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Full text of "The sacred books of the East"

6*- 

1610 



G,L S.X££fj> 




THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



[46] 



Bonbon 

HENRY FROWDE 

Oxford University Press Warehouse 

Amen Corner, E.C. 




THE MACMILLAN CO., 66 FIFTH AVENUE 



THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XLVI 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1897 

[All rights reserved] 



©xfotb 

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



VEDIC HYMNS 



TRANSLATED BY 



HERMANN OLDENBERG 



PART II 



HYMNS TO AGNI (MAMDALAS I-V) 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1897 

[ All rights reserved] 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 



Hymns, Translation and Notes :- 
Ma^ala I, i 



13 Ap: 

26 

27 

3 1 
36 
44 
45 

58 

59 
60 

65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 

7i 

72 

73 

74 
75 
76 

77 
78 
79 
94 



Hymn 



PAGE 

xi 



I 

6 

8 

13 
16 

22 
3i 
37 
42 

45 
49 
52 
54 
57 
61 

64 
67 
70 

74 

82 
88 
92 

95 
96 
100 
102 
103 
108 



Vlll CONTENTS. 










PAGE 


Maat/ala I, 95 . . . . . . .114 


96 . . 










. 119 


97 










. 125 


9 8 . \ 










127 


99 










. 128 


127 










129 


128 










• 137 


140 










. 141 


141 . 










• 147 


142 Apr! Hymn 










i53 


143 










• i57 


144 










160 


145 










164 


146 










. 167 


147 










170 


148 










173 


149 










176 


150 A * 










' 178 


188 Apri Hymn 










179 


189 










181 


II, 1 . . 










186 


2 










*93 


3 Apri Hymn 










198 


4 










202 


5 










206 


6 










209 


7 










211 


8 










213 


9 










215 


10 










217 


III, 1 










219 


2 










228 


3 










232 


4 Apri Hymn 










236 


5 










240 


6 










244 


7 










248 


8 










252 


9 










256 





CONTENTS. 








IX 




PAGE 


Mawdfola 


III, 10 ...... 259 




II 










. 261 




12 To Indra-Agni 










• 263 




13 










. 266 




14 










. 268 




15 










. 271 




16 










273 




17 










275 




18 










277 




19 










• 279 




2Q 










281 




21 










283 




22 










285 




23 










287 




24 . . . 










289 




25 










291 




26 










292 




27 










296 




28 










300 




29 










302 




IV, i . . 










• 307 




2 










316 




3 










325 




4 










33i 




5 










335 




6 










340 




7 










343 




8 










346 




9 










348 




10 










35o 




11 










352 




12 










354 




13 










35<* 




14 










358 




15 










360 




V, 1 . . 










363 




2 










366 




3 










37i 




4 










375 



X 


CONTENTS. 










PAGE 


Maw^ala V, 5 Apri Hymn . . . 377 


6 










379 


7 














382 


8 














385 


9 














387 


10 














389 


n 














391 


12 














393 


13 














395 


14 














397 


15 














• 399 


16 














. 401 


17 














403 


18 














405 


1 9 














407 


20 














410 


21 














412 


22 














4i3 


23 














414 


24 














415 


25 














416 


26 














418 


27 














420 


28 














• 423 


Appendices: — 


I. Index of Words ....... 427 


II. List of the more important Passages quoted in the 


Notes .... 








487 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 
Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 



497 



INTRODUCTION. 

IN preparing this volume, which contains the greater 
part of the Agni hymns of the Rig-veda, namely, those of 
the Ma^alas I-V, the translator enjoyed the high ad- 
vantage of Professor Max Muller's assistance, in the way 
stated in the Introduction to the first volume of Vedic 
Hymns, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxxii, p. xxvii. 



H. O. 



Kiel : 
November, 1895. 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiV£>ALA I, HYMN 1. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 1-2. 

i \ I magnify 2 Agni, the Purohita, the divine 
ministrant of the sacrifice, the Hotri priest, the 
greatest bestower of treasures. 

2. Agni, worthy to be magnified by the ancient 
jRtshis and by the present ones — may he conduct 
the gods hither. 

3. May one obtain through Agni wealth and wel- 
fare day by day, which may bring glory and high 
bliss of valiant offspring. 

4. Agni, whatever sacrifice and worship 1 thou 
encompassest on every side, that indeed goes to 
the gods. 

5. May Agni the thoughtful Hot?-/, he who is 
true and most splendidly renowned, may the god 
come hither with the gods. 

6. Whatever good thou wilt do to thy worshipper, 
O Agni, that (work) verily is thine, O Angiras. 

7. Thee, O Agni, we approach day by day, O 
(god) who shinest in the darkness * ; with our prayer, 
bringing adoration to thee — 

8. Who art the king of all worship, the guardian of 
7?z'ta, the shining one, increasing in thy own house. 

9. Thus, O Agni, be easy of access to us, as a 
father is to his. son. Stay with us for our happiness. 

[46] B 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Madhu^^andas Vai^vamitra, 
and may possibly belong to an author of the Vuvamitra 
family. See my Prolegomena, p. 261. Metre, Gayatri. 
The hymn has been translated and commented upon by 
M. M., Physical Religion, pp. 170-173. 

Verse 1 = TS. IV, 3, 13, 3 ; MS. IV, io, 5. Verse 3 = 
TS. Ill, 1, 11, 1 ; IV, 3, 13/5 ; MS. IV, 10, 4 (IV, 14, 16). 
Verse 4 = TS. IV, 1, 11, 1 ; MS. IV, 10, 3. Verse 7 = SV. 
I, 14. Verses 7-9 = VS. Ill, 22-24; TS. I, 5, 6, 2 ; MS. 

I. 5> 3- 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. This verse being the first verse of the Rig-veda as 
we now possess it, seems already to have occupied the same 
position in the time of the author of the hymns X, 20-26. 
For, after a short benediction, the opening words of this 
collection of hymns are also agni'm i/e, ' I magnify Agni.' 
Comp. my Prolegomena, p. 231. 

3STote 2. The verb which I translate by * magnify ' — being 
well aware that it is impossible to do full justice to its 
meaning by such a translation — is id. There seems to me 
no doubt that this verb is etymologically connected with 
the substantives ish, * food/ id, ida, fr& (not with the root ya^* 
of which Brugmann, Indogermanische Forschungen I, 171, 
thinks). We need not ask here whether the connection 
between id and ish is effected by a i Wurzeldeterminativ ' 
(root-determinative) d — in this case we should have here id 
for izhd, comp. nida for nizhda, pid for pizhd, &c. ; see 
Brugmann's Grundriss, vol. i, § 591 — or whether id is a 
reduplicated present of id (of the type described by Brug- 
mann, Grundriss, vol. ii, p. 854 ; comp. frte, &c.). The 
original meaning of ide at all events seems to be c I give 
sap or nourishment/ Now in the Vedic poetry and ritual, 
the idea of sap or nourishment is especially connected with 
the different products coming from the cow, milk and 



MA2VDALA I, HYMN T. 



butter. The footsteps of the goddess Ida. drip with butter. 
The words ' agnim ide ' seem to me, consequently, originally 
to convey the idea of celebrating Agni by pouring sacrificial 
butter into the fire. There is a number of passages in the 
Rig-veda which, in my opinion, show clear traces of this 
original meaning of the verb. Thus we read X, 53, 2. 
ya^amahai yagniyan hanta devan l/amahai idyan a^yena, 
' let us sacrifice (ya^*) to the gods to whom sacrifice is due ; 
let us magnify (id) with butter those to whom magnifying 
is due. 5 V, 14, 3. tarn hi sasvanta.k l/ate sruM devam 
ghritaskuta, agnim havyaya voMave, 'for all people magnify 
this god Agni with the butter-dripping sacrificial spoon, 
that he may carry the sacrificial food/ V, 28, 1. devan 
l/ana havisha ghritaki, ' magnifying the gods with sacrificial 
food, (the spoon) filled with butter.' Comp. also I, 84, 18 ; 
VI, 70, 4; VIII, 74, 6; X, 118, 3. Then, by a gradual 
development, we find the verb id or the noun i/enya 
connected with such instrumental as gira or girbhi^, * to 
magnify by songs,' or stomal 'by praises, 5 namasa 'by 
adoration,' and the like. The Rig-vedic texts, however, 
show us very clearly that even in such phrases the 
original meaning of id was not quite forgotten. For the 
word is not used indifferently of any praise offered to 
any god whatever. No god of the Vedic Pantheon is 
praised so frequently and so highly by the poets of the 
Rig-veda as Indra. Yet, with very few exceptions, the 
word id is avoided in connection with this god. The whole 
ninth MandaXa. contains nothing but praises of Soma Pava- 
mana. Yet the word id occurs, in the whole of this Ma;^ala, 
in two passages only (5, 3 ; 66, 1) of which one is contained 
in an Aprt verse transferring artificially to Soma such 
qualifications as belong originally to Agni. On the other 
hand, in the invocations addressed to Agni, this verb and its 
derivatives are most frequently used. We may conclude 
that the idea of celebration, as conveyed by these words, 
had a connotation which qualified them for the employ- 
ment with regard to Agni, the god nourished by offerings 
of butter, much better than for being addressed to Indra, 
the drinker of the Soma juice, or to the god Soma himself. 

B 2 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



Last comes, I believe, the meaning of \d as contained in 
a very small number of passages such as VII, 91, 2. fndra- 
vayu sustutf^ vam iyana marc/ikam itte suvitam ka. navyam, 
c Indra and Vayu ! Our beautiful praise, approaching you, 
asks you for mercy and for new welfare.' Here the construc- 
tion of \d is such as if in English the phrase, ' men magnify 
the gods for obtaining mercy,' could be expressed in the 
words ' men magnify the gods mercy.' 

I conclude by quoting the more important recent litera- 
ture referring to Id: Prof. Max Muller's note on V, 60, 1 
(S. B. E. vol. xxxii, p. 354); Physical Religion, p. 170; 
Bezzenberger, Nachrichten von der Gottinger Gesellsch. d. 
Wissensch. 1878, p. 264; Bechtel, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
X, 286 ; Bartholomae, ibid. XII, 91; Arische Forschungen, 
II, 78; Indogermanische Forschungen, III, 28, note 1; 
Brugmann, Indogermanische Forschungen, I, 171 ; K. F. 
Johansson, Indogermanische Forschungen, II, 47. Comp. 
also Bartholomae, Arische Forschungen, I, 21 ; III, 52, and 
Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXXII, 389. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. ' Worship ' is a very inadequate translation of 
adhvara, which is nearly a synonym of ya^a, by the side 
of which it frequently stands. Possibly in the designation 
of the sacrifice as y&gna. the stress was laid on the ele- 
ment of prayer, praises, and adoration ; in the designation as 
adhvara on the actual work which was chiefly done by the 
Adhvaryu. — Prof. Max Miiller writes: 'I accept the native 
explanation a-dhvara, without a flaw, perfect, whole, holy. 
Adhvara is generally an opus op era turn; hence adhvaryu, 
the operating priest.' Comp. Physical Religion, p. 171. 
Bury's derivation of adhvara from madhu (mdhu-ara, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, VII, 339) is much more ingenious 
than convincing. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. I have translated doshavastar as a vocative 
which, as is rendered very probable by the accent, was 
also the opinion of the diaskeuasts of the Sa^hita text. 



MANDALA I, HYMN I. 



The author of the sacrificial formula which is given 
in Ai-val. 6raut. Ill, 12, 4 and 5ankh. Grihy. V, 5, 4, 
evidently understood the word in the same way ; there 
Agni is invoked as doshavastar and as pratarvastar, as 
shining in the darkness of evening and as shining in the 
morning. That this may indeed be the true meaning of 
the word is shown by Rig-veda III, 49, 4, where Indra 
is called kshapam vasta, ' the illuminator of the nights ' 
(kshapam is gen. plur., not as Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 208, takes it, loc. sing.). The very frequent 
passages, however, in which case-forms of dosha stand in 
opposition to words meaning ' dawn ' or ' morning ' — which 
words in most cases are derived from the root vas — strongly 
favour the opinion of Gaedicke (Der Accusativ im Veda, 
177, note 3) and K. F. Johansson (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XIV, 163), who give to doshavastar the meaning 'in the 
darkness and in the morning.' This translation very well 
suits all Rig-veda passages in which the word occurs. If 
this opinion is accepted, doshavastar very probably ought 
to be written and accented as two independent words, 
dosha vastar. See M. M v Physical Religion, p. 173. 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



MA7VZ)ALA I, HYMN 12. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 22-23. 

i. We choose Agni as our messenger, the all- 
possessor, as the Hotrz of this sacrifice, the highly- 
wise. 

2. Agni and Agni again they constantly invoked 
with their invocations, the lord of the clans, the 
bearer of oblations, the beloved of many. 

3. Agni, when born, conduct the gods hither for 
him who has strewn the Barhis (sacrificial grass) 1 ; 
thou art our Hotrz, worthy of being magnified 2 . 

4. Awaken them, the willing ones, when thou 
goest as messenger, O Agni. Sit down with the 
gods on the Barhis. 

5. O thou to whom Ghnta oblations are poured 
out, resplendent (god), burn against the mischievous, 
O Agni, against the sorcerers. 

6. By Agni Agni is kindled (or, by fire fire is 
kindled), the sage, the master of the house, the young 
one, the bearer of oblations, whose mouth is the 
sacrificial spoon. 

7. Praise Agni the sage, whose ordinances for the 
sacrifice are true, the god who drives away sickness. 

8. Be the protector, O Agni, of a master of 
sacrificial food who worships thee, O god, as his 
messenger. 

9. Be merciful, O purifier, unto the man who is 
rich in sacrificial food, and who invites Agni to the 
feast of the gods. 

10. Thus, O Agni, resplendent purifier, conduct 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 12. 



the gods hither to us, to our sacrifice and to our 
food. 

n. Thus praised by us with our new Gayatra 
hymn, bring us wealth of valiant men and food. 

12. Agni with thy bright splendour be pleased, 
through all our invocations of the gods, with this 
our praise. 

NOTES. 

This hymn is ascribed to Medhatithi K&//va. It is the 
opening hymn of a collection which extends from I, 12 to 
23 (not, as Ludwig, III, 102, believes, from I, 2 to 17 ; see 
my Prolegomena, p. 220). That the authorship of this 
collection belongs indeed to the Ka^va family, whose 
poetical compositions are found partly in the first and 
partly in the eighth Ma^ala, is shown by the text of 
14, 2-5, and by other evidence ; see Zeitschr. der Deutschen 
Morg. Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 448. 

The metre is G&yatri. It is possible, though I do not 
think it probable, that the hymn should be considered as 
consisting of Tr/^as. Verse i = SV. I, 3 ; TS. II, 5, 8, 5 ; 
V, 5, 6, 1 ; TB. Ill, 5, 2, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 2. Verses 1-3 = 
SV. II, 140-142 ; AV. XX, 101, 1-3. Verse 2 = TS. IV, 
3, 13, 8; MS. IV, 10, 1. Verse 3 = TB. Ill, 11, 6, 2. 
Verses 6, 8, 9 = SV. II, 194-196. Verse 6 = TS. I, 
4,46,3; HI, 5, ii, 5; V, 5, 6, 1; TB. II, 7, 12, 3; MS. 
IV, 10, 2 (3). Verse 7 = SV. I, 32. Verse 10 = VS. 
XVII, 9 ; TS. I, 3, 14, 8 ; 5, 5, 3 ; IV, 6, 1, 3 ; MS. I, 5, 1. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On vrzktabarhis, comp. RV. I, 116, 1 ; M. M., 
vol. xxxii, pp. 84 seq., 109 ; Geldner, P. G., Vedische 
Studien, I, 152. 

Note 2. On ldyaky comp. the note on We I, 1, 1. 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



MhNDKLK I, HYMN 13. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 24-25. 

Apr! Hymn, 
i 1 . Being well lighted, O Agni, bring us hither 
the gods to the man rich in sacrificial food, Hotri, 
purifier, and perform the sacrifice. 

2. Tanfinapat 1 ! make our sacrifice rich in honey 
and convey it to-day to the gods, O sage, that they 
may feast. 

3. I invoke here at this sacrifice Nard^a^sa \ the 
beloved one, the honey-tongued preparer of the 
sacrificial food. 

4. O magnified * Agni ! Conduct the gods hither 
in an easy-moving chariot. Thou art the Hotri 
instituted by Manus 2 . 

5. Strew, O thoughtful men, in due order 1 the 
sacrificial grass, the back (or surface) of which is 
sprinkled with butter, on which the appearance of 
immortality 2 (is seen). 

6. May the divine gates open, the increasers of 
7?zta, which do not stick together, that to-day, that 
now the sacrifice may proceed. 

7. I invoke here at this sacrifice Night and Dawn, 
the beautifully adorned goddesses, that they may 
sit down on this our sacrificial grass. 

8. I invoke these two divine Hotrzs 1 , the sages 
with beautiful tongues. May they perform this 
sacrifice for us. 

9. I/a (' Nourishment '), Sarasvatl, and Mahf (' the 
great one ') \ the three comfort-giving goddesses, 
they who do not fail, shall sit down on the sacrificial 
grass. 



MA2VDALA I, HYMN 1 3. 



10. I invoke hither the foremost, all-shaped Tva- 
sh^rz to come hither ; may he be ours alone. 

11. O tree 1 , let the sacrificial food go, O god, to 
the gods. May the giver s splendour be foremost. 

12. Offer ye the sacrifice with the word Svaha 
to Indra in the sacrificers house. Thereto I invoke 
the gods. 

NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed, as the whole collection to which 
it belongs, to Medhatithi Ka^va (see the note on the 
preceding hymn). Its metre is Gayatri. Verses 1-4 = 
SV. II, 697-700. Verse 9 = RV. V, 5, 8. Verse 10 = TS. 
Ill, i, ii, 1 ; TB. Ill, 5, 12, 1 ; MS. IV, 13, 10. 

The hymn belongs to the class of Apri hymns, which 
were classed by the ancient arrangers of the Sa^hita among 
the Agni hymns. The Apri hymns, consisting of eleven 
or twelve verses, were destined for the Praya^a offerings 
of the animal sacrifice (comp. H. O., Zeitschrift der D. 
Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 243 seq.). They were addressed, 
verse by verse in regular order, partly to Agni, partly 
to different spirits or deified objects connected with the 
sacrifice, such as the sacrificial grass, the divine gates 
through which the gods had to pass on their way to the 
sacrifice, &c. The second verse was addressed by some 
of the Rzshi families to Tanunapat by some to Narasa^sa ; 
in some of the hymns we find two verses instead of one 
(so that the total number of verses becomes twelve instead 
of eleven) addressed the one to Tanunapit, the other to 
Narasa^sa. Bergaigne (Recherches sur Fhistoire de la 
Liturgie Vedique, p. 14) conjectures that some of theRishi 
families had only seven Praya^as. This opinion is based 
on the identical appearance of four verses (8-1 1) in the 
Apri hymns of the Vuvamitras (III, 4) and of the Vasish- 
tkas (VII, 2,), and on the diversity of metres used in two 
other Apri hymns, IX, 5 and II, 3. To me this conjecture, 
though very ingenious, does not seem convincing. 



IO VEDIC HYMNS. 



With the text of the Apr! hymns should be compared 
the corresponding Praishas of the Maitravaru^a priest, i.e. 
the orders by which this priest directed the Hotri to 
pronounce the Praya^*a invocations. The text of these 
Praishas is given Taitt. Brahm. Ill, 6, 2. 

Comp. on the character and the historical and ritual 

position of the Apri hymns, Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansc. 

Literature, p. 403 seq. ; Roth, Nirukta, notes, p. 131 seq. ; 

Weber, Indische Studien, X, 89 seq. ; Ludwig V, 315 seq. ; 

Hillebrandt, Das Altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 

94 seq. ; Schwab, Das Altindische Thieropfer, 90 seq. ; Ber- 

gaigne, Recherches sur Thistoire de la Liturgie Vedique, 

13 seq. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. Delbriick, Syntactische Forschungen, 1,97. 

Verses 2, 3. 
Note 1. Does Tanunapat, lit. 'son of the body,' mean, 
as Roth and Grassmann believed, 'son of his own selP 
(comp. I, 12, 6. agnma agmk sam idhyate, ' by Agni Agni 
is kindled '), or is the meaning c le propre fils ' (Bergaigne, 
Rel. Vedique II, 100)? NanLra^sa, which is nearly iden- 
tical with the Avestic Nairyosanha, means 'the song of 
men,' or 'praised by men ' (Bergaigne, 1. 1. I, 305 ; M. M.'s 
note on VII, 46, 4). In III, 29, 11 it is said of Agni: 
c He is called Tanunapat as the foetus of the Asura ; 
he- becomes NarcLra/^sa when he is born/ Of course an 
expression like this is by no means sufficient to prove 
that the sacrificial gods Tanunapat and Nara^a^sa, as 
invoked in the Apri hymns, are nothing but forms of 
Agni. Expressions which are constantly repeated in the 
Apri verses show that the work of Tanunapat, and like- 
wise that of Narai'a/^sa, consisted in spreading ghrz'ta or 
' honey' over the sacrifice. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. ' Magnified' is \l\tih\ comp. the note on I, 1, 1. 
The third, or if both Tanunapat and Nara^a^sa are in- 
voked, the fourth verse of the Apri hymns is regularly 
addressed to Agni with this epithet i/ita. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 1 3. II 

Note 2. Manurhita, ' instituted by Manus,' not ' by men/ 
See Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 65 seq. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On anushak, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
II, 125. 

Note 2. The last Pada is translated by Grassmann, 'wo 
der unsterbliche sich zeigt' (comp. Bergaigne, R.V. I, 194, 
note 1) ; by Ludwig, ' auf dem man das unsterbliche sieht.' 
To me it seems impossible to decide, so as to leave no 
doubt, whether amr/tasya is masculine or neuter. Comp. 
also Atharva-veda V, 4, 3 ; 28, 7 ; XIX, 39, 6-8, in which 
passages the phrase amr/tasya £aksha/2am recurs. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The two divine Hotrzs are mentioned in the 
Rig-veda only in the eighth (or seventh) verse of the 
Aprisuktas and besides in two passages, X, 65, 10; 66, 13, 
which do not throw any light on the nature of these sacri- 
ficial gods. They are called ^atavedasa VII, 2, 7, puro- 
hitau X, 70, 7, bhisha^-a Va^*. Sa^h. XXVIII, 7. As 
regards the duality of these divine counterparts of the 
human Hotrz priest, possibly the ' two Hotr/s ' should be 
understood as the Hotri and the Maitravaru/za ; the latter 
was the constant companion and assistant of the former 
in the Vedic animal sacrifice. Comp. Schwab, Altin- 
disches Thieropfer, 96, 1 14, 117, &c. ; H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 391. 

Comp. on the two divine Hotrzs also Bergaigne, R.V. 
I, 233 seq. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. On I/a, see H. O., Religion des Veda, pp. 72, 
326. — With regard to Mahi Bergaigne (Rel. Vedique, I, 322) 
has pronounced the opinion that ' Bharati et Mahi, qui, tantot 
se remplacent, tantot se juxtaposent tout en paraissant ne 
compter que pour une, se confondent aux yeux des rz'shis.' 
But Pischel (Ved. Studien, II, 84 seq.) has shown that the 
eminent French scholar was wrong, and that really Mahi 
(' the great one ') is independent of Bharati. Pischel's 



12 VEDIC HYMNS. 



own opinion that Mahi is a name of the goddess Dhisha^a, 
does not seem to me to be established by sufficient 
reasons. — On the meaning of these three goddesses Prof. 
Max Muller writes : ' I should not fix on Nourishment as 
the true meaning of I/a. Originally those three goddesses 
seem to be local : I/a, the land or daughter of Manu, the 
Sarasvati, and another river here called Mahi/ 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. To me it seems evident that the tree, or, to 
translate more literally, the lord of the forest (vanaspati) 
invoked in this Apri verse can only be the sacrificial post 
(yupa) to which the victim was tied before it was killed. 
The yupa is called vanaspati in the Rig-veda (III, 8, i. 3. 
6. 11) as well as in the more modern Vedic texts (for inst., 
Taitt. Sa^h. I, 3, 6, 1). — In the Apri hymn, IX, 5 (verse 10), 
the vanaspati is called sahasravaba : with this should be 
compared III, 8, 11 (addressed to the yupa): vanaspate 
jatavaba^ vi roha sahasravaba^ vi vayam ruhema, ' O lord 
of the forest, rise with a hundred offshoots ; may we rise 
with a thousand offshoots ! ' — In the Apri hymn, X, 70 
(verse 10), the rope (ra^ana) is mentioned by which the 
vanaspati should tie the victim ; comp. with this expression 
the statements of the ritual texts as to the ra^ana with 
which the victim is tied to the yupa ; Schwab, Das Altin- 
dische Thieropfer, 81. Comp. also especially Taittiriya 
Brahma^a III, 6, n, 3. — In the Apri hymns the vanaspati 
is frequently invoked to let loose the victim ; in connection 
therewith mention is made of the sacrificial butcher 
(.yamitrz), see II, 3, io; III, 4, 10; X, 110, to, and comp. 
Vag. Sa^hita XXI, 31; XXVIII, 10. The meaning of 
these expressions becomes clear at once, if we explain the 
vanaspati as the sacrificial post. When they are going to 
kill the victim, they loosen it from the post; the post, 
therefore, can be said to let it loose. Then the butcher 
(s3Ltnitri) leads the victim away. See the materials collected 
by Schwab, Thieropfer, p. 100 seq., and comp. also H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 357. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 26. I 3 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 26. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 20-21. 

i. Clothe thyself with thy clothing (of light), 
O sacrificial (god), lord of all vigour; and then 
perform this worship for us. 

2. Sit down, most youthful god, as our desirable 
Hotrz, through (our prayerful) thoughts \ O Agni, 
with thy word 2 that goes to heaven. 

3. The father verily by sacrificing procures (bless- 
ings) for the son 1 , the companion for the companion, 
the elect friend for the friend. 

4. May Vanma, Mitra, Aryaman, triumphant with 
riches (?) \ sit down on our sacrificial grass as they 
did on Manu's. 

5. O ancient Hotrz', be pleased with this our 
friendship also, and hear these prayers. 

6. For whenever we sacrifice constantly 1 to this 
or to that god, in thee alone the sacrificial food is 
offered. 

7. May he be dear to us, the lord of the clan, the 
joy-giving, elect Hotrz; may we be dear (to him), 
possessed of a good Agni (i. e. of good fire). 

8. For the gods, when possessed of a good Agni, 
have given us excellent wealth, and we think our- 
selves possessed of a good Agni. 

9. And may there be among us mutual praises 
of both the mortals, O immortal one, (and the 
immortals) \ 

10. With all Agnis (i.e. with all thy fires), O Agni, 
accept this sacrifice and this prayer, O young (son) 
of strength l . 



14 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

This hymn, as well as the whole collection to which it 
belongs, is ascribed to Suna/tsepa Ag-igarti (comp. 24, 12. 13). 
The metre is Gayatri. Bergaigne (Recherches sur l'histoire 
de la Sa//zhita, II, 7) divides this hymn into Trikas, with 
one single verse added at the end. I cannot find sufficient 
evidence for this ; the appearance in the Sama-veda 
(II, 967-9) of a Trika composed of the verses 10. 6. 7 
of our hymn is rather against Bergaigne' s opinion. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Manmabhi^ may possibly mean, 'with thy 
(wise) thoughts;' comp., for instance, III, 11, 8. pari vfjvani 
sudhita agne^ a^yama manmabhi^, ' may we obtain every 
bliss through Agni's (wise) thoughts,' or ' may we obtain 
all the blessings of Agni for our prayers.' 

Note 2. Va^as stands for va^asa. See the passages 
collected by Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 562, and comp. 
Roth, Ueber gewisse Kiirzungen des Wortendes im Veda, 5 ; 
Joh. Schmidt, Die Pluralbildungen der indogermanischen 
Neutra, 304 seq. Ludwig also takes va^as as instru- 
mental. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Agni is the father, the mortal whose sacrifice 
he performs, the son. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Can madas be explained as a compound of ri 
(Tiefstufe of rai, as gu is the Tiefstufe of gau) and 
%a'das, from the root ^ad, ' to be triumphant ' ? Prof. Auf- 
recht (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIV, ^ ; see also Neisser, 
Bezz. Beitr. XIX, 143) connects ri- with the Greek e/n- 
(kpiKvhris &c.) ; our hypothesis has the advantage of not 
leaving the limits of Sanskrit. — Comp. M. M.'s note on 
V, 60, 7 ; Ludwig, Ueber die neuesten Arbeiten auf dem 
Gebiete der Rig-veda-Forschung (1893), P* 7- 



MANDALA I, HYMN 26. 1 5 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On jarvata tand see Lanman, 480, 515, 518. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The comparison of verse 8 and the expression 
amr/ta martyanam in the second Pada of this verse seem 
to show that ubhayesham does not refer to two classes of 
mortals, the priests and their patrons, but to the mortals 
and the immortals. A genitive amr/tanam, which would 
make this meaning quite clear, can easily be supplied. 
A Dvandva compound amrztamartyanam, which one 
could feel tempted to conjecture, would have, in my 
opinion, too modern a character. — Prof. Max Miiller writes: 
' I should prefer amrzta martyanam, not exactly as a com- 
pound, but as standing for amr/tanam martyanam. This 
seems to be Ludwigs opinion too.' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. In the translation of sahasa^ yaho I follow 
Geldner, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVIII, 195 ; Lud wig's trans- 
lation is similar. 



1 6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVX>ALA I, HYMN 27. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 22-24. 

A. 

i. With reverence I shall worship thee who art 
long-tailed like a horse, Agni, the king of worship. 

2. May he, our son of strength 1 , proceeding on 
his broad way, the propitious, become bountiful 
to us. 

3. Thus protect us always, thou who hast a full 
life, from the mortal who seeks to do us harm 1 > 
whether near or afar. 

4. And mayest thou, O Agni, announce to the 
gods this our newest efficient Gayatra song. 

5. Let us partake of all booty that is highest 
and that is middle (i. e. that dwells in the highest 
and in the middle world) ; help us to the wealth 
that is nearest. 

6. O god with bright splendour, thou art the 
distributor. Thou instantly flowest for the liberal 
giver in the wave of the river, near at hand. 

B. 

7. The mortal, O Agni, whom thou protectest 
in battles, whom thou speedest in the races 1 , he 
will command constant nourishment : 

8. Whosoever he may be, no one will overtake 
him, O conqueror (Agni) ! His strength 2 is glorious. 

9. May he (the man), known among all tribes 3 , 
win the race with his horses ; may he with the help 
of his priests become a gainer. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 2J. I J 



10. O Gar&bodha 1 ! Accomplish this (task) for 
every house 2 : a beautiful song of praise for wor- 
shipful Rudra 3 . 

ii. May he, the great, the immeasurable, the 
smoke-bannered, rich in splendour, incite us to 
(pious) thoughts and to strength. 

12. May he hear us, like the rich lord of a clan, 
the banner of the gods, on behalf of our hymns, 
Agni with bright light. 

13. Reverence to the great ones, reverence to 
the lesser ones ! Reverence to the young, reverence 
to the old 1 ! Let us sacrifice to the gods, if we can. 
May I not, O gods, fall as a victim to the curse 
of my better 2 . 

NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to 5una^epa (see note on I, 26). 
The metre is Gayatri ; the last verse is Trish/ubh. 

The laws of arrangement of the Sa^hita show that this 
hymn, which has thirteen verses and follows after a hymn 
of ten verses belonging to the same deity, must be divided 
into a number of minor hymns. On the question of this 
division some further light is thrown by the metre. The 
first six verses and then again the verses 10-12 are 
composed in the trochaic form of the Gayatri metre ; of 
the verses 7-9, on the other hand, not a single Pada shows 
the characteristics of that metre. I believe, therefore, that 
the verses 1-6 form one hymn by themselves, or possibly 
two hymns of three verses each. Then follow two hymns : 
verses 7-9, 10-12. As to verse 13, which is composed 
in a different metre, it is difficult to determine its exact 
nature. It may be a later addition : though in that case 
[46] C 



1 8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



we shall hardly be able to explain why it was placed at 
the end of the hymns addressed to Agni, to which god it 
contains no reference whatever. Or it may form part of 
the hymn 10-12 : in that case we should have to consider 
this whole hymn, which would then violate the rules of 
arrangement, as an addition to the original collection. 

We may add that the Sama-veda gives the first twelve 
verses of this Sukta so as to form four independent hymns : 

1-3 = sv. 11, 984-6; 4 . 6. 5 = sv. 11, 847-9 ; 7-9 = sv. 

II, 765-7; 10-12 = SV. II, 1013-15. Besides, verse 1 is 
found in SV. I, 17. Verse 4 = SV. I, 28 ; TAr. IV, it, 8. 
Verse 7 = VS. VI, 29 ; TS. I, 3, 13, 2 ; MS. I, 3, 1. Verse 
10 = SV. 1, 15. Comp. Bergaigne, Recherches sur Thistoire 
de la Sa^hita, II, pp. 7-8 ; H. O., Prolegomena, 225-226. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. It requires a stronger belief in the infallibility 
ofVedic text tradition than I possess, not to change j-avasa 
into ^avasa^. I do not think that I, 62, 9 (sanemi sakhyam 
svapasyamana^ sunlit dadhara ^avasa sudamsak) furnishes 
a sufficient argument against this conjecture. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Grassmann reads aghaayo/£ for the sake of the 
metre; Prof. Max Miiller proposes aghayo^. I think that 
the missing syllable should be gained by disyllabic pro- 
nunciation of -at in martyat or rather martiat. Comp. my 
Prolegomena 185 and the quotations given there in note 1. 

Verses 7-9. 

Note 1. It is not my intention to enter here into a new 
discussion on so frequently discussed a word as va^a. I have 
translated it in verses 7, 9 by ' race,' in verse 8 by ' strength.' 

Note 2. The expression used in verses 7 and 8 should 
be compared especially with VII, 40, 3. sa^ it ugrak astu 
maruta^ sak ^ushmi' yam martyam przshada.yva/z avatha, 
uta im agnik sarasvati ^unanti na tasya xaykh paryeta asti. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 27. 1 9 

Note 3. VLyva^arsham, a frequent epithet of Agni, here 
refers to the mortal hero protected by Agni; comp. I, 
64, 14 (vol. xxxii, p. 108) ; X, 93, 10 (vuva>£arsham .yrava^). 

Verso 10. 

Note 1. I think that Ludwig is right in taking Gara- 
bodha for a proper name. 

Note 2. Vi.fe-vi.re may possibly depend on ysgniy&ya, 
so that we should have to translate : ' Administer this task : 
a beautiful song of praise to Rudra who is worshipful for 
every house.' 

Note 3. Rudra is here a designation of Agni, as the 
next verses show. Comp. Pischel-Geldner, I, 56. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The word cLrina, 'old/ occurring only here, is 
doubtful. In III, i, 6 ; IV, ^ 3 ; X,39, 4, sana or sanaya 
stands in contrast with yuvan. Shall we conjecture namaA 
ci sanebhya^ ? 

Note 2. The last Pada of this verse, ma ^yayasa^ sAm- 
sam a vrikshi deva^ (' May I not, O gods, neglect the 
praise of the greatest/ Muir, V, 12), offers some difficulty. 
It may be doubted whether a vrzkshi belongs to k-wrig or 
to a-vra^. 

Let us see what would be the meaning of the passage, if 
we were to decide for k-vrig. VIII, 101, 16 the cow 
speaks : devim devebhya^ pari eyiishim gam a ma avrzkta 
martya^ dabhra^eta^, ' Me the goddess, the cow, who has 
come hither from the gods, the weak-minded mortal has 
appropriated/ 6atapatha Brahma^a XIV, 9, 4, 3. ya eva/« 
vidvan adhopahasaw ^araty a. sa strln&m sukrttam vrmkte 
*tha ya idam avidvan adhopahasa/^ £araty asya striya// 
sukritam vrmgzte, ' He who knowing this, &c, appro- 
priates the good works of the women. But the women 
appropriate the good works of him who without knowing 
this,' &c. In Rig-veda X, 159, 5 also we probably have 
a form of a-vrig. There we find the triumphant utterance 

C 2 



20 VEDIC HYMNS. 



of a wife who has gained superiority over her fellow-wives : 
a awzksham anyasam var^a^, ' I have won for myself the 
splendour of the other wives/ We may conclude from 
these passages that our Pada, if a wzkshi is derived from 
a\-vrig, would mean : ' May I not draw on myself the curse 
of my better.' 

On the other hand we have a great number of passages — 
they have been collected by Ludwig, IV, 249 seq. — in 
which the verb a.-vrask appears. Referring the reader for 
fuller information to Ludwig, I content myself here with 
selecting one or two of these passages. Taitt. Sa^h. II, 4, 
11, 4. devatabhyo va esha a v risky aXz yo yakshya ity 
uktva na vacate. In translating this we should remember 
that vrask means ' to cut down ; ' a-vra.sk, therefore, must 
be 'to cut down so that the object reaches a certain desti- 
nation/ I translate therefore : ' He who says, " I shall 
sacrifice," and does not sacrifice, is cut down for the deities,' 
— i. e. he is dedicated or forfeited to the deities and is thus 
destroyed (comp. a different explanation of a\-vra.sk by 
Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 143). In other passages 
not the dative but the locative is used for indicating the 
being to whom somebody is forfeited ; see Atharva-veda 
XII, 4,6. 1 »• 26; XV, 1 a, 6. 10. 

A Rig-vedic passage containing a\-vras& (with the dative) 
is X, 87, 18. a vriskya.nta.rn aditaye dureva^, 'May the 
evil-doers be forfeited to Aditi.' 

Several times we find the first person aor. med. in the 
same form as in our passage, a vrzkshi ; see, for instance, the 
Nivid formula to the Visve deva/i, 5ankhayana vSrautasutra 
VIII, 21. In this Nivid, the text of which as given by 
Hillebrandt is not quite identical with that of Ludwig, we 
read according to Hillebrandt's edition : m& vo deva avLsasa 
ma vLrasayur a vrz'kshi. This ma ... a wz'kshi looks quite 
similar to our passage. The same may be said of Taittiriya 
Sa^zhita I, 6, 6, 1. yat te tapas tasmai te mavrz*kshi. 
Considering such passages it is difficult not to believe that 
it is the verb & vrajv£ which we have before us in our 
verse. It must be admitted indeed that the accusative 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 2j. 21 

samsam does not agree with the construction of the later 
Vedic passages. Can the accusative stand in the ancient 
language of the Rig-veda in the same connection in which 
we have found the dative and the locative? So that 
(i-vrask (in the middle or passive) with the accusative would 
mean : to be cut down in the direction towards another 
being, i. e. being forfeited to that being ? In that case the 
translation of our passage would be : ' May I not, O gods, 
fall as a victim to the praise (or rather, to the curse) of my 
better/ If this explanation of the accusative is thought 
too bold, we should propose to correct the text so as to 
get a dative or, which would suit the metre better, a loca- 
tive : mci gy&ydLSdik sa.msa.ya (or samse) a vWkshi deva^. 



2 2 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 31. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 2 a VARGA 32-35. 

i. Thou, O Agni, (who art) the first Angiras 7?zshi, 
hast become as god the kind friend of the gods. 
After thy law the sages, active in their wisdom 1 , 
were born, the Maruts with brilliant spears. 

2. Thou, O Agni, the first, highest Angiras, a 
sage, administerest the law of the gods, mighty for 
the whole world, wise, the son of the two mothers 1 f 
reposing everywhere for (the use of) the living 2 . 

3. Thou, O Agni, as the first, shalt become 1 
manifest to Matarisvan, through thy high wisdom, to 
Vivasvat. The two worlds trembled at (thy) elec- 
tion as Hotrz. Thou hast sustained the burthen ; 
thou, O Vasu, hast sacrificed to the great (gods) 2 . 

4. Thou, O Agni, hast caused the sky to roar 1 
for Manu, for the well-doing Pururavas, being thyself 
a greater well-doer. When thou art loosened by 
power (?) 2 from thy parents, they led thee hither 
before and afterwards again. 

5. Thou, O Agni, the bull, the augmenter of pros- 
perity, art to be praised by the sacrificer who raises 
the spoon, who knows all about the offering 1 and (the 
sacrifice performed with) the word Vasha/. Thou 
(god) of unique vigour art the first to invite 2 the 
clans. 

6. Thou, O Agni, leadest forward the man who 
follows crooked ways 1 , in thy company at the sacri- 
fice 2 , O god dwelling among all tribes, who in the 
strife of heroes, in the decisive moment for the 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 31. 23 

obtainment of the prize 3 , even with few companions 
killest many foes in the battle 4 . 

7. Thou, O Agni, keepest that mortal 1 in the 
highest immortality, in glory day by day, (thou) who 
being thirsty thyself 2 givest happiness to both races 
(gods and men), and joy to the rich. 

8. Thou, O Agni, praised by us, help the glorious 
singer to gain prizes. May we accomplish our work 
with the help of the young active (Agni). O Heaven 
and Earth ! Bless us together with the gods. 

9. Thou, O Agni, in the lap of thy parents, a god 
among gods, O blameless one, always watchful, be 
the body's creator and guardian to the singer. Thou, 
O beautiful one, pourest forth all wealth. 

10. Thou, O Agni, art our guardian, thou art our 
father. Thou art the giver of strength ; we are thy 
kinsmen. H undredfold, thousandfold treasures come 
together in thee, who art rich in heroes, the guardian 
of the law, O undeceivable one. 

11. Thee, O Agni, the gods have made for the 
living as the first living 1 , the clan-lord of the 
Nahusha 2 . They have made (the goddess) I /a the 
teacher of men (manusha), when a son of my father 
is born 3 . 

12. Thou, O Agni, protect with thy guardians, 
O god, our liberal givers and ourselves, O venerable 
one ! Thou art the protector of kith and kin 1 and 
of the cows, unremittingly watching over thy law. 

13 1 . Thou, O Agni, art kindled four-eyed, as the 
closest guardian for the sacrificer who is without 
(even) a quiver 2 . Thou acceptest in thy mind the 
hymn even of the poor 3 who has made offerings 4 , 
that he may prosper without danger. 

14. Thou, O Agni, gainest 1 for the widely-re- 



24 VEDIC HYMNS. 



nowned worshipper that property which is desirable 
and excellent. Thou art called the guardian and 
father even of the weak 2 ; thou instructest the 
simple, thou, the greatest sage, the quarters of the 
world 3 . 

15. Thou, O Agni, protectest on every side like 
well-stitched armour the man who gives sacrificial 
fees. He who puts sweet food (before the priests), 
who makes them comfortable in his dwelling, who 
kills living (victims), he (will reside) high in heaven 1 . 

16. Forgive, O Agni, this our fault (P) 1 , (look 
graciously at) this way which we have wandered 
from afar. Thou art the companion, the guardian, 
the father of those who offer Soma ; thou art the 
quick one 2 who makes the mortals i?zshis 3 . 

17. As thou didst for Manus, O Agni, for Angiras, 
O Angiras, for Yayati on thy (priestly) seat, as for the 
ancients, O brilliant one, come hither, conduct hither 
the host of the gods, seat them on the sacrificial grass, 
and sacrifice to the beloved (host). 

18. Be magnified, O Agni, through this spell 
which we have made for thee with our skill or with 
our knowledge. And lead us forward to better 
things. Let us be united with thy favour, which 
bestows strength. 

NOTES. 

The Rtshi of the hymn is Hiraz/yastupa Angirasa. To 
him tradition ascribes the authorship of the collection I, 31- 
35, probably because in X, 149, 5 the poet invokes Savitrz, 
'as Hira/zyastupa the Angirasa has called thee, O SavitrzV 
Vedic theologians of course tried to find out where this 
invocation of Hira;zyastupa to Savitrz was preserved, and 
the hymn, I, 35, seemed to agree best with the conditions 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 3 I. 25 

of the case (comp. Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges. XLII, 230). 
By this and many similar cases it is made probable that at 
the time when the Anukrama^i was composed, all real 
knowledge as to authors to whom the collections of the 
first Ma^ala belong, was lost. 

The metre is £agati ; only the verses 8, 16, 18 are 
Trish/ubh. Verse 1 =VS. 34, 12. Verse 8 = MS. IV, n, 
1. Verse \% =. VS. 34, 13. With verse 16 comp. AV. Ill, 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. VidmanSpasa^ seems to be nom. plur., not gen. 
sing. Comp. I, 111, 1. takshan ratham . . . vidmanapasa//, 
' they (the i^zbhus), active in their wisdom, have wrought 
the chariot/ 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. As to dvim&ta sayu/i, comp. Ill, 55, 6 (.yayu^ 
parastat adha mi dvimata) ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 
50. — On Agni's two mothers and his double birth see 
Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, II, 52. 

Note 2. By * living' I have translated ayii. See on 
this word, Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., I, 59 seq. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Probably Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. I, 55, note 2) is 
right in conjecturing bhava^ for bhava. In this case we 
should have to translate : ' Thou as the first hast become 
manifest to MitarLsvan.' 

Note 2. I believe that to mshik we have to supply 
devan ; see II, 37, 6 ; III, 7, 9 ; VI, 16, 2 ; 48, 4, &c. c Can 
it not be an adverb ? See vol. xxxii, p. 307 ; Lanman, 
p. 501,' M. M. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 58, 6. let Dyu (sky) roar down, the 
bull of the dawn. V, 59, 8. may Dyaus Aditi (the un- 
bounded) roar for our feast. 



26 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. The translation of jvatra is purely conjectural. 
It rests on the supposition that the word is related to 
.nfouve, .ravas, &c. (thus Grassmann). Boehtlingk-Roth 
connect it with svad, which is phonetically impossible ; 
they give the meaning ' schmackhaft,' and paraphrase our 
passage : das mit einer Lockspeise (z. B. mit einem Spahn) 
von den Reibholzern abgenommene Feuer kann man hin 
und her tragen. Ludwig : mit Geprassel. I do not see how 
this translation would fit for a number of the passages in 
which the word occurs. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. With the third Pada compare VI, i, 9. yak 
cihutim pari veda namobhi^. 

Note 2. Avivasasi cannot belong to the relative clause. 
The accent must be changed accordingly. 

Verse 6, 

Note 1. It is very curious to find here Agni as the pro- 
tector of the vr^inavartani, the man who follows crooked 
ways. Ludwig tries to explain the passage by under- 
standing the vidatha, in which Agni is here said to protect 
the sinner, as an asylum, but we have no reason to 
believe that the word could have this meaning. See the 
next note. 

Note 2. On the derivation and meaning of vidatha 
various opinions have been pronounced in the last years, 
which have been collected by Prof. Max Muller in his note 
on V, 59, % (vol. xxxii, p. 349 seq. ; see also Bartholomae, 
Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, 41). 
Without trying to discuss here all different theories, I im- 
mediately proceed to state my own opinion, though I am 
far from claiming certainty for it. It will, however, 
I believe, solve the difficulties tolerably well. I propose to 
derive vidatha from vi-dha ; the dh was changed into d by 
the same 'Hauchdissimilationsgesetz' (Brugmann, Grundriss 
der vergleichenden Grammatik, vol. i, p. 355 seq.), accord- 
ing to which Arian # bhaudhati was changed into Sanskrit 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 31. 2 J 

bodhati. No one will doubt that the operation of this 
'Hauchdissimilationsgesetz' could be annihilated by oppo- 
site forces, but it must be admitted that the forms with 
' Hauchdissimilation ' could also remain intact. The verb 
vi-dha means ' to distribute, to arrange, to ordain ; ' thus 
the original meaning of vidatha must be, like the meaning 
of vidhana, ' distribution, disposition, ordinance.' In V, 3, 6 
we read vidatheshu ahnam : this phrase receives its explana- 
tion by VII, 66, 11. vi ye dadhti^ .saradam ma'sam at aha^ ; 
ahoratram vidadhat, X, 190, % ; masam vidhanam, X, 138, 
6 ; rztun . . . vi dadhau, I, 95, 3. We may call attention 
also to VI, 51, 3. veda yah trim vidathani esham devanam 
^■anrna, c he who knows their threefold division, the birth of 
the gods;' VI, 8, 1. pra mi vofam vidatha ^atavedasa^, 
' 1 will proclaim the ordinances of Gatavedas.' Within the 
sphere of the Vedic poets' thoughts, the most prominent 
example of something most artificially 'vi'hita' was the 
sacrifice (comp. vi ye dadhu/* . . . ya^Tzam, VII, 66, 11 ; 
samsati uktham vacate vi u dha/£, IV, 6, 11 ; [the moon] 
bhagam devebhya^ vf dadhati a-yan, X, 85, 19; and the 
following very significant passage: ya^asya tva vidatha 
prikk/iam atra kati hotara^ rztusaA ya^*anti, Va£\ Samh. 
XXIII, 57). Thus ya^a and vidatha, ' sacrifice' and 
1 ordinance,' became nearly synonymous (comp. Ill, 3, 
3, &c). It would be superfluous to quote the whole 
number of passages which show this, but I believe that an 
attentive reader will discern at least in some of them the 
traces of the original meaning of vidatha; see, for instance, 
II, 1, 4 ; III, 28, 4. — Finally vidatha seems to mean ' the act 
of disposing of any business ' or the like ; this meaning 
appears, I believe, in passages like the well-known phrase, 
brzhat vadema vidathe suvira^ (comp. suvirasaA vidatham 
a vadema) : ' may we with valiant men mightily raise our 
voice at the determining (of ordinances, &c.).' Thus the 
words vidatha and sabha approach each other in their 
meaning ; a person influential in council is called both 
vidathya and sabheya (see Boehtlingk-Roth, s. v. vidathya). 
Note 3. The exact meaning of paritakmya is not quite 



28 VEDIC HYMNS. 



free from doubt. Comp. Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 203, note 1. 

Note 4. Prof. Max Muller translates this verse : ' Thou 
savest the man who has gone the wrong way in the thick 
of the battle, thou who art quick at the sacrifice ; thou who 
in the strife of heroes, when the prize (or the booty) is sur- 
rounded (beset on all sides), killest,' &c. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. The phrase begins as if a relative clause were to 
follow attached to the words ' that mortal/ But, instead of 
this, afterwards a relative clause follows referring to ' thou, 

Agni.' 

Note 2. Roth (Ueber gewisse Kiirzungen des Wortendes, 
p. 4) and Bartholomae (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIX, 559) 
think that a dative (like tatr/sha^aya) is required ; Agni 
gives comfort to both thirsty races, gods and men. Roth 
takes tatrzsha7za[^] for an abbreviation of tatrzshaTzaya ; 
Bartholomae conjectures tatrzshaya. It would be more 
easy to change the form into a dative with the ending 
-a ( = -ai); comp. Kluge, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 309; 
Pischel-Geldner, I, 61 ; Aufrecht, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 

1 ; J. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen, 234. But why not leave 
the nominative? Agni, being thirsty himself, quenches 
the thirst of other beings. Comp. J. Schmidt, Pluralbil- 
dungen, 309. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Ayum clyave. See verse 2, note 2. 

Note 2. The names Nahus, Nahusha have much the 
same value as Manus, Manusha. But it seems that not all 
the Aryan tribes, but only a certain part of them, were con- 
sidered as descendants of Nahus. Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. 
Vedique, II, 324. 

Note 3. The last words are very obscure. Mamaka 
occurs only in one other passage, belonging to the same 
collection of hymns, I, 34, 6 : there the A^vins are invoked 
to bestow blessings on 'my son' (mamakaya sunave). 
' When a son of my father is born ' may mean ' When I am 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 3 1. 29 

born/ or ' When a new issue is born within our tribe : ' 
then — thus we may possibly supply — the goddess I/a, the 
teacher of mankind, will be the new-born child's teacher 
also. Another possible explanation would be to take 
Mamaka as a proper name. Or Prof. Max Miiller may be 
right, who writes : 'Could not pitM yat putra/z mamakasya 
ga.ya.te refer to Agni, who, in III, 29, 3, was called Uayah 
putra^. Her father and husband (Manu) is also the father 
of mankind, therefore of the poet who says : Whenever the 
son of my father is born, they made I/a (his mother) the 
teacher of man.' 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Trata tokasya tanaye seems to be nothing else 
but trata tokasya tanayasya, which would have had one 
syllable too much. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. Comp. on this verse, Pischel, I, 216 seq. 

Note 2. Agni is to protect the man who has no quiver, 
and cannot, therefore, protect himself. The four eyes of 
the divine guardian seem to signify that he can look in all 
directions, and perhaps also that he has the power of seeing 
invisible bad demons. The watchdogs of Yama also are 
four-eyed, X, 14, 10. 11 ; comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
474, note 4. Comp. nishangin, Rig-veda III, 30, 15 ; V, 57, 
2 ; X, 103, 3. 

Note 3. On kin, comp. Pischel loc. cit. 

Note 4. Ratahavya^ means either a man who has made 
offerings, or a god to whom offerings are made. That it 
stands here in the first sense is shown with great proba- 
bility by VIII, 103, 13, where the kmk ratahavya^ 
svadhvara^ is described, the man who, though poor, makes 
offerings and is a good sacrificer. But if we are right in 
our translation of ratahavya^, the verb vanoshi cannot 
belong to the relative clause; I propose to read vanoshi 
without accent. The way in which Pischel tries to explain 
the accent of vanoshi, by taking the words kire^ k\t man- 
tram manasa as a parenthesis, is too artificial. 



30 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 14. 

Note 1. I think that we should here, as in verse 13, 
read vanoshi without accent. 

Note 2. This must be at least the approximate meaning 
of adhra. ' For ddhrasya one expects radhrasya,' M. M. 

Note 3. I think that the quarters of the world have 
nothing to do here, but that instead of pra disak we should 
read (with Ludwig) pradfoa/j. A similar mistake regarding 
the word pradlr occurs several times in the text of the Rig- 
veda. I propose to translate the corrected text : ' Thou 
instructest the simple, well knowing the (divine) command- 
ments/ Comp. vayunani vidvan, dutyani vidvan, &c. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. * Der ist des himels ebenbild ' (Ludwig). But 
this word upama is, as far as we can see, not very ancient. 
I take upama, with Boehtlingk-Roth, as an adverbial instru- 
mental like dakshka, madhya, &c. Prof. Max Muller 
translates ' close or near to heaven.' 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. Saram designates in the Atharva-veda VI, 43, 3 
a fault or defect, the exact nature of which cannot be deter- 
mined. Boehtlingk-Roth propose Widerspanstigkeit, Hart- 
nackigkeit ; Max Muller, Abweg, Fehltritt. 

Note 2. On bhrzmi, comp. M. M.'s note on II, 34, 1. 

Note 3. Comp. Ill, 43, 5. kuvit m& rhhim papiva^sam 
sutasya (supply karase), ' Wilt thou make me a Rtshi after 
I have drunk Soma ? ' 



MANDALA I, HYMN 36. 3 1 

MAJVZ?ALA I, HYMN 36. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 3, VARGA 8-11. 

i. We implore 1 with well-spoken words the vigo- 
rous 2 Agni who belongs to many people 3 , to the 
clans that worship the gods 4 , whom other people 
(also) magnify. 

2. Men have placed Agni (on the altar) as the 
augmenter of strength. May we worship thee, rich 
in sacrificial food. Thus be thou here to-day gracious 
to us, a helper in our striving for gain, O good one ! 

3. We choose thee, the all-possessor, as our mes- 
senger and as our HotW. The flames of thee, 
who art great, spread around; thy rays touch the 
heaven. 

4. The gods, Varu^a, Mitra, Aryaman, kindle 
thee, the ancient messenger. The mortal, O Agni, 
who worships thee, gains through thee every prize. 

5. Thou art the cheerful Hotrz and householder, 
O Agni, the messenger of the clans. In thee all the 
firm laws are comprised which the gods have made 1 . 

6. In thee, the blessed one, O Agni, youngest 
god, all sacrificial food is offered. Sacrifice then 
thou who art gracious to us to-day and afterwards 1 , 
to the gods that we may be rich in valiant men. 

7. Him, the king, verily the adorers approach 
reverentially. With oblations men kindle Agni, 
having overcome all failures. 

8. Destroying the foe 1 , they (victoriously) got 
through Heaven and Earth and the waters; they 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



have made wide room for their dwelling. May the 
manly (Agni) 2 , after he has received the oblations, 
become brilliant at the side of Ka/zva ; may he 
neigh as a horse in battles. 

9. Take thy seat; thou art great. Shine forth, 
thou who most excellently repairest to the gods. 
O Agni, holy god, emit thy red, beautiful smoke, 
O glorious one ! 

10. Thou whom the gods have placed here for 
Manu as the best performer of the sacrifice, O carrier 
of oblations, whom Ka/zva and Medhyatithi, whom 
VWshan and Upastuta 1 (have worshipped,) the 
winner of prizes. 

11. That Agni's nourishment has shone brightly 
whom Medhyatithi and Ka#va have kindled on 
behalf of JZite 1 . Him do these hymns, him do we 
extol. 

12. Fill (us with) wealth, thou self-dependent one, 
for thou, O Agni, hast companionship with the gods. 
Thou art lord over glorious booty. Have mercy 
upon us ; thou art great. 

13. Stand up straight for blessing us, like the god 
Savitrz, straight a winner of booty, when we with 
our worshippers and with ointments 1 call thee 2 in 
emulation (with other people). 

14. Standing straight, protect us by thy splendour 
from evil; burn down every ghoul 1 . Let us stand 
straight that we may walk and live. Find out our 
worship 2 among the gods, 

15. Save us, O Agni, from the sorcerer, save us 
from mischief, from the niggard. Save us from him 



MANDALA I, HYMN 36. 33 

who does us harm or tries to kill us, O youngest god 
with bright splendour ! 

16. As with a club 1 smite the niggards in all 
directions, and him who deceives us, O god with 
fiery jaws. The mortal who makes (his weapons) 
very sharp by night, may that impostor not rule 
over us. 

17. Agni has won abundance in heroes, Agni 
prosperity (for Ka^va). Agni and the two Mitras 
(i.e. Mitra and Vanma) have blessed Medhyatithi, 
Agni (has blessed) Upastuta in the acquirement (of 
wealth) \ 

18. Through Agni we call hither from afar Tur- 
va^a, Yadu, and Ugradeva. May Agni, our strength 
against the Dasyu, conduct Navavastva, Brzhad- 
ratha, and Turviti 1 . 

19. Manu has established thee, O Agni, as a light 
for all people. Thou hast shone forth with Ka/zva, 
born from 7?zta, grown strong, thou whom the human 
races worship. 

20. Agni's flames are impetuous and violent ; they 
are terrible and not to be withstood. Always burn 
down the sorcerers, and the allies of the Yatus, every 
ghoul 1 . 

NOTES. 

The authorship of this hymn, and of the whole collection 
to which it belongs (I, 36-43), is ascribed to Ka/^va Ghaura. 
Numerous passages show indeed that it was the family 
of the Ka?zvas, or rather, to speak more accurately, a branch 
of that family, among which this group of hymns has been 
composed. But it is as great a mistake in this as in 
[463 D 



34 VEDIC HYMNS. 



a number of similar cases to accept the founder of one 
of the great Brahmanical families as an author of Vedic 
poems. Comp. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesell- 
schaft, XLII, 215 seq. 

The metre is alternately Brzhati and Satobrzhati, so that 
the hymn consists of strophes (Pragatha) of two verses. 
Verse i = SV. I, 59. Verse 9 = VS. XI, 37 ; TS. IV, 1, 3, 
3 (V, 1, 4, 5) ; TAr. IV, 5, 2 (V, 4, 6) ; MS. II, 7, 3 ; IV, 9, 3- 
Verse i 3 = SV. I, 57 ; VS. XI, 42 ; TS. IV, 1, 4, 2 (V, 1, 5, 
3) ; MS. II, 7, 4. Verses 13, i4=TB. Ill, 6, 1, 2 ; TAr. IV, 
20, 1 ; MS. IV, 13, 1. Verse i9 = SV. I, 54. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Literally, we entreat for you. Comp. on this 
use of the pronoun vak, Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, 206. 
See also Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 64. 

Note 2. The meaning of yahva cannot be determined 
with full certainty. 

Note 3. There is no sufficient reason to change with 
Ludwig (IV, 254) puruTzam to Puru/zam, and thus to convert 
the metrically correct Pada into an irregular one. — Comp. 
Bollensen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Geseilschaft, 
XXII, 593. 

Note 4. On devayatinam, comp. Lanman, p. 399. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. 'On thee all the eternal works are united, i.e. 
depend, which the gods have wrought ; such as sun, stars, 
lightning/ M.M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. With the third Pada compare the third Pada of 
verse 2. It is a galita. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The word ' the foe ' (vrz'tra) alludes to the name 
of the demon conquered by Indra ; see H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 135, note 2. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 36. 35 

Note 2. The metre would become more correct by 
reading vrishabhak instead of vr/shd. Or W/sham, ' with 
VWshan'? Comp. verse 10. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Medhyatithi or Medhatithi is very frequently 
mentioned in connection with Ka/zva. 

VWshan is taken as a proper name by Boehtlingk-Roth 
and by Grassmann (not by Ludwig) in VI, 16, 15. Possibly 
they are right, but in no case can Vrzshan of the sixth 
book, named by the side of Dadhya&£ and Atharvan, be 
identified with any probability with the Vrzshan mentioned 
in our passage, who evidently belongs to the ancestors of 
the Ka/zvas. 

Upastuta is mentioned again together with Ka/zva and 
Medhyatithi in verse 17 of our hymn, together with Ka^va 
in VIII, 5, 25. Comp. I, 112, 15 ; VIII, 103, 8 ; X, 115, 8. 9 ; 
Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., II, 448. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 139, 2. yat ha tyat mitr&varu?zav ritiLt 
adhi adadathe anrztam svena manyuna; X, 73, 5. man- 
damana^ rz'tat adhi. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. Angibhlk can possibly mean 'who have salved 
themselves/ There is no reason to think of the anointing 
of the yupa (sacrificial post), to which Saya/za refers the 
word. 

Note 2. On vi-hvi, comp. Pischel-Geldner, 1, 144. There 
must be a technical reason, unknown to me, for the con- 
nection in which this verb repeatedly occurs, as is the case 
in our passage, with the noun vaghat : comp. Ill, 8, 10 (see 
below); VIII, 5, 16. purutra £it hf vam nard vihvayante 
manishfea^ vaghadbhi^ ajvinS, a gatam. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. The exact meaning of atrin is unknown. 
Note 2. Geldner's conjectures on duvas seem rather bold 

D 2 



36 VEDIC HYMNS. 



to me (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 233). Comp. vol. xxxii, 
pp. 203-206 (I, 165, 14). 

Verse 16. 
Note 1. On ghaneva, see Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 334. 

Verse 17. 

Note 1. On Medhyatithi and Upastuta, see the note on 
verse 10. Aufrecht (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 612) believes 
that in mitrota an abbreviation of the name Mitratithi 
(X, 33, 7) is contained ; he translates : * Agni has promoted 
Mitratithi, Medhyatithi, and Upastuta in the acquirement 
of wealth.' This is very ingenious, but I do not think that 
the reason which Aufrecht gives is sufficient : it cannot be 
understood, he says, why Mitra (or Mitra and Varu^a) 
should be mentioned in a hymn exclusively addressed to 
Agni. But similar cases are quite frequent. — Prof. Max 
Miiller writes : ' Could mitra stand for mitram ? Agni has 
protected his friends and also Medhyatithi.' Comp. also 
Lanman, p. 342. 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. On Turva^a and Yadu, comp. Muir, V, 286 ; 
Bergaigne, II, 354 seq. ; Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Ges. XLII, 
220. There is not the slightest reason for Ludwig's state- 
ment (IV, 254) that this hymn is a ' gebet um sig fiir den 
auf einem kriegszuge befindlichen Turva9akonig.' 

Ugradeva is not mentioned again. On Navavastva and 
Brzhadratha, comp. X, 49, 6 ; VI, 20, 11 ; on Turviti, the 
materials collected by Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., II, 358 seq. 

Verse 20. 
Note 1. See verse 14, note 1. 



MAiVDALA T, HYMN 44. 37 

MAtV/^ALA I, HYMN 44. 
ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 3, VARGA 28-30. 

i. Agni, at the rising of the dawn 1 bring splendid 
wealth, immortal Gatavedas, to the worshipper, (and 
bring hither) to-day the gods awakening with the 
dawn. 

2. For thou art the accepted messenger, the bearer 
of sacrificial food, O Agni, the charioteer of worship. 
United with the two A^vins and with the Dawn 
bestow on us abundance of valiant heroes, and high 
glory. 

3. We choose to-day as our messenger Agni, the 
Vasu, the beloved of many, whose banner is smoke, 
whose ... 2 is light, at the dawning of the day, the 
beautifier of sacrifices 2 . 

4. I magnify at the dawning of the day Agni 
Gatavedas, the best, the youngest guest, the best 
receiver of offerings, welcome to pious people, that 
he may go to the gods 1 . 

5. I shall praise thee, O food on which everything 
lives, immortal one 1 , Agni, the immortal protector, 
O holy god, the best sacrificer, O bearer of sacrificial 
food. 

6. Be kind-spoken to him who praises thee, O 
youngest god, honey-tongued, the best receiver of 
offerings. Lengthening Praska^vas life, that he 
may reach old age, do homage 1 to the host of the 
gods. 

7. The clans kindle thee, the all-possessing Hotrz: 



38 VEDIC HYMNS. 



therefore conduct hither speedily, much-invoked 
Agni, the provident gods — 

8. Savitrz, the Dawn, the two Arvins, Bhaga, 
Agni 1 , at the dawning (of the day), (at the end) of 
night 2 . The Ka/zvas, having pressed Soma, inflame 
thee, the bearer of sacrificial food, O best performer 
of worship. 

9. As thou, O Agni, art the lord of worship, the 
messenger of the clans, conduct hither to-day the 
gods awakening with the dawn, of sun-like aspect, 
that they may drink Soma. 

10. Agni, rich in splendour! thou hast shone 
after the former dawns, visible to all. Thou art the 
guardian in the hamlets, the Purohita ; thou be- 
longest to men at the sacrifices l . 

1 1 . O Agni, let us put thee down (on the altar) as 
Manus did, O god, to be the performer of the sacri- 
fice, the Hotrz, the wise priest, the quick immortal 
messenger. 

12. When thou, the Purohita of the gods, who art 
great like Mitra, goest on thy errand as messenger 
in their midst, then the flames of Agni shine like the 
roaring waves of the Sindhu *. 

13. Agni with thy attentive ears, hear me, together 
with the gods driven (on their chariots) * who accom- 
pany thee. May Mitra and Aryaman sit down on 
the sacrificial grass, they who come to the ceremony 
early in the morning. 

14. May the Maruts, they who give rain, the fire- 
tongued increasers of i?zta, hear my praise. May 
Varu/za, whose laws are firm, drink the Soma, united 
with the two Asvins and with the Dawn ! 



MAJVDALA I, HYMN 44. 39 



NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Praska;zva' Kct/zva, who is the 
reputed author of the whole group of the hymns, I, 44-50. 
It is certain that these hymns really belong to a branch of 
the great Ka^va family, for which the name Praska^va is 
characteristic. Comp. my Prolegomena, p. 260. 

The metre is Barhata Pragatha. Verse 1 = SV. I, 40. 
Verses 1-2 = SV. II, 1 130-1 131. Verse 11 = TB. II, 7, 
12, 6. Verse 13 =SV. I, 50 ; VS. 33, 15 ; TB. II, 7, 12,5. 

This Agni-hymn contains a number of allusions which 
show that it was destined for the morning service. The 
same may be said of the next hymn, 1, 45, and of the whole 
collection of Praska^va hymns, which are addressed ex- 
clusively to the deva^ prataryava/za^, viz. Agni in his 
special character as a matutinal deity, the two A^vins, the 
Dawn, the rising Sun. From the mention of the Soma 
tiroahnya 45, 10 ; 47, 1, and from other circumstances, Ber- 
gaigne has very ingeniously drawn the conclusion that 
in the Praska^va collection an ancient A^vina^astra is 
preserved ; see Recherches sur l'histoire de la Liturgie 
V^dique, 45. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I believe that the text, I may perhaps not say 
requires, but very strongly invites, a slight correction. 
The tradition gives agne vivasvat ushasa^ y£itram radha^ 
amartya. To connect vivasvat with radha^: and to make 
the genitive ushasa^ depend on radha/^ would give an 
expression which is not, strictly speaking, impossible but 
in every case very unusual. Nothing, on the other hand, 
is more frequent than combinations of the locative of 
a noun derived from vi-vas with the genitive ushasa^, ' at 
the rising of the dawn' (ushasa^ vyush/au, vyush/ishu, 
vyushi ; comp. the phrase vasto usra^ treated of by Kaegi, 
Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 48 ; vasto^ usra^, Bartholomae, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 185). I think that such 



4-0 VEDIC HYMNS. 



a phrase should be restored in our verse, and propose to 
read agne vivasvan ushasa^, &c. The word vivasvan occurs 
in VIII, 102, 22. agnfm fdhe vivasvabhi^. The expression 
used here would thus be similar to that of III, 15, 2. tvam 
na^ asya^ ushasa^ vyush/au . . . bodhi gopa^ ; comp. IV, 
1, 5, &c. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning of bha^-r^ika is quite uncertain. 
The accent would well agree with the explanation of the 
word as a possessive compound ; dhumaketum bha^-rz^ikam 
would then be exactly parallel : whose banner is smoke, 
whose rigika. is light. We have then go-rz^*ika as an 
epithet of Soma, 'he whose rig-ika. the cows are/ i.e. 
' whose rig\kdi is milk/ and avi^-r^-ika as an epithet of 
Dadhikravan (' he whose rig-ika is visible '). All this taken 
together is clearly insufficient for giving a result, and there 
is scarcely a better prospect for etymological guesses. 
Bergaigne's (Rel. Ved., I, 206) translation of rigik.3. by 
' fleche ' would do for bha^-r^ika, but it is not very 
tempting in the cases of go-ngika and avi^-ngika. Roth 
(Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges. 48, 118) translates 'licht- 
glanzend.' 

Note 2. Pischel's explanation of adhvara^ri (Vedische 
Studien, I, $3, ' Zum Opfer kommend ') does not seem con- 
vincing to me. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Ludwig's translation 'dasz er die gotter her- 
bringe ' is not exact. As to the real meaning of our 
passage, comp. VII, 9, 5. agne yahi dutyam . . . devan affia, 
' Agni, go as a messenger ... to the gods/ 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Boehtlingk-Roth propose to read amrztabho- 
^"ana. I think the traditional text is right. Agni is called 
vi^vasya bhq^ana similarly, as it is said in I, 48, 10 (with 
regard to Ushas), vi^vasya hi pra/zanam ^ivanam tve. 
Amrz'ta may be vocative s. neuter or masculine. Comp. 
Lanman, 339. 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 44. 4 1 



Verse 6. 



Note 1. Benfey (Quantitatsverschiedenheiten, IV, 2, 27) 
and Ludwig take namasya for a first person. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. If the accusative agnfm is right, as it probably 
is, Agni would be invoked to conduct Agni to the sacrifice. 
This is quite a possible idea. Comp. the formula of the 
' devatanam avahanam,' ' agnim agna avaha, somam avaha, 
agnim avaha/ i.e. 'Agni, conduct hither Agni, conduct 
hither Soma, conduct hither Agni/ See Hillebrandt, Das 
Altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 84. 

Note 2. Lanman, 482, takes kshapa^ as an ace. plur. 
I think it is gen. sing., and the accent should be kshapa^. 
Comp. VIII, 19, 31 ; III, 49, 4, and the phrase akto^ 
vyush/au. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Muller translates : ' Thou art the 
guardian in the hamlets, the chief-priest; thou art the 
human chief-priest at the sacrifices/ 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. With the third Pada comp. IX, 50, 1, where it 
is said that the mighty strength of Soma shows itself 
' sindho^ urm6k iva svana^,' i. e. ' like the roar of the 
waves of the Sindhu.' 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. I cannot follow the translation of Dr. Neisser, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 316. 



42 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM0ALA I, HYMN 45. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 3, VARGA 31-32. 

i. Sacrifice here, thou, O Agni, to the Vasus, the 
Rudras, and the Adityas, to the (divine) host that 
receives good sacrifices *, the Ghrzta-sprinkling 
offspring of Manu 2 . 

2. The wise gods, O Agni, are ready to listen 
to the worshippers : conduct them hither, the 
thirty-three, O lord of red horses, thou who lovest 
our praises. 

3. As thou hast heard Priyamedha and Atri 1 , 
O (^cltavedas, as thou hast heard Virupa and 
Angiras, thus hear the invocation of Praska/zva, 
O lord of high laws. 

4. The Mahikerus 1 , the Priyamedhas have 
invoked for their protection the lord of worship, 
Agni with his bright splendour. 

5. O thou to whom GhWta oblations are poured 
out, good (Agni), hear these praises with which the 
sons of Ka^va invoke thee for their protection. 

6. O Agni, whose glory is brightest, beloved 
of many, the people in the clans invoke thee, the 
radiant-haired, to convey the sacrificial food. 

7. The priests have established thee, O Agni, 
in the striving for day 1 , as their Hotrz, the 
ministrant, the greatest acquirer of wealth, with 
attentive ears, the most widely extended 2 . 

8. The wise who have pressed Soma have made 
thee speed hither to the feast (which is offered to 
the gods), bringing great light 1 and sacrificial food, 
O Agni, on behalf of the mortal worshipper. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 45. 43 

9. O strength-made, good (Agni), make the gods 
who come in the morning, the divine host, sit down 
here to-day on our sacrificial grass, O Vasu, to 
drink the Soma. 

10. Sacrifice, O Agni, with joint invocations, and 
bring hither the divine host. This is the Soma, 
O rain-giving gods. Drink (the Soma) which has 
been kept over night \ 

NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Praska/zva. It is evidently 
addressed to Agni in his matutinal character ; comp. the 
note on I, 44. The metre is Anush/ubh. Verse 1 = SV. 
I, 96. Verse 6 = VS. XV, 31 ; TS. IV, 4, 4, 3 ; MS. II, 

*3, 7- 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 5> 33- &kkka. svadhvaram ^anam. 

Note 2. As to the gods being considered here as off- 
spring of Manu, comp. especially X, 53, 6. manu^ bhava 
^•anaya daivyam ^anam, ' become Manu, procreate the 
divine hosts.' See also Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, I, 69. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. This passage is one of those which show that 
the Atris stood in especially friendly connection with the 
Ka^vas. Of the Priyamedhas the same may be said, or 
perhaps we may even go further and consider them as one 
branch of the Ka/zvas. For a fuller discussion of these 
questions I refer to my paper, ' Ueber die Liedverfasser 
des Rig-veda,' Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 
213 seq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Mahikerava^, which I have translated as a proper 
name, may be an adjective belonging to Priyamedha^. 
Possibly it is derived from the root kar, c to praise : ' ' the 



44 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Priyamedhas with mighty hymns/ Comp. Bartholomae, 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 341. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. As go-ish/i means c the striving for cows,' thus 
div-ish/i means * the striving for day/ or possibly c the 
striving for heaven.' Ludwig (III, 383) takes it for ' mor- 
genopfer,' and it is true that most of the passages, in which 
the word occurs, are addressed to matutinal deities. Thus 
our passage belongs to a hymn addressed to the matutinal 
Agni ; I, 48, 9 is addressed to Ushas ; I, 139, 4 ; VII, 74, 
1 ; VIII, 87, 3 to the Ai-vins ; IV, 46, 1 ; 47, 1 to Vayu 
who was invoked in the Praliga-i-astra belonging to the 
Prata^-savana, and who received the Soma offering before 
the other deities. There is, nevertheless, at least one 
passage which shows that Ludwig has gone too far : VIII, 
76, 9. piba it indra marutsakha sutam somam divishrishu, 
' Drink, O Indra, with the Maruts thy friends the Soma 
which has been pressed at the divishris.' The Soma obla- 
tion offered to Indra Marutvat formed part of the second 
(midday) Savaha. 

Note 2 ' Saprathastamam, the most renowned, repandu.' 

M. M. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. IV, 5, 1 . katha dayema agnaye brzhat 
bha^, ' how may we offer great light to Agni ? ' — which 
seems to mean, ' how may we make Agni brilliant ? ' Thus 
in our passage the meaning seems to be : the priests kindle 
Agni and perform oblations. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. The tira^-ahnya Soma, which was kept from 
one day to the next day (not, as Ludwig translates, ' der 
von vorgestern '), was offered to the A^vins at the Atiratra 
sacrifice. Comp. Rig-veda I, 47, 1 ; III, 58, 7 ; VIII, 35, 
19 ; Katyayana Srautasutra XII, 6, 10 ; XXIV, 3, 42. 
There the commentary says, a^vina^astrakayagasamban- 
dhina^ £amasastha^ soma^ purvadinanishpannatvat tiro- 
hnya ity u^yante. 



MAiTOALA I, HYMN 58. 45 

MAATZ7ALA I, HYMN 58. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 23-24. 

i. The strength-begotten immortal never grows 
tired 1 , when he, the Hotri, has become the 
messenger of Vivasvat 2 . He passes through the 
air on the best paths. In the divine world he 
invites (the gods) with the sacrificial food. 

2. Seizing his own food the undecaying, greedy 
(Agni) stands on the brushwood wishing to drink. 
When he has been sprinkled (with ghee), he shines 
like a racer with his back 1 . Thundering he has 
roared like the ridge of heaven. 

3. As soon as x the Rudras, the Vasus have made 
him their Purohita, the immortal sitting down as 
Hotrz, the conqueror of wealth, pressing forward 
like a chariot among the clans, among the Ayus 2 , 
the god in due course discloses desirable boons. 

4. Stirred by the wind he spreads among the 
brushwood lightly 1 (driven forward) by the sacrificial 
ladles, with his sickle 2 , loudly roaring. When 
thou, O Agni, thirstily rushest on the wooden 
sticks like a bull 3 , thy course, O never-aging god 
with fiery waves, becomes black 4 . 

5. He who has fiery jaws, stirred by the wind, 
blazes down on the forest 1 as a strong bull (rushes) 
on the herd. When he proceeds 2 with his stream 
of light to the imperishable atmosphere, then what 
is moveable and immoveable (and) the winged (birds) 
are afraid. 

6. The Bhrzgus have placed thee among men, 
who art beautiful like a treasure, who art easy to 



46 VEDIC HYMNS. 



invoke for people ; thee the HotW, O Agni, the 
excellent guest, a delightful friend like Mitra to the 
divine race ! 

7. I worship with good cheer Agni the steward 1 
of all treasures, whom the seven ladles 2 (of the 
priests), the worshippers choose as the Hotrz, the 
best sacrificer at the rites, and I pray for treasure 3 . 

8. Son of strength, great like Mitra, grant to-day 
flawless protection to us who magnify thee. Agni ! 
guard from distress with strongholds of iron him 
who praises thee, O offspring of vigour ! 

9. Be a shelter to him who praises thee, O 
resplendent one ; be protection, generous giver, to 
the generous. Agni ! guard him who praises thee 
from distress. May he who gives wealth for our 
prayer, come quickly in the morning 1 . 



NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Nodhas Gautama, who is 
considered as the Rishi of the whole collection, I, 58-64. 
This tradition is based on, and confirmed by, several 
passages of the text: I, 6x, 14; 62, 13 ; 64, 1. 

The metre is Gagati verses 1-5, TrishAibh verses 6-9. 
None of the verses of this hymn occurs in the other 
Sa^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I believe that Professor Aufrecht (Kuhn's Zeit- 
schrift, XXV, 435) is right in reading nu £it sahak-gsi/i 
amrfaa/i mi tandate. Comp. as to nu £it mi, I, 120, 2 ; 
VI, 37, 3 ; VII, 22, 8. Agni is frequently called atandra^ 
duta^ or similarly. Possibly we might read, instead of mi 
tandate, ni tandate, though parallel passages for the com- 
bination of this root with ni are not known. — Prof. Max 



MAiNTDALA I, HYMN 58. 47 

Miiller's opinion is different. He writes: We say, der 
Funke schlagt oder fangt. Why should not the Hindu 
have said that Agni strikes out. That would be vi tundate, 
Agni schlagt aus im Augenblick. But even ni tundate 
may have been used in the sense of the spark striking 
down on the tinder — the atasas, mentioned in verse 2 — 
which he ignites. I should translate : ' The strength- 
begotten immortal strikes down or breaks forth (vi) 
quickly, whenever the Hotrz (Agni) becomes the messenger 
of the sacrificer (?).' 

Note 2. I cannot follow Aufrecht in his translation 
( zum boten des opfernden. , Comp. on Agni as the 
messenger of Vivasvat, Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, I, 87 ; 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 122, 275. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Literally, his back shines like a racer. On this 
kind of comparison, see Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, 86 ; 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 107. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Kra^a : comp. von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, Ahura 
Mazda und die Asuras, p. 36 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, 

I,7o. 

Note 2. Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, I, 59 seq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On w/tha, see Geldner, Vedische Studien, 1, 116 ; 
Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIX, 148 seq. 

Note 2. The meaning is : with his flames which are sharp 
like a sickle. Sr/ni is written here as a paroxytonon ; 
in several other passages it is an oxytonon. Such differ- 
ences are not quite rare, and there is no reason for taking 
on this account srinyk as an instr. plur. fern, of the adjective 
sr/zzya, ' mit verkiirzter Endung ' (Geldner, loc. cit). ' His 
sickle is the sharp edge of Agni. 5 M. M. — On ^uhubhi^, 
comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 1x1. 



48 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 3. As to vmhayase with the accusative, comp. 
Gaedicke, 74. RV. X, 44, 4. xxrg&h skambham . . . vri- 
shayase. 

Note 4. With the last Pada comp. IV, 7, 9. krishn&m te 
ema rii.yata/z pura^ bhsik 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. That is, among the fuel. 

Note 2. I think that we have here probably — (though, of 
course, this explanation can be avoided) — an anacoluthon. 
The poet began with the nominative (abhivra^an), and then 
he changed the construction and went on as if he had 
begun with the ablative, taking sthatu^ ^aratham (comp. 
Lanman, 422) as the subject instead of Agni. — Patatrfea/z 
seems to be nom. pi. ; comp. I, 94, 11 (see below). 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The translation of arati is only approximative 
and conjectural. 

Note 2. Comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 113. 

Note 3. Comp. Ill, 54, 3. saparyami prayasa yami 
ratnam. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The last Pada is the standing conclusion of the 
Nodhas hymns. 



MAiVtfALA I, HYMN 59. 49 

MAiV7?ALA I, HYMN 59. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 25. 

i. The other Agnis (the other fires) are verily 
thy branches, O Agni. In thee all the immortals 
enjoy themselves 1 . VaLrvanara ! Thou art the 
centre 2 of human settlements ; like a supporting 
column thou holdest men 3 . 

2. The head of heaven, the navel of the earth is 
Agni; he has become the steward 1 of both worlds. 
Thee, a god, the gods have engendered, O Vais- 
vanara, to be a light for the Arya. 

3. As in the sun the rays are firmly fixed, thus in 
Agni VaLrvanara all treasures have been laid down 1 . 
(The treasures) which dwell in the mountains, in 
the herbs, the waters, and among men — of all that 
thou art the king. 

4. As the two great worlds to their son 1 , like 
a Hotrz y like a skilful man, (we bring) praises — 
manifold (praises) to him who is united with the sun, 
to the truly strong one, new (praises) to Vaisvanara, 
the manliest god. 

5. Thy greatness, O G^tavedas, Vaiwanara, has 
exceeded even the great heaven. Thou art the 
king of the human tribes ; thou hast by fighting 
gained wide space for the gods. 

6. Let me now proclaim the greatness of the 
bull whom the Purus worship as the destroyer 
of enemies 1 . Agni Vai^vanara, having slain the 
Dasyu, shook the (aerial) arena and cut down 
.Sambara. 

[46] E 



50 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7. Agni Vaisvanara, extending by his greatness 
over all dominions, who is to be worshipped, the 
bright one, rich in loveliness, is awake (or, is 
praised) among the Bharadvcyfas, in the homestead 
of Puru/zitha .Satavaneya, with his hundredfold 
blessings. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi as in I, 58. Metre, Trish/ubh. None 
of the verses of this hymn occurs in the other Sa^hit&s. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 11, 1. na rite tvat amr/ta/z maday- 
ante, ' the immortals do not enjoy themselves without thee/ 

Note 2. Literally, ' the navel.' Comp. Muir, V, 214. 

Note 3. Comp. IV, 5, 1 (see below), lipa stabhayat 
upamit na r6dha>£. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. the remark on I, 58, 7 (note 1). 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I cannot follow Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der 
D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 116), who explains 
dadhire as a third person sing, of dhrt. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The incompleteness both of the construction 
and of the metre shows that the text of the first Pada is 
corrupt. I doubt whether it ever will be possible to restore 
the correct reading with full certainty, but I shall be glad 
if others succeed better than I did — and I may add, better 
than Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 117 seq.) seems to me to have succeeded — in cor- 
recting and in interpreting the text. I think that after sunave 



MANDALA I, HYMN 59. 5 I 

rodasi clearly one syllable is wanted to complete the Pada : 
possibly we should read therefore sunave rodasyo^ (comp. 
verse 3, Pada 2, arati^ rodasyo^, which words form the end 
of the Pada). Agni, as is well known, is the son of the 
two worlds, the sunu/z rodasyo^. In the beginning of the 
Pada brzliati must either refer to the two worlds : in this 
case we have to read brzhatyoA (instead of br zhati iva) ; 
or brzhati may refer, as this adjective frequently does, to 
the gira^, and we shall possibly have to read brihsXik vak 
(as to va^, comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 206). 
But of course all these are mere guesses. In every case 
the verb on which the accusative gira^ depends (* we 
bring,' or something like that) must be supplied. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Or, as the killer of Vrz'tra. See H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 135, note 2. 



E 2 



52 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 60. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 26. 

i. M&tamvan brought (Agni) to Bhrzgu as a gift 
precious like wealth, of double birth 1 , the carrier, the 
famous, the beacon of the sacrifice 2 , the ready and 
immediately successful messenger. 

2. Both follow his command, the Usigs 1 offering 
sacrificial food, and the mortals. The Hotrt (Agni) 
has sat down before daybreak among the clans, the 
lord of the clans, whose leave should be asked, the 
performer of worship. 

3. May our new, beautiful praise, born 1 from our 
heart, reach him the honey-tongued (Agni), whom 
the human priests in our settlement 2 , the Ayus, 
offering enjoyment have engendered. 

4. The Usig\ the purifier, the Vasu has been 
established among men, the best Hotrz among the 
clans, the domestic 2 master of the house in the 
house : Agni has become the treasure-lord of 
treasures. 

5. Thus we, the Gotamas, praise thee, O Agni, 
the lord of treasures, with our (pious) thoughts, 
rubbing thee as (they rub down) a swift racer that 
wins the prize. May he who gives wealth for our 
prayer, come quickly in the morning \ 

NOTES. 

Rishi and metre are the same. No verse occurs in the 
other Sa/^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The celestial and the terrestrial birth of Agni. 
Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., II, 53. 



MAiTOALA I, HYMN 60. 53 

Note 2. The text has viddthasya. Comp. I, 31, 6, 
note 2. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On usig ('the willing one'), as denoting the 
mythical priests who have first established Agni and have 
sacrificed as the first, comp. Bergaigne, I, 57 seq. The 
ubhay&sa^ seem to be these mythical ancestors and the 
actual sacrificers. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I propose to read ^ayamana. Comp. I, 171, 2. 
stomal . . . hrzda tash/a^ ; II, 3$, 2. hridih a sutash/am 
mantram; VIII, 43, 2. agne ^anami sushAitim ; V, 42, 13. 
giram . . . ^ayamanam, &c. — Comp. Lanman, 356. 

Note 2. On the meaning of vr^-ana, see Max Miiller, 
vol. xxxii, pp. xx, 208, 304 ; Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 
139 seq., with my remarks, Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 
1890, 410 seq.; Ludwig, Ueber Methode bei Interpretation 
des i?zg-veda, 27 seq. ; Colinet, Les Principes de l'Ex^gese 
Vedique d'apr£s MM. Pischel et Geldner, 28 seq.; von 
Bradke, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 500 ; Bechtel, Nachrichten der Gottinger Gesell- 
schaft der Wiss., 1894, 392 seq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See verse 2, note 1. 

Note 2. Bartholomae's theory (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XV, 194) that the stem damunas has been developed out of 
the phrase damu na^, ' in our house/ does not carry 
conviction. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See I, 58, 9, note 1. 



54 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM0ALA I, HYMN 65. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 9. 

i \ Thee who hidest thyself in secret like a thief 
with an animal 2 (which he has stolen) — who hadst 
harnessed 3 adoration and carriedst adoration — 

2. The wise unanimously followed by thy foot- 
marks \ All (gods) deserving worship (reverentially) 
sat down near thee. 

3. The gods followed the laws of 7?zta. There 
was an encompassing as the heaven (encompasses) 
the earth *. 

4. In the lap, in the womb of jRtta, the waters 
nourish the fine child with praise, him who is well 
born. 

5. Like good fortune, like a broad abode, like the 
fertile hill \ like the refreshing stream, 

6. Like a racer urged forward in the race, like the 
rapids of the Sindhu 2 — who can hold him back ? 

7. (He is) the kinsman of the rivers, as a brother 
of his sisters. He eats the forests as a king (eats, 
i. e. takes the wealth of) the rich l . 

8. When he has spread through the forests, 
driven by the wind, Agni shears the hair of the 
earth. 

9. Sitting in the waters he hisses like a swan. 
(He is) most famous by his power of mind, he who 
belongs to the clans, awakening at dawn — 

10. A performer of worship like Soma, the god 
born from i?zta, like a young (?)* beast, far-extending, 
far-shining. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 65. 55 



NOTES. 

The authorship of the whole collection, I, 65-73, ls 
ascribed to Para^ara vSaktya. These hymns are addressed 
exclusively to Agni. The greater part of them (65-70) is 
composed in the Vira^* metre; comp. on this metre my 
Prolegomena. 95 seq. I have given there my reasons for 
considering that each verse consists of twenty, not of forty 
syllables. 

This section ascribed to Parlsara has been treated of by 
Bollensen, Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XXII, 
569 seq. No verse of these hymns composed in the metre 
Dvipada Vira^* (I, 65-70) occurs in the other Sa^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Professor Max Miiller proposes the following 
translation for verses 1 and % : The wise (gods) together 
followed thee (Agni) when in hiding, by means of footsteps, 
as one follows a thief by the animal ; they followed thee 
who accepts and carries adoration (to the gods). All the 
worshipful gods sat down (reverentially) near thee. 

Note 2. There is no reason for reading with Bartholomae 
(Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, 48) 
pa^van (gen. plur.) na tayiim. 

Note 3. Ludwig proposes yuvanam, which is quite un- 
necessary. — See also Gaedicke, 173. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. We have here the well-known myth of the 
hidden Agni discovered by the gods. The 'wise ones,' 
(dhira^) are no doubt the searching gods, the same who are 
called ya^*atra^ in the last Pada, and -who are expressly 
designated as devaVz in verse 3. Comp. Bergaigne, I, no. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Regarding the construction, see Gaedicke, 192. — 
Professor Max Muller's opinion on this phrase differs from 



56 VEDIC HYMNS. 



mine. He writes : 'I should prefer parish/i. But parishri 
seems to mean a running about, reconnoitring, searching. 
"There was searching on earth as in heaven," lit. earth, 
like heaven, was reconnoitring-ground.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 50, 2. glrik na bhii^ma. I believe 
that Boehtlingk-Roth, Bollensen, and Grassmann are right 
in correcting our passage accordingly; ra/zva, przthvf, 
jambhu follow the gender of the corresponding substantives, 
and the same may be expected here. Comp. Lanman, 530. 
The meaning is that Agni yields nourishment to all beings 
as a mountain fertilises the country by the waters which 
come down from it ; comp. VIII, 49, 2. gire^ iva pra x&s&k 
a,sya pinvire datra/zi purubhqg*asa^. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Regarding the construction, comp. Gaedicke, 
252 seq. ; Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, 95. Joh. Schmidt 
(Die Pluralbildungen der indogerm. Neutra, 305) and Lud- 
wig (V, 524) are wrong in taking kshoda/* as a locative or 
as an instrumental respectively. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. Pischel-Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 
p. xvi. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Can slsvk be the nominative of a stem s\svaxi 
which stands by the side of .sim as r/bhvan of rzbhii? 
Prof. Max Miiller proposes : ' Large like a cow with young, 
like a pregnant cow.' 



MANDALA I, HYMN 66. 57 

MAJVZ7ALA I, HYMN 66. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 10. 

i. Like unto excellent wealth, like unto the shine 
of the sun, like unto living breath, like unto one's 
own * son — 

2. Like unto a quick takvan 1 he (Agni) holds the 
wood, like milk, like a milch cow 2 , bright and 
shining. 

3. He holds safety, pleasant like a homestead, 
like ripe barley, a conqueror of men, 

4. Like a 7?zshi uttering (sacred) shouts, praised 
among the clans ; like a well-cared-for race-horse 1 9 
Agni bestows vigour. 

5. He to whose flame men do not grow accus- 
tomed \ who is like one's own mind 2 , like a wife on 
a couch, enough for all (happiness). 

6. When the bright (Agni) has shone forth, he is 
like a white (horse [P]) 1 among people, like a chariot 
with golden ornaments, impetuous in fights. 

7. Like an army which is sent forward he shows 
his vehemence, like an archers shaft with sharp 
point. 

8. He who is born is one twin; he who will be 
born 1 is the other twin — the lover of maidens, the 
husband of wives 2 . 

9 \ As cows go to their stalls, all that moves and 
we, for the sake of a dwelling, reach him who has 
been kindled. 

10. Like the flood of the Sindhu 1 he has driven 
forward the downwards-flowing (waters) 2 . The cows 
lowed at the sight of the sun 3 . 



58 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 166, %\ 185, 2; X, 39, 14. The 
second passage (nityam na sumim pitro^ upasthe dyava 
rakshatam przthivi na^ abhvat) would be sufficient to show 
that we cannot translate { wie ein uberlebender sohn' 
(Ludwig). 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. We do not know what animal the takvan is. 
Comp. I, 134, 5 with M. M.'s note. 
Note 2. See Bergaigne, Mel. Renier, 101 ; Gaedicke, 

*53- 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 101 , 7. primta a^van hitam £*ayatha. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 4, 3. durokam agni^ ayave susoka. 

Note 2. Prof. Max Muller believes that kratu here 
means, ' like kartrz, a sacrifices so that kratu^ na nityaA 
sounds like sunu^ na nitya^, one's own sacrificing son. 
But all this is very obscure/ 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The second Pada is translated by Grassmann: 
'wie Licht in Hausern;' by Ludwig: * fast weiss, bei den 
menschenstammen.' I think that there can be no doubt 
that the words svetak na contain a comparison like all the 
other comparisons of which these hymns are full ; this 
comparison is unduly effaced in Lud wig's translation. Nor 
is Grassmann right in translating svct&k bei 'Licht;' the 
word is an adjective meaning 'white' and nothing else. 
We must supply here, as in many passages, a substantive, 
and I do not see any reason why this should not be that 



MANDALA I, HYMN 66. 59 

substantive with which .yveta is most frequently combined 
in the Rig-veda, namely a^va ; comp. I, 116, 6; 118, 9 
[119, 10] ; VII, 77> 3 ; x > 39> IO - I n V, 1, 4 it is said of 
Agni : jveta^ va^f ^dyate agre ahndm, c the white racer is 
born in the beginning of the days/ 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The traditional text is yama^ ha g&tak yama/£ 
^•anitvam. Ludwig translates 'bewaltiger des gebornen, 
bewaltiger auch des, was erst geboren wird.' It will 
scarcely be necessary to state the reasons which make 
against this translation. Yama^ . . . yama/; evidently 
means : ' the one twin . . . the other twin.' Now if we 
leave the text unchanged, we cannot but translate : c the 
one twin is he who has been born, the other twin is that 
which will be born' — which sounds very strange. In I, 
89, 10 we have aditi^ ^atam aditi^ ^anitvam ; IV, 18, 4. 
anta^ateshu uta ye^anitva^ ; X, 45, 10. lit^atena bhinadat 
lit ^anitvai^. In all these cases gata. and £*anitva stand 
parallel ; there is no such difference as in our passage, 
according to the traditional text, between him (masc.) who 
is . . . and that (neuter) which will be . . . Thus I propose 
to read ^anitva/^, of which conjecture Ludwig has thought 
also (see his note, IV, 259) : that present Agni who has 
been born, and that future Agni who will be born, are 
twins. — Prof. Max Muller has discussed this passage in his 
Science of Language, II, 630 seqq. He interprets the twin 
who has been born as Agni representing the morning ; 
the twin who will be born as the evening. 

Note 2. The maidens very probably are the dawns (comp. 
Prof. Max Miiller's discussion quoted in the last note). Are 
the wives the sacrificial ladles which approach Agni, or the 
offerings of ghee, or the prayers ? See Bergaigne, Rel. 
Vedique, II, 9 seqq. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. This verse is very obscure, and I am quite aware 
of the merely tentative character of the translation which 



6o VEDIC HYMNS. 



I propose. I leave vak untranslated (comp. Delbruck, 
Altindische Syntax, 206), which must be done in most of 
the numerous verses beginning with the words tarn va/z. 
I then read £aratM (comp. 68, 1 ; 70, 3. 7). Vasatya seems 
to be either a dative similar to the newly-discovered datives 
in -k of a-stems, or we possibly should read vasatyai 
(vasatya in the Sa^hita-pa/^a). — Prof. Max Miiller thinks 
of a correction £arama^ and would translate : c To him 
(whom you know — va^) when lighted we go for our dwelling, 
as the cows reach their home.' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. above, 65, 6. 

Note 2. Or the downwards-streaming libations of Ghrzta 
and the like ? Comp. below, I, 72, 10 with note 4. 
Note 3. Comp. below, 69, 10. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 6 J. 6 1 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 67. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 11. 

i . Victorious x in the forests, a friend among men, 
he demands obedience like a king, the undecaying 
one 2 . 

2. Like good peace, like fortunate wisdom, may- 
he (Agni) be a kind Hotrz, a carrier of offerings. 

3. Having taken in his hand all manly powers, 
he has made the gods fear, when sitting down in his 
hiding-place. 

4. There the thoughtful men find him, when they 
have recited the spells which they had fashioned in 
their heart. 

5. As the goat 1 (supports) the earth 2 , thus he 
supports the earth 2 ; he upholds the sky by his 
efficacious spells. 

6. Protect the dear 1 footsteps of the cattle 2 . 
O Agni, thou who hast a full life, thou hast gone 
from covert to covert 3 . 

7. He who has seen him the hidden one, he who 
has got near to the stream of 7?zta ] — 

8. They who get him off, doing service to Utta, 
to him x he then indicates riches. 

9. He who grows up with might within the 
plants, and within the children 1 , and within the 
sprouting grass 2 — 

10. The splendour [?] in the home of the waters 1 , 
the full-lived. The sages made him as if building 
a seat. 



62 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. * Gayuk : aus gyayuk, wie der compar. ^yayan 
gyeshthdik zeigt,' Ludwig. But what shows that ^yayan is 
the comparative of gayuk and that the utterly impossible 
change of gy into g is possible ? Ludwig's translation 
' uberwindend ' is right ; comp. I, 119, 3. 

Note 2. I propose to read a^rya^. Prof. Max Miiller 
conjectures — as Roth (Pet. Diet.) has done — that mish/i 
may mean ' obedient, servant ;' he translates : ' He desires 
a servant (or worshipper) who is not aged/ 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On the mythical goat whose office it is to 
support the worlds, comp. I, 164, 6; VIII, 41, 10; X, 
82, 6 ; Bergaigne, III, 21 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 73. 

Note 2. For ' earth ' the text has two different words, 
ksham and pr/thivim. Prof. Max Miiller conjectures dyam 
for ksham : ' He, Agni, supports the earth, as the buck 
the sky. J 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Literally, * the dear footsteps ; ' but the meaning 
of priya may be compared to that of the Homeric $iAos, 
his own. 

Note 2. One could be tempted to refer the word pa.ru 
to Agni, whose footsteps (padani) the ' wise ones ' follow 
(6^, 2), and whom they find out in his hiding. Thus we 
could translate, ' Look at the dear footsteps of the beast.' 
But the comparison of 70, 6 makes it more probable that 
the imperative ni pahi is addressed to Agni. I believe 
therefore that Grassmann is right in translating ' Die lieben 
Statten der Heerden schiitze/ Ludwig's translation is 



MAJVDALA I, HYMN 67. 63 

similar to this. Prof. Max Miiller translates : ' Observe 
the footsteps of the animal (the stolen animal of the thief 
Agni).' 

Note 3. With guha giiham comp. 1,53, 7- yudha yiidham, 
pura' piiram. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Dhardm rztasya: comp. V, 12, %. ritasya dhara^ 
anu trzndhi purvi7z, 'open the many streams of Rita.; 9 . 
VII, 43, 4. rztasya dhara^ sudiigha^ duh&na^, ' milking the 
streams of Rita, flowing with plenty.' The stream of Rita. 
seems to mean the stream of blessings (such as rain, ghee, 
&c.) which flows to mankind according to the eternal laws 
of Rtta. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The poet passes over from the plural to the 
singular. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Bollensen's conjecture pra^asu (instead of pra^a^ 
uta) seems very probable to me. Prof, von Roth (Ueber 
gewisse Kurzungen des Wortendes, p. 2) takes a different 
view. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 95, 10 (see below) ; VII, 9, 3. apam 
garbha^ prasva/^ a vive^a, c the son of the waters has entered 
upon the sprouting grass/ 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. ' Why not £itL& apam dame, that is, the (burning) 
pile in the home of the waters.' M. M. 



64 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ>ALA I, HYMN 68. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 12. 

i. Cooking 1 (the oblations?) the quick one has 
approached the sky. He has revealed the nights 
and what stands and moves 2 — 

2. When he the god, alone of all these gods 1 
encompassed (the others) by his greatness. 

3. When thou, O god, hadst been born living 
from the dry (wood), then all (gods and men ?) were 
pleased with thy wisdom. 

4. They all obtained the name of divinity, of 
immortality 1 9 serving the Rita, in due way. 

5. The instigations of i?zta, the thought of ./?zta 1 : 
they all performed the works of [?] the full-lived 
one 2 . 

6. Bestow wealth, thou who art the knowing one, 
on him who worships thee or who does service to 
thee \ 

7. He who sits down as the Hotri among the 
offspring of Manu : he verily is the master of all 
these riches. 

8. They longed together for the seed in their 
bodies \ and the wise ones were concordant among 
each other in their minds. 

9. They took pleasure in his will, as sons (take 
pleasure) in their fathers (will), the quick ones who 
have listened to his command. 

10. He who is rich in food has opened the gates 
of wealth 1 . The householder (Agni) has adorned 
the sky with stars. 



MA2VZ>ALA I, HYMN 68. 65 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Boehtlingk-Roth are wrong in deriving snnan 
(which should more correctly be written ^ri;/an, comp. my 
Prolegomena, 477) from the root sru They supply an 
object like sokik and translate : * Licht verbreitend hebt er 
sich zum Himmel.' 

Note 2. Lanman, 422. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Bollensen conjectures devanam deva^ (instead 
of deva^ devanam) which seems to be right (comp. below, 
69, 2), though this conjecture is not absolutely necessary 
(see my Prolegomena, 97). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Amr/tam belongs to nama ; comp. V, 57, 5. 
amr/tam nama bhe^ire; X, 123, 4. vidat gandharva^ amr/- 
tani nama. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. With r/tasya dhiti// comp. I, 71, 3 ; IV, 23, 8 ; 
IX, 76, 4; 97, 34; in, 2. — Prof. Max Muller thinks that 
rz'ta. should be taken as a name of Agni : ' for the righteous 
(Agni) are the prayers, for the righteous the devotion.' 

Note 2. Is vLrvayu^ an adverb meaning ' eternally ' ? As 
vi^vayu is an epithet of Agni frequently used in the Rig- 
veda and especially in the Parajara hymns (see 67, 6. 10 ; 
68, 5 ; 73, 4), one feels tempted to read viyvayo// (comp. 
IV, 42, 1. rash /ram kshatnyasya visv&yok). 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. Ill, 59, 2. ya^ te aditya iikshati vratena. 
[46] F 



66 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 8. 

Note 1. Some light is thrown on this obscure verse by 
the hymn, I, 72, a hymn belonging, as our hymn does, to 
the Parai-ara collection. It is shown by the second verse of 
that hymn (see below) that the searching ones, ' amura^/ are 
the gods who seek Agni. It seems probable, consequently, 
that the 'seed' is Agni (comp. I, 164, 35, where Soma is 
said to be vrishna/i a^vasya reta^, ' the seed of the manly 
horse'). Of the same searching gods in I, 72, 5 -the ex- 
pression sa^anana^ is used ; comp. sam Janata in our 
passage. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Raya// must be a genitive ; comp. I, 72, -8. raya/z 
diira/z vi ritagna/i a^anan. Probably the accent should be 
raya/£; comp., however, Lanman, 431. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 69. 67 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 69. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 13. 

i. Bright, flaming, like the lover of the Dawn 1 , 
he has, like the light of the sky, filled the two 
(worlds of Heaven and Earth) which are turned 
towards each other. 

2. As soon as thou wert born thou hast excelled 
by thy power of mind ; being the son of the gods 
thou hast become their father. 

3. (Agni is) a worshipper (of the gods), never 
foolish, (always) discriminating; (he is) like the 
udder of the cows ; (he is) the sweetness of food 1 — 

4. Like a kind friend to men, not to be led 
astray *, sitting in the midst, the lovely one, in the 
house ; 

5. Like a child when born, he is delightful in the 
house ; like a race-horse which is well cared for x , 
he has wandered across the clans 2 . 

6. When I call (to the sacrifice) the clans who 
dwell in the same nest with the heroes, may Agni 
then attain all divine powers 1 . 

7. When thou hast listened to these heroes, no 
one breaks those laws of thine. 

8. That verily is thy wonderful deed that thou 
hast killed 1 , with thy companions, (all foes), that, 
joined by the heroes, thou hast accomplished thy 
works 2 . 

9. Like the lover of the Dawn \ resplendent and 
bright, of familiar form : may he (thus) pay attention 
to this (sacrificer). 

f 2 



68 VEDIC HYMNS. 



10. Carrying (him) they opened by themselves 
the doors (of heaven). They all shouted at the 
aspect of the sun l . 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The lover of the Dawn is here the Sun. See 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 31. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Agni is the sweetness of food (comp. V, 7, 6. 
svadanam pitunam) ; it is not probable that svadma and 
fidha^ should depend on vi^anan, as Ludwig believes. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I adopt Boehtlingk-Roth's conjecture ahurya^. 
Ahurya^ would mean, ' he who is to be led astray.' 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. See above, 66, 4. 
Note 2. ' He has overcome the (hostile) clans.' M. M. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Perhaps devatva is an instrumental, as Ludwig 
takes it. In this case we should have to translate : ' may 
Agni by his divine power attain everything.'— Prof. Max 
Miiller translates this verse : ' When I with my men call 
the clans of the same nest (the gods), Agni will obtain all 
divine honours.' 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The first hemistich of this verse has eleven 
syllables instead of ten and shows the regular Trish/ubh 
type. The same irregularity occurs in 70, 4. 10. As 
I have shown in my Prolegomena, p. 97, this metrical 
irregularity does not necessitate corrections of the text, 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 69. 69 

and the comparison of X, 147, 1 (see next note), where it 
is said ahan yat vrztram . . . vivek apa^, seems even to 
confirm the traditional reading. It cannot be denied, 
however, that the double yat and the use of ahan without 
an object raises some suspicion. In I, 34, 3 ; 186, 4 we 
have sam&ne ahan. Possibly we may read, tat tii te 
damscik ahan samane, 'this wonderful deed of thine has 
been accomplished on one and the same day (with that 
mentioned in verse 7).' I am fully aware of the uncertainty 
of such guesses. The removal of yat has already been 
proposed by Bollensen (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. 
Gesellschaft, XXII, 59a). 

Note 2. Here we may correct the text with greater 
certainty than in the first hemistich, or to speak more 
accurately, we shall have to correct not the traditional 
text itself, but that ancient grammatical commentary on 
the text which has been preserved to us in the Padapa/^a. 
The words viverapa/^si of the Sa^/hit^pa/^a are written in 
the Padapa^a vivek rapa/^si. Now we read IV, 19, 10. 
apa^si . . . narya aviveshi^, ' thou hast performed manly 
works.' In X, 147, 1 we have ahan yat vr/tram naryam 
vive/z apa^: here the adjective narya clearly shows that 
apa^ is a blunder for apaA, and we must translate, ' when 
thou hast killed VWtra and performed thy manly work.' 
This passage shows that in X, 76, 3 also vive/i apa^ should 
be corrected (v. apa^). Thus we have three passages in 
which aviveshU or vivek has the object apa/£, apa//zsi, and 
we may infer with full certainty that in our passage 
viverapawsi does not correspond to a Padapa^a reading 
vive^ rapaMsi but vive/z apa^si. The same may be said 
with regard to VI, 31, 3 (mushaya/^ £akram avive^ rapa#zsi; 
Sa;/zh. avive rapa^si). 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Comp. above, verse 1. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Comp. above, 66, 10. 



70 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 70. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 14. 

i. May we, the poor 3 , succeed in many (pious) 
thoughts 2 . May Agni with his pure splendour 
attain everything — 

2. He who understands the divine laws and the 
birth of the human race. 

3. He who is the child of the waters, the child 
of the trees, the child of that which stands, and the 
child of that which moves. 

4. Even in the rock (they have done homage [?]) 
to him, in his dwelling \ (He is) like a protector [?] 2 
of the clans, the immortal one, he who is of a good 
mind. 

5. For he, Agni, (shows himself as) an earth- 
protecting (lord) of riches 1 to the man who satisfies 
him with well-spoken (prayers). 

6. Protect, O knowing one, these beings, thou 
who knowest the birth of gods and men 1 . 

7. He whom many nights (and dawns), in their 
different forms 1 , may increase, whom that which 
moves 2 and that which stands (increases), the god 
penetrated by Rita — 

8. That Hotrz who has sat down in the sun 1 t 
has been successfully worshipped 2 (by the human 
sacrificers), he who truly accomplishes all his works. 

9. On the cows, on the trees thou hast conferred 
excellence. May all men bring us tribute in the 
sun l . 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 70. 7 1 

10. In many places men have worshipped thee. 
They have brought (thee) to different places 1 as 
sons (divide) the property of an aged father 2 . 

11 1 . (He is) like a greedy man 2 who goes 
straight (to his aim), like a mighty archer, like 
a fearful avenger [?] 3 , impetuous in contests 4 . 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I adopt Bergaigne's opinion on the word an 
(see Religion Vedique, II, 218 seq.). 

Note 2. The Padapa^a has manisha instead of manisha/£. 
See my Prolegomena, 385 ; Lanman, 363. Prof. Max Miiller 
proposes to translate: c May we by wisdom overcome many 
enemies!' He writes : * Is not vanema almost a standing 
formula as applied to enemies ? Let us conquer the enemies. 
The enemies are masculine in VII, 48, 3. vfovan arya^ . . . van- 
van, feminine in VI, 16, 27. vanvanta^ aryah axaXXh. VIII, 
39, 2. visvak axyah axaX\h. X, 133, 3. visvak axatayah axyah. 
IV, 50, 11. ^-a^astam axyah vanusham axatlh (repeated 
VII, 97, 9 ; cf. I, 29, 4).' For my translation I refer to 
II, 5, 7. stomam . . . vanema; II, 11, 12. dhiyam vanema ; 
I, 122, 14. arya^ gfra^ ; X, 148, 3. axyah vd gi'ra^ abhi ar£a 
vidvan. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Or : even in the rock (they have done homage) 
to him, and in the (human) dwelling? I believe we must 
supply a verb on which the dative asmai depends. Ludwig 
proposes to read duro^am : ' within the stone is his 
dwelling.' Comp. II, 1, 1; VI, 48, 5. 

Note 2. I do not understand v\saxx\ na visvah. Ludwig 
translates ' er ist der menschen allgemeiner, unsterblicher 



72 VEDIC HYMNS. 



fiirsorger.' But vuva does not mean ' allgemein,' and 
Ludwig omits na, 'like.' One should expect a phrase 
like visam na vLypati^, which of course is metrically 
impossible. Is it too bold to correct visvak into vispak, 
a word hitherto not found in the texts, but formed 
exactly like stipa, pa^upa, tanupa and others ? — Prof. Max 
Muller takes asmai as dependent on svadhi^ and visvak as 
belonging at the same time to amr/ta^ and to visam. He 
translates : c To him also who dwells in the rock and in the 
house, every immortal like every one among men is well 
disposed.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, jo, 5. sa hi kshapavan abhavat 
raymam. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Most probably we have here not the accusative 
martan but the genitive martam, which was confounded by 
the arrangers of the traditional text with the accusative 
and treated according to the Sandhi rules which govern 
the ending -an. See Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 353 ; 
Bartholomae, Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachge- 
schichte, I, 48. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Lanman (p. 422) takes kshapa^ virupa/i as ac- 
cusatives, and translates, ' Whom through many nights and 
mornings all beings worship.' I believe that they are 
nominatives, and that we should accentuate kshapa^. As 
virupa is a regular epithet of naktoshasa, I think that 
kshapa^ is to be understood as an elliptic plural similar to 
the elliptic duals ushasa or ahani (comp. Delbriick, Alt- 
indische Syntax, 102), and that it means, ' the nights (and 
mornings)/ — Comp. VI, 38,4. vardhan masa^ savidak dyavak 
indram, * May months, years, days increase Indra's great- 
ness.' 

Note 2. Of course ka ratham is a mistake for £aratham, 
as first pointed out by Benfey. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 70. 



Verse 8. 

Note 1. On the locative svar, see Lanman, 488 ; Joh. 
Schmidt in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 306; Bartholomae 
in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 42. Comp. X, 61, 14. sva^ 
na ye trishadhasthe nishedu^. 

Note 2. Comp. X, $$, 2. aradhi hota nishada ya^iyan. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Is it not more probable that tribute was brought 
to Agni (comp. V, 1, 10) than to the human worshippers? 
Possibly we should change sva^ na^ (svar nak of the 
Sa^jhitapa/^a) into svarwaA, a vocative of the stem 
svarnri = svar/zara. The translation would be, ' All men 
have brought tribute to thee, O sun-hero ! ' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 11,4. agnim nara/z vi bharante grzhe- 
grzhe. 

Note 2. Regarding the metre, comp. above, 69, 8, note 1. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. This verse may possibly be a later addition. 
See Bergaigne, Recherches sur THistoire de la Sa^/hita, 
I, 6r. 

Note 2. On gralhnu, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 23 t. 

Note 3. Comp. I, 32, 14. ahe^ yataram. 

Note 4. See above, 66 y 6. 



74 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 71. 
ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 15-16. 

i. The loving (women) have (amorously) excited *■ 
their lover, as wives of the same nest (house) their 
own husband. The sisters have delighted in the 
dark and in the red (goddess) 2 , as the cows in the 
brightly shining dawn. 

2. Our fathers, the Angiras 1 , have broken even 
the strong fortresses by their hymns, the rock by 
their shouting. They have opened to us the path 
of the great heaven; they have obtained day and 
sun and the shine of the dawn 2 . 

3. They founded the i?zta ; they set into motion 
the thought of it 1 . Thus then the widely-spread 
(prayers) 2 of the poor 3 which seek to obtain (wealth), 
which are free from thirst 4 , the active, approach 5 
the tribe of the gods 6 , strengthening them by 
offering them delight. 

4. When Matamvan had produced him by attrition, 
he, the reddish, the noble one, who was brought to 
many places *, has come to every house. Then the 
Bh/Vgu-like 2 has undertaken the messengership 3 
(for the mortal) as for a mightier king, being 
attached to him. 

5. When he had created sap to the great father 
Heaven, the knowing one stealthily approached the 
speckled (cows). The archer fiercely shot an arrow 
at him. The god turned his impetuous pow r er 
against his daughter 1 . 

6. Augment, O Agni, twofold the strength of 



MAN DAL A I, HYMN 7 I. 75 

the man who worships l thee in his house, or offers 
adoration to the loving one 2 day by day. May he 
whom thou incitest be united with riches 3 . 

7. Every nourishment goes towards Agni 1 J as the 
seven young 2 rivers (flow) into the ocean. Our 
strength does not shine from kinsmen 3 . Do thou 
therefore who knowest this, procure among the gods 
kindness for us. 

8 1 . When the sharp splendour 2 reached the lord 
of men to incite him 3 , the bright sperm poured 
down from Heaven (or, from the god Dyaus) 4 , Agni 
produced 5 and furthered the blameless, young, well- 
wishing host 6 . 

9. He who traverses the paths quickly 1 like 
thought, the Sun alone rules over wealth altogether. 
(There are) the two kings Mitra and Vanma with 
graceful hands 2 , who watch over the beloved am- 
brosia 3 in the cows. 

10. Do not forget, O Agni, who art a sage pos- 
sessed of knowledge \ our paternal friendship. Old 
age impairs the appearance (of men) as a cloud 
(covers the sun or the sky). Before this curse 
(attains us), think thou (of us) 2 . 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Trish/ubh. 

Though the hymns 71-73 are not composed in the Vira^* 
metre like the preceding hymns, it is shown by manifold 
evidence that they had the same origin. Verse 8 = VS. 
XXXIII, 11; TS. I, 3, 14, 6; MS. IV, 14, 15. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. Comp. Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 134. 
Note 2. If the text is correct, the ' sisters ' may either 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



be the ten fingers which generate Agni by attrition (III, 29, 
13 ; IV, 6, 8), or the streams of water among which Agni 
grows up, or streams of Ghrz'ta or the like (comp. II, 5, 5 ; 
see below). Why these sisters are said to delight in the 
dark and in the bright goddess, the Night and the Dawn, 
remains doubtful. 

But I think there are reasons which strongly recommend 
a correction of the text. In III, 55, 11 we read sysivi ka. 
. . . arushi ka svasarau, ' the two sisters, the dark one and 
the red one/ Is it not probable that in our passage also 
itisthesisters who are described as dark and red ? The 
dark goddess and the red goddess of course are Night and 
Dawn, and Night and Dawn, as is well known, are sisters 
in Vedic poetry. And furthermore the ' sisters ' are de- 
scribed in our verse as amorously exciting the god Agni : 
for it cannot well be doubted that the svasara^ of the third 
Pada are identical with the usatik of the first : similarly it 
is said in 70, 7 — in a hymn belonging to the same collection 
with our Sukta — that the Nights and Dawns augment 
Agni's greatness ; in other passages Agni is represented as 
beloved by the Dawn, or as suckled by Night and Dawn 
(Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 14. 15). The 'sisters ' then 
are stated in our verse to delight (a^ushran), probably in 
Agni : now we read in II, 2, 2. abhi tva nakti^ ushasa^ 
vava^ire agne vatsam na svasareshu dhenava^, ' The Nights 
and Dawns, Agni, have lowed at thee as the milch-cows in 
their stalls at their calves ; ' comp. Bergaigne, II, 15. Thus 
everything is clear, if we take the usatiA and the svasara/fc 
for the bright and dark goddesses, i. e. for the Dawns and 
Nights. The correction of the text to which this inter- 
pretation leads, is svasara^ .syavi^ arushi^ a^ushran, 'the 
dark and the red sisters have delighted (in Agni). 5 It is 
easy to understand that the corruption of the text was 
occasioned by the simile of the fourth Pada. The words 
ushasam na gava^ seemed to demand a parallel nominative 
and a parallel accusative in the third Pada. The nomina- 
tive was svasara^, but there was no accusative. Thus 
probably arose the reading .syavim arushim. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 7 1. 77 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the Angiras as the fathers of the priestly 
tribes, see H. O., Religion des Veda, 278. 

