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Full text of "2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas"

2003 

United Nations 
List of Protected Areas 



UNEP 




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UNEP WCMC 



^WCPA lUCN 

^K^BV WORLD COMMISSION ■ ^^ ^t^ ■ H 



ON PROTECTED AREAS 



The World Conservation Union 



Front and back cover photo key 

Earth map courtesy of ESRI © 2002 



Air and Tenere Natural Reserves 

and World Heritage Area, Niger 

lUCN Management Categor\' IV 

© Chris Magin 



Yosemite National 

Park and World 

Heritage Area, USA 

lUCN Management 

Category II 

© Stuart Chape 



Ningaloo Marine Park. 

Western Australia 

lUCN Management Categor\' V 

© Stuart Chape 



Ravilevu Nature Reserve. Fiji 

lUCN Management Categon,' la 

© Stuart Chape 



Los Glaciares National 

Park and World Heritage 

Area, Argentina 

lUCN Management 

Category 11 

O Chris Magm 



Simien Mountains National Park 

and World Heritage .Area, 

Ethiopia 

n_'CN Management Category II 

© Chris Magin 



Nakai-Nam Theun 

National Conser\ation Area. 

Lao FDR 

IL'CN Management 

Category VI 

© Stuart Chape 



Abisko National Park. Sweden 

ILICN Management Category II 

© Stuart Chape 



2003 

United Nations 
List of Protected Areas 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

UNEP-WCIVIC, Cambridge 



http://www.archive.org/details/2003unitednation03chap 



2003 

United Nations 
List of Protected Areas 



Compiled by 

Stuart Chape, Simon BIyth, Lucy Fish, 

Phillip Fox and Mark Spalding 



lUCN - The World Conservation Union 
UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

2003 



The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do 
not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of lUCN, UNEP-WCMC or 
other participating organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, 
or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 

UNEP-WCMC or its collaborators have obtained the Data Set from documented sources 
believed to be reliable and have made all reasonable efforts to ensure the accuracy of the Data 
Set. UNEP-WCMC does not warrant the accuracy or reliability of the Data Set and excludes 
all conditions, warranties, undertakings and terms express or implied whether by statute, 
common law, trade usage, course of dealings or otherwise (including but not limited to the 
fitness of the Data Set for its intended use) to the fullest extent permitted by law. 

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of lUCN or UNEP- 
WCMC. 

Published by: lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK and UNEP World 
Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK 



lUCN 

The World Conservalion Union 






UNEP WCMC 



\^9M 



Copyright: 



Citation: 



ISBN: 



©2003 International Union for Conservation of NaUire and Natural 

Resources 

©2003 UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

Reproduction of this publication, or excerpts from it, for educational or other 
non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission 
from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged. 

Reproduction of this publication, or excerpts from it, for resale or other 
commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the 
copyright holder. This prohibition applies equally to any versions or com- 
ponents of the publication in electronic media such as CDs, DVDs or 
Internet editions. 

Chape, S., S. Blyth, L. Fish, P. Fox and M. Spalding (compilers) (2003). 
2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 
Cambridge, UK and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. ix + 44pp. 

2-8317-0746-3 
92-807-2362-6 



Cover design by: McHale Ward Associates, Hertfordshire, UK 

Layout by: lUCN Publications Services Unit, UK 

Produced by: lUCN Publications Services Unit, UK 

Printed by: Thanet Press Ltd, UK 

Available from: lUCN Publications Services Unit 

219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, United Kingdom 

Tel: +44 1223 277894, Fax: +44 1223 277175 

E-mail: info(a)books. iucn.org 

www.iucn.org/bookstore 

A catalogue of lUCN publications is also available 



77ie text of this book is printed on 1 ISgsin Fineblade Extra made from low chlorine pulp 



Contents 



Foreword vii 

Acknowledgements ix 

1. Introduction 1 

Format and content of the 2003 UN List of Protected Areas 1 

History of the United Nations List process 2 

Reinforcing the importance of the UN List process 3 

2. The World Database on Protected Areas 5 

3. Compilation of the 2003 UN List of Protected Areas 9 

Derivation of 2003 data 9 

Criteria for inclusion 9 

Aspects of data presentation 10 

Application of the lUCN Protected Area Management Categories 10 

4. Layout Of the 2003 L/W L/sf 13 

Country summaries 13 

National sites 13 

International sites 14 

5. Information gaps and limitations and explanatory notes 19 

6. Analysis of global protected area trends 21 

Number and extent of the world's protected areas 21 

Growth of the world's protected areas 25 

Coastal and marine protected areas 27 

Extent and protection of the world's terrestrial biomes 28 

Analysis by regions 30 

Note on the WCPA Antarctic region 30 

7. Updating the World Database on Protected Areas 33 
Annex. Protected Area Number and Extent by lUCN WCPA Region 35 
Tables 

Table 1 . Global number and extent of protected areas 25 
Table 2. Indicative ranking of 1997 and 2003 proportional percentage values 

by lUCN Category (excluding non-categorised sites) 25 

Table 3. Protected areas in World Parks Congress years 26 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Table 4. Extent of protection of the world's major terrestrial biomes 29 

Table 5. Predominant categories in lUCN WCP A regions by area 31 

Figures 

Figure 1 . Global protected area number and extent 2003 23 

Figure 2. Global number and area of protected areas by size class 24 

Figure 3. Global number of protected areas by lUCN category and size class 24 

Figure 4. Global area of protected areas by lUCN category and size class 24 

Figures Cumulative growth in protected areas by 5 -year increment: 1872-2003 26 

Figure 6. Cumulative growth in global number of protected areas: 1997 to 2003 27 

Figure 7. Cumulative growth in global area of protected areas: 1997 to 2003 27 



VI 



Foreword 



The United Nations Environment Programme and lUCN - Tiie World Conservation Union are 
pleased to present the 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas. This is the thirteenth report 
to be produced since 1962 that records the global community's endeavour to conserve the 
Earth's natural places. The growth in area and extent of the conservation estate in the 20''' 
century, especially in the last quarter of the century, reflects an increasing political com- 
mitment to conserving the Earth's remaining biological diversity. The growth in the global 
protected areas network, with diverse management objectives, also reflects the high social and 
cultural values that societies place on them. The 2003 UN List is an essential reference 
document for all who want to understand the progress made in responding to the challenges of 
biodiversity loss and other environmental threats around the world. 

As we enter the new millennium there is compelling statistical evidence presented in the 
2003 UN List that concrete action has been taken by governments, organisations and in- 
dividuals to set aside not only discrete areas for protection but also protected area systems and 
networks. These are essential if we are to implement the ecosystem approach to the way we 
manage the planet's resources. Of course, statistics are only part of the story. Protected areas in 
most countries urgently need technical and financial resources to ensure that they are ef- 
fectively managed to achieve their objectives. 

The 2003 UN List is the first version to attempt a comprehensive presentation of all the 
world's known protected areas. The global conservation estate has grown enormously since 
the first UN List was published in 1962 with just over 1,000 protected areas. This edition lists 
102,102 sites covering 18.8 million km'. Significant progress has been made in conserving 
representative areas of the world's terrestrial biomes, although some biomes, including Lake 
Systems and Temperate Grasslands, remain poorly represented. Of the total area protected it is 
estimated that 17.1 million km' constitute terrestrial protected areas, or 1 1.5% of the global 
land surface. Unfortunately, marine areas are significantly under-represented in the global 
protected area system. Approximately 1.7 million km" comprise marine protected areas - an 
estimated 0.5% of the world's oceans and less than one-tenth of the overall extent of protected 
areas worldwide. 

An important aspect of the UN List process is that it is produced through a partnership 
between lUCN, the lUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), UNEP and the 
UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre. The UN, lUCN and the Commission have 
been working in partnership for the past 44 years. It is also pleasing to see the valuable 
contributory role of more recent partners in the UN List process, including the European 
Environment Agency, the ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, and the 
numerous organisations comprising the World Database on Protected Areas Consortium. 

The work of WCPA in developing and refining international protected area definitions and 
management objectives has been central to the development of the UN List. This is the second 
edifion to use the six lUCN management categories adopted in 1994. It provides an excellent 
internationally understood framework within which countries can structure their protected 
area systems. Already, there is considerable diversity evident in the application of the system 
throughout the world, reflected in the regional analyses presented in this edition. For example, 
the growing application of Category VI (Managed Resource Protected Areas), in many 
countries suggests an increasingly close link between protection and sustainable use. 



Vll 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Finally, publication of the 2003 UN List coincides with the V"' World Parks Congress to be 
held in Durban, South Africa. The UN List will provide invaluable input to the deliberations of 
the Congress. However, the relevance of the UN List is dependent upon the review of its 
information and continuing input by those who plan, establish and manage the world's 
protected areas - our key partners - to ensure that information is up-to-date. We therefore urge 
you to review this document and the accompanying data critically and provide UNEP-WCMC 
with new or updated information. 



