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Full text of "1987 Festival of American Folklife"

1987 Festival of 
American Folklife 

Smithsonian Institution 
National Park Service 



Lao Americans celebrate the Lao New Year by 
offering flowers and pouring water on Buddha 
images. Photo by Frank Proschan 



1987 Festival of 
American Folklife 

Smithsonian Institution 
National Park Service 

June 24-28/ July 1-5 



Contents 



Kcstivcil olAnic-riiiin Fi)lklitt' Pidgrum Book 
■^ Smithsonian Institution I98~ 

Coordinator: Arlene Uebenau 

ncsigner: nuphne Shuttlewortli 

Assistant Designer: Joan Vi'olbier 

Editor: Ed Brown 

Typesetter: HarkmeT\pograph\' 

Printer: Anieriprint Inc. 

'IXpeface: ITC Garamond 

Paper: 80 lb, Sparkletone oner and text 

Insert: ^0 lb. siinrav le.xt 



4 A Forum for Many Voices 

by Roben McC. Adams, Secretan', Smithsonian Institution 

6 Sharing the Cultures ofAmen'ca 's People 

b\ William Penn Mott, Jr., Director, National Park Service 

7 Folku m 's Records: The Legacy of Moses Asch 
Comes to the Smithsonian 

11 Music in Metropolitan Washington: Thriving Traditions 
by Phyllis M. May-Machiinda 

1 6 Washington, D. CJ Gospel Music City, U.S.A: State of the Art 
h\ Pearl Williams-Jones 

22 Language in the New Nation —Jefferson and Rush 
b\' Frank Proschan 

27 American English: A Diverse Tonguehy Walt Wolfram 

32 "Lcichepas lapatate: "French in Louisiana b\- Nicholas R. Spitzer 

37 Tlie Yiddish Speaking Community in New York City 
by Itzek Gottesman 

4 1 Language and Culture: A Mien Refugee Perfective 
by Eric Crystal 

45 Migration to Michigan: An Introduction to the State's Folklife 
by Laurie Kay Sommers 

5 1 Folklore of the Upper Peninsula by James P. Leary 

55 Working on the Line by Michael J. Bell 

60 Fishingfor a Living on the Great Lakes by Janet C. Gilmore 

65 Rii 'er Guides, Long Boats, and Bait Shops: Michigan Rii 'er Culture 
by C. Kurt Dewhurst 

69 Life in the Micbiga?i Northwoodshy Eliot A. Singer 

73 "God Bless deeMushrat: She's a Fishf'hy Dennis M. Au 

77 Crafts of Sun'ival: The Materials of Ottawa, Ojibway and 
Potawatomi Culture by James M. McClurken 

83 Good News for the Motor City: Black Gospel Music in Detroit 
by Joyce M.Jackson and James T.Jones, IV 

87 Tlje Arabben of Baltimore A Photo Essay by Roland Freeman 




A Forum for Many 
Voices 

by Robert McC. Adams 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

During the past century museums have played an important role 
in democratizing access to knowledge about science, culture and 
the arts. For its part, the Smithsonian annually receives more than 25 
million visitors to its museums and reaches millions more through 
its publications, travelling exliibitions, radio and television pro- 
grams, courses, lectures and scholarly collaborations. New technolo- 
gies promise increased access to Smithsonian holdings: interactive 
videodiscs, for example, now being developed in a laboratory on 
our campus may in the Hiture bring exhibitions to homes and 
schools across the country and abroad. 

This past year we have intensified our efforts to broaden the 
Smithsonian's audience so that it reflects the cultural di\'ersity of our 
nation iis a whole. The Office of the Committee for a Wider 
Audience and the Cultural Education Committee led by Regent 
Jeannine Smith Clark are seeking the means by which communities 
not heretofore sen-ed by the Institution might take their rightful 
place in its acti\'ities. Thus, the Smithsonian has begun to speak to 
new and broader audiences through its basic research, through 
exliibitions such as "Field to Factor\'" and through television 
programs like "Voices of Latin America." 

While we hope such new audiences are receptive, we do not 
expect them to be passive. New audiences attracted to the Smithsonian 
can be expected to speak as well as listen. The mutual engagement 
of Smithsonian scholars and staff with members of various commu- 
nities will benefit the cultural and scientific dialogue of our nation: 
new audiences can help structure how their history' and culture are 
represented in public institutions like the Smithsonian; and they 
may share with us their cultural insights and accomplishments, their 
historical perspectives on the American experience, and their 
distinctive aesthetic sensibilities. 

The Festival of American Folklife has long been invoked in this 
effort. Each year members of varied and diverse ethnic, regional, 
tribal, linguistic and occupational communities come to the Na- 
tional Mall to share with the public the skill, anistrv' and knowledge 
which inform their cultural traditions. The Festi\'al pro\'ides a forum 
for the representation of culture and is constructed through the 
interactions of scholars and tradition beai'ers, who in mutual 
dialogue agree upon the terms in which they both may be publicly 
represented and understood. At the Festival we reap the benefit of 
this dialogue — cultural wisdom framed by scholarly interpretation. 

At this year's Festival, people speak to us from Michigan, 
Washington, D.C., and in several of America's many voices. 

The Smithsonian has long counted on Washington area residents 
as an audience for its many museums and programs. In this first of a 



planned multi-year program, tables are turned as traditional musi- 
cians from local Black, Hispanic and Asian American communities 
tell us about the social orgimizations and the multi-cultural urbim 
context within which their aesthetic expressions flourish. 

In a similai- xein, the State of Michigan h:is helped us bring ninety 
of its residents to the Smithsonian to speak about and demonstrate 
some of the rich traditional culture from that region. To help create 
a festival setting in which performers of valued traditions can tell us 
about their experiences and heritages with performed music, active 
demonstrations and spoken words seems a most appropriate way 
to celebrate the sesquicentennial of that geographically endowed, 
historically important and culturally rich state. 

America's Man\' Voices — the third in a series of cultural conserva- 
tion programs begun in 1985 — addresses the importance of lan- 
guage in the preservation of cultural traditions. Spanish speakers 
from Texas, Chinese speakers from New York, Lao speakers from 
Virginia and Miuyland, and English speakers from North Carolina 
challenge us, as audience, to hear the beauty of their voices, to 
understand the social significance of their languages, and to grasp 
meanings sometimes not easily translated. 

Many of the Smithsonian's new audiences speak through the 
Festival. They have interesting things to say, and I urge you to listen. 




sharing the Cultures of 
America's People 

by William Penn Mott, Jr. 
Director, National Park Service 

The National Park Service is proud to welcome you to the 1987 
Festival of American Folklife. As protectors of many of America's 
finest natural, cultural, and historic resources, the National Park 
Service enthusiastically joins with the Smithsonian Institution to 
produce an event that encourages an appreciation for, and a sharing 
of, America's rich cultural diversity. This year, which marks the 
200th anniversary' of the United States Constitution, is an especially 
fitting one for the celebration of our cukural heritage. The Constitu- 
tion has played an important role in producing a nation that derives 
its strength and quality' from peoples of many ethnic backgrounds. 

At this year's Festival, held on parkland among many of the 
nation's most treasured memorials and institutions, we explore the 
cit)' beyond Washington's federal buildings. We learn of its diverse, 
vibrant and evolving musical traditions — a hometown to Americans 
of many cultures. In any culture language is a primary source of 
unit\' and pride. Through this Festival we have the opportunity to 
learn about the \iilued role of language in some of America's 
linguistic communities. Culture and language have played an 
important role in shaping the character of each state in the union. 
In this, Michigan's sesquicentennial celebration year, traditional 
craftspeople, musicians, cooks, woodworkers, boatmen, and others 
share with us the particular historv' and cukure of their state. 

Come, stay, enjoy, and learn more of America's peoples and 
cukures. The National Park Ser\'ice takes pride in welcoming you to 
the nation's Capital, the Festival of American Folklife, and each of 
the national parks throughout this country. 



Folkways Records: 

The Legacy of Moses Asch 
Comes to the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Institution this year acquired Folkways Records, 
a massive recorded sound collection of the worlds musics, languages, 
oratory and natural sounds compiled over a lifetime by Moses Asch. 
Included in the diverse Folkways catcilog are some 2,000 records 
featuring thousands of traditional tirtists and historical figures docu- 
mented by three generations of ethnomusicologists, foUdorists, 
anthropologists, and area specialists. The catiilog has an enormous 
range— from Native American ritual songs, southern mountain bal- 
lads, Creole music. New England sea shanties, cowbo>' songs, and 
Black gospel to folk music from Kenya, Hindu religious ceremonies, 
folk tales of Oceania :md Caribbean dance; from lullabies and chil-" 
dren's games of New York to spoken word recordings of Manin 
Luther King, Sigmund Freud, W. E. B. Du Bois, Margaret Mead, and 
Carl Sandburg. In addition to the more well known musical record- 
ings of Leadbelly, Woodie Guthrie, Pete Seeger, and Ella Jenkins iire 
also documentan- recordings of majc:)r historical events of the 20th 
centurv'— the Suffragette movement, the Great Depression, the 
American Labor Movement, the Spanish Ci\'il War, the Holocaust, 
the Ci\-il Rights Mcnement, and Pokind's Solidarity. The Folkways 
collection also includes non-musical sounds: a study of infant cries, 
sounds of technology (e.g., locomotives and office equipment), 
animals, and nature (e.g., bird calls and the tropical rain forest). 

The Folkways recordings are at once a celebration and a caretlil 
historical transcription of particular cultunil interests and expres- 
sions. In the early part of this century^ Asch, a pioneer in sound 
electronics, recognized that new recording technology provided an 
unprecedented and powerful tool for capturing the spoken word, 
music, song, and sounds of hope and desperation of the world's 
people. Motivated strongly by the sense of cultural loss in America, 
the traditions endangered by World War II Europe, and social changes 
around the globe, Asch hoped to preserve in recorded form the 
voices, languages, and sounds that made life meaningful to genera- 
tions of human beings. He set out on a documentation program of 
immense proponions. He included written notes and illustrations 
with the recordings so as to broaden our understanding of music, 
oral tradition, and their contexts. He kept all his releases in print 
and available, for, in his plan, each constituted an important entiy in 
a world-wide encyclopedia of cukural expression. In keeping with 
Asch's vision, the Smithsonian will continue to make available the 
Hill Folkwa\'s catalog. 

In addition to the catalog recordings, the Smithsonian has 
acquired the Folkways archive, consisting of master, field, and 
unpublished recordings; fifty years of ethnographic files on music 
and oral traditions; and related correspondence and album cover art 
work. This corpus has been called a "national, indeed world, artistic 



and scientific resource," one that the Office of Folklife Programs 
plans to make available to scholars :md researchers. 

Moe Asch dedicated his life to the Folkways enterprise. Born in 
Warsaw, Poland, in 1905, the son of Sholem Asch, a well known and 
non-conformist Yiddish novelist, Moe came to New York in 1914 
after sojourns in Bedin and Paris. His Aunt Bcishe, an early pupil of 
Montessori and educational advisor to the fledging Soviet govern- 
ment in Russia, exened a strong influence on his childhood — evi- 
denced by the scores of children's songs, music, games, and stories 
in the Folkways catcilog. Living in New York, Asch became inter- 
ested in radio transmission. As Asch said, 

I became so involved with the radio . . . because I saw the 
possibilit\', coming from Europe where there were only bound- 
aries, that this was a medium that overcame boundaries, over- 
came customs. The air was free. We were able to communicate 
all over the world with other human beings without barriers. 

In the '20s, sparked by his interest in radio and sound transmis- 
sion, Asch went to Germany to study electronics at a technical school 
with students from aW over Europe. 

That's when I first started to hear about folk music. And the first 
thing I heard was that there isn't any folk music in America . . . 
One day when I was in Piiris ... I came acrc:)ss the 1913 edition 
of John Lomax's cowboy ballads. And it had an introduction by 
Teddy Roosevelt, which guided me through life because he 
said that folklore and folksongs were the real expression of a 
people's culture . . . Lomax showed cleiU'ly that there was a 
folklore in America. 

Upon his return to the United States, Asch worked for various 
electrical companies, started Radio Laboratories, and worked on 
numerous sound amplification projects. Through Lomax Asch met 
Huddie Leadbetter, better known as "Leadbelly." Leadbelly was an 
ex-convict from Louisiana with a powerful 12-string guitar, a rich 
repertoire of southern Black music, and immense talent. Asch's 
recordings of Leadbelly's children's songs, released :is Play Parties 
under the Asch Records label were not a commercial success but 
did draw the attention and ire of the New York press which villified 
Asch for producing records of a Black ex-convict singing songs for 
children. 

But Asch persisted in recording, documenting, and releasing 
albums that spoke to important social issues of our times — ci\il 
rights, social justice, cultural equity. Albert Einstein recorded for 
Moe Asch during World Wcir II, speaking of the cultural cJestruction 
wrought by the Nazis. Woody Guthrie recorded hundreds of songs 
and ballads speaking to the soul of the nation, the tribulations of the 
dust bowl disaster, and the proprietary rights of the common man. 
Pete Seeger challenged Asch. 

[Pete] created my whole folk music concept— because he cre- 
ated ideas and songs. And even,- time he had an idea 1 went 
along with it— and there are those fift)' albums that we did. 
Every one is Pete's idea. 1 tried to work with all my artists that 
way— I wanted to know what they had to say and how they 
wanted to sav it. Tliat's wJiat it meant to me to be a documentor. 



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V> INDIANS 




In 1947, after a series of other labels and bankruptcies, Moe Asch 
toLinded Folkways Records. The name came from the famous book 
by William Sumner. Asch was ably aided by Harold Courlander who 
had made field recordings in Haiti, Cuba, and Ethiopia. Willard 
Rliodes, an anthropologist with a collection of Native American 
music, initiated the ethnic dbum series with Music of the Sioux and 
Navajo. Folkways pioneered the regular practice of producing 
extensive written notes to accompan\' recordings. In the early days 
Asch drew inspiration from his own literary background and from 
the important work being done by the WPA Federal Writer's Project. 
More recently, this documentary project has been vitalized by col- 
laborative projects between Folkways iind the Indiana University 
Airhives of Traditional Music. In each of the forty years of Folkways 
Records, the catalog and accompanying documentation continued 
to grow. Asch expanded his catalog motivated by his own interests, 
the deluge of tapes, and requests that would come to him from 
schoku's and travelers fresh from the field, and by the need to offer 
timely social commentary. Moe Asch succeeded in building an edi- 
fice of profound worth and beautv' through brilliance, logic, a modi- 
cum of business sense, energy, determination, and a lot of chutzpah. 
A common refrain throughout the industry, among scholars and by 
artists used to explain one's sacrifices for the Folkways project, is 
"only because it's Moe." 

Folkways has been an important instrument in the study and 
dissemination of recorded sound data, especially of community- 
based, folk aesthetic traditions — song, instrumental music, and 



Asch, Moses. "Folk Music —A Personal State 
mem." Sing Out! 11(1 )(Februar>', March 1961 ). 

and Alan Lomax, eds. The Lead 

belly Songbook New York: Oak Publications, 

1962. 

Bluestein, Gene. "Documentor: Moses Asch, " 

m.s., forthcoming in American Music. 

Capaldi.Jim. "Conversation with Mr. Folkways." 

fo/fet-e«f( May, June 1978). 

Shelton, Roben. "Folkways in Scjund. ' High 

Fidelity ijuw I960). 

For information about the purchase and distri 

bution of Folkways Records contact: 

Birch Tree Group Limited 

180 Alexander Street 

Box 20"'2 

Princeton, New Jersey 08540 

( 609 ) 683-0090 
For informatit)n about the Folkways archives 
contact: 

Office of Folklife Programs 

Smith.soniaii Institution 

955 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 2600 

Washington, D.C. 20560 

( 202 ) 287-3424 



speech. Moreover, the historic role that Folkways has played in 
bringing folk culture to the national consciousness makes the Folk- 
ways collection an invaluable document in the study of the develop- 
ment of American and world culture. The phonograph record and 
its related media, radio and cassette tape, have become part of the 
dialogue of traditional cukures — a lively world-wide musical inter- 
change that involves scholars, the interested public, and the tradi- 
tion bearers themselves. As foreseen by Moe Asch, these recordings 
have enabled performances to transcend boundaries of time and 
place and thus have played an important role in the preservation 
and conservation of living traditions through increased communi- 
cation, understanding, and appreciation of the aesthetic and ethical 
values of others. The Folkways acquisition adds to the Smithsonian 
a new "museum of sound" — one unencumbered by wiills that can 
disseminate its wisdom to people everywhere. 

Moe Asch died last October. He is survived by his family, by his 
friends, by the many artists, scholars, and students he served, and by 
a lifetime labor of love— the recorded joy, sadness, prayers, and 
visions which will enrich generations to come. We are grateful to 
Moe for his work in the increase and diffusion of knowledge about 
traditional cultures and also for his choice of the Smithsonian as the 
appropriate institutional setting for Folkways. 



10 



Music in Metropolitan 
Washington: 

Thriving Traditions 

by Phyllis M. May-Machunda 

Washington, the capital cit\', has long been known for its official 
culture and public celebrations such as presidential inaugurations, 
Independence Day pageantn-, military band concerts, state funerals, 
and enibass}' receptions. Yet it possesses another reality, one some- 
times hidden beneath the official veneer. Washington, the residen- 
tial cit\', burgeons with cultures transplanted from beyond urbiin, 
state, imd national boundciries us well iis with hybrid ti'aditit)ns newly 
rooted in an urban en\'ironment. Over the next several years the 
Office of Folklife Programs will explore the fascinating, vital, and 
variegated pool of cultures that enliven the Washington metropoli- 
tan area. 

Metropolitan Washington, with over two million residents, is cur- 
rently the home of more than 850,000 Blacks, ne^irly 100,000 His- 
panics, an almost equal number of Asians, and thousands of other 
peoples from around the world. Unique forces have shaped the 
cultural development of the distinct yet interdependent residential 
communities located on the banks of the Potomac and Anacostia 
Rivers. Evolving as a center designed to meet the needs of national 
politics and government, the city neither developed a culture based 
on a manufacturing economy nor drew a large European immigrant 
populatit)n as did New York and Baltimore. Instead, it merged its 
southern agrarian culture with northern business interests and de- 
veloped a strong workforce geared to ser\ice and government. The 
traditions arising out of this mix were strongly enriched by a contin- 
ual influx of people from the South and, more recently, immigrants 
from Central America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. For thou- 
sands who have mo\'ed to the area, tlie cit}' has been the fociil point 
of ardent dreams, abundant hopes, and magnificent intentions. Peo- 
ple, viewing the cit\' as the pinnacle of American possibilities, have 
flocked to Washington throughout its 200-year history, in search of 
refuge, a better life and greater opportunities for freedom, educa- 
tion, power, respect, employment, and financid security'. Wliile some 
have come with abundant wealth, others have brought little more 
than themselves, their values, and their traditions to sustain them- 
seKes in their transition to a new situation. 

Music is among the most vital of these intangible traditional re- 
sources that help to support these Washingtonians. To understand 
the traditional musics of Washington, we may first look at the variety 
of communities that create and carry on these traditions. Urban 
dwellers characteristically belong to multiple communities such as 
tliose based on occupational, religious, residential, social/ recreational, 
familial, and ethnic affiliaticMis. A member of a community may or 
may not share membership with the people who participate in the 



Phyllis M. MayMacbunda, curator forihe 
Melmpdiilcin Wiisbington program, isafolklnrist 
and elbnomidsicnlogist on the staff of the Office 
of Folklife Pmgrams. She is completing her doc- 
toral dissertation at Indiana I'nirersity and is 
engaged in the scholarly research of African 
American cultures 

Support for the Metropolitan Washington 
program is provided, inpait hy the Music 
Performance Trust Funds, a nun-profit organ 
ization created by U.S. recording companies to 
fund lii 'e and free performances 



11 




The combined gospel choirs ofMt. Bethel 
Baptist Church, 1st and Rliode Island Ave., 
N.VC',, perform at an Easter morning service. 
Photo by Daphne Shuttleworth 



\aiii)us areas of his or her daily life. For example, some Korean- 
Americans in Washington may li\'e, work, and sociiilize together, 
but many middle-class Black Americans in Washington typically do 
not. The people with whom Blacks work may not be the same 
people who li\'e in their neighborhoods or with whom they social- 
ize on a regular basis. Each community has developed particular 
institutions and networks of support facilitating social interaction 
and exchange of information. Some of these communities are de- 
fined b\' common geographical boundaries, as in a neighborhood, 
and traditions may emerge out of that experience. Other communi- 
ties may share or be perceived to share common characteristics 
such as age, ethnicity, occupation, social interests, or even family 
relationship. The sharing of \alues, perspectives, and experiences 
creates a basis for the existence and growth of tradition. Music 
provides a channel for the expression of community based values 
thrcuigh melodies, rhythms, and wt)rds. 

In large cities such as Washington, traditional communities find 
economical and efficient ways to disseminate information about 
their activities. Washington has dozens of ethnic and neighborht:)od 
newspapers, bilingual and special interest radio and television pro- 
grams, church bulletins, flyers, and multi-colored posters announc- 
ing upcoming community events not mentioned by mainstream 
media. Churches, neighborhood schools, restaurants, community^ 
centers, and local festi\'als ;ire a few of the institutions that support 
traditional performance. Such community institutions not only dis- 
seminate information about the traditions but also may offer a place 
to construct, rehearse, transmit, and present it as well. 

Music is a central part of festive occasions and celebrations as 
well as an integral feature of everyday life. People mark what they 
feel is distinctive and valuable through the use of music, frequently 
accompanied by dance and ritual. For instance, various Asian com- 
munities of Washington have maintained some of the seasonal 
ceremonies of their homelands, such as Lao or Chinese New Year's 



12 




celebrations which occur on various dates throughout the calendri- 
cal year. These elaborate and colorful ceremonial events incorpo- 
rate music, costumes, parades, food, and dance and draw community 
members from the entire eastern seaboard. 

Gospel heads the list of Black traditional musics for which Wash- 
ington is known. As Pearl Williams-Jones points out in the article 
which follows, gospel music thrives in a variety of forms in this city, 
ranging from the harmonies of traditional quartet groups to the 
sounds of more contemporary soloists, ensembles, and choirs, some 
of which blend classical techniques with more traditional Black 
gospel music. Black churches have served as a primary conduit for 
the transmission of Black musical aesthetics, even for those who 
have studied music privately. Hundreds of churches suppon nu- 
merous choirs, smaller family groups, and other ensembles and 
soloists who provide their memberships with gospel music. They 
have offered sympathetic and nunuring performance environments 
for those who have directed their skills to the glorification of the 
Lord. Gospel music is central to a variety of community events in 
addition to regular services: for example, pastor, choir, and church 
anniversary celebrations, as well as funerals are filled with gospel 
music. Some churches regularly house rehearsals and sponsor con- 
certs by community artists outside their own membership. These 
activities and frequent performances at other churches in and out of 
the city provide opportunities for mutual exchanges of ideas, news, 
and repertoire. 

Some of the newest and most intense secular musical perform- 
ances in Washington arise from Black youth. Go-go, a dance music 
tradition born in this city, is usually performed by small bands. 
Layered rhythmic patterns are blended with call and response, per- 
cussive instrumental riffs, and quotations from familiar melodies, 
frequently overlayed with rap ( a patterned rhythmic speech) and 
accompanied by patterned coordinated movement. Less complex 
in tlieir multi-layered structures but related in their uses of rhythmic 



Hi.spanic, African and Afro- American children 
pia\' handclapping games on tlie playgroLind of 
Ro.s.s Elenientar> School, Pth .uid R Sts., N.W. 
Photo courtesy of Olivia Cadaval 



13 




Pnnce \ Arlington 
Virginia \ WiUiam ^^ Counn 
. Countv' 



patterns, repetition, and call and response stmctures are several 
other forms that have dominated many of the expressi\'e and com- 
petitive play energies of D.C.'s youth including such female activi- 
ties as cheering, double-dutch ( a form of jumproping incorporating 
multiple ropes), and collegiate performance genres such as step- 
ping, a t}pe of fraternal "cheer." 

The urban environment offers special opportunities for cultural 
contact and exchange among a variety of communities and ethnic 



14 




groups. One example is in the Adams-Morgan/ Mt. Pleasant neigh- 
borhoods, long recognized as the center of cultural activity in the 
cit\' for Hispanic and African people from the U.S., Central and 
South America, the Cmibbean, and Africa. The Hispanic population 
in the cit>' is predominantly refugees from Guatemala and El Salva- 
dor, with smaller numbers from Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. 
Some groups, such as Cubans, arrived in more than one wave of 
migration, each from a different social class and carrying a different 
set of cultural traditions. Many of these communities celebrate se- 
lect traditions particular to their own cultures. However, in other 
cases, where fewer community members can pass on specific tradi- 
tions, man\' residents of Adams-Morgan have been forced to focus 
on other traditions similar to their own. This sharing of traditions 
has resulted in a synthesis or pan-ethnic style, celebrating a multi- 
cultural heritage. In this urban milieu Hispanic, Caribbean, and 
African musicians constantly create new urban performance forms 
by drawing fragments from known repertoires and st}'les and trans- 
forming them into new expressions through the use of new hiirmon- 
ies, updated texts, and changes in tempo, rhythmic configurations, 
or performance style. These traditional musicians often learn to play 
in a variety of musical styles from outside their own cultures in 
order to satisfy the tastes of their diverse audiences. The events for 
which they perform are rarely attended solely by their own ethnic 
communities. The musicians are able to switch musical styles as 
easily lis others switch dialects within a language to communicate to 
their chosen audiences while their audiences expand their musical 
tastes and support them appreciatively. 

Music is ephemeral, yet enduring. It embodies the values and 
aesthetics of a culture through words and restructuring of sound. It 
is flexible enough to incorporate melodies or poetry hundreds of 
years old, yet able to address the most contemporary issues with 
relative ease. An integral part of living, traditional culture thrives in 
urban Washington, D.C. through music. 



Thf KlinicrTniditional Miisif Ensemble includes 
.1 wiLle r;inne 1)1 instruments, lelt to rii>ht: k/vm 
( hammer dukimer), skor{ liund drum ), kd'be 
( /ilher ), Iro ( fiddle ), roiical ( x\k )plnc ine ). sciiii 
/)/») ( lI( luble headetl drum ). Photo by Daphne 
Shuttleworth 



Sugf^esled readitig 

Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: A 
History of the Capital, 18001950. Princeton: 
Princeton University-, 1962. 

The Secret City: 

A History of Race Relations in the Nation 's 
Capital Princeton: Princeton University, 1967. 
Hutchinsi)n, Louise Daniel. The Amicostia Story, 
1608 1930. Washington, DC: Smithsonian In- 
stitution Press, 1977. 



15 



Fearl Williams lo>ies, music educator, gospel 
singer, and pianist, is an Associate Professor of 
Music at tlx' University of the District of 
Columbia. 



Washington, D.C./ 
Gospel Music City, 

U.S.A.: State of the Art 

by Pearl Williams-Jones 

For more than a half century', Washington has been an important 
city in the development, presentation, and preservation of gospel 
music. The music in many ways reflects the diversity of the city's 
population, and its development in Washington parallels changes in 
the communit)' that supports it. 

Gospel is an urban Black religious music of rural origin. Its roots 
reach back to the plantation spiritual of more than rwx) centuries 
ago. As Black people migrated into northern urban communities 
such as Washington, tlie\' brought along a lo\'e for sacred song but 
needed musical expression that did not bear reminders of the slave 
past. Gospel music was a s\'nthesis of rh\thmic jubilees with their 
syncopated beats, of simple Ccill and response patterns, and of texts 
which expressed a hope for freedom. The newer, urban songs from 
the emerging Holiness and Pentecostal churches used instrumental 
accompaniment, hymn structures of verse and chorus, and Ccill and 
response. Texts centered on liberation through salvation and praise, 
prayer, and testimony about personal experiences. 

Gospel music flourished in the D.C. environs through the Black 
church, its choirs, soloists, and groups. For many spiritual and 
cultural needs were met through a strong traditional link with music 
from "down home." The gospel community was further expanded 
tlirough street meetings and tent services that were frequently held 
in the 1930s and "40s. Later, radio broadcasts by churches and 
quartets brought gospel into the homes of D.C. residents. Today, 
tele\'ision, concerts, festi\als, and competitions add to the variety' of 
means through which gospel has spread into the community'. There 
is sufficient variety' and professionidism in gospel music presenta- 
tions to call Washington "Gospel Music City, U.SA" 

Most of Washington's Black families migrated here from .southern 
states such as Virginia, North and South C:ii"olina, Georgia, and 
Alabama. Many of these people continue to sing the old songs and 
transform them into urban gospel. On D.C. streets one can hear the 
gospel sound in the singing and guitar playing of Flora Molton and 
Bill Hines. Both ha\e been street singers in downtown Washington 
for many years and continue their music making for the pedestrians 
who fill the streets during rush hours. Hines has been at the corner 
of 9th and F Streets, N.W., for more than a decade, singing 
unaccompanied with a resonance that can be heard for many 
blocks around. Molton sits on the corner of 11 th and F Streets, next 
to a department store window, singing "Don't Let the Devil Ride," 
"Do Lord, Remember Me," and "I Heard it Through the True Vine." 
Hines' and Molton's music remind us of the transition and transfor- 



16 



mation that hcis taken place in gospel music and gospel singing in 
Washington over the past filT\' years. 

Perhaps because of a strong, lingering, southern tradition, gospel 
quartet music maintains a large, loyal following here. Most quartets 
are independent commercial organizations that broadcast and give 
public concens and church programs. Most of the D.C. based 
groups can be heard at the well known Radio Music Hall in N.W. 
Washington's Black community' that also houses the all-gospel radio 
station, WLIST, 1 120 AM. Man\- of the quartets that present concerts 
at the hall may also be heard on the radio station. 

One notable group, the D.C. Harmoneers, recently celebrated 
thim' fi\'e years of quartet singing at the hall. This traditional group 
of Black niiile singers sang before approximately 300 fans. Their 
familiar repertoire of quartet songs, jubilees, gospels, and spiritUcils 
was cast in four-part harmony: lead, tenor, baritone, and bass. They 
were accompanied by a full cUTa\' of contemporary instalments, 
including electric lead and bass guitars, drums, and keyboards. 
Several strong lead singers did not confine their exuberance to the 
small stage: they moved out intc) the audience where the listeners 
could join the group in clapping and singing. Local D.C. groups 
participated on the program, including The Queens of Faith, an 
all- female quartet, New Southern Rock Male Chorus, the Taie 
Tones, Helen Smith and the Angels of Faith, and special guest, the 
Swanee Quintet. Their presence indicated the strong ties and 
support that Washington groups give one another. As if this array of 
D.C. talent was not enough, flyers circulated through the audience 
announcing other quartet concerts that would take place in the 
ensuing weeks. Those groups included the all-femiiJe Gospel Pearls, 
Heavenly Songs, D.C. Kings of Harmony, Martha Christmas and the 
Gospel Jubilees, the Holy Wonders, and the True Believers. Most of 
these performers are church going, Bible believers who enjoy 
spreading the Word. Their songs are delivered with the fervor of 
Black preaching, and the songs are chosen from quartet staples 
which tell of mother and life "down home." Some of the songs on 
the quartet program at the Music Hall have been around for forty 
years or more: "Wlien I've Gone the Last Mile of the Way" ( a la Sam 
Cooke and the Soul Stirrers), "I've Decided to Make Jesus My 
Choice," "This Little Light of Mine," and "I'm a Soldier in the Army 
of the Lord." 

The power of radio broadcasting cannot be underestimated in 
nurturing the presence and ultimate acceptance of gospel music, 
particularly in many Black churches that once did not allow gospel 
singing. Many ministers and church musicians objected to gospel 
singing in the church because it was believed to be too worldly or 
jazzy in sound. The Hammond organ, tambourines, pianos, and 
drums, often a common feature of Holiness and Pentecostal 
worship and gospel music, was an anathema to tlie more mainstream- 
oriented Black congregations who patterned their worship after 
Euro-American Protestant denominations. Most of the Black 
churches heard on the radio, however, featured some form of 
gospel singing. In addition, the introduction of gospel disc jockeys 
helped spread the popularity of gospel singing quartets and groups. 
In die 1930s Washingtonians listened to national broadcasts of 




Bf mice Johnson Reagon, singer and .scholar of 
Black expressi\e culture acknowledges Black 
church music a.s part of the Ibundation of her 
perfc )rmance st>'le. Photo courtesy Smithsonian 
Program In Black American Culture 



17 



Mt-mbers of the Kings ot Harnumy gospel brass 
band from the L'nited House of Pra\er join the 
cast of "Mahalia's Song" in a 1983 Howard 
l'ni\ersit\- prodLicti( )n. Photo courtesy of Pearl 
Williams-Jones 



Wings Over Jordan choir and quanets such as the Southernaires and 
the Golden Gate Jubilee Singers. The Washington disc jockeys of 
the 1950s played quartet music and the recordings of soloists such 
as Mahalia Jackson and Rosetta Tharpe. Soon a gospel audience 
developed and demanded more gospel music both in churches and 
on the air. 

One of Washington's best known gospel radio preachers is the 
ninet\'-year-old Bishop Samuel Kelsey, pastor of the Temple Church 
of God in Christ for more than sixt>' years. Bishop Kelsey is part of a 
long tradition of gospel music in the international Church of God in 
Christ that has given gospel the Arizona Dranes, Rosetta Tharpe 
(early recording gospel soloists), The Clark Sisters of Detroit, and 
contemporary gospel composers and performers such as Andrae 
and Sandra Crouch and the famous Hawkins family: Edwin, Walter, 
and Tramaine. Bishop Kelsey, a vigorous preacher, uses a "reader" 
to line out his scriptures as he preaches. The "reader" reads the 
scriptures from the Bible while Bishop Kelsey repeats them in a 
rhythmic call and response pattern. He is famous for his rendition 
of a Holiness folk gospel, "Little Boy, How Old Are You," that he 
brought to Washington from his native Georgia and still sings along 
with members of his congregation. The call and response, uptempo 
song is based on several verses of scripture that relay the story of 
Jesus' ministry as a child of twelve. 

Among gospel radio personalities Lucille Banks Robinson Miller 
is the best known. She has produced gospel concerts in Washington 
for more than thirty years and still maintains a widely listened to 
broadcast on WYCB, 1340 AM, a 24 hour, all-gospel station. While 
Madame Miller features traditional gospel and local talent on her 
shows, other gospel deejays program more contemporary gospel 
for younger audiences: artists such as Washington's Richard 




18 



Smallwood Singers whose lead singer and pianist, Richard Smalhvood, 
is a graduate of Howard Universit>''s music department. Smallwood's 
music has been called some of W^ishington's most distinctive 
gospel because of its classical overtones. 

Bishop Smallwood Williams of D.C.'s pentecostal Bible Way 
Church hcis broadcasted for more than forty years and has pre- 
sented some of Washington's earliest public gospel concerts. While 
building the church and congregation on New Jersey Avenue, N.W., 
he sponsored gospel programs by quartets and groups of singers 
from D.C. and nearby states to help raise funds for those efforts in 
street corner and tent meeting services. The church and pastor also 
presented major gospel concerts at the former site of Griffith 
Stadium where more than 20,000 gospel fans heard the nationally 
famous Clara Ward Singers, Roberta Martin Singers, Dixie Humming 
Birds Quartet, Mahalia Jackson, Rosetta Tharpe, and the church's 
own Radio Choir. During the 1940s and 1950s gospel programs 
attracted some of the District's largest crowds and clearly rivalled 
audiences at the famous Howard Theatre, a few blocks away from 
Griffith Stadium. 

Another well known site for commercial gospel presentations, 
particularly featuring local D.C. talent, was the old Union Hall, a 
small, one-story building near the U.S. Capitol. D.C. favorites 
appeared there, including the Wilson Harmonizers, an all-male, 
blind, a cappella quartet featuring Willie Wilson; Bertha Down 
Wearing; Queen Esther Womble; and the Rosebud Junior Choms, 
one of the first gospel choirs featured on a regular weekly 
commerci:il broadcast. The Re\erend Robert Cherry, gospel singer, 
pianist, and composer; the Friendship Male Chorus led by Deacon 
John Minor; Lorraine Gardner Young; the Two Gospel Lights ( Mary 
Lacey Moore and mother); and saxophonist composer Eddie 




Street musicians Bill Hines and Flora Miilton 
pertorni at the 19""S Festi\al of American 
Folklite. Photo by Rosie Lee Hooks. Smithsonian 
Program in Black American Culture 



19 



Simmons formed the early generation of gospel singers in Washing- 
ton, D.C. Some local composers whose songs were sung nationally 
included Mr. HJ. Ford, Mrs. Adrue Odom, and Elder Bernard Battle. 

