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Full text of "1943 East Carolina Teachers College Bulletin The Teachers College And Post-War Reconstruction"

VOL. 34 AUGUST, 1 943 NO. 3 

EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS COLLEGE 
BULLETIN 



THE TEACHERS COLLEGE 

AND 

POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION 



Greenville, north Carolina 



Published four times a year — March, May, August, and December. Entered 

as second-class matter March 16, 1936 at the Post Office at Greenville. N. C. 

under Act of Congress August LM. 1912. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Foreword Dr. Howard J. McGinnis 

Public Education and Democracy. President Leon R. Meadows 

Implications of History Dr. R. L. Hilldrup 

Professor Department of History 

Our Changing Geography Dr. P. L. Picklesimer 

Director Department of Geography 

Social and Political Reconstruction Mr. Martin L. Wright 

Director Department of Social Science 

Health and Physical Education for a 

Stronger Nation Dr. F. P. Brooks 

Director Department of Health and Physical Education 

Home Economics and Post-war 

Reconstruction Miss Katherine Holtzclaw 

Director Department of Home Economics 

Mathematical Instruction and the 

New Order Dr. Herbert ReBarker 

Director Department of Mathematics 

The Science Teacher and the Post-war 

World Dr. R. J. Slay 

Director Department of Science 

Annotated Bibliography of Recent 

References U. S. Office of Education 



FOREWORD 

In time of war it is wise to prepare for the peace that is to 
follow. Educational institutions should play an important part 
in the social, political, economic, and educational readjustments 
that will inevitably follow the global conflict now in progress. 
Many domestic issues affecting vitally every citizen of this coun- 
try demand attention. The manner of their settlement will affect 
our lives, our welfare, our standards of living for many years to 
come. 

The state teachers college is a leader of thought in the broad 
field of general public education. It probably comes in as intimate 
touch with the intelligent and aggressively thinking people of 
this country as any other institution. It teaches, leads, develops 
the ideas of prospective teachers who go out among the people 
and have a large part in shaping the ideals and the habits of our 
people. 

A few particular fields of instruction in the teachers college are 
in a favorable position, because of the stress of war activities, to 
point out at this particular time ways in which our thinking, our 
habits, and our economy are likely to be readjusted if we are to 
secure the maximum benefits from our war experience and from 
the peace after the war is over. 

In this bulletin the President of the College, six heads of de- 
partments, and a member of a seventh department have pointed 
out some of the readjustments that should be made, some of the 
fields of activity into which we shall find it profitable to delve 
deeply as a result of recent events, and some of the principles 
that should guide in the inevitable changes. 

Howard J. McGinnis, Chairman 
Publications Committee 
August 1, 1943. 



[3] 



PUBLIC EDUCATION AND DEMOCRACY 

Dr. Leon R. Meadows 

For almost two centuries the people of the United States have 
lived under a democratic form of government; we have come to 
accept this democracy as being one of the things which is vouch- 
safed to us ; we give it little more thought than we do the air we 
breathe, or the water we drink, and certainly not as much thought 
as we give to the food we eat. We simply take such a form of 
government for granted ; we have had it all our lives ; we have it 
now; therefore, we shall always have it. Today, we have almost 
forgotten, or at least neglected, to give due praise and honor to 
the forefathers who fought so valiantly that we might enjoy the 
privileges we possess. The distance is long between the suffering 
and hardship of pioneer days, and the comfort and convenience 
of the present; to the average American citizen it is difficult to 
conceive of a period without steam, without electricity, and with- 
out adequate means of communication and transportation, and 
all that these things mean to civilization ; and yet, all these things 
have been purchased at great price, along with many others, and 
given us to use, just as if they had been bestowed upon us 
through the kindness of some beneficient god. 

Recently, we have been shocked into a full realization of the 
fact that our democracy is not a gift, that it is something to be 
acquired, that it may be lost, and that it is now actually on the 
defensive. A quarter of a century ago it was freely stated that 
we were fighting to make the world safe for democracy ; now, we 
admit frankly that we are fighting to save democracy. During 
this period, that is, the time intervening between World War I 
and World War II, few friends have been gained for the demo- 
cratic form of government; some who adopted this form have 
overthrown it and are now working under an autocracy; others 
have made such changes in the operation of a so-called democracy 
that a new definition must be given the word to make it fit the 
form. The opponents of our own form of government do not 
hesitate to say that almost any kind of government will work in 
peace time, and when economic conditions are good, but, they say 
that we immediately turn to concentrated power, if not actual 
dictatorship, when we are engaged in war, or when we have any 
national calamity, such as a complete economic breakdown; as 

[4] 



evidence of this, they cite the fact that the President of the 
United States is practically a dictator in time of war, and that 
production is controlled by a central agency in times of economic 
disaster. The answer usually given to such criticism is that this 
is merely the way democracy works, and that such operation of 
our government may be changed by a vote of the people when- 
ever the latter choose to do so. Such an answer is open to attack ; 
most people believe that one person, backed enthusiastically by 
fifteen or twenty million armed men, could become a dictator in 
any country in the world. 

What, then, shall we do toward the solution of the problem of 
saving and maintaining our democracy? We believe that the 
right education of all the people is the correct answer to this 
question. We have neglected education in the United States; 
we firmly believe that both world wars could have been averted 
through education. We have paid $5,000.00 a year to people 
whose sole occupation was that of training dogs; we have paid 
$10,000.00 a year to horse trainers ; and we have paid $900.00 a 
year to people who have been in charge of America's choicest 
possession, our children. Professions, which are more lucrative, 
are attracting many who should be teachers. The teaching pro- 
fession should have in it not the second best, but the best minds 
of the country ; a teacher of youth should be familiar not merely 
with local problems, but with national and international as well. 
The training of such a teacher requires effort, time, and money ; 
if such an investment is to be made, there should be promised 
ample compensation at the close of the training. 

A democracy must be built upon an educated citizenship; a 
person is compelled to have the ability to think, if he is to make 
the proper use of his privilege of voting. There are still with us 
many who believe that the chief purpose of education is to teach 
people to think; that formal college training does not always 
accomplish this purpose; that many gain the power without 
formal education. 

Self -discipline is a necessary factor in a democracy; there is 
too often a tendency to throw all restraint to the winds ; freedom, 
of which we boast, is interpreted to mean license, and the latter, 
uncurbed, may lead into all sorts of difficulties. For a successful 
democracy, it is essential that people learn to obey the laws and 
regulations which they, along with their fellow citizens, have 
passed. Horace Taft says: "Obedience is important, and it is 
more important in a democracy than in any other kind of govern- 
ment. If the minority does not loyally and heartily obey the 

[5] 



government, but feels entitled to discuss and even disobey any 
decisions of which it disapproves, democracy becomes chaos. 
What kind of training can there be, if children do not learn and 
practice obedience to proper authorities? This democratic life 
of ours involves many things, among them cooperation, self- 
government, obedience to authority, the doing of much uninter- 
esting drudgery, and so forth. An education that combines these 
in proper proportion is what we should aim at. These are a large 
part of character building and the making of citizens. Steady 
discipline, which the students know to be discipline, is neces- 
sary." 1 

Participation in a democratic form of government gives people 
an opportunity to put into practice the principles which they 
have learned from texts and from other sources ; in fact, unless 
these learned facts are put into practice they are of little value. 
Ample opportunity for participation in such matters may be 
found in the home, in the church, in the school, on the athletic 
field, and in various and sundry clubs and organizations; here, a 
person learns respect for law and order, as well as a regard for 
the opinions of others ; here he develops a spirit of tolerance 
which can come only from association and work with others. 
John Dewey says : "A democracy is more than a form of govern- 
ment; it is primarily a mode of associated living, of conjoint 
communicated experiences. The extension in space of the num- 
ber of individuals who participate in an interest so that each has 
to refer his own action to that of others, and to consider the 
action of others to give point and direction to his own is equiv- 
alent to the breaking down of those barriers of class, race, and 
national territory which kept men from perceiving the full im- 
port of their activity." 2 

During the emergency, while totalitarian governments are at- 
tempting, through poisonous propaganda, to influence all peoples 
against democracy, educational institutions should put forth 
every effort to keep alive in the minds of all the spirit of liberty 
and freedom ; no price will be too great for us to pay for the 
preservation of our democratic principles. 



1. Memories and Opinions, p. 245. 

2. Democracy and Education, p. 101. 



[6] 



IMPLICATIONS OF HISTORY 

Dr. R. L. Hilldrup 

If any indication of the future trend of social behavior can be 
secured from a study of the past, it is reasonably safe to predict 
that the United States will continue to act in the main, after the 
present war, upon motives of self-interest. As in the past, it is 
likely, also, that these motives of self-interest will be reflected 
in the curricula of our educational institutions. Those American 
educators in the public schools, in particular, who are inclined to 
identify our national self-interest with considerations of im- 
mediate expediency will probably advocate, with greater vehe- 
mence than ever, the teaching of courses in contemporary social 
problems, current events, and panaceas of social ills to the ex- 
clusion of a formal and sustained study of ancient, medieval, and 
early modern history. Such educational conduct is in harmony 
with the spirit of revolution ; and the world is now in the throes 
of one of its periodic revolutions. 

If this revolution produces a world federation and a large seg- 
ment of American opinion is pleased with it, many educators will 
probably attempt to offer an unusually large crop of courses on 
World Federations, the Good Neighbor Policy, Internationalism, 
Human Equality, and the like. In that case, it will be the duty 
of the history and social science departments of teachers colleges 
to furnish these educators with sound historical facts and prin- 
ciples of social behavior that pertain to these fields. Else their 
instruction will rapidly degenerate into a hodgepodge of euphonic 
platitudes and wishful thinking. 