UkuA^M. 'Y^ 





CO 



Klaus Topfer Achim Steiner 

Executive Director, UNEP Director General, LUCN 



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Mark Collins Kenton Miller 

Director, UNEP-WCMC Chair, lUCN World Commission 

on Protected Areas 



vni 



Acknowledgements 



The generous assistance provided by national and international agencies to the 2003 United 
Nations List of Protected Areas process is gratefully acknowledged. Many professionals from 
protected areas management agencies around the world and other experts have provided the 
information used in updating the World Database on Protected Areas, which underpins the 
2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas. Without their invaluable input, this edition of the 
UN List could not have been completed. 

The support of Kenton Miller, Chair of the FUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, 
and Commission Vice Chairs and members has once again been an essential component of the 
UN List process. Similarly, the support and guidance of David Sheppard, Pedro Rosabal and 
Peter Shadie have contributed substantially to the success of the process. 

The European Environment Agency and the European Topic Centre on Nature Protection & 
Biodiversity (ETC/NPB) undertook the survey of European countries, with the generous 
assistance of Marc Roekaerts, Lauri Klein and Ulla Pinborg. The ASEAN Regional Centre for 
Biodiversity Conservation provided updated information for the ASEAN countries of 
Southeast Asia, with the generous support of John MacKinnon and Lewie Dekker. 

The cooperation of UNESCO for information on World Heritage and Biosphere Reserve 
sites, and the Ramsar Convention Bureau for information on Wetlands of International 
Significance is gratefully acknowledged. 

Valuable input was also provided by members of the World Database on Protected Areas 
(WDPA) Consortium as part of the WDPA updating process. In particular: Roger Sayre and 
Leo Sotomayor - The Nature Conservancy; Silvio Olivieri and Mohammad Bakarr - 
Conservation International; Neil Burgess, Holly Strand and Jan Schipper- WWF US; Kenton 
Miller and Robin White - World Resources InstiUite; Chris Magin - Fauna & Flora 
International; Eric Sanderson and Madhu Rao - Wildlife Conservation Society; Martin Sneary 
and Mark Balman - BirdLife International. 

A number of other people made significant inputs to the compilation and production of the 
UN List, including advice, inputting and cross-checking entnes in the database, and re- 
searching data sources. Their assistance is greatly appreciated, in particular: 

John Ady, Sofi Charlwood, Jerry Harrison, Jargal Jamsranjav, Florence Jean, Igor Lysenko, 
Melanie Mason, Corinna Ravilious, Michelle Taylor, Karen Timmins and Gillian Warltier at 
UNEP- WCMC; and Carola Borja at Conservation International. 

Finally, the data collection, analysis and production of the 2003 United Nations List of 
Protected Areas would not be possible without the generous financial support of UNEP, 
lUCN - The World Conservation Union, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural 
Affairs, The World Bank, European Environment Agency/European Topic Centre on Nature 
Protection & Biodiversity (ETC/NPB), International Council for Mining and Metals, BP pic 
and BHP-Billiton. 



IX 



1. Introduction 



The 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas presents data on 102,102 protected areas 
covering 18.8 million km". Within this total figure, there are 69,066 protected areas with lUCN 
Management Categories. In addition, there are 4,633 internationally designated sites. 
Although there has been an increase in the range of data presented in the 2003 UN List, 
compared to previous editions, it is clear that there has been a substantial increase in the extent 
of the world's terrestrial conservation estate in the past seven years. However, marine areas 
still make up a very small component - 1.7 million km' or 9.1% of the total area protected. 

This is the thirteenth edition in a series that was initiated by the United Nations more than 40 
years ago. The last edition published data collected in 1997. Of the previous 12 UN Lists 
published, five ( 1982-1 997) have been prepared jointly by UNEP-WCMC and lUCN. As well 
as changes in the format and content of the 2003 UN List, the process involved to gather and 
review the data reflected the widening of partnership arrangements instituted in 2002 to 
manage the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) that underpins the UN List. This 
partnership includes other organisations through the WDPA Consortium, as well as agree- 
ments with intergovernmental organisations, such as the European Environment Agency and 
the ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation. This is also the first UN List 
prepared since the World Conservation Monitoring Centre became part of UNEP. 

Format and content of the 2003 UN List of Protected Areas 

The format and content of the 2003 UN List is a significant departure from the previous 
editions that have been produced. As discussed below, production of the UN List has been an 
evolving process since its inception in 1962, moving from the iconic national park "role of 
honour" concept that characterised the earlier UN Lists to one that reflects the range of 
protected area objectives and values relevant to the late 20* and early 21" century. Although 
criteria and definitions for inclusion have changed, both the 1997 and 2003 UN Lists use the 
lUCN Protected Areas Category System as the basis for analysis. Globally the numbers of 
protected areas have increased substantially, and their conservation values and role in the 
provision of ecosystem services and sustainable development have broadened considerably. 
The recent (relative to the time period of the UN List) emphasis on ecosystem approaches, 
ecological corridors and the function of protected areas as "core" sites within wider landscape 
conservation frameworks calls for a more inclusive approach to presenting protected areas in 
the UN List. 

The 7997 UN List recorded 12,754 sites with lUCN categories published as a report with 
more than 400 pages. Clearly, to provide comprehensive infonnation in the 2003 UN List on 
the 69,066 protected areas with lUCN categories alone would require a hard copy publication 
of 4-5 volumes. A decision has therefore been made to present the data on CD-ROM, included 
with this report. The use of this format has also provided an opportunity to provide information 
not previously distributed with the UN List. 

In all previous editions of the UN List, criteria for inclusion have focused on specific 
definitions of protected areas, a minimum size and, since the 1982 edition, the UN List has 
only included those sites with lUCN management categories. With respect to these criteria, it 
has been decided in this edition to include all protected areas that meet the lUCN definition of 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



a protected area, regardless of size and whether or not they have been assigned an lUCN 
category. 

lUCN defines a protected area as: 

An area of laud and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance 
of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and 
managed through legal or other effective means. 

This decision is based on: 

■ Not all protected area agencies or other organisations have assigned lUCN categories to 
their sites. However, the 33,036 protected areas without lUCN categories cover 3.6 
million km' and therefore represent a significant proportion of the global conservation 
estate. Their omission would significantly under-represent the efforts that have been 
made by many countries to establish protected areas. It should be noted, however, that 
their inclusion in no way diminishes the importance placed by lUCN, UNEP, lUCN's 
World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) and UNEP-WCMC upon the assign- 
ment of management categories as a mechanism for the rational international assess- 
ment of protected areas. On the contrary, inclusion of the non-categorised sites clearly 
shows the progress that has been made in assigning categories to most of the world's 
protected areas (67% of the total number and 81% of the area). The value of the category 
system reinforces the need to achieve the goal of progressively assigning all relevant 
sites to an lUCN category. 

■ The previous size limitation of a minimum of 10km" (1,000 hectares), or 1km' (100 
hectares) in the case of islands, has not been applied. The rationale for this is not only the 
opportunity provided by the digital format, but also because even small areas can play a 
significant role in conservation - especially in the context of bioregional planning 
approaches. The lUCN protected area definition does not include a size restriction. 

History of the United Nations List process 

The first United Nations List of National Parks and Equivalent Reseii'es was produced at the 
request of the United Nations following a resolution adopted by the General Assembly at its 
16' Session in December 1962 on 'Economic Development and Nature Conservation'. This 
resolution endorsed an earlier resolution (No. 713) of the 27th Session of the UN Economic 
and Social Council (ECOSOC) held in 1959, which recognised 'National Parks and 
Equivalent Reserves' as an important factor in the wise use of natural resources, and led to the 
compilation of the World List of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves. 

The ECOSOC resolution reads as follows: 

"The Economic and Social Council, 

Noting that national parks and equivalent reserves have been established in tnost 
countries which are Members of the United Nations or the specialized agencies, 
and that they contribute to the inspiration, culture and welfare of mankind. 

Believing that these national parks are valuable for economic and scientific 
reasons and also as areas for the future preservation of fauna and flora and 
geologic structures in their natural state, 

( 1 ) Requests the Secretary-General to establish, in co-operation with UNESCO, FAO, 
and other interested specialized agencies, a list of national parks and equivalent 
reserves, with a brief description of each, for consideration by the Council at its 



7. Introduction 



twenty-ninth session, together with his recommendations for maintaining and 
developing the Hst on a current basis and for its distribution; 

(2) Invites State Members of the United Nations and of the speciaUzed agencies to 
transmit to the Secretary General a description of the areas they desire to hrve 
internationally registered as national parks or equivalent reserves; and 

(3) Furthermore invites the International Union for Conservation of Nature and 
Natural Resources and other interested non-governmental organisations in con- 
sultative status to assist the Secretary-General, upon his request, in the preparation 
of the proposed list." 