A rich vein of traditional gospel music in Washington ciin be 
heard at the United House of Prayer for All People. The headquar- 
ters of this national organization has been at 6th and M Streets, 
N.W., for more than fifty years. Within its modem, white brick walls, 
gold dome, and stained glass windows is heard exciting original 
gospel singing, preaching, and, of particular note, instrumental 
gospel. Founded by its famous leader Bishop CM. Grace in the 
early 1920s, this Holiness church specializes in brass band music for 
worship and marches. The Kings of Harmony brass ensemble 
consists of twelve or more trombonists led b>' its strong lead 
trombonist, Norvus Miller, and soloist, the fiery preacher known as 
Apostle Whitner. With bass tuba and drum, the Kings play in 
four-part quartet hai^mony. Their ai'rangements resemble Black male 
quartet singing by utilizing the phrasing, vibrato, and timbre of the 
Black singing voice. The instrumentalists also use the glides, slurs, 
moaning, and e\en shouting qucilit}- associated with Black gospel 
singing. Although such deep, personal, and emotional feeling is 
uncommon in some instrumental playing, warmth and human 
communication is dominant in the playing of the Kings. Visceral 
energy and intensity- is a driving force in the jubilant worship music 
of the House of Prayer. The congregation claps, sings, and shouts to 
the music. 

During the turbulent years of Black awareness on college cam- 
puses in tlie 1960s, the Howard Gospel Choir was formed and 
produced some of the first and finest gospel composers and 
musicians in D.C.'s history. Among them is Henrv' Davis, pianist and 
a founding member of the Voices Supreme, Tony Booker, Leon 
Roberts, Wesley Boyd, and Donny Hathaway and Roberta Flack 
whose popular music bore the influences of gospel. The Howard 
Gospel Choir was one of the first campus gospel choirs in the U.S. 
Wliile it was tremendously populai- with the students, initially the 
administration and faculty did not understand the place of gospel 
music in the university setting. However, the will and the skill of the 
choir prevailed, and eventually they were featured performers at a 
university- commencement ceremony when the Reverend Jesse 
Jackson gave the address. 

Among Washington's best known gospel performers are Mattie 
Johnson and the Stars of Faith, Myrna Summers, B L & S, the 
Reverend Conrad Brooks, Roben Fryson, the gospel-rap st\Jist Frank 
Hooker, twelve-year-old Tyrone Ford, Shiriey Abies, the Steele 
Famih', the Nelson Family, the Reverend Donald Vails, formerly of 
Detroit, Michigan, the D.C. Chapter of James Cleveland's Gospel 
Music Workshop of America, a chapter of the Edwin Hawkins Music 
and Arts Seminar, and the Wesley Bo\'d Gospel Music Workshop. 
The Tabernacle Echoes, a semiprofessional choir, has made record- 
ings that are heard nationally. This interdenominational choir of 
approximately forty voices sings in churches and concert halls and 
travels to other cities for performances of their contemporary 
gospel choral st>'le. 

Individual outstanding performers from Washington are nation- 



20 



ally famous, including the Reverend Wintley Phipps who burst into 
public recognition when he sang at the 1984 Democratic National 
Convention following Jesse Jackson's memorable speech. Phipps, 
who produces his own recordings, is a unique gospel artist whose 
resonant baritone voice is used with the skill of his classical 
background iuid training in music. However, the Re\'erend Phipps 
uses his technique with inflections and improvisator}' embellish- 
ments, fervor, and spirit of Black gospel singing. 

Dr. Bernice Johnson Reagon is another of Washington's inter- 
nationally recognized artists whose roots are in the gospel idiom. 
The daughter of a Georgia Baptist preacher. Dr. Reagon sings 
gospel hymns of her childhood and the special repertory' of the Civil 
Rights Mo\'ement v^-hich she performed as a song leader and SNCC 
Freedom Singer in the 1960s. She uses a voluptuous contralto voice 
to illuminate the meaning and sentiment of her caretlilly selected 
.songs of protest, praise, or any other aspect of the Black experience 
in America or the Diaspora. With her all-femiile group. Sweet Honey 
in the Rock, Reagon has sung and recorded the music of many 
noted gospel songwriters as well as her own original compositions. 

In this urban community— where one can hear blues, jazz, rock, 
rhythm 'n blues, soul, and rap — Black gospel music exerts a 
tremendous presence and influence. Among its most important 
functions, aside from its being music for worship, is its role as a 
medium of community spirit and cultural identity for a large part of 
D.C.'s Black population. In a city where government is the principal 
business and community identity can be obscured by the over- 
whelming image of the national capital, it is often important to haxe 
a tangible symbol of one's own distinct importance within the 
larger whole. Gospel music serves that function. This music con- 
nects people to their roots and reaffirms their sense of community. 



Suggested mic/iri}; 

Broughton, Viv. Black Go^el—An Illustrated 

History of the (jospel Sound. New York: Sterling 

Publishing Co., Inc.. igH''. 

Heilbut, Tony. The (jospel SoutuL New York: 

Simon & Schuster, 1971. 

Levine, Lawrence. Black Culture and Black 

Consciousness. O.xford, London, New York: 

O.xford L'ni\ersit>- Press, 1979. 

Williams-Jones, Pearl. "Atro- American Gospel 

Music: A Crystallization of the Black Aesthetic." 

Jounuil of the Society for Ethnomusicology 

19(Sept. 19''5):3^3 385. 

Suggested recordings 
Bernice Johnson Reagon, Rirerof Life- 
Harmony Oneib'Wing Fish Records, Inc., 
FF411). " 

77)e Famous Spiritual ami Gospel Festii al 1965 
Recorded Lire in Bremen, Vest Germany, With 
Bishop Samuel Kelsey< and His Congregation 
from Washington, D. C ( L & R Records GmbH, 
LR44.005 ). 

Bible WayAlltlx Way "Lire "Feattiring Elder 
Michael Ro.gers, Bishop Huie Rogers in a gos- 
pel sermonette, and the Bible Wa\' National 
Youth Choir { GosPearl Records, PL- 1601 1 ). 

VC'intleN- Phipps, WeAiv 0/(C'( .SereniU' Records, 
SR-1"'7H). 

The Richard Smallwc k x.\ Singers, Psalms ( D.C. 
contemporan' gospel nuisic ) ( Onvx Records, 
R03833). 



21 



Frank Fmschan is afolklotist in the Smith 
soniiin 's Office oJ'Folklife Pmgrarns and a 
doctoral candidate in folklore at the Univemity 
of Texas at Austin. Since 1980. fjelyasheen 
collaborating with Kmhmii. tOjmer, and Lao 
refugees in Texas, California, the Washington 
area, and etseivhere. 



Language in the New- 
Nation— Jefferson 
and Rush 

by Frank Proschan 

Today's Americans, celebrating the Bicentennial of the U.S. 
Constitution, look back, as their predecessors have, to the wisdom 
of the early patriots for guidance concerning present-day social 
problems and issues. In 1987, as in 1787, America's linguistic 
diversity' and cultural variety iU"e seen by some as threats to national 
unity and by others as a primary resource for national strength. As 
the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia to solidify the 
new republic, one of ever\' ten Americans spoke another language 
th:m English as their mother tongue. The largest minority language 
at the time was German, but sizable numbers of residents of the 
thirteen newfy liberated states spoke French, Dutch, Spanish, and 
uncounted Native American and African languages. Contemporary 
debates on language issues were not uncommon, but they usually 
centered on whether American English should be distinguished 
from the English of the British Isles and rarely considered whether 
languages other than English should be encouraged, tolerated, or 
suppressed. 

The Constitution itself is silent on the matter of a national 
language. The Continental Congress published the Articles of 
Confederation in English and German, and ordered other public 
documents printed in English, German, and French. After this first 
burst of official multilingualism, howexer, English soon became the 
dominant language of government. Indeed, the status of language 
in the emerging nation was not even discussed by the delegates to 
the Constitutional Comention. Yet the model of government that 
e\'olved during the deliberations of the Com-ention was one firmly 
grounded in a philosophy of pluralism: di\ersit\' of opinions and 
experiences was amply protected through the mechanisms balanc- 
ing the interests of the states and the nation, and of the three 
branches of government. Religious and cultural pluralism, ad- 
dressed only in passing in the Constitution itself, was nevertheless 
debated during the Convention and was included prominently in 
the first amendments, the BiD of Rights. 

In the face of this historical silence on the issue of language in 
the new nation, we can look to the writings of two people for 
evidence that linguistic diversity' was enthusiastically embraced by 
at le:ist some of the founding generation: the Philadelphia ph\'sician 
Benjamin Rush and the Virginia statesman Thomas Jefferson. 
Neither took part in the proceedings of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, although Rush followed e\'ents closely through frequent 
conversations with delegates, and Jefferson monitored develop- 
ments from his diplomatic post in Paris. Their opinions, however, 
were part of the inteUectual currency of the day, debated over 



22 





^J^y/i^JXJAMIN Mr '.^/I. 






tfrA//f4 



/'/ - 



dinner tables, in correspondence, and in newspapers. Those opin- 
ions have striking resonances with modern dialogues on related 
topics. 

Benjamin Rush, a native speaker of both English and German, 
wiis a physician, inventor, and educator. An adherent of direct and 
straightfoiward speech, he abhorred Greek and Litin as the refuge 
of pedants who would disguise their ignorance in the cloak of 
antiquity. In 1789 he wrote about his "attempt to bring the dead 
languages into disrepute" in a letter to Vice-President John Adams, 
asking, "Do not men use Latin and Greek as the scuttlefish emit 
their ink, cmi purpose to conceiil themselves from an intercourse 
with the common people?" He advocated education that would 
prepare people to be useful citizens and effective members of 
government, and he insisted that plain speech was preferable to 
learned twaddle. Rush anticipated the tenet of linguistic relativity', 
suggesting that all languages are pt)tentidly equal in their rational 
power and inteUectUcil capacities. Even an Indian language was as 
suitable to the de\elopment of reason and of responsible citizens as 
Greek or Latin, Rush noted. "A man who is learned in the dialect of 
a Mohawk Indian," he wrote in 1785, "is more fit for a legislator 
than a man who is ignorant even in the language of the learned 
Greeks." 

Rush was iilso a pioneer advocate of bilingual education, propos- 
ing the establishment of a German college in a 1785 letter "To the 
Citizens of Pennsylvania of German Birth and Extraction." He 
claimed that "German youth will more readily acquire knowledge 
in the [German] language . . . [and will] be more easily instructed in 
the principles of their own religion in their own language." More 



Beni.niiin Rush, by James Akin, 1800, Courtesy 
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. 

Thomas letterson, b\' James Akin. IHOO, Courtesy 
National Portrait Gallery. Smithsonian Institution. 



23 



SIttittI M 9onD(tf it. tr. 
• • • 

Itnartlfd. ^^§!ft gjamc bitfff SBun. 
t^f; ctS<®<iio|T<nf*af( foil 
v©J (ton: " Cie Vczei* 
ti^aeett @taiieeii von '2lmttica.ii 

U. artitd. 3eOtt etaat beMIc fuint un. 
I)(f(t)t(intf tt SSSactit/ i^robcit unD Unobljansiigfeit 
unD allt Wtiralt, unD SBotmd§iafnt uiiD :K«cbt/ 
iwlitK« Dutd) bi«fcn SunD Ojncn QJatiriigreii 
ifetaittrn im (TcngreJ oetfamltr, ni(l)t au*Dru* 
lid) juetfant itoiDm. 

III. areifcL S)iefl«iwnten®(aa(«nunb;c« 
bcr @tjat infonBer()t(t, ttrtdi bi«mit untir em. 
dnDtr (u ibrer 3«nKinfitiiftli(t)en QJn'btiOigung, 
iSldjfrttit \hm 'Sttpbtiren, n>«l)fcl|e(tig(ii unti 
nigenionen 2Gol)l|iibH in cinen rc|1cn 8reun0= 
fdiafi<>^unD/ mt vabinttn fid) einanDn nt- 
!'(§.iill( Drol)tiiD< (ittroalt/ oiitr gtgoi iK,aufi\<, 
exxt oncmt(if(lb«ngemad)tin'2lngciff mgfii Dtr 
9i(lifliO[i,Ob£rl)i:trfci)a|t;0anClung oDtr iintftfi. 
nlgen anDcrn ^'ioiitaBbe, cil babt O^amtn me ti 
^lU/ b(0iu|)(b(n. 

IV. 2lrtifcl. Um bic rettbfdftitigj Sf'unb' 
fibafit unb PieiiKiiiftboft unter Den !8tn>obnern 
Nt untirlcbieOlicbtn Staawn in Diefm ijiunbe 
tcfto licbtrer iu tliUtn unb bt|(iinbig ju macbcn, 
fo fcU«n tie t'tdien Cintecbncr einei )<Dcn iia 
ftr e.rajfcn, 5>cftlsr, VunOlheittiet uno ,^lucbt> 
lmg« Don Dicfuni 3JecbK au«gcnoram«n, ?ln|pruct) 
ouf alls >;)ri»il(gien unb -^orredxe frtpn JBur-- 
flor bit DtrftbitDcncn (gtiwtcn b«b«n ; unb bi« 

a !Pi-vfoncn 

The German edition of the Articles of 
Confederation. 1774. Courtesy Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. 



important, he asserted, was that "by teaching and learning in their 
own language, they will sooner acquire a perfect knowledge of the 
English language." A college teaching students in the German 
language "will open the eyes of the Germans to a sense of the 
importance and utility of the English language and become perhaps 
the only possible means, consistent with their liberty, of spreading a 
knowledge of the English language among them." The larger goal, 
for Rush, was to eradicate "ignorance and prejudice . . . that keeps 
men of different countries and religions apart" in order to allow 
"Germans to unite more intimately with their British and Irish 
fellow citizens and thus to form with them one homogeneous mass 
of people." 

Rush's proposal was taken up by his readers, and in June, 1787, as 
the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia, Rush traveled to 
Lancaster for the consecration of Franklin College. In his remarks to 
the trustees of the new college. Rush emphasized that the desire of 
his fellow Germans "to establish their language in Pennsylvania" 
was balanced by a realization that "they must prepare to be called to 
assist in the government of the United States. The English language 
will be absolutely necessary to qualify them for usefulness in our 
great national legislature." At the same time, he emphasized, the 
college would play a vital role in promoting the German language: 
"By means of this College the German language will be preserved 
from extinction and corruption by being taught in a grammatical 
manner," and Pennsylvanians of German descent would serve as 
ambassadors conveying the cultural, scientific, and literary accom- 
plishments of Germany to the United States. 

No American of the time was more accomplished in the cultural, 
scientific, and literary spheres than Thomas Jefferson. His pioneering 
work in ethnology and linguistics is little known, however, in 
comparison with his contributions to philosophy, government, and 
education. Fluent in French, Spanish, and Italian, and literate in 
Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon, Jefferson was particularly concerned 
with the evolution of English in the new nation. He welcomed new 
coinages, offering as an example the \'eiy word "neologism"; it was, 
he claimed, "a good word, well sounding and obvious, and 
expresses an idea which would othei'wise require circumlocution." 
Through "judicious neology" the language of America would be 
improved, even at the risk of diverging from that of England. In 
1813 he wrote: 

Certainly so great growing a population, spread over such an 
extent of countrv', with such a variety of climates, of 
productions, of arts, must enlarge their language, to make it 
answer its purpose of expressing all ideas, the new as well as 
the old. The new circumstances under which we are placed, 
call tor new words, new phrases, imd for the transfer of old 
words to new objects. An American dialect will therefore be 
formed . . . 

Jefferson viewed the process of neologization and the existence 
of dialectal diversity within the English language in a strikingly 
modern way, an approach that distanced him from the efforts of 
some to establish an "American Academy of Language and BeUes 
Lettres" that would develop a single standard American language 



24 



and preserve it from corruption and debasement. Jefferson was 
skeptical of the effectiveness of such language planning or of similar 
efforts to simplify American spelling. Even dictionaries had little 
persuasive force, nor should they. Jefferson wrote that "dictionaries 
are but the depositories of words already legitimated by usage. 
Society is the workshop in which new ones are elaborated. When 
an individual uses a new word, if ill formed, it is rejected in society; 
if well formed, adopted, and after due time, laid up in the 
depository' of dictionaries. "Jefferson's democratic faith in the 
people extended to language: it was society itself, and not some 
self-appointed arbiters, who would determine the shape that 
American English took. 

Jefferson's democratic vision extended as well to those who 
spoke other languages than English. As a founder of the University 
of Virginia, he ad\ocated instruction in the modern languages: 
French as "the language of general intercourse among nations," 
Spanish as the language of "so great a portion of the inhabitants of 
our continents, with whom we shall probably have great intercourse 
ere long . . .," as well as German and Italian. And throughout his life- 
he pursued his own fascination with the languages and cultures of 
the Native Americans, collecting "about 30 vocabularies, formed of 
the same English words, expressive of . . . simple objects . . ." so as 
to "arrange them into families and dialects." Indeed, even as the 
Framers convened in Philadelphia, the first American editic:)n of 
Jefferson's Notes on the State ofVirgmiav^ws published, with its 
discussions of Indian archeology', customs, :ind languages. 

In the Afo/fsjefferson turned to the question "from whence came 
those aboriginals of America?" Noting the possibilities of Arctic 
passage from Europe or Asia, Jefferson suggests that "a knowledge 
of their several languages wc:)uld be the most cenain evidence of 
their derivation which could be produced. In fact, it is the best 
proof of the affinity' of nations which ever can be referred to." Such 
e\idence, he insists, must be gathered while it can: "It is to be 
lamented then, very much tc^ be lamented, that we have suffered so 
many of the Indian tribes already to extinguish, without our having 
previously collected and deposited in the records of literature, the 
general rudiments at least of the languages they spoke." Jefferson's 
regret was not simply' for die loss of abstract scientific knowledge— he 
had a genuine concern for the Indians as fellow humans, extending 
from his early childhood to his death. 

Jefferson was a statesman as well as a scholar, and he pioneered 
government involvement in the scientific study of language and 
culture. While fulfilling his duties as Vice-President and later 
President of the Republic, he iilso sat as president of the American 
Philosophical Society, encouraging its early ethnographic activities 
and enlisting suppon "to inquire into the Customs, Manners, 
Languages and Chai-acter of the Indian naticMis, ancient and mod- 
ern, and their migrations." In the same era he proposed expedi- 
tions to the regions west of the Mississippi, pledging his own funds 
to underuTite such explorations. Following the Louisiana Purchase 
in 1803, Jefferson lost little time in mobilizing the Lewis and Clark 
exhibition, instructing them in ethnographic method and ( proba- 
bly assisted by Benjamin Rush ) preparing a detailed questionnaire 



25 



Suggested reading 

Chinard, Gilbert. "Jefferson and the American 
Philosophical Societ>-." In Proceedings of 
the American Philosophical Society 
8-(1943):263-2"'6. 

Fishman, Joshua A. et al. The Rise and Fall of 
the Ethnic Ret ii n/ Perspectii 'es on Language 
and Ethnicity. New York: Mouton Publishers, 
1986. 

Hallowell, A. Irving. "The Beginnings ot An- 
thropologs' in America." Selected Papers from 
the American Anthropologist 18881 920, ed. 
Frederica de Laguna. E\anston: Row, Peterson 
and Compam', 1960. 

Jefferson, Thomas. Tlx>mas Jefferson Papers. 
Washington: Libran- of Congress, 19"'4. 
Notes on the State of Vir- 
ginia. Chapel Hill: Lni\ersit\' of North Carolina 
Press. 1955. 

Klo.ss, Heinz. V.v American Bilingual Tradi- 
tion. Rowle\', MA Newbun House, 1977. 
Leibowitz. Arnold. "The Imposition of English 
as the Language of In.struction in American 
Schools '. Refista de derecho puertorriqueno 
10(1970):175-244. 

Rush, Benjamin. Letters of Benjamin Rush. ed. 
L.H. Butterfield. Princeton: Princeton Uni\ersit\- 
Press, 1951. 



to elicit sociological, ethnographic, folkloric, and linguistic 
information. 

Importantly, one of the prominent goals assigned to Lewis and 
Clark was similar to Rush's stated intention in teaching Germans in 
their own language: to promote more effective acculturation of the 
Indian peoples in order that they might be brought more fully into 
the polity of the growing nation. Jefferson instaicted Lewis and 
Clark that "considering the interest which every nation has in 
extending and strengthening the authority' of reason and justice 
among the people around them, it will be useful to acquire what 
knowledge you can of the state of morality, religion and informa- 
tion among them, as it may better enable those who endeavor to 
civilize and instruct them, to adapt their measures to the existing 
nations and practices of those on whom they are to operate." 

In the two centuries since Rush and Jefferson first considered 
issues of linguistic diversity in the new republic, Americans have 
continued to debate about the American English language and 
about the place of non-English languages in American life. In that 
time the languages spoken in the United States have been dimin- 
ished through the disappearance of numerous Native American 
languages and the death or assimilation of their speakers. The 
number of American languages has also increased througli new 
immigration — first from Eastern and Southern Europe, the Middle 
East, China, Japan, and the Philippines. In recent decades speakers 
of numerous languages from Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, 
Southeast Asia, and the Pacific have joined the American chorus. As 
citizens continue to weigh the complicated issues of language in 
the United States, we can usefiilly return to the wisdom of those like 
Rush and Jefferson who pioneered such discussion. 



26 



American English: A 
Diverse Tongue 

by Walt Wolfram 

It takes little linguistic sophistication to recognize that American 
English comes in a variet)' of forms. A native resident of nonhern 
Michigan traveling south to New Orleans cannot help but notice the 
patchwork of dialect differences along the way, while the native of 
New Orleans traxeling nonh experiences a mirror image of these 
( )bservations. Dialect variation in the United States is hardly a recent 
phenomenon, for as long as English has been spoken in the New 
Wodd, diiilect differences have been noted. During the earliest 
periods the difference between the English spoken in the colonies 
and that spoken in England was the main focus of attention. The 
de\eloping features distinguished American from British English, 
becoming a symbolic token of emerging independence. With the 
securitv' of national independence, the different strands of Ameri- 
can English itself were freed to represent the blossoming cultural 
and regional traditions within the L'nited States. 

^'hy is it that American English has become such a diverse 
tongue and that this variation persists in the face of strong 
institutional pressures to le\el these differences? The answer is at 
once simple and complex as historic:il, cultural, physiccil, and 
linguistic factors intersect in different configurations to demark the 
dialectal lines that run across the United States. 



Walt Wolfram is a professor of Communica- 
tion Arts and Sciences at the University' of the 
District of Columbia a?id Director of Research 
at the Center for Applied Linguistics. Oter the 
past two decades Dr Wolfram has conducted 
research and uiitten numerous hooks arul 
articles on the major regional and ethnic dia- 
lects of American English, including Appata 
chian English. Ozark English, Vernacular Black 
Englisix Puerto Rican English. American In 
dian ( Puebloan) English, and, most recenth; 
Vietnamese English 



The major dialect regions of the l'nited States 
summarized. From American Regional Dia- 
lects A Word Geographyhy Craig M. Carver. 
'1987 by the University- of Michigan. Courtesy 
The University of Michigan Press 



0| NORTHWEST 




STERN 
W ENGU^ND 



Souttl^Sfern Pennsylvania 



V'ngi:«a Piedmont 
Upper 
-•. Atlantic South 

■rth Carolina 

Atlantic South 



ScuUiern California 



27 




Raconteur Alex Kellam ( slanding) in Tom's 
Grocen. Ewell, Smith Island. Marsland. 1977. 
Photo by Carl Reischhauer, courtesy American 
Folkllfe Center, Library of Congress 



By world standards of language life, English in the United States is 
not old, so that the influence of origin^ settlement patterns is still 
apparent. Of course, English in America never was a homogeneous 
variety as early settlers brought different varieties of the language 
from different regions of England to begin with, and these dialects 
helped set the stage tor continuing \xu'iation. 

The patterns of English spread westward from cultural centers on 
the coast. Fixe early centers were instrumental in establishing this 
original linguistic divergence: Boston, Philadelphia, Tidewater Vir- 
ginia, Charleston, and New Orleans. These original centers, and the 
subsequent migratory routes of the population from these points, 
are still apparent in the dialects of American English as shown in the 
map summarizing the major dialects in the United States. For the 
Anglo population most of the majc:>r dialect boundaries run an 
east-to-west route, following the major routes of migration taken by 
this population. For non-Anglo groups the dialectal boundaries run 
a different course. The Black population, located predominantK' in 
the South originally, shows dialectal lines following a south-to-north 
migrator)' route. The influence of southern coastal Black \arieties 
from the Carolines is still apparent in the Black population in 
eastern urban areas such as Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, and 
New York Cit>^ and the influence of the deep South dialects is found 
in the Black population of northern industrial cities such as 
Chicago, Detroit, and Clevekmd. 



28 





The reasons for settlement and migratory movement naturally 
reflect deeper cultural trends, molded both by the group itself and 
its contact histon with other groups. The first settlers in New 
England, lor example, came prim^uily from eastern and southern 
rural England, Loringing with them farming and fishing expressions 
that ha\e distinguished New England speech to the present. On the 
other hand, early movement to Rliode Island was motivated by the 
search for a religious refuge from New England in much the same 
way that New England itself was England's refuge, and the dialects 
of Rlncxle Island today therefore reflect similarities and differences 
with other New England groups. The story of each regional and 
cultural group is different, but in each case its dialect can be traced 
to an arra)' of cultural and historical factors that shaped settlement 
and migration. 

The paths of dialect patterning across the United States have also 
been molded by a topography that determined where people went 
and how they got there. Important rivers such as the Ohio and 
Mississippi played a significant pmx in the establishment of Ameri- 
can English dicilects as pioneers established inland networks of 
commerce and communication. We are therefore not surprised to 
find a major dialect route in America running in tandem with the 
course of the Oiiio River. Eunhermore, terrain which naturally 
isolates groups typically plays an important role in defining abrupt 
dialect di\'isions. Thus, a distinctive localized English variety was 



Certain language traits are common to rural 
Black English and Appalachian English, but 
other features differentiate them. A grcKen . 
.Stem. Nonh Carolina, 1940. Photo by Jack Delano, 
courtesy Library of Congress 



29 



fostered in Tangier and Smith Islands, off the coast of Mar^'land, 
where small fishing communities were cut off from the mainland. 
And, on the Sea Islands, off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, 
physical isolation combined with social isolation to maintain an 
historical Creole language among Black residents which still sounds 
more like the Caribbean Creoles than the mainland dialects of 
English. 

One of the most prominent vernacular dialects of English 
flourished in the historically isolated southern Appalachian moun- 
tain range. Along with a vocabulary replete with distinctions 
relevant to the indigenous ways of the area, a number of older 
English forms can be found in this dialect, such as the pronuncia- 
tion of it2s hit ox: the use of the prefix a- as in They ivent a-huntin 
and a-fishin'. These forms have sometimes led language romantics 
to claim that pure Elizabethian English is retained in this region. 
While older, "relic" forms can be found, our language is always 
changing, and the d\'namic processes of language typically combine 
something old with something new in the development of a dialect. 
Speakers with rural, agriculturally-based lifestyles have traditionally 
resisted some of the changes associated with linguistic urbaniza- 
tion. Their tenacity in holding on to certain older ways of speaking, 
however, is juxtaposed with the continuing, independent develop- 
ment of the dialect. 

Along the paths of resettlement and migration, contact with other 
language groups takes place, and these contacts contribute in 
essential ways to the definition of dialect as well. These influences 
have contributed to the general nature of American English as well 
as regional dialects where contact is more intensive and localized. 
In the 17th century words like moccasin, racoon, and chipmunk 
were incorporated from the primary influence of American Indian 
languages, whereas French in the 18th century gave us words like 
bureau, depot, And prairie. German contributed delicatessen, kin- 
dergarten, and hamburger io the general lexicon of American 
English while Spanish gave it canyon, rodeo, 2nd patio. Regionally, 
French gave New Orleans lagniappe, a small present; German gave 
southwest Pennsylvania stollen, a kind of cake; and Spanish gave the 
Southwest arroyo, a kind of gully. Features of traditional ritual, 
cuisine, and topography, so integrally woven into the definition of 
cultural regions, are often among the most sensitive barometers of 
dialect differences in lexicon, but more subtle influences are found 
in pronunciation and grammatical patterns as well. 

Although much historical interest in American English dialects 
has focused on regional variation, these areal and cultural distinc- 
tions imariably intersect with social differentiation within the 
community itself, whether it is a southern rural area or a large 
northern metropolitan one. In fact, it is difficult to talk about 
regional dialect differences in English without qualifying these in 
terms of socioeconomic differences, and the failure to make these 
qualifications often leads to unjustified stereotyping. 

Social dialects are, of course, just another behavioral manifesta- 
tion of status differences within a community. Pygmalion has rightly 
taught us that language may be considerably more significant than 
other, more superficial manifestations of cultural differences, but 



30 



there is also a more subtle message to be understood: dialect 
s>'mbolically represents positive attributes of community' life and 
social identity. The values of group solidarity and communit)' 
identity may actually provide quite strong reinforcement for the 
maintenance of different dialects. From this perspective the rejec- 
tion of a local dialect may be interj^reted as a rejection of the 
heritage of the group itself, and there are countless stories of people 
who couldn't return home comfortably without making symbolic 
readjustments back to their native dialect. 

The media explosion of the past half century and the increasingly 
accessible geography of the United States have caused some 
language forecasters to predict that present-day dialect differences 
will soon go the way of the horse and bugg>'. Certainly, some 
leveling has taken place over the past fifty years, and people of 
different regional and social backgrounds may now be more 
familiar with other dialect groups than they once were. But those 
who understand the symbolic significance of dialects are unfazed 
by such premature predictions of dialect death. Language diversity 
is so intrinsically tied in with cultural and ethnic di\'ersit\' that the 
persistence of dialects is guaranteed through the maintenance of 
diverse cultures and lifestyles. In fact, dialects, the soul of language, 
can be counted on to outlast many more superficial manifestations 
of culture. 



Suggestnl reacliiifi 

American Speech A Quarterly Journal of Lin- 
guistic Usage. Published b>- the Uni\'ersit\' of 
Alabama Press, for tlie American Dialect Society-. 
Carver, Craig M, American Regional Dialects. A 
Word Geography. Ann Arbor: The f Iniversity of 
Michigan Press, 1987, 

CassicK-, Frederic G, Ed., Dictionary of Ameri- 
can Regional English, AC Cambridge: Belknap 
Press of Harvard Universit>- Press, 1985. 
Ferguson, Charles and Shirley Brice Heath, eds. 
Language in the USA New York: Cambridge 
Universit>' Press, 1981. 

Suggested film 

American Tongues, by Louis Alvarez and Andrew 

Kolker. Center for New American Media, New 

York. 

Suggested videotex 

The Storyi of English, by Robert MacNeil, Public 
Broadcasting Service. 



31 



Nick Spilzer, on the staff of the Office of Folk 
life Programs, sen <edfor set vn years as Louisi- 
ana Slate h'olklorisl. He has worked with Cajun 
and Creole French communities to produce a 
film, LP's, and publications about traditional 
culture in south Louisiana. 



Talking (JHin French in Maniou. Louisiana. 
Photo © by Philip Gould 



Tdchepas lapatate: '' 

French in Louisiana 

by Nicholas R. Spitzer 

Middle-aged Cajuns often tell a story about being punished as 
children for speaking French at school. One punishment, aside 
from whipping, was to have students write 1000 times, "I will not 
speak French on the school grounds." It was an officially sanctioned 
de\'aluation of French Louisiana's language and culture which in 
turn encouraged this generation not to teach French to its own 
children. However, there is also evidence of resistance. People tell a 
joke about unAmericain teacher instructing country children in 
numbers: 

"All right children ever^'one say 'one.' " 

"One," is the dutiful class response. 

"OK children," continues the teacher, "say 'two'." 

The class jumps up to leave with one boy exclaiming, "Merci 
maitress, on va tu ro/r.'"( Thanks teacher, see you later). Inter- 
preting "c'est /0M/"( that's aU), the class has a joke at the teach- 
er's expense. 

Cajuns and Black Creoles of south Louisiana still use humor to 
criticize negative views of their culture, though increasingly in the 
last two decades the \arious dialects of Louisiana French ha\'e not 




32 




CONSEILLER 



EST-CE QUE VOS 
ENFANTS APPRENNENT 
LE FRANCAIS A L'ECOLE 



been seen as sources of stigma to their speakers. To the contrary, 
Lt)Liisiana French, along with Cajun and zydeco music, Cajun/ Creole 
food, and hundreds of festiviils — from the boosteristic Rayne Frog 
Festi\'al to the mcjre traditional Prairie Laurent coutir de Mardi Gras 
( Mardi Gras run ) — are emblems of cultural renaissance in the re- 
gion as a whole. "Ldche pas ki patate" (Don t let go of the potato) is 
one of many sayings that symbolize the new res(^liiteness about 
"holding on" to \arious aspects of the regional traditional culture 
including the French language. 

Language scholars ha\e historically divided Louisiana French into 
three categories: Colonial French, Cajun French, and French" Creole. 
Colonial French wits spoken b\' Louisiana's initid European settlers— 
farmers, planters, craftsmen, mercantilists— who came directly from 
France or the French West Indies. This Continentiil French of I8th 
century- deri\'atit)n is characterized b>' broader, longer vowels, ar- 
chaic usages, and semantic shifts (i.e. banquette['iooi path] and 
char[ci\n\ now mean "sidewalk" and "automobile" ). This tc)rm of 
Louisiana French — associated with now deftinct newspapers like Le 
Meschacebe'm St. John the Baptist Parish ( 1853-1925 ) and Le Courrier 
de la Noiivelle 0>#a;zs( 1902- 1955) as well iis private Catholic school 
instruction — is now restricted to a few long-settled French families 
in New Orleans and plantation/ farm areas along the Mississippi. 
Most of the old elite and middle ckiss speakers of this French were 
absorbed into the general Anglo-American society where commerce 
dictated English. 

Cajun French, with much sub-regional variation, is the most widely 
spoken type in south Louisiana today. The Cajuns, descendants of 
the late ISth-centuiy Acadian reftigees from what is now Nova Sco- 
tia, formed a relativeh' isolated airal society oipetits habitants— small 
farmers, herdsmen, fishermen, trappers — until the 20th century. 
Cajun French dialects, like the Cajuns themselves, have ancestral 
sources in provincial Normandy, Picardy, Brittany, and Poiteau fil- 
tered through the Maritime French of the 17th-18th centuries. As a 
resuk of the latter influence, seafaring terms like baler { "pull" ) and 
amarreri "to moor" ) are often used today rather than the standard 
//rerand attacber. Toda\', the coastal prairie landscape of south 



COnOFIL signs were wiitteti in .suuidiird Frt-ncli 
for a region where the language v\us prinianly 
oral. Tlie texLs beeanie less jnipon.uii than pub- 
lic placement ol the sign in the battle lor lin 
guistic and cultural recognition. 



33 




Inez Catalan of Kaplan, Louisiana, is a singer of 
ballads and humorous songs in Cajun and 
Creole. Photo by Nicholas R. Spitzer 



Louisiana also has many place names such as Isle a Jean Charles 
(Jean Charles Island), Poitite d' Eglise (Church Point) and VAnse 
Maigre (Meager Cove). In Cajun French, open French vowels tend 
to be flattened and closed. The varied lexemic (word) inventory of 
Cajun French — shared to a large extent with Colonial French and 
French Creole— reflects contact in the New World with Africans 
(gombo, "okra"; congo, "snake"; gris-gris, "charm"), Native Ameri- 
cans ( bayou from the Choctaw bayuk, "stream"; chaoui, "raccoon"; 
maringoin, "mosquito"), and Spanish ( banane, "banana"; gregue, 
"drip coffee pot"; lagniappe irom Caribbean Spanish napa, "a little 
extra" or "small gift"). 