If, on the other hand, international security is not established 
and the United States should become convinced after the present 
war that its self-interest and security can be promoted best by a 
stronger national policy, many educators will be equally ready, 
no doubt, to offer courses on the advantages of militarism, 
economic autarchy, and national imperialism in which neo- 
mercantilism, rationing for national power, and novel forms of 
collectivism will be extolled. In such circumstances the teachers 
colleges should try to prevent nationalism from becoming a 
Moloch, with teachers of the social studies as his high priests; 
children, his willing sacrifices; and history, his theology. 
Whether or not the colleges will have the courage and ability to 

[7] 



withstand such a trend is a serious question, not easily answered. 
They are a part of the educational system of the nation, subject 
to the same influences, to a great degree, as the public secondary 
schools. It is obvious that should they lose their academic free- 
dom, they will not be able to do any thing along this line. 

Perhaps, after all, teachers colleges will not be faced with 
extreme internationalism or extreme nationalism after this war. 
Revolutions seldom achieve clearly defined results, for peoples are 
inclined to slip into some sort of workable compromise, lying 
somewhere between the extreme ideologies of the contestants, 
once peace has been restord. 

In revolutionary epochs people are tired of traditions and re- 
straints. They are in no mood to learn the lessons of history. 
Their mood is being expressed educationally, at present, by the 
teaching of many courses as history and social science which are 
not rightfully either, but attempts to draw blueprints for social 
engineering. To offer such courses to immature students before 
they have gained perspective through a study of history; a 
knowledge of the laws of society through a study of the social 
sciences; and an acquaintance with human nature through psy- 
chology and experience is to put the cart before the horse. Such 
a procedure is as ridiculous as to teach students the intricate 
processes that will be used in industrial chemistry twenty years 
hence before they have had a single course in the elementary 
principles of chemistry. Naturally such courses on the secondary 
level tend to degenerate into a cheap propaganda, characterized 
by much heat but little light. They upset the emotional stability 
of the immature student ; form within him the habit of acting on 
inadequate, and often biased, information; and make him a 
likely victim of the first cheap politician who comes along with a 
messianic message. Against such perverted educational prac- 
tices teachers colleges should take their stand now, in very 
definite ways. 

They should recognize courses in social engineering for what 
they really are. They should not be fooled by nomenclature into 
giving credit in history for them. Properly conducted courses in 
social engineering for mature students of college or university 
standing are greatly needed — and the teachers colleges can help 
to direct education greatly along this line — but they are neither 
history nor social science. They are courses which Plato would 
have reserved for his young philosopher-statesmen after they 
had become acquainted with the truths of history, the social 

[8] 



sciences, and human nature. Teachers colleges can do no better, 
I believe, than to follow the advice of Plato in this respect. 

History has a contribution to make to humanity that no other 
subject can make. To civilized mankind, in highly complicated 
and interdependent societies and cultures, its contribution is well- 
nigh indispensable. An understanding of the ideals, traditions, 
thoughts and patterns of behavior of other peoples, with whom 
we must deal, can be acquired, if at all, only through intensive 
courses in history, in which a student forgets for the time being 
in so far as possible his own cultural predilections and prejudices 
and brings to bear upon his problem all pertinent knowledge con- 
cerning man in society that has been discovered by the social 
scientists and the psychologists. This is a difficult assignment 
to be sure ; but there is no royal road to understanding man, the 
most baffling enigma on Earth. Yet social engineers must have 
this data if they would build anything less harmful than air 
castles. Without such information, they are more likely to pro- 
pose systems that will produce only tears and death. 

The present conflict has shown that the American people are 
woefully ignorant of certain fields of history. A surprising 
number of college graduates have never had a genuine course in 
the history of their own country. This may account in part for 
a certain Pharisaical Fourth-of-July sense of superiority over 
breeds of men who have not been wise enough to adopt our 
democratic principles and republican institutions. Moreover, 
Americans frequently act in their foreign policy as if they sup- 
pose all the peoples of the world really want democratic govern- 
ment and peace at all times. 

This Pharisaical spirit and these erroneous assumptions are due 
also, in part, no doubt, to a lack of an understanding of the 
history of other peoples. All too frequently European history 
has been studied only to ascertain the heritage which the United 
States has obtained from Europe — and not for the purpose of 
understanding Europe itself. Moreover, we know now that too 
little attention has been devoted to the history of the Orient and 
of Latin America. Already our people are realizing that the 
interests of the United States are frequently as closely bound up 
with the affairs of Latin America and of the Orient as with 
happenings in Europe. 

Unfortunately a spirit of intolerance arises in wartimes which 
prevents historians from entering objectively into a study of the 
course of affairs in an enemy nation. Should one attain a degree 

[9] 



of impartiality and attempt to present the principal ideas, social 
forces, and events which brought an enemy nation to its present 
position, likely as not he is accused of trying to justify the con- 
duct of that nation and of being disloyal to his own nation. 
Herein lies a two-pronged obligation of the teachers colleges. 
One, to teach in wartime as well as in peacetime that the historian 
is interested only in explaining and interpreting ideas, social 
forces, and events, not in the justification of any person, nation, 
idea, or thing. The other, to redouble their efforts now and after 
the war to accumulate and present to prospective teachers, in a 
fair and impartial manner, historical data on enemy nations. If 
students learn how other nations get into lamentable pitfalls, 
they may be able to prevent their own nation from falling into 
the same pitfalls, or, from pushing other nations into them. To 
allow courses to degenerate into nothing more than the Damning 
of Hitler and Japanese Perfidy, even in the disguise of educating 
for victory, is worse than offering no course at all. Such mis- 
instruction is the dragon teeth of future misunderstandings. 

It seems likely now that the present war will strengthen a 
change of emphasis in the teaching of history which had begun 
before the outbreak of hostilities. If the trend toward collectivism 
continues for a time — and it has certainly been stressed by the 
war — less will be said about individual rights, even in secondary 
schools of democratic America. Instead, more time will be de- 
voted to a historical study of schemes of price fixing, social 
security, planned economy, and the like. Crop control, govern- 
mental regulation of money, public works for the unemployed, 
and bread lines were already ancient social phenomena when the 
Star of the Christ-Child shone over Bethlehem. Already striking 
parallels have been drawn between the program of the Gracchi 
and the New Deal. Social and cultural histories, with stress on 
collectivism, are being emphasized greatly in many quarters and 
will probably become more widespread during the next decade. 

As trainers of teachers and students of psychology, acquainted 
with various methods of teaching, the professors of history in 
the teachers colleges should have a greater share in the rewriting 
of the postwar textbooks in their field. Research scholars do not 
necessarily make good textbook writers, particularly when teach- 
ing is not their primary interest. 

This should not be taken to mean that historians in teachers 
colleges cannot profit from engaging in research work. Far from 
it. Original documents help to keep the history teacher's feet on 
the ground. Every prospective teacher of history who graduates 

[10] 



from a teachers college should be made thoroughly acquainted 
with the most reliable sources of information in his major field. 
There is no better antidote for nebulous thinking on his part than 
reference to such source materials from time to time. 

Professors of history in teachers colleges must necessarily 
spend most of their time in actually teaching subject matter; but 
their work is not done unless they have taught their students to 
use source materials critically and intelligently — not, necessarily, 
that their students may become profound research scholars, but 
in order that they may retain a sane balance and perspective and 
secure information from the most reliable sources in revolu- 
tionary epochs of many ill-conceived theories. 

Should, by any chance, one of these students develop into a 
research scholar, no harm will have been done. After the present 
war there will be whole new fields for historical research still un- 
touched. Both the teaching historian and the research historian 
should have a hand in the construction of historical works. 
Hence, teachers colleges should welcome, impartially, — and many 
of them do — , the contributions of both, striving to bring about 
a coordination of their efforts so that the educational world may 
receive maximum benefits from the talents of both. In the re- 
valuation, re-interpretation, and rewriting of the histories of the 
postwar period American scholarship is not going to have any 
talents or strength which it can afford to squander on the use of 
obsolete methods of distribution. The teachers colleges should 
become clearing houses for the organization and presentation of 
the fruits of genuine research to the prospective teachers of the 
public schools in such a way that they can popularize them and 
present them to the people of all communities when such knowl- 
edge will make them better-informed citizens of the nation and 
of the world. 



[11] 



OUR CHANGING GEOGRAPHY 

Dr. Parnell W. Picklesimer 



Inadequacy of Geographical Knowledge 

This is a period in which great changes are taking place. This 
is notably true with respect to geography and its bearing on the 
present war. It is primarily the function of geography to assist 
in educating people to better ways of living. But this field of 
knowledge has been rather slow in rising to its rightful position 
of prominence in the school curriculum. This is partially evi- 
denced by the fact that there are still a good many people living 
in the United States who believe the earth to be flat. Moreover, 
Dr. John W. Studebaker, United States Commissioner of Edu- 
cation, says : "... aside from rather backward nations, we are 
more illiterate geographically than any civilized nation I know." 
The question naturally arises, Why such a condition ? Geography 
is not rationed ; and, if it has a contribution to make to American 
education, its assets must not be allowed to freeze. It is only 
recently that educational leaders have become somewhat alarmed 
at the geographical backwardness of our people. Now they call 
for more and better instruction in the science. Both teachers of 
geography and curriculum makers are charged with the responsi- 
bility of answering this call. The time has come when a young 
man or young woman cannot move with ease among groups of 
cultivated people without a knowledge of geography. Unfortu- 
nately, the present supply of adequately trained geography 
teachers for civilians is temporarily limited. Within the last two 
years our colleges and universities have lost many of their 
geography teachers — individuals who have been inducted into 
the armed services of the country because of the rising need for 
their specialized skills. Into the federal bureaus and departments 
in Washington alone have gone some two hundred of these people 
to assist in the war effort. Geography is today one of the priori- 
ties in education and, as a field of usable information, is becoming 
more and more subservient to the state. But the geographer is 
no crusader on a white horse ; the facts and relationships of his 
science are clear-cut, and are available for human consumption. 
As a people, we have no other alternative but to learn and accept 

[12] 



them. To some people such a statement may appear to be care- 
lessly made, but it will withstand close scrutiny. 

