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977. xOl 



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3 1833 02414 2413 












**History is Philosophy Teaching by Examples" 



GEORGE RICHMOND. Pres. ; C. R. ARNOLD. Sec'v and Treas. 






— ^=^^^-^ — 1176C14 

HE aim of the publishers of this vokime and the author of the history 
has been to secure for the historical portion thereof full and accurate 
data respecting the history of the county from the earliest times, and 
to condense it into a clear and interesting narrative. All topics and 
occurrences have been included that were essential to this object. 
Although the original purpose was to limit the narrative to the close of 1906, 
it was found expedient to touch on many matters relating to the year 1907. 

It is impossible for the editor to enumerate all those to whom he feels that 
thanks are due for assistance rendered and kindly interest taken in this work. 
He would, however, mention the names of \V. H. ]McGinnis, Rev. A. L. 
Frazer of Youngstown, and Capt. J. C. Hart2ell, of Sebring, as of those to 
:r.iWhom he feels under special obligations. 

In the preparation of the history reference has been made to and in some 
cases extracts taken from standard historical and other works on different 
subjects herein treated of, the titles of which will be found mentioned in the 
body of the work, in connection with said extracts. ]\Iuch information has 
also been obtained from manuscript records not heretofore published. 

The reviews of resolute and strenuous lives which make up the biograph- 
ical department of this volume, and whose authorship is for the most part 
independent of that of the history, are admirably calculated to foster local 
ties, to inculcate patriotism, and to emphasize the rewards of industry dom- 
inated by intelligent purpose. They constitute a most appropriate medium of 
perpetuating personal annals and will be of incalculable value to the descend- 
ants of those commemorated. These sketches, replete with stirring incidents 
and intense experiences, are flavored with a strong human interest that will 
naturally prove to a large portion of the readers of this book its most 
attractive feature. 

In the aggregate of personal memoirs thus collated will be found a vivid 
epitome of the growth of Mahoning county, which will fitly supplement the 
historical statement, for the development is identified with that of the men and 
women to whom it is attributable. The publishers have endeavored to pass 
over no feature of the work slightingly, but to fittingly supplement the editor's 


labors by exercising care over the minutest details of publication, and thus give 
to the volume the three-fold value of a readable narrative, a useful work of 
reference, and a tasteful ornament to the librar}-. AVe believe the result has 
justified the care thus exercised. 

Special prominence has been given to the portraits of representative citi- 
zens which appear throughout this volume, and we believe that they will prove 
not its least interesting feature. A\'e have sought in this department to illus- 
trate the different spheres of industrial and professional achievement as con- 
spicuously as possible. To all those who have kindly interested themselves 
in the successful preparation of this work, and who have voluntarily con- 
tributed most useful information and data, or rendered other assistance, we 
hereby tender our grateful acknowledgements. 

Chicago, 111., September, 1907. 



"All the biographical sketches published in this volume were 
submitted to their respective subjects or to the subscribers, from whom the 
tacts were primarily obtained, for their approval or correction before going to 
press ; and a reasonable time was allowed in each case for the return of the 
type-written copies. Most of them were returned to us within the time 
allotted, or before the work was printed, after being corrected or revised ; and 
these may therefore be regarded as reasonably accurate. 

"A few, however, were not returned to us ; and, as we have no means of 
knowing whether they contain errors or not, we cannot vouch for their 
accuracy. In justice to our readers, and to render this work more valuable 
for reference purposes, we have indicated these uncorrected sketches by a small 
asterisk (*). placed immediately after the name of the subject. They will all 
be found on the last pages of the book." 






Geological Structure of the State— The Geological Foundations of Ohio of Marine Origin— Prehistoric Condit ions- 
First Land Plants: Origin of Coal Fields— First Permanent Dry Land— Age of Reptiles: First Mammals— The 
Glacial Period— Effect of Glacial Action on the Landscape— Surface Features of Mahoning County— Geological 
Structure of Mahoning County— Conglomerate— Fossil Nuts and Fruits of the Carboniferous Age Found in Mahon- 
ing County. 


Prehistoric Races 31 

Speculation on the Origin of the American Race- -Antiquity of Man in America — Probable European Origin of the 
American Races — The Mound Builders. 


French Discoveries a.^d Explorations ■■•■i 

Early French Explorers — Verrazano, Cartier and Rober\al— Expedition of DeMonts — Champlain explores Acadia — 
Establishment of Missions — First English Opposition — Attacks by the Indians — Exploration of the Great Lakes and 
the Mississippi. 


Indian Occupancy 39 

The Iroquois— Their Famous League, Habits and Costumes — The Algonquins, Their Commerce, Picture-Writing 
and Religion--Indian Warfare — Iroquois Conquests — Extermination of the Eries — The Chahta-Muskoki Stock. 


Colonial Charters and Land Titles .-14 

Erroneous Ideas of Early Navigators ard Geographers — Attempts to Reach the South Sea Overland — Virginia's 
Charters — Massachusetts' Charters — The Grant to Penn — Overlapping Boundaries — Dispute with Virginia — Con- 
necticut's Claims — Conflict with Pennsylvania — Council of Trenton — Western Reserve. 

The Northwest Wrested From France 50 

American History Influenced by the Iroquois— Indian Cessions — English Settlers Cross the Mountains — The French 
Precipitate the War — Pontiac's Conspiracy — Boquet's Expedition. 


The Transition Period — From War to War , 57 

English Jealousy of the Colonies — Lord Dunmore's War — Frontier Characters — First While Mans House in Ohio — 
Military Expeditions to the West — Martial Law — George III. Forbids Western Settlement. 


Expedition of George Rogers Clark 62 

Clark's Project — Capture of Forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes — The British Try to Recover the Forts — Pro- 
ject Against Detroit Abandoned — Disappearance of the French Population — The British Retain the Northwestern 
Forts after the Treaty o£ Paris. 

State Cessions , 65 

A New Phase of the Land Question — Maryland's Proposal — National Ownership Proposed by Rhode Island — Delay 
in Ratifying the Articles — Claims of the Indiana and Other Companies — New York Makes the First Cession — Con- 
ditional Cessions — Unconditional Cessions Urged by Congress — Triumph of the National Idea. 

Sale of the Western Reserve 71 

Division into Townships — The Parsons Purchase — The Fire Lands — The Act of 179.5 — Sales to the Connecticut 
Land Company. 

The Connecticut Land Company 75 

Articles of Association — The Excess Company — The Company's Title Perfected — Ordinance of 1787 — Extinction of 
the Indian Title — Survey of the Reserve — Quantity of Land in the Reserve — The Equalizing Committee — Mode of 
Partition — The Drafts. 


The Settlement of Ohio 87 

Land Bounties — The Ohio Company — Founding of Marietta — Abundance of Game — Th o Moravian Settlements — 
Founding of Columbia, .Cincinnati and North Bend — Floods Damage the Settlements — The Scioto Land Swindle — 
The Virginia Military District. 


Settlement and Organization of Mahoning County 97 

Lines of Development — Date of the First Settlement on the Reserve — First 'Wheat Cut on the Reserve — First 
Postal Service — Early Conditions of Life — A Primitive Mill — Old Time Threshing — Bounty on Wolf Scalps — 
Olden School Days — Early Youngstown Citizens — Draft of 1SI2 — Homemade Soap — The Old Ash Hopper — Soap 
Spookery — The Old Ashery— The Stage Driver— Matches Unknown — If Fires All Went Out— Wild Pigeons; Where 
are They' — Pioneer Milling Enterprises — Slavery — County Seat Located — Early Elections — First County Seat 
Issue — Useless Legislation — Renewal of the Strife — Some Interesting Old Letters — County Seat Changed. 


County Officials Since the Organization of Mahoning County 118 

Auditors — Sheriffs — County Commissioners — Treasurers — Recorders — Prosecuting Attorneys — Probate Judges — 
State Representatives— State Senators — Vote for Governor. 


Youngstown — The County Seat 122 

Laid Out by John Young — First Events — Discovery of Coal — Judge Kirtland's Reminiscences — Celebrating the 
Fourth— First Murder Trial — Pioneer Schools — Feminine Costumes — Wet Seasons of 1810-1812 — Early Amuse- 
ments — Pioneer Houses — Elections — Incorporation — City of the Second Class — Extensions of Limits — Mayors of 
Yoangstown — Other Officials — Youngstown Citizens in 1811 — Cemeteries — Parks — Water Works and Filter Plant — 
Fire Department — Police Department— Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company — Board of Trade and 
Chamber of Commarce- Mahoning Gas Fuel Co. — Telephone Companies — Humane Society — Opera House — Park 
Theatre— A Few Statistics — Notable Personages. 



Townships and Towns IC'J 

Settlement and .Organization of the Townships — Settlement and Founding of the Towns — Sketches of Lowellville 
Canfield, Poland, Petersburg, Sebring and other Towns. 


Transportation By Rail ■ 2^1 

Introductory — Railroad Era — Erie Railroad — Pennsylvania Lines— Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway — 
Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad — Baltimore & Ohio Railroad — Youngstown & Southern Railway. 


The Coal and Iron Industries 246 

The County Formerly an Important Coal Mining Center — Extensive Operations — The Manufacture of Iron an Old 
Established and Leading Industry of the Mahoning Valley — A Large Amount of Capital Invested in These Two 
Industries in Mahoning County. 

Manufactures 251 

The County's Chief Manufacturing Establishments. 


Banks and Banking 271 

Youngstown Banks — First National — Mahoning National — Commercial National — Dollar Savings and Trust Co. — 
Home Savings and Loan Co. — Equity Savings and Loan Co. — Youngstown Savings and Banking Co. — International 


The Bench and Bar 279 

Its Early History — First Court and First Lawyers — Great Lawyers of Former Years — The Present Bar and Its High 


The Medical Profession ... .319 

Eminent Physicians of the Past and of the Present. 


Religious Development 341 

First Churches and Pioneer Ministers — General History of Religious Organizations — Churches acd Clergy of Today. 


Education 374 

The Public and Parochial Schools of the County — Their Growth and Present Efficiency — Some of the Early Edu- 
cators — The Growth and Progress of the Public Schools of YoungstowQ and Their Present Encouraging Condition. 


Fraternal and B enevolent Organizations 386 

Free Masons — Odd Fellows — Elks — Knights of Pythias — Knights of the Golden Eagle — National Protective Legion — 
Other Societies. 



Public Institutions 399 

County Infirmary — Youngstown Free Public Library — Youngstown City Hospital — Mahoning Valley Hospital — 
Glenwood Children's Home — Florence Crittenden Home. 


Military History of the County 411 

War of 1812 —Mexican War — War of the Rebellion — Spanish-American War. 


The Press 427 

Newspapers and Editors of the Past and Present. 




Adams, Asael E 4g6 

Agnew, Charles T 473 

Allan, James 792 

Allison, E. E 1023 

Anderson, Emil J 937 

Anderson, William S 750 

Andrews, Chaimcy Humason 441 

Arms, Myron I 868 

Arrel, Hon. George Francis. 482 
Arrel. James T 1015 

Bailey, Benjamin F 709 

Bailey, Seth Lucian 835 

Baird, Uries 932 

Baker, George A 529 

Baldwin, Hon. Frank L 561 

Baldwin, George 548 

Baldwin. Rolland E 736 

Baldwin, Benjamin Pitney. . 789 

Barber, Frank S-- 

Barber, John E 562 

Bardo, Howard F 889 

Bare, Elias 1019 

Barger, Louis F 85 1 

Bashaw, George M 656 

Batzli, David 937 

Beard, George Sylvanus 449 

Beard, Freeman H 481 

Beard, John 497 

Beard, Monroe 659 

Beardsley & Son, Almus.... 783 

Beardsley, Ensign N 863 

Beardsley, Hiram J 784 

Beck, David 612 

Becker, John L 825 

Beecher, Walter A 982 

Behan. Timothy 942 

Beight, Isaac 626 

Beight, William 870 

Bennett, James H 804 

Bentley, Robert 683 

Birmingham, James C 889 

Blaine. William M 1002 

Bodenhorn George W =^87 

Bonnell, Harry 688 

Bonnell. Henry 899 

Bonnell, John Meek 535 

Bonnell. Joseph Fearnley. ... 481 

Bonnell. William . . . ., 1020 

Bonnell. William Scott 980 

Bonnell, William W 513 


Boohecker, Jacob 674 

Booth, Lloyd 579 

Botsford, Gen. James L 642 

Boyle, Elson P 664 

Bradshaw. Samuel E 826 

Brenner, Conrad F 657 

Brenner, John 763 

Brown, Ensign N 618 

Brown, Harvey 812 

Brown, Jeremiah 782 

Brown, Joseph Henry 607 

Brown, Richard 585 

Brownlee, Edwin A., M. D.. 778 

Brownlee. James A 496 

Brownlee, Ross W 712 

Brownlee, William W 462 

Brungard, Edward C 7^3 

Brunsteter, Samuel 1025 

Buechner, W. H., M. D 900 

Buehrle, Albert H 1029 

Buehrle, Voltaire J 1016 

Burke, Sylvester L 552 

Burnett, Reuben D 725 

Burton, Albert 550 

Burton, Joseph S 741 

Burton. Robert L 571 

Bush, B. P 630 

Butler. James 611 

Butler, Jr., J. G 718 

Bye, H. G 1017 

Callahan, Irving 967 

Calvin, Jo. V 803 

Campbell, Bruce R 813 

Campbell, James A 720 

Campbell, Prosser S 897 

Campbell, Theodore 633 

Canfield Lumber Co., The... 795 

Cassaday, William G 822 

Cattell, Isaac . 864 

Chambers, James B 713 

Chambers, John V., M, D. . . 470 

Chambers, William 482 

Chaney, Dr. N. H 595 

Chubb, William Allen 950 

Clark, Addison, M., M. D... 747 

Clark, Mrs. Hettie J 917 

Clark, Mvron Sobieski, M. D 761 

Clegg. S; B 736 

Clennnens, Charles A 890 


Clemmens, Shannon Jefferson 87S 

Clingan, French F 565 

Cochel, Andrew W 703 

Cockran, Chauncy A 442 

Cockran, Lucius E 438 

Connell. Thomas E 944 

Cook, Jesse 821 

Cook. John C 557 

Cook, George A (5ig 

Cook, Gordon 853 

Cooper, D. P 879 

Cooper, James A 740 

Cover, Alonzo B 682 

Cowden. Jasper Newton, M.D 572 

Coy, L. D.. M. D 734 

Coy, Mrs. Lovina B 602 

Craver, A. W 943 

Crawford, Smith 836 

Creed, John A 732 

Creed, Thomas A 859 

Creed, William H 851 

Crim, Callus 883 

Crockett, Mrs. Elizabeth 596 

Crumrine, David 882 

Cunningham. Jesse 789 

Cunningham, M. V., M. D... 939 

Davey, Thomas E 1026 

Da vies, Howell C, M. D 945 

Davies.W. I q94 

Davi.s, H. W 928 

Davis, Hon. John R 448 

Davis. Lewis E 681 

Dawes, Samuel 680 

Dawson, John Alford 6S4 

De Camp, Thomas P 935 

Delfs. John 746 

Dennison, Myron E 809 

De Normandie. Frank L.... 603 

Detchon, Alfred 852 

Detchon, Cyrus 839 

Detchon, John C 975 

Dickson, Robert W 77^^ 

Dill, Gilbert M 620 

Dill, S. J 866 

Dingledy, George L 932 

Doeright. Gus -\ 814 

Douglass, W. S 976 

Duesing, H. F 931 

Dunn. Mrs. Susannah R 674 

Durr, MicHael 697 




Dustman, Isaiah 556 

Dustman, Jacob '^36 

Eckert. William H 625 

Edwards, J. Howard 576 

Elder, William C 865 

Ellett, Elmer 610 

Elser Solomon 489 

English, Sylvester 1027 

Ernst, Harry A 967 

Euwer's Sons, John N 724 

Evans, Mason 5-7 

Ewing, Samuel 464 

Felger, John P 587 

Fenton, George Campbell.... S41 

Fenton, Richard H 1023 

Fink. John F 832 

Fitch, Chajrles W 850 

Fitch, Jesse B 758 

Fitch, John H 75^ 

FitzSimons, W. J 897 

Floor John M., M. D 768 

Fogg,' Albert 5^5 

Force, A. F 861 

Ford, John S 9^5 

Fordyce, George Lincoln. . . . 580 

Foster, Col. Lemuel T 903 

Frank John 975 

Freeh, John 799 

Garlick Henrv M 982 

Garlick. Richard 935 

Gault, Gibson J 890 

Gault. John S62 

Geiger, Frank B 616 

Gibson, H. G 943 

Gibson, John 947 

Gibson, Samuel 461 

Gibson. William T 547 

Gilbert, John E 565 

Gillesipie, A. J 9" 

Gilmore, A. B 925 

Glazzard, George H 943 

Gluck. Louis 907 

Good, David 45° 

Goodman, Jonas 5-6 

Goodman, Eli .' 582 

Graham, W. R 598 

Grant, H. W 749 

Gray, John E 765 

Gray, Robert 983 

Greenawalt, Abraham 867 

Griffith, Hon. David F 981 

Grove, Martin 563 

Gunder, Henry M 804 

Guthman, Roy 1 1012 

Hagan. Philip 632 

Hahn, H.. M. D 465 

Hall Tillman 892 

Hall W. B 762 

Haller, Frank B 780 

Hamilton, Harry G 945 

Hamilton, Homer 948 

Hamilton. J. J 902 

Hamory, Gustave V S09 


Haney, J. G 923 

Hanni, John C 566 

Harding, George W 739 

Harrold. Joseph 486 

Hartzell, Chester W 633 

Haynes, Calvin T 704 

Heasley, Henry 701 

Heck, Solomon J 641 

Heinselman, David 698 

Heintzelman, Henry Clinton. 505 

Heisler, Henrs- 702 

Heller, Adolph 839 

Heller. Louis 897 

Helrigle, Thomas J 929 

Helsel, Jacob 800 

Henry, George W 624 

Higgins Martin C 891 

Hine, Cecil D., A. M 451 

Hine Family, The 956 

Hitchcock, Frank 755 

Hoffman, Joseph 903 

Hole, Caleb 620 

Hole, Norman W.. M. D 872 

Houk, Ez,ra A 714 

Htibler, Pvatt W 695 

Hughes, Wallace K., M. D.. 695 

Ilgenfritz, Isaac K 988 

Ilgenfritz, John 1005 

Isreal, Henry 513 

Jacobs, C. Grant 589 

Jacobs, Frank 816 

Jacobs. Lewis J 921 

Jacobs, R. H 706 

Jackson, John C 714 

Jackson, Sidney DeLamar .485 

James, Samuel 880 

Johnson, Alfred 966 

Johnson, Nils P loio 

Johnston, Hon. Joseph R.... 447 

Jones, Paul 487 

Jones, Prior T 959 

Jones, Thomas B 637 

Jones, Virgil E 833 

Jones, W. B 831 

Jones, William B 609 

Jones, W. D 978 

Jordan, George S 7^2 

Judd, A. F 969 

Justice, C. R., M. D 527 

Justice, Dolphus Columbus. . 573 

Kale, Andrew 749 

Kale, Emorv 762 

Kale. W. H 668 

Kean, George 1027 

Keefer, Jacob F 884 

Keeler, Frederick 801 

Kelley, H. M 940 

Kennedy. Alexander 610 

Kennedy, C. H 747 

Kennedy, Ho'n. James 533 

Kennedy, Hon. James B . . . . 46(3 

Kennedy. James P 704 

Kennedy, .Patrick M 753 

Kenreich. Elias 881 


Kenreigh. Noah S 530 

Kidd, John W 781 

Kimmel, Martin A 534 

King, Fred B 829 

King. Joseph 748 

Kinsey, George B S93 

Kirk, Andrew 1016 

Kirk, John C 777 

Kirkbride, Mahlon 922 

Kirtland, Charles Newton.. . 555 

Kirtland, Cook Fitch 455 

Kirtland, Family, The 518 

Kistler, Mrs. Elizabeth 549 

Kistler, U. F 870 

Kline, Jonathan Allen 796 

Kling, Herman F 941 

Klute, Rev. John 663 

Knauf, Frank 755 

Knauf, Nicholas 924 

Knauf, Thomas L 709 

Knesal, Andrew 660 

Knesal Bros 940 

Knesal, Edward Louis 920 

Knesal, George Evelyn 919 

Knight. Addis E 976 

Knox, Charles C 772 

Kroeck, Andrew 735 

Kroeck, August D. C 909 

Kuhns, John W 950 

Kurz, Rudolph 955 

Kyle. William H 969 


Lance, C. C 973 

Lanterman, Mrs. Sally Ann. 973 

Lawrence, Jacob C 728 

Lazarus, Daniel 576 

Lee, Bernard Ford 604 

Leeworthy. Henry J 926 

Liddle, Edward B 830 

Liddle, Mark H 731 

Liggett, James 720 

Lightner, S. H 825 

Lipp, Solomon 692 

Lippiatt, Joseph 691 

Livingstone, Duncan 1021 

Lloyd, Abel P 900 

Lloyd, John S =;36 

Llovd, Richard, Jr 806 

Lol'ler, W. H 680 

Lomasney. L. J 851 

Lomax, William J 993 

Loney, John 581 

Love, William P., M. D 757 

Lowry, L. H. E 865 

Lynn, Elmer Rush 810 

Lyon, Arthur M 1024 

McBride, William Dickson.. 860 

McCartney, Joseph G 623 

McCauley, D. 1029 

McClure, George M 629 

McCurdy, Robert 435 

McCurdy, Sidney, M. D.... 714 

McDonald, Duncan 887 

McElevev, William Donnell. 912 

McElrov" Hugh L 984 




McEweii, J. Harris 754 

JVIcGinnis, William H 479 

McKay, Janres M 802 

McKelvey, Emery Lawson. . 535 

]\IcKelvey, George M 615 

JVKKinney, John 893 

WcNeilly, James Porter 873 

McNeilly, Samuel A 911 

McVey, John E 569 

McVey, Thomas J 855 

Maag, William Frederick... S26 

Mackey, David ■ji}, 

Mackey, James 511 

Mackey, Hon. Robert 501 

Maline, William A 812 

Malmsberry, Rev. George B, 869 

Malnisberry, Joel 582 

Manchester, Hon.- Hugh A.. 593 

Manchester, Robert A 914 

Mansfield, Ira F 877 

Mariner, Wilbert 844 

Marks, Jonathan J 819 

Marlow, William 898 

Matteson, Charles F 930 

Matthews. Bruce S 494 

Mattix, Fred 611 

May, William 763 

Mead, Thomas 793 

Mead, William P 590 

Mears, Rev. Edward 660 

'Meiter, Andrew W 942 

Meiter, George E 834 

Messerly. ^Irs. Lydia 618 

Middagh, James K 683 

Middleton, Rev. Charles F. . 928 

Middleton, J. H 612 

Middleton Joel 767 

Miller, Albert J 974 

Miller. Edward 666 

Miller, E. G 719 

Miller, George P .' . . 619 

Miller, John H 871 

Miller, John S 843 

Miller, Wilson L 452 

Millikin. George W 829 

Mitchell, John S 672 

Montgomery, George H 638 

Montgomery, Hon. Randall. 791 
Moore. Hon. Edmond H.... 741 

Moore, John A jj"] 

Moore, William B 985 

Morgan, D. J 630 

Morris, David G 939 

Morrison, John D 792 

Morrison, William A., M. D. 697 

Morse, Henry K 539 

Murray, R. B 84' 


Neff, Martin 963 

Niedermeier, Henry 782 

Neilson, James 671 

Nesbitt, John W 596 

Nevin, James E 82-^ 

Nixon, William C 718 

Norris, N. L 941 

Nutt, James H 742 

Obenauf, Lewis F 463 


Ubenaut, Theodore 507 

Obendorfer, M 801 

Oesch, Frank L 6gi 

Ohl, Charles F 781 

Orr Fred M 936 

Orr John S gio 

Osborn, Joseph W 766 

Osborne, Calvin 701 

Osborne, Clyde W 563 

Owsley, Charles H 728 

Palmer, Tobias 642 

Park, James 846 

Park, W. H 1029 

Parrock, Thomas 1023 

Parry, W. J g^o 

Perkins Brothers 931 

Peters. Obediah 637 

Pettit, Mordecai L 913 

Phillips, Jacob 574 

Price, James S 771 

Pothour, David 550 

Powell, William 929 

Powers, Madison J 665 

Probst, Frank E 968 

Pyle, S. G 804 

Redman, Joseph F 930 

Reed, Barnabas looi 

Reed, William H loii 

Reese, John D 1018 

Renner, Jr., George J 501 

Reesh, Andrew 855 

Rhodes, Mrs. Sarah 868 

Riblet, Horatio 55S 

Riblet, Philip 573 

Riblet. William W 717 

Rice, Alfred H 987 

Richards, Daniel 1 873 

Richards, Samuel A 887 

Ripley. Warren L 853 

Ripple, George W 901 

Robinson, Elmer C 849 

Robison, John 750 

Robison. L. A d^^z 

Roller, Charles J 856 

Roller, David J 1028 

Roller, Samuel W 927 

Rose, D. L 965 

Rose, Hon. George E 996 

Rudge, J. Edgar 634 

Ruhlman, Ephraim 488 

Ruhlman, William Henry. .. 557 

Ruppert. Jacob W 790 

Rush, Isaac 1017 

Sanderson, Gen. Thomas W. 436 

Santee, Gideon E 608 

Sanzenbacher, John 824 

Schnurrenberger, Joseph C. . 362 
Schnurrenberger, J. H., M.D. 710 

Schiller, John H 688 

Scholl, W. J 927 

Seachrist, Jacob W 598 

Seeger. John Daniel 590 

Shafifer, Samuel R 939 

l^^nk. John A ''^I 

^ Shearer, Samuel J. -n, 

■ sheehy Family, Th^: :::::: .' ^^^ 

Shields, James Davidson,... ^? 

Shields, James H ^' 

Shinn, Albert R... S^^ 

Shipton, William . S^n 

Shirey, William D. Si6 

Shook, Silas .... ^,' 

Shreve, Charles H. ". ! '. .' ! ! ' ' ' 866 

Shreve, Eli T.... ,,0 

Shreve. Mrs. Elizabeth. .'.V " 7„ 

Shnver, Charles E loj^ 

Silver, Allen ... 7^- 

Simon, Cornelius .. ""cm 

Smion, Jesse " " ^^jt 

Simon, John .... " " Ty, 

Sipe, David rg" 

Sipe, Ephraim E. .. " m, 

Smith, Alfred ^°^ 

Smith, Henry D... , gos 

Smith. Joseph Arrel " ' 6S7 

Snyder. Jeremiah P gg^ 

Spear, Horace W 874 

Squire, John R 1006 

Stambangh, Capt. Daniel B.. 456 

Stambaugh, David W g79 

Stambaugh, Henry H 544 

Stambaugh, John gg6 

Stambaugh, Jr., John 074 

Steese. R. C 754 

Steiner, David 898 

Stewart, David G 679 

Stewart. David H 845 

Stewart, Lauren W 617 

Stouffer, David E 640 

Stracton, William H 831 

Strawn, Edgar 603 

Stra wn. John S 574 

Strouss, Isaac loig 

Swanston, William 977 

Swartz. Hughes 884 

Taber, Joseph R 870 

Tayler. Robert W 1000 

Tayler, Wick 514 

Taylor, Robert Samuel 944 

Thoman, Alvin 651 

Thomas,' Arnold D 668 

Thomas, B. Frank 667 

Thcmas, John G 985 

Thomas, John J., M. D 884 

Thomas. William 595 

Thomas, Sons, J. R 667 

Thompson, R. F 913 

Thompson, Samuel M yj2 

Thompson, W. J 978 

Tobey. George E 815 

Tod, Hon. David 541 

Tod, George 946 

Tod. Henry 525 

Tod, John 549 

Tod, William 517 

Traut, William 1021 

Truesdale, Charles R 443 

Truesdale, Chase T 793 

Truesdale, Jackson, M. D . . . . S02 
Truesdale, Seth H., M. D . . . 689 




Unstead, Robert F 617 

Urmson. Ralph 6go 

Vail, James W 834 

Van Alstine, T. B 919 

Van Fleet, John 471 

Vogan, James E., M. D 794 

Warhurst. George S19 

Warren. Jr., Jacob 926 

Weaver, Menno M 1012 

Weaver, Samuel 811 

Weaver, Tilman 65S 

Webb, John M 774 

Webber. Moses 451 

Wehr. Myron I S57 

Welch, Harry E., M. D 740 

Welker. William Howard.... 696 

Wells. Charles B 914 


Wells, Thomas H 469 

Welsh, Ezra C 70S 

Werren Christian 843 

Werren. Christian 1019 

Werren, Samuel 852 

Wetmore, Charles R 813 

Wetmore. Luther Edwards. . 820 

White, Francis 575 

White. John 711 

Whitslar, Grant S 922 

Wick, Caleb B 502 

Wick, Col. Caleb B 474 

Wick, Henry 638 

Wick, John C 551 

Wick, Henrv K 462 

Wick, Hugh' Bryson 508 

Wick. Paul 923 

Williams. Harry W 589 


Williams. Homer S 936 

Williamson, Joseph 921 

Wilson, Craig Brown 631 

Wilson. George C 651 

Wilson. James P 710 

Windle, Henry J 639 

Winter, Charles Frederick... 779 

Wire, Welsh & Co. 823 

Wirt, Hon. Benjamin F 493 

Woodman. Thaddeus F S92 

Woods, Clarke 571 

Woolley. Jeremiah Richard. . 552 

Yager. George 938 

Yeager. Uriah Watson 881 

Young, Lewis Henry 444 

Zimmerman. Abraham 861 


B. & O. Railroad Station. Yoiingstown 

Churches — 

First Baptist Church, Youngstown 

First Presbyterian Church, Youngstown 

Central Christian Church, Youngstown 

Helen Chapel, Youngstown 

Old M. E. Church. Poland 

Presbyterian Church, Canfield 

Richard Brown Memorial Chapel, Youngstown 

St. Columba's Church and Parsonage. Youngs- 

St. John's Episcopal Church. Youngstown . . . 

St. Joseph's Church. Youngstown 

Trinity M. E. Church, Youngstown 

United Presbyterian Church. Boardman Center 

Westminster Presbyterian Church, Youngs 


Cemeter}-, Calvary, Entrance to 

Cemetery, Oak Hill, Entrance to 

Children's Home, Youngstown 

Cunningham Furniture & Undertaking Co.. Store 

of Lowellville 

Dollar Savings & Trust Co., The, Youngstown . . 

Elk's Club. Youngstown 

Federal Building, Youngstown 

International Bank, Youngstown 

I. O. O. F. Building, Youngstown 

Iron .a.nd Steel Pl.\nts — 

Bessemer Plant, Republic Iron & Steel Co., 


Furnaces of the Struthers Furnace Co., 


Haselton Furnaces of the Republic Iron & Steel 

Co., Youngstown ■ 

Ohio Furnaces, Carnegie Steel Co., Youngs- 

Ohio ^Vorks, Carnegie Steel Co.. Youngstown 

John Freeh Building, Lowellville 

Kurz Block, Youngstown 

Lanterman",s Mill and Falls 

Library. Reuben McMillen Free Public, Youngs- 

Log House, Thorne Hill, Coitsville Township .... 

Lomax, ^Villiam J.. Store of, Lowellville 

Mahoning County Court House, Youngstown 

Mahoning . County Infirmary. Canfield 

Mahoning Valley Hospital. Youngstown 

New Mahoning County Court House 

Old Mahoning Court House, Canfield 

Original Poland Union Seminary 












P.\R0CHi-\L Schools — 

Immaculate Conception School, Youngstown.. .3S0 
St. Columba's School and Ursuline Convent. 

Youngstown 380 

St. Joseph's School. Youngstown 396 

Pioneer Pavilion g, 


Andrews, Chauncey H 440 

Arrel, James T J012 

Baldwin. Hon. Frank L 560 

Booth, Lloyd 578 

Brown. Joseph H 606 

Brown, Richard 584 

Clark, Gen. George Rogers 54 

Clark. Mrs. Hettie J 916 

Clark, Myron S., M. D 916 

Creed, Mrs. Ella P 858 

Creed, Thomas A 858 

Cunningham, Jesse 787 

DeCamp. Mrs. Sally Ann 934 

DeCamp, Thomas P 934 

Freeh. John 798 

Gibson. Samuel 460 

Gibson. William T 546 

Gkick. Mr. and !Mrs. Louis 906 

Hamory, Gustav V 80S 

Harding, George W 738 

Harding, Mrs. Lucretia M 738 

Harmer, Gen. Josiah 54 

Harrison. Gen. William H 54 

Heller. Adolph 838 

Heller, Louis . . . .- 896 

Hughes, Wallace K.. M. D 694 

Ilgenfritz, John 1004 

Ilgenfritz. Mrs. Mary M 1004 

Jackson, Sidney DeL 484 

Johnston, Hon. Joseph R 446 

Jones. Prior T 998 

Jones, Thomas B 636 

Kennedy, Hon. James 532 

Kennedy. Patrick M 752 

Kirk John C 776 

Kirtland, Charles X 554 

Kirtland, Cook F 454 

Klute. Rev. John 662 

Knauf, Thomas L 7o8 

Kurz, Rudolph 954 

Lanterman. German 953 

Lanterman, Mrs. Sally .\nn 972 

Liddle. Mark H 73° 

Lomax. William J .992 

JNIcCurdy, Robert 434 

McGinnis. ilrs. Mary M 477 

McGinnis. William H 476 

McCartney, Joseph G 622 

McClure, George M 628 

McKelvey, George M 614 

McVey, John E 568 

Mackey, David 722 




Mackey, James Sio 

Mackey, Robert 5O0 

Manchester. Hon, Hugh A 592 

Mansfield, Hon. Ira F 876 

Millikin. George W 828 

Millikm, Mrs. Mary C 828 

Morse, Henry K 538 

Neilson, James 670 

Osborne, Calvin 700 

Price, James S. Ilo 

Riblet, William W 7i6 

Richards, Samuel A 886 

Robinson, Elmer C S48 

Sanderson, Gen. T. W Frontispiece 

Shields, James D 600 

Shields. James H 654 

Silver. Mr. and Mrs. Allen, daughter, grand- 
son and great-grandchild 744 

Smith, Joseph Arrel 686 

St. Clair, Gen. Arthur 54 

Stewart, David 676 

Stewart, Mrs. Elizabeth H 676 

Tod, Henry 5-4 

Tod, William S16 

Warhurst, Mr. and Mrs. George 818 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony 54 

Wells, Thomas H 468 

Wilson, George C 644 

Wilson, Mrs. George C 645 

Wirt., Hon. Benjamin F 492 

Public Schools — 

Delason Avenue Public School, Youngstown. 80 
Central School, Youngstown (with Post-office) 80 

Parmelee School, Youngstown 138 

Public School, Lowellville 206 


Public School, Struthers 206 

Rayen High School, Youngstown 138 

Union School, Poland 188 

Residences — 

Andrews, Mrs. C. H., Youngstown 152 

Arms, Myron I.. Youngstown 62 

Hamilton, H. G., Youngstown 152 

McCartney, Joseph G., Coitsville Township . . 188 

Mackey, Mrs. Kate M., Youngstown 62 

■McKinley Home, Poland 206 

Oakland Farm, Residence of Mrs. George C. 

Wilson. Youngstown 648 

Old Price Homestead, Coitsville Township . . . 206 

Stewart. David G., Coitsville Township 6^^ 

Tod, George, Youngstown 152 

Wick, Henry K., Youngstown 152 ' 

Sparrow Tavern, Poland 188 

Stand Pipe, Youngstown 13S 

Terminal Station of the Youngstown & Southern 

Railway, Youngstown 238 

Tod House, Youngstown 396 

Tod Lane, Views of 102 

View on the Line of the Youngstown & Southern 

Railway, Youngstown 238 

View on the Line of the Youngstown & Southern 

Railway, near Youngstown 238 

Y. M. C. A. Building. Youngstown 13S 

Youngstown City Hospital ' 404 

Youngstown Post Office (with Central School) ... 80 
Youngstown City Hall and Jail 80 

Youngstown Views — 

Looking East from Colonial Hotel 92 

Public Square 92 

Scene in Mill Creek Park 102 

West Federal Street, Looking West 380 

l)l$tory of mabonlng County 



Geological Structure of the State — The Geological Foundations of Ohio of Marine Origin 
— Prehistoric Conditions — First Land Plants: Origin of Coal Fields — First Permanent 
Dry Land — Age of Reptiles: First Mammals — The Glacial Period — Effect of Glacial 
Actio)i on the Landscaf^e — Surface Features of Mahoning County — Geological Struc- 
ture of Mahoning County — Conglomerate — Fossil Nuts and Fruits of the Carbonif- 
erous Age Found in Mahoning County. 

Geology is the science that investigates the 
successive changes that have taken place in the 
organic and inorganic Kingdoms of Nature. 
In order to render intelligible the statements 
that are to follow, a brief account will here be 
given of the geological series of the State, and 
its geological structure. The geological 
structure of Ohio is as simple as that of almost 
any other 40,000 square miles of the earth's 
surface. So far as its exposed rock series is 
concerned, Ohio is built throughout its whole 
extent of stratified deposits ; or, in other words, 
of beds of sand, clay and limestone, in all their 
various gradations, that were deposited or that 
grew in water. There are in the Ohio series 
no igneous nor metamorphic rocks whatever; 
that is, there are no rocks that have assumed 
their present form and condition from a molten 
state, or that subsequent to their original form- 

ation have been transformed by heat. The 
only qualification which this statement needs 
pertains to the beds of drift by which a large 
part of the State is covered. These drift beds 
contain bowlders in large amount that were 
derived from the igneous and metamorphic 
rocks that are found around the shores of 
Lakes Superior and Huron. But these bowl- 
ders are recognized by all, even by the least ob- 
servant, as foreign to the Ohio scale. They are 
familiarly known as "lost rocks" or "erratics," 
If we should descend deep enough below the 
surface,- we should reach the limit of these 
stratified deposits and come to the great 
foundations of the continent which are the sur- 
face rocks ill parts of Canada, New England 
and the West. The granite of Plymouth Rock 
underlies the continent. But the drill has 
never yet hewed its way down to these massive 


bed within our boundaries, and thus expose 
them to view. 


The rocks that constitute the present sur- 
face of Ohio were formed in water and none 
of them have been modified or masked by the 
action of high temperatures. They remain in 
substantially the same condition in which they 
were formed. With the exceptions of the coal 
seams and a few beds associated with them, 
and of the drift deposits, all the formations of 
Ohio grew in the sea. There are no lake or 
river deposits among them; but by countless 
and infallible signs they testify to a marine 
origin. The remnants of life which they con- 
tain, often in the greatest abundance, are deci- 
sive as to this point. The sea in which or 
around which they grew was the former exten- 
sion of the Gulf of Mexico. When the rocks 
of Ohio were in process of formation, the 
waters and genial climate of the Gulf extended 
without interruption to the borders of the 
Great Lakes. All of these rocks had their ori- 
gin under such conditions. The rocks of Ohio 
constitute an orderly series. They occur in 
wide-spread sheets, the lowermost of which are 
co-extensive with the limits of the State. As 
we ascend in the scale, the strata constantly 
occupy smaller areas, but the last deposits, viz : 
those of the Carboniferous perjod are still 
found to cover at least one-fourth of the en- 
tire area of the State. Some of these forma- 
tions can be followed into and across adjacent 
States in apparent unbroken continuity. The 
edges of the successive deposits in the Ohio 
series are exposed in innumerable natural sec- 
tions, so that their true order can generally 
be determined with certainty and ease. For 
the accumulation and growth of this great 
series of deposits, vast periods of time are 
required. Many millions of years must be 
used in any rational explanation of their 
origin and history. All of the stages of this 
history have practically unlimited amounts of 
past time upon which to draw. They have 
all gone forward on so large a scale, so far as 

time is concerned, that the few thousand years 
of human history would not make an appre- 
ciable factor in any of them. In other. words, 
five thousand years, or ten thousand years, 
were too small a period to be counted in the 
formation of coal, for example, -or in the accu- 
mulation of petroleum, or the shaping of the 
surface of the State by the agency of erosion. 
The time that has passed since man has been 
in the world has i>een computed by some geolo- 
gists as less than half of one per cent, of the 
entire time occupied by geological history. It 
is true of geological history as it is of human 
history, that it begins far this side of the be- 
ginning of things. Geology shows us that the 
existing system of things had a beginning with 
a time very long ago as measured in years 
when this section was in the bottom of a great 
sea of wide area but not of very great depth, — ■ 
a time when the waters of the Gulf of Mexico 
covered all the basin of the Mississippi and the 
place now occupied by the lower of the great 
lakes, and sent one broad arm through north- 
eastern Canada to join the Arctic and another 
across Mexico to join the Pacific. 


There were then no Appalachian mount- 
ains, but to the east of their present position, 
and to the north of the Great Lakes, there 
lay a large continent on whose shores played 
the waves of this great sea, and over whose 
surface rivers were flowing, bearing their sed- 
iments into its waters. In the depths of this 
sea, at about north latitude 41 degrees and 
west longitude 81 degrees, were being depos- 
ited layer upon layer, the massive rock found- 
ations of that structure which, when it shall 
rise 4,000 or 5.000 feet high, shall bear upon 
its top, as a modern skyscraper bears a roof 
garden, the little area familiar to us as Mahon- 
ing county. The nearest land was several hun- 
dred miles to the northeast, and but little clay 
and sand can drift so far from shore. The 
climate was of a tropical warmth. Winter had 
not vet come to cast his mantle of snow and ice 
each half-year over nature. Life was swarm- 
ine, but how different from the life of today. 


Tliere were no fishes in that ancient sea 
but the waters were rich in Hme which they 
had dissolved from the rocks, and those forms 
of Hfe which needed this material to build 
themselves shells for protection or structures 
to support their soft tissues, were in their 
element. Corals grew all over the sea bottom 
and stone lillies sank their roots into the soft 
sea-bed and sent their stems upward with their 
bud-like bodies at the summit. Molluscs, ani- 
mals similar to cuttle fishes, each ensconced in 
the end of a long tapering chambered shell, 
preyed upon whatever was unluckj^ enough to 
come within reach of their long sucker-tipped 
arms ; microscopic forms of life were there in 
abundance, and their tiny shells of lime con- 
tributed no small part to the massive founda- 
tion layers ; swimming animals called trilobites, 
each looking much like a huge sowbug, two 
feet long, and covered with a homy shell 
whose segments were so jointed as to permit 
the animal to roll itself into a ball like the 
armadillo, were present in immense numbers. 
Nor was vegetable life entirely wanting, for 
there were traces of seaweeds in those early 

For long ages the cast-off shells of all these 
forms of life accumulated on the bed, crumbled 
to pieces and hardened into limestone hun- 
dreds of feet in thickness. It was then that 
the famous Trenton limestone was formed, 
which in the western part of our State yields 
such a copious flow of gas and oil when pene- 
trated by Jhe drill. It has never been reached 
here, for it probably lies nearly 4,000 feet 
below the surface. It is extremely doubtful, 
however, whether it would yield returns if we 
were to reach it. 

But by this time the continent of North 
America was steadily but slowly rising, the sea 
which covered its interior was getting shal- 
lower, and the shores of the continent to the 
east and north-east were getting nearer and 
nearer to the area we are now considering. 
Occasionally, when the waves and current 
were strongest, some clay or sand from the 
shore would drift over it. ' Thus some beds of 
shale and sandstone were sandwiched in 
among the heavier layers of limestone. Some 

dry land had now appeared to the southwest 
near the future site of Cincinnati, and the sed- 
iment came from that direction also. At 
length the amount of sediment drifting in 
from the surrounding land areas became so 
great as to fairly exceed the deposits resulting 
from the accumulation of the remains of corals 
and shellfish, and there succeeded a long- 
period in which, while there were still some 
limestones, clay and sand were swept in so 
abundantly that shales and sandstones became 
the prevailing rocks. 

There appeared at this time the first of the 
backboned animals in the form of fishes, but 
very unlike the fishes of today. There were 
sharks whose mouths were literally full of 
teeth, set like cobble-stones in a pavement. 
There were fish with the long conical teeth 
of reptiles, and with bodies covered all over 
with great plates, like those of the alligator, 
except that they were heavier and more bony; 
they were the ironclads of those seas, and were 
giants of their kiiKl, for some of them are 
thought to have been more than thirty feet in 
length. The long leathery stems of sea-weed 
grew luxuriantly, intertwining to form verit- 
able Sargasso seas on the surface of the water. 

Steadily during all this time the continent 
was emerging from the sea ; steadily the land 
area to the northeast had been extended 
toward us. From the area of dry land which 
had appeared about Cincinnati, a long low 
arch extending northward through the west- 
ern part of the State had risen above the water. 

At length when another two thousand feet 
of the ample foundation upon which Mahon- 
ing county rests had been laid down, consist- 
ing of great beds of shale, some black with 
the abundant organic matter buried in them 
from which oil and gas may be generated to 
serve man in some far-distant future, others 
red with iron, others blue and clay-like, all in- 
terspersed with an occasional bed of limestone 
or sandstone, this long age came to an end. A 
new era was dawning. The sea had now be- 
come so shallow" that occasionally the waves 
disturbed it to its bottom, and thus coarse ma- 
terial was transported a long way from shore. 
A bluish-grev sandstone 50 to 100 feet in 



thickness was spread above the shales. This 
— one of the upper stories of our sky- 
scraper — is the Berea sandstone so extensively 
quarried for building purposes in northern 
Ohio. It lies near the present surface in the 
northeastern part of the county, but is several 
hundred feet below it in the southern part. 

The condition changed again, and material 
was deposited which hardened into shales and 
shaley sandstones and flagstones. Once more 
the transporting power of the water was in- 
creased and an immense sheet of coarse sand 
and gravel, 150 feet in thickness, was gradu- 
ally spread over this region. This is known as 
the conglomerate, because it is full of pebbles ; 
it forms the foundation upon which the pro- 
ductive coal measures rest ; above it coal may 
lie, below it never. 


Ere long, here and there in the shallowing 
sea, some low and swampy areas began to 
show themselves above the surface. The roof 
of our structure is beginning to appear. Over 
these swampy areas slowl)'' crept the vegeta- 
tion, which had previously ■ grown upon the 
nearest land, and for the first time land plants 
took root within the limits of our Mahoning 
county. The swamp areas extended and the 
plants, stimulated by a climate of tropical 
warmth and abundant moisture, spread and 
grew ranker tmtil the entire surface of the 
county was one continuous marsh covered with 
a dense and tangled vegetation of most luxuri- 
ant growth. This is the opening of the Car- 
boniferous period — that period in the history 
of the earth which witnessed the laying down 
of the great coal fields of Ohio and Pennsyl- 

What a strange scene would have been pre- 
sented to view could we liave been permitted 
to gaze upon the vegetation of our county 
then. Ferns were everywhere — ferns which 
sent their straight and leaf-scarred trunks 
twenty and thirty feet into the air, while upon 
their summits were majestic and graceful 
crowns of spreading fronds that would make 
the possessor ,of the finest botanical garden of 

today green with envy. Strange and mighty 
trees grew on these marshes, whose trunks and 
few branches were shaggy with the long strap- 
shaped leaves that covered them. The trunks 
of some were fluted like Corinthian col- 
umns, and all were beautifully marked with 
leaf scars. There are now no trees at all like 
them. The straight tapering stems of rushes, 
slightly resembling the scouring rushes of 
today, but almost tree-like in size, were clus- 
tered over the marshes in impenetrable thickets. 
We would look the earth over now in vain to 
find such wealth of plant life as then struggled 
for existence in the marshes that covered Ma- 
honing county. But among all this wealth of 
tropical vegetation there was not one plant on 
whose branches a single flower unfolded its 
petals in the sunlight. No butterflies or honey 
loving insects could live in that flowerless 
world. No bird sang to his mate among those 
trees or winged his flight above them. The 
highest animal to be found in our county then 
were reptile-like creatures which, like frogs, 
passed through a tadpole stage in their devel- 
opment. The atmosphere was too heavy laden 
with moisture and stifling gases for the higher 
land animals. 

For ages the leaves, trunks and branches 
fell upon the marshes, and accumulated peat. 
But along with the general uprising of the 
continent as a whole, there seems to have been 
in this coal field a gradual sinking, though at a. 
varying rate. When the sinking was slow, the 
peat acciunulated so as to build the surface up 
as rapidly as it sank, thus preseiwing the 
marsh ; but at intervals the sinking became too 
rapid, the marsh plants were drowned, the sea 
again prevailed, and sediment was deposited 
over the peat. Smothered decay, under great 
pressure, transformed the peat into coal, and 
the sediments above it hardened into shales and 


How many times coal-marsh and sea 
alternated over this period it is impossible to 
sav. In some parts of our county there are the 
remains of seven of these old peat marshes in 



the form of coal beds, one over the other, with 
intervening beds of shale and sandstone. Yet 
some time before the close of the coal period 
the uprising of the continent as a whole 
brought this county well above the level of the 
sea, and made it permanently dry land. Then 
streams began to flow over its surface and to 
excavate their valleys. 

Upland vegetation took the place of that 
which had covered the marshes. This new 
growth consisted largely of cone-bearing trees, 
but very unlike the pines, spruces and hem- 
locks of today. None of them had the needle- 
shaped leaves common in the cone-bearers 
familiar to us, but instead their leaves were 
flat and more or less strap-shaped. Instead of 
bearing their seeds in cones, they bore nut-like 

We now reach a period when the geolog- 
ical history of our county is interrupted, at 
least so far as we can learn from any deposits 
at or beneath its surface. Geological history is 
written in the seas and along the shores and 
only in very exceptional cases on dry land. 
Certain changes that have taken place in our 
county since it became permanently dry land 
are apparent. From a position at the sea level 
it has been raised until now its highest point 
is 1,343 feet above it, or about 565 feet above 
Lake Erie. When the last seam of coal was 
formed over its surface it was level, like the 
marsh in which was formed the peat that pre- 
ceded the coal ; now the coal seams descend 
about 200 feet in passing from the north to the 
south line of the county. It is evident, too, 
that great quantities of material must have 
been removed from its surface. Every rain 
drop that falls on bare ground moves some 
tiny particles of earth from a higher to a lower 
level ; every rill that trickles down the hillside 
bears with it some material it has gathered ; 
every stream in flood-time is loaded with sedi- 
ment : and so it has been ever since rain began 
to fall and streams to flow over our surface. 

Prof. Dana, who is regarded as one of our 
most conservative authorities, thinks it prob- 
able that at least 12,000,000 years have 
elapsed since the close of the coal period, and if 

our county became dry land before its close, 
it must have been exposed to the action of the 
elements much longer. If we assume the time 
to have been only 10,000,000 years, and the 
average rate at which the surface has been 
worn away to have been the same as that at 
which the basin of the Mississippi is now 
wearing away, namely one foot in 5.000 
years, we reacli the conclusion that a layer 
2,000 feet thick has been carried away from 
the present surface of Mahoning county. 
This may seem startling to one who has given 
the subject but little thought, but it is probably 
under rather than above the truth. Many beds 
of workable coal, with their intervening layers 
of shale and sandstone, probably once lay 
above the present surface, but the destroying 
tooth of time has been gnawing away at them 
until we have but a mere remnant left. 
Nature, has her economies, but, from a human 
standpoint, she has her wastes as well. 


The coal age was followed by the age of 
reptiles, some of which were probabl)^ the 
largest land animals that ever lived : while 
the forests of broad-leaved evergreens were 
gradully replaced by those of needle-shaped 
leaves bearing true cones. Timidly among the 
strange reptiles appeared the first land mam- 
mals, small in size and low in structure. Gradu- 
ally the reptiles declined while the mammals 
grew larger and more numerous, until they 
became the rulers of the forest and the plain. 
Is it possible I am speaking of Mahoning 
county when I say that the elephant and the 
still larger mastodon there in all probability 
cropped the tender herbage and blew their shrill 
trumpets in the forests; that the 'howl of the 
h3^ena was heard in the hills; that the saber- 
toothed tiger made his lair in the thickets and 
the rhinocerous forced his way through the 
dense underbrush ; that troops of wild horses 
galloped across it and occasionally the camel 
and the tapir were found within its borders; 
that in the woods and by the streams were 
parrots and trogons and flamingoes, and other 


birds found not only far to the south? Yet 
such in all probability was the life of our 
county in that age. 


Toward the close of this age the seasons 
became more marked. Something much like 
winter came with each round of the sun, and 
for the first time snowflakes whitened the sur- 
face of our county. As the result of causes 
not yet well understood, the temperature con- 
tinued to fall and the winters grew longer and 
longer. Soon on the highlands of Canada more 
snow fell each winter than the summer's sun 
could melt away, and the edge of the snow 
mass crept southward. The ice age was com- 
ing on. 

The tropical plants of our forests gradu- 
ally disappeared to be replaced by the decid- 
uous trees, and these in time gave way to the 
hardened pine, spruce and hemlock, which 
waged a gallant but losing fight with the on- 
coming cold. Our birds and animals sought a 
more congenial clime to the southward. At 
length there came a summer in which the snow 
that had fallen over the desolate surface of our 
county the previous winter did not all melt 
away; the close of the next summer saw it 
deeper still. The ice age had come. For 
centuries the snow deepened. How high it 
piled above the surface here we cannot tell, 
but in New England it covered the White 
Mountains, 6.000 feet high, and here it may 
have been 2,000 feet thick or even more. 

Along with this accumulation of snow, and 
probably one cause of the cold at that time, the 
highlands of Canada were uplifted several 
hundred feet above their present level. The 
snow compacted in its lower parts into ice by 
the weight of the mass above, and forced 
southward both by the slope and the pressure 
of the deeper accumulations to the north, was 
transformed into a mighty glacier which be- 
gan its slow but resistless march southward. 

The surface of our county then was much 
more rugged than it is now, for it had been 
dry land for millions of years, and the streams 
had cut very deep valleys across it. The 

moving glacier acted upon this broken surface 
like an immense rasp, of which fragments of 
hard rock frozen into its under surface formed 
the teeth. Moving from the northeast it cut 
away all portions of the surface, but, as it 
bore hardest on the hills, the general effect 
was to destroy inequalities, thoug-h soft strata 
were cut away more rapidly than were hard 
ones. Our rod«s, wherever exposed, show 
the planed and grooved characteristics of gla- 
cial action. How much soil and rock this 
immense ice-plow shaved off from the surface, 
or how long our county was subject to its 
action, we cannot say. Finally, however, the 
rigors of the long winter began to soften. 
Once more the melting exceeded the snow- 
fall, and the ice-sheet was doomed. Slowly 
grew thinner and slowly its southern edge re- 
ceded northward. It was long after this 
change began before even the southern border 
of Mahoning county peered out from under its 
cover of ice, and much longer still, for the 
change was slow, before the ice had retreated 
beyond the northern boundary. As the glacier 
melted away, the immense amount of material 
which it had torn up from the rocks beneath, 
much of which had been pulverized as though 
ground between the upper and nether mill- 
stones, was left unevenly distributed over the 
rock surface, and it is this material, known 
as the "drift," that constitutes our present 


The rounded gravel knolls so common in 
the southwestern part of our county and the 
less common gravel ridges, are characteristic 
of glacial deposits, and are supposed to mark 
the places where the edges of the ice remained 
nearly constant for a long time, the rate of 
melting being just equal to the onward motion 
of the ice. Thus a heavy belt of material, 
forming what is called a Morain, was accumu- 
lated along the ice front. Detached masses 
of ice sometimes became deeply buried in these 
deposits and when long afterwards they 
melted, the gravel above them settled down. 



leaving peculiar pits and amphitheater depres- 
sions among the gravel knolls. This is the 
origin of some of our small lakes and catholes. 
To these causes we owe the variety of soil, and, 
to a certain extent, the- variety of landscape 
found in different parts of our county. 

Since the final retreat of the ice our 
streams have been steadily at work cutting 
their way through the drift. Of the stream 
channels cut in the rock previous to the ice age, 
smaller ones were probably obliterated by the 
grinding action of the glacier, but some of the 
larger and deeper seem to remain even yet, 
though deeiply buried and sometimes com- 
pletely choked by the drift. The larger of 
our new streams as they found their way over 
the drift seem generally to have followed the 
course of the old channels, but they are some- 
times compelled to turn aside, and in that case 
they soon cut through the drift and have since 
been flowing over rocky beds, which, like that 
of Niagara, have been excavated since the re- 
treat of the ice. The boulders or "hard-heads" 
of granite and allied rocks so frequently 
strewn over our surface, are not our products. 
They were produced in the highlands of Can- 
ada long, long ago, packed in ice and imported 
duty free. Theirs was a long, hard journey of 
hundreds of years, and it must have been 
tedious even for a boulder. Only the most 
hardy among them survived to reach their 
journey's end, and they had their once sharp 
angles worn off and many had one or more 
faces ground smooth where they were pressed 
against the bed rock beneath the glacier and 
forced onward. 


Viewed as a whole, the surface of Mahon- 
ing county may be regarded as an undulating 
plain, sloping gently to the north, its southern 
line running on or near the divide between 
the waters of the Mahoning on the north and 
the Little Beaver on the south, and having an 
altitude of from thre^ to five hundred feet 
above the valleys of the north border. Topo- 
graphically, the county forms a portion of the 

highlands of the southern rim of the lake 
basin, but since the rim is cut through by the 
deep gorge of the Mahoning, the drainage, 
though locally northward, is all carried 
through that channel into the Ohio. But little 
of the surface is even locally level, but con- 
sists of an alternation of broad valleys of ex- 
cavation, separated by rounded hills and table 
lands, with gentle slopes. It is ail varied and 
picturesque, while at the same time it is well 
adapted for agricultural purposes, and is now 
very generally in a high state of cultivation. 
The soil is in some places derived from the de- 
composition of the underlying rocks; but it, 
for the most part, rests upon a sheet of drift 
material, for the county lies within the drift 
area, though reaching its margin on the south. 
The general slope of the surface, and part of 
the local erosion, seem to have been produced 
by the southern extension of a tongue or lobe 
of the great glacier, which, moving from the 
north, excavated the low country that lies be- 
tween the highlands of Geauga and Portage 
on the west and those of Pennsylvania on the 
east. By this agent the northern out-crop of 
rocks which underlies the county have been 
ground away, and a large amount of material 
transported southward from its place of origin. 
As the eroded rocks were largely sandstone 
and conglomerate, much of the transported 
material is sand and gravel. Glacial marks 
are seen on the exposed surfaces of the harder 
rocks in nearly all parts of the county, and 
they are especially noticeable on the sand- 
stone ledges on the northeast side of the Ma- 
honing in Youngstown and Poland and on the 
higher strata of the same character in the 
southern part of Canfield and Ellsworth. The 
direction of the glacial scratches is nearly 
north and south ; but they are sometimes 
reflected by local impediments a few degrees 
either east or west. 

One of the most interesting features in the 
surface geologv of Mahoning county is the 
deep erosion of the valley of the Mahoning. 
In Trumbull county the river flows through 
a gently undulating country, and its banks are 
so low that it can hardiv be said to have a well 
defined vallev. This is due to the general 



prevalence of soft, shaley rocks which have 
been broadly and evenly eroded. Soon after 
entering Mahoning county the river en- 
counters the conglomerate and the heavy bed- 
ded sandstones that overlie the coal. These form 
bold bluffs which gradually approach, until at 
Lowell, the valley is quite narrow and about 
three hundred feet deep; for the search for oil, 
•which has been made at numerous points be- 
tween Youngstown and Newcastle, Pennsyl- 
vania, has shown that in this interval the river 
is now running considerably above its ancient 
bed. At the State line it was found necessary 
to sink through eighty feet of sand and gravel 
in the old channel before solid rock was 
reached ; and in some wells, near the junction 
of the Mahoning and Chenango, pipe was 
driven one hundred and forty feet to the rock. 
These facts were among the first observed of 
those which led to the discovery that our prin- 
cipal rivers were flowing at a lower level when 
the continent was higher than now ; the valley 
of the Mahoning, which is evidently excavated 
from the solid rock, must have been cut out 
when the drainage southward was much freer 
than at present, and this seems to have been 
one of the channels through which the lake 
basin, filled to. a much higher level than now 
with water, communicated with the Ohio, and 
thus with the jjulf. The fact that rock is fre- 
quently seen in the bottom of the river does 
not conflict with the statements made above, 
for the stream does not follow the line of its 
ancient bed: but when the old channel was 
filled, and the work of excavation began aeain, 
the course of the river crossed projections 
from the sides of the valley, and in these nlaces 
has a rock bottom. The borings to which this 
reference has been made prove that there is a 
continuous, deeply excavated trough running 
beneath the bottom land of the vallev. 


The rocks which underlie Mahoning 
county all belong to the carboniferous sys- 
tem. They include exposures of the Waverlv 

at base, the conglomerate and the lower group 
of coal seams, except the uppermost. No. 7, 
with their associated sandstones, shales, lime- 
stones, fire clays and iron ore. The dip of all 
the strata is toward the southeast, from ten 
to twenty feet to the mile; and as a conse- 
quence the outcrop of the different members 
of the series form irregular belts, conforming 
to the topography, but having a general east 
and west direction ; but the outcrop of the 
rocks, which are lowest geographically, being 
lowest topographically, are found on the 
northern margin of the county, while the high- 
est cap the hills along the southern boundary. 
The extensive explorations for coal in Mahon- 
ing county show that the Waverly rocks for a. 
long time formed the surface, and were exten- 
sively eroded before the deposition of the next 
succeeding rock, the conglomerate. Hence its 
upper surface is very irregular, showing hills 
and valleys over which the conglomerate and 
-coal measures were deposited, sometimes in 
local depressions with Waverly borders, so 
that both are found at a lower level than the 
adjacent outcrop of Waverly rock. This has 
produced much confusion in the search for 
coal ; but all the drillers have noticed that the 
surface of the Waverly is reached at various 
depths and that hills of "bottom rock" cut out 
the coal. In such cases the coal was -never 
formed on these hills, but had accumulated in 
lower ground surrounding them as a bed of 
peat that reached to a limited distance up their 


Probably but little of the area of Mahoning 
county is underlain by the conglomerate. 
Patches of it are found in the northwestern 
corner, and these m-ay extend for a long dis- 
tance southward; but the great sheet of con- 
glomerate which occupies Geauga county and 
the northern part of Portage county, thins out 
rapidly toward the east and between Niles 
and the State line it either does not exist, or 
is represented by a thin bed of sandstone with- 
out pebbles. 



Coal No. One. This is the seam which 
urnishes the famous Brier Hill, or Mahoning 
oal, so extensively used for iron smelting and 
v'idely distributed through the markets of the 
lorthwest. It is the same seam that is so 
irgely worked in western Pennsylvania. The 
rue position of this coal seam is from twenty 
fifty feet above the conglomerate. The 
uality of the Mahoning Valley coal is so ex- 
ellent and the coal field lies so near the Great 
.akes market that it has become the basis of 
n extensive commerce, and the mainspring of 
ne most important iron industry of the West, 
lie first development of coal mining in the 
alley of the Mahoning took place at the old 
irier Hill and Crab Creek mines near the 
orth line of Youngstown. The search for 
oal has radiated from this center in every 
irection, and as a consequence the country 
bout Youngstown has been more thoroughly 
xplored than any other part of the county. 
L number of extensive basins have been dis- 
Dvered here, and several of them ha\-e been 
xtensively worked. 


In the shale over coal number one, in 
""oungstown, also in the carboniferous sand 
Dcks which cap the hills, are to be found 
eautiful specimens of the fossil nuts and 
ruits of the carboniferous age. Among the 
arieties found near Youngstown are the fol- 
>wing: Trigonocarpon Triloculare, Trigono- 
irpon Tricuspidatum, Trigonocarpon Fraga- 
ordes (Mill Creek Park), Cardiocarpon 
ilongatum, Cardiocarpon Anulatus McGinni- 
i — this last named specimen was discovered 
y !\Ir. W. H. McGinnis, local geologist for 
lahoning county — also fine specimens of the 
Ihabdocarpon Adamsii. The species known as 
Vigonocarpon Gigantum has also been discov- 
-ed here, but is very rarely met with. It is 
lore abundantly found near Lisbon, in Colum- 

biana county. In Ellsworth township, Mahon- 
ing county, are found the most beautiful, per- 
fect, and highly crystalized specimens of Sele- 
nite, a variety of gypsum. They are much 
sought after by geologists from all parts of 
the world. They are indeed a most won- 
derful illustration of the simplicity of 
nature in the midst of diversity. In a stratum 
of iron ore which was formerly mined near the 
old Mill Creek furnace in what is now Mill 
Creek Park, the shales which hold the no- 
dules, are great numbers of very beautifully 
preserved fossil plants, several of which have 
not yet been found elsewhere, making this the 
most interesting locality of fossils yet found in 
the county. In the center of a block of coal, 
taken from the Wetmore mine, in Canfield 
township, a beautiful fossil fish was found 
with all its scales and fin rays complete ; it is a 
species of Paleonicus (P. Pettiganus), New- 
berryii ; the writer hereof has also several 
beautiful specimens of fossil fish, about five 
inches in length, and well preserved. These 
species are Priscacara Pealie (Sunfish), also 
two specimens of fossil fish known as Dvplo- 
mistus Humilis (Herring) ; they are imbedded 
in solid rock and show both the positive and 
negative sides. 

In the spring of 1890 an exceedingly rare 
and valuable fossil was found by Prof. VV. H. 
McGinnis of Youngstown. Upon a very crit- 
ical examination by Professor Ortom. then 
State Geologist for Ohio, and Professor Colla- 
cott. of the Ohio State University, it was 
decided by them to be the fossil head of the 
Musk Ox. The fossil skull was found in a 
sand bank in what is now beautiful Mill Creek 
Park. This bed of sand is located near the 
"Narrows," and is about sixty feet high and 
extends to an unknown depth below the sur- 
face of Mill Creek. When Prof. Newbern,' 
made his geological survey of this portion of 
Ohio he visited this sand bank and declared 
that it was a former channel of the Mahoning 
River that had become completely filled up 
with gravel and sand, and that at the "Nar- 
rows" Mill Creek had worn its way through 
the sand and left the strata of sand and 



gravel exposed. The following letter from 
Professor Orton shows the great importance 
of the discovery ; 

Ohio State University. Dept. of Geology. 
Columbus. Ohio, January 29, 1898. 
Prof. \V. H. McGinnis, Youngstown. 

My Dear Sir: The skull proves to be 
musk ox, which has never been reported from 
Ohio before, the only two specimens ever hav- 
ing- been reported found in the United States 
was one from Big Bone Lick, Kentucky, and 
one from Arkansas. You have by your dis- 
covery and contribution to this Institution con- 
tributed to science a most valuable specimen, 
and for which you have the thanks of the In- 

Yours truly, 

Edward Orton. 

Many other beautiful specimens of fossils 
have been found at various times in the rock 
stratas and coal measures of Mahoning county, 
which time and space will not now permit us 
to enumerate. 

In the treatment of this subject. Local 
Geology, or the Geological Formation of Ma- 
honing County, the writer has endeavored to 
be practical, not drawing from the imaginary, 
but from the real facts as found in the great 
book of Nature; for what are the different 
stratas of rock but pages from the great book 
of Nature, created by God's own finger? 

For on every rock on which we tread 
Are written words, if rightly read, 
That leads us from earth's fragrant sod, 
To holiness, to hope and God. 

W. H. McG. 



Speculation on the Origin of the American Race — Antiquity of Man in America Prob- 
able European Origin of the American Races — The Mound Builders. 

On the disco\'er3^ of the Western World 
by Europeans, there was much speculation 
among the learned as to the origin of its inhab- 
itants. The native Americans were different 
not only in color, but in many peculiarities of 
appearance, language and habits from any of 
the then known races of the Old World. Many 
interesting, and some wildly fanciful hypoth- 
eses were brought forward, and defended with 
great display of erudition. By some the new- 
found sons of the forest were declared to be 
the descendants of the "ten lost tribes of 
Israel." Others referred to the "Lost Atlan- 
tis." which was supposed to have formerly ex- 
isted as a sort of land connection between 
Northern Africa and South America, and to 
which an apparent but vague allusion may be 
found in Pliny. "Such connection." says Dr. 
D. G. Brinton, in his scholarly work. 'The 
American Race,' there once undoubtedly was 
but far back in the Eocene period of the ter- 
tiary, long before Man appeared upon the 
scene. The wide difference between the exist- 
ing fauna and flora of Africa and South 
America proves that there has been no connec- 
tion in the life-time of the present species." 

Other scholars have since maintained that 
the continent was peopled from Polvnesia, or di- 
rectly from China or Japan, but neither hypo- 
thesis will stand a careful examination in the 

light of known scientific facts. Perhaps the 
fa\'orite theory of the present day is that- the 
first inhabitants came from northeastern Asia, 
either by way of the Aleutian islands or Behr- 
ing strait. There are a number of cogent facts 
which go far to destroy the plausibility of this 
theory, but which it is unnecessary 'to enter 
into here. The reader will find them' fully con- 
sidered in the work above alluded to, and in 
die writings of other modern ethnographers. 


That man was here at a very early period, 
there is abundant evidence to prove, in the 
roughly chipped stone weapons, and other pa- 
leolithic implements, that from time to time 
have been found in deposits of gravel and loess 
dating back to the Glacial Epoch. In a bed 
of loess in the Missouri valley. Prof. Aughey 
found a rudely chipped arro\\'head beneath the 
vertebra of an elephant. Again, a primitive 
hearth was discovered in digging a well along 
the old beach of Lake Ontario. " According to 
Prof. G. K. Gilbert, this dated from a period 
"when the northern shore of that body of 
water was the sheer wall of a mighty glacier, 
and the channel of tlie Niagara river had not 
yet begun to be furrowed out of the rock bv 
the receding waters." Some hundreds of stone 


implements of the true paleolithic type, to- 
gether with some fragments of human skele- 
tons, were discovered by Dr. C. C. Abbot in 
the gravels near Trenton, on the Delaware. 
These evidences, with many others which 
we have not space to mention, prove clearly 
that tool-making, fire-using Man "was here 
long before either Northern Asia or the Poly- 
nesian islands were inhabited, as it is well 
known that those parts of the world were 
first peopled in neolithic times." 


The modern geological discovery that at 
one time — about the middle and later glacial 
epoch — there occurred an uplift of the north- 
ern part of the continent, and also of the north 
Alantic basin, seems to answer the question, 
as to whence came the first inhabitants of the 
New World. According to Prof. Geikie, and 
other competent scientists, this uplift 
amounted to a vertical elevation of from 2,000 
to 3,000 feet above the present level, and re- 
sulted in establishing a continuous land con- 
nection between the higher latitudes of the 
two continents, which remained till the post- 
glacial period. This is confirmed by the char- 
acter of the glacial scorije of the rocks of 
Shetland, the Faroe islands, Iceland and South 
Greenland, which give unmistakable indica- 
tions of having been formed by land ice; and 
by a comparison of the fauna and flora of the 
two continents, both living and fossil. This 
land bridge formed a barrier between the 
Arctic and Atlantic oceans, so that the temper- 
ature of the higher latitudes was much higher 
than at present. Says Dr. Brinton, after a 
thorough consideration of the subiect. "The 
evidence, therefore, is cumulative that at the 
close of the last elacial epoch, and for an in- 
definite time previous, the comparatively shal- 
low bed of the North Atlantic was above water 
and this was about the time that we find men 
in the same stage of culture living on both its 
chores." It thus seems conclusive that the 
earliest inhabitants of the American continent. 

came, as did the Spanish, French and English 
discoverers untold centuries later, though in a 
very different manner, from the region of 
Western Europe. 


In this reference to the prehistoric inhab- 
itants of the continent, it remains but to add 
a brief word in regard to the so-called mys- 
terious race of Moundbuilders, whose works 
are found in parts of Ohio (thoug-h none in 
Mahoning county), and in some neighboring 

The mounds, fortifications, and other 
relics left by this race, have in recent years 
been thoroughly investigated by competent 
and pains-taking scientists. They contain no 
evidence to prove that this people was in any 
essential respects different from the familiar 
red races whom the first white discoverers, 
found in possession of the soil. Mr. Warren 
K. Moorehead, in his "Primitive Man on the 
Ohio," thus sums up the result of years of 
laborious exploration and careful investig-a- 
tion of these relics : 

"Nothing more than the upper status of 
savagery was attained by any race or tribe liv- 
ing within the limits of the present State of 
Ohio, all statements to the contrary being mis- 
representations. If we go by field testimony 
alone (not to omit the reports of early travel- 
ers among North American tribes) we can as- 
sign' primitive high attainments in but few 
things, and these indicate neither civilization 
nor any approach to it. 

"First, he excelled in building earthern 
fortifications, and in the interment of his dead ; 
second, he made surprisingly long journeys for 
mica, copper, lead, shells, and other foreign 
substances to be used as tools or ornaments; 
third, he was an adept in the chase and in war; 
fourth, he chipped flint and made carvings 
en bone, stone and slate exceedingly well, 
when we consider the primitive tools he em- 
ployed; fifth, a few of the more skillful men 
of his tribe made fairly good representations 
of animals, birds and human figures in stone. 
This sums up in brief all that he seemed capa- 



ble of, which we in our day consider remark- 

"On the other hand he failed to grasp the 
idea of communication by written characters, 
the use of metal (except in the cold state), the 
cutting of stone or the making of brick for 
building purposes, and the construction of per- 
manent homes. Ideas of transportation, other 
than upon his own back or in frail canoes, 
or the use of coal, which was so abundant 
about him and which he frequently made into 
pendants and ornaments, and a thousand other 
things which civilized beings enjoy, were ut- 
terly beyond his comprehension. Instead of 
living peacefully in villages, and improving a 
country unecpialled in natural resources, of 
which he was the sole possessor, he spent his 
time in petty w^arfare, or in savage worship, 
and in the observance of the grossest supersti- 
tions. He possessed no knowledge of surgery 
or the setting of bones, unless we accept as 
evidence two neatly knitted bones found at 
Foster's, which by some extra effort he may 
have accomplished. But while admitting these 
two specimens to be actually and carefully set 
with splints, we have scores of femora, humeri 
and other bones from Forts Ancient and Ore- 
gonia, which are worn flat against unnatural 
sockets, formed after the bones had been dis- 
placed. We have broken fibulje and tibije 
which had never been reset. They were bent 
like a bow, and nature alone had aided them 

in coming together. It has been the mistake 
of many writers upon the antiquities of Ohio, 
to accept as evidences of the civilization of 
these peoples the mere fact that they could 
build circular and square embankments, and 
great fortifications. Any school boy knows 
that he can form a perfect circle by taking hold 
of the hands of his comrades, placing one of the 
number at ten feet from the line, to observe 
that the rest keep properly stretched out. The 
boy at one end acts as a pivot, the other 
swinging in a circle, while the boy at the end 
fai-thest from the pivot marks upon the ground 
with a stick as far out from the line as he can 
reach. Four hundred men placed in lines of 
one hundred each can easily mark a square 
which will be but two or three feet out of 
geometrical proportions. 

"The impression usually conveyed by the 
term 'Mound Builders' will not stand the 
light of modern science. While it may be 
more or less of a disappointment to many not 
to be able to place primitive man in Ohio on an 
equality with the status of Mexican or South 
American tribes, yet it is a gratification to 
know that the vexatious question concerning 
his movements and everyday life has been very 
nearly settled. There is a fascination in study- 
ing him even as a savage, and investigating 
the numerous remains which attest his occu- 
pancy of this territory." 



Earlx French Explorers — J'arrazano, Cartier, and Robcrval — Expedition of De Monts- 
Chauiplain Explores Acadia — Establishinoit of Missions — First English Opposition- 
Attacks hv t/ie Indians — Exploration, of the Great Lakes and the Alississippi. 

The French, who early estabhshed claims 
to a large portion of Nortli America, gained 
access to the interior of the continent by 
way of the Gulf and the River of St. Law- 
rence, and the Great Lakes with their connect- 
ing waterways. 

John Verrazano, a native of Florence, sail- 
ing under authority of Francis L in 1523, dis- 
covered the mainland in the neighborhood of 
Cape Fear, N. C. He then coasted in a north- 
erly direction as far as Cape Breton, landing 
at intervals to traffic with the Indians, by 
whom he was well received. He named the 
country New France and claimed it in the 
name of the king. 

Jacques Cartier made three voyages to 
America, between 1534 and 1542, and probably 
another in 1543. In his first voyage he ex- 
plored the Gulf of St. Lawrence, after passing 
through the strait of Belle Isle. The gloomy 
and inhospitable coast of Labrador he de- 
scribed as "very likely the land given by God 
to Cain." Visiting the picturesque Bay of 
Gaspe he there erected a large cross bearing 
a shield withi the lillies of France, and the in- 
scription "Vive le Roy de France." 

His second voyage, 1535-36, was made 
with a little fleet of three vessels. Coming to 
anchor in a small bav he gave to it the name 

of St. Laurent, which name was afterward 
gradually transferred to the whole gulf and to 
the river itself, which latter he explored as 
far as the island of Orleans. He was received 
by the Indians with an enthusiastic display of 
friendly feeling. Being taken by them to the 
mountain which overlooked the noble pano- 
rama of river and forest at the junction of the 
Ottawa with the St. Lawrence, he gave to it 
the name "Mont Real," which name was sub- 
sequently taken and retained by the great city 
it now overlooks. Cartier made a third voy- 
age in 1542, in which, however, he made no 
new discoveries. But in this year, and up to 
the autumn of 1543, the Saguenay river and 
the surrounding country* were explored by 
Roberval, who had been appointed by Francis 
I as his lieutenant in Canada. French fur 
traders had now found their way to Anticosti 
Island and to the mouth of the Saguenay, 
where there was an Indian trading post ; but 
these traders made no attempt to settle the 

In the spring- of 1602, under authority of 
"Henry IV, two vessels left France in charge 
of Pontgrave, a rich merchant of St. Malo, for 
the purposes of trade and colonization. Pont- 
grave was accompanied by Samuel Champlain, 
who v.'as later to gain lasting fame for himself 



as one of the most indefatigable of French ex- 
plorers. They ascended the St. Lawrence as 
far as the island of JNIontreal, and Champlain 
explored the Saguenay for a considerable dis- 
tance. The fruit of the expedition was to add 
largely to the knov/ledge which France pos- 
sessed of Canada and the country around the 

^"'*' 1176014 


Soon after the return of this expedition a 
new company was formed, at the head of 
which was Sieur Henri de Monts, who re- 
ceived a royal commission as the King's 
lieutenant in Canada and adjacent countries, 
with the special object of exploring the ill- 
defined region called "La Cadie," now known 
as Nova Scotia. Champlain was a member of 
this expedition also. In June, 1604, they 
sailed into the beautiful harbor of Port Royal, 
which Champlain called "the most commodi- 
ous and pleasant place that we had yet seen on 
the continent." De Monts and his associates 
explored the Bay of Fundy and discovered the 
St. John and St. Croix rivers. Champlain re- 
mained three years in Acadia, making explora- 
tions and surveys of the southern coast of 
Nova Scotia, of the shores of the Bay of Fundy 
and O'f the coast of New England, from the 
St. Croix to Vineyard Sound, De Monts, after 
an unsuccessful attempt to effect a settlement 
on the St. Croix, removed his colony in the 
spring to the banks of the Annapolis, where he 
founded the city of that name. 


John de Biencourt, better known as Baron 
de Pontricourt, who had accompanied De 
Monts, and who had returned to France be- 
fore him, after obtaining a renewed grant 
from the King, returned to Port Royal in 
Tune, 1 610. He was accompanied by Father 
Fleche, a Catholic priest, who, upon landing, at 
once began the work of converting the Indi- 
ans. A younger Biencourt, son of the above- 
named, came out in the following year, bring- 
ing with him Fathers Biard and ^Nlasse. two 

Jesuit priests, who engaged with zeal in the 
conversion of the savages. Other Jesuit fath- 
ers soon after came out, under the auspices of 
Mme. de Guercheville, who had bought the 
claims of de Monts, and who had also received 
a grant from thie King, of the territory ex- 
tending from Florida to Canada. France be- 
ing now ruled in reality by the cruel and am- 
bitious Marie de Medice, as regent during the 
minority of her son, Louis XIII, the Jesuits 
were "virtually in possession of North Amer- 
ica, as far as a French deed could give it 
away." But in making this liberal grant, the 
French monarch failed to take into account 
the English, who laid claim to the same terri- 
tory by right of the discoveries of the Cabots, 
and who had already established a colony at 
Virginia, and made explorations along the 
coast as far as the Kennebec river. 


Samuel Argal, a young English sea captain 
from Virginia, who early in 161 3 was cruising 
off the coast of Maine, learning from the In- 
dians of the presence of the French in that 
vicinity, attacked and destroyed the settlement 
of St. Sauveur. Soon after, on a second expe- 
dition made under the authority of Sir Thomas 
Dale, governor of Virginia, he destroyed also 
that of Port Royal. The latter settlement in 
later years "arose from its ashes, and the fleur- 
de-lis, or the red cross, floated from its walls, 
according as the French or English were the 
victors in the long struggle that ensued for 
the possession of Acadia." 

In 1608 Samuel Champlain again entered 
the St. Lawrence, and laid the foundations of 
the present city of Quebec. This was one year 
after Captain Newport, representing the great 
company of Virginia, "to whom King James II 
gave a charter covering the territory of an em- 
pire, had brought the first permanent English 
colony of 100 persons up the James river in 
Chesapeake Bay. From this time forward 
France and England became rivals in 

Champlain, who was now acting as the rep- 
resentative of De ]\lonts. and who. until his 



death twenty-seven years later, held the posi- 
tion of lieutenant-governor, during the summer 
of 1609 joined a party of the Algonquin and 
Huron Indians of Canada, in an expedition up 
the Richelieu river to Lake Champlain, against 
the Iroquois; an act for which in later years 
the French had to pay dearly. After another 
visit to France, for the purpose of consulting 
with De Monts, Champlain returned in the 
spring of 1610, to the St. Lawrence. He again 
assisted the allied Canadian tribes against the 
Iroquois. He appointed Frenchmen to learn 
the languag'e and customs of the natives, so as 
to be of use afterwards as interpreters. He also 
encouraged the policy of establishing missions. 
"Such a policy," says Bancroft, "was congenial 
to the Catholic church, and was favored by the 
conditions of the charter itself, which recog- 
nized the neophyte among the savages as an 
enfranchised citizen of France." 


In the work of Christianizing the Indians, 
the Jesuit missionaries were much hampered 
by the hostility of the powerful Iroquois. The 
ire of these war-like and omnipresent savages, 
of whom a fuller account will be given in the 
succeeding chapter, had been aroused by the 
part which Champlain had taken in assisting 
their enemies, the Algonquins and Hurons, 
against them. They sent ovit their war parties 
for long distances in all directions, and tor- 
ture and death was generally the fate of those 
who fell into their hands. To avoid them, the 
missionaries, instead of following the easiest 
and most direct routes to the interior, were of- 
ten obliged to make long detours through the 
primeval forest, wading innumerable streams, 
and carrying their canoes on their shoulders for 
leagues through the dense woods, or dragging 
them through shallows and rapids and by cir- 
cuitous paths to avoid waterfalls. In spite 
of these precautions, some of them were cap- 
tured ancl fell victims to the relentless savages. 
Father Jogues, who had been once captured 
and tortured by the Iroquois, and who, after es- 
caping and revisiting France, returned in 1647 
to America, was killed while endeavoring to ne- 

gotiate a treaty with them. But in spite of 
such events, and although, in 1648, the mis- 
sionary settlements in Canada were attacked 
and destroyed by the Iroquois, some of the mis- 
sionaries, as well as many of their converts, 
falling victims tO' the fury of the conquerors, 
the zeal of the Jesuits could not be daunted. 
Missionaries in greater numbers entered upon 
the work sO' fatefully begun, and continued it 
through all vicissitudes until at last friendly 
relations were brought about with their former 

These improved conditions were chiefly due 
to a large military reinforcement which, in 
1665. arrived from F"rance under command of 
the Marquis de Tracy, who had been sent 
out by Louis XIV. to inquire into and regulate 
the affairs of the colony. Within a few weeks 
more than 2,000 persons, soldiers and set- 
tlers, arrived in Canada. Existing fortifica- 
tions were strengthened, and four new forts 
were erected from the mouth of the Richelieu 
to Isle La Mothe on Lake Champlain. These 
measures had a most salutary effect upon the 
Indians. Four tribes of the Iroquois at once 
made overtures for peace. The Mohawks, 
\\-ho held back, were punished by a powerful 
expedition which destroyed their villages and 
stores, and soon they also \\'ere ready to make 
terms. For twenty years thereafter Canada 
"had a respite from the raids which had so 
severely disturbed her tranquility, and was en- 
abled at last to organize her new government, 
extend her settlements, and develop her 
strength for days of future trial." 

Under Louis XIV Canada became a 
royal province, and its political and social con- 
ditions began to assume those forms which, 
with but slight modifications, they retained 
during the whole of the French regime. 


But French discovery and enterprise were 
not destined to halt upon the banks of the St. 
Lawrence and its tributary waterways. In 
1667 Father Claude Allouez, while engaged in 
missionary work among the Chippewas, first 



heard of a river to the westward called by the 
natives "Messippi," or great river. This river 
had also been h^ard of by Jean Nicolet, a 
trader and interpreter, who, sometime before 
the death of Champlain, had ventured into the 
region of the Great Lakes, and as far as the 
valley of the Fox river. He is considered to 
have been the first European who reached 
Sault Ste. Marie. 

In 1671, Simon Francois Daumont, Sieur 
St. Lusson, under a commission from the gov- 
ernor of Quebec, and accompanied by Nicholas 
Perrot and Louis Jolliet, took possession at 
Sault Ste. Marie of the basin of the lakes and 
the tributary rivers. A mission had been es- 
tablished here some two years previously by 
Claude Dablon and James Marquette, it thus 
being the oldest settlement by Europeans with- 
in the present limits of Michigan. 

In the spring of 1673, Louis Jolliet, a 
pioneer trader of great courage, coolness, and 
resolution, and Father Marquette, a zealous 
and self-sacrificing missionary, were chosen to 
explore the West and find the great river of 
which so many vague accounts had reached the 
settlements. With five companions, and two 
canoes, they crossed the wilderness which 
stretched beyond Green Bay, ascended the Fox 
river, then with Indian guides, traversed the 
portage to the Wisconsin, thus reaching the 
lower "divide" between the valleys of the lakes 
and that of the Mississippi. Launching their 
frail canoes on the Wisconsin, they followed 
its course, until, on the 17th of June, 1673, 
thiey found themselves, "with a great and in- 
expressible joy," on the bosom of a mighty 
river which they recognized as the Mississippi. 
Descending its current to the mouth of the Ar- 
kansas, they there gathered sufficient informa- 
tion from the Indians to assure them that the 
great river emptied its waters, not into the 
Gulf of California, but into the Gulf of Mexico. 
Returning by way of the Illinois and Desplains 
rivers, they crossed the Chicago portage, and 
at last found themselves on the southern shore 
of Lake Michigan. Jolliet reached Canada in 
the following summer. Marquette remained to 
labor among the Indians, and died in the spring 
of 1675, '^y ths banks of a small tream which 

flows into Lake Michigan on the western shore. 
Before the end of the seventeenth century, 
the portages at the head of Lake Michigan 
had become widely known, and there had been 
a trading post for some fifteen years at the 
Chicago river. 

The work, so well begun by Marquette and 
Jolliet, of solving the mystery that had so long 
surrounded the Mississippi river, was com- 
pleted by Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la 
Salle, a native of Rouen, who had come to 
Canada \\-hen a young man. Of an adventur- 
our disposition, he had been greatly interested 
by the reports of the "great water" in the 
West, "which, in common with many others at 
that time, he thought miglit lead tO' the Gulf 
of California. In the summer of 1668, while 
on an expedition with two priests, to the ex- 
treme western end of Ontario, he met and con- 
versed with Jolliet. Leaving his companions, 
he plunged into the wilderness, and for two 
vears thereafter was engaged in independent 
exploration of which we have very little ac- 
count. In 1677 he visited France, and received 
from the King letters-patent authorizing him 
to build forts south and west in that region 
"through which it would seem a passage to 
Mexico can be discovered." 

In the following year, with the encourage- 
ment and support of Frontenac, then governor 
of Canada, and accompanied by Henri de 
Tonty and Father Louis Hennepin, he made 
an expedition to the Niagara district, and 
Ijuilt on Lake Erie the first vessel that ever 
ventured on the Lakes, which he called the 
"Griffin." This vessel was lost while return- 
ing from Green Bay with a cargo of furs, a 
calamity that was only the beginning of many 
misfortunes that might well have discouraged 
a man of less resolute and indomitable nature. 
Soon afterwards he had to contend with the 
disaffection of his own men. who in his ab- 
sence and that of Tonty, destroyed a fort 
which he had built on the Illinois river, near 
the site of the present city of Peoria. For this 
act the men were subsequently punished. 
Father Hennepin, while on an expedition to 
the upper Mississippi, had been captured by 
a wandering tribe of Sioux. The Iroquois 


now began to be troublesome, their war parties 
attacking the Ilhnois and burning their vil- 
lages. Tonty had disappeared, having been 
obliged, while on an expedition, to take refuge 
from the Iroquois in a village of the Potta- 
watamies at the head of Green Bay. La Salle 
subsequently found him at Mackinac, while on 
his way to Canada for men and supplies. 