French Creole is referred to as such ( rather than Creole French) 
because it originates in part from different roots than Louisiana 
Cajun or Colonial French. The word Creole ( pron: cray-ole) derives 
from the Latin-based Ponuguese cn'ow/o ( "native to a region"). In 
Louisiana, Creole originidly referred to colonial French and Spanish 
populations bom in the New World. Over time Creole has come to 
refer to people of African, French/Spanish, and Native American 
descent. The French Creole language resulted from the expansion 
of the contact pidgin language spoken betv^een French and African 
peoples in the slave/plantation sphere of West Africa and the Carib- 
bean. Sometimes derisively called Gombo French, FranqaisNeg 
and Couri-Vini (from the minimal Creole verb stems for "to go" 
and "to come"), Louisiana Creole shows great similarity to French 
Creole in Haiti, French West Africa, and even Mauritius in the Indian 
Ocean. Louisiana Creole is largely composed of French words. How- 
ever, its phonology, and particularly its grammar, mark the deepest 
forms of the language as different from French and more akin to 
other Caribbean Basin Creoles (Jamaican Creole, Surinam Taki-Taki, 
and Georgia Sea Island Gullah). 

The following features, among many, characterize Louisiana Cre- 
ole: 1 ) absence of a "to be" verb (also noted in creole forms of 
Black English); 2 ) use of aspect markers for time such as te ( past), 
pe (progressive), r<3 (future) and sa (conditional); and 3) a trans- 
formed set of pronouns and possessives like mo (I, me, mine), to 
(you, your), //(he, she, it, its) and j'e (they, them, their). Those who 
dismiss creole languages as simplistic are often naive about their 
creative syntax, relative lack of redundancy, and total appropriate- 
ness in context. A comparison is striking. 

STANDARD FRENCH: 

Je sais que lafemme etait fdchee; elle reviendra demain. 
FRENCH CREOLE: 

Mo connais femme-la te fdchee; li vape vini back demain. 
ENGUSH 

I know the woman was angry; she will be back tomorrow. 

Creole is still spoken by some older Blacks in the downriver 
neighborhoods of New Orleans, but its primary locus for Black and 
some poorer White speakers is in plantatic:>n zones along Bayou 
Teche and the Mississippi. Speakers of French and Creole in Louisi- 
ana generally consider Creole to be a dialect of French — and the 
least prestigious one at that. One Creole-speaking Black man from 
St. Martinville, who refers to Creole as "French," adds, "In Africa I 
guess they don't speak nothing else." 



34 



Sadly, many Creole speakers, under pressure from speakers of 
Cajun, ColcMiial French, or English, consider their language to be 
"broken," "backward," or "poorly spoken" French. In this dim light 
19th-century theories of physiognomy regarding lip and tongue 
thickness as well as intelligence are sometimes invoked by non- 
Creole speakers to explain why Creole exists. Over time contact 
between local populations and the increased national impact of 
English in eroding both Cajun French and Creole have tended to 
level the linguistic differences between them — and a majority of the 
)'oung people iU"e now monolingual in English. As such, the kirger 
issues of language loss and related cultural devaluation transcend 
the formal and historical differences between Cajun and Creole. 

Increasing Americanization of French Louisiana through contact 
with the outside world was accentuated in the 19th century by the 
Civil War and post-Reconstruction economic development. French 
was banned as a language of instruction in Louisiana public schools 
in 1913 and laws, including the state constitution, were no longer 
printed bilinguiill\- after I916. Accelerated erosion of French culture 
in the 20th century was fueled by the growth of the oil industry. 
This growth, along with new bridges cind roads built by the Huey 
Long administration, brought in English-speaking outsiders in vast 
numbers for the first time. English also dominated the broadcast 
media, and American country' and big band sounds began to re- 
place Cajun folk music as the entertainment of choice on radios, 
records, and in dancehidls of the '30s and '-iOs. 

Ironically, where national social trends once eroded the French 
language and culture in south Louisiana, they have also acted more 
recenth' to preser\'e them. For example, by the 1960s the national 
focus on ethnicity had spurred the Cajun cultural revival. Part of this 
was represented by the 1968 formation of the Council for the Devel- 
opment of French in Louisiana ( CODOFIL) which was charged 
with teaching French in public schools. CODOFIL used foreign 
teachers to "develop" Standard French and was initially not syanpa- 
thetic to Cajun speech and folk cukure, much less to Creole and 
African influences. CODOFIL's approach has since become more 
positive by utilizing more k)cal teachers and curriculum materials 
and by placing what was considered a "forgettable" language into 
the classroom setting. However, the problems of such a formal 
approach to perpetuation of oral culture have never been fully 
surmounted. 

Perhaps more influential on south Louisiana French conscious- 
ness has been the persistence and emergence of Cajun and Creole 
programs at selected times on regional radio and television stations. 
The French-speaking disc jockey, playing Cajun or Black Creole 
zydeco music produced by a few local and national record compa- 
nies, also presents the latest news, views, and commercials: "Si tu 
I >eut un red hot deal pour iin char or juste pou ' reparer ton auto- 
matic transmission visites-toi Jimmy Paul's Automotive icidans 
gran Crotvley, Louisiane/" ¥o\k music events such as the Cajun 
Music Festival, held annu:ill\' since 1974, and the Zydeco Festival 
since 1983, as well as a revitalized French dancehall circuit have also 
given impetus to the culture as a whole through a primary symbol: 
traditional music sung in French. 



^ 


A 


==^-W 


w 


•UuUii 


^ 


|^*r'S» ■ ' 



-■u. 



Cajun niDtcl Dperjtor.joseph Ardoin ot Eunite, 
Louisiana, recalLs being punished for speaking 
French on the .schcxil grounds. Though he did 
not teach his si.\ children to speak French, his 
youngest daugliter now learns the language in 
school and he finds it useh.il in a new context; 
talking with tourists from France and Canada. 
Photo by Nicholas R. Spitzer 



35 



Suggested reading 

DillardJ.L. "Languages and Linguistic Research 
in Louisiana." In Louisiana Folklife: A Guide to 
the State, ed. Nicholas R. Spitzer. Baton Rouge: 
Uniisiana Folklife Program, 1985. 
Dorman, James, H The People Called Cajuns: 
An Introduction to an Ethnoljistory Lafayette: 
The Center lor Louisiana Studies, 1983. 
Johnson, Jerah. "The Louisiana French." Con- 
temporary French Citilization 1 ( 1 )( 1976): 
1935. 

Maguire, Robert E. "Notes on Language Lse 
Among English and French Creole Speaking 
Blacks in Parks, Louisiana." Projet louisiane, 
document de travail 6. Toronto: McGill L'niver- 
sit>', 1979. 

Oukada, Laibi Louisiana French: An Annotated 
Linguistic Bibliography Lafa^ene: Center for 
Louisiana Studies, 19''9. 
Read, William A. Louisiana-French. Baton 
Rouge: Louisiana State Llniversity Press, 1963. 



Yet the music revival and the French media have not been able to 
overcome the economic and social barriers to maintaining the French 
language in Louisiana. Census data from the kist three decades 
show the absolute and percentage decrease in "mother tongue" 
speakers to be greater than in any previous period — current esti- 
mates are generally less than 500,000 people. As such, the contexts 
of French use in south Louisiana today are increasingly specialized. 

French remains the primary, sometimes the only, language of the 
older generation. It is the language of la maison, grandparental 
wisdom, folktales, and ritual. Those teenagers who can speak some 
French may use it to show respect to grandparents. It is also associ- 
ated with rural dancehalls, trailrides, boucheries, games of bouree, 
and other traditit:)nal entertainments. In mral communities French 
is commonly heard among farmers iind fishermen at local stores 
and community gatherings. It is less likely in formal work settings or 
official public places and occasions. On the other hand, one Cajun 
who works where English is standard says, "When I get hot ( angry-), 
or want to be forceful, I go to my French." Cajun and Creole are also 
often used for humorous occasions when stories and jokes just 
don't translate. Some young Blacks also use Creole for the "on the 
corner" speech of which reputations are made. 

In the context of ethnic consciousness-raising, French is heard at 
festivals, Cajun poetr>' readings, and political rallies. The borders of 
the home region — in southeast Texas, central Louisiana, and gener- 
ally east of the Mississippi — are another place where language is 
used to emphasize group identity. Cajun legislators sometimes find 
it expedient to tweak their non-French associates in Baton Rouge 
with public discussion of particular issues in French. 

The question remains as to what extent Cajun and Creole are in 
the linguistic future of south Louisiana. Well known Louisianans like 
Governor Edwin Edwards and musician Fats Domino speak Cajun 
and Creole respectively. Cajun/Creole food and music are enjoying 
increased popularity nationally. However, speaking French in Loui- 
siana seems less than critical in maintaining the 1980s realization of 
regional Cajun/Creole ethnicity-— especially when French- inflected 
English is now used as an in-group language. Among the disturbing 
side-effects of the English Cajun dialect conjoined with the national 
popukirits' of the culture, is the superficial, minstrel-show- like treat- 
ment of Cajuns and Cajun English on a Public Broadccisting System 
televised cooking program with ( non-Cajun ) Justin Wilson and the 
appearance of ad\ertisements in the Washington Post for a local 
"Cajun" restaurant that proclaim ". . . wah kin ah nami nami un 
supper an' pass a good time?" 

Back home in Louisiana, times are tough. The formerly flush oil 
industiy — bringer of much linguistic, social and en\ironmental 
change — is flat. With the broken promise of the good life upper- 
most in the public mind, Cajuns and Creoles are wondering if they 
can hold onto the "potato." Or will the joke be on them as they say 
"c'est tout" lo French in Louisiana? 



36 



The Yiddish Speaking 
Community in 
New York City 

by Itzek Gottesman 

For the Jews of America, the Yiddish language represents the 
most tangible connection to an Eastern European heritage, a legacy 
which some ha\e retained and enhanced, many have forgotten, and 
others are reclaiming. With the mass immigration ofjews from 
Poland, Russia, Rumania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia that began 
in the 1880s and continued into the 1920s, the Yiddish language 
took root in the United States as the vernacular for miOions ofjews. 
In addition to these older settlers, a new wave of Yiddish-speakers 
immigrated in the 1940s and '50s, Holocaust survivors of the 
Second World War. Most of these immigrants first settled in the 
large urban centers of the United States — New York Cit\', Chicago, 
Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. Nearly all adult Jews in America have 
had first-hand contact with Yiddish: through a piirent, grandparent, 
neighbor, or storekeeper. 

In the past hundred years Yiddish language and culture have 
permeated mainstream American cukure. Examples include words 
like nosh and shlep; foods such as bagels and lox, hot pastrami, and 
knishes; musicals and films such as Fiddler on the Roof ^nd Vend; 
humorists like the Marx Brotliers and Woody Allen; and translations 
of literary works such as those of Nobel prize-winning author Isaac 
Bashe\'is Singer. 

New York City has the largest concentration of Yiddish speakers 
in the countr\'; more than half a million claimed Yiddish as their 
mother tongue according to the 1970 U.S. Census. But it is difficult 
to speak of New York's Yiddish speakers as one unified community. 
In fact, several dynamic communities of Yiddish speakers are there 
today. 

In the Orthodox Hasidic neighborhoods of Borough Park and 
Williamsburg in Brooklyn, Yiddish is spoken in homes, shops, 
streets, and in special separate schools tor boys and girls. Shop signs 
are in Yiddish and two weekly newspapers, Der algemeiner zbunial 
and Deryi'd, have large readerships. The production of Yiddish 
textbooks, children's literature, and recordings is rapidly expand- 
ing. On the joyous holiday Purim, Hasidim perform Yiddish folk 
plays, a tradition that goes back hundreds of years. 

Although Brooklyn's Hasidic neighborhoods constitute the fast- 
est growing population of Yiddish speakers, the Hasidim have little 
contact with the secular cultural community of creative artists and 
kultur-tuers, Yiddish cultural activists. 

One of the mainstays of secuku" Yiddish life is Derfon>erts/The 
Jewish Fonvard, a weekly newspaper that celebrates its 90th 
anniversary this year. A progressive weekly, Morgn freiheit, has been 



Itzek Gottesnuin is a d(Xtorctl stiuletil in 
Folklore and Hotklije at the Uniiersit}' ofPenn 
sylvania in Philadelphia He is a h'eltow of tlye 
Max W'einreich Center for Jewish Research at 
the > A 'O Institute in Neu • > ork u 'here he sen vd 
as an archifist for Jiiv years and is an active 
memberofYugnlrui — Youth for Yiddish His 
cunvnt JleUunrk is with JewL'ih folk performers 
in Eastern European and New Work/ contexts 



37 



The New Westside Viddish School, Photo by 
Vivian Fenster Ehrlich 




publishing since the 1920s. Radio station WEVD ( the call letters are 
the initials of labor leader Eugene Victor Debs) is owned by The 
Jewish Forward dnd broadcasts Yiddish song and music, commen- 
taries on the Talmud, and provides a forum for groups like the 
Jewish Lab(^r Bund, a Socialist-Yiddishist organization. Several 
hundred Landsmafishajten, Jewish Mutual Aid societies, are active 
in New York, sponsoring theater benefits and cultural evenings. 

Yiddish literature written on American soil has a rich and unique 
history- among immigrant literatures. In addition to the newspapers 
mentioned above, a monthly literary journal Di zukunfi publishes 
works by many contemporary New York Yiddish writers. These 
writers of poetr\' and prose are an active community' that organizes 
frequent literary gatherings. Yugntruf—Youlh for Yiddish, a na- 
tioucil student group — has founded a Yiddish Writers' Circle that 
meets monthly. Another cultural institution with a longstanding 
histoiv' is the Yiddish Theater that produced three major produc- 
tions this season. 

New York City is a major center for Yiddish higher education and 
scholarly research. The YicUsher visnshaftlekher institut (known in 
English as the YTVO Institute for Jewish Research ), the world's 
leading Yiddish research facilit}', was originally based in pre-War 
Pokmd with collections on the language, history, and folklore of 
Eastern European Jews. Although most of its irreplaceable archives 
were destroyed by the Nazis, \TVO, now in McUihattan, flourishes as 
a resource for researchers. Columbia University offers a doctorate in 
Yiddish through its Linguistics Department and has trained Yiddish 
teachers across the country. Furthermore, hundreds of students 
have studied Yiddish at Cc)lumbia, YIVO, ^TUHAs and \TVIWAs 
(Young Men's/Women's Hebrew Associations), and other locations 
throughout New York Cit\-. Man\' students had no knowledge of 
Yiddish before attending classes: they were motivated by a need to 
find their "roots" and reclaim their heritage. 

Many Jewish immigrants of the early decades, dthough non- 
obseivant by the Orthodox religious standards, strongly identified 
themselves as Jews. Yiddish language and culture were central to 
this identification. Dozens oi yidishe folkshuln (Jewish folk schools) 



38 




were established for their children to attend after regular school 
hours. These schools served as an alternative to established Hebrew 
schools. Much of the neighborhood's Yiddish cultural life revolved 
around ihe folkshul. 

A vi\'id sense of how the Yiddish kmguage fits into community' 
life can be gained by considering one example — perhaps not 
typical, but illustrative. It is the neighborhood where I grew up, a 
community- in the northern Bronx known to its residents as 
Bainbridgivke, after the main street of Bainbridge Avenue. 

Bainbridgivke residents include Tsunye Rymer from the Ukraine, 
who once owned a neighborhood drv'-cleaning store but is known 
to the community as a reciter of Sholem Aleichem stories. Joshua 
Fishman, a noted sociolinguist, and his wife Gella Fishman, a 
Yiddish pedagogue, were both born in America. My parents come 
from the Bukovina, an area now divided between the U.S.S.R. and 
Romania. My mother Beyle is a Yiddish poet who also sings at social 
fLinctions. My father Yoyne, a medical doctor, provides health 
services in Yiddish to many community' residents. Moyshe 
Nussbaum was a fiddler in his Polish town, but made his living as a 
barber in New York until his retirement. Dr. Mordklie Schaechter, a 
professor in Columbia University's Yiddish program, is preparing a 
compendium of Yiddish plant names that will include more than 
6,000 entries. 

On the corner is the Sholem Aleichem Folk Shul 21, once part of a 
school system named for the great Yiddish writer. Classes began in 
the '30s and continued through the '70s. During these years 
generations of students were exposed to Yiddish language and 



Masqueraders during Purini, ;i Ik j|id;i\ when 
children portra>' characters and incldentb trum 
the MegiUah, in the Hassidic community of 
Williamsburg, a neighborhood in Brooklyn, 
New York. Photo by Irving 1. Herzberg 

Ki isher ice cream parlor in the Hassidic com- 
munit)' of Williamsburg, a neighborhcxid in 
Brooklyn, New York. Photo by Irving I. Herzberg 



39 



Board members in front ot the Sholem Aleichem 
Cultural Center. Photo by Itzek Gottesman 

Suggested reading 

Fishman, GeUe. "Bainbridgivke " Yugnlnif A 
Yiddish Student Quarterly S3 ( I V-c ember 
1982):8-12.|In Yiddish] ' 
Fishman, Joshua A., ed. Nei'er Say Die. A 
Tlxjusatid Years of Yiddish in Jewish Life and 
Letters. Ct)ntributions to the SiKioiogNof Lan- 
guage, no, 30. The Hague: Moulon, 19H1. 

Yiddish in America: 

Sociolinguistic Description and Aruilysis 
Blixjminguin: Indiana Lni\ersir\' Center tor 
Anthropolog\-. Folklore and Linguistics, 196S. 
Poll, .Solomon. Tlje Hasidic Community of 
Williamsburg New York: The Free Press, 1962. 
Rischin, Moses. The Promised City: New York's 
feus. L870-1914. Cambridge: Har\ard L!ni\er 
sit\- Press, 1962. 



HOUM AIE.CHEM f0lKSH0L2. 




literature, Jewish histon- and traditions. The Shul was wideK' knoun 
and respected. Some families, my own included, moved to this 
communitv' so that their children could attend the Shul and grow up 
speaking Yiddish. Now those children have grown up and mo\'ed 
away but still speak Yiddish to each other and their owii children. 

The Shul has been turned into the Sholem Aleichem Kultur 
Tsenter, a cultural center for adults whose members meet tor 
weekly leyenkravzn (veading circles), host a monthly lecture series, 
show Yiddish films, and use the Tsenter's lending library'. Members 
meet informally at each other's homes for coffee, cake, and singing. 

Around the corner from the Tsenter is one of the four Orthodox 
synagogues in the area. Young congregants include several doctors 
from nccirb}' Montefiore and North Central Hc^spitals who speak 
Yiddish with many of their Jewish patients. Down the road is the 
"Aniiilgamated," a cooperati\'e housing project built-by the Amalga- 
mated Gai"ment Workers c:)f America. Many Yiddish writers and 
cultural leaders live here and meet in their own Tsenter. Their 
children attend a Yiddish school sponsored by the Workman's 
Circle, a fraternal organization tliat runs the largest secular Yiddish 
school system in the nation. 

Recently, I was walking down Bainbridge Avenue and ran into a 
young man I had met once at YIVO. A painter in his thirties, he is 
the child of Holocaust sunixors and speaks fluent Yiddish. He had 
recently acted in a Yiddish theater production. While we stood 
talking, a Yiddish actor in his sixties, himself a performer in another 
of this season's productions, walked by. I introduced them. The 
older actor had been looking for \oung talent for his troupe's future 
productions. Soon, phone numbers were exchanged, and another 
intergenerational link was made in New York's Yiddish communit\' 
on a street corner in the north Bronx. 



40 



Language and Culture: 
A Mien Refugee 
Perspective 

by Eric Crystal 

Tribal Cultures of Southeast Asia 

Throughout Southeast Asia the coasts and fertile plains are 
i:)eopled by large ethnic groups that make up tlie majorit\- popula- 
tions of the nation states. These lowland peoples ha\e been 
influenced by the world religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, 
and Christianit)' and ha\e been connected b\- trade, cultural ex- 
change, and political relationships with distant nations and cultures 
for many centuries. By contrast, the peoples in the mountain 
hintedands are divided into many distinct ethnic grt)ups, who 
speak a plethora of mutually unintelligible languages and must 
struggle to presene their ethnic identity- in the face of cultural and 
political pressures from the more powerful and numerous peoples 
of the plains. One of the hundred-plus minority peoples of 
mainland Southeast Asia are the lu Mien, 8,000 of whom have come 
to settle in tiie western United States in recent \'ears. The Mien must 
confront language issues and challenges as they k)ok toward a new 
future in the United States. 
Mien Odyssey 

Known in ethnographic literature as the Yao or Man, more than 
2.5 million Mien cunentK- li\e in East and Southeast Asia. Mien 
communities on the periphen'of Han Chinese civilization have 
been noted in Chinese annals for more than a thousand years, and 
toda\- they are a major minoriU' in C^hina. Mien \illagers were 
pushed into nonhern Laos, Burma, and Vietnam in the last decades 
t)f the Ching dynast\- as imperial ft)rces dislodged them from their 
fertile fields in the vicinity' of Mengla in Yunnan province. Mien 
communities of considerable sizegre\\' up in Nam Tha and Muong 
Sing in northwestern Laos as forced migrations from southern 
China increased with unsettled conditions at the turn of the 
centuiv'. The Mien population of Laos has been estimated at 50,000 
in 1975. 

For most of their existence, the Mien have selectively absorbed 
ceitain aspects of Chinese cukure while successfully maintaining 
their ov^n distinct ethnic identity. The Mien are the only tribal group 
in Southeast Asia to ha\e absorbed Chinese writing into their ritual 
system. Mien religion consists of a complex system of beUefs and 
ritual practices termed Ley Nyey. The Mien priest or sai kungmusl 
be able to read Mien sacred books written in Chinese characters. 
Composing \\'ith brush and inkstone, Mien priests oftentimes 
dispatch letters to the spirit world, burning them together with 
bundles of ersatz paper mone\' in the belief that the essence of such 
offerings will be absorbed by attentive ancestral spirits. 



Anthmpoioiiisi l-'ric Cnvlcilhas worked with 
highlit I u/ peoples of Indonesia and with Cam 
hodian and Laotian refugees in California. He 
receit x'd his Ph. I) from tlx' L 'nil ^ersit^• of Call 
fomia. herkeky. lehere he is currently the 
Program Coordirmlor for llje Center for South 
and Southeast Asia Studies. 




Infant E\' Chin' .Saephan is photographed v\ith 
traditional baby cap in mother's traditional 
baby carrier, Oakland, (^alilornia. Photo by Eric 
Crystal, 1983 



41 




A first generation of Mien female literao- in the 
L'nited Slates. Fuey Sio Sae Chao re\ iews lier 
English language homework shortly after com 
pleting a vear of study in Oakland, California. 
Photo by Eric Crystal, 1981 

A Mien priest re\iews a ritual te.\t shortly 
before commencing a funeral ceremony in 
Oakland, California. Pfioto by Eric Crystal, 1982 



In traditional Mien society' only a limited number of the brightest 
and most privileged young men were admitted to Chinese language 
classes. Their fathers would pool resources to invite a Chinese 
language teacher to li\'e in the \111age and instruct in a school 
specially built for him. Mien women were never included among 
the Mien literati. Indeed, the patrilineal structure of Mien society 
reinforced an extraordinarily rigid bifurcation of male and female 
roles, competencies, and world views. The world of Mien women in 
traditional society was very much a pre-literate world. The commu- 
nir\' thus trained and nurtured a restricted core of priests and village 
leaders able to write Mien language with Chinese characters. The 
majority' of adult miiles and aW of the women in Mien society^ 
remained illiterate through the centuries, exposed neither to formal 
Chinese literacx' training nor to vernacular language instruction in 
distant go\'ernment schools. 

Unique among the highland peoples of northern Laos, the Mien 
nurtured a written tradition, one that they turned to their own 
ethnic ad\'antage. The Mien indeed aver that one of their ancestors 
imented Chinese characters, only to have the precious girt stolen by 
an evil Chinese nobleman who then exiled them to the hills and 
badlands bordering tlie empire. The Mien made great efforts to 
ensure that the tradition of writing would ne\'er l:)e lost, and sacred 
books and some vernacular texts have played a significant role in 
their traditional xillage life. 

Between 1890 and 1963 the Mien de\'ekped prosperous \'illage 
farming communities in northwestern Laos. Meticulous gardeners 
and farmers. Mien soon became renowned as successful entrepre- 
neurs, traders, and dealers in agricultural produce. Mien communi- 
ties became relatively we^ilthy judged by the standards of living and 
accomplishments of other surrounding ethnic minority groups. Yet, 
access to schools, hospitals, and other government services was 
highly restricted for most Mien. Mien \illages were economically 
\ital, largely self-sufficient in foodstuffs and insular in terms of the 



42 



maintenance of ethnic written, spoken, and sung language arts. 

Mien and the War in Southeast Asia 

hi tlie late 1950s, as competing forces sought control over the 
ne\\l\- independent nation of Laos, American agents contacted the 
Mien and trained them to carrv' out reconnaissance missions to the 
Chinese border iuid on into Yunnan. Employed first to monitor 
communications and troop movements, the Mien were later armed 
b\' the L!.S., and engagements with Pathet Lao and Chinese troops 
became commonplace, as the Mien sought to defend their new 
homeland. In 1963 scores of helicopters arrixed to escort infants 
and older people in what was to be a temporiiry evacuation of the 
Mien homeland in Nam Tha. Able-bodied adults and children 
walked for weeks to relocation sites in the foothills. Allied forces 
promised their loyal Mien irregulars that the evacuation would be 
shon lived, that they would be able to return to their fields and 
homes in a few short months, and that the offensive of the 
communist forces in the area would be blunted :md finally de- 
feated. As events would ha\e it, the Mien were forced to li\ e in 
foothiUs near the banks of the Mekong River in the vicinity of Hwei 
Oh and Houei Sai for another decade as the war in Laos raged on 
through 1973. 

Mien Language and Culture in America 

Toda\' more than half of the Mien who lixed in Laos before 1975 
ha\e fled, with nearly twents' percent resettling in yVmerica. Only 
one Mien village remains in Nam Tha, wracked by malaria and other 
diseases. Pathet Lao soldiers cLirrentK' block the few Mien remain- 
ing in their mountain homeland from leaving for more hospitable 
regions. Between eight and nine thousand Mien have been resettled 
in the United States; almost all live on the West Coast, primarily in 
northern California. Perhaps the most tradition^ Indochinese group 
to have resettled in America, the Mien continue to practice their 
indigenous religion, sustain their rich written and oral traditions, 
and maintain daily vernacular language use within their homes. 
Among those here are priests, herbal doctors, massage experts, 
bards, and storytellers. Oftentimes Mien women will record stories 
of life in America in rhymed verse {pao dzung) and send such sung 
messages back to friends and relatixes in Thai refugee camps \ia 
audio cassette. 

The Mien are a small, little known minority within the larger 
Southeast Asian reftigee minority community in America. Their rich 
ceremonial, textual, and oral traditions continue to flourish within 
indixidual households, persisting in almost total isolation from the 
host society, nearby schools, and social service institutions. Califor- 
nia school districts oftentimes ignore linguistic fact and promote 
the fiction that Mien is but a dialect of Lao, a totally unrelated 
language. Yet their new homeland offers opportunities as well: 
Mien females have gained access to literacy almost overnight thanks 
to the dedicated efforts of adult educators and equal access to 
public education. 

Mien religion continues to be practiced by most Mien families in 
California. An aging generaticMT of unacculturated religious and 
community leaders is concerned about the recruitment of a new 



43 



Siiiivested reaiiinns 

BLitlcr Diaz, lacqLielinc-- Yao Design of Northern 

TfMiland. Banj^kok: Siam S(Kiet\-, 1981. 

Campbell, Margaret. From the Hands of the 

Hills. Hong Kong; Media Tran,sa.sia, 1981. 

Knoll, Patricia. Becoming American. Portland: 

Coast to Coast B(X)ks, 1982. 

Lemoine, Jacqties. )'ao Ceremonial Paintings. 

Bangkok: VChite Lotus Ltd., 198-1, 

Leuis, P and E Hill Tribes of the Golden 

Triangle London: Thanie.s and Hudson, 198-4. 

Siigge.sted iutci>t(i/)e 

A Hill Tribe in West Oakland. b\- A. Nomura 
and E. and C, Cr\stal. Video tilm. 4106 West 
Jefferson BKd., Los Angeles, Calilomia 90016. 



generation of Mien boys to master the Chinese writing and ritual 
performance skiOs required if Mien religion is to survive. Elders are 
also concerned about the social changes their families face: Mien 
youngsters growing up in America share little of the mountain 
village tradition in which their parents ha\'e been immersed. 
Parents can give little direction to their children and oftentimes 
must depend on them to serve as translators and cultural brokers in 
an alien American urban society'. In such circumstances tiie belief 
systems, values, and aspirations of parents, whose world view was 
shaped by life in remote mountain \'iUages, differ sharjoly from 
those of their children growing up in an urban American 
environment. 

In the mountains of Laos, language is the most important ethnic 
marker maintained by tribal peoples such as the Mien. Among Mien 
in the U.S., language identifies and solidifies the group, strengthens 
an ancient ceremonial system, and flourishes as a refined oral 
literature. Verbal dueling between representatives of the bride and 
groom continues to enii\'en Mien weddings in the United States. 
Yet the persistence of these traditions also reflects the current 
cukural isolation of the Mien from the larger communities in which 
they ha\'e come to settle. 

That isolation can best be bridged b\' education, both of Mien 
and of their American neighbors. The Mien language merits 
recognition as a separate language, especially in California districts 
where Mien students with limited English proficiency' fc^rm a sizable 
classroom minority. Schools and academic research institutions can 
be of immeasurable value in encouraging a new generation of Mien 
youth to value and respect their cukural traditions. Unique opportu- 
nities exist for non-Mien students of Southeast Asian language and 
culture to collaborate in research with Mien communirs' members. 
Possibly the time will not be too distant when Mien youngsters 
educated in the United States will be able to xisit, conxerse, and 
work together on research and community de\'ek)pment projects 
with relati\'es and friends in the mountains of Southeast Asia. 

Tliere is every' indication tliat Mien \'emacuhu" language ( Mien-wa) 
will continue to be used for se\eral generations in America. A new 
element in multi-cultural American life, the Mien contribute ancient 
craft skills in embroider\' and silver jewelry fabrication, a rich 
religious tradition, and a complex kmguage replete with refined oral 
literature and singular written sacred texts. Only time will tell 
whether this small, isolated, proud group of migrants from the 
mountain hinteriands of Southeast Asia will be able to preserve its 
distinct cultural heritage in the context of late 20th centun' Ameri- 
can life. 



44 



Migration to Michigan: 

An Introduction to the 
State's Folklife 

by Laurie Kay Sommers 

Throughout Michigan's histon- those who migrated to the state 
ha\e been drawn by— or themsehes have introduced— fishing, trap- 
ping, mining, lumbering, farming, and automobile manufacturing. 
The lore of such occupations, combined with the rich ethnic herit- 
age of those who built Michigan, form the essence of the state's 
traditional culture. 

The French explorers, missionaries, and fur traders who traversed 
the Great Lakes beginning in the 17th century were the first Euro- 
peans t(^ \■ie^A' the \ast expanses of water and virgin forest that became 
the state of Michigim in 1837. The r^'in peninsulas had long been 
inhabited by Native Americans who struggled to maintain their way 
of life in the face of increasing European encroachment. By the 
early 1800s the\' had been forced to cede almost all their tribal lands, 
and of the \'cmc^us tribes that once inhabited the region only the 
Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibway (Chippewa) remained, living pri- 
marily on reservations or in larger cities. The reservation Indians in 
particuku" ha\e preseived or re\i\ed traditional crafts that utilize 
natural materials such as porcupine quills, black ash splints, and 
birclibark. They also maintain some of the state's oldest skills: 
fishing, trapping, and techniques for smoking meat and fish. 

Trapping and fishing became the earliest occupations for Euro- 
peans as well. French and British fur traders supplied the courts of 
Europe with luxurious New Worid pelts in the decades prior to 
statehood. Contemporan- trappers ha\e different markets, but they 
are tlie heirs to the originid hmxly backwoodsmen. In addition to 
expertise with setting traps and skinning and stretching hides, many 
trappers are masters of recipes requiring muskrat, raccoon, turtle, 
venison, and other game. "Mushrat," once linked exclusively with 
those of French ancestr\', has emerged as a regional foodway and 
identity symbol for southeastern lower Michigan where it is pre- 
pared both in the home and for public dinners. 

Commercial fishing on the Great Lakes attracted men from the 
eastern seaboard and Europe who braved the unpredictable moods 
of the largest freshwater lakes in the world to haul in yearly catches 
of whitefish, perch, and lake trout. Today, a small core of seasoned 
sailors, still pl>lng the waters of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, 
and Erie, are steeped in the lore of the "Big Lakes." The commercial 
fisherman's li\'elihood depends on an intimate knowledge of the 
lakes themseh-es, the habits offish, the techniques of constructing 
and repairing ge^u; the ability- to modif>' and in some cases build 
steel- framed fishing boats (the descendants of earlier wooden ves- 
sels), and the skills of packing and filleting with speed. 

Inland river culture, on the other hand, is the domain of experi- 



Laiiiie Soni meiv is a Micbiga > 1 1 latii v it ixj 
has conducted foUstore arid historic presen <a 
tiori research throiiglx>ut the state. She received 
her doctorate i>i folklore from hidiana Univer- 
sity in 1986 and ciinvntly is setting asMicbi 
gan f^ogram Coordinator for the Smithsonian 
Festival of American Folklife. 

Support for the Michigan program ispro- 
I ided try the Michigan Sesujuicentennial Com 
mission and the Michigan Department of State. 



45 



Cornish mining captains iindergniLind. Photo 
courtesy Michigan State Archives. Department of 
State 




enced river guides, bait shop ovviiers, builders of wooden boats 
adapted to different rivers and uses, expen fly tiers, and carvers of 
special lures and decoys. These individuals often live off the land in 
contrast to the scores of recreational fishermen who comprise their 
customers. While much inland riverlore crosses ethnic boundaries, 
some traditions are linked to specific groups. One example is the 
burbot hanest on the Sturgeon River of the Upper Peninsula where 
Finnish-Americans use hoop nets in cleared sections of the ice-coated 
river to catch a type of freshwater cod known cis "poor man's lob- 
ster." The fillets and livers are used to make kukko, a fish pie often 
served at Christmas ( L'Atise SentiuelJ^nu^ry l-t, 1987). 

Not until the great European migrations of the 19th centuiy did 
extensive settlement of Michigan begin. The early pioneers came 
primarily from the eastern states, the British Isles, Germany, and 
Holland. They were joined by Scandinavians and French and British 
Canadians who arri\ed b>' the thousands to work in fields, lumber 
and mining operations, mills, and factories. The landscape which 
greeted these pioneers contained mile after mile of majestic \'irgin 
pine cind hardwoods five feet in diameter. Between the 1830s and 
early 1900s the state was stripped of these timber resources as 
lumber barons and loggers alike strove to make their fonunes in the 
Michigan woods. Many land owners were eastern capitalists while 
Finns, Norwegians, Swedes, and French-Canadians were among the 
largest ethnic contingents to lead the dangerous and demanding 
life of the lumberjack. The experience was commemorated in songs 
and tales that are now little more than a memor\' culture, yet evoke 
in powerful ways the special community- formed by the log drivers, 
sawyers, scidders, teamsters, and camp cooks who helped build 
Michigan while the logs they cut were shipped west to help settle 
the plains. 

The bygone days of the lumberjack are celebrated today in log- 
ging festivals, such as those held in the eastern Upper Peninsula 
towTi of Newberry, where demonstrations of camp cooking, cross- 



46 



T^IIFT/ 







cut saw competitions, and other contests evoke the spirit of the old 
logging era. Many participants in these festivals themselves work 
either tiill or pan time in the woods since reforestation has prompted 
a flourishing pulpwood :ind Christmas tree industrx- in the state. The 
famous Grand Rapids flirniture industry-, founded during the mid- 
to- late 19th centuiy, also has suia i\ed thanks to the importation of 
hardwoods. Generations of master carvers have fashioned the pro- 
totype chair, table, or bedpost which serves as a "template" for the 
multiple ciirving machines. 