Geography in the Air Age 

We have too long had the feeling of smug security in our demo- 
cratic way of life. We have been reluctant to admit that isola- 
tionism as an American issue is dead. It is necessary that we 
keep our approach to each new era of study fresh and vital. Now, 
as never before, it becomes essential that students gain a global 
concept of the earth ; that they understand fully the meaning of 
"great circle routes" and something of the distances between 
cities and continents. We are now living in an air age and, while 
our age has not matured, it is growing rapidly. Our people must 
be trained to think in terms of this age. As a people we run 
about a great deal, yet many of us have difficulty in intelligently 
interpreting maps, or finding the shortest distance to our fighting 
fronts. Most people are probably unaware of the fact that the 
shortest distance to some of our far-flung battle fronts is by way 
of the Arctic. In fact, until recently the ice of the Arctic regions 
barred direct or great circle transportation. The newer routes 
will not only be shorter but will often reach parts of the world 
which have valuable resources accessible only to the airplane. 
In Columbus' day three months time was required to cross the 
Atlantic, but only recently the journey was made by plane in 
slightly more than six hours. The indications are that air lines 
will soon bring all the world within a day's travel. Although the 
plane is of great value in waging war, it is to a large extent revo- 
lutionizing transportation of people and high-valued cargoes. It 
is interesting to compare routes used for travel by air with those 
used for ocean travel. For example, the shortest air route from 
New York to Darwin, Australia, passes through Alaska. Seattle 
is a way station on the shortest route from the Panama Canal to 
Tokyo, and Denver lies very close to this route. The air route 
from New York to Rio de Janerio is only 4,750 miles. The saving 
in distance between these points by air as compared to ocean 
routes may be easily visualized through a few simple measure- 
ments on a good world map. The establishment of air routes, the 
location of great landing fields, and the character of cargoes are 
all problems of the new air-age geography. 

Geographical Study Stimulated by War 

Every citizen is now interested in maps and descriptions of 
remote and little known places that have suddenly become of 

[18] 



strategic importance to a world at war. When our armed forces 
invaded North Africa they took with them 110 tons of maps. 
They found this amount to be inadequate and sent back for 400 
tons more. There is also a rising curiosity about geographical 
knowledge on all our fighting fronts. Do you realize that, 
strategically, Tunisia is more European than African ; that North 
Africa is not a region of drifting sand dunes; that floods occur 
there so excessive as to destroy human life and property; and 
that there are cities two or three times as large as any in North 
Carolina ? Do you further realize that in this same region winter 
is the season of green and growing vegetation, and that the 
climate is similar to that of California, where many of our people 
go for their health and for retirement during their declining 
years? Do you know that Attu Island, within a few hundred 
miles of Japan, is the source of weather variations in the North 
Pacific; that the Japanese, by taking the island, knew not only 
what the weather conditions were there but what they were 
going to become in all the Aleutians, while the westbound Ameri- 
cans did not? From this factor alone Attu is of great strategic 
importance to America. 

It is unfortunate that a World War is required to awaken the 
American press suddenly to a realization that maps can illuminate 
the events of the day in a more effective way than any other 
single mode of expressing environmental relations. Place geog- 
raphy, in some respects, is more important now than ever before. 
Such names as Guadalcanal, Coral Sea, Casablanca, Dutch Harbor, 
Attu, and Pantelleria were unfamiliar to most people before our 
entrance to World War II. The exigences of war resulted in the 
construction of the Burma Road and the Alcan Highway, as well 
as many other less publicised roads. Airplanes are delivered to 
battlefronts by being flown to England, to Egypt via South 
America and the Sudan, to Australia and even to India and China. 
In emergencies thousands of troops, together with their equip- 
ment, have been delivered quickly by air. This was admirably 
demonstrated by the Allies in their final attack on the Axis 
forces in Tunisia. But geography is much more than a study of 
location, distance, and space. In time of war it is important to 
understand the strength and weaknesses of the enemy and the 
apparent reasons for attack. Geography involves also a study of 
land forms, especially configuration of the coasts, and the climatic 
variables. It includes a knowledge of population, together with 
the training and capacities of peoples ; a knowledge of their food 
supplies and food potentialities; and information concerning the 

[14] 



sources of minerals and other critical raw materials. The Axis 
forces were able to forge ahead across the plains of Russia, but 
were slowed up and held in check in the Caucusus Mountains. 
The British Eighth Army chased Rommel a thousand miles 
across the plains of Africa, but the final victory was delayed 
when mountainous territories were encountered. Each time 
enemy warships find shelter in the protected fjords of Norway 
we sense anew the importance of land reliefs. Enemy seisure of 
blankets in Norway and food supplies from the people of Den- 
mark, Holland, France, and the starving Greeks ; the fight for oil 
and rubber ; and the rationing of food in America, bring home to 
us the importance of agricultural and other raw materials. Thus 
remarkable changes in trade and industries have come both to our 
own country and abroad as a result of the occupation of lands by 
aggressor nations and the necessity for defense programs. 
America's total defense participation in the present global war 
constitutes in itself a most convincing argument for the need of 
an intensive program of geographic education. This is notably 
true in the field of industry. 

Changes in Industry 

Today the geographer observes the changing industrial map of 
America. And along with it come changes in business control — 
for the government owns most of the new factories. The federal 
stake in industry now amounts to some $14,000,000,000. These 
projects, for example, produce more aluminum than all the pri- 
vate companies put together. The Defense Plant Corporation of 
the government has built and equipped 1022 plants in forty-three 
states, and is building 457 more. This agency works like a mam- 
moth bank, producing airplanes, arms and ammunition, radio and 
communication equipment, machine tools, ships and ship parts, 
iron and steel, synthetic rubber, etc. Private industry is, for the 
time being, greatly overshadowed by the government's effort to 
meet the emergencies imposed by war. Along with this change, 
the scourge of unemployment has been completely wiped out. 

Influences of Science and Technology 

Much has been said of man's conquest in industry and war 
through developments in science and technology. In two years a 
great synthetic rubber industry has been built that could not 
have been set up in half a century of peace. War's plastic- 
achievements are numerous. Already more than two hundred 
airplane parts are being made from plastics. The shortage in 

[15] 



quinine is being met by the discovery and development of syn- 
thetic substitutes. In most cases the war has been the great 
stimulator. 

Today the aerial camera ranks in importance with the tank in 
changing the tactics of modern warfare. Hours before our 
bombers raid Axis centers planes equipped with the latest photo- 
graphic devices cover the area to be bombed. Pieced together on 
a large map the pictures taken dictate the route our bombers 
shall travel, the speed and altitude to be maintained, and the size 
and number of bombs to be carried to the enemy. Photographs 
are often taken through thick fog on the darkest of nights. They 
detect the smartest camouflage schemes and reveal the height of 
buildings or the depth of a trench — accurate to within a tenth of 
a foot — from altitudes as great as 37,000 feet. We are told that 
the best photographic effects can be secured after sundown, and 
these are not limited to the black and white types only. After 
the pictures have been taken, developed aboard the airplane on 
the return trip, they are immediately turned over to other tech- 
nicians who plan and direct the bombing expeditions. This type 
of procedure saves much time and loss of materials and equip- 
ment, and enables bombers to drop their cargoes of destruction 
directly upon the target. 

From a strategical standpoint, our armed forces have also been 
enriched by the invention and development of radar, a weapon 
that is only second in importance in waging war to the airplane. 
The public is not in possession of all its secrets. Many of its 
critical facts are securely locked in files. In brief, radar appears 
to be similar to a searchlight, the beams of which are not illumi- 
nated. These beams scan the sky and sea with sharply focused 
ultra-highfrequency radio waves. When these waves strike an 
object they are reflected. The distance is determined by the 
length of time required for the rebound, and the object can then 
be "seen" by means of a radio receiver which is carefully and 
properly tuned to pick up the reflected signal. Radar has been 
used against the enemy for many months, and is probably more 
responsible than any other single factor for saving England when 
her people were almost beaten to their knees by the German 
Luftwaffe. The press reported that British pilots and gunners 
were being fed carrots to improve their vision, but the truth of 
the matter is that radar was being used to detect the German 
raiders almost as soon as they left their bases. When the 
Germans arrived they found the Royal Air Force aloft and 
waiting for them. A radar instrument can detect not only the 

[16] 



presence of an enemy plane or ship but can also determine its 
direction and distance. The instrument can be made to ac- 
complish these feats in total darkness with the speed of light, and 
enable gunners to aim accurately and shoot down enemy planes 
above the clouds. Through the medium of this detective device 
naval guns can accurately place their shells on the deck of an 
invisible ship at sea, or engage in successful combat in total 
darkness. Radar has played a far more important role on our 
battlefronts than most people are aware. Moreover, along with 
the changes resulting from the development of radar and aerial 
mapping are many others in the field of geography. 

Geography Not Static 

Geography is not a static science. In a changing world some 
centers will take on a new importance while others may become 
less important. For example, Kimberly, of South African dia- 
mond fame, has become a ghost town as men have gone from the 
mines to serve with the armed forces. The diamond cutting 
centers of the low countries of Western Europe have recently 
relegated first place to New York City. Today the Argentine 
railroads are being compelled to use corn for fuel. At present 
there are more windmills in England than in Holland. Some years 
ago the Chicago River was turned around and made to flow in the 
opposite direction. In general, the passing years bring changes 
in the demand for particular commodities, and these changes are 
reflected in the expansion and contraction of producing areas. 
New machines and processes upset the established order and 
usher in new ones. Such changes, however, must work within 
the limits imposed by the natural environment. 

The Outlook in Geography Teaching 

There is no doubt of the rising interest in geography. The 
process has been slow, but time will gradually clarify its findings, 
correct its errors, and consolidate its positions. Conclusions 
already reached are beginning most hopefully to redirect edu- 
cation. A new concept concerning the field and function of 
geography is gradually developing in the minds of an increas- 
ingly large number of people. In time we shall doubtless, and 
probably at great cost, learn to use our gradually accumulating 
experience in wiser ways for a finer good. 



