI. 13, 1. 
Frat^r., Bd. 20, 7, 10, 11 ; Byt. 3, 5. 
Fravahar, see Guardian spirits. 
Fravak, man, Bd. 15, 25, 30, 31 ; 31, 

1, 6; 32, in. 
Fravakain, woman, Bd. 15, 25. 
Fravarane ha, SI. 13, 1. 
Fravan/ikan, see Guardian spirits' 

Fravanfin, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; SI. 22, 

19; 23, 3; day, SI. 11, 4 n; 

month, Bd. 3, 1 2 ; 25, 7, 1 3, 20 ; 

Zs. 2, 1; SI. 11, 4 n. 
Fravashis, Bd. 1, 8n; 2, ion. See 

Guardian spirits. 
Frazdan lake, Bd. 22, 1, 5 ; Byt. 3, 

FrazkaA, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Frazujak, man, Bd. 31, 14. 
FreVun, king, Bd. 20, 12 n; 23, 3 ; 

29, 9; 31, (7-1 1,) 14, 27, 32; 

32, in; 34, 6 ; Byt. 3, 55, 56, 

58; SI. 10, 28n; 20, 18; man, 

Bd. 33, 3. 
Fr6h-khur</, man, Bd. 31, 19. 


Freh-mah, woman, Bd. 33, 7. 
Freh-Srosh, man, Bd. 33, 11. 
Fren, woman, Bd. 32, 5, 7n. 
Fraii, woman, Bd. 31, 33 n ; 32, 5 n. 
Friftar, demon, Bd. 28, 30. 
i*Ws, man, Bd. 31, 13. 
Frobak fire, Bd. 17, 5> 7n ; Zs. 11, 

8-10; Byt. 3, 29, 30, 37, 40; 

SI. 13, 26. 
Fruits, Bd. 27, 7, 23. 
FryanC, man, Bd. 33, 3* 
Fshusho-mathra, ritual, SI. 13, 49 n. 
Future existence, Bd. 1, 1, 7, 21 ; 2, 

11; 11, 6 ; 15, 9 ; 30, 1 ; Byt. 

2,55; 3,62; SI. 8, 7, 14; 9, 

6; 10, 19. 

Gadhwithw, demon, Bd. 31, 6. 
Gadman-homand m., Bd. 17, 5 ; Zs. 

11, 9 ; Byt. 3, 29. 
Gaevani, man, Bd. 29, 6n. 
Gah, Bd. 2, 8 ; 25, 9n ; SI. 7, 1 n ; 

14, 4n. See Period. 
Gahanbars, Bd. 25, 1 ; SI. 12, 3 1 n ; 

18, (3n.) See Season-festivals. 
Gak, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
Gam, meas., Bd. 26, 3 n. 
Ganavaim., Bd. 12, 29, 34; 19, 8. 
Ganrak mainok, Bd. 1, 1 n, 3 n. See 

Evil spirit. 
Garafsa, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Garoiman, Bd. 30, 12, 13, 27; SI. 

6, (3n,) 4; 11, 3. See Heaven. 
Garjasp, man, Bd. 29, 7n ; 31, 2 6n, 

27 n. 

Garsivaz, man, Bd. 31, isn. 
Gasanbar, see Season-festivals. 
Gatha days, Bd. 5, 7 ; 25, 7". 
Gathas, hymns, Bd. 12, 7 n ; Zs. 11, 
ion; Byt. 2, 60; SI. 9, 1211; 

10, 6 ; quoted, Zs. 5, 4 ; SI. 12, 

28 ; mystic meaning, SI. 13, 1- 
49 ; extent, SI. 13, 50, 51. 

Gmi, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 

Gauj .g-ivya, Av., SI. 2, 43 n ; 13, 1 2 n. 

— hudhmi, Av., SI. 2, 43 n ; 3, 3211 ; 

11, 4n. See Sacred butter. 
GayOmar^, man, Bd. 3, in, 14, 17, 

19-23; 4, 1; 15, 1, 31; 24, 1; 
30, 7, 9; 31, 1 ; 32, in; 34, 1, 
2 ; Zs. 2, 6, 8 ; 3, 2 ; 4, 3, 5, 9, 
10; 5, 4; 10, 1-3; 11, ion; 
SI. 10, 2 8n. 

Gazdum, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 

Gefar-tora, man, Bd. 31, 7 ; 32, 1 n. 

Gehan-bun sea, Zs. 6, 14. 

e e 



Gel, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Gemini, Bd. 2, 2; SI. 21, 2. 
Genealogies, Bd. 15, 24-30; 31, 1- 

41 ; 32, 1-10 ; 33, 1-11. 
Generation, Bd. 16, 1-7. 
Georgia, Bd. 20, 13m 
Gesbakht m., Bd. 12, 29. 
Geti-khary, rite, Bd. 30,. (28 ;) SI. 

5, 6; 12, 30; 17, 5n. 
Ghazni, town, Bd. 22, 5n. 
Giklan sea, Bd. 20, 24. 
Gilan, land, Bd. 12, 17. 
Gi<w, man, Bd. 29, 6. 
Glory, royal, Bd. 31, 32, 33 ; 34, 4. 
Glossary, Av.-Pahl., SI. 10, 39 n. 
— Huz.-Paz., Int. 16, 17. 
God (' celestial beings'), Bd. 17, 8; 

Zs. 11, 6; SI. 1, o; 8, 22, 23; 

10, 3, 5 ; 14, o ; 19, 7 ; 21, 4 ; 
22, 30. 

Gogojasp, com., SI. 1, 3 ; 2, 74, 82, 

Got, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 

Gokan/ tree, Bd. 9, 6 ; 18, 1 ; 24, 
a 2 7 ; 27, 4. 

Go^ihar, meteor, Bd. 5, 1 ; 28, 44 ; 
30, 18, 31. 

Golden age, Byt. 1, in, 4; 2, 16. 

Gomes, see Bull's urine. 

Good works, Zs. 1, 14, 18; 4, 6; 
11,6; Byt.2, 33, 38,64; SI. 2, 
53, 93 5 6, 3, 4, 6; 7, 4, 6, 7 ; 
8, 1, 5? 20, 22 ; 9, 6 ; 10, 25, 
27, 29; 12,i, 2,29; 17, 8; 20, 
1, 4, 5 ; imputed, SI. 4, 14; 6, 

1, 2 ; 7, 6 ; 8, 4 ; 10, 22-24; 
12, 15, 16, 31; 16,6. 

Gopato, land, Bd. 29, 5 n. 
Gopatshah, chief, Bd. 29, 5; 31, 20, 

22 ; Byt. 2, 1. 
Goj, angel, Bd. 4, 4n; 27, 24; Byt. 

2, 59n; SI. 11, 4n; 23, 2. 
Gojasp, com., SI. 1, 3n. 

G6jt-i Fryano, man, Byt. 2, 1 ; tale 

of, SI. 21, on. 
Gojurvan, angel, Bd. 4, 2-5; Zs. 3, 

1,3; SI. 11, 411; 22, 14. 
Greek inscriptions, Int. 19. 
Greeks, Byt. 3, 5. 
Griffon, Bd. 14, 11, 23; 19, 18; 24, 

11, 29; Zs. 8, 4. 

Guardian spirits, Bd. 1, (8n;) 2, 10, 
11; 4, 4; 6, 3; 29,8; 32, 9 J 
SI. 9,n; 11, 4; 17, 4, 6; 19, 
8; days devoted to, Byt. 2, 45; 
SL.10,.2; 12, 31. 

Gudarz, man, Bd. 29, 6. 
Gurgan, land, Bd. 20, 24m 
Gurg-istan, land, Bd. 20, T3n. 
Gtuasp fire, Bd. 17, 7; Zs. 6, 22 n; 

Byt. 3, ion. See Vijnasp. 
Gujnasp fire, Zs. 6, 22; 11, 8-10; 

Byt. 3, ion, 37, 40. 
Gusak, princess, Bd. 31, 9, 14. 
— , woman, Bd. 15, 28. 

Gamagan, land, Bd. 29, i4n. 
Gamasp, priest, SI. 11, 4. 
Garo-danghu, man, Bd. 29, 1 n. 
Ga^no, Byt. 2, 45. See Feast. 
Geh, fiend, Bd. 3, 3, 6-9 ; SI. 3, 29m 
Girajt nask, SI. 10, 28 n. See Kid- 

Givan, lun. man., Zs. 4, 8. 
Gumin, town, Bd. 12, 34m 

Hadhayoj, ox, Bd. 19, 13; 29, 5 n; 
30, 25. 

HaVokht nask, Bd. 15, 7n; Byt. 3, 
(25,) 28; SI. 12, 19,30; 13,6, 
10 ; 16, 6. 

Hae£a*/asp, man, Bd. 32, 1. 

Hag-iabad inscriptions, Int. 20 n. 

HanWan, town, Bd. 12, 1 2 ; 19, 3 n ; 
22, j5. 

Hamemal,see Sin affecting accusers. 

Hamespamadayem, season, Bd. 25, 6. 

HannV, man, Bd. 33, 11. 

Hamistakan, SI. 6, 2. See Ever- 

HamreW, see Contagion. 

Hamun, lake, Bd. 13, i6n. 

Haptok-ring, stars, Bd. 2, 7 ; 5, 1 ; 

13, 12; 14, 28; SI. 11, 4. 
Harddr, man, Bd. 32, 1. 
Hardarsn, man, Bd. 32, 1. 
Harhaz r., Bd. 20, 7, 27. 

Haro r., Bd. 12, 9n; 20, 7, 15, 16. 

Has, SI. 10, 6; 13, 1. See Chapter. 

Hasar of distance, Bd. 14, 4; 16, 7; 
26, (1,) 2n; SL 9, in; —of 
time, Bd. 25, 5 ; SI. 9, (1.) 

Hathra, meas., Bd. 7, 8n; 26, in; 
SI. 9, in. 

Haug, Professor, Int. 12, 25, 26, 29. 

Havan gah, Bd. 25, 9, 10; SI. 7, 1 n; 

14, 4 n. 

Heaven, grades in, Bd. 12, 1 ; SI. 6, 
3n; garo^man, Bd. 30, 12, 13, 
27; Zs. 11, 2; SI. 6, 3 n, 4; 11, 
3 ; 13, 8 ; vahijt, Bd. 30, 27 ; 
Zs. 1, 14; SI. 6, 2,3,5; 12,28; 



15, 8, 13, 19, 24, 29, 30 ; 18, 4n; 
22, 9, 18, 22, 29 See also Best 
Heaven, not to be despaired of, SI. 

12, 28, 29. 

Hebrew laws, SI. 3, i4n, i5n, i8n, 

Hedgehog, Bd. 14, 19; 19, 28; SI. 
2, 59; 10, 31; 12, 20. 

Hell, Bd. 15, 9 ; 22, 10 ; Zs. 1, 14 ; 
SI. 6, 2, 6; 8, 5, 7, 13; 12, 4, 28; 
18, 4n; described, Bd. 3, 27 ; 
28, 47, 48 ; abode of demons, 
Bd. 3, 26; Byt. 3, 30, 35; for 
the wicked, Bd. 30, 12,13; gate 
of, Bd. 12, 8; 28, 18; Zs. 2, 
4; SI. 10, 7n; 13, 19 ; purified, 
Bd. 30, 31, 32 ; grades in, SI. 
6, 3 n. 

Helmand r., Bd. 20, i7n. 

Hendvd r., Bd. 20, 7, 9n. 

Heri r., Bd. 20, i5n, i6n. 

Hetumand r., Bd. 12, 9 n; 20, 7, 17, 
34; 21, 3n. 

Hiddekel r., Bd. 20, 12 n; Byt. 3, 
21 n. 

High-priest, dasttir, Bd. 19, 36; 28, 
20; Byt. 3, 52 ; SI. 8, 10; 9, 

2, 4; 10, 5, 20-23, 31; 12, 2, 
14-16 ; ra^, Bd. 29, 1 n ; Byt. 

3, 52; SI. 8, 1, 2, 5, 6, 14, 21; 

13, 2, 29 ; supreme, Bd. 24, 1; 
SI. 9, 3 ; see Supreme Zaratujt. 