Note 2. The phrase ushasa/£ ketM occurs several times 
in the Rig-veda. I think that ketum usra^ means exactly 
the same ; it has been shown by Kaegi, Festgruss an 
Boehtlingk, p. 49, and by Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 185, that a genitive sing, usra^ existed. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Ludwig refers asya to the sacrificer, Bollensen to 
Agni, and so does Saya^a. I believe that asya should be 
explained as rztasya ; the phrase rztasya dhiti is frequently 
used, comp. IV, 23, 8 ; IX, 76, 4; 97, 34 ; 111, 2. See also 
Ludwig's note on III, 31, 1 (vol. v, p. 65). — Prof. Max Mliller 
refers rita. to Agni. ' One might translate it by righteous : 
They established the righteous (Agni), they moved his 
mind (made him attend?).' 

Note 2. The substantive (of feminine gender) which is to 
be supplied to didhishva^, atrzshyanti^, &c, seems to me 
to be giraA or the like. Aryak stands frequently together 
with gira/i. — Prof. Max Mliller writes : ' Could not ari be 
a feminine like karshanl and vis; see before, I, 70, 1. We 
should then translate, and then the people emulous, widely 
spread, never flagging [the stones also are called atrz'shita/z 
atrzsh/za^a^, X, 94, 11], and active go towards the gods/ 

Note 3. See above, 70, 1, note 1. 

Note 4. Are the prayers called ' free from thirst ' because 
they are accompanied by libations of Ghrzta, Soma, &c. ? 

Note 5. I believe that devan ^anma depends both on 
akkka. and on vardhayanti^. 

Note 6. Devan, or rather devam, is gtn. plur. ; see above, 
70, 6, with note 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The place in which vibhritaA stands would seem 
to show that it is an epithet of Mataruvan, and so it is 
understood by Ludwig and by Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. I, 54). 



78 VEDIC HYMNS. 



But it is Agni himself, not Matamvan, who is very fre- 
quently mentioned as vibhrzta or the like. As we read 
here, vi'bhrzta^ . . . grzhe-grzhe, it is said in V, n, 4. 
agni'm nara^ vf bharante grih6-grihe, ' the men carry Agni 
hither and thither, to every house;' comp. I, 70, 10; III, 
55,4 ; X, 1, 2 ; 45, 2 ; 80, 4. Thus I believe the poet means 
to say that Matamvan first kindled Agni, in one place of 
course, and that Agni then was brought to many places, to 
all human dwellings. I think that the text indeed can be 
understood in this way, if we suppose that the author, for 
the sake of the metre, allowed himself a hyperbaton or 
synchysis. 

We must not omit to mention that the first Pada of I, 
148, 1 is nearly identical with our passage : mathtt yat im 
vishifa^ matarfova. This Pada is deficient by one syllable. 
If we were to read vi'bhrzta^, as in our passage, this would 
lead indeed to the conclusion that there is no hyperbaton 
in our verse — for the verse, 1, 148, 1, could not be explained 
in that way — but that vibhr/ta/z refers to MatarLsvan. 
I think, however, that it is more than doubtful that the 
verse, I, 148, 1, really ought to be corrected in this way ; 
whatever may have been the original form of that verse, it 
is quite possible, and even probable, that it differed from 
our passage just in that one word. 

"Note 2. The exact meaning of Bhr/gava;/a is doubtful. 
It is, of course, derived from Bhr/gu as vasavana, takavana, 
from vasu, taku. Agni is called Bhr/gava^a also in IV, 7, 
4. Comp. Bergaigne, I, 54. 

Note 3. With the words a dutyam vivaya comp. IV, 9, 6. 
veshi it u asya dutyam. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. This difficult verse evidently treats of the incest 
which the father Dyaus has committed with his daughter. 
Compare on this subject Bergaigne, Rel. Ved. II, 109 seq. 
Agni seems to be represented here as stimulating the desire 
of the father ; the ' sap ' (rasa) probably is the sperm, comp. 
I, 105, 2- 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 7 1. 79 

In the second Pada, Agni, having done, as it seems, some 
mischief, goes away to the ' speckled cows.' We cannot 
say who these speckled cows were ; they evidently are 
identical with those mentioned in another passage treating 
of the same story, X, 61, 8. — Bergaigne paraphrases the 
second Pada of our verse, wrongly in my opinion, ' Agni 
sort furtivement de cette fille, de cette vache, przVam.' 

The archer who shoots at Agni (third Pada) is not better 
known to us than the speckled cows. Bergaigne's opinion, 
' que cet archer n'est autre que le pere lui-meme,' is not 
very convincing. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The traditional reading vibhati (' he who shines 
for thee in his house ') gives no satisfactory sense. I pro- 
pose to read vidhati. Cf. I, 120, i. katha vidhati apra^eta^. 

Note 2. I have some doubts as to the correctness of 
usatak (Sa^hitapa//^a,u^ato) anu dyun. LLrat, of course, is 
an epithet not of the days, but of Agni. But then we 
expect the dative. Correcting the text (orate) is all the 
easier, because before a following vowel the dative and the 
genitive were, in the original pronunciation, identical (urata* 
anu ; see my Prolegomena, 447 sqq.) ; the spellings of the 
Sa^hitapa/y&a, usato anu and orate anu, belong to the inven- 
tions of Vedic grammarians. 

Note 3. Literally, May he whom thou incitest drive on 
the same chariot with riches. Comp. such expressions as 
rathi^ xkykh and the like. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. IV, 44, 2. yuv6^ vapu/£ abhf pr/ksha^ 
sa^ante ; VII, 90, 5. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 26, 10, note 1. 

Note 3. Ludwig : nicht unter unsern freunden ward 
auszfiindig gemacht die kraftspeise. Grassmann : nicht bei 
Verwandten ward uns Nahrung sichtbar. Wilson : Our 
food is not partaken of by our kinsmen. Griffith : Not by 
our brethren was our food discovered. — Ludwig and Grass- 
mann translate as if the text had ^amishu. What the 



80 VEDIC HYMNS. 



instrumental means is shown, I believe, for instance, by 
IV, 14, 2. vi sQrya/i rasmibhik ^ekitana^, ' the sun shining 
with his rays/ Thus in our passage the poet seems to me 
to say, ' We have no strong kinsmen who might add lustre 
to our strength. Agni, procure thou strength to us.' 
Comp. X, 23, 7. vidma hi te pramatim deva ^amivat, ' for 
we know, O god, thy providing care like that of a kinsman/ 
■ — Prof. Max Miiller proposes the translation : ' Our wealth 
is not known by our kinsmen, i.e. we cannot support them 
as we ought.' 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The poet returns here to the myth of which he 
had spoken in verse 5. Should the order of the verses be 
changed ? — On our verse, compare Geldner, Ved. Studien, 

n, 34- 

Note 2. Te^as seems to be here a synonym of retas, as 
in the later language. 

Note 3. Is the lord of men Agni ? See the third Pada. — 
Ishe I consider, with Geldner, as an infinitive. 

Note 4. My translation rests on the supposition that 
dyau^ is to be corrected into dyo^ ; thus the ablative is 
obtained, of which the word abhike is usually accompanied 
(comp. Lanman, 433 ; Collitz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, X, 
15). If we leave the reading dyaii^, this nominative will 
be the subject of the verb ana t. Then te^a/z must be accu- 
sative dependent on anaz 1 , and we can scarcely avoid 
making nrzpatim to depend on the infinitive ishe. This 
is the way which Geldner has followed in interpreting 
this passage. But I cannot consider this separation of 
nrzpatim from the verb ana/ very probable. 

Note 5. The exact meaning of ^anayat seems to be here, 
' he caused them to be born. 5 Comp. 5atapatha Brahma/za 
I, 7,4,4. yatha tad deva reta/z pra^anayan (comp. Aitareya 
Brahma/za III, 34 ; see also Rig-veda X, 61, 7). 

Note 6. This may be the host of the seven i^z'shis. 
Comp. Ill, 31, 1-5 ; IV, 1, 12 seq. (?). Or the Maruts are 
alluded to (comp. below, 72, 4), though that seems to me 
less probable. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 7 1. 



Verse 9. 

Note 1. Literally, in one day. But sadya/z has already 
in the Rig-veda the secondary meaning * immediately, 
quickly.' 

Note 2. Comp. Ill, 56, 7. rag-ana mitra-varu^a supam. 

Note 3. See below, 72, 6. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 18, 3: there the words abhi vlduA 
kavi/z san are identical with our text. 

Note 2. Of the second hemistich Prof. Collitz has treated 
in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, X, 15, note. He paraphrases 
the meaning in the following way : ' Der Sinn des ganzen 
Verses ist : unsere Freundschaft mit dir, Agni, stammt aus 
alter Zeit. Nun sagt man zwar " im Alter andert sich das 
Aussehn wie das der Wolke." Aber stehe du uns bei vor 
diesem Fluche.' I do not believe that this interpretation, 
though very ingenious, gives the real meaning of the Vedic 
poet.— Comp. I, 179, 1. min&'ti .m'yam ^arimS tanun&m. 



[46] 



82 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 72. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 17-18. 

i. He has brought down (i.e. surpassed) the 
wisdom of many a worshipper 1 , he who holds in his 
hand all manly power. Agni has become the lord 
of treasures, he who brought together all (powers 
of) immortality. 

2 1 . All the clever immortals when seeking did not 
find the calf though sojourning round about us. 
The attentive (gods), wearying themselves, follow- 
ing his footsteps 2 , stood at the highest, beautiful 3 
standing-place of Agni. 

3. When the bright ones 1 had done service 2 to 
thee, the bright one, Agni, with Ghrzta through 
three autumns, they assumed worshipful names ; 
the well-born shaped their own bodies. 

4. Acquiring (or, exploring ?) for themselves the 
two great worlds, the worshipful ones brought for- 
ward their Rudra-like powers 1 . The mortal, when 
(beings) were in discord 2 , perceived and found out 
Agni standing in the highest place. 

5. Being like-minded they 1 reverentially ap- 
proached him on their knees. Together with their 
wives they venerated the venerable one 2 . Aban- 
doning their bodies they made them their own 3 , the 
(one) friend waking when the (other) friend closed 
his eyes 4 . 

6. When the worshipful (gods) have discovered 
the thrice seven secret steps 1 (or, places) laid down 
in thee, they concordantly guard with them immor- 



MAiTOALA I, HYMN 7 2. 83 

tality. Protect thou the cattle .and that which 
remains steadfast 2 and that which moves. 

7. Knowing, O Agni, the established orders 1 of 
(human) dwellings, distribute in due order gifts 2 
that they may live. Knowing the ways which the 
gods go 3 , thou hast become the unwearied mes- 
senger, the bearer of oblations. 

8. They who knew the right way and were filled 
with good intentions, beheld from heaven the seven 
young 1 (rivers) and the doors of riches. Sarama 
found the strong stable of the cows from which human 
clans receive their nourishment 2 . 

9. The Earth has spread herself far and wide 
with them who are great in their greatness, the 
mother Aditi, for the refreshment of the bird 1 , with 
her sons who have assumed all powers of their own 
dominion 2 , preparing (for themselves) the way to 
immortality. 

10. When the immortals created the two eyes of 
heaven 1 , they placed fair splendour in him (Agni) 2 . 
Then they rush down 3 like streams let loose. The 
red ones have recognised, O Agni, those which are 
directed downwards 4 . 



NOTES. 

The Same Rhhx and metre. — Verse 1 = TS. II, 2, 12, 1. 
Verse 3 = TB. II, 4, 5, 6. Verses 8-9 = TB. II, 5, 8, 10. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to me to be : by his wisdom 
he excels all human wisdom. Prof. Max Miiller translates: 
* Agni, who holds in his hand all that men desire, conquers 

G 2 



84 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(or, wins for himself) the praises of many a wise worshipper.' 
And the last Pada: 'he who brought together all immortal 
blessings.'— On j&rvat, see VI, 61, i; VII, x8, 18; VIII, 
23, 28. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Here we have again the myth of the hidden 
Agni whom the gods seek. Agni is meant by the calf. 

Note 2. Going on foot, Saya^a. 

Note 3. I follow Saya/^a, Bollensen, and Ludwig in taking 
Mru as a locative. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. ' Was not Saya/za right in taking this verse as 
referring to the Maruts? Cf. VI, 48, 21. . . . su^ata also is 
an epithet of the Maruts, I, 88, 3 ; 166, 11.' M. M. 

Note 2. As to the subjunctive, comp. Delbruck, Syn- 
taktische Forschungen, I, p. 67. The Taittiriya Brahma/za 
(II, 4, 5, 6) reads saparyan. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I follow the Padapa/^a which has rudriya. But 
possibly we may have the nom. plur. rudriya/z : ' the 
worshipful Rudriyas (i.e. Maruts) rushed forward.' 

Note 2. The translation of nemadhita is in jeopardy. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Probably the mortals, as Ludwig understands it. 
Comp. marta^, verse 4. 

Note 2. The venerable one is Agni. 

Note 3. Possibly the text is corrupt. In IV, 24, 3 we 
read ririkva^sa^ tanva^ krzVzvata tram, 'abandoning (i.e. 
risking) their bodies they took him (Indra) for their pro- 
tector ' (comp. I, 100, 7). Should sva^ have supplanted 
another word, for instance, tram ? As the pronoun sva very 
frequently stands in apposition with tantf, it may have 
found its way also into passages to which it did not 
belong. 



MAN DAL A I, HYMN "J 2. 85 

Note 4. The meaning seems to be that whenever the 
attention of one of the friends relaxed, another friend 
watched instead of the first. See Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLIV, 328 ; Bartholomae, Studien 
zur indogerm, Sprachgeschichte, I, 95. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Saya/za explains the tri^ sapta pada as the 
three times seven kinds of sacrifices, the seven Pakaya^Tzas, 
the seven Havirya^as, the seven Somaya^Tzas. But this 
later system of the twenty-one forms of sacrifice can 
scarcely have existed at the time of the Rig-veda Sa//zhita. 
Three times seven is a favourite number in Rig-vedic 
mysticism ; comp. I, 191, 12. 14; IV, 1, 16; VII, 87, 4 ; 
VIII, 46, 26 ; 69, 7 ; 96, 2 ; IX, 70, 1 ; 86, 21 ; X, 64, 8 ; 
90, 15. Possibly three times seven pieces of wood (sami- 
dha^) are alluded to, comp. X, 90, 15, but everybody who 
has studied Bergaigne's Arithmetique mythologique (Rel. 
Ved. II, 114 seq. ; see especially p. 122) will admit that 
there are ever so many possible interpretations of a passage 
like this. Prof. Max Miiller's translation is : ' The worship- 
ful gods found in thee the twenty-one words which are 
hidden in thee. They guard with them the immortal 
(Agni).' — Instead of avidan (Padapa//za) I think we must 
read avidan. 

Note 2. Ludwig certainly is wrong in translating ' hiite 
du den wandel von tier und pflanze/ The author of this 
group of hymns is very fond of the phrase sthatu^ £aratham 
and the like ; see I, 68, 1 ; 70, 3. 7. The same phrase, in 
one or the other of its possible shapes, has evidently been 
used by him here also. The plural masculine sthatr/n is 
indeed very strange. Possibly J. Wackernagel is right in 
reading sthatii/z (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 287 ; comp. 
Lanman, p. 422); the reading sthatr//z may be due to the 
neighbourhood of pa^fin. This sort of blunder is very 
frequent in the text of the Rig-veda. Prof. Max Miiller 
suggests : the stabled cattle and what moves about (in the 
meadows). 



86 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 7. 

Note 1. On vayiina, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 295. 
300. ' The thoughts of human beings.' M. M. 
Note 2. Surudh : Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 32. 50. 
Note 3. ' Which lead to the gods ?' M. M. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. 1, 26, 10, note 1. — * Beheld the seven young 
rivers coming down from heaven/ M. M. 

Note 2. See Delbruck, Syntaktische Forschungen, I, 87. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The bird seems to be Agni. 

Note 2. The Padapa/^a gives su-apatyani. There is no 
doubt a word su-apatya, 'blessed with good offspring.' 
This is frequently used together with such nouns as rayi, 
kshaya, ish ; it stands in several passages by the side of 
pra^avat. See I, 117, 19 ; II, 2, 12 ; 4, 8; 9, 5 ; III, 3, 7 ; 
16, 1 ; IV, 2, 11 ; X, 30, 12. But from this word should 
be distinguished sva-patya, derived from sva-pati (X, 44, 
1, &c), ' a mans own dominion, 5 or ' own rulership ; ' comp. 
^■aspatya. This word is found here, and in some other 
passages, for instance, VII, 91, 3. vuva it nara^ svapatyani 
kakruk^ ' the heroes have exercised all the powers of their 
own dominion; 5 VIII, 15,10. satra vuva svapatyani dadhishe, 
' thou hast assumed (Indra) all powers of thy own dominion 
altogether. 5 — Ludwig translates correctly, 'alle selbsther- 
lichkeit. 5 

The Taittinya Brahma/za reads ^akrii^ for tasthu/i This 
reading evidently rests on Rig-veda IV, 34, 9 ; VII, 91, 3. 
There is no reason, however, for preferring this to the 
traditional reading of our Rik-text. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The sun and the moon ? This very natural 
explanation will scarcely be modified on account of passages 
like the following (Satapatha Brahma^a I, 6, 3, 38): 



MANDALA I, HYMN 72. 87 

' These are the two eyes of the sacrifice, the (oblations of 
butter called) A^yabhagas.' 

Note 2. Comp. below, 73, 4. 

Note 3. It is not necessary to change the text ; I believe, 
however, that the conjecture adha^ ksharanti (they stream 
downwards) would not be quite improbable. Comp. my 
Prolegomena, p. 369, note 1. — The subject seems to be the 
streams of sacrificial libations. 

Note 4. Both expressions, ' the red ones ' and ( those 
which are directed downwards/ are feminine. The red 
ones may be the dawns. But these cannot be called 
' directed downwards.' I take, therefore, the one noun as 
a nominative, the other as an accusative. Cannot ( those 
which are directed downwards ' be the libations of Ghrz'ta 
and the like, which the dawns see? — Prof. Max Muller 
translates : ' People recognised the red netherward mares 
(of thee), O Agni.' He supplies gv§\§,h or takes arushU as 
mares, cf. V, $6, 6. 



88 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ>ALA I, HYMN 73. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 19-20. 

i. He who gives vigour like wealth acquired by 
the fathers 1 , who is a good guide like the instruction 
of a sage, who is pleased (by worship) like a comfort- 
ably resting guest 2 , (Agni) has crossed the (sacrificial) 
seat of the worshipper like a Hotrz. 

2. He who being truthful like the god Savitrz 1 
protects by his power of mind all settlements 2 , praised 
by many like impetuous splendour 3 , the truthful 
one has become dear like vital breath and worthy 
to be searched for 4 . 

3 \ (Agni) who possessing every refreshment dwells 
on the earth like a god, like a king who has made 
himself (valiant) friends 2 , like heroes who sit in 
front and under shelter, like a blameless wife beloved 
by her husband — 

4. Thee, O Agni, who art constantly kindled in the 
house, men have worshipped in their firm dwellings. 
They have placed in him rich splendour 1 . Be thou 
possessed of all life, a supporter of riches 2 . 

5. May the liberal givers, O Agni, attain nourish- 
ment, may the rich 1 who bestow gifts (on us) attain 
to a full span of life. May we win in battles the 
booty of him who does not give 1 , obtaining a (rich) 
share before the gods, that we may win glory 2 . 

6. The lowing milch-cows of 7?zta, assigned by 
Heaven, were exuberant with their full udders. The 
rivers imploring the favour (of the gods) from afar 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 73. 89 

have broken through the midst of the rock with 
their floods. 

7. Imploring favour from thee, O Agni, the wor- 
shipful (gods) have won glory in the sky. They 
have made Night and Dawn of different shapes ; 
they have joined the black and red colour (to Night 
and Dawn). 

8. And may we, our liberal givers and ourselves, 
be the mortals whom thou furtherest to wealth, 
O Agni 1 . Like a shadow thou followest the whole 
world, having filled the two worlds (Heaven and 
Earth) and the air 2 . 

9. May we, O Agni, guarded by thee, conquer with 
our racers the racers, with our men the men, with 
our heroes the heroes (of our enemies). Being 
masters of the riches which their fathers 1 have con- 
quered, may our rich (givers) reach a hundred 
winters. 

10. May these hymns, O Agni, worshipper (of 
the gods), be grateful to thee, to thy mind and 
heart. May we be able to bridle thee, the well- 
harnessed wealth 1 , acquiring the glory which the 
gods have assigned us. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre.— Verse 5 = MS. IV, 14, i5- 
Verse 7 = TB. II, 7, 12, 5. Verse 10 = MS. IV, 14, 15- 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Agni is compared to wealth acquired by the 
fathers, being himself pitr/vitta, found by the forefathers 



90 VEDIC HYMNS. 



of the Brahmanic tribes. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to 
translate : ' wealth inherited from the fathers.' 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 42, 4, and see also VI, 16, 42. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The first Pada is identical with the fourth of 

IX, 97, 48. There the expressions are referred to Soma. 
Note 2. On vr^-ana, comp. the quotations given above, 

I, 60, 3, note 2 ; cf. IX, 87, 2. vrz^anam.rakshama/za^. 
Note 3. Comp. I, 64, 9. amati^ na dar^ata. 
Note 4. Comp. II, 4, 1 (see below). 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The first three Padas are nearly identical with 
111,55,21. 

Note 2. As to the meaning of hitamitra, comp. X, 108,3. 
mitram ena dadhama ; see also X, 132,5, and H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 186, note 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 72, 10 (see above). 

Note 2. I cannot accept Pischel's translation of dhani;za// 
rayi/zam, ' der Reichtum fliessen lasst' (Vedische Studien, I, 
40). — ' Be thou, who art. rich in all food, the protector of 
riches/ M. M. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On surf and ari, see Bergaigne, Rel. Ved. II, 
218 seq. Ary&k may also be nom. pi. and mean ' (we) the 
poor ones.' 

Note 2. ' May we win in battles the booty of the enemy, 
setting aside a share for the gods to their glory.' M. M. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. In the first Pada one syllable is wanting. 
Perhaps the ace. plur. yan had here dissyllabic value. 
Note 2. The last Pada is identical with the second of 

X, 139, 2. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN J $. 9 1 

Verse 9. 
Note l. Comp. above, verse i, note i. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. sakema. vkginak yamam, II, 5, i ; agne 
.sakema te vayam yamam devasya vagina/i, III, 27, 3. As 
sudhur and sudhura are epithets of horses, the poet of 
course could say, sakema sudhiira^ yamam te. But Agni 
is not only a horse; he is also wealth (II, 1, 12 ; IV, 2, 
5, &c). The combination of the two metaphors explains 
the curious expression sudhura/z rayaA. 



92 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 74. 

ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 21-22. 

i. Going forward to the sacrifice let us repeat 
a prayer to Agni who hears us, may he be afar 
or with us — 

2. He who foremost 1 in ... . 2 , when the human 
tribes met (in battle), has preserved his home to the 
worshipper. 

3. And let the people say ' Agni is born, the 
slayer of foes (or, the slayer of VWtra), he who 
wins the prize in every battle/ 

4. The man in whose home thou art a messenger, 
and to whose sacrificial food thou eagerly comest 
for feasting, to whose worship thou impartest won- 
derful power — 

5. Such a man the people call a giver of good 
oblations, O Angiras, a friend of the gods, O son 
of strength 1 , and a possessor of a good Barhis (or 
sacrificial grass). 

6. And thou shalt conduct them hither, the 
gods 1 , that we may praise them, that they may 
eagerly come, O resplendent one, to the sacrificial 
offerings. 

7. No noise 1 of the horses of the moving chariot 2 
is heard any way, when thou goest on thy messen- 
gership, O Agni. 

8. When guarded by thee the racer becomes 
fearless ; the worshipper, O Agni, who is behind, 
gains the advantage 1 over him who is ahead. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 74. 93 

9. And thou winnest, O Agni, brilliant, high 
bliss in strong heroes from the gods, O god, for the 
worshipper. 



NOTES. 

This hymn opens the section ascribed to Gotama Rahu- 
ga^a, and belonging indeed, as several passages show, to 
the family of the Gotamas (comp. Zeitschrift der D. Morg. 
Gesellschaft, XLII, 221). The metre is Gayatri. — Verse 1 = 
VS. Ill, 11; TS. I, 5, 5> 1; MS. I, 5, i (I, 5, 5- 6). 
Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 729. 730. 732. Verse 3 = TS. Ill, 
5,11,4; MS. IV, 10, 3. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Or purvya^, 'the old Agni,' cf. IX, 96, 10? (M. M.) 
Note 2. I have left untranslated the obscure word 
snihitishu (Saya^a, vadhakarmishu). It seems to be iden- 
tical with sn&iiti, which occurs VIII, 96, 13. apa snehiti^ 
nranana^ adhatta (the S&ma-veda has the reading snih°). 
Here the verb apa adhatta (comp. VI, 20, 5; X, 164, 3) 
and the comparison of the second hemistichs of the two 
following verses, 14 and 15, seem to show that the word 
means some kind of hostile powers, which would do very 
well for our passage. — In Taittiriya Ara/zyaka IV, 23 the 
word sni'hiti occurs in an enumeration of the 'terrible 
substances' (ghora^ taniiva^) of Agni. — Comp. Ludwig, 
Ueber die neuesten Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der Rig- 
veda-Forschung, p. 93. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. See above, I, 26, 10, note 1. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. See Delbriick, Syntaktische Forschungen, I, 20, 
111. 



94 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 7. 

Note 1. On upabdi, which literally means the noise 
produced by going, see Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
XXV, 55 ; Hiibschmann, Das indogermanische Vocal- 
system, 124. 

Note 2. Yoh (comp. X, 176, 3?) seems to be a genitive 
of yu, ' the going one ; ' comp. sva-yii, .nibham-yu ; Lanman, 
401. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The last syllable of asthat has the value of two 
syllables. 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 75. 95 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 75. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA £3. 

i. Accept gladly our most widely-sounding 1 
speech, the most agreeable to the gods, thou who, 
in thy mouth, offerest the sacrificial food (to the 
gods). 

2. And may we then pronounce to thee, O highest 
Angiras, Agni, best worshipper, a prayer agreeable 
to thee and successful. 

3. Who is thy kinsman among men, O Agni ? 
Who performs worship to thee 1 ? Who art thou, 
and where dost thou rest ? 

4. Thou, O Agni, art the kinsman, the dear 
friend (' Mitra ') of men, a friend who is to be 
magnified by his friends. 

5. Sacrifice for us to Mitra and Varu/za. Sacrifice 
to the gods, (a sacrifice conforming to) the great 
Rita.\ Sacrifice, O Agni, to thy own house. 

NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. — Verse 1 = TB. Ill, 6, 7, 1 ; 
MS. Ill, 10, 1 (IV, 13, 5). Verses 3-5 = SV. II, 885-887. 
Verse 5 - VS. XXXIII, 3 ; TB. II, 7, 13, 1. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. Comp. VI, 68, 9. manma . . . sapratha/z. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. May we not take dcUii-adhvara as a compound 
with governed final member, like vidddvasu, sadadyoni &c. ? 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Comp. Gaedicke, Der Accusativ im Veda, 159. 



96 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA/£>ALA I, HYMN 76. 
ASHJAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 24. 

i. What supplication is to thy mind's taste l ? 
What (pious) thought may be, O Agni, most 
agreeable to thee ? Or who has won for himself 
thy wisdom by sacrifices ? Or with what thoughts 
may we worship thee 2 ? 

2. Come hither, Agni, sit down here as a Hotrz. 
Become our undeceivable leader 1 . May Heaven 
and Earth, the all-embracing, protect thee. Offer 
the sacrifice to the gods that they may be highly 
gracious to us. 

3. Burn down all sorcerers, O Agni; become a pro- 
tector of the sacrifices against imprecations. And 
conduct hither the lord of Soma (Indra) with his 
two bay horses. We have prepared hospitality for 
him, the good giver. 

4. With words procuring offspring, carrying thee 
(to our sacrifice) with my mouth \ I call 2 thee 
hither, and thou shalt sit down here with the gods. 
Perform the service of a Hotrz and of a Potrz 3 , 
O worshipful one. Be thou a giver and a father 4 of 
riches. 

5. As thou didst perform sacrifice to the gods 
with the sacrificial food of the wise Manu *, a sage 
together with sages, thus, O highly truthful Hotrz, 
perform thou the sacrifice to-day, O Agni, with thy 
joy-giving sacrificial ladle 2 . 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 76. 97 



NOTES. 

The same 7?zshi. Metre, Trish/ubh. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Saya^a takes vara in the sense of 'holding back' 
(comp. I, 143, 5), and makes manasa^ depend on varaya. 
He says, ' he agne te tava manaso varaya nivara^ayasmasv 
avasthapanaya kopetir bhuvat kidrzsam upagamana/^ bha- 
vet.' The modern translators are evidently right in as- 
signing to vara the meaning of ' wish ' or the like (comp. 
VII, 59, 2. yih vak varaya daVati), but they differ as to 
whether manasa^ should be taken as belonging to varaya 
or to upeti^. Ludwig translates, 'Welches nahen des 
geistes ist gegenstand der wal dir?' Grassmann, 'Welch 
Nahen ist nach deines Herzens Wunsche ? ' My opinion 
is that the tradition of the text is not quite free from 
suspicion. My doubts are based on VI, 21, 4. kas te 
yzgnih manase jam varaya, 'What sacrifice (O Indra) is 
agreeable to thy mind, to thy wish?' Here we have 
a question addressed to the god, beginning with kas te, 
quite similar to the question of our poet, which begins 
with ka te. We have the word jam, as in our passage 
ja^tama. We have varaya exactly as in our passage. 
We have, by the side of varaya, a case-form of manas as 
in our passage. But we have the dative manase instead 
of the genitive manasa/£. We may add that there are 
some other passages in which a dative of a similar meaning 
stands likewise by the side of varaya: thus, VIII, 82, 3. 
aram varaya manyave bhuvat te indra sim (comp. bhuvat 
agne ja^tama in our passage) hrzde, ' May it be, O Indra, 
according to thy wish and thy mood, may it be agreeable 
to thy heart;' VIII, 84, 4. varaya deva manyave, 'to thy 
wish, O god, to thy mood/ 

All this tends to raise the supposition that in our 
[46] H 



98 VEDIC HYMNS. 



passage also we should read manase varaya, which datives 
seem to depend on ^awtama. We should then translate, 
' What supplication, what (pious) thought may be, O Agni, 
most agreeable to thy mind and to thy wish ? ' 

Note 2. This seems to be a Pada of the defective type, 
with four syllables before the caesura and ending as if 
there were five syllables before the caesura; comp. my 
Prolegomena, 68 seq. It would be easy, however, to restore 
the normal metrical form, for instance, by reading tiibhyam 
instead of te. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Pura^-eta, literally, ' he who goes before some- 
body.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. It would be unnatural to give to the medium 
a huve the passive sense and not to translate it, as it must 
be translated m so many passages, * I call (thee) hither/ 
But, if so, it is very difficult to avoid the conclusion that 
vahni^ asa (' he who carries somebody with his mouth ; ' 
comp. I, 129, 5; VI, ii, 2; 16, 9; VII, 16, 9; X, 115, 3; 
see vol. xxxii, pp. 42 seq.) refers here not to Agni, the 
divine carrier, but to the human priest, who with his 
mouth, i.e. by his songs, carries Agni to his sacrifice. 
Vahni is used very frequently indeed of human worshippers, 
and generally the transferring of epithets of the divine 
priest Agni to human priests, and vice versa, is quite to 
the taste of Vedic poets. — Comp. on a huve and vahni/z 
asa, Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 320 seq. ; 
XX, 69, and below, I, 127, 8, note 1; S.B.E., vol. xxxii, 
p. 42. See also Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 473, who 
very rightly observes : es liegt kein Grund vor, dem huve 
den Character einer ersten Person zu versagen. 

Note 2. On the accent of huve, on which Ludwig bases 
very bold conclusions, see Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 
41 ; Weber, Indische Studien, XIII, 73. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 3, 3. — On the priestly functions of the 



MANDALA I, HYMN 76. 99 

Potrz, see Weber, Indische Studien, X, 141, 366, 376 seq. ; 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 391. 

Note 4. On these vocatives, see Delbriick, Altindische 
Syntax, 106. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Manus is here a proper name ; comp. Bergaigne, 
I, 65 seq. On his priestly character, comp. H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 275. 

Note 2. On ^uhva, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 113. 
The ladle is meant for the flame of Agni. 



H 2 



IOO VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 77. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 25. 

i. How shall we sacrifice to Agni ? What 
words, agreeable to the god, shall be addressed 
to him, the luminous one, who, being immortal and 
righteous, the Hotrz, the best sacrificer, conveys the 
gods to the mortals 1 ? 

2. Bring hither by adoration the Hotrt who is 
most beneficial in sacrifices and righteous. When 
Agni repairs to the gods on behalf of the mortal 1 , 
may he be attentive in his mind, and may he 
perform the sacrifice 2 . 

3. For he is wisdom 1 , he is manly, he is straight- 
forward ; like Mitra he has become the charioteer of 
the mysterious 2 . Therefore the Aryan clans 3 , 
longing for the gods, address him, the wonderful 
one, as the first at the sacrifices. 

4. May that Agni, the manliest of men, triumphant 
with riches [?] \ come with help to our words, to 
our devotion, and (to the devotion) of those most 
powerful liberal givers who bent on the prize 2 
have constantly stirred up our prayers 3 . 

5. Thus Agni, the righteous Gatavedas, has been 
praised by the priestly Gotamas 1 . May he augment 
their splendour and their strength. He the knowing 
one gains increase according to his desire. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. The construction is ya^ krindti devan martyeshu. 
Comp., for instance, X, 40, 2. ka/i vam . . . krzVmte sadhasthe 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 77. IOI 

a. Ludwig translates : der unter den sterblichen der 
unsterbliche hotar . . . schafft die gotten — ' Could it be 
ishkrinoti ? ' M. M. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The third Pada of this verse has nine syllables 
instead of eleven. If we read, as several times must be 
done, martyaya for martaya, we get ten syllables, and the 
Pada may belong to the defective type mentioned above, 
j6, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Ka, seems to me to stand here, as it several 
times does, in the first of the members of sentence con- 
nected by it. See Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 475. 
Prof. Max Miiller believes that it depends on yat: yat 
ve^, yat kz. sa bodhati, ' Bring hither the Hotri ... so 
that Agni may invite the gods . . . and that he (the mortal 
or Agni) may be attentive, &c.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Grassmann gives to kratu here and in a number 
of other passages the meaning 'der Starke.' This is in- 
admissible ; comp. Bergaigne, III, 304. 

Note 2. Here we have again a Pada of ten syllables 
(see verse 2, note 1), unless bhut has dissyllabic value. 
Prof. Max Miiller translates this Pada : * like a friend he is 
the charioteer of enormous wealth/ 

Note 3. Comp. I, 96, 3 (see below). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On ri-sadas, comp. above, I, 26, 4, note 1. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 92, 8. There Ushas receives the 
epithet va^*aprasuta. 

Note 3. Comp. VII, Sy, 3. spa^a^ Varu/zasya ... ye 
ishayanta manma. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. This is again a Pada of ten syllables. 



102 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA I, HYMN 78. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 26. 

i . O Gatavedas, who dwellest among all tribes, we 
the Gotamas (praise) thee with our song — we praise 
thee aloud with (songs full of) splendour. 

2. Gotama 1 desirous of riches exalts thee, as 
thou art, with his song. We praise thee aloud 
with (songs full of) splendour. 

3. We call thee, such as thou art, the highest 
winner of booty, as Ahgiras did. We praise thee 
aloud with (songs full of) splendour. 

4. (We praise) thee, the greatest destroyer of 
enemies (or, of Vntra), who hurlest the Dasyus 
away — we praise thee, such as thou art, aloud with 
(songs full of) splendour. 

5. We the Rahuga/zas 1 have recited a honey- 
sweet speech to Agni. We praise thee aloud with 
(songs full of) splendour. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. Metre, G&yatri. 

"Verse 2. 

Note 1. This probably means, c the descendant of 
Gotama.' See Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XL 1 1, 
203. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The Rahuga^as seem to be a branch of the 
Gotamas; see A^valdyana 5rautasutra XII, u, 1. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN JQ. IO3 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 79. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 27-28. 

I. 

i. The golden-haired in the expanse 1 of the 
atmosphere, the roaring 2 snake, is hasting (through 
the air) like the wind ; the brightly resplendent 
watcher of the dawn 3 , he who is like the glorious, 
ever active and truthful (goddesses) 4 . 

2. By thy goings the beautifully-winged (birds) 
were disparaged 1 ; the black bull 2 has roared, when 
here 3 (all this happened). He has come as if with 
the bounteous smiling (women) 4 . The mists fly, 
the clouds thunder. 

3. When they have led him, who swells 1 with the 
milk of Rite, on the straightest paths of /?zta, then 
Aryaman, Mitra, and Varu^a, he who walks round 
the earth 2 , fill the leather-bag (the cloud) in the 
womb of the lower (atmosphere [?]) 3 . 

II. 

4. Agni, who art lord of booty, rich in cows, 
young son of strength \ bestow on us, O G^tavedas, 
great glory. 

5. Being lighted, a Vasu, a sage, Agni who is to 
be magnified by (pious) words, O (god) with many 
faces, shine to us so that riches may be ours. 

6. Reigning x by night by thy own power, O Agni, 
and at the break of dawn, O god with sharp teeth, 
burn against the sorcerers. 



104 VED1C HYMNS. 



III. 

7. Bless us, O Agni, with thy blessings, when 
our Gayatra song is brought forward (to thee), thou 
to whom reverence is due in all our prayers. 

8. Bring us wealth, O Agni, which may be 
always conquering, excellent and invincible 1 in all 
battles. 

9. Bestow on us, Agni, through thy kindness 1 
wealth which may last all our life 2 , and have mercy 3 
on us that we may live. 

IV. 

10. O Gotama 1 , bring forward purified words, 
bring songs to the sharp-flaming Agni, desirous 
of his favour. 

1 1 . May he who tries to harm us, whether nigh 
or afar, fall down. Do thou lead us alone to in- 
crease. 

12. The thousand-eyed Agni, who dwells among 
all tribes, scares away the Rakshas. The praise- 
worthy Hotrz (Agni) is praised \ 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshl Metre, 1-3 Trish/ubh ; 4-6 Ush^ih ; 
7-12 Gayatri. 

What in the traditional text is one hymn, consists really 
of four independent hymns of three verses each. This is to 
be concluded from the well-known laws of arrangement of 
the Sawhita, and is confirmed by the change of metre 
and by the reception of two of the four hymns into other 
Vedic Sa^hitas : the second (verses 4-6) is found in the 
Sama-veda II, 911-913 ; Va£\ Sa//zhita XV, 35-37 ; Taitt. 



MAiTOALA I, HYMN 79. IO5 

Sa^hiti IV, 4, 4, 5 ; Maitr. Sa^hita II, 13, 8; the third 
(verses 7-9) in the Sama-veda II, 874-876. Besides, verses 
1-2 occur Taitt. Sa^h. Ill, 1, 11, 4-5; verse 2, Maitr. 
Sa/^h. IV, 12, 5; verse 4, Sama-veda I, 99; verses 8, 9, 
Maitr. Samh. IV, 12, 4; verse 9, Maitr. Sawh. IV, 10, 6; 
Taitt. Br. II, 4, 5, 3- 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. As to visara I think we should compare VII, 
36, 1. vi sanuna przthivf sasre urvf, ' The wide earth has 
expanded with her surface.' Prof. Max Muller observes 
with regard to this Pada: when the sky sends forth the 
rain, the lightning appears. 

Note 2. On dhiini, see vol. xxxii, p. 112 (I, 64, 5), and 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 268. I do not take the word 
with Geldner for an epithet of Vata, the wind, but of the 
snake, i.e. Agni, who very probably is to be understood 
here as in the whole Trika, as the fire of the lightning. 

Note 3. Perhaps we have here again a Pada of ten 
syllables, of the type which occurs several times in the 
preceding hymns. Or possibly the text should be corrected : 
ushasa/^ na navedM, ' a knower (of sacrifices, comp. IV, 23, 
4; V, 12, 3) like the dawns/ or ushasam naveda// (with 
dissyllabic -am), ' a knower of the dawns.' — See Lanman, 

Note 4. The waters? Or the dawns? 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the nasalization of aminantan in the Sa^- 
hita text, see my Prolegomena, p. 471. 

Note 2. I. e. Par^anya, the thundering cloud. Comp. V, 
83, 1 ; VII, toi, 1 ; Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, III, 27 seq. 

Note 3. Regarding yadi idam, comp. IV, 5, 11. There 
the verb belonging to yadi must be supplied ; in the same 
way our passage must be interpreted also, unless we resort 
to changing the text and accentuating the verb nonava, in 
which case the translation would be, * when the black bull 
has bellowed here/ 



I06 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 4. The women may be the showers of rain. Or 
they could be understood as the dawns, comp. ushasa^ 
naveda^, verse i. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I propose to read pfyanam. 

Note 2. On pari^man, see Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeit- 
schrift, XXV, 86 ; Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XV, 27 seq. ; Bergaigne, Rel. Ved. II, 505 ; and compare 
especially X, 93, 4. The word evidently is connected not 
with the verb gam, but with ksham, ' the earth/ of which 
we find the genitives gm&k and gmkh. 

Note 3. It does not seem probable to me that lipara 
means here the lower pressing-stone, as Grassmann, Ludwig, 
and Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 109) suggest (Grass- 
mann : den Schlauch beim untern Pressstein. Ludwig : den 
schlauch ... an des steines ort. Pischel : sie legen das 
Fell mitten auf den Stein). I propose to supply ra^asa^ ; 
comp. I, 62, 5. rigzh uparam ; IV, 1, 11. ra^asa^ asya 
yonau, and especially IV, 17, 14, where we find the 'womb 
of the atmosphere ' (ra^asa^ asya yonau) mentioned, quite 
as in our passage, together with the leather-bag (tva£), i. e. 
the cloud. — Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. II, 505) translates and 
explains, 'arrose la peau dans le sejour de l'inferieur, 5 
c'est-a-dire fait couler les eaux du del pour l'Agni 
terrestre. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See above, I, 26, 10, note 1. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Ra^an seems to be the participle of rkg ; comp. 
VIII, 19, 31. kshapaA vastushu ra^asi. Now it is very im- 
probable that of this participle a vocative should occur ; 
see Lanman, 509. I believe, therefore, that we should 
accentuate ra^an (comp. the remarks of Bartholomae, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 204). 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Comp. IX, 63, 11. rayim . . . dush/aram. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 79. IO7 



Verse 9. 

Note 1. As to su^etiina, comp. I, 159, 5. 
Note 2. Comp. VI, 59, 9. rayi'm vls-vayuposhasam. 
Note 3. Matv/ikam is a second object of dhehi, not an 
epithet of rayi'm. Comp. VIII, 7, 30. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Comp. above, 78, 2, note 1. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. On the use of the middle of gri with passive 
meaning, comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 264. 



I08 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 94. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 6, VARGA 30-32. 

i. We have sent forward 1 with thoughtful mind 
this song of praise like a chariot to the worthy 
6atavedas. For blissful is his care for us in his 
companionship. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in 
thy friendship. 

2. He prospers for whom thou performest the 
sacrifice ; he dwells untouched 1 ; he acquires 
abundance of heroes. He is strong; no distress 
overtakes him. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in 
thy friendship. 

3. May we be able to light thee. Prosper our 
prayers. The gods eat the sacrificial food that is 
offered in thee. Bring thou hither the Adityas, for 
we long for them. Agni ! May we suffer no harm 
in thy friendship. 

4. Let us bring fuel and prepare sacrificial gifts 
for thee, awaking thy attention at each joint 1 (of 
the month). Help forward our prayers that we 
may live. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in thy 
friendship. 

5. (He is) the shepherd of the clans 1 ; by his 
nightly light the creatures walk, the two-footed and 
four-footed. Thou art the bright, great splendour 
of dawn. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in thy 
friendship. 

6. Thou art the Adhvaryu and the ancient Hotrz, 
the Prasastrz 1 , the Potrz, the born Purohita 2 . 
Knowing the duties of every priest thou givest 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 94. IO9 

success, O wise one. Agni ! May we suffer no 
harm in thy friendship. 

7. Thou who art beautiful, of like appearance on 
all sides, thou shinest forth even when afar like 
lightning. Thou seest, O god, even over the 
darkness of night. Agni ! May we suffer no harm 
in thy friendship. 

8. May the chariot of him who presses Soma, 
be to the front 1 , O gods. May our curse overcome 
the malicious ones. Accept (O gods) this prayer 
and make it prosper. Agni ! May we suffer no 
harm in thy friendship. 

9. Strike away with thy weapons those who curse 
us, the malicious ones, all ghouls, be they near 
or afar. And make a good path to the sacrifice of 
him who praises thee. Agni ! May we suffer no 
harm in thy friendship. 

10. When thou hast yoked to thy chariot the 
two ruddy, red horses, whom the wind drives 
forward, and thy roaring is like that of a bull, 
then thou movest the trees with thy banner of 
smoke \ Agni ! May we suffer no harm in thy 
friendship. 

11. And when thy grass-consuming sparks are 
scattered, the winged (birds) *■ also fear the noise. 
Then all goes well with thee and thy chariots. 
Agni ! May we suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

12. He makes Mitra and Varima get refreshing 
drink. He mysteriously turns away the anger of 
the Maruts 1 . Be merciful towards us. May their 
mind be again (as it was before). Agni ! May we 
suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

13. Thou art god of the gods, a wonderful Mitra 
(i. e. friend, of the gods) \ Thou art the Vasu 



I I O VEDIC HYMNS. 



of the Vasus, welcome at the sacrifice. May we be 
under thy most wide-reaching protection. Agni ! 
May we suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

14. That is thy glorious (nature) that when 
kindled in thy own house, and fed with Soma, thou 
art awake *, the most merciful one. Thou bestowest 
treasures and wealth on the worshipper. Agni ! 
May we suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

15. May we be of those to whom thou, O pos- 
sessor of beautiful wealth, O Aditi *, art pleased to 
grant sinlessness in health and wealth 2 , and whom 
thou wilt quicken with glorious strength and with 
abundance of progeny. 

16. Do thou, O Agni, thou who knowest (how to 
grant) happiness, prolong our life here, O God ! 
May Mitra and Varu/za grant us this, may Aditi, 
the Sindhu, the Earth, and the Sky 1 ! 



NOTES. 

This hymn with the whole collection which it opens is 
ascribed to Kutsa Angirasa. The metre is Cagati ; the 
two last verses, as is frequently the case in Gagati-hymns 
(see H. O., Prolegomena, 144 seq.), are composed in 
Trish/ubh. The hymn has been translated by Prof. Max 
Miiller, Physical Religion, p. 173. — Verse 1 = MS. II, 7,3 ; 
SV. I, 66 ; AV. XX, 13, 3. Verses 1, 3, 4 = SV. II, 414- 
416. 415. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller translates, ' Let us build up 
this hymn of praise.' To me it rather seems that the 
reading should be, as Boehtlingk-Roth have proposed, s. v. 
sam-hi, sam ahema. Comp. I, 61, 4. asmai it u stomam sam 



MAiVDALA T, HYMN 94. Ill 

hinomi ratham na tash/a-iva, c to him I send forward a song 
of praise as a carpenter (fits out) a chariot.' Compare 
besides, IX, 71, 5 ; I, 184, 4 ; II, 19, 7 ; VI, 45, J 4, &c. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. vol. xxxii, p. 65, I, 37, 1 note. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Parvan, ' joint,' seems to refer here, as it very 
frequently does in the later Vedic and post-Vedic texts, to 
the joints of the month, the sacrificial days of the full and 
change of the moon (the parva^a-sacrifices). As to the 
temporal use of the instrumental, comp. r/tuna and /-z"tubhi/£ ; 
Delbrlick, Altindische Syntax, p. 130. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Ludwig proposes the correction of vuam gopsiA 
into vLfam gopak (genitive). But I think it will be suffi- 
cient to write asya accented. As to visam gopa^, comp. 
96,4. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The Pra^astrz (or Upavaktrz"), literally, * the 
commander,' is the same priest who is more usually 
designated as the Maitravaru/za. All the priests mentioned 
here (with the exception of the Purohita, see next note) 
belong to the ancient system of the ' seven Hotrz's,' enum- 
erated, for instance, II, 1, 2. Comp. H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 383 seq. 

Note 2. The Purohita or house-priest does not, pro- 
perly speaking, belong to the number of the priests 
officiating at a sacrifice (rz'tvi^a^), though of course the 
Purohita could act as a ritvlg. Geldner (Vedische Studien, 
II, 144) seems to be wrong in concluding from our passage 
that * already in the Rig-veda the Purohita, being the 
superintendent of the holy service, was a real ritvig; i. e. 
officiating priest' Comp. H. O., loc. cit, 374 seq.; 379, 
note 2. 



112 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 8. 
Note 1. On purva^, comp. I, 34, 10; V, 31, 11. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The regular accentuation of a determinative 
compound ('banner of smoke') would be dhumaketiina. 
But it is very natural that the traditional text gives the 
accent of the Bahuvrihi (' he whose banner is smoke') 
which so frequently occurs. 

Verse 11. 
Note 1. As to patatrfea/^, comp. above, I, 58, 5. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Most probably the meaning is not that the 
Maruts are expected to turn away the anger of somebody 
else, but that the anger of the Maruts shall be turned away 
by Agni. Comp. I, 171, i; VI, 66, 5; VII, 58, 5; 
Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 401. It seems, conse- 
quently, that we should read avayata. — On avayatahe/a^, 
scil. Indra, see vol. xxxii, p. 292 (I, 171, 6), and also IV, 1, 
4; VI, 66,5. 

The genitives Mitrasya Varu^asya may be understood 
as depending, together with Marutam, on he/a>&. In this 
case the translation would be : ' He mysteriously turns 
away the anger of Mitra and Varu^a and of the Maruts in 
order that (men) may get refreshing drink.' 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. On the frequent identification of Agni with 
Mitra, see Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, III, 134 seq. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. On the root ^*ar used with regard to Agni, see 
the remarks of Dr. Neisser in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIII, 
297 seq. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 94. II3 



Verse 15. 

Note 1. Agni is invoked here by the name of Aditi, with 
an evident allusion to the goddess Aditi, as granting freedom 
from bonds, which is the original meaning of Aditi. Comp. 
M. M., vol. xxxii, pp. 241, 260, 262 ; H. O., Religion des 
Veda, p. 204. 

Note 2. Comp. Ill, 54, 19. On sarvatat (sarvatati), see 
M. M.'s note, vol. xxxii, p. 260, note a, and compare 
Darmesteter, Haurvata/ et Amereta/, p. 80. See also 
Lanman, p. 386. 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. The last hemistich is the regular conclusion of 
the Kutsa hymns. 



[46] 



114 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 95. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 1-2. 

i. Two (sisters) of different shapes wander along, 
pursuing a good aim. The one and the other 
suckles the calf 1 . With the one (the calf) is golden, 
moving according to its wont 2 . With the other 
it is seen clear, full of fine splendour. 

2. The ten unwearied 1 young women 2 have 
brought forth this widely-spread germ of Tvash/r/ 3 . 
Him, the sharp-faced (Agni) who is endowed with 
his own splendour, the shining one, they 4 carry 
around among men. 

3. They celebrate his three births: one in the 
sea, one in heaven, one in the waters 1 . In the 
eastern region 2 he commanding determines the 
seasons of the dwellers on earth by his present 
power 3 . 

4. Who among you has understood this hidden 
(god) ? 1 The calf has by itself given birth to 
its mothers 2 . The germ of many (mothers), the 
great seer, moving by his own strength, comes 
forward from the lap of the active ones 3 . 

5 1 . The fair (child Agni) grows up visibly in 
them in his own glory, standing erect in the lap 
of the down-streaming (waters). Both (Heaven and 
Earth) fled away in fear of (the son of) Tvash^rz 2 , 
when he was born, but turning back they caress 
the lion. 

6. They caress him both, like two kind women ; 
like lowing cows they have approached him in 
their own way. He has become the lord of all 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 95. I 1 5 

powers \ he whom they anoint with sacrificial gifts 
from the right side 2 . 

7. He raises his arms again and again like 
Savitrz 1 . He the terrible pressing on ranges 
both wings 2 (of his army). He raises up his 
bright vesture from himself alone 3 . He gives 
new garments to his mothers. 

8. He assumes his fierce appearance which is 
above (i.e. the lightning?), being united with the 
cows *, the waters in his seat. The prayer purifies 
the bottom of the seer(?) 2 . This was the meeting 
among the gods 3 . 

9. The wide space encompasses thy base, the 
resplendent foundation 1 of the buffalo. Agm ! Being 
kindled protect us with all thy undeceivable guard- 
ians who are endowed with their own splendour. 

10. On the dry ground he produces a stream 1 , 
a course, a flood. With his bright floods he reaches 
the earth. Whatever is old he receives into his 
belly. He moves about within the young sprout- 
ing grass 2 . 

11. Thus, O Agni, being strengthened by fuel, 
shine thou to us with wealth-giving shine, O purifier, 
for the sake of glory. May Mitra and Varu/za grant 
us this, may Aditi, Sindhu, the Earth, and the Sky ! 

NOTES. 

The same Rzshl The metre is Trish/ubh. — Verse 1 = 
VS. XXXIII, 5 ; TB. II, 7, 12, 2. Verse % = TB. II, 8, 
7, 4. Verse 5 = TB. II, 8, 7, 4 ; MS. IV, 14, 8. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The two females are evidently Night and Dawn 

I 2 



I 1 6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(comp. below, 96, 5). The calf is Agni whose bright 
appearance by night is contrasted here with his paler 
splendour by day (comp. below, 127, 5). The explanation 
of Professor Hillebrandt (Vedische Mythologie, I, 331) that 
' das von ihnen wechselnd gesaugte Kalb der bald als Sonne 
bald als Mond erscheinende Lichtgott, d. h. Agni ist,' does 
not seem convincing to me. 

Note 2. I cannot follow Hillebrandt (loc. cit. 335) in 
translating svadhavan ' an Labung reich.' 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On feminine nominatives in. -^sa^ like atandrasa^, 
see Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 362. 

Note 2. The ten young women are the fingers which 
produce the fire by the attrition of woods. 

Note 3. On Tvash/rz as the father of Agni, see Hille- 
brandt, Vedische Mythologie, I, 522 seq.; Bergaigne, Rel. 
V<£d., III, 47 seq. 

Note 4. Hillebrandt (loc. cit.) takes the ten fingers as 
the subject of pari nayanti, which does not seem probable. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. It is surprising that Agni's birth in the sea and 
his birth in the waters are distinguished. The poet's 
meaning is not quite clear. Prof. Max Muller thinks of 
the rising sun and the lightning in the clouds. Comp. 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 107. 

Note 2. We ought to read pradkam ; comp. IV, 29, 3 ; 
IX, 111,3. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 85, 18, where it is said of the moon 
that she ' is born again, determining the seasons.' Thus it 
is possible that the poet understands here Agni as dwelling 
in the moon as light. Comp. on this identification Bergaigne, 
I, 159, and Hillebrandt, Ved. Mythologie, I, 330 seq. But 
this interpretation of our passage is by no means certain. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. Possibly we should correct kik idam va^ ni/zyam ; 
comp. VII, 56, 4 ; 61, 5. The translation would be : < Who 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 95. I I 7 

among you has understood this secret?' — the secret that 
a calf should give birth to cows. 

Note 2. In my opinion the mothers are the waters ; the 
calf is Agni. The meaning must be, consequently, that, as 
Agni is born from the waters thus the waters are born 
from Agni. Agni — we may try to interpret the poet's 
meaning — sends his smoke to the sky. The smoke is 
changed to clouds ; the clouds send forth water. Exactly 
the same meaning seems to be expressed in I, 164, 51. 
Comp. also Manu III, 76. agnau prastahuti^ samyag 
adityam upatish/^ate, aditya^* ^ayate vrishfir vr/sh/er 
annam tata^ prqg&k. — Prof. Max Miiller observes: 'The 
mothers are day and night, or heaven and earth. The 
calf, the son, Agni, being born of the night gives birth to 
the day, and being born of the day (in the evening) gives 
birth to the night Or it may be that Agni, light, makes 
Dyaus and Przthivi to be visible.' — Prof. Hillebrandt's 
interpretation of our verse is quite different ; see Vedische 
Mythologie, I, 335. 

Note 3. I. e. the fire is born from the waters. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. Hillebrandt, Ved. Myth., I, 371, 52,3. 

Note 2. I. e. the son of Tvash^rz (see above, verse 2) 
considered as identical with his father. Comp. Bergaigne, 
III, 47, and see also Aufrecht, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, I, 356. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On daksha and its relation to kratu, comp. 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 267. 

Note 2. The poet seems to play upon words ; ' power ' 
is daksha, 'from the right side' dakshkata^ (i.e. approach- 
ing respectfully, dakshimkrztya). 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., Ill, 46. 
Note 2. Observe the dual form si£au ending in -au, not 
in -a. Comp. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 576. Prof. Max 



I 1 8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Miiller translates here : ( He the terrible tries and stretches 
out the hems of his sleeves/ This may indeed be the 
meaning of si£. 

Note 3. See Geldner, Vedische Studiea, II, 189. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The cows of course are intended for the sacrificial 
food coming from the cow, such as milk and butter. 

Note 2. The two nominatives, kavi^ and dhi7z, can 
scarcely be right. The subject seems to be the prayer which 
cleanses, as it were, Agni, and thus augments his splendour 
(comp. IV, 15, 6 ; VIII, 103, 7). Possibly we should read 
kave/z budhnam. Comp., however, IX, 47, 4. svayam kavi/t 
vidhartari vipraya ratnam ikMati yadi marmrz^yate dhiya^. 
In this difficult verse so much is clear that the seer (kavi^) 
is subject, and that he is stated to purify the prayers. 

Note 3. The meaning seems to be that at the sacrificial 
fire all gods assemble. 

Verse 0. 

Note 1. On dhSman, comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 383 seq. 
— Prof. Max Miiller proposes the following translation : 
8 Thy wide effulgence goes round the firmament, the firm 
seat of the strong one (buffalo).' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Ludwig takes srota^ as a locative. But it is 
very improbable that we should have here a survival of the 
ancient locatives of stems in -s without a case-ending (Joh. 
Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 306; Brugmann, 
Grundriss der vergl. Grammatik, vol. ii, p. 611). In 
Ludwig's opinion * it follows from the corresponding gatum 
urmim that srotas stands for srotasi as dhanvan for dhan- 
vani.' But this is not convincing. 

Note 2. On Agni as inhabiting the sprouting grass, 
comp. Ill, 5, 8; VII, 9, 3. 'I believe this refers to the 
blades of grass used as tinder to catch the sparks of fire.' 
M. M. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 96. I 1 9 

MAiVfZ?ALA I, HYMN 96. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 3-4. 

i. Being born by strength 1 in the ancient way, 
lo ! he (Agni) has assumed instantly all the qualities 
of a sage. The Waters and the Dhisha^a 2 have 
furthered the friend (Mitra 3 ). The gods have held 
Agni as the giver of wealth. 

2. By the ancient Nivid \ by Ayu's 2 wisdom he 
has' procreated these children of men. With his 
irradiating look 3 (he has procreated) the Sky and 
the Waters. The gods have held Agni as the 
giver of wealth. 

3. The Aryan clans magnified 1 him as the first 
performer of sacrifices, as receiving offerings, as 
striving forward, the son of strength, the Bharata 2 , 
the bestower of mighty rain (?) 3 . The gods have 
held Agni as the giver of wealth. 

4. He, Matarisvan 1 , the lord of bountiful pros- 
perity, has found a path for (his ?) offspring, he who 
has found the sun, the shepherd of the clans, the 
begetter of the two worlds. The gods have held 
Agni as the giver of wealth. 

5. Night and Dawn, who constantly destroy each 
others appearance, suckle one young calf 1 unitedly 2 . 
The piece of gold 3 shines between Heaven and 
Earth. The gods have held Agni as the giver of 
wealth. 

6. (He is) the base of wealth, the assembler of 
all goods 1 , the beacon of sacrifice, the fulfiller of 
thought, the bird 2 . In order to guard their immor- 



I20 VEDIC HYMNS. 



tality the gods have held him, Agni, as the giver 
of wealth. 

7. Him who is now and who was formerly the 
abode of wealth, the earth 1 (i.e. the dwelling-place 
or support) of what is born and of what will be 
born, the shepherd and guardian of what is and 
of much that comes into being. The gods have 
held Agni as the giver of wealth. 

8. May (Agni,) the giver of wealth, present us 
with quick wealth. May the giver of wealth (pre- 
sent us with wealth) united with strong men 1 . The 
giver of wealth (should grant us) food together 
with valiant heroes. The giver of wealth should 
grant us long life. 

9 = 95. 11. 



NOTES. 

The same Rhhi and metre. — Verses 1, % = MS. IV, 10, 
6. Verse 5 = VS. XII, 2; XVII, 70; TS. IV, 1, 10, 4; 
6,5,*; 7,13,3 5 MS. II, 7, 8. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I. e. by the attrition of the woods, as sahasa^ 
putra^. 

Note 2. Two new discussions on dhisha^a have been 
given by Hillebrandt ( Ved. Mythologie, I, 1 75 seq. ; comp. 
the criticisms of Ludwig, Ueber die neuesten arbeiten auf 
dem gebiete der Rgveda-forschung, 85 seq.) and Pischel 
(Ved. Studien, II, 83 seq.). Hillebrandt arrives at the 
conclusion that dhisha/za is the Earth (in the dual, 
Heaven and Earth ; in the plural, Heaven, Air, and Earth), 
and besides the Vedi, i. e. the excavated spot of ground 
which serves as a kind of altar for the sacrifice. Similar is 



MAA T DALA I, HYMN 96. 121 

Pischel's opinion. He believes that the singular dhisha^a 
is everywhere to be interpreted as a proper name : the 
name of a goddess of wealth and prosperity. The dual 
dhisha/ze means ' Heaven and Earth : ' thus the original 
meaning of dhisha/za must have been, as Pischel concludes, 
either Heaven or Earth. He tries to show that it is Earth, 
and so does Prof. Hillebrandt. The goddess of wealth 
originally was a goddess of the earth conceived as the liberal 
giver of wealth. This goddess, Prof. Pischel thinks, was 
closely related to, or even identical with, the goddess Aditi, 
whom the same scholar also believes to be a personification 
of the Earth. 

I must confess that even this close agreement of these 
two distinguished scholars has failed to convince me. It 
is quite true that the dual dhisha/ze means Heaven and 
Earth, and it is possible that the singular may, at least in 
some passages, mean the Earth. But I cannot believe that 
this is the original meaning of the word. Originally, in 
my opinion, dhisha^A was an implement used at the sacri- 
fice, more especially at the Soma sacrifice. The adri 
(Soma-stones) are said to rest in the lap of the dhisha/za 
(I, 109, 3). In a Ya^us Mantra referring to the sacrificial 
preparation of Soma (Va^asaneyi Sawhita VI, 26) the 
dhisha/za, or more exactly the Dhisha^as, as goddesses 
(dhishaTzls- ks. devi7z), are mentioned together with the 
sacrificial fire, the waters, and the grava^a^, the stones. In 
a similar connection we find a Ya^us formula pronounced 
when the Adhvaryu began to beat the Soma plants with the 
Upa/^usavana stone (see Weber, Indische Studien, X, 370). 
There the Soma was addressed first, and then the two 
DhishaTzas : ' Do not be afraid, do not be terrified, assume 
sap (O Soma !). O two Dhisha/zas ! Being firm show firm- 
ness ! ' (Va^asaneyi Sa^hita VI, 35). Here the Satapatha 
Brahma^a (III, 9, 4, 18) says, that some authorities refer 
the last words to the two boards (phalake) on which the 
pressing-stones rest (see Hillebrandt, Ved. Mythologie, I, 
149 seq.). But the author of the Brahma/za himself declares 
that Heaven and Earth are addressed ; for as to the boards 



122 VEDIC HYMNS. 



used for pressing the Soma, it would be of no consequence if 
they were broken. — Other passages in which the dhisha^a^ 
are mentioned in connection with the preparation of the 
Soma, are Rig-veda IX, 59, 2 ; X, 17, 2. In the last passage 
' the lap of the Dh.' is mentioned as in 1, 109, 3 (see above). 
The dhisha^a was anointed, 1, 102, 1. The dhisha^S, is men- 
tioned in connection with the waters which were fetched 
by the Adhvaryus and used at the sacrifice, X, 30, 6, and 
in connection with the sacrificial fire, III, 2, 1, and in our 
passage. I have therefore no doubt that according to 
the original meaning the Dhisha^a was, as stated above, 
a sacrificial implement used chiefly, though not exclusively, 
at the pressing of the Soma. I do not venture to determine 
the exact nature of this implement, but I think that from 
the passages collected above it will be evident that it was 
a sort of support on which the pressing-stones rested. 
A similar support may have been used for the vessel 
containing the sacrificial water, and for the sacrificial fire. 
This support was considered as yielding the Soma to Indra, 
as strengthening Indra, as inciting Indra and the gods to 
liberality towards men. Thus we have a goddess Dhisha/za 
who wears the aspect of a goddess of wealth. She is invoked 
as one of the Gn&s in I, 22, 10 with Hotra Bharati. Finally 
the Earth, the support of everything, was likened to this 
support of the pressing-stones and of the Soma; and 
Heaven and Earth were then considered as the two 
Dhisha?zas. 

Note 3. Comp. above, 94, 13, note 1. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the solemn formulas of invocation, called 
Nivids, see Haug's Aitareya Br^Lhma^a, p. 32 seq. ; Weber, 
Indische Studien, IX, 355 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 387, 
note 2. Of course, the Nivids which Sankhayana (Srauta- 
sutra VIII, 16-25) gives, cannot be those to which the 
poets of the Rig-veda several times allude. 

Note 2. On Ayu as one of the mythical ancestors of 



MA2VDALA I, HYMN 96. 1 23 

mankind, nearly related to Manu, see Bergaigne, Religion 
V^dique, I, 59 seq. 

Note 3. Ushas is called vivasvati, III, 30, 13 (cf. 
Bergaigne, I, 86) ; we are justified, consequently, in trans- 
lating vivasvata Mkshasa, ( with the irradiating look/ But 
in giving this translation we should not forget that the 
poet no doubt at the same time intended to allude to the 
name of Vivasvat, the father of Yama. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The text has i/ata. Comp. above, I, 1, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Agni seems to be called Bharata as belonging 
to the people of Bharatas. Comp. H. O., ' Buddha, sein 
Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde ' (first edition), p. 414 
seq. More usually Agni is designated as Bharata. 

Note 3. Sr/pradanum. On danu, the meaning of which 
I consider to be ' rain ' or the like, comp. the discussion 
of Prof. Max Muller, vol. xxxii, 113 seq. The exact 
meaning of srzpra, which should not be compared 
with the Greek Xtirapos, cannot be determined. The 
etymology is a very unsafe guide in such questions, and 
neither the connection with the root srzp, ' to creep/ ' to 
crawl/ nor with the noun sarpis, ' butter,' seems to lead to 
a satisfactory result. The passages in which sr/pra or 
compounds of this adjective occur, point to a meaning 
like ' great/ ' mighty/ ' fine/ Thus srzprabhq£*as seems to 
be something like purubho^as or subhq^as ; Indra's arms 
(karasna) are called both srz'pra (VIII, 32, 10) and przthu 
(VI, 19, 3); finally snpradanu, which is used here as an 
epithet of Agni, and VIII, 25, 5 of Mitra and Varu?za, does 
not seem to differ very much from sudanu. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Matarii'van, the messenger of Vivasvat, who car- 
ried the fire from heaven to earth, was originally distinct 
from Agni, but is identified with him in several passages. 
See M. M., Physical Religion, p. 152; Bergaigne, Religion 
Vedique, I, 52 seq. ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 122. 



124 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. above, 95, 1, and I, 113, 2. niyadvatsa. 
The calf, of course, is Agni. 

Note 2. Literally, ' turned towards each other/ 
Note 3. The gold is again Agni. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The first Pada is identical with X, 139, 3. 

Note 2. I prefer with Ludwig to take v6k as a nomina- 
tive (comp. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, $75) instead of a 
genitive. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Compare the very obscure verse X, 31, 5. iyam 
sa bhuya ushasam iva ksha^, * may she be the earth, as it 
were, of the dawns.' ' She ' may possibly be the earth, 
which would be designated here as a dwelling-place or 
support of the dawns. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Mliller proposes another translation 
of sanara. He writes : ' One expects an opposition 
between tura and sanara. Sanara can hardly be the same 
as vtravat in the next line. I should like to take sanara as 
a variety of sana and sanatana. Give us fleeting, i. e. daily 
wealth, and give us old, i. e« lasting wealth ! ' 



MANDALA I, HYMN 97. 1 25 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 97. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 5. 

i. Driving away evil 1 with thy light, Agni, shine 
upon us with wealth — driving away evil with thy 
light. 

2. Longing for rich fields, for a free path, and 
for wealth, we sacrifice — driving away evil with 
thy light. 

3 *. When he stands forth as the most glorious 
one among them 2 , and when our liberal lords excel 
— driving away evil with thy light — 

4. When through thee, Agni, the liberal lords, 
and when through thee we may multiply with 
offspring — driving away evil with thy light — 

5. When the rays of the mighty Agni go forth 
on all sides — driving away evil with thy light — 

6. For thou indeed, (O god) whose face is turned 
everywhere, encompassest (the world) everywhere — 
driving away evil with thy light. 

7. Do thou carry us, as with a boat, across hostile 
powers, (O god) whose face is turned everywhere — 
driving away evil with thy light. 

8. Do thou carry us across (evil) to welfare, as 
across a stream with a boat 1 — driving away evil 
with thy light. 



126 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. Metre, Gayatri. The hymn is 
addressed to Agni Suki. — Verses 1-8 = AV. IV, 33, 1-8 ; 
TA. VI, 11, 1-2. Verse 1 = TA. VI, 10, 1. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Lanman (Sanskrit Reader, p. 363) translates : 
' Driving away with flames our sin/ But agha is not 
exactly sin. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. In this verse as well as in the verses 4 and 5 — 
all commencing with the words pra yat — the principal 
clauses are wanting. As to the meaning, however, these 
clauses are supplied by the refrain ; ' driving away evil ' of 
course means ' may he drive away evil.' 

Note 2. 'Among them' seems to mean 'among the 
liberal lords/ 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Cf. Lanman, p. 434. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 98. 1 27 



MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 98. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 6. 

i. May we dwell in the favour of (Agni) Vais- 
vanara. He indeed is a king, leading all beings 
to gloriousness l . As soon as born from here he 
looks over this whole world. Vaisvanara unites 
with the Sun 2 . 

2. Agni who has been looked and longed for l in 
Heaven, who has been looked for on Earth — he 
who has been looked for, has entered all herbs. 
May Agni Vamdnara, who has strongly been looked 
for, protect us from harm by day and by night. 

3. VaLsvanara ! May this be true of thee : may 
wealth and liberal givers attend us ! May Mitra 
and Varu/za grant us this, may Aditi, the Sindhu, 
the Earth, and the Sky ! 

NOTES. 

The same Rishl. Metre, TrishAibh. — Verse 1 = VS. 
XXVI, 7; TS. I, 5, 11, 3 ; MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse % =VS. 
XVIII, 73; TS. I,5,ii, 1 ; IV, 4, is, 5; 7,15, 6; TB. Ill, 
11, 6, 4; MS. 11,13, 11. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. VI, 70, 1. bhuvananam abhuriya. 
AbhLyn seems to mean, going or leading towards (abhf) 
gloriousness (syT). Prof. Pischel's opinion on the word is 
different ; see Vedische Studien, I, 53 seq. 

Note 2. As to yatate, comp. V, 4, 4. yatamana^ 
ra^mibhiyfc suryasya ; IX, 111, 3. sam ra^mibhi^ yatate 
daraata^ ratha^. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the disappearance of Agni who is looked 
for everywhere, see M. M., Physical Religion, 264 seq. ; 
Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, II, 75. 



128 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 99. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 7. 

i. Let us press Soma for Gatavedas 1 . May he 
burn down the property of the niggard 2 . May he, 
Agni, bring us across all troubles, across all difficul- 
ties, as across a stream with a boat. 



NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Ka^yapa Marina. Metre, TrishAibh. — 
Verse i = TA. X, i. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. This is one of the very rare passages in which 
Agni standing alone and not accompanied by Indra or the 
Maruts &c. is mentioned as drinking Soma. It seems as 
if this verse were not composed for the regular Soma 
sacrifice, but for a special occasion. 

Note 2. Cf. Delbrtick, Syntakt. Forschungen, I, 1 1 2. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 12 J. 129 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 127. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 12-13. 

i. I deem Agni to be the munificent Hotrz, the 
Vasu, the Son of strength 1 , (^atavedas, like a priest, 
Gatavedas 2 : the best performer of the sacrifice, the 
god who with his upright body that is turned towards 
the gods, and with his flame longs for the shine of 
the (boiling) ghee 3 , of the butter that is offered in 
(the fire). 

2. May we, the sacrificers, call thee hither, the 
best of sacrificers 1 , the first of the-Angiras, O priest, 
with our prayers, with priestly prayers, O bright 
one 2 : thee who like the heaven encompassest the 
earth 3 , the Hotri of human tribes, the manly flame- 
haired, whom these folks — whom all folks should 
favour in order to speed him (to our sacrifice). 

3. He indeed, shining mightily with his shining 
strength 1 , becomes the conqueror of deceitful foes 2 
— like an axe, the conqueror of deceitful foes 2 . 
He at whose onslaught 3 even what is strong melts 
away 4 , steady things (waste away) like forests (which 
are burnt or bend down in the storm) 5 . Conquering 
he holds himself back ; he does not proceed 6 . As 
with a conquering bow-man he proceeds 6 . 

4. Even what is firm gives way before him : thus 
it is known. With hottest kindling-sticks 1 one wor- 
ships him 2 for winning his favour, one worships Agni 
for winning his favour. He who dives into many 
forests as if carving the wood with his flame, destroys 
even firm food 3 with his strength — he destroys 
even what is firm with his strength. 

[46] K 



I3O VEDIC HYMNS, 



5. Let us place that power 1 of his in our neigh- 
bourhood 2 — (that power) which is more visible by 
night than by day 3 — (more visible) than by day to 
the unremitting 4 (worshipper). Therefore his life is 
a firm hold 5 , like (a father's) safe refuge to a son : 
(the fires) that never grow old, tending to blessings 
enjoyed or not enjoyed (before) 6 — the fires that 
never grow old, tending (to such blessings). 

6. He indeed makes a mighty noise like the host 
of the Maruts, . . . 1 on the rich fields, . . . 1 on the 
. . ,\ He, the seizer, ate the offerings 2 , he who 
has deservedly become the banner of the sacrifice. 
And when he joyously and joyfully (proceeds), all 
followed gladly on his path ; men (have followed) 
his path as for a triumphal procession. 

7. When forsooth the Kistas 1 striving for heaven, 
when the Bhr/gus have addressed him paying 
reverence — the Bhrzgus producing him by attrition, 
with worship : Agni is the lord of goods, the bright 
one, who is their 2 supporter. May the wise one 
accept the wonted coverings 3 ; may the wise one 
accept them. 

8. We invoke thee, the lord of all people, the 
common master of the house of all, to enjoy (the 
sacrifice) : (we call) thee who truly art carried by 
prayers as by a vehicle 1 to enjoy (the sacrifice): the 
guest of men in whose presence (they live) as before 
a father's (face), and all those immortals (attain) to 
strength, and the offerings among the gods (attain) 
to strength. 

9. Thou, O Agni, art born, the mightiest by 
might \ for the divine world, the strongest one, like 
wealth for the divine world. For thy delight is 
most strong, and thy power is most brilliant. And 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN I 2 7. 131 

they walk around thee 2 , O (god) who never growest 
old, like obedient (servants), O (god) who never 
growest old. 

10. Let your praise go forth to the great Agni, 
who is mighty in his might, who awakens at dawn, 
like a winner of cattle 1 — let it go forth to Agni. 
When (the worshipper) rich in offerings has loudly 
praised him 2 in all lands 3 , he wakes 4 like a singer in 
front of the dawns 5 , the flaming one (?), the Hotrz 
(in front) of the dawns 5 . 

11. Thus being seen by us, bring near to us, 
O Agni, graciously united with the gods, benig- 
nantly, great wealth benignantly. Make us behold 
great (bliss of valiant offspring 1 ), O mightiest one, 
that we may obtain such enjoyment. Produce great 
bliss of valiant offspring, O bountiful Lord, (as fire 
is produced) by attrition, for those who praise thee, 
like a strong hero in thy might. 

NOTES. 

The Rzshi is Paru££/zepa Daivodasi, the metre Atyash/i 
(verse 6 Atidhrzti). — Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 11 63-1 165. 
Verse 1 = SV. I, 465 5 VS. XV, 47 ; TS. IV, 4, 4, 8 ; 
MS. II, 13, 8 ; AV. XX, 67, 3. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. There is no doubt that the reading of the 
Rig-veda text vasum is correct ; the Sama-veda has vasoA. 
Comp. H. O., Prolegomena, p. 280. 

Note 2. 'Is it a play on the word ? Like a priest 
knowing all things ? y M. M. 

Note 3. There is a metrical irregularity in this Pada ; it 
has six syllables instead of five before the caesura. The 
text, however, seems to be correct. 

K 2 



132 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. The first Pada is Trish/ubh instead of Gagati. 
It would be easy to correct huvemahi, but that form is 
never found in the Rig-veda, though both huvema and 
havamahe are frequent. Thus it is very probable that we 
have here a metrical irregularity of the type described by 
H. O., Prolegomena, p. 117. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 60, 3. viprebhi/i sukra, manmabhi^. 

Note 3. If the explanation of pari^man which we have 
adopted (see above, I, 79, 3, note 2) is correct, it will be 
impossible, of course, to accept Bergaigne's opinion (Rel. 
Ved., II, 505, note 1) that the accusative dyam is governed 
by pari^manam. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. In the second Pada one syllable is wanting. 
The text seems to be correct, and the irregularity apparently 
is the typical one described by H. O., Prolegomena, 
p. 68 seq. : the Pada has the tetrasyllable beginning (before 
the caesura), and it goes on as if the beginning had been 
pentasyllabic. Several Padas of the same irregular 
structure occur in our hymn, thus in verse 9 : tvam (read 
tuam) agne ll sahasa sahantama^ ; verse 10 : pra va/2 mahe 
11 sahasa sahasvate ; usha^-biidhe 11 pa^u-se na agnaye. 

Note 2. The comparison para^ii^ na, ' like an axe/ raises 
doubts as to the correctness of druham-tara^. Para^ii^ 
seems to point to a compound containing the element drii, 
'wood;' comp. below, 130, 4; VII, 104, 21. The second 
member of the compound would be han, which is frequently 
used with the meaning of cutting wood (II, 14, 2 ; X, 89, 7). 
Thus the reading would be dru-hantara^ (comp. vrz'tra- 
hantama^), l a mighty wood-cutter/ As to this use of the 
comparative, see Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 196. 

Note 3. Comp. V, 7, 2. yasya samrz'tau. 

Note 4. Prof. Max Miiller (Science of Thought, p. 325) 
believes that the root sru occurs here in the sense of 
shaking. To me it seems that this jruvat is a misspelling 



MAiVJDALA I, HYMN I 2 7. 1 33 

for sruvat. The opinion of Pischel and Geldner (Vedische 
Studien, I, p. vi) is different. 

Note 5. The meaning of the comparison which I have 
indicated by the words in parentheses, becomes clear from 
VIII, 40, 1. vana-iva vate it. 

Note 6. The two last Padas are very obscure. In the 
last Pada but one na would seem to be comparative, not 
negative, because it has the same meaning in the last Pada, 
and because its vowel does not coalesce with the following 
initial vowel (comp. Benfey's dissertation, ' Behandlung des 
auslautenden a in na " wie " und na " nicht." ' But then 
instead of yamate a substantive meaning something like 
' hero ' would be required. And also instead of the in- 
strumental dhanva-saha one should expect to find a nomi- 
native; comp. Benfey, Vedica und Linguistica, p. 180, 
note 1. — Prof. Max Muller translates: 'Holding out (or 
resisting) he stands firm, he does not budge ; holding his 
bow he does not budge.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The words t6g\shthdibh.\k arambhi^ are repeated, 
probably by the same poet, below, 129, 5. 

Note 2. It may be observed that several times in the 
Paru^Mepa hymns the parallelism between two subsequent 
Padas has corrupted the text, the reading of the one Pada 
being wrongly introduced into the other. For instances 
I refer to I, 129, 11, where the last vaso has been added 
from the preceding Pada, and to the last Pada but one of 
I, 135, 4. Possibly our Pada, which in its traditional form 
is metrically abnormal (comp., however, M. M.'s Hymns to 
the MarutSj 1st ed., p. cxii), has suffered damage in the 
same way. The comparison of I, 129, 5 would lead us to 
conjecture : tigishthsbhik ara^ibhi^ na avase. i One wor- 
ships him in order that he may grant his favour as if (he 
were to help us) with hottest kindling-sticks. One worships 
Agni in order that he may grant his favour.' 

Note 3. Comp. IV, 7, 10. sthira kit anna dayate vi 
^•ambhai^. The food is the wood which Agni consumes. 



134 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 5. 

Note 1. See Prof, von Roth's translation of this verse, 
Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 117. On 
przksham, comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 302 ; Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, p. 96 seq. The translation of such a word can 
only be tentative. 

Note 2. To liparasu something like vikshii (IV, 37, 3) 
seems to be supplied. 

Note 3. Comp. the Latin expression, 'argutius quam 
verius. , Pischel, Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1884, p. 516 
seq.; Delbriick. Altindische Syntax, p. 196. 

Note 4. Aprayus seems to be an anomalous formation, 
instead of aprayu, unless we have to read aprayuve. Ac- 
cording to Pischel (Gottinger Gel. Anzeigen, 1890, p. 542), 
aprayushe would mean 'dem der da lebt.' But I do not 
think that this aprayus should be separated from aprayu, 
which, as may be seen from I, 89, 1 compared with III, 
5, 6 and X, 4, 7, is identical in meaning with, and evidently 
etymologically related to, aprayu^Mant. 

Note 5. Grabha/zavat is the contrary of agrabha^a, I, 
116,5. 

Note 6. Comp. Ill, 30, 7. abhaktam £it bha^-ate. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Ludwig : ' in den bebauten fluren zu verehren, 
auf den wiisten flachen zu verehren/ Prof. Max Mliller 
observes with regard to ish/ani/* : ' it stani/z, or ish 4- stani/z 
(ish-karta), much thundering.' For artana he proposes the 
translation, 'ploughed field.' I have left both words un- 
translated. 

Note 2. Adat is imperfect of ad ; there is a play upon 
words (adat and a-dadi/£). 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. Who the Kistas (cf. Lanman, p. 346) are is not 
known. They seem, however, either to be identical with 
the Bhrigus or to be another ancient and probably mythical 
family of priests like them. They are mentioned also in 
VI, 67, 10. 



MAA7)ALA I, HYMN 12 J. 1 35 

Note 2. ' Their ' refers to ' goods.' 

Note 3. The fuel and libations with which Agni is 
covered ? 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Vahas and its compounds, such as stomavahas, 
ukthavahas, girvahas, have been treated of by Dr. Neisser 
in his ingenious article on vahni, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XVIII, 301 seq. (comp. on vahni, vol. xxxii, p. 37 seq.). 
Dr. Neisser tries to show that by the side of vahni, derived 
from vah = Latin vehere, and meaning 'draught-horse' (and 
besides — though Dr. Neisser does not admit this, see p. 316 
— ' a person that drives in a chariot '), there existed a second 
substantive vahni connected with the Greek ev^eo-Oai, and 
meaning both 'erhaben' and 'erhebend,' i.e. praising the 
gods (loc. cit., p. 314). With this second vahni he connects 
vahas and its compounds. One of the principal arguments 
of Dr. Neisser is the fact quite correctly stated by him 
(p. 301), that 'the word vahni very frequently associates 
itself to the term hotrz, while it does not with the com- 
pounds havyavah and havyavahana/ This fact, indeed, 
points to the conclusion that 'those compounds belong 
to another sphere of ideas than vahni' (p. 302). But 
Dr. Neisser seems to me to go too far in concluding that 
vahni, standing as an epithet of Agni, is not derived from 
vah = vehere. Agni's action consists not only in carrying 
the sacrificial food to the gods, but also in carrying the 
gods to the sacrifice of men, and in coming to that sacrifice 
himself with his chariot and his horses. Nor do the words 
stomavahas or ukthavahas, if derived from vah = vehere, 
necessarily presuppose the admissibility of expressions such 
as ' uktham (stomam) vahati vipra/£ devan akk/ia. ' (p. 303), 
but those compounds may also rest on an idea conveyed 
by expressions such as ' uktham (stomal) vahati devan upa 
yagn&mj which idea is quite Vedic. Thus stomavahas in 
my opinion means, as an epithet of the god, ' carried by 
the stoma as by a vehicle' (comp. VII, 24, 5. esha stomal 
mahe ugraya vahe dhun-iva atya^ na va^ayan adhayi), or, 
as an epithet of the human worshippers, 'fitting out the 



I36 VEDIC HYMNS. 



stoma as a vehicle.' I believe that the words in question 
can thus be explained in conformity with the whole range 
of Vedic thought, and the artificial distinction of two differ- 
ent substantives vahni, &c, will be avoided. For special 
indications pointing in the same direction, which are 
furnished by the passages which contain the words here 
treated of, I refer to Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 
286 seq., and to the article of Dr. Neisser himself, p. 321 
seq. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. On the metrical irregularity, see above, verse 3, 
note 1. 

Note 2. Te seems to stand for the accusative, comp. 
Pischel, Zeitschrift der D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 
714 seq.; Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 205. Or may 
the meaning be: 'and thy (worshippers) walk around 
thee . . . like obedient (servants) ? ' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the metre, see above, verse 3, note 1. Prof. 
Max Muller translates, ' like a hunter for cattle. 5 

Note 2. The phrase vfovasu kshasu ^xSguve occurs also, 
V, 64, 2. The same hymn contains the word su-£etuna, 
which is found in the eleventh verse of our hymn. 

Note 3. Literally, ' on all earths.' Comp. X, 2, 6. nrzvitik 
anu ksha'A. 

Note 4. Carate, ' he wakes/ at the same time can mean 
'he sings/ and 'he is praised.' Comp. Neisser, Bezzen- 
berger's Beitrage, XIII, 298. 

Note 5. The translation ' dawn ' is conjectural only. But 

it gives a good meaning in all the passages which contain 

the word rzshu/zam (besides our passage, V, 25, 1 ; VIII, 

71, 15 ; X, 6, 1). Prof. Max Muller translates the last two 

Padas : ' he sings like Rebha at the head of all singers, 

like a clever Hotri among the singers.' — Comp. Lanman, 

p. 424. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. I supply suviiyam ; see the last P£da but one. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 1 28. 137 

MAJVZ?ALA I, HYMN 128. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 14-15. 

i. He was born in Manu's firm law 1 , the Hotrt, 
the best sacrificer, according to the will of the Usigs 2 , 
Agni, according to his own will. Always listening 
to him who wishes to be his friend, like a treasure 
to him who aspires to renown, the unbeguiled Hotri 
sat down in the abode of food (on the altar) ; en- 
veloped 3 (he sat down) in the abode of food. 

2. We render him attentive 1 , the promoter of 
sacrifice, on the path of i?zta, by adoration with 
offerings, in the divine world, by (adoration) with 
offerings 2 . In bringing us vigour he never becomes 
worn out with this body of his : he whom Mata- 
risvan (has brought) to Manu from afar, the god 
whom he has brought from afar. 

3. In his (own) way he moves in one moment 
round the terrestrial (space), the sudden devourer 
(emitting) his sperm, the bellowing bull emitting his 
sperm, the bellower 1 , looking round with a hundred 
eyes, the god who quickly courses in the forests 2 , 
taking his seat on the lower ridges, Agni, and on 
the highest ridges. 

4. This highly wise Purohita, Agni watches sac- 
rifice and service 1 house by house; by (the power 
of) his mind he is intent upon sacrifice. By (the 
power of) his mind helpful to him who desires food 2 , 
he looks on all creatures, since he has been born, the 
guest adorned with ghee, (since) the helpful carrier 
(of the gods) 3 has been born. 



I38 VEDIC HYMNS. 



5. When through his (Agni's) power the bounties 
grow in strength, with the roar of Agni l as with 
that of the Maruts 2 — like bounties offered to a 
vigorous man : then he by his greatness stirs up 
the gift of goods. May he protect us from misfor- 
tune and injury, from evil spell and injury. 

6. The far-reaching 1 steward 2 has taken all goods 3 
in his right hand, and strongly advancing does not 
let them loose ; desirous of glory he does not let 
them loose. For every supplicant 4 thou hast carried 
the oblations to the gods 5 . For every righteous 
one he procures a treasure ; Agni opens both folds 
of the door (for him). 

7. He has been established as the most blissful 
one in the enclosures of men, Agni, at the sacrifices, 
like a noble lord of the clans, a beloved lord of the 
clans at the sacrifices : he rules over the oblations of 
men to which nourishing power has been imparted \ 
May he protect us from harm that comes from 
Varu/za, from harm 2 that comes from the great god. 

8. They magnify Agni the Hotrz, the dispenser 
of goods. They have roused the beloved, the most 
shining steward 1 (of sacrifice) ; they have roused the 
carrier of oblations. The gods desirous of goods 
(have roused) him in whom all life dwells, who pos- 
sesses all wealth, the Hotrz, the worshipful sage, the 
lovely one for the sake of bliss ; with praises (they 
have roused), desirous of goods, the lovely one. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre. — Verse 6 = TB. II, 5, 4, 4. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 1 28. I 39 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. As to dharimam, comp. IX, 86, 4, where it is 
said that the streams of Soma flow forward, ' dharima/zi ; ' 
Bergaigne, III, 319. ' Domain, precinct, sanctuary? ' M. M. 

Note 2. The U-ri^as (comp. above, I, 60, 2, note 1) are 
closely related to the Bhrzgus ; they are considered as the 
first sacrificers, the first worshippers of Agni. See Ber- 
gaigne, I, 57 seq. 

Note 3. Enveloped in fuel and libations. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. M. M.'s note, vol xxxii, p. 437. 
Note 2. Comp. Lanman, pp. 516, 518. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller translates the second and third 
Padas : l again and again shouting, bellowing forth his sperm, 
yea, placing his sperm with bellowing.' 

Note 2. Of course the fuel is alluded to. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Ya^Tzasya adhvarasya, ' sacrifice and service ; ' 
comp. above, I, 1, 4, note 1. 

Note 2. The translation is doubtful. If the denominative 
ishuy is derived from ishu, the meaning must be ' to fly like 
an arrow,' or possibly 'to shoot arrows.' But I do not 
think that the poet can have meant to say that Agni acts 
as a vedha^ and looks on all creatures ' for him who flies 
like an arrow,' or ' for him who shoots arrows/ We should 
rather have to write ishuyate without accent, so that the 
translation would be : 'By (the power of) his mind helpful 
(Agni) flies like an arrow ; he looks on all creatures ' (comp. 
VI, 3, 5, where it is said that Agni shoots arrows). But 
possibly ishuy, which is found only here, may be a synonym 
of ishudhy, see verse 6. It may be a denominative from 
ish, influenced by the type of verbs like riguy, kratuy, 



I40 VEDIC HYMNS. 



vasuy, &c. Then the accent can be retained, and the 
translation would be as given in the text ('to him who 
desires food'). 

Note 3. On vahni, comp. above, I, 127, 8, note 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The cerebral n in ave^a clearly points to the cor- 
rection of the text agne/£ rave^a. 

Note 2. The Maruts are called bho^-a'/z, V, 53, 16 (stuhi 
bho^an, 'praise the liberal ones'). Here we have the 
corresponding abstract noun. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Vihayas (comp. Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, III, 
287) seems to be formed like vimahas, vi^etas, vimanas. 
The meaning then will be 'of extended hayas.' The 
substantive hayas, which is not found in the texts separ- 
ately, may be derived from ^-fhite or from hinoti, and mean 
something like ' energy.' At all events it seems impossible 
to connect this adjective vihayas with the substantive 
vihayas, 'the aerial space,' belonging to the classical lan- 
guage. 

Note 2. Comp. the remark above, I, 58, 7, note 2. 

Note 3. I propose to read visva. vi-hayM arati^ vasu 
dadhe haste dakshme. Comp. IX, 18, 4. a ykh vuvani 
varya vasuni hastayo^ dadhe. 

Note 4. Comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 191. 

Note 5. Comp. VIII, 19, 1. devatra havyam ohire. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. I/a krzta seems to be identical with ishkrzta. 
Note 2. Regarding the metre, comp. Lanman, p. 383. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Comp. I, 58, 7, note 1. 



M AND ALA I, HYMN I40. 141 

MAiV7?ALA I, HYMN 140. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 5-7. 

i. For him who sits on the Vedi (i.e. on the 
sacrificial bed), whose foundations are pleasant, for 
the brilliant Agni bring forward 1 a receptacle 2 , which 
is to him like a drink. Clothe 1 the bright one in 
prayer as in a garment, him whose chariot is light, 
whose colour is bright, the destroyer of darkness. 

2. He who has a twofold birth 1 , presses on 
towards the threefold food 2 ; what he has eaten 
grows again after a year 3 . With the mouth and the 
tongue of the one he (shows himself as) the noble, 
manly one ; with the other (mouth) the stubborn 
(Agni) wipes off the trees 4 . 

3. Both his mothers 1 , dwelling together, immersed 
in darkness, and affrighted, proceed towards the 
young child who stretches forward his tongue, who 
sparkling moves about thirstily, whom men should 
attach to themselves, who agitates (the world), the 
increaser of his father 2 . 

4. Thy speedy (teams) 1 that strive to break loose 
for the benefit of the man who acts as men do, the 
swift ones, drawing black furrows — thy quick (horses), 
striving apart, the agile, swift runners, incited by the 
wind, are yoked. 

5. When he stroking his wide course proceeds 
panting, thundering, roaring, then those sparkling 
(rays) of his fly about wildly, displaying wondrous 
darkness, a large sight 1 . 

6. When he bends down over the brown (plants) x 
like a busy (servant), he roars and approaches his 



142 VEDIC HYMNS. 



wives like a bull. Displaying his power he adorns 
his bodies with beauty ; like a terrible beast, difficult 
to seize, he shakes his horns. 

7. He clasps (the plants, &c.) that have been laid 
together and have been laid out 1 . Knowing them, 
while they know him, and being their own (friend or 
lover) he lies on them. They grow again and 
attain godhead. They produce together another 
shape of the parents 2 . 

8. The long-haired virgins 1 have embraced him. 
Having died they stand upright again for him (Agni) 
the living one (or, for him the Ayu). Delivering 
them of old age he proceeds roaring, procreating 
another vital spirit, an indestructible life. 

9. Licking everywhere the upper garment of the 
mother 1 , he spreads himself over the space with his 
mightily devouring warriors, giving strength to 
everything that has feet, licking and licking. The 
reddish white one 2 follows her ways 3 . 

10. Shine, O Agni, among our liberal lords, for 
thou art a mightily breathing bull, a friend of the 
house. Throwing down the (mothers) of the young 
child 1 thou hast shone, (a protector of thy friends) 
like a coat of mail in battles, hurrying around. 

11. May this well-composed (prayer), O Agni, be 
more welcome to thee than a badly-composed one — 
more welcome than even a welcome prayer. With 
the bright light of thy body win thou treasures 
for us. 

12. Grant us, Agni, for our chariot and for our 
house a ship which has its own rudders and which 
has feet 1 , which may save our strong men and our 
liberal lords and our people, and which may be 
a shelter for us. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN I40. 1 43 

13. Approve, O Agni, our hymn alone. May 
Heaven and Earth and the Rivers, delightful by 
their own nature 1 , going their way 2 , (choose for us) 
bliss in cows and crops, long days ; may the red 
(Dawns) choose food for us as a choice boon. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Dirghatamas Au^athya, the metre Gagati ; 
the two last verses are Trish/ubh (comp. above the note on 
the metre of I, 94) ; the tenth verse, which is considered as 
either Gagati or TrishAibh, begins with one £agati Pada 
which is followed by three Padas in Trish/ubh. — No verse 
occurs in the other Sa^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Pra bhara (Padap. pra bhara) and vasaya (Padap. 
vasaya) may be 1st person. 

Note 2. Possibly the ' womb ' or ' receptacle ' (yoni) here 
means ghrzta or the like, for it is said of Agni that ' his 
womb is ghrzta' (II, 3, 11), and he is called ghritayonik. 
This receptacle 'is to him like a drink/ because he con- 
sumes the ghrzta by which he is surrounded. 

"Verse 2. 

Note 1. The terrestrial and the celestial birth. Comp. 
Bergaigne, I, 28 seq. 

Note 2. Bergaigne (I, 29) translates : ' . . . s'elance trois 
fois sur la nourriture/ which he explains as referring to 
* the three sacrifices of the morning, the midday, and the 
evening/ But tri-vr/t clearly is an epithet of annam, not 
an adverb. The explanation of S&ya/za, who understands 
the threefold food as sacrificial butter, sacrificial cakes 
(puro^ara), and Soma, may be correct. 

Note 3. On the locative sa^vatsare, comp. Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 117. 



144 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 4. The last words evidently refer to Agni's tongue, 
i.e. his flames, wiping off as it were the firewood. But it 
is not clear what the tongue of the other one is. Saya^a 
thinks of the sacrificial spoon conceived as the tongue of 
the officiating priest : which is very artificial, but perhaps 
not too artificial for a verse like this. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The 'two mothers' of Agni may be the two 
worlds (comp. Bergaigne, I, 238) or the two kindling-sticks. 
— Ubha (masc.) instead of ubhe is to be remarked. 

Note 2. Agni . increases the wealth of the worshipper 
who has lighted the fire and may thus be considered as 
Agni's father. Comp. 5atapatha Brahma/za XII, 5, 2, 15. 
Or the father may be Heaven; on Agni as imparting 
strength to Heaven, see I, 164, 51. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The verse begins with feminines ; the gxxvdik 
(comp. I, 134, 1), literally the quick ones, seem to be 
something like the niyuta^ of Agni. Then follow mascu- 
lines ; the horses of Agni are male (comp. Bergaigne, I, 

I 43)- 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. bhuri varpa^ karikrat, III, 58, 9. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The brown ones, according to Saya«a, are the 
plants. They are called brown (babhru) also in X, 97, 1. 
' Are they the dry leaves in which the spark is caught ? ' 
M. M. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller translates sawstira^ vishrira^, 
' (the flames) that are together and apart.' 

Note 2. The parents seem to be Heaven and Earth, as 
Sayaf/a explains. — Possibly pitro^ depends on saM (comp. 



MANDA1LA I, HYMN I4O. I45 

pitro/fc sa£a, II, 17, 7; IV, 5, 10), 'being with their 
parents they produce a new shape.' Prof. Max Miiller 
translates: 'They produce together a different shape of 
their parents.' 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Should not the plants again be referred to? 
' I think it refers to the ^*valas, the flames that are hidden 
under the ashes and are lighted again.' M. M. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The mother is the Earth whose surface Agni 
licks. 

Note 2. I believe the Dawn is alluded to whom the 
Vedic poets represent now as preceding Agni, now as 
following him. See Bergaigne, II, pp. 14, 15. 

Note 3. For vartanir aha of the Sa^hitapa^a the Pada- 
pa/^a has vartani^ aha ; comp. Rig-veda PratLrakhya, 
Sutra 259. Vartanir of course is correct. Comp. X, 
172, 1. gava^ sa^anta vartanim. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The mothers of the young child are very 
probably the mothers of Agni represented as a young child. 
They may be the Waters which Agni leaves resting on 
the surface of the earth while he himself rises to heaven. 
Or the mothers may be the woods or plants which he 
burns and thus throws them down as it were. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. ' Which has feet in its own rudders,' M. M. 
That the ship has feet seems to mean only that it has the 
faculty of moving forward freely and quickly, and not that 
any real beings having feet are designated by this com- 
parison. The ship that carries the worshippers across all 
dangers, is the protection and help which Agni grants, or 
the sacrifice which he helps to perform. 
[46] L 



I46 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 13. 

Note 1. Comp. Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 275. 

Note 2. Yanta^ seems to be corrupt; one or two 
syllables are wanting. Something like yatayantaA (IX, 
39, 2) or vardhayanta^, or, as Prof. Max Miiller proposes, 
vyantaA would do. He translates: 'May Heaven and 
Earth and the Rivers . . . accepting (vyanta^) sacrifices of 
milk and corn choose for us, and may the Dawns choose 
for us food as a boon for many days.' — Cf. Lanman, 
PP- 5io, 539- 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 141. 1 47 

MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 141. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 8-9. 

i. Lo, that beautiful splendour of the god, when 
he was born of strength, has truly come to be 
a wondrous sight. Though he slinks away 1 , the 
prayer goes straight to him 2 . They have led 
forward the flowing streams of Rita.. 

2. The powerful one 1 , rich in food, the true (friend 
of men) has entered the wondrous (body) 2 . His 
second (form of existence) is in the seven kind 
mothers 3 . The ten young females 4 have brought 
the third (form) of this bull forth, him the guar- 
dian, in order to milk him. 

3. When the rulers, the liberal lords brought him 
forth by their power out of the depth, out of the 
buffalo's shape 1 , when from of old 2 at the purifica- 
tion of the sweet drink 3 M&tarisvan produces the 
hidden one (i.e. Agni) by attrition — 

4. When he is led forward from the highest 
father 1 , he climbs up the . . . 2 , the plants in his (or, 
in their ?) houses. When 3 both (Heaven and Earth 
or the two Ara/zis ?) promote his birth, then the 
youngest one became bright by his heat 4 . 

5. Then he entered upon the mothers 1 in whom 
he the bright one grew up far and wide unimpaired 2 . 
When he has climbed up to the former (mothers) 
who from of old incite (him) 3 , he runs down in the 
younger, later (or, nearer) ones. 

6 1 . Then in the strivings for the day 2 they choose 
him Hotri. As if to swell their good fortune they 

l 2 



I48 VEDIC HYMNS. 



strive towards him 3 , when praised by many he moves 
everywhere with wisdom and power to the gods and 
to the praise of mortals 4 for (bringing them) refresh- 
ing drink. 

7. When he has scattered himself, the worshipful 
one, driven by the wind, like . . .*, with the sound 
(which he produces) (?), he whom it is not possible 
to drive to a place (like cattle) : on the flight of the 
burning one who speeds on his black way, whose 
birth is bright, who strays everywhere to the 
atmosphere . . . 2 

8. Like a chariot that goes forward, he goes to 
Heaven with his ruddy limbs, adorned with his 
locks of flames 1 . Then his black (clouds of smoke), 
O burning one(?), the liberal ones (?) (appear) 2 . 
The birds flee as before the fierceness of a hero 3 . 

9. Through thee indeed, O Agni, Varima whose 
laws are firm, Mitra and Aryaman, the givers of 
good rain, are glorious, when thou the mighty one 
hast been born, everywhere encompassing with 
wisdom (all beings), as the felly encompasses the 
spokes of a wheel. 

10. Thou, O Agni, youngest (god), furtherest 
treasures and (the friendship of) the gods for him 
who performs worship, who presses Soma. May we 
thus establish thee the young one, O young (son) of 
strength, possessor of great treasures, like the winner 
in a race \ 

11. Make good fortune 1 swell for us like well- 
employed wealth belonging to the house, and like 
firm ability 2 — (fortune) which can hold both races 3 
like reins : and being full of good-will in (the sphere 
of) JRzta., (fill our) praise of the gods (with rich 
reward). 



MAAT.DALA I, HYMN 141. 1 49 

12. And may the brilliant, joyful Hotrz with quick 
horses, with a shining chariot hear us. May he, the 
wise Agni, lead us on the best leading (paths) to 
happy welfare and to bliss. 

13. Agni has been praised with powerful 1 songs, 
he who has been brought forward furthermore for 
sovereignty. May both those our liberal lords and 
we ourselves spread out 2 (our power over all foes) 
as the sun (spreads out its light and by it destroys) 
the mist. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi. The metre is Gagati ; the two last 
verses again are TrishAibh. — None of its verses occurs in 
the other Sa/^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that if Agni be un- 
willing to officiate at the sacrifice, the prayer nevertheless 
reaches its aim and induces him to do his duty as the 
divine Hotri. 

'Note 2. The verb sadh is very frequently connected with 
substantives such as dhiya^ or the like. Comp. also ma- 
tinam ka. sadhanam, X, 26, 4. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. It seems probable that przkshik is the nomina- 
tive of przksha, and not the genitive of przksh. Comp. 
VI, 8, 1, where it is said of Agni 'przkshasya vrhhnak 
arushasya.' On the meaning of przkshd, see above, I, 137, 
5, note 1. 

Note 2. The poet seems clearly to describe the second 
and third form of Agni's existence, his dwelling in the 
waters and his birth from the fire-sticks. But he is less 
explicit with regard to the first form. The epithet pitu- 



I50 VEDIC HYMNS. 



ma'n would seem to point to Agni as the sacrificial fire 
and the receiver of offerings. But it is rather strange that 
this form of the god should be distinguished from the 
Agni procreated by the ten females, i.e. produced by the 
ten fingers, by the attrition of the kindling-sticks. — Prof. 
Max Miiller differs from me in referring the words da\?a- 
pramatim ^anayanta yosha/za^, not to the third form of 
Agni, but to Agni in general. He translates: 'The powerful 
one, rich in food, rests always on that wondrous sight 
(Agni on the altar, garhapatya Agni). The second rests 
in the seven kind mothers (vidyudrupa ; Agni in the 
clouds) ; the third is for milking the powerful one (Agni 
as the sun, adityarupa) — the ten maidens (the fingers) have 
brought forth the guardian/ 

Note 3. Grassmann no doubt is right in proposing to 
read sapta jivasu. Of course the waters are alluded to. 

Note 4. Read dcUa pramatim (Boehtlingk-Roth). On 
Agni as the son of the ten fingers, comp. Bergaigne, II, 7. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The buffalo Agni was hidden in the depth. 
Comp. X, 8, 1. apam upa-sthe mahisha/z vavardha ; I, 95, 9. 
budhnam vi-r6/£amanam mahishasya dhama. 

Note 2. The preposition anu seems to stand here with 
an ablative (pra-diva^). 

Note 3. The literal meaning of madhva^ a-dhave is 
indicated by passages such as I, 109, 4. a dhavatam ma- 
dhuna; IX, 11, 5. madhav a dhavata madhu. Comp. also 
adhavaniya. On the washing of the Soma which is techni- 
cally designated by the verb a-dhav, see H. O., Gottinger 
Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1890, p. 426 seq. ; Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, I, 216. — The purification of the sweet drink, 
at which Agni is produced, was probably achieved by the 
tempest. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The highest father is Heaven. 

Note 2. The meaning of prz'kshudha/z is unknown. 



M AND ALA I, HYMN I4I. I 5 1 

Note 3. Yat is repeated twice, as yasya in X, 121, 2. 
yasya visve upa-asate pra-^isham yasya deva^. 

Note 4. On ghr//za, comp. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 335. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The mothers are the Waters. 

Note 2. The reading, very probably, ought to be vi- 
vavrzdhe. 

Note 3. Boehtlingk-Roth believe that the reading ought 
to be sanayuva^ or sana-^ura^. Sana-^ira^ (cf. sana-^iira 
pitara, IV, 36, 3) seems to me quite possible, although 
there is no positive necessity for abandoning the traditional 
reading. — The 'former' mothers may be the heavenly 
Waters; the mothers in whom Agni runs down are the 
rivers. Prof. Max Muller adds that the former mothers 
may possibly be * the burnt pieces of wood. Agni runs up 
in them, then leaves them to burn new pieces.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On the whole verse, compare Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, 317. 

Note 2. Comp. above, I, 45, 7, note 1. 

Note 3. The second Pada is translated by Pischel : ' Wie 
in einen Konig drangen sie in ihn, wenn sie (Trank)opfer 
darbringen.' But verse 1 1 shows that bhagam depends on 
papr/£anasa^. 

Note 4. Comp. Ill, 16, 4. a deveshu ... a samse uta 
nrzVzam. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The translation of hvara^ is quite uncertain. 
The same must be said of the rest of this Pada. 
Note 2. The sentence is incomplete. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On ^fkvan (or .nkvas), comp. M. M.'s note, vol. 
xxxii, p. 318; Hubschmann, Vocalsystem, p. 186. The 
translation is only tentative. — Two syllables are wanting ; 



152 VEDIC HYMNS. 



we may propose a reading like .n'kvabhi^ parishkrzta^ 
(comp. H. O., Prolegomena, 76, note 3). 

Note 2. This passage is most obscure. The first words 
of the Pada are the same as above, 140, 5. The ' black 
ones ' probably are the dark clouds of smoke that surround 
Agni. But it is very strange that these clouds should be 
designated as siiraya/z, ' liberal ones.' And the vocative (?) 
dakshi (Padapa/^a dhakshi), instead of which we should at 
least expect daksho or dakshin, is no less strange. The 
text seems thoroughly corrupt. 

Note 3. See Lanman, p. 557. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Comp. Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 121. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Comp. above, verse 6, Pada 2. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 24, 14. daksham prinkintsim. 

Note 3. The human and the divine race. I do not 
believe that Dr. Neisser (Zur Vedischen Verballehre, 17) is 
right in interpreting yamati as an indicative. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The translation of .rimivadbhi^ is only tentative. 
Siml (I, 151, 1 ) cannot be identical with s&mi. 

Note 2. Ni^ tatanyu^ (ni'sh /atanyu^, Sa^hitap&//*a) of 
course is derived from tan, not from stan. Comp. I, 105, 
12. satydm tatana surya^ ; IV, 5, 13. sura^ var^ena tatanan 
ushasa/z, &c. 



MA2VDALA I, HYMN 142. 1 53 

MANDALA I, HYMN 142. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 10-11. 

Apr! Hymn. 

i. Being inflamed, Agni, bring hither to-day the 
gods to the man who holds forth the (sacrificial) 
ladle. Spin out the ancient thread (of sacrifice) * 
for the sacrificer who has prepared Soma. 

2. Measure out, O Tanunapat 1 , the sacrifice rich in 
ghee, rich in honey, of a priest like me, of a sacrificer 
who has toiled hard. 

3. The brilliant, purifying, wonderful NanLrawsa * 
mixes the sacrifice with honey three times a day, 
the god worthy of worship among the gods. 

4. Agni, magnified 1 by us, bring hither the 
bright, beloved Indra. For this my prayer is 
addressed 2 to thee whose tongue is good. 

5. (Priests) hold forth the (sacrificial) ladle, 
strewing the sacrificial grass at the decorous service 
of the sacrifice; — I * trim 2 (the sacrificial grass) which 
best receives the gods with its wide extent, a big 
shelter for Indra. 

6 1 . May the divine doors open themselves, the 
increasers of Rita., the never sticking, large ones, 
the purifying, much-desired (doors), that the gods 
may come forth. 

7. May Night and Dawn, of glorious appearance, 
the two neighbouring (goddesses), wearing beautiful 
ornaments 1 , the young 2 mothers of Ri\a. y sit down 
together on the sacrificial grass 3 . 

8. May the two divine Hotris, eager in praising 
(the gods), the sages with lovely tongues, perform 



154 VEDIC HYMNS. 



for us to-day this successful sacrifice which attains 
to Heaven. 

9. The brilliant (goddess) placed among the gods, 
among the Maruts 1 , Hotra Bh&rati 2 , I/a, Sarasvati, 
and Mahf 3 : may these worshipful (goddesses) sit 
down on the sacrificial grass. 

10. May Tvash/rz, inclined towards us, pour forth 
for us, in our navel 1 , that wonderful seed with many 
treasures 2 , plentiful by itself, for the sake of pros- 
perity and wealth 3 . 

11. Letting go (the sacrificial food to the gods) 
sacrifice by thyself to the gods, O tree 1 . May 2 
Agni make the offerings ready 3 , the god among the 
gods, the wise one. 

12. For Him who is accompanied by Pfishan and 
by the Maruts, by the Visve deva^, (by) Vayu 1 , 
who is moved by the Gayatra song, for Indra pro- 
nounce the Svaha over the offering. 

13. Come hither to the offerings over which the 
Svaha has been pronounced, in order to feast. 
Indra! Come hither! Hear our call! Thee they 
call at the worship. 



NOTES. 

The hymn is an Aprisukta. The same Rishi. Metre, 
Anush/ubh. The whole hymn is closely related to I, 13. — 
Verse 10: cf. VS. XXVII, 20 ; TS. IV, 1, 8, 3 ; MS. II, 
12, 6. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The third Pada of this verse is identical with 
VIII, 13, 14- 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 13, 2, note 1. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 1 42. 1 55 



Verse 3. 
Note 1. Comp. I, 13, 2, note 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. ' Magnified ' is \litih ; comp. the note on I, 1, 1. 
The verse is addressed to the Idah. 

Note 2. The text has ikkha . . . va^yate. To me there 
seems to be no doubt that this is the passive of va£, not of 
wank. Comp. the name of the priest a^Mdvaka, and the 
phrase a^Moktibhi^ matinam, I, 61, 3 ; 184, 2. The same 
passive of va.k is found III, 39, 1. matin hridah a va£ya- 
mana (then follows akkha . . . ^igati) ; X, 47, 7 (stomal) 
. . . manasa vakyamknan. — It may be observed that in 
our passage as well as in III, 39, 1 and X, 47, 7, the forms 
va^yate, va^yamana, va^yamana^ are preceded by a vowel ; 
and we may infer that the poet did not say u^yate, &c, in 
order to avoid the hiatus. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The poet begins as if he intended to say, ' Priests 
. . . lay down the sacrificial grass.' But he continues, 
' I lay down.' Dr. Neisser (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 
60) tries to explain the difficulty in a way in which 
I cannot follow him. 

Note 2. On the verb vrig technically connected with 
barhi^, see Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 152 seq., and 
compare vol. xxxii, I, 38, j, note %\ I, 64, 1, note 2. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. With the whole verse compare I, 13, 6. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. PischeFs opinion (Vedische Studien, II, 113 seq.) 
that pdra/fc means ' Gestalt,' 'Form,' * Farbe/ 'rupa,' does 
not convince me. 

Note 2. See Geldner, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVIII, 195. 



I =;6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 3. Comp. VIII, 87, 4. a barhi^ sidatam sumat. 
Geldner (Vedische Studien, II, 190) translates: 'das schone 
Opfergras.' 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. ' Should we read marteshu for manitsu ? ' M. M. 
This conjecture seems perhaps rather bold. 

Note 2. Hotra Bharati, i.e. the personified Offering of 
the Bharatas, seems to be one goddess, more usually called 
simply Bharati. Comp. I, 22, 10; II, 1, 11 ; III, 62, 3; 
Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 322 ; H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 243, note 2. Pischel's opinion (Vedische Studien, 
II, 85) is different. 

Note 3. See above, I, 13, 9, note 1. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the navel as the symbol of the connection 
between father and son, see Bergaigne, I, 35, 36, and 
comp. the well-known name Nabhanedish/^a. 

Note 2. For purii varam very probably puruvaram 
should be read (Grassmann). See II, 40, 4. puruvaram . . . 
rayas posham vi syatam nabhim asme. 

Note 3. With the last Pada compare II, 40, 4, quoted in 
note 2, and II, 3, 9. pra^-am Tvash/a vf syatu na'bhim asme ; 
see also Taittiriya Sa/^hita IV, 1, 8, 3. Tvash/rz is gene- 
rally considered as giving sons; see H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 234. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 13, 11, note 1. 

Note 2. The second hemistich recurs I, 105, 14. 

Note 3. See Neisser, Zur Vedischen Verballehre, 22. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The text has 'for Vayu,' not 'for (the god) 
accompanied by Vayu/ But there is no doubt that pu- 
sha;zvate, &c, refers to Indra, and that Vayu is named 
merely as a companion of Indra. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 1 43. 1 57 

MANBALA I, HYMN 143. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 12. 

i. I bring forward my most powerful, entirely- 
new (pious) thought (i.e. hymn) the prayer of my 
words ] to Agni, the son of strength ; he is the child 
of the Waters 2 , the beloved one, who together with 
the Vasus has sat down on the Earth as a Hotrz 
observing the appointed time (for sacrificing). 

2. Being born in the highest heaven Agni- became 
visible to Matarkvan. By the power of his mind, 
by his greatness when kindled, his flame filled 
Heaven and Earth with light. 

3 \ His flames are fierce; never ageing are the 
flames of him who is beautiful to behold, whose face 
is beautiful, whose splendour is beautiful. The 
never sleeping, never ageing (rays) of Agni whose 
power is light, roll forward like streams across the 
nights (?) 2 . 

4. Him the ail-wealthy, whom the Bhrigus have 
set to work on the navel of the earth, with the 
whole power of the world 1 — stir up that Agni by 
thy prayers in his own house — (him) who alone 
rules over goods like Vanma. 

5. He who is not to be kept back like the roar of 
the Maruts, like an army * that is sent forward, like 
the thunderbolt of heaven — Agni eats with his sharp 
jaws, he chews, he throws down the forests as 
a warrior throws down his foes. 

6. Would Agni eagerly come to our hymn ? 
Would He the Vasu together with the Vasus fulfil 
our desire ? Will He, the driver, stir our prayers 



I58 VEDIC HYMNS. 



that they may be successful ? (Thus thinking) 
I praise Him whose face is bright, with this my 
prayer. 

7. He who has kindled him strives 1 towards 
Agni as towards Mitra (or, towards a friend) — 
(to Agni) whose face shines with ghee, the charioteer 
of Rite. May he who when kindled becomes a 
racer 2 , shining at the sacrifices 3 , lift up our bright- 
coloured prayer. 

8 1 . Preserve us, O Agni, never failing with thy 
never-failing, kind and mighty guardians ; protect 
our people all around with those undeceived, undis- 
mayed, never slumbering (guardians), O thou our 
wish 2 ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Gagati ; the last verse Trish/ubh. 
The hymn has been translated by Kaegi, Siebenzig Lieder 
des Rigveda, p. 100. — Verse 7 = TB. I, 2, 1, 12. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 59, 6. vkkkh matim. 

Note 2. Agni who is considered as born from the Waters, 
is identified several times with a god who, like Matamvan, 
in my opinion had an independent origin, with Apam napat 
(' Child of the Waters '). Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, 
II, 17 seq. ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 118 seq. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. There is no sufficient reason for transposing 
verses 3 and 4 (Kaegi). 

Note 2. Probably we should read ati aktun ; comp. VI, 
4, 5. ati eti aktfin. — See Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 96. 



MA7VDALA I, HYMN 143. 159 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. Bhuvanasya seems to depend on ma^mana ; 
comp. VII, 82, 5. bhuvanasya ma^manA. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 231) seems to me 
to be right in denying that sena ever means 'Geschoss,' 
and in translating sena srishtai 'exercitus effusus/ The 
opinion of Prof, von Bradke and Prof. Bloomfield is dif- 
ferent; see Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft* 
XLVI,45«; XLVIII,549- 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The text adds the dativus ethicus va^, 6 for you ' 
(comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 206), which can 
scarcely be translated. 

Note 2. Geldner (Vedische Studien, I, 168) has shown 
that akra very probably means 'horse.' Agni is very 
frequently compared to a horse. — Comp. Ludwig, Ueber 
die neuesten Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der J?/gveda- 
Forschung, p. 54; Roth, Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges., 
XLVIII, 118. 

Note 3. See above, I, 31, 6, note 2. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. With Padas C D compare the verse VI, 8, 7. 
adabdhebhi/fc tava gopabhi^ ishfe asmakam p£hi trisha- 
dhastha surih. 