In his introductory statement to the first edition of the UN List, the UN Secretary-General 
noted the "widespread interest in the fact that the United Nations is issuing the List" and that "a 
number of Governments have indicated that new legislative measures are now under 
consideration for the establishment and protection of national parks and equivalent reserves". 
This early UN recognition, supported by lUCN and the International Commission on National 
Parks (now WCPA), provided an important impetus for the growing global momentum to 
establish protected areas. The number of listed protected areas has subsequently increased 
from just over 1,000 sites reported in the 1962 UNListto over 12,754 sites listed in 1997, and 
102,102 in the 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas. 

Global recognition of the importance of protected areas and their linkage to broader 
environment and development issues has increased significantly during the past three decades. 
This recognition has been reflected in the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human 
Environment, the 1 992 UN Conference on Environment and Development, the adoption and 
implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and other international and 
regional environmental agreements. The United Nations Environment Programme, which was 
established in 1972 as a direct outcome of the Stockholm Conference, administers the CBD, 
which now has 1 87 Contracting Parties. The implementation of the CBD, in particular Article 
8 (In-sitii Conservation), and the inclusion of protected areas as an indicator for the 
Millennium Development Goals and the WSSD Plan of Implementation (2010 Targets) has 
flarther highlighted the relevance of protected areas to global conservation and sustainable de- 
velopment agendas. 

Reinforcing tiie importance of tlie UN List process 

The role of national governments through the UN system has provided the framework for 
concerted and collaborative action on global environmental issues. With respect to protected 
areas, this has involved a partnership with lUCN, WCPA and non-government organisations 
that has spanned more than 40 years. During this time the extent and importance of protected 
areas has increased, the global stakeholder base in conservation has widened considerably, the 
United Nations Environment Programme has been established, and the role of the World 
Database on Protected Areas endorsed by a number of international organisations. 

As key mechanisms in the global collaborative process, the importance of the WDPA and 
the UN List have been reinforced by Decision 22/1/III of the UNEP Governing Council in 
February 2003 to update and renew the 1959 ECOSOC resolution. Specifically, the Council: 

"[Agreed] that the United Nations Economic and Social Council resolution of 
1959, subsequently endorsed by the General Assembly in 1962, needs to be 
renewed and updated.'" 

and 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



[Requested] the Executive Director, working in collaboration with the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Food and 
Agricultia-e Organization of the United Nations, to seek a renewed mandate for the 
United Nations List process from the Economic and Social Council/General 
Assembly that reflects the role of the United Nations Environment Programme and 
its agreement with the World Conservation Union on new partnership arrange- 
ments for the World Database on Protected Areas. " 

This decision acknowledges the importance given to protected areas within the UN system, 
and reinforces the value of partnership arrangements in achieving global conservation ob- 
jectives. It also provides the basis for renewing the UN List mandate in the context of 21^' 
century protected area priorities. 



2. The World Database on Protected 
Areas 



The WDPA is the largest repository of global information on protected areas. It has undergone 
re-development throughout the 1980s and 1990s, reflecting changing systems, technologies 
and needs. Originally implemented as a flat-file database only holding current protected areas 
information (that is, with no historical content in the database), protected areas data has been 
significantly extended over the years. Currently the information is held as two components: 
current spatial extent and historic aspatial details. The aspatial component is a relational 
database designed to support changing requirements and to facilitate more detailed analyses of 
the information. It is also used in conjunction with the spatial data in many GIS analyses. An 
important advance has been the on-line access provided in recent years via the Internet, access 
not only to the analyses and compilations of the data but also to the underpinning data. The 
implementation of the Internet interface allows ready access to the information at all times. 
Users of the UN List are strongly encouraged to verify the current status of the information in 
this report by using the Internet", and notifying UNEP-WCMC of any errors or omissions 
through the email address provided. 

Future adaptations are already planned and will initially focus on enabling and encouraging 
distributed updating of the information by experts with local knowledge. 

In addition to production of the periodic UN List, the data in the WDPA has been used, and 
continues to be used, to support a number of global and regional assessments, including: 

■ Circumpolar Protected Areas Network (CPAN) - Strategy and Action Plan (1996) 

■ Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics: Gaps in Habitat Protection and Funding 
Piorities(1997) 

■ WWF Forest for Life Campaign and Living Waters Campaign ( 1 996/1 998) 

■ European Forests and Protected Areas: Gap Analysis (2000) 

■ FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment (2000) 

■ Prioritisation of Target Areas For Forest Restoration (Report to WWF, 2000) 

■ Mountain Watch Study (2002) 

■ Protected areas information support for the V"' World Parks Congress (2003) 

■ Global Environment Outlook (ongoing) 

■ Global Biodiversity Outlook (ongoing) 

■ World Resources Report (ongoing) 

■ Protected area and thematic studies for the World Heritage Convention (ongoing) 



' The information that supported this extension was held in records, but not initially included in the 

database. 
^ Website: http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/wdbpa/unlist 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



■ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 

■ Millennium Development Goals 

As well as providing input to these assessments the databases held by UNEP-WCMC are 
frequently used in international oil spill emergency response action and contingency planning. 
The protected areas database is a key component in the early stages of emergency response, 
providing GIS- supported location maps of impacted areas. By incorporating this information 
at the outset the responders are able quickly to identify areas of sensitivity that may require 
specific protection. The infomiation gathered during a response event is also fed back into the 
database to improve the effectiveness of future responses. 

In 2001, a survey and review of the WDPA was commissioned by the World Commission 
on Protected Areas and undertaken in partnership with UNEP-WCMC. The review recom- 
mended the adoption of the following vision and goals, subsequently adopted by the WCPA 
Steering Committee in December 2001 and endorsed by UNEP-WCMC and lUCN: 

Vision 

A widely available, accurate and up-to-date World Database on Protected Areas that is 
accepted as a world standard by all stakeholders (government, intergovernmental and non- 
government), providing the essential link to information from multiple sources on protected 
areas and contributing to effective resolution of protected area planning and management 
issues at global, regional and national levels. 

Goals 

■ Readily available information on protected areas to support assessment, monitoring, 
decision-making and development of policy at national and international levels. 

■ A core database on protected areas that is internationally recognised, current and 
managed to international standards. 

■ Improved access to information on protected areas that is already available on the 
Internet and gradual increases in the information available. 

■ Improved use of information and sharing of experience by protected area professionals. 

In June 2002 the WCPA, lUCN, UNEP-WCMC and other organisations agreed to progress 
the development of the WDPA through the fomiation of a Consortium of co-operative 
stakeholders. The Consortium currently comprises representatives from intergovernmental 
and non-government organisations, including the major global conservation organisations. 
Since the formation of the Consortium, members have made valuable contributions to the 
WDPA, including data that has improved the quality of infomiation in the 2003 UN List. 
Current members of the Consortium are: 

■ American Museum of Natural History 

■ BirdLife International 

■ Conservation Biology Institute 

■ Conservation International 

■ Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat 

■ Fauna & Flora International 

■ Ramsar Convention Secretariat 

■ The Nature Conservancy 



2. The World Database on Pfotected Areas 



u UNEP- World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

■ Wildlife Conservation Society 

■ World Heritage Centre 

■ World Resources Institute 

■ World Wildlife Fund - WWF-US 

■ World Wide Fund For Nature - WWF-Intemational 

Other key stakeholders include: 

■ Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat 

■ Ramsar Convention Secretariat 

■ World Heritage Centre (UNESCO) 

■ Man and Biosphere Programme (UNESCO) 



3. Compilation of tlie 2003 UN List of 
Protected Areas 

Derivation of 2003 data 

Participation of national protected area agencies and other organisations in updating data in the 
WDPA is central to the UN List process. 

In May 2002 the UNEP Executive Director and lUCN Director General jointly wrote to 
national environment ministers, seeking their cooperation in updating protected areas in- 
formation for their respective countries. At the same time, the WDPA Consortium members 
agreed to contribute the WDPA country and regional protected area information that they held, 
or to which they had access. Since the UN List is essentially based on the information provided 
by national agencies, either directly or through delegated authorities such as the European 
Environment Agency (EEA), it was important to include the broader WDPA Consortium 
information before sending the information to countries for verification. This initial process 
resulted in updates to 42 countries. A further nine updates were provided by other organi- 
sations outside of the Consortium. 

Following this process, UNEP-WCMC sent requests for updates and verification to 183 
countries in November-December 2002, with hard copies of each country's protected areas 
information held in the WDPA. Explanatory notes to assist countries in completing the update 
were also provided, including information on the lUCN protected area definition and appli- 
cation of the management categories. 