The rich iron and copper deposits of the western Upper Penin- 
sula proved a powerful impetus to settlement. Although native peo- 
ples had fashioned copper tools and adornments from accessible 
surface deposits, commercial mining did not begin until the 1840s. 
Activity centered around the Keweenaw Peninsula which witnessed 
the nation's first mineral rush: thousands of prospectors flocked to 
Michigan several \^ears prior to the more famous California gold 
aish. Iron ore also was discovered during this period, creating boom 
towns near the Marquette, Gogebic, and Menominee ranges of the 
western U.P During the late 19th centun- the mining counties had 
the largest foreign-born populations in the state. More than thirtv' 
nationalities could be found within a single township, including 
Cornish, Belgians, Irish, Scots, English, French -Canadians, Finns, 
Swedes, Norwegians, Germans, Italians, Slovenians, Poles, and 
Croatians. 

The Cornish had a special association with the mining country. 
From the stan the mine owners recaiited their shift captains, foremen, 
and, eventually, mine managers from the nmks of the Cornish who 
brought deep mining techniques from the copper and tin mines of 
Cornwall, their special jargon of mining terms, and the meat and 
\'egetable turnover kno^n as pasty^ The pie was carried by miners 
deep below the surface and, according to legend, heated by the 
flame of a miner's candle. 

The centers of copper and iron production subsequently moved 



Worker spray painting lacquer on Ford car bod- 
ies at Brigg's B(xly Compan\-, 1933 Man\- Afro 
Americans migrated nonh to work in Michigan 
aiiti) plants alter ^X'orld War I. Photo from the 
collections of Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield 
Village 

Finnish lumberjacks at Oscar, Michigim. ca. 1890, 
Photo courtesy Michigan State Archives, Department 
of State 



47 



Mexican migrants thinning sugar bcL-ts. Photo 
courtesy Michigan State Archives, Department of 
State 



westward and overseas. The western U.P. landscape today is punctu- 
ated by ghost towns, abandoned mine shafts, and communities 
with severely depleted populations. After the great copper strike of 
1913- 14, many miners migrated out-state or down-state to urban 
centers like Detroit and Grand Rapids. Finns are now the dominant 
ethnic group, especially in the western mining regions, ftillowed by 
Eastern Europeans and Scandinavians. In the eastern U.P. Canadians 
predominate. Mining is still a source of employment (along with 
logging and agriculture), but perhaps the real legacy of the peak 
mining years is a strong regional identity bom of ethnic intermingling 
and defined by the distinctive lore of the independent "Yoopers" 
(residents of the U.P. ). 

The dream of owning land has long attracted migrants to Michi- 
gan. Many early pioneers were New Englanders. They brought with 
them the house-party dance and musical traditions of the East, 
which survive today in the state's dominant fiddle style, a repertoire 
that predates the French-Canadian and southern traditions of subse- 
quent migrants. Eastern-born Quakers and abolitionists also were 
instrumental in establishing underground railroad stations in the 
years prior to the Civil War. As a result, counties such as Cass, Mecosta, 
and Lake have significant rural Black populations. Some of these 
families still tell escaped slave narratives. These old agricultural 
enclaves are culturally distinct from the larger and more recent Afro- 
American settlements in cities like Detroit, Grand Rapids, Umsing, 
and Flint, most of which date to the Great Migration (the massive 
mo\'ement of rural southerners to northern industrial centers dur- 
ing the pre-and post-World War II periods). 

From the 19th century onward, scores of European immigrants 
cleared timber, baish, and glacial rocks to establish family farms 
throughout the state. The Germans, for example, settled predomi- 
nantly in southeastern Michigan and in Saginaw and Berrien coun- 
ties. The Danes, another group of skilled farmers, raised potatoes 




48 



northeast of Muskegon. Poles homesteaded the Thumb area and 
northeastern Michigan neai" Posen and Metz. The Dutch founded 
tlie town of Holland in 1847 and introduced celery, and more 
recently, tulips to Michigan. Many groups who came for lumbering 
or mining later turned to agriculture in the cutover (clear-cut forest 
lands ) and more marginal lands of northern Michigan. 

During the 1800s Michigan farmers were generalists. In the 20th 
century, however, the state's agriculture has become more special- 
ized: faiit along the Lake Michigan shore, nurseries near Detroit and 
west of Grand Rapids, mxy beans in the Saginaw V^illey, sugar beets 
in the Thumb area, peppermint and spearmint in the midlands near 
St. Johns, soybeans in the Monroe area, and vegetables in the muck 
soils of the south. 

Prior to mechanization most farmers required extensive seasonal 
help. Beginning in the 1920s, when immigration quotas reduced 
the numbers of European workers, thousands of displaced south- 
ern sharecroppers and field hands — both Afro- and Anglo-Ameri- 
cans— headed north to the fields of Michigan. Mexican migrants, 
often recruited by the sugar beet companies, also began seasonal 
journeys to Michigan by truck or train. Despite the hardship of 
migrant life, certain traditions emerged such as the big Mexican 
fiestas at the end of cherry harvest. With the introduction of 
mechanical hcirvesters and more stringent migrant labor laws, the 
Michigan migrant stream is now much smaller. 

Most migrants eventually made the transition from field to fac- 
tory, and the cultural traditions they brought with them are now part 
of Michigan folklife: southern Black blues and gospel ( the roots of 
Detroit's famous Motown and soul), quilting tradtions, and "soul 
food" in the cities; conjunto music and foods such as menudo 
(tripe soup) and c«/?nto ( barbecued goat) among Mexican-Ameri- 
cans; the foodways, craft traditions, \'ocal, and fiddle st>'les of the 
upland South. 




Nati\ e Americans fishing in the St. M;ir\''s rap- 
ids, 19th ccntiir\ Photo courtesy Michigan 
State Archives. Department of State 



49 



Suggested reading 

Anderson, James M. and Iva A Smith, ed. Eth- 
nic Groups in Michigan. Michigan Ethnic Her 
itage Studies Center and the University of 
Michigan Ethnic Studies Program. Detroit: 
Ethnos Press, 1983. 

Babson, Ste\e Working Detroit The Making of 
a Union Tbu'w. New York: Adams B(X)ks, 1984, 
Dewhurst, C. Kun, Y\onne Lockwood, and 
Marsha MacDowell, ed. Michigan Folklife 
Reader. East Lansing: Michigan State L'ni\ersir\- 
Press, 1987. 

Dewhtinst, C. Kun and Marsha MacDoweli. Rain 
bows in tfx Sky: The Folk Art of Michigan in the 
Twentieth Century. East Lansing; State Univer 
sit\' Museum, 1978. 

S(jmmers, Laurie K. "Economic De\'elopment." 
In Michigan A Geography, ed. Lawrence M. 
Sommers. Boulder: Wesrview Press, 1984. 
Vander Hill, C. Warren. Settling the Great Lakes 
Frontier Immigration to Michigan, 1837 1924. 
Lansing: Michigan Historical Commission, 1970. 

Suggested recordings 

Songs and Dances of Great lakes Indians ( Eth 

nic Folkways Records, LP4003 ). 

Songs of the Great Lakes ( Folk-ways Records. 

FM4018). 

Songs of the Michigan Lumberjacks, EC. Beck, 

ed. { Archi\e ot Folk Song, Lihran' of Ci )ngress, 

AFSL56). 

Suggested exhibit 

Crew, Spencer. "From Field to Facttin, ' Smith 

sonian Museum of American History', 1987. 



After the turn of the century many newcomers to Michigan tbiind 
their first jobs in automobile and related manufacturing. Although 
the state s major cities all have auto plants, the "Motor City" of 
Detroit remains the hub and world s>'mbol for the American auto- 
mobile industry. It Wcis here in 1908 that Henry Ford introduced the 
assembly line technique, which soon became standard throughout 
the industry and enabled management to replace skiUed craftsmen 
with unskilled labor from Eastern and Southern Europe. With the 
line came a new chapter in workers lore as people creatively adapted 
to the relentless pace of mechanization and found ways to human- 
ize the factory. 

As workers from across the United States and abroad poured into 
Detroit, old ethnic neighborhoods changed character and new ones 
took shape. They often were centered around particular factories 
where foremen tended to hire family, friends, and countr\'men: 
Hungarians in Delray, Poles in Hamtramck near the Dodge plant, 
and Croatians, Slovenians, Finns, Rumanians, and Lithuanians adja- 
cent to Ford's Highland Park facility. Some nationality' groups 
became associated with particular crafts or skills: Swedish engineers 
in the auto industry, Italians in tileworking, Germans in brewing, 
Scotsmen in tool and die making, Greeks in confectionaries, gro- 
ceries, and restaurants, and Lebanese, Syrians, and Palestinians in 
the food business. 

Michigan and other northern industries— like their counterparts 
in agriculture — sought a new labor supply in the American South 
after the outbreak of World War I. The urban population soared for 
southern Anglo- and Afro-Americans. In Detroit alone the Black 
population rose from just less than 6,000 in 1910 to 120,000 in 1930. 
Prior to 1935 Ford's River Rouge plant hired more Blacks than any 
other auto company and was the only firm to emplo\' Afro-Americims 
on the assembly line although most stiU held janitorial and unskilled 
foundry jobs. "Motown" is now the largest cit>' in the U.S. in which 
the majority' of the total population is Afro-American. 

Today's migrants — primarily from Asia, Mexico, the Middle East, 
and Eastern Europe— continue to perpetuate the traditions of their 
homelands in Detroit and other Michigan cities. Descendants of 
earlier immigrants, on the other hand, have created new types of 
folklife to celebrate the distinctive ethnic identities of the American- 
bom. Church, family, community, and ethnic organizations all serve 
as important vehicles for the continuity and reshaping of traditional 
ethnic crafts, foods, musics, and narratives. 

Michigan today is home to more than one hundred different 
nationalities, including the country's largest population of Finns, 
Belgians, Maltese, and Chaldeans; the secc^nd largest numbers of 
Dutch, Lebanese, and French-Canadians; and perhaps the largest 
concentration of Muslim Arabs (in southeast Dearborn) outside the 
Middle East. Detroit alone is one of the most ethnically diverse 
cities in the country. The heritage of these diverse groups — along 
with those of Native, Euro- and Afro-Americans who migrated to 
Michigan throughout the state's history— give Michigan folklife its 
distinctive characteristics. 



50 



Folklore of the 
Upper Peninsula 

by James P. Leary 

Wlien the state adopted "Say yes to Michigan" as a boosteristic 
slogiui, residents of the Upper Peninsula (die U.P. ) quickly countered 
wath "Say yah to da U.P., eh!" The phrase was soon emblazoned on 
T-shirts, billed caps, and license plates, often accompanied by a map 
greatly magnitS'ing the U.P.'s size in proportion to the "L.P." ( Lower 
Pensinsula ). Map and phrase simultaneously address outsiders and 
locals, and both are deeply rooted in folk cultural traditions of the 
region and its peoples. 

Michigan proper reluctantly accepted the Lipper Peninsula in 
1837 iis compensation for the loss of the "Toledo strip" to Ohio. 
The relationship between the two peninsulas has always been 
problematic. They were not physically linked until the Mackinac 
Bridge was completed in 1957, and cultural ties are hardly \ ibrant 
three decades later. Residents of the U.P. call their latitudinally 
higher region "Superior" or "Superiorland" — o\ertly in reference to 
Lake Superior, but also in sly juxtaposition to its "lower" and 
implicitly inferior counteipart. Incleed folks north of Mackinac 
sometimes use the phrase "below the bridge" to suggest playfully 
that residents of Michigan's mc)re popidous and wealthy territory 
nonetheless reside in a kind of hell. 

For their part, lower Michiganders occasionally dub their upper 
kin, "Yoopers," uncouth backwoods louts inhabiting a land that is 
presently almost ninet\' percent forested. But U.P. dwellers, like 
southern Appalachian "hillbillies," have transformed this potenti^illy 
negative stereoty^^e by celebrating positive qualities of earthiness, 
endurance, and self-sufficiency. "Say yah to da U.P., eh!" is classic 
Yooper talk. "Yah" and "da" derive from the patois of rural and 
working class ethnic-Americans in the western U.P. and beyond, 
while "eh!" comes from the English of Anglo-Celtic, French, and 
Indian settlers who entered the eastern U.P. from Canada. 

Pugnacious when establishing their geographic, ethnic, and class 
identity in opposition to that of Michigan's other peninsula, 
Yoopers have shown considerable affinity- with neighbors to the 
east and west. Ojibways, Ottawcts, tind Potawatomis, all of Algonquian 
stock, began moving into the eastern LLP. in the early l600s. The 
now-dominant Ojibways, who eventUcilly displaced Menominee 
and Sioux in a westward push, occup\' tribal holdings that extend 
across Michigan into the northern parts of Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota. French and Anglo-Celtic Canadians likewise entered the 
peninsula and beyond with the fur trade, then came in greater 
numbers in the 19th centur>' as loggers, laborers, and farmers. The 
"pinery," three iron ore ranges (the Miirquette, the Menominee, 
and the Gogebic), and the Keeweenaw Peninsula's "Copper Coun- 
try" likewise drew Cornish, Finns, Germans, Italians, Poles, Swedes, 
and Yugoslavs by the thousands in the latter half of the 19th 



James P. Lean; a free Umce folklniisl based 
in . Madison. Wisconsin, holdsa I'b.D in Folk 
lore and American Studies from Indiana I 'ni 
versity His e.xtensiiefieldnwk in the culturally 
direrse upper .Midu est has resulted in numer 
ons publications and media produclinns con 
cerning traditional nairatii v and music. 



51 



Ojibways George and Man- McGeshik parching 
wild rice, Iron Counrs Photo by Thomas Vennum. jr. 



century— as did the mines and woods of adjacent nonhem Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota. 

The western U.P. mining and lumbering boom to-wns of Iron- 
wood and Menominee abut Hurley and Marinette, Wisconsin, 
respectively. Residents of these cities still tell a joke that mocks any 
notion of cross-border differences. An old-timer is about to move 
from Ironwood to Hurley ( or vice versa ). His cronies ask why? 
"Well, my bones are getting creak\- and I'd like to get away from 
those cold Michigan winters." The \A'inters are, of course, the same 
on either side of the line. Indeed the designation "Superioriand" 
has often been enlarged to include northern Wisconsin and 
northwestern Minnesota where mining, logging, small-scale farm- 
ing, and commercial fishing were the historiccd pursuits of Ojibways, 
Canadian-Americans, and late 19th century European immigrants. 

Today these industries are in decline and the population has 
leveled at roughly 300,000. Nonetheless, the Upper Peninsula's folk 
culture — an expression of environmental, ethnic, and occupational 
experiences — remains vibrant. Thimbleberr\' pickers are every- 
where in mid-summer, making jam for their own use or for 
roadside sale from makeshift stands. Men and bo\'s with dogs hunt 
bear in the fall, while older Ojibway couples harvest wild rice. In 
deference to fierce winters, roofs are often constructed Finnish- 
stv'le with steep pitches and ladders nailed on for snow removal. 
People enter houses through covered stoops, and use handmade 
wooden or aluminum snow scoops to clear a path. Spring and early 
summer weddings are not complete without walnut rolls (Yugoslav 
"potica" ); nor can summer picnics happen without Italian sausages; 
and pasties, originally a Cornish miners' food, are eaten year round 
by everyone. 

Dialect joketelling and pan ethnic dance music are among the 




t\Z *** 



■^*s*''"^ 




52 



most widespread and venerable forms of folklore in the region. 
Richard M. Dorson first reponed the former in the late 1940s after 
doing fieldwork in what he called "the fabulous U.P." He encoun- 
tered scores of humorous tales concerning errors in the usage, 
pronunciation, and interpretation of English by assorted Cornish, 
Finns, French-Canadians, and, to a lesser extent, Swedes, Italians, 
and Irish. In addition to their basis in linguistic blunders, the tales 
described aspects of regional life in rich detail. Their tellers, 
"dialectitians," were mosth' male, ranging from axerage to expert as 
performers, and likel>' to hold fonh around a boarding house 
fireplace, in a tavern, or from the rostrum of a banquet table. 

Finns are easil\- the dominant ethnic group throughout the LIP. 
and the repenoires of contemporan- tellers, like Oren Tikkanen of 
Calumet, abound with the antics of Eino, Toi\-o, Heikki, and other 
stock characters. These humorous fellows are portrayed speaking 
"Finnglish," an exaggerated \'ersion of the English spoken by Finns. 
Since no Finnish words begin with double consonants, initial 
consonants are dropped from English words that begin with 
clusters ( the city Trout Creek becomes Rout Reek, for example ); b's 
and p's are transposed; w's become \'"s; and ,s\'ntax is often garbled. 
Similar exaggerations are used for humorous representatit)ns of 
other varieties of English, as in a classic jt)ke, widely known 
throughout mining communities on the .southern and western 
shores of Lake Superit)r. Heikki, an experienced worker, is paired 
with Luigi, an Italian newcomer. As Heikki struggles with an 
unwieldy drilling machine, he spots a board that might serve as a 
brace. "Luigi, gee\' it for me dat lank." Luigi offers a pick ax, then a 
box, and, finally, the board. "Ya, dat's \at 1 \anted \as dat lank." 
"Wliatsa matta you?", Luigi returned, "You been in dis country 
ten-a-fifteen years and all -a ready you canta say planka." 



Art Moilanen and Bill Stiniac, I 'pper Penin.siila 
musicians whose repertoire retlecLs the region's 
ethnic heritage, at "Stimac's Musicland, " Cop- 
per C.ir\', Photo by James Leary 




53 




Ed Raisanen ot Calumet with his hand-crafted 
snow scxxjp, one of various strategies for deal 
inj) with yearh' snowfalls in excess of 16S inches. 
Photo courtesy Michigan Technological University 
Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections 

Snow renio\al in downtc^wn Calumet, Michigan, 
ca laie 19th centun- Photo courtesy Roy Drier 
Collection, Michigan Technological University 
Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections 



SufifJi'Sled rnidiiig 

Beck, Earl C. lore of the Lumbercamps. Ann 
Arbor: rni\'ersit\' of Michigan Pre.s,s, 19-48. 
Dorson, Richard M. Bloocistoppers and Bear 
walkers. Cambridge: Hanard l'ni\ ersitx Press, 
1952. 

Siifii;estechecon/hii>s 

Accordions in the Cutover Field Recordings of 
Ethnic Music fmni Lake Superior's South SImre, 
ed. lames P. Lean-. A two-record set and 3t> l">age 
booklet distribtited b\- the Wisconsin Folklife 
Center, Rotite 3, Dodgexille. \X1 S3^33. 
Dance at tlje Finn Hall and Life in t/je Finnish- 
American Woods ( Thimblebern- C- 1&2 ). A\ail 
able from Thimblebern Hotise, Box 195, Route 
1, Calumet, Michigan 49913. 
Suggested films 

Finnish American Lives. b\- Michael Loukinen. 
58 min. Nonhern Michigan l'ni\ersit\'. Mar 
quetle, Michigan, 1983. 
GiKxI.Man in the Woods. b\' Michael biukinen. 
8^ min, 30 sec. Nonhern Michigan l!ni\ersit\', 
Marquette, Michigan, 198''. 



The U.P.'s people find no insult in such dialect jokes but rather 
enjoy the ethnic variet\', common predicaments, and e\'ident 
humanity of characters who are reminiscent of themselves and their 
ancestors. The region's dance music likewise celebrates diversity 
and unity, evolving from house parties and communir\' doings 
when neighbors and co-workers of differing backgrounds shared 
tunes and steps. 

Fiddlers like Coleman Trudeau, an Ottawa, play jigs, reels, and 
hornpipes for step and sc|uai"e dancers among Anglo-Celtic, French, 
and Indian residents of the eastern U.P. To the west piano 
accordionists like the Finn Art Moilanen and Croatian Bill Stimac 
play push-pull polkas, waltzes, schottisches, or an occasional coun- 
try tune for their Finnish, Italian, Polish, Swedish, and Yugosla\' 
listeners. 

Just as dialectitians master a babble of tongues, dance musicians 
perform a span of old time ethnic standards, while updating others 
to suit more recent conditions. The Croatian song, "Oj Maricka 
Peglaj" ( Oh, Marie Is Ironing ), has combined with references to the 
C:dumet-Hecla mine ( names for an Indian pipe and a Scandina\ian 
goddess) to become an anthem in the Copper Country*. 
Oj Maricka peglaj — peglaj, peglaj, peglaj. 
Calumet and Hecla — Hecla, fiecla, Hecla. 
Pan Old World, piut New, plur:ilistic, esoteric, about women at work, 
about miners, copper, and mythology, the verses are, as another 
ubiquitious bumper sticker declares, "100% U.P." 



A parod\' of the Michigan Tra\el Bureau's slo 
gan "Say yes to Michigan " illustrates the regional 
identity' of the Upper Peninsula. Photo by James 
Leary 




Say yah ^^URich! 
toda 



^ y*^ J 



(^ 



54 



Working on the Line 

by Michael J. Bell 

The American public has been sold a new vision of work and 
Vv'orking in tlie last few years. We ha\'e been told that America is a 
nation mo\ing awa\- from its industriiil base and that modern 
Americans are rapidly moving toward a future in which the vast 
majorir\'\\'ill\\'ork with their minds, not their hands. In this new 
America, we are told, our future VkiU come from our abilirv' to 
manipulate information and to manufacture ideas. No longer will 
Americans have to strain and sweat in factories or on assembly lines 
to do repetitious and difficult jobs. That kind of work will be done 
faster and more efficienth' by machines. America will become an 
information power, and its greatness, once derived from factories, 
will now come from laboratories and services. 

Like some stereotypes this new picture contains a kernel of truth. 
Work in America is changing and with that change are coming new 
industries and new ways of working. Unfortunately, stereotypes 
most often ob.scure other equally important realities; in their haste 
h) explain one tiling, stereotypes go too far in their rejection of 
another. To be sure, factory and assembly line jobs can be 
dangerous, difficult, and boring; any task that needs to be repeated 
exeiy s\xV\' seconds, sixt\' times an hcuir for an eight hour shift could 
be little else than difficult and at times boring, but such jobs can also 
be challenging. And the millions of workers who have met and 
witiistood that challenge deseive to be seen as more than mindless 
maciiines. 

A case in point is the automobile industiv'. No job has been more 
stereotyped i")y this new understanding of work than the automo- 
bile assembly line or the automobile pans factoiy. These ha\e 
i^ecome ckissic examples of the wa\' a new working America is 
supposed to rescue the old. We know that the work of making cai's 
is hard, that the indixidua! tasks can enei"vate e\'en the strongest 
\\ith their endless repetition, and that in some way they wtxild be 
better done by machines than by people. Our re\xilsion of repeti- 
tious work fuels our rejection of the lat)or of the assembly line or 
the parts factoiy. And our hopes for work in America are connected 
with the belief that American cars could once again dominate the 
worlci's marketplace if only the robots could take over the tasks now 
performed l^y men and women. 

Working on the assembly line or in the parts factory demands 
much more human inventiveness and allows for much more 
creati\'it\' than most of us would imagine. The inventing starts from 
the moment one is put to work. One Lordstown employee 
described training at his plant: "[The worker] is brought into the 
plant and his orientation session ends and starts with his papers on 
insurance and his assignment to a foreman who immediately puts 
his w arm body on the [assembly] line." John* told me of his 
training: 

Well, the relief man trained me ... I think for one day. In fact, 
I'm not sure how the relief man was free for that dav. It mav 



Michael J. Bell is Associate Professor and 
Chairman o/American Studies at Grinnell 
College. Grinnell, Iowa He received his Ph.D. in 
Folklore and Folklife from tlx Universit)' of 
l\-nnsylvania. 



* This, and all other workers' 
names in this aiticle are 
psetidonyms. 



55 



ha\'e been that another operator whc^ sort of knew the job . . . 
but not ver)' well, son of watched me the next two days, 
worked with me, got me out of trouble and did part of the job 
when I got into trouble. 

The worker must begin his or her job, then, by discovering a 
process by which the work is to be accomplished. "No one can 
explain anything. None of this is written down," John said. "It's in 
the mind of the people who do the job." 

What exists at the beginning, therefore, is the clear demand that 
the worker iment the means to do the task at hand or face the 
possibility of losing a job almost before getting started. In John's 
case as for most others, this meant being creati\'e in the most 
technical sense. His task was to install windshield wiper motors: 
one every fifty-seven seconds. He would turn his body and let it fall 
backwards into each car as it passed his work station, pick up the 
motor from the transmission housing, screw it into place under the 
dashboard using a screwgun, and then iuise from the finished car to 
prepare for the next vehicle. 

From the beginning he worked alone. "Most people can't tell \'ou 
how they do their jobs. They just say do this. Or, they do it for you 
while you're standing there. But they do it so fast that you can't see 
what they did." The individual elements of the work process, then, 
were his. He ch(\se what to do. He worked out the separate tasks 
and their arrangement, the pieces, tricks, and techniques by which 
each motor got instiilled — and always as the cars moved relentlessly 
down the line. Anyone probabK' can figure out how to do 
something in less time than a minute if one has more than a minute 
to think. But John, like most line workers, had no quiet contempla- 
tion, no instruction on a stationary car later translated to a moving 
line. He installed his motors at fiill speed and did all of his thinking 
and acting within the small c)'cle of a world that started, finished, 
and started again before sixty seconds had passed. 

For workers like John the in\ention of a job also includes finding 
or manufacturing some of the tools and the techniques needed to 
do the work. John's job required that he la>' backwards o\er the 
doorsill frame to reach to where the motor belonged, but without 
some kind of padding that sill is shaqi enough to cut through 
clothing and skin. His solution was to fashion a pad out of 
sound-absorbing roof materiiil secured to a piece of cardboard with 
black electric tape. This could be placed over the sharp edge so that 
\s'hen he lay down, his legs were protected. Likewise, to properly 
deploy- screws, scre\A'gun, protecti\e pad, and motor, he had to 
figure out a way to cup and fold one hand to hold both motor and 
screws, while operating the screwgun with his other hand. 

All right. So we are now standing here with our pad in our right 
hand, on the hip. Gun held in the right hand . . . hose trailing 
down back up the line toward Rochelle's job. [The next job to 
be finished after John's.] All, ,so you drape the gun here. [Cra- 
dled in the crook of the left :irm.] Scoop first the three black 
screws. The tliree screws which you '^ill use to secure the 
left-hand wiper arm, hold them vtith the fingers over them so 
they're cupped like that. [The three screws are placed acn^ss 
the lowest joint \Ahere the fingers meet the palm and the fin- 



56 




gers are then folded (ner the screws.] Then scoop up four gt)ld 
screws . . . [and] . . . fold the hand complete. [The four screws 
are placed in the palm of the hand and the curled fingers are 
folded against them so that they are trapped between the palm 
and the fingernails.] 

Other workers ha\e come up with equally ingenious solutions in 
similar situations. The Detroit Free Press recentW reported that 
workers on another line had discovered, they claimed due to the 
arrixal of women wc^rkers, that salad tongs — again not a t\pical 
managerial c;r engineering response — were the ideal tool for a job 
that no one had been able to figure out how to do effectively. 

Once invented, line and production jobs need to be practiced 
and perfected. John, or an\' of the other workers engaged in line 
work, did not get the job right the first time, even if he did it 
correctly, and he did not stop improving his work processes just 
because he had figured out how to do his job. None of the workers 
I have interviewed was concerned with merely getting his or her 
job done. All were interested in control and in the relative freedom 
and power that such control offered. "Wlien I was really flying," 
John said, 

I could do that job in a little under fift)- seconds. M\' best 
all-time time, there were a few times ... a couple of times I was 
really flying. I must ha\'e been close to fbny . . . that felt so 
good. It was cdmost transcendent ... a kind of masten.-. 
John did not choose to function as an automaton, and he did not tiy 
to be a drudge. Rather, he worked to build a rh\thm, to develop a 
set of "tricks" that provided him with a means of ordering and 
organizing his work process so that he could mcwe beyond the 



Pontiac Itch f\' double e assenibk lint" allows 
an engine lo slop ac each work station along 
the line, enabling the operator lo control 
ihewiirk unit. Photo courtesy Motor Vehicle 
Manufacturers Association Archive 

AssembK' ot transmi.ssion and clutch housing 
for the engines of heavy diesel truck hxxjies. 
Photo courtesy Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation Archive 



57 



point where he had to "see" or consciously "know" a step before 
he could undertake it. 

Working became more than just his job: it was his routine; it was 
where he could "fly" and by "flying" attain some power over the 
expectations that came with every car on the line. 

You see, you gotta think of the job in terms of time. Find 
enough time to do the job. You got to get out of the car and 
leave the car done. The collective term for this is 'getting up to 
speed.' In the first few months, it was really touch and go 
whether I would be out of the car by the time I reached a 
certain box of stock. And, Rochelle would be coming at me 
with da'o Yale locks. I guess the point from which you emerge 
is sort of an index of how well \'ou"re doing. It's good work if 
you work ahead of your station and not if you're behind. 

For John "getting up to speed' was a way of getting out from under 
corporate and engineering expectations. It was his formal an- 
nouncement that he knew what good work was and how to do his 
job so as not to disrupt the next worker down the line. Admittedly, 
control often, fifteen, even seventeen seconds is not an enormous 
amount of time when counted against the sixt\' minutes of 
installations that happen eveiy hour of e\er\' day on the job. StiU, by 
asserting his presence where it is not expected and by command- 
ing for himself what he ordinarily ought not to have, John received 
that which by company standards he should not ha\'e. Ford paid 
John money to build its cars, but when he earned some time for 
himself, John got what good work should always bring but too oft:en 
d(^es not in modern industrial settings: he got to keep some of the 
suiplus \alue of his labor; he got due wages. 

John's case is not unique. Folklorist Yvonne Lockwood, in her 
studies of automobile workers, has reported of a production welder 
who, bored with his job, sought di\ersion in the ten-second 
inteivals between cars by \A'elding together spare nuts, bolts, and 
scrap metal, transforming these materials into sculptures of small 
animals with crinkled hides and rumpled hair. She has also reponed 
of a female worker 'W'ho has held the same job for eight years at an 
auto plastics plant, punching holes and assembling tiny metal parts 
for automobile dashboards, occasionally working with her eyes 
closed to add a challenge, and using the "found time" once her 
daily production is made to make jewehy from the minute metal 
parts with which she works; of welders and metal workers making 
chess sets, miniature tools, miniature automobiles, kni\es, and belt 
buckles; of a carpenter/wood caiver whittling vvooden chains and 
toys from leftover wood scraps when the "real" work is slow; and of 
a worker running an ejection molding machine and molding the 
soft plastic into abstract shin\- black shapes in-between his produc- 
tion of parts. 

What, then, is to be made of all this? Most importantK', \\e need to 
acknowledge the real creatixin- of line and production -workers. 
These workers are not mere unskilled, unthinking laborers doing 
what they are told, human robots waiting to be replaced b\- better 
and faster machines. They ha\'e the potential, and are often forced 
by conditions, to participate anahtically in the most ftindamental 
processes by which the line is made to operate. John, and others 



58 



like him, are the front and bottom line in the transformation of an 
abstract product intc:) a real machine. Designers and engineers may 
in\'ent and plan automobiles, but the workers on the line make the 
parts and the cars. They invent the steps out of which the jobs are 
constructed. They develop and draw together the particular "tricks" 
and techniques that make the job go. They think, plan, practice, and 
perfect the process by which jobs get done in under a minute, sixty 
mintues an hour, 480 times a shift, three shifts a day. And they 
figure out what to do with the little time left, .so they can do their 
jobs day after day and remain human beings. Windshield wiper 
motor installation is a mundane piece of work; so too is producing 
plastic parts or tiny metal parts for dashboards. But the people who 
do the jobs are not. Their ability- "to fl\-," to work blind, to challenge 
the boredom of their wc:)rk, and to create meaning is a di.splay of 
style and significance as important and powerftil as any we 
commonly acknowledge. 

Moreover, we need to acknowledge that this creati\it\' does not 
exist in a vacuum. Though they work at their stations, line and 
production workers measure themselves and are measured by 
others as to how well their work merges with what comes before 
and \\'hat comes after. The faster the\' work, the more time there is 
for themselves and the more time there is for the next worker down 
the line. Of course, such time is not unixersal time. The line mcnes 
at a constant speed; the car wiU be in a work station for as k)ng as it 
should be, no more, no less. Production continues at a steach' pace. 
But such time is human time. It is time for Rochelle, who installs 
door locks when John finishes, to see a completed car coming 
toward her and not to worry- if she can get the door closed and get 
her job started. It is time ft)rJohn to set and cup his screws, draw on 
a cigarette, and get read}'. It is time for a welder or a molder to 
create an animal from metal or plastic. Because it is human time in a 
mechanized world, it is of great \alue. 

It is important not to misconstrue all of this. Assembly line and 
production workers who use their creati\e impulses to shape and 
perfect their jobs, or who use the materials and tools of work to 
make art in the moments between their jobs, or who use creativity 
and art as a way to escape from the de\'aluing conditions of their 
work are not automatically free from the alienation that is an 
inescapable part of modern industrial labor. Nothing could be 
further from the truth. There is an art to the work, but that artftibiess 
is not enough to overcome the realities of a job done 480 times a 
day. Still, that is not the fault of the workers. If factoiy life is 
det)ilitating and alienating, it is because those who own and control 
factories need them to be so and not because there is something 
wrong or lacking in those who work in them. Neither are factories 
somehow modern cathedrals and the workers merely the anony- 
mous artisans whose work now produces an Escort instead of a 
Chartres. The factory is no medieval setting composed by technol- 
ogy, and -^'orkers are not peasants with scre'^-guns and stamping 
machines. The ethos of work and creati\ity of the men and women 
on the assembly line and in the facton' is not that of some happy 
Golden Age, but as John said: "Get out of the car and leave the car 
done." 



Siii^i'sk'd ivatlnii; 

Byinj^ton, Roben H., ed. Worki?ifiA»wnca/is: 
Conlemporan Approaches lo Occupational 
h'olklife. Lx)S Angeles: Calilorni;! Folkli )rc' S<Ki 
er\-, rni\ersit\ ()l Calitbrnia, 19"'H. [Smithsonian 
Folklite Studies Number 3] 

Ixiekwood, Yvonne R. The Joy of Labor." In 
Western holklore-iH 3 )(198^ ): 202-21 1 . 
"Special Section: Works of An, Art as Work, and 
the Arts ( )tVti )rking " Western Holkliire 
43(2)( I9K4). 



59 



Janet C Gilmore receiivd her Ph D infolk- 
l(»v fnmi Induina Uiiiivrsily and is cuirenlly 
self employed, uvrking out of Madison, 
Wisconsin. During the past year she has 
inten'ieii'ed commercial fishermen from Lake 
Superior, Lake .Michigan, and the .Mississippi 
Rii erfor sei vral regional folk arts .sun '^s, and 
puhlis/jedTheWnM of the Oregon Fishboat, 
based on fieldu vrk conducted among Charles- 
ton. Oregon 's commercial fishers during the 
late J 970s 



Fishing for a Living on 
the Great Lakes 

by Janet C. Gilmore 

Commercial fishing on tlie Great Lakes, as with most work toda>- 
along or on the water, has become a much less pervasive, visible 
activity than it once was. Fewer people operating larger, more 
powerful equipment harvest an increasingh' restricted catch. Fish- 
ing hcis become a specialized occupation no k)nger full\ -integrated 
into the daily lives of the lakeside population. While perpetually 
threatened with extinction by overfishing, heavv' pollution, and the 
introduction ( purjooseful and inadvertent) of non-native species, 
edible fish still survive in the Great Lakes in enough numbers to 
sustain an average annual U.S. catch of 75-100 million pounds. Also 
threatened, but with political constraints and a smaller share of the 
catch, a hai'dy lot of Great Lakes commercial fishers has continued 
to pass on to new generations its way of making a living. 

Of all the Great Lakes states Michigan touches upon the most 
lakes and boasts the greatest shoreline, yet her numbers of 
commercial fishermen and pounds of fish commercially landed fall 
surprisingly second to Wisconsin's and barely surpass Ohio's. Partly 
because of complex political issues and partly because of profound 
regioncil differences in the state, most of Michigan's commercial 
fishers work off the Upper Peninsula. The greatest numbers of 
these, and some of the fiercest resistors of downstate fisheries 
policies, share with Wisconsin one of the most productive fishing 
grounds in Lake Michigan: the shallower, more sheltered waters of 
Green Bay, bounded by Big Bay de Noc to the northeast. Like the 
Petersons, Hermesses, Caseys, Sellmans, and several other fishing 
families, most fish off the Garden Peninsula ( Fairport, Garden, 
Manistique ), where some can fish to the east with their Indian 
fishing rights and to the west with their non-Indian fishing rights. 
Others, like the Nvlund and Ruleau families, ;ire based near 
Menominee, Michigan/ Marinette, Wisconsin, where the\' may fish 
more profitably under both Wisconsin and Michigan fishing li- 
censes and thus use a greater diversity' of traditional fishing geiir 
and equipment. 