Note 2. * What is ishfe ? Is it thou our wish, or thou 
our sacrifice ? ' M. M. 



l6o VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 144. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 13. 

i . The Hotrz l goes forward 2 (in order to fulfil) his 
duty by his wonderful power, directing upwards the 
brightly adorned prayer. He steps towards the 
(sacrificial) ladles which are turned to the right 3 , 
and which first kiss his foundation 4 . 

2. They have greeted with shouts the streams of 
jRttai 1 which were hidden at the birthplace of the 
god, at his seat. When He dwelt dispersed in the 
lap of the waters, he drank the draughts by (the 
power of) which he moves 2 . 

3. Two (beings) of the same age 1 try to draw 
that wonderful shape (Agni) towards themselves, 
progressing in turns towards a common aim 2 . 
Then he is to be proclaimed by us like a winner 3 
(in a contest). The charioteer 4 (governs all things) 
as if pulling in the reins of a draught-horse. 

4. He whom two (beings) of the same age 1 
serve, two twins dwelling together in one common 
abode, the gray one has been born as a youth by 
night as by day 2 , the ageless one who wanders 
through many generations of men. 

5. The prayers, the ten fingers 1 stir him up. 
We, the mortals, call him, the god, for his pro- 
tection. From the dry land he hastens to the 
declivities 2 . With those who approached him he 
has established new rules 3 . 

6. Thou indeed, O Agni, reignest by thy own 
nature over the heavenly and over the terrestrial 



MANDALA I, HYMN 1 44. l6l 

world as a shepherd (takes care of his cattle). 
These two variegated, great (goddesses) striving for 
gloriousness, the golden ones who move crookedly 1 , 
have approached thy sacrificial grass. 

7. Agni ! Be gratified and accept graciously this 
prayer, O joy-giver, independent one, who art born 
in the i?zta, good-willed one, whose face is turned 
towards us from all sides, conspicuous one, gay in 
thy aspect, like a dwelling-place rich in food 1 . 



NOTES, 

The same Rishi. Metre, Gagati. — No verse occurs in 
the other Sa;/zhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Hotri is Agni. 

Note 2. Comp. Ill, 27, 7, where it is said of Agni: 
purastat eti mayaya. — The poet says eti pra, and not pra 
eti, in order to avoid the hiatus. 

Note 3. Comp. below, III, 6, 1. dakshiz/a-vaV. 

Note 4. ' Which first, i. e. at the time when the sacrificial 
vessels are put down, kiss his dhaman (foundation), i.e. the 
place of Agni/ Saya/za. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. IX, 75, 3. abhi im rztasya dohana/£ 
anushata, and VIII, 12, 32. nabha ya^asya dohana pra 
adhvare. I take dohan&A as ace. plur. of an abstract noun 
dohana formed like ^ara^a, bhandana, &c. But possibly it 
might be the nom. plur. either of the same noun or of 
a nomen agentis dohana : * the streams of Rita, (the liba- 
tions?) or the milkers of Rita, hidden at the birthplace 
of the god, have greeted him With shouts/ It would 
[46] M 



1 62 VEDIC HYMNS. 



be difficult, however, to say why the milkers of Rita. 
(i.e. the priests?) are called * hidden at the birthplace of 
the god/ Prof. Max Muller thinks of a reading pari- 
vritak, ' surrounding Agni/ He refers the ' streams of 
Rita,' (nom.) to the water, cf. I, 105, 12. rztam arshanti 
sindhava^. 

Note 2. Svadha/£ adhayat yabhlA lyate. In my opinion 
svadha means ' the inherent power,' c the power of moving 
according to one's own will/ and then the drink which 
confers this power on a being, especially on the dead 
ancestors. — Comp. M.M., vol. xxxii, p. 32 seq. ; H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 531, note 2. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. According to Saya/za the two beings spoken of 
here and in the next verse are the Hotri and the Adhvaryu. 

Note 2. See I, 130, 5. ayu^-ata samanam artham akshi- 
tam ; III, 61,3. samanam artham /£aramyamana. 

Note 3. On bhagak na havya/z, see Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, I, 121. 

Note 4. The charioteer is Agni. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See verse 3, note 1. 

Note 2. Comp. Gaedicke, Der Accusativ, p. 175. He 
translates : * bei Tage noch bei Nacht ergrauend/ 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Vris (cura£ keyo^vov) is ranged in the Nigha/zAis 
among the angulinamani and explained by Saya^a accord- 
ingly. The word seems indeed to mean * finger/ Compare 
with our passage IX, 8, 4 ; 15, 8 ; 93, 1 ; 97, 57. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 33, 4. dhano^ adhi vishu/zak te vi ayan, 
and especially X, 4, 3. dhano^ adhi pravata yasi haryan. 
I cannot follow Pischel (Vedische Studien, II, 69 seq.) in 
explaining these passages. ' Over the heavenly expanse he 
hastens down towards us.' M. M. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 1 44. 1 63 

Note 3. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 300. Like 
Pischel I do not know who ' they who approached Agni ' 
are. Possibly the worshippers or priests are alluded to. 
* He received new praises with (or from) those who 
approached him. , M. M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Saya^a explains the two female beings here in 
question as Heaven and Earth. Does the ' crooked move- 
ment ' refer to the daily revolution of the sky ? 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. The last Pada recurs X, 64, 11. 



M 2 



164 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^?ALA I, HYMN 145. 
ASH7AEA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 14. 

1. Ask ye him. He has come. He knows. He 
the intelligent one moves forward ; He moves along 
(his way) (?)\ In him all commands, all wishes 
dwell. He is the lord of strength, of mighty power. 

2. They ask him. He himself 1 does not ask in 
turn what he, the wise one, has grasped by his own 
mind alone 2 . He does not forget the first word 
nor another word. Unconfused he adheres to his 
own power of mind. 

3. To him go the sacrificial ladles, to him go 
the racers 1 . He alone may hear all my words. 
He who pronounces many praishas 2 , the conqueror, 
the accomplisher of sacrifices whose blessings are 
flawless, the young child has assumed vigour. 

4. When he has come together 1 (with his com- 
panions 2 ), he goes to greet them 3 . As soon as 
born he steals upon (his prey) together with his 
companions. He strokes the . . , 4 to give him 
delight and joy, when the loving ones 5 approach 
him who stands on them 6 . 

5. He, the animal living in the water and walking 
in the forest 1 , has been placed on the highest skin 2 
(sky ?). He has proclaimed his rules to the mortals : 
for Agni, the knowing one, is intent upon Rita. 
(Right) and is true. 

NOTES. 

The same Rhhi. Metre, (Jagati ; the last verse is 
Trish/ubh. — No verse occurs in the other Sawhitas. 



MAA7)ALA I, HYMN 1 45. 1 65 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Sa//zhita text has sa nv iyate, the Pada text, 
sa/* nu iyate. Comp. Pratuakhya 314. I propose to read 
sanu (= sa arm) iyate. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. See Geldner, Ved. Studien, II, p. 188. 
Note 2. Possibly we should read svena eva. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The text (arvati^) implies that these race-horses 
are mares. Probably, as Saya^a explains, the prayers 
(stutaya^) are alluded to. See on the prayers compared 
with horses, Bergaigne, II, 284 seq. 

Note 2. Praisha is the technical designation of the 
sacrificial commands of one priest (or more especially, of 
the Maitr&varuT/a) to another priest ; comp. Schwab, Das 
Altindische Thieropfer, p. 90 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 

39°- 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Samarata may be the third person of singular or 
of plural. 

Note 2. I supply ' with his companions ' in consideration 
of the second Pada (yugyebhi/i). It is difficult to say 
who Agni's companions are (the flames? the officiating 
priests ?). 

Note 3. Ludwig's conjecture, upa stayam ^arati, is very 
ingenious. ' He stealthily approaches them.' — On upa- 
sthayam, comp. also Bollensen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLVII, 586. 

Note 4. The meaning of jvantam, which occurs here and 
in the obscure passage X, 61, 21 (adha gava^ upamatim 
kanay^ anu jvantasya kasya kit para iyuA), is unknown. 
Possibly it is related to jvatra, which means something like 
' powerful ' or ' prosperous.' 



1 66 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 5. The prayers ? The oblations ? 

Note 6. Api-sthitam may have active or passive meaning, 
'he who stands on somebody or something/ and 'he on 
whom somebody or something stands.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The first Pada (and probably also the fourth) 
belong to the metrical type described by H. O., Prole- 
gomena, p. 68 seq. : the first part, before the caesura, 
consists of four syllables ; and then the Pada goes on as if 
it had the pentasyllable opening. 

Note 2. After Agni's abode in the Waters and in the 
wood has been mentioned in the first Pada, the second 
Pada possibly refers to his heavenly abode to which the 
adjective upama ('highest') seems to point. Thus the 
'highest skin' would be the sky. But Saya^a, who refers 
it to the Vedi, may possibly be right. His explanation 
would very well agree with the second hemistich. 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 1 46. 1 67 

MAiW?ALA I, HYMN 146. 

ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 15. 

i. I praise Agni who has three heads and seven 
rays (or reins) 1 , who is without flaw, sitting in the 
lap of his parents 2 and of whatever moves or is firm, 
who has filled (with his light) all the lights of 
Heaven. 

2. The big bull has grown up to them 1 ; the 
ageless one who from here (from this world) dis- 
tributes his blessings, the tall has stood up erect. 
He puts down his feet on the surface of the wide 
(Earth) ; his red ones 2 lick the udder (the cloud?). 

3. Walking towards their common calf the two 
well-established 1 milch-cows 2 walk about in different 
directions. They measure interminable paths ; they 
have invested themselves with all great desires. 

4. Wise poets 1 follow his track 2 who in manifold 
ways protect the ageless one with their hearts. 
Wishing to acquire him they have searched the 
river 3 . He the Sun 4 became visible to them, to 
the men 5 . 

5. He is worthy to be looked for, round about 
in his race-courses, the noble who is to be magnified 1 , 
the great one 2 , in order that the small may live, as 
he, the all-visible liberal lord, has become a pro- 
genitor for those germs in many places. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The metre is Trish/ubh. — No verse 
occurs in the other SaMiitcts. 



1 68 VEDTC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. Saya/za refers the three heads of Agni to the 
three Savanas, or the three worlds, or the three sacrificial 
fires. The last explanation seems to be most probable. 
The seven reins (rays) are, according to Saya/za, the seven 
metres or the seven flames of Agni. The last explanation 
is recommended by III, 6, % (see below). But it is possible 
also to think of the seven priests (sapta hotara^). — Comp. 
II, 5, 2 (see below), and Taitt. Sa^hita I, 5, 3, 2 (to which 
passage Ludwig refers): sapta te agne samidha/z sapta 
^ihvaA sapta r/shaya^ sapta dhama priya/zi, &c. 

Note 2. The parents are Heaven and Earth. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The text has the dual feminine ; no doubt 
Heaven and Earth are meant. 

Note 2. The horses or flames of Agni. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On su-meka, comp. the article of Prof. Windisch 
in Festgruss an Bohtlingk, p. 114. 

Note 2. The cows seem to be Night and Dawn ; comp. 
above, I, 95, 1 ; 96, 5. Night and Dawn are called su- 
meke, I, 113, 3. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The priests. 

Note 2. I have translated padam nayanti in the way 
indicated by Atharva-veda XI, 2, 13. viddhasya padanK- 
iva; comp. also Manu VIII, 44. Prof. Max Mliller 
translates, 'Wise poets lead (Agni) to the ageless place, 
keeping many things in their heart — or, lead the ageless 
Agni to his place (the sacrifice).' 

Note 3. They have tried to find Agni in his proper 
dwelling, in the water. 

Note 4. The Sun is here identified with Agni. 

Note 5. On the form nrai standing for different cases, 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 1 46. 1 69 

compare Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 430 ; Bergaigne, 
Religion Vedique, I, 136, note 1 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
I, 42, and Gottinger Gel. Anzeigen, 1890, p. 541 seq. ; 
Hillebrandt, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 420. Here it seems most natural to take nrfn, 
as Pischel has proposed, as standing for the dative plural. 
Bartholomae (Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachge- 
schichte, I, 1 18, comp. p. 48), referring to III, 14, 4, believes 
that nri'n (or, more correctly, *n^m), both here and there 
is genitive plural, and that Agni is called ' the sun of men ' 
because men are able to light this sun themselves. To me 
it seems very doubtful that this is a Vedic idea, and as to 
the verse III, 14, 4, I believe that nrfn there is a regular 
accusative plural : Agni is called there, c a sun that spreads 
out men over their dwellings/ 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. 1/enya^. Comp. I, 1, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Agni may be called maha/z, ' the great one.' 
But it seems more natural to read mahe, the ancient 
pronunciation of which word before a word commencing 
with a vow r el (maha') coincided, or nearly coincided, with 
that of maha^. The translation then would be : ' he who 
is to be magnified in order that the great and the small 
may live.' 



170 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MA7VZ?ALA I, HYMN 147. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 16. 

i. How, O Agni, have the resplendent ones wor- 
shipped thee, aspiring through the powers of the 
Ayu 1 , when 2 the gods, obtaining kith and kin of both 
races 3 (human and divine ?), rejoiced in the song of 
-ffrta (or Right) 4 ? 

2. Give heed to this my proffered hymn, O 
youngest one, which is most rich in liberal gifts 1 , 
O self-dependent one ! The one abuses thee, the 
other praises thee : I thy reverer revere thy body, 
O Agni 2 ! 

3. Thy guardians, O Agni, who saw and saved 
the blind son of Mamata from distress 1 — he the 
possessor of all wealth has saved them who have 
done good deeds 2 . The impostors, trying to deceive, 
have not deceived. 

4. The niggard, O Agni, the harmful and malicious 
who injures us by falsehood : may the heavy spell 
recoil on him ; may he injure his own body by his 
evil words 1 . 

5. And, O strong one, whatever mortal knowingly 
injures another mortal by falsehood : from such a 
one, O praised Agni, protect him who praises thee. 
Agni ! Do not deliver us to distress. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 2 = VS. XII, 42 ; 
TS. IV, 2, 3, 4 ; MS. II, 7) 10. Verse 3 = RV. IV, 4, 13 5 
TS. 1,2, 14,5; MS. IV, 11,5. 



MAtfDAIA T, HYMN I47. 1 7 1 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Ayu seems to be Agni himself. Or is it 
admissible to interpret ay 6h as standing metri causa for 
ayava/z ? Then the hemistich would refer to the mythical 
sacerdotal tribe of the Ayus, the ancient worshippers of 
Agni. Comp., for instance, X, 7, 5 ; 46, 8. The translation 
would be, 'How, O Agni, have the resplendent Ayus wor- 
shipped thee, aspiring with their powers ? ' 

Note 2. < Because.' M. M. 

Note 3. Comp. VIII, 103, 7. ubhe toke tanaye dasma 
vi.?pate parshi radha^ magh6nam. 

Note 4. As to rztasya saman, comp. Va£\ Sa^h. XXII, 
2, and r/tasya sloka/i, Rig-veda IV, 23, 8. Our Pada recurs 
IV, J, 7 with the reading rztasya dhaman. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. With va^asa^ ma^hish^asya compare ma^hish- 
/Mbhi^ matibhi^, VIII, 23, 23. 

Note 2. Cf. Aufrecht, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, III, 200. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Dirghatamas the son of Mamata is the reputed 
author of this section of the first Ma/z^ala which belongs 
indeed to a family of priests claiming descent from him. 
The story of the blindness of Dirghatamas and of the 
distress into which he fell is told in the Mahabharata 

I, 4179 seq., ed. Calc; comp. also Geldner, Vedische Studien, 

II, 145. 

Note 2. Considering the construction of the whole verse 
from the grammatical point of view only, one will scarcely 
be tempted to translate otherwise than we have done. But 
it is rather strange that Agni is represented here as saving 
those very guardians by the aid of whom he has saved 
Mamateya. The meaning which one should expect to 
find expressed, is rather that Agni, as he has saved 
Mamateya by his guardians, has saved also, and will save, 
all pious worshippers. This meaning may be established 



172 VEDIC HYMNS. 



if we consider the construction of the verse as similar, for 
instance, to that of I, 37, 12 (vol. xxxii, p. 64): maruta/z 
yat ha vak balam ^anan a^u^yavitana, ' Maruts, with 
such strength as yours, you have caused men to tremble.' 
Thus we may, I believe, translate here, ' Agni ! With such 
guardians as thine who have seen and saved the blind son 
of Mamata from distress, he, the possessor of all wealth 
(i, e. Agni), has saved all those who have done good deeds.' 
Bergaigne (III, 191) understands the verse in the same 
way. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Vedic idea of the evil deeds recoiling on 
the evil-doer himself has been treated of by Bergaigne, III, 
190 seq. 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 148. 173 

MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 148. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 17. 

i. When Mataruvan . . .* had produced by attri- 
tion the Hotrz, the . . . 2 who belongs to all gods, 
whom they have established among the human 
clans, shining like the sun, resplendent that (he 
might show his beautiful) shape — 

2. They did not deceive him 1 who had granted 
a hymn (to the worshipper). Agni is my protection ; 
therewith he is satisfied. They took pleasure in all 
his 2 works — (in the works) of the singer who brought 
praise. 

3. Whom the worshipful (gods) 1 took and placed 
in his own seat (as priest) with their praises : him 
they 2 have carried forward, taking hold of him in 
their search, hastening like horses that draw a 
chariot. 

4. The marvellous one destroys many things with 
his jaws. Then 1 the resplendent one shines in the 
forest. Then the wind blows after his flame day by 
day as after the arrow of an archer, after a weapon 
that has been shot. 

5. Him whom no impostors, no harmful foes 1 , 
no harm-doers may harm when he dwells in (his 
mothers) womb, him the blind ones bereft of sight 
did not damage by looking at him 2 . His own 
friends have protected him. 



174 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre. — Verse 1 = MS. IV, 14, 15. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The first Pada is identical with the first Pada of 
I, 71, 4 (see our note there) with the exception of the word 
vish/a^, instead of which that parallel passage has the 
reading vi-bhrz'ta^. It seems impossible to explain vish/a^, 
and the concurrence of the metrical irregularity in the same 
part of the Pada — though metrical irregularities are not 
infrequent in this hymn — invites to a correction of the 
text. If vi-bhritak in I, 71, 4 (see note there) refers 
to MatarLsvan, which I consider as doubtful, it would be 
easy to find for our passage an equivalent of that word 
little differing from the traditional vish/a>£, namely, vi- 
sthita/z : c when Matamvan, standing in different places, 
had produced him by attrition/ Of course whoever 
adopts a conjecture like this, can scarcely avoid under- 
standing vl-bhritak in I, 71, 4 as an epithet of Matamvan, 
not of Agni. Another way to correct our passage would 
be to put into the text a form derived from the root vish, 
' to accomplish a work,' for instance, vish/ya (to be read as 
trisyllabic) : ' when Matamvan by his effort/ &c. Grass- 
mann's vf-sita^ is quite improbable. 

Note 2. VLyva-apsum (Sa^/hita text, vuvapsum), evidently 
an epithet of Agni the Hotrz, seems corrupt. Shall we 
read vi^va-psum (' endowed with all food') — comp. VIII, 
22, 12. havam vi^vapsum vi^vavaryam — or vLrva-pusham 
(Sa/^h., vLyvapusham, * all-nourishing ') or vLsva-apasam 
(' doing all works ') ? Also vLrva-psnyam may be thought 
of. It is impossible, of course, to arrive at any certain 
conclusion. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. 'He' seems to be Agni. Saya/za, however, 
explains : dadanam id agnaye kurva;/am eva mam. This 
would lead to a translation like this : ' (The enemies) did 



MAZVDALA I, HYMN 1 48. 1 75 

not deceive (me, the worshipper) who had addressed a hymn 
(to Agni).' 

Note 2. On 'his' Saya/^a remarks, 'ya^amanasya mama/ 
But the word may refer to Agni. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. There is no reason for abandoning here the usual 
meaning of yagiiiya.. On the gods seeking after Agni, comp. 
Bergaigne, I, no. 

Note 2. It is very probable, to say the least, that ' they ' 
are again the gods. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Is the first at dissyllabic ? More probably the 
Pada is deficient by one syllable. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Two syllables are wanting before the caesura of 
the first Pada. 

Note 2. Was there a belief that a blind man by turning 
his blind eyes on somebody could do him harm ? Possibly 
we might have to translate: ' Him (his foes) blind and bereft 
of sight did not damage though looking at him (i.e. though 
turning their blind eyes on him).' — Prof. Max Miiller writes: 
c Could it be : Even the blind saw, but did not injure him 
(andha/£ apa.syan na dabhan) ; abhikhya, when he was seen, 
no longer in the womb?,' 



I76 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAil^ALA I, HYMN 149. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 18. 

i 1 . Towards great wealth this lord of the house 2 
advances 3 , the strong one in the abode of strong 
wealth. Let the stones honour him as he speeds 
forward. 

2. He the manly (bull) as of men so of the two 
worlds, whose stream is drunk by living beings 1 
in consequence of his renown — he who running 
forward has ripened in (his mother s) womb — 

3. He who lighted up the . . , x stronghold, the 
racer, the sage, like a . . . 2 horse, shining like the 
sun, endowed with hundredfold life. 

4. He who has a twofold birth (celestial and ter- 
restrial), the flaming one has approached the three- 
fold light, all spaces of the atmosphere, the Hotrz, 
the best sacrificer, in the abode of the Waters. 

5. This is the Hotrz having a twofold birth 1 who 
has bestowed all the best gifts, out of desire of glory, 
on the quick mortal who worships him. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Vimg. — Verses 3-5 = SV. II, 
1 124-1 1 26. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. My translation of this verse differs from that of 
Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 100. 

Note 2. On pati^ dan, comp. Hubschmann, Vocalsystem, 
142; Bartholomae,ArischeForschungen,1, 70; J oh. Schmidt, 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 309 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 1 49. I 77 

II, 93 seq. ; Bartholomae, Indogermanische Forschungen, 

III, 100 seq. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 93, 6. maha/z sa raya^ a ishate. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 80, 4, and similar passages, in which 
the waters are called ^iva-dhanya/z, ' the prize (of contests) 
which living beings have gained. ' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. We do not know what narmi/zi is. Possibly in 
this word two words, na armim, are contained, so that the 
particle na would be repeated in each of the three Padas. 
The translation would then be : ' he who lighted up the 
armi/zi (?) like a stronghold.' 

Note 2. I place no confidence in the attempts to find the 
meaning of a word like nabhanya^ with the aid of etymo- 
logy only. The same word occurs in I, 173, 1 as an 
epithet of the Saman which the priest, who is compared 
to a bird, sings (gayat sama nabhanyam yatha ve^). It 
occurs also in VII, 42, 1. pra krandanii^ nabhanyasya 
vetu. The connection in which these words stand, seems 
to show that the meaning is : ' the noise of the Sacrificial 
fire shall arise;' very probably the fire is compared to 
a horse, and its noise to the neighing of that horse. 
Thus nabhanya would be in VII, 42, t, quite as in our pas- 
sage, an epithet of a horse. This epithet may refer either 
to the swift motion of the horse and of the Saman ascend- 
ing to the gods, or more probably to the gay voice of the 
horse, the loud noise of the Saman. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Two syllables are wanting in the first Pada. 



[46] N 



I78 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MANDALK I, HYMN 150. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 19. 

1. I thy indigent 1 worshipper say much to thee, 
O Agni, dwelling in thy protection as (in the pro- 
tection) of a great impeller 2 . 

2. Away even from the libation of a rich man who 
is feeble, who is a niggard, who never comes forward 
and does not care for the gods. 

3. The mortal (who worships thee ?), O priest, is 
brilliant, great, most powerful in heaven. May 
we, O Agni, addicted to thee, be always foremost 



NOTES. 



The same Rfchi. Metre, Ushmh. — Verse i = SV. I, 97. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On an, see Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 218. 
Note 2. Or, 'of the great impeller ' — the Sun-god who 
impels or stimulates his horses ? Comp. VI, 6, 6? 



HAND ALA I, HYMN 1 88. 179 

MAA/£>ALA I, HYMN 188. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 8-9. 

Apr! Hymn, 
i. Being kindled thou reignest to-day, a god with 
the gods, O conqueror of thousandfold (wealth) ! As 
messenger, as a sage, carry the oblations (to the 
gods). 

2. O Tanftnapat! For him who walks in right- 
eousness the sacrifice is anointed with honey. May 
he 1 grant thousandfold food. 

3. Receiving libations, worthy of being magnified 1 
bring hither to us the worshipful gods. Agni ! 
Thou art a winner of thousandfold (bliss). 

4. They have spread with might the eastward- 
turned sacrificial grass, blessing (our tribe) with 
a thousand men 1 , (at the place) where you reign, 
O Adityas ! 

5. The Prince, the Sovereign, the mighty ones, 
the eminent ones 1 , the (Divine) Doors, which are 
many and more than many, have sent forth streams 
of ghee. 

6. Adorned with gold, wearing beautiful ornaments 
you verily reign high 1 in your splendour. Sit down 
here, ye two Dawns 2 . 

7. May the two fine-voiced divine Hotrzs, the 
sages, perform as the first this sacrifice for us. 

8. Bharati! I/a! Sarasvati! All ye (goddesses) 
whom I invoke, promote us to splendour. 

9. Tvash/rz indeed, the eminent (god) has shaped 
all forms, all cattle. Do thou by sacrifice produce 
their increase. 

N 2 



l8o VEDIC HYMNS. 



10. Yield up by thyself, O tree, (the sacrificial food) 
to the abode of the gods 1 . May Agni make the 
offerings relishable. 

ii. Agni going in front of the gods is anointed 
with this Gayatra song ; he shines when Svaha is 
pronounced (over the oblations). 

NOTES. 

The Rzshi is Agastya, the metre Gayatri. This Apri 
hymn is closely related to hymn X, no, the author of 
which no doubt knew and imitated our hymn. — No verses 
occur in the other Sa;/zhitas. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. I have taken dadhat as a third person, the sub- 
ject being Tanunapat. But it may be a participle referring 
to yagnak : l the sacrifice which procures thousandfold food 
is anointed with honey.' 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. The text has \dyah. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. ' This is the Da^avira sacrifice of the vSaktyas. 
Ten valiant sons are born to those who perform it/ Pa/z£a- 
vi^^a Brahma?za XXV, 7, 4. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. These are evidently names of the divine doors . — 
As to the nominative diira/£, see Lanman, p. 486. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. On adhi-vi-ra^-, comp. IX, 75, 3. adhi triprishtM/i 
ushasa^ vi ra^*ati. 

Note 2. I.e. Dawn and Evening. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Literally : ' to the abode, for the gods/ Comp. 
the corresponding verse (10) of the Apri hymn X, no. 
devanam patha/z. 



MAN DAL A I, HYMN 1 89. l8l 

MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 189. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 10-11. 

i. Agni ! Lead us to wealth on a good path, 
O god who knowest all rules. Drive away from us 
sin which leads us astray. We will offer to thee 
the fullest praise. 

2. Agni ! Thou who art young, help us safely 
across all difficulties. Be for us a broad, large, 
wide stronghold, for our kith and kin, with luck 
and weal 1 . 

3. Agni ! Drive away from us all plagues. (Then) 
they shall plague 1 peoples who do not stand under 
Agni' s protection, (Give) us back again the earth, 
O god, together with all the immortals, O worshipful 
one, that it may go well with us. 

4. Protect us, Agni, with thy unwearied guardians, 
thou who flamest in thy beloved seat. May no 
danger, O youngest of the gods, attain thy praiser, 
not now nor in future, O mighty one ! 

5. Do not deliver us, O Agni, to the harmful foe, 
to the greedy one, to the impostor, to misfortune. 
Do not surrender us, O mighty one, to one who has 
teeth, who bites, nor to one who has no teeth, nor 
to one who will hurt us. 

6. May a (god) like thee, O Agni, who art born 
according to 7?zta, being praised spread out a shelter 
for the body (of the worshipper that protects) from 
every one who tries to harm or to revile him. For 
thou, O god, art a descrier 1 of everything that leads 
us astray. 



1 82 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7 1 . Thou, O Agni, distinguishing both (kinds of 
men, the pious and the impious, or the Aryans and 
the Dasyus 2 ), eagerly approachest (Aryan) men at 
(the time of) the advancing (day) 3 , O worshipful one. 
At (the time of) rest thou hast become governable 
to the man (or, to Manu ; or, thou art to be praised 
by men 4 ); thou art to be smoothed down like 
a horse 5 by the Usigs. 

8. We have pronounced our invocations, I the 
son of Mana 1 , before this mighty Agni. May we 
obtain (our wishes) through a thousand 7?zshis. 
May we find a food-giving . . . rich in quickening 
rain 2 . 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshl Metre, Trish/ubh. — Verse i = VS. V, 
36 ; VII, 43 ; XL, 16 ; TS. I, 1, 14, 3 5 4, 43> 1 5 TB - n > 8 > 
2, 3 ; TA. I, 8, 8 ; MS. 1, 2, 13 ; IV, 10, 2 ; 14, 3. Verse 2 = 
TS. I, 1, 14, 4 5 TB. II, 8, 2, 5 ; TA. X, 2, 1 ; MS. IV, 10, 1 ; 
14, 3. Verse 3 = TB. II, 8, 2,4 ; MS. IV, 14, 3- 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. ' For health and wealth/ M. M. ; see vol. xxxii, 
P- xo 3- 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. If the accent is correct (Sa^h. abhyamanta, Pad. 
abhf amanta), the clause, though containing no subordi- 
nating word, must be understood as standing in logical 
dependence on the following, or — which in our case seems 
more probable — on the preceding clause. Examples of 
this kind have been collected by Delbruck, Altindische 



MAiV7)ALA I, HYMN 1 89. 1 8 



3 



Syntax, p. 43. — That krishti/z should be nominative is very 
improbable ; comp. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 393. See 
also Leo Meyer, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XVI, 9. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller (vol. xxxii, p. 229) translates, 
' For thou, god, art the deliverer from all assaults ; ' he 
derives vishpa/ ' from vi and spa^, to bind.' 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. This verse has been treated of by Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, II, 156, 158. 

Note 2. Geldner (loc. cit., 156) proposes two explanations 
for ubhayan. It may refer either to the pious and the 
impious spoken of in the preceding verses, or to prapitvam 
and abhipitvam, which words Geldner believes to be mas- 
culine. I do not attach such weight to the Avestic frapi- 
thwd (Vend. Ill, 3) as to draw, with Geldner, a conclusion 
from this word on the gender of the Vedic prapitva, and in 
every case I think that this explanation of ubhayan is very 
forced, while it is natural to refer ubhayan to the pious and 
impious, or as we may express it in conformity with Vedic 
ideas, to 'men' (comp. manusha/^ Pada 2, manave Pada 3), 
i. e. Aryans, and Dasyus (see VIII, 50, 8 ; 98, 6 ; IX, 92, 5). 
Then ubhayan vi vidvan would have exactly the same 
meaning as the words in I, 51, 8. vi £*anihi aryan ye ka. 
dasyava/*. 

Note 3. On prapitva we have the two ingenious discus- 
sions of Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 155 seq., and of 
Bloomfield in the fifth series of his Contributions to the 
interpretation of the Veda, p. 24 seq. In my opinion 
Bloomfield has not succeeded in proving that the words 
ending in -pitva (prapitva, abhipitva, sapitva, &c) contain 
the stem pitii, ' sap, drink, nourishment, 5 and that prapitva 
means the morning-pressure of Soma, which is usually 
designated as prata^savana, abhipitva, the evening-pressure 
or the tr/tiya-savana. I do not think it necessary, how- 



184 VEDIC HYMNS. 



ever, to examine here the single points of his interesting 
and elaborate discussion, for it seems to me that Geldner 
has conclusively shown that the meaning of these words is 
different from what Bloomfield believes it to be : abhipitva, 
as Geldner (p. 155) states, is 'Erholung/ ' Rast,' and 'die 
Zeit des Rastens,' ' Feierabend/ 'Abend ;' prapitva (p. 178), 
on the other hand, means ' Vorlauf/ 'das aufs Ziel Zugehen,' 
' die vorgeriickte Tageszeit.' 

"Note 4. vSasya/2, 'governable,' does not give an impos- 
sible meaning. But should we not have to correct samsyak 
' thou art to be praised by men ? ' 

Note 5. On akra/z, comp. Vedische Studien, I, 168, and 
above, I, 143, 7. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Mana is another name of Agastya. See Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 221. 

Note 2. On the last words of the hymn — the regularly 
repeated conclusion of the Agastya hymns — see M. M., 
vol. xxxii, p. xx, and also Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 212. I do not think it very probable that 
isha is here the name of an autumn month, as found in the 
6atapatha Brahma/za and others of the more modern Vedic 
texts ; to me it would seem rather strange that such 
a prayer for the fertility of that month should have formed, 
among the Agastyas, the standing conclusion of their sacri- 
ficial hymns. But the names of the two months isha and 
ur^a, seem to point to the existence of two adjectives mean- 
ing 'giving food' and 'giving sap/ — Then follows vrzgana, 
used as a masculine. Geldner (Vedische Studien, I, 151) 
indicates the following passages, in which he believes that 
this masculine vrz^ana occurs : V, 44, 1 ; VI, 35, 5 ; VII, 32, 
27; X, 27, 4; and the concluding Pada of the Agastya 
hymns. Of these passages the two first seem to be open 
to doubt as to the correctness of the text. In V, 44, 1 " 
the true reading may be prati^inam w/sha/zam dohase ; 
comp. verse 3, vr/sha sisuk, and I, 173, 6, where possibly 
v/7sha;/am should be read instead of vrz^anam (Gottinger 



MAiVDALA I, HYMN 1 89. 1 85 

Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1890, 417). In VI, 35, 5 I propose to 
read vrma.g-a.rn (Gott. Gel. Anzeigen, loc. cit., 416). In VII, 
32, 27 and X, 27, 4 vrz^ana (Padap. vriganak ; the letter d 
follows) and vrz^aneshu seem to be masculine, though it is 
not absolutely impossible to see in these forms the nom. 
plur. and loc. plur. of the neuter vr^ana. But I believe 
that any attempts to derive conclusions from these three 
passages on the meaning of the masculine vng*ana are 
hopeless. 



1 86 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA II, HYMN 1. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 17-19. 

i \ Thou, O Agni, the flaming one, (art born) 
from out the Heavens 2 , thou (art born) from out 
the Waters and the stone (the flint) ; thou (art born) 
from out the forests and the herbs ; thou art born 
bright, O Lord of men, (as belonging) to men 3 . 

2 1 . To thee, O Agni, belongs the Hotn's and the 
Potrz's office exercised at the appointed season ; to 
thee belongs the office of the Neshtri; thou art the 
Agnidh 2 for the righteous. To thee belongs the 
office of the Prasastrz; thou actest as an Adhvaryu, 
and thou art the Brahman and the master of the 
house in our house 3 . 

3 \ Thou, O Agni, art Indra, a bull among (all) 
beings. Thou art the wide-ruling Vishnu, worthy of 
adoration. Thou art the Brahman, a gainer of 
wealth, O Brahma^aspati 2 . Thou, O Vidhartrz 
(i. e. who keepest asunder all things), art united with 
Pura//zdhi (or the Liberality of the gods) 3 . 

4. Thou, O Agni, art the king Varima whose laws 
are firm ; thou becomest Mitra, the wondrous one, 
worthy of being magnified. Thou art Aryaman, 
the lord of beings, whom I may enjoy 1 . Thou, 
O god, art Amsa. 2 , desirous of distributing (goods) 
in the assembly 3 . 

5. Thou, O Agni, being Tvash^rz, (grantest) to 
thy worshipper abundance in heroes. To thee, 
who art accompanied by the (divine) wives 1 , who 
art great like Mitra, belongs relationship 2 . Thou, 



MAiVDALA IT, HYMN I. 1 87 

the quick inciter 3 , givest abundance in horses. 
Thou, rich in wealth, art the host of men 4 . 

6. Thou, O Agni, art Rudra, the Asura of the 
high Heaven 1 ; thou, being the host of the Maruts, 
rulest over nourishment. Thou goest along with 
the flame-coloured Winds, bringing happiness to our 
home. Thou, being Pushan, protectest thy wor- 
shippers by thy own might. 

7. Thou, O Agni, art a giver of wealth to him 
who does service to thee * ; thou art the god Savitrz, 
a bestower of treasures. Thou, being Bhaga, O lord 
of men, rulest over wealth. Thou art a protector 
in his house to him who has worshipped thee 2 . 

8. Towards thee, in the house, the lord of the 
clan, O Agni, the clans strive, towards thee, the 
bounteous king. Thou with the beautiful face 
possessest all things. Thou art equal to thousands, 
to hundreds, to ten (of others). 

9. Thee, O Agni, men (make) their father by 
their sacrifices 1 ; thee who shinest with thy body 
they (invite) to brotherhood by their (sacrificial) 
work. Thou becomest a son to him who has 
worshipped thee. As a kind friend thou protectest 
against attack. 

10. Thou, O Agni, art i?zbhu, to be adored when 
near. Thou rulest over strength \ over wealth rich 
in food. Thou shinest 2 , thou burnest for the sake 
of giving (wealth). Thou art a hewer 3 , an expander 
of sacrifice. 

1 1. Thou, Agni, O god, art Aditi to the worshipper. 
Thou, being Hotra Bharati 1 , growest strong by 
prayer. * Thou art Ida, living a hundred winters, 
for (the increase of) ability. Thou, the killer of 
Wztra, O Lord of wealth, art Sarasvati 2 . 



1 88 VEDIC HYMNS. 



12. Thou, O Agni, well kept, art the highest vital 
power. In thy lovely colour and in thy appearance 
(dwell all) beauties. Thou art great strength that 
carries us forward. Thou art abundant wealth, 
extending on all sides. 

13. The Adityas have made thee, O Agni, their 
mouth ; the bright ones have made thee their 
tongue, O Sage. The Rati-sa/£ gods (i.e. the 'boun- 
teous' gods) accompany thee at the sacrifices. In 
thee the gods eat the offering which is offered to 
them. 

14. In thee, O Agni, with (thy) mouth 1 all the 
guileless 2 immortal gods eat the offering which is 
offered to them. Through thee the mortals taste 
their drink. Thou hast been born, the bright one, 
as the child of the plants. 

1 5 1 . Thou art united with them and equal to 
them in strength, O well-born Agni, nay, thou sur- 
passest them, O god, when thy power 2 has expanded 
here in its greatness over Heaven and Earth, over 
both worlds. 

16. The liberal lords who pour out, O Agni, over 
thy praisers gifts at the head of which there are 
cows \ the ornament of which are horses : lead both 
ourselves and them to welfare. May we speak loud 
in the assembly 2 , rich in valiant men. 



NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Grztsamada, the metre Cagatt. — Verse 1 = 
VS. XI, 27 ; TS. IV, 1, 2, 5 ; TA. X, 76, 1 ; MS. II, 7, 2. 
Verse 2 = RV. X, 91, 10. Verse 6 = TS. I, 3, 14, 1 ; TB. 
Ill, 11, 2, 1. Verse i3 = TB. II, 7, 12, 6. 



MAiVDALA II, HYMN I. 1 89 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. Among the numerous texts which treat of the 
different origins of Agni (see Bergaigne, I, 20 seq.), especi- 
ally the following two verses may be compared with this 
passage : VI, 48, 5. yam apa/£ adraya^ vana garbham rit&sya. 
piprati sahasa yak mathita^ ^"ayate nribhxk przthivya/z 
adhi sanavi ; X, 45, 1. divik pari prathamam g&gne agnik 
asmat dvitiyam pari ^ataveda^ trztiyam apsu nrzmana^ 
ag*asram fndhctna enam ^arate svkdhift. 

Note 2. The text (dyubhiy^ tvam asusuksh&nik) seems to 
be corrupt. I believe that tvam, which is so frequently 
repeated through this verse and through the next verses, 
has been put here in the wrong place, and that we should 
read, dyubhya^ a susuksh&nik. 

Note 3. With the last words of this verse, comp. the con- 
clusion of verse 14. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. This whole verse is repeated, X, 91, 10. 

Note 2. In my opinion there is no doubt that instead of 
the traditional reading, agnit, the correct form is agmt. 
The word is a compound of agni and idh and means ' the 
inflamer of the fire.' Cf. M. M., Hist, of A. S. L., 1859, 

PP. 45°> 469. 

Note 3. This is the most ancient list of the ' seven 
priests/ by the side of whom the gr/ha-pati or ' master of 
the house ' is mentioned as the eighth. Comp. the formula 
in which the Adhvaryu names the officiating priests, 
Katyayana IX, 8, 8 seq., and see the remarks of Weber, 
Indische Studien, X, 141, 376, and my own exposition, 
Religion des Veda, 383 seq., 396. The 'Brahman' men- 
tioned in our verse is the Brahma/za^Ma^sin of the later 
ritual. Comp. Katyayana IX, 8, 11 ; 5atapatha Brahma//a 
IV, 6, 6, 5. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On verses 3-6, see von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, 
p. 53 seq. 



I90 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. Brzhaspati or Brahma/zaspati is the Brahman 
among the gods. But it is doubtful whether the title of 
Brahman in this connection should be understood in the 
later technical sense of the word, as the Ritv\g who has to 
superintend the whole sacrifice. Comp. H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 396, note 1. 

Note 3. Vidhartrz seems to be here another name of 
Bhaga ; comp. VII, 41, 2. bhagam huvema . . . y&k vi- 
dharta). It is known that no god is so frequently mentioned 
in connection with Pura^dhi as Bhaga. The passages 
have been collected by Grassmann in his Dictionary, s. v. 
pura/^-dhi. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Prof, von Bradke (Dyaus Asura, 53) believes 
that the text is corrupt ; he thinks that the fourth Pada 
may have occupied the place of a lost continuation of the 
relative clause, yasya sam-bhu^-am. I cannot but share 
the feeling on which Prof, von Bradke's remark rests, 
though I do not believe that the solution of the difficulty 
which he proposes is very probable. Could not the correct 
reading be yasi (instead of yasya) sam-bhu^am, ' thou goest 
to the enjoyment (of goods) ? ' Comp. VI, 7 1 , 6, where the 
traditional text has vamasya hf kshayasya deva bhure/z, 
and kshayasya doubtless should be changed into kshayasi. 

Note 2. On Amssl, as one of the Adityas, comp. Ber- 
gaigne, III, 39, 99. 

Note 3. Vidathe: comp. the note on I, 31, 6. It is 
tempting to conjecture vidhate* (comp. verse 5), but there is 
no necessity for such a conjecture. Comp., for instance, 
VI, 24> 2- vidathe dati va^am. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Gnava^ should be read without accent, as Grass- 
mann, Prof. Weber, and M. Henry (Revue Critique, Jan. 12, 
1891, p. 23) have seen. Cf. Lanman, 518, 519. 

Note 2. The meaning probably is, ' Thou art related to 
the other gods and to men/ or ' Thou art related to us.' 
Comp. VIII, 27, 10; 73, 12. 



MAiVDALA II, HYMN I. I9I 

Note 3. Agni seems to be identified here with Apam 
napat, who frequently is called aiu-heman. Comp. Win- 
disch, Festgruss an Roth, 143 seq. 

Note 4. The men, of course, are the Maruts, as is shown 
by the well-known use of sardha/i (cf. vol. xxxii, p. 67 seq.). 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Comp. von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, 53 seq. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. As to ara/^kr/te, cf. VIII, 67, 3. 

Note 2. Or, thou art a protector to him who has wor- 
shipped thee in his house. — Among the various ways for 
explaining or removing the metrical deficiency of the last 
Pada the correction dame a' (for dame) is recommended by 
verse 8. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Ish/ibhi/^, standing by the side of .ramya, seems 
to be derived from the root ya^. Thus i^e, i^ana stand by 
the side of sa.ss.m6, .ya^amana. — Cf. ishtlbhiA matibhi^, II, 
18, 1. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The names of the three i^zbhus are j^z'bhu, Va^a, 
Vibhvan. The word va^a used here evidently alludes to 
the second of these names. 

Note 2. Bergaigne (Religion Ved., II, 406) no doubt is 
right in believing that the verb vi bhasi ('thou shinest') 
alludes to the name Vibhvan. Comp. X, 91, 1. vibhM 
vibhava. 

Note 3. Vi-Jikshu^ again seems to convey an allusion to 
the i^z'bhu myth. When dividing the cup of Tvash/rz into 
four cups, the i^/bhus say, sakhe vi i-iksha (IV, 35, 3). 
This vi .riksha and the corresponding adjective vi-^ikshu 
should be derived from the root sas, ' to cut to pieces.' 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Here we have the three goddesses of the Apri 
hymns, Bharati, Ida, and Sarasvati. Of the goddess 



192 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Bharati the full name is given, Hotra Bharati, i.e. 'the 
Offering of the Bharatas.' Comp. Bergaigne, I, 322 seq, 

Note 2. Comp. VI, 61,7, where Sarasvati is called vWtra- 
ghm. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Or ' through (thee who art their) mouth/ 

Note 2. Comp. 1, 19, 3. visve devasa^ adruha/^ ; vol. xxxii, 

PP. 53>55- 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. On this verse, compare Pischel, Vedische Studien, 

1,97- 

Note 2. On przksha/^, see above, I, 127, 5, note 1. 

Verse 16. 
Note 1. On go-agra, compare Pischel, Vedische Studien, 

1,51. 

Note 2. Vidathe: comp. the note on I, 31, 6. 



MAiVZ)ALA II, HYMN 2. 1 93 

MAA^ALA II, HYMN 2. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 20-21. 

i. Increase Gatavedas by your sacrifice 1 , worship 
Agni for ever with your offering and your prayer 2 
— him who has been kindled, the receiver of good 
offerings, the solar hero, the heavenly Hotrz, the 
charioteer 3 in our settlements 4 . 

2. For thee Nights and Dawns have been lowing, 
O Agni, as milch-cows in the folds for their calf 1 . 
A steward 2 , as it were, of Heaven, thou shinest on 
the human tribes, O bountiful one, on continuous 
nights 3 . 

3. The gods have set him to work, as a steward 1 
of Heaven and Earth, endowed with wonderful 
power, at the bottom of the air : Agni who is well 
known like a chariot 2 , brightly shining, deserving 
of praise like Mitra (or, like a friend) in (human) 
dwellings. 

4. They have established him who grows in the 
air, in his house, the serpent 1 with beautiful splen- 
dour like gold 2 , the winged (son ?) of Vrism 3 who 
lights up with his eyes both tribes (of gods and of 
men), like a guardian of the way (?) 4 . 

5. May he, the Hotrz, encompass the whole sacri- 
fice. Men strive towards him with offerings and 
prayer. (Agni) with golden jaws 1 , hurrying around 
in the growing (plants) 2 , lighted up the two worlds 
like the Sky with the stars. 

6. Thus mayst thou, being brightly kindled for 
our welfare or being exhausted (P) 1 , shine upon 
us with thy wealth. Carry hither to us the two 

[46] o 



194 VEDIC HYMNS. 



worlds for the sake of happiness, Agni, O god, 
that they may eagerly partake 2 of the offering of 
the man (or, of Manus). 

7. Give us, Agni, mighty, give us thousandfold 
(gifts). Open strength for us like a door 1 for the 
sake of glory. Make Heaven and Earth inclined 
towards us through (our) spell. Make the Dawns 
shine like the brilliant Sun. 

8. Being kindled after dawns and nights may he 
shine with his red light like the sun, Agni, being 
a good sacrificer with the help of the offerings of 
man (or, of Manus) \ the king of the clans, and the 
welcome guest of Ayu. 

9. Thus, O Agni, ancient one, our human prayer 
has prospered among the immortals who dwell in 
the great heaven. May the cow 1 when milked, yield 2 
freely to the singer in our settlements hundredfold 
(wealth) of all kinds. 

10. May we, O Agni, (attain) bliss in valiant men 
by our racers, or may we shine over (all) people 
by our sacred spells. May our unconquerable lustre 
beam on high like the sun over the fivefold dwell- 
ings (of the five peoples). 

11. Be thou, O mighty one, worthy of praise 
among us, (thou) from whom the well-born, liberal 
(lords) have sought nourishment 1 , unto whom the 
strong ones, O Agni, go for sacrifice, who shinest 
in thy abode among (the worshippers) own kith. 

12. May we both, O Gatavedas, the praisers and 
the liberal (lords), be in thy protection, O Agni. 
Help us to good, resplendent, abundant wealth which 
is accompanied by offspring, by good progeny. 

13 = II, 1, 16. 



M AND ALA II, HYMN 2. 1 95 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre. — Verse 7 = TS. II, 2, 12, 6 ; 
MS. IV, 12, 2. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. In this Pada one syllable is wanting. It may- 
be thought that the first word should be pronounced 
ia^Tzena. For supplying the missing syllable by conjecture 
there would, however, be many ways. Comp. also H. O., 
Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, p. 79. 

Note 2. Tanagira: comp. I. 38, 13 (vol. xxxii, p. 82). 

Note 3. Dhu^-sadam. The exact meaning is, 'who 
occupies a decisive position/ 

Note 4. Vr^aneshu : comp. I, 60, 3, note 2. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 88, 1. abhi vatsam na svasareshu 
dhenava^ indram girbhi^ navamahe. 

Note 2. See I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Note 3. See Lanman, p. 482 ; Gaedicke, p. 89. ' During 
continuous nights.' M. M. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. See I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Note 2. Cf. VIII, 84, 1. ratham na vedyam. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I follow the conjecture of Bohtlingk-Roth, who 
propose to read hvaram. Comp. Atharva-veda IV, 1, 2 
(Ai-valayana Srautasutra IV, 6, 3 ; Sankhayana vSrautasutra 
V, 9, 7). surMam hvaram. The meaning of the word is 
conjectural ; comp. I, 141, 7, note 1. If we read hvare, the 
translation could be ' brilliant like gold, in a hidden place.' 
(M. M.) 

Note 2. Comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 52. 

O 2 



196 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 3. Or, the winged (bird) of Frzstii? No other 
passages which make Agni the son (or the bird) of Pwni 
are known to me. 

Note 4. The accent of pathas points to a genitive, 
dependent on payiim, of a word which is, however, different 
from pathas. Grassmann thinks that pathas is a lengthening 
for pathas, but Lanman (Noun-Inflection, 470) is quite right 
in observing that this is hard to believe in the first syllable of 
a Pada. Should we not correct the text and read patha/& 
(gen. sing, governed by payiim)? The reading patha/* 
may be due to the influence of the neighbourhood of 
payiim. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See vol. xxxii, p. 301. 

Note 2. Comp. X, 92, i.^iishkasu harimshu ^arbhurat. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Ludwig translates sam-dadasvan : ' zum heile 
[dich selber] aufreibend ; ' Grassmann, l oder seist erloschen 
du ; ' Gaedicke (p. 89), ' und wenn du verloschest ; ' Griffith, 
6 a liberal giver ; ' Neisser (Bezzenberger's Beitr. XIX, 286), 
'deine Kunst zusammennehmend. , Saya^a says, c sa;#da- 
dasvan samyak praya^Man.' Prof. Max Miiller suggests, 
* being a liberal benefactor.' 

Note 2. There was no reason for correcting deva-vitaye 
as Ludwig once proposed. He has himself abandoned this 
conjecture. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. As to this metaphor (' opening ' strength or the 
like), comp. VIII, 5, 21. uta na^ divyak fsha^ . . . apa dvara- 
iva varshatha^, and the passages collected by Dr. Hirzel, 
Gleichnisse und Metaphern im Rig-veda. (Leipzig, 1890), 
103. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The third Pada is repeated in X, 11, 5. 



MAZVDALA II, HYMN 2. I97 



Verse 9. 

Note 1. The milch-cow of course is the prayer. 

Note 2. Isha/zi seems to be an infinitive like parsha/zi 
nesha^i tarisha/zi (Delbriick, Altindisches Verbum, 227 ; 
Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 43). • I believe it to 
come from the root ish, ' to incite.' As to the syntac- 
tical peculiarities of these infinitives, comp. Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, 416. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Ishay is a denominative from fsh, as ur^-ay is 
derived from ur^* (comp. A^valayana 5rautasutra V, 7, 3). 



I98 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA II, HYMN 3. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 22-23. 

Apr! Hymn. 

1. Agni being kindled, set down on the earth, has 
stood up with his face towards all worlds. May the 
Hotrz, the purifier, the ancient, wise one, may god 
Agni sacrifice to the gods, he who is worthy (of 
being the sacrificer). 

2. Narasa^sa, anointing the abodes (of the sacri- 
fice), equal by his greatness to the three heavens, 
endowed with beautiful light, moistening the offer- 
ing, his mind being intent on scattering ghrzta — 
may he anoint the gods on the summit of sacrifice. 

3. Being magnified 1 in our mind, Agni, sacrifice 
for us to-day to the gods before the human 
(sacrificer) 2 , thou who art worthy (of being the 
sacrificer). Conduct hither the unshakable host of 
the Maruts. Sacrifice, O men, to Indra who sits on 
the Barhis. 

4. O divine Barhis! On this (Barhis) which is 
large, rich in valiant men, which has been spread on 
this Vedi (or sacrificial altar) rich in gain, ready for 
wealth, which is anointed with ghrz'ta, sit down, 
O Vasus, O Visve devas, O Adityas 1 worthy of 
worship ! 

5. May the divine doors which are easily passable, 
open themselves wide when invoked with adoration. 
May they, the far-embracing, undecaying ones, open 
wide, purifying our glorious race 1 which is rich in 
valiant men. 

6. May Dawn and Night, grown strong from of 



MAiVDALA II, HYMN 3. 1 99 

old, joyful like two birds (?)\ (do) their work well 
for us — they who weave, turned towards each other, 
the stretched-out warp, the ornamented form of the 
sacrifice 2 , (the two goddesses) flowing with plenty, 
rich in milk. 

7. May the two divine Hotrzs, the first ones, 
very knowing, very marvellous, perform the sacrifice 
rightly with their (sacrificial) verse. Sacrificing to 
the gods they anoint (them) \ observing the right 
time, on the navel of the Earth, over the three 
ridges (of the three worlds). 

8. May Sarasvati, the accomplisher of our prayer, 
may the goddess I /a, all-victorious Bharatl — may 
the three goddesses, according to their wont, sit 
down on this Barhis and protect it, the faultless 
shelter. 

9. Through (the god's) hearing (our prayer) 
a manly son is born (to us), tawny-coloured, rich in 
gain, bringing vigour, loving the gods. May Tvash^rz 
deliver for us a son, the navel (i.e. the tie that binds 
generations together), and may he then go to the 
abode of the gods. 

io 1 . May the tree (i. e. the sacrificial post) stand 
by, letting loose (the offering which goes to the 
gods). May Agni make the offering ready in 
consequence of our prayers. May the prescient 
divine butcher carry the thrice-anointed offering 
to the gods. 

11. He 1 is joined with ghrz'ta 2 . His womb (on 
the altar) is ghrzta. He rests on ghrz'ta. His 
abode is ghrz'ta. Carry hither (the gods) according 
to thy wont ! Rejoice 3 ! Carry, O bull, the offering, 
over which the Svaha has been spoken, (to the 
gods). 



200 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi. Metre, Trish/ubh ; verse 7 : Cagati. — 
Verse 9 = TS. Ill, t, h, 2 ; TB. II, 8, 7, 4 ; MS. IV, 14, 8. 
Verse 11= VS. XVII, 88 ; TA. X, 10, 2. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The text has i/ita/z. Comp. above, I, 1, 1, 
note 2. 

Note 2. Comp. X, $$, 1. ni hf satsat (scil. agni/J) antara^ 
purva^ asmat. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. It is very probable that the poet intends to dis- 
tinguish the Vasus, the Visve devas, and the Adityas as 
three categories of gods. But then we should expect the 
accent £ditya^. Comp. VII, 51, 3. Mityak visve marital 
kdi visve devak ka visve; X, 125, 1. aham rudrebhi^ 
vasubhi^ £arami aham adityaf^ uta vuvadevai/z. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. the Grihya Mantra addressed to the 
Mekhala, of which it is said ' varaam pavitram punati na^ 
agat,' Sankhayana Grihya II, 2, 1, &c. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The meaning of vayya (comp. IX, 68, 8) is 
uncertain. Possibly it is derived from vi, ' the bird.' Ac- 
cording to SayaTza it would mean ' weavers ' (vanaku^ale 
iva). Vayyeva may be vayye iva (dual feminine), in spite 
of the artificial theory of the Pragrzhya vowels; see 
Lanman, p. 361 ; H. O., Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, 456. 
Or it may be vayya iva, dual masculine or singular femi- 
nine (comp. VII, 2, 6). 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 42, 1. adhvarasya pesak. 



MAiVDALA II, HYMN 3. 201 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. Comp. VIII, 39, 1. agni^ devan anaktu na//. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. With the first hemistich compare especially, III, 
4, 10 (see below). 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. £ He ' of course is Agni. 

Note 2. Differing from M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 185, I take 
ghrztam as an accusative. 

Note 3. Comp. Ill, 6, 9 (see below). 



202 VEDTC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA II, HYMN 4. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 24-25. 

i. I call for you Agni, shining with beautiful 
shine, praised with beautiful praise 1 , the guest of 
the clans, the receiver of fine offerings, who is 
desirable like Mitra (or, like an ally), Gatavedas 
the god, among godly people. 

2. The Bhrzgus worshipping him in the abode of 
the waters * have verily 2 established him among the 
clans of Ayu. Let him surpass all worlds, Agni, the 
steward of the gods 3 , the possessor of quick horses. 

3. The gods have established beloved Agni 
among the human clans as (people) going to settle 
(establish) Mitra 1 . May he illuminate the nights 
that are longing (for him), he who should be treated 
kindly by the liberal (worshipper) in his house. 

4. His prosperity is delightful as good pasture (?) 1 ; 
delightful is his appearance when the burning one is 
driven forward, he who quickly shaking his tongue 
among the plants waves 2 his tail mightily like a 
chariot-horse. 

5. When they praised 1 to me the monstrous 
might of the eater of the forests 2 , he produced his 
(shining) colour as (he has done) for the Uslgs 3 . 
With shining splendour he has shone joyously, he 
who having grown old has suddenly become young 
(again). 

6. He who shines on the forests 1 as if he were 
thirsty, who resounded like water on its path, like 
(the rattle of the wheels) of a chariot 2 — he whose 



MANDALA II, HYMN 4. 203 

path is black, the hot, the joyous one has shone, 
laughing 3 like the sky with its clouds. 

7. He who has spread himself burning over the 
wide (earth), moves about like an animal, free, 
without a keeper. The flaming Agni, burning 
down the brushwood, with a black trail 1 , has, as 
it were, tasted the earth. 

8. Now in the remembrance of thy former bless- 
ings this prayer has been recited to thee at the 
third sacrifice \ Give to us, Agni, mighty strength 
with a succession of valiant men, with plenty of 
food ; (give us) wealth with good progeny 2 , 

9. Give, O Agni, such vigour to thy praiser 
together with his liberal (lords), that the Grz'tsa- 
madas, rich in valiant men, victorious over hostile 
plots, attaining (their aim) in secret, may overcome 
through thee (their rivals) who get behind 1 . 



NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Somahuti Bhargava, the metre Trish/ubh. — 
No verse occurs in the other Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. To me there seems to be no doubt that the 
meaning of suvrzkti is something like ' beautiful prayer,' 
* beautiful song/ and then ( a god who is invoked with beau- 
tiful songs/ Thus suvrzktaya^ or other cases of the same 
word stand by the side of stomal . . . gira^, VIII, 8, 22 ; 
of gira^, I, 64, 1 ; VIII, 96, 10, comp. X, 64, 4; of brahma, 
VII, 31, 11 ; 97, 9 ; of stomal, VII, 96, 1 ; of dhitibhi/£, VI, 
61, 2 ; of a£/£y£oktibhL& matinam, I, 61, 3, and so on. Comp. 
also VII, 83, 9. havamahe vam vr/sha^a suvrz'ktibhiA ; X, 
41, 1. ratham . . . suvrzktibhi/£ vayam vyush/a ushasa/z 
havamahe ; X. 80, 7. avo^ama suvrzkti'm. 



204 VEDIC HYMNS. 



This being the meaning of the word, I cannot think it 
probable — and herein I differ from the opinion pronounced 
by Prof. Max Miiller, vol. xxxii, p. 109 — that it stands in 
connection with the verb vrig in its well-known use referring 
to the Barhis. In my opinion (comp. also Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, I, 151) suvrzkti may be connected with another 
use of vrig, with the meaning of this verb ' to draw a god 
towards himself, averting him from other sacrificers 5 
(materials regarding this use of vrig have been collected 
by Geldner, loc. cit., 144). Or possibly the word may be 
derived, as Prof, von Roth believes, from rik (comp. suvita 
derived from i). It is true that the substantive rz'kti does 
not occur by itself : but, as Prof. Max Miiller remarks (loc. 
cit.), this would not be fatal to Prof, von Roth's etymology, 
because many other words in the Veda occur as uttarapadas 
only. If we accept this theory, we should of course have 
to separate suvr/ktf from namovr/kti and svavrzkti. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 46, 3. imam vidhanta^ apam sadhasthe. 

Note 2. Literally, ' doubly/ ' In two places, in the abode 
of the waters and among the clans of man.' M. M. Com- 
pare, however, X, 46, 2 (see last note). 

Note 3. Devanam aratf^ ; comp. I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that people going to 
settle anywhere, secure safety by ceremonies addressed to 
Mitra, i. e. possibly by concluding alliances which stand under 
the special protection of Mitra. Comp. IV, 33, 10 ; H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 186, note 1. — Mitra is kshetrasadhas, 
VIII, 31, 14. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Svasya-iva seems to be corrupt. Possibly we 
might read suyavasa-iva push/i^. In X, 11, 5 we read, 
sada asi ranvafi, yavasa-iva pushyate. IV, 16, 15. oka^ na 
ra^va sudr/^i-iva pushtik. — The translation of the traditional 



MAiTOALA II, HYMN 4. 205 



reading would be, ' His prosperity is delightful, like that of 
a person belonging to us/ 

Note 2. Bharibhrat seems to be a participle : but then 
dodhaviti must be accented (dodhaviti). 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On the verb pan, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
I, 199 seq. 

Note 2. Vanad seems to be, as Grassmann has seen, 
a compound of van, 'the forest ' (comp. the genitive vanam, 
the locative vawsu), and of ad. Of Agni is said several 
times ' vanani atti.' 

Note 3. On the mythical ancestors designated as the 
Uri^as, see Bergaigne, I, 57 seq. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. The forests, of course, are the fuel. 
Note 2. To rathya-iva probably kakrd (nom. plur.) is to 
be supplied. 

Note 3. The ' laughing ' of the sky is the lightning (Ben- 
fey, Vedica und Verwandtes, 138). The flames of Agni 
flash through the smoke as the lightning shines in the 
clouds. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. See Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 29 seq. ; 
Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 107. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The text has trz'tiye vidathe (comp. I, 31, 6, 
note 2). Does this mean at the tWtiya-savana ? Three 
vidathas are spoken of also in VI, 51, 2 ; VII, 66, 10. 

Note 2. On the metrical irregularity, comp. H. O., Die 
Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, 67. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. ' May prevail, destroying through thee the 
neighbours lying in ambush.' M. M. To me giiha seems to 
be connected with vanvanta^. 



206 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ^ALA II, HYMN 5. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 26. 

i. The brilliant Hotri 1 has been born 2 , the father 
to protect the fathers 3 , aspiring after noble wealth. 
May we be able to bridle the strong (horse) 4 . 

2. He the leader of the sacrifice towards whom 
the seven reins (or rays) are stretched, the Fotri 
promotes, as (he has done) for Manu, the divine 
eighth (rein) ; all those (reins he promotes) \ 

3. Or when he has run along, and has recited the 
sacred words 1 , and has pursued that (duty) 2 , he has 
encompassed every kind of wisdom as the felly 
(encircles) the wheel. 

4. For He has been born as the bright Prasastrz, 
with bright power of mind. (A man) who knows 
his firm laws, mounts up on them as on the branches 
(of a tree) 1 . 

5. The lively milch-cows were attached to his, 
the Nesh/Ws, (bright) colour 1 . Was it according 
to the wish of the three sisters who have gone 
there 2 ? 

6. When (coming) from the mother the sister has 
approached, bringing ghrzta \ the Adhvaryu rejoices 
at their 2 coming as corn (rejoices) at rain. 

7. May He the Ri\N\g (priest) himself make the 
Ritvig (serve) for his own refreshment 1 . And may 
we readily gain the praise and the sacrifice 2 ; we 
have offered it. 

8. In order that He the knowing one (Agni) may 
readily serve all the worshipful (gods), this sacrifice, 
O Agni, which we have performed, rests in thee. 



MAiVKALA II, HYMN 5. 207 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, AnushAibh. — Verse 3 = SV. I, 
94; TS. Ill, 3, 3, 3 ; MS. II, 13,5. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. As the Hotrz is mentioned here, the following 
verses contain each the names of the other priests as given 
in II, i, 2. Only the Agnidh is left out; possibly the 
words svafc svaya dhayase krzV/utam ritvik ritvigam 
(verse 7) contain an allusion to this priest, who may well be 
termed the Ritv\g belonging to Agni and refreshing him. 

Note 2. With the first Pdda of our verse, compare IX, 
64, 10. mdu/z pavish/a >£etana/£. 

Note 3. The meaning seems to be : Agni, who has pro- 
tected the fathers, has been born again, and will do the 
same for the present sacrificer. 

Note 4. The strong horse, of course, is Agni. Comp. Ill, 
27, 3 (see below). On the construction (va^ina^ yamam), 
see Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, p. 417. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the seven rays or reins of Agni, see I, 146, 1, 
note 1. Besides the seven priests a mysterious eighth Ritvig 
priest is spoken of (X, 114, 9. kam rztvi^am ash/amam 
.ruram ahu/z) ; thus Agni has a mysterious eighth ra^mi 
(ray or rein) besides the seven. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion 
Vedique, II, 144. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. V6£at brahma/zi : this seems to be an allusion to 
the Brahman priest (see verse 1, note 1). 

Note 2. V6k is third singular. See Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXV, 91. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 13, 6. vaya^-iva ami rohate. Prof. 



208 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Max Miiller (vol. xxxii, p. 207) translates, ' springs up like 
young sprouts/ 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. It is the Nesh/rz's office to lead the wife of the 
sacrificer to the place where the sacrifice is being performed. 
Thus Agni, the divine Nesh/rz, is represented as accom- 
panied by female beings, by the ' milch-cows/ meaning the 
oblations of ghrzta, &c, or possibly the dawns. 

Note 2. Are the c three sisters ' (comp. Bergaigne, 1, 321 ; 
II, 107) identical with the milch-cows spoken of in the first 
hemistich? Ludwig (vol. iv, p. 166) very appropriately 
calls attention to the fact that three cows were milked at 
the sacrifice of the full and the new moon. Comp. Hille- 
brandt, Altindisches Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 12 seq. 
Three dawns are mentioned in VIII, 41, 3. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The sister bringing ghrz'ta seems to be the sacri- 
ficial spoon. Is the mother the milk-vessel or possibly the 
cow? 

Note 2. Does * their ' refer to the mother and the sister 
(cf. Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, p. 102)? Or are 'the 
three sisters who have gone there' referred to? 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The one Ritvig is Agni ; the other possibly is 
the Agnidh who refreshes the Ritvlg Agni. See verse 1, 
note 1. 

Note 2. After at we should expect, instead of aram, 
another accusative, possibly r/fam (see VII, 66, 11) : ' may 
we master the praise, the sacrifice, and the verse.' Aram 
may have found its way into the text from verse 8. 



MAA T DALA II, HYMN 6. 209 

MAiVZ?ALA II, HYMN 6. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 27. 

i. Accept, O Agni, this my piece of wood and 
this my sitting down (reverentially) x , and hear these 
words of mine. 

2. Let us worship thee, Agni, child of vigour, 
with this (piece of wood ?) *, O winner of horses 2 , 
with this well-spoken (hymn), O well-born one. 

3. May we thus as thy devoted servants pay 
devotion by our words to thee who acceptest words 
(of prayer), to thee who aspirest after wealth, O 
giver of wealth. 

4. Thus be thou a liberal, bountiful lord, O lord 
of goods, O giver of goods. Drive hatred away 
from us. 

5. Thus (give) us 1 rain from the sky ; thus (give) 
us unattainable strength ; thus (give) us thousandfold 
food. 

6. To him who magnifies thee, who desires thy 
help, O youngest messenger, (invoked) by our word, 
best sacrificing Hotrz, come near. 

7. For thou, Agni, O sage, who knowest both 
races (of gods and of men), passest (to and fro) 
between them, like a messenger belonging to thy 
own people 1 f belonging to thy allies. 

8. Thus gladden (the gods) * as the knowing one ; 
sacrifice, O intelligent one, in due order, and sit 
down on this Barhis. 



[46] 



2 TO VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rhhu Metre, Gayatri. — Verse 4=VS. XII, 
43 ; TS. IV, 2, 3, 4 ; MS. II, 7, 10. — The hymn has been 
translated by M. M., Selected Essays, II, p. 143. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. It does not seem probable that upasad is to be 
translated here according to its meaning in the later ritual, 
as one of the preparatory ceremonies of the Soma sacrifice. 
See Weber, Indische Studien, X, 363 ; Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, I, 300. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Aya may be used adverbially : comp. Ill, 12, 2 ; 
VI, 17, 15; IX, 53, 2; ic6, 14. But it is more probable 
that samidha or gira should be supplied from verse t. 
Comp. II, 24, 1. aya vidhema gira; IV, 4, 15. aya samidha 
vidhema. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 61, 7. a^vam-ish/aye. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The conjecture sana/z, proposed by Bohtlingk- 
Roth and Grassmann, is not necessary. The verb is to be 
supplied ; comp. the passages collected by Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, 19* 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Ganyeva seems to be ganyak iva, comp. 11,39, I » 
duta-iva havya ganya purutra ; IV, ^ 5. pat patL&^anyat 
anftiasah na/z. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 17, 4. yakshat deva'n amr/tan pipra- 
yat ka. ; VIII, 39, 9. yakshat ka piprayat ka nak. 



UANDALA II, HYMN 7. 211 

MATv^ALA II, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 28. 

i.'» Bring us, O youngest god, Bharata 1 , Agni, the 
best, resplendent, much-desired wealth, O Vasu 2 ! 

2. May no malign power of a god or of a mortal 
overcome us, Help us across such hostile power. 

3. And may we dive with thee across all hostile 
powers as across streams of water. 

4. Bright, O purifier, worthy of adoration, Agni, 
thou shinest mightily ; thou hast been worshipped 
by offerings of ghrzta 1 . 

5. Thou, O Bharata 1 , Agni ! hast been worshipped 
by us with offerings of heifers, of bulls, of eight- 
footed (cows) 2 . 

6. The old excellent Wotri who feeds on wood 
and drinks butter, he is the wonderful son of 
strength. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 1 =TS. I, 3, 14, 3 ; 
MS. IV, 11, 4. Verse 4 = TS. I, 3, 14, 5- Verse' 6= VS. 
XI, 70; TS. IV, 1,9, 2; MS. II, 7, 7- 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Agni Bharata is Agni as the protector of the 
Bharata tribe or as invoked by that tribe. 

Note 2. With the beginning of this verse, I, 44, 4 should 
be compared. 

2 2 



212 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 
Note 1. Comp. VIII, 19, 22. agni/i ghritebhik ahuta^. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See verse 1, note 1. 

Note 2. Roth (Petersb. Dictionary) supplies vagbhik or 
rigbh\k ; comp. VIII, 76, 13. va^am ash/apadim. But there 
is no doubt that ash^apadi, standing by the side of vara and 
ukshan, has the same meaning as in the later ritual, viz. 
a cow with calf. 



MAiVDALA II, HYMN 8. 213 

MAA^Z?ALA II, HYMN 8. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 29. 

i . As one who runs a race 1 (praises) his chariots, 
praise thou the yoking of Agni (to the chariot of 
sacrifice), of the most glorious, bountiful (god) — 

2. Who is the best leader for his worshipper, who 
undecaying makes the malign decay 1 , the cheerful- 
faced who has been worshipped with offerings — 

3. He who is praised in the houses on account of 
his beauty in the evening and at dawn, whose law is 
not set at nought, 

4. The bright one who shines with his light as 
the Sun with his splendour, with his undecaying 
(flames) 1 , he who is anointed (with ghrita). 

5. The hymns have strengthened Agni the de- 
vourer 1 along (the extent of) his own royalty 2 . He 
has assumed every beauty. 

6. May we unharmed stand under the protection 
of Agni, Indra, Soma, of the gods ; may we over- 
come our foes. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Grztsamada ; the metre is Gayatri, the last 
verse being Anush/ubh, as is frequently the case in Gayatri 
hymns (see H. O., Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, 146). — No 
verse occurs in the other Sa;/zhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Va^-ayati means * he strives for va^a,' va^ayati 
' he incites to quickness.' The accent is not always correct 
in the traditional text. 



214 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verso 2. 
Note 1. Comp. II, \6, i. fndram a^uryam ^-arayantam. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. As to a^arai^, * the undecaying (flames),' comp. 
Ill, 1 8, 2 ; VI, 5, 4 ; 6, % ; VII, 3, 3 ; X, 87, so. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. That Agni should be identified here with the 
Rishi Atri (see Bergaigne, II, 468) is very improbable. 
Possibly atri means simply ' the eater ' (from ad), though 
the poet in calling him so may have intended to allude to 
the name of the RtshL 

Note 2. Comp. I, 80, 1 seq. ar^an anu svar%yam ; 84, 
10 seq. vasvi/£ anu svar^yam. 



MANDAl,\ II, HYMN 9. 21 5 

MA#Z?ALA II, HYMN 9. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 6, VARGA 1. 

i. The Hotrz who is found on the Hotrt's seat 
has sat down (there), the fierce, the resplendent, the 
dexterous one, the protector of (his own) infallible 
laws *, the highest Vasu, he who brings thousandfold 
(gain), the pure-tongued Agni. 

2. Be thou our messenger, be our protector far 
and wide ; be thou, O bull, a leader towards 
greater wealth. O Agni ! for the continuation of 
our children and of ourselves be thou an unremitting, 
brilliant protector. 

3. May we worship thee at thy highest birth 
(-place), O Agni ; may we worship thee with praises 
in thy lower abode. I honour the womb from which 
thou hast sprung. When thou hast been kindled, 
they have offered offerings in thee. 

4. Agni, being the best sacrificer perform thou 
the sacrifice with the oblation. With thy readiness 
to hear (us) hail our gift, the wealth (which we offer). 
For thou art the treasure-lord of treasures ; thou art 
the deviser of brilliant speech. 

5. Thy wealth of both kinds 1 never fails, when 
thou art born (kindled) day by day, O wonderful one. 
Make thy singer, O Agni, rich in food ; make him 
the lord of wealth with excellent offspring. 

6. With this face of thine, as a bounteous (lord), 
a sacrificer to the gods, the best performer of sacri- 
fices with happiness, as an undeceivable guardian 
and far-reaching protector, shine among us, O Agni, 
with light and wealth. 



2l6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same RisKi. Metre, Trish/ubh. — According to an 
observation of Bergaigne's, hymns of six verses composed 
in Trish/ubh should precede hymns of the same extent 
composed in Gayatri. Though this law is not without 
exceptions (see H. O., Die Hymnen des Rigveda, I, 
101 seq.), the suspicion is raised that the hymns 9 and 10 
should each be divided into two Trz^as. — Verse i=VS. 
XI, 36; TS. Ill, 5, 1 1, »; IV, 1, 3, 3; MS. II, 7, 3. Verses 
= TS. Ill, 5, ii> a ; MS. IV, 10, 4. Verse 3 = VS. XVII, 
75 ; TS. IV, 6, 5, 4 ; MS. II, 10, 6. Verse 6 = TS. IV, 3, 13, 
2; MS. IV, 10, 5. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The long compound looks suspicious ; possibly 
it should be read adabdhavrata^ pramati//. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Vasu and dhana frequently receive the epithet 
ubhaya; see VI, 19, 10; VII, 8s, 4; 83, 5 ; X, 84, 7. No 
doubt celestial and terrestrial goods are referred to, see II, 
14, II ; V, 68, 3 ; VI, 59, 9 ; VII, 97, 10 ; IX, 19, I ; 100, 3. 



MAiVJDALA II, HYMN IO. 21 7 

MAA^ALA II, HYMN 10. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 6, VARGA 2. 

i. Agni is to be invoked as the first like a father, 
when he has been inflamed by Manus 1 in the abode 
of Id 2 . When he has invested himself with beauty, 
the wise immortal, he, the glorious strong (horse) is 
to be smoothed (by the worshippers as by grooms). 

2. Agni with bright splendour, mayest thou hear 
my call with all my prayers, thou a wise immortal. 
The two tawny (horses) draw thy chariot or the two 
red (horses), or He the wide-ranging one has made 
the two ruddy (horses draw his chariot) 1 . 

3. They have generated the well-born (Agni) in 
her who lies on her back 1 . Agni became a germ in 
the manifoldly-adorned (wives) 2 . Even in the . . . 3 
the wise one dwells by night uncovered in his 
powers 4 . 

4. I besprinkle with my offering, with Ghrz'ta, 
Agni who abides turned towards all beings, who 
widely extends throughout, who is mighty in his 
vigour, who shows himself most capacious by the 
food (which he consumes), and robust 1 . 

5. I besprinkle Him who is turned towards (us) 
from all sides ; may he gladly accept that with his be- 
nevolent mind. Agni, who is like a beautiful youth, 
who has the appearance of one eagerly striving, is not 
to be touched, when he hurries around with his body. 

6. Mayst thou know the portion (belonging to 
thee), being strong through thy desire. With thee 
as our messenger may we speak like Manu. Gaining 



2l8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



wealth l I invoke with my (sacrificial) ladle, with my 
eloquence, the faultless Agni who mixes the honey- 
drink. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. On the position of this 
hymn in the collection and its division into Trtkas, see the 
note on II, 9. — Verses 4-5 = VS. XI, 23-24; TS. IV, 1, 2, 
4. 5 ; MS. II, 7, %. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. Comp. VII, 2, 3. Manuna samiddham. 
Note 2. Id is a synonym of ida. ; ilik pade means the 
same as ilkykh pade. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. I cannot accept Prof. Lanman's scansion of this 
Pada (Noun-Inflection, 342), uta arushaha £akre vibhrztra/z. 
In my opinion the only reading in conformity with the use 
of Vedic poets is utarushd' aha, &c. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Comp. Ill, 29, 3 (see below). Of course the 
kindling-stick is alluded to. 

Note 2. The wives are the plants. — Comp. Lanman, 
P v 548. 

Note 3. The meaning of sixm'k (curag Xeyojievov) is un- 
known. The Indian explanation (' night ') of course is 
a guess, but this guess may be right. 

Note 4. 'Uncovered by the night,' M. M. On mahobhi^, 
cf. vol. xxxii, p. 197. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See vol. xxxii, p. 212. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. There is no reason for conjecturing dhanasam 
(Ludwig). Comp. X, 65, 10. indriyam somam dhanasa/£ u 
imahe. 



MAiTOALA III, HYMN I. 219 

MANDKLK III, HYMN 1. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 13-16. 

i. Thou wilt have me, O Agni, as a strong 
(master) of Soma l : therefore thou hast made me 
the carrier (of the gods ?) to perform worship at the 
sacrifice 2 . Sending my thoughts to the gods 3 1 make 
the (press-) stone ready 4 ; I toil, O Agni : find thou 
pleasure in thy own body 5 . 

2\ Eastward we have turned the sacrifice 2 ; may 
the prayer increase. They honoured Agni with fuel 
and adoration. They have taught (him) the sacri- 
ficial ordinances of the sages of Heaven 3 . Though 
he (Agni) is clever and strong, they have sought 
a way for him. 

3. He has conceived freshness 1 , the wise one of 
pure 2 powers, he who is by his birth well allied with 
Heaven and Earth. The gods have found Agni the 
conspicuous one in the waters, in the work 3 of the 
sisters. 

4. The seven young (wives) 1 made the blessed 
one grow who had been born white, ruddy in his 
growth. They ran up to him like mares 2 to a new- 
born foal. The gods wondered at Agni at his birth. 

5. Spreading with his bright limbs to the aerial 
space, purifying his power 1 by wise purifications, 
clothing himself in light, the life of the waters 2 , he 
creates mighty, perfect beauty. 

6. He has gone to (the waters) who do not eat, 
the undeceived ones, the young (daughters) of 
Heaven who are not clothed and (yet) are not naked. 



2 20 VEDTC HYMNS. 



Here the former young (women) having the same 
origin, the seven sounds 1 have conceived one germ. 

7. His compact masses assuming every shape are 
spread in the womb of ghee, in the streaming of 
honey. There the swelling milch-cows have sta- 
tioned themselves. Great are the parents of the 
wonderfully mighty (Agni) who are turned towards 
each other 1 . 

8. Having been carried (in the waters) thou hast 
shone forth, O son of strength, assuming wonderful 
shapes brilliant and fierce. The streams of honey 
and ghee drip, where the male has grown by wisdom. 

9. By (his) nature he has found his father's udder 1 ; 
he has sent forth his streams and his showers 2 . 
Walking 3 hidden to his dear friends he has not 
been hidden to the young (daughters) of Heaven 4 . 

10. He bore (in his womb) the germ of the sire, 
of the father who begat him 1 . He, being one, 
sucked many (nurses) rich in milk 2 . Observe for 
this manly, bright one the two wives, bound in 
kinship, belonging to men 3 . 

11. The great one has grown up in the wide 
unbounded space 1 . The Waters (have made) Agni 
(grow): for many glorious ones 2 (have come) to- 
gether 3 . He lay in the womb of Rita., the domestic 
(god) Agni, in the work 4 of the uterine sisters. 

12. Like a horse that carries (the prize), in the 
assembly of the great (waters) 1 , visible to his son 2 , 
he whose ... is light 3 : he who as father begat the 
ruddy cows 4 , he the son of the waters is the most 
manly, restless 5 Agni. 

1 3. To him, the glorious son of the waters and of 
the plants, the blessed wood 1 has given birth, in his 
many shapes. Even the gods, for they agreed in 



MA2VDALA III, HYMN I. 22 1 

their mind, honoured him who had been born the 
most wonderful and strong. 

14. Mighty rays of light like brilliant lightnings, 
milking (the sap of) immortality in the boundless 
stable, accompanied Agni whose ... is light 1 , who 
had grown up in his own house, as it were in secret, 

15. I magnify thee, worshipping thee with offer- 
ings ; I magnify (thee) desirous of thy friendship, of 
thy favour. Together with the gods give help to 
him who praises thee, and protect us with thy 
domestic faces. 

16. As thy followers, O Agni, best leader, winning 
all precious (treasures), pressing onward with fertile 
glory, may we overcome the godless who seek to 
combat us. 

17. Thou hast been here as the banner of the 
gods, Agni, joy-giving, knowing all wisdom. As the 
domestic (god) thou hast harboured the mortals. 
As the charioteer thou goest along straightway after 
the gods. 

18. The immortal, the king, has sat down in the 
dwelling of the mortals, performing the sacrifices 1 . 
He the ghee-faced one has shone forth widely, Agni 
knowing all wisdom. 

19 1 . Come to us with thy gracious friendship, 
speeding, great, with thy great blessings. Bestow 
on us plentiful victorious wealth ; make our share 
glorious and adorned with fine speech. 

20. These old births of thine, O Agni, and the 
recent ones I have told forth to thee the ancient 
one. These great libations (of Soma) have been 
prepared for the manly one ; generation by genera- 
tion Gatavedas has been placed (on the altar). 

21. Gatavedas, placed (on the altar) generation 



222 VEDIC HYMNS. 



after generation, is kindled by the Visvamitras, the 
indefatigable (or everlasting). May we dwell in the 
grace of him the worshipful, yea, in his blissful 
kindness. 

22. Bring thou, O strong one, this sacrifice of ours 
to the gods, O wise one, as a liberal giver. Bestow 
on us, O Hotrz, abundant food ; Agni, obtain by 
sacrificing mighty wealth for us. 

23. Procure, O Agni, for ever, to him who im- 
plores thee, (the gift of) nourishment \ the wonderful 
acquiring of the cow. May a son be ours, offspring 
that continues our race. Agni, may this favour of 
thine abide with us ! 



NOTES. 

The Rhhl is Vuvamitra Gathina, the metre Trish/ubh. — 
Verse 1 = MS. IV, 11, 3. Verse 19 = MS. IV, 14, 15. 
Verse 23 = SV. I, 76; VS. XII, 51 ; TS. IV, 3, 4, 3 ; MS. 

II, 7, 11; IV, II, 1; 13,3. 

Comp. on this hymn Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 157 
seq., and the article of Regnaud, Etudes Vediques, 1'hymne 

III, 1 du Rig- Veda. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Vakshi, which is very frequent as 2nd person of 
vah, occurs also as belonging to vas (see VII, 98, 2. pitim it 
asya vakshi), and in this sense no doubt it is to be under- 
stood in our passage. — Ludwig and Geldner take tavasam 
vakshi agne as a parenthesis. G. translates : ' Du hast 
mich zu deinem Somaschenken — denn dich geliistet nach 
dem starken, o Agni — bestellt, dass ich vor den Weisen 
opfern soil.' To me it seems more natural to understand 
the first Pada as one continual clause ; vakshi is accented 
on account of the logical dependence in which this clause 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN I. 22 3 

stands, the clause being considered, even without a sub- 
ordinating word, as a dependent one. See Delbriick, Alt- 
indische Syntax, p. 42 ; A. Mayr, Sitzungsberichte der 
phil. hist. Classe der Kais. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
Vol. LXVIII (Vienna, 1 871), 248, 259.— If we were to con- 
sider vakshi as a locative infinitive (see Bartholomae's theory 
on such infinitives, Indogermanische Forschungen, II, 27 1 
seqq.), the translation would be: 'Thou hast made me, 
O Agni, a strong carrier of Soma at the carrying (of the 
oblations),' &c. I do not think, however, this interpretation 
of vakshi very probable, nor is it, as far as I can see, 
favoured by any passage which contains the word. — For 
somasya tavasam, Prof. Max Miiller suggests the translation 
8 strong of Soma,' i. e. full of Soma. 

Note 2. The text has vidathe. 

Note 3. The traditional text has affia diclyat, which 
means, ' shining towards or as far as the gods.' The verb 
di with attfa occurs still in two other passages of this 
Mandala, in 15, 5 and $$, 3. In the first of these passages 
the text seems to be correct : devan akkha. dixiyana^, 
4 shining as far as the gods.' In the second passage I believe 
that we ought to read affia didhye purvyam, ' I think of 
the ancient things,' or more exactly, ' I send my thoughts to 
the ancient things.' In the same way it seems to me very 
probable that in our verse diclhyat would be the correct 
reading, for the participle refers to the pries,t who says of 
himself, ' I make the stone ready ; ' and this priest does not 
send his light (dixlyat) but his thoughts (didhyat) to the 
gods. Comp. I, 132, 5 = 139, 1. devan affia na dhitaya/* ; 
III, 4, 3, and numerous passages which represent the mati, 
the gira/£, &c, as going towards (AkkAa.) the gods, such as 

in, 39, 1 5 43, 3 ; VII > IO ' 3 ; 3 6 > 9; x, 43, * ; 47, 6.— 

Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges., XLVIII, 108} 
speaks of the ' haufige Verwechslungen von Formen der 
beiden Wurzeln 2 di scheinen und 1 dhi wahrnehmen, den- 
ken.' The reading diclyat in our verse, and didye III, 55, 
3, may rest on the influence of III, 15, 5. devan akMa 
diclyana/^ 



224 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 4. On the accent of yungz the same may be said as 
above (note i) regarding the accent of vakshi. 
Note 5. I. e. cause the fire to flare up. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The verses 2, 3, and 4 have been translated by 
Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 109. 

Note 2. Many sacrificial rites are performed from west to 
east; comp. with regard to the Barhis, I, 188, 4; X, no, 
4 ; with regard to the sacrificial ladle, III, 6, 1 ; V, 28, 1 ; 
to the Havirdh&nas, Va^-as. Sa^hita V, 17. Thus the 
whole sacrifice is spoken of as proceeding in an eastward 
direction ; see X, 66, 12. pra^am nak ya^/zam pra nayata ; 
X, 87, 9. ya^am pra^am . . . pra naya. 

Note 3. Comp. Mahabharata XIV, 280. tasmat sva.ya.rn 
.yadhi yagne vidhanam. Vidatha indeed is here an equivalent 
of vidhana. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that Agni won vigour 
(mayah) by dwelling in the waters (see Pada 3) ; comp. the 
well-known w r ords apa/£ hi stha maya/£-bhuva/z (X, 9, 1), 
' for you, O waters, give vigour.' 

Note 2. More exactly, of purified faculties. 

Note 3. The accent apasi, instead of apasi, looks very 
suspicious. It is easy, but perhaps too easy, to correct 
apasi, as possibly in III, 6, 7. apa^ should be read for apa/£. 
(In I, 31, 8 ; 151, 4 Grassmann is wrong in assuming 
a neutral stem apas- ' die Arbeit.') To me Ludwig's 
conjecture upasi (in the lap of the sisters, i.e. of the 
waters) seems excellent. Upasi occurs in V, 43, 7 ; X, 27, 
13 in the meaning of upasthe. Thus upasi svasrzWam 
would be the same as apam upasthe ; comp. I, 144, 2 ; 
VI, 8, 4; IX, 86, 25; X, 45, 3; -46, 1. 2, &c— Comp. 
below, verse 11, note 4. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1, Of course the seven wives are the rivers or 
waters. 



MANDALA III, HYMN I. 225 

Note 2. I cannot adopt Prof. Weber's conjecture asva>£ 
(Altiranische Sterrinamen, 10). His translation is : ' Die 
Gotter liefen zu dem wundersamen Agni bei seiner Geburt 
(neugierig) hinzu, wie die jungen Madchen zu einem neu- 
gebornen Kinde.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. For kratum punana/fc, cf. Ill, 31, 16; VIII, 12, 

"; J 3> 1; 53> 6 - 

Note 2. I take pari as belonging to vasana^ ; ^o^i^ and 

ayuk are objects. Comp. X, 16, 5. ayu/z vasana^ ; X, 53, 3. 

sa/z ayuk a agat surabhi/fc vasana^. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The number of the seven sounds (comp. Sten 
Konow, Das Samavidhana-brahma/za, p. 33, note 3) seems 
to be connected with the seven Rishis, see IX, 103, 3. vsim/i 
rishinam sapta (comp. IX, 62, 17). The seven sounds 
seem to be identified with the seven rivers also in III, 7, 1 
(see below). Comp. Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 132 ; 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 117, note 1. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. Heaven and Earth. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 99. 

Note 2. See volume xxxii, 441 seq. (I, 2, 3, note 1). 

Note 3. Here I believe we have an anacoluthon. The 
poet seems to have intended to say, c Him who walked . . . 
the daughters of Heaven saw.'— Prof. Max Muller translates 
this hemistich : * He found him (the father) moving along 
with dear friends, with the young maidens of Heaven — he 
was not hidden.' 

Note 4. Agni was hidden to the gods but not to the 

waters. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The verse X, 3, a, though very obscure, seems 
to contain a similar idea. Should the meaning be that 
[46] Q 



226 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Agni bears in his womb the Dawn, the daughter of 
Heaven ? 

Note 2. The waters. 

Note 3. This phrase, which I have translated as literally 
as possible, is very obscure. The two wives seem to be 
wives of Agni. Are they Night and Dawn (the two 
sabardughe, III, 55, 12?), whose designation as ' belonging 
to men ' seems not to be impossible ? Or the two kindling- 
sticks (comp. V, 47, 5) ? Or the two Darvis (V, 6, 9) ? 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 42, 17. urau dev&k anibadhe syama. 

Note 2. This is feminine. 

Note 3. The phrase yaj-asa^ sam hi purvi'^ occurs also 
X, 46, 10. It may have been, as Geldner believes, a pro- 
verbial locution. But the verb which it is most natural to 
supply, seems to be gam (i, ya), so that the meaning may 
have been : ' Many superior (wives) are wont to assemble,' 
i. e. where one such wife is, there will be many. This is 
applied here to the waters, in X, 46, 10 to such beings as 
isha//, utaya^ or the like. That ya.yas may be meant for 
the waters is shown by VII, 36, 6, where the ya^asa^ 
vava^ana^, mentioned by the side of Sarasvati, evidently 
are the waters. — It should be observed that several 
expressions of this hymn have been made use of by the 
author of X, 46. 

Note 4v Or rather ' in the lap ' (upasi). Comp. above, 
verse 3, note 3. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. With regard to akra^ I adopt the translation 
proposed by Geldner (Ved. Studien, I, 168). — On the 
accent of mahiham, see Lanman, p. 398. 

Note 2. This seems to be the human worshipper. I can- 
not follow Prof, von Roth, Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesell- 
schaft, XLVIII, 118, who explains sunave as a corrupt third 
person of the verb su. 

Note 3. See above, I, 44, 3, note 1. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 1. 2 27 

Note 4. The dawns. 

Note 5. Comp. above, I, 36, 1, note 2. 

Verse 13. 
Note 1. Vana : the wood considered as a wife. 

Verse 14. 
Note 1. See verse 12, note 3. 

Verse 18. 
Note 1. The text has vidathani. 

Verse 19. 
Note 1. Comp. Kuhn, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, I, p. 445. 

Verse 23. 

Note 1. t /am. which more especially means the nourishing 
substance of the cow. Comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
72, 326. — Prof. Max Miiller translates: 'Procure to him 
who implores thee, O Agni, exuberant land for ever, rich 
in cows/ 



Q 2 



2 28 VEDTC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 2. 

ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 17-19. 

To Agni Valsvanara. 

i. For Vaiivanara, the increaser of i?zta, for Agni 
we produce * a Dhisha^i 2 like purified ghee. And 
verily 3 by their prayer the invoking men (accom- 
plish) him, the Hotrz, as the axe accomplishes a 
chariot. 

2. By his birth he has given splendour to both 
worlds (Heaven and Earth). He became the praise- 
worthy son of his parents, Agni, the carrier of 
oblations, never ageing, with satisfied mind, unde- 
ceivable, the guest of men, rich in light. 

3. Through the power of their mind, within the 
sphere of their superior strength the gods have 
procreated Agni by their thoughts. Desirous of 
winning the prize 1 I address Him who shines with 
his splendour, who is great in his light, as (one who 
desires to win the prize addresses his) race-horse. 

4. Desirous of winning the choice, glorious, and 
praiseworthy prize (which is the gift) of the joy-giver, 
we choose the boon of the Bhrzgus 1 , the Vsig" 2 , who 
has the mind of a sage, Agni, who reigns with his 
heavenly light. 

5. Men, having spread the sacrificial grass, holding 
the sacrificial ladle, have placed here in front (as 
Purohita), for the sake of (the divine) blessing, Agni 
renowned for strength, with great splendour, united 
with all the gods, the Rudra of sacrifices 1 , who 
accomplishes the oblations of active (worshippers). 

6. O (Agni) whose flame is purifying, around thy 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 2. 229 

dwelling, O Hotrz, the men who at the sacrifices 
have spread the sacrificial grass, O Agni, seeking 
(how to do) honour (to thee), and (desiring) thy 
friendship, surround thee (reverentially) ; — bestow 
thou wealth on them ! 

7. He has filled the two worlds (Heaven and 
Earth) and the great Sun, when the active ones 
(i.e. the priests) held him fast who had been born. 
He the sage is led round for the performance of 
worship, like a racer for the winning of the prize \ 
with satisfied mind. 

8. Adore ye him, the giver of offerings, the best 
performer of worship ; honour ye him the domestic 
<9atavedas. Agni, the charioteer of the mighty 
Rite, he who dwells among manifold tribes, has 
become the Purohita of the gods. 

9. The immortal Usigs have purified three logs 
for the vigorous 1 Agni 2 who wanders round the 
earth 3 : of these they have placed one among the 
mortals for their enjoyment ; two have passed into 
the sister world 4 . 

10. The food offered by men has sharpened him, 
the sage of the tribes, the lord of the tribes, as 
an axe. Busily he goes to the heights and to the 
depths. He has held fast the germ in these worlds. 

11. He the generator, the strong one, stirs in the 
resplendent bellies like a roaring lion, Vaisvanara 
with his broad stream of light, the immortal, dis- 
tributing goods and treasures to his worshipper. 

12. Vaisvanara has mounted the firmament, the 
back of heaven, as of old, glorified by those who are 
rich in good thoughts. He, creating wealth for the 
creatures as of old, goes watchful round the common 
course. 



23O VEDIC HYMNS. 



13. The righteous, worshipful priest deserving of 
praise, the dweller in heaven 1 whom Matamvan 
has established (on earth) : him we approach whose 
way is bright and hair golden, the resplendent Agni, 
for the sake of ever new welfare. 

14. Like the flaming one (the sun ?) on his way, 
the quick one, of sun-like aspect, the banner of 
heaven, who dwells in light, who wakes at dawn — 
Agni the head of heaven, the unrepressed, him we 
approach with adoration, the strong one mightily. 

15. The joy-giving, bright Hotrz, in whom is no 
falsehood, the domestic, praiseworthy dweller among 
all tribes, like a splendid chariot, wonderful to be- 
hold, established by Manus : him we constantly 
approach for the sake of wealth. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshu The metre is £agati. — Verse 7= VS. 
XXXIII, 75. Verse 9 = MS.. I, 3, 35. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Literally, ' we generate/ 

Note 2. On the meaning of this word, which I may be 
allowed to leave in its Sanskrit form, I refer to I, 96, 1, 
note 2. 

Note 3. Literally, ' doubly.' Comp. below, III, 17, 5, 
note 1. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. YdLgam sanishyan refers to the worshipper who 
desires to obtain va^a (quick strength, and the booty or 
prize obtained by it), and in the comparison, to the owner 
of a race-horse who desires to win the race. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 2. 23 1 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 60, 1 (see above). 

Note 2. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 57 seq. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Comp. von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 54. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Again, as in verse 3, va^asataye means, with 
reference to the race, ' for the winning of the prize, 5 and 
with reference to sacrifice, 'for the obtainment of quick 
strength, of booty, &c.' 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. See above, I, 36, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Agni is stated here to have one terrestrial and 
two celestial forms : the fire belonging to men, and, it 
seems, sun and lightning. Comp. M. M., Physical Religion, 
229 ; Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 22. With regard to 
the three forms of Agni, compare also H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 106 seq. 

Note 3. On pari^man, comp. above, I, 79, 3, note 2. 

Note 4. Into the celestial world. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. I read divikshayam (Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, I, 
55, note). The blunder has been caused by X, 63, 5. 
dadhire divf kshayam. 



232 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ?ALA III, HYMN 3. 

ASHrAKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 20-21. 

To Agni Valsvanara. 

i. They have worshipped Vai^vanara with his 
broad stream of light with prayers 1 and treasures 
in order that he may walk on firm ground. For 
immortal Agni honours the gods, and from of old 
he has not violated the laws. 

2. The wonderful messenger goes between the 
two worlds (heaven and earth), the Hotrz who has 
sat down, the Purohita of Manus. He takes care of 
his wide dwelling day by day, Agni who, incited by 
the gods, gives wealth for our prayers. 

3. The priests have exalted with their thoughts 
Agni, the banner of sacrifices, the achiever of sacri- 
fice 1 . From him in whom they have put together 
their (sacrificial) works and their prayers, the sacrificer 
desires blessings. 

4. The father of sacrifices, the miraculous lord of 
those who know prayers (P) 1 , Agni, is the measure 
and rule 2 of the sacrificers ; he has entered the two 
manifold-shaped worlds ; the sage beloved by many 
people is glorified in his foundations. 

5. The gods have established here in great beauty 
Agni the bright with his bright chariot, whose every 
law is golden 1 , Vaiivanara who dwells in the waters, 
who finds the sun, the diver, the swift one covered 
with strength, the quick one. 

6. Agni, spreading out with his thought the mani- 
fold-adorned sacrifice, together with the gods and 



MA2VDALA III, HYMN 3. 233 

with the people of Manus, goes as a charioteer to 
and fro with (gods and men) who accomplish the 
sacrifice, the quick, domestic (god), the dispeller of 
curses. 

7. Agni, be wakeful * in our life which may be 
blessed with offspring ; swell with sap ; shine upon 
us (plenty of) food. Stir up vigour and the great 
ones, O watchful (god). Thou art the Usig- (or 
willing one) of the gods, the good-minded (lord) of 
prayers. 

8. The lord of the tribe, the vigorous 1 guest, the 
guider of prayers, the Usig (or willing one) of those 
who invoke him, ^atavedas, the light of worship — 
him men constantly praise with adoration, with 
solicitations for their welfare. 

9. The resplendent, joyous god, Agni on his 
chariot, has with his might encompassed the dwell- 
ings. May we honour in our house with beautiful 
prayers 1 his commands who is rich in manifold 
prosperity. 

10. O VaLsvanara, I love thy statutes by which 
thou hast found the sun, O far-seeing one. When 
born thou hast filled the worlds, heaven and earth ; 
Agni, thou encompassest all these (beings) by 
thyself. 

11. For Vabvanara's wonderful deeds he the sage 
alone has by his great skill mightily 1 let loose (his 
powers ?). Agni has been born exalting both his 
parents, Heaven and Earth, rich in seed. 

NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. — Verse 10 = MS. IV, 11, 1. 
Verse 11 = TS. I, 5, 11, 1. 



2 34 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. A meaning like c prayer ' seems to recommend 
itself for most of the passages in which the substantive vip 
occurs, for instance, V, 68, i. pra vak mitraya gayata varu/zaya 
vipa gira ; IX, 22, 3. ete puta^ vipa^ita/^ somasaA . . . vipa 
vi ana^-u^ dhiya^ ; IX, 6$, 12. aya klttih vipa anaya hari/^ 
pavasva dharaya ; III, 10, 5 (see below), &c. As the verb 
vip means ' to be in trembling agitation,' the same word as 
a substantive may designate enthusiastic thoughts or 
prayers. Comp. vepate mat!', IX, 71, 3 ; X, 11, 6, and the 
nouns vi'pra, vipa^it, vipodha. We need not enter here 
upon the question, whether some concrete trembling or 
shaking objects also were designated as vipa/z, and whether 
Bergaigne (Religion Vedique, I, p. vii) is right in taking 
the vip aya^-agra, with which Trita killed the boar 
(X, 99, 6), as a ' priere a pointe de fer ' (comp. Macdonell, 
Journ. R. Asiatic Society, 1893, p. 431 ; 1895. p. 185). — In 
our verse vfpa^ may be either nominative or accusative. 
I have translated it as an accusative ; in the case of the 
nominative the translation would • be : ' The prayers have 
worshipped Vaiivanara with treasures.' 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. The text has vidathasya. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Asura>& vipa^-y^itam. On the meaning of asura, 
which implies the possession of secret, supernatural power, 
see H. O., Religion des Veda, 162 seq. — Comp. von Bradke, 
Dyaus Asura, pp. 64-65. 

Note 2. ' Richtschnur und Weg der Opferer,' Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, 306. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Literally, ' whose rules are yellow.' The mean- 
ing is that Agni's whole sphere of activity bears the golden 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 3. 235 

yellow colour. Saya/za gives the interesting remark 
' haritva^am iti ^akhantaram/ but no doubt harivratam is 
right. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIII, 
297. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 36, 1, note 1. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. Comp. II, 4, 3, note 1. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to translate, ' has sent 
forth his great song,' and observes, { Might not brz'hat be 
like brzhat sama, a name of a hymn ? ' 



236 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 4. 

ASHZAKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 22-23. 

Apr! Hymn. 

1. Log by log 1 be kind towards us. Flash 
by flash grant us thy, the Vasu's, favour 2 . Bring 
hither, O god, the gods that we may sacrifice. 
Sacrifice, O Agni, as a kind friend to thy friends. 

2. Thou whom the gods, Varu^a, Mitra, Agni, 
thrice every day bring hither by sacrifice day by 
day, Tanunapdt, make this our sacrifice honey-sweet, 
having its abode in ghee \ (this sacrifice) which 
worships (the gods). 

3. (Our adoring) thought rich in all boons goes 
forward for worshipping as the first the Hotrz of 
the sacred food (i/), for saluting the strong bull with 
adoration and homage. May he, the best sacrificer, 
incited (by our prayers) sacrifice to the gods \ 

4. Upwards your 1 course has been directed at 
the worship; upwards (your) flames 2 are gone; ready 
(for receiving you) is the air 3 . Or the Hotrz has 
sat down at heaven's navel. We spread out the 
sacrificial grass which receives the gods. 

5 1 . Choosing in their mind the sevenfold work of 
the Hotrzs 2 , enlivening everything (the gods) came 
hither in the right way. (The divine doors 3 ) with 
men as their ornaments 4 , born at the sacrifices 5 , 
have come hither and thither to this sacrifice, many 
of them. 

6. Hither (shall come) the two Dawns 1 , the 
neighbourly (goddesses) of glorious appearance 2 . 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 4. 237 

Of different forms, they both smile. (They shall 
come) that Mitra and Varima may be satisfied with 
us, and Indra accompanied by the Maruts with their 
powers 3 . 

7. I catch hold of the two divine Hotris first. 
The seven strong ones 1 rejoice according to their 
wont. Teaching the right, they proclaim the right, 
the guardians of law, contemplating the law. 

8 1 . May Bharati, in concord with the Bharatis, 
I /a with the gods, Agni with men, Sarasvati with 
all (beings) belonging to Sarasvati (come) hither; 
may the three goddesses sit down on this sacrificial 
grass. 

9. O divine Tvash^rz, grant us and send forth 
this our seed which is to thrive : (the seed) from 
which a manly son is born able and skilful, who 
sets to work the press-stones, loving the gods. 

10. O tree 1 , send (the offering) forth to the gods. 
May Agni the slaughterer make the offering ready. 
May the same, the very true Hotr/, sacrifice according 
as he knows the generations of the gods. 

11. Agni, being kindled, come hither, on one 
chariot with Indra, with the quick gods. May Aditi, 
the mother of noble sons, sit down on our sacrificial 
grass. With Svaha may the immortal gods rejoice. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Trish/ubh.— Verse 9 = TS. 
Ill, i 5 11, 1 ; MS. IV, 13, 10. Verse 10 =VS. XXVII, 
21 ; TS. IV, 1,8,3; MS. II, 12,6. 



238 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. Agni is invoked as personified in each log of fuel 
which is put on the sacrificial fire. 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 39, 1. sumatim vasva/£. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. II, 3, 11. ghrztam asya yonik. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Comp. X, no, 3. sa>& enan yakshi ishita// ya^iyan 
(cf. also X, no, 9). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The text has the dual vam. But who are the 
two beings addressed? According to Saya/m, Agni and 
the Barhis, which does not seem very probable. The 
structure of the phrase gives the impression — though this 
impression is by no means certain — that vam, which belongs 
to gatu, is to be supplied to ^o^iWshi also. If we are right 
in this supposition, are not the two beings in question the 
two first of the three sacred fires, the Ahavaniya and 
Garhapatya ? These two fires are frequently spoken of in 
the ritual texts as of a dyad, with the omission of the third 
fire. — Prof. Max Miiller proposes to change vam into va. 
According to him the meaning may be : Either the road 
has been made upward, i.e. the flames have gone upward 
to the sky, or Agni has sat down at heaven's navel. 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 43, 2. urdhva sokimshi devayuni 
asthu^. 

Note 3. Possibly the words urdhva' sokimshx prasthita 
ra^awsi may form one clause, ' upwards (your) flames are 
gone towards the sky.' M. M. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On this verse, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
II, 115 seq. 

Note 2. On the seven priests of the ancient Soma 
sacrifice, comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 383 seq. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 4. 239 

Note 3. That this subject is to be supplied, is shown by 
the regular composition of the Apri hymns. It is con- 
firmed by the word purvi^, which is evidently an epithet of 
the divine doors ; comp. I, 188, 5 ; VII, 2, 5. 

Note 4. ' In human form/ M. M. 

Note 5. The text has vidatheshu. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. I. e. Night and Dawn. 

Note 2. Comp. above, I, 142, 7. 

Note 3. Comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 196 seq. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. above, 1, 127, 5, note 1. Pischel (Vedische 
Studien, I, 96) may be right in taking the seven przkshasa/^ 
as the Angiras, the sapta vipra^. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The verses 8-1 1 are repeated in VII, 2, 8-1 1. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. The tree is the sacrificial post (yupa). 



24O VEDIC HYMNS. 



MA ND ALA III, HYMN 5. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 24-25. 

1. Shining Agni has awoke over against the 
Dawns, the priest who traces the footsteps of the 
sages 1 . With his broad stream of light kindled by 
the pious, the carrier (of the gods) has opened the 
two doors of darkness. 

2. Agni has grown strong by praises, by the 
speeches of the praisers, by hymns, the adorable 
one. Loving many aspects of Rita, the messenger 
has shone up at the bursting forth of the Dawn. 

3. Agni has been established among the tribes 
of men, the son of the waters, Mitra 1 , acting in the 
right way. The delightful, worshipful one has 
reached the top ; the priest has become one who 
should be invoked by prayers. 

4. Agni becomes Mitra 1 , when he has been kin- 
dled ; he the Hotri (Agni becomes) Mitra ; he, 
Gatavedas, (becomes) Varu^a. The quick Adh- 
varyu, the domestic (god, Agni, becomes) Mitra, 
the Mitra (i.e. friend or ally) of the rivers and of the 
mountains. 

5. He observes the deceiver's dear summit 1 , the 
footstep of the bird 1 ; ,the vigorous one 2 observes 
the course of the Sun. Agni observes at his (?) 
navel the seven-headed (song?) 3 ; tall (Agni) ob- 
serves the enjoyment of the gods. 

6. The Rihhu 1 has created for himself a good 
name worthy of being magnified, he, the god who 
knows all laws. The skin of the herbs 2 , the bird's 
footstep 3 rich in ghee : Agni watches (all) that, never 
failing. 



M AND ALA III, HYMN 5. 24 1 

7. Agni has approached the place 1 rich in ghee 
(the altar), with broad passages, (the place) long- 
ing (for him), longing (himself). He the resplendent, 
bright, tall purifier has made his two parents 2 new 
again and again. 

8. As soon as born he has grown by the grass *, 
when the sprouting (grass-)blades strengthen him 
with ghee. Like waters beautiful on their precipitous 
path, Agni, being in the lap of his parents, has 
escaped into wide space. 

9. Receiving praise the vigorous one * has shone 
forth with his fuel, on heavens summit, on the 
earth's navel. May Agni worthy of being magnified, 
(being) Mitra and Matariivan, the messenger, carry 
hither the gods that they may receive our sacrifice. 

10. The tall one has, by (receiving) fuel, upheld 
the firmament, Agni, becoming the highest of lights, 
when Matarisvan for the sake of the Bhrzgus 1 
kindled the carrier of oblations, (Agni) who dwelt 
in secret. 

11 = HI, 1, 23. 

NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. — No verse occurs in the 
other Sa/^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On pada-vf, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 

I, 299- 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Mitra has here and in verse 4 two meanings : it 
is the name of the god Mitra, with whom Agni is identified 
(Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, III, 134 seq.), and it means 
also ' friend' or 'ally' (comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
186, note 1). See von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 13. 
[46] R 



242 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 
Note 1. See verse 3, note 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. All this is very enigmatical. In the parallel pas- 
sage, IV, 5, 8, we have, instead of ripa^ agram, the reading 
rupa>£ agram, which is confirmed by verse 7 of the same 
hymn (agre rupa^) and by X, 13, 3 (p&nka padani rupa/£ ami 
aroham) ; in support of the reading ripa^, on the other 
side, the verse, X, 79, 3 (ripaV* upasthe anta^), may be 
quoted. The meaning of nip is unknown ; rip means 
' deceit ' and ' deceiver : ' but what is the summit of the 
deceiver? Bergaigne (Religion Wdique, II, 77 seq.) has 
tried to solve the riddle, but it is really hopeless. — The 
meaning of the following words, pad&m ve/z, is not quite so 
obscure ; there is at least some probability that the bird is 
Agni himself (cf. below, III, 7, 7), or possibly the sun. The 
latter explanation is advocated by Prof. Max Muller, who 
writes : ' May it not be a description of sunrise ? priyam 
ripa^ agram I do not understand ; but padam vtk is the 
place of the bird, as in I, 130, 3. vek na garbham, the nest 
of the bird or of the sun. This nest is covered by a stone, 
is in fact the vra^a, which has to be opened to let out the 
light of day. It is also the yoni or the altar. Ripa^ 
agram may possibly be the summit of the Pam or of Vr/tra, 

X, 79, 3-' 

Note 2. See above, I, 36, 1 , note 1. 

Note 3. Sapta-^irshan (' seven-headed ') occurs again in 
two other passages of the Rig-veda (VIII, 51, 4, and X, 6j, 
1) ; in both it is an epithet of words which signify ' hymn ' 
or ' prayer ' (arka, dhi'). Possibly a similar word should be 
supplied here. But why are the prayers called ' seven- 
headed ?' Does this refer to unknown technicalities of the 
Vedic liturgy ? Does it stand in connection with the seven 
tones of the scale, with the expression sapta dhitaya^, with 
the number of the seven Hotrts ? ' Celui qui a sept tetes 
est sans doute un personnage equivalent a lui seul au 



MAiTOALA III, HYMN 5. 243 

groupe des sept pretres,' says Bergaigne (II, 145), which is 
very ingenious, but should not be given as a doubtless fact. 
— Prof. Max Mliller observes that saptajirshan may be, 
like saptasya, the vra^*a of Pa/zi, opened by Agni, IV, 51,4, 
and that Brzhaspati is called saptasya, IV, 50, 4, and 
saptagu, X, 47, 6. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Agni is here called i*?zbhu in his quality as 
a skilful artisan. See Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 408. 

Note 2. There seems to be no doubt that sasa (comp. 
sasya) means ' herb ' or possibly ' grain ' in X, 79, 3 ; the 
text there has sasam na pakvam ; comp. I, 66 y 2. yava^ na 
pakva^. The same meaning is quite admissible in I, 51, 3 ; 
V, 2i, 4 ; VIII, 72, 3 ; though these passages are too uncer- 
tain for deciding anything. I cannot find any reason for 
believing that we have here and in IV, 5, 7 ; 7,7 (see below), 
another word derived from the root sas, and meaning ' the 
sleeper.' At all events I neither pretend to know what 
mysteries are hidden under the c skin of the herbs/ nor 
what stories may have happened to the ' peau du dormeur ' 
(Bergaignd, II, 78 seq.). 

Note 3. See verse 5, note 1. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Yonim, literally f womb.' 
Note 2. Probably Heaven and Earth. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Mliller refers this to the grass of the 
barhis, or the. tender blades in which the spark is caught 
and kept alive by ghee. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Comp. above, I, 36, 1, note 2. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. I have adopted, though I do not believe it cer- 
tain, Grassmann's opinion on the meaning of pari in this 
connection. Comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 123, note 4. 

R 2 



544 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 6. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 26-27. 

i. Bring forward, ye pious singers, stirred in 
your thoughts 1 , (the ladle) which is turned towards 
the gods. Carrying (the sacrificial butter) from left 
to right 2 it turns eastward, rich in strength, bringing 
the offering to Agni, full of ghee. 

2. When born thou hast filled the two worlds, 
nay thou hast even exceeded them, O friend of 
sacrifices 1 . May, O Agni, thy seven-tongued horses 2 
move along, by the greatness of heaven and earth 3 . 

3. Heaven and Earth the worshipful 1 establish 
thee as Hotrz for the house, whenever the pious 
human tribes offering food magnify the bright light. 

4. (Thou art) seated, the great one, in a firm 
place 1 , between the two mighty Heavens 2 , thou who 
art longed for — (between) the two united 3 never- 
ageing, inviolable wives, the two juice-yielding milch- 
cows 4 of the far-reigning one 5 . 

5. Thy, the great (god's) laws, O Agni, are great. 
Through the power of thy mind thou hast spread 
out the two worlds. Thou hast become a messenger 
at thy birth, thou, O bull, the leader of the tribes* 

6. Or bind to the pole by means of thy (art of) 
harnessing the two long-maned, red (horses) of 7?/ta, 
that swim in ghee 1 , and carry hither, O god, all 
gods ; perform splendid worship, O Gatavedas ! 

7 1 . Even from heaven thy shining lights have 
shone ; thy splendour follows many resplendent 
dawns, when the gods, O Agni, praised the cheerful 
Hotrz's work 2 who eagerly burns in the forests 3 . 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 6. 245 

8. Whether it be the gods who rejoice in the 
wide air, or those who dwell in the heavenly light, 
or those who are helpful 1 , ready to hear our call, 
and worshipful ; or whether the horses of thy 
chariot, O Agni, have turned themselves hither — 

9. Come hither with them, O Agni, on one chariot 
or on many chariots, for thy horses are powerful. 
Bring hither, after thy nature, the thirty and the 
three gods with their wives, and rejoice (in the 
Soma). 

10. He is the Hotrz whose sacrifice even the two 
wide worlds salute over and over again for the sake 
of prosperity. Turned to the east 1 , the two well- 
established 2 (goddesses, Heaven and Earth), the 
righteous, true ones stand as at the sacrifice 3 of 
(Agni) the right-born. 

II = HI, T, 23. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse i=TB. II, 8, 2, 5 ; 
MS. IV, 14, 3. Verse 9 = AV. XX, 13, 4. 

Verso 1. 

Note 1. The translation of manana is conjectural, and 
based only on the etymology. The passage at it ra^anam 
manana^ agrzbh;zata, IX, 70, 3, does not help us much. 
* Does not X, 47, 7. stomal hrzdisprisak manasa va^ya- 
mana^, indicate the original reading, manasa va^yamanam?' 
M. M. 

Note 2. The sru£a/£ are called dakshi/zavr/ta/£, I, 144, 1. 
By the word dakshk&va/ the poet probably intended to 
designate the ladle also as procuring a Dakshi/za (sacrificial 
fee) to the priest. 



246 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. On praya^yu, see M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 335, and 
Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 98. 

Note 2. The flames of Agni. 

Note 3. Comp. below, 7, 10. The meaning seems to be : 
by thy (Agni's) greatness which is equal to that of Heaven 
and Earth. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I refer ya£7ziyasa/£, though it is a plural, to 
Heaven and Earth. Comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syn- 
tax, 103. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Padapa/^a has dhruva^. I think it should 
be dhruve, comp. II, 41, 5. dhruve sadasi uttame . . . asate; 
IX, 40, 2. dhruve sadasi sidati. 

Note 2. I.e. Heaven and Earth. 

Note 3. Askra seems derived from a-sa£ (Joh. Schmidt, 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 71). 

Note 4. Or ' the two milch-cows which instantly give 
milk/ if sabar- is to be connected with the Greek a^ap ; 
comp. Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 17. 

Note 5. Vish/zu is not the only god who is called uru- 
gaya, and there is no reason therefore why the epithet 
should not be referred here to Agni. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. Lanman, Noun- Inflection, pp. 402,413. — 
See below, IV, 2, 3. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. See Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 114 seq. 

Note 2. Should the accent be apa^? Comp. Ill, 1, 3, 
note 3. 

Note 3. It is very probable that u^adhak (comp. Ill, 34, 
3 ; VII, 7, 2) is an epithet of Agni. We should expect the 
genitive ; ui-adhak, which violates the construction, seems 



MAiVZ>ALA III, HYMN 6. 247 

to stand metri causa. Or is luadhak an accusative sin- 
gular neuter, so that the literal translation would be : ' When 
the gods praised the work, burning in the forests, of the 
Hotrz"? 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On tfrna, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 223. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. above, II, 2, 7. 

Note 2. See Windisch in the Festgruss an Boehtlingk, 
p. 114. 

Note 3. There is one syllable above the number ; the 
metre and meaning would be all right if we were to read 
adhvare (for adhvareva) : ' (the two goddesses) stand at the 
sacrifice/ &c. Prof. Max Miiller explains : c Adhvara-iva, 
like two sacrifices, like two sacrificial altars, barhis.' 



248 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA72ALA III, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 1-2. 

