(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival : on the National Mall, Washington, D.C., June 24-28 & July 1-5, 1998"

Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 





tjgJtm 




^. 


~^^^— ^^^ 


■PHCT 






s/^ 




r'>? -• 1 


i''""il'-k^- *•'•'' 1 




i 






'^ Wm, 









MS 



Smiths 
Folklife Festival 



On the National Mall 
Washington, D.C. 

June 24-28 & July 1-5 

Cosponsored by the National Park Service 



19 98 SMITHSONIAN 




On the Cover 



Inside Front Cover 

Cebu Islanders process as part of the Santo Nino (Holy 
Child) celebrations in Manila, the Philippines, in 1997. 
Photo by Richard Kennedy 

Table of Contents Image 

The Petroglyph National Monument, on the outskirts 
of Albuquerque, New Mexico, is a culturally significant 
space for many and a sacred site for Pueblo peoples. 
Photo by Charlie Weber 



Site Map on the Back Cover 



LEFT Hardanger fiddle made by Ron Poast of Black 
Earth, Wisconsin. Photo © Jim Wildeman 

BELOW, LEFT 
Amber, Baltic Gold. 
Photo by Antanas Sutl(us 

BELOW, CENTER Pmi lace 
from the Philippines. 
Photo by Ernesto Caballero, 
courtesy Cultural 
Center of the Philippines 

BELOW, RIGHT 
Dried peppers 
from the 
Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo Basin. 
Photo by Kenn Shrader 



Jffc 




General Festival ^ 

Information 101 

Services & Hours 

Participants 

Daily Schedules 

Contributors & Sponsors 

Staff 

Special Concerts & Events 

Educational Offerings 

Friends of the Festival 

Snnithsonian Folkways Recordings 

Contents ^ 

I.Michael Heyman 2 

The festival: On the Mall and Back Home 

Bruce Babbitt 3 

Celebrating Our Cultural Heritage 

Diana Parker 4 

Jhe festival As Community .^^hb 

Richard Kurin 5 

Jhe festival and folkways — 
Ralph Rinzler's Living Cultural Archives 

i 




FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL 



Wisconsin 

Richard March 10 

Wisconsin Folldife 

Robert T.Teske 14 

Cheeseheads, Tailgating, and the 
Lambeau Leap: Tiie Green Bay Packers 
and Wisconsin Folldife 

GinaGrumke 17 

The Neighborhood Tavern: 
Community Tradition at the Harmony 

Ruth Olson 20 

The Wisconsin Dairy Farm: 
A Working Tradition 

Ruth Olson 23 

"A Good Way to Pass the Winter": 
Sturgeon-Spearing in Wisconsin 

Thomas Vennum, Jr. 26 

The Enduring Craftsmanship of 
Wisconsin's Native Peoples: 
The Ojibwe Birch-bark Canoe 

Richard March 31 

Polka: Wisconsin's State Dance 

Anne Pryor 34 

Faith, Politics, and Community 
at the Dickeyville Grotto 



Pahiyas: 

A Philippine Harvest 

Marian Pastor Roces 38 

Rethinking Categories: 
The Making of the ?di\\\yas 

Richard Kennedy 41 

Rethinking the Philippine Exhibit 
at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair 

Elena Rivera Mirano 45 

Masters of Tradition in the Modern World 

Ramon RSantos 49 

Traditional Music in Philippine Cultures 

Doreen G. Femandez 51 

Philippine Food 

Ricardo D.Trimillos 53 

Filipino-American Youth 
Performing Filipinicity 

The Baltic Nations: 
Estonia, Latvia, and 
Lithuania 

Elena Bradunas 58 

A Song of Survival 

Ingrid Ruutel 60 

Traditional Culture in Estonia 

Valdis Muktupavels 66 

Latvian Traditional Culture and Music 

Zita Kelmickaite 72 

The Tenacity of Tradition in Lithuania 



The Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo Basin 

Lucy Bates, Olivia Cadaval, 79 

Heidi McKinnon, Diana Robertson, 
and Cynthia Vidaurri 
Culture and Environment in the Rio 
Grande/Rio Bravo Basin: A Preview 

Festival Concerts 

The Fourth Annual Friends of the 
Festival Ralph Rinzler Memorial 
Concert 

Peter Sokolow 95 

Jazz and First-Generation American 
Klezmer Musicians 

Henry Sapoznik 97 

Old- Time Music and the Klezmer Revival: 
A Personal Account 

Folkways at 50 

Anthony Seeger 98 

Folkways at 50: Festivals and Recordings 



© 1998 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
ISSN 1056-6805 

editor: Caria M.Borden 

ASSOCIATE editor: Peter Seitel 

ART direqor: Kenn Shrader 

designer: Jen Harrington 

PRODuaiON manager: Kristen Fernekes 



^^^^fJr 



■^ 



X 





Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 




Earl Nyholm, Charlie Ashmun, andJulia Nyholm split jackpine roots for sewing and 
lashing on a traditional Ojibwe canoe on Madeline Island, Wisconsin. 
Photo by Janet Cardie 



1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



The Festival: 

On the Mall and Back Home 

The 1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival is 
proud to host programs on Wisconsin, 
the Rio Grancle/Rio Bravo Basin, the 
Philippines, and the Baltic nations of Estonia, 
Latvia, and Lithuania. 



• Wisconsin this year celebrates its 
sesquicentennial, and seeks through the 
Festival to demonstrate to the nation the 
vitality of its people and their traditions. 

• The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo region was 
redefined 150 years ago with the Treaty 
of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which established 
a new boundary between Mexico and the 
United States. The river has a variety of 
meanings for local communities that will 
be explored on the Mall. 

• The Philippines first tasted indepen- 
dence 100 years ago, and marks its cen- 
tennial with activities that give voice to 
Filipino peoples, both in the island 
nation and here in the United States. 

• The Baltic nations each demonstrate 
the richness of their cultural life, and its 
importance in sustaining the struggle to 
regain their freedom and independence 
only a decade ago. 

The Festival will attract about a mil- 
lion visitors. They will dance to polkas 
from Milwaukee, learn borderlands bal- 
lads, participate in a Philippine 
pageant, and marvel at the amber work, 
flax weaving, and choral songs of 
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The 
unexpected will also meet their eye — 



a Tibetan sand mandala maker from 
Wisconsin, a Filipino artisan who fash- 
ions musical gongs from bullet casings, 
a New Mexican pueblo potter who 
incorporates modern flood stories into 
her craft, and a Baltic-style St. John's 
Day ceremony. 

Impressive as it is, though, the 
Festival is more than the presentations 
on the Mall. It begins back home — 
wherever that may be — with good 
research. Wisconsin fieldworkers have 
done a wonderful job documenting the 
state's community-based culture. In the 
Rio Grande region, cooperative field 
schools led by the Smithsonian with the 
University of New Mexico, Colorado 
College, University of Texas-Pan 
American, and Tierra Wools have 
encouraged local-area students and 
community members to study their cul- 
tural traditions. In the Philippines, the 
Cultural Center has devoted its staff to 
researching the traditions of the varied 
islands and developing a national 
archive. And in the Baltics, research has 
depended upon the documentation 
efforts of the Lithuanian Folk Culture 
Center and the Estonian National 



I.Michael Heyman 
Secretary 
Smithsonian Institution 

Council of Folklore, among other insti- 
tutions. 

Research allows us to plan and produce 
the Festival. It also leads to other outputs 
well beyond the Mall that cause the staff 
to declare, "The Festival never ends." 

Highly visible Festival presentations 
have gone to the Olympic Games and 
formed the core of festivals in Hawai'i, 
Oklahoma, Michigan, Iowa, Mississippi, 
and other states. There is a copious 
scholarly literature on the Festival and 
some three dozen documentary films and 
television shows, radio broadcasts, a few 
dozen Smithsonian Folkways recordings, 
and numerous cultural learning guides 
for schools and communities. 

The pattern holds for this year's 
Festival. Wisconsin, in association with 
the Smithsonian, will mount a Festival of 
Wisconsin Folklife in Madison in August. 
We have produced a Smithsonian 
Folkways recording on one of the state's 
dance music traditions, and Wisconsin 
public television is shooting a documen- 
tary for broadcast. In the Rio Grande 
Basin, Festival collaborations assure a 
continuing effort to research the region 
and develop multimedia materials for 
the schools. And, for the Baltic nations, 
we trust the Festival on the Mall will 
reinforce the relationship between the 
encouragement of grassroots cultural 
expression and the development of a 
free, democratic, civil society — as it 
does for us every year. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



1998 Smithsonian Foliclife Festival 



Celebrating 

Our Cultural Heritage 

Over the past three decades, the 
Smithsonian Folklife Festival has brought 
millions of people together on the 
National Mall in an annual celebration of the art 
of American life and the cultures of our world- 
wide heritage. 



Bruce Babbitt 
Secretary of the Interior 



The National Mall is a public landscape 
that connects our institutions of democ- 
racy, our monuments, museums, and 
storehouses of history in a unique layout 
in the Nation's Capital. The Mall and its 
institutions are open to all — annually 
welcoming millions of people from every 
background and cultural heritage. 

Each year, the Festival celebrates the 
cultural traditions of specific regions of 
the United States and other nations 
around the world. Among those this year, 
the Festival features the cultural tradi- 
tions of Wisconsin, which is celebrating 
its 150th anniversary of statehood, and 
the Centennial Celebration of the 
Philippine declaration of independence. 
Also featured are the Baltic nations — 
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania — whose 
cultural traditions have been of para- 
mount importance in defining and sus- 
taining them. The Festival also hosts 
members of communities in the Rio 
Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, from Mexico 
and the United States, who draw mean- 
ing and sustenance from that great and 
important river. 

The people and traditions on the Mall 
are here for us to understand, appreciate, 
and respect. We learn from the artisans, 
musicians, storytellers, workers, and 
other cultural torchbearers at the 
Festival. They teach us that culture is a 



dynamic process, vital in the lives of 
diverse people and communities, and 
represents their heritage, creativity, 
knowledge, and skill. 

Our cultural heritage is the gift of our 
forbears which 



cames a responsi- 
bility for us to 
share this inheri- 
tance with our 
children for 
future generations 
to understand and 
enjoy By nurtur- 
ing our cultural heritage, respecting what 
has been created, and passing it on, we 
give future generations the symbolic tools 
to construct worlds of meaning that pro- 
vide answers to many questions. This is 
what we do at our memorials and monu- 
ments, in our national parks, and through 
our varied programs. 

The Festival gives voice and vision to 
our worldwide cultural experiences. 
Reflect for a moment on how events like 
the Festival help one generation commu- 
nicate with the succeeding one. Reflect 
for a moment on how it tells where we 
have been, what type of stewards of the 
land we have become, and who we are. 
The Festival is an annual remembrance 
of our rich past and rededication to a 
promising future. 



The National Mall is a public 
landscape that connects our 
institutions of democracy, our 
monuments, museums, and store- 
houses of history in a unique 
layout in the Nation's Capital. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 Smithsonian Folldife Festival 



The Festival As Community 

The Smithsonian Folklife Festival presents 
community-based culture. It does this in a 
global capital under the aegis of a global 
institution. This makes the Festival an instance 
of "glocalization" — an activity through which 
contemporary local traditions and their enactors 
are projected onto a world stage. 



The Festival tries to do this in a respect- 
ful, intimate, meaningful way. 

In presenting conimunit}' cultural life, 
the Festival engages communities. This 
year's Festival is a good case in point. All 



The Festival not only engages one 
or another community, but it 
also forms its own. 



of the nearly 75 researchers who docu- 
mented, analyzed, and recommended tra- 
ditions and people for the Festival came 
from the represented communities. 
Festival curators and senior staff met with 
researchers, shared experience from pre- 
vious Festivals, challenged assumptions, 
listened, learned, argued, and negotiated 
the character of the programs. This is not 
an easy way to craft a cultural represen- 
tation, but it allows for an honest, intel- 
lectual engagement. Mutual respect and 
discovery are the usual result. 

The Festival not only engages one or 
another community, but it also forms its 
own. As participants live together at the 
hotel, see and hear each other on the 
Mall, they become friends and colleagues 
across linguistic, cultural, racial, gender, 
age, and religious lines. Staff and volun- 
teers are, as Margaret Mead once noted, 
also participants in the Festival. Many 
staff and volunteers have worked on the 



Festival for two decades or so. Al 
McKenney, stage manager, is back for his 
25th year; Barbara Strickland, our 
administrative officer, is here for her 
24th. We've watched each other grow 
professionally 
and personally as 
a result of our 
Festival experi- 
ence. And we've 
seen new genera- 
tions of people joining that community, 
as staff, volunteers, student interns. A 
Mississippi Delta participant from last 
year — Gregory Dishmon, a drummer in 
Sweet Miss Coffy & The Mississippi 
Bum'in Blues Band — is returning this 
year as a sound engineer 

But the Festival is not just a perfor- 
mance, an exhibit, or a mere activity of 
the Smithsonian. Its effects reach well 
beyond its producers. For example, this 
May, the Mississippi Delta program that 
was produced on the National Mall as 
part of the Festival last year was restaged 
in Greenville, Mississippi. The Festival 
mobilized local organizations and volun- 
teers. There were billboards on the high- 
ways saying "From the Delta to the 
Smithsonian and Back. " For many of 
those who'd been on the Mall, the 
Greenville festival was a reunion. On 
opening day, a hundred school buses 
pulled up to the festival site with stu- 
dents and teachers using the program as 
a vehicle for learning about local cul- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Diana Parker 

ture, history, and traditions. Blues and 
rockabilly rang out across the festival 
grounds next to the levee of the 
Mississippi River. On the third day, a 
warm, spring Delta Sunday, Dr Sandra 
Scott, a professor at Mississippi Valley 
State University, organized a special pro- 
gram. Because of her connections to reli- 
gious communities in the region, she 
was able to entice more than 150 singers 
from some 20 churches to come together 
for a sacred sing. People, Black and 
White, of varied ethnicity, class, back- 
ground, and religious affiliation, met 
each other on the stage — most for the 
first time. Dr. Scott moved between key- 
board players, soloists, and selections of 
repertoire. There was no division 
between audience and performers. 
Singers began to relax, jokes were made 
about towns, styles, and roles. People 
sung and swayed together. Everyone took 
delight in Darice Robb's soulful rendition 
of the Lord's Prayer, and in the beautiful 
solos performed by Ike Trotter of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Greenville, 
and Chief Minor, the African-American 
chief of police in Greenville. The audi- 
ence, composed of varied local and area 
residents, sat entranced, occasionally 
bursting into enthusiiistic applause or 
jumping to their feet in appreciation. 
Through teary eyes, we all watched a 
magical moment. It was the Festival at 
its very best — community was being 
presented, engaged, and indeed, created. 

Diana Parker has worlied on the Smith- 
sonian Folklife Festival since 1975, and 
has served as Festival director since 1984. 



1998 



1998 Smithsonian Folldife Festival 



The Festival and Folkways 
Ralph RInzler's Living 
Cultural Archives 



T 



'his year Smithsonian Folkways received two 
Grammy Awards and a third nomination. 
The updated re-release of the Harry Smith 



Atitholog)' of American Folk Music, ded- 
icated to the work of Ralph Rinzler, won 
for best historical album and best album 
notes, with staff members Amy Horowitz, 
Jeff Place, and Pete Reiniger honored 
with awards. The New Lost Cit)' Ramblers 
— John Cohen, Mike Seeger, and Tracy 
Schwarz — were nominated for There 
Ain't No Way Out as best traditional 
(st)'le) folk album and performed at the 
Festival's 1997 Ralph Rinzler Memorial 
Concert. The connections between these 
albums and Ralph Rinzler is central to 
the work and history of the Festival, 
Folkways, and the Center. 

The connections go back to the 1950s. 
Rinzler had been learning about folk 
music from Librar>' of Congress field 
recordings, attending university folk fes- 
tivals with Roger Abrahams and Peggy 
Seeger, and, with Mike Seeger, seeking 
out migrants from Appalachia who sang 
and placed at various gatherings. He pro- 
duced Folkways recordings, and valued 
the Folkways Harry Smith Anthology of 
American Folk Music. The Anthology, 
published in 1952, was a crucial docu- 
ment in the history of the folk revival, 
containing 84 tracks from commercial 
records of Southern, Appalachian, Black, 
and Cajun musicians made in the 1920s 
and 1930s. These raw recordings were 
annotated with weird yet insightful notes 
by avant-garde artist/anthropologist 
Harry Smith. The recordings were a far 
cry from those of the chart-topping 

1998 




The Anthology, re-released in expanded form, won 
two Grammy Awards in 1998. 

Kingston Trio and other folk pop groups 
of the time. They were used for their 
rough St) le and lyrical content by Bob 
Dylan, Joan Baez, Jerry Garcia, and many 
others. 

Rinzler was hardly alone in thinking 
that the people and music on the Smith 
Anthology were mainly the stuff of 
archives and museums — long dead. 

On a trip to North Carolina in I960, 
Rinzler and Seeger met up with none 
other than Clarence Ashley, whose 1929 
recording of 'The Coo-coo Bird" was on 
the Anthology. It was as if Rinzler was 
immediately connected to a past he had 
thought was mjlhological. Through 
Ashley, Rinzler met Doc Watson. On a 
drive to Watson's house in the back of a 
pickup truck, Rinzler, who'd been playing 
the banjo, was joined by Watson, who 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Richard Kurin 

offered a rendition of "Tom Dooley." 
Rinzler was struck by Watson's version, 
diverging as it did from the Kingston 
Trio's hit. Upon questioning, Watson said 
he knew the Dooley story as told by his 
great-grandmother. Watson went on to 
talk about the place where Dooley was 
hanged. He pointed out the Grayson 
Hotel that belonged to the family of the 
sheriff that arrested Dooley. Tom Dooley 
was not some character made up for the 
puqwse of singing an entertaining song, 
Rinzler realized, but part and parcel of a 
community's oral history. 

At Watson's house Rinzler was intro- 
duced to Doc's father-in-law, Gaither 
Carlton. Rinzler described Gaither as "an 
extraordinary man. He was a great pres- 
ence: very quiet and shy but with a real 
depth and intensity and a quality that I 
really loved." 

Rinzler told the Watsons about the folk 
revival, but they didn't really understand 
why people would be interested in that 
kind of music. Doc was playing rockabil- 
ly with an electrified guitar and asked 
Rinzler about touring as a country musi- 
cian. As Rinzler recalled, 

I said, there is this album of records 
recorded in the twenties and thirties 
that lias been reissued because there's a 
whole group of people who are interest- 
ed in this music now, and they'll buy 
this record — people like me who are 
in college and they're fascinated. But no 
one believes that Clarence Ashley and 
the people on this record — any of 
them — are still alive. 

Gaither looked at the Autlmlogy. He 
recognized some of the names. We 
played G. B. Grayson's recording of 
"Omie Wise." Gaither sighed when it 
wiis over - — he literally had tears in his 



1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 




eyes. Aiid he said, very quietly, under his 
breath, "Sounds Hke old times." 

He said that in a way that came from 
so deep inside of him that it just gripped 
me and really moved me: even now 
[1986] I just get tears in my eyes thinking 
of it. And what that said was how deeply 
meaningful that music was for those peo- 
ple. I got an inkling of understanding of 
the degree to which many people did not 
want to give up that music, but felt that it 
was outmoded or discarded, and whatever 
they may have thought of it, the world 
knew better. It was the beginning of a 
kind of anger, an activist, ideological, 
romantic stance that I took. 

Doc, Gaither, and others played that day 
— the old tunes they knew and liked. As 
Rinzler remembered, 



I knew the style of the music but had 
never really connected with the people 
who played. I knew it as a sound, not as 
an expression of the thinking, function- 
ing person sitting in front of me. I had 
no idea what kind of people played this 
music. I just had the sound ringing in 
my ears of this beautiful, pentatonic, 
archaic-sounding music sung in a vocal 
style that left Frank Sinatra far 
behind. ... What astonished me was that 
the people who are great musicians in 
traditional music are as profound as 
artists in any kind of art. 

All of a sudden I understood that style 
was emblematic — that it was their 
identity. The style of that music, and the 
sound, was for some people who they 
were. It represented their parents and 
their values, and a way of life that was 
slowly changing. For those people it was 
not necessarily a change that they wel- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Rinzler (right) on a fieldwork trip in 1966. 
Photo by Bob Yellin 

comed or valued, but that was imposed; 
and while the younger generation was 
reaching for it, I came later to realize 
that as the generations matured, they 
became more wistful and looked back 
and gave value to things that they were 
quick to reject earlier. 

On that one trip I got an understand- 
ing of the meaning and value and func- 
tion of music — a whole contextual 
framework that I built on later — and 
of craft, that I never had before. 

It was these sounds, songs, and styles 
that Mike Seeger, John Cohen, and Tom 
Paley (and later Tracy Schwarz) sought 
out, learned, and recorded as the New 
Lost City Ramblers. They were musical 
traditions that Mike and Pete Seeger, 

1998 



1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Alan Lomax, Ralph Rinzler, and others 
brought to the Newport Folk Festival. 
Other musicians on the Anthology — 
Dock Boggs, Mississippi John Hurt, Eck 
Robertson, Sleepy John Estes, the Carter 
Family — as well as Doc Watson partici- 
pated in the Newport Festival. 

Rinzler was heavily influenced by Alan 
Lomax's ideas about the connection 
between the survival of folk traditions 



whelm local cultures. But the same 
means could enhance and promote 
knowledge and appreciation of those 
local expressive systems, as well as their 
continuit) within host communities. 

Rinzler brought this philosophy to the 
Smithsonian. In the mid-1960s S. Dillon 
Ripley, then secretary, wanted to enliven 
the institution. "Take the instruments out 
of their cases and let them sing," he said. 




The Watson family in 1960. Photo by Bob Yellin 

and their public perfomiance and dis- 
semination. Lomax observed two cultural 
currents simultaneously occurring in the 
United States and abroad. Like his prede- 
cessors, he found many cultural st)'les 
falling into disuse or being destroyed. But 
he also found a broad array of cultural 
traditions with an amazing resiliency. 
Lomax suggested that enlightened gov- 
ernment policies could help preserve and 
encourage those cultural forms by utiliz- 
ing them in the schools, popular enter- 
tainment, and other forums. He recog- 
nized that some of the factors that has- 
tened the destruction of cultures, such as 
new technologies, could now aid them as 
well. Radio broadcasts, sound recordings, 
television programs, and films promul- 
gating mass global aesthetics could over- 

1998 



James Morris was hired and became head 
of the Division of Performing Arts. He 
instituted a wide variety of performance 
programs and suggested a summer folk- 
life festival. Rinzler was hired on con- 
tract to program the event. 

The Festival would present living — as 
distinguished from historically re-created 
— traditions. The living culture Rinzler 
had found, in Appalachia, in Cajun 
country, through his Newport work, 
needed help, encouragement, and valida- 
tion in a society whose sense of beauty 
and value is generally driven by the exer- 
cise of power and the commodification 
of the marketplace. "There was a sense 
in my mind that cultural democracy was 
as important as any other kind of 
democracy," said Rinzler. 

Tlie Festival began in 1967. It included 
58 craftspeople and 32 musical groups, 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



drew a huge crowd and strong press 
interest. It was an instant hit. Its success 
was recognized by many on Capitol Hill. 
Said one congressman, 

For the first time, thousands of people, 
over 430,000, experienced a live muse- 
um which exhibited the art of American 
folklife and they loved every toe-tapping 
minute. ... Basket weavers, pottery mak- 
ers, woodworkers, carvers, doll makers, 
needle workers, tale tellers, boat 
builders, and folk singers, dancers, and 
musicians from all over the country 
were brought to remind Americans of 
their heritage — still a living part of 
our nation. In this day of the frug and 
jerk Americans need to be shown what 
their own culture has produced and 
continues to produce. 

Another senator noted, "The Smithsonian 
is becoming much more than a reposito- 
ry for old artifacts. The exliibits are com- 
ing out of the display cases and the men 
and women directing the institution are 
showing that a museum can be vital and 
creative." 

What started out as the discovery in 
Doc Watson's home that the Anthology 
represented a living tradition had turned 
into a revitalization of the museum. 
Rinzler quickly articulated a cultural 
conservation strategy for the Festival — 
suggesting that museums conserve cul- 
tures while they live rather than waiting 
to collect their remnants after they die. 
The role of a museum can be to help 
empower people to practice their cul- 
ture, realize their aesthetic excellences, 
use their knowledge, transmit their wis- 
dom, and make their culture a vital 
means for dealing with contemporary 
circumstances. 

This approach characterized Rinzler's 
tenure as Festival director until 1982, 
and was extended after he was appointed 
the Smithsonian's assistant secretary for 
public service. In that position he blazed 
the Smithsonian's first steps toward digi- 
tal technologies, led efforts to establish 

7 



1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



/ am deeply indebted to Ralph Rinzler. 
He did not leave me where he found me. 



-Doc Watson 




Folkways: A Vision Shared won a Grammy in 1989. 

museums and programs that addressed 
the diversit)' of American culture, and 
pursued the acquisition of Folkways 
Records. He envisioned Folkways coming 
to the Smithsonian from founder Moses 
Asch as a documentary collection, muse- 
um of sound, and self-supporting enter- 
prise. With Don DeVito and Harold 
Leventhal, he lined up contemporary 
musicians — Bruce Springsteen, Bob 
Dylan, Emmylou Harris, U2, John Cougar 
Mellencamp, Brian Wilson, and others 
who also had been influenced by the 
"old music" of Folkways — to do a bene- 
fit album. That album paid for the acqui- 
sition of the collection, won a Grammy 
and assured that Folkways would contin- 
ue to actively document and disseminate 



Comprised of recordings made at the Festival, Roots 
of Rhythm and Blues was nominated for a Grammy 
Award in 1992. 

our musical cultural heritage. 

After his stint as assistant secretary, 
Rinzler continued his work with the 
Festival and Folkways. He co-curated 
Roots of Rhythm and Blues at the 1991 
Festival and won another Grammy nomi- 
nation for the resultant recording. He 
produced a series of oral history/music 
instruction videos with Pete Seeger, 
Ralph Stanley Watson, and Bill Monroe. 
He produced new Folkways albums of 
Watson, Monroe, and Ashley, and at the 
time of his death was working on an 
expanded edition of the Anthology of 
American Folk Music. 

Upon his death. Doc Watson said, "I 
am deeply indebted to Ralph Rinzler. He 
did not leave me where he found me." 
The same could be said in reverse. From 
Doc and Gaither Rinzler had found the 
Harry Smith Anthology to provide a win- 
dow into a whole realm of culture, sub- 
merged, hidden, and overlooked, but 
nonetheless real and alive. This view per- 
meated his vision of the Festival, moti- 
vated the acquisition of Folkways, and 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



continues to characterize the activities of 
the Center. Anyone who comes to our 
archive today finds old recordings being 
mined for new releases. Festival research 
and documentation being used for new 
recordings and education kits. Multi- 
media projects range from music provid- 
ed for Wl)ere in the World is Carmen 
SandiegoF and Encarta to Web pages 
and video anthologies of American and 
world music. No dead archive or dusty 
museum collection here, but rather an 
energetic activity to understand, repre- 
sent, and nourish living traditions and 
their ongoing transformations. It is thus 
most fitting that the Smithsonian regents 
at their meeting this January formally 
named the Center's holdings the Ralph 
Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. 

Dr. Richard Kiirin is director of the 
Smithsonian Institution Center for Folklife 
Programs & Cultural Studies and the 
author q/" Reflections of a Culture Broker: A 
View from the Smithsonian and Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival: Culture Of, By and For the 
People. He first worked on the Festival in 
1976 and was awarded the Secretary's Gold 
Medal for Exceptional Service to the 
Smithsonian in 1996. 



1998 




isconsin 




Wisconsin 



Wisconsin Foiiciife 

Wisconsin lies in the heart of a distinctive American 
region, the Upper Midwest. It is a place where a 
unique way of life has developed, little noticed elsewhere 
but markedly shaped by the state's diverse population and 
striking natural environment. Moreover, concepts concern- 
ing civic participation and land stewardship brought by 
the European immigrants who settled in Wisconsin during 
the 19th century have deeply influenced social, cultural, 
economic, and ecological activity in the state, making an 
impact on the state's folklife. 



The climate, geography, and economy 
of Wisconsin have shaped many shared 
regional traditions. The abundant timber 
of Wisconsin's forests is the basis for tim- 
ber-harvesting folklife as well as vital 
woodworking traditions. Wisconsin's 
inland "seashores" on Lakes Superior 
and Michigan and the thousands of lakes 
dotting Wisconsin's glacial landscape 
have stimulated nautical pursuits like 
boatbuilding and myriad fishing tradi- 
tions. The central North American cli- 
mate with its hot summers and cold win- 
ters has produced an annual cycle of 
activities suited to the changing seasons. 
Wisconsinites tap maple trees, pick 
mushrooms, and dip smelt in the spring; 
cut hay, pick cherries, and welcome 
tourists to lakeside resorts in summer; 
harvest corn and cranberries and hunt 
geese and deer in the fall. There is an 
intense concentration of festive commu- 
nity events crowding Wisconsin's warmer 
months, but Wisconsinites' famed 
propensity for partying also defies the 
cold. Wisconsinites celebrate winter 
carnivals, compete in ski races and ice 
fishing tournaments, and turn the 
parking lot of Lambeau Field into a 
cold-weather Mardi Gras for every Green 



Bay Packers home game. 

Nicknamed America's Dairyland, much 
of the southern two-thirds of Wisconsin's 
rolling landscape is dominated by family 
dairy farms. During the mid- 19th centu- 
ry, dairy farmers from upstate New York 
and Central Europe established an 
enduring agricultural practice suited to 



Whether expressed 
through church, 
tavern, or home, the 
role of ethnic identity 
remains prominent 
in Wisconsin. 



Wisconsin's land and climate. Dairy 
farmers typically provide much of their 
own hay and corn to nourish the dairy 
herds. The cattle also generate other by- 
products such as meat, leather, and fer- 
tilizer. A large majority of the milk pro- 
duced in Wisconsin is processed into 250 



Richard March 

varieties of cheese in the many cheese 
factories in small and large towns 
throughout the state. Wisconsin produces 
30 percent of the cheese in the United 
States, using cheese-making skills and 
practices that have evolved from Old 
World traditions. Today even the whey is 
processed into valuable lactose and 
protein products. 

The land-use pattern iissociated with 
dairy farming contributes to the striking 
beauty of Wisconsin's landscape. Neat 
farmsteads dominated by huge barns and 
towering silos are surrounded by corn 
and alfalfa fields and pastures. Dairy 
farmers also tend to preserve some 
woodlands on their farms to meet timber 
needs and to provide habitat for the deer 
which are hunted in the fall for venison. 

It is also significant that family dairy 
farms have contributed to community 
stability and the persistence of traditions. 
In hundreds of Wisconsin communities, 
the family names in the current tele- 
phone directory match those on the old 
headstones in the cemetery. Descendants 
of 19th-century settlers make up much 
of the populace in Wisconsin towns, 
often lending them an ethnic identity. It 
is well known that Westby is Norwegian, 
Pilsen is Czech, Rosiere is Belgian, 
Mayville is German, Monroe is Swiss, and 
Little Chute is Dutch. People of Northern 
and Central European origins have been 
the most numerous, but the Wisconsin 
cultural mixture is enriched by immi- 
grants from all around the world. 

The Wisconsin program is made possible by and is 
produced in cooperation witli tlie Wisconsin Arts 
Board and tlie Wisconsin Sesquicentennial 
Commission on the occasion of Wisconsin's 150th 
anniversary of statehood. Wisconsin corporate con- 
tributors include AT&T, SC Johnson Wax, and The 
Credit Unions of Wisconsin. 



10 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 




siere 



The governance of Wisconsin towns 
and cities is in the hands of an active cit- 
izenry. The mid- 19th-century antimonar- 
chist revolutions in Central Europe pro- 
duced ideas about a just and participa- 
tory society that were very much on the 
minds of many immigrants to Wisconsin, 
especially those from the ranks of the 
German "Forty-eighters." Examples of 
their legacy are still found in local con- 
trol of infrastructure, in rural township 
government, and in a history of pioneer- 
ing efforts toward industrial democracy. 



In these stable and participatory com- 
munities, the varied traditions of the 
people who have made the state their 
home have influenced one another The 
Belgians of southern Door County have 
embraced the brass-band dance music of 
their Czech neighbors in Kewaunee 
County, while the Czech Catholic parish 
picnics in the area serve up the Belgians' 
booyah soup from 60-gallon cauldrons. 
Some Old World folkways like the mak- 
ing of Norwegian Hardanger fiddles and 
the weaving of Latvian sashes have been 
preserved or revived. Other traditions like 



polka music and dancing or quilting are 
truly American, having developed from a 
mixture, a creolization of the contribu- 
tions of various culture groups now liv- 
ing side by side in Wisconsin. 

Cultural sharing began with what the 
Europeans learned from the Native peo- 
ples. European immigrants observed the 
fishing, hunting, and gathering practices 
of the Woodland Indian tribes. Native 
practices influenced the way European 
immigrants began to tap maple trees for 
sugar, to gather and use wild rice, fish 
for walleyes and muskellunge, and hunt 
deer For example, 19th-century German- 
American farmers in the Lake Winnebago 
area observed indigenous Ho-Chunk fish- 
ermen spearing sturgeon through the 
February ice and took up the practice 
themselves. Today the descendants of 
those immigrants and other Wiscon- 
sinites assemble a temporary village of 
some 3,000-4,000 ice fishing shanties on 
Lake Winnebago. Inside the shanties, 
with spears at the ready, these fishermen 
peer into the greenish water, some listen- 
ing to polkas on AM radio from nearby 
Chilton, others sipping homemade honey 
wine made from Wisconsin wild grapes 
and an Old World recipe, all hoping and 
waiting for the rare moment when a 
monstrous five- to eight-foot sturgeon 
might come nosing around their sub- 
merged decoy. 

At the end of the 19th and through the 
20th century, arrivals of Southern and 
Eastern Europeans, African Americans 
from the South, Asians, and Latinos have 
enriched the cultural landscape. The 
most numerous Eastern Europeans are 
Polish Americans, who have substantial 
communities in Wisconsin's industrial 
towns. Milwaukee's south side with land- 
marks like the St. Josephat basilica and 
the shrine to St. Mary Czestohowa at St. 
Stanislaus Church is the state's largest 
"Polonia" (the nickname for a compact 
Polish-American neighborhood). Polish 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



// 



Wisconsin 




The gambrel-roofed barn, gothic-roofed barn, and pole barn (from left) on this farm demonstrate both the 
change in style and continued usefulness of older structures. As farms grow and change, barns are added, not 
replaced. Photo © Bob Rashid 



traditional foods like pierogi and czarni- 
na are prepared in homes and neighbor- 
hood restaurants. Polish religious and 
social customs are actively pursued in 
numerous Polish lodges, social clubs, 
soccer teams, choirs, and folk dance 
groups. Polish handicrafts are practiced 
by artisans like Bernice Jendrzejczak, a 
maker of iiyciiuinki (paper-cut art). 

Milwaukee's large African-American 
community boasts a strong tradition of 
gospel music, and traditional crafts like 
quilting and doll-making persist. The 
Queens of Harmony sing a capella gospel 
in a ver)' traditional style. Velma Seales 
and Blanche Shankle are active in a 
Milwaukee women's quilt group. George 
McCormick carves and dresses wooden 
dolls, while Mary Leazer's making of tra- 
ditional rag dolls has drawn her hus- 
band, George Leazer, into the creation of 
dioramas comprised of his handmade 
clay dolls arranged to depict African- 
American social customs. 

While earlier immigrants came to 
farm, cut timber, or mine ores, the indus- 



trial cities of southeastern Wisconsin 
increasingly attracted new arrivals to 
work in factories, mills, foundries, and 
packing houses, on the docks and ship- 
yards of Great Lakes ports, and in rail- 
way shops and roundhouses. Today 
southeastern Wisconsin abounds with 
skilled machinists who create construc- 
tion equipment, farm implements, and 
tools. A few, like retired millwright Roy 
Treder, have turned these skills to artistic 
pursuits. When a retirement gift is need- 
ed for a fellow worker at Milwaukee's 
Harley-Davidson motorcycle factory, Roy 
welds together an elaborate base for a 
clock or lamp from tools and machinery 
parts symbolic of the worker's career. 
Roy has created more than 200 retire- 
ment gift sculptures for his fellow 
employees. 

Wisconsin's industrial towns and cities 
are a patchwork of urban ethnic villages, 
neighborhoods comprised of blocks of 
well-kept, modest frame houses with 
churches and taverns on the street cor- 
ners. The church basement and the cor- 
ner bar, much like the churches and 



crossroads taverns in Wisconsin's rural 
areas, have served their communities as 
twin hubs of social life. 

Many religious communities have an 
ethnic aspect to their congregation's 
makeup. One Lutheran church might 
attract primarily Norwegian parish- 
ioners, while another appeals to 
Germans. Catholic churches may be pre- 
dominantly Polish, German, Irish, 
Mexican, Italian, Croatian, or Slovak. 
Services may be offered in the language 
of the old homeland as well as in 
English. Ethnic crafts and foodways may 
be practiced in women's clubs and altar 
societies associated with the church. 

Not necessarily conflicting with church 
life, taverns in Wisconsin serve as anoth- 
er venue for expressing ethnic and 
regional traditions. In Wisconsin, taverns 
have a generally positive image. 
Austrian-American singer Elfrieda Haese 
remembers the women of her communi- 
ty catching up on gossip while doing 
knitting in a booth in Schaegler's Tavern 
in Milwaukee while the men played cards 
or sang. It is a Friday-night tradition 
throughout Wisconsin to take the whole 
family to a tavern for a fish fry. 

Whether expressed through church, 
tavern, or home, the role of ethnic iden- 
tity remains prominent in Wisconsin. 
Fourth- and fifth-generation Americans 
in Wisconsin are still quite cognizant of 
their ethnic origins, as pure or as varied 
as they may be. It is very common in 
Wisconsin to be asked when first meeting 
someone the ethnic provenance of one's 
last name. Not only are there recent 
immigrants who speak Spanish, Laotian, 
or Hmong, but German, Polish, 
Norwegian, and the Walloon dialect of 
French are still spoken in some 
Wisconsin homes by families whose for- 
bears immigrated generations ago. In 
folk dance groups and ethnic orchestras, 
ethnic identity is taught to Wisconsin 
children, an important reason why eth- 



12 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



nicit}' remains so pervasive in the state. 

Traditional arts are one of the most 
important mari<ers of ethnic identity. 
Norwegian Ainericans have placed great 
emphasis upon crafts Hke rosemaling, 
acanthus-carving, and Hardanger fiddle- 
making. Among the Slavic nationalities 
in Wisconsin, Ukrainians make pysanki 
Easter eggs and cross-stitch embroidery, 
Poles wycinanki paper-cut art, and 
Slovaks wheat weavings; Serbians play 
the one-stringed giisle, Slovenians the 
diatonic button accordion, and Croatians 
the lute-like tamburitza. 

In many ethnic groups, the craft item 
may be created primarily for display in 
the home, to indicate to all who see it 
that the owner is a proud bearer of a 
venerable heritage. But in other 
instances crafts may have retained their 
pragmatic purpose in a traditional pur- 
suit as well. Wisconsinites like .Mar}' Lou 
Schneider and Willi Kruschinski ponder 
long and hard how to design the perfect 
fishing lure to catch a particular type of 
game fish. The ice-fishing decoys in the 
shape of minnows made by members of 
the Lac du Flambeau band of Ojibwe 
may serve both practical and ethnic dis- 
play purposes. Today decoy car\'ers like 
Brooks Big John make some purely deco- 
rative decoys, attached perhaps to pieces 



of driftwood or to lamp bases, but Brooks 
also carves less decorated decoys that are 
carefully weighted and fitted with tin fins 
so that they will "swim" realistically in 
the water when he is ice fishing. To fish- 
ermen like Brooks, it is the whole tradi- 
tion involving the decoy that matters — 
knowing a good spot to catch walleyes or 
muskies in winter, making the hole 
through the ice, constructing the dark 
house tepee, and actually landing a big 
fish for his family's dinner table. 

Wisconsin folklife continues to evolve 
and to be enriched by new immigration. 
Refugees from wars and political oppres- 
sion continue to find a haven in the 
state. Wisconsin now has America's sec- 
ond largest population of Hmong, 
Southeast Asian refugees who actively 
pursue their unique music, craft, and 
social customs in the new homeland, as 
well as one of the major settlements of 
Tibetans. Latino populations in the state 
have increased markedly in recent 
decades, the largest being of Mexican 
origin. 

The Wisconsin program at the 
Smithsonian Folklife Festival in 
Washington, D.C., and its restaging in 
Madison as the Wisconsin Folklife 
Festival are auspicious events to honor 
the many people who preserve 
Wisconsin's folklife and to observe 



Wisconsin's sesquicentennial of state- 
hood. It is a challenging task to repre- 
sent the folklife of the five million resi- 
dents of Wisconsin in a single event 
involving only ten or twelve dozen peo- 
ple. The program participants are all 
outstanding bearers of traditions signifi- 
cant in Wisconsin, all evidence of the 
natural, cultural, and historical forces 
that have molded Wisconsin's unique 
and vital folklife. 

Suggested Reading 

Allen, Terese. Wisconsin food Festivals. Amherst, Wl: 

Amherst Press, 1995. 
Leary, James P., ed. Wisconsin Folldore. Madison: 

University of Wisconsin Press, 1998. 
Teske, Robert l, ed. Wisconsin folk Art: A 

Sesquicentennial Celebration. Cedarburg: 

Cedarburg Cultural Center, 1997. 
Woodward, David, et al. Cultural Map of Wisconsin. 

Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996. 

Richard March has been the folk arts spe- 
cialist for the Wisconsin Arts Board since 
1983- Since 1986 he has been the producer 
and on-air host of "Down Home 
Daityland." a program featuring the tradi- 
tional and ethnic music of the Midwest on 
Wisconsin Public Radio. He is active as a 
polka musician, playing button accordion 
in the Down Home Da try land Band. 




Tibetans, like these women 
at a Buddhist ceremony in 
Dunn, constitute one of the 
newest immigrant commu- 
nities in Wisconsin. Photo © 
Bob Rashid 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



13 



Wisconsin 



Cheeseheads, 
Tailgating,and 
the Lambeau Leap: 

The Green Bay Packers and 
Wisconsin Foikiife 

I have been a fan of the Green Bay Packers all my life. 
When I was growing up in Milwaukee during the late 
'50s and early '60s, my brothers and I could hardly wait for 
Sunday afternoon telecasts of Packers games to end so 
that we could rush outside to imitate the heroics of Paul 
Hornung and Jim Taylor, Bart Starr and Ray Nitschke. 



Throughout high school, I joined mil- 
lions of other Wisconsin residents in 
cheering the team on to several NFL 
championships during the "Glory Years" 
under legendary head coach Vince 
Lombardi. As a college freshman, I 
picked the lock of my proctor's door to 
watch "The Pack" trounce the Kansas 
City Chiefs in Super Bowl I. The follow- 
ing year, I viewed the Packers' Super 
Bowl II victory over the Oakland Raiders 
on an ancient black-and-white television 
that made 250-pound linemen look as 
tall and thin as the Celtics' front court. 

Little did I know then that almost 30 
years would pass before the Packers 
would return to the Super Bowl, that a 
generation of Packer fans would have to 
suffer through humiliating losses to the 
likes of the Chicago Bears and the hated 
Dallas Cowboys before reaching the pin- 
nacle again, that my own son would be a 
senior in college before the Green and 
Gold would reclaim the Lombardi 
Trophy. Yet, throughout this long 
drought, during which I moved to 



Philadelphia, Detroit, and Washington, 
D.C., before returning to Wisconsin in 
1985, 1 remained a committed Packers 
fan — and so did literally millions of 
others. Why such loyalty? Why such dedi- 
cation and commitment? The answers to 
these questions lie, I think, in the success 
of the Green Bay Packers in appealing to 
Wisconsin's appreciation for tradition, 
community, and celebration. 

When it comes to professional athletics 
in Wisconsin, the Green Bay Packers 
embody tradition. For more than 75 
years, half the history of the state itself, 
the Packers have been a vital part of 
Wisconsin life. While other professional 
sports franchises found their way to 
Milwaukee, neither the Braves, their suc- 
cessors the Brewers, nor the Bucks — 
despite world championships in their 
respective sports — have ever command- 
ed the same fan support. Dedication and 
commitment among fans take time to 
grow and develop, identification with a 
team and pride in association require 
stability as much as success. Each new 
game, each new season in the Packers' 



Robert T.Teske 

long and celebrated history has 
enhanced the aura of tradition surround- 
ing the team, supported the creation of 
popular heroes which still capture the 
imagination of football enthusiasts 
everywhere, and continued to generate a 
rich body of "Packerlore." 

As important as tradition in winning a 
place for the Packers in the hearts of 
Wisconsin fans is the team's understand- 
ing of, and appreciation for, its commu- 
nity. As the only franchise in the United 
States which is publicly owned, the 
Packers enjoy a unique affiliation with 
the smallest market in professional 
sports. During a recent public offering, 
thousands of Packer fans snapped up 
stock in the organization — despite the 
fact that the $200 shares will never 
appreciate in value. People simply want- 
ed to be able to say they owned a part of 
the team. Following the Packers' 1997 
conference championship victory over 
the Carolina Panthers, thousands of fans 
paid $10 each for pieces of "frozen tun- 
dra" stripped from Lambeau Field. The 
fact that all the proceeds from the sale of 
the turf were donated by the Packers to 
local charities further enhanced the 
organization's ties to the community. 

Other symbols of the Packers' connec- 
tion to their hometown are somewhat 
less quantifiable, but no less important. 
Take, for example, the now-famous 
"Lambeau leap." By hurling himself 
headlong into the stands after scoring a 
touchdown, each jubilant Packer shares 
his moment of triumph with the commu- 
nity which cheers him on every week. 
The fact that this forni of end-zone cele- 
bration has never drawn a penalty flag 
seems to suggest that even officials rec- 
ognize it as a sign of solidarity with foot- 
ball's most dedicated fans. 



14 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 




"St. Vince"and "Title Towel Man" are among the characters tailgating at Lambeau Field in Green Bay. Photo by Andy Kraushaar 



The community which cheers the 
Green Bay Packers actually extends 
throughout Wisconsin and well beyond. 
The Packers organization reserves tickets 
for Milwaukee season-ticket holders at 
designated games each year in Green 
Bay, thus maintaining intense fan loyalty 
(and encouraging some of the largest 
traffic jams imaginable on Sunday 
mornings along 1-43 from Milwaukee to 
Green Bay). At games in Tampa Bay, 
many "snowbirds" who have pemianent- 
ly fled Wisconsin's long, hard winters 
gather with loyal fans who follow the 
team from Wisconsin to generate a 
crowd of some 30,000 "Packer backers." 
Cities like San Francisco and San Diego, 



despite having their own professional 
teams, typically have one or more bars 
designated as gathering places for area 
Packer fans. Only the Fighting Irish of 
Notre Dame also seem to draw the sup- 
port of fans so widely distributed around 
the country. 

In addition to building a formidable 
tradition and cultivating the support of a 
broad-based community, the Green Bay 
Packers have long been the occasion for, 
and center of, Wisconsin celebrations. 
During the last few years, Packer celebra- 
tions have expanded to fill virtually every 
available time slot from the opening of 
preseason in July till the last second ticks 
off the clock during the Super Bowl in 
late January. Schools and businesses reg- 



ularly hold "Green and Gold Days" 
before big games, and merchants offer 
Packer specials, like a free sack of bagels 
for every Packer sack. The Archive of 
Folk Culture at the Library of Congress 
has received cassette tape recordings doc- 
umenting over 45 Packer songs and song 
parodies in a wide variety of styles rang- 
ing from polkas to pop (see page 16). 

None of these spin-offs, however, can 
quite compare with the central Packer 
celebration, the one which engulfs 
Lambeau Field during ever)' Packer 
home game. In much the same way that 
Cheese Days in Monroe give local dairy 
families a cause to celebrate and 
Syttende Mai in Stoughton encourages 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



15 



Wisconsin 




It is a tradition for Packers players to borrow bikes 
from local kids to ride from the locker room to the 
practice field each day of preseason training camp. 
Photo courtesy Green Bay Area Visitors 
and Convention Bureau 

members of the Norwegian ethnic com- 
munity to get together, so, too, do Packer 
games give those attending — and even 
those watching the game at home — an 
opportunity' to enjoy themselves. 

Packer fans typically arrive hours 
before game time to take part in a form 
of revelry widely known as tailgating. At 
the minimum, the pregame celebration 
usually involves cooking bratwurst on 
charcoal grills set up in the Lambeau 
Field parking lot, and washing down the 
sauerkraut-covered sausages with large 
quantities of another venerable 
Wisconsin product, beer. Of late, out- 
landish costumes have come to comple- 
ment the ubiquitous "cheeseheads," 
inflatable Packer helmets. Packer jerseys. 
Packer jackets, and green and gold face 
paint worn by most fans to tailgate par- 
ties and Packer games. Among the cos- 
tumed characters regularly sighted in 
and around Lambeau these days are the 



antlered "Packalope" and the blessed 
"St. Vince." Occasionally, the University 
of Wisconsin Marching Band will add its 
postgame concert, known ;is the Fifth 
Quarter, to the conclusion of a Packer 
game, thus combining two long-standing 
state athletic traditions. After the game, 
more tailgating or a trip to the local tav- 
ern to review the highlights may well be 
in order. 

With their victory over the New 
England Patriots in Super Bowl XXXI, the 
(Ireen Bay Packers demonstrated that — 
as bumper stickers had proclaimed hope- 
fully, but prematurely, for years — "The 
Pack Is Back." With their second consec- 
utive appearance in football's grand 
finale in Super Bowl XXXII, the team has 
shown that it ranks among the NFL's 
best. Whether such good fortune contin- 
ues for Green Bay or not, the Packers 
will remain near and dear to the hearts 
of all Wisconsin residents because of the 
team's abiding appreciation for tradition, 
community, and celebration. 

Suggested Reading 

Cameron, Steve. Brett Favre: Huck Finn Grows Up. 

Indianapolis: Masters Press, 1996. 
Favre, Brett. Favre: For the Record. New York: Doubleday, 

1997. 
Qreen Bay Packers Yearbook.Qreen Bay, 1997. 
Kramer, Jerry. Instant Replay. New York: World 

Publishing, 1968. 

. Distant Replay. New York: G.R Putnam, 1 985. 

Lombardi, Vince. Run to Daylight. New York; Grosset and 

Dunlap,1963. 
Schaap, Dick. Qreen Bay Replay: The Packers' Return to 

Glory. New York: Avon Books, 1997. 

Robert T. Teske is afolklomt and has 
served for the last ten years as the executive 
director of the Cedar burg Cultural Center 
He is the curator of the traveling exhibition 
Wisconsin Folk Art: A Sesquicentennial 
Celebration, tvhich is touring the state dur- 
ing 1998 in conjunction with the 
Wisconsin Folklife Festival. 



"Scatter My Ashes" 

By John Harmon Shardik 

Just let me hear that Lambeau cheer 
To set my spirit free 
Scatter my ashes in Lambeau Field 
That's where I want to be. 

In the fall I count the days 'til Sunday rolls 

around, 

Cuz that's the day the Packers play — the 

only game in town. 

I haven't missed a game in years; some say 

I've paid my dues, 

But in my soul I'm green and gold. I'll be 

there win or lose. 

And when I die, don't nobody cry 
And no pine box for me. 
Just scatter my ashes in Lambeau Field, 
And I can rest peacefully. 

Through the years I've shed some tears, I ain't 

ashamed to say. 

Through thick and thin, I've always been 

behind them all the way. 

And Lambeau Field is home-sweet-home to 

die-hard fans like me. 

There's no place like home, they say, no place 

I'd rather be. . . . 

Courtesy Hillfield Publishing 



16 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



The 

Neighborhood 

Tavern: 

Community Tradition at the 
Harmony 

When I was a child, a perfect meal was a greasy 
hamburger topped with a slice of raw onion, 
accompanied by krinkle-cutfrench fries slathered with 
Heinz ketchup and served in a wax-paper-lined plastic 
basket, and washed down with an ice-cold, syrupy Coke. 
My brothers and I also enjoyed other gastronomic 
delicacies such as beer nuts, sour cream and onion potato 
chips, maraschino cherries. Slim Jims, Blind Robins, and 
Weasel Peters. Food this wonderful was only served in a 
neighborhood tavern: a dark, heavenly place that smelled 
like fried food and cigarette smoke. 




Gina Grumke 

Taverns contained fantastic, mysterious 
things that flickered, beeped, and 
squawked. We pestered our parents end- 
lessly for quarters to fill pinball 
machines, juke boxes, and pool tables. 
The adults who frequented these places, 
including our parents, were more toler- 
ant there of kids' behavior and exuber- 
ance. They themselves talked and 
laughed more than they did at home. 

Taverns or bars (these words seem to 
be used interchangeably) in Wisconsin 
are a ubiquitous feature of the landscape 
in both rural and urban areas. Local tav- 
erns have been community gathering 
places in Wisconsin since European set- 
tlement. Although the social fabric of 
Wisconsin has undergone tremendous 
changes since the days of "a bar on every 
corner" — in particular, as affects tav- 
erns, there are more health-conscious 
consumers, stiffer drunk driving laws, 
and an increasingly mobile population 
which no longer has to live within walk- 
ing distance of entertainment — taverns 
continue to exist and even thrive in vari- 
ous incarnations in all regions of 
Wisconsin, and they provide a corner- 
stone of social life. 

When I left Wisconsin in my twenties, 
I was surprised to realize that most of 
the country did not share this idea of the 
tavern :is a comfortable gathering place 
for all family members. Instead, taverns 
were viewed as places to imbibe liquor, 
consort with unsavory characters, and 
generally get yourself in trouble. I was 
puzzled by what I encountered — bars 
closed on Sundays, the creation of pri- 
vate "clubs'" to circumvent restrictive 
liquor laws, the concept of a "dr) " any- 
thing — and I found state-run liquor 

Patrons at the Harmony Bar play sheepshead, a 
German card game popular throughout Wisconsin. 
Photo © Bob Rashid 



1998 



Smithsonian FoiiaiFE Festival 



17 



Wisconsin 




A Softball team sponsored by the Harmony enjoys beer and food at tournament time. Photo by Gina Grumke 



Stores with lab-coat-attired sales staff 
absurdly fuiin\'. In the 1980s I spent a 
summer working in Germany and dis- 
covered the neighborhood Stuben. They 
had soup and sandwiches, beer on tap, a 
juke box, some electronic games, and a 
crowd that could walk there. The 
Wisconsin taverns that I grew up around 
were close cousins of these neighborhood 
Stuben. 

Wisconsin taverns are generally housed 
in long, narrow buildings and are fur- 
nished with a counter, bar stools, a few 
tables, and maybe a pool table and some 
pinball machines. Most bars have at least 
a small grill and fryer, and some have 
full-size kitchens in back. Many bars 
have an attached "dining room," which 
is used for eating, as a performance 
space for bands, and for parties and 
other special celebrations. Tavern owners 
more often than not work several shifts 



behind the bar themselves, serving 
drinks, making burgers, and generally 
keeping order. 

Sitting in Madison on the comer of a 
busy cross-town artery and a residential 
street in a couple of connected two-story 
storefronts is the Harmony Bar. Housing 
a bar since at least the 1930s, the build- 
ing has tiny signs out front proclaiming 
"Bar" and "Grill" and neon beer signs in 
the small windows. Regular customers 
enter the bar by the side door, from the 
side street. (Only new customers use the 
"front" door.) Bartenders and customers 
greet each other by name and inquire 
about each other's lives. "Did you catch 
the Softball game last night? Did you see 
Dave slide into third base?" "Where is 
your wife working now?" During the day 
people come and go, drinking coffee, 
reading the paper, watching the news or 
sports on the televisions, and chatting 
with the bartenders, many of whom have 
worked there for years. There is a con- 



stant stream of delivery people bringing 
beer, liquor, and food. Around 11:30 the 
lunch rush starts — workers from the 
neighborhood, government office staff 
who obviously have driven there from 
the State Capitol building, and folks 
from the neighborhood. After lunch peo- 
ple start drifting in for a beer or two, 
maybe a bowl of soup, a plate of stuffed 
jalapefio peppers ("poppers"), or a bas- 
ket of homemade chips and dip. There 
are decks of cards and cribbage boards 
behind the bar for the asking. The tele- 
phone rings frequently; many calls are 
for customers whom the bartenders 
know by name. 

The adjoining dining room, with its 
black-and-white checked tile floor and 
beautiful tin ceiling, is full of chairs and 
tables that are easily and frequently 
rearranged by customers to accommo- 
date their needs and activities, including 
eating, drinking, playing cards, holding 
infant carriers, displaying birthday 
cakes, and stacking presents. Customers 
are welcome to bring in their own deco- 
rations for parties, ranging from embar- 
rassing photo montages of the birthday 
person to signs of farewell, good luck, 
and congratulations and balloons and 
crepe paper Also in the dining room are 
electronic dart machines, framed posters, 
announcements of past concerts and 
dances at the bar, and an elaborate 
menu board. When there is no band 
playing, the stage is used as more dining 
space. 

Keith Daniels and his wife, Jo 
Raggozino, opened the bar in 1990. Keith 
was bom and raised in Burlington, out- 
side of Milwaukee, and spent his youth 
helping out in the family bar, which was 
also called the Harmony Bar. He left 
Wisconsin for a while but retumed, with 
Jo and a strong sense of what kind of bar 
he wanted to open. When he and Jo, 
along with a partner, bought the bar, it 



18 



Smithsonian Folklife Festivai 



1998 



Wisconsin 



was, in their words, "a dump." The only 
positive angle was that there was no 
clientele to offend or change. Designing 
the Harmony to be a place where he 
would enjoy hanging out with his 
friends, he packed the juke box with his 
favorite blues, rock, and some jazz (B.B. 
King, the Rolling Stones, Stevie Ray 
Vaughan), stocked local and regional 
beer, and slowly started building a menu 
of tasty bar food. He purposefully built a 
base of customers who were at least in 
their thirties, relaxed, and would return 
frequently to a place they liked — in 
particular, women can come to the 
Harmony and not be hassled. Although 
the clientele is primarily from the neigh- 
borhood, people drive there from all over 
the city. The owners have installed bike 
racks for those who prefer to cycle in. In 
a '90s update, although cigarette smok- 
ing is allowed in the bar, there is no cig- 
arette machine. A small number of 
brands are sold from behind the bar at 
very high prices, reflecting the manage- 
ments ambivalence towards smoking. 

Jo's area of expertise at the Hamiony is 
the food. The Harmony offers wonderful 
examples of traditional Wisconsin "bar 
food " — hamburgers, cheeseburgers, 
french fries, deep-fried onion rings, and 
even deep-fat-fried mushrooms and 
cheese curds. Jo has added a chalkboard 
menu of weekly and daily specials such 
as quesadillas, vegetarian sandwiches, 
pasta salads, and stir-fries. She recently 
installed a pizza oven and now serves an 
old-fashioned, thin-crust pizza, complete 
with gobs of cheese and toppings. Using 
her extensive skills and vision and fresh 
vegetables from her father-in-law's gar- 
den, Jo is redefining what bar food is (at 
least at the Harmony). Although her hus- 



band Keith will never allow brats, burg- 
ers, and cheese curds to be removed from 
the Harmony's repertoire, she is continu- 
ally changing and tinkering with the 
menu, with mouth-watering results. Jo 
was raised on the East Coast and was not 
familiar with the Wisconsin neighbor- 
hood tavern, but she has embraced the 
concept wholeheartedly 

Throughout the year customers from 
the neighborhood gather at the Harmony 
for a variety of food and entertainment. 
There is a daily sheepshead table in the 
front of the bar, instigated by Keith, an 
avid player Keith's enthusiasm for many 
professional sports, including basketball, 
is reflected in the Boston Celtics posters 
throughout the bar Several large televi- 
sions are mounted high on walls — 
often as not tuned to different sporting 
events, with the volume turned down 
except, of course, during big events such 
as playoffs and anything involving the 
Packers. On the weekends there is live 
music in the dining room. Keith only 
books genres of music he likes. 

Throughout the year the bar sponsors 
darts, basketball, pool, volleyball, and 
Softball teams. The undisputed favorite is 
Softball. The Harmony Bar sponsors the 
most Softball teams in the city of 
Madison. In fact, the Hannony fields so 
many that Keith is able to put on a day- 
long tournament at the end of the season 
with only Harmony teams. Teams are 
expected but not required to come to the 
bar, relax, and, they hope, celebrate after 
the game. The bartenders keep track of 
each team's orders on a big chart behind 
the bar, and at the end of the season the 
team that has spent the most gets a free 
pizza and beer party. The Hannony is 
developing such a reputation for softball 
and postgame celebrations that some 
regular customers stay away on summer 



evenings because the atmosphere is so 
frenetic. 

The Harmony has close connections 
with the Atwood community center, a 
volunteer communit}' service agency a 
block away The busiest night of the year 
at the bar is a tropical theme party 
which benefits the center The Harmony 
sponsors a music stage at the Atwood 
neighborhood summer festival, and 
inside the bar a bulletin board displays 
announcements for upcoming communi- 
ty events. 

Taverns like the Hamiony Bar are sig- 
nificant social and cultural institutions 
in Wisconsin. At once rooted in past tra- 
ditions and dynamic, they provide a 
space where people of all ages can come 
together and enjoy food and drinks, 
music, sports, games, entertainment, and 
each other. Wisconsinites appreciate the 
idiosyncratic, community-based charac- 
ter of taverns, which stand in sharp con- 
trast to the homogeneit}' of larger 
American fast-food culture. They are 
proud that taverns, emblematic of social 
identity in Wisconsin, are places in which 
they can assert and maintain their own 
distinctive cultural traditions. 