Michigan's Lake Michigan commercial fishers fish primarily for 
native whitefish and chubs ( lake herring); Native Americans may 
use gill nets to catch these fish in specified waters while non- 
Indians must now use another kinci of gear k)ng in use on the Great 
Lakes, the trap net. Many part-time fishermen haivest non-native 
smelt in the spring with pound nets, equipment similar to but more 
labor-intensive than trap nets and at one time more commonK- 
employed. A few big operators like the Ruleaus of Cedar River have 
adapted otter trawl gear to capture huge quantities of "trash fish," 
including non-native hoards of alewives, for the pet-food industn-. 

Fishermen used to knot their own net \\ ebbing of cotton line 
and hand-carve wooden floats, buoys, and bobbins ( needles for 



60 




Leeland's "Fishtown," 1930, Photo courtesy Mich- 
igan State Archives, Department of State 

Emptying two tons of white fish ft'oni a pound 
net, near Grand Ha\en, 1930 Photo courtesy 
Michigan State Archives, Department of State 



making and repairing nets), but they have quickly embraced 
ready-made counteqoaits in nylon, polyester, and plastics. They stiO 
mold their own leads For gill-, pound-, trap-, and trawl-net lead lines; 
cut and shape machine- knotted webbing to make their nets; 
"string" gill nets, lead sections ol trap and pound nets as well as the 
heiut and pot sections of pound nets; set, mend, and periodically 
clean and treat the nets, replacing them at a sk)wer rate than in 
former years; cut, splice, and install pound-net stakes; and build a 
variety of equipment for commercial ice- fishing during the winter 
(distincti\'e shanties on runners, running poles, shove sticks, and 
crooked sticks). While fishermen hire experts to produce custom 
trap nets, the net builders are often fellow local fishers and peers, 
like Otis Smith of Fayette and Alvin Champion of Marinette- 
Menominee, who have good heads for figures and an eye for 
design. The net builders and fishermen peipetuate a small reper- 
toire of basic knots such as half and clove hitches to produce and 
repair nets. In addition, (mt board their boats as they use and service 
their gear, fishermen daily practice another round of basic knots. 



61 




Otis Smith sewing the selvage along the tapered 
edge of a trap-net pot piece. Photo by Janet Gllmore 

Rod Gierke empt\ing another dip net fi.ill of 
fish into Ben Peterson's measunng box. Big 
Bay de Noc off Fairport. Ptioto by Janet Gllmore 



And the expeit net-builders, \\-ith their procli\'ities to knot-t^ing, 
enjoy the opportunity' to practice trick knots and "joke" knots, to 
voice sa\'ings and anecdotes concerning certain knots, and to tell 
stories about great knot-tyers and the grand old days of knot tying 
and net-building. 

It seems no coincidence that, faced with "cut over" land 
denuded of appropriate timber and situated in the big steel- 
producing heanland, upper Great Lakes fishermen turned increas- 
ingly from wooden to metal boats after World War II. Many upper 
Lake Michigan commercial fishermen have negotiated the design 
and construction of custom steel and aluminum huUs with the big 
shipyiuxis in Marinette, Sturgeon Ba)-, and Manitowoc, Wisconsin, 
and with smaller \'ards that have operated off and on in Menominee 
and Escanaba, Michigan; many ha\'e acquired second-hand steel 
vessels and related fishing eciuipment frcMii the lake area, some as 
far away as the Ohio and Penns\'l\ania shores of Lake Erie. Most 
ha\ e purchased an existing steel boat for gill-, pound-, or trap- 
netting, gutted it, cut the bcxit in half crosswise, sometimes 
lengthwise, to add length or breadth to the huU, entirely rebuilt the 
superstructure of wood or steel, and refitted the vessel with 
self-st\'led equipment often composed from the detritus of modern 
civilization — agricultural implements, truck and automobile bodies 
and machinen'. As soon as electricity- came to the U.P., area 
fishermen acquired welding equipment and became adept at using 
it to fabricate and repair their own fishing equipment (grapples, 



62 







II 



fish measuring boxes, and metal components of trap and pound 
nets, for example ), to repair and reshape the metal hulls of new or 
second-hand fishing \'essels, and, spectacularly, to fashion small, 
open "assist" boats to use in their trap- and pound-net operations. 
While these "scows," as some call them, vary- in exact dimensions 
and shape, they are generally broadly square-sterned, usually pointed 
at the bow but sometimes pugged in a narrow square, nose with a 
tlattish bottom that rises forward Ibllowang the bow's slight sheerline; 
they are usually eight to ten feet in length and three to four feet 
across at the mid-section, built tt) be powered with an outboiu'd 
motor as well as oars, and used to navigate inside float lines to 
operate a pound net or adjust a trap net. Not surprisingly, they 
resemble the homemade ^A'ooden row boats formerly built and 
used in the area for the same puiposes. 

Inveterate tinkerers and "impro\ers," "craftsmen of necessity^" 
and "jacks of all trades and masters of none," these Great Lakes 
fishermen reflect the traditions of their occupation and their region. 
Where jobs are scarce, incomes low, and sei-vices and ready-made 
goods expensive and not easily available, they diversify' in their 
talents and means of earning incomes. Upper Michigan fishermen 
not only catch and dress their fish, but the\' act as their own 
middlemen, marketing, processing, packing, and shipping the 
"product." Se\'eral fishing families operate small fish processing 
[plants not onh' to make as much as the\' can of their fishing 
lousinesses, but also to be able to offer a variety of jobs to members 
of the family and the local community'. 

Indeed, the U.P. fisherman relies extensi\ely upon a closely-knit, 
extended family familiar \\ith the \agaries of the occupation and its 
effect on domestic life. The male members of the family— fathers, 
sons, uncles, nephews, brothers, ct)usins, and in-laws — pass among 



Ben Peterson and Rich L\tils packing and weigh 
ing whitefish, Fairpon, Michigan Photo by Janet 
Gilmore 



63 



Dooi- County Almanak \oL 3 Sistt-r Bay, NX'l: 
Dragonsbrealh Prevs, 1986. (All about (com- 
mercial ) fishing in the upper Lake Michigan 
region.] 

1 laKerson, Lynn H, "The Commercial Fi.sherie.s 
oltlie Michigan Waters of Lake Superior." 
Mkhigcin Historyi 39( 1955 ): l-F. 
Kaup.-i, Matti. "Norwegian Immigrants and the 
Development of Commercial Fisheries along 
the Nonh Shore of Lake Superior: 18^0 1H95." 
in Nomvfiian Influence on the Upper Midwest. 
ed. llarald S. Nae.ss. Duluth: Continuing Educa 
titm and Extension, I'niversin of Minne.sota. 
1976. 

Ktichenberg, Tom. Reflections in a Taniislx'tl 
Mimr TIk- Use and Abuse oftlx Great Lakes 
Sturgeon Ba\ , Wl: Golden Gk)w Publishing, 
1978. 

Suggested films 

The Last Fislxnnian, b\- Ph\llis Berg-Pigorsch. 

28 min., 30 .sec. Yahara Films. MadLson, Wis 

consin. 1975. 

Good Man in the Woods, b\- Michael Loukinen. 

8^ min., 30 sec. Northern Michigan L'ni\ersit\', 

Mar(.|Liette, .Michigan. 198~. 



themselves preferences in fishing gear and equipment; special 
twists and techniques in the production and operation of gear and 
the handling offish; and names for fish, fishing equipment and 
components, and landmarks and features of the undei-water land- 
scape important for navigating and locating fishing spots. They 
keenly- observe each other and fishers from other families to protect 
(hide, actually) their fishing grounds and productivity, to gauge and 
perfect their fishing performance, and to look out for one another 
in an often treacherous working environment. They know much of 
others" "tricks of the trade" and basic approach to fishing, \'et they 
carefull\' maintain their own special vocabularies, techniques, and 
family fishing philosophies, trying to keep as much of this lore 
secret as possible. 

The maintenance of these "secret codes " for traversing and 
exploiting the water makes these fishermen self conscious conser- 
vators of a tradition and a resource, and restricts the occupation to 
insiders. While this behavior strengthens family bonds and unites 
fishermen across regions and generations, it can also separate local 
fishermen from each other and from the community at large. Such 
practices and attitudes can lead to political dissension among peers, 
dissipated political ck)ut, and deep-seated misunderstandings by 
the public. Thus, the fisherman's ver\' means of occupational 
self protection and peipetuation in fact often works against him. 

Eternall}- faced with this quand:uy and a life of hiu'd economic 
circumstances, many U.P. fishermen have at one time sought better, 
easier lives in the region's big cities. As the classic personal 
experience story goes, they find they cannot bear the urban 
en\1ronment and working "by the clock." They return, committed 
to what they see as a special place and another way of life, 
determined to make a living at what they know best. 



64 



River Guides, Long 
Boats, and Bait Shops: 

Michigan River Culture 

by C. Kurt Dewhurst 

Life in Michigan has been shaped not only by its Great Lakes but 
also by its small lakes, rivers, and streams. Across the northern part 
of the Lower Peninsula of Michigiin, a network of rivers has 
provided transportation, subsistence, and pleasure for Native Amer- 
icans, lumbermen, and e\entually recreational fishermen. Rivers 
such as the Au Sable and Pere Marquette have rich local traditions in 
guiding, fishing, fl\'-t\'ing, and boat building. Each of these rivers, to 
different degrees, h^is spawned a sense of place that has been 
sustained b\' an interaction between those who lived along the river 
and the ecology of the river itself. Building on the past, each river 
gives meaning to those who inhabit its banks. 

0\'er the years, river guides have been a primary force in the 
maintenance and transmission of river culture. Paid for their 
services by the day, these individuals not only build boats but they 
also prepare meals for their clients, serve as local historians, tie flies, 
and provide a general orientation to the nuances of fishing. Sitting 
on a stern seat or standing with punt pole in hand, the guide serves 
as a powerful purveyor of loccU Michigan folklife while the fisher- 
nicUi (customer/ client) sits in the bow of the boat, like a witness or 
apprentice to the guide. 

Perhaps the foremost guide on the Au Sable today is Jay Stephan, 
who is also recognized as the most accomplished builder of Au 
Sable riverboats. A guide since sixteen, he comes from a k)ng line of 
river people. His great-grandfather came to Grayling (on the Au 
Sable) from Rouen, France. Stephan recalls that guiding in the past 
was somewhat different than the life of the guide today: 

Wlien I stiirted, you had to teach them how and where to fish. 
You needed to read the water. The guide was expected to 
prcnide camping gear, camp set up, lodging — either a tent or 
cabin, all the food and cooking, and maintain all the gear— 
including retrieving 'treed' flies. 

Life in the boat was not only hard work but often somewhat 
perik)us. When paired with a novice with a fly-fishing pole, the 
guide frequently was nicked or caught by a misdirected line. 
Stephan notes, "I had a rule, that if a customer was careless, I would 
tell him he pays an extra 50 cents a nick [with a hook] and $1.00 
each time he draws blood." Such rules instilled more cautious 
casting; however, it was not unheard of for a careless customer to 
be put out of the boat on a bank and told to find his way home. 

Renewed interest in guiding today has increased the number of 
guides on the Au Sable, although few pursue the occupation 
Hill-time. Increased interest is attributed to the desire of the new 



C. Kurt Dewhurst is the Director of the 
Michigan State University Museum. He received 
his doctorate in American Studies from Michi 
gan State Onii 'ersil}\ An Assistant Professor in 
the Department of English, he teaclxs classes in 
material folk culture. Over the last thirteen 
years, he has curateda variet)' ofexljibits on 
Michigan folk arts and folklife, including exhib 
its focusing on hunting, trapping, and fishing 
traditions 



65 



Ali Salilt- Ri\ er guide Jay Stephan with a punt 
pole in one hand and a fly rod in the other. 
Photo by C. Kurt Dewhurst 



fisherman to have lessons before going out on his own. The guide 
himself does not usually fish, but rather he directs the customer to 
good fishing spots and teaches the techniques of casting, "working 
the fly," and "setting the hook." Good guiding requires patience 
and a willingness to work within a customer's ability'. Guides, like 
Stephan, take pride in teaching a customer and developing regulars. 
Never relying on advertising, guides are well known locally, and 
area bait shops provide constant referrals. 

The cooking of meals by guides along the river depends on the 
success of the fishing. Dinners of brook, brown, and rainbow trout 
are ideal, but disappointing fishing requires the guide's ingenuity. A 
local, long-time favorite recipe on the Au Sable is "fish and 
flapjacks." A sparse catch of brook trout and an ample supply of 
flapjack mix are combined to make a "fish frittef'-like dinner. 

The Au Sable riverboat, the most tangible evidence of river 
culture, has changed little since 1879 when the first known written 
account of the boat appeared in ^cn'^wer 5 monthly. The origin of 
the boat's design has been a subject of dispute. Some locals claim it 
was influenced by dugout canoes made by local Indians such as 
Chief Shoppenagon — a legendary guide. Others contend the form 
was brought to the river during the lumbering boom years between 
1867 and 1883 when one and one-third billion feet of logs rolled 
out on the Au Sable River. 

One of the few design changes involves weight reduction due to 
the introduction of new materials. Old pine plank boats weighed as 




66 



much as 350-400 pounds and more when wateriogged. Today's 
boats of marine plywood weigh 130-150 pounds. With the advent of 
polymers and epoxy finishes, the longboats can be sealed so they 
will not take on water. These finishes enable builders to utilize the 
more porous plywood, and naturally these lighter boats make 
loading :ind transportation up and down the river easier. 

Riverboat building on the Au Sable continues today. According to 
David Wyss, one of the next generation in a long line of river guides 
and boat builders. 

Many pet)ple have chosen to try and build their ovm longboat 
in recent years. The results are usually mixed as each builder 
tried to make his boat better — and they usually learn why the 
traditional patterns remain intact — they work and they are time 
tested. 

The oral character of the boat building tradition is reflected in the 
comment of one old boat builder, "Bud had everything in his head 
just as I do." Such knowledge is passed down with Ccire and pride. 

Fly-t\'ing on the Au Sable and other Michigan fly fishing rivers — 
like boat building — demonstrates the persistent character of local 
folk traditions. While the so-called "scientific angling movement" 
has resulted in the sale and national distribution of standardized 
handmade flies of every t>pe, kxal flyU'ing remains intact. VC^'ss 
notes that people ask him, "Wliat is that fly supposed to be?" He 
usually responds, "Well, it could be a number of things, but it 
works!" The key principle is to select the right fly to replicate insects 
found both in the area of the river and at the right stage of 
development in the season. Some local favorites on the Au Sable are 
Ernie Borcher's Special, Earl Madsen's Skunk Fly, Jim Wakeley's 
Yellow Bug, Biyber Pole Drake, ;md the B>' Wdker Drake. Each was 
developed by a local guide and often his name remains as part of 
the local vernacular name of the fly. These names in themselves are 
cultural cUti facts of Au Sable Ri\er culture. 

While fishing practices have changed and "no kill" areas have 



Jay Stuphan, ( int- 1 )!' tlie master bt )ai bLiilders 
and river guides on the An Sable, loading a 
punt pole in his boat as heprq:);ires for a "float" 
dowTiri\ er Photo by C. Kurt Dewhurst 

Dick Bittner of Grayling tying flies. Photo by C. 
Kurt Dewhurst 




67 




Fere Marquette Ri\'er or "P,M," boats were flat 
bottomed with squared offends. Guides 
remained standing as the>' maneuvered the boat 
downstream with a 12 ttxit punt pole. Photo 
courtesy of Barney Barnett 



Suggested reading 

Adney, Edwin Tappan and Howard I. Chapelle. 

TTx Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North 

America. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian lasti 

tution Press. 1983. 

Dewhurst, C. Kun and Marsha MacDowell. 

Doutiriver and nunjb Area Michigan Water 

fowling. East Lansing: Michigan State L'niversit\' 

Museum. 1981. 

Mershon, William B. KecoUectionsofmyFify 
Years of Hunting and Fishing Boston: The 
Stratford Compan\-, 1923. 

MiUer, Hazen L The OdAuSable Grand Rap 
ids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. 1963 
Moonsammy, Rita Zom, Da\id Steven Cohen, 
and Lorraine E. Williams, eds. Pinelands Folktife 
New Brunswick and London: Rutgers Uni\ersit>- 
Press, 1987. 



been established, Au Sable River culture survives today as a vital and 
energetic force. On otlier rivers, such as the Pere Marquette, 
traditional river culture has not fared as well. Like the Au Sable River, 
it too was the scene first of lumbering and later of sport fishing. 
Guides like Simmie Nolph settled in Baldwin and had a local boat 
builder fashion 20 P.M. (Pere Marquette) riverboats for use by a 
stable of local guides. Nolph, along with individuals such as Graham 
MacDougall and members of the Barney Barrett family, carried on 
the traditional practices of decades before. Combining all the roles 
of the Au Sable guides, these men carved out their own distinctive 
river lore. 

Perhaps the most visible difference from Au Sable tradition is in 
the design of the PM. boat itself a float boat wath squared ends, it 
featured an open area at the bow for the customer to sit in and a 
central plank seat. The twelve to thirteen foot punt pole had a metal 
spike on the end and the guide stood to punt the boat. Bill 
Beherens, a local boat builder, receives credit for refining the 
design. Not only were these boats used for fishing, they also took 
families and groups of local women downriver on pleasure cruises 
in the 1920s through the 1940s. 

The nature of the river culture on the Pere Marquette was every 
bit as complex and established through the 1950s as it was on the 
Au Sable. Locally developed flies for fly-fishing were the Adams, the 
Royal Coachman, Lady Beaver KiU, and the Lady Jo Caddis (named 
for a local woman who owned a bait shop). However, state 
governmental fishery' practices have dramatically altered the river 
cukure on the Pere Marquette in recent years. The introduction of 
salmon for sport fishing has affected the trout fishing and the folk 
culture on the river permanently. Along with these changes have 
come new large drift boats. Recreational canoe liveries and the 
changing character of fishing has led to a steady decline of 
traditional Pere Marquette River cukure. 

Overall, however, river culture endures in Michigan, adapting to 
changes in the water resources, availability of materials, and public 
policy. One need only look at the Au Sable River, for example, to 
find evidence that the traditional boat designs are carried on 
despite the elimination of white pine planks as boat building 
material. What remains central to the character of local community- 
culture — like Au Sable River culture — are the waterways and folk 
traditions that have combined to create a distinctive sense of place. 
Michigan has a wealth of such locid folk cultural communities that 
deserve not only our understanding but also our commitment to 
their continued existence. 



68 



Life in the Michigan 
Northwoods 

by Eliot A. Singer 

Al:)()ve a line that Ibllows US 10 from Ludington's harbor on Lake 
Michigan through Clare, the self-proclaimed "Gateway to the 
North," to Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay, Michigan is mostly woods. 
Interspersed with thous:mds of lakes, crossed by cold ri\'ers and 
streams, teeming ^ith fish and wildlife, the northwoods is to the 
tourists, boaters, anglers, snowmobilers, and hundreds of thou- 
sands of deer hunters who make their Nearly pilgrimage in late 
No\ember, a recreational paradise. 

During the offseasons, awa\- from the big lakes iuid resorts, 
however, the northwoods has a more permanent population. 
Puiposefully ignored by the travel brochures, and benefiting only 
marginally from the tourist industn, these people have made an art 
of making c/o. With almost no indiistiy in the region, and, e.xcept for 
the fruit farms near Lake Michigan, little economically successful 
fanning, "you either li\e t)ff the uoods or \'ou go on welfare." And 
for most of these people, who pride themselves on self-reliance, 
goxernment assistance is rareh' an acceptable iilternative. The 
.spiritual, and in many cases the actual, descendants of earlier fur 
traders, k)ggers, and homesteaders, these residents ha\e earned the 
right to the de.scription once applied to the tApical lumberjack: "the 
most independent man on eiu'th. ... No law touched him, not even 
smallpox caught him. He didn't fe:ir man, beast, or devil" { in 
Ricliard Dorson, Bloodstoppers cmd Beanvalkers) . 

In this harsh economic en\ironment, the people of the north- 
woods sun i\e through self-sufficiency, adaptability', and \'ersatilit)'. 
Aiy one per.son ma\' expertly hunt, fisli and trap, smoke fish and 
\enison, sell bait or a few Christmas trees, cut pulpwood, grow and 
can fruits and vegetables, raise a few chickens, process maple syrup, 
and, occasionally, guide hunting or fishing trips. The emphasis is on 
doing it yourself, and in finding a way to modif\' whatever is 
a\ ailable to fit one's needs. 

The piles of rusting metal scraps and the junked cars on cinder 
bk)cks, k)athed by the tourist inclustiv' and inteipreted by \isitors as 
signs of sknenliness, are, in fact, resources for manufacture. 'While 
the log cabin maybe the most romantic example of a northwoods 
home, much xwoxg common is the construction of a house by 
modifv'ing and building extensions upon a trailer or mobile home. 
Land in the nonhwoods is generally cheap, and most families 
manage to purchase a small parcel. Building a house, however, 
reL|uires far more capital, so often a young couple will li\e on their 
propeny in a trailer. As weather and a growing famih' necessitate, 
the couple may build onto the trailer: a roof for protection from 
leaks and hea\y snow accumulation, an entrance way to keep the 
house clean, an area for storage, and an additional room for a child. 
These trailer hou.ses are t\pical of the nonhwoods, but often the 



Eliot A Singer stiuJied folklore a! the llniver 
sity ofPenns\'li ■cinici, and cunvnlly Ixads Mich- 
igan Traditions, folklore andfolklife consulting. 
His special interests are in storytelling lumber- 
jack .'iongs and lore, Michigan fiddle music, 
and Northw(K>ds culture. 



69 




Michigan backwixxism;in, 19th centur\-. Photo 
courtesy Michigan State Archives, Department of 
State 



modifications become so extensive, the original trailer all but 
disappears from view. 

The trailer house is an excellent example of the ingenuity with 
which northwoods residents make creative use of available materi- 
als. Their greatest resources, however, are the natural ones the 
woods and water provide. The culture of the northwoods revokes 
around hunting and fishing. It is the favorite topic of conversation, 
and the joke is that when a new electrical power plant was built in 
lAidington, the workers agreed tc^ work exery day of the year, exen 
Christmas, except one: No\ ember 15, the first day of deer season. 

While visiting hunters and anglers provide an important boost to 
the local economy, these sportsmen and women, who are more 
likely to stuff a big fish than eat it, are generally treated with disdain 
by the locals who are so expeit at killing deer that they regard 
venison as a staple, not a delicacy. Nothing annoys the natives more 
than a trophy hunter who takes tlie head of a deer and leaves the 
carcass to rot. Most northwoods residents strongly feel that they 
ought to have a greater right to the wildlife that surrounds them 
than should those who hunt and fish for sport. This leads to 
controversy o\er what kind of fish should be stocked and b\' what 
means the\- should i^e caught. It also leads to poaching. 

Poaching, or "\iolating," as the locals call the illegal taking offish 
or game, is serious business. Michigan's Depanment of Natural 
Resources issues a long series of rules that govern hunting, fishing, 
and trapping, and the breaking of any of these rules is punishable 
b\' cc:)nsiderable fines and imprisonment. No one, including the 
violators, denies that enforcement of these laws has greatly en- 
hanced wildlife in the state. Yet, \iolating in the northwoods 
remains a common, and for many people a socially acceptable, 
practice. 

Poaching sometimes leads to potentially violent encounters 
between conservation officers and poachers, and the game wardens 
love to tell stories of their heroics in the face of danger. The lighter 
side of poaching comes from the stories the violators tell of their 
escapes and pranks. One violator, who sees himself as something of 
a Robin Hood, claims he kiUs deer for those too old to hunt 
"because they still like the taste of venison." He tells about how, 

One time I walked intc^ the [local restaurant] only to find the 
game warden sitting there. 'Hey, Joe,' he says, 'You killed any 
deer lately?' 'Sure,' I says, 'I got tvv^o bucks in the back of my 
truck right now.' Well, the game warden just laughed. 'But you 
know somethin', that's just what I had. I had two bucks out 
there in the back of my truck, under a taip.' 

Another story tells how the game warden was having trouble 
catching an unknown poacher. Everv' Sunday he would go to his 
sister's house for dinner and brag about how he was going to lay in 
wait for that poacher the next day. But, each time it was as if the 
poacher knew just where he was going to be. Turns out, the 
poacher was that game warden's brother-in-law. 

Many of the first non-Indians to visit Michigan came as trappers 
or fur traders, and trapping continues to be an important part of 
northwoods life. While only a few earn a living at it, many trap to 
supplement their incomes. Successful trapping requires an enor- 



70 




Trapper Damien LLinning pulling a beaver from 
the ice, Mi< >, Photo by Eliot Singer 

Trapper ludy Limning skinning raccoon, Mio. 
Photo by Eliot Singer 



71 



SniiiiL'stcd rcaeiing 



1959. 



mous amount of environmental knowledge. Trappers must distin- 
guish tracks and spoor, rec"ognize paths and channels, and have an 
intimate knowledge of animals' habits. A good trapper learns how 
to modify or disguise nature to encourage or lure the animal to a 
trap. For example, trapper Damien Lunning of Mio, after mo\'ing 
around branches to transform a channel, marks his constructic:)n, as 
a beaver does, by placing a wad of mud on it. Good trappers are 
also good conservationists ( their livelihood depends on it) and take 
care not to overtrap a given area. 

To run a trap line, every day the trapper must drive down almost 
inaccessible dirt roads, tramp many miles through underbrush, 
swamp and snow, and drag his catch out of the forest. And when he 
returns home, after ten hours in the woods, with, say, a half dozen 
Rdmann! Le^s c. The Game Warden and Hx beaver, ten muskrats, a couple of coon, a red fox, and a coyote, the 
pmcbers. Ann Arbor: Nonhw(K>ds Publishers, animals Still havc to bc skiuucd, scrapcd, and put on boards or 

stretchers to dry before the next day's trek. 

Little of the animal is wasted. Beaver and muskrat are often eaten, 
used to bait coyote and fox, or fed to the chickens; scent glands of 
some animals can be sold; and e\'en the penis bones of the male 
racoons are of value: down-state factory workers like to give them to 
their wives and girl friends for necklaces or earrings. 

Those who live off the land in the northwoods see themselves as, 
and in many ways they truly are, the natural inheritors of a way of 
life that goes back to before the first non-Indian settlers. But this 
tradition of making do, of living off the land and using whatever 
resources are a\'ailable, does not exclude them from the modern 
world. Northwoods natives own televisions and satellite dishes, 
drive pick-ups and snowanobiles, and cut their firewood with 
chain-saws. Modernity even intrudes on poaching stories. Not long 
ago, so the story goes, a hunter shot a wild turkey and put it in his 
freezer. A few weeks later the game warden knocks at the door. 
"Where's that turkey you killed?" "Wliat turkey?" asks the poacher. 
"The one you killed," says the warden. This goes on for a while, but, 
finally, the poacher gi\es in and shows the warden the freezer. 
"How'd you know?" he asks. The game warden reaches under the 
wing of the turkey. "Like this," he says, and he pulls out one of 
those electronic gadgets used for tracking endangered species. 



72 



"God Bless dee Mushrat: 
She's a Fish! " 

by Dennis M. Au 

Muski-at: nearly 300 years of French presence in southeastern 
Michigan has boiled dov^n to an enduring passion for eating this 
little rodent. From Pon Huron in the noith do\\n to the western 
shore of Lake Erie into Ohio, the descendants of Michigan's 18th 
centun' French community are dubbed "Mushrat" French. This 
foodway is a trait that in part distinguishes them as a unique cultural 
group. The taste for muskiat has prcned to be per\asi\e and has 
spread to other groups. The Poles and tlie Germans have adopted it, 
and in this centun', public nuiskrat dinners sponsored b\' churches 
and clubs ha\e become popular annual rituals. 

ExactK' how and when this love affair with muskrat — always 
pronounced "mushrat" — began is not clear. It is assumed the skill 
for cooking it was learned from the Indians by the voyageur 
ancestors of these Frenchmen. Muskrat was certainly a feature of life 
here in the I8th centuiy, and by the 19th century it had become a 
shaiply defined tradition. Muskrat was, and to a degree still is an 
important source of winter food and inct)me for the French farmers 
and fishermen who li\e near ri\'ers and marshes. 

Through the years and to this day, many outsiders consider 
consuming muski-at repulsixe because the animal has been tagged a 
rat. The response to this stigma has de\ eloped into a stereotypical 
dialogue. A recent convert to the delicacy stated, "The thing that 
convinced me was that the muskrat is a clean animal . . . [because] it 
only eats roots and things . . . It's much cleaner than a chicken." 

The preparation of muskrat is carefully prescribed. The animal 
must be trapped before the first warm snap in late winter because 
his flesh becomes too gamy in the breeding season. After it is 
skinned and gutted, the fat and musk glands are removed. Remov- 
ing these glands, which are said to number from two to seven, is 
considered essential. Failure to do this wiO result in foul tasting 
meat. Cleaned, the carcass is parboiled in onion and celen- until 
tender. In the French homes the meat is next browned in a skillet or 
smothered in t)nions and roasted. At the public dinners, however, 
the rats are i:)laced into large roasters and covered with creamed 
corn and butter. Among the older generation of Mushrat French, the 
head is the real delicacy. Family members vie for the chance to eat 
the brain and tongue. Some people are alsc:) known to make a form 
of bouillabaisse from the heads. 

Indeed, for the French of southeastern Michigan, this peculiar 
foodway is what sets them apart from the continental French and 
the Qiiebecois The Mushrat French identifs' with the animal. Some 
serve it at holiday gatherings. Those who lea\e the area specifically 
request it when they return home, and a few have it mailed to them. 
The rodent's name is even invoked in their terms of endearment. 
Although now falling from use, friends greet each other with. 



Dennis M. Aii, a descendant of Mushrat 
French, is Assistant Director of the Monroe 
Count)' Historical Commission. He studied folk- 
life at Coopeistoivn Graduate Programs and 
Wayne State Unit 'ersiti' and haspuhlislxd u vrks 
on French-Canadian folklife in Michigan and 
on the War of 181 J in Michigan. 



73 



The Monroe Muskrat, pictured in a handbill for 
the 1905 Grand Muskrat Cami\al. Photo by Dennis 
Au, courtesy Monroe Historical Commission Archives 



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-5 HONORARY MEMBER OF THE 
3 MONROE YACHT CLUB 

Li, IHAI MADE MONROE FAMOUS 



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''Comma ga va, you mushrat you!" Last but not least, muskrat lovers 
fondly recite numerous \ariants of Mushrat French, hi one dialect 
joke reflecting French in\ened word order, a man, when asked 
about his father, responds: "FortA, mo mushrat kill'a my fadder!" 
"Oh, your f:ither's dead?" "No, damn fool! Mushrat dead!" 

The most deeply ingrained tradition associated with the muskrat, 
though, re\'olves around the Catholic Church's meatless fasts. It is 
wideK' believed by the Mushrat French and others that the people 
of this area were granted a special dispensation from the Church 
declaring the muskrat a fish, thus permitting its consumption on 
days of abstinence. The origin of this is uncertain. Some say it was 
done because of the animal's aquatic nature. Others cite stories of a 
priest's petition to the bishop or Pope to grant this favor to alle\iate 
the suffering and stanation wrought here b\- the War of 1812 or, as 
the updated versions ha\ e it, the Great Depression. The muskrat 
being eaten as fish can alst) be documented along the St. Law rence 
in the days of New France and as a practice of the voyageurs, the 
cultural predecessors of the Mushrat French. 

No matter what its origins, the people are confirmed in this 
belief Some were e\en taught it b\- the priest and nuns of their 
parish. Many people, "not wanting to miss out on meat," make it a 
point to ha\e muskrat on fast days. One family has made a mock 
ceremony of this. When muskrat is sened, the head of this 
household raises his arms abo\e the cooked rodent and assuming a 



74 




prayerful attitude declares, "God bless dee mushrat: she's a fish," in 
a humorous portrayal of the English spoken by the Mushrat French. 

This belief is contro\'ersial. On the day after Ash Wednesda\' this 
\ear, a ne\\spaper article brought the custom to the attention of the 
archbishop of Detroit. Appalled that a priest would affirm the 
legendary- dispensation and puzzled b\- the members of his flock 
eating muskrat as fish, the archbishop announced the practice was 
to cease. People cU'e incensed. On this issue they consider the 
archbishop ignorant, and the>' think him to be an interloper who 
has no appreciation for their tradition. 

Outside the French families muskrat has another imponant 
manifestation. Beginning in 1902, a rage for public muskrat dinners 
developed, particularly in Monroe County in the extreme southeast- 
ern corner of the state. These dinners are annual winter fundraisers 
for churches, sports clubs, and lodges. The best dinners sell out 
weeks in advance. Local politicians and socialites make it a point to 
be seen at these affairs. 

The public dinners have one curious aspect. From the first, 
male/ female boundaiies have been drawn. Women are only invited 
to those dinners that offer an alternati\e to muskrat — usually- beef; 
the stag dinners have no option but muskrat. Outside the confines 
of the French homes, the meat is perceixed as a male preference. 

This past spring, the future of these public dinners was placed in 
doubt. The Michigan Department of Agriculture, which for years 



Ntjrbcrt "Nub" Hoffman and GcDrgt' Kaii.slcr at 
the Monroe Boat Club "muskrat cleaning bee- 
Photo by Dennis Au 

Muskrat sign at .\la\eal's Butcher Shop, Monroe, 
Michigan Photo by Dennis Au 



75 



Au, Dennis M. and Joanna N. Borde. "A Lcgac\ 
from New France: The French Canadian Com 
munit\- oF Monroe Count\-, Michigan." In A 
Michigan Folklife Reader. Michigan State Lni 
\ersit\' Press, forthcoming. 
Hamlin, Marie Caroline VC'atson Legends ofle 
Detroit. Detroit: Gale Research Compan\-. 1977 
[Detroit: Throndike Nourse, 1884], 
Laniz, David E, TheMuskrat. U.S. Depanment 
ot Agricultine, Farmer's Bulletin *396. Wash- 
ington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1910. 



had overlooked muskrat in its official inspections, suddenly banned 
its sale and public consumption. That action raised a hue and ciy. In 
Monroe County a rally and petition drive was organized. Just as if 
apple pie were being attacked, politicians in the county lined up 
behind the muskrat and accused state regulators of tampering with 
a sacred heritage. One state legislator, who incidently had patron- 
ized six of the dinners last winter, is determined to prevail over the 
agriculture department e\'en if he must propose special legislation. 

No matter what happens with the public dinners, the Mushrat 
French will find a wa\' to get the little animal on their table. This link 
with their heritage is considered too important. Wliile other aspects 
of their French culture may fade, this one continues with \italit\'. 
The Mushrat French dialect is largely religated to memor)-; tciles of 
the Loup Garou and Lutin can barely be recalled, and now only 
grandma makes tourtiere and glissants, but the taste for muskrat and 
the skill to cook it is passed on to the \-ounger generation. After 
nearly 300 years the muski'at traditic:)n is the li\ing legacy' and 
cukural contribution of the French in southeastern Michigan. 



76 



Crafts of Survival: 

The Materials of Ottawa, 
Ojibway, and Potawatomi 
Culture 

by James M. McClurken 

Michigan's Ottawa, Ojibway, and Potawatomi Indians relied 
directly upon the forests and waters of their Great Likes home for 
food, shelter, and ck)thing. Life in this beautiful but sometimes 
unpredictable and unyielding environment required a well devel- 
oped technology' crafted by local anisans wnh the materials from 
tlieir home region. Ojibway people between Sault Ste. Marie and 
the Straits of Mackinac supptiited themselves primimh' b\' gathering 
wild foods such as berries and maple sap, hunting for large and 
small game, and by hanesting rich catches of whitefish and lake 
trout. The Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibway who lived in the Lower 
Peninsula also relied on wild foods but in addition grew storable 
crops of com, squash, be^ms, and sunflowers that allowed them to 
Ii\e in larger, more permanent settlements than did the nonhern 
Ojib\\a\'. These resources proxided the l:)cisis for a rich cultur;il 
heritage of technology and crafts. 



fames McClurken is a doctoral candidate in 
tlx Department o/Anthm/X)logf at Michigan 
State Unirersit}' Since I9H1 he has conducted 
ethnohistorical research on Great Lakes Indians 
for treaty rights litigation. He is cunvntly trrit 
ing a dissertation on Micljgian Ottawa life diir 
ing the 19th century and k associated with 
Michigan State Uniivrsity Mt4seum. 




