(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "1979 welfare caseload dynamics survey"

* UMASS/AMHERST * 





y 



inn 111 mil 1 11 
3150bb 02fl5 3773 fl 



Massachusetts Department of Public Welfare Office of Research and Evaluation 
John D. Pratt Daniel J. Friedman 

Commissioner Director 



July, 1980 






1979 WELFARE CASELOAD DYNAMICS SURVEY 



JUV.170B3 

U "^ofMassa Chusetts 
Oeposifoiy Cbp y 



Donna Shandler Balboni 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

I. SUMMARY 1-2 

II. INTRODUCTION 3 

III. AFDC-BASIC RECIPIENTS 4-7 

IV. COMPARISON OF AFDC-BASIC RECIPIENTS 

WITH OTHER GROUPS 8-9 

V. AFDC-UF RECIPIENTS 10-13 

VI. COMPARISON OF AFDC-UF RECIPIENTS 

WITH OTHER GROUPS 14 

VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 15 

VIII. TABLE I - AFDC BASIC RECIPIENTS 16-18 

IX. TABLE II - AFDC-UF RECIPIENTS 19-21 

X. APPENDIX 22 

XI. FOOTNOTES 23-16 



-i- 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/1979welfarecaselo00balb 



I. SUMMARY 

The following profiles of AFDC-Basic and AFDC-UF family heads 
were obtained from mail surveys of the AFDC caseload conducted in 
January and February of 1979. Family heads were then contrasted with 
new and former recipients of AFDC. The samples of new recipients were 
drawn from case openings in May 1978. The samples of former recipients 
were drawn from cases closed during August and September 1977. 

AFDC-Basic 

In early 1979, the average AFDC-Basic family head was a 33 year old, 
divorced or separated mother. She received aid for herself and two 
children. The average age of a Basic child was 9.8 years. Eighty-five 
percent of AFDC-Basic family heads were white (including Hispanics who 
classified themselves as white); 11% spoke Spanish or Portuguese as their 
primary language. 47% graduated from high school, and 15% attended college. 
Eighty-three percent had been living in Massachusetts over ten years and 
2% had been living here less than one year. Most (51%) rented apartments 
not in public housing, and paid an average of $156 monthly for rent. 
Eighty-six percent of Basic family heads had a paid employment history 
and 22% were working in January or February 1979. As of January 1979, 
the average Basic family head had been receiving AFDC for 3 years and 
7 months. 

All Basics had characteristics which might lead to a longer stay on 
AFDC than new Basics. Compared to Basic family heads new to the caseload, 
all Basics were: older, more often women, more often a minority, and less 
likely to be living with relatives other than spouse. Compared to Basic 
heads formerly receiving assistance, all Basics were less likely to be 
working at the time of survey completion. 

AFDC-UF* 

In early 1979, the average AFDC-UF family head was a 34 year old 
married father. He received aid for himself, his wife, and 2.5 children. 

The average age of a UF child was 8.2 years. Ninety-two percent were white 
(including Hispanics who classified themselves as white); 12% spoke Spanish 
or Portuguese as their primary language. Forty percent graduated from 
high school, and 13% attended college. Seventy-eight percent had lived 
in Massachusetts over ten years, and 2% had lived here less than one year. 
Most (51%) rented apartments not in public housing and paid an average 
of $164 monthly for rent. 15% of UF family heads were working in January 
or February 1979; 10% of the wives in UF cases worked then too. As of 
January 1979 the average UF had been receiving AFDC for 1 year and 8 months. 



*The AFDC-Unemployed Parent Program replaced the AFDC-Unemployed Father 
program in June, 1979. Eligibility for AFDC was expanded to include 
unemployed mothers on the same basis as fathers. 



-1- 



All UF's had characteristics which might lead to a longer 
stay on AFDC than new UFs. Compared to UF family heads new to the 
caseload, all UFs were less educated, more likely to speak Spanish, 
and less likely to be working at the time of survey completion. 
Compared to UF family heads formerly receiving assistance, all UF's 
were less likely to be working at the time of survey completion. 



-2- 



II. INTRODUCTION 

This report has two purposes: 

— First, to portray AFDC-Basic and AFDC-Unemployed 

Father* recipients by describing their demographic charac- 
teristics, housing situations, current welfare grants, 
other financial assistance, and employment and welfare 
histories; and 
--Second, to contrast AFDC recipients with new and former 
AFDC recipients. 
Data on the AFDC caseload were obtained from mail surveys of 
628 AFDC-Basic cases and 647 AFDC-Unemployed Father cases. Random samples 
were drawn from the December 1978 AFDC-Basic and UF caseloads, and data 
were collected in January and February 1979. The response rates (71% 
for Basics, 62% for UFs) were excellent for mail surveys. Mail survey 
data were supplemented by and validated against data obtained from the 
Recipient and Dependent Master Files (RDMF) of DPW's computer (see Appendix) 
Statistical tests of significance were performed on characteristics being 
compared to determine real differences not attributable to sampling error. 