1. They who have risen out of the drink of the 
white-backed one, have entered the two parents, 
the seven sounds. The (all-)encompassing parents 
come together ; they go forth to aspire after long 
life 1 . 

2. The milch-cows dwelling in heaven 1 are the 
mares of the manly one. He has bestridden the 
goddesses who carry the sweet (food) 2 . Thee who 
livest in peace in the abode of jRzta., the one cow 3 
circumambulates, making her way. 

3. He has mounted the (mares) 1 that became 
well-manageable, the wise lord, the finder of riches. 
He with the dark blue back, with many faces, has 
made them depart from the drink of the brush- 
wood 2 . 

4. Giving mighty vigour to the never-ageing son 
of Tvash/rz 1 , the streams 2 carry Him the firmly 
fixed one. Flashing in his abode with his limbs 
he has entered upon the two worlds as if they were 
one. 

5. They know friendship towards the manly, the 
red one, and they delight in the command of ruddy 
(Agni), (the gods) shining from heaven, resplendent 
with bright shine, to whose host I /a belongs, the 
mighty praise. 

6. And finding it out by following the noise they 
brought to the great one's great parents a song 
of praise, when the bull about nightfall (?) has 
grown strong according to the singer's own law 1 . 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 7. 249 

7. With the five Adhvaryus the seven priests 
watch the beloved footstep which the bird has 
made 1 . Turned forwards the never-ageing bulls 2 
rejoice : for they, being gods, have followed the 
laws of the gods. 

8 = 111,4,7- 

9. The many (mares) are full of desire for the 

mighty stallion. For the manly, bright one, the 
reins easily direct (the horses) 1 . Divine Hotrz! 
Thou who art a great joy-giver and wise, bring 
hither the great gods and the two worlds 2 . 

10. The dawns, O wealth-giver, the mighty sacri- 
ficers 1 , well spoken and bright have shone with 
wealth. And by the earth's greatness 2 , O Agni, 
forgive us even committed sin 3 , that we may be 
great. 

11 = HI, 1, 23. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — No verse of this hymn 
occurs in the other Sa^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On the meaning of this difficult verse con- 
jectures only can be given. The white-backed one may 
be Agni. If this is right, 'they who have risen out of 
Agni's drink/ may be Agni's rays or flames (ye ra^mayaA 
. . . prakarshe^odga^/^anti, Saya/^a) ; these flames enter 
upon the two mothers, i.e. Heaven and Earth, and upon 
the seven sounds, the sacrificial songs which are identified 
with the terrestrial and celestial seven rivers (comp. above, 
III, 1, 6). All this rests on the supposition that the tradi- 
tional text is correct. Now Ludwig remarks with reference 



25O VEDIC HYMNS. 



to the pronoun ye : c Warscheinlicher ist, dass wir hier eine 
archaistische anwendung der form auf e fur fern, vor uns 
haben/ and Griffith says that ye is 'apparently used for 
the feminine.' I do not believe in this possibility, but for 
ye (ya) the true reading may be y(L{h). In this case the 
seven va/zis would be subject : ' They who have risen out of 
the drink of the white-backed one, the seven sounds have 
entered the two parents.' The meaning of this may be : 
The sacrificial songs, rising as it were out of the offering 
made to Agni, and in the same way the streams of water 
which, in the shape of clouds of smoke rise out of the offer- 
ing (comp. I, 164, 51), have gone to Heaven and Earth. 

That the parents in the third Pad a are again Heaven 
and Earth is shown by X, 65, 8. parikshfta pitara . . . 
dyavaprzthivi'. It may be observed that the author of 
X, 65 (see especially the verses 6-8) evidently imitated the 
expressions of the hymn, III, 7. * The coming together of 
Heaven and Earth marks the beginning of the day and of 
the year/ M. M. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On divakshas, comp. Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbil- 
dungen der Neutra, 417 seq. 

Note 2. The milch-cows, mares, or goddesses seem to be 
the celestial waters or Dawns. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 65, 6, quoted at the end of this note. 
Is the cow (Va£, according to Saya^a) the Dawn which 
daily returns in her due way ? Or the butter offered to 
Agni ? In our verse and in the parallel passage, X, 65, 6, 
the vartani of the cow is mentioned ; it may be observed 
that the vartani of Ushas is referred to in X, 17 a, 1. 4. 
And Ushas is represented in I, 123, 9 as coming to the 
nishkrzta : comp. X, 6$, 6. ya ga.uk vartanim pari-eti ni/z- 
krztam. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. See verse 2. 

Note 2. The meaning may possibly be the following. 
The Waters dwell in the plants as their sap (comp. H. O., 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 7. 25 1 

Religion des Veda, 113). Agni, when burning or drinking 
as it were, the brushwood, destroys this dwelling of the 
Waters ; he makes the Waters depart from the wood. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On Agni as the son of Tvash/rz, see Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, I, 522 seq. 

Note 2. ' Could vahata/^ be the suyama^ of verse 3 ? ' 
M. M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Or, ' when the singer's bull . . . has grown strong 
according to his own law'? The bull, of course, is Agni. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. See above, 5, 5. 6. 
Note 2. The flames of Agni ? 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Ra^maya^, ' the reins/ at the same time means 
' the rays ' (of Agni). Suyama/z being an apposition to 
Y3Lsma.ya.ky one is tempted to derive it from the root yam, 
' to direct/ but it may contain the word yama, ' the way/ 
and mean ' having a good way.' — It is difficult to believe 
that rasmaya/i suyama^ is a second subject of vmhayante, 
in which case the translation would be: 'The many (mares) 
are desirous of the mighty stallion, the . . . reins (or rays) 
of the manly, bright one.' 

Note 2. ' Bring hither to the two worlds the great gods.' 
M. M. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On przksha-praya^a^, comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, 
p. 335 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 98. 

Note 2. The meaning seems to be: By thy greatness 
which is equal to that of the earth. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 63, 8. krz'tat akr/tat enasa^. See 
also 1,24,9; VI, 51, 8. 



252 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiV^ALA III, HYMN 8. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 3-4. 

1. The worshippers of the gods anoint thee at 
the sacrifice, O lord of the forest 1 , with heavenly 
honey 2 . When standing upright bestow wealth 
(on us) here, or when abiding in this mother s lap 3 . 

2. Situated in front of the kindled (fire), accepting 
our sacred spell which protects from old age and 
gives valiant offspring, driving away far from us 
lack of thoughts 1 , rise up 2 for the sake of great 
prosperity. 

3. Rise up, O lord of the forest, on the summit 
of the earth. Erected by skilful erection bestow 
splendour on (the worshipper) who fits out the 
sacrifice as a vehicle l . 

4. A well-clothed youth dressed has come hither. 
He becomes more excellent when born 1 . Wise 
sages full of pious thoughts, longing for the gods in 
their mind, bring him forth. 

5. He who has been born is born 1 in the 
auspiciousness of days, growing up in the assembly 
and at the sacrifice 2 . Wise, active men purify him 
by pious thoughts ; the priest approaching the gods 
raises his voice 3 . 

6. You whom the worshippers of the gods have 
fastened down (in the earth), or whom the axe has 
fashioned, O lord of the forest : may those divine 
posts 2 standing (here) take care to bestow on us 
treasures with offspring. 

7. (The posts) which have been hewn on the 
earth and fastened down, and to which the sacrificial 



MANDALA III, HYMN 8. 253 

ladles have been raised 1 : may they, giving bliss to 
our fields 2 , eagerly seek precious goods for us 
among the gods. 

8. May the Adityas, the Rudras, the Vasus, the 
good leaders, Heaven and Earth, the Earth 1 and 
the Air — may the gods unanimously bless this 
sacrifice ; may they raise up the banner of the 
sacrifice (the Yupa). 

9. Like swans ranging themselves in rows, array- 
ing themselves in brightness the sacrificial posts 
have come to us. Led up by the sages they go 
forward as gods to the abode of the gods. 

10. Like horns of horned animals the sacrificial 
posts with their head-pieces * are seen on the earth. 
Hearing (us) in the emulating call of the invoking 
(priests) may they protect us in the racings of 
battles. 

11. O lord of the forest, rise with a hundred 
branches ; may we rise with a thousand branches 
(offspring) — thou whom this sharpened axe has led 
forward to great prosperity. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The metre is Trish/ubh (verses 3 and 7 
Anush/ubh). 

This Sukta is a collection of liturgical verses that refer 
to the erecting and anointing of the sacrificial post, and to 
the winding of a rope about it. See Aitareya Br&hma/za 
II, 2; A-walayana >Srautasutra III, 1, 8 seq. ; 5&nkhayana 
.Srautasutra V, 15, 2 seq. ; Schwab, Das Altindische Thier- 
opfer, 68 seq.; Bergaigne, Recherches sur l'Histoire de la 
Liturgie Vedique, 16. On the ritual acts referring to the 
sacrificial post which seem to be connected with ancient 



2 54 VEDIC HYMNS. 



tree-worship, comp. also H. O., Religion des Veda, 90 seq., 
256.— Verses 1-5 =TB. Ill, 6, 1, 1. 3; MS. IV, 13, 1. 
Verse 3 = MS. I, 2, 11. Verse 4=TA. I, 27, 2. Verse 10 
= TB. II, 4, 7, 11. Verse n = TS. I, 3, 5, 1 ; VI, 3, 3, 3. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1, The tree of which the sacrificial post is made. 

Note 2. The post is anointed with butter, see Schwab, 
1. c, 69. This butter is spoken of as honey also in the 
Ya^us, which refers to this rite, ' May the god Savitrz 
anoint thee with honey,' Taittiriya Sa//zhita I, % 6, 1. 

Note 3. In the lap of the mother Earth. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Amati has nothing to do with the verb am ; it is 
the contrary of mati. See Rig-veda IV, it, 6. amatim . . . 
amha/i . . . du^matim ; X, 33, 2, and such passages of the 
younger Vedic Sa;/zhitas as Va£\ Sa^h. XVII, 54 (apa 
amatim du^matim badhamana^). The same is the opinion 
of Geldner (Ved. Studien, II, 184, note 4). 

Note 2. The sacrificial post is addressed. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Comp. below, III, 24, 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The sacrificial post, round which a rope of grass 
(Schwab, Thieropfer, p. 49) is tied, is compared here with 
a well-dressed youth. This seems to contain an allusion 
to the Upanayana ceremony, at which the youth was 
invested with the sacred girdle, and which was considered 
as a second birth (comp. Pada B : ' He becomes more 
excellent when born'). There is no doubt that this 
rite is as old and older than the Rig-veda ; see H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 466 seq. It may be noted that several 
Gr/hya-sutras prescribe the use of our verse at the Upana- 
yana (A^valayana I, 20, 9, &c). 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 8. 255 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Does this expression refer again to the second 
birth (see the preceding note) ? 

Note 2. The text has vidathe. 

Note 3. Comp. V, 76, 1. ut vipra/zam devaya^ vikdik 
asthu^. The conjecture devayam easily suggests itself, 
but it is not necessary. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. In the Rig-veda, svaru means the sacrificial post 
itself, not, as in the later ritual texts (Schwab, Thieropfer, 
pp. 11, 74), that splinter of the wood of the sacrificial post 
(yupa^akala), with regard to which Katyayana (VI, 3, 
1 7) prescribes : ' Yupa^akalam asyam (scil. ra^anayam) 
avaguhati.' ' He hides the splinter of the wood of the 
sacrificial post in the rope (tied round the post).' — See 
Weber, Indische Studien, IX, zzz. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. below, IV, 6, 3. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 71, 12. kshaitraya sadhase. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The Earth is mentioned twice, firstly together 
with the Heaven, in the compound Dyava-Kshama, and 
then separately as Pr/thivi. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the wooden head-piece of the sacrificial post 
(£ashala), see Schwab, Das Thieropfer, p. 9. 



256 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 9. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 5-6. 

1. We, thy friends 1 , have chosen thee for our 
protection, (we) the mortals (thee) the god, the 
offspring of the Waters, the blessed one with fine 
splendour 2 , who gloriously advances, the unmenaced 
one. 

2. When thou, finding pleasure in the wood, hast 
gone to thy mothers, the Waters, that return of 
thine, Agni, (to this world) should not be slighted, 
when dwelling afar thou hast come hither. 

3. High above (all) pungent sharpness thou hast 
grown up *, and verily thou art kind-hearted. Some 
go forward here and there ; others sit around thee, 
in whose friendship thou abidest 2 . 

4. He who has passed beyond (all) failures, 
beyond all hindrances 1 , the guileless, watchful ones 2 
have found him as a lion (is found), when he had 
gone into the Waters ; 

5. He who had run as it were by his own might, 
Agni, who thus dwelt in concealment — Him Mata- 
mvan brought hither from afar, from the gods, when 
he had been produced by attrition (of the woods). 

6. (And thus) the mortals have taken thee up, 
O carrier of sacrificial food towards the gods 1 J be- 
cause thou, O (god) belonging to Manus, protectest 
all sacrifices by the power of thy mind, O youngest 
one ! 

7 \ This is something glorious ; herein thy 
wonderful power shows itself even to the simple, 
that the cattle lie down round about thee when 



MAA7>ALA III, HYMN 9. 257 

thou hast been kindled, O Agni, at the approach of 
darkness 2 . 

8. Make your offerings in (Agni), the best per- 
former of worship, the sharp one who purifies with 
his flames 1 . Serve ye obediently the god> the quick 
messenger, the agile, the old, the adorable. 

9 1 . Three hundred and three thousand gods and 
thirty and nine did service to Agni. They sprinkled 
him with ghee and spread out for him the sacrificial 
grass : then they made him sit down as a Hotrz. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The metre is Brzhati ; the last verse 
is TrishAibh. — Verse i = SV. I, 62. Verse 2 = SV. I, 53. 
Verse 9=VS. XXXIII, 7 ; TB. II, 7, 12, 2. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. For this expression, compare I, 30, 7; VIII, 21, 

2. 9- 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 19, 4. subhagam sudi'ditim. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 8r, 5. ati vuvam vavakshitha ; 102, 8. 
ati idam vuvam bhiivanam vavakshitha. 

Note 2. The different officiating priests seem to be 
alluded to. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. 1,42, 7. ati na/£ sa^ata^ naya ; VII, 97,4. 
parshat na^ ati sa^ata^ ; Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 467. 
Note 2. The gods who searched for Agni. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. For devebhya^ havyavahana, comp. X, 118, 5; 

H9> 13; I 5°, i- 

[46] s 



258 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. Prof, von Schroeder's translation of this 
verse, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIX, 305. 

Note 2. Regarding apuarvare, comp. VIII, 1, 29; Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, II, 178. I cannot adopt the conclusions 
of Prof. Bloomfield, Contributions to the Interpretation of 
the Veda, Fifth Series, p. 36. ' Wild animals run away 
from the fire at night, tame animals are attracted by it.' 
M. M. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. For this Pada, comp. VIII, 43, 31 ; 102, 11 ; X, 
31,1. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with X, 52, 6. 



M AND ALA III, HYMN IO. 259 

MAA^ALA III, HYMN 10. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 7-8. 

i \ Thee, O Agni, the highest king of human 
tribes, the god, thoughtful mortals kindle at their 
worship. 

2. Thee, O Agni, the J&tvig, the Hotrz, they 
magnify at the sacrifices. Shine as the guardian of 
i?zta in thy own house 1 . 

3. He indeed who may worship thee, the Gata- 
vedas, with fuel, acquires abundance in valiant men, 
O Agni ; he will prosper. 

4. May He, the banner of the sacrifices, Agni, 
come hither with the gods, anointed by the seven 
Hotrzs 1 for the sake of the man who offers sacrificial 
food. 

5. Bring ye forward an -ancient, mighty speech to 
Agni, the Hotri, who is like a worshipper bearing 
the lights of prayers \ 

6. May our prayers increase Agni, since he is 
born deserving of praises, the conspicuous one, for 
the sake of great strength and wealth. 

7 \ May Agni, as the best sacrificer at the worship 
(of men), perform the sacrifice to the gods for the 
man devoted to the gods. As a joyous Hotrz thou 
reignest (passing) beyond (all) failures. 

8. Thus, O purifier, shine on us glorious abun- 
dance in heroes. Be the nearest (friend) to those 
who praise thee, for their welfare. 

9. Thus the priests full of admiring praise, having 
awoke, kindle thee, the immortal carrier of sacrificial 
food, the increaser of strength. 

s 2 



26o VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. The metre is Ushmh. — Verse 5 = SV I, 
98 ; TB. Ill, 2, 11, 1. Verse 7 = SV. I, 100. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. The first Pada is identical with VIII, 44, 19. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. above, I, i, 8. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The most ancient list of officiating priests at the 
Soma sacrifice contained seven priests. See H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 383 seq. Hence Agni is called saptahota, cf. Ill, 
29, 14. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On vip, see the note on III, 3, 1. As to the 
' lights ' of the vipas, comp. va.ka./i gyotik-agra/i, VII, 101, 1, 
the expression gyotlkshtoma, — though this word is not 
known in the Rig-veda — and the materials collected by 
Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 285. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. The second P&da is identical with I, 15, 12. 



MANDALA III, HYMN II. 26 1 

MAA^ALA III, HYMN 11. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 9-10. 

i. Agni is the Hotrz, the Purohita of our worship, 
he who dwells among many tribes, He knows the 
sacrifice in due order. 

2. He, the immortal carrier of oblations, the 
Usig' 1 , the messenger, with satisfied mind, Agni 
sets himself in motion 2 (incited) by the thought (of 
praying men ?). 

3. Agni takes heed 1 (of us) by the thought (the 
prayer ?), the banner of the sacrifice, the ancient 
one ; for his purpose triumphs 2 . 

4. The gods have made Agni, the old-renowned 
son of strength, the ^atavedas, their carrier (to- 
wards the sacrifice) 1 . 

5. Agni the undeceivable one who goes before the 
human tribes, he is the quick chariot 1 , ever new. 

6. Overcoming all attacks, He, the uninjured 
mind (power) of the gods, Agni, is most mightily 
renowned. 

7. Through the vehicle 1 (which carries the gods) 
towards the delights (of sacrifice), the worshipping 
mortal attains the dwelling-place 2 of (Agni) whose 
flames are purifying. 

8. May we, the priests, by our prayers obtain all 
the blissful gifts of Agni G^tavedas. 

9. Agni ! May we win all the best things in 
(the trials of) strength. In thee the gods have 
established them x . 



262 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshu The metre is Gayatri. — Verse 2= VS. 
XXII, 16; TS. IV, 1, 11,4; MS. IV,io,i. Verses 5, 7, 6 
= SV. II, 906-908. Verse 5 = TB. 11,4, 8, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 57 seq. 
Note 2. On the intransitive use of rz/zvati, comp. Gae- 
dicke, Der Accusativ im Veda, p. 53. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that Agni is intent on 
his purpose (artham, Pada 3); comp. I, 10, 2. tat indra/j 
artham £etati. 

Note 2. Comp. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 42. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. See the note on I, 127, 8. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On Agni considered as a chariot, see Bergaigne, 
Religion Vedique, I, 144. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 127, 8, note i. 
Note 2. Comp. above, III, 2, 6. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. I.e. all the best things (Pada 1) ; comp. VI, 5, 2. 
tve vasuni ... a irire yag-myasak. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 12. 263 

MA7V77ALA III, HYMN 12. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 11-12. 

To Indra-AgnL 
i. Indra-Agni, in consequence of our prayers 
come hither to the pressed (Soma), to the precious 
cloud 1 . Drink of it incited by our thoughts (i.e. by 
our prayers). 

2. Indra-Agni, the brilliant 1 sacrifice of him 
who praises you goes forward together (with the 
Soma libations, the praises, &c). Thus drink this 
pressed (Soma) ! 

3. By this stirring sacrifice I choose Indra and 
Agni who show themselves as sages 1 ; may they 
here satiate themselves with Soma. 

4. I call the bounteous 1 , the killers of foes 2 , the 
united conquerors, unconquered, Indra-Agni, the 
greatest winners of booty. 

5. The praisers rich in hymns, knowing all the 
ways (of the sacrifice), laud you. Indra-Agni, 
I choose the food (which you give). 

6. Indra-Agni, you have hurled down by one 
deed the ninety strongholds together of which the 
Dasas were the lords. 

7. Indra-Agni, the thoughts (of the worshippers) 
go forward towards (you) from the work (of sacrifice) 
along the paths of jftVta. 

8. Indra and Agni, yours are powerful abodes 
and delights. You cross the waters : this is the 
deed which belongs to you 1 . 

9. Indra and Agni, you display the lights of 
heaven in your deeds of strength ; that mighty 
deed of yours has been known far and wide. 



264 VEDTC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre. The hymn is addressed to 
the couple Indra and Agni. — Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 19-21. 
Verse i = VS. VII, 31; TS. I, 4, 15, 1; MS. I, 3, 17. 
Verses 4-6 = SV. II, 1052-1054. Verses 5~8 = SV. 11,925- 
928. Verse 5 = MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 6 = TS. I, 1, 14, 1 ; 
MS. IV, 10,5. Verses 9, 7, 8 = SV. II, 1 044-1045. Verse 9 
= TS. IV, 2, 11, 1 ; 3, 13, 8 ; TB. Ill, 5, 7, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 
4; 11, 1. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. ' Cloud,' of course, means that which comes from 
the cloud. ' In the Soma hymns of the ninth Ma/^ala, the 
word nabha^ seems frequently to refer to the water with 
which the Soma is mixed (see IX, 69, 5 ; 71,1.3; 74, 4 ; 
83, 5 '> 86, 14; 97, 21 ; Prof. Hillebrandt's opinion on these 
passages is different, see his Vedische Mythologie, I, 212). 
Perhaps we should go too far in believing that in our verse 
the poet invited the gods to come and drink that water, 
but possibly the mixture of water and of the juice of the 
Soma plant descending from heaven and nourished by the 
heavenly waters represented itself to the poet's mind as 
something coming from, and thus being identical with, the 
cloud. 

Verse 2 

Note 1. On £etana>&, Prof. Max Miiller remarks, * perhaps 
which appeals to you ... so that they take note of it.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. There may be doubts about kavikkk&dL Prof. 
Max Miiller remarks, ' is it, wishing for sages ? ' I think 
that my translation is recommended by X, 81, 1. pratha- 
makk/i&t. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 12. . 265 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 169, 5. raya^ to^atama^; VIII, 38, 2. 
toj-asa rathayavana . . . indragni, and Brugmann in Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXIV, 24. 

Note 2. Or, the killers of Vrztra. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On aptiir and apturya, eomp. Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, 122 seq., and H. O., Gottingische Gelehrte 
Anzeigen, 1889, 4 seq. 



266 VEDTC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 13. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 13. 

i. To this god Agni I sing 1 for you most power- 
full} 7 . May he come to us with the gods ; may he, 
the best sacrificer, sit down on the sacrificial grass. 

2. The righteous one to whose skill the two 
worlds (Heaven and Earth) and (all) blessings cling 
— Him the men rich in offerings magnify, Him those 
who long for gain, that they may obtain his blessing. 

3. He, the priest, is the guide of these (men) 1 , 
and he indeed (is the guide) of sacrifices. Praise 
ye this Agni who is the giver, the winner of wealth. 

4. May this Agni give us most blissful shelter 
for our (sacrificial) feast, whence he may shower 
wealth on us in heaven, the (human) dwellings 1 , and 
in the waters. 

5. The singers kindle Agni, the Hotrz, the lord 
of the tribes, the brilliant, the wonderful, with his 
excellent thoughts 1 . 

6. And mayst thou, the best invoker of the gods, 
help us in our spell, in our hymns. Shine bliss on 
us, Agni whom the Maruts strengthen 1 , the greatest 
winner of thousandfold (wealth). 

7. Now bestow on us thousandfold wealth with 
offspring and prosperity, splendid, most powerful, 
and undecaying abundance in heroes, O Agni ! 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 1 3. 267 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is i?zshabha Vauvamitra. The metre is 
Anush/ubh. — Verses 6, 7 = MS. IV, 11, 2. — Comp. con- 
cerning this hymn, Aitareya Brahma/za II, 40. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Ar£a (ar£a) may be first or second person. 
Comp., for instance, VI, 16, 22. pra vak sakh^ya^ agnaye 
stomam . . . ar£a gaya ka. vedhase ; X, 50, 1. pra vah mahe 
. . . ar£a (Sawhitap. ar£a) vuvanaraya vii-vabhuve, and see 
Benfey, Die Quantitatsverschiedenheiten in den Samhit&- 
und Pada-Texten der Veden, III, p. 8. — On the metre of 
the second Pada, comp. my Prolegomena, p. 188. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Perhaps we should supply, on account of the 
preceding nominative, vi'pra^ (' priest ') : of these (priests). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Kshitibhya^ seems to me to be co-ordinated 
with divi and apsu a; comp. X, 89, 11. The locative 
kshitishu would not have suited the metre as well as the 
dative. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to translate : ' Whence 
he may shower wealth on our dwelling, whether he be in 
the sky or in the waters.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 172, 2. a yahi vasvya dhiya. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. Sankhayana Srautasutra VIII, 16. indra^ 
marutvan . . . marutstotra^ marudga^a^ marudvrzdha/* 
marutsakha. 



268 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MA7V7?ALA III, HYMN 14. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 14. 

1. The joy-giving Hotri has taken his place at 
the sacrifices 1 , He the true, the sacrificer, the highest 
sage, the worshipper. Agni whose chariot is lightning, 
the son of strength, whose hair is flame, has spread 
forth his light over the earth. 

2. It 1 has been offered to thee — be pleased with 
the adoring speech 2 — to thee who is observant of it, 
O righteous, strong one, Bring hither thou who art 
wise, the wise (gods). Sit down on the sacrificial 
grass in the middle (of it) for bliss, O worshipful one ! 

3. To thee, Agni, Night and Dawn who further 
thy strength 1 , shall hasten on the paths of the wind. 
When (the mortals) anoint the ancient one 2 with 
offerings, they 3 stand in the house as on a chariot- 
seat 4 . 

4. Mitra and Varu/za, O strong Agni, and all the 
Maruts shall sing to thee a pleasant song, when 
thou, O son of strength, standest with thy flames, 
a sun spreading out men 1 over the (terrestrial) 
dwellings. 

5. We have given thee thy desire to-day, sitting 
down near thee adoringly with outstretched hands 1 : 
sacrifice thou to the gods as a priest with thy mind 
most skilled in sacrifice, with unerring thoughts, 
O Agni ! 

6. From thee indeed, O son of strength, proceed 
manifold divine blessings and gains 1 . Give us 
thousandfold true wealth according to thy guileless 
word, O Agni ! 



MAiTOALA III, HYMN 1 4. 269 

7. What we have done here for thee at this 
sacrifice, we mortals, O skilful and thoughtful god, 
take thou notice of all that, O (god) with the good 
chariot 1 ; make all this (sacrificial food) here savoury, 
immortal Agni ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi. The metre is TrishAibh. — Verse 5 = 
VS. XVIII, 75- 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. On vidatha, comp. I, 31, 6, note 2. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The subject to be supplied seems to be nama^- 
ukti^. 

Note 2. The words nama^-uktim ^ushasva form a paren- 
thesis, as Ludwig has seen. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. It is possible that here, as in several other pas- 
sages, a confusion between the two verbs va^ayati and 
va^ayati has taken place. If the reading were va^ayanti, 
we should have to translate, i Night and Dawn who are 
striving together (as if running a race against each other ?).' 

Note 2. The ancient one is Agni. 

Note 3. The two goddesses, Night and Dawn. 

Note 4. The Padapa^a has vandhiira-iva, which may be 
the dual of vandhiir (1, 34, 9). But more probably it should 
be vandhiire-iva (nom. dual, neuter or loc. sing.), comp. I, 
64, 9. a' vandhureshu . . . tasthau ; I, 139, 4. adhi vam 
sthama vandhiire; III, 43, 1. vandhuresh/M/^, and see III, 
6, 10. adhvareva. On contracted Pragrz'hya vowels, see 
H. O., Die Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, p. 456. 



27O VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. On nrfn and the different theories proposed for 
this word, see above, I, 146, 4, note 5. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Comp. X, 79, 2. uttanahasta^. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. For this hemistich, comp. VI, 13, 1 ; 34, 1. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The traditional text has tvam vuvasya sura- 
thasya bodhi, which can only mean, ' take thou notice of 
every one who has a good chariot' — which Bergaigne 
(Quelques observations sur les figures de rhetorique dans 
le Rig-veda, p. 15) explains : ' Le char en question est la 
priere qui amene le dieu au sacriflce. , I believe that the 
text is corrupt ; instead of surathasya I think we should 
read surathasya ( = suratha asya). 



MANDALA III, HYMN 1 5. 27 1 

MAiVZ?ALA III, HYMN 15. 

ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 15. 

i. Flaming with thy broad stream of light beat 
away fiends, sorcerers, plagues. May I dwell in 
the protection of the great, well-protecting (god), 
under the guidance of Agni who readily listens to 
our call. 

2. Be thou our protector when this dawn shines 
forth, be thou (our protector) when the sun has risen. 
Cherish, O Agni, well-born in body, this praise of 
mine as (a man rejoices) in the birth (of a son), in 
his own offspring 1 . 

3. Beholding men, shine thou after many (dawns) l , 
O bull, Agni, red in the dark (nights). O Vasu ! 
Lead us and bring us across anguish. Help us, 
the Usi^s 2 , to wealth 3 , thou youngest (of the gods) ! 

4. Shine, O Agni, thou the invincible bull, who 
hast conquered all strongholds and all delights, the 
leader of the first, the protecting 1 , mighty sacrifice, 
O 6atavedas, best guide. 

5. O singer, thou who art wise, brightly shining 
towards the gods 1 , bring to us thy many perfect 
shelters, and gain like a victorious car 2 ; Agni, (carry) 
thou (hither) towards us the two well-established 3 
worlds (Heaven and Earth). 

6. O bull, increase and rouse our gains. Agni ! 
(Increase) for us the two worlds (Heaven and Earth) 
rich in milk, O god together with the gods, shining 
with beautiful shine ! May a mortal's hatred never 
enclose us. 

7 = 111, 1, 23. 



2 72 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Utkila Katya, the metre Trish/ubh. — 
Verse i =VS. XI, 49; TS. IV, i, 5, i ; MS. II, 7, 5; 
III, i r 6. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 1, 21. tanaye nftye ; X, 39, 14. nit- 
yam na suniim tanayam dadhana^, and besides II, 26, 3. 
^-anena . . . vLfa . . . ^"anmana . . . putrai^ ; Hirzel, Gleich- 
nisse und Metaphern im Rig-veda, 77. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. For this expression, compare IV, 19, 8 ; IX, 71, 
7 ; X, 31, 7, and especially III, 6, 7 ; VI, 39, 4. 

Note 2. The poet compares himself and his friends with 
the mythical priestly tribe of the Usigs (Bergaigne, Religion 
Vedique, I, 57 seq.), using, as it seems, at the same time 
the word usigak in its adjective sense ' the willing ones. 5 

Note 3. The Padapa/^a is right in giving raye ; comp. 
VIII, 26, 13. jubhe £akrate. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. Is the text correct ? I think that payok should 
be corrected into payo or payii^ : ' the leader and protector 
of the first mighty sacrifice.' The mistake may have been 
caused by the genitives which surround the word. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Geldner (Vedische Studien, I, 160) translates this 
hemistich: ' Die vielen sicheren Zufluchtsorte ( = Opfer- 
platze)bis zu den Gottern erleuchtend als Weiser, o Sanger.' 
I do not believe that ^arma is the object of didyana^ ; and 
' Zufluchtsorte - Opferplatze ' is too much in the style of 
Saya/za. I take akkkidra, s&rma. as depending on abhi 
vakshi ; comp. I, 34, 6. tridhatu carina vahatam. 

Note 2. For abhi vakshi va^am, comp. Ill, 30, 11 ; VI, 
21, 12. 

Note 3. On sumeka, comp. Windisch, Festgruss an 
Boehtlingk, 114. 



M.ANDALA III, HYMN 1 6. 273 

MAA?Z>ALA III, HYMN 16. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 16. 

i. This Agni rules over abundance in valiant 
men, over great happiness. He rules over wealth 
consisting in offspring and cows ; he rules over the 
killing of foes. 

2. O Maruts 1 , ye men, cling to this furtherer 2 who 
possesses joy-furthering boons — (the Maruts) who 3 
in battles overcome ill-minded (foes), who have 
deceived the enemy 4 day by day. 

3. As such, O bounteous Agni, prepare 1 us riches 2 
and wealth in valiant men, which, O highly glorious 
one, may be most exalted, rich in offspring, free from 
plagues, and powerful. 

4. The maker who victoriously (stands) over all 
beings, the maker who makes the praise arrive 
among the gods 1 : he stands firm among the gods, 
among the host of heroes, firm also in the praise of 
men. 

5. Give us not up, Agni, to want of thought 1 nor 
to want of heroes nor to want of cows, O son of 
strength, nor to the scoffer. Drive away hostile 
powers 2 . 

6. Help us at this sacrifice, O blessed one, with 
mighty gain which is accompanied by offspring, O 
Agni ! Let us be united with greater, gladdening, 
glorious wealth, O thou of mighty splendour ! 



[46] 



2 74 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The metre is Pragatha, each Pragatha 
distich being composed of one Brzhati and one Satobrzhatl. 
The position of the Sukta in the collection and the opening 
words of verse 3 show that the three Pragathas are not 
independent, but form one hymn. — Verse 1 = SV. I, 60. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 18, 25. imam nara^ maruta^ sa^- 
£ata anu. 

Note 2. The passages which Grassmann gives for the 
meaning of vr/dh, ' starkend, erquickend,' I, 167, 4; X, 89, 
10, are quite doubtful. Probably we should have to alter 
the accent and read vrzdham. 

Note 3. The relative clause seems to refer to the Maruts, 
not to the goods (raya^). 

Note 4. Comp. VI, 46, 10. ye . . . ^atrum adabhu/z. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Literally, ' sharpen.' 

Note 2. The genitive seems, as is also Prof. Ludwig's 
opinion, to be the partitive genitive, so that the literal 
meaning would be : ' Prepare us (a deal) of riches and of 
wealth,' &c. Comp. piba sutasya, * drink of the pressed 
Soma/ &c. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On kakrik deveshu a diiva^, comp. IV, 2, 9 ; 
VIII, 31, 9. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On amati, comp. above, III, 8, 2, note. 
Note 2. Comp. VI, 59, 8. apa dvesha^si a krz'tam. 



MANDALA III, HYMN I 7. 275 

MAA^ALA III, HYMN 17. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 17. 

i. He who is inflamed after the primitive ordi- 
nances, is anointed with ointments 1 , the giver of all 
treasures, he whose hair is flame, whose stately robe 
is ghee, the purifier, skilled in sacrifice, Agni — that 
he may sacrifice to the gods. 

2. As thou hast performed, O Agni, the Hotrzs 
duty for the Earth, as thou hast done it for Heaven, 
O ^atavedas, full of intelligence, in the same way 
sacrifice with this offering to the gods. Prosper 
this sacrifice to-day as thou hast done for Manus. 

3. Thou hast three lives, O Gatavedas, and three 
births from the Dawn 1 , O Agni ! Being wise, sacrifice 
with these to the favour of the gods, and bring 
luck and welfare to the sacrificer. 

4. Praising Agni full of splendour, full of beauty, 
we adore thee, O Catavedas, deserving to be 
magnified. Thee the gods have made their mes- 
senger, their steward 1 , and carrier of offerings, the 
navel of immortality. 

5. O Agni, the Hotrz who before thee was an 
excellent sacrificer, who verily 1 sat down and brought 
luck by himself 2 : sacrifice according to his rules, 
O intelligent one, and set down our sacrifice at the 
feast of the gods. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Kata Vauvamitra, the metre Trish/ubh. — 
Verse 1 = TB. I, 2, 1, 10. Verse 3 = TB. Ill, 3, 11, 2; 

T 2 



276 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MS. IV, ii, 1 ; 12, 5. Verse 4 = TB. Ill, 6, 9, 1 ; MS. IV, 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Possibly the poet intended to allude also to the 
other meaning of aktiibhi^, which means both ' ointments ' 
and ' nights.' The nights render Agni conspicuous and 
anoint {aug) him as it were with beauty. I do not believe 
that the existence of a Vedic word aktu, ' ointment,' should 
be denied ; cf. Bechtel, Nachrichten d. Gottinger Ges. d. 
Wiss. 1894, p. 398. 

Verse 3. 

Note i. See Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 14. Prof. 
Max M tiller translates : Three lives are thine, the dawns are 
thy three birthplaces, or three dawns are thy birthplaces. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. See above, I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Literally, ' doubly.' Grassmann is right in 
observing that the Vedic poets show a certain predilection 
for the word dvita when speaking of Agni's being estab- 
lished and doing his work at the sacrifice. Prof. Max 
Muller thinks of Agni's two homes, earth and heaven. 

Note 2. On the Hotri more ancient than Agni, comp. 
Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, 1, 109. Probably this simply 
refers to the Agni or the fire used at former sacrifices. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 1 8. 277 

MA^£>ALA III, HYMN 18. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 18. 

i. Be kind, O Agni, when we approach thee, as 
a friend a friend, as parents 1 , a straight leader. 
For full of deceit are the tribes of men : burn thou 
against (all) malign powers so that they turn back. 

2. Burn, O Agni, the nearer enemies, burn the 
curse of the distant evil-doer. Burn, O Vasu, 
seeing the unseen ones. May thy never-ageing, 
never-tiring flames 1 spread out. 

3. Wishing for (thy blessings), O Agni, by fuel 
and ghee I offer this sacrificial food for (the attain- 
ment of) advancing power and of strength ; wor- 
shipping thee with my spell as far as I have power 
(I offer) this divine prayer for the attainment of 
hundredfold blessings). 

4. (Shining) forth with thy flame, O son of strength, 
praised (by us), bestow mighty vigour on those who 
toil for thee, bright luck and welfare, O Agni, on 
the VLsvamitras ! We have cleaned thy body many 
times. 

5. Give us treasures, O best gainer of riches : 
such indeed art thou, Agni, when thou hast been 
kindled. In the blessed praiser's house thou hast 
placed, together with wealth, thy mighty(?) arms 1 , 
thy marvellous shapes. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 2 = TA. IV, 5, 5. 
Verse 3 = AV. Ill, 15, 3. 



278 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. It is rather strange that Agni is compared with 
the two parents. Generally it is the two Ajvins, or Heaven 
and Earth, or the pair of Indra and Varu/za, &c., who are 
compared with father and mother (see Hirzel, Gleichnisse 
und Metaphern im Rigveda, 71 seq.). No doubt in our 
verse the dual was chosen on account of the metre. — I do 
not think that Bollensen (Orient und Occident, 11,473) anc * 
Kirste (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVI, 297) are right in 
believing that a dative of pitrz is found here, and in trans- 
lating : ( as a good (son) to his father/ 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The meaning of ayasa^ is doubtful ; comp. 
Brugmann in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIV, 24 seqi ; M. M., 
vol. xxxii. p. 371 (VI, 66, 5) ; von Bradke, Festgruss an 
Roth, 124. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On sr/pra, see I, 96, 3, note 3. Karasna must 
mean something like ' arm, 5 though the exact meaning is 
doubtful. In VIII, 32, 10 the compound srzprakarasna 
occurs. Prof. Max M tiller writes : ' Thou hast brightly 
assumed a body with soft arms or with stretched-out arms, 
if we do not read sr/prakarasna.' 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 1 9. 279 

MAA^ALA III, HYMN 19. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 19. 

i. I choose Agni as Hotri at this sacrificial meal, 
the clever sage all-knowing and not foolish. May 
he, the excellent sacrificer, sacrifice for us amid the 
host of the gods ; may he obtain liberal boons 
(for us) for the sake of wealth and strength. 

2. To thee, O Agni, I stretch forth the (ladle) 
rich in sacrificial food, splendid, full of gifts, full of 
ghee. From left to right, choosing the host of the 
gods \ he has established the sacrifice with gifts and 
goods 2 . 

3. Whoever is favoured by thee, is blessed 
with the sharpest spirit. Favour him with good 
offspring, O god rich in favours 1 ! Agni, may we, 
(dwelling) in the copiousness of manliest wealth, be 
rich in perfect praise of thee, the Vasu. 

4. On thee indeed, O Agni, sacrificing men have 
put many faces of (thee) the god 1 . Bring hither 
then the host of the gods, O youngest one, when 
thou wilt sacrifice to-day to the divine host 2 . 

5. When the gods will anoint thee as the Hotri 
at the sacrificial meal making thee sit down for the 
sacrifice, be thou here, O Agni, our furtherer, and 
bestow glory on our bodies. 

NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Gathin Kaurika, the metre Trish/ubh. — 
Verse 3 = TS. I, 3, 14, 6 ; MS. IV, 14, 15- 



28o VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. below, IV, 6, 3. This parallel passage 
shows that pradakshi/zft belongs to ura/za^, not to a^ret. 
Agni is represented as choosing, i.e. inviting the host of 
the gods by moving around the sacrificial food from left to 
right. See concerning the Paryagnikara/za, which seems 
to be alluded to, Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 
42 seq. 

Note 2. Or, ' with the (divine) givers and with the 
Vasus.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Boehtlingk-Roth seem to be right in reading 
jiksho. Comp. VIII, 52, 8. yasmai tvam . . . .n'ksho .nkshasi 
da^iishe. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. They have inflamed many fires, each of which is 
a face of the god Agni. 

Note 2. Or, s that thou mayest sacrifice,' &c. See Del- 
bruck, Syntaktische Forschungen, I, 148. 



MAiVJDALA III, HYMN 20. 28 1 

MANjDALA III, HYMN 20. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 20. 

i. The carrier (of the gods) 1 calls by his hymns 
Agni, Ushas (dawn), the two Asvins, Dadhikra 2 at 
daybreak. May the gods rich in light, unanimously 
longing for our sacrifice, hear us. 

2. Agni, threefold is thy strength ; three are thy 
abodes; three are thy many tongues, O thou who 
art born in ./?zta ! And three, O Agni, are thy 
bodies beloved by the gods. With these protect 
our prayers unremittingly, 

3 1 . Agni ! Many are the names, O G'atavedas, 
of thee the immortal one, O self-dependent god ! 
And whatever the secret powers of the powerful 2 
are, thou all-enlivener, in thee they have placed 
together (those) many (powers), O (god) after whose 
relations men ask 3 . 

4. Agni is the divine leader of the divine tribes 
like Bhaga, the guardian of the seasons \ the 
righteous. May He, the killer of VWtra 2 , the 
ancient one, the possessor of all wealth, bring the 
singer across all troubles. 

5. I invite hither 1 Dadhikra 2 , Agni, and the 
goddess Ushas, Brzhaspati and the god Savitrz, 
the Asvins, Mitra and Varu/^a and Bhaga, the 
Vasus, Rudras, and Adityas. 

NOTES. 

The same Hishi and metre. — Verse % = TS. II, 4, 11, 
2; III, 2, 11, 1; MS. II, 4, 4. Verse 3 = TS. Ill, 1, 
11, 6. 



282 VEDTC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. The * carrier' of the gods is the Hotrz. See 
above, I, 127, 8, note 1, and compare the article. of 
Dr. Neisser quoted there. See also M. M., vol. xxxii, 

pp. 40-43 (I, 6 > 5). 

Note 2. On Dadhikri or Dadhikravan, the deified horse 
of Trasadasyu, see Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 124 ; Lud- 
wig, vol. iv, p. 79; H. O., Religion des Veda, 71. Prof. 
Max Miiller writes, ' It seems to me some form of Agni 
generally in company with matutinal gods.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The reader who compares this passage with 19, 
4, will observe a general resemblance pointing to the 
conclusion that both verses belong to the same author. 

Note 2. Maya^ m^yinam : comp. concerning the idea of 
may£, H. O., Religion des Veda, 163, 294. 

Note 3. With przsh/abandhu, comp. bandhupr/^, ban- 
dhvesha. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Perhaps rztu-pa^ should be changed into rz'ta- 
pa^ : * the god who protects the i?/ta, the righteous.' 
Note 2. Or ' the killer of foes.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Possibly we have to read, on account of the 
metre, iha hve. 

Note 2. See above, verse 1, note 1. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 21. 283 

MAAf£>ALA III, HYMN 21. 

ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 21. 

i. Take this our sacrifice to the immortals; 
accept graciously these offerings, O Catavedas. 
O Agni, partake of the drops of fat and ghee, 
O Hotrz, having sat down as the first. 

2. To thee, O purifier, the drops of fat mixed 
with ghee drip down. O (god) who followest thy 
own ordinances, give us the best boon for this feast 
to which the gods come eagerly. 

3. To thee, the priest, O Agni, (belong) the drops 
dripping with ghee, O good one ! Thou art kindled 
as the best 7?zshi. Be a furtherer of our sacrifice ! 

4. For thee, O liberal one 1 , full of power, the 
drops of fat and ghee drip down, O Agni ! Praised 
by the sages thou hast come hither with mighty 
light. Accept graciously the offerings, O wise one ! 

5. For thee the richest fat 1 has been taken out 
from the midst. We give it to thee. On thy skin, 
O Vasu, the drops drip down. Accept them eagerly 
for each of the gods. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Verses 1 and 4 are Trish/ubh, verses 
2 and 3 Anush/ubh, verse 5 Viradfrupa Satobrzhati. 

The hymn belongs to the ritual of the animal sacrifice. 
It has to be recited, according to the prescription of the 
later Vedic texts, while the vapa (omentum) of the 
sacrificial animal is roasted and the drops of fat drip down 
from it. See Schwab, Das Altindische Thieropfer, p. 114 



284 VEDIC HYMNS. 



seq., and the Sutra texts quoted by him (for instance, 
A^valayana 5rautasutra 111,4, 1). Bergaigne (Recherches 
sur l'Histoire de la Liturgie V^dique, 18) seems to be right 
in observing: ' Bien qu'il (l'hymne III, 21) soit recite* tout 
d'une piece dans le pa.mbandha, pendant la cuisson de la 
vapa, pour les gouttes de graisse qui tombent dans le feu, 
sa complexite metrique . . . le trahit et nous y fait voir une 
simple collection de vers liturgiques.' It may be observed, 
however, that the two last verses seem to form a distich of 
an irregular Pragatha type; comp. H. O., Die Hymnen des 
Rigveda, vol. i, p. 118. — Verses 1-5 = TB. Ill, 6, 7, 1. 2 ; 
MS. IV, 13, 5. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On the word adhrigu, cf. Bloomfield, American 
Or. Soc. Proceedings, March, 1894, p. cxxiii. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Vapakhya/^ havi^, Saya^a. This explanation is 
evidently correct. After the sacrificial animal has been 
killed, the omentum, which is very rich in fat, is first drawn 
out of its body and offered. See H. O., Die Religion des 
Veda, 360 seq. 



MANDALA III, HYMN 2 2. 285 

MAA^ALA III, HYMN 22. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 22. 

i. This is that Agni with whom the desiring 
Indra took the pressed Soma into his body. 
Having obtained thousandfold strength like a 
horse, a racer 1 , thou art praised, O Gatavedas ! 

2 *. Thy splendour, O Agni, which dwells in 
heaven and on earth, in the plants, O worshipful 
one, and in the waters, wherewith thou hast spread 
through the wide air — that light of thine is fierce, 
waving 2 , man-beholding. 

3. Agni, thou goest to the floods of heaven. 
Thou hast spoken to the gods who are liberal (?) 1 . 
(Thou goest) to the waters which (dwell) on high 
in the ether of the sun, and to those which approach 
below. 

4. May the fires of the soil united with those on 
the hill-sides 1 , without guile graciously accept our 
sacrifice and plentiful food free from all plague. 

5 = 111, 1, 23. 

NOTES. 

The same Rzshi. The metre is Trish/ubh, except in 
verse 4 which is Anush/ubh. — A conjecture on the ritual 
use for which the hymn has been composed, see in the note 
on verse 4. — Verses 1-5 = VS. XII, 47-51 ; TS. IV, 2, 4, 
2. 3; MS. II, 7, 11. — A sort of commentary on this 
hymn is found in the 5atapatha Brahma/za VII, 1, 1, 
22 seq. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. In the traditional text the words, ' a horse, 
a racer,' are accusatives. But it is the atya who attains 



286 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(san) the vay^a and who is called va^-fn (comp. M. M., 
vol. xxxii, pp. 116, 442, and on sapti, ibid. p. 102): see 
I, 130, 6; III, 2, 7 ; 38, 1 (V, 30, 14; IX, 93, 1 ; 96, 15, 
&c.) ; VII, 24, 5 ; IX, 43, 5 J 82, % \ «5, 5 ; 86, 3 ; 96, 20 ; 
X, 96, 10 (I, 52, i, and III, 2, 3 do not contradict this). 
Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 105) believes that atyam na 
stands for atya^ na, which seems impossible to me. But 
I think that we should correct the text and read atya/; 
na sapti^. The preceding accusatives have caused the 
blunder. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. Grassmann, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XVI, 165. 
Note 2. Comp. ketii/z ar^/ava^ suryasya, VII, 63, 2. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. In the translation of dhish^ya I have followed 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 87, though this translation is 
quite uncertain. Should the meaning be : ' the gods who 
dwell on the dhish/zya altars ' ? 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Agni purishya, i. e. the fire dwelling in the soil 
(comp. Roth in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 64), is mentioned 
very frequently in the Mantras belonging to the Agni- 
£ayana, i. e. to the construction of the brick altar. Agni is 
considered as residing in the soil used at that rite. Now in 
the Ya^us texts the whole of our hymn occurs among the 
texts to be recited at the Agni^ayana (Taitt. Sawn. IV, 2, 
4, 2, &c. ; comp. also A^valayana Srautasutra IV, 8, 20). 
Perhaps we may conjecture, therefore, that the Agni^ayana 
rite in its simplest form was known already in the Rig-veda 
period, and that our hymn was destined for it. — The 
prava^a fires (fires dwelling on the hill-sides) may be the 
fires dwelling in the rivers which run down the prava^as or 
descents. 



M AND ALA III, HYMN 23. 287 

MAiVZ?ALA III, HYMN 23. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 23. 

i. Produced by attrition, well preserved in his 
abode, the young sage, the leader of worship, Agni 
ever young in the forests 1 that grow old — G^tavedas, 
has here assumed immortality 2 . 

2. The two Bharatas 1 , Devasravas and Devavata, 
in the midst of wealth have produced by attrition 
Agni the skilful (god). Agni, look forth with 
mighty wealth, and then be 2 for us a guide of food 
day by day. 

3 1 . The ten fingers have brought him to the 
birth, the ancient, beloved (Agni), well born in his 
mothers 2 . Praise, O Deva^ravas, the Agni of 
Devavata who 3 should be the lord of people. 

4. I have laid 1 thee 2 down in the best (place) of 
the earth 3 , in the place of I/a 3 , in the auspiciousness 
of days. O Agni, as the god who has belonged to 
Manus 4 , shine with wealth on the Dr/shadvati, on 
the Apaya, on the Sarasvati* 

5 = 111, 1, 23. 

NOTES. 

The 7?/shis are Deva^ravas Bharata and Devav&ta Bha- 
rata (see verse 2) ; the metre is Trish/ubh (verse 5 
Satobr/hati). — No verse occurs in the other Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The { forests ' are the fuel. c Does the poet 
mean : Never consumed in the consumed wood or forests, 



288 VEDIC HYMNS. 



i. e. the fire burns and is kept alive while the wood is burnt 
up?' M. M. 

Note 2. Or, ' he has received the drink of immortality ' — 
which may refer to the ghee offered in the fire. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the tribe of the Bharatas having their seats, as 
verse 4 seems to show, on the borders of the Saras vati and 
of the Drzshadvati, see H. O., Buddha (first edition), 413 
seq. 

Note 2. This is an imperative in -tat, signifying, as 
Delbruck has shown (Syntaktische Forschungen, III, 3 seq. ; 
Altindische Syntax, 363), an injunction to be carried out 
after something else has been done or has happened. Agni 
is first to look about (vi pajya), and shall then become 
(bhavatat) a guide of food, i. e. he shall lead plenty of food 
to the worshipper's house. — Prof. Max Muller translates 
isham neta, ' a guide to food.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Should this Satobrzhati, standing alone among 
Trish/ubh verses, be considered as forming a distich to- 
gether with verse 3? Comp. H. O., Die Hymnen des Rig- 
veda, vol. i, p. 102, note 7. 

Note 2. The woods. 

Note 3. Agni, not Devavata, is referred to. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Or, 'he has laid/ The form may be first or 
third person, present or perfect. 

Note 2. Agni is addressed. 

Note 3. The best place of the earth, the place of I/a 
(i. e. of the nourishment coming from the cow, of the ghee 
offered into Agni) is the sacrificial ground or more 
especially the spot on which the sacrificial fire is estab- 
lished. 

Note 4. Or ' to men.' The Padapa/^a has manushe, but 
manushaA seems more probable. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 24. 289 

MAiV£>ALA III, HYMN 24. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 24. 

i . Agni, be victorious in battles ; thrust away the 
plotters. Difficult to overcome, overcoming malign 
powers, bestow splendour on (the worshipper) who 
fits out the sacrifice as a vehicle \ 

2. Agni, thou art kindled with nourishment *, the 
immortal offerer of a feast (to the gods). Accept 
graciously our worship. 

3. Agni, wakeful one, son of strength, into whom 
offerings are poured, sit down with thy splendour 
on this sacrificial grass of mine. 

4. Agni, together with all Agnis, with the gods 
exalt our prayers and those who are respectful at 
the sacrifices. 

5. Agni, give wealth to the worshipper, abun- 
dance in valiant men ; further us 1 that w r e may be 
rich in sons. 



NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Vuvamitra, the metre Gayatri, the first 
verse Anush/ubh. On this combination of a begin- 
ning Anush/ubh with Gayatris following, comp. H. O., 
Die Hymnen des Rig-veda, vol. i, p. 148. — Verse 1 = VS. 
IX, 37. Verse 5 = TS. II, 2, 12, 6 ; MS. IV, 12, 2 ; 14, 6. 
[46] U 



29O VEDTC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. See above, III, 8, 3, and on ya^avahas, I, 127, 
8, note 1 ; Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 287, note 2. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. I/a: especially designating the nourishment 
coming from the cow (personified as I/a), such as ghee. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Literally, ' sharpen us.' 



MA2VDALA III, HYMN 25. 29 1 

MAA/"Z?ALA III, HYMN 25. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 25. 

i. Agni, thou art for ever the wise son of Heaven 
and of the Earth, the all-wealthy one. In thy 
peculiar way 1 sacrifice here to the gods, O intelli- 
gent one ! 

2. Agni, the knowing, obtains (for his worshipper) 
heroic powers ; he obtains (for him) strength, being 
busy for the sake of immortality. Bring then the 
gods hither, O (Agni), rich in food. 

3. Agni, the wise, shines on Heaven and Earth, 
the two immortal goddesses who encompass all 
people — he who rules through his strength, and who 
is full of light through adoration. 

4. Agni and Indra, come hither to the sacrifice in 
the house of the worshipper rich in pressed (Soma), 
never failing, ye two gods, at the drink of Soma. 

5. Agni, thou art kindled in the house of the 
waters, (our) own (god), O son of strength, Catavedas, 
who exaltest the abodes (in which thou dwellest) by 
thy blessing. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Vira^*.— Verse 4= MS. IV, 12, 6. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. On r/dhak, see Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 45. 



U 2 



292 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 26. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 26-27. 

i. With our offerings revering in our mind Agni 
Vaisv&nara, the follower of truth, the finder of the 
sun — we, the Ku^ikas *, desirous of goods, call with 
our prayers the god who gives rain, the charioteer, 
the cheerful. 

2. We call that beautiful Agni to help us,VaLrva- 
nara, Matarisvan the praiseworthy 1 ; we the men 
(call) Brzhaspati 2 for (the worship) of the divine 
host, the priest who hears us, the guest who swiftly 
glides along. 

3. Vaisv&nara, neighing like a horse, is kindled 
by the women 1 , by the Kusikas, from age to age ; 
may this Agni give us abundance in valiant men 
and in horses and treasures, he who wakes among 
the immortals. 

4. May the Va^as * come forward, the Agnis with 
their powers. United 2 they have harnessed the 
spotted deer for their triumphal procession 3 . The 
Maruts, mightily growing, the all-wealthy, make the 
mountains tremble, the unbeguiled ones. 

5. The Maruts who possess the beauty of Agni \ 
belong to all races of men. We implore their fierce, 
strong help. They are tumultuous, the sons of 
Rudra, clothed in rain, hot-spirited like lions 2 , givers 
of rain. 

6. We implore with our best praises every host, 
every troop (of the Maruts) \ the splendour of Agni, 



MANDALA III, HYMN 26. 293 

the power of the Maruts. With the spotted deer as 
horses 2 , with gifts that cannot be taken away, they 
go to the sacrifice wise in the (sacrificial) ordinances 3 . 

7. Agni am I, by birth Gatavedas. Ghee is my 
eye ; (the drink of) immortality is in my mouth. The 
threefold song x traversing the aerial space, the im- 
perishable Gharma 2 , the sacrificial food am I by name. 

8. With three purifying strainers he (xAgni) puri- 
fied the song, with his heart the thought, discovering 
the light. The mightiest treasure he produced by 
the powers of his own nature, and then he looked 
over heaven and earth. 

9. Carry him who is the inexhaustible spring with 
a hundred rills, who has knowledge of prayers (?), 
the father of (every speech) that should be uttered, 
the roaring one 1 , gladly excited in the lap of his 
parents — carry him the truth-speaking across (all 
dangers), O ye two worlds ! 



NOTES. 

VLrvamitra is the Rishi of this Sukta with the exception 
of the seventh verse of which the Atman or Brahman is the 
Rishi. The metre is Cagati verses 1-6, Trish/ubh verses 
7-9.— Verse 5 = TB. IT, 7, 12, 3. Verse 7 = VS. XVIII, 
66; MS. IV, 1 a, 5.. 

The position of this Sukta in the collection shows that it 
is to be divided into three independent hymns. This is 
confirmed by the metre, the first and second of these three 
hymns being in Gagati, the third in TrishAibh, and also by 
the contents : the first hymn is addressed to Agni VaLrva- 
nara, the second to Agni accompanied by the Maruts, 
the third contains mystical speculations about the nature 
and the deeds of Agni. 



294 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Kosikas are identical with the Vuvamitras, 
or possibly the latter form one branch of the Kimkas ; see 
H. O., Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Ge- 
sellschaft, XLII, 209. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the relation of MatarLsvan to Agni, see above, 
I, 96, 4, note 1. 

Note 2. Brzhaspati, though in his origin distinct from 
Agni, is here identified with him, like Matamvan. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. By the ten fingers. Comp. above, I, 71, 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I adopt the interpretation of Bergaigne (Religion 
Vedique, II, 405, note 1) and Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 
46). YdLg&k seems to be the proper name synonym with 
Ribhivzh ; the Maruts may be called Vagkh as they are 
called several times Rtbhukshinzik. But it is possible that 
we should have to translate simply, ' May the powers of 
strength/ &c. ; comp. below, 27, 1. 

Note 2. Possibly we have to supply, ' united with their 
spotted deer, with their beauty/ &c. ; see II, 36, %. y^ghdlh 
sammulaA pr/shatibhi^ rishtibhi/i; VII, 56, 6. srlya, sam- 
mula^. Or the meaning may be, * the Maruts united with 
Agni or with the Agnis;' comp. I, 166, u. simmisWz 
indre. 

Note 3. On subh6, see M. M., I, 87, 3, note % (vol. xxxii, 
p. 162). 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Or, they receive their beauty through Agni. 

Note 2. Of heshakratu the probable explanation has 
been given by Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 48. See also 
von Bradke, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVIII, 297. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 26. 295 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 53, u, vol. xxxii, p. 320. 
Note 2. Comp. II, 34, 4, vol. xxxii, p. 302, note 5. 
Note 3. The text has vidatheshu. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 51, 4. arkam sapta^irsha^am . . . 
tridhatum uttame pade. Is the song called tridhatu because 
it is sung by the three Udgatr/s (singers) ? Or because it 
generally comprises three verses (see H. O., Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 

453)? 

Note 2. The Gharma is the offering of hot milk brought 
to the Ai'vins. On the probable meaning of this offering) 
see H. O., Religion des Veda, 447 seq. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The translation of me/i (comp. IV, 7, 11 ; 
Atharva-veda XI, 7, 5 ; Taitt. Sa;/*h. V, 7, 8, 1) is quite 
conjectural. 



296 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAMPALA III, HYMN 27. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 28-30. 

1. Forward (goes) your 1 strength tending heaven- 
ward, rich in offerings, with the (ladle) full of ghee. 
To the gods goes (the worshipper) desirous of their 
favour. 

2. I magnify 1 with prayer Agni who has know- 
ledge of prayers (?), the accomplisher of sacrifice, 
who hears us, and in whom (manifold wealth) has 
been laid down. 

3. O Agni, may we be able to bridle thee the 
strong god 1 ; may we overcome (all) hostile powers. 

4. Agni, inflamed at the sacrifice, the purifier who 
should be magnified, whose hair is flame — him we 
approach (with prayers). 

5. With his broad stream of light the immortal 
Agni, clothed in ghee, well served with oblations, is 
the carrier of offerings at the sacrifice. 

6. Holding the (sacrificial) ladles, performing the 
sacrifice they have with right thought pressingly 
brought Agni hither 1 for help. 

7. The Hotrz, the immortal god goes in front 
with his secret power 1 y instigating the sacrifices 2 . 

8. The strong (horse, i.e. Agni) is set at the races. 
He is led forth at the sacrifices, the priest, the 
accomplisher of sacrifice. 

9. He has been produced 1 by prayer, the excel- 
lent one. I have established 2 him, the germ of 
beings, for ever the father of Daksha 3 . 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 2J. 2<)J 

10. I have laid thee down 1 , the excellent one, 
with the nourishment 2 of Daksha, O thou who art 
produced by power, O Agni, thee the resplendent 
one, O U^ 3 . 

1 1 . The priests, eager to set to work the Rita. x , 
kindle with quick strength Agni the governor 2 , him 
who crosses the waters 3 . 

12. I magnify 1 the child of vigour at this sacri- 
fice, who shines under the heaven, the thoughtful 
Agni. 

13. He who should be magnified and adored, who 
is visible through the darkness, Agni, the manly, is 
kindled *. 

14. Agni, the manly, is kindled, he who draws 
hither the gods like a horse. The (worshippers) rich 
in offerings magnify him. 

15. We the manly ones will kindle thee the manly 
(god), O manly Agni who shinest mightily. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi. The metre is Gayatri. — The position 
of the hymn in the collection shows that it is to be divided 
into Tri&as, and this is confirmed by the ritual use of 
several of these Tr/^as (see Bergaigne, Recherches sur 
l'Histoire de la Liturgie Vedique, 19, note 1). Some of the 
Trikas at least, however, do not seem to form independent 
hymns ; verse 10 very probably stands in connection with 
verse 9, and the same seems to be the case with verses 1 2 
and 13. Ludwig (IV, 305) and Bergaigne (loc. cit.) consider 
the whole Sukta as a collection of Samidhenis or verses to 
be recited for each piece of wood thrown into the fire. 
Comp. Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 77. — Verse 1 



298 VEDIC HYMNS. 



= TS. II, 5, 7,2; TB. Ill, 5, 2, 1 ; MS. I, 6, 1 ; IV, 14, 3- 
Verses 2, 3 = TB. II, 4, 2, 4. 5 ; MS. IV, 11, 2. Verse 4 
= TS. II, 5, 8, 6 ; TB. Ill, 5, 2, 3. Verses 5-6 = TB. Ill, 
6, 1, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 1 (verse 5 = MS. IV, 11, 2). Verses 
7-9 = SV. II, 827-829. Verses 13-15 = SV. II, 888-890 ; 
TB. Ill, 5, 2, 2 ; AV. XX, 102, 1-3. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. Of the priests and sacrificers ? 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. The text has i'/e. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Comp. above, II, 5, 1. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Comp. IV, 17, 18. vayam hi a' te kakrima. 
sabadha^. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Mayaya: comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 163, 
294. 
Note 2. Vidathani : comp. I, 31, 6, note 2. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. This seems to mean, ' he has been set to work.' 
Note 2. A dadhe must be first person (comp. ni dadhe, 

verse 1 o) for the bhutanam garbha^ is Agni. 

Note 3. Or, the father of intelligence. Daksha is the 

personified intelligence. Comp. vol. xxxii, p. 245 seq. ; 

Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, III, 93 seq. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. See above, III, 23, 4. 

Note 2. The text has i/a, the same word as in 24, 2. — 
Prof. Max Miiller observes, ' Could it be, ni tva dadhe i/a, 
I have placed thee on the altar with nutriment, son of the 
strength of Daksha ? ' 

Note 3. Or, ' the willing one.' 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 27. 299 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. ' Setting to work the Right (Rzta) ' means here 
'performing the sacrifice. 5 The sacrifice is considered as 
a sphere especially pervaded by the power of Rita.. Comp. 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 197. 

Note 2. Yantiiram (comp. VIII, 19, 2,. agnim i/ishva 
yanturam ; Lanman, 486) must be the same as yantaram 
(comp. fxdpTvp? [M. M.] See de Saussure, Memoire sur le 
Systeme Primitif des Voyelles, p. 20J ; but comp. also 
Kretschmer, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXXI, p. 447). To me it 
seems to be an accommodation to aptiiram, facilitated 
probably by the influence of the genitive yantiir. See 
Lanman, Noun-Inflection in the Veda, p. 486 ; Wacker- 
nagel in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 287. 

Note 3. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 122 seq. ; 
H. O., Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1889, p. 4 seq. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The text has i/e. In the same way i/enya/£ 
verse 13, i/ate verse 14. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. Observe sam idhyate here and verse 14, sam 
idhimahi verse 15. The verses 13-15 form one Trz'^a. 



300 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA III, HYMN 28. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 31. 

i. O Agni Catavedas, accept graciously our offer- 
ing, the sacrificial cake at the morning libation, 
O god who givest wealth for our prayers. 

2. The sacrificial cake, O Agni, has been baked 
or made ready for thee : accept it graciously, O 
youngest (god). 

3. Agni, accept eagerly the sacrificial cake which 
has been offered, which has stood overnight. Thou 
art the son of strength, established at the sacrifice. 

4. At the midday libation, G^tavedas, accept here 
graciously the sacrificial cake, O sage. Agni, the 
wise ones do not diminish at the sacrificial distri- 
butions 1 the portion which belongs to thee, the 
vigorous one 2 . 

5. Agni, at the third libation take joyfully the 
sacrificial cake, O son of strength, which has been 
offered. And in thy admirable way place our wakeful 
sacrifice, blessed with treasures, before the immortal 
gods. 

6. Agni, grown strong, O Gatavedas, accept 
graciously our offering, the sacrificial cake which has 
stood overnight. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshl The metre is Gayatri in verses 1, 2, 6, 
Ush^ih in verse 3, Trish/ubh in verse 4, and (Jagati in 
verse 5. — No verse occurs in the other Sa/^hitas. 



MAiVDALA III, HYMN 28. 



This Sukta and the following are, as their position at the 
end of the Anuvaka and the number of their verses show, 
later additions to the original collection. The 28th hymn 
contains verses destined for the offerings of sacrificial 
cakes to Agni at each of the three Savanas. Quite in the 
same way hymn 52, which also belongs to the later 
additions, refers to sacrificial cakes offered to Indra. The 
oblation of such cakes to Indra at each Savana is found 
also in the later Vedic ritual (comp. Katyayana IX, 9, 
2 seq. ; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 369, 376), and several 
verses of III, 5a are indicated there as Puronuvakya verses 
for those very offerings ; see A^valayana 5rautasutra V, 4, 
2. 3. After each cake-offering to Indra follows the 
Svish/akrzt-oblation to Agni : and for these oblations 
Ai-valayana (loc. cit. Sutra 6) prescribes verses 1, 4, and 5 
of our hymn, according to the order of the three Savanas. 
From the text of the hymn it seems to be evident that 
verses 1—3 have been composed for the first, verse 4 for the 
second, and verses 5-6 for the third Savana. With this 
distribution the change of the metres evidently stands in 
connection. In accordance with the theories of the later 
Vedic theologians, we have here the Gayatri as the charac- 
teristic metre of the first, the Trish/ubh of the second, the 
Gagati of the third Savana. 

Comp. also Ai'valayana VI, 5, 25, and the very ingenious 
but at the same time somewhat hazardous observations of 
Bergaigne, Recherches sur l'Histoire de la Liturgie Vedique, 
16 seq. 

Verse 4. 



Note 1. The text has vidatheshu. 
Note 2. Comp. I, 36, 1, note 2. 



302 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiV^ALA III, HYMN 29. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 32-34 

i l . This is the support on which the rubbing (for 
producing the fire) is performed 2 ; the creative organ 3 
has been prepared. Bring hither the house-wife 4 ; 
let us produce Agni by rubbing in the old way. 

2. In the two fire-sticks dwells (Jatavedas, as the 
germ (lies) safe in pregnant women — Agni who 
should be magnified 1 day by day by wakeful men 
who bring offerings. 

3. Place it 1 skilfully into her who lies extended 2 . 
Having conceived she has quickly given birth to the 
manly one. He whose summit is red — bright is his 
splendour — the son of I /a has been born in the (due) 
way 3 . 

4. In the place of I /a, on the navel of the earth 
we will lay thee down, ^atavedas, that thou, O Agni, 
mayst carry the offerings (to the gods). 

5. Rub, ye men, the truthful sage, the wise, 
the immortal, the fair-faced. Bring forth, ye men, 
Agni, the banner of sacrifice, the first in the front, 
the gracious one. 

6. When they produce him by rubbing with their 
arms, he shines forth flaming in the wood like a red 
race-horse. Like the bright one on the path of the 
A^vins 1 the unrestrained (Agni) spares the stones, 
burning the grass 2 . 

7. Agni, when born, shines forth resplendent, the 
racer, the priest, praised by the sages, the giver of 
rain, whom the gods placed in the sacrifices, to be 



MAM) ALA III, HYMN 29. 



magnified, as the omniscient carrier of the sacrificial 
offerings. 

8. Sit down, O Hotrz, in the space which is thine, 
as the knowing one. Place the sacrifice in the abode 
of good works (i.e. on the altar). Eagerly longing 
for the gods thou shalt worship the gods by 
offerings. Agni, bestow mighty vigour on the 
sacrificer. 

9. Produce a mighty 1 smoke, ye friends. With- 
out fail go forward towards strength. This Agni is 
the conqueror in battles, rich in valiant men, he by 
whom the gods have overpowered the Dasyus. 

10. This is thy birth-place in due time whence 
born thou shonest forth ; knowing it, O Agni, sit 
down on it, and make our prayers prosper. 

11. He is called Tanunapat as the Asura's germ. 
Narasa/^sa he becomes when he is born, MatarLsvan 
when he has been shaped in the mother 1 . And he 
has become the rush of the wind in his swift course 2 . 

12. Rubbed forth by skilful rubbing, established 
by skilful establishing, as a sage, O Agni, perform 
excellent sacrifices. Sacrifice to the gods for him 
who is devoted to the gods 1 . 

13. The mortals have generated the immortal 
one, the . . }, advancing one with strong jaws. The 
ten unwedded sisters 2 united take care of the man 
(Agni) when he has been born. 

14. He the god of the seven Hotrz's shone forth 
from of old, when he flamed up in his mothers lap, 
at her udder. Day by day the joyous one never 
closes his eyes, when he has been born from the 
Asura's (i.e. of the Heaven's ?) belly 1 . 

15. The onsets of (Agni) when he attacks his 
enemies, are like those of the Maruts. (He is) the 



304 VEDIC HYMNS. 



first-born (son) of the sacred spell. They know every 
(fire) 1 . The Kimkas have raised their brilliant 
spell ; they have kindled Agni, every one in his 
house. 

1 6. After we had chosen thee here to-day, O wise 
Hotrz, while this sacrifice was going on, thou hast 
firmly sacrificed and firmly laboured. Come to this 
Soma, expert and knowing ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The prevalent metre is Trish/ubh. — 
Verses 1, 4, 10, 12 are Anush/ubh; verses 6, 11, 14, 15, 
Gagati. 

The Sukta, which belongs to the later additions (see the 
note on hymn 28), consists of a number of verses and small 
groups of verses referring to the production of fire by the 
attrition of the two fire-sticks. The order in which the 
verses stand does not always agree with the natural order 
of the ritual acts. — Verse 2 = SV. I, 79. Verse 3 = 
VS. XXXIV, 14. Verse 4 = VS. XXXIV, 15 ; TS. Ill, 5, 
11, 1 ; MS. I, 6, 2. 7 ; IV, 10, 4 ; 11, 1. Verse 8 = VS. XI, 
35 ; TS. Ill, 5, 11, a ; IV, 1, 3, 3 ; MS. II, 7, 3 ; IV, 10, 4. 
Verse 10 = VS. Ill, 14 ; XII, 52 ; XV, 56 ; TS. I, 5,5,*; 
IV, 2, 4, 35 7, *3> 5; TB. I, 2,1,16; 11,5,8,8; MS. I, 
5, 1 ; 6, 1 ; AV. Ill, 20, 1. Verse 13 = TB. I, 2, 1, 19. 
Verse 16 = VS. VIII, 20 ; TS. I, 4, 44, % ; MS. I, 3, 38 ; 
AV. VII, 97, 1. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The verses 1-3 a, b have been translated by Muir, 
Original Sanskrit Texts, V, p. 209. 

Note 2. On the adhimanthana^akala, the piece of wood 
on which the lower fire-stick is laid, see 6atapatha Brah- 



MANDALA III, HYMN 2 9. 305 

ma/za III, 4, 1, 20. so*dhimanthana;/z ^akalam adatte agner 
^•anitram asity atra hy agnir ^*ayate. Schwab, Das Altin- 
dische Thieropfer, p. 78 seq. 

Note 3. Pra^anana seems to be used in the concrete 
sense as the male organ. As such, the poet may have 
considered the so-called pramantha in the generation of 
Agni, which is described as having the shape of the male 
organ (Schwab, loc. cit., 78 ; see also Roth, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLIII, 591). It does not 
seem very probable that the darbhapi^ula of which Saya/za 
thinks should be meant. 

Note 4. Saya?za explains this as meaning the Aram (fire- 
stick), i.e. the lower Aram, the receptacle of the upper fire- 
stick. In the Taittiriya Brahma;za I, 2, 1, 13 the two 
Arams are addressed as maht vupatni. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. The text has idyaft. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The upper fire-stick or, more accurately, the 
pramantha. 

Note 2. Comp. above, II, 10, 3. The lower Aram is 
alluded, to, which is considered as a wife and more particu- 
larly as the nymph Urvasi (Katyayana V, i, 30, &c). 

Note 3. Prof. Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 301) takes 
the genitive ilkykh as dependent on vayune : ' wurde der 
Sohn geboren am Orte (Wege) der Opferspende.' To me 
it seems unnatural not to connect ilkyak with putra^, which 
words are connected also by the Sandhi (the Sa^zhita text 
has l/ayas putro, not f/aya^ putro). 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. For yaman, cf. I, 37, 3 ; III, 2, 14 ; VI, 15, 5. 
Should not the bright one on the path of the A^vins be the 
sun ? Saya/za thinks of the chariot of the Aj-vins, which 
also may be right. 

[46] x 



306 VEDTC HYMNS. 



Note 2. Are the stones and the grass identical with the 
stones and grass-blades occurring in the later ritual of the 
agnyadheya and agnimanthana (Satapatha Br. II, i, i, 8 ; 
III, 4, i, 2i ; Katyayana IV, 8, 16, &c.) ? 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. Literally, a manly, strong, or bull-like smoke. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. This is a play upon words (Matarfava and ami- 
mita matari, ' he has been shaped in the mother'). 

Note 2. Von Bradke (Dyaus Asura, p. 51) : des Windes 
Heerde (?) wird er, wenn er dahingleitet. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. This Pada is identical with I, 15, 12. It is 
a galita. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The meaning of asreman (comp. X, 8, 2. asrema 
vatsa/£ [i.e. Agni] ^imivan aravit) is unknown. 
Note 2. The ten fingers. 

Verse 14. 
Note 1. Comp. von Bradke, loc. cit, 50. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. Or prathama^am brahma^a^ visve ft vidu^ : 'all 
(people) know him the first-born (son) of the sacred spell '? 
Comp. I, 34, 1. somasya venam anu vtave it vidu^. — Prof. 
Max Muller writes : ' Prathama^-a^ is the wind, X, 168, 3. 
It might here refer to the Maruts, who are often said to 
sing prayers ; they know all about Brahman (prayer).' 



MA2VDALA IV, HYMN I. 307 

MAAf£>ALA IV, HYMN 1. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 12-15. 

i. Thee, O Agni, the gods concordantly have 
ever set to work as their divine steward ; with this 
intention 1 they have set thee to work. They have 
generated 2 thee, O worshipful one 2 , the immortal 
among the mortals, the wise, god-loving god ; they 
have generated every wise, god-loving (Agni) 3 . 

2. Do thou, [O Agni 1 ,] turn to brother Varu^a, 
towards the gods 2 with thy kindness 3 , to (Varima) 
who accepts the sacrifice, to the eldest (god) who 
accepts the sacrifice, the righteous Aditya who 
supports the (human) tribes, the king who supports 
the (human) tribes. 

3. O friend, turn to thy friend (Varu/za), as 
a wheel of a chariot 1 rapidly (follows) the swift 
(horse), for our sake, O wonderful one, rapidly. 
O Agni, find mercy (for us) with Varu^a, with the 
all-brilliant Maruts. Bless (us), O flaming one, 
that we may propagate ourselves, that we may 
press onward ; bless us, O wonderful one ! 

4. Mayst thou, O Agni, who knowest Varu^a, 
deprecate for us the god's anger. Being the best 
sacrificer, the best carrier (of the gods), flaming, 
remove from us all hatred. 

5. As such, O Agni, be for us the lowest x (god) 
with thy help, our nearest (friend) while this dawn 
shines forth. Being liberal (towards us), cause, by 
sacrificing, Varu^a to go away from us. Love 
mercy ; readily hear our call. 

x 2 



308 VEDIC HYMNS. 



6. His, the fortunate god's, appearance is excellent, 
and most brilliant among mortals. Like the bright, 
heated butter of the cow (the appearance) of the 
god is lovely, like the bountifulness of a milch-cow. 

7. Three 1 are those highest, true, and lovely 
births of this god Agni. Being enveloped in the 
infinite 2 he has come hither, the bright, brilliant, 
shining Aryan. 

8. He, the messenger, longs for all seats, the 
Hotri with the golden chariot, with the lovely 
tongue, with the red horses, of marvellous appear- 
ance, brilliant, always lovely like an assembly 
abundant in food. 

9. He, the kinsman of sacrifice, has enlightened 
men 1 . They lead him forward by a great rope 2 . 
He dwells in his (the mortal's) dwelling, accomplish- 
ing (his task). The god has obtained the com- 
panionship of the mortal. 

10. May this Agni, the knowing one, lead us to 
the god-given treasure which belongs to him 1 . 
That (treasure) which all the immortals have 
created by their thought, which Dyaus, the father, 
the begetter (has created) : that real (treasure) they 
have besprinkled 2 . 

11. He has been born in the dwellings as the 
first, at the bottom of the great (air) 1 , in the womb 
of this air 2 , footless, headless, hiding both his ends, 
drawing towards himself (his limbs ?), in the nest 
of the bull 3 . 

12. The host 1 came forth wonderfully at first, in 
the womb of i?zta, in the nest of the bull 2 , lovely 
and young, of marvellous appearance, and brilliant 3 . 
Seven friends 4 were born for the bull. 

13. Here our human fathers have sat down 1 , 



MANDALA IV, HYMN I. 3O9 

aspiring after i?zta 2 . Invoking the dawns 3 , they 
have driven out the milch-cows which dwelt in the 
rock-stable, in the prison. 

14. Having rent the rock they cleaned themselves. 
Others around told forth that (deed) of theirs. 
Taking ... as an instrument (?) \ they sang triumph- 
antly 2 . They found the light; they chanted their 
prayers. 

15. Longing for the cows in their mind, those 
men, the Usigs 1 , have opened with godly words 
the fast-holding, closed rock, which enclosed and 
encompassed the cows, the firm stable full of cows. 

16. They have devised the first name of the 
milch-cow; they have found the three times seven 
highest (names or essences) of the mother 1 . The 
hosts 2 , understanding this, acclaimed. The red 
one 3 became visible through the brilliant (milk ?) 4 
of the cow. 

1 7. The confused * darkness disappeared ; the 
sky appeared in splendour ; the shine of the 
goddess Dawn rose up. The Sun ascended to 
the wide plains, beholding right and wrong deeds 
among the mortals. 

18. Then, afterwards, being awoke they looked 
around ; then they took that treasure given by 
Heaven, all the gods in all the houses. O Mitra, 
may true (fulfilment) belong to (our) prayer, 
O Varu^a ! 

19. I will address flaming Agni, the Hotrz, the 
supporter of everything 1 , the best sacrificer. He 
has perforated, as it were, the pure udder of the 
cows, (and has made flow the milk) purified like the 
poured sap of the Soma shoots. 

20. He, the Aditi (i.e. the freedom) of all the 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



worshipful gods, the guest * of all men, Agni, choos- 
ing (for us) the protection of all gods — may he, 
Gatavedas, be merciful. 



NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Vamadeva, the metre Trish/ubh, except in 
verses 1-3, the metres of which are Ash/i, Ati^*agati, and 
Dhrzti respectively.— Verses 4-5 = VS. XXI, 3-4; TS. II, 
5,12,3; IV, 2, 11, 3; TB. III,7,n,3; 12,6; TA.II,4,4; 
IV, 20, 3; MS. IV, 10,4; 14,17- Verse 20 = VS. XXXIII, 
16; TB. II, 7, 12, 5. — The hymn has been translated and 
commented upon by Bergaigne, Quarante Hymnes du 
Rig-veda, p. 11 seq. 

This Sukta seems to be composed of two independent 
hymns. Grassmann believed that the first three verses are 
the fragment of one hymn, and that verses 4-20 form 
a second hymn. His reason was that verses 1-3 are 
composed in metres similar to Atyash/i, while the rest are 
composed in Trish/ubh. I think that he was on the right 
way, but his opinion should be slightly modified. In 
verses 1-5 Agni is invoked to appease the anger of Varu;za ; 
while, on the other hand, no allusion to Varu^a occurs in 
verses 6-20. I believe, therefore, that the first hymn 
should be considered as consisting of verses 1-5 ; it is 
composed in the metres of the Atyash/i class (1-3) with 
two concluding Trish/ubh verses (4, 5). The second hymn 
comprises the verses 6-20. The arrangers of the Sa;/zhita, 
however, considered these two hymns as one, as is shown 
by the position which they have assigned to it, before the 
second Sukta, which has the same number of verses (20) 
as this first Sukta. Comp. my Prolegomena, p. 141. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I. e. with the intention that he should act as the 
steward of the gods. As to iti kratvd, comp. I, 138, 3. iti 



MAiTOALA IV, HYMN T. 311 

kratva bubhu^rire. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 530, 
paraphrases fti kratva : mit Entschluss ' so sei es.' 

Note 2. Sayazza, whom Ludwig follows, seems to be right 
in explaining ya^*ata as a vocative (* ya^aniya '), and Janata 
as 3rd plural (' a^anayan '). Bergaigne takes both forms 
as and plural imperative : c honorez l'immortel chez les 
mortels ; engendrez le Dieu qui honore les Dieux.' 

Note 3. I cannot believe that Bergaigne is right in trans- 
lating vfovam adevam, i celui qui honore tous les Dieux/ 
His theory is that 'vfovam depend . . . de a, qui logique- 
ment gouverne le terme deva a l'accusatif.' 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The metre shows, as Benfey (Vedica und Ver- 
wandtes, p. 19, note 1) has pointed out, that this vocative 
agne is a spurious addition. 

Note 2. Should we not read devam ? ' Turn to brother 
Varu/za with thy kindness, towards the god who accepts 
the sacrifice.' 

Note 3. Or 'for the sake of his kindness,' 'for winning 
his favour (for the mortals) ' ? Sumatf may be dative ; see 
Lanman, p. 382 ; Brugmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden 
Grammatik, II, p. 60%. Comp. I, 186, 10. Akkkk sumnaya 
vavrztiya devan, ' may I turn to the gods for the sake of 
their favour/ 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I believe that rathyeva (Padapa/^a rathya-iva) 
stands for rathyam-iva. Comp. Lanman, p. 331 ; Roth, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, p. 681 seq. Prof. Max Muller refers rathya-iva 
to two horses ; he translates : ' O friend, bring hither thy 
friend, as two swift chariot-horses bring rapidly a swift 
wheel.' 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. I. e. the nearest to men. 



312 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verso 7. 

Note 1. Literally * thrice. 5 But I think that we should 
correct tn (' three '). The same blunder seems to occur in 
III, 56, 5. tn sadhastha sindhava^ tri^ (read trt) kavinam, 
' Three are your abodes, O rivers ; three (are those) of the 
sages.' Comp. also III, 56, 8 ; I, 116, 4. 

Note 2. This seems to mean, in the infinite sky. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Manusha^ seems to be ace. plur. ; comp. VII, 86, 
7. a^etayat a^ita^'he has enlightened the unenlightened 
ones.' Bergaigne takes manusha/^ as a genitive depending 
on ya^abandhu^, ' fils du sacrifice de Manus.' 

Note 2. Bergaigne compares IX, 87, 1, where it is said 
that they lead Soma to the sacrificial grass like a horse by 
ropes ("kkkha. barhik ra^anabhi^ nayanti). Saya/za says, 
stutirupaya ra^va, 'by a rope which has the shape of 
praises.' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. below, verse 18. 

Note 2. I. e. anointed, adorned. ' Poured down.' M. M. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Maha^ budhne seems to mean, maha^ ra^asa^ 
budhne ; comp. ra^asa^ budhnam, I, 52, 6 ; budhne ra^asa^, 
II, 2, 3 ; maha^ ra^-asa^, I, 6, 10 ; ra^asa^ maha^, 1, 168, 6; 
maM rag-asi, IX, 68, 3. 

Note 2. With the second Pada, compare IV, 17, 14. 
tva£a/z budhne ra^asa^ asya yonau. 

Note 3. The bull seems to be Agni himself. Comp. 
verse \%. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The word jardha (or ^ardha^ ? see note 3), which 
in most passages is applied to the host of the Maruts (see 
vol. xxxii. p. 67 seq.), seems here to refer to the company 
of the Aiigiras or seven i?zshis, alluded to in the fourth 



MA2VDALA IV, HYMN I. 313 

Pada. The seven i£zshis, 'our fathers' (verse 13), have, 
with the aid of Agni, rent the mountain and delivered the 
cows or dawns (verses 13 seqq. ; IV, 3, 15 seq.). Comp. 
H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 145 seq. 

Note 2. The bull again seems to be Agni. Comp. 
verse 1 1, note 3. 

Note 3. Do these epithets (comp. verse 8, Pada 3) refer 
to the ^ardha (host) ? Or are they applied to Agni, so that 
we would have to translate : ' Lovely was the young one 
(Agni), of marvellous appearance, and brilliant ' ? In this 
way Bergaigne interprets the passage. If this translation 
is right, ^ardha^ may be considered as neuter, and the first 
Pada could be translated : The first host came forth 
wonderfully. 

Note 4. Evidently the seven i^zshis (see note 1). Ber- 
gaigne : Les sept prieres ? ou les sept rivieres ? 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The seven i^'shis sat down for chanting and 
sacrificing, by which they have opened the mountain-prison 
of the cows. 

Note 2. The mention of Rita, in this connection is both 
Vedic and Avestic. Comp. Darmesteter, Ormazd et 
Ahriman, p. 146 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 144, note 2. 

Note 3. The cows in this myth seem to be a mythical 
representation of the dawns. Comp. M. M., Science of 
Language, II, p. 584; H. O., Religion des Veda, pp. 147, 
149 seq. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Pa^vayantra (comp. jlokayantra, IX, 73, 6) is 
quite doubtful. Does there exist a stem pa-sva, meaning 
possibly, 'the herd of cattle'? And can we translate, 
' they who had their (battering- ?) machines directed on the 
cow-herds ' ? Or, ' holding the herds with their instruments 
(i. e. with the ropes used for drawing the cows out of the 
cavern) ' ? — Prof. Max Miiller suggests the translation, * the 
cattle-drivers/ and writes, 'Does it stand for pa^u-yantra- 



3 H VEDIC HYMNS. 



sa// ? Yantra seems the same as yoktra, or something like it, 
cf. X, 94, 7, 8. Pa^uyantra would be they who hold the 
ropes of the cattle, who drive them away.' Bergaigne's 
translation, ' n'ayant rien (d'autre) pour conduire le betail ' 
(paju-ayantra), and that of Roth (' die der Sperre ledigen 
Thiere [pa^va^ ayantr&sa^] erhoben ein Freudengeschrei,' 
Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 678), do not 
carry conviction, nor does a conjecture like pa^va yantara^ 
('the leaders of the cattle together with the cattle itself 
shouted triumphantly'), seem to furnish a satisfying solu- 
tion of the difficulty. 

Note 2. See Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 120. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. On the XJsigs, compare Bergaigne's Religion 
Vedique, I, 57 seq. 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. The mother seems again to be the cow, or more 
exactly the Dawn considered as the mother of the cows 
(mata gavam, IV, 52, 2. 3 ; VII, 77, 2), and as the mother 
of the Rzshis (IV, 2, 15). Comp. V, 45, 2. a urvat gavam 
mata ^anati r gat. The seven names of the cow are men- 
tioned also in I, 164, 3, its three times seven names, in 
VII, 87, 4. 

Note 2. Bergaigne (Quarante Hymnes, p. 14) and Pischel 
(Ved. Studien, II, 121 seq.) give to the word vra the 
meaning 'woman' (Bergaigne: 'femme,' particuli&rement 
' femme en rut,' * femme amoureuse '). I prefer to follow 
the opinion of Bechtel, Nachrichten der Gottinger Gesell- 
schaft der Wissenschaften, philolog.-historische Klasse, 
1894, p. 393 seq. The hosts seem to be the assembly of 
the Rzshis. 

Note 3. The dawn. 

Note 4. Comp. IX, 81, 1 (H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. 147, note 1). dadhna yat im linnita^ ya^asa gavam, * When 
(the Somas) have been drawn, together with the brilliant 
curds of the cow.' The brilliant milk of the cow which the 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN I. 3 I 5 

Rzshis have obtained, seems to be considered as a magical 
means for procuring to men the aspect of the brilliant light 
of the dawn. Comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 450. 

Verse 17. 

Note 1. On dudhitam, comp. Geldner, Ved. Studien, II, 
9, and see Rig-veda II, 17, 4; IV, 16, 4. 

Verse 19. 
Note 1. Comp. vol. xxxii, p. 330 (V, 54, 10, note 1). 

Verse 20. 

Note 1. ' Guest ' is atithi/z ; the play on words (aditi^ and 
atithi^) is untranslatable. 



3l6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA IV, HYMN 2. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 16-19. 

i. He who has been established as the steward 
among the mortals, the immortal, righteous one, and 
among the gods, being a god himself, the Hotrz, the 
best sacrificer shall mightily flame *; Agni shall rise 
up 1 with the offerings of Manus. 

2. Here, O Agni, son of strength, thou goest for 
us to-day as a messenger, thou who art born, between 
the two races (of men and gods), having harnessed, 
O tall one, thy puissant, rrianly, brilliant (stallions) 1 . 

3. Harnessing the two mighty, red steeds that 
swim in ghee — (the steeds) of i?zta, I think, that 
are most swift with their mind*, the ruddy ones, 
thou goest (as a messenger) between you, the gods, 
and the tribes of men 2 . 

4. O Agni, with thy good horses, and thy good 
chariot, rich in bounties, bring hither from among 
them (the gods) 1 Aryaman, Vanma, and Mitra, 
Indra and Vish/zu, the Maruts and the Arvins, to 
him who offers goad oblations. 

5. This sacrifice, O Agni, is rich in cows 1 , in 
sheep and horses, in manly friends ; it is never to 
be despised ; it is rich in nourishment, O wonderful 
lord 2 , rich in offspring; it is long-lasting wealth, 
broad-based, with (brilliant) assemblies. 

6 \ Be a self-strong protector, O Agni, of the man 
who in the sweat of his brow brings fuel to thee 2 , or 
heats his head desirous to worship thee. Deliver 
him from every harmful man. 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN 2. 317 

7. The man who brings food to thee who art 
desirous of food, he who stirs up 1 the cheerful guest 
and rouses him, the godly man who kindles thee in 
his dwelling : to him may belong lasting and generous 
wealth. 

8. The sacrificer who praises thee in the evening 
and in the morning and gratifies thee : that liberal 
man thou shouldst bring across all distress, like 
a well-impelled horse 1 r (dwelling) in his house. 

9. The man who worships thee, the immortal one, 
O Agni, and who honours thee, holding the sacri- 
ficial ladle — may he, the toiling (sacrificer), not be 
deprived of wealth ; may no distress that comes 
from a harmful (foe), surround him. 

10. That mortal whose well-ordered sacrifice thou, 
as the god, acceptest, O Agni, as a liberal giver, 
may his worship 1 be welcome, O youngest god, (the 
Hotrz's work performed) for a worshipper whose 
helpers we may be. 

11. May he, the knowing one, distinguish wisdom 
and folly of mortals \ like straight and crooked backs 
(of horses) 2 . And for the sake of wealth and noble 
offspring, O god, grant us Diti and keep off Aditi 3 . 

12. The undeceived sages instructed the sage 
(Agni), setting him down in the dwellings of Ayu 1 . 
Hence mayst thou behold, O Agni, with thy eyes 2 
these beings visible and secret (that move) on the 
Arya's ways 3 . 

13. Bring thou, O Agni, youngest (god), who art 
a good guide, a plentiful, brilliant treasure to the 
worshipper who presses Soma, who serves thee and 
toils, to help him, O brisk one, who fillest the dwell- 
ings of peoples. 

14 1 . And whatsoever we have done, O Agni, out 



3l8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



of devotion for thee, with our feet 2 , with our hands, 
with our bodies : (in those deeds of ours) the wise 
have held up the Rita., aspiring after it, like those 
who manage a chariot by means of the two pole- 
arms (?) 3 . 

15. And may we be born from the Dawn, the 
mother, as the seven priests 1 , as the first worshippers 
among men 2 . May we be the Angiras, the sons of 
Heaven. May we flaming break the rock which 
contains the prize of the contest 3 . 

1 6. And as our first, ancient fathers, O Agni, were 
aspiring after Rita} — they attained to pure devotion 2 , 
chanting their litanies. Cleaving the earth they 
disclosed the red (cows). 

17. The pious men, well performing the acts (of 
worship), resplendent, melting 1 the generations of 
the gods 2 like ore 3 , kindling Agni, strengthening 
Indra, went along 4 , besieging the stall of cows. 

18. He looked (on the gods) as on herds of cattle 1 
in a rich (pasture) 2 , when the generations of the 
gods (were) near him, O mighty one 3 . After (the 
generations) of the mortals the Urva^is 4 have 
pined, for the growing strong of the Arya 5 , of the 
nearer Ayu 6 . 

19. We have done our work for thee; we have 
been good workers — the brilliant dawns have shone 
out Rita. 1 , — brightening 2 the perfect Agni who mani- 
foldly shines with fine splendour, (brightening) the 
god's beautiful eye. 

20. We have recited these hymns for thee, the 
sage, O Agni, worshipper (of the gods) 1 ; accept 
them ! Blaze up ; make us wealthier. Bestow great 
wealth on us, O bountiful one ! 



M AND ALA IV, HYMN 2. 319 



NOTES. 

The i?zshi is Vamadeva, the metre TrishAibh. — Verse 5 = 
TS. I, 6, 6, 4; III, 1, ii, 1 ; MS. I, 4, 3. Verse 6 = TA. 
VI, 2, 1. Verse n=TS. V, 5, 4, 4- Verse i6 = VS. 
XIX, 69 ; TS. II, 6, 1 a, 4. Verses 16-19 =AV. XVIII, 3, 
21-24. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On this use of these infinitives, comp. Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 412. — Manusha^ seems to be gen- 
itive ; comp. II, 2, 6. havya manusha^ ; II, 2, 8. hotrabhi/z 
. . . manusha^ ; I, 76, 5. manusha^ havirbhi^. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. below, IV, 6, 9. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. As to the horses of Rita., comp. above, III, 6, 6. 
In spite of the different accent there is no doubt that 
ghrztasniiva, which occurs in that verse, is the same word 
as ghrztasnu, in our verse, a compound of ghrzta with 
a noun snu which seems to be different from sanu, and 
connected with the root sna (cf. ghrztasna, IV, 6, 9 ; and 
see Bechtel, Hauptprobleme der Indogerm. Lautlehre, 
p. 211). Vrzdhasnu, on the other hand, seems to be no 
compound, but an adjective formed like vadhasnu, ni- 
shatsnii. It is evident, however, that the poet here 
employed the two words vrzdhasnu and ghrztasnu as 
parallel expressions. 

Note 2. Read martam (for martan ; gen. plur.). Comp. 
below, verse 11 ; VI, 47, 16. vis&k manushyan, where we 
ought to read manushyam. See Lanman, p. 353 ; Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, p. 44 ; Bartholomae, Studien zur Indo- 
germanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, p. 48. 



320 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. ' Could it be Mitram esham, the rapid Mitra ? ' 
M.M. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The meaning is, it is rich in reward consisting in 
cows, &c. 

Note 2. The text has asura. Cf. H. O., Religion des 
Veda, p. 164. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. With the first Pada, comp. below, 12, 2. 

Note 2. On svatavan, see Benfey, Vedica und Lin- 
guistica, p. 1 seqq. ; Lanman, p. 559 ; Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXVI, p. 357 seq. ; H. O., Prolegomena, 
p. 471. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. NLsishat is not derived, as is the case for 
instance with a .rishamahi, VIII, 24, i, from (ni-)^as (Grass- 
mann, Ludwig), but from m-sa, (Boh tlingk- Roth) ; comp. 
VII, 3, 5. nisisana/i atithim. We must read, consequently, 
msissLt, formed like dadhat (3rd sg. subj. pres., or possibly 
nom. sing. part. pres.). 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Bohtlingk-Roth conjecture harmyavan c im 
Hause, im Stall gehalten.' It is true that beasts may be 
kept in the harmya ; comp. VII, 56, 16 ; X, 106, 5 ; 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 149. But I do not think 
that ' being kept in the harmya ' could be expressed by 
harmya-vat. Hemyavat seems to be derived from the 
root hi, and to have the same meaning as a^uheman ; such 
a word very well fits into a phrase referring to a swift 
horse. Hemyavat stands to heman in the same relation 
as omyavat to oman. All this was pointed out first by 
Ludwig (vol. iv, p. 22). 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Literally the Hotrz's work (performed for such 
a Ya^am&na). 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN 2. 321 



Verse 11. 

Note 1. I read martafn (gen. plur.) ; comp. above, verse 
3, note 2. It is possible, however, to leave the text un- 
changed ; in this case the translation would be : ' May he, 
the knowing one, distinguish wisdom and folly, the (wise 
and foolish) mortals like straight and crooked backs (of 
horses).' 

Note 2. Comp. vitaprzsh^a, ' straight-backed/ a frequent 
epithet of horses. 

Note 3. For Prof. Max Muller's interpretation of this 
passage, comp. vol. xxxii, p. 256. See also Bergaigne, Rel. 
Vedique, III, 97 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 297 seq. It 
is very strange that the poet should ask the god to keep off 
Aditi (comp. I, 152, 6. aditim urushyet) who must here be 
considered, consequently, as a malevolent deity. I think that 
this conception of Aditi is derived from the idea of this 
goddess as punishing sin ; it is the same goddess who may 
free the sinner from the bonds of sin and who may fetter 
and destroy him. Keeping off Aditi seems to mean, con- 
sequently, removing from the mortal the danger of being 
bound by the fetters of sin ; the idea is the same as above 
in IV, 1, 5, where Agni is invoked to make Varu;za, the son 
of Aditi, go away (comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 336, 
note 1). In that case granting Diti would mean granting 
freedom from those same fetters. (On Diti, who very 
appropriately has been called a mere reflex of Aditi, see 
M. M., loc. cit. ; Bergaigne, III, 97 seq.) 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. On Ayu, the mythical ancestor of the human 
race, see Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, p. 59 seq. 

Note 2. On pa^bhi/z, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 228 
seq. ; Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 3 seq. ; 
Bloomfield, Contributions to the Interpretation of the Veda, 
Second Series, p. 32 seq. (American Journal of Philology, 
XI, 350 seq.). I believe that in our verse padbhik should 
be derived from a noun par, and translated, * with thy eyes/ 
[46] Y 



322 VEDIC HYMNS. 



while in verse 14 we ought to read padbhi^, and to 
translate, ' with the feet.' 

Note 3. Pischel (Ved. Studien, I, 229, note 1) believes 
that arya^ is nom. sing., referring to Agni. But compare 
VI, 51, 2. rigxx marteshu vrigmS. ka pajyan abhf £ash/e 
sura^ axyah evan. This verse makes it very probable 
that arya^ is a genitive dependent on evai//, evan (' behold- 
ing right and wrong deeds among the mortals, the Sun 
looks upon the Arya's ways '). On the stem ari, ' the Arya,' 
see Pischel, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft, XL, p. 125. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. This verse has been commented upon by Pischel, 
Ved. Studien, I, 229 seq. 

Note 2. On padbhl/i or rather padbhi/z, comp. verse 12, 
note 2. 

Note 3. In translating bhurf^* I have followed, though 
not without doubt, the theory of Pischel, Ved. Studien, 
I, 239 seq. — Pischel seems to be right in making ritam 
depend both on ytmwh (comp. IV, 23, 10) and on asushanak 
(comp. above, IV, 1, 13, and below, verse 16). 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. The seven i^zshis or Angiras, the sons of Heaven 
and the Dawn (cf. above 1, 16). 

Note 2. nrin (or rather nri'm) is genitive plural. See 
Lanman, p. 430 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, p. 42. 

Note 3. Here we have again the seven Rhhls breaking 
the mountain in which the cows were imprisoned. 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. The apodosis is wanting. As verse 15 shows, 
the meaning is : As our fathers have done their mighty 
deeds, aspiring after Rita., thus may we do the same. 

Note 2. Sukit (Padap. suki it) possibly stands for sukim 
it; cf. Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft, XLVIII, p. 680. Or may we correct suki it... 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN 2. 323 

didhiti (instr. sing.), ' they went along in pure devotion'? 
Di'dhiti seems to be what is called in III, 31, 1 ; IX, 102, 
1. 8, rztasya di'dhiti^. 

Verse 17. 

Note 1. See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 252. 

Note 2. Evidently the pious men, not the gods, form the 
subject. I propose to read, therefore, devam (gen. plur.) 
^anima ; cf. verse 18 devanam yat ^anima. They kindle 
Agni ; they strengthen Indra : in short, they treat the 
divine people as the smith treats the metal. 

Note 3. I do not enter here upon the archaeological 
question as to the meaning of ayah. Comp. on this much- 
discussed question especially Max Miiller, Biographies of 
Words, p. 252 seq. ; Schrader, Sprachvergleichung und 
Urgeschichte (2nd ed.), p. 271 seq.; von Bradke, Methode 
der arischen Alterthumswissenschaft, p. 93 seq. 

Note 4. Cf. X, 61, 13. parishadvana^ agman. 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. Fa.sva.Zi is genitive sing.; it depends on yutha. 
Cf. V, 31, 1 ; VI, 19, 3. 

Note 2. There is no reason for taking, as Lanman 
(p. 516) does, kshumati as ace. plur. neut, which would 
be kshumanti. See Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der In- 
dogermanischen Neutra, p. 237 ; Bartholomae, Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXIX, p. 493. Bartholomae translates, ' bei 
einem wolhabenden.' 

Note 3. Is this vocative ugra right ? It would be easy to 
correct, with Ludwig, ugra (' when the mighty generations 
of the gods were near him ') or ugra^, as suggested by 
Delbriick (Grassmann's Translation, vol. i, p. 573) : ' the 
mighty one (Agni) looked on them,' &c. 

Note 4. I believe that Geldner (Ved. Studien, I, 260, 
note 1) is right in contending that Urva^i, wherever it 
occurs, is the name of an Apsaras and nothing else. The 
name of Ayu, occurring in the fourth Pada, confirms this ; 
for Ayu, as is well known, is the son of Pururavas and of 
the nymph Urva,n. Geldner translates, 'Selbst mit den 

Y 2 



324 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Sterblichen hatten die Urva.ns Mitleid.' But I do not 
think that krip means * having compassion.' In my 
opinion we should, with Ludwig, supply ^anima to mar- 
tanam, so that devanam ^anima. in the second Pada 
corresponds with martanam (^anima) in the third. This 
^*anima is an accusative which depends on akrzpran (' they 
pined after . . . / cf. IX, 85, 11. nake supar/zam upapapti- 
va/^sam gira^ venanam akrzpanta purvi^ ; X, 74, 3. ye 
krzpa/zanta ratnam). Thus the meaning seems to be: 
When the cows had been conquered, and when Agni looked 
over the generations of the gods that were near him, the 
Urva^is, i. e. the Apsarases such as Urva^i, longed for the 
love of mortals such as Pururavas, and for the propagation 
of the human generations ; they gave birth to children such 
as Ayu. 

Note 5. Or ' of the indigent ' ? Or is arya/£ nom. plur. 
fern, referring to the Urva^is ? Or nom. sing. masc. refer- 
ring to Agni ? 

Note 6. On Ayu, see note 4. But I cannot tell why he 
is called the nearer Ayu. Is this nearer Ayu opposed, as 
a nearer or later (upara) ancestor, to the pitara^ parasa^ 
pratnasa/£, the Arigiras, mentioned in. verse 16? The same 
nearer Ayu (lipara which stands there in opposition to 
ptfrvabhi^) is mentioned also in I, 104, 4, connected, as it 
seems, with some Apsarases. I do not pretend to be able 
to interpret that very difficult verse, but I am convinced 
that it has been misinterpreted both by Roth (Siebenzig 
Lieder, p. vii) and by Bergaigne (I, 60). 

Verse 19. 

Note 1. I. e. the dawns have sent forth their shine, which 
is a visible manifestation of the eternal law of Rita.. 

Note 2. The construction is : we have been good workers, 
brightening &c. The words, 'the brilliant dawns have 
shone out Rita,, are a parenthesis. 

Verse 20. 
Note 1. The text is nearly identical with the first hemi- 
stich of I, 73, 10 (see above). 



MAWDALA TV, HYMN 3. 325 

MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 3. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 20-22. 

i. Draw Rudra hither for your protection 1 , the 
king of sacrifice, the truly sacrificing Hotri of the 
two worlds 2 , the golden-coloured Agni, before the 
unseen thunderbolt (strikes you). 

2. This is the home which we have prepared for. 
thee as a well-dressed, loving wife (prepares the 
marriage-bed) for her husband 1 . Directed hither- 
ward, dressed (in offerings and prayers?) 2 sit down. 
These (sacrificial ladles or prayers ?) are turned 
towards thee, O most skilful one 3 ! 

3. To him who hears us, who is not proud, who 
beholds men, to the merciful, immortal god recite 
a prayer, O worshipper, a hymn — (to Agni) whom 
the presser (of Soma), the Madhu-presser, magnifies 
like the pressing-stone \ 

4. Thou who art well-intentioned, give heed to 
this our toiling \ to this i^zta 2 , O observer of i?zta ! 
When will our hymns share in thy rejoicings ? When 
will our friendship dwell in thy house ? 

5. How wilt thou, O Agni, before Varu/za, and 
how wilt thou, and which sin of ours wilt thou 
blame before Dyaus ? How wilt thou speak to 
bountiful Mitra, to the Earth? What (wilt thou 
say) to Aryaman, to Bhaga ? 

6. What wilt thou say, O Agni, when thou hast 
grown strong on the Dhish/zya altars 1 ? What to 
strong V&ta who goes forward in triumph 2 ? To 
the Nasatya 3 who goes round the earth 4 , to . . . 5 ? 
What, O Agni, to Rudra, the man-killer ? 



326 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7. How (wilt thou speak) to great Pushan who 
brings prosperity ? What (wilt thou say) to martial 
Rudra, the giver of offerings 1 ? What sin 2 wilt thou 
announce to wide-ruling Vishnu, what, O Agni, to 
the mighty weapon (of the gods) ? 

8. How wilt thou answer, when thou art asked, 
to the righteous x host of the Maruts ? How to the 
mighty Sun, to the quick Aditi 2 ? Accomplish 
thy work, O 6atavedas, thou who knowest the 
Heaven ! 

9. I magnify 1 the Rita, of the cow 2 ruled by J&ta. 
and also by the raw one 3 , the honey-sweet, ripe 
(milk), O Agni. Though being black this (cow) 
swells of bright drink, of ... 4 milk. 

10. With 7?zta indeed, with the milk of the back 1 , 
the bull has been anointed, Agni the man. Without 
trembling he moved on bestowing his vigour. The 
speckled bull has poured out his bright udder 2 . 

11 1 . By the Rzts. the Angiras have broken the 
rock and cleft it asunder ; they have shouted 
together with the cows. Prosperously the men 
have surrounded 2 the Dawn. The Sun appeared 
when Agni (the fire) had been born 3 . 

12. By the J&ta. the immortal, uninjured 1 god- 
desses, the Waters, O Agni, with their honey-sweet 
waves have sped forward 2 for ever to flow (along 
their course), like a racer incited by shouting when 
(the race-liorses) are let loose. 

13. Go never on thy crooked way to the spirit 
(which avenges the guilt) of anybody 1 , of a vassal 
who has trespassed, or of a friend. Require not (of 
us) a sinful brother's debt 2 . May we not have to 
suffer under the spirit which avenges a friend's or 
a (hostile) deceivers guilt 3 . 



MAiVTXALA IV, HYMN 3. 327 

14-. Protect us, O Agni, with all thy protection, 
thou who art protected, O martial one 1 , and art 
gladdened (by us). Sparkle forth, and destroy even 
strong evil ! Slay the Rakshas even though it has 
grown large. 

15. Be gracious, O Agni, through these our 
hymns. Touch, O hero, this wealth moved by our 
prayers. And accept, O Angiras, our sacred words. 
May the praise, beloved by the gods, resound to 
thee \ 

16. I, the priest, have rehearsed to thee the 
omniscient one, O Agni, worshipper (of the gods), 
all these songs, these inmost words, these recitations 
and words of wisdom, to thee the wise one, with 
prayers and hymns. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 1 = S V. I, 69 ; TS. 
I, 3, 14, 1 ; TB. II, 8, 6, 9 ; MS. IV, 11, 4. Verse 6 = 
MS. IV, 11,4. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On the identification of Agni with Rudra, comp. 
Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, III, 36 ; von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, 
p. 54 (Rig-veda I, 27, 10 ; III, 2, 5; VIII, 72, 3). 

Note 2. The second Pada of this verse is identical with 
VI, 16, 46. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Cf. Hirzel, Gleichnisse und Metaphern im Rig- 
veda, p. 69. 

Note 2. On parivita^ Saya/za remarks, yash/avyadevais 
te^obhir va parivita^. In the commentary on I, 128, t, on 
the other hand, he says, ritvigbh\/z paridhibhir va parito 
vesh/ita^. 



328 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 3. I take su-apaka as a compound of su and a-paka 
(comp. Va£\ Sawh. XX, 44 = Taitt. Br. II, 6, 8, 4 = Maitr. 
Samh. Ill, 11, 1, where Tvash/rz is called apctka^). In 
Rig-veda VI, 1 1 , 4 we read : adidyutat sii apaka^ vibhava ; 
in VI, \1, 1. a yasmin tve sii apake ya^atra, &c. Should 
we not correct in both passages suapaka^, suapake ? 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The pressing-stone (gravan) is frequently con- 
sidered as speaking, as praising the gods. Cf. Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, I, p. 152 sq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Padapa/^a has ^amyai. I think it should 
be samy&k. 

Note 2. I. e. to this sacrifice, which is considered as one 
of the chief manifestations of Rita.. See H. O., Religion 
des Veda, p. 197. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. At the Soma sacrifice fire burns on eight altars 
called Dhish/zya ; see Weber, Indische Studien, X, pp. 366, 

375- 

Note 2. See vol. xxxii, p. 164. 

Note 3. This is the only passage in the Rig-veda in 
which nasatya occurs in the singular. 

Note 4. On pari^man, cf. above, I, 79, 3 note. 

Note 5. Kshe (cf. Lanman, pp. 440, 448, 534) is evidently 
corrupt. But neither Bollensen's conjecture, uksh/ze, nor 
those of Ludwig (£akshe, yakshe), carry conviction. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. It is very strange to find Rudra here desig- 
nated as * giver of offerings.' But it seems too bold 
to explain havi^-de as a dative of havi//-ad ('eater of 
offerings '). 

Note 2. I read with Grassmann repa/£ (' sin ') for reta^ 
(' sperm '). 



MAiTOALA IV, HYMN 3. 329 



Verse 8. 

Note 1. The text has rMya, used as an adjective (see 
Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, III, 216). 

Note 2. Aditi is masculine and seems to be an epithet 
(' unrestrained, free ') of the Sun. Cf. vol. xxxii, p. 262 ; 
Bergaigne, III, 92. Probably at the same time the word 
is intended to allude to the goddess Aditi. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The text has i/e, on which Ludwig says, ' so viel 
wie ni/e.' tie of course cannot be the same as ni/e, but 
should we not conjecture ni/e? Cf. above, IV, 1, 11. 
vr/shabhasya ni/e, and IV, 1, 12. ritasya. yona vr/shabhasya 
ni/e. The translation would be, ' By Rita, the Rita, is 
restrained in the nest of the cow/ 

Note 2. The ' Rita, of the cow/ if the reading is correct 
(see note 1), seems to be the milk. 

Note 3. The ' raw one ' is the cow as opposed to the ripe 
milk. 

Note 4. The meaning of ^amarya (airat; keyo^vov) is 
unknown. Cf. Bergaigne, II, 398, note 1. Saya^a reads 
ga. amarye/za. c I should prefer ga. amartyena/ M. M. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Does this mean, with the milk that comes from 
the ridge of heaven ? Cf. IV, 20, 4. sam andhasa mamada^ 
pr/sh/yfcyena. 

Note 2. This Pada seems to be an imitation of VI, 66, 1, 
where Frisni (' the speckled one ') is the mother of the 
Maruts : sakrit jukram duduhe prisnik tfdha/fc. See vol. 
xxxii, p. 368. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Here we have again the same myth of the 
Angiras and the cows, to which so many allusions are found 
in the preceding hymns. 

Note 2. The red cows of the myth are the dawns ; the 



330 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Angiras besiege the stronghold in which these cows are 
imprisoned. 

Note 3. On the kindling of the fire as a charm by which 
the sun is made to rise, see H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. 109 seq. The Angiras kindle the fire for performing 
their sacrifice ; thereby they make the sun rise. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The same epithet is applied to the waters also 
in X, 104, 8. 

Note 2. The optative dadhanyu^ is very strange. Pro- 
bably we ought to read dadhanvu/£. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that Agni is requested 
not to turn against the sacrificer a spirit which has to 
avenge the guilt committed by a third person. ' Why not 
read ya^am ? Go not secretly to anybody's sacrifice, not 
of a hostile house, not of a friend. Do not require (of us) 
a sinful brother's debt. May we not feel the might of 
friend or foe.' M. M. 

Note 2. Geldner (Ved. Studien II, 157) translates and 
interprets : * tilge nicht, O Agni, die Schuld eines falschen 
Bruders,' namlich die Schuld an die Manen, also dem Sinn 
nach ' mache ihn kinderlos.' This is quite unacceptable. 

Note 3. The text is evidently corrupt. I propose to 
read : ma sakhyu^ yaksham ma ripo/i bhu^ema. Comp. V, 
70, 4. ma kasya adbhutakratu yaksham bhu^-ema tanubhi^. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. I cannot adopt Bergaigne's opinion on sumakha 
(Quarante Hymnes, p. 75). 

Verse 15. 
Note 1. Or, awake for thee. 



MAiVZ)ALA IV, HYMN 4. 33 1 

MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 4. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 23-25. 

i. Produce thy stream of flames like a broad 
onslaught. Go forth impetuous like a king with 
his elephant * ; . . . 2 after thy greedy onslaught, 
thou art an archer ; shoot the sorcerers with thy 
hottest (arrows). 

2. Thy whirls fly quickly. Fiercely flaming touch 
(them). O Agni, (send forth) with the ladle * thy 
heat, thy winged (flames) ; send forth unfettered thy 
firebrands all around. 

3. Being the quickest, send forth thy spies against 
(all evildoers). Be an undeceivable guardian of this 
clan. He who attacks us with evil spells, far or 
near, may no such (foe) defy thy track. 

4. Rise up, O Agni ! Spread out against (all 
foes) ! Burn down the foes, O (god) with the sharp 
weapon ! When kindled, O Agni, burn down like 
dry brushwood, the man who exercises malice 
against us. 

5. Stand upright, strike (the foes) away from us ! 
Make manifest thy divine (powers), O Agni ! 
Unbend the strong (bows) of those who incite 
demons (against us) 1 . Crush all enemies, be they 
relations or strangers. 

6. He knows thy favour, O youngest one, who 
makes a way for a sacred speech like this. Mayst 
thou beam forth to his doors all auspicious days 
and the wealth and the splendour of the niggard. 

7. Let him, O Agni, be fortunate and blessed 
with good rain, who longs to gladden thee with 



332 VEDIC HYMNS. 



constant offerings and hymns through his life in his 
house. May such longing ever bring auspicious 
days to him. 

8. I praise thy favour ; it resounded here. May 
this song (which is like) a favourite wife, awaken for 
thee 1 . Let us brighten thee, being rich in horses 
and chariots. Mayst thou maintain our knightly 
power day by day. 

9. May (the worshipper) here frequently of his 
own accord approach thee, O (god) who shinest in 
darkness 1 , resplendent day by day. Let us worship 
thee sporting and joyous, surpassing the splendour 
of (other) people. 

10. Whoever, rich in horses and rich in gold, 
approaches thee, O Agni, with his chariot full of 
wealth — thou art the protector and the friend of him 
who always delights in showing thee hospitality. 

11. Through my kinship (with thee) I break 
down the great (foes) by my words *. That (kin- 
ship) has come down to me from my father Gotama. 
Be thou attentive to this our word, O youngest, 
highly wise Hotrz, as the friend of our house. 

12. May those guardians of thine, infallible Agni, 
sitting down together protect us, the never sleeping, 
onward-pressing, kind, unwearied ones, who keep off 
the wolf, who never tire. 

13 1 . Thy guardians, O Agni, who seeing have 
saved the blind son of Mamata from distress — He 
the possessor of all wealth has saved them who 
have dpne good deeds. The impostors, though 
trying to deceive, could not deceive. 

14. In thy companionship we dwell, protected by 
thee. Under thy guidance let us acquire gain. 
Accomplish both praises 1 , O (thou who art the) 



MAiVZJALA IV, HYMN \. 333 

truth ! Do so by thy present power, O fearless 
one ! 

15. May we worship thee, O Agni, with this log 
of wood. Accept the hymn of praise which we 
recite. Burn down those who curse us, the 
sorcerers. Protect us, O (god) who art great like 
Mitra, from guile, from revilement, and from dis- 
grace. 

NOTES. 

The hymn is addressed to Agni Rakshohan. The same 
Rzshi and metre. — Verses i-i5 = TS. I, 2, 14, 1-6; MS. 
IV, 11, 5. Verses 1-5 = VS. XIII, 9-13; MS. II, 7, 15. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On fbhena, cf. Pischel-Geldner, Vedische Studien, 
I, p. xv. 