"On the 6th of Februaiy, 1682," says 
Bourinot, in "The Story of Canada," "La Salle 
passed down the swift current of the Missis- 
sippi, on that memorable voyage, which led 
hiim to the Gulf of Mexico. He was accom- 
panied by Tonty and Father Membre, one of 
the Recollet order, whom he always preferred 
to the Jesuits. The Indians of the expedition 
were Abenakis and Mohegans, who had left 
the far-ofif Atlantic coast and Acadian rivers, 
and wandered into the great West after the 
unsuccessful war in New England which was 

waged by the Sachem Metacomet, better 
known as King Philip. They met with a kindly 
reception from the Indians encamped by the 
side of the river, and, for the first time, saw 
the villages of the Taensas and Natchez, who 
were worshippers of the sun. At last on the 
6th of April, LaSalle, Tonty and Dautrey, went 
separately in canoes through the three chan- 
nels of the Mississippi, and emerged on the 
bosom of the Great Gulf." Near the mouth 
of the river they raised a column with an in- 
scription, taking possession of the country in 
the name of the King of France. "It can be 
said," says Bourinot, "that Frenchmen had 
at last laid a basis for future empire from the 
Lakes to the Gulf. It was for France to s'how 
her appreciation of the enterprise of her sons, 
and make good her claim to such vast imperial 
domain. The future was to show that she was 
unequal to the task." 



Tl'.c Iroquois — Their Famous League, Habits, and Costumes — The Algonquins, Their Co-m- 
lucrce, Picture-Writing, and Religion — Indian Warfare — Iroquois Conquests — Exter- 
mination of the Eries — The Clialita-Muslcoki StocI:. 

The Indian tribes which at the time of the 
first European discoveries occupied that part 
of Xorth America east of the Mississippi, and 
between Hudson's Bay and the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, were embraced, with some few exceptions, 
in two generic divisions — the Algonquins and 
the Iroquois. These two great families were 
separated from each other by radical differ- 
ences of language, rather than by any special 
racial or physical characteristics. To the Iro- 
quois linguistic stock belonged the Eries, who 
inhabited the country immediately south of 
Lake Erie; the Hurons, or Wyandots, whose 
home lay between Lakes Ontario and Huron ; 
the Andastes or Conestogas and the Susque- 
hannocks, of the lower Susquehanna ; the 
Cherokees, who were found on the upper Ten- 
nessee : the Tuscaroras of Virginia and North 
Carolina; the Neutral Nation, who lived to the 
west of the Niagara river; the Mohawks, One- 
idas, Onondagas, Senecas, and Cayugas, who 
occupied almost the entire area of New York, 
except the lower Hudson. Of the five tribes 
last named, the Alohawks occupied the Mo- 
hawk valley and the vicinity of Lakes George 
and Champlain. while the other four tribes 
were found in the region south of Lake Oon- 


The name Iroquois, though French in form, is 
said to have been derived from "Hiro" (I have 
spoken) — the conclusion of all their harangues 
— and "Koue;" an exclamation of sorrow 
when it was prolonged, and of joy when pro- 
nounced shortly. The Iroquois were an inland 
people, whose original home was probably in 
the district between the lower St. Lawrence 
and Hudson's Bay. They possessed an intelli- 
gence superior to that of most of the Indian 
tribes. This was exemplified in the famous 
league or confederation between the five tribes 
of New York, above mentioned (long known 
as the Five Nations), which was eft'ected 
about the middle of the Fifteenth century by 
Hiawatha, a sagacious chief of the Onondagas, 
and the subject of Longfellow's poem of that 
name. Says Horatio Hale, in his work entitled 
"The Iroquois Book of Rites,'' "The system 
he devised was not to be a loose or transitory' 
league, but a permanent government. WHiile 
each nation was to retain its own council and 
management of local affairs, the general con- 
trol was to be lodged in a federal senate, com- 
posed of representatives to be elected by each 
nation, holding office during good behavior. 



and acknowledged as ruling chiefs throughout 
the whole confederacy. Still further, and more 
remarkably, the federation was not to be a 
limited one. It was to be indefinitely expansible. 
The avowed design of its proposer was to 
abolish zuar altogether. That this beneficent 
and farsighted plan failed of its ultimate object 
was due less to any inherent defects than to the 
fact that that object was too far advanced for 
the comprehension of those for whose benefit 
it was designed. Though retaining its govern- 
mental value in the regulation of tribal affairs, 
the league was soon perverted into a means of 
conquest and aggression until the name of Iro- 
quois became a terror to all the surrounding 
nations. It included, besides the five New 
York tribes above mentioned, some portions of 
the Neutral Nation, and, at a later date, the 
Tuscaroras, who, about 1712, were driven from 
North Carolina by the British, the confedera- 
tion after this date being known as the Six 
Nations. It was to these tribes only that the 
name Iroquois was applied by the early French 
and English settlers. 


The Iroquois called themselves in general 
Ho-de-no-saunee, "The people of the long 
house," each tribe living in a separate village 
of long houses, large enough to hold from five 
to twenty families each. "Each family was a 
clan or kin resembling the gens of the Romans 
■ — a group of males and females, whose kin- 
ship was reckoned only through females — the 
universal custom in archaic times in America." 
As the marriage tie was loosely regarded, all 
rank, titles, and property were based upon the 
rights of the woman alone. The child belonged 
to the clan, not of the father, but of the mother. 
Each of the long houses was occupied by re- 
lated families, the mothers and their children 
belonging to the same clan, while the husbands 
and fathers belonged to other clans ; conseque- 
quently the clan or kin of the mother predomi- 
nated in the household. E\'ery clan had a name, 
derived from the animal world, as a rule, 
which was represented in the "totem," or coat- 
of-arms, of the kin or gens, found over the 

door of a long house, or tattooed on the arms 
or bodies of its members. Being originally 
a nation of one stock and each tribe containing 
parts of the original clans, "all the members 
of the same clan, whatever tribe they belonged 
to, were brothers or sisters to each other in 
virtue of their descent from the same common 
female ancestor." No marriage could take 
place between members of the same clan or 
kin. Yet while the Iroquois woman had so 
much importance in the household and in the 
regulation of inheritance, as well as a voice in 
the councils of the tribe, she was almost as 
much a drudge as the squaw of the savage 
Micmacs of Acadia. 

Besides building better cabins and strong- 
holds than other tribes the Iroquois also culti- 
vated more maize. Although they had devised 
no method of recording history, they had many 
myths and legends, which were handed down 
with great minuteness from generation to gen- 
eration. In remembering them they were aided 
by the wampum belts and strings, which served 
by the arrangement and design of the beads 
to ,fix certain facts and expressions in their 
memoi'y. "The Iroquois myths," says Brinton, 
"refer to the struggle of the first two brothers, 
the dark twin and the white, a familiar sym- 
bolism, in which we see the personification of 
the light and darkness, and the struggle of day 
and night." 


The Algonquin stock was both more num- 
erous and more widely scattered than that of 
the Iroquois. Their various tribes, according 
to linguistic identification, were distributed as 
follows : Abnakis, in Nova Scotia and on the 
south bank of the St. Lawrence; Arapahoes, 
head waters of Kansas river ; Blackfeet, head 
waters of the Missouri river ; Cheyennes, upper 
waters of Arkansas river; Chippeways, shores 
of Lake Superior; Crees or Sauteux, southern 
shores of Hudson's Bay; Delawares or Len- 
apes, on the Delaware river ; Illinois, on the 
Illinois river; Kaskaskias, on the Mississippi 
below the Illinois river; Kickapoos, on the 
upper Illinois river; Meliseets, in Nova Scotia 



and New Brunswick; Miamis, between the 
Miami and \\'abash rivers ; Micmacs, in Nova 
Scotia ; Menominees, near Green Bay ; Mohie- 
gans, on lower Hudson river ; Manhattans, 
about New York bay; Nanticoke, on Chesa- 
peake bay; Ottawas, on the Ottawa river and 
south of Lake Huron ; Pampticokes, near Cape 
Hatteras; Passamaquoddies, on the Schoodic 
river; Piankisliaws, on the middle Ohio river; 
Pottawattomies, south of Lake Michigan ; Sacs 
and Foxes, on the Sac river; Secoffies, in La- 
brador ; Shawnees. on Tennessee river ; Weas, 
near the Piankishaws. The Crees, one of the 
most important tribes, retained the original 
language of the stock in its purest form ; while 
the Nanticokes of Maryland, the Powhatans 
of Virginia, and the Pamticokes of the Caro- 
linas spoke dialects which diverged more or 
less widely from it. The traditions, customs, 
and language of these tribes seem to point to 
some spot north of the St. Lawrence, and east 
of Lake Ontario, as the original home of the 
stock. The totemic system prevailed among 
the Algoncjuins, as also, descent in the female 
line, but not the same communal life as among 
the Iroquois. "Only rarely do we meet with 
the 'long house' occupied by a number of kin- 
dred families." Most of the tribes manufac- 
tured pottery, though of a coarse and heavy 
kind. They employed copper in the manufac- 
ture of ornaments, knives and chisels, though 
their arrowheads and axes were usually of 
stone. They also carried on an extensive com- 
merce in various articles with very distant 
parts, their trading operations extending even 
as far as Vancouver Island, whence they ob- 
tained the black slate, ornamented pipes of the 
Haidah Indians. Some tribes, as the Lenapes 
and the Chippeways, had developed the art of 
picture writing from the representative to the 
symbolic stage, as had been done by the Aztecs 
and kindred races of Mexico ; it was employed 
to preserve the national history and the rites 
of the secret societies. The religion of the 
Algonquins "was based upon the worship of 
light, especially in its concrete manifestations, 
as the sun and fire ; of the four winds as typical 
of the cardinal points, and as the rain-bringers ; 
and of the totemic animal." Thev also, like the 

Iroquois, had numerous myths, wliich in the 
case of the Lenapes had been partially pre- 
served, and present the outlines common to 
the stock. 


The Algonquin and Huron-Iroquois na- 
tions had many customs in common. Though 
a general war could only be engaged in on the 
approval of the council, yet any number of 
warriors might go on the war path at any time 
against the enemies of the tribe. Their favor- 
ite method of fighting was by a surprise or 
sudden onslaught. A siege soon exhausted 
their patience and resources. "To steal stealth- 
ily at nig'ht through the maze of the woods, 
tamahawk their sleeping foes, and take many 
scalps, was the height of an Indian's bliss. 
Curious to say, the Indians took little precau- 
tion to guard against such surprises, but 
thought they were protected by their manitous 
or guardian spirits." It was a general Indian 
belief that after death all men passed to the 
land of Shades — a land where trees, flowers, 
animals, and men were spirits. 

"By midnigth moons, o'er moistening dews 

In vestments for tile chase arrayed. 
The hunter still the deer pursues, 

The hunter and the deer a shade" 


The league formed b}' the Iroquois (using 
the name in its limited application to the five 
tribes of New York), excited the jealousy and 
fear of all the surrounding nations, and their 
apprehensions were subsequently justified in 
the career of conquests and aggression pursued 
by the Iroquois. The Adirondacks, Hurons, 
Eries, Andastes, Shawnees, Illinois, Miamis. 
Delawares, Susquehannocks. Uamis, Nanti- 
cokes, and Minsi, in turn fell victims to their 
prowess, some of them, like the Adirondacks 
and Eries, being practically annihiliated. At 
last they claimed by right of conquest, the 
whole of the country from the Atlantic to the 
Mississippi, and from the Lakes to the Caro- 




Their battle with the Eries, which has been 
often told, was perhaps the most desperately 
contested of any in their war-like and blood- 
stained history. It is said by some writers to 
have taken place in 1656, at a point about half 
way between Canandaigua Lake and the Gene- 
see river. The Eries, who were known also as 
Erries, Erigas, or Errieonons, and who, as 
we have seen, were of the same blood, and 
spoke a dialect of the same language as the 
Iroquois, occupied the region lying immediately 
south of Lake Erie, and their claims doubt- 
less extended over all of northeastern Ohio and 
a part of western New York. Their tribal 
seat was on the Sandusky plains. They are 
described as being a most powerful and war- 
like tribe. Their jealousy of the Iroquois it is 
said was brought to a culmination by a gym- 
nastic contest in which they had invited the 
latter to participate with them. The invita- 
tion, after being given and declined several 
times was finally accepted, a place of meeting 
appointed, and one hundred young Iroquois 
braves were selected to maintain the honor of 
their respected tribes. Each side deposited a 
valuable stake. The game of ball, which bad 
been proposed, was won by the Iroquois, who 
thereupon took possession of their prizes and 
prepared to take their leave. But the Eries, 
dissatisfied with the result of the game, pro- 
posed a running match, to be contested by 
ten men on a side. This was agreed to, and 
the Iroquois were again victorious. The chief 
of the Eries now proposed a wrestling match, 
also between ten contestants on a side, to which 
he attached the bloody condition that each vic- 
tor should dispatch his adversary on the spot, 
by braining him with a tomahawk, and bearing 
off his scalp as a trophy. This challenge was 
reluctantly agreed to by the Iroquois, who pri- 
vately resolved, perhaps from motives of piai- 
dence, not to execute the sanguinary part of 
the proposition. Victory again inclined to- the 
cliampions of the Five Nations. As the first 
victorious Iroquois stepped back, declining to 
execute his defeated adversarv, the chief of 

the Eries, now furious with rage and shame, 
himself seized the tomahawk and at a single 
blow scattered the brains of his vanquished 
warrior on the ground. A second and third 
Erie warrior after a similar defeat met the 
same fate. The chief of the Iroquois, seeing 
the terrible excitement which agitated the 
multitude, now gave the signal to retreat, and 
soon every member of the party was lost to 
in the depths of the forest. The long slumber- 
ing hatred of the Eries for the Iroquois was 
now thoroughly aroused. Though they felt 
that they were no match for the Five Nations 
collectively, they formed a plan to accomplish 
the destruction of the tribes by attacking them 
suddenly and in detail. To this end they made 
quick and secret preparations, selecting the 
Senecas as the objects of their first onslaught. 
But the Senecas had received timely warning 
from a woman of their tribe, who was the 
widow of an Erie warrior, and it was with 
the united Five Nations that the Eries, soon 
after beginning the assault, found that they 
had to cope. Nerved to desperation by the 
knowledge that the loss of the battle meant 
their utter destruction, they performed terrific 
feats of valor, and the result was long in 
doubt. But after one side and then the other had 
been several times successively driven back, and 
both parties were beginning to tire, the Iro- 
quois brought up a reserve of one thousand 
young men, who had never been in battle, and 
who had been lying in ambush. These rushed 
upon the now almost exhausted Eries with 
such fury that the latter, unable any longer to 
sustain the contest, gave wa}' and fled, to bear 
the news of their terrible defeat to the old men, 
women and children of the tribe. The Iro- 
quois long kept up the pursuit, and five months 
elapsed before their last scalp-laden warriors 
returned to join in celebrating- their victory 
over their last and most powerful enemies, the 
Eries. It is said that many years after, a pow- 
erful war party of the descendants of the Eries 
came from beyond the Mississippi and attacked 
the Senecas, who were then in possession of 
the Erie's former territory, but were utterly 
defeated and slain to a man. 




With the other Indian tribes inhabiting tlie 
extensive region referred to at the beginning 
of this chapter, this history has Httle to do. 
They included the Seminoles, in Florida ; the 
Apalaches, on Apa.lache bay; the Chickasaws 
on the head waters of Mobile river ; the Choc- 
taws, between the Mobile and Mississippi 
rivers, and the Yemassees, around Port Royal 
Bay, South Carolina. They all belonged to 
the Chahta-Muskoki stock, some branches of 
which were found west of the Mississippi river. 
De Soto and other early European explorers, 
describe some of these tribes as being exten- 
sively engaged in agriculture, dwelling" in per- 

manent towns and well-constructed wooden ed- 
ifices, many of which were situated on high 
mounds of artificial construction, and using for 
weapons and utensils stone implements of great 
beauty of workmanship. They manufactured 
tasteful ornaments of g'old, which metal they 
obtained from the auriferous sands of the Ma- 
cooche and other streams by which they re- 
sided. Says Dr. Brinton, "Their artistic de- 
velopment was strikingly similar to that of the 
Mound Builders, who have left such interesting 
remains in the Ohio valley, and there is, to say 
the least, a strong probability that they are the 
descendants of the constructors of those ancient 
works, driven to the South by the irruptions of 
the wild tribes of the north. 



Erroneous Ideas of Early A'az'igafors and Geographers — Attempts to Reach tlie South Sea 
Overland — Virginia's Charters — Massachusetts' Charters — The Grant to Penn — Over- 
lapping Boundaries — Dispute zvith Virginia — Connecticut's Claims — Conflict zmtli Penn- 
syk'aiiia — Council of Trenton — JJ\"stern Reserve. 

While the French were pushing their way 
into the interior of North America by means of 
the river St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes, 
the Enghsh were no less busy in making settle- 
ments along the North Atlantic coast. Some 
few of these, notably the early settlements of 
Sir Walter Raleigh in Virginia — ^were failures, 
owing chiefly to the character of the colonists 
themselves, who were for the most part gentle- 
men adventurers, disinclined to labor, and hop- 
ing to acquire sudden wealth by the discovery 
of precious metals rather than by the slower 
and more laborious methods of cultivating the 
soil or establishing profitable industries. Later 
efforts, undertaken under more favorable aus- 
pices, and by men of a different stamp, proved 
successful. Lito the history of these early col- 
onies, as defined in their respective charters, 
so far as is has to do with the region northwest 
of the Ohio river, long known after its dis- 
co\'erv by the French as the Northwest terri- 
tory. : , ' '• 

The ignorance which long prevailed as to 
the extent of the continent westward, was the 
source of great confusion and error among 
early geographers, and led to a general over- 
lapping of the boundaries of neighboring col- 
onies, as defined in their respective charters. 

Says Winsor, in his history of "The Missis- 
sippi Basin," "The charters which the English 
king had given while parceling out the At- 
lantic seaboard of the present United States, 
carried the bounds of the several gi^ants west- 
ward to the great ocean supposed to lie some- 
where beyond the Alleghenies. Though Drake 
and others had followed the Pacific northward 
to upper California, the determination of longi- 
tude was still so uncertain that different esti- 
mates prevailed as to the width of the conti- 
nent. When the charter of Virginia was con- 
firmed, in 1609, there was dying out a concep- 
tion w'hiich had prevailed among geographers, 
but which the institutions of Mercator had 
done much to dispel, that a great western sea 
approached the Atlantic somewhere midway 
along its seaboard. This theory had come 
do\\'n from the voyage of Varrazano." 

Thus a map of Virginia, sold in London 
in 1 65 1, lays down the Hudson river as com- 
municating b\' a "mighty great lake'' with the 
"sea of China and the Lidies," and bears the 
inscription, running along the shore of Cali- 
fornia, "whose happy shores (in ten days' 
march with fifty foot and thirty horsemen from 
the head of James river, over those hills and 
through the rich adjacent valleys beautifyed 



with as profitable rivers which necessarily must 
run into that peaceful Indian sea) may be dis- 
covered to the exceeding benefit of Great Brit- 
ain and joye of all true English." Smith, Hud- 
son, and Cartier expected to find the Indian 
road in the rivers that they explored. Captain 
Newport, in i6So, brought over from England 
a barge so constructed that it could be taken 
to pieces and then put together, with which 
hie and his company were instructed to ascend 
the James river as far as the falls and descend 
to the South sea, being ordered "not to return 
without a lump of gold as a certainty of the 
said sea." This persistent misconception of 
North America was due to the mental prepos- 
session which prevented men seeing any insup- 
erable obstacle to their finding a western sea- 
road to the Indies, and to the fact that Balboa, 
Drake, and others, from the mountains of Dar- 
ien, had seen the two oceans that wash its 
shores. The English, shut out from the St. 
Lawrence river by the French, and from the 
Gulf of Mexico by the Spanish, and confronted 
at a distance of from one to two hundred miles 
from the coast by the great Appalachian moun- 
tain range, which long proved an almost in- 
superable barrier to western settlement, were 
much slower than their rivals in seeing in 
North America a vast continent. 

virgixia's charters. 

The first charter of Virginia, granted by 
James I, in 1606, to the London and Plymouth 
companies bestowed on them in equal propor- 
tions the territory in America, including ad- 
jacent islands, lying between the thirty-fourth 
and forty-fifth degrees of north latitude. It 
was stipulated that one-fifth of the precious 
metals found should belong to the king; also 
that all waterways near the colony were to be 
explored for the purpose of finding a short and 
easy route to the Pacific ocean. 

The second Virginia charter, granted by 
James I, in 1609, to the London and Plymouth 
and others, constituting the London company, 
defined the limits of the ■ company's territory 
as follows: "all those lands, countries, and 
territories, situate, lying, and being, in that 

part of America called Virginia, from tbe 
Point of Land called Cape or Point Comfort, 
all along the Sea Coast to the Northward two 
hundred miles, and from the said Point of 
Cape Comfort all along the Sea Coast to the 
Southward two hundred Miles, and all that 
Space and Circuit of land lying from the Sea 
Coast of the Precinct aforesaid up into the 
Land, throughout from Sea to Sea, West and 
Northwest, and also all Islands lying within 
one hundred Miles, along the Coast of both 
Seas of the Precinct aforesaid." This is the 
first of the "from sea to sea" boundaries that 
play so important a part in history. Some 
vagueness in the phrase "up into the land 
throughout from sea to sea, west and north- 
west" gave rise to a long discussion as to its 
meaning, but as construed by Virginia, more 
than one-half the North American continent 
was embraced within the boundary lines, in- 
cluding the whole of the Northwest territory. 


The first charter upon which Massachusetts 
based her claim to lands in the west, was 
granted by James I to the Plymouth Company 
in 1620. and was the second of the two charters 
into which that of 1606 was merged. It de- 
fined the company's territorj^ as "that aforesaid 
part of America lying and being in breadth 
from 40 degrees of northerly latitude from the 
equinoctial line to 48 degrees of the said north- 
erly latitude inclusively, and in length of, and 
within all the breadth aforesaid, throughout all 
the Maine lands from sea to sea * * * 
and also with the said islands and seas adjoin- 
ing, provided always, that the said islands, or 
any of the premises hereinbefore mentioned, 
and by these presents intended and meant to be 
granted, be not actually possessed or inhabited 
by any other Christian prince or estate, nor to 
be within the bounds, limits and territories of 
that Southern Colony heretofore by us granted 
to be planted by diverrs of our loving subjects 
in the south part," etc. The king also declared 
it to be his will and pleasure that the said ter- 
ritory, in order to be more certainly known 
and distinguished, should be called by the name 


of New England in America. It embraced, ac- 
cording- to the described boundary lines, the 
greater part of the present inhabited British 
possessions to the north of the United States 
all of what is now New England, New York, 
one-half of New Jersey, nearly all of Pennsyl- 
vania, more than the northern half of Ohio, 
and the states and territories to the west, north 
of the fortieth parallel. 

In 1629, Charles I confirmed a charter 
which had been granted to the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony by the council at Plymouth, and in 
which the boundaries of Massachusetts were 
defined as extending from three miles north of 
the Merrimac River to three miles south of the 
Charles River and the most southerly point in 
Massachusetts Bay, and from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the South Sea. 


The Pennsylvania charter, granted by 
Charles II to William Penn, in 1681, was the 
cause of .more disputes than any other in our 
history. The limits of the grant were thus de- 
fined : "All that tract or part of land in Amer- 
ica, with all the islands therein contained, as 
the same is bounded on the east by Delaware 
River, from twelve miles distance northwards 
of New Castle Town unto the three and fort- 
ieth degree of northern latitude, if the said 
river doth extend so far northward ; but if the 
said river shall not extend so far northward, 
then by the said river so far as it doth extend, 
and from the head of the said river the eastern 
bounds to be determined by a meridian line, to 
be drawn from the head of the said river, unto 
the said three and fortieth degree. The said 
lands to extend westward five degrees in longi- 
tude, to be computed from the said eastern 
bounds ; and the said lands to be bounded on 
the north by the beginning of the three and 
fortieth degree of northern latitude, and on the 
south' by a circle drawn at twelve miles dis- 
tance from New Castle northward and west- 
ward unto the beginning of the fortieth degree 
of northern latitude, and then by a straight line 
westward to the limit of longitude above men- 
tioned." Penn soon after extended his province 

by the purchase of Delaware from the Duke of 
York; he also obtained from him the relin- 
quishment of his claim to the western shore 
of the river above the twelve-mile circle, which 
had been drawn to leave the town of New- 
Castle in the Duke's hands. The question arose 
as to the meaning of the descriptions, "the be- 
ginning of the fortieth," and "the beginning 
of the three and fortieth degree of north lati- 
tude." Penn took the ground that they meant 
the belts lying between 39, 40, 42 and 43 de- 
grees, and that his southern and northern 
boundaries were consequently 39 and 42 de- 
grees north. This construction, which made 
Pennsylvania overlap the boundaries of Mary- 
land and Virginia on the south, and of Con- 
necticut on the north, involved bim and his suc- 
cessors in the most bitter disputes with those 
colonies. That with Mai^yland, which continued 
for more than eigiity A^ears, and greatly re- 
tarded the settlement and development of a 
beautiful and fertile country, after much liti- 
gation, was settled by a compromise on the 
part of proprietors in 1760. 


The controversy with Virginia did not be- 
gin formally until 1752, its immediate cause 
being the settlement of Pennsylvanians west of 
the mountains in territory that in 1738 the 
General Assembly of Virginia — bounding it on 
the east by the Blue Ridge, and on the west and 
northwest by "the utmost limits of Virginia" 
— had created Augusta County. Carried on by 
Governors Dinwiddle and Hamilton on a ques- 
tion of fortifying the forks of the Ohio, it was 
for a time interrupted by the French and 
Indian war. Braddock's defeat enabled the 
French commander on the Ohio to destroy the 
English settlements and drive off the inhabit- 
ants, but after Fort Duquesne fell into the 
hands of the English', in 1758, Virginians and 
Pennsylvanians again began to make their way 
into the disputed territory, which by that time 
had been given a county organization by the 
government of Pennsylvania also, it being thus 
under two different political jurisdictions. This 
gave rise to much strife and turbulance, and 



more acrimonious correspondence between the 
respective governors, now Penn and Dvinmore. 
Tlie latter aimed at, and finally succeeded in 
bringing on an Indian war, which takes its 
name from him. After the trouble between 
the two colonies had gone on for some years 
longer, with high-handed proceedings on both 
sides, for which Lord Dunmore's arbitrary 
western policy was mainly responsible, it was 
brought to a termination at the opening of the 
revolutionarjr war by a petition from the mem- 
bers of Congress, who, July 25, 1775, for the 
benefit of the patriot cause, united in the fol- 
lowing recommendation : "We recommend it 
to you that all bodies of armed men, kept up 
by either party, be dismissed ; and that all those 
on either side who are in confinement, or on 
bail, for taking part in the contest, be dis- 
charged." In 1779 commissioners appointed 
by the two States met at Baltimore and signed 
an agreement "to extend Mason and Dixon's 
line due west five degrees of longitude, to be 
computed from the River Delaware, for the 
southern extremit}^ of Pennsylvania, and that 
a meridian line drawn from the western ex- 
tremity thereof to the northern limit of the said 
State be the western boundary of Pennsylvani 
forever." This contract being duly ratified 
by the legislatures of the two States, Mason 
and Dixon's line was extended in 1785, and the 
southwestern corner of Pennsylvania estab- 
lished. \\'hen the State of Ohio was formed 
in 1802, the territory left of Virginia east of 
the Ohio River and north of the Mason and 
Dixon's line, which then showed its peculiar 
proportions for the first time on the may of the 
United States, was dubbed the "Paribandle" 
by the Hon. John McMillen, delegate from 
Brooke County. 

Connecticut's claims. 

To understand the dispute between Penn- 
sylvania and Connecticut, in which we are 
more interested, and which was in fact by far 
the most important, it will be necessary to 
glance briefly at the early history of the latter 

Connecticut, as originallv constituted, in- 

cluded the three towns of Windsor, Hartford 
and Weathersfield, which were settled in 1636 
and 1637 by emigration from Massachusetts, 
and were for a short time under the protection 
of that colony. New Haven, founded in 1638, 
was at first a separate colony, not included in 
Connecticut, and had no other title than one 
obtained by purchase from the Indians. 
Neither the Connecticut nor the New Haven 
colonists "had any title to the lands that they 
occupied, proceeding from the Crown, previous 
to the charter that constituted the Connecticut 
Company, granted by Charles II, April 23, 
1662, which gave the colony the following 

"We * * * do give, grant and con- 
firm unto the said Governor and Company, and 
their successors, all that part of our dominions 
in New England in America bounded on the 
east by Narragansett River, commonly called 
Narragansett Bay, where the said river falleth 
into the sea, and on the north by the line of the 
Massachusetts plantation, and on the south by 
the sea, and in longitude as the line of the 
Massachusetts Colony, running from east to 
west, that is to say, from the said Narragansett 
Bay on the east, to the south sea on the west 
part, with the islands thereunto adjoining." 

"This charter," says Hillman, "consoli- 
dated Connecticut and New Flaven ; it cut into 
the_ grant made to Roger Williams and his as- 
sociates in 1643, and it did not recognize the 
presence of the Dutch on the Hudson even to 
the extent of making the familiar reservation 
in favor of a Christian prince holding or Chris- 
tian people inhabitating." 

The northern boundary of the colonv, identi- 
cal, according to the charter, with the southern 
boundary of Massachusetts, was not, however, 
settled for more than a century, owing to its 
having been incorrectly sur\-eyed in 1642. This 
gave rise to disputes between the two colonies, 
AAhich were not ended until 1714, when both 
parties agreed on a compromise line almost 
identical with the present boundarv. This line 
conforms in general to the parallel of 42 de- 
grees 2 minutes : it marks the southern limit of 
the I\Iassachusetts claim and the northern limit 
of the Connecticut claim west of the Delaware. 



The Connecticut settlements were much an- 
noyed for man}' years by the Dutch, who early 
in the seventeenth century had planted them- 
selves firmly upon the North River, as they 
called the Hudson, and who claimed all the 
coast as far as the Connecticut. The English, 
basing their claims on the discoveries of the 
Cabots, had always denied the validity of the 
Dutch title. In 1664, Charles II granted to his 
brother, James, Duke of York, a vaguely de- 
fined tract of country in New England, be- 
ginning at St. Croix, and including "all that 
island or islands commonly called by the sev- 
eral name or names of Matowacks or Long 
Island scituate, lying and being toward the west 
of Cape Codd and ve narrow Higansetts abut- 
ting upon the maine land between the two 
Rivers there called or knowne by the severall 
names of Conecticutt and Hudsons River and 
all the land from the west side of Conecticutt 
to ye east side of Delaware Bay and also all 
those severall Islands called or knowne by the 
names of Martin's Vinyard and Nantukes 
otherwise Nantuckett together with all ye 
lands islands soyles rivers harbours mines 
minerals quarryes woods marshes waters lakes, 

"The next year a fleet sent out by the Royal 
Duke took possession of New Netherlands. A 
few years later the Dutch recovered the prov- 
ince for a single year, but that article of the 
treaty of Westminster, 1674, which required 
the surrender by both parties of all conquests 
made in the course of the preceding war, re- 
maining in the hands of the conqueror, gave 
the English a secure title as against the Dutch. 
A second charter, dated 1674, confirmed the 
Duke in possession of the province, the 
boundary descriptions remaining much as be- 
fore. The Duke gave the province the name 
by which it has since been known." 

Between 1662 and 1664 Charles II issued 
several conflicting cliarters, widely overlap- 
ping the boundary lines of Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut, a condition 
of things that was then the rule rather than the 
exception. Indeed, much of the boundary work 

done in Colonial times was of a nature to 
justify Rufus Choate's celebrated description of 
a phase of some dispute arising from this 
cause: "The commissioners might as well have 
decided that the line between the States was 
bounded on the north by a bramble bush, on 
the south by a bluejay, on the west by a hive of 
bees in swarming time, and on the east by five 
hundred foxes with fire-brands tied to their 

The establishment of New York as a separ- 
ate English colony put a new aspect on the 
claims of Massachusetts and Connecticut as 
based upon their "sea to sea" charters. There 
were some disputes, followed by adjustments 
and readjustments of boundaries, the lines 
being finally agreed upon in 1773, with some 
slight modifications, just as they are today. 
"When the two States were afterward told that 
b}^ consenting to the lines east of the Hudson 
they had barred their own charter rights to ex- 
tend farther west, they replied that the Duke 
of York's grant was bounded on the west by 
the Delaware, that he had jumped them, there- 
fore, only to that limit and that their consent- 
ing to the fact in no sense barred them west 
of his boundary." 


The grant made to Penn carried to 42 de- 
grees north, conflicted with the Connecticut 
charter of 1662, as well as with all others in 
which Connecticut was interested, and caused 
uncertainty as to the political jurisdiction and 
right of soil in a rich and fertile region of more 
than 5,000,000 acres of lands, west of the Del- 
aware and between the forty-first and forty- 
second parallels. In 1753, the Susquehanna 
Company was organized for the purpose of 
settling the lands claimed by Connecticut west 
of New York. In the following year a tract 
120 miles in length, from ten miles east of 
the Susquehanna westward, was purchased by 
the company from certain Iroquois chiefs. In 
the same year the Albany Congxess, which had 
been called under authority of the home gov- 
ernment for the consideration of existing af- 
fairs in the several colonies, passed resolutions 



declaring- the validity of the Massachusetts 
and Connecticut claims west of the Delaware, 
and also of the western claims of Virginia. It 
also devised a practical system for carrying on 
western colonization. The Delaware Com- 
pany was soon after organized, which also pur- 
chased lands from the Indians. In 1768 five 
townships were organized in the Wyoming 
Valley by the older company. 


The Pennsylvania proprietors, who had 
hitherto done nothing but make protests, now 
purchased from the Indians, at a congress held 
at Fort Stanwix, all that part of the Province 
of Pennsylvania not previously purchased 
them, and this included the whole Connecticut 
claim. They also began to lease lands in the 
Connecticut district on the condition that the 
leasees should defend them against the Con- 
necticut claimants. The attempts of the lessees 
to oust the settlers in possession brought on a 

skirmish of writs and arrests that has been 
termed the first Pennamite and Yankee war. It 
is unnecessary to follow the contest in its sub- 
sequent details. It was continued under one 
aspect or another, resort even being had to mil- 
tary force, until 1775, when the Continental 
Congress intervened with a remonstrance, 
which caused both parties to suspend hostil- 
ities. In 1782 a Federal Court, convened at 
Trenton, decided against the claims of Con- 
necticut. This decision applied to the whole 
Connecticut claim within the charter limits of 
Pennsylvania. Connecticut made no objection. 
Keeping in view the fact that Pennsylvania 
had a definite boundary on the west, she car- 
ried her stake westward and drove it into the 
ground five degrees west of the Delaware; 
"that is, she asserted her right to the strip of 
land lying between 41 and 42 degrees 2 min- 
utes west of Pennsylvania to the Mississippi 
River, which by the treaties of 1763 and 1783 
had taken the place of the South Sea as the 
western boundary. This tract was the West- 
ern Reserve, and included within its limits 
what is now Mahoning County. 



American History IiiHucnccd by the Iroquois — Indian Cessions — English Settlers Cross 
the Mountains — The French Precipitate the War — Poiitiac's Conspiracy — Bouquet's 

One of the most influential factors in de- 
termining the uUimate triumph of England 
over France in North America, was the Indian 
confederacy known as the Six Nations, to 
which reference has already been made. Both 
English and French early recognized the im- 
portance of conciliating these haughty war- 
riors. In this the former were the more suc- 
cessful. The French, though usually more 
tactful than the English in dealing with the 
aborigines, on several occasions made the mis- 
take of provoking the people of the "Long 
House" — a mistake that all subsequent diplom- 
acy, united to the indefatigable exertions of the 
missionaries, was unable wholly to rectify. 
While the Jesuits were giving thanks to God 
for having at last affected the conversion of 
these formidable savages., the Iroquois attacked 
and almost utterly destroyed the friendly 
Hurons west of the Ottawa. Their incessant 
forays kept the frontier settlements in a miser- 
able state of uncertainty and suspense that 
operated as a powerful check to the execution 
of French plans for obtaining a solid foothold 
it the West. It was owing chiefly to the Iro- 
quois that Lake Erie was the last of the Great 
Lakes, and the territory now known as Ohio, 
the very last portion of the Northwest, to be 

discovered and explored. After the destruc- 
tion of the Fries this region was covered by 
roving bands of Iroquois, and the main body 
of French immigration was turned aside from 
the lower lakes to the Ottawa and the Nipis- 
sing. Could France have gained the friend- 
ship of the Six Nations, her traders, settlers, 
and garrisons would have filled the West, "and 
cut up the virgin wilderness into fiefs, while 
as yet the colonies of England were but a weak 
and broken line along- the shore of the At- 

The feudal nature of the then existing 
French scheme of government — a government 
of officers, not of laws — is clearly shown in a 
letter of instructions that Colbert wrote to 
Frontenac in 1672. 

"It is well for you to observe that you are 
always to follow in the government of Canada 
the forms in use here, and since our kings have 
long regarded it as good for their service not 
to convoke the states of the kingdom, in order, 
perhaps, to abolish insensibly this ancient 
usage, you on 3'Our part should very rarely, or, 
to speak more correctly, never give a corporate 
form to the inhabitants of Canada. You should 
even, as the colony strengthens, suppress 
o-radually the office of the syndic who presents 



petitions in the name of the inhabitants ; for it 
is well that each should speak for himself and 
none for all." 

"The Iroquois," says Parkman, "retarded 
the growth of absolutism until liberty was 
equal to the final struggle, and they influence 
our national history to this day, since popu- 
lations formed in the ideas and habits of a 
feudal monarchy, and controlled by a liler- 
archy profoundly hostile to freedom of thought 
would have remained a hindrance and a stumb- 
ling block in the way of that majestic experi- 
ment of which America is the field." 


Xo sooner had New York been wrested 
from the Dutch than the English settlers who 
poured into that province to reap the benefits 
of the fur trade, which had been established 
on the Upper Hudson and the Mohawk by 
their predecessors, set themselves to cultivate 
good feeling and cornmercial relations with the 
people of the six tribes, and they succeeded in 
winning from them many valuable concessions, 
"some of which they did, and some of which 
they did not understand." Sometimes the Iro- 
quois pemiitted New York traders to pass 
through their country to the lakes. Once on 
the shore of Lake Erie a few days' paddling 
brought the traders to the extensive beaver 
grounds of the lower Michigan peninsula. 

At a later date it was claimed by the Eng- 
lish that a treaty had been made b}^ them with 
the Iroquois, in 1701, whereby the confeder- 
ated tribes had ceded to the English king all 
the lands to which they laid claim north of the 
Ohio, and reaching to the Illinois and Missis- 
sippi rivers, Ijut the genuineness of this deed 
has l3een doubted. Other extensive concessions, 
however, were actually made by them to tbe 
English. In 1684, the Iroquois at Albany 
placed themselves under the protection of King 
Charles and the Duke of York; in 1726 they 
conveyed all their lands in trust to England, 
to be protected and defended by his majesty to 
and for the use of the grantors and their 

A more important treaty was that made at 

Lancaster, Pa., in 1744, when the deputies 
of the Iroquois confirmed to Maryland the 
lands within that province, and made to Vir- 
ginia "a deed that covered the West as effectu- 
ally as the Virginian interpretation of the 
charter of 1609. Says Hinsdale, "It gave the 
English their first treaty hold upon the West, 
and it stands in all the statements of the Eng- 
lish claim to the country, side by side with the 
Cabot voyages. Again at Albany, in 1748, 
the bonds binding the Six Nations and the 
English together were strengthened, and at the 
same time the Miamis were brought within the 
covenant chain. In 1750-54, negotiators were 
busy with attempts to draw to the English in- 
terest the \\"estern tribes. Council fires burned 
at Logstown, at Shawneetown, and the Picka- 
willany, and generally witb results favorable 
to the English." 


In 1748 there began a general movement 
of Pennsylvanians and Virginians across the 
mountains. Kentucky and Tennessee were 
explored by a Virginian expedition under com- 
mand of Dr. Thomas Walker. About the same 
time the Ohio Company was fonned for the 
purpose of speculating in western lands and 
carrying the trade with the IndjSans. Ad- 
venturous traders and backwoodsmen extended 
their excursions farther and farther into the 
Western wilds, and soon the Indian town of 
Pickawillany, on the upper waters of the IMi- 
ami, became a great center of English trade 
and influence. Tlie growing interest in the 
West was evinced also by the fact that the 
Colonial authorities in every direction were 
seeking to obtain Indian titles to Western lands 
and to bind the Indians to the English by 


Celoron de Bienville, who in 1749, was sent 
by Galissoniere, Governor of Canada, to take 
possession of the valley of the Ohio and propi- 
tiate the Indians, found the valley full of Eng- 
lish traders, and the Indians generally well dis- 



posed to the English. The conflict which was 
to decide "whether French of Enghsh ideals 
and tendencies were to have sway in North 
America" was now recognized by all to be close 
at hand. France took the initiative. Early in 
1753, before the English Colonial governments 
had agreed upon any concerted plan of action, 
the Marquis Duquesne, who had succeeded 
Galissoniere as Governor of Canada, and who 
realized the need of prompt action, sent a 
strong force to seize and hold the northeastern 
branches of the Ohio. The party constructed 
two forts, one at the confluence of French 
Creek and the Allegheny River. This called 
forth a remonstrance from Governor Din- 
widdle of Virginia, the messenger being 
George Washington, who thus makes his first 
appearance in history. The French officer 
greets Washington with all the politeness and 
suavity of his nation, but returns the unsatis- 
factory reply that he will refer the matter to 
Quebec, and in the meantime proposes to hold 
his ground. This was in December. Early in 
the following year — 1754 — a small force of 
Virginians was sent to seize and fortify the 
forks of the Ohio — the key to the West. Before 
the works, which should have been built sev- 
eral years before, could be completed, they 
were seized and demolished by a large force 
of French, who had descended the Allegheny, 
and who proceeded to build a much stronger 
fort, which they called Fort Dusquesne. "This 
was an unmistakable act of war, and it pre- 
cipitated at once the inevitable contest." It 
is unnecessary here to follow the long struggle 
through all its shifting- scenes. Though the 
French gained some early successes, the most 
important being the terrible defeat they in- 
flicted on the headstrong Braddock, Tuly 7, 
1755, they were unable long to retain the ad- 
vantage. In the summer of 1758 the current 
changed. Though the expedition under com- 
mand of General John Forbes, undertaken for 
the capture of Fort Duquesne, received a tem- 
porary set-back, in the severe defeat sustained 
by Grant, who, hurrying forward too rapidly 
with the vanguard of Scotch Highlanders, had 
left his support behind, the object of the ex- 
pedition was fully attained. On the advance 

of the main army, the French evacuated the 
fort and fled. Forbes, who had conducted the 
campaign \Vhile incapacitated from illness to 
such an extent that he had to be carried most 
of the time in a litter, took possession of the 
fort and called the spot Pittsburg, after the 
great English minister. Placing an officer in 
command, he left for Philadelphia, where he 
died in March of the following year, contented 
in his last hours to know that, in spite of his 
feebleness, he had been able to restore the red 
flag to the Great Valley. The capture of Ni- 
agara by General Prideaux and Sir William 
Johnson, in 1759, secured the victory of 
Forbes, and Fort Pitt was safe. Quebec fell 
in September of the same year, and the end 
came a year later at Montreal, when after some 
desultory operations, Vaudreuil, commander 
of the remaining French forces, surrendered 
to General Amherst. By the terms of his 
capitulation not only Montreal, but Canada 
and all its dependencies came into possession of 
the British Crown. Tlie treaty of Utrecht, 
1763, left the French substantially nothing of 
their vast empire in America east of the Mis- 
sissippi, save the town of New Orleans and a 
small strip of land at the mouth of the Great 


The defeat of Braddock in the early part of 
the war, let loose swarms of bloodthirsty sav- 
ages against the frontier settlements of Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania, who kept up their 
murderous raids, with but few intermissions, 
for many years thereafter. They seem to have 
had some provocation in the numerous un- 
authorized frontier settlements made by vag- 
rant and vicious whites, who debauched them 
with rum while cheating them out of their 
lands and destroying their hunting grounds. 
The Indians who were not parties to the treaty 
of 1763, felt that they had far more to fear 
from the English than from the French. The 
news that France had ceded so large a part of 
North America, including the Indian lands, to 
Great Britain, drove them to desperation. 
Pontiac, chief of the Ottawas, one of the 





strongest and most influential of the western 
tribes, organized a formidable conspiracy 
against the whites, in which he was joined by 
the Ojibways, the Pottawattamies, and to a 
certain extent by some other tribes. In May, 
1763, a simultaneous attack was made upon all 
the forts and frontier settlements from Penn- 
sylvania to Lake Superior. The settlers, unpre- 
pared, were everywhere slaughtered in great 
numbers; two thousand are said to have been 
killed along the borders outside the armed 
posts. Every white man was driven from the 
upper Ohio and its tributaries, all the posts 
along the ri-ver were destroyed, and the savage 
foe even swept through unguarded passes of 
the mountains. Some of the smaller forts 
were also taken and their garrisons massacred. 

bouquet's expedition. 

When the extent of the calamity became 
known, a military force of regulars and pro- 
vincials was organized to relieve the garrisons 
and subdue the Indians. It was placed under 
charge of Colonel Henry Bouquet, a man of 
high character and ability, wlio had taken an 
important part in the war and in some of the 
events leading up to it. Though delayed and 
harrassed by the Pennsylvania authorities, who 
had raised a force for the borders, but re- 
fused to place it under bis control, he at last 
started with about 1,500 men. He first en- 
countered the enemy at Bushy Run, twenty- 
six miles from Fort Pitt, and gained some ad- 
vantages, though at the loss of about sixty 
men. On the next day the battle was renewed, 
and ended in the utter rout of the Indians, who 
proved to be a mixed force of Delawares, 
Shawnees, Wyandots and Mingoes. By the 
nth of August Bouquet, who had lost alto- 
gether 11; men, reached Fort Pitt, which had 
successfully stood a siege of five days. All the 
other forts in the West, except that at Detroit, 
had been either captured by the enemy or 

Bouquet's vjctnrv had for a time a quieting 
efifect upon the Indians, though during the 
autumn small parties continued to commit 
depredations along the Virginia frontier. It 

was known that the Indians had l)een supplied 
with ammunition by the French, who thus 
sought to thwart the English and gain the 
friendship of the savages, with the view of 
establishing settlements beyond the Mississippi. 
The next year General Thomas Gage, who had 
succeeded General Amherst in the command of 
the English forces in America, planned a cam- 
paign against the Indians, putting Colonel 
Bouquet in charge of all the regular forces in 
Philadelphia and south of it. These, accom- 
panied by militia, were to be pushed into the 
Mississippi region, while another expedition, 
under Colonel Bradsfereet, was to make a west- 
ern advance in tbe direction of Sandusky. 

Bradstreet was deluded by the Shawnees 
and Delawares into making a worthless treaty, 
a scheme devised by them to escape punish- 
ment. This treaty they had no intention of 
honoring, the Delawares, after signing it, con- 
tinuing to ravage tbe frontiers. Bradstreet, 
however, relieved tbe weary garrison at De- 
troit, and sent forward detachments to take 
possession of Mackinac, the Sault, and Green 

Bouquet, a man of very different caliber, 
after losing some time, owing to the apathy 
of the, local authorities, pushed at last into the 
wilderness to "force peace of his own imposing 
which should relieve the regions east and 
south of the Ohio of the tribes, and preserve 
the navigation of the Ohio itself. He had ad- 
vanced into the Muskingimi Valley, when on 
the 17th of November, the Indians about 
thought it wise to sue for peace." Bouquet 
would make no terms until every prisoner 
among them was surrendered. "I give you," 
said he, "twelve days from this date to deliver 
into my hands at Wakatamake all the prisoners 
in your possession, without any exception — 
Englishmen, Frenc'hmen, women, and children, 
whether adopted into your tribes, married, or 
living amongst you under any denomination 
and pretense whatsoever — together with all 
negroes. And you are to furnish said prison- 
ers with clothing and provisions, and horses to 
cirry them to Fort Pitt. When you bave fully 
complied with these conditions, you shall then 
know on what terms you may obtain the peace 



yon sue for." It took the Indians nearly a 
month to collect the prisoners, who numbered 
eighty-one males and 125 women and children. 
The scene at the camp on the arrival of these 
unfortunates is thus described in the account of 
Bouquet's expedition (Ohio History Series) : 

"In the camp were to be seen fathers and 
mothers recognizing and clasping their long 
lost babes, husbands hanging around the necks 
of their newly recovered wives, sisters and 
brothers unexpectedly meeting together after 
long separation, scarce able to speak the same 
language, or for some time to be sure that they 
were children of the same parents. In all these 
interviews joy and rapture inexpressible were 
seen, while feelings of very different nature 
were painted in the looks of others flying 
from place to place in eager inquiries after 
relatives not found ; trembling to receive an 
answer to their questions; distracted with 
doubts, hopes and fears, on obtaining no ac- 
count of those they sought for, or stiffened into 
living monuments of horror .and woe on learn- 
ing their unhappy fate. 

"The Indians, too, as if wholly forgetting 
their usual savageness, bore a capital part in 
heightening the most affecting scene. They 
delivered up their beloved captives with the 
utmost reluctance, shed torrents of tears over 
them, recommending them to the care and pro- 
tection of the commanding officer. Their re- 
gard to them continued all the time they re- 
mained in camp. They visited them from day 

to day, and brought them what com, skins and 
horses and other matters they had bestowed on 
thcni while in their families, accompanied with 
other presents, and with all the marks of the 
most sincere and tender affection. Nay, they 
did not stop here, but, when the army marched, 
some of the Indians solicited and obtained 
leave to accompany their former captives all 
the way to Fort Pitt, and employed themselves 
in hunting and bringing provisions for them on 
the road. A young Mingoe carried this still 
further, and gave an instance of love which 
would make a figure even in romance. A young 
woman of Virginia was among the captives, 
for whom he had formed so strong an attach- 
ment as to call her his wife. Against all re- 
monstrances and warnings of the imminent 
danger to which he exposed himself by ap- 
proaching the frontiers, he persisted in follow- 
ing her at the risk of being killed by the surviv- 
ing relations of many unfortunate persons who 
had been captured or scalped by those of his 
nation." Among the forest exiles was one who 
had given birth to an offspring supposed to be 
the first white child born in what is now the 
State of Ohio. Hoving imposed his terms. 
Bouquet broke up his camp and marched to 
Fort Pitt, which he reached on the 28th of 
December. When subsequently congratulated 
by Sir William Johnson on his success, he re- 
marked, "'Nothing but penetrating into their 
country could have done it." 



Eiiglis/i Jealousy of the Colonics — Lord Diuuiiorc's IVar — Frontier Characters — First 
White Man's House in Ohio — Military Expeditions to the West — Martial Lazi' — George 
III Forbids Western Settlement. 

Owing to a growing jealous}- of the col- 
onies, the policy of the home government in re- 
gard to the settlements west of the mountains 
was shifting and inconsistent. In 1769 the 
Ohio Company, whose purposes had been 
thwarted by the war, was absorbed in a scheme 
in which Thomas Walpole, Benjamin Franklin 
and others were interested, to establish a west- 
ern colony on the south side of the Ohio River. 
It was opposed by Lord Hillsborough, presi- 
dent of the Lords Commissioners for Trade 
and Plantations, who affirmed that the great 
object of the North American colonies was to 
"improve and extend the commerce, navigation 
and manufactures of England." Shore col- 
onies he approved because they fulfilled this 
condition ; inland colonies he condemned be- 
cause they would not fulfill it. It was his 
opinion that the king should take every means 
to check the progress of the western settle- 
ments, and should not make grants of land 
that would have an immediate tendency to en- 
courage them." 

These utterances called forth such a crush- 
ing reply from Franklin that the Walpole peti- 
tion was granted, and Lord Hillsborough re- 
signed in disgust. His opinions, however, were 
shared by many in England, who saw in the 
growing strength of the colonies a future 

menace to the commercial interests of Great 
Britain. Some were even in favor of restoring 
Canada to the French in exchange for the 
island of Gaudeloupe, with the idea that a 
French establishment in Canada would serve 
to hold the colonies in check. For the present 
the western frontier continued to be a wilder- 
ness inhabited chiefly by Avandering Indian 
tribes, and the almost equally savage white 
traders, whom Franklin described in a letter 
to George Whitefield in 1756, as "the most 
vicious and abandoned wretches of our 
nation." These men, regardless alike of honor, 
conscience, or even common prudence, and 
eager only for gain and the gratification of 
their lawless instincts, were responsible for 
many of the Indian uprisings which for so long 
afflicted the western settlements. In shudder- 
ing over the horrid cruelties inflicted by the 
Indians upon their prisoners, it should be re- 
membered that their acts were often the result 
of almost ecjually fiendish excesses on the part 
of white ruffians, some of them clothed with 
authorit}^ which they were wholly unfit to 


Thus, to glance briefly ahead of the story. 
Lord Dunmore's War, in 1774, which caused 



the murder of many settlers along the Virginia 
frontier, as well as a great slaughter in battle 
of both whites and Indians, was directly pro- 
voked by the wanton murder of some peaceful 
Indians, with their families, by Captain Cresap, 
commander at Fort Fincastle. In this detest- 
able act he was imitated by one Daniel Great- 
house, who, at the head of a bloody gang of 
ruffians, treacherously slaughtered a party of 
Indians encamped near the mouth of Yellow 
Creek, having first taken the precaution to 
make them intoxicated. Among the victims 
were the entire kin of Chief Logan, of the 
Cayugas, who, from an influential advocate of 
peace, was thus converted into a determined 
enemy of the whites in Virginia. Bald Eagle, 
another friend of the pale faces, while alone in 
the woods near the Monongahela, was mur- 
dered by three white men, who "placed the life- 
less body of the native in a sitting position in 
his canoe and sent it adrift down the stream." 
The war whic'h followed, and which was par- 
ticipated in by several tribes, was brought to 
an end after the Indians had been defeated in 
' a great battle by Lord Dunmore, who was 
more than suspected of having instigated it. He 
made a treaty with the Indians in which they 
acknowledged the Ohio River as the boundary 
between the white man's territories and their 
own hunting grounds. 


Among the interesting personages of the 
period of the French war and for some years 
both previous and subsequent to it, were the 
adventurous scouts and frontiersmen, Christo- 
pher Gist, George Croghan and Andrew Mon- 
tour, all of whom were employed at various 
times, and, indeed, for most of the time, by 
the Colonial governments or the great trading 
companies, to negotiate with the Indians. 
These three men took a large part in shaping 
the history of those eventful years. Gist had 
accompanied Washington on his mission to the 
commander of the French troops on the upper 
Ohio just previous to the breaking out of the 
war, and on a subsequent expedition. He was 
also empl(:yed l)v the Ohio Company to make 

explorations ■ and treat with the Indians. He 
kept a journal in which 'he described the 
country through which he passed on his vari- 
ous missions, and his descriptions, and the 
maps which he drew of the course of the Ohio 
and of the surrounding country, were repro- 
duced in the leading London journals of the 
day, as the most accurate source of information 
obtainable of the valley of that river. 

George Croghan, who was employed by the 
Pennsylvania govermnent in transactions with 
the Indians, and who was "the idol of the 
Scotch-Irish settlers," had spent some years in 
trading along the shore of Lake Erie, and in 
acquiring the Indian tongue. He was a man 
of great tact and thoroughly understood how 
to deal with the Indians. His services were of 
the utmost value in counteracting French in- 
fluence with the savages. For some years the 
deputy of Sir William Johnson, he was sent by 
the latter to England, after Bouquet's expedi- 
tion, to advise with the government upon 
Indian matters, and his recommendations had 
a direct influence on shaping the policy em- 
bodied in the treaty made at Fort Stanwix 
with the Iroquois four years later. 

Andrew Montour, perhaps the most pic- 
turesque character of the three, was the son of 
Big Tree, an Oneida chief, by a French half- 
breed mother. \\^hen Gist, in the latter part 
of the year 1750, was sent out by the Obiio 
Company to survey the country along the Ohio 
take note of the tribes on the way, and search 
for good lands, he overtook Croghan and Mon- 
tour at the Muskingum River. The latter, 
who was on the war path against the Catawba 
Indians, who some years before had slain his 
father, was painted like a savage, and with his 
clothes decked out with tinkling spangles. He 
was regarded by the Indians as a chief, and 
was a valuable aid to Croghan in his negotia- 
tions with them. His services also were in 
request by Washington during the early opera- 
tions of the war. 


Another useful intermediary' between the 
Colonial o-overnment and the Indians was 



Christian Frederick Post "an honest and fear- 
less Moravian," who had married among- the 
savages, and was thoroughly famiHar with 
their customs. In 1761 he buih himself a 
cabin on Tuscarawas Creek, Stark County, 
"which." says Winsor, "was probably the first 
white man's house in the wilds of Ohio." 


From 1760 to 1764 the English' made sev- 
eral militarj- expeditions into the lake country, 
one of which — that under Colonel Bradstreet 
— has been already noticed. That under Major 
Rogers, in the autumn of 1760, took possession 
of Detroit. Major Rogers is said to have had 
an interview with Pontiac, the famous chief 
of the Ottawas, who, with some haughtiness, 
demanded to know by A\-hat authority the Eng- 
lish had invaded his countr}'. Another expedi- 
tion, under command of Major Wilkins, was 
shipwrecked on Lake Erie in December, 1763, 
owing to a sudden storm, and seventy men 
and three officers perished. 


The vagrant whites who at the close of the 
war, under the pretence of hunting, were 
m.aking unlawful settlements which had a 
tendency to provoke the Indians, met with a 
determined enemy in Colonel Bouquet, who 
was in command at Fort Pitt. Besides remov- 
ing interlopers from the Monongahela, he is- 
sued a proclamation "prohibiting all settle- 
ments beyond the mountains without the per- 
mission of the general or of the governors of 
the provinces," under the penalty of martial 
law. This called forth a protest from Gov- 
ernor Fauquier, but Bouquet was supported by 
Amherst, who, however, cautioned his sub- 
ordinate to be discreet, "for no room must be 
given to the colonies to complain of the mili- 
tan,' power.'" 


In December, 1761, the Colonial governors 
received orders forbidding' them to make any 
grants of land in disregard of Indian rights. 
On October, 1763, King George III, in a 
proclamation, with the concurrence of his 
council and in disregard of the sea-to-sea chart- 
ers, established as crown lands to be held "for 
the use of the Indians, for the present, and 
until our further pleasure is known," all the 
vast region between the AUeghenies and the 
Mississippi, wherever in the north its source 
might be. The governors of the Atlantic col- 
onies were "restrained from allotting any lands 
beyond the sources of the divers which fell into 
the Atlantic Ocean, or upon any lands reserved 
to the Indians, and not having been ceded to, or 
purchased by, the king." All private persons 
were forbidden to buy land of the Indians, 
such right of purchase being reserved to the 

This proclamation caused much discontent 
to a large and growing party in the colonies, 
who regarded it as a "tyrannous check on the 
inevitable expansion of the race, and as an 
adoption by the home government of what was 
recogniized as the French system. By the con- 
servative adherents of the crown it was looked 
upon as a necessary protection of the rights 
of the Indians. It was probably the king's 
purpose to confine the colonies as much as pos- 
sible to the coast, within easy reach of the 
British trade, and to keep the population under 
the restraint of the seaboard authorities. As a 
means of pacifying the Indians, it came, as has 
been seen, too late. That it was equally in- 
effective in restraining white emigration is 
shown in the fact that, on a reliable estimate, 
from 1765 to 1768 some thirty thousand 
whites crossed over and settled beyond the 



Clark's rvojcct — Capture of Forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vinccuucs — TIic Britisli Try to 
Recover the Forts — Project Against Detroit Abandoned — Disappearance of the French 
Population — The British Retain the Northivcstern Forts After the Treaty of Paris. 

With one important exception there were 
no events of any historical significance during 
the Revolutionary period. Great Britain was 
fully occupied in the endeavor to conquer her 
rebellious subjects, and the demands upon the 
resources of the colonies in the arduous and 
protracted struggle were too great to allow any 
attention to be given to schemes of Western 
colonization. The exception to which refer- 
ence has been made was the capture of the 
British military posts in the west by George 
Rogers Clark. Clark was a Virginian who had 
made his home in Kentucky. With a far- 
sighted sagacity, which had in it something of 
statesmanship, he conceived and executed the 
plan which subsequently furnished the Ameri- 
can commissioners entrusted with the negotia- 
tion of the treaty of 1783, at Paris, with their 
strongest argument in support of the claim of 
the United States to territory west of the Ohio. 
It is probable that Clark did not himself fully 
realize its far-reaching consequences. His im- 
mediate purpose was to put a stop to the per- 
sistent Indian attacks on the outer settlements, 
which he reasoned could be most effectually 
done by destroying the British posts whence 
the savages obtained supplies, ammunition, and 
oftentimes leadership. One person, however, 
appreciated the full significance of Clark's plan, 

as will be seen by the following extract from 
a letter Thomas Jefferson wrote to Clark be- 
fore the issue of the campaign was known in 
Virginia: "Much solicitude will be felt for the 
issue of your expedition to the Wabash ; it will 
at least delay their expedition to the frontier- 
settlement, and if successful have an important 
bearing ultimately in establishing our north- 
western boundary." 


In 1777 Clark sent out scouts to spy out 
the country, secure information in regard to 
the forts, and ascertain the sentiment of the 
French inhabitants of the villages. Having re- 
ceived a favoi-able report, he went to Williams- 
burg, then the capital of Virginia, where he 
obtained authority? from Governor Patrick 
Henry to enlist a militia force of seven com- 
panies of men to act under his command. The 
object of the expedition was kept as secret as 
possible. Private instructions were given Clark 
by the Governor, in accordance with which he 
was to attack the post of Kaskaskia. Supplies 
were to be obtained at Fort Pitt. The secrecy 
\\hich he was obliged to maintain made the 
work of recruiting his command one of great 



difficulty, and he found obstructions thrown in 
his way by man}- leading men on the frontier, 
"which prevented the enlistment of as many 
men as had been contemplated, and led to fre- 
quent desertions." At last, on June 26, 1778, 
with a small command, not exceeding two hun- 
dred men, he left the Falls of the Ohio, and 
descended the river in boats to Fort Massac, 
forty miles from its mouth. Thence he marched 
to Kaskaskia, which fell into his hands, as 
did Cahokia soon after, without the loss of a 
single life. Vincennes surrendered "to a mere 
proclamation when there was not an American 
soldier within 100 miles of the place." For 
this eas}^ victory Clark was large!}' indebted 
to Father Gibault, who, representing the senti- 
ment of the French population, entered into 
his plans with great warmth and energy, and 
afforded him all the assistance in his power. 

Here, although in possession of the coun- 
try, Clark was placed in an embarrassing posi- 
tion, owing to the desire of his men to return 
home, their term of enlistment having expired. 
It was necessary to hold the conquered terri- 
tory, or all would be lost. After much persua- 
tion he prevailed upon 800 of the men to re- 
enlist for eight months, and then filled up his 
companies with recruits from the villages, at 
the same time sending an urgent request to 
Virginia for reinforcements. The good effect 
of his expedition was already seen in the con- 
duct of the Indian tribes, some ten or twelve 
of which within five weeks sent representatives 
to sue for peace. Clark completed his con- 
quests on the Wabash by capturing the post of 
Ouiatenon, and also showed great ability in 
outwitting the English and counteracting their 
influence with the savages. 


"And now," says Hinsdale, from whom 
this narrative has been condensed, "Clark be- 
gan really to feel the difficulties of his situation. 
Destitute of money, poorly supplied, command- 
ing a small and widely scattered force, he had to 
meet and circumvent an active enemy who was 
determined to regain what he had lost. Gov- 
ernor Hamilton projected a grand ca.mpaign 

against the French towns that had been cap- 
tured and the small force that held them. The 
feeble issue was the capture, in December, 
1778, of Vincennes, which was occupied by but 
two Americans. Clark, who was in the Illinois 
at the time of this disaster, at once put his little 
force in motion for the Wabash, knowing, he 
says, that if he did not take Hamilton, Hamil- 
ton would take him; and, Februaiy 25, 1779, 
at the end of a march of two hundred and 
fifty miles, that ranks in peril and hardship 
with Arnold's winter march to Canada, he 
again captured the town, the fort, the gover- 
nor, and his whole command. Hamilton was 
sent to Virginia a prisoner of war, where he 
was found guilty of treating American prison- 
ers with cruelty, and of offering the Indians 
premiums for scalps but none for prisoners." 


Clark was very anxious to attempt the cap- 
ture of Detroit, as being by far the most im- 
portant of the British posts, but he had to 
abandon the enterprise owing to the lack of 
sufficient resources. The project was several 
times considered by Congress, and also by the 
Virginia State authorities, but Avas as often 
abandoned for the same reason. Detroit, there- 
fore, to Clark's great chagrin, remained in 
the hands of the Briti,sh till the end of the war, 
and, in fact, till 17Q6. As it was. Clark won 
and held the Illinois and the Wabash in the 
name of Virginia and of the United States, 
thus enabling the .'\merican commissioners "to 
plead iifi possidetis in reference to much of the 
country beyond the Ohio." "It would not be 
easy," says Hinsdale, "to 'find in our history 
a case of an officer accomplishing results that 
were so great and far-reachang with so small 
a force." 


It is worthy of note that Clark's success 
was due largelv to the spirit in which he was 
received and aided by the French settlers be- 
yond the Ohio. In thus assisting him thev were 
actuated by their ancient feeling of antipathy 



to the British, and by a desire to see the work 
of 1763 apparently undone; yet in reality they 
were aiding to perfect it. The French alliance 
of 1778 "made them think they were again 
opposing the old enemy."' "But * * * the wel- 
come whichi they gave the Americans did not 
arrest their fate or retard their decline. The 
breath of Anglo-American civilization seemed 
almost as fatal to them as to the Indians them- 
selves. Louisiana and the fur lands continued 
to draw away their strength and scarcely a 
trace of them can be found in Northwestern 
life today. Cbamplain laid the foundation of 
the British province of Quebec; the State of 
Louisiana is the child of the French colony; 
but the habitants of the Northwest seem as 
effectually lost in the past as tfhie Mound 


It was the Clark conquest, together with 
the colonial titles, that enabled the United 
States to wrest the Northwestern territory 
from Great Britain. Possession was reluctantly 
yielded, and for some time England, in the 
hope that the young republic would prove a 
failure, refused to surrender the military posts 
in the territorv that remained in her hands at 

the close of the war, alleging as an excuse the 
non-fulfilment on the part of the United States 
of certain stipulations of the treaty of peace. 
For thirteen years after the conclusion of the 
treaty British garrisons continued to occupy 
Oswego, Niagara, Detroit, Mackinaw, and a 
number of minor posts, and a British force 
even invaded territory that England did not 
hold at the close of the war and built Fort 
Miami at the rapids of the Maumee. It was 
at these forts that the Indians found aid and 
encouragement in their attacks on the settle- 
ments. This state of things was finally brought 
to an end by General Wayne, who pursued the 
Indians up to the very guns of Miami, and, in 
1795, negotiated with them the treaty of 
Greenville. The Jay treaty by which England 
bound herself to surrender the forts which she 
should have yielded in 1783 had been negO'- 
tiated the year before. "On July 11, 1796, a 
detachment from Wayne's army raised the 
Stars and Stripes above the stockade and vil- 
lage of Detroit, where the French and British 
colors had successively waved, and this act 
completed the tardy transfer of the old North- 
west to the United States." 

The war of 1812, with Hull's surrender of 
Detroit, revived for a time British hopes of 
recovering the Northwest, and not until the 
signing of the treaty of Ghent was the destiny 
of the territorv fullv assured. 



A New Phase of the Land Question — Maryland's Proposal — National Ownersliip Proposed 
by Rhode Island — Delay in Ratifying the Articles — Claims of the Indiana and Other 
Companies — Nezu York Makes the First Cession — Conditional Cessions — Unconditiond 
Cessions Urged by Congress — Triumph of the National Idea. 

The demands upon the resources of the 
colonies for carrying on the Revolutionary 
war, caused the western laad question to as- 
sume a new and complicated phase, which led 
ultimately, through State cessions, to the na- 
tionalization of the entire Western territory. 
This was in the nature of a contest between 
those states which laid claim to Western lands 
by virtue of their colonial charters and those 
which had no such claim. The latter included 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New Jersey, 
and Delaware, which were confined toi the At- 
lantic plain, and Pennsylvania, which now had 
a definite western boundary just beyond the 
Forks of the Ohio. 

On October 14, 1777, the following rule 
was adopted by Congress and became a part 
of the Articles of Confederation : 

"All charges of war and all other expenses 
that shall be incurred for the common defense 
or general welfare, and allowed by the United 
States in Congress assembled, shall be de- 
frayed out of a common treasury which shall 
be supplied by the several States, in proportion 
to the value of all land within each State 
granted to, or surveyed for, any person, as 

such land and the buildings and improvements 
thereon shall be estimated according to such 
mode as the United States in Congress assem- 
bled shall from time to time direct and ap- 

Maryland's proposal. 

The land issue was first raised on the fol- 
lowing day, when the proposition was sub- 
mitted by Maryland "That the United States 
in Congress assembled shall have the sole and 
exclusive right and power to ascertain and fix 
the western boundary of such States as claim 
to the Mississippi or the South Sea, and lay 
out the land beyond the boundary so ascer- 
tained into separate and independent States, 
from time to time, as the numbers and circum- 
stances of the people thereof may require." 

This was the first proposition that Con- 
gress should exercise sovereign jurisdiction 
over the Western country, and was a plain 
proposition to nationalize the lands. It met 
with immediate opposition from the claimant 
States, who on October 27th caused to be in- 
serted in the Articles a clause to the effect that 
the United States in Congress assembled 



should be "the last resort, on appeal, in all dis- 
putes and differences between two or more 
States concerning boundaries, jurisdiction or 
any other cause whatever," and further de- 
clared that "No State shall be dqarived of 
territory for the benefit of the United States." 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island. New York, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina, 
voted for the amendment; New Hampshire 
voted against it ; New Jersey and South Caro- 
lina were divided ; Maryland and Georgia were 
not present or did not vote, and Connecticut 
was not coimted; as but one member was 


When a month later Congress sent a cir- 
cular letter to the several States requesting the 
ratification of the Articles, a number of amend- 
ments were proposed, some of which related 
to the land question. Maryland revived her 
proposition of the year before, though in a 
slightly modified form, and was supported by 
Rhode Island, New Jiersej', Pennsylvania, and 
Delaware, all non-claimant States. The claim- 
ant States in general, with New Hampshire, 
voted against it ; New York was divided, with 
North Carolina and Georgia not present or not 
voting. Rhode Island submitted an amend- 
ment providing for the national ownership of 
all lands within the States, the property of 
which before the war was vested in the Crown 
of Great Britain, the jurisdiction to remain 
witli the States to which such lands severally 
belonged. This was lost by a vote of nine to 

New Jersey proposed that Congress should 
have power to dispose of all vacant and un- 
patented lands, commonly called Crown lands 
for tine purpose of defraying the expenses of 
the war, with the same provision as to juris- 
diction as in the case of Rhode Island. Though 
all these amendments were \'0ted down, it was 
apparent that "the opposition to the land claims 
of the claimant States was broadening and 


There was a delay on the part of several 
States in ratifying the Articles. Delaware 
wished Congress to assign moderate limits to 
those States claiming to the Mississippi, and 
also declared that the western lands ought to 
be "common estate to be granted out on terms 
beneficial to the United States," since they 
had been, or must be, g-ained by the blood and 
treasure of all. She finally, however, ratified 
the Articles, as did also New Jersey and Geor- 
gia, being willing to trust to the wisdom of 
future deliberations for "such alterations and 
amendments as experience might show to be 
expedient and just." 

Maryland still held back, basing her op- 
position on the ground that it was contrary to 
every principle of equity and good policy "that 
Marjdand or any other State entering into the 
Confederation should be burdened with heavy 
expenses for the subduing and guaranteeing 
of immense tracts of country, if she is not in 
any way to be benefitted thereby. She held out 
for the right of Congress to fix the western 
limits of the States claiming to the Mississippi 
river, and also for a national claim to the lands 
lying to the westward of the frontiers thus 
fixed, besides protesting against the exclusive 
claim set up by some States to the whole west- 
ern country without any solid foundation, 
which she declared, would, if persisted in, 
"prove ruinous to the interests of Maryland 
and other States similarly situated, and in pro- 
cess of time be the means of subverting the 

The manner in which these results would 
be brought about was thus described: 

"Virginia, by selling on the most moderate 
terms a small proportion of the lands in ques- 
tion, would draw into her treasury vast sums 
of money: and in proportion to the sums aris- 
ing from such sales, would be enabled to lessen 
her taxes. Lands comparatively cheap 
and taxes comparatively low, with the 
lands and taxes of an adjacent State, 
would quickly drain the State thus dis- 
advantageouslv circumstanced of its most 



useful inhabitants ; its wealth and its 
consequence in the scale of the confederated 
States would sink of course. A claim so in- 
jurious to more than one-half, if not to the 
whole of the United States, ought to be sup- 
ported by the clearest evidence of the right. 
Yet what evidence of tliat right have been pro- 
duced? What arguments alleged in support 
either of the evidence or the right ? None that 
we have heard of deserving a serious refuta- 


This description evidences the somewhat 
exaggerated estimate of the value of wild lands 
then prevalent both with Congress and the 
States. Such lands in the long run have not 
been found a source of revenue by the govern- 

As Mar\'land persisted in her refusal to 
ratify the Articles of Confederation unless they 
were amended in accordance with the spirit 
of her proposition of 1777, the machinery for 
filling the treasurv and recruiting the army 
could not be set in motion and a condition en- 
sued which threatened serious injury to the 
national cause. In May, 1779, Virginia, in 
disregard of the growing sentiment in favor 
of endowing the United States with the west- 
ern lands, opened a land office and made prep- 
arations to sell lands in the western territory 
claimed by her. This proceeding, however, was 
interrupted by a memorial signed by George 
Morgan and presented to Congress on behalf 
of certain persons who claimed title by virtue 
of a grant received from the Six Nations, at 
the Fort Stanwix Congress, of a tract of land 
on the south side of the Ohio river between the 
southern limit of Pennsylvania and the little 
Kanawha river. This tract, called Indiana, as 
included within the bounds of a larger tract 
called Vandalia, was, they asserted, separated 
bv the King in Council from the domain which 
Virginia claimed over it, and was not subject 
to the jurisdiction of Virginia or of anv par- 
ticular State, but of the United States. Hence 

the memorialists prayed Congress to take such 
action as should arrest the sale of lands until 
the rights of the owners of the tract called 
Vandalia could be ascertained, and the sover- 
eignty of the United States and the just rights 
of individuals supported. Another memorial, 
signed by William Trent, on behalf of Thomas 
Walpole and his associates in the Grand Com- 
pany was presented at the same time. After 
some opposition on the part of New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts, Virginia and both Caro- 
linas, both memorials were referred to a com- 
mittee. The committee was also instructed to 
inquire into the question of the jurisdiction of 
Congress over this matter, the right of such 
jurisdiction having been denied by Virginia. 

On October 29th the committee reported 
that they "could not find any such distinction 
between the question of the jurisdiction of 
Congress and the merits of the cause as to 
recommend any decision upon the first separ- 
ately from the last." 

Maryland then ofifered another resolution 
against the apportionment of vacant lands dur- 
ing the continuance of the war. This was voted 
against only by Virginia and North Carolina, 
New York being undecided. In December Vir- 
ginia addressed a remonstrance to Congress, 
protesting against the action of that body in 
hearing the petitions from the Indiana and 
Vandalia companies, as being a matter out- 
side the jurisdiction of that body, and assert- 
ing the rights of the claimant States to the 
lands described in their respective charters. 
She also called attention to the fact that she 
had already enacted a law to prevent further 
settlements on the northwest bank of the Ohio 
river. In addition, she declared herself willing 
to furnish lands northwest of the Ohio to the 
troops of the Continental establishment of such 
of the States as had not unappropriated lands 
for that purpose. "Indeed it was clear that a 
denial of the Western titles on the ground that 
the western lands belonged to the Crown, 
tended to subvert the very foundation on Avhich 
Congress instructed its foreign representatives 
to stand while contending with England. 
France, and Spain for a westward extension 



to the Mississippi." Thus Congress wisely kept 
clear of the Maryland doctrine and eventually 
worked out a solution of the Western question. 
on the principle of compromise and conces- 


New York led the way, in January, 1780, 
to a practical solution of the difficult question, 
by authorizing its delegates in Congress to 
limit and restrict its boundaries in the western 
parts by such lines and in such manner as they 
should judge to be expedient "with respect 
either to the jurisdiction, or right of soil or 
both; (2) that the territory so ceded shall be 
and inure for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as shall become members of the 
Federal alliance of the said States, and for 
no other use or purpose whatever; (3) that 
such of the lands so ceded, as shall remain 
within the jurisdiction of the State, shall be 
surveyed, laid out, and disposed of only as 
Congress may direct." 

This act, which was thought by Prof. 
Adams to be the direct result of Mary- 
land's influence, was the first of the State ces- 
sions and immediately changed the whole sit- 
uation. A committee to whom all the docu- 
ments in the case had been referred, on Sep- 
tember 6, 1780, submitted a report in which 
they declared that they had considered it "un- 
necessary to examine into the merits or policy 
of the instructions or declaration of the general 
assembly of Maryland, or of the remonstrance 
of the general assembly of Vii-ginia, as they 
involve questions a discussion of which was 
declined, on mature consideration, when the 
articles of confederation were debated; nor in 
the opinion of the committee, can such ques- 
tions be now revived with any prospect of con- 
ciliation. That it appears more advisable to 
press upon those States which can remove the 
embarrassments respecting the western country^ 
a liberal surrender of a portion of their terri- 
torial claims, since they cannot be preserved 
entire without endangering the stability of the 
general confederacy; to remind them how in- 

dispensably necessary it is to establish the fed- 
eral union on a fixed and permanent basis, and 
on principles acceptable to all its respective 
members; how essential to public credit and 
confidence, to the support of the army, to the 
vigor of our councils, and success of our 
measures, to our tranquility at home, our repu- 
tation abroad, to our very existence as a free, 
sovereign, and independent people; that they 
are fully persuaded the wisdom of the respec- 
tive legislatures will lead them to a full and im- 
partial consideration of a subject so interesting 
to the United States, and so necessary to the 
happy establishment of the federal union ; that 
they are confirmed in these expectations by a 
review of the before-mentioned act of the legis- 
lature of New York, submitted to their consid- 
eration; that this act is expressly calculated 
to accelerate the federal alliance by removing, 
as far as depends on that State, the impediment 
arising from the western country, and for that 
purpose to yield up a portion of territorial 
claim for the general benefit ; 

"Resolved, That copies of the several pa- 
pers referred to the committee be transmitted, 
with a copy of the report, to the legislatures of 
the several States ; and that it be earnestly 
recommended to those States who have claims 
to the western country^ to pass such laws, and 
give their delegates in Congress such powers, 
as may effectually remove the only obstacle to 
a final ratification of the articles of confedera- 
tion ; and that the legislature of Maryland be 
earnestly requested to authorize their delegates 
in Congress to subscribe to the Articles." 

"This report," says Hinsdale, "was agreed 
to without call of the roll. Its adoption marks 
a memorable day in the history of the land con- 
troversy. No other document extant shows so 
clearly the wise policy that Congress adopted. 
That policy was neither to affirm nor to deny, 
nor even to discuss, whether Congress had 
jurisdiction over the wild lands, but to ask for 
cessions and to trust to the logic of events to 
work out the issue. The appeal made to Mary- 
land was one that she could not well refuse to 
heed. And then, that nothing but selfish in- 
terest might stand in the way of the other 



claimant States following the example of New 
York, Congress adopted, October loth, this 
further resolution : 

"Resolved, That the unappropriated lands 
that may be ceded or relinquished to the United 
States, by any particular State, pursuant to 
the recommendation of Congress of the sixth 
day of September last, shall be disposed of for 
the common benefit of the United States, and 
be settled or formed into distinct Republican 
States, which shall become members of the fed- 
eral union, and have the same rights of sover- 
eignty, freedom and independence as the other 
States : That each state which shall be so 
formed shall have a suitable extent of terri- 
tory, not less than one hundred or more than 
one hundred and fifty miles square, as near 
thereto as circumstances will admit : That the 
necessary and reasonable expenses which any 
particular State shall have incurred since the 
commencement of the present war, in subduing 
any British posts, or in maintaining forts and 
garrisons within and for the defence, or in 
acquiring any part of the territory thiat may be 
ceded or relinquished to the United States, 
shall be reimbursed ; 

"That the said lands shall be granted or set- 
tled at such times and under such regulations 
as shall hereafter be agreed on by the United 
States in Congress assembled, or by any nine 
or more of them." 

The papers sent to the claimant States 
under the resolution of September 6th called 
forth early responses. On October loth, by a 
legislative act. Connecticut offered to cede 
lands within her charter limits, west of the 
Susquehanna purchase and east of the Mis- 
sissippi, on condition that the State retain the 
jurisdiction, the quantity of land so ceded to be 
"in just proportion of what shall be ceded and 
relinquished by the other States claiming and 
holding vacant lands as aforesaid," etc. 

Virginia responded in January, 1781, by 
making conditional cessions of lands northwest 
of the Ohio, which action, though it left some 
things undecided, was followed, on February 
2d, by the ratification of the Articles of Con- 
federation on the part of ^Maryland. The prin- 

cipal condition insisted upon by Virginia was 
a guarantee of her remaining territory by the 
United States. This met with opposition from 
New York, who thought it unjust that she 
should be asked to guarantee the reserved ter- 
ritories of other states while receiving no 
guarantee of those which she had herself re- 
served, and it was some time before this mat- 
ter was satisfactorily adjusted. 


Committees were appointed by Congress 
early in 1781 to deal with all difiicult questions 
arising out of the lajid issue, and as these ques- 
tions were many and complicated, they will not 
here be considered in detail. The committee 
reported in November, 1781, and among other 
things, their reports strongly urged Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut to make an immedi- 
ate release of all their claims and pretentions 
to Western territory without condition or reser- 
vation. Virginia's cession was not accepted, 
by reason of the guarantee demanded, the 
validity of her claim being denied. She was 
also recommended to make an unconditional 
cession of all her claim to Western lands. 

This report was never acted upon as a 
whole, and soon the land issue became com- 
plicated with other subjects, as the national 


It would occupy too much space to folft>w 
the gradual growth of the national idea through 
all its phases to its culmination in the final and 
unconditional cessions of their territories by the 
claimant States to the national government. 
This result was gradually reached by a series 
of partial concessions and adjustments as the 
only final solution of the much-vexed question. 
Connecticut was the last to relinquish her 
claims. On September 14, 1786, she ceded to 
Congress all her "right, title, interest, jurisdic- 
tion, and claim to the lands northwest of the 
Ohio, excepting the Connecticut \\'estern Re- 
serve." Of this tract jurisdictional claim was 
not ceded to the United States until Mav 30, 

As long as the confederation lasted the 



lands were not and could not be fully national- 
ized, as the Articles gave Congress no resources 
except such as came from the States. Ac- 
cordingly the deeds made to the United States 
stipulated that the lands and their proceeds 

should be distributed among all the States in 
the Union; and this was the principle upon 
which the land act of 1785 was based. When 
the Constitution went into effect it fully nation- 
alized the public domain. 



Division into Townships — The Parsons Purchase — The Fire Lands — The Act of 1795- 
Sales to tlie Connecticut Land Company. 

By the cession of September, 1786, Con- 
necticut yielded all her claims south of the 41st 
degree of north latitude, and west of a line 120 
miles from the west line of Pennsylvania. She 
had left the Western Reserve, which had thus 
been shorn of its original extension to the Mis- 
sissippi River. Even to this her title was ques- 
tionable and was not admitted anywhere out- 
side of Connecticut. To strengthen it she re- 
solved upon immediate occupancy, and soon 
after the cession, offered for sale all that por- 
tion of her reserved territories lying west of 
Pennsylvania, and east of the Cuyahoga and 
the portage path leading from that river to the 
Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum. 

It was provided that the territory should 
be divided as nearly as possible into townships 
of six miles square ; that six tiers of townships 
should l3e laid out parallel with the west line of 
Pennsylvania ; that the range of townships 
next to that State should be designated as the 
first tier, and so on to the west in numerical 
order. It was provided also that the townships 
should be numbered from north to south, No. 
I of each tier beginning at Lake Erie. A com- 
mittee of three persons was appointed to make 
sale. The land was to be sold at not less than 
three shillings an acre, which was abont equal 
to fifty cents of our present money. The price 

of a township was put at twenty-seven dollars 
in specie. It was provided that in each town- 
ship 500 acres of good land were to be reserved 
for the support of the Gospel .ministr}^ and 500 
acres more for the support of schools in each 
town forever ; and 240 acres were to be granted 
in fee simple to the first Gospel minister who 
should settle in such town. The general as- 
sembly agreed to guarantee the preservation of 
peace and good order among the settlers. 

At the next term of the Assembly, held at 
Hartford in May, 1787, some changes were 
made in the Resolutions, whereby it was pro- 
vided that the townships should be numbered 
from south to north, instead of in the reverse 
order, as at first proposed ; also that the Gov- 
ernor of the State should execute a patent of 
any town bought to the purchaser, on presen- 
tation of the necessary certificates from the 
committee, the same to be countersigned by the 
secretary and registered in his office. The 
committee were further authorized to lay out 
one or more tiers east of the Cuyahoga, in ad- 
dition to the six tiers authorized bv the former 


General Samuel II. Parsons of Aliddletown, 
Connecticut, was the only purchaser of lands 



in the Reserve until the sale to the Connecticut 
Land Company in 1795. His patent was exe- 
cuted February 10, 1788, the lands he pur- 
chased being known later as the Salt Springs 
Tract. General Parsons, who had previously 
explored the country, selected this tract on ac- 
count of the existence thereon of saline springs, 
where the manufacture of salt had long been 
carried on in a crude way by the Indians and 
white traders. The salt was obtained by boil- 
ing the water in kettles ; but so small was the 
proportion of salt in the water and so slow the 
process of manufacture by the crude methods 
employed, that the price of the commercial 
article for a long time was over six dollars per 
bushel. Although the lines of the tract were 
not yet run out. General Parsons proceeded to 
make sale and to deed various undivided parts 
of it to different individuals. 

"This patent," says Joseph Perkins, in an 
historical sketch of the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany (Historical Collections of the Mahoning 
Valley, Vol. I, 1876), "was recorded in con- 
formity to a provision in the original resolution 
authorizing a sale in the Secretai-y's office in 
Connecticut. It will be seen also from the 
same resolves, that the State of Connecticut 
claimed an exclusive jurisdiction over this ter- 
ritorv, as it is also a matter of 'history that im- 

mediatelv after, in the year i 

the Governor 

of the Northwestern territory originated the 
county of Washington, and embraced all this 
territory within the limits of that county. 

"The United States having thus set up a 
claim to the territory. General Parsons caused 
his patent to be recorded in the Recorder's of- 
fice, that county, as did likewise many of the 
subsequent purchasers from him of several par- 
cels of that tract. Still, as it was a doubtful 
question whether this territory was in fact in 
Washington County legally at any time, most, 
but not all of these deeds, were again recorded 
in Trumbull County, after its organization, and 
the United States had acquired unquestionable 
jurisdiction. In the year 1798. Jefferson 
County was carved out, a part of Washington 
County, and this territory embraced within its 
limits, and it so continued until the organi- 
zation of Trumbull County. During this period 

two deeds of land in this tract were there re- 
corded which have never been recorded in 
Trumbull County. No taxes were ever effectu- 
ally imposed on any lands within the Connecti- 
cut Reserve until after the organization of 
Trumbull County, although there were sonle 
inhabitants in the territory before that period, 
yet they were left in a state of nature so far as 
civil government was concerned by the State 
of Connecticut, and but once were they dis- 
turbed by the United States, when the author- 
ities of Jefferson County sent Zenas Kimberly 
into this countj' to inquire into the situation of 
things with a view of taxation. As the people 
did not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the 
United States they beset him with laughter and 
ridicule until he left them, and no further effort 
was made to interfere with them until the ques- 
tion of jurisdiction was afterwards settled, and 
the county became an undoubted part of the 
northwest territory." 

General Parsons was made one of the first 
three judges of the Northwest territory and 
subsequently became chief justice. He was 
drowned at Beaver Falls in November, 1789, 
while on his way from Marietta, where he 
made his home, to conclude a treaty of peace 
with the Indians on the Reserve. "His heirs, 
either on account of inability or lack of con- 
fidence in the speculation, failed to make the 
back payments, so that the patent, with all 
the deeds based upon it, was returned to the 

THE "fire lands." 