Hikhar, SI. 2, (3on,) 95. See Bodily 

Hindus, Bd. 28, 34; Byt. 3, 14, 17; 

SI. 2, 58n. 
Hindustan, Bd. 20, 9; 25, 15529,15. 
Hindva m., Bd. 12, 6n. 
Hirat, town, Bd. 20, i6n. 
Hiratis, men, Byt. 3, 19. 
Hiriyan, men, Byt. 3, i9n, 
Hoa%arodathhri, chief, Bd. 29, 1. 
Holy-water, Bd. 21, 3, 4; Byt. 2, 

59; SI. 2, (43;) 7, 9; 12, 5; 

13, 9; 15, 12; 16, 6. 
H6m, angel, Bd. 7, 3 ; 27, 24 ; Zs. 

6, 3; SI. 11,. 4, 6; — drCn, SI. 

10, 2; —juice, SI. 10, 16; 13, 

in, 9n; — mortar, SI. 9, 12 n; 

13, 9n; — tree, Bd. 9, 6n; 18, 

2,3; 24, 18; 27,4,24530,25; 

Zs. 8, 5 ; — twigs, SI. 9, 1 2 n ; 

13, 9n. 
H6mast, rite, Byt. 2, (59115) SI. 9, 

12 n 5 16 y 6n^ 

Horvada*/, angel, Bd. 1, (26;) 27, 
24; 30, 29; Byt. 3, 29; SI. 9, 
8; 13,14; 15, 3,5, 25,29; 22, 
6 ; 23, 1; month, Bd. 25, 20. 

— yajt, Byt. 1, 6. 

Hoshyang, king, Bd. 15, (28;) 31, 1, 
2, 9 n, 32 n; 32, in; 34, 3, 4; 
Zs. 11, 10; SI. 10, 28 n. 

House-ruler, SI. 13, 11, 15, 4m, 44; 

Hubakht, man, Bd. 33, 1. 

HUdino, man, Bd. 33, 3. 

Hugar m., Bd. 7, 15 n; 12, 2, (5,) 
6 ; 13, 4 ; 22, 11 ; 24, 17 ; Byt. 

8 *' 3 i n ' 

Hukairya*/ m., Byt. 3, 31. 

Hukhshathrotemai, prayer, SI. 10, 

511; 13, 22. 
Humai, woman, Bd. 33, 7 ; queen, 

Bd. 34, 8. 
Human, man, Bd. 31, 17. 
Human monstrosities, Bd. 15, 5, 31. 
Humatanam, prayer, SI. 10, 5 n ; 13, 

16, 22. 
Hunting, SI. 8, 3. 

Hush, beverage, Bd. 19, 13; 30, 25. 
HusheVar, apostle, Bd. 21, 65 32, 

7n, (8;) Byt. 3, 11 n, 13, 34«, 

(43,44,) 47, 48, 6 in; SI. 13, 5. 
HusheWar-mah, apostle, Bd. 30, 2 ; 

32, 7n, (8;) Byt. 3, 52, 53 5 SI. 

Husparam nask, Byt. 2, 37 n; SI. 10, 

(21;) 12, 1, 7, 14, 31 ; 13, 17. 

Husru, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3 ; lake, Bd. 

Huvasp, chief, Bd. 29, 1. 
H&zavarak, man, Bd. 31, 41. 
HuzvarLr logograms, Int. 14-20. 
Jfoaetumaithi ha, SI. 13, 7, 14, 27. 
Hvandkdn, man, Bd. 29, 1. 
ifoara, Av., SI. 1, 1 n. 
Hvare-/£ithra, man, Bd. 32, 5 n. 
Hvembya, man, Bd. 29, 5. 
H'vS'v, woman, Bd. 32, 7 n, 8 ; SL 

10, 2 1 n. 
ifoyaona, land, Byt. 2, 49 n.- 
Hyrcania, Bd. 20, 24n. 

Iaxartes r., Bd. 20, 20 n. 
Ibairaz, man, Bd. 29, 6, 
Ibitak, man, Bd. 32, in. 
Idolators) Int. 50, 51; Bd. 3, 20 n; 

15, 28n; Byt. 3, nn. 
Idolatry, SI. 9, 2, 3. 
Idols, Bd. 28, 34 5 Byt. 1, 411. 

e e 2 



Idol-temples, Bd. 17, 7 ; Byt. 3, 30, 

36, 37. 
Imam-aai-zam ha, SI. 13, 19. 
Immortal men, Bd. 29, 5-9 ; 30, 17. 
Incursion of the evil spirit, Bd. 3, 

10-26 ; Zs. 2, 1-1 1 ; 4, 1-6. 
Indar, demon, Bd. 30, 29 n. See 

India, Bd. 15, 29 n; 20, 9n ; 29, 4; 

Byt. 3, 44n; SI. 2, 6n, 22n, 

32 n; 4, sn, 6n, 11 n, 12 n; 9, 

9n; 10, in; 17, 2 n. 
Indian ocean, Bd. 20, 8n. 
Indra, god, Bd. 1, 27 n. 
Indus r., Bd. 20, 8n, 9n, 22n, 28n ; 

Byt. 3, 38 n. 
Infant, treatment, SI. 10, 16; pro- 
tected by fire, SI. 12, 12. 
Infection, SI. 2, 55, 59, (6o-)62. See 

Infidel, SI. 6, 6. 
Invoking angels, SI. 9, n- 13. 
Inward prayer, SI. 3, (6-) 9, 21; 4, 

3, 911; 5,411; 10, 14, 26; 14, 

3. See Baz, Va#. 
Iran, Bd. 12, 9n; Zs. 6, 17; Byt. 2, 

51,63; 3, 37 n,44n; SI. 10, 2811; 

countries of, Bd. 23, 3 ; Byt. 1, 

in; 2, 24, 26, 49; 3, 5-7, 10, 

20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 36, 38, 39; 

kings of, Bd. 31, 32 n ; 32, 1 n. 
Iranian, countries, Bd. 19, 15 ; Byt. 

2, 28, 29; kings, Bd. 34, 411; 

Byt. 3, 51 ; logograms, Int. 14, 

18, 19; rule, Bd. 29, 411; SI. 

13, 7 n. 
Iranians, Bd. 12, 33; 15, 28; 31, 

21 ; Byt. 2, 33n. 
Iron age, Byt. 1, in, 5; 2, 22; 3, 

12 n. 
Isa^/vastar, man, Bd. 30, ion; 32, 

5, 7. 
Isfendiyar, prince, Bd. 31, 29 n; Byt. 

2, i7n. 
Ispahan, Bd. 12, 40 n; 20, i5n, 26 n; 

31, 4on. 
Istudgar nask, Byt. 1, 1 n. See StuW- 

Itha ha, SI. 13, 20; prayer, SI. 3, 35; 

5, 2, 5, 7 ; see the next. 
Itha-aV-yazamaide ha, SI. 13, 18. 
Izaky princess, Bd. 32, 1 n. 

J in Oriental words is printed G. 
Jamshed, Bd. 23, in; 31, 27 n. 
Jew, SI. 6, 7. 

Judge, unjust, SI. 10, 18. 

Jupiter, planet, Bd. 5, 1 ; Zs. 4, 7, 

8, 10; Byt. 3, 4, 18. 
Justi, Professor, Int. 26, 66 n. 

Kabed-jikaft m., Bd. 12, 2, 21. 
Kabisah dispute, Bd. 25, 3n. 
Kabulistan, Byt. 3, 1 3 n. 
KaW, priest, Bd. 33, 1, 2. 
Kaddn, title, Bd. 31, 15. 
Ka^-moi-urva ha, SI. 13, 33. 
Kaf m., Bd. 12, 2, 14. 
Kahrkas, bird, Bd. 14, 23; 19, 25, 

Kabt, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Kahtsar, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Kahus, Byt. 3, 9 n. See Kai-Kaus. 
Kai-Apiveh, prince, Bd. 31, 25, 28, 

3i, 34- 

— Arsh, prince, Bd. 31, 25. 

— KabaW, king, Bd. 34, 7. 

— Kaus, king, Bd. 31, 25, 3 in; 34, 

7; Byt. 3, 9. 

— KavaV, king, Bd. 31, 28; 34, 7n; 

SI. 10, 2 8n. See KavaV. 

— Khusr6b, king, Bd. 17, 7 ; 31, 18, 

25; 34, 7; SI. 10, 28 n. 

— Loharasp, king, Bd. 31, 29 ; 34, 

7; SI. 10, 28 n. 

— Pisan (or Pisin), prince, Bd. 31, 


— Qubad, king, Bd. 31, 24 n. 

— Us, king, Zs. 11, ion; SI. 10, 


— VLrtasp, king, Bd. 34, 7 ; Byt. 3, 

1 in; SI. 10, 28 n. 

— Vyarsh, prince, Bd. 31, 25. 
Kalak, town, Bd. 12, 35. 
Kala^ang, zod., Bd. 2, 2; 5, 6. 
Kamah Bahrah, Zs. 9, 1 n ; SI. 2, 2 n. 
Kamindan, land, Bd. 22, 10. 
Kam-nemoi-zam ha, SI. 13, 30. 
Kamru^ sea, Bd. 13, 7, 15; Zs. 6, 

Kanabad, town, Bd. 12, 34n. 
Kanak-i Barzijt, man, Bd. 31, 23. 
Kangdes, land, Bd. 12, 2 ; 20, 3 1 ; 

29,4,5, 10; 32,5; Byt. 3, 25, 

Kaoirisa m., Bd. 12, 25 n. 
Kar fish, Bd. 14, 12; 24, in, 13. 
Karap, title, Byt. 2, 3. 
Karapan, title, Zs. 11, ion; Byt. 2, 

Karm, tribe, Byt. 3, 7. 
Karmak, tribe, Byt. 2, 49. 



Karman, tribe, Byt. 3, 20. 
Karsaspo, king, SI. 10, 2811. 
Karsevaz, prince, Bd. 31, 15. 
Karjipt, bird, Bd. 14, 23; 19, 16; 

24, in, 11, 2(?n. 
Kasak or Kasik r., Bd. 20, 7, 9n, 

Kajki-zard, town, Bd. 12, 3on. 
Kajmir, land, Bd. 29, 4, 15. 
Kasp r., Bd. 20, 30. 
Katayun, man, Bd. 31, 8. 
Kaus Kaman, SI. 2, 211. 
Kava^, king, Bd. 31, 24, 25; Byt. 1, 

5n; 2, 2 in. See Kai-Kava</. 
Kavi Aipi-vanghu, prince, Bd. 31, 

25 n. 

— Arshan, prince, Bd. 31, 25n. 

— Byarshan, prince, Bd. 31, 2 5n. 

— Husra van gh, king, Bd. 31, 25 n. 

— Pisanangh, prince, Bd. 31, 25 n. 

— Syavarshan, prince, Bd. 31, 2 5n. 

— Usadhan, king, Bd. 31, 2 5n. 
Kavul, town, Bd. 12, 22 ; 17, 6. 
Kainift, tribe, Byt. 2, 49. 
Kavulistan, land, Bd. 17, 6 ; 29, 11 ; 

Byt. 3, 13.11, 2911. 
Kayan, Bd. 21, 7 ; 28, 15, 17 ; 31, 
o, 25n; Byt. 1,5; 2,17; 3,14, 

Kayanians, Bd. 11, 6 ; Byt, 3, i4n ; 

SI. 10, 2 8n. 
Kayans, Byt. 3, 25, 26 ; SI. 22, 32. 
Keresani, king, Byt. 2, 19 n. 
Keresasp, man, Bd. 29, 7n; 31, 26, 

27n, 36n; Byt. 3, 59, 60. 
Keshvars, regions, Bd. 5, 8, 9 ; 11, 

(2-6;) 15, 27; 17,4 5 Zs.7,(8- 

11;) Byt. 3, 47; SI. 10, 28 n. 
Kevai, king, Byt. 1, 5 ; 2, 21. 
Kevan, planet, Bd. 5, 1 ; 28, 48 ; Zs. 