Gma Grtimke. a Wisconsin native, has 
done fieldwork relating to Wisconsin tai'- 
erns and is now completing her disserta- 
tion at the University of Wisconsin- 
Madison. She is currently employed by the 
Doblin Group, a Chicago-based innovation 
planningfirm. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



19 



Wisconsin 



The Wisconsin 
Dairy Farm: 

A Working Tradition 

Wisconsin boasts a population of 1 cow for every 3 
people. We produce almost 15 percent of the 
nation's milk, 25 percent of its butter, and 30 percent of its 
cheese. With more than 27,000 dairy farms and 1 .45 
million dairy cows, the state clearly still deserves the title 
"America's Dairyland." 



The honor of having the largest num- 
ber of dairy cows in the state is shared by 
Marathon and Clark counties, neighbors 
near the center of the state. Each has 
62,000 cows. Clark County is the picture 
of a healthy farming community; its 
landscape dotted with working farms and 
a plethora of agriculture-related busi- 
nesses, from feed cooperatives and 
implement dealers to pole-barn construc- 
tion companies and milk pickup stations. 
You're likely to meet a milk truck on any 



of the county's small rural roads and just 
as likely to come across tractors pulling 
whatever piece of equipment is appropri- 
ate to the season. 

The culture of dairy farming in the 
state is pervasive. Many residents either 
grew up on a farm or have spent time on 
their old "home farm" run by relatives. 
Many still value such connections and 
credit farm life with fostering strong 
family ties and a spirit of cooperation, 
moral instruction and a sense of stew- 




Ruth Olson 

ardship for both land and animals. But 
most people rely on an image of farming 
rather than an actual knowledge of 
farming as it exists in the 1990s. 
Contemporary dair)' farming demon- 
strates a principle folklorists love to pro- 
nounce: culture, like the traditions that 
assist in its maintenance, is dynamic. It 
changes to suit the needs of the members 
of a particular communit)' at the same 
time that it retains the core values of 
that community. While farms are becom- 
ing much larger and technologically 
more complex, they are still community 
based and resource conscious, and are 
usually family concerns. 

Here's what more and more contempo- 
rary dairy farms look like. There's a 
"milking parlor," where the cows enter 
into stalls to be milked; then they are 
released into "return lanes" to head back 
into the adjacent barn. The milker stands 
in a "pit" about three feet lower than the 
milking stalls, where she can easily put 
the milking machine on the cow without 
having to bend over. Many farms have 
free-stall barns — long, open, one-story 
barns where the cows wander in large 
pens, entering stalls to eat or lie down. 
These bams often have curtained sides 
that can be raised in the summer to 
allow a breeze to pass through. Most 
farms still keep their old two-story barns 
but find new uses for them, frequently as 
treatment barns for sick cows or mothers 
ready to give birth. 

Near the milking parlor or in the 
house you'll find the farmer's office, 
filled with certificates and awards, pic- 
tures of both cows and kids, an aerial 
view of the farm, and, of course, a com- 
puter All the information on each indi- 

Light spills through the curtain of the free-stall barn 
at the Boon Farm in Greenwood, Wisconsin. Photo by 
Andy Kraushaar 



20 



Smithsoman FoLiaiFE Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



vidual cow — her breeding records, her 
health records, her milk production — is 
kept on the computer, and the computer 
may be hooked up to the Internet, to 
allow the farmer to communicate with 
any of a number of agriculture-based 
discussion groups, both nationally and 
within the state. On the bigger farms, 
you'll find a work force which divides up 
to perfonn specialized tasks but in which 
any individual can handle a number 
of tasks. 

Where Dick and Peggy Rau run their 
700-cow farm, near Dorchester in Clark 
County, there's a lot of community sup- 
port for dairy farming. Peggy says: 

We don't meet a lot of people who are 
against us. You'll meet a few people that 
say, "Oh, you're putting the little fanner 
out of business." Well, not really. What 
would the difference have been if we 
would have stayed at 72 cows? We'd just 
be struggling the same as the rest of 
them, and I'd probably have an off-farm 
job instead of staying here. I've been 
lucky enough to be here 18 years; I've 
never bad to work off. And I've always 
been here when the kids get home, and 
when they leave, which I consider a 
big plus. 

The heart of the family farm is its chil- 
dren. The hope is that the farm will be 
there for the children who want to con- 
tinue the tradition. To assure this, the 
farm has to be more than just financially 
secure; farming has to be something that 
the children can imagine themselves 
doing. Peggy Rau says that expanding 
helped increase the kids' interest in 
farming. Their son Zack helps to main- 
tain the cows' feeding schedule, getting 
up at four in the morning before school 
to help feed. A year ago their daughter 
Stephanie began working as a milker, 
and Peggy and Dick have been surprised 
by her enthusiasm. "Who would have 



rfe*^ I 


/K\ 


V '>i^* 






n 



Head milker Carrie Dassow monitors the milldng macliines in tlie double-ten parallel milking parlor at the Rau 
Farm in Dorchester, Wisconsin. Photo by Andy Kraushaar 



ever thought she'd be talking to her 
friends about cows?" 

Part of what makes their current mode 
of farming attractive to Peggy and Dick's 
children is that, with an expanded work 
force, it's possible to leave the fann now 
and then. "When we milked 72 cows, you 
had to be here at five in the morning, 
five at night, and now, like Steph's bas- 
ketball game tonight, we just go, that's it. 
We get done what we have to get done, 
and then we leave." Dick and Peggy can 
take every other weekend off. For their 
anniversary last year, they flew to a 
Packers game in Florida. "We never did 
that in the first 15 years we fanned. We 
never left." 

Agriculture in Wisconsin remains a 
family concern. Not everyone who grows 
up on a farm continues to farm, but 
many go into related businesses. Dick's 
brother, for example, is with Northstar 
Breeding Service, and Dick and Peggy 
buy most of their semen from them. 
Peggy's brother works for Marawood 
Structures, which put up the Raus' 
newest free-stall barn. 



Although there may be hundreds of 
cows with numbers instead of names, 
there's still a focus on relationships with 
animals. The older cows, especially, 
become pets. Peggy describes how her 
milkers develop attachments to certain 
cows. Their milking parlor has a base- 
ment which also serves as a storm cellar. 
One day last summer Peggy was warning 
her milkers to get down to the basement 
in any severe storm. She told them, 
"Forget the cows, just get yourselves 
down there. " Her head milker asked, 
"Can I bring 1459 with me?" All the 
milkers feed cookies. Hostess cupcakes, 
and Doritos to another cow, 1541. One 
milker suggested to Peggy that since they 
mix bakery waste as part of the cows' 
integrated feed program, it was the same 
thing as feeding the cows cookies. 

Most farms still follow the old princi- 
ple, "Find a use for it." The original recy- 
clers, farmers innovate, putting old 
things to work in new ways. For example, 
Duane Boon of Greenwood in Clark 
County recently expanded his herd to 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festivai 



21 



Wisconsin 



T' ' •I'a*'- rr " 


. 1 


1 


1 ■: l-'*^ 

1 • i r. 


1 -V ••,-^r'^«*'att«8,i; 


!•' 


^ \ 


\ gl^HM^fl 


L 



Cows graze in the feeding alley in the free-stall barn at Dick and Peggy Rau's farm. 
Photo by Andy Kraushaar 



120 COWS and bought a milking parlor 
system. Rather than build a whole new 
operation with all new buildings, Duane 
decided to modify his existing round-roof 
bam. He gutted out one end of it, air- 
hammering out the floor to install the 
pit for the milking parlor, and changing 
the gutter system and stanchion setup in 
the other end to create a holding area for 
the cows waiting to be milked. He con- 
nected his new free-stall barn to his old 
bam, so that the cows could be moved 
from one location to the other easily. 

And sometimes old ideas are used to fit 
new purposes. In Dick and Peggy Rau's 
milking parlor pit, all the supplies need- 
ed to prepare the cows for milking — 
towels, teat dip, sanitized water — used 
to be kept in a barrel, and the milkers 
would have to run back and forth to get 
supplies. Then Dick's brother came up 
with a better idea. He welded together a 
trolley, much like an old silage cart, that 
is suspended from a track on the ceiling. 
Now, the milkers simply pull the trolley 
along as they milk. In another case, a 
neighbor found that old tractor tires cut 
in half make the perfect manure scraper 
for a free-stall bam. Using a metal buck- 
et to scrape the concrete floor causes two 
problems: first, it eventually smooths out 
the floor too much, making it slippery 
for the cows; second, metal buckets 
scraped against concrete wear out rather 
quickly and are expensive to replace. 



Using an old tire is 
cheaper and better 
for the floor. 

The Raus, like 
other famiers in 
the area, buy their 
tractor-tire scrapers 
from a local farmer 
who makes them. 
This specialized 
market emphasizes 
how much dairy 
farmers rely on a 
healthy, supportive 
environment. Few dairy famiers find 
themselves operating successfully in 
isolation. 

In Clark County, many of the farms no 
longer operating are those owned by 
older farmers. Duane Boon says that 
those farms end up getting absorbed by 
other famis, since not many new farmers 
can afford to start up. "Like my dad said, 
I'm farming right now what basically 
was 10 independent farmers 30 years 
ago. It's kind of sad in a way." Peggy Rau 
shares Duane's attitude. T like the old 
farms. ... I happened to go sit out in the 
woodlot one day, and you could see 
around this area, how many people are 
60, 60, 60, 60." She points around her to 
her neighbors: 

Dick's brother farms right up the road 
lialf a mile, so that one's running. The 
fami over there witii the green silo top, 
another big farmer that lives out on 
[County Road] A owns that, and there's 
hired people going through it constant- 
ly, so it's really not a family-run farm 
any more. That farm over there is 
currently running but not for long. 

Farmers are well aware of the risks they 
take in this rapidly changing business, 
and at least for the Raus and the Boons, 
it increases their determination to pass 
on workable traditions. 



Before they expanded, the Boons 
milked 60 cows and did all right, "but I 
came to the point where I'm 40 years 
old. If I keep milking 60 cows, my net 
worth will probably go down by the time 
I'm 60, so I either have to modernize and 
expand, or get out, or just milk it out till 
there's nothing left," Duane explains. 
"I've got kids coming up, I think they 
might be interested. Maybe not; if not, 
I've got to have something saleable, too." 

Dick Rau's uncle, a retired farmer him- 
self, says, "1 remember when I was milk- 
ing 12 cows. I thought I'd be a big 
success if I could get it up to 30 cows. By 
the time I retired, I was milking 70, and 
now. ..." He gestures behind him at the 
complex that milks and cares for 700 
animals. 

Suggested Reading 

Belanus, Betty J. "Family Farm Folklore." In Festival of 

American Folklife Program Book, ed. Peter Seitel. 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1991. 
Leary, James P. "The Farmer and American Folklore." In 

Festival of American Folklife Program Book, ed. 

Peter Seitel. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 

Institution, 1991. 
Mitchell, Roger. From Fathers to Sons: A Wisconsin Family 

Farm. (Special issue oi Midwestern Journal of 

Language and Folklore.) Terre Haute: Indiana State 

University, 1984. 
Vogeler, lngolf."The Cultural Landscape of Wisconsin's 

Dairy Farming." In Wisconsin Land and Life, ed. 

Robert C.Ostergren and Thomas R. Vale. Madison: 

University of Wisconsin Press, 1997. 
http://wv\/w.wislink.org (the electronic network for 

Wisconsin Dairy Producers) 

Ruth Olson was raised on a dairy farm in 
northwestern Wisconsin and has done 
extensive fieldwork on the occupational, 
recreational, and ethnic life of rural com- 
munities in the northern part of the state, 
with an emphasis on issues of land use 
and agriculture. She teaches at the 
University of Wiscomin-Madison and is on 
the staff of the Wisconsin Folklife Festival. 



22 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



Ruth Olson 



^^A Good Way to Pass 

the Winter^^: Sturgeon-Spearlng in Wisconsin 




y talk with sturgeon 
fisherman Bill Casper 
begins with an early history 
lesson.The healthiest popu- 
lation of sturgeon in the 
world is in Lake Winnebago, 
in eastern Wisconsin. 

Lake Winnebago, one of the largest 
inland lakes in the area, is 1 1 miles wide 
and 28 miles long — but at its deepest 
point only 22 feet deep. "It was shoved in 
here by the glacier. You can tell by all the 
north-and-south running lakes in the 
Great Lakes area. Even Lake Michigan 
got sort of plowed in here. You can see 
where the drumlins in the land were 
formed by the great glacier pushing the 
earth and bringing stone and debris 
along down. Must have been quite a 
time." As the glacier melted, lakes 
formed and fish migrated into the area. 
Bill believes the sturgeon came into the 
Great Lakes and Lake Winnebago area 
from glacial runoff and by traveling 
north along rivers like the Mississippi. 

Sturgeon have been around for 3 or 4 
million years. They are a primitive fish, 
growing to be decades old and yards 
long. Bill describes them as "a very nice 
fish to eat — their meat is very good." 
They have marrow — a soft, cartilage- 
type bone — and gizzards, like 
dinosaurs and chickens. Covered with a 
tough hide, sturgeons' backs and sides 
are ornamented with "scoots" or hackles. 
Their heads are a heavy mass of bone. 




On opening day of sturgeon-spearing season on Lake Winnebago, thousands of fishing shacks are brought onto 
the ice with the help of four-wheel-drive vehicles and snowmobiles. Photo © Bob Rashid 



Until the 1800s, lake sturgeon were 
abundant in the Great Lakes. Although 
commercial fishing there almost wiped 
them out in the mid- 1800s, it was a dif- 
ferent story for the fish in Lake 
Winnebago. The lumber boom in the 
area resulted in a number of dams on 
the Fox River between the lake and 
Green Bay, practically trapping the crop 
of sturgeon in Lake Winnebago. The stur- 
geon still have ample place to spawn in 
the Wolf River, which runs 125 unre- 
stricted miles from Lake Winnebago to 
the Shawano dam. 

Spearing sturgeon on the lake has long 
been a tradition. Bill remembers going 
out with his Uncle Ambrose and com- 
pares those earlier seasons with the more 
restrictive season now, when individuals 
are only allowed one sturgeon each year: 



He would come up from Milwaukee on 
weekends and stay at our home, and 
then he'd go fishing, and I'd always 
want to go with him. And so my mom 
said, "Well, you've gotta be eight years 
old at least." So when I was eight and 
he showed up, I started going with 
him. ... We'd leave when it was almost 
dark, and we'd go out to the lake. He 
had just a car. . .and we'd drive out on 
the lake, and shovel our way out there 
because there were no snow plows at 
that time. And we'd start fishing. Fish till 
he couldn't see anymore down in the 
hole. . .then we'd come back home and 
have our supper at our house. ... It was 
at a time where you could get five fish. 
Well, some days we'd get two, but in 
those years there weren't so many 
sturgeon fishermen out there. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



23 



Wisconsin 



It's different today. 
Bill estimates that 
during sturgeon- 
spearing season, 
which runs from 
the second 
Saturday in 
Februan' through 
the tiiird weekend 
of that month, 
there can be 3,000- 
4,000 shanties on 
the lake, and of 
course the same 
number of pickups. 

Twent>'-four 
hours before the 
season starts, peo- 
ple can cut their 
hole in the ice — 

producing a block about 4 feet by 6 feet, 
and 2 feet thick. To cut through that ice 
a chain saw with a special 42-inch-long 
ice bar is used. The ice is cut at an angle 

— narrower on top, wider on the bottom 

— to make it easier to push the ice 
block down into the water. They then use 
long pike poles to sink the block under 
the ice. 

Once the hole is cut, the ice shanty 
gets dragged over it. A shanty typically is 
equipped with two doors in the floor that 
raise up to expose only the hole. Thus, 
the sturgeon spearer can sit on a nice, 
dry, carpeted floor, in a heated shanty, 
while waiting to spot a fish. 

When Bill fished with his uncle, the 
hole would be sawed entirely by hand 
with ice saws, and, once they had a hole 
cut, they didn't move. Now, with a chain 
saw, a shanty can be set up in 20 
minutes. Like most spearers today. Bill 
hires someone with a chain saw to cut 
his hole. 

A big chain saw is so very expensive 
. . .so a guy will buy [one], and he'll go 
out there and cut holes for ten bucks 
apiece. People will leave their name at a 




Sturgeon fishermen push cut ice underneath the surface and away from the fishing hole on Lal(e Winnebago. 
Photo © Bob Rashid 



tavern, or he's got a radio in his truck 
with a flasher on the roof, and you can 
usually spot him out there, and you just 
go over and say, "Hey, I'm over here. 
When you're ready, come cut a hole for 
me." And it works out very nicely. He 
has all the gear for sinking the block, 
he'll help you move your shanty on the 
hole, and then they leave and cut the 
next hole. 

People may move three times a day, but 
Bill stays put. Sturgeon-fishing requires a 
lot of waiting. Some people wait for two 
or three years to see a fish. Some, in half 
an hour, see a fish or maybe two. Bill's 
had pretty good luck over the years get- 
ting his sturgeon. 

Is there a good strategy for picking a 
place to set up? Bill says you try to get 
closest to the spot where you caught a 
fish last year. 

Or you turn on your radio.. . . Jerry 
Schneider, the radio station up at 
Chilton,. . .has a sturgeon report every 
hour or so, where if you get a sturgeon 
in the morning and you take it in and 



register, it'll auto- 
matically get 
called in to Jerry 
Schneider's radio 
station. So every- 
body on the lake 
will know who got 
it — there's no 
secrets any more. 
. . . Then they may 
start moving. ... If 
they know where 
I'm at, and they 
know someone 
else near me and if 
we happen to both 
get a fish, they'll 
say, "Wow, they're 
in there." Shanties 
will come in, and 
they'll be cutting holes around you, 
chain saws are going. . . . Some morn- 
ings you go in your shanty, and there's 
four shanties out where you are.. . . You 
come out in the evening, and you could 
be right in the middle of a big town. 

But life on the ice is more sociable than 
competitive. People stop to visit each 
other's shanties, maybe sharing a beer 
while they sit and talk. Many people have 
CB radios in their shanties and chat back 
and forth. Like most shanties, Bill's is 
equipped not only with a heater but with 
a two-burner gas plate. "If you spend a 
whole day out there, you have to do a lit- 
tle cooking. If somebody visits, you gotta 
have a bowl of chili." 

Most of the gathering is in the taverns 
in the evening. "It used to be years ago, 
the guy would walk in with a sturgeon 
on his shoulder and flop it on the tavern 
floor, even on the bar — everybody had 
a treat. Now, of course, they don't want 
you to do those things. It's always kind of 
a fun time, you know. And it's a good 
way to pass the winter in Wisconsin." 

Bill's sister Mary Lou Schneider not 
only spears sturgeon, she carves the 



24 



Smithsoniain Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 




Dennis Haensgen waits for sturgeon to swim by the 
hole in the floor of his sturgeon shad on Laice 
Winnebago. Photo © Bob Rashid 

decoys she uses to attract them. She's 
gained local popularity as a decoy maker. 
Decoys are one of the most important 
elements in sturgeon-spearing. As Bill 
says, everyone has a favorite. They can 
range from brightly painted carved 
wooden fish weighted down with lead, to 
corn cobs, to kettles. "I've seen washing 
machine agitators down in the sturgeon 
holes. ... Whatever got lucky a year or 
two ago, that's what [people] like to 
use." 

While many people use spears with 
detachable spearheads (once the fish is 
speared, the handle comes free, exposing 
the rope attached to the spearhead), Bill 
does not. 

Because when you first hit the fish, it 
will just stop. And if you bring it up 
right away, and you've got a gaff hook, 
depending on how you got him, you can 
take him right outside before he gets too 



wild on you. If you just leave him alone 
for a little while and he starts coming 
to, they will take off like a wild calf on a 
rope. And they're all over the place, 
down in the mud and up against the ice, 
and down and up. You will not believe. 
And then when they come up into the 
shanty with you, there's water flying, 
water on the stove — you know, the tail 
is going! If you get a big fish, 80 
pounds, every swat of the tail seems like 
5 gallons of water comes up at you. 

Yet one person usually can bring the 
fish out of the lake. In fact, one woman 
can do it. Mary Lou, who weighed only 
1 1 5 pounds, speared one that weighed 
1 17 pounds. She got it out by herself 

It's not just the good meat or the plea- 
sure of the company that keeps people 
sturgeon-spearing. For many, to be out 
on the ice is a clear statement of who 
they are — as displayed through their 
ice shanties, for example. People put a 
lot of effort into personalizing their 
shanties. Bill's is a Green Bay Packer hel- 
met. A lot of people come to see it, and 
on the lake they always know where he's 
at. "If you have your radio they'll say, 'He 
got one in the Packer helmet!'" But it's 
all right. Bill doesn't mind that people 
like to come and visit. "You just sit and 
talk and fish." 



Suggested Reading 

Boyle, Robert H. "Friends of a Living Fossil." Sporfs 

///usfrafed, 4 March 1996. 
Lyons, John, and James J. Kempinger. Movements of 

Adult Lake Sturgeon in the Lake Winnebago System. 

Madison: Wisconsin Department of Natural 

Resources, 1992. 
Priegel, Gordon R., and Thomas LWwth. Lake Sturgeon 

Harvest Growth and Recruitment in Lake 

Winnebago, Wisconsin. Madison: Wisconsin 

Departmentof Natural Resources, 1977. 



Sturgeon For Tomorrow 

Bill Casper founded Sturgeon For Tomorrow 
(SFT) 21 years ago, after he decided there was 
a need to learn how to raise sturgeon artificially 
in case something happened to the healthy local 
fish population. He printed up bulletins, posted 
them in local taverns, and had 150 fishermen 
show up at his meeting. Eventually, with the help 
of William Ballard of Dartmouth College, who had 
studied sturgeon in Russia and Romania, SFT 
spearheaded the effort to hatch sturgeon artificially. 

Today, the Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources (DNR) manages to hatch more than 90 
percent of fertilized sturgeon eggs.They have 
helped to restock sturgeon in the surrounding 
states of the Midwest and even Canada. SFT con- 
tinues to work closely with the DNR, as members 
serve on a sturgeon advisory board and help staff 
a volunteer patrol every spring to stop poaching 
on rivers while vulnerable fish are spawning. 
When SFT started in 1 977, there were 1 1 ,500 
sturgeon in Lake Winnebago; now, helped by both 
a reduction in poaching and adding to the natural 
population, the population is estimated at 
45,000-50,000 fish. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folrlife Festival 



25 



Wisconsin 



The Enduring 
Craftsmanship of 
Wisconsin's Native 
Peoples: The Ojibwe 
Birch-bark Canoe 

The bark canoe of the Chippeways [Ojibwe] 
is, perhaps, the most beautiful and light 
model of all the water crafts that were ever 
invented. They are generally made complete 
with the rind of one birch tree, and so 
ingeniously shaped and sewed together, with 
roots of the tamarack . . . that they are 
water-tight, and ride upon the water, as 
light as a cork. They gracefully lean and 
dodge about, under the skilful [sic] balance 
of an Indian . . . but like everything wild, 
are timid and treacherous under the 
guidance of [a] white man; and, if he be 
not an equilibrist, he is sure to get two or 
three times soused, in his first endeavors at 
familiar acquaintance with them. 

— George Catlin, Letters and Notes of the Manners, Customs, 
and Condition of the North American Indian (1841) 



Thomas Vennum, Jr. 




Fig. 1 . for/ Nybolm and Charlie Ashman tie inner stakes to exterior canoe 
form-stal<es. Note the boulders weighting down the canoe form; also, that 
the white outer bark of the tree becomes the inside of the canoe. 
Photo by Janet Cardie 



The traditional crafts of Wisconsin 
Indian tribes are perpetuated by many of 
their talented craftspeople, several of 
whom are represented in this year's 
Festival. Centuries-old traditions contin- 
ue to flourish and develop, not only in 
the realm of decorative arts but also in 
the manufacture of utilitarian objects. 
Wisconsin Menominee, Potawatomi, and 
Ojibwe still produce bark containers tra- 
ditionally used to store wild rice and 
maple sugar, historically the principal 
subsistence foods of Woodlands Indians 
in the western Great Lakes area. And 
even materials not naturally found, such 



as metal and plastic, as they became 
available were adapted by Indian people 
to age-old technologies. For example, the 
traditional birch-bark tray used to "fan" 
wild rice — that is, to separate the seed 
from the chaff — is generally made 
using birch bark, cut and folded into 
shape, then sewn with split roots. But 
some Indian people create the same 
object using heavy cardboard or even 
pieces of sheet metal riveted together. 
Perhaps no single item in the tradi- 
tional economy combines finesse and 
craftsmanship better than the birch-bark 
canoe — historically the principal mode 
of transportation and cargo-freighting 



for Indian peoples in the western 
Woodlands. Early European travelers in 
the American wilderness were amazed by 
this unfamiliar type of boat and rarely 
failed to comment on its construction. 
Most scholars generally agree with the 
19th-century artist George Catlin that the 
Ojibwe more than any other people 
raised canoe-building to a fine art. 
Although the birch-bark canoe today has 
been supplanted by wooden, metal, and 
plastic boats, a handful of Ojibwe crafts- 
men still retain the important knowledge 
of all the steps in its traditional manufac- 
ture and the skills needed to apply them. 



26 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



In the summer of 
1997, a film crew from 
the Smithsonian Center 
for FolkHfe Programs & 
Cultural Studies docu- 
mented the construction 
of a traditional Ojibwe 
canoe. (Currently in pro- 
duction, the film, like 
this year's Wisconsin 
program, was supported 
by a grant from the 
Wisconsin Sesquicen- 
tennial Commission.) 
The master builder. Earl 
Nyholm, is a professor of 
the Ojibwe language at 
Bemidji State University 
in Minnesota and had 
demonstrated his canoe-building skills 
at two of our earlier Festivals. Earl was 
assisted by his 84-year-old mother, 
Julia; an apprentice, Mark Wabanikee 
from Bear Island in Lake Michigan; 
several of Earl's relatives living on the 
Bad River Reservation in Wisconsin; 
and a craftswoman from the Red Cliff 
Reservation, Diane Defoe, whose birch- 
bark work is featured in this year's 
Festival. The five-week-long construc- 
tion took place on a Lake Superior 
beach on Madeline Island — the 
ancestral homeland of the Ojibwe peo- 
ple. The site selected was in fact the 
location of the first trading post of the 
Northwest Fur Company in the 18th 
century; undoubtedly this very beach 
had witnessed canoe construction in 
earlier times. 

The process began with an exhaus- 
tive five-day search for the proper 
birch tree. The German cartographer 
Johann Kohl visiting Madeline Island 
in 1854 to observe the distribution of 
treaty annuities remarked on the 
importance of good bark for a canoe: 




Fig. 2. This detail oftlie gunwale assembly shows the tapered end of the thwart inserted into the 
mortise of the inwale, split jackpine roots for lashing, and double-stitch sewing. 
Photo by Janet Cardie 




Fig. 3. Canoe-prow assembly with "man-board" — so called 
because it resembles a human form. A single piece of cedar is 
used which is split into more than 30 laminations to effect 
the bends in its form. These are held in place using wiigoob 
(the inner bark of the basswood tree) and threaded through 
and inserted over the man-board. Photo by Janet Cardie 



[N]ew canoes are being 
constantly built around 
me or old ones repaired 
and I saw them in every 
stage of perfection. The 
Indians expend as many 
bark canoes as we do 
liuntingboots.... The 
largest and smoothest 
trees are selected so that 
the pieces of bark may 
be as large as possible 
and prevent too much 
sewing (Kohl 1860:2829). 



Canoe builders have a 
trained eye for picking 
out a "canoe birch-bark 
tree," which ideally 
should be some 50-60 inches in diam- 
eter. Due to the decimation of forests 
for lumber and pulpwood, birch trees 
this size are a rarity today 
Furthermore, the tree must be straight, 
free of "eyes" and lichen growth that 
might cause the bark to tear under 
pressure, and must not bifurcate at its 
top. (Earl suggested that only one in a 
hundred trees meets these criteria.) 
After they had rejected for imperfec- 
tions a number of large trees identified 
in advance of the builders' arrival on 
the mainland opposite the island, their 
search ended in a wilderness preserve 
on Madeline Island with the discovery 
of a 54-inch tree. 

(Canoe builders need a single large 
piece to run the bottom length of the 
vessel; if the bark is not wide enough 
to reach the gunwales on either side, it 
requires "piecing"; that is, bark must 
be added along the gunwales at the 
widest part of the canoe. Such 
"pieced" bark requires double-stitch 
sewing to the bottom strip, which is 
very time consuming. Thus the harvest 
of large birch by the dominant society 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



27 



Wisconsin 



hastened the decUne of the craft — one 
reason there are so few today building 
bark canoes.) 

The builders made their incisions to 
remove the bark. (Some builders will fell 
the tree, but Earl likes to take his bark 
from a standing tree. The removal of 
bark does not kill the tree immediately 
since the exposed cadmium layer will 
heal, although the tree will eventually 
die.) Timing is critical, for there is only 
about a five-day window of opportunity 
in late June, dependent on both day- and 
nighttime temperatures, when the bark is 
ripe for taking. After two circumference 
incisions, the final cut was a straight ver- 
tical joining them. The bark of this birch 



virtually sprang off the tree with a loud 
zipping noise; several days later it would 
have been irremoveable. 

To begin canoe construction a flat rec- 
tangular bed of sand was spread out 
evenly and picked over for rocks and 
twigs. At the site a wigwam framework 
was improvised over this building area to 
accommodate tarps (see Fig. 6). These 
kept the canoe out of direct sunlight and 
thus prevented materials from drying too 
quickly; bark, for example, will curl. On 
the level bed of sand. Earl spread out the 
piece of bottom bark with its exterior 
(the white side) facing upward. 
(Miniature canoes made for sale to 
tourists mistakenly give the impression 



that the outside of the tree becomes the 
exterior of the canoe.) An elliptical 
wooden canoe form with pointed ends 
was placed on top of the bottom bark 
and weighted down with rocks to stabi- 
lize it. Ojibwe believe that their culture 
hero, the legendary Wenabozho, invented 
the canoe for them, and Indians can 
point to a pile of rocks on one of the 
Apostle Islands, saying these were the 
ones he used in weighting down the form 
of the first canoe. 

The bark was brought up outside the 
length of the canoe and large birch 
canoe stakes driven into the ground 
along each side the length of the canoe 
to begin to form its shape (see Fig. 1). 




Fig. 4. Earl Nyholm bends canoe ribs, using two at a time to guard against 
breakage. Photo by Janet Cardie 



Fig. 5. View of the interior of the canoe with some of the thin cedar planldng in 
place. Note the hanging bent and dried ribs which will be reinserted once the 
flooring is completely set in place. Photo by Janet Cardie 



28 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



The ends of the bottom piece were 
clamped together using "Indian clothes- 
pins" made of cedar. The outer stakes 
were then tied to the inner stakes with 
"Indian string" (pieces of the inner bark 
of the basswood tree; see Fig. 1). 

Because the bottom bark was not suffi- 
ciently wide to reach completely from 
gunwale to gunwale at the canoe's mid- 
point, a strip of added bark had to be 
sewn ("pieced") on either side for a 
length of perhaps three feet. All sewing is 
entrusted to the women, using roots of 
the jackpine tree which are split and kept 
in water until needed. Julia and Diane 
attended to this t;isk, laborious and time 
consuming as each stitch must be dou- 
bled for strength, that is, brought over 
and under each side of the overlapped 
bark (see Fig. 2). To accommodate the 
stitches, an awl was used to poke holes 
through the bark. (In his famous poem 
"Hiawatha," Longfellow, basing his infor- 
mation on Henry Schoolcraft's Ojibwe 



research, extolled the creation of the 
canoe from natural resources: "All the 
forest's life was in it,/All its mystery and 
magic,/All the lightness of a birch- 
tree/All the toughness of the cedar/All 
the larch's sinew supple.") 

After the added pieces were sewn, the 
long, thin, cedar gunwales were created, 
both an outwale and inwale, the latter 
being mortised to receive the tapered 
butt ends of three cedar thwarts which 
serve to hold the top of the canoe apart 
(see Fig. 3). Once in place, the gunwales 
had to be lashed to each other and to the 
bark for the full perimeter of the vessel. 
At this point Earl, as the master crafts- 
man, completed the all-important finish- 
ing work at both ends by inserting an 
elaborately constructed cedar prow-piece 
(Fig. 3). 

(Thomas McKenney, touring the area 
around Madeline Island in the mid- 19th 
century, praised the Indian talent in 
using only natural materials in canoe 



construction: "The Indians make no use 
of nails and screws, but evervlhing is 
sewn and tied together. But the seams, 
stitches, and knots, are so regular, firm, 
and artistic, that nothing better could be 
asked for" [1827].) 

The next and crucial step in construc- 
tion involved bending and inserting the 
cedar ribs, which give the canoe its final 
rounded shape. About 40 thin cedar ribs 
had been soaking for several days to 
make them more pliable. Still, boiling 
water must be poured over them to 
increase their pliancy. Rib-bending is a 
most frustrating time for every canoe 
builder. Despite all the soaking and heat- 
ing, the ribs are still quite brittle and 
easily broken. (Canoe-builders always 
prepare additional ribs, knowing they 
can expect to break several in the bend- 
ing process.) Wearing a special pair of 
moccasins. Earl stood each time on a 
pair of ribs and through exertion gradu- 
ally pulled up on either end (Fig. 4) until 




Fig. 6. The 14-foot canoe, invert- 
ed for "gumming" ("pitching") all 
cut and sewn areas on the bark, 
is ready for launching. 
Photo by Janet Cardie 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festivai 



29 



Wisconsin 



he achieved the proper bend, at which 
point he carried it to the canoe to insert 
it in place. Once all the ribs were intact, 
the canoe was allowed to dr)' for a day; 
then the ribs were removed and thin 
cedar planking, constituting "flooring," 
installed along the length of the craft 
and held in place by reinserting the ribs 
(see Fig. 5). 

I'inalh, a gunwale cap was installed 
over the gunwale assembly with birch- 
wood pegs; the cap offers protection to 
the lashing holding it together. The 
canoe was then inverted for "pitching" 
(see Fig. 6). Places where the bark had 
been cut and sewn had to be made 
watertight. Pitch for this purpose, made 
from spruce gum and deer tallow, was 
heated and melted down, with black 
charcoal from a maple log added for col- 
oring. (Black is a popular choice in the 
Ojibwe repertoire of colors.) Like a bicy- 
clist's patch kit, Ojibwe canoers always 
kept a small supply of pitch with them in 
the boat in case repairs were needed. 



Once the pitch dried, the canoe was 
ready to launch. Wearing beautiful 
Ojibwe black velveteen vests adorned in 
typical curvilinear beadwork repre.sent- 
ing flowers and leaves, Farl and Julia 
climbed aboard and paddled off into the 
sunset to provide the Smithsonian cam- 
eraman his final shot for the film. 

The 14-foot canoe Earl built for the 
filming was fairly typical of a "family- 
size" two-man vessel; during the fur 
trade much larger ones were built for 
long-distance freighting on the Great 
Lakes. (McKenney [1827:146] described a 
30-foot canoe which by his estimation 
could carry 2,000 pounds.) Kohl in 1854 
was amazed at how much Indians could 
pack into a canoe and describes a family 
from 150 miles in the interior of 
Wisconsin arriving on Madeline Island. 
As the father and one son glided the 
canoe into an inlet, he observed that 

the wife, with her other children, two 
boys and two girls, was buried beneath a 
pile of parcels and boxes. Among them 
lay a dog, with three pups, and on top of 
all the plunder, was a large cage, with 
two tamed falcons in it. The gunwale of 
the boat was only a few inches above 
the water, and in this way all these 
beings, and animals, and lumber, had 
made a seven day's voyage (Kohl 
1860:35). 



Works Cited and 
Suggested Reading 

Catlin, George. Letters and Notes on the Manners, 
Customs, and Condition of the North American 
Mom. 2 vols. London: Tosswill and Myers, 1841. 

Kohl, Johann G. Kitchi-gami, Wanderings round Lal(e 
Super/or. London: Chapman and Hall, 1860. 

McKenney, Thomas L. Sketches of a Tour to the Lal(es. 
Baltimore: Fielding Lucas,Jr., 1827. 

Ritzenthaler, Robert E. Building a Chippewa Indian 
Birchbarl< Canoe. Milwaukee Public Museum 
Bulletin 19(2). Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public 
Museum, 1960. 



nomas Vennumjr., is senior etbwmusi- 
cologist in the Center for Folklife Programs 
& Cultural Studies and co-curator of the 
Wisconsin program. His books include Wild 
Rice and the Ojibway People and American 
Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War. 



30 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



Polka: 

Wisconsin's 
State Dance 

The 19th-century 
European immigrants to 
Wisconsin arrived with 
polkas ringing in their ears. 
The polka, a lively couples 
dance in 2/4 time, had 
developed from folk roots 
and became a European 
popular dance craze in the 
1840s. 

In elite Paris salons and in humble vil- 
lage squares and taverns, polka dancers 
flaunted their defiance of the staid dance 
forms, the minuets and quadrilles, which 
had preceded this raucous and, for the 
times, scandalous new dance. 

The political and social upheavals that 
coincided with the polka craze also 
launched thousands of European vil- 
lagers on their hazardous migration to 
the American Midwest. They became 
farmers, miners, lumberjacks, factory 
workers, and entrepreneurs and contin- 
ued to enjoy the music and dance tradi- 
tions of their homelands, passing them 
on to the American-born generations. 

Concurrent with the emergence of the 
polka w;is the booming popularitv' of 
brass bands and the invention of a vari- 
ety of squeeze boxes — accordions and 
concertinas. Innovative tinkerers in 
France, England, and Germany devel- 
oped a new family of instruments based 
on the principles of the sherig (a Chinese 
free reed instrument) but using the 
levers and springs of the Machine Age. 



Richard March 




Couples at the Ellsworth Polka Fest in Ellsworth, Wisconsin, dance a ring schottische, in which ladies advance to 
the next partner as part of the dance's pattern. Photo © Richard Hamilton Smith 



Like the electronic keyboard in the late 
20th century, the squeeze box was the 
19th-century 's most popular mechanical 
instrumental innovation. A single musi- 
cian could replace a small ensemble, 
playing melodies and harmonies with the 
right hand while producing rh\1hmic 
chords and bass notes with the left. The 
prized possession in many an immi- 
grant's pack was a button accordion or 
concertina, and that musician undoubt- 
edly played a lot of polkas. 

Upon its arrival, the polka became an 
American folk tradition. At rural house 
parties with the rug rolled up or at cor- 
ner taverns in industrial towns, a 
squeezebox or a horn was likely to keep 
neighbors' feet stomping out polkas. A 
variet)' of American polka styles evolved 
in different sections of the Midwest, 
shaped by the creativity' of particular tal- 
ented and influential musicians. The 
styles have ethnic names — for example, 
Polish, Slovenian, Bohemian, Dutchman 
— based on the origin of the core reper- 



toire and the ethnic heritage of many of 
the musicians. But in the Midwest, music 
and dancing are shared among ethnic 
groups, and most bands are ethnically 
mixed. 

In the 20th century, radio broadcasts 
and recordings delivered the polka to 
more new enthusiasts. Clear channel 
WCCO in Minneapolis broadcast 
Whoopee John's Dutchman music to six 
or more states, much as WSM's Grand 
Ole Opry spread Southern traditional 
music far and wide. The recordings of 
groups like the Romy Gosz Orchestra and 
Lawrence Duchow's Red Ravens aided 
their efforts to become popular as 
regional touring dance bands. 

Right after World War II, almost exact- 
ly a century after the original polka 
craze in Europe, polka music and danc- 
ing briefly entered popular culture in a 
big way once more, this time in America. 
Slovenian-American accordionist Frankie 
Yankovic, of Cleveland, became the 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



31 



Wisconsin 



biggest star and attracted devotees 
nationwide to his style. Lil' Wally 
Jagiello's recordings on his own Jay Jay 
label established Chicago as the center of 
influence for Polish polka and converted 
many musicians to his "honky" sound. 
By the 1960s, rock 'n' roll had captured 
the popular music industry but polka 
has endured in enclaves of a variety 
of communities. 

In these communities, 
during the hust quarter-cen- 
tury polka musicians and 
dancers have organized 
institutions to perpetuate 
their passion. These include 
a network of polka dance 
halls, clubs, festivals, 
newsletters, mail-order 
recordings outlets, 
accordion makers and 
dealers, and radio and 
television shows. 

Karl Hartwich was bom 
in Moline, Illinois, in 1961. 
His father had relocated 
about 200 miles down the 
Mississippi River from his 
hometown near La Crosse, 
Wisconsin, seeking the 
good-paying factory jobs 
making agricultural imple- 
ments in the Quad Cities 
area. But farming was in 
his blood, so the 
Hartwiches lived outside of 
Moline in rural Orion, 
where they raised hogs and 
field crops. 

Karl's family kept in touch with their 
Wisconsin relatives. Karl remembers that 
at least twice a month they would make 
the trek upriver to attend dances where 
his distant cousin Syl Liebl and the Jolly 
Swiss Boys were playing. Syl Liebl, a 
Dutchman-style concertina player, is a 
natural musician, inventive, sponta- 
neous, and passionate. Little Karl must 



have absorbed the style like a sponge. 

In response to his pleas, Karl received 
a concertina as a Christmas present 
when he was 12. A few months later he 
was sitting in with the Swiss Boys, and 
six months after that, at age 13, he had 
his own band, the Country Dutchmen, 
now in its 24th year. Karl has turned out 
to be just as original and passionate a 





V ■ Appletonjfa 



A ^ 

A 



A I 



■ % • 



■ • 



I H ■ _ 

MadKonOY *^ ■■^©Milwaukee 



i ♦ 



* 
* 



Polka Map Key 

Each dot on the map represents the home of a musician, the location of a radio station with polka 
programs, or a site where polka music or dance is performed. 

▲ Polish-Style Polka ■ German-Style Polka • Czech-Style Polka ♦ Swiss-Style Polka 
Slovenian-Style Polka Finnish-Style Polka ft Norwegian-Style Polka 



musician as his mentor He recalls dri- 
ving the tractor on his family's farm, 
with dance tunes ringing in his head — 
the engine roaring, his left hand on the 
wheel, his right hand on the tool box 
beside the seat pressing out concertina 
fingerings on the vibrating metal. 
Karl has moved back upriver to 
Trempealeau, Wisconsin, a location more 
central to his band's regular gigs. 



Virtually every weekend he packs up the 
van and instrument trailer, and he and 
his sidemen converge on a dance hall or 
outdoor polka festival. Casual in his 
dress and personal style, Karl is 
nonetheless very serious about his music. 
He is recognized as the outstanding 
Dutchman concertinist of his generation. 
Paradoxically, his music is at once 

controlled and free. Karl 
has emphasized the 
syncopation, chromatic 
runs, and improvisational 
flourishes of the basic 
Dutchman style more than 
any of his predecessors. 
It is indicative of the 
unique cultural milieu of 
eastern Wisconsin that 
Cletus Bellin, a proud 
member of the Walloon 
Belgian ethnic community 
of northeastern Wisconsin, 
is also the leader of one of 
the finest Czech-style polka 
bands in the Midwest, the 
Clete Bellin Orchestra. A 
proficient pianist and a 
very strong singer, Clete 
took the trouble to learn 
the correct pronunciaUon 
of the Czech folk song lyrics 
from a friend in the nearby 
town of Pilsen. 

As a boy in the 1940s on 
a farm in southern Door 
County, Wisconsin, Clete 
was as likely to use the 
Walloon Belgian dialect of 
French spoken in his highly culturally 
retentive community as the English he 
learned in school. Clete has had a life- 
long interest in his Belgian culture, and, 
now in his fifties, he is one of the area's 
youngest remaining truly fluent speakers 
of Walloon. 

Clete's career in music has included 
playing in the Wisconsin Bohemian- or 



32 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Wisconsin 



Czech-style bands of Marvin Brouchard 
and Jerry Voelker and working for many 
^'ears as the radio station manager and 
on-aiT personality for a Kewaunee, 
Wisconsin, polka station. Moved by the 
style of singing and playing of the Czech 
musical performing groups Budvarka, 
Veselka, and Moravanka, which toured 
Wisconsin in the early 1980s, Clete 
resolved to start a band to perform in a 
style closer to the European manner 
from which the other Wisconsin 
Bohemian bands had diverged. His group 
is widely acclaimed at polka festivals 
and Czech ethnic events throughout 
the country. 

Steve Meisner was bom in I960 in 
Whitewater, a small town southeast of 
Milwaukee. At the time, Steve's father 
Verne was already an established musi- 
cian, an accordion prodigy whose origi- 
nal band, Verne Meisner and the Polka 
Boys, was aptly named — the members 
were in their early teens when they 
started taking professional gigs. That was 
the early 1950s, just in the wake of 
Frankie Yankovic's having made the 
Slovenian style of polka one of the most 
popular forms of music in Wisconsin. By 
the 1960s, the Verne Meisner Band was 
one of the best-known polka groups in 
the region. 

Steve received an ambivalent message 
from Verne when he showed an interest 
in music. Seven-year-old Steve's 
entreaties to his father to teach him to 
play were rebuffed at first. Then Verne 
thrust a momentous decision upon his 
young son: "If you begin to play, you 
have to promise that you'll never quit." 
Steve leapt at the challenge without a 
safety net and made it. Only a year later 
his father began to bring Steve along to 
play with the Meisner band, often plac- 
ing the diminutive kid on a box so that 
he could reach the microphone. 

Steve started his own band, the Steve 
Meisner Orchestra, while still in his teens 



and has continued the family tradition in 
the polka-music business, playing 
regionally and nationally, producing his 
own CDs and videos, and organizing 
polka tours and cruises. Steve acknowl- 
edges his musical debt to the Slovenian- 
style musicians of the previous 
generation but h;is pushed the envelope 
of the form in hot arrangements and in 
original material which expresses a 
range of emotions. 

When Norm Dombrowski was a 
teenager in the 1950s, he wasn't particu- 
larly inspired by the polka bands active 
in his hometown of Stevens Point, in a 
rural area of central Wisconsin populat- 
ed by Polish-American dairy and potato 
farmers. The Dutchman style was the 
popular sound then at old-time dances. 
According to Norm, the bands he heard 
didn't sound too spontaneous; perched 
behind bandstands, the musicians' noses 
seemed to be stuck in their sheet music. 

Then, in 1956, Chicago's Lil' Wally 
Jagiello gave two legendary performances 
at the Peplin Ballroom in Mosinee, just 
north of Stevens Point. Huge crowds 
turned out. Norm heard a modem Polish 
polka sound fimily grounded in the 
Polish folk music familiar to him from 
house parties and weddings. What 
impressed Norm were the band's lack of 
sheet music and their liveliness, reminis- 
cent of rock 'n' roll bands. Norm decided 
he wanted to play in this style, and, like 
his new hero Lil' Wally, he was deter- 
mined to become a singing drummer. By 
i960 he was able to start the Happy 
Notes Orchestra with three friends, play- 
ing for dances locally and as far afield as 
Minneapolis and Chicago. 

The Happy Notes evolved into a family 
band as Norm's children grew old 
enough to be competent musicians. 
Unlike most other Polish-style bands at 
the time, Nomi's did not adopt the 
streamlined "Dyno" or "Push" style, but 
remained closer to Lil' Wally's "honky" 
sound, which emphasized call and 



response. Norm stresses the singing of 
the old Polish songs but also includes in 
the band's repertoire Gemian, Czech, and 
even Norwegian numbers to satisfy 
patrons of other ethnic backgrounds. 

These four polka musicians represent 
the ways in which ethnic polka styles 
have remained distinct in Wisconsin. 
Their repertoires also demonstrate the 
transformation of polka traditions in the 
Midwest, the development of regional 
sounds played by bands of mixed ethnici- 
ty. The dedication and artistry of these 
and many other musicians, who contin- 
ue to reinvent tradition, attest to the 
vitality of the polka in Wisconsin. 

The polka was a rebellious dance in 
the 19th century and has become a 
Midwestem regional tradition since. 
Today Midwestemers have the opportuni- 
ty to dance to rock music, join square 
dance clubs, or do Country line dancing, 
but instead choose to polka. It is a vali- 
dation of their regional and ethnic roots, 
an expression of their determination not 
to be homogenized out of existence. 
Through the polka they reaffirm mem- 
bership in a supportive and embracing 
communit)' based upon friendship, eat- 
ing, drinking, and socializing, as well as 
plenty of dancing. 

Suggested Reading 

Greene, Victor. A Passion for Polka. Berkeley: University 

ofCalifornia Press, 1992. 
Keil, Charles, Angeliki V. Keil, and Dick Blau. Polka 

Happiness. Philadelphia:Temple University Press, 

1992. 
Leary, James P., and Richard March. Down Home 

Dairyland:A Listener's Guide. Madison: University 

of Wisconsin-Extension, 1996. 

Suggested Listening 

Deep Polka: Dance Music from the Midwest. Smithsonian 
Folkways 40088. A new release featuring the 
groups discussed in this article and others. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



33 



Wisconsin 



Faith, 

Politics, and 
Community at 
the Dickeyviiie 
Grotto 

The southwestern corner of Wisconsin is a 
beautiful series of rolling hills, hidden 
valleys, rocky bluffs, rivers, and caves, all 
part of WisconsinV'driftless region" not 
flattened by glaciation. Bordered by the 
Mississippi River, this former lead-mining 
region is today farmland and cheese- 
making country. 



Anne Pryor 




In Dickeyviiie, one of the area's small 
towns, is Holy Ghost parish, the home of 
a remarkable piece of folk architecture. 
Situated between the rectory, church, and 
cemetery is the Dickeyviiie Grotto, a 
structure so amazing that I have seen 
unsuspecting drivers come to a full halt 
in the middle of the road to gape. What 
stops them short is a 15-foot-tall false 
cave, decoratively covered with colored 
stone and glass, dedicated to Mary the 
mother of Jesus, to God and country. 

Although the name implies a singular 
structure, the Dickeyviiie Grotto is actu- 
ally a series of grottos and shrines. It 
includes the grotto dedicated to the 
Blessed Mother, the structure seen from 
Highway 61; a shrine dedicated to Christ 
the King; a shrine to the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus; and a Eucharistic Altar in the 
parish cemetery, formerly used for annu- 
al outdoor Corpus Christi processions. 
The large Patriotic Shrine depicts the 



34 



history and love of 
country represented 
by Columbus, 
Washington, and 

Lincoln. All of these creations display 
decorative embellished cement ornamen- 
tation, achieved by placing patterns of 
colorful materials in the concrete when 
it is still damp: shells, stones, tiles, glass, 
petrified moss or wood, geodes and gems. 
Iron railings with the same distinctive 
decorations border the walkways between 
the different shrines and grottos, unify- 
ing these separate structures. 

All roadside shrines in Wisconsin 
reflect their time. In the 19th century, ill- 
ness was a major concern. In the north- 
eastern part of the state, French-speaking 
Belgian settlers built small chapels in 
thanksgiving for the recovery of an ill 
family member. Today in Kewaunee 
County, one can visit these chapels, no 
longer used for community prayer but 
proudly maintained as part of local 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Like the Dickeyviiie Grotto, the Holy Family Grotto in St. Joseph, with its embedded 
cement flags, was built in the 1920s to represent Catholic allegiance to both God 
and country Photo by Anne Pryor 



Walloon heritage. 

On Highway B in the rich farmland of 
central Wisconsin, a sign reading 
"Welcome to Visit Our Chapel" invites 
the traveler to enter a three-sided struc- 
ture. A motion detector triggers a taped 
message explaining that the Memorial 
Expellee Chapel, built in 1995, is dedicat- 
ed to beloved relatives who were slain or 
expelled from the Sudetenland due to the 
Yalta and Potsdam agreements. 

At least two embedded cement grottos 
in Wisconsin, the Holy Family Grotto in 
St. Joseph and the Dickeyviiie Grotto, 
reflect American religious politics in the 
1920s. Until the election of John Kennedy 
as the United States' first Catholic presi- 
dent, the patriotism of Roman Catholics 
was often questioned due to misunder- 



1998 



Wisconsin 



standings about their allegiance to the 
pope (Stone and Zanzi 1993). To show 
that Catholics could love both church 
and country, Fr. Mathius Wemerus, the 
Dickewille Grotto's builder, created two 
stone pillars on either side of the main 
grotto. In colorful tile and stone, one pil- 
lar depicts the U.S. flag and spells 
"Patriotism"; the other shows the papal 
flag and spells "Religion." 

While the Dickeyville Grotto began as 
the story of 1920s Catholic patriotism, 
today it speaks more of community pride 
in local history. When Fr. Wemerus was 
the pastor of Holy Ghost parish, he relied 
on the devoted volunteer labors and 
donations of his parishioners, young and 
old, to help him build his masterpiece. In 
the care and management of the grotto 
today, current pastors do much the same. 
The results are strong personal connec- 
tions to the grotto held by all ages of 
parishioners. Fr. Jim Gunn, pastor of 
Holy Ghost parish from 1995 to 1997, 
explained, "People have the pride, so it's 
not something that somebody else did 
but it's something that T had a hand in" 
as well." 

Holy Ghost parishioners participate in 
the grotto's upkeep in various ways. A 
parish Grotto Committee has been suc- 
cessful for many years in keeping the 
grotto financially sound. One source of 
income is the donations made by the 
40,000-60,000 visitors who tour the 
grotto each year. Another is the income 
from sales at the grotto's gift shop. 
Because the grotto is run as a nonprofit 
organization, any excess funds generated 
go to charity work or for special needs in 
the parish or town. As Fr. Gunn explained, 
"The grotto tries to pour back into the 
community as much as possible." 

By 1995, the grotto needed extensive 
restoration. Cement and embedded 
stones were coming loose and falling 
out, iron railings were falling apart, and 
decades of weathering had compromised 




The Dickeyville Grotto is actually a series of shrines consisting of gardens, fountains, and sculptures made of 
stone and embellished cement. Photo by Anne Pryor 



the beauty of the shrines. Despite the 
general financial health of the grotto, 
such a large project was beyond its 
means. As grotto manager Marge 
Timmemian recalled, "We thought, 
'Where is the money going to come from 
for all this repair?' And then out of the 
blue comes this man and he says, 'I feel 



God led me to this place. I'd like to help 
restore this grotto.'" 

This local hero had been visiting his 
daughter, a student at nearby UW- 
Platteville, when he happened upon the 
grotto. A devout Christian, he explained 
to Timmerman, "God has been so good 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



35 



Wisconsin 



to me and my construction business that 
I feel he led me here to do this to thank 
him." The Grotto Committee accepted his 
offer of a crew to lead the restoration 
and paid for only the materials. Parish 
members eagerly participated in the pro- 
ject, donating funds, learning techniques, 
replacing missing stones, and cleaning 
years of discoloration off the shrines. 
Excitement was so high and so many 
people volunteered that Timmerman 
recalled, "Sometimes there was almost 
too much help." 

When Fr. Wernerus constructed the 
grotto, he collected many natural materi- 
als from local caves and fields, solicited 
manufactured materials from 
Midwestern industries, and encouraged 
his parishioners to donate common 
household objects, all of which he used 
to decorate the cement. Parishioners 
were happy to participate in this way, 
even though material wealth was scarce 
in those post-Depression years. 

During the restoration, Fr. Gunn put a 
box outside his rectory door for parish- 
ioners to donate items just as their 1920s 
counterparts had done. Even though the 
grotto's storage shed was filled with 
materials left over from Wernerus's own 
collection, Gunn solicited these new 
donations so that the current generation 
of parishioners could later point with 
pride to what they or their family had 
contributed. 

Additionally, Fr. Gunn made sure to 
include the children of the parish in the 
restoration process, just as Wernerus had 
done. Current parish elders recall work- 



ing with Fr. Wernerus when they were 
youths. Henrietta Hauber washed rocks 
and helped to "put things together." 
ilsther Berning placed glass shards in the 
wet cement. Henry Mellsen helped carry 
completed sections out from the rectory 
basement in the spring. Today's parish 
children participated in the restoration 
by placing stones and shells in the iron 
railings' damp cement. 

With the restoration completed by 
1997, the grotto's structures are in fine 
physical shape and will not need such 
massive attention for a long time to 
come. An integral part of the grotto that 
does annually require a great deal of 
attention, however, is the gardens. Filling 
the space around and between the differ- 
ent shrines in the grotto, the gardens 
give the grotto its park-like essence and 
were an important part of Fr. Wernerus's 
overall design. Parishioner Delia 
Schroeder organizes each year's group of 
gardeners, with an individual or family 
taking one of the gardens to design, 
plant, weed, and maintain. Using a mix 
of annuals, perennials, and statuary, they 
proudly add to the grotto's beauty and 
tranquility. These volunteers tell of work- 
ing in the gardens from before sunrise to 
after sundown. A local joke about their 
diligence says that they're out there wait- 
ing for a weed to come up just so they 
can pull it. 

The last area of the Grotto Committee's 
responsibilities is planning for the future. 
Many parishioners talk of expanding the 
grotto by building another shrine, possi- 
bly in honor of Our Lady of Fatima or 
the Right to Life movement. Such discus- 
sions are the source of debate about how 
to approach the grotto's management: is 



the grotto one man's masterpiece that 
should be maintained as is and not 
changed, or is the grotto a community 
creation that should absorb new artistic 
endeavors and reflect current religious 
and political issues? This question is not 
easily answered in Dickeyville, requirin*; 
a balance between the many opinions of 
parish leaders and grotto volunteers with 
generations of connection to the grotto. 

The Dickeyville Grotto is an 
extraordinary display of religious faith, 
secular allegiance, personal genius, and 
community pride. A visit to this south- 
western Wisconsin roadside gem is well 
worth the trip. 

Work Cited and 
Suggested Resources 

"Grottos and Shrines, Dickeyville, WI."N.p.,n.d. 

Niles, Susan A. Dickeyville Grotto: The Vision of Father 
Mathias Wernerus. Jackson: University of 
Mississippi Press, 1997. 

Stone, Lisa, and Jinn lanii.Sacred Spaces and Other 
Places: A Guide to Grottos and Sculptural 
Environments in the Upper Midwest. Chicago: The 
School of the Art Institute of Chicago Press, 1 993. 

The Story of the Dickeyville Grotto. 9 min. Richland 
Center.Wi: Nova Video, 1995. 



Anne Pryor is a cultural anthropologist 
who specializes in religious traditions and 
children 's folklore. She is also a specialist in 
folklife education and conducts teacher 
workshops and school residencies. 
Currently, she works for the Wisconsin Arts 
Board on the stajfofthe Wisconsin Folklife 
Festival. 



36 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 




/'Sf ahiyas: A Philippine Haruest 




Pahiyas: A Pfiz/ippine Haruest 



Reth/nk/ng Caiegones: 
The Making of the Pahiyas 

\ hundred years after the leaders of the Philippine 
r\ Revolution declared their archipelago a nation, 
Filipinos maintain an intense fascination for the develop- 
ing shape of that body politic. We talk exuberantly — 
indeed incessantly — of the relative strength of kin and 
other allegiance groups in the fabric of the nation and 
the dynamic balance between our many similarities and 
differences. 



We wonder aloud about the way we 
think in our tenacious vernaculars, even 
as we maintain fluency in universal lan- 
guages. Particularly during elections, we 
carry on about the relationships between 
the ambitions in cities and the longings 
in rural areas and between charismatic 
leaders and their eager, if fickle, follow- 
ers. As the 1998 century-mark of the 
declaration of Philippine independence 



approached, we had impassioned debates 
about the historical narratives which 
instill pride — or demand pause. We 
conjured hundreds of ways of explaining 
who we are and why we do things as we 
do, all the while maintaining with cer- 
tainty that our nation is built on a funda- 
mental, and perhaps even stubborn, 
Filipino-ness. 
At the start of work on this Philippine 




A child watches the parade of the Pahiyas festival in Lucban, Quezon Province. Kiping, elaborate, colored, rice- 
flour designs, decorate the vifindows and balconies of houses throughout the town during this annual May 
harvest celebration. Photo by D. Martinez, courtesy Cultural Center of the Philippines 



Marion Pastor Roces 

Festival program, the first order of busi- 
ness was to define an approach that 
engages not only how intricately we artic- 
ulate identity and reweave tradition with 
20th-century passions, but also how we 
do this while simultaneously expressing 
delight and dignity, vivacity and solemni- 
ty. The demand for accuracy of represen- 
tation has been extraordinarily high. The 
project was negotiated by the Philippine 
Centennial Commission with the Center 
for Folklife Programs & Cultural Studies 
of the Smithsonian Institution in the con- 
text of the Philippine Centennial celebra- 
tions in the Philippines and of the associ- 
ated events planned in many cities in the 
United States. 

It has been clear from the outset that 
during these celebrations, Filipinos wish 
to signal our arrival at a juncture in 
history where we can enjoy a complex 
understanding of the deepest sources of 
our cultural pride. It has been clear that 
the project's goal is to express a 
sophisticated sense of the dynamics of 
folklife in a national fonnation. Thus, the 
Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP), 
the implementing agency for the project 
on the Philippine side, assembled a 
project team of independent cultural 
workers and began working with the 
Smithsonian to create a Festival concept 
and presentation to communicate that 
sense of arrival and register that refined 
understanding. 



The Philippines program is produced in collaboration 
with the Cultural Center of the Philippines and the 
Philippines Centennial Commission and is supported 
by the American International Group, Inc., The Starr 
Foundation, Bell Atlantic, the Philippine Centennial 
Foundation/USA, and the Asian Cultural Council. 



38 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Pahiyas: A Philippine Harvest 



The 
Philippines 



V # 



Kalingo-Apayao 
*■ Pmvince 



i 



Ifugao 
Pmvince 
•Baguio 



f 



LUZON 



Pampanga Province 
Malolos. Bulacan Province 

Manila^ 

•Paete 



•Paracale 



> 



atangas ^^^IP 



SAMAR 



>: 



Man 



Province VISAYAN ISLANDS 

PANAY 
# 1^^ CEBU LEYTE 



PALAWAN 



CEBU 

•Cebu City 



/- 



NEGROS 



,.*Bacong 



# ^ MINI 

^K Cotabato* 




Bulfidnon 
Province 



MINDANAO 



SULU ARCHIPELAGO 



Maguindanao 1 

Pmvince Davao | 

Souf/i Provmff 
fafatoo 
Province ,J 



4 • 



Conscious of the pitfalls of viewing tra- 
dition as a static legacy from the past, the 
research team under the direction of Dr. 
Lennette Mirano guided planning with a 
sure grasp of the persistence of tradition- 
al culture in contemporar)' experience. 
Dr Mirano, program director Ramon 
Obusan, project manager Eva Marie 
Salvador of the CCP, and their respective 
associates each brought to the project the 



benefits of long years of experience with 
cultural analysis and representation. The 
project has been built on their well-estab- 
lished connections with long-term efforts 
of cultural institutions and academic cen- 
ters. In the course of working with, sup- 
porting, and helping articulate the special 
devotions of traditional artists, these 
institutions and centers have identified 
those rare individuals and groups in 
many parts of the Philippines who have 



A map of the Philippines highlighting the home- 
towns and provinces of Festival participants. 

invested whole lifetimes in mastering 
their art forms. These artists have 
achieved such levels of virtuosity that 
there can be no doubt of the continued 
power of their forms to move people 
today, even across extremely wide cultur- 
al and social divides. 