The British Army having wholly or par- 
tially destroyed several towns and villages in 
Connecticut during the Revolutionary War, a 
petition was sent to the legislature in 1791 by 
a large number of the inhabitants of Fairfield 
and Norfolk, prajdng for compensation for 
their losses thus sustained. "The legislature," 
says Whittlesey, "in their session in May, 
1792, took up the report of their committee and 
released to the sufferers then alive whose names 
appeared on the list made, and where any were 
then dead, to their legal representatives and to 
their heirs and assigns forever, five hundred 



thousand acres of land, then belonging to the 
State, lying west of the State of Pennsylvania, 
bounding northerly on the shore of Lake Erie, 
beginning at the west line of said lands and ex- 
tending eastward to a line running northerly 
and southerly parallel to the east line of the 
tract belonging to the State, and extending the 
whole \yidth of the land, and easterly so far 
as to make the quantity of five hundred thou- 
sand acres, to be divided among them in pro- 
portion to their several losses, to which grant 
was appended the names of all the original suf- 
ferers and the sum of their several losses. This 
grant, it may be observed, included none of the 
islands within the limits of the claim of Con- 
necticut in Lake Erie and north of the western 
part of the reserve." The land thus granted was 
known as the "Fire Lands," owing to the fact 
that most of the petitioners had suffered the 
destruction of their property by fire. It em- 
braced all of Huron and Erie counties and the 
township of Ruggles in Ashland County. 


The victory of Wayne at the battle of the 
Fallen Timber had given a new impulse to 
western emigration, which for some years 
previously had been held in check by the fear 
of Indian outbreaks. The fever of land specu- 
lation was raging all over New England, and 
the State of Connecticut now resolved to put 
the balance of her reserved lands upon the mar- 
ket. The resolution directing their sale was 
passed by the General Assembly at Hartford 
in May, 1795, and read as follows: 

"Resolved, by this Assembly that a com- 
mittee be appointed to receive any proposals 
that may be made by any person or persons, 
whether inhabitants of the United States or 
others, for the purchase of the lands belonging 
to this State, lying west of the west line of 
Pennsylvania as claimed by said State, and the 
said committee are hereby fully authorized and 
empowered in the name and behalf of this 
State, to negotiate with any such person or per- 
sons on the subject of any such proposals. And 
also to form and complete any contract or con- 
tracts for the sale of said lands, and to make 

and execute under their hand and seals, to the 
purchaser or purchasers, a deed or deeds duly 
authenticated, quitting on behalf of this State, 
all right, title, and interest, juridicial and terri- 
torial, in and to the said lands, to him or them 
,nnd to his or their heirs, forever. That before 
the executing of such deed or deeds, the pur- 
chaser or purchasers shall give their personal 
note or bond, payable to the treasurer of fbis 
State, for the purchase money, carrying an in- 
terest of six per centum payable annually, to 
commence from the date thereof, or from such 
future period not exceeding two years from the 
date, as circumstances in the agreement of the 
committee may require, and as may be agreed 
on between them and the said purchaser or pur- 
chasers with good and sufficient sureties, in- 
habitants of this State, or with a sufficient de- 
posit of bank or other stock of the United 
States or of the particular States, which note or 
bond shall be taken payable at a period not 
more remote than five years from the date, or, 
if by annual installments, so that the last in- 
stallment be payable within ten years from the 
date, either in specie or in six per cent, three 
per cent, or deferred stock of the United States, 
at the discretion of the committee. That if the 
committee shall find that it will be most bene- 
ficial to the State or its citizens to form several 
contracts for the sale of said lands, they shall 
not consummate any of the said lands apart by 
themselves while the otliers lie in a train of 
negotiation only, but all the contracts which 
taken together shall comprise the whole quan- 
tity of the said lands shall be consummated to- 
gether, and the purchasers shall hold their re- 
spective parts or proportions as tenants in 
common of the whole tract or territory, arid 
not in severalty. That said committee, in 
whatever manner they shall find it l-)est to sell 
the said lands, whether by an entire contract or 
by several contracts, shall in no case be at lib- 
erty to sell the whole quantity for a principal 
sum less than one million of dollars in specie, 
or if day of payment be given, for a sum of less 
value than one million of dollars in specie with 
interest at six per cent per annum from the 
time of such sale." 

The committee api>ointe(l 1)\' the Assembly 



to negotiate the sale consisted of John Tread- 
well, James Wadsworth, Marvin Wait, Wil- 
liam Edmonds, Thomas Grosvenor, Aaron 
Austin, Elijah Hubbard and Sjdvester Gilbert, 
one man from each of the eight counties of the 
State. It will be obsen^ed that the State did 
not guarantee a clear title to any purchaser, 
but merely offered a quit claim deed. This, 
however, did not deter Connecticut people, who 
believed in the validity of their State's claim, 
from purchasing the land, and the rage for 
land speculation was such that other purchasers 
were soon found. Sales were made to the ag- 
gregate amount of twelve hundred thousand 
dollars, the members of the committee entering 
into separate contracts with the individual pur- 
chasers, though in a few instances two or three 
of the purchasers associated together and took 
their deeds jointly. The names of the indi- 
viduals with the amount of their contracts were 
as follows : 

Joseph Howland and Daniel L. Coit. $30,461 
Elias Morgan and Daniel L. Coit.. 51.402 

Caleb Atwater 22,846 

Daniel Holbrook 8.750 

Joseph AVilliams 15.231 

William Law 10,500 

William Judd 16.250 

Elisha Hyde and Uriah Tracy 57,40o 

James Johnston 30,000 

Samuel Mather, jr 18,461 

Ephraim Kirby. Elijah Boardman, and 

Uriah Holmes, Jr 60,000 

Solomon Griswold 10,000 

Oliver Phelps and Gideon Granger, jr 80,000 

William Hart 30,462 

Henry Champion 2d 85,675 

Asher Miller 34-000 

Robert C. Johnson 60.000 

Ephraim Root 42,000 

Nehemiah Hubbard, jr 19-039 

Solomon CoA\-les 10.000 

Oliver Phelps 168,185 

Asahel Hathawav 12,000 

John Caldwell and Peleg Sanford. . . 15,000 

Timothy Burr 15-231 

Luther Loomis and Ebenezer King, jr 44,318 
AVilliam Lyman, John Stoddard and 

David King 24,730 

Moses Cleveland 32,600 

Samuel P. Lord 14,092 

Roger Newbury, Enoch Perkins, and 

Jonathan Brace 38.000 

Ephraim Starr 1 7-4 15 

Sylvanus Griswold I-683 

Jabez Stocking and Joshua Stow. . . . 11.423 

Titus Street 22,846 

James Ball, Aaron Olmstead and 

John Wiles 30,000 

Pierpoint Edwards 60,000 

Total $1 ,200,000 

As no survey had yet been made it was im- 
possible to determine the number of acres to 
which each purchaser was entitled. Accord- 
ingly the committee of eight made out deeds 
to each of the purchasers or association of pur- 
chasers of as many twelve-hundred-thou- 
sandths in common of the entire tract as they 
had subscribed dollars. 

These deeds were recorded in the office of 
the Secretary of State of Connecticut. They 
were afterwards transcribed into a book com- 
monly designated as the "Book of Drafts," and 
transferred to the Recorder's office at Warren: 
This book embraces all the proceedings of the 
Connecticut Land Company, so far as any his- 
tory of them is to be found in the State of Ohio. 
It does not appear that any part of the con- 
sideration was paid in hand. "Thus the State 
made final disposition of all her western lands 
except the tract purchased by General Parsons, 
which reverted in consequence of non-payment 
of the stipulated price. This tract was divided 
up and afterwards sold by order of the legis- 
lature, the deeds being issued by the Secretary 
of State." 



Articles of Association — The Excess Company — The Company's Title Perfected — Ordinance 
of 1787 — Extinction of the Indian Title — Survey of tlie Reserve — Quantity of Land in 
the Reserve — The Equalizing Committee — Mode of Partition — The Drafts. 

The total number of persons composing the 
Connecticut Land Company was fifty-seven, 
there being several included whose names do 
not appear in the foregoing list. On September 
5, 1797, at Hartford, Conn., they adopted four- 
teen articles of association and agreement, 
\\'hich were as follows : 

Article i. It is agreed that tbe individuals 
concerned in the purchase made this day of the 
Connecticut Western Reserve shall be called 
the Connecticut Land Company. 

Article 2. It is agreed that the committee 
appointed by the applicants for purchasing said 
Reserve, shall receive from the committee of 
whom said purchase bas been made, each deed 
which shall be executed to a purchaser, and in 
their hands shall retain said deed until the pro- 
prietors thereof shall execute a deed in trust to 
John Caldwell, Jonathan Brace and John Mor- 
gan, and the survivors of them, and the last 
survivor of said three persons and his heirs 
forever, to hold in trust for such proprietor his 
share in said purchase, and to be disposed of 
as directed and agreed in the following articles. 

Article 3. It is agreed that seven persons 
shall be appointed by the company at a meeting 
to be holden this day at the house of John Lee 
in Hartford, who shall be a Board of Direc- 
tors for said company, and that said directors. 

or the majority thereof, shall have power at 
the expense of said company to procure an ex- 
tinguishment of the Indian title to said Re- 
serve, if said title is not already extinguished ; 
to survey the whole of said Reserve, and to lay 
the same out in townships containing sixteen 
thousand acres each; to fix on a township in 
which the first settlement shall be made, to sur- 
vey that township into small lots in such man- 
ner as they shall think proper, and to sell and 
dispose of said lots to actual settlers only. To 
erect in said township a saw mill and grist- 
mill at the expense of said company, to lay out 
and sell five other townships, of sixteen thou- 
sand acres each, to actual settlers only. And the 
said trustees shall execute deeds of such part or 
parts of said six townships as shall be sold by 
said directors to said purchasers, but in case 
there shall be any salt spring or springs in 
said six townships, or in any or either of them, 
said directors shall not sell spring or springs, 
but shall reserve the same, together with two 
thousand acres of land including said spring 
or springs. Said directors shall also have 
power to extinguish if possible, the Indian title, 
if any, to said Reser\-e, and to make all said 
surveys within two years from this date, and 
sooner if possible. And when said Indian title, 
if anv. shall have been extinguished and said 



surveys made, said trustees, or a majority 
thereof, shall convey to each proprietor of said 
Reserve, or any member who shall agree, his 
or their proportion or rigliit therein, in sever- 
alty ; the mode of dividing said Reserve, how- 
ever, is tO' be in conformity to the orders and 
directions of the major part of the proprietors 
convened, and holden according to the mode 
hereinafter marked out. 

Article 4. It is also agreed that said di- 
rectors shall cause the persons employed by 
them in surveying said Reserve to keep a 
regular field book, describing minutely and 
accurately the situation, soil, waters, kinds of 
timber, and natural productions of each town- 
ship surveyed by them, which book said di- 
rectors shall cause to be kept in the office of 
the clerk of said directors, and the said book 
shall be open to the inspection of each pro- 
prietor at all times. 

Article 5. It is agreed that said directors 
shall appoint a clerk, who shall keep a regular 
journal of all the votes and proceedings of said 
directors, and of the money disbursed by them 
for the use of the company ; and said directors 
shall determine the wag-es of such clerks ; and 
the said directors shall, once in a year, settle 
their accounts with the proprietors; and that 
all moneys received by the directors for taxes 
and the sale of lands, shall be subject tO' the 
disjxjsal and direction of the company. 

Article 6. It is agreed that the trustees 
shall give certificates, agreeable to the form 
hereinafter prescribed, to all the proprietors 
in the original purchase made from this State, 
and that the grantees from said State shall 
lodge with the trustees the names of the pro- 
prietors for whom they respectively receive 
deeds, 'and the proportion of land to which said 
proprietors are entitled, a copy of which shall 
be lodged by the trustees with; the clerk of the 
directors. It is further agi^eed that all trans- 
fers made by any proprietors shall be recorded 
in the book of the clerk of the directors, and 
no person claiming as an assignee shall be 
acknowledged as such until his deed shall have 
been thus recorded. 

Article 7. It is agreed, in order to enable 
said Board of Directors to perform and ac- 

complish, the business assigned them, that they 
shall be paid a tax, in the proportion of ten 
dollars on each of the shares of the company, 
to the clerk of the directors, to be at the dis- 
posal of said directors for the purpose afore- 
said, which said tax shall be paid to said clerk 
on or before the sixth day of October next. 

Article 8. It is agreed that the whole of 
said Reserve shall be divided into four hun- 
dred shares, and that the following shall be the 
mode of voting by the proprietors in their meet- 
ings : Every proprietor of one share shall have 
one vote, and every proprietor of more than 
one share have one vote for the first share and 
then one vote for every two shares till the 
number of forty shares, and then one vote for 
every five shares provided that on the question, 
of the time of making a partition of the 
territory, every share shall be entitled to one 

Article 9. It is agreed that the aforesaid 
trustees shall, on receiving a deed from any 
purchaser, according to the tenor of these arti- 
cles, give to such proprietors a certificate in the 
following words : 

Connecticut Land Company. 
Hartford, September 5, 1795. 

This certifies that is entitled to the 

trust and benefit of twelve-hundredth- 
thousandths of the Connecticut Western Re- 
serve, so-called, as held by J'ohn Caldwell, 
Jonathan Brace and John Morgan, trustees, 
in a deed of trust, dated the fifth day of Sep- 
tember, one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-five, to hold said proportion or share to 

, the said , heirs, and assigns, 

according to the terms, conditions, covenants, 
and exceptions contained in the said deed of 
trust and in certain articles of agreement, en- 
tered into by the persons composing the Con- 
necticut Land Company, which said share is 
transferable by assignment, under hand and 
seal, witnessed by two witnesses, and acknowl- 
edged by any justice of the peace in the State 
of Connecticut, or before a notary public or 
judge of the common pleas in any of the United 
States, and to be recorded by the clerk of the 
Board of Directors, which said certificate shall 
be complete evidence of such person of his right 



in said Reserve, and shall be recorded by the 
clerk of the directors in the book which said 
clerk shall keep for the purpose of registering 

Article lo. It is agreed that the first meet- 
ing of the said company be at the State House, 
in Hartford, on Tuesday, the 6th of October 
next, at two of the clock in the afternoon, at 
which meeting the mode of making partition 
shall be determined by the major vote of the 
proprietors there present, taking such votes by 
the principle hereinbefore marked out. 

It is also agreed that in all meetings of the 
company the proprietors shall be admitted to 
vote in person or by their proper attorney, 
legally authorized ; and it is further agreed 
that there shall be a meeting of the company at 
the State House, in Hartford, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon, the Monday next before the 
second Tuesday in October, 1796, and another 
meeting of said company, at the same place, 
at two o'clock in the afternoon, the Tuesday 
next before the second Tuesday in October, 
1797, and that the said directors shall have 
power to call occasional meetings at such 
times as they think proper ; but such meetings 
shall always be at Hartford, and said directors 
shall give notice in some one newspaper in each 
county in Connecticut where newspapers are 
published, of the time and place of holding 
said meetings, whether stated or occasional, by 
publishing such notification in such papers, 
under their hands, for three weeks successively, 
within six weeks next before the day of such 

Article 11. And, whereas, some of the 
proprietors may choose that their proportions 
of said Reserve should be divided to them in 
one lot or location, it is agreed that in case 
one-third in value of the owners shall, after 
a survey of said Reserve in townships, signify 
to said directors or meeting a request that such 
third part be set off in manner aforesaid, that 
said directors may appoint three commissioners 
who shall have power to divide the whole of 
said purchase into three parts, equal in value, 
according to quantity, quality, and situation ; 
and when said commissioners shall have so di- 
vided said Reserve, and made a report in writ- 
ing of their doings to said directors, describing 

precisely the boundaries of each part, the said 
directors shall call a meeting of said proprie- 
tors, giving the notice required by thes? arti- 
cles; and at such meeting the said three parts 
shall be numbered, and the number of each 
part shall be written on a separate piece of 
peper, and shall, in the presence of such meet- 
ing, be by the chairman of said meeting put 
into a box, and a person appointed by said 
meeting for that purpose, shall draw out of said 
box one of said numbers, and the part desig- 
nated by such number shall be aparted to such 
person or persons requesting such a severance, 
and the said trustees shall, uiMn receiving a 
written direction from said directors for that 
purpose, execute a deed to such person or per- 
sons accordingly ; after which such person or 
persons shall have no power to act in said com- 

Article 12. It is agreed that the company 
shall have power by a major .vote, to raise 
money by a tax on the proprietors, to be ap- 
portioned equally to each proprietor according 
to his interest ; and in case any proprietor shall 
neglect to pay his proportion of said taxes 
within fifty days, when the proprietor lives in 
the State — if out of the State within one hun- 
dred and twenty days after the same shall have 
become payable — and, after the publication 
thereof in the newspapers of this State, in the 
manner provided for warning meetings, that 
the directors shall have power to dispose of so 
much of the interest of such delinquent pro- 
prietor in said Reserve as may be necessary 
to pay the tax so aforesaid due and unsatisfied ; 
and, in case any proprietor shall neglect to pay 
the tax of ten dollars upon a share agreed to by 
these articles within fifty days after the time of 
payment, so much of his share as will raise 
his part of said tax may be sold as aforesaid. 

Article 13. In case of the death of any one 
or more of the trustees, the company may ap- 
point a successor to such deceased person or 
persons in said trust; and, upon such' appoint- 
ment being made, the surviving trustee or 
trustees, shall pass a deed or deeds to such 
successor or successors, to hold the premises as 
co-trustees with the surviving trustees, in the 
manner as the original trustees held the same. 

Article 14. It is agreed that the directors. 



in transacting the business of said company ac- 
cording to the articles aforesaid shall be sub- 
ject to the control of said company by a vote 
of at least three-fourths of the interest of said 

The first Board of Directors consisted of 
Oliver Phelps, Henry Champion 2d, Moses 
Cleveland, Samuel W. Johnson, Ephraim 
Kirby. Samuel Mather, Jr., and Roger New- 
bury. William Hart was moderator of the first 
meeting. At a meeting of the company on the 
first Tuesday in April. 1796, Ephraim Root 
was appointed clerk, which office he continued 
to hold until the company was dissolved in 
1809. A moderator was chosen at each meet- 
ing to preside at that meeting, and the direc- 
tors were changed from time to time. A mode 
of partition was agreed upon at the meeting 
held in April, 1796. 

The persons who subscribed to the "Articles 
of Association and Agreement constituting the 
Connecticut Land Company'' were as follows: 
Ashur Miller Roger Newbury 

Uriel Holmes, Jr. for Justin Ely 

Ephraim Starr Elisha Strong 

Luther Loomis Joshua Stow 

Solomon Cowles Jabez Stocking 

Daniel L. Coit Jonathan Brace 

Pierpoint Edwards Joseph Howland 

Titus Street Ja^es Bull 

R. C. Johnson V\'illiam Judd 

Samuel P. Lord 
Oliver Phelps 
Zephaniah Swift 

„,.. , -r, , Enoch Perkins 

Elijah Boardman ^^-j,,;.^^^^ ^^^.^ 

Samuel Mather, Jr. Lemuel Storrs 
Nehemiah Hubbard, Jr. ^,^1^,^ Atwater 

Joseph Williams Pdeg Sandford 

William 11. Bliss John Stoddard 

William Battle Benajah Kent 

Timothy Burr Eliphalet .Vustin 

Joseph C. Yates Samuel Mather 

William Law James Johnson 

Elisha Hyde Uriah Tracey 

William Lyman Ephraim Root 

Daniel Holbrook Solomon Griswold 

Thaddeus Levvet Ebenezer King, Jr. 

Roger Newbury Elijah White. 

Ephraim Kelly 
Gideon Granger, Jr. 
Moses Cleveland 

In behalf of themselves and their associates 
in Albany, New York. 


01i\'er Phelps, the heaviest investor in the 
Reserve, had been owner with Benjamin Gor- 
ham of an extensive tract or land in Western 
New York, which they sold to Robert Livings- 
ton of Philadelphia. The Reserve at that time 
being supposed to contain more than 4,000,000 
acres, Livingston, who had sold his New York 
lands to a Holland company, proposed with 
Phelps and others to take the excess, or sur- 
plus, over 3,000,000 acres. This scheme, which 
contained a large element of speculation, 
proved so attractive that an "Excess Company" 
was formed, the shares of which were eagerly 
sought. The largest owner in this company 
was General Hull, who became conspicuous in 
the war of 1812 by his surrender of Detroit. 
There was great dissatisfaction among the 
shareholders when it was discovered from the 
surveys that the company had no "excess" 
lands Avhatever, the total amount proving to be 
less than 3.000,000 acres. 


Immediately after their organization the 
Connecticut Land Company found themselves 
confronted by several important tasks. These 
were, to obtain a perfect title to their purchase, 
and to survey and make partition of their lands. 
To perfect their title it was necessarj' for them 
to obtain a full release of the claim of the 
United States to the soil of the Reserve, and 
also to extinguish the Indian title. Through 
the treaty made with Great Britain at the 
close of the Revolutionary War, the United 
States had come into possession of whatever 
interest Virginia. Massachusetts, and New 
York may have had in the Western Reserve 
under the terms of their Colonial charters, and 
though long disregarded by Connecticut, this 
was a very real and substantial claim. With the 
responsibilities of their great enterprise upon 
them the Associates were under some solicitude 
as to whether it might not, upon trial, prove 


3 ■-SM;! -| ^: 






more valid than that of Connecticut, the com- 
pany's grantor. They were also greatly in need 
of a regular and adequate form of government. 
They found themselves too far away from 
Connecticut for the laws of that State to be put 
into successful operation; and to profit by the 
Ordinance of 1787, which had been passed by 
Congress for the government of the North- 
west Territory, it would have been necessary 
for them to admit the validity of the General 
Government's claim, and, as a consequence the 
insufficiency of their own title, which depended 
upon that of Connecticut. In January, 1797, 
the company resolved that they would apply 
to the legislature of Connecticut to erect the 
Western Reser^'e mto a county, under a tem- 
porary government and suitable laws, to be ad- 
ministered at the sole expense of the proprie- 
tors. At the same meeting they appointed 
Daniel Holbrook, W^illiam Shepperd, Jr., 
Moses Warren, Jr., Seth Pease and Amos 
Spafford, a committee to divide such part of 
the lands as were free from Indian claims, in 
accordance with the mode of partition that had 
been previously agreed upon. At the October 
meeting in the same year the directors and trus- 
tees were given power to pursue such measures 
as they should deem calculated to procure legal 
and practical government over the territory be- 
longing to the company. Nothing effectual, 
however, was done in consequence of these 
resolutions, and the State of Connecticut did 
not attempt to exercise any jurisdiction over 
the territo^\^ Connecticut was then urged to 
obtain from the United States a release of the 
Governmental claim. "The result was that Con- 
gress, on the 28th day of April, 1800, author- 
ized the President to execute and deliver on the 
part of the United States, letters patent to the 
g-overnment of Connecticut, releasing all right 
and title to the soil of the Reserve, upon con- 
dition that Connecticut should, on liier part, 
forever renounce and release to the United 
States entire and complete civil jurisdiction 
over the Reser\-e. Thus Connecticut obtained 
from the United States her claim to the soil, 
and transmitted and confirmed it to the Con- 
necticut Eand Company and to those who had 
purchased from it, and jurisdiction for the 

purposes of government vested in the United 
States."' The inhabitants of the Reserve thus 
found themselves provided with a wise and 
equitable form of government in the Ordin- 
ance of 1787, to which brief allusion will here 
be made. 


A temporary plan of government for the 
Western territory had been reported by Mr. 
Jefferson and adopted by Congress in April, 
1784; but being found ineffective, it was re- 
pealed by the Ordinance of 1787, which cre- 
ated a practical machinery of government for 
immediate use, provided for the creation of the 
long-promised new States, and defined those 
high principles of civil polity which have con- 
tinued in successful operation down to the 
present day. They included religious liberty, 
the right of habeas corpus, trial by jury, pro- 
portional representation in the legislature, and 
the privileges of the common law. Article III 
contained these words : "Religion, morality, 
and knowledge, being necessarry to good gov- 
ernment, and to the happiness of mankind, 
schools and the means of education shall for- 
ever be encouraged." It was also provided 
that the navigable waters should be free to all 
the inhabitants of the territory and of the 
United States, without tax, impost, or duty. 
Slavery was prohibited, and it was declared 
"that the said territory and the States which 
may be formed therein shall forever remain a 
part of this Confederacy of the United States 
of America, subject to the Articles of Confed- 
eration, and to such, alterations therein as might 
be made, and to the laws enacted by Congress." 
With this Ordinance,- which was, in fact, a 
model constitution, the settlers in the North- 
west were provided with a solid foundation 
upon which thev might proceed to build a stable 
and enduring society, .secure from au)- future 
danger of radical alterations on the assumption 
of Statehood, or from the needs of a larger 
and more complex population. 


As yet no proper means had been taken to 
secure the Indian title to lands west of the 
Ohio, though Congress had established a Board 



of Commissioners for that purpose in 1784. 
These officials, however, instead of seeking 
peace and friendship through the Great Coun- 
cil of the Northwestern Confederacy, which 
now held annual meetings near the Rapids of 
the Maumee, adopted a policy of dealing with 
the tribes separately. Thus the treaties of Fort 
Stanwix, in October, 1784; Fort Mcintosh, in 
January, 1785; Fort Finney, in January, 1786, 
and Fort Harmar, in January, 1789, had been 
made only with gatherings of unauthorized and 
irresponsible savages. The error of the com- 
missioners was pointed out in a memorable 
remonstrance sent to Congress by the Council 
of the Confederates, in December, 1786, and 
bore fruits in numerous raids and murders 
perpetrated upon the settlers of the Govern- 
ment lands by the very tribes who were ignor- 
antly reported and supposed to have ceded the 
territory. It led later to more general and 
widespread hostilities, involving the defeat of 
General Harmar's expedition in 1790, and the 
more disastrous defeat of St. Clair, in Novem- 
ber, 1 79 1, after which no white man's life was 
safe on the frontier until Wayne's great vic- 
tory over the Indians at tbe battle of the Fallen 
Timber, August 20, 1794. The thoroughness 
of Wayne's methods so impressed the savages 
that they concluded with him the treaty of 
Greenville, which brought peace and security 
to the settlers. It was never violated by any 
of the Indian tribes who were parties to it. By 
it the Indians yielded their claims to the lands 
east of the Cuyahoga, and thereafter the Cuya- 
hoga river and the portage between it and the 
Tuscarawas constituted the boundary between 
the United States and the Indians upon the 
Reserve until July 4, 1805. "On that day a 
treaty was made at Fort Industry, by which the 
Indian title to all the Reserve west of the Cuya- 
hoga was purchased. Tlius the Indian title to 
the soil of the Reserve was forever set at rest, 
and no flaw now existed in the Connecticut 
Land Company's claim to the ownership of the 
lands of the Reserve." 


In the early part of May, 1796, the com- 
pany fitted out an expedition to survey that 

portion of the Reserve lying east of the Cuya- 
hoga river. This party consisted of about fifty 
persons, including General Moses Cleaveland, 
superintendent ; Augustus Porter, principal 
surveyor and deputy superintendent; Seth 
Pease, astronomer and surveyor; Amos Spaf- 
ford, John Milton Holley, Richard M. Stod- 
dard and Moses Warren, surveyors ; Joshua 
Stow, commissary, and Theodore Sheppard, 
physician. There were thirty-seven employees 
who had been engaged as chainman, axemen 
and boatmen, and whose names were respect- 
ively, Joseph Tinker (principal boatman), 
George Proudfoot, Samuel Forbes, Stephen 
Benton, .Samuel Hungerford, Samuel Daven- 
port, Amzi Atwater, Elisha Ayres, Norman 
Wilcox, George Gooding, Samuel Agnew, Da- 
vid Beard, Titus V. Munson, Charles Parker, 
Nathaniel Doan, James Halket, Olnet F. Rice, 
Samuel Barnes, Daniel Shulay, Joseph Mcln- 
tyre, Francis Gray, Amos Sawtel, Amos Bar- 
ber, William B. Hall, Asa Mason, Michael 
Coffin, Thomas Harris, Timothy Dunham, 
Shadrach Benham, Wareham Shepard, John 
Briant, Joseph Landon, Ezekiel Morly, Luke 
Hanchet, James Hamilton, John Lock, and 
Stephen Burbank. There were also Elijah 
Gun and his wife, Anna, who came with the 
surveyors and took charge of Stow's castle at 
Conneaut; Job P. Stiles and his wife Tabitha, 
who took charge of the Company's stores at 
Cleveland, and two men — Chapman and Perry 
— \\'ho furnished the sur\-eyors with fresh beef 
and traded with the Indians. There were also 
one or more children. 

The party proceeded in flat-bottomed boats 
up the Mohawk river, and Wood Creek, to- 
wards Lake Ontario. At Oswego there was a 
British fort, which they were obliged to pass 
by a strategem, permission to do so having 
been refused by the officer in charge, in the 
absence of the regular commandant. Once on 
the waters of Lake Ontario they proceeded by 
way of Niag-ara and Oueenstown to Bufifalo. 
Flere on June 2,^d they attended a council of 
tlie Six Nations, made presents to the Indians, 
and exchanged speeches with Red Jacket, Cap- 
tain Brandt and others. Several of the chiefs 
took dinner with the commissioners. On this 



occasion Red Jacket delivered himself of some 
remarks on the subject of religion, which, as 
they probably embodied the sentiments of 
many, if not most, of the Indians, are here 
reproduced in substance. "You white people 
make a great parade about religion. You 
say you have a book of laws and rules which 
was given you by the Great Spirit; but is this 
true? Was it written by his own hand and 
gWen to you ? No, it was written by your own 
people. They do it for deception. Their 
whole wishes center in their pockets : all they 
want is money. White people tell us they wish 
to come and live among us as brothers, and 
teach us agriculture. So they bring imple- 
ments of industry and presents, tell us good 
stories, and all seems honest. But when they 
are gone all appears as a dream. Our land is 
taken from us, and still we don't know how to 
farm it." 

From Buffalo the party journeyed by way 
of Lake Erie to the mouth of Conneaut creek, 
where they landed on July 4, 1796. As these 
pioneers of the Western Reserve, and the 
advance-guard of civilization, thus first touched 
soil on Independence Day. the birth-day of the 
Nation, it was doubly fitting that the occasion 
should be properly celebrated. This they ac- 
cordinglv proceeded to do with such means 
as they had at hand. In the Journal of Gen- 
eral ]\Ioses Cleaveland is found the following 
reference to the occasion : 

"On this Creek (Conneaut) in New Con- 
necticut land, July 4, 1796, under , General 
Moses Cleaveland, the surveyors and men sent 
by the Connecticut Land Compan}' to sur\'ey 
and settle the Connecticut Reserve, were 
the first English jieople who took possession of 
it. The day. memorable as the birthday of 
American Independence and freedom from 
British tyranny, and commemorated by all 
good freeborn sons of America, and memorable 
as the dav on which the settlement of this new 
country was commenced, and in time may raise 
her head amongst the most enli,ghtejied and 
improved States. And after many difficulties, 
perplexities, and hardships were surmounted, 
and we were on the good and promised land, 
felt that a just tribute of respect to the day 

ought to be paid. There were in all, including 
men, women, and children, fifty in number. 
The men, under Captain Tinker, ranged them- 
selves on the beach, and fired a Federal salute 
of fifteen rounds, and then the sixteenth in 
honor of New Connecticut. Wt gave ' three 
cheers and christened the place Fort Indepen- 
dence. Drank several toasts, viz : 

1st. The President of tlie United States. 

2nd. The State of New Connecticut. 

3rd. The Connecticut Land Company. 

4th. May the Port of Independence and the fifty 
sons and daughters who have entered it this day be 
successful and prosperous. 

5th. May these sons and daughters multiply in 
sixteen years sixteen times fifty. 

6th. May every person have his bowsprit trimmed 
and ready to enter every port that opens. 

Closed with three cheers. Drank several pails of 
grog, supped, and retired in remarkably good order. 

On the next day two boats were dispatched 
under the direction of Tinker to Fort Erie to 
fetch the remainder of the stores. On the 7tli 
an interview was had with a deputation of the 
Massasagoes Indians, under chief Paqua, who 
wished to ascertain the settlers' intentions with 
respect to themseh'es, they being the occupants 
of the land in the vicinity of Conneaut. Gen- 
eral Cleaveland reassured them as to the inten- 
tions of the party, and gave them some pres- 
ents, including the inevitable whisky, at the 
same time warning them against indolence and 
drunkeness, "which checked their l:)egging for 
more whisky." 

The surveyors then began the main work 
of the- expedition. Proceeding to the south 
line of the Reser\-e, they first "ascertained the 
point where the forty-first degree of north lat- 
tude intersects the western line of Pennsyl- 
vania, and from this line of latitude as a base, 
meridian lines five miles apart were run north 
to the lake. Lines of latitude were then run 
five miles apart, tlius dividing the Reser\-e into 
townships five miles square. .As the lands ly- 
ing west of the Cuyahoga remained in pos- 
session of the Indians until the treaty of Fort 
Industry, in 1805 the Reserve was not sur- 
\eved at this time further west tiian to the 


Cuyahoga and the portage between it and the 
Tuscarawas, a distance west from the western 
hue of Pennsylvania of iifty-six miles. The 
remainder of the Reserve was surveyed in 1806. 
The sur\-eyors began, as we have seen, at the 
southeast corner of the Resen'e, and ran par- 
allel lines north from the base line and parallel 
lines west from the Pennsylvania line five miles 
apart. The meridian lines formed the ranges, 
and the lines of latitude the townships." 

The said beginning point is the southeast 
corner of Poland township in Mahoning 


Land east of the Cuyahoga, exclu- 
sive of the Parsons tract in acres 2,002,970 
Land west of the Cuyahoga, exclu- 
sive of surplus land, islands, and 

sufferers' lands 827,291 

Surplus land, so-called 5,286 

Islands 5-924 

Parsons", or Salt Spring Tract .... 25,450 

Sufferers, or Fire Lands 500,000 

Total acres in Connecticut Western 

Reserve 3,366,921 


The method in which the land was divided 
is SO' clearly and succinctly described in the 
History of Trumbull and Mahoning 
Counties (Cleveland, 1882), that we shall close 
this chapter with a partial transcription of the 
account of that work. 

"After this survey was completed the Land 
Company, in order that the share holders might 
share equitably as nearly as possible the lands 
of the Reserve, or to avoid the likelihood of 
a part of the shareholders drawing the best, and 
others the medium, and again others the poor- 
est of the lands, appointed an equalizing- com- 
mittee, whose duties we shall explain. 

"The amount of the purchase money, $1,- 
200,000, was divided into four hundred shares, 
each share value being $3,000. The holder of 

one share, therefore, had one four-hundredth 
undivided interest in the whole tract, and he 
who held four or five or twenty shares had 
four or five or twenty times as much interest 
undivided in the whole Reserve as he who held 
but one. As some townships would bemoreval- 
uable than others, the company adopted, at a 
meeting of shareholders, at Hartford, Conn., 
in April, 1796, a mode of making partition, 
and appointed a committee of equalization to 
divide the Reserve in accordance with the 
Company's plan. The committee appointed 
were Daniel Holbrook, William Sheppard, Jr., 
Moses Warren, Jr., Seth Pease, and Amos 

"The Directors of the Company * * * 
selected six townships to be offered for sale 
to actual settlers alone, and in which the first 
improvements were designed to be made. The 
townships thus selected were numbers eleven in 
the sixth' range; ten, in the ninth range; nine 
in the tenth range; eight, in the eleventh range; 
seven, in the twelfth range; and two, in the 
second range. These townships are now known 
as Madison, Mentor, and Willoughby, in Lake 
County; Euclid and Newburg, in Cuyahoga 
County ; and Youngstown, in Mahoning. 
Number three, in the third range, or Weathers- 
field, in Trumbull County, was omitted from 
the first draft made l3y the company, owing to 
the uncertainty of the boundaries of Mr. Par- 
sons' claim. This township has sometimes 
been called the Salt Spring township. The six 
townships above named were offered for sale 
before partition was made and parts of them 
were sold. Excepting the Parsons claim and 
the seven townships above named, the remain- 
der of the Reserve east of Cuyahoga was di- 
vided among the members of the company as 
follows : 


"The four best townships in the eastern 
part of the Reserve were selected and surveyed 
into lots, an average of one hundred lots to the 
township. As there were four hundred shares, 
the four townships would yield one lot for 



each liolder or holders of one or more shares 
every share. When these lots were drawn, 
participated in the draft. The committee se- 
lected township eleven in range seven, and 
townships five, six, and seven, in range eleven, 
for the four best townships. These are Perry, 
in Lake County, Northfield, in Summit 
County, Bedford and Warrenville, in Cuya- 
hoga County. 

"Then the committee proceeded to select 
from the remaining townships certain other 
townships that should be next in value to the 
four already selected, which were to be used 
for equalizing purposes. The tracts thus se- 
lected, being whole townships and parts of 
townships * * * ^j-e now known as Au- 
burn, Newbury, Munson, Cardon, Bainbridge, 
Russell and Chester townships, in Geauga 
County; Concord and Kirtland, in Lake 
County; Springfield and Twinsburg, in Sum- 
mit County; Solon, Orange and Ma\dield, in 
Cuyahoga County. The fractional townships 
are Conneaut gore, Ashtabula gore, Saybrook 
gore, Geneva, Madison gore, Painesville, Wil- 
loughby gore. Independence, Coventry and 

"After this selection had l^een made they 
selected the average townships, to the value of 
each of which each of the others should be 
brought by the equalizing process of annexa- 
tion. The eight best of the remaining town- 
ships were taken. * * * They are now 
known as Poland, in Mahoning County; Hart- 
ford, in Trumbull County; Pierpont, Monroe, 
Conneaut, Saybrook and Harpersfield, in Ash- 
tabula Count}' ; and Parkman, in Geagua 
County. These were the standard townships, 
and all the other townships of inferior value 
to these eight, which would include all the 
others not mentioned above, were to be raised 
to the standard value of the average townships 
by annexations from the equalizing townships. 
These last named were cut up into parcels of 
various sizes and values, and annexed to the 
inferior townships in such a way as to make 
them all of equal value, in the opinion of the 
committee. Wlieji the committee had per- 
formed this task it was found that, with the 

exception of the four townships first selected, 
the Parsons tract, and the townships that had 
been previously set aside to be sold, the whole 
tract would amount to an equivalent of ninety- 
three shares. Tliere were, therefore, ninety- 
three equalized townships or parcels to JDe 
drawn for east of the Cuyahoga. 


"To entitle a shareholder to the ownership 
of an equalized township, it was necessary for 
him to be the proprietor of $12,903.23 of the 
original purchase of the company, or, in other 
words, he must possess about three and three- 
tenth shares of the original purchase. The 
division by draft took place on the 29th of 
January, 1798. The townships were numbered 
from one to ninety-three, and the numbers, on 
slips of paper, placed in a box. The names of 
shareholders were arranged alphabetically, and 
in those instances in which an original invest- 
ment was insufficient to entitle such investor 
to an equalized township, he formed a com- 
bination with others, in like situation, and 
the name of that person of this combination 
that took alphabetic precedence was used in the 
draft. If the small proprietors were, from dis- 
agreement among themselves, unable to unite, 
a committee was appointed to select and classify 
them, and those selected were compelled to sub- 
mit to this arrangement. If, after they had 
drawn a township, they could not agree in 
dividing it between them, this committee, or 
another one appointed for that purpose, divided 
it for them. That township designated bv the 
first number drawn belonged to the first man 
on the list, and the second drawn belonged to 
the second man, and so on until all were 
drawn. Thus was the ownership in common 
sen-ed, and each individual secured his interest 
in severalty. John INIorgan, John Caldwell, 
and Jonathn Brace, the trustees, as rapidlv as 
partition was effected, conveyed by deed to tiie 
several purchasers the land they had drawn. 

"The second draft was made in 1802, and 
was for such portions of the seven townships 
omitted in the first draft as remained at that 
time unsold. This draft was divided into 



ninety shares, representing $13,333-33 of the 
purchase money. 

"The third draft was made in 1807, and 
was for the lands lying west of the Cuyahoga, 
and was divided into forty-six parts, each rep- 
resenting $26,687. 

"The fourth draft was made in 1809, at 
which time the surplus land, so-called, was di- 
vided, including sundry notes and claims aris- 
ing from sales that had been effected of the 
seven townships omitted in the first draw- 



Laud Bounties — The Ohio Company — Founding of Marietta — Abundance of Game — The 
Moravian Settle.uents — Founding of Columbia, Cincinnati, and North Bend — Floods 
Damage the Settlements — The Scioto Land Szi'indle — Tlic I'irginia Military District. 

At the time the Connecticut Land Company 
were engaged in surveying their purchase, 
there were several other settlements in a more 
or less satisfactory condition of progress along 
the banks of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers. 
Immediatel}' on the close of the Revolutionary 
War, thousands of tlie disbanded soldiers and 
officers who had been reduced to poverty in the 
long and arduous struggle for independence 
looked anxiouslj' to the \\'estern lands for new 
homes, or as a means of repairing their shat- 
ered fortunes. Their thoughts had been turned 
in this direction by the several acts passed by 
Congress in 1776, and subsequently during the 
war, providing for land bounties to the Con- 
tinental soldiers, in quantities proportional to 
their rank in the sen-ice. Thus, a major-gen- 
eral was entitled to eleven hundred acres, a 
brigadier-general to eight hundred and fifty, 
a colonel to five hundred, a lieutenant-colonel 
to four hundred and fifty, a major four hun- 
dred, a captain three hundred, a lieutenant two 
hundred, an ensign one hundred and fifty, and 
privates and non-commissioned officers one 
hundred acres each. Those who lived in the 
South were fortunate in having ready access 
to the lands of Kentucky. Tennessee, and the 
back parts of Georgia ; but owing to the dis- 
putes in Congress over the lands of the North- 

west, which long delayed the surveys and 
bounties, the Northern soldiers almost lost 
hope. A strong memorial was presented to 
Congress in June, 1783, asking for a grant of 
the lands between the Ohio and Lake Erie. An 
ordinance for the survey of the public lands 
west of the Ohio River was passed by Congress 
two years later, and provided for the system 
of rectangular surveys by sections, townships, 
and ranges. The first surveyor-general was 
Thomas Hutchins, a man of high scientific at- 
tainments, who had served in the AVest as an 
officer of engineers in the Sixtieth British Li- 
fantry. Assisted by Rittenhause, the official 
geographer of Pennsylvania, he established a 
base line extending due west from the point 
where the north bank of the Ohio River is 
intersected by the west line of Pennsyh-ania, 
and upon this laid out the Seven Ranges which 
were the beginning of the land system of the 
United States. General Rufus Putnam of 
Massachusetts, who had taken a leading part 
in preparing the memorial, .to which reference 
has been made, was appointed by that body 
one of the surveyors; but having work of a 
similar nature to do in Maine for the state of 
I\Lassachusetts, he obtained the appointment of 
General Benjamin Tupper temporarily in his 
place. From Tupper General Putnam subse- 



quently received so favorable an account of 
the country as to cause him to enter with great 
earnestness into a plan of western colonization. 


A meeting- of officers and soldiers, chiefly 
of the Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut lines, was held at Boston on March ist, 
1786, at which a new Ohio Company was 
formed, in shares of $1,000, for the purchase 
and settlement of Western lands. The direc- 
tors, General Putnam, General Samuel H. Par- 
sons, and Rev. Manasseh Cutler, selected for 
their purchase the lands on the Ohio River 
situated on both sides of the Muskingum and 
just west of the Se\-en Ranges. It had been 
provided by Congress that the Continental 
currency in which the soldiers had received 
their pay, and which had greatly depreciated 
during the war, should be accepted at its par 
value in payment for public lands. There were 
many delays before the grant was finally rati- 
fied by Congress. Some months were spent in 
waiting for a quorum of that body to assemble, 
and even after Congress had passed the ordin- 
ance, a long and tedious game of politics had 
to be played before the contract for the pur- 
chase was finally signed. The chief question 
at issue was the appointment of officers for the 
territory. The company wanted General Par- 
sons for Governor, while there was a strong 
counter influence in favor of General St. Clair, 
who was then president of Congress, but who 
seems to have taken no active part in advanc- 
ing his own interests. Dr. Cutler, who' repre- 
sented the companv, had also to contend against 
the influence of se\-eral rival companies of 
speculators in AVestern lands, one of which, 
composed of a number of prominent New York 
citizens, was represented by Colonel William 
Dtier, then Secretary of the Treasury Board. 
A secret arrangement was at last effected 
whereby St. Clair was made governor of the 
territory and the domain of the Ohio Company 
was enlarged by an addition of land on the 
west side for the benefit of the New York as- 
sociates. After some furtlier delay on the part 
<if Congress the contract for the purchase was 

finally signed October 27, 1787, by the Treas- 
ury Board, with Dr. Cutler and Winthrop Sar- 
gent as agents of the Ohio Company. 


In tlie following months of December and 
January, two companies, including surveyors, 
boat-builders, farmers, carpenters, and labor- 
ers, were sent forward under the leadership 
of General Putnam. Uniting on the Youghio- 
gheny River, tliey constructed boats, in which 
after having embarked their stores, thev de- 
scended the Ohio River, and en the 7th of 
April, 1788, landed at the Muskingum. On 
llie upper point, opposite Fort Harmar, they 
founded their town, which in July following 
received the name of Marietta, in honor of the 
French Queen, Marie Antoinette, the word 
being a compound of the first and last syllables 
of the Queen's name. On the arrival of Gov- 
ernor St. Clair, which took place on July 17th, 
the government of the Northwest territory was 
formally installed, Washington County, with 
its courts and officers, was established, and by 
the end of the year the little capital had a popu- 
lation of one hundred and thirty-two men, be- 
sides women and children. To these were ad- 
ded in the following year one hundred and 
fifty-two men, fifty-seven of them with 
families. Major Denny, one of the army of- 
ficers stationed at Fort Harmar, thus describes 
these settlers in his diary : 

"These men from New England, many of 
whom are of the first respectability, old Revo- 
lutionary officers, erected and are now living 
in huts immediately opposite us. A consider- 
able number of industrious farmers purchased 
shares in the company, and more or less arrive 
every week. * * * These people appear 
the most happy folk in the world, greatly satis- 
fied with their new purchase. They certainly 
are the best informecl, most courteous and civil 
strangers of any I have yet met with. The 
order and regularity obser^■ed by all, their 
sober deportment, and perfect submission to 
the constituted authorities, must tend much to 
promote their settlements. 

The population of Marietta was still furth- 


er increased in 1790, owing- to the survey and 
distribution of the Ohio Company's lands, so 
that tiie place could now boast of eighty houses. 
Settlements were extended to Belpre, to New- 
bury, twelve or fifteen miles down the Ohio, 
and to Big- Bottom, about thirty miles up the 
Muskingum. In January, 1791, there were in 
all these settlements some 280 men capable of 
bearing arms. The danger from Indians was 
proved by the destruction in that month of the 
settlement at Big Bottom by a party of Dela- 
wares and Wyandots. Strong block houses 
were erected at each of these points and all pos- 
sible measures were adopted to ensure the 
safety of these infant communities. 


The settlers were in no danger from hunger. 
■ The land in which they had cast their lot was 
veritably a land flowing with milk and honey. 
The soil was rich, and produced abundant 
crops ; fruit was soon successfully cultivated, 
and fish, flesh and fowl were to be had in incon- 
ceivable cjuantities. Buffalo, deer and bear 
werenumerous; geese, ducks and pigeons were 
everywhere in immense flocks, and the rivers 
fairly swarmed with' fish. A story is told by 
Captain Ma}- of a pike weighing 100 pounds 
that was served up at the Fourth of July bar- 
becue, and it was no uncommon thing to catch 
■catfish sixty to eighty pounds in weight. 


Marietta was the first permanent settlement 
on the soil of Ohio. Other white settlements, 
however, which it is necessary to mention, had 
been previously made by the Moravian mission- 
aries, who in 1772, planted villages on the 
banks of the Tuscarawas river, and devoted 
themselves to the conversion of the Indians, 
in \\-hich work they were remarkably success- 
ful ; their earnest, true, and simple character, 
with their sweet devotional music, made a 
great impression on many of tlie savages. The 
population of their villages on the Tuscarawas 
and Muskinginii rivers at the close of 1775, 
■numbered over four hundred persons. That 

they Avere peculiarly adapted to the work in 
which they were engaged is shown, not only 
by the number of their converts, which was 
large, but by the conduct of the Christianized 
Indians, who repeatedly, in spite of great 
provocations, refused to go upon the war path, 
refrained from drunkenness, showed hospital- 
ity to their enemies, and cheerfully culti\'ated 
other Christian virtues. They included in their 
ranks a number of distinguished chiefs. 

Lord Dunmore's war, and, above all, the 
Re^■olutionary War, proved disastrous to the 
Moravian missions. Situated on a line be- 
tween Pittsburg and Detroit, they lay directly 
in the path of hostilities. Marauding parties 
were constantly -passing that way. In the death 
of White Eyes, head war-chief of the Dela- 
wares, they lost a powerful and influential 
friend, and their misfortunes were increased 
by the arrival at Goschocking (or Coshocton), 
one of their settlements on the Muskingum, of 
the frontier desperadoes McKee, Elliott and 
Simon Girty. These men, who had escaped 
from imprisonment at Pittsburg as spies and 
secret agents of the Tory cause, spread false re- 
ports among the Indians against the Moravians 
and instigated two attempts to assassinate Zeis- 
berger, the leader of the missionaries. 

In 1780, some American militia, part of a 
force that had been sent out under Col. Broad- 
head from Pittsburg to surpress a hostile rising 
on the Musking-um, attempted to destroy the 
Moravian missions, under the impression, 
which seemed to be general among the lower 
class of whites on the frontier, that the mission- 
aries were secretly their foes, and were with 
difficulty prevented from doing so by a detach- 
ment of their comrades under Colonel Shepard 
of Wheeling. 

In the following year the missionaries were 
made to feel the hostility of the British com- 
mandant at Detroit, who had ascertained that 
they were friendly to the American cause, and 
were even in correspondence with American 
officials to the prejudice of British interests. 
Through the agency of the Six Nations, who 
delegated their task to the WVandots (the 
work having been first declined by the Ottawas 
and Chippewas), and assisted by Elliott, Girty 



and McKee, the missionaries were seized early 
in September, their houses pillaged, their fam- 
ilies turned out of doors and their books and 
papers destroyed. The Christian Indians were 
also robbed, and a famous Delaware chief 
among them — Glickhican — arrested. Though 
no blood was spilled on this occasion, the Wyan- 
dots having accepted their task reluctantly, the 
people suffered greatly during the following 
winter from exposure and famine. In the 
spring of the next year, 1782, a party of ninety- 
six Christian Delawares — men and women — 
while on a peaceable errand, were treacherously 
decoyed into two houses, shut up and merci- 
lessly slaughtered, by a force of ninety men 
from the Ohio under one David Williamson, 
who passed for Colonel. About two months 
later another expedition under Colonel William 
Crawford, a worthy man who, without any de- 
sire or effort on his part, had been elected 
to command over Williamson, was sent out for 
the purpose of destroying what was left of the 
Moravian Indians at Sandusky, and also to lay 
waste the Wyandot towns. This force was 
ambushed and utterly routed by a party oi 
Wyandots. Williamson, who had accompanied 
the expedition in a subordinate capacity, es- 
caped with a part of the force. Colonel Craw- 
ford was tal<en prisoner and fell into the hands 
of Chief Pipe, who in rage for the massacre 
of the Christian Indians, whom he had for 
som.e time protected, caused him to be tortured 
and burned at the stake. This was the end of 
the Moravian missions on the Muskingtim. 
Thoughi the pious founders lingered for some 
time about the scenes of their early labors and 
successes, their triumphs were over; the partly 
civilized Indian communities which they had 
built up were forever scattered and gone. But 
in spite of their failure, their work at any rate 
"was unexcelled as an attempt to bring the 
Indian and white races on this continent into 
just co-ordination." Says Rufus King (Ohio: 
American Commonwealth Series), "That these 
missions, though not enduring, as sometimes 
imputed, were none the less the primordial 
establishment of Ohio, is as true as that Plym- 
outh was the beginning of Massachusetts. 
Neither lasted long, but that was no fault of 

the Moravians. Plymouth, though equally obso- 
lete, is proudly commemorated by the sons of 
Missachusetts. The Moravians may justly be 
remembered and honored as the pilgrims of 


The settlements by the Ohio Land Com- 
pany on the Ohio and Muskingum rivers were 
followed by others along the Ohio, the Scioto 
and the Miamis, but by a different class of set- 
tlers from the sturdy, sober. New England 
pioneers who had begun the work of civiliza- 
tion in the southeastern part of the territory. 
These latter were of substantially the same stock 
as those on' the Reserve, and founded a very 
similar society, identical in all its leading fea- 
tures and having as a mutual goal the same 
moral political ideals. The first settlers on the 
Miamis came, as it chanced, from New Jersey. 
Benjamin Stites, or Stiles, a trader from that 
State, who had joined a party of Kentuckians 
in a chase after some thieving Indians, after 
the party had given up the pursuit, crossed over 
with them to the Big ]\Iiami, and obtained a 
view of the rich valleys formed by these rivers. 
On his return home he immediately confided 
his discovery to Mr. 'John Cleves Symmes and 
other men of influence. Symmes, after himself 
making a trip down the Ohio to personally in- 
vestigate the truth of Stites' story, organized 
a company of associates somewhat similar to 
the Ohio company, which included General 
Jonathan Dayton, Elias Boudinot, and Dr. 
Witherspoon, as well as Stites. On August 
29, 1787, Congress was petitioned for a grant 
to the association of all the lands on the Ohio, 
between the Miamis, to be bounded on the 
north by an extension of the nortbi line of the 
Ohio Company. In October this petition was 
referred to the Treasury Board, but without 
waiting for the result Symmes proceeded as 
though the bargain were closed. After giving 
Stites a covenant for 10,000 acres, at five shill- 
ings an acre, he issued, November 26th, a 
I lengthy and high-sounding prospectus in which 
I he depicted the advantages of settlement in the 



new territory in the most vi\'id colors, and 
farther announced that a contract had been 
entered into between the associates and the 
Treasury Board, and offering for sale any 
to\\Tiship, section, or quarter-section in the 4,- 
600,000-acre tract for which he had applied. 
He reserved for himself, as the site of a town 
that he proposed to lay out, an entire township 
at the confluence of the big- Miami and the 
Ohio, besides fractional townships on the north, 
south, and west sides of it. The land was of- 
fered until May ist following at two-thirds of 
a dollar per acre; after that the price was to 
be raised to one dollar. 

The proposition proved attractive, and the 
best lands were soon taken. A large number 
of the purchasers soon found themselves de- 
ceived, as the Treasury Board refused to con- 
cede the entire front on tbe Ohio, and would 
execute no contract at all until October 15, 
1788, when, through the influence of General 
Dayton and Daniel Marsh, they consented to a 
grant limited to twenty miles along the course 
of the Ohio, beginning at the mouth of the Big 
Miami, and with a northerly boundary to in- 
clude 1 ,000,000 acres. This excluded the lands 
sold to Stites and others, and also dropped a 
township that had been reserved for the use 
ef an academy. The result was an immense 
amount of litigation, arising out of the vio- 
lated contracts between Stites and his associ- 
ates and the purchasers ; and the contentions in 
Congress and the local courts, in which latter 
Stites was a judge, were not ended until May, 
1792, when Congress passed acts which ex- 
tended the limits of the purchase to the origi- 
nal number of acres originally bargained for, 
though with somewhat different boundaries. 
Reservations were set apart in each township 
for the support of religion, schools, one com- 
plete township for an academy and other insti- 
tutions of learning, a lot one mile square at the 
mouth of the Big I\Iiami, and one of fifteen 
acres for Fort Washington. The people who 
had purchased lands from Symmes were 
granted the right of pre-emption on further 
payment of $2 per acre. Other schemes of set- 
tlement were soon under way. In November. 
1788, Stites, with a strong party of friends and 

followers, and provided with all necessary im- 
plements for clearing and building, landed just 
below the Little Miami, built a fort or block- 
house, and founded the town of Columbia. 

In the summer of that year, Matthias Den- 
man, of New Jersey, who had taken -up the 
entire section of land opposite the mouth of 
the Licking, and who was ambitious to become 
the founder of a town^ met at Limestone, Col. 
Robert Patterson, the founder of Lexington, 
Kentucky, who was meditating a purchase 
from Symmes. Denman accompanied the 
Colonel to Lexington, where, in company with 
John Filson, they formed a partnership in the 
town site which he had secured opposite the 
mouth of the Licking. Filson was a school- 
master from Chester, Penn., who had turned 
surveyor and emigrated to Kentucky. The 
three drew up articles, which were formally 
executed August 25th, whereby Denman. in 
consideration of twenty pounds, Virginia cur- 
rency, to be paid by Patterson to Filson, trans- 
ferred to each an equal interest with himself 
in the section of land opposite the mouth of the 
Licking. Plans were made for laying out a 
town which was to be called Losantiville, the 
name being a forced and pedantic compound 
of three different languages — Greek, Latin and 
French' — and intended to signify "the town 
opposite the mouth of the Licking." On the 
22d of September. 1788, Patterson and Filson, 
with a large company of Kentuckians, arrived 
on the ground and were there met by Denman, 
Judge Symmes and Israel Ludlow, chief sur- 
veyor of the Miami associates. This meeting 
may be regarded as the inauguration of Cin- 
cinnati. Though it was impossible to proceed 
to the immediate location of the plat. Ludlow 
was detached to "take the. meanders of the 
Ohio," which measurement pro\ed that Den- 
man was within the line. Soon after Filson, 
who had accom])anied Symmes. Patterson and 
a part}' of the Kentuckians on an e.xpedition 
twenty miles into the country, becoming 
alarmed at the presence of Indians, separated 
himself from the party and attempted to rejoin 
the main bxidy. He was never more heard of, 
and undoubtedly met his death at the liands 
of the savages. Ludlow acquired Filson's in- 



terest, and became the surveyor and principal 
agent in the town affair. Denman returned to 
New Jersey. Patterson and Ludlow, with a 
party of twelve, left Limestone December 24th, 
to form a station and lay out the town. The 
time of their arrival, which is supposed to mark 
the date of the settlement of Cincinnati is not 


In January, 1789, Columbia and Miami 
City were submerg-ed by a great flood, which 
also caused Fort Finney to be abandoned, the 
garrison, under Captain Kersey, proceeding 
to the falls of the Ohio. Symmes thereupon, 
by blazing the trees, marked out the site of an- 
other town, which, from its location, he called 
North Bend. He and his associates also ad- 
dressed a letter to the Secretary of War, com- 
plaining of their desertion by the soldiers, and 
in August Major Doughty was sent down to 
"choose ground and lay out a new work for the 
protection of the people settled in Judge Sym- 
mes' purchase." After reconnoitering for 
three days in order to find an eligible situation, 
he reported to Colonel Harmar that he had 
"fixed upon a spot opposite to the Licking 
River, which was high and healthy, abounding 
with never-failing springs, and the most proper 
position he could find for the purpose." This 
settled the destiny of Cincinnati. Fort Wash- 
ington, a substantial structure of hewn timber, 
about 180 feet square, two stories high, and 
with block houses at the four angles, was im- 
mediately erected, and on the 29th of Decem- 
ber was occupied by Colonel Harmar, with the 
larger part of his regiment, two companies 
being left at Fort Harmar. Early in January, 
1790, Governor St. Clair arri\-ed and estab- 
lished the County of Hamilton, on which oc- 
casion Losantivilie was made the county town, 
and renamed Cincinnati in honor of the mili- 
tary order of the Cincinnati, to which the 
Revolutionary soldiers in Colonel Harmar's 
command belonged. 

For some years Cincinnati remained a 
mere garrison town; the residences were but 
cabins, and the inliabitants migratory. Gen- 

eral Harrison, then a young ensign, who saw 
it just after St. Clair's defeat in 1791, when the 
remnants of his demoralized army were strag- 
gling in, describes it as lacking in almost every- 
thing but whiskey, of which everybody seemed 
to have an abundant supply. 'T certainly saw 
more drunken men," said he, "in the forty- 
eight hours succeeding my arrival in Cincin- 
nati than I had in all my previous life." In a 
few years the place began to improve, but in 
1800 the population was but 750. 


It will be remembered that when St. Clair's 
appointment to the g-overnorship had been ar- 
ranged, the domain of the Ohio Company had 
been enlarged for the benefit of certain New 
York citizens, represented by Colonel Duer. 
Congress had authorized the sale of all the land 
between the Seven Ranges and the Scioto 
River. It was divided by the Treasury Board 
into two contracts. One included a tract on 
the Ohio between the seventh and seventeenth 
ranges with a north boundary to include a mil- 
lion and a half acres. There were the usual 
reservations for the support of religion and the 
public schools, with two townships for a uni- 
versity, and some sections in different town- 
ships reserved for disposal by Congress. The 
other contract included the lands between the 
seventeenth range and the Scioto River. By 
the provisions of the first named contract the 
Ohio Company were granted possession and 
use of the lands east of the west line of the 
fifteenth range, containing one-half the pur- 
chase, which line intersects the Ohio just be- 
low Gallipolis. The Ohio Company then trans- 
ferred the western portion in accordance with 
the arrangement which had been made between 
Dr. Cutler and Colonel Duer. The New York 
associates, styled the Scioto Company, then sent 
Mr. Joel Barlow to Paris, to act as their agent 
in the disposal of the lands. He was assisted 
there by De Saisson, a Frenchman, and Wil- 
liam Playfair, of Edinburgh', who had taken a 
prominent part in the destruction of the Bas- 
tile. Barlow was a poet, of winning address, 
and apparently gifted with a most exuberant 



imagination. He issued some very alluring 
but mendacious advertisements and maps in 
whicli the lands of the colony were described 
as "being immediately adjacent to the settled 
and cultivated country, and having charms of 
climate, health, and scenery such as to rival 
Arcadia or the Vale of Tempe." xA.ll the com- 
forts and most of the luxuries of life — the gas- 
tronomic luxuries, ?it least — were to be ob- 
tained at substantially no cost of labor or 
trouble. "A couple of swine," said he, "will 
multiply themselves a hundredfold in two or 
three years without taking any care of them." 
All sorts of wild game were in plenty, there 
was no danger from wild animals, no taxes 
to pay, and no militarv duty to perform. To 
tickle French ears the Ohio River was referred 
to only by the name of La Belle Riviere, the 
name given to it by La Salle. To complete all, 
the land was offered for sale on easy terms and 
at the most tempting prices. 

These advertisements had due effect. Hun- 
dreds of people, most of whom were wholly un- 
fitted for the arduous and dangerous life of the 
frontier settler, were inveigled to the Ohio. 
Upon their arrival they were soon undeceived. 
St. Clair, on his return from the West, found 
about four hundred of them "at a place three 
miles below the Kanawha, which they had 
named Gallipolis. A hundred more were wait- 
ing at Marietta, and another tandred were on 
their way through Pennsylvania. They were 
living in long rows of cabins provided for them 
by the Scioto Company." A deputation of 
them waited on St. Clair with a paper reciting 
an account of their wrongs. He promised to 
investigate the matter, and in the meanwhile 
counselled them to organize themselves at once, 
by appointing civil and militar}- officers, as well 
for their own peace and order as for defense 
against the Indians. But many of these people 
had been brought up to trades useful only 
in highly civilized and refined communities, 
and though some were farmers and mechanics, 
and a few men of education, as a body they 
lacked the capacity to help themselves out of 
the unfortunate situation into which they had 
been so cruelly duped, ^\■ithout the ready re- 
sources and adaptaljility of the English, Scotch, 

Irish and German races, having failed in their 
main prioject, they were unable to substitute 
for it any other practical sdieme, or to make 
the best of the circumstances in which they 
found themselves. They gradually scattered 
and dwindled away, and though Congress came 
to their relief in Marchi, 1795, with a donation 
of land known as the French grant — for the 
New York promoters of the enterprise not 
having paid for their lands, all the titles had 
lapsed — it does not appear that they took any 
practical advantage of it. Their famous coun- 
tryman, Volney, who visited them at Gallipolis 
in the summer of 1796, found them "forlorn 
in appearance, with pale faces, sickly looks, 
and anxious air, still inhabiting a double row 
of whitewashed log huts, patched with clay, 
unwholesome and uncomfortable." When this 
scandalous transaction was investigated there 
was some evidence apparently going- to show 
that the Ohio Company, or at least some of its 
officials, were to a certain extent implicated in 
the fraud, but as the subject is obscure and 
complicated, and moreover, is not closely con- 
nected with the history of Mahoning County, 
it will not here be entered into save by this 
brief reference. In view of the fact that their 
culpability was never proven it may be as well 
to give them the benefit of the doubt. 


When in March, 1784, Virginia ceded to 
the United States her claims to northwest ter- 
ritory, it was stipulated that she should be re- 
imbursed for the expense of subduing the Brit- 
ish posts, that 150,000 acres at the Falls of 
Ohio were to be granted to Colonel George 
Rogers Clark and his officers and soldiers, 
and that "in case there should not be a suffi- 
cient quantity of g-ood lands south of the Ohio 
River to provide for the bounties due to the 
Continental troops of the Virginia line, the 
deficiency should be made up by good lands 
to be laid off between the Scioto and Little 
Aliami rivers." In the winter of 1790-91 Gen- 
eral Nathaniel Massie, who had been apiwinted 
by Virginia some time before to make a survey 
of the district, impressed bv the fiDurisliing 



condition of the settlements on the Muskingum 
and the two Miamis, determined to plant a 
Virginia colony north of the Ohio. Such a 
settlement, he thought, would enhance the 
volue of the lands of his State, and incidentally 
be a means of protection of his party while 
they were engaged in surveying the wilderness, 
a work that he had already begun. A site on 
the north bank of the river was chosen, and a 
town laid out which received the name of Mas- 
sies Station. This was afterwards changed to 
Manchester, by which name the place is now 
known. Free land was offered to the first 
twenty-five families who should settle in the 
town, and this advertisement being circulated 
widely throughout Kentucky brought responses 
from some thirty families who were eager 
to accept the offer. The settlement was com- 
menced in March, 1791, streets were marked 
out, a number of cabins built and surrounded 
by a stockade as a protection against the In- 
dians, and soon the little station was in a 
flourishing condition. It enjoyed practical im- 
munity from Indian attacks. This was mainly 
due to the character of its inhabitants — all 
hardy frontiersmen, courageous, watchful, and 
self-reliant, and long accustomed to brave the 
toil and dangers of the wilderness. General 
Massie subsequently attempted to found a town 
in the heart of the Virginia Military District, 
but the attempt was not successful, owing to 
Indian hostilities. A later effort in the follow- 

ing year resulted in the founding of Chillicothe, 
which at the end of two years became the seat 
of civil government. Civilization in Ohio had 
now fairly begun. Commencing, as we have 
seen, at the river, it had invaded that long, 
dark stretch of forest which lay between it and 
the lake, and through which the native red man 
had hitherto roamed in undisputed sway. Soon 
the busy axe sounded here the knell of his ap- 
proaching extinction. In despair he made one 
last desperate effort to preserve the Ohio as the 
natural boundary between the white man's ter- 
ritory and his own hunting grounds. The four 
years' war, beginning with the destruction of 
the Big Bottom settlement on the Muskingum, 
January 2, 1791, and followed by the discom- 
fiture of Harmar and the utter rout of St. 
Clair, inspired him with a temporary hope that 
was forever shattered by Wayne's victory of 
the Fallen Timber, in August, 1795, to which 
reference has already been made. The great 
barrier to white settlement was removed by the 
subsequent treaty of Greenville, and the full 
tide of emigration swept in. Settlers' cabins 
soon began to dot the landscape ; forest shades 
gave place to open clearings, soon to be trans- 
formed into smiling farms and fruitful orch- 
ards; thriving towns sprang up as if by magic, 
and civilization began its march of progress in 
Ohio, never again to meet with serious inter- 



Lines of Development: — Date of tlie First Settlement on the Reserve — First IVlicat Cut on 
the Reserve — First Postal Seruice — Early Conditions of Life — A Primitive Mill — Old 
Time Threshing — Bounty on Wolf Scalps— Olden School Days — Early Youngstoum 
Citizens— Draft of 1812 — Homemade Soap — The Old Ash Hopper — Soap Spookery — 
The Old Ashery — The Stage Driver — MatcJies Unknozmi — // Fires all Went Out — 
Wild Pigeons; Where are They? — Pioneer Milling Enterprises — Slavery — County Seat 
Located — Early Elections — First County Seat Issue — Useless Legislation — Renewal of 
the Strife— Some Literesting Old Letters — County Scat Changed. 

The conditions of life in the wilderness 
made it necessary to obtain food from the soil 
as soon as possible. It was also of vital im- 
portance to be within reach of some channel, 
however difficult and obstructed, through which 
trade with the outside world could be carried 
on. As Lake Erie was the best natural high- 
way available for settlers in the Western Re- 
serve, there was a strong tendency to build 
homes near its shores. This, however, was 
checked in the earliest period of settlement by 
the menacing attitude of the English north of 
the lake, and at its western end, and their in- 
fluence over the Indian tribes of the region. 
Home-seekers felt safer, and more surely in 
American territory when within easy reach of 
the Ohio. Moreover, the soil was more pro- 
ductive, as a rule, and the danger from malaria 
less, at a good distance from the lake. 

The result was a double line of develop- 
■ment, one-half governed by trade, and the other 

by farming. For a time the latter so far pre- 
vailed that Cleveland had a hard and seemingly 
doubtful race with other towns in the Connecti- 
cut Reserve. As late as 1812, when the first 
bank was established in the Western Reserve, 
it was not located in Cleveland, but in Warren, 
Trumbull County. 


Soon after the partition of the Reserve was 
completed, many of the grantees removed to 
their land, and made it their future home. 
Others sent out agents. Purchasers from the 
grantees removed to the new country, clearings 
were made in the forests, log houses were 
erected, crops were put in the ground, and in 
the spring of 1798 was commenced the regular 
settlement of the Reser\-e. 

The first house on the Reserve was prob- 
ably the log house erected by John Young and 



Colonel James Hillman about 1797. This 
house stood on the east bank of the Mahoning 
River, near Spring Common, Youngstown. 
Another early house, which still exists in Can- 
field, was built in 1 800-1 801 by Major-Gen- 
eral Wadsworth, hero of two wars, and a mem- 
ber of General Washington's staff during the 
War of Independence. Alajor-General Wads- 
worth received a large tract of land in the 
Western Reserve before the State of Ohio was 
organized. When Mahoning- County was or- 
ganized, in 1846, the house was used as a jail, 
sherifif's residence, and general county office, 
until the new courthouse was built. General 
Wadsworth died in 1818, and his body now lies 
buried in the little cemetery not far from the 


The first wheat reaped by white men within 
the limits of the Reserve was cut near Con- 
neaut in 1796. That was the year when the 
first settlement was made in Cleveland, and the 
date shows that the pioneers lost no time in 
getting land under cultivation and crops in the 


The first regular postal service in the West- 
ern Reserve was established and opened in 
October, 1801. The route extended from Pitts- 
burg to Warren, passing through Beavertown, 
Georgetown (on the Ohio River), Canfield and 
Youngstown. The mail was carried on horse- 
back and delivered once in two weeks. The first 
mail contract was awarded to Eleazer Gilson, 
of Canfield, and was for two years, at the price 
of $3.50 per mile per year, counting the dis- 
tance one- way. Samuel Gilson, a son of the 
contractor, carried the mail the greater part of 
the time, and as one source of information 
says, "on foot, carrying the mail bag on his 
back," but it is probable that it was only dis- 
tributed on foot in the different towns, as, ac- 
cording to old documents and papers, be- 
queathed by the late Elmer Kirtland, through 
Miss Mary Morse, to the Western Reserve 

Historical Society, the route between the towns 
was covered on horse-back. Calvin Pease was 
appointed postmaster at Youngstown, Elijah 
Wadsworth at Canfield, and Simon Perkins at 
Warren, these three men being the first post- 
masters on the Reserve. In 1803 the population 
warranted a weekly deHvery, requiring three 
days each way. A proposal to carry the mail, 
dated 1805, reads : 

"I will engage to carry the mail from Pitts- 
burg, via Canfield, Poland and Youngstown, 
to Warren, once a week, for $850 a year." 

Detroit was added to the route in 1805, 
but not until 1823 was there mention of stage 
coaches, or any vehicle for the accommodation 
of passengers. The quarterly account of Dr. 
Charles Dutton, who was the second postmaster 
on the Reserve, being appointed in July, 1803, 
shows the amount of business done by the of- 
fice at that time. The amount collected on let- 
ters was $35 ; on newspapers, $3.79 ; total, 
$38.79. Postmaster's commission, $13.19; 
paid general postoffice, $25.60; total, $38.79. 



A description of the conditions under which 
the early settlers lived, and their manner of life 
may be found in a small history of Ohio, by 
Caleb Atwater, published at Cincinnati in 1838. 

He says in substance : "The people were 
quite uncouth in their aspect, but not so unhappy 
as one would suppose. The greatest difficulty 
with which they had to contend was sickness. 
The farmer kept many dogs to guard his sheep, 
hogs, fowls and himself. His fences were very 
high ones, and his dogs were always ready to 
defend their master's family and property. 
Hogs became so numerous in the woods that 
many of them became wild and multiplied until 
the War of 1812 gave their flesh a value, and 
they were killed. Cattle and horses had multi- 
plied greatly in the meantime, and the people 
had begun to drive them over the mountains 
at an early day to market. 

The people lived in log houses, raised In- 
dian corn for their bread, and as to meat, they 
found deer and wild turkeys in abundance in 
the woods. Domestic fowls and hogs multi- 



plied wonderfully in a country where there was 
so little winter for which to provide (here 
he seems to be referring chiefly to the southern 
part of the State), and as for pleasure car- 
riages, we do not believe there was one in the 
State when it was first organized. Not a few 
persons wore moccasins of deer skins for coats 
or hunting skirts and pantaloons. Thus dressed, 
equipped with a large knife and a good rifle 
gun, the men went about their daily business. 
When the State was first organized we do not 
believe there was even one bridge in it. The 
loads were few, and it was no easy matter for 
a stranger to follow them. For ourselves we 
preferred following a pocket compass or the 
sun to most of the roads in the Virginia Mili- 
tary Tract, and this even ten years after the 
organization of the State government. Travel- 
ers carried their provisions with them when 
starting from any of the towns into the then 
wilderness." What was true in this respect of 
the Virginia Military Tract was doubtless true 
of the W^estern Reserve at this earl}- period. 

Captain J. C. Hartzell, a prominent citizen 
of Sebring, who has at different times con- 
tributed much interesting pioneer information 
to local jom"nals, describes in a recent article, 
the days "when our good old mothers told time 
by a noon mark, and made not only their own 
soap, but most other useful and needful things 
in housekeeping. They baked their own bread 
in a clay or brick or stone out-oven, and lighted 
the home with a lard lamp or cruisie, a strip of 
canton flannel, or a bit of candle wick in the 
melted lard or candle, dipped, and later along 
moulded them in tin moulds. 

"Then they made their own sugar, and 
plenty of it : made their own clothes from wool 
off the sheep's back to fhe woven web, the 
warm and durable linsey-woolsey dress, or from 
the flax patch to the linen coat, gown, or 
towel : doctored their own or neighbors' fam- 
ilies with medicines of their own garnering 
from gardens, field, and forest. * * * Each 
old pioneer opening in the virgin forest would 
have a most interesting story to tell of the be- 
ginning of civilized home life, if there w'ere 
only some ready writer to set it down in good 
black print, while there are vet a few. a verv 

few, of the living witnesses of the labor in that 
struggle with the wilderness." 


Tlie Ca,ptain thus describes a primitive hand 
mill : "I am reminded of an old hand mill, the 
stones of which are buried in the earth, and 
form part of the foot-walk from the front door 
of the old Snode home to the little entrance 
gate into the yard. They are about two feet 
in diameter, and furrowed faces tell truthfully 
that this low estate in which we find them to- 
day was not the intent of the original designers. 
Our good mother Snode says they were 
brought along with' the family pioneer wagon 
from New Jersey, when they came to this 
neighborhood. The old parchment deed for the 
home farm, signed, I think, by James Madison, 
President, is still in their possession. Mother 
Snode is ninety years old (1907), and has 
spent nearly her entire life near where she now 

"The mill, of which the stone above men- 
tioned formed a part, was most likely the first 
grain-grinding machine in the settlement. The 
stones are perhaps two and a half or three 
inches thick. The upper stone, or runner, has 
an oblong eye in the center, and hole or socket 
not far from the outer edge, a stout stick reach- 
ing from the socket to a fixed timber above, 
with a like socket directly over tlie center of 
the stones all loosely fitted, composed the mill. 
The grinding, or power, was after the Arm- 
strong patent. The family used it and it was 
free to the neighbors, and the toll executed by 
the proprietor was good neighborship. Mrs. 
Snode says that she has often ground grain 
upon it, and eaten corn cakes and mush, and 
all the good things that came from the king 
of grain. Then in her home you will find an 
old sun dial, which, with the aid of the com- 
pass made the noon mark nearly accurate. 
Here are also the cards that prepared the wool 
for the spinning wheel, the big wheel, the little 
wheel, and the reel, sickles for cutting grain, 
an nld platter with the date of 170J. an old 


shackle, such as were used in slavery daj's, and 
the same as you may see any day when con- 
victs are employed on public works. Except 
the shackle, the implements could ' have been 
duplicated in almost any pioneer homestead. 


"In separating the grain from the straw, 
the flail was the primitive implement, but quite 
as commonly the grain was thrown upon the 
great threshing floor, and two teams of horses 
put upon it, and round and round they walked, 
and on a cold snappy day the work was ac- 
complished with less labor, though by no means 
a light job. Flax was pulled just before the 
ripening point, tied in small bundles and again 
thinly and evenly spread upon the green 
meadow and turned until the woody stalk was 
rotted; then it was broken, scutched, hatcheled, 
and prepared for the spinning wheel. * * * 
'Tis a long jog forward from the little hand- 
mill (above-mentioned), which might have re- 
duced from one to two bushels of grain to fine 
meal in a day, to the Pillsbury mills with their 
daily output of 35,000 barrels of flour. 

"Old things are passing away. Very few 
are now here who have lived in these primitive 
times and seen the wild deer scudding through 
the native forest on the very site of our thriv- 
ing town, with its great stacks belching forth 
clouds of black smoke that hide the noonday 
sun, but tell of a busy human hive underneath. 


"My Uncle Jake, father of the elder Mrs. 
Diver of Beloit, used to tell me the tales of 
the long ago, when wild game was plentiful. 
He said wolves were such a scourge that the 
State offered a bounty of $5 each for wolf 
scalps. His people lived then south of Damas- 
cus, and he knew the lair of wolves near by; 
year after year, as the pups came on, he would 
capture and scalp them. I believe he said 
scalps were receivable for taxes, and he felt 
safe for his tax money as long as his wolves 
were not waylaid in this, to him, useful em- 
ployment ; but after a time Abner Woolman, 

grandfather of our Abner on the hill, invaded 
Uncle Jake's wolf preserve, and, not regarding 
family ties or maternal affection, killed both 
the mother and her children, and so destroyed - 
Uncle's infant industry, very much to his 


"In his old wagon house I attended a geo- 
graphy school in the winter evenings. The 
itinerant teacher had a set of Pelton's outline 
maps, and the class, when the term was over, 
certainly had a good understanding of the 
physical earth, oceans, gulfs, bays, lakes, rivers, 
inlets, countries, population, chief cities. States 
and their capitals, boundaries, etc., etc., and all 
of this set to a song. Each pupil, as the lesson 
went on, took a turn at the maps with a pointer, 
somewhat resembling a billiard cue, and 
pointed to each place and gave answer as to 
the length of the river, or height of a volcano, 
or other mountain, etc., as requested by tine 
teacher. That was a good school, and the 
knowledg'e we gained in that old wagon house 
has stood us in good stead all along the journey 
of life. Some changes have been made in- 
boundaries and States, but otherwise the old 
world is about the same as we left it when we 
quit Uncle Jake's wagon shed." 

The Captain, who refers to himself in the 
article so extensively quoted, as "a link between 
the old and the new," came upon the scene after 
the roughest and most primitive conditions of 
pioneer life had been supplanted, to some ex- 
tent at least, by the comforts and conveniences 
of a more cultivated society. The world as he 
knew it "was a pretty comfortable world, and 
the men who made it so were, many of them, 
still in the vigor of mature manhood, but many 
of the primitive habits and customs, either of 
choice or necessity, still clung to the old homes 
for a long time, and ye scribe might write on 
and on to tell of our school life, spelling 
schools, and the old literaries on the hill, the 
old fulhng, grist, and sawmills ;" religion, also, 
"for we had the gospel preached to us, and 
none of your snippet, two-for-five sermons, but 
good, two-hour, all-wool-and-yard-wide ser- 

\ I 1\ V\( 1 K I t \! \ \K\ CtMETt.R\ \()L XGbloW \ 




"Every tinkle on the shingles 

Wakes an echo in the heart, 
And a thousand dreamy fancies 

Into busy being start. 
And a thonsand recollections 

Weave their bright hues into woof 
As I listen to the tinkle 

Of the rain upon the roof." 

Dr. Manning, who settled in Yotmgstown 
in 181 1, said: "The quaUfications for a school 
teacher in those days were few and moderate. 
If a man could read tolerably well, was a good 
writer, and could cipher as far as the rule of 
three, knew how to use the birch scientifically, 
and had firmness enough to exercise this skill, 
he would pass muster." 


Some further reminiscences of those times 
are found in a letter from Roswell M. Grant, 
uncle of the late President Grant, who, in writ- 
ing from Mayslick, Ky., September 7, 1874, 
in answer to an invitation to attend the reunion 
of old citizens and pioneers held at Youngs- 
town tliat year, said in part : 

"My father sold his tan yard to John E. 
Woodbridge, and moved to Maysville, Ky., 
leaving Margaret and myself with Colonel 
Hillman, about the year 1820. Colonel Hill- 
man about the same time sold his farm and 
moved over to town to keep a hotel. At that 
time the citizens were as follows: ist, above 
Colonel Rayen was J. E. Woodbridge; 2d, 
John F. Townsend, hatter; 3d, Colonel Wil- 
liam Rayen, farmer; 4th, William Sherman, 
hatter; 5th, opposite, George Tod; 6th, Mr. 
Abraim, chair maker; 7th, Samuel Stuart, 
tavern (Colonel Hillman bought Stuart out) ; 
8th, opposite. Dr. Dutton ; 9th, Esq. Baldwin, 
farmer: loth, Kilpatrick, blacksmith; nth, 
Henry Wick, merchant; 12th, Hugh Brv'son, 
merchant; 13th, Lawyer Hine; 14th, Mr. Bis- 
sell ; 15th, Mr. Bruce, shoemaker; i6th. Rev. 
Mr. Duncan. The above are all the citizens 
there were in Youngstown from iSo^ up to 

"I well remember the Indians coming down 
the river in canoes, and camping in Colonel 

Hillman's sugar camp, at the lower end of the 
farm, and upon the river bank. They would 
stay some days. Also, the old chief would 
come to see Colone Hillman to settle some dis- 
pute between them. They would bring some 
thirty or forty warriors with them. They 
would stop at the plum orchard at the upper 
end of the farm. These visits were often. I 
had forgotten to mention the names of Mr. 
Hogue, a tailor, and Moses Crawford, who 
lived below Judge Tod's, on the bank of the 
river. Crawford tended Colonel Hillman's 
mill. Bears, wolves, deer, and wild turkey were 
plenty. I went to school in the old log school- 
house eight years; to Master Noyes five years 
of the time. David Tod, Frank Thorne, and 
myself were leaders in all mischief; so said 
Master Noyes. 

DRAFT OF 1812. 

"In the War of 1812, the whole country 
was drafted, and rendezvoused in Youngstown. 
After they left, Captain Applegate, Lieutenant 
Bushnell, and Ensign Reeves enlisted one hun- 
dred men for one year. During the enlistment 
Captain Dillon's son, with an elder fife, and 
myself with a drum, furnished the music. 
Colonel William Rayen commanded the regi- 
ment. Judge Tod had a Colonel's commission 
in the regular army. Colonel Hillman volun- 
teered, and after arriving at Sandusky, Gen- 
eral Harrison appointed him Wagon-Master 
General of the United States Anny. John E. 
Woolbridge was paymaster. Mr. Hogue, 
Moses Crawford, Dr. Dutton, Henry Wick. 
Hugh Bryson, and Mr. Bruce, were all the men 
left in Youngstown during the war. I had for- 
gotten Mr. Thome, a cabinet maker, who lived 
near the old school house. 

"Jesse R. Grant left Judge Tod's in 18 10. 
Went to Maysville, Ky., and finished his trade 
with my brother Peter. Went to Deerfield, O., 
about the year 181 5. Took charge of my 
father's old tan yard. Sold out and went to 
Ravenna. Carried on the business until 1821. 
He then went to Point Pleasant, forty miles 
below Maysville. Sunk a tan yard there. Same 
year he married Miss Hannah Simpson, where 



U. S. Grant was born April 27, 1822." 
With the permission of Captain Hartzell, 
we also publish the following article, which, 
under the title, "Some Reminiscences of Ye 
Olden Time," appeared in the issue of The 
Sebring News, January 29thi of the present 
year '(1907) : 

"Some time ago, as I was rambling through 
one of our big potteries, I noticed a vessel 
containing soft soap. The same looked mighty 
familiar and I made inquiry, only to find that 
soft soap was imported from England and 
finds its uses in all potteries. 


"\\'hen I was a boy, both soft and hard 
soap, in fact all soap, was made by the good 
house motliers. In our home I was the gen- 
eral roustabout, a very present help in time of 
need — if I could be found. The old Mahoning 
formed the north boundary of our farm and 
its purling, laughing, hunying waters, as they 
glide over on and on to join the brimming 
river, chattering as they go, often beguiled me 
from duty's path and I often found congenial 
company with neighbor's boys, though if they 
were not present, the river was always inter- 
esting. And why not, for when I was a boy, 
any boy or man could fish with hook and line, 
seine or gig; so that there were times when, 
mother being about to set in with her annual 
soap-making, and wanting me to set up the 
ash-hopper and such like needful work, I had 
a foreboding of the coming siege and retired 
to the river for a rest, and vacation. But 
W'hen the head of the house came home, there 
was always a settlement in which no com- 
promises were admitted and I paid up. 

"In those days every home used wood for 
fuel and the big wide fire-places eat up a big 
lot of timber — good timber, too — and the ashes 
thus resulting during the entire year, were 
saved and safely garnered to the soap-making 
season. And when the time was ripe, always 
spring time, when grass greened and robins 
came' back to their old haunts, then the old ash- 
hopper went into commission again, repairs, 
if needed, were made, and serious work began. 


"The hopper itself was a crude affair, a 
thick wide slab four or five feet long from the 
sawmill nearby with a gutter dug in the center 
the whole length of the slab to catch the drip, 
furnished the bottom and the foundation. The 
hoppei" part was of very simple construction, 
made of any sort of boards cut in three and a 
half or four foot lengths, made wide at the 
top and narrow at the lower edge, the boards 
fitting into the groove of the slab bottom. And 
now we are ready for operation. First, the 
handy lad is sent to dig sassafras roots to put 
in the hopper for a starter, and after being 
lined on the inside with rye straw the ashes 
are filled in slowly, and tamped down solid 
until the hopper is filled. When all this is in 
order, water is poured on the top, perhaps 
a pail or two a day. and when the mass is well 
wet and the lye beg'ins to driji from the groove 
to the vessel placed beneath for its holding, 
we may say the enterprise is well started. 

"All the waste fat from the butchering 
and from the cooking, Avith the meat rinds 
sliced from the hams and bacon, having been 
hoarded, are now brought into use and are 
added to the kettle of lye as needed, the kettle 
is hung over a fire and the sequence of it all 
is soap, the same as our potters are bringing 
over from 'Merrie England' today. 


"There was a goodish bit of spookery about 
our soap-making- of years agone and a common 
inquirv when neighbor women met was about 
the soap. Aunt Susan would say, 'Well, Mary 
has had good luck with her soap,' or mother 
would take her visitors out to see her soap, 
thrust in her long paddle to the bottom of the 
kettle and pry up the mass until it would 
bulo-e and crack and split into a thousand 
tumbling bits, and finally settle back into a 
solid, livery whole. Then they would say, 
'You had good luck this time!' 

A barrel or two of soap was made in this 
way each year and when the soap gave out. one 
neighbor would sfend to the other for a pail of 
soap, 1x»rrow it. Hard soap was made by a 



little different handling. To me there was 
always a bit of mystery in the getting- of good 
soap, but none at all about making and filling 
the hopper. 


"As time passed on, my uncle, Nick Eckes, 
built an ashery on the side or slope of a hill 
near North Benton, on a farm now owned and 
occupied by Walter Miller, and after that my 
architectural genius, so often called out in the 
building of our homesoap factory, was allowed 
a vacation in that direction^ but continued to 
develop as we shall see further on. 