Khashm, demon, Bd. 29, 5. See 

Khajt nask, SI. 12, 4n. See Da^/ak. 
Khava, demon, Bd. 19, 27. 
Khazar, land, Byt. 2, 49 n. 
Khor sin, SI. 1, 1, 2 ; 2, 70 ; 3, 25 n ; 

11, 1, 2; 16, 5. 
Khrutasp, man, Bd. 31, 6. 
Khshmaibya ha, SI. 13, 4, 14. 
Khshnuman, ritual, see Shnuman. 
Khudarak, tribe, Byt. 2, 49 n. 
Khu^and, town, Bd. 20, 20 n. 
Kh%istan, land, Bd. 12, 9, 30 ; 20, 

12, 26; 24, 28 ; Zs. 7, 7n. 
Khuwbya, title, Bd. 29, sn. 

Khur, angel, SI. 22, 1 1 ; 23, 2 ; day, 

Bd. 25, 3. See KMrsheaf. 
Khurasan, land, Bd. 12, 18, 37 ; 20, 

1 311, 2 in; 25, 16 n; Byt. 2, 24n; 

Khurdad, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n; month, 

Bd. 25, 20 n. See Horvada^. 
Khurdah A vest a, SI. 8, 1 n. 
Khurshe^, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; Byt. 

2, 59n. See Khur. 

— £ihar, man, Bd. 32, 5, 6, 7n. 

— mah, apostle, Byt. 3, 52 n. 

— nyayij, ritual, SI. 7, in; 17, 5n. 

— yajt, ritual, SI. 7, 2 n. 
Khurshe^/ar, apostle, Byt. 3, i3n. 
Khujak, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 

Khusro, king, Byt. 1, 5, 7n, 8; 2, 

— Mahda^/an, priest, Byt. 1, 7. 

— Noshirvan, king, Bd. 34, 9n; Zs. 

6, 2on; Byt.l, 5 n, 711; 2, 2 in. 

— ■ Parviz, king, Bd. 34, 9 n ; Zs. 6, 
20 n; Byt. 3, irn. 

Khusrov, man, Bd. 31, 36, 40. 

Khusto nask, SI. 12, 4n. See Da^/ak. 

Khvanaidh r., Bd. 20, 7, 2 9n. 

Khvaniras, region, Bd. 5, 9 ; 11, (2- 
6;) 15, 27 j 17,4; 24, 26, 27, 
29; 29, 2, 3, 5n; 32, in; Zs. 
6,21; 7,(io;) Byt. 3, 47; SI. 
10, 2 8n. 

Khvarae r., Bd. 20, 7, 26. 

Khvanh, Bd. 12, 2. 

Khvarisem, land, Bd. 12, 12 ; 17, 5, 
6 ; Zs. 11, 9 ; Byt. 3, 29 n; lake, 
Bd. 22, 1, 4. 

Khvast-airikht, man, Bd. 31, 19. 

Khvegand r., Bd. 20, 7, 19, 20. 

Khvetmano ha, SI. 13, 7n. 

Khv£tuk-das, see Next-of-kin mar- 

Khyon, land, Byt. 2, 49 n. 

Kilisyakih (Christianity), Byt. 2, 19; 

3, 3, 5, 8. 
Kiratano-bug-e^, com., SI. 1, 4n. 
Kirfak, see Good works. 
Kirman, land, Bd. 12, 35 n ; 33, ion; 

Byt. 2, 24n; town, Zs. 1, o n ; 

Byt. 3, 17 n. 
Kohistan, land, Bd. 20, 13 n; Byt. 

3, 19. 
Koir r., Bd. 20, 7, 24. 
Kokand, town, Bd. 20, 20 n. 
Kondras m., Bd. 12, 2, 25. 
Kondrasp m., Bd. 12, 2, 24 ; 22, 3n. 
KWttika, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3n. 



Kumu m., Bd. 12, 32; land, Bd. 

20, 18. 

Kundak, demon, Bd. 28, 42. 
Kur r., Bd. 20, 8n, 24m 
Kuran r., Bd. 20, 26 n. 
Kurd, tribe, Byt. 3, 7n, 20. 
Kurijk sheep, Bd. 14, 15 ; Zs. 9, 19. 
Kushtano-bu^-ei, com., SI. 1, 411 ; 2, 

57, 81, ii.8; 6, 6, 7n; 8, 17. 
Kustik, Bd. 24, 22 ; 30, 30 n. See 

Sacred thread-girdle. 
Kyansih sea, Bd. 13, 16; 20, 34; 

21, 6, 7. 

KaHd-i Daitik m., Bd. 12, 2, 7; 30, 

33n; Byt. 3, 26. 
Ka&hravdk, chief, Bd. 29, 1. 
Zakhshnuj, man, Bd. 32, i 
Xamroj, bird, Bd. 19, 15 ; 24, 11 n, 

29,; 27, 3n. 
ATathwaraspa, man, Bd. 29, 1 n. 
K^/rw-miyan i\, Bd. 20, 7, 31. 
Kefast Jake, Bd. 7, 14; 12, 36; 17, 

7 ; 22, 1, 2, 8 ; JZs. 6, 22 ; Byt. 

3, 10. 
Kidrast nask, SI. 10, 28. 
ifihar-asai, queen, Bd. 34, 8. 
Xin or jfifino m., Bd. 12, 2, 13 ; 15, 

29 n; land, Bd. 12, 1311, 22; 

15, 29 n ; 31, 3 ; Byt. 2, 49 n. 
-Kini, tribe, Byt. 2, 49 ; 3, 17. 
iTinistan, land, Bd. 12, 9 n, 1 311; 15, 

29; 29,13; Zs.7, 7; Byt. 3, 

14; SI. 6, 7n. 
Kinvzd or £invar bridge, Bd. 12, 7 ; 

$8, i8n; 30, 333 81.8, in; 12, 

2n, 31 n; 13, 29n; 17, 4n. 
iTishmak, demon, Bd. 28, 24. 
Xitro-maino, prince, Bd, 29, 5 ; Byt. 

3, 2 5n. 
£itr6-miyan, prince, Byt. 2, 1; 3, 

25, 26. 

Lakes, Bd. 13, 1-4; 22, 1-11; Zs. 

6, 7, 8, 22. 
Laran, land, Bd. 12, 38. 
Laristan, land, Bd. 12, 38 n. 
Laughter at prayer, SI. 10, 29. 
La-vahak, man, Bd. 31, 19. 
Leo, Bd. 2, 2 ; 34, 2 ; SI. 21, 2, 6. 
Leucorrhoea, SI. 3, 19. 
Libra, Bd. 2, 2 ; 5, 6; 34, 2 ; Zs.4, 

8-10; SI. 21, 2. 
Life, duration of, SI. 9, 14. 
Liquids, Bd. 21, 1. 
Logograms, Int. 13-17, 20. 

Loharasp, king, Bd. 28, 15 n; 31, 

28. See Kai-L6harasp. 
Luminaries, Bd. 2, 1-8. 
Lunar mansions, Bd. 2, 3. 

Madofryaim., Bd. 12, 32. 

Magh (ablution-seat), Byt. 2, (36;) 

SI. 10, sn. 
Mah, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; Byt. 2, 5911; 

SI. 11, 4n; 12,8; 22, 12; 23, 2. 

— Auharmazd, com., SI. 1, 4 n. 

— ayar, man, Bd. 33, 7. 

— bondak, man, Bd. 33, 7. 

— bukht, man, Bd. 33, 7. 

— da d, man, Bd. 33, 1. 

— gojaspo, com., SI. 1, 4 n. 

— nyayij, ritual, SI. 7, 4 n. 

— vasp, com., SI. 1, 4 n. 
Mahik, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 
Mahvand-da^/, com., Byt. 3, 3 ; SI. 

I, 4 n. 

Maidhyairya, season, Bd. 25, 3 n ; 

SI. 18, (3 n.) 
MaidhyO-shema, season, Bd. 25, 3 n ; 

SI. 18, (3 n.) 
Male things, Bd. 16, 6. 
Mdm-sozak, title, Bd. 31, 14. 
Manicheans, SI. 6, 7 n. 
Manih, heretic, SI. 6, 7 n. 
Mansarspend, angel, SI. 11, 4. See 

Manuj m., Bd. 12, 2, 10 ; king, Bd. 

33, 4; man, Bd. 31, 28. 

— i khursheW-vinik, man, Bd. 31, 11, 


— khurnak, man, Bd. 31, 14; 32, 1 n. 

— khiirnar, man, Bd. 31, 12, 14; 

32, 1 n. 

Manuscripts, oldest Pahl. and Paz., 
Int. 21 ; of Bd., Int. 24-41 ; of 
Zs., Int. 48-50; of Byt., Int. 
56-59 ; of SI., Int. 65, 66. 

Manihyfcihar, king, Bd. 12, 10; 14, 
15; 20, 11, 31, 12-14, 21, 23, 
31 ; 32, 1, 4; 33, 3, 4n, 5 ? 9\ 

34, 6 ; Zs. 9, 19 ; 11, ion; 
Byt. 2, 311; SI. 10, 28; man, 
Bd. 33, 3. 

— son of Yudan -Yim, priest, Int. 

46, 47; Bd. 33, ion. 
Marak m., Bd. 12, 29, 38. 
Maraspend, angel, Bd. 27, 24; SI. 

II, 4 n; 22,29; 23,4; man, 
Bd. 33, 3, 11 ; Byt. 2, 18 n. 

Mar^/an-veh, man, Bd. 33, 6, 8. 
Mari-biW, com., SI. 1, 4 n ; 2, 86. 



Margandak, man, Bd. 31, 36, 40. 
Marg-ar#an, see Worthy of death. 
Marriage, refraining from, SI. 10, 19. 

See also Next-of-kin. 
Mars, planet, Bd. 5, 1. 
Maruv or Marv, land, Byt. 3, 2 1. 
Marvr.,Bd.l2,9n; 20,7,21; 21,3. 
Mdshdha, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Mashya, man, Bd. 15, 6, 11, 19, 20, 

30; 30, 1, 7; 31, 1 ; 32, in; 

34, 3; Zs. 10, 4; SI. 10, 28 n. 
Mashyoi, woman, Bd. 15, 6, 11, 20; 

30, 1,7; 32, 1 n ; 34, 3 ; Zs. 

10, 4; SI. 10, 28 n. 
Majvak, man, Bd. 33, 5. 
Matro, man, Bd. 15, 2. 
Matroyao, woman, Bd. 15, 2. 
Mazanan demons, SI. 12, 6. See 


Mazda-a^-m6i ha, SI. 13, n. 

Mazdayasnian literature, Zs. 9, in; 
Byt. 3, 25 n; SI. 9, 9 n ; 10, 
3 n, 411, i3n, 2 in, 25 n, 26 n, 
28 n, 29 n; 12, 17 n; — reli- 
gion, Bd. 29, 7; 33, i in. 

Mazdayasnians, SI. 12, 4 ; 13, 2 ; 
religion of, Int. 9 ; Bd. 1, 2, 25 ; 

11, 6; 12, 41; 33, 12; Byt. 1, 
o; 2, 2, 26, 46, 61; 3, 1, 32, 
41, 46, 49; SI. 12, 23. 

Mazdik, heretic, Byt. 1, 6 ; 2, 21. 
Mazendaran, land, Bd. 3, 20 n ; 13, 

15 n; 15, 28; 19, 5. 
Mazinikan demons, Bd. 3, 20. See 

Measures, linear, Bd. 26, 1-3. 
Meat, unfit for rites, SI. 10, 34; 

when not to be eaten, SI. 17, 

1, 2. 
Meat- offerings, SI. 10, 34 ; 11, 4-6 ; 

12, 8-10; 18, 411. 
Mediterranean sea, Bd. 13, 15 n; 

20, 8 n. 
MeViyarem, season, Bd. 25, 3. 
MeV6k-mah, com., SI. 1, 3 ; 2, 1, 11, 

12, 89 ; 5, 5, 6, 
— shem, season, Bd. 25, 3. 
MeVyok-mah, man, Bd. 32, 2, 3 ; 

33,i; Zs. 11, ion; SI. 1, 3 n. 
Mehrd or Mehrnjd r., Bd. 20, 7, 9. 
Menstruation, see Woman. 
Mercury, planet, Bd. 5, 1 ; Byt. 3, 4. 
Merkhinah m., Bd. 12, 38 n. 
Meshhed, town, Bd. 20, 15 n, 30 n; 

22, 3 n. 
Mesr, land, Bd. 20, 8. 