Early in the planning, the team decided 
to rethink the categories promoted by 
many previous presentations of 
Philippine culture which subsequent 
scholarship has shown to be "thin" and 
lacking in descriptive power. For instance, 
separate historical experiences have 
heretofore justified the now-standard 
division of Philippine peoples into low- 
land Christians, Muslims, and highland 
"pagan" or "tribal" groups. These cate- 
gories, however, are not useful in under- 
standing the cultural forms shared across 
contiguous areas of the Philippines. 

Those similarities are pronounced 
despite differences in religious beliefs or 
experiences during the colonial period. 
Happily, co-curator Dr. Richard Kennedy 
endorsed the possibility, for instance, of 
exploring relationships among diverse 
musical traditions that use percussion 
instruments, or among celebrations and 
rituals associated with harvest, or among 
gift-giving traditions from all over the 
Philippines. Work on the Festival proceed- 
ed with great energy in anticipation of 
possibilities such as masters of carving 
traditions from Muslim, Christian, and 
animist groups sharing a single space, or 
cooks from a wide variety of Philippine 
culture areas demonstrating their com- 
mon relationships with the food sources 
in the archipelago. More importantly, the 
project team felt the need to consider the 
links among art forms normally separat- 
ed by the disciplines of those who study 
them. Hence our plans embody the hope 
that some viewers may intimate connec- 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festivai 



39 



Pahiyas: A Philippine Uarvest 




Staff of the Cultural Center of the Philippiries carry out research near Lake Sebu, in southern Mindanao, in 
preparation for the 1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Photo by Richard Kennedy 



tions between weaving traditions and 
musical forms, and between the processes 
of metallurgy and those of food prepara- 
tion. The project team also wanted to 
bring together a wide variety of beating 
and pounding processes — finishing 
cloth made from the Miisa textiles (wild 
banana) plant, the drone melodies of 
gong music, repousse goldworking, 
hulling rice with mortar and pestle — to 
convey a sense of rhythm that seems to 
be universal in the Philippines. 

As long-time cultural workers, mem- 
bers of the project team were aware of 
the difficulties inherent in a festival — 
particularly one in a foreign land — 
which often make it impossible to 
communicate the nuanced relationships 
that exist in traditional contexts among 
artists, materials, processes, perfor- 
mances, and their audiences. Moreover, 
logistical limitations make it impossible 
to represent all Philippine languages, 
regional groups, or forms of traditional 
art. The Festival emphasis on local 
traditions, which may be long-standing. 



inaudible at a distance, and highly 
dependent on context for their meaning, 
may require that they be abridged, ampli- 
fied, or reconfigured. Framing the artists 
in physical structures that inevitably are 
simulacra of fragments of home and per- 
haps in conceptual categories that do not 
resonate with the way the artists under- 
stand their own experience also leads to 
compromise. These can make artists 
and audiences uncomfortable and 
lose an opportunity for cross-cultural 
communication. 

However, the project team has taken 
these problems as creative challenges in 
their work of cultural translation. Tlie 
meanings may not wholly carry over, but 
the effort is valuable in a world constant- 
ly recrafting ways to celebrate and honor 
those among us who courageously, 
inventively, and often joyfully carry a 
valuable past into the future. Our empha- 
sis on relationships across domains 
embodies the Festival project team's 
determination to achieve fresh perspec- 
tives in translation. 

The 80 Philippine master artists hon- 



ored by the Smithsonian Institution and 
their nation have in common — aside 
from their exquisite levels of achievement 
— a strength of character that has 
enabled them to meet the challenge of 
modernity by accepting and reworking 
certain aspects of it. Many of the artists 
are savvy about recordings and other 
forms of documentation, marketing tech- 
niques, alliances with other communities 
and countries, public presentations, dis- 
cussions, and political action. 
Individually and as a group they lay to 
rest the weary stereotypes of the primitive 
or the abject rural peasant. Although 
many of them are poor by the standards 
of urban society, they all project a grace, 
a pride, and a sense of assurance which 
seem to issue from the aesthetic pleasure 
and wisdom inherent in their chosen art 
forms. 

Finally, these remarkable artists share a 
common involvement in elaborate sys- 
tems of exchange, reciprocity, and gift- 
giving — a theme we have chosen to 
highlight at the Festival. Their lives are 
essays on gift-giving: mentors of younger 
generations, diplomatic representatives to 
worlds outside their communities, custo- 
dians of artistic creation, perfonners and 
makers of the implements of celebrations. 
They represent the spirit oi pahiyas, a 
word which collects notions of gem-like 
treasures and blessings. Pahiyas is a 
shower of gifts and blessings in the 
celebratory abundance of a harvest. 
Through these artists, the Philippines 
celebrates the centennial of its declara- 
tion of independence by asserting its free- 
dom to construct the future with the 
culture of gift-giving. 

Marion Pastor Races is a freelance essayist, 
editor, consultant television producer, and 
curator based in Manila. She has published 
numerous essays and books on Philippine 
art and culture and is the author of the 
book Sinaunang Habi: Philippine Ancestral 
Weave (1992). 



40 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Pahiyas: A ?\\\\\pp\m Haruest 



Reth/nk/ng the ?h\\\\)ip\ne Exhibit at the 1904 
St. Louis World's Fair 



Richard Kennedy 



Why do we organize a 
Festival program? 
And why does the public 
attend? These are critical 
questions asked by 
organizers of the Philippine 
program at the 1998 
Smithsonian Festival. 

The same questions were asked in 1904 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 
St. Louis, one of the last great fairs from 
the golden age of world expositions. The 
answers given to the questions nearly 100 
years ago, however, were quite different 
from those we give today. 

The 1904 Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition celebrated the centennial of 
the 1803 purchase of the Louisiana 
Territory from France, which represented 
the first major expansion of American 
territor)'. The public sentiments support- 
ing expansion in 1904 were not dissimi- 
lar to those in 1803. In the late 19th cen- 
tury, the nation responded to the 
tragedies of the Civil War by isolating 
itself from major foreign engagements, 
just iis it had done for similar reasons in 
the late 18th century. But by the 1890s, a 
spirit of adventure spurred economic and 
military interests to expand U.S. territory 
for the first time beyond its borders. 

Americans were ambivalent about this 
expansion, at times supporting the doc- 
trines of Manifest Destiny and Social 
Darwinism, which seemed to ordain the 
country's expansion, and at other times 
expressing dislike of any American 
involvement in colonial rule. In the mid- 
1890s, President Cleveland resisted 




Ihe midway at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis was the center of the world's fair that Henry 
Adams called "the first creation of the twentieth century." As part of the celebration of the centennial of the 
1803 U.S. purchase of the Louisiana territory from France, the fair presented the cultures of the Philippines, 
territory bought from Spain in 1898. Photo by Frances Benjamin Johnson, courtesy Library of Congress 



demands for the annexation of Hawai'i 
and the invasion of Cuba, but by 1898, 
President McRinley had made Hawai'i a 
territory and ignited the short-lived 
Spanish-American War by sending troops 
to Cuba to assist the overthrow of 
Spanish rule. The Philippines was inad- 
vertently drawn into that war when 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Teddy 
Roosevelt asked Commodore George 
Dewey to launch a surprise attack on the 
Spanish fleet protecting Manila, Spain's 
colonial capital for over 300 years. 

The United States won the Spanish- 
American War, and for the public many 
earlier doubts about engagement were 
resolved. By 1904 it seems that America 
was prepared to celebrate the Louisiana 



Purchiise centennial as well as its newly 
gained territory with a major world's fair. 
Among the newly acquired lands were the 
7,000 islands of the Philippines. 

Americans had initially indicated some 
support for the Philippine independence 
movement but did not recognize its 1898 
declaration of independence from Spain 
(now being celebrated at this 
Smithsonian Festival in 1998). The 
McKinley administration, in a highly con- 
tentious decision that accompanied the 
end of the war, then bought the country 
from Spain for $20 million. By 1899, 
American guns turned on the insurgents, 
and in the end as many as 200,000 
Filipinos may have died as a result of the 



1998 



Smithsonian FoiKirFE Festivai 



41 



Pahiyas: A Philippine Harvest 



fighting. More than 70,000 American sol- 
diers were involved. These developments 
drew much criticism in the United States. 

The St. Louis Exposition was planned to 
be tlie biggest fair in U.S. history; Henry 
Adams called it "the first creation of the 
twentieth century." Following and in the 
same spirit as the great 1893 World's 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago, the 
Louisiana Purchase Fair celebrated explo- 
ration and conquest. It was meant to out- 
shine Chicago, but in the annals of world 
expositions St. Louis is not as well known 
— most people are familiar with it pri- 
marily through the 1944 film and title 
song "Meet Me in St. Louis." Spread over 
1,270 acres (twice the size of Chicago's cel- 
ebration), the fair followed the pattern of 
past expositions but on a much grander 
scale: it featured individual state exhibits, 
"palaces" of industry, education, agricul- 
ture, etc., and intemafional pavilions. In 
addition, over 400 international congresses 
and meetings were held in the city during 
the six months of the fair, and the 1904 
Olympics were staged nearby. However, 
what particularly distinguished St. Louis 
were the size of its anthropology section 
and the degree to which attempts were 
made to construct authentic environments 
for its participants. Tlie grandest of these 
constructs was the Philippine Exposition. 

This special exhibition was also called 
the Philippine Encampment or the 
Philippine Reservation, and togetiier these 
terms reflect some of the conflicting atti- 
tudes expressed in the program. In dis- 
cussing the participation of the Philippines 
in the fair, some advocates of American 
expansion were concerned that "display- 
ing" Filipinos would hurt the chances of 

The Metcalfe sisters photographed the 1904 fair exten- 
sively. Here one of the sisters (at right) is photographed 
with a Bagobo participant About 30 people from the 
Bagobo community in central Mindanao were part of the 
1,200-member Philippine delegation to the fair. 
Photo by the Metcalfe sisters, courtesy Smithsonian Institution 
National Anthropological Archives 



convincing the American public that the 
newly conquered country should eventual- 
ly become a part of the United States. The 
inclusion of model schools, bands, and 
police drill teams was thought to balance 
a program that to some appeared to pre- 
sent a 'primitive" culture. So the term 
"encampment" highlighted the presence 
of disciplined military' troops, civic order, 
and, in effect, terrain familiar to the pub- 
lic. On the other hand, the temi "reserva- 
tion" made a clear reference to American 
Indians and, by implication, created a par- 
allel between the takeover of the 
Philippines and that of the American West. 
Both these messages were encoded in the 
Philippine Exposition program. 

Many players were involved in the 
exposition, which cost $\5 million. 
Individuals, the U.S. government, and the 
city of St. Louis each committed $5 million 
in the hopes that an event of profit (from 
entrance fees and fair sales) as well as of 
world importance would take place. Tlie 
$1.1 million Philippine program similarly 
had a variety of supporters. In 1902, the 
U.S. Colonial Administration in Manila 
allocated $250,000 (later supplemented 
with another $250,000) for the program. 
Behind the decision was President 



Roosevelt himself, a leader in the Spanish- 
American War, and Philippines governor 
William Taft (soon to be secretary' of war 
and then president). W.P Wilson, director 
of the Philadelphia Commercial Museums, 
was soon appointed to be head of the 
installation, and Dr. Gustave Niederiein, 
also from Philadelphia, was placed in 
charge of collections. John Barrett, com- 
missioner-general for Asia at the fair, 
called on the business community to orga- 
nize a committee to advise the govern- 
ment on the project, and many of the 
exliibits in the forestry, agriculture, and 
commerce pavilions would portray the 
natural resources and potential riches of 
the Philippines. The fair was part trade 
show, and thousands of examples of crops, 
tropical woods, and other goods were 
exliibited in addition to Philippine 
ethnic communities. 

For the presentation of Philippine cul- 
ture four major ethnic villages were built. 
A copy of the walled city of Intramuros in 
Manila housed, among other things, cap- 
tured weapons. A plaza surrounded by 
reconstructions of official buildings con- 
tained the above-mentioned topical pavil- 
ions, including an ethnology exhibit in a 
building modeled on a Manila cathedral. 




42 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Pahiyas: A ?\\\\\}pp\m Harvest 



The symbolism of the site design was clear. 
/Vfter crossing a bridge and walking 
through the walled cit\', the visitor would 
come upon the center of the exliibition, 
the Plaza St. Thomas, which represented 
in the minds of the organizers the most 
"civilized" aspects of Philippine society'. 
Also in the plaza, the education pavilion 
presented the educational activities of 
American teachers. Nearby were the 
parade grounds and bandstand in which 
the more than 400 members of the 
Philippine constabulary paraded, drilled, 
and were housed. These troops were also 
brought to police the site. 

Tlie four villages — Igorot, Negrito, 
Visayan, and Moro — representing a 
diversity of Philippine communities, were 
placed in a circle outside the central plaza. 
Tliis diversity' was important to the orga- 
nizers. The 19th-century process of estab- 
lishing administrative control of new lands 
created among many imperial powers an 
obsession with categorization as a way of 
understanding (and taxing) colonial pos- 
sessions. Scholars often assisted their 
efforts. The turn of the century was in 
some ways a golden age of applied anthro- 
pology President McKinley's Philippine 
specialist, Dean Worchester, for example, 
proposed a division of Philippine people 
into 84 "tribes" — 21 Negrito, l6 
Indonesian, and 47 Malay The official cat- 
alogue of the exhibition takes the catego- 
rization further, stating that 103 "groups" 
out of 144 and 308 "classes" out of 807 
were represented. The specific meanings of 
these crude categories seem less important 
than the fact that attempts were being 
made to represent a hierarchical cultural 
diversity. The Report to the Exposition 
Board claimed. 

While all of the 70 or more groups of 
people in the archipelago could not be 
represented, there were the least civi- 
lized in the Negritos and the Igorots, the 



nOO°' 



oco 




Philippine. Expasmo/i 
woKLW R^^iE. sr.Lcuis.r.o. 



The Philippine exhibit at the 1904 World's Fair was an elaborate re-creation of elements of Philippine culture. 
Surrounding the central plaza were buildings displaying Philippine commerce, forestry, culture, and education, 
and the U.S. role in their development. Skirting the center of the exhibit were the "villages" of the Igorot, 
Negrito, l^oro, and Visayan participants. Plan reproduced from William P. Wilson, Official Catalogue. Philippine Exhibits. 
Universal Exposition (St Louis: The Official Catalogue Co., Inc. 1 904), courtesy Library of Congress 



semi civilized in the Bagobos and the 
Moros and the civilized and cultured in 
the Visayans as well as in the 
Constabulary and Scout organizations. 
In all other respects — commercially, 
industrially, and socially — the exhibit 
was a faithful portrayal. 



Defining degrees of "civilization" was 
an important message of the fair. 

The 335 ethnic Philippine participants 
included members of the Bontoc, Suyoc, 
and Tinguian (collectively known as 
Igorot) communities in upland mountain 
Luzon; Bagobo from Mindanao; two 



1998 



SlHI'raSONIAN FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL 



43 



Pahlyas: A ?\]\\\pp\m Hardest 



Muslim Mora groups from Zamboanga; 
and a variety of Negrito and Visayan com- 
munities. Singers, dancers, ;md musicians 
performed regularly on stages from 1 1 a.m. 
to 6 P.M., and craftspeople such aspiiia 
(pineapple fiber) weavers and basket mak- 
ers demonstrated their skills. They were 
housed on the site and were paid for their 
pre.seiitations. The specifics of the selection 
process of participants were not recorded 
other than that Dr. Niederlein w<is 
appointed in September 1902 to begin 
working with local administrators 
throughout the Philippines to identify peo- 
ple and goods for participation in the 
exhibition. Except for one or two 
Philippine names on the various commis- 
sions, the selections seem to have been 
made entirely by American officials. 

The choice of the tribal communities led 
to extensive media coverage, and perhaps 
as a result the Igorot village was one of 
the most popular at the fair. In response to 
charges that this coverage was exploita- 
tive, a report to the Exposition Board stat- 
ed, "It is not true that the savages have 
been unduly exploited at the expense of 
the more dignified exhibits, but no 
amount of emphasis on commercial 
exhibits, constabulary drills and Scouts 
parades has distracted attention from the 
'dog eaters' and head-hunters'." 

Tlie Philippine exhibition at the 



St. Louis World's Fair was the product of 
many voices. The dominant one spoke of 
the rich potential of America's newest 
colony and the important role civilization 
would play in the development of this dis- 
tant land. But other voices wanted simply 
to show how other cultures live and to 
"promote peace and good will." Audiences 
certainly did come to see these "others," 
and heard all these voices. And undoubt- 
edly some came to stand for a moment in 
the dawn of the new centur}' to reflect on 
the new status of America in the world. 
Organizers of the fair had encouraged this. 

A hundred years later the voices 
involved in the organization of the 1998 
Philippine Festival program have been 
quite different, as Marian Pastor Roces 
writes in her article in this volume. The 
Festival team organized by the Cultural 
Center of the Philippines in Manila 
researched, conceived, and produced an 
event that, at its heart, honors and puts at 
the center master artists. The Festival aims 
to present their traditions with sensitivity 
and does not by implication, as in 1904, 
present these artists as representatives of 
stages of civilization. Artists were selected 
for their ability to keep their tradition vital 
and relevant in the contemporary worid. 
And, most importantly, the Festival enables 
artists to speak for themselves. At the cen- 
tennial of its declaration of independence 
the Philippines is strong enough to be 
proud of the traditions of all its people 
and to let tliem speak for themselves. 



Suggested Reading 

Breitbart, Eric. /I World on Display, Photographs from 

the St. Louis World's Fair, 1 904. 

Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 

1997. 
Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image, America's Empire in the j 

Philippines. New York: Ballantine, 1 989, 
Lowenstein, M.J., comp. Official Guide to the Louisiana 

Purchase Exposition. St. Louis: The Official Guide 

Co., 1904. 
Rydell, Robert VJ.AII the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire 

at American International Expositions, 1876-1916. 

Chicago:UniversityofChicago Press, 1994. 
Terry's 1904 World's Fair home page at 

www.inlink.com/~terryl/index.html 

Richard Kennedy is co-curator of the 
Philippines program at the 1998 
Smithsonian Folklife Festival. He is deputy 
director of the Smithsonian Center for 
Folklife Programs & Cultural Studies, where 
he also has co-curated Festival programs 
on Hawai'i, Indonesia, nailand, and 
Russian music. He was chair of South 
Asian Area Studies at the U.S. State 
Department's Foreign Service Institute. 



44 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Pahiyas: k ?\\\\\X}\>\m Hardest 



Masters of Trad/t/on \n the 
\\^o(kvx\ World 

/\ relic in a remote setting, admired ancf extolled but 
isolated and left behind by the times, focused on the past 
while others face forward to the future. 



Elena Rivera Mirano 



tradition bearer is sometimes stereotyped as a quaint subtler and healthier values that reflect 




Staff of the Community Crafts Association of the Philippines film basket makers in Manila. As part of a project 
to train traditional craftspeople to market goods directly through the Internet, these basket makers learn to 
photograph and write about their work for direct sale on the Web. Photo courtesy PEOPLink 



The year-long research that identified 
"traditional Filipino artists" for the 1998 
Folklife Festival made it clear that this 
figure does not exist. The picture that 
emerged was strikingly different. Most 
artists were equally at home in villages 
and in more cosmopolitan settings. Bom 
and raised in traditional communities, 
many had come to the cities as young 
people to study or find work. There they 
learned to negotiate with modernity. But 
they chose to invest their training, educa- 



tion, and energy in traditional culture, 
though knowing full well that it is easier 
to reject the old ways while living in the 
city. They have become masters of their 
traditions despite pressure from the swift 
change that engulfs the cities and every 
village in the Philippines. They under- 
stand commerce and have found ways to 
maintain standards of excellence against 
demands for mass production. Well aware 
of the emphasis on glossy and elaborate 
production values in the entertainment 
industry, they have decided to project the 



older ways of thought and living. And 
some of them have been able to enlist 
government and corporate support for 
their individual and collective programs. 
Three accounts from our research files 
fill in these general outlines with 
glimpses of the human experience 
reflected in Philippine traditional arts. 

Victorino Saway 

Victorino Saway was l6 when he first saw 
the cit): His father was the great Datu 
Kinulintang, leader of the Talaandig peo- 
ple and epic singer from the southern 
mountains of Bukidnon. He was sending 
his third son, Vic, to the University of the 
Philippines in Manila to transcribe and 
translate the Agyu epic. Vic had attended 
school in his home village of Sungko and 
was excited about going to the city. But 
the universit)' disoriented him. Sitting at 
a desk, listening to his father's taped per- 
fomiances day after day, he realized that 
the epics, which he had never paid atten- 
tion to because they were old-fashioned, 
were difficult to understand. One day, he 
recalls, he asked a young Mansaka sitting 
beside him for help. The latter chided 
him, "I'm having enough trouble deci- 
phering my own language, and you ask 
me about yours?" After three weeks, Vic 
gave up and went home. 

But the datu would not give up. When 
Camien Unabia appeared in Sungko 
looking for an assistant for her own dis- 
sertation research on the Agyu epic, Vic 
was enlisted. He had begun to understand 
his father's intent. Later the datu packed 
him off to Silliman University, and by the 
time he graduated with a bachelor's 
degree in anthropology, he had learned to 
sing the Agyu as well. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



45 



Pahiyas; A ?h\\\pp\m Hardest 




Aga Mayo Butocan presents Maguindanao kulintang music in Manila. Photo by Richard Kennedy 



Two graduate degrees later, Vic, now 
also known as Datu Migketay, is a 
respected Talaandig leader. He was 
instrumental in drafting the newly signed 
Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA), 
which seeks to protect the rights of 
indigenous people to their traditional 
lands, and is now busy explaining the law 
to these groups all over the Philippines. 
Recently, he was appointed commissioner 
of the National Commission on 
Indigenous People (CIP) created under 
the new law. 

On the community level he and his 
many talented and far-sighted siblings 
have organized a preschool for the 
traditional arts in Sungko that is a model 
for the teaching of indigenous culture in 
the Philippines. Children from the age of 
three onwards learn songs, dances, 



games, and stories of their people as well 
as the rudiments of reading and count- 
ing. Their older siblings in elementary 
and high school congregate here after 
class hours to learn to make and play 
instruments, embroider, weave, and man- 
ufacture clay beads in the traditional way. 
Their elders who teach in the school 
share with the members of the communi- 
ty their expertise in plant and herb lore, 
myth recitation, ritual performance, and 
methods of healing. In this way, they con- 
sciously ensure that the wisdom of Datu 
Kinulintang's generation is handed down. 

Aga Mayo Butocan 

Wlien she was asked to teach Maguindanao 
kulinUing at the Department of Music 
Research in the University of the Philip- 
pines in 1968, Aga Mayo Butocan was a 19- 
year-old schoolteacher in the seacoast vil- 



lage of Simuay on the island of Mindanao. 
She was an accomplished player in the 
village, but she had never taught kulin- 
tang in school. Nor had anyone else in 
the Philippines, for that matter, tried to 
teach this ancient Southeast Asian fonn 
of bossed gong music in school. Aga's 
naturally reflective spirit rose to meet the 
challenge, supported by a quiet strength 
that had served her well as a young 
student who traveled through crocodile- 
infested waters to reach the Cotabato 
Public High School three hours away 
from Simuay. The Muslim village girl 
who persisted came back to her village 
with a teacher's certificate. Later she had 
come to Manila hoping to get accepted 
into a more advanced teacher training 
program, but, lacking important political 
connections, she could not get in. The job 



46 



Smithsonian Folkiife Festivai 



1998 



Pahiyas: A ?h\\\ppme Haruest 



"/ had to study myself,...! had to learn about my own 
body, mind, and spirit.'' 

— Aga Mayo Butocan 




at the University of the Philippines was a 
valued opportunity. 

The challenges Aga faced in the first 
years were fonnidable. Outside of the 
island of Mindanao, most Filipinos were 
not aware of kulintang, and there were 
no models for teaching it other than the 
traditional system of listening and imitat- 
ing. In the capital city of Manila, music 
students were well versed in Bach and 
Beethoven, jazz and rock 'n' roll, but had 
never heard of kulintang. Aga herself 
had never conceptualized the kulintang. 
Meeting students' needs, teaching them to 
play for eight hours a day, five days a 
week, she was forced to think through 
her playing, to focus on how she moved, 
what she thought about, and how she felt 
as she played. "1 had to study myself," she 
recalls. "Before I could understand what 
the kulintang meant, I had to learn 



about my own body, mind, and spirit." 
Slowly, she developed a method that 
has been elaborated and published as the 
textbook for teaching ^////;?to»^-playing 
in Philippine schools of music. In her 30 
years of teaching she has taught the 
kulintang to thousands of students. She 
hits inspired many composers, teachers, 
and researchers. She has organized and 
trained kulintang ensembles that have 
played all over the world. Despite a grow- 
ing clamor for dramatic and showy preci- 
sion in perfomiance, she maintains a tra- 
ditional improvisational style that is 
quiet, reflective, and focused on the spirit. 

Benecio Sokkong 

Although the office of peace-pact holder 
is handed down from a father to a son in 
communities in the northern Cordillera 
mountains, the selection is further 
refined by criteria of social stature, skill 



A group ofKalinga men participate in a 
budong (peace pact). Photo courtesy 
Cultural Center of the Philippines 



in negotiation and diplomacy, and knowl- 
edge of ritual and protocol. In this way, a 
community assures itself that it will be 
well represented in intra- and intervillage 
disputes about land, security, peace-keep- 
ing, and domestic conflict. The communi- 
ty leader who holds the pact is the one 
who is entrusted with negotiating and 
recording its terms. 

Benny Sokkong is the chosen budong 
(peace pact) holder of the village of 
Tanglag, Lubuagan, in the province of 
Kalinga. As a young boy, he watched and 
listened as his father held sensitive 
discussions with elders from other 
villages. He saw how peace and harmony 
were ensured. By the time he came down 
to Manila in 1978, hoping to study den- 
tistry, he was already skilled in the ritual 
preparations of materials involved in 
holding peace pacts. Lacking the means 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



47 



Pahiyas: A ?\\\\\pp\r\e Harvest 



to finance his education, Benny took a 
night job as a securit)' guard. He also 
became a member of BIBAK, a cultural 
organization of highlanders from the 
northern Cordilleras with a chapter in 
Manila. Although BIBAK was conceived as 
a performing group that could be invited 
to school programs, cultural shows, and 
festivals to present northern Cordillera 
culture, it also developed into a support 
group for highlanders in the city. It helps 
organize traditional weddings, funerals, 
and other large community events, and it 
transports people, equipment, and mate- 
rials to and from these events. Benny 
found himself working not only with 
kinsmen from Kalinga but also with 
other highlanders from different parts of 
the Cordilleras. 

His triple life in Manila — as security 
guard, dental student, and culture bearer 
— intensified as he was about to finish 
his dental degree. He accepted an invita- 
tion to teach Kalinga music at the 
University of the Philippines. With the 
teaching job came lucrative work as an 
instrument maker. Cordillera culture has 
a high visibility in Manila, and many 
schools, cultural troupes, and community 
organizations regularly purchase its frag- 
ile bamboo instruments. They know their 
reliable source is the instructor at the 



College of Music, not commercial centers 
like the Baguio market, for the instru- 
ments there are made for the tourist 
trade. Now a dentistr)' graduate and 
working as a dental technician, Benny set 
up a workshop/factory in Baguio city, the 
hometown of his wife, who is a Kalinga- 
Ibaloi nurse. The new facility has made it 
easier to keep up with orders, and his res- 
onant instruments, full of the sound of 
the mountains, fulfill their purposes in 
rituals and other cultural events. 

Benny continues to commute to 
Quezon City in metropolitan Manila to 
teach at the university every week. But he 
travels just as regularly to Tanglag to set- 
tle disputes and conflicts among his kins- 
men. He looks forward to the day when 
he, like his father before him, will offici- 
ate at a full-scale budotig, a peace pact 
between communities, which requires an 
intimidating array of financial, physical, 
cultural, and spiritual resources, but 
which assures these communities a har- 
monious, peaceful coexistence. 

Reviewing the life stories of these 
admirable men and women, one can 
begin to reflect on the questions, what is 
tradition, and how is it related to the 
national life of the Philippines a century 
after the birth of the nation? Tradition is 
society's perception that there are proper 
ways of doing things. Undertaking activi- 
ties in the right way is important because 



this ensures the health and well-being ol 
the community. As conditions change and 
time passes, parts of tradition may alter 
or even disappear to suit changing needs, 
but the core, the heart of the "proper 
way," must remain recognizable. The tra- 
dition bearer has invested time and ener- 
gy in mastering the knowledge, skills, 
and meaning needed for "the proper 
way." Thus, as artist and community are 
drawn into conditions of change, the cen- 
ter can stand to remind us all of what is 
healthy, whole, and lasting. The germ 
charged with meaning is passed on, 
grows, and develops. Traditional masters 
have made a difficult journey in time and 
space while living and acting in a worid 
full of tumult and change. The core, the 
germ of their vision and wisdom, will 
carry us all, as a nation, into the future. 

Elena Rivera Mirano is professor of music 
at the University of the Philippines. She is 
an author and performer of traditional 
Philippine music. Her book Subli: One 
Dance in Four Voices won the 1989 
Philippine National Book Award. She is also 
artistic director of the Cherubim and 
Seraphim, the official children 's choir of the 
University of the Philippines. 



48 



Smithsonian Foiklife Festival 



1998 



Pahiyas: A ?h\\\\)pme Haruest 



IradWlonal Music m 
Phi/jppine Cu\xures 

In an environment of modern, technological material- 
ism, Philippine musical traditions remain rooted in 
spirituality and ancient wisdom about life and nature, 
mey provide valuable, alternative perspectives on 
Philippine life, history, and culture. Even a fleeting survey 
of these musical traditions reveals a multisided prism 
that reflects Philippine society and culture as a complex 
amalgam of forms in time and space.These forms present 
striking varieties and nuances, and delineate not only 
distinct regional and cultural borders and social 
structures, but also connections to peoples and cultures 
outside the Philippines. 



The kaleidoscopic variety of indigenous 
musical traditions is easily seen in their 
instruments, performance techniques, 
repertoires, and languages. Flat gongs, 
from the uplands of northern Luzon, are 
played in a variety of styles and in groups 
ranging from five to six musicians 
among the Kalinga, Bontoc, Bago, and 
Gaddang communities, to an ensemble of 
three among the Ifugao, accompanied by 
a single conical drum among the Applay, 
and an ensemble of two gongs and two 
drums among the Ibaloi of Benguet. 

Such an abundance of musical styles 
also can be found for bossed (knobbed) 
gongs, which cover a much wider area 
from Palawan to the southern islands of 
Mindanao and Sulu. Among the Bagobo, 
Manobo, and Bla'an in eastern 
Mindanao, sets of graduated gongs called 

Musicians from the Manobo community in 

Malaybalay, Bukidnon Province, Mindanao, perform 

on the tangkol (bamboo zither) and kudyapi 

(stringed lute). Instruments like these are found 

throughout the Philippines. Photo by E. Caballero, 

courtesy Cultural Center of the Philippines 



kidintang are suspended in pyramid for- 
mation from the lowest drone gong 
{bandil) to the highest of the melodic 
gongs called tagmigguan. Tlie gongs of 
the kidintang from western Mindanao 
are laid in a row. In the ensembles of the 
Maguindanao, Maranao, Tausug, Sama, 
Yakan, and Subanen, the kidintang is 



Ramon P. Santos 

musically complemented by larger gongs 
with varying resonance and tone colors. 
On the other hand, aerophones (flutes 
and trumpets), idiophones (buzzers, 
stamping tubes, log and bamboo slit 
drums), and chordophones (lutes and 
zithers), mostly made of bamboo and 
local timber, also represent specific lan- 
guage groups and communities through 
their physical and musical characteristics. 
Melodic drones from these instruments 
usually combine with kinetic movements 
in physical and metaphysical space to 
create an intense, integrated fomi of 
expression. This integration is character- 
istic oipagipat healing rites of the 
Maguindanao and the death ceremonies 
of mattalatam among the Aetas from 
Kalinga Apayao and himmung among 
the Ifugao. 

Vocal repertoires offer an even more 
intriguing variety of fomis and styles, 
from epics such as the Ifugao's Hudhud 
and the Mansaka's Manggob to forms of 
lyrical poetry and recitation, e.g., the 




1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



49 



Pahiyas: A ?h\\\\)\)\ne Hardest 




Musicians on harp and guitar play lively balitaw 
songs based on the Spanish jota and sequidilla, on 
the island ofCebu. Stringed instruments introduced 
by the Spanish in the Uth century remain popular 
today in traditional Philippine music. 
Photo by Rey S. Rastrollo, courtesy Cultural Center 
of the Philippines 

Ibaloi badiw, Maranao bayok, and 
Kalinga ckingo. 

Another type of oral repertoire evolved 
in Christian communities across the 
archipelago in four centuries of cultural 
encounter between East and West. These 
musical expressions took their present 
hybrid forms through aesthetic assimila- 
tion, selective synthesis, and cultural 
cross-breeding. The varying degrees of 
acculturation mirrored in these forms 
indicate the people's resiliency and cre- 
ative response to change while preserving 
fundamental aesthetic values. 

In Christian population centers, indige- 
nous practices such as epics and rituals 
gave way to musical resources introduced 
by Spain. One of these is the long 
romance narrative later known as awit 
and kurido. The genius of local literary 
composers easily assimilated this form, 
creating highly imaginative stories that 
combine characters and events from 
medieval Europe with local heroes and 
familiar places. Although initially dissem- 



inated as written literature, the awit and 
kurido in time became committed to oral 
memory and were easily quoted in formal 
and infomial discourse. Related genres 
from Spain also became part of the musi- 
co-literary and theatrical experience of 
the early Christian Filipinos, including 
the komedya and its subgenre moro- 
moro, named for its perennial plot of 
Christian-Moorish conflict, and the sar- 
swela, romantic comedies featuring 
members of the Philippine upper class at 
the turn of the 20th century. 

In these communities, gongs and bam- 
boo instruments were replaced by the 
guitar; by the rondalla, a plucked string 
ensemble that evolved from the Spanish 
estiidiantina; by the comparza, the brass 
band, and its local versions, the 
musikong btimbong and banda boca; 
and by a variety of instrumental group- 
ings that accompany other vocal and the- 
atrical performances. 

The impact of Christianity can also be 
seen in the hybridization of religious 
practices in rural communities. The 
sanghiyang in Cavite province is still a 
trance ceremony, but its practitioners 
now invoke the names of saints and use 
rosary beads and scapulars. In Batangas, 
the subli, a secular folk dance propagat- 
ed since the 1930s, is now being rediscov- 
ered as a complex religious ritual of 
semi-improvised dances, chanting, and 
drum playing in honor of the Holy Cross 
and the Holy Child (Santo Nifio). 

Locally created musical activities are 
mostly related to the liturgical cycle of 
Christmas, Lent, Easter, and Santacrusan, 
the May commemoration of the finding 
of the Holy Cross by Constantine and 
Helena. The spiritual depth of rural 
Christian Filipinos comes to the surface 
during Lent, when people perform parali- 
turgical rituals and acts of self-abnega- 
tion and penitence. The chanting of the 
life and Passion of Qxx'vsi, pabasa and 
pasyon, and their theatrical reenactment, 
setiakulo, are almost synonymous with 



popular Filipino religious worship, 
whether they are expressed in Tagalog, 
Kapampangan, Ilonggo, Sebuano, or 
Bicol and whether they use ancient 
regional airs or rock 'n' roll tunes. 

The dynamic kaleidoscope of musical 
life in Philippine cultures has assumed a 
significant role in nation-building over 
the last 100 years. From their virtual iso- 
lation and derogated status in the emerg- 
ing Christian society of the 19th century, 
these musical practices have gained new 
strength in the present century 

Indigenous and folk artists are now 
closing ranks with their urban counter- 
parts to form their own cultural troupes, 
creating their own choreographies, and 
sometimes performing Western-derived 
tunes on gongs and bamboo instruments. 
As contributors of new structural forms 
and aesthetic meanings to contemporan. 
musical expression, traditional musical 
cultures have been selectively adapting to 
the artistic norms of mainstream society, 
not only to survive, but also to continu- 
ously enrich and expand the techniques 
and repertoires of their unique musical 
heritage. 

Suggested Listening 

Folk Songs of the Philippines. Folkways 8791 . 
Hanunoo Music from the Philippines. Folkways 4466. 
Music of the Magindanao in the Philippines, vols. 1 
and 2. Folkways 4536. 

Ramon P. Santos, an etimomusicologist as 
tvell as a composer, is a professor of music 
at the University of the Philippines. His own 
works are strongly influenced by his stud- 
ies of Philippine and Asian musical tradi- 
tiom. He is also secretary-general of the 
National Music Competition for Young 
Artists. 



50 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Pahiyas; A PhiWppme Haruest 



Pfifl/ppjne Food 



Doreen G. Fernandez 



What is the most typical Philippine food? Is it s'ml- 
gong, a cold, sour stew that equally accommodates 
fish, meat, fowl, or prawns — so refreshing in hot weath- 
er? Is it adobo, meat, shellfish, or vegetables cooked in 
vinegar, which keeps without refrigeration? Is Wpancit, 
the many kinds of noodles found at all celebrations? 
Could it oe rellenong manok, the capon stuffed for 
Christmas? Or might it be pritong manok, chicken fried 
after a vinegar and garlic marinade? 



Even Filipinos cannot frame a simple 
answer to the question, so varied is their 
cuisine. Siuigang is obviously indige- 
nous, with all its ingredients found in the 
countryside, and with its analogs in 
Southeast Asia. Adobo, too, is indigenous 
but bears a Spanish/Mexican name, per- 
haps because of its similarity to the 
Mexican adobado. Pancit is obviously a 
Chinese contribution, but it has been 
indigenized by native ingredients and 
tastes. The capon and its stuffing are 
Spanish in origin and the fried chicken is 
American, but both have been adapted to 
the local palate. 

The variety is explained by history and 
social adaptation. First, there was food 
drawn only from natural surroundings: 
marine, river, and other creatures from 
the waters on and around the archipel- 
ago's 7,000 islands; other animals: fowl, 
birds, and other creatures from field and 
forest; and vegetation for edible leaves, 
pods, seeds, roots, flowers, tendrils, as 
well as spices, condiments, and fruits. 
Indigenous cuisine is found everywhere 
with regional differences depending on 
the ecosystem: lowland or highland, inte- 
rior or shoreline. 

Chinese traders, who have been visiting 
since the 9th century or earlier, brought 
noodles, soybean products, and pork. 



Their dishes entered the local diet at a 
popular level, and are now found in mar- 
kets, sidewalk carts, restaurants called 
panciterias, school cafeterias, and homes 
of all social levels. So indigenized has 
comida china become that some dishes 
bear Spanish names — probably because 
panciterias were among the first places 
for public eating during the Spanish colo- 
nial period. Most of the dishes have been 
so well integrated into eating patterns 
that many Filipinos consider them not 
foreign but native bom. 

Spanish dishes and cooking techniques 
came with the colonizers and instantly 
assumed positions of prestige. For one 
thing, many of their principal ingredients 

— olive oil, saffron, hams, and sausages 

— were imported and expensive. For 
another, the food of officials, friars, and 
other foreigners seemed superior and 
desirable because these people comprised 
an elite social class. Thus, fiesta food is 
often Spanish: /?«?//<?, stuffed turkeys and 
chickens, morcon, mechado, and rich 
desserts of the Spanish tradition. 
Christmas, too, features Spanish dishes, 
since Christianity arrived with the 
Spaniards: y«wo« en dulce, ensainiadas, 
queso de bola, apples, oranges, and 
chestnuts. 

American dishes and preparation styles 

— pressure-cooked, precooked, fast, and 




A meal served on banana leaves in Paete, Laguna 
Province. The foods in this meal vi/ere prepared mostly 
from local products and include bagoong (shrimp 
paste) and sticky rice, representing an indigenous 
cuisine. Photo by Richard Kennedy 

instant foods — were introduced with 
American colonization, education, stan- 
dards of hygiene, and technology. The 
multitude of advertisements for ham- 
burgers, fried chicken, fast food, junk 
food, and soft drinks might make one 
think that this is the most typical 
Philippine food. 

But typical Philippine food is all of the 
above. The indigenous cuisine is alive 
and well in the provinces, where the 
ingredients are always available, inexpen- 
sive, and sometimes even free. The flavor- 
ing sauces and dips — patis or fish 
sauce, bagoong or shrimp paste, and 
calamansi (native lime) — are used 
alone or in combinations to fine-tune 
even foreign food to local palates. The 
indigenous, peasant diet of rice, fish, and 
vegetables has been rated by nutritionists 
among the healthiest in the world with 
its high carbohydrate/low protein level 
and minimal fat. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



51 



Pahlyas: A Philippine Harvest 




Indigenized cuisines originally from 
China, Mexico, and the United States are 
fairly ubiquitous, although more readily 
found in towns and cities, in restaurants 
large and small, and on the tables of the 
middle and upper classes. 

Imported or foreign cuisine that has 
not been indigenized is eaten and under- 
stood as foreign: Japanese, Italian, 
French, and Middle Eastern. Globalization 
has made these cuisines known, avail- 
able, and attractive through the media 
and through the experience of travelers, 
the educated, and those who have worked 
and lived abroad. 

Indigenous, indigenized, and imported 
foods meet and mix on the Philippine 
landscape. They speak of a history of 
trade, colonization, foreign influence, and 
social transformation. They also illumine 
the social structure. 

At home among peasants and workers, 
indigenous cuisine can also be found on 
the elite's tables, where it is the food of 
memory — childhood and provincial 
beginnings and ancestral holiday tables. 
Methods of preparation may have 
changed from long, slow boiling over 
wood fires to microwave cooking, but 



52 



indigenous cuisine does not seem likely 
to disappear under the onslaught of fast 
food, for it remains a deep cultural and 
personal preference. 

Indigenized cuisine is found on urban 
and upscale tables and in public eating 
places. The Philippines has the best 
Spanish restaurants in Asia because they 
are not foreign here, but part of a 300- 
year history. Imported food is generally 
expensive and exclusive, although stalls 
selling shawarma (Middle Eastern skew- 
ers of meat) established by returning 
overseas contract workers are creeping 
into villages and subdivisions. 

Tasting the local variations in 
Philippine food is savoring the many fla- 
vors of the Philippine culture and envi- 
ronment. Try kinilaw, for example, on an 
island like Bohol. Fish from clean waters 
is dressed fresh with palm vinegar and 
condiments to create one of the islands' 
oldest dishes. Sample the lechon at a bar- 
rio fiesta. Unlike the Spanish cochinillo 
asado, this could be a full-grown pig 
stuffed with tamarind or lemongrass 
leaves and spit-roasted over coals. 

Compare the many varieties of pancit: 
from seaside towns served with oysters, 
squid, or shrimp, from inland communi- 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



A meal served on china in Malolos, Bulacan Province. 
The recipes for several of these dishes are inspired by 
Spanish cuisine, and include the use of vinegar, saf- 
fron, and olive oil. Photo by Richard Kennedy 

ties served with meat and vegetables, its 
noodles fat or thin, transparent or 
opaque with egg, shaken in broth or 
water (luglog), sauteed or fried, sauced 
or plain. 

Try dishes that retain their native 
names: laing, taro leaves with coconut 
milk and chile; pina is, shrimp and young 
coconut wrapped in banana leaves and 
steamed in coconut water. Taste Chinese 
dishes with Chinese names — lomi, 
mami, kekiam — and those with 
Spanish names — arroz caldo, 
camaron rebozado. Venture to taste the 
work of young chefs who prepare mango, 
coconut, and venison in nouvelle ways. 
Try local fried chicken; let your tongue 
tell you how it differs from American 
style and illuminate for you some princi- 
ples of Filipino flavor. 

Food is not only for the eating, but also 
for the contemplation of history, society, 
and taste. 

Suggested Reading 

Fernandez, DoreenG. Tikim:fs5flys on PM/pp/nefoorf 
and Culture. Manila: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 1994. 



Doreeri Fernandez is professor of literature 
and communication at the Ateneo de 
Manila University. She writes books and 
articles on cultural, theater, literary, and 
culinary history. Her weekly column, "In 
Good Taste,'' appears in the Philippine Daily 
Inquirer 



1998 



Pahiyas: A Philippine Harvest 



FilipinO'American Youth 
Performing filipiniciti) 

Filipinicity, according to nationalist scholar Antonio 
Molina, is the quality of being Filipino regardless of 
location or surroundings, a quality that describes many 
Filipino-American youth in America. 



How can we understand their cultural 
identity, created from a Philippine her- 
itage in an American context? Any expla- 
nation is necessarily complex, given their 
diversity of language backgrounds, class 
origins, and histories in the United States. 
Filipino Americans (informally, Fil-Ams) 
have successfully assimilated into the 
American mainstream, often becoming 
invisible to the general population while 
remaining highly visible to one another 

Filipinos came to America over 250 
years ago, before the Philippines or the 
United States wiLs a nation. The pioneer 
Filipino Americans were crew on Spanish 
galleons that brought luxury goods from 
China to Mexico for eventual transship- 



ment to Europe. They sailed from ports 
such :is Vigan and Manila for the six- 
month voyage to Acapuico, Mexico. There 
some jumped ship, and by the close of 
the 18th century, these seamen had estab- 
lished the first documented Filipino set- 
tlement in America in the bayous near 
New Orleans. 

Filipino settlement in the United States 
was gradual; groups came under a variety 
of circumstances and for a variety of rea- 
sons. Besides serving on ships, 
"Manilamen" (another term for 
Filipinos) worked on the haciendas of 
Mexican California, and some were even 
enlisted as members of the Royal 
Hawaiian Band. By the turn of the 20th 




Ricardo D.Trimillos 

century young intellectuals began study- 
ing in the United States as pensionados 
(government-sponsored scholars). A 
decade later sakadus (workers) were pro- 
viding cheap and dependable labor for 
the plantations of Hawai'i, the farms of 
California, and the salmon industry of 
Alaska and Washington. Although the 
early migrants were mostly male, they 
were eventually followed by couples and 
entire families. World War II brought 
another opportunity — citizenship which 
could be obtained by serving in the U.S. 
armed services. Until the outbreak of war 
in 1941, the Philippines' commonwealth 
status made relocation to the United 
States simple. Following the end of the 
war the number of U.S.-bound Filipinos 
increased despite U.S. efforts to limit it. 
They were encouraged by relatives 
already in the States, by opportunities for 
study and work, and by the promise of a 
better life than their postwar homeland 
coidd offer. After the imposition of mar- 
tial law and the rise of the Marcos dicta- 
torship in 1972, there was another wave 
of emigration largely from the profes- 
sions, business, and academe. 

Meanwhile, ongoing since 1898, the 
American military, missionaries, and 
businessmen were bringing home 
Filipina brides, and Filipino men living in 
the States were marrying non-Filipinas. 
Their part-Filipino offspring would fur- 
ther enrich Fil-Am identity and shape its 
version of Filipinicity. 



Young Filipino-American dancers perform the 
tinikling at the annual Philippine Festival in 
Washington, D.C. This dance from the Visayan 
Islands has become a standard part of most 
Filipino-American community gatherings as well 
as public events. Photo by Paul Tahedo 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



53 



Pahiyas: A ?h\\\pp\ne Haruest 




Danongan Kalanduyan, director of the Mindanao Kulintang Ensemble of Seattle, Washington, performs with his 
group. Filipino Americans and others join to perform music from the Muslim region of Mindanao. Photo by Xander 
Hobayan 



Strategies for identity fonnation in 
America have been both proactive and 
defensive, the former arising from pride 
in cultural achievement and the latter 
from anxiety about cultural loss through 
assimilation. Instrumental to both strate- 
gies, folk dance is the oldest and most 
widespread focus for Filipino identity. 
Organized by adults for their children, 
the dance represents a community-based, 
grassroots effort to maintan identity. 
Filipino youth come together (under 
watchful parents, of course!), participate 
in cultural learning, and gamer positive 
recognition from non-Filipinos through 
public performance. Dance groups gener- 
ally draw upon the choreographies of 
Bayanihan, the Philippines' most success- 
ful folkloric company. For example, their 
tinikling bamboo dance has become a 
cultural icon and is now practically de 
rigeur for the close of any dance pro- 
gram. More recently some American 
troupes, like the L.A.-based Kayamanan 
ng Lahi, are pursuing greater ethno- 
graphic integrity by seeking models 
directly in community culture bearers. 

The rondalla (plucked string band) is 



the ubiquitous ensemble of the Spanish- 
Influenced lowlands and stands as a 
Philippine national icon. It provides fes- 
tive accompaniment for song, dance, and 
socializing. Romiallas were popular 
among prewar immigrants, who soon 
learned, however, that playing in 
American dance bands was much more 
profitable. At present there are youth ron- 
dallas in such diverse locations as 
Boston, San Diego, and Seattle. It is a 
challenge to sustain rotidallas overseas. 
Their musical demands are high — one 
must be able to play by ear and by nota- 
tion, and their instruments are crafted 
only in the Philippines, principally in 
Pampanga and Cebu. A rondalla is pre- 
sented at the Smithsonian Festival. 

Filipino choral groups are very popu- 
lar: three centuries of Spanish 
Catholicism have made choral singing 
central to Philippine heritage. The chorus 
is also popular in many Fil-Am commu- 
nities, which sponsor groups such as the 
Philippine Chorale (New York City), the 
Mabuhay Singers (Daly City, California), 
and the Silangan Singers (Honolulu). 
Choral singing is often the major, if not 



the only, opportunity for youth to become 
familiar with Philippine languages. Folk 
choral genres from the Visayas also are 
featured in the Festival. 

Youth have sparked an interest in 
kulintang, the gong-chime tradition of 
Muslim groups from the southern 
Philippines. Cultural organizations in 
New York (Amauan) and in California 
(World Kulintang Institute in Los Angeles, 
Kulintang Arts in San Francisco) have 
received National Endowment for the Arts 
(NEA) grants to support residencies by 
master artists Dr. Usopay Cadar of the 
Maranao tradition and Danongan 
Kalanduyan of the Maguindanao. 
Kulintang master Kalanduyan is the sin- 
gle Filipino-American artist who has been 
awarded the prestigious National Heritage 
Fellowship from the NEA. Although most 
students have lowland Christian rather 
than Muslim forbears, they have become 
serious participants in the genre. Its 
ascendancy has significance for cultural 
identity: kulintang is clearly a Southeast 
Asian tradition without Spanish or 
American influence and is related to the 
gamelan gong orchestras of Java and 
Bali. It has become an icon of decolo- 
nization: associated with high status as 
entertainment in the courts of the sul- 
tanates and structured by a highly codi- 
fied system of music theory, improvisa- 
tion, and aesthetics, it is art music. 
Maguindanao kulintang is included as 
part of the Folklife Festival program. 

Young Fil-Ams have also resuscitated 
several moribund traditions. Thirty years 
ago, for example, they initiated a renais- 
sance of Philippine martial arts, particu- 
larly escrima and amis, which were 
maintained in secret by early immigrants 
to Hawai'i and California. There are now 
a national association, a calendar of 
competitions, and studios and clubs 
nationwide. 

As cultural activists, Filipino-American 
descendants from the mountain tribes of 
Luzon formed BIBAK, a network for 






54 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Pahiyas: A Philippine Harvest 



Members ofBIMAK, an organization in the 

Wasiiington, D.C., area, participate in f/ie annual 

Philippine Heritage Parade in Washington, D.C. 

BIMAK represents Filipino Americans whose families 

came from upland tribal communities in Luzon. 

BIMAK and BIBAK organizations across the United 

States are proud of their heritage and work to keep 

these traditions alive in their families 

and communities. Photo by Paul Tanedo 

defending the cultural rights of upland 
cultures. Members of these societies, 
which were put on display at the 1904 
St. Louis Exposition and subjected to 
exoticization and other fomis of misrep- 
resentation, are now demanding accurate 
and respectful treatment of their heritage. 
BIBAK, an acronym for the five major 
upland linguistic groups, provides work- 
shops on culture, crafts, dance, and 
music for the general community. It 
actively assists folkloric dance groups in 
appreciating the upland repertory'. Each 
BIBAK chapter has young people in posi- 
tions of responsibility. The Kalinga 
upland group is presented at the Festival. 
Fil-Am youth have been creative in the 
present climate of pluralism and multi- 
culturalism, using opportunities to 
explore heritage that were not available 
in previous generations. Filipino Cultural 
Nights (PCNs), presented on numerous 
college campuses, are evidence of this 
creativity. Most universities with a signifi- 
cant population of Filipinos (internation- 
al students as well as Fil-Ams) have them. 
Their typical format includes a selection 
of folk songs and dances, usually drawn 
from the Bayanihan repertory. In a style 
reminiscent of the homeland's bodabil 
(vaudeville) shows, humorous skits about 
the Philippines and, increasingly, about 
life in America are interspersed. Recent 
PCNs sometimes select a single theme or 
create a imifying stor)' line. More than 
just entertainment, some productions 
address social issues such as glass ceil- 
ings in employment for minorities, U.S.- 
Philippine relations, and "Tita Aida" 




(AIDS). Remarkably, PCNs are entirely 
organized, rehearsed, and presented by 
students, as one year's producers share 
their experience with the next. Although 
originally intended as educational out- 
reach to the non-Filipino community, 
they have become largely a celebration of 
Filipinicity for friends and family. The 
PCN model has given rise to similar 
efforts b) Korean, Chinese, and 
Vietnamese campus groups. 

We can encounter Filipinicity in a vari- 
ety of social settings, each reflecting a dif- 
ferent kind of commitment to heritage. In 
a nontraditional cultural setting, for 
example, an emergent Fil-Am theater 
addresses issues of homeland and dias- 
pora. For example, "Scenes from an 
Unfinished Country- 1905/1995," a work 
by the Pintig Cultural Group (Chicago), 
explores themes of American interven- 
tion. Sining Kulisan & Pinoy Ink [sic] 
(Vallejo, California) treats the Spanish 
period in its production, "Heart of the 
Son." The adjective "Filipino" for jazz, 
rock, and hip hop carries specific and 
positive connotations in regional com- 



mercial music businesses. In classical 
music, besides performing Schubert and 
Bach, Fil-Ams may mark Filipinicity by 
programming kundiman art song or 
folk-inspired compositions, such as the 
violin classic "Hating Gabi." 

In even more nontraditional settings, 
perfomiing Filipinicity may involve a sar- 
torial dimension — for example, using 
accessorized kiniona or barotig tagolog 
(embroidered gauzy overblouse or over- 
skirt) as nightclub wear. It may also 
involve creating in-jokes by appropriating 
slang: three young L.A. artists collectively 
call themselves "The Badaf Pinoys." 
("Pinoy" is an informal, in-group term of 
self-reference derived from the final sylla- 
bles of "Pilipino," while "Badaf" defies 
direct translation.) 

There are private displays of identity as 
well. For example, individual families 
continue regional customs of the reli- 
gious year. The Cebuano celebration of 
the Santo Nifio (Christ Child) still takes 
place during January in Hawai'i, 
California, and Illinois, replete with 
songs, prayers, santos (icons), and food. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



55 



Pahiyas: A ?}ni\\pp\m Harvesi 




These World War II veterans are members of the 
Veterans of Foreign Wars Vicente Lim Post 5471 in 
Oxon Hill, Maryland. More than 120,000 soldiers from 
the Philippine Commonwealth Army fought alongside 
Americans against the Japanese. Thousands of these 
soldiers resettled in the U.S. after the war. Photo by 
Paul Tahedo 

During Holy Week, families in 
Washington, Texas, and West Virginia per- 
fonn the pas)'on, a vernacular poetic 
account of Christ's Passion that begins 
with Creation and ends with the Final 
Judgment; it also has songs, prayers, San- 
tos, and food. In New Jersey and Nevada 
Muslim Filipinos observe Ramadan with 
daytime fasting and singing the maiilid, 
a poetic account about the life of the 
Prophet. These are the less public parts of 
identity. Pasyon and other religious gen- 
res are part of the Festival. 

There are challenges to the identity of 
Fil-Am youth. Assimilation looms large. 
Among eariy immigrants its pull was very 
strong. Its forces had already been at 
work in the homeland: an American- 
based public education system, a U.S.- 
style democracy, and a high degree of 
English fluency. In general, first-genera- 
tion immigrants kept many customs, 
maintained foodways, and retained their 
languages, speaking Bikolano or 
Pangasinan at home, for instance. The 



second generation (the first American 
bom) maintained some foodways, had 
passive understanding of the languages, 
and kept some of the customs, such as 
touching the back of an elder's hand to 
one's forehead as a sign of respect 
{mamatw). The third and fourth genera- 
tions — most of today's Fil-Am youth — 
are often unaware of which Philippine 
language their elders spoke, observe few 
of the customs, and know only a few of 
the Filipino foods served at celebrations, 
such as spring rolls {lumpia), marinated 
meat (acfobo), baked rice cake 
(bibingka), and banana fritters 
{cambo/mariiya/baduya) . 

But there is a contrasting segment of 
Filipino-American youth composed of the 
newly arrived. Typically having received 
early schooling in the Philippines and 
coming from urban rather than rural 
areas, they are an couraiit with the latest 
Manila fashions and music; their food- 
ways reflect the eclecticism of the pre- 
sent-day Philippines; and they are fluent 
in the national language, Pilipino, and 
often in another regional language. 

The two groups constitute polarities: at 
one end are the children of "old-timer" 
families, who do not speak a Philippine 
language, and who feel they have paid 
their dues by confronting generations of 
racism in America; and at the other is the 
"1.5 generation," Filipino newcomers, 
who are generally unaware that their way 
was paved by the old-timers. These con- 
trasts generate tensions between, for 
example, an upwardly mobile third-gen- 
eration student from a farm labor back- 
ground and a Manila-oriented 1.5-gener- 
ation youth from a professional family 
who affects Philippine versions of cloth- 
ing, music, and dance. 

On a continuum between these polari- 
ties are other groups, including part- 
Filipino children, whose Filipino identity 
may be problematic and varied, depend- 
ing upon whether the other parent is 
Anglo, African, Asian, or Native American. 



Filipino identity is made even more com- 
plex by the emergence of ethnically 
defined gangs. 

The Centennial celebration itself prob- 
lematizes identity for Filipino-American 
youth. It raises issues about the two rele- 
vant countries — one, the source of eth- 
nic heritage, the other, the place of citi- 
zenship. U.S. intervention in the 
Philippines a century ago interrupted the 
development of an independent Asian 
nation. However, that intervention 
enabled today's youth and their forbears 
to become part of American life. Fil-Am 
identity emerges directly from the com- 
plex commingling of these two national 
and cultural streams. We hope that 
Filipino-American youth will find in our 
Festival program, Pahiyas: A Philippine 
Harvest, resonant moments of encour- 
agement and self-recognition. 

Suggested Reading 

Gonzalves,Theo."The Show Must Go On: Production 
Notes on the Pilipino Cultural Night."Crif/'c(7/Mo5s 2, 
no. 2 (1995). 

Tiongson, Nicanor.'Tilipinicity and the Tagalog komedya 
and sinakulo." Mure ],f\o.2(m&). 

Tiongson, Nicanor, ed. CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. 
Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1994. 

Trimillos, Ricardo D."Music and Ethnic Identity, 
Strategies for the Overseas Filipino Youth 
Population." Yearbook for Traditional Music 
18{1985):9-20. 

."Asian American music, 6. Southeast Asian, ii. 

Filipino." In The New Grove Dictionary of American 
Music, ed. H.Wiley Hitchcock & Stanley Sadie, 
vol. 1, 83-84. London: Macmillan, 1986. 

Ricardo Trimillos is chair of Asian Studies 
and professor of ethnomusicology at the 
University ofHawai'i, Manoa. He is also a 
research associate of the Cultural Center of 
the Philippines, Manila, and a member of 
the Advisory Board of the Smtihsonian 
Center for Folklife Programs & Cultural 
Studies 



56 



Smithsonian Folklife Festivai 



1998 




he Baltic Narions 




ill. ■**^asl^ 

A' "■■ 




The Baltic Nations 



A Song of Survival 

The Baltic nations emerged on the world 
news scene in 1988 ana 1989 as if from 
nowhere. For 50 years they had literally 
disappeared from the map, subsumed into the 
monochromatic zone of tne USSR. Only occa- 
sionally would Americans hear that the United 
States did not recognize the illegal incorporation 
of the three nations into the Soviet Union. 



When Gorbachev 
invoked glasnost 
and peresfroika to 
rele:ise the tight 
controls on eco- 
nomic, political, 
cultural, and social 
life, the people of 
the three Baltic 



FINLAND 



EUROPE 



RUSSIA 



Demographics 



Estonia: 

Geographic size: 17,i7Ssq.mki; Population: 
1.5 million: Language: Estonian (official); 
Religion: Lutheran, Russian Orthodox; Ethnic 
groups: 6096 Estonian, ]0% Russian, 10% Other 

Latvia: 
Geographic size: 2-^,950 S(;. miles; Population: 
2.7 million; Language: Latvian (official); 
Religion: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian 
Orthodox; Ethnic groups: 57% Latvian, 30% 
Russian, 4% Belarusslan, 9% Other 

Lithuania: 
Geographic size: 25, 175 sq. miles; Population: 
U million; Language: Lithuanian (official). 
Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Russian 
Orthodox; Ethnic groups: 85% Lithuanian, 8% 
Russian, 7% Other 




RUSSIA 



BELARUS 



POLAND 



countries organized 
grassroots movements that pushed the 
experiments to new limits. The demand 
to discuss the past openly and to raise the 
issue of "divorce" from the USSR startled 
and irritated the Kremlin. 