[17] 



SOCIAL AND POLITICAL RECONSTRUCTION 

Martin L. Wright 

In answer to your request for a statement of post-war aims in 
teaching the social sciences, I can think of no higher aim than 
good citizenship. The Twelve Year Program, issued by the North 
Carolina Department of Education, 1942, carries what I consider 
a good statement of aims and methods in this field. I am there- 
fore quoting at length from the above mentioned publication. 

I. GENERAL STATEMENTS. 

A. The social studies include those materials in the curriculum 
which are drawn from the fields of history, geography, 

• economics, sociology, political science, psychology, and 
ethics. They permeate all fields of the curriculum and are 
therefore one of the richest sources of materials for the 
child's program. Some of the most effective integrations 
of learnings take place in the development of social studies 
units of work. For example, many valuable language arts 
skills emerge from the reading, writing, and speaking 
needed in studying a social problem. 

B. Chief among the values which the social studies contribute 
to the individual and to the school program is the develop- 
ment of the ability to meet situations involving social 
relationships. Self-dependence in the location of infor- 
mation and power in reflective thinking are outcomes made 
increasingly important by rapid social change and the 
continuous emergence of novel and complex problems. A 
sense of continuity, including time concepts, a sense of 
evidence as a basis for reasoned conclusions, and a sense 
of tolerance are essential values to the pupil. Further 
values derived from the social studies are the development 
of historical mindedness, a sense of the interdependence 
between man and his environment, the development of 
space-place relationships, and the development of the 
quantitative way of thinking. 

C. Democracy is the fundamental pattern for group living in 
America and should receive practical emphasis in the 
social studies program. The school organization and 
general set-up should provide opportunities for children to 

[18] 



live in a democratic way. This can be accomplished only 
when pupils take part in planning and carrying out school 
activities of all kinds. 

D. A major objective of the social studies program should be 
the development of fundamental concepts concerning the 
economic, social, and cultural life of the people through 
exploring the community as well as other sources of in- 
formation. 

E. The social studies program should begin at home. A study 
of the immediate environment and of the State in general 
is relatively more important than an intimate knowledge 
of places far away, both with reference to time and geo- 
graphical location. Hence, it seems desirable to emphasize 
the contemporary and the immediate, giving them more 
meaning by reference to the past and the far away. Ex- 
pansion of the fundamental concepts developed in the 
study of the local community makes possible a better 
understanding of national and international problems. 

F. Throughout the social studies program in high school as 
well as in elementary school, every effort should be made 
to relate the work of the various courses to North Caro- 
lina, even though one year has been designated particu- 
larly for the study of the State and its interdependences. 
For example, the Boston Tea Party should be compared 
with the Edenton Tea Party and this whole movement 
against the abuse of the colonies by England should be 
interpreted in terms of its effect upon our ways of living. 
Likewise, the study of the Industrial Revolution will have 
more meaning for high school pupils if it is approached 
from an angle which shows its effect upon the rise and 
development of industry in this State. In other words, 
the Industrial Revolution as it emerged in England should 
be studied as a background for the Industrial Revolution 
that really got under way about 1880 in North Carolina. 

G. The social studies program should be made dynamic and 
vital in the everyday living of youth. To accomplish this 
the school must lay greater stress upon those experiences 
that will be most meaningful for the average student. 
However, the experiences which are fruitful for one person 
are not necessarily helpful to another. Therefore, a 
variety of experiences should be provided for through the 
use of basal and supplementary texts, libraries, magazines, 

[19] 



pamphlets, school news weeklies, maps, charts, lantern 
slides, motion pictures, dramatics, construction work, and 
excursions into the community. 
H. A school approach to the social studies from the first to the 
last school year is desirable. The life of the school with its 
typical items of planning the school day, electing officers, 
hearing committee reports, issuing the school newspaper, 
and participation through the school council is a vital part 
of the social studies curriculum. Problems should be set 
through cooperative planning and social studies materials 
should be assembled to help solve them. Teachers should 
feel free to arrive at solutions either through logical ar- 
rangement or through a child-community-interest organi- 
zation or through both. Materials from all fields of the 
social studies (history, geography, economics, sociology) 
should be integrated to furnish complete understandings. 
I. Children often wish to repeat pleasurable experiences, and 
that is desirable provided variations are made so that addi- 
tional valuable learnings are gained each year. It is not 
desirable, however, to make almost identical studies of 
such topics as the Pilgrims, or transportation, in suc- 
cessive years. Each year should show growth in social 
understanding. 

II. CONCEPTS AND GENERALIZATIONS. 

There is general agreement that the following generaliza- 
tions are important for a social studies program in a democracy. 

There are, of course, countless other equally valuable gen- 
eralizations that pupils will develop during twelve school years. 
This random selection, the sources for which cannot be given 
accurately, is placed here merely to suggest to teachers what 
kind of understandings might finally be expected from pupils 
if the social studies program is adequately developed. 

1. Man's conception of truth changes. 

2. Social changes have traceable causes. 

3. Man is a social being and needs contacts with others of 
his kind. 

4. Nothing runs into the present without pressure from the 
past. 

5. Man is an individual and as a member of various groups 
is increasingly dependent upon others. 

6. Physical environment affects and is affected by man. 

[20] 



7. Freedom is enjoyed through the exercise of intelligence 
and the assumption of responsibility. 

8. Conditions of living are being constantly made better. 

9. Understanding that men are alike in fundamental re- 
spects is basic to improved human relationships. 

10. The existence and progress of man are dependent upon 
his adaptability. 

III. ABILITIES AND SKILLS. 

Each year from the first through the twelfth should see an 
appreciable growth in most of the following skills. Some items 
would have later beginnings than others. Local teaching 
groups might indicate the year in which certain items would 
receive particular stress and in which practical mastery would 
be expected from the average pupil. By the end of the twelfth 
year all pupils should be well along the way toward mastery of 
all the skills and abilities listed. 

1. The development of good study habits, such as beginning 
a job promptly, listening to and understanding directions, 
concentrating on the work at hand, and having a plan of 
work. 

2. Ability to do critical reading, interpret data, compile 
bibliographies, and make a report, oral or written, upon 
the problem studied. 

3. Ability to use a social studies vocabulary. 

4. Ability to evaluate sources of information and to recog- 
nize and analyze propaganda. 

5. Development of time and place orientation. 

6. Ability to use and interpret materials, such as maps, 
globes, slides, relics, newspapers, observation trips, and 
information gained from interviews and discussion. 

7. Skill in the use of numbers in such activities as making 
personal budgets, community surveys, reading and mak- 
ing graphs, and interpreting social statistics. 

8. Skill in obtaining pertinent information from current 
periodicals. 

9. Ability to take part in orderly exchange of opinions, with 
respect for the opinions of others. 

10. Ability to use a variety of means of expression, including 
language, paint, crayon, paper, wood, clay, and the like. 

[21] 



I should like to quote also from an article in the July issue of 
Fortune, entitled, Ferment in Education. 

If one of our aims is to produce graduates zealous in civic 
affairs, we shall wish them to have at least a minimum sense 
of values. It is not, of course, wise to confront students 
with a precise and full-blown system of values ; values should 
not be exclusively Aristotelian or Neo-Thomist; they should 
not be a matter of any particular selection of 100 great 
books. Our age is searching for truths it has not found ; it 
is idle to suggest that there is widespread agreement on what 
the true values are ; it is dangerous, in the absence of agree- 
ment, for the educator to train minds to think the way he 
thinks. But it is important that the student become aware 
that life is a matter of more-than-personal concerns ; and it 
is essential to the democratic idea that the student see clearly 
the dignity of all other human beings and that he treat them 
as ends, not as means. 

The schools, in their confusion, are only the reflection of 
the confused life around them. They are of society, not 
above it, and their aimlessness is the aimlessness of today's 
ever changing world. Americans are clearly presented with 
a choice. We can adapt students to this world ; we have been 
doing it for some time. Or we can consciously and de- 
liberately make our schools more vital and creative, to the 
end that our children go beyond today's confusion and under- 
stand it better than we do ourselves. This course, more 
difficult, is the way of heartbreak and of tears. For it may 
well produce humane and thoughtful adults who, dissatisfied 
with the life they see, will want to better it. But it will pro- 
duce adults. A streamlined adapting of children to our 
present world will only produce adolescents whose dissatis- 
faction is inhuman and whose only course of action is aimless 
violence. 



[22] 



HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR A 

STRONGER NATION 

Dr. F. P. Brooks 

American youth is not physically fit! Such a conclusion is 
inescapable from the evidence accumulated from the draft exami- 
nations. Twenty-five percent of the white boys between the ages 
18 and 19 were rejected; while forty-five percent of the Negro 
boys of that age were rejected. Of the first two million draftees 
examined before Pearl Harbor, approximately one million, or 
fifty percent, were rejected as being physically or mentally unfit 
for the armed forces. The same convincing evidence comes from 
the examination of students entering one southern college, which 
revealed only twenty-six out of two hundred and eighty students 
examined who did not show one or more important correctable 
defects. A similar conclusion comes from the North Carolina 
State examinations of high school seniors in 1942. 

But this fact of physical unfitness is not the only conclusion 
which must be reached. Even a superficial examination reveals 
that our high school students are not adequately informed rela- 
tive to health matters, personal hygiene, and health practices. 
Their attitudes toward physical well-being, the correction of 
physical defects, and protection against communicable diseases 
is deplorable. 

Where does the blame lie ? To this there can be but one answer. 
It lies in the school systems of the various states. All responsible 
organizations interested in health or in education and child wel- 
fare have placed health and physical education as the most im- 
portant objective in every program set up in the past ten years. 
Everyone recognizes the need, but in spite of this the inclusion 
of instruction in health and physical education in the curriculum 
in adequate amounts of time, and under adequately trained per- 
sonnel is far from universal. So far, the established subject 
matter fields in the curricula have consistently refused to make 
room for these newcomers. 