Mesrkdn r., Bd. 20, 7, 26. 

Metal, melted, Bd. 30, 19, 20, 31, 

32 ; origin of, Zs. 10, 2. 
Mezinan, town, Bd. 12, 32 n. 
Mi^-in m., Bd. 12, 29, 32 n. 
Mihir, angel, Byt. 2, 59 n. See Mi- 


— nyayLf, ritual, SI. 17, 5 n. 
Mihran r., Bd. 20, 9 n. 
Milk, see Sacred milk. 
Millennium, Int. 40 ; Bd. 30, 2 ; 

34, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7n, 911; Zs. 1, 

10; Byt.l, 5; 2, 22,24, 41, 63; 

3, 9, u, 43, 44", 51-53, 61. 
Minos, man, Bd. 31, 3 n. 
Mirak, man, Bd. 31, 4. 
Mitokht, demon, Bd. 1, 24; 28, 14, 

Mitro, angel, Bd. 27, 24; Byt. 3, 

32-36,47; SI. 22, 16; 23, 3; 

month, Bd. 25, 7, 20. See Mihir. 

— akavW, man, Bd. 33, 6. 

— ayar, man, Bd. 32, 7 n. 

— tarsah, man, Bd. 31, 29. 

— varas, man, Bd. 33, 4. 
Miydn, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Miyan-i dajt m., Bd. 12, 32. 
Mobad of mobads, Bd. 32, 5 ; 33, 2. 
Mobads (priests), Bd. 32, 4 ; 33, o, 

Mobadship of mobads, Byt. 3, 39. 
Mokarstdn, land, Bd. 20, 7. 
Monstrosities, human, Bd. 15, 5, 31. 
Months, names of, Bd. 25, 20. 
Moon reverence, SI. 7, 4 ; 12, 31. 
Mortal sin, see Worthy of death. 
Mountains, Bd. 8, 1-5 ; 11, 4 ; 12, 

1 -41; 18, 10, 11; 24,17,28; 

Zs. 7, 1-7. 
Mouth-veil, SI. 10, 40 ; 12, 4. 
Muhammadanism, SI. 6, 7 n. 
Muhammadans, Byt. 2, 24 n ; 3, 1 1 

n; SI. 2, 58 m 
Mulla Firuz, SI. 21, 2 n. 
Mumbai (Bombay), Byt. 3, 17 n. 
Murghab r., Bd. 20, 2 1 n. 
Muru, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Mujpar, comet, Bd. 5, 1, 2 ; 28, 

Musulman, Byt. 3, 3 n. 
Myazd, see Sacred feast. 
Myths, how treated, Int. 71, 72. 

Nahn, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3 ; Zs. 4, 

Nahvtak r., Bd. 20, 34 n; 21, 6. 



Naikfyas, demon, Bd. 28, 10 ; 30, 

Nail-parings to be prayed over, SI. 

12, 6. 
Naivtak r., Bd. 29, 4, 5. 
Nakahei, demon, Bd. 1, 27 ; 28, 

ion; 30, 29m 
Namak or Namtin, man, Bd. 31, 35. 
Naotara, man, Bd. 29, 6n. 
Naqj-i Rustam, Int. 2 on. 
Nariman, man, Bd. 31, 36 n. 
— Hoshang, Zs. 9, 1 n. 
Narsih, prince, Bd. 29, 6 ; 31, 3, 5. 
Nas, demon, Bd. 28, 29. 
Nasai, see Corpse and Dead matter. 
Najak, woman, Bd. 15, 25. 
Nasatyas, Bd. 1, 27m 
Nasks, Zs. 11, ion; quoted in SI., 

Int. 63, 64; described, Zs. 9, 

1; Byt. 1, 1; 3, 25; SI. 9, 9; 

10, 3, 4, 13, 21, 25, 26, 28, 29; 

12, 4n, 17 n ; referred to, Zs. 9, 

16; SI. 10, 22, 23; 12, 1-3, 5, 

7, ia-12, 14-16, 19, 29-32; 13, 

6, 10, 30. 
Nasm, man, Byt. 2, 3n. 
Nasuj, demon, SI. 2, 1-5, 6n, 55n, 

68n; 7, 7; 10, i2n, 32n; 20, 

Ndunghas, demon, Bd. 30, 29. 
Ndvadd r., Bd. 20, 7, 34n ; 21, 6n. 
NavashaVar rite, SI. 12, 26. 
Navazudi rite, SI. 13, 2 n. 
Naydzem, man, Bd. 32, in. 
Negro, origin of, Bd. 23, 2. 
Neryosang, angel, Bd. 15, 1 ; 32, 8 ; 

Byt. 3, 25, 26, 59, 60 ; com., SI. 

1, 4n; 8, 13; man, Bd. 32, 

in ; translator, Byt. 2, 4n ; SI. 

Nesr-gyd'vdn, title, Bd. 31, 5. 
Nevak-tora, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Next-of-kin marriage, Byt. 2, 57, 61 ; 

SI. 8, 18 ; 18, 3, (4.) 
Nigas-afzuV-dak, man, Bd. 33, 4. 
Night, length of, Bd. 25, 3-6. 
Niha^um nask, SI. 10, (3,) 22, 23, 

3 9 n; 12,15,16. 
Niha^, man, Bd. 29, 7. 
Nika^/um nask, SI. 10, 3n. See 

Nikhshapuhar, com., SI. 1, 4n. 
Nile r., Bd. 20, 8n ; Zs. 6, 2on. 
Nimasp, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 
Nirang, ritual, SI. 12, 23; 13, 1. 
Nirangistan, book, Int. 32 ; Byt. 2, 

37; 3, 29; SI. 1, 3n, 4 n; 2, 

86 n; 10, 35 n; 12, in, 3111; 

16, 6 n. 
Nijanak, place, Byt. 3, 9, 21. 
Nishapuhar, com., SI. 1, 4n. 
Nishapur, town, Bd. 12, i2n, 32n; 

Byt. 1, 7. 
Niv r., Bd. 20, 8. 
Nivar, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
Niyarum nask, SI. 10, 3 m See 

Niyas, demon, Bd. 3, 17 ; 28, 26. 
N6*/ar, man, Bd. 29, 6 ; 31, 13, 23 ; 

33, 5; SI. 10, 28m 
Noktarga, man, Bd. 31, 32, 33. 
Nonabar, rite, SI. 10, 2 ; 13, 2 n. 
Non-Iranian, Bd. 19, 15; 29, 4n; 

Zs. 2, to; Byt. 2, 51. 
Non-Turanian, Byt. 2, 49. 
Nosai Bure-Mitro, com., SI. 1, 3n, 

4n; 8, 18. 
Noxious creatures, Bd. 3, 15, 20 ; 7, 

5, 7, 13; 13, 16; 19, 7, 9, 17, 

21, 27, 30; 20, 13 ; Zs. 2, 9; 

6,4, 5, 9, 14; SI. 3, 21; 8,19; 

13,19; 19,9; 20,5,18. 

Nur, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Nyayij, ritual, SI. 7, in, 211, 411; 16, 
6n; 17, 5n; 20, in. 

Ocean, Bd. 7, (6,) 7, 16 ; 9, 5 ; 11, 
4; 12, 6; 13, 1, 5, 8-10; 15, 
27; 18, 1, 7, 9; 19, i> 8, 11; 
20, 4; 22,2,5,9; 27, 2; 29, 
10; 31, 32; Zs.6, 6, 7 ; 7, 8, 11. 

Ordeals, SI. 10, 25 n; 13,17; 15,15-17. 

Orthography, Pahl., Int. 74. 

Oiuokhm, demon, Bd. 31, 6. 

Oxus r., Bd. 15, 29 n; 20, 8n, 9n, 
2 2n, 28 n; 22, 4n; Zs. 6, 20 n; 
Byt. 3, 17 n, 38m 

Padashkhvargar m., Bd. 12, 2, (17,) 
3m, 32; 31, 21, 40; Byt. 2, 
63 ; 3, 19, 20. 

Padevar, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 

Pa^iyai>ih, see Ablution. 

Pa^am nask, SI. 9, 9 m See Pason. 

Paha, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 

Pahargar m., Bd. 12, 29, 37. 

Pahlavas, tribe, Int. 12. 

Pdhlavi alphabets, Int. 16, 17, 20. 

— language, Int. 11. 

— literature, extent, Int. 22. 

— manuscripts, Int. 21, 22. 

— (meaning of), Int. 12. 



Pahlavi papyri, Int. 21. 

— texts, three kinds here translated, 

Int. 67, 68 ; proportion un- 
translated, Int. 68 ; value of, 
Int. 74. 

— writings, Int. 9-22. 

Pai Kuli, place, Int. 19, 2 on. 

Pairijtira, man, Bd. 29, 1 n. 

Pairi-urvaesm, demon, Bd. 31, 6. 

Paitirasp, man, Bd. 32, 1. 

Paitirasp, man, Bd. 32, 1, 2 ; 33, 1. 
See Pirtarasp. 

PaitreV, see Infection. 

Pandnamak-i Zaratujt, Bd. 15, 211. 

Pan^istan, land, Bd. 20, i3n, 15. 

Papak, man, Int. 19 ; Bd. 31, 30 ; 
34, 9; Byt. 2, i8n. 

Parahom, see Horn juice. 

Parasang, meas., Bd. 7, 8 ; 13, 2 ; 
14, 4 ; 16, 7 ; 22, 8 ; 26, 1, 2 ; 
SI. 4, 12 ; 9, in. 

Parestyaro, man, Bd. 29, 1. 

Pargdna, land, Bd. 20, 20. 

Parik, com., SI. 1, 4n. 

Pars, land, Bd. 12, 2, 9, 21, 36 ; 20, 
25, 29; 24, 28; 29, 14; 31, 
3on ; 32, 4 ; 33, ion ; Zs. 7, 7, 
10; Byt. 3, 9, 10, 19, 21. 

Parsadgd, chief, Bd. 29, 5. 

Parsi religion most detailed in Pahl. 
texts, Int. 9 ; not fully ex- 
plained here, Int. 68. 

Parstva, man, Bd. 33, 4. 

Parthians, Int. 12. 

Parthva, land, Int. 12. 

Parnjiz,, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 

Parysatis, queen, Bd. 34, 8 n. 

Pashang, king, Bd. 29, 5 ; 31, 14, 16. 

Pajin, prince, Bd. 31, 2 5n. 

Pasuj-haurva, dog, Bd. 14, 19 n; 19, 

A 34- 
Patit, see Renunciation of sin. 

— i khiW, ritual, SI. 14, 6n. 
Patsrobo, king, SI. 10, 2 8n. 
Pazand, Int. (12,) 14, (is)-i7 ; Byt. 


— Bahman Yajt, Int. 57. 

— Bundahij, Int. 30, 31. 

— SI., in part, Int. 66. 
Pazon or Pa«i nask, SI. 9, 9. 
PeVak-miyan r., Bd. 20, 7, 31. 
Penom, see Mouth-veil. 

Periods of day, Bd. 25, (9, 10;) SI. 

7, 1; 10,32; 14, 4-6; 17, 3. 

See Gah. 
Persepolis, Int. 19, 2011. 

Persian, ancient, Int. 11 ; mediaeval, 
Int. 11, 12; modern, Int. 11, 14; 
version of Byt., Int. 57-59. See 
also Rivayats. 

Persian Gulf, Bd. 13, 8 n, 13 n ; 20, 
25 n. 

PejdaW, title, Bd. 32, 1 n. 

Pejda^ian, Bd. 15, (28 n ;) 17, 4 n ; 
SI. 10,^28 n. 