*The AFDC-Unemployed Parent program replaced the AFDC-Unemployed Father 
program in June, 1979. Eligibility for AFDC was expanded to include 
unemployed mothers on the same basis as fathers. 



-3- 



III. AFDC-BASIC RECIPIENTS (See Table I) 
Demographics 

--The typical AFDC-Basic family head (Basic)* was a 33 year 
old, divorced or separated woman. She received AFDC for 

herself and two children. The average age of a Basic 

3 
child was 9.8 years. 

--81% of Basics attended high school; 47% graduated from 

high school; and 15% attended college. 

--85% were white**, while 14% were black, and 1% were American 

T j- 4 
Indian. 

--86% spoke English as a primary language, 10% spoke Spanish, 

1% spoke Portuguese, and 1% spoke French. 
--60% had lived in Massachusetts all their lives, another 23% 

had lived here over 10 years, 15% had lived in Massachusetts 

1 to 10 years, and only 2% had lived in Massachusetts less 

than 1 year. 
--57% of Basics were divorced or separated, another 24% had 

never married, 16% were married and living with their spouses, 

and 3% were widowed. 



*AFDC-Basic family head is defined as the person whose name appears 
on the assistance check. 

**This includes people of Hispanic origin who classified themselves 
as white. 



-4- 



Housing and Household Situation 

--51% of Basics rented apartments (not in public housing), 
15% rented apartments in public housing, 13% rented houses, 
11% owned their own homes, and at least 6% shared apartments 
with other relatives. 

--The average Basic paid $150 for rent or mortgage each month. 
Home-owners paid $183 monthly on average for mortgage, house- 
renters paid $177, apartment-renters (not in public housing) 
paid $156 monthly on average for rent, and apartment-renters 
in public housing paid $106. 

— 19% of Basics lived with their spouses, boyfriends or girlfriends; 
11% lived in households including relatives other than spouse; 
and 3% lived with friends or boarders. 
Current Grant 

--90% of AFDC-Basic family heads were mothers of all children 
included in the AFDC payment, 2% were grandmothers of all 
children included in the AFDC payment, an additional 1% 
were both mother and grandmother to different children included 
in the AFDC payment, 1% were aunts, 3% were fathers, and 1% 
were related in other ways to the AFDC children. 

—82% of Basic cases received AFDC for only one adult, including 
81% for a female adult 8 and 1% for a male adult. 9 4% of Basic 
cases received AFDC for two adults, including 3.2% for a wife 
or mother and disabled husband/father. ? '° 14% of Basic cases 
did not include an adult. 



-5- 



—An average of 2 children received assistance in each Basic 
case. 45% of Basic cases included only 1 child, 28% included 

2 children, 14% included 3 children, and 13% included 4 or 

1 2 
more children. 

--In late 1978, Basic cases received a total monthly payment of 
$296. 13 
Current Employment and Other Assistance 

--22% of Basics were employed in January or February 1979. ' 4 
The average Basic who worked in January or February 1979 was 
employed 30 hours a week, and earned $3.68 an hour before 
deductions. 15 36% of Basics were service workers (such as waitresses, 
practical nurses, and counter workers), 27% were clerical 
or salespeople, 22% were semi-skilled (such as assemblers, 
seamstresses, and packers), 8% were technical or professional 
workers (such as nurses, teachers, and dental technicians), 
4% were self-employed or managers, and 3% were skilled workers. 

—4% of Basics received money from a spouse; 2% received money 
from other relatives; and 1% received child support payments 
paid directly to them. 

--At least one fourth (25%) of Basics received Emergency Assistance 
during 1978. 16 
Employment History 

--86% of Basic family heads had a paid employment history. 54% 
worked between 1975 and 1979, earning about $3.02 hourly and 
working about 21 months during this period. 37% of Basics who 



-6- 



worked between 1975 and 1979 were service workers, 29% 
were clerical and salespeople, 21% were semi-skilled, 
6% were technical or professional workers, 5% were 
skilled workers, and 3% were self-employed or managers. 
Welfare History 

--As of January 1979, the average Basic case had been receiving 
welfare for 3 years 7 months. 27% of Basic cases had 
received welfare previously; these cases averaged 3 years of 
assistance during their most recent stay on welfare. 72% 
of Basic cases had not received welfare previously; these 
cases averaged 3 years and 9 months of assistance. 