"Uncle Nick, to my mind, was a wonder- 
ful man. His ashery had several great kettles 
set in arches where he boiled the lye after it 
had been leached through hundreds of bushels 
of ashes. The hoppers were permanent and 
set well above the boiling kettles, aiid there he 
made potash, pearlash, soap and the like, bar- 
reling up the two first named and wagoning 
them to market in some far off place, most 
likeh' Pittsburg. He went from house to house 
with his great wagon and team and g-athered 
the ashes for which he paid ten cents a bushel 
in trade. He had a high seat on his wagon 
and a g^ood sized box on either end with secure 
lid and all fast to the seat. As he sat in the 
middle of the seat with his treasures on either 
side where he could lift the lid and take out 
vast quantities of all sorts of valuables, he was, 
to my mind, a man to excite a barefoot boy's 


"There was only one other man his superior 
in position, culture and training to whom we 
):)oys oft'ered unstinted homage and admiration 
and that was the jolly stage driver, who blew 
his horn, cracked his long-lashed whip over his 
four-in-hand team and went sailing into town, 
where he delivered and took on mail, pas- 
sengers and such light merchandise as he could 

"In a talk with Uncle John Schaeffer on this 
line, he ver\- well remembered the same and I 

said when the mail was first started (I think 
the route was from Cleveland, then a strag- 
gling village of a few thousand inhabitants, to 
Steubenville, the land office of these parts), 
the road was new and not the best. There were 
two bad chuck holes, one on either side of his 
house and the stage driver told him that if he 
would fill them up he would give him a free 
ride in his coach to Salem and back. The offer 
seemed so generous that Uncle fulfilled his con- 
tract with pick and shovel and the stage driver 
was as good as his word. 

"\^'hen the stage coach went flying by, my, 
oh my ! The driver fairly scorned the earth 
and he certainly was a grand figure, so grand 
that none of us boys could ever hope to gain 
such a high position. When I was a boy. there 
were no railroads, telegraph, telephones and 
such like conveniences and yet we didn't seem 
to miss them and managed to get along fairly 


"My forebears came from near Bethlehem, 
Pa., and settled about five miles north of Se- 
bring, near the time Ohio was admitted into 
the Union. The first settlement was made just 
north of the forty-first parallel and in what has 
long been known as the Connecticut or W'estern 
Reserve, and by an original charter for the 
colony, belonged to the State of Connecticut. 
Connecticut finally disposed of the same to the 
Connecticut Land Company, and bv this land 
company to actual settlers. 

"The reserve was mostly settled by down- 
East Yankees, a most intelligent, orderly and 
enterprising people. Our family formed a 
colony of Pennsylvania Germans, but good 
neighborship always prevailed and the location 
was a happy one. 

"The writer was born in the year in which 
Queen Victoria began her long; reign in Eng- 
land, and the pioneers had passed through the 
hardships incident to hewing homes out of 
virgin forests, inhabited by wild game and 
roving bands of Indians, and had secured 
homes of great comfort. When T put in ray 
appearance, the men and women who liad borne 



the hardships of real pioneers, who had wielded 
the axe and the rifle, were still living, and I 
still have a most vivid meinory of them and 
stories of the life they lived. 


"Matches for lighting fires were not then 
known, or at least I have no recollection of 
them. The evening fires in the great fireplace 
before retiring, were banked. The manner of 
it was this way : 

"The fireplace was furnished with heavy 
dog irons and against the back wall was placed 
a great log, preferably of green wood. Lighter 
wood was laid upon the dog irons and an iron 
crane was swung in the side of the wall, pro- 
vided with adjustable hooks to accommodate 
pots and kettles with any length of bail. The 
.foresticks having been pretty well burned out 
in the evening, the brands were laid in the 
center and well covered with such cold ashes 
as had accumulated on the generous and al- 
ways hospitable hearth. In the mornings, all 
the first fellow up had to do was to stir up the 
heap, only to find that the trunks had been 
turned into a fine heap of glowing coals and 
so we soon had a blazing, cheery-looking and 
very comfortable kitchen. Sometimes, how- 
ever, there were lapses and there were no glow- 
ing coals in the heap. Maybe the brands were 
too dry or the cover too thin — something any- 
way. Often your scribe has been ruthlessly, 
cruelly, dragged from his trundle bed when 
it seemed as if he had only begun to sleep and 
rest his tired body from the toils of the previous 
day, and was sharply ordered to run quickly 
over to either Uncle Billy's or Uncle John's 
for fire, which was bronght in a brand or a 
small torch of the ever-present hickory bark. 

"Well, you youngsters say, that was tough, 
and not near so sleek and handy as to draw 
a match over hip, and zip, there you have it. 
But, now, just see here. The times of which 
I write, an insurance company, either life or 
fire, was not known in our neighborhood, and 
although many, in fact, I believe the most of 
*our oid neighbors lived in log houses with 

chinked walls and clapboard roofs, and the 
same often held in place by heavy poles and a 
bit of chimney laid up in clay mortar, I never 
knew a fire to occur in my youth, either of a 
house or a bam. ^\'l^ile today, with our better 
houses and all the convenient knick-knacks we 
have about us, the fire losses are appalling. 


"Well, I was often worried; suppose the 
fires in the neighborhood should all go out, 
what would we do then? So one day, I was 
telling my Uncle John of my gloomy fore- 
bodings, and he went into his house and took 
down his rifle from the wooden hooks over the 
door, her abiding place when not in use. She 
had a flint lock. Everjr family had a little store 
of punk, and hunters carried it. Punk is a dry, 
white fungus and is found on decaying logs 
and timber and catches a spark, and if you 
have the flint and the steel you are independent 
of these dangerous, modem, ready-made fire- 
brands, called matches. So Uncle John, gun 
in hand, placed a bit of punk in the pan of his 
rifle, pulled the trigger, and lo, in the wink of 
an eye, my fears were allayed; no more fore- 
bodings of disaster to disturb my mind in the 
line of fire. 

"We had a number of these old pioneer 
hunters in our neigiiborhood and their prowess 
in the chase had supplied the pioneer families 
with meat and they always talked of their rifles 
most afifectionately and gave to them, in speak- 
ing, the feminine gender. The butts were often 
ornamented with inlaid silver, shell or bone 
devices, and the old powder horns were also 
decorated. Bullet pouches were real curios- 

"When I was a lad, the larger game was 
mostly gone, but the wood was full of gray 
and black squirrel, and both pheasant and quail 
were plenty. The old rifles were mostly out of 
commission and were not much used except at 
butchering time, or at an occasional shooting 
match on the river bottom. But those days 
passed all too soon ; the old hand-made flint 
and ca^p-locks gave way to the muzzle-loading 



cap-lock shot gun, sometimes single and often 
double-barreled, and then game began to thin 

WILD pigeons: where are they?- 

"And, b)' the way, can any of my old time 
chums tell what ever became of the wild pi- 
geons? You remember, long ago, when seeding 
time came, and the mast, beech-nuts, acorns 
and black and red haws began to ripen and the 
frosts brought the nuts to the ground, how the 
wild pigeons came in covies by the thousands, 
and, after a day's gleaning in newly sown 
wheat fields or the wood lands, with crops filled 
with everything good — for pigeons — they 
would wing their way to the old Beaver swamp 
to spend the night; and how the noise of their 
flight was deafening — and so many, they ap- 
peared like a dark cloud ; the noise of them 
when settling to roost, and how in the early 
morn they started in every direction for another 
day's foraging, often in small parties, only to 
return in the evening to the same roost. 'Twas 
a fine place, the swamp, when one wanted 
pigeons. The last pigeon potpie we had at our 
house, we had Twing Brooks and Barbe Black- 
burn for guests. We took small toll of the 
pigeons here, but they seemed to disappear, and 
in a season or two, were gone. 


"A small stream of water with its source 
somewhere near Squire Armstrong's home, 
made its wa)' through the Beaver swamp and 
meandered through the fields, here and there, 
crossed the state road near Joseph Ladd's, 
lately deceased. I called there occasionally 
and he told me that he was the second to own 
and occupy the farm where he lived so long 
and died. I think he told me. Pleasant Cobbs 
entered or took the land from the government, 
and he bought the same of Cobbs, so he was 
the second from the wilderness. 

"Mr. Ladd said the first house was made of 
plank, whipsawed, and when they went into a 
more modern house, he sold the plank one and 
it went to the farm now occupied by David 

Gempeler. But very soon they harnessed up> 
the little stream and put it to work, and within 
a mile of where he lived at one time there were- 
three mills, one grist and two saw mills, upon 
it. Samuel Coppock's sawmill on the Phillip- 
Case farm, many of us remember. Scott's- 
grist mill a little farther down the creek, was 
afterward moved to W'estville, where it now 

"There was a sawmill on the head waters; 
of Island Creek, just north of here a mile or 
two, on a farm once owned in our family and 
near the Albert Phillips home. Of all these 
and many more evidences of pioneer enterprise;, 
the only indisputable evidences to be seen to- 
day, are the long dams, bulwarks of earth, tO' 
hold the water in check. Any curious anti- 
quary can track the advance of the milling in- 
dustry by wandering along the banks of the 
stream. Now, the water mills are all or nearly 
all out of commission. The onlv one that I 
know of still doing duty is the Wilson or Shill- 
ing mill on the Mahoning near old Fredericks- 
burg, and that has been modernized and has 
iron rolls and steam attachments to be hooked 
on when the water fails. 

"The first mill I recollect was Barr's full- 
ing mill ; the next was Lazarus' grist and saw- 
mill and the next up stream was the Laughlin 
mill where the old stage road from Cleveland 
to Steul^enville crosses the Mahoning near 
Deerfield, and a short distance alx)ve stands- 
Wright's old mill, then the Kirk mill at Alli- 
ance. All these were water mills and pioneer 
mills. All now stand idle, out of business, 
and the boy with the family grist on his horse, 
bound for the old mill is a legend of days gone 
by. The merry clatter of the old brown mill 
has been forever drowned out, smothered and 
laid to rest by the invasion of George Stephen- 
son with his shrieking, roaring giant — steam. "^ 

"For nearly half a century after the first 
permanent settlements were made in Ohio, this 
Commonwealth, always opposed politically to 
slavery, was curiously tolerant of the presence 



of slaves from the States where slavery existed, 
if they were brought into Ohio by their masters 
for temporary purposes. 

It was not merely that Southern slave hold- 
ers were free to visit Ohio, bringing their slave 
servants with them, but that slave owners used 
to rent the services of their bondmen to farm- 
ers living- on the free soil side of the Ohio, 
when there was unusual need of help, as at 
harvest. It is estimated that fully 2,000 slaves 
from Kentucky and the Virginia of those days 
were sometimes employed in Ohio at the same 

Shortly before 1840 this condition finally 
and completely passed away. It became prac- 
tically certain that slaves brought into Ohio 
would be set free or aided to escape, and many 
citizens of this State took an active part in 
helping them flee to Canada. A new impatience 
of all contact with slavery came to be a 
naarked phase of public opinion in Ohio. Long 
before the Civil War this State had become 
one of the most active in movements for the 
curbing and undermining of slavery as an 


The County of Mahoning was created by 
the legislative act of February 16, 1846. For 
forty-five years previous to that date it had 
heen included within the limits of TnimbuU 
County, in accordance with the proclamation 
of Governor St. Clair, J'ldy 10, 1800. which de- 
clared that "all the, territory included in Jef- 
ferson County, lying north of the . forty-first 
<iegree, north latitude, and all that, part of 
Wayne County included in the Connecticut 
Western Reserve, should constitute a new 
■county , to be known by the name of Trumbull, 
and that the seat, of justice should be at War- 
ren." There was a good deal of dissatisfaction 
among the citizens of this part of the Reser\'e 
at the selection of Warren as the county seat. 
While Warren was. nearer the. center .of the 
territory,: Youngstown was the; larger vill^^ge, 
and nearer tjie center of population. Some, of 
the most influential men on the Reserve, .how- 
•ever, were interested in W^arren, either throug-h 

holding land there or by being actual residents 
of the place. Prominent among them was 
Judge Calvin Pease, who was brother-in-law 
of Hon. Gideon Granger, Postmaster-General 
of the United States. Mr. Granger, besides 
his interest in Pease, was himself the ovi'ner 
of large tracts of land which was enhanced in 
value by the location of the seat of government 
at Warren. 

"Under the old territorial law the Governor 
had authority to appoint officers for any new 
county he might choose to erect. The justices 
of the peace constituted the general court of 
the county, five of their number being desig- 
nated justices of the guorum. and the others 
associates. They met quarterly, and were 
known as the 'court of quarter sessions.' In 
this body was vested the entire civil jurisdic- 
tion of the county, local and legislative as well 
as judicial." 

An account of the first court held in Trum- 
bull County, with a list of the officers appointed 
by the Governor, may be found in the chapter 
devoted to the Bench and Bar. 


Early elections in the county were held ac- 
cording to the English method. The sheriff 
presided over the assembly of electors and re- 
ceived their votes z'iz'a voce. 

The first election in Trumbull County was 
held in Warren, the second Tuesday in Oc- 
tober, 1800. Owing to the difficulties attend- 
ant upon travel in those days only forty-two 
persons participated in the election. Thirty- 
eight- o.nt of the forty-two votes cast were cast 
for General Edward Paine, who "took his seat 
in the Territorial Legislature in 1801, and con- 
tinued to represent the county until a State 
government was established in '1803." During 
the May term of- the following -year the county 
of Trumbull was divided into tax and election ' 
districts, and the house -of Mr, Simon Perkins, 
at the intersection 'Of Young's road and. the 
Lake road was the place appointed for holding 
elections i.n the . iTOrthern district, which con- 
sisted of the towns of Mi.ddlefiejd, Richfield,, 
Pavnesville and Cleveland.' 




For a number of years thereafter the 
county seat issue occupied so large a share of 
the public mind as to dwarf all other topics, 
State or National. Though Warren had se- 
cured the county seat, Youngstown was de- 
termined that she should not retain it and a 
local and sectional conflict arose that was bit- 
terly waged at the polls and in the legislature, 
and in almost every possible way short of 
physical hostilities, until the War of 1812 in- 
terrupted it temporarily by its appeal to a 
broader and wider patriotism. Every election 
was contested on the county seat issue. 
Youngstown, which seemed to have the initial 
advantage of having the commissioners and 
representatives of the legislature, succeeded in 
1805 in having Geauga County set off, em- 
bracing all the settled western part of the Re- 
serve, this leaving Youngstown indisputably 
the center of population, if not of the county. 
In consequence of Youngstown's influence in 
the legislature, Warren, in defence of her in- 
terests, felt obliged to maintain two or three 
lobbyists at Chillicothe "whose duty it was 
to see that no law was passed infringing txpon 
the interests of their town. 

The erection of Ashtabula and Portage 
counties, in 1808, with western and southern 
boundaries as at present, gave Warren a geo- 
graphical disadvantage, which she sought to! 
■ rrallify at the next el-ection. This was by ex- 
cluding aliens from the right to vote, wliich 
had hitherto been allowed them without ques- 
tion. The aliens were mostly Irishmen and by 
the help of their vote Richard J. Elliot and 
Robert Hughes were the candidates elected. 
It was proposed b}^ Warren to contest the elec- 
tion and throw out the alien votes and thereby 
secure the election of their candi-date, Thc^nas 
G. Jones. The Irish made -a vigorous resist- 
ance to what they considered a blow at theiif 
liberties, and some exciting scenes were the 
result. The justices, Mr. Leonard Case of 
Warren, and Mr. William Chidester of Can- 
fidd, who was selected to take the testimony, 
sat first at Hubbard, the following day at 
Youngstown, and another day at Poland. 

Daniel Sheehy, the leader, and most violent 
of the Irish, made some long and flaming ora- 
torical outbursts, which greatly excited his 
hearers and caused him fijially to be placed 
under arrest. Many of the witnesses sum- 
moned refused to testify until threatened with 
committal to jail. The upshot of the matter 
was that "when the legislature met at Qiilli- 
cothe, in Deceml^er, 1809, Messrs. Hughes and 
Elliot were regularly admitted to seats on 
proper credentials."' The election of Hughes 
was contested by Matthias Corwin, of Warren 
County, in favor of Thomas G. Jones, but the 
committee on privileges and elections subse- 
quently reported in favor of Hughes. Some 
three days more were spent in discussion be- 
fore the house, the contestor and contestee 
being present with counsel, and ended in a 
resolution entitling Robert Hughes to his seat 
in the Assembly, Jones being given leave to 
whitdraw his memorial. 


A useless and vexatious change in county 
lines was made when, in accordance with bills 
passed by the legislature, towns number eight 
in ranges one to five in Ashtabula County, were 
made part of Trumbull County (only to be re- 
stored to Ashtabula County soon after), giving 
their inlmbitants just cause for indignation, 
and putting them to much inconvenience and 
uncertainty with respect to matters of legal 
jurisdiction.. This action made Warren tem- 
porarily the geographical center of the county, 
but had no particular effect on the final issue. 
The two parties were now about evenly bal- 
anced, and in 1810, a decisive contest, of which 
both' seemed afraid, was avoided by the elec- 
tion to the legislature of Aaron Collar, of Can- 
field, a neutral candidate. 

In the following year, Thotnas G. Jones 
was chosen candidate for Warren, and Sainuel 
Bryson as candidate for Youngstown to the 
House of Representatives, and George Tod of 
Youngstown to the Senate. The war with 
England now absorbed the attention of the 
people, diverting their minds from the local 
conflict in the need of preparing to meet the 


common enemy, and in making preiparations 
for defence against hostile Indians, whom 
British activity had stirred up to warhke 
demonstrations against the American frontier. 


It was not until 1840 that the county seat 
contest again took on an aggravated fonn, the 
renewal of the strife being due to a petition 
by leading citizens of Warren for a new court 
house, the old one having fallen into a dilapi- 
dated condition, and not being sufficiently im- 
posing in appearance for a place of such grow- 
ing importance. This proposition at once met 
with opposition from southern townships of the 
county, whose interests centered in Youngs- 
town. But the contest soon took on a wider 
phase than the mere question of erecting a new 
building at Warren, and brought the old 
county seat question again to the fore. A 
number of new projects for dividing the county 
were brought forward, four of which at least 
proposed to leave Warren without the seat of 
government. Youngstown elected officers 
committed against the new court house project. 
The people of Newton Falls wanted two new 
counties erected — one to be formed from the 
south part of Ashtabula County and the north 
part of Trumbull County ; the other from the 
east part of Trumbull County, to consist of the 
townships of Mecca, Bazetta, Howland,Weath- 
ersfield, Austintown, Canfield, Boardman, 
Youngstown, Liberty, Vienna, Fowler, 
•Johnston, Hartford, Brookfield, Hubbard, 
Coitsville and Poland, with the county seat at 
Poland; and the townships of Windham, Pal- 
myra, Nelson and Paris, in Portage County, 
to be annexed to Trumbull County, with the 
county seat at Newton Falls. 

"Youngstown finally petitioned for a di- 
vision of Trumbull County, as it then existed, 
into two counties, the south division having the 
county seat at Youngstown, and the north- 
west, which should retain the name Trumbull, 
retaining the county seat at Warren. Canfield 
further complicated matters by petitioning for 
the erection of a new county seat out of the ten 
southern townships of Trumbull and five north- 

ern townships of Columbiana. This last propo- 
sition received the support of the Warren peo- 
ple, and was finally confirmed by the legis- 
lature in 1846, the new county being desig- 
nated "Malioning." This name is generally 
considered to be of Indian origin, meaning 
"Beautiful Meadow," though sonie other 
theories have been occasionally advanced. 


To depict more clearly the strenuous times 
that have been thus briefly sketched above, we 
print herewith some interesting old letters 
written in the height of the strife by three men 
prominent in the political, social, and financial 
life of the Western Reserve, the originals of 
which are now in possession of Mr. Frank B. 
Medbury, of Youngstown. They were written 
to Asahel Medbury (father of Frank B. Med- 
bury), who was a member of the legislature 
which effected the division. R. W. Tayler was 
the father of Judge R. W. Tayler and was later 
controller of the United States Treasury. Ira 
Lucius Fuller was probate judge for years of 
Trumbull County and a close personal friend 
of Governor David Tod. Judge William Rayen, 
the writer of the third letter, is known to every 
one in the city. It would seem that his letter 
was written after Mahoning County had been 
detached from Trumbull and another county 
was still being talked of, to be known as Clay 


One of the matters discussed in Judge 
Fuller's letter is particularly interesting at the 
present time, the salary law having been but 
recently passed and applying to all county of- 
ficials of the State. It is relative to a proposi- 
tion to decrease the compensation of the 
county officials. How amazing the figures 
are that he gives can only be determined by 
comparison with the present figures. For in- 
stance he suggests that the sheriff should re- 
ceive $800; clerk $600 and treasurer and re- 
corder each $500. 

The subject which was of the most vital 
imjportance, though, was the matter of the di- 


vision of the county. This affected the entire 
territory and everyone took an interest in it. 

The letters are written with a care that is 
seldom found at the present time among busy 
men. The consideration which is shown re- 
garding public affairs and interests bespeaks 
the old time citizen and gentleman. 



The letters are as follows : 

Youngstown, Dec. 14, 1843. 

Dear Sir : Last evening Mr. Horace Stev- 
ens, Mr. Carlile and Mr. Lane of Newton Falls 
were here, having come down to make some 
arrangement about a different division of the 
county concerning which Mr. Carlile said he 
had spoken with you on your way to Colum- 
bus. That proposition was to divide North 
and South between the third and fourth ranges 
making a county seat at Youngstown and an- 
other at Newton Falls, taking four townsiiips 
from Portage, then cutting off the northern 
tier of towns in Trumbull and two southern 
tiers of Ashtabula and adding one other town- 
ship and making another county there. The 
proposition if carried out would suit us quite 
as well, but it is now too late to relax our 
efforts on account of it. 

They proposed to us to abandon our pro- 
ject or not pusb it to a consummation but wait 
until another year and join with them, inti- 
mating that our refusal would induce them 
and their neighbors to sign remonstrances 
which they had not yet done. Of course, how- 
ever, we cannot abandon ours nor agree to give 
up any portion of our efforts. 

Their visit, however, will result in their 
refusal to sign the Warren remonstrances 
which are general against any division of the 
county. They will, however, probably remon- 
strate, expressing a favorable disposition to- 
wards their own proposition and such remon- 
strance will aid us as showing a willingness to 
have the county divided. 

Yesterday William Woodbridge enclosed 
you a petition together with proof of the publi- 
cation of motion and today I forward another 
petition to Dr. Manning. If not done already, 

measures should be taken to secure a majority 
of the Senate in favor. Would not John E. 
Jackson, Senator from Portage, go in for it 
to prevent any further dismemberment of Port- 
age as proposed by the Newton Falls people? 
The Falls project would undoubtedly obtain a 
strong support from the southwestern and 
western part of the county and from the four 
towns in Portage and from the northern towns 
interested in the new county project there, as 
well as from our neig'hborhood. 

I should be pleased to hear from you as 
often as you can conveniently write. 
Yours truly, 

R. W. Tayler. 


Warren, O., Dec. 26, 1843. 
Ashel Medbury, Esq., Columbus. 

Dear Sir : I was much gratified to re- 
ceive your favor of the 17th inst. Although a 
very short epistle it served to remind me that 
the friendly relations so long and pleasantly 
continued still subsist between us. It is truly 
pleasing to me to be numbered among your 
personal as well as political friends and I trust 
it will be long ere a cause shall exist to disturb 
these amicable feelings so grateful to the 
human heart. 

You do not inform me how you are pleased 
with your legislative business, but I must in- 
fer from your silence that the burdens imposed 
by your official oath are not hard to be borne. 
Yet if the session should be long, as I trust it 
will not be, the time may not seem to pass so 

Our strength in the House is less than an- 
ticipated by some three or four but as you say, 
"it is thus strong." The '"retrenchment" bill 
which passed the House, is being- so much 
amended in the Senate that its father will 
hardly know it. 

There can be little doubt but what the taxes 
of tlie people can be sensibly reduced by a care- 
ful application of the power vested in the legis- 
lature. But the difficulty, if any exists, con- 
sists in great diversity of interests to be con- 
sulted in the process of reducing the salaries 


of our public officials, as well as the expendi- 
tures, to a proper medium. The reduction of 
the fees, however, should in justice be limited 
to those officers who may be hereafter elected 
or appointed. A large sum in the aggregate 
can be saved by dispensing with the records of 
proceedings in our courts of justice. The clerks 
of our courts will not object to the lopping off 
of this item. Also for marriage licenses, etc. 
Public policy recjuires that the expense attend- 
ing the solemnization of a marriage or the liti- 
gation of a suit at law or ecjuity should be as 
trifling as possible. But care should be taken 
that the salary of no office is reduced so low 
that a man of the recjuisite cjualifications would 
not be willing to fill it. Now the proposition of 
Parkers' amendment to give $800 to the 
sheriff, $600 to the clerk and $500 each to the 
treasurer and recorder, etc., would answer in 
■my opinion, provided the necessary deputies 
were paid in addition to those sums. I was 
conversing yesterday with our clerk and he had 
no doubt tliat the recjuisite qualifications could 
be obtained for that sum. 


The natural tendency of legislation is to 
throw wealth into the hands of the rich and in 
a government like ours it is necessary to check 
that tendency. Give all classes of the people 
the benefit of equal laws and as we all have 
equal rig-hts by nature, no one can justly com- 

Doubtless you have observed that a meet- 
ing of some of our citizens was held at the 
court house and after the passage of sundry 
resolutions. Battels, Crowell and Baldwin were 
elected (lobby) members of the legislature to 
act against those elected bv the people. Peti- 
tions have been circulated and signatures ob- 
tained to influence your honorable body against 
the organization of a new county. I am per- 
sonally willing that the people should have a 
.new county if they wish one, although it may 
-be against my interest. There is territory 
-enough in Trumbull County for two counties 
and the profits and emoluments of office being 
divided, if a division of the county is made. 

the burdens of the people will be to some ex- 
tent removed instead of increased. Go' ahead ! 
I shall not petition. 

But I must close. Mr. Edwards starts in the 
morning. I am now in the office for the second 
time since cutting my foot, but cannot go to 
Columbus as I anticipated. This is a disappoint- 
ment, truly. But I must submit like a good 
citizen and hope for the best. 

TOD for Governor. 

Respectfully, your friend, 

Ir.\ Lucius Fuller. 

another county. 

Youngstown, O., Jan. 7, 1848. 
A. Medbury, Esq. :' 

My Dear Sir: On Monday last \\'illiam 
(his nephew), hearing things were not going 
right in what would be Clay County, 'he started 
and went up to Gustavus, and saw Haislep and 
Horner, and found the Warren clan had got 
remonstrances ag-ainst any division of the 
county, and that there was considerable strife 
between the people of the township of Green 
and Gustavus about where the county seat 
should be ; that the people of Green had got 
up a new petition altering the lines, taking 
some of the northwest townships of Trumbull 
and attaching them to Clay, cutting some more 
townships off the southwest corner of Ashta- 
bula County and putting them to Trumbull 
County, so as to make the township of Green 
the center, and asking the legislature to put 
the county seat at Green. But this petition 
I don't apprehend will amount to anything, 
as no notice had been given, and besides, they 
will not be able to get many petitioners for that 

When William went back to Gustavus he 
found the people willing to give up the remon- 
strance and determined to go in for our di- 
vision. Are now bus}' getting petitions signed 
and will ha\'e them forwarded immediately. 
Our people are now busy getting signers and 
will forward petitions on regular as fast as 
they are got in. 

AVhat was a great stimulus to the Gus- 
tavus people was they found that the Warren 

o c 



friends hatl been promising the people of Green 
if they would lie still this year they would 
assist them next and get the county seat at 
Green, and had also promised Gustavus fhe 
same. By that means the citizens of Clay 
County had pretty much concluded to lay still. 


I saw the report of the standing committee 
relative to the erection of the new county of 
Gilead made by Mr. Hardesty. I think his 
arguments made in favor of his report are just 
and conclusive, and they meet our wishes 

I suppose you will have much said this 
winter on the subject of vested rights by the 
Warren and Canfield people. The Warren 
people need no more sympathy than the Can- 
field people, for when they got tbe seat of jus- 
tice made at Warren they got it by every kind 
of villainy, fraud and deception that probably 
could be practiced and contrary to the then 
known will of a very large majority of the 
citizens of what was then Trumbull County, 
and has retained it still, against the will of the 

There is now forwarded from Mahoning 
County about 2,269 petitions. There will be 
probably in the course of a week 700 or 800 
more. I have not heard exactly from Trum- 
bull, but I suppose they are busy. 

Nothing new has transpired since you left 
home. My respects to Dr. Manning. If the 
money J sent to Medray to pay my account to 
him is not sufficient, if you have funds I wish 
you would pay him the balance and take his 
receipt, and I will pay you when you return. 
Yours truly, 


About 1872 the county seat agitation again 
loomed up, but this time in another form. 
Youngstown had now become a city, paid one- 
fourth the ta.xes. was the seat of more than 
one-half the litigation in the county courts, 
and as a railroad center was more accessible 

than Canfiekl. It was thought by her citizens 
that she was more entitled to the county seat 
than Canfield in spite of the provisions of thef: 
act of 1846. The c|uestion began to be openly 
discussed. Among the principal advocates of 
the change were T. W. Sanderson, John Stam- 
baugh, George Rudge, M. Logan, D. M. Wil- 
son and M. Logan, all of whom were present 
and six)ke at a large and enthusiastic meeting 
held in Arms Hall, Youngstown, early in 1873. 
A committee appointed as the result of this 
meeting, one of whose members was Dr. T. 
Woodbridge, reported subsequently in sub- 
stance, "that the removal of the county seat 
was to the interest and convenience of a large 
majority of the people of Mahoning County; 
. second, that to attain this end it was necessary 
to unite uix)n some man to represent them in 
the State Legislature, irrespective of party, who 
was fully committed in favor of removal; 
third, that the city and township of Youngs- 
town pledge themselves to build the necessafy 
county buildings, to be twice as valuable at 
least as those in Canfield, and in addition do- 
nate a site for such buildings." This report 
was adopted. The candidates of the two po- 
litical parties both favored the State consti- 
tutional provision giving the power of removal' 
to the majority of fhe voters. 

On June 30, 1873, the following county 
ticket was nominated : Sheldon Newton, of" 
Boardman, representative ; James K. Bailey,. 
of Coitsville, auditor ; Isaac Justice, of Youngs- 
town, Jonathan Schillinger, of Springfield, 
commissioners ; J. Schnurrenberger, of Green, 
infirmary director ; Henry M. Boardman, of 
Boardman, surveyor; Dr. Ewing, of Milton,, 
coroner. All these gentlemen, some of whom 
were Republicans and some Democrats, were 
pledged to use their best efforts in favor of the 
removal of the county seat. 

The other side, in a meeting held in Can- 
field, August 19th, with G. Vail Hyning, Esq., 
of Canfield, chairman, nominated a ticket com- 
posed partly of Democrats and partly of Re- 
publicans, who were in favor of the retention 
of the county seat at Canfield. This ticket was 
as follows : For representative, C. F. Kirt- 
land, of Poland : auditor. Tames M. Dickson, of 



Jackson; prosecuting attorney. Jared Huxley, 
of Canfield ; commissioner, James Williams, 
■of Ellsworth ; infirmary director, Isaac G. 
Rush, of Coitsville ; coroner. Dr. E. G. Rose, 
of Austintown ; surveyor, Daniel Reichart, of 

The following resolutions were reported 
and unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That we deprecate the issue forced upon 
lis by the convention held at Youngstown ; that said 
convention is directly and wholly responsible for rup- 
turing long established and valued political associations 
for the probability of engendering local and neigh- 
torhood strife and division, the consequence uncertain 
Hjorhood strife and division, the consequence of which 
-will be to injure one portion of our citizens in the un- 
•certain expectation of benefiting them. 

Resolved, That this convention, representing every 
-township in the county, deny the truthfulness of the 
Youngstown convention of June 28th, they being a gross 
exaggeration and misrepresentation of the facts ; but on 
the contrary we claim the seat of government, being 
now centrally located, of convenient access from all 
portions of the county, and having good and ample 
buildings for the accommodation of the public, the re- 
moval of it to one comer of the county, largely for the 
benefit of a few capitalists, and to satisfy uneasy po- 
litical agitation would be an act of gross injustice to 
the greater portion of the county, etc. 

The first triumph was gained by the re- 
movalist party in the election of Mr. Newton, 
October, 1873. In accordance withi a bill of- 
fered by Mr. Newton, the State Legislature at 
the next session passed the following act : 

Section i. That from and after taking effect of 
this section of this act. as hereinafter provided, the 
seat of justice in the county of Mahoning shall be re- 
moved from the town of Canfield to the city of Youngs- 
town in said county. 

Section 2. That the foregoing section of this act 
shall take effect and be in force when and so soon as 
the same shall be adopted by a majority of all the elec- 
tors in said Mahoning county voting at the next gen- 
eral election after the passage thereof, and when public 
buildings shall have been erected as hereinafter pro- 

Provision was made in the act for sub- 
mitting the question of removal to the votes 
of the electors. The removal was made de- 
pendent, however, upon the following con- 
ditions embodied in Section V. 

That in case a majority of electors of said county 
shall vote for removal as heretofore provided, the seat 
of justice and county seat shall be deemed and taken 
to be removed from Canfield, in said county, to the city 
of Youngstown, and to be located in said city of 
Youngstown ; provided, however, that nothing in the 
act shall be so construed as to authorize the removal 
of the seat of justice to said city of Youngstown until 
the citizens and township of Youngstown shall have 
donated a lot or lots of land in the city of Youngs- 
town and of sufficient size and suitably located to ac- 
commodate the court house, jail and necessary offices 
for said county, and shall have erected thereon and 
completed thereon suitable buildings for court house, 
jail, and all other offices and rooms necessary for the 
transaction of all public business for said county, at a 
cost for said buildings of not less than $100,000, and 
to the satisfaction and acceptance of the commissioners 
of said county, and all such buildings shall be com- 
pleted within two years from the date of the election 
at which said act shall be ratified ; and said commis- 
sioners shall not, nor shall any other authority of said 
county levy any tax on the taxable property of said 
county for said lands or buildings ; provided that the 
citizens of Youngstown may within two years build 
said buildings and tender the same to said commis- 

Preparations to fulfill the above-named con- 
ditions were at once made by the citizens of 
Youngstown. The necessary committees were 
appointed, and a vigorous removal campaign 
was begun in which general politics were lost 
sight of. By August 10, 1874, the sum of 
$100,000 for the erection of public buildings 
had been subscribed, but the building com- 
mittee desired to increase that sum to $200,- 
000. The vote in October resulted in a large 
majority in favor of removal, and preparations 
were at once made for the erection of the build- 
ings. In March, 1874, the city council author- 
ized the maj'or to convey to the building- com- 
mittee t\\'o lots on the corner of Wick Avenue 
and Wood Street, valued at $40,000, for the 
nominal sum of $10. The contracts for the 
building's were let and immediately the con- 
struction of the new court house began. 

But the citizens of Canfield were not dis- 
posed to submit to the removal without a strug- 
gle. Under the leadership of Eben Newton 
they filed a petition in the district court "en- 
joining the coimmissioners against removing 



the county seat to Youngstown on the ground 
that the law of 1874 was unconstitutional, be- 
cause it contemplated the violation of a contract 
between Canfield and the State, which guaran- 
teed to that village the permanent location of 
the county seat." 

On the Youngstown side it was argued 
that the word "permanent" meant simply, 
"without any intention of changing," and that 
"the law of 1S46 could not be construed to 
mean that Canfield should have the county seat 
forever, for such a construction would take out 
of the hands of the legislature the authority of 
regulating the government of the State and 
would consequently make the act of 1846 un- 

In 1876 the case was taken from the dis- 
trict court to the supreme court of Ohio, which 
decided that the power to establish and remove 
county seats cannot be made the subject of con- 
tract, and that consequently the legislature of 
1846 had no authority to pass an act making 
Canfield the perpetual county seat. But further, 
the act of 1846 was not in the nature of a 
specific contract, the words of which should 
be certain and direct. That it merely created 
the county "with the county seat at Canfield, 
and then provides that it shall not be considered 
as permanently established at Canfield" until 
a donation shall have been made of a suitable 
lot and $5,000 for the erection of the county 
buildings. It also held that even had the act 
of 1846 been a specific contract, and the con- 
tract constitutional the validity of the act of 
1874 would not be impaired, for the words 
"permanently established," as used in that 
act, must be taken to mean "established as 
other county seats were established," subject 
to change by future legislation. That the 
donors (of the lot and buildings) had had 
thirty years enjoyment under the supposed 
contract, and that as their property would re- 
vert to them on the removal, they had no just 
ground for complaint. The court, therefore, 
five judges concurring, dismissed the petition. 

The case was thereupon taken by the plain- 
tiffs to the Supreme Court of the United 
States, where it was tried in October, 1879, 

with James A. Garfield and others for the 
citizens of Canfield, and Thomas W. Sander- 
son, of Youngstown, for the petitioners. 
General Garfield argued that the eighth section 
of the act of 1846, when complied with by the 
citizens of Canfield, amounted to a specific con- 
tract, and was valid under the constitution 
of the United States, which protected contracts 
made between any State and its citizens. Gen- 
eral Sanderson's chief argument was that the 
word "permanently" as used in the statutes at 
that time did not mean "forever," but the 
phrase "permanently established is a formula 
in long and frequent use in Ohio with respect 
to county seats established otherwise than tem- 
porarily." The result of the trial was that 
the court affirmed the judgment of the State 
courts and the county seat was confirmed at 

Amid the general congratulations at 
Youngstown and the other parts of the county 
that were favorable to the removal and thanks 
to those who had been chiefly instrumental in 
effecting the change, the Youngstown Register 
and Tribune, in holding out the olive branch 
to the opposition, said : "We want the people 
of Green. Smith, Goshen and Canfield to feel 
that Youngstown is their county seat, and that 
the beautiful temple of justice that has been 
built here is their court house. We would have 
them appreciate the truth that we are actuated 
by no spirit of hostility against their section, 
but throughout the controversy have only de- 
sired the claims of the majority shall be heeded, 
and that we shall have what is justly ours." 

The handsome and commodious buildings 
which were then erected have since served well 
their purpose, until recent years, when the phe- 
nomenal growth of the city combined with 
other causes ha^■e made new buildings and a 
new location a necessity. A favorable site for 
the new structure was chosen on Market street 
at the beginning of the present year, and soon 
Mahoning County will have a still more beauti- 
ful and commodious temple of justice than 
that which was the cause of such a bitter and 
long continued contnwersy, which will cost 
more than a millicm and a half dollars. 



Auditors — Sheriffs — Comity Commissioners — Treasurers — Recorders Prosecuting At- 
torneys — Probate Judges— State Representatives — State Senators — l^ote for Governor. 

; • ■ AUDITORS. 

The auditors are also clerks to the Board 
of County Commissioners. Their term begins 
on the second Monday in November of alter- 
nate years. Andrew Fitch served from March 
I, 1846, to March i, 1848; Benjamin Votaw, 
1848 to 1850; Thomas Roller, 1850 to 1852; 
S. C. Clark, 1852 to 1855; Jackson Truesdale, 
1855 to i8s9; Timothy D. Baldwin, 1859 to 
1863; David Simon, 1863 to 1867; B. G. Wil- 
cox, 1867 to November, 1871 ; James K. 
Bailey, 1871 to 187s; James B. Hughes, 1875 
to 1880; Freeman H. Sherer, 1880 to 1886; 
Thomas E. Davey, 1886 to 1892; Conrad F. 
Banner, 1892 to 1899; William R. Leonard, 
1899 to 1904; Will B. Jones, 1904. 

] , ' SHERIFFS. 

The sheriff's term begins on the first Mon- 
day in January of every alternate year. James 
Powers from March i, 1846, to January, 1848; 
William Schmick, 1848 to 1850; William 
Meeker, 1850 to 1852; Erastus Piatt, 1852 to 
1856; Albert Cook, 1856 to 1858; Samuel 
Smith, 1858 to 1862; Matthew Logan, 1862 to 
1864; N. P. Callahan, 1864 to 1868; Charles 

Townshend, 1868 to 1872; John R. Davis, 
1872 to 1876; James B. Drake, 1876 to 1880; 
George W. Ludwick, 1880 to 1884; Eli B. 
Walker, 1884 to 1888; Samuel O. Ewing, 1888 
to 1892; James K. Orr, 1892 to 1894; C. F. 
Callahan, 1894 to 1899; J. Howard Shields, 
1899 to 1901 ; James M. Thomas, 1901 to 
1904; F. De Normandie, 1904. 


The first county commissioners were: Rob- 
ert Turnbull, who was elected for one year 
from March i, 1846; Isaiah Bowman, elected 
for two years, and James Justice, elected for 
two years. All their successors were elected 
for terms of three years each. 

In 1847 Daniel Parshall took TurnbuU's- 
seat. In March Jacob Leyman was elected. At 
this time the court extended the terms of those 
then in office from March to November, and 
thereafter these officials were elected at the 
regular October elections. On November I,- 
1849, John Cowden took the place of James 
Justice; December 2, 1850, Daniel Thoman 
succeeded Daniel Parshall. On the first Mon- 
day in December, 1851, Jacon Brunstetter suc- 
ceeded Jacob Leyman. On the first Monday 



in December, 1852, John Stewart succeeded 
John Cowden. On the first Monday in Decem- 
ber, 1853, Furman Gee succeeded Daniel 
Thoman. On the first Monday in December, 

1854, John R. Kennedy succeeded Jacob Brun- 
stetter. On the first Monday in December, 

1855. Alexander Pow succeeded John Stewart. 
On the first Monday in December, 1856, Con- 
rad A. Bunts succeeded Fumian Gee. On the 
first Monday in December, 1857, John Warner 
succeeded John R. Kennedy. On the first 
Monday in December, 1858, John Shields suc- 
ceeded Alexander Pow. On the first Monday 
in December, 1859, Conrad A. Bunts became 
his own successor. On the first Monday in De- 
cember, i860, William A. Miller succeeded 
John Warner. On the first Monday in Decem- 
ber, 1 86 1, James Duncan succeeded John 
Shields. On the first Monday in December, 
1S62, Stephen Case succeeded Conrad A. 
Bunts. William A. Miller was elected in 1863. 
Lewis Templin in 1864. Stephen Case was his 
own successor in 1865. In 1866 Robert Dowry 
succeeded William A. Miller. In 1867 Shelden 
Newton succeeded Lewis Templin. In 1868 
William Johnson succeeded Stephen Case. In 
1869 Robert Lowry was re-elected. In 1870 
Lewis Templin succeeded Newton. In 1871 
William Johnson was re-elected. In 1872 Sam- 
uel Wallace succeeded Robert Lowry. In 1873 
Jonathan Schillinger succeeded Lewis Templin. 
In 1874 M. J. Jackson succeeded William 
Johnson. In 1875 Shelden Newton succeeded 
Samuel Wallace. In 1876 J. H. Blackburn 
succeeded Schillinger. In 1877 George Wetzel 
succeeded J. M. Jackson. In 1878 Frank Mc- 
Master succeeded Shelden Newton. In 1879 
J. H. Blackburn was re-elected. In 1880 
A. D. McClurg succeeded George Wetzel. 
In 1 88 1 Frank McMaster was re-elected. John 
Gault was elected in 1882; A. D. McCiurg 
in 1883 : Louis Gluck, 1884; Tohn Gault, 1885 : 
Frank White, 1886; Louis Cluck, 1887; David 
T. Moore, 1888; Frank White, 1889; John M. 
Davis, 1890: James S. Price, 1891; John C. 
McMillin, 1892; John ^I. Davis, 1893; James 
S. Price, 1894; Charles T. Agnew, 1895; 
John W. Van Auker, 1896: John W. Van 
Auker, 1897 (re-elected) ; Marcus Wester- 

man, 1898; William K. Wagner, 1899; John 
W. Van Auker, 1900; Marcus Westerman, 
1901 ; Thomas R. Jones and Warren II. Kale, 
1902; Thomas R. Jones and Warren H. Kale, 
re-elected in 1903 ; Thomas R. Jones and John 
C. Hannie, 1904; Thomas R. Jones, 1905; 
Warren H. Kale, 1906. 


John H. Donald, from March, 1846, toDe- 
cember, 1847; Hosea Hoover, 1847 to 185 1; 
John Wetmore, 185 1 to 1853; Singleton King, 
1853 to 1855; Lewis Ruhlman, 1855 to 1859; 
James W. McClelland, 1859 to 1863; Robert 
M. Wallace, 1863 to 1867; John R. Trues- 
dale, 1867 to 1871 ; James Barclay, 1871 to 
1873; Alexander Dickson, 1877 to 1881 ; Wil- 
liam Cornelius, elected 1880, took office 1881 ; 
George W. Canfield, elected 1884; John W. 
Smith, 1888; John W. Brown, 1890; J. C. 
Schnurenberger, 1892; R. T. Johnston, 
1894; James Hiney, 1899; F. A. Hartenstein,. 


Saxon Sykes, March i, 1846, to October 
18, 1849; George Hollis, from October 18, 
1849, to October 23, 1856; A. P. Flaugher, 
October 23, 1856, to June i, 1863; J. B. 
Leach, June i, 1863, to the second Monday 
in January, 1865 ; J. V. McCurley from the 
second Monday in January, 1865, to January, 
1868; F. M. Simon, from J'anuary, 1868, tO' 
January, 1875; S. B. Reiger, from January, 
1875, to January, 1878; Thomas H. Ward, 
from Januarv 8, 1878, to January, 1881 ; 
Thomas H. Ward elected as his own succes- 
sor, 1880, took office in 1881 ; A. S. IMcCur- 
ley, elected in 1883; Henry W. Davis, 1889; 
William McClog, 1892; Henry W. Davis, 
1893: William McClog, 1899; W. II. Mc- 
Ginnis, 1902. 


William Ferguson, from 1846 to 1848; 
James B. Blocksom, 1848 to 1850; E. G. Can- 
field, 1850 to 1852; R. J. Powers, 1852 to- 


1856; T. W. Sanderson, 1856 to 1858; R. J. 
Powers, 1858 to i860; William C. Bunts, 
i860 to 1862; James B. Blocksom, 1862 to 
1863: F. G. Servis, 1863 to 1867; H. G. Les- 
lie, 1867; Asa W. Jones, 1867 to 1869; W. G. 
Moore, 1869 to 1871; A. W. Jones, 1871 to 
1873; I. A. Justice, 1873 to 1875; C. R. 
Truesdale, 1875 to 1877; M. W. Johnston, 
1877 to 1881 ; C. R. Truesdale, 1881 to 1883; 
(James B. Blocksom and H. G. Leslie died 
-while in office, Disney Rogers (elected) 1884; 
James B. Kennedy, 1890; S. D. L. Jackson, 
1896; William T. Gibson, 1900; William R. 
Graham, 1902. 


The probate court of Mahoning- county 
was organized on March 8, 1852. The time 
of service of the judges dated from the second 
Monday in February of each year. William 
Hartsel served until Feburary 12, 1855; Gar- 
retson I. Young until February 9, 1861 ; Giles 
Van Hyning until Febuary, 1867; Joseph R. 
Johnston until February 10, 1873 ; M. V. B. 
King until February 14, 1876; Leroy D. 
Thoman until 1879; Louis W. King until 
February, 1882. Judge King became liis own 
successor at the election held in October, 1881 ; 
and served till 1899; Elliott M. Wilson till 
1894; George E. Rose till 1901 ; J. Calvin 
Ewing till 1907; David C. Griffith was elected 
in 1906. 


David Huston, 1849; George Pow, 185a- 
185 1 ; Joseph Montgomery, 1852-1853 ; Jacob 
Musser, 1854-1855; Joseph Truesdale, 1856- 
1857; Samuel W. Gibson, 1858-1859; Jesse 
Baldwin and Joseph Bruff, 1860-1861; Robert 
Montgomery, 1862-1863; Reuben Carroll, 
1 864- 1 865; Joseph Bruff, 1866- 1867; George 
W. Brook, 1868-1869; George W. Brook, 
1870-1871; Cook F. Kirtland, 1872-1873; 
Shelden Newton, 1874-1875 ; Joseph Barclay, 
1876-1877; Robert Mackey, 1878-1879; Thos. 
H. Wilson, 1880-1881; William B. Pollock, 

1882-1883; Alexander Dickson, 1884-1885; 
Alexander Dickson, 1886-1887; Lemuel C. 
OhI, 1888-1889; Lemuel C. OhI, 1890-1891; 
Lemuel C. Ohl, 1892-1893; Randall Mont- 
gomery, 1 894- 1 895; Randall Montgomery, 
1896-1897; William R. Stewart, 1898-1899; 
Hugh A. Manchester, 1900-1901 ; William F. 
Maag and W. J. Williams, 1902-1904; W. J. 
Williams and R. C. Huey, 1905-1906; R. C. 
Huey and Randall H. Anderson, 1906-1908. 


(Since organization of Mahoning County.) 

John F. Beaver, 1846- 1849; Milton Sut- 
liff, 1850-1851; Jonathan I. Tod, 1852-1853; 
Ira Norris, 1854-1855; Robert W. Taylor, 
1856-1859; J. Dolson Cox, 1860-1861; 
Samuel Quinby, 1862-1863; Eben Newton, 
1864-186S; George F. Brown, 1866-1867; 
L. D. Woodworth, 1 868-1 87 1 ; L. C. Jones, 
1872-1875; J. R. Johnson, 1876-1879; H. B. 
Perkins, 1879-1883. (Subsequent dates are 
those of election.) H. B. Perkins, 1883-1885; 

A. D. Fassett, 1884-1885; A. D. Fassett, 
1885-1888; J. M. Stull, 1889-1890; E. A. 
Reed, 1891-1892; L. C. Ohl, 1893-1894; L. 
C. Ohl. 1895-1896: John J. Sullivan, 1897- 
1898; John J. Sullivan, 1899-1900; Benja- 
min F. Wirt, 1901-1903. 

Hon. Thomas Kinsman, who is the present 
state senator, was first elected to that office in 
November, 1903, and was re-elected in 1905. 


1848 — Seabury Ford, whig, 1.269; John 

B. Weller, dem., 2,069. 

185O' — Reuben Wood, dem., 1,862; Wil- 
liam Johnston, whig, 828; Edward Smith, 
abol., 477. 

1851 — Reuben W^ood, dem., 1,546: Sam- 
uel F. Vinton, whig", 484; Samuel Lewis, 
abol., 633. 

1853 — William Medill, dem., 1,360; Nel- 
son Biarrere, whig, 381; Samuel Lewis, abol., 

1855 — Salmon P. Chase, rep., 1,592; Wil- 
liam Medill, dem., 1,495; Allen Trimble, 
know nothing, 60. 


1857 — Salmon P. Chase, rep., 1,891; 
Henry B. Payne, dein., 1,825; Philip Van 
Trump, know nothing, 2. 

1859 — Wilham Dennison, rep., 2,424; 
Rufus P. Ranney, dem., 2,041. 

1861 — David Tod, rep., 2,505; Hug'h J. 
Jewett, dem., 1,566. 

1863 — .Jblm Brough, rep., 3,206; C. L. 
Vallandigham. dem., — . 

1865 — Jacob D. Cox, rep., 2,504; George 
\V. Morgan, dem., 2,184. 

1867 — Rutherford B. Hayes, rep., 2,898; 
Allen G. Thurman, dem., 2,602. 

1869 — Rutherford B. Hayes, rep., 3,003; 
George H. Pendleton, dem., 2,552. 

1871 — Edward F. Noyes, rep., 3,087; 
George W. McCook, dem., 2,602 ; Gideon T. 
Stewart, pro., 160. 

1873 — William Allen, dem., 3.003 ; Ed- 
ward F. Noyes, rep., 3,460; G. T. Stewart, 
pro., 48; Isaac Collins, lib., 16. 

1875— Rutherford B. Hayes, 3,788; Wil- 
liam Allen, 3,947; Jay Odell, 27. 

1877 — Richard M. Bishop, dem., 2,820; 
William H. West., rep., 2,947; H. A. Thomp- 
son, pro., 34; Stephen Johnston, green., 1,339. 

1879— Charles Foster, rep., 4,179; Thos. 

Ewing, dem., 3,854; G. T. Stewart, pro., 16; 
A. Saunders Piatt, green., 219. 

1881 — Charles Foster, rep., 4,030; John 
W. Bookwalter, dem., 3,390. 

1883 — ^Joseph B. Foraker, rep., 5,016; 
George Hoadley, dem., 4,457. 

1885 — J. B. Foraker, rep., 4,752; George 
Hoadley, dem., 4,002. 

1887 — 'J. B. Foraker, rep., 5,004; Thomas 
E. Powell, dem., 4,396. 

1889 — J. B. Foraker, rep., 5,345; James 
E. Campbell, dem., 4,906. 

i89i^William McKinley, Jr., rep., — ; 
James E. Campbell, dem., 5,177. 

1893 — William McKinley, Jr., rep., 6,738; 
Lawrence T. Neal, dem., 5.649. 

1895 — Asa S. Bushnell, rep., 6,129; 
James E. Campbell, dem., 5,006. 

1897 — A'sa S. Bushnell, rep., 6,410; 
Horace L. Chapman, dem., 5,456. 

1899 — George K. Nash, rep., 6,180; John 
R. McLean, dem., 4,726. 

1901 — George K. Nash, rep., 6,829; James 
Kilbourne, dem., 4,745. 

1903 — Myron T. Herrick, rep., 7,027; 
Tom L. Johnson, dem., 5,251. 

1905 — Myron T. Herrick, rep., 6,902; 
John i\I. Pattison, dem., 5,734. 



'Laid Out by John Young — First Events — Discovery of Coal — Judge Kirtland's Remin- 
iscences — Celebrating the Fourth — First Murder Trial — Pioneer Schools — Feminine 
Costutnes — Wet Seasons of 1810-12 — Early Aniusemcnts — Pioneer Jloiises — Elec- 
tions — Incorporation — City of the Second Class — Extensions of Limits — Mayors of 
• Youngsto-iVn — Other Officials — Youngstown Citizens in 1841 — Cemeteries — Parks — ■ 
Water Works and Filter Plant — Fire D epartment — Police Department — Mahoning & 
Shenango Railzuay & Light Co. — B oar dof Trade and CItamber of Commerce — Ma- 
honing Gas Fuel Co. — Telephone Companies — JIumane Society — Opera House — Park 
Theater^A Fezv Statistics — Notable Personages. 

It has been shown in a previous chapter 
that, on the completion of the survey of the 
Western Reserve by the Connecticut Land 
Company, the land was partitioned among 
the stockholders of the company by draft. 
"Prior to the draft some portions of the land 
had been sold by the company to individuals 
not stockholders. Youngstown was not in- 
cluded in the land partitioned in the draft, and 
the name of John Young does not appear 
among the stockholders of the company. 
Hence we infer that he contracted for the pur- 
chase of the township directly from the com- 
pany and prior to the draft, but at what time 
and in what manner this contract was made 
the records do not show. The records, how- 

. ever, do show that on April 9, 1800, the trus- 
tees of the company conveyed to John Young 
township No. 2 in the second range, called 
Youngstown, containing 15,560 acres of land, 
for the consideration of $16,085. Oi^ the same 

. day Mr. Young^ executed to the trustees a 

mortgage of the township to secure the pay- 
ment of the purchase money. ' 

"Mr. Young, according to tradition, visited 
the township about 1797 with Alfred Wolcott, 
a surveyor, for the purpose of surveying it 
into lots and commencing a settlement. Colonel 
James Hillman, who then resided in Pittsburg, 
and had been for a number of years engaged 
in trading with the Indians on the Reserve, 
making his voyages up the Mahoning in a 
canoe, in returning from one of his expedi- 
tions, saw a smoke on the bank near Spring 
Common. On landing he found Mr. Young 
and Mr. Wolcott. He stayed with them a few 
days, when they went with him to Beaver on 
the Ohio river, to celebrate the Fourth of July. 
Colonel Hillman, at the instance of Mr. 
Young, returned with him to Youngstown, 
and they commenced the settlement of the 
town by the erection of a log house, which 
stood on the east bank of the Mahoning river 
near Spring Common. 



"Mr. Young laid out a town plat, which 
is now embraced within and is only a small 
part of the present city, and divided it into 
building lots. Adjoining the town plat he laid 
out lots of a few acres each, which he named 
•out-lots, and the rest of the township he sur- 
veyed into larger tracts, suitable for farms. 
The town plat was not recorded until August 
19, 1802. On June i of that year Mr. Young 
executed an instrument commencing, 'Know 
ye that I, John Young, of Youngstown, in 
the county of Trumbull, for the consideration 
•of the prospect of advancing my property, 
have laid out and established in the town- 
ship of Youngstown aforesaid, on the north 
iside of the Mahoning river, a town plat of the 
following description.' Then follows the de- 
scription, wherein Federal street is described 
as '100 feet in width, and 1,752 feet in length, 
beginning at a corner post standing in front 
of Esquire Caleb Baldwin's house, a little west 
•of his well, running south 62 de- 
grees 30 minutes east through the mid- 
dle of the plat and public square.' Other 
streets running north and south and the 
public square are then described. There 
are 100 lots in the plat contained in the 
instrument, the southeast lot being No. i, and 
the northeast lot being No. 100. Two lots, one 
on the east and one on the west side of Market 
■street, are described as 'burying grovmd,' but 
are not so noted in the deed. The instrument 
-concluded as follows: 'And all the land con- 
tained in the before-mentioned streets I have 
•appropriated to the use and benefit of the pub- 
lic, to remain public highways so long as said 
plat shall remain unvacated.' The instrument 
is signed and sealed by John Young, and wit- 
nessed by Calvin Pease, but not acknowledged 
before a magistrate.'' 

Thus were the foundations of Youngstown 
laid by its original proprietor, and others were 
not slow to build thereon. Stores, mills, 
schools and churches soon sprang up as set- 
tlers came in ; marriages were celebrated, 
(fOurts of law established, and all the delicate 
machinery of civilized .society be^an- to turn, 
slowly and unevenly at first, but gathering 
iwrnientum and steadiness with each passing 

year, until reaching that condition of well- 
balanced adjustment that we behold today. 


The first mill in Youngstown township, 
if not on the Reserve, was erected by John 
and Phineas Hill about 1798 or '99, at the 
falls on Mill creek, in the southwest part of 
the township, on the site where Lanterman's 
old mill now stands. It was built of round 
logs, and contained machinery for both grind- 
ing and sawing. The machinery was put in by 
Abraham Powers, one of the early settlers, 
who was a practical millwright. It was a small 
and rather primative affair, but it answered 
in a measure the needs of the inhabitants. It 
was related by an old settler, Nathan Ague, 
long since passed away, who was present when 
a boy, at the raising of the mill, that "there 
were not men enough in the neighborhood to 
raise it, and they had to send to Greensburg, 
now Darlington, Penna., for hands, and got 
a keg of whisky for them. On that day his 
father killed a bear, which furnished the meat 
used by the men who raised the mill. The fam- 
ily used the bear's skin afterward for a bed." 


The records of Trumbull county contain 
the following certificate: 

"Tliis may certify that, after publication, 
according to law of the Territory, Stephen 
Baldwin and Rebecca Rush werejoined in mar- 
riage on the third dav of Nov,ember, 1800. 
By "William Wick, V. D. M. 
; "On the nth of February prior, accord- 
ing to a record kept at Canfield, Alfred Wol- 
cott, the surveyor who came out with Mr. 
Young, and then resided at Youngstown, was 
married to Mercy Gilson, of Canfield. They 
were married in Pennsylvania, for the reason 
that no person in this vicinity was authorized 
to solemnize marriages. Hence, we infer that 
the first marriage in Youngstown was that of 
Stephen Baldwin and Rebecca Rush; and 
this was probably the first marriage on the 




"The first male child born in tlie township 
was Isaac Swager, son of John Swager. The 
first female child was a daughter of Robert 
and Hannah Stevens," both of whom were 
born prior to 1800. One of the earliest births 
was that of John Young Shehy, son of Daniel 
and Jane Shehy, and tradition says that John 
Young deeded him a town lot for his name. 
There is certainly a record of a deed from 
John Young to J'ohn Y. Shehy, dated March 
24, 1807, of town lots 83 and 84, which are 
located on the east side of North Market street 
and south of the graveyard lot. "The con- 
sideration expressed is $100, received of 
Daniel Shehy." Tradition also says that Mr. 
Young gave lots to two other children. 


The first funeral in Youngstown was that 
of Samuel McFarland, who was buried in the 
northwest corner of the west lot of the old 
graveyard. It is said that all the population, 
including Mr. Young, were at the funeral. 
The gravestone bore on the top the figures 
"181 1," probably the date of its erection; 
then underneath, "In memory of Samuel Mc- 
Farland, teacher of vocal music, late from 
Worcester, Massachusetts, who departed this 
life September 20, 1799, aged twenty-eight 
years." This stone was subsequently removed 
to the w^est part of the Mahoning cemetery. 


"At an early day mineral or stone coal 
was discovered in different localities in the 
township and vicinity. It was ascertained to 
be good for blacksmith fuel, and was used to 
some extent by smiths in this section of coun- 
try. It was not to any extent used as fuel for 
domestic purposes, as Avood was plenty and 
cheaper. The early citizens little thought that 
this black stone, which would burn, cropping 
out here and there in the ravines, was destined 
to become a source of great wealth to their 
successors, and, while some of them were still 

living, to develop this valley into one of the 
most wealthy manufacturing regions of our 
country." After the opening of the Pennsyl- 
vania & Ohio canal in 1840 Governor David 
Tod sent from his Brier Hill mines a few boat 
loads of coal to Cleveland as an experiment. 
The coal was tested for steamboat and other 
purposes, and approved. It soon became a reg- 
ular traffic, and its transportation, subsec|uent- 
ly by railroad, increased until the practical ex- 
haustion of the mines not many years ago. 


A letter from Jared Potter Kirtland, son 
of Turhand Kirtland, the pioneer, to John M. 
Edwards, Esq., and dated East Rockport, O., 
August 29, 1874, contains some interesting 
reminiscences from the diary of his father, 
which will not be out of place here, though 
first published many years ago. We quote in 
part as follows : 

"* * * Judge Kirtland, in the ful- 
fillment of his duty as agent (of the 
Connecticut Land Company), laid out 
and opened a road through the wilder- 
ness, from the Grand river, near Lake 
Erie, to Youngstown, in 1798. He arrived at 
the last-named place with chain-men, sur- 
veyors, etc., on the 3d of August, and with 
Judge Young engaged in running out the 
town. At the same time he surveyed the town- 
ships of Burton and of Poland. In the latter 
he then located the seat of the mill, in the vil- 
lage, during the summer. His stopping-place 
seems to have been, while in Youngstown, 
with a Mr. Stevens, wbile Judge Young had 
a residence in Warren. 

"August 30th he sold two lots and a mill 
seat, near the mouth of Yellow creek, to Esq. 
John Struthers, the locality in Poland now 
known as Struthers. 

"In 1799, May 18, he was again in 
Youngstown. stopping with Mr. Robert Ste- 
vens. His brother-in-law, Jonathan Fowler, 
and family, arrived there in a canoe from 
Pittsburg, by Avay of the Ohio, Big Beaver 
and Mahoning rivers. At evening Judge 
Kirtland carried them to Poland in his wagon, 



where they all lodged for the night by the side 
of a fire, with no shelter save a big oak and 
the canopy of heaven. The exact location was 
on the home lot of the late Dr. Truesdale, a 
few rods west of Yellow creek. 

"1799, September i, Sunday, he attended 
public worship at Youngstown. The Rev. Wil- 
liam Wick, from ^Vashington county. Penn- 
svlvania. delivered the first sermon ever 
preached on the New Connecticut Western 

"October 19. John Struthers and family 
arrived at Poland." 1800, June 16, he (T. K.) 
went from Poland to Youngstown to agree 
on the place where the county-seat should be 

"June 19, Messrs. Canfield, Young, and 
King met J. S. Edwards at Fowler's tavern, 
in Poland, to advise as to the location of the 

"July I, John Atkins, an old salt, returned 
to Poland with a mail from Pittsburg, the 
then nearest postoftice. There he obtained two 
lemons from another sailor who had jturned 
pack-horse man. T. Kirtland and Atkins im- 
mediately started, with the lemons in charge, 
for Burton. These were probably the first 
lemons on the Western Reserve. 


"July 4, the good people of Burton, and 
others from Connecticut, assembled on the 
green, forty-two in number, partook of a good 
dinner, and drank the usual patriotic toasts. 
Then the president of the day (T. K.) caused 
the lemons to be mixed in a milk pan of punch, 
when he offered and drank as a toast, 'Here's 
to our wives and sweethearts at home.' The 
vessel of punch and the toast passed around 
the table till at length it came to a Mr. B., 
who, a few weeks before, had fled from a 
Xanthippe of a wife in New England, to ob- 
tain a little respite, and had joined the sur- 
veying party ; he premptly responded thus to 
the toast : 'Here's to our sweethearts at home, 
but the d — 1 take the wives.' 

"August 23 Turhand Kirtland had par- 
tiallv recovered from an attack of fever and 

ague. He went from Poland to Youngstown 
to get his horse shod; was required to blow 
and strike for the smith. This threw him into 
an aggravated relapse of the disorder, which 
was at length cured by taking teaspoonful 
doses of the bark every hour. He adds : 'I 
found that Joseph Mc^NIahon and the people of 
Warren had killed two Indians at Salt Spring 
on Sunday, 20th, in a hasty and inconsiderate 
manner; and they had sent after a number of 
Indians that had gone off, in order to hold 
a conference and settle the unhappy and un- 
provoked breach they had made on the In- 
dians. They had agreed on Wednesday, 30th, 
to hold a conference at Esq. Young's, and 
had sent for an interpreter to attend, who ar- 
rived- this day, in company with an Indian 
chief and his lady on horseback.' 

"Wednesday. July 30, went to Youngs- 
town (from Poland) to attend the conference 
with the Indians on account of the murder 
of two of their principal men at Salt Spring, 
on Sunday, 20th, by Joseph McMahon and 
Storer. We assembled about three hundred 
whites and ten Indians, had a very friendly 
talk, and agreed to make peace and live as 


"Monday, August 25, went to Warren, 
met the judges and justices of the county, 
when they all took the oaths of office, and 
proceeded to open the courts of Quarter Ses- 
sion and Common Pleas; appointed constables 
and summoned eighteen grand jurors. Bills 
of indictment found against Joseph McMahon 
and Richard Storer for murder. 

"Sunday, September 14, Sample, the coun- 
sel for McMahon, went on to Youngstown. 
The prisoner is on the way from Mcintosh 
(Beaver) with the sheriff, and an escort of 
twenty-five troops from the garrison at Pitts- 
burg, to guard him to Warren, where a court 
is to be held on Thursday, for his trial for the 
murder of Captain George and George Tus- 
carawa (Indians) at Salt Spring. 

"Wednesday. 'September 17, went to tiie 
' court at Warren, Meigs and Gilman, tiie 



judges. Messrs. Edwards, Pease, Tod, Tap- 
pan, and Abbott admitted as counsellors-at- 
law by this court. 

"Thursday, September i8, prisoner (Mc- 
Mahon) brought in; a traverse jury sum- 

"Friday, September 19, witnesses exam- 

"Saturday. September 20, case argued; 
v.erdict, acquittab" 

After quoting tlie above from the diary of 
Tiis father, Mr. Jared P. Kirtland, in the letter 
above referred to, goes on to relate a few of 
his own recollections : 

He recahs the night of June 10, 1810, 
when on his way from Wallingford, Conn., 
to Poland, Ohio, he spent the night at Adam's 
tavern, in the town of Liberty. "At noon of 
the following day," he says, "I dined with 
Dr. Charles Button in Youngstown, a sparsely 
•settled village of one street, the houses mostly 
log structures, a few humble frame dwellings 
'excepted ; of the latter character was the 
dwelling house and store of the late Colonel 
Rayen." After dinner the doctor accompanied 
him to Poland (both on horseback), where 
he was going to join his father's family, from 
whom he had been separated since 1803. "No 
bridges then spanned the Mahoning. We 
passed over at Power's ford, the water high 
and muddy from recent rains ; but the doctor 
pointed out a rock in the river, with its top 
barely above the water, which, he said, was 
an index that when the top appeared it was 
safe to ford the stream. 


"In the following week," says Mr. Kirt- 
land, "I took charge of the district scliool in 
the village of Poland, consisting of si^ty 
scholars, which I taught till late in Septem- 
iDer, in a log house on the public square. I 
soon learned that Joseph Noyes, a former 
schoolmate of mine, had charge of a school 
of similar size in Youngstown. It occupied 
a log building in Main street, next adjoining 
Mr. Bryson's log store, near where Colonel 
Caleb Wick formerly resided. Mr. Noyes and 

myself soon established the rule to visit each 
other's school on every alternate Saturday 
and counsel each other on school teaching. 
Reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, and 
geography were the branches required to be 
taught. I have the vanity to believe that, in 
the three first named, the progress of our 
classes was as satisfactory as in the classes of 
the present day. Those three branches were 
rather specialties with both of us. Neither 
found use for the rod. Those bi-weekly visits 
to that school established an acquaintance with 
nearly every individual, old and young, in the 
village. I now know not a surviving one of 
that number. 


"Mary Tod (the late Mrs. Evans) was a 
member of Mr. Noyes' school. She then was 
just entering her teens, and a more lovely face 
than hers I have never seen. But, what do our 
fashionable and ambitious mothers of the 
present day imagine were the texture and 
style of the dress of that beautiful girl? Her 
external costume was a home-made mixture of 
linen and cotton, cut after the female disciples 
of Mother Ann Lee, with no plaits and few 
gores, unmodified by either corset or bustle. 
The lower margin was adorned with a two- 
inch stripe of rrfadder red, followed next by 
one of indigo blue, and a third one of hickory 
bark yellow, very much like the balmorals 
wliich, a few years since, our fashionable city 
ladies were sure to exhibit (accidentally, of 
course! at every street crossing, much to the 
admiration of crowds of idle loafers." 


The latter part of Mr. Kirtland's letter is 
devoted to a regimental muster which he wit- 
nessed in Youngstown, in September, 18 10, 
and which is referred to elsewhere in this vol- 
ume, and closes with some account of the 
heavy rainfall that year, and in the two follow- 
ing seasons. "As a consequence," he says, "the 
streams frequently overflowed their banks, 
cornfields were not worked, and the heavy 



crop of wheat was generally grown or 
sprouted, much to the displeasure of the house- 
wife and joy of the whisky distiller. The lat- 
ter found his grains half malted by nature, 
while the former could hardly restrain her 
loaves from running. Eveiy public road was 
almost impassable, and some of the recent emi- 
grants left the West, discouraged and dis- 


To those who are interested in the cause 
■of education the following copy of an old 
school contract may be of interest : 

"This article, between the undersigned sub- 
scribers of the one part, and Jabez P. Manning 
of the other, witnesseth. That said Manning 
doth, on his part, engage to teach a school 
at the schoolhouse near the center of Youngs- 
town for the term of one quarter, wherein he 
-engages to teach reading, writing, arithmetic, 
and English grammar; and, furthermore, that 
the school shall be opened at 9 o'clock A. M., 
and closed at 4 P. M. on each day of the week 
(Saturday and Sunday excepted), and on Sat- 
urday to be opened at 9 and closed at 12 
o'clock A. M. And we, the subscribers, on our 
part, individually engage to pay the said Man- 
ning one dollar and seventy-five cents 
for each and every scholar we sub- 
scribe, at tiie end of the term ; and 
we furthermore agree to furnish or to bear 
the necessary expense of furnishing wood 
and all other things necessary for the 
i:se of the school. 

"Furthermore, we do engage that unless, 
by the 6th day of April of the present year, 
the number of scholars subscribed amount to 
thirty-five that the said Manning is in no way 
obligated by this article. 

"Furthermore, we allow the said Manning 
the privilege of receiving five scholars more 
than are here specified. 

"J. P. Manning. 

"Youngstown, March 31, 18 18. 

"Subscribers' names and number of 
scholars : George Tod, 3 ; John E. Wood- 
bridge, 4 ; Homer Hine, 2 ; Henry Wick, 2 ; 

Philip Stambaugh, ij4; Samuel \'iall, 2; Rob- 
ert Kyle, 2; George Hardman, i ; James Dav- 
idson, 2 ; Polly Chapman, i ; Jerry Tibbits, 
3/4 ; John F. Townsend, 2 ; Henry Manning, 
I ; William Bell, i ; Jonathan Smith, t ; Wil- 
liam Potter, 2; William Rayen, iYj; William 
Morris, i ; Noah Chamberlain, i ; Richard 
Young, |/< ; T'inies Duncan, i ; ]\Irs. McCul- 
lough, >4 ; Bryan Baldwin, ^. Total, 40>4. 

"The township was first divided into 
school districts on May 22, 1826. There were 
seven districts and two fractional districts. 
The first or center district, which included the 
present city and some additional territory, con- 
tained fifty-four householders. The whole 
township, as then enumerated, contained 206 
householders, of which twelve were women." 

Some further reminiscences of the early 
inhabitants of Youngstown may be found in 
a letter from Roswell M. Grant, uncle of Gen- 
eral U. S. Grant, which is published, in part, 
in the chapter on the Settlement and Organi- 
zation of Mahoning County. 


Though our forefathers were without the 
theater, the moving picture show, the trolley 
car and the automobile, they were by no means 
destitute of amusements, and most of them of 
a healthy and beneficial kind. Debating so- 
cieties were frequently held, at which such sub- 
jects as the following were debated. "Whether, 
js the intrinsic value of an article or the prob- 
ability of obtaining the price to be made the 
rule in selling?" "Is slave-holding proper or 
improper?" "Ought the Mahoning to be a 
public highway or not?'' Then there were 
the huskings and lo,gging-bees, the athletic 
sports and dances, "Sister Phoebe." and kick- 
ing the blanket. The bill of fare at a logging 
in 1817, in which the Hon. Shelden Newton 
(then a young man) participated, was bread, 
raw pork, raw onions, and whisky. We have 
since improved on that diet. In relating the 
circumstance, he said that in those days "all 
men raised what they ate and made what they 
wore, all business transactions were conducted 
by simple barter, that money was only used 



in the payment of taxes, and that i6o cents for 
a long time paid the taxes on i6o acres of land. 
Occasionally the paper of neighboring banks 
was circulated, redeemable only at the place 
of issue, and sometimes not even there. 


Alexander McKinney, who settled with his 
parents in Youngstown in 1804, and who came 
from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to attend the pio- 
neer reunion in this city in 1875, said in re- 
gard to the houses : "After the logs were piled 
up for one side of the house, the man would 
go out with a broad-axe and scratch them 
down a little, so that they would be a little 
smoother on the inside. Some places where 
there was good timber that would split well, 
they would split the log in two and that was 
considered a good deal better. There were 
not many nails used in building in those days ; 
every man had the charg'e of tb.e erection of 
his own temple. I suppose in the majority of 
the houses there wasn't a pound of nails used 
in the whole building. No nails were made then 
except by the blacksmith. The furniture was 
very crude. If the people were fortunate 
enough to bring furniture with them they had 
it; otherwise they had to do the best they 
could. * * * x he house was a factory in 
one sense, for whatever we had to wear we 
manufactured for ourselves as a general thing. 
The men raised the flax and the women spun 
it and wove it. ' The wool was shorn from the 
sheep and picked and carded by hand. We had 
hand-mills and carded the wool and made the 
cloth. If there was a fulling-mill in the neigh- 
borhood it was taken there, and made into 
winter wear. We wore flannel in the winter 
and linen in the summer. The doors were 
hung on wooden hinges, generally with the 
latch-string out. Some houses had chairs 
and some benches. In many cases they used, 
as there was generally a baby in the house, a 
sugar-trough to rock the baby in. * * * 
If we wanted to go any place we had to go on 
foot or on horse-back. If a young gentleman 
wanted to take his lady to singing-school he 
took her on the horse with him." 

Most of the facts and incidents contained 
in this chapter up to the present page were 
related at one or the other of the two reunions 
of old settlers which took place in Youngs- 
town in May, 1874, and on September 10, 
1875, respectively, by some of the very men 
whose early years had been passed amid pio- 
neer surroundings, and whose parents were, 
in most cases, among the earliest settlers in 
Youngstown and the vicinity. John M. Ed- 
wards, Esq., in addressing the first of these 
meetings, made use of these words : "Those 
pioneer men and women have mostly passed 
away. To cherish their memory ; to recall the 
history of those early days ; to renew ancient 
friendship ; to greet, as of old, companions 
and acquaintances from whom we have been 
long parted, we, their successors and early set- 
tlers of this, one of the earliest settled town- 
ships of the Reserve, have assembled here to- 
day. To all those present, to those who were 
residents of this township thirty-five or more 
years ago, to our invited guests and visitors, 
and to those, as well, v/ho have become resi- 
dents at a more recent period and are here as 
spectators, we extend a cordial welcome." 


Elections were held in Youngstown at the 
dwelling-house or inn of William Rayen up 
to 1813, after which they were held at dif- 
ferent public-houses until the town-hall was 
built, about 1850. They were afterwards 
held there until the city was divided into wards 
in 1870, since which time each ward has been 
its own election precinct for those residing in 
the ward. The town hall is still the place of 
voting for the inhabitants of the township out- 
side of the cit3\ 


In 1848 upon application of the citizens, an 
act was passed by the legislature incorporating 
so much of the town of Youngstown as was 
included in the recorded town plat. In June, 
notice given, extended the limits of the town, 
1850, the county commissioners, upon due 



and on the 15th an election was held "at the 
Union House, kept by W. H. Ross, in said 
Youngstown, for the purpose of electing by 
ballot one mayor, one recorder, and five trus- 
tees, to serve for one year, according to the 
act of Assembly in such cases made and pro- 
vided." The notice for this election was 
signed by W. Edson, James Fowler, James 
Calvin, George Murray, J. R. Holcomb, T. 
Garlick, John Heiner, Cyrus Brenneman, B. 
F. Heiner, A. McKinnie, R. W. Tayler, G. G. 
Murray, George W. Seaton, William S. Par- 
mele, and Benjamin H. Lake. John Heinerwas 
elected mayor, with 91 votes, and Robert W. 
Tayler, recorder; John Loughbridge, Abraham 
D. Jacobs, Francis Barclay, Stephen F. Bur- 
nett, Manuel Hamilton, trustees. 


On the evening of the same day the first 
meeting of the council was held, and Youngs- 
town commenced its existence as a municipal 
corporation, no organization having been 
formed under the act of 1848. At first a bor- 
ough, it became, under the subsequent state 
laws governing municipal corporations, the 
"Incorporated Village of Youngstown." 


"In June, 1867, a census of the village was 
taken, and the number of inhabitants found 
to exceed five thousand. This fact was certi- 
fied by resolutions of the council to the Secre- 
tary of State, in order to secure the advance- 
ment of the village to a city of the second 
class," which it was soon after accordingly 


On March 2, 1868, the council passed an 
ordinance to extend the city's boundaries, and 
at the same time a vote of the people was or- 
dered to ratify or reject the proposed exten- 
sion. A proclamation was also issued to elect 
at the same time officers of a city of the second 
class. The vote on the extension was yeas 
593, nays 10, George McKee was elected 

mayor ; Owen Evans, marshal ; Thomas W. 
Sanderson, solicitor; Robert McCurdy, treas- 
urer; Joseph G. Butler, Chauncey H. An- 
drews, Homer Hamilton, Richard Brown, and 
William Barclay, councilmen. 

In September, 1870, the population having 
increased to 8,100, the council divided the city 
into five wards. In 1880, on a further increase 
of population, the First and Second Wards 
were subdivided, making seven in all. 

In January, 1880, the city having again 
widely outgrown its boundaries, a petition 
signed by 469 citizens, most of them promi- 
nent business men, was presented to the coun- 
cil asking for a further extension of the city 
limits, and an ordinance was passed by the 
council extending the city according to the 
report. When presented to the county com- 
missioners for approval their decision, con- 
tained in their journal, November 18, 1880, 
was as follows: "Tlie board met at 10 A. M. 
On motion the prayer of the petition for the 
extension of the city limits is ordered not 
granted, and the petitioners pay the cost." 

This summary dismissal of the petition 
caused widespread dissatisfaction, as there 
were hundreds more who would have signed 
it had they known that the influence of their 
names was needed. April 8, 1889, however, 
an ordinance was passed which extended the 
limits, making them very nearly the same as 
they are today, there having been but two sub- 
sequent modifications, namely, by an ordin- 
ance passed in 1892 some land was detached 
in the neighborhood of the Austintown road, 
and in 1903 another slight change was made 
at Crab creek whereby two or three acres were 
added on. 


The following is a list of the mayors of 
Youngstown from its incorporation as a vil- 
lage and first election, held June 15, 1850, 
with dates of election. The mayors of the 
village were elected for one year. 

John Heiner June i v 1850 

Robert W. Tayler .'April 7, 1S51 

Stephen F. Burnet April 5, 1852 

W^illiam G. Moore .April 4. 1853 



William G. Moore ( re-elected) .April 3, 1854 

William Rice April 2, 1855 

Thomas W. Sanderson April 7, 1856 

Reuben Carroll April 6, 1857 

Reuben Carroll, elected in April. 1858, 

'59, 60 and 1 861 

Peter W. Keller April 7, 1862 

Jolin }ilanning- April 6, 1863 

Thos. H.AVelis. .Oct. 16, 1863, to fill un- 
expired term of John Manning, resigned 

Brainard S. Higley April 4, 1864 

Brainard S. Higley. .re-elected April 3, 1865 

George McKee April 2, 1866 

George McKee re-elected April i, 1867 

The following were elected mayors of the 
city for two years : 

George MdKee 

April 6, 1868; re-elected April 4, 1870 

John D. Raney April i, 1872 

William M. Osborne April 6, 1874 

Matthew Logan 

April 3, 1876; re-elected April i, 1878 

William J. Lawthers 

April 5, 1880; re-elected April 3, 18S2 

William J. Lawthers 1882-1884 

Walter L. Campbell i884-a886 

Samuel Steele 1886-1888 

Randall [Montgomery 1888-1892 

I. B. Miller ' 1892-1896 

E. H. Moore 1896-1900 

Frank L. Brown 1900-1903 

W. T. Gibson January i, 1903-1906 

F. L. Baldwin January i, 1906 


Mayor — Hon. F. L. Baldwin. 
Judge of Criminal Court — Anthony B. 

Solicitor — F. L. Oesch. 
Auditor — W. I. Davies. 
Treasurer — C. G. Jacobs. 
Clerk— P. W. Hubler. 
Engineer — F. M. Lille. 
Building Inspector — C. C. Knox. 
Chief of Polic^-W. W. McDonald. 
Superintendent of Sewers — Wm. Powell. 
Fire Engineer — William H. Poller. 
City Electrician — Ambrose Perkins. 

Board of Public Service — David Heinsel- 
man, Philip Hagen, J. Edgar Rudge, George 
T. Prosser, clerk. 

Board of Public Safety — L. E. Davis, 
James Butler. 

Board of Sinking Fund Trustees. — S. L. 
Clark, F. C. Brown, F. A. Scott, James 
Square, W. I. Higgins, secretary. 

City Council — M. C. Higgins. president; 
P. W. Hubler, clerk; James Whitehead, ser- 
geant-at-arms. Members — First ward, W. H. 
Hayden ; Second ward, Lionel Evans ; Third 
ward, William L. Bence ; Fourth ward, J. A. 
Green; Fifth ward, Sol S. Davis; Sixth ward^ 
R. D. Campbell ; Seventh ward, M. A. 
Sweeny. Members-at-large — ^Harry Parrock, 
E. H. Welsh, Warren Williams. 

Board of Health— Mayor F. L. Baldwin, 
president; Dr. M. S. Clark, vice-president; 
Clate A. Smith, secretary; Dr. H. E. Welch, 
health officer ; G. C. Steventon, chemist ; W. H. 
Peterson, plumbing inspector ; B. F. Thomas, 
Dr. E. M. Ilgenfritz, Andrew Lawton, Benja- 
min Jenkins. 

Board of Education — W. N. Ashbaugh, 
clerk; N. H. Chaney, superintendent of 
schools; T. J. Helrigle, M. Samuels, E. J. 
Anderson, Dr. C. O. Brown, J. G. Morgan,. 
L. E. Guess, T. H. Jenkins. 


The following names are taken from a di- 
rectory of Youngstown in 1841 : 

Merchants — Lemuel Wick, Henry B. and 
Hugh Wick, Jr., P. and A. D. Jacobs, Frank 
and Joseph Barclay, Wick and McClelland, 
John Kirk, Thornton and Corrl. 

Commission Merchants — ijohn Kirk, E. S., 
Hubbard, Hon. William Rayen, president 
board of public schools. 

Taverns — Mansion House, A. Gardner; 
Eagle House, A. McKinney, Youngstown 
Hotel, F. Reno. 

Groceries — J. Weiser, C. Cost. 

Tailors — S. King, William S. Crouse, 
Calvin and Fowler. 

Saddlers— T. ^Marshall, D. E. Brisbene, 
H. C. Fuller. " 



Boot and Shoe Makers — J. Pettygrew, J. 
G. Haney, John Squire, John Sett. 

Wagon Makers — A. \V. Upham, C. Barr, 
J. Brothers. 

Iron Finishers — Spencer & Co., Fairmount 
Iron Works. 

Dealer in Tin and Copper Goods — Ashael 

Gunsmith — S. F. Bernett. 

Physicians — Timothy \\''t)odbridge, Henry 
Manning, Thomas L. Bane, Chas. C. Cook, 
Theodatus Garhck, and Chas. Dutton. 


Attorney-at-La\v — Robert W. Tayler. 

Blacksmiths — ij. Pierce, H. r^IcKinnie. 

Copper, Tin and Sheet Iron Worker — 
A. Brown. 

Postmaster — James Hezlep. 

Cooper — J. Cleland. 

Tanners — J. Van Fleet and Wm. Wood- 

Hatter — S. Strickland. 

Milliner — Mrs. Avery. 

Cabinet Maker — H. Heasley. 

Stone Mason — William Jones. 

Chair Maker — J. Laughredge. 

Fanning Mill Maker — William Rice. 

Canal Collector of Tolls — S. B. !\IcEwen. 

Carpenter — R. Boillan. 

Grist and Saw Mill Maker — L. ]\Iurry. 


Presbyterian — Rev. Charles Boardman. 

Protestant Methodist — Rev. Mr. Inskeep. 

Episcopal Methodist — Rev. Wm. Plimp- 
ton, Rev. \\'m. Clark. 


There was no newspaper published in 
Youngstown at that time, but four years later 
Ashael ^ledbury started the Mahoning County 
Rcpuhlican, a vigorous Democratic weekly. 

There was no bank, and business men of 
Youngstown went to the Western Reserve 
Bank at Warren. A good part of the capital 

stock of this bank was owned by Youngstown 
men, and on the board of directors of the 
bank were men of Youngstown and vicinity, 
to-wit: \\'illiam Rayen, Henry Wick, Sr., 
Henry Wick, Jr., Lemuel Wick, David Clen- 
dennenc, Turhand Kirtlanid, Jared P. Kirt- 
land, Adamson Bentley, Charles Dutton of 
Youngstown and Comfort S. Mygatt and 
Elis'ha Whittlesey of Canfield. * 

Citizens of Youngstown and \'icinity who 
were incorporators of the Western Reserve 
Bank were George Tod, Williain Rayen, Tur- 
hand Kirtland and Comfort S. Mygatt. 


The physicians then here had a high repu- 
tation throughout Northern Ohio as men of 
high character of their profession. Dr. Theo- 
datus Garlick was the first man in America to 
demonstrate the possibilities of hatching fish 
eggs in the artificial way. 

It is a tragic story as far as regards the 
career of this benefactor of the human race. 

The only practicing attorney was Robert 
\\'. Tayler, although Judge George Tod and 
Homer Hine, l)oth widely known as eminent 
lawyers, resided here, but l»th had retired 
from active practice of their profession. Soon 
after this David Tod moved from Warren to 
Brier Hill. 

John S. Dennison, who died in Youngs- 
town, at the age of 83 years, April 17. 1907, 
was a pioneer resident of this locality. He 
was a native of Liberty township, Trumbull 
County, O., where he lived until his early man- 
hood. In 1842, when he was eighteen years of 
age, he came to Youngstown to do black- 
smithing work for John Shehy. The shop in 
which he worked stood near the Robert Mont- 
gomery homestead on the banks of the canal. 
Youngstown was then a village of less than 
2,000 inhabitants. 

The land where the Jnhn II. Fitch whole- 
sale house now stands was then offered for sale 
at ,$40 an acre. It was used as a dump for an 
old tin shop. Xo building then stood between 
it and the old American House since demol- 
ished. Between the Diamond and S])ring 



C(?mmon there were corn and potato patches 
in a high state of cuhivation, and the land 
which was not thus occupied was, for the most 
part, of a swampy character. One or two small 
houses stood in the ^•icinity, and they were 
built of logs. Where the court house now 
stands was the Youngstown cemetery. 

Mr. Dennison helped to do the black- 
smithing for the first rolling mill in the city. 
Youngstown was then a station on the old 
stage road running from Cleveland to Pitts- 
burg, and Mr. Dennison did his share of shoe- 
ing stage horses. 