Pesh-Pawiz.) lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 

Peshyotanu, priest, Bd. 20, 31 n; 
29, 5 ; 31, 29 ; 32, 5 ; Byt. 2, 
1; 3, 25-27, 29-32, 36-38, 39 n, 

Pejyansai, land, Bd. 29, 4, 5, 7, 1 1 ; 
Byt. 3, 60 n. 

Pig, domesticated, SI. 2, 58. 

Piran, man, Bd. 31, 17. 

Pirik, com., SI. 1, 4 n. 

Pirtarasp, man, Bd. 32, in; 33, in. 

Pisces, Bd. 2, 2 ; SI. 21, 2. 

Pijin valley, Bd. 29, 5 n. 

Planets, Bd. 3, 25; 5, (1,) 5; 28, 
44; Zs. 2, 10; 4, 3, 7-10. 

Plants, origin, Bd. 9, 1-6 ; 27, 1-3 ; 
Zs. 8, 1-6 ; 9, 1-6 ; chiefs of, 
Bd. 24,i8-2i, 27; 27, 4; classi- 
fication, Bd. 27, 5-23 ; devoted 
to angels, Bd. 27, 24 ; dried 
before burning, Bd. 27, 25. 

Pleiades, stars, Bd. 2, 3 n. 

Pollution from dead apes, SI. 2, 6 1 ; 
dead bodies, SI. 2, 12-16, 18-22, 
30-32, 35-124; 10, 12; dead 
dogs, SI. 2, 62; dead hedgehog, 
SI. 2, 59 ; dead menstruous 
woman, SI. 2, 6 1 ; dead priests, 
SI. 2, 60 n ; from menstruation, 
SI. 2, 17, 96 ; 3, 1-3, 10-20, 22- 
34; from serpents, SI. 2, 33-35. 

— of animals, SI. 2, 109-111; build- 

ings, SI. 2, 18-22, 45; 3, 2, 3; 
carpets, SI. 2, 101 ; 3, 2, 3 ; 
clothing, SI. 2, 42, 44, 83; 3, 1, 
13; cushions, SI. 2, 102-104; 
3, 2, 3 ; doors, SI. 2, 74 ; earth 
and masonry, SI. 2, 36 ; fire, 
SI. 2, 38-40, 46, 49 ; food, SI. 
2, 41, 47, 119-124; 3, 12, 30; 
ground, SI. 2, 12-16; jars, SI. 
2, 30-35 ; powdered things, SI. 
2, 37 ; unborn child, SI. 2, 58, 
105, 106; water, SI. 2, 77-94; 
wool, SI. 2, 100. 

— stopped by objects, SI. 2, 57, 58. 
Portuguese, Byt. 3, 17 n. 



P6ru$st, woman, Bd. 32, 5, 7 n. 
Porushasp, man, Bd. 20, 32, 34 n; 

32, 1, 2; 33, 3. 
Poryoikeshih. See Primitive faith. 
Pourudhdkhst, man, Bd. 29, 6. 
Pouru-g<zu, man, Bd. 31, 7 n. 
Prayer before and after sleep, SI. 

10, 24. See also Inward prayer. 
Precautions where death occurs, SI. 

2, 38-44. 

Pregnant woman, carrying her 
corpse, SI. 2, 6 ; 10, 1 o ; eating 
dead matter, SI. 2, 105 ; pro- 
tected by fire, SI. 10, 4 ; 12, 1 1 ; 
stepping on toothpick, SI. 10, 
20 ; 12, 13. 

Priests, Bd. 30, 30 n; 32, 4 n; 33, 
o, 2 n, 3 n, 10 n ; Zs. 11, 10 n ; 
Byt. l, 7 n; 2, 38,40,55; SI. 2, 
56, 60 n, 62 n ; 5, 3 n ; 8, 4, 1 1 ; 
9, 2, 4, 12 n; 13, 9, 49 n; 14, 
3 ; their five dispositions, Bd. 
19, 36 n. See Dastfir, High- 
priest, Mobads, Purifying, Ras- 
pi, Supreme, Zota. 

Primeval ox, Bd. 3, 14, 17, 18 ; 4, 1, 
2; 10, o, 1; 14, 1, 3; 27, 2; 
34, 1; Zs. 2, 6; 9, 1-7. 

Primitive faith, SI. 1, 3,4; 6, 7 ; 10, 
30; 12,i, 13, 19; 13, 2. 

Professions, see Glasses. 

Providence, SI. 20, 17. 

Province-ruler, SI. 13, 11, 15, 41 n, 

44 ; 19, 5. 

Purification, modes of, SL 2, 6, 14- 
17, 19, 22, 41, 42, 44, 53, 65- 
68, 92, 95-99, 112-118, 120-123; 

3, 14, 16-18, 20, 21. 
Purifying priest, SI. 12, 22-27. 
Pur-tora, man, Bd. 31, 7, 8; 32, 

I n. 

PuV, demon, Bd. 28, 28. 

Putik sea, Bd. 13, 7-1 1; 22, 9 ; Zs. 

6, 14-16. 
Puyijn-shaW, man, Bd. 33, 8. 

Qubad, king, Byt. 1, 5 n. 

Radr., Bd. 20, 7, 24 n. 
Ra^an, man, Bd. 32, 1 ; 33, 3. 
Ragha, town, Bd. 31, 40 n ; SI. 13, 

II n. 

Rai, town, Bd. 31, 40 ; SI. 13, 11 n. 
Rak, man, Bd. 31, 31 ; 32, in. 
Rakhvati, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Ram, angel, Bd. 27, 24; Byt. 2, 

59 n ; SI. 11, 4 n ; 17, 4 n ; 22, 

21; 23,3- 
Ramak-tora, man, Bd. 31, 7. 
Rangha r. or lake, Bd. 19, 15 n ; 20, 

Raoidhito m., Bd. 12, 27 n. 
Rapitvin gah, Bd. 2, 8, 9; 25, 9, 10, 

12, 14; SI. 7, in; 12, 31. 
Rashnu, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; 31, 3 ; 

Byt. 2, 59 n ; 3, 32 ; SI. 1, 2 n ; 

17, 4, 5«; 22, 18; 23, 3. 
Rask, Professor, Int. 25, 27. 
Raspi, priest, Bd. 30, 30. 
Rathw6 berezat6, Av., SI. 11, 4n. 
Ratujtaitih nask, SI. 10, 29. 
Ravak m., Bd. 12, 29, 35. 
Receptacle for the dead, SI. 9, 7. 

See Depository. 
Regulus, star, Bd. 2, 8 n. 
Renovation of the universe, Bd. 1, 

25; 6, 4; 13, 17; 18, 4; 19, 

13, 14; 22, 7; 27, 4; 29,6; 
30, 17, 32; Zs. 1, 16, 19; 4, 2; 

Renunciation of sin, SI. 4, 14; 8, 
1 n, 4, 5, (7-10,) 12-14, 16, 17, 
21,(23;) 9,6; 20,n. 

Resurrection, Bd. 1, 21; 11, 6 ; ac- 
count of, Bd. 30, 1-33 ; not for 
some, SI. 17, 7 ; where, SI. 17, 

Revand m., Bd. 12, 2, 18, 23, 34 n ; 
17, 8 ; Zs. 11, 9. 

Revolving of luminaries, Bd. 5, 3-9. 

Ridge of Vijtasp, m., Bd. 12, 18 n, 
34; 17,8; Zs. 11, 9. 

Ritual, SI. 5, 2, 3, 5, 6; 12, 23. 

Rivas-plant, Bd. 15, 2 ; Zs. 10, 4. 

Rivayats, Pahlavi, Int. 60 ; Persian, 
Int. 57, 67; Zs. 9, in; Byt. 1, 
in; 3, 25 n, 43 n, 52 n, 61 n; 
SI. 1, 2 n ; 2, 2 n, 4 n, 5 n ; 8, 
in; 9, 9 n ; 10, 3 n, 4 n, 1 3 n, 
2 1 n, 25 n, 26 n, 28 n, 29 n ; 12, 
4 n, 17 n ; 16, 6 n ; 17, 5 n ; 19, 
1 n, 2 n, 4 n, 5 n, 7 n, 9 n-14 n. 

Rivers, Bd. 7, 15-17; 20, 1-34; 21, 
2-4, 6 ; 24, 14, 1 5 ; Zs. 6, 20, 2 1. 

Romans, Byt. 2, 19 n. 

Roshan, com., Byt. 3, 3 ; SI. 1, 4 n ; 
2, 39, 86, 107. 

— m., Bd. 17, 6. 

Roshano-kerp, fire, Byt. 3, 29. 

Royijn-homand m., Bd. 12, 2, 27. 

Rubanik sin, see Sin affecting the 



RuWastam, man, Bd. 31, 41. 
Rulers, the five, SI. 13, 11, 15, 4 in, 

44 ; 19, 5. 
Ruman, Bd. 34, 8 ; Byt. 2, 49 ; 3, 

8, 9, 34, 51. 
Rumans, Byt. 2, 50. 

Rustam, man, Bd. 29, 7 n ; 31, 
36 n, 41 n. 

Sacred butter, SI. 2, (43;) 3, 32 n; 
10, 34; 11, 4n; 14, 3. 

— cake, Byt. 2, 36, 57 n ; SI. 2, 43 n ; 

3, (32,) 35; 5,5; 7, 4n; 8,20; 

9, ir, i2n; 10,2,34-36; 12,i, 
8,9; 14, 1-3; 16,6; 17, 2,4, 
5n; 18, 4n. 

— feast, SI. 12, 19 ; 13, 25 ; 18, 3, (4.) 

— fire,^Sl. 2, 46, 49 ; 7, 9. See Va- 

hram fire. 

— milk, SI. 2, (43 ;) 13, i2n. 

— shirt, Bd. 28, 8, 10; SI. 4, 211, 

(5-8,) 13, 14. 

— thread-girdle, Bd. 28, 8, 10 ; 30, 

3on; Byt. 2, 36, 44,57,58; SI. 
3, 32n; 4, (1-4,) 6-8, 11, 13, 
14; 10, 1, 13. 
— ■ twigs, Byt. 2, 36, 57, 58 ; 3, 29, 
37; SI. 2, 18; 3, 10, 11, 20, 
(32,) 33; 8, 18; 10, 35; 12,i; 
13, i2n; 14, 2. 

— twig-stand, SI. 3, 32 ; 10, 35. 
Sadaro, SI. 4, 5 n. See Sacred 

Sad-dar Bundahij, Int. 22 n, 45,59^ 

SI. 10, 2on; 12, 5n; 17, 4"- 
Sadis, SI. 8, 6 n. See Three nights. 
Sa^/vastaran, Bd. 30, 10. 
Safed koh, m., Bd. 12, 2211. 
Safed rud, r., Bd. 20, i3n, 2 3n. 
Sagansih, land, Bd. 31, 37. 
Sagastan, land, Bd. 12, 9, 15; 13, 

16; 20, 17, 2 4 n, 29; 22,5; 24, 

28; 31, 37 n; Zs. 7, 7,9; Byt. 

Sag-dW, see Dog's gaze. 
Sagittarius, Bd. 2, 2 ; 34, 6 ; SI. 

21, 2. 
Sahm, man, Bd. 31, 27. 
Sairima, land, Bd. 15, 29 n; 31, 9n ; 

Byt. 3,3 n. 
SakaVum nask, SI. 10, (25 ;) 12, 2, 

10, 12 ; 13, i7n, 30. 

Salm, prince, Bd. 15, 29 ; 20, 12 n; 

31, 9, 10, 12; SI. 10, 28n. 
Salman, land, Bd. 20, 1 2 ; Byt. 3, 3 ; 

SI. 10, 2 8n. 

Sam, man, Bd. 29, 7, 9 ; 31, 36 ; 

Byt. 3, 60, 61. 
Saman, title, Byt. 3, 59. 
Samarkand, land, Bd. 12, i3n; 15, 

29 n; 20,2o; Zs. 7, 7n; Byt. 