-7- 



IV. COMPARISON OF AFDC-BASIC RECIPIENTS WITH OTHER GROUPS 

Demographic characteristics, current grant, current employment, 
employment history, and welfare history of AFDC-Basic recipients 

were compared with those of new and former recipients of AFDC-Basic 

18 
in Massachusetts. Comparisons are only reported when it is clear 

19 
that differences are real and not due to sampling error. 

New Recipients of AFDC-Basic 

A mail survey of new AFDC-Basic recipients was conducted in May 

20 
1978. Generally, current Basics have characteristics which might 

lead to a longer stay on AFDC than new Basics. Compared to AFDC-Basic 
recipients new to the caseload (New Basic) in May 1978, current AFDC- 
Basic recipients (Current Basic) in December 1978 were: 
--older (Current Basic: 33; New Basic: 29); 

--more likely to be women (Current Basic: 96%; New Basic: 91%); 

21 
--more likely to be a minority (Current Basic: 15%; New Basic: 

10%); 
--less likely to have arrived in Massachusetts in the last year 

(Current Basic: 2%; New Basic: 10%); 
--more likely to be divorced (Current Basic: 29%; New Basic: 9%); 

--less likely to be living with relatives other than spouse, 

boyfriend or girlfriend (Current Basic: 11%; New Basic: 23%); 
--more likely to have no adults included in the AFDC check 

(Current Basic: 14%; New Basic: 9%); 
--less likely to be pregnant women with no other children 

(Current Basic: 0%; New Basic: 21%); 
--more likely to be working at the time of survey completion 

(Current Basic: 22%; New Basic: 13%). 



-8- 



No differences were found between Current Basics and New Basics 
in average number of children, educational level, and past work history. 
Former Recipients of AFDC-Basic 

A mail survey of former AFDC-Basic recipients was conducted in 

22 
August and September 1977. Compared to AFDC-Basic recipients who 

stopped receiving assistance (Former Basic) in August and September 

1977, current AFDC-Basic recipients (Current Basic) in December 1978 

were less likely to be working at the time of survey completion (Current 

Basic: 22%; Former Basic: 46%). 

No differences were found between Current Basics and Former Basics 

in average age of recipient and work history. 



-9- 



V. AFDC-UF RECIPIENTS* (See Table II) 
Demographics 

—The typical Unemployed Father (UF) was 34 years old. He received 

aid for himself, his wife, and 2.5 children. The average age 

of a UF child was 8.2 years. 3 
—73% of UFs attended high school; 40% graduated from high 

school; and 13% attended college. 
—92% were white**, while 6% were black, and 1% American Indian. 4 
—87% spoke English as a primary language, 11% spoke Spanish, 

1% Portuguese, and 1% other languages. 
—58% had lived in Massachusetts all their lives, another 20% 

had lived here more than 10 years, 19% had lived in Massachusetts 

1 to 10 years, while 2% had lived in Massachusetts less than 

1 year. 
--97% of UFs were married and living with their wives. 
Housing and Household Situation 

--51% of UFs rented apartments (not in public housing), 16% 

owned their own homes, 15% rented apartments in public 

housing, and 14% rented houses. » 
--The average UF paid $166 for rent or mortgage each month. 

Homeowners averaged $218 monthly for mortgage, house-renters 

paid $191, apartment renters (not in public housing) paid 

$164, and apartment-renters in public housing paid $100. 



*The AFDC-Unemployed Parent program replaced the AFDC- Unemployed 
Father program in June, 1979. Eligibility for AFDC was expanded 
to include unemployed mothers on the same basis as fathers. 

**This includes people of Hispanic origin who classified themselves as white. 



-10- 



—The average UF household was a single family unit, consisting 
of husband, wife, and children. Only 3% had other relatives 
living in their households. 
Current Grant 

--90% of UF family heads were the fathers of all the children included 
in the AFDC payment, 2% were stepfathers of all children 
included in the AFDC payment, and an additional 7% were both 
father and stepfather to different children included in the 

AFDC payment. 

24 
—All UF cases received aid for 2 adults. This included— 

according to self-report— 20% for a wife and disabled father, 

4% for a father and disabled wife, and 3% for a disabled 

father and disabled wife. Neither father nor wife was 

disabled in 67% of UF cases. 

--An average of 2.5 children received assistance in each UF 
case. 27% of UF cases included only one child, 32% included 
2 children, 16% included 3 children, and 22% included 4 
or more children. iC 

—In late 1978, UF cases received a total monthly payment of 
$375. 13 
Employment History and Other Assistance of Father 

--79% of UFs were employed at some time between 1975 and 1979, 
earning about $4.20 hourly, and working about 26 months during 
this period. 27% were semi-skilled (such as assemblers and 
del iverymen) , 22% were skilled (such as plumbers, auto mechanics, 
electricians, and bakers), 14% were unskilled, 14% were service 



-11- 



workers (such as waiters and janitors), 8% were self-employed 
or managers, 8% were clerical or sales, and 6% were pro- 
fessional and technical workers. 