Through its cooperative agreement with UNEP-WCMC, the EEA undertook, through the 
European Topic Centre on Nature Protection & Biodiversity (ETC/NPB), the updating of data 
for the 38 countries covered by its authority. Although requests were sent to individual 
countries in Southeast Asia, data were also provided by the Association of Southeast Asian 
Nations Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation (ARCBC) for countries in the ASEAN 
region. In the event that no information was received from official sources, research was 
undertaken by UNEP-WCMC to obtain data - wherever possible - from published material 
and other sources. 

UNEP-WCMC received 86 direct official national replies, representing 47% of the total. In 
addition, 15 official responses were received from European countries through the EEA/ 
ETC-NC 2003 review of Europe in time for inclusion in the 2003 UN List. However, the 
WDPA was updated for all European countries through the Common Database on Designated 
Areas (in partnership with EEA) in December 2002. Official data was also received for seven 
ASEAN countries through ARCBC, although direct official responses were also received 
from five of these countries. In effect, official updates were received from 103 countries, or 
56% of all countries, through the combined efforts of UNEP-WCMC, EEA and ARCBC. 

Criteria for inclusion 

A review of the history of the UN List over the past 40 years shows that compilation of the UN 
List has been an evolving process, reflecting: 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



■ the broadening of the concepts and values of protected areas that are represented in the 
UN List; 

■ the widening of the data collection base from only UN member countries to ail countries 
- in 1960 there were 99 UN member countries, and 52 responded to the first reporting 
process; in 2002/2003 there were 191 UN members of which 103 responded; 

■ the shift in perspective on the size of protected areas to be included in the UN List, from 
no restriction to l.OOOha ( lOkm") or lOOha if the protected area was on an island^ back 
to no size restriction in 2003; 

■ the development, refinement and finally adoption in 1994 of the current lUCN Protected 
Areas Management Categories system that reflects the range of protected area man- 
agement objectives; and 

■ adoption by lUCN at the 1992 World Parks Congress of the current definition of a 
protected area that is used as a basis for inclusion in the UN List. 

As noted in the introduction, the 2003 UN List represents a fiirther step in the evolution of 
protected areas data presentation. The criteria for inclusion of protected areas in this edition 
are: 

(1) All protected areas with and without lUCN management categories, provided that 
adequate information is available to ensure that they comply with the lUCN protected 
areas definition. 

(2) All protected areas regardless of size. 

(3) All countries and territories. 

(4) International and regional sites: Natural and Mixed World Heritage Sites, Ramsar 
Sites, Biosphere Reserves, ASEAN Heritage Sites, European Commission Directive 
on the Conservation of Wild Birds, and other regional designations. 

Aspects of data presentation 

The information provided in the 2003 UN List is a static snapshot of the World Database on 
Protected Areas taken in July 2003. However, data is continuously augmented by infonnation 
provided by protected area agencies, organisations, individuals or groups active in protected 
areas and conservation. The process of protecting an area can change over time, for example, 
changes in size, classification, designation and gazetted status. Although the WDPA holds 
information on proposed sites or those subject to designation procedures, these are not 
included in the 2003 UN List. 

Application of the lUCN Protected Area l\/lanagement Categories 

The current six categories system (see box below) was first applied in the 1997 UN List. In 
assigning categories, UNEP-WCMC has largely depended on the information provided by 
national governments, even though the lUCN 1994 Guidelines for Protected Area 
Management Categories state: 

"It. ..follows from the international nature of the system, arid from the need for 
consistent application of the categories, that the final responsibilit)' for 



3 



There was no size restriction in the 1962 List; in subsequent editions to 1974 a fonnula was adopted by 
the International Commission for National Parks: minimum of 2,000ha in countries with a population 
density <50 persons/km" or 500ha with a population density >50 persons/km"; then from 1974 to 1997 
the criterion was a minimum of l,000ha (10km-) or lOOha (Ikm") on an island if the protected area 
included the whole island. 



10 



i 



3. Compilation of the 2003 UN List of Protected Areas 



determining categories should be taken at the international level. This could be 
lUCN, as advised by its CNPPA and/or the World Conserx'ation Monitoring 
Centre (e.g.. in the compilation of the UN List) in close collaboration with lUCN. " 

A large number of the original lUCN categories were applied by government agencies that 
subsequently provided the information to UNEP-WCMC. In addition, in past years UNEP- 
WCMC has allocated management categories based on assessment of management objectives 
and legislation, and external (non-government) advice for those sites not categorised by 
government agencies. Although assignments were made for the 7997 UN List, the report 
noted: 

"A major undertaking, completed as part of the preparation for this edition of the 
UN List, has been the application of the new lUCN Management Categories.... 
Application of the new Management Categories system has been a lengthy and 
challenging process, requiring the management objectives of each national desig- 
nation to be reviewed in relation to the criteria and guidelines established for the 
application of the new categories... It is likely, therefore, that not all protected 
areas have been allocated to the most appropriate category. " 

It is not possible for UNEP-WCMC and lUCN physically to undertake the assessment of 
thousands of uncategorised protected areas, and no new assignments have been made for 
uncategorised protected areas for the 2003 UN List. To deal effectively with this issue will 
require the collaborative effort of all parties: national agencies and other protected area 
owners, lUCN, WCPA, UNEP-WCMC and other conservation organisations. The outputs of 
the current lUCN-University of Cardiff-UNEP-WCMC project, Speaking a Common 
Language, and deliberations at the V* World Parks Congress in September 2003, should also 
contribute to a more effective and structured approach to assignment of the categories. 

Some protected areas have more than one lUCN category assigned to them. For example, 
the vast area of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia has been assigned Category VI 
in its entirety, but has also been officially assigned other relevant categories that relate to 
management zones within the park. In the current structure of the WDPA it is not possible to 
assign multiple designations in the "lUCN Category" field. The only way to do this currently is 
to create separate entries for each area or zone assigned a different category - which would in 
effect create "separate" protected areas, and artificially increase the number of sites in the 
database. This will be changed, but for the present, additional category assignments within 
single protected areas are placed in the "notes" field so that a reviewer can still obtain the 
relevant information. With respect to marine areas, changes will be based on the decision of 
the WCPA Steering Committee at its meeting in December 2002. That is: "in relation to large 
multi-purpose marine protected areas, zonation should be reflected in the World Database on 
Protected Areas only under the following conditions: (a) zones are clearly mapped; (b) zones 
are clearly defined in accordance with the lUCN protected area categories; and (c) zones are 
recognized by law". 

Protected area designations used by countries are not necessarily directly comparable across 
countries because of potentially different legislative regimes. Over 1,000 different terms are 
known to be used around the world to designate protected areas. This highlights the value of a 
single international system for assigning categories based on management objectives, and 
therefore the importance of applying the lUCN categories. 



11 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Definitions of the lUCN Protected Area l\/lanagement Categories 

CATEGORY la 

Strict Nature Reserve: protected area managed mainly for science 

Area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or 
physiological features and/or species, available primarily for scientific research and/or enviro- 
nmental monitoring. 

CATEGORY lb 

Wilderness Area: protected area managed mainly for wilderness protection 

Large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and/or sea, retaining its natural character and 
influence, without permanent or significant habitation, which is protected and managed so as to 
preserve its natural condition. 

CATEGORY II 

National Park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation 

Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to (a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more 
ecosystems for present and future generations, (b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to 
the purposes of designation of the area and (c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scienfific, 
educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and 
culturally compatible. 

CATEGORY III 

Natural Monument: protected area managed mainly for conservation of specific natural 

features 

Area containing one, or more, specific natural or natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding 
or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities or cultural 
significance. 

CATEGORY IV 

Habitat/Species Management Area: protected area managed mainly for conservation 

through management intervention 

Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure 
the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species. 

CATEGORY V 

Protected Landscape/Seascape: protected area managed mainly for landscape/ seascape 

conservation and recreation 

Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over 
time has produced an area of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and/or 
cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this 
traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area. 

CATEGORY VI 

Managed Resource Protected Area: protected area managed mainly for the sustainable 

use of natural ecosystems 

Area containing predominantly unmodified natural systems, managed to ensure long-term 
protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while providing at the same time a sus- 
tainable flow of natural products and services to meet community needs. 