Colonel Rayen lived in the finest house in 
town at Spring Common. There was a man 
by the name of Medbury located in South 
Hazel street who operated a distillery there. 
The Disciple Church was located where the 
opera house now stands. There were two doc- 
tors in town at that time. Dr. Cook and Dr. 
Manning. Wick avenue was then graced by 
but two residences, one a small brick house 
and the other a log shanty. The land around 
these buildings was selling for $20 an acre. 
Mr. Dennison often related that he had heard 
his father say that on first coming to this sec- 
tion in 1800, he had shot deer over the present 
oak trees in Wick avenue, as they were then 
scrubs only a few feet high. 


Oak Hill Cemetery was founded in 1852, 
the Cemetery Association being incorporated 
in that year with Dr. Henry Manning as its 
first president. About sixteen acres of the 
original land was purchased from Dr. Man- 
ning and formed part of his farm. The land 
has been improved at considerable expense, 
and now consists of twenty-seven acres, beauti- 
fully situated upon a high hill on the south 
bank of the Mahoning River. To this ceme- 
tery were gradually conveyed the remains of 
those who had been previously interred in the 
old burying ground on AVood street and Wick 
avenue. In it about 14,000 interments have 
been made up to the present time. The ceme- 
tery is not conducted for the profit and no 
dividends are declared. Mvron C. Wick is 

now president of the association, with Mason 
Evans secretary and treasurer. The grounds 
are tastefully laid out and kept in admirable 
order under the careful superintendence of Mr. 
J. D. Orr. With its retired and picturesque 
situation, elevated far above the noise and 
smoke of the valley, it makes an ideal City of 
the Dead, where bereaved ones may commune 
awhile in spirit with those who have passed 
away. There are seven costly private burying 
vaults now in the cemetery. 


The Belmont Park Cemetery Association 
was incorporated in July, 1903. The cemetery, 
which is located on the Belmont avenue ex- 
tension, with the main entrance on the Holmes 
road, comprises two hundi^ed acres of rolling 
farm land, of which, up to date, but forty have 
been improved. These are well and tastefully 
planted with trees and shrubs, interspersed 
here and there with forty-foot flower beds. 
Spacious driveways render every part of the 
cemetery easily accessible. The improved por- 
tion is all hand mowed in lawn fashion, and 
there are no raised graves. Several small 
lakes, connected by rustic bridges, and fed by 
an artificially designed fountain, serve to en- 
hance the picturesqueness of the surroundings. 
The water for these lakes is drawn from nat- 
ural wells by electric pumps and stored in two 
large tanks — one of 12,000 and one of 15,000 
gallons capacity. A tasteful building near the 
main entrance serves as the headquarters of 
the superintendent, Mr. G. E. Whitaker. The 
present officers of the association are J. H. 
Fitch, president; E. F. Shellaberger, vice- 
president; F. G. King, secretary treasurer. 


The brief description of this beautiful park 
which follows is taken from a longer descrip- 
tive article, which appeared in the report pub- 
lished in 1904 by Mr. Volney Rogers, who, 
more than anyone else has been instrumental 
in securing and improving the park for the 
benefit of the inhabitants of Youngstown and 
the vicinity. 



Mill Creek Park is the property of Youngs- 
town township, including the City of Youngs- 
town. It is located partly within the city lim- 
its, and has two entrances, each one and one- 
fourth miles from Central Square, the central 
business portion of the city. The park has an 
area of 482 acres, and when completed it will 
have over 500 acres within its boundaries. Its 
total cost up to January i, 1904, was $339,- 

"The one dominating feature of the park 
is its natural, beautiful and picturesque scen- 
ery. An eminent landscape architect, the late 
Charles Eliot of Boston, who visited the park 
in 1891, after careful observation, said: 'So 
far as natural beauty is concerned there is no 
park in the country to compare with Mill 
Creek Park. It is as if a bit of choice scenery 
had been taken from the mountains of Switzer- 
land and deposited in a level country.' " Sim- 
ilar testimony has been given by other well- 
known landscape architects. The late H. W. 
S. Cleveland, of Minneapolis, who visited the 
park in 1893, said: "The existence of a tract 
comprising such a rare combination of attrac- 
ti-\^e natural features in the immediate vicinity 
of a city is, so far as my experience goes, un- 
paralleled elsewhere." 

"The park is, in brief, a gorge, and its 
environments : A picturesque stream coursing 
through its center, having fine cascades and 
waterfalls, cliffs and bluffs upon each side of 
from sixty to over a hundred feet in height 
clothed with sylva and flora exceedingly rich 
in variety and beauty. 

"In a direct line the park is two and one- 
fourth miles in length. Its width varies from 
a few hundred feet at places where the gorge 
is narrow^ to a half, three-fourths, and in one 
instance over a mile, where it includes Bear 
Creek and its enchanting surroundings. The 
windings of Mill Creek make the park seem 
much longer than it really is; the main drive- 
ways follow the banks or bluffs of the main 
stream upon each side and are connected by 
a bridge across the gorge, where most remote 
from the city, ninety feet in height. 

"Where the drives are necessarily upon the 
ibluffs foot-paths have been made along the 

banks of the main stream on each side, and 
fine vistas have also been opened from good 
view points along both driveways and foot- 
paths. * * * There are meadows, lakes, 
islands, swift-running streams, waterfalls, 
cliffs, natural grottos, and wooded hills of un- 
ending variety and interest. 

"The park is naturally well-drained and 
abounds with ample shade, as well as excellent 
springs of pure, clear water, convenient to all 
its parts. It adjoins the city on the west, or 
windward side, insuring pure air from the 
country for the refreshment of visitors while 
at the park, and in a measure preserving and 
passing to the city generally, better air at all 
times than would have been the case had this 
large territory been occupied for residence 
or manufacturing purposes. The benefits to 
health that will result from the establishment 
and preservation of this park are incalculable. 



The source of Mill Creek is about twenty 
miles south of Youngstown, and the stream 
flows almost directly north through portions 
of Columbiana and Mahoning counties to its 
confluence with the Mahoning River within 
the corportate limits of Youngstown. It drains 
seventy-five square miles of territory, and its 
waters flow slowlv and peacefully until about 
three miles from Youngstown, when they sud- 
denly become turbulent upon reaching Mill 
Creek Park and dashing over a series of rapids 
and waterfalls, make a descent of 132K' feet 
before they reach the IMahoning. 

"Geologically the stream is new, likewise 
the greater portion of the gorge, that is, they 
have been formed since the glacial period. The 
lower central portion of the gorge, however, 
is the partially filled valley of an ancient 

A hundred years ago the water shed of 
Mill Creek was covered by a dense virgin for- 
est, resulting in a constantly amply flow of 
water in its streams, and when the first set- 
tlers came to Ohio at the close of the eigh- 
teenth century, that portion of Mill Creek 
which passes through the gorge above 



described was in good demand for mills and 
factories ; many being established and operated 
successfully there by water power, hence the 

The first of these was erected by John and 
Phineas Hill about 1798 at Mill Creek Falls, 
(Lanterman's). It was constructed of round 
logs and contained machinery for grinding 
grain and sawing lumber. It was a primitive 
affair, but when ready to be raised there were 
not men enough in the neighborhood to do the 
work and help came from Pennsylvania. 

On the day the mill was erected a bear was 
killed near by and its flesh served as meat to 
the men engaged in that work. This mill was 
replaced by a larger and better one, built by 
Eli Baldwin, the father of the late Hon, Jesse 
Baldwin of Boardman, Ohio, and Mr. Homer 
Baldwin, of Youngstown, about 1823. It was 
a frame structure, and was entirely washed 
away by an unprecedented flood in the summer 
of 1843; when, it is said. Mill Creek suddenly 
became larger than the Mahoning River. All 
dams in Mill Creek and some dwellings in the 
creek valley were swept away in the mad rush 
of waters, resulting' in great loss of propertj^ 
and some loss of human life. 

The present mill structure on the same site, 
known as the Lanterman mill, was built by 
the late Samuel Kimberly and the late German 
Lanterman in 1845 ^"d 1846. It was oper- 
ated as a flouring mill until about 1888, and 
became the property of the park commissioners 
in 1892, whose purpose is to preserve the relic. 

Another object on the bank of Mill Creek 
that ought always to be of interest, is what 
is now called "The Pioneer Pavilion." This 
stone structure was built for a woolen factory 
by James Eaton in 1821, but later was used 
as a store-room in connection with a charcoal 
furnace near it, built by Daniel Eaton, a 
brother of James, in 1826. 


Lake Cohasset, has, including two small 
islands, a surface area of twenty-eight acres. 
It is surrounded by bluffs varying from sixty 
to one hundred and ten feet in height, and just 

above its head is a vertical cliff one hundred 
feet high, with Mill Creek swiftly running at 
the base of the cliff to the inlet of the lake. 
These bluffs and cliffs are clothed with natural 
forest growth, largely of handsome evergreens, 
suggesting the name "Cohasset," an Indian 
word, meaning' "Place of Pines." The lake 
was formed by the construction of a masonry- 
stone dam of excellent design and workman- 
ship, twenty-three feet in height, resulting in a 
picturescjue body of water in three connected 
pools. There is a drive and a foot-path upon 
each side — the drives mostly overlooking the 
lake from the bluff's ; the foot-paths are at the 
bottoms of the bluffs trailing the shores. The 
west drive, however, descends to the lake at 
one point and follows its shore for some dis- 

The vistas from both drives, and from the 
foot-paths present some of the most charming 
park scenes in America. The prospects from 
boats on the lake are very different from those 
on shore and seem even grander at times. 

The cliffs and bluffs around the lake 
and in view from its waters are clothed with 
lichens, mosses, ferns, wild flowers, and 
shrubs, as well as trees, and, as a whole, pre- 
sent one of nature's very best lake borders. 

In conclusion we may say, once more in 
the words of Mr. Rogers. "To the stranger 
who visits Mill Creek Park there is a pleasant 
surprise always, and to the resident of 
Youngstown who is somewhat familiar with 
its more prominent features there is always- 
something new. The face of nature changes 
there as the seasons come and go, in forms 
and pictures of wondrous beauty. Mill Creek 
Park is a place that never disappoints an in- 
telligent, appreciative visitor. 


The East End Park, Youngstown, is com- 
posed of about sixty-two acres of land, extend- 
ing along the valley of Dry Run, fifteen acres 
being included within the limits of Coitsville 
township. The land was purchased about two 
years ago, at a cost of $19,600. Tlie park oc- 
cupies the bottom lands of the creek, which 



runs through it, and which it follows in gen- 
eral direction. In some places the banks are 
steep and in others rocky, but in general the 
slopes are gentle, and covered with nice tim- 
ber. In the plan of development laid out it is 
proposed to retain all its natural features of 
beauty, and to add thereto such artificial con- 
veniences and improvements as may be re- 
quired to transform it into an ideal summer 
resort for Youngstown people. These im- 
provements include a band stand, which has 
already been constructed, several bridges, 
graded roads and driveways, with possibly a 
dam, in order to form a pool for swimming 
or skating. This park contains one the largest 
glacial boulders in the State of Ohio, the stone 
being split into two parts. Many years ago 
the Delawares and several other Indian tribes 
used to come to the Mahoning Valley yearly 
for their supply of corn and salt. The corn 
was grown in the fertile river bottoms, and the 
salt was obtained from the salt springs. After 
the battle of Braddock, which was fought July 
9- 1 75 5- the Indians came here to celebrate 
their success. The place selected for the big 
feast was the usual ground around Nea-To- 
Ka. or Council Rock, the large boulder above 
mentioned. In all there were six tribes repre- 
sented and 3,500 Indians at the feast. While 
it was in progress a hurricane struck the place. 
Many Indians were killed by falling trees. 
Four chiefs were killed wben lightning struck 
the rock. The dead Indians were buried on 
the site of the present Haselton furnaces. The 
Indians thought the calamity a visitation from 
the "Great White Spirit," and none of them 
ever visited the spot again. The Indian name 
for Dry Run Creek was Sem-is-co-le-to, 
which means shady water. 

The East End Park is easy of access, and 
has three entrances, one of which is in the 
township of Coitsville. 


Which takes its name fmni the Wick family. 
was deeded to the city of Youngstown by the 
heirs of Hugh B. Wick, in 1889, on condition 
that the city would improve and beautify it for 

park purposes. It is a large piece of ground, 
rectangular in shape, situated in the north part 
of the city, and measuring about 1,700 feet in 
length by 1,200 feet in width, including the 
streets which form its boundaries. It is 
crossed by several spacious driveways and 
has six entrances. The land is finely 
timbered, but the main attractions are 
the flower beds, which are very taste- 
fully laid out, and in the summer time 
present a fine appearance. In accordance 
with the conditions of the deed of gift, the 
city has spent thousands of dollars in setting 
out flowers and caring for them and making 
the grounds attractive. As many as twelve 
thousand tulips have been set out in one sea- 
son, while there is an abundance of other favor- 
ite flowers. During the present year (1907) 
it is proposed to erect a fine band stand, which 
will be built of pressed buff brick, with concrete 
floor and tile roof, with other useful and ar- 
tistic improvements. 


The Youngstown City Water Works was 
established by an ordinance passed in City 
Council, May 23, 1871. In the year 1872 a 
pumping station was erected on the bank of 
the Mahoning River just west of what was 
then known as Stull street, now known as- 
North West Avenue. The equipment of the 
plant at that time was as follows : One Holly 
Gang pump of one million gallons capacity 
per twenty-four hours ; two Holly rotary 
pumps, one of two million gallons capacity, 
and one of three million gallons capacity ; one 
Holly vertical boiler to generate steam for 
rotary pumps ; two return tubular b<iilers for 
generating steam for gang pump. \\'ith alx)ut 
seven miles of water mains, in sizes from 15- 
inch to 4-inch, cast iron, and 2-inch gas pipe. 
This plant was installed at a cost of al>ou* 
$135,000. In the year 1886 the H<illy rotary 
fire pumps were replaced l)y a three million 
gallon Worthington rluple.x non-expanding 
condensing pump. In the year 1879. the Holly 
rotary fire pumps were rejilaced by a million 
gallon Dean duplex comixiund condensing 



pump, thus completing the retirement of the 
entire original pumping plant in the short 
period of fourteen years. Changes were made 
from time to time, so that from the humble 
beginning in 1872, as stated above, the plant 
has grown in the short period of thirty-four 
years to the following equipment : 

One five million gallons Deane duplex 
compound condensing pumping engine. Two 
five million gallon William Tod & Co. cross 
compound condensing, crank and fly-wheel 
pumping engine. Two 200-horse-power Stirl- 
ing water tube boilers. Two 1 50-horse-power 
Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers. Two 
200-horse-power Scotch marine boilers. One 
3.000 gallons dentrifugal pump, used as a 
booster to increase pressure for fire purposes 
in high ground. 

The Electric Light Plant consists of one 
Bullock, 50 K. W. generator, direct connected 
to a 85-horse-power vertical Shepard engine. 

There is a filter plant of ten million gallons 
normal capacity, equipped as follows: 

Two ten million gallons \\^illiam Tod Co. 
centrifugal pumps, direct connected to Reeves 
vertical cross compound engines. One four- 
five million gallons William Tod Co. centri- 
fug"al pump, direct connected to a simple verti- 
cal Reeves engine. Two 125-horse-power 
Sterling water tube boilers. 

The outside equipment consists of two 
stand-pipes of 528,768 gallons capacity each. 
Ninety-five miles of cast iron water pipe, 
ranging in size from 4-inch to 24-inch, to- 
gether with valves, etc. Altogether the equip- 
ment has a value on January i, 1906, of $1,- 
303. 171. 16. 


A mechanical filter plant of 10,000,000 
gallons capacity has been built at Youngs- 
town (1905) to treat the water of the Mahon- 
ing River, which was formerly pumped under 
direct pressure into the mains of the distri- 
bution system without any attempt at purifi- 
cation. The Mahoning River has a watershed 
-of 960 square miles above the pumping station 
■of the water works in Youngstown and is 

subject to sudden and considerable variation 
in flow with corresponding variation in the 
character of the water. 

The sewage from several towns above 
Youngstown, which is discharged into the 
river, together with the drainage from several 
large steel mills in Youngstown above the 
pumping station, rendered the river unsatis- 
factory as a source of supply, unless the water 
from it was filtered. In attempting to secure 
a more satisfactory supply, several projects 
were first considered for developing reservoir 
sites on creeks in the vicinity which are tribu- 
taries of the river and bringing the water by 
gravity from these reservoirs to the pumping 
station. The adoption of any of these sources, 
however, would have required the erection of 
a filter plant to insure a sanitary supply, so it 
was decided to adhere to the river as a source 
of such supply, and build a filter plant near the 
old pumping station ; then, if necessary, de- 
velop a further supply on one of the creeks. 

The pumping station on the north bank of 
the river is in a very closely built-up section, 
with little room to expand and no feasible site 
for a filter plant. A tract of vacant ground 
of several acres, bordering on the south bank 
of the river, and immediately across from the 
pumping station, was acquired and the filter 
plant erected on it near the river and about 500 
feet up stream from the station. 

The filter plant embraces an intake in the 
river, a main filter building and a clear water 

Quicksand was encountered in making the 
e.xcavatiun for the clear water well and some 
difficulty was experienced in completing the 
excavation and laying the concrete. 

The contract for the intake and boiler 
house, filter building, clear water well and all 
filtering appliances was awarded to Messrs. 
Thomas Lightbody & Son, of Youngstown, 
for $100,000. The machinery equipment was 
furnished by the William Tod Co. of Youngs- 
tov/n, at a cost of $9,400. The boiler-house 
contains two 125-horse-power water turbine 
boilers, built by the Sterling Boiler Company 
at a cost of $4,200. The total cost of the plant, 
exclusive of heating and fighting and the 36- 



inch river crossing, was $123,000. The valves 
in the entire plant were made by C. W. 
Thomas, of Detroit : the cast iron pipe by the 
Massillon Iron & Steel Company. The plant 
as constructed was designed by Mr. F. M. 
Lillie, city engineer of Yonngstown, assisted 
bv Messrs. H. M. Reel and S. A. King, assist- 
ant engineers, and with the advice of W. S. 
Hamilton, superintendent of the water works. 
Mr. George \\'. Fuller, of New York, was con- 
sulting engineer. The plant was built under 
the direction of the Board of Public Service, 
David Heinselman, president, with Messrs. 
Hagan and Vetter as the other members. The 
committee of the City Council, which had 
much to do with the adoption of the plans for 
the plant, and their execution, consisted of 
^Messrs. Middleton and Parrock. 


One of the notable incidents in the history 
of Young'stown was the organization of the 
Youngstown Fire Department. As with all 
cities the first was a volunteer department, and 
for years the organization maintained a name 
for itself by the efficient work which it per- 

The patron of the organization was Gov- 
ernor David Tod, and after him the engine 
which marked the start of the department was 
rinmed. The venerable .machine is still in 
existence, after having gone througbi years of 
service, and stands in the annex to Central 
fire department station, as a monument to the 
organization which "whooped 'er up" so many 
times in making the runs to the many fires 
which they extinguished during the existence 
of the department. 

With it came the reel hose wagon yet re- 
membered by all, and later came the hook and 
ladder wagon, and the department was a real- 
ity. The organization of the department was 
coincident with the blossoming of the village 
into a city, and was demanded by considera- 
tions of public safety. 

On March 2, 1868, while Youngstown was 
yet a village, the council passed an ordinance 
authorizing the issuance of $10,000 worth of 

bonds for the purpose of purchasing a fire 
engine. It became evident before the village 
became a city that such an amount would be 
inadequate for the purchase of a fire engine, 
and the ordinance was repealed. 

The city organized as such after the first 
city election on April 6, 1868, and on April 14, 
the new city officers took charge. One of the 
first acts of the new city government was to 
authorize the issue of $20,000 worth of bonds 
for the purchase of the fire engine. In the 
meanwhile the citizens were preparing an 
organization to take hold as soon as the city 
was ready for them, which was perfected April 
20, 1868. Governor Tod had worked inces- 
santly on the organization of the department, 
and the city showed its appreciation of his 
labors when they finally bore fruit, by naming 
the engine after him. 

The first organization had sixty members, 
and the following were the officers elected : 

President — J. M. Silliman. 

Vice-president — A. W. Jones. 

Secretary — J. H. Thompson. 

Treasurer — Edward Miller. 

Foreman — James A. Hamman. 

First Assistant — D. H. Arnold. 

Second Assistant — L. R. Roberts. 

Engineers — W. S. Hamilton, N. L. Pollock 
and W. B. Wilson. 

Hose Directors— Owen Evans, L. P. Gil- 
man, James Van Fleet, C. Miller, T. J. Lewis, 
and John Davis. * 

Fireman-^Henry Morris. 
Assistant Fireman — A. W. Jones. 
The company got along with the hose 
wagon and engine for three years, and in the 
meanwhile the first engine-bouse was built. 
A temporary house for the fire engine was 
erected, but on November 2d, H. Hamilton 
and Mayor McKee were appointed a commit- 
tee for the erection of a permanent bouse on 
the present site of the Central department sta- 
tion. September 14. 1871, a hook and ladder 
companv was organized with fifty memljers. 
After the organization of the engine company 
the first appearance of its meml>ers in uniform 
was at the funeral of Governor Tod in No- 
vember. 1868. Surviving members well re- 



member that day, when the uniforms, which 
had arrived the day before, were donned for 
the first time to pay tribute to one of the 
strongest friends the volunteers ever liad. The 
companies were governed simply by foremen 
.until May 6, 1873, when the office of chief 
engineer was created, and J. W. Ross was ap- 
pointed to fill it. Fourteen fire police were 
also appointed. 

On April 20. 1875, the volunteers re- 
elected J. M. Ross chief, and he was confirmed 
by the council, together witli the following 
officers of the department : J. W. Metz, as- 
sistant chief; W. S. Hamilton, fire engineer; 
Albert Probst , hose cart driver ; Chauncey 
Hamilton, hook and ladder marshal. 

On February 29, 1876, the City Council 
fixed the salary of the chief of the fire depart- 
ment at $65 per month. On April 11, 1876, 
the following nominations of the volunteer as- 
sociation were confirmed by the council : John 
W. Metz, chief; Philip McGonnell, assistant 
cliief; W. S. Hamilton, fire engineer, and A. 
"M. Probst, hose cart driver. The following 
year the salary of the chief was made $600 per 

Charles W. McNab was nominated chief 
and confirmed by council on April 9, 1878, 
together with the following officers nominated 
'by the volunteers : Joseph C. Cook, assistant 
-chief; W. S. Hamilton, fire engineer; D. H. 
Evans, hose cart driver. 

May 13, 1879, McNab was again ap- 
pointed chief of the department with the same 
-sub-officers. April 27, 1880, Richard Morgan 
was confirmed by the council as chief, and 
served one year. The following year William 
Horner was chosen chief, and served through 
until the next year. W. S. Hamilton in that 
year resigned as fire engineer, and E. E. Jones 
succeeded him. 

The following spring there arose differ- 
ences between the council and the volunteer 
organization over the purchase of supplies. 
Council refused to confirm the officers selected 
by the volunteer organization in 1882, and the 
organization immediately retaliated with a 
•notice that it would disband. Tl;e following 
-notice was served on the council: 

"At a special meeting of the Youngstown 
Fire Department held April 29, the following 
resolutions were adopted : 

"Whereas, We have been a volunteer fire 
department for fourteen years for the said 
city; and whereas at our regular meeting held 
Thursday, April 6, 1882, we elected our officers 
for the ensuing year according to the rules and 
laws of said company, and 

"Whereas, Said nominations were sent to 
council for confirmation of the same, and 

"Whereas, said council refused to recog- 
nize and confirm said nominations; therefore, 
be it 

"Resolved, That we cease to exist as a 

volunteer fire department for said city from 

Monday, May 8, 1882, at 9 o'clock p. m. 

"Signed William Horner^ 

"James W. Metz, 

"Edward E. Jones, 


The volunteers immediately made prepara- 
tions for leaving and took their possessions 
from the fire department building. D. H. 
Evans, as driver, on May 4, 1882, resigned, 
and it seemed that for a short time the city 
would be without a fire department. 

A number of the members of the old de- 
partment came to the rescue, however, and 
offered their services to the city as "experi- 
enced and trained firemen." Their offer was 
at once accepted, and the nomination of 
Charles W. McNab as chief. John Lung as 
hose cart driver, and Albert Probst as hook 
and ladder driver, were confirmed on April 28. 
A move was made in the same year for a new 

On May 7, 1883, the volunteers nominated 
William H. Moore as chief, John Lung as hose 
cart driver, and Al Probst as hook and ladder 
driver. On June 30, 1884, Moore was re- 
elected chief, and his salary fixed at $500 per 
year. Five men were ordered hired at $60 per 
month, and later the council passed a reso- 
lution to pay the minute men fifty cents per 

On May 11, i88c, W. H. Moore was re- 
elected chief, and again on May 24, 1886. At 
that time Al Probst was made hose cart driver. 



and Sim Dyer, hook and ladder driver. George 
Battieger, Ambrose Perkins, and Charles 
Vaughn were appointed as stationary men at 
the fire station. 

On June 13, 1887, Chief Moore was re- 
nominated for chief, but was not confirmed. 
On June 2j John P. Mercer was chosen by 
council as chief. In August of the same year 
M. Ouinn and William Knox were added to 
the department, Battieger resigning. Febru- 
ary 6, 1888, the fire station at the corner of 
Oak and Fruit streets was finished and War- 
ren iNIcCready, John McAleer and W. H. Lol- 
ler were appointed as additional men, Loller 
taking the place of Ambrose Perkins. The 
next year M. Sullivan was appointed in place 
■of James Probst. The Sixth Ward station 
was completed in 1889. John B. Reynolds, 
Dyer and AlcCready were assigued there. 

John P. Mercer was continued as chief of 
the fire department until the city commission- 
ers took hold in 1891, and the volunteer de- 
partment became a thing of the past. The 
volunteer department did great work in its day 
with the growing city, and had a number of 
big fires to combat. It had its start just after 
the great fire of 1867. which destroyed the 
residence of the late Governor Tod, when it 
was proven that the old bucket brigade was 
■entirely inadequate to the needs of the city. 
It was owing to Governor Tod, through his 
ready and energetic assistance in the organiza- 
tion of die department, that it soon became 
recognized as one of the most efficient in the 

One of the notable events of the old or- 
ganization was the holding of the State con- 
"V'ention of volunteer fire departments here in 
1873. The event brought together a large 
number of notable fire fighters of the State, 
and the move was started then which resulted 
in the ne.xt year, when the convention was held 
at Springfield, in a law being passed by the 
legislature which relieved volunteer firemen 
from jury duty. 

In 1878. a delegation of eighteen from the 
Youngstown department went to Chicago to 
attend the national tournament of volunteer 
iireman there and carried off the honors fof the 

country. Generals Hayes and Grant re- 
viewed the procession at that time. The dele- 
gates were entertained while in Chicago by 
Joseph Brown. 

Mixed with hard work which the depart- 
ment had to do, the boys found time for a 
great deal of pleasure. The weekly meetings 
of the department were events, and once a 
year came the annual ball ; in the summer time 
the annual excursion. Great fires occurred in 
those days and were combatted as successfully 
as the apparatus would allow. One of the 
first fires was that which destroyed the Jewell 
block, and two or three surrounding buildings. 
This was almost immediately after the depart- 
ment had been organized, and, according to 
all accounts, it was one of the fiercest fires the 
young town ever knew. The burning of the 
Porter block in the early seventies, and that 
of the Ritter block, which preceded it, were 
both bad fires, and gave the departmeirt hard 
work, as did also, in the eighties, the Pollock 
barn on East Front street, and, about th€ same 
time, the destruction of Young's cooperage 
shop on South CharUipion street. Later came 
the destruction of the mower and reaper 
works, and that of the nut and bolt works, 
and the fire which wiped out almost 
the entire square from the Howell's block to 
the Wick National Bank block on West Fed- 
eral street. At all these fires, the department, 
at first wholly volunteer, and afterwards part 
paid, conducted themselves with great credit. 

An outcome of the old volunteer depart- 
ment was the veteran Volunteer Fireman's 
Association, which was formed December 21, 
1895, with the following officers: President, 
J. M. Ross ; vice-president, J. B. Housteau ; 
secretary, J. F. McGowan, and treasurer, 
David Heinselman. 

When the present law governing tbe city 
went into effect the fire department consisted 
of three companies. Central No. i and No. 2. 
John P. Mercer was chief, having been ap- 
pointed to the position by council about three 
years previous. The department under the 
control of the council AVas a part paid, part 
volunteer organization. In addition to the chief 
there were four drivers and seven hosemen 



who were paid for their services and were on 
duty at all times, and a large number of volun- 
teers, or minute men, who responded to fire 
alamis when their occupation permitted. The 
minute men received no stated salary, but were 
paid fifty cents per hour for all active service 


On May i6, 1891, the city commissioners 
reorganized the fire department by appointing 
William H. Moore chief, William L. Knox 
assistant chief, and the following firemen, 
eight of whom, including the assistant chief, 
had served under council : Albert Probst, Sim 
Dyer, Warren McCready, Charles Vaughn, 
Michael Quinn, William' H. Loller, Christ 
Weick, Charles Daley, Thomas Reilly, Wil- 
liam Evans, David Stambaugh. Samuel Mc- 
Kenzie, Patrick Dooley, William Smedley, 
and John Haid. Ten of these men were lo- 
cated at Central, three at No. 2, Oak street, 
and three at No. 3, Thomas street. The ap- 
paratus at Central station consisted of a hose 
wagon and a dilapidated and almost useless 
hook and ladder truck, notwithstanding the 
fact that a few months previously the city had 
purchased a modern chemical engine and an 
aerial ladder truck. Central headquarters 
were located in a rickety old frame building 
in which there was not sufficient room for the 
men, horses or apparatus, and public f^ele- 
phones afforded the only means of notifying 
the fire department when a fire occurred. 

Recognizing the necessity of providing a 
new building and a modern electric fire alarm 
system, the 'commissioners and city council, 
in 1894, obtained legislative authority to issue 
bonds in the sum of $25,000, thus enabling 
them to build and equip a new engine house 
and install a fire alarm system by which citi- 
zens can instantly communicate with the fire 

After the erection of the new central head- 
quarters the city officials were confronted with 
the problem of affording necessary fire pro- 
tection to the property in Haselton, Brier Hill, 

and the South Side, three rapidly growing 
suburbs of the city. Realizing that there was 
only one solution of the problem — the erection 
of three new stations and the organization of 
three additional companies — a proposition to 
issue the necessary bonds, which was sub- 
mitted to the citizens at the November elec- 
tion, in 1895, carried by an overwhelm- 
ing majority ; in the following year three 
handsome and well-appointed fire stations 
were erected. 

Station No. 4, located on Falls avenue, 
was opened December 17, 1896. Station No. 
5, at the corner of Superior street and Oak- 
land avenue, was opened January 9, 1897, and 
Station No. 6, Wilson avenue, on December 
19, 1896. 

The public generally has little or no idea 
of the dail)^ routine of a fireman's life, or of 
the system by which men, horses, and appar- 
atus are kept ever ready to respond to calls 
for the protection of life and property. A 
visit to Central station is a revelation to any 
one unacquainted with fire department meth- 
ods. Visitors are always welcome and may 
rest assured of finding a set of obliging men 
who will take pleasure in escorting them 
through the building and making intelligent 
explanation of every feature. 

The first object tO' attract attention is the 
combination chemical engine and hose wagon. 
This truck is fitted with two tanks, each con- 
taining sixty gallons of chemical fluid, one 
gallon of which will extinguish as much fire 
as forty gallons of water. This fluid is espe- 
cially effective on fires that are confined to 
the interior of buildings. Situated above the 
tanks is a bed or box in which is carried 800 
feet of 2j4-inch hose for attachment when a 
fire is too large to be extinguished by the 
chemical. This truck has rubber tires three 
inches wide, weighs nearly four tons, and is 
drawn by three horses. 

In the center of the room stands the aerial 
truck, which is run to all fires in the business 
part of the city. This truck is so built that 
its ladder can be extended to a height of 
seventy feet and placed at any angle desired. 



In addition to a full complement of ladders 
this truck carries chemical extinguishers, 
forks, door openers, life lines and life net, and 
electric \vire cutters with insulated handles. 

Standing next the aerial truck is a truck 
of lighter pattern, designed purposely for long 
suburban runs. Standing in a row in the rear 
of the trucks are the magnificent and well- 
trained horses, whose almost human intelli- 
gence never fails to attract the admiration of 
visitors. Standing always with their heads 
toward the stall doors, only a shake of the 
gong is required to bring them galloping to 
their places under the suspended harness. 

On the second story of the station are the 
sleeping rooms of the firemen — everything 
clean and home-like. Handsome carpets on 
the floor, pictures adorning the walls, and a 
neat and well arranged bed inviting repose. 
When the fireman retires at night he removes 
his clothes like the ordinary citizen, but before 
he lays down he places a pair of rubber boots 
into which his pants have been tucked beside 
his bed. If a fire disturbs his slumbers he 
bounds out of bed, jerks on his pants and 
boots by the same operation, grabs the sliding 
pole, and cjuicker than you can read this para- 
graph he is in front of the truck on which he 
rides hitching a horse. His coat and hat are 
donned while the horses are madly galloping 
to the fire. 

fireman's daily routine. 

The routine of the fireman's life is ordin- 
arily as follows : In the morning he must 
make up his own bed and arrange his room. 
The trucks must be cleaned, every bit of brass 
about the engine house polished, the floor 
swept and mopped, horses groomed, harness 
cleaned, hose taken care of, and innumerable 
details attended to of which the public has no 
conception. Every member of the department 
is on duty day and night, except every tenth 
day. when he has leave of absence of twenty- 
four hours. So the fireman has very little 
time to discharge social or other obligations 
aside from his regular duty. 


On May i, 1900, Chief Moore and Assist- 
ant Chief Knox were retired on a pension, and 
William H. Loller was promoted to the posi- 
tion of chief, Thomas C. Reilly being selected 
as his assistant. Promotion came to lx)th men 
as a reward for the faithful and intelligent 
manner in which they had discharged every 
duty devolving upon them while in subordin- 
ate positions, and subsequent events have jus- 
tified their selection. 

Chief Loller is an active, energetic man 
who has well settled progressive ideas as to 
how a metropolitan fire dcipartment should 
be conducted. In carrying out whatever poli- 
cies he establishes, the chief enjoys the confi- 
dence, and has the hearty co-operation of all 
his subordinates, which guarantees that har- 
mony so essential to the success of the depart- 
ment. Without being a martinet he stands 
for discipline, and with a full appreciation of 
the necessarily confining nature of their duties 
he believes the men under his charge should 
enjoy the fullest liberty consistent with proper 
order and discipline. 

One of the first orders issued by the new 
chief was that the aerial truck, which had be- 
come rusty from ill-use, should be placed in 
service, and that the firemen, not only from 
the Central station, but of the entire depart- 
ment, should familiarize themselves with the 
operation of the truck. This was followed by 
other refomis, including daily drills with the 
life net, coupling and uncoupling of hose, prac- 
tical hitches, and the establishment of a watch 
service which guarantees a prompt response 
to all calls. A careful and itemized account 
is kept of all supplies, and not even a box of 
matches leaves the store room until it has been 
charged to the company for which it is in- 

Believing that an ounce of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure Chief Loller has estal> 
lished a system of building inspection that 
has no doubt resulted in the prevention of 
many fires. The chief, assistant chief, and 
captains make periodical insjiections of all the 



buildings in the down town district. This 
system not only causes compliance by owners 
and tenants with the laws designed to prevent 
fires, but it also serves to keep the officers 
familiar with the location of all stairways, 
hatches, elevators, fire escapes, etc. 

Assistant Chief Reilly, who has been a 
member of the department for years, is well 
fitted for the position of assistant chief. His 
ability as a fireman has been shown on in- 
numerable occasions previous to his appoint- 
ment as assistant chief. Upon him devolves 
the execution of all the orders of the chief, 
whom he represents at fires. 

From the chief to the latest man added to 
the force the department is composed of an in- 
telligent and fearless body of men whose con- 
duct in the past is proof that danger will never 
deter them from doing their duty individually 
and collectively, and justifies all the confidence 
reposed in the department by the citizens. 
Some among them have fallen victims in the 
performance of their duty. 

Nov. I, 1 901. at the Stambaugh fire on 
Belmont avenue. Captain Smedley, Mike Mc- 
Donough, and J. Smith Cowden were injured. 
McDonough died at the hospital on the fol- 
lowing day, and Cowden lingered until March 
22, when he died as the result of his injuries. 

Captain Al Probst of Station No. 6, the 
oldest man then in service, was killed at the 
Consolidated Gas and Electric Light Com- 
pany fire, June 23, 1904. 

In addition to the above casualties, there 
bave been numerous lesser injuries received 
at different times by other members of the de- 
partment while at work in extinguishing fires. 


"Station i, or Central," northeast corner 
of Boardman and Hazel streets. Chief, W. 
H. Loller ; first assistant chief, T. C. Reilly ; 
second assistant chief, H. S. Dyer : electrician, 
Ambrose Perkins ; Hose Company No. i ; En- 
gine Company No. i : Ladder Company A ; 
Ladder Company B ; W. A. McCready, mar- 
shal. Twentv-four men, not counting the chief 

officers first mentioned. This station had in- 
stalled in April, 1903, a Nott engine. No. i 

Station No. 2, corner Oak and Fruit 
streets. Hose Company No. 2 ; five men ; ]\I. T. 
Ouinn, marshal. 

Station No. 3. corner Thomas and Foster 
streets. Hose Company, Engine Company No. 
3 ; seven men ; Edward Sweeney, marshal. 
This station has a Nott No. 2 size engine. 

Station No. 4, south side. Falls avenue, 
near Oak Hill avenue. Hose Company No. 4: 
five men ; Charles Daley, marshal. 

Station No. 5, corner Oakland avenue and 
Superior street. Hose Company No. 5 ; five 
men ; John Haid, marshal. 

Station No. 6, south side, Wilson avenue, 
near Jackson street. Hose Company No. 6; 
five men ; J. C. Vavighan, marshal. 

Station No. 7, corner Madison avenue and 
Elm street. Hose Company No. 7 and Engine 
Company No. 2 ; ten men ; A. W. Smedley, 
marshal. In January, 1904, this station in- 
stalled a Metropolitan No. 2 engine. 

All the hose companies above mentioned 
are supplied in addition to the usual amount 
of regulation hose with two or more Babcock 
or chemical fire extinguishers, extension lad- 
ders, and other necessary apparatus. 


Youngstown is a cosmopolitan city, almost 
every civilized country in the world having 
representati\'es within its limits. It is only 
to be expected that in such a large and mixed 
community, numbering over 70.000 souls, a 
certain percentage of the inhabitants will be 
occasional or habitual transgressors against 
the moral code, and defiers of the laws which 
society has made for self protection. To cope 
successfully with this element a well-organized 
police force is necessary, and Youngstown 
is therefore fortunate in having a chief of 
police, police officials, and a police force of 
which any municipality might well be proud. 

From the time of Colonel James Hillman, 
the first constable, and almost, if not actually, 



the first settler in tlie townsliip, tlie department 
has experienced a gradual but steady growth, 
keeping full pace at all times with the require- 
ments of the ever-growing community. 

Colonel, or, as we may here call him, Con- 
stable Hillman, was a man of nen^e, as is evi- 
denced in the fact of his single-handed arrest 
of a party of Indians, one of whom had shot 
and desperately wounded a white settler of 
Deerfield, named Daniel Diven, in revenge for 
having been cheated, as he thought, in a horse 
trade. The Indian had intended to shoot John 
Diven, Daniel's brother, but had shot Daniel 
by mistake. The Indians had called at the 
house of Judge Day, where the two brothers 
were attending a ball on Christmas night, and 
had asked for John Diven. Daniel going to 
the door in place of his brother, received the 
full charge of the Indian's gun, which inflicted 
a terrible wound in the head, from which it 
was a marvel that he survived. Constable Hill- 
man was awakened in the night by two mes- 
sengers, who told the story, and getting up, 
immediately set off for Deerfield, twenty-five 
miles away. On arriving there he found some 
fifty or sixty men ready to start in pursuit of 
the Indians. He declined any assistance, how- 
ever, telling them they could go if they wished, 
but that, if he went, he should go alone, and 
accordingly set off by himself. He came upon 
their camp early in the morning, and covering 
the chief with his gun, ordered the Indians to 
stack their amis against a tree, which they 
did. He then told them that he wanted the 
Indian who had committed the assault de- 
livered up, and the whole party to accompany 
him. The Indians at first declined to deliver 
up the criminal and some of them after a long 
consultation, put on their war paint, but Mr. 
Hillman's resolute demeanor, coupled with the 
fact that he cautioned to keep guard over their 
arms, finally induced them to reconsider the 
matter, and at last tliey agreed to accompany 
him to Warren, where the chief was placed 
under guard and the matter was finally settled. 
In 1802, Calvin Pease and Phineas Reed 
were elected constables to succeed James Hill- 
man, and from this time on until 1867 there 

seems to have been little record kept of the 
guardians of the peace. In that year Owen 
Evans was elected marshal and Captain 
Samuel C. Rook, William Casey, and Joseph 
Maltby were patrolmen. Captain Rook, a vet- 
eran both of the Mexican and Civil wars, is 
still living in Youngstown, hale and hearty 
at the age of eighty years. 

He states that "during his time every good 
citizen was expected to look out for himself 
and his own property during the day time, and 
the bad ones were supposed to call a truce, 
no day watchman being employed except on 
circus days, holidays, and occasions of public 
demonstration when the niglit men did double 
duty. At this period, the south side was so 
sparsely settled that the policemen never vis- 
ited it except to serve warrants." "Drunks" 
were usually conveyed to the lockup in a 
wheelbarrow and the policeman, being his own 
turnkey, would reach in the window for the 
key, which hung on the wall, open the door 
and confine his prisoner. "If it happened to 
be a cold night, the rule of hospitality that 
then prevailed required the officer to build a 
fire in the prison stove to insure the comfort 
of his guest until the hour of his trial. About 
1878, the force consisted of but five men, and 
they were accustomed to augment their sal- 
aries by lighting the street lamps, which cast 
a feeble illumination for a few surrounding 
yards on favored corners. "Also in case of the 
discovery of a fire the patrolman was expected 
t© convert himself into a fire alarm and pro- 
ceed at full speed to the engine house, veiling 
'Fire!' at every step. Personal taste was the 
sole arbiter as to dress and if the choice ran 
to a plug hat and sack coat or a straw hat and 
Prince Albert, or no coat at all, it was all the 
same, just so there was enough clothing to 
conform to the laws of propriety and to attach 
his star, the emblem of authority." 

Witii the large additions of territory and 
increase of population consequent on the 
founding of new industries, an improved sys- 
tem of police government became a necessity, 
and in 1891, as the result of public agitation 
the Ohio legislature passed a non-partisan bill 



(amended in 1892) which provided, among 
other things, for the control of the pohce de- 
partment in cities of a certain population in 
which YoLingstown was inchided by a board 
of city commissioners, the members of said 
board to be appointed by the mayor and judge 
of probate immediately after the organization 
of the council, not more than two members of 
the board were to be members of the same 
political party. All police officers and 
night watchmen were to be appointed 
by the board under suitable rules and 
requirements as to physical condition and 
other elements of fitness, as the board 
should adopt, and were to hold their 
office during good behavior subject to re- 
moval or suspension at the pleasure of the 
board for cause entered upon the record book. 
The commissioners were also given jxjwer, in 
case of emergency and upon the application of 
the mayor, to appoint special policemen. 

"On Monday, March 10, 1891, the city 
council, acting under the new law, abolished 
the office of marshal, and created that of chief 
of police, with a salarj^ of $1,000 a year. 
John F. Cantwell was appointed as the first 
chief and held the position until succeeded by 
W. W. McDowell on September 8, 1894." 

During the first term of Mayor R. Mont- 
gomery, 1 888- 1 890. the first patrol wagon 
was put in service, and during the second the 
Gamewell police and fire alarm telegraph sys- 
tem was installed, "two innovations that have 
proved to be of incalculable value in facilitat- 
ing the work of the department." There was 
no further change in the law affecting the 
police department until the present code went 
into effect in 1902, which designated as cities 
all municipal corporations having a population 
of 5,000 or more, and provided among other 
things for a department of public safety in 
every city to be administered by two or four di- 
rectors, as council might determine. The code 
also provided that every applicant for a 
position in the department must state in his 
own handwriting, under oath, the facts on the 
following subjects: ist, full name, residence 
and postoffice address ; 2d, nationality ; 3d, 
age; 4th, place of birth; 5th, health and phy- 

sical capacity for public service; 6th, previous 
employment in public service; 7th, business or 
employment, and residence for the previous 
five years; 8th, education; 9th, such other in- 
formation as may be reasonably required by 
said board touching the applicant's fitness for 
public service. 

Chief W. W. McDowell was appointed to 
succeed John F. Cantwell, September 8, 1894. 
He had been a member of the force for about 
four years, previously having been appointed 
patrolman by Mayor Montgomery in 1890. 
Since he took charge the force, which then 
consisted of a meager squad of sixteen men, 
has increased in size more than fourfold, there 
being- now some sixty-seven names on the 
payroll, including a captain, lieutenant, five 
sergeants, and two detectives. 

"Among the many improvements that 
have been made during his incvmibency there 
is none of which the chief is more proud than 
the new headquarters building, and the mod- 
ern sanitary prison with its humane equipment 
for handling the various cases that require at- 

"For years he had seen the desirability of 
a jail so constructed that the sexes could be 
separated, and youthful offenders kept from 
coming in contact with old and hardened 
criminals. In accordance with this idea, in 
the construction of the new building, a large 
room was set aside in the basement for tramps, 
none of whom, by the way, who come seek- 
ing lodgings are ever turned away; the chief 
holding the opinion that it is safer to have 
them under surveillance than to be roaming 
around the streets. 

"On the upper floors are separate rooms 
for women, boys under sixteen, and a padded 
cell for violent cases. The entire construc- 
tion of the cell department being ol steel with 
cement walls, floors and ceilings, the chances 
for escape even by the most expert jail breaker 
are reduced to an absolute minimum." • 

The Bertillon system of measurements, 
which since its invention by Dr. Alphonse Ber- 
tillon and adoption by the chief of prefecture 
of the Parisian police in 1882, has proved an 
infallible means of identifying criminals, is in 



use in the Youngstown department, having 
been adopted on tlie recommendation of Chief 
McDowell. A national bureau of identifica- 
tion under this system was establisiied at 
Washingion, D. C, by the national association 
of chiefs of police of the United States, to the 
benefits of which all members of the associ- 
ation are entitled upon payment of the yearly 
dues, which are graded according to the popu- 
lation of the various cities. 

The dues for a city of the size of Youngs- 
town are $15 per year. If a thief or suspected 
person is arrested whom it is desired to identify 
his picture and measurements are taken under 
the Bertillon system and forwarded to the 
Central office at Washington, and if the per- 
son is a crook his identity, history and a list 
of his usual companions are obtained. Chief 
McDowell has been a member of the National 
Association of the Chiefs of Police of the 
United States and Canada since the year 1895, 
and of the state association since its organi- 
zation in 1901. He is also vice-president of the 
latter association. He has been untiring in 
his efforts to give the citizens of Youngstown 
a thoroughly adequate system of police pro- 
tection, and has succeeded as nearly as it is 
possible for success to be attained. Although 
a strict disciplinarian, he has endeared himself 
to his men by his uniform fairness and im- 
partiality and their loyalty to him is unques- 


The company controlling the street car 
system of Youngstown, Warren, Niles, New 
Castle and Sharon, and connecting lines, is 
known as the Mahoning and Shenango Rail- 
way and Light Company. It was incorporated 
in 1902 to take over the independent trolley 
lines which had been operating in the territory 
mentioned, many of which were owned by 
different corporations. The merged interests 
include the following companies : 

The Mahoning and Shenango Railway 
and Light Company; Youngstown-Sharon 
Railway and Light Company ; Sharon and 

New Castle Railway Company ; the Mahoning 
Valley Railway Company ; the New Castle and 
Lowell Railway Company ; the Youngstown 
Park and Falls Street Railway Company ; the 
Sharon and New Castle Street Railway Com- 
pany; the Sharon and New Castle Railway 
Company ; the Valley Street Railway Com- 
pany; the Sharon and Wheatland Street Rail- 
way Company ; the Youngstown Consolidated 
Gas and Electric Company ; the She- 
nango Valley Electric Light Company; the 
Sharon Gas and Water Company ; the Sharps- 
ville Electric Light Company ; and the New 
Castle Electric Company. 

The books of each of the foregoing com- 
panies are kept in accord with the statutes gov- 
erning corporations in the states under whose 
laws the companies were organized, separate 
sets of books being kept for each of the six- 
teen companies. In addition to the above 
there are a number of other companies which 
form connecting links in the trolley system. 

The Youngstown street railway system 
was founded in 1875, when James Mackay, 
with his brothers David and Robert, and 
others, organized a stock company for the pur- 
pose of building a horse-car line on Federal 
street. As at first constructed the line was 
about two miles long, extending from the 
turn-table in front of M. Clemens' old store 
in East Federal street, near Basin street, to 
the car barns at Jefferson street. Brier Hill. 
Four cars were in service. x\t first there were 
no conductors, and the drivers used to stop 
at the treasurer's office, at Smith's brewery, 
and deposit their fares each trip. During the 
busy hours of the day a man was stationed 
about midway on Federal street to assist the 
drivers in collecting fares, boarding each car 
in turn for this purpose. Mr. James Mackay, 
who is still living, was president of the com- 
pany for the first seven years, with Alfred 
Smith as treasurer. The line was gradually ex- 
tended and new routes added, the first exten- 
tion being on \\'ilson avenue. In i88g a fran- 
chise was granted to the Youngstown Street 
Railway Company for an extension of the line 
on Federal street. Himrod avenue. Mahoning 
avenue, and Henrietta street ; also for exten- 



sions of line on Lawrence street and North 

The Mahoning Valley Electric Railway 
was chartered in November, 1894, and the 
same company was granted a twenty-five year 
franchise from June 3, 1895. The name of 
the company was changed in 1896 to the 
Mahoning Valley Railway Company, and the 
latter company subsecjuently purchased the 
property of the Youngstown Street Railway 
Comipany, increasing its capital stock from 
$150,000 to $1,500,000. 

The Youngstown Park and Falls Street 
Railway Company was chartered for twenty 
years in 1893, '^^i^h the privilege of extending 
five additional years on request; and a fran- 
chise to October, 1914, was passed in council 
in June, 1895. Other franchises were subse- 
quently granted this company extending to 
June, 1920. 

The Youngstown Consolidated Gas and 
Electric Company was incorporated in 1896, 
with a capital of $1,055,000. 

The Mahoning and Shenango Railway 
and Light system now controls and operates 
one hundred and fifty miles of track, not in- 
cluding the double track in the different cities. 
It has invested $150,000 in paying its share 
of the street paving in the different cities 
through which it operates. New cars have 
been purchased during the past year at an out- 
lay of $250,000. The company has invested 
$400,000 in power plants. It is now about to 
erect a new boiler house at a cost of $25,000, 
and to spend $50,000 more for the installation 
of new boilers. Two new engines w'ill also 
be installed, in addition to those recently placed 
in commission at North avenue. They will cost 
$90,000. The increased demand for power 
since the large cars were placed in service 
has been tremendous, and additional power 
will have to be supplied. The topography of 
Youngstown makes it one of the most difficult 
cities in the country in which to operate street 
railways. It is hilly and consumes power at an 
alarming rate. 

The company pays union wages to its em- 
ployes, who number all told about twelve hun- 
dred people, this number being increased at 

certain periods of the year to as high as six- 
teen hundred. It pays out about $750,000 
each year in wages alone. 

The company recently moved into an en- 
larged and remodeled three-story office building 
at the corner of Boardman and Champion 
streets. This is one of the best arranged office 
structures in the city. The basement is occu- 
pied by the supply department, gas and elec- 
tric work shops, laboratory, meter and trans- 
former rooms. The first floor contains the 
office of R. Alontgomery, vice-president and 
general manager of light and power com- 
panies, the oftices of superintendents of gas 
and electric lig'ht and power departments, 
cashier, collection department, waiting" room 
and freig'ht department. On the second floor 
are the offices of M. E. McCaskey, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of railway com- 
panies, general superintendent of railways, 
superintendents of power supply, transporta- 
tion, track and roadway, overhead lines, parks 
and claim department. On this floor the com- 
pany also maintains its own drafting rooms. 
The third floor is given over to the depart- 
ment presided over bj^ Treasurer and Auditor 
S. C. Rogers. Besides the general bookkeep- 
ing room, private offices are provided for the 
assistant treasurer, the statistical department, 
stenographers and the filing- and counting 
room. This floor also contains the directors' 
and conference room. 

The center space in the building is occu- 
pied by a large and commodious vault, with 
openings on each floor, including the base- 
ment. A pneumatic tube system forms a con- 
venient and rapid means of transferring papers 
and documents between the several depart- 
ments. Provision is also made for the com- 
fort and convenience of conductors and motor- 
men on all lines. A large room specially 
equi]3ped with lockers and other modern con- 
veniences, is set apart for their exclusive use 
any hour of the day or night. 

The plans for the remodeling of the build- 
ing were prepared- by the company's drafts- 
men, who de\-eloped the ideas of the heads of 
the several departments as to their individual 
needs for space and other accommodations. 



The building- also contains an independent 
telephone exchange with fifty-five phones for 
the company's exclusive use. 

It is the p<ilicy of the company to patronize 
home industries. Where it is possible, sup- 
plies are purchased from the stores and fac- 
tories of the towns through which the lines 
pass or the lighting plants are operated. All 
the receipts from operation in the several cities 
are deposited with the local banks of the towns 
where such earnings are made. The company 
carries in all twenty-five separate bank ac- 
counts. It maintains its own inspective force, 
with uniformed officers on iluty both day and 

Some idea of the growth of the system may 
be obtained when it is remembered that 
twenty-five years ago there was not an electric 
street car or an electric light in the Mahoning 
and Shenango valleys. Today the district is 
webbed with trolley lines, and the electric 
light is used in stores, factories, homes and 
for street lighting in every town. The business 
is one of the most important in the country, 
and when interfered with by storm or other 
causes is missed more than any other public 
utility, except perhaps the water system. The 
trolley lines are now indispensable;. They 
have brought distant communities nearer to- 
gether, made it possible to extend cities, 
cheapened travel, and developed communities 
that would never have prospered but for the 
transportation facilities they afford. 

The power stations in Youngstown and 
other places in the system have been brought 
up to date at an enormous expense, old rolling 
stock is being replaced with new cars, and the 
company is working hard to keep the service 
up to the required standard. 

The following is a list of the company's 
officers and heads of departments : 

E. N. Sanderson, president. New York. 
R. Montgomery, vice-president and general 
manager, light and power companies. M. E. 
McCaskey, vice-president and general man- 
ager of railway lines. Leighton Calkins, sec- 
retary and general counsel, New York. Arrel, 
Wilson (S: Harrington, local counsel. S. C. 
Rogers, treasurer and auditor. W. T. Burns, 

assistant treasurer and assistant auditor. C. J. 
A. Paul, general superintendent of railways. 
H. L. I-\atterson, superintendent of jxjwer sup- 
ply. J. S. McWhirter, superintendent of shops 
and equipment. E. H. Bell, general superinten- 
dent of light and power (Youngstown Con- 
solidated and Sharon Lighting Com,panies). 
Moses Coombs, general superintendent of gas 
department. J. W. Sturdevant, chief claim 
agent. U. S. Sliter, superintendent of trans- 
portation (Alahoning Valley division). Chas. 
C. Beckman, superintendent of transportation 
(Youngstown-Sharon division). W. C. Smith, 
superintendent of transportation (New Castle 
division). F. C. McGonigle, superintendent 
New Castle Electric Company. Paul C. 
Kaercher, superintendent Sharon Lighting 
Company. Frederick L. Finch, superintendent 
of track and roadway (Mahoning Valley and 
New Castle divisions). George G. Rose, ex- 
cursion agent and superintendent Mora Park. 
Perry Barge, superintendent of Cascade Park, 
New Castle. S. R. Wilkinson, superintendent 
of overhead lines (Mahoning Valley and New 
Castle divisions). Charles D. Brown, super- 
intendent of overhead lines (Youngstown- 
Sharon division). 


The first organized effort to promote and 
develop the business and commercial interests 
of this section was made in 1887, when, at a 
meeting quite generally attended by the lead- 
ing business men of Youngstown: and the 
vicinity, a lx)ard of trade was organized. This 
lx)ard during its existence of some ten vears 
or more was largely instrumental in advancing 
the objects for which it was desi.gned. It how- 
ever, gradually relaxed its efforts and about 
ten years ago ceased to exist. 


A movement for a new and pemianent or- 
ganization was begun some two vears ago, 
and resulted in the Youngstown chamber of 
commerce, which was organizerl in March, 
1905, under regular articles of incorporation. 



The officers were chosen as follows : A. E. 
Adams, president; B. Hirshberg, first vice- 
president; C. H. Booth, second vice-president; 
Charles W. Gilgen, secretary ; R. Montgom- 
ery, treasurer. The board of directors consisted 
of C. H. Booth, A. D. Thomas, A. E. Adams, 
J. E. Fitch, M. I. Arms, R. Montgomery, B. 
Hirshberg, Charles Hart, David Tod, Louis 
Heller, J. A. Campbell, Thomas McDonald, 
John Stambaugh, Geo. J. Renner, Jr., H. L. 

The by-laws contained eleven articles, the 
fourth of which provided for the creation of 
the following committees, each to consist of 
five members : Education and Schools, Enter- 
tainment. Literature. Library, Membership, 
Municipal, Transportation. Food and Fuel, 
Public Improvements, Finance Statistics, Fire 
Insurance, New Industries, Arbitration, Real 
Estate, Manufactures, Weights and Meas- 
ures, Taxation, Health and Sanitary Affairs, 
Water and Light, Wholesale Mercantile In- 
terests, Streets, Charity and Benevolence, 
Postal Affairs, Public Accounting, Auditing, 

The first annual report showed a satis- 
factory beginning along the different lines of 
effort, with a list of 284 members. The offi- 
cers elected were: George L. Fordyce, presi- 
dent; John Stambaugh. first vice-president; 
Louis Heller, second vice-president ; Charles 
W. Gilgen, secretary ; R. C. Steese, treasurer. 
The Board of Trustees consisted of George 
L. Fordyce, C. H. Booth. A. D. Thomas, A. 
E. Adams, John H. Fitch, M. I. Anns. R. 
Montgomery, B. Hirshberg, R. C. Steese, 
David Tod, Louis Heller, J. A. Campbell, 
Thomas McDonald, John Stambaugh, Frank 

The work of the chamber during its first 
year, as might be expected, was initial. A 
number of problems were taken hold of by 
the different committees, and a satisfactory 
start made along various lines. As its secretary 
said in his report ; " * * * The cham- 
ber has attempted to carry out the purposes 
for which it was organized. It has teen as suc- 
cessful as any organization in the first year of 
its experience can reasonably hope to be, and 

its officers have endeavored to make the com- 
munity at large feel that it is a representative 
business men's organization, that it is inter- 
ested in the wefare of our city, and that its 
opinions of matters of public interest are hon- 
est and deliberate." 

The report of the secretary for the seconc' 
year ending April 30, 1907, shows that a con- 
siderable amount of work has been done in 
spreading information in regard to the busi- 
ness resources and opportunities of the city, 
and its future prospects, and in dealing in a 
practical way with various local prob- 
lems, including the water question, the 
courthouse proposition, questions of health 
and sanitation, improvements in streets 
(particularly the widening of Federal 
street from Euwer's corner to Chest- 
nut street, concerning which a measure is now 
pending in the council), and other important 
matters. The Credit Men's Association, which 
is a branch of the chamber, now consists of 
sixty-seven members, merchants, manufac- 
turers, bankers and jobbers, whose business, 
which is mainly an exchange of credit infor- 
mation, is transacted through the office of the 
374 cases have been investigated and reported. 
Chamber of Commerce. Within the past year 
This organization pays its separate individual 
expenses by assessments and membership dues 
collected from its members, and its work is 
not of common interest to the membership at 
large of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Some good work has been done by the 
chamlier to encourage the establishment of new 
industries here. One of these, the Trussed 
Concrete Steel Company, has already erected 
in Youngstown two large factory buildings, 
equipped with $110,000 worth of machinery, 
and has spent in the city up to date $50,000 in 
wages and $50,000 for material. Their main 
business is the construction of reinforced con- 
crete work, and the manufacture of reinforc- 
ing materials, of which latter they will pro- 
duce an average of 6,000 tons per month when 
in full operation. They have branch works 
in Liverpool. England, and Wakefield. On- 
tario, with offices in all large cities in this and 
other countries. 




Through the chamber's efforts, also, the 
firm of Gross & Dallet, shirtwaist manu- 
facturers, of Cleveland, have been prevailed 
upon to establish an experimental factory in 
this city, rented quarters having been secured 
for them. The experimental phase of their 
proposition is entirely on the question of se- 
curing a sufficiency of female help to run the 
plant, which will employ ultimately, if success- 
ful, from five to eight hundred women. They 
are already employing 125 and turning out an 
average of 400 garments per day, being the 
full capacity of their present quarters. The 
Chamber of Commerce is still' in correspond- 
ence with other reliable enterprises, some of 
which may be finally induced to locate here. 

In view of the fact that the most threat- 
ening obstacle in the way of a brilliant future 
for Youngstown is a possible failure of a suf- 
ficient water supply to meet its industrial 
growth, the committee on water and light, 
consisting of Messrs. A. D. Thomas, W. P. 
Williamson, Carroll Thornton, Louis Lieb- 
man and B. M. Campbell, last fall made a per- 
sonal examination of the available sites for 
additional reservoirs for the storage of the sur- 
plus water accumulating during the periods 
of abundant rainfall. The committee came to 
the conclusion that the largest available sites 
for such reservoirs that can be economically 
secured are those on the Mahoning river in 
Berlin township, this county, and in Deer- 
field township, Portage county. They accord- 
ingly began taking options on lands in these 
basins and now hold options on about 600 
acres. A report of their proceedings was filed 
with the city council in April of the present 
year, with the offer to transfer their options 
free of charge to the city, with the request that 
the council begin proceedings to appropriate 
the remainder of the lands necessary to estab- 
lish such reservoirs in this vicinity. The mat- 
ter, at this writing, is before a special com- 
mittee of the City Council. Other matters in 
which the Youngstown Chamber of Com- 
merce has been stirring, for the benefit of the 
business community and the future welfare 
of the city, are mentioned in the report already 
alluded to. Enough has here been said to 

show the important nature of its work, which 
will be appreciated by all who are interested 
in the future prosperity of the city. 


The Mahoning Gas Fuel Company of 
Youngstown was incorporated in 1886, and 
has since enjoyed a steadily increasing busi- 
ness in the supplying of gas as fuel for house- 
hold purposes. It obtains its gas from wells 
in Allegheny and Washington counties, 
Pennsylvania, and is now engaged in drilling 
new wells in Brooke county, West Virginia. 
The company has about 19,000 acres of gas 
territory and 103 gas wells, supplying 
Youngstown and the neighboring villages of 
Poland, Petersburg, and Middleton. As the 
wells become exhausted new ones have to be 
drilled to keep up the supply and satisfy the 
increasing public demand for this fuel, the 
average number of new wells opened being 
about eighteen per year. In each territory 
these wells are from 2,500 feet to one mile 
apart, and are connected by pipe lines with the 
trunk lines of the company. 

The company has a large compressor sta- 
tion at Allegheny, using three 5C)0-horse 
power compound compressor engines, with 
other powerful machinery. Their boilers con- 
sume from 1,200 to 1,500 tons of coal per 

During its existence in Youngstown the 
company has given the public excellent service, 
both as to the quality and cost of its product, 
selling the gas at twenty-seven cents per 
feet, which is several cents cheaper than the 
rates prevailing in Pittsburg, Cleveland and 
other neighboring cities. The best scientific 
appliances are used to avoid accidents, and it 
has been shown that there is less liability of 
fire in the use of gas fuel, as thus furnished, 
than in the use of coal, not counting the 
greater convenience and large amount of time 
saved. The company employs an army of 
men in the various departments of its busi- 


This company is a branch of the Bell Tele- 
phone Compan\-. and was established in 



Youngstown as the successor of the Midland 
Telephone Company, a short-lived concern 
whose franchise was secured in 1882. The 
company now has 3,400 phones in the city, 
besides about seventy-five at Struthers and 
fifty at Lowellville. There are also quite a 
number of "farmer lines" connecting with 
residences in the country, making the total 
number of phones outside of the city proper 
about 400. The company is now engaged in 
making extensive improvements in the busi- 
ness section of Youngstown, laying conduits 
for an underground system, while in the resi- 
dence section the open wires are being sup- 
planted, as far as practicable, by cable lines. 
A piece of property at the corner of West 
Rayen and Phelps street has been purchased, 
the present building thereon will be moved, 
and a new fire-proof building for the business 
offices of the company is soon to be erected. 
The manager of the Youngstown district is 
J. P. McGahon. 


The Youngstown Telephone Company was 
incorporated in June, 1896, with a capital 
stock of $200,000. It has at the present time 
about 3,500 subscribers. It has direct com- 
munication over its own lines with Hubbard, 
Canfield, and Lowellville, and also connects, 
through other companies, with North Jack- 
son, O., North Lime, O., and New Bedford, 
Penna., these three places aggregating some 
500 'phones. The Youngstown office is lo- 
cated in the Dollar Savings and Trvist Com- 
pany building, near Central square. The local 
manager is Mr. George G. King. 


A most important factor in the develop- 
ment of the commercial life of Mahoning 
county has been the excellent business train- 
ing provided by the business colleges to the 
young men and women who have taken ad- 
vantage of their opportunities in that direc- 
tion. Conditions which surrounded the young 
man or woman twenty years ago are changed. 

Today a j^oung person must show some spe- 
cial preparation before he can hope to enter 
the counting house or office. 

Prof. J. C. Browne was the founder of 
business colleges in Youngstown, as well as 
in Mahoning county. Coming to this city in 
1885 he established the Browne Business Col- 
lege, which institution proudly numbers 
among its graduates some of the most success- 
ful young business people of the county. This 
college had on its faculty during its long 
career some of the foremost business educators 
among whom was R. W. Ballentine, whose 
ability as an instructor and skill as a pen art- 
ist was second to none in the country. In 1900 
Mr. Ballentine left Youngstown to take charge 
of the department of penmanship in the Banks 
Business College of Philadelphia, one of the 
leading schools of its kind in America. During 
the last years of Mr. Browne's life, owing to 
his increased age and to sharp competition, 
this institution was not as flourishing as in its 
earlier days, but the same high grade work 
prevailed, and his honest dealing- held the con- 
fidence of all. Prof. J. C. Browne died in 
1907, and with him the college also passed out 
of existence. 

About the 3'ear 1890, a business institution 
was opened in the Mouser block. Many were 
its early vicissitudes. The demand for trained 
office help at that time was small, and the 
Browne College, owing to its established repu- 
tation, tended to overshadow the younger 
school. It passed from owner to owner until 
1892, when it became the property of E. A. 
Hall, who had been the proprietor of an insti- 
tution in Logansport, Ind. 

Prof. Hall is known today as one of the 
most successful business college men in the 
country. He not only possesses superior 
ability as an instructor in commercial branches 
and penmanship, but is a successful manager 
as well. At the time of assuming control of 
"The Hall Business University" it numbered 
less than twenty students, and in 1904 it had 
an annual average attendance of two hundred. 
Prof. Hall is a jovial, whole-souled man who 
during the time he was in Youngstown won 
a host of friends among the business people 



of the count}-, which was of great assist- 
ance to him in placing his students. He sur- 
rounded liimself with an ahle corps of assist- 
ants, foremost among whom may be named 
Richard Vipan, instructor in stenography and 

Mr. Vipan was a graduate of Dover Col- 
lege, Dover, England, and many of the young 
business people of today bear living witness 
of his success as an instructor. Later he be- 
came principal of the stenographic department 
of the Jamestown Business College, James- 
town, N. Y., where he is at present. 

In 1904, Mr. Hall, desiring a broader field 
for his activities, disposed of his institution to 
Short Bros., of Akron, Ohio, and removed 
his family to Pittsburg, Pa., where he is at 
present the owner of two institutions, one in 
the heart of the city, and one at East Liberty, 
a suburb. 

Short Bros., upon taking over the Hall 
Business University, made a decided cbange, 
both in instructors and courses. Clyde W. Os- 
borne, who under Prof. Hall, had been assist- 
ant manager and instructor, took charge of 
the commercial department, and Prof. Henry 
Durkes of Indiana the department of sten- 
ography and typewriting, while Mr. C. C. 
Short, not being an instructor, became man- 

The Hall Business L^iversity, in 1906, 
moved from the place of its inception and now 
occupies one-half the third floor of the Homer 
S. Williams block, on the corner of Boardman 
and ^larket streets. 

In 1899, Miss Isabel McGrath, wiio had 
for a number of years previous been principal 
of the stenographic department of the Hall 
Business College, severed her connection with 
that institution and founded a school of her 
own, in the Excelsior block. In the fall of 1900 
she formed a partnership with J. E. Slindee, 
who had also been associated with the Hall 
Business College for a year previous to this 
venture. Shortly after this tlie school was 
moved from the Excelsior block to Nos. 5 and 
7 West Federal street, next to the Commer- 
cial National Bank. In May, 1903, they incor- 
porated. Shortly thereafter they removed to 

the Wick block, No. 16 West Federal street, 
and have since occupied the entire third floor. 

On April i, 1906, J. E. Slindee, who held 
the controlling interest, disposed of the same 
to C. W. Osborne, but Mr. Osborne took up 
the practice of law in January, 1907, and in 
February disposed of his interest to Miss Isa- 
bel McGrath, who is now sole owner. Miss Mc- 
Grath, owing to her thorough knowledge of 
the subjects taught, and her years of experi- 
ence, will undoubtedly continue to reap, as in 
the past, a har\-est of richly deserved success. 

Before taking up work of this nature. Miss 
McGrath was engaged in public school teach- 
ing in the village of Girard and vicinity. Her 
home is in Girard, where she has hosts of 

About 1898. Prof. Niswanger founded an 
institution in the Diamond block and although 
enjoying a splendid patronage, he was com- 
pelled to discontinue business owing to failing 

With the exception of a commercial and 
stenographic department in the Canfield Nor- 
mal School, the only institutions of this nature 
in the county are located in Youngstown, and 
the demand for their product more than equals- 
the supply. In 1906 the three business insti- 
tutions in that city educated and placed in po- 
sitions nearly four hundred young men and 
women. These four hundred young people,, 
who arc going out yearly into the business 
world, are to be, in a few years, the captains 
of ou" vast commercial army. 


Prior to July 22, 1895, the State Humane- 
Society had appointed an agent or officer to 
prevnt cruelty to animals and children in 
Youngstown and Mahoning county, John A. 
Ladd being the first agent so appointed. 

On July 22, 1895. some public-spirited citi- 
zens met and resolved to organize a society to 
become incorporated under the laws of Ohio- 
and to be known as "The Youngstown Hu- 
mane Society" for the prevention of crueltv to- 
animals and children and for the prevention 
of cruelty in any form. The first directors- 



were Dr. W. L. Buechner, Dr. D. H. Evans, 
Dr. S. R. Frazier, Mrs. T. H. Bulla, Mrs. S. 
J. McElevy, Mrs. Belle Ford and Rev. A. L. 
Frazier. First officers : Dr. S. R. Frazier, 
president; J. H. McEwen and Robert Mc- 
Curdy, vice-presidents; A. I. Nicholas, secre- 
tary and treasurer; Richard Morgan, agent; 
Frank Jacobs, counsel. In October, 1895, the 
late Robert McCurdy became treasurer, which 
position he held until his death. In October, 
1895, A. I. Nicholas became counsel. 

In December, 1895, the society took action 
to have a children's home established, which 
resulted in the establishment of the Glenwoods 
Children's Home. 

At the annual meeting of October, 1896, 
the membership of the Board of Directors was 
changed from seven to fifteen. In 1896, J. J. 
Hamilton became counsel. He was succeeded 
in that office in January, 1899, by F. L. Bald- 
win, who held this position until October, 
J 906. In February, 1898, Joseph Williams be- 
came humane agent. 

The directors elected at the annual meeting 
held October 10, 1906, are as follows: Dr. S. 
R. Frazier, Dr. Ida Clarke, J. G. Butler, Dr. 
D. H. Evans, Rev. A. L. Frazer, Harry Bon- 
nel, C. P. Wilson, Mrs. D. M. Wise, Dr. J. 'J. 
Thomas, Gus A. Doeright, W. A. Maline, B. 
C. Pond, S. L Wright, F. L. Baldwin and M. 
C. Gibson. 

The present officers of the society are: 
President, Dr. S. R. Frazier; first vice-presi- 
dent. Dr. Ida Clarke; second vice-president, 
Dr. J. J. Thomas; treasurer, C. P. Wilson; 
secretary, B. C. Pond; agent, Joseph Wil- 
liams ; counsel, John Schlarb. 

The following is an abstract of the last 
.annual report as published in the Youngsfozun 
Telegram of October 10, 1906: 


To the Youngstown Humane Society : 

Eighth annual report of Joseph Williams, 

humane agent, from October i, 1905, to and 

including October 9, 1906: 
Complaints received, 1,109. 
Visits made by agent to investigate cases, 

Cases prosecuted, 71. 

Cases convicted, 69. 

Cases convicted for non-support of minor 
children, 48. 

Cases convicted for non-support of ag 
parents, 8. 

Cruelty to animals, 7. 

Cruelty to children, 2. 

Cruelty to wife, 2. 

Arrests for keeping houses of ill-fame, 4. 

Letters of warning sent out, 54. 

Horses ordered shot, 21. 

Horses and mules unfit for work ordered 
back to barn, 119. 

Horses examined in city and county, 600. 

Advice given at office and at home, 230. 

Telephone calls at home, 250. 

Fines collected, $25. 

Money received for support of children, 

Children taken to Children's home, 16. 

Children put in homes, 5. 


During the last year the work of the agent 
has increased over twofold. Many complaints 
are received which do not admit of any pub- 
licity or action by the society except such as 
the agent can give as mediator or peacemaker. 
Only such cases are brought into court that 
have arrived at a stage where no amount of 
arbitration or interceding for one or the other 
party is of avail. 

The work is on the rapid increase as re- 
gards complaints to be investigated, for the 
existence of the Humane Society is now 
known in almost every home. The trial cases, 
however, are not as numerous now, owing to 
the fact that the agent has time to thoroughly 
investigate each and every case, and, thus see- 
ing the true status, can act immediately with- 
out the "airing" of the case in a court room. 


The Grand Opera House, which is situated 
at the southwest corner of the public square, 
has long been a favorite house of entertain- 



ment with Youngstown theater-goers. The 
company was organized in July, 1872, with 
WilHam Powers, president; Henry Tod, vice- 
president; J. H. McEwen, secretary and treas- 
urer. The building is a substantial iron front 
structure, no feet in length by seventy-eight 
feet in width. The auditorium is seventy-four 
feet square, with an ordinary seating capacity 
of 1,400, which is capable on special occasions 
of extension to 2,000. The stage is thirty feet 
^ wide and forty feet deep, while there is an 
ample sufficiency of commodious and neatly 
furnished dressing rooms. The ceiling of the 
house is decorated with allegorical figures rep- 
resenting the drama, music, poetry, comedy, 
tragedy, and painting. All the decorations and 
furnishings are of tasteful and artistic design, 
and are renewed from time to time as the need 
arises. The house has an enterprising man- 
ager in I\Ir. Joseph Schagrin, who succeeded 
Mr. J. K. Albaugh at the beginning of the sea- 
son of 1906-7, and who has shown ability in 
securing for its patrons a list of excellent at- 

The building is owned by a joint stock 
company composed of prominent citizens of 


The Park Theater, the present manager of 
which is Mr. William De Shon, was estab- 
lished in 1 901, and is now owned chiefly out- 
side of Youngstown. It is a convenient and 
well constructed theater, always clean, bright 
and cheerful ; the spacious auditorium is well 
heated and well ventilated, the exits in case 
of fire or panic are many and readily accessible. 
The management is thoroughly up-to-date, 
and the performances are clean morally, 
nothing unwholesomely suggestive being tol- 
erated for an instant. The matinees are well 
attended by women and children, and special 
efforts are made to see to the comfort of all. 


In a leaflet recently issued by the Youngs- 
town Chamber of Commerce some interesting 

facts in regard to Youngstown's present de- 
gree of progress and achievement are given 
and may be appropriately included for pur- 
poses of present and future comparison with- 
in the limits of this chapter. The financial and 
manufacturing interests of the city may be 
found treated more in detail in separate chap- 
ters of this volume. 

Youngstown is located on four of the lead- 
ing trunk lines of the United States and is a 
midway point on the proposed Ohio River and 
Lake Erie Ship Canal, a mammoth engineer- 
ing project which, when completed, will spread 
a continuous town from Pitssburg to Lake 

It has a world-wide reputation as an iron 
and steel manufacturing center. Six banks 
have combined assets of $18,000,000, with 
$6,000,000 of savings deposited in these banks. 
Not a single bank failure within its entire 

Two substantial building and loan compa- 

The lowest bonded indebtedness in propor- 
tion to her tax duplicate of any of the ten larg- 
est cities of Ohio. 

A tonnage, commercial and industrial, in 
the enormous amount of 15,000,000 tons per 
year, freight in transit not included. 

Fifteen thousand men employed in her va- 
rious industries. 

A pay roll of $1,000,000 a month. 
Varied and extensive manufacturing es- 
tablishments representing the enormous in- 
vestment of $40,000,000. 

Two and a half million dollars worth of 
new buildings erected within the past year — 
building permits issued at the rate of 100 per 

Three public parks containing 592 acres 
of land. 

The Mahoning river furnishes an abundant 
water supply for manufacturing purposes. 
Contemplated additions to and enlargements of 
present industrial plants, part of which are al- 
ready in course of construction, approximat- 
ing $10,000,000 in value. 

A splendid water works system, the most 
modern filtration plant in Ohio, streets well 



paved and sewered and supplied with an ex- 
tensive system of water mains and hydrants. 

Three splendid viaducts and numerous 
bridges connecting the various parts of the 

'City, two hospitals, new city buildings, the 
county buildings of Mahoning county, chil- 
dren's home, public library, electric light and 
power plant, natural gas and artificial gas 
company, steam heating company, two daily 
and five weekly newspapers, an enormous and 
varied output of manufactured products, con- 

-sisting of steel rails, steel billets, heavy ma- 
chinery, pig iron, sheet iron, pipe and tubing, 
blasting powder, leather, table oil cloth, me- 

^chanical rubber goods, carriages, wagons and 

..automobiles, steel roofing, brass work, rail- 
road cars, electric supplies, steel furniture and 

• office filing equipment, and all varieties of 
heavy iron and steel manufactures known to 
the iron and steel manufacturing world. 

The Biographical sketches which follow 
are of some of the earlier residents of Youngs- 
town. Biographies of prominent citizens of 
later date may be found in the exclusively 
- biographical portion of this volume. 


JOHN YOUNG came of a Scotch family 

-that settled near Londonderry, in the north of 
Ireland, in the Sixteenth or Seventeenth cen- 
tury. Here, in 1623, the first of the 
family whose record is known to us 
was born. In 1718, in his ninety-sixth year, 
with his son and grandson, their brothers and 

-sisters, and sisters' husbands, forming in 
all fourteen, part of a Scotch-Irish colony, he 
sailed away from Ireland, and landed in 
Boston, Mass., the same year. One of the 
descendants settled in Petersborough, N. H., 
and there John Young was born in 1763. 
About 1780 he emigrated to Whitestown, N. 
Y., and in June, 1792, was married to Mary 

'Stone White, youngest daughter of Hugh 
White, the first settler there and original pro- 

-prietor of a large tract of wild jand. 

John Young lived in Whitestown until 
^1796, in which year he became interested in 

Ohio lands. In 1797 he began the settlement 
of Youngstown, to which place, two 
years later, he removed with his wife 
and two children — John and George. 
Here two more children were born to 
him — William, in 1799, and Mary in 
1802. In 1803, Mrs. Young, finding 
the trials of frontier life, with a latch-string 
always out, and a table free to all, too great 
with her' young family for her power of en- 
durance, persuaded her husband to close up his 
business and returned with the family to 
Whitestown, where her father had kept a home 
for them. 

Mr. Young's nominal occupation subse- 
quently was that of farmer, though he devoted 
the greater part of his time to other business 
interests. He was for many years engaged 
in the construction and superintendency of the 
Great Western Turnpike from Utica to Can- 
andaigua, and later on the Erie Canal, near 
which he resided, and upon which one of his 
sons was employed as civil engineer. 

As one of the justices of the peace and 
quorum, Mr. Young sat upon the bench at the 
first territorial court held at Warren in 1800, 
and was ever after addressed as Judge Young. 
He died in April, 1825, at the age of sixty- 
two, twenty-two years after his return from 
Youngstown. His wife survived him four- 
teen years, dying in September, 1839, in the 
old home of her father, at Whitestown," N. Y., 
at the age of sixty-seven. 

the most picturesque figures of pioneer days 
on the Reserve, was born in Northumberland 
county. Pa., on the 27th of October, 1762. 
As a young man he fought for Ameri- 
can independence in the Revolutionary 
War, and on its termination accompa- 
nied his father to the West, settling 
on the banks of the Ohio river, a short 
distance below Pittsburg. In the spring of 
1786 he was employed by the firm of Duncan 
& Wildon as a packhorseman and during the 
following summer, in the interest of his em- 
ployers, visited Sandusky, the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga, and other places. Subsequently he 



made several trading excursions up the Ma- 
honing river, on one of which, in 1796 or 
1797, he met John Young, and made arrange- 
ments witli him by which he soon after re- 
moved with his family to the then newly 
founded settlement of Youngstown. Of this 
place he was afterwards a resident until his 

On his farm of sixty acres, on the west 
side of the river, Mr. Hillman built, so tra- 
dition says, the first frame house in the town- 
ship. About 1808 he opened in the village a 
tavern, of which he was proprietor for several 
years thereafter. He sold it after his return 
from the War of 1812, in which he served as 
wagonmaster under Colonel Rayen. 

In 1818 he sold his farm and opened an- 
other tavern, on the corner of Federal and 
Walnut streets, which he kept until 1824. He 
then purchased another farm on the west side 
of the river, and resided thereon until his 
death, which occurred November 12, 1848, 
when he had just entered his eighty-seventh 

Colonel Hillman was frequently elected to 
public office. In August, 1800, at the First 
Territorial Court held in Trumbull County, 
he was appointed constable of Youngstown. 
Subsequently he served several terms as ap- 
praiser of houses, and was a number of times 
elected township trustee. He was elected 
sheriff of Trumbull County in 1806, and on 
February 16. 1808, he was commissioned as 
lieiitenant-colonel, commandant of the Sec- 
ond Regiment, First Brigade, Fourth Di- 
vision. Ohio militia, which latter office he re- 
signed in the following year. In 1814 he was 
elected representative in the State Legislature. 
He also held the office of justice of the peace 
for several years, being first elected thereto 
in 1825. 

In early manhood, soon after his return 
from the Revolutionary War, he was married 
in W^estern Pennsvlvania. making his wife's 
acquaintance at a dance and marrying her on 
the same evening, the dancing being suspended 
for a few minutes while the ceremony was per- 
formed. This union, though childless, proved 
a happy one. Mrs. Catherine Hillman sur- 

vived her husband seven years, dying in 
August, 1855, at the advanced age of eighty- 
three. She was the first white female resident 
of Youngstown, and was noted for her hos- 
pitality and kind neighborly traits of character. 
Colonel Hillman was a typical pioneer. 
Brave, hardy, adventurous and shrewd, he was 
well fitted to endure the toil and encounter the 
dangers of a life in the wilderness, and his 
fame as a man of courage and ready resource, 
yet of circumspect judgment, has come down 
to our day, and we know him as one of the 
most worthy among the founders of the com- 
munity of which we are today members. 

in Kent County, Md., October i, 1776, and 
moved to Youngstown as early as 1802, before 
Ohio had been admitted into the Union ; he 
was therefore one of the earliest pioneers of 
the Western Reserve. The early records of 
Youngstown township, then a part of Trum- 
bull County, mention that the first public meet- 
ing to organize was held in his house, and the 
first township officers were elected there April 
5, 1802. Subsequently he was elected and re- 
elected to different township offices, and be- 
came one of the foremost citizens in the public 
life of the community. 

In the War of 1812, when about thirty-six 
years of age, he went out under General Har- 
rison as colonel of the First Regiment. Third 
brigade of militia, raised in the Western Re- 
serve, in his command being Major Mackev. 
Dr. Henry Manning, Charles A. Boardman, 
and Colonel Hillman. He was ever regarded 
with affection and esteem by those who had 
served under him. He was always a strong 
factor in the political party to which he be- 
longed, and its prominent members throughout 
the State were frequent visitors and guests at 
his house; among these were David Tod and 
John Brough, both of whom were afterwards 
governors of Ohio. He was appointed by the 
Governor of the State as associate judge on the 
Trumbull County bench, and from that period 
was generally addressed as Judge Raven, ex- 
cept by his military friends, who continued to 
call him colonel. The leading events of his 



life, which are of pubhc record, estabhsh the 
fact of a steadily acquired prominence, not 
only local, but in the State, which can be best 
accounted for by conceding his unusual ability 
to rise from moderate beginnings. 

In 1840 he was elected by the legislature 
as president of the board of public works of 
the State, and his entire life from the time of 
his coming to Youngstown up to and beyond 
this period shows him to have been a man of 
unusual energy and sagacious judgment in the 
management of business affairs. Without 
mentioning minor instances of his activity, re- 
cords show that he was one of the corporators, 
and a director in the Pennsylvania and Ohio 
Canal Company, the first public work affecting 
the growth of the town, and built a warehouse 
on its banks; that he was a stockholder in the 
Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad Company, 
the first railroad in the valley, and that he was 
the first president of the Mahoning County 
Bank, the first bank organized in Youngstown. 
During all this time he continued the extension 
and improvement of his landed possessions, 
and built a house suitable to his growing posi- 
tion with all the accessories — garden, orchard, 
shrubbery, and stables — that mark a well 
cared for homestead. His farms were large 
and easily distinguishable by the superiority 
of their fences and well known red gates. His 
cattle were of select breeds and his sheep of 
the finest merino. Visitors from his own and 
other States came long distances to see his 
stock, famous for their quality. As the owner 
of well managed farms and superior live-stock, 
the general acknowledgment was that he was 
without a peer in this part of the country. 

Judge Rayen was a strong man, mentally 
and physically, with a distinct voice and of 
good presence, not much above the middle 
height, and weighing 280 pounds. He was 
polite in manner, impressive in intercourse, 
and in the presence of women particularly 
courteous; though affable to all, and possessed 
of considerable humor, few would venture on 
familiarity unless on friendly terms before. 
He was particular in dress, somewhat in the 
style of earlier days ; when he was seen in his 
black coat, or a blue coat with gilt buttons. 

buff colored vest and fine ruffled shirt, his 
portly form seated on a bench under a large 
tree near his house, with his hands folded over 
the top of his gold-headed cane, he presented 
an attractive, even a picturesque, appearance, 
well known to everyone; and in this position, 
when weather permitted, his friends at home 
and from abroad might expect to find him 
when not particularly engaged. 

His domestic habits were simple and order- 
ly. An early riser himself, the business of the 
day began early with the family and domestics. 
Systematic in everything, the machinery of af- 
fairs ran smoothly and proclaimed a master at 
the head. Integritv and candor were essentials 
to his esteem and favor, either in dependents 
or friends. He was discerning, and when 
favorably impressed was generous in inter- 
course and often liberal in aid where required. 
There was a certain highmindedness in him- 
self, which made him faithful and open to his 
friends, but unapproachable by those on whom 
his esteem could not rest. He estimated men 
for their qualities rather than for what they 
possessed, and so his friendships were to be 
found in every walk of life. There was no 
disguise in his nature; he was direct in his 
manner and actions at all times. 

He was not a professor of religion, al- 
though his family and household were mostly 
church members, but at the request of his wife. 
who was a religious woman, he fitted up a 
large room in an adjoining store building to 
be used for religious meetings at her disposal. 
On her death he built a stone vault not far 
from the dwelling, in which her remains were 
laid to rest, and to the end of his life there- 
after it was his custom, on the anniversary of 
her death, to enter and remain in this vault 
for some time alone. On the subject of his 
religious views he was not demonstrative. 
Being a Royal Arch Mason and attached to 
the order, he had avowed his belief in God, 
and in the Bible as his inspired word, and that 
probably was the only open declaration of his 
faith ever made. 

Judge Rayen was a natural leader, not so 
much by what he said as by what he did, for 
he was not a man of many words, though earn- 



est and cheerful in conversation. He was en- 
dowed with practical good sense and a strong 
will, and in his undertakings kept abreast, if 
not in advance, of the times and circumstances 
about him, and tbereby appeared to stand on 
elevated ground among his neighbors, and in 
that attitude by common consent, was recog- 
nized throughout the country when spoken of. 