—28% were employed sometime from July to December 1978. 
Average monthly earnings over the six month period were 
$337. 25 

--15% of UFs were employed in January or February 1979, working 
37 hours a week. An eligibility requirement for the program 
at that time was that the father be unemployed or work less 
than 100 hours a month. Some UFs might be eligible due to 
intermittent employment. For example, an UF who performs 
outside labor might work only two weeks per month due to 
weather conditions and still be eligible for assistance. 
In addition, some of these UFs are not eligible for assistance, 
possibly due to a change in work situation at time of survey completion 

--At least 37% of UFs received Emergency Assistance in 

1 5 
Massachusetts during 1978. 

--98% of UFs received Food Stamps. 
Employment History of Wife 

--40% of the wives in UF cases worked at some time between 1975 
and 1979, earning about $2.81 an hour, and working about 16 
months during this period. 42% of the wives in Ur cases who 
worked between 1975 and 1979 were service workers, 28% were 
clerical or salespeople, 22% were semi-skilled, 4% were 
technical and professional workers, 2% were skilled workers, 
2% were unskilled workers, and 1% were self-employed or managers. 



12- 



—16% of the wives in UF cases were employed sometime from 

25 
July to December 1978. Average monthly earnings were $242. 

--10% of the wives in UF cases were employed in January or 
February 1979, working 30 hours a week. 
Welfare History 

--As of January 1979, the average UF case had been receiving 
welfare for 1 year and 8 months. 38% of UF cases had received 
welfare previously; these cases averaged 2 years and 2 months 
of assistance during their most recent stay on welfare. 59% 
of UF cases had not received welfare previously; these cases 
averaged 1 year and 5 months of assistance. 



-13- 



VI. COMPARISON OF AFDC-UF RECIPIENTS WITH OTHER GROUPS 

Demographic, current employment, and welfare history of AFDC-UF 
recipients were compared with those of new and former recipients of 

AFDC-UF in Massachusetts.^ Comparisons are only reported when it is 

1 9 
clear that differences are real and not due to sampling error. 

New Recipients of AFDC-UF 

A sample survey of new AFDC-UF recipients was conducted in 
May 1978. 20 Generally, current UFs have characteristics which might 
lead to a longer stay on AFDC than New UFs. Compared to AFDC-UF 
recipients new to the caseload (New UF) in May 1978, current AFDC-UF 
recipients (Current UF) in December 1978 were: 

—more likely not to have received a high school education 
(Current UF: 59%; New UF: 47%); and less likely to have 
attended college (Current UF: 13%; New UF: 22%); 

--more likely to be Spanish-speaking (Current UF: 11%; New UF: 3%); 

--less likely to be working at the time of survey completion 
(Current UF: 15%; New UF: 26%). 

No differences were found between Current UFs and New UFs in age, 
average number of children, and race. 
Former Recipients of AFDC-UF 

A mail survey of former AFDC-UF recipients was conducted in 
August and September 1977. Compared to AFDC-UF recipients who stopped 
receiving assistance (Former UF) in August and September 1977, Current 
AFDC-UF recipients (Current UF) in December 1978 were less likely to be 
working at the time of survey completion (Current UF: 15%; Former UF: 80%) 



-14- 



VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Thanks to Mary Melville and Robert Cloutier for questionnaire 
design suggestions, Renae Jenkins for editing assistance, and Roger Wirt 
and Gwendolyn Sams for technical assistance. 



-15- 



Table I 

AFDC-BASIC RECIPIENTS 26 

December 1978 

Total Sasic Population = 115,075 

Estimate of Basic Population 
Possessing Each Characteristic 



Demographics 

Average Age of Recipient 33 years 

Sex: Female 
Male 

Children: ~7 

Average number 
Average age of chilcr 

Educational Level : 

Some high school or less 

High School graduate or G.E.O. 