On August 23, 1989, people in the 
Baltics formed a human chain stretching 
430 miles, connecting Tallinn, Riga, and 
Vilnius. They remembered the day in 
1939 when Hitler and Stalin had made a 
secret pact that sealed their fate. Their 

58 



massive demonstration told the world 
that they existed as nations and that they 
yearned to be masters of their own des- 
tiny. They sang their messages and called 
it the Singing Revolution. 

The strength of their conviction came 
from centuries of consciousness of who 
they are as people, bound by language, 
customs, and belief. The fact that they 
settled this Baltic coast so very long ago 
and stayed there while other tribes and 

Smithsonian Folklife FEsrrvAi 



Elena Bradunas 

nations migrated around them gave 
them a strong territorial claim. That 
their languages were neither Slavic nor 
Germanic helped to insulate them 
through the many years of subjugation 
to those more powerful neighbors. The 
conservatism of the peasants who kept 
strong ties to land and customs enabled 
traditions to endure. 

Already in the 18th century, when the 
Romantic Movement was sweeping 
through Europe, the "lore" of these small 
nations had been recognized, first by for- 
eign and eventually by their own intel- 
lectuals. The first Estonian and Latvian 
national song festivals, held in 1869 and 
1873 respectively, reawakened a sense of 
unity. This ethnic awareness built a 
national pride in all three countries that 
led to their proclaiming independence 
from Russia in 1918. 

The period of independence was short 
lived, however, as World War II ushered in 
the Soviets, then the Germans, and then 
the Soviets again, unleashing a blood bath 
in all three Baltic lands and years of 
oppression. Closed borders, forced collec- 
tivization, and strict controls on all 
aspects of cultural and social life did 
much to break the natural continuity of 
customs and traditions. 

However, language held its own in all 
three countries, despite dictums that 
everyone learn Russian. Privately, and 

This program is made possible by and is produced in 
cooperation with the Estonian Government and 
Estonian Ministry of Culture, the Latvian Government 
and Latvian Ministry of Culture, and the Lithuanian 
Government and Lithuanian Ministry of Culture. 
Additional support comes from the Cultural 
Endowment of Estonia, the American Latvian 
Association, and the Lithuanian Foundation. 

1998 



The Baltic Nations 



very carefully, people still held on to reli- 
gious beliefs and some family traditions. 
In Estonia, television antennas faced 
Finland so that people could have a 
glimpse of life in the West. Writers, 
artists, and scholars devised clever ways 
to circumvent Soviet censorship. For 
example, folklorists would argue that, 
under Soviet ideology, the ordinary folk, 
like the proletariat, should be held in 
esteem. In this way one could defend the 
study of pre-Soviet songs, tales, and tra- 
ditions, and interest in authentic folklore 
became a form of subtle resistance. 
During the 1970s collecting and 

Suggested Reading 

General Baltics 

Clemens, Walter C, Jr. Baltic Independence and Russian Empire. New York: 

St.Martin's Press, 1991. 
Kirby, David G. The Baltic World 1772-1993. London & New York: Longman, 1995. 
Lieven, Anatol. The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and the Path to 

Independence. Ind ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. 
Misiunas, Romuald J., and Rein Taagepera. The Baltic States, Years of 

Depenrfence 7940- ;990. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. 
$midchens,Guntis."A Baltic Mu5ic:The Folklore Movement in Lithuania, 

Latvia and Estonia, 1968-1991." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1996. 

Estonia 

Oinas, Felix J. Studies in Finnic Folklore. Bloomington: Indiana 

University Uralic and Altaic Series, vol. 147. 
Raun, Toivo. Estonia and the Estonians. 2nd ed. Stanford: Hoover 

Institution Press, 1991. 
Taagepera, Rein. Estonia: Return to Independence. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993. 

Latvia 

Dreifelds, Juris. Latvia in Transition. New York: Cambridge University 

Press, 1996. 
Plakans, Andrejs. The Latvians: A S/iorfW/sfory. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1995 
Skultans,Vieda. The Testimony of Lives: Narrative and Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia. 

London: Routledge, 1998. 

Lithuania 

Bindokiene, Danute Brazyte. £;f/?(/fl/7/(7n Cusfoms one/ rrarf/f/ons. Chicago: 

Lithuanian World Community, Inc., 1989. 
Eidintas, Alfonsas, with Vytautuas Zaiys and Alfred Erich Senn. Lithuania in European 

Politics, The Years of the First Republic 1918-1940. Ed. Edvardas Tuskenis. New York: 

St.Martin's Press, 1997. 
Milosz, Czeslaw. The Issa Valley. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1981. 
Rowell, S.C. Lithuania Ascending. New York: Cambridge University 

Press, 1994. 
Senn, Alfred E. Gorbachev's Failure in Lithuania. New York: St. Martin's 

Press, 1995. 



recording traditional cultural expressions 
increased on the professional, academic, 
and grassroots levels. Local folk in vari- 
ous rural regions and young people 
studying in urban settings formed per- 
forming groups to perpetuate song, 
dance, and musical traditions. Every- 
where there was an impetus to learn as 
much as possible about the past and to 
actively relate that knowledge to the 
present. These activities were in full 
swing in the late 1980s. 

The numerous folk ensembles became 
an integral part of the mass rallies com- 
prising the "Singing Revolutions" in all 
three Baltic 



independent countries, society is under- 
going many changes. The market econo- 
my is affecting daily life, not always bene- 
ficially. Western popular culture is exert- 
ing a homogenizing influence, especially 
on the younger generation. The desire to 
join the ranks of "modem nations" some- 
times clashes with the urge to celebrate 
one's cultural uniqueness. Will the people 
of the Baltic countries continue to prac- 
tice and cherish their traditions now that 
these no longer serve the function of 
political resistance to a foreign oppressor? 
Hopefully, they will, although inevitably 
some transfonnations will occur. 

Our guests from the Baltic nations at 
the Festival have lived through many swift 
and significant changes. They have much 
to show and tell; we have much to leam. 

Elena Bradunas, an anthropologist and 
folklorist. worked at the American Folklife 
Center. Ijbrary of Congress, from 1977 to 
19S5 and is now based in Hawai'i. Her pri- 
mary documentary work has been among 
the Lithuanian-American immigrants in 
the anthracite region of Pennsylvania. Since 
1990 she has been making extended annu- 
al visits to Lithuania and studying the role 
of folklife in the post-Soviet society. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



nations. Some say 
they could not 
imagine the 
national re-awak- 
ening having 
occurred without 
the ensembles and 
the entire folklore 
movement. These 
ensembles continue 
to play a vital role 
today, as the 
authors in this sec- 
tion describe in 
their essays. 
In these newly 

Baltic-American Communities 

America has been connected to the Baltic countries primarily through the 
Baltic-American communities. Earlier immigrants lobbied the U.S. gov- 
ernment to recognize the fledgling countries at the end of World War I, and 
they continued to rally aid for them. After the countries were forcibly incorpo- 
rated into the Soviet Union, newly arrived refugees worked hard to ensure 
that the U.S. government would never recognize the legitimacy of that incor- 
poration. Many families did their best to aid relatives left behind or exiled to 
Siberia. For themselves they created their own press, ethnic education pro- 
grams for their youth, and a rich cultural and social network throughout the 
country. When the Iron Curtain finally came down, they rejoiced in near-dis- 
belief Since then, many have been making frequent trips to their homelands 
and also hosting visiting guests and relatives here. Some Baltic Americans 
have returned from abroad to work in their professional capacities or even in 
politics. The most recent example is the current president of Lithuania, who is 
from Chicago. The Smithsonian Festival provides a forum for Baltic Americans 
to join in the presentation and celebration of their cultural roots. 

59 



,altic Nations: Estonia 



Traditional Culture 
in Estonia 



/;? prehistoric titnes the Finno-Ugric tribes, including ances- 
tors of the Estonians, populated vast areas between the Ural 
Mountains and the Baltic Sea. Estonian culture developed in 
close contact with the Baits (ancestors of the Indo-European 
Latvians and LithuaniansJ and other Indo-European peoples: 
Scandinavians. Germans, and later also Russians. 

In the IJtb century the Estoniatis were conquered by the 
Danes and Germans. In time, the German landholders took 
possession of the entire territory of Estonia, and most Estonians 
were reduced to serfdom. 

In 1721 Estonia became part of the Russian empire. Estonian 



^ 
# 



^'' 



Ingrid Ruiitel 



Saarema, 
Islarii 




LATVIA 







•""^^m 




^.*~ 






X 



^.^ 



^. 






The Baltic Nations: Estonia 



feasants remained serfs of the German 
'amiholders until the feudal system was 
ibolished in the middle of the 19th 
:entury. We antiserfdom movement was 
iccompanied by a national awakening 
vith emphasis on Estonian-language 
education and publications and collect- 
'ng folklore, as well as on political rights. 
Jn February 24. 1918. following the 
Russian Revolution, the independent 
Republic of Estonia was proclaimed. The 
var of independence against Russia was 
mded by the Tartu Peace Treaty on 
February 2, 1920. when Russia agreed 
forever to relinquish claims over Estonia. 

Nevertheless, the secret agreement in 
1939 between Hitler and Stalin, the noto- 
ious Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, resulted in 
'he Soviet invasion of Estonia and its 




anne.xation to the Soviet Union in 1941. 
Tl)is was in turn followed by the Nazi 
occupation. Both occupations were 
accompanied by political repression and 
deportations; Estonia lost one-fourth of its 
population. These losses were "replaced," 
in accordance with the Soviet resettlement 
and russifwation policy, by hundreds of 
thousands of colonists from Russia. 
We perestroika led by Gorbachev 
sparked a unique movement, known as 
the Singing Revolution, in Estonia and 
other Baltic states. Tl)e efforts by 
Estonians to restore their independence 
succeeded: on August 20, 1991, the inde- 
pendent state of Estonia was restored. 

Estonia's folklore today falls 
into three basic categories. 
There is a repertoire of con- 
temporary folklore — anec- 
dotes, children's games and 
rhymes, student songs, etc. — which is 
orally transmitted. Traditional music, 
dances, and tales, which live in the mem- 
ories of older people and continue to be 
practiced, are orally transmitted and also 
preserved in archives (the central archive 
for folklore and traditional music being 
the Estonian Folklore Archives in Tartu 
at the Estonian Literary Museum). The 
third form, the so-called secondary tradi- 
tion or folklorism phenomenon, consists 
of traditional heritage that has been 
transmitted through written sources, 
tapes, radio and television programs. It 
takes on a "second" life in modem soci- 
ety, in a new context, and is a resource 
for contemporary amateur and profes- 
sional art practice. 

The preservation of national culture 
and identity has been a vital question in 
Estonian history: nation-building as well 
as our very persistence as a nation have 
been extremely difficult under various 
occupations and subordination to 

/I region where traditional culture has persisted with- 
out disruption is Setumaa. Pictured is a Setu wedding. 
Photo by Kaido Haagen 

Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



Russians and Germans for hundreds of 
years. It continues to be vital in the pre- 
sent, because of the large Russian popu- 
lation in Estonia and because, as 
UNESCO's 'Recommendation on the 
Safeguarding of Folklore" (1989) 
describes, small nations are always more 
threatened by cultural assimilation in 
the situation where the adherence to 
one's own culture "is often eroded by the 
impact of the industrialized culture pur- 
veyed by the m;iss media." 

In two regions of Estonia the living 
tradition of folk song, dance, and music 
has managed to survive with its integrity 
intact up to the present time. These are 
the small island of Kihnu, off the western 
coast of Estonia, and the southeastern 
corner of Estonia, Setumaa. 

In Kihnu, people have preserved the 
ancient wedding ceremonies, singing old 
alliterative verses in Kalevala meter (the 
regilaulud or runosongs), and dancing 
traditional folk dances. Such weddings 
derive from clan wedding ceremonies 
that confirm the contract between two 
lineages. They have pre-Christian origins 
and are essentially similar to the ancient 
wedding rites of other Baltic-Finnic peo- 
ples. The "two-part" wedding is celebrat- 
ed separately at the homes of both the 
bride and the groom; the old ritual songs 
are performed at the main events in 
which both clans participate. 

An important wedding rite is the distri- 
bution of the dowry. The bride's dowry 
chest has to be filled with items made by 
her and her friends, and this tradition 
has supported the persistence of handi- 
craft skills. Also worth noting is that the 
wedding ceremony includes dancing of 
old folk dances, which in other settings 
were long ago replaced by modem 
dances. Only in the last decade have old 
folk dances regained their place along- 
side contemporary dance forms in 
Kihnu's public social events. 

Although the old wedding rites and 
songs have lost their religious and magi- 
cal connotations, they have retained their 

61 



The Baltic Nations: Estonia 



Traditional Culture 
in Estonia 



Ingrid Ruiitel 



/n prehistoric times the Finno-Ugric tribes, including ances- 
tors of the Estoniatis, pofmluted vast areas between the Ural 
Mountains and the Baltic Sea. Kstonian culture developed in 
close contact with the Baits (ancestors of the Indo-European 
Ixitvians and Lithuanians) and other Indo-European peoples: 
Scandinavians, Germans, and later also Russians. 

In the 13th century the Estonians were corufuered by the 
Danes and Germans. In time, the German landholders took 
possession of the entire territory of Estonia, and most Estonians 
were reduced to serfdom. 

In 1721 Estonia became part of the Russian empire. Estonian 



^ 

4 



b^ 



Saarema 
Islan 




The Baltic Nations: Estonia 

peasants remained serfs of the German 
landholders until the feudal system was 
abolished in the middle of the 19th 
century. The antiserfdom movement was 
accompanied by a national awakening 
with emphasis on Estonian-language 
education and publications and collect- 
ing folklore, as well as on political rights. 
On February 24, 1 91 S. following the 
Russian Revolution, the independent 
Republic of Estonia was proclaimed. The 
war of independence against Russia was 
ended by the Tartu Peace Treaty on 
February 2, 1920, when Russia agreed 
forever to relinquish claims over Estonia. 

Nevertheless, the secret agreement in 
1939 betweeti Hitler and Stalin, the noto- 
rious Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, resulted in 
the Soviet invasion of Estonia and its 




annexation to the Soviet Union in 1941. 
This was in turn followed by the Nazi 
occupation. Both occupations were 
accompanied by political repression and 
deportations: Estonia lost one-fourth of its 
population. Tl)ese losses were "replaced,'^ 
in accordance with the Soviet resettlement 
and russification policy, by hundreds of 
thousands of colonists from Russia. 
Ihe perestroika led by Gorbachev 
sparked a unique movement, known as 
the Singing Revolution, in Estonia and 
other Baltic states. We efforts by 
Estonians to restore their independence 
succeeded; on August 20. 1991. the inde- 
pendent state of Estonia was restored. 

Estonia's folklore today falls 
into three basic categories. 
There is a repertoire of con- 
temporary folklore — anec- 
dotes, children's games and 
rhymes, student songs, etc. — which is 
orally transmitted. Traditional music, 
dances, and tales, which live in the mem- 
ories of older people and continue to be 
practiced, are orally transmitted and also 
preserved in archives (the central archive 
for folklore and traditional music being 
the Estonian Folklore Archives in Tartu 
at the Estonian Literary Museum). The 
third form, the so-called secondary tradi- 
tion or folklorism phenomenon, consists 
of traditional heritage that has been 
transmitted through written sources, 
tapes, radio and television programs. It 
takes on a "second" life in modern soci- 
ety, in a new context, and is a resource 
for contemporary amateur and profes- 
sional art practice. 

The preservation of national culture 
and identity has been a vital question in 
Estonian history: nation-building as well 
as our very persistence as a nation have 
been extremely difficult under various 
occupations and subordination to 

A region where traditional culture has persisted with- 
out disruption is Setumaa. Pictured is a Setu wedding. 
Photo by Kaido Haagen 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Russians and Germans for hundreds of 
years. It continues to be vital in the pre- 
sent, because of the large Russian popu- 
lation in Estonia and because, as 
UNESCO's "Recommendation on the 
Safeguarding of Folklore" (1989) 
describes, small nations are always more 
threatened by cultural sissimilation in 
the situation where the adherence to 
one's own culture "is often eroded by the 
impact of the industrialized culture pur- 
veyed by the nuLss media." 

In two regions of Estonia the living 
tradition of folk song, dance, and music 
has managed to survive with its integrity 
intact up to the present time. These are 
the small island of Kihnu, off the western 
coiist of Estonia, and the southeastern 
corner of Estonia, Setumaa. 

In Kihnu, people have preserved the 
ancient wedding ceremonies, singing old 
alliterative verses in Kalevala meter (the 
regilaulud or runosongs), and dancing 
traditional folk dances. Such weddings 
derive from clan wedding ceremonies 
that confirm the contract between two 
lineages. They have pre-Christian origins 
and are essentially similar to the ancient 
wedding rites of other Baltic-Finnic peo- 
ples. The "two-part" wedding is celebrat- 
ed separately at the homes of both the 
bride and the groom; the old ritual songs 
are performed at the main events in 
which both clans participate. 

An important wedding rite is the distri- 
bution of the dowry. The bride's dowry 
chest has to be filled with items made by 
her and her friends, and this tradition 
has supported the persistence of handi- 
craft skills. Also worth noting is that the 
wedding ceremony includes dancing of 
old folk dances, which in other settings 
were long ago replaced by modem 
dances. Only in the last decade have old 
folk dances regained their place along- 
side contemporary dance forms in 
Kihnu's public social events. 

Although the old wedding rites and 
songs have lost their religious and magi- 
cal connotations, they have retained their 

61 



The Baltic Nations: Estonia 




ABOVE In 1989, to 
protest Soviet 
occupation, Baltic 
people joined hands 
to form a human chain 
that stretched from 
Estonia, through Latvia, 
to Lithuania. Photo by 
Peeter Langovits 

RIGHT St. John's Day 

celebration on Kihnu 

Island, Estonia. Photo by 

Veera Nazarova 



symbolic significance. They promote the 
importance and festiveness of the wed- 
ding for the bridal couple and their fami- 
lies, help to prepare the bride for her new 
social status, and remind the newlyweds 
about their duties and responsibilities. 

The main bearers of tradition in Kihnu 
have been women. Kihnu men long ago 
discarded their traditional attire and 
songs, and the playing of traditional 
musical instruments, which used to be 
men's domain, has today been adopted 
by women (mainly young girls). Sea- 
farers since time immemorial, the men 
have brought innovations back home. 
The openness of modem society has fur- 

62 




ther influenced the culture on Kihnu 
island. Radio, television, tape recorders, 
and recently also video have become a 
part of daily life, disseminating the glob- 
al commercial culture; passive listening 
has replaced active participation. Many 
Kihnu youth study on the mainland, 
where they take up residence after they 
graduate. In summertime they visit their 
native island and bring forms of contem- 
porary urban culture with them. Never- 
theless, when at home in Kihnu, girls 
wear traditional striped skirts (the fabric 
is always woven at home, even if the 
looms are borrowed) and sing and dance 
old Kihnu songs and dances. One of the 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



remarkable characteristics of Kihnu cul- 
ture is its ability to integrate various ele- 
ments over the course of time without 
losing its basic substance. The new has 
not completely superseded the old. 

Performing groups on the mainland 
have adopted some Kihnu songs, dances, 
and instrumental melodies in their 
repertoire. Kihnu folk songs have also 
inspired professional composers. Thus 
Kihnu culture, though mainly in its 
newer forms, is perceived as an integral 
component of Estonian national culture. 

Organized folklore groups have 
become important mediators between 
traditional and contemporary culture; 
young people accept such a medium for 
learning and perpetuating the cultural 
heritage of their parents. The most 
famous such group today is Kihnumua, 
directed by Katrin Kumpan. Performers 
in the group represent a mb( of genera- 
tions. Members of Kihnumua are fre- 
quently invited to weddings to perform 
the role of traditional wedding singers. 
Wedding songs are led by the older 
women in the group; girls sing as a cho- 
rus and assist the brides. 

Another region where traditional cul- 
ture has persisted without disruption is 
Setumaa, a relatively isolated area whose 
population is Eastern Orthodox. Its 
ancient folk song style has been pre- 
served, and the elderly women are still 
masters of their local singing language 
to the extent that they are able to impro- 
vise new songs in the traditional manner. 
Also important in Setu are the village 
feasts — kirmased — which sometimes 
coincide with a traditional calendar cele- 
bration such as Easter. Setumaa is the 
only region of Estonia where death 
laments and rituals of ancestor cults, 
such as a commemorative meal on a 
grave, have been preserved. 

Setu singing deviates considerably 
from other Estonian folk singing, partic- 
ularly in its polyphony and performance 
style. The Setu dialect is likewise unique, 
even incomprehensible to a northern 

1998 



The Baltic Nations: Estonia 




Estonian. While being an essential bearer 
of identity for the Setus, Setu folk songs, 
like the culture as a whole, strike other 
Estonians as strange. This strangeness is 
sometimes a source of embarrassment to 
Setus and has caused serious problems 
for those who have migrated to towns 
and tried to maintain their identity'. 

A performer and researcher of Setu 
culture, Oie Sarv, who is the grand- 
daughter of a great Setu singer, Anne 
Vabarna, writes: 

In the environment where I live, there 
occurs desperate aspiration to mold all 
people alike, to level any deviation. The 
inside wants to fight against it, but 
unfortunately I miss the helping and 
caring support of my own culture. There 
are a lot of people like me in Tallinn 
[the capital of Estonia] and elsewhere, 
who are not satisfied with the present 
situation but wish to preserve their 
ancestral culture, in order to transmit it 
in turn to their own children. Those 
phenomena which in the past func- 
tioned naturally and implicitly should 
be attended at present consciously. . . 
(Sarv 1994:69). 

1998 



National song festivals are large affairs with the participants numbering in the tens of thousands, and the 
audiences in the hundreds of thousands. Pictured is the 1990 All-Estonian Song Festival. Photo by Gustav German 



Organized amateur cultural activities 
have provided urban Setus with such an 
opportunity to consciously practice their 
heritage. Setu ensembles of singers are 
active both in Setumaa and in cities 
where Setus have settled. They come 
together at the leelopaev festival every 
three years and various other events. 
Their main objective is not to perform 
for an audience, especially for outsiders 
to the community. More important is the 
interaction and communication that take 
place among members of the community 
and foster the preservation and mainte- 
nance of cultural identity and unity. 

The attitude that was cultivated in the 
Soviet period, and that unfortunately is 
gaining ground in the current open-mar- 
ket society — the degradation of local 
cultural heritage, and traditional culture 
in general, as something obsolete and 
worthless — gives an enormous impetus 
to the bearers of the culture themselves, 
the young especially, to underestimate it. 
What is promoted via mass media chan- 

SmiTHSONIAN FOLKIIFE FESTIVAL 



nels is always more popular. 

Still, during the last decade, recogni- 
tion of local cultural traditions has 
grown and consequently enhanced the 
appreciation of the native culture by its 
bearers both in Kihnu and in Setu. But it 
is impossible to revive all the old forms, 
and noticeable changes have taken place 
in those that have been retained. 
Alongside and/or replacing the old ritu- 
als and customs, new feasts have arisen 
in which old songs and dances are used 
with changed functions and in changed 
forms. 

In other parts of Estonia, folk songs, 
music, and dances have spread mainly in 
secondary forms. 

Among amateur folk groups are those 
which directly carry on the primary tra- 
dition, i.e., at least some of their mem- 
bers are authentic tradition bearers and 
teach younger participants, as is the case 
with the Kihnu and Setu groups. Other 
folk music and dance groups perfomi the 
so-called secondary tradition. They either 

63 



The Baltic Nations: Estonia 



take examples from authentic folklore 
and try to perform them in the most gen- 
uine manner (although the primary tra- 
dition has been broken and the reper- 
toire is learned through recorded 
sources), or they perform folklore 



The preservation of national 
culture and identity has been a 
vital question in Estonian history. 



arrangements in a more stylized, 
up-to-date form. 

Authentic folklore groups, which began 
to be formed in Estonia in the 1960s, 
were rather rare. The groups who per- 
formed stylized arrangements and new 
creations "in folk style" were preferred at 
official festivals and were also chosen to 
represent the national culture abroad. 
The ideology at the time aimed to merge 
the nationalities and create new entities 
— the Soviet people and the Soviet cul- 
ture. Openly expressing one's national 
self-consciousness and ethnic identity, 
even through the native culture, was 
regarded as "nationalistic" and was pro- 
hibited. "Nationalism" was to be replaced 
with "Soviet patriotism," which had to be 
demonstrated at all official festivities. 
Every festival and even concert program 
had to be approved by appropriate state 
organs. 

The new, choreographed "folk dances" 
were performed to the accompaniment of 
special folk music arrangements as well 
as new works by contemporary com- 
posers. The so-called folk instrument or 
folk music orchestras might contain tra- 



64 



ditional as well as classical musical 
instruments and always played from 
written scores. Later, especially 
in the 1970s, the so-called kiikikapeUid, 
"country orchestras," became popular, 
representing more spontaneous music- 
making and hav- 
ing stronger tradi- 
tional roots. Many 
skilled folk musi- 
cians, true carriers 
of traditional 
music, participated 
(and still participate) in such small 
orchestras; they were not able to perform 
as soloists at public festivities for a long 
time, because their style of music-mak- 
ing was not officially recognized. Only in 
the last decade have authentic folk musi- 
cians become appreciated anew. A new 
generation of folk musicians has 
appeared who follow traditional perform- 
ing styles and teach them to other young 
people. 

In spite of the fact that the inner quali- 
ties of traditional culture were not recog- 
nized during the Soviet period, that 
authentic folk art was forced into alien 
frames, its essence and meaning greatly 
distorted, even the officially accepted 
folkloric forms served as a means of 
national self-expression. The same has 
been true in the case of large song festi- 
vals — the first of which was held in 
Estonia in 1869 — at which numerous 
amateur choirs from all over the country 
— tens of thousands of singers — per- 
form and which hundreds of thousands 
of people attend. A sense of national and 
cultural identity and the need to mani- 
fest it have been carried through the 
course of history of all these festivities, 
regardless of what and whom they had to 
be devoted to officially. 

Professional composers such as Alo 
Mattiisen attempted in the 1980s to 
introduce into rock music elements of 
folk music — the monotonously repeat- 
ed melody that lasts one verse line, per- 
formed by a lead singer and chorus — 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



while the arrangement, sound, and 
singing style of the singer were those of 
rock. These songs were performed 
together with old national songs during 
the recent "Singing Revolution" and 
became very popular at political rallies. 
The lines by the lead singer were repeat- 
ed by thousands of people, the majority 
of whom had never before sung old tra- 
ditional songs nor been rock music fans. 
(The singing of old folk songs by a lead 
singer and chorus had also been some- 
what popular during the Soviet era 
thanks to folklore ensembles like 
Leegajus and Hellero, but also thanks to 
a well-known composer of a number of 
folk song arrangements, Veljo Tormis, 
who has promoted such a singing style 
while performing as a lead singer him- 
self at various gatherings.) At the 1990 
Song Festival, which was organized dur- 
ing the process of restoring indepen- 
dence, barriers between performers and 
the audience crumbled, and all the par- 
ticipants joined as one rejoicing mass of 
people, singing old and new popular 
songs and dancing spontaneously. 

Festivals of authentic folklore — local, 
all-Estonian, and international — which 
started some 15 years ago, represent a 
new trend in the Estonian folklore move- 
ment. The first local festivals were Viru 
Saru in northern Estonia and Setu 
Leelopaevad and Viljandimaa Virred in 
southern Estonia. Their goal has been to 
bridge the ancient cultural heritage of 
their district and contemporary culture 
by acquainting people with authentic 
traditional customs, songs, dances, 
instrumental music, games, and tales, 
popularizing traditional handicrafts, and 
disseminating the folklore of other 



19981 



The Baltic Nations: Estonia 



Finno-Ugrians and other cultures around 
the Baltic Sea. 

I The same philosophy lies behind other 
local festivals (in recent years their num- 
ber has noticeably grown) as well as the 
international folklore festival Baltica, the 
largest folklore event in the Baltic states. 
This annual festival, begun in 1987, is 
organized by the Baltic National Com- 
mittee of CIOFF (Conseil International des 
Organisations de Festivals de Folklore et 
d'Arts Traditionnels) and is held in the 
three Baltic states on a rotating basis. 
Organizers first and foremost value inner 
Freedom and naturalness in presentation, 
not stage efficiency. In addition to pre- 
serving, reviving, and developing national 
and regional cultural traditions, the 
Baltica festival aims as well to promote 
contacts with other countries and nations. 

The folklore movement in Estonia and 
in other Baltic countries is one of the 
reflections of the worldwide folklore 
movement of the last decades. On the 
one hand it is connected with the ideals 
of national identity, of retaining the his- 
torical and cultural memory of nations; 
on the other, with the ideals of cultural 
pluralism. 

Today the international exchange of 
Folklore groups has become rather exten- 
sive, as there are numerous festivals in 
different countries where Estonian 
groups participate, and foreign groups 
often visit local festivals arranged in 
Estonia. One of the new international 
Festivals was started in 1993 in Viljandi 
by young graduates of the folk music 
department established at the Viljandi 
Cultural College in 1991- Their folk 
music groups, folk music summer 
schools, and festivals have become very 
popular, especially among young people. 

The essential purpose of international 
festivals, as we see it, is to widen the cul- 
tural competence of the Estonian audi- 
ence, to learn to understand different 
cultures, and through all this to create a 
more tolerant society. This way we may 
also better comprehend the values of our 

1998 



own traditional culture. Understanding 
and respect towards strangers together 
with preserving and ensuring of one's 
own identity helps to create harmony; it 
guarantees the right of all nations and 
cultures to permanent existence in a lin- 
guistically, culturally, ethnically diverse, 
and interesting world. 

Work Cited and Suggested Reading 

Koiva, Ottilie, and Riiutel, Ingrid, eds. and comps/'/fZ/inu regilaulud" (Kihnu wedding 

songs). In Vana kannel (The ancient kannel). Monumenta Estoniae Antiquae, 

vol. 7, part 1 . Tartu: Eesti Keele Instituut, 1 997. 
Pino, Veera, and Sarv,Vaike."Sefusumu/f/tu(yi-H"(The Setu death dirges). Ars Musicae 

Popularis. Tallinn; Eesti Keele Instituut, 1981-1982. (with Russian and English 

summaries) 
Riiutel, lngrid."Estonian Folk Music Layers in the Context of Ethnic Relations." Paper 

presented at Congressus Octavus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum Jyvaskyla, 

10-15 August 1995. In Orationes plenariae et conspectus quinquennales, pan 1, 

ed. Heikki Leskinen. Jyvaskyla, Finland, 1995, 117-141. 
Sarv, 0."Connections between family and folk culture in modern times." Abstract of 

paper presented at the Nordic, Baltic, Finno-Ugric Conference: Family as the 

Tradition Carrier, Vdsu, Estonia, 25-29 May 1994. Tallinn: Folklore Department, 

Institute of Estonian Language, 1 994, 68-69. 
Vissel,Anu."fesf;/tflryflse/flu/udl-IV" (Estonian herding songs). Ars Musicae Popularis. 

Tallinn: Eesti Keele Instituut, 1982-1992. (with Russian and English summaries) 



Suggested Listening 



Pahnapuu, Veera. Sefutoe/flu/e (Setu folk songs). Comp.Vaike Sarv. Forte FA 0084 

(Tallinn). Cassette. 
Setu Songs. Global Music Centre, Mipu Music MIPUCD 104. 
Suu laulab, siida muretseb. . . (an anthology of Estonian folk songs). Comp. I. Riiiitel. 

Forte (Tallinn). CD (with English and Russian summaries) 



Itigriii Riiutel, director of the Folk Music 
Department of the Institute of Estonian 
Language, holds degrees in folklore, tradi- 
tional music, and philological sciences. She 
has studied and collected the folk music of 
Estonians and other Finno-Ugric peoples 
and published 200 scholarly works. She is a 
metnber of the scientific board of the Inter- 
national Institute of Traditional Music in 
Berlin and a liaUion member of the Inter- 
national Council for Traditional Music. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



65 



The Baltic Nations: Latvia 



Latvian Traditional 
Culture and Music 

Zatvia is a northern European countty on the eastern shore of 
the Baltic Sea. with a territory of 24.950 sq. miles. It is gen- 
erally flat and forested, with higher elevations in the northeast 
and east, where there are numerous lakes. Tlje original inhabi- 
tants were Indo-European-speaking Bait tribes and Einno- 
Ugric f.irs. of whom only a small group has survived on the 
northwestern shore and in some towns. I^tvia's present popula- 
tion is more than two and a half million, of whom almost a 
million live in its capital, Riga. 

For 300 years after the German Crusaders^ conquest in the 
13th century. Latvia and Estonia were ruled — under the 
name of Livonia — by the Livonian Order and the Catholic 
Church. Livonia was dissolved in 1561, and three parts of what 
is noiv Latvia developed separately: Kurzeme as the Duchy of 
Courland: Vidzeme as apart of the Latvian-Estonian province 
Liefland. ruled by the Swedes: and Latgale as a part of the 
Polish-Lithuanian state. After the Russian conquest in the 18th 
century they became three separate provinces within the 
Russian empire. Latvia achieved its independence in 1918, 



Valdis Muktupavels 





The Baltic Nations: Latvia 



uniting the three distinctive regions. 
Latvia was occupied by and incorporated 
into the USSR in 1940, and regained its 
independence in 1991. 

Christianity reached all social strata 
only after the Reformation, while some 
pagan rites and practices survived into 
the 20th centur)'. Before World War II a 
majority of Latvians (64 percent) were 
Lutherans. Twenty-six percent of the 
countr)''s population — only Latgale 
and a small enclave in western Kurzeme 

— were Catholic. Haifa centur)' later 
these two main confessional groups were 
almost equal in number People's sense 
of religious identity has tended to become 
stronger in the 1990s. 

ne iMtvian language has changed 
very little over the centuries, and together 
with Lithuanian it is regarded as a sur- 
viving dialect of early hido-Europeati. 
There are, in fact, two literary language 
traditions: Latvian, which has developed 
on the basis of the central and southern 
dialects and has been the language of the 
Protestant Church, and Latgalian, the 
language of the Catholic Church. In addi- 
tion, the Finuo-llgric Livs have produced 
a significant body of published materials 
in their almost extinct language. 

Dainas and Singing Traditions 

Major differences in musi- 
cal style and repertoire 
exist between Protestant 
Vidzeme and Kurzeme on 
the one hand and 
Catholic Latgale on the other. On the 
whole, traditional singing is preserved 
much better in Latgale, while modem 
lyrical and other popular styles are com- 
mon in most of Vidzeme and Kurzeme. 
Despite the significant differences, howev- 
er, there is a remarkable uniting entity 

— dainas. Daina — the basic fonn of 
the Latvian folk song text — is a short, 
self-contained quatrain of two non- 
rhyming couplets; when sung, the couplet 
or each line of text is usually repeated. 

Dainas are sung as accompaniments 

1998 



both to the ordinary events of daily life 
and to special events and communal cel- 
ebrations. As such, they only rarely tell 
stories, but rather comment on per- 
formed rituals, express feelings, or con- 
dense folk wisdom into pithy epigrams. 

Dainas contain many mythological 
images, episodes, and motifs. Tlie court- 
ship and wedding of cosmic deities, such 
as the sun and the moon, are reflected in 
some rather extensive song cycles. 

The first recordings of dainas are from 
the 17th century; more systematic collec- 
tion began in the second half of the 19th 
century. The compilation of Latvian folk 
songs by Krisjanis Barons, Latvju dainas, 
appeared in 1894-1915 and comprised 
about 300,000 song texts and their 
variants in six volumes. 

"When They Sing, 

They Are HowUng As Wolves" 

This extraordinary description by 
Sebastian Miinster, author of the 16th- 
century book Cosmographia about the 
singing in Livonia, is, in fact, the first 
written evidence of a unique drone 
singing tradition which is still practiced 
in certain areas, especially in the suiti 
region in Kurzeme. Singers are any 
group of people, among whom there is at 
least one recognized soloist, who starts 
the singing. Usually after half of the 
four-line stanza is sung, the counter- 
singer repeats it, while a vocal drone part 
is performed by vilcejas, "those who 
drawl, pull (a tone).'" The drone is sung 
on the vowel e (as in "there") with a 
sharp, intense voice. 

This vocal drone is closely connected 
to the so-called recited style, which is 
one of the two basic singing styles in 
Latvian folk song. The recited style is 
characterized by the domination of text 
over melody, and the respective songs are 
part of traditional events and celebra- 
tions; the recited style occurs in family 
celebration songs, especially at weddings, 
in lullabies, in a good portion of calen- 
dar celebration songs, and in tunes asso- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



ciated with work in the fields. During 
singing, a quatrain is followed rather 
freely by other quatrains. The choice of 
the following dainas is up to the soloist; 
it depends on his/her ability, skillfulness, 
and knowledge, as well as the context in 
which the singing takes place. Though 
each quatrain is short, the singing can 
go on for hours. 

In contrast, the "sung" songs are per- 
formed mostly solo, but other singers can 
join as well. The melody of the sung 
songs, with its range often exceeding an 
octave, is as important as the text. 

From the Cradle to the Grave 

In Latvia's traditional culture two ritual 
cycles — seasonal rituals and rituals 
marking the progression of family mem- 
bers through major stages of life — were 
intended to assure wealth, fertility, and 
continuity. Many themes and symbols of 
these cycles overlapped, in particular the 
sun. Festivals of the calendar cycle are 
linked to the major stations of the sun 
— the summer and winter solstices and 
the spring and fall equinoxes. (The world 
ispasaule, "under the sun"; after death 
the human soul goes singing to aizsaule, 
"beyond the sun," or to vina saule, "that 
sun, the other sun.") 

One of the most developed vocal gen- 
res — ligotnes — is connected with Jani, 
the midsummer solstice celebration on 
June 23. Janis is the central mythological 
figure of this orgiastic midsummer night 
feast, the celebration of which combines 
features of solar, phallic, and fertility 
rites. The singing of ligotnes can start a 
fortnight before and can continue a week 
after midsummer, but the culmination is 
reached on the evening and the subse- 
quent night of the celebration. Melodies 
of the songs vary from place to place, 
and several different melodies might be 
used in one place during the celebration. 

In rural areas singing accompanies 
autumn work in the fields and vakare- 
sana, communal spinning and sewing on 
autumn and winter evenings. It is also 

67 



The Baltic Nations: Latvia 



The Livs 

Dainis Stalls 

The Livs, an ancient Finno-Ugric people, today live in various concen- 
trations in the country of Latvia. Known as White Indians (baltie 
indidni) in reference to American Indians, with whom they believe they 
share some cultural attributes and historical experiences, they strive to 
preserve their language and traditions. 

Some of these traditions are extraordinarily beautiful, such as the Rite 
of Spring, which is held at the top of the highest sandy elevation on the 
seashore.The tradition reflects the belief that in waking returning 
migrant birds with special songs and rituals on the first day of spring, 
Livs communicate with the souls of their ancestors, which have been 
embodied in tiny birds called tshitshorljinlists.W\lh the birds' return also 
returns hope. 

The Livs may have inhabited Latvian territory for more than 5,000 
years. The earliest records of the Livs are inscriptions on 7th- and 8th- 
century Scandinavian rune stones. Artifacts uncovered at grave sites 
attest to the Livs' skills as craftsmen, makers of tools, weapons, and 
builders of ships. Letters and chronicles mention the prosperity that 
existed in Liv-dominated regions around the 12th century. This relative 
prosperity, however, attracted marauders and pillagers; in the early 1 3th 
century the first Teutonic Crusaders subjugated the indigenous people 
in the name of Christianity, acquiring lands and creating a ruling class 
which prevailed in the territory of Latvia for over 700 years. During 
these centuries the majority of the Livs died in wars, of bubonic plague, 
and of hardship. 

After the abolition of serfdom in the 19th century, the rebirth of the 
Liv nation, who then numbered 3,000, began. The first Liv-language 
books and the first Liv dictionary were published. But after World War I, 
only 1,500 Livs remained. 

Latvia's declaration of independence in 1918 inspired a second Liv 
renaissance. Livs organized themselves in communities and established 
choral societies and associations for Livs and friends of Livs. They pro- 
duced a newspaper and built a cultural center. Along the Latvian shore 
in the Kurzeme region, some local schools began to teach the Liv 
language. 

The renaissance was disrupted by the 1940-1941 invasion of Latvia 
by the Soviet Union. The Liv societies were dissolved, the cultural center 
closed, and language teaching banned. Deportations to Siberian gulags 
and flight to the West reduced the Liv population in Latvia by more than 
half. During their 50 years of occupation, the Soviets made every effort 
to ban Livs from the dozen or so fishing villages in the northern part of 
Kurzeme that were their ancestral homes. Fishing boats and equipment 
were destroyed, schools closed, and the people evacuated to all parts of 
Latvia. Only at certain Liv folk festivals could the scattered members of 
the nation meet and celebrate with their music and dance ensembles. 




Traditional Liv singers. Photo by Imants Predelis 

With the collapse of the Soviet regime, the region along the Baltic 
seashore was returned to the Livs; they were recognized officially as an 
ancient founding member of the Latvian people in the new laws of the 
republic. 

The prospect of keeping Liv alive as a spoken language is rather 
bleak. No more than several dozen people speak it and only one family, 
mine, is known to speak it at home. Still, the Livs can hold their sacred 
rites by the seashore, communicate with the souls of their ancestors, and 
celebrate their traditions with their relatives and friends. Livs, today 
numbering 500, can freely utter their ancient pledge, "M/nofl un Livli. 
Min rou un min ouf (I am a Liv. My people is my honor). 



Dainis Stalls is a folldore specialist for ttie Latvian Etiinographical 
Open- Air Museum and was a member ofttie Latvian Parliament from 
1993 to 1995. He fias been a l<ey activist witfiin the Liv community for 
many years. 



68 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



The Baltic Nations: Latvia 



an indispensable part of all ritual and 
religious events. After a christening in 
church, singing took place at home 
during a feast, which in southwestern 
Kurzeme was followed by didisaiia, ritual 
swinging and rocking of the baby by all 
participants in the celebration, accompa- 
nied by special songs. Rural weddings 
started in the bride's house with a 
farewell party, at which girlfriends of the 
bride would sing. Since there should be 
much noise and joy after the marriage 
ceremony, singing and dancing were 
essential parts of the celebration. The 
central musical event at the wedding was 
apdziedasanas,''smgmg back and forth" 
— antiphonal, humorous, competitive 
singing, involving two opposing groups 
of singers (e.g., boys and girls, relatives 
of the bride and bridegroom, members of 
the household and guests); each group 
sang in turn, teasing or making fun of 
the other, largely improvising the words. 
At about midnight, when the bride's 
crown was taken off and replaced with a 
woman's headdress, all participants em- 
braced the new couple in a circle and 
sang songs called micosanas dziesmas to 
mark this particular event. 

Of music accompanying stages of the 
life cycle, that for funerals bears the 
strongest relation to Christian ceremony; 
it is mostly psalms and parts of the litur- 
gy that are sung in the house, on the way 
to the cemetery, and by the grave. The 
funeral is preceded by vakesana, praying 
and singing by the corpse the night 
before the funeral, a custom which was 
still observed throughout the country 
until the end of the 19th century but 
now is practiced only in Latgale. 

In addition to the music perfomied in 
ritual contexts, both men and women 
sing at the table during feasts, in pubs, 
and at other social occasions. Courtship 
and wedding songs are the most com- 
mon, but certain mythological, soldiers', 
sailors', humorous, and drinking songs 
are important as well. 

1998 



Singing Bones and Golden Strings 

A popular legend tells of the magic 
power of pipes that are made from a reed 
growing on a grave. When played, those 
"singing bones" reveal the reason for the 
death and return the person to life. 

Various bark or 
clay whistles, 
wooden flutes and 
reeds, hornpipes, 
wooden and birch- 
bark trumpets 
were made and 
played by shep- 
herds, not only for 

entertainment but to collect the herd in 
the morning and gather it in the 
evening. Hornpipes were used to calm 
the herd or to direct its movement. Horns 
and trumpets announced forthcoming 
weddings and signaled important 
moments of the wedding ritual. Goat- 
horns, usually with three finger-holes, 
were played during communal work 
in the fields or at matchmaking 
ceremonies. 

The making and playing of instru- 
ments — except for shepherds' instru- 
ments, which boys and girls made — 
was traditionally a male activity. 
However, rattle-sticks (trideksnis, a wood- 
en stick with hanging bells and jingles) 
and eglite (a fir-tree top decorated with 
colored feathers and with hanging bells 
and jingles) were used by women to ac- 
company singing in wedding or winter 
solstice rituals. 

The instrument most characteristic of 
Latvia and significant in Latvian cul- 
ture is the kokles — a box zither with 
five to twelve or more strings that is 
supposed to be the instrument of God 
(compare it to the kannel in Estonia, 
the kankles in Lithuania, and the kan- 
tele in Finland). The tree for its wood 
must be cut when someone has died 
but is not yet buried. To emphasize the 
special value and importance of the 
instrument, it is traditionally named 
golden strings. It has an Apollonian, 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



heavenly aura and a fine, deeply touch- 
ing tone quality. 

The violin became very popular in the 
19th century, first as a solo and then as 
an ensemble instrument with zither and 
accordion. The dominance of the accor- 



Daina — the basic form of the 
Latvian folk song text — is a 
short, self-contained quatrain of 
two nonrhyming couplets. 



dion increased in the second half of this 
century, and it is still the main instru- 
ment used for traditional dance music. 

A Singing Nation 

More than 200 years ago Latvian music 
was mostly peasants' music, but various 
kinds of popular music were developing. 
Following the abolition of serfdom, 
Latvian social life blossomed in the mid- 
19th century. Singing societies emerged 
all over the country and sought choral 
works that represented the spirit of the 
emerging feeling of unity and "Latvian- 
ness." Four-part harmonizations of 
Latvian folk songs served this purpose 
well, and so more and more composers 
used folk materials as a source for their 
arrangements. 

Choral singing culminated in a large 
musical event — the Song Festival. The 
first Latvian Song Festival, held in 1873, 
became a political event of the first 
importance, symbolizing the reawaken- 
ing and unity of the new nation. 
Subsequent festivals involved thousands 
of participants and dramatically concen- 
trated national aspirations. After World 
War II the Song Festival was reinterpret- 
ed in terms of Soviet ideology and was 
successfully incorporated into the 
regime-supported musical life. 



69 



The Baltic Nations: Latvia 

Dainas 

The noted folklore group Skandinieki sang the 
following daina in July 1988, as they led the 
Baltica folklore festival procession past the KGB 
building in Riga, Latvia. On this occasion the 
three flags of independent Estonia, Latvia, and 
Lithuania were carried in an open procession 
under Soviet rule for the first time. It is one of 
the events which sparked the "Singing 
Revolution." 



BELOW The organizers of the 1993 Song Festival, 
Riga, Latvia. Photo by Leons Balodis 



The song is a traditional magic charm to 

ward off evil: 

Lai bij vardi, kam bij vardi 
Man pasami stipri vardi; 
Daugavinu notureju, 
Mietu duru vidind. 

Sita mani, dura mani, 
Ka ozola blukenl; 
Neiesita, neiedura, 
Kd terauda gabald. 

Visi mezi guni dega, 
Visi ceji atslegam; 
Ar Dievina palJdziriu 
Visam gribu cauri tikt. 




Bass Hornpipes and 
Artificial Braids 

In the period between the world wars, 
professional and popular musical life in 
the cities and countryside was vibrant. 
Traditional music had lost its signifi- 
cance in most of the country, although 
it continued to exist in remote districts, 
especially in Latgale and western 
Kurzeme. Thus the need for national 
music intensified, and in addition to 
choral activities, a variety of other 
phenomena developed on the basis of 
traditional culture. Efforts were made to 

70 



"improve" the old, forgotten instru- 
ments, especially the kokles, and to cre- 
ate folk instrument ensembles. 

Though the Soviet occupation in 1940 
and World War II interrupted such 
activities, the "modernization" of instru- 
ments continued in the postwar period 
and resulted in soprano, alto, tenor, and 
bass modifications of kokles, hornpipes, 
and box-shaped fiddles. Following the 
Soviet pattern, numerous kokles ensem- 
bles emerged, along with folk song and 
dance ensembles, and a state folk music 
instrument orchestra existed from 1947 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



I have words, 

I have strong words — 

I can drive a stake into the ground 

And stop the Daugava River. 

They beat me, they stabbed me 
Like a wooden stump; 
They didn't hit me, they didn't stab me 
Like a piece of steel. 

All the forests are aflame, 
All the roads are locked; 
With God's help 
I want to pass through it all. 

until 1961. Uniform, stylized folk cos- 
tumes, girls' wreaths, and artificial 
braids became the emblems of all those 
groups. The folk music orchestra never 
gained much public support in Latvia, 
while the kokles ensembles, like the folk 
song and dance ensembles, were quite 
well accepted. Even in the 1990s those 
ensembles are to some extent recog- 
nized as an expression of "national 
music" or "national dance." 

When the Singing 
Revolution Is Over 

The folklore movement as a socially sig- 
nificant body of activities, aimed at the 
preservation and dissemination of the 
treasures of Latvian folklore, started in 
the late 1970s, a bit later than in the 
other Baltic countries. It concentrated 
on traditional music, dance, customs, 
crafts, and especially on their archaic or 
authentic forms. Numerous folklore 
groups — among which Skandinieki 
was the first — folklore clubs, and 
workshops emerged at the end of the 
1970s and the beginning of the 1980s. 
Folklorists arranged dance parties, 
singing, instrument-playing and danc- 
ing workshops. As the attention of folk- 
lorists was directed not towards music 
per se but towards music as a part of 

1998 



The Baltic Nations: Latvia 

celebration or ritual, certain efforts were 
undertaken to preserve or renew the ritu- 
als themselves. 

The cultivation of renewed ethnic music 
traditions in the 1980s took on the dimen- 
sion of a national resistance movement, 
in opposition to Soviet totalitarianism and 
russification. The most striking expression 
of this movement was the folklore festival 
Baltica '88. The movement culminated in 
the "Singing Revolution," a fomi of non- 
violent resistance against the occupying 
regime, consisting of huge, peaceful meet- 
ings and much singing of popular and 
folk songs. Nevertheless, ethnic music did 
not become a symbol of the restored iden- 
tity of national music, and in the 1990s its 
influence has decreased more and more. 

Today, while mainstream folklore 
ensembles show and teach traditional 
music "as it used to be," a different atti- 
tude has emerged among other individu- 
als and groups — a "post-folklore" that 
leaves space for rather free interpretation 
of traditional music influenced by rock, 
minimalism, ethnic music of other parts 
of the world, or other forms. Among 
these groups are Ilgi and Rasa. These 
various perspectives enrich the process 
through which Latvian people are revi- 
talizing their musical heritage. 

Valdis Miiktuparels is a lecturei- and elhno- 
musicologist at the Cmtrefor Ethnic Studies. 
University oflMti'ia and Latinan Culture 
Academy. His research and publication.'! hare 
focused on the field of organology and the 
traditional culture of Latvia and other Baltic 
lands. He has contributed to the revival of 
several Latvian traditional musical instru- 
metits, like the kokles, bagpipes, pipes, horns, 
mouth harp, and hurdy-gurdy. He is the 
artistic director of the Rasa group and has 
performed as a kokles and bagpipe soloist, 
as well as with other musicians in the Baltics 
and around the world 




A modem kokles 

orchestra. 

Photo by Imants Predelis 



Suggested Reading 

Apkalns, Longins.'Tolk music." In [ofwfl,ed.VitoVitautsSimanis. St. Charles:The Book Latvia, Inc., 1984. 
Boiko, Martin.'latvian Ethnomusicology: Past and Present." Yearbook for Traditional Music (1994):47-65. 
Brambats, Karl."The Vocal Drone in the Baltic Countries: Problems of Chronology and Prowmnce." Journal of Baltic 

SfMes14(1983):24-34. 
Braun, Joachim. "Die Anfaenge des Musikinstrumentenspiels in Lettland."/M(y5/A(/es Osfem 6 (1971): 88-125. 
Jaremko,Christina."The Baltic Folk Zithers: An Ethnological and Structural Analysis." M.A. thesis, UCLA, 1980. 
Reynolds, Stephen. "The Baltic Psaltery and Musical Instruments of Gods and dm\s." Journal of Baltic Studies 14 

(1983): 5-23. 
Vikis-Freibergs, Vaira, ed. i/ngu/sf/aonrfPoef/aofiflfwonfo//; Songs. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's 

University Press, 1989. 



Suggested Listening 



Balsis no Latvijas (Voices from Latvia). Auss RS 001 and MC. 

\\q\.Barenu dziesmas.Supula dziesmas (W/edding songs. Orphan songs). Plate Records TMOOl -93 and MC. 

.Riti (Roll). Labvakar LBR 001 . 

Muktupavels,Valdis.Ze/fflM/es (Golden Kokles. Latvian traditional instrumental music). Micrec. 
Rasa. iflffW./Mus/cofSo/flrWfes.lNEDIXMaison des Cultures du Monde W 260062. 
Seasonal Songs of Latvia: Beyond the River. EMI, Hemisphere 7243 4 93341 2 0. 

Voix des Pays Baltes. Chants traditionnels de Lettonie, Lituanie, Estonie. Documents d'archives. INEDIT, Maison des 
Cultures du Monde W 260055. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkufe Festival 



71 



The Baltic Nations: Lithuania 



The Tenacity of 
Tradition in Lithuania 



Zita Kelmickaite 



Zithuanians belong to the Baltic group of Indo-Europeans who 
appeared in the Baltic tenitories about 3,000-2, 500 li.c. 
Tacitus, a Roman historian of the 1st century, made note of 
farmers and amber collectors in this area, hut the name 
"/jthuania" appeared in a historical source for the first time in 
1009 A.D. iithuankin is the most archaic of the contimiously spo- 
ken Indo-European languages and is of great interest to com- 
parative linguists. 

Ihe state of Lithuania came into being with the coronation 
of its first Christian king in 1253- After his assassination, the 
country remained pagan until 1387, continuing to fight the 
Germanic Crusaders. Two hundred years later it had e.xpand- 
ed to become one of the largest states in medieval Europe, 
extending from the Baltic Sea south to the Black Sea and 
east to Muscovy. 

Treaties with Poland brought Christianity and, in 1569, uni- 
fication into a commomvealth of the two fiatiom. Gradually the 
commonwealth weakened, and in 1795 Lithuania was incorpo- 
rated into the Russian empire. 

Failed armed revolts against the Russians resulted in the 
banning of Lithuanian books and further oppression. Out of 
the resistance grew a cultural and political awakening that 
led to the establishment of an independent republic on 
February 16, 1918. 

Independence was lost in 1940, when Soviet troops acted on 
the clandestine Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and invaded the coun- 
try. German occupation followed from 1941 until 1944, when 
the Soviets returned and annexed Lithuania. At least 20, 000 
resistance fighters lost their lives, and more than 350,000 
Lithuanians were exiled to Siberia during the Soviet occupation. 

After a series of mass meetings during the perestroika/^enW, 
Lithuania was the first of the Soviet republics to declare the 
reestablishment of its independence on March 11, 1990. 

In territory, Lithuania encompasses 25,175 square miles, 
about the size of West Virginia. Its population is 3- 7 million, of 
which approximately 80 percent are Lithuaniatis. We majority 
are Roman Catholic. The four main ethnographic regions are 
AuMtaitija (east), Zemaitija (west), DzUkija (southeast), and 
Suvalkija (sout/nvest). 



LATVIA 



72 



Visiting the cemetery on 

All Souls' Day. Photo by 

Zenonas Nekrosius 

Smithsonian Folrlife Festival 




1998 



The Baltic Nations: Lithuania 



The Importance 

of Tradition to Lithuanians 

Tradition holds a very spe- 
cial meaning for Lithu- 
anians. For centuries they 
Uved under the threat of 
extinction and learned to 
resist their occupiers in a passive yet per- 
sistent manner, using patience, persever- 
ance, stubbornness, and conservatism. By 
holding on to their customs, their lan- 
guage, their religion, and by establishing 
close ties to their land, Lithuanians safe- 
guarded themselves against complete 
cultural subjugation to those who held 
political sway over them. 

Lithuanians and their ancestors the 
Baits remained in essentially the same 
location and did not mix with their 
neighbors for over 4,000 years. Even 
when the territory they governed 



expanded, they did not move to settle it. 
Their attachment to their lands and 
homes can be illustrated by many exam- 
ples. For one, sacred space remained 
sacred over time: the cathedral in 
Vilnius, first built in the mid- 13th centu- 
ry, stands on the site of a pagan temple. 
For another, a settlement that is dated to 
1000 B.C. has recently been found in 
Vilnius on Castle Hill. 

Because of their strong attachment to 
home, the deportations of Lithuanians to 
Siberia during the first years of Soviet 
occupation were especially harsh. The 
stories and reminiscences of the depor- 
tees speak not only of the hardships of 
exile but of the constant longing for 
home. The same sentiment pervades all 
the exile songs that were first sung pub- 
licly during the mass meetings in 1988- 
1989 (e.g., "In spring all the birds fly on 



home/But we, will we ever return?"). The 
importance of home and being home was 
demonstrated again soon after Lithuania 
declared its independence: huge military 
aircraft brought back the remains of 
those who had died in Siberian exile so 
that they could be reburied in their fami- 
ly cemeteries. Today if people are not 
buried in their hometown, usually a 
handful of dirt from their birthplace is 
scattered on their coffin. 

Together with the concept of home, 
land itself had profound meaning to 
Lithuanians. For farmers it was natural 
to treat it with reverence. One would 
never spit on the ground. In songs and 
sayings earth is addressed as if it were a 
personified being; indeed it once was a 
pagan deity, Zemyna. Before starting 
their spring plowing, farmers knelt down 
to kiss the ground and crossed them- 




1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



73 



The Baltic Nations: Lithuania 



selves. Bread was plowed into the first 
furrow as a sacrifice to the hind. 

The collectivization of agriculture 
under the Soviets forced people off their 
individual farms onto large collective 
farms. The liberal use of pesticides and 
indiscriminate drainage of wetlands 
wreaked havoc on the environment and 
the landscape. Bulldozers razed homes, 
orchards, cemeteries, even entire villages. 



By holding on to their customs, 
their language, their religion, and 
by establishing close ties to their 
land, Lithuanians safeguarded 
themselves against complete cul- 
tural subjugation to those who 
held political sway over them. 



Much that was sacred was desecrated. An 
important tie was severed — the almost 
spiritual relationship between a farmer 
and his land. As more people return to 
work the newly privatized lands, it 
remains to be seen what consequences 
the Soviet experience will have. 

Lithuanians are slow to make changes, 
and when they do choose something 
new, they often hold on to the old "just 
in case it may still be useful." During 
fieldwork expeditions folklorists often 
find tools and work implements that are 
obsolete but that have not been discard- 
ed. Lithuanians probably were exhibiting 
the same tendency to conservatism when 
they maintained their pagan traditions in 
conjunction with Catholic practices. 
Almost 200 years after the formal bap- 
tism of the nation, the first Lithuanian 
book was published — a catechism. In 
the introduction were a list of pagan 
deities and an admonition to the faithful 
against practicing pagan customs in 
their honor. Pantheistic religious relics 
and elements of ancient rituals survive to 
the present day in songs, proverbs, sto- 
ries, and customs. And there is no sense 

74 



of dissonance; elements from different 
belief systems and historical periods 
coexist and combine in a unique way. It 
is this uniqueness that Lithuanians now 
celebrate as they — very consciously — 
reflect on their ethnic heritage. 

The Role of Folk Songs 
in the Lives of Lithuanians 

Ask Lithuanians about their culture, and 
invariably they will 
mention songs. 
Lithuanians love to 
sing. The most 
accomplished 
singers will know 
hundreds of songs 
— songs that are 
passed to other 
generations and to 
other villages. The 
archive at the 
Lithuanian Institute of Literature and 
Folklore in Vilnius has over 600,000 col- 
lected songs. 

At the end of the 17th century Pastor 
T. Lepner's Der Preiische Littaiier (The 
Prussian Lithuanian) characterized 
Lithuanian singing thus: 

They are all composers, since they create 
their own melodies, though some of the 
melodies they learn from the Germans. 
Most of their voices are strong. ... 
Usually women and girls sing until dawn 
grinding grains, the humming from 
which gives them a bass line. ... The 
content of their songs — themes of love 
or anything that comes to mind, what 
they see around them. ... Men do not 
exiiibit a tendency toward this art. 

During a recent recording expedition, 
comments by singers echo and extend 
Lepner's observations: "If you sing, you 
have a life." "Our life was so hard — had 
I not simg, I would have gone insane." 

Lithuanian songs often reflect the 
female perspective on love, longing, 
chores, and even the horrors of war. 
Since women were the primary singers 

Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



and guardians of the aural tradition, the 
songs tend to be gentle with generous 
use of diminutive forms. Mythological 
and metaphorical references abound. 
Characters in songs are usually family 
members, young maidens, suitors, tillers 
of the soil. The texts interweave mono- 
logue and dialogue to move the story 
along. Nature and human conditions are 
juxtaposed in lyrics and express a com- 
mon sentiment. For example. 

The morning star bids goodbye to her 
father-moon, before going to the sun, 
draped in clouds with hard rain falling. 

A young girl says goodbye to her mother 
before going to her mother-in-law, sigh- 
ing and wiping tears. 

Song is very much alive in Lithuania. 
Lithuanians do not sing for the benefit of 
an audience; for them singing is a way of 
being together. In earlier times 
Lithuanians sang work songs at various 
tasks such as cutting wheat and other 
songs specific to seasons and celebra- 
tions. Now they sing traditional and 
newer songs at family gatherings, wed- 
dings and christenings, or any time com- 
pany sits down together and the mood 
strikes them. But when recording older 
singers, we often hear, "Oh, how they 
once sang! They would make the fields 
ring. One group would vie with another 
to see who could sing better." Nostalgia 
itself may be a tradition for Lithuanians. 