So far the history, individuality and sur- 
roundings of the judge are presented in a con- 
cise manner, without referring to that feature 
of his character in which the people of Youngs- 
town are most interested, and on which his 
memory will most securely rest, namely, his 
benevolence; and it may be well, before treat- 
ing of his bequest for a public school, to have 
introduced the personality of a distingTiished 
man who was a living active figure in the early 
settlement and growth of this part of Oliio 
during the first half of the Nineteenth cen- 
tury, and who, having passed through the 
hardships of pioneer times successfully, had at 
the end of his long life a desire to promote 
civilization by education of the people, and for 
that purpose founded an institution of learning 
with a liberality that is without an equal for 
its munificence in this community. 

Vague expectations of some generous act 
were entertained for some time by his friends, 
but nothing definite was known until his will 
was read after his death, in 1854. The secret 
of his intentions was his own and was not di- 
vulged to an)', yet, when made known, his be- 
quest was not a surprise. On many occasions 
he had spoken with commendation of gifts to 
public institutions, colleges, or libraries, and 
more than once with particular praise of 
Stephen Girard's will founding a college at 
Philadelphia. Many reasons may be advanced, 
not altogether speculative, why he should se- 
lect a public school as the object of his bene- 
factions. He was a thorough American, born 
with the Revolution, and a defender of his 
country in its early wars:and living inthetimes 
when the future of the new republic was a sub- 
ject discussed at home and abroad, he believed 
its perpetuity depended on the intelligence of 
the people as much as on their bravery, and 
that provision for their education was a patrio- 

tic duty. The public school system of today 
was not then in existence ; opportunity for edu- 
cation of the young was precarious, depending 
on private subscription, so that to adopt some 
plan of a permanent nature, particularly for 
children of the poor, was a noble inspiration. 
Then, again, his own education, though fair, 
was limited, and it was a source of regret to 
him that opportunity for higher attainments 
was not his lot when young. 

Whatever may have been the moving 
causes, the benevolent act was his own well 
matured purpose, and his will is the best ex- 
ponent that can be given of his motives. It 
was framed with a sagacity for which he was 
noted ; the perpetuity of its benefits was a first 
consideration; that the doors of the school 
should be open to all .children of Youngstown, 
and especially to those of poor parents, was a 
part of his broad philanthropy, and to avoid 
exclusiveness, no particular religious sect 
should have supremacy in its management, 
but good moral teaching should be an essential 
in its teachers, thus making the institution 
truly public in its benefits. 

At the time of his death the population of 
Youngstown was about 4,000, and the value 
of property greatly below the present; wealth 
was estimated by a different standard, and 
therefore the amount bequeathed was at the 
time relatively large ; and when it is remem- 
bered that it was gi\-en out of his most avail- 
able means, not dependent on the uncertain 
value of landed property, which, though since, 
very great, could not then have been estimated, 
it is seen that this cherished purpose of his 
was, by design, most securelv provided for, 
and in this provision of his will, the habit of 
doing well whatever he undertook, is clearly 

Having no children of his own. and yet 
known to be a lover and friend of the young 
all his life, it might be said that he adopted 
the children of Youngstown to be his heirs, 
leaving to them an inheritance of great edu- 
cational \alue for all time, bv which his name 
would be ])erpetuated. and shmild this ambition 
have entered into the purpose of the .generous 
deed, there is nothing unworthy in it. The 



field of his benefaction has greatly enlarged 
since the will was made, and the trust has been 
so wisely and ably managed that its benefits 
have attained a proportion beyond any expec- 
tation the donor could have entertained at the 
time. The population of the city has increased 
to about 78.000, made up of a new generation, 
who generally look upon Rayen school as the 
■ordinary outgrowth of civilization, unmindful 
•of its founder, who, if remembered at all, is 
as some indistinct person in the past, almost 
mythical in character. Few recognize the ad- 
vantages of the scbool as the result of the fore- 
sight and benevolence of one of the earliest 
settlers in Youngstown, or consider that, if 
he had not existed and done the generous deed, 
the city would be wanting in one of its chief 
attractions and most useful institutions. 
— [From a sketch by Hon. Thomas H. 

April 5, 1773, in Danville, Chester County, 
Pennsylvania. His father. General William 
Montgomery, was a colonel in the Revolution- 
ary army, and at one time a member of the 
Continental Congress. Both father and son 
were surveyors, the subject of this sketch being 
employed as assistant to the surveyor-general 
of Pennsylvania. While following his pro- 
fession in the western part of that State prior 
to the settlement of the Reserve, Robert Mont- 
gomery made a journey up the Mahoning 
river, visiting the site of Youngstown. Here, 
between 181 2 and 1816, he purchased land 
near the mouth of Dry Run, and established a 
homestead on which he subsequently resided 
until his death. 

Having in his younger days acquired a 
knowledge of the furnace business he made a 
second journey to Ohio, about 1805, and se- 
lected a site for a furnace on Yellow ?reek, in 
Poland township. This site was on the farm 
of John Struthers, with whom he entered into 
partnership. A: furnace was erected and put 
in blast in 1806 or 1807. and was the first 
furnace successfully run in Ohio. A furnace 
on Yellow Creek had been previously erected 
by Dan Eaton, but was not successful. In 1807, 

Mr. Eaton sold his furnace, ore, and other 
rights to !\Ir. Montgomery and his partners, 
among the latter being James Mackay, Robert 
Alexander, and David Clendenin. The Mont- 
gomery furnace was run successfully until the 
War of 1 81 2 interrupted the business and it 
was not resumed. 

After closing up his furnace business Mr. 
Montgomery took up his residence on the farm 
already mentioned. He was selected justice 
of the peace, in which office he served for a 
number of years. He was a man of good edu- 
cation and well informed on general topics. 
Having served for some time as a major in 
the militia he was generally given lus military 
title in conversation. He died in 1857. Major 
Montgomery was twice married. His first 
wife died young, leaving one child, Mary, who 
married Mr. Corr3^ He married, second, in 
1814, Mrs. Louisa M. Edwards, widow of 
John S. Edwards. Of this union there were 
three children, Robert Morris, Caroline Sarah, 
who became the wife of Dr. Moses Hazeltine, 
and Ellen Louise, who married Samuel Hine. 

DAN EATON was one of several broth- 
ers wbo came to Ohio from Pennsylvania soon 
after the settlement of the Reserve, about 1803 
or earlier. Little is known of his early his- 
tory. His name was originally Daniel Hea- 
ton, but he had it contracted by act of legis- 
lature, deeming it to contain superfluous let- 
ters. The first authentic information in regard 
to him is derived from a contract made be- 
tween him and Robert Alexander and David 
Clendenin, and dated June 23, 1807, in which 
he contracts to sell them the "Hopewell Furn- 
ace," together with 102 acres of land which 
formed a part of the property, and all of which 
he held by contract with Turhand Kirtland ; 
also "his interest in and to the whole of the 
iron ore on the plantation of Lodwick Ripple, 
which he held under an agreement with said 
Lodwick; also certain other rights to wood," 
etc. On the date of his agreement with Lod- 
wick — August 31, 1803 — he made a contract 
for iron ore preliminary to building a furnace. 
It also appears that on October 17, 1804, lie 
made contracts with others for wood for char- 



coal to run the furnace, which probably then 
was nearly ready to start. The exact date 
at which he "blew in" is not known, but it was 
undoubtedly at some time between 1804 and 
1806 inclusive. This furnace was located upon 
Yellow Creek, about one and one-fourth miles 
south of its junction with the Mahoning river, 
in Poland township. To this place he came, it is 
believed, about 1800. The price for which he 
sold his furnace, with ore rights, etc., was 
$5,600, and the price of the land was not quite 
$3.50 per acre. 

After thus selling out his rights in this 
business he went to Niles, Trumbull County, 
where, with his brother James, he established 
a forge, using the pig iron made at the Yellow 
Creek furnaces, the delivery to him of which 
as part of the purchase price of the furnace 
was one of the conditions of the contract above 
referred to. Subsequently with the same 
brother, and possibly others of the family he 
built a furnace at Niles which was in operation 
as late as 1856. 

About 1825, with his brother James, Reese 
and Isaac Heaton, sons of James, and Eli Phil- 
lips, he built a furnace on Mill Creek, in 
Youngstown, the first in the township, a short 
distance below the Mahoning falls. About 
this time, and for a number of years after, 
he resided on a small farm on the west side of 
Mill Creek near its junction with the Mahon- 
ing, it being a part of the tract originally pur- 
chased on which to build the furnace. 

■ Mr. Eaton was a man of strong prejudices 
and fiery passions. Though imperfectly edu- 
'cated he had a good mind and possessed a fair 
stock of general information. He several 
times chamged his religious views, being in his 
younger days a Methodist, afterwards holding 
deistical views, and in his later years inclining 
to Spiritualism. He held pronounced opinions 
on financial questions, believing that banks 
should not issue currencj', but that all paper 
money should be notes issued by the United 
States Treasury, and should be made a legal 
tender; that offices should be established in the 
several States for loaning these notes, and that 
the government should reap the benefit of the 
interest on the notes loaned and used as cui*- 

renc}'. These views with others he emlxjdied 
in a bill which he prepared in 1847 and for- 
warded to Congress, accompanied by a peti- 
tion signed by many of his friends and neigh- 
bors requesting its passage. 

Mr. Eaton was an early advocate of the 
temperance cause, organizing at Niles, as early 
as 181 1, the first temperance society known in 
this region. He and his family, with many 
others, signed the total abstinance pledge, to 
which he ever afterwards adhered. That he 
was highl}' regarded by his fellow citizens is 
evidenced by the fact thafin 1813 he was Sen- 
ator from Trumbull County, and in 1820 
Representative from the county in the State 
Legislature, his co-representative being Hon. 
Elisha Whittlesey. 

Mr. Eaton died at Youngstown about 
1857, at the house of his daughter, Mrs. Han- 
nah E. Kendle, with whom he had lived sev- 
eral years after the death of his. wife. 

JAMES MACKEY, one of the most 
prominent and influential among the early set- 
tlers of the Western Reserve, was born in 
Chester County, Pennsylvania, in 1776. His 
early history is not fully known, but that he 
had received a good education is evidenced by 
the fact that at the time of his arrival on the 
Reserve he was a "well trained practical sur- 
veyor, an excellent accountant, and a good 

He arrived in Poland township about 1805, 
coming from Pennsylvania to assist Robert 
Montgomery iji building a furnace on Yellow 
Creek, of which furnace he subsequently be- 
came part owner, being also connected with 
the company as bookkeeper until operations 
were discontinued about 1812. About that 
time he entered the army, and was subsequent- 
ly promoted to the office of adjutant in the 
fourth division of Ohio militia, commanded by 
Major-General ^^'adsworth. "During the war 
he was also assistant paymaster of the division, 
and his accurate rolls, and their careful preser- 
vation, was of great aid to the soldiers in after 
years iVi enabling them to furnish evidence of 
their military service, and thereby obtain 
Ixjunty land warrants and pensions. His early 



training and business capacity well ciualified 
him for these positions, and his kind and gen- 
erous treatment of the soldiers won him their 
gratitude, affection and respect. His military 
employments gave him the rank and title of 

About 1 81 6 he entered into mercantile 
business in Youngstown with Colonel William 
Rayen, under the style of Rayen & Mackey, 
their store being a log building, situated on the 
northeast corner of Federal and Holmes 
streets. This partnership lasted for several 
years and during its continuance Major Mac- 
key purchased a farm of 275 acres, northeast 
of the territory covered by the present city 
of Youngstown. He and Colonel Rayen, who 
owned a neighboring- farm, just over the town- 
ship line, in Coitsville, became friendly rivals 
in the production of fine cattle and swine. He 
was also often employed as land surveyor. 

Major Mackey was frequently elected by 
his fellow citizens to public office. In 1814 
he was elected township clerk; in 1822 and 
1823, township trustee, and in subsequent 
years trustee, supervisor of highways, fence 
viewer, overseer of the poor and justice of the 
peace. In 1819 he was elected county commis- 
sioner for a term of three years. In 1822 he 
was elected representative from Trumbull 
County to the General Assembly, there being 
eight other candidates. His associate was 
Cyrus Bosworth. In 1830. he was elected 
treasurer of Trumbull County for two years, 
and in collecting the taxes he visited each year 
all the thirty-fi\'e townships of the county, per- 
forming his journey on the back of his favor- 
ite horse, "Bob." 

Major Mackey was a man of excellent qual- 
ities, active and industrious, public-spirited, of 
strict integrity, with good judgment, and great 
firmness and decision of character. Matters of 
difference between his neighbors were often 
referred to him for settlement, and his decision 
rendered only after full hearing of all the facts, 
were always accepted by them as final. His 
death took place August 15, 1844, when he 
was sixty-eight years old. 

He was married September 10, 1823, to 

Miss Margaret Farley, of Coitsville, O. She 
survived him many years, dying May 14, 
1870, at the age of seventy-two. They were 
the parents of eight children of whom three 
died young. The others were David, Nancy, 
(who married Dr. Will Breaden), James, 
Robert and Letitia, who became the wife of 
Andrew Kirk. David, James and Robert Mac- 
key were associated in partnership for a num- 
ber of years in the real estate business in 
Youngstown. They built the first street rail- 
road in that city, of which for a number of 
years James Mackey was presirent. 

JOHN F. WOODBRIDGE was born in 
Stockbridge, Mass., June 24, 1777, son of 
Jahleel and Lucy (Edwards) Woodbridge. 
His mother was a daughter of Rev. Jonathan 
Fdwards. He acquired his early education in 
his native town of Stockbridge and afterwards 
learned the trade of tanner with William Fd- 
wards, a relation^ who resided in the State 
of New York, and with whom he remained 
until attaining his majority. In 1798 he went 
to Philadelphia where he worked at his trade, 
as he did subsequently in Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Baltimore, Maryland. He was 
married in 1803 to Miss Mary M. Horner, 
who was born in Wilmington, Delaware, in 
1783. In the summer of 1807 the family, 
which then included two children, removed 
from Baltimore, where they were then resid- 
ing, to Youngstown, making the journey in a 
large wagon. Here Mr. Woodbridge pur- 
chased the tannery of Joseph Townsend, who 
was the first tanner in Youngstown, and who 
then g-ave up his trade to become a farmer. 
The tannery being small, Mr. Woodbridge en- 
larged it and continued the business during the 
rest of his life, in his latter years, however, 
leaving the active management of the business 
largely to his sons, who were his partners. 
Among his employees, it is said, was Mr. 
Grant, grandfather of President Grant. 

In the War of 1812 Mr. Woodbridge 
served as paymaster of Colonel Rayen's regi- 
ment during the six months that it was in the 
field. He died in Youngstown December i, 



1844. The following was tlie well deserved 
tribute to his character paid in a funeral dis- 
course by Rev. Charles A. Boardman. 

"His uniform urbanity, intelligence, in- 
tegrity, refinement, and morality of deport- 
ment commanded the respect of all, and the 
cordial attachment of those who best knew 
him, which, unshaken by adversity and trial, 
he has born with him to the grave. He was 
a modest man, with qualifications for official 
station which won the confidence of his fel- 
low citizens, but he recoiled from its responsi- 
bility, and steadfastly resisted all offers of pub- 
lic favor." 

His wife survived him several years. They 
were the parents of eleven children : Lucy, who 
married Jonathan Edwards ; John, George, 
Timothy, Henry, William, Walter, Samuel, 
Elizabeth, who became the wife of George 
Tayler; Louisa Maria, married to Robert W. 
Tayler. and Stark Edwards. 

DANIEL SHEHY was born in County 
Tipperary, Ireland. The exact date of his 
birth is not known. He was well educated, 
and after arriving at man's estate came into 
possession of his inheritance and emigrated to 
America, this being just after the close of the 
Revolutionary War. At Albany, New York, 
he met John Young, by whom he was per- 
suaded to seek his fortunes in Ohio, and whom 
he accompanied on the latter's first trip to the 
Western Resen-e. In company with Mr. 
Isaac Powers he assisted in the survey of the 
Reserve. Their only white predecessor was 
Colonel Hillman, whom they met on the banks 
of the Mahoning. Mr. Shehy selected and 
purchased one thousand acres of land for 
which he paid $2,000, four hundred acres of 
which lay east of the present city of Youngs- 
town, and the other six hundred on the south 
bank of the river. Having concluded the bar- 
gain in good faith and secured, as he thought, 
a homestead, Mr. Shehy married Miss Jane 
McLain, of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, and 
built a cabin on the bank of the river, between 
Youngstown and Haselton. Here for many 
years they endured patiently the hardships and 
privations of pioneer life, and would have been 

content, but for one cloud which darkened 
their horizon. This was the difficulty in get- 
ting a title to their land. Mr. Young, who had 
been offered by Robert Gibson for the land 
south of the river fifty cents an acre more than 
Mr. Shehy had paid, refused to give the latter 
a deed, and there being then no law courts, the 
latter had no legal redress. This led to trouble 
between the parties, and on one occasion it is 
said, Mr. Shehy gave Mr. Young a sound 
thrashing, for which he was imprisoned and 
fined. As a last resource, Mr. Shehy left his 
wife and children in the wilderness, and set 
out on foot to Connecticut to try to obtain 
justice from the original proprietors of the 
land. The latter obliged Young to give Mr. 
Shehy a deed for the remaining four hundred 
acres. Though his health had been severely 
tried by the hardships he had undergone, he 
lived to rear a large family, and was recog- 
nized by his neighbors as a warm-hearted, gen- 
erous, intelligent and public-spirited citizen. 
In religious faith he was a Roman Catholic. 

was born in Boston, Mass., about the year 
1770 or 1 77 1, and was a member of a respect- 
able and influential family. His father, Na- 
thaniel Dabney, who was surgeon of a ship 
owned by himself and brother, was lost at sea, 
the vessel leaving port and never after being 
heard from. The mother of the subject of this 
sketch, was in maidenhood a Miss Betsey 
Gardner, of Connecticut, a woman of very su- 
perior qualities. Nathaniel was the only child 
of his parents and was given an excellent edu- 
cation. Having considerable means and de- 
siring to see something of the western country, 
he came to Pittsburg, where he was induced 
by a friend to join with him in the purchase 
of a tract of land in Youngstown township, 
their intention being to engage in mercantile 
business. The friend dving before their jilans 
were completed young Dabney found himself 
in possession of land which he scarcely knew 
how to turn to account, having no practical 
knowledge of agriculture. 

Marn-ing, in 1797, Miss M,'ir\- Kcifer, of 
Penns\-lvaiiia, a farmer's daughter, he settled 

1 66 


on the land, on which he soon erected com- 
fortable buildings. Here he reared a family 
of six children — three daughters and three 

In 1813, ]\Ir. Dabney. after a short illness, 
died of consumption, and his farm was divided 
among his children. He bad a large family, 
several members of which subsequently be- 
came well known and prominent in the busi- 
ness and social world of Youngstown. 

October i, 1795, son of Henry and Hannah 
(Baldwin) Wick. He was a descendant of 
Job Wick, of Southampton, Long Island, N. 
Y., who, according to the family records, was 
married to Anna Cook December 21, 1721. 
In April, 1802, Henry Wick purchased of John 
Young the scjuare in Youngstown bounded by 
West Federal, Wood, Phelps, and Hazel 
streets, and a lot of thirtj'-seven acres outside 
of the town plat for $235. Here he engaged 
in business as a merchant, and in the spring of 
1804 removed his wife and four children to 
Youngstown. He died November 4, 1845. 
His widow, Hannah B. Wick, died April 10, 


Caleb B. Wick received such an education 
as was obtainable in the schools of that period, 
a part of his time being spent in assisting his 
father in the latter's mercantile business. In 
the fall of 1815 with Dr. Henry Manning, he 
opened a country store, connecting with it a 
drug store, the first in this part of the Reserve. 
He remained in partnership with Dr. Manning 
in this store for about ten years. 

Subsequently he continued in mercantile 
business in other buildings until 1848, at which 
time he retired. His time afterwards was de- 
voted to the care of his estate, which had be- 
come very large. He died June 30, 1865, when 
nearly seventy years of age, having- been for 
some years previously the oldest citizen in 

During his active life he held a number of 
positions of public trust and honor. On June 
2, 181 7, he was commissioned by Governor 
Worthington lieutenant of the Third Com- 
pany, First Batajlion, First Regiment, Fourth 

Division, Ohio Militia, having been first 
elected to that position by the company. Sep- 
tember 3, 181 8, h6 was commissioned captain 
of the same company. On March 22,-1822, 
he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 
same regiment, and in the fall of the same year 
colonel of the regiment, which position he held 
for several years. 

He was twice elected township clerk of 
Youngstown — in 1820 and 1824 — was subse- 
quently trustee, and held other township of- 
fices. He was also postmaster of Young-s- 
tov.-n from November, 1841, to March, 1843. 

Colonel Wick married, January i, 1816, 
Miss Rachel Kirtland, daughter of Jared Kirt- 
land, of Poland, Ohio. Of this union there 
were two children, one of whom died in in- 
fancy. In November, 1828, he married for his 
second wife. Miss Maria Adelia Griffith, of 
Youngstown, previously of Caledonia, Liv- 
ingston County, N. Y., who bore him ten chil- 
dren. "In social life, as a citizen, a neighbor, 
and a friend. Colonel Wick was liberal, kind 
and warm-hearted. In his house everybody 
felt at home and his hospitality knew no limit. 
Indulgent to his own family in social joys, and 
cheerful to the last, he had great delight in the 
society of the young as well as the old." 

JOHN M. EDWARDS was born in New 
Haven, Conn., October 23, 1805. His parents 
were Henry W. and Lydia (Miller) Edwards, 
and he was a grandson of Judge Pierrepont 
Edwards, one of the original proprietors of 
the Western Reserve, and a great grandson of 
Jonathan Edwards, the eminent theologian 
and an early president of Princeton College. 
On his father's side he was of Welsh and Eng- 
lish descent. His maternal grandfather was 
John Miller, a native of London, England,, 
who came to America prior to the Revolution- 
ary War and who was a captain in the mer- 
chant marine. 

The subject of this sketch was graduated 
at Yale College in 1824, afterwards read law 
with Judge Bristol at New Haven, and was 
admitted to the bar of Connecticut in 1826, 
and to the bar of the Circuit Court of the 
United States in 1828. He came to Youngs- 



town in July, 1832, but at that time remained 
but a few months, soon after removing to the 
northern part of Trumbull county, where 
he engaged in business other than that 
pertaining to his profession. Admitted 
to the bar of Ohio by the Supreme 
Court in August, 1838, he began the 
practice of law at Warren. In 1840, and for 
some years thereafter he was editor of the 
Trumbull Democrat. A bankrupt law being 
passed in 1841, he was appointed by the 
United States district court commissioner of 
bankrupts for Trumbull County, which office 
he held until the repeal of the law. In 1842 
he was nominated by a Democratic convention, 
and without any previous knowledge on his 
part that it was contemplated,' representative 
in Congress from the old Nineteenth district to 
fill the vacancy occasioned bj' the resignation 
of Hon. Joshua R. Giddings, and although not 
elected, his party being greatly in the minority, 
he largely cut down the opposition vote. He 
was commissioned captain of militia in 1841, 
and in 1843 ^^'^s appointed school examiner 
for Trumbull County. 

On the organization of Mahoning County 
in 1846, Mr. Edwards removed to Canfield, 
where he practiced law until 1864, at which 
time he removed his ofifice to Youngstown. In 
1868 he took up his residence in this city, re- 
maining here subsequently until his death. 
While a resident of Canfield he was several 
times appointed school examiner for Mahon- 
ing County, and was tendered a re-appoint- 
ment after his removal to Youngstown, which, 
however, he declined. 

He was one of the clerks of the Senate 
during the session of the Ohio Legislature of 
1864-65. Subsequently he was several times 
elected justice of the peace of Youngstown 
township, holding that office from 1869 to 

A large part of Mr. Edwards' time was oc- 
cupied by journalism. Shortly after his re- 
moval to Canfield in 1846 he became editor 
and one of the publishers of the Mahoning 
Index, the first newspaper published in Ma- 
honing County, and from 1855 was weekly 
correspondent of the IMahoning Register of 

Youngstown, writing under the nom de plume 
of "Quill Pen." This correspondence was con- 
tinued up to 1864, in which year he became 
associate editor of the Register, and was con- 
nected with it for several years subsequently. 
For some fourteen years — from 1865 to 1879 
— he was the Youngstown correspondent of 
the Cleveland Herald. He was also one of the 
founders of the Mahoning Valley Historical 
Society in 1874, and with William Powers, 
was editor of the valuable and interesting 
volume of "Historical Collections," published 
by the society in 1876. He contributed to the 
press many interesting articles containing rem- 
iniscences of pioneer days, and one of his last 
and most congenial labors was the editing of 
the "History of Trumbull and Mahoning 
Counties," published at Cleveland, O., in 1882. 
Mr. Edwards was married, July 14. 1842, 
at Warren, O., to Miss Mary P., daughter of 
Joseph Grail. Mrs. Edwards was a talented 
amateur artist. She died at Youngstown, May 
15, 1877, leaving three children, of whom 
Henrietta Frances, married Stanley M. Cas- 
per, of Youngstown, and Henry W. became 
a merchant in Philadelphia. 

PATRICK O'CONNOR was lx)rn in 
Clonmel, county Tipperary, Ireland, March 
9, 1840. His father w-as a tanner who emi- 
grated to America with his wife and son in the 
spring of 1842. They went first to Quebec 
and thence to Montreal, finally settling in Up- 
per Canada, in the village of Newmarket, be- 
tw^een Toronto and Lake Simcoe. Here the 
family was increased in course of time by one 
other son and three daughters, and here also 
the subject of this sketch received his elemen- 
tary education, to which he subsequently added 
largely by private study. 

In March, 1854, he began a five years' ap- 
prenticeship to the printer's trade in New- 
market. Toward the close of this period a 
change took place in Mr. O'Connor's religious 
faith, which was brought about in agitation on 
the subject of establishing separate schools for 
the children of Roman Catholics. Mr. 
O'Connor had been brought up a Catholic, but 
on this question he took issue with his co-re- 


ligionists. A careful study of the Scriptures 
resulted in his rejection of the doctrine of 
papal infallibility, and in January, 1859, he 
united with the Wesleyan Methodist church. 
At this time he was about nineteen years old. 
His chang-e of faith being rebuked lay his as- 
sociates, and b}^ his mother, now a widow, he 
left home and set out to wander as a journey- 
man printer from place to place. In June, 1862, 
he reached Youngstown and entered the em- 
ploy of John M. Webb, then publishing the 
Mahoning Sentinel, a Democratic weekly 
paper that was opposed to President Lincoln's 
war policy. Mr. O'Connor's study of Ameri- 
can politics while employed on this paper had 
the effect of making him a strong Republican, 
for he could not help being struck with the "in- 
consistency of Irishmen voting with the pro- 
slavery Democratic party while their fellow 
countrymen were suffering the oppression of 
tyranny on their own green isle." 

In the spring of 1863 Mr. O'Connor re- 
turned to Canada, but resumed residence in 
Youngstown in 1864. On June 30th of the 
latter year he was married to Miss Lorinda 
Dorothea Ewing, adopted daughter of the late 
Cramer Marsateller, and a resident of Youngs- 
town. Early in 1865, in company with his 
brother Richard, Mr. O'Connor began the pub- 
lication in Youngstown of the Mahoning 
Courier, an independent, afterwards Republi- 
can, newspaper, of which he was editor until 

1872. About the year 1868, during his editor- 
ship of this newspaper, Mr. O'Connor at- 
tracted considerable attention to himself 
through a newspaper controversy with the 
Rev. E. M. O'Callaghan, of Youngstown, on 
"The Errors of Rome," which was conducted 
through the columns of the Courier. 

In the winter of 1869-71, Mr. O'Connor 
and his brother instituted the first steam plant 
for newspaper printing used in Youngstown. 

In 1872 Mr. O'Connor sold out his interest 
in the newspaper business and subsequently 
spent some time as an itinerant preacher in the 
Erie conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Afterwards, on account of failing 
health, he returned to the newspaper business. 
In 1875 he was one of the editors and pro- 
prietors of the Youngstown Commercial, and 
in the following year became proprietor of the 
Morning Star, a short-lived paper devoted to 
the Greenback cuse. In July, 1876, Mr. 
O'Connor removed his family to Cleveland O., 
where he resided until August, 1878, working 
as compositor on the different newspapers of 
that city. He then returned to Youngstown 
and was for a short time editor and publisher 
of the Nezi' Star. 

In 1869, Mr. O'Connor left the Republican 
part3^ owing to his failure, at a convention 
held in Canfield, to commit the convention to 
an espousal of the prohibition policy. 



Settlement and Organization of the Tozunships — Settlement and Founding of the Towns — 
Sketches of Lou'ellvillc, Caniield, Poland, Petersburg, Sebring, and Other Towns. 


Austintown is township No. 2 of range 
No. 3 of the Connecticut Western Reserve. 
The soil in general is good and easily tilled, 
though in places stony. The early history of 
the township is somewhat obscuve, as many 
of the first settlers remained but a short time, 
subsequently removing elsewhere. The re- 
cords show that John McCoHum, born in New. 
Jersey in Decemlaer 25, 1770, bought the first 
land in the township in 1798 and erected a 
cabin on it, to which he moved his family in 
1800. His wife, Jane, whom he married in 
June, 1798, was born in New Jersey, in 1767. 
By a previous marriage to Robert Hamson 
she had five children. By her marriage to Mr. 
McCollum there were eight children, David, 
Mary, Robert, John, Daniel, Anna, Ira and 
Harvey. The McCollums were people of in- 
dustry and resolution, v.'ell fitterl for pioneer 
life. Mrs. McCollum was a good weaver, and 
after other settlers moved in, occupied what 
spare time she had by taking weaving to do, to 
assist her husband in paying for the farm. 
Thev succeeded in carving out a good home- 
stead for themselves and their children, their 
farm being situated one-half a mile west of 
the line between Austintown and Youngstown. 
The parents died in 1849, within a few weeks 

of each other, Mrs. McCollum on March 19th 
and her husband on April 7th. The latter saw 
military service in the War of 1812 under 
Colonel Rayen. 

Another early settler was Wendell Grove, 
who came from Pennsylvania in 1801, and 
whose son John succeeded to the homestead. 
Then there were James Russell, Jacob Miller, 
and Theophilus Cotton, who settled suc- 
cessively on the same farm, afterwards owned 
by the widow Arms. The Webb family came 
to the township in 1814. John Lane and David 
Dillon were also early settlers. Dillon was the 
first captain of the militia in the township. 
John Russell, above mentioned, was also a cap- 
tain in the militia at an early date. Dillon 
afterwards sold out and removed to the west- 
ern part of the state. He had seven sons — 
William, Aaron, Asa. Jonathan, Jesse, Cyrus, 
and Eli — some of whom moved to other parts 
of the State. Robert Russell was one of the 
early settlers in the southwestern part of the 
township, coming here with his parents in 
1806. He subsequently married a Miss Ham- 
son, and they had four sons — 'James, who re- 
moved to Jackson township, John, Hamson, 
and Samuel. 

George Gilbert and family at a very early 
date took up a farm adjoining the Russell 
farm on the east. The Gilberts were a large 


family, members of which settled in different 
parts of the county. John Duncan settled on 
the Hamson farm in the southeastern part of 
the township. In the eastern part were Jacob 
Leach and Jacob Parkins, who settled on Jacob 
Leach's farm, and afterwards sold out to Ben- 
jamin Leach, who spent his life in the town- 
ship. Benjamin had two brothers, John and 
Abraham, who resided in the eastern part of 
the township for several years. 

Henry Ohl, Sr., a blacksmith, came to the 
township about 1803, and set up a blacksmith 
shop on his farm. He had a family of ten 
children — Michael, David, Jacob, John, Abra- 
ham, Henry, Jr., Jonathan, Eve, Mary and 
Polly. Henrv Ohl, Jr., in his later years re- 
sided in Canfield. David and Michael were 
drafted for the war of 1812, but after getting 
as far as Youngstown were returned. The 
family resided in a two-story log house, with 
a porch in front, where, it is related, that upon 
one occasion the daughter Eve courageously 
attacked and killed a monstrous rattlesnake. 

William Wick, an early settler in the east- 
ern part of Austintown, had the first bearing 
orchard in the township. John Truesdale set- 
tled about half a mile southwest of the center. 
He had a large family. His sons, John, James, 
and William, married and lived on the home 
farm until their death. 

Another early settler was James J. Rvis- 
sell, who came from Pennsylvania about 1806, 
and who died in 1870. He had ten children — 
six sons and four daughters. Robert Fuller- 
ton cleared a farm near the center and brought 
up a large family. Henry and Anthony 
Weatherstay settled near Four Mile Run; both 
had families, the members of which are all long 
since dead or moved away. Another early set- 
tler in the same neighborhood was Jacob Wise. 
Archibald Ewing- and Jacob Harding settled 
in the township about 1808, Harding on a 
partially cleared farm. Both had good sized 

John Jordan came to Austintown in 181 3, 
having previously resided for a few years in 
Poland township. His family consisted of five 
sons and five daughters. He died in 1824, his 
wife's death occurring a few years later. 

The Cotton family were also among the 
first settlers. One of them, Joshua, was a cap- 
tain of the militia. Frederick Moherman set- 
tled in 1803 in the eastern part of the town- 
ship. His two sons, Daniel and Winchester, 
became prosperous farmers. 

Jacob Harrof came to Austintown from 
Canfield. He was twice married ; his two chil- 
dren by the first marriage, John and Elizabeth, 
died in Portage County. By his second mar- 
riage he had four sons and three daughters — 
Jacob, Andrew, William and Lewis, who all 
lived and died in Austintown, and Sarah, Leah 
and Rachel. 

Henry Strack settled in the southern part 
of the township, and lived and died upon the 
farm subsequently owned by Henry Crum, 
second. He had six sons — Henry, Samuel, 
John, William, Joseph and Jacob^and some 
of his descendants still reside in the township. 
Abraham Wolfcale, with his sons, John and 
Abraham, were early settlers on the road east 
of the center. Henry Crum was an early set- 
tler at Smith's corners. 

An eight-hundred-acre tract of land, which 
was a part of the Salt Springs tract, and was 
known as the Whitman tract, as it belonged 
to the Whitman heirs in Connecticut, was 
partially cleared by Samuel Whitman, who set- 
tled at the center. 

Frederick Shively settled in the township 
in 1812, and was succeeded in possession of 
the homestead by his son George, who resided 
there for many years. 

The first white child born in Austintown 
township was John McCollum, son of the first 
settler, the date of his birth being 1803. He 
settled in Milton township, where he died in 


Large families were the rule among the 
early settlers. The women manufactured all 
the clothes for the household, and the spinning 
wheel and loom were kept going early and late. 
Wild animals were abundant and bears and 
wolves often wrought great havoc with the 
flocks. At night the howling of the wolves 



could be heard in all directions. Deer were 
also numerous, and furnished the early settlers 
with a large part of their meat supply. The 
amount of taxes due in 1803 was $9.22, di- 
vided among twenty-six tax-payers. 

School was usually kept in some log cabin 
which had been abandoned for residence pur- 
poses, and, as in other parts of the county, 
parents wishing to send their children were ex- 
pected to subscribe a certain amount for tui- 
tion. One of the earliest schools was situated 
near the site of the Disciple's church. Among 
the early teachers there were Asa Dillon and 
Elias Wick. There was another school house 
on the Shively farm, where John Fullerton 
taught at an early date. By 181 2 there were 
several scliools in various parts of the town- 
ship. One, one the farm of Jacob Parkus, was 
taught by Isaac Alley. 

There are now seven schools in the town- 
ship with a total attendance of about 150. 
They are located respectively as follows : 

Cornersburg, superintendent, W. H. Heth- 

Four-mile run, superintendent, Harry 

Smith Corners (U. Evangelical), C. Bis- 
hof; (Evangelical). W. S. Peck. 

Austintown, superintendent, George De 

West Austintown, Evangelical, George 

West Austintown, Evangelical, superin- 
tendent, Mr. Patterson. 

The population of Austintown is divided 
in religious belief. The Disciples' church was 
organized in 1828, a church building being 
erected soon after at Four-Mile Run. New 
buildings have been subsequently erected. 
Among the earliest members were William 
Hayden and John Henry (who were also 
among the first preachers and elders). John 
Lane, several of the Lantermans. Ira McCul- 
lom and Mrs. Jane Henry. Alexander Camp- 
bell, the founder of the sect, frequently 
preached here. 

The Evangelical church at West Austin- 
town was organized about 1841, the first meet- 
ing being held in Jacob Harrof's barn. As the 
first church building was not erected until 
1853, meetings were held in private houses, 
barns, and school houses for a number of 
years. The first preacher was Rev. Joseph- 

The United Evangelical church at West 
Austintown, a frame structure with stone foun- 
dation, was erected in November, 1900, at a 
cost of $3,000. At one side of the main build- 
ing there is an annex pulpit. The present- 
pastor, Rev. S. T. Brandyberry, assumed 
charge September 20, 1904, his previous pas- 
torate having been at Findlay, Ohio. In addi- 
tion to presiding over the church at Austin- 
town he is also pastor of two other churches, 
one at Sample and one at Calla, Ohio. Grace 
Reform church has as pastor Rev. I. C. Shaaf. 
The Sunday-school superintendent is G. S.- 


West Austintown, a thriving little settle-- 
ment, was built soon after the completion ot 
the Niles and New Lisbon Railroad in 1869; 
The first store was kept by D. B. Blott. The' 
Anderson block was built by Robert McClure 
in 1 87 1. The postoffice was established in: 
1870, Windsor Calhoun being the first post- 

The first store in Austintown Center was- 
kept by Alexander Thompson about 1822. 
Soon after Dr. Packard, James Hezlip, and 
Colwell Porter engaged in business. The last 
named became quite wealthy. He finally left 
Austintown and went to Cincinnati, where he 
continued in mercantile business with similar 
success. Judge Rayen started a store here about 
1830, employing Cornelius Thompson to keep 
it. John Cotton kept store on the southeast cor- 
ner in 1830-31. John McCaughtsey kept the 
first public house and later went into the cloth- 
ing business 

The coal mining industry, which is now at a 
practical standstill owing to the exhaustion of 
the mines, was started at West Austintown by 



John M. ' Owen, John Stambauch, and others 
under the name of the Harrof Coal Company, 
the first mine being opened at West Austin- 
town. On the exhaustion of the Harrof slope 
in 1880, they opened a shaft on the Jordan 
farm, which for a number of years produced 
about 130 tons of coal per day. In 1871 the 
New Lisbon Coal Company began operations, 
opening" up the Fennel mine, which produced 
■coal of excellent quality. The Tod, Wells & Co. 
bank, on the farm of Henry Kyle near Min- 
eral Ridge, was opened about 1858, and was 
■operated for many years, for a time by Morris, 
Robbins & Co. under lease. The Ohltown 
bank, opened about 1868, by Harris, Maurer 
& Co., was worked until 1868, when it became 
exhausted. Operations on the Thornton bank 
on the old Cleveland farm were commenced 
in 1870 by Case, Thornton & Co., under the 
name of the Ohltown Coal Company. They 
were succeeded by the John Henry Mining Co., 
who sunk another shaft about 1889. The mine 
turned out about 100 tons per day. 

In early days iron ore was plentiful in some 
parts of the township and was taken out and 
hauled to the furnaces. Limestone has also 
been successfully cjuarried. The only furnace 
for the reduction of iron ore was the Meander 
furnace built by William Porter and others 
near Ohltown. 

The first grist-mill was bui'llt by William 
Irvin on Four-Mile Run in the northeastern 
corner of the township. 

The first saw-mill was built about 1847, i" 
the eastern part of the township. 

John Justice, who died about 1880, oper- 
ated a tannery north of the center on the Ohl- 
town road for many years. Robinson Young, 
who settled in the township about 1826, also 
built a tannery, which he operated with his 
brother William. Many of the early settlers 
operated small copper stills, wherein they used 
up their surplus grain, thus putting it into a 
more salable form. 


The township of Beaver has been a part of 
Mahoning County since 1846. The surface is 

moderately level, with a general northeast 
drainage. In parts it is slightly broken by low 
hills, but the land near the streams is low and 
subject to overflow. The township was origi- 
nally covered with a heavy growth of timber; 
mostly oak, ash, maple, beech and elm, with 
some pine, all of which have been much re- 
duced in quantity. Sufficient remains, how- 
ever, to give pleasing variety to the landscape, 
provide shade for cattle and exert a benefi- 
cial eft'ect on atmospheric conditions. 

The principal stream is Mill creek, which 
flows through the township northward, west 
of the center, and which is fed by a number of 
small brooks. Big Bull Creek rises in the 
southeastern part of the township. Springs 
are abundant, and water may be obtained 
almost anywhere by digging wells. The prin- 
cipal occupations are farming, dairying and 
raising live-stock. 

One of the first settlers in Beaver was Ma- 
jor Jacob Gilbert, who came to the township in 
1802, and settled on the farm subsequently- 
occupied by Michael Wieland. One of his 
children, a daughter, married Adam Wieland, 
from whom are descended most or all of the 
Wielands in the township. Major Gilbert saw 
service in the war of 1812. Another soldier of 
that war was John Shanefelt, who settled near 
Gilbert on a homestead which afterwards came 
into possession of his son and namesake John. 

In the northern part of the township the 
first .settler was "Billy" Stewart, an old bache- 
lor who lived alone in a small log cabin. 
Farther west the first settler was Abraham 
Miller. Adam Little at an early date settled 
near the center. On section i was Peter Stev- 
ens, who discovered coal in that locality and 
who used to mine it in a small way for two 
cents per bushel. 

Christopher Mentzer settled on section 13 
in 1803, and soon after Christopher Clinker 
settled in the neighborhood of North Lima, 
with his sons, Abner, Josiah, Samuel and Isaac. 

In the same neighborhood, as early as 1804, 
were Michael and Frederick Dutterer. Among 



the pioneers of the southern part of the town- 
ship were John Harman, Henry Neidigh, and 
Frederick Sponseller. In the same year j^ 1804) 
John Coblentz, from Frederick, Maryland, 
settled on the south side of section 25. He had 
a family of four sons and one daughter, the 
last-named of whom became the wife of John 


The township was organized for civil pur- 
poses in 1811, and the first election held April 
1st of that year. The judges were Peter Eib, 
Frederick Sponseller, and Christian Clinker. 
The following were the officers elected : Trus- 
tees — John Crumbacher, Christian Clinker, 
Frederick Sponseller; clerk — George Hoke; 
treasurer — John Harmon ; lister — Adam 
Little ; house appraiser, John Coblentz ; con- 
stable, Jacob Gilbert; overseers of the poor, 
Balzar Mower, David Gerringer; fence-view- 
ers, John Neidigh, Sr., Christopher Mentzer; 
road supervisors — Christian Crebs and Jacob 
Crouse; justices of the peace, Peter Eib and 
Adam Little. 


Coal was formerly mined in the county in 
considerable quantities. One of the largest 
mines was that of Azariah Paulin which 
yielded 1 500 to 2000 tons yearly. There were 
.also coal banks on the farms of Daniel Crouse 
and Abraham Yoder, and a number of other 
mines south of East Lewistown which yielded 
good coal. The good mines are now all ex- 
hausted and coal mining is practically a thing 
of the past. 

The first mill put in operation in the town- 
ship was built on Mill Creek, in section fifteen, 
in 1805, by Matthias Glass. It was subse- 
quently replaced by one of greater capacity 
built by Jacob Crouse. In 1849 ^ steam mill 
was erected' by Anthony Smith, which was a 
three-story frame structure and had three run 
of stones. 

Peter Glass also put up a sawmill, north of 

the old Glass mill, which was operated many 
years by Solomon Crouse. 

Abraham Stauft'er had grist and saw mills 
on Mill creek which were operated up to 1840. 
A water-power saw mill was put up on Tur- 
key Broth creek, in section nine, by Jacob 
Detwiler. It was subsequently operated by 
John Fellnagel, who changed it to a steam 

Jacob Esterly built one of the earliest tan- 
neries, near the village of North Lima. 


This is a pleasantly situated village, and 
was founded about 1826 by James Simpson. 
One of the earliest merchants was a man 
named Hartzell; others were John Glass and 
John Northrup. The first regular store was 
opened by the Neill Brothers, whose clerk, 
John Leslie, subsequently became a partner in 
the business. Other early merchants were 
Crouse & Northrup, Buzard & Co., J. H. 
Donald and Mentz, Hahn, Fell & Co. The 
first public house was opened by John Glass 
in 1830. 

About 1828 the first postoffice was estab- 
lished, with Jacob Gilbert as postmaster. Ow- 
ing to the difficulty in getting the mail, the 
office was discontinued in 1831, but in 1834 
it was re-established. Nathan Hahn was the 
first permanent physician in North Lima, com- 
ing her in 1846 and remaining until his death 
in 1874. Other doctors had previously prac- 
ticed here for short periods of time, the first 
being Drs. Manning and Willet in 1831. 


This well laid-out village, which is about 
two miles west of North Lima, was founded 
about 1830 by John Nold, Henry Thoman, 
Sr., Peter Coder, Sr., and George Houck. 
In 1839 a store was opened here by Jesse Mot- 
ter in the house occupied by H. Thoman as 
a residence. Mr. Motter continued in trade 
until 1845. Other early merchants were Ja- 
cob S. Thoman, T. G. Northrup, Franklin 



Dunn, Smith & Buzard, George Buzard and 
Frederick Fellnagle. The first public house 
was kept by a man named Morrow, about 
1843, in a building opposite the Thoman resi- 
dence. Ten years later Conrad Stigletz 
opened an inn on the scjuare, which he con- 
ducted till 1863. 

The first postoffice was established about 
1841 with Philip Fetzer as the first postmas- 
ter. For some time it had but a semi-weekly 
.mail, but afterwards a daily delivery was in- 
troduced. Dr. Ethan A. Hoke was the first 
regular physician. 

The schools of Beaver township are di- 
vided as follows : 

1st. — The North Lima special district, 
which comprises the North Lima High School 
,of three rooms and three teachers (Superin- 
tendent H. W. PhiUips) ; intermediate, Bes- 
,sie B. Rice, teacher; primary, Maude Glenn, 

Fractional district— Floyd Felger, teacher. 
Morgantown district — Myrtle Kelley, 

Erb district — J. R. Duncan, teacher. 
All the above are in the East precinct, 
which enrolls in all 190 scholars. 

The West district (or Special District No. 
I ) contains three schools, namely : East Lewis- 
town district, Curtis Ziegler, teacher; Beard 
district, Henry Crumbacher, teacher; Boyer 

Special No. 2. Pine HiU district, Ota Orr, 
■teacher; Harter district, Adelia Basinger, 
teacher; Germantown district. The first-men- 
tioned schools in the above are in the East 
•precinct, the last one in the West precinct. 
The special district contains 176 scholars. 

The Fractional district, with the school at 
Woodworth, comprises a small part of Beaver 
township, and a part of Boardman. Alice 
Renkenberger is the teacher. 

The school buildings of Beaver township 
■are all substantial brick buildings, and a few 
-years since were pronounced by the state 
-school commissioner as being the best and most 

substantial of any township in the state. In 
the special school districts the branches taught 
are, orthography, reading, writing, arithme- 
tic, geography, grammar, language lessons, 
United States history, physiology, physical 
geography, and algebra. 


While no township in Mahoning County 
possesses more law-abiding citizens in propor- 
tion to its size than that of Beayer, there was 
at one time a small but well organized lawless 
element that succeeded for twenty years in ter- 
rorizing a large part of the community by 
crimes of arson, theft, and perjury, until the 
reign of terror was brought to an end by the 
arrest and conviction of some of the ring 

These troubles arose about the close of the 
Civil War, and it is said that political differ- 
ences had no small part in originating them. 
The disturbers of the peace were in general 
of that class known as southern sympathizers, 
or "Copperheads," and their differences with 
their loyal neighbors brought on acts of ag- 
gression and retaliation that finally degener- 
ated into the midnight crimes that for a time 
gave the township of Beaver an unsavory rep- 

The leader of this lawless element was 
Azariah Paulin, a man of such natural cunning 
and astuteness, though united to a vindictive 
and criminal disposition, as to earn for him 
the title of '"The Old Fox." By many, owing 
to his leading connection with the troubles re- 
ferred to, and his ability in warding off from 
his subordinates for so long the' legal conse- 
quences of their acts, he was termed the "Old 
Chief." The disposition of this man is well 
illustra'ed by his conduct in connection with 
a contract made by him with one Tom Camp- 
bell. Paulin possessed a farm at Steamtown 
worth $10,000. Campbell had a berry patch 
on Paulin's farm and it was agreed between 
them that Campbell should raise the berries 
and that he and Paulin should share equally 
in the proceeds. When the patch had been 
planted and was in good shape Paulin ignored 



the contract and ordered Campbell off his 
farm, the latter thereby losing from $1,200 to 
$1,500. This act, which took place about 
1880, -was. it is said, the beginning of the final 
phase of the Morgantown trouble, which re- 
sulted in the final incarceration of the guilty 
parties. The town of JNIorgantown, which was 
named after John Morgan, the raider, was the 
place of residence and headquarters of the 
criminal gang who for a score of years kept 
the community in terror by their midnight dep- 
redations, barn burnings, and other criminal 
acts of revenge. So well organized were these 
lawbreakers that for a long time, though they 
were well known, few could summon up cour- 
ag« to proceed against them, and when any 
one did so the systematic perjury of the ac- 
cused and other members of the gang always 
resulted in acquittal, while the one who had 
complained was made to feel the vengeance 
of the conspirators. A German farmer who was 
put upon the witness stand in connection with 
one of these cases declined to give evidence 
tending to conviction on the ground that he 
"didn't want to have his barn burned." About 
1883, the situation became so intolerable that 
some resolute county officials, backed by the 
local press, made at last a determined and suc- 
cessful effort to bring the offenders to justice. 
Indictments were found against a number of 
the lawbreakers, some of whom fled the county, 
Several convictions, however, were obtained. 
George Paulin, a son of the "Old Fox," and 
Delmar Little received each a sentence of six 
years in the state penitentiary for perjury. 
Among those who disappeared were Azariah 
Paulin himself, his sons, William Henry and 
Charles, and his nephew, Simon Paulin. The 
last named, who lived on a part of Azariah's 
farm at Steamtown, and who was indicted for 
arson at the May term of court, 1884, with 
Jacob Paulin and Bill Cluse, after absenting 
himself for a considerable time, returned 
March 6, 1885, and going to the jail in 
Youngstown at 2 o'clock in the morning, gave 
himself up. He was a very large stout man, 
weighing aljout 225 or 230 pounds, and had a 
wife and four sriiall children. He was a son 
of Jacob Pauhn, who was convicted of 

arson at the 
and sentenced 
years in the 
ested in the 

May term of court 1884, 
by Judge Arrel to three 
penitentiary. Those inter- 
prosecution, however, were 

determined to have the chief conspirator, Az- 
ariah himself, who had been indicted on four 
charges — concealing stolen property, corrupt- 
ing witnesses, perjury and arson. His bail 
was placed at $2,200 and the bond signed by 
Attorney P. F. Gillies, Mrs. Paulin securing. 
Gillies by executing a mortgage on their farm 
of ninety-six acres in Morgantown. Aza- 
riah's disappearance took place about January 
5, 1885. As near as could be ascertained, he 
went first to Columbiana, and thence to East 
Liverpool, remaining in that vicinity until 
January 13th. From there .he went to Alex- 
ander, West Virginia. It was at this place 
that ex-Sheriff Lodwick got track of him and 
spent several days trying to get him, but failed. 
He was next heard of in Pittsgurg, where he 
claimed to have remained three days. On 
February 24, 1885, Sheriff Walker, who had 
received a clue as to his whereabouts, arrived 
with a requisition from Governor Hoadly. The 
sheriff left the city going directly to Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania, where he found that 
Paulin had remained there for several days, 
but had left for Shippensburg on the Cumber- 
land Railway. While in Harrisburg, the lat- 
ter had passed himself off as a tramp and got 
free lodging one night in the jail, going under 
the name of "A. Summers." 

From that place he went to Shippensburg 
on the Cumberland Railway. Here he took 
refuge with one Jacob Stofi'er, whom he had 
formerly known as a resident of Poland. On 
arriving at Shippensburg, the sheriff' found 
that Azariah had received mail at the post- 
office. In leaving the building he saw him sit- 
ting on a horse across the street and immedi- 
ately placed him under arrest. When arrested 
Paulin had but $7 or $8 in his possession. 

The sheriff conveyed him to Pittsburg and 
thence to Youngstown. His bail bond in the 
meanwhile had been forfeited, but on his ar- 
rival the forfeiture was set aside. 

The prisoner, who was partly disabled by a 
disease of his feet, wiiich were much swollen, 



was sure of conviction, but claimed persecution 
by his family. He had previously made 
charges of immorality against his wife, which 
were declared to be false by every reputable 
witness who was acquainted with the family, 
and in his disagreement with her he had threat- 
ened to commit suicide. In court he presented 
a grizzled and unkempt appearance. He 
pleaded guilty to subornation of perjury, and 
to the second count in the charge of arson (the 
first count being nolled by the court) whereby 
he was accused of procuring William Chuse 
to burn Blosser's barn. 

In so doing he said : "I'm not really guilty 
of this crime, but I discover that I am so sur- 
rounded with witnesses who will swear my 
liberty away and whose statements I cannot 
contradict, except by myself, that I have con- 
cluded to save the county expense and the 
court trouble by pleading guilty. I am satis- 
fied that upon a trial I would be found guilty, 
although I am perfectly innocent of the charge. 
I take this step by the advice of my attorneys." 

The cases against Paulin for receiving 
stolen property and corrupting witnesses were 
also nolled. 

I. A. Justice, A. Paulin's counsel, made an 
earnest plea for judicial clemency, urging his 
client's age and the crusade that had been in- 
cessantly made against him. 

His sentence was three years on each in- 
dictment — for arson and for subornation of 


Berlin is one of the most picturesque town- 
ships in Mahoning County, the beauty of its 
western portion being enhanced by the wind- 
ing Mahoning river, with its woody banks and 
verdant valleys. In the southwestern quarter 
is Mill creek, with its tributary of Turkey 
Broth, and other small streams and runs that 
empty into it, and add variety of scenery to a 
well-watered landscape. 

The surface of Berlin is almost level with 
a few gentle undulations here and there. The 
soil is a good strong loam, fertile and well 
adapted to fruits and cereals. With such in- 

ducements for the pursuit of agriculture, Ber- 
lin has naturally developed into a farming 
community. There are no large villages, Ber- 
lin Center, a somewhat straggling settlement 
with a population of about sixty, being the 
most important. 


The township was formerly a part of Ells- 
worth and was not separately organized until 
March, 1828, when it was erected into a town- 
ship and made an election precinct by the 
county commissioners. 

The township officers first elected were as 
follows, the election taking place April 7, 
1828: Trustees, Nathan Minard, Thompson 
Craig, Samuel Kauffman; treasuixr, Salmon 
Hall; clerk, Joseph H. Coult; constable, John 
Stuart ; overseers of the poor, William Kirkpat- 
rick. Christian Kauffman; fence viewers, Jo- 
seph Davis, Joseph Leonard ; supervisors, Ed- 
ward Fankle, Benjamin Misner, Abraham 

The first justice of the peace was Peter 
Musser, appointed in 1828. 


The first white settler of Berlin was Gar- 
ret Packard, who came from near Winchester, 
Virginia, to Austintown in 1803. After re- 
maining there about two years, he removed to 
Deerfield, but six years later came to Berlin 
and settled on a farm on Mill creek in the 
southwestern part of the township. Soon af- 
ter his arrival, he had a son born, Thomas, 
who was the first white child born in the town- 
ship. For a number of years his family was 
the only one here. In the war of 18 12, being 
then the only man in what is now Berlin, he 
was drafted, and served three months. He 
died in 1820 at the age of about forty-five. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Eleanor Hen- 
drickson, survived him ten years, dying at the 
home of her son-in-law, John McCollum, in 
Austintown, May 13, 1830, she being then 
about fifty-four years of age. They were the 
parents of ten children. 



The second settler in Berlin was Jacob 
Weldy, who located with his family in the 
southwestern corner of the township. He had 
a large family. 

Other early settlers were: George Baum, 
whose father emigrated from Germany, set- 
tling in Salem, and who in 181 5 married Bet- 
sey Packard; Joseph H. Coult, who was the 
lirst settler at the Center, and who was land 
agent for Amos Sill, proprietor of the greater 
part of the township ; Abraham Hawn, who 
came about 1820, and located about two miles 
north of the center ; Matthias Glass, who set- 
tled in the northwestern part of the township 
about 1822, and Reuben Gee, Joseph Davis 
and David Parshall, who came about 1824. 
]\Iany of the early as well as the later settlers 
came from Pennsylvania, and were for the 
most part "quiet, unobtrusi\-e and progress- 
si\-e people." 

The early name of Berlin township was 
"Hart and Mathers," from the names of two 
men who were orig-inally proprietors in it. It 
was named Berlin at the instance of one of the 
early German settlers, Matthias Glass, who 
wanted the name of the township to remind 
him of his fatherland. 

Berlin was settled somewhat later than the 
other townships, and was for a number of 
years a great hunting ground for the settlers 
for miles around, game being most abundant. 


A sawmill was built by Matthias Glass, 
who also built a grist mill, both on the Mahon- 
ing, a short distance above Frederick. The 
grist mill was afterwards burned and the site 
purchased by Isaac Wilsoil, who built thereon 
a flouring mill, which was subsequently opera- 
ated for some years by his sons. It was later 
purchased and conducted for a while by 
George Schilling. 

Another sawmill was erected by Joseph H. 
Coult on Turkey Broth creek, in the southwest 
part of the town, and afterwards passetl 
through a number of hands. In the same year 
David Shoemaker built a sawmill on Mill 
creek, which mill was subsequeiitlv purchased 

and carried on for several years by Jacob 
Sheets. There are now no manufacturing in- 
dustries in the township. 

Among the early store keepers were Joseph: 
Edwards, who commenced business at the 
center in 1833; Garrison & Hoover, Daniel A. 
Fitch, David McCauley, John Ward, Warren 
& Webber, Hughes Bros., and several others. 
For a time there were two stores at the center. 
In the early fifties there was also a black- 
smith's shop, a little west of the town house, 
and opposite was a store kept by Joel Booth. 
About 1836 or 1837 a man named McKean 
established a tannery at the center, and also 
carried on a shoe making business. 

A number of years previous, about 1839, a 
store was built at Belvidere by Isaac Wilson, 
who afterwards bought the mill privilege there. 
The store was carried on for some years by 
his sons, who afterwards sold it to Jacob Glass. 
It subsequently passed through a number of 
hands and finally ceased to be used as a store. 


The first postotfice in the township was es- 
tablished about 1828 and was called Amity. 
The postmaster was Peter Musser, who kept 
a tavern on the old stage road in the northern 
part of the township. After he moved awav 
the office was discontinued. The postoftice at 
Berlin center was established in 1833. Joseph 
Edwards being the first postmaster. 

The first wedding at Berlin center was that 
of William Ripley and Miss Allen. It took 
place at the house of Joseph H. Coult, on a 
cold night in December, the guests coming 
from Ellsworth, Benton and other places, and 
carrying torches in order to intimidate the 
wolves, which were numerous and Imld, owing 
to the severe weather. 

After the abolition movement liegan there 
were occasional disturbances in the township, 
owing to the discussion of the slavery question, 
and on one occasion, in 1837, a Presbvterian 
minister. Rev. M. R. Robinson, who came 
from Salem to deliver a lecture against slavery, 
and to vindicate the Bible from the charge of 
supporting it, was mobbed, stripped, and tar- 



red and feathered, after which his clothes were 
put on again. Twelve of the perpetrators of 
this outrage were arrested, and compromised 
the matter by paying Mr. Robinson $40 each. 

The first schools in Berlin were not dif- 
ferent materially from those in other parts of 
the county, the buildings being log structures. 
At first the German language was taught alter- 
nately with English. About 1824 a log school- 
house was erected on Turkey Broth creek, near 
the center, in which Sarah McGee was one of 
the first teachers. Martha and Eliza McKel- 
vey were among the first teachers in the south- 
eastern part of the township. In the northern 
part Alexander Hall taught school at an early 

There are now five school districts, in 
which is included the Berlin High School or- 
ganized in 1905. All the school houses are 
frame buildings. J. R. Campbell is superinten- 
dent, and there are about 125 pupils enrolled. 


The Methodist society was formed pre- 
vious to 1830, and a church built at the center 
in 1839. The present church edifice was erec- 
ted in 1886 at a cost of $3,500. a parsonage 
being added in 1905 ; the church has a mem- 
bership of about one hundred; both buildings 
are frame. The present pastor is Rev. M. 

The Lutheran church is situated two miles 
north of the center and now has for its pastor 
Rev. A. J. B. Kast. 


Ashur Kirkbridge, G. A. R. Post, located 
at Berlin Center, where it owns its own hall, 
was organized August 19, 1886, through the 
efforts of Martha T. Hughes, wife of Dr. 
Wallace K. Hughes. Its first commander was 
Francis White. Mahlon Kirkbridge is the 
present commander. 

Knights of Pythias Lodge No. 235, orga- 

nized at Berlin Center in 1886, has seventy- 
three members, and is a flourishing society. 


Berlin township owns its own hall, which 
is located at the center. There are two ceme- 
teries known respectively as the North ceme- 
tery, which is situated two miles north of the 
center, and the West cemetery, situated one 
mile west of it. 

The present postmaster at the center is La 
Rue Hawkins. There are three general stores, 
conducted resi^ectively by Stanley & Hawkins, 
E. O. Carlin, and George Muskrey. C. F. 
Fifer is proprietor of a hardware store. The 
medical profession is well represented by Dr. 
W. K. Hug-hes and Dr. Frank Carson. 


The natural aspect of this township 
is one of beauty, with just enough of 
hills and valleys, fields and woodlands, 
to please the eye by presenting to its 
gaze a varied and lovely landscape. The 
western and northwestern parts of the 
township are watered by Mill Creek and its 
tributaries. Yellow Creek flows for over two 
miles through the southeast of Boardman, 
thence entering Poland township near the vil- 
lage. The surface is in general undulating 
and in some portions nearly level. The town- 
ship is essentially a farming community, there 
being no villages of any considerable size. 


The township derived its name from Elijah 
Boardman, who, accompanied by six compan- 
ions, among them Nathaniel and Ebenezer 
Blakely and a man named Summers, settled 
here in 1798. Mr. Boardman who was a 
member of the Connecticut Land Company, 
came from New Milford, Connecticut. He 
spent his time during the summer in making 
surveys and establishing landmarks, the men 
who came with him being engaged in making 
clearings. Five of the six, leaving behind the 



two yoke of oxen they had brought with them, 
returned to Connecticut on foot, the other one 
of the Blakelys settled permanently in the 
town. A stone wdiich Mr. Boardman set up 
to mark the center of the township was un- 
earthed about 1878 or 1879, ^"d his initials, 
E. B., discovered on it. 

During- the next ten or twelve years set- 
tlers from Connecticut, with a few from Penn- 
sylvania, came in rapidly, so that in 1810 the 
population was about 850. In a list of pro- 
perty holders contained in the township rec- 
ords for the year 1806 appear the following 
names : Abner Webb, William Drake, Joseph 
Merchant, Linus Brainard, Eli Baldwin, 
Ha3'nes Fitch, George Stillson, John Davidson, 
Oswald Detchon, Elijah Boardman, Eleazer 
Fairchild, with his sons, John Amos, and 
Daniel Francis Dowler, Richard J. Elliott, 
Samuel Swan. Peter Stillson, Warren Bissel, 
and David Noble. 

Major Samuel Clark, who came in 1810, 
was one of the first postmasters, and used to 
bring the mail from Poland once a week in his 
pocket. About 1829 he served as justice of the 
peace, and he was also commissioned lieuten- 
ant, captain and major of militia. He was a 
native of Connecticut, as was also his wife 
Anna, whose maiden name was Northrup. He 
died in 1847, ^nd his wife in i860. 

Richard J. Elliott, who came in 1804 or 
1805, was a member of the legislature in 1808 
and 1809, at his last election receiving every 
vote in his district. Henry Brainard came in 

1800 and settled about a mile from the center 
on the road running west. One of his sons. 
Dr. Ira Brainard, was probably the first set- 
tled physician in the township. After practic- 
ing here a few years, however, the doctor 
moved to Canfield. Oswald Detchon, a native 
of England, was one of the very first settlers ; 
he located three-fourths of a mile east of the 

Eleazer Fairchild was another early set- 
tler, and located on what was later the farm 
of Eli Reed. Among those who came between 

1 80 1 and 18 10 were several families by the 
name of Simon from Washington county, 
Pennsylvania. They all brought up large 

families and many of their descendants still 
reside in the township. From the same county 
came George Zedaker with his son John. The 
latter was the last survi\-or, in Boardman. of 
the war of 1812, dying in the late seventies of 
the century just closed. George Pope, who 
came to Boardman from Virginia, after set- 
tling on Benjamin McNutt's farm removed 
to the northwestern part of the township near 
Mill Creek ; he attained the age of ninety-eight 
years. Other pioneers, with the date of their 
advent in the township, were as follows : John 
Twiss, 1818; Charles Titus, 1819; x\mos Bald- 
win, 181 1 ; Asa Baldwin, brother of Amos, 
181 1 or earlier; Thomas and Elizabeth 
Agnew, from Pennsylvania, 1824; Henry Fos- 
ter, previous to 1808; Philip and Catherine 
Stambaugh, 181 1; Eli Baldwin, from Con- 
necticut, 1 801 ; the De Camps, Shields and 
Woodruff families, 1801 ; Josiah Walker, 
1803; Isaac Newton, 1811; William and Pa- 
melia Fankle, 1816; David and Mary (Walk- 
er) Porter, 181 5. The last named who came 
from Adams county, Pennsylvania, settled in 
the southeast corner of the township. They had 
five children, one of whom was named David. 
Another, Harvey, removed to Kansas. Their 
daughter, Martha, married a Mr. Slaven. The 
father, David Porter, Sr., was killed by a fall- 
ing tree in June, 1819. 


The first township meeting for the election 
of officers was held April 7, 1806, previous to 
which year the township had been included in 
Yonngstown. It w'as organized as Boardman 
township in 1 805. Eli Baldwin was the first 
justice of the peace. The amount of taxes 
levied in Boardman in 1803 was $17.47, being 
distributed among twenty-nine tax payers. 


The early settlers were nnich troul^led with 
bears and wolves, and hunting was both a fav- 
orite amusement and most useful occupation. 
A bounty of $6 each was paid by the county 
for the scalps of wolves. There were also 



abundance of deer, turkeys and pheasants, and 
more than enough of rattlesnakes, upon which 
the settlers, of course, made constant war. 
There was scarcely a house without a rifle, 
whose crack meant usually either the destruc- 
tion of a common enemy or food for the 
family. It is related that Curtis Fairchild, a 
noted hunter in those days, killed 105 deer in 
one season, besides trapping thirteen wolves.' 
The skin of a deer was worth seventy-five 
cents, but the meat was not valued and was 

THE WAR OF l8l2. 

There were three drafts made during the 
War of 1 81 2, each taking one-third of the 
militia. There were few, if any, volunteers. 
At one time, though but for a short period, not 
an able bodied man was left in the township. 
Boardman's soldiers took part in some sharp 
fighting with the Indians at the Battle of the 
Peninsula, near Sandusky. After the war and 
until 1820 money was scarce, though provis- 
ions were cheap in comparison with the prices 
which prevail today. Butter could be bought 
for five cents a pound, wheat was twenty-five 
cents a bushel in paper money, and eggs cost 
four cents a dozen, in "store pay." Every 
article of clothing was manufactured, except 
leather for shoes. Shoes, however, were only 
used on special occasions in the summer, most 
of the settlers going- barefoot. Many of the 
men wore buckskin breeches. 


St. James Episcopal church is the oldest in 
the county, having been organized in July, 
1809. Among the first members were many 
of the principal settlers, including Turhand 
Kirtland, Jared Kirtland, Arad Way, Josiah 
Wetmore, Charles Crittenden, Eleazer Fair- 
child, Eli Piatt, John Liddle, Joseph Piatt, 
Ethel Starr, John Loveland, Lewis Hoyt, 
Joseph Liddle, Samuel Blocker, Fran- 
cis Dowler, Russell F. Starr, and Ensign 
Church. All these persons were instrumental 
in forming the first Episcopal society. The 

congregation worshipped in schoolhouses and 
private dwellings until 1828, when a church 
edifice was erected. 

The German Reformed church, one of the 
oldest churches in the township, was erected in 
1816, the church edifice being rebuilt in 1845. 
The present pastor is Rev. E. D. Weadock. 

A Congregational church was established 
in 181 3 by Rev. John Field, from Connecti- 
cut. Among its first officers were Charles A. 
Boardman and Samuel Swan. In 1849 the 
organization ceased to exist on account of the 
death or removal of its principal members. It 
was sometimes called the Presbyterian church. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was found- 
ed at an early date, thoug'h the year is not 
known. Oswald Detchon, elsewhere men- 
tioned, was one of the most prominent among 
its early members, and the first meetings were 
in a log schoolhouse on his farm. The church 
edifice was erected about 1835, those chiefly 
instrumental being Thomas Agjiew, Major 
Samuel Clark, and Josiah Beardsley. 

The Disciples church was organized about 
1854 by an evangelist named Reeves, and a 
church building erected two years later, but 
organization ceased to exist about 1872, and 
the church was sold to the township which 
converted it into the town hall. 

The first burials in Boardman township 
were made upon the farm of Adam Simon, 
and soon after the German cemetery was laid 
out. The cemetery near the center was laid 
out in 1805. 

The first log school house was built a few 
rods west of the center in 1803 or 1804. Na- 
thaniel Blakely was the first teacher. Mrs. 
Simeon Mitchel, who settled at the center in 
1810, also taught school for several terms. 
In 1809 a two-story frame school house was 
erected, which was called "The Academy," 
and "was used for school, church, and meet- 
ings for forty years or more." In the seven- 
ties it was moved a mile and a half east of the 
center and converted into a stable. About the 
same time as the school house at the center 


was erected, the Simons built a log school 
house, where for some years German alone 
was taught. Jacob Simon was the first 

The present frame school building at the 
center of the township, known as the "Cen- 
tralized school," has four rooms, with Prof. 
W. B. Randolph, Minnie Kiper, Olive Beard 
and Ethel Walters, teachers. The Wood- 
worth school, on the south line of the town- 
ship, is a one-room brick building; Alice Ren- 
kenberger is the teacher. 

The Heintzman school in the southwest 
corner of the township has one room and is 
taught by Alice Winter. 

The yearly cost of maintenance for the 
township schools is $4,500. 


In 1805 George Stillson built the first 
frame house in the towmship, where he after- 
wards kept tavern for twenty-five years. Jo- 
seph Merchant, who came from Connecticut 
in 1804, started a tavern about 1814 a short 
distance east of the center. 

Baird's mill on Mill creek, near Lanter- 
man's Falls, was the first grist mill in the town- 
ship. It was at first a small log building, but 
afterwards a larger one was built on the same 
site. Thomas Shields was the proprietor for 
many years and was succeeded by Eli Baldwin. 
About 1808 a sawmill was built a mile and a 
half from the center, and was conducted for a 
short time by Richard Elliot and Elijah Board- 
man. Another sawmill, known as De Camp's, 
was constructed in the northwestern part of 
the township, but like the first named had a 
short lease of life. Another sawmill and a 
grist mill were erected later on Mill creek by 
Eli Baldwin ; also a cloth mill. 

The were several small stills in the town- 
ship, and in 1808 or 1809, Eli Baldwin, who 
seems to have been a very enterprising citizen 
for his day, built a distiller)^ near the north 
line of the township on the Youngstown roarl. 

and carried on a good business for several 

James Mo(idy, who came to Boardman 
in 1804, built a tannery, and continued in bus- 
iness as a tanner for forty years or more sub- 
sequently. Charles Boardman and William 
Ingersoll opened the first store in a room of 
Stillson's tavern. 


The first white child born in Boardman 
township was James D. McMahon, the date 
of this event being October 31, 1799. Horace 
Daniels, whose parents came in 1799, was born 
in Alarch, 1800. In 1823 he drove the first 
stage westward on the old Pittsburg and 
Cleveland stage line. 

Andrew Webb, the first blacksmith in 
the township, came about 1804. He manu- 
, factured scythes, which he sold for $2 each, 
eastern scythes being then worth $2.50. John 
Davidson and Elijah Deane were probably the 
first shoemakers in the township. 

Peter Stillson, in 1804, made the first 
cheese in Boardman, which was also, perhaps, 
the first made on the ^Vestern Reserve. He 
carted several hundred-weight of it to Pitts- 
burg, where he easily disposed if it. 

The first sermon was preached, in 1804, in 
the log school house at the center, by Rev. 
Joseph Badger, a Presbyterian missionary 
from Connecticut. 


Canfield, the central township of Mahon- 
ing county, was one of the earliest settled 
townships on the reserve, and has always been 
the home of a thrifty and prosperous agricul- 
tural class, having besides contrilnited alile 
men to the leading professions, especiallv that 
of law. That her sons have not been ecpially 
prominent in trade, commerce and manufac- 
tures, is due to the limited opportunities af- 
forded by the township in those directions. No 
large stream flows through Canfield, but there 
are plenty of small creeks and fresh water 
springs, affording a ])lentiful su]iply of i)ure 



cold water for dairy and agricultural pur- 
poses. These industries are further favored by 
the soil, which is a rich and easily cultivated 
loam, suitable to a large variety of crops. 

Canfield was township No. i in range No. 
3 of the purchase of the Connecticut Land 
Compan}', and contained 16,324 acres. It was 
purchased fr(_im the company b}' six persons 
who owned in the following proportions : 
Judson Canfield, 6, 1 7 1 acres ; James John- 
son, 3,502 acres; David Waterman, 2,- 
745 acres; Elijah \\'adsworth, 2,069 
acres; Nathaniel Church, 1,400 acres; 
Samuel Canfield, 437 acres. The total 
price paid was $12,903.23, or a trifle more than 
seventy-nine cents per acre. Lot No. 2 in 
township No. i in the tenth range, consisting 
of fifty-eight and a half acres, was added to it 
under the equalization system adopted by the 
Connecticut Land Company, which has been 
explained in a previous chapter. 

In 1798 the land was surveyed into lots 
and impro\'ements commenced. The surveys 
were superintended by Nathaniel Church, who 
was accompanied by Nathan Moore, of Salis- 
bury, surveyor ; Eli Tousley, Nathaniel Gridley, 
Barker King, Reuben Tupper, Samuel Gilson, 
Joseph Pangburn, and one Skinner, of Salis- 
bury. Gilson and Pangburn were axemen. 
The center of the township was first found, 
the east and west road laid out, and clearings 
made, and some oats and wheat sown. A log 
house was erected at the center and two houses 
and a barn east of the center. 

About a month after their arrival the first 
family of settlers arrived, consisting of Cham- 
pion Minor, with his wife and two children, 
who made the journey in an ox team from 
Salisbury. A few days after their arrival the 
youngest child died, and was buried in a coffin 
of split wood, which was the first white burial 
in the county. After cutting through the east 
and west road most of the party returned to 
Connecticut, Samuel Gilson and Joseph Pang- 
burn remaining, with Champion Minor and 
his family. The township was denominated 
Campfield by the surveyors above mentioned, 
but on April 15, 1800, it was voted that it 
should be called Canfield, in honor of Judson 

Canfield, who was there as early as June, 1798, 
and who owned the greatest amount of land 
in it. 

In 1799 the settlement was strengthened 
by the arrival of Phineas Reed, Eleazer Gilson 
and Joshua Hollister, and in the following 
year by that of Nathan Moore and family, who 
arrived May 15, after a journey of forty-five 
days. In 1801 came James Doud and family, 
Calvin Tobias, Abijah Peck and Ichabod At- 
wood. In 1802 there was a larger immigra- 
tion and thenceforth for a number of years 
there was a steadily increasing stream of set- 
tlers, some of whom, however, remained but 
a short time, afterwards moving to other town- 
ships. All of the first settlers came from Con- 
necticut. A number of Germans came in 1805, 
and during subsequent years, those who settled 
permanently doing much to develop the agri- 
cultural resources of the township. 

An epidemic, in 181 3, carried off a large 
number of the settlers, including Aaron and 
Lavinia Collar, who came to Canfield in 1802. 
They left descendants who still reside in the 
township. William Chidester, who also came 
in 1802, was the first justice of the peace 
in Canfield, and in early days officiated at nu- 
merous marriages, both in this and other town- 
ships. He died in 1813, at the age of fifty- 
seven. Some of the pioneer settlers lived to a 
remarkable age. John Everett, one of the oldest 
among the immigrants, died in 18 19, at the 
age of ninety-two. Mrs. Esther Beardsley, 
wife of Captain Philo Beardsley, died at the 
age of ninety-one ; and Ethel Starr, a compar- 
atively early settler, was ninety-two years 
old at the time of his death in 1861. 

Hemian Canfield, Sr., who was a brother 
of Judson Canfield, settled here in October, 
1805. He and his wife, whose maiden name 
was Fitia Bostwick, were the parents of five 
children — Herman, William H., Elizabeth, 
Cornelia and Lora. Lieutenant-Colonel Her- 
man Canfield died at Crumps' Landing April 
7, 1862, while in the service of his country. 
He was an able lawyer and served as state sen- 
ator of Medina county. William H. Canfield, 
who studied law under Hon. Elisha \\niittle- 
sey, removed to Kansas in 1866, and in 1870 



was appointed juclg-e of the Eighth Jmlicial 
District of that state, which position he held 
until his death in 1874. 

James Reed, one of the immigrants of 
1805, whose father, also named James, came 
out and lived with him, during the war of 181 2 
set up a distillery to furnish the soldiers with 
whisky, that being considered an essential 
part of their rations. He died in 1813; his 
wife survived him forty-seven years, dying in 
i860 at the remarkable age of ninety-eight. 
They were the parents of ten children, several 
of whom lived to an advanced age. 

One of the most important immigrants was 
Elisha Whittlesey, who came in 1806, a 
sketch of whom may be found in the chapter 
of this volume entitled "Bench and Bar." He 
was one of the foremost lawyers in the county, 
and was almost constantly in public service up 
to the time of his death in 1863. A number of 
distinguished men acquired a part of their legal 
training in his office, among them being Hon. 
Benjamin F. Wade, General Ralph P. Buck- 
land, Hon. Joshua R. Giddings and W. C. 

In 1806 came also Adam Turner and wife, 
Margaret, from New Jersey, with their five 
sons and three daughters ; they settled in the 
northwestern part of the township, on the road 
that was afterwards known as Turner street. 


The first male child born in Canfield was 
Royal Canfield Chidister, the date of his na- 
tivity being June 22, 1802, his parents resid- 
ing near the center of the township. The first 
person buried in the cemetery east of the cen- 
ter was Olive, wife of Charles Chittenden; she 
died September 30, 1801. 

Joseph Pangburn and Lydia Fitch were the 
first couple to get married in Canfield. the cer- 
emony being performed April 11, 1801, by Ca- 
leb Baldwin, Esq., of Youngstown. There 
would have been an earlier marriage — that of 
Alfred Woolcott to Mary Gilson, in February, 
1800 — but there being no person duly quali- 
fied to perform the ceremony, they were 
obliged to go to Pennsylvania to be married. 

The building of a sawmill was begun in 
the northwestern part of the township, in 1801,, 
by Jonah Scoville, but before finishing the mill, 
he sold out his interests to a Mr. Atwood, who- 
completed it and put it in operation in the 
spring of 1802. In the same year another 
sawmill was erected on what was known as 
the "Brier lot,"- one-half being owned by Eli- 
jah Wadsworth, the other proprietors being 
Tryall Tanner, William Sprague and ^lattliew 
Steele. The land was rented by Mr. Wads- 
worth from Judson Canfield for seven years, 
the consideration being "one pepper-corn year- 
ly, to be paid if demanded," About 1810 a 
carding machine propelled by horse power, was 
erected by a company, and for some time did 
a fair business. 


The first store was opened in 1804 by Zal- 
mon Fitch and Herman Canfield, who were 
partners. Mr. Fitch also kept a tavern in Can- 
field until his removal to Warren in 1813. In 
1807 Messrs. Fitch and Canfield took as an ad- 
ditional partner in the business Comfort S. 
Mygatt, who had arrived in that year from 
Danbury, Connecticut, with his family. The 
latter consisted of four daughters, two sons 
and two step-sons. Two years later the part- 
nership was dissolved and the business was 
continued by Mr. Mygatt during the rest of 
his life, which terminated in October, 1823. 

In 1828 there were three merchants in- 
Canfield — William Hogg, Alson Kent and E. 
T. Boughton. C. S. Mygatt, son of Comfort 
S., began business in Canfield in 1833 with the 
firm of Lockwood, Mygatt & Co., general mer- 
chants, and was subsequently in business here 
until i860, most of the time in partnership. 

Other industrial and mercantile enterprises 
were established from time to time, of some of 
which we must omit mention for lack of space.. 


As we have seen in a previous ciiapter, on 
the creation of Mahoning county during the 
legislative session of 1845-46, Canfield, being 



the geographical center of the county, was 
made the county seat, which it continued to be 
for thirty years. This naturally made Can- 
field a place of importance; the legal business 
of the county was transacted here, and the 
volume of general business increased. But 
this state of thing's was not to continue. The 
establishment of the iron industry in Youngs- 
town gave that place a formidable advantage 
■over her one-time rival, and she gradually 
iorged ahead, slowly at first, but afterwards 
with big strides, until she had left Canfield far 
behind in the race for indvistrial and commer- 
•cial importance. Being thus superior in wealth 
and population, she went a step farther and 
began to proclaim her intention of having the 
■county seat. A rival agitation was at once 
begun, which was carried on spiritedly on both 
sides until the legislative session of 1874-5, 
when Youngstown gained her point, and in 
1876 became the county seat of Mahoning. 


The village of Canfield was incorporated 
Tay act of legislature in 1849, '^"d the first elec- 
tion held in April of that year, L. L. Bostwick 
being chosen mayor; H. B. Brainerd, recorder; 
and John Clark, Thomas Hansom, M. Swank, 
Charles Frethy and ^Villiam B. Ferrell, trus- 

Canfield is like a "city that is set on an 
hill" and "beautiful for situation." The town 
is about a square mile in area and situated on 
a gradually rising elevation 1200 feet above 
sea-level and 640 feet higher than Lake Erie. 

Its elevation and natural drainage caused 
by the land surface falling away in gentle un- 
dulations of hill, plain and valley in all direc- 
tions, together with the total absence of mill 
and factory smoke and dust, give the town an 
abundance of pure, invigorating air all the year 
round. Its healthiness is excellent, just what 
would be expected from such favorable condi- 
tions. Adding very much to the health, com- 
fort and beauty of the place, the streets are 
"wide and lined with nol)le trees, elms and ma- 
ples predominating. Main and Broad streets 
crossing at right angles are each ninety-nine 

feet wide and a mile in length. A neatly laid- 
out park of eleven and one-half acres, studded 
with rows of trees, stretches its avenues of 
shade through the town from north to south 
for two-fifths of a mile. 

The material conditions and natural en- 
vironments of a community exert a silent but 
continuous and decided influence on its moral 
and social life. And this is especially true of 
mosphere are good and wholesome, making it 
an ideal place of residence. 


Overlooking the park from the south end 
and near the highest elevation, stands the N. 
E. O. Normal College, commanding a fine out- 
look and panoramic survey of the park and 
town and of the surrounding country of mead- 
ows, rolling uplands and native forests for 
miles in every direction. From both the moral 
and educational point of view the location of 
the Normal Colleg'e in such quiet, healthful 
surroundings in the midst of a fertile, prosper- 
ous and intellig'ent farming community, is al- 
most ideal. The history of the institution 
since its opening in 1882, incorporated 1881, 
gives ample testimony to the advantages of 
such wholesome and healthful surroundings 
and location. 

Although the particular aim of the school 
has always been and still continues to be the 
training of young men and women efficiently 
for the profession of teaching and business 
pursuits, her many graduates from the colle- 
giate courses who are now filling positions of 
trust and honor in the learned professions of 
the Christian ministry, law, medicine and jour- 
nalism, attest the excellent character of the 
work done. Many of these received no other 
academic training than what they obtained at 
the Normal, while others found here the kind 
of preparator)' training needed for entering 
other and older colleges. 

The Commercial Department has sent 
large numbers of trusted and successful ac- 
countants into every line of business, while the 
department of Music has played its important 



part in tlie education of the student body by its 
refining and elevating influences. 

From the Normal or Pedagogy department 
have gone successful teachers into all grades 
of public school work, school superintendents 
and college instructors. The institution- points 
with just pride to the sterling worth and 
Christian character of her alumni and students, 
qualities which make for the largest success. 

The present outlook is promising and as- 
suring. The great scarcity of teachers 
throughout Eastern Ohio, Western Pennsyl- 
vania and West Virginia opens the way for a 
greater usefulness of the school and a larger 
attendance than ever before. To meet the urg- 
ent demands of the teaching profession, and to 
meet the requirements of its patrons, it aims 
to give the students of the Normal Department 
the most practical and thorough instruction 
and the most helpful preparation possible for 
the work in which they are to engage. This 
part of the work is carefully planned and per- 
haps has never been stronger than it is now. 
The faculty has under consideration the open- 
ing of a well organized summer school in 1908. 
The Music Department is in a flourishing con- 
dition under the very competent direction of 
Miss Anna K. Means, a graduate of Oberlin 
Conservatory of Music, an accomplished pian- 
ist and vocalist and a successful teacher of 
both voice and piano. 

Charles O. Allaman, A. B., graduate of 
Wooster University, is president and has 
charge of the departments of Latin, Greek and 
English Literature, and conducts the teachers" 
class in literature. 

Franklin B. Sawvel, Ph. D., one of the in- 
structors associated with Prof. Helman during 
the earlier history of the Normal, has the de- 
partments of Philosophy, History and Peda- 
gogy and the teachers' training class in Arith- 

Aliss Florence Rose Wilson, Ph. M.. has 
charge of the department of German, Normal 
branches and the review classes in United 
States history and English grammar. 

R. W. Correll, A. B., is professor of 
science and mathematics and the review class 
in geography. 

The commercial courses, including short- 
hand, typewriting and penmanship, are under 
the direction of Munson Buel Chidester, B. 
C. S. 

The school is interdenominational and 
therefore unique in character among Normal 
schools and colleges. It has now about one 
hundred scholars. 

Among Canfield's other acquisitions, she 
rejoices in an up-to-date and interesting news- 
paper, the Mahoning Despatch, which was es- 
tablished by Henry M. Fowler, father of the 
present editor, C. C. Fowler, and has just com- 
pleted its thirtieth year of existence. Mr. C. 
C. Fowler, who began his connection with the 
paper as printer's devil at its origin, has con- 
tinued with it ever since, and has made it one 
of the most robust and firmly established enter- 
prises of the village. In his own words, 'Tt 
circulates very largely throughout Mahoning 
County and weekly visits nearly every state 
in the Union. Its advertising patronage is 
not surpassed by any local publication in this 
quarter of the state, while the job printing de- 
partment output has steadily grown in public 
favor." On March 29th of the present year, 
(its thirtieth anniversary), it printed an issue 
of approximately 3,000 copies of a twenty-four 
page paper. An interesting feature of the 
newspaper is its publication from time to time 
of valuable articles dealing with local history. 

We can give no better description of Can- 
field during the last thirty years than is con- 
tained in two articles of this kind that were 
published in the anniversary issue above re- 
ferred to. One is from the pen of Hon. 
Charles Fillius, who became a resident of Can- 
field thirty-two years ago, when a young man 
of twenty-three, and who was for some three 
years thereafter superintendent of schools ; he 
describes Canfield as it was at that time. The 
other article is by Dr. J. Truesdale. well known 
as one of Canfield's oldest and most prominent 
citizens, and as a local historian of well-earned 
repute. Dr. Truesdale depicts the changes 
which have occurred in the period under review. 
We quote largely-, if not entirely, from lunh 
articles. Mr. I'illius writes as follows: 

"In June "f 1S75 my cullege career came 

1 86 


to an end, and there was 'necessity laid upon 
me' to do something. Learning through Mrs. 
Judge Servis that there was Hkely to be a 
vacancy in the superintendency of the Canfield 
schools, I made my first visit there in June of 
that year. 

"It struck me then as a quaint old town. 
On my way up to the hotel from the station I 
had the experience, which I afterwards learned 
was common to newcomers, of being greeted 
with an unearthly sort of noise from a barefoot, 
queer-acting individual whom I afterwards 
learned was Rupright, and of being similarly 
informed by Sammy Ruggles, who evidently 
'caught onto' the fact from my appearance that 
I was to the country born, that the 
county seat could not be moved from 
Canfield to Youngstown because it would 
be impossible to take the court house 
through the covered bridge at Lanter- 
man's Falls. That was substantially my first 
introduction to the court-house removal con- 
troversy that was then raging. I put up at the 
Bostwick Hotel, which looked then much as 
it did twenty years later. The room that was 
given to me seemed to partake in its general 
appearance of the character of the landlord and 
the building proper. It ought to have been 
condemned for being unsanitary, and the ex- 
cuse for a bed which I had precluded the pos- 
sibility of a good night's sleep. 