12 



4. Layout of the 2003 UN List 



Country summaries 

A synthesis of each country's data precedes the site Ustings, with information provided in the 
following format: 



S" — — 

INDIA 


ISO Code: IND Last Official Response: 2003 


Country Summary 




Number 


Area (ha) 


Category la 


1 


133.010 


Category lb 


1 


20,000 


Category II 


92 


3,642,484 


Category IV 


515 


11,965,267 


Category VI 


3 


1,138,500 


Subtotal 


612 


16,899,261 


Other 


56 


337,291 


Total 


668 


17,103,542 



National sites 

Protected areas are listed by country, in alphabetic order of the English-language version of the 
country name. These are named by national designation (for example, national parks, nature 
reserves, wildlife sanctuaries) in the following format: 




Name 



Latitude/ 
Longitude 



Size (ha) 



Year of 
establishment 



lUCN 

Management 

Category 



Last WDPA 
update 



Commonwealth Marine Park 



Great Barrier 
Reef 



20°00'S/150°00'W 



34,540,000 



1979 



VI 



2003 



The latitude/longitude is based on a centre-point of the protected area. The year of estab- 
lishment reflects when the current legal designation was applied; in some cases this may be 
more recent than the original date of establishment^ for example where the legal designation of 
a site has changed. For some countries, such as Australia, Canada, India and the US, protected 
areas are listed by state, province and territory. In some cases, the names of protected areas are 
repeated with different site codes* (for example, Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park x 20548, 

" A code used by UNEP-WCMC to identify sites within the WDPA. 



13 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



22673, 32376, 42065, and 8434). The reasons for this vary, but could resuh from variable 
locations (for example, "cluster" protected areas with the same designation), different ad- 
ministrative and/or management arrangements. 

The 2003 UN List also contains 3,223 individual datasheets, hyperlinked from site names 
where a sheet is available for that site. The datasheets hold additional information on aspects 
relating to the ecological attributes and management of the area concerned. In addition, locator 
maps are provided indicating the location, and the source of GIS data for the protected area. It 
should be noted that many datasheets were prepared using information from earlier lUCN and 
(then) WCMC publications and require updating. It is hoped that eventually links can be 
established from the UNEP- WCMC website directly to those of individual protected areas or 
national agencies where up-to-date information is held. 

International sites 

It should be noted that sites listed under 'International Sites' will also appear in the country 
lists of protected areas. 

World Heritage Sites 

The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was 
adopted in Paris in 1972, and came into force in December 1975. The Convention is 
administered by UNESCO and provides for the designation of areas of "outstanding universal 
value" as World Heritage sites, with the principal aim of fostering international cooperation in 
safeguarding these important areas. 

Every year the World Heritage Committee evaluates nominations by States Party to the 
Convention, taking into account assessments made by the Advisory Bodies: lUCN for natural 
and mixed site nominations; and ICOMOS for cultural sites. Information on the current 172 
natural and mixed sites is presented in the 2003 UN List. 

To be included on the World Heritage List, sites must satisfy one or more of the selection 
criteria in the World Heritage Operational Guidelines, the main operational document on 
World Heritage. The criteria have been revised regularly by the Committee to match the 
evolution of the World Heritage concept. 

Natural World Heritage properties should: 

i. be outstanding examples representing major stages of the Earth's history, including the 
record of life, significant ongoing geological processes in the development of land- 
forms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features, or 

ii. be outstanding examples representing significant ongoing ecological and biological 
processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and 
marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals, or 

iii. contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and 
aesthetic importance, or 

iv. contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of 
biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding 
universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. 

Mixed sites have both universally outstanding natural and cultural values. Since 1992 
significant interactions between people and the natural environment have also been recognised 
through the listing of cultural landscapes (which are not included in the UN List). Protection, 
management and integrity of the site are important considerations in World Heritage listing. If 



14 



4. Layout ofthe 2003 UN List 



these aspects are severely compromised, the World Heritage Committee may designate a site 
"in danger", based on an assessment of the severity of threats that may affect its World 
Heritage values. 

In the 2003 UN List, World Heritage Sites are listed in alphabetical order ofthe English- 
language version ofthe country name, in the following format. Note that only countries with 
World Heritage Sites are listed. Sites that are on the World Heritage In Danger List in July 
2003 are indicated accordingly. 



World Heritage Sites 


csTr5W5n^^"^|||^^m^^^^^BIII^^^^^^^~ 


Name 


Natural 


Mixed 


Year of 
inscription 


Criteria 


I.atitude/Longitude 


Size (lia) 


In- 

danger 

status 

2003 


Comoe 

National 
Park 


^ 




1983 


N(ii)(iv) 


8°05'-9°06'N/3°0r-4°04'W 


1,149.250 


y 



A further feature of the 2003 UN List is the inclusion of information datasheets for each 
World Heritage Site. These site sheets are prepared by UNEP-WCMC for lUCN as part ofthe 
nominated site evaluation process, updated by site evaluators and maintained in the database 
for those sites that are inscribed on the World Heritage List. 

Biosphere Reserves 

Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal/marine ecosystems that 
are internationally recognised under UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme. 
They are designed to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and 
nature. The reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign 
jurisdiction ofthe States where they are situated. In 2003, there are 436 Biosphere Reserves 
recorded in the UN List. 

The definition, criteria, and designation procedure of Biosphere Reserves are set out in the 
Statutory Framework adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in 1995. The Seville 
Strategy for Biosphere Reserves identifies objectives for the reserves at site, national 
and international levels. Many ofthe sites have been designated for over 20 years and hence 
are subject to the Periodic Review foreseen under Article 9 ofthe Statutory Framework. This 
review aims to encourage the authorities concerned to revise their Biosphere Reserves in the 
light of the Statutory Framework. Biosphere Reserves form a world network for promoting 
cooperative research and monitoring as well as exchange of information, and development of 
strong regional sub-networks. 

In the 2003 UN List, Biosphere Reserves are listed by country, in alphabetic order ofthe 
English-language version of the country name, in the following format. Note that only 
countries with Biosphere Reserves are listed. 



15 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Biosphere Reserves 


PERU ^I^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I^^B 


Name 


Latitude/Longitude 


Size (ha) 


Year of designation 


Reserva de la Biosfera de 
Huascaran 


9°45"S/77°28'W 


399,239 


1977 


Reserva de la Biosfera del Manu 


12°irS/71°47-W 


1,881,200 


1977 



Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites) 

The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat 
was signed in Ramsar ( Iran) in 1 97 1 , and came into force in December 1975. This Convention 
provides a framework for international cooperation for the conservation of wetland habitats. It 
places general obligations on contracting Party States relating to the conservation of wetlands 
throughout their territories, with special obligations pertaining to those wetlands that have 
been placed on the List of Wetlands of International Importance. In 2003, there are 1,305 
designated wetlands. 

Each State Party is obliged to list at least one site. Wetlands are defined by the Convention 
as: areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temp- 
orary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine 
waters, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres. 

In the 2003 UN List, Ramsar Sites are listed by country in alphabetic order of the 
English-language version of the country name, in the following format. Note that only 
countries with Ramsar Sites are listed. 



Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites) 


SWEDEN 


Name 


Latitude/Longitude 


Size (lia) 


Year of designation 


Traslovslage-Morups 
Tange 


56°58'59"N/12° 19' 59"E 


1,990 


1989 


Tysjoama 


63° 14'N/14°35' 59"E 


410 


2001 



European Commission Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (Birds Directive, 
1979) 

The Birds Directive has been in force since April 1981 and imposes legal obligations on 
European Union Member States to maintain populations of naharally occurring wild birds at 
levels corresponding to ecological requirements, to regulate trade in birds, to limit hunting of 
species able to sustain exploitation, and to prohibit certain methods of capture and killing. 
Article 4 requires Member States to take special measures to conserve the habitat of certain 
listed threatened bird species as well as migratory bird species, particularly with regard to 
wetlands, through the designation of Special Protection Areas (SPAs). To date 1,496 SPAs 
have been established. All SPAs form part of NATURA 2000, the EU network of protected 
areas. 



16 



4. Layout ofthe 2003 UN List 



List of Special Protection Areas (EC Directive 79/409) 


IpiELAN^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


Name 


Latitude/Longitude 


Size (ha) 


Ballyallia Lake 


52° 53'N/008° 59'W 


308 


Ballycotton Bay 


51°50-N/008°00-W 


92 



Other protected area-related regional agreements 

There are a number of other European agreements requiring estabhshment of protected areas 
that are included in the UN List: 

■ Council of Europe - Biogenetic Reserves (340 sites) 

■ Barcelona Convention - Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance (230 
sites) 

■ EC Habitats Directive - Special Areas for Conservation (212 sites) 

■ European Diploma Type 'A' (36 sites), Type 'B' (1 1 sites), Type 'C (7 sites) 

■ Helsinki Convention - Baltic Sea Protected Areas (3 sites) 

In addition to the European sites, there are 1 1 sites listed as ASEAN Heritage Parks and 
Reserves under the ASEAN Declaration on Heritage Parks and Reserves (1984). 



17 



5. Information gaps, limitations and 
explanatory notes 



It should be noted that information is not necessarily complete for each country - especially for 
countries that have not provided updates during 2002-2003. The dataset for the 2003 UN List 
is also subject to the following limitations: 

■ The size is unknown for 23,428 (23%) protected areas. This means that the extent of 
regional and global protected areas networks is somewhat under-represented, although 
the missing information is largely that of the smaller sites. 