2, 49n; 3, 14m 
Samarkandian, Byt. 3, 17 n. 
Sarak, land, Bd. 12, 35. 
Sarsaok, ox, Bd. 15, 27 ; 17, 4 ; 19, 

13 ; Zs. 11, ion. 
Sasan, man, Int. 19 n; Bd. 31, 30. 
Sasanian inscriptions, Int. 19, 20; 

Byt. 2, 4n. 
— Pahlavi, Int. 19-21. 
Sasanians, Int. 11, 15, 19, 21; Bd. 

31, 32n; 33, 211; 34, 9; Byt. 

2, i8n, 2on; 3, 1111. 
Satan, Bd. 3, 9 m 
Sataves, gulf or lake, Bd. 13, 9, 10, 

12, 13 ; 22, 1, 9 ; Zs. 6, 16-18 ; 

star, Bd. 2, 7 ; 5, 1 ; 13, 9 n, 

12; 24,17; Zs.6, 16; SI. 14, 5. 
Sat%r., Bd. 20, 9n. 
Satuih, SI. 8, 6n. See Three nights. 
Saturn, planet, Bd. 5, 1 ; 28, 48 ; 

Zs. 4, 7-10. 
Szukavastdn, land, Bd. 29, 4, 5, 13. 
Savah, region, Bd. 5, 8, 9 ; 11, 3 ; 

29, 1 ; Byt. 3, 47. 
Savar, demon, Bd. 28, 9, 10 ; 30, 

29. See Sovar. 
Scorpio, Bd. 2, 2 ; 34, 5 ; SI. 21, 2. 
Seas, Bd. 7, 6, 14 ; 11, 2, 4 ; 13, 1, 

5-17; 24, 23; Zs.6, 6,7, 14-19. 
Season-festivals, Bd. 25, 1, 3, 6; 

Byt. 2, 45; SI. 10, 2; 12, 1 9? 

31; 13, 29; 18,(3,) 4; 19,4- 
Seasons, Bd. 25, 3-17, 19, 20. 
Seg, demon, Bd. 28, 26. 
Selections of Za^-sparam, where 

found, Int. 46 ; age, Int. 47 ; 

contents, Int. 48; MSS., Int. 

Seleucus Callinicus, Byt. 2, 19m 
Semitic words in Pahlavi, Int. 13, 

14, 17, 18 ; in modern Persian, 

Int. 14. 
Seni, land, Bd. 12, i3n ; 15, 29 ; 20, 

3011 ; SI. 6, 7n. 
Seno bird, Bd. 14, im, 2 3 n ; 18, 

9n ; Zs. 8, 4. See Griffon. 
Serosh, see Srosh. 
Serpent, Bd. 30, 31. 
Sevan lake, Bd. 22, 8n ; 24, 23m 
Sfend nask, SI. 10, 4 n. See 




Shadows, midday, SI. 21, 1-3; — 
afternoon, SI. 21, 4-8. 

Shah 'Abbas, Byt. 3, 34n, 44 n. 

Shahpuhar, king, Int. 19; Bd. 33, 
2; Byt. 2, i8n. 

Shahpur, king, Byt. 2, 18 ; 3, 14. 

Shahrivar, angel, Byt. 2, 5911. See 

Shapik, see Sacred shirt. 

Shapur II, Bd. 33, 2n, 3n; Byt. 2, 
i8n; SI. 8, 23n ; 15, i6n. 

Shatro-ram, man, Bd. 12, 2 on. 

Shatvairo, angel, Bd. 1, 26 ; 27, 24 ; 
30, 19, 29; SI. 13, 14, 39; 15, 
3, 5, H-19; 22, 4 j 23, 1 ; 
month, Bd. 25, 20. 

Shayast la-shayast, why so called, 
Int. 59, 60 ; extent, Int. 60 ; 
contents, Int. 60-62; age, Int. 
63-65 ; com. mentioned, Int. 63, 
64 ; nasks mentioned, Int. 64 ; 
MSS., Int. 65, 66 ; Paz. version, 
Int. 66 ; not hitherto translated, 
Int. 66, 67. 

SheVak, man, Bd. 31, i&. 

SheVaspih, fiend, Byt. 3, 3, 5, 8, 21. 

Shiraz, town, Bd. 29, i4n. 

Shirt, see Sacred shirt. 

Shirtashosp, man, Bd. 33, 4. 

Shirvan r., Bd. 20, 2 5n. 

Shnuman, ritual, SI. 3, 35 ; 7, (8 ;) 9, 
11 n; 10, 2 ; 14, 3. 

Shustar, town, Bd. 20, 26 n. 

Sighing, cause of, SI. 12, 32. 

Sikandar, king, Bd. 34, 8n ; Byt. 2, 

Si&dav m., Bd. 12, 2. 

Silver age, Byt. 1, in, 5 ; 2, 17^ 

Simurgh, bird, Bd. 14, 1 1 n ; 18, 9 n ; 
24, 1 1 n. 

Sin, Zs. 1, 13, 18 ; Byt. 2, 40 ; 3, 57 ; 
SI. 2, 53, 91, 106; 5,6; 6,4,6; 
8, 19; 10,3,18,25,27; 12, 31 ; 
15, 22, 26-28, 30; 20, 15 ; af- 
fecting accusers, SI. 8, (1,) 14, 
15, 17 ; affecting the soul, SI. 8, 
(1,) 16 ; degrees of, SI. 1, 1, 2 ; 
11, 1, 2 ; 16, 1-5 ; harm, Bd. 5, 
2; 19, 20; imputed, SI. 5, 1; 
6, 2 ; 8, 1 3 ; making water on 
foot, SI. 4, 8 n ; 10, 5 ; mortal, 
SI. 8, 7, 18, 21, 23; running 
about uncovered, Bd. 28, 8, 10 ; 
Byt. 2, 38; SI. 4, (8)-io; un- 
seasonable chatter, Bd. 28, 19 ; 
SI. 4, (9 ;) 5, 1-7 ; walking with 

one boot, Bd. 28, 13; SI. 4, 
8n, (12.) See Areduj, Farman, 
Khor, Renunciation, Tanapu- 
har, Worthy of death, Yat. 

Sinamru, bird, Bd. 24, 1 1 n. 

Sind, land, Bd. 15, 29 ; 20, 9, 30. 

Sinik congregation, SI. 6, 7. 

Sinners, SI. 15, 17 ; mortal, SI. 8, 5 ; 
put to death, SI. 8, 6, 7, 21, 22 n. 

Sirius, star, Bd. 2, 7 n ; 7, in; SI. 

14, 5 n. 

Sirkan, town, Bd. 33, 1 1 n ; Zs. 1, on. 
Sirozah, ritual, SI. 7, 8 n ; 17, 5 n. 
Sistan, land, Bd. 12, 9 n. See Sagas- 
Siyah koh, m., Bd. 12, 22 n. 
Siyak-homand m., Bd. 12, 22. 

— mui-mand m., Bd. 12, 2. 

— tora, man, Bd. 31, 7. 
Siyakmak, man, Bd. 15, 25, 30 ; 31, 

1, 6; 32, in. 
Siyavakhsh, prince, Bd. 28, 15 n; 

31, 25 ; Byt. 3, 25, 26 ; SI. 10, 

Snake-killer, Bd. 28, 22. 
Sneezing, cause of, SI. 12, 32. 
Softi, tribe, Byt. 2, 49. 
Sogdiana, land, Bd. 20, 8n. 
Soghd, land, Bd. 20, 19. 
Sok-tora, man, Bd. 31, 7 5 32, in. 
Soshyans, apostle, Bd. 11, 6 ; 29, 6 ; 

30, 3, 4, 7, 17, 25, 27; 32, 7n, 
8; Byt. 3, 61 n, 62 ; SI. 13, 5; 
com., SI. 1, 3 ; 2, 2n, 56, 74, 80, 
118, 119; 3, 13; 6, 4, 5. 

Sovar, demon, Bd. 1, 27; 28, 9n. 
See Savar. 

— lake, Bd. 12, 24 n ; Zs. 6, 22. See 

Sovbar lake, Bd. 7, 14 ; 12, 24 ; 22, 

1, 3 ; Zs. 6, 22 n. 
Spaenyasp, man, Bd. 31, 14, 27. 
Spahan, land, Bd. 12, 40; 20, 26; 

31, 40. 

Spans, Bd. 26, 3 ; SI. 16, 4 ; 21, 2 n. 
Sparnak, man, Bd. 31, 40. 
Spazg, demon, Bd. 28, 31. 
Spedr., Bd. 20, 7, i3n, 23. 
Spe^-raxur, forest, Bd. 24, i6*n ; 
Byt. 3, 9, 21. 

— tora, man, Bd. 31, 7. 
Spenak-mainok, Bd. 1, in. See 

Beneficent spirit. 
Spend nask, SI. 10, (4;) 12, 3, 11, 

15, 29. 

— r., Bd. 20, 7n, i3n, 2 3n. 



SpendarnW, angel, Bd. 1, 26 ; 15, 

1; 27, 24; 30, 29; Zs. 10, 3; 

Byt. 2, 8, 16, 31, 48, 53, 59^; 

SI. 10, 28; 11, 4; 13, 14; 15, 

3, 5, 20-24; 22, 5; 23, 1 ; 

month, Bd. 25, 6, 7, 11, 20. 
Spend-daV, prince, Bd. 31, 29, 30; 

34,, 8; Byt. 2, 17. 
Spendysu/ m., Bd. 12, 2, 23. 
Spen^argak, demon, Bd. 17, 1. See 

Spenijt fire, Bd. 17, 1 ; Zs. 11, 1 n. 
Spewta-mainyu, Av., Bd. 1, 1 n. 
Spewta-mainyu gatha, SI. 13, 2n, 15, 

33-35, 5i. 

ha, SI. 13, 33. 

Spe«tem-Ahurem-mazdam ch., SI. 

13, 36. 
Spetos, land, Bd. 20, 8. 
Spiegel, Professor, Int. 25, 59, 71. 
Spitaman, man, Bd. 32, 1 ; title, see 

SpitoW, chief, Bd. 29, 1. 
Spitur, prince, Bd. 31, 3, 5. 
Spur, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Srit, man, SI. 22, 32 ; woman, Bd. 

Sritak, woman, Bd. 32, 7n. 
Srit 6, man, Zs. 11, ion. 
Srob, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Srosh, angel, Bd. 19, (33 ;) 27, 24 ; 

30, (29,) 30; 31,38; Zs.ll, 7; 

Byt. 2, 59n; 3, 25, 26, 32, 59; 

SI. 13, 43; 17,3,5", 6; 22,i7; 

Srosho-^aranam,wt., SI. 4, ion, (14;) 

5,3; 6,3; 8,9; 10,24; ll,i, 

2 ; 16, 5. 
Srwvd, place, Bd. 29, 14. 
Sruvo, ox, Zs. 11, 10. 
Steel age, Byt. 1, in, 5 ; 2, 21. 
Step, meas., Bd. 26, 3 n. 
Stir, wt., SI. 1,(2;) 3, 25, 26 ; 7, 3 5 

11, 2; 16, 2n, 3n, 4, 5. 
Stotan yasno, ritual, SI. 13, 1. 
StuVgar nask, Byt. 1, (1 ;) SI. 10, 8 ; 

12, 32. 
Stuto-garo ha, SI. 13, 22. 
Sude, land, Bd. 20, 14. 

Suikar nask, Byt. 1, 1 n ; SI. 19, 1 n. 

See Stu^/gar. 
Sughdha, land, Bd. 15, 29 n. 
Summer, Bd. 25, 4, 5, 7-10, 13-17, 

19, 20. 
Sun reverence, SI. 7, 1-6; 12, 


Supreme high-priest, Bd. 24, 1 ; SI. 

— ZaratuVt, SI. 13, 11, 15, 38, 41, 

44; 19, 5. 
Surak, land, Bd. 15, 29 ; 20, 8 ; man, 

Bd. 31, 19. 
Suristan, land, Bd. 15, 29 n ; 20, 10. 
Syr-darya, r., Bd. 20, 20 n. 
Syria, Bd. 15, 29n; 20, ion. 