The time, place, and type and style of 
song may have changed, but the ability 
of song to create a sense of togetherness, 
or communitas, as anthropologists call 
it, has persisted. Two social developments 
illustrate this phenomenon. 

The Rasa (Dew) festival, organized on 
the castle mound of Kemave on June 23, 
1967 (St. John's Day and Midsummer's 
Eve), marked the arrival of a national 
cultural movement of youth dissatisfied 
with Soviet ideology and looking to the 
pagan past and traditional culture to 
restore a sense of balance and goodness 

1998 



The Baltic Nations: Lithuania 




The traditional clothing 
of each region is woven 
and worn in a particular 
way and has a specific 
pattern, color, and style 
of tailoring. Photo by 
Henrikas Sakalauskas 



to modem society. The "Ramuva" move- 
ment sought to renew old traditions and 
to break away from Soviet hoHdays and 
state-sanctioned, stv'lized folklore. Named 
in reference to sacred pagan groves, the 
movement was characterized by an inter- 
est in authentic, national, ethnic culture 
— at the forefront of which was song. 

Since 1968, the Ramuva Society' of 
Vilnius University has organized 27 sum- 
mer fieldwork expeditions in 22 regions 
of Lithuania. Close to 1,500 students and 
professors have taken part in these expe- 
ditions. Their collections have been 
deposited at the Lithuanian Folklore 
Institute. The Ramuva movement 
expanded the bounds of official ethno- 
graphic studies and gave a patriotic tinge 
to the study of folklore. For this reason, 
although the Soviet government allowed 
students to collect folklore for academic 
purposes, it feared the effects of young 
people gathering together and singing 
during the expeditions — such as their 
engagement in perpetuating the tradi- 
tions and the power of the songs to unite 
them against the Soviets. So the govern- 
ment prohibited such gatherings. 

1998 



The fieldwork expeditions and the 
Ramuva movement inspired the forma- 
tion of many folk ensembles in villages 
and cities throughout Lithuania. From 
1980 to 1989, close to 900 folk ensembles 
appeared on the scene. The example of 
city ensembles as well as ethnographic 
expeditions, folk music gatherings, invi- 
tations to rural artists to give concerts in 
cities, and increased radio and television 
program time dedicated to folklore 
encouraged village artists to form ensem- 
bles. During this period, ensemble termi- 
nology was defined. Village groups that 
draw on continuous traditions and per- 
form their own area's folklore are now 
called ethnographic ensembles. Groups 
that indirectly adopt or re-create tradi- 
tions are called folklore ensembles. 
Today there are hundreds of ensembles, 
and their continued existence proves the 
vitality of song in modem Lithuania. 

The second dramatic demonstration of 
the power of song occurred during the 
days of the mass meetings organized by 
Sajudis, the grassroots movement for 
independence in the late 1980s and early 
1990s. Folk ensembles would come 

SmITHSONIAIN FOLKIIFE FESTIVAL 



together and begin to sing. When three 
or four ensembles would start a song 
together, the audience would join, and 
soon the entire crowd in the stadium or 
park would be singing together. 
Eventually older people became embold- 
ened to sing partisan songs and exile 
songs — songs which not so long before 
they had sung only in private and with 
great caution. The repertoire of those 
songs spread throughout the country in 
no time. They helped unite people in 
sentiment and cause. The experience of 
singing as a group in communal harmo- 
ny was nothing new for Lithuanians; 
what was unique was that song had 
become a weapon of resistance. 

That same power of song was evident 
on January 13, 1991, when thousands of 
Lithuanians gathered around the 
Parliament building, radio and television 
headquarters, and the television tower to 
protect their newly declared freedom 
from Soviet tanks and troops. While they 
waited through the night, they sang. The 
song and music stopped when tanks 
started to roll and gunshots were fired. I 
was standing next to an older woman 

75 



The Baltic Nations: Lithuania 



when it became clear that something 
ominous was happening. She turned to 
me and said, "I don't know what would 
be better: to pray or to sing?" Both were 
perceived to be equally sacred. 

At present, the interest in folk songs 
and traditional culture that existed in 
the 1980s has waned somewhat. 
Although many people long for that 



The Hill of Crosses is 
located in central 
Lithuania. It is custom- 
ary for people to leave a 
cross and pray when 
visiting the site. 
Photo by Virgilijus 
Usinavicius 



spiritual atmosphere which prevailed 
while people were standing hand in 
hand in the Baltic Way or protecting the 
Parliament or television tower on the 
night of January 13th, the authenticity 
of that powerful emotional experience 
cannot be re-created. 




Land of Crosses 

A unique illustration of the interplay between 
tradition and history is the Hill of Crosses in 
Siauliai.The mound was once a fortress. For 
more than a century, people erected crosses on 
the hill for all sorts of reasons and occasions, 
such as supplications for health and wealth and 
commemorations of births, deaths, or wed- 
dings. The Soviet government could not tolerate 
such an expression of spiritual belief, and the 
hill was totally annihilated in 1961, 1973, and 
again in 1975. But the crosses reappeared, 
almost overnight. The destruction stopped in 
1980, and now the hill is again covered with 
thousands of crosses. They stand witness to the 
strength of tradition among Lithuanians. 

Before the Soviet occupation, crosses and 
chapel poles had been an integral part of 

76 



Lithuania's landscape for hundreds of years. 
They were constructed near homesteads, at 
crossroads, by waysides, and when old ones 
deteriorated, new ones were placed in their 
stead. Sometimes chapels were nailed directly 
to trees. It is quite likely that these manifesta- 
tions of Christian belief actually originated in 
some earlier totems used by the pagans to 
mark sacred space around them. The sun, 
moon, and snake motifs that decorate the 
crosses clearly barken back to pre-Christian 
nature worship, though now these symbols are 
appreciated purely for their aesthetic appeal. It 
is important to note that this form of decora- 
tion has held its appeal for a very long time, 
thus illustrating the conservatism of both 
Lithuanian craftsmen and the people who 
patronized them. 

Smithsoman Folklife Festival 



Family: The Safeguard 
of Lithuanian Traditions 

The attachment to group singing illus- 
trates Lithuanians' gregarious side. It 
was that sense of collective, experienced 
through song and its open public affir- 
mation, that helped sustain them as a 
group, both in Lithuania and as exiles 
and refugees abroad. Family traditions, 
on the other hand, 
do not lend them- 
selves easily to 
public display, and 
yet they are the 
key to understand- 
ing a cultural 
group's attitudes, 
values, and 
morals. During all 
the years of the 
Soviet occupation, 
only the family 
was not penetrated 
by the all-regulat- 
ing and all-sanc- 
tioning 

Communist Party. 
The family nur- 
tured religion and 
national sentiment 
and safeguarded 
traditions; tradi- 
tions, in turn, strengthened familial ties. 
Lithuanians have always honored the 
memory of their dead. It is very impor- 
tant to Lithuanians to carry out the will 
of a deceased loved one. To this day, in 
almost all regions of Lithuania the 
departed is mourned all night with 
funeral hymns. (It is a wonder how well 
these hymns and other funeral traditions 
have been preserved given the strength 
of the atheistic sovietization.) Graveyards 
are considered sacred places whose tran- 
quility is not to be disturbed. Periodic 
visitations and upkeep of graves are 
obligations taken very seriously. Lighting 
of vigil candles at cemeteries on Velines, 
the eve of All Souls' Day, is so important 
that both November 1 (All Saints' Day) 

1998 



The Baltic Nations: Lithuania 

and November 2 (All Souls' Day) are des- 
ignated holidays. This allows people to 
return to their family graves, even if they 
are at some distance. 

Christmas Eve is the day for family re- 
unions, of both the living and the de- 
ceased. At the traditional Christmas Eve 
dinner, Kucias, an extra place setting is set 
and food is left on the table all night for 
the souls of the deceased. The meatless 
dishes, some special to this night only are 
shared in reverence. Reconciliation and 
the forgiving and settling of debts must be 
done by Christmas Eve. It is believed that 
ones disposition on the holiday will 
remain with the person for the year. This 
Christmas Eve gathering has always been 
celebrated quietly and in private, but its 
effect is powerful and deep. Regardless of 
whether they are believed or simply artic- 
ulated, such traditions help strengthen the 
ties between the living and the dead, the 
past and the present, and are a means of 
keeping a balance between material reali- 
ty and a person's spiritual life. 

The fact that the shadow of our ances- 
tors seems to be real and close at hand 
strengthens the sense of obligation that 
many Lithuanians feel toward their cul- 
tural heritage. Perhaps this is what 
makes many of us so passionate about 
our commitment to our traditions. 
Others may criticize us, saying we are 
overly conscious in the way we interact 
with our songs, dress, music, and our 
historical past. We reply that we must be 
conscious; otherwise there is the danger 
that our children will only hear someone 
else's song, story, and belief. Now that 
freedom has come and we are mjisters in 
our own home, we are still not out of 
danger. Marcelius Martinaitis, a much- 
loved and respected poet, writes: 



When land is taken away, everybody is a 
witness. When speech becomes silent, 
the conscience speaks up. When ethnic 
traditions are taken away, a people sleep 
the eternal sleep of dead nations. Land 
remains in its place, a language can be 
protected by the written form, but the 
livelihood of the traditions is lost forever 
and never resurrected. Like life for a 
person, traditions are given only once. 
Ethnic catastrophes are almost unfelt 
— like radiation. 

We can't afford the risk. 

Suggested Reading 

Ambrazevicius, Rytis, comp. Lithuanian Roots, An Overview of Lithuanian Traditional 

fu/fwe.Vilnius: Lithuanian Folk Culture Center, 1994. 
Balys, Jonas. Lithuanian Foll<songs in America: Narrative Songs and Ballads. Boston: 

Lithuanian Encyclopedia Publishers, 1958. 
Buksaitiene, Laima, and Danute Kristopaite/^u/tsfo/c/u melodijos (Melodies from 

Aukstaitija).Vilnius:Vaga,1990.(with Russian and English summaries) 
Cetkauskaite, Genovaite.Dzu<;t; melodijos (Melodies from Dzukija). Vilnius: Vaga, 1981. 

(with Russian and English summaries) 
Encyclopedia Lituanica, vols. 1 -6. Boston: Juozas Kapocius, 1 971 -1976. 
Velius,Norbertas.r/)eiyorW0uf/oo^o/'f/)e/^nc/enfM5.Vilnius:Vaga,1989. 



Zita Kelmickaite is a musicologist and 
assistant professor at the Lithuanian 
Academy of Music. In 1993 she received the 
National Jonas Basanvicius Award for out- 
standing work in the promotion of ethnic 
culture. 



Suggested Listening 



Balys, Jonas. Lithuanian folk Songs in the United States. Folkways 4009. 

Lithuanian folk Music. Authentic folklore, compiled by Genovaite Cetkauskaite. 33 
Records ADD 33 CD004. Available through Bomba Records, Zygimantu 6, Vilnius 
2600, Lithuania, tel. (3702) 223358, fax (3702) 22571 5, or Vilnius Ploksteliu 
Studija, Barboros Radvilaites 8, Vilnius 2600, Lithuania, tel. (3702) 610419, 
fax (3702) 610491. 

Lithuanian folk music KANKLES, prepared by Vida Palubinskiene and produced by 
Egidijus Virbasius, 1996; and Lithuanian folk music WIND INSTRUMENTS, original 
recordings from 1935-1939, prepared by Ruta Zarskiene, produced by Egidijus 
Virbasius, 1997. Both recordings are from the collections of the Folklore Archive 
of the Lithuanian Institute of Literature and Folklore, Antakalnio 6, Vilnius 2055, 
Lithuania,fax (3702) 226573. 

Sutaras. Prot'&iu Sauksmas (Call of the ancestors). CD Lituanus/Jade JACD 065. 
Available from Antanas (Sutaras) Fokas, RO. Box 94, Vilnius 2000, Lithuania, 
fax (3702) 261474. 

Ola Folk insembk. Lithuanian Traditional Music. BIEM neb AECD-5. Available from 
Ciurlionio 1 -35, Vilnius 600, Lithuania, tel. (3702) 222755, fax (3702) 359633. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



77 




\o Grande/Rfo Bravo 



4[4ir<Nfti^ 




Desert Images by David Lauer 



Rio Grande/Rfo Bravo Basin 



Culture & Environment in 
the Rio Grande/Rfo Bravo 
Basin: A Preview 

He who drinks water from the Rio Bravo 
will never leave its shores. 

— Popular saying collected by Gregorio Garza, Field Researcher, Laredo, Texas 



, Colorado Springs 




1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Compiled by Lucy Bates, Olivia 
Cadaval, Heidi McKinnon, Diana 
Robertson, and Cynthia 
Vidaurri; translation editors 
lleana Cadaval Adam and 
Patricia Fernandez de Castro 

This year's Festival program forms 
part of a larger Rio Grande/Rio 
Bravo Bjisin project that includes: 

• Folklife Field Research Schools held 
in Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado 
to train local academic and commu- 
nity scholars and to direct local 
research for the Folklife Festival and 
other public programs 

• Production of local public programs 
in collaboration with local organiza- 
tions to present research carried out 
in the region (sponsored by the 
Texas Folklife Resources and the 
Texas Council for the Humanities) 

• Smithsonian Folklife Festival pro- 
grams for 1998 and 1999 

• Production of educational materials 
and a film documentary. 

This collaborative training and research 
approach builds on our work with bina- 
tional institutions, researchers, and com- 
munity members that participated in 
earlier Smithsonian projects in the U.S.- 
Mexico borderlands region. The follow- 
ing article offers samples of project 
research reports and reflects the multivo- 
cality of the region. 

This project is cosponsored by El Consejo Nacionalpara 
la Culturaylai Artes with support from the U.S.-Mexico 
Fund for Culture (The Rockefeller Foundation, 
Fundacion Cultural Bancomer, theFondo Nacionalpara 
la Cultura y las Artes), SBC Foundation, Texas Folklife 
Resources, and the Texas Council for the Humanities. 
Folklife Fieldwork Research Schools were supported by 
Colorado College, Tierra Wools, the University of New 
Mexico, University of Texas-Pan American, and a grant 
from Smithsonian Outreach Funds. 

79 



Ri'o Grande/Ri'o Bravo Basin 

The Rfo Grande/Rjo Bravo Basin 
is a complex cultural, ecologi- 
cal, and political landscape. 
The river travels through 
mountains, deserts, plains, and 
subtropics and the states of Colorado, New 
Mexico, and Texas in the United States and 
the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo 
\je6n, Durango, and Tamaulipas in Mexico. 
In its almost 2,000-mile journey, it is 
known by different names: El Rio Grande 
del Norte, Rio Bravo, the Wild River, Rio de 
las Palmas, Po'soge, the Rio Grand. Many 
diverse groups of people live in the Rio 
Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, each with its own 
personal and collective experiences. 

Po'soge, the Rio Grande del Norte, is 
one of the longest, most celebrated, and 
most vital rivers in North America, yet it 
is one of the most endangered. Water 
diversion has made the desert bloom 
through centuries-old Native American 
and Hispano aceijuias and 20tb-century 
locks and canals. Only by allowing it a 
measure of its previous wildness will the 
Rio Grande survive as an ecologically 
healthy river. — Enrique Lamadrid 

University of New Mexico 

Much research on rivers focuses on water 
and land rights, environment, history, 
architecture, health, and archeology. In 
this project, we asked, together with our 
Rio Grande/Rio Bravo colleagues, "What 
about living people? What about the cul- 
tural heritage and creativity of groups 
whose experiences have been shaped by 
the river?" 

In particular our challenge was to 
research, plan, and produce a program 
on how local cultures contribute to a 
sustainable river-basin environment. Our 
approach was to engage scholars, educa- 
tors, and individuals — formally and 
informally trained — who are involved 
in community cultural work. We sought 
to understand relationships between cul- 
ture and environment and to see how 
contemporary traditions can be relevant 

80 









B" 


^^^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^BfP^tSr.jifi-^ 


j^L^iai| 




^^^^^^^BET^^^^^^^^^^I 






HP^KT 


.i^^^B 


H^^^^^^^^w 




Hr^^^^B 




^_*^2:f^^^B 


^^^;il|j|^,^l 


KwL^ 




-S^^l 


■■H|^^^H 










^^^^1 




■li^^H 


IwnP 




^^^^H 




m 


1 


4^^l 


^H 


^A^'li^^^' ^ ' '. ■ 1 


IKI 


■ 




^^^^^^^^^1 



The river between Texas and Chihuahua, near Presidio and Ojinaga. 

El rio entre Chihuahua y Texas, cerca de Ojinaga y Presidio. Photo by / Foto de David Bosserman 



to balancing human prosperity with 
environmental sustainability. We asked: 

1) What kinds of communities live in 
the region today? 

2) What is their traditional knowledge 
for managing the environment? 

3) Can local culture provide a founda- 
tion for sustainable development 
projects? 

These questions led us to explore the 
many meanings of the Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo. 

After a review of the field research, we 
decided that to adequately treat the rich- 
ness and magnitude of the project 
requires an additional year's planning 
and production. This year, we are pre- 
senting a small Festival program that 
will preview cultural regions, expressive 
traditions, and issues that will be fea- 
tured at the 1999 Festival. Many voices 
and perspectives have shaped this pro- 
gram. The collaborative process has been 
as important as the public product. 
The goal of the Smithsonian project is 
to understand a region's diversity 
through its natural resources, cultural 
traditions, and historical experiences. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



The research of our Ri'o Grande/Rio 
Bravo Basin fieldworkers team was 
focused on community enterprises, recy- 
cling projects, and, in general, on sights 
and sounds of the river that exemplify 
the region's environment. After learning 
"what, how, and why," researchers 
reached the heart and soul of the study, 
the essential spirit of an individual or 
community being researched. In each 
community enterprise, one detects a cul- 
tural weight, a force that projects values 
and richness, and that points to the 
diversity of life in the region. 

— Juanita Elizondo Garza 
University of Texas-Pan American 

The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin is nur- 
tured by tributaries, both natural and 
cultural. 
Priscilla Chavez likes to recall how her 
father insisted his children learn things 
that could never be stolen from them. 
Land can be lost, but the culture en- 
dures, as much a part of the Rio Grande 
Valley as the river itself "My father 
made good com flour," she said. "It was 
the best. And he told my sister, T am 

1998 




Rio Grande/Rfo Bravo Basin 

going to pass this heritage to you.' And 
she continued making com flour, and 
she makes the best. ... To the boys he 
left the music. . . ." — Recorded by 

Enrique Lamadrid 
Unive^sit^' of New Mexico 



Carolina Carbajal from 

Las Cruces, New Mexico, 

with a staff made from 

sotol. 

Carolina Carbajal de Las 

Cruces, Nuevo Mexico, 

con una ramo de sotol. 

Photo by / Foto de 

Elaine Thatcher 



A river provides raw materials. 
The Ysieta women potters dig river clay 
in several local spots. When Fermina 
and her sisters were young and working 
with their grandmother, the family had 
sources in four hills. Each hill produced 
a different color of clay ranging from 
pale pink to dark. Today they dig clay 
wherever they find it. Fennina had 
found a deposit of good clay but said 
she had only had access to it for a brief 
time before it was fenced off and posted. 
— Elaine Thatcher 
in si' 'tu, Santa Fe, New Mexico 

The Rfo Grande/Rio Bravo is a desert 
river of limited resources. It flows 
through an arid region of cooperation 
and conflict over water. 
The water in the ditch connects us to 
the river. But it connects us to each 
other as well .... Even if there are con- 
flicts over the watering schedule and 
you are mad at your neighbor, you 
know you have to figure out how to 
resolve it. Over the long term, it keeps 
people interacting in a very positive way 
— Riparian biologist Manuel MoUes 
interviewed by Enrique Lamadrid 
University of New Mexico 



1998 



Great River, Mighty River 

Like the semi-desert lands it crosses, tlie Rio Grande/Rio Bravo is a natural wonder whose power and 
beauty we appreciate the more we get to know it. I first saw the river when I moved to Nuevo 
Laredojamaulipas, on the other side of the border from La redo, Texas. There on the border, I came to 
know a river that equally separates, conjoins, and gives life to these two communities. For at the same 
time that the river is a boundary marker between countries, it is also the shared resource that has 
allowed communities to thrive together for centuries. First as ranching settlements and now also as 
international commercial gateways, the towns of Nuevo Laredo and Laredo — like Matamoros and 
Brownsville, Mier and Roma, Piedras Negras and Eagle Pass, Ciudad Juarez and El Paso — literally live 
off the river. 

Why bring our river to the Smithsonian Folklife Festival? When Olivia Cadaval, Richard Kurin, Cynthia 
Vidaurri, and I first discussed the idea in El Paso, one of our central concerns was to address the relation- 
ship between the river and the communities it has fostered, not only on the U.S.-Mexico border but 
throughout the watershed. About 1 3,000,000 persons live in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin. Many of 
them are first-generation inhabitants of the U.S. Southwest and northern Mexico. The families of others 
have been here for a long time. Wide open spaces, clear air, life in the desert and the mountains, and the 
solace these offer have attracted many. But ironically the growth of cities, industry, agriculture, and 
ranching have so polluted the river that it is one of the most endangered on the continent.To survive in 
this environment, the diverse peoples who have made this region have developed strong and tenacious 
cultures.The river's degradation is a threat to their way of life. The people of the basin have responded 
with creativity, responsibility, and initiative in an effort to protect their cultural heritage and enhance 
the vigor of the river and its communities. It is this intense vitality that the Festival celebrates. 

— Patricia Fernandez de Castro 
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte 



Acequia, the Spanish word for "irriga- 
tion canal," is derived from the Arabic 
as-saquiya (water carrier). Secondary 
and lateral ditches are called Sangrias, 
a metaphorical temi that expresses the 
same wisdom as the Spanish saying: "El 
agua es la sangre de la tierra," "Water 
is the blood of the land." Another say- 
ing: "El agua es vicla" "Water is life." 
— Enrique Lamadrid 
University of New Mexico 

Human practices can be in harmony or 
at odds with the logic of the river. 
Looking at the Pueblo communities on 
the Rio Grande, we see the large issues 
of cultural survival, economic develop- 
ment, and environmental maintenance. 
Control of water is part of that cultural 
struggle to survive. For example, our 
value system for use of land and water 
is incompatible with that of the juris- 
prudence system. We are taught to con- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



serve the water; but the laws say we 
must use the water, even when we do 
not need to use it, in order to maintain 
our water rights. Moreover, the attempt 
to manage the Ri'o Grande [by building 
a dam] adversely affected the very social 
fabric of Cochiti Pueblo. For some 20 
years we were not able to carry out our 
planting rituals. Agriculture is not just a 
food source for us; it is intimately con- 
nected to who we are. This year, for the 
first time in two decades, we will plant 
again. — Regis Pecos, State of New 

Mexico, Office of Indian Affairs 

A river is the focus of values that can 
bring together or divide communities. 
The matachines of the East Mountains 
on the outskirts of Albuquerque perform 
their important rituals of environmental 
maintenance and renewal along the 
waterways of the Rio Grande Valley But 
recent urban development threatens their 



81 



Rio Grande/Rfo Bravo Basin 



practices. Matachin Bemadette Garcia 
explains: "See, the developers go and sell 
all this property, but they don't put in the 
deeds that we have access rights accord- 
ing to the original land grants. Then we 
end up having to fight them in court be- 



cause of that. So the people who buy 
don't know about it. So they happily 
move in. llien it's time for our fiestas 
and our procession. And they say, 'No you 
can't go through our land. This is my 
property.' Here is where all the fights 




Matachines at the Feast of San Ysidro, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

Los matachines en la Fiesta de San Ysidro, Albuquerque, Nuevo Mexico. Photo by / Foto de Miguel Gandert 




begin. It shouldn't be like that. It's only 
once a year that we have to go in proces- 
sion to the spring. We will always go in 
procession to the spring. Or until they 
run us over." — Barbara Gonzales 

University of New Mexico 
Field School Participant 

A river invites journey, settlements and 
resettlements, borders, and social networks. 
I was bom in Veracruz on the Gulf of 
Mexico. I married when I was young. My 
husband was from Ciudad Victoria in the 
neighboring state of Tamaulipas, and he 
w:ls picking cotton at that time. We met, 
we married, and since his family lived 
over in Ciudad Victoria he said: "Let's go." 
And we did. After 20 years of marriage I 
came to Matamoros on the border Here 
in Matamoros, at the inaquiladora, we 
interact with each other, tell each other 
things, know each other, fight and share 
our problems. We take time in between 
our work for each other... Sometimes we 
sell things to make a little extra money 
— Eustolia Almaguer Vazquez 
interview by Alma Jimenez 
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte 

As the field research trip came to an 
end, a Texas researcher remarked upon 
her different experiences of crossing the 
Rio Grande. In Texas, the river forms an 
international boundary, and crossing 
means a forced stop by government 
authorities on each bank. But in Colo- 
rado and New Mexico the river can be 
crossed and crisscrossed without the 
need for a single halt to identify one's 
nationality. This experience shed light 
on the relationship between a geological 
formation and arbitrary boundaries. 

— Juanita Elizondo Garza 
University of Texas-Pan American 



The last hand-pulled ferry on the river at Los Ebanos, Texas. 

El ultimo chalan tirado a mono en el rio en Los Ebanos, Texas. Photo by / Foto de Charles Weber 

82 Smithsonian Folrlife Festival 



1998 



Rfo Grande/Rio Bravo Basin 



Los Chileros 



In late August one of the most celebrated 
seasonal rituals of the upper Rio Grande 
begins: the chile harvest. Here, chile is a sta- 
ple. As people say,"La comida sin chile es como 
un beso sin bigotes,"" food without chile is 
like a kiss without a moustache." Eduardo and 
Priscilla Chavez have been roasting and sell- 
ing chile in the north valley of Albuquerque 
for as long as anyone can remember. Their 
chile stand near the St. Carmel Church on 
Edith Boulevard is a popular meeting place for 
local residents, for Indians from the nearby 
pueblos of Sandia, Santa Ana, and Santo 
Domingo, and for tourists. As Mrs. Chavez 
says, "Chile brings people together." Mr. 
Chavez says,"The next best thing to growing 
chile is selling it." 

— Enrique Lamadrid, University of 
New Mexico 




A chile stand in Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

Un puesto de chiles en Santa Fe, Nuevo Mexico. Photo by / Foto de Olivia Cadaval 



A river inspires singers, poets, and story- 
tellers. In the U.S. Southwest, La Llorona 
is a legend of a weeping woman encoun- 
tered near rivers, streams, and acequias 
in the region. There are many versions of 
this tale, but they all recount the story of 
a Native woman who drowns her chil- 
dren out of hate for their Spanish father. 
She forever haunts the waterways search- 
ing for her children. 
La Llorona lives in the hearts and 
minds and rios of Mexican Americans 
everywhere. Her stor)' is told in schools, 
on camping trips, and in many other 
places. Even las aguas negras (sewage 
waters) have heard her cries. From John 
Dodd, Hispanic Folk Music of New 
Me.xico and the Southwest (1980): 

Yesterday I wept wanting to see you, 

Oh Weeping Woman 

And today I cr)' from seeing you. 

— Molly Timko, 

University of New Mexico 

Field School Participant 



1998 



The river is the heart of a life-sustaining 

environment. 
Atrisco, New Mexico, began as a 1692 
Spanish merced, or land grant, west of 
the river from Albuquerque, bestowed 
jointly on a group of Tiwa Indians and 
Spanish settlers. The name is of Aztec 
origin meaning "place by the water." 
The size of the tract varied as the Rio 
Grande shifted its course. Until recent 
times the community made its living 
through agriculture. Although the peo- 
ple of Atrisco no longer depend on agri- 
culture for their livelihood, the waters of 
the Rio Grande still nourish family gar- 
dens, orchards, and alfalfa fields. The 
traditional acequias and the water they 
carry symbolize the spirit of a commu- 
nity that has learned to defend its cul- 
ture, lifestyle, and values. 

One of the rites of spring along the 
upper Rio Grande is the annual clean- 
ing of the acequias from the acequia 
niacire, or mother channel, down to 
each field. Everyone is obligated to par- 
ticipate in the effort. At the Northern 
Tiwa Indian pueblo of Picuris, special 
music is sung to help keep the work 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



rhythms of cleaning the ditch. Instead 
of beats on a drum, the cadence comes 
from the percussion of shovels hitting 
the ground. The flowing of the first 
water of the spring in the ditch is an 
occasion marked with blessings, excite- 
ment, and anticipation. When the com- 
puertas, or floodgates, are opened near 
Indian pueblos, the waters are blessed 
with sacred commeal. In Hispano com- 
munities, the priest blesses the water 
and the processions that honor the 
patron saint of agriculture, San Isidro 
Labrador. — Enrique Lamadrid 

University of New Mexico 

Guillermo "Willie" Mancha owns a 
neighborhood store which has been an 
institution in Eagle Pass, Texas, since 
1948. Three generations of his family 
have prepared and sold traditional 
Mexican foods that are part of the 
ranching culture of the region. For a 
century Mexican ranchers have created 
an economy of fruits, vegetables, and 
livestock, which become ingredients for 
regional foods such as tamales, chorizo 
(sausage), menudo (tripe slev/), fajitas 



83 



Rfo Grande/Rfo Bravo Basin 

(flank steak), and barhacoa de caheza 
(cow's head barbecue). The custom was 
to consume the entire animal, prefer- 
ably a goat, desde la barba haski la 
cola, "from the beard to the tail." They 
say Mexicans combined barba (beard) 
and cola (tail), to coin the term barha- 
coa, the origins of barbecue. 

— Mario Montafio 
Colorado College 

A river defines complex economic, social, 
and political environments. Contem- 
porar\' river basin cultural communities 
have creatively responded to historical 
and environmental challenges in differ- 
ent ways. This can be seen in the story of 
the Raramuri Indians of Chihuahua, 
Native communities who were forced to 
migrate from the countryside. 
Considered the most majestically scenic 
area of Northern Mexico, the Sierra 
Madre Occidental is the homeland of an 
indigenous tribe called the Raramuri 
[Tarahumara]. Over the years Raramuri 
families have steadily been migrating to 
urban areas in the Mexican states of 
Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Durango. 
Raramuri commonly visit the cities in 
order to sell or trade crafts, medicinal 
herbs, and textiles; to purchase goods 
that are not available in their home 
communities; and to work as wage 
laborers for short periods of time. In the 
fall of 1995, Ciudad Juarez created a 
neighborhood in the northwestern area 
of the city for migrant Raramuri. Many 
women from this community sell medic- 
inal herbs near a local market in 
Ciudad Juarez. Most of the herbs are 
brought down from the Sierra usually 
during the early fall. Taught at an early 
age to recognize medicinal herbs found 
in their homeland, Raramuri know their 
uses in curing particular diseases. 

Only a few crafts are made in this 
community, but several women often 
travel to the Sierra to gather craft mate- 
rials unavailable in the urban area. For 
example, some Raramuri women gather 

84 



The Arellanos and Their Land Grant 



The Embudo Valley in New Mexico has a wide 
variety of environmental zones ranging from 
desert grassland to pinon-juniper and sub- 
alpine. The Rio Grande sustains the whole region. 
The area's history of Hispano agriculture and silvi- 
culture goes back to the Embudo Land Grant of 
1725.Estevan Arellano's mother, Celia Archuleta, 



is a direct descendant of Francisco Martin, one of 
the three original grantees.The Arellanos feel the ^ 
strong link to their land strengthened and rein- 
forced through the maintenance of foodways 
and other practices that follow the annual agri- 
cultural cycle. —Ken Rubin 
Colorado College Field School Participant 



R.IO CiRAVMit 



bKAsMg. "'IHW-IV 68 




Map of the Arellano centenary ranch. 

Mapa del rancho centenario de los Arellano. Drawing by / Dibujo de Joanna Stewart 

Amidst the incredible variety in the garden there is a harmony between the plants, the soil, and 
the human hands that nurture the harvest. According to Estevan Arellano's philosophy of farm- 
ing, it is important to achieve a natural landscape."l just let [plants] go and find their own niche 
where they like to be. . . .They continue moving and finding their own place where it's more natural 
for them." Estevan's thoughts on chemical pesticides make clear his personal connection to the land. 
"Pesticides are the worst thing you can do to the soil," he explains." Soil is a living organism, and it 
has feelings, it has a soul, it has everything a human being has. So if you want it to produce, you have 
to treat it kindly." — Joanna Stewart, Colorado College ^ 

Field School Participant 

pine needles or bear grass (palmilla) to 
weave baskets (war is). But the women 
also find materials in Ciudad Juarez to 
sew traditional Indian clothing and 
weave sashes (fajas). They are expert 
seamstresses. — Genevieve Mooser 

Eastern New Mexico University 

Smithsonun Folklife Festival 1998 



Rio Grande/Rfo Bravo Basin 



/xf/eisafiber 
extracted from the 
lechugilla plant and 
used to weave ham- 
mocks, rugs, and bags. 
The Department of 
Ecology of the State 
Government of 
Coahuila is encourag- 
ing people to work by 
offering scholarships 
to learn this skill and 
by helping to support 
family-run workshops. 
Craftsman Jose Isabel 
Quiroz learned how to 
weave /xf/e from his 
father,who still works 
with him. Quiroz's wife 
puts the finishing 
touches on the crafts. 

Cecilio Hernandez crushing the lechugilla blade to release the fibers. 
Photo by Imelda Castro Santillan 




Herbalist Maclovia 
Zamora travels 
throughout the Upper 
Rio Grande harvesting 
regional plants and 
talking about their use 
in Hispanoand Native 
American traditions. 
She harvests cedar 
from the East 
Mountain area of 
Albuquerque to make 
smudges that are 
burned during ritual 
cleaning and purifica- 
tion practices in Native 
communities. 
Maclovia Zamora col- 
lecting cedar for making 
smudges. 
Photo by Heidi McKinnon 



Brick-making 
in Ciudad Juarez 

In the Colonia Mexico 68 neighborhood in 
Ciudad Juarez, many of the brick-making fami- 
lies have created a space or"yard"for their 
homes, kilns, and brick-making businesses.The 
Colonia lies adjacent to the Juarez Industrial 
Park, the second largest maquiladora manufac- 
turing area in the city. Don Serafin explains how 
he started his own brick business in the Colonia: 
"I watched how they worked and how they 
mixed the earth and loaded it, fired it, the whole 
process. Before, everything was lyrical, every- 
thing rustic, and that is how I taught myself. I 
simply watched how the older people worked 
— that's how I learned and liked it.That's why I 
started to work on my own, and I am still 
here...." 

— Erin Ross, Southwest Center for Environ- 
mental Research and Policy, New Mexico 
State University 




Tierra Wools 

The mission of Tierra Wools is to produce and 
sell yarn and hand-woven woolen goods; to 
teach Rio Grande weaving, spinning, dyeing, and 
related skills. We shall maintain a hiring prefer- 
ence for low- to moderate-income people; 
ensure that provisions will be made so that low- 
to moderate-income employees will have finan- 
cial access to ownership; help further the history 
and culture of the area by maintaining and 
evolving the Rio Grande weaving tradition; 
maintain a preference for purchasing locally 
grown wool, especially churro wool; and main- 
tain our primary place of business within a 50- 
mile radius of Los Ojos, New Mexico. 
Antonio Manzanares with a churro sheep on his ranch 
in Los Ojos, New Mexico. Photo by Cynthia Vidaurri 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



85 



Rio Grande/Rfo Bravo Basin 

Immediate economic necessity and the 
long-term dream of owning a piece of 
land are factors that drive many low- 
income families of migrant farmworkers 
to live in colonias. To help them achieve 
their goals, the United Farm Workers of 
San Juan, Texas, developed a unique 
program that emphasizes dedication to 
public action, volunteerism, respect for 
all cultures, and egalitarianism. Amid 
telephones, faxes, and computers, 
campesinos use modem technology 
while still maintaining traditional val- 
ues and practices. 

— Victor Hernandez and Cynthia Cortez 

University of Texas-Pan American 

Field School Participants 

Dolores Venegas teaches women tradi- 
tional craft-making in Rio Bravo, 
Tamaulipas, using recycled materials 
and others readily available in the sur- 
rounding region. Carrizo, reed cane, for 
pinatas is found along the banks of the 
Rio Bravo/Ri'o Grande; flower baskets 
are made from old tin cans; and glue is 
produced from flour, vinegar, salt, and 
water. Newspapers and mazorca (com 
husks) are also used. 
— Beverly Ortiz, University of Texas-Pan 
American Field School Participant 

As we followed the Rio Grande, crossing 
and crisscrossing this river, we became 
aware of the great environmental and 
cultural issues that persist along this vast 
area. From the headwaters in Colorado 
to the Gulf of Mexico, every region of the 
Rio Bravo/Rio Grande faces its own 
issues of history, language, culture, reli- 
gion, and sustenance. 

— Juanita Elizondo Garza 
University of Texas-Pan American 



'1t Was a Way Out of the Fields" 

Every weekend at places with names like El Flamingo, Prieta's Bar, or Club 77, the sound of conjunto 
music blares as dancers twirl to huapangos, polkas, redovas, and 5/)of/5.This tradition has survived 
in what was once an isolated cultural area in South Texas known to the conjunto aficionado as"e/ 
valle" (the valley). At one time, the area was more like Mexico than the United States, but during the 
first half of this century it adapted American traditions, developing a unique blend that is now 
known as Tex-Mex. 

Traditional dance music is heard in the small local clubs and dance halls where some dance styles 
have remained relatively unchanged for the past 50 years. But accordion-driven Tejano music coexists 
with traditional dance music in venues that appeal to the younger generations. In his accordion- 
repair shop sanctuary, Amadeo Flores entertains a steady trickle of conjunto aficionados, star per- 
formers, and occasional college students looking for their roots, with an unceasing flow of humor and 
musical anecdotes. Although he has lived most of his life in the area, he has frequently traveled 
where his music has taken him. Amadeo is also an expert bajo sexto musician, accordionist, accordion 
tuner, part-time historian, and full-time player of weekly conjunto gigs. His history as a performer 
began in the forties, when music was a pastime, and over the years he has developed it into his liveli- 
hood. When asked why the public turned to the accordion-driven conjunto, he answers without hesi- 
tation,"lt's something they understand and they can dance to. They want something simple and 
return to it." On this day Amadeo was showing off publicity photos of his accordion-repair clients and 
his current musical competitors, some of whom could be his grandchildren and are, in fact, his pupils. 
He survives and thrives in a changing musical world through his appreciation of younger generations 
and his irrepressible sense of humor. 

— David Champion and Ramon de Leon 

Narciso Martinez Cultural Center 

San Benito, Texas 



Olivia Cadaval received her Ph.D. in American studies at George Washington University. 
Cynthia Vidaurri received her masters in sociology at Texas A & I University and has 
taught Chicano and borderlands studies at Texas A & M-Kingsville University. They are 
founders of the Latino Cultural Resource Center at the Center for Folklife Programs & 
Cultural Studies and co-curators of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin program. Festival 
program interns Lucy Bates, Heidi McKinnon, and Diana Robertson are graduates from 
University of Edinburgh, University of New Mexico, and University of California at Los 
Angeles, respectively. Ileana Cadaval Adams is an independent writer and translator 
Patricia Fernandez de Castro is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Chicago and 
researcher at El Colegio de la Frontera Norte. 



86 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Rio Grande/Rfo Bravo Basin 



La cultura y el medio 
ambiente en la cuenca 
del Rio Bravo/Rio Grande: 
Una vision preliminar 

Aquel que beba agua del Rio Bravo 
nunca de sus orillas se alejard. 

— Diclio recopjiado por Gregorio Garza Investigador, Laredo, Texas 

Rio Bravo, Rio Grande 

Como las tierras semi-deserticas que cruza, el Rio Bravo/Rio Grande es una maravilla natural cuyo 
poder y belleza apreciamos mejor mientras mas lo conocemos.Vi el Rio por primera vez cuando me 
mude a Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas,al otro lado de la frontera con Laredo, Texas. Aqui en la frontera 
llegue a conocer un rio que al igual separa que une y da vida a estas dos comunidades. Porque el Rio, a 
la vez que es una frontera entre paises,es el recurso comun que ha permitido a las comunidades 
fronterizas florecer juntas durante siglos. Primero como ranchos y villas y ahora como puertos de 
comercio internacional, las comunidades de Nuevo Laredo y Laredo — como Matamoros y Browns- 
ville, Mier y Roma, Piedras Negras y Eagle Pass, Ciudad Juarez y El Paso — literalmente viven del Rio. 

iPor que traer nuestro Rio al Festival de las Culturas Populares del Smithsonian? Cuando Olivia 
Cadaval, Richard Kurin, Cynthia Vidaurri y yo empezamos a discutir esta idea en El Paso, una de nues- 
tras preocupaciones centrales era tratar la relacion entre el Rio y las comunidades que han surgido a 
su vera, no solo en la frontera Mexico-Estados Unidos sino a lo largo y ancho de la cuenca. Alrededor 
de 13,000,000 personas viven en la cuenca del Rio Bravo/Rio Grande. Muchas de ellas son habitantes 
recientes del Sudoeste de E.U. y del Norte de Mexico. Las familias de otras han estado aqui durante 
mucho tiempo. Los espacios abiertos, el aire puro, la vida del desierto y de las montarias han atraido a 
muchos. Pero, ironicamente, el crecimiento de las ciudades, de la industria y de los ranchos han conta- 
minado tanto al Rio que es uno de los que esta en mayor riesgo en el continente. 

Para sobrevivir en este medio ambiente, los diferentes pueblos que han hecho esta region han 
tenido que desarrollar una cultura tenaz y fuerte. La degradacion del Rio es una amenaza a su modo 
de vida. La gente de la cuenca ha respondido creativa y responsablemente, iniciando un esfuerzo para 
proteger su herencia cultural y fortalecer al Rio y a sus comunidades. Es esta intensa vitalidad lo que 
el Festival celebra. 

— Patricia Fernandez de Castro 
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte 



Compilado por Lucy Bates, Olivia 
Cadaval, Heidi McKinnon, Diana 
Robertson y Cynthia Vidaurri; 
redaction por lleana Cadaval Adam 
y Patricia Fernandez de Castro 

El programa del Festival de este ano 
forma parte del proyecto sobre la 
cuenca del Ri'o Bravo/Rio Grande, 
que incluye: 

• Los Talleres de Capacitacion para la 
Investigacion de Campo que se 
realizaron en Texas, Nuevo Mexico y 
Colorado para entrenar a investi- 
gadores locales y para dirigir la 
investigacion en la region para el 
Festival de Tradiciones Populares y 
para otros programas publicos. 

• La produccion de programas piibli- 
cos locales en colaboracion con 
organizaciones locales para presen- 
tar la investigacion que se realize en 
la region (auspiciados por Texas 
Folklife Resources y Texas Council 
for the Humanities) 

• Los programas del Festival 
Smithsonian de Tradiciones 
Populares para 1998 and 1999 

• La produccion de materiales 
didacticos y una pelfcula documental 

Esta manera colaborativa de capacitacion 
e investigacion continiia nuestro trabajo 
binacional con instituciones, investi- 
gadores y miembros de la comunidad que 
han participado en proyectos anteriores 
del Smithsonian en la region de la fron- 
tera Mexico-Estados Unidos. El siguiente 
articulo ofrece muestras de los reportes 
de la investigacion para el proyecto y 
refleja la multivocalidad de la region. 

f 5fe proyecto ha sido coauspkiado por El Consejo Nacional 
para la Cultura y las Artes con el apoyodeFideicomiso para 
la Cultura Mexico/USA (la Fundacion Rockefeller, la 
Fundacion Cultural Bancomeryel Fondo Nacional para la 
Cultura y las Artes); la Fundacion SBC; Texas Folklife 
ResearchyTexasCouncilfortheHumanities.LosTalleresde 
Capacitacion para la Investigacion de Campo recibieron 
apoyo de Colorado College, Tierra Wools, la Universidad de 
Nuevo Mexico, la Universidad de Texas - Pan Americana y 
una subvencion del Fondo de Smithsonian Outreach. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



87 



Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin 



La cuenca del Rio Bravo/Rio 
Grande forma un complejo paLsaje 
cultural, ecologico y politico. El no 
navega por montanas, desiertos, 
llanos \ subtropicos y cruza los 
estados de Colorado, Nuevo Mexico y Texas 
en los Estados linidos y los estados de 
Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, 
Durango y Tamaulipas en Mexico. En su 
trayectoria de mis de 3220 kilometros se le 
conoce con nombres diferentes: Rio Grande 
del Norte, Rfo Bravo, Rio de las Palmas, 
Po'soge. La cuenca del Rio Bravo/Rio 
Grande esta poblada por muchos grupos 
diversos de individuos con sus propias 
experiencias personales y colectivas. 

Po'soge, el Rio Grande del Norte o Rio 
Bravo, es uno de los nos mas largos, 
celebrados y vitales de Norte America, y 
tambien uno de los mas amenazados. El 
desierto ha florecido gracias a las aguas 
repartidas por las antiguas acequias 
indigenas y novohispanas y los canales 
y presas del siglo XX. El Rio Bravo solo 
podra de sobrevivir como un no 
ecologicamente sano si se le deja un 
poco de su antigua bravura. 

— Enrique Lamadrid 
Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 

Mucha de la investigacion sobre nos se en- 
foca en los derechos de tierra y agua, el 
medio ambiente, la historia, la arquitectura, 
la salud y la arqueologia. En este proyecto, 
nos preguntamos, con nuestros colegas del 
Rfo Bravo/Rfo Grande — ^;Y que de la 
gente que aquf vive? ^Y que de la herencia 
cultural y de la creatividad de grupos cuya 
experiencia se ha forjado por el no? 

Nuestro particular reto fue investigar, 
disenar y producir un programa que 
muestre como las culturas locales con- 
tribuyen a un medio ambiente sostenible 
en la cuenca del no. Nuestra tecnica fue 
recurrir a academicos, profesores, e indi- 
viduos con preparacion formal e informal 
comprometidos con el trabajo cultural en 
su comunidad. Intentamos entender la 
relacion entre cultura y medio ambiente 

88 




La bendicion de la acequia durante la Fiesta de San Ysidro, Albuquerque, Nuevo Mexico. 
Acequia blessing for the Feast of San Ysidro, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
Photo by / Foto de Molly TImko 



y ver como las tradiciones contem- 
poraneas pueden ser pertinentes para 
equilibrar la prosperidad humana con la 
sustentabilidad del medio ambiente. Para 
ello nos preguntamos: 

1) ^Que tipos de comunidades viven 
hoy en di'a en la region? 

2) ^En que consiste su conocimiento 
tradicional para manejar el medio 
ambiente? 

3) iPuede la cultura local formar los 
cimientos para proyectos de desarr- 
oUo sostenible? 

Estas preguntas nos indujeron a explorar 
los varios significados que tiene el Rio 
Bravo/Rfo Grande. 

Despues de revisar la investigacion de 
campo, decidimos que un proyecto de 
semejante magnitud y riqueza requeriria 
un afio mas de planificacion para su pro- 
duccion. Por lo tanto, este afio presentare- 
mos un pequefio programa en el Festival 
que ofrecera una introduccion a la pro- 
blematica, las regiones culturales y las 
tradiciones expresivas que conformaran el 
programa del Festival de 1999- Muchas 
voces y perspectivas han formado este 
programa y el proceso colaborativo ha 
sido tan importante como su producto. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



El proyecto 

El objetivo del proyecto iniciado por el 
Smithsonian tiene como fin entender la 
diversidad de la region a traves de su 
naturaleza, medio ambiente, tradiciones 
culturales y experiencias historicas. 
Nuestro equipo enfoco su investigacion 
de campo en las empresas comunitarias, 
el reciclaje y, en lo general, en los 
paisajes y los sonidos humanos y natu- 
rales representatives del medio ambien- 
te riberefio. Despues de entender el 
"que, como y por que," los investi- 
gadores llegaron al corazon de su estu- 
dio, el espiritu o esencia del individuo o 
de la comunidad bajo investigacion. En 
cada empresa se dlscieme la fuerza y 
riqueza de valores culturales, caracteris- 
ticos de la diversidad en la region. 

— Juanita Garza, Universidad 
de Texas-Pan Americana 



1998 



Rfo Grande/Ri'o Bravo Basin 



La cuenca del Rfo Bravo/Rio Grande 
se nutre de tributaries naturales y 
culturales. 
A Priscilia Chavez le gusta recordar 
como su papa insistia en que sus hijos 
aprendieran lo que nunca se les podria 
robar. La tierra podra perderse, pero la 
cultura perdura como parte tan Integra 
del valle del Rio Grande como el no 
mismo. "Mi papa liacia buena harina de 
mai'z. Era la niejor Y le dijo a mi her- 
mana — Voy a dejarte esta herencia a 
tL Y ella continiia haciendo la mejor 
harina de maiz. . .. A los muchachos les 
dejo la miisica...." 

— Grabado por Enrique Lamadrid 
Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 

Un no provee materia prima. 
Las alfareras de Ysleta extraen la arcilla 
riberefia de varios sitios. Cuando 
Fermina y sus hermanas eran jovenes y 
trabajaban con su abuela, la familia iba 
a buscarla en cuatro cerros. Cada cerro 
producia arcilla de distinto color, desde 
un rosado palido a uno oscuro. Ahora 
extraen arcilla dondequiera que la 
encuentran. Fermina encontro un 
deposito de calidad pero solo tuvo acce- 
so a el por corto tiempo antes de que 
fuera cercado. 

— Grabado por Elaine Thatcher 
in si' 'tu, Santa Fe, Nuevo Mexico 

El Ri'o Bravo/Rio Grande es un rfo de 
desierto en el que los recursos son limi- 
tados. Fluye por una arida region carac- 
terizada tanto por la cooperacion como 
por los conflictos sobre el uso de agua. 
El agua de la acequia nos conecta al no. 
Pero tambien nos une a unos con 
otros.... Aunque haya conflictos sobre el 
horario de riego y estes enojado con tu 
vecino, sabes que tendnls que resolver- 
los tarde o temprano. A largo plazo, eso 
hace que la gente mantenga buenas 
relaciones." 

— Biologo ripario Manuel Molles 

entrevistado por Enrique Lamadrid 

Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 

1998 



Acequia, la palabra castellana para 
canal de riego, se deriva del arabe, as- 
saquiya (cargador de agua). Las ace- 
quias secundarias y laterales se Uaman 
Sangrias, un termino metaforico que 
expresa la sabiduri'a misma de los 
dichos populares: "El agua es la sangre 
de la tierra" y "El agua es vida." 

— Enrique Lamadrid 
Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 

Los costumbres humanas pueden estar o 
no en hamionfa con la logica del rfo. 
Observando a las comunidades Pueblo a 
lo largo del Rio Grande, aprecianios la 
problematica de la supervivencia cultural, 
del desarrollo economico y de la conser- 
vacion ambiental. El control del agua 
forma parte de esa lucha cultural para 
sobrevivir. Por ejempio, nuestro sistema 
de valores en cuanto al uso de la tierra y 
el agua es incompatible con el del sistema 
jurisprudencial. Aprendemos a conservar 
el agua pero al mismo tiempo las leyes 
dicen que debemos usarla aiin cuando no 
la necesitemos, para asi mantener nues- 
tro derecho sobre ella. Ademas la decision 
de construir una presa para controlar al 
Rio Grande afecto negativamente el pro- 
pio tejido social del Pueblo Cochiti. 
Durante unos veinte anos no pudimos 
realizar nuestros rituales agricolas. La 
agricultura no es simplemente una fuente 
de alimentacion para nosotros; esta inti- 
mamente relacionada a nuestra identi- 




SMITHSONIAN FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL 



dad. Este afio, por primera vez en dos 
decadas, sembraremos de nuevo. 

— Regis Pecos, 

Oficina de Asuntos Indigenas 

del Estado de Nuevo Mexico 

Un rfo es un eje de valores que puede 

unir dividir comunidades. 
Los Matachines de la Sierra Oriental en 
las afueras de Alburquerque danzan ri- 
tualmente para mantener y renovar la 
tierra y el agua del valle del Rio Grande. 
Sin embargo, el desarrollo urbano 
reciente amenaza sus costumbres. La 
matachin Bemadette Garcia explica: 
"Los empresarios urbanos venden todas 
estas propiedades, pero no ponen en las 
escrituras que tenemos derecho de acce- 
so segiin las mercedes originales. Aca- 
bamos teniendo que luchar por ellos en 
la corte. La gente que compra no sabe 
nada de esto y se muda muy contenta. 
Entonces vienen nuestras fiestas y pro- 
cesiones. Dicen — No pueden pasar por 
nuestros terrenos porque son nuestros. 
Es ahi cuando comienzan las peleas. No 
debe de ser asi. Es solo una vez al afio 
que tenemos que ir en procesion al ojo 
de agua. Siempre haremos una proce- 
sion al ojo en primavera. hasta que 
nos atropellen." 

— Barbara Gonzales 

Participante del Taller de Investigacion 

de Campo con la 

Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 



Rita Morales frente a un 
altaralaVirgende 
Guadalupe en la fdbrica 
maquiladora donde traba- 
ja en Matamoros, 
Tamaulipas. 

Rita Morales, a maquiladora 
factory worker, next to an 
altar to the Virgin of Guada- 
lupe in the factory where 
she works in Matamoros, 
Tamaulipas. Photo by / Foto 
de Alma Jimenez 

89 



Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin 

Un rio invita viajes, asentamientos, re- 
asentamientos, fronteras y lazos sociales. 
Naci en Veracruz, en el Golfo de Mexico. 
Me case muy joven. Mi esposo era de 
Ciudad Victoria, en el vecino estado de 
Tamaiilipas, ) en esa epoca el estaba 
trabajando en el algodon. Nos conoci- 
mos, nos casamos y conio sii familia 
estaba alia en Ciudad Victoria, pues dijo 
— vamonos — y nos fuimos. Despues 
de estar casada veinte afios, vine a 
Matamoros en la frontera. Aqui en 
Matamoros, en la niaquiladora, uno 
convive, se cuentan sus cosas, se cono- 
cen, se pelean unas con otras, se cuen- 
tan sus problemas. Se dan su tiempo 
entre el trabajo para convivir. ... A veces 
como vendemos cosas, nos ayudamos. 
— Entrevista con 
Eustolia Almaguer Vazquez 
por Alma Jimenez 
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte 

Al terminarse la investigacion de campo, 
una investigadora de Texas comento 
sobre sus diferentes experiencias al 
cruzar el Rio Bravo/Rio Grande. En 
Texas, el no es una frontera intema- 
cional y cruzar implica aduanas fede- 
rals de ambos lados, pero en Colorado 
y Nuevo Mexico el rio se cruza y se 
vuelve a cruzar sin necesidad de pararse 
para identificar su nacionalidad. Esta 
experiencia le ayudo a entender la 
relacion entre formaciones geologicas y 
barreras arbitrarias. 

— Juanita Garza 
Universidad de Texas-Pan Americana 

Un rio inspira a cantantes, poetas y na- 
rradores. En el Sureste de Estados Unidos 
la Llorona es una leyenda de una mujer 
que se encuentra llorando a la orilla de 
los rios, arroyos y acequias de la region. 
Hay varias versiones pero todas cuentan 
de una mujer indigena que ahoga a sus 
hijos enfurecida contra el padre espaflol. 
Por siempre rondara los sitios de agua 
en busca de sus hijos. 
La Llorona vive en los corazones y las 

90 



Los chileros 

A finales de agosto, uno de los rites mas celebra- 
dos del Rio Grande del Norte comienza: la 
cosecha del chile. Aqui el chile es, mas que condi- 
mento, alimento basico. Como dice el dicho,"La 
comida sin chile es como un beso sin bigote." 
Desde que se acuerda la gente, Eduardo y Priscilla 
Chavez han rescoldado y vendido chile en el valle 

Las ladrilleras 
de Ciudad Juarez 

En el barrio Colonia IVIexico 68 de Ciudad 
Juarez, muchas de las familias ladrilleras han 
creado un espacio o patio para su casa,su homo 
y su negocio de ladrillos. La Colonia queda al 
lado del Parque Industrial Juarez, el segundo en 
la ciudad por su extension. Don Serafin explica 
como empezo su propio negocio de ladrillos en 
la colonia. "Estuve observando como trabajaban 
y como revolvian la tierra, como la cargaban, 
como la quemaban,toda la elaboracion. Antes 
todo era lirico, todo rustico y fue como me 
enserie yo. Lo linico fui viendo como trabajaban 
los sehores de antes, fue como aprendi y me 
gusto. Por eso es que comence a trabajar por mi 
cuenta y aqui estoy todavia...." 

— Erin Ross, Centre de Investigacion y 

Reglamentacion Ambiental del 

Suroeste Universidad del 

Estado de Nuevo Mexico 



at norte de Alburquerque. Su tiendita de chile en la 
calle Edith cerca de la iglesia del Monte Carmel es 
un lugar donde se reunen amigos, vecinos, turistas 
e indigenas de los cercanos Pueblos Sandia, Santa 
Ana y Santo Domingo. Como dice la sefiora Chavez, 
"El chile une a la gente." El sehor Chavez dice "Si no 
se puede sembrar el chile, hay que venderlo." 

— Enrique Lamadrid 
Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 



Ik^U^a 




RiVI^^^^H 


r!^»i'F,~ 


.' - -1^" 


■^ 1 i^nl ' ^ ^^^^^^^1 


feVi^^EF 


"^^t 




iiiMtW 


■♦i"'"liB 


^flkv^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 


>iw4P 


^^^^^^^^1 


r-^^^^fc 




IPiH^^^^^^^^^^I 


--^H^l 




fc ._^^^^^^B 


■^** i J jj 






f^w\ 




w^ ^B 


^^Pjr 


SL- 


^^^J ^1 


it^^^^Hj 


hf^M 


^^^^^I^B ,i^^^H 


"j 


m 


n 


ft 


^ 


spi 



Gerardo Caballero dentro del homo para hacer la- 
drillos en el patio desu casa en la colonia Mexico 68. 

Brick-maker Gerardo Caballero inside a brick-making 
oven in his yard. Photo by / Foto de Erin Ross 



mentes y los rios de los niexico-ameri- 
canos en todas partes. Su historia se 
cuenta en las escuelas, en excursiones y 
en muchos otros lugares. Hasta las 
aguas negras han oido sus llantos. De 
John Dodd, Hispanic Folk Music of New 
Mexico and the Southwest (1980): 
Ayer lloraba por verte, 
ay Llorona 
y hoy lloro porque te vi 

— Molly Timko 

Participante del Taller de 

Investigacion de Campo con la 

Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 

Smithsonian Folrlife Festival 



El rio es el corazon de un medio ambi- 

ente que sostiene la vida. 
Atrisco, al oeste del rio en Alburquerque, 
Nuevo Mexico, comenzo como una 
nierced de la corona espafiola en l692 
otorgada conjuntamente a un grupo de 
indios tiwas y colonos espanoles. El 
nombre es de origen azteca y quiere 
decir "lugar cerca del agua". El tamaiio 
del terreno ha variado segiin los cam- 
bios del cauce del Rio Grande. Hasta 
tiempos recientes, la comunidad se dedi- 
caba a la agricultura. Aunque la gente 
de Atrisco ya no depende en la agricul- 
tura para sobrevivir, las aguas del Rio 

1998 



Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin 



Grande todavia riegan sus jardines, 
arboledas y campos de alfalfa. Las ace- 
qiiiiis tradicionales y el agua que llevan 
simbolizan el espiritu de una comu- 
nidad que ha aprendido a defender su 
cultura, su estilo de vida y sus valores. 

Lino de los ritos de primavera en el 
Rio Grande del norte es la "saca" 
[limpieza] anual de las acequias. Todos 
estan obligados a participar y a con- 
tribuir en el trabajo. En el pueblo de 
Picuris de los indios tiwas, hay cantos 
especiales para acompanar la limpia de 
las acequias. En vez de tocar un tambor, 
el ritmo se niarca con los golpes de las 
palas contra el suelo. 

La entrada de las primeras aguas de 
la primavera en las acequias es una 
ocasion muy anticipada y celebrada con 
bendiciones y alegria. Cuando se abren 
las compuertas cerca de las comu- 
nidades Pueblo, las aguas son bendeci- 
das con harina de mai'z sagrado. En los 
pueblos hispanos, el sacerdote bendice 
el agua y las procesiones que honran al 
santo patrono de la agricultura, San 
Isidro Labrador. 

— Enrique Lamadrid 
Universidad de Nuevo Mexico 





Mujeres rardmuri vendiendo hierbas y flares en la banqueta en Gudad Juarez, 

Chihuahua. 

Rardmuri women selling herbs and flowers outside on the sidewalk in Gudad 

Judrez, Chihuahua. Photo by / Foto de Genevieve Mooser 



Desde el ano I948, la Tienda y Marqueta 
de la faniilia Mancha ha sido una insti- 
tucion cultural en Eagle Pass, Texas. 
Ahora, Guillermo, "Willie" Mancha, el 
hijo mayor, esta encargado de supervi- 
sar a la tercera generacion de hijos y 
sobrinos que continuan preparando y 
vendiendo las coniidas tradicionales 
tipicas de las ranchen'as mexicanas de 
esta region. Por mas de un siglo los 
rancheros mexicanos ban creado una 
economi'a a base de frutas, verduras y 
ganado, los ingredientes para comidas 
regionales como tamales, chorizo, 
menudo, fajitas y barbacoa de cabeza. 
La costumbre era de consumir el animal 
entero, preferibleniente chivo, desde la 
barba hasta la 
cola. Se dice que 
de allf viene la 
palabra barbacoa, 
de la combinacion 
de barba y cola. 
— Mario Montaiio, 
(Colorado College 



Hi no define com- 
plejos ambientes 
economicos, 
sociales y polfticos. 

Las comu- 
nidades riberenas 
contemporaneas 
ban respondido 
creativamente y de 
diferentes maneras 
a los retos histori- 
cos y medio ambi- 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festfvai 



Los Mancha metiendo la 
came en elpozo detrds 
de su tienda en Eagle 
Pass, Texas. 