■ The date of establishment is unknown for 48,654 protected areas. In this case, the 
database reflects the date of entry of the protected area into the database. In some years, 
when bulk updates occur^ this can artificially inflate the number of protected areas 
registered in that year (this acts as a crude proxy indicating that the sites were es- 
tablished "no later than" this date). As information about the year of protected area 
establishment is obtained these sites are recorded against their correct year. 

■ lUCN management categories have not been assigned to 33,036 protected areas. 

■ Geographic co-ordinates are still lacking for 20,634 sites. 

■ UNEP-WCMC does not yet have the geographical boundaries (polygons) of 74,512 
protected areas^. Although this is a large figure, the larger sites (> 100km") have a much 
better coverage than the small sites. This problem still limits the extent to which 
terrestrial and marine protected areas can be treated separately or compared, and 
constrains GIS analyses of the representativeness of protected areas. In the case of 
marine protected areas, 1 ,799 out of the 4,459 (over 40%) in the WDPA have polygons. 
However, in terms of area, 89% of the marine protected areas are in the form of 
polygons. This due to the inclusion of single large marine protected areas, such as the 
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. 

■ Translation of some languages, such as Chinese and Arabic, into English can lead to 
unintentional duplication of site records when updates are received with apparently 
different site names, which are actually transliteration variants. This has at times 
resulted in some duplication of sites. An intensive effort was made during the pro- 
duction of the 2003 UN List to minimise this problem. However, it is estimated that this 
type of error could affect 5%-7% of the database for these countries, and support is 
urgently needed from the relevant nations to rectify this problem. 

■ The WDPA is attempting to incorporate privately owned and managed protected areas, 
even where these do not have legal protection, and these are included (for the first time) 



For example, for the UN List years and in 2001 when a bulk update of the European Common Database 
on Designated Areas (CDDA) took place. 

UNEP-WCMC has in fact made considerable progress in obtaining GIS boundary data for many of the 
world's protected areas, which is now linked to the aspatial information contained in the WDPA. 
However, it should be noted that some countries, although providing this information, have placed 
restrictions on its use and availability through licence agreements with UNEP-WCMC. 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



where they are considered to meet the lUCN PA definition. However, many sites are 
undoubtedly missing from this classification. 

UNEP-WCMC is aiming to remove the duplication caused by multiple designations of 
the one geographic site. Some duplication remains; however, from a statistical stand- 
point it is possible to filter out these duplications in the GIS analyses and so avoid double 
counting. 



20 



6. Analysis of global protected area 
trends 



The compilation of the UN List, through the WDPA updating process, provides a unique 
opportunity to review and summarise the status of the world's protected areas. The UN List 
provides the basis for assessing: 

■ growth in protected area numbers and extent at national, regional and global levels, as 
well as sub-national (province, state) levels for a number of countries; 

■ application of lUCN management categories, and the trends in protected area estab- 
lishment on the basis of management objectives at sub-national, national, regional and 
global levels; 

■ extent of global protection for the world's biomes; 

■ growth in international sites, and the extent of application of international conventions 
and programmes; 

■ gaps in the global system of protected areas, and future priorities for action. 

The data provided in the 2003 UN List will enable various analyses to be undertaken by a 
range of data users - especially with the new format that now includes all protected areas. The 
information is presented so that separate analyses can be undertaken using the total protected 
area numbers and area, or using only those that have been assigned lUCN management 
categories. The following sections provide key analyses of the global data undertaken by 
UNEP-WCMC. 

Number and extent of the world's protected areas 

The 2005 LWZ./s/' contains 102, 102 protected areas covering more than 18.8 million km'. This 
figure is equivalent to 12.65% of the Earth's land surface, or an area greater than the combined 
land area of China, South Asia and Southeast Asia. If marine protected areas are excluded from 
these calculations (see discussion of marine areas below) the terrestrial extent of protected 
areas is some 1 7. 1 million km" ( 1 1 .5% of the land surface). This is almost the same area as the 
entire continent of South America. Summary statistics are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1. 
The total number and extent of protected areas presents the current global overview of the 
status of protection. However, it is the classification of protected areas into lUCN 
Management Categories that enables a distinction to be made on the basis of management 
objectives that countries are applying to their conservation estate, ranging from sites that are 
strictly protected through to those under sustainable use. This is the second UN List to present 
protected areas data using the six management categories system. The 2003 figures highlight 
the importance of the categories in establishing an international standard for classifying 
protected areas, and also the extent to which they are being applied by governments and other 
bodies that manage protected areas. 

The overview of global statistics indicates that 67% of the world's protected areas have been 
assigned an lUCN management category, covering 8 1 % of the total area protected. Among the 
categorised sites, the largest number lie within Category IV (Habitat/Species Management 



21 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Area) and Category III (Natural Monument). Together they comprise almost 47% of all 
protected areas. This is not surprising, since protected areas assigned to these categories often 
cover small geographic areas - especially in the case of Category III. Many of these small 
protected areas have been excluded in previous UN Lists because their areas are less than 
lOkm". Examination of the regional data (see Annex) also reveals that some regions have large 
numbers of Category IV sites, notably South Asia (44.5% of all protected areas), Europe 
(39%), and North Eurasia (29.6%). Both South Asia and North Eurasia have large areas of 
Category IV (5.5% and 48.1% respectively). Categories la, lb, II, V and VI together only 
comprise 20% of the total number of protected areas with Category II (National Park) 
comprising 3.8% and Category VI (Managed Resource Protected Area) 4%. 

Turning to category by area, the picture changes dramatically, with Category II and 
Category VI comprising 47% of all protected areas. But this is not surprising, since national 
parks, in terms of management objectives, have traditionally been established to protect larger 
areas at the ecosystem and landscape level. The 2003 figures reflect the trend in previous UN 
Lists, although in relative terms the extent of Category II is marginally less than it was in 1997. 
However, the considerable extent of Category VI is a relatively recent phenomenon. It was the 
most significant innovation in the last revision of lUCN's management category system, and 
recognised the important role protected areas play in the sustainable livelihoods of local 
people. Whilst dedicated to biodiversity conservation, such sites accommodate local people 
and a degree of sustainable use as an integral part of site management. In the 1997 UN List, 
Category VI sites accounted for 27% of the total extent of recorded protected areas using the 
criteria for that UN List. If non-categorised protected areas are excluded from the 2003 figures 
(see discussion below and Table 2), 28.9% of the area of protected areas has been assigned to 
Category VI. Two of the world's largest protected areas are classified as Category VI, namely 
the Ar-Rub'al-Khali Wildlife Management Area (640,000km" ) in Saudi Arabia and the Great 
Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia (345,400km"). Together, these two sites account for 
22.5% of the total area under this management category - although it should be noted that the 
total area of the GBRMP has been subdivided into other lUCN categories based on the 
management objectives of legally defined zones within the park. 

For comparative purposes. Table 2 presents the indicative ranking of 1997 and 2003 
proportional percentage values by lUCN category (that is, excluding sites without categories). 
Some aspects of the global pattern of protected areas remain unchanged. These include: 
Category IV the most numerous; Category II the greatest extent; and Categories la and lb the 
least in number and extent. The substantial increase in the numbers of Categories III and IV 
can be explained by the inclusion of all size classes in the 2003 UN List. The inclusion of all 
sizes also affects the proportional relationship of other categories. 

Figure 2 shows the distribution of protected areas by size class. Of the 102,102 protected 
areas recorded in the 2003 UN List, 59,478 (58.25%) are less than lOkm" in size. There are 
41,997 (41.13%) with lUCN categories (see Figures 3 and 4). 