Attended college 

Race: White 
Other 

Primary Language: 
Engl ish 
Spanish 
Portuguese 
Other 

Ethnic Origin: 
Hispanic 
Portuguese 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 

Residence in Massachusetts: 
10 years or more 
1 year to 10 years 
Less than 1 year 

Marital Status of Recipient: 
Divorced or separated 
Never married 

Married, living with spouse 
Widowed 

Housing and Household Situation 

Type: 

Apt. not in public housing 

Apt. in public housing 

Rent housed 

Own house 

Share.apt. with relative 

Other' 

Average Rent or Mortgage: 
Own house 
Rent house 6 

Rent apt. not in public housing 6 
Live with relative 
Other 7 
Rent apt. in public housing 

Living Situation: 

Husband, boyfriend, wife 

or girlfriend 
Other relatives 
Friends or boarders 



■16- 



96% 


110,472 


1% 


4,603 


2.3 




9.3 years 




51% 


58,689 


32% 


36,824 


15% 


17,262 


85% 


97,314 


15% 


17,262 


86/o 


98,965 


10% 


11,508 


1% 


1,151 


1% 


1,151 


11% 


12.659 


4% 


4,503 


1% 


1,151 


33% 


95,513 


15% 


17,262 


2% 


2,302 


57% 


65,593 


24% 


27,618 


16% 


18,412 


3% 


3,453 



sr; 




58,689 


15% 




17,262 


13% 




14,960 


11% 




12,659 


6% 




6,905 


2% 




3,453 


.$150 


$183 
$177 
$156 
$113 
$107 
$106 




19% 




21,S65 


11% 




12,659 


3% 




3,453 



Table I (con't.) 

Total 3asic Population = 115,075 

Estimate of Basic Population 
Possessing Each Characteristic 



Current Grant 










Relationship to Children in AFDC 










Payment: 










Mother 


90% 






103,568 


Father 


3% 






3,453 


Grandmother 


2% 






2,302 


Mother and Grandmother 


1% 






1,151 


Aunt 


1% 






1,151 


Adults in AFDC Payment: 










Zero 


14% 






16,111 


One 


82% 






94,362 


Female 




81; 


y 

b 


93,211 


*£»* 




11 


f 




1,151 


4% 






4,603 


Mother or wife and disabled 










father or husband 




3 


.2% 


3,683 


Disabled mother or wife and 










disabled father or husband 







.2% 


231 


Nondisabled mother or wife and 










nondisabled father or husband 




3. 


,7% 


806 


Mother or wife and father or 










husband with no disability 




C. 


po/ 


231 


identified 










dumber of Children in AFDC Payment: 










One 


45% 






51,784 


Two 


28% 






32,221 


Three 


14% 






16,111 


Four or More 


13% 






14,960 



1 T 

Average Total AFDC Monthly Payment S296 

Current Employment and Other Assistance 

Working in January or February 1979: 22% 25,317 
Type of work 3 ' 

Service Worker 36% 8.742 

Clerical and Sales 27% 6,557 

Semi-skilled 22% 5,343 

Professional and Technical 8% 1,943 

Self-Employed and Manager 4% 972 

Skilled Worker 3% 7 ?9 

Average Hours per week 30 

Average Hourly wage $3.68 
Sources of Assistance in January 
or February 1979: 

None 50% 57,538 

Work 22% 25,317 

Spouse 4% 4,603 

Other relatives 2% 2,302 

Direct child support payments 1% 1,151 

Emergency Assistance in 1978: 25% 28,769 

Employment History 

Ever worked 

Worked in Last Four Years: 

Type of Work at Longest Job 32 

Service Worker 

Clerical and Sales 

Semi-Skilled 

Professional and Technical 

Skilled Worker 

Self-Employed and Manager 

Unskilled Worker 



86% 


98,965 


54% 


62,141 


37% 


21,289 


29% 


16,686 


21% 


12,083 


6% 


3,453 


5% 


2,877 


3% 


1,727 


0% 






-17- 



Table I (con't.) 

Total 3asic Population = 115,075 

Estimate of Basic Population 

Possessing Each Characteristic 

Average Hourly Aaqe at Longest 

Job. S3. 02 

Average Duration in Months 21 

Wei fare History 

Average Duration of Most Recent 

Stay on AFDC: 43 months 

First time on AFDC 'Z z = 32,354 

Average Length of Stay 45 months 

Multiple times on AFDC 27% 31,071 

Average Length or Stay 36 months 



•18- 



Demographics 

Average Age of Recipient 



Children: 



21 



Average number 
Average age of child" 3 

Educational Level : 

Some high school or less 
High school graduate or 



Table II 

AFDC-UF RECIPIENTS 

December 1978 

Total UF Population = 5176 

Estimate of UF Population 

Possessing Each Characteristic 



34 years 

2.5 

8.2 years 

59% 



3,054 



G.E.D. 