What is the general attitude toward physical education? The 
emphasis has been placed almost entirely on competitive athletics, 
engaged in by only a small part of the student body. Accord- 
ingly, the physical education director has been selected largely 

[23] 



for his ability as a coach, and for his success in turning out 
successful teams. This has made his interest center largely in 
the developing of winning teams rather than the physical fitness 
of the whole student body. 

Similarly the teaching of the few required units in health have 
been for the most part delegated to teachers totally uninterested 
in and inadequately prepared in the field of knowledge to be 
covered. Is there any wonder that the graduates from such 
schools are ill prepared? 

How can the situation be corrected? Not until adequately 
trained teachers are available to carry on a program of health 
and physical education in every school. This training of teachers 
is the problem of the teachers college. 

Four years ago the North Carolina Board of Health and the 
North Carolina Board of Education recognized the problem of 
inadequate instruction in matters of health in the public schools. 
Under a five-year grant of funds by the General Education Board 
of the Rockefeller Foundation these two boards set up the School 
Health Coordinating Service, with a specialist, Dr. Walter 
Wilkins, as coordinator. This Service studied both the health 
status of North Carolina children and the matter of health in- 
struction in certain selected counties of the state, and soon 
realized that the fundamental cog in the machine of health in- 
struction in the public schools is the grade teacher in the lower 
grades and the specialists in these subjects in the high schools. 
Their second conclusion was that progress would be more rapid 
and more certain were all new teachers required to have special 
training in the teaching of health and physical education. It was 
recognized that in the high schools the instruction in both fields 
fell to the specialists, so the requirements for certification as 
primary and elementary teachers were set up calling for nine 
quarter hours of college training in these subjects. For the 
certification of specialists in health and physical education ade- 
quate preparation in these subjects were set as requirements. 

Thus the job of the Teacher Training College shapes up as 
follows : First — It must offer the required courses for the certifi- 
cation of teachers in primary and elementary fields in the region 
of health and physical education. Second — It must offer courses 
necessary for its majors to meet the requirements for certifi- 
cation as specialists in health and physical education. Third — It 
must take all its students and examine their health status and 
endeavor to correct all correctable defects; that is, it must pro- 
vide adequate health service to all students in college. 

[24] 



It must provide an environment of healthy school living 
through adequate nutrition, adequate lighting, safe and sanitary- 
buildings, adequate recreational facilities and opportunities, and 
satisfactory emotional conditions. 

It must provide instruction in matters of health and physical 
education not only to correct the deficiencies of previous school- 
ing, but in order to develop leaders in matters of health and 
recreation for local communities. Fourth — It must establish in 
these 'Teachers to Be" habits and attitudes which will carry over 
into the every day practices of their lives and which will become 
an integral part of their teaching through example as well as 
precept. 

Perhaps with these objectives well accomplished, we might be 
tempted to pat ourselves on the back and say "well done," but 
the job doesn't end there. At the average rate of replacement of 
teachers it will be twenty-five years before our schools will be 
staffed with teachers of even this degree of training. We can 
not afford to wait twenty-five years to institute a sound program 
of health and physical education. The need is now. The demand 
for action is now. Everywhere public sentiment is receptive to 
health and recreation programs as is shown by the popularity of 
the Victory corps which gives a strong motivation to the program 
and demands, immediately, leaders to direct and develop this vital 
phase of education among our people. 

There are two ways in which this hurry-up training can be 
provided. One is by special summer courses in colleges prepared 
to offer them. These opportunities are being provided now by 
summer courses through a variation of the content previously 
incorporated in these courses. But this method of summer study 
calls for the expenditure of both time and money by teachers for 
work which in most cases will not in any way improve their earn- 
ing capacity through certificate change. It is a foregone con- 
clusion that only a small group of experienced teachers are going 
to adopt this method of securing the necessary training. 

The other method is that of in-service training. In those 
schools in which the administration is willing to insist that the 
older teachers also prepare themselves to teach health and phy- 
sical education, in-service training by means of a series of lec- 
tures, demonstrations, etc., offers the best method of quick train- 
ing and one which can be made very effective. This plan requires 
the services of some one already trained who can give the needed 
information and stimulate and guide in developing the program. 

[25] 



If such a trained person is not readily at hand, then the adminis- 
tration is obligated to see that one or more of its teachers or 
administrative officers is sent away to get this special training. 
To facilitate this, the School Health Coordinating Service offers 
scholarships paying a large part of one's expenses at one of the 
Child Guidance Clinics which it conducts at several places in 
North Carolina each summer. 

Here again the teachers college can fill a very real need either 
by setting up a summer school program especially designed for 
the training of these specialists, or by sending out to the schools 
during the regular session capable instructors to operate the 
in-service classes of the various public schools. Where distances 
to be traveled are not too great the in-service plan offers perhaps 
the greatest degree of help in furthering the program, in that 
better trained and probably more interested persons would be 
doing the instructing. 

The resident service of a well trained person in this field would, 
however, be more advantageous than would periodic or irregular 
short training classes of highly trained specialists. The resident 
instructor in physical education would not only be present to 
instruct classes but also to advise and direct plans and activities 
of other teachers assisting in the health and physical education 
program. 

In summary, then, the function of the teachers college in the 
health and physical fitness program which is evidently needed 
now and which will be indispensable in the reconstruction after 
the war is, first, to devote a fair part of its required curriculum 
to health education and physical education, to teach all its 
students so intensively and so extensively as to develop in them 
health knowledge, health habits, and health attitudes, and to 
equip them to teach the fundamentals of health and physical 
education; second, to offer in summer sessions, courses in health 
and physical education so as to enable older teachers to acquire 
the necessary knowledge and skills to teach these subjects; and 
third, to promote in the public schools in-service training of 
teachers both by training specialists to operate in-service train- 
ing programs and by furnishing visiting specialists to conduct 
in-service training programs. 

The fields of health education and physical education are not 
new but they have been inadequately developed. It is high time 
that they be given the intelligent attention and direction they 
deserve, for our personal and for our national welfare. 

[26] 



HOME ECONOMICS AND POST-WAR 
RECONSTRUCTION 

Katharine Holtzclaw 

In war or peace, the American home is the unit on which, and 
of which, our civilization is built. Whatever changes occur, and 
whatever conditions exist, it must remain the chief training 
institution for our future citizens — the center from which mental, 
physical, social, and spiritual development begins, the place which 
symbolizes, to most of us, our country. Since home economics is 
that part of our educational program which deals directly with 
the information, appreciation, and skills of homemaking, a large 
share of responsibility for keeping the American home as a de- 
sirable educational unit rests upon the teachers of this subject. 
This not only involves the training of the future generation, but 
must, in order to create the right ideals in our citizens-to-be, 
concern itself with present problems which are today facing the 
adult members of the families of our nation, and which will be 
increased when the present emergency is over and post-war 
readjustment comes. 

The first step in this preparedness program has already been 
taken. Those who teach homemaking are earnestly seeking to 
determine the real and lasting values that will furnish a basis on 
which to build, no matter what takes place in our changing world. 
The subject matter which seems to emphasize these values is 
being stressed today and will carry on and be added to as 
developments occur and as our view of future needs becomes 
clearer. 

For example, a more serious emphasis than ever before is 
being placed upon management of income. The planning for 
financial expenditures and the carrying out of plans have become 
an important patriotic duty. In this planning, an allotment is 
made for the necessities of life — food, shelter, and clothing; then 
comes the apportionment for war bonds and stamps. To check 
on this plan and its efficiency, simple account-keeping ifl neces- 
sary. Home economics teachers are realizing that few home- 
makers will do complicated book-keeping; so it is necessary to 
develop simple and easy systems which will take little time, will 
tell accurately the facts of spending and may be adapted to 
various individuals and families. Hand in hand with the making 

[27] 



of the budget goes the problem of wise buying. In order to train 
for spending to the best advantage, courses in consumer edu- 
cation are being taught. Along with the theory, as much prac- 
tice in buying as possible is being given. Whenever anything 
has to be bought for the home economics department or for 
classes, teachers are seizing the opportunity to let students have 
this practical experience. With present restrictions, a realiza- 
tion of the importance of the conservation and preservation of 
all materials has developed. This refers chiefly to food, clothing, 
and household equipment from the homemaker's standpoint, 
though at least one course which is at present being offered to 
women deals with the care and repair of automobiles. Since 
women do more than three-fourths of the spending done in this 
country, no time used in learning to plan, buy, or care for pur- 
chases is lost. 

With the evidence of mal-nutrition brought out by the physical 
examinations given the young men of our nation, has come the 
recognition of the vital need for instruction in nutrition in a form 
which a layman can assimilate. Girls and women are awake to 
the need of learning to feed their families wisely, but they want 
and demand practical suggestions, not scientific formulas. So 
the chief change in instruction here is in the presentation of 
simple rules to aid in nutritious diets for the family group. 

Home care of the sick is also being stressed, and equally with 
this, the more important side, keeping the family well. With the 
large number of doctors and nurses required for work with our 
armed forces, the need for a knowledge of home nursing and 
simple health rules is evident. 

Pre-school education has also gained some momentum in recent 
months, and along with the nursery school goes parental educa- 
tion in the form of child care and training. Nursery schools 
have been established in order to supervise children whose 
mothers are doing war work of various kinds. With the child 
away from home for a large part of the day, it is more essential 
than ever that the parents understand the physical, mental, and 
social needs of children, so that during the time when they are at 
home, these needs may be adequately met. A nursery school 
supplements home training, but does not make the home less 
necessary. 

Vocational guidance for youth is recognized as a definite need ; 
and this enters into the home economics program especially, 
because of the more informal teacher-pupil relationship which 
exists in such classes. 