Geiif ral iirt-as (kx Lipied by Michigans Indian.s 
at the beginning ot tlTe 19th century 



77 



Before Europeans brought manufactured goods to the Great 
Lakes, Indian men used wood, stone, bone, and plant and animal 
fibers to construct a complex set of technological inventions 
needed to make their livelihood. The sleek, lightweight canoes they 
made of birchbark, cedar, and spruce to transport their families and 
harv^ests along Michigan's many waterways are considered by many 
Americans as a crowning achievement of Michigan Indian technol- 
ogy. For winter travels over land or snow-covered ice, they made 
snowshoes from black ash wood interiaced with rawhide strips. To 
catch fish, they wo\'e intricate nets, constructed weirs, and carved 
highly polished bone harpoons. Hunting required straight shafted, 
accurate arrows and spears and man\' well constructed traps. Men 
also made the wooden, bone, and stone tools used by the women 
to clear fields and hoe the crops. 

Most daily household items Indian men made bore little or no 
iconography or drawings that Americans today consider art. How- 
ever, many of the tools Michigan Indian men created were so well 
adapted to life in pre- industrial Michigan that original designs or 
variations on them continued to be used until well into the 19th 
centun'. From the l650s onward European rifles replaced stone- 
tipped projectiles for hunting, and metal hoes and axes facilitated 
horticulture. In contr^ist, the French, British, and Americans adopted 
Indian-st\'le canoes, snowshoes, and fish nets. Indeed, the Ottawa 
and Ojibway who lived near the Straits of Mackinac expanded their 
indigenous crafts during the fur trade era between 1650 and 1820 
and sold the canoes to the Europeans who used them to transport 
furs from the western reaches of Lake Superior to Montreal. When 
Europeans did not rely on the Indians to provide them with such 
staples as fish and maple sugar, they used Indian-made equipment 
to feed themselves. 

Men were responsible for leading religious rituals, and for these 
they made the man>' specialized, decorated items of \'alue to 
modern collectors. They drew sacred scrolls depicting the mythical 



Canoe building required se\eral people work 
ing together Here the botttini bark is held down 
b\' a frame weighted with large stones in prepa- 
ration for sewing the bark with split spruce 
ri K )t.S- The seams are then sealed with pine or 
spruce pitch mixed with deer tolkm . Photo cour- 
tesy Michigan State Archives, Department of State 




78 



accounts of creation and migration which their people re-enacted 
in their rituals. They preceded every religious event and secular 
council b\' smoking from a ritual pipe. The pipe bowls were made 
of stone carved in simple, smooth elbow shapes or as effigies of 
humans or animals. These bowls were secured to long pipestems 
ornamented with carvings, feathers, and painted decorations. Men 
made a variety' of drums, as well as the rattles and flutes that 
accompanied them, whose beats guided dancers during ritual and 
on social occasions. They also carved wood or stone amulets, 
objects believed to incorj^orate a portion of the powers pervading 
the world around them. The Indians beliexed that with these 
amulets they could favorably influence the unseen forces in their 
universe. 

The designs Michigan Indian men etched, painted, or carved on 
their creations often poitra\'ed the spirit beings whom they believed 
controlled the forces of nature. For example, the people who relied 
heax'ily on fishing in the sometimes rough and stormy waters of the 
Great Lakes often carved the image of Otter. The Ottawa, Ojibway, 
and Potawatomi all believed that the world was once covered with 
water. An Otter dove to the bottom and brought one grain of sand 
to the surface. From this their culture hero Nanabozho created 
Mackinac Island, the place Michigan Indians considered the center 
of the world, and from there all the surrounding land from which 
they made a living. Ha\'ing demonstrated his power to overcome 
water-related dangers, the Indians called on Otter to protect them as 
well. They also depicted a great horned panther whom the Ojibway 
called Me-she-pe-shiw. This monster lived beneath the Great Lakes 



Ojibway woman tri)m Ba\ Mill>. Michigan 
weaving a basket n ith black a.sh splints. Photo 
courtesy Michigan State Archives, Department of 
State 




79 



Potawatomi bag, 1~S0 IHOO, Milwaukee Pub 
Ik Museum. Photo courtesy Grand Rapids Public 
Museum 



and stirred up unexpected storms that capsized the fragile canoes 
and claimed Indian lives. The Indians also used their art to create 
images of/l/?-^/t?-w/-^e or Thunder Bird, Me-she-pe-shiw's arch 
enemy, to protect themselves from the panther's powers. European 
missionaries tried for centuries to replace these native beliefs with 
Christianity', but they failed. During 200 years of interaction with 
Europeans, they would not forswear their world view in which 
making objects of religious significance played a crucial role. 

Women, whose primary' responsibilities included tending fields, 
preserving food, making clothing, and maintaining the hc:)me, 
practiced many aesthetically pleasing subsistence related crafts. 
During early historic times the\' formed and fired ceramic vessels. 
European copper and brass kettles quickly replaced native clay jars. 
However, women continued to make other containers essential for 
harvesting and processing both natural and horticultural crops 
throughout the 19th century. They cut and stitched birchbark boxes 
called mokuks and wove carrying bags from pounded basswood 
fiber and cattails which they used to transport essential goods for 
their families. Early French observers reported that Ottawa women 
also wove colorfully dyed cattail mats with which they covered the 
floors of their houses and also traded to their neighbors, though 
these disappeared from the women's repertory in the 1700s. 

Making and ornamenting clothing also belonged to the female 
sphere of activities. Women processed the animal hides essential 
for making shirts, leggings, breech clouts, dresses, moccasins, and 
robes. Before Europeans brought inexpensive cloth goods to the 
Great Lakes, women tended to every aspect of making and 
maintaining their family's entire wardrobe. The Indians wore plain 




80 



e\'er\ day clothes, but women produced finery for special ceremo- 
nial and social occasions. They embroidered these with porcupine 
quills dyed red, yellow, orange, blue, or brown colors obtained from 
a\ailable plants that yielded naturid dyes. The designs they created 
often combined geometric patterns with stylized renditions of the 
plants and flowers in their environment. Throughout the 17th, 18th, 
and 19th centuries they cc~)ntinued producing these distinctly 
woodland motifs on both leather and cloth, mixing and substituting 
glass beads for traditional quillwork. Indeed, demand for decorated 
clothing increased as Indian women married Euro-American traders 
and dressed their husb:mds in the Indian st\'le of the frontier. 

Ottawa, Ojibway, and Potawatomi life changed drastically during 
the 1820s when the United States, iilong with se\'eral missionary' 
societies, attempted to prepare the Indians for life in American 
society'. When large numbers of settlers took homesteads through- 
out the state, they disrupted Indian's seasonal cycle of production 
from natural resources, and many Lower Peninsula Indians them- 
selves built permanent agricultural settlements. They used annuity' 
money received from the sale of their lands to buy the necessary 
tools. Men expanded the size of fields and worked with women to 
grow crops of potatoes, corn, other vegetables, and wheat for 
themselves and to sell to the newcomers. Men employed their 
wood-working skills to build k)g and frame houses at permanent 
settlements, furnishing them like the homes of their American 
neighbors. Skills and crafts dissociated with hunting gradually be- 
came less important throughout the 19th century as Indian men 
took wage paying jobs as farm hands, lumbermen, and carpenters. 
Steamboats and roads limited the need for birchbark canoes, and 
the skill of making them died away in all but the most remote Upper 
Peninsula settlements by 1900. In many places male crafts related to 
religious rituals continued until the early 20th century, but b\- and 
large, men abandoned their pipe, drum, and amulet making in favor 
of Christian rites and svmbols. 




Contfiiiporan' 0|ibwa\' quillwork. Photo by 
Nicholas R. SpiUer 



81 



Siif^eslcd reading 

Armour, David A. "Beads in tht- L'pper Great 
Lakes: A Study in Acculturation." In Beads: Their 
Use By Upper Great Lakes Indians, ed. Gc )rd( m 
L. Olson. Grand Rapids: Grand Rapids Public 
Museum, 1977. 

Cleland, Charles E., Richard D. Clute, and Rob- 
ert E, Haltner. "Naub Cow Zo Win Discs from 
Nonhem Michigan." Midcontinental Journal 
ofArchaeolog)'%2): 235-249. 
Clifton, James A. George L Cornell, and James 
M. McClurken. People of the Three Fires: The 
Ottawa. Potawatomi and O/ibway ofMichi 
gan. Grand Rapids: Grand Rapids Inter Tribal 
Council Press, 1986. 

Densmore. Frances How Indians Use Wild 
Plants for Food, Medicine attd Crafts New 
York: Dover Publications, Inc., 197-4. 
Dobson, Pamela J., ed. The Tree That Neier 
Dies Oral History of tl}e Michigan Indians. 
Grand Rapids: Grand Rapids Public Library, 
1978. 



Missionaries encouraged Indians to continue producing crafts 
which the latter could adapt to their new life styles — especially 
those which could be sold. Women adapted porcupine quill and 
bead floral motifs from traditional clothing decorations to beadwork 
on salable cloth items that Americans found aesthetically pleasing. 
Missionaries also encouraged women to adopt the crafts of spin- 
ning, weaving, and embroidery to take the place of buckskin and to 
provide cloth goods for their way of life. In this too, Indian women 
applied their traditional designs in items like quilts. Men and 
women continued to make birchbark boxes which tliey decorated 
with porcupine quill embroidery, often in floral designs or those 
depicting important mythological or environmental animals. The 
Ottawa on Little Tra\'erse Bay helped support their mission church 
and school by preparing decorated mokuks filled with maple sugar 
which they donated to the church. Their clergymen then sold the 
harvest and used the proceeds. Ottawa, Ojibway, and Potawatomi 
women wove decorative and function^ baskets from splints the 
men cut from black ash which they sold to Americans to earn 
needed cash, especially during the final years of the 19th and early 
20th century. 

Some Michigan Indians still practice traditional crafts of porcu- 
pine embroidery on birchbark, beadwork, and basketry in designs 
similar to those used by their grandparents. They sell them at 
powwows throughout the United States and southern Canada. 
Many use the proceeds of these sales to finance their participation 
in these gatherings where they dance, sing, and pray, socializing 
and re-emphasizing their Indian identity. 



Suggested film 

Wiigwaasijiimaan (Vne Birchbark Canoe ), by 
the Saginaw Chippewa Tribe, Mt. Pleasant, 
Michigan, and Bemidji State L'ni\ersity, 1978. 



82 



Good News for the 

Motor City: Black Gospel 
Music in Detroit 

by Joyce M.Jackson and 
James T. Jones, IV 

Since the early 1930s Detroit has been one of the prime centers 
for Black gospel music. Even though gospel was overshadowed in 
the 1960s by the pervasiveness of the Motown sound, the sacred 
tradition always was strong in Black neighborhoods, co-existing 
with the secular. Through the years the r^'o traditions have 
influenced each other, and they both have served to meet the 
constantly changing and expanding needs of the urban Black 
communit>'. 

Prior to the early 20th centurv- most Afro-Americans lived in the 
rural South. However, with the outbreak of the World Wars, Detroit 
along with other industrial cities of the Nonh held a promise of 
economic and social opponunities and personal freedom for 
soutliern Blacks, particularly in automobile and related industries. 
They came in hope of escaping a legal system of discrimination that 
prevented any improvements of their status. Unfonunately, life in 
the city did not meet tlie expectations of the migrants. The practice 
of discriminatic:)n in employment, housing, education and the use 
of public accomodations forced Blacks to create an alternate life 
style. A new gospel music more suited to urban life replaced the 
airal traditions and gave a sense of pride and hope to those who 
had recenth' uprooted themselves in pursuit of a dream which 
seemed incrccisingly difficuk to attain. 

This highly emotional and spirit- filled music evolved fi^om the 
Holiness and Pentecostal churches and first penetrated more 
established denominations through the "storefront" Baptist and 
Methodist churches which permeated Black sections of Detroit. 
Pioneered by Charles A. Tindley ( Philadelphia ) in the early 1900s 
and developed and popularized by Thcmias A. Dorsey (Chicago) in 
the 1920s and 1930s, gospel has evolved over the years to encom- 
piiss many traditions and styles extending from spirituals, hymns 
and blues to contemporary jazz and soul. 

Since the early 1930s Detroit has been the center for a vibrant 
quartet tradition. The eai-ly "jubilee quartets" sang spirituals, jubi- 
lees, and hymns in the close four-part harmony a cappella style 
which emphasized an even blend of voices and call and response 
formal structures. This style became popularized through radio 
broadcasts and community programs, in addition to appearances in 
church. In later years many quartets began to add instruments, and 
lead singers began to assume a more prominent and independent 
role, a stylistic feature now characteristic of contemporary gospel 
quartets. 



Joyce M. Jackson is an etbnomusicotogist/ 
folklorist and conducts research in Black mu- 
sic atid culture. She is currently an assistant 
professor in the Geonrapby atid Anthmpolog\' 
Department at Louisiana State Vnii ■eisily, Ba 
ton Rouge. 

James T Jones, IV, a Detroit native, received 
his master's degree in communication from 
Western Michigan Unifersity He currently urites 
on gospel and rlr\'lhm and blues music for the 
Features Department of the Detroit News, and 
plays the bass in a jazz quartet 



83 




TliL- \'i >iLcs I >l I .iliL-ni.n If 1. hi lir pcrti inn M tin.- 
Kunnnki FrK'cl ('hukcn Miisn (.iinipctitiDn. 
Photo by Kirthmon Dozier, Detroit News 



The Jewell Jubilees, the Cumberland River Singers, and the 
Mid-South Singers are a few of the early quartets who were active in 
Detroit for many years. Some became professionals, touring on a 
full-time basis. The Flying Clouds, who staned in 1929 as the Russell 
Street Usher Board Four, were regular travelers on national circuits. 
For more than a decade they broadcasted regularK', first o\'er WJR 
and then across the river in Windsor, Ontario over CKLW. The 
Evangelist Singers, later known as the Detroiters, the first Black 
group to perfonn on WWG in Detroit, were also full-time singers 
touring successfully in the 40s with Sister Rosetta Thaipe. Some of 
the quartets made commercial recordings but on small local labels, 
hence their obscurity today. 

The performance practices, musical arrangements, and popularity 
of the traditional gospel quartets undoubtly had a major influence 
on the emerging rhythm and blues and popular- styled vocal groups 
that began to appear in the mid- 19-40s. Detroit was known as a 
rhythm and blues city, but this secular music was greatly influenced 
by gospel, adopting not only its vocal cUid instrumental styles but 
also arrangements, call-response structure, group makeup, and 
stylized mo\'ements. 

With the decline of the male-dominated gospel quartet tradition, 
female groups began to emerge in Detroit in the late 1940s and 
early 1950s. Earlier female quartets had sung in the four-part male 
quartet style, while these newer groups sang three-part hai-mony 
aiTangements accompiinied by piano or organ. The female groups 
were organized and began traveling to help fill the increasing 
demands for this deeply moving religious music. One female 



84 




group, the Meditation Singers, consisting of Ernestine Rundless, 
Marie Water, DeLiUian Mitchell, and Delia Reese, broadcasted on 
Sunday evenings from the New Light Baptist Church in Detroit, and 
were one of the first groups to bring gospel music to the secular 
world by performing in lounges. 

The Civil Rights Movement and the 1967 Detroit riots wrought 
profound changes in the Detroit Black community and in its music. 
Gospel lyricists began to address themseKes directly to the prob- 
lems and conditions of their communities. During the 1960s the 
gospel sound stimulated the growth and development of urban 
Black popular musics, such as Motown, that addressed the "worldly" 
concerns of Black Americans. This "soul" music adapted many of 
the principles of gospel music performance: free form arrange- 
ments that provided flexibility for lead singers, a semi-preaching 
st\'le, and additional instrumentation. 

This modern gospel sound was populain^ed by Motown groups 
such as The Four Tops, The Temptations, and Smokey Robinson 
and the Miracles. Many Motown performers served their musical 
apprenticeships in the field of gospel music as members of church 
or community ciuiutets, groups, and choirs. Wlien Berry Gordy, Jr., 
moved Motown to Los Angeles in 1973, he left behind a generation 
of singers and instrumentalists with no commercial outlet. These 
younger musicians turned to performing in churches and schools. 
Many of the groups emerged resembling Motown acts, even by the 
wa\' they dressed. Often, except for the lyrics, a listener cannot tell 
that the songs are religious. The Ranee Allen Group was one of the 
first groups to gain recognition for a Motown-influenced gospel 
sound. It reworked the rhythm and blues Temptation's single "Just 
My Imagination" as "Just My Salvation." The danceable sounds of 
other Detroit groups like the Winans, the Clark Sisters, and 
Commissioned also confirms the secular' influence. 

Despite the prevalence and popularity of quartets and groups, 
Detroit is best knouai in the gospel world for its mass choirs. Athleia 
Hutchins and Sally Jones were the forerunners in Detroit's choir 
sound, but the Rev. James Loftin, who founded the Church of Our 
Prayer, really brought a focus to Detroit as a choir town with his 



Vanessa Fams singing with tin.- 1 Ik )ni;Ls Whitfield 
Compan\'. Photo by Kirthmon Dozier. Detroit News 

Minister Deirick Brinkle\ and his wife Seleste 
singing during services at the True Church of 
the House of Prayer To AH Natitjns, Pontiac. 
Photo by Kirthmon Dozier. Detroit News 



85 



Su^ested reading 

Boyer, Horace C. "A Compuratn e ,\nal\ sis ol 
Traditii inal and Contemporan- Gospel Music." 
In Moiv Tlxiti Dancing: Essay's on AJro American 
Music am/ Musicians, ed. Irenejackson. ^X'est]^< )n, 
CT: Greenwot)d Press, 1985. 
Biirnini, Mellonee V. "The Black Go.spel NUisic 
Tradition: A Complex of Ideologv", Aesthetic, 
and Beha\ior." In More Wan Dancing: Essays 
on Afro American Music a}td Musicians, ed. 
Irejie Jackson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 
1985." 

Funk, Ray. Detroit Gospel, ( LP liner notes ) 
Gospel Heritage HT 31 1, 1986. 
Jackson, Joyce M. "The Performing Black Sa 
cred Qiianet: A Cultural Expression of Values 
and Aesthetics," Ph.D. di.ssenation, Indiana Uni- 
versit>-. 198^. 

Jones, James T, rv. "Praise the Lord!" Michigan: 
The Magazine of the Detroit News, November 
2, 1986. 

Le\ine. Lawrence. Black Culture and Black 
Consciousness. New York: Oxtord University- 
Press, 1977. 

Suggested recordings 

The Clark Sisters, Is My Liring in Vb/«.''( New 

Binh, NEW^056G). " 

Detroit Gospel ( all a cappella quartets ) ( G< )spei 

Heritage, HT 311). 

Donald \'ails and The Choraleers. Vleve Come 

to Praise Hun ( Sa\'o\- SVT ^069 ). 

The Fabukjus Violinaires ot Detroit, Their 

Greatest Hits ( Checker CH 91 27 ). 

Mattie Moss Clark and The Southwest Michigan 

State Choir, Humble Vjyself( DME GP ^"^2 ). 

The Winans, Let My People Go ( Qwest 1 25344 ). 



300-voice ensemble which gave concert,s at Olympia and the State 
Fairgrounds. 

Although famous preachers, composers, and directors like C.L. 
Franklin, Charles Craig, James Cleveland, and Charles Nicks have 
played dominant roles, three female choir directors also made their 
mark. The church communit}' affectionateh- calls them the Big 
Three: Elma Hendrix Parham, who organized the women's chorus 
at the Greater New Mt. Moriah Baptist Church and directed the 
communit\' youth Ensemble; Mattie Moss Clark, founder of the 
Southwest Michigan State Choir at Bailey Temple and mother of the 
Grammy-nominated Clark Sisters; and Lucylle Lemon, former choir 
director at New Bethel Baptist Church and founder of the Luc->lle 
Lemon Gc:>spel Chorus in 1943- 

Contemporan,' gospel choirs like Thomas Whitfield and Com- 
pany, Larr>' Robinson Concert Chorale, Northeast Youth Community 
Choir, anci Ed Smitli and the Operation Lo\'e Communit\- Choir 
have packed churches and conceit halls. The Dondd Vails Choraleers 
and the Rev. Charles Nick's St. James Missionaiy Baptist Church 
Adult Choir ha\'e for the last fi\'e years continually won the Gospel 
Music Excellence Awards, presented in Detroit by the Gospel Music 
Workshop of America ( the largest gospel organization of its kind in 
the United States). 

hi the 1980s the focus on Detroit as a gospel mecca is stronger 
than e\er. Contemporaiy gospel continues to b(,)rrow elements ol 
style, instrumentation, and performance practice from secular mu- 
sic. Performers create new styles by expanding on musical concepts 
associated with the past while simultanec^usly capitalizing on new 
creati\e ideas and technok)gical achances. Along with the numer- 
ous small ensembles and choirs, gospel soloists such as Vanessa Bell 
Armstrong are receixing national recognition. Many of these artists 
have signed with major record kibels. In the city more than 400 
hours of gospel music command the radio airwaves each week, and 
Detroit's WMUZ-FM is one of the few 24-hour Christian music 
stations in the countiy. Totally Gospel and Spirit Filled specifically 
Black gospel publications, are based in Detroit. The Sound of 
Gospel and Message Music Productions, two of the countn's main 
gospel recording labels, also make their home in the cit\'. 

Despite changes in musical st\'le and content, gospel in Detroit 
continues to sen'e a xital fi-inction in the lives of many Blacks. It has 
succeeded in the city on all levels: spiritually, artistically, technically, 
and commercialh'. 



86 



The Arabbers 
of Baltimore 

A Photo Essay by Roland Freeman 

"Arabbing" (a nibbing) is a folk term peculiar to Baltimore, Marv'land, 
for the selling of goods from horse-drawn wagons, pushcarts, trucks and 
corner stands by hawkers of street vendors. It derives from "iirab" or 
"street arab", colloquial words for a peddler. The term is most often 
applied to the selling of produce from horse-drawn wagons. 

Selling from horse-drawn wagons was once a major means of supplying 
cit\'- dwellers with fresh fruit and vegetables, fish and poultry, and ice, 
wood and coal. Today, this kind of street peddling is neixrly extinct in 
major American urban areas — except in Bidtimore, where some 100 
wagons still work the streets. 

In the 1960s there were some 25 stables in the city of Baltimore. Many 
stables have since been torn down as part of BiUtimore's urban renewal, 
and many closed because they were not economiccilly \iable. Anc^ther 
blow to Arabbing has been the relocation of the Camden iind Pratt Street 
wholesale produce markets to Jessup, Maniand, some 20 miles outside 
the city, beyond the reach of horse-drawn wagons. And it is increasingly 
hard for the Arabbers to compete with the large chain food stores which 
have edged closer in recent years to the neighborhoods formerly served 
exclusively by their wagons. However, the Arabbers" ccMitinuing strength 
is personal customer service and attention. 

The five stables which still operate in Baltimore, and the Arabbers who 
continue to ply their trade from them, iire toda\' both present p;irticipants 
in a style of commerce rooted in the cit\''s culture and histon' and a 
reminder of how far and how fast Baltimore has changed. 



Roland /'nvnuin is a dot iimcntcirf photo- 
grapher conducting research in Black culture 
througlxmt iIk African Diaspora Since 1972, 
he Ixis been afield research plx>tographer for 
the Smithsonian 's Festival of American Holklife. 



87 



The Stables 



Only five Arabbing stables still operate in Baltimore. There are only two 
men left in the city who shoe horses for the Arabbers, and three men who 
still build and repair wagons. Most horses and wagon parts are bought in 
the Pennsylvania Dutch country. 

All horses must be examined at least rwice a year by a veterinarian in 
order for the horses' owner to obtain an annual Arabbing license. 
Throughout the year, the stables and horses are also continually moni 
tored by the State of Marv'land Anim^il Control Division and the Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Aniniiils. 





Arabl:)L-rs at "Budd\" Kratz' stable in SoLithwest 
Baltimore; ( left to right ) Tom "Tombo\'" Hughes, 
Walter "Teeth" Kelly, W;ilter "Buddy" Kratz, 
William "Easter Jim" Fields, Roben "Porky" 
VC';irner, and "Maiidyman." 



88 



Gr<x)ming a pony at Saul Taylor's stable in 
Southwest Baltimore. 




Walter "Teeth" Kelly, one of the city's 
few remaining wagon-builders, 
working at Kratz' stable. 




89 



Watering horses at the Allen brothers 
stable in Sandtown in West Baltimore 




Milton Brown and Mu Tee MuLazim, stable 
owners, in front of their stable in Northwest 
Baltimore. 



90 



Buying Produce and 
Loading Wagons 

Following a routine virtually unchanged until recent times, Arabbers 
traditionally put in a ten or twelve hour day in warm weather, starting 
between five to seven o'clock in the morning. Most Arabbers first went to 
the stable to get their horses and wagons, and then dro\'e across town to 
the old Camden and Pratt Street produce center and nearby poultry and 
fish market. There they bargained for and bought their produce, and then 
"decorated" their wagons — artistically arranging the produce so as to 
attract customers' attention. They then traveled their respective routes 
through the city, selling to customers. Other Arabbers worked for food 
distribution companies which bought produce in bulk and delivered it by 
truck to the stables. 




Mr K( lb .sill >ci I i.u .1 1 1. <i sij .a 1 1 cd Ilui il lai i .■, 
stable, the onlv one lelt in East Baltimore. 



Arabberjune l-ulton ( now deceased ) entering 
the produce center at Light and Camden Streets, 
This center was razed in 1973-7^ as pan of 
Baltimore's Inner Harbor redevelopment. 



91 



„ . — -^^ 



Camden Street market scene. 

Arabbers buying produce in bulk at 
the old Camden Street prtxiuce center 
and loading their uuck. 




i^Mint^ni 



92 




93 



Arabbers loading wagons at the 
Allen brothers' stable. 

Arabbers take great pride in 
decorating their wagons. 




94 



Serving the Community 

0\er the \-ears most Arabbers have established traditional routes 
through Baltimore and have developed many faithful customers. Arabber 
wagons bring produce to their customers' doorsteps. They provide a 
useful ser\ice for the elderly, the handicapped, and "shut-ins" who either 
can't leave home or have difficult}- getting to a grocery and bringing their 
food back home. 




Arabbers "Monk" and "Peppers" (both de 
ceased ) .selling waiermelons. In Baltimore, cus 
tomers traditionally' ;Lsk to taste a "plug" of 
watermelon before buying it. 



Cjilben Hall, Sr, has been Arabbing for 45 years 
and ha.s been \\ ijrking his current route for the 
p:ist 1 2 \'ears. 



^^5 




95 



Arabber'Popeye'athis 
wagon. He has been 
working the same route 

in West Baltimore for 

about 40 years. 




Arabbers braving the snow to serve customers 
in South Baltimore. 



96 




>n his route. 



Arabbers are mosi appreciated by those cus- 
tomers wiio are least mobile. 



97 



Friends and Family 



In tlieir private and social lives as well as their daily routes, Arabbers 
link homes and families, kin and coworkers. As a community, Baltimore's 
Arabbers have lost the occasion of daily gatherings at the Camden 
produce center to swap stories and keep track of each other. Since the 
closing of the Camden market, social events such as those pictured 
here— family reunions, parties, club outings, and funerals — have taken on 
greater importance as gatherings of the Arabber community. 




Father's Da\ ; .\i jlibci Gilben HaU, .Sr. w itli his 
son Gilbert Hall, Jr. and grandson, Gilbert 
Kinard Hall III. 



98 




,\r;il:)bfrJiinL' Fulton 
sening his children 
dinner. 




Last rites for one of Sandtown's best known 
Arabbers. Mr. Hand\-.Ianey ( 1904-19^5 ). Man\- 
i)t the Aralibers from this predominanth' Black 
West Baltimore neighborhocxl worked for or 
with Hand\' during his life. 



99 



Arabber "Viinfield" and friend joking 
during the annual boat ride. 




Arabbers and friends at Baltimore's Inner Har 
bor for the Finos, Inc. Sixial Club's annual boat 
ride. 



100 




Twin members ol the Allen family, "Fatback" 
and Paulene, at their binhday party. Paulene is 
( ine of the few women still Arabbing in Baltimore. 



101 




The Allen's annual family reunion. Though 
Arabbing is often practiced by more than one 
menil'>er ot'a famil\', the Aliens are exceptional 
as nearly all the women, men and children 
ha\e been in\()l\ed in some way. This Allen 
family traditicin was in.spired b\- Mrs. Mildred 
Allen ( 189U-19"3 ), among the best known and 
most respected of Baltimore's Arabbers. For 
o\er lO ye;irs, her stables continuously' em- 
pl( lyed I )\er 4O people. 



102 



2 1st Annual 
Festival of 
American 

Folklife 




Festival Hours 

0|:)ening ceremonies for 
the Festi\al uiU be lield 
on the Michigan Music 
Stage at 11:00 a.m., 
'^'edne.sday, June 2-i. 
Tiiereafter, Festi\al hours 
\\il] be 11:00 a.m. to 5:30 
p.m. daily, ■^\itii dance p:ir- 
ties e\er\' e\ening, except 
Juhw, 5:30 to 7:00 p.m. 

Food Sales 

Traditional Michigan, Car- 
ibiiean and Chinese food 
\^•ill be .sold. See the site 
map f( )r locations. 

Sales 

A \arietv' of crafts, books 
and records relating to the 
198^ Festi\;d programs %\ill 
be sold in the Museum 
Shops tent on the Festi- 
val site. 

Press 

Visiting members of the 
press are in\ited to regis- 
ter at the Festival Press 
tent on Madison Drive at 
1 2th Street. 

First Aid 

.•\n .\merican Red Cross 
mobile unit will be set up 
in a tent near the Admin- 
istration area near 12th 
Street on Madi.son Drive. 
The Health Units in the 
museums of American 
Histor\' and Natural His- 
ton- are open from 10:00 
a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 

Rest Rooms 

There are outdoor facili- 
ties for the public and dis- 
abled visitors located in 
all of the program areas 
on the Mall. Additional 
restroom facilities are 
available in each of the 
museum buildings during 
visiting hours. 



Telephones 

Public telephones are 
a\ ailable on the site op- 
posite tlie museums of 
Americ;ui Histoi"^- and Nat- 
ural Histon,-, and inside 
the mu.seums. 

Lost and Found/ 
Lost Children and 
Parents 

Lost items may be turned 
in or retrieved at the Vol- 
unteer tent in the Admin- 
istration area. Lost family 
members may be claimed 
at the Volunteer tent also. 
We advise putting a name 
tag on youngsters. 

Bicycle Racks 

Racks for bicycles are lo- 
cated at the entrances to 
each of the Smithsonian 
museums. 

Metro Stations 

Metro trains will be run- 
ning every day of the Fes- 
ti\;il. The Festival site is 
easily accessible to either 
the Smithsonian or Fed- 
eral Triangle stations on 
the Blue Orange line. 

Services for 
Disabled Visitors 

Sign language interpreters 
will be available each day 
at the Festival . 
Oral interpreters will be 
available upon advance re- 
quest if you call ( 202 ) 
357- 1696 (TDD) or (202) 
357-1697 (voice). There 
are a few designated park- 
ing spaces for disabled vis- 
itors at various points 
along both Mall drives. 
These spaces have the 
same time restrictions as 
other public spaces on the 
Mall. 

Dance Parties 

Dance bands performing 
traditional music will per- 
form on the Metropolitan 
Washington Music Stage 
even.' evening, except Julv' 
4, from 5:30 to 7:00 p.m. ' 



Program Book 

Background infc )rmation 
on the traditions pre- 
sented at the Festival is 
available from the Program 
Book on sale for $3.00 at 
the Festival site, or by mail 
from the Office of Folklife 
Programs, Smithsonian In- 
stitution, 2600 L'Enfant 
Plaza, S.W., Washington, 
D.C. 20560. 

Festival Staff 

Director, Office of Folklife 
Programs. Peter Seitel 

Deputy Director. Richard 
Kurin 

Administrative Officer. 
Jewell Dulaney 

Festival Director. Diana 
Parker 

Festii 'al Sen ices Manager. 
Barbara Strickland 

Designer. Daphne 
Shuttleworth 

Assistant Designer. Joan 
Wolbier 

Documentation Coordi- 
nator Peter Magoon 

Intern: Gordon Kirsch 

Presentation Coordinator 
Nicholas R. Spitzer 

Technical Coordinator 
Fred Nahwooksy 

Assistant Technical Coor- 
dinator. Elizabeth 
Curren 

Grounds Crew Chiefs. 
Donald Boyce, Robin 
Galbraith 

Grounds Crew. Aaron 
Anglen, Eric Annis, 
Deborali Baker, Jeiuiette 
Buck, Owyda Clarke, 
Stephen Erwin, Kory 
May, Paul McF;irland, 
Terrance Meniefield, Bill 
Moriarity 

Grounds Crew Clerk Typ- 
ist Jen n i fer Vi ckers 

Participant Coordinator. 
Lea Walker 

Assistant Participant Co- 
ordinators. Cecil}' Cook, 
Leslie Fa)', Terezia 
WiUiams 

Housing Coordinator 
Suzanne Fauteux 

Volunteer Coordinator. 
Diane Green 

Intent. Francesco Leanza 

Assistant Volunteer Coor- 
dinator. Carolyn Ware 



Chief Volunteers. Ifama 
Arsan, Marv' Cliff, MariK'n 
Gaston, Miirio Lamo, 
Johaii Rashad, Anne 
Sanderoff-Walker, Nanc->' 
Stollnitz, Neville Waters 

Supply Coordinator. Sallie 
Bodie 

Assistant Supply Coordina- 
tor. Catlierine Jacobs 

Program Book Coordina- 
tor Arlene Liebenau 

Program Book Editor Ed- 
ward Brown 

Special Events Coordina- 
tor Kathryn Trillas 

Clerk Typists. Carol Chapin, 
Linda Lucas 

Sound Production Con- 
sultant: Pete Reiniger 

Sound Pmduction 
Facilitator Phil Fox 

Sound Production Coor- 
dinator Tim Kidwell 

Sou)id Technicians. Maria 
Breyer, Lee Dishman, 
Mark Fitzgerald, Gregg 
Lamping, Dean 
Langwell, Pete Reiniger, 
John Reynolds, Cal 
Southworth 

Stage Managers. Steve 
Green, Mike Herter, 
John Kemper, Al 
McKenney, Guha 
Shall kar 

Logistics Coordinator. 
Dorothy Neumann 

Public Information: Mary 
Combs 

Sign Language Interpreter. 

Jean Lindcjuist 
Plx>tograpljers. MarkAvino, 
Richard Hofmeister, Eric 
Long, Laurie Minor, 
Dane Penland,Jeff 
Tinsley, Ricardo Vargas 

Michigan Program Cura- 
tors. Laurie Sommers, 
Thom;Ls Vennum, Jr. 

Program Coordinator. 
Laurie Sommers 

Assistant Program Coordi- 
nator. Barbara Lau 

Intern: Curt Bowman 

Festival Aide. Francesca 
McLean 

Consultants George 
Cornell, LuAnne Kozma, 
Robert McCari, Oscar 
Paskal, Barry Lee 
Pearson, Joseph 
Spielberg 



Fieldu'orkers. Dennis An, 
Michael Bell, Horace 
Boyer, John Alan Cicala, 
Timothy Cochrane, 
Gregory' Cooper, C. Kurt 
Dew'hurst, Steve 
Frangos, Roland Free- 
man, Janet Gilmore, 
Alicia Maria Ck^nzalez, 
James Lear\-, Yvonne 
Lockwood, Marsha 
MacDowell, Phyllis M. 
Ma> -Machunda, Mario 
Montano, Earl Nyholni, 
Marsha Penti, Roger 
Pilon, Peter Seitel, Eliot 
Singer, Laurie Sommers, 
Nicholas R. Spitzer, 
Thomas Vennum, Jr. 