The Manchas setting the 
prepared meat in the pit 
behind their store in Eagle 
Pass, Texas. Photo by / 
Foto de Mario Montano 



entales. Esto se puede ver en la bistoria 
de los indigenas raramuri de 
Cbibuabua, comunidades nativas que 
fueron forzadas a emigrar de sus tierras. 
La Sierra Madre Occidental se considera 
como el area mas majestuosa y pintoresca 
del norte de Mexico. Aqui viven los rara- 
muri. Por anos las familias raramuri han 
emigrado a zonas urbanas, principalmente 
de los estados de Chihuahua, Sinaloa y 
Durango. Los raramuris suelen visitar las 
ciudades para vender artesanias tradi- 
cionales, hierbas medicinales y textiles; para 
obtener productos que no se pueden con- 
seguir en la Sierra; y para obtener trabajos 
asalariados temporales. En octubre de 1995, 
una comunidad raramuri se establecio en el 
noroeste de Ciudad Juarez. Muchas mujeres 
de esta comunidad venden hierbas medici- 
nales cerca del mercado municipal de 
Ciudad Juarez. Las hierbas son comiinmente 
trai'das de la Sierra al comienzo del otofio. 
Desde pequefios, a los raramuri se les 
ensefia a conocer las hierbas medicinales de 
la Sierra, de modo que conocen sus 
propiedades curativas. 

Se produce poca artesania en esta comu- 
nidad, pero algunas mujeres van a la Sierra 
a conseguir material artesanal que no se 
encuentra en una zona urbana. Por ejemplo, 
consiguen las hojas de pino la palmilla 
para hacer canastas (warts). Sin embargo, 
en Ciudad Juarez encuentran materiales 
para coser vestidos y fajas tradicionales. Las 
mujeres raramuri son excelentes costureras. 
— Genevieve Mooser, Universidad de 
Nuevo Mexico Oriental 



91 



Ri'o Grande/Ri'o Bravo Basin 




Participantes en la escuela de investigacidn de campo del programa del Rio Bravo/Rio Bravo trabajando con los miembros del Sindicato de Campesinos Unidos en 

San Juan, Texas. 

Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Folklife Field Research School participants working with United Farm Workers Union in San Juan, Texas. Photo by / Foto de Charles Weber 



Los Arellano y su merced de tierra 

El Valle de Embudo en Nuevo Mexico tiene una gran diversidad de habitats que incluyen planicies 
deserticas, bosques de pino y junipero y matorral subalpino. El Rio Grande sustenta la region 
entera.La historia de agricultura y silvicultura novohispana en la region comienza con la merced de 
Embudo de 1 725. La madre de Estevan Arellano, Celia Archuleta, es descendiente directa de Francisco 
Martin, uno de los tres cesionarios originales. Los Arellano sienten lazos fuertes con su tierra que se 
intensifican y refuerzan preservando ciertas costumbres tradicionales. 

— Ken Rubin, Participante del Taller de Investigacidn de Campo con Colorado College 

Dentro de la variedad enorme que existe en el jardi'n, hay un sentido de armonia entre plantas, 
tierra y manos que la cosechan. En la filosofia agricola de Estevan Arellano, es muy importante 
lograr un paisaje natural. "Yo dejo que las plantas busquen su propio nicho. . . .se mueven y encuen- 
tran su lugar mas natural." La actitud de Estevan hacia los insecticidas revela su relacion con la tierra. 
"Los insecticidas son la peor cosa que se le puede hacer a la tierra. La tierra es un organismo vivo; 
tiene emociones, tiene un alma, tiene todo lo que tiene un ser humano. Si quiere que produzca, hay 
que trataria con carina" 

— Joanna Stewart, Participante del Taller de Investigacidn de Campo con Colorado College 



Tierra Wools 

La mision de Tierra Wools es producir y 
vender estambre y tejidos de lana hechos a 
mano, y ensenar a tejer, hilar, teiiir y trabajos 
relacionados en la tradicidn de tejido Rio 
Grande. Daremos prioridad en el empleo a 
personas de bajo a mediano ingreso; 
aseguraremos que habran mecanismos para 
que estas personas tengan acceso a prestamos 
para financiar propiedades; ayudaremos a 
propagar la historia y la cultura de la region 
manteniendo y desarrollando la tradicion del 
tejido del Rio Grande; daremos preferencia en 
la compra a la lana de la region, sobre todo a la 
lana churro;y mantendremos nuestro principal 
centre de negocios dentro de un radio de 50 
millas de Los Ojos, Nuevo Mexico. 



El ixtle 

El ixtle es una fibra que se extrae de la lechuguilla y se usa para tejer hamacas, tapetes y bolsas. La 
Direccion General de Ecologia del Estado de la Secretaria de Desarrollo Social del Gobierno de 
Coahuila ofrece becas a las personas que quieran aprender a trabajar el ixtle y ayuda a familias con 
talleres artesanales de este tipo. El artesano Jose Isabel Quiroz Garcia aprendio a tejer el ixtle de su 
padre, con quien todavia trabaja.Su esposa le pone los detalles finales a las artesanias. 



92 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Rio Grande/Ri'o Bravo Basin 



La necesidad economica y el sueno de 
ser dueno de sii propia tierra son fac- 
tores que impulsan a muchas familias 
de trabaj adores agricolas migrantes de 
bajo ingreso a vivir en asentamientos 
urbanos marginales o "colonias." Para 
ayudarles a realizar su nieta, el Sin- 
dicato de Campesinos Unidos de San 
Juan, Texas, desarrollo un programa 
especial que enfatiza dedicacion a la 
accion piiblica, trabajo voluntario, 
respeto por tod;is culturas y egalitaris- 
mo. Trabajando con telefonos, faxes, y 
computadoras, los trabajadores agrico- 
las utilizan la tecnologia modema al 
mismo tienipo que conservan valores y 
practicas tradicionales. 

— Victor Hernandez y Cynthia Cortez 

Participante del Taller de Capacitacion 

para la Investigacion de Campo con la 

Universidad de Texas-Pan Americana 

Dolores Venega le ensefia a las mujeres 
de Rio Bravo a hacer artesanias tradi- 
cionales utilizando materiales reciclados 
y otras materias primas de la region. El 
carrizo para las pinatas se encuentra a 
la orilla del Rio Bravo/Rio Grande; las 
canastas para arreglos florales se hacen 
con latas usadas; y el pegamento se 
hace con harina, vinagre, sal y agua. 
Tambien utiliza periodicos y mazorcas. 
— Beverly Ortiz, Participante del Taller 
de Capacitacion para la Investigacion 
de Campo con la Universidad de 
Texas-Pan Americana 



Era una via para salir del campo 

Los fines de semana en lugares como El Flamingo, Bar Prieta o Club 77 la musica de conjunto satura 
el ambiente mientras las parejas bailan al compas de huapangos, polkas, redovas y chotises. Esta 
tradicion ha sobrevivido en el sur de Texas, en lo que una vez fue una region cultural aislada conocida 
por los aficionados a la musica tejana de conjunto como el Valle. En un tiempo, la region era mas 
como Mexico que como Estados Unidos, pero a mediados de este siglo se introdujeron tradiciones 
musicales estadounidenses y surgio algo que no es mexicano ni americano sinotex-mex.La miisica 
tradicional se escucha en los pequerios dubes y salones de baile — en locales donde perviven 
estilos de baile que no han cambiado en 50 ahos. Ahora la nueva musica tejana convive con la mas 
tradicional. 

Amadeo Flores entretiene al continuo flujo de aficionados, musicos y estudiantes universitarios que 
pasan por el santuario de su taller de reparacion de acordeones con su incesante platica sobre la 
musica y refranes, dichos y chistes. Aunque ha vivido la mayor parte de su vida en el Valle, la musica 
le ha servido de vehiculo para conocer todo el pais. Ademas de afinador de acordeones, Amadeo es 
acordeonista, toca bajo sexto y es historiador. Su historia como musico comenzo en los anos cuarenta, 
cuando la musica para el era un pasatiempo;con el tiempo la ha convertido en una manera de 
ganarse la vida. Cuando le preguntan que es lo que atrae a la gente a la musica de conjunto con 
acordeon, contesta sin vacilar, "Es algo facil de entender y bailar. Quieren algo sencillo y vuelven a 
esto." Hoy Amadeo estaba presumiendo con sus fotos de publicidad de los clientes a quienes les 
repara sus acordeones y de sus rivales musicales, algunos de los cuales podrian ser sus nietos y, de 
hecho, son sus alumnos. Con su aprecio por las nuevas generaciones y su sentido de humor incon- 
tenible, Amadeo prospera en el cambiante mundo musical. 

— David Champion y Ramon de Leon, Centre Cultural Narciso Martinez, San Benito, Texas 

Al seguirel Rio Bravo/Rio Grande, cruzando 
y volviendo a cruzarlo, nos dimos cuenta de 
la enomie problematica cultural y ambiental 
que persisten en este trecho vasto. Desde su 
origen en Colorado hasta el Golfo de Mexico, 
cada region del Ri'o Bravo/Rio Grande 
enfrenta su propia polemica sobre la histo- 
ria, el idioma, la religion y los medios de 
vida. 

— ^luanita Garza 
Universidad de Texas-Pan Americana 



Olivia Cadaval recibio su doctorado en la Universidad de George Washington. Cynthia 
Vidmnri recibio su maestria en la Universidad Texas A & I y fue profesora de estudios chi- 
canos y fronterizos en la Universidad de Texas A & M-Kingsville. Son fundadoras del 
Centro Latino de Recursos Cult urates en el Centro de Estudios Culturalesy Programas de 
Tradicion Popular y co-directoras del programa sobre la cuenca del Rio Bravo/Rio 
Grande Laspasantes del programa del Festival Lucy Bates. Heidi McKinnon y Diana 
Robertson son graduadas de la Universidad de Edimburgo. la Universidad de Nuevo 
Mexico y la Universidad de California en Los Angeles, respectivamente. Ileana Cadaval 
Adam es escritoray traductora independiente. Patricia Fernandez de Castro estd termi- 
nando su doctorado en la Universidad de Chicago y es investigadora de El Colegio de la 
Frontera Norte. 

1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



93 



1AAO 

Festival Concerts 




94 



Smithsoni\n Folklife Festival 



1998 



Fourth Annual Friends of the Festival Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert 



Jazz and First-Generation 
American Klezmer Musicians 

Klezmer is the traditional instrumental 
music of the Jews of Eastern Europe and, 
as far as we Imow, dates from the l6th cen- 
tury. The term "klezmer" itself derives from the 
Hebrew words kley zemer, "vessel of song," 
referring to the musical instruments. 



Heavily influenced by the existing folk 
genres in the area — e.g., Romanian, 
Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, Hungarian, 
Bulgarian, Gypsy — and traditional 
Jewish cantillation, klezmer was filtered 
through Jewish ears and consciousness. 

Immigrant klezmer musicians who 
came from Eastern Europe to America 
during the early 20th century found a 
ready market for their skills. Many large 
American cities had Jewish neighbor- 
hoods filled with large young 
families.Yiddish was spoken by the vast 
majority. The newly arrived klezmorim 
found work using the old repertoire at 
weddings, society, labor union, and syna- 
gogue fimctions. Those adept at reading 
music could also find employment in 
Yiddish theaters. 

American-bom musicians began to 
perform klezmer music in the mid- 
1920s. Max Epstein (clarinet/saxo- 
phone/violin) was playing violin in a 
Yiddish theater orchestra at the age of 
12, in 1924. Although he plays American 
dance music, Epstein's klezmer clarinet 
and violin are totally European in overall 
style. He follows in the tradition of his 
idols, the European-bom Dave Tarras 
(1897-1989) and Naftule Brandwein 
(1889-1963). Brandwein's was the domi- 
nant clarinet approach — somewhat 
rough, but daring and exciting — until 
the advent of Tarras in the late 1920s. 
Most of the first-generation American 

1998 



players followed the style and repertoire 
of Dave Tarras — smooth, graceful, and 
elegant. 1 would compare the two: 
Brandwein is to Tarras as early Benny 
Goodman is to Artie Shaw. 

Aside from Epstein, the most important 
first-generation American klezmer clar- 
inetist was Tarras's son-in-law, the awe- 
some Sam Musiker (1916-1964), who 
was the featured jazz clarinet soloist in 
the Gene Krupa band from 1938 until 
1942. As with most in his generation, 
Musiker was an outstanding saxophonist 
as well. Jazz was an important compo- 
nent of Sam's klezmer playing and com- 
posing. His younger brother, Ray Musiker 
(born 1926), plays with a more "classi- 
cal" tone, and his compositions reflect 
the more "modal" approach of contem- 
porary jazz. 

Others who play in the Tarras style are 
Howie Leess, a devotee of Artie Shaw and 
a brilliant improviser on the tenor sax; 
Leess's first cousin, Danny Rubinstein, 
who plays marvelous modem jazz on sax 
as well; Paul Pincus, a Juilliard graduate 
who spent many years as a clarinetist 
and bass clarinetist in Broadway pit 
orchestras and plays elegant saxophone 
with little jazz influence; and Rudy Tepel, 
for years a band leader at Hasidic wed- 
dings, who employs a curious "society" 
sax vibrato on the clarinet and a punchy 
sax style reminiscent of Charlie Bamet. 

An anomaly among first-generation 

Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



Peter Sokolow 

American klezmer clarinetists, Sid Becker- 
man follows neither Brandwein nor 
Tarras. Sid's style derives from that of his 
father, Shloimke Beckemian (1883-1974), 
a good technician on both clarinet and 
saxophone who played in a Paul White- 
man big band unit at New York's posh 
Palais Royale in the early 1920s. He was 
the only one of the immigrant generation 
who played the saxophone well. Sid's 
pla\'ing is totally devoid of jazz influence 
and surprisingly lacking in vibrato, which 
also is apparent on the few recordings 
made by his father in the 1920s. On Sid's 
other instmments, trumpet and trom- 
bone, the jazz influence varies. 

When klezmer came to America, it 
moved indoors, from open fields to cater- 
ing halls, where it found — pianos! 
There weren't many pianists in klezmer 
in the immigrant generafion; the piano 
remained for the first-generation 
Americans, so many of whom were given 
music lessons by their parents. Klezmer 
dance bands used piano for "oom-pah" 
rhythm. The younger pianists such as my 
father, Abraham Sokolow (1896-1987), 
emulated the dynamic style of George 
Gershwin (1898-1937), whose innovative 
harmonies and rhythms pervaded 
American dance music from the 1920s 
until World War II. Some of these ideas 
found their way into klezmer music, 
introduced by Abe Ellstein, who played 
with Dave Tarras; Sam Eisenberg, who 
played with Max Epstein; and Sam 
Medoff, pianist and arranger on the 
1930s and 1940s radio series, "Yiddish 

The fourth Annual Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert is 
made possible with support from The Recording 
Industries Music Performance Trust Funds, the Ruth 
Mott Fund, Friends of the Festival, and Kate Rinzler. 

95 



Klezmer! 




The revivalists have. . . brought our old-time 
catering-hall dance music onto the concert 
stage, into the recording studio, and on 
television and radio. 



Melodies in Swing." Some bands used the 
accordion in addition to or as a substi- 
tute for the piano. 

The archetypal klezmer drummer in 
America was Irving Gratz (1907-1989), 
the mighty little man who played for 
Dave Tarras. An immigrant who played a 
pure klezmer style — rolls on the snare 
drum, steady bass drum, and cymbal 
accents — Gratz's "time" was impecca- 
ble: no rushing or slowing down, no jazz 
whatsoever The drummers who put 
some Krupa into klezmer were the 
youngest Epstein brother, Julie (born 
1926, in my opinion the best today), Sol 
Gubenko (brother of jazz vibist Terry 
Gibbs), Marvin Kutcher (nephew of 
trombonist Sam), and Si Salzberg. 

I am the "bridge" between the first two 
generations of American klezmer and the 

96 



revivalists of Henry Sapoznik's age and 
younger. I learned the music from Tarras, 
Gratz, Tepel, the Epstein brothers, and Sid 
Beckerman, all of whom I perfonned 
with regularly, starting in the late 1950s. 
Oddly, I learned a newer, more "yank- 
ified" klezmer than that of the revivalists, 
who went to the old Abe Schwartz, Harry 
Kandel, and Naftule Brandwein record- 
ings for their style and repertoire. Even 
though I have been playing this music 
since before many of the "kids" were 
bom, their basic approach predates mine! 
Many of my colleagues and I have intro- 
duced the revivalists to the style and 
repertoire of the Dave-Tarras-and-later 
period, which spans the years from 1930 
to i960. After i960, klezmer music 
became dormant, awaiting rediscovery 
and revitalization through the efforts of 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Peter Sokolow, Henry Spoznik, Howie Lees, and Sid 
Beckerman (left to right) perform in the early 1990s. 
Photo courtesy Peter Sokolow 



the dedicated scholars and perfonners of 
the klezmer revival. The revivalists have 
redefined our old music, lending a patina 
of artistry to the old, derogatory term 
klezmer, meaning a musical simpleton 
only capable of playing old Yiddish tunes 
poorly. They have brought our old-time 
catering-hall dance music onto the con- 
cert stage, into the recording studio, and 
on television and radio, giving new 
careers and a modicum of fame and pub- 
lic recognition to a bunch of old, semi- 
retired veterans. We "old guys" would like ! 
to thank the "young guys" for getting us 
a part in this wonderful music scene. 

Pete Sokolow « a veteran ofNetv York's 
Jewish miisic scene. Cofounder of Klezmer 
Plus!, he is highly regarded for his New 
Orleans and early jazz stylings. 

1998 



Klezmer! 



Old-Time Music and the Klezmer 
Revival: A Personal Account 

By the time I graduated from high school in 
1971, 1 knew that I had a great affinity for 
traditional music — especially "old-time" 
music from Appalachia. 



Cutting loose from my Orthodox Jewish 
upbringing and liturgical studies under 
my cantor father, I put my Jewish music 
in deep freeze and careened my way 
through rock and protest, winding up 
with "authentic folk. " Dubbing myself 
"Hank," I ventured forth with my $10 
Japanese banjo intent on embodying the 
hard livin', hard travelin' repertoire of 
rural Americans. Haunting the numerous 
coffeehouses in Greenwich Village or 
heading to the Wailing Wall of folk music, 
Washington Square Park, I would play a 
host of antique American songs with other 
children and grandchildren of East 
European Jewish emigres. The music 
scene was awash with fiddlers, banjo play- 
ers, mandolin players, and guitarists who, 
with their long string}; beards and intense 
gazes, looked like nothing less than stu- 
dents playing hooky from beys medresh, 
the Jewish house of study I fit right in. 
One band I sat in with was The Wretched 
Refuse String Band, whose name under- 
scored the relatively recent immigrant 
backgrounds of the musicians' families. 

The following few years were filled with 
listening to 78 rpm recordings of bands 
like Uncle Dave Macon and the Fruit Jar 
Drinkers, Dr. Humphrey Bates and the 
Possum Hunters, and my favorite, Charlie 
Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers. 
In 1972, 1 fonned my own old-time band. 
The Delaware Water Gap String Band. 
The DWG soon became a popular group 



1998 



in the bite-size universe shared with 
other urban revival old-time bands like 
the New Lost City Ramblers and the blue- 
grass-oriented Greenbriar Boys, in which 
Ralph Rinzler played. 

To this 19-year-old Brooklyn boy, North 
Carolina seemed like an amalgam of 
Shangri-La and Tobacco Road. My dream 
was to go as soon as possible. In the sum- 
mer of 1973 I got a chance to make a 
field trip to Mt. Airy to the home of Tom- 
my Jarrell and Fred Cockerham, two of 
the most wonderful players of old-time 
music. Septuagenarians both, the irascible 
Tommy and the dryly self-deprecatory 
Fred made perfect teachers. They were 
generous, demonstrative, appreciative, 
accessible, and endlessly authentic. Over 
the next few years I made half a dozen 
trips; these remain some of the most pow- 
erful and wonderful memories I have. 

At breakfast one morning on one of 
these trips. Tommy offered me scrambled 
eggs, bacon, and biscuits drenched in 
bacon-fat gravy. I opted for just coffee. 
The genial Tommy pressed me with 
"Come on. Hank, eat up!" We parried 
and thrusted until Tommy, getting more 
and more obstreperous, blurted out: 
"What's the matter with you, Hank? 
What're you, a damned Jew? " Whoa! I'm 
still not sure if I was more startled by 
Tommy's language or his knowing that 
pork is not kosher. In any case I stam- 
mered out: "Why, yes, Tommy, I am." It 
turned out that, touched and impressed 
as he and Fred were about the boundless 
enthusiasm Jews had for their music and 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Henry Sapoznik 

culture, they were still puzzled about the 
proliferation of us in old-time music. 
After all, their own kin took nearly no 
interest in it. 

Tommy asked me, "Hank, don't your 
people got none of your own music?" 
Well, of course we had "our own" music: 
cantorial melodies I sang with my father, 
Hasidic tunes we sang in yeshiva, numer- 
ous songs sung with gusto during Pass- 
over. There was also the Israeli music I 
deeply loathed. But where were the great 
fiddlers, the driving elemental dance 
tunes, and exuberant, unself-conscious 
genres of music? Above all, where were 
the Jewish Tommys and Freds? I didn't 
know, but I meant to find out. And did. 

Excerpted from Klezmer! A Social History 
of Yiddish Music in America (Schimier 
Press, forthcoming). 



Suggested Reading 

Sapoznik, Henry."Klezmer Music:The First Five Hundred 
Years." In Musics of Multicultural America, ed. Kip 
Lornell and Anne Rassmusen. New York: Schirmer 
Press, 1998. 

Suggested Listening 

Dave Tarras: Yiddish-American Klezmer Music 1925- 1956. 

Yazoo 7001. 
Klezmer Plus! Featuring Sid Beckerman and Howie Leess. 

Flying Fish 70488. 



Henri' Sapoznik is a leader in the 
reritalization of traditional Yiddish music. 
He is ctirre)itly working on a history of 
music and a documentary for public 
radio on the history of Yiddish radio. 



97 



Folkways at 50 



Folkways at 50: 
Festivals and Recordings 

Fifty years ago, an immigrant audio engineer 
with a deep love of American music, Moses 
Asch. started his third record company in 
New York City after suffering two bankruptcies. 

He called the new 
company Folkways 
Records and decid- 
ed he would use it 
to create a kind of 
public archive of 
the world's sounds. 
He was also deter- 
mined to provide a 
record label for 
those whose voices 
were rarely heard 
beyond their com- 
munities, from the 
most traditional 
artists to the most 
avant-garde. He 

would eventually produce over 2,100 LP 
records and keep them all in print until 
his death in 1986. In 1987 the Smith- 
sonian Institution acquired Folkways 
Records as well as the Moses and 
Frances Asch Collection of archival 
materials, now both part of the Center 
for Folklife Programs & Cultural Studies. 
In 1998 we look back over a half-centu- 
ry of activities that have profoundly 
influenced the music of our time, and 




Pete Seeger and Moses Asch at Folkways' office, New York City, 1956. 
Photo © David Gahr 



look forward to new technologies and 
new directions through which to do the 
same for the future. 

It is appropriate to celebrate Folkways' 
50th anniversary at the Folklife Festival. 
Folkways Records was a touchstone of the 
early folk music revival through its sup- 
port of many influential artists and its 
participation in many events. Moses Asch 
housed Sittg Out! magazine during its 
early years; he recorded at the Newport 



Support for Folkways At 50 comes from BMI (the American performance rights organization), the United States 
Postal Service, MACE. (Mississippi Action for Community Education), Global Arts/Media Foundation, 
P.A.C.E.R.S. (Program for Academic and Cultural Enhancement of Rural Schools) Small Schools Cooperative & 
Community Celebration of Place Project, KOCH International, Smithsonian Magazine, Smithsonian Institution 
National Museum of American History, TRO The Richmond Organization, Columbia Records and Sony Music 
Entertainment, Michael Asch, Walter Beebe and the New York Open Center, Andrew Dapuzzo and Disctronics, 
David Glasser, Charlie Pilzer, and Airshow Mastering, Inc., Judith DeMaris Hearn, Ella Jenkins, Richard Kurin, 
Mark Miller and Queens Group, Inc., Microsoft Corporation/Media Acquisitions Department, Arnold L Polinger, 
Razor & Tie Entertainment, and The Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds. 

98 Smithsonian FoLiaiFE Festival 



Anthony Seeger 

Folk Festival; he published the recordings 
of generations of researchers and schol- 
ars — including some of those who 
would eventually have a major influence 
on the Smithsonian Folklife Festival. For 
example, recordings of Doc Watson and 
his family by Ralph Rinzler, founding 
director of the Festival, were first issued 
on Folkways; Bernice Johnson Reagon, 
African-American scholar, singer, song- 
writer, and folklorist with the Festival's 
African Diaspora Program, recorded her 
first album on Folkways. Moreover, the 
philosophies of Folkways and the Folklife 
Festival were similar: to celebrate cultural 
diversity and human artistry; to provide 
an educational framework through which 
to understand cultural manifestations; 
and to encourage people to delve as 
deeply as they wish into the subject mat- 
ter by providing substantial supplemental 
material — liner notes in the case of 
Folkways and program books like this 
one in the case of the Folklife Festival. 

In three 50th anniversary concerts we 
recognize the importance of music for 
children in the Folkways legacy, look 
back at some of the influential artists 
recorded by Moses Asch in the 1940s, and 
then look forward to artists who appear 
on the most recent compact disc issued 
by Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. 

Children's Matinee, Friday, June 26th, 
5:30 - 7:00 p.m., Featuring Ella Jenkins 
and Larry Long with Children from 
Rural Schools in Alabama 

Music for children has been one of the 
most influential parts of Folkways 
Records — many people heard their first 
Folkways record in a classroom. Moses 
Asch thought children should be exposed 
to good, authentic music from many cul- 

1998 



Folkways at 50 



tural traditions. In this afternoon concert 
we celebrate not only the contributions 
pf musicians who perform for children 
but the creativity of children themselves. 

Folkways FoundersAl-S. Postal Service 
Folk Musicians Stamp Concert, Friday, 
June 26th, 7:00 - 9:00 p.m. 
In 1998 the U.S. Postal Service is issuing 
a stamp series commemorating four 
important figures in the folk music 
revival of the 1950s and 1960s: Lead 
Belly, Woody Guthrie, Sonny Terry, and 
Josh White. All four artists recorded for 
Moses Asch. To honor these men who 
played prominent roles in both Folkways 
and 20th-century American music, we 
are inviting musicians whose styles have 
been strongly influenced by them to per- 
form at an evening concert. Featured 
artists are Toshi Reagon,Josh White, Jr, 
Arlo Guthrie, and the Willie Foster Blues 
Band. 

Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations 
Women Concert, Sunday, June 28th, 
5:30 - 9:00 p.m. 

Because most traditional Native women's 
music has been performed in private set- 
tings — in their homes or during tribal 
ceremonies — very little of this music 
has been heard outside the women's own 
I communities. Yet women's music is a 
growing and dynamic part of Native 
music today In addition to traditional 
women's genres, women have recently 
begun to perform music previously 
restricted to men. A number of singer/ 
songwriters also have created songs that 
use Native languages and rhythms and 
often deal with issues of concern to con- 
temporary American Indians. 

Some of the artists featured on a new 
Smithsonian Folkways recording of 
Native women's music will be presented 
in a concert that celebrates both the 
release of the album and the half-centu- 
ry that Folkways Records and Smith- 
sonian Folkways Recordings have been 
introducing wider audiences to commu- 

1998 



nity-based music. The program will fea- 
ture Sharon Burch (Navajo singer/song- 
writer), Joy Harjo and Poetic Justice 
(contemporary poetry and jazz), Judy 
Trejo and her daughters (Paiute tradi- 
tional songs), Mary Youngblood (Aleut- 



Seminole flute player), Tzo'kam (tradi- 
tional Salish songs), and Sissy Good- 
house (Lakota traditional singer). 

Anthony Seeger, Ph.D., is curator and direc- 
tor of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. 



Suggested General Reading 

Goldsmith, Peter. Moto^ People's MusicMoeAsch and Folkways teorrfs. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 

Institution Press, 1998.The first comprehensive biography of the man who founded Folkways Records, his 
vision, and his influence on 20th-century music. 

Suggested Listening for the Children's Matinee 

Jenkins, Ella. Songs Children Love to Sing. Smithsonian Folkways 45042. 

Long, Larry. Here I Stand: Elders' Wisdom, Children's Songs. Smithsonian Folkways 45050. 

Smithsonian Folkways Children's Music Collection. Smithsonian Folkways 45043. 



Suggested Listening for the 
Folkways Founders Concert 



Lead Belly Folkways: The Original Vision (Smithsonian Folkways 40001 ) with songs by Lead Belly and Woody Guthrie; 

Lead Belly's Last Sessions (Smithsonian Folkways 40068); and the Lead Belly Legacy Series (Smithsonian 

Folkways 40044,40045,40105). 
Woody Guthrie Folkways: The Original Vision (Smithsonian Folkways 40001 ) with songs by Lead Belly and Woody 

Guthrie; This Land Is Your Land (Smithsonian Folkways 40100); and, for children, Nursery Days (Smithsonian 

Folkways 45036), 
Sonny Terry Sonny Terry: The Folkways Years (Smithsonian Folkways 40033) and Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee Sing 

(Smithsonian Folkways 40011). 
Josh White The original acetate masters recorded by Moses Asch were preserved for over 50 years and released in 

April onJosh White: Free and Equal Blues (Smithsonian Folkways 40081). 

Suggested Reading & Listening for the 
First Nations Women Concert 

Bataille, Gretchen. /^menran Indian Women: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, 1991. 

Green, Rayna. American Indian Women: A Contextual Bibliography. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979. 

. Women in American Indian Society. New York: Chelsea House, 1 992. 

Jamieson, Kathleen. A/uf/Ve Women in Canada: A Selected Bibliography. Onawa:Soda\ Sciences and 
Humanities, 1983. 

Burch, Sharon. The Blessing Ways. Canyon CR546. 

. Touch the Sweet Earth. Canyon CR535. 

. Yazzie Girl. Canyon CR534. 

Goodhouse, Sissy. The Third Circle: Songs of Lakota Women. Makoche 113. 

. r/wo/ie. Makoche 140. 

Harjo, Joy,and Poetic Justice, ieffe/- from the End of the Twentieth fenfury. Silver Wave 914. 
Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women. Smithsonian Folkways 4041 5. 
Heartbeat 1: More Voices of First Nations Women. Smithsonian folkways 40455. 
Youngblood, Mary. The Offering. Silver Wave SD 91 7. 

Smithsonian Folkhfe Festival 99 



General Festival Information 



General Festival Information 



Services & Hours 103 

Participants 104 

Special Concerts & Exliibition 109 

Daily Schedules 110 

Evening Programs & Special Events 130 

Publications 131 

Sponsors & Contributors 132 

Staff 136 

Educational Offerings 138 

Friends of the Festival 139 

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 140 



1998 



SmITHSONIAIV FOLKIIFE Festivai 



101 




«k 



A traditional Estonian house in winter. 
Photo by Kaido Haagen 



General Festival Information 



General Festival Information 



Festival Hours 



First Aid 



The Opening Ceremon\' for the Festival takes 
place at the Wisconsin Ballroom Tent at II a.m., 
Wednesday, June 24. Tiiereafter, Festival hours are 
11 a.m. to 5:.^0 p.m. daily, with evening events to 
9 p.m. except July 4. 



Festival Sales 



Traditional Wisconsin, Philippine, Estonian, 
Latvian, Lithuanian, and Rio Grande/Rio Bravo 
Biisin food is sold. See the site map on the back 
cover for locations. 

A variety of crafts, books, and Smithsonian 
Folkways recordings related to the 1998 Festival 
are sold in the Festival Marketplace on the Mall- 
side lawn of the National Museum of American 
Historv 



Press 



Visiting members of the press should register 
at the Press Tent on the Mall near Madison Drive 
and 1 2th Street. 



A first aid station is located near the 
Administration area on the Mall at Madison Drive 
and 12th Street. 

Restrooms & Telephones 

There are outdoor facilities for the public and 
visitors with disabilities located near all of the 
program areas on the Mall. Additional restroom 
facilities are available in each of the museum 
buildings during visiting hours. 

Public telephones are available on the site, 
opposite the National Museums of American 
History and Natural History, and inside the 
museums. 

Lost & Found/ 

Lost Children & Parents 

Lost items may be turned in or retrieved at the 
Volunteer Tent near the Administration area at 
12th Street near Madison Drive. Lost family mem- 
bers may be claimed at the Volunteer Tent also. 

Metro Stations 

Metro trains will be running every day of the 
Festival. The Festival site is easily accessible from 
the Smithsonian and Federal Triangle stations on 
the Blue and Orange Lines. 



Services for Visitors 
with Disabilities 

To make the Festival more accessible to visitors 
who are deaf or hard of hearing, audio loops are 
installed in the main music tent in each program 
area. Sign-language interpreters are on site every 
day of the Festival. Check the printed schedule 
and signs for interpreted programs. Special 
requests for interpreters should be made at the 
Volunteer Tent. Service animals are welcome. 
Oral interpreters are available for individuals if a 
request is made three full days in advance. Call 
(202) 287-5417 (TTY) or (202) 287-3424 (voice). 

Large-print copies of the daily schedule and 
audio-cassette and Braille versions of the pro- 
gram book are available at Festival information 
kiosks and the Volunteer Tent. 

A limited number of wheelchairs are available 
at the Volunteer Tent. Volunteers are on call to 
assist wheelchair users and to guide visitors with 
visual impainnents. There are a few designated 
parking spaces for visitors with disabilities along 
both Mall drives. These spaces have three-hour 
time restrictions. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



103 



Festival Participants 



Wisconsin 

Music and Dance 
Traditions 

Ci.Ki>; Bi:u.i.\ Okciii-sika — 

Czech Old-Time 
Cletus Bellin, piano/vocals; 

Forestville 
Gene Bumieister, trumpet; Green 

Ba) 
Bill Jerabek, drums/vocal 

harmony; Denmark 
Josepli jenibck. tuba; C;lsco 
Diana Schroeder, accordion; 

Manitowoc 
John Wiedow, trumpet; 

Green Bay 

Gary Drzewiecki, polka dancer; 

Pulaski 
Julie Drzewiecki, polka dancer; 

Pulaski 

Ha1:SE & SCIILEI — SCIIRAMMEL MUSlC 

Elfrieda Haese, vocals; Colgate 
Heidi Schlei, zither/vocals; Sussex 

Linda HarUvich, polka dancer; 

Trempealeau 
Randy Thull, polka dancer; River 

Falls 

K.\RL & THE Country Dittchmen — 

DiTCHMA-N Music 
Nic Dunkel, trumpet; Black Earth 
Karl Hart\vich, concertina; 

Trempealeau 
Tony Kiiminski, tuba; Trempealeau 
Jeff Langen, drums; LaCrescent, MN 
Frank Melmer, banjo; Owatonna, MN 
Gar>' Schroeder, trumpet; Fairfax, MN 

Frank Montano, Woodland flute; 
Ba>field 

Norm Dombrowsh & the Happy Notes 

— PousH Polka 
Ken Camiek, trumpet/vocals; 

Stevens Point 
Joe Dombrowski, trumpel/vocals; 

Stevens Point 
Mark Dombrowski, saxophone/ 

clarinet/vocals; Stevens Point 



Norm Dombrowski, drums/vocals; 

Stevens i'oint 
Marie hubowski, piano/concertina/ 

violin/vocals; Stevens Point 
Joe Larson, bass; Stevens Point 

NORSKEUAI.KN TrU) — NORWEGIAN 

FiDDu: 
Eleanor Bagstad, piano; Westby 
Tilford Bagstad, fiddle; Westby 
Beatrice Olson, accordion; Westby 

Queens of Harmony — African- 

A,MERU'AN Gospel 
Julia Love Brown, tenor/high tenor; 

Milwaukee 
Dorothy Johnson, baritone/lead; 

Milwaukee 
Joyce Johnson, tenor/high tenor; 

Milwaukee 
Jessie McCullum, tenor/high tenor; 

Milwaukee 
Ella Ray, baritone/lead; Milwaukee 

Steve & Verne Meisner Orchestr\ — 

Slovenlvn-Stvie Polka 
Rick Hartman, drums; Whitewater 
Gary Hendrickson, banjo; Monroe 
Steve Meisner, accordion/bass/ 

piano; Whitewater 
Verne Meisner, accordion; Waukesha 
Larry Sokolowski, saxophone; 

De Forest 

VaTRA — TAMEVRnZA 

Ivo Gretic, berde; Greenfield 
Boris Kuzmanovic, brac/\ocz\s; 

Greendale 
Davor Pozgaj, btigarija/\0C2\s; 

Milwaukee 
Christopher Ulm, ^rac/vocals; 

Milwaukee 
R\an yflemer, prim/brac/celo; 

West Allis 

Craft Traditions 

Annabelle .\rgand, needleworker; 

Madison 
Else Bigton, furniture builder; 

Barronett 
Andrej Borzecki, shrine maker; 

Armstrong Creek 
Joe Bunij, shrine maker; Armstrong 

Creek 
Ray Cadotte, dance regalia maker; 

Lac du Flambeau 
Jose Chavez, dXxzv/santos/retablos 

maker; Franklin 



Rosa Chavez, altar maker; Franklin 
Venerable Ngawang Chojor, sand 

mandala maker; Madison 
Betty Piso Christenson, egg 

decorator; Suring 
Diane DeFoe, birch-bark basket 

maker; Bayfield 
Pat Ehrenberg, quilter; Ripon 
Jean Giese, rosemaler; De Soto 
Nancy R. Hall, black ash basket 

weaver; ^X'ittenberg 
Sidney Hall, black ash basket 

weaver; Wittenberg 
Margaret Hart, moccasins/regalia 

maker; Cumberland 
Bemie Jendrzejczak, papercutter; 

Hales Corner 
Joe Krevs, accordion repairer/ 

maker/player; Milwaukee 
George Leazer, clay doll maker; 

Milwaukee 
Marie Leazer, rag doll maker; 

Milwaukee 
Wang Xiong Lee, metalworker; 

La Crosse 
Stephanie Vuljanic Lemke, egg 

decorator; Mazomanie 
Constance Mahairas, icon painter; 

La Crosse 
Hazel M. Maki, rag rug weaver; 

Washburn 
George McCormick, wooden doll 

carver; Milwaukee 
Vera Mednis, sash weaver; Warrens 
Kim Nishimoto, com husk doll 

maker; De Pere 
Phil Odden, woodcarver; Barronett 
Christine Okeriund, quill basket 

maker; Wittenberg 
Linda OUemian. quilter; Ripon 
Ron Poast, Hardanger fiddle maker; 

Black Earth 
Elda Schiesser, papercutter; New 

Glarus 
Mildred Schuman, beadwork artist; 

Lac du Flambeau 
Velma Scales, quilter; Milwaukee 
Blanche Shankle, quilter; 

Milwaukee 
Eileen Skinaway, beadwork/regalia 

artist; Luck 
Irene Vuorenmaa, rag rug weaver; 

Hurley 



Sidonka Wadina, wheat weaver; 

Lyons 
Kou Xiong, marriage broker; 

Madison 
Dang Yang, qeej maker/player; 

Milwaukee 
Long Yang, basket maker; 

Sheboygan 
Moa Yang, needleworker; Watertown 

Occupational/ 

Recreational 

Traditions 

Jeff Ackley, wild rice harvester; 

Crandon 
Neena Ackley, wild rice treader; 

Madison 
Vicki Ackley, wild rice harvester; 

Madison 
Ed Beaumont, logger; Brantwood 
Joe Belliveau, tree farmer; 

Tomahawk 
Norma Belliveau, wreath maker/ 

tree farmer; Tomahawk 
Fred Benjamin, moccasin game 

singer; Lac Court Oreilles 
Brooks Big John, decoy carver/fish- 
erman/fishing guide; 

Lac du Flambeau 
Bradley Boon, dairy farmer; 

Greenwood 
Duane Boon, dairy farmer; 

Greenwood 
Dale Buhrow, beer brewer; 

Chippewa Falls 
Mark Bussian, 4-H activities/ 

pig showing; Columbus 
John Bussman, cheese maker; 

Monroe 
Bill Casper, sturgeon fisherman; 

Fond du Lac 
Chris Dimka, shoemaker; 

Sheboygan 
Harold Hettrick, duck hunter; 

Ferryville 
Roger King, ginseng grower, 

Wausau 
Randy Krahenbuhl, cheese maker; 

Monticello 
Shelley Krahenbuhl, cheese maker; 

Monticello 
Willi Kruschinski, boatbuilder/lure 

maker; Winchester 
Betty Lacapa, wild rice parcher; Lac 

Court Oreilles 



104 



Smithsonwn Folklife Festival 



1998 



Festival Participants 



Tony Mayotte, wild rice harvester; 
Lac Court Oreilles 

'Tim Murphy, beer brewer; Chippewa 
Falls 

Dennis O'Donnell, 

"junque'artisv'clairy farmer; 
Frederic 

Arthur Oksuita, beer brewer; Stevens 
Point 

Peggy Rau, dairy farmer; Dorchester 

Zak Rau, dair)' farmer; Dorchester 

Bill Schlinsog, cheese maker/grader; 
Madison 

Mary Lou Schneider, sturgeon decoy 
caner; Fond du Lac 

Harold Schumacher, ginseng grow- 
er; Marathon 

Tim Smith, deer hunter; Green Bay 

Paul "Sugar Bear" Smith, heritage 
gardener; Oneida 

Pam Walker, cranberry grower; 
Wisconsin Rapids 

Ryan Walker, cranberry grower; 
Wisconsin Rapids 

Hollis Ward, tavern owner; Elkhom 

Cindy Wills, 4-H activities/pig show- 
ing; Belmont 

Darron Wills, 4-H activities/pig 
showing; Belmont 

Gina Wills, 4-H activities/pig show- 
ing; Belmont 

James Van Wychen, cranberry grow- 
er; Warrens 

Nodji Van Wychen, cranberry grow- 
er; Warrens 

John Zappa, beer brewer; Stevens 
Point 

Foodway Traditions 

Dorthy Hodgson, pasty maker; 

Shuilsburg 
Eric Olesen, kringle baker; Racine 
Debra Usinger, sausage maker; 

Milwaukee 



University of 
Wisconsin 
Marching Band 

Mike Leckrone, Director of Bands 

Galen S. Karriker, Assistant Director 
of Bands 

John Blester, Announcer 

Gary Smith, Photographer 

Gary Moore, Security Officer 

Clarinet 

Jennifer Ceman, Christopher Goss, 
Amy Krier, Missy Mayer 

Saxophone 

Ben Bares, Brianna Benjamin, Traq' 
Daluge, Mike Dettman, 
Christopher Herlache, Andrew 
Klaetsch, Nicole Kreuziger, 
Amanda Newby, Laurie Strobel 

Trumpet 

Anne Abrahamson, Nicole 

Ammemian, Franz Arvold, Jon 
Berge, Rachel Berger, Ryan 
Beverung, Erika Breiby, Scott 
Brown, Jonathan Claas, Ryan 
Cook, Jolene Crosby, Derek 
Daun, Robert Detlefson, Pat 
Feldhausen, Mark Planner, Steve 
Geiger, Merris Gullickson, 
Melissa Hampton, Paul Henslin, 
Scott Hurley Raymond Konyn, 
Rob Koth, Jennifer Lange, Chad 
Leblanc, Steve Lindley, Paul 
Lindorf, Sarah Macleish, Scott 
Magee, Melissa Martin, Maureen 
McDonald, Nicholas Myhre, 
Chris Nelson, Jill Newman, Cara 
Olbrantz, Heidi Piatt, Adam 
Plotkin, Brad Pope, Brian Pope, 
T. Gregory Reed, Kristen Riebau, 
Daniel Ries, Jason Reisterer, Neal 
Rozga, Jason Rymer, Heidi 
Salzmann, Chris Sawyer, 
Kiniberly Scheidegger, Steve 
SchmiU, Cathie Schallue, Anna 
Sics, Benjamin Socie, Erica 
St. John, Chris Stillwell, Mathew 
Sullivan, Bill Utter, Stephanie 
Volden, Katie Wachowski, Justin 
Woodley 

Flitegel Horn 

Bob Bailey Joel Dreier, Nathan 
Lukecart 



Mellophone 

Emily Engel, Ellen Ezerins, Elizabeth 
Mergener, Laura Pedersen, Chris 
Remington, Rae Dawn Rippchen, 
Jamie Ruprecht, Raechal Sager, 
Steve Schrammel, Sara White 

Trombone 

Damon Bach, Geoff Bares, Derek 
Berget,John Buchholz, Cassie 
Carbon, Karey Clark, Tony Diehl, 
Tun Drews, Jeff Gentile, Laura 
Hageman, Erik Hoven, Gregory 
Ingersoll, Brad Knoll, Chris 
Knudson, Natalie Krueger, Kyle 
Manske, Edward Niles, Tim 
Nowaczyk, Daniel Olson, Craig 
Parker, Sue Peck, Greg Piefer, Eric 
Plate, Erin Pyzik, Amy 
Quackenbush, Kim Rauwald, 
Daniel Rooney, Gretchen 
Scheidler, Zac Schultz, Sarah 
Simonis, Brian Skinner, Brett 
Slaney, Joel Sohre, Ray Tainter, 
Jake Thull, William Tills, Geoffrey 
Wawrzyniak, Michael Whisler, 
Marie Zimmer, Brian Zweig 

Euphonium 

Andy Forster, Ann Kaminski, Rob 
Konitzer, Kevin Krause, Branden 
Linley, Michael Tessmer, Dan 
Uttech, David Wirch 

Tuba 

Zachery Dachel, Daniel Evans, Hugh 
Francis, Shane Haack, Cari Jo 
Keller, Hans Peterman, Mark 
Pronovici, Michael Schmidt, Kyle 
Schneider, Rob Scholl, Andy 
Schuh, Mindy TempeUs 

Percussion 

Aaron Faessler, Brian Frailing, Tricia 
Horwitz, Joel Jacklin, Tony 
Larocca, Brent Lavin, David 
Muencheberg, Kristin Sebranek, 
Geoff Seufert, Kevin Sprewer 

Field Assistants 

Sean Chandler, Bill Garvey, Carl 
Gitchel, Mark Messer, Cindy 
Schwibinger, Fritz Statz, Michael 
Stone, Janice Stone, Matthew 
Whiting 



Pahiyas: A 
Philippine 
Harvest 



Cluster A: Binding, 
Weaving, Lashing 

Boatbuilders 

Lydia Ignacio Fojas; Aklan Province 

Norman P. Fojas; Aklan Province 

Epic Singer 

Lang Sengid Kambay; South 
Cotabato Province 

Kiping Maker 

Miguelito V. Abuso; Lucban, Quezon 
Province 

Traditional Builders 
Sylvio S. Bobos; Manila 
Amelio Manzano; Manila 

Weavers 

Miguelita A. Bangkas; Davao del Sur 

Province 
Baingan Adzad Dawan; 

Maguindanao Province 
Susima M. Dela Cruz; Aklan 

Province 
Salinta Barra Monon; Davao del Sur 

Province 
Rhodora D. Sulangi; Aklan Province 
Maria Todi Wanan; South Cotabato 

Province 

Cluster B: Beating, 
Tapping, Pounding 

Goldsmith 

Roberto L. Gorobat; Paracale, Bicol 

Silversmith 

Julio R. Ramirez; Pampanga 
Province 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



105 



Festival Participants 



Cluster C: Carving, 
Incising, Molding 

BoatbiiiUler 

Bua Hudasan Kara; Maguindanao 
ProNince 

Carvers 

Fermin R. Cadapan; Paete, Laguna 

Province 
Rodico A. de Dios; Pampanga 

Province 
Leon D. Tayaban; Ifugao Province 

Kulintang Maker 
Zacaria Akman Aniboa; 
Maguindanao Province 

Philippine Kitchen 

Milagros S. Enriquez; Maloios, 

Buiacan Province 
Nicanora Teresa C. Santiago; 

Maloios, Buiacan Province 

Basketball Court 

Arms Masters, Cebu Crrv 
Arnold G. Canete 
Mario Isagani A. Talledo 

Kliuntang Ensemble, Maguindanao 

Province 
Aga Mayo Butocan, Leader 
Sinsuat Delawangan Dalgan 
Kanapia Sibay Kalanduyan 
Dinanding Dilawangan Kalimudan 
Labaya Sagire Piang 
Samaon Silongon Solaiman, 

kudyupi player 

Pasiking (Kalinga Ensemble), 
Kalinga-Apayao Province 
Benicio D. Sokkong, Leader 
Damaso L. Balway 
Calixto B. Cabannag 
Inocencio L. Damagon 
Jose Marie K. Felipe, Jr. 
Imelda S. Polittude 
Dancers: 

Benedicto L. Damagon 
Fidel R Tayawa 



T\l\andig Ensemble, 

BuKiDNON Province 
Victorino Saway, Leader 
Jean S. Gangga 
Marlon R Necosia 
Adolino L. Saway 
Rodelio L. Saway 
Liza L. Saway 
Orlanda R Saway 
Narita T. Sihagan 



Chapel 



CiioRu. Ensembu-;, Bacong, Negros 

Oriental Province 
Exuferio V. Tinguha, choirmaster & 

parol maker 
Glenn S. Aurea,/)flro/-making 

assistant 
Leona R. Aurea, a/«/ora/soprano 
Simplicia V. Baro, crtw/ora/soprano 
Catalina T. Gajilomo, cantora/ 

soprano 
Angel M. Honculada,/>«ro/-making 

assistant 
Genoveva T. Sagarino, cantora/a.\lo 
Sylvia T. Vendiola, caw/ora/soprano 

MVSICONG BVMBONG, BUUCAN PROVINCE 

Alfredo C. Anastacio, snare drum 
Antonio A. Anastacio, harmonica 
Rodrigo C. Anastacio, bass drum 
Antonio D. Bautista, trombone 
Roberto C. Capiral, trumpet 
Ernesto B. de Dios, trombone 
Roderic C. Garcia, cymbals 
Melchor E Gimenez, clarinet 
Bemabe A. Ignacio, bamboo bass 
Zosimo B. Miday, trumpet 
Rizalino A. Remigio, saxophone 
Domingo M. Rosco, saxophone 
Roman A. Santa Ana, bamboo bass 
Maximo C. Santiago, harmonica 

Rondalla Marikina, Marikina City, 

Manila 
Marcial R. de Jesus 
Arcadio R. dela Cruz 
Edgardo G. Labrado 
Rodolfo T. Poblea 
Montano M. Santos 
Teofilo M. Santos 



SvBU Ensemble, Bat.wgas Province 

Abdon {). Cruzat, Leader 

Dancers: 

Rufina V. Boongaling 

Beda M. Dimayiiga 

Bibiana C. Escalona 

Miguela C. Maquimot 

Simeon C. Maquimot 

Leonardo E. Valdez 

Drummers: 

Felix C. Cruzat 

Severino D. Cruzat 

Jose E. Manalo 

The Baltic Nations: 
Estonia, Latvia, 
Lithuania 

Estonia 

Music and Dance 
Traditions 

Ali,e-aa 
iHleJantson 
Ott Kaasik 
Ando Kiviberg 
Orjo Jaama 
Tbule Kann 
Aare Kivivali 
Toivo Luhats 
Raivo Sildoja 
Aivar Teppo 
Margus Veenre 
Enrik Visla 

KlHNUMUA (KlHNU GROUP) 

Singers 

Ly Leas 

Reene Leas, lace maker/singer 

Argo Lilies 

Veera Nazarova 

Veronika Nazarova 

Heldy Odinchenko, 

embroiderer/singer 
Liisi Sang 
Kiilli Sepp 



KlU.DATSAUK (SeTII GROUP) 

Singers 

Taimi Auser 

Ego Koiv 

Helena Kudre, lace maker/singer 

Eevi Laanetu 

Valve Poolak 

Maret Vabarna, sash maker/singer 

LEIGARII) 

Dancers & Makers of Traditional 

Clothing 
Tiiu Aasa 
Marget Indov 
Sille Kapper 
Merike Reinok 
Oie Rekand 
Lembe Torop 
Dancers & Game Leaders 
Tonu A:is 
Heinar Kukk 
Alar Leming 
Tonu Linno 
Margus Paap 
Paavo Saare 
Musicians 
Elina Aasa Parra 
Eero Sommer 
Jaan Sommer 
Toomas Torop 

Craft Traditions 

Tiit Sarapuu, boatbuilder 

Kati Sihvre, traditional clothing 

maker 
Aivar Siim, herbalist 
Valdur Tilk, woodworker 
Liina Veskimagi, wool processor 

Latvia 

Music and Dance 
Traditions 

DaND/U<I 

Ellna Kule Braze 
Ellna Hermane 
Inta Jansone 
Zigniars Kristsons 
Zane Kriumane 
Sandra Lipska 
Lauris Neikens 
llmars Pumpurs 
Valdis Putnins 
Ernests Spies 
leva Tamane 
Juris Zalans 



106 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Festival Participants 



Rasa 

Karlis Freibergs 
iGita Lancere 
Ruta Muktupavela 
Valdis Muktupavels 
Iveta Tale 

SaLMANIS FAMaY 

Indra Cekstere 
Ilze Primane 
Aiiia Salmane 
Peteris Salmanis 
Uldis Salmanis 
Aiida Skuja 
Davis Skuja 
Talivaldis Skuja 
Zane Zvaigzne 

Stalts family 
Martiijs HeimraLs 
Zoja Kjujeva 
Marga Stalta 
Helmi Stalte 
JulgT Stalte 
Dainis Stalts 
Davis Stalts 
Raigo Stalts 
Ricards Stalts 
Valda Vltola 

Craft Traditions 

Olgerts Gerdins, fishing net maker 
Juris Indans, traditional craftsman 
Maris Jansons, musical instrument 

maker 
Aldis Kalcenaus, boatbuilder 
Maris Karlsons, ceramicist 
Daina Kraukle, weaver 
Ilga Madre, knitter 
Inita Straupe, weaver 
Vitauts Straupe, metal jewelry 

maker 
Vilnis Vincevics, blacksmith 
Ingrida Zagata, potter 



Lithuania 

Music and Dance 
Traditions 

Veronika Povilioniene, singer 

Insula 

Alvydas Alimas 
Sigita Daciene 
Jonas Latakas 
Rita Macijauskiene 
Vygandas Norvilas 
Milda Rickute 
Loreta Sarkaite 
Valdemaras Skugaras 
Elvyra Spudyle 
Unas Ulkstinas 
Zenaida Vaicikauskaite 
Gintaras Vaitkaitis 

Marcinkonys Village Folk Ensemble 

Ruta Antulyte 

Jonas Bajoriunas 

Jone Cerebiejiene 

Juze Cesnuleviciene 

Stanislovas Cesnulevicius 

Juze Grigiene 

Antanina Kokiene 

Juozas Korsakas 

Birute Korsakiene 

Vinc;is Miskinis 

Aldona Paulauskiene 

Roze Packauskiene 

Jonas Sereicikiis 

Petronele Sereicikiene 

Joana Serencikiene 

Rozalija Vilcinskiene 

Sodahto (Lithuanian Folk Ensemble of 

Greater Boston) 
Birute Banaitiene 
Bronius Banaitis 
Vytautas Bazikas 
Gintaras Cepas 
Valentina Cepiene 
Andrius Dilba 
Vytautas Dilba 
Terese Durickas 
Darija Giniunaite 
Danute Kazakaitiene 
Kristina Kriksciukaite 
Lilija Kulbiene 
Aidas Kupcinskas 



Gita Kupcinskiene 
Kgstutis Kveraga 
Rikante Kveragiene 
Jurate Narkeviciene 
Gintautas Narkevicius 
Kotryna Rhoda 
Henrikas Rimkus 
Vida Rimkuviene 
Danguole Senutiene 
Renata Svedaite 
Janina Svediene 
Rima Tainule 
Orinta Vaiciulyte 

SlTARAS 

Antanas Fokas 
Bronislovas Glovickis 
Robertas Kunickas 
Gintautas Paukstis 
Laimutis Zemaitis 

Trys Keturiuose 
Daina Norvaisyte 
Gabriele Sirkaite 
Ingrida Vamiene 
Daiva Vyciniene 

Craft Traditions 

Vytautas Jarutis, blacksmith 
Alfredas Jonusas, amber worker 
Ruta Jonuskiene, sodas (straw craft) 

designer 
Monika Kriukeliene, weaver 
Stasys Mickus, fence maker 
Adelija Mickuviene, Easter egg deco- 
rator 
Raimundas Puskorius, woodcarver 
Leokadija Salkovska, verba binder 



Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo Basin 

Charies Aguilar, musician/ 

farmer/fiesta organizer; 

Bernalillo, New Mexico 
Estevan Arellano, centenary 

rancher/historian/sculptor/ 

writer; Embudo, New Mexico 
Michael Blakeman; San Juan/ 

Rio Grande National Forest, 

Del Norte, Colorado 
Jose Guadalupe Alejandro Bautista, 

Ramamuri woodcarver/bilingual 

teacher/runner; Cuidad Juarez, 

Mexico 
David Champion, conjunto 

musician; Mercedes, Texas 
Jose Cisneros; Big Bend National 

Park, Big Bend, Texas 
Marta Cruz Moreno, Ramamuri bas- 
ket weaver/ 

seamstress; Cuidad Juarez, 

Chihuahua, Mexico 
Silvestre Amadeo Flores, conjunto 

musician/accordion tuner; Alice, 

Texas 
Jesus Godinez, conjunto musician; 

Alice, Texas 
Arnold Herrera, drummaker/ 

drummer/educator; Cochiti 

Pueblo, New Mexico 
Jose Maldonado, conjunto musician; 

McAllen, Texas 
Rita Morales Alvarez, mMjuiladom 

worker/brickmaker/foodways; 

Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico 
Jose Isabel Quiroz Garcia, ixtle 

weaver; Saltillo, Coahuila, 

Mexico 
Moi'ses Quiroz Cortez; Saltillo 

Coahuila, Mexico 
Luis Roman, relablo painter/ 

muralist/sign painter; Ojinaga, 

Chihuahua, Mexico 
Maria Elena Russom, Tierra Wools 

weaver; Los Ojos, New Mexico 
Juan Antonio Tapia, conjunto musi- 
cian; Brownsville, Texas 
Dolores Venegas, paper crafts; Rio 

Bravo, Tamaulipas, Mexico 
Clemente Zaniarripa, vaquero/ 

horsehair braider; Santa Elena, 

Texas 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkufe Festival 



107 



Festival Participants 

Folkways at 50 

Anniversary 

Concerts 

Children's Matinee 

Ella Jenkins; Chicago, IL 
Larry Long; Minneapolis, MN 
Slater Huff; Packers Bend, AL 

Children from Monroe High School; 

Packers Bend, AL 
Angel Carstarphen 
LaKecia Carstarphen 
Paulette Carstarphen 
Adrienn Cheeseboro 
Kimberly Cheeseboro 
Latonya Cheeseboro 
Yshika Cheeseboro 
Rapheal Davis 
Domoneek McCoy 
Tromesha Packer 
Bryant Timmons 
Patricia Tunstall 

Children from T.W. Martin High 

School; Goodsprings, AL 
Shawn Bromley 
Courtney Dotson 
Jon Dotson 
Stephanie Hicks 
Ryan Logan 
Brandon Morris 
Jada Parker 
Cameo Raney 
Brandon Reynolds 
Josh Salter 
Landon Waid 
Sabrina Williams 



Folkways 
Founders/U.S. 
Postal Service Folk 
Musicians Stamp 
Concert 

Ark) Ciutiirie; Housatonic, MA 
Abe Guthrie 
Annie Guthrie 
Cathy Guthrie 
Sarah Guthrie 

Toshi Reagon; Brooklyn, NY 

Josh Whitejr.; Detroit, MI 

The Willie Foster Blues Band 
Willie Foster; Greenville, MS 
John Horton, III; Greenville, MS 
Roosevelt Rogers; Greenville, MS 
Richard E. Taliaferro; Greenville, MS 
Larry Wright; Leland, MS 



Heartbeat: Voices 
of First Nations 
Women Concert 

Sharon Burch; Santa Rosa, CA 

Sissy and Cedric Goodhouse; 
Fort Yates, ND 

Christina Gonzalez; Schurz, NV 
Delgadina Gonzalez; Schurz, NV 

Joy FkRjo and Poetic Justice 
Charlie Baca; Albuquerque, NM 
Richard Carbajal; Phoenix, AZ 
Joy Harjo; Hollywood, CA 
Derek James; Los Angeles, CA 
John Williams; Albuquerque, NM 
Susan Williams; Albuquerque, NM 

Judy Trejo; Wadsworth, NV 

Tzo'KAM 

Joyce Fossella; Vancouver, BC 
Judy Lemke; North Vancouver, BC 
Irma Rabang; Sumner, WA 
Maria Stiglich; Langley, BC 
Freda Wallace; Vancouver, BC 
Flora Wallace; Vancouver, BC 
Russell Wallace; North Vancouver, 
BC 

Mary Youngblood; Sacramento, CA 



Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 

Sid Beckerman, clarinet 
Lauren Brody, 

accordion/piano/vocals 
Steven Greenman, violin 
Margot Leverett, clarinet/saxophone 
Paul Pincus, tenor 

saxophone 
Mark Rubin, bass/tuba 
Henry Sapoznik, banjo/ 

vocal/producer/director 
Peter Sokolow, keyboard/ 

vocal/musical director 
Michael Spielzinger, drums 
Steven Weintraub, dance instructor 



108 



SmITHSONLVN FOIKIIFE FESTIVAL 



1998 



Children's Matinee 
Friday, June 26 
5:30 - 7:00 p.m. 
Wisconsin Ballroom Stage 

Ella Jenkins 

Larry Long with Youth & Elders from Rural Alabama 

This concert has been made possible with support from the PACERS. (Program for 
Academic and Cultural Enhancement of Rural Schools) Small Schools Cooperative of 
Alabama. 

Folkways FoundersAJ.S. Postal Service 
Folk Musicians Stamp Concert 
Friday, June 26, 7:00 - 9:00 p.m. 
Baltics Music Stage 

The Willie Foster Blues Band: Arlo Guthrie 

Willie Foster Toshi Reagon 

John Norton, III Josh White, Jr. 

Roosevelt Rogers 
Richard E.Taliaferro 
Larry Wright 

This concert has been made possible with support from the United States Postal Service, 
BMI, MACE. (Mississippi Action for Community Education), and Global Arts/Media 
Foundation. 