22 



6. Analysis of global protected area trends 



Figure 1 . Global protected area number and extent 2003 



Global: Number and percentage distribution of categorised and non-categorlsed 

protected areas 



Total Global Number PAs: 102,102 



4,731 

,.„ 1,302 

^''^ ^1.3% 3,881 

3.8% 




19,833 
19.4% 



4,123 



6,555 
6.4% 



Global: Area (km^) and percentage distribution of categorised and non-categorised 

protected areas 



Total Global Protected Area: 
18,763,407 Km^ 




la Hlb 



III 



D 



IV 



VI H No category 



23 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Figure 2. Global number and area of protected area by size class 





^^Tolal area of sites — ^ Total number of sites 




25.000 


Site8<10km^(1000ha) A 


■ ■ 


7,000,000 00 
6,000,000 00 


20.000 




II 


5,000.000 00 


Number of Sites 




\\u 


s s g 

Area of sites (km ^ 


5.000 




.1111 


1.000,000 00 
0.00 


^''' 


„?.- o- „■- * v# # # # # 




Size class (km^) 





Figure 3. Global number of protected areas by lUCN category and size class 



25.000 , 


1 




Sites <10hm'(1000ha) 






20.000 


1 






1 15.000 
o 

3 10,000 


h 


1 


1 


5.000 


1.1 


1 


ll> 


^ 




Size da 


/^^ .^ .^ ^.^ ^^ 

ss(km'l -* 



Figure 4. Global area of protected areas by lUCN Category and size class 



Sites < 10km'(1000h3) 



.<sP^ »' 



Size class (km^) 




24 



6. Analysis of global protected area trends 



Table 1. Global number and extent of protected areas 



Category 


No. of 
sites 


Proportion of total no. 
protected areas 

(%) 


Area Covered 


Proportion of 
total area protected 

(%) 


la 


4.731 




4.6 


1,033,888 


5.5 


lb 


1,302 




1.3 


1,015,512 


5.4 


II 


3,881 




3.8 


4,413,142 


23.6 


III 


19,833 




19.4 


275,432 


1.5 


IV 


27,641 




27.1 


3,022,515 


16.1 


V 


6,555 




6.4 


1,056,008 


5.6 


VI 


4,123 




4.0 


4,377,091 


23.3 


No Category 


34,036 




33.4 


3,569,820 


19.0 


Total 


102,102 




100.00 


18,763,407 


100.00 



Table 2. Indicative ranking of 1997 and 2003 proportional percentage values by 
lUCN Category (excluding non-categorised sites) 



1997 


2003 




Number (%) 




Area (%) 




Number (%) 




Area (%) 


IV 


28.4 


II 


30.3 


IV 


40.6 


II 


29.0 


V 


19.0 


VI 


27.3 


III 


29.1 


VI 


28.8 


VI 


15.6 


IV 


18.6 


V 


9.6 


IV 


19.9 


II 


17.5 


V 


8.0 


la 


7.0 


V 


7.0 


la 


11.2 


la 


7.41 


VI 


6.1 


la 


6.8 


lb 


5.1 


lb 


7.11 


II 


5.7 


lb 


6.7 


III 


3.2 


III 


1.5 


lb 


1.9 


ni 


1.8 



Growth of the world's protected areas 

The continuing growth in the world's protected areas is illustrated in Figures 5-7. Figure 5 
depicts the cumulative number (line) and total area (columns) of protected areas in five-year 
increments, commencing in 1 872 (the establishment of Yellowstone National Park). Protected 
areas where the year of establishment is not known are included in the 2003 total. It should be 
noted that the cumulative graph is only indicative of the general trend. As noted earlier in the 
discussion, major data inputs since the 7997 UN List have included large numbers of sites 
without dates, therefore it is not possible to accurately represent growth in protected areas 
during this period. In Figure 5, as noted in the 7997 UN List analysis, the columns indicating 
the cumulative total area protected "show little or no sign of any declining rate of estab- 
lishment, perhaps contradicting the widely held view that opportunities to establish new 
protected areas are diminishing". However, Figures 6 and 7 show the more detailed cumu- 
lative growth for the period 1997-2003. Figure 6 indicates a significant increase in Categories 
III and IV, and in non-categorised protected areas. The areas shown in Figure 7 reflect an 
increase in Category IV and those without categories. Although the data for Category VI show 



25 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



little change in the number, the total area shows a marked increase, perhaps as a result of 
extensions to existing sites. 

Since the V* World Parks Congress will be convened in 2003 it is appropriate to highlight 
the growth in protected areas using as a benchmark the years in which the World Parks 
Congress has been held (data derived from WDPA records, not figures published in previous 
UN Lists): 

Table 3. Protected areas in World Parks Congress years 



Year 



Number 



Area 



1962 
1972 
1982 
1992 
2003 



9,214 
16,394 

27,794 

48,388 

102,102 



2.4 million km" 

4.1 million km^ 

8.8 million km^ 

12.3 million km^ 

18.8 million km" 



Figure 5. Cumulative growth in protected areas by 5-year increment: 1872-2003 









■iHArea of sites —Number of sites 






100,000 • 














■ 18,000,000 
16,000,000 


80,000 - 














14,000,000 


•& 














12,000,000 


>- 60,000 








J 






10,000,000 J 

0) 

3,000,000 < 


Z 40,000 • 








■ 


















1^1 






6,000,000 


20,000 ■ 








I 


1 


H 






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• 








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H 






2,000,000 


1872 


1887 


1902 


1917 1932 1947 1962 1977 1 

Year 


992 


^^^^^ U 
2003 



26 



6. Analysis of global protected area trends 



Figure 6. Cumulative growthi in global number of protected areas: 1997 to 2003 



^ la ■ lb II II ■ III k IV ■ V k. VI ■ No category 




No category 



Figure 7. Cumulative growth in global area of protected areas: 1997-2003 







^ la ■ lb 11 1! ■ 111 J IV ■ V J VI ■ No category 








-—-^'^'^^^^ -'■^^^ 


^\^^^r 5,000,000 „ 
-^-^^1-4,000,000 1 ^ 






i^^i 


^^1 -3,000,000 o J 
'' ^^B |-2,000,000 £ ~ 
^H H, 000,000 


^-^"^^^ 


,_-— -^ 


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■ 




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n 


1 




No category 


1997 V 
2000 "- 


Jl 


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II 


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III 




^"' 2003 "^ 


la 


lb 





Coastal and marine protected areas 

The UN List includes a large number of protected areas that incorporate shoreline and marine 
habitats, including those that are specifically dedicated to marine conservation. Consequently, 
a calculation based on the extent of land area will be inflated by these marine sites. 

According to World Database on Protected Areas records, 4,459 protected areas in the UN 
List contain marine and coastal elements, covering 4.2 million km", however only part of this 
total figure is marine as the sites also contain land areas. The largest marine protected area is 
the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia (345,400km"). Until such time as digital 
boundary data are available for all protected areas, the use of simple habitat markers to identify 
marine areas will inevitably lead to some degree of error in summary statistics. Utilising the 
currently held GIS data, with the addition of large sites without polygon boundaries but known 



27 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



to be largely or entirely marine, the current best estimate for actual protected sea area is 1.7 
million km", or 9.1% of the 2003 global total of 18.8 million km". This figure represents only 
0.5% of the surface area of the oceans. 

Extent of protection of the world's terrestrial biomes 

The extent to which the global protected areas network is representative of the world's major 
terrestrial biomes is summarised in Table 4. based on Udvardy's biogeographical clas- 
sification. The Udvardy system is used so that a comparison can be made with analysis 
undertaken at UNEP-WCMC by Green and Paine', which was based on the 7997 UN List data. 
However, it should be noted that the 1997 analysis under-represented the protection of biomes 
by about 30%. This is because only 16,636 (55%) of the 30,350 protected areas were 
classified, although the data used represented just over 70% of the global protected areas 
network at that time. 

The present analysis suggests that the 1 0% target established for the protection of biomes at 
the in World Parks Congress in 1 982 has been reached or exceeded for nine of the 1 4 biomes. 
It can be seen from the current analysis that there is a substantial increase in the coverage of 
some biomes, notably Tropical Humid Forests (23.3% from 8.8%), Subtropical/Temperate 
Rainforests (16.9% from 10.3%) and Mixed Island Ecosystems (29.7% from 16.32%). This 
increase results from the additional, recent protected areas information that has been input to 
the WDPA for both categorised and non-categorised sites. For example, excluding sites 
without categories, protected area coverage of the Tropical Humid Forests biome would have 
increased to 12.9%. The biomes that still fall well short of the target are Lake Systems ( 1 .54%) 
and Temperate Grasslands (4.59%) - also noted by Green and Paine in 1997. The V"" World 
Parks Congress will present an opportunity to review the efficacy of using the Udvardy biome 
approach vis-d-vis other methods of biogeographic region analysis. Another issue that needs to 
be addressed is conservation of marine ecosystems through a global, ecologically repre- 
sentative system of protected areas. The importance of this issue was highlighted by the World 
Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002. Consequently, the 
WSSD Plan of Implementation calls for the establishment of effective marine protected area 
systems by 2012. 

As well as ensuring biogeographic and ecosystem representativeness, it is essential that 
existing protected areas are effectively managed to ensure that the objectives for establishing 
protected areas are achieved. The statistical, mainly quantitative, overview provided by the 
UN List provides no basis for assessing this effectiveness. 



1 



Michael J.B. Green and James Paine, State of the World's Protected Areas at the End of the Twentieth 
Century. Paper presented at lUCN World Commission on Protected Areas Symposium on 'Protected 
Areas in the 21st Century: From Islands to Networks', Albany, Australia, 24-29th November 1997. 