Presenters. Dennis Au, 
Horace Boyer, C. Kun 
Dewhurst, Paul Giffbrd, 
Janet Gilmore, James 
Lean-, William 
Lockwood, Yvonne 
Lockwood, Marsha 
MacDowell, Earl Nyholm, 
Mario Montano, Roger 
Pilon, Joseph Spielberg, 
Nicholas R. Spitzer, Ben- 
jamin Wilson 

Metropolitan Washington 
Program Curator. Phyllis 
M. May-Machunda 

Assistant Program Coordi 
nator. Cam i la Bnce- Laporte 

Intern. Ke\in Donald 

Festival Aide. Y\onne 
Chapman 

Fieldu'orkers. Cam i la 
Br^'ce Laporte, Arnae 
Burton, Olivia Cadav;il, 
Mia Gardener, Richard 
Kennedy, Michael Licht, 
Phyllis M. May- 
Machunda, Daniel 
Sheehy, Daphne 
Shuttleworth, Nicholas 
R Spitzer, Kiizadi wa 
Mukuna 

Presenters. Arnae Bunon, 
Kath\- Bullock, Alicia Maria 
Gonzales, Richard Kennedy, 
David T Lee,Von Martin, 
Oscar Ordenes, Dan 
Sheehy, Nicholas R. Spitzer, 
Richard Spottswood, Nap 
Turner, Kazadi wa Mukuna, 
Pearl Williams-Jones 

Cultural Consen <ation 
Program Curator. Frank 
Proschan 

Program Coordinator. 
Todd DeGarmo 



Festival Aide. Mike Nelson 

Fieldworkers. Norma 
Cantu, Fay Chiang, 
Glenn Hinson, Mary 
Anne McDoniild, Mario 
Montaiio, Kingsa\anh 
Patliamma\'ong, Frank 
Proschan 

Research Assistance. 
Charles Camji. C:irol Kulig, 
Susan Lesitas, John Kuo, 
Man- Scherbatsko}-, Wei 
Tchen, Margaret Yuen 

Presenters. Charles Camp, 
Norma Cantu, Fa\' 
Chiang,Carol Compton, 
Man- Greene, Glenn 
Hinson, Suzi Jones, 
Susan Le\itas, Alfred Lui, 
Tim Lloyd, Mario 
Montano, Phouratsamy 
Naughton, Kingsavanh 
Pathammavong, 
Suzanne Seriff, Maiy Scher- 
batskoy.john Kuo Wei 
Tchen, Wang Chang Wei 

Internal Office 
Support 

Accounting 
Administration 
American Indian Program 
Anthropok\g\- Dept./ 

NMNH 
Archives Center/NMAH 
Audio-Visual Unit 
Black American Culture/ 

NMAH 
Communication & 

Transportation 
Congressional & Public 

Information 
Contracts 

Design & Constniction 
Duplicating 
Elementary & Secondary 

Education/Special 

Education 
Exliibits Central 
General Counsel 
Horticulture 
International Services 
Mail Service Center 
Mernbership ik 

Development 
Nati(^nal Zoological Park 
O Plants 
Personnel 

Photographic Services 
Public Affairs 
Dept. of Public Programs/ 

NMAH 
Office of Public Service 
Risk Management 



Safety Programs 
Office of the Secretary' 
Security & Protection 
.Special Events 
Supply Services 
Telecommunications 
Travel Services 
Visitor Information & 
Associates Reception 
Ctr. 
Woodrow Wilson Interna- 
tional Center for Scholars 

Special Thanks 

General Festii 'al 

We extend special thanks 
to all the volunteers at this 
year's Festival. Only with 
their assistance are we 
able to present the pro- 
grams of the 1987 Festival 
of American Folklife. 

Asman Custom Photo Ser- 
vice, Inc. 

Bara Photographic, Inc. 

Blair & Eiserman Associates 

Richard Derbyshire 

D.C. Committee to Promote 

D.C. Metro Marketing 
Dept. 

Domino's Pizza, Inc., Ann 
Arbor 

Folklore Society of Greater 
Washington 

Stan Fowler 

Claudia Galagan 

The Hecht Co. 

Van Mertz 

Nationtil Council for the 
Traditional Ails 

Spirit of '76 

StokelyVan Camp, Inc. 

U.S. Senate, Curator's 
Office 

U.S. Supreme Coun, Cura 
tor's Office 

Dwain Winters 

The June 20th Technical 
Team 

Michigan Program 

Betty Allen, Detroit His- 
torical Museum 

Dick Allen, Business Om- 
budsman, Michigan 
Dept. of Commerce 

Archives of Labor and Ur- 
ban Affairs, Walter P. 
Reuther Library, Detroit 

John Arnsman 

Barbara As^ad, Dept. of 
Anthropology, Wayne 
State L!ni\'ersity 

Millard Bern,- 



Janie Brooks 

Galen Brovm, USDA Agri- 
culturiil Reseiirch Ser- 
vice, East Lansing 

Mr. & Mrs. Jay Allen Cook 

Spencer Crew 

Fern Cross 

Warren David, Arab- 
American Media Soci- 
ety-, Detroit 

Detroit News Photo 

Freda Fenner, Yes 150 
Foundation 

Steven Fouch, Grand Trav- 
erse County Agricultural 
Extension Agent 

Friday Tractor Company 

General Motors Truck and 
Bus Flint Metal 
Fabricating 

Linda Giglio, Motor Vehi- 
cle Manufacturers Assn. 

Griind Rapids Public 
Museum 

Grand Traverse County 
Fruit Growers' Council 

Henry Ford Museum and 
Greenfield Village, 
Dearborn 

Pegg\' Kahn, Dept. of Po- 
litical Science, Univer- 
sity of Michigan-Flint 

David Ken)'on 

Pat Leibold, Monroe Fro- 
zen Foods 

Neil O. Leighton, Dept. of 
Political Science, Univer- 
sit\- of Michigan-Flint 

Library of Congress 

Richiird March 

Darwin Matthews 

James McClurken, Michi- 
gan State LIniversit>- 
Museum 

George McMannus,Jr. 

Mecosta Old Settlers Re- 
union Assn. 

Michigan State University 
Press 

Don Milton, Baker Furni- 
ture, Holland, MI 

Janice Nash 

Sally Nowell, ACCESS, 
Dearborn 

Donald Nugent, Graceland 
Fruit Cooperative, 
Frankfort, MI 
Charlie Nylund 
P.YA Monarch Co. 
Barbitra Paxson 
Robin Peebles, Dept. of 
History, Michigan State 
Uni\ersitv 



Mrs. William L. Priiitt 

Mrs. Millard G. Pr\or 

Fred Reif 

Josephine Sedleck\- 
Borsum, Ed's Sports 
Shop, B;ildwin, MI 

Max Siiangle, Grand Rap 
ids Area Furniture Man- 
ufacturers Assn. 

Mrs. Jerrilyn Cross Smith 
and Family 

State Archi\es, Michigan 
Dept. of State, Lansing 

Bnan Tliompson, Dept. of 
Geograph\', Wavne State 
University 

Claude VerDuin, The 
Fisherman Magazine 

Ralph Wilcox 

SiKia Williams, Detroit His- 
torical Museum 

Metropolitan Washington 
Program 

Carlos Arrien 

Dorotea Br\ce 

Serge Bellgarde 

RoyS. Br\ce-Laporte 

Albert Menglin Chang 

Marie Dupu\' 

Emmanuel Edmonds 

Meg Glaser 

Victor Harris 

Rick Hillocks 

Esther Ho 

Dr. &. Mrs. Mitre Jerome 

Martin Koenig, Ethnic Folk 

Arts Center, NY 
Bosco Lee 
Ching Ping Lee 
Zachan- Machunda 
Texiera Marivaldo 
Kory May 

Henr\- and Jason Morris 
Mt. Bethel Bapti.st Church 
Jeffrey Nelson 
Helen R. Peterson 
Mrs. Emeninte de Pradines 

Morse 
Ethel Raim, Ethnic Folk 

Arts Center, NY 
Pradel S;insaricq 
Marie Thomas 
Joe Wi ton 

Cultural Conservation 

Program 

Alfred Adams 

Arts Resources for Teach- 
ers and Students, Inc. 

Bob Breland, North Caro- 
lina State L'niversitv' 

Glenn Brcmn 

Kay Brown 



Broyhill Occasional # 1 

Bunker Hill Packing Corp. 

Bush Brothers & Co. 

Oli\ ia Cada\al 

Ann Chan 

Chattanooga Bakery, Inc. 

Tom Chen 

Ray and Pegg\' Clark 

Clay's Seed, Inc. 

Conwood Corj:). 

SyKain and Priscilla 
Coudoux 

Dacus, Inc. 

Dial CoqD. 

Diehl, Inc. 

Mary Erwin, University' of 
Michigan 

Tony E\ans, Maryland 
Dept. of Agriculture 

F.W. Richard Seed Co., 
Winchester, Kentucky 

Carl Fleischhauer, Ameri- 
can Folklife Center 

Fremont Kraut Co. 

Maggie Gidne\-, Watauga 
Parks and Recreation 

Benjamin Gim 

Man- C. Greene 

Lee Hayes 

Helme Tobacco Co. 

Ron Heriries, Bethel Schcx)l 

J. Ernest and Genevieve 
Hen.son 

George Holt 

J.C. Decker, Inc. 

J.F.G. Coffee Co. 

J. P. Green Milling Co. 

John Jackson 

Ciirol Kulig 

Chiirles Liii 

Genevieve Lam 

Tom and Lula Lawrence 

Paul Lee 

H(^p Kun Leo 

Susan Lexitas 

O.M. Little 

Alan Lomax 

Luck's, Inc. 

Alfred Liii 

Hiiroid Lui 

Mayo Seeds 

Meat Camp Service Station 

Tom McGowan 

Claude G. McKee, Univer- 
sity' of Marsiand 

Mid-State Miis 

Monarch Co. 

Monticello Canning Co. 

Moretz Candv' Co. 

Mrs. Campbell's Canning 
Co., Inc. 

Evelyn Nave, Libran' of 
Congress 



Elmer Norris 

North Carolina Folklife 
Institute 

Dept. of Agricultural Com- 
munication, North Car- 
olina State University' 

Eric Olson, Appalachian 
State I 'ni\ ersit\' 

SalK' Peterson 

Proctor &. Gamble, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio 

Be.ssie Proffitt 

C.B. and Ruth Reese 

Hite Reese 

Ste\'e Reese 

Carl A. Rcxss, A{ipalachian 
State L'ni\ersit\- 

Joe Rourk 

Bounsou Sananikcjne 

Mary Scheibatskoy, A.R.T.S., 
Inc. 

Kit Seay, Texas Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

Selecto Meats Inc. 

Service Mills Co. 

EveKn Shepherd, Appala- 
chian State l'ni\ersit>' 

Siler Brokerage 

Adela Soils 

Stone Mountain General 
Store 

Sweet Sue Kitchens 

T.W. Garner Food Co. 

Tennessee State Dept. of 
Agriculture 

Thomp.son's Medical Spe- 
ciiilist, Northv\'estem Di- 
alv'sis Facility' 

Valerie Tom 

Torbitt & Castleman Co. 

U.S. Tobacco Co. 

Peter Van Wingen, Library 
of Congress 

Rogers Wliitener 

FredWilkie 

Lewis Williams 

Joe Wilson 

Tempie Ruth Woodring 

Margaret Yuen 

,Souk,somb<)un 
Sayasithsena 

DomSanouvong 

Parlametrics Project, 
Columbia University 
Studies of Expressive 
Stvle and Culttire 

Embassy of the Lao Peo- 
ple's Democratic 
Republic 

Earl Griffiths 



The Michig:ui Program has 
been made possible by 
the Michigan ,Se,sc]uicen- 
tennial Commission and 
the Michigan Department 
of State. 

Tlie Metropolitan Wash — 
ington Program has been 
made possible in pan by 
the Music Performance 
Trtist Funds, a non-profit 
organization created by 
U.S. recording companies 
to fund live and free per- 
formances. 



Wednesday June 24 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from 11:00 S:3() 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



Stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodways 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Opening 
Ceremon\ 



12:00 



Music from 
the 

Keweenaw: 
An Moilanen 
& Bill Stimac 



Fugitive Slave 
Narratives 



1:00 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



Michigan 
Blues 



The Sit-Down 

Strike: 

Kev Events 



2:00 



Polka Music: 

judy&Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



Pasty Making 

from the 

Upper 

Peninsula 



Comparative 
Fiddle Styles 



3:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Migration 
to Michigan 



Herbal 
Medicine 



Anglo-French 

String Band: 

Sugar Island 

Bo\-s 



4:00 



5:00 



Michigan 
Blues 



Old-Time 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

Famih 



Monroe 
Muskrat 
Dinner 



Mexican - 
American 
Traditions 



Music and 
Communis 



Ethnicity 
and Craft 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fly t>ing, 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black ash 

basketry, 

finger wea\ing 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

fiirniture 

carving, 

Afro-American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

Ukrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating. 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy carving, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cherr> harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
evergreen 
nurserj- 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Ice Fishing 

at the 
Ice Shant)- 



FlyTving 

and 

Lure Making 

at the 

Bait Shop 

and Pond 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



Plaza 



Performance: 
Lao Music 
and Song 



Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 



Pertbrniance: 

Ballads from 

North 

Carolina 



Forum: 

Language and 

Education 



Performance: 
Chinese 
Dance 



Forum: 
Access to 
the Media 



Marketplace 



The 
Appalachian 
Community- 
Market 



The 
Family 
Store 



Mexican 
\merican and 
Latino- 
American 
Markets 



Foodways 



Chinese 
Foodways 



Lao 
Foodways 



Mexican 
Foodways 



Appalachian 
Foodwavs 



Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 



Communiry 
Areas 



Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making, 
barhacoa 
cookery, 
toymaking, 
quilting 



Lao-American: 
floral arts, 
wea\ing, 
wood caning, 
basket making, 
rocket making 



Appalachian- 
American: 
tobacco 
farming and 
lore, 
hunting 
stories 



Chinese- 
American: 
toymaking, 
face painting, 
laundry lore 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Large Stage 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 








12:00 


CK)Spel; 
Prophecy 


Paraguayan 

Music: 

Alberto Rios y 

sus Paraguayos 




1:00 


Soca & Calypso 
Music 
Image 


Mandingo Griot 

Music: 
Djimo Kouyate 




2:00 


Calypso Pan 

Music: 

Trinidad Steel 

Band 


Colombian 

Music: 
Los Fuenes 
de Colombia 




Ga Music: 
ODADAA! 


Caribbean 

Music 
Workshop 


3:00 


Blues: 
Bill Harris 


Ganda Music; 
James Makubuya 




4:00 


Blues: 

lohn & James 

Jackson 


West African 
Drumming: 
Kankouran 




5:00 


Afro-Cuban 

Music: 
Cubanakan 


Andean Music 

from Ecuador: 

Ruminahui 




Salvadoran 

Music: 

La Banda 

Sal\adorcna 


Dance 
Party' 


Zairian Urban 

Music: 

The Sounds 

of Africa 





Thursday June 25 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be a\'ailable 
from 1I:()0S:30 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



stage I 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodways 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talli 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



Migration 

to 
Michigan 



12:00 



Old-Time 

String Band. 

The 

Hammon 

Family 



Lore 
of the 
Lure 



1:00 



Music from 
the 

Keweenaw: 
Art Moilanen 
& Bill Stimac 



Muskrat 
Traditions 



rhe Sit-Down 

Strike 

and the 

Flint 

Communir\ 



Michigan 
Blues 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



2:00 



Polka Music: 

Judy & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



Native 

American 

Oafts 



3:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Riverlore 



Cornish- 
American 
Traditions 



4:00 



Anglo-French 

String Band: 

Sugar Island 

Bens 



Music 

and 

Community 



Michigan 
Blues 



5:00 



Traditional 

Uses of 

Fish 



Old-Time 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

Famih- 



The Sit-Down 
Strike: 

Life Inside 
and Outside 

the Plants 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fl)' tying, 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black ash 

basketn-, 

finger wea\ing 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

fijrniture 

carving, 

Afro- American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

Ukrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 

decox carving, 

rag rug 

weaving, 

cherry hanest- 

ing & pruning, 

evergreen 

nurse rv' 

techniques, 

net making, 

ice fishing 



Cooking by 

the 
River's Edge 

Waterways 
Area 



Cherry 

Industry: 

H;irvesting 

and 

Pruning 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Plaza 


Marketplace 


Foodways 


Community 
Areas 




Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 




Lao 
F(xjdways 


Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making, 
harhacoa 
cookery, 
toymaking, 
quilting 

Lao-American: 
floral arts, 
wea\ing, 
wood carving, 
basket making, 
rocket making 

Appalachian- 
American: 
tobacco 
farming and 
lore, 
hunting 
stories 

Chinese- 
American: 
toymaking, 
face painting, 
laundry lore 


12:00 


The 
Mexican- 
American 
Community 
Market 




Performance: 
Lao Music 
and Song 




Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 






1:00 


Forum: 

Multi- 

lingualism 

in American 

Socien, 




2:00 


Performance: 
Chinese 
Ribbon 
Dance 


Health 

Regulators & 

Ethnic 

Markets 


Appalachian 
Foodways 






Forum: 
Language 
and Work 




3:00 


Chinese 
Foodways 




Plaj-ground: 
Games from 
Lao Tradition 


4:00 


Performance: 

Ballads from 

North 

Carolina 




Sidewalk 
Markets 

& 
Vendors 


Mexican 
Foodways 




Performance: 

Judy & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 


5:00 







11:00 


Large Stage 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 




Gospel: 
Prophecy 


Afirican Drum 
Workshop: 
ODADAA! 

and 
Kankouran 


12:00 


Gospel: 

Mattie Johnson 

& the Stars 

of Faith 


Blues: 

John & James 

Jackson 




1:00 


Ga Music: 
ODADAA! 


Blues: 
lohn Cephas 

& 
Phil Wiggins 




2:00 


Traditional 
Banjo Music: 
Don Stover 


Afro- American 
Games 




Blues: 
Bill Harris 


Bluegrass 
Workshop: 

Potomac 
Valley Boys 


3:00 


Bluegrass: 

Potomac 

Valley Boys 


Blues 
Workshop 






Afro-American 
Games 


4:00 


Southern 

Mountain Music 

Hazel Dickens 




5:00 


Salvadoran 

Music: 

Conrado Rosales 

y la Banda 

Salvadorena 


Dance 
Part>' 


Afro-Cuban 

Music: 

Cubanakan 

Go-Ck5 Music: 

Tlic Iunk-\'ard 

Band' 


Go-Go Workshop: 

The 

Junkyard Band 







Friday, June 26 

Schedules are subject to change Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be a\'ailable 
from 11 :00-S;3() 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



Stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodwa\'s 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Polka Music: 

Judy & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



Riverlore 



12:00 



Finnish- 
American 
Traditions 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel; 
Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Fugitive Slave 
Narratives 



1:00 



Michigan 
Blues 



Cornish- 
American 
Traditions 



Music 

and 

Community 



2:00 



Anglo-French 

String Band: 

Sugar Island 

Bovs 



Monroe 
Muskrat 
Dinner 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



OldTimc 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

Family 



Fishing 
Stories 



3:00 



Music from 
the 

Keweenaw: 
Art Moilanen 
& Bill Stimac 



Herbal 
Medicine 



Migration 

to 
Michigan 



4:00 



Michigan 
Blues 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



The Sit-Down 

Strike: 

The Role 

ofWomen 



5:00 



Polka Music: 

Judy & Her 

Suche\- 

Brothers 



Afro 

American 

Gospel: 

Sensational 

Gospel Tones 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



Comparative 
Fiddle 
Styles 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fly tying, 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black ash 

basketry, 

finger wea\ing 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

tumiture 

car\ing, 

Afro- American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

Ukrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy caning, 
rag rug 
wea\ing, 
cheny- harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
e\ergreen 

nursery 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Great Lakes 
Net Fishing 

at the 

Boat 



Fish Smoking 

Waterway's 

Area 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Plaza 


Marketplace 


Foodways 


Community 
Areas 




Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 




Lao 
Foodways 


Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making, 
barbacoa 
cookerv', 
tovTnaking, 
quilting 

Lao-American: 
floral arts, 
weaving, 
wood carving, 
basket making, 
rocket making 

Appalachian- 
American: 
tobacco 
farming and 
lore, 
hunting 
stories 

Chinese- 
American: 
toymaking, 
face painting, 
laundry lore 


12:00 


Language 

in the 

Marketplace 




Performance: 
Lao Music 
and Song 




Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 






1:00 


Forum: 
Isolation and 

Language 
Maintenance 




2:00 


Performance: 
Chinese 
Dance 


Access to 
Goods 


Lao 
Foodways 






Forum: 
Home 
Language and 
Mother 
Tongue 




3:00 


Mexican 
Foodways 




Performance: 

Ballads from 

North 

Carolina 


4:00 


Playground: 

Games from 

Lao& 

American 

Traditions 




rhe Southeast 

Asian 

Community 

Market 


Chinese 
Foodways 




Forum: 
Language in 
\merican Life 


5:00 







11:00 


Large Stage 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 




Blues: 
Bill Harris 


African Music 

Workshop: 

Djimo Kouyate 

James Makubuya 


12:00 


Blues: 

John & James 

Jackson 


Traditional 
Anglo Music 

Workshop: 
Hazel Dickens 
& Don Stover 




1:00 


Blues: 
John Cephas 

& 
Phil Wiggins 


Ladino Music: 
Flor>'Jagoda 




2:00 


Southern 

Mountain Music: 

Hazel Dickens 


Blues Workshop: 
John Cephas 

Bill Harris 
thejacksons 
Phil XXiggins 




Traditional 
Banjo Music: 
Don Stover 


Folkways 
Workshop 


3:00 


Soca & Calypso 
Music: 
Image 




Paraguayan Music: 
Alberto Rios 

ysus 
Paraguayos 


4:00 


Reggae: 

Jah Honey 

&the 

Unconquered 

People 


Hispanic 

Music 
Workshop 




Colombian 

Vallenato 

Music 




Ga Music: 
ODADAA! 


5:00 


Andean Music: 
Rumiriahui 


Dance 
Party 


Bolivian 

Urban Music: 

Ollantay 

Brazilian 

Samba Band: 

Grupo Batuque 


West African 
Drumming: 
Kankouran 







Saturday June 27 

Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for sjiecific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from ll:()()-5:30 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



Stage I 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodways 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



Atro- 

Amcrican 

Gospel: 

Sensational 

Go.spel Tones 



Past> Making 

from the 

Upper 

Peninsula 



Migration 

to 
Michigan 



Anglo-French 

String Band; 

Sugar Island 

Bovs 



The Sit-Down 

Strike: 

Birth of the 

L.A.\V. 



Michigan 
Blues 



Traditional 

Uses of 

Fish 



Ethnicit\ 
and 
Craft 



Old-Time 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

Family 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



Music from 
the 

Keweenaw: 
Art Moilanen 
& Bill Stimac 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



The Sit-Down 
Strike: 

Life Inside 
and Outside 

the Plants 



Michigan 
Blues 



Monroe 
Muskrat 
Dinner 



Nati\e 

American 

Crafts 



Polka Music: 

Judy & Her 

Suche>' 

Brothers 



Herbal 
Medicine 



5:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



Music from 

the 

Keweenaw: 

Bill Stimac 

&Sons 



Music from 

the 
Keweenaw: 
Art Moilanen 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fl\' t)'ing, 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black a.sh 

basket r\, 

finger wea\ing 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

furniture 

caning, 

Afro- American 

quilt making. 

Palestinian 

needlework. 

LJkrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy carving, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cherry harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
evergreen 

nursen 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Fly Tying & 

Lure Making 

at the 

Bait Shop 

and Pond 



Evergreen 

Nursery 

Techniques 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Plaza 


Marketplace 


Foodways 


(;ommunity 
Areas 




Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 




Lao 
Foodwa)'s 


Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making. 
heirhacrm 
cooker)', 
toymaking, 
quilting 

Lao- American: 
floral arts, 
weaving, 
wood carving. 
ba,sket making. 
rocket making 

Appaiachian- 

Anieric;in; 

tobacco 

fanning and 

lore. 

hunting 

stories 

C;hine.se- 

American; 

toy-making. 

face painting. 

laundry lore 


12:00 


The 
Chinese- 
American 
Community- 
Market 




Performance: 

Ballads from 

North 

(Carolina 




Mexican 
Foodwa\-s 






1:00 


Forum: 

Multi 

lingualism 

in American 

Society 




2:00 


Performance: 

Sugar Island 
Boys 


Food Sellers 

and Culture 

Brokers 


Chinese 
F<5odways 






Forum: 

language 

and Religion 




3:00 


Appalachian 
Foodwav-s 




Performance: 

Chinese 

Dance 


4:00 






Performance: 
Lao Music 
and Song 


Tlie 
Entrepreneur 


Chinese 
Restaurant 
Vi'orkshop 




I'erformancc; 

The 

Hammon 

Famih 


5:00 







11:00 


Large Stage 


\X'orkshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 




Street 
Carnival: 
Comparsa 
Panamefla 


Chinese Opera 

Workshop; 

Makeup, Story-. 

Costume 




Afro- 
Caribbean 
Workshop 


12:00 


Peking Opera; 

Han Sheng 

Chinese Opera 

Institute 






Comparsa 
Workshop 


1:00 


Gt).spel: 

McCollough 

Kings of 

Harmony 

Spiritual Band 


Cambodian Music 

\Xorkshop & 

Performance: 

Khmer 

Traditional 

Music Ensemble 




2:00 


Afro-Cuban 

Music: 
Cuban akan 


ODADAA! 
Workshop 






Soca & Calypso 
Music: 
Image 


Gospel: 
Lisa Henderson 


3:00 


Gospel: 

The Four 

Echoes 




Reggae: 

Jah Honey 

&the 

Unconquered 

People 




(iospel Quartet: 
Kings of 
Harmony 


4:00 


Ga Music: 
ODADAA! 






Calypso Pan 

\Xorkshop: 

Trinidad 

Steel Band 




Zairian 

Urban Music; 

The Sounds 

of Airica 


5:00 


Paraguayan 

Music; 

Albeno Rios y 

sus Paraguay-OS 




Dance 
Party 


Calyp.so Pan 

Music: 

Trinidad 

Steel Band 





Sunday June 28 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from ll:00o;,^0 



Special Event: 

Bonn Bang Fat, the Lao Rocket Festival, 
beginning at 9:00 a.m. The Rocket Festival 
includes religious ceremonies, sports, 
music, dance, and a rocket competition. 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



Stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodwavs 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Michigan 
Blues 



Cornish- 
American 
Traditions 



Migration 

to 
Michigan 



12:00 



OldTime 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

Famih 



The Sit Down 

Strike and 

the Flint 

Communin 



1.00 



Afro 

American 

Gospel: 

Sensational 

Gospel Tones 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



Riverlore 



2:00 



Music from 
the 

Keweenaw: 
Art Moilanen 
& Bill Stimac 



Nati\c 

American 

Storytelling 



Michigan 
Blues 



Afro- 
American 
Traditions 



Ethnicit\- 
and 
Craft 



3:00 



Old-Time 

String Band; 

The 

Hammon 

Family 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



The Sit-Down 

Strike: 

The Strike 

Remembered 



4:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Fishing 
Stories 



Herbal 
Medicine 



5:00 



Music from 
the 

Keweenaw: 
Art Moilanen 
& Bill Stimac 



Muskrat 
Traditions 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fly t\ing, 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork. 

black ash 

basketry, 

finger weaNing 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

furniture 

caning, 

Afro- American 

quilt making. 

Palestinian 

needlework. 

Ukrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy carving, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cherr>' harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
evergreen 
nursery- 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Ice Fishing 

at the 
Ice Shanty 



Cherr\' 
Harvesting 
& Pruning 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



Plaza 



Boun Bang 

Fai - Lao 

Rocket Festival 

(begins yam.) 

BuddhlM 

Ceremonies & 

Offerings to 

the Monks 



Rocket 

Competition 

& 

Judging 



Lao 

Classical 

Music 



Lao 

Folk 

Dances 



Lao 
Folk Music 
and Song 



Lao 

Popular 

Music 

and Dancing 



Marketplace 



Forum: 

l.anguage 

& Education 



PlaN-ground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 



Marketplace: 

Tourists 
& Strangers 



Marketplace: 

The 
Family Store 



Forum: 
Stereotypes 

and 
Languages 



Foodways 



Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 



Mexican 
Foodways 



Appalachian 
Foodways 



Chinese 
Foodways 



Community 
Areas 



Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making, 
harhacoa 

cookery, 
toymaking, 

quilting 



Lao-American: 
floral arts, 
weaving, 
wood carving, 
basket making, 
rocket making 



Appalachian- 
American: 
tobacco 
farming and 
lore, 
hunting 
stories 



Chinese- 
American: 
tojTnaking, 
face painting, 
laundry lore 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Large Stage 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 




Gospel: 

Great Change 

Ensemble 


Cambodian Music 

Workshops 

Performance: 

Khmer 

Traditional 

Music Ensemble 


12:00 


Go-spcl: 
Choraliers 


Palestinian 

Music: 
Al-Watan 
En.semble 




1:00 


Gospel: 

Mattie Johnson 

& the Stars 

of Faith 


Ladino Music: 
Floryjagoda 




2:00 


Gospel Quartet: 
Kings of 
Harmony 


Andean Music 

from Ecuador: 

Rumifiahui 




Gospel: 
Vision 


African Music 

Workshop: 

Djimo Kouyate 

James Makubuya 




Mandingo Griot 

Music: 
Djimo Kou>ate 


3:00 


Gospel: 

McCollough 

Kings of 

Harmony 

Spiritual Band 




Hispanic 

Music 
Workshop 




Gospel: 
Sons of Grace 


4:00 


Colombian 

V'allenato: 

Los Fuerfes 

de Colombia 




Gospel: 
St. Augustine 
Gospel Choir 




Ganda Music: 
James Mak-ubuya 


5:00 


Gospel: 
Emmanuel 
Choraleers 




West African 
Drumming: 
Kankouran 


Dance 
Party 


Anglo-French 

String Band: 

Sugar Island 

Boys 





Museum of American Histors' 



Foodways Food 

Concession 


dog 


Appalach 
pen 


an Chine. 


Picnic 
Area 






Plaza 


Arabbers 

Marketplace 




Lao 


ovt 
Mexic 




B 


B 


garden 



Information 



Festival Site Ma p 



R=Restroom 
B=Be\erage Concession 



America's Many Voice 



Information 



Pond 

Net 



Great Lakes 
Fishing Boat 



^'oodand Canoe ^ N;trrati\e 

Backwoods Bnish Building ^''^^ 

Arbor Native American 

, .. I . Crafts Area 
Icetishmg 

Picnic 
Pond Area 



Cherr\- 
Industn- 



Michigan 



Trap Bait 

Net SIk )p 



Boat 

Building 



Food 

Concession Foodv\a\s 



Niirsen,' 
Industn- 



Learning 
Center 



Ethnic 
Crafts 



Music 
Stage 



Jefferson Drive 



DepiUtment of Agriculttire 






fN 



Museum of Natural Histon- 



Participant 
Area 



Press Red Cross 



Intormation 



I Metro 



Festi\al 
Administration 



Volunteers 



Metro ( Smithsonian Stop ) 



Informatitjn 



Museum Shops Sales 
Folkways 



Workshop 

Performance Food 

Stage Concession 

Picnic 
Area 



B B 



Metropolitan 
Washington 



Large 

Performance 
Stage 



p 






Museum ol.Vnericjn Histcin 



b 



NUiseum of Natural History 




Concession a<>g pen 



.\rj bbcrs 



Picnic- 
Area 



Marketplace Lai2 

B B 



Plaza 



oven 

Mexican 
warden 



ZI, America's Many Voices 



Festival Site Ma p 



R=Resirix>ni 
B=Be\erdge Concc.vsion 



Pond 
Net 



^X'otxj and Canoe 

Backwoods Brush Building 

^^'■^^ Native. \inencan 

, ,. , CrahsArea 
Icehsninjj 

Great Lakes Picnic 



B Narratixe 
Stage 



Cliern 

IndusiA- Leaminj; 

Center 



Fishing Boat 



Pond 



Area 



Michigan 



Trap Bait 

Net Shop 



Boat Food 

Building Concession Food\\a\s 



Nursen 
Industn' 



Ethnic 
Crafts 



Music 
Stage 



Panicipant 
Area 



Press RedCro' 



Intorniation 



Festi\'al 
Administration 



Volunteers 



Metro ( Smithsonian Stop ) 



Museum Shops S ales 
Folk\va\s 



Workshop 

Performance Food 

Stage Concession 

Picnic 

Area 



B B 



Metropolitan 
. Washington 



Large 

Performance 

Stage 



Jefferson Drive 



l)ep;inment ol Agnculture 



Wednesday July 1 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from 11:00-5:.S0 



1 :00 — Sacred procession of the 
Matachines group from Laredo, Texas, 
through the Cultural Conservation area. 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



Stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodwavs 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Yemeni 

Folkloric 

Dance Group 



Traditional 

Uses of 

Fish 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



12:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Rev Woods & 
The Chosen 



Lore 
of the 
Lure 



1:00 



Tamburitza: 

Tomicic 

Brothers 

Orchestra 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



Migration 
to Michigan 



2:00 



Finnish- 
American 
Music: 
rhimbleberr\' 



Great Lakes 

Fishing & 

Net Making 



Michigan 
Blues 



Pasty Making 

from the 

Upper 

Peninsula 



Native 

American 

Storytelling 



3:00 



Old-Time 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

Familv 



Riverlore 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



4:00 



Afro- 

American 

Gospel: 

Sensational 

Gospel Tones 



The Sit-Down 

Strike: 

Key Events 



5:00 



Polka Music; 

Judy & Her 

Suche>' 

Brothers 



Comparative 
Michigan 
Fiddling 



Monroe 
Muskrat 
Dinner 



Michigan 
Blues 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fly tying, 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black ash 

basketrj', 

finger weaving 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

furniture 

carving, 

Afro-American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

Ukrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy carving, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cheny harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
evergreen 
nursery 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Cherry 
Harvesting 
& Pruning 



Ice Fishing 

at the 
Ice Shantv 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



11:00 



12:00 



Performance: 
Lao Music 
and Song 



1:00 



2:00 



Performance: 

Sensational 

Gospel Tones 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



Plaza 



Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 



I'orum: 

Home 

Ijnguages 

& Mother 

Tongues 



Forum: 
Misunder- 
standings 



Pla\ground: 
Games from 

Lao and 

Appalachian 

Traditions 



Performance: 

Tomicic 

Brothers 

Orchestra 



Performance: 
Chinese 
Dance 



Marketplace 



Health 

Regulators 

and 

Ethnic 

Markets 



The 

Chinese 

Community 

Market 



Language 
in the 

Marketplace 



Foodwavs 



Mexican 
Foodwavs 



Chinese 
Foodways 



Appalachian 
Foodwavs 



Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 



Lao 
Foodways 



Community 
Areas 



Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making, 
barbacoa 
cookery, 
toymaking, 
quilting 



Lao-American: 

floral arts, 

weaving, 

wood carving, 

basket making 



Appalachian- 
American: 
tobacco 
farming and 
lore, 
hunting 
stories 



Chinese- 
American: 
toymaking, 
laundry lore 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11.00 


Large St^e 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 




Gospel: 
Prophcc) 


Gospel: 
Lisa Henderson 




Vietnamese 

Music: 

Nguyen Dinh 

Nghia& 

Daughters 


12:00 


Gospel: 
Choraliers 






Cambodian 

Music: 

Khmer 

Traditional 

Music Ensemble 


1:00 


Blues: 

John & James 

Jackson 




Ganda Music: 
James Makubuya 




Indian 
Music: 
Ganga 


2:00 


West African 
Drumming: 
Kankouran 




Calypso Pan 

Music: 

Trinidad 

Steel Band 


Sal\'adoran 
Children's 

Games: 
Ross School 




Reggae 
Workshop: 
Jah Honey 

Martin 


3:00 


S(5ca & Calypso 
Music: 
Image 




Mexican 

Children's 

Games: 

Garcia Family 


4:00 


Afro-Cuban 

Music: 
Cubanakan 


Hispanic 

Music 
Workshop 




Salvadoran 

Music: 

Conrado Rosales 

y la Banda 

Salvadorena 




Reggae: 

lah Hone\ 

&the ■ 

Unconquered 

People 


5:00 


Mandingo Griot 
Performance 
& Workshop: 

Djimo Kouyate 


Dance 
Party 


Bolivian 
Urban Music: 

Ollantay 

Zairian 

Urban Music: 

The Sounds 

of Africa 







Thursday July 2 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from ll:()0-5:30 



1 :00 — Sacred procession of the 
Matachines group from Laredo, Texas, 
through the Cultural Conservation area. 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



Stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodways 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Polka Music; 

Judy & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



Migration 
to Michigan 



12:00 



Yemeni 

Folkloric 

Dance Group 



Native 

American 

Crafts 



1:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Rev Woods & 
Tlic Chosen 



.Vluskrat 
Traditions 



rhe Sit-Down 

Strike: 

The Role 

of Women 



Michigan 
Blues 



Fugitive Slave 
Narratives 



2:00 



Finnish- 
American 
Music: 
rhimbleberr>' 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



Great I jkes 
Fishing 



3:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
.Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Cornish- 
American 
Traditions 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



4:00 



Old-Timc 

•String Band; 

The 

Hammon 

Famih 



Ethnitit) 
and 
Craft 



5:00 



Polka Music: 

Jud> & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



Traditional 

Uses of 

Fish 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
\ey. Woods & 
The Chosen 



Michigan 
Blues 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making. 
fl\' t\ing. 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black ash 

ba.sketr)-, 

finger weaving 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe maldng, 

furniture 

caning, 

Afro-American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

Llirainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy carving, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cherry harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
evergreen 
nursery 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



River Guide 

Cooking 

at the 

Pond 



Fly Tving 

and 

Lure Making 

at the 

Bait Shop 

and Pond 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



11:00 



Plaza 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



Performance 

The 

Hammon 

Famih 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



Plaj'ground: 

dames from 

Chinese 

Tradition 



Marketplace 



Performance 
Ijo Music 
and Song 



Horuni: 

Majorit> 

& Minorit)' 

Languages 



Mexican 
\merican and 
Latino- 
American 
Markets 



Forum: 

Multi 

lingualism 

in American 

Society 



Performance 

Chinese 

Dance 



Performance: 

Music from 

North 

Carolina 



Forum: 
Stereotypes 
& Language 



The 
Entrepreneur 



Sidewalk 
Markets 

& 
Vendors 



Foodwaj'S 



Appalachian 
Foodwaj-s 



(Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 



Communirv- 
Areas 



Ijo 
Foodwa\s 



Mexican 
Foodww's 



Chinese 
Foodwa>'S 



Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making, 
barhacoa 
cf)oker\\ 
to\Tnaking, 
quilting 



Lao-American: 

floral arts, 

wea\ing, 

wood carving, 

basket making 



Appalachian- 
American: 
tobacco 
farming and 
lore, 
hunting 
stories 



Chinese- 
American: 
toymaking, 
laundry lore 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Large Stage 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

.Stage 




Cjospel: 
Prophec>- 


Mexican 

Children's 

Games: 

Garcia Familv 




Salvadoran 
Children's 

Games: 
Ross School 


12:00 


Afro-t;uban 

Music: 
Cubanakan 




Paraguavan 

Music: 
Alberto Rios 

> sus 
Paraguayos 




Gospel Quartet: 
Kings of 
Harmony 


1:00 


Ganda Music: 
lames Mak-ubu>'a 






Traditional 
Banjo Music: 
Don Stover 


2:00 


Vietnamese 

Music: 

Nguyen Dinh 

Nghia 


Southern 

Mountain Music: 

Hazel Dickens 




Bluegrass 
Workshop: 

Potomac 
Valley Box's 




Cambodian 

Music: 

Khmer 

Traditional 

Music En.semble 


3:00 


Bluegrass: 

Potomac 

Vallev' BOX'S 






African 

Instrument 

Workshop: 

Djimo Kouyate 

J;imes Makubuva 


4:00 


Gospel: 
Vision 




Salvadoran 

Music: 

Conrado Rosales 

y la Banda 

Salv-adorena 




Reggae: 

lah Honey 

&the 

Linconquered 

People 


5:00 


Andean Music 

from Ecuador: 

Rumiiiahui 




Dance 


Tamburitza: 

Tomicic 

Brothers 

Orchestra 


Party 





Friday, July 3 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from 11:()0-S:30 



1 :00 — Sacred procession of the 
Matachines group from Laredo, Texas, 
through the Cultural Conservation area. 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



Stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodways 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
Gospel Tones 



Riverlore 



Finnish- 
American 
Traditions 



12:00 



Polka Music: 

Judy & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



Herbal 
Medicine 



1:00 



Yemeni 

Folkloric 

Dance Group 



Cornish - 
American 
Traditions 



Native 

American 

Storytelling 



2:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Rev Woods & 
The Chosen 



Monroe 
Muskrat 
Dinner 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



Michigan 
Blues 



Migration 
to Michigan 



3:00 



Finnish- 
American 
Music: 
riiimblebern- 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



The Sit-Down 

Strike 

and the 

Communit)' 



4:00 



Tamburitza: 

Tomicic 

Brothers 

Orchestra 



Traditional 

LIses of 
Fish 



Lore 
of the 
Lure 



5:00 



OldTime 

String Band: 

The 

Mammon 

Familv 



Yemeni 

Folkloric 

Dance Group 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



Comparative 
Gospel 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fly t)ing, 

boat 
building. 