[28] 



The value to be derived from all the foregoing phases of home 
economics have long been known to the leaders in the field. The 
added impetus has come from the fact that educators, parents, 
children, and the government are today recognizing the need for 
knowledge and training along these lines. So, we are making a 
start. Often times, however, the people who need to acquire this 
information and these attitudes are the last to be reached. In 
such a situation, the home economics worker must go to the 
people, not wait for them to come to her. 

Post-war readjustment will involve many phases of human 
living. Of these, two seem of especial importance today. The 
first deals with the great scientific and technical developments 
which have come about because of the war • momentum. The 
second involves a more serious side, that of human relations. 

In regard to the scientific and technical developments, we must 
begin now to prepare for such things as revolutionary changes in 
equipment, in housing, and in transportation. This may involve 
a complete reorganization of household work. All must learn, 
and help others to learn, to evaluate, use, and care for new com- 
modities and materials as they are brought on the market. One 
result of these new articles, many of which will be designed to 
save labor, will be a still greater amount of leisure, and using 
this free time to advantage will present a secondary problem of 
no mean importance. Training for the development of interests 
or avocations in order that leisure time may be used wisely and 
pleasantly is a definite need. Thus with the benefits which will 
come from scientific inventions, will also arise difficulties and ad- 
justments which home economics-trained workers can help the 
post-war homemaker to solve. 

When we deal with material things, training seems not easy, 
but possible. If we seek to train for an understanding of people, 
with people, we face the hardest of all teaching tasks. Yet this 
education for an appreciation and understanding of human beings 
is vital to our civilization, or to any civilization which grows out 
of the one we have at present. Among these human problems 
comes first that of the reestablishment of homes that have been 
disrupted by the war. Here the youth of the nation will be 
greatly involved, though on the surface it appears to be a problem 
wholly for adults. The best preparation for such upheavals as 
will certainly occur is to teach the child to be open-minded, to be 
thoughtful, to weigh values, make considered choices, and be 
sensitive and appreciative of human frailties and loyalties. The 

[29] 



same preparation will aid in adjusting to any situation which 
deals with the broken home. Such situations will be brought 
about through casualties from the war or divorce which may 
result from changed interests due to long separations. To lend 
sympathetic understanding and to help the child or its parents 
face difficulties without bitterness is the duty and responsibility 
of any and all trusted teachers. 

Unemployment, which is bound to be present after the war, 
presents grave difficulties. At a recent meeting of the Southern 
Regional Conference of Home Economics Workers the following 
statement was made: "From the standpoint of post-war employ- 
ment, there may be at least 6,500,000 surplus workers whose 
continued employment will be uncertain. Of these two-thirds are 
women, most of whom are married." To meet this situation, 
first, guidance must be given in helping those trained in war 
work to find a use for those activities in time of peace; second, 
provision and training must be made for the development of 
satisfying avocations. 

A more far-reaching human adjustment must come in thought 
and attitude. If our hopes and desires for a peaceful world are 
to come true, the individual, the family, and the nation must 
learn to think on an international basis. Love of country, or what 
we call patriotism, is no longer enough. We must train our 
citizens, young and old, to form opinions which will take into 
consideration not only a better state or nation, but a better world. 

Training for these post-war adjustments cannot be given by 
home economics workers alone. All the educational and social 
institutions must lend their aid to help the families of America 
and of the world learn to meet their problems and make of their 
homes good living places for the citizens of our world of to- 
morrow. 



[30] 



MATHEMATICAL INSTRUCTION AND THE 
NEW ORDER 

Dr. Herbert ReBarker 

At the time of Pearl Harbor mathematical instruction on a 
secondary level in the United States had reached an all-time low. 
Those interested in mathematical education at that time were put 
wholly on the defensive in its justification. All too often the 
zealous defenders, like those drowning, grasped at any straw of 
defense regardless of its frailty or inadequacy. Cries of "Come 
over into Macedonia and help us" echoed and reechoed from 
various educational centers devoted to the advancement and im- 
provement of the teaching of mathematics. College campuses 
swarmed with freshmen many of whom had neither felt in high 
school the desire nor had the opportunity to pursue the study of 
mathematics. All the children of all the people were being edu- 
cated. This being true, the colleges and secondary schools made 
the pathway to knowledge smooth and attractive for the neophyte 
by either simplifying the mathematics taught or else removing 
entirely from many curricula required courses in mathematics. 
To the special few remained the privilege of being led, as the 
general public believed, into the deep mysteries and overcoming 
the almost insurmountable obstacles of mathematics. 

Many influences led to this waning of mathematical instruction. 
The nineteenth century had been devoted to the formal discipline 
philosophy of education and, although the opposition to this 
philosophy had materialized by the turn of the century, yet much 
of our educational thinking continued to be mightily colored by 
this idea. With the reaction to formal discipline, one of the 
strong forts for the justification of mathematical instruction was 
irreparably undermined. The determined adherence to an out- 
worn, outmoded, and artificial organization of teaching material, 
in the face of well-established and accepted principles of psy- 
chology and education diametrically opposed to this type of or- 
ganization, perpetuated an ever-increasing dislike for mathe- 
matics and a deeply-rooted mind set against it. The universality 
of the educational opportunity of the immediate past brought 
much opposition to mathematics, the subject universally thought 
of as a difficult one. The high fatality among students of mathe- 
matics in colleges and secondary schools led either to an extreme 

[31] 



simplification of the mathematics taught or to its abandonment. 
The American public, nourished on a diet of traditional mathe- 
matics, took very little or no thought of the value of mathematics 
in life, or its contribution to human progress. The professionally- 
trained educator generally had such a limited comprehension of 
mathematics and its value in modern civilization that he felt no 
hesitancy in recommending and even sometimes compelling less 
and less emphasis on mathematics as a school subject. The 
trained mathematician, trained for and in mathematical research 
to the neglect of mathematical education, quite often not only 
felt no need for the professional training, but was actually an- 
tagonistic to it, and displayed as classroom teacher an extremely 
poor grade of mathematical instruction. The crowding of the 
curricula due to the inclusion of subjects hitherto undreamed of 
as school subjects — some very praiseworthy, some indifferent, 
and some ridiculous — led to the abandonment of less attractive 
and traditional subjects. The age-old idea that the child should 
study mathematics for what it does to him and not for what he 
can do with it led to much confusion in educational circles to the 
detriment of mathematics. A constant accumulation of signifi- 
cant ills contributed continually to the decline of mathematics in 
general education culminating in the lowest ebb just prior to the 
present emergency. 

The decline in mathematical instruction is often attributed to 
progressive education. This is a tacit admission either that pro- 
gressive education predominates by force of numbers or that 
progressive educators wield a more potent and powerful influence 
on American education than do conservative educators who are 
in the majority. Less than ten percent of our public school 
system is administered and taught by educators who might be 
labeled as "progressives." A preponderance of the educational 
literature pertaining to the teaching of mathematics during the 
past two or three decades is reactionary in nature. A virile 
reactionary educational leadership antagonistic to the ideals of 
progressive education has commanded and is commanding today 
a vast army of conservative educators bound by the educational 
traditions of the past. It is true, however, that a few ultra- 
progressive educational leaders have adhered to and advanced 
certain chimericalisms in education, so utterly fantastic in their 
unreality, that the eyes of the public educational leadership were 
constantly fixed on them not in acceptance, but in aversion and 
closely-guarded opposition. These philosophies have served only 
to augment and maintain the conservative educational phalanx. 

[32] 



The decline in the emphasis on mathematics in public education 
rests solely on the shoulders of the reactionary educational leader- 
ship of the country, who in the present emergency must either 
admit the truth of this fact or else confess that, as a majority 
group, they have been extremely impotent in their educational 
efforts. 

By the latter part of the nineteenth century the organization 
of the content of mathematics had become so crystallized that it 
was universally thought of as a series of unrelated iron-bound 
compartments. This organization became so pronounced and so 
imbedded in the minds of mathematicians that even the militant 
leadership of a few forward-looking individuals of each gene- 
ration for the past half-century or more has done very little to 
change its status quo. E. H. Moore in the United States, John 
Perry in England, and Felix Klein in Germany at about the same 
time offered the first serious criticism of the compartmentalized 
instruction of mathematics in the secondary schools, proposing in 
its stead an integrated type of instruction, and stressing the 
practical phases of mathematics. Unfortunately their criticism 
reached very little farther than the unification of content, and 
offered no working basis of integration. Consequently such inte- 
grated organizations of content as have been proposed in the past 
few decades have been little more than hodge-podges of material 
lifted bodily from the compartmentalized organization, more 
often than not quite non-related. The integrated organization 
has met with little success because of the absence of a basis of 
organization. 

The Reorganization of Mathematics in Secondary Education, a 
report of the National Committee on Mathematical Requirements 
of the Mathematical Association of America, published in 1923, 
more clearly defined the aims of mathematical instruction and 
more definitely outlined the content of instruction than had been 
done prior to this time. Although it was widely accepted by 
teachers, writers, and educational leaders, yet its influence fell 
far short of revolutionizing the teaching of mathematics. 

The Place of Mathematics in Secondary Education, a joint 
report of the Mathematical Association of America and the 
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, published in L940, 
makes a forward step in the classification of objectives in mathe- 
matical instruction, in that it more nearly defines objectives in 
terms of the adjustments of the child than had previously been 
done, but it was woefully weak in its failure to suggest an organi- 
zation based upon mathematical procedures utilized in human 

[33] 



activities by means of which such adjustments might be made. 
This study preceding so closely the present emergency and failing 
to suggest a vitalized activity program of organization, the pro- 
gram now being ushered in by the emergency, seems to be doomed 
to be shorn of much of the influence it might have had under 
more favorable circumstances. 