27% 




1,398 


Attended college 


13% 




673 


Race: White 28 


92% 




4,762 


Other 


8% 




415 


Primary Language: 








Engl ish 


87% 




4,504 


Spanish 


11% 




570 


Portuguese 


1% 




52 


Other 


1% 




52 


Ethnic Origin: 








Hispanic 


11% 




570 


Portuguese 


5% 




259 


American Indian or 








Alaskan Native 


1% 




52 


Asian or Pacific Islander 


1% 




52 


Residence in Massachusetts: 








10 years or more 


78% 




4,038 


1 year to 10 years 


19% 




984 


Less than 1 year 


2% 




104 


Marital Status of Recipient: 








Married and living together 


97% 




5,021 


Never married, divorced 








and married but living 


2% 




104 


apart 33 








Housinq and Household Situation 








Type: 

Apt. not in public housing 3 




51% 




2,640 


Own house 


16% 




829 


Apt. in public housing 


15% 




777 


Rent house 6 
Other 23 


14% 




725 


4% 




208 


Average Rent or Mortgage: 


S166 






Own house 




$218 




Rent house 5 




$191 




Rent apt. not in public 








housing 5 




$164 




Other 23 




$142 




Rent apt. in public housing 




$100 




Living Situation: 








Father or stepfather 








and wife or girlfriend 


100% 




5., 176 


Other relatives 


3% 




156 



-19- 



Table II (con't.) 

Total UF Population = 5176 

Estimate of UF Population 

Possessing Each Characteristic 



Current Grant 



Relationship to Children in AFDC Payment: 

Father 90% 4,659 

Father and Stepfather 7% 363 

Stepfather 2% 104 

Adults in AFDC Payment: 

Two 100% 5,176 

Nondisabled father or 
stepfather and wife 
or girlfriend 67% 3,468 

Disabled father or step- 
father and wife or 
girlfriend 20% 1,036 

Disabled wife or girlfriend 
and father or stepfather 4% 208 

Disabled father or stepfather 
and disabled wife or girlfriend 3% 156 

No response 5% 259 

"lumber of Children in AFDC Payment: 

One 27% 1,398 

Two 32% 1,557 

Three 16% 829 

Four or More 22% 1,139 

Average Total AFDC,-, 

Monthly Payment $375 

Employment of Father and Other Assistance 

Work in Last Four Years 79% 4,090 

Type of Work at 

Longest Job 3 ' 

Semi-Skilled 

Skilled Worker 

Service Worker 

Unskilled Worker 

Self-Employed and Manager 

Clerical and Sales 

Professional and Technical 
Average Hourly Wage at Longest 

Job $4.20 

Average Duration in Months 26 

Work in Last Six Months: 28% 1,450 
Average Monthly Wage for 

July-December 1978 $337 

July 1978 $462 

August 1978 $456 

September 1978 $395 

October 1978 $313 

November 1978 $247 

December 1978 $216 

Working in January or February 1979:15% 777 

Average Hours per Week 37 

Emergency Assistance in 1978: 37% 1,916 

Food Stamps 3 98% 5,072 



27% 


1,026 


22% 


336 


14% 


532 


14% 


532 


8% 


304 


8% 


304 


6% 


228 



■ 20- 



Table II (con't. 



Employment of Wife 
Work in Last Four Years: 



40% 



Total UF Population = 5176 

Estimate of UF Population 

Possessing Each Characteristic 



2,071 



Type of Work at 

Longest Jotr^ 

Service Worker 

Clerical and Sales 

Semi-Skilled 

Professional and Technical 

Skilled Worker 

Unskilled Worker 

Self-Employed and Manager 
Average Hourly Wage at Longest 

Job $2.81 

Average Duration in Months 16 



42% 


827 


28% 


551 


22% 


433 


4% 


79 


2% 


40 


2% 


40 


1% 


20 



Work in Last Six Months: 

Average Monthly Wage for 
July-December 1978 
July 1978 
August 1978 
September 1978 
October 1978 
November 1978 
December 1978 



16% 
$242 



$250 
$268 
$227 
$223 
$237 
$236 



Working in January or February 1979 10% 
Average hours per week 30 

Wei fare History 

Average Duration of Most Recent 
Stay on AFDC: 

First time on AFDC 

Average Length of Stay 
Multiole times on AFDC 
Average Length of Stay 



20 months 
59% 

17 months 
38% 

26 months 



329 



518 



3,054 
1,967 



21 



APPENDIX 



DPW maintains ongoing Recipient and Dependent Master Files 
(RDMF) in DPW's computer. Current and past welfare history and 
payment for recipients are stored in the RDMF. RMDF yields: 1. timely 
information regarding individual cases for use By social workers, and 2. 
managerial efficiency by identification of certain categories of cases for 
special applications, such as adjustments for Social Security increases. 

Comparison of AFDC-Basic Survey and RDMF 

No differences at all were found between the survey and RDMF 
on comparable characteristics. Variables compared were: number of 
children included in the AFDC payment, percentage of cases with 
no adult in the AFDC payment, and most recent length of stay. 