Native 

American 

quillwork. 

black ash 

basketry, 

finger weaving 

and bcadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

fijrniture 

carving, 

Afro- American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

Ukrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy carving, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cherr)- harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
evergreen 
nursery 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Evergreen 

Nurser)' 

Techniques 



Great Lakes 

Fishing 

at the 

Boat 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



Plaza 



Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 



Performance 
Lao Music 
and Song 



Forum: 
language 
and Work 



Performance 
Chinese 
Dance 



Forum: 

Language 

& Education 



Performance: 

Music in 

Appalachia 



Performance: 

Arts of the 
Peking Opera 



Performance: 

Lao Classical 

Music 



Performance: 

Music 

of the 

Cantonese 

Opera 



Marketplace 



Tourists 

& 
Strangers 



Chinese- 
American and 
Southeast 

Asian- 
American 
Markets 



Language 

in the 

Marketplace 



Foodways 



Mexican 
Foodways 



Chinese 
Foodways 



Appalachian 
Foodwa\s 



Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 



Lao 
Foodways 



Community 
Areas 



Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making, 
barhacoa 
cookery, 
toymaking, 
quilting 



Lao- American: 

floral arts, 

weaving, 

wood carving, 

basket making 



Appalachian- 
American: 
tobacco 
farming and 
lore, 
hunting 
stories 



Chinese- 
American: 
toymaking, 
laundry lore 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Large Stage 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 




Indian Music: 
Ganga 


Cambodian Music 

Workshop 

& Performance: 

Khmer 

Traditional 

Music Ensemble 


12:00 


Soca & Calypso 
Music: 
Image 


Vietnamese 

Music: 
Nhuyen Dinh 

Nghia 
& Daughters 




1:00 


Afro-Cuban 

Music: 
Cubanakan 


Gospel: 
Lisa Henderson 




Ladino Music: 
Floryjagoda 




Blues: 
John Cephas 

& 
Phil Vt'iggins 


2:00 


Mandingo Griot 

Music: 
Djimo Kouyate 




Blues: 

John & James 

Jackson 


Ganga 

Workshop 




Ganda Music: 
James Makubu>'a 


3:00 


Gospel: 
Vision 




Folkways 
Workshop 


4:00 


Gospel: 

The 

Teagle Family 




Afro- American 

Games 

Cheers 

Stepping 

Junkyard 


5:00 


Gospel: 
St. Teresa of 
Avila Choir 


Dance 
Party 


Brazilian 

Samba Band: 

Grupo Batuque 

Go- Go Music: 

The 

Junk-vard 

Band 


Junkyard 
Workshop 







Saturday July 4 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from 11:00-5:30 



1 :00 — Sacred procession of the 
Matachines group from Laredo, Texas, 
through the Cultural Conservation area. 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodways 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Old-Time 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

Family 



12:00 



Past)' Making 

from the 

Upper 

Peninsula 



Migration 
to Michigan 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
(k)spel Tones 



Michigan 
Fiddling 



1:00 



Polka Music: 

.|ud> & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



Afro 
American 
Traditions 



Ethnicir\ 
and 
Craft 



Yemeni 

Folkloric 

Dance Group 



2:00 



The Sit-Down 

Strike: 

Birth of the 

U.A.W. 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Rev Woods & 
The Chosen 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



(Comparative 
Fiddle 
Stales 



3:00 



Tamburitza: 

Tomicic 

Brothers 

Orchestra 



Monroe 
Muskrat 
Dinner 



Native 

American 

Crafts 



4:00 



Michigan 
Blues 



Comparative 
Gospel 



5:00 



Finnish- 
American 
Music: 
rhimbleberr\ 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



Polka Music: 

Judy & Her 

Suchey 

Brothers 



The Sit-Down 

Strike: 

The Role 

ofWomen 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fl\ tying. 

boat 
building, 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black ash 

basketr), 

finger wea\ing 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

ftirniture 

carving, 

Afro-American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

Likrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy car\ing, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cherr)- harvest- 
ing & pruning, 
evergreen 
nurser)' 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Fly Tjing 

and 

Lure Making 

at the 

Bait Shop 

and Pond 



Fish Smoking 

near the 

Pond 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



Plaza 



Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 



Performance; 

Dr. Ross, 

One-Man 

Band 



Forum: 

Isolation 

& Language 

Maintenance 



Performance 

Music 

of the 

Cantonese 

Opera 



Forum: 

Multi- 

lingualism 

in American 

Societ)' 



Performance: 

Ans 

of the 

Peking Opera 



Performance: 
Lao Music 
and Song 



Performance: 
Chinese 
Dance 



Marketplace 



Tourists 

& 
Strangers 



nie 
Family Store 



Food Sellers 

and 

Culture 

Brokers 



Foodways 



Lao 
FoodwaN's 



Communir\' 
Areai 



Chinese 
Foodwa>-s 



Mexican 
Foodways 



(Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 



Appalachian 
Foodways 



Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making. 
hiirhacoa 

cooker), 
tO)Tnaking, 

quilting 



Lao- American: 

floral arts, 

wea\ing, 

wood carving, 

basket making 



Appalachian- 

Anierican: 

tobacco 

farming and 

lore, 

hunting 

stories 



Chinese- 
American: 
to)Tnaking, 
laundn' lore 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Large Stage 


Workshop/ 

Pertbrmance 

Stage 




Gospel: 

The 

Teagle Famih- 


Salvadoran 
Children's 

Games: 
Ross School 




Mexican 

Children's 

Games: 

Garcia Famih- 


12:00 


Gospel: 

McCollough 

Kings of 

Harmony 

Spiritual Band 




HLspanic 

Games 

Workshop 


1:00 


Cal>pso Pan 

Music: 

Trinidad 

Steel Band 


Paraguayan 

Music: 
Alberto Rios 

y sus 
Paragua)'os 






Salv-adoran 

Music: 

Conrado Rosales 

y la Banda 

Salvadorena 


Gospel: 
Lisa Henderson 


2:00 


Gospel 
Workshop 




Boli\ian 

Urban Music: 

Ollantay 




Mandingo Griot 

Music: 
Djimo Kouyate 


3:00 


Brazilian 

Samba Music: 

Grupo Batuque 


Colombian 

Vallcnato: 

Los Fuertes 

de Colombia 




4:00 


Blues: 
lohn Cephas 

& 
Phil Wiggins 


Hispanic 

Music 
Workshop 




Andean Music 

from Ecuador: 

Rumifiahui 




Blues: 

John & James 

Jackson 


5:00 


West African 
Drumming: 

Kankouran 




Blues: 
Bill Harris 









Sunday July 5 



Schedults are subject to change, (^heck signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

A sign language interpreter will be available 
from 11:00-5:30 



1 :00 — Sacred procession of the 
Matachines group from Laredo, Texas, 
through the Cultural Conservation area. 



Michigan Program 



11:00 



■Stage 1 

Michigan 

Music 



Foodways 



Stage 2 

Michigan 

Talk 



Ongoing 
Presentations 



Special 
Demon- 
strations 



Finnish- 
American 
Music: 
rhimblebern' 



Lebanese- 
American 
Traditions 



The Sit-Down 

Strike 

and the 

Community' 



12:00 



Tamburitza: 

Tomicic 

Brothers 

Orchestra 



Riverlore 



1:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Sensational 
Crospel Tones 



Cornish- 
American 
Traditions 



Migration 
to Michigan 



2:00 



Old-Time 

String Band: 

The 

Hammon 

F;imil\ 



Nati\'e 
American 
Storytelling 



Yemeni 

Folkloric 

Dance Group 



Afro- 
American 
Traditions 



Michigan 
Blues 



3:00 



Afro- 
American 
Gospel: 
Rev Woods & 
The Chosen 



Mexican- 
American 
Traditions 



Comparati\e 
Fiddle 

Stvles 



4:00 



Tamburitza: 

Tomicic 

Brothers 

Orchestra 



The Sit-Down 

Strike 
Remembered 



Michigan 
Blues 



5:00 



Muskrat 
Traditions 



Comparative 
Gospel 



Finnish- 
American 
Music: 
rhimblebern- 



Ongoing 
Demon- 
strations: 
lure making, 
fly tying, 

boat 
building, 

Native 

American 

quillwork, 

black ash 

basketry, 

finger wea\ing 

and beadwork, 

Dutch wooden 

shoe making, 

furniture 

caning, 

Afro-American 

quilt making, 

Palestinian 

needlework, 

LIkrainian 

textiles and 

egg decorating, 

ski and sleigh 

making, 
decoy caning, 
rag rug 
weaving, 
cherry hanest 
ing & priming, 
evergreen 
nursery- 
techniques, 
net making, 
ice fishing 



Ice Fishing 

at the 
Ice Shann 



Great Lakes 

Fishing 

at the 

Boat 



Cultural Conservation 
and Languages: 
America's Many Voices 



11:00 



12:00 



Performance: 

Yemeni 

Folkloric 

Dance droup 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



Plaza 



Playground: 

Games from 

Chinese 

Tradition 



Performance: 

Music 

of the 

(Cantonese 

Opera 



Forum: 

language 

and Religion 



Performance: 

Chinese 

Ribbon 

Dance 



The Mexican 

American 

(;ommunit> 

Market 



Performance: 

Ijo Classical 

Music 



Performance: 

Arts 

of the 

Peking ( )pera 



Performance; 

Chinese 

Dance 



Performance: 
Lao Music 
and Song 



Marketplace 



Language 

in the 

Marketplace 



Sidewalk 
Markets 

& 
Vendors 



Foodwavs 



Lao 
Foodways 



{;hinesc 
Foodwa>> 



Appalachian 

Foodwa\s 



Chinese 
Restaurant 
Workshop 



Mexican 
Foodwa\s 



Communit) 
Areas 



Mexican- 
American: 
saddle making. 
harhacoa 
cooken, 
to\Tnaking. 
quilting 



Ijo- American: 

floral arts, 

wea\ing, 

wood carving, 

basket making 



Appalachian- 

AJnerican: 

tobacco 

farming and 

lore, 

hunting 

.stories 



Chinese- 
American: 
toymaking, 
laundn' lore 



Metropolitan 
Washington Program 



11:00 


Large .Stage 


Workshop/ 

Performance 

Stage 




Gospel: 

Great Change 

Ensemble 


Vietnamese 

Music: 
Nguyen Dinh 

Ngliia 




iVIandingo Griot 

Music: 
Djimo Kouyate 


12:00 


Gospel Quartet: 
Kings of 
Harmony 




Kilmer 
Traditional 

Music 
Ensemble 


1:00 


Gospel: 
Choraliers 


Ganda Music: 
James Makubuya 




\X'est African 
Drumming: 
Kankouran 




Cjospel: 

The 

Teagle Famih 


2:00 


Go.spel: 
Lisa Henderson 




Gospel: 
McCollough 
Kings of 
Harmony 
Spiritual 
Band 


Blues: 
Bill Harris 


3:00 


Paraguayan 

Music: 
Alberto Rios 

ysus 
Paraguayos 




Gospel: 
Sons of Grace 




Hispanic 

Music 
Workshop 


4:00 


Gospel: 

Mt. Bethel 

Baptist Church 

Choral Choir 




Colombian 

Music: 

Los Fuertes 

de Colombia 




Gospel: 

Donald Vails 

& the 

Salvation 

Corp. 


5:00 


Andean Music 

from Ecuador: 

Rumitiahui 




Dance 
Party' 


Polka: 

Judy & Her 

Suchcy Brothers 






Participants in the 

1987 Festival of 
American Folklife 



Micliigan 
Participants 

Crafts 

SamihaAbusalah, 
Palestinian needle- 
worker — Dearborn 
James Baker, wooden 
shoe maker— Holland 

Catherine Baldwin, Ottawa 
quillworker — Suttons 
Bay 

AmnalT Baraka, Palestinian 
needleworker— 
Dearborn 

Chou Chang, Hmong tex- 
tile iinist-Detroit 

Rita L. Corbiere, Ojibway 
quillworker, storyteller— 
Sault Ste. Marie 

Alice Fox, Ojibwa\' quill- 
worker— Sault Ste. Marie 

Russell Johnson, 
blacksmith — Strongs 

Arnold Klein, Jr., Ukrainian 
embroiderer, egg 
decorator - Hamtramck 

George McGeshick, 
Ojibway birchbark ca- 
noe builder— Iron Ri\er 

Mary McGeshick, Ojibway 
cradle board decorator — 
Iron River 

Yer Yang Mua, Hmong tex 
tile arti.st-Detroit 

Julia Nyholm, Ojibway 
fingenvea\'er, bead- 
worker— Crystal Falls 
Gust Pietila, ski, sleigh and 
tool maker— Bruce 
Crossing 



Agnes Rapp, Ottawa- 
PcMauatomi black ash 
basket maker — Berrien 
Springs 
Glen Van Ant^veq^, cedar 

fancaner-Uasing 
Lloyd Van Doornik, mas- 
ter can,er, furniture 
maker -Holland 
Julia Wesaw, Potawatomi 
black ash b;isket m;iker— 
Hartford 
Rosie Wilkins, 

quiltmaker — Muskegon 
Foodways 

Helen Mohammed Atwell, 
Lebanese cook— 
Dearborn 
Marguerite L. Berry- 
Jackson, stor\teller, 
cook, herbalist — 
Lansing 
Lucille Brown, past\- 
maker— Wakefield 
Marie L. Cross, storyteller, 
cook, herbalist — 
Mecosta 
EustacioY. Flores.Jr., 
Mexiciui-American cook 
— Grand Rapids 
Anna E. Lassila, pasty 
maker, rag aig weaver— 
Mohawk 
Elda Peltier, muskrat 

cook— Monroe 
Hudson "Huddy" Peltier, 
muskrat cook— Monroe 
Music 

The Hammon Family— 
Bluegrass, Counuy, 
Gospel Music 
George "Dub" Hammon, 
bass player, vocalist — 
Da\ison 
Marge Hammon, mando- 
lin player, vocalist — 
Davison 
Mel Hammon, fiddle 
player, vocalist— 
Davison 
Ron Hammon, guitar 
player, \ocalist — 
Davison 
Judy & Her Suchey 

Brothers— Polka Band 
Mike Kindt, bass player— 

Alpena 
Bill Suchey , Jr., trumpet 

player— Alpena 
Bob Suche\', saxophone 

player — Alpena 
Jim Suchey, accordion 
player— Alpena 



Judy Suchey, drummer — 

Alpena 
Mike Suchey, trumpet 

player— Alpena 
Rei'. Attdre Woods & Tlje 

Chosen— Gospel Music 
Sederia Butler, soprano — 

Detroit 
Dawn Byers, alto— Detroit 
Stephanie Cofield, 

drummer— Westland 
Earl Fisher, tenor — Detroit 
Craig Harris, bass guitar 

player— Cleveland, Ohio 
Grenee Hunter, alto — 

Detroit 
Willie Luciis, tenor- Detroit 
Renee Thomas, soprano — 

Detroit 
Dana Wilcox, soprano — 

Deu-oit 
Rev. Andre Woods, 
arranger, director— 
Detroit 
SefTsatmzal Gospel Tones 
Alfred Charleston - Grand 

Rapids 
Donald Charleston, lead 
guitar and bass player— 
Grand Rapids 
Juanita Charleston - Grand 

Rapids 
Rev. Leon Charleston — 

Grand Rapids 
Henrietta Fields — Grand 

Rapids 
Tanya Johnson, vocalist, 
drummer — Grand 
Rapids 
Nathaniel Smith - Grand 

Rapids 
Sugar Islatid Bo\'S— Anglo- 
French Su-ing Band 
Rene Cote, fiddle player— 

Ontario, C;mada 
Honey McCoy, piano 
player, vocalist — Sault 
Ste. Marie 
Joe Menard, guitar player, 
voc;ilist - Sault Ste. Marie 
Tom Stevens, dobro 

player — Sault Ste. Marie 
BillStimac & Sons- Music 
from the Keweenaw 
Peninsula 
Bill Stimac, accordion 
player— Houghton 
Mark Stimac, banjo and 

guitar pla\'er- HoLighton 
Rand\' Stimac, accordion 

player— Houghton 
Thimhleberry— Finnish 
Music 



Ed Lauluma, fiddle 

player— Chassell 
Al Reko, accordion player, 

\ocalist — St. Paul, 

Minnesota 
Oren Tikkanen, m;indolin 

and guitar player — 

Calumet 
Tomicic Brothers Orclxstra 

— Tamburitza Music 
Mike Cani, cello plaver- 

Detroit 
Joel Novosel, bass 

player— Detroit 
George Patrash, pugaria 

player — Detroit 
Mike Tomicic, first brae 

player — Wi ndsor, 

Canada 
Peter Tomicic, second 

brae pla\'er— Windsor, 

Canada 
Yemeni Folkloric Dance 

Group— hrzb Village 

Music 
Saleh Ahvard, dancer— 

Dearborn 
Mohsin Elgabri, dramatist, 

dancer, oud player— 

Dearborn 
Alsanabani Paris, dancer— 

Dearborn 
Saeed Mashjari, dancer- 
Dearborn 
M. Aideroos Mohsen, 

dancer— Dearborn 
Alido Ali Saeed, dancer — 

Dearborn 
Omar A. Wahashi, oud and 

tabla player— Dearborn 
Solo Performers: 
Rose Mae Menard, come- 
dienne, storyteller, 

herbalist — Sault Ste. Marie 

Art Moilanen, vt^calist, ac- 
cordion player— Mass 
City 

Les Raber, fiddle player— 
Hastings 

Isaiah "Dr. " Ross, blues 
musician — Flint 

Occupations 

Esperanza Alcala, ever- 
green nursers' worker — 
Grand Haven 

Steven B. Fouch, cherry 
grower, extension agent 
— GrauTi 



Elias Lopez, evergreen 
nursen,- worker — Grand 
Haven 

Damien Lunning, trapper 

— Mio 

Judith Lunning, trapper, 

game cook — Mio 
Pedro Rodriguez, ever- 
green nursery worker— 

Grand Ha\en 
Personal Experience 
Narrative - Flint Sit- 
Down Strike 
Fred Ahearn — Flint 
Burt Cliristenson — Flint 
Shirle\' Foster— Flint 
Berdene "Bud" Simons — 

Newport Richey, Florida 
Nellie Simons — Newport 

Richey, Florida 
Waterways 
Josephine F. Sedlecky- 

Borsum, spons shcp 

owner, t]\' tier — Baldwin 
Ray Davison, Great Lakes 

fisherman — Menominee 
Dick Grabowski, Great 

Lakes fisherman — 

Menominee 
Charlie Nylund, Great 

Lakes fisherman — 

Menominee 
Jay Stephan, ri\'er guide, 

boat builder— Grayling 
Elman G. "Bud" Stewart, 

lure maker— Alpena 
Jim Wicks, ice fisherman, 

deco\' carver- McMillan 
Ralph Wilcox, Great Lakes 

fisherman, fish smoker 

— Brimley 

David Wyss, river guide, 
boat builder, fly 
tier — Grayling 

Metropolitan 

Washington 

Participants 

Cephas &Wiggi ns, blues — 
Washington, D.C. 

Cboraliers, 1st Baptist 
Church of Deanwood, 
gospel — Washington, 
D.C. 

Compa>sa Panamefia, 
Panamanian costtime 
band— Washington, D.C. 

Conrado Rosalesy la 
Banda Salvadorena, 
Salvadoran music — 
Washington, D.C. 



Cubanakdn, Alro-Cuban 
music —Washington, 
D.C. 

Hazel Dickens, traditional 
southern mc )untain mus- 
ic-Washington, D.C. 

Emmanuel Choraleers, 
gospel— Washington, 
D.C. 

The Four Echoes, gospel — 
NewCarrolton, Maryland 

Tlje Garcia Family, Mexi- 
can children's games — 
Washington, D.C. 

Great Change Ensemble, 
gospel - Seat Pleasant, 
Mar^'land 

Gmpo Batuque, Brazilian 
samba band — Silver 
Spring, Maniand 

Han Sheng Chinese Op 
era Institute, Peking 
opera — Washington, D.C. 

Bill Harris, blues -Washington, 
D.C. 

Li.sa Henderson, go.spel- 
Washington, DC. 

Image, .scxa, calvpso 

music -Diile City ,Virginia 

John &Janies Jackson, 
blues — Fairfax Station, 
Virginia 

Floryjagoda, Lidino 
music — Falls Church, 
Virginia 

Jab Honey & tJx 

Unconquered People, 
reggae music— Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

The Junk\>ard Band, go-go 
music — Washington, 
D.C. 

Kankouran, West African 
daimming — Washington, 
DC. 

Khmer Traditional Music 
Etisemble, traditional 
Cambodian music— Sil- 
ver Spring, Mimiand 

Kings of Harmony,gospel~ 
Lanham, Maryland 

Djimo Komate, Mandingo 

griot music— Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Los Fuertes de Colombia, 
Colombian music — Sil- 
ver Spring, Maryland 
James Makubuya, Ganda 
music —Washington, 
D.C. 

Mattie Johnson & the Stars 
of Faith, gospel — 
Washington, D.C. 



McCoUougb Kings of Har- 
mony Spiritual Band, 
gosjiel brass band — 
Washington, D.C. 

Aft Bethel Baptist Church 
Choral Choir, gospel — 
Washington, D.C. 
Nguyen Dinh Nghia & 
Daughters, traditional 
Vietnamese music— Vi- 
enna, Virginia 
ODADAAi, Ga music - 
Alexandria, Virginia 
Kambo Oholara, Macujum- 
be stiltwalker— Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
Ollantay, Bolivian urban 
music— Arlington, Vir- 
ginia 
Potomac Valley Boys, 
bluegrass — Leesburg, 
Virginia 
Prophecy, gospel —Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
Alberto Riosy sus 

Paraguayos, Paraguayan 
music — Washington, 
D.C. 
Ross School, Salvadoran 
children's games— Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
Ruminahui, Andean mu- 
sic from Ecuador— 
Wheaton, M;ir\iand 
St Augustine Gospel Choir, 
gospel — Wash i ngton , 
D.C. 
St. Teresa of Aviki Choir, 

gospel— Washington, D.C. 
Sons of Grace, L'nited 
House of Prayer, gospel - 
Washington, D.C. 
Tlx Sounds of Africa, 
Zairian urban music— 
Silver Spring, Mar\iand 
Don Stover, traditional 
banjo music — Brandy- 
wine, Maniand 
77je Teagle Fa mily, gospel— 

Laurel, Maryiand 
Trinidad Steel Band, 
calypso pan music — 
Washington, D.C. 
Don Vails & the Salvation 
Corp. , gospel — Hyatts- 
ville, Maryiand 
Vision, gospel — 
HyattsvilJe, Maniand 



Cultural Conserva- 
tion Participants 

Appalachian Americans 

Bessie Mae Eldreth, ballad 
singer, cook — Boone, 
Nonh Carolina 

Colonel Francis, tobacco 
farmer— CRimpler, 
Nonh Carolina 

Laura Milton Hodges, 
teacher, tobacco farmer, 
cultural spokesperson — 
Vilas, Nonh Carolina 

Roy Lee Hodges, Jr., to- 
bacco farmer— Vilas, 
Nonh Carolina 

Jack Lawrence, Sr., fox 
hunter— Boone, North 
Carolina 

Arvle Miller, storekeeper, 
tobacco limner— 
Boone, North Carolina 

Judy Norris, tobacco 
fiirmer — Sug;ir Grove, 
North Ciirolina 

R. DiidleN' Norris, tobacco 
farmer — Sugai" Gro\e, 
North Carolina 

Jean Reid, ballad singer — 
Lenoir, Nortii Carolina 

Ar\ill Scott, tobacco 
farmer, musician — 
Liinsing, North Carolina 

Rita Francis Scott, tobacco 
f;irmer, musician — 
Lansing, North Carolina 

Joseph Stephens, store- 
keeper, tobacco farmer— 
Creston, North Carolina 

R. Howard Woodring, 
coon hunter— Boone, 
North Carolina 

Chinese Americans 

Danny Chang, cook— New 
York, New York 

Kui Wu Chen, calligrapher, 
face and palm reader— 
New York, New York 

Chinatown Senior Center 
Orchestra, musicians — 
New York, New York 
J. L.Jong Olmos Chan, 
musician — New^ York, 
NY 
Leong Nan Li, musician - 

New York, Ny 
Ton R Hom, musician — 

New York, N\' 
Peter S. Lee, musician — 

New York, N\' 
Ching To Hau, musician - 
New York, N\' 



Pan Sau Chan, musician — 

New York, N^' 
Hon Cheung Tsang, musi- 
cian — New York, NY 

Shu-Min Fung, dancer— 
Brot)klyn, New York 

Meijiun Mai, dancer— 
Scotch Plains, New York 

Gum Wong Troy, laundr\' 
worker— Rockville,Mary- 
land 

May King Troy, cook — 
Rock\'ille, Maryland 

Ngan Hang Tung, Peking 
Opera master— New 
York, New York 

Yung-ching Yeh, children's 
games — New York, New- 
York 

Chan Shek Yu, shop- 
keeper—Scotch Plains, 
New Jersey 

M;irgaret Yuen, dancer, 
CLiltural spokesperson — 
New York, New York 

Lao Americans 

Soulisack Bannavong, 
woodcarver — SiKer 
Spring, Maniand 

Bout Chantha\'ilay, wea- 
\er— Alexandria, Virginia 

Kliam\ay Insixiengmay, 
weaver — Woodbridge, 
Virginia 

Phouangjohiika Kliam- 
vongsa, cook, candle- 
maker— Springfield, Vir- 
ginia 

SoKhamvongsa,musician — 
Springfield, Virginia 

Bounmy Kittiphanh, 
Buddhist monk — 
Catlett, Virginia 

Onechanh Luthongchak, 
mohlam singer — 
Takoma Park, Manland 

ChandaphoneMingsiscAip- 
hanh, Buddhist monk — 
Catlett, Virginia 

Thinat Nachampiisack, 
musician — Springfield, 
Virginia 

Sang\ane Pathammavong, 
floral arts —Arlington, 
Virginia 

Vatli Phimmakaysone, bas- 
ket maker, cultural 
spokesperson — Hyatts- 
ville, Maryland 

Kliampiimg Simmanakhot, 
musician — Walkers\ille, 
Man'land 



Bounsavath Soulamany, 
rocket maker— Alex- 
andria, Virginia 

Sing Soulamany, weaver- 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Tliongtaiih S<uivannap- 
hanh, musician — Spring- 
field, Virginia 

Mexican Americans 

Cipriano Cedillo, 
toymaker, barbacoa 
cook — Laredo, Texas 

LosMatachines de 
Ladrillero, sacred pro- 
cessional dancers— 
Laredo, Texas 

Florencio Ortiz, Jr. Mata 
chines musician — 
Liiredo, TX 

Teresita Gonzales, Mata 
chines dancer — Liredo, 
TX 

Guadalupe Ortiz, Mata 
chines dancer— kiredo, 
TX 

Ja\ier Ca.stiilo, Matachines 
dancer— Liiredo, TX 

Juan Castillo, Matachines 
dancer— Liuedo, TX 

Alonzo Ortiz, Matachines 
dancer— Liredo, TX 

MiLximo Morales, Mata- 
chines dancer— Liiredc ), 
TX 

Pete Ortiz, Mata- 
chines dancer— Liiredo. 
TX 

Viviano Solano, Mata- 
chines dancer— Laredo. 
TX 

Leticia La\ion, Mataciiines 
dancer — Liiredo, TX 

Melissa Gonzales, Mata- 
chines dancer — Liiredo, 
TX 

Ericii Velasquez, Mata- 
chines dancer— Liiredo, 
TX 

Ciirlo Ortiz, Miita 

chines dancer — Liiredo, 
TX 

Jose Martinez-Coronado, 
saddle maker, leather 
worker— Nue\'o Liiredo, 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Cecilio Santos, banisteria, 
woodcarver — Laredo, 
Texas 

Maria Piiredes Solis, 
quilmiaker— San 
Ygnacio, Texas 



Smithsonian 
Institution 

Secretary: Robert McC. Adams 
Undersecretary: Dean Anderson 
Assistant Secretary for 

Administration: John F. Jameson 
Assistant Secretary for Research: 

David Challinor 
Assistant Secretar]' for Museums: 

Tom Freiidenheim 
Assistant Secretary' for Public 

Sennce: Ralph Rinzler 

Office of 
Folklife Programs 

Director Peter Seitel 

Deputy Director: Richiird Kurin 

Adniinistratii 'e Officer- ]iiweW 

Dulaney 
Festival Director: Diana Parker 
Senior Etbnomusicologist: Thomas 

Vennumjr. 
Director, Folklife Quincentenary 

Programs: Alicia Miiri'a Gonziilez 
Folklorists: Marjorie Hunt 

Phyllis M. May-Machunda 
Friink Proschiin 
Nicholas R. Spitzer 
Curator, Massachusetts Program: 

Betty Belanus 
Festival Services Manager: Barbara 

Strickland 
Designer Daphne Shuttleworth 
Program Specialist: Arlene 

Liebenau 
Technical Coordinator Fred 

Nahwooksyjr. 
Archivist: Peter Magoon 
Film Editor Guha Shankar 
Secretary to the Director Kathryn 

Trillas 
Clerk Typist: Linda Lucas 



National 
Park Service 

Secretary' of the Interior Donald P 

Model 
Assistant Secretary for Fish and 

Wildlife, and Parks:^\\!:\am P 

Horn 
Director.yfJWXxaxn Penn Mottjr. 
Regional Director, National 

Capital Region: Man us J. Fish, Jr. 

Officials and Staff 

Deputy Regional Director, 

National Capital Region: Robert 

Stimton 
Associate Regional Director, Public 

Affairs: Sandra A. Alley 
Chief United States Park Police: 

Lynn Herring 
Deputy Chief Operations, United 

States Park Police: Robert E. 

Liingston 
Commander, Special Forces: Maj. 

CailR. Holmberg 
Special Forces, United States Park 

Police: Capt. Michael Barrett 
Superintendent, National Capital 

Parks— Central- WiWiiim F. 

Ruback 
Chief Maintenance, National 

Capital Parks— Central- 

William L Newman, Jr. 
Site Manager, National Mali 

Levy Kelly 
Employees of the National Capital 

Region and the United States 

Piu-k Police 



In Kind Contributors 

D.C. Commission on the Arts and 

Humanities, Washington, D.C. 
Dunkley International Inc., 

Kalamazoo, Michigan 
Escanaba and Liike Superior 

Railroad, Wells, Michigan 
FNT Industries, Menominee, 

Michigan 
Department of Horticulture, 

University of Maryland, College 

Piirk, Marykmd 
Michigan State University 

Museum, Eiist Lansing, Michigan 
University of Michigan-Flint 

Library, Flint, Michigan 
North Carolina Arts Council, 

Folklife Section, Raleigh, North 

Carolina 
North Carolina Department of 

Agriculture, Raleigh, North 

Carolina 
Texas Department of Agriculture, 

Austin, Texits 
John Zelenka Evergreen Nursery 

Inc., Grand Haven, Michigan 

Contributing 
Sponsors 

The Michigan Program has been 
made possible by the Michigan 
Sesquicentennial Commission 
and the Michigan Department of 
State. 

The Metropolitan Washington 
Program has been made possible 
in part by the generous support of 
the Music Performance Trust 
Funds, a non-profit organization 
created by U.S. recording com- 
panies to fund live and free per- 
formances. Trustee: Martin A. 
Paulson