It is unfortunate that a vitally needed philosophy or a basic 
method of procedure must await the coming of a dire emergency, 
global in its scope, in order to be generally recognized and prop- 
erly evaluated. It has been known for centuries that the human 
organism learns to do by doing, and that learning at its best 
occurs in the presence of an immediate felt need for the thing 
learned. The learner of mathematics in the past has been a 
passive recipient of mathematics rather than an active partici- 
pant in the application of the quantitative procedure to activities 
involved in human relationships. That beautiful and logical 
creation known as mathematics has been dangled before the eyes 
of the amazed and stupefied student as something to be accepted 
and learned because of its intrinsic value rather than because of 
what can be done with it. Mathematics as a mode of thought, a 
method of work, an instrument of investigation, and the servant 
of mankind in the pursuit of truth has not been sufficiently 
demonstrated in its actuality in the teaching process. The world- 
wide social revolution, of which the present war is only a part, 
has vividly brought to the forefront the crying need for applied 
mathematics and the utilization of the quantitative procedure in 
the thought process as well as in methods of work. Perhaps the 
emergency may bring about the consummation of the efforts of 
the mathematical and educational reformers of the past in the 
revitalization of mathematical education through the utilization 
of human activity as the basis of the reorganization of mathe- 
matical content, in which it had in the most part its inception. 

This means that the teaching of mathematics will have to be 
revolutionized. Barriers and prejudices of long standing must be 
broken down. Both the knowledge of mathematical content and 
professional training must be recognized as indispensable pre- 
requisites in the preparation of teachers of mathematics. No 
longer can the teacher of mathematics be hide-bound by tradition. 
Teacher training must comprehend the preparation for teaching 
rather than the preparation for research, both in the content and 
professional phases of the work. The teacher must be well- 
grounded, especially in science, social science, and industrial 
science, and must possess a rich background of experience. The 

[34] 



teacher can not continue to enjoy a cloistered existence, immune 
from the realities of life, but must possess a broad knowledge of 
life, and be able to cope on a par with individuals of other voca- 
tions and professions. Both specific and generalized training 
must be an integral part of teacher preparation. 

The general public must be kept aware of the significance and 
usefulness of mathematics. More publications, such as Hogben's 
Mathematics for the Million, will be needed to popularize mathe- 
matics with adults, whose experience with mathematics in the 
classroom often developed a confirmed bent against it. The 
organization and presentation of the subject matter of mathe- 
matics in the public schools must be depended upon to develop 
and maintain a permanent interest, on the part of future gene- 
rations, in the subject and its applications. Classroom general 
and specific techniques must be modernized in the light of present 
day education and psychology. More and more mathematical in- 
struction in the public schools must pave the way for the prepara- 
tion for mathematical research, for research must go hand in 
hand with the revitalization and improvement of teaching, if the 
search for truth is to continue as a legitimate outcome of educa- 
tion in a democracy. Mathematical instruction must break the 
bounds of the classroom convincingly and effectively and per- 
meate every phase of modern life. 

Will the impetus given the practical utility of mathematics and 
the interest in mathematics by the present emergency penetrate 
the stolid wall of traditional organization and presentation with 
sufficient force to arouse the teachers of mathematics to a neces- 
sity for a more vitalized type of organization and presentation? 
Only time will tell. It seems probable that, if the social revolu- 
tion of the past quarter of a century continues with unabated 
effectiveness, many landmarks of long standing may be swept 
away, including some outstanding ones in the teaching of mathe- 
matics. Since the ultimate end of mathematics is to aid the 
human race in seeking for truth, thereby attaining a greater de- 
gree of freedom, it seems that mathematicians and the teachers 
of mathematics should be willing to fall in line and keep step 
with an age of progress endeavoring to know the truth. 



[35] 



THE SCIENCE TEACHER AND THE POST-WAR 

WORLD 

Dr. R. J. Slay 

Today we are in the midst of a conflict which will ultimately 
decide the fate of the democratic way of life. Each one of us 
will have his part in making this final decision. If democracy 
emerges victorious, we will still have a major task to perform; 
and the success with which we carry out the post-war problems 
will determine the degree of permanence our democracy will 
enjoy. New problems will arise out of the chaotic conditions we 
now endure, and we must meet these problems and solve them or 
our democratic way of life will be insecure. Knowledge of what 
these problems will be cannot be had until we are faced with 
them, but the method for their solution is fairly clear. Problem 
solving is based upon a natural method which is common to all 
situations and can be used by all who are willing to adopt its 
procedure. The so-called problem-solving method can be illus- 
trated by the work of the research scientist. When a problem 
confronts the scientist, he attempts the solution by first making 
careful observations to ascertain the nature of the problem. He 
then sets to work through experimentation to determine the 
possible ways of solution. After careful observations and ex- 
perimentation, he reaches temporary conclusions which when 
adequately tested result in the final conclusions. He arrives at 
conclusions only after careful observations and experimentation 
and the testing of results. This method is commonly called the 
scientific method. But, you say, all the problems arising from 
war-time conditions are not scientific. True, but the solving of 
them can be scientific. Exercising the privilege of voting, estab- 
lishing a business, operating a farm, or raising a victory garden 
demands the same method as the organization and carrying out 
of scientific research in the laboratory. What we, as citizens, 
need is an understanding of the operation of this method of 
problem solving. It should be so ingrained in our thinking that 
its use becomes automatic. When we face a new situation or 
problem, we should attempt to solve it only after we have ob- 
tained all the evidence and have carefully weighed it. This will 
eliminate blunders caused by "snap judgments" and "short- 

[36] 



sightedness," and will remove interference of sound judgments 
by prejudice and malice. 

The responsibility for the development of this method falls 
upon the schools, and the success of the schools depends most of 
all upon the teachers — their training and attitude toward the pro- 
fession of teaching. The success of a democracy depends upon 
the education and attitude of its citizens. So we find that per- 
haps the greatest task in the re-shaping of the democracies after 
the war will fall upon the teachers of the nations. The field 
of natural science offers splendid opportunities for the develop- 
ment of the scientific method of study. Children are brought 
face-to-face with the realities of their environment and by these 
contacts can discover for themselves the hidden secrets of nature. 
They are given opportunities to observe natural phenomena and 
with observation comes curiosity which leads to permanent in- 
terest. Once interest is established, the teacher's battle is more 
than "half-won." Natural phenomena have always appealed to 
the interests of mankind. The science of today is an outgrowth 
of the observations of natural phenomena. The work of Newton, 
Galileo, and others of the early centuries was the forerunner of 
our more modern scientific researches in science. Teachers of 
science can find in the offerings of nature the materials with 
which to build a program of science education that can be of vital 
use in the development of the method of problem-solving. They 
are the gateway which stands between the child and his environ- 
ment and are the guiding influences in the interpretation and 
appropriation of these materials to his own use. 

Science teachers will have a very large share in this all- 
important post-war education. Scientific research is being in- 
tensified under the pressure of wartime needs, and the results of 
the numerous investigations are accumulating at an unprece- 
dented rate. True, the research is largely directed toward the 
winning of the war, and much of it works for despotism rather 
than for democracy ; yet out of it all will come many inventions 
and discoveries that will be of great use to humanity in post-war 
living, — proofs again of the poetic truth uttered nearly three 
centuries ago: 

"Sweet are the uses of adversity. 
Which like the toad, ugly and venomous, 
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head." 

Already, many of these new war impelled discoveries are chal- 
lenging our pre-war teaching. New developments in foods and 

[37] 



nutrition are upsetting our complacency in the normal diet of the 
individual. We do not need to insist upon the necessity of certain 
foodstuffs in order to supply the necessary vitamins and minerals 
for normal nutrition. Researches have shown that the common 
foods can be impregnated with synthetic vitamins and common 
minerals, and the nutritional results will be the same. Flour, 
meal, and breads are now being "fortified" with minerals and 
vitamins for our armed forces ; and the results of this new 
method seem satisfactory. In the matter of transportation and 
communication, we have reached a new "high." We converse 
with all peoples of all lands and travel is world-wide. In the field 
of drugs and medicines we have reached an unprecedented peak. 
The once unconquerable diseases are now becoming subdued, and 
casualties resulting from wounds in battle are the lowest in his- 
tory. What developments will take place in industry and agri- 
culture can only be conjectured. 

Our post-war science instruction faces a serious problem. Not 
only must the eternal truths of science be retained, but many of 
the changes, and added accumulations from this conflict, must 
be incorporated. From this chaotic state of affairs must come an 
organized body of scientific material which can be administered 
by the schools, and the teachers of science will have to assume 
the greater part of the responsibility. Youth will demand a 
knowledge of these newer discoveries. Schools will have to pro- 
vide him with the facilities for this learning; and the science 
teachers will have to furnish the guidance. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that science teachers will be 
able to become proficient in all the results of this experimenta- 
tion. This is not possible now in a single field of science. But it 
can be assumed that science teachers can be trained in the 
scientific method of problem-solving and that they can pass this 
on to the incoming generations of youth. 

It becomes clear, then, that the training of science teachers is 
of paramount importance in post-war education — and what kind 
of training should this be ? A report of the National Committee 
on Science Teaching has this to say: "We believe that an im- 
portant function of the teacher with a competence in science is 
to engage with his students in discovering meaningful problems, 
in delimiting and organizing them into workable patterns, in pro- 
posing possible solutions, and in testing the adequacy of these 
proposed solutions. How may this be achieved? Certainly not 
by the technic of lecturing about scientific-mindedness and scien- 
tific methods. There is no better way — probably no other way — 

[38] 



for the teacher to develop the ability to help his students with 
their problems than to engage in the discovery and solution of 
problems meaningful to him and to them. Available time, money, 
resources, and trained personnel must be devoted to providing 
these experiences. Some of the objections to procedures designed 
to develop ability in problem-solving arise out of distaste for the 
kind of work necessitated or out of sheer inertia. It is true that 
the college instructor who is burdened with large classes, com- 
mittee responsibilities, and research interests of his own is loathe 
to embark upon an ambitious program of education which is 
perhaps new and consequently difficult for him ; but the responsi- 
bility is nevertheless his. The prospective teacher must be given 
opportunity to test hypotheses, to bring to bear on problems 
knowledge already acquired in the area of his interest, and to 
develop solutions to his problems which will stand critical tests 
for adequacy and consistency. The importance of the develop- 
ment of this ability among the teachers of science is too great for 
it to be left to chance. Scientific-mindedness and scientific atti- 
tudes are formed laboriously, sometimes without tutoring, but 
much more surely by practice under skillful guidance. The 
teacher-training institutions must provide this guidance for the 
prospective teacher. 