Special Concerts and Exhibition 



Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women 
Sunday, June 28, 5:30 - 9:00 p.m. 
Baltics Music Stage 



Sharon Burch 
Judy Trejo 
Delgadina Gonzalez 

Joy Harjo and Poetic Justice: 
Joy Harjo 
Richard Carbajal 



Sissy and Cedric Goodhouse 
Christina Gonzalez 
Mary Youngblood 



Susan Williams 
Derek James 



John Williams 
Charlie Baca 



Tzo'kam: 

Russel Wallace 
Judy Lemke 



Flora Wallace 
Irma Rabang 



Maria Stiglich 
Freda Wallace 



Joyce Fossella 



This concert has been made possible witJi suppoil from the Smithsonian 
Institution National Museum of American History. 



Klezmer! The Triumphant Return of Yiddish Music 
Thirsday,July 2, 5:30 - 9:00 p.m. 
Baltics Music Stage 



Sid Beckerman 
Paul Pincus 
Michael Spielzinger 



Lauren Brody 
Mark Rubin 
Steven Weintraub 



Margot Leverett 
Henry Sapoznik 



Steven Greenman 
Peter Sokolow 



This concert has been made possible with support from the Friends of the Festival, The 
Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds, and the Ruth Molt Fund. 



Desert Voices, Desert Light 

LUCES Y VOCES DEL DESIERTO 



a photography exhibit on the Chihuahuan Desert in conjunction with 
the Rio Gramie/RioBravo Basin Smithsonian Folklife Festival program. 
Una exhibicion fotografica sobre el desierto de 
Chihuahua en conjunto con el programa de la cuenca 
del Rio Bravo/Rio Grande del Festival Smithsonian de 
Culturas Populares. 

June 19 - Augu.st 30, 1998 1 9 de junio - 30 de agosto de 1 998 
S. Dillon Ripley Center, Third Level Tercer Piso 

Photography Fotografia: 

David Lauer, Nacho Guerrero, Marco Antonio Hernandez 

Sound Documentation Documentacion de Sonido: 
Andres Camou, David Lauer, Maria Teresa Guerrero 

This exhibition is sponsored by the Smithsonian Center for Folklife 
Programs & Cultural Studies, the Smithsonian International Gallery, and 
the Mexican Cultural Institute with support from the Fideicomiso para la 
Cultura MexicoA'SA (Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y his Artes, 
Fundacion Cultural Bancomer & The Rockefeller Foundation) and MCI. 




"The desert is not an empty space, not uninhabited land, but a remark- 
able place where life is fragile but tenacious." 

"El desierto no es un espacio vacio, ni una tierra de 
nadie, sino un lugar insolito donde la vida resiste 
con una exitencia tenaz y fragil" 



1998 



Smithsonian FouaiFE Festival 



109 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 



110 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Wednesday, June 24 

Wisconsin 



Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



Marketplace 



Ballroom 
Stage 



Heritage 
Stage 



Kitchen 



Tavern 



Wisconsin 
Talk 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Opening Ceremony ® 



Honorable Esteban Torres, Secretary I, Michael Heyman. Richard kiirin, llimorable Salvador H, Uurel, Honorable Saulius Saltenis, Honorable Ramona llmblija, 
Honorable Jaak Allik, Honorable Herb Kohl, Honor,ible Tommy G. Thompson, Arnold Goldstein, Diana Parker, Honorable David Obey 



German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 



Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 



Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 



Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 



Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 






Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 



German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 



Wisconsin 
Old-Time Dance 
Workshop 



African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 



Instruments Made 
& Played 



Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 



Instruments Made 
& Played 



Ojibw/e Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 



African-American 
Gospel: 
Oueensof 
Harmony 



Hmong Music 



Nonwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 



Danish Specialties 



Sausages 



Finnish Dishes 



Mexican Foods 



Pasties 



Norwegian Foods 



Danish Specialties 



^ 
'^S^ 



Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 



^3& 



Sheepshead I 
Euchre 



Jokes & Lies 



Concertina/ 

Accordion 

Workshop 



Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 



Tuba Workshop 



Walloon Songs 



Duckpin Bowling 



Images of the 
Holy 



Fish Tales 



The Hmong 
Marriage Broker 






Immigration to 
Wisconsin 



Hunting Stories 



Mother Tongues 



Quilts & 
Storycloths 



Wisconsin 
Accents 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metalwork- 


nous crops (ginseng. 


11:30-12:30 


Demonstrations 


rice camp of nee win- 


ing, logging, tree 


cranberry marsh, three 


Family Activity— Leam 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading, 


growing, boatbuilding, 


sisters garden). 


rosemalingatthe •♦• 
"Decorative" tent, ' 


religious crafts work, 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ice fishing, lure mak- 




textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


ing, decoy carving. 


Milking: 12:00,2:00, 




tive arts, doll making, 


3:00, 


duck & deer 


4:00 


2:00 


egg decorating, instru- 




hunting. 




Special Presentation of 


ment making, 


Aaivities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 


doll makers at the "Dolls" 


basket making. Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presen- 


1:00,3:00 


tent. 


American beadwork. 


edge & recreational 
skills including shoe- 


taions: Cheese making, 
beer brewing, indige- 







Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Conjunto Music 
Workshop 



^2& 



Fiesta Traditions 



Crafts & Natural, 
Found & 
Industrial 
Materials 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Women & 

Sustainable 

Development 



^ 
^2^ 



Art Traditions 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



<3^ 



Rio 
Conversations 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Activities: 

Demonstrations and 
family activities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills. 






Lithuanian 
Verba Making 
Leokadija 
Salkovska 



Philippine 
Woodcarving: 
Leon Tayaban 



^^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted 

•X,* Indicates 
1 1 * family 

programs and 

children's activities. 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Wednesday J June 24 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



Chapel 



Basketball 
Court 



Sari-sari 
Store 



Philippine 
Kltcnen 



Foodways 



Main Musk 
Stage 



Pub Stage 



Opening Ceremony ® 



Honorable Esteban Torres. Secretary I- Michael Heymm. Richard Kurin, Honorable Salvador H. Laurel, Honorable Saulius Saltenis, Honorable Ramona Umblija, 
Honorable Jaak Allik, Honorable Herb Kohl, Honorable Tommy G. Thompson. Arnold Goldstein, Diana Parker, Honorable David Obey 



Religious Music 
(Bamboo Band) 



Tagalog Songs & 
Poetry Readings 



Filipino Classical 
Music [Rondalla] 



Subli 



Cebuano 
Devotional Singing 



Fiesta Music 
(Bamboo Band) 



Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 



Maguindanao 
Kulintang Playing 



Arms (Martial Arts) 



Philippine Marches 
(Bamboo Band) 



Maguindanao 

Sagayan 

Performance 



Folk Songs and 
Dances {Rondalla) 



Kalinga Music I 
Dances 



Talaandig 
Kaamulan 



Church Art 



Cayak: Preparation 
as Art 



Maguindanao Lute 
Performance 



Concepts of Home 



Family 

Aaivity: Talaandig 

Storytelling » 

ifr 



Paglalakbay. 
Travel Stories 



^ 



T'boli Topical 
Singing 



Akianon Cuisine 



Tagalog Cuisine 



5^ 
^2& 



Tagalog Cuisine 



Bagobo Cuisine 



Kipmg 
(Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers) 



Batangas Cuisine 



Cluster 


2.45,4:30-5,30, 


1:45,4:15-5:15; 


Tagalog somas carv- 


Demonstrations: 


Maguindanao lute 


Kalinga gong music: 


ing: 12:45-1:45; 


CuiterA 


performance: 2:45- 


1:45-2:30; 


Ifugao can/ing: 


(Binding/Weaving/ 


5 30 ^ 


kulimang playing: 


1:45-2:30,4:30-5:15; 


LashinglTent 1: 




3:30-4:15, 


Kapampangan sanfos 


Talaandig woven 


Ouster B 




& furniture carving: 


traps: 11:45-12:45; 


(Beating/Tapping/ 


Cluster C 


2:30-3:30; 


Bagobo hemp dyeing 


Pounding) 


(Carving/Incising/ 


kulmtanq making: 


& weaving: 12:45- 


Goldsmithing: 11:45- 


Molding) 


3:30-4:30. 


145,3:30-4:30; 


12:45,2:30-3:30; 


Maguindanao boat 




Silk weaving: 1:45- 


silversmithmg: 12:45- 


can/ing: 11.45-12:45; 





Latvian St. John's 
Day Cheese 



Lithuanian 

Blueberry 

Dumplings 



Estonian Carav^iay 
Cheese 



^^ 



Latvian Pies 



Lithuanian/ 
Bread 



Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Dandan 

Salmanis Family 

Rasa 

Stalls Family 



5^ 



Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Sutaras 

Veronika 

Povilioniene 

Trys Keturiuose 

Insula 



Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Leigand 

Alle-aa 



Estonian Music: 
Teppo & Veenre 



Estonian 
Music: 
Luhats & Visia 



Estonian Violin 

Duet: 

Torop & Jaama 



Latvian Liv 
Music: 
Stalls Family 



Latvian 
Traditional 
Music: 
Rasa 



Lithuanian 

Music: 

Sutaras 



Lithuanian Folk 

Ensemble: 

Insula 



Ongoing 


boat & net making. 


weaving, wood crafts 


demonstrations 


blacksmith, ceramia, 


& village table. 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


jewelry making, musi- 


Family activities will 


ing, herbalist, national 


cal instruments, tex- 


be offered throughout 


costumes, summer 


tiles & woodworking. 


the day. For details 


kitchen, swing, wood- 




see daily schedules at 


working. 


Lithuania: Amber 


the Information 




jewelry, Easter eggs. 


booth. 


Latvia: Artivities 


forge, shrine carving, 


iff 


table, basket making. 


straw ornaments. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Progranns 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

112 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Thursday, June 25 



Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Hmong Music 


Oneida Com Soup 


Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 


Fish Tales 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Sausages 


Badger Button Box 
Music 


The Hmong 
Marriage Broker 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Danish Specialties 


Packerlore 


Images of the Holy 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Pasties 


Jokes & Lies 


Basket Makers 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Greek Specialties 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Hmong 
Instmments 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Vocal Traditions 


Slovakian Foods 


Sheepshead & 
Euchre 


Native Plants: 
Three Sisters 
Garden & Wild 
Rice 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Fiddle Workshop 


Mexican Foods 


Tuba Workshop 


Norwegian 
Decorative Arts 


Czech-Amehcan 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Sausages 


Duckpin Bowling 


Wisconsin 
Weather 


Wisconsin 
Old-Time Dance 
Workshop 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: ^ 
Frank Montano 


Wild Rice 


Inventors 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metalwork- 


nous crops (ginseng. 


11:30-12:30 


Demonstrations 


nee camp of rice win- 


ing, logging, tree 


cranberry marsh. Three 


Family Artivity: Learn 


Demonstrations of reli- 


nowing, treading. 


growing, boatbuilding. 


Sisters garden). 


papercutting 


gious crafts work, tex- 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ice fishing, lure mak- 




at the "Decorative" 


tile work, decorative 


casin games: 12:00, 


ing, decoy carving. 


Milking; 12:00, 


tent .^. 


arts, doll making, egg 


3:00. 


duck & deer 


^ 2:00, 4:00 


decorating, instrument 




hunting. 




2:00 


making, basket mak- 


Activities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 


Special Presentation of 


ing. Native American 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presenta- 


1:00,^3:00 


hunting traditions at 


beadwork. 


edge & recreational 
skills including shoe- 


tions: Cheese making, 
beer brewing, indige- 




the "Hunting Shack." 



Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Cultures Local 

Development 

Projeas 



Art Traditions 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Pueblo Culture in 
Education 



^ 
^2^ 



Women's Work 



^ 
^ 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Local Culture I 
Tourism 



Fiesta Traditions 



S2S 



Rio Conversations 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Activities: 

Demonstrations and 
family activities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills 



iff 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Horsehair 
Braiding: 
Clemente 
Zamarripa 



Ukrainian Egg 
Decorating: 
Betty Piso 
Christenson 



S2^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted. 

»5« Indicates 
1 1 r Family 

Programs and 

Phildren's Aaivities 



SmITHSONIAIN FOLKIIFE FESTIVAL 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



Chapel 


Basketball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Religious Music 
[Rondalla] 


Kalinga Music & 
Dances 


Bagobo Bossed 
Gong Performance 


Talaandig Cuisine 


Body Language 


Pasyon 


Arms (Martial Arts) 


Cebuano Cuisine 


Music of the 
Revolution 
(Bamboo Band) 


Talaandig 
Kaamulan 


Kipmg: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Basketball (Team 
Tanduay) 


Daigon, Pastores, 
and Folk Songs 


Maguindanao 
KuMang Music 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Representing Us 


Folk Songs and 
Dances 


Fiesta Music 
(Bamboo Band) 


Maguindanao 
Cuisine 


Subli 


Family Aaivity 
Program: 
Talaandig Toy 
Making ^•^ 


Amis (Martial Arts) 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


The Philippine 
Centennial 


Kalinga Peace Paa 


Batangas 


Serenata 



Cluster 
Demonstrations: 

CluiterA (Binding/ 
Weaving/ioihing) 
teij/': Woven toys: 
ll:00-1l:45:Aklan 
boatbuilding & rituals: 
11:45-12:45, 
3:30-4:30: Kalinga 
weaving:12:45-l:45: 
pineapple fiber weaving: 



145-2:45,4:30-5:30, 
Kalinga instrument 
making: 2:45-3:30. 

Ouster B(Beating/ 
Tapping/Pounding) 

Food pounding: 11:00- 
ll:45;Mnf(7ng music: 
11:45-12:30; silver- 
smithing: 12:30-1:30, 
4:00-5:00; Kalinga gong 



music: 1.30-2:15, gold- 
smithing processes: 
2:15-3:15; Talaandig 
gong music: 3:15-4:00. 

Cluster C(Carving/ 
Incising/Molding) 

Talaandig drum & flute 
making: 11:00-11:45; 
KapampangansflnfosS 
furniture can/ing: 11 :45- 



12:45, /;u/mfflng mak- 
ing: 12:45-1:45; Ifugao 
carving: 11:45-2:30; 
Tagalog santos carving: 
2:30-3:30; 
Maguindanao boat 
can/ing: 3:30-4:30; 
Maguindanao cooking, 
l(ulintang playing, 
rituals: 4:30-5:30. 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Thursday^ June 25 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



Foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Kihnumua 

Luhats/Visia 

Alle-aa 


Latvian Folk 
Music: 
Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian Potato 
Dishes 


Latvian 
Traditional 
Music: 
Rasa 


Estonian Daily Fare 


Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Stalls Family 

Dandari 

Salmanis Family 

Rasa 


Lithuanian 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Latvian Sldandu 
Pies 


Lithuanian Folk 

Ensemble: 

Insula 


Lithuanian Potato 
Dumplings with 
Meat 


Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Marcinkonys 

Village Folk 

Ensemble & 

Veronika 

Povilioniene 

Trys Keturiuose 

Insula 

Sutaras 


Estonian Music: 
Teppo & Veenre 


Estonian Barley 
Dishes 


Estonian 

Music: 

Luhats&VisIa 


Estonian Games: 
Leigarid ^ 


Estonian Music: 
Alle-aa 


Latvian Daily Fare 



Ongoing 
demonstrations 
Estonia: Boat mak- 
ing, herbalist, national 
costumes, summer 
kitchen, swing, 
woodworking. 

Latvia: Aaivities 
table, basket making, 
boat & net making. 



blacksmith, ceramics, 
jewelry making, 
musical instruments, 
textiles & 
woodworking. 

Lithuania: Amber 
lewelry, Easter eggs, 
forge, shrine carving, 
straw ornaments, 
weaving, wood crafts 



& village table. 
Family activities will 
be offered throughout 
the day. For details 
see daily schedules at 
the Information 
booth. 



iff 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Friday, June 26 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra ^ 


Ojibwe W/oodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Pasties 


Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 


Local Politics 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 


Polish Foods 


Beer: From the 
Brewery to the Tap 


The Hmong 
Marriage Broker 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Instruments Made 
& Played 


Danish Specialties 


Concertina/ 

Accordion 

Workshop 


Indigenous Crops: 
Rice, Cranberries, 
Ginseng 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Afncan-American 
Gospel: 
Oueens of 
Harmony 


Sausages 


Sheepshead & 
Euchre 


Papercutting Arts 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Hmonq Music & 
Games 


Fish Fry 


Wisconsin Regions 


German-Amencan 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Pasties 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 


Images of the Holy 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Sausages 


Weird Weddings & 
Other Gigs 


Hmong Healing 
Rituals & Customs 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Afncan-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Cranberry Dessert 


Changing Shifts 


Sturgeon Season 


Polish Hop Dance 
W/orkshop 


Hmong Music 


Wild Rice 


Duckpin Bowling 


Wisconsin Forests 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metal work- 


indigenous crops (gin- 


2:00-3:00 


Demonstrations 


rice camp of rice win- 


ing, logging, tree 


seng, cranberry marsh. 


Family Aaivity: Learn 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading. 


growing, boatbuild- 


Three Sisters garden). 


egg decorating 


religious crafts work. 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ing, ice fishing, lure 




at the ... 

"Slavic Crafts" Ijl^ 


textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


making, decoy carv- 


f^ilking: 12:00,2:00, 


tive arts, doll making. 


3:00. 


ing, duck & deer 


4:00 


tent. 


egg decorating. 




hunting. 






instrument making. 


Aaivities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 


2:00 


basket making. Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presen- 


1:00,3:00 


Special Presentation of 


American beadwork. 


edge & recreational 


taions: Cheese mak- 




ginseng at the ginseng 




skills including shoe- 


ing, beer brewing, 




gardens. 



Ri'o Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
.a Cuenca Stage 



Conjunto Music 
Workshop 



Migration 
Experiences 



^ 
'^^ 



Oral Traditions 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Ranching Culture 






Women & 

Sustainable 

Development 



^^ 



Regional Culture 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



^ 
^5& 



Rio Conversations 



5^ 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Activities: 

Demonstrations and 
family activities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills 



if'r 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Philippine 
Parol Making 
(Christmas 
Lanterns): 
Exuferio V. 
Tinguha 



Latvian Folk 

Music: 

Rasa 



^^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted 

•jL* Indicates 
1 1 r family 

programs and 

children's aaivities. 



114 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 


Chapel 


Basl<etball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Cebuano 
Devotional Singing 


Kalinga Music & 
Dances 


Talaandig Woven 
Traps 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Religious Music 
(Bamboo Band) 


Philippine stnngs 
(Lute&toMo) 


Pukpuk: Filipino 
Beat 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Tagalog Songs & 
Poetry Reading 


Amis (Martial Arts) 


Assembling 
Paroles (Christmas 
Star Lanterns) 


Maguindanao 
/(■*fflng Playing 


Maguindanao Lute 
Performance 


Filipino Love 
Songs (Rondalla) 


Akian Cuisine 


Culture & Memory 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


Talaandig 
Kaamulan 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Fiesta Music 
(Bamboo Band) 


Gayak: Preparation 
as Art 


Folk Songs & 
Dances [Rondalla) 


Bagobo Cuisine 


Subli 


Philippine 

Percussion 

Instruments 

(Kalinga, 

Talaanding, 

Bagobo) 


Filipino Time 


Kalinga 


Cebuano Pasyon 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Friday, June 26 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



Cluster 


rative nee wafers). 


smithing: 12:45-1 45, 


4 45, Ifugao carving 


demonstrations: 


12:45-l:45;flm/s (mar- 


4:15-5:15; Kalinga 


12:00-12:45,4:45- 


Cluster A (Binding/ 


tial arts): 1:45-2:30, 


gongmusic:l:45-2:30. 


5:30, Maguindanao 


Weaving/Lashing) 


3:30-4:15. 


kulintang playing: 


boat can/ing:l 2:45- 


lent 3: T'bolihemp 




3:30-4:15. 


1:45; Tagalog sanros 


weaving & dyeing: 


Cluster B (Beating/ 




carving: 1:45-2:45; 


11:00-12:00,2:30-,^^ 


Tapping/PoundingI 


Cluster C (Carving/ 


kulintang making: 


3:30;rboli ^^ 


Tagalog hemp weav- 


Incising/Molding) 


2:45-3:45. 


singing: 12:00- 12:45, 


ing: 11:00- 11:45; gold- 


Kapampangan santos 




4:15-5:00, assembling 


smithing:! 1:45-12:45, 


& furniture carving: 




kiping (Tagalog deco- 


2:30-3:30, silver- 


11:00-12:00,3:45- 





Foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Rasa 

Dandari 

Stalls Family 

Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian Folk 

Ensemble: 

Insula 


Estonian Fish Soup 


Lithuanian 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Latvian Wrapped 
Herring 


Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Marcinkonys 

Village Folk 

Ensemble 

Veronika 

Povilioniene 

Trys Keturiuose 

Insula 


Estonian Violin 
Duet: ^ 
Torop&Jaama 


Lithuanian Potato 
Dishes 


Estonian 

Music; 

Teppo & Veenre 


Estonian 

Music: 

Luhats&VisIa 


Estonian Hernng 


Estonian Music: 
Alle-aa 


Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Luhats/Visia 

Aivar Teppo 

Kuldatsauk 

TuuleKann 

Leigarid 


Latvian Music: 
Dandari 


Latvian 
Parpalinu Soup 


Latvian Folk 
Music: 
Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian Herring 
Dishes 



Ongoing 


jewelry making. 


be offered throughout 


demonstrations 


musical instruments, 


the day. 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


textiles & 


For details see daily 


ing, herbalist, national 


woodworking. 


schedules at the 


costumes, summer 


Lithuania: Amber 


Information booth 


kitchen, swing, wood- 


jewelry, Easter eggs. 




working. 


forge, shrine carving. 




Latvia: Aaivlties 


straw ornaments. 




table, basket making, 


weaving, wood crafts 


•x» 


boat & net making, 


& village table. 


iTr 


blacksmith, ceramics, 


Family activities will 





11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

115 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 
and Special 
Events see 

page 130. 

116 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Saturday, June 2 7 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Hmong Music 


Oneida Corn, 
Beans & Squash 


Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 


America's 
Dairyland 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Cooking with 
Cranberries 


Fiddle Workshop 


Ethnic 
Communities 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Oombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Greek Foods 


Beer: From the 
Brewery to the Tap 


Hmong Healing 
Rituals & Customs 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Sausages 


Concertina/ 

Accordion 

Workshop 


Doll Makers 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Hmong 
Instruments & 
Vocals 


Oanish Specialties 


Tavern Stories 


Wisconsin Regions 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Pasties 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Woodland Indian 
Crafts 


Family Aaivity: 
Learn to Polka 

iff 


Instruments Made 
& Played 


Shore Lunch 


Cribbage 


Footwear: 
Moccasins & 
Allen-Edmonds 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Oombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Tno 


Pork Dishes 


Duckpin Bowling 


From Generation 
to Generation 


Polka W/orkshop 


Croatian Songs 


Sausages 


Packerlore 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metalwork- 


indigenous crops (gin- 


2:00 


Demonstrations 


nee camp of rice win- 


ing, logging, tree 


seng, cranberry marsh. 


Special Presentation of 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading. 


growing, boatbuilding, 


Three Sisters garden). 


boatbuilding skills in 


religious crafts v^ork, 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ice fishing, lure mak- 




the "Fishing" tent. 


textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


ing, decoy carving, 


Milking: 12:00, 2:00, 




tive arts, doll making, 


3:00. 


duck & deer 


4:00 




egg decorating, instru- 




hunting. 






ment making, basket 


Activities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 




making, Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presen- 


1:00,^3:00 




American beadwork. 


edge & recreational 
skills including shoe- 


taions: Cheese mak- 
ing, beer brewing, 







Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Crafts & Access to 
Resources 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Environmental 
Impacts on 
Traditional 
Cultures 



Art Markets 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Living on the 
River 



^5& 



Migration 
Experiences 






Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Rfo Conversations 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Artivities: 

Demonstrations and 
family activities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills. 



iff 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Polish 

Papercutting: 
Bernice 
Jendrzejczak 



Woodcarving: 
Luis Roman 



"S^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted 






Indicates 
family 

programs and 

children's activities. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



Chapel 


Basketball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Religious Music 
[Rondalla] 


Philippine-American 
Performances 


Family Activity: "JiLj* 

Kalinga Bamboo *\* 
Instrument Making 


Talaandig Cuisine 


Likas Pamana 


Cebuano Cuisine 


Pasyon 


Amis (Martial Arts) 


Young Filipinos of 
Pittsburgh 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Music of the 
Revolution 
(Bamboo Band) 


Balikbayan 


Tanghalang 
Pilipino 


Daigon, Pastmes & 
Folk Songs 


Travel Stories 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Philippine 
Performing Arts 
Company, Inc. 


Folk Songs and 
Dances [Rondalla] 


Filipino Americans 


Philippine 
American Literary, 
Sports, and Arts 
Foundation 


Maguidanao 
Cuisine 


Subli 


Mutya Philippine 
Dance Company, 
Inc. 


Talaandig 
Beadwork 


Tagalog Cooking 


Dancing Chnstmas 
Star Lanterns 


BIMAK 


Marian Devotions 


Pilipino American 
Cultural Arts 
Society, Inc. 


Batangas Cuisine 


Serenata 


Celebrating the 
Sea 


Procession & 
Concert 



Cluster 


5:30, Bagobo gong per- 


smithing: 2:15-3:15, 


ing: 12:45-1:45, Ifugao 


demonstrations: 


formance: 2:15-2:45. 


Talaandig gong music: 


carving: 1:45-2:30; 


Cluster A (Binding/ 




3:15-4:00. 


Tagalog sanfoj carving: 


Weaving/Lashing) — 


Cluster B (Beating/ 




2:30-3:30; 


feni 1: Silk weaving: 


Tapping/Pounding)— 


Cluster C (Caning/ 


Maguindanao boat carv- 


11:30-12:30,2:45-3:45: 


Food pounding 11- 


Incising/Molding) — 


ing: 3:30-430, 


Maguindanao lute per- 


1l:45;Wnfanj music: 


Talaandig drum & flute 


Maguindanao cooking, 


formance: 12:30-1:15, 


11:45-12:30; silver- 


making: 11:00-11:45; 


kulintang playing, ritu- 


3:45-4:30; Bagobo 


smithing: 12:30-1:30, 


Kapampangansflmos& 


als: 4:30-5:30. 


hemp dyeing & wav- 


4:00 -5:00; Kalinga gong 


fumiturecarving:11:45- 




ing: 1:15-2:15, 4:30- 


music: 1:30-2:15; gold- 


12:45; Mnfon? mak- 





FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Saturday f June 2 7 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



foodwap 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Lithuanian- 
American Folk 
Group: 
Sodauto 


Estonian 

Music: 

Luhats&VisIa 


Latvian Potato 
Pancakes with 
Salmon 


Estonian Games: 
Leigand 


Lithuanian 
Traditional Music; 
Marcinkonys 
Village Folk 
Ensemble & 
Veranika 

Povilioniene ■^a 
Insula ^^ 


Estonian Music: 
Alle-aa 


Lithuanian 
Christmas Eve 
Dishes 


Estonian Music: 
Luhats&VisIa 


Estonian 

Traditional Music: 
Tuule Kann 
Leigarid 
Luhats/Visia 
Alle-aa 


Latvian 
Traditional 
Music: 
Rasa 


Estonian Breads 


Latvian Folk 
Music: 
Salmanis Family 


Latvian 
Side Dishes 


Latvian 

Traditional Music: 
Rasa 
Dandari 
Stalts Family 
Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Lithuanian 
Mushroom Dishes 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Insula 


Estonian Curd Pie 



Ongoing 


blacksmith, ceramics, 


& village table. 


demonstrations 


jewelry making. 


Family aaivities will 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


musical instruments. 


be offered throughout 


ing, herbalist, national 


textiles & 


the day. For details 


costumes, summer 


woodworking. 


see daily schedules at 


kitchen, swing, wood- 




the Information 


working. 


Lithuania: Amber 
jewelry, Easter eggs. 


booth. 


Latvia: Activities 


forge, shrine carving, 




table, basket making. 


straw ornaments. 


iff 


boat & net making. 


weaving, wood crafts 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

117 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Sunday, June 28 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Danish Specialties 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Images of the Holy 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Instruments Made 
& Played 


Sausages 


Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 


Immigration to 
Wisconsin 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Family Aaivity: 
Song Vl/orkshop 


Pasties 


Beer: From the 
Brewery to the Tap 


Basket Makers 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Hmong Music & 
Games 


Croatian 
Specialties 


Concertina/ 

Accordion 

Workshop 


Fish Tales 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Danish Specialties 


Tavern Stories 


The Hmong 
Marnage Broker 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Oueens of 
Harmony 


Hmong Food 


Tuba Workshop 


Quilters 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Sausages 


Sheepshead & 
Euchre 


Seasonal Crafts 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Walloon Songs 


Pasties 


Changing Shifts 


Hunting Stories 


Wisconsin Old- 
Time Dances 


Hmong Music 


Rouladen 


Duckpin Bowling 


Generational 
Farms 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metal work- 


indigenous crops (gin- 


2:00 


Demonstrations 


rice camp of rice win- 


ing, logging, tree 


seng, cranberry marsh. 


Special Presentation of 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading. 


growing, boatbuilding, 


Three Sisters garden). 


weaving traditions in 


religious crafts work, 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ice fishing, lure mak- 




the "Textiles" tent. 


textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


ing, decoy carving. 


Milking: 12:00, 




tive arts, doll making. 


3:00. 


duck & deer 


^ 2:00, 4:00 




egg decorating, instru- 




hunting. 






ment making, basket 


Aaivities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 




making. Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presen- 


1:00,3:00 




American beadwork. 


edge & recreational 
skills including shoe 


taions: Cheese mak- 
ing, beer brewing. 







Ri'o Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Weaving 
Traditions 



^ 
'^3^ 



AmadeoFloresy 
su conjunto 



Traditional Crafts 



SSs 



Regional Culture 



52> 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Saint's Day Fiesta 
Workshop 



^ 
^J& 



Saint's Day Fiesta 



5^ 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Rio Conversations 
5a 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Activities: 

Demonstrations and 
family activities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills. 



ifr 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Estonian 
Music (Violin 
Duet): 

Toomas Torop f 
Orjo Jaama 



Philippine 
Woodcarving, 
Religious Figures 
and Fumiture: 
Fermin Cadapan 



<;^ Indicates 
Sign tanguage 
Interpreted 

•5« Indicates 
1|r family 

programs and 

children's activities. 



118 



Smithsonian Folrlife Festival 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



Chapel 


Basketball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Cebuano 
Devotional Singing 


Kalinga Music & 
Dance 


Talaandig Woven 
Traps 


Klping. Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Religious Music 
(Bamboo Band) 


Philippine Sthng 
Instruments (Lute 
&, Rondalla) 


Arms (Martial Arts) 
Demonstration 


Tagalog Cooking 


Tagalog Songs and 
Poetry Reading 


Cross-Cultural 
Easter Traditions 


Assembling 
Paroles (Christmas 
Star Lanterns) 


Akian Cooking 


Amis (Martial Arts) 


Maguindanao Lute 
Performance 


Filipino Love 
Songs [Rondalla) 


Maguindanao 
Kulintang Playing 


Family Activity: 
T'boli Topical 
Singing 


Tagalog Cooking 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


Healing 


Fiesta Music 
(Bamboo Band) 


Talaandig 
Kaamulan 


Bagobo Cooking 


Bawdy Music 


Subli 


Folk Songs and 
Dances [Rondalla) 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


A Space of Your 
Qwn 


Cebuano Pasyon 


Talaandig 



Cluster 


Tagalog v»oven toys: 


nee wafers): 12:45- 


11:00-12:00,3:45- 


Demonstrations: 


4:30-5:15. 


1:45, am/s (martial 


4:45; Ifugao caniing 


Cluster A (Binding/ 




arts): 1:45-2:30, 3:30- 


12:00-12:45,4:45- 


Weaving/Lashing) 


Cluster B (Beating/ 


4:15; T'boli hemp 


5:30; Maguindanao 


lent?: Pineapple fiber 


Tapping/Pounding) 


weaving & dyeing: 


boat can/ing: 12:45- 


weaving: 11:30-12:30, 


Tagalog hemp weaving 


2:30-330 


1:45; Tagalog santo 


2:30-3:30; AkIan boat 


& dyeing: 11:00-12:00; 




can/ing: 1:45-2:45; 


buildings rituals: 


T'boli singing: 12:00- 


Cluster C (Carving/ 


kulintang making: 


12:30-1:30,3:30-4:30; 


12:45,4:15-5:00, 


Incising/Molding) 


2:45-3:45. 


Kalinga instrument 


assembling kiping 


Kapampangan sanfos 


^^ 


making: 1:30-2:30; 


(ragfl/og decorative 


& furniture carving: 


<3^ 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Sunday, June 28 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Estonian 

Traditional 

Music; 

Kuldatsauk 

Luhats/Visia 

Torop/Jaama 

Tuule Kann 

m 


Latvian Folk 
Music: 
Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian Soups 


Latvian Liv 
Music: 
Stalts Family 


Estonian 
Sauerkraut 


Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Salmanis Family 

Stalls Family 

Rasa 

Dandari 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Insula 


Latvian Salads 


Lithuanian- 
American Folk 
Group: 
Sodauto 


Lithuanian 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Lithuanian Stuffed 
Potato Sausage 


Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Sutaras 

Trys Keturiuose 

Marcinkonys 

Village Folk 

Ensemble & 

Veronika 

Povilioniene 

Insula 


Estonian 
Accordion Duet: 
Luhats&VisIa^ 


Estonian 

Sauerkraut 

Casserole 


Estonian Folk 

Ensemble: 

Kihnumua 


Estonian Games: 
Leigarid 


Latvian Sauerkraut 
Stew 


Estonian Violin 

Duet: 

Torop & Jaama 



Ongoing 


blacksmith, ceramics, 


& village table 


demonstrations 


lewelry making. 


Family activities will 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


musical instruments. 


be offered throughout 


ing, fierbalist, national 


textiles?, 


the day. For details 


costumes, summer 


woodworking. 


see daily schedules at 


kitchen, swing, wood- 




the Information 


working. 


Lithuania: Amber 
jewelry, Easter eggs. 


booth 


Latvia: Aaivities 


forge, shrine carving. 


iff 


table, basket making. 


straw ornaments. 


boat & net making. 


weaving, wood crafts 





11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkiife Festival 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

119 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

120 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Wednesday, July 1 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Tall< 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Pasties 


Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 


Hunting Stories 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Hmong Music 


Shore Lunch 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 


Woodworking: 
From Dolls to 
Doorways 


Tamburitza Music: 
Vatra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Croatian Foods 


Cross-Cultural 
Accordion Styles 
Workshop 


The Hmong 
Marriage Broker 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Nornfi Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Cheese Dishes 


Sheepshead & 
Euchre 


Papercutting Arts 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Sausages 


Fiddle Workshop 


Images of the Holy 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Mexican Foods 


Tavern Talk 


Indigenous Craps: 
Rice, Cranberries, 
Ginseng 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Oombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Vocal Traditions 


Pasties 


Walloon Songs 


Water Ways 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Tamburitza Music: 
Vatra 


Sausages 


Jokes & Lies 


Quilts & 
Storycloths 


Wisconsin 
Old-Time Dance 
W/orkshop 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Cranberry Dessert 


Duckpin Bowling 


Hmong Healing 
Ritual & Customs 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metalwork- 


indigenous crops (gin- 


12:30-1:30 


Demonstrations 


rice camp of rice win- 


ing, logging, tree 


seng, cranberry marsh, 


Family Aaivity: 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading. 


growing, boatbuilding. 


Three Sisters garden). 


Learn sewing 


religious crafts work, 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ice fishing, lure mak- 




skills in the •X* 
"Quilts" tent. M ^ 


textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


ing, decoy carving. 


Milking: 12:00, 2:00, 


tive arts, doll making. 


3:00. 


duck & deer 


4:00 




egg decorating, instru- 




hunting. 




2:00 


ment making, basket 


Aaivities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 


Special Presentation of 


making, Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presen- 


1:00,3:00 


egg decorating in the 


American beadwork 


edge & recreational 

skills including shoe 


taions: Cheese mak- 
ing, beer brewing, 




"Slavic Crafts" tent. 



Ri'o Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Crafts & Natural, 
Found & 
Industrial 
Materials ^ 



Fiesta Traditions 



Conjunw Music 
Workshop 



^ 
^ 



Native Traditions 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 






Conservation & 
Recreation 



Art Traditions 



^ 
■^^ 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Rio Conversations 



^ 
^:^ 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Activities: 

Demonstrations and 
family aaivities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills. 



iff 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Latvian 
Instrument 
Making: 
Maris Jansons 



Philippine 
Woodcarving: 
Leon Tayaban 



^^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted 

iTf family 

programs and 
children's aaivities 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 



Philippines 








Ctiapei 


Basl(etball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Religious music 
(Bamboo band) 


Kalinga Music and 
Dances 


Bagobo Bossed ^ 
Gong ^.^ 

Performance ^Tf 


Talaandig Cooking 


Artists Plus 


Cebuano Cooking 


^ :\\'on 


Arms (Martial Arts) 


Being Filipino 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers) 


fvlusicofthe 
Revolution 
(Bamboo Band) 


Talaandig Music 
and Dance 


Coconut: The Tree 
of Life 


Daigon, Pastores 
and Folk Songs 


Maguindanao 
Kulintang Music 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Cross Cultural 
Program: Oral 
Tradition and 
Nation 


Folk Songs and 
Dances (Rondalla) 


Tagalog Fiesta 
Music (Bamboo 
band) 


Maguindanao 
Cooking 


Subli 


Talaandig Toy 
making 


Amis (Martial Arts) 


Tagalog Cooking 


Faith and Ritual 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


Philippine 
Percussion 
Instruments 


Serenata 


Conflia and 
Negotiation 


lagayan and 
Pulutan 



Cluster 


ails). 1.45-2:30, assem- 


smithing. 12.30-1:30, 


figures furniture carv- 


demonstrations: 


bling few ^:30-3:30; 


4:00-5:00; Kalinga gong 


ing: ll:45-12:45;Mn- 


Ouster A (Binding/ 


Children's attivity pro- 


music: 1:300-2:15; gold- 


fanj making: 12:45- 


Weming/Lashing):Tent 


gram: T'boli « 


smithing: 2:15-3:15; 


l:45;lfugaocan/ing: 


i: Tagalog hut lashing: 


singing: iff 
4:30-5:15. ' 


Talaandig gong music: 


1:45-2:30; Tagalog reli- 


11:00- 11:45; assembling 


3:15-4:00. 


gious figure carving: 


paro/es: Christmas 


Clusters (Beating/ 


Ouster C (Carving/ 


2:30-3:30; Maguindanao 


lantems): 11:45-12:45; 


Tapping/Pounding). 


Incising/Molding). 


boat carving: 3:30-4:30; 


T'boli hemp weaving & 


foodpounding:ll:00- 


Talaandig drums flute 


Maguindanao cooking, 


dyeing: 12:45-1:45, 


1 1:45; Mnfflflj playing 


making: 11:00-11:45; 


liulintang playing, ritu- 


3:30-4:30; orn/s (martial 


(1 1:45-12:30; silver- 


Kapampangan religious 


als; 4:30-5:30. ^ 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Wednesday, July 1 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Dandari 

Rasa 

Stalls Family 

Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Estonian Caraway 
Cheese 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Insula 


Latvian St. John's 
Day Cheese 


Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Veronika 

PoviiionieneSi 

Marcinkonys 

Village Folk 

Ensemble 

Trys Keturiuose 

Sutaras 


Estonian 
Traditional 
Music: ^ 
Kuldatsauk ^^ 


Lithuanian 

Blueberry 

Dumplings 


Estonian Games: 
Leigarid 


Estonian 
Music: 
Luhats & Visia 


Estonian Breads 


Estonian 
Accordion Duet: 
Teppo & Veenre 


Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Alle-aa 

TuuleKann 

Luhats/Visia 

Leigarid 


Latvian Music: 
Dandan 


Latvian Pies 


Latvian Folk 
Music: 
Salmanis family 


Lithuanian Boba 

(Buckwheat 

Bread) 



Ongoing 


blacl(smith, ceramics. 


& village table. 


demonstrations 


jewelry making, 


Family aalvities will 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


musical Instruments, 


be offered throughout 


ing, herbalist, national 


textiles & 


the day. 


costumes, summer 


woodworking. 


For details see daily 


kitchen, sviring, wood- 




schedules at the 


vi^orking. 


Lithuania: Amber 
jewelry. Easier eggs. 


Information booth. 


Latvia: Aalvities 


forge, shrine carving. 


ifr 


table, basket making. 


straw ornaments. 


boat & net making. 


weaving, wood crafts 





11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festi\al 



121 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Thursday, July 2 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Instruments Made 
& Played 


Pasties 


Jokes & Lies 


Working in 
Wisconsin Industry 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Sausages 


Tavern Tales 


The Hmong 
Marriage Broker 


Jambui'm Music: 
Vatra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Hmong Foods 


Badger Button Box 
Music 


Ice Fishing 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Ojibwe W/oodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Oneida Corn Soup 


Sheepshead & 
Cribbage 


Hunting Stories 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 


Wild Duck & Wild 
Rice 


Tambuntza 
Workshop 


Basket Makers 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Sausages 


Holly's Stories 


Songs in Many 
Languages 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Tambuntza Music: 
Vatra 


Cheese Dishes 


Tuba Workshop 


Wisconsin Regions 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Hmong Music 


Pasties 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 


Hmong Healing 
Rituals & Customs 


Learn to Polka 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Booyah 


Duckpin Bowling 


Amenca's 
Dairyland 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metalwork- 


nous crops (ginseng, 


11:30-12:30 


Demonstrations 


rice camp of rice vi/in- 


ing, logging, tree 


cranberry marsh. 


Family Activity; Learn 


Demonstrations of reli- 


nowing, treading, 


growing, boatbuilding. 


Three Sisters garden) 


to weave with 


gious crafts w/ork, tex- 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ice fishing, lure mak- 




wheat in the •«!>.• 

"Slavic Crafts"l|r 


tile work, decorative 


casin games: 12:00, 


ing, decoy can/ing, 


Milking; 12:00, 2:00, 


arts, doll making, egg 


3:00. 


duck & deer 


4:00 


tent. 


decorating, instrument 




hunting. 






making, basket mak- 


Aaivities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 


2:00 


ing, Native American 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presen- 


1:00,3:00 


Special Presentation; 


beadwork. 


edge & recreational 
skills including shoe- 


laions: Cheese making, 
beer brewing, indige- 




Cranberries. 



Ri'o Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
.a Cuenca Stage 



Culture & Local 

Development 

Projects 



Art Traditions 



s2sp 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Traditional 
Culture in 
Education 






Women's Work 



^ 
^2& 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Conservation and 
Recreation 



<3& 



Conjunto Music 
Workshop 



Rio Conversations 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Activities; 

Demonstrations and 
family artivitles on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills. 



ifr 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Basket Weaving: 
Marta Cruz 



Ho-chunk Black 
Ash Basket 
Making: 
Nancy R. Hall 



\2^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted 

»•» Indicates 
ijr family 
programs and 

children's artivities 



122 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



Chapel 


Basketball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Cebuano 
Devotional Singing 


Kalinga Music and 
Dances 


Talaandig Woven 
Traps 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Religious Music 
(Bamboo Band) 


Arms (Martial Arts) 


Beauty Tips 


Tagalog Songs & 
Poetry Reading 


Maguindanao 
Kulintang Music 


Talaandig Dugso 
Dance 


Cross-Cultural 
Program: Steamed 
Things in Leaves 


Maguindanao Lute 
Performance 


Filipino Love 
Songs {Rondalla) 


Talaandig Music 
and Dance 


Akianon Cuisine 


The Faces of 
Gender 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


Music of the 
Revolution 
(Bamboo Band) 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Philippine Bamboo 
Instruments 


Subli 


Filipino Love 
Songs {Rondalla) 


Bagobo Cuisine 


Christmas in the 
Philippines 


Tagalog Fiesta 
Music 


Talaandig Music 
and Dance 


Lullabies and Baby 
Lore 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Pasyon 


Kalinga Rice Wine 



Cluster 


1:30, Maguindanao 


12:45, 2:30-3:30; sil- 


ture carving: 11:00- 


Demonstrations: 


lute performance: 


versmlthlng: 12:45- 


12:00,3:45-4:45, 


Cluster A(Binding/ 


2:30-3:15; Coconut 


1:45,4:15-5:15; 


Ifugaocan/Ing: 12:00- 


Weaving/Lashing): 


frond plaiting: 4:15- 


Kalinga gong music: 


12:45,4:45-5:30; 


Tent 1: Bagobo hemp 


5:00, 


1:45-2:30, kulintang 


Maguindanao boat 


dyeing & v\/eavlng; 




music: 3:30-4:15 


carving: 12:00-1:45; 


11:00-12:00, 


Cluster B (Beating/ 




Tagalog religious fig- 


1:30-2:30; silk weav- 


Tapping/Pounding) 


Cluster C (Carving/ 


ure can/Ing: 1:45-2:45; 


ing: 12:00-1:00, 3:15- 


Tagalog hemp weav- 


Incising/Molding) 


l<ulintang making: 


4:15; Bagobo gong 


ing: 11:00-11:45; 


Kapampangan reli- 


2:45-3:45, 


performance: 100- 


goldsmithing: 11:45- 


gious figure & furni- 





FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Thursday, July 2 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



Foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Marcinkonys 

Village Folk 

Ensemble and 

Veronika 

Povilioniene 

Trys Keturluose 

Insula 

Sutaras 


Estonian 
Accordion Duet: 
Teppo & Veenre 


Latvian Dally Fare 


Estonian Music 
Alle-aa & 
TuuleKann 


Lithuanian Potato 
Dishes 


Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Klhnumua 

Luhats/Visia 

TuuleKann 

Alle-aa 


Latvian Folk 

Music: 

Dandari 


Estonian Daily Fare 


Latvian Folk 

Music: 

Rasa 


Latvian Sklandu 
Pies 


Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Dandari 

Rasa 

Stalts Family 

Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Insula 


Lithuanian Potato 
Dumplings with 
Meat 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Estonian Barley 
Dishes 



Ongoing 


lewelry making. 


be offered throughout 


demonstrations 


musical instruments. 


the day. 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


textiles & 


For details see daily 


ing, herbalist, nation- 


woodworking. 


schedules at the 


al costumes, summer 


Lithuania: Amber 


Information booth 


kitchen, swing. 


lewelry, Easter eggs. 




woodworking. 


forge, shrine carving. 




Latvia: Aaivltles 


straw ornaments. 




table, basket making. 


weaving, wood crafts 


iff 


boat & net making. 


& village table 


blacksmith, ceramics. 


Family activities will 





11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



123 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Progranns 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

124 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Friday, July 3 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Hmong Music 


Cheese Dishes 


Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 

^2& 


Stories from the 
Cloth 


Tambwitza Music: 
Vatra 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 


Cranberry Dishes 


Beer: From the 
Brewery to the Tap 


Hunting Stories 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


African-Amencan 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Sausages 


Jokes & Lies 


Packerlore 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Czech Songs 


Pasties 


Tavern Stories 


Decorating Eggs 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Finnish Dishes 


Tuba Workshop 


The Hmong 
Marriage Broker 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


InstmmentsMade 
& Played 


Croatian Cooking 


Sheepshead & 
Euchre 


Native Craps: Corn 
& Wild Rice 


Tambuntza Music: 
Vatra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Cornish Foods 


Fiddle Workshop 


Sturgeon Season 


Family Aaivity: 
Learn to Dance the 
Kolo 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Sausages 


The Tailgate Party 


Wisconsin Accents 


Qjibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Fish Fry 


Duckpin Bowling 


Packerlore 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metalwork- 


Indigenous crops (gin- 


12:30-1:15 


Demonstrations 


nee camp of rice win- 


ing, logging, tree 


seng, cranberry marsh. 


Cross-cultural 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading, 


growing, boatbuilding. 


Three Sisters garden). 


session on cheese 


religious crafts work, 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ice fishing, lure mak- 




making in the "Cheese 


textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


ing, decoy can/ing. 


Milking: 12:00,2:00, 


Making" tent. 


tive arts, doll making, 


3:00. 


duck & deer 


4:00 




egg decorating, instru- 




hunting. 






ment making, basket 


Activities related to 




Pig Showing: 11:00, 




making. Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agncultural presen- 


1:00,3:00 ^ 




American beadwork. 


edge & recreational 
skills including shoe- 


taions; Cheese mak- 
ing, beer brewing. 







Ri'o Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Conjunto 
Workshop 



^ 
■S^ 



Migration 
Experiences 



S3& 



Oral Traditions 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Desert Culture 



S3& 



Women & 

Sustainable 

Development 



^j^ 



Regional Culture 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



5^ 



Rio Conversations 






Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Aalvlties: 

Demonstrations and 
family artivitles on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills 



ifr 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Philippine 
Parol Making: 
Exuferio V. 
Tinguha 



Estonian 
Embroidery 



^2^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted 

•♦• Indicates 
1 j r taniily 

programs and 
children's aaivities 



SlMITHSONIAN FOLKIIFE FESTIVAL 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



Chapel 


Basketball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Religious Music 
(Rondalla) 


Tagalog Fiesta 
Music {Bamboo 
Band) 


Kalinga Bamboo 

Instrument 

Making 


Talaandig Cooking 


Pasyon 


Arms (Martial Arts) 


The Christmas 
Calendar 


Cebuano Cooking 


Music of the 
Revolution 
(Bamboo Band) 


Kalinga Dance and 
Music 


Tales of Gold 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Tagalog Songs & 
Poetry Readings 


Talaandig Music 
and Dance 


Growing Up in 
Music 


Tagalog Cooking 


Folk Songs and 
Dances {Rondalla) 


Maguindanao 
Kulintang Music 


Legacy of the 
Americas 


Maguindanao 
Cooking 


Subli 


Family Aaivity: 

Talaandig 

Beadwork 

iff 


Philippine Marches 
(Bamboo Band) 


Tagalog Cooking 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


Cross-Cultural 
Program: 
Performing Asia 


Amis (Martial Arts) 


Bawngas 


Filipino Classical 
Music (Rondalla) 


Kalinga Dance and 
Music 


Bagobo Bossed 
Gong Performance 



Cluster 


instrument making. 


gong music 1:30-2.15, 


11.45-12:45,W«flng 


demonstrations: 


2:45-3:30; T'boli singing: 


goldsmithing: 2:15-3:15; 


making: 12:45-1:45; 


Cluster A (Binding/ 


4:30-5:15. 


Talaandig gong music: 


Ifugao cawing: 1:45- 


WeavingAashing), Tent 




3:15^:30 


2:30; Tagalog religious 


2: Tagalog woven toys. 


Cluster B (Beating/ 




figure cawing: 2:30-3:30, 


n:00-lM5;Aklanboat 


Tapping/Pounding) 


Ouster C (Caning/ 


Maguindanao boat caw- 


building & rtuals: 1 1:45- 


Cebuano hemp pound- 


Incising/Molding): 


ing: 3:30-4:30; 


12:45, 3:3(M:30;yinga 


ing: ll:00-ll:45,Wn- 


Talaandig drum & flute 


Maguindanao cooking, 


weaving: 12:45-1:45; 


fun^ music: 11:45-12:30; 


making: 11:00-11:45, 


kulintang playing, ritu- 


pineapple fiber weaving: 


silversmilhing: 12:30- 


Kapampangan religious 


als: 4:30-5:30 


1:45-2:45: Kalinga 


1:30, 4:00-5:00; Kalinga 


figures furniture carving: 


® 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Friday, July 3 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



Foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Leigarid 

TuuleKann 

Luhats/VisIa 

Alle-aa 


Latvian Folk 

Music: 

Rasa 


Lithuanian Potato 
Dishes 


Latvian Liv 
Music: 
Stalts Family 


Estonian Herring 


Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Dandari 

Rasa 

Stalts Family 

Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Latvian 
Parpalinu Soup 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Insula 


Lithuanian Herring 
Dishes 


Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Sutaras 

Trys Keturiuose 

Insula 


Estonian Violin 

Duet: 

Torop & Jaama 


Estonian Fish Soup 


Estonian 
Accordion Duet: 
Tonurist&Kann 


Latvian Herring 



Ongoing 


lewelry making. 


be offered through- 


demonstrations 


musical instruments. 


out the day. 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


textiles & 


For details see daily 


ing, herbalist, nation- 


woodworking. 


schedules at the 


al costumes, summer 


Lithuania: Amber 


Information booth 


kitchen, swing, 


jewelry, Easter eggs. 




woodworking. 


forge, shrine cawing, 




Latvia: Aaivitles 


straw ornaments, 




table, basket making. 


weaving, wood crafts 


iff 


boat & net making. 


& village table. 


blacksmith, ceramic. 


Family aOivities will 





1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-7:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

126 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Saturday J July 4 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony <;5& 


Sausages 


Jamburitm 
Workshop 


Immigration to 
Wisconsin 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Pasties 


Tavern Tales 


Natural Fibers in 
Crafts 


Czech-Amencan 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Mexican Foods 


Concertina/ 

Accordion 

Workshop 


Water Ways 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Jamburitza Music: 
Vatra 


Wild Duck 


Sheepshead & 
Cribbage 


Working in 
Wisconsin Industry 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Greek Foods 


Beer: From the 
Brewery to the Tap 


Doll Dioramas 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Family Activity: 
Song Workshop 


Norwegian Foods 


Sports Talk 


America's 
Dairyland 


Tamburiua Music: 
Vatra 


Instmments Made 
& Played 


Sausages 


Duckpin Bowling 


Water Ways 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Cornish Foods 


Holly's Stories 


Hunting Stories 


W/isconsin 
Old-Time Dance 


Hmong Music 


Holiday Cookout 


Fish Tales 


Hmong Healing 
Ritual & Customs 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


making, metalwork- 


indigenous crops (gin- 


2:00 


Demonstrations 


rice camp of nee win- 


ing, logging, tree 


seng, cranberry marsh. 


Special Presentation: 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading. 


growing, boatbuild- 


Three Sisters garden). 


Ice fishing decoys at 


religious crafts work, 


roasting, drying, moc- 


ing, ice fishing, lure 




the fishing area. 


textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


making, decoy carv- 


Milking: 12:00 




tive arts, doll making. 


3:00. 


ing, duck & deer 






egg decorating, 




hunting. 


Pig Showing: 11:00, 




instrument making, 


Activities related to 




^ 1:00 




basket making. Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agncultural presen- 






American beadwork. 


edge & recreational 
skills including shoe 


taions: Cheese mak- 
ing, beer brewing. 







Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Crafts & Access to 
Resources 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Agricultural & 
Ritual Cycles 



"3& 



Art Markets 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Living on the 
River 



5^ 



Tourist Crafts 



<ai^ 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Rio Conversations 



5Ss 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Aaivities: 

Demonstrations and 
family activities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills. 



iTf 



Marketplace , 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Decoy/Lure 

Carving: 

Willi Kruschinski 



Tierra Wools 
Weaving: 
Maria Elena 
"Nena" Russom 



^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
interpreted 

»•« Indicates 
ijr family 

programs and 

children's aaivities. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



Chapel 


Basketball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Cebuano 
Devotional Singing 


Kalinga Music and 
Dances 


The Cross and the 
Crescent 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Religious Music 
(Bamboo Band) 


Philippine Strings 
(Lute and 
Rondalla) 


Arms (Martial Arts) 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Crass-Cultural 

Wedding 

Traditions 


Maguindanao 
Kulintang Music 


Surviving 
Modernity 


Akianon Cooking 


Family Aaivity: 
Maguindanao Lute 
Performance 

iff 


Filipino Love 
Songs (Rondalla) 


Philippine Marches 
(Bamboo Band) 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Foreigners: 
The T'boli Gaze 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


Talaandig Music 
and Dances 


Bagobo Cooking 


Tagalog fFesta 
Music (Bamboo 
Band) 


Folk Songs and 
Dances {Rondalla) 


Americans: 
The Filipino Gaze 


Kiping: Tagalog 
Decorative Rice 
Wafers 


Subli 


Philippine 
Percussion 
Instruments 


Inside & Outside 


Kalinga Rice Wine 


Pasyon 



Cluster 


tial arts): 1:45-2:30, 


1:45-2:30, goldsmithing. 


Maguindanao boat can/- 


demonstrations: 


3:30-4:15. 


1:10-1:10: kulintang 


ingi 2:45- 1:45; Tagalog 


Ouster A (Binding/ 




playing: 3:30-4:15, 


religious figure can/ing: 


Weaving/Lashing), 


Ouster B (Beating/ 




1:45-2:45; *(j//nfflng 


renfi.rbolihemp 


Tapping/Pounding) — 


Ouster C (Caning/ 


making: 2:45-3:45- 


weaving & dyeing: 


Tagalog hemp weaving : 


Incising/Molding)— 




11:00-12:00,2:30-3:30, 


11:00-11:45; 


Kapampangan religious 




T'boli singing: 12:00- 


goldsmithing:ll:45- 


figure & furniture carv- 




12:45,4:15-5:00: 


12:45, silversmithing: 


ing: 1 1:00- 12:00, 3:45- 




assembling kiping: 


12:45-1:45,4:15-5:15, 


4:45,lfugaocan/ing: 




12:45-l:45,flm(S (mar- 


Kalinga gong music: 


12:00-12:45,4:45-5:30; 





FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Saturday, July 4 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



Foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Stalls family 

Dandari 

Rasa 

Salmanis family 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Sutaras 


Estonian Breads 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Insula 


Latvian Potato 
Pancakes with 
Salmon 


Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Marcinkonys 

Village Folk 

Ensemble 

Veronika 

Povilioniene 

Trys Keturiuose 

Insula 


Estonian 
Accordion Duet: 
Tonurist&Kann 


Lithuanian 
Mushroom Dishes 


Estonian 
Music: 
Sommers & Aasa 


Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Leigarid 

Alle-aa 

Kuldatsauk 

Kihnumua 


Estonian Violin 

Duet: 

Torap & Jaan^ 


Estonian Curd Pie 


Latvian Folk 

Music: 

Rasa 


Latvian Folk 

Music: 

Dandari 


Latvian Side Dishes 


Singing 

Revolution 
Special 
Program: 
Estonia, Latvia, 
Lithuania 




Lithuanian 
Christmas Eve 
Dishes 



Ongoing 


jewelry making. 


be offered through- 


demonstrations 


musical instruments. 


out the day. 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


textiles & 


For details see daily 


ing, herbalist, nation- 


woodworking. 


schedules at the 


al costumes, summer 


Lithuania: Amber 


Information booth. 


kitchen, swing, 


lewelry, Easter eggs. 




woodworking. 


forge, shrine carving. 




Latvia: Aaivities 


straw ornaments. 




table, basket making. 


weaving, wood crafts 


iff 


boat & net making. 


& village table. 


blacksmith, ceramics. 


Family aaivities will 





11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



5:30-7:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 

12- 



11:00 



12:00 



1:00 



2:00 



3:00 



4:00 



5:00 



5:30-9:00 

For 

information 

on Evening 

Programs 

and Special 

Events see 

page 130. 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Sunday, July 5 

Wisconsin 



Ballroom 
Stage 


Heritage 
Stage 


Kitchen 


Tavern 


Wisconsin 
Talk 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Queens of 
Harmony 


Pasties 


Welcome to 
Holly's Bar 


Fish Tales 


Jamburlrza Music: 
Vatra 


Ojibvi/e Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Slovakian Foods 


Fiddle Workshop 


The Hmong 
Mamage Broker 


Czech-American 
Music: 
Clete Bellin 
Orchestra 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese&Schlei 


Sausages 


Jokes & Lies 


Indigenous Crops: 
Rice, Cranberries, 
Ginseng 


Family Activity: 
Learn to Polka 

iff 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


Wild Rice 


Tambuntza 
Workshop 


Passing on 
Traditions 


Polish-Style Polka: 
Norm Dombrowski 
& the Happy Notes 


Hmong Music 


Cheese Dishes 


Sheepshead & 
Euchre 


Working in 
Wisconsin Industry 


German-American 

Music: 

Karl & the Country 

Dutchmen 


Ojibwe Woodland 
Flute Music: 
Frank Montano 


Cranberry Dishes 


Beer: From the 
Brewery to the Tap 


The Dairy Farmer 


Norwegian Fiddle 
Music: 
Norskedalen Trio 


African-American 
Gospel: 
Oueens of 
Harmony 


Sausages 


Schrammel Music: 
Haese & Schlei 


Hunting Stories 


Slovenian-Style 
Polka: 

Steve & Verne 
Meisner Orchestra 


Jamburitza Music: 
Vatra 


Booyah 


Concertina/ 

Accordion 

Workshop 


Wisconsin County 
Fairs 


Dance the Polka 


Vocal Traditions 


Cornish Specialties 


Duckpin Bowling 


Hmong Healing 
Rituals & Customs 



Ongoing 


Presentations in the 


skills including shoe- 


beer brewing, indige- 


2:00 


Demonstrations 


rice camp of nee win- 


making, metalwork- 


nous crops (ginseng. 


Special Presentation: 


Demonstrations of 


nowing, treading, 


ing, logging, tree 


cranberry marsh. 


Prentice Loader at the 


religious crafts work. 


roasting, drying, moc- 


growing, boatbuilding, 


Three Sisters garden). 


logging area. 


textile work, decora- 


casin games: 12:00, 


ice fishing, lure mak- 






tive arts, doll making. 


3:00. 


ing, decoy can/ing. 






egg decorating, instru- 




duck & deer hunting. 






ment making, basket 


Activities related to 








making. Native 


occupational knowl- 


Agricultural presen- 






American beadwork. 


edge & recreational 


taions: Cheesemaking, 







Ri'o Grande/ 
Rio Bravo 



The Basin/ 
La Cuenca Stage 



Desert Resources 



^ 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Traditional Crafts 






Regional Culture 



Amadeo Flores y 
su conjunto 



Saint's Day Fiesta 
Workshop 



5^ 



Saint's Day Fiesta 



52s 



Rio Conversations 



Ongoing 
Presentations & 
Aaivities: 

Demonstrations and 
family activities on 
Basin crafts and 
occupational skills. 



ifr 



Marketplace 



Sales Tent 
Stage 



Lithuanian 
Instrument 
Making: 
Antanas Fokas 



Philippine 

Woodcarving: 

FerminCadapan 



S^ Indicates 
Sign Language 
Interpreted 

• ^ Indicates 
iTf tamily 
programs and 
children's activities 



128 



Smithsonian Foikiife Festival 



1998 



Schedules are subject to change. Check signs 
in each program area for specific information. 