"The next day I took in the town. Its 
Broad street, with interlying parks, made a 
very great impression upon me. Court was 
then in session. There appeared to be a great 
many lawyers in town, and it seemed to me as 
if at least half of the buddings on the street 
were occupied as law offices — little buildings 
erected for law offices and used exclusively as 
such. I remember very well the more impos- 
ing offices of this character, namely, the one 
then occupied by Judge Servis, being a more 
pretentious building of this character than any 
of the others perhaps, a brick building on the 
west side of Broad street. I was told that it had 
been used as a law office for many years, and 
was formerly occupied as such by Hon. Elisha 
Whittlese}', who had been a member of con- 
gress, and that at once invested the building 

with unusual importance in my mind. Then 
across the street from Judge Servis' office was. 
a larger office building then occupied by the firm 
of Van Hyning & Johnston, which I was told 
was formerly the office of Judge Newton, who 
was then still living, active, nearly eighty years 
old, and one of the most kindly and genial 
old gentlemen that I ever knew. 

"As I say, the town seemed to be a town of 
lawyers, and I remember seeing upon its streets 
not only those named above, but A. W. Jones, 
Gen. Sanderson, M. H. Burky, L. D. Thomas, 
and others still whose names after the lapse of 
these many years do not readily come to me. 
M. V. B. King was then probate judge. 

"The parks then were simply so much naked 
land, meadows if you please, in the midst of 
the town. They did not even subserve the or- 
dinary uses of a park, save as they made fresh 
air possible for the inhabitants, and as I now 
remember they were mowed each year for the 
grass that grew upon them. The trees that 
have grown up since so beautifully were not 
planted until several years after I left Canfield. 

"There were at that time three leading ho- 
tels in the village, the one at which I stopped on. 
my first arrival in Canfield, the brick hotel, thea 
occupied by Mr. Clark, and the large wooden 
structure on the east side of Broad street, a 
sort of a companion to the other one, and one 
about as desirable as the other to keep out of. 

"I met on this occasion the members of the 
board of education, and the village board of 
examiners. I do not now recall the names of 
the members save two, Judson Canfield and 
Doctor Truesdale. The village board of ex- 
aminers was made up of the three ministers 
of the three leading churches in town, the 
Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregational. 
"Father" Guy, as he was affectionately known, 
was pastor of the Methodist church, then, Mr. 
Peterson of the Congregational church and ed- 
itor and publisher of the newspaper, and Mr. 
Irwin, pastor of the Presbyterian church. I 
was not subjected to the ordeal of an examin- 
ation by this board for the reason that it was 
ascertained that the board had no legal exis- 
tence, and I therefore was examined and ob- 
tained my certificate from the county board of 



(Erected in 1850) 




examiners. I afterwards came to know Father 
Ciny. Mr. Peterson and Mr. Irwin very well. 
They were all most excellent men. Father 
Guy was an especially kindly man, and I have 
of him very affectionate memories. Mr. Mc- 
Lain was then living in Caniield, a retired 
Methodist preacher of the old school, who 
fondly imagined that he had reached that stage 
in Christian experience and life where he was 
no longer in danger of sin, and his good life 
warranted his fellow villagers in sympathizing 
with him in that conviction. I always regard- 
ed Judson Canfield as a character. He was 
always my best and stanchest friend. He was 
the village's handy man, ahvays ready to do 
anything from surveying a farm to mending 
a wagon. He had a habit of what I called 
ridiculous profanity. His swearing was of 
that peculiar and energetic kind that never 
suggested wickedness, but always aroused 
one's risibilities. 

"My employment as superintendent of the 
schools followed shortly after my first visit, 
and late the following August school opened 
under my charge. I succeeded Mr. Fording, 
who had been the deservedly popular superin- 
tendent for a number of years preceding — so 
popular, indeed, had he been that it made my 
position as his successor doubly difficult, but 
owing to the kindly and firm support of the 
board I succeeded in getting along after a fash- 
ion. The school yard was then barren of trees. 
Many of those that now adorn the yard were 
planted by myself. 

"I was impressed then, as I continued to 
be during my three years stay in Canfield, 
with the character of the inhabitants of the 
village. It seemed to me then, and it seems to 
me now, as I recall those impressions, that the 
people of the village were remarkable for their 
intelligence, character and goodness. Many of 
them, if not all of them, I recall as my friends, 
who placed me under lasting obligations for 
kindnesses shown me, sympathy extended me 
in my work, and all those thousand and one 
things that make life in a given community 
happy and worth living. Your readers I am 
sure will be interested to know about some of 
them, and at the risk of omitting some who are 

equall}- worthy of mention with the others, I 
will recall some. There were Judge Servis 
and his wife and two daughters; Judson Can- 
field and family ; Judge Newton ; Judge Vaa 
Hyning; Judge Johnston; Judge King; Mr. 
Hine, a tall, dignified, elderly gentleman, who 
lived in a white house on the east side of Broad 
street, about half way between Church's store 
and Van Hyning & Johnston's law office; G. 
F. Lynn and his wife who lived next door;, 
"D'ri" Church, as he was famiharly called, 
who kept the store on the corner, whose widow 
is still living; William Clark, who kept the 
brick hotel then, and with whom I lived for a 
year, his widow and his eldest daughter, now 
Mrs. Leet, now living in Warren ; Ira Bun- 
nell, who kept a harness store, whose religious 
experiences were of that character that they 
revived at every religious revival and lapsed 
between times. Then there was Colonel Nash, 
always dignified and courteous; Mr. Edwards 
and his family, who kept a store and lived next 
the Congregational church; G. W. Shellhorn 
and family, with whom I lived a year, who did 
a thriving business in the boot and shoe line 
on the west side of Broad street; good old Dr. 
Caldwell and his son and daughter; Charley 
French and his wife; the Lynn boys, who kept 
a drug store next to Truesdale & Kirk's store 
on the west side of Broad street; Charley 
Schmick and his father; the Whittleseys, wha 
lived near Judge Servis; the Mygatts, father 
and son, who kept a store on the corner north- 
of the Truesdale & Kirk store. And there were 
others whose names do not readily come to me. 
These all lived within the village, but just out- 
side lived many others, whom I knew equally 
well and favorably, and among whom I now 
recall with greatest satisfaction my old friend, 
H. A. Manchester, now your banker, some of 
whose children attended school in the village. 
And then with an ever widening radius I came 
to know the people for miles about through 
their children, who were sent to the Canfield 

"Those whom I have mentioned were but 
a type of the general character of the inhab- 
itants of the village and country around — 
sturdy, intelligent, honest, high-minded, gen- 



erous, Christian men and women, whom it was 
good to know and good to associate with. 

"The preachers were of the old-fashioned 
type. I remember very well hearing Father 
Guy direct the attention of his audience to the 
terrors of hell by depicting to them in very 
plain and vigorous language the streams of 
molten lava in which the sinner would meet 
his final doom. Mr. Irwin of the Presbyte- 
rian church was equally sure that he who in- 
dulged in playing with these 'instruments of 
Satan,' i. e., cards, was in danger of eternal 
punishment. Good old Dr. Caldwell was a 
fervent member of the Disciple church, and got 
a good deal of satisfaction in attending regu- 
larly upon its services and engaging often in 
public prayer, in which he was sure to ask the 
Lord to deliver the individual members of the 
congregation from 'works of supererogation.' 

"It was the next year that the county seat 
•question assumed an acute stage, and upon the 
issues of its removal Judge Thoman was 
elected probate judge, and Judge Conant of 
the common pleas court decided, upon a suit 
brought for the purpose of contesting the ques- 
tion, that the law providing for the removal 
of the county seat to Youngstown was consti- 
tutional. I remember very well going into 
the court room one evening on my way home 
from school when the case was being argued 
before Judge Conant. It was there that 1 
first saw Judge Tuttle, who is now nearly 
ninety-two years old and comes daily to the 
office. He was representing the Canfield peo- 
ple in their attempt to prevent the removal. 
When I went in Gen. Sanderson was talking 
to the court, and Judge Tuttle was walking 
about in deep reflection, apparently, until his 
eye fell on me, with my school books, and he 
came over and looked at them. After Conant's 
decision the court house officials quietly and 
secretly arranged to remove the records dur- 
ing the night to Youngstown, and so one 
morning the good people of the village awoke 
to the fact that the county seat had actually 
"been removed, notwithstanding Sammy Rug- 
gles' early declaration that that would be im- 
possible owing to the covered bridge. 

"That was a sorry day for Canfield. She 

mourned like Rachael for her children that 
were not. 

"As I write I am reminded of the wonder- 
ful changes that have taken place in the last 
thirty years. In those days we knew nothing 
about an electric street car, a phonograph — 
indeed we knew nothing scarcely at all of all 
the various uses to which electricity is applied 
now — nothing of arc and incandescent elec- 
tric lighting, nothing of electric motors and 
the various kinds of electric power machines. 
Indeed the text books then in use in our 
schools told all that was known about elec- 
tricity in a very short chapter in physics. 
Great changes have taken place in thirty 

Of some of these changes we will now let 
Dr. Truesdale speak : 

"In the most conservative or fixed commu- 
nities changes are constantly occurring by rea- 
son of death. Neither a death nor a birth in 
a family can occur without modifying to some 
extent the social relations of that family. And 
it often happens that the death of one individ- 
ual in a community leads to the necessity of 
a very considerable change of its social and 
industrial relations. As we shall see, Canfield 
is no exception to this rule. During the past 
thirty years no devastating epidemic, plague 
or disasters have visited us, yet no one year 
of these thirty has passed without the removal 
of some of our number to their last resting 
place. This change by death is made more 
apparent by getting back by the aid of mem- 
ory and recalling the names of residents of 
former years on a few of our streets as an il- 
lustration for all. To this end we will begin 
at the lower end of West Main street. There 
thirty years ago we find Mathias Swank en- 
gaged in the manufacture of wagons and bug- 
gies from the raw materials to finished prod- 
ucts ; employing more men and doing a larger 
business than any other industrial enterprise 
in the town. A little community of laborers 
made their homes near his establishment and 
the suburb was known by the now forgotten 
name of Kensington. The business, although 
profitable at first, became unprofitable, for the 
reason that machinery driven b}' steam power 



could construct a wagon or a buggj' at a less 
cost than Mr. Swank could do b}' hand labor. 
A part of the buildings remain and are occu- 
pied by the Kimerle Brothers, whose work 
is more in the line of repairs than new work. 

"In our retrospect we move up East Main 
street and soon come to our village cemetery, 
and at once notice the great change that has 
taken place since the late seventies. Thirty 
years ago the surface was rough and uneven 
and covered with a thick fleece of ground ivy, 
and about every species of foul weeds known 
in this locality. A great amount of lalx)r was 
necessary and has been accomplished to dig 
up and remove the entire surface to low parts 
and fit the ground for a sward of timothy and 
the use of a lawn mower. Thirty years ago 
the maple trees were mere saplings. Now they 
are trees that Virgil could rest under and ad- 
mire their wide 'spreading branches.' A pub- 
lic receiving vault, and a private one are vise- 
ful additions. In short, we have a creditable 
place for the repose of the dear ones we have 
in the years past placed there for their last rest. 
Apparently the population of this spot has 
doubled within the last three decades, judging 
from the great number of monuments recently 
erected. Passing up the street we notice the 
absence of many old dwellings, one church 
structure, store rooms, and shops that in for- 
mer years lined the street have been destroyed, 
moved away, or burned. In all I recall four- 
teen and am not sure that I have them all. 
Some of them have been replaced by modern 
dwellings, and of others the ground remains 
unoccupied. But few who lived on the street 
in 1877 remain residents to this dav. I can 
only recall Martin Kimerle, a part of the Mc- 
Coy family, Mrs. Mary Nash, Mrs. Sarah 
Tow, and myself. The general appearance of 
the street has improved by the erection of mod- 
ern dwellings, and the remodeling of most of 
the older ones. 

"I have prepared a list of the old familiar 
residents of thirty years ago. but space forbids 
their use. In the later seventies, and for some 
time after the northeast corner retained a large 
part of the retail business of the village. But 
repeated fires have done much to change the 

locality of trade to where it now exists. At 
intervals between 1857 and 1887 a succession 
of destructive fires occurred at the northeast- 
ern and southwest corners, the last of which 
destroyed the three-story brick block belonging 
to the estate of the late John R. Church, and 
was never rebuilt, which finished that corner 
as a place of business. Within <the period al- 
lotted for men the old Mygatt store building 
On the southeast corner had long been a land- 
mark and was moved away to give place to 
the indispensable town hall. A sweep of the 
eye takes in all of the north part of the village. 
After a long drowsy spell this locality has be- 
come rejuvinated. Some old offices and dwell- 
ings have disappeared and a number of modern 
structures have been erected within the last 
few years, and other old residences have been 
so remodeled as to appear new and fresh. But 
what a change on the part of residents ! Not a 
soul is there found who lived there thirty years 
ago. What spot can be found within so small 
limits that has produced more distinguished 
men ? This is apparent when we mention such 
names as Elisha Whittlesey, Judge Eben 
Newton and Columbus Lancaster, whose 
united services as congressmen extended to 
twenty or more years. Other prominent men 
in this same locality might be mentioned, but 
our task relates to other matters, ^^'est ]\Iain 
street may be treated much in the same way 
as East Main. A few old landmarks have 
ceased to exist, notably, the old Boughton and 
Cronk homes, and the old red building built 
by Ensign Church, the old M. E. parsonage 
and possibly, the old Tryal Tanner homestead. 
All these places have been replaced by modern 
dwellings. Some other new structures have 
been erected on the street within the period 
mentioned. The old Presbyterian church has 
been replaced by an elegant, up-to-date mod- 
ern church, costing $12,000. The new Meth- 
odist parsonage is a beautiful structure, cost- 
ing $2,500, so that we are able to say the street 
has made substantial improvement within the 
decades mentioned. But when we look for 
the residents of thirty years ago but few re- 
main to answer the roll call. The aged ladies, 
Mrs. Mary lloover and Mrs. Mary Hartman; 



to these may be added Mrs. Martha Fowler, 
C. C. Fowler, then a young man, Miss Myra 
Smith, Miss Lucy Hartman, Miss Sarah 
Barnes, Mrs. S. W. Brainerd and son, Fred, 
George Hollis, son and daughter, Miss Bond, 
are all that I can recall. But I see plainly that 
I must abandon minute details. To follow out 
the plan so far pursued with other streets in 
the village would practically be a repetition. 
It will be enough to say that the improvements 
and buildings beginning at the east end of 
Lisbon street, have mostly been made since 
1877, and the same may be said with reference 
to Court street. 

"But the greatest feature of our industrial 
improvements centers around the railroad sta- 
tion. There we find indisputable evidence of 
growth and prosperity. Thirty years ago the 
novelty works may have had a small begin- 
ning. Since then it has swollen to large pro- 
portion. The buildings have been greatly en- 
larged and much machinery addded. The out- 
put of articles manufactured indicates pros- 
perity and its present outlook promises sta- 
bility and success. The company gives steady 
employment to a large force of men and teams, 
affording a ready market for nearly all kinds 
of timber, taken from the stump or shipped in 
by railroads. Thirty years ago the Canfield 
Lumber Company was a small affair. Under 
the present management it has grown wonder- 
fully in the amount of business transacted. Its 
sales during the past year have amounted to 
between forty and fifty thousand dollars, and 
the company is now prepared to do a much 
larger business in the future. They have taken 
down the old mill and erected a new and capa- 
cious one with new machinery for sawing and 
dressing lumber. Callahan & Nefif, it is said, 
are doing a business of over one hundred 
thousand dollars per annum. Recently the 
company have expended several thousand dol- 
lars in improvements to their immense ware- 
houses, and purpose making further improve- 
ments the present season. They deal exten- 
sively in hides and tallow, and the purchase 
of pipe and building blocks. 

"Recently a new firm has come into exist- 
-ence, John Delfs & Sons. This company also 

deals largely in hides and tallow, sewer pipe, 
building blocks and feed stuffs of every de- 
scription. I hear good reports of business suc- 
cess and I know from the character of the 
men who form the firm they are bound to suc- 
ceed. These different establishments around 
the station give employment to a large force 
of men and teams. We have neither time or 
space to comment upon our banking institution 
or the N. E. O. N. C, which we cherish so 
highly for its past success and for its future 

"There are other changes which have been 
made in our town during the last three dec- 
cades, that we cannot" pass by without notice. 
In 1877, our park, as it then existed, was quite 
different from what it now is. What were 
twigs then, are trees now, affording a delight- 
ful shade in the noon-tide or eve of a hot day. 
The upper part of which was then surrounded 
by a railing that has since been removed. This 
leads to another important change that has 
taken place. Thirty years ago we uniformly 
thought it essential that our lots and public 
buildings must be surrounded on all sides by a 
fence. Now, almost by the same unanimity, 
we have cast our front fences aside. The old 
system of fencing was an eye-sore to all ideas 1 
of taste and uniformity. Generally, the fences J 
were old, dilapidated and useless. This reform 
has led to the cultivation of sightly and well- 
kept lawns. Another marked feature of change 
are the long stretches of cement sidewalks. 
Although badly constructed at first, they are 
much superior to our old plank and cinder 


The Presbyterian church in Canfield was 
organized in April, 1804, and consisted at first 
of nine members. Meetings were first held in 
a log school house, and for some time, there 
being no regular pastor, ministers of various 
orthodox organizations were invited to preach. 
Lay meetings were also held frequently and 
were g'enerously attended. A revival of religion 
in 183 1 added some twenty-five members to 
the church. Among the earlv ministers were 



Revs. Joseph Badger, Robbins, Wick, Curtis, 
A. Scott, I. Scott, Dwight, Chapman and 
others. Rev. ]\Ir. Stratton was instahed as 
the first regular pastor October, 1828. 

The church had been originahy estabhshed 
on the plan of union adopted by the general 
assembly of 1801, and remained under that 
plan of government until 1835, when the pas- 
tor and fifty members, acting under a special 
request from the Presbytery of Beaver, sep- 
arated from the Congregational part of the 
society, organized themselves into a regular 
Presbyterian church, and built a house of wor- 
ship, which was occupied by the society until 
within the last few years. About the same 
time Rev. W. O. Stratton severed his connec- 
tion with the congregation and in April, 1839, 
Rev. William AlcCombs was installed as pas- 
tor. He was succeeded in a few years by Rev. 
James Price, who was followed by Mr. J. G. 
Reaser and Rev. J. P. Irwin successively. 
Since Mr. Irwin, the pastor has been the Rev. 
William Dickson, who has occupied the pulpit 
for the long period of twenty-five years. His 
place will soon be taken by Rev. George V. 
Reichel, who has recently been elected to the 
pastorate. The church now has a membership 
of 200, and occupies a fine new building which 
was erected in 1904 on the site of the old edi- 
fice. The Sunday school, with an attendance 
of 100. is under the charge of Dr. Daniel 


The first Methodist society was organized 
in Canfield in 1820, previous to which time 
the history of ^Methodism in the township has 
not been preserved. It is probable, however, 
that some of the ministers sent to labor on the 
"western circuits preached here occasionally. 
This first society consisted of Rev. S. Bost- 
wick, wife and sister. Comfort Starr and wife, 
Ansel Beeman and wife, and Ezra Hunt. In 
1 82 1 Canfield was visited by the circuit 
preachers Rev. Dennis Goddard and Rev. 
Charles Elliott. In 1822 it was known as the 
Youngstown circuit and was visited by differ- 
ent preachers from that time on. Services were 

held in a frame school house that stood a little 
east of the center. In 1826 it was supplanted 
by a brick building with galleries that was 
known as Bethel chapel. In 1836 Canfield be- 
came a part of the Erie Conference, just then 
formed. In the following year Dr. Shadrach, 
one of the early preachers, who was also a phy- 
sician, died at his home in Canfield. 

About 1861 the old Bethel chapel was torn 
down and a new structure erected, partly with 
the same material. The new church was ded- 
icated in June, 1861. In 1869 a comfortable 
dwelling house was purchased for a parsonage. 
For a number of years beginning with 1836 
Canfield was included at different times in 
the circuits of Poland, Youngstown, Ellsworth 
and Canfield, but it is now no longer in the 
circuit, supporting its own pastor. On the site 
of the old Congregational church the society 
is now erecting a new church edifice. The so- 
ciety has an enrolled membership of 200. The 
Sunday school enrollment is 170. 


This church had its origin in a Baptist so- 
ciety that was formed in January, 1828, at the 
house of David Hays. Thomas Miller was 
the clergyman, and among the principal mem- 
bers were Deacon Samuel Hayden, \\'illiam 
Hayden, John Lane of Youngstown, and 
Elijah Canfield of Palmyra. Later William 
Hayden became a preacher and ministered to 
the church, the services being held in a small 
log house. In the winter of 1827-28 Walter 
Scott, a follower of Alexander Campbell, came 
into the community and preached a sermon 
that had the effect of converting most of the 
Baptists present, who during the winter organ- 
ized themselves into a Disciples church. Soon 
after they erected a frame building for public 
worship in the northwestern part of the town- 
ship. The church prospered, making converts, 
and from time to time receiving additions 
from other sects or denominations. In 1847 
about twenty of the members who lived near 
the center formed a separate organization and 
erected at the center a neat and commodious 
church, which is still their place of worship. 



In October, 1867, they \Vere joined by the re- 
maining members of the church, which had 
first l>een estabhshed in the northwest 
part of the township, the older mem- 
bers of which had died, and there 
having been for a long time but \'ery few 
accessions. Since then the church has 
had a prosperous and useful existence. The 
building has lately been remodeled, both inside 
and out. The membership is about sixty ; that 
of the Sunday school thirty-five. Of the latter 
Mrs. Anna Osborne is superintendent. 


The Reformed church, formerly known as 
the German Reformed Lutheran church, was 
organized previous to 1810, by a number of 
German settlers in the township, the first pas- 
tor being the Rev. Henry Stough. A log 
church was built in the same year and was 
used by both the German Reformed and Lu- 
theran congregations until it was destroyed 
by fire in 1845. ^^ ^^'^^ replaced in the same 
year by a new and more suubstantial building. 
For more than fifty years the services were 
conducted in German, which language subse- 
quently gave place to English, for the benefit 
of the later generation. Some twelve years 
ago the church was again burned down, the 
present building, located about three-quarters 
of a mile north of Canfield village, being 
erected in 1895. The membership of the 
church is 145, with a Sunday school attend- 
ance of fifty. 

The first school house in Canfield stood 
about a mile and a quarter east of the center, 
the first teacher being Caleb Palmer. Here the 
educational system of Canfield was inaugu- 
rated with a three months' term in the winter 
of 1800-01. Miss Getia Bostwick and Ben- 
jamin Carter were among the early teachers, 
as was also Miss Olive Langdon, who taught 
school in a small log building about two miles 
south of the center. Elisha Whittlesey also 

taught school in 1806, being a successor of 
Caleb Palmer. 

The early schools were carried on without 
much system or method, no sound working 
plan of education being devised until 1867, 
when the union school law was adopted and a 
board of education elected. Since that time 
Canfield has been well abreast of other town- 
ships in educational matters, her schools being 
provided with a thoroughly efficient corps of 
teachers, ' the Normal school, already men- 
tioned, providing students with excellent op- 
portunity for acquiring" more advanced knowl- 

An advanced school known as the ]\Iahon- 
ing Academy existed in Canfield from 1857 
to i860, or a little later. It was established by 
David Hine, A. M.. a graduate of Williams 
College, Massachusetts, who was also its prin- 
cipal. In October, i860, it had 240 students 
on its rolls, but the war, by draining the coun- 
try of so many of its young men, caused its 
downfall, and it perished during the continu- 
ance of that struggle. The building was after- 
wards converted into a dwelling. 


The first newspaper in Canfield was the 
Mahoning Index, a Democratic sheet that was 
started in May, 1846, by two printers from 
Warren — James and Clate Herrington. They 
sold out later to John R. Church, a prominent 
Democrat, who conducted the office and pub- 
hshed the paper until September, 1851, when 
the building with all its contents was destroyed 
by fire. In the following year another Demo- 
cratic paper was established — the Malioning 
Sentinel — and was conducted for some time 
by an association, with Ira Norris as editor. 
The paper was printed by H. M. Fowler. It 
subsequently passed through several hands, be- 
ing purchased and repurchased until in i860 
John M. \\^ebb, who was then the proprietor, 
removed the office to Youngstown. In the 
spring of that year a small Republican paper 
called the Herald was started, the proprietor 
being John Weeks, who came from Medina at 



the instance of Hon. Elisha Whittlesey. It 
also passed through a numher of hands, until 
it came into those of J\Ir. Ed E. Fitch, who 
had for a time been Mr. Weeks' partner, and 
by whom, in 1870, it was enlarged. Two 
years later Mr. Fitch sold it to McDonald & 
Sons, who changed its name to Tlie Mahoning 
County Ncii's. After being thus conducted 
for eighteen months it was disposed of to W. 
R. Brownlee, who made the paper Democratic 
and afterwards sold out to Rev. W. S. Peter- 
son, who soon after removed to Warren. Can- 
field was then without a newspaper until Mr. 
H. M. Fowler started the Mahoning Despatch 
in IMay, 1871, which paper is still in existence, 
and in a prosperous condition, being now con- 
ducted by Mr. C. C. Fowler, son of the first 

canfield's industries. 

The following information in regard to 
Canfield's present industries is taken from a 
local source, and may be considered reliable : 

The manufacturing interests of Canfield, 
Ohio, though not as extensive as they might 
have been have been sufficient and worthy of 
consideration. The town has contributed 
brains and skill that have produced great and 
extensive results, and had not petroleum oil 
been discovered, the fields of cannel coal would 
have been made and developed an immense re- 
source for public utility, by light and fuel. We 
can safely say, our possibilities are scarcely 
discovered. In our fire clay lies a proposition, 
yet to be solved. The persistent drilling for 
coal in special, not isolated, localities, bids 
favorable for the future good. Our forests 
are stocked with the finest timber suitable for 
the world's demands. Ship timbers of im- 
mense size are frequently forwarded, and our 
product runs down almost to the clothes-pin 
and tooth-pick trade. The trade at large rec- 
ognizes that the Canfield product has a special 
quality and finish now well known, and its de- 
mands are beyond our present output. The 
proof of this lies in the fact that for the last 
eight years solicitation for orders has not been 


About three hundred thousand handles 
were distributed to the trade in general last 
year, by the Canfield Manufacturing & Nov- 
elty Company, a plant originally erected in 
1882, by George N. Boughton with a pay roll 
at present of twenty-eight, distributing 
its funds almost entirely at home, for 
crude products and labor. Although a 
modest concern, yet the fact of its 
distributing annually over $10,000 to its em- 
ployes and eventually to the merchants, makes 
it a desirable proposition for our community. 
It is a public institution in which many of our 
prominent and active citizens are personally 
interested. The demands of the agricultural 
field have not been forgotten, for over 200,000 
hand-rakes have been placed by them on the 
market during the last ten years, and over 
5,000 horse-rakes, besides wood novelties of 
various kinds. 

But this is not our only wood-working es- 
tablishment. The Canfield Lumber Company, 
originally established-by W. J. Gee, Mr. Stark 
and Mr. Brobst, but now with new owners, 
new buildings and new machinery, is laying 
the foundation for a valuable acquisition. The 
new owners, Weikart & Overhultzer, have the 
grit and push to make things go. 

The grist mill under J. V. Calvin's man- 
agement is advancing fast to the front, and 
winning its way to the hearts, as well as to the 
stomachs of the public. It has grown beyond 
the home demand and enjoys a good trade in 
other markets. 

A commodious elevator for a heavy deliv- 
ery of grain, is a leading feature at Callahan 
& Neff's large plant. 

Delfs & Sons, though not making and 
changing their feed product as the manufac- 
turers, yet place a fine stock of grain before 
the farmers. This with their coal, tile, etc., 
gives them a favorable trade. 

Kimerle Brothers have not forgotten tiie 
public need, for uses of pleasure and utility, 
by the buggies and wagons they turn out. 

J. W. Johnson, also for work of a similar 
character, must not be forgotten. 

Besides all this. Canfield is not so lost in 
the. sordid manufacturing of essentials as to 



.overlook the needs of the eye and pleasures of 
the aesthetic tastes of heavenly beauties. To 
meet that want, extensive greenhouses, erected 
five years ago by W. J. Smith of Pittsburg, 
and organized under tire name of the Altino 
Culture Company in 1907, is an institution of 
large possibilities. The immensity is more 
fully realized by a personal inspection of its 
.lengthy glass-covered buildings and its forty- 
acre tract of land, one space, 200x40 feet and 
another 400x40 feet, being under glass. 

The manufacture of oil from cannel coal 
was carried on by several companies in the 
.southeastern part of the township from 1854 
to 1863. This business came to an end with 
.the discovery of the naturally flowing oil 
wells. These manufactories, which were 
■established at a cost of about $200,000, were 
built by eastern capitalists, who during the 
somewhat brief spell of their existence did a 
.considerable business. 

Canfield has usually been favored by the 
high character for faithfulness and ability of 
.her public officials. Those now in control are no 
exception to the rule. Hon. H. A. Manches- 
ter, who as mayor exercises the largest share 
of influence in the local government, is an old 
resident of the town, thoroughly versed in its 
history and having a clear and sympathetic 
understanding of the needs and aspirations of 
the community. He is well supported by the 
.subordinate officials, who are ei^cient in their 
respective spheres of duty, and have the full 
confidence of the people by whom they were 
■elected to office. 


This township, which lies directly east of 
that of Youngstown, being adjacent thereto, 
was purchased previous to the year 1798 by 
Daniel Coit, of Connecticut, from the Connec- 
ticut Land Company, and derives its name 
from him. "It does not appear that he ever 
became a resident of Ohio, but authorized Si- 
mon Perkins, of Warren, as his general 

The township was surveyed by John P. 
Bissell, Asa Mariner and others, Mr. Bissell 

being appointed a sub-agent to sell the land. 
He made a clearing and built a house at the 
center in 1799. In the following year he 
bi'ought his family from Lebanon, Connecti- 
cut, the journey occupying forty days. 

The first white settler in the township was 
Amos Leveland, a Revolutionary soldier, who 
came in 1798, and who spent the summer in 
assisting Mr. Bissell in surveying. In the 
fall of the same year, he purchased all the 
lands in that part of the township on the south 
side of the Mahoning river — some 424 acres — ■ 
and then returned to Vermont for his family. 
After settling his affairs there, he and his fam- 
ily left Chelsea in December, in two sleds 
drawn by four horses. After going some dis- 
tance the snow melted, and he exchanged his 
sleds for a wagon, with which they continued 
their journey. Says Mr. Shields, the source 
of our information : "After many trials, hard- 
ships and discouragements, they arrived at 
their future home, in the rich and beautiful 
Mahoning valley, April 4, 1799, themselves 
and their horses much the worse for their long 
winter journey. Where they landed they 
found a log cabin erected for their 
residence, one-half of it floored with 
puncheons, split out and dressed with 
an axe, the other without a floor except 
Mother Earth. Cynthia Loveland was the first 
white child born in the township. She was 
born in June, 1799, and died at the age of six- 
teen years. Her brother David, the second 
white child born in Coitsville, attained an ad- 
vanced age, residing in a house upon the orig- 
inal homestead, of which he owned about 300 

On December 4, 1 806, Coitsville was set ofi 
as a separate township by the commissioners 
of Trumbull County, the record reading as 
follows : 

"Ordered by the Board of Commissioners 
for the County of Trumbull, that No. 2 in the 
fii'st range of townships in said county, be set 
of¥ as a separate township, by the name of 
Coitsville, with all the. rights, privileges, and 
immunities by law given to and invested in any 
tow^^ship in this state, and the first meeting of 
said township shall be held at the house for- 



merly occupied by John P. Bissell, in said 

"Attest : Wm. Wetmore, 

"Clerk Commissioners pro tem." 
The first election was held April 6, A. D. 
1807, Alexander JMcGuffey, chairman; John 
Johnson and Joseph Jackson, judges of elec- 
tion. The following officers were chosen : 
Township clerk, Joseph Bissell ; trustees, Wm. 
Huston, Joseph Jackson and William Stewart ; 
overseers of the poor, John McCall and Tim- 
othy Swan ; supervisors of highways, William 
Martin an<i Ebenezer Corey; fence viewers, 
David Cooper and John Stewart; appraisers 
of houses, James Stewart and Alexander 
JMcGuffey ; lister, Alexander AIcGuffey ; con- 
stable, James Lynn ; treasurer, John Johnson. 


In 1 801 settlers began to come into the 
township in large numbers. They were mostly 
farmers from Western Pennsylvania, es- 
pecially from Beaver and Washington coun- 
ties, while some came from east of the moun- 
tains. They were in general a moral and 
church-going people, a number of different 
sects being represented among them, while 
there were a few who were loose-living, fond 
of drink and opposed to Bible religion. 

The year 181 1 brought hard times for 
many of the pioneers of Coitsville. Mr. Bissell 
died in that year. His financial affairs were 
found in bad condition, which brought disas- 
ter to many of those who had purchased their 
land from him. Some had paid for their lands, 
received their deeds, arid were consequently 
safe. Others who had not got their lands paid 
for and received their titles were caught up. 
No matter how much they had paid, all fared 
alike and received a small per centage on their 
mone)'. The land had to be repurchased or 
abandoned. It was supposed that had Mr. 
Bissell lived to settle up his own affairs, the 
result would have teen different. Another 
cause of discouragement was a series of very 
rainy seasons, which flooded the low flat lands, 
and caused them to be unproductive. This 
caused a bad report to be put into circulation 

concerning the town, and many emigrants 
passetl by. Then the War of 18 12 came on 
and many of the men subject to military duty 
were drafted, or volunteered, and went into 
the service. There were few left at home ex- 
cept women and children, old men, cripples 
and invalids. 

A majority of the settlers, however, with- 
stood their trials, and many of those who had 
lost their lands made new contracts for them 
with Mr. Perkins, and were finally successful. 
The soldiers returned home amid great re- 
joicings without losing a man, it is said; the 
rains ceased their profusion, the fields again 
yielded good crops, and soon every farm had 
its occupant, and Coitsville was again pro- 


The first public highway laid out in this 
township is the east and west road, known as 
the Mercer and Youngstown road; it was 
opened in 1802. Soon after that date the Yel- 
low Creek road leading from Poland village 
to Hubbard, was opened through the township. 
In 1827 the Youngstown and Mercer road be- 
came a post road from New Bedford, Pennsyl- 
vania, westward. The Coitsville postoffice 
was first established in that year at the center 
of the town; William Bissell was appointed 

The first sawmill in the township was built 
by Asa Marriner and James Bradford on Dry 
Run, about a mile northwest of the center. 
There were five other sawmills built on the 
same stream at later periods, all of which have 
long since disappeared, having been replaced 
by steam sawmills in different parts of the 


The first successful tannery in Coitsville 
was established by William Stewart and R. W. 
Shields in 1832, Mr. Stewart becoming sole 




owner by purchase in 1855. The plant was 
rebuiU in 1875, with the addition of modern 
machinery and other improvements, by Mr. 
Stewart and his son, D. C. Stewart. 

The first school was taught in a log cabin 
on the farm of Joseph Beggs, a short dis- 
tance west of the center, Jeremiah Breaden, 
afterwards Dr. Breaden, being the first teach- 
er. The second school organized was in the 
Harris district, in the northeast portion of the 
township. It was held in a log cabin erected 
for that purpose, which was afterw-ards taken 
away, a frame house being built on its site. 
The new one was used for a number of years, 
but was burned about the time that the union 
school system came into effect. 

In this school, as in many others in early 
days, the Bible was used as a reading book, 
the younger scholars reading from the New 
Testament, while the older ones read in the 
Old Testament. 

Rev. William McGuffey, whose name be- 
came famous in connection with his excellent 
series of school books, entitled "McGuffey's 
Eclectic Readers," and who was long a resi- 
dent of Coitsville, did a great deal for the 
cause of common school education in thus pro- 
viding suitable school books. Though a col- 
lege graduate and licensed to preach the Gos- 
pel, he was never settled as pastor over any 
congregation, but spent his life in promoting' 
the cause of education. He died in Dayton, 
Ohio, at the age of sixty-five years. Mr. Mc- 
Guffey's home in Coitsville was on Gravel 
Hill, which is interesting to geologists as be- 
ing a remarkable deposit of the glacial period. 
The present schools of the township are in a 
sound and flourishing condition. Mr. S. D. 
L. Jackson, a leading attorney of Youngstown, 
is now president of the school board, J. S. 
Palmer being clerk. Quite a number of the 
advanced scholars who live near the street car 
lines attend the Rayen high school in Youngs- 
town, it being more easily accessible to them 
than the high school of their own township. 


Among the early settlers of Coitsville was 
the Rev. William Wick, who afterwards be- 
came the pastor of the Presbyterian churches 
at Youngstown, Hopewell and New Bedford, 
Pennsylvania. Yet, notwithstanding that the 
religious and moral element had a preponder- 
ance among the inhabitants of the township, 
there was no church edifice until 1836. The 
Methodists had an organized society for a 
number of years before, but held their meet- 
ings in barns, private houses and school 
houses. In 1837 they erected a meeting house 
on a lot half a mile west of the village, the lot 
being the gift of Isaac Powers, of Youngs- 
town. This building was destroyed by fire in 
1847. Ii'' 1848 a new and handsome church 
was built on the site of the old one. Rev. 
Mr. Patterson, of Youngstown, is the present 
pastor of the M. E. church, the membership 
of which has fallen off in recent years, owing 
to the death of many of the older members 
and the removal of others. The Sunday 
school, which is in a more flourishing condi- 
tion, having a roll call of forty-five scholars, 
is presided over by C. F. Shipton. 


The old-school Presbyterians organized a 
congregation in 1836 and erected a church 
building at the village. Rev. William Nesbit 
was their first pastor. In 1870 the old church 
was torn down, and a new and substantial one 
erected in its place. The pastors since 1882, 
with dates of their employment, have been as 
follows: Rev. Hair, October, 1882; Rev. V. 
Verner, June, 1886; Rev. Robert Stranahan, 
September, 1889; Rev. A. D. Collins, March, 
1894; Rev. Mr. Foster, June, 1896; Rev. J. 
U. Harvey, May, 1897; Dr. Evans (supt.), 
June, 1903; Rev. J. S. Grimes, April, 1904; 
Rev. A. A. Loomis (present pastor), April, 


Coitsville has no incorporated village. 
Though- formerly well wooded, the trees have 



now largely disappeared. The township has 
a plentitul supply of clear,, pure water, there 
being many artesian wells and springs, and the 
water of Dry Run Creek, fed largely by arte- 
sian wells, being suitable for drinking pur- 
poses. The East End Park of Youngstown, 
which follows the course of this creek, over- 
laps the boundary line and has an entrance in 
the western part of this township. In recent 
years Coitsville has become a favorite resi- 
dence suburb for Youngstown people, which 
has had a tendency to advance the price of real 
estate here, and indicates that the future pros- 
perity of the township is to be found chiefly 
in enhancing its natural beauty and attractive- 
ness, rather than in seeking to become a rival 
of Youngstown as a place of business and 


This township was settled mainly by peo- 
ple from Connecticut and Pennsylvania. The 
immigration commenced in 1804. Among the 
first comers was Captain Joseph Coit, who be- 
gan making improvements in that year. The 
family of James Reed, it is said, was the first 
in the township. His daughter Polly, who 
married a Mr. Bowman and settled in Goshen 
township, where she was living in 1882, being 
then over ninety years of age, said that her 
father came to Ellsworth from Westmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1803, and remained 
during the summer. He made a clearing and 
raised a crop of corn that year, occupying a 
camp on the bank of Meander Creek. He had 
previously made several trips from his home 
in Pennsylvania to Canfield carrying supplies 
to the settlers on pack horses. In 1804 he 
brought his family, and erected a rude log 
structure for shelter, one side of which was 
open and used for an entrance. This was oc- 
cupied until a more substantial house could be 
erected. Bears and deer were numerous, and 
the children sometimes found young fawns 
lying in the bushes near the house. 

Mr. Reed resided in Ellsworth not much 
over a year, selling his farm and removing 

to Canfield ti>wnship, where he died in 1813. 
Several other settlements were made about 
the same time by men who remained but tem- 
porarily, soon removing to other localities. The 
second family to arrive in the township was 
that of Thomas Jones, of Maryland. He be- 
came^ a permanent settler, dying in Ellsworth 
m 1852, at the advanced age of ninety-two. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Sarah Wil- 
son, survived her husband in longevity, dying 
in 1865 at the age of about ninety. They were 
the parents of fifteen children. 

Philip Arner, from Pennsylvania, pur- 
chased land in Ellsworth in 1803 and built a 
cabin in 1803. In the follow'ing year he 
brought out his family and settled on land east 
of the Meander. Hugh Smith, of Maryland, 
who had made a previous visit, settled on the 
main branch of the Meander in 1806. He had 
a family of five sons and three daughters. He 
died suddenly about 1821. 

In 1805 Elisha Palmer and William and 
Hervey Ripley, with several others, came from 
Wnidham County, Connecticut, and began im- 
proving land west of the center. William Rip- 
ley served as justice of the peace for many 
years, was a member of the legislature in 1826 
or 1827, and was afterwards state senator. 
Richard Fitch was another early settler near 
the center. So w-as Andrew Fitch, who mar- 
ried Lucy Manning, and who when quite old 
returned to Connecticut. John Leonard and 
family settled near the Meander about 1806, 
but died at an early date; he left several chil- 
dren. James Parshall was an earlv settler in 
section twenty-four. James McGil'l and fam- 
ily in section twelve. David and Philo Spann- 
ing came about 1813, David settling'about a 
quarter of a mile west of the center, and Philo 
in the southwestern part of the township. The 
latter died in 1876 in his ninetieth vear. Other 
early settlers were, John and Robert Mc- 
Creary, who settled on section nineteen; Mi- 
chael Crumrine; William Logan, the first 
cooper in the township, who died dur- 
ing the war of 1812: Joiin Bingham, 
from New London County. Connecticut, 
who married a daughter of Richard Fitch; 


Asa W. Allen, of Windham, Connecticut, who 
came to Ellsworth in a one-horse buggy in 
1817, and who married Sophia Hopkins. Mr. 
and Mrs. Allen reared a family of five or more 
children. In 1864 he removed to Columbiana 


The first child born in Ellsworth was 
Thomas Jones, Jr., son of the Thomas Jones 
already mentioned, who came from Maryland 
in 1806, the child being born in that year. In 
the same year two other births occurred— 
those of Jeanette, daughter of Hugh Smith, 
and Mary L., daughter of Richard Fitch. 

The first death was that of a child of Mr. 
Bell, a miller, who remained in the township 
but a short time. The second death is thought 
to have been that of William Logan, which 
occurred in 181 2. 

The first marriage was that of Hezekiah 
Chidester and Lydia Buell, the latter a sister 
of the wife of Richard Fitch. Mr. Chidester 
was a resident of Canfield. Richard Fitch was 
the first captain of a company of cavalry that 
was organized in 1810 in Boardman, Poland, 
Canfield and Ellsworth townships. 


March 22, 1810, or eight years after the 
first white man settled here, the Board ot 
Commissioners of Trumbull County set off a 
tract of land from the townships of Newton 
and Canfield, and called it Ellsworth, after a 
prominent citizen of Connecticut. The land 
thus set off was five miles wide, north and 
south, and ten miles from east to west; but 
eighteen years later the County Commissioners 
set off the western half and formed Berlin 
township. April 2, 1810, eleven days after 
Ellsworth was established, the first township 
election was held. Just how the voting was 
done we are not certain, but the electors were 
all present at 10 A. M. and as soon as the elec- 
tion was over the officers qualified and took 
the oath of office. The records do not state 
where this election was hekl, but it is presumed 
that it was held at the residence of Richard 

Fitch, as the succeeding elections were held 
there for many years. The judges of this elec- 
tion were Harvey Ripley, Andrew Fitch and 
Daniel Fitch. The township officers elected 
were : Joseph Coit, clerk ; Andrew Fitch, 
Daniel Fitch and Hugh Smith, trustees; Wil- 
liam Ripley and James Porshall, overseers of 
the poor; John Leonard and Robert McKean 
were fence viewers ; Daniel Fitch and William 
Fitch, appraisers ; Jesse Buel, constable ; Har- 
vey Ripley, treasurer ; Daniel Fitch, lister, 
which corresponds to the present office of as- 
sessor. It is worthy of note that a good citizen 
was allowed to hold three offices, besides act- 
ing as judge of the election of the offices to 
which he was elected. Corruption was evi- 
dently not the political bugbear that it is now- 
adays. The newly elected trustees levied a 
road tax for the township equal to that pre- 
scribed by law for county purposes. This tax 
for the first year was $27.60 for the township. 
Five years later the taxes were $39.80, and ten 
years after the organization of the township 
they had doubled being $56.80. While we 
often feel like complaining we are thankful 
that this increase did not continue, though the 
taxes of the township run from $600 to $700 
at the present time. 

Richard Fitch, the first justice of the town- 
ship, qualified for ofhce June 19, 1810, and 
was sworn in by Wm. Chidester, Justice of 
the Peace of Canfield. It seems that the citi- 
zens did not intend to be burdened with 
paupers for the first fourteen months 
at least after its first settlement. The township 
records contain the information that someone 
notified the overseers of the poor that one 
■ Polly Reeves was likely to become a charge of 
the township. Whereupon said overseers at 
once ordered the constable to notify her to 
leave forthwith. This was an old Yankee cus- 
tom that our forefathers brought with them, 
and occasionally resorted to, though not jus- 
tified by statute; but there was a statute en-' 
acted twenty years later, taking effect June, 

In 1817 the trustees decided that they 
would allow for each day's work on the public' 
highway, for a yoke of oxen or a team of 


horses 50 cents; for a wagon, 373^ cents; 
plow, 25 cents. In the spring of 1819 there 
was an enumeration of the white male inhabi- 
tants above the age of twenty-one years. We 
have no record of the result of that enumera- 
tion. It is interesting for the younger genera- 
tion to note the ear-marks in use for branding 
cattle at that early day. We can give but a 
few examples : Joseph Coits' mark, a crop off 
the right ear and a slit in the left ear. Richard 
Fitch's mark, a square crop off the right ear 
and a half-penny on the side of same. Thomas 
McKean's mark, square crop off the right ear 
and swallow tail in end of left ear; and so on, 
each man having different marks. The same 
custom is in use today on some of the Western 

]\Iarch 26, 1826, the trustees ordered the 
balance of the money after the annual state- 
ment, (this being $6.62^), to be invested in 
a plow for the township, this being the first 
tool or implement that the township owned, 
April 12, 1826, the second justice of the peace 
was allowed by the common pleas court. The 
assessors' report, dated February, 1845, 
showed there to be fifty-four able-bodied white 
male citizens, between the ages of twenty-one 
and forty-five years, in the township. Two 
years later the report shows forty-nine white 
male citizens of the age from twenty-one 
years to forty-five years, able-bodied. Two 
years later the number had increased to sixty- 

The original deed of the first land sale 
made in Ellsworth township is still in exis- 
tence, in the possession of Mr. Eli Arner, son 
of the man who made the first purchase from 
the Connecticut Land Company. 

1804-1854 Ellsworth's semi-centennial 

Early in June, 1854, it was decided to 
hold on July 4th a Semi-Centennial Celebra- 
tion in commemoration of the settlement of 
Ellsworth township in 1804. A committee was 
appointed and full arrangements made. Judge 
Eben Xewton of Canfield, and Rev. L. Chand- 

ler, pastor of the Congregational church in 
Ellsworth, were the principal speakers. Stir- 
ring toasts elicited tremendous applause. 
Poems were read by Dr. James Hughes and 
P. A. Spicer, both of Berlin township. Mr. 
Spicer also read a short history of part of the 
earliest events occurring in the township of 

The stand for speakers, band stand, and 
seats were placed in Uncle Andrew Fitch's fine 
old orchard, not far from the township centre. 
An old cannon of the kind used in the Revolu- 
tionary war was placed in position on the public 
square. A signal man was located in the road 
opposite the speaker's stand and at appropriate 
times the roar of this cannon emphasized ap- 

Publication of suitable memorials of this 
celebration for some unexplained cause was not 
accomplished. Mr. Spicer, so far as known, 
is the only one now living who took active part 
on the platform that day. Earnest solicitation 
induced him to furnish for publication such 
parts of the early history not lost in the shuffle 
of more than fifty years. 


Just when the government made survey of 
this part of Ohio was not definitely known to 
my informant. The work was evidently com- 
pleted some time previous to the year 1804. 

Captain Joseph Coit, a resident of Connec- 
ticut, left his home that year, and about July 
4th, the same year, located land at Ellsworth 
Center, which at the time was an unbroken 
wilderness, although Canfield township next 
east had been settled five or six years. Captain 
Coit did not personally clear his land; however, 
he cut the first tree which was felled for the 
purpose of clearing land in Ellsworth town- 

The names of men coming here at the same 
time with Capt. Coit or near this time, were: 
General W. Ripley, Messrs. Fitch, Ware, 
Borts, McCain, McGill, Broadsword, Logan, 


Steele, Porter, Moore, Smith, Jones, Leonard, 
and Arner. There may have been one or two 

Among his varied accomphshments, Capt. 
Coit was a land surveyor. Assisted by Mr. 
Moore, also a surveyor, the work required in 
this line was readily done. Capt. Coit was the 
first postmaster at Ellsworth Centre, and, in 
fact held the office continuously for years. 

His store for the sale of dry goods and 
groceries was the first established in the town- 

Ellsworth was on the direct stage and 
freight route from Pittsburg to Cleveland, and 
before the construction of the railroad connect- 
ing these cities immense amounts of freight 
and quite heavy passenger travel passed 
through Ellsworth daily. From one Concord 
coach drawn with four horses which passed 
both ways daily, soon after the opening of the 
route, in time there was from two to four 
•coaches each way as often. The freight was 
mostly transported in very large covered wag- 
ons drawn by from four to six horses — bell 

Rev. John Bruce was the first minister 
who preached regularly at Ellsworth Centre. 
His house was a somewhat capacious log 
dwelling, said to have had five front doors. 

Miss Clara Landon taught the first district 
.school in the township. 

'Squire Fitch, as he was familiarly called, 
was the proprietor of the first hotel, an ex- 
•ceedingly popular hostelry. 

Some of the first business done by the vil- 
lage in council was to secure suitable burial 
grounds, or cemetery. The plot of ground for 
this purpose was a gift to the village; but if 
the name of the donor was ever made known, 
it does not appear. The first interment was 
one William Logan. 

At this time there were no temperance so- 
cieties. Not infrequently some who followed 
the rush of emigration westward would take 
a stop off, and spend some time resting up at 
Ellsworth. It was not an uncommon occurr- 
ence for some of these persons to get beastly 
drunk. In fact, some few of the regular resi- 
■dents (accidentally of course) occasionally be- 

came a trifle hilarious. To suppress this in a 
measure, the village council passed an ordi- 
nance to this effect : "Any one found drunk, 
shall be compelled to dig out a tree stump from 
the highway, or pay a fine of five dollars, and 
the cost of prosecution. * * *" Tradition 
records that the desired reform was broght 
about, but not before numerous stvmips in and 
near the highway had been removed. 

Thus far there had been no weddings in 
Ellsworth. It is not to be supposed that this 
was on account of any backwardness on the 
part of any one, but for reasons not unusual 
in newly settled territory. One day, among 
passengers on the stage coach who took dinner 
at the hotel, there was a fine looking young 
lady. Her name was on the coach way bill 
showed her destination to be Cleveland. The. 
roads at that time were very rough ; nearly all 
low ground. On account of the heavy travel, 
would have been impassable during certain 
parts of the year, without the pole, or corduroy 

The surroundings in Ellsworth, as well as 
the hotel must have appeared pleasant; at 
any rate this young lady seemed to feel the 
need of rest for a few days. She procured a 
stop off check. Among those who managed in 
some way to secure an early introduction, was 
the stalwart, good-looking Robert McGill. It 
is reported on good authority that Miss Polly 
did not resume her journey quite as soon as 
expected, and further that, go-ahead Bob. Mc- 
Gill was responsible for the delay. When she 
resumed her journey, accompanied by the said 
McGill, her full name was somewhat different 
from that on the stop off check. This couple 
was the first married in Ellsworth. 

The first schoool was taught in a log house 
east of the center. Miss Clara Landon of Can- 
field being the first teacher. She was followed 
consecutively by Miss Matilda Sackett, Jesse 
Buell, Hiram B. Hubbard and Asa W. Allen. 
During the winter of 1817-18, when Mr. Allen 
taught, there were not over twenty scholars in 
the township. There are now six schools, with 



as many teachers, the whole being maintained 
at a cost of about $3,400 per year. The total 
number of scholars is 134. 

District No. i has two school houses. The 
original building not being large enough, the 
board purchased a school building from the 
Berlin Board of Education for the primary 
scholars. Bertha Bonsall is the teacher of the 
primary department, and J. L. Gray of the 
higher grade. 

No. 2, or Ellsworth Station School, is lo- 
cated near the railroad station; John Boyer is 

No. 3, or Geeburg School, is situated in the 
northeast corner of the township; Goldie 
Swartz, teacher. 

No. 4, or Germany School, situated in the 
southeast corner of the township, has Grace 
Johnson as teacher. 

No. 5, or Prospect School, one and one-half 
mile south of the center, is taught by Emma 
Lovelocks. All the school buildings in Ells- 
worth at present are wooden structures of one 
room each. 


The Presbyterians were the first in the 
Ellsworth field, the Rev. John Bruce being the 
first preacher. The first meeting house was 
situated just north of the center, and was a 
rude structure, built of hewn logs and with- 
out any floor. Other log buildings were sub- 
sequently used, and services were frequently 
held in the open air, in barns, school-houses, 
and private dwellings. In 181 8 the Presby- 
terian and Congregational denominations 
united and organized a union church, un- 
der Revs. William Hansford and Joseph Treat, 
missionaries, the town hall being used as a 
place of worship until 1833, when the Presby- 
terian church was built. This church has had 
but few regular pastors, missionaries, or 
"stated supplies" usually conducting the ser- 
vices. It has no pastor at the present time. 

The Methodist, it is thought, organized a 
society in Ellsworth about 1824, the Rev. 
Nicholas Gee, a native of New York, having 
settled in the township the year previous. He 
was licensed to preach in 1824, and acted as 

local preacher here for same years. Meetings 
were first held in private residences, and then 
in the school-house in district three. About 
1835 the church in that district was completed 
and dedicated. The organization, however, 
became disrupted in 1856. 

In 1839 a society was formed at the center, 
and through the efforts of Mr. Gee, Mr. Bunts, 
Dr. Hughes, John Smith, and others a build- 
ing was commenced, which was completed in 
1840. The congregation worshipped here un- 
til the present church edifice was erected in 
1880 — dedicated February 17, 1881. The so- 
ciety is in a prosperous condition. The pre- 
sent pastor is L. D. Spaugy. 


This township lying between Smith and 
Green, on the lowest tier of townships of the 
county, possesses an undulating surface, and 
fertile soil, with good grazing lands. It is 
watered chiefly by the iniddle fork of Beaver 
Creek, which flows through its eastern portion, 
and by a branch of the Mahoning river, which 
flows in a northerly course through the west- 
ern portion, besides, some smaller creeks and 


The first settler of whom there is any rec- 
ord was Anthony Morris, who located in sec- 
tion thirty-one in 1804. He married Hannah 
French, of which union there was a daughter, 
Sarah, who became the wife of James Brufif, 
who took up his abode in the township in 1822. 
Anthony Morris was overseer of the poor in 
1812. Other Frenches settled in the same 
neighborhood, among them Barzilla, on sec- 
tion thirty-one, Thomas, who located in Dam- 
ascus in 1805, and who was followed by his 
brother Elijah. Jonas Cattel settled at an 
early date in Salem, and one of his daughters 
became the wife of Thomas French. Cattel 
rented a part of his farm to David Venable, 
who came to Goshen in 1805. 

The following year came Issac and 
Thomas Votaw from Winchester, Va. Isaac 
was trustee of the township from 181 2 to 



1818. Thonias Votaw, who settled on section 
six, was supervisor and trustee. Another early 
settler and township official was Robert Arm- 
strong, some of whose descendants still reside 
in the township. In 1S06 came Stacy Shreeve 
and wife from New Jersey and settled in sec- 
tion 19, as did also Shreeve's brother-in-law, 
Joseph Kindele. In the same year came James 
Brooke and Isaac Ellison, the former settling 
in section 7. Ellison married a daughter of 
James Cattell, while a daughter of Mr. Brooke 
married Dr. James Hughes. 

In 1808 came Aaron Stratton, who built 
a grist mill on Beaver Creek; also Henry 
Hinchman from New Jersey, who had a fam- 
ily of seven or more children. 

Benjamin and Hannah Butler, with seven 
children, came from near Philadelphia, arriv- 
ing in Salem in the spring of 181 1, where they 
remained for a year on the farm of Robert 
French, afterwards removing to Goshen. Mr. 
Butler ultimately settled on one hundred and 
sixty acres in section 18, where he remained 
until his death in 1828. His son, John, mar- 
ried Priscilla Fawcett, who died in 1830, and 
four years later he married a second wife. He 
was a member of the Society of Friends. Wil- 
liam Fawcett came from Virginia with his wife 
in 181 1 and settled on section thirty-two. Peter 
Gloss bought land in section twelve, about the 
year 1820, and built a factory where he manu- 
factured wooden bowls. 

Other early settlers were Samuel and 
Thomas Langstaff, 1812; Joseph Wright, 
from New Jersey, 1810; Benjamin Malmes- 
bury and family 1812; Basil Perry and wife, 
from Maryland, 181 1 ; Adam Fast, 1816, who 
settled in section i ; Jacob Lehman, who mar- 
ried Mr. Fast's daughter ; Drade Husk, who 
settled in section 2, and William Bradshaw, 
1832, who settled in section 9. 


The township of Goshen was incorporated 
September 11, 1810. In December Thomas 
Watson was chosen to the office of constable. 
At a meeting in April, 1812, a committee con- 

sisting of Isaac Votaw, Michael Stratton, 
Thomas Conn, Thomas French, and Joel 
Sharp, was appointed to "view the southeast 
quarter of section 16 and to conclude on a suit- 
able piece of ground to set a house for to hold 
elections in." At the same meeting township 
officers were chosen as follows : Joseph 
Wright, clerk ; Michael Stratton, Isaac Votaw, 
Levi Jennings, trustees; Anthony Morris and 
Isaac Barber, overseers of the poor; Thomas 
French, Josiah Stratton, appraisers of pro- 
perty; Robert Armstrong, Asa Ware, fence 
viewers; Bazilla French, Stacy Shreeve, 
Thomas Votaw, Thomas Conn, Abram War- 
rington, supervisors; George Baum, treas- 
urer; Joseph Kindle, constable. 

The village of Damascus was platted and 
laid out by Horton Howard in 1808. It was- 
made a postoffice in 1828, with James B. Bruff 
as first postmaster. 

It is a pleasant country village with good 
stores, and is the seat of Damascus Academy, 
further mention of which will be found in this 
article. E. E. Walker is the present post- 

Patmos was settled by John Templin, Wil- 
liam Ware, Benj. Regie and Levi A. Leyman. 
It was named after the old-fashioned hymn 
tune of that name. Mr. Leyman was the first 
postmaster, being appointed in 1850, and hold- 
ing the office twelve years. 

Garfield, first Garfield station, was estab- 
lished as a postoffice in 1875, with S. A. Fogg, 


The inhabitants of Goshen township are 
largely engaged in farming and dairying, 
and kindred occupations. There are a number 
of large and flourishing creameries and cheese 

All the villages are well supplied with 
stores of various kinds suited to the needs of 
an agricultural community. 

(Elected b} Jameb fclewail in IhUl and sull snndin,- ) 


M. KINLI -1 Ih 'M I . I'l 'I \M> 
(Occupied In i.aienibul I'lesidLjil Willijij. AkKu 
a boy and a stud, nt at Poland 






The township now has eight schools, the 
enumeration of scholars (taken May, 1906), 
being 271. There are two special districts — 
Garfield special district and joint sub-district, 
which is composed of territory in Butler, Knox 
and Smith townships. 


Damascus Academy was founded in 1857. 
In 1885 it was regularly chartered under the 
laws of Ohio by the Friends' Church. It has 
since remained under the same control. While 
the school has not the financial aid that would 
be desirable, yet the endowment fund gives 
much material support, and gives the school a 
guarantee of permanency. In addition to this, 
an eft'ort is now being made to place the Acad- 
emy on even a firmer financial basis. But the 
spirit of education shown by those who have 
charge of its management, is in itself sufficient 
guarantee of the school's welfare. 

The Academy is located at the east end of 
the village of Damascus, which is on the line 
between Columbiana and Mahoning counties, 
about five miles west of Salem, and with the 
Stark Electric Railroad running through it. 
The surrounding country is rolling and pic- 

The Academy Building is a large frame 
structure, well lighted and arranged. It con- 
tains five large rooms — three on the second 
floor and two on the first floor — besides base- 
ment and hallways. The Library contains sev- 
eral hundred volumes of well selected books, 
of kinds best suited for aiding the student in 
his researches, new books being added from 
time to time as circumstances permit. The 
Laboratory is well arranged and fitted with 
apparatus and material for successful work in 
chemistry and physics. The cabinet contains 
a good collection of rocks and minerals, also 
some relics, which have been obtained from 
different parts of the country. The rocks and 
niinerals are classified so that the student can 
find in them much valuable aid. 
" The literary work of the academy is carried 

on under the auspices of The Delphian Liter- 
ary Society. It is required that each student, 
take an active part in such work, as it is one of 
the most potent sources of strength. It is the 
aim of those who control the Academy to make 
it an institution for the inculcation of Christian 
virtues and the development of a Christian- 
spirit. Helpful chapel exercises, conducted, 
by the faculty, are held each morning in Lit- 
erary Hall. These exercises are of a devo- 
tional character. Visitors and friends of the 
Academy are often present to assist in these, 


The earliest schools in Goshen township, 
were established by the Friends, wdio formed 
a majority of the population. These schools 
were smaU and scattered, some of them being, 
known as family schools. 

Samuel Votaw, son of Isaac Votaw, taught. 
in the first log school house built in the town- 
ship, which was opened in the winter of 181 2. 
Soon after another school was opened and 
taught by Daniel Stratton. Among the early 
teachers at the school first opened were Mar- 
tha Townsend, William Green, William Titus, 
Joshua Crew, Benjamin Marshall, John 
Butler, Isaac Trescott, Solomon Shreeve,. 
Jesse Lloyd and Stephen Roberts. 

At the first school built at Damascus the 
early teachers were Joshua Lynch, James, 
Bruft, John P. Gruel, Jacob Hole, Simeon 
Fawcett, Lydia M. Stanley. 

Elizabeth Blackburn taught at the Votaw 
settlement, and James Hemingway in the 
Benjamin Malmesbury neighborhood. About 
1825 a log school house was built in district 
No. I, of which Andrew TempHn was the first 

The Garfield Special District High School 
wes erected fn 1875 at a cost of $2,740. It 
is a two-room brick building, and was at first 
a sub-district of Goshen township, becoming 
a special district by act of legislature March 
I, 1893. In i8go it suffered severe damage 
from a storm, which necessitated extensive re- 
pairs. The present principal is Prof. Frank 



H. Close. A two years' course of stud}' is 


The Friends, or Quakers, established the 
first church in Goshen township, and wor- 
shipped in it until it was destroyed by fire in 
1842. They built a brick church in 1852. The 
Methodists organized a class as early as 1820, 
and in 1867 they built the Methodist church 
on section eight. The principal founders of 
this church were John Templin, Joseph King, 
Newton French, Joseph Keeler, William Cas- 
saday, William Stratton and N. K. Gunder. 
The first pastor was Rev. McCartney. On 
October i, 1903, Rev. John W. Eicher as- 
sumed the pastorate. The present member- 
ship of the church is about 200. The Sunday 
school superintendent is A. B. Williamson. 
The pastors since 1880 have been as follows: 
J. R. Roller, 1879-82; Rev. Clark, 1882-83; 
John Hunter, 1883-85; T. J. Ream, 1885-86; 
W. H. Dickerson, 1886-88; A. W. Newlin, 
1888-90; J. J. Billingsley, 1890-91; W. D. 
Stevens, 1891-93; F. I. Swaney, 1893-96; 
M. C. Grimes, 1896-99; T. W. Anderson, 
1899-03; John W. Eicher, 1903 — . The Go- 
shen M. E. church, sometimes known as "The 
Bunker Hill M. E. church," stands among 
the first missionary churches, for gifts to for- 
eign missions, in the entire East Ohio Confer- 

Other churches in Goshen are, the Friends' 
church, pastor, O. L. Tomlinson ; the Friends' 
Branch church, at Garfield, which has no reg- 
ular pastor, the present officiant in that ca- 
pacity being G. B. Malmsberry. 


Green township has a generally undulat- 
ing surface, with soil well adapted to the cul- 
tivation of trees, small fruits and grain. The 
most common native trees are the chestnut, 
oak and beech. 

Most of the early settlers of Green town- 
ship were German, as is evident by such names 
as Knauff, Bauman, Kenreich, Houtts, Stahl, 

and Zimmerman, which we find in glancing 
over the records. 

Eben Newton, of Canfield, became the pur- 
chaser of section i, on which account it was 
afterwards known as the "Newton tract." 
Henry Beard and family, Germans, were the 
first settlers in section 4, and his descendants 
remain in the vicinity to this day. Section 5 
was bought by James Webb and John Beard. 

Henry Pyle and wife, who came from 
Germany about 1804, settled in section 2. 
Some of the other sections passed rapidly 
through various hands. Coal was found and 
was formerly worked to some extent in sec- 
tions 17, 19 and 20. Section 16 was the 
"school lot" and in 1849 was sold to a num- 
ber of different persons. In section 14, which 
was entered by a stranger who sold it to 
Abram Garber, is Greenford station, on the 
old Niles and New Lisbon Railroad. 

Philip Houtts, who purchased the west part 
of section 12 on which was a spring, carried 
on a distillery there until about 1830. Ehsha 
Teeter entered section 20 for his four sons — 
John, Jonathan, William and Wilson — in 
1808, and in 1822 the first steam mill in this 
part of the Country was erected by Wilson 
Teeter. The large vein of coal found on this 
section was opened and operated by this fam- 

Section 36 was entered by Jacob Roller in 
1803. His son. Col. Jacob B. Roller, served 
under General Harrison, and at Fort Meigs 
and was state representative for twenty-one 


Green township was incorporated June 3, 
1806, and formed a part of Columbiana 
County until the organization of Mahoning 
County in 1846. 


Green Village, situated near the center of 
the township, was first laid out by Lewis Ba- 
ker, Jacob Wilhelm and Jacob Cook. The 
postoffice was established in 1831, William 
Van Horn being the first postmaster. The 



present postmaster at Greenford is William I. 

Washingtonville was laid out about 1832, 
the first store being opened in the following 
year by Jacob Stobbes, who became the first 
postmaster in 1836. The present postmaster 
is Joseph Thorpe. The postoffice is situated 
in Columbiana County, just across the line 
from Green. Peter Miller was tiie first black- 
smith to open a shop. 

New Albany was laid out by Wilson Tee- 
ter and Edwin Webb, the first postoffice being 
established prior to 1853. The first postmaster 
was Henry Thulen, who was succeeded by 
Joshua Webb. 


At an early date after the settlement of the 
township a log school house, 20x24 ^^^t in 
size, was built on a piece of ground situated 
on the east side of section 20, and donated by 
Elisha Teeter. Edward Bonsai was .the first 
teacher. Another log school house was built 
by Henry Pyle on the New Lisbon road in 
section 10. Samuel McBride and George 
Pow were the earliest teachers, the former be- 
ing engaged to teach in 18 14. After Mr. 
Pow's retirement no school was taught there 
until the district schools were opened in 1827. 

West of Green Village was a log church, 
in which the first school was taught near the 
center. About 181 5 Henry Zimmerman 
taught school in a log school house in section 
34, on land belonging to Jacob Stofer. An- 
other log school house was subsequently built 
on this section, and was taught for a time by 
William, Rachael and Samuel Schofield. 

In 18 1 8 a school was opened at Washing- 
tonville in a log church built by jMichael and 
Baltzer Roller. 

In 1844 there were twelve schools in the 
township, with ten teachers, with an average 
daily attendance of 169 males and 131 females, 
the branches taught being reading, writing, 
arithmetic, English grammar and geography. 
The changes since then have been chiefly in 
the line of improving general conditions, pro- 
viding a higher class of text books, with more 

comfortable school houses and a better system 
of instruction. There are now twelve teach- 
ers employed and the schools are well attended 
and in a flourishing condition. 

The Evangelical Lutheran church at 
Greenford was founded in 1840, the present 
building being erected in 1884. The first pas- 
tor was Rev. John H. Huffman, and the 
church was started with forty-one members. 
The pastors since 1876 have been as follows: 
Rev. J. M. Ruthrauff, 1876-80; Rev. S. P. 
Kiefer, 1880-82; N. W. Lilly, 1882-85; Rev. 
T. S. Smedley, 1885-90; Rev. A. B. Kast, 

1890-92; Rev. J. B. Burgner, 1893-98; 

; Rev. A. K. Felton, 1900-03; Rev. H. 

M. Nicholson, eighteen months to 1905; 
Rev. M. L. Wilhelm, eighteen months to 
1907; Rev. P. L. Miller, 1907 — . The Sun- 
day school superintendent is R. R. Zimmer- 

Green township is essentially a farming 
community, but has several small manufactur- 
ingg industries, including a tile works, of 
which C. C. Pettit is manager; a planing mill, 
conducted by M. G. Hoffman ; a grist mill, by 
Fred Mattix; sawmill, V. V. Zimmerman. 
Coal mining is also carried on to some extent 
by Bush Brothers. 


This is an agricultural township and was 
named after Andrew Jackson, the hero of New 
Orleans and our seventh president. The sur- 
face of the township is somewhat broken and 
uneven. Meander Creek drains the eastern 
portion, while a number of small streams flow 
into the creek from the westward. Here and 
there a stretch of woodland affords a pleasing 
contrast to the wide-spreading acres of culti- 
vated land, and contributes to the make-up of 
a picturesque and varied landscape. 

From the historical reminiscences of Mr. 
D. Anderson and from other sources, we learn 
that Samuel Calhoun, who died in 1873, was 
the "first actual settler in this township. 
Samuel Riddle, John Morrison and William 
Orr were others who settled very early, and 
Andrew Gault was the first white child born 


-in the township. The township was organized 
..about the year 1815, and was then cahed West 
Austintown, afterwards Jackson.'' 

In the year 1803 there were just six tax- 
payers in the township — Samuel Calhoun, An- 
drew Gault, William Orr, James Stamford, 
Samuel Riddle and Joseph Mclnrue — the total 
taxes being $3.07. 

The first marriage was probably that of 
John Ewing and Margaret Orr, in 1805, the 
ceremony being performed by 'Squire Chid- 
ester, of Canfield. 

The first death was that of Mary, daughter 
of William and Mary Orr, which took place 
February 18, 1805, when she was in her four- 
-teenth year. 

There was but little interest taken in edu- 

- cation in early days in Jackson. The first log 
school house was a very rude, ramshackle sort 
of structure, with a roof of loose boards, 
weighted down, and a floor or split timber. It 
was in the southeastern part of the township, 
on the side of a steep bank. John Fullerton 

. and a man named Ferguson were, it is 
thought, the first teachers. In the same neigh- 
borhood, on a hill northeast of the Covenanter 

. church, a second log school house was after- 
wards erected. The name of Matilda Taylor 
has been preserved as that of the first teacher 

.-of summer school in this part of the township. 
Mr. Fullerton, above mentioned, seems to have 
been a practical joker, as there is a story to the 

-effect that he once assisted some of the larger 
boys of the school in placing a wagon on the 
roof of the school house, gravely informing 

■the owner, who came to him with a wrathful 

■ complaint of the misconduct of his pupils, 
that he would do his best to ascertain the au- 
thors of the outrage and punish them as they 

Other school houses -vvere afterwards built 
.in different parts of the township, all the early 

■ ones being constructed of logs, these later giv- 
ing way to frame buildings. 

About 1840 the settlers began to take more 
irinterest in education. Up to this time English 

had been taught in the school a part of the 
time and German the remainder. But about 
this time English alone was substituted by 
Samuel Jones, who had been elected school 
director and who having made a canvass 
among the settlers, had discovered that nearly 
all of them were in favor of the change. The 
township was now divided into eight school 
districts, with a fractional district in the south- 
west comer. Competent teachers were en- 
gaged, and a good attendance of scholars se- 

There are now nine school districts in the 
township, though only six school buildings are 
in use, owing to the fact that the board has 
adopted, so far as possible, a policy of central- 
ization, conveying three districts to the graded 
school at North Jackson. Mr. Guy Hoover 
is the present superintendent. Miss Fern Win- 
stead, assistant. The other teachers are as fol- 
lows: District No. i. Miss Emma Klingeman; 
No. 2, David Walters; No. 3, Stephen Gold- 
ner; No. 4 (two rooms), G. S. Hoover and 
Miss Fern Winstead; No. 5, no school; No. 
6, Miss Etta M. Lynn; No. 7, Miss Isa Flick; 
No. 8 and No. 9, no school in use. 

There are no special districts, and no new 
school house has been erected for the last six- 
teen years. The total number of scholars' 
now in attendance is 170. 


The Covenanter church was organized in 
1830, in the southeastern part of the township, 
in the Gault and Ewing settlement. In 1833 
a division occurred, which led to the formation 
of two societies, one locating in Austintown, 
and the other continuing to worship in the old 
church for many years. 

The Methodist Episcopal society was or- 
ganized in the same year at the center and is 
still in existence. Their church, north of the 
center, was erected in 1840. In 1834 the Ger- 
man Lutherans and German Presbyterians 
were organized into a society, and in common 
erected a house for public worship one-half 
mile north of the center, which has been refit- 
ted once or twice since tlien. The Presbyte- 


rians of Ohlton and Orr's Corners united in 
one organization, and in 1872 erected a good 
substantial house for worship a few rods east 
of the center. The Rev. T. R. McMahon was 
the first pastor. The pulpit is now filled by 
the Rev. Charles Wiseman, The other 
churches in Jackson are the Disciples' church, 
pastor, Rev. S. H. Bush; Reformed, Rev. Mr. 


Among the early merchants were Colwell 
Porter, who was the first to open a store in a 
log cabin; Mr. Koons, who sold out to Mr. 
Graton ; David Anderson, who commenced 
business in 1843 ^'""i afterwards sold out to 
John_ Cartwright, and Trumbull & Welkins, 
who had a store on the northwest corner of 
the center. Anthony & Flaugher began busi- 
ness on the southwest corner in 1856. Ander- 
son & Flaugher formed a partnership under 
the name of D. Anderson & Company and in 
1862 the name was changed to Anderson, 
Shaffer & Company. Welkers sold to Moher- 
nian, Osborn & Lynns. Lynns retiring, the 
firm became Moherman, Osborn & Moherman, 
and afterwards William & A. Moherman. 
They were followed by Dickson & Kirk, who 
were burned out September, 1874. Folk & 
Anderson commenced in 1866. Many subse- 
quent changes have occurred, which lack of 
space forbids us to chronicle. The leading in- 
dustrial enterprises of the township at present 
are, Kirtler Brothers, roller mills, capacity, 
100 barrels per day; H. H. Lynn, sawmill, 
planing mill and feed mill, in connection with 
an up-to-date lumber yard, with supplies of 
building material. There are also the usual 
stores carrying supplies of furniture, farm ma- 
chinery and provisions. 

Jackson has also a prosperous Knights of 
Pythias lodge, which owns its own hall. 


The township of Milton, situ&ted in the 
northwestern corner of Mahoning County, was 
settled about the year 1803, in the vicinity of 

Pricetown; and also about the same time on 
the eastern side of the township. Nathaniel 
Stanley, who settled in the western part, near 
the Mahoning river, was probably the first 
actual settler. He remained, however, but a 
short time, removing north to Newton town- 
ship. Asa Porter, who came from Pennsyl- 
vania in 1803, is said to have been the second 
settler. He located west of the river, and af- 
terwards went to reside on the farm of his 
sons, Enoch and Joseph. He brought up a 
family of twelve children. He was a man of 
great physical and constitutional strength, and 
lived to the remarkable age of ninety-six years. 

Another settler in the western part of the 
township, in 1803, was John Vanetten, who 
came to Milton from Delaware, with his wife 
and three children, seven others being after- 
wards born to them here. Mrs. Vanetten's 
maiden name was Anna Lebar. 

Among the other early settlers were Sam- 
uel Linton, Samuel Bowles, who afterwards 
removed to Portage County; Isaac, James and 
held the office of associate judge; Daniel 
Jacob Winans, who came from Delaware in 
1804; Jesse Holliday, Reuben S. Clarke, who 
Stewart, who settled south of Orr's Corners; 
John DeLong, Joseph Depew, James and John 
Craig, who settled east of the rives; John Mc- 
Kenzie, who came in 1805, and William Par- 
shall, who settled west of the river and kept a 

Robert Price, from whom Priceville was 
named, came in 181 7. Robert Rose, a native 
of Bath, Virginia, born in 1786, came to Ells- 
wortli from Poland township with his father 
when a youth. He was living in 1881, being 
then ninety-six years of age, and possessing 
a remarkable degree of vigor. 


Jesse Holliday, one of the earliest settlers, 
in 1804. built a grist mill, sawmill and carding 
mill, selling them twelve years later to John 

Afterwards they came into the possession 
of Robert Price, who operated them for sev- 
eral years. A flouring mill was built in the 


late thirties by Dr. Jonathan I. Tod, son-in- 
law of Judge Price, and remained in posses- 
sion of Dr. Tod and his widow until i86l, 
when it was purchased by Mr. Calender. Dr. 
Tod also built a foundry on the west side of 
the river, which was operated for several years 
and then converted into a linseed oil manufac- 
tory. Another foundry erected by the Doctor 
was changed by Mr. Calender into a flax mill. 
J. M. Calender established a woolen factory, 
which was carried on for a number of years. 
There are now no manufactories in the town- 
ship. At Blanco there is a general store keqt 
by Emory Kale. In the southwest part of the 
township there is a small bank of coal, which 
supplies the local trade. 


There are no township records of early 
date in existence. In 1814 John Johnston and 
Bildad Hine were elected justices of the peace 
by the joint townships, Newton and Milton. 
A year or two later Milton became a township 
and voting precinct by itself. 

At an early date there was a log school 
house east of the river, which was taught by 
Daniel Depew, an elderly man. John John- 
ston taught school about 181 2 in a .log school 
house that was situated on the center road, 
three-quarters of a mile west of the Jackson 
township line. Other early teachers were, 
Robert White, Margaret Depew, Tillinghast 
Morey, Nancy Best, Peggy Stevens, Joseph 
Duer, Gain Robison and Billings O. Plimpton. 
The last named afterwards became a famous 
Methodist preacher. The teachers were paid 
about $4 or $5 a month in summer, and $9 or 
$10 in winter, a part only in cash and the rest 
in orders on the store keepers. 

There are now six schools in the township, 
with an attendance of about 100 scholars. 


A Presbyterian church was organized 
about 1808 by citizens of Newton and Milton, 

and a church erected in Newton near Price's 
Mills. Rev. James Boyd was the first pastor, 
and was succeeded by Rev. John Beer, after 
which the church was "supplied" for a num- 
ber of years. About 1836 Rev. W. O. Strat- 
ton became the pastor and during his ministry 
(in 1847) a new church was built at Orr's 
Corners, the old one being no, longer used. 
In 1 87 1 many of the members left and joined 
the new church at Jackson. This weakened 
the church so that it died a gradual death and 
is no longer in existence as an organization. 

The Methodists organized a society and 
church about 181 2 and held meetings in the 
school house at Orr's Corners. The pulpit 
was supplied by circuit preachers, among 
whom was Dr. Boswick, Rev. Ira Eddy^Rev. 
B. O. Plimpton and others. Tillinghast Mo- 
rey, Isaac Mitchell, with the Winans and 
Vaughns, were prominent members and sup- 
porters of this church. Mr. Morey's house 
was a frequent stopping place for Methodist 
preachers while on their circuits, and services 
were often held there. The Methodist church 
is now the onl}' denomination represented in 
the township. The building is a frame struc- 
ture located a little west of the center. The 
congregation numbers about fifty. 

The Disciples organized a church about 
1830, and held meetings at the Orr's Corners 
school house. William Hayden and Walter 
Scott were among their first preachers. Their 
organization came to an end about i860 or 


The early settlers were all buried in New- 
ton, near Price's Mills. There are now two 
cemeteries — the Vaughn cemetery, situated 
west of the center, and the Eckis cemetery, in 
the southeastern part of the township. The 
old cemetery located in the northwestern part 
of the township has been abandoned, and is 
now in ruins. 


Poland was one of the earliest settled por- 
tions of Mahoning County and by 18 10 had a 



considerable population, which consisted 
largely of emigrants from Pennsylvania. The 
township has an uneven surface, being deeply 
cut in the northeastern portion by the Mahon- 
ing river and in the northwest by Yellow 
creek, which flows through Poland Village. 
The soil is deep and fertile and in most places 
well adapted to farming". Considerable coal 
and iron ore have been found in the township, 
and some small veins of coal are still worked, 
though, owing to the exhaustion of the best 
mines, that industry is not so flourishing as 
formerly. Others have taken its place, how- 
ever, as the busy, prosperous villages of Low- 
ellville and Struthers fully evidence. An ac- 
count of the early furnaces may be found in 
the chapter on the coal and iron industries of 
the county. An account of some of the most 
interesting events in the early history of Po- 
land was contained in a paper read by Mrs. 
Mary M. Maxwell at the Columbus celebra- 
tion in Poland October 21, 1892, from which 
we here quote extensively : 

"The first to lay out and take claims in 
this place was Turhand Kirtland, afterwards 
known as Judge Kirtland, a surveyor named 
Woolcott coming with him. These men be- 
gan work in 1798, remaining- here during the 
warm weather, and returning- east in the win- 
ter, until 1803, when Mr. Kirtland brought 
out his family and settled on the spot where 
Isaac Walker now lives. This was done to 
the great sorrow of his beautiful wife, who 
declared that if she had to leave her eastern 
home, she would never return for even a visit, 
a promise she faithfully kept. 

"Mr. Kirtland and Mr. Woolcott had 
many strange adventures and endured many 
hardships during the years they spent in the 
forest surveying, a minute detail of which is 
found in Mr. Kirtland's diary, now in the pos- 
session of Hon. C. F. Kirtland, his grandson, 
and which is very interesting reading. Much 
of the time they spent far from any habita- 
tion; a large beech tree, standing until recently 
near the home of Charles Kirtland, marking 
at least one spot where they camped, proof of 
which was given by the names cut in its 
smooth bark. They seem, also, to have been 

often ill from exposure, an example of what 
they suffered being found in the diary under 
date of May, 1799, and reading as follows: 
'The rain began to fall extremely hard, filling 
up the swamps and streams. It rained for 
three days, but we kept on, reaching Burton, 
after bridging, swimming and w-ading, being, 
all one day in the water." No coiuplaint, how- 
ever, is ever entered, but on the contrary such 
notes as this frequently occur after a hard day 
in a swamp : 'At night we made a tent of bark 
and slept sweetly.' Indeed, all the pages of 
this closely written diary are but records of 
toil, privation and dangers truly painful to 
read, though not unfrequently an amusing 
stoi-y is told, one being how he fetched, on one 
of his journeys west, a quantity of money in 
a box under the seat of his cart, marked 'Bi- 
bles,' leaving it safely wherever he stopped, 
no one showing any desire to rob a traveler 
so pious as to carry Bibles by the quantity. 

"The laying out and starting of a town 
on Yellow creek was a pet idea with Mr. 
Kirtland and Mr. Jonathan Fowler, iu' 
which they were aided by Mr. Woolcott, whose 
careful survey of 'Town one. Range one,' I 
find recorded in a beautiful manner in a large 
book kept with the diary of Mr. Kirtland, the 
site of our present village being referred to as 
'very pleasing.' The name of the young town 
was a matter of much thought, Poland being 
chosen as unlikely to be duplicated in other 
places, thus avoiding the annoyance of missent 
letters. One of the first acts for the encour- 
agement of his town was a gift by Mr. Kirt- 
land of a portion of land 'to be kept for a 
church, school and other public purposes,' and 
for a graveyard. 

"May 29, 1799, Jonathan Fowler came 
from Connecticut on horseback, bringing his 
wife, a sister of Mr. Kirtland, and their child ; 
also their household goods. The part of the 
journey from Beaver, then called Mackintosh. 
was made in a canoe. Until a cabin was built 
they camped near a spring back of where John 
Brown now lives, sleeping at night in the hol- 
low, but friendly, heart of a large tree. In 
1804 they left their cabin for the stone tavern, 
still one of our landmarks, and whose well pre- 



served walls could, were they able, tell many 
an interesting tale, relating not only to the 

■early history of Ohio, but more or less con- 
nected with that of the United States. Mr. 
Fowler kept a store in part of the stone house, 
taking in exchange for goods such produce as 
the scattered settlers could furnish, once a 
year packing it on horses, or with an ox team, 
to Beaver Point, where he placed it on a raft 
and poled it to New Orleans, then the nearest 
market, the trip requiring three months' time. 
At New Orleans the produce was exchanged 
for sugar, molasses and other needed articles. 
The nearest mill was also at Beaver Point. 
While preparing his raft for one of these long 
journeys, Mr. Fowler was drowned, his last 
act being an endeavor to save his assist- 
ants, all of whom escaped. Mr. Fow- 
ler's daughter, Rachael, was the first 
white female born in Poland ; Ebenezer 
Struthers being the first white male. Indians 
were their only neighbors, the nearest white 
family living eight miles to the west, and a 
ten-mile swamp separating them from the 
nearest cabin on the east, some of the logs 
which later on formed a corduroy road over 
the swamp having been, this summer, uncov- 
ered near the home of James Sexton, and be- 
ing still perfectly sound. This road was sur- 
veyed in 1802, the one to Youngstown having 
been cut the year previous. 

"Mrs. Fowler was greatly tried by the In- 
dians, who had never before seen a white babe, 
asking almost daily for little Rachael, fre- 

■ quently carrying her off, and keeping her for 
hours. She dreaded risking the child out of 
her sight, also the condition in which its filthy 
nurses usually returned it, but did not dare re- 
fuse their request lest they should be made 

"Rachael was married in 1820 to Thomas 
Riley. A good black silk gown had been pre- 
pared for the event, but at the last moment she 
concluded to wear the one in which her mother 
had been married, a thing easily done, as 
fashions did not then change with each moon. 
Mr. Riley, being a good tailor, probably wore 
a suit of his own making, and not those of 
Mr. Fowler, his wife's father, which consisted 

of a fine blue 'swallow tail' cloth coat, with 
brass buttons, white satin knee breeches, and 
light blue stockings, the latter still owned by 
his grandson, Jared Riley. 

"Jonathan Fowler saw his wife but once 
before marriage, their courtship being carried 
on by letter, the following most dignified 
epistle being a copy of the last one sent his 
future wife before tlieir marriage. 

" 'Guilford, Conn., October 21, 1799. 

" 'Madam : — As the time draweth near 
that we are to be one (God willing), suffer me 
to call on you once more to examine yourself 
by yourself, to see if your love to me is such 
love as will keep you constant to me before all 
others, in comfortable, or neglectuous circum- 
stances; whether you feel yourself able to take 
the charge with me of a family so as to do 
yourself honor, and render you my greatest 
earthly blessing, and the world a useful mem- 
ber of society. I believe I have carefully con- 
sidered every particular myself, and hope the 
world will not censure my actions. But when 
I consider that there is so much trouble in the 
marriage state, it almost discourages me to be 
sure. When I see men of able heads, and I 
hope of better hearts, err in this, what may 
not I be left to do in my infirmity? I hope 
this diffidence in my heart proceeds not from 
any jealousy of its own by nature, but from 
desire of doing what is right in the eyes of the 
Lord, for we are now laying the foundation 
of our future happiness or misery, and for that 
reason we must not neglect any part of our 
duty. We must first consider what is our 
duty to each other, and what we may reason- 
ably expect, one from the other, and 
that is, true, inviolable friendship, which 
will make lis wiilling to give ourselves 
to each other, and, if need be, give 
ourselves one for the other. If this is too 
much for you to submit to, then let us stop 
where we are now, and never suffer me to 
press your breast to mine, for these are the 
only terms I can agree to. 

" 'We have friends, and they may reason- 
ably expect our friendship. Then don't let us 
disappoint their expectations, but show them 


and the world at large that we are reasonable 
creatures, and not made for ourselves alone, 
but are only instruments in the hands of Prov- 
idence to distribute his bounty with liberal 
hand to the distressed whenever they happen 
to fall in our way. 

" 'You may expect to aee me next week, 
if I hear nothing from you, and it is likely that 
I shall bring some company with me. Re- 
member my duty to your mother, and all other 
friends, and accept my best wishes for your- 
self. These from. Madam, yours, 

" 'Jonathan Fowler.' 