Note 2. The meaning of druTzana^, which evidently should 
be pronounced dru;^ana>^ (H.O., Prolegomena, p. 478), is 
uncertain. This verb is stated to occur still in one other 
passage, Maitr. Sa^h. II, 4, 2. tad ya eva;^ vidvant suram 
pibati na haina^a dru/zati (dru;zati, two MSS.). But should 
we not read there hru^ati ? [And possibly in our passage, 
as Prof. Max Miiller observes, hru/zana^ ?] 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On^uhva, see Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 113. 
Wherever butter is poured out with the ladle, the flames 
arise. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The third Pada is identical with X, 1 16, 5 b. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Or ' resound to thee ' (sam ^-areta). Cf. above, 
3, 15. Shall we read, in consideration of this parallel 



334 VEDIC HYMNS. 



passage, sam devavata ^aratam iyam g\'k ( k may this song 
beloved by the gods resound ' or ' awaken')? 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. On doshavasta^, see above, I, i, 7, note i. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. I have taken mshak as ace. plural. If it is gen. 
singular, the translation will be : ' Through my kinship with 
the great (Agni) I break down (my foes) by my words.' 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with I, 147, 3. See the 
notes there. The original place of this verse seems to be 
in the first Ma/z^ala, because it mentions Mamateya. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Probably the praise or song of the gods and of 
men. See vol. xxxii, p. 439. 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN 5. 335 

MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 5. 

ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 1-3. 

i. How may we unanimously offer mighty light 1 
to bountiful Agni Vaisvanara ? With his mighty 
perfect growth he supports the high bank 2 like a 
pillar. 

2. Do not reproach Him, the self-dependent one, 
who has given this bounty to me, the god to the 
mortal, the clever one to the simple, the wise im- 
mortal, the most manly, restless 1 Agni Vaisvanara. 

3. Agni, the sharp-pointed, the mighty bull with 
thousandfold sperm, has proclaimed to me the great, 
doubly-powerful * Saman, the prayer, having found, 
as it were, the hidden track of a cow 2 . 

4. May Agni, he who is rich in wealth, whose 
teeth are sharp, consume with his hottest flames 
those who violate the laws founded by Varu^a, the 
beloved, firm (laws) of attentive Mitra. 

5 1 . They who roam about like brotherless girls 2 , 
of evil conduct like women who deceive their hus- 
bands, being wicked, sinful, and untrue — they have 
created for themselves this deep place 3 . 

6. On me, however small, but innocent, thou, 
O purifying Agni, hast fiercely placed this mighty, 
deep, vigorous prayer, like a heavy burden, this 
Przsh^a 1 , consisting of seven elements 2 . 

7. Let our prayer which purifies Him, through 
the power of mind (inherent in it), reach Him who 
is the common (property of all men) alike, the good 
(name ?) of Vrism on the skin of the herbs, on the 
summit of the . . . 1 . 



336 VEDIC HYMNS. 



8. What should be openly uttered by me of this 
speech ? They secretly speak of that which is 
hidden 1 . When they have uncovered, as it were, 
the water of the cows 2 , he guards the beloved 
summit of the . . . 3 , the footstep of the bird 4 . 

9. He has found in secret that great face of the 
great ones which the bright cow accompanied \ 
the ancient (face) shining in the abode of jRita, the 
quickly running, quickly moving. 

10. And resplendent near his parents (Heaven 
and Earth), in their presence, he thought of the 
secret, good (name ?) of "Prism. The tongue of 
the manly, forward-bent flame (seized) that which 
was near at hand in the highest abode of the mother, 
the cow 1 . 

11. I speak, when being asked, RiXa. (i.e. truth), 
out of reverence (for Agni, or for the gods), out of 
hope 1 placed in thee, O Gatavedas, as I am here 2 . 
Thou rulest over all this wealth whatever (dwells) 
in heaven and earth. 

1 2. Which of this wealth is ours, what treasure ? 
Mayst thou who knowest it declare to us (that 
treasure), O 6atavedas ! What is the highest (aim) 
of this our way, is hidden. We have not come 
scolding to an empty (P) 1 place. 

13 1 . What is the limit, what the objects? What 
pleasant (wealth) may we obtain as swift (horses 
gain) the prize ? When will the Dawns, the divine 
consorts of the immortal, expand over us with the 
sun's splendour ? 

14. And what do those insatiable ones here say, 
O Agni, with their sapless, feeble, weak speech that 
has to be listened to ? Let them unarmed fall into 
nothingness. 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN 5. 337 

15. The face of this kindled, manly Vasu has 
shone gloriously in the house. Clothed in brilliancy, 
with his shape beautiful to behold, the bountiful has 
shone like a house * with its wealth. 



NOTES. 

The hymn is addressed to Vai^vanara. The same Rishi 
and metre. — No verse occurs in the other Sa/^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Cf. especially I, 45, 8 (above, p. 42). brzhat 
bha^ bibhrata^ havW. 

Note 2. Cf. vol. xxxii, p. 93 (I, 38, 11, note 2). 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. See above, I, 36, 1, note 2. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Dvibarha^ is neuter. See Lanman, p. 560 ; Joh. 
Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der Indogermanischen Neutra, 
p. 132. 

Note 2. Agni has discovered the Saman which he pro- 
claims to the mortal, like the track of a lost cow. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 539. 

Note 2. Abhratara/z cannot be accusative plural fern., as 
Zimmer (Altindisches Leben, p. 419) seems to take it. 
The correct interpretation has been given by Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, p. 299. 

Note 3. I.e. hell. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. In the younger Vedic ritual certain Stotras are 
technically designated as pr/sh/^a or ' backs ' of the liturgies 
[46] z 



338 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(see, for instance, Weber, Indische Studien, X, 385). Does 
the word stand here in the same sense? Or should we 
correct presh/^am ? 

Note 2. The seven tones of the scale ? 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. This passage is obscure. The text runs thus : 
sasasya barman adhi Mvu przsnek agre rupa^ arupitam 
(arupitam Sa^hitapa^a) ^abaru. As to the first words, 
see III, 5, 6. To Mru possibly a noun like n£ma should 
be supplied (cf. below, verse 10). The last Pada (cf. 
above, III, 5, 5, note 1) is simply untranslateable. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Of the milk alluded to in the third Pada ? — On 
nlnik, cf. Lanman, p. 436; Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen 
der Indogerm. Neutra, p. 397. 

Note 2. The water of the cows is the milk, cf. X, 12, 3. 
Roth (Zeitschr. der D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 
682) : als sie den Schatz der Kiihe entdeckt hatten (var 
iva = varam iva). 

Note 3. Rupa/£ agram. 

Note 4. Comp. above, III, 5, 5 with note 1 ; III, 5, 6, 
note 2. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The sun, the face of the great gods (cf. 1, 115, 1), 
accompanied by the dawn ? 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Is the meaning of all this that Agni, shining on 
the altar between heaven and earth, desires, and consumes 
with his flames, the oblation of butter which has its home 
in the udder of the cow ? 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. On a^asa, see Lanman, p. 492 seq. ; Bartholomae 
Indogermanische Forschungen, I, 182 seq. ; Bechtel, Haupt- 



MAiTOALA IV, HYMN 5. 339 

probleme der Indogerm. Lautlehre, p. 262. This noun is 
not to be derived from the root s&s, but from sams. 
"Note 2. Compare I, 79, 1 (with note 3). 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 108, 7, where the Pa/zis say to Sarama : 
reku padam alakam a ^agantha (' the place is empty (?) ; 
thou hast come in vain '). 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. This verse has been treated of by Pischel, Ved. 
Studien, I, 306. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. On this comparison, see Hirzel, Gleichnisse und 
Metaphern im Rigveda, p. 102 seq. 



z 2 



340 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiV^ALA IV, HYMN 6. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 4-5. 

i. Stand upright for us, O Agiii, Hotrz of the 
sacrifice, the best performer of sacrifices among the 
gods. For thou art the master of every thought ; 
thou promotest the worshipper's prayer. 

2. The unerring Hotrz has sat down among the 
people, joy-giving Agni, the wise one at the sacri- 
fices \ Like Savitrz he has sent his light upward. 
Like a builder he has reared his smoke up to 
the sky. 

3 1 . (The ladle) glowing, filled with gifts, with 
butter, is stretched forth. From left to right (does 
Agni move) choosing the divine people. Upright 
(stands) the (sacrificial) post like a new-born foal 2 ; 
well-placed, well-established it anoints the victims 3 . 

4. After the sacrificial grass has been spread 
and the fire kindled, the delighted Adhvaryu has 
stationed himself upright. Agni, the Hotrz, chosen 
from of old, goes round thrice, like a shepherd. 

5. As Hotr/, measuredly running, Agni, the joy- 
giving, sweet-tongued, the righteous, goes around 
by his own might. His flames run forward like 
race-horses ; all beings are afraid when he has shone 
forth. 

6. Beautiful, O fair-faced Agni, is thy aspect, who 
art terrible and manifold ; pleasant (it is). As they 
have not hindered thy light by darkness, no bespat- 
terers have left stains on thy body. 

7. He whose mother (P) 1 has not been hindered 
from giving birth, nor his father and mother when- 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN 6. 34 1 

ever they were incited (?) 2 : this Agni, the purifier, 
well-established like Mitra 3 , has shone among the 
tribes of men, — 

8. Agni, whom the twice-five sisters *, dwelling to- 
gether, have engendered among thehuman tribes, who 
awakes at dawn, who is bright like an elephant's (?) 2 
tooth, whose mouth is beautiful, who is sharp like 
an axe. 

9 1 . Agni, those golden horses of thine swimming 
in ghee, the red ones which go straight forward, the 
fleet ones, the brilliant, manly, wonderful horses, 
puissant stallions, have called hither the divine 
people. 

io. Those victorious, never-tiring 1 , fierce flames 
of thine, O Agni, which move about, hasten 2 to 
their goal like hawks ; they roar mightily like the 
host of the Maruts. 

ii 1 . (This) hymn has been produced for thee, 
O Agni, when thou wert kindled. May (the priest) 
recite the litany ; mayst thou distribute (treasures) 
to him who sacrifices. Men have set down Agni 
as the Hotri, the Usigs, adoring (Him), the praise 
of Ayu 2 . 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 6=TS. IV, 3, 13, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The text has vidatheshu. Cf. above, I, 31, 6 
note. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. With the first hemistich compare above, III, 19, 2. 
See also VI, 63, 4. 



342 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. On akra, see Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 168. 

Note 3. The meaning seems to be that the sacrificial 
post, which has been anointed itself, imparts ointment to 
the victim tied to it. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The meaning of satu is uncertain. Boehtlingk- 
Roth give ' receptaculum.' Joh. Schmidt (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
XXV, p. 29, cf. Hiibschmann, Indogerm. Vocalsystem, 
p. 75) translates ' Mutterleib,' and connects the word with 
stn. If ' womb ' is right, it seems to be the womb from 
which Agni was born. 

Note 2. Does this ish^au belong to ish, ' to incite,' or to 
ish, * to wish ' ? ' Whenever he (Agni) wishes/ M. M. 

Note 3. On the well-established Mitra, comp. H. O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 186, note 1. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The ten sisters of course are the fingers. 

Note 2. In translating atharya^ na dantam I have fol- 
lowed the opinion of Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 99) on 
the meaning of athan, though his theory is very doubtful. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. With this description of Agni's horses, comp. 
above, IV, 2, 2. 3. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On ayasa^, cf. above, III, 18, 2, note 1. 
Note 2. See Geldner, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 234. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. The second hemistich of this verse is nearly 
identical with V, 3, 4. 

Note 2. Cf. narcLra^sa, vol. xxxii, p. 439. 



MANDALA IV, HYMN 7. 343 

MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 6-7. 

i. This (Agni) has been established here as the 
first by the establishes, the Hotrz, the best sacrificer 
who should be magnified at the sacrifices, whom 
Apnavana and the Bhrzgus have made shine, 
brilliant in the woods, spreading to every house. 

2. Agni ! When will the splendour of thee, the 
god, appear in the right way ? For verily the 
mortals have seized thee who shouldst be magnified 
in the houses. 

3. Seeing the righteous, wise one, like the heaven 
with the stars, who produces joy at all sacrifices, 
from house to house — 

4. The quick messenger of Vivasvat who rules 
over all human tribes : Him the Ayus have brought 
hither to every house, the light, him who belongs to 
the Bhr/gus. 

5. Him the knowing one they have set down in 
the right way as the Hotri, the gay one with his 
purifying flames, the best sacrificer with his seven 
(forms *) — 

6. Him who is enveloped in many mothers, in 
the wood 1 , who does not rest thereon (?) 2 , who is 
brilliant, though hidden in secret, easily to be found, 
and striving for all that is desired. 

7. When the gods rejoiced in the ... of the 
herbs 1 , in that udder 2 , in the foundation of i?zta 3 , 
the great Agni, to whom offerings are made with 
adoration, the righteous one, always approached 
eagerly for the sake of sacrifice. 



344 VEDIC HYMNS. 



8 1 . Thou, the knowing one, hast eagerly per- 
formed the messengership of the sacrifice, looking 
over both ends, over the two worlds. Thou goest 
as a messenger, chosen from of old, thou who 
knowest best the ascents to heaven. 

9. Thy path is black. Light is before thee, the 
red one. Thy flame is speedy. This is one of the 
wonders : when the virgin conceives (thee as her) 
child 1 , thou becomest a messenger, as soon as thou 
art born. 

10. As soon as he is born, his strength shows 
itself, when the wind blows upon his flame. He 
turns his sharp tongue among the dry brushwood. 
Even solid food he tears to pieces with his teeth. 

11. When he thirstily has grown strong by thirsty 
food 1 , restless Agni appoints a thirsty messenger. 
Consuming (the wood) he follows the ... 2 of the 
wind. He seems to drive forward a quick horse ; 
the racer speeds along. 



NOTES. 

The same RishL The metre is Ga.ga.ti in verse 1, 
Anush/ubh in verses 2-6, TrishAibh in verses 7-1 1. — Verse 
i=VS. Ill, 15; XV, 36; XXXIII, 6; TS. I, 5, 5, 1; 
MS. I, 5, 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The seven flames or tongues of Agni ? The 
seven Hotrts ? The seven Ratnas ? 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Cf. IX, 107, 18. pari gobhi/^ uttara/fc siclan vaneshu 
avyata. 



MANDALA IV, HYMN 7. 345 

Note 2. Possibly we might conjecture aLnritam, ' who rests 
thereon/ 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. On sasasya, cf. above, III, 5, 6, note 2. Viyuta 
seems to be a locative standing parallel with the locative 
tfdhan. We have here sasasya viyuta . . . rztasya dhaman, 
quite as in V, 21, 4 the two accusatives rztasya yonim and 
sasasya yonim stand parallel. The meaning of viyuta, 
however, seems to me quite uncertain. Is it an action- 
noun derived from vi-yu, ' to separate, 5 1 to keep off/ or from 
(vi-) v&, * to weave ' ? Professor Max Miiller proposes : ' at 
the removal of the grass or tinder in which the spark is 
kept.' 

Note 2. sasmin (idhan ; cf. below, 10, 8. 

Note 3. Cf. above, I, 147, 1. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. With this verse, compare below, hymn 8, verse 4. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. The wood, the child of which is Agni. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. I take anna here as an instrumental. — Compare 
with our passage VII, 3, 4. trz'shu yat anna samavrzkta 
^ambhai^ ; X, 79, 5. ya^ asmai annam trz'shii adadhati ; 
X, 91, 7. trzshu yat anna vevishat vitishz/zase ; X, 113, 8. 
agni/t na^ambhai^ trishu annam avayat. 

Note 2. me/fm ; cf. above, III, 26, 9. 



346 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM0ALA IV, HYMN 8. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 8. 

i. I press on for you with my prayer to the 
all-possessing messenger, the immortal bearer of 
offerings, the best sacrificer. 

2. He, the great one, knows indeed the place 
of wealth \ the ascent to heaven ; may he, (there- 
fore,) conduct the gods hither. 

3. He, the god, knows how to direct the gods for 
the righteous (worshipper), in his house. He gives 
(us) wealth dear (to us). 

4. He is the Hotrz; he who knows the office 
of a messenger, goes to and fro (between men and 
gods), knowing the ascent to heaven. 

5. May we be of those who have worshipped 
Agni with the gift of offerings, who cause him to 
thrive and kindle him. 

6. The men who have brought worship to Agni, 
are renowned as successful by wealth and by power- 
ful offspring. 

7. May much-desired wealth come to us day by 
day ; may gains arise among us. 

8. He (Agni), the priest of the tribes, (the priest) 
of men, pierces (all hostile powers) by his might as 
with a tossing 1 (bow). 



MANDAluA IV, HYMN 8. 347 



NOTES. 

The same RzshL The metre is Gayatrf . — Verse 1 = SV. 
I,i2; MS. II, 13,5. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 118. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Kshipra evidently is an instrumental. Cf. kshi 
pradhanvan, kshipreshu, kshipre/2a dhanvan^, II, 24, 8. 



348 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA IV, HYMN 9. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 9. 

i. Agni, have mercy! Thou art great, who hast 
come to this pious man to sit down on the sacrificial 
grass. 

2. He who cannot be deceived, the zealous, the 
immortal has among men become the messenger 
of all. 

3. He, the joy-giving Hotrz, is led around the 
sacred seat at the heaven-aspiring sacrifices. And 
he sits down as the Potrz also. 

4. Agni sits down also as (the sacrificers) wife * 
at the sacrifice, and as the master of the house in 
the house, and as the Brahman 2 . 

5. Thou zealously approachest as the Upavaktrz 1 
of the people who perform the sacrificial service, and 
(thou approachest) the offerings of men. 

6. And thou zealously performest the messenger- 
ship for the man in whose sacrifice thou takest 
pleasure, in order to bear the mortal's offering (to 
the gods). 

7. Find pleasure 1 in our rites, in our sacrifice, 
O Angiras. Hear our call ! 

8. May thy unerring chariot, by which thou 
protectest the worshippers, encompass us from 
every side. 



MAiVflALA IV, HYMN 9. 349 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 1 = SV. I, 23. Verse 8 
= VS. Ill, 36; MS. I, 5, 4- 5- "• 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. * Wir vermuten : utagncl agnir adhvare . . . die 
correctur dlirfte evident sein.' Ludwig. The same con- 
jecture has been proposed already in 1868 by Prof. Max 
Miiller (Chips, 2nd ed.,vol. iii, p. 157). In my opinion the 
traditional text is correct. 

Note 2. The Brahman very probably is not the Brahman 
of the later ritual, but the Brahma^a^/za^sin. See H. O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 396. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The UpavaktW is identical with the "Prasastrz or 
Maitravaru/za of the later ritual. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. 390. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. On ^"oshi, cf. Bartholomae, Studien zur Indog. 
Sprachgeschichte, I, 31. 



350 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 10. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 10. 

i 1 . O Agni ! May we to-day successfully perform, 
with thy heedfulness 2 , this praise 3 which touches 
thy heart, which is like a horse, like auspicious 
power of the mind. 

2. For verily thou, O Agni, hast become the 
charioteer of auspicious power of the mind, of real 
ability, and of the mighty i?zta. 

3. Through these our hymns direct thyself hither- 
wards to us like the sun with its light 1 , O Agni, 
gracious with all thy faces. 

4. May we to-day worship thee, O Agni, praising 
thee with these songs. Thy roarings thunder like 
(the thunder) of Heaven. 

5. Thy sweetest aspect, O Agni, shines near us 
for glory's sake, now by day, now by night, like 
gold. 

6. Like purified ghnta is thy stainless body ; (it 
is) brilliant gold: that (body) of thine has shone 1 , 
O self-dependent one, like gold. 

7. For even a malice which one has committed, 
thou verily drivest away entirely, O righteous Agni, 
from the sacrificing mortal \ 

8. May our friendship, O Agni, our brotherhood 
with you, the gods, be blessed. This is our navel 
(i. e. relation) in our seat, in this udder \ 



M AND ALA IV, HYMN IO. 35 I 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshl The metre is stated to be Padapankti 
(verses 4, 6, 7, Padapankti or Ushmh ; verse 5, Mahapada- 
pankti ; verse 8, Ushmh) : see on this metre M. M., 
vol. xxxii, p. xcviii seq. ; H. O., Prolegomena, p. 98 ; 
Kuhnau, Die TrishAibh-Cagati-Familie, p. 234 seq. — 
Verse i = SV. I, 434; MS. I, 10, 3. Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 
1127-1129 ; VS. XV, 44-46. Verses i~4=TS. IV, 4, 4, 7. 
Verse 1, 2, 4 = MS. II, 13, 8. Verse 3 = MS. IV, 10, 2. 
Verse 6 = TS. II, 2, 12, 7; MS. IV, 12, 4. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Avasana in this verse ought to stand before 
hrtdisprisam, not after this word, as the traditional text 
places it. .Alzdhyama, consequently, cannot be accented. 

Note 2. Dr. Neisser's opinion on oha is different 
(Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 312). 

Note 3. I read stomam, which is frequently found as the 
object of the verb rz'dh, and which in several passages 
receives the epithet hridisprfo. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On the syntactical form of this comparison, see 
Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 95. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Or rotate, ' shines ' ? 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The Avasana ought to stand before martat. Cf. 
above, verse 1, note 1. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Cf. above, IV, 7, 7. The meaning seems to be : 
in this sacrificial place, where the cows give milk. 



352 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiV£>ALA IV, HYMN 11. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 11. 

i. Thy auspicious face, O mighty Agni, shines in 
the neighbourhood of the sun \ Brilliant to see, it 
is seen even by night. Soft to behold is the food 
in thy (beautiful) body 2 . 

2. O Agni, disclose (wise) thoughts for him who 
praises thee ; (disclose) the opening, when thou, 
O strong-born, hast been praised with trembling. 
Grant unto us, O very great one, such a rich prayer 
as thou with all the gods wilt hold dear, O brilliant 
one. 

3. From thee, O Agni, genius is born, from thee 
(wise) thoughts, from thee beneficent hymns. From 
thee comes wealth adorned with heroes 1 to the thus- 
minded mortal who worships thee. 

4. From thee the racer is born that wins booty, 
whose energy expands round-about *, the helpful, 
of true strength ; from thee delightful wealth sent 
by the gods ; from thee, O Agni, the swift and 
impetuous horse. 

5. Thee, O Agni, the pious mortals seek to win 
by their prayers as the first, thee the god with 
agreeable speech, O immortal, who drivest away 
malice, the household god, the lord of the house, 
the wise one. 

6. (Drive) far from us senselessness and anguish ; 
(drive) far all ill-will from him whom thou attendest 1 . 
Be gracious at evening, Agni, son of strength, to him 
whom thou, the god, attendest with welfare. 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN II. 353 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Trish/ubh. — Verse i=TS. IV, 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. above, IV, 10, 5. rotate up&k£. 

Note 2. Literally, 'in thy appearance' (rupe). Thus the 
Soma is stated, IX, 16, 6, to purify itself rupe avyaye, 
literally, ' in the appearance of the sheep/ i. e. in the filter 
made of sheep's hair. 

Verse 3. 

"Note 1. See Lanman, p. 560 ; Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 

115. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On vih£ya^, see V. Henry, Les livres VIII et IX 
de l'Atharva-v^da (1894), p. 40 (AV. VIII, 2, 7). 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Probably the correct Padapa/^a reading would 
be, as Prof. Bartholomae (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 
190) has noticed, yam nipasi (cf. Pada d : yam . . . sa^ase). 
If yat is correct, the translation will be : ' (drive) far all ill- 
will when thou protectest (us). 5 — Bartholomae proposes 
either to change asmat to asmat, or to interpret it as an 
equivalent of asmat. It is possible, though in my opinion 
not very probable, that the text should be changed. The 
ablative asmat very frequently depends on are. 



[46] A a 



354 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAMDALA IV, HYMN 12. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 12. 

i. May the man who holds the sacrificial ladle 
and kindles thee, O Agni, who thrice prepares food 
for thee on this day, victoriously overcome (his foes) 
through his lustre, wise through the power of thy 
mind, O Catavedas. 

2 \ He who toiling brings fuel to thee, doing 
service to thy, the great (god's) face, O Agni, 
kindling thee at evening and at dawn — he prospers, 
obtains wealth, and destroys his enemies. 

3. Agni is master of mighty royal power 1 ; 
Agni (is master) of gain, of the highest wealth. He, 
the youngest, self-dependent (god) in the right way 
distributes treasures to the mortal worshipper. 

4. Whatever sin, O youngest (god), we have 
committed against thee in thoughtlessness, men as 
we are 1 , make thou us sinless before Aditi ; release 
us from (every) guilt on all sides, O Agni ! 

5. Even from great guilt, O Agni, from the prison 
of gods and of mortals — let us, thy friends, never 
be harmed ; grant luck and weal to kith and kin. 

6 1 . As you formerly have released, O Vasus, the 
buffalo cow bound by the foot, O worshipful gods, 
thus take away from us this distress. May, O Agni, 
our life be further prolonged. 



MAiVDALA IV, HYMN 12. 355 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre.— Verse 4=TS. IV, 7, 15, 6; 
MS. Ill, 16, 5. Verse 5 = MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 6=TS. 
IV, 7, 15,7; MS. Ill, 16, 5; IV, 11, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. With the beginning of this verse, comp. above, 
IV, 2, 6. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Comp. Roth, Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Ges., 
XLVIII, 114. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Grassmann is right in giving to purushatra the 
meaning 'unter den Menschen,' and in observing with 
reference to our passage : ' wo die Bedeutung " nach 
Menschenweise " (s. purushata) besser passt.' The same is 
the opinion of Bohtlingk-Roth. No doubt we should 
read purushata; cf. VII, 57, 4 = X, 15, 6. yat va/i agak 
purushata karama ; IV, 54, 3. a^itti yat £akrz'ma . . . puru- 
shatvata. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with Rig-veda X, 126, 8. 



a a 2 



356 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ7ALA IV, HYMN 13. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 13. 

1. Benevolent Agni has looked on the breaking 
of the shining dawns, on the bestowal of treasures. 
Come to the dwelling of the virtuous (mortal), ye 
A^vins. The god Surya rises with his light. 

2. The god Savitrz has sent his light upward 1 , 
shaking his banner 2 like a warrior who fights for 
cows 3 . Varu/za and Mitra follow the law, when 
they make the Sun rise on heaven. 

3. Him whom (the gods) dwelling in firm peace, 
and never losing their object, have created for dis- 
persing the darkness — Him, the Sun, the all-observer, 
the seven young fallow mares carry forward. 

4. With (thy horses) most ready to run thou 
goest 1 forward, spreading out thy web (of light), 
removing (from the world) the black cloth (of dark- 
ness), O god. The rays of the Sun have shaken 2 
the darkness, and have sunk it into the waters like 
a hide. 

5. Unsupported, unattached, spread out down- 
wards-turned — how is it that he * does not fall down ? 
By what power of his does he move ? Who has 
seen (that)? Erected as the pillar of Heaven he 
protects the firmament. 



MA2VDALA IV, HYMN 1 3. 357 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre. — Verse 4 = TB. II, 4, 5, 4. 

This hymn and the next evidently form a couple. They 
have the same number of verses, and are composed in the 
same metre. They are both addressed to Agni in his 
matutinal character, or rather to the Ajvins, who are in- 
voked to partake of the matutinal oblation (13, 1 ; 14, 1. 4). 
The first verse of 13 is quite similar to that of 14 ; the 
same may be said of the second verses of the two hymns ; 
the concluding verse of both is identical. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Cf. above, IV, 6, 2. 

Note 2. Cf. Zend drafsha, ' banner.' 

Note 3. Cf. IV, 40, 2. satva bharisha^ gavisha^. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Sun is addressed. 

Note 2. It is more natural to take davidhvata^ as nom. 
plur. than as gen. sing. (Ludwig). 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. The Sun. 



358 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 14. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 14. 

1. Agni Gatavedas, the god, has looked on the 
dawns that shine with all their might 1 . Come hither, 
O Nasatyas 2 , wide-ruling (gods), on your chariot to 
this our sacrifice. 

2. The god Savitrz has sent his shine upward, 
producing light for the whole world. The Sun, 
shining with his rays, has filled Heaven and Earth 
and the air. 

3. The red one 1 , carrying hither (bliss) 2 , has 
come with her light, the great, brilliant one, shining 
with her rays. Ushas, the goddess, awakening (all 
beings) to welfare, goes along on her well-yoked 
chariot. 

4. May those chariots and horses, most ready to 
drive, drive you l hither at the break of dawn. For 
these Somas are for you 1 that you may drink the 
honey-drink 2 . Rejoice, O manly ones, at this sacri- 
fice. 

5. = iv, 13,5. 

NOTES. 

The same Rhhl and metre. — No verse of this hymn 
occurs in the other Sa;/*hitas. On the parallelism in which 
IV, 14 stands to IV, 13, see the introductory note on 
IV, 13. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On mahobhi^, see vol. xxxii, p. 196 seq. (I, 165, 
5, note 3). Here the word refers to the powerful light of 



MAM) ALA IV, HYMN 1 4. 359 

the dawn, not of Agni, cf. VI, 64, 2. usha^ devi ro^amana 
mahobhi^. 

Note 2. On the mention of the Nasatyas (A-svins) in this 
connection, compare the introductory note on IV, 13. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The Dawn as before. 

Note 2. That an object like ' bliss ' is to be supplied, is 
shown by such passages as I, 48, 9. lisha^ . . . avahanti 
bhtfri asmabhyam saubhagam ; I, 92, 3. (the Dawns) isham 
vahantU sukr/te sudanave ; 1, 1 13, 15. (the Dawn) avahanti 
poshya varya^i. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The text has the dual of the pronoun. The 
A jvins are addressed. 

Note 2. It is the peculiar character of the A^vins that 
they drink madhu ; see Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 
vol. i, p. 239 seq. H. O., Religion des Veda. p. 208, note 4 ; 
p. 367, note 2. 



360 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 15. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 15-16. 

1. Agni, the Hotrz, he who is a strong horse, is 
led around at our sacrifice, the god worshipful among 
the gods. 

2. Agni goes thrice 1 around the sacrifice, like a 
charioteer, conveying the enjoyment 2 to the gods. 

3. Agni, the lord of booty, the sage, has circum- 
ambulated the oblations, bestowing treasures on the 
worshipper. 

4. This (is the Agni) who is kindled in the front 
for Devavata's son, the Srz^aya 1 , the brilliant (god), 
the deceiver of foes. 

5. May the strong mortal be the master of this 
(god), of an Agni like this, with sharp teeth and 
bountiful. 

6 l . Him they clean day by day like a racer that 
wins (booty), like (Soma), the red young child of 
Heaven 2 . 

7. When Sahadevas son, the prince, thought of 
me with two bay horses x , I rose up like one who is 
called. 

8. And immediately I accepted from Sahadevas 
son, the prince, those adorable two bay horses which 
he offered me. 

9. May this prince Somaka, Sahadeva's son, live 
long, for your sake, O divine A^vins ! 

10. Give long life, O divine Asvins, to this son 
of Sahadeva, the prince ! 



MA2V7)ALA IV, HYMN I 5. 36 1 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. Metre, Gayatri. — Verses 1-3 = TB. Ill, 
6, 4, 1 5 MS. IV, 13, 4. Verse 3 = SV. I, 30 ; VS. XI, 25 ; 
TS.IV, 1, a, 5; MS. I, 1,9. 

The first three verses are characterised by the constant 
allusions to Agni's being carried around, and, in connection 
therewith, by the frequent repetition of the preposition pari. 
Probably these verses formed an independent Tri^a-hymn, 
the position of which would be according to the laws of 
arrangement of the Sa^hita ; this Tri^a seems, conse- 
quently, to belong to the original collection of hymns. The 
verses 4-10, on the other hand, or at least the verses 7-10, 
would seem to be a later addition ; the verses 4-6 can be 
considered as a Trika belonging to the original Sa/#hit&, 
though in this case it is difficult to explain why the verses 
7-10, which do not contain any reference to Agni, have 
been inserted here at the end of the series of Agni hymns. 
Another argument against the separation of the verses 4-6 
from the rest of the Sukta is the mention of the prince 
Sringaya. in verse 4 : verses 7-10 refer to a prince Somaka 
Sahadevya, and we know from the Aitareya Brahma^a 
(VII, 34, cf. 5atapatha Bnihma/za II, 4, 4, 4) that this 
prince also belonged to the Srmgaya, tribe. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Cf. above, IV, 6, 4. 

Note 2. I. e. the offering which the gods enjoy. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. This Sringaya. Daivavata is mentioned also in 
VI, 37, 7- 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The first Pada of this verse is identical with the 
first P&da of VIII, 103, 12. 



*62 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. The red young child of Heaven seems to be the 
Soma. The Soma frequently is called arusha (' red '), and 
is said to be cleansed by men ; in IX, 33, 5 ; 38, 5, the 
expression diva^ sisuk (' the young child of Heaven') is 
used with regard to him. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. I.e. when he thought of presenting me with the 
two horses. 



MANDALA V, HYMN I. 363 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 1. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 12-13. 

i. Agni has been wakened by the fuel of men, in 
face of the Dawn who approaches like a milch-cow. 
His flames stream forward to the sky like quick 
(birds) that fly up to a branch. 

2. The Hotrz has been wakened that there may 
be sacrifice for the gods. Gracious Agni has stood 
upright in the morning. When he has been kindled, 
his brilliant stream of flames has been seen. The 
great god has been released from darkness. 

3. When he has wakened the string of the crowd 
(of worshippers) 1 , the bright Agni anoints himself 
with bright cows 2 . Then the Dakshma is yoked, 
striving for gain 3 . He who stands upright has, by 
the sacrificial ladles, sucked her who lies extended 4 . 

4. Towards Agni the minds of the pious turn 
together as (all) eyes (turn) to the sun. When both 
Dawns of different colour 1 give birth to him, the 
white racer is born at the beginning of days. 

5. For He, the noble one, has been born at the 
beginning of days, the red one has been laid down 
in the woods that have been laid down. Agni, the 
Hotrz', the best sacrificer, has sat down, bestowing 
his seven treasures on every house. 

6. Agni, the Hotrz, the best sacrificer, sat down 
in the mothers lap, in the sweet-smelling place, the 
young sage growing up in many places, the 
righteous one, the supporter of tribes, and kindled 
in their midst. 



364 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7. They magnify with adorations that priest 
efficacious at sacrifices, Agni the Hotrz, who has 
spread himself over heaven and earth according to 
jRzta ; they groom (Agni), the own racer (of men), 
with Ghrzta. 

8. He who likes to be groomed, is groomed in 
his own (abode), the house-friend 1 , praised by sages, 
our auspicious guest, the bull with a thousand horns 
who has the strength of such a one. O Agni ! By 
this power thou surpassest all other (beings). 

9. O Agni ! Thou overtakest all other (beings) in 
one moment (for the sake of him) to whom Thou 
hast become visible as the fairest one, thou who 
shouldst be magnified, the wonderful, brilliant one, 
the beloved guest of human clans. 

10. To thee, O youngest (god), the tribes bring 
tribute, O Agni, from near and far. Behold 1 the 
grace of the most glorious (god) ! Mighty, O Agni, 
is thy great and glorious shelter. 

1 1 . Mount to-day, O shining Agni, the shining 
car, in the neighbourhood of the worshipful (gods). 
Knowing the paths, the wide air 1 , bring hither the 
gods that they may eat the oblation. 

12. We have pronounced an adoring speech to 
the holy sage, to the manly bull. Gavish^ira ador- 
ingly has sent his song of praise to Agni as the gold 
(i. e. the sun) far-reaching (is sent by the gods 
upward) to the sky. 



NOTES. 

The iWshis are Budha Atreya (cf. verse 1, abodhi) and 
Gavish^ira Atreya (cf. verse 12). The metre is Trish/ubh. — 
Verse i = SV. I, 73 ; AV. XIII, 2, 46 ; VS. XV, 34; TS. 



M AND ALA V, HYMN I. 365 

IV, 4, 4, i. Verses 1-2 = MS. II, 13, 7. Verses 1-3 = SV. 
II, 1 096-1098. Verse 5 = TS. IV, 1, 3, 4. Verse 6 = MS. 
IV, 11, 1; TB. I, 3, 14, 1. Verse 9 = TB. II, 4, 7, 10. 
Verse io=MS. IV, 11, 4; TB. II, 4, 7, 9. Verse i2 = MS. 
11,13,7; TB. IV, 4, 4,*; VS. XV, 25. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be : when Agni has set 
into motion the string (representing the prayers, &c.) by 
which the worshippers tie and instigate him and the other 
powers of the sacrifice. Cf. IV, 1, 9. pra tarn (scil. agni'm) 
mahya ra^anaya nayanti ; IX, 87, 1. a^vam na tva (scil. 
somam) vag-fnam mar£*ayanta^ akMa barhi/£ ra^anabhi^ 
nayanti. See also I, 163, 4. 5. 

Note 2. I.e. with bright ghrzta. 

Note 3. The Dakshi^a or sacrificial gift offered by the 
Ya^amana to the ministrant priests, is represented here 
as a car which is yoked in the morning. Cf. Bergaigne, 
Rel. Vedique, I, 128 ; III, 283. 

Note 4. ' He who stands upright ' is Agni ; ' she who 
lies extended' seems to be the cow, i.e. the ghr/ta which 
Agni sucks by means of the sacrificial ladles. — See also 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 113, from whose interpreta- 
tion I differ. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I.e. Night and Dawn. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. I cannot adopt the conjectures of Bartholomae 
(Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 197) on sve damuna^. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The human worshipper seems to be addressed ; 
the ' most glorious one ' is very probably Agni. 

Verse 11. 
Note 1. Vidvan, which may be construed with the genitive 
or with the accusative, stands here with both cases. 



366 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA/77ALA V, HYMN 2. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 14-15. 

i. The young mother carries in secret the boy 
confined * ; she does not yield him to the father. 
People do not see before them his fading 2 face laid 
down with the Arati 3 . 

2. Who is that boy, O young woman, whom thou, 
the Peshi x , earnest ? It is the queen who has borne 
him. Through many autumns the fruit of the womb 
has increased. I saw him born when his mother 
gave birth to him. 

3. I saw him the gold-toothed, brilliant-coloured 
preparing his weapons far from his dwelling-place 1 . 
After I have offered to him the ambrosia cleared 
(from all impure mixture) 2 — what may the Indra- 
less, the hymnless do to me ? 

4. I saw him, the highly shining (Agni), walking 
far from his dwelling-place, like (a bull) together 
with the herd \ Those (women) have not held 
him, for he has been born. The young women 
become grey 2 . 

5. Who have separated my young bull from the 
cows that 1 had no cow-herd, not even a stranger ? 
May those who have held him, let him loose. May 
he, the knowing one, lead the cattle towards us. 

6. Him, the king of dwellings (P) 1 , the dwelling- 
place of people, the Aratis have laid down 2 among 
men. May the spells of Atri loose him. May the 
reproachers become reproachable (themselves). 

7. Thou hast loosed the bound .Suna^epa from 



M AND ALA V, HYMN 2. $6? 

the thousand sacrificial posts ; for he toiled (wor- 
shipping thee). Thus, O Agni, loose from us the 
fetters, O knowing Hotri, sitting down here. 

8 K For thou hast gone away 2 from me, because 
thou wert angry ; (this) the protector of the laws 
of the gods 3 has told me. (But) Indra, the knowing 
one, has looked after thee. Instructed by him, 
O Agni, I have come hither. 

9. Agni shines with mighty light ; he makes all 
things visible by his greatness. He conquers godless, 
wicked wiles. He sharpens his two horns in order 
to pierce the Rakshas. 

10. And may the roarings of Agni mount up to 
the sky, with sharp weapons in order to kill the 
Rakshas. In his rapture his flames break down 
(everything); the godless hindrances do not hold 
him back. 

11. This song of praise, O strong-born (Agni), 
I, the priest, have fashioned for thee, as a skilful 
workman (builds) a chariot 1 . If thou acceptest that 
(praise), O god Agni, may we conquer thereby waters 
together with the sun. 

12. May the bull 1 with mighty neck, grown 
strong, with no foe to resist him, get together 
the niggard's wealth. Thus the immortal (gods) 
have spoken to this Agni : may he grant protection 
to the man who has spread the Barhis ; may he 
grant protection to the man who brings offerings. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi of verses 1, 3-8, 10-13 is Kumara Atreya, or 
Vrisa. G&na. ; or both are the i?/shis of these verses. Of 
the verses 2 and 9 Vrisa. alone is the Rishi. The metre is 



368 VEDIC HYMNS. 



TrishAibh (verse 12, Sakvari). — Verse 9 = AV. VIII, 3, 24. 
Verses 9, io=TS. I, 2, 14, 7. Verse n=TB. II, 4, 7, 4. 

A part of this hymn is very obscure. I do not think, 
as does Prof. Geldner (Festgruss an Roth, 192), that the 
story of the ^a/yayanakam (see Saya^a's commentary, and 
compare Vankavimsa. Brahma^a XIII 3, 12), of the Puro- 
hita Vrisa, who drives with the king on the royal chariot 
and kills a boy, throws any real light on the difficult points 
of the hymn. Nor does it seem to me that, as is the 
opinion of Prof. Hillebrandt (Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXIII, 248 seq.), the first 
six verses, which Hillebrandt considers as an independent 
hymn, contain a description of how the fire which they 
try to produce by the attrition of the Ara^is, does not 
appear. In my opinion the hymn — which is really one 
hymn as the tradition gives it — is a prayer of a person 
who suffers, who feels himself bound by the fetters of 
distress (verse 7) and persecuted by the power of Rakshas 
(verses 9, 10). Agni, formerly resplendent, has decayed 
and has forsaken him : may Agni be restored to his former 
might (verse 6), and may we ourselves be released from 
all distress (verse 7, &c). Possibly the hymn is connected 
with the rite of Punaradheya, where the sacrificial fire 
which has brought no luck to the sacrifices is extinguished, 
and after an interval a new fire is established (H.O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 353). There may of course be other 
special points, beyond the reach of our conjectures, which, 
if known, would elucidate several of the obscure allusions 
so frequent in the first verses of the hymn. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The boy very probably is Agni. — With the 
words samubdham guha bibharti, cf. 1, 158, 5. susamubdham 
ava-adhu^. 

Note 2. Not without hesitation I translate minat as if 
it were the middle minanam. Possibly the word means : 
'which violates (the ordinances)/ i.e. which does not shine 
and bring luck to men as it usually does. Na seems, as it 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 2. 369 

usually does (cf. Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, p. 543)? 
to belong to the whole clause, and not to minat. 

Note 3. Bohtlingk-Roth and Grassmann conjecture 
aratnau ; Hillebrandt, aratau ; Geldner (Festgruss an Roth, 
192), aratau. Geldner seems to be right (cf. verse 6), 
though it will scarcely be possible to determine what con- 
crete being was here thought of. Geldner says, ' Gemeint 
ist die Pua^ika, welche die Gluth des Feuers entfiihrt hat ; ' 
but, as has already been observed, I do not think that this 
traditional story on the meaning of our hymn is of any 
real value. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The meaning of Peshi is unknown. The word 
seems anyhow to describe the wrong mother as low or 
contemptible. Agni is degraded by sojourning with her, 
while his proper nature is glorious, for he is the queen's 
son. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Agni has forsaken his proper dwelling. 

Note 2. On vipr/kvat, cf. Taitt. Sawhita III, 1, 6, 2. 
yuna^mi tisra/2 vipr/^a^ suryasya te ; Ykg. Sa;/zhita IX, 4. 
sampr/^au stha^ sam ma bhadre^a prmktam ; vipr/^au 
stha/2 vi ma p&pmana prmktam. Vi-przk seems to mean, 
consequently, ' to free something from an admixture,' and 
amr/tam vip^/kvat seems to be ambrosia in which dwells 
the power of getting free from bad admixtures. Thus in 
the passage quoted from the Taitt. Sa/^hita the Sun is 
referred to as thrice cleared from all impure elements. It 
is quite uncertain whether the expression used here refers 
or not to the myth of the churning of the ocean (Geldner, 
loc. cit.), and I do not think that we should translate 
amr/tam vipr/kvat, as Geldner does, i das was sich als 
Nektar ausscheidet/ 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I read with Bohtlingk-Roth sumadyutham. 
Note 2. The young women seem to be hostile beings of 
[46] B b 



370 VEDIC HYMNS. 



the same kind as the young woman mentioned in verse 2. 
They try to seize Agni, but he has been born already; 
his fiery, unassailable nature has been formed. I do not 
pretend to know what it means that then those female 
foes become grey with age. ' I think they are the Dawns 
who hold Agni in the dark ; but when he escapes and 
is actually born, they, the Dawns, become grey.' M. M. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The relative pronoun yesham seems to refer both 
to the bull (maryakam) and to the cows (gobhi^). The 
bull probably is Agni who has been separated from the 
cows, i.e. the oblations, prayers, &c. (?) ' Possibly the bull 
Agni, the rising sun, has been separated from the cows, the 
clouds or dawns/ M. M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Vasam ra^anam. I cannot follow the interpre- 
tation of Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 210. 

Note 2. Or nf dadu^, ' they have bound him'? Cf. ava 
srz'^-antu in the third Pada, and niditam in verse 7. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The whole verse is nearly identical with X, 32, 6". 

Note 2. I consider afye/z (cf. Bartholomae, Arische 
Forschungen, II, 72, 76 ; Studien zur Indogermanischen 
Sprachgeschichte, I, 21) as 2nd sing, pluperfect of the 
root i. 

Note 3. Varu^a ? 

Verse 11. 
Note 1. With the second Pada compare I, 130, 6 ; V, 

Verse 12. 
Note 1. The bull of course is Agni. 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 3. 37 1 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 3. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 16-17. 

i. Thou, O Agni, art Varu/za, when born; thou 
becomest Mitra when kindled. In thee, O son of 
strength, the Visvedev&s (dwell). Thou art Indra 
for the mortal worshipper. 

2. Thou becomest Aryaman when thou bearest * 
the secret name of the maidens, O self-dependent 
one. They anoint (thee) with cows 2 like the well- 
established Mitra 3 , when thou makest husband and 
wife one-minded. 

3. For thy glory the Maruts have cleansed them- 
selves 1 y who are thy fair and brilliant offspring, 
O Rudra 2 ! The footprint of Vish/zu which is put 
down in the highest place : therewith thou protectest 
the secret name of the cows. 

4. By thy beauty, O god, the gods are beautiful 
to behold 1 . Assuming many (powers or goods) 
they attached themselves to immortality. Men have 
set down Agni as the Hotrz, the Usifs, honouring 
(him), the praise of Ayu 2 . 

5. There is no (other) Hotrz before thee, a better 
sacrificer 1 ; no one surpasses thee, O self-dependent 
one, by wisdom. And that house of which thou art 
the guest, he 2 , O god, will overcome the mortals by 
his sacrifice. 

6. May we overcome the mortals, O Agni, pro- 
tected by thee, striving for wealth, awaking (thee) 
with offerings ; may we (overcome mortals) in the 
contest, in the distribution 1 of days ; may we (over- 
come them) by wealth, O son of strength ! 

B b 2 



37^ VEDIC HYMNS. 



7. If a man should turn upon us sin or guilt, 
bring ye the evil on him who pronounces evil spells 
(against us). Destroy, O knowing one, such a curse, 
O Agni, (of a man) who injures us by falsehood. 

8. Thee, O god, the ancient (mortals) have made 
their messenger at the break of this (dawn), and 
have sacrificed with their oblations, when thou goest 
along, O Agni, in the abode of wealth, a god kindled 
by the mortals and by the Vasus. 

9. Protect the father — drive away (evil) as the 
knowing one — (the father) who is considered 1 as 
thy son, O son of strength 2 . When, O sapient 
(Agni), wilt thou look upon us ? When wilt thou, 
who knowest i?zta, requite (human deeds) ? 

10. The father 1 adoring gives many names to 
thee, O Vasu, if thou shouldst take pleasure therein. 
Will not Agni, delighting in his divine power, grant 
us his favour, he who has grown strong ? 

11. Thou indeed, O Agni, youngest one, bringest 
thy praiser across all dangers. Thieves have been 
seen and deceitful men; dishonest people have come 
with unknown designs. 

12. These our processions have been directed 
towards thee. Yes, to thee, the Vasu, this guilt has 
been confessed. Verily this Agni, grown strong, 
will never surrender us to the curse nor to him who 
does harm to us. 

NOTES. 

Thei?zshi isVasamita Atreya; the metre is Trish^ubh. — 
No verse of this hymn occurs in the other Sa;/zhitas. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. I think that we must read bibharshi. 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 3. 373 

Note 2. I.e. with butter. 

Note 3. On Mitra as the god of alliances, and the 
anointing of Mitra — possibly of an object that represents 
Mitra — see H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 186, note 1. Cf. 
also Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 93 seq. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I.e. they have adorned themselves. Cf. VII, 
39, 3. urav antarikshe mar^ayanta subhrsik. 

Note 2. Rudra of course is here a name of Agni. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Sudr/i-a^, which I have translated as nom. plur., 
may also be understood as gen. sing. : ' by thy beauty, 
who art beautiful to behold, O god, the gods, assuming, Sec.' 

Note 2. Cf. Nara^a^sa. — This hemistich is nearly 
identical with IV, 6, 11. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. above, III, 17, 5. 
Note 2. The construction is rather free. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Vidatheshu ahnam : cf. above, I, 31, 6, note 2 
(p. 36 seq.). 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. See Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 
310. 

Note 2. Bergaigne (Religion Vedique, II, 103) proposes 
to read yodhi without accent and to derive it, as Delbruck 
does, from yu (not from yudh) ; he translates the first 
hemistich : { Protege-nous, ecarte le pere qui passe pour 
ton fils.' I think that he is right as to the verb yu, but 
that the accent of yodhi is correct ; the words yodhi vidvan 
form a parenthesis. Agni is invoked to protect the father 
of the sacrificing tribe (comp. verse 10), or the father of 



374 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Agni himself, i.e. the sacrificer or the priest, who is him- 
self considered, at the same time, as the son of Agni (see 
Bergaigne, I, 37 seq. ; Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 167). 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. ' The father ' may either be the father spoken 
of in verse 9 (see verse 9, note 2). Or the word may refer 
to Agni : i He who adores thee, gives many names to thee, 
if thou, the father, O Vasu, &c/ 



MAADALA V, HYMN 4. 375 

MAA/J9ALA V, HYMN 4. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 18-19. 

i. Thee, O Agni, the treasure-lord of treasures, 
I gladden at the sacrifices, O king! May we, 
striving for gain, conquer gain through thee ; may 
we overcome the hostilities of mortals. 

2. Agni, the bearer of oblations, our ever-young 
father, is mighty, brilliant, beautiful to behold among 
us. Shine (on us) food with a good household 1 . 
Turn all glory towards us 2 . 

3. Establish Agni as the Hotri, the sage of the 
clans, the lord of human clans, the bright purifier, 
whose back is covered with ghee, the omniscient. 
May he obtain the best goods (for us) among the 
gods. 

4. Enjoy thyself, O Agni, joined with \d&, uniting 
thyself with the rays of the sun. Enjoy our fuel, 
O Gatavedas, and bring the gods hither that they 
may eat our offerings. 

5. Welcome, as our household-god and the guest 
in our dwelling, come to this our sacrifice as the 
knowing one. Dispelling, O Agni, all (hostile) 
attempts, bring to us the possessions of those who 
are at enmity with us. 

6. Drive away the Dasyu with thy weapon, 
creating strength for thy own body. When thou 
bringest the gods across (to us), O son of strength, 
then, O manliest Agni, protect us in (our striving 
for) gain. 

7. May we worship thee, O Agni, with hymns, 
with offerings, O purifier with glorious light. Stir for 
us wealth with all goods ; bestow on us all riches ! 



376 VEDIC HYMNS. 



8. Enjoy, O Agni, our sacrifice, our offering, 
O son of strength who dwellest in three abodes. 
May we be well-doers before the gods. Protect us 
with thy thrice-protecting shelter. 

9. Bring us across all difficulties and dangers, 
O ^atavedas, as with a boat across a river. Agni, 
being praised with adoration as (thou hast been 
praised) by Atri, be a protector of our bodies. 

10. When I, the mortal, call thee, the immortal, 
thinking of thee with humble mind \ bestow glory 
on us, O G&tavedas ; may I attain immortality, 
O Agni, with my offspring. 

11. The well-doer to whom thou, O Agni 6£ta- 
vedas, createst pleasant freedom, will happily attain 
wealth with horses and sons, with valiant men and 
cows. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. — Verse i=TS. I, 4, 46, 2. 
Verse 2=TS. Ill, 4, n, 1 ; MS. IV, 12, 6 ; 14, 15. Verse 
5 = AV. VII, 73, 9 ; TB. II, 4, 1, 1 ; MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 
9=TB. II, 4, 1, 5; TA. X, 2, i; MS. IV, 10, 1. Verses 
10, n=TS. I, 4,46, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. According to the traditional text, su-garhapatya^ 
must be an epithet of ishaA. But the conjecture of 
Bohtlingk-Roth, su-garhapatya^, has great probability : 
' as the good protector of our household, shine food on us/ 
Cf. AV. XII, 2, 45=TB. I, 2, 1, 20. 

Note 2. The second hemistich is nearly identical with 
III, 54, 22. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 221. 



MANDALA V, HYMN 5. 377 

MAA^PALA V, HYMN 5. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 20-21. 

Apr! Hymn. 

i. Sacrifice sharp ghrz'ta to the well-kindled light, 
to Agni Gatavedas. 

2. May the unbeguiled Narasawsa make this 
sacrifice ready ; for he is a sage with honey in his 
hand. 

3 \ Agni, magnified by us, bring hither to our 
help the bright, beloved Indra, with easy-going 
chariots. 

4. Soft like wool 1 spread thyself (O Barhis). The 
hymns have been sung to thee. Be to us for success, 
O beautiful (Barhis) ! 

5. O divine, easily passable doors, open your- 
selves for our protection. Fill the sacrifice (with 
bliss) further and further ! 

6. We approach (with prayers) Night and Morn- 
ing, whose face is beautiful, the increasers of vital 
strength, the two young mothers of i?zta. 

7. On the wind's flight, magnified, ye two divine 
Hotrts of man, come hither to this our sacrifice. 

8 \ I/&, Sarasvati, and Mahi, the three comfort- 
giving goddesses, they who do not fail, shall sit 
down on the sacrificial grass. 

9. Come hither as a friend, Tvash/rz, and mighty 
in welfare, and also by thyself, protect us in every 
sacrifice. 

10. Where thou knowest, O tree (i. e. sacrificial 



37§ VEDIC HYMNS. 



post), the secret names of the gods, to that place 
make the offerings go. 

ii. Svaha to Agni and Varu/za ! Svaha to Indra 
and the Maruts ! Svihd to the gods for our offering ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Gayatri. — Verse i=VS. Ill, 2. 
Verse 9 = TS. Ill, i, n, 2. Verse io = TB. Ill, 7, a, 5. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. The first hemistich is identical with I, 14a, 4. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On tfr^a-mrada//, see Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 
p. 560. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with I, 13, 9. 



M AND ALA V, HYMN 6. 379 

MAJVZ7ALA V, HYMN 6. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 22-23. 

i. I think of that Agni who is a Vasu, to whom 
the milch-cows go home, the swift horses (go) home, 
(our) own racers (go) home. Bring food to thy 
praisers ! 

2. He is Agni who is praised as the Vasu, he to 
w r hom the milch-cows come together, and the quickly 
running horses, and the well-born liberal patrons. 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

3. For Agni, dwelling among all tribes, gives a 
racer to the clan. Agni (gives a racer) that is truly 
helpful for (winning) wealth l : he (the racer) being 
well cherished, will attain precious gain. Bring food 
to thy praisers ! 

4. May we kindle thee 1 , Agni, O god, the brilliant, 
never ageing, in order that yon highly miraculous 
fuel of thine 2 may shine in the sky. Bring food to 
thy praisers ! 

5. To thee V O Agni, our oblation is offered with 
a Rik, O lord of bright splendour, highly brilliant, 
wonderful lord of the clan, carrier of oblations ! 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

6. Those Agnis make everything precious prosper 
in the Agnis ; they drive forward (precious wealth) ; 
they incite it ; they speed it hither in the due way l . 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

7. Those flames of thine, O Agni, the racers, have 
boasted mightily — they who with the flight of their 



380 VEDIC HYMNS. 



hoofs have made tremble * the stables of the cows. 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

8. Bring fresh food with fine dwellings, O Agni, 
to us, thy praisers ! May we be of those who have 
praised (thee), who have thee as their messenger, 
house by house. Bring food to thy praisers ! 

9. Thou warmest in thy mouth, O highly brilliant 
one, the two (sacrificial) ladles full of butter. And 
mayst thou fill us (with gifts) at our hymns, O lord 
of strength ! Bring food to thy praisers ! 

10. Thus 1 they have driven, they have led 2 , 
Agni in the due way by prayers and sacrifices. May 
he bestow on us plenty of valiant men, and that 
plenty of swift horses (wished for) 3 . Bring food to 
thy praisers ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi. The metre is Pankti. — Verse i = SV. 
I, 425. Verses i-2 = VS. XV, 41, 42; MS. II, 13, 7. 
Verses 1, 3, 2 = SV. II, 1087-1089. Verse 3 = TB. Ill, 11, 
6, 4. Verse 4=SV. I, 419 ; AV. XVIII, 4, 88 ; MS. II, 
13, 7. Verses 4, 5, 9 = SV. II, 372-374; TS. IV, 4, 4, 6. 
Verse 9=VS. XV, 43 ; TS. II, 2, 12, 7. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. At first sight the conjecture of Bohtlingk-Roth 
and Grassmann, rayi'm, is very tempting, cf. IX, 12, 9. 
rayi'm . . . su-abhiivam ; X, 122, 3. rayfea . . . su-abhiiva. 
I believe, nevertheless, that on closer examination the 
traditional text will prove correct. Sa pritaA evidently 
refers to the racer (va£*in) cf. I, 66, 4 = 69, 5. v&^fna prtta^ 
(cf. also X, 101, 7. primta arvan) : then it follows that 
su-abhiivam also refers to the racer, and raye (cf. 1, 100, 16; 
III, 53, 16) will be quite right. 



MA2VDALA V, HYMN 6. 38 I 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Te stands for the accusative ; see Pischel, Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 
715 ; Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, p. 205. 

Note 2. This refers to the sun. By kindling the sacred 
fire men make the sun rise. See H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. 110. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The pronoun ' to thee ' stands twice, te in the 
first Pada (where it is repeated from the first Pada of 
verse 4, a te agne), and tubhyam (or rather tubhya) in the 
fourth Pada, unless we construe te havi/£. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 127. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. See Gaedicke, Der Accusativ, p. 57. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the nasalization of evan, cf. H. O., Prolego- 
mena, p. 469 seq. 

Note 2. Pischel (Vedische Studien, II, 127) explains 
aguk as a^ush, the contrary of sa^ush. Bartholomae 
(Studien zur Indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, II, 159, 
note 2 ; cf. Indogermanische Forschungen, III, 108, note 1) 
conjectures a^ur ( = a^man) yamu^ : 'sie haben ihn jetzt 
auf seiner Bahn festgehalten.' I believe, as Saya/za does, 
that this a^-uryamu^ contains two independent verbs, a^u^: 
and yamu^, which are quite correct forms of the roots ag 
and yam (see Delbruck, Altindisches Verbum, p. 65). As 
to a^*, cf. VI, 2, 8. a^-yase agne va^f na ; V, 30, 14. atya^ 
na va^i" raghu,& a^yamana^ ; as to yam II, 5, 1. ^akema 
va^ina/fc (i. e. agne^) yamam. But should not the accent 
be yamuA ? 

Note 3. The fourth Pada is identical with VIII, 6, 24. 



382 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA V, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 24-25. 

1. O friends, (bring) together your united food 
and praise to Agni, the strongest (god) of (human) 
dwellings, the offspring of Vigour, the mighty one — 

2. At whose onslaught ] , wherever it be, men 
rejoice in the seat of men, whom the worthy ones 
kindle, whom (human) creatures produce. 

3. When we get together the food and the offer- 
ings of men, he has grasped, with the strength of 
his splendour, the rein of 7?zta. 

4. He indeed produces light even by night to 
him who is afar, when he, the ever-young purifier, 
destroys the lords of the forest. 

5. He at whose officiating (men) pour down the 
offering of their sweat on the paths — to Him who is 
noble by his own nature, the worlds have risen as 
to ridges (of hills) — 

6. He whom the mortal has acquired, the much- 
desired (god), for the refreshment of every one, the 
sweetener of nourishment, the homestead for the 
Ayu— 

7. He indeed, the beast, mows off deserts and 
habitable land like a mower, the golden-bearded 
with brilliant teeth, the i?zbhu of undecaying 
strength. 

8. The bright one for whom (the ghma) streams 
(quickly) like an axe 2 , as at (the sacrifice of) Atri. 
Him the well-bearing mother has born, as soon as 2 
she had enjoyed love 3 . 

9. He who satisfies thee for refreshment, O Agni 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 7. 383 

who drinkest butter : mayst thou bestow splendour, 
renown, and (wise) mind on such mortals 1 . 

10. Thus I have seized upon the spirit of Adhri£"(?) 
as upon a head of cattle given by thee 1 . May then 
Atri, O Agni, overcome the Dasyus who do not 
give (to the Brahmans) ; may Isha overcome the 
men (who do not give). 



NOTES. 

The i?/shi is Isha Atreya (cf. verse 10) ; the metre is 
Anush/ubh (verse 10, Pankti). — Verse i=VS. XV, 29; 
TS. II, 6, 11, 4 ; IV, 4, 4, 3 ; MS. IV, 11, 1. Verses 2, 3 
= TS. II, 1, 11, 3 ; MS. IV, 12, 4. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Yasya sam-rztau : see I, 127,3. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. With the expression svadhiti^-iva riyate (Lan- 
man, Noun-Inflection, p. 375), compare V, 48, 4. ritim 
para.r6/£-iva. Of course we must ask: what is the thing 
that streams so brightly and quickly as an axe moves ? 
The thing in question is stated to stream (riyate) for Agni 
now as it did at Atri's sacrifice. The expression ' as at 
Atri's sacrifice ' seems to show that something like prayers 
or libations is alluded to. The verb riyate, on the other 
hand, seems to point either to rivers, or to streams of Soma 
or of Ghrzta. Thus, considering that Ghrzta is mentioned 
much more frequently in connection with Agni than Soma, 
we are led to the conclusion that the poet speaks here of 
streams of Ghrzta. Should we not for .ru^i^'read suki, 
which would be here as in IV, 1, 6; VI, 10, 2 ; IX, 67, 12, 
an epithet of GhWta? * He for whom the bright (Ghr/ta) 
•streams quickly like an axe.' The origin of the reading 



384 VEDIC HYMNS. 



sxxklk may easily be accounted for ; the word was thought 
to refer to Agni. — Another interpretation of this hemistich 
has been given by Benfey, Vedica und Linguistica, p. 177. 

Note 2. Kra/za : cf. I, 58, 3, note 1 (p. 47). 

Note 3. * Sobald sie den Liebesgenuss erlangt hatte.' 
Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 71. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The first hemistich speaks of the worshipper in 
the singular, the second in the plural. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. This hemistich is quite obscure. With manyum 
a dade, cf., for instance, X, 48, 2. dasyubhya^ pari nr/m^am 
a dade. Adhvigak may be the genitive of a proper name, 
as I have translated it ; but this is quite doubtful. Was 
the hymn intended for a charm in which the sacrificer 
seized a head of cattle which represented the spirit of an 
enemy, and thus deprived that enemy of his courage? 



MA2TOALA V, HYMN 8. 385 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 8. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 26. 

i. Thee, O Agni, the men who love 7?zta have 
kindled, the ancient ones thee the ancient, for the 
sake of bliss, O (god) who art produced by strength ; 
the highly-brilliant, worshipful, in whom all refresh- 
ment dwells, the household god, the lord of the 
house, the chosen. 

2. Thee, O Agni, the clans have set down, the 
ancient guest, the flame-haired lord of the house, 
with mighty light, with many shapes, the winner of 
prizes, giving good shelter and good help, who is 
busy among the decayed (wood) 1 . 

3. Thee, O Agni, the human clans magnify, who 
knowest (the art of sacrificial) libations, who sepa- 
ratest (what was mixed) \ the highest bestower of 
treasures, who, (though) dwelling in secret, O blessed 
one, (yet) art visible to all, mightily roaring, an 
excellent sacrificer, shining with ghee. 

4. Thee, O Agni, the supporter, we always have 
praised with our songs and have sat down near thee 
with adoration. Thus being kindled, O Angiras, be 
pleased with us, as a god through the mortar s bril- 
liant (offering) \ with thy glorious splendours. 

5. Thou, O Agni, manifold-shaped, bestowest 
vigour on every house in thy ancient way, O much- 
praised one ! Thou rulest with might over much 
food. This impetuousness of thine, when thou 
rushest forward impetuously, is not to be defied. 

6. Thee, O Agni, when kindled, O youngest one, 
the gods have made their messenger and bearer of 

[46] c c 



386 VEDIC HYMNS. 



oblations. Thee who extendest over wide spaces, 
who dwellest in ghee, into whom offerings are poured, 
they have made their eye, impetuous, stirring 
thoughts. 

7. Thee, O Agni, on whom offerings of ghee are 
poured, (men) desirous of thy favour have kindled 
from of old with good fuel. Thus, grown strong, 
increased by the plants, thou spreadest thyself over 
the terrestrial spaces. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshl Metre, Gagati. — Verse 3 = TS. Ill, 3, 
11, 2. Verses 6, 7 = TB. I, 2, 1, 12. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The Padapd/^a gives ^arat-visham. I prefer 
this explanation to ^ara-dvisham (' who hates decay '). 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Agni is, in the later ritual, worshipped as 
'separator' (vivi^i), if the sacriflcer's fires have become 
mixed with other fires. See Taittiriya Brahma^a III, 7, 
3j 5l .Satapatha Brahma^a XII, 4, 4, 2 (where this very 
verse is quoted), &c. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. For yai-asa, Bohtlingk-Roth conjecture yarasa, 
which seems to me a conjectura nimis facilis. I think 
that the adjective ya^asa is right, and that a noun, meaning 
' offering ' or the like, should be supplied. Cf. above, IV, 
1, 16, note 4. 



MAiTOALA V, HYMN <}. 387 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 9. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 1. 

i . Thee, O Agni, the god, mortals bringing offer- 
ings magnify. I deem thee the G&tavedas. Carry 
then the offerings (to the gods) in thy due way. 

2. Agni is the Wotri of the dwelling where they 
offer gifts and spread the sacrificial grass, he with 
whom sacrifices, with whom glorious gains assemble. 

3. And he whom the kindling-stick has born, the 
young one, like a young (calf), the supporter of 
human clans, Agni the best sacrificer — 

4. And thou showest thyself hard to seize like 
a son of ... x , thou who art a burner of many woods, 
O Agni, like an animal (that consumes all grass) 
on a meadow 2 . 

5 1 . And he whose smoky 2 flames come together, 
when Trita in heaven blows upon him like a smelter, 
sharpens (him) as in smelting (him) 3 . . . 

6. May I through thy protection, O Agni, and 
through the praises of Mitra — may we 1 , like dis- 
pellers of malice, overcome the dangers of mortals. 

7. Bring this wealth to us, O powerful Agni, to 
(these our) men. May he * give us dwelling ; may 
he * give us prosperity ; may he * help us in winning 
booty. And help us to grow strong in fights ! 

NOTES. 

The Rzshl is Gaya Atreya (cf. V, 10, 3) ; the metre is 
Anush/ubh (verses 4 and 7, Pankti). — Verse i=TB. II, 4, 

c c 2 



388 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. Putra^ na hvarya/zam. The meaning of hvarya 
is conjectural. Cf. on hvara, to which it very probably is 
related, I, 141, 7, note 1 ; II, 2, 4, note 1. Does hvarya 
mean 'serpent/ or a kind of horse (VI, 2, 8. atya^ na 
hvarya^ sisuk) ? 

Note 2. The last Pada is identical with VI, 2, 9. Con- 
sidering the occurrence of the word hvarya here and in 
VI, 2, 8 (see note 1) we cannot believe that this is merely 
a casual coincidence. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On this verse, compare Neisser, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XX, 40 ; Macdonell, Journal Roy. As. Soc, 1893, 
p. 446. 

Note 2. Dhumma^ may be gen. sing. : { he whose, the 
smoky (god's), flames.' 

Note 3. Ludwig and Neisser (Bezz. Beitr., loc. cit.) 
regard dhmatart (Padap. dhmatari) as a nom. sing, mascu- 
line. I think that Geldner (Vedische Studien, 1, 146, note 1) 
and Bartholomae (Indogermanische Forschungen, I, 496, 
note 2) are right in explaining it as a locative infinitive. 
Compare also Johansson, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXX, 415; 
Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der Indogermanischen 
Neutra, p. 247. Macdonell translates, ' as in a smelting 
furnace/ 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The poet, who has begun his sentence in the first 
person singular (' may I '), goes on in the plural. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. ' He,' i. e. Agni, or ' it, 5 i. e. the wealth ? 



MANDALA V, HYMN IO. 389 

MAA/£>ALA V, HYMN 10. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 2. 

i. Agni, bring us the mightiest splendour, O liberal 
one * ! With wealth and plenty cleave a path for us 
to booty. 

2. Thou, O wonderful Agni, (protect) us, through 
thy power of mind, through the bounteousness of 
thy strength. Upon thee mysterious power has 
entered. (Thou art) indeed x like worshipful Mitra. 

3. Thou, O Agni, increase for our sake the do- 
minion and the prosperity of those liberal givers, 
(of those) men who have accomplished liberalities 
(towards us) for our songs of praise. 

4. They who adorn prayers for thee, O bright 
Agni, the givers of horses 1 : those men are powerful 
in their power, whose glory awakes by itself (shin- 
ing) more mightily than even the sky 2 . 

5. Those shining flames of thine, Agni, go fiercely 
along, like lightnings (flashing) around the earth, 
like a thundering chariot bent on victory. 

6. Now then, Agni, (come) for our protection, and 
for the reward of the urgent (worshipper)! May 
our liberal patrons pass across 1 all regions 2 ! 

7. Thou, O Agni, Angiras, who hast been praised 
and who art being praised, bring us, O Hotrz, wealth 
which overpowers (even) skilful men, to thy praisers, 
and thou shalt be praised by us. And help us to 
grow strong in fights \ 



390 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshu Metre, Anush/ubh (verses 4, 7, Pahkti). 
— Verse i = SV. I, 81. The hymn seems to stand parallel 
with V, 9. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On adhrigo, compare above, III, 31, 4, note 1 

( P . a 8 4 ). 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Kra#£ : see I, 58, 3, note 1 (p. 47) ; von Bradke, 
Dy&us Asura, p. 35 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 71. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Sumbhanti &rva-r&dhasa^ ; see X, 21, 3. 

Note 2. On the ablative dependent on a positive, 
compare Speijer, Sanskrit Syntax, p. 78, and see also 
Delbruck, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik 
(Brugmann), III, 1, 216; Pischel, Gottinger Gelehrte 
Anzeigen, 1884, 509. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On the use of this infinitive, see Delbruck, Alt- 
indische Syntax, p. 416. 

Note 2. The last Pada is identical with IV, 37, 7. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The last words are identical with those of V, 9, 
16, 17. 



M AND ALA V, HYMN II. 391 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 11. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 3. 

i. The guardian of people, the watchful one, 
Agni, the highly dexterous, has been born, for the 
sake of new welfare. With ghrzta on his face, with 
his mighty, heaven-touching (light) he, the bright 
one, brilliantly shines for the Bharatas. 

2. Agni, the beacon of sacrifice, the first Purohita 1 
men have kindled in the threefold abode 2 . (Driving) 
on the same chariot with Indra and with the gods, 
he, the highly wise Hotrz, has sat down on the 
Barhis for sacrificing. 

3. Though not cleansed, thou art born bright from 
thy two mothers 1 . Thou hast arisen as the joy- 
giving sage belonging to Vivasvant 2 . They have 
strengthened thee by ghrz'ta, O Agni, into whom 
oblations are poured. Smoke, reaching the sky, 
has become thy beacon. 

4. May Agni straightway come to our sacrifice. 
Men carry Agni here and there, house by house. 
Agni has become the messenger, the carrier of 
oblations. Choosing Agni they choose a thoughtful 
(god). 

5. For thee, O Agni, is this sweetest speech, for 
thee this prayer ; may this one do thy heart good 1 ! 
The prayers fill thee with power and strengthen 
thee, like great rivers the Sindhu. 

6. Thee, O Agni, who wert hidden, dwelling here 
and there in every wood, the Ahgiras have dis- 
covered 1 . Thus thou art born, produced by attrition, 
a mighty force. Thee, O Ahgiras, they call the 
son of strength. 



392 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Sutambhara Atreya, the metre Ga.ga.ti. — 
Verses i, 6, 2 = SV. II, 257-259; TS, IV, 4, 4, 2-3. 
Verses 1, 6, 5 = MS. II, 13, 7. Verses 1, 6 = VS. XV, 
27-28. Verse 3 = TB. II, 4, 3> 3- 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. This P&da is identical with the first Pada of X, 
122, 4. 

Note 2. The three sacrificial fires are alluded to. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The two kindling-sticks. 

Note 2. Vivasvata^ is genitive, not ablative, as Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, 241, believes. Agni opens his earthly- 
career by doing service at the sacrifice of Vivasvant, i. e. 
originally, in my opinion, the first man. Comp. H. O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 122. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On the curious spelling manisha iyam in the 
Sa^hitd text, instead of manisheyam, see the Rig-veda 
PratLsakhya 163 ; H. O., Prolegomena, p. 386. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The ancestors of the priestly tribes, being the 
first priests themselves, discover Agni. 



M AND ALA V, HYMN 12. 393 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 12. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1 3 VARGA 4. 

i. To the mighty, sacrificial Agni, to the bull 
of jRita. 1 , the Asura, I bring this prayer and this 
song, which is turned towards him, to (him) the 
bull, as well-clarified ghrzta. (is poured) into his 
mouth at the sacrifice. 

2. O knower of /?2ta, know the 7?zta ! Bore for 
many streams of Rita., I (do) not (serve) a Yatu * 
by violence nor by falsehood ; I serve the 7?zta of 
the red bull 2 . 

3. How, O Agni, performing the i?zta through 
i?zta, mayst thou become a witness of our newest 1 
hymn ? The god, the protector of the seasons, 
knows of my seasons 2 . I (do) not (know another) 
lord but him who attains (for us) this wealth. 

4. Who, O Agni, are thy fetterers to (fetter) the 
impostor 1 ? What brilliant guardians were success- 
ful ? Who, O Agni, drink the drink of falsehood ? 
Who are the protectors of untrue speech ? 

5. These friends of thine, O Agni, turning them- 
selves from (thee) 1 , they who had been kind, have 
become unkind. They have harmed themselves 
by their own speeches, uttering wrong words to the 
righteous. 

6. He who magnifies thy sacrifice, O Agni, by 
adoration, and serves l the i?zta of the red bull : 
may a large, good dwelling come to *him, to the 
offspring of the advancing Nahusha. 



394 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi ; the metre is Trish/ubh. — No verse of 
this hymn occurs in the other Sa^hitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The genitive rztasya seems to depend on vrhhne, 
not on manma. On the connection of Agni with the Rita, 
see Bergaigne, III, 229 seq. ; H.O., Religion des Veda, 201. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. A bad demon. 
Note 2. Of Agni. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I think that navya^ stands for navyasa^. 
Thus Ludwig translates : ' des neuen liedes.' It seems 
evident that it is not the nominative of navya, 'praise- 
worthy' (Bohtlingk-Roth, Grassmann). 

Note 2. Probably we ought to read rz'tapa ritanam. 
Cf. IV, 23, 4. deva^ bhuvat navedM me rztanam, and see 
III, 20, 4, note 1 (above, p. 282). The translation will be : 
' The god, the protector of Rita, knows of my (deeds of) 
Rite.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Or ripava^ ? ' Who, O Agni, are the impostors 
who fetter thee ? ' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On vfshu/za^, compare V, 34, 6 : asunvata^ 
vishunak sunvata^ vridhak. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The second verse (ritam sap&mi arushasya 
vrhYmak) shows with evidence that for sa pati we ought to 
read sapati (see Roth, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 49, and 
compare on the expression ritam sap, Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, II, 135). 



M AND ALA V, HYMN I 3. 395 

MAMPALA V, HYMN 13. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 5. 

i. Praising we call 1 thee ; praising let us kindle l 
thee, Agni, praising, for thy help. 

2. Desirous of riches, we devise to-day an 
effective song of praise, of Agni the heaven-touching 
god \ 

3. May Agni take pleasure in our prayers, he who 
is the Hotrz among men. May he sacrifice 1 to the 
divine host. 

4. Thou, O Agni, art widely extended, the gladly 
accepted, desirable Hotrz ; through thee they spread 
out the sacrifice. 

5. The priests make thee grow, O Agni, the 
greatest acquirer of wealth, the highly praised one. 
Bestow thou on us abundance of heroes. 

6. Agni ! Thou encompassest the gods as the 
felly (encompasses) the spokes (of a wheel). Thou 
strivest 1 for brilliant wealth. 

NOTES. 

The same Rzsh\. The metre is Gayatri. — Verse 2 — MS. 
IV, 10, 2 (cf. TS. V, 5, 6, 1). Verses 3-4= SV. II, 755-757- 
Verse 4=TB. 11,4, 1,6; MS. IV, 10, 2. Verse 5 = TS. I, 4, 
46, 3 ; MS. IV, 11, 4. Verse 6 = TS. II, 5, 9, 3. As the 
Sama-veda forms a Trika. of the verses 2-4, not 1-3 or 
4-6, we have here an instance of those liberties which the 
arrangers of the Sama-veda not unfrequently took with 
regard to the Rig-veda text (see H. O., Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 469 



396 VEDIC HYMNS. 



seq.) ; we have no reason, in such a case, to resort to such 
an expedient as changing the traditional order of verses in 
the Rig-veda text. 

Verse 1. 
UNote 1. We have first the indicative, then the optative. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Divisprisak no doubt is genitive sing, referring 
to Agni, not nominative pi. referring to the worshippers. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Ludwig is right in observing here : ' eigentlich er 
spreche die yagyas als einladung fur die gotten' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On ringase, com p. Bartholomae, Indogerma- 
nische Forschungen, II, 281 ; Neisser, Bezzenberger's Bei- 
trage, XX, 59. I take the form here as 2nd singular. 



M AND ALA V, HYMN 1 4. 397 

MANDALA V, HYMN 14. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 6. 

i . Awaken 1 Agni by thy song of praise, kindling 
(him) the immortal one. May he place our offerings 
among the gods. 

2. Him, the immortal god, the mortals magnify at 
their sacrifices, the best sacrificer among the tribe 
of men. 

3. Him indeed they all magnify, the god, with the 
(sacrificial) ladle that overflows with ghrzta, Agni, in 
order that he may bear the oblation. 

4. Agni when born has shone, killing the Dasyus, 
(killing) darkness by light. He has found the cows, 
the waters, the sun l . 

5. Worship Agni, the sage who should be magnified, 
whose back is covered with ghrzta. May he come 
and hear my call 1 . 

6. They have made Agni grow by ghrzta, him 
who dwells among all tribes, and by longing, eloquent 
praises. 

NOTES. 

The samei£zshi and metre. — Verse i=TS. IV, 1, 11,4; 
MS. IV, 10, 1 ; VS. XXII, 15. Verse 3 = TS. IV, 3, 13, 8 ; 
MS. IV, 10, 1. Verse 4= MS. IV, io, %. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. We have no reason and, unless we write bodhaya, 
no right for taking bodhaya as an equivalent of bodhayani 
(Ludwig). 



39& VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. Agni is considered here, as is done frequently, 
as the performer of deeds which properly belong to Indra 
(see H. O., Religion des Veda, 98 seq.). Indra is the 
conqueror of the cows and of the waters ; as to the sun, it 
may be said of both gods with the same right that they 
have acquired it for mankind (Religion des Veda, no seq. ; 
15c seq.). 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Although me can be accusative (Pischel, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
XXXV, 714 seq.), I have no doubt that it is here genitive, 
and depends on havam. Cf. II, 24, 15. v^shi me havam ; 
X, 61, 4. vitam me ya.gna.rn. 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 1 5. 399 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 15. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 7. 

i. I bring a prayer to the worshipper, the renowned 
sage, the glorious, ancient one. Agni is the highly 
gracious Asura, taking his seat in ghr/ta, the holder 
of wealth, supporting goods. 

2. By Rita, they have supported the supporting 
i?zta, near the powerful (performer) 1 of sacrifice, in 
highest heaven, the men who sit 2 on the supporting 
support of the sky, and who with born (men) 
attained to the unborn. 

3. Dispelling anguish 1 they spread out for the 
ancient one 2 his bodies 3 , mighty vital power, difficult 
to overcome. May he, the new-born, traverse the 
spaces. They have stood round him as round an 
angry lion. 

4. When thou earnest, spreading out, man after 
man like a mother, for their nourishment and for 
their sight, when thou growest old * assuming life 
after life, thou goest around by thyself in manifold 
shapes. 

5. May gain protect now the boundaries of thy 
strength, the wide, firmly supporting milkstream 1 
of wealth, O god ! Putting down thy foot in secret 
like a thief 2 , thou hast enlightened and freed Atri 
for the sake of wealth mightily 3 . 



400 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Dharu^a Angirasa (cf. dharii^a^ vasva^ 
agnf^, verse i ; ritim dharu^am, diva^ dharman dharii#e, 
verse 2 ; d6gham dhani/zam, verse 5) ; the metre, Trish Aibh. 
— No verse of this hymn occurs in the other Sa^hitas. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. It may be asked whether ^aka, beside its mean- 
ing ' the powerful (helper),' may also mean ' the power.' 
This would suit very well, V, 30, 10. sam ta^ (scil. gak) 
indrak asng-at asya sskai/i; VI, 19, 4. tarn va^ indram 
^atfnam asya ^akai^ iha nun am va£*ayanta^ huvema. The 
translation then would be : ' by the power of sacrifice/ 
Bohtlingk-Roth conjecture .sake. 

Note 2. I believe that sedusha^ stands for the nominative, 
cf. deva/z dbibhyushaA, I, 11, 5; S. B. E. XXXII, p. 28. 
This sediisha^ led on to a second accusative standing for 
the nominative, nrfri. — The men sitting on the support of 
the sky seem to be the forefathers who have established the 
universal laws, the Angiras. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I consider a/^hoyuva^ as nom. plur. masc, but it 
may also be gen. sing, masc, or ace. plur. fern., as an 
epithet either of Agni or of his tanva/z. 

Note 2. The ancient one (purvya) seems to be Agni 
(cf. verse 1). 

Note 3. Cf. VI, 46, 12. yatra .nirasa^ tanva^ vitanvate. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. I think, like Ludwig, that £*arase should be ac- 
cented. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. These are accusatives. — Cf. on this passage, 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 39 seq. 

Note 2. Cf. H. O., Prolegomena, p. 73. 

Note 3. Cf. VI, 1, 2. maha^ raye* ^itayanta^. — See 
Geldner, Ved. Studien, I, 268. 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 1 6. 4OI 

MAAfZ?ALA V, HYMN 16. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 8. 

i. Sing * (a song that gives) mighty vital power, 
to the light, to god Agni, whom the mortals have 
placed in front 2 like Mitra by their praises 3 . 

2. For he, Agni, the Wotri of men, day by day, 
in the arms of Daksha, discloses the offering in the 
due way, as Bhaga l (discloses) a treasure. 

3. .(We abide [?]) in his praise, the liberal (god's), 
in his friendship, the mightily brilliant one's, in whom, 
the loudly roaring Aryan, all (beings) have put 
together their strength. 

4. For verily, O Agni, (thou belongest [?]) to 
them 1 through thy bounteousness 2 in (bestowing) 
abundance of heroes. Him indeed, the vigorous one, 
his glory the two worlds could not encompass 3 . 

5. Now then, Agni, come hither and, being praised, 
bring treasure 1 to us who, we ourselves and our 
liberal givers, may acquire welfare together. And 
help us to grow strong in fights. 

NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Puru Atreya (cf. 17, 1) ; the metre Anush- 
/ubh (verse 5, Pahkti). This hymn and V, 17 are parallel 
hymns; the concluding words of both are identical (see 
also V, 9, 7 ; 10, 7).— Verse i = SV. I, 88. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. ArM may be first or second person. 
[46] D d 



402 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. Dadhire pura>fc: they have made him their 
Purohita. 

Note 3. Comp. above, V, 9, 6. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On Bhaga, the divine Bestower or Dispenser of 
riches, cf. Herbert Baynes. The Biography of Bhaga 
(Actes du huiti£me Congr^s intern, des Orientalistes, Sect. II, 
fasc. t, pp. 83 seq.). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. To them, i. e. the Maghavans. Compare below, 
18, 3. 4. 

Note 2. Ma^hana seems to be instrumental. Comp. 10. 
3; 18, 3. 

Note 3. Agni is himself yahva ; so na cannot be the 
comparative particle, but it must be the negation. Simi- 
larly it is said in II, 16, 3 that Heaven and Earth cannot 
encompass the indriya of Indra; cf. also X, 27, 7. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Varyam seems to depend on a bhara. With the 
whole phrase compare the first Pada of V, 17, 5. 



MANDAL.A V, HYMN 1 7. 403 

MAA/Z>ALA V, HYMN 17. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 9. 

i. May the mortal truly by sacrifices, O god, 
(magnify) the stronger one for help ; may the 
Piiru, when good service has been performed, 
magnify Agni (and thereby draw him) hither for 
his aid. 

2. For thou art manifestly considered as his 
(i.e. Agni's) disposer, highly brilliant by thyself 1 : 
(magnify then Agni who is) a firmament of bright 
splendour, lovely beyond 2 thought 3 . 

3. (It is) yonder (sun ?) who verily has been 
yoked by his (i. e. Agni's) light x through the 
impetuous speech 2 — (by the light of Agni) whose 
flames mightily shine as if (they were made to shine) 
by the sperm of heaven 3 . 

4. Through his, the wise one's, insight there is 
wealth on his, the wonderful (Agni's), chariot. And 
Agni is praised, he who is to be invoked among all 
peoples. 

5. Now indeed our liberal lords have manifestly 
attained * treasure. Offspring of vigour ! Protect 
us for the sake of victory ! Help us to welfare ! 
And assist us to grow strong in fights ! 



NOTES. 

The same i?/shi and metre. — No verse occurs in the 
other Sa^hitiis. 

D d 2 



404 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. I have translated the text in its traditional 
form, which I think is correct. On the vocative vidharman, 
comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 106. One could 
think, however, of reading vidharman as a locative, and 
svaya^astare, and of considering manyase as a first person, 
like ar^ase, &c. : ' For in his extension, brilliant by itself, 
I manifestly comprehend that firmament,' &c. 

Note 2. Cf. VIII, 72, 3. anta^ ikk/ianti tam^ane rudram 
para^ manishaya. ' Ueber alle Vorstellung hinaus.' Ludwig. 

Note 3. If we read svaya^astara^, vidharman, and explain 
manyase as second person, the following translation of this 
difficult verse may be attempted : ' Thou art manifestly, 
indeed, considered as very brilliant by thyself in its (the 
firmament's) extension : that firmament of bright splendour 
(I praise), lovely beyond thought.' It is not very probable, 
however, that asya should refer to anything else but Agni. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Saya^a, whom Ludwig follows, very probably is 
right in interpreting asau as the sun. — On the Sandhi, 
compare Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenland. 
Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 679. 

Note 2. Through the sacred spell, by which the sun is 
made to rise through the kindling of the fire. — Cf. VIII, 17, 
15. tuga. . . . grzbha. 

Note 3. Does this mean that Agni's flames shine like 
lightning which receives its light from the waters of the 
cloud, the sperm of heaven? Cf. IX, 74, 1, where it is 
said of the Soma mixed with water : diva^ retasa sa£ate. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. I think that sa^anta should be accented, because 
it is connected with hi. 



MAiNTDALA V, HYMN 1 8. 405 

MAiV7?ALA V, HYMN 18. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 10. 

i. May Agni, beloved of many, the guest of the 
house 1 y be praised in the morning, the immortal who 
delights 2 in all offerings among the mortals. 

2 *. To Dvita who by the liberal power of his 
dexterousness carries away injury 2 , this praiser of 
thine, O immortal, prepares Soma in the due way. 

3. I call for your sake Him who flames through 
long life, with the speech that belongs to the liberal 
patrons 1 whose chariot moves uninjured, O giver 
of horses 2 ; 

4. And in whom (dwells) brilliant thought, who 
guard the hymns of praise in their mouth, (whose) 
sacrificial grass is spread in the realm of the sun : 
they have invested themselves with glory. 

5. On the liberal patrons who have given me 
fifty horses for my song of praise \ bestow brilliant, 
mighty, high glory, O Agni ; on those men (bestow 
glory) with (valiant) men, O immortal ! 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Mrzktavahas Dvita Atreya (see verse i) ; 
the metre is the same. — Verse i = SV. I, 85. Verse 5 = 
TB. II, 7, 5, a- 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Visik . . . atithi/z : cf. above, V, 3, 5. 
Note 2. On ran with the accusative, compare Gaedicke, 
p. 76. 



406 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. Compare on this verse Macdonell, Journal Roy. 
As. Soc, 1893, p. 463 seq. 

Note 2. Dvita, who seems to be identified with Agni, is, 
in the same way as Trita (see Bloomfield, Proceedings 
Amer. Or. Soc, March, 1894, p. cxix seqq.), supposed to 
take away human sin and all sorts of mischief and misfortune 
(cf. VIII, 47, 16. Tritaya £a Dvitaya £a lisha^ dushvapnyam 
vaha). Thus he is invoked here as carrying away mrz'kta, 
i.e e injury. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The speech of the priest belongs to the sacrificer 
who has engaged him. 

Note 2. This seems to be Agni, with an evident allusion 
to the human giver of horses (see verse 5). 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Sadhastuti seems to be instrumental. Cf. Lan- 
man, p. 381. 



MAiVZ)ALA V, HYMN 1 9. 407 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 19. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 11. 

i. They are born for retirement 1 . Out of the 
cover he 2 has shone forth, being a cover himself. 
In the lap of the mother he looks about 3 . 

2. Causing him to discern (the pious and the 
impious ?), they have sacrificed. With unwinking 
eyes they protect his manly power. They have 
penetrated into the firm stronghold x . 

3. The people of .Svaitreya 1 , his clans, have 
thriven brilliantly. Brzhaduktha with a golden 
ornament at his neck, is eager for the race as if 
by this honey-drink 2 . 

4. Like the dear milk of love 1 — (a thing) un- 
related with two (things) related 2 — like the gharma 
vessel with booty in its belly — undeceived, the 
deceiver of all 3 . 

5. Sporting, O beam of light, appear to us, 
joined with the ash, with the wind. May those 
well sharpened ... of his, standing on . . . , be sharp 
like . . . \ 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Vavri Atreya (cf. verse 1. pra vavre^ vavrf^ 
£iketa). The metre is Gayatri in verses 1, 2, AnushAibh 
in verses 3, 4, Viraafrupa in verse 5. — No verse occurs in 
the other Sa/zzhitas. 

This Sukta seems to be anything rather than an ordinary 
Agni hymn. It may be a collection of verses belonging 
to an Akhyana, or of verses serving another purpose which 
we can scarcely hope to discover. In several parts of this 



408 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Sukta I must content myself with translating the words 
without being able to elucidate the poet's meaning. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I translate the noun avastha in accordance with 
the Vedic meaning of the verb ava-stha. Possibly it means 
the secret parts, cf. avastha, AV. VII, 90, 3 (B.-R.). Ludwig 
translates : * Ein zustand erzeugt einen andern,' and para- 
phrases, ' Nur zustande und formen, gestalten lernen wir 
kennen, das wesen des gottes bleibt uns verborgen.' This 
seems too modern. Prof. Max Muller proposes : ' The 
remnants (afterbirth) have been brought forth. Skin has 
shone forth from skin/ — On the question who are the 
beings ' born for retirement,' I do not venture any conjecture. 

Note 2. Is Agni meant ? 

Note 3. Cf. X, 5, 1. (Agni^) asmat hridaA bhuri^anma vi 
£ash/e. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that the worshippers 
(possibly the first worshippers, the Angiras), by discovering 
Agni and by worshipping him, have conquered the hostile 
strongholds. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Svaitreya is mentioned as a victorious hero also 
in I, ss y 14. 

Note 2. Does this phrase allude to the rite of offering, 
at the Va^apeya sacrifice, to the horses that were going to 
run the sacred race, a naivara £aru ? In the Mantras con- 
nected with this rite the words occur: ' Drink of this honey- 
drink' (asya madhva^ pibata). See Rig-veda VII, 38, 8 ; 
Taittiriya Sa^hita I, 7, 8, % ; Weber, Ueber den Va^apeya, 
P- 3°- 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The retas ? 

Note 2. Does this refer to an offering or the like, com- 
posed of two substances related among each other (such as 



UANDALA V, HYMN 1 9. 409 

milk and butter), and a third substance unrelated (such 
as rice) ? Of course all this is absolutely uncertain. 
Note 3. Is this Agni ? 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The meaning of dhrish&g, vakshf, vaksha/zestha 
is unknown. — On the first hemistich of this verse, compare 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 54. 



4IO VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA V, HYMN 20. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 12. 

i 1 . Whatever good, O Agni, best acquirer of gain, 
thou thinkest (fit), praise thou 2 that (good), which 
is celebrated in songs, among the gods as our 
share. 

2. They, Agni, who do not set into motion for 
thee (prayers or offerings), when grown full of 
mighty strength *, turn away to encounter the hatred 
and the tricks of him who follows another (i.e. 
a wrong) law 2 . 

3. We choose thee as our Hotrz, Agni, the giver 
of skill ; offering delight (to thee) we call with our 
prayer (thee), the foremost at the sacrifices. 

4. So that we, O strong one, (may be ready) for 
thy favour, for wealth and 7?/ta, O highly wise one : 
thus may we day by day rejoice 1 with cows and 
rejoice with heroes. 

NOTES. 

The i^zshi is Prayasvanta Atreya (cf. verse 3. prayasvan- 
ta^ havamahe), the metre AnushAibh, verse 4 Pankti. — 
Verse i=VS. XIX, 64. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Professor Max Miiller proposes to read va^asa- 
tamam, as in IX, 98, 1. Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 200) 
translates this verse : ' O Agni, das ruhmenswerte Gut, das 
du fur geeignet haltst, das preise du zugleich mit unsern 
Liedern (no girbhir yu^am) den Gottern an (diis vendita).' 
He explains : * Agni soil den Gottern Gut bringen und sie 



MANDALA V, HYMN 20. 4 1 'I 

veranlassen, es den Menschen fur die Lieder zu schenken. , 
I cannot follow Pischel's theory about the identity of the 
roots pan and pa^ (comp. about pan the quotations col- 
lected by Bartholomae, Indogermanische Forschungen, 

III, 180); and the paraphrase ' diis vendita ' seems inad- 
missible to me. I differ from Pischel, besides, in the inter- 
pretation of yii^am ; cf. rayi'm . . . yii^am, IV, 37, 5 ; raya 
yuga, VII, 43, 5 ; 95, 4. 

Note 2. Neisser, Bezzenbergers Beitrage, XX, 55, explains 
panay& as standing for panayama, and compares V, 56, 
a(?). 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On vrzdh. with the genitive, compare Delbruck, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 158 ; Macdonell, Journal Roy. As. 
Soc, 1893, p. 433. Grassmann's conjecture vn'ddha(v) is 
a failure. 

Note 2. With the second hemistich compare VS. 
XXXVIII, 20 (Satapatha Brihmatfa XIV, 3, 1, 9); TAr. 

IV, ii,4(cf.V, 9 ,7). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Syama stands, as the accent shows, in an inde- 
pendent clause. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to change 
the accent : ' So that we . . . may for thy favour, for wealth 
and Rita, day by day rejoice with cows/ 



412 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA V, HYMN 21. 

ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 13. 

i. Let us lay thee down, as Manus did. Let us 
kindle thee, as Manus did. O Agni Angiras, sacrifice 
to the gods for the worshippers of the gods as (thou 
didst) for Manus. 

2. For thou, O Agni, art kindled, highly pleased, 
among human people. To thee the (sacrificial) 
ladles proceed in due order, O well-born one who 
drinkest butter. 

3. Thee all the gods unanimously have made 
their messenger. Serving thee, O sage, they mag- 
nify at the sacrifices (thee) the god. 

4. Let the mortal magnify for your sake Agni, 
the god, with worship as is due to the gods. Being 
kindled, O brilliant one, shine ! Sit down in the 
abode 1 of 7?zta ; sit down in the abode T of herbs 2 . 



NOTES. 

The jRzshi is Sasa Atreya (cf. verse 4) ; the metre is the 
same. — Verse i=TB. Ill, 11, 6, 3. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Literally ' in the womb.' 

Note 2. On sasa, see III, 5, 6, note %. Is the abode 
(or womb) of the herbs the Barhis? * Is it satyasya?' M.M. 



M AND ALA V, HYMN 2 2. 413 

MAJVZ7ALA V, HYMN 22. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 14. 

i. Lo, Visvasaman! Like Atri sing to him who 
purifies with his flames, to the Hotrz who should 
be magnified at the sacrifices, most delightful in 
the clan. 

2 *. Lay down Agni ^atavedas, the god, the 
priest. May the sacrifice which best encompasses 
the gods, proceed to-day in due order. 

3. We, the mortals, approaching thee, the atten- 
tive-minded god, for thy help, have thought of thy 
desirable aid. 

4. Agni, be intent on this — on this our word 1 , 
O strong one. As such, O strong-jawed 2 lord of 
the house, the Atris strengthen thee by their 
praises ; the Atris beautify thee by their prayers. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Vuvasaman (see verse 1) ; the metre is the 
same. — No verse of this hymn occurs in the other Sa;/zhitas. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. With this verse compare below, V, 26, 7. 8. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The verb £it stands here first with the genitive 
asya, then with the accusative idam vaka/z. 

Note 2. Compare vol. xxxii, p. 301 (II, 34, 3, note 3). 



4H VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA V, HYMN 23. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 15. 

i. Agni, bring hither, through the power of thy 
splendour, powerful wealth which may manifestly 
prevail over all tribes in the (contests for) booty. 

2. O powerful Agni! Bring hither that wealth 
powerful in battles. For thou art the true, won- 
derful giver of booty rich in cows. 

3. For all men who have spread out the sacrificial 
grass, unanimously ask thee, the beloved Hotrz in 
the seats (of sacrifice), for many boons. 

4. For he who dwells among all tribes, has in- 
vested himself with power against assault l . Agni ! 
In these dwelling-places shine to us richly, O bright 
one, shine brilliantly, O purifier ! 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Dyumna Vuva^arsha^i Atreya (cf. verse 1) ; 
the metre is the same.— Verses 1-2 = TS. I, 3, 14, 6-7. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Is abhimati (abhim&ti ?) a dative ? Should we 
read abhimati-saha// (cf. X, 83, 4) as a compound : ' he has 
been established as the conqueror of assaults/ 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 24. 415 

MAiV7?ALA V, HYMN 24. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 16. 

i. Agni, be thou our nearest (friend) and our 
kind, protecting guardian. 

2. Agni is Vasu, renowned as Vasu (or, renowned 
by goods). Obtain, (and) bestow (on us), most bril- 
liant wealth 1 . 

3. Listen to us then ; hear our call ; deliver us 
from every harmful man. 

4. We entreat thee now, O brightest, shining 
(Agni), for thy grace, for our friends. 

NOTES. 

The i?zshis are the Gaupayanas or Laupayanas, Bandhu 
(verse 1), Subandhu (verse 2), 5rutabandhu (verse 3), 
Viprabandhu (verse 4). The metre is Dvipadi Vira^. — 
Verses 1, 2, 4, 3 = VS. Ill, 25-26. Verses 1, 4, 2, 3 = MS. 
I, 5, 3. Verses 1, 2, 4 = SV. II, 457~459J VS. XV, 48 ; 
XXV, 47. Verses 1, 4, * = TS. I, 5> 6, *~3 5 IV, 4, 4, 8. 
Verse 1 = SV. I, 448. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The accusative dyumattamam rayim seems to 
depend both on akMa. nakshi and on da^. I cannot find 
any reason for preferring the reading of SV. and TS. 
dyumattama^ (Ludwig). 



416 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA V, HYMN 25. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 17-18. 

i. Address thy song 1 for your sake to the god 
Agni, for his help. He is our Vasu. May the son 
of the dawns(?) 2 give us (wealth). May the righteous 
one help us across our enemies. 

2. He is the true one, whom the men of old, 
whom the gods have kindled, the Hotrz with the 
delightful tongue, rich in splendour with glorious 
shine. 

3. As such, with thy widest thought and with thy 
best favour, shine wealth on us, excellent Agni, for 
our beautiful praises *. 

4. Agni reigns among the gods, Agni among 
mortals, entering among them. Agni is the carrier 
of our offerings. Serve ye Agni with prayers ! 

5. Agni gives to the worshipper a son most 
mightily renowned, a knower of mighty spells, most 
excellent, unconquered, who brings renown to his 
lord \ 

6. Agni gives a good lord who is victorious in 
battles with his men ; Agni (gives) a steed, swiftly 
running, victorious (in races), unconquered. 

7. Sing mightily to Agni the (song) which may 
best bring him (to us), O (god) rich in splendour x ! 
From thee (proceeds) wealth (mighty) like a buffalo- 
cow 2 ; from thee proceed gains. 

8. Thy brilliant flames resound mightily like the 
pressing-stone (of the Soma) 1 . And thy roaring 
arose like thunder by itself from heaven 2 . 



MAiNTDALA V, HYMN 25. 417 

9. Thus we have paid homage, desirous of goods, 
to powerful Agni. May he, the highly wise one, 
help us, as with a ship, across all enemies. 



NOTES. 

The i?zshis are the Vasuyava/z Atreya^ (cf. verse 9) ; 
the metre is Anush/ubh. Verse 5 = MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 6 
= MS. IV, ii, 1. Verse 7 = SV. I, 86; VS. XXVI, 12; 
TS. I, 1, 14, 4. The Sukta consists of hymns of three 
verses each. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On gasi, comp. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Bei- 
trage, XX, 70, note 1 ; Bartholomae, Indogermanische 
Forschungen, II, 278, 283. 

Note 2. Rishunam: comp. above, I, 127, 10, note 5. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. On suvrzktf, comp. above, II, 4, 1, note 1. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. I.e. to his father ? Or to his patrons ? 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. This vocative very probably refers to Agni. 

Note 2. Or ' like a king's consort ' ? It may be doubted 

whether the difference of accent (mahishi and mahishf) 

holds good for the Rig-veda. — Comp. on mahishiva, Roth, 

Zeitschr. der Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 

680. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Br/hat is not the name of the Saman ; cf. X, 
64, 15 (100, 8). grava yatra madhu-sut u^yate brz'hat. 
Comp. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, I, p. 153. — The 
singular u^yate is explained by the connection with grava. 

Note 2. With the last P&da comp. the conclusion of 
V, 52, 6 (vol. xxxii, p. 312). 
[46] e e 



41 8 YEDIC HYMNS. 



MANjDALA V, HYMN 26. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 19-20. 

i. Agni, purifier! With thy splendour, with thy 
delightful tongue, O god, bring hither the gods and 
perform the sacrifice. 

2. Thee therefore we approach, who swimmest in 
ghrzta x , O (god) with brilliant light, thee of sun-like 
aspect. Bring hither the gods that they may feast. 

3. Let us kindle thee, O sage, the brilliant offerer 
of feasts (to the gods), O Agni, the mighty (god) at 
the sacrifice. 

4. Agni, come hither with all the gods to the gift 
of the offering. We choose thee as our Hotrz. 

5. Bring to the sacrificer who presses (Soma), Agni, 
abundance of heroes. Sit down on the sacrificial 
grass together with the gods. 

6. Being kindled, Agni, conqueror of thousandfold 
(wealth), thou makest the ordinances (of the world) 
thrive, the praiseworthy messenger of the gods. 

7 1 . Lay down Agni ^atavedas, th£ carrier of offer- 
ings, the youngest, the god, the priest. 

8. May the sacrifice which best encompasses the 
gods, proceed to-day in due order. Spread the 
sacrificial grass that (the gods) may sit down on it. 

9. May the Maruts, the A^vins, Mitra and Varu/za 
sit down on this (sacrificial grass), the gods with all 
their folk. 



MA2VDALA V, HYMN 26. 419 



NOTES. 

The same i^zshis. Metre, Gayatri. Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 
871-873. Verse i = TS. I, 3, 14, 8 ; 5, 5, 3 ; IV, 6, 1, 2 ; 
MS. I, 5, 1 ; II, 10, 1 ; IV, 10, 1 ; VS. XVII, 8. Verse 3 
= TS. I, 1, 11, 2; VS. II, 4; comp. MS. 1, 1, 12. Verse 7 = 
MS. IV, 11, 1. 

As V, 26, this Sukta also consists of Trika, hymns. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. above, IV, 2, 3, note 1. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. With verses 7 and 8, compare above, V, 22, 2. 



e e 2 



420 VEDTC HYMNS. 



MAA^/?ALA V, HYMN 27. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 21. 

i. The good lord has presented me with two oxen 
together with a car, the most brilliant Asura among 
the liberal givers 1 . Tryariu/a, the son of Trlvrz- 
shan, O Agni Vai^vanara 2 , has distinguished him- 
self by (his gift of) ten thousand (cows ?) 3 . 

2. To him who gives me one hundred 1 and twenty 
cows and two fallow steeds, harnessed and well- 
yoked, to Tryanma grant thy protection, Agni Vais- 
vanara, who art highly praised and grown strong. 

3. Thus, O Agni, desiring thy favour 1 9 Trasa- 
dasyu 2 (sings) for the ninth time 3 to thee the 
youngest (god) — Tryaru/za who responds to my, the 
strong-borns, many hymns with (the gift of) a yoked 
(chariot) 4 — 

4 \ Who may thus announce me 2 to Asvamedha 
the liberal (prince) : may he give to him who with 
his verse strives for gain ; may he give to him who 
lives in the i?zta for (acquiring) wisdom 3 — 

5. A^vamedha whose gifts, a hundred speckled 
bulls, delight me like Soma juices with threefold 
admixture \ 

6. Indra-Agni ! Bestow on Asvamedha, the giver 
of a hundred (bulls), abundance of heroes and mighty 
royal power, like the never-ageing Sun in heaven. 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 27. 42 I 



NOTES. 

The Rzshis are Tryaru//a TraivrzshTza, Trasadasyu Pauru- 
kutsya, and Aivamedha Bharata, or, according to others, 
Atri alone. The metre is Trish/ubh in verses 1-3, 
Anush/ubh in verses 4-6. 

The position of this Sukta shows that it is a later 
addition to the original collection. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. With Delbriick, Grassmann, von Bradke (Dyaus 
Asura, p. 67) I read maghonam instead of maghona/z. Cf. 
Ill, 3, 4. asura^ vipak-kitam. 

'Note 2. On the invocation of Agni in Danastutis, comp. 
H. O., Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft, XXXIX, 87. 

Note 3. Geldner (Ved. Studien, I, 268) is right in ob- 
serving: c Hier ist unter sahasram eine bestimmte Geld- 
oder Wertsumme zu verstehen/ and in adding that it is 
not necessary that such a sum consisted in cows. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On .rata, ' one hundred/ compare Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 82. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Cf. X, 148, 3. sumatim kakknak. 

Note 2. That is, very probably, a descendant of Trasa- 
dasyu. 

Note 3. I do not adopt Saya/za's explanation navama;/z 
= navatama/#, though I do not know what the number 
4 nine ' means here. Ludwig is absolutely right in ob- 
serving ' dass man eben hier, wo es sich um specielle 
concrete, uns aber sonst her nicht bekannte verhaltnisse 
und ereignisse handelt, eben sich bescheiden muss, nichts 



42 2 VEDIC HYMNS. 



zu wissen/ — Prof. Max Muller believes that navish/Mya 
makes navamam for navatamam excusable : * to the newest 
god the newest song.' 

Note 4. Saya^a supplies to yuktena, not rathena, but 
manasa. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I do not think that Ludwig is right in believing 
that with verse 4 a new, independent section begins. — 
Comp. on this verse, vol. xxxii, p. 304 (II, 34, 7, note 3). 

Note 2. Me may be accusative, as it frequently is. 
Should it be a dative, we should have to translate : c Who 
may tell A^vamedha for my sake/ 

Note 3. Medham can scarcely depend on dadat ; wisdom 
is not a gift which liberal princes may bestow on singers. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Of milk, curds, and barley. See Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, I, p. 209. 



MAiVDALA V, HYMN 28. 423 



MAiV^ALA V, HYMN 28. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA ], VARGA 22. 

i. Agni kindled has sent his light to the sky; 
turned towards the dawn he shines far and wide, 
(The sacrificial ladle) goes forward with adoration, 
rich in all treasures, magnifying the gods with sacri- 
ficial food. 

2. Being kindled thou reignest over immortality ; 
thou attendest for welfare the man who prepares the 
sacrificial food. He whom thou furtherest, acquires 
all wealth and puts in front hospitality (towards 
thee), O Agni \ 

3. Agni, show thy prowess for the sake of great 
bliss. May thy splendours be highest. Make our 
householdership easy to conduct \ Set thy foot on 
the greatness of those who show enmity to us. 

4. I adore thy beauty, Agni, who hast been kindled, 
who art highly exalted. A bull, brilliant art thou. 
Thou art kindled at the sacrifices. 

5. Being kindled, Agni into whom offerings are 
poured, sacrifice to the gods, best sacrificer, for thou 
art the carrier of oblations. 

6. Sacrifice into (Agni) ; exalt Agni, while the 
sacrifice is going on. Choose him for your carrier 
of oblations. 



424 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is VLrvavara Atreyf (cf. verse i) ; the metre 
is Trish/ubh in verses i and 3, Gagati in verse 2, Anush/ubh 
in verse 4, Gayatri in verses 5 and 6. Verse 3 = AV. VII, 
73, 10 ; VS. XXXIII, 12 ; TS. II, 4, 1, 1 ; 5, 2, 4 ; MS. IV, 
11, 1. Verse 5 = TS. II, 5, 8, 6. Verses 5-6 = TB. Ill, 
5> 2, 3. 

The Sukta is a later addition to the original Sa^hita. 

Verse 2. 

]NTote I. Should not dhatte be accented ? * He whom thou 
furtherest and (who) puts in front hospitality (towards 
thee), O Agni, acquires all wealth.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Cf. X, 85, 23. sam ^aspatyam suyamam astu 
deva^. The additions to the single Ma/zdfelas seem, as 
a rule, to be of later origin than the hymns of the tenth 
Mandala. (see H.O., Prolegomena, p. 265); so it may be 
conjectured that the author of our verse imitated that 
passage of the great marriage hymn. 



APPENDICES. 



I. INDEX OF WORDS. 

II. LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT PASSAGES QUOTED 
IN THE NOTES. 



The following is not (like the Index to vol. xxxii) a complete Index 
verborum to the hymns translated in this volume, but only an Index of all 
the words which can be of any importance. It contains all rare, difficult, 
and doubtful words, all words of any mythological importance, and 
especially all words about which something is said in the Notes. 

Three figures refer to MaWala, hymn, and verse, a small figure to a 
note. If a word occurs in a note only, the passage is put in parentheses. 

M.W. 



I. INDEX OF WORDS. 



a ,demonstr. pronoun : aya, II, 6, 2 1 . 
Awja, one of the Adityas, II, 1, 4 2 . 
awju, Soma shoot, IV, 1, 19. 
awha^-yu, dispelling anguish, V, 15, 

3 1 . 

aozhatf, distress, I, 94, 2. 

awhas, evil, distress, anguish, I, 36, 
14; 58, 8; 9; III, 15, 3; IV, 
2, 8; 9; 3, 14; 11,6; 12, 6. 

aktu, night, I, 36, 16 ; 68, 1 ; 94, 5 ; 

II, 10, 3; III, 7, 6; IV, 10, 5; 
ati aktu>6 (conj. ati aktun), I, 

M3» 3 2 . 
aktu, ointment : aktu-bhi£ a^yate, 

III, 17, i 1 . 

akra, a racer, I, 143, 7 2 ; 189, 7 5 ; 
III,i,i2 l ; IV,6, 3 ». 

akshan, eye : jatam k&kshanah aksha- 
bhi£, I, 128, 3. 

akshi, eye : diva£ akshi' iti, I, 72, io 1 . 

akshita, imperishable, I, 58, 5. 

cikshiyamawa, inexhaustible, III, 
26, 9. 

ag6ta, want of cows, III, 16, 5. 

agopa, without a keeper, II, 4, 7. 

Agni, fire, and god of fire, 1, 1,1, &c; 
III, 2, 9 2 ; agnfm-agnim, I, 12, 
2 ; agnma agnf£ sam idhyate, 
I, 12, 6; agne agnfbhi£, I, 26, 
10 ; agnfm (& vaha agne), I, 44, 
8 l ; vay^ it agne agnaya^ te 
any£, I, 59, 1 ; indram agnfm, 
III, 12, 3 ; purishyasa^ agna- 
ya£, III, 22, 4; agne vfjvebhi>& 
agni-bhi^, III, 24, 4 ; agne 
mdra£ £a, III, 25, 4; agnaya/» 
agnfshu, V, 6, 6. 

agni-^ihv^, fire-tongued: agni- 
g\h\M, I, 44, 14. 



agnidh, the Agnidh (priest) : agnft 

(conj. agnft), II, 1, 2 2 . 
agni-jn, possessing the beauty of 

Agni, III, 26, 5 1 . 
agra, summit: ripa£ agram, III, 5, 

5 1 ; agre, at first, I, 31, 5; in 

front of, I, 127, 10. 
agriya, foremost: agriyam, 1, 13, 10. 
agru, virgin: agruva£, I, 140, 8 1 ; 

III, 29, 13 2 . 

agha, evil, I, 97, i a -8 ; 128, 5 ; V, 3, 

7 ; harmful foe, I, 189, 5. 
agha-yat, harmful, IV, 2, 6 ; 24, 3. 
agha-yu, harmful, I, 27, 3 1 ; 147, 4; 

IV, 2, 9. 

agha-jawsa, attacking with evil 
spells, IV, 4, 3 ; V, 3, 7. 

aghnya, cow, IV, 1, 6. 

aftga: yat anga, whatever, I, t, 6. 

Angiras, N. of Agni, I, 1, 6 ; 31, 1 ; 
17; 74, 5; IV, 2, 15; 3> 15; 
9, 7; V, 8, 4; 10, 7; n> A 6; 
21, 1 ; gy€shtf?a.m angirasam, 
I, 127, 2 ; ahgira£-tama£, the, 
highest Ahgiras, I, 31, 2; 75, 
2 ; — pi. the Ahgiras (.R/shis), I, 
71,2*; IV, 3, 11 1 ; V, 11, 6 1 ;- 
ahgirasvat, I, 31, 17; 45, 3 ; 

78,3. 

a^ftta, unseen, IV, 3, 1. 

ay&itti, folly, IV, 2, 11; thoughtless- 
ness: a^itti-bhi£, IV, 12, 4. 

a£££avaka, a certain priest, (I, 142, 

4 2 ). 
iUMdr2L y flawless, I, 58, 8; II, 3, 8; 

III,i5,5. 
a^^idra-uti, whose blessings are 

flawless, I, 145, 3. 
a^yuta, unshakeable, II, 3, 3. 



428 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



ag, to drive : fit a^ate, he raises up, 

1, 95, 7 ; fit a.g-an, they have 
driven out, IV, i, 13 ; & a^ati, 
may he lead, V, 2, 5 ; s£m a^ati, 
may he get together, V, 2, 12 ; 
a^ur yamu£, V, 6, io 2 . 

a^a, goat, I, 67, 5 1 . 

a^-ara, undecaying, never ageing, I, 

58, 2 ; 4; 127, 559; 143, 3; 

144, 4; 146, 2; II, 8, 4 1 ; III, 

2, 2; 6, 4; 8, 2; 18, 2; 23, 1 ; 
V, 4, 2. 

ag-asra, unwearied, 1, 189, 4 ; III, 1, 

21 ; 26, 7., 
aVata, unborn, V, 15, 2. 
a^-ami, unrelated, IV, 4, 5 ; V, 19, 4. 
ag-ira, agile, I, 140, 4 ; III, 9, 8. 
a^urya, undecaying, I, 146, 4; II, 3, 

5; 8, 2; III, 7, 4; 7; a^uryam 

(conj. a^uryai?), I, 67, i 2 . 
agTzata-keta, with unknown design, 

V, 3, 11. 
ag-ma, course, III, 2, 12. 
%man, race, I, 65, 6. 
agra, plain : brihatih agran, IV, 1, 17. 
a%-, to anoint, I, 95, 6, &c; — sam- 

anag&, he has shaped, I, 188, 9; 

sam angatah, II, 3, 7 1 ; trfdha 

sam-aktam, thrice-anointed, II, 

3, 10; aktfi-bhi£ agyate, III, 
17, i 1 ; ahkte, he anoints him- 
self, V, 1, 3 ; anakti, IV, 6, 3 s . 

angi, ointment : a^g-f-bhi^, I, 36, 

13 1 . 
atandra, unwearied, I 72, 7 ; 95, 

21; IV, 4, 12. 
atasa, brushwood, I, 58, 2 ; 4 ; II, 4, 

7; III, 7, 3 2 ; IV, 4, 4; 7, 10. 
atithi, guest, I, 44, 4; 58, 6 ; 73, i 2 ; 

II, 2, 8 ; 4, 1 ; III, 2, 2 ; 3, 8 ; 

26, 2 ; IV, 1, 20 1 ; 2, 7; V, 1, 

8; 9; 3, 5; 4, 5; 8, 2; 18, 1. 
aturta, unconquered, V, 25, 5. 
atr/pa, insatiable, IV, 5, 14. 
atka, vesture, I, 95, 7. 
dtya, racer: ityah na pr/'sh^am 

rotate, I, 58, 2 1 ;— I, 65, 6; 

149, 3; II, 4, 4; III, 2, 3; 7 ; 

7, 9 ; dtyam na saptim, III, 22, 
, i 1 ; IV, 2, 3 ; V, 25, 6. 
Atri, V, 2, 6 ; 7, 10 ;— pi. the Atris, 

V, 22, 4 ;— atri-vdt, I, 45, 3 1 ; 

V , 4, 9 J 7, 8 1 ; 22, 1. 
atri, devourer, II, 8, 5 1 . 
atrin, ghoul, I, 36, 14 1 ; 20; 94, 9. 
atha, and, I, 26, 9. 



athan, elephant (?) : atharya£ na 

dantam, IV, 6, 8 2 . 
ad, to eat : adat, I, 127, 6 2 . 
adat, having no teeth, I, 189, 5. 
adabdha, undeceivable, I, 76, 2 ; 95, 

9; 128, 1; 143, 8; II, 9, 6 ; 

III, 1, 6 ; IV, 4, 3 ; V, 19, 4. 
adabdhavrata-pramati, protector of 

infallible laws, II, 9, i 1 . 
adas: asafi, yonder (sun), V, 17, 3 1 . 
adabhya, undeceivable, I, 31, 10; 
, III, 11, 5; 26, 4; V, 5, 2. 
Aditi, I, 94,16; 95, ir ; 98, 3 ; II, 

1, 11 ;, III, 4, 11; IV, 12, 4; 

mata' Aditi£,I,72, 9; — a name of 

Agni, I, 94, 15 1 ; — Freedom, IV, 

1, 20 1 ; — aditim urushya, IV, 2, 

n s ;-m., IV, 3 ,8 2 . 
adripita, undismayed, I, 143, 8; not 

proud, IV, 3, 3. 
adr/pta, never foolish, I, 69, 3. 
£deva, godless, III, 1, 16 ; V, 2, 9 ; 10. 
adeva-yu, not caring for the gods, I, 

150, 2. 
adbhuta, mysterious, wonderful, I, 

77, 3 2 ; 94, 12 ; 13; 142, 3; 

10; II, 7, 6 ; V, 10, 2; 23, 2 ; 

— secret, IV, 2, 12. 
adman, food, I, 58, 2. 
adri, rock, I, 70, 4 1 ; 71, 2 ; 73, 6 ; 

149, 1; IV, 1, 14 ; 15; 2, 15 3 ; 

3, 11 ; — press-stone, III, 1, 1. 
adrfih, guileless, II, 1, 14 2 ; III, 9, 

4 ; 22, 4. 
adrogha, guileless, III, 14, 6. 
advayat, truthful, III, 29, 5. 
advayavin, in whom is no falsehood, 

III, 2, 15. 
£dha, then : &dha ksharanti (for 

adha£ ksharanti ?), I, 72, 10 s . 
adhi, prep, with abl, on behalf of : 

r/tatadhi, I, 36, 11 K 
adhi-iti, remembrance, II, 4, 8. 
adhi-manthana, the support on which 

the rubbing (for producing 

the fire) is performed, III, 

29, i 2 . 

adhivasa, upper garment, I, 140, 9. 

adhrigu, liberal, III, 21, 4 1 ; V, 10, 1. 