Philippines 



Chapel 


Basketball 
Court 


Sari-sari 
Store 


Philippine 
Kitchen 


Religious Music 
{Rondalla) 


Kalinga Music and 
Dances 


Family Aaivity S-t-t 

Bagobo Bossed ' I ' 
Gong Performance 


Talaandig Cuisine 


Body Covering 


Cebuano Cuisine 


Pasyon 


Arms (Martial Arts) 


Body Language 


Music of the 
Revolution 
(Bamboo Band) 


Talaandig Music 
and Dance 


Kiping 


Maguindanao Lute 
Performance 


Daigon, Pastores, 
and Folk Songs 


Maguindanao 
Kulintang Music 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Church Art 


Folk Songs and 
Dances (Rondalla) 


Tagalog Fiesta 
Music (Bamboo 
Band) 


Family Aaivity: 
Talaandig Toy 
Making 

ifr 


Maguindanao 
Cuisine 


Subli 


Amis (Martial Arts) 


Filipino Time 


Tagalog Cuisine 


Dancing Christmas 
Star Lanterns 


Kalinga Peace Pact 


A Space of Our 
Own 


Serenaw 


Bawngas Cuisine 



Cluster 


4 30-5:30; Kalinga 


gong music 1,30-2:15, 


ing: 11:45-12:45; Mn- 


demonstrations: 


instrument making: 


goldsmlthing:2:15- 


Mng making: 12:45- 


Cluster A (Binding/ 


2:45-3:30. 


3:15; Talaandig gong 


1:45; Ifugao carving: 


Weaving/Lashing), 




music: 3:15-4:00. 


1:45-2:30; Tagalog reli- 


/■enf2:Wovenioys, 


Cluster B (Beating/ 




gious figures carving: 


1 1:00-11:45; Akian boat 


Tapping/Pounding). 


Cluster C (Carving/ 


2:30-3:30; 


building & rituals: 


Food pounding: 11:00- 


Incising/Molding) — 


Maguindanao boat 


11:45-12:45,3:30-4:30; 


]VAS; kulintang mm\c, 


Talaandig drum & flute 


carving: 3:30-4:30; 


Kalinga weaving: 12:45- 


11:45-12:30; silver- 


making: 11:00-11:45, 


Maguindanao cooking. 


1:45; pineapple fiber 


smithing: 12:30-1:30, 


Kapampangan religious 


kulintang playing, ritual: 


weaving: 1:45-2:45, 


4:00-5:00; Kalinga 


figures & furniture carv- 


4:30-5:30 ^s, 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Sunday, July 5 

Baltic Nations: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 



Foodways 


Main Music 
Stage 


Pub Stage 




Lithuanian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Veronika 

Povilioniene & 

Marcinkonys 

Village Folk 

Ensemble 

Trys Keturiuose 

Insula 


Estonian Violin 

Duet: 

Torop & Jaama 


Latvian 
Sauerkraut Stew 


Estonian Music: 
Sommers&Aasa 


Estonian 
Accordion Duet; 
Tonurist&Kann 


Lithuanian 
Soups 


Estonian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Leigarid 

Luhats/Visia 

Alle-aa 


Latvian Folk 

Music: 

Dandari 


Estonian 

Sauerkraut 

Casserole 


Latvian Liv 

Music: 
Stalts Family 


Latvian Salads 


Latvian 

Traditional 

Music: 

Stalts Family 

Dandari 

Rasa 

Salmanis Family 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music; 

Sutaras 


Lithuanian 
Stuffed Potato 
Sausage 


Lithuanian Folk 

Music: 

Insula 


Estonian 
Sauerkraut 



Ongoing 


blacksmith, ceramics. 


family artivities will 


demonstrations 


jewelry making, musi- 


be offered throughout 


Estonia: Boat mak- 


cal instruments, tex- 


the day. 


ing, herbalist, national 


tiles & woodworking. 


For details see daily 


costumes, summer 




schedules at the 


kitchen, swing, wood- 


Lithuania: Amber 


information booth. 


working. 


jewelry, Easter eggs, 
forge, shnne carving. 




Latvia: Aaivities 


straw ornaments. 


• •• 


table, basket making. 


weaving, wood crafts 


^Tf 


boats net making. 


& village table. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



FESTIVAL SCHEDULE 

Evening Programs and Special Events 

^;^. All Evening Programs are Sign Interpreted 



Wednesday, June 24 - St. John's Day Celebration in the 
Baltic Program Area; Bonfire begins at 5:30 p.m.- This 
all-day event, based on the most popular summer holiday in the 
Baltics, will include a traditional procession, songs, and folk 
dances, and will culminate with traditional ceremonies from 
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania around a bonfire. 

Thursday, June 25 - Rio Dance Party at the Baltic Main 
Music Stage, 5:30 p.m., with South Texas conjunto music. 

Thursday, June 25 - Wisconsin Concert at the Baltic Main 
Music Stage, 7 p.m. 

Friday, June 26 - Children's Matinee at the Wisconsin 
Ballroom Stage, 5:30-7 p.m.- Music for children has been 
one of the most influential parts of Folkways Records, celebrat- 
ing its 50th anniversary this year. This concert features Folkways 
recording artists Ella Jenkins and Larry Long, along with singers 
from Packers Bend and Good Springs, Alabama. This concert is 
made possible with support from the P.A.C.E.R.S. Small Schools 
Cooperative & Community Celebration of Place Project, and The 
Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds. 

Friday, June 26 - Folkways Founders/U.S. Postal Service 
Folk Musicians Stamp Concert at the Baltic Main Music 
Stage, 7-9 p.m. - The Smithsonian Folklife Festival celebrates 
"Folkways at 50" marking the anniversary of this historic record 
label founded in1948. The U.S. Postal Service is issuing a stamp 
series commemorating four important figures in the folk music 
revival of the 1950s and 1960s: Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Josh 
White, and Sonny Terry. This concert will feature Arlo Guthrie, 
Josh White Jr., Toshi Reagon, and the Willie Foster Blues Band, 
contemporary musicians who have carried on the traditions of 
these Folkways artists. This concert is supported by the United 
States Postal Service, BMI, Global Arts/Media Foundation, and 
The Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds. 

Saturday, June 27 - Philippine/Philippine-American 
Program at the Philippine Basketball Court, 5:30 p.m. - 

A traditional procession led by the Philippine delegation and 
Philippine Americans will circle the Festival site, culminating in 
a concert of Philippine music and dance. 

Sunday, June 28 - Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women 
at the Baltic Main Music Stage, 5:30 p.m. - Several of the 
artists featured on a new Smithsonian Folkways recording. 
Heartbeat 2: More Voices of First Nations Womeri, will be present- 
ed in this concert, which celebrates both the release of the 
recording and the Folkways anniversary. This program honors 
Native American women singers from across the continent, and 
includes Sharon Burch (Navajo singer/songwriter), Joy Harjo and 
Poetic Justice (contemporary poetry and jazz), Judy Trejo and 



her daughters (Paiute traditional songs), Mary Youngblood 
(Aleut-Seminole flute player), Tzo'kam (traditional Salish 
songs), and Sissy Goodhouse (Lakota traditional singer). This 
concert is supported by The Recording Industries Music 
Performance Trust Funds. 

Wednesday, July 1- Baltic/American Dance Party at the 
Baltic Main Music Stage - Baltic Americans and the general 
audience can learn traditional dances. Estonian dancing: 5:30- 
6:30 p.m.; Latvian dancing; 6:30-7:30 p.m.; and Lithuanian 
dancing: 7:30-9 p.m. 

Thursday, July 2 - Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert: 
"Klezmer! The Triumphant Return of Yiddish Music" at 
the Baltic Main Music Stage, 5:30 p.m. - This year's fourth 
annual Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert, honoring the achieve- 
ments of the longtime Festival director, will feature klezmer 
music (Eastern European Jewish music). Veteran klezmer musi- 
cians Peter Sokolow, Sidney Beckerman, and Paul Pincus will 
perform with "new generation" musicians Henry Sapoznik, 
Michael Spielzinger, Margo Leverett, Lauren Brody, and Mark 
Rubin. The concert will be followed by a dance party with 
instruction by Steve Weintraub. This concert is supported by 
the Friends of the Festival, The Recording Industries Music 
Performance Trust Funds, and the Ruth Mott Fund. 

Friday, July 3 - Wisconsin Tailgate Party in the Wisconsin 
Program Area, 5:30 p.m. - Tap into the spirit of 
Wisconsinites' enthusiastic support for the Packers and Badgers, 
as we replicate a Wisconsin tailgate party on the Mall. Included 
will be the University of Wisconsin marching band doing their 
traditional "fifth quarter,"costume judging, and polka dancing, 
as well as roving bands and speakers drawn from Packerlore. 

Saturday, July 4 - Wisconsin Polka Dance Party at the 
Wisconsin Ballroom Stage, 5:30-7 p.m. - To feature this 
popular Wisconsin dancing tradition we are hosting a "polka 
party" drawn from the variety of polka styles present in the 
state-German, Slovenian, Czech, and Polish. Professional polka 
instructors will teach various styles of polka dance. 

Sunday, July 5 - Pan-Festival Polka Dance Party at the 
Wisconsin Ballroom Stage, 5:30 p.m. - Although there is 
atremendous diversity in the cultures presented in this year's 
Festival, there are many shared customs as well. Come join in 
this final dance party which features distinct polka styles from 
the traditions of the Baltic nations, Rio Grande, and Wisconsin. 



130 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



NEW BOOKS ABOUT THE FESTIVAL 

AND FOLKWAYS 



Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 

Culture Cf, By, and For tiK People 




RKHASDlblKIN 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival: 
Culture Of, By, and For the People 

by Richard Kurin 

1 84 pages, over 200 photos 

Full color ISBN 0-9665520-0-8 

Special Festival Price: $14 

Available at the Festival Marketplace or through 
mail order: 202-287-7297 or 1-800-410-9815 

Add $1 for shipping and handling for mail order 

This book provides a Festival history, an explanation of how the 
Festival is produced, analysis of various programs and some of the 
best images and quotes about the Festival over the past 32 years. 
Excellent for reference and as an attractive gift. 



Making People's Music: Moe Ash and Folkways Records 

by Peter D. Goldsmith 
468 pages, illustrations 

Hardbound $34.95 

ISBN 1-36098-812-6 
A history of Folkways and a window into folk music 

and the cultural history of 20th-century America. 



JVIAKING 
PEOPLE'S 



RECORDS 



Reflections of a Cultural Broker: A View from the Smithsonian 

by Richard Kurin 

315 pages, illustrations 

Hardbound $34.95; Soft cover $17.95 

ISBN 1-56098-789-8 isbn 1-56098-757-x 

An account of the practice of cultural representation in various 

Smithsonian museums, festivals, and special events. 

Available through Smithsonian Institution Press 

Call 1-800-785-4612 or 703-661-1599 to order 




RICHARD KURIN 



Festival Supporters 

Major Sponsors: 

Wisconsin 

The W iscoiisin program is made 
possible by and is produced in coop- 
enition with tiie Wisconsin Arts 
Board and the Wisconsin 
Sesquicentennial Commission on 
the occiision of Wisconsin's 150th 
anni\ersar\ of statehood. Wisconsin 
corporate contributors include 
AT&T, SC Johnson W;l\, and The 
Credit linions of V* isconsin. 



Philippines 

The Philippines program is pro- 
duced in collaboration with the 
Cultural Center of the Philippines 
and the Philippine Centennial 
Commission and is supported by the 
American International Group, Inc., 
The Starr Foundation, Bell Atlantic, 
the .\sian Cultural Council, and the 
Philippine Centennial 
Foundation/USA. 



The Baltic Nations 

This program is made possible by 
and is produced in cooperation with 
the Estonian Government and 
Estonian Ministry of Culture, the 
Latvian Government and Latvian 
Ministr)' of Culture, and the 
Lithuanian Government and 
Lithuanian Ministry of Culture. 
Additional support comes from the 
Cultural Endowment of Estonia, the 
American Latvian Association, and 
the Lithuanian Foundation. 

Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo Basin 

This project is cosponsored by El 
Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y 
las Artes with support from the U.S.- 
Mexico Fund for Culture (The 
Rockefeller Foundation, Fundacion 
Cultural Bancomer, the Fondo 
Nacional para la Cultura y las 
Artes), SBC Foundation, Texas 
Folklife Resources, and the Texas 
Council for the Humanities. Folklife 
Fieldwork Research Schools were 
supported by Colorado College, 



Tierra Wools, the University of New 
Mexico, l'niversir\' of Texas-Pan 
American, and a grant from 
Smithsonian Outreach Funds. 

Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 

This program is made possible 
with support from The Recording 
Industries Music Performance Trust 
Funds, the Ruth Mott Fund, Friends 
of the Festival, and Kate Rinzler 



Support for Folkways at 50 

comes from BMl (the American 
performance rights organization), 
the United States Postal Service, 
M.A.C.E. (Mississippi Action for 
Community' Education), Global 
ArtsAIedia Foundation, P.A.C.E.R.S. 
(Program for Academic and 
Cultural Enhancement of Rural 
Schools) Small Schools Cooperative 
& Community Celebration of Place 
Project, KOCH International, 
Smithsonian Magazine, 
Smithsonian Institution National 
Museum of American History, TRO, 
The Richmond Organization, 
Columbia Records and Sony Music 
Entertainment, Michael Asch, Walter 
Beebe and the New York Open 
Center, Andrew Dapuzzo and 
Disctronics, David GUisser, Charlie 
Pilzer, and Airshow Mastering, Inc., 
Judith DeiMaris Hearn, Ella Jenkins, 
Richard Kurin, Mark Miller and 
Queens Group, Inc., Microsoft 
Corporation/Media Acquisitions 
Department, Arnold L. Polinger, 
Razor & Tie Entertainment, and The 
Recording Industries Music 
Perfonnance Trust Funds. 



In-Kind 
Contributors 

General Festival 

Allegro Industries, (iarden Grove, CA 
Allied Resinov's Prod., 

Conneaut, OH 
Kay and Marie Andrews, 

Culpeper, VA 
Ashby & Associates Video Production 

Services, Alexandria, VA 
Bardo Rodeo, Arlington, VA 
Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream 

and Yogurt, Washington, DC 
Bergwell Productions, Inc., 

Chadds Ford, PA 
Bethesda Bagel, Inc., Bethesda, MA 
Circuit City Foundation, 

Richmond, VA 
Cloister Spring Water Co., 

Lancaster, PA 
The Coca-Cola Co., Washington, DC 
Costco Wholesale, Fairfax, VA 
Costco Wholesale, Springfield, VA 
Deer Park Spring Water, 

Alexandria, VA 
Domino's Pizza, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 
Ecko Housewares, Franklin Park, IL 
Fresh Fields, Georgetown, 

Washington, DC 
FORCWare, Columbus, OH 
FUJIFILM USA, Elmsford, NY 
Global Village Productions, 

Alexandria, VA 
Goodmark Foods, Raliegh, NC 
Heartland Mills, Marienthal, KS 
Herrs Food, Inc., Elk Ridge, MD 
Krispy Kreme, Winston-Salem, NC 
McCormick & Company, Inc., Hunt 

Valley, MD 
Media Visions, Springfield, VA 
Media Visions Video Duplication, 

Springfield, VA 
Ocean Spray Cranberries, 

Lakeville, MA 
Olympic Espresso, Washington, DC 
Ottenberg's Bakery, Washington, DC 
Papa John's, International, 

Louisville, K\" 
Peirce-Phelps, Inc. AudioA ideo 

Products, Beltsville, MD 
ProCom Associates Video Production 

Ser\'ices, Wilmington, DE 
Quantegy, Inc., Lodi, N} 
Ricola, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ 
Shoppers Food Warehouse, 



Corporate Headquarters, 

I.anham, MD 
Silver Lynx, Denver, CO 
Sony Electronics, Inc., Teaneck, NJ 
Spectrum Medical, Inc., Silver 

Spring, MD 
The Stanley Works, New Britain, CT 
Subway, McLean, VA 
Sugar Association, Washington, D(! 
TDK Electronics, 

Port Washington, W 
Tyson's Bagel Market, T)sons 

Comer, VA 
Utz Quality Foods, Hanover, PA 
Wal-Mart, Fairfax, VA 
Wells Lamont, Niles, IL 
Westwood-Squibb Pharmcueticals, 

Inc., Buffalo, N\ 
VHiatsa Bagel; 

Connecticut Ave. NW, 

Washington, DC 
William B. Reily Coffee Co., 

Baltimore, MD 
Wilkins Coffee, Capial Heights, MI) 
Wisconsin Milk 

Marketing Board 
Wisconsin Tissue, Columbia, MD 
Wrigley Company, Chicago, IL 
Yale Security Group, Charlotte, NC 

Wisconsin 

Allen-Edmonds Shoe Corporation, 

Port Wiishington, WI 
Blount, Inc., Zebulon, NC 
Central Maryland Research and 

Education Center-University of 

Maryland College of Agriculture, 

Clarksville, MD 
DEC International, Inc./Boumatic, 

Madison, WT 
E&M Farm, Cambridge, MD 
Federated Realty Group, 

Cedarburg, m 
Fred Usinger, Inc., Milwaukee, WI 
JNVW, Inc., Canby, OR 
Jack Walters and Sons, Corp., 

Allenton, WI 
Jacob Leinenkugel Brewing Co., 

Chippewa Falls, WT 
Midwest Express Airlines, 

Milwaukee, WT 
Miller Brewing Co., Milwaukee,WI 
Packerland Transport, Inc., Green 

Bay,WT 
Schneider National, Inc., Green Bay, 

WI 
Stevens Point Brewery, Stevens 

Point, WI 
Hunt Wesson, Inc/Swiss Miss, 



132 



Smithsoman Folklife Festival 



1998 



Festival Supporters 



Menomonie, WI 
University of Wisconsin, 

Madison, Wl 
Weber-Stephen Products Co. , 

Palatine, IL 
Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers 

Association, Wisconsin Rapids, 

Wl 

The Baltic Nations 

Estonia 

Estonian Institute 
Estonian National Folklore Council 
Estonian Tourist Board 
Estonian Music Council 
Potter's Violins, Bethesda MD 
Saku Beer 
Solness Ltd. 

Lilbuatiia 

Linu .\udiniai. \ ilnius, Lithuania 

Lithuanian Department of Tourism 

Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo Basin 

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte 
Colorado College 
Coordinacion Estatal de la 

Tarahumara 
Cultunis Fronterizas 
Direccion General de Ecologia del 

Estado de la Secretan'a de 

Desarrollo Social del Gobierno 

del Estado de Coahuila 
Ganados del \alle 
Mexican Cultural Institute, 

Wiishington, DC 
Narciso Martinez Cultural Center 
Te.xas Folklife Resources 
Tierra Wools 

United Farm Workers, San Juan, TX 
University of New Mexico 
Universit}' of Texas-Pan American 

Donations to the Festival received 
after press time are acknowledged 
on the Center for Folklife Programs 
& Cultural Studies' Web site at 
<www.si.edu/folklife>. 



Special Thanks: 

Our gratitude to all of the volun- 
teers who make the Festival possible. 

Wisconsin 

Araxy- Arganian 

Jim Armbruster, Universit)' of 

Wisconsin, Dairy Science 

Program 
Donna Bahler, Historic 

Cheesemaking Center, Monroe, 

WI 
Nadine Bailey, Timber Producers 

Association 
Brenda Baker, Madison Children's 

Museum 
Bob Becker 
Rust)' Bishop, University of 

Wisconsin, Dairy Research 

Center 
Randy Brun, Marathon Feed Inc. 
Kathryn Campbell, Smithsonian 

Institution National Museum of 

American History 
Arlan Carter, Northland Fishing 

Museum 
Marie Chemokov 
Migmar Chungkyi 
Harold Closter, Smithsonian 

Institution National Museum of 

American History 
Mert Cowley 
Pete Dawson, Jacob Leinenkugel 

Brewing Co., Chippewa Falls, WI 
Randy Deer, Milwaukee Zoo 
Marlene Dombrowski 
Katheryn Etter 
Margaret Fay, Wisconsin 

Department of Agriculture 
Bill Gruber, Village of Plain, Plain, 

WI 
Arnold Grummer 
Fr. James Gunn, Dickeyville Grotto, 

Dickeyville, WI 
Bridgit Haggerty 
Tom Hartsock, Pork Pines Fami 
Bill Hartwig 
Mike Headley, Smithsonian 

Institution Office of Exhibits 

Central 
Fr. Dennis Heifner, St. Elias 

Orthodox Church, La Crosse, Wl 
Dale Heikkinen 
Gayda Hollnagel. Im Crosse Tribune, 

La Crosse, WI 
John Jaeggi, University of Wisconsin, 

Dairy Research Center 



David C. Jones, JVNW, Inc., 

Alexandria. VA 
Craig Karr, Wisconsin Department 

of Natural Resources 
Galen S. Karriker, University' of 

Wisconsin-Madison Marching 

Band 
Mary Klein, Swarthout Museum, La 

Crosse, WI 
Robert Kratochvil, Central Maryland 

Research and Education Center, 

University of Maryland College 

of Agriculture 
Chuck Lau, L'niversity of Wisconsin 

Extension Service 
Michael Leckrone, University of 

Wisconsin-Madison Marching 

Band 
Phil Loen, JVNW, Inc., Canby, OR 
Tina Lynch, Smithsonian Institution 

Office of Exhibits Central 
Jerry Mannigel, Weyerhaeuser 

Company 
Jay Martin, Manitowoc Maritime 

Museum 
Agnes .McCluskey Our Lady of the 

Fields Shrine, Loreto, Vi 1 
Ezquiel Mendez 

John Michael, Kohler Art Center 
Connie Miller, Wisconsin Arts Board 
Henrik Moe, DEC International, 

Inc./Boumatic, Madison, WI 
Tom Moreland, Central Maryland 

Research and Education Center, 

University of Maryland College 

of Agriculture 
Tsering Namgyal 

She! O'Hare, Wisconsin Arts Board 
Zolay Oskay, United Community 

Center, Milwaukee, WI 
Bill Plank, J.J. Plank Corporation, 

Appleton, WI 
Janet Pressler 
Sandy Price, Blount, Inc., Zebulon, 

NC 
Ron Rambadt 
Sharon Reese, Historic 

Cheesemaking Center, Monroe, 

WI 
Virginia Riddle, 

Allen-Edmonds Shoe 

Corporation, Port Washington, 

Wl 
Jeri Riha, JVNW, Inc., Canby, OR 
Nathan Roth 
Debbie Rothberg. Smithsonian 



Institution National Museum of 

Natural History, Office of 

Education 
Jeff Schnieder, Smithsonian 

Institution Office of Physical 

Plant-Greenhouse/ 

Nursery Branch 
Patrick Scullion 
Ed Silva, Cedar Pond Cranberries, 

Wareham, MA 
Pevlon Smith, University of 

Wisconsin-Madison 
John Tarr, Four Lakes Council, Boy 

Scouts of America, Madison, W[ 
Renee Tertin, Wisconsin Arts Board 
Carl Thieler, Timber Producers 

Association 
Scott Thorn, Wisconsin Department 

of Tourism 
Trina Nelson Thomas, Outgamie 

County Historical Society 
Jerry Thomm 
Paul Thompson, DEC International, 

Inc./Boumatic, Madison, WI 
Marge Timmerman, Dickeyville 

Grotto, Dickeyville, WI 
George Tzougros, Wisconsin Arts 

Board 
Carola Ward 
Jennifer Wellman, Wisconsin Arts 

Board 
Barbara Welsch, J.J. Plank 

Corporation, Appleton, WT 
Chris Wood, Hillfield Publishing, 

Green Bay, WI 
Helena Wright, Smithsonian 

Institution National Museum of 

American History 
Serina Yang 
Mary Jane Zdroik 
Michael Zimmer, Rogers Street Fishing 

Village, Inc., Two Rivers, WI 
Doran Zwygart, Historic 

Cheesemaking Center, Monroe, 

WI 

Wisconsin Sesqliicentennial 

Commission: 
Dean Amhaus 
Pat Blankenburg 
Kiiss D'Angelo 
Marti Fox 
Kate LaRocque 
Kathy Malzer 
Valorie Overheu 
Joedy Simonsen 
Beth Walsh 
Jennifer Welsh 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



133 



Festival Supporters 



Members of the 

Barn Task Force: 
Pat Blankenburg, Wisconsin 

Manufacturers and Commerce 
Roger Cliff, Wisconsin Farm Bureau 

Federation 
Bob Denmen, Wisconsin Farmers 

Union 
Bill Geary, Wisconsin Agri-Business 

Council and Foundation 
Alan Geisthardt, Walters Buildings 
Jim Haney, Wisconsin 

Manufacturers and Commerce 
Kim Markham, Wisconsin 

Department of Agriculture 
Don Peterson, Wisconsin Farm 

Progress Days, Inc. 
Tom Thieding, Wisconsin Farm 

Bureau Federation 
Bob Walton 

Pahiyas: A Philippine 
Harvest 

Mia Abeya 

Patricia Afable 

Corazon Alvina 

Soliman Archsiwals 

Dorezil Nakano Bangkas 

Bauan Technical High School 

Dez Bautista 

Bulanao Provincial Hospital 

On Linda Burton 

Rita Cacas 

Usopay Cadar 

Nora Cadawas 

Dionisio Canete 

Gloria Caoile 

Mayor Bienvenido Castillo of Bauan 

Bemardita Reyes Churchill 

Cecily Cook 

Julito B. Cortes 

Melvin Cruz 

Regina C. Cruz 

Colonel Julius de la Torre PAF 

Romulo de los Reyes 

Baltazar N. Endriga 

Rommel Faustino 

Doreen G. Fernandez 

Mayor Bayani Fernando 

John Forbes 

Kelly Gannon 

Jocelyn Batoon Garcia 

Kevin Herbert 

Baby Herrera 

Victoria Herrera 

Nestor 0. Jardin 

Frank Jenesta 

Danongan Kalanduyan 

134 



Dr Lucretia R.Kasilag 

Kitanglad Integrated NGO 

J. Michael Korff-Rodrigues 

Kutawato Arts Council 

Salvador Laurel 

Ariel Libria 

Tom Lovejoy 

Mayor Conrado Lumabas, Jr. 

Jose Maceda 

Margaret Magat 

Edward Pablo M. Maglaya 

Dennis Marasigan 

General Clemente P Mariano AFP 

Minonga Mashod 

Jon Melegrito 

Moharrim Mohammed 

Luis J. Morales 

Greta Morris 

Franklin Odo 

Office of Muslim Affairs 

Office of the Southern Cultural 

Communities 
Carmen Padilla 
Ramon Patemo 
Mitzi Pickard 
Elizabeth Punsalan 
Zenaida Quismorio 
Ambassador Raul Rabe 
Commander Ahiron J. Radjaie PN 
Deanna Ongpin-Recto 
Daniel Salcedo 
Samahang Pangkultura at Sining 

ng Koronadal (SPSK) 
Ralph Samuelson 
Erico San Pedro 
Vice Admiral Edward Ma. R. Santos 

AFP 
Ramon P. Santos 
Smithsonian Horticulture Services 

Division 
Daniel Sullivan 
Margaret Sullivan 
Stacey Suyat 
Paul Tafiedo 
Paul Taylor 
University of the Philippines, 

Diliman, Quezon City 
Rosalinda Yangas 



The Baltic Nations: 
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 

Baltic-American Festival Committee 

Embassy of Estonia 

Embassy of Latvia 

Embassy of Lithuania 

Elena Bradunas 

Galya Coleman, Finnair 

John MacDonald 

Estonia 

Estonian Committee 

Jaak Allik, Minister of Culture, 

Chairman 
Alar Ojalo, Coordinator of State 

Program 
Ingrid Riiiitel, Chairman of 

Program Council, Scientific 

Coordinator 
Kale Jarvela, Igor Tonurist, Program 

Managers 
Riina Vanhanen, Designer 
Linda Sade, Planning and Budget 
Liivi Soova, Handicrafts 
Paul Hagu, Scientific 

Documentation 
Anu Tarvis, Editing 
Mart Maripuu, Recordings 
Ats Joorits, Press (Voice of America) 

Annely Akkermann 

Mati Aunver 

City Paper - The Baltic States 

Cityphoto 

Coastal Corporation 

DHL Worldwide Express 

ESTMA Estonian Open-Air Museum 

Estonian Folklore Society 

Estonian Television 

Estonian Tourist Board 

Liina Keerdoja 

Mati Koiva 

Laine Koiva 

Rein Koppelmann 

Toivo Kuldsepp 

Maris Laja 

Merike Lang 

Markus Larsson 

Peeter Laum 

Aarne Leima 

Lore Listra 

Laine Lovi 

Mainor Language Center 

Mart Maripuu 

Maritime Agency ESTMA 

Victoria Middleton 

Talvi Moss 



Smithsonlan Folklife Festivai 



Anne Ojalo 

Recording Company FORTE 

OUe Reimets 

Hermann Reisid Travel Agency 

Cardo Remmel 

Saare Paat Factory Ltd. 

Jaan Salulaid 

Linda Sade 

Saku Beer Brewery Ltd. 

Liivi Soova 

H.E. Kalev Stoicescu, Ambassador to 

U.S. 
Anu Tarvis 

U.S. Embassy in Estonia 
U.S. Information Agency 
Voice of America-Estonian Service 
Madis Valge 
Tiiu Valm 
Riina Vanhanen 
Ulle Vomo 

Latvia 

Liana Eglite, Embassy of Latvia 
H.E. Ojars Kalnins, Ambassador to 

U.S. 
Janis Kukainis and the American 

Latvian Association 
Valdis Kupris 
Latvia Cinema-Photo-Phono- Video 

Archive 
Latvia Ethnographical Open-Air 

Museum Archive 
Ilmiirs Mezs, U.S. Information 

Centre 
Ramona Umblija, Minister of 

Culture 

U.S. Embassy in Latvw 
H.E. Larry C. Nepper, Gregory 
Elttman, Robert Latge 

Lithuania 

Arvydas Barzdukas 

Robin Chandler Duke 

H.E. Alfonsas Eidintas, Ambassador 

to Canada 
Jonas Genys, Lithuanian American 

Council 
Laima & John Hood 
Rita Kazragiene, Lithuanian 

Embassy 
Ale Kezelis, LAC, Inc. 
Gita Kupcinskas 
Dale Lukas and the Washington, D.C. 

Special Lithuanian Committee to 

assist at the Festival 



1998 



Festival Supporters 



Regina Narusas and the Lithuanian 
American Community, Inc. 
,' Algis Rimas, Lithuanian American 
' Council 
Ramune Rimas 
Emihja Saiiadolsids 
H.E. Stasys Sakalauskas, 

Ambassador to U.S. 
Mirga Viculis 

U.S. Embassy in Lithuania 
Daiva Dapsiene, Lisa Helling 

Rio Grande/ 

Rio Bravo Bravo Basin 

Aurora Abrego 

Pablo Manuel Aguirre Loera 

Adriana Alarcon 

Laura Andujo 

Guadalupe Arizpe de la Vega 

Governor Leonard Armijo 

Roland Simon Arriola 

Diana Borja 

David Bosserman 

Juan Briga 

Octavio E. Chavez 

Juanita Valdez Cox 

Governor Walter Dasheno 

Alejandra de la Paz 

Paulina del Moral 

Tyrus Fain 

Elizabeth Ferguson 

Alberto Fierro 

Jerry Freeman 

Timothy Fuller 

Miguel Gandert 

George R. Cause, Jr. 

Jesus Guajardo 

Ian Hancock 

LaDonna Harris 

Meredith Hubel 

Isabel Hucuja 

Jose N. Iturriaga de la Fuente 

Pat Jasper 

Colleen Keane 

Laura Lechuga Soli's 

Denise Louie 

Helen Lucero 

Elisa Lyles 

Jose Antonio MacGregor 

Marcela Madarriaga 

Darla Martinez 

Estella Martinez 



Ruben Martinez 

Patricia Mendoza 

William Merrill 

Jose Oscar Morales S. 

Pedro Moreno 

Victor Nelson Cisneros 

Rogelio Nuriez 

Regis Pecos 

Pedro Perez Mata 

Eduardo Reyes Langagne 

Alvaro Rodriguez-Tirado 

Bea Roeder 

Juan Manuel Saldivar-Cannj 

Roberto Salmon 

Rafael Santi'n 

Ray Seefeldt 

Telma Alicia Soto Palma 

Scott Storment 

Enrique Suarez y Toriello 

Governor Joseph Suina 

Lt. Governor Simon E. Suina 

Eliseo Torres 

Peter Treadway 

Dawn Tlirton 

Tom Vaughn 

Monica Velarde 

Monte Youngs 

Mary Yturria 

Folkways at 50 Concerts 

Ruby Buck 

Laura Caldwell 

Quint Davis 

David Gahr 

Rob Gibson 

Vanessa Greene 

Todd Hulslander 

Harold Leventhal 

Worth Long 

Bob Jones 

Bemice Johnson Reagon 

Matt Sakakeeny 

Pete Seeger 

Toshi Seeger 

Dr Jack Shelton 

Smithsonian Productions 

Tommie Syx 

John Tyler 

United States Postal Service Staff 



Smithsonian 
Bureau and 
Office Support 

office of the Secretary 
Office of Inspector General 
Office of Membership & 

Development 
Office of Planning, Management & 

Budget 

Office of the Under Secretary 
Office of Communications: 

Public Affairs, Visitor 

Information and Associates' 

Reception Center 
Office of the Comptroller 
Office of Contracting: 

Travel Services Office 
Office of Equal Employment & 

Minority Affairs 
Office of the General Counsel 
Office of Government Relations 
Office of Human Resources 
Office of Imaging, Printing & 

Photographic Services 
Office of Information Technology 
Office of Physical Plant: 

Facilities Services, Design 

Construction, Environmental 

Management & Safety 
Office of Protection Services 
Office of Public Affairs 
Office of Risk & Asset Management 
Office of Special Events & 

Conference Services 
The Smithsonian Associates 
Smithsonian Business 

Management Office: 

Museum Shops, 

Smithsonian Press/Productions 
Smithsonian Magazine 



Office of the Provost 
Accessibility Program 
Anacostia Museum 
Center for Museum Studies 
National Museum of American 
History: Director's Office, 
Division of Cultural History, 
Office of Public Services 
National Museum of the American 

Indian 
National Museum of Natural History 
National Anthropological Archives 
Office of Exhibits Central 
Office of Fellowships & Grants 
Office of International Relations 
Office of Sponsored Projects 
Smithsonian Center for Latino 

Initiatives 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling 

Exhibition Service 
Smithsonian Office of Education 



1998 



Smithsonian Folkufe Festival 



135 



Festival Staff 



Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 

Dirtctor, (lenli'r lor lolklife 
Programs & Cultural Studies: 
Richard Kurin 
Deputy Director: Richard Kennedy 
Festival Director: Diana Parker 

Ai)Mi\isTRATi\i; & Fiscal Sipport 
Administrative Officer: Barbara 

Strickland 
Administrative Assistants, Folklife: 

Bill Holmes, Sharleen Ka\etski 
.administrative 

Assistants/Receptionists: Ramona 

Dowdal, Bernard Howard, Marni 

Ho)! 
Special Events Coordinator: Linda 

Benner 
Participant Coordinator: Craig 

Stinson 
Assistant Participant Coordinators: 

Ilze Akerbergs, Helen Burghardt, 

Margaret Crawford 
Housing Coordinator: Cristina 

Stensvaag 
Social Coordinator: Johari Rashad 
Computer Specialist/ 

Assistants: R.C. Forney, Dale 

Dowdal, Pam Rogers, David 

Mealo, Alexander Kovetski 
Volunteer Coordinator: Valerie 

Pawlewicz 
Assistant Volunteer Coordinator: 

Rachel Mears 
Marketplace Co-Managers: Marlene 

Graves, 

Judy Luis-Watson 
Concessions Cash Manager: A.C. 

Stickel 
Consignment Coordinator: Suporia 

Harris 
Consignment Assistant: Brian Posey 
Foodways Coordinator: Beverly 

Simons 
Program Book Sales Coordinator: 

Dawn Benner 

Technical Support 

Technical Director: Pete Reiniger 

Assistant Technical Director: Deb 

Sullivan 
Carpenters: Dovid Adler, Anthony 

LaGreca 
Electrician: Gary Johannsen 
Pipefitter: Marc Breau 



Crew Chiefs: Diana Lees, Lynn 
Joslin, Lisa Ogonowski 

Administrative Assistant, Technical: 
Julie Wblcott 

Exhibit Workers: Deborah Baker, 
James Barnes, Matthew Hartel, 
Shara Kane, Steve Laronga, Terry 
Meniefield, Cheryl Zook 

Sound/Stage Staff: Teresa Ballard, 
Dennis Blackledge, Saul Brody, 
Frank Brown, Amanda Bishop, 
Noah Bishop, Barney Cable, E.L. 
Copeland, Henry Cross, Rachek 
Cross, Megan Denos, Gregory 
Dishmon, Vicki Fleming, Licia 
Galinsky, Gregg Lamping, Al 
McKenney, Paul-Douglas 
McNevich, Mark Pur\ear, 
Claudia Telliho, James Welsh, 
Scott Young 

Supply Coordinator: 
Chris Aplin 

Assistant Supply Coordinator: Herb 
Ruffin II 

Logistics Coordinator: Zoe 
Burkliolder 

Design & Production 

Art Director: Kenn Shrader 

Production Manager: 

Kristen Fernekes 
Design Assistant: Jennifer 

Harrington 
Design Interns: Jennifer Langdon 

Graves, Annie Stone 

Editing 

Caria Borden, Peter Seitel, Kristen 
Fernekes 

Documentation 

Documentation Coordinator: Jeff 
Place 

Photo Documentation Coordinator: 
Stephanie Smith 

Video Documentation: Charlie 
Weber 

Documentation Interns: Lee 
Bickerstaff, Pilipa Esara, Jonah 
Horwitz, Melissa Jeffery, Lindsay 
Mayhood, Maria Mead, Brian 
Pfeiffer, Dagmar Pfensig, 
Elizabeth Sheridan 

Chief Volunteer, Documentation: 
Marilyn Giiston 



Education & Progk.\m Support 
Director, Cultural Studies & 

Communications: James Early 
Education Specialists: Betty Belanus, 

Marjorie Hunt, Diana Baird 

N'Diaye 
Intern Coordinator: Arlene Reiniger 
Education Interns: Alistair Farrell, 

Barri Williams 
Evening Programs Coordinators: 

Betty Belanus, Kate Rinzler, Ivy 

Young 
Accessibility Coordinator: John 

Franklin 
Program Assistant: Cenny Hester 
Public Information: Vicki Moeser, 

Kimberly Moffitt 
Public Information Intern: Susan 

Dyer 
Assistant to the Festival Director: 

Galeet Dardashti 
Sign-Lanuage Interpreters: Candas 

Barnes, Jean Bergey, Martin 

Hiraga, Diana Mele, Kimberley 

Underwood, Hank Young 
Sign Master: Ernest Hairston 

Smithsonian Folctays Recordings 
Director and Curator: Anthony 

Seeger 
Assistant Director: Am\- Horowitz 
Engineer for Archival Recordings: 

Tom Adams, Ronnie Simkins 
Financial Assistant: Heather 

MacBride 
Fiscal Advisor: John Fawcett 
Licensing, Royalties, and 

International Sales: Kevin Doran 
Mail-Order Manager: Dudley 

Connell 
Marketing Director: Brenda Dunlap 
Marketing Assistant: Chris Weston 
Product Manager: Michael Maloney 
Production Coordinator: Mary 

Monseur 
Shipping Specialists: Lee Demsey, 

Judy Gilmore, Matt Levine 
Sound Production Supervisor: Pete 

Reiniger 
Interns: Ethan Johnson, Eduardo 

Nunes, Siv Ostlund, Charles Paul 



Wisconsin 



Curators: Richard March, Thomas 
Vennum 

Program Coordinators: Ruth Olson, 
Anne Pryor, Arlene Reiniger 

Wisconsin Technical Coordinator: 
Carl Eiche 

Program Assistants: 

Thomas Guthrie, Chuoa Ly 

Interns: Barbara Baniett, Laura 
Collins, Meredith Forster, Mary 
Lee, Megan Rice 

Chief Volunteer: Elisa Volkert 

Fieldworkers: Lisa Akey, Terese 
Allen, Mike Chiarappa, Janet C. 
Gilmore, Gina Grumke, Michelle 
Hartley, Anita Hecht, Cindy 
Kerchmar, Andy Kraushaar, 
Barbara Lau,Jiin Leary, Richard 
March, Ruth Olson, Anne Pryor, 
Lynn Ramsey, Bob Rashid, Pete 
Roller, Craig Stinson, Evelyn 
Terry, Bob Teske, Thomas 
Vennum, Mai Zong Vue, Thomas 
U. Walker 

Presenters: David Bisonette, Mike 
Chiarappa, Cindy Kerchmar, 
Barbara Lau, Richard March, 
Ruth Olson, Aime Pryor, Bob 
Rashid, Pete Roller, Erin Roth, 
Gary Sturm, Evelyn Terry, Bob 
Teske, Mai Zong Vue, Mark 
Wagler, Joe Bee Xiong, Thomas 
Vennum 



Pahiyas: A 
Philippine 
Harvest 

Curators: Richard Kennedy, Marian 
Pastor Roces 

Program Director: Ramon Obusan 

Program Coordinators: Eva Mari G. 
Salvador, Andrea Yangas 

Research Director: Flora Elena R. 
Mirano 

Research Associate: Ricardo 
Trimillos 

Researchers: Marialita Yraola 
(supervising researcher), Edna 
Marcil M. Martinez (senior 
researcher), Eduardo Borbon, 
Ricardo Cruz, Leonido Gines, Jr., 
Maria Patricia B. Silvestre, 
Dennis Julio Y. Tan 



136 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



1998 



Festival Staff 



Presenters: Paulo Alcazaren, 

Carniencita J. Bernardo, Eduardo 

Borbon, Joseph Cristobal, 

Ricardo Cruz, Frank I. 

Depakakibo, Leonido Gines, Jr. 

Pacita 0. Ignacio, Arnelio B. 

Manzano, Edna Marcil M. 

Martinez, Jojo Mata, Flora Elena 

Mirano, Oliver Patino, Maria 

Patricia B. Silvestre, Dennis Julio 

Y. Tan, Marialita Yraola, 

Consuelo Zapata 
Site Designer: Paulo Alcazaren 
Production Designer: Ricardo G. 

Cruz 
Production Staff: Frank I. 

Depakakibo, Dennis Julio Y Tan 
Interns: Wendy Clapper, Grace Wang 

The Baltic Nations: 
Estonia, Latvia, 
Lithuania 

Curators: Kalev Jiirvela (Estonia), 
Dainis & Helmi Stalts (Latvia), 
Zita Kelmickaite (Lithuania) 
Coordinators: Alar Ojalo (Estonia), 
Alvis Lidaks (Latvia), Vida 
Satkauskiene (Lithuania) 
Program Coordinator: Kerry 

Stroniberg 
Program Assistant: Rebecca Maksel 
Festival Aide: Guntis Kalnins 
Embassy Liaisons: Jaan Salulaid 
(Estonia), Liana EglTte (Latvia), 
Rita Kazragiene (Lithuania) 
Baltic-American Festi\al Committee: 
Guna MacDonald (Coordinator), 
Liina Keerdoja (Estonian 
American Council), Aivars 
Osvalds (American-Latvian 
Association), Laima Sileikis- 



Hood (Lithuanian-American 
Committee, Inc.), DaleLukas 
(L\C, Inc. Wiishington, D.C. rep- 
resentative) 

Researchers 

General program: Ilze Akerbergs, 
Elena Bradunas, Rebecca 
Maksel, Kerry Stroniberg 

Estonia: Ingrid Riiiitel, Chair, Paul 
Hagu, Kalev Jarvela, Ats Joorits, 
Peeter I.aum, Mart Maripuu, Alar 
Ojalo, Linda Sade, Aivar Siim, 
Liivi Soova, Anu Tarvis, Valdur 
Tilk, Igor Tonurist, Lembe Torop 

Latvia: Juris Gagainis, Juris Indiins, 
Lilita LIdaka, Valdis 
Muktupavels, Inese Petersone, 
Guntis Smidchens, Ernests Spies, 
Daina \1tolin;i 

Lithuania: Giedre Ambrozaitiene, 
Birute Imbrasiene, Zita 
Kelmickaite, Juozas Kudirka, 
Vacys Milius.Jolanta 
Paskeviciene, Giedre 
Puodziukaityte, Vida 
Satkauskiene 

Presenters: 

Estonia: Kristiina Paul, Leena Valge, 
Silvi Valge 

Latvia: Andris Rutiijs, Guntis 
Smidchens, Liga Varesa 

Lithuania: Elena Bradunas, 
Audronis Braukyla, Darius 
Suziedelis 

Interns: Andrew Bryan, Sarah 
Everett 

Rio Grande/ 
Rio Bravo Basin 

Curators: Olivia Cadaval, Cynthia L. 

Vidaurri 
Program Coordinator: Heidi 

McKinnon 
Program Assistants: Lucy Bates, 

Heather Harbaugh, Diana 

Robertson, Sonya Salazar, 

Natalye Swet>e 
Field school Media Instructor: 

Charles Weber 
Translators: lleana Cadaval Adam, 

Luq' Bates, Patricia Fernandez 

de Castro 



Research Advisor:, Patricia 
Fernandez de Castro. 

Presenters: David Champion, 
Juanita Elizondo Garza, Enrique 
Lamadrid, Ramon de Leon, 
Mario Montano, Genevieve 
Mooser, Dan Sheehy 

Research Coordinators:, Juanita 
Elizondo Garza, Rodolfo Garza 
Gutierrez, Enrique Lamadrid, 
Hector Romero Lecanda, Mario 
Montaiio, Cirila Quintero, 
Socorro Tabuenca 

Researchers: Armando Acosta, 
Estevan Arellano, Alejandro 
Arrecillas, Angelica Bautista, 
Mike Blakeman, Norma Cantii, 
Imelda Castro Santillan, David 
Champion, Jerry Chapman, 
Karen Chapman, Cynthia L. 
Chavez, Cynthia Cortez, Peter J. 
Garcia, Gregorio Garza, Barbara 
Gonzales, Steve Harris, Victor 
Manuel Hernandez, Alma 
Jimenez, Ramon de Leon, Heidi 
H. McKinnon, Genevieve Mooser, 
Marisa Oliva, Francis Ortega, 
Beverly Ann Ortiz, Gustavo 
Palacio Flores, Marcos 
Rodriguez, Rose Rodriguez- 
Rabin, Erin Ross, Ken Rubin, 
Joanna Stewart, John Stockley, 
Bob Tenequer, Elaine Thatcher, 
Molly Timko, Curtis Tunnell, 
Ethel Warrior, William Warrior 



Folkways at 50 

Anniversary 

Concerts 

Ciiilukun's Matinee 

folkviays foiinders/u.s. postal 

Service Folk Musicians Stamp 

Concert 
Curators: Anthony Seeger, Amy 

Horowitz 
Coordinator: Ivy Young 

Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations 

Women 
Curators: Howard Bass, Rayna 

Green 
Artwork: Linda Lomahaftewa 
Design: Watermark Design Office 
Research and Production Assistants: 
Allison Cooley, Emily Crow, 
Deena Gift, Kim Harper, Ann 
Hoog, Michael James, Lisa 
Levine, Carol Keesling, Nadia 
Khatchadourian, Renee Pastore, 
Ann Silverman, Sarah Grogan 

Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 

Curator: Henry Sapoznik 
Coordinator: Kate Rinzler 
Intern: Elise Berman 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



137 



Educational Offerings 

Festival Teacher's Seminar 

As in previous years, the Center will offer a seminar for teachers during the Festival. "Bringing Folklife Into Your Classroom" is cosponsored 
by the Smithsonian Office of Education. This popular seminar, now in its fifth year, attracts Washington-area teachers who obtain hands-on 
experience in the folklorist's methods of learning about culture: observing, documenting, interviewing, and interpreting. Instructors for the 
course, which meets June 23-27, are Drs. Marjorie Hunt and Betty Belanus of the Center for Folklife Programs & Cultural Studies. 

Visiting Students 

High school students from rural Wisconsin will be attending the Festival in preparation for producing their own festival based on the 
histor)' and culture of their community. The students will work with staff involved in different parts of the Festival, and will take on these 
roles for their own production. (This project was made possible by the Flambeau School District, the Flambeau History Club, and New 
Paradigm Partners with support from the Annenberg Foundation, the Kellogg Foundation, and Rippin Foods.) 

Current Educational Offerings 

From the Center for Folklife Programs & Cultural Studies 
Workers at the White House 

This half-hour video documentary features the occupational folklife and oral histories of a broad range of White House workers — butlers, 
maids, doormen, chefs, plumbers, and others. Through their memories, skills, and values, these workers help us to understand the White 
House in human terms — as a home and a workplace, a public building and a national symbol. A 24-page educational booklet accompanies 
the video. Produced in cooperation with the White House Historical Association and the National Archives, copyright 1994. Grades 6-12. 
$24.95. Catalog * SF48003 

Borders and Identity 

This bilingual kit explores the complex notion of identity along the United States/Mexico border. In four segments — on history, belief, 
expressive arts, and occupational traditions — students learn from the stories of border residents. This kit includes a four-part video, a poster- 
size cultural map, and a teacher/student guide with exercises for classroom use. Published 1996. Grades 6-12. $55.00 kit; $10 cultural map 
separately Catalog * SF900I0 

Land and Native American Cultures 

This kit introduces students to the use of land in Native American communities through three case studies: the Hopi of Arizona; the Tlingit, 
Haida, and Tsimshian of Alaska; and the Aymara and Quechua of Bolivia and Peru. Units address subsistence, crafts, mythology, and ritual. 
The kit includes an extensive teacher/student guide with narrative, photographs, resource listing, and activity questions. A slide set accompa- 
nies the guide. Published 1997. Grades 9-12. $21.00. Catalog* SF900 11 

Wisconsin Powwow / Naamikaaged: Dancer for the People 

This two-video set shows how powwows incorporate historical traditions and modem innovations. The first video is a general treatment of 
the powwow as it is held by Ojibwe people in northern Wisconsin. The second follows a young Ojibwe, Richard LaFemier, as he dresses and 
paints himself for a powwow, honors his ancestors, and sings at powwows in northern Wisconsin. A 40-page accompanying booklet includes 
historical background, transcription of soundtrack, classroom questions, and suggestions for further reading and listening. Published 1996. 
Grades 6-12. $34.95. Catalog * SF48004 

Learning About Folklife: The U.S. Virgin Islands & Senegal 

This kit concentrates on the rich folklife of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Senegal through a focus on foodways, music and storytelling, and 
celebrations. The kit contains a four-part video-cassette, two audio-cassettes, and a teacher's guide with maps, photographs, and line illustra- 
tions. Published 1992. Grades 6-12, $45.00. Catalog* SF900 12 

To order, write, FAX, or call: Smithsonian Folkways Mail Order, 414 Hungerford Dr, Suite 444, Rockville, MD 20850 
Phone: (301) 443-2314 — FAX: (301) 443-1819 — Orders only: (800) 410-9815 All prices include shipping and handling. 

Visit the Smithsonian Institution on the Web at <http://www.si.edu>. 



138 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Friends of the Festival 



Friends si± Festival 



The Smithsonian Folklife Festival presents the wealth of American and world cultures for the education 
and enjoyment of visitors. But it doesn't end with the celebration on the Mall; Smithsonian staff transform 
Festival research into traveling exhibitions, films, publications, learning guides, and Smithsonian Folkways 
recordings. Supported by a combination of federal and private funds, the Festival and its related programs 
depend on the generous assistance of the public to preserve grassroots cultures. 

We invite you to join us. 

As a Friend of the Festival, you will support the Festival and its work of cultural preservation, education, 
and research. You'll learn what happens behind the scenes at the Festival and about opportunities to vol- 
unteer on Festival projects. 

As a Friend at the $25 level, you will receive: 

• a newsletter about the Festival and the Center for Folklife Programs & Cultural Studies; 

• the Festival program book, which describes the featured Festival programs in a beautifully illustrated 
volume; and 

• a 10% discount, exclusive to the Friends, on Smithsonian Folkways recordings ordered through the mail- 
order catalogue. 

For our Friends at the $50 level: 

• we also include a one-size-fits-all Festival T-shirt. 
And for those at the $75 level: 

• you will receive all of the above and a Smithsonian Folkways recording selected from the most popular 
of Festival-related recordings. 

Our Rinzler's Circle^ members, at the $500 level, will receive: 

• all of the above gifts and other special recognition throughout the year. 

Please be sure to visit the Marketplace while you are at the Festival. We look forward to discussing the 
Friends program with you there and can enroll you as a member of the Friends of the Festival when you 
visit. Your assistance will play an integral part in supporting research and education about traditional cul- 
tures. 

* Ralph Rinzler was the long-time director of the Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Ralph passed away in July 1994. We have created the 
Circle to honor his outstanding commitment and accomplishments. 



1998 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



139 




FOLKWAYS 



CELEBRATING FIFTY YEARS 
OF FOLKWAYS RECORDINGS 



y*"v/ 



50 



O Smithsonian Folicways 
Recordings celebrates 
jthe fiftieth anniversary of 
■otkways Recordings. 

ecordings related to previous 
mithsonian Folklife Festivals, Folk, 
Blues, BItiegrass, Jazz, American Indian, 

lassical, World, Children's Music, 
Spoken Word, and much more, 
vailable at the Festival Marketplace, 
'ecord stores, and at wv\/w.si.edu/folk 
ways, or 800 410-9815/Catalogues 
ailable. 








■•'T>T' 










Folk and Blues 




Historic recordings from 
Lead Belly, Woody Guthrie, 
Sonny Terry, and Josh 
White — four artists being 
honored with stamps unveiled 
at the Folkways Founders/ 
U.S. Postal Semi^ 
Musicians Stamp Concert 

(Friday, June 26, 7:00-9:00 p.m.). 





mi^ 



American Indian 
Music 



Children's Music 



Many of the artists featured 
at the Heartbeat: Voices 
of First Nations Women 

Concert (Sunday, June 28, 5:30-9:00 

p.m.) perform on these two 
eclectic and spirited CDs. 



1^ 



■♦.'. 



^■ 




These Ella Jenkins and 
Larry Long recordings give 
a taste of the wide variety 
of children's music available 
on Smithsonian Folkways. 
See Ella and Larry 
at the Children's Concert 

(FridaxZjSn^ 21^, 5:30'-7:00 p.m.) 




■ **«.■»■ 




For more concert Information, see schedule on page 1 30. 



Music from the 
Southwest 



Music and Dance 
from Wisconsin 



-^ ' •v'ir 



Tex-Mex, Hispanic, and 
American Indian sounds on 
these CDs richly 
complement this year's 
Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin 
program. 

'*■ ■,*«.'■ ■7— ~--';^^ 



i:i 


in 


^^^^H 


▼■* M 






Wisconsin's diversity of 
cultures is celebrated with 
these titles: a 2-video set 
of American Indian 
traditions and a CD of 
European-rooted polka. 




sconsin Poujujouj 










Ndamikaaqed: 
Dancer for the People 








Smithsonian Institution 

Secretary: I. Michael Heyman 
Under Secretary: 

Constance Berry Newman 
Provost: Dennis O'Connor 

Center for Folklife 
Progranns & Cultural 
Studies 

Director: Richard Kurin 
Deputy Director: Richard Kennedy 
Festival Director: Diana Parker 
Director, Smithsonian Folkways 

Recordings: Anthony Seeger 
Director, Cultural Studies & 

Communications: James Early 
Administrative Officer: 

Barbara Strickland 
Senior Ethnomusicologist: 

Thomas Vennum,Jr 
Chair, Research & Education: 

Olivia Cadaval 
Assistant Director, Smithsonian Folkways 

Recordings: Amy Horowitz 
Curators, Folklorists, Education & Cultural 

Specialists: Betty J. Belanus, 

Marjorie Hunt, Diana Baird N'Diaye, 

Peter Seitel 
Program/Publications Manager: 

Caria M.Borden 
Program Manager: John W.Franklin 
Coordinator, Latino Cultural Resource 

Network: Cynthia Vidaurri 
Technical Director: Pete Reiniger 
Art Director: Kenn Shrader 
Archivist: Jeffrey Place 
Assistant Archivist: Stephanie Smith 
Program Specialist: Arlene L. Reiniger 
Media Specialist: Charlie Weber 
Fiscal Managers: 

Bill Holmes, Heather MacBride 
Folkways Fulfillment Manager: 

Dudley Connell 



Folkways Promotion Manager: 
Brenda Dunlap 

Folkways Assistant Promotion Manager: 
Chris Weston 

Folkways Manufacturing & Distribution 
Coordinator: Mike Maloney 

Folkways Production Coordinator: 
Mary Monseur 

Folkways Fulfillment Staff: Tom Adams, 
Lee Michael Demsey, Judy Gilmore, 
Matt Levine, Ronnie Simpkins 

Program Assistant: Cenny Hester 

Administrative Assistant to the Director 
& Administrative Officer: 
Linda Benner 

Administrative Assistant/Receptionist: 
Bernard Howard 

Volunteers: Dale Dowdal, Ramona 
Dowdal, Enid Hairston, Marni Hoyt, 
Beverly Simons 

Fellows & Research Associates: 
Roland Freeman, Dan Goodwin, 
CorinneKratz, Ivan Karp, Alan 
Lomax, Worth Long, Rene Lopez, 
KateRinzler 

Advisors: Roger Abrahams, Jacinto Arias, 
Michael Asch, Jane Beck, Don 
DeVito, Pat Jasper, Ella Jenkins, 
Jon Kertzer, Barbara Kirshenblatt- 
Gimblett,John Nixdorf, Bernice 
Johnson Reagon,John Roberts, 
Carol Robertson, Gilbert Sprauve, 
Jack Tchen, Ricardo Trimillos, Carlos 
Velez-lbahez 

National Park Service 

Secretary of the Interior: Bruce Babbitt 
Director, National Park Service: 

Robert Stanton 
Director, National Capital Region: 

Terry R.Carlstrom 
Chief, United States Park Police; 

Robert E. Langston 
Commander, Special Forces, United 

States Park Police: 

Maj. Marvin Ellison 
Special Events, United States Park Police: 

Diana Smith 
Superintendent, National Capital 

Region-Central: 

Arnold M.Goldstein 



Chief, Division of Visitor Services, 

National Capital Parks-Central: 

Donna Donaldson 
Associate Superintendent of 

Maintenance, National Capital 

Parks-CentraLWilliam Newman, Jr 
Site Manager, National Mall, National 

Capital Parks-Central: 

Erin Broadbent 
Special Assistant for Partnerships, 

National Capital Parks-Central: 

Lisa Mendelson 
Concessions Specialist, National Capital 

Parks-Central: Nelson Hoffman 
Employees of the National Capital Area 

and the United States Park Police 

Major Sponsors 

Wisconsin 

The Wisconsin program is made possible 
by and is produced in cooperation with 
the Wisconsin Arts Board and the 
Wisconsin Sesquicentennial Commission 
on the occasion of Wisconsin's 150th 
anniversary of statehood. Wisconsin cor- 
porate contributors include AT&T SC 
Johnson Wax, and The Credit Unions of 
Wisconsin. 

Pliiiippines 

The Philippines program is produced in 
collaboration with the Cultural Center of 
the Philippines and the Philippine 
Centennial Commission and is supported 
by the American International Group, 
lnc.,The Starr Foundation, Bell Atlantic, 
the Asian Cultural Council, and the 
Philippine Centennial Foundation/USA. 

The Baltic Nations 

This program is made possible by and is 
produced in cooperation with the 
Estonian Government and Estonian 
Ministry of Culture, the Latvian Govern- 
ment and Latvian Ministry of Culture, 
and the Lithuanian Government and 
Lithuanian Ministry of Culture. Additional 
support comes from the Cultural 
Endowment of Estonia, the American 
Latvian Association, and the Lithuanian 
Foundation. 



Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin 

This project is cosponsored by El Consejo 
Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes with 
support from the U.S.-Mexico Fund for 
Culture (The Rockefeller Foundation, 
Fundacidn Cultural Bancomer,the Fondo 
Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes), SBC 
Foundation,Texas Folklife Resources, and 
the Texas Council for the Humanities. 
Folklife Fieldwork Research Schools were 
supported by Colorado College, Tierra 
Wools, the University of New Mexico, 
University of Texas-Pan American, and a 
grant from Smithsonian Outreach Funds. 

Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 

This program is made possible with 
support from The Recording Industries 
Music Performance Trust Funds, the Ruth 
Mott Fund, Friends of the Festival, and 
Kate Rinzler. 

Support for Folkways At 50 

comes from BMI (the American perfor- 
mance rights organization), the United 
States Postal Service, M.A.C.E. 
(Mississippi Action for Community 
Education), Global Arts/Media 
Foundation, P.A.C.E.R.S. (Program for 
Academic and Cultural Enhancement of 
Rural Schools) Small Schools Cooperative 
& Community Celebration of Place 
Project, KOCH International, Smithsonian 
Magazine, Smithsonian Institution 
National Museum of American History, 
TRO,The Richmond Organization, 
Columbia Records and Sony Music 
Entertainment, Michael Asch, Walter 
Beebe and the New York Open Center, 
Andrew Dapuzzo and Disctronics, David 
Glasser, Charlie Pilzer, and Airshow 
Mastering, Inc., Judith DeMaris Hearn, 
Ella Jenkins, Richard Kurin, Mark Miller 
and Oueens Group, Inc., Microsoft 
Corporation/Media Acquisitions 
Department, Arnold L. Polinger, Razor & 
Tie Entertainment, and The Recording 
Industries Music Performance Trust 
Funds. 




VO 
00 

3 



O 



Ol 



rD 



rD 



fii