28 



6. Analysis of global protected area trends 



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29 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Analysis by regions 

This edition of the UN List includes analyses of regional protected area statistics. The global 
divisions used are based on the lUCN World Commission on Protected Areas terrestrial 
regions (South America and Brazil regions have been combined). The rationale for choosing 
lUCN, rather than United Nations, regions, is based on: their geographic logic; the long- 
standing relationship of the WCPA to the UN List process; the global representation of the 
WCPA network; the WCPA role in encouraging adoption of the lUCN management cate- 
gories; and the fact that the V* World Parks Congress is to be convened later in 2003. The 
statistics presented in the 2003 UN List will assist, as they have done for previous congresses 
spanning 40 years, in the presentations and debates in Durban in September 2003. 

Analyses for the WCPA regions are presented as pie charts showing the key statistics for 
number and area. The charts reveal considerable variation from region to region in terms of the 
application of lUCN management categories, and the different emphases placed on manage- 
ment objectives for protected areas. A summary of the major category type in each region, by 
area, is presented in Table 5. Where most sites are not categorised (NC), the figure is included 
with the highest percentage lUCN category. 

Table 5. Predominant categories in lUCN WCPA regions by area 

lUCN WCPA Region Predominant Category % Area Protected 

Antarctic la 

Australia and New Zealand VI 

Caribbean II 

Central America NC 

II 

East Asia lb 

Eastern and Southern Africa NC 

VI 

Europe V 

North Africa and Middle East VI 

North America II 

North Eurasia IV 

Pacific VI 

South America and Brazil NC 

n 

South Asia IV 

Southeast Asia VI 

Western and Central Africa IV 



81.0 


39,8 


39.0 


34.6 


19.7 


44.2 


31.9 


28.3 


46.1 


62,0 


36.7 


48.1 


52.6 


52.4 


17.5 


50.5 


26.8 


34.1 



30 



6. Analysis of global protected area trends 



Note on the WCPA Antarctic Region 

The data for the Antarctic region requires explanation. This vast area ( 14,024,488ian') appears 
severely under-represented (70,294km- or 0.5% of the total area) as most of the protected areas 
recorded are those established in the Sub-Antarctic island territories of various countries. 
However, Antarctica (the area south of 60° South latitude) is protected through the 1959 
Antarctic Treaty and its Environmental Protection Protocol. Through this agreement, the 
countries active in Antarctica consult on the uses of a whole continent. The Treaty now has 44 
signatories, 27 are Consultative Parties on the basis of being original signatories or by 
conducting substantial research there. The treaty is administered through Antarctic Treaty 
Consultative Meetings, which includes designation and management of protected areas. The 
Environmental Protection Protocol to the Treaty was ratified in 1997. Under this Protocol the 
whole continent of Antarctica and its dependent marine ecosystems is designated a "natural 
reserve devoted to peace and science". Article 3 of Annex V - Area Protection and 
Management - provides for the establishment of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas, in- 
cluding any marine area. Although not reflected in the 2003 UN List, the world's protected 
areas estate has increased considerably as a result of this Protocol. 



31 



7. Updating the World Database on 
Protected Areas 



Protected areas now form a major component of the way governments and other bodies utilise 
and manage the Earth's resources. The periodic UN List of Protected Areas is an important 
tool for monitoring the progress of this important aspect of human endeavour: conservation 
and wise use of the planet's remaining wild resources and places. 

The World Database on Protected Areas underpins the UN List and in order to maintain the 
currency of the WDPA and improve its accuracy UNEP-WCMC, lUCN and the World 
Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) request protected area agencies, organisations and 
individuals to review national data and advise UNEP-WCMC of any discrepancies and/or 
updates. As noted earlier in the report, protected area data can be reviewed through the 
Centre's website. 



33 



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35 



Annex. Protected Area Number and Extent by lUCN WCPA Region 



H la I lb I II I III LJ IV lJ V rn VI H No category 



Antarctic 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas 
in Region: 126 



23 

18.3% 





Total Area Protected in 

Region: 70,294 km^ 

(0.5% land area) 



Region contains: Antarctica, Bouvet Island, Falkland Islands, French Southern Territories, Heard and McDonald 
Islands, St. Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 



Australia and New Zealand 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 




44.2% 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 1,187,320 km^ 

(14.82% land area) 




~ ^^ V33.576 
47,130 77,640 2.8% 
4.0% 6.5% 



37 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Caribbean 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas 
in Region: 953 




1,776 
2.6% 



Total Area Protected 
in Region: 69,470 km^ 
(29.59% land area) 



20,199 
29.1%' 



203 
2e.6% 




Region contains: Anguilla. Antigua and Barbuda, Araba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bennuda, Cayiran Islands, Cuba, 
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands 
Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (US) 



Central America 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (l<m^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas 
in Region: 762 



19 

2.5% 47 
6.2% 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 145,322 km^ 

(27.86% land area) 



5,129 

3.5% 



8,206 




10,556 
7.3% 



Region contains: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador 



38 



Annex. Protected Area Number and Extent by lUCN WCPA Region 



East Asia 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas 
in Region: 2.098 



65 48 

3.1% 2.3% 



91,837 
35,153 ggy„ 

3.4% 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 1,031,813 km^ 

(8.77% land area) 




20,804 . 

2.0% 107,127 

10.4% 



Region contains: China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Hong Kong, Japan, Macao, Mongolia, Republic 
of Korea, Taiwan, Province of China 



Eastern and Southern Africa 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (Itm^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 4,852 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 1.967.242 km^ 

(17.17% land area) 




2,550 

0.13% 




Region contains: Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mayotte, Mozambique, 
Namibia, Reunion, Seychelles, Somalia, South Afiica, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, 
Zambia, Zimbabwe 



39 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Europe 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



923 419 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 




Total Protected Areas 
in Region: 43,018 



116.751 
15.6% "\ 




69,207 
9.2% 4.306 


2.9% ^-^ 




feS: 




345,8217 
46,1% 






Total Area Protected in 

Region: 75,022,466 km' 

(14.63% land area) 



Region contains: Albania. Andorra, Austria. Belgium, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech 
Republic. Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Gibraltar, Greece, 
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy. Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, 
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Svalbard and Jan 
Mayen Islands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Vatican City State (Holy See), Yugoslavia, 



North Africa and Middle East 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 1,133 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 1,272,840 km' 

(9.92% land area) 



29 2 

2.6%, <>-2°''Jl. 




5,252 31 

, 0.4% 0.0"/, 




Region contains: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq, Israel, Jordan, 
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, 
Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen 



40 



Annex. Protected Area Number and Extent by lUCN WCPA Region 



North America 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 13,369 



1,283 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



57,388 68,838 

1.3% '-5% 




72,554 
1.6% 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 4,552,905 km^ 

(20.79% land area) 



Region contains: Canada, Greenland, Mexico, St. Pierre and Miquelon, United States 



North Eurasia 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorlsed 

Protected Areas 



Area (l<m^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



btal Protected Areas in 
Region: 17,724 



Total Area Protected in 
Region: 1,816,735 km^ 
(8.22% land area) 




Region contains: Armenia. Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, 
Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan 



41 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Pacific 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (l<m^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 




1.104 
5.4^ 



Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 321 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 20,489 km' 

(3.7% land area) 



Region contains: American Samoa, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, 
Micronesia (Federated States ot), Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New 
Guinea, Pitcaim, Samoa, Solomon Islands. Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, United States Minor Outlying Islands, 
Vanuatu. Wallis and Futuna Islands 



South America and Brazil 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 2,749 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 4,137,180 km' 

(22.2% land area) 



1.090 

39.7% 



694.917 

■n.B% 




641,920 
(6.2% 



Region contains: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Paraguay, 
Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela 



42 



Annex. Protected Area Number and Extent by lUCN WCPA Region 



South Asia 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (V.m^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



68.840 




Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 1.477 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 308,826 km' 

(6.87% land area) 



Region contains: Bangladesh, Bhutan, British Indian Ocean Territory, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri 
Lanka 



Southeast Asia 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 2,656 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 759.788 km' 

(16.39% land area) 




_ 4,349 
0.6% 



Region contains: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, 
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam 



43 



2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas 



Western and Central Africa 



Number and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Area (km^) and Percentage Distribution 

of Categorised and Non-Categorised 

Protected Areas 



Total Protected Areas in 
Region: 2,605 



Total Area Protected in 

Region: 1,125,926 km' 

(8.77% land area) 





100 
0.01% 



4,397 
0.4% 



Region contains: Angola, Burundi, Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Cape Verde, Chad, 
Cameroon, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'lvoire. Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti. Equatorial Guinea, 
Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, 
Sao Tome and Principe. Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo 



44 



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/' 



^■^- 





lUCN 

The World Conservation Union 




wc 



w 



WORLD COMMISSION 
ON PROTECTED AREAS 






iifj 



UNEP WCMC