Adhrf^? V, 7, io 1 . 

adhvan, way, I, 31, 16; 71, 9; 
ddhvanai> deva-yanan, I, 72, 7 s . 

adhvara, worship, rite, sacrifice, I, 
1, 4 1 ; 8 ; 12, 7,&c. : adhvaram 
ya^a, I, 26, 1 ; p&ti£ adhvara'- 
»am, I, 44, 9 ; ra^antam adh- 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



429 



vara»am, I, 45, 4 ; ya^asya 
adhvarasya, I, 128, 4 1 ; adhvara- 
iva (conj. adhvar£-iva), III, 6, 
io 3 ; adhvarasya pra-neta, III, 

23, 1. 
adhvara-jn, beaut ifier of sacrifices, 

I, 44, 3 2 - 
adhvariy, to be as an Adhvaryu: 

adhvari-yasi, II, 1,2. 
adhvari-yat, performing the sacrificial 

service, IV, 9, 5. 
adhvaryu, the Adhvaryu priest, I, 

94, 6; II, 5, 6; III, 5, 4 ; IV, 

6,4 ; adhvaryu-bhi£ pa#£a-bhi£, 

111,7,7. 

anagna, not naked, III, 1, 6. 

anagni-tra, not standing under Agni's 
protection, I, 189, 3. 

anadat, not eating, III, r, 6. 

ananta, infinite, IV, 1, 7 2 . 

anapa-vr/^ya, interminable, 1, 146, 3. 

anamiva, free from plagues, III, 16, 
3 ; 22, 4. 

anarvdn, untouched, I, 94, 2 1 ; un- 
attainable, II, 6, 5. 

anavadya, blameless, I, 31, 9; 71, 

8; 73, 3. 

anavabhra-radhas, with gifts that can- 
not be taken away, III, 26, 6. 

anasvat, together with a car, V, 27, 1. 

anakr/ta, whom it is not possible to 
drive to a place, I, 141, 7 1 , 

anaga, sinless, IV, 12, 4. 

anaga^-tva, sinlessness, I, 94, 15. 

anayata, unsupported, IV, 13, 5. 

anayudha, unarmed, IV, 5, 14. 

anin£, feeble, I, 150, 2. 

anindra, Indra-less, V, 2, 3. 

ani-baddha, unattached, IV, 13, 5. 

ani-badha, unbounded, III, 1, ii l . 

anibhr/sh/a-tavishi, of undecaying 
strength, V, 7, 7. 

ani-mana, immeasurable, I, 27, 11. 

animishat, never slumbering, 1, 143, 8. 

ani-misham, *with unwinking eyes, 
V, 19, 2. 

ani-mesham, unremittingly, I, 31, 12. 

anird, sapless, IV, 5, 14. 

ani-vr/ta, unrestrained, III, 29, 6. 

anishanga, without a quiver, I, 31, 

i3 2 . 
anika, face, II, 9, 6 ; III, 1, 15 ; 19, 

4 1 ; IV, 5, 9 1 ; 15; 10, 3 ; 11, 

1 ; 12, 2 ; V, 2, 1. 
anu, prep, with ablat., I, 141, 3 2 . 
anuktha, hymnless, V, 2, 3. 



anupa-kshita, undecaying, III, 13, 7. 
anush^u, by one's present power, I, 

95,3- 
anush^uya, by one's present power, 

IV, 4, 14. 
anu-satya, follower of truth, 1 1 1, 2 6, r . 
anu-svadham, according to one's 

wont or nature, II, 3, 11 ; III, 

. 6 > 9 * 
anuna, without flaw, I, 146, 1 ; II, 

10,6; III, 1,5; IV, 2,19; 5, 1. 
anng-u, sinlul, IV, 3, 13. 
anr/ta, sinful, IV, 5, 5. 
anr/ta, falsehood, V, 12, 4. 
anehas, unmenaced, III, 9, 1. 
anta^-vidvaws, knowing, I, 72, 7. 
antama, nearest (friend), I, 27, 5 ; 

III, 10, 8 ; V, 24, 1. 
antara, closest, I, 31, 13 ; nearer, 

III, 18, 2 ; — in the midst, I, 
44, 12. 

antariksha, air, I, 73, 8; III, 6, 8; 
8,8 ; 22, 2 ; IV, t 4 , 2 ; V, 1, 11. 
anti, nigh, I, 79, 11 ; 94, 9. 
andha, blind, I, 147, 3 1 ; 148, 5 2 . 
andhas, darkness, I, 94, 7. 
andhas, sap, IV, 1, 19. 
cinnaj food : sthini anna, I, 127, 4 s ; 

IV, 7, 10; tri-vr/t annam, I, 
140, 2 2 ; anna, instr.,. IV, 7, u 1 . 

anniyat, desirous of food, IV, 2, 7. 
anyad-anyad, the one and the other, 

h 95, 1. 
anya-vrata, following another law, 

V, 20, 2. 

dp, pi., water, Waters, I, 36, 8 ; 95, 
3 1 ; 96,1; 2; IV,3,i2,&c.; gar- 
bha^apam, I, 70, 3 ; III, 1, 12 ; 
13; 5, 3 5 apam napat, I, 143, 
i 2 ; ill, 9, 1 ; apam upa-sthe, 

1, 144, 2 ; apam sadha-sthe, I, 
149, 4; II, 4, 2 ; ayu£ apam, 
III, 1, 5; matrib apai>, III, 
9, 2 ; ap-su jritdm, III, 9, 4 ; 
apam durowe, III, 25, 5 ; avin- 
dat apa^>, V, 14, 4 1 . 

apatya, offspring, I, 68, 7. 
apara-^ita, unconquered, III, 12, 

9; V, 25,6. 
apari-vr/ta, uncovered, II, 10, 3. 
apajya, bereft of sight, I, 148, 5 2 . 
apas, work, I, 68, 5 ; 69, 8 2 ; 70, 8 ; 

II, 3,6; HI, 3, 3; 12,7 ; IV, 

2, 14 ; see apas. 

apas, active, I, 31, 8 ; 71, 3 ; 95, 4 ; 

III, 2, 5; 7; 8, 5;— work: 



430 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



apasi (conj. upasi), III, i, 3 3 ; 

ii 4 ; apa£ (conj. apa£), Ill, 

6, 7 2 . 
apasyu, ever active, I, 79, 1. 
apad, footless, IV, 1, 11. 
apara, boundless, III, 1, 14. 
api-dhi, covering, I, 127, 7 3 . 
apwarvard, approach of darkness, 

HI, 9, 7 2 . 
api-sthita, standing on, I, 145, 4 s . 
apurvya, wonderful, III, 13, 5. 
apr/wat, not giving, V, 7, 10. 
ap-tur, crossing the waters, III, 27, 

ii 3 . 
ap-turya, crossing the waters, III, 

12, 8 1 . 
Apnavana, IV, 7, 1. 
dpnasvat, rich: apnasvatishu urva- 

rasu, I, 127, 6. 
apya, living in the water, I, 145, 5. 
apra-ayu(s), unremitting, I, 127, 5*. 
aprati-skuta, unrepressed, III, 2, 14. 
dpra-dripita, unconfused, I, 145, 2. 
apra-mr/shva, not to be despised, 

IV, 2, 5. 

apra-yu£££at, never failing, unre- 
mitting, I, 143, 8 ; II, 9, 2; 
III, 5, 6 ; 20, 2. 

apra-vita, virgin, IV, 7, 9 1 . 

apsu-sad, dwelling in the waters, 

HI, 3, 5- 
abhi-khya 7 , looking at, I, 148, 5 2 . 
abhi-gT/u, on one's knees, I, 72, 5. 
abhi-dyu, striving for heaven, I, 

127, 7 ; HI, 27, 1. 
abhi-pitva, the time of rest, I, 189, 

,,2 3 

abhf-mati, plotter, III, 24, 1 ; assault, 

V, 23, 4 1 . 

abhimati-sah, victorious over hostile 

plots, II, 4, 9. 
abhi-yug-, attack, III, 11,6; V, 4, 5. 
abhkrasti, curse, I, 71, 10; V, 3, 7 ; 

12. 
abhijasti-^atana, dispeller of curses, 

III, 3, 6. 
abhijasti-pavan, protector against 

imprecations, I, 76, 3.. 
abhi-jri', leading to, or striving for, 

gloriousness, I, 98, i 1 ; 144, 6. 
abhfstui, victory, V, 17, 5. 
abhishri-kr/t, helpful, IV, 11, 4. 
abhi-hrut, injury, 1, 128, 5 ; anything 

leading astray, I, 189, 6 1 . 
abhike with ablat., I, 71, 8*. 
abhra, cloud, I, 79, 2. 



abhratr/, brotherless : abhratara£, 
IV, 5, 5 2 . 

abhva, wondrous, I, 140, 5 ; mons- 
trous might, II, 4, 5. 

am, to plague : abhf amanta, I, 
189, 3 1 . 

ama, vehemence, I, 66, 7 ; fear : 
ame dhat, I, 67, 3. 

amati, impetuous splendour, I, 73, 2 3 . 

amati, lack of thoughts, senseless- 
ness, III, 8, 2 1 ; 16, 5 ; IV, 11, 6. 

dmartya, immortal, I, 44, 1 ; 1 1 ; 58, 
3 ; 111,2, 11; 10,9; 11, 2 ; 24, 
2; 27, 5; 7; IV, 1, 1; 8, 1 ; 9, 
2 ; V, 4, 10. 

amardhat, never failing, III, 25, 4. 

ama-vat, violent, impetuous, I, 36, 
20 ; IV, 4, 1. 

amftra, enemy, III, 18, 2 ; IV, 4, 4 ; 

12, 2. 
amitra-dambhana, deceiver of, foes, 

IV, 15, 4. 

amitra-yudh, attacking the enemies, 

III, 29, 15. 
dminat, innocent, IV, 5, 6. 
amiva-^tana, driving away sickness : 

amiva-^atanam, I, 12, 7. 
amiva, plague, I, 189, 3 ; III, 15, 1. 
amura, not foolish, unerring, wise, 

I, 68, 8 1 ; 72, 2 ; 141, 12 ; III, 

19, 1; 25, 3; IV, 4, 12; 6, 2; 

11,5. 
amnkta, uninjured, inviolable, III, 

6, 4; 11, 6; IV, 3, >2 1 . 
amr/ta, immortal (Agni), I, 26, 9 1 ; 

44, 5 1 ; 58, 1; 70, 4 2 , &c.;— pi. 

the immortal gods, I, 59, 1, 

&c. ; — immortality, I, 13, 5 2 ; 

68, 4 1 ; 72, i 1 ; 6; III, 1, 14; 

23, i 2 ; 25, 2; V, 3, 4; 28, 2; 

amr/tasya nabhim, III, 17, 4; — 

ambrosia, I, 71, 9 s ; III, 26, 7; 

V, 2 , 3 2 . 

amrita-tva, immortality, I, 31, 7; 

72, 9; 9 6 , 6 ; v , 4, 10. 
amr/tyu, immortal, III, 2, 9. 
ayas, ore, IV, 2, 17 3 . 
aya, thus, III, 12, 2. 
av&s, never-tiring (flame), III, 18, 

2 1 ; IV, 6, 10. 
ara, spoke of a wheel, I, 141, 9 ; V, 

13, 6. 

arakshas, benevolent, II, 10, 5. 
arawa, stranger, V, 2, 5. 
ara«i, kindling-stick, I, 127, 4 1 ; III, 
29, 2 ; V, 9, 3. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



431 



arati, steward (?), I, 58, 7 1 ; 59, 2; 
128, 6; 8; II, 2, 2; 3; 4, 2 ; 

III, 17, 4; IV, 1, 1; 2, 1; V, 

, 2 ' lS " 

aram, enough, I, 66, 5 ; dajat dram, 

he satisfies, I, 70, 5 ; readily, 

II, 5, 7 2 ; 8; puru va aram 

(conj. puruvaYam), I, 142, io 2 . 

aram-kr/t, doing service, II, 1, 7 1 . - 

ararivaws, niggardly, I, 147, 4; 150, 
2 ; III, 18, 2. 

arati, malign power, II, 7, 2 ; III, 
18, 1 ; 24, 1 ; IV, 4, 4 ; aratau 
(conj. fof aratau), V, 2, i 8 ; pi., 
. V 2,6. 

arati-yat, niggard, I, 99, i 2 . 

arati- v£n, malicious, I, 147, 4. 

aravan, niggard : &rav«a£, I, 36, 15 ; 
16. 

arf, poor: arya£, I, 70, i 1 , 2 ; 71, 3 2 ; 
150, i 1 ; — he who does not give, 
niggard, I, 73, 5 1 , 2 ; II, 8, 2 ; 

IV, 4, 6; V, 2, 12. 

arf, the Arya : arya\6, IV, 2, 12 8 ; 

18 5 . 
arish/a, uninjured, V, 18, 3. 
arishvat, unharmed : arishyanta£, 

II, 8, 6 
aruwa, red, I, 73, 7 ; II, 1, 6. 
arum, the red (cow, or Dawn), I, 

140, 13; IV, r, 16 3 ; 2, 16; 

14, 3 1 - 
arupita ? IV, 5, 7 1 . 
arushd, red; ruddy, I, 36, 9 ; 141, 8; 

II, 2, 8 ; III, 1, 4; 7, 5; 15, 
3; 29, 6; IV, 15, 6 2 ; V, 1,5; 
arusha, the two ruddy horses, 
I, 94, 10; II, 10, 2 1 ; IV, 2, 3; 
arushasa^, I, 146, 2 2 ; IV, 6, 9 ; 
arushasya vr/sh;za£, V, 12, 2 2 ; 6 ; 
— arushim (conj. arushi^?), 1,71, 
i 2 ; arushim, I, 72, io*. 

arusha*-stupa, whose summit is red, 

III, 29, 3. 
arukshita, soft, IV, 11, 1. 
arepas, stainless, IV, 10, 6. 

arka, song, I, 141, 13 ; III, 26, 7 1 ; 

8; IV, 3, 15; 10, 3; V, 5, 4. 
ar£, to sing, praise: ar^an, III, 14, 

4 ; arHmi, IV, 4, 8 ; anri£u£, 

V, 6, 8 ; arianta£, V, r 3, 1 ; ar£a, 
V, 16, i 1 ; 22, 1; 25, 7; — abhf 
karam ar£an, they sang tri- 
umphantly, IV, 1, 14 2 ; — pra 
ar^anti, III, 12, 5; pra ar^a, 
I sing, III, 13, i 1 . 



ar£f, flame, I, 36, 3 ; 20, &c. 
ar£is, flame, IV, 7, 9 ; V, 17, 3. 
ar«n, flood : diva£ ar«am, III, 22, 3. 
anzava, waving, III, 22, 2 2 . 
anzas, wave, IV, 3, 12. 
artha, aim, I, 144, 3 2 ; III, 11, 3* ; 

IV, 6, 10. 
arbha, small, I, 146, 5. 

arbhaka, little : arbhak6bhya>6, 1, 27, 

13. 
aYmiwi in narmiwi? (I, 149, 3 1 ). 
aryd, Aryan, IV, 1, 7; (2, 12 3 ; 18 5 ;) 

V, 16, 3. 

Aryaman, I, 26,4; 36, 4; 44, 13; 

79, 3 ; 141, 9; II, 1, 4; IV, 2, 
f \\ 3, 5; V, 3, 2 ; 
arva/z£ : arva»£am yakshva, sacrifice 

and bring hither, I, 45, 10. 
arvat, horse, I, 27, 9; 73, 9; 145, 

3 1 ; II,2,io; IV, 15, 6; V, 6, 

1; 2. 
arvan, horse, I, 149, 3; IV, 7, 11; 

arhawa, deservedly, I, 127, 6. 
arhat, worthy, I, 94, 1 ; J I, 3, 1; 3 ; 

V, 7, 2. 
av, to protect, bless, help : ava£, I, 

27, 7 ; avisha£, III, 13, 6, &c. 
dva: agne£ aVena for agne rdve«a, 

I, 128, 5 1 . 

avadya, disgrace, IV, 4, 15. 

avan i, course, I, 140, 5 ;— river, V, 

II, 5. 

avama, lowest (god), IV, 1, 5. 
avara, later (or, nearer), I, 141, 5 ; — 

lower, II, 9, 3. 
avasana, not clothed, III, 1, 6. 
avastat, below, III, 22, 3. 
ava-stha, retirement, V, 19, i 1 . 
avasyu, desiring help, II, 6, 6. 
avitr*, helper, I, 36, 2 ; 44, 10; III, 

i9, 5. 
avi-mat, rich in sheep, IV, 2, 5 1 . 
avishyat, wishing to drink, I, 58, 2. 
avishyu, greedy, I, 189, 5. 
avirata, want of heroes, III, 16, 5. 
avr/ka, without danger, I, 31, 13;— 

keeping off the wolf, IV, 4, 12. 
aj, to eat : pra ajana, III, 21, 1. 
ajatru, without a foe, V, 2, 12. 
a^ani, thunderbolt, I, 143, 5. 
ajas, cursing, IV, 4, 15. 
ajiva, unkind, V, 12, 5. 
ajirshan, headless, IV, 1, 11. 
ajman, stone (flint), II, 1, 1; III, 

29, 6. 



432 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



ajma-vra^a, dwelling in the rock- 
stable, IV, i, 13. 

ajramish/^a, never tiring, IV, 4, 12. 

ajrita, not resting on (?), IV, 7, 6 2 . 

ajva-daVan, giver of horses, V, 18, 3 2 . 

cbva-pejas, the ornament of which 
are horses, II, 1, 16. 

a/vam-ish/i, winner of horses, 11,6, 2 2 . 

Ajva-medha, N. p., V, 27, 4-6. 

ajva-radhas, giver of horses, V, 10, 4 1 . 

ajva, mare, III, 1, 4 ; 7, 2 2 . 

ajvfn, rich in horses, IV, 2, 5 1 ; V, 
4,11. 

Ajvfnau, du., the two Ajvins, I, 44, 
2; 8 ; 14; III, 20, 1 ; 5; 29, 
6 1 ; IV, 2, 4; 13, 1 ; 15, 9; 10; 
V, 26, 9. 

ajvya, of the horses, I, 74, 7. 

asha/y&a, invincible, III, 15, 4. 

ash/ama, eighth (rein or priest of 
Agni), II, 5, 2 1 . 

ash^-padi, eight-footed (i.e. cow 
with calf), II, 7, 5 2 . 

as, to be : prd astu, may it be fore- 
most, I, 13, 9; — sat&b ka. bha- 
vata£ £a, I, 96, 7 ; tvam t&n 
sam ia prati ka, asi, thou art 
united with them and equal to 
them, II, 1, 15. 

as, to throw: ava-asya, I, 140, 10. 

asat, nothingness, IV, 5, 14; — untrue, 
V, 12, 4. 

asana, weapon, I, 148, 4. 

asamana, striving apart, I, 140, 4. 

asam-dita, unfettered, IV, 4, 2. 

asam-mr/sh/a, not cleansed, V, 11, 3. 

asaj^at, not sticking together, I, 13, 
6 ; 142, 6. 

asasat, never sleeping, I, 143, 3. 

asita, black, IV, 13,4. 

a*su, vital spirit, I, 140, 8. 

asura, the Asura, miraculous lord; 
II, 1, 6; III, 3, 4 1 ; 29, 14 1 ; 
IV, 2 ,5 2 ; V, 12, 1 ; 15,1; 27,1. 

asury&, mysterious power, V, 10, 2. 

asta, stall, I, 66, 9 ; — home : astam 
yanti, V, 6, 1. 

asta-tati, homestead, V, 7, 6. 

astr/, archer, I, 66, 7; 70, 11; 71, 
5 1 ; 148, 4; IV, 4, 1. 

astr/ta, indestructible, I, 140, 8. 

aspandamana, without trembling, 
IV, 3, 10. 

asmad, pers. pronoun : asmakam 
astu, may he be ours, 1, 13, 10 ; 
pra va£ imahe, we entreat for 



you, I, 36, i 1 ; va£ untranslated, 

I, 66, 9 1 ; sih na£, thus (give) us, 

I I, 6, 5 1 ; are* asmat, IV, 1 1, 6 1 . 
asma-druh, he who deceives us: 

asma-dhruk, I, 36, 16. 
asmadryak, turned towards us, V, 

4, 2. 
asma-yu, inclined towards us, I, 

142, 10. 
asrfdh, not failing, I, 13, 9 ; V, 5, 8. 
asredhat, unerring, III, 14, 5. 
asreman ? Ill, 29, 13*. 
asvapna^-, never sleeping: asvapna- 

gnh, IV, 4, 12. 
ahan, day, I, 71, 2 ; dirgha aha, I, 

140, 13.; ahna£, by day, IV, 10, 

5 ; agre ahnam, V, 1, 4 ; 5. 
ahi, snake, I, 79, 1. 
ahurya, not to be led astray : ahur- 

ya£ (conj. for ahurya^), I, 69, 4 1 . 
ahraya, fearless, I, 74, 8 ; glorious, 

III, 2, 4. 

ahrayawa, fearless, IV, 4, 14. 

ake, near, II, 1, 10. 

&-kshita, habitable, V, 7, 7. 

agas, sin, IV, 3, 5 ; 12, 4 ; V, 3, 7; 

12. 
a-^ani, birth: tisra£ a-^ani^, III, 

17, 3 1 - 
at, then, I, 148, 4 1 . 
a-t&ni, an expander : ya^wam a- 

tani£, II, 1, 10. \ x 
atithya, hospitality, I, 76, 3 ; IV, 4, 

10 ; V, 28, 2. 
atm&n, vital breath : atmaMva jeva£, 

1,73,2. 
a-dadf, seizer: sidat a-dadf£, I, 127, 

6 2 . 
Aditya, IV, 1, 2 ; pi., the Adityas, 

I, 45, 1 ; 94, 3; 188, 4; II, 1, 

13; 3, 4 1 ; HI, 8, 8; 20, 5. 
a-deva, godly, II, 4, 1 ; devam 8- 

devam, IV, 1, i 8 . 
a-dhava, purification, I, 141, 3 3 . 
a-dhr/sh, attack, II, 1, 9. 
adhra, weak: adhrasya, I, 31, 14 2 . 
anushak, in due order, I, 13, 5 1 ; 58, 

3 ; 72, 7 ; II, 6, 8 ; III, 11, 1; 

IV, 4, 10; 7, 2; 5; 12, 3; v, 
6, 6 1 ; 10; 9, 1 ; 16, 2 ; 18, 2 ; 
21, 2 ; 22, 2 ; 26, 8. 

ap : pari apa, he has won, I, 76, 1. 
Apay&, N. of a river, III, 23, 4. 
api, companion, I, 26, 3 ; 31, 16 ; 
IV, 3, 13- 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



43: 



a-pr/&££ya, whose leave should be 
asked, I, 60, 2. 

apya, companionship, I, 36, 12 ; III, 
• 2, 6. 

ami, raw, IV, 3, 9 s . 

ft-ya^-ishA&a, best performer of sacri- 
fices, II, 9, 6. 

ayasa, of iron, I, 58, 8. 

ayu, the living, I, 31, 2 2 ; 11 ; 66, 
1 ; 140, 8 ; 147, i 1 ;— lively: 
ayuva£ dhenava^, II, 5, 5; — 
Ayu, N. p., I, 96, 2 2 ; II, 2, 8; 
4,2; IV, 2, 12 1 ; 18V; V, 7, 
6; j&msam ay6£, IV, 6, n 2 ; 
V, 3, 4 2 ; pl., the Ayus, I, 58, 
3 2 ; 60, 3; IV, 7, 4;— n., life, 

„ ni, 3 , 7. 

ayudha, weapon, V, 2, 3. 

ayus, life : vfjvam ayu£, I, 73, 5 ; 
ayu£ apam, III, 1, 5 2 ; dirgham 
ayu£ pra-yakshe, III, 7, 1 ; 
trim ayuwshi, III, 17, 3 1 , &c. 

a-r6dhana, ascent, IV, 7, 8 ; 8, 2 ; 4. 

artana ? I, 127, 6 1 . 

artvi^ya, duty of a priest, I, 94, 6. 

arya, the Aryan, I, 59, 2 ; vfja£ 
arta, I, 77, 3 3 ; 96, 3- 

avte-r/^ika, (I, 44, 3 1 ). 

avi^-tya, visible, I, 95, 5. 

avfs, manifest : avf£ bhava, I, 31, 
3 1 ; avf£ babhutha, V, 1, 9 ; 
avta kr/«ute, V, 2, 9. 

a-jas, hope : a-jasa, IV, 5, n 1 . 

aja, region, V, 10, 6. 

ajina, old (?), 1, 27, 13 1 . 

aju, swift racer, I, 60, 5 ; IV, 7, it. 

aju-ajvya, plenty of swift horses, V, 
6, 10. 

aju-ya', quickly, IV, 4, 2. 

a-jujuksha«i, flaming, II, 1, 1. 

ajushawa, aspiring after, IV, 1, 13. 

aju-h£man, quick inciter, II, 1, 5 s . 

as : upa asate, they approach rever- 
entially, I, 36, 7 ; III, 2, 6 ;— 
sam-asate, they lie down round 
about, III, 9, 7. 

as, mouth: assi, I, 76, 4 1 ; 140, 2 ; 
II, 1, 1 4 1 ; in the presence of, 
IV, 5, 10 ; manifestly, V, 17, 2 ; 

5 ; 23, 1. 

asan, mouth, I, 75, 1; III, 26, 7; 

V,6, 9 ;,i8, 4 . a „ . f 
asa, face : yasya asaya, in whose 

presence, I, 127, 8. 
asa't, adv., near, I, 27, 3. 
a-suti, drink, II, 1, 14. 



asura, of the Asura : garbha£ asura£, 

III, 29, 11. 
askra, united, III, 6, 4 3 . 
asya, mouth, II, 1, 13 ; V, 12, 1. 
a^nuta, see hu. 
a-hurya, to be led astray : a-hurya£ 

(conj. ahfirya^), I, 69, 4 1 . 

i: ayate, he proceeds, I, 127, 3 6 ; 
yanta£, corrupt for vyanta£ ? I, 
140, 13 2 ; sanfm yate, striving 
for gain, V, 27, 4 ; — adhi ihi, 
think thou (of us), I, 71, io 2 ; — 
sib nu iyate (Sawhita : sa. nvi- 
yate), conj. sanu ( = sa ami) 
iyate, I, 145, i 1 ; — anta£ iyase, 
thou passest between, 11,6,7 ; — 
apa afye£, V, 2, 8 ; — upa a imasi, 
we approach, 1, 1, 7 ; — pari-eta', 
will overtake, 1, 27, 8 ; — pra-yati 
yagne, adhvare, while the sacri- 
fice is going on, III, 29, 16 ; 
V, 28, 6 ; pra-yai devebhya^, 
that the gods may come forth, 
I, 142, 6 ; eti pra, I, 144, i 2 ; — 
na prati-itaye, not to be with- 
stood, I, 36, 20 ; — sam yanti, 
come together, I, 31, 10; see 
sam-ydt. 

id, nourishing power, sacred food : 
i/si kr/tani, I, 128, 7 ; Mih pade, 
I, 128, 1; II, 10, 1 2 ; h6taram 

, ML&, m,4, 3. 

I/a, * Nourishment/ N. of a goddess, 

I, 13, 9 1 ; 31,11 s ; 142,9 ; 188, 
8; II, 1, 11 1 ; 3, 8; III, 1, 
23 1 ; 4, 8; 7, 5; 27, io 2 ; V, 
4, 4; 5, 8; i/aya£ pade, III, 

23, 4 3 ; 29,4; i/a, instr., Ill, 

24, 2 ; f/aya£ putra£, III, 29, 3 s . 
i7a-vat, rich in nourishment, IV, 

2,5. 

ita^-uti, who from here distributes 
his blessings, I, 146, 2. 

fti, thus : iti kratva, with this inten- 
tion, IV, 1, i 1 . 

ittha', truly, I, 36, 7 ; t 4 i, i ; V, 17, 
1 ; ittha dhiya, with right 
thought, III, 27, 6. 

ittM-dh?, thus minded, IV, 11, 3. 

idam, this : asmai (after the plural 
y£), I, 67, 8 1 ; asmai (verb to 
be supplied), I, 70, 4 1 ; yadi 
idam, when here (all this 
happened), I, 79, 2 3 ; yadi 
idam, as I am here, IV, 5, n 2 ; 



[46] 



Ff 



434 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



there, II, 5, 5 ; esham (conj. 

esham), IV, 2, 4 1 . 
idei £it-ida >£it, now-now, IV, 10, 5, 
idhmd, fuel, I, 94, 4 ; III, 18, 3. 
in : in6shi, thou drivest away, IV, 

10, 7 ; — pra ainot, he has driven 

forward, I, 66, 10. 
in&, strong, I, 149, 1. 
fndu, Soma, V, 18, 2. 
Indra, I, 13, 12 ; 142, 4; 5; 12 ; 

13; H, 1, 3; 3, 3; 8, 6; III, 

4, 6; 11 ; 22, 1 ; 25, 4; IV, 

2, 17 ; V, 2, 8 ; 3,1; 5, 3; 11 ; 
> 1 1, 2 ; fndram agnim, III, 12, 3. 
Indragni, du., Ill, 12, 1; 2; 4-9; 

' Y>, 27 > 6 ' 

Indravfsh«u, du., Indra and Vishwu, 

IV, 2, 4. 

inv, to stir up, to further : invati, 
I, 128, 5 ; invata£, I, 141, 4 ; 
invasi, I, 94, 10; 141, 10; V, 
28, 2 ; invanta£, III, 4, 5 ; in- 
vire, V, 6, 6. 

fbha, elephant, IV, 4, i 1 . 

fbhya, rich, I, 65, 7. 

iva : svena-iva, read sv6na eva" ? I, 
145, 2 2 . 

ish, to long, seek: 'Mbinta, I, 68, 
8 ; i^anta^, I, 72, 2 ; ishu£, 

111,1,2. 

isb, to incite: ishe, infin., I, 71, 8 3 ; 
ishayanta manma, they have 
stirred up our prayers, I, 77, 
4 8 ; ishawi, II, 2, 9 2 ; ishita, III, 

3, 2; 4, 3 ; 12, 1. 

fsh, food, I, 12, 11 ; 27, 7 ; 36, n, 

&c. ; V, 6, 1-10 ; ish^m neta, 

III, 23, 2 2 . 
isha, food-giving, I, 189, 8 2 . 
Ish£, N. p., V, 7, 10. 
isha/ry: ishawyanti, they speed it 

hither, V, 6, 6 1 . 
ishay, to seek nourishment : ishd- 

yanta, II, 2, n 1 . 
ishird, vigorous, quick, I, 128, 5 ; 

HI, 2, 13 ; 5,4. 
ishudhyat, supplicant : ishudhyat6, 1, 

128, 6 4 . 
ishuy, to fly like an arrow, to shoot 

arrows (?) : ishuyate, I, 128, 

4 ; 

ishu-yat, desiring food (?), I, 128, 4 2 . 

ish/ani? I, 127, 6 1 . 

ish*f, wish, search, I, 143, 8 2 ; 145, 

1; 148, 3 ; IV, 4, 7. 
ishrf, sacrifice, II, 1, 9 1 . 



ish/f, incitement (?), IV, 6, 7 2 . 

i : pra imahe va£, we entreat for 
you, I, 36, i 1 ; — a imahe, we 
implore, III, 26, 5. 

\dy to magnify: i/e, I, 1, i 2 ; 44, 
4; III, 1, 15; 27, 2 ; 12; IV, 
3, 3 ; 9 1 ; i'/ate, I, 36, 1 ; 
128, 8 ; III, 6, 3 ; 10, 2 ; 13, 
2; 27, 14 ; V, 1, 7; 8, 3 ; 9, 
1; 14, 2 ; 3 ; 21, 3; i/ata, I, 
96, 3 1 ; itte, V, 12, 6 ; i/ita, V, 
17, 1; 21, 4; i'/ana, II, 6, 6; 
28, 1 ; i/it£, I, 13, 4 1 ; 142, 4 1 ; 

II, 3, 3 ; V, 5, 3 ; 7. 

i/enya, to be magnified, I, 79, 5 ; 
146, 5; III, 27, 13; V, 1, 9; 

14, 5- 

l^ya, worthy of being magnified: 
\dydih, I, 1, 2; 12, 3 2 ; 75, 4; 
188, 3; II, 1,4; III, 2, 2; 5, 
6; 9; 9 ? 8; 17, 4; 27, 4; 29, 
2; 7; IV, 7, 1; 2; V, 22, 1. 

ir : iratam, may they arise, IV, 8, 
7 ; irayadhyai, he shall rise up, 
IV, 2, i 1 ; — a-irire, they have 
raised, set to work, I, 143, 4' 

III, 11, 9; 29, 15;— nt erire; : 
they have roused, I, 128, 8; 
II, 2, 3; IV, 1, 1. 

ivat, like this, IV, 4, 6 ; 15, 5. 

]j, to rule : foata, I, 36, 16 ; II, 7, 2 ; 
vasva£ ije, I, 71, 9; yavat i'je, 
as far as I have power, III, 18, 3. 

wana, master, lord, I, 73, 9 ; 79, 4 ; 

I4 1 , 3. 
ish : ishate, they flee, I, 141, 8 ; — a 
ishate, he advances, I, 149, i 2 . 

ukthci, hymn, litany, I, 27, 12 ; 71, 

2; 140, 13; II, 8,5; III, 5,2; 

13, 6; 20, 1; IV, 3, 4; 16; 6, 

iij 11, 3; V, 4, 7; 6, 9; 18,4. 
ukthavahas, (I, 127, 8 1 ). 
uktha-^as, chanting litanies, IV, 2, 16. 
ukthfn, rich in hymns, III, 12, 5. 
ukthya, praiseworthy, I, 79, 12; III, 

2, 13; 15; 10,6; 26, 2; V, 26, 6. 
uksh, to sprinkle : aukshan, III, 9, 

9 ; satyam ukshan, IV, 1, 10. 
uksh, to grow. See vaksh. 
ukshan, bull, I, 146, 2 ; II, 7, 5 ; 

111,7,6; 7 a ; V,2 7 ,5. 
ugra, strong, mighty, I, 127, 11; III, 

26,5; IV, 2, 18 3 . 
Ugrd-deva : ugra-devam, I, 36, 18 1 . 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



435 



u£atha, hymn, I, 73, 10; 143, 6; 
IV, 2, 20; V, 12, 3. 

uttana* : uttana, lying extended on 

her back, II, 10, 3 1 ; III, 29, 

3 2 ; V, 1, 3*; — nyan uttana^, 

spread out downwards-turned, 

A IV, 13, 5. 

uttana-hasta, with outstretchad hand, 

I", '4, 5 1 - 
ut-vat : ut-vata£ ni-vata£, to the 

heights and to the depths, III, 

2, 10. 
utsa, spring, III, 26, 9. 
udanya, of water^II, 7, 3. 
udyata-sru£, the sacrificer who raises 

the spoon, I, 31, 5. 
und, to moisten : havyam undan, 

II, 3, 2. 
upa-&bhrit, the bringing : ur^am upa- 

gfohWti, I, 128, 2. 
upa-iti, approaching, supplication, I, 

76, i l ; III, 18,1. 
upa-kshetr/, follower, III, 1, 16. 
upabdf, noise produced by going, I, 

74, 7 l . 
upa-msL, high up, I, 31, 15 1 . 
upama, likeness, (I, 31, 15 1 ). 
upa-mada, enjoyment, III, 5, 5. 
upa-mft, supporting, I, 59, i 3 ; pillar, 

IV, 5, 1. 
upara, lower, I, 79, 3 s ; 128, 3 ; 

uparasu, in our neighbourhood, 

I, 127, 5 2 ; uparasya, nearer, 
IV, 2, 18 6 ; uparan, getting be- 
hind, II, 4, 9 1 . 

upa-vaktr/, the U. priest, IV, 9, 5 1 . 
upas, lap : upasi (conj. for apasi), 

(in, 1, 3*; 1 1*). 

upa-sad, sitting down (reverentially), 

II, 6 1'. 
Upa-stuta,.I, 36, 1 o 1 ; 17 1 . 
upa-stuti, praise, I, T48, 2. 
upa-stha, lap, I, 95, 4 ; 5 ; pitr6£ 

upa-sthe, I, 31, 9 ; 146, 1 ; III, 
5, 8 ; 26, 9 ; ap&m upd-sthe, I, 
144, 2 ; matu£ upa-sthe, III, 8, 
1; 29, 14; V, 1, 6; 19, 1. 

upa-sthayam £arati, he goes to greet 
them, I, 145, 4 s , 

upaka, neighbouring, I, 142, 7 ; III, 
4, 6. 

upak£, near at hand, I, 27, 6; IV, 
10, 5; n, 1. 

upeti, see upa-iti. 

ubh : ubdham, closed, IV, 1, 15; — 
sam-ubdham, confined, V, 2, i 1 . 



ubh£, both: ubh^L for ubhe, I, 140, 
3 1 ; ubhe* fti toke* fti tdnaye, I, 
147, 1 3 . 

ubhaya, both, I, 26, 9 1 ; 31, 7; 
ubhayan, both (kinds of men, 
the pious and the impious), I, 
189, 7 2 ; of both kinds (wealth), 

, II, 9, 5 1 . 
uni, wide : uru kshayaya £aknre, I, 

36, 8 ; urvi 7 , the wide (Earth), I, 

146, 2; II, 4, 7; uru, wide 

space, III, 1, 11 1 . 
uru-gaya, wide-ruling, II, 1, 3 ; III, 

6, 4 6 ; IV, 3, 7 ; 14, 1 . 
uru-^rayas, extending over wide 

spaces, V, 8, 6. 
uru- vya>/>§, far-reaching, V, 1, 12. 
uru-jawsa, widely-renowned : uru- 

sawsaya, I, 31, 14. 
urushy, to guard, deliver : urushya, 

I, 58, 8; 9; IV, 2, 6 ; to keep 
off: aditim urushya, IV, 2, n 3 ; 
urushy&t, he has escaped into 
wide space, III, 5, 8. 

urvara, field, I, 127, 6. 

Urva\n: urvaji£, IV, 2, 18 4 . 

urviya 7 , far and wide, I, 141, 5 ; II, 
3,5; III, 1, 18; V, 28,1. 

ulks(, firebrand, IV, 4, 2. 

us, see vaj. 

uj&dhak, eagerly burning, III, 6, 7 3 . 

Vjig f (Agni) the Vs\g (or willing 
one), III, 3,7; 8 ; 11, 2 1 ; 27, 
io 3 ; — pi., the Uji^s, mythical 
priests, I, 60, 2 1 ; 4; 128, i 2 ; 

189, 7; II, 4, 5 3 ; HI, 2, 4 2 ; 
9; 15, 3 2 ; IV, 1, 15 1 ; V, 3, 4. 
ush, to burn down: ushwan, II, 4, 
7 ; — nf oshatat, burn down, IV, 

■ 4,4- 
ush, to shine. See vas. 
usha£-budh, awakening with the 
dawn, I, 44, 1 ; 9 ; 65, 9 ; 127, 
10; III, 2, 14; IV, 6, 8. 
ushaV, dawn : usra£, gen. sing., I, 

71, 2 2 . 

ushas, dawn, I, 71, 1 ; 94, 5 ; ushasa£ 
navedai>, I, 79, i 3 ; vasto£ 
ushcisa£, I, 79, 6 ; dosha ushasi, 

II, 8, 3 ; IV, 2, 8 ; prdti dosham 
ushasam, IV, 12, 2; ushasa^ 
vi-rok£, III, 5, 2; ushasa£ vf- 
ush/au, III, 15, 2; IV, 1, 5; 
14, 4 ;— Dawn, the goddess, I, 
44, i 1 ; 2; 8; 14; III, 17, 3 1 ; 
20, 1; IV, 2, 15; 3, 11 2 ; V, 1, 



f 2 



436 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



i; 28, 1 ; usha£ g&xkh, lover of 
the Dawn, I, 69, i 1 ; 9; dev? 
ushsL^, III, 20, 5; IV, r, 17; 
14, 3 ; dosham ushasam, Night 
and Morning, V, 5, 6 ; — du., 
nakta ka, ushasa, I, 73, 7; 
ushasau, the two Dawns, Night 
and Dawn, I, 188, 6 2 ; III, 4, 
6 1 ; 14, 3 ; V, 1, 4 ;-— ushasa^, 
the Dawns, I, 44, 10 ; II, 2, 2 ; 
7; 8; III, 5, 1; IV, 1, 13 3 ; 2, 
19; Af 5, n; 14, 1 ; r usha£ vi- 
bhati&, III, 6, 7 ; ushasaAushu£, 

III, 7, 10 ; ushasam agram, IV, 

ushasanakta, Dawn and Night, II, 

■3,6. 
usra, bright, I, 69, 9. 
usra 7 , milch-cow, IV, 1, 13 ; see also 

ushar. 
usriya, ruddy cow, III, 1, 12 4 ; IV, 

5,8 2 ; 9 . 

utf, blessing, protection, 1, 36, 13, &c. 

udhan, udder, 1,69, 3 1 ; 146,2; III, 
29, 14 ; IV, 1, 19 ; 3, 10 ; r pitu>6 
udha£, III, 1, 9 1 ; sasmin udhan, 

IV, 7, 7 2 ; io,8\ 
uma, helpful, III, 6, 8 1 . 

ur^ : mahi urg-ayanti^, giving mighty 

. vigour, III, 7, 4. 

urg, vigour: urg-am pate, I, 26, 1; 

uvgah napat, I, 58, 8 ; II, 6, 2 ; 

III, 27, 12; V, 7, 1; 17, 5 ; 

urgab putram, I, 96, 3 ; urg-a 

pinvasva, III, 3, 7. 
nfr«a-mradas, soft like wool, V, 5, 4 1 . 
ur«u: vi urwot, he has revealed, I, 

68, 1 ; vi aunzot, he has opened, 

I, 68, 10. 
firdhva*, straight, standing erect, I, 

36, 13 ; 14; 95, 5, &c. 
urmf, wave, I, 27, 6 ; 44, 12 ; 95, 10. 
urmya, night, II, 4, 3. 
firva, stable, stall, prison, I, 72, 8 ; 

III, 1, 14; IV, 2, 17; 12, 5. 
uh : uh6, he is considered, V, 3, 9 1 . 

ri, to go, &c. : r/wvati, he procures, 
I, 128, 6 ; he hastens, I, 144, 5 ; 
arta tmana diva/?, arose, V, 25, 
8 2 ; — abhi aru£, they ran up to, 
III, 1, 4 ; — ut-aVitha, thou hast 
sprung, II, 9, 3 ; fit iyarti v^am, 
he raises his voice, III, 8, 5 s ; 
fit arta, it rose up, IV, 1, 17 ; 



fit aram, IV, 15, 7 ; — pra" aru/>, 
they have risen, III, 7, 1; pra 
iyarmi, I stretch forth, III, 19, 

2 ; pra arta, it came forth, IV, 
1,12 ; — vf ri»vati,he discloses, I, 
58, 3 ; vi riwvan, they opened, 
I, 69, 10 ; vfri«vati,he opens, I, 
128, 6 ; V, 16, 2 ; — sam-arata, he 
has come together, I, 145, 4 1 ; 
s&m r/wvati, it accomplishes, III, 
2,1; he sets himself in motion, 

III, n, 2 2 ; sam-rita£, erected, 
, IV, 13, 5. 

r/kvan, singer, III, 13, 5. 

rigmiya, praiseworthy, III, 2, 4. 

rik, see ar£. 

rik, hymn, (sacrificial) verse, I, 36, 
11 ; II, 3, 7 ; V, 6, 5; 27, 4. 

rig, ring, to press on, strive forward : 
ri/z^asana, I, 58, 3 ; 96, 3 ; 
ri%an, I, 95, 7 ; ri%ate, I, 141, 
6; 143, 7; II, 1, 8; 2, 5 ; 
ringase, I press on, IV, 8, 1 ; — 
abhi rigyate, I, 140, 2; — si 
ringase. V, 13, 6 1 ; — nf ri%ate, 
he throws down, I, 143, 5 ; nf 
ringe, I catch hold, III, 4, 7. 

r/£ika, (I, 44, 3 1 ). 

rigu y rightly, II, 3, 7 ; right deeds, 

IV, 1, 17. 

rigu-ank, going straight forward, IV, 

6,9. 
r/£u-mushka, puissant, IV, 2,2; 6, 9. 
rigu-y&t, righteous, V, 12, 5. 
ri«a, debt, IV, 3, 13 2 . 
rita, the JRita, Right, 1, 1, 8 ; 75, 5 1 ; 

79, 3 ; 141, 1; 11; III, 4, 7; 

6, 6; IV, 1, 13 2 ; 2, 3 1 ; 14 3 ; 

*6; 19 1 ; 3, 4 2 ; 9-12; 5, 11; 

V, 1, 7; 12, i 1 ; 6 l ; 15, 2; 20, 
4 ; ritat adhi, on behalf of Rita, 
I, 36, 11 1 ; ritdsya vrat&, I, 65, 

3 ; ritasya y6ni, I, 65, 4; III, 
1, 11; IV, 1, 12; V, 21, 4; 
dhaVam ritasya, I, 67, 7 1 ; V, 
12, 2 ; rita sapanta£, I, 67, 8; 
68, 4 ; ritasya presha£ ritasya 
dhitf£, I, 68, 5 1 ; dadhan ritam, 
I, 71, 3 1 ; r/tasya dhenava^, I, 
73, 6 ; r/tasya patha 7 , I, 128, 2 ; 
yahvi'fti ritasya, matara, I, 142, 
7 » V, 5, 6 ; ritasya dhu^-sadam, 
I, 143, 7 ; ritasya dohana£, 
streams of Rita, I, 144, 2 1 ; 
rath % ritasya, III, 2, 8 ; IV, 
10, 2; ritasya s^man, I, 147, 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



437 



i 4 ; ritam yat£, I, 188, 2 ; pur- 
\\h ritasya sam-dr/ja4 III, 5, 

2 ; ritasya sadasi, III, 7, 2 ; 
gopa£ ritasya, III, 10, 2 ; ri- 
tasya pathya£ anu, III, 12, 7; 
ritasya y6ge vanusha£, eager to 
set to work the jRita, III, 27, 
11 1 ; rit£na ritam nf-yatam, IV, 
3, 9 1 , 2 ; ritasya pade\ IV, 5, 9 ; 
ritasya dhsiman, IV, 7, 7 s ; ri- 
tasya rajmfm, V, 7, 3 ; ritena, 
in the right way, III, 4, 5 ; 5, 

3 ; — adj., righteous, IV, 3, 8 1 . 
rita-£it, intent upon .Rita (Right), 

I, 145, 5 ; IV, 3, 4 ; V, 3, 9. 
rita-^ata, born in or from the .Rita : 

rita-#ata£, I, 36, 19; 144, 7 ; 

189, 6 ; III, 6, 10 ; 20, 2. 
rita.-gnA, knowing the right way, I, 

72,8. 
rita-pji, protecting the .Rita, (III, 

20, 4 1 ; v , I2 > 3 2 ). 
rita-pra£-ata,born from -Rita, 1, 65,10. 
ritd-pravita, penetrated by -Rita, I, 

70, 7. 
ritay, to perform the .Rita : ritayan 

ritena, V, 12, 3. 
rita-yat, righteous, II, 1, 2; IV, 8, 

3 ; v, 27, 4 . 

rita-yu, loving .Rita, V, 8, 1. 
rita-van, righteous, I, 77, 1 ; 2 ; 5 ; 

III, 2, 13; 6, 10; 13, 2; 14, 

2 ; 20, 4; IV, 1, 2 ; 2, 1; 6, 5 ; 

7, 3; 7; 10, 7; V, 1, 6; 25, 1. 
rita-vr/dh, increaser ot .Rita, I, 13, 

6; 44, 14; h 2 , 6 ; HI, 2, 1. 
ritu, season, I, 95, 3 s ; V, 12, f. 
ritu-tha', observing the right time, 

n, 3, 7. 

ritu-pa, guardian of the seasons, 

III, 20, 4 1 ; V, 12, 3 2 . 
ritvi^, ministrant, priest, I, 1, 1 ; 

44, 11; 45, 7; 60, 3; II, 5, 7 1 ; 

III, 10, 2 ; V, 22, 2 ; 26, 7. 
ritviya, at the appointed season, I, 

143, 1; II, 1, 2; III, 29, 10. 
ridh, to accomplish : ridhyama, I, 

31,8; IV, 10, i 1 . 
r/dhak, in one's peculiar way, III, 

£ibhu, II, i, 10 1 ; III, 5, 6 1 ; V, 7, 7. 
r/shi, a .Rishi, I, 1, 2 ; 31, 1 ; 66, 4 ; 

III, 21, 3 ; sahasram r/shibhi£, 

1,189,8. 
rishi-kr/t, making (one) a .Rishi, I, 

31, 16 3 . 



rishu, pi., dawns (?), I, 127, io 5 ; V, 

25, i 2 . 
rishva, tall, I, 146, 2 ; III, 5, 5 ; 7 ; 

10 ; IV, 2, 2. 

6ka : eka£-eka£, every one, III, 29, 

A i5- 
eka-ayu, of unique vigour, I, 31, 5. 
ena, variegated : 6ni iti, I, 144, 6 1 . 
enas, sin, I, 189, 1; III, 7, io 3 ; IV, 

12, 4; 5; V, 3, 7. 
eman, course, path, I, 58, 4 4 ; IV, 7, 9. 
eva, way : 6vai£, in due way, I, 68, 

4 ; 95, 6 5 £vena, in his way, I, 

128, 3; arya£ evai£, IV, 2, 12 3 ; 

—the going, I, 79, 2. 
eva, thus, I, 76, 5J.77, 5 ; 95, " 5 

III, 17, 2 ; evam, Sawh., V, 6, 

io 1 . 
esha, rapid, (IV, 2, 4 1 ). 

6ka, homestead, I, 66, 3. 
og-ayamana, displaying his power, I, 

140, 6. 
6§-ish^a, richest : 6g\shtJba\r\ m£da£, 

III, 21, 5 1 . 
oshadhi, herb, I, 59, 3 ; 98, 2 ; II, 

1, 1; 4, 4; III, 1, 13; 5, 8 1 ; 

22, 2 ; V, 8, 7. 
6ha, needfulness, IV, to, i 2 . 

Kawva, I, 36, 8; io 1 ; 11 ; 17; 19; 
k&«vasa£, I, 44, 8 ; Kawvasya 
sundva/6, I, 45, 5. 

katidha £it, everywhere, I, 31, 2. 

kada £ana, never, I, 150, 2. 

kan : tasya £akan, therewith he is 
satisfied, I, 148, 2 ; £akan££, 
loving, III, 5, 2 ; kanisha^, take 
joyfully, III, 28, 5 ; £akana£, 
delighting, desiring, V, 3, 10 ; 
27, 3 1 ; — a/^ake, he desires, III, 
3, 3 ; a kake, I love, III, 3, 10. 

kanysi, maiden, I, 66, 8 1 ; kaninam, 

V, 3, 2. 
kaya : kayasya $t, of whomsoever, 

I, 27, 8 ; kaya, how, V, 12, 3. 
kar, to praise, (1,45, 4 1 )- 
karasna, arm: sripra karasna, III, 

18, 5 1 . 
karmawya, able, III, 4, 9. 
kaVman, work, deed, I, 3r, 8 ; III, 

12, 6. 
kalya«a, beautiful, I, 31, 9. 
kavi, sage, I, 12, 6 ; 7 ; 13, 2 ; 8, 

&c. ; I, 95, 8 2 ; dhlrasa£ kava- 

ya£, I, 146, 4 1 . 



438 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



kavf-kratu, having the mind of a 
sage, thoughtful, I, i, 5 ; III, 
2, 4; 14, 7; 27, 12; V, 11, 4. 

kavi-^ad, showing himself as a sage, 

III, 12, J\ 

kavi-tama, the highest sage, III, r4, 1. 
kavi-prajasta, praised by sages, V, 1,8. 
kavi-jast£, praised by the sages, III, 

2i A , 4;. 29, 7. 
kavyata, wisdom, I, 96, 2. 
ka : kayamana£, finding pleasure, 

III, 9, 2. See kan. 
k^mya,oflove: dugdhamnakamyam, 

V, 19, 4 1 . , 
kara, race : bhagam na kard, I, 141, 

io 1 ; — triumph: abhf karam 

arian, IV, 1, 14 2 . 
karu, singer, I, 31, 8 ; 9 ; 148, 2 ; 

II, 2, 9; III, 6, 1. 
kavya, quality of a sage, wisdom, 

1,72, i 1 ; 96, 1; II, 5, 3; HI, 

1, 8; 17; 18 ; IV, 3, 16; 11, 

3 ; v, 3, 5. 

kash/£a, pi., the (aerial) arena, I, 59, 
6 ; race-course, I, 146, 5. 

kfyat, however small, IV, 5, 6. 

kirf, poor, humble, I, 31, 13 s ; V, 
4, io 1 . 

Kista: Kistasa£,the Kistas, I, i2 7,7 1 . 

kupaya, agitating, I, 140, 3. 

kumard, prince, IV, 15, 7-10 ; boy, 
V, 2, i 1 ; 2. 

kulija, axe, III, 2, 1. 

Kujika, pi., the Kujikas, III, 26, i 1 ; 

3 5 29, 15. 

ku£it-arthin, striving for all that is 
desired, IV, 7, 6. 

kri, to make, &c: ya.gn<im kr/»otana, 
I, 13, 12 ; kr/«uhi, I, 31, 8 ; 
kr/'dhi na£ raye, help us to 
wealth, III, 15, 3 3 ; kr/«6ti 
devan martyeshu, he conveys 
the gods to the mortals, I, 77, 
i 1 ; karikrata^, displaying, I, 
140, 5 1 ; kritik (read parish- 
kr/ta£?), adorned, I, 141, 8 1 ; 
dhiya^akre, III, 27, 9 1 ; kranta£, 

IV, 2, 14 ; akarma te, we have 
done our work for thee, IV, 2, 
19; — aram karat, he may 
readily serve, II, 5, 8 ; uru 
^akrire, they have made wide 
room for, I, 36, 8 ; satrei £ak- 
ra«a£, 1,72,1 ; — a kr/«6shi, thou 
givest, I, 31, 7 ; a kr/«udhvam, 
bring hither, 1, 77, 2 ;— apa si 



kr/'dhi, drive away, III, 16, 5 2 ; 
— nf ka£, he has brought down 
(i.e. surpassed), 1,72, i 1 ; — pari- 
kr/ta, made ready, III, 28, 2 ; — 
sam akr/«van t^ase, they have 
sharpened, III, 2, 10; see 
krana. 

kr/dhu, weak, IV, 5, 14. 

kr/'p: akr/pran, they have pined, 
, IV, 2) i8*. 

kr/p, body, I, 127, 1 ; 128, 2. 

kr/sh/i, human race, I, 36, 19 ; 59, 
5 ; 74, 2 ; 189, 3 ;— tribe, clan, 
V, 1, 6; 19, 3:— dwelling, II, 
2, 10. 

kr/shwa, black, I, 58, 4 4 ; 73, 7 ; 
141, 8 2 ; krishnah vrishabha£, 

I, 79, 2 2 ; darkness, I, 140, 5 ; 
k>7sh«£isu, in the dark nights, 

in, 15, s- 

kr/'sh«a-adhvan, whose path is black, 

II, 4, 6. 

kr/'shtfeUgawhas, speeding on his 
black way, I, 141, 7. 

kr/sh/za-prfita, immersed in dark- 
ness, I, 140, 3. 

kr/shwa-vyathi, with a black trail, 

II, 4, 7 1 . 

krish«a-sita, drawing black furrows, 
I, 140, 4. 

k//'p : £akr/panta dhibhf£, they 
chanted their prayers, IV, 1, 14. 

keta, desire, I, 146, 3. 

ketu, light, shine, splendour, I, 36, 
14; IV, 7, 4; 14, 2 ; V, 7, 4 5 
ketum usra£, 1,71, 2 2 ;— ketu, 
beacon, banner, I, 27, 12 ; III, 
1, 17; 2, 14 ; V, 11, 3 ; vida- 
thasya, I, 60, 1 ; ya^wasya, I, 
96, 6 ; 127, 6; III, 11, 3 ; 29, 
5 ; V, 11, 2 ; ya^/anam, III, 3, 
3 ; adhvarasya, III, 8, 8 ; adh- 
varawam, III, 10, 4. 

keVala, alone, I, 13, 10. 

kejfn, long-haired, I, 140, 8 ; long- 
maned, III, 6, 6. 

kratu, power of mind, wisdom, I, 
6 5, 9 ; 67, 2 ; 68, 3 ; 69, 2 ; 
73, 2; 77, 3 1 ; 128, 4; 141,6 ; 
95 143, 2; 145, 2; II, 5, 4; 
HI, 2, 3; 6, 5; 9, 6; 11, 6; 
iV , 5, 7 ; 10, 1 ; 2 ; 12, 1 ; V, 
10, 2; 17, 4;— mind, I, 66 y 5 2 ; 
will, I, 68, 9 ; fti kratva, with 
this intention, IV, 1, i 1 ; — power, 
I, 127,9; 128,5; III, 1, 5 1 . 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



439 



krand, to neigh, bellow, roar : kran- 
dat, I, 36, 8 ; a&kradat, I, 58, 
2 ; kanikradat, bellowing, I, 
128, 3 1 ; krandan, III, 26, 3. 

kram : pari akramit, he has circum- 
ambulated, IV, 15, 3. 

krawa', as soon as, I, 58, 3 1 ; V, 7, 
8 2 ; indeed, V, 10, 2 1 . 

krW, to sport : kri'/anta£, IV, 4, 9 ; 
kn/an, V, 19, 5. 

kshatra, royal power, IV, 4, 8 ; V, 
27, 6. 

kshatriya, royal power, IV, 12, 3 1 . 

ksh&p, night: kshapa£ (conj. ksha- 
pa£), I, 44, 8 2 ; kshapa£ (conj. 
kshapa£), nights and dawns, I, 
70, 7 1 : kshap££,by night, I, 79, 
6 ; kshapa£ sam-ydta^, II, 2, 2 3 . 

kshap^t-vat, earth-protecting, 1, 70, 5 1 . 

ksham, earth, (I, 79, 3 2 ) ; III, 8, 7. 

kshaya, dwelling, I, 36, 8 ; 74, 4 ; 
144, 7; 111,2, 6; 3,2 ; 11, 7 2 ; 
V, 9, 2 ; 12, 6 ; 23, 4; divf 
kshayam (conj. divikshayam), 

in, 2 , i 3 i . 

kshar, to flow: ksharasi, I, 27,6; 
ksharanti, I, 72, 10.^ 

ksha', earth, I, 67, 5 2 ; 95, 10; 96, 
7 1 ; * 8 9, 3 ; vfjvasu kshasu, I, 
127, io 2 , 3 . 

ksh&man, earth, IV, 2, 16. 

kshi, to dwell: ksheti, I, 94, 2; 
ksheshyanta£, going to settle, 
II, 4, 3 1 ; kshaya^, III, 8, 1; 
kshepayat, may he give us 
dwelling, V, 9, 7 ;— pnthivim 
upa-ksheti, he dwells on the 
earth, I, 73, 3 ; — prati-kshiyan- 
tam, who abides turned towards, 

II, 10, 4 ; — to rule : kshayan, 

III, 25, 3; kshayasi, IV, 5, 11. 
kshiti, dwelling, human settlement, 

I, 59, 1 ; 65, 5; 72, 7; 73, 4; 

II, 2, 3 ; III, 3,9 ; 13, 4 1 ; 14, 
4; IV, 5, 15 1 ; V, 7, 1 ;— tribe, 

III, 18, 1 ; V, 1, 10 ; kshitinam, 
daivinam, III, 20, 4. 

kshfp,finger: d&jakshipa£, III, 23, 3. 
kshipra', a tossing (bow ?), IV, 8, 8 1 . 
kshi, to fail : kshiyate, II, 9, 5. 
kshu-mat, rich in food, II, 1, 10; 4, 

8; 9, 5; IV, 2, 18 2 . 
kshe* ? IV, 3, 6 5 . 

kshetra, dwelling-place, V, 2, 3 1 ; 4. 
kshetra-sa'dhas, giving bliss to our 

fields, III, 8, 7 2 . 



kshema, safety, peace, 1, 66, 3 ; 67, 2. 
kshema-yat, living in peace, 111,7, 2. 
ksh6da, stream, I, 65, 5 ; 6 1 ; 10. 

kha. opening, IV, 11, 2. 

khya : prati akhyat, he has looked 
on, IV, 13,1; 14,1 ; — vi akhyan, 
they looked around, IV, 1, 18. 

ga«a, troop: ga«am-ga«am, III, 26, 

6 ; crowd, V, 1, 3. 
ga«ya, belonging to the host, III, 

7, 5. 
gabhira, deep, IV, 5, 5 s ; 6. 
gam, to go : ^agamyat, I, 58, 9 ; 

pari-sadanta£ agman, IV, 2, 17 4 ; 

— a^^agamema, we may obtain, 

IV, 5, 13 ; — sam-gatani, com- 
prised, I, 31, 5 1 ; sam-^agmana- 
su kr/'shfishu, when the human 
tribes met (in battle), I, 74, 2 ; 
mdnasa sam #agmu£, they agreed 
in their mind, III, 1, 13. 

gaya, home, I, 74, 2 ; dominion, V, 

10, 3- 
garbha, womb, I, 65, 4 ; 148, 5 ;— 
fruit of the womb, germ, I, 95, 
254; i4 6 , 5 ; II, 10, 3; III, 
1, 6; io 1 ; 2, 10; 29, 2; 11 ; 

V, 2, 2 ; bhutanam garbham, 
III, 27,9 ; — child, son: garbha^ 
apam, vdnanam, &c, I, 70, 3 ; 
III, 1, 12 ; 13; 5, 3; garbha/6 
virudham, II, 1, 14 ; dadhate 
garbham, IV, 7, 9 1 . 

garbhfwi, pregnant, III, 29, 2. 

garh, to blame : garhase, IV, 3, 5. 

gavisha, see go-isha. 

gavishd, see g6-ish*i. 

Gdvish^ira, V, 1, 12. 

gavya, of the cows, I, 72, 8 ; IV, 

2, 17; — bliss in cows, I, 140, 13. 
gavydt, longing for the cows, IV, 1,15. 
ga, to go : pra-^fgata^, coming 

forward, I, 150, 2. 
ga, to sing : Kkkhi agnfm gasi, V, 

25, i 1 . 
gatu, path, course, I, 71, 2572, 9; 

95, i°; 96, 4; m, i> 2 ; 4, 4- 

gayatra, Gayatra song, 1, 12, 11 ; 27, 

4 5 79, 7; 188, it. 
gayatra-yepas, moved by the Gayatra 

song, I, 142, 12. 
gah, to dive : ati gahemahi, II, 7, 3. 
gfr, praise, prayer, I, 26, 5 ; 59, 4 1 ; 

II, 2, i 2 , &c. 



440 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



giri, hill, I, 65, 5. 

gfrvawas, loving pra : ses, I, 45, 2 ; II, 

6,3. 
gu : #6guve, he ha? loudly praised, 

I, 127, 10*. 

gur : ^ugurvawi iti, eager in praising, 
. 1, 142, 8 ; — abhf #ugurya£, ap- 
prove, I, 140, 13. 
guru, heavy: mantrap guru£, I, 

147,4- 

guh, to hide : guhamana/>, IV, 1, 1 1. 

guh, covert : guha guham, I, 67, 6 3 . 

guha, in secret, I, 65, 1 ; 67, 3 ; II, 
4, 9 1 ; III, 1, 9; 14; V, 2, 1 ; 
15, 5 ; guha bhcivantam,santani, 
the hidden one, I, 67, 7 ; 141, 
3; III, 5, 10; V, 8, 3; guha 
hitam, hidden, IV, 5, 8 1 ; 7, 6 ; 
V, 11,6. 

guhya, secret, I, 72, 6 ; IV, 5, 10 ; 
V, 3, 2 ; 3 ; 5, 10. 

gri, to praise, I, 44, 6, &c. ; griwite, 
he is praised, 1, 79, 12 1 ; — desh- 
n&m abhf gr/mhi, hail our gift, 

II, 9, 4; abhf grin\tih, they 
salute, III, 6, 10; gfra£ abhf 
gr/Vzati, he responds to my 
hymns, V, 27, 3. 

gri : gagri-viimsah, having awoke, III, 
IO , 9 » a^igar fti, he has awaken- 
ed, V, 1, 3 1 . See^ri. 

gr/tsa, clever, III, 1,2; 19,1; IV,5,2. 

Gr/tsa-mada : gr/tsa - madasai>, II, 

4,9- 

gr/dhnu, greedy, I, 70, n 2 . 

gr/ha-pati, master of the house, I, 
12, 6; 36, 5 ; 60, 4; II, 1, 2 s ; 
IV, 9, 4; 11, 5 ; V, 8, 1; 2. 

g6, cow, I, 31, 12,^ &c. ; 95, 8 1 ; V, 
J > 3 2 » 3> 2 2 ; astam na gava£, I, 
66, 9 ; udhai> na g6nam, I, 69, 
3 ; puru-dawsam sanfm g6£, 

III, 1, 23 ; Ska gau£, III, 7, 
2 3 ; guhyam nama g6nam, V, 3, 
3 ; avindat gU, V, 14, 4 1 ; 
anasvanta g&va, two oxen with 
a car, V, 27, 1. 

g6-agra, at the head of which are 

cows, II, 1, 16 1 . 
go-ishd, fighting for cows, IV, 13, 2 s . 
g6-ish/i, * striving for cows/ battle, 

, I, 36, 8 ; (45, 7 i). 
g6-r/^ika, (I, 44, 3 1 ). 
G6tama, I, 79, 10 ; IV, 4, 1 1 ; pi., 

the Gotamas, I, 60, 5 ; 77, 5 ; 

78, 1 J 2 1 . 



gopa 7 , shepherd, guardian, protector, 
1,96,7; II, 9, 2 ; 6; III, 15, 
2; V, 2, 5 ; 11, 1 ; 12, 4; 
gopam r/tasya, I,i, 8; III, 10, 
2 ; vija'm gopa£, I, 94, 5 1 ; 96, 4. 

g6-mat, rich in, or consisting in, 
cows, I, 79, 4; III, 16, 1; IV, 
2, 5 1 ; V, 4, 11; 24,2; vra^am 
g6-mantam, full of cows, IV, 1, 

15. 
gaurf, buffalo cow : gauryam, IV, 

12, 6. 
gna, wife, IV, 9, 4 1 . 
gnavat, accompanied by the divine 

wives : gnavat (conj. gnavat), 

, "' X ' 5l - 
grabha«a-vat, a firm hold, I, 127, 5 s . 

grama, hamlet, I, 44, 10. 

gravan, pressing-stone (of the Soma), 

IV, 3, 3 l ! V, 25, 8'. 

ghana*, club, I, 36, 16 1 . 

gharmd, offering of hot milk to the 

Ajvins, III, 26, 7 2 ; the gharma 

vessel, V, 19, 4. 
ghush : ghoshi, it resounded, IV, 4,8. 
ghr/, to besprinkle : ^fgharmi, II, 

\ > 4 ' 5# 
ghr/#a, heat : ghr/«a, I, 141, 4*. 

ghr/td, the Ghrita, or ghee, I, 72,3; 
127, 1, &c. ; II, 3, 11 2 ; 5, 6 1 ; 
ghr/tani aksharan, I, 188, 5 ; 
ghr/ tarn n£ putam, III, 2, 1 ; 
ghr/t6bhi£ a-huta£, worshipped 
by offerings of ghr/ta, II, 7, 4 1 ; 
jiiki ghr/tam na taptam, IV, 1, 6. 

ghrita-ahavana, to whom ghr/ta ob- 
lations are poured out, 1, 12, 5 ; 

45, 5. 
ghrit&-mrnig 9 whose stately robe is 

ghee, III, 17, 1 ; 27, 5. 
ghr/t<i-pr/sh/j&a, whose back is 

covered with ghee, I, 13, 5; 

V, 4, 3 ; 14, 5. 
ghr/ta-pratika, whose face shines 

with ghee, I, 143, 7 ; III, 1, 18 ; 

V, 1,, 1. 
ghr/ta-prasatta, taking his seat in 

ghee, V, 15, 1. 
ghr/ta-prush, ghr/ta-sprinkling, I, 

45, 1; H, 3, 2. 
ghr/ta-yoni, having his abode in 

ghee, (I, 140, i 2 ); III, 4, 2 1 ; 

V, 8, 6. 
ghr/td-vat, rich in ghee, I, 142, 2 ; 

III, 5, 6; 7; 21, 2. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



441 



ghrita-j£ut, dripping with ghee, III, 

2I > a; v , 14, 3. 

ghr/ta-jri, adorned with ghee, 1, 128, 

4; V, 8, 3. 
ghrzta-sna, swimming in ghee, IV, 

6, 9. 
ghr/ta-snu, swimming in ghee, III, 

6,6*; IV, 2,3*5 V, 26, 2. 
ghrrt&tf, (the ladle) full of ghee, III, 

6, 1 ; 19, 2; 27, 1 ; IV, 6, 3; 

V, 28, 1. 
ghr/shvi, brisk, IV, 2, 13. 
ghora, terrible, IV, 6, 6. 
gh6sha, noise, III, 7, 6. 

£a, and : £a ratham for £aratham, I, 
70, 7 2 ; (in the first member), 

1, 77, 2 2 . 

£akri, maker, III, 16, 4. 

£aksh, to look : jatam Mksha«a£ 
aksh&bhi^, I, 128, 3; — ami £a- 
Mksha, V, 2, 8 ; — abhi iakshase, 
V, 3, 9 ; — vf ^ash/e, I, 98, 1 ; 
V, 19, i 3 ; — na/6 kridhi sam- 
^akshe, make us behold, I, 127, 
11. 

Mksha«a, appearance, I, 13, 5. 

^akshas, look, sight, I, 96, 2 3 ; V, 

15,4. 
£at, to hide: Mtantam, I, 65, 1; — 

pra ^atayasva, drive away, V, 

4, 6. 
£atu£-aksha, four-eyed : katuh- 

aksha/6, I, 31, 13 2 . 
Mtu£-pad, four-footed, I, 94, 5. 
&ina£-hita, with satisfied mind, III, 

2, 2 ; 7; 11, 2. 

Mnas : Mna£ dha£, accept, I, 26, 10. 

Sandra, gold, II, 2, 4 2 . 

^andra-ratha, with a shining chariot, 
I, 141, 12 ; III, 3, 5.^ 

£ar, to move, walk : ^arathaya g\- 
vase, that we may walk and 
live, I, 36, 14; yfrara'tha (conj. 
&iratha), I, 66, 9 1 ; kixdXah 
dhruvasya, ; of whatever moves 
or is firm, I, 146, 1; guha kk- 
rantam, HI, 1, 9 3 ; — nih iarati, 
he comes forward, I, 95, 4 ; — 
te pari ^aranti, they walk around 
thee, I, 127, 9 2 ; — vi ^aranti, 
spread around, I, 36, 3 ; — abhi 
vi £aranta, they have come 
hither and thither, III, 4, 5. 

£ar£tha, ail that moves, (I, 66, 9') ; 
sthatu£ ^aratham, I, 58, 5 2 ; 



68, 1 ; 70, 7 2 ; sthatam &iratham, 

I? 7°> 3 5 sthatr/h ^aratham £a, 

I,7*,6 2 . 
£arish«u, speedy, IV, 7, 9. 
barman, skin : sasasya Mrma, III, 

5, 6 2 ; 7 1 ; — Mrma-iva, like a 

hide, IV, 13, 4. 
^arshawf, human tribe, I, 127, 2 ; 

III, 6, 5; 10, 1 ; IV, 7, 4; 8, 
8 ; V, 23, 1. 

£arsha/zi-dhr*t, supporting the human 

tribes, IV, 1, 2. 
£arshawi-pr£i, filling the dwellings of 

people, IV, 2, 13. 
^ash&la-vat, with head-pieces, III, 

8, 10 1 . 
£ayu, respectful, III, 24, 4. 
£aru, beautiful, I, 58, 6, &c. ; $iru, 

loc, I, 72, 2 3 . 
^aru-pratika, cheerful-faced, II, 8, 2. 
k\ : ni-^ayya, revering, III, 26, 1; — 

vi iinavat, may he distinguish, 

IV, 2, 11. 
^ikitvit-manas, attentive-minded, V, 

22, 3. 
£it, to shine, light up : ^itayantam, 

II, 2, 4 ; ^itayat, II, 2, 5 ; £ita- 
yema, II, 2, 10; kxtvena ^ikite 
bhasa', II, 4, 5 ; iiketa, II, 4, 
6 ; ££kitana4 resplendent, III, 
29, 7 ; &keta, he has dis- 
tinguished himself, V, 27, 1; — 
pra &keta, he has shone forth, 

V, 19, 1 ; — vi ^ikite, it shines, I, 

7i, 7 8 . 
kW, to see, watch, be intent on : 
£iketa, I, 67, 7 ; ^fketat asmai, 
may he pay attention to this 
(sacrificer), I, 69, 9 ; £itayanta£, 
awaking attention, I, 94, 4 ; 
^etati, I, 128, 4; III, 11, 3 1 ; 
£etate, III, 14, 2 ; &kitana£ 
a^fttan, seeing the unseen ones, 

III, 18, 2 ; ketatah, attentive, 

IV, 5, 4; ^ikiddhi, V, 22, 4 1 ; 
^etayat, he has enlightened, 

IV, 1, 9 1 ; ^itayan, enlightening, 

V, 15, 5 3 ; iikitvan, knowing, 
I, 68, 6, &c. ; — a &keta, he has 
understood, I, 95, 4 ; — ieti prd, 
it has been known, III, 12, 9 ; — 
vi £itayanta£, causing to discern, 
V, 19, 2 ; — sam-^ikitvan, look- 
ing over, IV, 7, 8. 

&ti, pile, (I, 67, io 1 ). 
iitta, mind, V, 7, 9. 



442 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



£ftti, splendour (?), I, 67, io 1 . 

Mtt\, thought, III, 2, 3 ; 3, 3 ; 

wisdom, IV, 2, 11. 
&tra, bright, excellent, I, 66, 1 ; 

6, &c. 
^itra-bhanu, with bright splendour, 

I, 27, 6 ; II, 10, 2 ; V, 26, 2. 
>§itra-yama, whose way is bright, 

III,2,i3. 
^itra-joiis, of bright splendour, V, 

17, 2. 
£itrajrava£-tama, whose glory is 

brightest, I, 1, 5 ; 45, 6. 
£ud, to quicken, promote : ^odayasi, 

I, 94, 15 ; iodayata, I, 188, 8. 
krit : vi ^r/tanti, they get off, I, 67, 8. 
^etana, brilliant, II, 5, i 2 ; III, 12, 

2; — n., splendour, fight, I, 13, 

11; 111,3,8; IV, 7, 2. 
£etistu£a, most famous, I, 65, 9 ; 

most shining, I, 128, 8 ; most 

brilliant, V, 27, 1. 
yfcodci, driver, I, 143, 6. 
^odaydt-mati, stirring thoughts, V, 

8, 6. 
ky\x : a tva a£u£yavu£, they have 

made thee speed hither, I, 45, 8. 

khad, to show oneself: &6adayati, 
^aya, shadow, I, 73, 8. 

^■a^ara, belly, I, 95, 10 ; III, 2, 11 ; 
22, 1; 29, 14 1 . 

^an, to be born : gagnanab, I, 12, 3 ; 
gatab and £ani-tva£, I, 66, 8 1 ; 
^anayat, he caused to be born, 
I, 7 1 , 85 5 ifatasya ka ^ayama- 
nasya ka kshjim, the earth (i.e. 
the support) of what is born 
and what will be born, I, 96, 
7 1 ; irayemahi, we may multiply 
with offspring, I, 97, 4 ; gana- 
masi, III, 2, i 1 ; gatab ^ayate, 
III, 8, 5 1 ; ^anata, they have 
generated, IV, 1, 1 ; ^atan 
ubhayan, the two races (of men 
and gods), IV, 2, 2; ^anitos, 
from giving birth, IV, 6, 7 ; — 
& ^ayamanam (conj. ^aya- 
mana), I, 60, 3 1 ; — pra^a^m-van, 
generator, III, 2, 11. 

gana, man, people, I, 36, 2, &c. ; 
dafvyam ^anam, the divine host, 
h 31, 17; 44, 6; 45, 1 1 , 2 ; 9; 



10; V, 13, 3; #anaya jajvate, 

1, 3 6 , 19. 

#anas, tribe : ^anasi iti ubh6 iti, both 
tribes (of gods and of men), II, 

2, 4. 

gani, wife, I, 66, 8 ; ginajab sa- 

ni/a£, 1, 71, 1 ; — woman, III, 26, 

l\\ IV, 5, 5. 
gamtrt, begetter, I, 76, 4 4 ; ^anita, 

rodasyo^, I, 96, 4 ; pttuh ka 

garbham ^anitu^ ka, III, 1, io 1 ; 

dyau^ pit^i ^anita, IV, 1, 10. 
^•ani-tva, who will be born : ^ani- 

tvam (conj. gam-tvah), I, 66, 8 l . 
^animan, birth, III, 1, 4 ; 20; trib 

^animani, IV, 1, 7 ; — devanam 

^animani, III, 4, 10 ; IV, 2, 17 ; 

18;— offspring, V, 3, 3. 
^anus, birth : ganusha, by birth, by 

nature, I, 94, 6; III, 1, 3 ; 9 ; 

2, 2 ; ^-anftsham, I, 141, 4. 
gantti, people, human creature, I, 

45, 6, &c. ; manusha>6 ^antu- 
bhi£, III, 3, 6. 
^anman, birth : manushasya ^anasya 
^anma, 1,70,2; devanam ^anma, 
1,7°, 6 j .g-anma-iva nityam 
tanayam, III, 15, 2 1 ; — birth- 
place : parame ^anman, II, 9, 
3 ; — race : ubhayaya ,§-anmane, 
1,31,7; divyaya ^anmane, 1,58, 
6; devan (i.e. devam) ^anma, 

I, 67, 3 5 , 6 ; ^anmani fti ubhe 
iti, I, 14 r, 11 3 ; ginma ubhaya, 

II, 6, 7 ; ^anman-^anman, gen- 
eration by generation, III, 1, 
20 ; 21. 

^anya, belonging to one's own 
people : ^anya-iva (conj. gan- 
ya^-iva), II, 6, 7 1 . 

^abaru ? IV, 5, 7 1 . 

^ambha, jaw, I, 143, 5 ; 148, 4; 
IV, 7, 10. 

£ar,^ see gri. 

gaxana, sound (?), I, 141, 7 1 . 

^arat-visha, busy among the de- 
cayed (wood), V, 8, 2 1 . 

Gara-bodha, N. pr. : Gara-bodha, I, 
27, io 1 . 

garitri, praiser, I, 189, 4; II, 9, 5; 
111,7, 6 1 ; 12, 2; 5; i5,5; V, 

3, 11. 

^ariman, old age, I, 71, 10. 
gavishtba, most swift, IV, 2, 3. 
g&, people : na^^a^, I, 143, 8. 
^a^-patya, householdership, V, 28, 3 l . 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



44- 



g&griv'i, watchful : gsigrivih, I, 31, 9 ; 

III, 2, 12; 3, 7 ; 24, 3; 26, 3; 

28, 5; 29, 2; V, 11, 1. 
Gata-vedas, I, 44, 1 ; 5; 45, 3, &c; 

127, i 2 . 
g-ana, birth : triwi^ana, I, 95, 3. 
^amarya?, IV, 3, 9 4 . 
#amf, kinsman, I, 31, 10; 65, 7 ; 71, 

7 s ; 7 a 5, a 3; 4; iv, 4, 5 ; v, 19, 

4 ; ^aminam svasr/«am, uterine 
sisters, III, i, n ; lokam^amfm, 
the sister world, III, 2, 9*. 

gay%, wife, I, 66, 5 ; IV, 3, 2 1 . 

gayd, victorious, I, 67, 1 1 . 

£ara, lover, I, 66, 8 ; 69, i 1 ; 9. 

g\, to conquer, to gain : #ayati, I, 
36, 4 ;— sam-^igivan, III," 15, 4- 

^inv, to stir: ^invate, III, 2, n ; 
^•inva, III, 3,7; 15,6;— upapra 
^invan, they have excited, I, 
71, i 1 . 

£ivn, aged, I, 70, 10. 

^ihma, down -streaming, I, 95, 5. 

gihva, tongue, I, 140, 2 ; II, 1, 13 ; 
4, 4; III, 20, 2; IV, 5, 10; 7, 
10 ; V, 26, 1. 

£ira, quick, I, 44, 11; III, 3, 6. 

^ird-ajva, with quick horses, I, 141, 
12; II, 4, 2. 

^ird-danu, rich in quickening rain, 
I, 189, 8. 

g\v, to live : ,§-ivase, I, 36, 14 ; 72, 7 ; 
79, 9; .g-iva'tave, I, 94,4. 

£iva, living, I, 68, 3 ; — life, I, 140, 8. 

#ivci-dhanya, the prize (of contests) 
which living beings have gained, 
A , (}> x 49, 2 1 ). 

givapita-sarga, whose stream is drunk 
by living beings, I, 149, 2 1 . 

^iva-ya^a, a sacrifice of living 
(victims), I, 31, 15. 

gur, see gri. 

^ush, to be pleased, accept gladly : 
^•ushasva, 1, 12, 12 ; 75, 1 ; 144, 
7; ^ushanta, I, 68, 3; 9; a- 
^•ushran, I, 71, 1, &c. ; ^ushanta 
pantham, they followed gladly 
his path, I, 127, 6; tanvarn 
^•ushasva, III, 1, i 5 ; ^oshi, find 
pleasure, IV, 9, 7 1 ; — prati 
^oshayete iti, they caress, I, 
95, 5 *, 6. 

#usb/a, welcome, I, 44, 2 ; 4 ; — 
grateful, I, 73, 10. 

#uhu-asya, whose mouth is the 
sacrificial spoon, I, 12, 6. 



^uhurawa, leading astray, I, 189, 1. 

^uhu, sacrificial ladle, I, 58, 4 2 ; 76, 
5 2 ; 145, 3; II, 10, 6; IV, 4, 
2 1 ; V, 1, 3; sapta guhvab, I, 
58, 7 2 . 

gu, to speed, incite : gunab, 1,27,7; 
^un&si, I, 71, 6; £%u-vat, 
impetuous, IV, 11,4. 

gu, speedy: #uva£, I, 140, 4 1 . 

guti, speeding, I, 127, 2; — solicita- 
tion, 111,3,8 ; — ya^Tlasya ^uty a, 
stirring, III, 12, 3. 

gurn'i, flaming (?), I, 127, 10. 

gurv, to consume : ni-gurvan, IV, 
7,11. 

gri, to grow old: ^uryati, I, 128, 2 ; 
^ug-urvan, II, 4, 5 ; ^uryat-su, 

III, 23, 1; ^arayan, making 
decay, II, 8, 2 1 ; .g-arase, V, 15, 4 1 . 

gri, to praise: ^arate, he is praised (?), 
I, 59 ? 7 ; — ?£ni te #areta, may 
it resound to thee, IV, 3, 15 1 . 

gri, to be awake : ^arate, I, 59, 7 ; 
127, io 4 ;#arase, I, 94, H 1 ;^- 
rasva, III, 3, 7 1 ; — sam ^aratam, 
may it awaken, IV, 4, 8 1 . 

getri, conqueror, I, 66, 3 ; V, 25, 6. 

#£nya, noble, I, 71, 4; 128,7; 140, 
2; 146,5; II, 5,i; V, 1,5. 

^•osha, desire : #6sham at, I, 77, 5. 

^ohutra, to be invoked, II, 10, 1. 

gtia., to know : a ^anita, accept, I, 
94, 8 ;— pra-^anan, prescient, II, 
3, 10; anu pra-^anan, III, 26, 
8 ; — vi-^anan, discriminating, I, 
69, 3 1 ; — sam Janata, they were 
concordant, I, 68, 8 1 ; sam- 
^anana^, being like-minded, I, 
72, 5. 

^yayas, better, I, 27, 13. 

^•yesh^a, the first, I, 127, 2 ; eldest, 

IV, I, 2. 

^yotta-ratha, whose chariot is light, 

I, 14°, 1.. 
£y6tis, light, I, 36, 19; 59, 2 ; III, 

26, 8 ; diva/6 ^-y6ti^, I, 69, 1; 

vip&m gy6t\msh\, III, 10, 5 1 ; 

vidanta gyoiih, IV, 1, 14 ; sva£ 

nagy6t\t>, IV, 10, 3 1 . 
^rayas, space, I, 95, 9 ; 140, 9 ; V, 

8,7. 

takvan, N. of an animal, I, 66, 2 1 . 

taksh, to fashion : hr/da tash/an 
mantran, I, 67, 4 ; tataksha, 
III, 8, 6; ataksham, V, 2, n. 



444 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



ta/ft, lightning, I, 94, 7. 

tat-o#as, having the strength of such 
a one, V, 1, 8. 

tan, to spin out, stretch out : tantum 
tanushva, I, 142, 1 ; tantum 
tatam, II, 3, 6; tanvana/6 ya^- 
»am, III, 3, 6 ; — ava tanuhi, un- 
bend, IV, 4, 5 ;— a-tatantha,thou 
hast spread, III, 22, 2 ;— ati x\\h 
tatanyu£, may they spread out, 
I, 141, 13 2 ;— vf tanvate, V, 13, 

4 ; 15, 3 3 . 

tan, continuation : jajvata tana, 
constantly, I, 26, 6 1 ; tana, for 
ever, I, 77, 4; II, 2, i 2 ; III, 
2 5> r ; 2 7> 9 ; — tokasya na£ tane 
tanunam, II, 9, 2. 

tanaya, offspring, I, 96, 4 ; III, 15, 
2 1 ; — tokasya tanaye, of kith and 
kin, I, 31, i2 l ; tok£ iti tanaye, 
I, 147, i 3 ; tokaya tanayaya, I, 
189, 2; IV, 12, 5. 

tanayitnu, thunderbolt, IV, 3, 1. 

tana, see tan. 

tanu, body: tanva£, I, 31, 12 ; 72, 
3 ; 5 3 ; ikkh&nta. reta£ mitha£ 
tanushu, I, 68, 8 1 ; tane tanu- 
nam, II, 9, 2 ; tanvam ^ushasva, 
III, 1, i 5 ; tanva su-^ata, III, 
15, 2 ; tanu-bhi£, IV, 2, 14 ; 
tanva£ tan vat e vi, V, 15, 3 3 . 

tanu-kr/t, the body's creator : tanu- 
kr/t, I, 31, 9. 

Tanu-napat, 'son of the body,' 1, 13, 
2 1 ; 142, 2; 188, 2; III, 4, 2 ; 
29, 11. 

tanu-r6£, shining with his body, 1 1 , 
1, 9. 

tantu, thread (of sacrifice), I, 142, 
1; — tantum tatam, warp, II, 3, 
6 ; — web (of light), IV, 13, 4. 

tand, to grow tired: tandate (by 
conjecture), I, 58, i 1 . 

tanyatu, thunder, V, 25, 8. 

tap, to burn, heat: tapo iti, tapa, 
III, 18, 2; tatapate, IV, 2, 6. 

tapish/£a, hottest, IV, 4, 1 ; 5, 4. 

tapu, hot, II, 4, 6. 

tapu^-^ambha, with fiery jaws, I, 
36, 16; 58, 5. 

tapus, heat : tapuwshi, IV, 4, 2. 

tama/6-han, destroyer of darkness, I, 
140, 1. 

tamas, darkness: dvara tamasa£, 
III, 5, 1; tvcih tamawsi dar- 
jaXiby III, 27, 13. 



tara/zi, strongly advancing, tri- 
umphant, I, 128, 6 ; III, 11, 3 2 ; 
29, 13; IV, 4, 12. 

taras, advancing power, III, 18, 3. 

tarutr/, a winner, I, 27, 9. 

tarus : dakshasya tarusha£, of su- 
perior strength, III, 2, 3. 

tavas, strong, III, 1, 1 1 ; 2; 13. 

tavishd, powerful, III, 12, 8. 

tavishi, strength, I, 128, 5; III, 3, 
5 ; 26, 4. 

tavyaws, most powerful, I, 143, 1; 
V, 17, 1. 

tayu, thief, I, 65, 1; V, 15, 5 2 . 

tavaka, thy, I, 94, 11. 

tigita, sharp, I, 143, 5- 

tigma, sharp, IV, 6, 8 ; 7, 10 ; V, 

J9, 5. 
tigma-anika, sharp-faced, I, 95, 2. 
tigmd-ayudha, with sharp weapons, 

V, 2, 10. 
tigma-^ambha, with sharp teeth, I, 

79, 6; IV, 5, 4; 15, 5. 
tigma-bhr/sh/i, sharp-pointed, IV, 

5, 3. 
tigma- jo^is, sharp-flaming, I, 79, 10. 
ti^ma-heti, with the sharp weapon, 

IV, 4 , 4. 

tig, to sharpen : teg-amana£, sharp- 
ened, III, 8, 11. 

titvisha«a, rushing forward impetu- 
ously, V, 8, 5. 

tir, see tri. 

tira/6-ahnya, kept over night, I, 45, 
io 1 ; 111,28,3; 6. 

tir&£-hita, dwelling in concealment, 

111,9,5. 

tirajy&a', throughout, II, 10, 4. 
tiras, through, III, 27, 13. 
tu : tutava, he is strong, I, 94, 2. 
tug, to stir, press onward : tutug-yzit, 

I, 143, 6; tu^amana^, III, 1, 

16; tug-6, IV, 1, 3. 
tug, impetuous : tug& gira, V, 17, 3 2 . 
tuturi, conqueror, I, 145, 3. 
tud, to strike : nf tundate (conj. 

nu tandate), I, 58, i 1 . 
tura, quick, I, 68, 9 ; 96, 8 ; III, 4, 

11; IV, 3, 8. 
turipa, seed, I, 142, 10; III, 4, 9. 
Turvaja, I, 36, 18 1 . 
Turvi'ti, I, 36, 18'. 
tuvi-gra, mightily devouring, 1, 1 40, 9. 
tuvi-griva, with mighty neck, V, 2, 1 2. 
tuvi-^ata, strong-born, IV, 11, 2 ; 

V, 2, 11; 27, *. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



445 



tuvi-dyumna, highly glorious, III, 
16, 3 ; 6. 

tuvf-brahman, knower of mighty 
spells, V, 25, 5. 

tuvfjrava£-tama, most mightily re- 
nowned, III, ii, 6 ; V, 25, 5. 

tuvishmat, mighty, IV, 5, 3. 

tuvi-svan, loudly roaring, V, 16, 3. 

tuvi-svanas, roaring mightily, IV, 6, 
10 - ; V, 8, 3. 

tuvi-svani, loudly roaring, I, 58, 4 ; 
127,6. 

tmvzi, swift, III, 3, 5 ; 11, 5. 

tur»i-tama, quickest, IV, 4, 3. 

tri, to get through, to overcome : 
ataran, I, 36, 8 ; t&Yan, III, 24, 
1 ; tury&ma, V, 9, 6 ; tarishawi, 
may they pass across, V, 10, 6 l ; 
tuturyat, may he traverse, V, 
15, 3 ;— titirvawsa^ ati sridha£, 
I, 36,7; atitarema, III, 27, 3; — 
with pra, to prolong, promote : 
pra-tiran, I, 44, 6 ; pra tira, 1, 
94, 16; III, 17, 2; pra tirasi, 
IV, 6, 1 ; pra tari pra-taram, 
IV, 12, 6 ; — vf tarit, he has 
crossed,, I, 69, 5 2 ; 73, 1; vi- 
taritrata, progressing, I,. 144, 3. 

tr/«a, grass, III, 29, 6. 

tr/d, to perforate : atr/wat, IV, 1, 
19 ; — anu tr/ndhi, V, 12, 2. 

trip, to satiate oneself: s6masya 
tranpatam, III, 12, 3. 

tnsh, to be thirsty: tatr/sha«a£, I, 
31, 7 2 ; atr/shyanti/6, free from 
thirst, I, 71, 3 2 , 4 ; tatrishawa^, 
11,4,6. 

tr/shu, thirsty, greedy, I, 58, 2 ; 4 ; 
IV, 4, 1; 7, 11. 

tr/shu-^yut, moving about thirstily, 

I, 140, 3. 

tr/sh/a, pungent sharpness, III, 9, 3. 
tegas, sharp splendour, I, 71, 8 2 ; 

sharpness : sam akr/'wvan te^ase, 

III, 2, 10. 
tigishtha, hottest, I, 127, 4 1 . 
te^iyas, sharpest, III, 19, 3. 
tokd, children : toka tanaya, kith 

and kin, I, 31, 12 1 ; 147, i 3 ; 

189, 2 ; IV, 12, 5 ; nftye toke, 

II, 2, 11; tokasya tane tanu- 
nam, II, 9, 2 ; tokeiya tu^-e, IV, 

i, 3. 
toka- vat, with offspring, III, 13, 7. 
toda, an or the impeller, I, 150, i 2 . 
toja, bounteous, III, 12, 4 1 . 



tmana, by oneself, by one's own 
power, I, 69, 10 ; 79, 6, &c. 

tmanya, thyself, I, 188, 10. 

traya^-triwjat, thirty-three (gods), 
\, 45? 2. 

Trasadasyu, V, 27, 3 2 . 

tra : trasate, may he protect, I, 128, 

5 ; 7. 

tra, protector, (I, 72, 5 s ). 

tratr/, protector, I, 31, 12; V, 24, 1. 

tri, three, I, 13, 9, &c. ; tn ro£a- 
nsini, the threefold light, I, 
149, 4 ; tisr/-bhya£ a varam, 

II, 5, 5 2 ; tisra/6 devih, II, 3, 8 ; 

III, 4, 8; V, 5, 8; trfei jata 
tn sahasrawi triwjat &a deva/6 
nava ka, III, 9, 9 ; trim ayu^shi, 
tisra>6 a-g&nifo, III, 17, 3 1 ; tri, 
tisra£, III, 20, 2. 

triwjat, thirty : triwjatam trm Aa. 

devan, III, 6, 9. 
Tr'-aruwa, V, 27, 1-3. 
tri-ajir, with threefold admixture 

(Soma), V, 27, 5 1 . 
Trita, V, 9, 5. 
tri-dhatu, threefold : arka>6 tri- 

<Mtu£, III, 26, 7 1 . 
tri-murdhan, having three heads, I, 

146, i 1 . 
tri-varutha, thrice-protecting, V, 4, 8. 
tri-vish/f, thrice, IV, 6, 4 ; 15, 2 l . 
tri-vr/t, threefold : tri-vr/t annam 

I, I4O, 2 2 . 

tris, thrice: trf^ sapta, I, 72, 6 1 ; 

trih a£an, III, 4, 2 ; trib. (read 

tri ?), IV, 1, 7 1 . 
tri-sadhastha, dwelling in three 

abodes, V, 4, 8 ; — threefold 

abode, V, 11, 2 2 . 
Traivrishwa, the son of Trivr/'shan, 

tva^, skin, III, 21, 5; — leather-bag 
(cloud), I, 79, 3 3 ; — tvaif upa- 
masyam, I, 145, 5 2 . 

tvad, pers. pron.: tve iti, in thee, I, 
26, 6; 36, 5 1 ; 6 ; te, ace, I, 
127, 9 2 ; V, 6, 4 1 ; te tubhyam, 
V, 6, 5 1 . 

tvadrik, directed towards thee, V, 
/ 3, 1 a.. 

Tvash/ri, N. of a god, I, 13, 10; 
95, 2 3 ; 5 2 ; 142, 10; 188, 9 ; 

} l >*>5 ; 3, 9; 111,4,9; v, 5,9. 

tva-uta, guarded by thee, I, 73, 9 ; 
74, 8; III, 19, 3; IV, 4, 14; 
V, 3, 6. 



446 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



tv#-data, given by thee, V, 7, 10. 
tv^i-duta, with thee as messenger, 

II, 10, 6 ; V, 6, 8. 
tva-ya, desire of worshipping thee, 

IV, 2, 6; 14. 

tvEi-vat, like thee : tva-van, I, 189, 6. 
Tvashft*ci, son of Tvashfr/, III, 7, 4 1 . 
tvish, see titvishawa. 
tvfshi, impetuous power, I, 71, 5 ; 

V, 8, 5. 

tveshd, impetuous, fierce, I, 36, 20 ; 
66, 6; 70, 11; 95, 8 ; 143, 3; 

II, 9, 1; III, 22, 2; 26, 5 ; 
IV, 6, 10 ; V, 8, 6. 

tveshatha, fierceness, I, 141, 8. 

tvesha-pratika, with sharp point, I, 
66, 7 

tsar : tatsara, he steals upon (his 
prey), I, 145, 4 ;— ava tsarat, he 
stealthily approached, I, 71, 5. 

dawj, to bite : dajate, I, 1 89, 5. 
dawsana, wonderful deed, III, 3, 

11 ; wonderful power, III, 9, 7. 
dawsas, wonderful deed, I, 69, 8. 
daksha, mind, I, 68, 8 ; — power, 

ability, skill, I, 76, 1 ; 95, 6 1 ; 

141, 11 2 ; III, 2, 3; 13, 2 ; IV, 

10, 2 ; V, 10, 2 ; 18, 2 ; 20, 3 ; 

daksham (conj. yaksham), IV, 

3, 13 3 ; Daksha personified, 

III, 27, 9 3 ; 10; V, 16, 2;— 
skilful, I, 59, 4 ; III, 14, 7. 

daksha-pati, lord of power, I, 95, 6. 
dakshas, ability, II, 1, 11. 
dakshayya, to be treated kindly, II, 

4, 3^ 

dakshwatas, from the right side, I, 

95, 6 2 . 
dakshiwa, the sacrificial gift, V, t, 3 s . 
dakshi«a-avr/t, turned to the right, 

I, 144, i 8 . 
dakshi/za-vah, carrying from left to 

right, III, 6, i 2 . 
dagdhri, burner, V, 9, 4. 
datvat, having teeth, I, 189, 5. 
Dadhi-kr2, III, 20, i 2 ; 5. 
dan, house : pati£ dan, lord of the 

house, I, 1 4& i 2 . 
danta, tooth : atharva£ na dantam, 

IV, 6, 8 2 . 

dabh, to deceive : dfpsanta£ na de- 
bhu£, I, 147, 3 ; dadabhanta, I, 
148, 2 ; dabhan, I, 148, 5; — 
jatrum a-dabhu/6, III, 16, 2. 

dabha, deceiver, V, 19, 4 3 . 



dabhra, few, I, 31, 6. 

dam, house: d&m-su, I, 141, 4. 

dama, house, I, 1, 8, &c. ; II, 1, 7 2 ; 
8 ; £itti£ apam dame, I, 67, 
io 1 ; dame-dame, house by 
house, I, 128, 4; IV, 7, 3; V, 
J, 5 ; 6, 8. 

damunas, domestic, friend of the 
house, I, 60, 4 2 ; 68, 9; 140, 
10; 141, 11 ; III, 1, 11 ; 17 ; 
2, 15; 3, 6; 5, 4 5 IV, 4, 11 ; 
11, 5 ; V, 1, 8 1 ; 4, 5 ; 8, 1. 

ddm-pati, master of the house, I, 
127, 8; V, 22, 4; — dam-pati, 
husband and wife, V, 3, 2. 

damya, domestic, III, 1, 15 ; 2, 8. 

day, to bestow : dayasva, I, 68, 6 ; — 
vi dayamana^, distributing, III, 
2, 11 ; vi day ate, he tears to 
pieces, IV, 7, 10. 

darvi, sacrificial ladle, V, 6, 9. 

darjatd, conspicuous, beautiful, I, 
36, 9 ;'T4i, 1; 144, 7; HI, h 
3 ; 10, 6; 27, 13. 

da/a-pramati : da/a-pramatim, read : 
daja pramatim, I, 141, 2V 

dajasy: sam dajasya, forgive, 111,7, 
10. 

das : sam-dadasvan, being ex- 
hausted (?), II, 2, 6 1 . 

dasma, wonderful, I, 77, 3 ; 148, 4 ; 

II, 1, 4; 9, 5 5 HI, 1, 7; 3, 2; 
IV, 1, 3 ; 6, 9 ; V, 6, 5 ; 17, 4. 

dasmat, possessed of wonderful 
power, I, 74, 4. 

Dasyu, I, 36, 18; 59, 6; V, 4, 6; 
pi., the Dasyus, I, 78, 4; III, 
29, 9; V, 7, 10; 14, 4. 

dah, to burn: daha, I, 12, 5, &c. ; 
dhakshat, burning, II, 4, 7 ; — 
anu dhakshi, II, 1, 10 ; — pra 
dhakshi,I,76, 3 ; — prati dahatat, 
burn against, III, 18,1; — sam 
daha, I, 36, 14 ; 20. 

da, to give : anu dui>, they give way, 

I, 127, 4 ; — na para dat, he will 
not surrender, V, 3, 12. 

da, to bind : ni-dadu£, (V, 2, 6 2 ) ; 

nf-ditam, V, 2, 7. 
da (do), to cut, to shear : dati, I, 65, 

? ; V, 7, 7. 
datr/, giver, I, 13, 11. 
datri, mower, V, 7, 7. 
dana, gift, V, 27, 5. 
davan : davane,for the sake of giving, 

II, 1, 10. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



447 



daj, to offer, worship : dadaja, I, 36, 
4, &c. ; ya£ tubhyam dajat, I, 
68, 6 ; dajat, IV, 2, 9 ; dajat 
ya7> asmai aram, who satisfies 
him, I, 70, 5 ; nama£ dajat, I, 
71, 6; agnaye dashri avase, I, 
127, 4 2 . 

daj, worship, I, 127, 7. 

daju-adhvara, performing worship, 

J, 75, 3 1 . 

dajvaws, worshipper, liberal giver, 

I, 1, 6 ; 27, 6, &c. 
das : abhi-dsisati, he tries to harm, 

,1, 79, 11. 

dasa-patni, (strongholds) of which 

the Dasas are the lords, III, 

12, 6. 
da^svat, munificent, I, 127, 1 ; II, 4, 

3 ; IV, 2, 7 ; V, 9, 2. 
Diti,IV,2, ii 8 . 
didrikshewya, worthy to be looked 

for, I, 146, 5. 
didriksheya, visible, III, 1, 12. 
didyu, arrow, I, 71, 5. 
didyut, shaft, I, 66, 7. 
didhish&yya, worthy to be searched 

for, desirable, I, 73, 2* ; II, 4, 1. 
didhishfi, seeking to obtain, 1, 71, 3 2 . 
div, see dyu. 
diva£-ru£, shining from heaven, III, 

, 7, 5. 
divakshas, dwelling in heaven, III, 

. » 7 ' 2 '- 

diva-tarat, more than by day, 1, 127, 

5 3 - 
divi-kshaya, dweller in heaven : divi- 

kshayam (conj. for divf ksha- 
^ yam), III, 2, 13 1 . 
divftmat, going to heaven, I, 26, 2. 
divish/i, the striving for day, I, 45, 

7 1 ; 141,6: — heaven-aspiring 

sacrifice, IV, 9, 3. 
divi-spr/j, attaining to Heaven, I, 

142, 8; V, 11, 1; 13, 2 1 . 
divya, heavenly, I, 143, 5; 144, 6 ; 

III, 2, 4; — divine: divysiya 

^anmane, I, 58, 6. 
dfj, quarter of the world : dfja£, I, 

31, 14 8 ; pra dfjam (for pra- 

d>'jam), I, 95, 3 2 . 
di, didi, to shine, I, 36, n, &c. ; 

rayfm asmasu didihi, shine upon 

us with thy wealth, II, 2, 6 ; 

didayet, may he illuminate, 1 1, 

4, . 3 ; duiyat (corij. di'dhyat), 

III, 1, i 8 ; devan ikkhz di'dy- 



ana£, brightly shining towards 

the gods, III, 15, 5 1 ; diclyatam 

br/'hat, III, 27, 15. 
didi-vaws, resplendent, I, 12, 5 ; 10, 

&c. 
dfdivi, shining, I, 1, 8. 
dTdhiti, (adoring) thought, devotion, 

111,4, 3; IV, 2, if ■ V, 18,4. 
dirgha, long-lasting : dirgha^ rayf£, 

IV, 2,5. 

dirgha- ay us, long living, IV, 15, 9; 10. 
dirgh&yu-joyfcis, flaming through long 

life, V, 18, 3. 
du^-itd, trouble, misfortune, danger, 

I, 99, 1 ; 128, 5; III, 20, 4; 

v, 3, ii.; 4, 9; 9, 6. 

du£-ukta, evil word, I, 147, 4. 
du/6-eva, of evil conduct, IV* 5, 5 ; 

V, 2, 9 . 

du£-g&, trouble, I, 99, 1 ; 189, 2. 
du£-gaha, difficulty, V, 4, 9. 
du£-gr/bhi, difficult to seize, 1, 140, 6. 
du^-gr/bhiy : du^-gr/bhiyase, thou 

showest thyself hard to seize, 

V, 9, 4. 
du/6-dabha, undeceivable, III, 2, 2 ; 

IV, 9, 2 ; 8. 
du^-dhita, badly-composed (prayer) , 

1, Ho, 11. 

du^-dhf, malicious, I, 94, 8 ; 9 ; III, 

16, 2. 
du£-matf, hatred, ill-will, III, 15,-6 ; 

IV, 11,6. 
du£-jawsa, one who curses, I, 94, 9. 
dugdha, milk, V, 19, 4 1 . 
du^Mna, misfortune, I, 189, 5. 
dudhita, confused, IV, 1, 17 1 . 
dur, gate, door, I, 68, 10 ; II, 2, 7 1 ; 

IV, 4, 6 ; dura£, the doors (of 
heaven), I, 69, 10 ; 188, 5 1 ; 
raya£ dura£, I, 72, 8. 

duritd, see du£-ita. 
dur6ka-joiis, he to whose flame 
men do not get accustomed, 

1,66, 5 1 . 

durowa, house, 1, 69, 4 ; 5 ; 70, 4 1 , &c. 

durga, see du/6-ga. 

durya, pi., dwelling, IV, 1, 9 ; 18; 

2, 12. 

duvas, worship, I, 36, 14 2 ; III, 2, 
6; 16, 4 ; IV, 2, 9; 8, 6. 

duvasana, hastening, IV, 6, io 2 . 

duvasy, to exalt: duvasyati, I, 78, 
2 ; III, 3, 1 ; duvasyan, III, 1, 
2 ; 13 ; duvasyata, III, 2, 8 ; 

V, 28, 6. 



448 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



dush, to violate : dudushat, III, 3, 1. 

dustara, invincible, I, 79, 8 1 ; II, 2, 
10; III, 24, 1 ; V, 15, 3. 

duh, to milk: dohase, I, 141, 2; 
am ri tarn duhana£, III, 1, 14. 

duhitr/, daughter, I, 71, 5 1 , 

dut&, messenger (Agni), I, 12, 1 ; 8 ; 
3 6 , 3-5 ; 44, 2; 3 ; 9; 11 ; 
58, 1 ; 60, 1 ; 72, 7; 74, 4 ; 
188, 1 ; 11,6,6; 7; 9, 2 ; III, 
3, 2; 5, 2; 9; 6, 5; 9, 8; 11, 
2; 17, 4; IV, 1, 8; 2, 2 ; 7,4; 
9; 11 ; 8, 1 ; 9, 2; V, 3, 8 ; 
8, 6 ; 11, 4; 21, 3 ; 26, 6. 

dutya, the work of a messenger: 
dutyam (y&si), I, 12, 4 ; 44, 12 ; 
74, 7 ; messengership, I, 71, 4 s ; 
IV, 7, 8 ; 8, 4 ; 9, 6. 

dure-bha, far-shining, I, 65, 10. 

dW, to rend : dadr/-va#zsa£, IV, 1,14. 

drtlhi, strong, I, 71, 2; 72, 8. 

drwika, beautiful, I, 27, 10; — sight, 
I, 66, 10 ; 69, 10. 

dr/jya, visible, IV, 2, 12. 

drishat-vati, N. of a river, III, 23, 4. 

deva, god, I, 1, 2, &c. ; deva£ deve- 
bhi£, devanam, &c, I, 1, 5 ; 
13, 11; 31, 1; 9 ; 68, 2 1 ; 94, 
13; 142, 11; II, 3, 1 ; IV, 15, 
1 ; devam-devam, this or that 
god, I, 26, 6 ; bhuva£ devanam 
pitsi putra£ san, I, 69, 2 ; de- 
vanam ^anma, I, 70, 6 ; devan 
(i. e. devam) ^anma, I, 71, 3 5 , 6 ; 
IV, 1, 2 2 ; 2, 17 2 ; p^tha* de- 
vebhya£, I, 188, io 1 ; devanam 
^animani, III, 4, 10 ; devanam 
guhya namani, V, 5, 10 ; de- 
vjisa£ sarvaya vija 7 , V, 26, 9 ; — ■ 
vfjve deva^, II, 3, 4 1 ; V, 3, 1 ; 
26,4 ; — divine, I, 1, 1 ; III, 20, 
4; dvara£ devL&, I, 13, 6; II, 
3> 5 ; V, 5, 5 ; deva barhi£, II, 
3,4; dhfyam dev'i'm, III, 18, 
3 ; dev& patni£, IV, 5, 13. 

deva-avf, eagerly longing for the 
gods, III, 29, 8. 

deva-kama, loving the gods, II, 3, 9 ; 
III, 4, 9. 

deva-^ush/a, agreeable to the god, 

h 77, 1. 
deva-#uta, sent by the gods, IV, 11,4. 
deva-tati, the divine world, host of 

the gods, I, 127, 9; T4i, 10 ; 

III, 19, 2; 4 ; 26, 2; IV, 6,3 ; 

9 ; deva-tata, among the gods, 



I, 58, 1; 95, 8 3 ; 128, 2; III, 

19, 1 ; IV, 6, 1. 

deva-tr^, to the gods, 1, 128, 6 5 ; III, 

1, 22 ; — among the gods, III, 8, 

7; V, 20, 1. 
deva-tva, divinity, I, 68, 4 ; 69, 6 1 . 
devadrya//£, turned towards the 

gods: devadrfeim, III, 6, i 2 . 
devapsara^-tama, most agreeable to 

the gods, I, 75, 1. 
deva-bhakta, god-given, IV, 1, 10. 
deva-ya < gya', worship as is due to the 

gods, V, 21, 4. 
deva-yat, worshipping, or longing 

for, the gods, pious, I, 36, i 4 ; 

77, 3 ; 111,5, 1 ; 6,1; 3; 8, 1 ; 

4; 6; 10, 7 ; 29, 12 ; IV, 2, 

17; 11, 5; V, 1, 4; 21, 1. 
deva-y^, approaching the gods, III, 

8,5 s . 
deva-yana, (the ways) which the 

gods go : adhvana/6 deva-yanan, 

I, 72, 7 8 . 
deva-yu, godly, IV, 2, 7 ; 9, r. 
deva-vata, beloved by the gods, III, 

20, 2 ; IV, 3, 15 ; — Devavata, N. 
p., Ill, 23, 2. 

deva-vgihana, drawinghither the gods, 
III, 27, 14. 

deva-vi'tama, most excellently re- 
pairing to the gods, I, 36, 9. 

deva-viti, feast of the gods, I, 12, 
9; III, 17,5; 21, 2. 

devavya£a£-tama, which best receives 
the gods with its wide extent, 
I, 142, 5; IV, 26, 8; V, 22, 2. 

deva-vya^as, receiving the gods, III, 

4, 4. 
deva-jas, for each of the gods, III, 

21, 5. 

Deva-jravas, N. p., Ill, 23, 2 ; 3. 
deva-hutama, best invoker of the 

gods, III, 13, 6. 
devahuti, invocation of the gods, I, 

12, 12. 
deva#£, turned towards the gods, I, 

127, 1. 
devi', goddess, I, 13, 9; III, 7, 2 2 ; 

25, 3 ; IV, 14, 3; tisra£ devi&, 

11,3,8; 111,4,8; V, 5 , 8. 
devya, godhead, I, 140, 7. 
desh«a, gift, II, 9, 4. 
Daiva-vata, (Agni) of Devavata, III, 

23, 3; — son of Devavata, IV, 

15, 4 1 - 
dafvya, divine, I, 27, 12 ; II, 5, 2; 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



449 



III, 20, 4 ; dafvya h6tara, I, 13, 
8 1 ; 142, 8; 188, 7 ; II, 3, 7 ; 
III, 4, 7; V, 5, 7; dafvyam 
^•anam, host of the gods, I, 31, 
17; 44, 6; 45, i 1 , 2 ; 9; 10; V, 
13, 3 ; dafvyani vrata 7 , I, 70, 2 ; 
dafvya^ jamita', II, 3, 10; ma- 
dhuna daivyena, III, 8, i 2 ; va- 
£asa dafvyena, IV, 1, 15; daf- 
vyani, divine powers, IV, 4, 5. 

do, see da. 

d6gha, milkstream, V, 15, 5 1 . 

dosha, evening : dosha 7 ushasi, II, 8, 
3 ; IV, 2, 8 ; prati dosham 
ushasam, IV, 12, 2 ; V, 5, 6 ; 
dosha', at evening, IV, 11, 6. 

d6sha*-vastar, shining in the darkness, 
1,1,7*; IV, 4 , 9 1 - 

dohina, stream (?), I, 144, 2 1 . 

dyaVaksh&ma, du., Heaven and Earth, 
I, 96, 5; 140, 13; III, 8, 8 1 . 

dyavapr/thivi', du., Heaven and Earth, 
I, 31, 8; II,i,i5; 2,3; 7; HI, 
3, 11 ; 25, 3 ; 26,8; IV, 14, 2. 

dyu, sky, heaven, Heaven, I, 31, 4 1 , 
&c. J 67, 5 2 ; upa-ma' diva£, 
I, 31, 15 1 ; diva£ n£ sanu, I, 

58, 2 ; murdha diva£, I, 59, 2 ; 
III, 2, 14 ; diva£ br/hata£, I, 

59, 5 ; 7 r , 2 ; dyau£ na bhuma, 
I, 65, 3 1 ; diva£ £y6ti£, I, 69, 1 ; 
mahe pitre dive, I, 71, 5 1 ; IV, 
1, 10 ; dyau£ (conj. dy6£), I, 
71, 8*; dlvih akshi iti, I, 72, 
io 1 ; pari^manam-iva dyam, I, 
127, 2 s ; dyava pr/thiv? iti, 
Heaven and Earth, I, 143, 2; 
vfjva diva£ ro^ana, I, 146, 1 ; 
111,6,8; 12,9; dyu-bhi£ tvam 
(conj. dyu-bhya£), II, 1, i 2 ; 
&sura£ maha£ divaT?, II, 1, 6; 
diva£-iva aratf£, II, 2, 2 ; dyau£ 
na strz-bhi£, II, 2, 5 ; IV, 7, 
3 ; tisra£ dfva£, II, 3, 2 ; diva£ 
kavinam, III, 1, 2 ; diva£ pri- 
thivy^, III, 1, 3 ; 6, 2 3 ; 3 ; 
25, 1 ; IV, 5, 11 ; diva£ yahvi&, 
III, 1, 6 ; 9 4 ; diva£ prishtb&m, 
III, 2, 12 ; divf ksh&yam (conj. 
divikshayam) III, 2, 13 1 ; ketum 
diva£, III, 2, 14; diva£ nsibha, 

III, 4, 4 ; varshman div££, III, 
5, 9 ; dyaVa, HI, 6, 4 2 ; diva/; 
a>»am, III, 22, 3 ; diva£ putra£, 

IV, 2, 15; diva£ ^ikitvan, IV, 
3, 8 ; divih a-r6dhanani, IV, 



7, 8 ; 8, 2 ; 4 ; diva>6 skam- 
bhihy IV, 13, 5; diva£ jfjum, 

IV, 15, 6 2 ; diva£ &t brMt, 
more mightily than even the 
sky, V, 10, 4 2 ; diva£ dharman, 

V, 15, 2 2 ; clival na retasa, V, 

17, 3 s . 

dyu, day : dive-dive, day by day, I, 
1, 3 ; 7, &c. ; dxv&h purva£, 
before daybreak, I, 60, 2 ; anu 
dyun, day by day, 1, 71, 6 ; 148, 
4; A HI, 23, 2 ; IV, 4, 8; 9; 
diva naktam, I, 98, 2 ; 144, 4 2 ; 
trih & diva£, I, 142, 3 ; dyu- 
bhi£, day by day, III, 3, 2 ; V, 
16, 2. 

dyuksha, heavenly, II, 2, 1. 

dyut, to shine : vi abhf dyaut, mayest 
thou beam forth, IV, 4, 6 ; — vf 
didyuta^, make shine, II, 2, 7 ; 
vf adyaut, thou hast shone forth, 

III, 1, 8 ; 18 ; vf didyutan££, 
flashing, III, 7,4 ; — sam adyaut, 
HI, 5, 2. 

dyu-bhakta, assigned by Heaven, I, 

73 ; 6 ; IV, 1, 18. 
dyu-mat, brilliant, I, 74, 9; II, 7, 

1; 9, 6; III, 10, 8; 13, 7 ; V, 

23, 4. 
dyumat-tama, most brilliant, V, 24, 2 1 . 
dyumna, splendour, I, 73, 4, &c. ; 

dyumnata, with (songs full of) 

splendour, I, 78, 1-5 ; dyum- 

ndsya javasa, V, 7, 3. 
dyumnd-vat, brilliant, III, 29, 15. 
dyumnfn, brilliant, I, 36, 8. 
dyumnfn-tama,mostbrilliant,I,i27,9. 
drapsa, spark, I, 94, 11; — banner, 

IV, 13, 2 2 . 

dravat, see dru. 

dravi»a£-das, giver of wealth, II, 6, 3. 

dravi«a£-d£i, giver of wealth, I, 96, 
1-8; II, 1,7. 

draviwas, wealth, I, 96, 8 ; — wealth- 
giver, III, 7, 10. 

draviwasyu, aspiring after wealth, II, 
6, 3; V, 13, 2. 

dru, to run: dravat, speedily, I, 44, 
7; dravatam, III, 14, 3; dru- 
r&n&hl IV, 4, 1 2 . 

dru-anna, feeding on wood, II, 7, 6. 

druh, guile, IV, 4, 15. 

dru-hantara, a mighty woodcutter, 

(I,"7,,3*). 
druham-tara, conqueror of deceitful 
foes, I, 127, f. 