"A new and larger conception of laboratory work," the report 
continues "should be established and further emphasized by the 
teacher's participation in community problems. The prospective 
teacher should see himself as a prospective social engineer, with 
scientific training which enables him to find and understand 
certain problems better than persons with different training, to 
suggest possible solutions for these, and to test the adequacy of 
his suggested solutions through suitable checks and experiments. 
He should recognize his responsibility as a citizen to join hands 
with whatever agencies exist in his community for the achieve- 
ment of the common welfare and to instigate investigations in 
the fields of his special competence which he recognizes as de- 
sirable. Through his professional education, as much as through 
his subject-matter education, he should be taught the values of 
cooperative action, suspended judgment, and critical methods of 
thinking and problem-solving." 

It would seem clear, then, that the responsibility for training 
teachers of science for post-war youth rests with teacher-training 
institutions — institutions that conceive of their specific function 
as the training of teachers. In these institutions there is less 
departmentalization and more cooperative effort toward a com- 

[39] 



mon end. The specific techniques, skills, and knowledges are 
"pooled" in a concerted action to develop the individual student 
rather than to develop competence in any one field of subject 
matter of teacher-training institutions. The science depart- 
ments attempt to give their students not only competence in 
science, but also a method by which this competence can be 
utilized by the prospective teacher in dealing with school pupils. 
Liberal arts institutions for the most part stress science compe- 
tence only. They seem to operate on the assumption that a 
knowledge of science is sufficient for the training of a teacher of 
science. It is obviously to be assumed that a knowledge of science 
is necessary for the teacher ; however, there is need to recognize 
that this knowledge will not of itself provide the student with 
the perspective of teaching or the ability to organize science 
content into suitable materials for the grade levels to be taught. 
The knowledge of science alone is not sufficient even for the 
training of the research scientist, although he is more dependent 
upon scientific facts than is the teacher. He too must develop 
the method of problem-solving, for it is upon this method that he 
must depend for accurate conclusions to his observations and 
experimentations. The beginning specialist learns to depend 
upon the results of careful experimentation and becomes an en- 
thusiast for this type of work. He becomes an intensive rather 
than an extensive experimenter. His work becomes fascinating 
to him, and soon his entire efforts are confined to research alone. 
It is not the purpose here to discount the work of the experi- 
menter — it is to him we look for leadership in scientific progress ; 
but in a democratic society "followship" is as important as 
leadership, and it is the business of someone to assume the re- 
sponsibility of directing and guiding the followers as well as the 
leaders. 

Science education for all youth in the post-war world, then, 
becomes the responsibility of the teachers of science — teachers 
of youth whose ambition may be that of becoming a research 
scientist, teacher, or just plain citizen — whether his problems are 
scientific, industrial, educational, or political. Education begins 
alike for all children — as we so often say, the elementary school is 
the school for all the children of all the people. The science 
teacher must be capable of making the newer concepts of science 
ushered in by the stress of war as well as the age-old truths of 
science available to all peoples of all the earth. 



[40] 



ANNOTATED LIST OF RECENT REFERENCES 

U. S. Office of Education 

The General Program 

Brameld, Theodore. Can we prepare now for the post-war 
period? Education, 63: 340-45, February, 1943. 

Explains the following steps to be undertaken now: Course in post- 
war reconstruction above the sixth and seventh grades; cooperation 
of several departments of the school in giving this course; frequent 
assembly programs and debates; school newspaper issues; post-war 
clubs; discussion groups; workshops; seminars; etc. 

Elias, Hans. The education of the post-war generation. School 
review, 50 : 504-11, September, 1942. 

The objectives are denned as follows: (1) to give children such 
knowledge and skills as will enable them to master any situation, 
predictable or unpredictable; (2) to furnish such a background of 
knowledge as will enable every individual to lead and cooperate in the 
maintenance or the reconstruction of democracy; and, (c) to strengthen 
and enrich them spiritually. 

French, Will. Youth education and post-war democracy. Teach- 
ers college record, 44: 116-29, November, 1942. 

• Examines problems and conditions in secondary education, today, 
with consideration of the probable needs of youth education in 1950, 
proposing a program specifically designed to create confidence in the 
taking up of social-civic responsibilities. 

Hook, Sidney. The function of higher education in post-war 
reconstruction. Journal of educational sociology, 16 : 43-51, 
September, 1942. 

Summarizes practical proposals of the New York Institute on Educa- 
tional Reconstruction, that came out of the discussion of "desirable 
steps for higher educational institutions." 

Kilpatrick, W. H., and others. After-war educational recon- 
struction. A proposal to men of good will. Journal of the 
National education association, 30: 265-66, December, 1941. 

The work of a group of educators who met during the New Education 
Fellowship in Ann Arbor, Mich., July 6-12, 1941. Lists the tasks that 
will be immediate and paramount at the end of the war; suggests some 
principles demanded by true education, and outlines steps toward the 
realization of these objectives. 

Kirkendall, Lester A. Education and the post-war world. Edu- 
cational record, 24: 44-57, January, 1943. 

Suggests some of the objectives and major problems of the post-war 
education, such as internationalism, synthesization of knowledge, train 
ing in ethical values, development of the well-roiiiu!«'<l character, and 
appreciation of the "arts of peace." 

[41] 



Kotschnig, Walter M. Post-war education in the United States. 
Adult education (London) 15: 66-74, December, 1942. 

Mentions the needs in a post-war program in education in this 
country. Among them are Federal support, support of students who 
cannot afford higher education, guidance and placement service, and 
extended curricula. 

National resources planning board. Equal access to education. 
In National resources development. Report, 1943. Part 1 : 
Post-war plans and programs, p. 68-74. Washington, U. 
S. Government Printing Office, 1943. 

This report was prepared by F. W. Reeves and D. L. Farley. It con- 
tains 15 recommendations for providing a justifiable minimum educa- 
tion in the post-war world. Covers school facilities, expenditures, 
leadership, etc. 

Ragan, W. B. The elementary school of the future. Educational 
administration and supervision. 29 : 35-53, January, 1943. 

Emphasizes three basic assumptions: 1. The elementary school dare 
not go on as it has, or society will set up new agencies; 2. It must earn 
its support through practical service to communities and society; 3. 
There is now emerging a type of elementary school capable of playing 
the part demanded. Outlines the following post-war program: The 
elementary school will be a school for living; it will be a community 
school; it will have a socially centered curriculum. Gives many cur- 
riculum changes and organization desirable and an all-round practical 
post-war program. 

Schairer, Reinhold. Educational reconstruction after the war. 
In American association of school administrators. Official 
report, 1942. p. 70-74. Washington, D. C, The Associa- 
tion, 1201 Sixteenth Street, NW. 

Emphasizes the necessity for post-war planning, and mentions some 
objectives. 

Schubert, Leland. Education tomorrow. Madison quarterly, 

3 : 13-33, January, 1943. 

Contains an outline for tomorrow's education in this country, the 
type of supervision needed and reorganization at all levels. 

Smith, Donnal V. Teacher education after the war. New York 
State education, 30 : 503-505, 556, April, 1943. 

Teacher training will be profoundly affected by this war, and teachers 
trained in teacher-training institutions will be charged with the re- 
sponsibility of training youth to live in a new world order. Advises a 
four-point program for teachers after the war: 1. Emphasizes teaching 
knowledge for use; 2. Indoctrination of all Americans with the prin- 
ciples of democracy; 3. Emphasis upon community relationships; and 
4. A revised inservice program, with methods of procedure. 

The School Plant 

Engelhardt, N. L. Community schools for democracy. Teachers 
college record, 44 : 181-86, December, 1942. 

Deals with changes the war will bring about in school-plant planning 
in this country. The plans must involve serving the community both 
in wartime and after the war. Thinks that the future will dictate 
primarily that the school plant must fit the needs of the community. 

[42] 



and Engelhardt, N. L., Jr. Planning the community 

school. New York, American Book Company, 1940. 188 p. 
This book was published before the war, but is full of practical 
suggestions and new ideas for planning the community school to fit the 
changing ideas and needs of society. Concrete information is given 
for building and maintaining schoolhouses to meet the challenge of 
the American way of living. The community school is pictured as the 
setting for adult activities. 

Schoolhouse planning. Six views on post-war design. By John 
J. Donovan, Ralph E. Hacker, Carl J. Malmfeldt, Richard 
J. Neutra, Ernest Sibley, and E. Post Tooker. Nation's 
schools, 30 : 29-33, October, 1942. Illus. ports. 

Vocational Training and Guidance 

American association of school administrators. Schools and 
manpower — today and tomorrow. Twenty-first yearbook. 
Washington, D. C, The Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, 
NW., 1943. Illus. 488 p. 

The entire study has broad implications for the days to come, but 
chapter 12 deals with the topic "The challenge of the War and recon- 
struction period," emphasizing the need to plan now, with consideration 
of the importance of planning in advance for the readjustments which 
must be made after the war "to insure peacetime full employment." 
Of importance also is the need of equalization of educational oppor- 
tunities through Federal aid. 

Wright, John C. Vocational training problems when the war 
ends. Washington, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1943. 
40 p. diagrs. tables. (U. S. Office of Education. Voca- 
tional Division. Leaflet No. 12.) 

Deals with problems affecting trade and industrial education, agri- 
cultural education, homemaking education, business education, occu- 
pational information and guidance, and their implications for educa- 
tion. 



[43]