Sahi-bun sea, Bd. 13, 7, 15. 
5am, man, Bd. 31, 27 n. 
•San, man, Bd. 31, 17, 18. 
.Sarva, god, Bd. 1, 27 n. 
Sed, r., Bd. 20, 7. 
•Ser, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 
^idasb, man, Bd. 31, 2 7n. 
Skinas, man, Bd. 33, 3 m 
Sbk, bird, Bd. 19, 19. 

Ta^f-soidhij ha, SI. 13, 49. 
Ta^-thwa-peresa ha, SI. 13, 28. 
Taham, man, Bd. 33, 4. 
Tahmasp, man, Bd. 31, 23m 
Tairei>, demon, Bd. 1, 27 ; 28, 1 1 n ; 

30, 29. 
Takhmorup, king, Bd. 17, 4 ; 31, 2, 

3 ; 32, 1 n ; 34, 4 ; Zs. 11, ion ; 

SI. 10, 28 n. 
Tambayak, demon, Bd. 31, 6. 
Tanapuhar good work, SI. 1, (in;) 

2, 7S>n, 93; 6,3, 4,6; 7, 4; 8, 

20 ; 16, 6 ; 18, 4m 
— sin, SI. 1, 1, (2 ;) 2, 40, 50, 51, 53, 

69, 70, 79n, 80, 82 ; 3, 26-28 ; 4, 

10, 12; 5, 3, 4; 8, 20; 10, 5, 

17, 35n; 11, 1,2; 12, 4 ; 16,5. 
Tanuperetha, Av., SI. 1, 1 n. 
Taparistan, land, Bd. 12, 17; 13, 

15; 20, 27; Byt. 3, 19. 
Tapr£<z;, demon, Bd. 28, 11,13. See 

Tar aha, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Tar&suk, zod., Bd. 2, 2 ; 5, 6. 
Tarmaz, town, Bd. 20, 28 n. 
Taromat, demon, Bd. 28, 14 ; 30, 

Tashkand, town, Bd. 20, 20 n. 
Taurus, zod., Bd. 2, 2 ; SI. 21, 2. 
Ta-v^-urvata ha, SI. 13, 6, 14. 
Tas, man, Bd. 15, 28; 31, 6; SI. 

10, 2 8n. 
Tasak, woman, Bd. 15, 28. 
Te#end r., Bd. 20, 15m 
Teheran, town, Bd. 12, 3111; 31, 

40 n; SI. 13, 1 in. 



Terak m., Bd. 5, 3, 4; 12, 2, 4. 
Teremet r., Bd. 20, 7, 911, 28. 
Thraetaona, king, Bd. 31, 411, 711. 
Three-legged ass, Bd. 19, 1-12. 
Three-nights' ceremony, SI. 8, 6 ; 

10, 2; 12, 5, 31. 

punishment, Bd. 30, 13, 16; 

SI. 8,5, 7, 16. 
Thrita, man, Bd. 31, 26 n, 27 n; Zs. 

11, ion; Byt. 3, 1411; SI. 22, 

Thritak, man, Bd. 31, 14. 
Thriti, woman, Bd. 32, 5n. 
Tides, Bd. 13, 8, 11, 13, 14 ; Zs. 6, 

Tigris r., Bd. 20, ion, 12 n, 25 n; 

Zs. 6, 2on; Byt. 3, 3n, 5n, 2 in, 

Time personified, Int. 70 ; Zs. 1, 

24-27; 4, 5. 
Tin age, Byt. 2, 20. 
Tir, angel (for Tijtar), Bd. 27, 24 ; 

SI. 23, 2 ; month, Bd. 7, 2 ; 25, 

3, 20 ; Zs. 6, 2 ; planet, Bd. 

Tijtar, angel, Bd. 7, 2-4, 7-10; 9, 

2 ; 11, 2 ; 19, 1 1 ; 27, 3 ; Zs. 6, 

h 3, 9, 10, 13; 8, 1; Byt. 2, 

59 n; 3, i4n; SI. 22, 13; see 

Tir ; star, Bd. 2, 7 j 5, 1 ; 7, 1 ; 

SI. 14, 5. 
Toothpick, how to be cut, SI. 10, 20 ; 

Tora, zod., Bd. 2, 2. 
Tort r., Bd. 20, 7n, 24. 
Translations of Bd., Int. 24-26, 

43-45 ; of Byt., Int. 57, 59 ;. of 

SI., Int. 66, 67 ; plan of these. 

Int. 70-74. 
Tree of all germs, Bd. 9, 5, 6 ; 18, 

9 ; 27, 2 ; 29, 5 ; Zs. 8, 3. 
Tribe-ruler, SI. 13, 11, 15, 4 in, 44; 


Tug, prince, Bd. 31, 9, 10, 12, 14, 

27; SI. 10, 28 n. 
Tuhmaspian, title, Bd. 31, 23 ; 34, 

6; SI. 10, 28 n. 
Tuirya, tribe, Bd. 15, 29 n ; 31, 9n. 
Tur, land, Bd. 12, 20 ; 15, 29 ; 21, 

6 ; 30, 16 ; 31, 27 n ; Byt. 2, 

62; 3, 34. 

— Bragresh, Byt. 2, 3n. 

— i BnWarvash, Byt. 2, 3. 
Turak, man,. Bd. 31, 14, 27. 
TCiran, land, SI. 10, 28 n. 
Turanian syllabary, Int. 13. 

Turk, tribe, Bd. 29, 7 ; Byt. 2, 49 ; 

3, 7-9> 5i. 
Turkistan, land, Bd. 12, 13, 39 ; 15, 

29n;29, 13; Byt. 2, 24n, 49n; 

3, 2m; SI. 6, 7n. 
Turks, Byt. 2, 24 n, son. 
Tus m., Bd. 22, 3 ; land, Bd. 12, 24; 

20, 30 ; man, Bd. 29, 6. 

Uda, demon, Bd. 28, 19; 31, 6 n. 
Udai, demon, Bd. 31, 6. 
Ukhshya^-ereta, apostle, Bd. 32, 8 n. 

— nemangh, apostle, Bd. 32, 8 n. 
'Uman gulf, Bd. 13, 9n. 
Uncleanness, period of, SI. 2, 41, 42, 

44, 62, 105-109; 3, 14-18. 
Unseasonable chatter, see Sin. 
Ursa major, Bd. 2, 7n ; SI. 11, 411. 
Urumiyah lake, Bd. 22, 211, 8n. 
Urupi dog, SI. 2, 59 n. 
Ururviga, man, Bd. 32, 7. 
Urvad-gd, man, Bd. 31, 3m ; 33, 4. 
Urvad-gdi-frdst, man, Bd. 31, 31. 
Urvakhshaya, man, Bd. 31, 26 n. 
Urvcmdasp, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Urvaram, twig, SI. 3, 32n. 
Urvatad-nar, man, Bd. 29, 5 ; 32, 

Urvdzist fire, Bd. 17, 1. See Aur- 

Urvig, woman, Bd. 32, 7n. 
Urvis lake, Bd. 13, 4n ; 22, 1, 11. 
Usefriti, Av., SI. 13, 30 n. 
Ushahina gah, Bd. 19, 15 n ; 25, 9 n ; 

Byt.2,59n;S1.14, 4 n;17, 5 n. 
Ushidarena m., Bd. 12, 6n. 
Ushidhmi m., Bd. 12, 6n. 
Usinemangh, man, Bd. 31, 33n. 
Uspasnu, title, Bd. 29, 1 n. 
Ujta-Ahurem-mazdam ch., SI. 13, 

Ujtavaiti gatha, SI. 13, 2 n, 15, 27-31, 


— ha, SI. 13, 27. 
Uzajti, span, Bd. 26, 3 n. 
Uzava, king, Bd. 31, 2 3n. 

Va</, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; SI. 11, 4 ; 
22, 22; 23, 3; day, Byt. 3, 16. 
VaWges m., Bd. 12, 2, 19. 
Va^gesians, Bd. 12, 19. 
Vae the bad, demon, Bd. 28, 35. 

— the good, angel, SI. 11, 4 ; 17, 4,. 

Vae-bukht, man, Bd. 33, 6, 8. 
Vaedist, man, Bd. 32, in. 



Faetand-i Rdghinoid, woman, Bd. 31, 

Vafar-homand m., Bd. 12, 2, 22. 
Va#, SI. 3, 6n; 16, 6n. See Inward 

Va^arkar^-i Dinik, quoted, Bd. 32, 

1 n, 5 n, 7 n ; its author, SI. 1, 3 n. 
Fahidhros, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
Vahik, zod., Bd. 2, 2 ; 5, 6. 
Vahijt, see Heaven. 
Vahbtem-Ahurem-mazdam ch., SI. 

13, 46. 
Vahijtoijti gatha, SI. 13, 2 n, 1 5, 4 1 -45, 

Vahram, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; Byt. 3, 
32 ; SI. 22, 20 ; 23, 3 ; day, Bd. 
25, 3 ; planet, Bd. 5, 1. 

— fire, Bd. 17, 1, 2, 9; Byt. 2, 26, 

37 ; SI. 2, 46 n, 49 n. See Sacred 
— - Gor, king, Byt. 2, 20. 

— i Varg-avand, king, Byt. 3, 14, 32 n, 

39, 44 n, 49« 

— sha*/, man, Bd. 33, 11. 
FaJbt 9 lun. man., Bd. 2, 3. 
Fakaeni r., Bd. 20, 34. 
Vakhsh, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
Vakht-afrW, com., SI. 1, 411. 
Valkhaj, king, Byt. 2, 19m 
Van lake, Bd. 22, 8n ; 24, 2 3n. 
Vanand, star, Bd. 2, 7 ; 5, 1 ; SI. 11, 

4 ; 14, 5. 

Vand-Auharmazd, com., SI. 1, 4 n ; 

2, 2, 6, 44 ; 14, 5. 
Vandk/-khim, priest, Byt. 3, 39. 
Fanfraghesn, man, Bd. 31, 7. 
Vani^/ar, man, Bd. 31, 9. 
Van6-i-fravbn, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Varak, zod., Bd. 2, 2 ;. 5, 6, 7.. 
Farant, lun. man., Bd. 2, 3.. 
Vareno, demon, Bd. 3, 17 ; 28, (25.) 
V ares ha bird, Bd. 14, 30. 
VarzW-din, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Vas-i pan^asa^varan, fish, Bd, 18, 

Vay6, demon, Bd. 28, 35 n. 
Vazijt fire, Bd. 7, 12 ; 17, 1, 2 ; Zs. 

6,13; 11,1,5 5 SI. 13, 26. 
Veh r., Bd. 7, 15, 17; 20, 1, 3, 5-7, 

8n, 9, 22, 28, 30; 21, 3 ; Zs. 6, 

20; Byt. 3, 17,38. 
Veh-afrk/, woman, Bd. 31, 30. 
Veh-dost, com., SI. 1, 4 m 
Fendeses r., Bd. 20, 29. 
Vendidad, ritual, Byt. 2, 59 n; SI. 

12, 26 ; 16, 6 n ; 17, 5n ; oldest 

MSS. of, Int. 21; referred to, 
SI. l,i; 2, 1, 12, 5511, 1 i8n; 10, 
5,19, 31, 32; 12, 6, 20; 13, 7; 
quoted, SI. 12, 4, 23 ; 13, 8, 19 ; 
Av. passage translated, SI. 2, 
95 n; Pahl. do. do., SI. 1, in; 

2, 18 n, 3m, 123 n, 12411; 3, in, 
1 in, 12 n ; 4, ion. 

Venus, planet, Bd. 5, 1 ; Byt. 3, 4n, 

Fergdn sea, Bd. 20, 24. 
Vibazu, meas., Bd. 26, 3 m 
Vida^/afsh, region, Bd. 5, 8,9; 11, 3 ; 

25, 10 ; 29, 1 ; Byt. 3, 47- 
Fidast, man, Bd. 32, 1. 
Village-ruler, SI. 13, 11, 15, 4m, 44; 


Vinasp, man, Bd. 33, 3. 
VindaV-i-peiak, man, Bd. 33, 6, 8. 
Fir af sang, man, Bd. 31, 6. 
Virak, princess, Bd. 31, 9 n. 
Virgo, Bd. 2, 2 ; 34, 2 ; SI. 21, 2. 
Visak, man, Bd. 31, 16, 17. 
Vij-haurva dog, Bd. 14, 19 n; 19, 

Vijnasp fire, Zs. 6, 22 n; Byt. 3, 10. 