Comparison of AFDC-UF Survey and RDMF 

No differences at all were found between the survey and RDMF 

on comparable characteristics. Variables compared were: number of 

children and adults included in the AFDC payment, and most recent 
length of stay. 

Comparison of Survey Respondents and Nonrespondents 

Using data solely from RDMF, survey respondents were compared 
with those who did not respond to the survey at all. No apparent 
differences were found between Current Basic and UF respondents and 
nonrespondents in: monthly payment, most recent date of AFDC payment, 
average age of children included in the AFDC payment, and average 
number of children included in the AFDC payment. 



-22- 



FOOTNOTES 



Two factors limit comparability between results obtained in the August- 
September 1977 pretest survey of former AFDC recipients and the December 
1978 survey. First, wording on a few questions, was clarified in the 
December survey, and these wording changes limit comparability between 
the two surveys. Second, the December 1978 response rates (711 for Basics-, 
62% for UFs) constitute an improvement over the August-September 1977 
response rates (54% for Basics, 53% for UFs). December survey results 
are probably less biased and more valid than August-September results. 
Only substantial differences in response percentages have been identified 
here, and even these differences, might. .have resulted from sampling 
artifacts. Surer identification of differences in caseload 
composition will be possible with forthcoming surveys, since wording 
and response rate will be more consistent. 



Later papers will provide detailed descriptions of specific groups 
of AFDC recipients: 

—welfare mothers who have remarried a stepfather not legally 

responsible for the care of children; 
--relatives such as aunts, grandmothers, and uncles caring for 

an AFDC child because of the absence of the parents; 
--long-term recipients of welfare; 
--recipients living in public housing; and 
--teenagers receiving welfare. 

2. Final sample sizes" are 628 for Basics and 647 for UFs. 

For Basics, we are 96% confident that observed percentages are 
within -5% of the true population percentages. For UFs, we are 
95% confident that observed percentages are within *5% of the true 
population percentages. Generalizations can be made only to the 
December 1978 AFDC caseload from which the sample was drawn. 
15% (62) of the original 404 UF respondents were excluded from 
analysis because they did not fulfill UF eligibility or survey 
criteria. Examples are: the parent lived alone, two adults were 
not included in the AFDC check, and the respondent did not receive 
AFDC in 1978. These were due to change in circumstances of respondents 
and misclassifi cations by social workers. 

3. These data regarding current and past welfare history and payment 
for recipients were collected from the Recipient and Dependent 
Master Files in DPW's computer (RDMF). 

4. For Basics, 11% identified their ethnic origin as Hispanic, 4% as 
Portuguese, 1% as American Indian or Alaskan Native, and 83% as 
Other. For UFs, 11% identified their ethnic origin as Hispanic, 
5% as Portuguese, 1% as American Indian or Alaskan Native, 

1% as Asian or Pacific Islander, and 81% as Other. Also for UFs, 
1% identified their race as Other. 

5. This includes most of those in Section 8 and subsidized housing. 



-23- 



FOOTNOTES (Continued) 



7. 



This might include some families in Section 8 housing, moderate and 
middle income housing, and so forth. 

Three percent have other housing arrangements, including renting an 
apartment or room not designated by respondent in regard to public 
housing. 



8. This includes a few women who are not the mother of any child in the 
grant, but are needy, i.e., a grandmother, aunt, and so forth. 

9. This includes a few men who are not the father of any child in the 
grant, but are needy, i.e., the husband of a remarried mother, a 
grandfather, uncle, and so forth. 

10. This group also contains .2% for a disabled wife or mother and disabled 
father, and .7% for a wife or mother and husband or father with no 
disability. 

11. Examples of cases with no adult include remarried mothers who do not 
meet AFDC eligibility criteria, grandparents or aunts with responsibility 
for the child, as well as other caretakers who are not needy. Also, it 
is suspected that some recipients do not know the number of adults 
included in their AFDC payment or had problems answering the question. 
According to RDMF, 84% of Basic cases received AFDC for at least one 
adult. The difference between RDMF and survey data is probably caused 
by change in circumstance of respondent at time of survey completion. 

12. DHEW figures from the 1979 Characteristics Study appear comparable 
regarding percentage of cases in receipt of AFDC for combined Basics 
and UFs in Massachusetts. 

13. The total monthly payment excludes supplementary payments, per RDMF, 
$279 average monthly payment for March 1980 for combined Basic and UF, 
plus a $33 quarterly grant, totalled $312 per case. 