[46] 



Gg 



45° 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



dvaya, falsehood, I, 147, 4 ; 5 ; V, 

3, 7; 12, 2. 

dvar, door : dvara£ devL&, the divine 
doors, I, 13, 6 ; 142, 6 ; II, 3, 
5 ; V, 5, 5 ; dvara, the two folds 
of the door, I, 128, 6; dvara 
t£masa£, III, 5, 1. 

dwib p&nkai, twice five, IV, 6, 8 1 . 

dvi-#anman, of double birth (Agni), 
I; 60, i 1 ; 140, 2 1 ; 149, 4; 5. 

Dvita, V, 18, 2 2 . 

dvita, forsooth, verily, I, 127, 7 ; II, 

4, 2 2 ; III,2,i«; 17, 5 1 . 
dvi-pad, two-footed, I, 94, 5. 
dvi-b&rhas, twofold, I, 71, 6; — 

doubly-powerful, IV, 5, 3 1 . 
dvi-matr/, having two mothers, I, 

3i, 2 1 . 
dvfsh, hostile power, I, 97, 7 ; II, 

7, 2; 3 ; III, 15, 1. 
dvesha£-yut, driving away malice, 

IV, 11, 5; V, 9 , 6. 
dveshas, hatred, malice, II, 6, 4 ; 

IV, 1, 4 ; 10, 7; V, 20, 2 ;— 

hostile power, HI, 16, 5-; 27, 3. 

dhakshi (Sawhita : dakshi), voc. (?), 
O burning one (?), I, 141, 8 2 . 

dhakshu, burning, II, 4, 4. 

dhakshus, burning, I, 141, 7. 

dhan : dhanayan, they set into 
motion, I, 71, 3 ; — dadhanyu£ 
(read dadhanvu£ ?), IV, 3, 12' 2 . 

dhana, prize, I, 31, 6 ; 8 ; 36, 4. 

dhanam-^aya, winning the prize, I, 

74, 3. 
dhana-sa, gaining wealth, II, 10, 6 1 . 
dhana-spr/t, winner of prizes, I, 36, 

10 ; V, 8, 2. 
dhanfn, rich, I, 150, 2 ; — containing 

the prize of the contest, IV, 2, 

i5 3 . 
dh&nus, dry land: dhano£ £dhi, I, 

144, 5 2 . 
dhanya, precious, III, 1, 16. 
dhanv, to run along : dadhanve, 

II, 5, 3 ; dadhanvu£, (IV, 3, 

f I2 2 ). 

dhanvan, dry ground, I, 95, 10; 

— desert, V, 7, 7. 
dhanva-sih, a conquering bowman, 

I, 127, 3 6 . 
dham, to melt : dhamanta&, IV, 2, 

17 1 ; — upa dhamati dhmatari, V, 

dhariman, firm law, I, 128, i 1 . 



dharu/za, supporter : dharu»a£ rayi- 
«am, I, 73, 4 2 ; supporting, V, 
15, 1 ; 2 ; 5 1 ;— firm ground, 
HI, 3, 1. 

dharwasf, firm, 1, 141, 1 1 ; — supporter, 
V, 8, 4. 

dharwf, supporter, I, 127, 7. 

dhartr/, supporter, V, 1, 6 ; 9, 3. 

dharman, law, ordinance, III, 3, 1 ; 
V, 26, 6; prathamaanu dharma, 
III, 17, 1 ; ami dhaVma, III, 
17, 5 ;— support, V, 15, 2. 

dha, to put, place, give: dadhire, I, 

26, 8, &c. ; k&nah dha£, accept, 
I, 26, 10 ; dadhire, have been 
laid down, I, 59, 3 1 ; d&dhana^, 
obtaining, I, 73, 5 2 ; ma1d£ na£ 
du^-itaya dhayi£, do not deliver 
us to distress, 1, 147, 5 ; d£dhat, 
3rd pers. or part., I, 188, 2 1 ; 
dadhire pura£, they have placed 
in front (as Purohita), III, 2, 5 ; 
dhishva, III, 6, 6 ; didhishantu, 
may they bestow, III, 8, 6; 
dh#mahe,may we acquire,V,i6, 
5 ; — a dadhe, I have established, 
III, 27, 9 2 ; — nf dadhe, he has 
established, I, 36, 19 ; nf dadhe, 
I have laid down, III, 23, 4 1 ; 

27, io 1 ; ni dadhu£ (conj. nf 
dadu£?), V, 2, 6 2 ; ni dhatte 
pura£, V, 28, 2 1 ; — vi-dhati, he 
worships (conj. for vi-bhati), 

1, 71, 6 1 ; vi dha/->, distribute, I, 
72, 7 ; IV, 6, 11 ; vi dadhau, 
he determines, I, 95, 3. 

dha, to suckle : dhapayete iti, I, 96, 
5; adhayat, 1, 144, 2; III, 1, 10; 
V, 1, 3*; — upa dhapayete iti, I, 

A 95, 1. 

dhatr/, establisher, IV, 7, 1. 

dhsina: pari dhanam akt6£, about 
nightfall (?), Ill, 7, 6. 

dhaman, foundation, I, 95, 9 1 ; 144, 
1* ; HI, 3, 4 ; IV, 7, 7 ;— abode, 
11,3,2; 11; — statute, law, III, 

2, 10 ; 7, 6; IV, 5, 4;— form: 
sapta dhama-bhL6, IV, 7, 5 1 . 

dhayas, prospering, I, 31, 13 ; — 
refreshment, refreshing drink, 
I, 72, 9; 94, 12; 141, 6; 11,5, 
7 ; V, 7, 6 ; 9 ; 1^5, 4. 

dhstra, stream : dharam r/tasya, I, 
67 v . 7 1 ; V, 12, 2; dhaYa£ udan- 
yai-iva, II, 7, 3 ; dhara£, III, 
1, 8 ; 9. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



451 



dh&v : ni dh&vate, he runs down, I, 

141, 5. 
dhasf, drink, I, 140, i 2 ; III, 7, i 1 ; 

/; IV, 3,9; V, 12,4. 

dhitct-van, in whom (wealth) has 
been laid down, III, 27, 2. 

dhiyam-dhst, thoughtful, I, 67, 4 ; 
72, 2. 

dhiyji-vasu, giving wealth for prayer, 
I, 58, 9; 60, 5; HI, 3, 2 ; 28, 1. 

Dhisha«a, N. of a goddess, I, 96, i 2 ; 
III, 2, , 2 . 

dhishwya, liberal (?), Ill, 22, 3 1 . 

dhfshwya, the Dhish«ya altar, IV, 3,6\ 

dhi, to think : dev&n a£££a di'dhyat 
(conj. for di'dyat), III, 1, i 8 ; — 
ami vratam didhyana£, contem- 
plating the law, III, 4, 7. 

dhi', (pious) thought, prayer, I, 1, 7 ; 
27, 11, &c. ; 95, 8 2 ; III, 11, 
2 ; 3 ; 12, 1 ; yant&ram dhinam, 

III, 3, 8 ; dhiysL ^akre, III, 27, 
9 1 ; ^akr/panta dhibhf>6, IV, 1, 
14. 

dhitf, thought, I, 68, 5 1 ; 71, 3 1 ; HI, 
12, 7; i3, 5; V, 25, 3; devo- 
tion, I, 77, 4 ; pious thought, 
i. e. hymn, or prayer, I, 143, 1 ; 
144, 5; IV, 5,7. 

dhira, wise, I, 65, a 1 , &c. 

dhuni, roaring, I, 79, i 2 . 

dhur, to harm : adhurshata, V, 12, 5. 

dhur, pole, III, 6, 6. 

dhu, to shake : adhunot, I, 59, 6 ; 
davidhava, I, 140, 6 ; dodhaviti, 
he waves, 1 1, 4, 4 2 ; adhunutam, 
you have hurled down, III, 12, 
6 ; davidhvat, shaking, IV, 13, 
2 ; davidhvata^, having shaken, 
IV,i3,4 2 ; — ava-dhunushe, thou 
hurlest away, I, 78, 4. 

dhu^-sad, charioteer, I, 143, 7 ; II, 

2, ,*. 

dhuma, smoke, I, 36, 9; III, 29, 9 ; 

IV, 6, 2; V, 11, 3. 
dhuma-ketu, whose banner is smoke, 

I, 27, 11; 44, 3. 
dhuma-ketu, banner of smoke, I, 94, 

10 1 . 
dhumfn, smoky, V, 9, 5 2 . 
dhurti, mischief, I, 36, 15 ; 128, 7. 
dhr/, to hold : dadhara, 1, 66, 3, &c. ; 

— ni-dharayanta£, setting down, 

IV, 2, 12. 
dhr/ta-vrata, whose laws are firm, I, 

44, H; Mi, 9 5 II, 1, 4. 

G 



dhr/sh : & dadharshit, may he defy, 
IV, 4, 3 ; na a-dhr/she, not to 
be defied, V, 8, 5. 

dhr/shag-? V, 19, 5 1 . 

dhr/'shata 7 , fiercely, I, 71, 5 ; IV, 4, 
2 ; 5, 6. 

dhrish/m-ya, fiercely, V, 10, 5. 

dhena, stream, I, 141, 1 ; shower, 

HI, 1, 9 2 . 
dhenu, milch cow, I, 66, 2 ; 73, 6 ; 

II, 2, 2; 9 1 ; 5, 5 1 ; III, 1, 7; 
6, 4 ; IV, 1, 6 ; 16 ; dhenu iti, 
I, 146,3 s ; divakshasa^ dhena- 
va£, III, 7, 2 2 . 

dhma, see dham. 

dhmatr/, smelter, V, 9, 5. 

dhra^ : upa dhra^antam, speeding 

forward, I, 149, 1. 
dhr&g-imat, hasting, I. 79, 1. 
dhruva, firm, I, 36, 5 1 , &c. ; £arata£ 

dhruvasya, I, 146, j ; dhruve* 

(for Pada : dhruva^), III, 6, 4 1 . 
dhruva-kshema, dwelling in firm 

peace, IV, 13, 3. 
dhvaws : dhvasayantam, sparkling, 

I, 1 40, 3 ; dhvasayanta^, I, 

140, 5. 
dhvasman, bespatterer, IV, 6, 6. 
dhvr/, see dhur. 

n£, ' like,' and na, ' not,' I, 127, 3 6 . 

nakis, not, I, 27, 8 ; 69, 7. 

nakta, Night : n&kta ^a ushasa, I, 
73, 7 ; naktam, by night, I, 98, 
2 ; 127, 5 ; 144, 4 2 ; V, 7,4. 

nakta-ya 7 , by night, IV, 11, 1. 

nakti, Night: naktf£ ushasa£, 11,2, 2. 

Naktoshasa, du., Night and Dawn, I, 

13, 7 ; 96, 5 ; 142, 7. 

naksh, to reach: nakshante, I, 66, 
9 ; — abhi nakshati, I, 95, 10. 

nad: nanadat, roaring, I, 140, 5; 
^ III, 2, 11. 

napat, offspring : urg-a^ napat, I, 58, 
8; II, 6, 2 ; III, 27, 12; V, 
1 7, 5 ; — apain napat, the child of 
the Waters, I, 143, i 2 ; III, 9, 1. 

naptr/, offspring: xirgah ndptre, V, 

7,i. 
nabhanya? I, 149, 3 2 . 
nabhas, cloud, I, 71, 10 ; II, 4, 6 ; 

III, 12, i ] . 

nam : a-namam, to direct, IV, 8, 3. 
nama£-ukti, praise, I, 189, 1 ; III, 

14, 2 2 . 
n£mas, adoration, reverence, I, 1, 7, 

g 2 



452 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



&c. ; namasa, adoringly, III, 

14, 5. 
namasy, to worship, adore : namasy- 
anti, I, 36, 19; namasya, I, 44, 
6 1 ; namasyan, I, 72, 5 ; nama- 
syata, III, 2, 8 ; namasy ama£, 
111,17,4; namasy an ta£, adoring, 

IV, 6, ii. 

namasya, to be adored, venerable, 
1,72, 5 2 ; II, 1, 3; 10; III, 5, 
2; 27, 13. 

namasvfn, adorer, I, 36, 7. 

Narajawsa/song of men' or 'praised 
by men,' I, 13, 3 1 ; 142, 3 ; II, 
3, 1 ; III, 29, 11 ; V, 5, 2. 

narya, manly power, I, 72, i 1 . 

nava, new, young, I, 31, 8, &c. ; — 
navyaws, navyasi, I, 27, 4 ; 60, 
3/ Hi* 5 5 J 43, 1 ; HI, 2, 13 ; 
naviyasa, I, 12, 11; — navya£, 
gen., V, 12, 3 1 ; — navish^a, 
youngest, V, 27, 3. 

nava-ga, new-born, IV, 6, 3. 

nava-g-ata, new-born, V, 15, 3. 

navati', ninety: navatfm pura£, III, 
12, 6. 

navamam, for the ninth time, V, 

27, 3 3 . 
Nava-vastva, I, 36, 18 1 . 
navedas, watcher: ushasa£ naveda£, 

I, 79, 1 3 ; — witness, V, 12, 3. 
navya, young, I, 141, 10; 189, 2. 
naj, to attain : najate, V, 4, n ;— & 

imaf, I, 71, 8. 
naj : ne\rat, it disappeared, IV, 1, 17. 
Nahusha, N. of a clan, I, 31, n 2 ; 

V, 12,6. 
Nahus, (I, 31, 11 2 ). 

n8ka, sky, firmament : pipe\ra nakam 
str/bhi£, I, 68, 10 ; — III, 2, 12 ; 

5, 10; IV, 13,5; V, 1, 1 ; 17,2. 
nana-ratham, on many chariots, III, 

6, 9. 

nandf, delight : nandye, I, 145, 4. 

Nabhanedish^a, (I, 142, io 1 ). 

na'bhi, navel, centre, I, 59, i 2 ; 142, 
io 1 ; III, 5, 5 ; IV, 10, 8; 
nabhi£ pr/thivya£, I, 59, 2 ; 
143, 4 ; II, 3, 7; III, 5, 9; 
29, 4 ; pra-^am n&bhim, II, 3, 
9; diva7> nabha, III, 4, 4; 
amr/tasya nabhim, III, 17, 4. 

naman, name : deva-tvam nama, 
amr/tam n^ima, I, 68^ 4 1 ; nzi- 
mani dadhire ya^wfyani, I, 72, 
3 ; prathamam nama dhen6£, 



IV, 1, 16 ; guhyam ntoa, V, 3, 

2 ; 3 ; 5, 10 ; bhuri nama da- 

dhati, V, 3, 10. 
nari, wife, I, 73, 3. 
narmi;zi? I, 149, 3 1 . 
nava, boat : navaya, I, 97, 8 1 . 
Nasatya, IV, 3, 6 3 ; — du., the Ajvins, 

IV, 14, i 2 . f 
niws, to kiss : nfwsate, I, 144, i 4 . 
nf-kama, desirous of, III, 1, 15. 
niksh : vi-nikshe, to pierce, V, 2, 9. 
ni-^ira, watchful, III, 9, 4. 
niwik, secretly, IV, 5, 8 1 . 
ni«ya, hidden, I, 95, 4 1 ; inmost, IV, 

3, 16. 
nitya, one's own, I, 66, i 1 ; 5 ; 71, 

1 ; 140, 7; 148, 3; 5; II, 2, 
11 ; — true (friend of men), I, 
141, 2 2 ; — nftyam, constantly, I, 

73,4. 
nftya-aritra, with its own rudders, 

1, 140, 12 1 . 

nid : nidanai>, scolding, IV, 5, 12. 
nid, scoffer, III, 16, 5 ; — revilement, 

IV, 4, 15. 
ninitsu, who tries to revile, I, 189, 6. 
ninditr/, reproacher, V, 2, 6. 
nindya, reproachable, V, 2, 6. 
ni-mfsh, closing of the eyes, I, 72, 5*. 
ni-va^ana, invocation, I, 189, 8; 

— recitation, IV, 3, 16. 
ni-vat, depth : ut-vata£ ni-vata^, III, 

2, 10. 

ni-vartana, return, III, 9, 2. 

ni-vfd, the Nivid formula, I, 96, 2 1 . 

nishka-griva, with a golden ornament 
at his neck, V, 19, 3. 

nf-hita, laid down, I, 72, 6. 

ni, to lead : padam nayanti, they 
follow his track, I, 146, 4 2 ; — 
pari nayanti, they carry around, 
I, 95, 2* ; pari niyate, he is led 
around, IV, 15, 1. 

ni/a, nest, IV, 1, 11 ; 12. 

nitha, song, IV, 3, 16. 

nitha-vid, knowing all the ways, III, 
Af 12,5. 

nila-prish/y&a, with the dark blue 
back, III, 7, 3. 

nu, to low, roar : navanta, I, 66, 10 ; 
nonava, I, 79, 2 ; — to shout 
(hymns of praise) : navanta, I, 
69, 10 ; — abhf pra nonuma£, I, 
78, 1-5 ; abhf anushata, they 
have greeted with shouts, I, 144, 

2 ; IV, 1 , 16; abhf anushata, 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



453 



(the hymns) have been sung, 

V, 5, 4 ; — sam navanta, IV, 3, 

11. 
nu, now : nu £it nu, I, 58, i 1 ; nu £a 

purg *a, I, 96, 7. 
nutana, present, recent, 1, 1, 2 ; III, 

1, 20. 
nuncim, now : adya" nfinam ^a, I, 13, 

6 ; nunam aparam, now and ia 

future, I,, 1 89, 4. 
nr/, man : nr/n (for various cases), 

I, 146, 4 5 ; III, 14, 4 1 ; IV, 2, 

J 5 2 ; V, 15, 2 2 ; nara£ maruta£, 

III, 16, 2 1 ; jawse nr/'w&m, III, 

16, 4. 
nri-^akshas, beholding men, III, 15, 

^ 3 ; 22, 2 ; IV, 3, 3. 
nrz-tama, manliest, I, 59, 4 ; 77, 4 ; 

III, 1, 12 ; 19, 3 ; IV, 5, 2 ; 

nr/'-pati, lord of men, I, 71, 8 s ; II, 

I, 1 5 7- 

nri-pejas, (the divine doors) with 
men as their ornaments, III, 4, 

sV. 

nr/'mwa", manly power, I, 67, 3 ; V, 

19, 2. 
nr/-v£t, with men, V, 18, 5. 
nr/vdt-sakhi, rich in manly friends, 

IV, 2, 5 1 . 

nri-s&dana, seat of men, V, 7, 2. 
nr/-han, man-killer, IV, 3, 6. 
netr/, leader, III, 15, 4; 20, 4; 

isham neta, III, 23, 2 2 . 
nedish^a, near, nearest, I, 127, 11 ; 

IV, 1, 5. 
nemd-dhiti, discord, I, 72, 4 2 . 
nemi, felly, I, 141, 9 ; II, 5, 3 ; V, 

13, 6. 
n£sha-tama, best leading, I, 141, 12. 
nesh/ri, the N. priest, II, 5, 5 1 . 
nesh/ra, office of the Nesh/r/ (priest), 

II, 1, a. 

nau, boat : nava-iva, I, 97, 7 ; 99, 
1 ; V, 25, 9 ; sindhum na navst, 

V, 4, 9 ; nsLvam nitya-aritram 
pat-vatim, I, 140, 12 1 . 

nyaȣ, directed downwards : rnk\h, 
I, 66, io 2 ; 72, 10*. 

pakva\ ripe, I, 66, 3 ; IV, 3, 9. 

pa^atct, baked, III, 28, 2. 

p&«£an, five : £dhi p£»£a krishWshu, 
over the fivefold dwellings (of 
the five peoples), II, 2, 10. 

pa/atfajft, fifty, V, 18, 5. 



pat: patyate, he rules, I, 128, 7; 
patyase, thou possessest, II, 1,8. 
pat, to fly: patanti mfha£, I, 79, 2. 
patangd, winged (flames), IV, 4, 2. 
patatrm, winged, I, 58, 5 2 ; 94, 11. 
patara, winged : pr/jnya>6 pataram, 

11,2,4. 

pati, lord, I, 26, 1, &c; pati£ dan, 
I, 149, i 2 ; — husband, I, 66, 8 ; 

71, 1; IV, 3, 2 1 . 

pati^ush/a (nari), (a wife) beloved 

by her husband, I, 73, 3. 
pati-rip, deceiving her husband, IV, 

5 ' 5# AT 

patni, consort : devi£ patni £, IV, 5, 

patni-vat, together with the wife, I, 

72, 5; III, 6, 9. 

patman, flight, I, 141, 7; V, 5, 7. 
pat-vat, having feet, I, 140, 9; pat- 

Vcitim navam, I, 140, 12 1 . 
patvan, flight, V, 6, 7. 
pathya, path, III, 14, 3. 
pad, to fall : padish/a, 1, 79, 1 1 ;— ava 

padyate, IV, 13, 5. 
pad, foot : pada£ ni dadhati, I, 146, 

2 ; pad-bhf£ (conj. for pa£-bhi7>), 

IV, 2, 14 2 . 

pada, footstep, footmark, track, I, 
65, 2; 67, 6 2 ; IV, 5, 3; padam 
nayanti, they follow his track, 

I, 146, 4 2 ; padam ve7>, III, 5, 
5 1 ; 6; IV, 5, 8 4 ; padam Vish- 
noh upa-mdm, V, 3, 3; — standing- 
place, abode : pade parame, I, 
72, 2 ; 4 ; trih sapta" guhyani 
pada 7 , steps or places, I, 72, 6 1 ; 
Mih pade, I, 128, 1; ritasya 
pade, IV, 5, 9 ; matu£ pade 
parame, IV, 5, 10. 

pada-vi, following the footsteps, I, 

72, 2 2 ; 111,5, i 1 . 
pan, to praise: pananta, II, 4, 5 1 ; 

pan&yanta, III, 6, 7 ; panaya, 

V, 20, i\ 2 . 

pdnish^a, most wonderful, III, 1, 1 3. 
paniyaws, highly miraculous, V, 6, 4. 
panu, praise, I, 65, 4. 
payas, milk, I, 66, 2 ; 79? 3 ; IV, 3, 

9; 10. 
payasvat, rich in milk, II, 3, 6. 
par, see pri. 
para, distant, III, 18, 2. 
para£-pa, a protector far and wide, 

II, 9, 2 ; 6. 

paraju, axe, I, 127, 3 ; IV, 6, 8. 



454 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



paras, beyond : para£ manishaya, V, 

17, 2 2 . 
parastat, on high, III, 22, 3. 
parci-vata£, from afar, I, 36, 18 ; 73, 

6 ; III, 9, 5. 
pari, prep., from, I, 31, 4 ; — for the 

sake of, III, 5, io 1 . 
pari-kshit, encompassing, III, 7, 1. 
pari-^man, walking round the earth, 

I, 79, 3 2 ; 127, 2 s ; III, 2,9 s ; 

IV, 3, 6*; V, 10,5. 
pari-takmya, the decisive moment, 

I,3i,6 3 , 4 . 
pari-badh, hindrance, V, 2, 10. 
pari-bhu, encompassing, I, 1, 4 ; 97, 

6 ; 141, 9; III, 3, 10. 
pari-vita, enveloped, 1, 128, i 3 ; III, 

8, 4 1 ; IV, 1,7. 

parish/i, encompassing, I, 65, 3 1 . 
panwas, abundance, III, 24, 5; V, 

10, 1. 
parish/i, searching, (I, 65, 3 1 ). 
parusha, speckled, V, 27, 5. 
parvan, joint (of the month) : par- 

va»a-parva»a, I, 94, 4 1 . 
palita, grey, I, 144, 4 ; fern, palikni, 

V, 2, 4 2 . 

pavitra, purification, III, 1, 5 ; — puri- 
fying strainer, III, 26, 8. 

paj, to see : ati pajyasi, I, 94, 7 ; 
— pari apajyanta, they have 
searched, I, 146, 4 ; — vf pajya, 
look forth, III, 23, 2 2 . 

paj, eye : pa/-bhi£, IV, 2, 12 2 ; pa/- 
bhib (conj. pad-bhi£), IV, 2, 14 2 . 

paju, animal, beast: pajv& na tayum, 
I, 65, i 1 , 2 ; paju£ r,a jfjva, I, 
65, 10; (Agni), II, 4, 7; V, 7, 

7 ; cattle, I, 67, 6 2 ; 72, 6 ; III, 

9, 7; IV, 2, 18 1 ; V, 2, 5; 
victim, IV, 6, 3. 

paju-pa, shepherd, 1, 144, 6 ; IV, 6, 4. 
paju-sa, winner of cattle, I, 127, io 1 . 
pajva-yantra, taking ... as an instru- 
ment (?), IV, 1, 14. 
pastya, dwelling, IV, 1, n. 
pa: sa£ pati (conj. sapati), V, 12, 6 1 . 
pala, simple, I, 31, 14 ; III, 9, 7 ; 

IV, 5, 2. 

pa#as, 4 stream of light, I, 58, 5 ; III, 

14, 1; i5» 1; 29, 3; iv, 4, 1; 

V, I, 2. 

pathas, abode, I, 188, io 1 ; II, 3, 9 ; 

III, 8, 9 ; patha£ (conj. pa- 

tha£?), II, 2, 4 4 . 
payu, guardian, I, 3 1, 1 2 ; 13; 95,9; 



143, 8; 147, 3; 189, 4; II, 1, 
7; 2,4; III, 15,4*; IV, 2,6; 
4, 3; 12; V, 12, 4. 

parthiva, dweller on earth, I, 95, 3 ; 
— the terrestrial (space), I, 128, 
3 ; 144, 6 ; ^rayawsi parthiva, 
V, 8, 7. 

pavaka, purifier, 1, 12, 9 ; 10 ; 13, 1 ; 
60, 4 ; 95, 11; 142, 3 ; 6; II, 
3, 1; 7, 4; HI, 5, 7; 10, 8; 

17, 1 ; 2r, 2; 27, 4; IV, 5, 6; 
6 > 7; V, 4, 3; 7; 7, 4; 26, 1. 

pavaka- jo^i, whose flame is purify- 
ing, III, 2, 6. 

pavaka-jo>£is, purifying with his 
flames, III, 9, 8 1 ; 11, 7; IV, 
7, 5; V, 22, 1. 

paja, fetter, V, 2, 7. 

pitu, food, I, 6 9 , 3 ; V, 7, 6. 

pitu-mat, rich in food, I, 141, 2 1 ; 
^144,7; IV, 1, 8. 

pitr*, father : mahe pitre dive, I, 71, 
5 ; pitu£ parama't (Heaven), I, 
141, 4 1 ; pitfi£ ka. gamtdh k&, 

III, 1, io 1 ; pit& ya^wanam, III, 
3, 4;— V, 3, 9 2 ; io 1 ;— du., 
parents, I, 140, 7/; HI, 7, i 1 ; 

18, i 1 ; pitr6£ upa-sthe, I, 146, 
1 2 ; III, 26, 9; matara pitara, 

I V, 6, 7 ; — pitara^ Ahgirasa£, I, 
71, 2 1 ; pitsL pitr/-bhya£ utay^e, 

II, 5, i s ; pitara^ manushya£, 
IV, 1, 13 1 ; pitara^ parasa£ 
pratnasa£, IV, 2, 16. 

pitr/'-vitta, acquired by the fathers, 

I, 73, i 1 ; 9. 
pftrya, paternal : sakhyDt pftryawi, I, 

71, 10. 
pinv, to swell: pfnvamana£, III, r, 

7 ; pinvasva, III, 3, 7. 
pij, to adorn : pipeVa, I, 68, 10. 
pijanga-rupa, tawny-coloured, II, 

piy, to abuse : piyati, I, 147, 2. 

putrfn, with sons, V, 4, n. 

punar : puna£ astu sa£ asmai, may it 
(the spell) recoil on him, 1, 147, 
4 ; puna£, give us back, 1, 189, 3. 

pur, stronghold: pu£-bhf£ ayasibhi£, 

I, 58, 8 ;— I, 149, 3 I 189, 2 ; 

III, 12, 6; 15, 4; V, 19, 2. 
pura£-etrz', leader, I, 76, 2 1 ; III, 

II, 5. 

pura^-ga, going in front, I, 188, 11. 
pura£-sad, sitting in front, I, 73, 3. 
pura^-hita, the Purohita, I, 1, 1 ; 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



455 



44, io 1 ; 12 ; 58, 3 ; 94, 6 1 , 2 ; 
128, 4; III, 2, 8; 3, 2; 11, 1; 

Puram-dhi, Liberality of the gods, 

II, 1, 3 8 . 

pur£s, in front : dadhire pur&7>, III, 
2, 5 ; V, 16, i 2 . 

pura 7 , before (with gen.), I, 71, 10 ; 
— formerly, I, 96, 7. 

purishya, of the soil : purishyasa^ 
agnaya£, III, 22, 4 1 . 

puru, many, I, 36, i 3 , &c. ; III, 4, 
5 3 ; puru va aram (conj. puru- 
varam), 1, 142, io 2 ; dnu purvi&, 
HI; 15, 3 1 ;— mightily, 1,127, 3- 

puru-anika, with many faces, I, 79, 5. 

puru-kshu, rich in food, I, 68, 10 ; 

III, 25, 2. 

puru-£andr£, rich in splendour, I, 
27, 11; II, 2, 12 ; III, 25, 3; 
V, 8, 1. 

puru-tra 7 , in many places, I, 70, 10 ; 

146, 5- 
puru-daV/sa, wonderful, III, 1, 23. 
puru-druh, full of deceit, III, 

18, 1. 
purudh£-pratika, with many faces, 

HI, 7, 3. 
purudha 7 , manifoldly, IV, 2, 19. 
puruni£-sthci, growing up in many 

places, V, 1,6. 
Puru-nitha, N. pr., I, 59, 7. 
puru-peja, manifoldly-adorned, II, 

10, 3 a . 
puru-pejas, manifold-adorned, III, 

puru-prajasta, praised by many, I, 

73, 2 ; 
puru-priya, beloved of many, I, 12, 

2 ; 44? 3 ; 45, 6 ; III, 3, 4 ; V, 

18, 1. 
puru-praisha, he who pronounces 

many Praishas, I, 145, 3 2 . 
puru-rupa, of all kinds, manifold- 
shaped, II, 2, 9 ; V, 8, 2 ; 5. 
puru-vasu, rich in wealth, II, 1, 5. 
puru- vara, with many treasures, 

bountiful : puru-varam (conj. 

for puru va aram), I, 142, io 2 ; 

—II, 2, 2; IV, 2, 20; 5, 15. 
puruv&ra-push/i, lord of bountiful 

prosperity, I, 96, 4, 
punisha-tra 7 : conj. purusha-ta, men 

as we are, IV, 12, 4 1 . 
puru-stuta, praised by many, I, 141, 

6; V, 8, 5. 



puru-spr/h, much desired, I, 142, 6; 

II,7,i; IV, 8,7; V, 7 ,6. 
puru-huta, much-invoked, I, 44, 7. 
Pururavas, I, 31, 4. 
puro/aj, sacrificial cake, III, 28, 1-6. 
pur6hita, see pura^-hita. 
push, to make prosper : pushyasi, I, 

94, 6 ; V, 26, 6 ; pushyata, I, 

94, 8; pushyati, III, 10, 3; 

pushyanta^, causing to thrive, 

IV, 8, 5. 
push/f, prosperity, I, 65, 5 ; 77, 5 ; 

II, 4, 4 ; V, 10, 3. 
pushri-mat, with prosperity, III, 

13,7. 
push/im-bhara, bringing prosperity, 

IV, 3, 7- 

pushri-vardhana, augmenter of pros- 
perity, I, 31, 5^ 

pu, to purify: punana£, II, 3, 5; 
kr&tum punana^, III, 1, 5 1 ; 
punanti, III, 8, 5 ; apupot, III, 
26, 8 ; — abhf punati', IV, 5, 7. 

puta, purified, I, 79, 10. 

puta-daksha, of pure powers, III, 

Puru, the Purus, I, 59, 6 ; V, 17, 1. 

purva, former, ancient, I, 1, 2, &c. ; 
purva-vat, as for the ancients, 
I, 31, 17 ; — diva£ purva£, before 
daybreak, 1, 60, 2 ; to the front, 
I, 94, 8 1 ; manushat purva£, II, 
3, 3 2 ; tvat h6ta purva£, III, 
17, 5; — eastern: purvam anu 
pra-duam, I, 95, 3. 

purva-tha, in the old way, III, 29, 1. 

purvya, ancient, I, 26, 5 ; 94, 6 ; 

111,14, 3 2 ; 23, 3; V, 15, 3 2 ;— 

foremost, 1, 74, 2 1 . 

Pushan, II, 1,6; IV, 3, 7. 

pusha«-vat, accompanied by Pushan, 
I, 142, 12. 

pri or par, to bring across : piparshi, 
thou leadest forward, I, 31, 6 4 ; 
parshi, II, 7, 2 ; parshat, III, 
20, 4; pipr/tam, III, 26, 9; 
parshati dvisha£, may he help 
us across our enemies, V, 25, 1 ; 
9 ;— ati paraya, I, 97, 7 ; ati 
parsha, I, 97, 8 ; ati parshat, I, 

99, 1. 
pri, to fill : purdhi, I, 36, 12 ; papra, 
I, 6 9> 1 ; — apapri-van, I, 73, 8 ; 
146, 1; a apr/«at, III, 2, 7 ; % 
aprinab, III, 3, 10; a apra£, 
IV, 14, 2; — pra-pra pr/«itana, 



456 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



fill (with bliss) further and 
further, V, 5, 5. 

pr/ksh, nourishment, I, 71, 7 1 ; 73, 
5; II, i,6. 

pr/kshd, power, I, 127, 5 1 ; II, 1, 15 2 ; 
— powerful, I, 141, 2 1 ; sapta 
prikshasa£, III, 4, 7 1 . 

pr/kshd-praya^-, mighty sacrificer, 
111,7,1c 1 . 

prikshudh : prikshudha£ ? 1,141,4 s . 

\>rik : pr/^anti, they fill, I, 79, 3 ; 
private, they grow, I, 128, 5 ; 
papri£angLsa£, swelling, I, 141, 
6 8 ; papr/;fcasi, make swell, I, 
141, 11 2 ; — tamase vi-pr/^e, for 
dispersing the darkness, IV, 1 3, 
3 ; vi-pnkvat, cleared from ad- 
mixture, V, 2, 3 2 ; — sam-pr//?£a- 
na£, being united, I, 95, 8. 

pr/t, battle, I, 27, 7 ; 79, 8 ; V, 9, 

, 7] 10, 7 1 i 6 , 5; 17,5* 
prztana, battle, III, 16, 2 ; 24, 1. 
pritan%ya r racing of battle, III, 8, 

10. 
pr/tana-yu, seeking to combat, III, 

1, 16. 

pritana-s&h, powerful in battles, III, 
29, 9; V, 23, 2. 

pr/tany&t, foe, II, 8, 6. 

pr/tsutf, hostility, V, 4, 1. 

pr/thivi', earth, Earth : nabhiifr pri- 
thivya^I, 59, 2; III, 29, 4; 
agnf£ dati r6ma prithivya7>, I, 
65, 8 ; ksham and prithivim, I, 
67, 5; dyava pr/thivi' iti, Heaven 
and Earth, I, 143, 2 ; divib 
pr/thivy&&, III, 1, 3 ; mahina' 
pr/thivya^, III, 7, io 2 ; v&rsh- 
man pr/thivya^, III, 8, 3 ; vare 
& pr/thivya£, III, 23, 4 s ; div&h 
sunu£ pr/thivya^, III, 25, 1 ; — 
Earth, 1,72,9; 94,16; 95,11; 
98,3; 111,8,8!; 17,2; IV, 3, 5. 

pr/thu, broad, I, 65, 5 ; II, 1, 12. 

pr/thu-pag-as, with broad stream of 
light, III, 2, 11; 3, 1 ; 5, 1 ; 

27, 5. 
pr/thu-praga«a, with broad passages, 

in, 5, 7. 

pr/thu-pragaman, proceeding on his 

broad way, I, 27, 2. 
pr/thu-budhnd, broad-based, IV, 2,5. 
pr/jani', the speckled (cow), I, 71, 5 1 . 
pr/jni, speckled, IV, 3, io 2 ; — Pr/jni, 

the mother of the Maruts, II, 

2, 4 3 ; IV, 5,7'; 10. 



pr/shat-ajva, with the spotted deer 

as horses, III, 26, 6 2 . 
pr*shati, the spotted deer, III, 26, 4 2 . 
pr/shfa-bandhu, after whose rela- 
tions men ask, III, 20, 3 s . 
pr/'sh/M, back, I, 58, 2 1 ; IV, 2, n 2 ; 

ridge, V, 7, 5 ; — a certain 

Stotra? IV, 5, 6 1 . 
prishthya, of the back : payasa pr/sh- 

//>yena, IV, 3, io 1 . 
p£jas, the ornamented form : ya^wa- 

sya pe\*a£, II, 3, 6 2 . 
P#shi, V, 2, 2 1 . 
p6tr/, the Potr/ priest, I, 94, 6; II, 

5, 2 ; IV, 9, 3. 
potra, service of a Potr/, I, 76, 4 s ; 

11, 1, 2. 

p6sha, welfare, I, 1, 3 ; V, 5, 9. 
poshayitnu, which is to thrive, III, 

4,9- 
pyai, to swell : pipayanta, they were 
exuberant, I, 73, 6; pipayat, 
may he augment, I, 77, 5; 
pfyanai> (conj. pfyanam), I, 79, 
3 1 ; pipaya, it has prospered, 

II, 2, 9 ; pipyana^, rich in milk, 
1 1 1, 1, 1 o 2 ; — prd pipaya, increase, 
III,i5,6. 

pra-avitrz, protector, I, 12, 8 ; 

furtherer, III, 21, 3. 
pra-avfs, zealous, IV, 9, 2. 
pra-keta, splendour, I, 94, 5. 
pr«L-£etas, provident, wise, I, 44, 7 ; 

11; II, 10, 3; 111,25,1; 29,5. 
pra&h, to look for : prisht&h, 1,98, 2 1 . 
pra-^anana, the creative organ, III, 

29, i 3 . 
pra-^, children : pra-g&h ut£ (conj. 

pra-#asu), I, 67, 9 1 ; pra-^am 

vf syatu, may he deliver a son, 

J 1 * 3 > 9 - 

pra^a-vat, procuring offspring, I, 76, 
4 ; pra^-vat r&dhas, abundance 
of progeny, I, 94, 15 ; accom- 
panied by offspring, II, 2, 12; 

III, 8, 6 ; 16, 6; rich in off- 
spring, III, 16, 3 ; IV, 2, 5. 

pra-tara»a, carrying forward, II, 1, 

12. 
prd-tavas, strong, IV, 3, 6. 
prati, equal to, II, 1, 8 ; 15 ; 3, 2. 
pratitya, to be listened to, IV, 5, 14. 
pratna, old: pratnam, I, 36, 4; II, 

7,6; 111,9, 8. 
pratna-tha, in the ancient way, I, 

96, 1; 111,2, 12; V, 8, 5. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



457 



pratya«£, turning back, I, 95, 5 ; 

II, 3, 1; III, 18, 1. 

prath, to spread out : prathayan 
nr/h, III, 14, 4; paprathana£, 
V, 15, 4 ; — vf prathantam, may 
they open wide, II, 3, 5 ; vf 
prathasva, spread thyself, V, 5, 4. 

prathama : prathama anu dharma, 
after the primitive ordinances, 

HI, i7, 1. 
prath am a-^a, first-born (son), III, 

29, 15 1 . 
pra-dakshi«i't, from left to right, 

III, 19, 2 1 ; IV, 6, 3. 
pra-diva, ancient, II, 3, 1. 
pra-divas, from of old, I, 141, 3 2 ; 

IV, 6, 4 ; 7, 8 ; V, 8, 7. 
pradu, commandment : pradfja^, 

(I,3i, i4 3 ). 
pra-dfj, region: pra-duam (conj. 

for pra dfjam), I, 95, 3 2 . 
prd-niti, guidance, 1 1 1,15, 1; IV, 4,14. 
pra-netr/, leader, II, 9, 2 ; III, 23, 1. 
pra-pitva, the time of the advancing 

day, I, 189,7 V*. 
pra-bbarman, the bringing forward, 

I, 79, 7. 
pra-bhu, eminent: pra-bhvi/6 (dura/6), 

1, 188, 5 1 ; 9. 

pra-bhu ti, copiousness, III, 19, 3. 
prd-mati, guardian, I, 31, 9; 10; 

14; 16; 141, 2 4 ; — kindness, I, 

71, 7 ; care, I, 94, 1. 
pra-mahas, highly exalted, V, 28, 4. 
pra-ya^vu, friend of sacrifices, III, 

6, 2\ 

pra-yata, forward-bent, IV, 5, 10. 

prayata-dakshiwa, giving sacrificial 
fees, I, 31, 15. 

pra-yantr/, giver, I, 76, 4*. 

pr&yas, joy, delight, feast, I, 31, 7 ; 
45, 8; 58, 7 3 ; 7i, 3; HI, n, 
7; 12, 8; IV, 5, 6; 15, 2 2 . 

prayasvat, offering enjoyment, I, 
60, 3; III, 6, 3; V, 20, 3. 

pra-ya 7 , onset, III, 29, 15. 

pravawa, hill-side, III, 22, 4. 

pra-v&t, declivity, I, 144, 5 2 ; — pre- 
cipitous: pra-vata, III, 5, 8. 

pra-va^ya, to be openly uttered, IV, 
5,8. 

pra-vid, finding out, III, 7, 6. 

pra-jawsya, deserving of praise, II, 

2, 3; 11. 

pra-jasta, praised, glorious, precious, 
I, 3 6 > 9 ; 60, 1 ; 66, 4. 



pra-jasti, praise, I, 26, 9 ; 70, 9 ; 

74, 6; 148, 3; V, 9, 6; 16, 1. 
pra-jastr/, the Prajastr/ priest, I, 94, 

f; n, 5, 4. 

pra-jastra, office of the Prajastr/ 

priest, II, 1, 2. 
pra-jfsh, command, I, 145, 1. 
pra-s£h, power, V, 23, 1. 
pra-siti, onslaught, IV, 4, 1. 
pra-su, sprouting grass, I, 67, 9 2 ; 

95, 10 2 ; 111,5,8. 
Praskawva, I, 44, 6 ; 45, 3. 
pra-svanita, roaring, I, 44, 12 1 . 
pra-hosh£, libation, I, 150, 2. 
pra^a-^ihva, stretching forward his 

tongue, I, 140, 3. 
pragma, eastward-turned (barhi's), 

I, 188, 4. 
pra«£, inclined towards, II, 2, 7 ; — 

eastward : pra«£am ya^wam 

^akr/ma, III, 1, 2 2 ; pr&& iti, 

III, 6, io 1 ;— turned forwards, 

in, 7,7. 

prawa, breath : ayu£ pra«a£, I, 66, 1. 

prata^-yavan, coming early in the 
morning, I, 44, 13 ; 45, 9. 

prata^-savd, morning libation, III, 
28, 1. 

priy£, beloved, 1, 13, 3, &c. ; dear= 
(piXos, I, 67, 6 1 ; sapta priyasa^, 
seven friends, IV, 1, 12 ; priy&m 
tva kr/wavate, he gratifies thee, 

IV, 2, 8. 

priya-dhama, whose foundations are 

pleasant, I, 140, 1. 
Priya-medha : priyamedha-vat, I, 

45, 3 1 1 priya-medha^, I, 45, 4 1 . 
pri, to please: pri«ana£, I, 73, 1; 

pfprishati, he longs to gladden, 

IV, 4, 7 ; — a pipraya£, gladden 

(the gods), II, 6, 8 1 . 
prita, well- cared for, I, 66, 4 1 ; 69, 5. 
prush, to sprinkle, shower : prushita, 

I, 58, 2 ; prushwavat, III, 13, 4. 
pretr/, friend, I, 148, 5. 
pr£sha, instigation, I, 68, 5 1 . 
praisha, sacrificial command of a 

priest, (I, 145, 3 2 ). 

phalgva, feeble, IV, 5, 14. 

baV, lo ! I, 96, 1 ; 141, 1. 
b&ndhana, fetterer, V, 12, 4. 
bandhuta, kinship, IV, 4, 11. 
babhrf, carrying (the prize), III, 1, 
12. 



458 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



babhru, brown (plants), I, 140, 6 1 . 
barhish/£am, most powerfully, III, 

13, 1. 
barhfshmat, he who has spread the 

Barhis, V, 2, 12. 
barhis, the sacrificial grass, I, 12, 4 ; 

13, 5 ; 7; 9, &c. ; pra^inam 
barhi£, I, 188, 4 ; deva barhis, 

II, 3, 4 ; madhye a barhf£, III, 

14, 2. 

barhi-sad, sitting on the Barhis, II, 

, 3, 3. 
bah, tribute, I, 70, 9 ; V, 1, 10. 
bahu, many : bahvi'i6 ka bhuyasi£ £a 

ya£ dura£, I, 188, 5. 
bahula, large, I, 189, 2. 
badh, to drive away: ba / dhamana£, 

III, 8, 2 ; Mdhasva, beat away, 
III,i5,i. 

bahu, arm, III, 29, 6. 

budh, to take notice : bodhi, III, 

14, 7 ; V, 24, 3 ; s££ ka, b6- 
dhati, may he be attentive, I, 
77, 2- ;— to think : b6dhat, IV, 

15, 7 1 ; — &bodhi, he has been 
awakened, V, 1, 1; 2 ; budhya- 
mana£, awaking, V, 3, 6 ; 
bodhaya, awaken, V, 14, i 1 ; — 
vf bodhaya, awaken, I, 12, 4. 

budhna, bottom, base, I, 95, 8 2 ; 9 ; 
96, 6 ; II, 2, 3 ; maha£ budhne" 
ra^asa^, IV, 1, n 1 ; — depth, I, 

Hi, 3 1 . 
br/hat, great : br/hat bha£, I, 45, 
8 1 ; br/hati' iveti br/°, I, 59, 4' ; 
a br/hat vadema, loud, II, 1, 
16; mightily, III, 3, n 1 ; V, 

25, 8 1 . 
Br/hat-uktha, V, 19, 3. 
br/hat-uksh, mightily growing, III, 

26, 4. 

br/h&t-ketu, with mighty light, V, 

8, 2. 
br/hat-diva, dwelling in the great 

heaven, II, 2, 9. 
br/hat-bhanu, with bright light, I, 

27, 12; 36, 15. 
Br/hat-ratha, I, 36, 18 1 . 
Br/haspati, III, 20, 5 ; 26, 2 2 . 
bradhna, ruddy, III, 7, 5. 
brahman, the Brahman (priest), II, 

I, 2 3 ; 3 2 ; IV, 9, 4 2 * 
brahman, (sacred) spell, I, 31, 18; 

II, 2, 7; 10; III, 8, 2; 13, 6 ; 
18, 3 ; V, 2, 6 ; prathama-^a^ 
brahmawa^, III, 29, 15 1 ; — sacred 



word, II, 5, 3 1 ; IV, 3, 15 ; 4, 
6 ; — prayer, hymn : vo^ema 
brahma, I, 75, 2 ; brahma«a£ 
pate, Brahma^aspati, II, 1, 3 ; 
akari brahma, IV, 6, 11. 
bru : upa-bruve, I invoke, 1, 188, 8. 

bhaga, good fortune, I, 141, 6 3 ; 
1 1 1 ; — love, V, 7, 8 3 ;— a winner 
(in a contest), I, 141, io 1 ; 144, 
3*;— Bhaga, the god, I, 44, 8 ; 
II, 1, 7; III, 20, 4; 5; IV, 3, 
5 5 V, 16, 2\ 

bhag, to obtain : bhag-anta . . . n&ma, 
I, 68, 4 ; bhaktam abhaktam 
ava£, blessings enjoyed or not 
enjoyed (before), I, 127, 5 6 ; — 
a na£ bha^a, let us partake, I, 

27, 5- 
bhadra, good, I, 1, 6 ; fortunate, I, 
67, 2 ; blissful, I, 94, 1 ; glorious, 

I, 94, 14, &c 

bhadra-jo^i, with glorious light, V, 

4,7. 
bhand : bhandamane iti, of glorious 
appearance, I, 142, 7; III, 4, 
6 2 ; bhandamana£, glorified, III, 
2,12; bhandate, he is glorified, 

, 111,3,4. 

bhandish^a, most glorious, I, 97, 3 ; 

V, 1, io>. 
Bharata, Agni the B., I, 96, 3 2 ; pi., 

the Bharatas,'V, 11, 1. 
Bharat-va^-a, the Bharadvagas, I, 

, 59, 7. 

bhargas, splendour, I, 141, 1. 

bharv, to chew : bharvati, I, 143, 5. 

bhas: prd babhasat, may he con- 
sume, IV, 5, 4. 

bhasman, ash, V, 19, 5. 

bha, to shine : anu bhasi, III, 6, 7 ; — 
vi-bhati, he shines (conj. vidha'ti), 
1, 71, 6 1 ; vf bhasi, thou shinest, 

II, 1, io 1 ,* 2 ; vf bhahi, I, 95, n. 
bha^-r/^-ika, whose r/^g-ika (?) is light, 

I, 44, 3 1 ; III, 1, 12; 14. 
bhaga, share, portion, I, 73, 5 2 ; II, 

10, 6 ; III, 1, 19. 
bhaga-dh£ya, portion, III, 28, 4. 
bha^ayu, desirous of distributing 

(goods), II, 1, 4. 
bha-tvakshas, whose power is light, 

I, 143, 3- 
bhanu, ray, I, 36, 3; 97, 5 ; III, 1, 
14; flame, I, 143, 3 5 v , 1, 1; 
light, splendour, II, 2, 8, &c. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



459 



bhanu-mdt, shining, V, i, n. 

bh&ma, splendour, III, 26,6; — flame, 
V, 2, 10. 

bhamm, luminous, I, 77, 1. 

bhard, burthen, I, 31, 3. 

Bh&rata, (Agni) of the Bharata tribe, 
II, 7, i 1 ; 5 ;— BMrata, the two 
Bharatas, III, 23, 2 1 . 

Bharati : H6tra Bharati, I, 142, g 2 ; 
II, 1, 11 1 ;— 1, 188, 8; II, 3, 8; 
bharati bharatibhi£, III, 4, 8. 

bhas, light : br/hat bha£, I, 45, 8 1 ; 
IV, 5, i 1 ;— II, 4, 5; IV, 7, 9. 

bhiksh, to implore, I, 73, 6 ; 7. 

bhid : dva bhet, he cut down, I, 59, 6. 

bhug- : bh6§-ate, receives nourish- 
ment, I, 72, 8 2 ; bhirg-e, to en- 
joy, I, 127, 8 ; 11 ; bhu^-am, for 
the enjoyment, III, 2, 9 ; — yasya 
sam-bhug-am, whom I may en- 
joy, II, 1, 4 1 . 

bhn^-man, fertile : bhu^-ma (conj. 
bhug-ma'), I, 65, 5 1 . 

bhur : g-arbhurat, hurrying around, 
II, 2, 5 ; #arbhura«a£, II, 10, 
5 ; bhuranta, they have made 
tremble, V, 6, 7 1 ;— pari-g-arbhu- 
ra»a£, hurrying around, I, 140, 
10. 

bhura^yu, quick, I, 68, 1. 

bhurig-, pole-arm (?), IV, 2, 14 3 . 

bhuvana, world, I, 31, 2; 73, 8; 

II, 3, 1; III ; 2, 10; 3, 10; 
IV, 14, 2 ; bhuvanasya mag-ma- 
na, I, 143, 4 1 ;— being, I, 98, 1; 

III, 16, 4 . 

bhu : sata*£ fa bhavata£ fa, of what 
is and what comes into being, 
I? 9 6 > 7 > — bhavatat, be, III, 23, 
2 2 ; — pari bhuvat, he encom- 
passed, I, 68, 2 ; pari babhutha, 
thou hast excelled, I, 69, 2. 

bhuman, earth, I, 65, 3 1 ; II, 4, 7 ; — 
being : et& bhuma, I, 70, 6 ; 
— world : vuvani bhuma, II, 4, 
N 2 ;— V, 7, 5. 

bhuyaws, many, I, 31, 6. 

bhuri, rich, I, 73, 4 ; — bhuri kr/tva£, 
many times, III, 18, 4. 

bhuri-poshfn, rich in manifold pros- 
perity, III, 3, 9. 

bhuri-retas, rich in seed, III, 3, 11. 

bhuri-varpas, manifold-shaped, III, 

A , 3, 4. 
bhunzi, quick, I, 66, 2 ; III, 3, 5. 
bhush, to be busy : bhushan, I, 1 40, 



6 ; III, 25, 2 ; — upa bhushema, 
may we honour, III, 3, 9 ; — paYi 
bhushasi vratam, thou adminis- 
terest the law, I, 31, 2; pari 
bhushanti, they celebrate, I, 
95, 3 ; pari bhushati, he takes 
care of, III, 3, 2 ; pari bhusha- 
tha/>, you display, III, 12, 9. 
bhri, to bring : nama£ bharanta^, I, 
1, 7 ; hilar fti bha^, I, 128,2 ; 
bibharshi (conj. bibharshi), V, 

3, 2 1 ; — ut-bhr/ta, taken out, III, 
21, 5 ;— pra .g-abhrire, I, 72, 4 ; 
pra bhara (Sawhita : bhara), 
2nd or 1st person, I, 140, i 1 ; 
pra-bhr/ta, proffered, 1, 1 47, 2 ; — 
vf bharanta, they have brought 
to different places, I, 70, io 1 ; 
vi-bhr/ta£, brought to many 
places, I, 71, 4 1 ; dispersed, I, 
144, 2 ; vf bharibhrat, quickly 
shaking, II, 4, 4 2 . 

Bhr/gava«a, Bhr/gu-like, I, 71, 4 2 ; — 
belonging to the Bhrigus, I V, 7, 4. 

Bhr/gu, I, 60, 1 ;— bhr*gava£, the 
Bhr/gus, I, 58, 5; 127, 7; 143, 
4; II, 4, 2; III, 2, 4 1 ; 5, 10; 

^IV, 7 , 1. 

bhr/mi, quick, I, 31, 16 2 . 

bhog-ana, food: vfjvasya bhog-ana, 
O food on which everything 
lives, I, 44, 5 1 ; —possession, V, 

4, 5. 

bho^ya, bounty, I, 128, 5. 

bhrama, whirl, IV, 4, 2. 

bhrag-, to shine : bhrag-ante, I, 44, 

12 ; abhra*, I, 66, 6 ; IV, 6, 5. 
bhrag-at-rish/i, with brilliant spears, 

I, 31, 1. 
bhratri, brother, I, 65, 7 ; bhrsitaram 

varimam, IV, 1, 2 ; bhratu£ 

riwam, IV, 3, 13 2 . 
bhratra, brotherhood, II, 1, 9 ; IV, 

10, 8. 

mawhana, bountifulness, IV, 1, 6 ; 

V, 10, 2; mawhana, instr., V, 

16, 4 2 ; 18, 2. 
mawhish/£a, most rich in liberal 

gifts, I, 147, 2 1 . 
makshu, quickly, I, 58, 9, &c. 
magha, wealth, III, 13, 3 ;— liberal 

boon, III, 19, 1; — liberality, V, 

10, 3. 
magha- vat, generous, I, 58, 9 ; 140, 
10. 



460 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



maghci-van, liberal giver, I, 31, 12 ; 

58, 9; 73, 5 ; 8; 77, 4; 98, 3; 

127, n; 140, 12 ; 141, 13 ; 

M^, 5; II, 6, 4; V, 16, 3; 18, 

3 ; 5 ; magh6na£ (conj. magh6- 

nam), V, 27, i 1 . 
mag-mdn, greatness, power, I, 128, 

5; 141, 6; 143,2; 4 1 ; II, 1,15. 
matf, (pious) thought, I, 60, 5 ; III, 

26, 8;— prayer, I, 141, 1; 142, 

4; III, 5, 3; IV, 3, 16; vM&f? 

matfm, I, 143, i l . 
math or manth, to produce by 

attrition: mathit, 1, 71, 4 ; 148, 

1; mathnanta£, I, 127, 7; 

mathi£, I, 127, 11; mathayati, 

I, 141, 3; mathita, III, 9, 5; 
dmanthish/am, III, 23, 2; 
manthama, III, 29, 1; manthata, 
III, 29, 5; manthanti, III, 29, 
6 ; mathyamana£, V, 11, 6; — 
ni£-mathita£, produced by attri- 
tion, III, 23, 1; 29, 12. 

mad or mand, to be pleased, rejoice : 
mandasva (with gen.), I, 26, 5 ; 
madayante, I, 59, i 1 ; mada- 
yasva, II, 3, 11 3 ; III, 6, 9; 
madanti, III, 4, 7 ; 7, 7 ; mada- 
yantam, III, 4, 11; madantam, 
III, 26, 9; madayetham, IV, 
14,4 ; — abhi pra mande, I glad- 
den, V, 4, 1. 

mad, pronoun : me, ace, V, 27, 4 2 . 

mada, delight, I, 127, 9 ; V, 2, 10. 

madhu, sweet drink : madhva£ a- 
dhavS, I, 141, 3 8 ; — honey, I, 
142, 3; a i88, 2; III, 1, 7; 8; 
madhuna dafvyena, III, 8, i 2 ; — 
honey-drink, V, 19, 3 2 . 

madhu-^ihva, honey-tongued, I, 13, 
3 ; 44, 6; 60, 3. 

madhu-peya, honey-drink, IV, 14, 4 2 . 

madhu-pr/>£, mixing the honey-drink, 

II, 10, 6. 

midhu-mat, rich in honey, I, 13, 2 ; 

142, 2; honey-sweet, I, 78, 5 ; 

111,4,2; IV, 3, 9 ; 12; — sweet 

(food), III, 7, 2. 
mddhumat-tama, sweetest, V, 11, 5. 
madhu-vaias, sweet-tongued, IV, 

6,5. 
madhu-sut, Madhu-presser, IV, 3, 3. 
madhu-hastya, with honey in his 

hand, V, 5, 2. 
madhyata7>, out from the midst, III, 

21, 5. 



madhyama, middle : madhyameshu, 

I, 27/5. 

man : manvata, they have devised, 
IV, 1, 16; manyase, thou art 
considered, V, 17, 2 1 , 3 . 

manand, thought, III, 6, i 1 . 

manas, thought : mana£ na sadya^, 
1,71,9; mind : manasa^ vdraya, 
I, 76, i 1 ; ghr/ta-prusha manasa, 
his mind being intent on scatter- 
ing ghn'ta, II, 3, 2 ; manasa sam 
gagm&h, they agreed in their 
mind, III, 1, 13. 

manisha', (pious) thought : manisha 
(Pada text for manisha^?), I, 
70, i 2 ; 76, 1 ; 111,8,5; prayer, 
IV, 5, 3; 6, 1; V, ir, 5 1 ;— 
thoughtful mind, I, 94, 1 ; — wise 
thoughts, IV, 11, 2; 3; — para6 
manishaya, beyond thought, V, 
i7, 2 2 . 

manishfn, thoughtful man, I, 13, 5 ; 
III, 10, 1. 

manu, man, I, 96, 2 ; 140, 4 ; V, 2, 
1 2 ; — manave, to the man, or to 
Manu, 1, 189, 7 4 ; — Manu, N.p., 

I, 3i, 45 36, 10; 19; 68, 7; 
128, 2. 

manu£-hita, instituted by Manus, I, 

13, 4 2 ; III, 2, 15. 
Manu-^ata, offspring of Manu, I, 

45, i 2 . 
Manu-vdt, like Manu, II, 10, 6. 
mdnusha, man, I, 31, n 2 . 
manushya, man, I, 59, 4 ; — belonging 

to men, III, 1, 10. 
Manushvat, as for Manu, I, 31, 17 ; 

II, 5, 2 ; III, 17, 2 ; as Manus 
did, I, 44, 11; V, 21, 1. 

manus, man, (I, 31, n 2 ); I, 36, 7; 

III, 26, 2; IV, 1, 9 1 ; 6, 11; V, 
3, 4 ; 5, 7 ; manusha£, (Aryan) 
men, I, 189, 7 2 ; — manusha^, of 
the man, or, of Manus, II, 2, 6 ; 
8 ; — Manus, N.p., I, 26, 4; 76, 
5 1 ; 128, 1; II, 10, 1; IV, 2, i 1 ; 
manusha£ pura£-hita£, III, 3, 
2 ; — Manusha£ ^antu-bhi^, III, 
3, 6 ; man6tr/, deviser, II, 9, 4. 

mantra, hymn, I, 31, 13; spell, I, 

67, 4 ; 5 ; 147, 4 J prayer, I, 

74, 1. 
mand, see mad. 
mandtci, joy-giving, cheerful, I, 26, 

7, &c. ; lovely, delightful, V, 17, 

2 ; 26, 1. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



461 



mandra-^ihva, with lovely tongues, 

I, 142, 8; — with agreeable 
speech, IV, it, 5; — with the 
delightful tongue, V, 25, 2. 

mandra-tama, most delightful, V, 

22, 1. 
mandra-tara, a great joy-giver, III, 

7,9. 
manman, thought, I, 26, 2 1 ; III, 14, 
5 ; IV, 6, 1 ;— prayer, I, 77, 4 ; 
127, 2; 140, 1; 11; 148, 2 ; 

II, 4, 8; III, 11, 8; IV, 3, 3 ; 
15 ; 5, 6; 11, 2; V, 12, 1. 

manma-sadhana, fulfiller of thought, 

I, 96, 6. 
manyu, spirit, V, 7, io 1 . 
mamaka, mine, I, 31, 11 3 . 
maya£-bhu, comfort-giving, I, 13, 9 ; 

III, 16, 6; IV, 11, 4 ; V, 5, 8. 
mayas, happiness, I, 31, 7; fresh- 
ness, III, 1, 3 1 . 

Marut : maruta£, the Maruts, I, 31, 
1; 44, 14; 94, 12; 128, 5 ; 

142, 9 1 ; III, 26, 4-6; 29, 15; 

IV, 1, 3 ; 2, 4; V, 3, 3 ; 5 11; 
26, 9 ; marutam-iva svana£, I, 

143, 5 ; marutam jardha£, II, 
3, 3 » IV, 3, 8 ; vfjve maruta£, 

III, 14, 4 ; nara£ maruta£, III, 
16, 2 1 . 

marutvat, accompanied by the 
Maruts, I, 142, 12 ; III, 4, 6. 

marut- vr/dh, whom the Maruts 
strengthen, III, 13, 6 1 . 

marta, mortal, man : martan (for 
martam, gen. plur?), I, 70, 6 1 ; 

IV, 2, 3 2 ; 11 1 ; martaya (for 
martyaya?), I, 77, 2 1 ; martam 
jawsam, praise of mortals, I, 
141, 6 4 . 

martya, the mortal, I, 26, 9 1 ; mar- 
tyeshu devan kri«6ti, I, 77, i 1 ; 
devasya martyasya £a, II, 7, 2. 

marya, manly, I, 77, 3. 

maryaka, young bull, V, 2, 5 1 . 

marya-jn, like a beautiful youth, II, 
10, 5. 

maryada, limit, IV, 5, 13. 

mah : mamahantam, may they grant, 
I, 94, 16 ; 95, 11; mamahe me, 
he has presented me, V, 27, 1 ; — 
to exalt : mahayanta, III, 3, 3; 
mahayan, III, 3, 11; mahaya, 
III, 24, 4 : mahayamana£, III, 
25, 5 ', — s ^ m niahema (conj. 
sam ahema), I, 94, i 1 . 



mah, great : maha£ (ace. pi.), I, 31, 
3 2 , &c. ; IV, 4, 11 1 ; mahiham, 
of the great (waters), III, 1, 12 1 . 

mah, greatness: mahe, III, 7, 10. 

maha, great: mahah, I, 146, 5 2 . 

mahan, greatness: mahna mahat- 
bhi>6, I, 72, 9. 

mahas, power: maha£-bhi£, II, 10, 
3 4 ; III, 4, 6 3 ; with all their 
might, IV, 14, i 1 ; — mightily: 
mahaT? raye iitayan, V, 15, 5 s . 

mahi, great, I, 79, 4. 

Mahi-keru : mahi-kerava>6, I, 45, 4 1 . 

mahi-tva, greatness, might, I, 59, 5 ; 
6 ; mahi-tva, I, 67, 9 ; 68, 2 ; 
growth, III, 1, 4. 

mahina, greatness, III, 6, 2 ; 7, io 2 . 

mahiman, greatness, I, 59, 7. 

mahi-ratna, possessor of great trea- 
sures, I, 141, 10. 

mahi-vrata, lord of high laws, I, 45, 3. 

mahisha, buffalo, I, 95, 9 1 ; 141, 3 1 . 

mahishi, queen, V, 2, 2 1 ; buffalo- 
cow, V, 25, 7 2 . 

Mahi", ' the Great One/ N. of a god- 
dess, 1, 13, 9 1 ; 14 2 , 9; V, 5> 8. 

ma, to create, produce : amimita, 
he produced, II, 4, 5; mimite, 
III, 1, 5 ; amimita (matari), he 
has been shaped, III, 29, n 1 ; 
mfmanam, preparing, V, 2, 3 ; — 
tipa masi, measure out, I, 142, 
2 ; — vf ragah mame, he passes 
through the air, I, 58, 1; vi- 
mana£, traversing, III, 26, 7 ; — 
sam-maya, building, I, 67, 10. 

makis, not, I, 147, 5. 

Matarfjvan, I, 31, 3 ; 60, 1; 71, 4 1 ; 
96, 4 1 ; 128, 2; 141, 3 ; 143, 2; 
148, 1; III, 2, 13; 5, 9; 10 ; 
9, 5 ; 26, 2 1 ; ^29, 11 1 . 

matr/, mother : mata Aditi^?, I, 72, 
9; mother (Earth), I, 140, 9 1 ; 
matu^>, II, 5, 6 1 ; matui? upa- 
sthe, III, 8, i 3 ; 29, 14; V, 1, 
6 ; amimita matari, III, 29, 1 1 1 ; 
trib sapta maiixh paramawi, IV, 
1, 16 1 ; matu/6 ushasa£, IV, 2, 
15; mktdh g6b, IV, 5, io 1 ; 
mata yuvatf£, V, 2, 1 ; 2 ; mata- 
iva, V, 15, 4;— du., ubha ma- 
tara, I, 140, 3 1 ; matara samUT, 
the parents turned towards each 
other (Heaven and Earth), III, 
1,7!; parents, 111,^2, 2; 5, r 7^; 
7, i 1 ; V, 11, 3 1 ; matara pitara, 



462 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



IV, 6, 7 ; yahvi' iti r/tasya ma- 
tara, V, 5, 6; — pi., mothers, I, 
95, 7 ; 141, 5 1 ; vatsa£ mat rth 
^•anayata, I, 95, 4 2 ; sapta jivasu 
matr/shu, 1, 141, 2 2 ; matrft 
apa£, III, 9, 2 ; su-#atam ma- 
tr/shu, III, 23, 3; jajvatishu 
matr/shu, IV, 7, 6. 

madhyandina, midday: msidhyandine 
savane, III, 28, 4. 

M8na,N.p.: m8inasyasunti^,I,i89,8 1 . 

manavasyat, acting as men do, I, 
140, 4. 

mjinusha, man, I, 58, 5, &c. ;— 
belonging to men, I, 44, io 1 ; 
128, 7; human, I, 59, 5; 60, 
3 ; manushasya g-anasya ^anma, 
I, 70, 2 ; ma[nushi yit, I, 72, 
8 ; dhi^ manusha, II, 2, 9 ; 
human (sacrificer) : m&nushat 
purva£, II, 3, 3 2 ; — belonging to 
Manus, III, 9, 6; m&nushe 
(conj. m&nusha^), III, 23, 4*. 

Mamateya, son of Mamata, 1, 147, 3 1 . 

maysi, wonderful power, 1, 144, 1; — 
secret power, III, 20, 3 2 ; 27, 
7 1 ;— wile, V, 2, 9. 

mayfn, powerful, III, 20, 3. 

Manita, of the Maruts: j£rdha£ 
marutam, I, 127, 6; II, r, 6; 
IV, 6, 10. 

mar^alya, liking to be groomed, V, 
1,8. 

man/ ka, mercy, I, 79, 9 3 - 

ma 7 - vat, like me, 1, 142, 2. 

m&hina, mighty, III, 6, 4; 7, 5. 

mi, to erect: miyamana^, III, 8, 
3 ; — ni-mimyuA, they have 
fastened down, III, 8, 6 ; nf- 
mita, III, 8, 7. 

miksh, to mix: mimikshati, I, 142, 
3 ; ghr/tam mimikshe, he is 
joined with ghr/ta, II, 3., u 2 . 

mita-dru, measuredly running, IV, 

6,5. 
mitra, friend, I, (36, 17 1 ) ; 67, 1; 
75, 4 ; — friend or Mitra, the 
god, I, 96, i 3 ; II, 2, 3; 4, 1; 
III, 5, 3 ;— Mitra, the god, I, 
26, 4; 3 6 , 4; 44, 13; 58, 6; 
77, 3 2 ; 79, 3; 94, 12 1 ; 13 1 ; 
16; 95, n; 98,3; 141,9; 143, 
7; II, 1, 4; III, 4,2; 6; 5,9; 
14, 4; IV, 1, 18; 2, 4; 3, 5 ; 
5, 4; 6,7 3 ; 13,2; V, 3,1; 2 3 ; 
9, 6; 10, 2; 16, 1; 26, 9; 



mitra, the two Mitras i.e. Mitra 
andVaruwa, I, 36, 17 1 ; ksheshy- 
anta£ na mitram, II, 4, 3 1 ; 
mitral agnf£ bhavati, III, 5, 4. 

mitra-mahas, great like Mitra, I, 44, 
12; 58,8; II 1,5; IV, 4, 15. 

Mitravaruwau, du., Mitra and Varuwa, 
I, 7i, 9 2 ; 75, 5; HI, 20, 5. 

mi'trya, belonging to one's allies, II, 

6,7. 
mithas, mutually, 1, 26, 9 ; — together, 

I, 68, 8. 
mithuna, twin, I, 144, 4. 
miyedha, sacrificial meal, 1 1 1, 19, 1 ; 5. 
miyedhya, sacrificial, 1, 26, 1 ; — holy : 

I? 36, 9; 44, 5- 
mish : ni mish iti, he closes his eyes, 

III, 29, 14. 
mfh, mist, I, 79, 2 ; 141, 13. 
mi, to break (a law) : minanti, I, 

69, 7 ; yasya vratam na mi'yate, 

II, 8, 3; — to impair: minati, I, 
71, 10; — mindt, fading, V, 2, 
i 2 ; — a aminanta (Sawhita text : 
°ntaii), they were disparaged, 
I, 79, 2 1 ; — amemyane ity a-me- 
myane, constantly destroying, 
I, 9 6 , 5 j — P r ^ minanti, they di- 
minish, III, 28, 4 ; pra-minata£, 
trespassing, IV, 3, 13; pra 
minati, he destroys, V, 7, 4. 

midhv&ms, bountiful, I, 27, 2; II, 8, 
1; III, 16, 3; IV, 3, 5; 5, 1 ; 

15,5. 

mui, to loosen : mu^yase, I, 31, 4. 

mud, joy, I, 145, 4. 

mumukshu, striving to break loose, 
I, 140, 4. 

muhu£-gir, the sudden devourer, I, 
128, 3. 

murdhan, head : murdha diva/6, I, 
59, 2; III, 2, 14; murdMnam 
tatapate, IV, 2, 6; — summit: 
murdhan ya^/zasya, II, 3, 2. 

mri, to die : mamrushi^, I, 140, 8. 

mri : pra mri/zihi, crush, IV, 4, 5. 

mrikta-vahas, carrying away injury, 

y, 1 s, 2\ 

mrzga, animal, I, 145, 5. 

mrik, to injure: mar&iyati, mr/k- 
shish/a, I, 147, 4; 5; V, 3, 7. 

mrig, to rub : marg-ayanta£, I, 60, 
5 ; marmr/^nya, to be smoothed 
down, I, 189,7; II, 10, 1; — 
to clean, brighten : marmr/§-ma, 

III, 18, 4; marmr/^ata, IV, 1, 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



463 



14; marmr/^ata^, IV, 2, 19 ; 
marg-ayema, IV, 4, 8 ; marmri- 
.g-yante, IV, 15, 6 ; marg-ayanta, 
they have cleansed themselves, 
V, 3, 3 1 ; — to groom : mnfg-anti, 
V, 1, 7 ; mr/gyate, V, 1, 8 ;— 
pari marmr/^vate, purifies, I, 
95, 8 2 . 
mrM,to be merciful : mW/aya, I, 12, 
9; mr/7a, I, 36, 12; 94, 12 ; 

IV, 9, 1. 

mr/7ayat-tama, most merciful, I, 94, 
14. 

mri/ik&, mercy, IV, 1,3; 5. 

mm : abhi mr/jate, he strokes, I, 
145, 4; n& abhi-mr/je, not to 
be touched, II, 10, 5. 

mr/sh, to forgive: mimr/'sha^, I, 31, 
16 ; to forget: msi pra marshi- 
sh/M£, I, 71, 10; na tat pra- 
mr/she,it should not be slighted, 

111,9,2. 

me/i, roaring (?), Ill, 26, 9 1 ; IV, 7, 

n 2 . 
metr/, builder, IV, 6, 2. 
medas, fat, III, 21, 1 ; 2 ; 4 ; 5 1 . 
medha, sacrifice, I, 77, 3. 
medha, wisdom, V, 27, 4. 
medhira, wise, I, 31, 2 ; 127,7; r 42, 

11; III, 1, 3; 21, 4. 
medhya, holy, V, 1, 12. 
Medhya-atithi, I, 36, io 1 ; 11; 17 1 . 
m£na, woman, I, 95, 6. 

yaksh with pra, to aspire after : 
pra-y£kshan vasu, II, 5, 1 ; pra- 
yakshe, III, 7, 1. 

yakshd, a spirit, IV, 3, 13 1 , 3 (bis). 

ya^, to sacrifice: yakshi, I, 13, 1; 
31, 17; 36, 6; yashtave, I, 13, 
6; y&gn&m yakshatam, I, 13, 8; 
arvaw^am yakshva, I, 45, 10 ; 
ya>adhyai, III, 4, 3; aya#a£ 
hotram, III, 17, 2 ; ydt yagasi, 
III, 19, 4 2 ; dhruv&m aya£, III, 
29,16; y a^athaya, see ya^atha ; — 
dva yakshva, cause, by sacri- 
ficing, to go away, IV, 1, 5 ; — 
& ya^g-ati, procures (blessings) by 
sacrificing, I, 26, 3 ; a-yag-ase, 
I, 94, 2 ; & ya#a, produce by 
sacrifice, I, 188, 9 ; a ya^asva, 
obtain by sacrificing, III, 1, 22 ; 
a-yag-ante, they bring hither by 
sacrifice, III, 4, 2 ; a yakshat, 

V, 13, 3 1 . 



ya^ata, to be worshipped, worship- 
ful, I, 59,7; 128, 8; II, 5,8; 

III, 5, 3 5 IV, 1, i 2 ; 15,8; V, 

I, 11; 8, 1. 

ydg-atra, deserving worship, worship- 
ful, I, 65, 2 1 , &c. 

yagatha, the sacrificing, sacrifice : 
ya^athaya, III, 4, 1 ; 5, 9 ; 17, 
1 I 19, 5; V, 1,2 ; 11, 2. 

ya^gamana, sacrificer, I, 127, 2 ; V, 
26, 5. 

ya^g-ish^a, best sacrificer, I, 36, 10 ; 

44, 5; 58, 7; 77, 1 ; 127, 1; 

128, 1; 149, 4; II, 6, 6; III, 

10, 7; 13, 1; 14, 5 ; IV, r, 4 ; 

r a 19; 2, 1; 7, 1 ; 5 ; 8,1; V, 14, 2. 

yig\ya,ms, the best, or excellent, 

sacrificer, II, 9, 4; III, 4, 3 ; 

17, 5; 19, *; IV, 6, 1; V, 1,5; 

6; 3, 5. 
ya^a, sacrifice, I, 1,1; 4 1 , &c; 

II, 2, i 1 ; ya^wanam adhvara- 
jri'yam, I, 44, 3 2 ; murdhan 
ya^wasya, II, 3, 2 ; ya^wasya 
netari, II, 5, 2 ; rudram ya^wa- 
nam, III, 2, 5 1 ; ketum ya^wa- 
nam, III, 3, 3; 11, 3 ; 29, 5 ; 
pit& yaj^nam, III, 3, 4; 
yagn&m-ya.gna.m, III, 6, 10; 
ya^wdsya neta prathamasya, III, 

J5, 4. 
ya^wa-bandhu, kinsman of sacrifice, 

IV, 1, 9 1 . 

yagrii-vat, performing the sacrifice, 

111,27,6. 
ya^wa-vanas, accepting the sacrifice, 

IV, I, 9 . 

ya^wa-vahas, fitting out the sacrifice 
as a vehicle, III, 8, 3 1 ; 24, i 1 . 

ya^a-sadh, performer or promoter 
of sacrifices, I, 96, 3 ; 128, 2. 

ya < g$a-sa / dhana, accomplisher of 
sacrifices, I, 145, 3. 

ya^wiya, worshipful, I, 27, io 2 ; 72, 
3; 4; 6; 73, 7 ; 148, 3 1 ; H, 
3, 4; HI, h 21 ; 2, 13; 6, 3; 

IV, 1, 2c; V, 10, 2 ; — sacrificial, 

V, 12, 1. 

y%yu, sicnficer, I, 31, 13 ; III, 
19, 4. 

yag^van, sacrificer, 1, 13,12; III, 14,1. 

yat .: yatate, he ranges (the wings of 
his army), I, 95, 7 2 ; he unites 
with, I, 98, i 2 ; yatanai?, ranging 
themselves, III, 8, 9 ; — yatate, 
he stands firm, III, 16, 4; — 



464 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



yatayase, thou wilt requite, V, 

, 3, 9.' 

yata£, since, I, 128, 4. 

yata-sru^, holding forth the sacri- 
ficial ladle(s), I, 142, 1 ; 5 ; 
III, 2, 5; 27, 6; IV, 2, 9 ; 12, 
1 ; — to which the sacrificial 
ladles have been raised, 1 1 1, 8, 7 1 . 

yad, adv. when (repeated twice), I, 
141, 4 3 . 

yadi, when : yadi idam, when here 
(all this happened), I, 79, 2 3 ; — 
as I am, IV, 5, 1 1 2 . 

Yadu, I, 36, 18 1 . 

yantur, governor, III, 27, n 2 . 

yantr*, guider: yantaram dhinam, 

III, 3, 8;— guide, III, 13, 3. 
yam, to command : y£nta, I, 27, 7 ; — 

to hold: yayantha, I, 59, 1; 
yamati, it can hold, I, 141, n 3 ; 
yemanam, fast-holding, IV, 1, 
1 5 ; yemu£, they have held up, 

IV, 2, 14; — to bridle: jakema 
yamam, I, 73, io 1 ; II, 5, r 4 ; 
III, 27, 3 ; yamate, he holds 
himself back, I, 127, 3 ; — ayami 
te, it has been offered to thee, 
III, 14, 2 1 ; — to lead: a^ur 
yamu£, V, 6, io 2 ; — a-yemire, 
they have turned themselves 
hither, 111,6, 8 ; — ut yawyamiti, 
he raises again and again, I, 95, 
7 ; tit yawsate, may he lift up, 
I, 143, 7 ; — nf-yata, ruled, IV, 
3, 9 ; — with pra, to bestow : 
pra yawsi, III, 1, 22 ; pra 
yandhi, bestow, IV, 2, 20 ; pra- 
yata, IV, 15, 8 ; — vl yawsat, 
may he spread out, I, 189, 6; — 
sam ayawsta, he pulls in (the 
reins), I, 144,, 3. 

yama, twin : yama>6 ha ^ata^ yama£ 

^ani-tvam, I, 66, 8 1 . 
Yayati: yayati-vat, I, 31, 17. 
yava, barley, I, 66, 3 ; corn, II, 5, 6. 
yavasa, meadow, V, 9, 4. 
yavasa-ad, grass-consuming, I, 94, 

11. 
yavish/M, the youngest (god, Agni), 

I, 26,2; 44,4; 141, 4; 10; 147, 

2; 189,4; 11,6,6; 7, 1; III, 15, 

3; 19, 4; IV,2,ig; 13; 4, 6; 

11; 12, 3 ; 4; V, i, 10; 3, 11. 
yavish/^ya, youngest (Agni), I, 36, 

6; 15; 44, 6; III, 9, 6; 28, 

2; V, 8, 6; 26, 7. 



yavya, bliss in crops, I, 140, 13. 
yaja^-tama, most glorious, 1 1,, 8, 1. 
yajas, bringing glory, glorious, I, 
1, 3; 31, 8 ; 60, 1; II, 3, 5; 

III, 1, 19; V, 15, 1; yajasa£ 
(fern.), Ill, 1, 11 2 , 8 ; yajasa g6h, 
through the brilliant (milk ?) of 
the cow, IV, 1, 16 4 ; martasya 
yajasa, through the mortal's 
brilliant (offering), V, 8, 4 1 . 

yajasvat, glorious, 1,79, i 4 ; 1 1 1, 1 6, 6. 
yahu, young son : sahasa£ yaho fti, 

I, 26, io 1 ; 74, 5 1 ; 79, 4- 
yahva, vigorous, I, 36, i 2 ; III, 2, 

9 1 ; 3,8; 5,5595 28, 4 ;IV, 5 ,6; 

V, 16, 4 3 ; restless, III, 1, 12 5 ; 

IV, 5, 2; 7, 11;— young, V, 1, 
1 ;— yahvi^, new, I, 59, 4 ;— 
sapta yahvL6, I, 71, f ; 72, 8 1 ; 
III, 1, 4 1 ; IV, 13, 3; — diva£ 
yahvL&, young (daughters), III, 
1, 6 ; 9 4 ; — yahvf lti matara, I, 
142, 7 2 ; V, 5, 6. 

ya, to go : yami ratnam, I pray for 
treasure, I, 58, 7 s ; yasat, may 
he drive on, I, 71, 6 s ;— ikkhdi 
yahi, come hither, I, 31, 17; 
devan a£££a yatave, I, 44, 4 1 ; — 
ava-yatam (conj. ava-yat^), I, 
94, 1 2 1 ; ava yasisish^a^, mayest 
thou deprecate, IV, 1, 4. 

Yatu, a bad demon, V, 12, 2 1 . 

yatu-^u, inciting demons, IV, 4, 5. 

yatu-mavat, ally of the Yatus : yatu- 
m^vata^, I, 36, 20. 

yatr/, avenger (?), I, 70, n 3 . 

yama, procession, V, 3, 12. 

y&man, way, III, 2, 14 ; 29, 6 1 . 

yu : yuyushata£, they try to draw 
towards themselves, I, 144, 3; — 
yuyodhf, drive away, I, 189, 1 ; 

3 ; n >, 6 > A 4; yodhi, v, 3, 9 2 ; — 

^l yuvamana^, seizing, I, 58, 2 ; 

a-y6yuvana£, drawing towards 

himself, IV, 1, it ; — vi yoshat, 

may he be deprived of, IV, 2, 9. 
yu, going : y6b, I, 74, 7 2 . 
yukta, see yu^-. , 
yukta-gravan, who sets to work the 

press-stones, III, 4, 9. 
yuga, generation, tribe : manusha 

yuga, I, 144, 4 ; II, 2, 2 ;— age: 

yuge-yuge, III, 26, 3. 
yug, to harness, yoke : yu^anam, I, 

65, i 1 , 3 ; ayuktha£, I, 94, 10; 

ayukshata, III, 26, 4; dakshiwa 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



465 



yug-yate, V, 1, 3 3 ; yukta, V, 27, 
2 ; 3 4 ; — to join: nn-bhib yukta£, 
I, 69, 8 ; — yung&, I make ready, 

in, i, 1*. 

yhg, share : yu^am, V, 20, i 1 . 
yu^ya, companion : yu^yebhi/^, I, 

145, 4 2 . 
yudh, the fighting, I, 59, 5 ; battle, 

I, 140, 10; V, 25, 6. 
yuvatf, young woman : daja yuvata- 

ya£, I, 95, 2 2 ;— III, 1,6 ; V,2, 

1; 2; 4 2 . 
yuvan, young, I, 12, 1 ; 27, 13 ; 7h 

8; 141, 10; 144, 4; III, 23, 1; 

IV, 1, 12; V, 1, 6; yuva su- 
vasa£, III, 8, 4 1 ; — see yavish^a, 
yavish/£ya. 

yushmad, pron . : va£, dativus ethicus, 

I, 143, 7 1 ; vam, III, 4, 4 1 . 
yutha, herd, I, 58, 5; IV, 2, 18 ; V, 

„ 2 > 4 1 . 
yupa, sacrificial post, (I, 13, n 1 ); 

V, 2, 7. 

y6ga, the yoking, II, 8, 1 ;— setting 
to work, III, 27, 11. 

yogya, the harnessing, III, 6, 6. 

y6ni, womb, I, 149, 2; II, 3, 11 ; 
9, 3 5 ntasya y6nau, I, 65, 4 ; 
III, 1, 11 ; IV, 1, 12 ; V, 21, 
4 1 ; uparasya y6nau, I, 79, 3 3 ; 
ghr/tasya y6nau, III, 1, 7 ; 
ra#asa£ y6nau, IV, 1, 11; — 
couch, I, 66, 5 ;— receptacle, I, 
140, i 2 ; — birthplace, I, 144, 2 ; 
III, 29, 10; — abode: samane 
yona, I, 144, 4 ; su-kr/'tasya 
y6nau, III, 29, 8; — place, III, 
5, 7 1 ; home, IV, 3, 3. 

y6shan, young female : daja yo- 
sha«a£, I, 141, 2 4 ; abhratara£ 
na y6sha«a£, IV, 5, 5 2 . 

y6s : jam y6£, with luck and weal, 
I, i80, 2; III, 17, 3; 18, 4; 
IV > 12, 5. 

rawh,to hasten : raraha«a£, 1, 148,3. 

rawhya, rapidly, IV, 1, 3. 

rakshas, pi., rakshawsi, the Rakshas 

(devils), I, 79, 12 ; IV, 3, 14; 

V, 2, 9 ; ro. 
rakshas, sorcerer, I, 36, 15 ; 76, 3 ; 

79,6; III, 15,1; IV, 4 , 1; 4,15. 
rakshasvin, sorcerer, 1, 12, 5 ; 36, 20. 
raghu, swift, IV, 5, 13. 
raghu-dru, quickly running, I, 140, 

4; V, 6,2. 



raghu-yat, quickly moving, IV, 5, 9. 
raghu-syad, swift runner, I, 140, 4 ; 
111,26,2; IV, 5 , 9; V, 25, 6. 
r%as, air, atmosphere, aerial space, 

I, 58, 1 ; 5; 79, 1 ; 141, 7 5 

149, 4; II, 2, 3 54; III, 1, 5; 

4, 4 3 ; 26, 7 ; ra^g-asa^ y6nau, 

IV, r, 11 2 . 
ra#ish//>a, straightest, I, 79, 3. 
ra«, to rejoice, delight : rawayanta, 

I, 147, i'; ra^anti, III, 7, 5; 
rawayanta, IV, 7, 7 ; havya 
rawyati, V, 18, i 2 . 

ra»a, battle : ra«e-ra«e, I, 74, 3« 
rawv, to be joyful : rawvite fti, II, 

3, 6. 
rawva, pleasant, lovely, I, 65, 5 ; 66, 

3-5; 128, 8; II, 4, 4; IV, 1, 

8 ; — gay, joyous, cheerful, 1,144, 

7; II, 4, 6; III, 26, 1; IV, 

7,5; V, 7, 2. 
ratna, treasure : yami ratnam, I, 

58, 7 3 ; vasu ratna, III, 2, 11 ; 

kridhi ratnam, III, 18, 5. 
ratna-dha, bestower of treasures, II, 

1,7- 
ratna-dhatama, highest bestower of 

treasures, I, 1, 1 ; V, 8, 3. 
ratna-dheya, bestowal of treasures, 

IV, 13,1. 
ratna-vat, blessed with treasures, 

III, 28,5. 

ratha, chariot : ratham-iva vedyam, 

II, 2, 3 2 ; ratha£ na sasni£, like 
a victorious car, III, 15, 5. 

rathira, charioteer, III, 1,17; 26, 1. 

rathi', drawing a chariot : ajvasa£ 
rathya£, I, 148, 3 ; III, 6, 8 ; — 
charioteer, I, 77, 3 ; III, 3, 6; 

IV, 15, 2 ; rathft adhvarawam, 

I, 44, 2 ; rating ritasya, III, 2, 
8; IV, 10, 2. 

rathya, of a chariot : atya£ rathya£, 

II, 4, 4; rathya-iva (supply 
£akra?), II, 4, 6 2 ; £akram 
rathya-iva (rather rathyam- 
iva?), IV, 1 3 1 . 

rad, to cleave : ratsi, V, 10, 1. 
radhra : radhr&sya for adhrasya, (I, 

31, 14 2 ). 

rapas : rapawsi, Pada text instead 
of apawsi, I, 69, 8 2 . 

rabh : sam rebhire, they have em- 
braced, I, 140, 8 ;— abhf sam 
rabhante, they take care of, III, 
29, 13. 



[46] 



Hh 



466 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



rabhas, vigour, I, 145, 3. 

rabhasa, robust, II, 10, 4 1 ; fierce, 

III,i,8. 
ram-su, joyously, II, 4, 5. 
ram-s^ihva, with lovely tongue, IV, 

1,8. 
rayi, riches, treasures : kshapaWan 

rayiwam, I, 70, 5 1 . 
rayi-pati, treasure-lord : rayi-pati# 

raywam, I, 60, 4; 72, 1 ; II, 

9, 4- 
rayi-vfd, gainer of wealth, II, 1, 3 ; 

HI, 7, 3. 
rayishah, conqueror of wealth, I, 

58, 3. 
rava, shouting, roaring, I, 71, 2 ; 94, 

10 ; agne ravewa (Pada : agne7> 

avena), I, 128, 5 1 . 
rajana', rope, (I, 13, n 1 ) ; IV, 1, g 2 ; 

V, 1, 3 1 . 
rajmf, ray, I, 59, 3 ; IV, 13, 4 ; 14, 

2 ; 3 ; V, 19, 5 j— saptd raj- 

mayai>, seven rays or reins, II, 

5, 2;— rem, I, 141, n; III, 7, 
9 1 ; rita;sya rajmi'm, V, 7, 3. 

rasa, sap, I, 71, 5 1 . 

Rahugawa, plur., the Rahuga«as, I, 

78, 5 1 . 
ra, to give : rasate, I, 96, 8 ; rarishe, 

II, 1, 5 ; rarima, II, 5, 7; 

rara«a£, a liberal giver, III, 1, 

22 ; IV, 1, 5; 2, 10. 
r%, to be king or lord : ragantam 

adhvarawam, I, 1, 8; 45, 4; 

ra^asi, I, 36, 12 ; 188, 1 ; ra^-an 

(conj. ra>an), I, 79, 6 1 ;— vi- 

ra^atha, I, 188, 4; — adhi vi- 

ragata/?, you reign high, I, 188, 

6 1 . 
ra#an, king, I, 59, 3; 5, &c. ; 

ragana mitravaru/za, I, 7T, 9 2 ; 

ra#a Varima£, II, 1, 4; IV, 1, 

2 ; r%a vijam, II, 2, 8 ; vasam 

ra^anam, V, 2, 6 l . 
rata-havya, who has made offerings : 

rata-bavya£, I, 31, 13 4 ; — to 

whom offerings are made, IV, 

. , 7 ' 7 ' 
rati, gift, I, 60, 1 ; II, 1, 16 ; III, 2, 

A , 4; 19, 2 2 . 

ratfni, full of gifts, III, 19, 2 ; IV, 

6, 3. 

Rati-sa£, pi., the Ratisa£ or 'boun- 
teous ? gods, II, 1, 13. 
ratri, night, 1,94, 7« a 
radh,to worship: aradhi, I, 70, 8 2 ; — 



ma 7 nab riradha£, give us not up, 

in, 16, 5 . 

r&dhas, abundance, wealth, I, 94, 15 ; 
II, 9,4. 

raclhya, beneficent, IV, 11, 3. 

ramya, night, II, 2, 8. 

raya^-kama, desirous of riches, I, 
78,2. 

ri, to let loose : armat, III, 3, n 1 ; — 
svadhiti^-iva nyate, it streams, 
V, 7, 8 1 ; — ni ri«ati, he destroys, 
I, 127, 4; 148, 4. 

r\k : ririkvaVwsa^, abandoning, I, 72, 
5 s ; — with pra, to exceed : pra 
riri>£e, I, 59, 5 ; pra ri^yase, II, 
1, 15 ; pra riktha£, III, 6, 2. 

rip, deceiver: priyam rvp&h agram, 
I", 5, 5 1 . 

ripu, impostor, I, 36, 16 ; 147, 3 ; 

148, 5; 189, 5; IV, 3, 13 3 ; V, 
3, 11 ; ripave (conj. ripava^?), 
V, 12, 4 1 . 

ririkshu, who tries to harm, 1, 189, 6. 

rijaclas, triumphant with riches (?), 
I, 26, 4 1 ; 77, 4 1 - 

rish, to do harm : rfshata£, I, 12, 5 ; 
36, 15 ; ma 7 rishama, may we 
suffer no harm, I, 9*., 1-14 ; 
IV, 12, 5 ; reshayanti, I, 148, 
5 ; rishate, I, 189, 5 ; V, 3, 12. 

rfsh, harm, I, 98, 2. 

rishawyu, harmful foe, I, 148, 5. 

rih, to lick : re>ihat sada, licking and 
licking, I, 140, 9 ; rihanti udha£, 
I, 146, 2 ; — pari rih&n, licking 
everywhere, I, 140, 9. 

ri, see ri. 

ru : r6ruvat, roaring, I, 140, 6. 

rukma, gold, I, 96, 5 s ; IV, 10, 5 ; 
6; V, 1, 12. 

rukmin, with golden ornaments, I, 
66,6. 

rwk, to shine : rotate, I, 58, 2, &c. ; 
rurukvan, I, 149, 3; su-ru£a 
ru£atia£, III, 15, 6 ; ro^ata, IV, 
10, 6 1 ; — ati ro^ase, thou shinest 
forth, I, 94, 7 ; — pra aro^ayat, it 
filled with light, I, 143, 2 ; — vi- 
r6£amanam, I, 95, 2;. 9; vf 
ro^ase, II, 7, 4 ; vi-ruru£u£, 
they have made shine, IV, 7, 1. 

ru^, to break : rug-an, I, 71, 2 ; adrim 
rug-ema, IV, 2, 15 8 ; — vf ru^a, 
destroy, IV, 3, 14. 

Rudra, a name of Agni, I, 27, io 3 ; 
IV, 3, i 1 ; rudram ya^wanam, 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



467 



III, 2, 5 1 ; — Rudra, the father of 
the Maruts, II, 1, 6 ; TV, 3, 6 ; 
7 5 V, 3, 3 2 ;— pi., the Rudras, I, 
45,1 ; 58, 3 ; HI, 8, 8; 20,5. 

Rudrfya, Rudra-like : rudriya, I, 72, 

4 1 1 — P^> tne sons of Rudra, III, 
- 26, 5. 
rudh : vi r6dhat,he grows up, 1, 67, 9. 
rup : rupa£? IV, 5, 7 1 ; 8. 
rujat, bright, brilliant, III, 29, 3 ; 

iv, 3, 9; 5, 15; 11, 1; V, 1, 

2;— red, IV, 7, 9. 
rujat-urmi, with fiery waves, I, 58,4*. 
ruh : vaya/6-iva anu rohate, he 

mounts up as on the branches 

(of a tree), II, 5, 4 1 . 
rupa, appearance, I, 71, 10; 95, 8; 

IV, 11, i 2 . 

reku, empty (?), IV, 5, 12 1 . 
r6k#as, property, I, 31, 14. 
re^, to tremble: are^-etam, I, 31, 
3 ; re^ante, they roll forward, 

1, 143, 3- 

r6tas, seed, sperm, I, 68, 8 1 ; 71,8; 

128, 3 ; reta£ (read r£pa£), IV, 

3, 7 2 ; diva/? na retasa, V, 17, 3 3 . 
repas, sin : repa£ (conj. for reta£), 

IV, 3, 7 2 ; stain, IV, 6, 6. 
rebha, singer, I, 127, io 5 . 
revat, rich : revan, I, 27, 12 ; — revat, 

with riches, I, 79, 5 5 95, "5 

II, 2, 6; 9, 6; III, 7, 10; 18, 
4^5; 23, 2; 4; V, 23, 4. 

reshawa, harm-doer, I, 148, 5. 

rai, wealth : raya£, gen., I, 68, io 1 ; 

yasat ray& sa-ratham, I, 71, 6 3 ; 

raya£ dura£, I, 72, 8 ; ray ah 

su-dhura£, I, 73, io 1 ; raya£ 

jijihi, III, 16, 3 2 . 
roka, shining light, III, 6, 7. 
ro/fcana, lignt : vfjva diva/? ro^ana, I, 

146, 1 ; Ill,i2,9 ; diva£ ro^ane, 

III, 6, 8; tri ro^anani, I, 149, 
4; ut-tama£ ro^ananam, III, 
5, ro; ro£an6 suryasya, III, 
22, 3. 

ro£ana-stha, dwelling in light, III, 

2, 14. 

roll's, splendour, V, 26, 1. 

r6dasi, du., the two worlds, Heaven 
and Earth, I, 31, 3, &c. ; I, 59, 
2; 4 1 ; III, 7, 9 2 ; V, 16, 4 s . 

r6dhas, bank, IV, 5, i 2 . 

r6man, hair, I, 65, 8. 

r6hita, red (horses), I, 94, 10; II, 
10, 2 ; III, 6,6 ; IV, 2, 3 ; 6, 9. 

H 



rohit-ajva, lord of red horses, I, 45, 
2 ; IV, 1, 8. 

loka, world : lokam ^amfm, III, 2, 
9 4 ; — sve u loke, space, III, 29, 
8 ; — surabhau u lok§, in the 
sweet-smelling place, V, 1, 6 ; 
lokam syonam, pleasant free- 
dom, V, 4, 11. 

vaktva, (speech) to be uttered, III, 
26, 9. 

vakvan? I, 141, 7 1 . 

vakvara, moving crookedly : vakvari 
iti, I, 144, 6 1 . 

vaksh, to grow: ukshita, I, 36, 19 ; 
II, 3, 6 ; V, 8, 7 ; ukshama«am 
rag-asi, II, 2, 4; vavakshe, III, 
5, 8 ; vavaksha, IV, 7, 1 1 ;— ati 
vavakshitha, III, 9, 3 1 ; — abhi 
vavakshe, he has grown up, I, 
146, 2. 

vaksha«e-stha ? V, 19, 5 1 . 

vakshatha, growth, IV, 5, 1. 

vakshi? V, 19, 5 1 . 

va£, to pronounce (a prayer) : 
vo^ema, I, 74, 1 ; 75, 2 ; va£- 
yate, I, 142, 4 2 ; — 6nu v6£at 
brahmawi, II, 5, 3 1 ; — with pra, 
to announce: pra vo^a£, I, 27, 
4; pra-v6£ati, V, 27, 4; pra 
vavayfo, he indicates, I, 67, 8. 

v&y&as, word : va£a£, instr., I, 26, 2 2 ; 
adroghewa va^asa satyam, ac- 
cording to thy guileless word, 
III,i4,6; — prayer, I, 26,io,&c. 

va^asya, eloquence, II, 10, 6. 

va^asyu, eloquent, V, 14, 6. 

va#£, to stir : va^yamana, III, 6, 
1 ; va^yantam, may they move 
along, III, 6, 2. 

vat : api vatayamasi, we render 
attentive, I, 128, 2 1 . 

vatsa, calf, I, 72, 2 1 ; 95, i 1 ; 4'; 
146, 3; II, 2, 2. 

vadha, weapon, I, 94, 9; V, 4, 6. 

van, to accept : van6shi, I, 31, 13*; 
vanishish/a, 1, 127, 7 ; vaner fti 
vane/?, II, 6, 1 ; vanvana^, III, 
8, 2 ; — to gain, win : van6shi, I, 
31, 14 1 ; vavne, I, 36, 17; 
vanema, I, 70, i 2 ; II, 5, 7; 
vanvanta£, attaining (their aim), 

II, 4, 9 ; vanate, may he obtain, 

III, 19, 1 ; V, 4, 3 ;— to conquer, 
overcome : vanuyama, I, 73, 9 ; 

h 2 



468 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



vanavat, V, 3, 5 ; vanuyama, V, 

3, 6 ; — vanusha^, addicted to, 
eager, I, 150, 3 ; III, 27, 11 ; 
vavana£, thou wilt hold dear, 

IV, 11, 2 ; — to grant : vanate, 

V, 3, 10 ; — a vanase, win thou, I, 

140, 11 ; — sam vanamahe, we 
get together, V, 7, 3. 

vana, forest =-- fuel, wood, I, 58, 5 1 ; 
II, 4, 6 l ; III, 1, 13 1 ; 9, 2 ; 23, 
i 1 ; vane & vitam, IV, 7, 6 1 ; — 
tree : garbha^ vananam, I, 70, 
3 ; 9 ;— forest : vana-iva yat sthi- 
ram, I, 127, 3 s ; — I, 128, 3 2 , &c. 

vanad, eater of the forests,- 1 1, 4, 5 2 . 

vanargu, walking in the forest, I, 

145, 5 1 - 
vanaspati, lord of the forest, tree (i.e. 
sacrificial post), I, 13, n 1 ; 142, 
11 1 ; 188, 10; II, 3, 10; III, 

4, io 1 ; 8, i 1 ; 3; 6 ; 11 ; V, 

5, 10 ; — vanaspatin pra minati, 

V.7,4- 
vanitri, winner, III, 13, 3. 
vanfn, wooden stick, I, 58, 4 ; — tree, 

I, 94, 10; 140, 2. 
vand, to worship, salute : vandadhyai, 

I, 27, 1 ; III, 4, 3. 
vandaYu, reverer, I, 147, 2 ; V, 

I, 12. 

vandya, venerable, I, 31, 12 ; 79, 7 ; 

II, 7, 4- 

vandhura, chariot-seat : vandhure- 
iva (conj. for vandhura- iva), 

III, 14, 3 4 . 

vap : a upishe, thou pourest forth, I, 

3i> 9- 

vapu^-tara, very marvellous, II, 3, 7. 

vapusha : vapushaya darjatam, won- 
derful to behold, III, 2, 15. 

vapushy, to wonder : vapushyan, III, 

I, 4. 

vapushya, of marvellous appearance, 

IV, 1,8; 12; V, 1,9. 

vapus, a wondrous sight, wonder, I, 

141, 1 ; IV, 7, 9 ; wondrous 
body, wonderful shape, I, 141, 

2 2 ; 144, 3 ; 148, 1; ill, i, 8 ; 

1 8, 5 
vaya£-kr/t, giver of strength : vaya£- 

krit, I, 31, 10. 
vaya^-dha, giving vigour, I, 73, 1 ; 

II, 3, 9; IV, 3, ic. 
vaya£-vr/dh, increaser of vital 

strength, V, 5, 6. 
vayas, vigour, strength, vital power, 



I, 66, 4, &c. ; vaya£-vaya£, life 
afterlife, V, 15, 4. 
vaya, branch, I, 59, 1 ; II, 5, 4 1 ; V, 

vayi, weaver (?) : vayya-iva^II^^ 1 ). 

vayuna, established order, rule : vid- 

van vayunani, I, 72, 7 1 ; 189, 1 ; 

III, 5, 6; vayuna nava adhita, 
\ M4 A 5 3 ; 145, 5 ; vayunam 
vaghatam, III, 3, 4 2 ; vayune, 
in the due way, III, 29, 3 s ; — 
k& vayuna, what are the objects, 

, IV >5, I3-, 

vara, wish : manasa£ varaya, to thy 
mind's taste, I, 76, i 1 ; a choice 
boon, I, 140, 13 ; tisr*-bhya£ 
a varam, according to the wish 
of the three (sisters), II, 5, 5 ; 
desire, II, 10, 6. 

vara, the holding back : na varaya, 
he is not to be kept back, I, 

, . I43 >5- 
varivas, wide space, I, 59, 5. 
Varuwa, I, 26, 4 ; 36,4; 44, 14; 79, 

3; 94, 12 1 ; 16; 95, 11; 98, 3; 

128, 7; 141, 9; H3, 4 5 II, 1, 

4 ; III, 4, 2 ; 6 ; 5, 4; 14, 4; 

IV, 1,2-5; 18 ; 2,4; 3,5; 13, 
, ^ 2 5 V, 3, 1 ; 5, 11 ; 26, 9. 

varutha, shelter, I, 58, 9 ; 148, 2 ; 

189,6. 
varuthya, protecting, V, 24, 1. 
vare«ya, elect, desirable, excellent, 

I, 26, 2 ; 3; 7, &c. 
var^as, splendour, III, 8, 3; 22, 2; 

24, 1. 
vanza, colour, I, 73, 7 ; II, 1, 12 ; 4, 

5 ; — (bright) colour, splendour, 
11,5,5; IV, 5, 1 3;— appearance, 
I, 96, 5;— race, II, 3, 5 1 . 

vartani, way : vartan!^ (Pada : var- 
tanta), I, 140, 9 s ; — III, 7, 2. 

vardhana, increaser : vardhanam 
pitU/6, I, 140, 3 2 . 

varpas, sight, shape, I, 140, 5 1 ; 7; 

141, 3- 
varman, armour, I, 31, 15 ; 140, 10. 
varsha-nirni^, clothed in rain, III, 

26, 5. 
varshish/£a, most powerful, III, 13, 

7; 16, 3 ; 26,8; V, 7, 1. 
varshman, summit : varshman diva£, 

III, 5, 9 ; varshman pr/thivyft&, 

vavata, a favourite wife, IV, 4, 8. 
vavra, prison, IV, 1, 13. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



469 



vavri, cover, V, 19, 1. 

vaj, to be willing, long for, love : 
ujata£, 1, 12, 4 ; usatifb ujantam, 
I, 71, 1 ; ujata/6 (read ujate?), 

I, 71, 6 2 ; ujmasi, I, 94, 3; 
matte, I, 145, 4 5 ; H, 4, 3; 
vakshi, III, 1, i 1 ; uj£ntam 
iuan&£, III, 5, 7; vavajana£, 

III, 20, 1 ; vavajana, III, 22, 1 ; 
ujati', loving, IV, 3, 2 ; — anu 
vashri, I, 127, 1 ;— abhf vash/i, 

IV, 1, 8. 

vajsi, heifer, II, 7, 5. 
vajfn, lord, III, 23, 3. 
vashaf-kr/ti, the word VashaJ, 1,31,5- 
vas, to shine: u£££dntim, I, 71, 1 ; 
ushu£, III, 7, 10; r/tam avasran, 

IV^ic, 1 . 

vas, to clothe : vasishva, I, 26, 1 ; 
vasaya (Sawhita : vasaya), 
clothe, or I clothe, I, 140, i 1 ; 
jrfyam vasana£, II, 10, 1 ; jukra 
vasana£, arraying themselves in 
brightness, III. 8, 9; rujat 
vasana£, clothed in brilliancy, 
IV, 5, 15; — pari vasana^, III, 

vas, to dwell : avasayat, he has 
made depart, III, 7, 3 ; — prati 
avasayat, thou hast harboured, 
1 1 1 1 , 1 7 ; — sam-vdsana^, dwell- 
ing together, IV, 6, 8. 

vas, dwelling (?) : vasam r%anam, 

y, 2, e\ 

vasatf, dwelling, I, 31, 15 ; 66, 9 1 . 

vasana, garment, I, 95, 7. 

vasavya, wealth, II, 9, 5'. 

vasish/^a, the highest Vasu, II, 9, 1. 

vasu, excellent : vasvibhi^ dhiti-bhi£, 
III, 13, 5 1 ;— wealth, treasure, 
goods, I, 27, 5,&c. ; vfjva£ vasu£ 
(conj. vfjva vasu), I, 128, 6 3 ; 
vasva£ ra^ati, I, 143, 4 ; vasu 
ratna, III, 2, 11; goods, or 
Vasus, III, 19, 2 2 ; — see vasyas. 

Vasu, ep. of Agni, I, 3 1, 3 ; 44, 3 ; 
45, 9; 6 °, 4 5 79, 5; 127, i 1 ; 

II, 7, 1; III, 4, i 2 ; 15, 3 ; 18, 
2; i9> 3 ; 21, 5; IV, 5, 15 ; V, 
3, 10; 12 ; 6, 1 ; 2 ; 24,2; 25, 
j ; vasu/? vasunam asi, I, 94, 13 ; 
vasu£ vasu-bhi£, I, 143, 6; — 
pi., the Vasus, a class of gods, I, 

45, 1; 58, 3; 143,1; H,3, 4 1 ; 

III, 8, 8 ; 19, 2*; 20, 5; IV, 
12,6; V, 3,8. 



v&su-davan, giver of goods, II, 6, 4. 
vasu-dhiti, dispenser of goods, I, 

128, 8. 
vasu-dhiti, place of wealth, IV, 8, 2 1 . 
Vcisu-pati,lordof wealth, II, 1, 11 ; 6, 

4 5 V, 4, 1. 
vasu-ya, desire for wealth, I, 97, 2. 
vasu-yu, desirous of goods, I, 128, 

8; III, 26, 1; V, 3, 6; 25, 9. 
vasuvit-taim, the greatest acquirer 

of wealth, I, 45, 7. 
v&su-jravas, renowned as Vasu (or, 

as goods), V, 24, 2. 
vastu, daybreak : vasto/6 ushasa£, I, 

79, 6. 
vast™, illuminator: kshapam vasta, 

, (I. 1, 7 1 )- 

vastra, clothing, I, 26, 1. 

vasman, cloth, IV, 13, 4. 

Vcisyas, better things, I, 3r, 18; — 
bliss, I, 141, 12 ; welfare, II, 1, 
16 ; — greater wealth, II, 9, 2 ; — 
wealthier, IV, 2, 20. 

vah, to carry: vakshi, (III, 1, i 1 ) ; 
havyaya v6/£ave, I, 45, 6 ; 1 1 1^ 
29, 4; — abhf vakshi va^am, III, 
15, 5 2 ; — a vakshati, may he 
conduct, 1,1,2; a vakshat, may 
he carry hither, III, 5, 9 ; a 
vakshi, bring, III, 14, 2 ; a- 
vahantf, carrying (bliss), IV, 

14, 3 2 . 

vahat, stream, III, 7, 4 2 . 

vahish/£a, (horses) most ready to 
drive, IV, 13, 4; 14, 4. 

vahni, driven (on a chariot) : vahni- 
bh\Jb devaijfr, I, 44, 1 3 1 ; — carrier 
(of the gods), I, 60, 1 ; r 28, 4 s ; 
III, 1,1 ; 5, 1 ; IX , 4 1 ; 20, i 1 ;— 
carrying : vahni£ asa, I, 76, 4 1 ; 
—horse : vahnaya£, I II, 6, 2 2 ; — 
vahni and vahas, (I, 127, 8 1 ). 

vahni-tama,best carrier (of the gods), 

IV ' , '+- „ , . 

va, to blow : vata£ anu vati, I, 148, 
4 ; — ava vati, he blazes down, I, 

58, A 5- 

va: vivasasi, thou winnest, I, 74, 9; 
— a-vfvasati, (who) invites, I, 12, 
9 ; 58, 1 ; a-vivasasi, thou in- 
vitest, I, 31, 5 2 ; — a vivasanti, 
they seek to win, IV, n, 5. 

va, to weave : sawvayanti iti sam- 
vayanti, II, 3, 6. 

vaghat, worshipper, I, 31, 14; 36, 
13 2 ; 58,7; IV, 2, 13; invoking, 



470 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



Ill, 2, i ; 3, 8 ; 8, 10 ; sacri- 

ficer, III, 3, 4. 
v&&, word, I, 79, 10. 
va>a, strength, I, 27, 8 1 , 2 ; n ; 77, 

5 ; II, 1, jo 1 ; 12 ; 2, 7 ; 4, 8 ; 

6, 5 ; III, 10, 6; 11, 9; 19, 1 ; 
22, 1 ; 25, 2; 3; 27, 1 ; 11 ; 29, 
9; va^asya pati£, I, 145, 1 ;— 
deed of strength, III, 12, 9 ; 
— booty, I, 27, 5, &c. ; — prize, 
gain, III, 2, 3 1 ; 4, &c. ; abhf 
vakshi v%am, III, 15, 5 2 ; — 
race (striving for gain, contest 
for booty), I, 27, 7 1 ; 9 1 ; 36, 

2 ; III, 27, 7; V, 23, 1. 
Vag-a, pi., the Va^as, III, 26, 4 1 . 
vs^a-g-aA&ara, with booty in its belly, 

V, 19, 4. 
va^-a-pati, lord of booty, IV, 15, 3. 
va^a-prasuta, bent on the prize, I, 

vag-am-bhara, winning the prize, I, 
60, 5 ; winning booty, IV, 11, 4. 

vag-ay, to run a race : va^gayan-iva, 
II, 8, i 1 ; — to further strength : 
vag-ayanti iti, III, 14, 3 1 ; — to 
drive forward : vag-ayate, IV, 
7,11 ; — to strive for gain : vag-a- 
yanti, V, 1,3; vag-a-yanta^, V, 

4, 1. 
vag-a-yu, bent on victory, V, 10, 5 ; — 

eager for the race, V, 19, 3. 
vag-a-vat, bestowing strength, I, 31, 

18. 
vag-a-jravas, renowned for strength, 

111,2,5. 
va#a-s#tama, highest winner of booty, 

1,78, 3; HI, 12,4; V, 13, 5; 

20, i 1 . 
va#a-sati, winning of the prize, III, 

, 2 > ?1> 
vagi'n, strong, II, 2, 11 ; III, 6, 1 ; — 

the strong horse, racer, I, 66, 
4 1 , &c; 11,5, i 4 ; HI, 27, 3 1 ; 
&jva£ navag-i', III, 29, 6. 

vagina, strength, III, 20, 2. 

va«i, sound : sapta vKmfo, III, 1, 6 1 ; 

7, i 1 . 

vata, wind, I, 79, 1 ; 148, 4 ; IV, 7, 
10; 11; vatai£ aru«ai£, II, 1, 

6 ; v&tasya pathyabhi£, III, 14, 

3 ; v&tasya sarga£, III, 29, n 2 ; 
v&tasya patman, V, 5, 7 ; Vata, 
the god, IV, 3, 6. 

vata-^odita, stirred by the wind, I, 
58, 4; 141, 7. 



v&ta-^uta, stirred or driven by the 

wind, I, 58,4; 65,8; 94, 10; 

140, 4. 
vama, happy, I, 141, 12; — pleasant 

(wealth), IV, 5, 13. 
Vayu, the god, I, 142, 12 1 ; — vayu, 

wind, V, 19, 5. 
var, water, II, 4, 6 ; usrfyawam vg(£- 

iva, IV, 5, 8. 
vara, treasure, I, 128, 6; V, 16, 2. 
vara, tail, II, 4, 4. 
vara/za, stubborn, I, 140, 2. 
vaYa-vat, long-tailed, I, 27, 1. 
varya, excellent wealth, treasure, I, 

26,8; 111,8,7; V, 16, s 1 ; 17, 

5 ; desirable boon, I, 58, 3 ; 

III, 21, 2 ; V, 23, 3 ; best gifts, 

I, 149, 5 ; III, 11, 9. 

vaj, to roar, low: avajaya£, I, 31, 
4 1 ; vavajanaT?, I, 73, 6 ; vavajire, 

II, 2, 2. 

vajra, lowing, I, 95, 6. 

valias, vehicle, (I, 127, 8 1 ) ; III, 

II, 7 1 . 

vaTiish^a, which may best bring, V, 

25, 7. 
vi, to weave. See va. 
vi, bird: ver iti ve£, I, 72, 9 1 ; 96, 

6 2 ; III, 5, 5 1 ; 6; III, 7, 7 1 ; 

IV, 5, 8*; vaya£, I, 141, 8; 
vayya-iva? II, 3, 6 1 . 

vi, away from, I, 150, 2. 
vf-adhvan, straying everywhere, I, 

, 141, 7. 
vi-ush, the break of dawn, V, 3, 8. 
vf-ush/i, dawning : vf-ush/ishu, I, 44, 
3 ; 4 ; 8 ; III, 20, 1 ; ushasa^ 
vi-ushmu, at the break of dawn, 

III, 15, 2 ; IV, 1, 5; 14, 4. 
vf-oman, heaven : parame vf-omani, 

I, 143, 2 ; V, 15, 2. 
vi-gaha, diver, III, 3, 5. 
vi-/£aksha«a, far-seeing, III, 3, 10. 
vi-£arsha«i, dwelling among all 

tribes, I, 31, 6* ; 78, 1; 79,12; 

III, 2, 8 ; 11, 1. 
vf-^etas, wise, I, 45, 2 ; II, 10, 1 ; 

2 ; IV, 5, 2 ; 7, 3. 
vy* : vevi^e fti, they are affrighted, 

I, 140, 3. 
viga-van, continuing our race : sunu£ 

tanaya£ vi^a-va, III, 1, 23. 
vid, to find : v£vidana£, acquiring 

(or, exploring?), I, 72, 4 ; avidan 

(conj. avidan), I, 72, 6 1 . 
vid, to know : yatha vide, as it is 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



471 



known, I, 127, 4 ; vidvan, 
knowing (with gen. and ace), 
V, 1, 11 1 ;— pari veda, I, 31, 5 1 ; 
— vi vidvan, distinguishing, I, 

189, 7. 

vid, knowledge: vida, I, 31, 18. 

vidatha, sacrifice, I, 31, 6 2 ; 60, i 2 ; 
143, 7; HI, 1, i 2 ; 18 ; 3, 3; 
4, 5 ; 8, 5; 14, 1 1 ; 27, 7 2 ; IV, 
6, 2 ; tr/tiye vidathe, II, 4, 8 1 ; 
— vidatha, sacrificial ordinances, 
III, 1, 2 3 ; 26, 6 2 ; — sacrificial 
distribution, III, 28, 4 ; vida- 
theshu ahnam, V, 3, 6 1 ; — 
assembly, II, 1, 4 s ; 16 2 . 

vidathya, influential in council, (I, 
31, 6 2 ). 

vidu£-tara£, the greatest sage, I, 31, 

14; II, 3,7. 

vidus, possessed of knowledge, I, 71, 
io 1 . 

vidmana-apas, active in wisdom, I, 
31, i 1 . 

vi-dyut, lightning, III, 1,14 ; V,io, 5. 

vidyut-ratha, whose chariot is light- 
ning, III, 14, 1. 

vidh, to worship : vidhema, I, 36, 
2 ; vidhata£, I, 73, 1, &c. 

vidh, vyadh, to pierce, to shoot : 
vidhya, IV, 4, t. 