See Gujasp. 
Vispan-frya, woman, Bd. 31, 18. 
Visparad, ritual, Byt. 2, 59 n ; SI. 16, 

6 ; chapters cited, SI. 13, 5, 26, 

32, 36, 39, 40, 46, 48. 
Vijtasp, king, Bd. 12, 32 ; 17, 6, 8 ; 

20, 3m; 28, 15 n; 29, 5 ; 31, 

29; 32, 5; Zs. 11, ion; Byt. 

1, in, 4; 2, 1, 16, 49 n, 58-60; 

3, 9, 25, 26, 29 n, 30, 51, 52; 
SI. 10, 2 1 n ; 11, 4. See Kai- 

Vitast, span, Bd.26, 3 n; SI. 21, 2 n. 
Vivanghau, man, Bd. 29, 6 ; 31, 2, 

7 ; 32, 1 n. 
Fizak, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 
Vizar&sh, demon, Bd. 28, 18. 
Fohu-frydn fire, Bd. 17, 1 ; Zs. 11, 

1 n. 
Vohu-khshathra gatha, SI. 13, 2 n, 15, 

37, 38 n, 51. 
Vohu-khshathrem-yazamaide ch., 

SI. 13, 39. 
Vohuman, angel, Bd. 1, 23, 25, 

(26 n;) 7, 3; 27, 24; 30, 29; 

Zs. 6, 3; 9, 6; 11, ion; SI. 

13, 14; 15, 3, 5, 9-i 1 ; 22, 2; 

23, 1 ; his bird, SI. 10, 9 ; king, 

Bd. 31, 29, 30 ; 34, 8 ; Byt. 2, 

17 ; month, Bd. 25, 20. 



Vohuman-iihar, man, Bd. 33, 3. 

— yajt, ritual, Byt. 1, m,6; 2, 1. 
Vologeses I, Byt. 2, 19 n. 
VOrubarjt, region, Bd. 5, 8, 9 ; 11, 

3, 4; 25, 10; 29, 1; Byt. 3, 

V6r%arjt, region, Bd. 5, 8, 9; 11, 
3, 4; 25, 10; 29, 1; Byt. 3, 

Walking with one boot, Bd. 28, 1 3 ; 
SI. 4, 8n, (12.) 

— without boots, SI. 4, 12 n; 10, 

Washing the face, SI. 12, 21. 

— the hands, SI. 7, 2, 7 ; before 

sleep, SI. 10, 38. 
Weeks, SI. 23, 4 n. 
Well-water unclean at night, SI. 12, 


Westergaard, Professor, Int. 20 n, 
25, 28 n, 37~39> 4i, 48, 7i- 

Wife to worship with her husband, 
SI. 12, 30. 

Windischmann, Int. 25, 26. 

Winter, Bd. 25, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10-13, 
I 5 _I 7> 19? 2 °; 28, 1. 

Wisdom, like fire, SI. 20, 2 ; effect 
on the mind, SI. 20, 3. 

Wives, five kinds, Bd. 32, 6 n. 

Woman, after child-birth, SI. 3, 15 ; 
menstruous, SI. 2, 17, 96; 3, 
1-14, 16-22, 25-35 5 8, 12 ; 10, 
39; 12, 411; miscarriage, SI. 3, 
15, 22, 23; pregnant, SI. 2, 6, 
105; 3, 22; 10, 4, 10, 20; 12, 
11, 13 ; priest, SI. 10, 35. 

Worship, four kinds, SI. 9, 9, 10 ; of 
God, SI. 8, 22, 23; 10, 3, 5; 
19, 7; form of, SI. 12, 1. 

Worthy of death, Bd. 30, 16 ; SI. 2, 
9, (40,) 63, 64, 76, 81, 82, 85, 
105, 107, 108; 8, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 
13, 18, 21, 23; 10, 19; 15, 22, 
23; 18, 4 n. 

Wrath, race of, Byt. 2, 22, 24, 25, 
36; 3, 1, 6, 10, 13, 21; — with 
infuriate spear, Byt. 2, 36 ; 3, 
2 4? 3°, 35* See Aeshm, Khashm. 

Xerxes, Bd. 34, 8 n. 

Ya^kar-i Zariran, book, Byt. 2, 49 n. 
Tamdbust, man, Bd. 29, 5. 
Tanghad, man, Bd. 31, 2. See Ayan- 

Ya-jkyaothana ha, SI. 13, 10, 14. 
Yasna, ritual, Byt. 2, 59 n ; SI. 9, 

I in, 12 n ; 13, in; 16, 6n; 
oldest MSS. of, Int. 21; chap- 
ters cited, SI. 13, 1, 2 n, 4, 6- 

12, 16-23, 25, 27-33, 35, 37, 38, 
41-45, 47, 49-51; of seven ch., 
SI. 13, on, 15-25, 50 n, 51. 

Yajt, ritual, SI. 12, 1, 30 ; 16, (6 ;) 

17, 5 n. 
Yastofrk/, rite, SI. 5, 2, 6. See 

Yat sin, SI. 1, 1, 2 ; 2, 51; 11, 1, 2 ; 

16, 5; 

Yatha-ahu-vairyo formula, Bd. 1, 
(21;) Zs. 1, (19 n;) 2, 8; SI. 10, 
7; 12, 18, 32; 13, 13; recita- 
tions of, SI. 19, 1- 1 5. 

Yatha-aij ha, SI. 13, 8, 14. 

Yawning, cause of, SI. 12, 32. 

Yazd, town, SI. 21, o n, 2 n. 

Yazdakan/, king, Int. 42 ; Bd. 33, 

I I n ; 34, 9 n ; Byt. 3, 1 1 n. 
Yazdan, see Angels, God. 

— airikht, man, Bd. 31, 19. 

— janW, man, Bd. 31, 19. 
YasLm, rite, Bd. 2, 9 ; 30, 25 ; SI. 

3, 35 n; 13, in; 17, 3, 5- See 

also Ceremonial. 
Year, solar, Bd. 25, 1, 21; lunar, 

Bd. 25, 18, 19. 
YeNhe-hatam formula, Byt. 2, (64 n ;) 

SI. 10, 5 n ; 13, 24. 
Yezi-adaij ha, SI. 13, 33. 
Yim, king, Bd. 12, 20 ; 17, 5 ; 23, 

1; 31, 3-5, 6n, 7, 8; 32, in; 

34, 4; SI. 10, 28 n; his en- 
closure, Bd. 19, 16; 24, 11; 

29, 4, 5, H; 32, 5; Byt. 3, 

Yimak, queen, Bd. 23, 1 ; 31, 4. 
Yimakan m., Bd. 29, 14. 
Yqg-est, meas., Bd. 14, 28 ; 26, (in.) 
Yudan-Yim, man, Int. 42, 46, 47, 

64 ; Bd. 33, ion, 1 1 ; Zs. 1, o. 
Yunan, see Greeks. 

Zab, king, Bd. 31, 23 n. 

— r., Bd. 20, 25 n. 
Zadjam, man, Bd. 31, i4n. 
Za</-sparam, priest, Int. 38, 42, 46- 

49; Bd. 33, ion, 11; Zs. 1, o, 
19 n; 2, 6n; 4, in; 5, 4 n, 
5 n ; 6, 20 n ; 9, 1 n, 22 n ; 10, 
5 n ; 11, ion; Byt. 2, 3 n ; SI. 

13, 50 n. 



Zaesm, man, Bd. 31, 14. 

Zdgh, man, Bd. 33, 5. 

Zagros m., Bd. 12, 36 n. 

Zahd'vayi r., Bd. 20, 25. 

Zainigav, man, Bd. 31, 6. 

ZairU, demon, Bd. 1, 27; 28, 11; 
30, 29. 

Zairivairi, prince, Bd. 31, 29. 

Zal, man, Bd. 31, 37 n. 

ZamyaV, angel, Bd. 27, 24 ; SI. 22, 
28; 23, 4. 

Zand (com.), Int. (10,) 21; Byt. 1, 
6, 7; 2, 1, 55. 

Zand-akas, book, Int. 23 ; Bd. 1, 1; 
Zs. 9, in. 

Zandik, sect, SI. 6, 7. 

Zaothra, Av., SI. 2, 43 n. See Holy- 

Zarafjan r., Bd. 20, 19 n. 

Zarah sea, Bd. 13, 16 n. 

Zaratujt, apostle, Bd. 4, 2 n ; 17, 8 ; 
21, 3; 24, 1, 15; Zs. 11, ion; 
Byt. 1, 711; 2, 4-7, 9 5 SI. 1, 
3n; 6, 1; 10, 25, 28 n; chief, 
Bd. 29, 2 ; his family, Bd. 20, 
32; 29, 5; 32, 1-10; Byt. 3, 
13, 47, 48; SI. 10, 4, 2m; 13, 
22; his guardian spirit, Bd. 4, 
4 ; SI. 11, 4 ; his millennium, 
Bd. 34, 911; Byt. 1, 5 ; 2, 22, 
2 4, 3i, 4^; 3, 11, 43n, 44n; 
attacked by demons, SI. 10, 4 ; 
12, 3 n, 11; addresses Auhar- 
mazd, Bd. 30, 4 ; Byt. 1, 1, 2 ; 
2, 1, 12, 23, 57; 3, 1, 12; S!. 
12, 29; 15, 1, 3; 17, 1, 11; ad- 
dressed by Auharmazd, Byt. 2, 
58; 3, 11; SI. 9, 8; 10, 26; 

12, 32; 15, 30; called righteous, 
Byt. 2, 11, 24, 41, 62; called 
the Spitaman, Byt. 1, 3,5; 2, 
3, 4, 15, 22, 25, 28, 30, 31, 36, 
44, 54"5 6 , 6 3 5 3, 3, 4, 8-10, 13, 
14, 23, 24,43, 50; SI. 9, 14; 11, 
4; 12, 23; 15, 4. 

Zaratujt, man, Bd. 33, n. 

Zaratujtrotum, Bd. 24, 1. See also 
Supreme high-priest or Zara- 

Zardahim, title, Bd. 31, 4. 

Zark/m., Bd. 12, 2, ion. 

Zarin m., Bd. 12, 29, 39. 

Zarinmand lake, Bd. 22, 1, 6; spring, 
Bd. 20, 34. 

Zarir, man, Bd. 31, 30; 33, 4; 
prince, Bd. 31, 29. 

Zarman, demon, Bd. 28, 23. 

Zav, king, Bd. 31, 23 n. 

Zavarah, man, Bd. 31, 4m. 

Zavulistan, land, Byt. 3, 13 n. 

Zendr., Bd. 20, 15. 

Zendah r., Bd. 20, 15 n. 

Zisak, man, Bd. 32, 1 n. 

Zumand r., Bd. 20, 7, 19. 

Ziyanak, woman, Bd. 31, 4. 

Zob, king, Bd. 34, 6. See Auzobo. 

Zcbara-'vahman, bird, Bd. 19, 19. 

Zodiacal signs, Bd. 2, 2 ; SI. 21, 2, 7. 

Zohab, land, Bd. 20, 25 n. 

Zohar, see Holy-water. 

Zondak r., Bd. 20, 7, 15 n. 

Zota (priest), Bd. 30, 30. 

Zravad, place, Bd. 12, 35. 

Zravaka^, place, Bd. 12, 35. 

Zrvana, Av., Zs. 1, 24 n. 

Zujak, man, Bd. 31, 14. 




P. 133, note 6, for 'daughter* read 'grand-daughter.' 

P. 161, note 4, for ' Da^-sparam ' read 'ZaW-sparam;' also in p. 167, 

note 5; p. 168, note 2; p. 177, note 3; p. 182, note 1; p. 184, 

note 1. 
P. 199, note 6, for < Shapur I ' read ( Shapur II.' 





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