14. AFDC Quality Control figures for October 1978 to March 1979 in Massachusetts 
showed a comparable percentage of cases with earned income. We are 95% 
sure that the 18.6% of QC cases with earned income are not significantly 
different from the 22%. (z=1.20) 

15. Federal minimum wage at this time was $2.90 an hour. 

16. Actual receipt of EA was from January and February 1978 to January 
and February 1979. 

17. DHEW figures from the 1977 and 1979 Characteristics Studies have not 
been compared to these data because of differences in wording and meaning 
of the questions. 

18. AFDC-Basics and UFs were also compared with those who received Unemployment 
Compensation in Massachusetts. A sample survey of the active file of 
claimants for unemployment compensation was conducted by the Division 

of Employment Security in December, 1978. Generally, those receiving 
Unemployment Compensation have characteristics which allow them to 
compete better in the employment market than do AFDC recipients. 
Compared to all those receiving Unemployment Compensation, Basics are 

-24- 



FOOTNOTES (Continued) 

more often female (Basic: 96%; Total UC: 40%). In comDarison 

to females receiving Unemployment Compensation (FUC) , 'Basics are younger 

(Basics: 66%; 25-44 years; FUC: 43%; 25-44 years) and lower 

wage earners (Basic: 80% $149 or less; FUC: 52% $149 or less). 

In comparison to males receiving Unemployment Compensation (MUC), UFs 

are younger (UF: 64%; 25-44 years; MUC: 46%; 25-44 years) and 

lower wage earners (UF: 34% $149 or less; MUC: 24% $149 or less). 

Average weekly wage for AFDC recipients was computed 
from weekly wage and hourly wage assuming a 40 hour work week. 
See Selected Characteristics of the Insured Unemployed - 
Statewide , December 1978, Tables 151, 351, and 551, Division of 
Employment Security, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

19. Statistical tests of differences between means and proportions 
were conducted so as to satisfy the requirements of 95% confidence. 

20. See "Survey of AFDC Case Openings in May 1978", by Donna Balboni, 
Office of Research and Evaluation, Massachusetts Department of 
Public Welfare, November 1978. 

21. This does not include those of Hispanic origin. 

22. See "Welfare Census Project Paper #2, A Survey of AFDC Case 
Openings and Closings in August and September 1977" by Loran Bittman, 
Donna Balboni, and Martin Abramowitz, Office of Research and Evaluation, 
Massachusetts Department of Public Welfare, March 1978. 

23. 4% had other housing arrangements including a small number of families 
who lived with relatives and who rented an apartment or room which they 
did not designate in regard to public housing. 

24. 1% of UF cases had no eligible grantee in the case, per RDMF. 

25. Average monthly earnings for UFs who worked any time from July to 
December 1978 were: $216 for December; $247 for November; $313 for 
October; $395 for September; $456 for August; and $462 for July. 
Average monthly earnings for a wife in a UF case who worked any 
time from July to December 1978 were: $236 for December; $237 

for November; $223 for October; $226 for September; $268 for 
August; and $250 for July. 

26. Unless otherwise stated, percentages are based on the number of 
returned questionnaires. Estimated population is this percentage 
multiplied by the total population, i.e., 115,075 for Basics and 

5,176 for UFs. Rounding errors has resulted in total populations for some 
characteristics being different than these estimated populations. 

27. The average number of children was computed excluding pregnancies 
when no other child was in care. 

28. This includes people of Hispanic origin who classified themselves 
as white. 



-25- 



<*j i ■«* 



FOOTNOTES (Continued) 

29. Although 16% are married and living with spouse, only 4% indicated 
two adults in the AFDC payment. The 12% difference can include 
remarried mothers, grandparents, aunts, etc. Also, it is suspected 
that some recipients do not know the number of adults included in 
their AFDC payment. 

30. This group includes disabled spouses, remarried mothers, grandparents, 
aunts, and fathers under 21 in school full time, and so forth. 

31. The percentages are based on the number of recipients answering the 
question regarding type of work in January and February 1979 (92 
Basics). Total number of recipients answering the question was 
divided by the number of respondents. This number was multiplied 

by the total population. Finally, this result was multiplied by the 
percentages as just described. 

32. The percentages are based on the number of recipients answering 
the question regarding type of work in the last four years 
(218 Basics, 251 for the UF fathers, and 130 for the UF wife). 
Total number of recipients answering this question was divided 
by the number of questionnaire respondents. This number was 
multiplied by the total population. Finally, this result was 
multiplied by the percentages as just described. 

33. This group includes possible common law marriages . 

34. Because the recipient indicated his perception of disability, 

this finding suggests either mi sclassifi cation by social worker A 

of a Basic case or a disability not defined as such under A 

AFDC policy. 



' 



} 



-26-