Vidhartr/, he who keeps asunder 
all things, II, 1, 3 3 . 

vf-dharman, sphere, III, 2, 3 ;— dis- 
poser, V, 17, 2 1 , 3 . 

vip, to tremble : pra vepayanti, they 
make tremble, III, 26, 4. 

vip, prayer, III, 3, i 1 ; 7; vipam 
gy6t\msh\, III, 10, 5. 

vipa£-£it, knowing prayers, III, 3, 
4 1 ; 26, 9; 27, 2. 

vipanya : vipanyaya, in thy admirable 
way, III, 28, 5; vipanya^ won- 
derfully, IV, 1, 12. 

vipanyu, full of admiring praise, III, 
10, 9. 

vipra, priest, I, 27, 9, &c. ; sapta 
vipra£, 111,7, 7 ; IV, 2, 15 1 . 

vi-bhak.tr/, distributor : vi-bhakt8L, 

i> ? 7 > 6 * 
vi-bhatf, resplendent, III, 6, 7. 

vibha-van, resplendent, I, 58, 9 ; 59, 

7 ; 66, 2 ; 69, 9 ; 148, 1 ; 

4; HI, 3, 9; IV, 1, 8; 12; V, 

1, 9; 4, 2. 
vibha-vasu, rich in splendour, I, 44, 

10; III, 2, 2 ; V, 25, 2 ; 7 1 . 



vi-bhu, mighty, I, 31, 2; 141, 9; 

III, 6, 9; V, 4, 2 ; 5, 9; vi- 
bhvi£ (dura£), I, 188, 5 x ;— far- 
extending, 1, 65, 10; — spreading, 

IV, 7,1. 

vf-bhr/'tra, widely-spread, I, 71, 3 2 ; 

95, 2 ; wide-ranging, II, 10, 2. 
vf-bhrash/i, shine, I, 127, 1. 
vibhva-sah, overpowering skilful 

men, V, 10, 7. 
vi-mana, measure, III, 3, 4 2 . 
vi-yuta? IV, 7, 7 1 . 
vi-ra^, Prince, I, 188, 5. 
virukmat, shining, I, 127, 3. 
vf-rupa, of different shapes or forms, 

1,70,7*; 73, 7;95,i;ni, 1, 13; 

4, 6 ; —of different colour, V, 1, 

4 1 . 

Virupa : virupa-vat., I, 45, 3. 

vi-roka, the bursting forth : ushasa£ 
vi-roke\ III, 5, 2. 

vivasvat, irradiating: vivasvat (conj. 
vivasvan), I, 44, i 1 ; vivasvata 
^akshasa, I, 96, z 3 . 

Vivasvat, N. pr., I, 31, 3; 58, i 1 , 2 ; 
IV, 7, 4 5 V, 11, 3 2 . 

vivasvan, the shining forth : vivasvat 
(conj. vivasvan) ushasa£, at the 
rising of the dawn, I, 44, i 1 . 

vfviii, separating, V, 8, 3 1 . 

vij, house, clan, tribe: vije-vije, I 
27, io 2 , &c. ; vijam na vfjva£, 
I, 70, 4 2 ; manushi vfr, I, 72, 8 
raga, vijam, II, 2, 8; vijam 
kavim vijpatim, III, 2, 10 
pura^-et^i vijam manushmam, 
III, 11, 5 ; visab martan, IV, 2 
3 2 ; \\sih atithi£, V, 18, 1 ; de 
vasa£ sarvaya vija, the gods 
with all their folk, V, 26, 9. 

vi-jfkshu, a hewer, II, 1, io 3 . 

vijpati, lord of the clans, I, 12, 2; 
26, 7; 27, 12; 31, 11; 60, 2; 
128, 7; II, 1, 8 ; III, 2,10; 3, 
8; 13, 5 ; V, 4, 3; 6,5. 

vijpatni, housewife, III, 29, i 4 . 

vijpa, lord of clans, (I, 70, 4 2 ). 

vfjva, every one : vijam na vfjva£, 
I, 70, 4 2 ; vfjvam idam, this 
whole world, I, 98, 1 ; vfjve 
deva^, II, 3, 4 1 ; V, 3,1; 26,4; 
vfjvam ft vidu£, III, 29, 15 1 . 

vijv£-apsu? I, 148, i 2 . 

vijva-ayu, having a full life, or, in 
whom all life dwells, I, 27, 3 ; 
67,6; 10; 73, 4; 128, 8; vijva- 



472 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



ayuA (conj. vuva-ayo/&), I, 68, 

5 2 - 
vijva-ayus, adv., eternally (?), (I, 

68, 5 2 ). 
vijva-krish/i, extending over all 

dominions, I, 59, 7 ; belonging 

to all races of men, III, 26, 5. 
vijva-£arsha«i, dwelling among all 

tribes, I, 27, 9 s ; III, 2, 15; V, 

6, 3; H, 6; 23, 4. 
vijva-g-anya, encompassing all people, 

111,25,3. 
vijvata£-mukha, whose face is turned 

everywhere, I, 97, 6 ; 7. 
vbva-turti, all-victorious, II, 3, 8. 
vijva-tha, everywhere, I, 141, 9. 
vijva-darjata, visible to all, I, 44, 

10; 146, 5; V, 8, 3. 
vijva-deva, accompanied by the 

Vijve deva£, I, 142, 12. 
vbva-devya, belonging to all gods, I, 

148, 1 ; united with all the gods, 

111,2,5. 
vbvadha, everywhere, I, 141, 6 ; 

always, V, 8, 4. 
vijvd-dhayas, possessing every re- 
freshment, I, 73, 3 ; V, 8, 1. 
virva-bharas, supporter of everything, 

IV, 1, 19 1 . 
vijvd-bhanu, all-brilliant, IV, 1,3. 
vijvam-inva, all-embracing, I, 76, 2 ; 

— all-enlivener, III, 20, 3. 
vijvci-rupa, all-shaped, I, 13, 10; 

assuming every shape, III, 1,7. 
vijva-vara, rich in all boons, III, 4, 

3; giver of all treasures, III, 

17, 1 ; with all goods, V, 4, 7 ; 

rich in all treasures, V, 28, 1. 
vLrva-vfd, all-knowing, III, 19, 1 ; — 

omniscient, III, 29, 7 ; V, 4, 3. 
vijvci-vedas, all-possessor, possessor 

of all wealth, I, 12, 1 ; 36, 3; 

44, 7 ; 128, 8; 143, 4; 147, 3; 

III, 20, 4; 25, 1 ; 26, 4; IV, 

8, 1. 
vijva-jrushri, always listening, I, 

128, 1. 
Vijva-saman, V, 22, 1. 
Vuvamitra, pi., the Vijvamitras, III, 

1,21 ; 18, 4. 
vijvayu-poshas, lasting all our life, 

I, a 79, 9 2 . 
vijvaha, day by day, III, 16, 2. 
vish, to accomplish: vW\ddh\, I, 27, 

10; vevishat, busy, III, 2, 

10. 



vfshuwa, manifold, IV, 6,6; — turning 

oneself from one, V, 12, 5 1 . 
vfshu-rupa, in manifold shapes, V, 

15, 4. 
vishtfa? I, 148, i 1 . 
Vfsh«u, II, 1, 3; IV, 3, 7; V, 3, 3. 
vishpaj, descrier : vishpaV, I, 189, 6 1 . 
vfshvak, in all directions, I, 36, 16; 

IV, 4, 2. 

vi-sara, expanse; I, 79, i 1 . 

vi-stir, laid out : vi-stira/?, I, 140, 7 1 . 

vi-hava, the emulating call, III, 8, 10. 

vf-hayas, far-reaching, I, 128, 6 1 ; 
whose energy expands round- 
about, IV, 11, 4 1 . 

vi, to accomplish, pursue, perform 
eagerly : vive£ rapawsi (rather 
viver apawsi), I, 69, 8 2 ; v£shi 
(hotram), I, 76, 4; ve7>, 11,5, 
3 2 ; IV, 7, 8 ; — to come or 
approach eagerly, to move : 
v&hi, I, 74, 4; 189, 7; IV, 9, 
5 ; 6 ; veh y he repairs, I, 77, 2 ; 
IV, 7, 7; vetu, 1,77,4 5 veti,I, 
141, 6; vit£ye, that they may 
eagerly come or partake, I, 74, 
6; II, 2, 6 2 ; see also vitf; — 
vihi, accept eagerly, III, 28, 3; 
— vyantai, tending to, I, 127, 
5 ; vyantu, may they eagerly 
seek, III, 8, 7 ; vihi mri/ikam, 
love mercy, IV, 1, 5 ; ma' ve£, 
require not, IV, 3, 1 3;— & dutyam 
vivaya, he has undertaken the 
messengersKip, I, 71, 4 s ; — upa 
vetu, may he come, V, 11, 4 ; 
— pra-vita, having conceived, 
III, 29, 3 ; — prati vihi, accept 
eagerly, III, 21, 5. 

vi, to envelop. See vya. 

vi r , eager : vi£, I, 143, 6. 

vi/u, strong, safe, I, 127, 3 ; 5 ; IV, 
3, 14; — fortress, I, 7r, 2. 

vi/u-^ambha, with strong jaws, III, 

. , 29 > I3 * 
viti, straight, IV, 2, 11. 

vitf, (sacrificial) feast : vitaye, I, 1 3, 

2 ; 74, 4 ; 142, 13; III, 13, 4; 

. , V > 26 > 2 * 
vitf-hotra, offerer of a feast (to the 

gods), III, 24, 2 ; V, 26, 3. 

vira, hero, a manly son, I, 73, 3, &c. 

vira-pejas, adorned with heroes, IV, 

vira-vat, with valiant heroes, I, 12, 
11 ; 96,8; 111,24,5; V, 4, 11. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



473 



viravat-tama, high bliss of valiant 

offspring, I, i, 3. 
virudh, plant, I, 67, 9 •; 141, 4 ; gar- 

bha£ virudham, II, 1, 14. 
virya, mighty deed, III, 12, 9; — 

heroic power, III, 25, 2. 
vr/, to choose: vr/wimahe, I, 12, 1, 

&c. ; vr/Vit£, he demands, I, 67, 

1; — ura«a£, choosing, III, 19, 

2 ; IV, 6, 3 ; chosen, IV, 6, 4 ; 

7,8. 
vr/, to hold back, hinder : varate, I, 

65, 6 ; varanta, IV, 6, 6 ; avari, 

IV, 6, 7 ; — apa vr/dhi, open, II, 
2, 7 ; apa avar fty ava£, he has 
opened, III, 5, 1 ; apavran, they 
have uncovered, IV, 5, 8 ; apa 
vran, they disclosed, IV, 2, 16 ; 
— k&mam a-varat, would he 
fulfil our desire, I, 143, 6; — 
pari-vr/ta, hidden, I, 144, 2 ; 
— see ur«u. 

vr/ktd-barhis, having spread the sacri- 
ficial grass, I, 12, 3 1 ; III, 2, 5 ; 
6 ; V, 23, 3 ; — where they spread 
sacrificial grass, V, 9, 2. 

vnfg-ana, settlement, I, 60, 3 2 ; 73, 
2 2 ; II, 2, i 4 ; 9 ; — enclosure, I, 
128, 7 ;— masc. ? I, 189, 8 2 . 

vr/^ina, wrong, dishonest, IV, 1,17; 

V, 3, "5 12,5. 
vng-ina-vartani, following crooked 

ways, I, 31, 6 1 ,*. 

vr/%, to trim : vringi, I, 142, 5 2 ; — 
to turn : vr/wakti, IV, 7, 10 ; — sl 
vr/kshi, may I draw on myself, 
(I, 27, 13 2 ) ; — pari vr/'/zakti, he 
spares, III, 29, 6. 

vr/tra, foe, I, 36, 8 1 . 

vr/tra-Mtha, the killing of foes, III, 
16, 1. 

vr/tra-han, slayer of foes or of 
Vritra, I, 59, 6 1 ; 74, 3 5 H, h 
11 ; III, 12, 4 2 ; 20, 4 2 . 

vr/trahan-tama, the greatest de- 
stroyer of enemies (or of 
Vritra), I, 78, 4. 

vr/tha, lightly, I, 58, 4 1 ;— wildly, I, 
140, 5. 

vr/ddha-joiis, mightily brilliant, V, 
16, 3. 

vr/dh, to increase, grow, &c. : var- 
dhamanam, increasing, I, 1, 8, 
&c. ; vavr/dhasva, be magnified, 
I, 31, 18; vr/dhe, for welfare, 
prosperity, III, 3, 8 ; 6, 10 ; IV, 



2, 18; vrid dha, grown full of, 
V, 20, 2 1 ; — vardhanti, they 
nourish, I, 65, 4 ; — vardhaya- 
masi, we extol, I, 36, 11 ; var- 
dhaya gfra£, make prosper, III, 
29, 10; — vi vavr/dhe (conj. vi- 
vavr/dhe), I, 141, 5 2 . 

vr/dh, furtherer, III, 16, 2 2 . 

vr/dha, helper, furtherer, (III, 16, 
2*) a ; IV, 2, !o. 

vr/dhasana, growing : vr/'dhasanasu, 
in the growing (plants), II, 2, 5 2 . 

vr/dha-snu, mighty, IV, 2, 3 1 . 

vr/shan, manly, bull, 1,36, 8 2 ; io 1 , 
.&c; III, 29, 9 1 ; r/tasya vr/sh«e, 
V, 12, i 1 ; arushasya vr/sh«a^, 
^ V, 12, 2 2 . 

Vr/shan, N. pr., I, 36, io 1 . 

vr/shabha, bull (Agni), I, 31, 5, &c. ; 

1, 141, 2 2 ; IV, 1, n«; 12 2 ; V, 

2, 12 1 ; kr/'sh«a^ vr/shabha^, I, 
79, 2 2 . 

vr/'shay : vr/sha-y£se, thou rushest on 
(ace.) like a bull, I, 58, 4 s ; — 
vr/sha-yante, they are full of 
(sexual) desire, III, 7, 9. 

vrishrf, rain, II, 5, 6 ; 6, 5. 

vedas, property, I, 70, 10; 99, 1; 

V > 2? I2 ' 
vedi, sacrificial altar: vedi itiasyam, 

11,3,4. 

vedi-sad, sitting on the sacrificial 

bed, I, 140, 1. 
vedya, well known : ratham-iva ved- 

yam, II, 2, 3 2 ; — renowned, V, 

15, 1. 
vedha£-tama, best worshipper, I, 

75,2. 
vedhas, worshipper, 1, 60, 2 ; 65, 10 ; 

69, 3; 72, i 1 ; 73, 10; HI, 10, 

5; 14, 1 ; IV, 2, 15 ; 20; 3, 

3 ; 16 ; 6, 1 ; — helpful, I, 128, 

4 (bis). 

vepas, trembling, IV, 1 1, 2. 
vejci, vassal, IV, 3, 13. 
veshawa, officiating, V, 7, 5. 
Vaijvanara, I, 59, 1-7 ; 98, 1-3 ; 

III, 2, 1 ; 11 ; 12 ; 3, 1 ; 5 ; 

10; 11 ; 26, 1-3 ; IV, 5, 1 ; 2; 

V, 27, i 2 ; 2. 
vblhri, draught-horse, I, 144, 3. 
vya^asvat, far-embracing, II, 3, 5. 
vya^ish^a, most capacious, II, 10, 4. 
vyathis, track, IV, 4, 3. 
vyadh, see vidh. 
vya (vi), to envelop : ava-vyayan, re- 



474 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



moving, IV, 13, 4; — a vitam, 
enveloped, IV, 7, 6 1 ; — pari- 
vita, dressed (in offerings and 
prayers?), IV, 3, 2 2 . 

vyoman, see vf-oman. 

vra^, to go: vavra^a, III, 1, 6; — 
abhi-vrag-an, proceeding, I, 58, 
5 2 ; abhivr%at-bhi£, approach- 
ing, I, 144, 5 3 . 

vrag-a, stable, IV, 1, 15 ; V, 6, 7. 

vrata, law, I, 31, 1 ; 2 ; 12 ; 65, 3 ; 
6 9> 7 ; II, 8, 3; III, 3, 9; 4, 
7; 6,5; 7,7; IV, 13, 2; vrat& 
dhruva', I, 36, 5 1 ; II, 5, 4; 
daivyani vrata 7 , I, 70, 2;— anu 
vratam, according to his will, I, 
128, 1;— duty, I, 144, 1. 

vrata-pa, guardian of the law, I, 31, 
10; 111,4,7; V, 2, 8 3 . 

vra.sk : ma^y&yasa^ jawsam a vr/kshi, 
may I not fall as a victim to the 
curse of my better, I, 27, 13 2 ; 
vriknKsah, hewn, III, 8, 7. 

vra, host, IV, 1, 16 2 . 

vrata, host : vnitam-vratam, III, 
26, 6. 

vradh : vradhanta,they have boasted, 

vradhan-tama, most powerful, I, 

, I5 °> 3 ' 
vru, finger: daja vrfja£, I, 144, 5 1 . 

jaws, to recite: ajawsan, I, 67, 4; 
manma jawsi, II, 4, 8 ; — to 
teach : ritam jawsanta£, III, 

4, 7. 

s&msa, curse, I, 27, 13 2 ; 94, S; III, 
1 8, 2 ; jawsat aghat, from evil 
spell, I, 128,5 ; — praise, I, 141, 
6 4 ; 11 ; jawse nr/Vzam, III, 16, 
4 ; ubha' jawsa, IV, 4, 14 1 ; 
jawsam ay6£, IV, 6, 1 1 2 ; V,3,4 2 . 

jak, to be able: jaknavama, I, 27, 
13 ; jakema yamam, I, 73, io 1 ; 
II, 5, i 4 ; III, 27, 3; jakema 
sam-idham, I, 94, 3 ; — to help 
to: jagdhi (with gen.), II, 2, 
12 ; III, 16, 6 ; jagdhi svastaye, 

, V,i7,5- 
jakti, skill: jakti, I, 31, 18. 
jagma, mighty, I, 143, 8. 
ja^i-vat, full of power, III, 21, 4. 
jata, hundred : jata to viwjatim ka., 

, 7> 27 > al - 

jata-atman, endowed with hundred- 
fold life, I, 149, 3. 



jatadavan, giver of a hundred (bulls), 
, V, a 2 7 , 6. 

jata-dhara, with a hundred rills, III, 
26, 9. 

jata-vaba, with a hundred branches, 
III, 8, 11. 

jata-s£ya, attainment of hundred- 
fold blessings, III, 18, 3. 

jata-hima, living a hundred winters, 

II, 1, 11. 

jata-hima, pi., a hundred winters, I, 

, 73,9- 
jatin, hundredfold, I, 31, 10; II, 2, 

9 ; jatfnibhi^, with his hundred- 
fold blessings, I, 59, 7. 

jatru, enemy : j£trum a-dabhu£, III, 

16, 2*. 
jatru-yat, being at enmity, V, 4, 5 ; 

28, 3. 
sad, to be glorious : jajadre, 1, 141, 9. 
japha, hoof, V, 6, 7. 
jam, to toil (esp. in performing 

worship) : jajamana, who has 

toiled hard, I, 141, 10 ; 142, 2 ; 

III, 18, 4; IV, 2, 9; 13 ; 
ajamish/>6a£, III, 29, 16; <ba- 
mish/a, he toiled, V, 2, 7. 

jam, bliss, luck : jam \6b, with luck 

and weal, 1, 189, 2 ; III, 17, 3 ; 

18,4; IV, 12, 5; s&m m\h soka,, 

III, 13, 6 ; jamkr/dhi, IV, 1, 3 ; 

jam asti, he satisfies, V, 7, 9 ; 

jam hr/de, V, 11, 5. 
jamay, to toil : jam-aye, III, 1, 1. 
jami, toiling, (sacrificial) work : 

jamya, II, 1, 9 1 ; jamyai (read 

jamya£ ?), IV, 3, 4 1 . 
jamitr/, the sacrificial butcher, or 

slaughterer, (I, 13, 12 1 ) ; II, 3, 

10 ; III, 4, 10. 

jam-gaya, bringing happiness to our 

home, II, 1, 6. 
jam-tama, most agreeable, beneficial, 

blissful, I, 76, i 1 ; 77, 2 ; 128, 

7 ; HI, 13, 4. 
Sambara, I, 59, 6. 
jam-bhu, refreshing, 1, 65, 5 ; bringing 

luck, III, 17, 5. 
jayu, reposing, I, 31, 2. 
saxan\, fault (?), I, 31, 16 1 . 
jarad, autumn : tisra£ jarada/6, I, 

72,3. 
jaru, weapon, IV, 3, 7. 
jardha, host, I, 71, 8 6 ; IV, 1, 12 1 , 3 ; 

jaYdhaya marutam, IV, 3, 8. 
jardhas, host : jardha/? marutam, I, 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



475 



127, 6 ; II, 1, 6; IV, 6, 10; 

marut&m jardha£, II, 3, 3 ; 

naram jardha£, 1 1, 1, 5* ; jardha£ 

divyam, III, 19, 4; — jaYdha£, 

m. or n. ? IV, 1, 12 1 , 3 . 
jarman, shelter, protection, 1,58, 8, 

&c. ; jarmam syam, III, 15, 1 ; 

akkbidra. j^rma, III, 15, 5 1 . 
jarma-sad, sitting under shelter, I, 

, * 73 > 3 ' 
jarya, arrow, I, 148, 4. 

javas, strength, might, power : javasa 

(conj. javasa^), I, 27, 2 1 , &c. ; 

javasa^ jushmi«a£ pati£, I, 145, 

1 ; javasa£ pate, V, 6, 9. 
javish^a, most powerful, I, 77, 4 ; 

mightiest, I, 127, 11. ' 

jlrvat : jajvata tana, constantly, I, 
26, 6 1 ; jajvati^, constant, I, 27, 
7 ; #anaya jajvate, all people, I , 
36, 19 ; jajvata^, many, I, 72, i 1 * 

jajvat-tamam, for ever, III, 1, 23. 

jasti', hymn, praise, IV, 3, 3; 15. 

ja, to sharpen, further : ji/ihi, III, 
16, 3 1 ; /M-^? 1 ; J«^e, V, 2, 9 ; 
9, 5 ; — ati jfjite, I, 36, 16 ; — ni- 
jfshat, he stirs up, IV, 2, 7 1 . 

jaka, powerful, V, 15, 2 1 . 

Sata-vaneya, N. pr., I, 59, 7. 

jas, to teach, instruct : ja.sa.sub, III, 

I, 2; IV, 2, 12; — anu-jish/a, 
instructed, V, 2, 8 ; — pra j&ssi, 
thou instructest, I, 3 1, 14 ; pra- 
j&sat, commanding, I, 95, 3. 

jas, command, I, 68, 9. 

jasana, command, III, 7, 5. 

jasani, teacher, I, 31, 11. 

jasus, command, instruction, I, 60, 

2 ; 73, 1. 

ja'sya, governable, I, 189, 7 4 . 

jfkvan,plur., locks of flames, 1, 141, 8 1 . 

jiksh, to help one to, to favour with 
a thing (gen.) : jfksha, I, 27, 
5; III, 19, 3 ; yah te jfkshat, 
who does service to thee, I, 
68, 6 1 . 

jikshu, rich in favours: jiksh6£ 
(conj. jiksho), III, 19, 3 1 . 

siti-prishtbi, white-backed, III, 7, i 1 . 

jfmi-vat, powerful (?), I, 141, 13 1 . 

jirlna.1 II, 10, 3 3 . 

jiva, kind, bounteous, gracious, 
blessed: I, 31, 1 ; 79, 2; 143, 
8; III, 1, 9; 19; IV, 10, 8; 

II, 6; V, 24, 1. ^ 
ji'ju, the young one : pajU/6 na juva, 



like a pregnant cow, (I, 65, io 1 ); 

young calf, I, 96, 5 1 ; the young 

child (Agni), I, 140, 3 ; 145, 3 ; 

V, 9, 3 ; a foal, III, 1,4; diva£ 

jfjum, (Soma) the child of 

heaven, IV, 15, 6 2 . 
jfju-mati, the mother of the young 

child, I, 140, io 1 . 
jfjvan (?), young : paju£ na jfjva, I, 

65, IO 1 . 

jir£, sharp, III, 9, 8. 

jukra, bright, 1, 12, 12, &c; — bright- 
ness: jukra vasana£, III, 8, 9. 

jukra-vanza, whose colour is bright, 
I, 140, 1 ; 143, 7. 

juknwoiis, brightly shining, II, 2, 3. 

juk,to shine forth, flame up : s6kasva+ 

1, 36, 9 ; jujukvan, flaming, I, 
69, 1 ; ju£ayanta>6, the re- 
splendent ones, I, 147, 1 ; juju- 
£ana, I, 149, 4 ; jam r\a.h sofa, 
III, 13, 6; ajo^at, III, 29, 14; 
ju£adhyai,IV, 2, i 1 ; — to kindle: 
ju>£anta£ agnim, IV, 2, 17 ; — 
apa nab j6ju£at agham, driving 
away evil with thy light, I, 97, 
1-8 ; — jiuugdhi & rayim, shine 
upon us with wealth, I, 97, 1 ; — 
vf j6sukanab, flaming, III, 15, 1. 

ju£, flash : suka-juka, flash by flash, 

m,4,i. 

ju&, brilliant, bright, I, 31, 17, &c. ; 
V, 7, 8 1 ; ju£im dikayah, I, 72, 
3 1 ; s<ik\ ft (for jukim ft?), IV, 

2, 16 2 . 

juii-^-anman, whose birth is bright, 

, . \ I41 ' 7 ' 
ju^i-^ihva, pure-tongued, II, 9, 1. 

ju>£i-dant,with brilliant teeth, V, 7,7. 
ju^i-pe/as, brightly adorned, 1, 144, 1. 
ju^i-pratika, whose face is bright, I, 

143, 6. 
ju£i-bhrag-as, brightly resplendent, I, 

. 79, 1. 
ju^i-varwa, brilliant-coloured, V, 2,3. 
Suna£-jepa, V, 2, 7. 
junam, prosperously, IV, 3, 11. 
jubh,to adorn, beautify: jumbhanti, 

V, 10, 4 1 ; 22, 4. 
jubh, a triumphal procession, I, 127, 

6; 111,86,4". 
jubham-ya, going in triumph, IV, 

3, 6 2 . 

jubhra, beautiful, III, 26, 2. 
jurudh, gift, I, 72, 7 2 . 
jush, see jvas. 



476 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



jushka, dry (wood), I, 68, 3. 
jushma, roaring, IV, 10, 4 ; — power, 

V, 10, 4; 16, 3. 
jushmin, mighty, powerful, I, 145, 

1 ; III, 16, 3; V, 10, 4. 
jushmfn-tama, strongest, I, 127, 9. 
jura, mighty, I, 70, 11 ; — hero, IV, 

N 3 X 15. j A A 

jura-sati, strife of heroes : jura-sata, 

I,3i,6. 
jusha, song of praise, III, 7, 6. 
jrmga, horn, III, 8, 10 ; V, 2, 9. 
jr/rigm, horned animal, III, 8, 10. 
jridh : jardha, show thy prowess, V, 

28, 3. 
j£va, a kind friend, I, 58, 6 ; 69, 4 ; 

73,2 ; — friendship, III, 7, 5. 
j^-vridha, joy-furthering, III, 16, 2. 
jesha, offspring, V, 12, 6. 
j6ka, flame, IV, 6, 5. 
so&ih-kesa, whose hair is flame, I, 

45, 6; 127, 2 ; III, 14, 1 ; 17, 

1 ; 27, 4; V, 8, 2. 
jokishtba, brightest, V, 24, 4. 
joiishmat, flaming, II, 4, 7. 
jo^i's, splendour, flame, 1, 12, 12, &c. 
j/£ut, to drip down : j^otanti, III, 1, 

8; 21, 2; 4; 5. 
jyava, dark: jyavim (conj. jyavi£?), 

I, 71, i 2 ; jyava, the two tawny 

horses, II, 10, 2. 
jyeta, reddish, I, 71, 4. 
jyena, hawk, IV, 6, 10. 
jyeni, the reddish white one, 1, 1 40, 9 2 . 
jrath, to let loose : jijrathat, I, 128, 

6 ; — vf jijrathat, release from, 

IV, i 2 , 4 
jram : jajrama»ci£, toiling, IV, 12, 2. 
jramayu, wearying oneself, I, 72, 2. 
jravay&t-pati, who brings renown to 

his lord, V, 25, 5 1 . 
jravas, glory, renown, I, 31, 7, &c. ; 

jravase, I, 73, 5 2 . 
jravasya, glorious, II, 10, 1. 
jravasyat, aspiring to renown, I, 

128, 1. 
jravasya, desire of glory, I, 128, 6; 

149, 5. 

jravasyu, glorious, V, 9, 2. 

jravayya, glorious, celebrated, 1,27, 
8; 31, 5; V, 20, 1. 

jra, see jri. 

jri, to rest, abide : asi jrita£, I, 75, 
3 ; 111,9, 3 5 Arriya/za, dwelling 
here and there, V, 1 1, 6 ; — ajret, 
he has spread forth, established, 



III, 14, 1; 19, 2; — to send: 
urdhvam ajret, he has sent up- 
wards, IV, 6, 2 ; 13, 2 ; 14, 2 ; 
ajret, he has sent, V, 1, 12 ; 28, 

1 ; — ut jrayasva, rise up, III, 8, 

2 ; — with vf, to open (intr.) : vf 
jrayantam, I, 13, 6 ; 142,6; II, 
3, 5 ; vf jrayadhvam, V, 5, 5. 

jri, to cook : jriwan, I, 68, i 1 ; jijrita, 
he has ripened, I, 149, 2; jri- 
«:she, thou warmest, V, 6, 9. 

jri, splendour, beauty, glory, I, 72, 
io 2 , &c. ; jriyam vasana^>, II, 
10, i ; jriye, gloriously, IV, 5, 15. 

jru, to hear : jrudhi, I, 26, 5, &c. ; 
jruvat (conj. sruvat), it melts 
away, I, 127, 3* ; jr6shama«a^, 
hearing, III, 8, 10 ; — vf srin- 
vire, they are renowned, IV, 

8, 6. 

jruti, glory, II, 2, 7. 

jrut-kar«a, with attentive ears, I, 44, 

, J3 5 45,7. 
jrutya, glorious, I, 36, 12. 
jrushH, obedience, I, 67, i 2 ; 111,9, 

8 ; — hearing, readiness to hear, 

I, 69, 7; II, 3, 9 5 9> 4- 
jrushtf-van, ready to listen, hearing, 

I, 45, 2 ; III, 27, 2 ; — obedient, 

I, 127, 9. 
jre/zi-jas, in rows, III, 8, 9. 
jvas, to hiss : jvasiti ap-su, I, 65, 9 ; 

— abhi-jvasan, panting, I, 140, 

5 ; — ajushawa^, aspiring after, I, 

147, 1; IV, 2, 14 ; 16. 
jvasivat, mightily breathing, I, 140, 

10. 
jvatra, power (?), I, 31, 4 2 . 
jvanta? I, 145, 4*. 
jveta, white (horse?), I, 66, 6 1 ;— 

jvetam ^-a^anam, who had been 

born white (Agni), III, 1, 4. 
Svaitreya, V, 19, 3 1 . 

sawydt-vira, with a succession of 

valiant men, II, 4, 8. 
sawvatsara, year: sawvatsare, after 

a year, I, 140, 2 3 . 
sdkman, company : sakman (loc), I, 

3i, 6 4 . 
sa-kshfta, dwelling together, 1, 1 40, 3. 
sakhi, friend, I, 31, 1; 75, 4 ; III, 

9, i l ; sakha sakhye, 1, 26, 3; 
III, 18, 1; sakha sakhyu/> ni- 
mi'shi rakshama«a£, I, 72, 5*; 
guha sakhi-bhi/6, III, 1,9?. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



477 



sakhi-yat, wishing to be a friend, I, 
128, 1. 

sakhya, friendship, I, 26, 5 ; 71, to ; 
94, 1-14; HI, 9, 3; IV, 10, 8. 

sagh, to sustain : asaghno£, I, 31, 3. 

sa£ (sa.sk), to be united with, ac- 
company : sa^asva na£, stay with 
us, I, 1, 9; sa^ase, II, 1, 3; 
satire, II, 1, 13; — to attend, 
worship : sa^ante, I, 59, 6 ; sa- 
£anta, I, 73, 4 ; sa^antam, I, 98, 
3 ; — to follow : sa^ante, I, 60, 
2 ; sisakshi, I, 73, 8;— to hold, 
cling, adhere : sisakti, I, 66, 2 ; 
sa^ate (kratv&), I, 145, 2 ; sa- 
£ante, III, 13, 2 ; saj^ata, III, 
16, 2 ; — sa^anta, they have at- 
tained, V, 17, 5 1 ; — ami sa^ate 
vartanil6, she follows her ways, 
I, 140, 9 8 ; — apa satire, they 
turn away to encounter, V, 20, 
2 ; — abhi sa^ante, go towards, I, 
71, 7 1 ; — a satyam, whom men 
should attach to themselves, I, 
140, 3. 

sa-^anas, graciously united, 1,127,11. 

sa>£a, together with : sa^a san, being 
attached, I, 71, 4 ; — III, 12, 2 ; 
IV, 5, 10. 

sa-g-atya, relationship, II, 1, y. 

sa-^ftvan : sa-^ftvana, united con- 
querors, III, 12, 4. 

sa-^ush, united with : sa-^u/^, I, 44, 
2 ; 14. 

sa-^6sha, unanimous, concordant, I, 
65, 2 ; 72, 6. 

sa-£-6shas, in concord with, unani- 
mous, III, 4, 8 ; 8, 8 ; 20, 1; 

22, 4; IV, 5, 1; V, 4, 4; 21, 3; 

23, 3. ^ 

saV/^wata-rupa, of familiar form, I, 

69, 9. 

sattri, sitting down, III, 17, 5. 
sat-pati, lord of beings, II, 1, 4 ; — 

a good lord, V, 25, 6 ; 27, 1. 
satya, true, truthful, I, 1, 5 ; 73, 2 ; 

79, 1 ; 98, 3 ; kr/wvan satya, I, 

70, 8 ; satyam, true (fulfilment), 
IV, 1, 18; — satyam, verily, I, 1, 
6 ; — efficacious, I, 67, 5 ; — real, 
IV, 1, 10. 

satya-girv ahas, truly carried by pray- 
ers as by a vehicle, I, 127, 8 1 . 
satya-tara, highly truthful, I, 76, 5 ; 

■ 111, 4 , 10. 

satya-tati, truth, IV, 4, 14. 



satya-dharman, whose ordinances 

are true, I, 12, 7. 
satya-manman, truthful, I, 73, 2. 
satya-ya^-, truly sacrificing, IV, 3, 1. 
satya-va£, truth-speaking, III, 26,9. 
satya-jushma, truly strong, I, 59, 4 ; 

IV, 11,4. 
satra, altogether, 1,71,9 ; — together : 

satra k'akvan&h, I, 72, 1. 
satra-saha, always conquering, I, 

79, 7. 

satvan, warrior, I, 140, 9 ; IV, 13, 2 3 . 

sad, to sit : upa sidan, they rever- 
entially approached, I, 72, 5; — 
pari-sadanta^, besieging, IV, 2, 

i7 4 . 

sadana, (priestly) seat, I, 31, 17; — 
seat, abode, I, 95, 8 ; 96, 7. 

sa-dr/j, of like appearance, I, 94, 7. 

sadman, seat, I, 67, 10; the (sacri- 
ficial) seat, I, 73, 1 ; IV, 1, 8 ; 
9, 3; V, 23, 3. 

sadya^-artha, immediately success- 
ful, I, 60, 1. 

sadyas, instantly, I, 27, 6, &c. ; 
quickly, I, 71, 9 1 . 

sadhani-tva, companionship, IV, 1, 9. 

sa-dhani, companion : sa-dhanya£, 
IV, 4, 14. 

sadha-ma'd, rejoicing, V, 20, 4. 

sadha-maxiya, sharing in rejoicings, 

IV, 3, 4- 

sadha-stuti, song of praise, V, 18, 5 1 . 

sadha-stha, abode, II, 9, 3 ; III, 6, 
4 5 7, 4; 12, 8 ; 23, 1 ; 25, 5; 
apam sadha-sthe, I, 149, 4; II, 
4, 2 ; tri' sadha-stha, III, 20, 2. 

sadhrya#£, together, IV, 4, 12. 

san, to win : sanema, I, 73, 5 ; 189, 
8 ; sanishyan, sanishyanta£, de- 
sirous of winning, III, 2, 3 1 ; 
4 ; 13, 2 ; sanishamahe, III, 11, 
9 ; sasa-van, having obtained, 
III, 22, 1 ; sasa-vawsa£, success- 
ful, IV, 8, 6 ; sanishanta, they 
were successful, V, 12, 4 ; — 
see also sa. 

sana, old, I, (27, 13 1 ); 95, 10 ; III, 
1, 6 ; 2 ( o. 

sanak&t, from of old, III, 29, 14. 

sanata, from of old, II, 3, 6 ; III, 

3, 1. 
sanaya, ancient, III, 20, 4. 
sanara, united with strong men, I, 

96, 8 1 . 
s&na-jruta, old-renowned, III, 11, 4. 



478 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



sana-^u, inciting from old, I, 141, 5 3 . 

sani, efficient, I, 27, 4 ; — sanf, gain : 
sanaye, I, 31, 8 ; sanfm %6h, the 
acquiring of the cow, III, 1, 
23 ; sanim yate, V, 27, 4. 

sanitri, a gainer, winner: sanita, I, 
27, 9 ; 36, 13 j sanity, V, 12, 3. 

sa-ni/a, dwelling in the same nest, 
I, 69, 6; 71, 1. 

sanut&r, far, V, 2, 4. 

sanemi, entirely, IV, 10, 7. 

santya (voc), good, I, 36, 2 ; 45, 5; 
9; HI, 21, 3. 

sap, to serve, worship : r/ta sapanta£, 
I, 67, 8 ; 68, 4 ; sapema, IV, 4, 
9 ; sapami, V, 12, 2 ; sapati 
(Pada: sa# pati), V, 12, 6 1 ; — 
to attach oneself: sapanta, V, 

sapatni, the two wives, III, 1, 10* ; 

6, 4. 
sapary, to worship, do service: 

saparyati, I, 12, 8; saparyami 

prayasa, I, 58, 7 s ; sapary&n, I, 

72, 3 2 ; saparyata£, I, 144, 4; 

sapary ^ma saparyava£, II, 6, 3 ; 

saparyata, III, 9, 8 ; V, 14, 5 ; 

25, 4;^ asaparyan, III, 9, 9; 

saparyanta^, V, 21, 3 ; — a sa- 

paryan, IV, 12, 2 ; — vi saparyan, 

I, 70, 10. 
saparyu, devoted servant, II, 6, 3. 
sapt£-£ihva, seven-tongued, 111,6, 2 2 . 
sapta-dhatu, consisting of seven 

elements, IV, 5, 6 2 . 
saptan, seven: sapta guhvab, I, 58, 

7; yahvLfc, I, 71, 7; 72, 8 1 ; III, 

1, 4 1 ; rajmaya^, II, 5, 2 1 ; v&wi^, 

III, 1, 6 1 ; 7, i 1 ; hotrawi, HI, 
4, 5 2 ; pWksMsa^, III, 4, 7 1 ; 
vipra£, III, 7, 7; IV, 2, 15 1 ; 
h6tr/-bhi£, III, 10, 4 1 ; priyasa^, 

IV, 1, 12 ; dhama-bhii>, IV, 7, 
5 1 ; ratna, V, 1, 5 ; — tri£ sapta, 
I, 72, 6 1 ; IV, 1, i6 l . 

sapta-rajmi, having seven rays (or 
reins), I, 146, i 1 . 

sapta-jiva : sapta-jivasu, read : saptd 
jivasu, I, 141, 2 3 . 

sapta-/irshan, seven-headed,! II, 5, 5 s . 

saptd-hotr/, the god of the seven 
Hotr/s, III, (10, 4 1 ) ; 29, 14. 

sapti, racer: atyam na saptim, III, 
22, i 1 . 

sapr<itha£-tama, most widely ex- 
tended, I, 45, 7 2 ; most widely- 



sounding, I, 75, i 1 ; most wide- 
reaching, I, 94, 13. 
sa-prathas, widely extended : jarma 
sa-pr&tha£, a big shelter, I, 142, 

5 ;— v, 13, 4 . 

saba/6-dugha, juice-yielding, 1 1 1, 6, 4 4 . 
sabandhu, bound in kinship, III, 1, 

to. 
sa-badh, pressing: sa-ba'dha^ # £a- 

kru£, III, 27, 6 l . 
sa-badhas, urgent, V, 10, 6. 
sabhsi-vat, with (brilliant) assemblies, 

IV, 2, 5. 
sam, together : yaj£sa£ sam hi pur- 

vl&, many glorious ones have 

come together, III, 1, n 3 . 
sama, every, V, 24, 3. 
samad, contest : tvesha£ samat-su, I, 

66, 6 ; 70, ir. 
s£-manas, one-minded, V, 3, 2. 
samana', alike, IV, 5, 7. 
sam-antam, in the neighbourhood 

of, V, 1, 11. 
sa-manyu, concordant, IV, 1, 1. 
samaya, through the midst, I, 73, 6. 
sa-mary£, assembly, III, 8, 5 ; — con** 

test, V, 3, 6. 
samand, companion, I, 69, 8 1 ; — 

common, I, 127, 8, &c. ; sama- 

nam artham, I, 144, 3 2 . 
sam-iti, meeting, I, 95, 8. 
sam-itha, battle, I, 73, 5 ; — assembly, 

III, 1, 12. 
sam-fdh, log of wood, fuel, 1,95, 11; 

II, 6, 1; III, 1, 2; 10, 3; IV, 

4, 15; v , V I; 4 ' 4; 6 ' 42; 
tisra£ sam-idha£, III, 2, 9; 

samft-samit, log by log, III, 

4, i 1 . 
samudra, ocean, I, 71, 7 ; 95, 3 1 . 
sam-r/ti, battle, 1,31,6 ; — onslaught, 

I, 127, 3 s ; V, 7, 2 1 . 
sam-okas, dwelling together, 1,144,4. 
sam-gamana, assembler, I, 96, 6. 
sam-tarutra, victorious, III, 1, 19. 
sam-dr/j, the shine (of the sun), I, 

66, 1; — appearance, aspect, II, 

1, 12 ; III, 5, 2; IV, 1, 6; 

6, 6. 
sam-dr/'sh/i, aspect, I, 144, 7; 11,4, 

4 ; IV, io ; 5. 
sam-bhu^a, enjoyment, (II, 1, 4 1 ). 
sam-mijla, united, III, 26, 4 2 . 
samya«£, turned towards each other: 

sam^i iti sam-Uf, I, 69, 1 ; 96, 

5 2 ; II, 3,6; III,i, 7 1 ; — united: 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



479 



sam-i£ifc, III, 29, 13; sam- 

yaȣam, V, 7, 1. 
sam-ydt: kshapa£ sam-yata£, on 

continuous nights, II, 2, 2 3 . 
sam-ra#, the Sovereign, I, 188, 5 ; 

III, 10, 1. 
sam-ra^at, king: sam-ra^antam, I, 

27, 1. 
sam-vat, space, V, 15, 3. 
sam-sad, companionship, I, 94, 1 ; — 

assembly, IV, 1, 8. 
sam-stir,, laid together: sam-stfra£ 

v vi-stfra£, I, 140, 7 1 . 
sam-stha, abode, V, 3, 8. 
sam-hat, a compact mass, III, 1, 7. 
sayavan, accompanying, I, 44, 13. 
sa-yoni, having the same origin, III, 

!,6. 

sarawy, to speed: sarawyan, III, 1, 19. 
sa-ratham, on one chariot with, I, 

71, 6 3 ; III, 4, u ; 6, 9; V, 

11, 2. 
Sarama, I, 72, 8. 
Sarasvati, N. of a goddess, I, 13, 9 1 ; 

142, 9; 188, 8; II, 1, 11V; 3, 
.. '8; III, 4, 8; V, 5, 8 ;-N. of 

a river, III, 23, 4. 
saYiman, swift course, III, 29, n 2 . 
sarga, rush : v&tasya sarga£, III, 29, 

11 2 ; — the letting loose, IV, 3,12. 
sarga-pratakta, urged forward, I, 

65, 6. 
sarpf^-asuti, drinking butter, II, 7, 

,6; V, 7, 9; 21, 2. 
sarpfs, butter, I, 127, 1 ; V, 6, 9. 
sarva-tati, health and wealth, I, 94, 

15. 
savana, libation, III, 1, 20; tr/tiye 
» sdvane, III, 28, 5 ; madhyandine 

savane, III, 28, 4. 
sd-vayas, of the same age, I, 144, 

3 l ; 4- 
Savitrz, I, 36, 13; 44,8; 73,2; 95, 

7 1 ; II,i,7; 111,20,5; IV, 6, 

2 ; 13, 2; 14, 2. 
saj£, see sa£. 

saj&it, hindrance, III, 9, 4 1 . 
sas£, herbs, III, 5, 6 2 ; IV, 5, 7 1 ; 

7.7 1 ; V, 21,4* 
sasahf, victorious, III, 16, 4. 
sdsni, victorious, III, 15, 5. 
sa-srut, flowing, I, 141, 1. 
sah, to overcome, be victorious : 

sahvan, III, 11,6; sahasva, III, 

24, 1 ; asahanta, III, 29, 9 ; 

sas&ha, V, 25, 6 ; — abhi sasahat, 



it may prevail, V, 23, 1 ; — ni£- 
sahamana^, conquering, I, 127, 
3 ; — pra-sakshat, victorious, IV, 
12, 1. 

saha£-kr/ta, produced by strength, 
I, 4 a 5, 9 5 HI, 27, 10; V, 8, 1. 

saha£-#a, strength-begotten, I, 58, 1. 

saha^-vr/dh, augmenter of strength, 
I, 36, 2; III, 10, 9. 

sahan-tama, mightiest, I, 127, 9. 

sahantya, conqueror, I, 27, 8. 

sahamana, victorious, IV, 6, 10. 

sahas, strength: sahasa£ yaho iti, 
I, 26, io 1 ; 74, 5 1 ; 79, 4 ; suno 
fti sahasa£, I, 58, 8; 127, 1; 
143, 1 ; III, 1,8; 11,4; 24, 3; 
25, 5 5 28, 3; 5; IV, 2,^2; 11, 
6 » V, 3, 9 ; 4, 8 ; s&hasa ^aya- 
mana£, I, 96, i 1 ; sahasa£ yata/? 
#ani, I, T41, 1 ; sahasa£ yuvan, 
O young (son) of strength, I, 
141, 10; sahasa£ putra£, II, 7, 
6; III, 14, 1 ; 4 ; 6; 16, 5 ; 
18, 4; V, 3, 1; 6 ; 4, 6; 11, 
6 ; — saha£, (Agni our) strength, 

I, 36, 18; — sahasa, strongly, I, 
98, 2;— might, power, I, 127,9; 
10 ; V, 1, 8 ; devasya sdhasa, V, 
3, 10; abhf-mati saha£ dadhe, 
V, 23, 4 1 ; — violence, V, 12, 2. 

sahasana, mighty, strong, I, 189, 8 ; 

II, 10, 6; V, 25,9. 
sahasa-vat, mighty, strong, I, 189, 5 ; 

III, 1, 22; V, 20, 4. 
sahasin, strong, IV, 11, 1. 
sahasya, strong, I, 147, 5 ; II, 2, 1 1 ; 

V, 22, 4. 
sahasra, thousand: sahdsrawi jata 
daja, II, 1, 8 ; sahasrat yupat, 
V, 2, 7 ; daja-bhi£ sahasrai/6, V, 

27, i 3 . 

sahasra-akshd, thousand-eyed, I, 79, 
12. 

sahasra-^it, conqueror of thousand- 
fold wealth, I, 188, 1 ; V, 26, 6. 

sahasram-bhara, bringing thousand- 
fold gain, II, 9, 1. 

sahasra-retas, with thousandfold 
sperm, IV, 5, 3. 

sahasra- vat, thousandfold, III, 13, 7. 

sahisra-valja, with a thousand 
branches, III, 8, 11. 

sahasra- vira, blessing with a thousand 
men, I, 188, 4 1 . 

sahasra-jr/nga, with a thousand horns, 
V, 1, 8. 



480 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



sahasra-sa, a winner of thousandfold 
bliss, I, 188, 3. 

sahasra-satama, the greatest winner 
of thousandfold wealth, III, 
13,6. 

sahasrin, thousandfold, I, 31, 10; 
188, 2; II, 2,7. 

s£hasvat, mighty, strong, I, 97, 5 ; 
127, 10; 189, 4; III, 14, 2; 4; 
, A V, 7, 1 ; 9, 7; 23, 2. 

sahiyas, mightier, I, 71, 4. 

sahuti, joint invocation, I, 45, 10. 

sahvat, strong, I, 58, 5. 

sa : sfsasanta^, wishing to acquire, 
1,146,4. 

sa : anava-syanta£ artham, never 
losing their object, IV, 13, 3 ; — 
vf syatu, may he pour forth, I, 
142, 10 ; pra-^am vf syatu, may 
he deliver a son, II, 3, 9 ; vf 
syasva, send forth, III, 4, 9 ; 
vf sahi, disclose, IV, 11, 2. 

satf, acquirement (of wealth), suc- 
cess, I, 36, 17; 143, 6; V, 5, 

4 ; 9, 7. 

satu, womb, mother (?), IV, 6, 7 1 . 

sadh, to prosper (intr.) : sadhati, I, 
94, 2 ; — s&dhatematf^, the prayer 
goes straight to him, I, 141, 1 2 ; 
sadhan, straightway, III, 1, 
17; — to prosper (tr.), further: 
sadhaya, I, 94, 3 ; pra-taram 
sadhaya, I, 94, 4 ; sadhan, I, 
96, 1 ; — to accomplish, perform: 
sadhayanti dhfyam, II, 3, 8 ; 
sadhan, III, 1, 18 ; 5, 3. 

sadhat-ishri, accomplishing the obla- 
tions, III, 2, 5 ; 3, 6. 

s&dhana, performer : ya#«asya (vida- 
thasya) sadhanam, 1,44, 1 1 ; III, 
3, 3 ; 27, 2 ; 8;— giver, V, 20, 3. 

sadhish^a, best, I, 58, 1. 

sadhu, good, I, 67, 2 ; — going straight 
(to his aim), I, 70, 1 1 ; straight- 
forward, I, 77, 3 ; III, 18, 1; — 
real, IV, 10, 2 ; efficacious, V, 

i, 7. 
sadhu-ya, straightway, V, 11, 4. 
sanasf, successful, winning (booty), 

I, 75, 2; IV, 15, 6. 
sanu, ridge, I, 128, 3 ; diva£ nas&nu, 

I, 58, 2 ; adhi sanushu trishu, 

II, 3, 7 ;— surface, I, 146, 2 ; — 
top, III, 5, 3. 

saman, song: ritasya saman, I, 147, 
i 4 ; — the Saman, IV, 5, 3. 



sam-ra^ya, sovereignty, I, 141, 13. 
sarathi, charioteer (Agni), I, 144, 3*. 
sarasvata, beings belonging to Saras- 

vati, III, 4, 8. 
Saha-devya, Sahadeva's son, IV, 15, 

7-10. 
sitfzha, lion, I, 95, 5 ; III, 9, 4 ; n ; 

26, 5; V, 15, 3. 
si A, wing (of an army) : sf£au, I, 

95, 7 2 . 
s\(n)A : nf-siktam, poured down, I, 

7 r, 8 ; — pari-sikta, poured, IV, 

1, 19- 
sit&, bound: padf sitam, IV, 12, 6. 
sidh, to scare away : sedhati, I, 79, 

12. 
sidhra, successful, 1, 142, 8 ; effective, 

V, 13, 2. 
sindhu, river, stream, I, 27, 6 ; 72, 

10; 73, 6; 97, 8; 99, 1 ; 143, 

3 a 5 146, 4 3 ; III, 5, 4; V, 4, 9; 

^ami^ sfndhunam, I, 65, 7 ; pi., 

the Rivers, I, 140, 13; — the 

river Sindhu, I, 44, 12 1 ; 94, 16; 

95, 11 I 98, 3 ; V, 11, 5 ; sfn- 

dhu£ na ksh6da£, I, 65, 6 1 ; 10. 
sima, self, J, 95, 7 3 ; 145, 2 1 . 
siv, see syu. 
su, to bear. See su. 
su, to press Soma: sunvata^, I, 94, 

8 ; sunavama, 1,99, 1 ; sunvate, 

1, 141, 10; V, 26, 5; s6mam 
sutam, III, 22, 1. 

su-agni, possessed of a good Agni 
(fire): su-agnaya£, I, 26, 7; 8. 
(bis). 

su-anA, fleet, IV, 6, 9. 

su-adhvara, best performer of wor- 
ship, I, 44, 8; 127, 1 ; II, 2, 8; 
III, 2, 8 ; 9, 8; V, 9, 3 ; 28,5; 
— receiving good sacrifices, I, 
45, i 1 ; — ya^-«e su-adhvare, at 
the decorous service of the 
sacrifice, I, 142, 5 ; — splendid 
worship, III, 6, 6; 29, 12; V, 

17, 1. 

su-amka, with beautiful face, II, 1, 
8 ; IV, 6, 6. 

su-apatya, with good offspring, I, 
72, 9 2 ; 11,2, 12; 4, 8; 9, 5 ;— 
blessed with offspring, III, 3,7 ; 
consisting in offspring, III, 16, 
1 ; — good offspring, III, 19, 3. 

su-apas, good worker, IV, 2, 19 ; V, 

2, 11. 

su-apasya, great skill, I IT, 3, 11. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



481 



su-apaka, most skilful, IV, 3, 2 s . 
su-ar&s, endowed with beautiful 

light, II, 3, 2. 
su-artha, pursuing a good aim, I, 95, 

1 ; — well-employed, I, 141, 11. 
su-avas, giving good help, V, 8, 2. 
su-ajva, with good horses, IV, 2, 

4 ; — rich in horses, IV, 4, 8 ; 10. 
su-ajvya, abundance in horses, II, 

I, 5; III, 26, 3. 
su-adhi, of a good mind, kind, well- 
wishing, I, 67, 2 ; 70, 4 2 ; 71, 
8 ; — with good intentions, I, 72, 
8 ; IV, 3, 4 ; — full of pious 
thoughts, III, 8, 4 ; — longing, 

su-abhu, truly helpful: raye su- 
abhuvam, V, 6, 3 1 . 

su-ftsa, whose mouth is beautiful, IV, 
6, 8. 

su-ahuta, best receiver of offerings, 
I,/4, 4; 6 ; III, 27, 5. 

su-ukta, well-spoken (prayer), I, 36, 
1 ; 70, 5 ; II, 6, 2. 

su-upayana, easy of access, I, 1, 9. 

su-karman, well performing the acts 
(of worship), IV, 2, 17. 

su-kirtf, beautiful praise, I, 60, 3 ; — 
glory, V, 10, 4. 

su-kr/t, well-doing : su-kr/te sukr/t- 
tara£, I, 31, 4; righteous, I, 
128, 6; who has done good 
deeds, 1, 147, 3 2 ; virtuous, well- 
doer, IV, 13, 1; V, 4, 8; 11. 

su-kritd, good works, III, 29, 8. 

su-ketu, bright, III, 7, 10. 

su-kr&tu, highly wise, I, 12, 1 ; 128, 
4; III, 1, 22 ; IV, 4, 11 ; V, 

II, 2; 20, 4; 25, 9; — full of 
good-will, I, 141, 11; 144, 7; 
HI, 3, 7. 

sukratu-ya, high wisdom, I, 31, 3. 
su-kshitf, with fine dwellings, V, 6, 8. 
su-kshetriysi, desire for rich fields, 

1, 97, 2. 
su-khd, easy-going, V, 5, 3. 
sukha-tama, easy-moving : sukha- 

tame (rathe), I, 13, 4. 
su-ga, a good path, I, 94, 9 ; — going 

well, I, 94, 11. 
sugatu-ya 7 , desire for a free path, I, 

97, 2. 
su-sarhapaty&, with a good house- 

" hold, V, 4, 2 1 . •' 
su-£mdr&, resplendent, I, 74, 6 ; IV, 

2, 19 ; V, 6, 5 ; 9. 

[46] I i 



su-£etuna, through thy kindness, I, 

a 79, 9 1 ; benignantly, I, 127, 11. 

su-^ata, well born, I, 65, 4 ; 72, 3 1 ; 

II, 1, 15 ; 2, 11 ; 6, 2; III, 15, 
2;/3, 3; V, 6, 2; 21, 2. 

su-gihva, with beautiful tongue(s), I, 

13, 8; 142, 4. 
su-gurni, glowing, IV, 6, 3. 
su-#y6tis, rich in light, III, 20, 1. 
suta, the pressed (Soma), III, 12, 

1 ; 2. 
suta- vat, rich in pressed (Soma), III, 

25, 4. 
suta-soma, having pressed Soma, I, 

44, 8; 45, 8; 142, 1; IV, 2, 13. 
su-tuka, quick, I, 149, 5. 
su-dawsas, endowed with wonderful 

power, II, 2, 3. 
su-daksha, highly dexterous, II, 9, 

1; 111,4, 9; 23, 2; V, 11, 1. 
sudarja-tara, more visible, 1, 127, 5 s . 
su-dsinu, giving good rain, I, 44, 14 ; 

45, 10; 141, 9; III, 26, 1; 5; 
29, 7 ; — blessed with good rain, 
IV, 4, 7. 

su-davan, good giver, I, 76, 3. 
su-dina, auspicious day, IV, 4, 6 ; 7. 
sudina-tva, auspiciousness of days, 
III, 8, 5 ; sudina-tve dhnam, 

III, 23, 4. 
su-diditi, with fine splendour, III, 

9, i 2 . 
su-diti, resplendent, III, 2, 13; 17, 

4 ; 27, 10; V, 25, 2 ;— glorious 

splendour, V, 8, 4. 
sudugha, flowing with plenty, II, 3, 

6 ; su-dugha/^ usra7>, IV, 1, 13. 
su-dr/j, full of beauty, III, 17, 4 ; 

y, 3 , 4 1 . 

su-dmika, beautiful to behold, V, 
4, 2. 

sudr/jika-rupa,with his shape beauti- 
ful to behold, IV, 5, 15. 

su-deva, a friend of the gods, 1,74,5. 

su-d6gha, rich in milk, III, 15, 6. 

su-dyut, brilliant, I, 140, 1 ; 143, 3. 

su-dyumna, splendid, III, 19, 2. 

su-dy6tman, brilliant, I, 141, 12 ; 

II, 4, 1. 

su-dravi«as, possessor of beautiful 
wealth, I, 94, 15. 

su-dhita, well-composed (prayer), I, 
140, 11 ; — blissful gift, III, 11, 
8 ; — well-preserved, III, 23, 1 ; 
lying safe, III, 29, 2 ; — well- 
ordered, IV, 2,10; — well-placed, 



482 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



IV, 6, 3 ; well-established, IV, 
6,7 s ; V )3 ,2. 

su-dhf, wise, IV, 2, 14. 

su-dhur, well-harnessed: ray££ su- 
dhura£, I, 73, io 1 ; h£ri iti su- 
dhura, well-yoked, V, 27, 2. 

suni£-m£th, skilful rubbing, III, 29, 
12. 

su-nidhsi, skilful establishing, III, 
29, 12. 

su-nitha, the best leader, II, 8, 2 ; 
III, 8, 8. 

su-patha, good path, I, 189, 1. 

su-par»a, beautifully- winged, 1, 79, 2. 

su-pa«f, with graceful hands, 1, 7 1, g 2 . 

su-putr£, with noble sons, III, 4, 1 1. 

su-puta, well-clarified, V, 12, 1. 

su-pejas, wearing beautiful orna- 
ments, I, 13, 7 ; 142, 7 1 ; 188, 6. 

supra-ayana, easily passable, II, 3, 5 ; 

V, 5, 5- 
supra-avya, ready, I, 60, 1. 
su-pratika, whose face is beautiful, 

I, 94, 7; 143, 3; HI, 29, 5; 
V, 5, 6. 

su-praturti, gloriously advancing, 

III, 9, 1. 
su-praniti, a good guide, I, 73, 1 ; 

III, 1, 16; 15,4; IV, 2, 13. 
su-pray£s, receiver of good offerings, 

II, 2, 1; 4, 1. 

su-b&ndhu, well-allied, III, 1, 3. 

su-barhis, possessor of good sacri- 
ficial grass, I, 74, 5. 

su-bhaga, blessed, I, 36, 6 ; III, 1, 
4; 13; 9, i 2 ; 16, 6; 18, 5; 

IV, 1, 6 ; 4, 7 ; V, 8, 3. 
su-bhara, rich in gain, II, 3, 4 ; 9. 
su-bhr/ta, well kept, II, 1, 12. 
su-makha, martial, IV, 3, 7 ; 14 1 . 
su-m£t, together, I, 142, 7 s ; — see 

sumat-yutha. 

su-matf, favour, I, 31, 18, &c. ; III, 
4, i 2 ; V, 27, 3 1 ; kindness: su- 
matf, IV, I, 2 S . 

sumat-yutha, together with the herd : 
sumat-yutham (eonj. for su- 
m&t yutham), V, 2, 4 1 . 

sum&t-ratha, on his chariot, III, 3, 9. 

su-manas, gracious, kind-hearted, I, 
36, 2, &c.;— joyous, IV, 4, 9. 

su-manman, rich in good thoughts, 

III, 2, 12. 

su-mahas, very great, IV, 11, 2. 
su-miti, skilful erection, III, 8, 3. 
su-mr/7ika, merciful, IV, i, 20 ; 3, 3. 



su-meka, well-established, 1, 146, 3 1 ; 

111,6, io 2 ; 15, 5 8 ; IV, 6, 3. 
su-medhas, wise, II, 3, 1 ; III, 15, 5. 
sumnd, blessing, III, 2, 5; 3, 3;— 

favour, grace, V, 3, 10 ; 24, 4 ; 

— pleasant, III, 14, 4. 
sumna-yu, desirous of favour, I, 79, 

10; 111,27, 1; V, 8,7. 
su-y%, excellent sacrificer, V, 8, 3. 
su-y Rgni, skilled in sacrifice, III, 

17, 1. 
su-yama, well-manageable, III, 7, 3 ; 

(4 2 ) ; V, 28, 3 1 . 
su-yavasa, good pasture: suyavasa- 

iva, conj. for svasya-iva, II, 4, 4 1 . 
su-yama, easily directing, III, 7, 9 1 . 
su-yu^-, well-yoked, IV, 14, 3. 
su-ra«a, joyous, III, 3, 9; 29, 14. 
su-ratha, with good chariot : su- 

rathasya (conj. su-ratha asya), 

III, 14, 7 1 ; — IV, 2, 4 ; — rich in 
chariots, IV, 4, 8. 

surabhf, sweet-smelling, V, 1, 6. 
su-raMhas, rich in wealth, IV, 2, 4 ; 

5,4. 
su-rukma, adorned with gold, I, 

188, 6. 
su-ru£, with beautiful splendour, II, 

2,4; III, 2, 5; 7, 5; 15, 6; 

IV, 2, 17. 
su-r£tas, fertile, III, 1, 16. 
su-var^as, full of fine splendour, I, 

95, 1. 
su-va£, adorned with fine speech, 

III, 1, 19 ; — well-spoken, III, 
7, 10. 

su-v^as, fine- voiced, I, 188, 7. 
su-vsisas, well-clothed, III, 8, 4 ; 

IV, 3, 2. 

suvita,. welfare, I, 141, 12; 189, 3; 
11,2,6; III, 2, 13; IV, 14, 3; 

V, 11, 1. 

su-vidatra, bounteous, II, 1, 8 ; 9, 6. 
su-vira, rich in heroes, in valiant 

men, I, 31, 10; II, 1,16; 3, 4 ; 

5; 4, 9; III, 29, 9;— giving 

valiant offspring, III, 8, 2. 
su-virya, abundance in heroes, bliss 

of valiant offspring, I, 36, 6 ; 

17, &c. ; I, 127, 11 1 ;— host of 

heroes, III, 16, 4. 
su-vr/ktf, praised with beautiful 

praise, II, 4, i 1 ; — beautiful 

prayer, op praise, III, 3, 9 ; V, 

25, 3 1 . 
su-v£da, easily to be found, IV, 7, 6. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



483 



su-j&wsa, kind-spoken, I, 44, 6. 
su-jarman, well-protecting, III, 15, 

1 ; V, 8, 2. 
su-jasti, best praise, III, 26, 6. 
su-jipra, strong-jawed, V, 22, 4 2 . 
su-jijvi, fine child, I, 65, 4. 
su-jgva, propitious, I, 27, 2 ; kind, 

gracious, II, 1, 9 ; III, 29, 5 ; 

IV, 4, 12; V, 15, 1. 
su-j6ka, with pure splendour, 1, 70, 1. 
su-jrf, in great beauty, III, 3, 5. 
su-sawjita, well-sharpened, V, 19, 5. 
su-sanitri, best gainer, III, 18, 5. 
su-sawdr/j, beautiful to behold, I, 

143, 3. 
su-samiddha, well-kindled, I, 13, 1 ; 

V, 5, 1. 

su-samfdh, good fuel, V, 8, 7. 
su-su, well-bearing, V, 7, 8. 
su-suta, well-born, II, 10, 3. 
sfr-stuta, highly praised, V, 27, 2. 
su-stutf, rich in perfect praise, III, 

19, 3. 
su-hava, easy to invoke, readily 

hearing (our) call, I, 58, 6 ; III, 

6, 8; 15, 1; IV, 1, 5. 
su-havis, offering good oblations, IV, 

2, 4. 
su-havya, giver of good oblations, I, 

74,5; 

su-hirawya, rich in gold, IV, 4, 10. 

su, to give birth : suvate fti, they 
give birth, V, 1, 4 ; — asuta, V, 2, 
2 ; 7, 8. 

su, a progenitor, I, 146, 5. 

sukta, see su-ukta. 

sud, to further: sudayat, I, 71, 8; 
susuda£, I, 73, 8; — to shape: 
asudayanta, I, 72, 3 ; — to make 
ready: susudati, I, 142, 11 8 ; V, 
5, 2 ;— sudayati, III, 4, 10 ; — 
sudaya, accomplish, IV, 4, 14; 
— sudayati pra, may he make 
ready, II, 3, 10. 

sunu, son, I, 1, 9, &c. ; I, 59, 4 1 ; 
III, 1, 12 2 ; suno fti sahasa^, I, 
58,8; 127, 1; III,.i, 8; 11,4; 
nftya£ sunu£, I, 66, i 1 . 

sunu-mat, rich in sons, III, 24, 5. 

sunr/ta-vat, rich in loveliness, 1, 59,7. 

sura, Sun, I, 71, 9; 141,13; M9, 3 5 
, HI, 15, 2. 

surf, the rich man, liberal lord or 
patron, I, 31, 7, &c. ; I, 73, 5 1 ; 
« 141, 8 2 . 

surya, the sun, or Sun, I, 59, 3 ; 98, 

I 



1 ; 146, 4*; III, 14, 4; IV, 1, 

17 ; 13, 1-4; 14^ 2 ; V, 1, 

4 ; 4, 4 ; &ira»am suryasya, III, 
5, 5 ; ro^ane suryasya, III, 22, 
3 ; divi suryam-iva a^aram, V, 
27, 6. 

sri, to run : sasra»a£, I, 149, 2 ; 
sasr/vawsam-iva, III, 9, 5 ; — 
pra sarsrate fti, they go forth, 
I II, 7, 1 ; pra sisrate, they stream 
forward, V, 1,1; pra-sarsra»asya, 
advancing, V, 12, 6 ; — vi sasru£, 
they have broken through with 
their floods, I, 73, 6. 

srig, to let loose : sena-iva srish/a, 
like an army that is sent for- 
ward, I, 66, 7 ; 143, 5 1 ; srigit 
didyum asmai, he shot an arrow 
at him, I, 71, 5 ; sr/sh/a^, 1,72, 
10 ; — ava snga, let go, I, 13, 11; 
ava-snfg-an, letting go (the sacri- 
ficial food to the gods), I, 142, 
11; II, 3, 10; ma ava srigab, 
do not deliver, I, 189, 5 ; — upa 
sriga, yield up, I, 188, 10 ; upa- 
sriginti, they pour out, II, 1, 
16 ; — vf sriga, emit, I, 36, 9 ; — 
sim nab sriga, let us be united, 
^ I, 31, 18; III, 16, 6. 

Sr/#£-aya, son of Devavata, IV, 15, 4 1 . 

sr/m, sickle : sr//zya, I, 58, 4 2 . 

sripra, mighty (?), Ill, 18, 5 1 . 

sr/'pra-danu, bestower of mighty 
rain (?), I, 96, 3 3 . 

sena, army, I, 66, 7 ; s£na-iva sr/'sh/a, 

I, 143, 5 1 . 
s6tr/, presser (of Soma), IV, 3,3. 
s6ma, Soma (juice), I, 44, 14 ; 45, 

10; 99, i 1 ; III, 12, 3 ; 22, 1 ; 

29, 16; s6masya tavasam, III, 

I, i 1 ; s6ma£, IV, 14, 4 ; V, 27, 
5 1 ; — Soma, the god, I, 65, 10; 

II, 8, 6. 

s6ma-ahuta, fed with Soma, 1, 94, 1 4. 
S6maka, Sahadeva's son, IV, 15,9. 
s6ma-pati, lord of Soma (Indra), I, 

76, 3. 
s6ma-piti, drinking of Soma : s6ma- 

pitaye, I, 44, 9. 
soma-peya, drink of Soma, I, 45, 9 ; 

III, 25,4. 

somya, one who offers Soma, I, 
31, 16. 

saubhaga, prosperity, delight, happi- 
ness, I, 36, T7 ; III, 8, 2 ; 3; 
11; 15,4; I 6 , 1; v , 28, 3. 
i 2 



4§4 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



saubhaga-tva, happiness, I, 94, 16. 

saumanasa, graciousness, I, 76, 2 ; 
kindness, III, 1, 21. 

skambha, pillar, IV, 13, 5. 

stan, to thunder : stanayan, 1,58,2 ; 
140, 5 ; stanayanti abhra, I, 79, 
2 ; pra stanayanti, IV, 10, 4. 

stabhu-yamana, firmly fixed, III, 

7, 4. 
sta(m)bh, to uphold : tastambha, I, 

67, 5;— ut astambhit, he has 
upheld, III, 5, 10 ; — upa stabha- 
yat, he supports, IV, 5, 1 ; 
stabhayat upa dyam, he has 
reared. . .up to the sky, IV, 6, 2. 

stayam, stealthily : upa stayam ^arati, 

conj., (I, 145, 4 a 3 ). 
stu, to praise : stavana£, praised, I, 

12, 11 ; 31, 8, &c. 
stubh : pra-stubhana£, incited by 

shouting, IV, 3, 12. 
stiibhvan, uttering (sacred) shouts, 

I, 66, 4. 
stri, to strew: str/wita, I, 13, 5; 

strwzanasa^ barhi£, I, 142, 5. 
str7, star : pipeja nakam stribhih, I, 

68, 10; dyaui* na str7-bhi£, II, 

* , 2 , 5 ; iv, 7, 3. 

stena, thief, V, 3, 11. 

stoka, drop, III, 21, 1-5. 

stotrz, praiser, I, 58, 8; II, 1, 16 ; 
HI, 5, 2. 

st6ma, praise, song of praise, I, 12, 
12, &c. ; st6mai/> (conj. st6- 
mam), IV, 10, i 3 . 

st6mavahas, (I, 127, 8 1 ). 

stha, to stand: urdhva£ tfsh/^a, I, 
36, 13 ; — abhi tish/£a, set thy 
foot on, V, 28, 3 ; — a tasthu£, 
they have assumed, I, 72, g 2 ; — 
upa sthat, he has approached, 
I, 68, 1 ; see upa-sthayam ; — 
pra-sthita, ready, III, 4, 4 3 ; — 
abhi pra asthat, he gains ad- 
vantage, I, 74, 8 1 ; — with vf, to 
spread : vf tish/^ate, I, 58, 4 ; 
vf tasthe, I, 72, 9 ; vf asthat, I, 
65, 8 ; 141, 7 ; vf asthiran, they 
are scattered, I, 94, 11 ; vf 
tish/£ase, V, 8, 7. 

sthatu, what stands : sthatu^ >£ara- 
tham, what is movable and im- 
movable, I, 58, 5 2 ; 68, i 2 ; 70, 

A 7^; (72, 6 2 ). 

sthatr*, that which stands : sthatam 
^aratham, I, 70, 3 ; what re- 



mains steadfast : sthatHh, I, 

72, 6 2 . 

sthira, solid: sthira iit anna, IV, 

7, 10. 
sthuwa, a column : sthu«a-iva upa- 

mit, I, 59, i s . 
snihiti ? I, 74, 2 2 . 
snehiti, (I, 74, 2 2 ). 
spa j, spy, IV, 4, 3 ; — observer : 

spajam vfjvasya ^agata^, IV, 

13, 3. 

sparha, desirable, lovely, I, 31, 14 ; 
II, 1, 12 ; IV, 1, 6; 7; 12. 

spri : aspar fty aspa£, thou hast 
freed, V, 15, 5 ; — ava spridhi, 
protect, V, 3, 9. 

sprij, to touch : spraanti, I, 36, 3. 

sprihayat-var«a, having the appear- 
ance of one eagerly striving, II, 

10, 5- 

sphatf, increase, I, 188, 9. 

sphur, to sparkle : prati sphura, IV, 

, h I4 \ 
smat-udhni, with full udders, 1, 73, 6. 

smi,to smile, laugh : smayamanabhi^, 

I, 79, 2 4 ; smayamanai> (dyau£), 

11, 4, 6 3 ; smayete iti, III, 

. 4 > i\ 
syu : syutam, well-stitched, I, 31, 15. 

syona-kr/t, making comfortable, I, 

31, 15. 
syona-jf, comfortably resting, I, 

73, i 2 . 

sravat, river : sravata/6 sapta yahvT£, 

}, 7i, 7- 
sravatha, streaming, III, 1, 7. 
sridh : asredhantai>, without fail, 

III, 29, 9. 
sridh, failure, I, 36, 7 ; III, 9, 4 ; 

10, 7. 
sru, to flow : sruvat (conj. for jru- 

vat), it melts away, I, 127, 3*. 
sru£, sacrificial ladle, I, 144, 1 ; V, 

14, 3 ; 21, 2. 
sr6tas, stream, I, 95, io 1 . 

sva : tanva£ kr/wvata sva£, I, 72, 5 3 ; 
svasya-iva, conj. suyavasa-iva, 

II, 4, 4 1 . 

svab-dris, of sun-like aspect, I, 44, 

9; III, 2, 14; V, 26, 2. 
sva^-nara, the solar hero, II, 2, 1 ; — 

realm of the Sun, V, 18, 4. 
sva^-vat, together with the sun, I, 

59, 4; V, 2, 11. 
sva^-vid, finding the sun ; I, 96, 4 ; 

HI, 3, 5 ; 10; 26, 1. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



485 



sva-gfirta, delightful by their own 

nature, I, 140, 13. 
sva-^enya, noble by his own nature, 

V, 7, 5- 

sva-tavat, self-strong, IV, 2, 6. 

svad, to taste: svadante, II, 1, 14 ; 
asvadayat, II, 4, 7 ; — to make 
relishable, savoury : sisvadat, I, 
188, 10 ; svada, III, 14, 7. 

sva-dharman, following his own 
ordinances, III, 21, 2. 

svadhji, inherent power: svadhabhi£, 
by one's self, by the power of 
his own nature, I, 95, 4 ; III, 
26, 8 ; svadh&ya, according to 
their wont, II, 3, 8 ; III, 4, 7 ; 
by himself, III, 17, 5 ; by his 
own power, IV, 1 3, 5 ; — svadha£ 
adhayat, he drank the draughts, 
I, 144, 2 2 . 

svadha-vat, self-dependent, I, 36, 12 ; 
144, 7; 147, 2; III, 20,3; IV, 
5, 2; 10,6; 12, 3; V, 3, 2; 5; 
moving according to one's wont, 
I, 95, i a ; moving by his own 
strength, I, 95, 4. 

svd-dhiti, axe, III, 2, 10 ; 8, 6 ; 11 ; 

svan, to resound : svanit, II, 4, 6. 

svand, noise, I, 94, 11. 

sva-patya, a man's own dominion : 

sva-paty&ni (conj. for su-apat- 

yani), I, 72, 9 2 . 
svayaja/6-tara, highly brilliant by 

oneself, V, 17, 2 1 , 3 . 
svd-yajas, endowed with his own 

splendour, I, 95, 2 ; 5 ; 9. 
sva-yu, free, II, 4, 7. 
svar, sun, or Sun : sura£ na sam-dr*k, 

I, 66, 1 ; sva£ driAke, I, 66, 

io 3 ; 69, 10; sva£ (loc), I, 70, 

8 1 ; 9 1 ; sva/6 vividu£, I, 71, 2 ; 

sva£ nd, I, 148, 1; II, 2, 7 ; 8; 

10 ; 8, 4 ; sva£ mahat, III, 2, 7 ; 

sure, IV, 3, 8 ; avf£ sva£ abha- 

vat, IV, 3, 11 s ; sura£ va>«ena, 

IV, 5, 13 ; sva£ na gy6tih, IV, 
10, 3 1 ; avindat f$h apa£ sva£, 

V, 14, 4 1 . 
sva-ra>, king, I, 36, 7. 
sva-ra^-ya, royalty, II, 8, 5 2 . 
svaru, sacrificial post, III, 8, 6 1 ; 9 ; 

10; IV, 6, 3. 
svarar/, sun-hero : svanza£ (?), (I, 

, 70,9'). , 
svartha, see su-artha. 



sv&sara, fold, II, 2, 2. 
svasr/, sister, I, 65, 7; II, 5, 6 1 ; 
svasara£, I, 71, i 2 ; tisra£, II, 

5, 5 1 ; da\ra, III, 29, 13 2 ; dviT* 
paw^a, IV, 6, 8 1 ; apasi svasr*«am, 

III, i,3 s ; ir- 

svasti, happiness, welfare, 1, 1, 9, &c; 
svasti-bhi^, safely, I, 189, 2 ;— 
with welfare, happily, 1 1, 9, 6 ; 

IV, 11,6; V, 4, 11. 
svadana, sweetener, V, 7, 6. 
svidu-kshadman, having sweet food, 

I, 31, 15. 

sv&dman, sweetness, I, 69, 3 1 . 

svana, roaring, V, 2, 10; 25, 8 ;— 
thundering, V, 10, 5. 

svanin, tumultuous, III, 26, 5, 

sv&ha, the word Svaha, 1, 13, 12; II F, 
4, 11 ; V, 5, 11 ; svaha havyam 
kartana, pronounce the Svaha 
over the offering, I, 142, 12. 

svaha-krita, (offerings) over which 
the Svaha has been pronounced, 

1, 142, 13 ; II, 3, 11. 
svaha-kWti, pronouncing Sv&ha, I, 

188, 11. 
svid, to sweat: sisvidana£, IV, 2, 6. 
sv£da, sweat, V, 7, 5. 

ha/«s£, swan, I, 65, 9 ; III, 8, 9. 

han, to kill, slay: hawsi, I, 31, 6; 
^fghawsata^, I, 36, 15 ; ahan 
(without an object), I, 69, 8 1 ; — 
vf ^ahi, smite, I, 36, 16. 

har : haryama«a, longed for, III, 

6, 4 ; — prati harya, accept 
graciously, I, 144, 7 ; prati 
harya£, thou acceptest, V, 2, 1 1. 

hari, golden, I, 95, 1 ;— bay horse, 
fallow steed : hari-bhyam, I, 
76, 3 ; IV, 15, 7 1 ; hari iti, IV, 
15,8; V, 27, 2. 

hari-keja, whose hair is golden, III, 

2, 13. 

harit, pi., the golden horses, IV, 6, 
9 1 ; harfta/6 sapta yahvi£, the 
seven young fallow mares, IV, 

13, 3- 
hari-vrata, whose every law is golden^ 

HI, 3, 5 1 . 
haryata, delightful, III, 5, 3. 
hava, invocation, I, 45, 3. 
havi£-adya, eating the oblation, V, 

*> V ; 4 > 4# r , 

havi#-kr/t, preparer of the sacrificial 

food, I, 13, 3. 



486 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



havi^-dsi, giver of offerings, IV, 3, 7 1 . 
havi£-pati, master of sacrificial food, 

1, 12, 8. 

havi£-vah, bearer of oblations, 1,72,7. 

havi's, sacrificial food, I, 12, 10, &c. 

havfshmat, rich in sacrificial food, 
offering sacrificial food, I, 12, 
9, &c. ; .1, 128, 2 2 . 

haViman, invocation, I, 12, 2. 

havya, to be proclaimed : bhaga£ na 
havya£, I, 144, 3 s ;— to be in- 
yoked, III, 5, 3 ; v > J 7, 4- 

havya, sacrificial food : havyaya 
v6/£ave, I, 45, 6 ;— I, 74, 4, &c. 

havya-dati, giver of offerings, III, 

2, 8 ; — gift of offerings, IV, 8, 
5 ; V, 26, 4. 

havya-vsih, bearer of oblations, 
carrier of offerings, I, 12, 2; 
6; 44, 8; 67, 2; 128, 8; III, 

2, 2; 5, 10; 10, 9; 11, 2; 17, 
4; 27, 5; 29, 7; IV, 8,1; V,4, 
2; 6, 5; 28,5. 

havya-vsihana, carrier of oblations, 

I, 36, 10; 44, 2; 5; V, 8, 6; 

II, 4 ; 25, 4 ; 28, 6 ; devebhya£ 
havya-vahana, III, 9, 6 1 . 

haskartr/j producing joy, IV, 7, 3. 

ha, to give (up to) : #ahati, I, 95, 7.. 

ha : ut-^fhana^, flying up, V, 1, 1. 

hi, to incite, stir up : hinvatu, I, 27, 
11 ; hinuhi, I, 143, 4 ; hinvanti, 
I, 144, 5 ; hiyan<i, driven for- 
ward, II, 4, 4 ; hinve, he speeds 
along, IV, 7, 11; hinvire, they 
drive forward, V, 6, 6 ; — sam 
ahema (conj. for sam mahema), 
we have sent forward, I, 94, i 1 . 

hita-mitra, who has made himself 
(valiant) friends, I, 73, 3 2 . 

hfrawya, gold, IV, 10, 6. 

hfra«ya-keja, golden-haired, 1,79, 1. 

hiraraya-danta, gold- toothed, V, 2, 3. 

hirawyaya, golden : hirawyayi iti, I, 
144, 6. 

hira«ya-ratha, with the golden 
chariot, IV, 1, 8. 

hfrawya-rupa, golden-coloured, IV, 

3, 1. 

hiri-jiprd, with golden jaws, II, 2, 5 1 . 

hfri-jmajru, golden-bearded, V, 7, 7. 

hu, to offer, sacrifice : huyate, I, 26, 

6, &c. ; guhure, II, 9, 3 •— 



ji-huta£, worshipped by offer- 
ings, into whom offerings are 
poured, I, 36, 8, &c; II, 7, 4 l 5 
5 ; III, 24, 3, &c. ; a-#uhvana£, 
receiving libations, I, 188, 3 ; 
a^uhota, with Ace, make offer- 
ings in, III, 9, 8. 

huras, on a crooked way, IV, 3, 13. 

hr/, to take: vi-haran, spreading out, 
IV, 13) 4 . 

hr/,to be angry: hr/«iyamana£,V,2, 8. 

hr/d, heart, mind, I, 60, 3, &c. 

hr/di-spr/j, touching the heart, IV, 
10, I s . 

hr/sh : harshat, joyous, I, 127, 6; — 
ut-harshayanti, they delight, V, 

. 2 7,5«. 

hr/shi vat, joyful, I, 127, 6. 

he/as, anger, I, 94, 12 1 ; IV, 1, 4. 

hemya'-vat, well-impelled, IV, 2, 8 1 . 

hesh£-kratu, hot-spirited, III, 26, 5 2 . 

h6tr/, the Hotr/ priest, I, 1, 1; 5, 
&c; I,94 a ,6; II, 9, 1; III, 17, 
5; hotara dafvya, I, 13, 8 1 ; 
142,8; 188,7; II, 3, 7; HI, 
4> 7 ; V, 5, 7 ; — sapta" h6tr/-bhi£, 
III, 10, 4. 

hotr/'-vurya, election as Hotr/, I, 

31, 3. 

hotr/'-sadana, the Hotr/'s seat, II, 9, 1. 

hotra, service of a Hotr/, the Hotr/'s 
office, I, 76, 4 ; II, 1, 2 ; III, 
17, 2 ; sapta* hotrarai, III, 4, 5 2 . 

hotra- v^h, carrier of offerings, V, 26,7. 

h6tra, oblation, I, 36, 7 ; II, 2, 8 ; — 
H6tra Bharati, I, 142, 9 2 ; II, 
1, 11 1 ; — the Hotri's work, wor- 
ship, IV, 2, io 1 . 

hotra-vfd, knowing the art of sacri- 
ficial libations, V, 8, 3. 

hru, see hvr/. 

hvaYas, tricks, V, 20, 2. 

hvara*, serpent (?), I, 141, 7 1 ; hvare 
(conj. hvaram), II, 2, 4 1 . 

hvarya? V, 9, 4 1 . 

hvr/ : upa hvarate, he slinks away, 
1, 141, i 1 ; — hru»ana£? (IV,4,i 2 ). 

hve, to call, invoke : huvema, 1, 127, 
2 1 ; iha huve (read iha hve ?), 
Ill, 20, 5 1 ; — v£hni£ as# & huve, 
I, 76, 4, \* ; — vi-hvayamahe, we 
call (thee) in emulation (with 
other people), I, 36, 13 2 . 



II. LIST OF 
THE MORE IMPORTANT PASSAGES 

QUOTED 

IN THE NOTES. 



RIG-VEDA 



PAGE 

I, i, 8 260 I, 6l, 4. 

6, 10 3 12 62 > 5. 

10, 2 . . . . . 262 62, 9. 

11, 5 4°° 6 4> 1 • 

15, 12 ... . 260, 306 64, 5. 

19, 3 I 9 2 6 4, 9 • 

28, 10 ... . 122, 156 64, 14 

24,9 251 66,2. 

26, 10 ... . 86 66, 4. 

27, 10 . . . . 3 2 7 69> 2 . 

29,4 7i 69,5. 

30,7 2 57 70,7. 

31, 8. . . . . 224 70, 10 

32, 14 . * . . 73 7i, 1 • 

33,4 l62 7i,3. 

33? J 4 • • • • 408 7i,4. 

34, 2 30<S 7 2 . 

34,3 6 9 7 2 , 5. 

34,6 28,272 72,8. 

34,9 26 9 76,5. 

34, 10 . . . . 112 80, 4 . 

37,3 305 8i,5. 

37, 12 ... . 172 84, 18 

38, 13 ... . 195 88, 3. 
42, 7. • • • • 2 57 8 9, 1. 

44,4 2I1 8 9, IO 

47,i 44 9 2 , 3- 

48,9 359 9 2 , 8. 

48, 10 ... . 40 95, 1 • 

5i,3 2 43 95,3. 

51,8 183 95,9. 

52, 1 2 86 95, 10 

52,6 31 2 9 6 , 3 

53,7 6 3 96,5. 

60, 1 231 100, 7 

61, 3 i55> 2 <>3 100, i^ 



PAGE 

no 

106 

18 

203 

105 

90, 269 

19 

243 

380 

65 

380 

76 

78 

294 

65 

174 

66 

66 

66 

319 

177 

257 

3 

84 

134 

59 

359 

101 

168 

27 
150 

63 

IOI 

168 

84 

380 



488 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



I, 102, 
102, 
IO4, 
I05, 
I05, 
I°5, 
IO9, 
TO9, 
III, 
112, 

113, 3 
"3, 15 

115, 1 

116, 1 



15 



6, 4 



116 
116, 5 
116, 6 
118, 9 

"9, 3 
119, 10 
120, 1 
120, 2 
122, 14 
123,9 
127,5 

128, 1 

129, 5 

129, 11 

130, 3 
130, 4 
13°, 5 
130, 6 

J 32, 5 
134, 1 
134,5 
135,4 
138,3 
139, 1 
139, 2 

139,4 

142, 7 

143, 5 

143, 7 

144, 1 

146, 1 

147, 3 

148, 1 

I5T> 1 
I5i,4 
152, 6 

158,5 
159, 5 
163,4; 5 
164, 3 . 



162 



PAGE 

122 

257 

324 

78 

152, 

156 

121, 122 

I50 

25 

35 

I24 

168 

359 

338 

7 

312 

134 

59 

59 

62 

59 
79 
46 

7i 

25a 

192- 

327 

98, 133 

133 

242 

132 

162 

286, 370 

223 

*44 

58 

133 
310 
223 

35 
269 

239 
97 

184 

245 
207 

334 

78 

152 

224 

321 

368 

107 

365 

3M 



I, 164, 6 . 

164, 35 
164,51 
166, 2 . 
166, 11 
166, 12 

167,4 

168, 6 

169, 5 
171, 1 
171, 2 
171, 6 

173, 1 
173,6 

179, 1 
184, 2 
184, 4 
185,2 
186, 4 
186, ic 
188, 4 
188,5 
II, 1, 1 . 
1, 2. 

1,4. 
1, 11 

1, 12 

2,2. 

2, 3. 

2, 6. 
2,8. 
3,9. 

3, 11 

4, 1. 

5, 1. 
5,2. 
5,5. 
5,7. 
11, 12 
14,2 
14, 11 
16, 1 

16, 3 

17, 4 

17, 7 

18, 1 

19, 7 

24, 1 
24, 8 

24, 15 
26, 3 

34, 4 
35,2 
36, 2 
37,6 



PAGE 
62 

66 

117, 144, 250 

58 

294 

84 

274 

312 

265 

112 

53 

112 

177 

184 

81 

155 

111 

58 

69 

3ii 

224 

239 

7i 

in 

27 

156 

9i 

76 

312 

319 

3i9 

156 

143, 238 

90 

9i, 381 

168 

76 

7i 

7i 

132 

216 

214 

402 

315 

145 

191 

in 

210 

347 

398 

272 

295 

53 

294 

25 



LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



489 





PAGE 




PAGE 


II, 39, 1 • • • 


. 2IO 


III,53,i6 . . 


. 380 


40, 4 . . . 


. 156 


54, 3 • • • 


. 48 


4i, 5 • • • 


. 246 


54, 19 • • 


. 113 


III,i,6 . . . 


. 19 


54, 22 . . 


• 376 


2, 1 . . . 


. 122 


55, 3 • • . 


. 223 


2, 3 • • • 


. 286 


55, 4 • . - 


. 78 


2, 5 . . . 


• 327 


55, 6 . . . 


• 25 


2, 7 • . . 


. 286 


55, 11 • • 


• 76 


2, 14 . . . 


• 305 


55, 12 . . 


. 226 


3, 4 • • • 


. 421 


55,2i . . 


. 90 


4, 3 • • • 


. 223 


56, 5 • • • 


. 312 


4, 10 . . . 


• 201 


56, 7 . . ■ 


. 8l 


5,6 .. . 


• 134 


56, 8 . . . 


. 312 


5, 8 . . . 


. Il8 


58, 7 • . . 


. 44 


6, 1 . ■ . . 


. l6l, 224 


58, 9 . . . 


. I44 


6, 2 . . 


. 168 


59, 2 . . . 


• 65 


6, 6 . . . 


. 319 


61, 3 . . . 


. l62 


6,7 • • 


. 224, 272 


62, 3 . . . 


. 156 


6, 9 • • 


. 201 


IV, 1, 4 . . . 


. 112 


6, 10 . . , 


. 269 


1, 5 • . . 


. 40 


7, 1 . • 


. 225 


1,6 . . 


• 383 


7, 9 • • 


• 25 


1, 9 . . 


• 365 


8,153565 


[I . 12 


1, 11 . . . 


. I06, 329 


8, 10 . . . 


. 35 


1, 12 . . 


• 3 2 9 


8, 11 . . 


. 12 


i, 12 seq. 


. 80 


10, 5 • . 


. 234 


2, 3 • • 


. 246 


n, 8 . . 


. . 14 


2, 5 . . 


. 91 


12, 2 . . 


. 210 


2, 9 • . 


. 274 


14, 4 • . 


. . 169 


2, 15 • • 


. 314 


15, 2 . . 


. . 40 


4, 15 • • 


. 210 


15,5 • • 


. . 223 


5, 1 • • 


• 44, 50 


16, 4 . . 


. 151 


5, 7 • . 


. . 242, 243 


18, 2 . . 


. 214 


5, 8 . . 


. 242 


24, 1 . . 


. 254 


5, 10 . . 


. . 145 


27, 1 . . 


. • 294 


5, 11 . . 


. 105 


27, 3 . . 


. . 91, 207 


5, 13 • • 


. 152 


27,7. . 


. . 161 


6,3 • • 


. . 255, 280 


28, 4 . . 


. . 27 


6, 8 . . 


. . 76 


29, 3 • • 


. . 29, 218 


6, 9 . . 


. . 319 


2 9> II • 


. . 10 


6, 11 . . 


• • 27, 373 


29, 13 • 


. . 76 


7, 4 • • 


. . 78 


29, H • 


. . 260 


7, 7 • • 


. . 171, 243 


30, 7 . . 


. . 134 


7, 9 • • 


. . 48 


30, 11 . 


. . 272 


7, 10 . . 


- • 133 


3o, 13 . 


. . 123 


7, 11 • . 


. . 295 


3o, 15 . 


. . 29 


9, 6 . . 


. . 78 


3i, 1 . . 


. • 323 


11, 6 . . 


. . 254 


3i, i-5 • 


. . 80 


14, 2 . . 


. . 80 


31, 16 . 


. . 225 


15, 6 . . 


. . 118 


34, 3 • • 


. . 246 


16, 4 . . 


. . 315 


38, 1 . . 


. . 286 


16, 15 . 


• • 204 


39, 1 . . 


. . 155 


17, 14 • 


. , 106, 312 


43, 1 • . 


. . 269 


17, 18 . 


. . 298 


43, 5 • • 


. . 30 


18, 4 . . 


. . 59 


49, 4 • • 


. . 5, 4i 


19, 8 . . 


. . 272 



49Q 



VEDIC HYMNS. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


IV, 19, 10 . . 


. 6 9 


V, 56, 6 . . . 


. 8 7 


20, 4 . . . 


. 329 


57, 2 . . . 


. 29 


23, 4 • • 


. io5, 394 


57, 5 * • • 


• 65 


23, 8 . . . 


. 65, 77, 171 


58, 6 . . . 


. 25 


23, 10 . . 


. 322 


59, 8 , . . 


• 25 


24, 3 . . . 


. 84 


64, 2 . . . 


. 136 


29, 3 . . . 


. 116 


68, 1 • . . 


. 234 


33, 3 • • • 


. 19 


68, 3 . . . 


. 2l6 


33, 10 • • 


. 204 


70,4 • • • 


. 330 


34, 9 • • • 


. 86 


76, 1 . . . 


• 255 


35, 3 • • • 


. 191 


83, 1 . . . 


. I05 


36, 3 • • • 


. 151 


VI, 1, 2 . . . 


. 400 


37, 3 • • 


. 134 


1, 9 • • • 


. 26 


37, 5 • • . 


. 411 


2, 8 . . . 


. 38l, 388 


37, 7 . . . 


• 39o 


2,9.., 


. 388 


40, 2 . . . 


. 357 


3, 5 • • • 


• r 39 


42, 1 . . . 


. 65 


4, 5 • . . 


. 158 


44, 2 . . , 


• 79 


5, 2 . . 


. 262 


50, 4 • • ■ 


• 243 


5, 4 • • 


. 214 


50,11 . 


. 7i 


6, 2 , . 


. 214 


51, 4 • • 


. 243 


6,6*. 


. . 178 


52, 2 ; 3 , 


. 314 


8, 1 . . . 


• 27, 149 


54, 3 • • 


. 355 


8,7 • • • 


• 159 


55, 5 • • 


. 210 


10, 2 . . 


. 383 


V, 1, 4 . . 


. 59 


11, 2 „ . . 


. 98 


1, 10 . . 


• 73 


11,4. . . 


. 328 


3, 4 • • 


. 342 


12, 2 . . . 


. 328 


3, 6 . . 


. 27 


13, 1 • • • 


. 270 


4, 4 . . 


. 127 


15, 5 • . 


. . 305 


6, 9 . . 


. 226 


16, 2 . . 


. . 35 


7, 2 . . 


. . 132 


16, 9 . . 


. . 98 


7,6 . . 


. . 68 


16, 15 . 


. • 35 


11, 4 • . 


■ • 73,78 


16, 22 


. . 267 


12, 2 . . 


. . 63 


16, 27 . 


. • 7i 


12, 3 . . 


. . 105 


16, 42 . 


. . 90 


14, 3 • • 


• • 3 


16, 46 


. . 327 


21, 4 . . 


• • 243, 345 


I7,i5 • 


. . 210 


25, 1 . • 


. . 136 


19, 3 • • 


. . 123,323 


28, 1 . . 


• • 3, 224 


19,4 • • 


. 400 


29, 15 • 


. . 370 


19, 10 • 


. 216 


30, 10 . 


. . 400 


20, 5 . . 


. . 93 


3o, H • 


. . 381 


20, 11 


. . 36 


3i, 1 . . 


• • 323 


21, 4 . . 


. . 97 


3i, 11 . 


. . 112 


21, 12 


. . 272 


34, 6 . . 


• • 394 


24, 2 . . 


. . 190 


42, 13 . 


• • 53 


27, 7 • • 


. . 361 


42, 17 • 


. . 226 


3i, 3 • • 


. . 69 


43, 7 • . 


. . 224 


34, 1 • • 


. . 270 


44, 1 • . 


. . 184 


35, 5 • • 


. . 184, 185 


45, 2 . . 


• • 314 


37, 3 • • 


. . 46 


47, 5 • . 


. . 226 


38, 4 . • 


. • 72 


48, 4 • . 


. . 383 


39, 4 • • 


. . 272 


53,ii . 


. . 295 


45, 14 • 


. . in 


53, 16 . 


. . 140 


46, 10 


• • 274 


56, 2 . . 


. . 411 


46, 12 . 


. . 400 



LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



491 





PAGE 




PAGE 


VI, 47, 16 . . 


. 319 


VII, 48, 3 • • 


• 71 


48, 4 . . . 


. 25 


5i,3 • • 


. 200 


48, 5 • • • 


. 71, I89 


56, 4 • • 


. Il6 


48,21 . . 


. 84 


56,6 . . 


. 294 


5i, 2 . . . 


. 27, 205, 322 


56, 16 . . 


• 320 


51, 8 . . . 


. 251 


57, 4 • • 


• 355 


59, 8 . . . 


. 274 


58,5 • • 


. 112 


59, 9 • • • 


. I07, 2l6 


59, 2 . . 


• 97 


61, 1 . . . 


. 84 


6i,5 • • 


. 116 


61, 2 . . . 


. 203 


63, 2 . . 


. 286 


61, 7 . • . 


. 192 


66, 10 . . 


. 205 


63, 4 . . . 


• 341 


66, ii . . 


. 27, 208 


64, 2 . . . 


. 359 


77, 2 . . 


. 314 


66, 1 . . . 


• 329 


77, 3 • • 


. 59 


66, 5 . . . 


. 112 


82, 4 • . 


. 216 


67, 10 . . 


. 134 


82,5 . . 


. 159 


68, 9 . . 


. 95 


83,5 • ■ 


. 216 


70, 1 . . . 


. 127 


83,9 • • 


. 203 


7o, 4 • • • 


. 3 


86, 7 . . 


. 312 


71, 6 . . . 


. 190 


87,3 • • 


. IOI 


VII, 1, 21 . . . 


. 272 


87, 4 . . 


. 314 


2, 3 • • • 


. 218 


90, 5 . 


. 79 


2, 5 . . • 


. 239 


91, 2 . 


• 4 


2, 6 . . . 


. 200 


91,3 • . 


. 86 


2, 7 • • • 


. 11 


95, 4 • ■ 


. 411 


2, 8-n . . 


. 239 


96, 1 . . 


. 203 


3, 3 • • 


. 214 


97, 4 • 


. 257 


3, 4 • . 


. 345 


97, 9 • • 


. 7i, 203 


3, 5 • • 


, . 320 


97, 10 . . 


. 216 


4, 3 • • 


. . 58 


98, 2 . . 


. 222 


7, 2 . . . 


. 246 


101, 1 . 


. 105, 260 


9, 3 • . 


. 63, 118 


104, 21 . 


. 132 


9, 5 . • 


. 40 


VIII, 1, 29 . , 


. 258 


10, 5 . . 


. . 72 


5^ 16 . 


. 35 


11, 1 . . 


. 5o 


5, 21 . 


. 196 


16, 9 . . 


. 98 


5, 25 . 


. 35 


17, 4 • • 


. 210 


5, 33 • 


. 43 


18, 2 . . 


. 81 


6, 24 . 


. 381 


18, 18 . 


. 84 


7, 30 • 


. 107 


18,25 . 


. • 274 


8, 22 . 


. . 203 


22, 8 . . 


. 46 


12, 11 . 


. . 225 


24, 5 • • 


. . 135, 286 


12, 32 . 


. . 161 


31,11 . 


. . 203 


13, 1 . 


. . 225 


32, 27 . 


. . 184, 185 


13, 6 . 


. . 207 


36, 1 . . 


. . 105 


13, 14 • 


. • 154 


36, 6 . . 


. . 226 


15, 10 • 


. . 86 


38, 8 . . 


. . 408 


17, 15 • 


. . 404 


39, 1 • • 


. . 238 


19, 1 . 


. . 140 


39, 3 • • 


. . 373 


19, 2 . 


. . 299 


40, 3 . . 


. . 18 


19,4 • 


. . 257 


42, 1 . . 


. . 177, 2CO 


19, 22 . 


. . 212 


42, 4 . . 


. . 90 


19, 31 • 


. . 41, 106 


43, 2 . . 


. • 238 


21, 2; 9 


. . 257 


43, 4 • • 


. . 63 


22, 12 . 


. . 174 


43, 5 • • 


. . 411 


23, 23 . 


. . 171 



492 



VEDIC HYMNS. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


VIII, 23, 28 . . 


. 84 


IX, 8, 4 . • • 


l62 


24, 1 . . 


. 320 


11, 5 • • • 


. I50 


24, 14 . . 


. 152 


12, 9 . . . 


• 3SO 


25, 5 . . 


. 123 


15,8 . . . 


. l62 


26, 13 . . 


. 272 


16, 6 . . . 


. 353 


27, 10 . . 


. I9O 


18, 4 . • • 


. 140 


31,9 • • 


. 274 


19, 1 . . • 


. 216 


3i, 14 • • 


. 204 


22, 3 . . . 


. 234 


32, 10 . . 


. 123, 278 


33, 5 • • • 


. 362 


35, 19 • • 


• 44 


38, 5 • • . 


. 362 


38, 2 . . 


. 265 


39, 2 . . . 


. 146 


39, 1 • • 


. 201 


40, 2 . . . 


. 246 


39, 2 . . 


. 71 


43, 5 • • • 


. 286 


39, 9 • • 


. 210 


47, 4 • • • 


. 118 


40, 1 . . 


• 133 


50, 1 • • . 


. 41 


4i,3 • - 


. 208 


53, 2 . . . 


. 210 


41, 10 . . 


. 62 


59, 2 . . . 


. 122 


43, 2 . . 


• 53 


62, 17 . 


. 225 


43, 3i • • 


. 258 


63, 11 . . 


. 106 


44, 19 • • 


. 260 


64, 10 . , 


. 207 


47, 16 . . 


. 406 


65, 12 . , 


. 234 


49, 2 . . 


. 56 


66, 1 . . . 


. 3 


50, 2 . . 


. 56 


67, 12 . 


. 383 


50,8 . . 


. 183 


68, 3 . . . 


. 312 


51,4 . • 


. 242, 295 


68, 8 . . . 


. 200 


52,8 . 


. 280 


69, 5 . . . 


. 264 


53, 6 . 


. 225 


70, 3 . . . 


. 245 


59, 6 . 


. 158 


71, 1; 3. • 


. 264 


60, 3 . 


. 132 


7i, 3 • • 


. 234 


61, 7 . 


. 210 


7i, 5 • • 


. in 


67, 3 • 


. 191 


7i, 7 • • 


. . 272 


71, 12 . 


• • 255 


73, 6 . . 


• • 3i3 


7i, 15 • 


. . 136 


74, 1 • • 


. . 404 


72, 3 • 


• 243, 327, 404 


74, 4 • • 


. . 264 


73, 12 . 


. . 190 


75, 3 • • 


. . 161, 180 


74, 6 . 


• . 3 


76, 4 . . 


. • 65, 77 


76,9 . 


. . 44 


81, 1 . . 


. • 3i4 


76, 12 . 


. . 212 


82, 2 . . 


. . 286 


82,3 . 


. . 97 


83, 5 • • 


. . 264 


84, 1 . 


■ • 195 


85, 5 • • 


. . 286 


84,4 . 


- • 97 


85, 11 • 


. . 324 


87,4 • 


. . 156 


86, 3 . . 


. . 286 


88, 1 . 


• • 195 


86, 4 . . 


. • 139 


96, 10 . 


. . 203 


86, 14 . 


. . 264 


96, 13 . 


. . 93 


87, 1 . • 


. . 312, 365 


98,6 . 


. . 183 


87, 2 . . 


. . 90 


101, 16 . 


. . 19 


92, 5 • • 


. . 183 


102, 11 . 


. . 258 


93, 1 • • 


. . 162 


102, 12 . 


. . 361 


96, 10 


. . 93 


102, 22 . 


. . 40 


96, 20 


. . 286 


103, 7 . 


. . 118, 171 


97,21 . 


. . 264 


103, 8 . 


• • 35 


97, 34 • 


• • 65, 77 


103, 13. 


. . 29 


97, 48 . 


. . 90 


IX, 5, 3 • • 


. • 3 


97, 57 • 


. . 162 


5, 10 . 


. . 12 


98, 1 . . 


. . 410 



LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



493 



IX, ioo, 3 



102, 

103, 
106, 
107, 
in, 
in, 

X, 1,2 
2,6 
3, 2 

3, 3 

4, 3 
4,7 

5, i 
6,i 

7,5 
8, i 



;8 



14 
18 

2 



8,2 

9, i 
n,5 
ii, 6 

12, 3 

13, 3 

14, i o 

15, 6 
16,5 
17, 2 
21, 1 
21, 2 

23, 7 

26, 4 

27, 4 
27, 7 
27, 13 
30,6 

3i,5 
3i,7 

32, 6 

33, 2 
33, 7 
39,4 
39, 10 

39, 14 

40, 2 . 

41, 1 . 
44, 1 • 

44, 4 • 

45, 1 • 
45, 2 . 

45, 10 

46, 2 . 
46,8 . 

46, 10 
47,6 . 

47, 7 • 



PAGE 
2l6 

323 
225 
2IO 

344 
65, 77 
116, 127 
78 
136 

225 seq. 
98 
162 

134 
408 
136 
171 

150 
306 

224 . 

196, 204 

234 

338 

242 

29 

355 
225 
122 
258 

39© 

80 

149 

184, 185 

402 

224 

122 

124 

272 

370 

254 

36 

19 

59 

58, 272 

100 

203 

86 

48 

189 

78 

59 

204 

171 
226 
243 
155, 245 



, 48, 2 . . 


PAGE 
. . 384 


49, 6 . . 


. . 36 


50, 1 . . 


. . 267 


52, 6 . . 


. . 258 


53, 1 • • 


. . 20O 


53, 2 . . 


• . 3, 73 


53, 3 • • 


• • 225 


53, 6 . . 


. . 43 


61, 4 . . 


• • 398 


61, 7 . . 


. . 80 


61, 8 . . 


. . 79 


61, 13 . 


. . 323 


61, 14 . 


- • 73 


61, 21 


. . 165 


63, 5 • • 


. . 231 


6 3 , 8 . . 


. . 251 


64, 4 . . 


• • 203 


64, 11 . 


. . 163 


64, 15 . 


. . 417 


65. . . 


. . 250 


65, 6 . . 


. . 250 


65, 8 . . 


. . 250 


65, 10 . 


. . ii, 218 


66, 12 


. . 224 


66, 13 . 


. . 11 


67, 1 . . 


. . 242 


7o, 7 • • 


. . 11 


70, 10 . 


. . 12 


73, 5 • • 


• • 35 


74, 3 • • 


- • 324 


76, 3 . . 


. . 69 


79, 2 . . 


. . 270 


79, 3 • • 


. . 242, 243 


79, 5 • • 


• • 345 


80, 4 . . 


. . 78 


80, 7 . . 


. . 203 


81, 1 . . 


. . 264 


82, 6 . . 


. . 62 


83, 4 . . 


. . 414 


84, 7 . . 


. . 216 


85, 18 . 


. . 116 


85, 19 • 


. . 27 


85, 23 . 


. . 424 


87, 9 • . 


. . 224 


87, 18 . 


. . 20 


87, 20 . 


. . 214 


89, 7 • • 


. . 132 


89, 10 . 


. . 274 


89, 11 . 


. . 267 


90, 15 . 


. . 85 


91, 1 . . 


. . 191 


9i, 7 • • 


. . 345 


91, 10 . 


. . 189 


92, 1 . . 


. . 196 


93, 4 • • 


• . 106 



494 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



PAGE 


PAGE 


X, 93, 6 . . . . 177 X, 118, 5 . . 


• 257 


93, 10 . 






19 119, 13 . 




• 257 


94, 7 ; 8 






314 121, 2 




• 151 


94, 11 • 






77 122, 3 . 




. 380 


96, 10 






286 122, 4 




• 392 


97, 1 . . 






144 123,4 




. 65 


99, 6 . . 






234 125, 1 , 




. 200 


100, 8 






417 126, 8 




• 355 


101, 7 • 






58,380 132,5 




. 90 


103, 3 • 






29 133, 3 




. 7i 


104, 8 






330 138,6 




. 27 


106, 5 . 






320 139,2 




. 90 


108, 3 . 






90 139, 3 




. 124 


108, 7 . 






339 147, 1 




. 69 


no . * 






180 148, 3 




. 71,421 


no, 3 . 






238 150, 1 




. 257 


110,4 • 






224 159, 5 




. 19 seq. 


110,9 . 






238 164, 3 




• 93 


no, 10 . 






180 168, 3 




. 306 


113,8 . 






345 172, 1 




. 145 


114,9 . 






207 172,154 




. 250 


H5,3 • 






98 172, 2 




. 267 


115, 859. 




35 176, 3 




. 94 


118,3 * < 




3 190, 2 




. 27 


ATHARVA-VEDA. 




IV, 1, 2 . . . . 195 XI, 2, 13 . . 


. 168 


V, 4, 3 • « 






11 7, 5 • • 


. • 295 


28,7 






. 11 XII, 2, 45 


. 376 


VI, 43, 3 






30 4, 6; 12; 5 


s6 . 20 


VII, 90, 3 






. 408 XV, 12, 6 ; 10 


. . 20 


VIII, 2, 7. 






. 353 XIX, 39, 6-8. 


. . n 


vAgasaneyi-saithitA 




V, 17 . . . . 224 XX, 44 


. . 328 


VI, 26. 






. 121 XXII, 2 


. . 171 


35- 






. 121 XXIII, 57 


. . 27 


IX, 4 , 






. 369 XXVIII, 7 


. . 11 


XVII, 54. 






. 254 XXXVIII, 2 


20 


. . 411 



maitrAyaMya-sajwhitA. 

II, 4, 2 • • • • 333 

TAITTIRlYA-SAlTHITA. 



I, 3, 6, 1 . 


. 12, 2 


554 


III, 1, 6, 2 . 


. 369 


5, 3, 2 . 


. . 168 




IV, 1, 8, 3 . 


. • 156 


6, 6, 1 . 


. 20 




2, 4, 2 . 


. . 286 


7, 8, 2 . 


. 408 




V, 7,8, 1 . 


. . 295 


11,4, n,4 . 


. 20 









LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



495 



AITAREYA-BRAHMAiVA. 



11,2 . 

40 , 



PAGE 
253 
267 



111,34 80 

VH,34 361 



I, 6, 3, 38 
7, 4, 4 
II, 1, 1, 8 

4, 4> 4 
III, 4, 1, 20 
4, 1, 21 
9, 4> 18 



I, 2, 1, 13 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMAAA. 

. 86 

. 80 

. 306 

. 361 

. 304 seq. 

. 306 

. 121 

taittirIya-brAhmatva. 



IV, 6, 6, 5 . . . 


189 


VII, 1, 1, 22 seq. . 


285 


XII, 4, 4, 2 . . . 


386 


5V 2 > 15 • • 


144 


XIV, 3, 1, 9 . . 


411 


9, 4, 3 • • 


. 19 



. 305 
. 376 



111,7,3,5 ... 386 



TANKAVIMSA-BRAHMANA. 
XIII, 3, 12 ... 368 XXV, 7, 4 . . . 180 

TAITTIRlYA-ARAiVYAKA. 



IV, 11,4 . 
23 . . 



411 
93 



V,9,7 • 



411 



ASVALAYANA-SRAUTAStiTRA. 



Ill, 1, 8 seq. . . . 253 
4, 1 ... . 284 
12, 4 .... 5 



IV, 8, 20 

V, 7, 5 • 
XII, 11, 1. 



286 
197 
102 



SANKHAYANA-SRAUTAStiTRA. 



V, 15, 2 seq. 
VIII, 16 . . 



253 
267 



VIII, 21 . 



kAtyAyana-srautasOtra. 



IV, 8, 16 . , 

VI, 3, 17. 
IX, 8, 8 seq. 



306 

255 
189 



IX, 8 y 11 . . . 189 
XII, 6, 10. . . 44 
XXIV, 3, 42. • • 44 



•sAnkhAyana-gt?/hyas£ttra. 

II, a, 1 . . . . 200 V, 5, 4 . . . . 5 

MANU. 

VIII, 44 .... 168 

mahAbhArata. 

XIV, 280 ... . 224 



TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS. 497 



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FOR THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 499 



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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY 

VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 

AND EDITED BY 

F. MAX MULLER. 

**£ This Series is published with the sanction atid co-operation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council, 

REPORT presented to the ACADEMIE DES INSCRIPTIONS, May 11, 
1883, hy M. ERNEST REN AN. 

' M. Renan presente trois nouveaux line seconde, dont l'interet historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religieux ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de l'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a su se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East\ que dirige a. Oxford, des savans les plus eminens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste erudition et tine critique d'Asie. L'Universite d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant associe de l'Academie grande publication honore au plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. . , . La degre, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau re.cueil, com- larges proportions une oeuvre aussi philo- 
posee de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement coneue que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en publier executee.' 

EXTRACT from the QUARTERLY REVIEW. 

' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor E. HARDY, Inaugural Lecture in the University of Freiburg', 1887. 

' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orient alisten congress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die Ubersetzung derheiligen Biicher 
Unternehmen, zu welch em auf Anregung des Ostens' {the Sacred Books of the 
Max Miillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

The Hon. ALBERT S. G-. CANNING, ' Words on Existing Religions.' 

( The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C, 
his works are of unique i?iierestfor the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The Vendidad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 14.9. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes^ and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



EDITED BY F. MAX MiJLLER. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Parsis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
Two more volumes will complete the translation of all that is left us 
of Zoroaster 7 s religion. 

[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI] 

vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundatm, Bahman 
Ya^t, and SMyast la-shayast. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster f s religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

Vols. VI and IX. The Qur&n. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work of E. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vish/m. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic Schools, the KaMas, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Manu. 

Vol. VIII. The Bhagavadgita,with The Sanatsu£*atiya, 
and The AnugitS,. 

Translated by Kashinath Trimbak Telang. 8vo, cloth, 
10s. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. Fausboll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



4 SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 

Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
parinibbana Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-^akka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^a Suttanta ; 4. The Akarikheyya Sutta ; 
5. The ^etokhila. Sutta; 6. The Maha-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbasava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The 6atapatha-Brdhma^a, according to the 
Text of the M&dhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius . Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, \2s. (id. 

A minute accowit of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLL] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part I. The Patimokkha. The Mahavagga, I-1V. 
8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 
code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C, 
[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/^a, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
Vasish//£a and Baudhayana. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part II. The Ka//fo-upanishad, 
The Mu/zdaka-upanishad, The Taittiriyaka-upanishad, The 
Br/hadara^yaka-upanishad, The *Sveta,rvatara-upanishad, The 
Pra^^a-upanishad, and The Maitraya^a-brahmawa-upanishad. 
8vo, cloth, 1 os. 6d. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part II. The Yi King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahavagga, V-X. The Zullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth. 10s. 6d. 



EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The Da</istan-i Dinik 
and The Epistles of ManvMihar. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by A^vaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certai?i 
similarity to the Evangelium infant iae, fyc. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The ^ullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
10s. 6 d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu/zafarika ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 12^. 6d. 
' The Lotus of the true Law* a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. XXII. Caina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
AX'arahga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The religion of the Cainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 

[See Vol. XLV.] 

Vol. XXIII. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Sirozahs, 
Ya^ts, and Nyayi.?. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. Dina-i Mainog- 
Khira^, -Slkand-gumanik Vi^ar, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
icy. 6d. 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



SECOND SERIES. 

Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William Jones, which has been 
carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native Commentaries. 
An Appendix contains all the quotations from Manu which are found in the 
Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of the Law Courts in India. 
Another Appendix gives a synopsis of parallel passages from the six 
Dharma-sutras, the other Smr/tis, the Upanishads, the Mahabh&rata, &c. 

vol. XXVI. The .5atapatha-Br&hma#a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

Vols. XXVII and xxviii. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The Li K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25^. 

Vol. XXIX. The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. *Sarikhayana, A^valayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, 12^. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the ancient 
Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any other literature. 
Some of these rules have been incorporated in the ancient Law-books. 

vol. XXX. The Grzhya-Siitras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila. Hirawyake^in, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba, Ya^a-paribhasha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12.?. 6d. 

Vol. XXXI. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afrinagan, Gahs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. xxxil. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vOj cloth, iSs. 6d. 



EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. xxxill. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. Narada, Br/haspati. 
8vo, cloth, ios. 6d. 

Vol. XXXIV. The Vedanta-Siltras, with the Com- 
mentary by ^ankard^arya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vols, xxxv abtd xxxvi. The Questions of King 
Milinda. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Part I, 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. xxxvii. The Contents of the Nasks, as stated 
in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the Dinkard. 
Part I. Translated by E. W. West. 8vo, cloth, 15^. 

Vol. xxxvill. The Vedanta-Sutras, Part II. 8vo, 

cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vols, xxxix and XL. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Legge. 8vo, 
cloth, 21s, 

Vol. XLI. The .Satapatha- Brahma/za. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

Vol. XLII. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 

Vols. XLIII and XLIV. The 6atapatha-Brahma;/a. 
Parts IV and V. [In preparation^ 

Vol. XLV. The Caina-Stitras. 

Translated from Prakrz't, by Hermann Jacobi. Part II. The 
Uttaradhyayana Sutra, The Sutrakrz'tanga Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 
I2.S-. 6d. 

Vol. XL VI. Vedic Hymns. Part II. 8 vo, cloth, 145. 

Vol. XL VII. The Contents of the Nasks. Part II. 

[In preparation.] 
VOL. XL VIII. 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahayana Texts. Buddha- 
/fcarita, translated by E. B. Cowell. Sukhavati-vyuha,Va^raM^e- 
dika, &c, translated by F. Max Muller. Amitayur-Dhyana- 
Sulra, translated by J. Takakusu. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 



RECENT ORIENTAL WORKS. 



&necirota ©son tens ta* 

ARYAN SERIES. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Va£*ra/£/£/&edik& ; The 
Diamond- Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3^. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the Mahayana Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhdvati-Vyuha : 
Description of Sukhavati, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices : (1) Text and Translation of Sanghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhavati- 

Vyuha ; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller Sukhavati-Vyuha. 

Small 4T.0, js. 6d. 

The editio firinceps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential sects ot Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. III. The Ancient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^a-P&ramita-Hrzdaya- 
Sutra and the Ush/zisha-Vi^aya-Dhara^i. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhler, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4to, \o$. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sa^graha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 

Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wenzel. Small 4to, 7^. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukrama^i of the 7?zgveda. 

With Extracts from Sha^gunmshya's Commentary entitled 
Vedarthadipika. Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 



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