"When Mrs. Fowler lived in her cabin 
near the spring, she each night, after sunset, 
blew for a long time, a wooden horn, so that 
any belated travelers hearing it could follow 
the sound and find shelter with her, instead of 
spending the long, dark hours as did a man 
named Kidd, who, while off looking at some 
land he afterwards bought, was chased up a 
tree by a bear, near where Chauncey Lee now 
lives. Horns were blown at intervals all night, 
with the hope that he would hear, and reach 
Fowler's cabin. He heard, but could not 
leave his airy refuge until about nine o'clock 
the next morning, as the bear patiently 
watched him until that hour. 

"Mr. and Mrs. John McCully were the 
first couple married in Poland, the ceremony 
being performed by Judge Kirtland, the guests 
coming through dense forests to be present at 
the wedding. 

[The History of Trumbull and Mahoning 
Counties, published at Cleveland in 1882, gives 
the first marriage as that of John Blackburn 
and Nancy Bryan, about 1830. Judge Kirt- 
land officiating.] 

"As a sample of the weddings of that day, 
I will describe that of Isaac P. Cowden, of 
Poland, and Anne Gibson, whose home was at 
the well-known Gibson spring between tliis 
place and Youngstown. This wedding took 
place in 1831, the young man being careful to 
call himself Isaac P. Cowden, second, to dis- 
tinguish himself from a cousin bearing the 
same name. The evening before the wedding, 
the groom, who lived at what is called Kansas 

Corners, took his 'waiter,' as the grocunsman 
was called, and repaired to the home of tlie 
bride, where her 'waiter' was in attendance, 
and spent the evening practicing the ceremony 
for the ne.xt day. Next morning, at an early 
hour, the guests invited by the groom assem- 
bled at his home and formed a procession, led 
by himself and his 'waiter,' and went to the 
home of the bride, making a point on arriving 
of riding in great style entirely around the 
cabin before alighting at the door, where they 
were received by the bride's friends. 

"The whole company stayed until the fol- 
lowing morning, then accompanied the newly 
weddeil pair to the groom's home, where they 
had another day and night of feasting. The 
company were all mounted on horses, the pro- 
cession being headed by the bride and her gal- 
lant Isaac, the ride ending with the usual circle 
around the cabin, though a sister of the bride 
marred the affair a little by falling from her 
horse, causing someone to shout, 'thirty-five 
on horseback and one on the ground,' showing 
that a large number not only of 'beasts,' as 
horses were called, but people also attended 
these festivities. 

"Mrs. Esther Gibson Dickson, a sister of 
the bride, and present at this wedding, says 
'it took a great deal of time to get married 
those times, as three or four days were spent 
going from house to house feasting, closing 
Saturday by the 'waiters' spending the night 
at the bride's home, so as to aid in making an 
appearance at the meeting next day. 

"It was custom, also, for the owners of 
cabins passed by the wedding procession to fire 
a salute, so, when Isaac Cowden was taking 
his new wife home, Peter Webber, who lived 
where James Brownlee now resides, not seeing 
the cavalcade in time to get his rifie, seized a 
pitchfork, and hastening into the path, stopped 
the whole train by aiming directly at the bridal 
party, who, intent on themselves, did not no- 
tice what he held in his hand, and halted at 
once, lest so near a shot should alann their 
lively steeds. 

"John Arrel, St., and a man named Love, 
owned a cart and two horses between them ; 
into the former thev crowded their household 



goods, their wives and children, and crossed 
the mountains to this place from Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania, arriving in 1801, and 
living in a shanty made of rough logs and 
covered with chestnut bark. 

"Mr. Walter Arrel still owns the original 
Arrel farm. Stephen Sexton, Sr., came from 
Washington County, Pennsylvania, also in 
1 80 1, purchasing what is still known as the 
Sexton farm. After clearing and sowing a 
small piece of land, and partly preparing a 
cabin, he returned home, the next spring fetch- 
ing his family, also a solid black walnut door 
for the cabin, which he carried in the bottom 
of his cart. This door was in use until re- 
cently. Its hinges were long pieces of strap 
iron, fastened on by great spikes clinched 
quite through the wood. The lock was a 
famous one, whose key is still kept as a relic. 

"Mr. ■ Sexton, David Loveland and Wil- 
liam Buck came to Poland inside the same 
the same twelve months, were born within the 
same year, all lived to be ninety-three years of 
age, and all died within twelve months of each 
other. Joseph Sexton, son of Stephen Sexton, 
lived to be older than his father. 

"James McNabb came to Poland from 
Washington county, Pennsylvania, in 1801, 
feeling that he was coming to the fartherest 
west. He brought his family, and all his 
household goods, on two horses, one bearing 
a load that would not admit the added weight 
of a rider, the other having across the saddle 
a bed-tick opened in the center, one end being 
filled with bedding, the other having in the 
bottom a set of shoemaker's tools, over which 
a board was placed as a seat for three children, 
whose heads protruded through the opening. 
On the saddle sat the brave mother holding 
her babe, and in one hand the head of her 
large spinning wheel and the flyer of her small 
one, that being the only way she could carry 
them and feel sure they were safe. Mr. 
McNabb walked the whole distance, save when 
his weary wife begged him to take her seat, 
and the babe, and let her rest by walking. 
When they stopped at night they asked 
the privilege of sleeping on the tavern floor, 
the pretense of economy giving them the privi- 

lege of laying down a quilt into which they 
had quilted their money, the children laying 
on the precious article, while the parents slept 
on either side guarding both. 

"Mr. McNabb purchased the farm on 
which his grandson, James McNabb, now lives, 
his cabin being near the site of the old furnace, 
the little caves in the banks of the creek being 
used as hiding places for the children when the 
Indians were about, each child having its own 

"In 1800, Capt. Dunlap came here, his 
father having preceded him, and in 1803 he 
dug for Judge Kirtland the well from which 
Isaac \Valker, a son of one of the early settlers, 
still refreshes himself. 

"In 1802 Jared Kirtland, father of the late 
Mrs. Dr. Mygatt, built the tavern that so long 
stood where we now see the pleasant home of 
Robert Walker. The hostelry was noted for 
its commodious rooms whose walls and wood- 
work were all hand-finished very handsomely; 
for its hospitality and choice liquors. It was 
also the half-way house between Cleveland and 
Pittsburg, and often at night the ample yard 
and large stables were crowded with 'beasts' 
great six-horse covered wagons and four-horse 
coaches. The proprietor of this famous house 
had two daughters who attracted the attention 
of a rising young physician in Youngstown, 
then known as 'a small settlement near Po- 
land.' One day this youth called on Mr. Kirt- 
land, saying he was looking for a wife and 
would like one of his daughters, it being quite 
immaterial to him which one he got. Mr. 
Kirtland replied that he thought it appeared 
better for an older sister to marry first, so she 
being willing, the matter was soon settled, the 
marriage so strangely arranged proved satis- 
factory to all concerned. 

"The old brick store was another well con- 
structed and handsomely finished building 
whose upper floors had large double parlors, 
dressing rooms, and other conveniences, where 
the lads and lassies met to dance, and where 
shows, lectures, and other public meetings 
were held. 

"For many years there lived at Poland 
Center a man who made splint bottom chairs, 



one set having been ordered by Sally Black- 
man, who was sent through the forest by her 
mother on an errand. One of this set of chairs 
I have owned for several years, it being still 
in good condition. As long as she lived Miss 
Sally used for herself the chair on which her 
mother sat in a wagon, carrying her babe, 
while the young father walked beside guiding 
the team as they came to this place from Con- 

"The 'old furnace,' the ruins of which are 
on the creek below the village, was the first 
blast furnace in the now noisy and smoky 
jMahoning valley. This furnace was aban- 
doned about the year 1835. 

"The first blacksmith was a man named 
Hoadly, whose forge was where the school 
property now stands, John McCully working 
with him, having learned his trade at Fort 
Pitt. These men were often annoyed by 
wolves howling about their shop at night, and 
twice James Barclay, a son-in-law of Mr. 
McCully, was chased by the festive creatures, 
from whom his fleet horse enabled him to es- 

"Dr. Issac Cowden was the first settled 
physician in this region, living to be very old. 
Dr. Jared Potter Kirtland also practiced here 
for a considerable time, afterwards removing 
to Cleveland, where he died a few years since 
one of the most extensively known men in the 
profession in the state, while Drs. Eli i\Iygatt 
and Joseph Truesdale are still jield in kindly 
memory, the former practicing here for more 
than fifty years, and the latter nearly as long. 

"Squire Drake's name also appears as one 
of the early citizens of our famous village, 
many yellow documents existing to which his 
signature as justice of the peace is attached, 
while the late venerable brothers, George and 
Billions Kirtland, were worthy a high place 
among scientists. 

"The Presbyterian church was organized in 
1802 by Rev. Joseph Badger, who was sent to 
this benighted region by the Connecticut Mis- 
sionary Society. For sometime previous to his 
coming there had been a strong desire to have 
a church organization, so when an evening was 
set apart for the purpose a little band of men 

came to the meeting from a log-rolling, all 
covered with soot, having worked until too 
late to go home and 'slick up.' 

"Among the first to put their hands on the 
roll of membership were James Adair, Sr., John 
McClelland, Josiah Walker, Thomas Mc- 
Cullough, Robert Smith, Stephen Sexton, Sr., 
John Hunter, Joseph Porter, David Justice, 
and others whose names I did not learn, 

"The first house for worship was erected 
in 1804 on the land donated by Mr. Kirtland, 
near which, in 1828, the white frame church, 
which preceded the present brick one, was 
built, it being considered a fine structure, with 
its three galleries and high pulpit. 

"The earnest worshippers came to their 
first log temple by foot-paths, bridle-paths and 
corduroy roads, the women wearing homespun 
gowns (calico cost four dollars for eight yards, 
the amount needed for a dress), and the men 
hunting shirts, made of linen and reaching to 
the knees. Each man carried a rifle, and often 
a tomahawk, the former being stacked in one 
corner of the church ready for use should a 
desirable deer or bear come in sight for food 
or an undesirable Indian or wolf appear behind 
some tree. 

"Rev. James Wright was the first settled 
pastor of the Presbyterian church, holding the 
office in connection with the society at West- 
field, just over the state line. Air. Wright 
lived in what is known as the Rohrbaugh 
house. He was married three times, two of 
his wives being buried in the old graveyard in 
Poland, a few steps from the Presbyterian 
church ; his own grave, and that of his third 
wife, being near the pulpit in Westfield, where 
he lived and worked so many years after leav- 
ing here. He was a good man whose faithful 
service was rewarded by the princely sum of 
two hundred dollars a year, his 'steepens,' as 
his salary was called, being collected by him- 
self as best he could, he gladly taking pigs, 
corn, grain, wool, and not unfrequently good, 
old rye whiskey, the latter being then the chief 
circulating medium, as well as the chief part 
of the diet of many respectable persons, as was 
proven at least once at good father Wright's 
own home, the occasion being a wood-bee giv- 



en him by his neighbors, at which several be- 
came so tired and hmber as to be unable to do 
their share of work. 

"The Rev. Algernon S. MacMaster, D. D., 
succeeded Mr. Wright at Westfield, after- 
wards being pastor of the Presbyterian church 
here for twenty-four years. 

"The old Seceeder church, now the well- 
known United Presbyterian, was organized in 
1804, the first pastor being the Rev. Mr. Doug- 
lass, a good young man, who died early, and 
it is to be hoped his heavenly estate was rich 
in proportion to the meagerness of his earthly 
one, his personal property being found to con- 
sist of a saddle, bridle and two barrels of 

"A few Covenanters were scattered among 
the early settlers, to whom Rev. George Scott 
sometimes preached, using the Presbyterian 
church about eight Sabbaths in the year, that 
being all the gospel privileges they felt able to 
pay for. 

".V Methodist church was not established 
here until 1834, at which time a meeting was 
held in the school-house where the Presby- 
terian church now stands, and a society 
formed; Mr. and Mrs. William Logan, Sr., 
Mrs. Elizabeth Barclay, Herman Blackman, 
and his sister Sally, being among the first who 
joined. Services had, however, been previous- 
ly held in a log school-house at Cook's Corners, 
and once a camp-meeting was held in Elkana 
Morse's orchard, at which a great revival took 
place. Another remarkable revival w'as held 
in Josiah Beardsley's barn in Boardman. The 
upper part of the present Methodist church 
was the first building erected for public wor- 
ship by this society, and has been in constant 
use ever since. The faith and good works of 
many of the first members of this church, and 
its hard toiling pastors, are still held in affec- 
tionate memory, notably one of its earliest 
ministers — the Rev. Mr. Preston. 

"Mrs. Anna Diantha Detcheon, who was 
one of the, first workers in the Methodist so- 
ciety, says she always felt an interest in her 
church but did not personally know many of 
the Poland people in her young days as she 

lived out of the village and 'somehow did not 
get from home much, having the care of four 
children under five years of age, and spinning 
the first year after her marriage yarn for 
seventy yards of woolen cloth, besides linen 
threads for sheets, towels, and other things, 
and doing her own housework.' 

"The first school-house stood on the spot 
where the Presbyterian church is now located. 
The state had then no control of public schools, 
the 'master,' as tlie teacher was called, taking 
a school for a certain sum of money and divid- 
ing the amount among the families who pat- 
ronized him, according to the number each 
sent, lost time sometimes being filled in by per- 
sons not in regular attendance, John Barclay 
recalling one young man whose educational ad- 
vantages consisted of two days" study, obtained 
in this way. A favorite method of punishing 
pupils in these schools was to compel them to 
hold an arm out at full length until it could be 
held so no longer. 

"Mrs. Kirtland allowed the children to 
come from the old school-house to drink from 
her famous well, near which she one day 
emptied a vessel that contained cherry-bounce. 
The children picked up and ate a c[uantity of 
the rich berries, and so did a flock of mother 
Kirtland's turkeys. The teacher could do noth- 
ing with his pupils the rest of that day ; but 
the poor turkeys had a bitter lesson, for they 
soon fell over, apparently stone dead, and Mrs. 
Kirtland, thinking some fell disease had killed 
them, thought she would at least save the 
feathers, so at once plucked them carefully, 
being greatly surprised an hour or two later 
to find her birds walking about the yard, call- 
ing in the sad way peculiar to their kind. 

"The first select school in Poland was held 
over what is now Mr. Koontz's store, by a man 
named Bradley, who afterwards sold out to 
Mr. Lynch, the owner, builder and principal 
of the Academy, now used by Mrs. Gheehan 
as a dwelling. John Barclay says he hauled 
stone and mortar on a slip with a horse, for 
this building, in that way paying for his tui- 
tion. The masons for whom he worked were 
John Wishard and Joseph Stacy. 



"When the present Presbyterian church 
was built the old school-house was removed to 
where it still stands, next the dwelling of Mr. 
Stewart, and in the room now used by our 
Italian friend as a shoe shop, Miss Eliza 
Blakely, now Mrs. Henry K. Morse, taught 
the first school for girls, having about twenty 
pupils, who awarded their teacher the same 
loving regard offered her by scores of others in 
after years. B. F. Lee, who did so much for 
higher education in our village, organized this 
school, its influence, and that of its successors, 
being still felt far and wide." 


In 1803, Poland paid a tax of $48.24, 
which was assessed upon the fifty-five property 
holders of the township. Turhand Kirtland 
also paid $17.55, ^'^d Jared Kirtland, $5.08, 
leaving an average of about forty-eight cents 
apiece for the rest of the inhabitants. And 
this was a larger tax than was paid by any 
other township in what is new Mahoning 


A militia company was enrolled in 1802, 
with John Struthers as captain, and Robert 
McCombs as first lieutenant. There were 
eighty-seven names on the roll. In 1805 the 
eastern part of the township formed one com- 
pany and the western another. The two com- 
panies met at the village for drill, and a shoot- 
ing contest was arranged between the two best 
marksmen of each company, the competitors 
being Tom Clee? of the eastern company and 
one Garner of the western company. No 
decision was rendered, as each marksman hit 
the exact center of the target. 


The village of Poland, picturesquely situa- 
ted on Yellow Creek, about the middle of the 
west line of the township, was first known as 
"Fowler's" taking its name from the tavern 
of Jonathan Fowler, built in 1804. The vil- 

lage was once a trading place of some impor- 
tance, being in this respect ahead of Youngs- 
town, the stages to Pittsburg, both from the- 
north and west passing through it. The build- 
ing of the canal which passed two and one- 
half miles from it caused it to suffer a loss of 
trade, which was proportionately increased 
later when it was similarly isolated from the 
railroad. It is, however, a quiet pleasant vil- 
lage, free from the noise and dirt of the great 
business centers, with a widely-famed etluca 
tional institution, and a fair proportion of 
stores, shops, and other industries. 


In 1835, Mr. John Lynch, a pupil of Mr. 
Bradley, erected a building and opened an 
academy, which was conducted for about ten 
years, when it was discontinued. For a few 
years thereafter Poland was without an edu- 
cational institution devoted to the higher 
branches of learning. But in 1848 a new 
academy (referred to in Mrs. Maxwell's ar- 
ticle already quoted), was founded on the west 
side of the town by Mr. B. F. Lee, a student 
just from Allegheny College, and was opened 
in the fall of 1849. About the same time, or 
shortly after, the Presbyterians opened an. 
academy on the east side of Yellow Creek, 
which was conducted successfully for about 
six years until the buildings took fire and were 
destroyed and the school was afterwards dis- 

Mr. Lee's school, which was known as 
Poland' Institute, was the germ from which 
sprang the present Poland Union Seminary. 
After being continued at the same location for 
about six years, the school was removed to a 
more commodius building, a three story brick 
edifice, 60x80 feet, on a near-by site, the man- 
agement having in view at the time a prospec- 
tive endowment from the Pittsburg- and Erie 
annual Methodist Episcopal conference. As 
only a portion of the sum expected was secured 
by the conference, it never became available 
and the school became dependent upon the tui- 
tion fees from students and contributions from 



the citizens. The first building, erected by Mr. 
Lee, was purchased by Judge Hayden and M. 
A. King Esq., and used by them for a law 
school. This school, however, was subse- 
quently removed to Cleveland. 

The "Institute" or college, as it is now 
called, struggled along until 1862, being kept 
up only by the earnest efforts of the citizens, 
and the indefatigable exertions of Mr. Lee, un- 
til in the year just mentioned the religious 
■denominations of the town united and raised 
funds for the benefit of the institution, which 
w^as at that time chartered as Poland Union 

In 1 87 1 an effort was made to secure an 
•endowment of $15,000, from the Presbytery 
of Mahoning county. Mr. Lee was appointed 
the financial agent of the presbytery, into 
whose control the school was to pass when 
$10,000 had been secured. Mr. Lee's canvass 
was successful and the school passed into the 
hands of the presbytery, close affiliation, how- 
ever, being maintained with other religious or- 
ganizations. Five thousand dollars was sub- 
sequently added to the endowment by a bequest 
of Mr. George P. Miller, now deceased. 
Among the students have been many young 
men and women who have filled important and 
responsible positions, including the late Presi- 
dent William McKinley. Miss Ida M. Tarbell, 
the well known authoress and magazine writer, 
-was formerly an instructor at the Seminary. 

About ten years ago one of the brick par- 
titions in the old building gave way, rendering 
the building unsafe. It was therefore razed, 
and a new two story brick building of smaller 
dimensions erected on the site of the old build- 

Two teachers are employed, with an occa- 
sional third assistant. The school aims to fit 
its pupils for college, or to become teachers in 
the public schools. There are from thirty to 
fifty students in attendance. The present 
principal, T. S. Orr, has had charge of the 
school for several years. Other recent prin- 
cipals have been H. J. Clark, Rev. William 
Dickson, D. D., W." B. McCarthy, Walter 
Houston, and Harvey Gault. 


The early schools of Poland were very 
much the same as those in other parts of the 
county. A small log school house was started 
as earl}' as 1801. Another school was started 
in Struthers at an early date. At Poland Cen- 
ter there was a small school house, that in early 
days had an average of about forty scholars. 
On special occasions, such as singing school or 
other meetings, it was made to accommodate 
one hundred. Among the early teachers were 
Perly Brush, Rev. Mr. Cook and James An- 

The present superintendent, M. A. Kimmel, 
took charge of the public schools of Poland 
village in April, 1880. At that time there 
were two teachers employed. A third teacher 
was added to the force at the beginning of 
the winter term in 1880. In 1882 and 1883 a 
four room brick building was constructed at 
a cost of $10,000, including furniture. In 
1884 the schools were graded and a fourth 
teacher was employed. In 1888 a three years' 
high school course was added, and a fifth 
teacher was secured. The attendance is from 
125 to 160. The high school numbers from 
fifteen to twenty students. Fifty-two gradu- 
ates in all have gone out from the institute. 
Miss Lizzie McNabb, afterward Mrs. J. R. 
Stewart, for fourteen years a most successful 
and beloved teacher, died about ten years ago. 


Lowellville is a thriving village situated on 
both sides of the Mahoning river, in Poland 
township, and with picturesque hills on either 
hand. It has excellent transportation facilities, 
both steam and electric, being on the lines of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Pittsburg & 
Lake Erie, the Baltimore & Ohio, and the Ma- 
honing Valley Electric Railway Co. Its growth 
began at about the time of the completion of 
the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal, and was 
much accelerated by the mining of coal, and by 
the erection of the Lowellville furnace by Wilk- 
inson, Wilkes & Co. in 1846. The village had 


been laid out about ten years previously by Mr. 
Wick and otbers. In 1S40 the postoffice was 
established, with S. H. McBride as the first 

John INIcGill built the first gristmill in the 
place, and Robert McGill was proprietor of the 
first sawmill. A larger gristmill was erected 
in 1838 by William Watson and John S. Hun- 
ter, and was operated by them until 1866, 
when is passed into other hands. The Hope 
flourmill was established by James Brown 
about 1857 and after his death came into pos- 
session of and was conducted by his heirs. A 
tannery was started by Wilson and Crawford 
about 1844, and was rebuilt two years later by 
William Moore, wlio carried on the business 
until 1874, after which it went out of opera- 

The Mt. Nebo coal mine was opened about 
1828 by Elijah Stevenson, and subsequently 
passed through various hands, at one time be- 
ing extensively worked by the Lowellville Fur- 
nace Company to obtain coal for use in their 
iron works. It was finally abandoned because 
the water became too deep for successful oper- 
ations. Other mines have been successfully 
worked at different times in the history of the 

The Lowell Coal Mining Company, em- 
ploying about thirty-five men, are now en- 
' gaged in the mining of block coal, their output 
being about seventy tons per day. Jacob 
Stambaugh is president and C. N. Chngen sec- 
retary and treasurer. 

The Meehan Boiler and Construction 
Company was organized in 1897 by Robert 
Gray, Patrick, Paul, and James Meehan, and 
John Meehan, a nephew of the other three 
Meehans. The business, which is incorporated 
with a capital stock of $50,000 was at first a 
partnership, and was known as the Meehan 
Boiler Co. The five partners purchased the 
present site of their factory, upon which stood 
an old sawmill, which they also purchased to- 
gether with the creamery which stood on the 
adjacent lot. They at first employed about 25 
or 30 men, which number has since been in- 
creased to 200. Their principal output is the 

Meehan boiler, but in addition they do a great 
deal of iron and steel construction work, in- 
cluding the building of blast furnaces, the busi- 
ness amounting to about $200,000 per year. 
The present ofticers of the company are, Pat- 
rick Meehan, president ; Robert Gray, vice- 
president and general manager; James Mee- 
han, Jr., secretary and treasurer. 

The Ohio Iron & Steel Company, of Low- 
ellville was established about 1842, by Wilk- 
inson, Wilkes & Co., and was the first furnace 
in the United States to smelt iron ore with raw 
coal. In 1879 Henry Wick made an examina- 
tion of the furnace plant located at Lowellville, 
then owned by William McCreary, the estate 
of Thomas Bell, and J. S. Dillworth, at which 
time an option was taken on the property, and 
later the plant was purchased. The organiza- 
tion was effected with directors and officers as 
follows : Directors — Paul Wick, John C. 
Wick, Myron C. Wick, Thomas H. Wells, 
Henry W^ick and Robert Bentley. March 11, 
1880, the following officers were elected: 
Thomas H. W^ells, president; Henry Wick, 
vice-president; Robert Bentley, secretary and 
treasurer. The executive committee was 
Thomas H. Wells, Henry Wick and Myron C. 
Wick. The present officers are, Robert Bent- 
ley, president and general manager; David 
Davis, secretary; Fred H. Wick, treasurer. 
The directors are, Robert Bentley, Myron C. 
W^ick, Samuel Mather, John C. Wick, W^ S. 
McCombs, David Davis, F. H. Wick, T. F. 
W^oodman, and Richard Garlick. The com- 
pany is extensively engaged in the manufac- 
ture of Bessemer pig iron. About 180 men 
being employed. 

The Lowellville Savings and Banking 
Company was incorporated March 8, 1906, 
with a capital of $30,000, the company taking 
over the business of the Lowellville . Bank, 
which had been founded in 1905 by a few New 
Castle (Pennsylvania) capitalists. 

The Bessemer Limestone Company, whose 
plant is situated just outside the limits, are en- 
gaged in the quarrying of limestone for fur- 
nace use and ballast, having a capacity of 5,000 
tons per day. They employ alx)Ut 500 men. 



Lowellville is a special school district, with 
two schools. W. C. Dickson is the present 
clerk of the Board of Education. The North 
Side school is the larger, having eight rooms. 
The principal is D. W. Mumaw, with Auley 
McAuley as assistant. There are besides four 
other teachers, Misses Ibbie Dickson, Lizzie 
Houston, Maude Lotz and Clara Elliott. The 
South Side School, which has two rooms, is 
taught by Margaret McCabe and Edith Fer- 


Lowellville has now four churches, the 
Catholic, Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, 
and Christian. The two last named having no 
regular pastor, the Methodish church being 
supplied from Youngstown, and the Christian 
church from Warren. 

Holy Rosary Mission Church. — The erec- 
tion of a Catholic church at Lowellville was 
first proposed about 1867, some twenty Catho- 
lic families having taken up their residence in 
the place, owing to the building of the Ashta- 
bula & Pittsburg Railroad, and also the start- 
ing of a furnace. The foundation was begun in 
1868, but owing to the failure of the above 
named furnace most of the Catholics left 
Lowellville, and the building of the church was 
indefinitely postponed. It was not resumed 
until 1882, when the village began to revive 
from its long period of financial depression, 
the furnace was reopened and two new rail- 
roads were commenced. Father Franche then 
took up the work commenced in 1868, collect- 
ing funds along the railroads, at the furnaces, 
and in the neighboring stone quarries. The 
church was built in 1884. It is a neat brick 
structure, 26x56 feet. Mass was celebrated 
in it for the first time Christmas day, 1884. 
It was dedicated August 15, 1888, by Mgr. F. 
M. Boff, V. G. Father P. F. Obyrne is the 
present pastor. 

The origin of the Lowellville Presbyterian 
church is found in the Free Presbyterian 

church, which was organized by Abolitionists- 
who were dissatisfied with the attitude of the 
Presbyterian church on the subject of slavery. 
It was the first congregation of that denomin- 
ation organized in this vicinity, and was atten- 
ded by the anti-slavery people of Poland, Mt- 
Jackson, New Bedford, Coitsville, and the in- 
termediate country. The first meetings at Low- 
ellville were held by Rev. John D. Whitham, 
in the summer of 1848, in the old McGillsville 
school-house, on Jackson street. In the winter 
of 1848 the place of meeting was changed to 
Liggett's warehouse, on Canal street, and early 
in 1849 the church was organized. Rev. John 
D. Whitham was the first minister. James S. 
Moore and John M. Porter were the first 
elders, and Elias King, John McFarland and 
James S. Moore were the first trustees. On 
February 5, 1850, the present site was pur- 
chased from James Duncan, and the church 
building was raised May 9, 1850. Rev. Whit- 
ham continued as pastor from 1849 to 1857. 
Rev. W. Bushnell was stated supply for six 
months, and was succeeded by Rev. J. C. Bing- 
ham, stated supply, from October, 1858, to- 
December, 1864, after which a Rev. Mr. Mc- 
Elhaney was stated supply until the disband- 
ment of the Free Church, on the adoption of 
the Fourteenth amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States. In 1865 or 1866 most of 
the Lowellville congregation united with the 
new school branch of the Presbyterian church, 
North, and were placed under the jurisdiction 
of the Pittsburg Presbytery. The Rev. J. 
Franklin Hill was pastor for two or three 
years during the time that the congregation 
was under the jurisdiction of the New School 
Presbyterian church. He was followed by a 
Rev. Mr. Johnston, stated supply, after which 
all religious services by this denomination 
ceased until 1876, when the church was revived 
and reorganized by Rev. Mr. Wishart. Rev. 
J. C. Kreusch was stated supply from June of 
that year until 18S2, and was followed by Rev. 
J. H. Jones; from April, 1883, to April, 1884. 
In 1884 the church again became dormant. 
A Union Sunday-school by Presbyterians was, 
however, continued until 1888, when it was- 



divided, part going to tiie Methodist church 
and part remaining in the Presbyterian church 
and becoming the Sabbath school of the present 
congregation, which may be said to date from 
the revival and reorganization of 1888. In 
this year revival meetings were held and the 
church greatly strengthened and built up. Rev. 
Robert Stranahan was stated supply from 
April, 1889, to April, 1893, and was followed 
in 1894 by Elmer E. Patterson who continued 
for two years. During his charge the old 
church building was practically rebuilt and re- 
furnished and many new members received in- 
to the church. Just as the improvements were 
finished the building was wrecked by a storm, 
but was immediately repaired and fitted up as 
it now stands. In 1895 the Sunday school was 
reorganized on its present basis, with Mr. D. 

A. Pence as its first superintendent, who con- 
tinued in office until 1901. June 3, 1896, the 
congregation was incorporated under the style 
of "The First Presbyterian Church at Lowell- 
ville, Ohio," the first meeting of the members 
of the corporation being held in the Town 
Hall, June 18, 1896, when the corporation was 
organized and a temporary board of trustees 
chosen. In October, 1896, all the real estate 
and property of the conregation was trans- 
ferred to the congregation. 

Rev. James W. Harvey became regular 
pastor. May 18, 1897, of the Lowellville and 
Coitsville congregations, at which time the 
church had a membership of sixty-seven. 
During his pastorate a large number were re- 
ceived into the church. The present pastor is 
W. D. Harrell. 

The Young People's Society of Christian 
Endeavor was organized in 1897 with Mr. W. 

B. Moore as its first president. The Woman's 
Missionary Society came into existence in 
1897; Mrs. Jane McCombs was its first presi- 
dent. Both societies have done good and effec- 
tive work along the lines for which they were 

Lowellville has a Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment, established in 1903, and consisting of 
twenty-five men. A. E. Schrader, police- 
officer, serves also as chief of the fire de- 

partment. The present mayor is Thomas F.. 


John Struthers, from whom this village is 
named, arrived October 19, 1799, from 
Washington county, Pennsylvania, and bought 
land on which a large part of the village of 
Struthers is now situated, which he converted 
into a farm. He was accompanied by his fam- 
ily, and in 1801 became the father of a son, 
Ebenezer, who was the first white male child 
born in the township. Mr. Struthers built a 
flouring mill on Yellow Creek, the first in the 
township, and one of the first on the Western 
Reserve. He was also engaged with Mr. 
Montgomery in building and operating a blast, 
furnace on the same creek, a short distance 
from its mouth, which was operated until the 
war of 1812. His son, Lieutenant Alexander 
Struthers, died at Detroit, in 181 3, while in the 
service of his country. Two other sons, John 
and Thomas, were long respected residents of 
the community. An account of the early fur- 
nace above mentioned may be found the chap- 
ter on the coal and iron industries. In Febru- 
ary, 1826, two daughters of John Struthers, 
Drusilla and Emma, who were then residing, 
with their father in Coitsville, were drowned 
while attempting to cross the Mahoning river, 
near the mouth of Yellow Creek, in a skifif, 
being carried over the dam, owing, it was 
thought, to a defective rowlock. The body of 
Emma, the younger daughter, was not found 
for six weeks afterwards. They were mem- 
bers of the United Presbyterian Church at 
Poland Center, and their tragic death, na- 
turally cast a gloom over the community. 


The Struthers Furnace Co. was estab- 
lished /\pril I, 1869, by Thomas Struthers, 
John Stambaugh, Thomas W. Kennedy, and 
John Stewart. Subsec[uently Daniel B. Stam- 
baugh and H. T. Stewart were admitted as 
partners. The firm was known as "Struthers 



Iron Company," and was so operated until 
February i, 1882, at which time the plant was 
sold to the Brown-Bonnell Iron Co. In 1896 
another change of ownership was made, the 
plant coming into the possession and under the 
control of "The Struthers Iron Company." 
The company also has a plant in Struthers 
which manufactures cements for all kinds of 
concrete and similar work. 

The Morgan Spring Company, of Struth- 
ers, was organized in 1905, with a capital 
stock of $700,000. In the main factory at 
Struthers are manufactured wire rods, wire 
nails, staples, and other wire articles. About 
250 men are employed at the works. 

The J. A. and D. P. Cooper Co. was' es- 
tablished, in 1888, byJ.A.and D. P. and John 
Cooper, the last named being an uncle of the 
two first partners mentioned, all being resi- 
dents of Coitsville. In 1892 the concern was 
incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000. 
The directors include the officers of the com- 
pany with the addition of Charles R. Trues- 
dale. The company is engag'ed in the manu- 
facture of carriage gear-woods and ironed 
parts, its product being shipped to all parts of 
the United States and Canada. The works 
give employment to about 100 men. 

The Struthers Savings & Banking Com- 
pany was established in July, 1902, with a 
capital stock of $50,000, paid in. The com- 
pany, which is in a prosperous condition, owns 
its own building, a brick structure, 33x80 feet 
and two stories high, the upper floors being 
iised for lodge purposes by the Knights of 
Pythias and other fraternal orders. 

The Struthers school district embraces, be- 
sides the village, a small portion of the country 
territory, but all the school buildings are lo- 
cated in the village. Of these there are now 
five, four being small buildings of a single 
room each that have long been in use. The 
other is a large, new brick building of eight 
commodius rooms, which is just being com- 
pleted at a cost of $40,000. Upon its occu- 
pation, two of the other school buildings will 

be continued in use, and probably three of 
them, thus furnishing ample accommodations 
to the scholars in the district. The school en- 
numeration shows a total of 750 pupils, while 
the actual school enrollment is about 500. The 
new building will be used as a high school, be- 
sides, including the common grades. Two, and 
possibly four, new teachers will be engaged 
this fall (1907). W. P. Moody is the sup- 

St. AUclwlas Mission Church (Catholic). — 
Struthers was first attended as a station, from 
1865 to 1870, by Rev. J. J. Begel from New 
Bedford, Pennsylvania. In 1870 a lot was 
secured, and on it the present frame church 
was built, in 1871, by the Rev. H. D. Best, 
then resident pastor of St. Joseph's church, 
Youngstown. The Rev. P. McCaffrey, of 
Brier Hill, was the next priest in charge of the 
Mission, until April, 1872. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. F. J. Henry, who also attended it 
from Brier Hill until November of the same 
year. It was attached to St. Columba's, 
Youngstown, for some months in 1873, and 
later again to St. Joseph's, Youngstown, 
whence it was visited monthly. In July, 
1881, the Rev. N. J. Franche, chaplain of the 
convent at Villa Maria, Pennsylvania, was 
given charge of Struthers as a Mission. In 
October, 1888, Struthers was made a mission 
of the church at Haselton (now Sacred Heart 
church, Youngstown) and has been attended 
since then by Rev. G. Leeming. 

The Poland United Presbyterian Church, 
at Struthers, was founded as long ago as 1804, 
the first church building being erected about 
1812. About 1830 the original building gave 
place to a brick structure, which in turn was 
superseded by the present structure in 1849. 
All these buildings were located first at Poland 
Center, the present building having been 
taken down and removed to Struthers in 
1884. The church has a membership of 240; 
Rev. J. A. C. McOuiston is pastor. Other 
officers are as follows: Members of session — 
Alexander Gault, H. T. Cowden, Edward 
Ryan, John J. Hill, Edward Robinson and 
D. H. Stewart; trustees — E. C. Harris, John 
L. Becker, John Shafer and R. M. Cooper; 



president of the church organization — D. P. 


Smith township is situated in the southwest 
corner of ^Mahoning County, the greater part 
of the township lying west of the general west- 
ern boundary line formed by the two town- 
ships to the north of it — Milton and Berlin. 
The surface is undulating, and in the north- 
eastern part hilly. The most depressed por- 
tion of the township is at and around the cen- 
ter, the land rising- as it approches the boun- 
daries. The township is drained by the Ma- 
honing river, which passes through the south- 
western portion, and by its tributaries. 

The first settlement in Smith township, of 
which there is any record, was made by James 
Carter, of Pennsylvania, who, having pur- 
chased some land in the Western Reserve, of 
which the north line of Smith township forms 
part of the southern boundary, in 1803, built 
a log house, and made some improvements oft 
what he supposed was his land. In the fol- 
lowing year he discovered that he had by mis- 
take settled on a tract (of 640 acres, govern- 
ment section 3) that had been purchased by 
William Smith, who arrived with his family 
in the year last named. Smith paid Carter 
for the improvements he had made, and the 
latter removed to the tract which he had in 
fact purchased. The first permanent settler, 
therefore, was Smith, who resided in the town- 
ship for many years, dying in 1841, at the age 
of seventy-three; his wife survived him four 
years, dying at the age of seventy-two. Their 
remains were interred in the family burying 
ground, near the present village of North Ben- 

In 1805 James C. Stanley, of Hanover 
Cdhnty, Virginia, who was probably the sec- 
ond settler in Smith township, made his ap- 
pearance, accompanied by his wife and a fam- 
ily of eight children. He located on section 
24, which he had purchased from the govern- 
ment, and which was afterwards called the 
"Stanley neighborhood." We have no record 
of any more settlers for several years, though 

it is by no means unlikely that there were 
some, either permanent or otherwise. In the 
years i8ii and 1812 other Stanleys from 
Hanover County, Virginia, arrived, together 
with Joshua Crew, who had married Millie, 
daughter of Thomas Stanley. The last named 
— Thomas Stanley — who came in 18 12, was 
accompanied by his family, which included 
three sons — John, who died in 1877; Elijah, 
who died in 1836; Edmund, who died in 1842 
— and two daughters — Millie, above men- 
tioned, and Frances, who became the wife of 
Isaac Votaw and died in 181 8. Thomas Stan- 
ley afterwards married a second wife, Pris- 
cilla Ladd, by whom he had five children. 

The township was settled but slowly, as 
by 1828 it contained but twenty-three voters. 
A number of subsequent residents settled tem- 
porarily before coming to Smith. Thus, Levi 
and Rebecca Rakestraw, who came from New 
Jersey in 181 2, located first in Goshen, where 
they lived until 1825, then becoming perma- 
nent settlers of Smith: Nathan Heacock, also, 
who settled in Salem, Columbiana County, in 
1816, came to Smith township in 1825, bring- 
ing with him a good old-fashioned family of 
ten children. James Cattell, of New Jersey, 
who settled in Goshen in 18 10, removed to 
Smith in 1833, and remained until his death 
in i860. Gideon Hoadley, with his wife and 
children settled in Smith in 1823. His daugh- 
ter, Maria, married John Detchon, who came 
here from Trumbull County in 1822. Sam- 
uel Oyster located on section 31 in 1826, being 
the first settler in the western part of the town- 
ship. He contributed to the population of the 
township a family of fourteen children. An- 
other man with a large family was Peter Wise, 
who came from Pennsylvania in 1832. In the 
following year came James M. Dobson, with 
his wife and one child — John. Other early 
settlers were William Atkinson, who came from 
Goshen; Solomon Hartzell, Hugh Wright, 
William Johnston, Job Lamborn, Christian 
Sheets, Jacob Paxton, John Thompson, Jona- 
than Hoope, John Trago, Matthias Hollow- 
peter, John Cowgill, Abram Haines, Hugh 
Packer, Abram and Samuel Miller, Leonard 
Reed, Adam McGowan, John Hillerman, 



John Shaffer, WilHam Matthews and Amos 


Smith township was organized at a meet- 
ing of the Columbiana County commissioners 
in March, 1821, upon the petition of Judge 
WilHam Smith, one of its pioneers, in honor 
-of whom it was named. The books of the 
■ township, containing records of the first meet- 
ings, and of the election of the first officers, 
are lost or destroyed. James C. Stanley was 
probably clerk of the first town meeting. 


This village was formally laid out in 
.March, 1834, settlements in the locality hav- 
ing been made as early as 1830. It was 
named in honor of Thomas Benton, a re- 
nowned statesman and "hard-money" Demo- 
crat of the period, the word North being pre- 
fixed in order to distinguish it from another 
place of the same name. The first hotel was 
built in 1832 and called "The Benton Ex- 


Westville was named and partially laid out 
in 1 83 1, under the proprietorship of Aaron 
Coppack, and then consisted of part of sec- 
.tions 35 and 36. An addition was made in 
1835, the enlarged plat being recorded Oc- 
tober 15, 1835. 


Beloit commenced its existence as a station 

-on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 

Railroad, and was originally called Smithfield 

Station, the name being changed to Beloit in 



The thriving little city of Sebring was 
founded by the four Sebring brothers — George 
E., Oliver H., Elsworth H. and Frank A. Se- 
bring — natives of Pennsylvania, and sons of 
George and Elizabeth (Larkins) .Sebring, who 
had in all ten children. The parents removed 

to East Liverpool, Columbiana County, Ohio,. 
in 1866, where the boys secured in part their 
education, and a practical knowledge of the 
pottery trade. Frank A. and George E. Se- 
bring were engaged in the pottery business in 
East Palestine, Ohio, as proprietors of the 
Ohio China Company for several years. In 
1895 the four brothers mentioned originated 
the French China Company, building a plant 
at East Liverpool. In July, 1899, they con- 
solidated their interests, purchased two thou- 
sand acres of land in Smith township, just 
over the Columbiana County line, and platted 
the city of Sebring. Here in 1900 they erected 
their first plant — that of the Olive China Com- 
pany. They then sold their several plants in 
Columbiana County and organized the Se- 
bring Pottery Company. They subsequently 
added other plants until the various buildings 
now cover many acres of ground, giving era- 
pi 03'ment to about 1200 workmen. The comf 
pany manufactures a high grade of decorative 
porcelain ware, and the value of their annual 
output exceeds $1,750,000. They have devel- 
oped a flourishing city, with paved streets, 
flagstone walks, electric Ughts, and water 
works — one that is ideal both of the artisan 
and the man of wealth. The pay roll of the 
company runs from $12,000 to $14,000 per 
week. The receipts of the railroad depot for 
freight and passengers amount to from $10,- 
000 to $11,000 per month. A cooperage com- 
pany connected with the potteries gives em- 
ployment to twenty-five men, their product 
supplying home needs with some for export. 
The Buckeye Forge Works is engaged in the 
manufacture of drop forgings and a special 
closed turnbuckle. 

A new and promising industry, started 
within the current year (1907), is the Mag- 
netic Steel Company, which is engaged in the 
manufacture of edge tools and trolley wheels 
by a secret process. The pump works also 
give employment to quite a number of men. 
The A. M. Hall Machine Company has lately 
installed a plant which has great promise for 
the future. The Citizens' Banking Company 
is a promising institution, a great convenience 
to its patrons, and profitable to its stockhold- 



ers. Tlie Buckeye Building & Loan Associa- 
tion is also doing a very creditable business. 

Sebring has also an up-to-date newspaper 
and printing plant. The Sebring Netus 
j)rinted its first issue June 8, 1899, and now 
has 2,500 regular subscribers. The office is 
.equipped with an up-to-date Linotype ma- 
chine, and does an excellent job business. 

The public schools of Sebring had their 
.beginning in 1900. The rapid growth of a 
town on land that had hitherto been used for 
farming purposes made it necessary to seize 
upon a remodeled barn for a school room until 
a serviceable building could be erected. Elsie 
Roberts and Alice J. Begue, who were tlie 
.teachers of this crowded school, share the 
honor of having been the first teachers of the 
Sebring schools. The substantial four-roomed 
Jjrick building erected during the winter of 
1900-01 was ready for occupancy by Septem- 
ber, 1901, when Superintendent S. V. Cox and 
three teachers took charge. The elements at 
.this time were heterogeneous in their make-up, 
and the burdensome task of organization fell 
heavily upon the teaching force. Superin- 
tendent G. \V. Finch and three assistants had 
control of the schools during the winter of 
1902-03. By the close of this year the schools 
were crowded beyond their capacity, and it be- 
•canie necessary to again occupy the building 
first used, later transferring to the city hall, 
A two-roomed building was erected and occu- 
_pied in 1904, making the teaching force six 
in number. In 1905 J. A. Maurer and six 
assistants took charge of the schools. 

The schools have increased in efficiency 
with their growth and have now (1907) 
reached a classification that places them even 
with the front ranks of those of older and 
more established towns. A carefully graded 
course of study, topped by a high school 
course of three years, is fully carried out by an 
efficient teaching force working with united 
energ)- and enthusiasm. The schools have 
brilliant prospects before them. An increas- 
ing enrollment is making necessary the erec- 
tion of additional rooms and the employment 
of more teachers. The total enrollment for 
the present year (1907) will reach 300. 

The schools have had three graduations, 
the high school having second grade recogni- 
tion by the state school commissioner. 


There are eight schools under the township 
board. No. 9 district has been transferred or 
annexed to the Alliance city schools. All 
the eight township districts report flourishing 
schools. Beloit has a graded school with four 
rooms and a commodious building. 


Outside of Sebring, other manufactories 
have lately sprung up. The Manns Car Indi- 
cator Company have purchased a site and are 
about to establish a large plant that will un- 
doubtedly result in the establishment of a new 
village, the proposed name of which is Thelma. 

A new flouring mill has lately been built 
in the village of Beloit and is now in successful 
operation, the owners of which are H. G. 
Stanley & Sons. 


The Friends, or Quakers, erected a church 
on section 34 as early as 1829. Their church 
is now located at Beloit. They were followed 
by the Methodists, who in 1840 erected a 
church edifice at North Benton, where they 
still worship. A Presbyterian congregation 
moved to North Benton from Deerfield, Por- 
tage County, in 185 1. In 1870 they purchased 
the union church building that had been 
erected in 1859 at Beloit and established a 
branch church there. This latter is now 
merged into the Presbyterian church of Se- 


Springfield is one of the oldest townships 
in the county, having been organized for civil 
purposes in 1803. It was attached to Ma- 
honing County in 1846. 

The township was originally well wooded 



and a fair quantity of timber of the common 
varieties still remains. The surface is slightly 
hilly, with intervening lowlands and valleys. 
Coal was formerly obtained in workable quan- 
tities, though that industry is now practically 
at a standstill, as it is throughout the county 
generally. Building stone is found in several 
localities and is quarried to some extent. 

The soil of Spring-field, varying from a 
sandy loam to a heavy clay, is generally fer- 
tile and well adapted to most kuids of agri- 
culture. The township is well watered by 
Honey creek and Yellow creek, which run 
through southeast and northwest quarters re- 
spectively, together with other streams and 
tributaries, with numerous springs. 


Springfield was early settled, the original 
pioneer having been from all accounts Peter 
Musser, who came from York County, Penn- 
sylvania, and purchased four sections in the 
southeast corner of the township. Here he 
made a number of improvements and built a 
sawmill and grist mill. At his death in 1808 
he left a family of four sons and two daugh- 
ters. He was proprietor of the village site 
and founder of Petersburg. 

Peter Musser was accompanied to Spring- 
field by Israel Warner, who married one of his 
daughters. Another daughter of his became 
the wife of Jacob Rudisill. 

Soon after came James Wallace, who went 
into business as a merchant, but being elected 
judge of Mahoning County, after its organiza- 
tion, he removed to Canfield. 

Other early settlers were John Pontius, 
Daniel Miller, who settled on section 18; C. 
Seidner, C. Mentzer, Jacob Shafer, George 
Macklin, Jacob Christ and others who settled 
in the same locality ; Adam Hohn, who settled 
in 1 801 on section 6 and soon after built a 
sawmill there; John Shoemaker, Henry 
Myers, Henry and Peter Raub and Peter Ben- 
edict. The neighborhood of New Middleton 
was settled before 1810 by the Gray, Cublin, 
Schillinger, Kuhn and Burky families.- Be- 

tween 1805 and 1 81 5 a large immigration set 
in, and parts of the township soon became 
thickly settled. 


The village of Petersburg, which, as we 
have seen, was founded by Peter Musser, 
was also named in his honor. The original 
name of the postoffice was Musser's Mill, and 
in 181 1 he was the first postmaster. The first 
regular store was opened by James Wallace 
in or about 181 5. He also kept a hotel in the 
first frame house built in Petersburg, it after- 
wards becoming the residence of J. P. Swisher. 
W. C. Dunlap also kept an early store in Pe- 
tersburg. Later merchants were J. G. Leslie, 
James Matthews, Robert Forbus, O. H. P. 
Swisher, Ernst & Hahn and others. A foun- 
dry and two tanneries were in operation in the 
early 8o's, as was previously a steam flouring 
mill, which was erected by Maurer & Elder 

The principal industrial enterprises of the 
present day are as follows : A creamery com- 
pany, of which William Johnson is president; 
William McCalla, secretary, and John Hope, 
treasurer; Excelsior Mill, William Stewart, 
proprietor; Crum Mill, operated by Samuel 
Crum; Miller & Taylor, bent wood and saw- 
mill; Winter Brothers' carriage shop; Knesal 
Brothers, hardware, also slate roofers; J. Zei- 
ger, general merchandise; J. H. Schiller, 
drugs, tobacco and cigars; L. L. Geiger, mer- 
chant tailor; Kiser & Shingledecker, horse 
shoers and blacksmiths. 

Petersburg is a special school district, with 
a three-room school — primary, intermediate 
and advanced. Prof. J. J. Pfouts assumed 
charge as principal September 11, 1906. The 
school building, which is frame, was erected 
between 1870 and 1876. 

The Knights of Pythias are represented 
in Petersburg by Starlight Lodge, No. 224, 
of which the present officers are, O. O. Dressel, 
chancellor commander; L. W. Scholl, keeper 
of record and seal; A. C. Grise, D. G. C, and 
Dr. C. H. Beight, Ira HofTmaster and H. C. 
Warner, trustees. 




This village was laid out previous to 1825 
by Abraham Christ, whose original plat of 
twenty-eight lots was largely added to by sub- 
sequent proprietors. Joseph Davis kept the 
first store, and was soon followed by Thomas 
Knight, who built a store in 1828, which he 
carried on for some twenty years thereafter. 
Among early mill operators were Christian 
Seidner, John May, and Solomon Crouse. The 
first distiller was Joseph Davis. There was 
formerly a tannery, conducted by Conrad & 
Shawacre, and a foundry, of which William 
Alay and Adam Seidner were proprietors ; be- 
sides several other industries. At the present 
time manufacturing enterprise is represented 
by the Andrew Rush and the William May 
sawmill and basket works. 

There are three churches — Emmanuel Lu- 
theran, pastor. Rev. Elmore Kahl ; Evangeli- 
cal, pastor. Rev. ^^'ingard, and St. Peter's, 
Rev. M. L. Eich. 

Other churches in the township are as fol- 
lows : Presbyterian, Petersburg, was organ- 
ized June 29, 1872, by Rev. A. S. McMaster, 
D. D., and Rev. Y. P. Johnson. The present 
building, erected in 1873, is a wooden struc- 
ture, 40x60 feet, with gallery. Its pastors 
have been. Rev. R. S. Morton, 1873-1881 ; 
Rev. D. H. Laverty, 1881-1882; Rev. A. A. 
Mealy, 1882-1887; Rev. E. O. Sawhill, to 
July 8, 1893; Rev. B. M. Swan, March, 1895, 
to February, 1896; Rev. F. A. Cozad, August, 
1898, to December, 1905; December, 1905, to 
May, 1906, supply; May i, 1906, to May, 
1907, Rev. D. H. Johnson. 

Mctlwdist Episcopal C/n/rc/t, Petersburg. — 
This society was organized about 1830 and the 
present building commenced in the same year. 
The latter, a frame building with slate roof 
and steeple, has since been greatly remodeled 
and improved. The present membership of 
the church is 120. The Rev. J. P. Wisman 
assumed pastoral charge in September, 1906. 
Previous pastors were J. B. Wright, W. H. 
Swartz, S. R. Paden, F. R. Peters, J. C. Gil- 
lette. John A. Lavelev. G. S. W. Phillips, W. 
S. Holland, L. W. Elkins, M. B. Riley, W. J. 
Small, loseph Gledhill, C. C. Chain and G. T. 

Morris. The Sunday school superintendent 
is Mr. H. E. Miller. The Epworth League 
and Ladies' Aid societies render good and 
faithful service in connection with the work 
of the church. 

Other churches are, St. John's Evangelical 
Lutheran, Rev. Oelslager; Reformed (Old 
Springfield), Rev. Geier; Lutheran (Old 
Springfield) and Shroy congregations. Rev. 
M. L. Eich. 


A thriving little village — New Middleton 
— located on section 10, was laid out before 
1825 by Samuel Moore. The first frame 
house was erected by David Shearer. Joshua 
Dixon opened a store about 1830 in a house 
that was later occupied by D. Metz. Subse- 
quent merchants were Adam Powers, David 
Shearer, Brungard & Davison, Henry Miller, 
Tobias Hahn and John F. Smith. The first 
public house was kept by Samuel Moore pre- 
vious to 1830, and at one time the village had 
four taverns. Adam Powers, John B. Miller, 
David Johnson and William Forbus were 
among the old-time hotel keepers. A number 
of saw and grist mills have been erected since 
the early settlement of the township. Adam 
Hahn operating a sawmill on Yellow creek be- 
fore 1805. A steam sawmill was built by 
Walker & Brungard in 1849. In 1841 Walk- 
er, Pease & Company put up a carding mill, 
which was operated by horse power. Other 
attempts at manufacturingg have been made 
at different times, but the modern tendency 
toward the consolidation of capital into large 
plants has discouraged most small enterprises 
of that kind, and the village, like most others 
of its size, contains only such mechanic shops 
as are required in a chiefly agricultural com- 


Springfield township contains nine schools 
with ten rooms and ten teachers. The total 
number of scholars is 324 ; the cost of mainte- 
nance $3,740 per year. Some of these schools 
have been erected lately and all are in good 
condition. They are all brick buildings ex- 
cept No. 6, which is frame. 



.Introductory — Railroad Era — Erie Railroad — Pennsylvania Lines — Lake Shore & Mich- 
igan Southern Railway — Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad — Baltimore &■ Ohio Railroad 
— Yoimgstoivn & Southern Raikvay. 


The various stages of progress in meth- 
ods of transportation through which most civ- 
ihzed American communities have passed may 
be grouped somewhat in the following order : 
The Indian trail, the blazed path, the bridle 
path, the crooked wagon road (crooked to 
avoid obstacles), the worked wagon road, the 
post road, with its era of post boys and stage 
coaches, and contemporaneously, the fiat boat, 
then the era of canals, and steamboat naviga- 
tion, and lastly steam and electric railroads. 

In 1798, Judge Turhand Kirtland, 
who, as agent of the Connecticut Land 
Company, visited New Connecticut in the 
years 1798, 1799 and 1800, in the ful- 
fillment of his duty as agent, laid out 
and opened a road through the wilderness 
from the Grand river, near Lake Erie, to 
Youngstown. He arrived at the last named 
place with a corps of surveyors on the 3d of 
August and assisted Judge Young in run- 
ning out the town. The above mentioned road 
followed the old Indian and salt maker's trail 
as far as Weathersfield, in which place there 
was a salt spring. From it branch roads were 
constructed leading to Kinsman and Hubbard, 

and one connecting with the "Girdled Road" in 
Ashtabula County, which ran from the Penn- 
sylvania line to Cleveland and was the first 
road surveyed on the Reserve. It is so called 
on account of the timber being girdled for a 
width of thirty-three feet all the way along 
the route. 

In 1 80 1, through the influence of General 
Wadsworth, a mail route was established 
from Pittsburg to Warren via Canfield and 
Youngstown. It was followed, in 181 5, by a 
route from Erie to Cleveland through Ash- 
tabula, and three years later a stage coach ser- 
vice was established on this route. In 1819, 
another important public improvement, the 
Ashtabula and Trumbull turnpike, was con- 
structed, connecting the lake at Ashtabula 
with the Ohio at Wellsville, by a substantial 
wagon road. 

A stag-e coach line from Erie, Pennsylva- 
nia, to Cleveland, Ohio, was originated at an 
early date by Aaron Whitney, a wagon 
maker of Conneaut, whose coaches were built 
in part by Charles Barr, afterwards a citizen 
of Youngstown. Whitney later formed one 
of a company who established a coach line in 
1824 from Conneaut to Poland, the other 
members of this company being John Kins- 



man, Caleb Blodgett, Seth Hayes, General 
Martin Smith, Samuel Helvering and Philip 

Under the constitution, congress was given 
authority to establish postoffices and post 
roads, and national roads were built accord- 
ingly in every direction between the principal 
centers of population. The stage coach that 
dashed along the post roads night and day, 
changing horses every ten or twelve miles, 
was looked upon in its day as a prodigy of 
rapid transit, and for a time it served its pur- 
pose. But a change was soon to come. It 
is said that great inventions are always 
produced when necessary for the further 
advancement of the human race, just as great 
crises in the world's history produce great 
leaders. The changes wrought by the locomo- 
tive were all described by a former Youngs- 
town citizen, the late Walter L. Campbell, in 
words spoken more than thirty years ago, 
and which are in most respects still more ap- 
plicable today. At the pioneer reunion held in 
Youngstown in 1875, he said in part: 

"All along its shining way can be traced 
the course of a national material development 
that knows no parallel. Not half a century has 
passed since first the feasibility of steam trans- 
portation by land was demonstrated, and yet 
within this comparatively short period what a 
vast empire has been won from savagery to 
civilization, from waste to use. The locomo- 
tive has crushed the frail wigwams of the In- 
dian village and driven the lazy inhabitants 
to find new lairs in lava beds and mountain 
fastnesses, where they still continue to lie and 
steal and scalp with that same delightful in- 
difference to honor and manhood that has al- 
ways given to their race such an exquisite 
charm. Hunting grounds have been trans- 
formed into productive fields, and pastures, 
where but now roamed the untamed bison, fat- 
ten the flocks and herds of civilized man ; where 
but yesterday a few thousand roamed, and bar- 
barians eked out a scant existence by fishing 
and hunting, millions of population today by 
industry and commerce thrive and live. Held 
by rigorous natural requirements, civilization 
in this country must long have clung to sea 

coast, lake shore, or river bank, had not a new 
servant come to its aid. The railroad gave it 
wings that released it from the dependence on 
navigable waters, lifted it over mountain bar- 
riers, and with rapid flight carried it inland 
far away from its original seat. The lan- 
guage of the most extragavant hyperbole 
would see commonplace when applied to the 
wonders the railroad has wrought. Why, it 
touches deep marshes and they become firm 
foundations for magnificent cities. It enters 
uninhabited prairies, and powerful states, im- 
perial in wealth and population, are born in a 
day. It pushes across plains which but now 
were supposed to be arid wastes, and they are 
at once covered with the ranches of herdsmen. 
It climbs the heights and penetrates the can- 
yons of the Rocky Mountains, and there coal 
and iron and silver and gold tell of glories 
soon to be. A tithe of the praise it deserves 
has not yet been told. Patriotism claims it as 
a powerful and almost indispensable ally; 
without the facilities of intercourse afforded 
by steam locomotion, a very great duration of 
the Republic could hardly be hoped. The jar- 
ring interests, the sectional prejudices and an- 
tipathies, the diversity of language and cus- 
tom and tradition obtaining among the people 
composed of many different nationalities, liv- 
ing in regions widely separated from each 
other, unless counteracted, must surely have 
produced in time disintegration. Steam is an- 
nihilating distance, overcoming local jeal- 
ousies and hereditary national hates, and 
sounding the deep hidden harmonies of seem- 
ingly discordant interests ; under its benign in- 
fluence sources of weakness are converted into 
elements of national strength. Extent of ter- 
ritory no longer excites those gloomy fore- 
bodings which saw states far removed from 
the political center, and consequently little 
sensible of dependence upon it, under one pre- 
text of another, ever ripe for revolution. 

"The diversity of industries, the variety of 
products, the countless sources of wealth 
which can only be found with territorial great- 
ness, we can therefore enjoy without encoun- 
tering the centrifugal tendencies hitherto neces- 
sarily connected with it. Under the enlarging 



culture and constant contact from travel, pe- 
culiarities arising from birth are yielding the 
symmetry produced by association, thus are we 
developing a national charactei", not the less 
strong on account of being the fusion of many 
elements, nor the less rich becaused composed 
of many different national peculiarities. 

"The power that has been the author of 
all prosperity that has built these cities, peo- 
pled these plains, discovered and developed the 
riches of mountain and valley, that has given 
to our Union an assured hope of permanence 
and to our people a unity, strength and richness 
of character, that has scattered with lavish 
hand blessings wherever it has gone, this rail- 
road power, with all due respect to our pioneer 
forefathers, I extoll above the stage coach, or 
horseback, or afoot." 


The railroad era in the ^Mahoning Valley 
W'as foreshadowed as early as 1827, when a 
number of persons formed a plan for connect- 
ing the Ohio river with Lake Erie by a rail- 
road, and obtaining a charter fixed the capital 
of the company at $1,000,000. It was stipu- 
lated in the charter that the road should run 
from some point on Lake Erie between Lake 
and Ashtabula counties, and terminate at some 
point on the Ohio river in Columbiana county. 
The project failed owing to the inability of the 
company to raise the recjuired capital, the con- 
servative business men of that day having 
much more confidence in a pike road or a canal 
as a means of transportation than in any such 
wild, visionary scheme as a railroad. 

Another attempt at railroad construction 
was made eleven years after by the Ashtabula, 
Warren and East Liverpool Company, cap- 
italized at $1,500,000, which, however, was 
brought to a speedy and permanent stop by the 
panic of 1836-37. 

The construction of the Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania canal, which was completed from Beaver, 
Pennsylvania, to Warren, Ohio, in 1839, and 
opened with great rejoicings, also had the ef- 
fect of delaying railroad enterprises. The part 
this canal played in the development of the 

Mahoning valley was well described by a 
writer in the History of Trumbull and Mahon- 
ing Counties (1882). He says: 

"The Ohio and Pennsylvania Canal was a 
work of inestimable importance to Warren, 
Youngstown, and Cleveland, by creating a 
market for coal, iron, and produce. Inade- 
quate and unsatisfactory as it was, it demon- 
strated the possibilities of the region, and its 
few boats were the inception of an immense 
carrying trade. In a sense the canal may be 
considered the foundation of a railroad system 
which penetrates every valley and reaches to 
every coal, iron, and limestone bed, but it is 
a foundation which the superstructure has 
pressed out of existence, leaving only a dry 
bed, and an occasional wrecked hull as sou- 
venirs of its existence. Even the bed in many 
places has become the track of locomotives. 


The Erie Railroad was organized Novem- 
ber 13, 1895, to take over the property of the 
New York, Lake Erie & Western R. R. Co., 
which was sold under foreclosure, together 
with the leasehold of the New York, Pennsyl- 
vania & Ohio R. R., and the ownership of 
the Chicago & Erie R. R., November 6, 1895. 
It was decided to vest the company, so far as 
was practicable, with the direct ownership of 
the various properties comprised in the sys- 
tem, including its principal leased lines. It is 
unnecessary here to go into all the details of 
the various mergers, purchases, and consol- 
idations, by which this was effected, or to give 
any description of those parts of the system 
not directly concerned with the transportation 
facilities of the Mahoning valley. 

The Mahoning division of the Erie road 
embraces the Cleveland & Mahoning R. R., 
theNiles & New Lisbon R. R., the Liberty & 
Vienna R. R., the New Castle & Chenango 
Valley R. R., the Sharon R. R., the Wester- 
man R. R., also, formerly the Youngstown & 
Austintown R. R. 

The Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad, the 
first successful railroad enterprise in the Ma- 
honing Valley, was inaugurated at Warren, 



Ohio, the charter being granted February 22, 
1848, and work commenced in 1853. The 
board of directors was composed of Warren, 
Youngstown, and Painesville citizens. A por- 
tion of the stock was subscribed by Eastern 
capitahsts. The company was for some years in 
financial straits, and at one time it became 
necessary for the directors to pledge their own 
personal estates as security for mortgage loans. 
Under the able management of President Per- 
kins, however, the enormous debt of the road 
was gradually reduced, and at the time of his 
death in January, 1859, success,though notcjuite 
attained, was assured. The road was paying 
a satisfactory dividend when, in 1863, it was 
leased to the Atlantic & Great Western Rail- 
road Company, (see New York, Pennsylvania 
.& Ohio Railway Company), for the term of 
ninety-nine years. 

The Liberty & Vienna Railroad was built 
under charter in 1868. In 1870 its capital was 
increased to $300,000, and the road extended 
thiough Girard to Youngstown. This exten- 
sion was sold in 1871 to the Ashtabula, 
Youngstown & Pittsburg Company, the re- 
mainder of the line being retained by the Lib- 
:erty & Vienna Company. A consolidation was 
•effected in 1872 of the Cleveland & Mahoning, 
the Niles & New Lisbon, and the Liberty & 
Vienna Railroads under the name of the Cleve- 
land & Mahoning Valley Railroad Company; 
the different branches retained their old names. 
In 1880 they were leased to the lessee of the 
Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad, the Atlantic 
& Great Western Railroad Co., for the unex- 
pired term of 1863. Under the lease of 1880 
all the lines of the Cleveland & Mahoning Val- 
ley Railroad Company came under the con- 
trol of the New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio 
Co., and in 1895 under that of the Erie Rail- 
road Co., as above stated. 

The Sharon Railroad comprised the line 
from Sharon, Pennsylvania, to Pymatuning, 
Pennsylvania, 7.93 miles; the Middlesex, ex- 
tension from Ferrona to West Middlesex, 
8.86 miles, and the Sharpsville extension, from 
Boyce, Pennsylvania, to Sharpsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, 1.55 miles, a total of 10.12 miles. 
It was chartered July 16, 1873, ^""^^ opened 

in August, 1876. It was leased to the Erie 
Railroad Co., till April 30, 1882, at a rental 
amounting to the interest on the bonds, six 
per cent on the stock, and the expenses of 

The New Castle & Chenango Valley Rail- 
road extends from West Middlesex to New 
Castle, Pennsylvania, a distance of 16.73 miles. 
It was chartered May 3, 1887, with a capital 
stock of $292,450, and opened in 1889. It was 
leased to the Erie Railroad till April 30, 1982, 
at an annual rental of 2- per cent, of the gross 
earnings, with a minimum rental equal to the 
bond interest. The cost of construction was 

The Youngstown & Austintown Railway, 
now no longer in existence, extended from 
Youngstown, Ohio, to Leadville mines, with a 
branch at Mahoning and Tippecanoe shafts, a 
total length of 10.18 miles. It was built in 
1871-1872, to haul coal from the mines for 
transportation over other roads. The road 
was operated by the company until May i, 
1883, ^vhen it was leased to the New York, 
Pennsylvania & Ohio R. R. Co. for a term of 
ninety-nine years. The lease was assumed by 
the Erie Railroad Co. under the terms of re- 
organization, the entire capital stock, $10,500, 
being owned by the Erie Railroad Co. under 
said terms. 

The Westerman Railroad is a leased line 
operated under trackage contracts. It runs 
from Sharon, Pennsylvania, to a point three- 
quarters of a miles west of the Pennsylvania- 
Ohio State line. It is owned by Christian H. 
Buhl, of Detroit, Michigan, and was leased, 
January i, 1886, to the New York, Pennsyl- 
vania & Ohio Railroad Co. at a rental of $4,000 
per annum, the lease to expire May i, 1982. 
The lease was assumed by the Erie Railroad 

The New York. Pennsylvania & Ohio 
Railway Company (Erie Railroad). In 1851 
a charter was granted to the Franklin & 
Warren Railroad Company to construct a 
railroad from Franklin, Portage Countv, via 
Warren, to the State line, with power to con- 
tinue the same from the place of beginning in 
a westerly or southwesterly direction to con- 




nect with any other railroads within this State, 
which the directors might deem advisable. 
Under this authority a hne 246 miles in length, 
was constructed from Dayton to the State line, 
crossing the Cleveland & Mahoning at Leav- 
ittsburg. The name had been changed in the 
meanwhile (in 1855) to The Atlantic & Great 
Western Railroad Company. In 1857 the 
Meadville Railroad Company was chartered 
in Pennsylvania, and purchased of the Pitts- 
burg & Erie Company (chartered in 1846), its 
property, rights, and franchises in Mercer and 
Crawford counties, embracing the proposed 
line of the Meadville company therein. The 
name of the Meadville Railroad Company was 
changed in 1858 to the Atlantic and Great 
Western Railroad Company of Pennsylvania. 

The Erie & New York City Railroad Com- 
pany, chartered in 1852, failing to complete 
its proposed line, in i860 sold 38 miles of its 
road from Salamanca to the Atlantic & Great 
Western Railroad Company in New York, 
chartered in 1859. 

The Buffalo extension of the Atlantic & 
Great Western Railroad Company was char- 
tered in 1864, and in 1865 the four companies 
consolidated under the name of the Atlantic & 
Great Western Railroad Company, and in that 
name operated the through line from Dayton 
to Salamanca, and the branch from Jamestown 
to Buffalo. In consecjuence of suits brought 
for foreclosure the property of the consolidated 
company was turned over to a receiver, April 
I, 1867, General R. B. Potter receiving the 
appointment. After passing through several 
receiverships and being leased as often, it was 
finally sold at foreclosure sale in January, 
1880, an association of mortgage bondholders 
being the purchasers. In March the same year 
it was conveyed to five corporations, in consid- 
eration of $45,000,000 capital stock, and $87,- 
500,000 mortgage bonds. They organized the 
New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio Railway 
Company, taking out charters in Ohio and 
Pennsylvania. The road was originally con- 
structed with a width of six feet gauge, but a 
few months after it had passed under the above 
named management was reduced to what is 
known as the standard gauge. In 1895, as 

we have seen, it was leased to the Erie Rail- 
road Company; 


The Ashtabula & New Lisbon Railroad 
Company was chartered in 1853 with a capital 
of $1,000,000. After being partially construc- 
ted it was leased to the New Lisbon Railroad 
Company, a new organization ; but this com- 
pany becoming financially embarrassed, the 
road, 35 miles in length, v.-as sold in 1869 
to private parties, who organized the Niles & 
New Lisbon Railroad Company, and operated 
the road until 1872 under that title. 

A company known as the Ashtabula, 
Youngstown & Pittsburg Railroad Company 
was chartered in 1870, and entered into a con- 
tract with the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chi- 
cago Company to construct a line from the 
terminus of the Lawrence branch of the Penn- 
sylvania road at Youngstown to Ashtabula 
Harbor. The partially constructed line of 
the Ashtabula & New Lisbon Company was 
adopted from Niles to Ashtabula. Five and a 
half miles of the track of the Liberty & Vienna 
Company, from Youngstown to Niles, was 
purchased for $200,000, and a connecting line 
from Niles to Girard being constructed, the 
road was completed May i, 1873. A contract 
was made with the Pennsylvania Company, by 
which it was to operate the road in harmony 
with its other lines, and divide the net earnings 
pro rata. The road was sold in 1878 to a com- 
pany known as the Ashtabula & Pittsburg 
Railroad Company. 

The Lawrence Railroad & Transportation 
Company was chartered in Pennsylvania and 
Ohio in 1864, and lines were constructed from 
Lawrence Junction, Pennsylvania (where con- 
nection is made via the New Castle and Beaver 
Valley Railroad with Homewood, and the 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad), 
to Youngstown. Ohio, the work bein completed 
in 1868. The line, in 1869, was leased to the 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Company 
for a term of ninety-nine years. With its 
several branches it has a continuous line from 
Ashtabula Harbor to Pittsburg, thus giving 



Youngstown competing lines from Lake Erie 
to the Ohio river. 

In order to afford easier grades for the 
movement of heavy traf^c between Pittsburg 
and the Mahoning VaUey, the New Brighton & 
New Castle Railroad was built, and opened 
for operation August 18, 1884, from Kenwood, 
on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
way to a connection with the New Castle & 
Beaver Valley Railroad at Wampum Junction, 
and on May i, 1891, an independent line was 
completed between Lawrence Junction and 
Wampum Junction. In 1898 the track and 
grades between Lawrence Junction and Wam- 
pum Junction were adjusted so as to form a 
double track between these points. 

The Alliance, Niles & Ashtabula Railroad 
was completed August 7, 1882, from Niles, 
Ohio, to Alliance Junction, where it connected 
with the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railway, thus affording a more direct western 
connection with the extensive iron producing 
district in the Mahoning Valley. 

For the purpose of securing under one or- 
ganization the line connecting the Pittsburg, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway with the lake 
at Ashtabula, the Ashtabula & Pittsburg Rail- 
way Company, the Lawrence Railroad Com- 
pany, the Alliance, Niles & Ashtabula Rail- 
road Company, and the New Brighton & New 
Castle Railroad Company, the extent of whose 
lines is above mentioned, were consolidated 
August 17, 1887, under the name of the Pitts- 
burg, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad Com- 
pany; and by the merger of the New Castle & 
Beaver Valley Railroad Company into the latter 
company, the Pittsburg, Youngstown & Ash- 
tabula Railway Company was formed January 
16, 1906. The Pittsburg, Youngstown & Ash- 
tabula Railway is operated by the Pennsyl- 
vania Company, as was its predecessor, under 

The Erie and Ashtabula division, which 
now comprises the Pittsburg, Youngstown & 
Ashtabula Railway, the Erie & Pittsburg Rail- 
road, and some smaller branches, were estab- 
lished September i, 1881. 

The following is a chronicle of the events 
relating to the Mahoning Valley taken from 

the annual reports of the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany : 

Report for 1888: Quite a large amount was 
expended on the Crab Creek Branch at 
Youngstown, and a branch about half a mile 
in length reaching the Mahoning Valley Iron 
Works was built, and was opened for traffic 
December 25th. In accordance with the pro- 
visions of the city ordinance, a heavy retain- 
ing wall was built on Water Street from Front 
Street to Spring Common, and a new passen- 
ger station was almost completed on Spring 
Common, in consideration of the grant of that 
property by the city for that purpose, and of 
the permission to lay an additional track at that 
point. Several bridges were renewed in stone 
and iron at various points, and a new station, 
house was erected at Briar Hill. 

Report for 1889. The new passenger sta- 
tion at Youngstown was completed in June, in- 
cluding platform, sheds, driveways and side- 
walks, and the old passenger house moved to ■ 
a lot on the Crab Creek Branch to be used as 
a freight house. The second track was laid 
from the crossing of the New York, Penn- 
sylvania & Ohio road to the west of the new 
passenger station. The total increase in the- 
track was 4.6 miles. The bridges over the Ma- 
honing River at Haselton, and over Mill Creek,, 
were replaced with more substantial structures. 

Report for 1890. Second track extended 
at Youngstown, Ohio. 

Report for 1891. The bridge over Rock 
Creek was replaced by an iron structure, and 
the tressels over the Mahoning River on the 
Alliance Branch and bridge No. 1 1 were filled 
with earth. 

Report for 1894. Expenditures w-ere made- 
for right of way for second track between 
Market Street and Crab Creek in Youngs- 
town, Ohio. 

Report for 1895. Second track extended' 
in Youngstown, Ohio. 

Report for 1896. Expenditures were made 
for second track between Youngstown and 
Brier Hill and for real estate between Brier 
Hill and Girard. 

Report for 1898. New yard tracks were 
laid at Mosier, Crab Creek and Haselton. 




Report for 1900. The work of construct- 
ing a second track between Struthers and Niles 
was commenced. 

Report for 1901. The second track work 
from Lawrence Junction to Niles progressed as 
follows : Haselton to Crab Creek, in part. 
Spring Common, west; right of way had been 
acquired as far west as Brier HiU Iron and 
Steel Company's plant and the Youngstown 
Steel Company, and the track is now under 

Hosier and Girard, work nearly completed. 

Joint track with Pittsburg and Western 
Railway to reach Youngstown Sheet Iron and 
Steel Company ; about one mile of the track 
built to reach this industry, which is located 
east of Youngstown on the north side of the 
Mahoning river. 

Considerable work done at Haselton toward 
the extension of the yard, and the yard facili- 
ties at Niles, Mosier and Haselton considerably 

Bridge No. 32 to Haselton : Masonry com- 
Haselton in course of construction for double 

Report for 1902. Second track work was 
prosecuted as follows : 

Lowellville to Struthers, 3 miles, grading 
completed and track partially laid. 

Struthers to Haselton, 1.93 miles, grading 
and masonry completed and 1.9 miles of track 
completed and in use. 

Bridge No. 32 to Haselton : masonry com- 
pleted and super-structure in course of erection. 

Haselton to Coal Creek, 15 miles, com- 
pleted, except crossing at Haselton. 

Spring Common, west : Alignment changed 
and two tracks in operation to a point west of 
Brier Hill, making two tracks in operation as 
above between Haselton and Brier Hill, a dis- 
tance of 4.23 miles. 

Mosier to Girard: second track built from 
a point west of Brier Hill to end of double 
track at Mosier and from Girard to Robbins, 
making double track in operation between 
Brier Hill and Robbins, a distance of 5.05 miles. 

Report for 1903 : Second track work was 
prosecuted as follows : Kenwood to Wam- 
pum, 12.2 miles, in progress; Lawrence Junc- 

tion to Edenburg, 4.3 miles, completed ; Eden- 
burg to State Line, 4.6 miles, completed; 
State Line to Lowellville, i.i mile, in prog- 
ress; Girard to Niles, 5.0 miles, completed. 
This completes the second track from Law- 
rence Junction to Niles, with the exception of 
1. 13 miles through Lowellville, which is in 
progress, and the Briar Hill gauntlet. 

Yard facilities at Haselton and Mosier 
were materially increased. 

A new frame engine house 26x60 feet was 
constructed at Youngstown. 

Report for 1904: The second track work 
betw-een Kenwood and ^Vampum and between 
State Line and Lowellville, referred to in last 
year's report as in progress, was completed. 

A new station was constructed at Lowell- 
ville; also a new coaling station at Youngs- 
town, Ohio. 

Report for 1905 : The Arrel branch, two 
miles in length, connecting with main line at 
Lowellville, was completed; also two storage 
tracks having an aggregate capacity of 50 

A new route between Cleveland and Pitts- 
burg was opened in the latter part of the year, 
by connecting the Mahoning" Valley Western 
Railway, over which permanent trackage 
rights have been secured, with the Cleveland 
& Pittsburg Railroad near Ravenna and the 
Pittsburg, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad 
near Niles, and using that road and the Pitts- 
burg, Fort ^Vayne & Chicago Railway to Pitts- 
burg. This line furnishes a low grade route 
and will greatly facilitate the handling of busi- 
ness between Cleveland and Mahoning Valley 
points and Pittsburg. 


(Franklin Division). 

The Jamestown & Franklin Railroad com- 
menced work in 1864. The principal projec- 
tors of this road were. The Buffalo & State 
Line Railroad, George Palmer, president ; the 
Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula Railroad, 
Amasa Stone, president; and William Gibson 
of Jamestown, Pennsylvania, the last named 
holdina: a charter of the old Pittsburg & Erie 



R. R., which was originally intended to run 
from Pittsburg to Erie, via.Meadvihe, Penn- 
syh'ania. Owing to the faihire to procure 
funds and the proper enterprise, the hne was 
abandoned, not, however, until quite an amount 
of work was done. William Gibson trans- 
ferred that portion of the right of way between 
Jamestown and Sugar Grove (now Osgood) 
to the Jamestown & Franklin R. R., taking in 
payment stock. 

The tracks were laid to the mines of the 
Mercer Iron and Coal Company, Stoneboro, a 
distance of twenty-one miles, leased and oper- 
ated by the Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula 
R. R. Company. In August, 1865, the line 
was opened for business between Jamestown 
and Stoneboro. 

In the same year running arrangements 
were made with the Erie & Pittsburg Company 
Avhereby coal trains of the Jamestown & Frank- 
lin Company were allowed to run between 
Jamestown and Girard, a distance of 42 miles, 
at a percentage of the earnings similar to those 
made between the Cleveland, Painesville & 
Ashtabula R. R. Co., for the running between 
Girard Junction and Erie of the Erie & Pitts- 
burg trains. 

June 24, 1867, the Jamestown & Franklirt 
Railroad was completed to Franklin, a distance 
of twenty miles. Trains commenced ruiuiing 
June 27, 1867. George H. Mclntire was ap- 
pointed assistant superintendent, with head- 
quarters at Franklin, and also acted as road 
master and agent. 

In 1869 work was begun on the extension 
from Franklin to Oil City, a distance of nine 
miles. The grading under the first contract 
proving a failure, the work was relet to another 
firm which completed it satisfactorily, and in 
August, 1870, trains commenced running from 
Oil City to Jamestown, a distance of fifty-one 

The Oil Creek Railroad, being the only 
line running up Oil Creek, took advantage of 
the situation, by charging exorbitant rates. 
Inducements were held out by business men 
•operating in Oil City, for the extension of the 
Franklin Division of the Lake Shore road to 
Petroleum Center, a distance of seven miles. 

The company accordingly began work on the 
extension, but after spending quite an amount 
in grading and stone work the enterprise was 
abandoned, arrangements having been made 
with the Oil Creek railroad for handling 
freight at fair rates to correspond with those 
charged by the Lake Shore road. 

On the 10th day of June, in the pursuance 
of a resolution adopted by the stockholders of 
the Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula Rail- 
road Company, it was ordered that a branch of 
this line be located and constructed in the coun- 
ty of Ashtabula, commencing at a point on the 
main line at or near the village of Ashtabula, 
thence southerly through the village of Jeffer- 
son, to a point where the western terminus of 
the Jamestown & Franklin Railroad intersects 
the eastern line of the State of Ohio, provided 
that the right of way one hundred feet wide, 
and suitable ground for depot and water sta- 
tion for the same, should be donated free of 
cost to the company. The citizens of Jefferson, 
and adjoining towns on the line of the pro- 
posed road, thereupon agreed to procure the 
right of way and depot grounds free of charge, 
among the most prominent leaders of the 
movement in Jefferson being E. B. and H. B. 
Woodbury. The contract being let, work was 
begun in 1864 and a large amount done, when, 
for some reason only known to the railroad 
company the enterprise was abandoned, and 
not resumed until 1871. The line between 
Ashtabula and the Pennsylvania .state line 
was constructed under the Cleveland, Paines- 
ville & Ashtabula Railroad charter, thirty-one 
miles from the State line to Jamestown, Penn- 
sylvania, and a distance of five miles under 
the charter of the Central Trunk Railroad. 
This charter was procured from William Gib- 
son, of Jamestown. The original connection 
for the western end of the Central Trunk was 

The Air Line Railroad was a line projected 
bv certain persons of Hudson, Ohio, for a 
through line East; but after quite an amount of 
money had been expended for grading, the 
projectors for some reason abandoned the en- 
terprise. The road between Ashtabula and 
Jamestown was commenced and opened for 



business August 4, 1872, forming a part of the 
Franklin Division, the distance being thirty- 
six miles. On this date trains running on the 
Erie & Pittsburg R. R. were discontinued, 
except those carrying east-bound freight ac- 
cumulating on the Jamestown & Franklin R. 
R., for pomts in Erie, the arrangement being 
that freights east of Erie should go over the 
Erie & Pittsburg Railroad, and that all freight 
from Erie and all points east of Erie for 
points on the Jamestown & Franklin Railroad 
should be hauled over the Erie & Pittsburg 

In June, 1S72, work was commenced on 
the Mahoning Coal Railroad, between An- 
dover and Youngstown, a distance of thirty- 
eight miles, with branches from Tyrrell Hill 
to coal mines near Vienna, a distance of about 
four miles ; also a branch at Coalburg connect- 
ing with the Andrews & Hitchcock furnace 
and coal tracks, a distance of about three- 
quarters of a mile. This track was abandoned 
on the completion of the Sharon branch in 
1888. The road between Andover and 
Youngstown was completed and trains running 
by August 3, 1873. In April, 1874, it was 
leased to the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
Railway Co., and in the same year was made a 
part of the Franklin Division. The Vienna 
branch, from Tyrell Hill to Vienna, was aban- 
doned, the rails being taken up and subsequent- 
ly laid in the Liberty Switch Branch, which 
was graded and owned by the Mahoning Rail- 
road Company. A short branch, 0.73 of a 
mile in length, to Keel Ridge Coal Bank, was 
built in 1882. 

Work was commenced on the Sharon 
branch under the charter of the Mahoning and 
Shenango Valley Railroad, a distance of 5.97 
miles; and from Doughton to the junction of 
the Pennsylvania State line, and from the 
Ohio State line to Sharpsville, un- 
der the charter of the Chenango Valley Rail- 
road. This road was only completed to a point 
about 500 feet from the northern boundary of 
the borough of Sharon, distance 1.77 miles, 
where it connects with the Sharon Branch Rail- 
road (leased by the Erie Railroad), as owing 
to satisfactory arrangements for the running 

of Lake Shore & Michigan Southern trains to 
Sharpsville, that portion of the road was aban- 
doned. In 1887 a short branch, about half a 
mile long was built from the Ohio State Line 
to the Stewart Iron Company's property under 
the charter of that company. The Mahoning 
Valley & Shenango Railroad merged into the 
Alahoning Coal Railroad, and now forms a 
part of the Franklin Division. Similar ar- 
rangements were made with the Erie Railroad 
for the running of Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern trains to Middlesex as were made for 
running trains to Sharpsville. 

The branch from the Main line to Harbor 
was completed in June, 1873, and attached to 
the Franklin Division. The first coal received 
and shipped by rail was shipped by Strong & 
Manning, in 1873, from a dock built by them, 
and was located near where the present Ma- 
honing & Shenango dock is situated. No. i 
dock was built in 1873, and occupied by An- 
drews & Hitchcock, who purchased two hoist- 
ing machines for handling ore and coal. Later,, 
in 1874 and 1875, dock No. 2, was built, and 
also chutes with pockets for loading coal into- 
vessels. Still later they purchased an auto- 
matic hoisting machine, which, with the chutes^ 
proved to be a failure, and was sold, being re- 
placed by a better machine. The first ore was- 
received in 1876. 

What is known as the "Low Grade" of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, 
was constructed in 1902-03 as an adjunct to- 
the Youngstown branch, the regular line not 
being able to handle all the freight. Instead 
of following the regular line on an elevated 
track, it takes a somewhat circuitous direction, 
having been so planned in order to require a 
little grading as possible. Diverging from the 
main line at Brookfield, it describes a curve to 
the west, returning to intersect the main line 
at Latimer. After curving in a northeasterly 
direction it again crosses the main line, this- 
time at Dorset Junction, and then, after de- 
scribing a westerly curve, unites with the main 
line at Plymouth, from which point to Ashta- 
bula there are double tracks. The section be- 
tween Latimer and Brookfield Junction, the 
last part of the road to be completed, was- 


24 u 

turned over for traffic about the middle of Sep- 
tember, 1903. 

The construction of the Mahoning Coal 
Railroad affords the means by which the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railway gained 
entrance to the Mahoning & Shenango Valley 
to participate in the immense tonnage of 
freight into and from out said location. And 
this branch of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railway has, from the date of its 
completion, proved the most profitable line in 
proportion to its mileage operated by the latter 


In view of the enormous first cost of the 
Wabash extension into Pittsburg, the early his- 
tory of the Pittsburg & Lake Erie, known as 
the"Little Giant," credited with being the most 
profitable piece of railroad for its size in the 
world, is especially interesting. Capt. John F. 
Dravo, who has done such yeoman service for 
the improvement of navigation on the Ohio, 
Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, probably 
deserves the credit for conceiving the initial 
scheme of the Lake Erie, and for carrying it 
through to a successful conclusion. Although 
the sixty miles of Wabash extension will aver- 
age a cost of $375,000 per mile, it will probably 
cause surprise to know that the entire sixty 
miles of the original Pittsburg & Lake Erie, 
including real estate and right of way, was 
only $3,814,054.27, an average of a little more 
than fifty-six thousand dollars a mile ; while 
the average cost of the Butler & Pittsburg ex- 
tension of the Pittsburg, Shenango & Lake 
Erie, now the Bessemer & Lake Erie, was only 
$100,000 per mile, although the Carnegie line 
was considered very costly initial construction 
at the time. But the Wabash was built through 
wilder and rougher territory and in a much 
more modern fashion. 

It was originally within the power of the 
Pennsylvania to seize the south bank of the 
Ohio for its own, and had the late J. N. Mc- 
Cullough of the Pennsylvania lines followed 
out the suggestion of friends, he would have 
built the Cleveland & Pittsburg road along the 

southside of the Ohio River. He thought of 
it for a time, but while he had it under con- 
sideration Captain Dravo and the late Wil- 
liam McCreery, at one time president and con- 
troling spirit of the Pleasant Valley Traction 
Company, quietly slipped along and made their 
location from Youngstown to the Smithfield 
street bridge. They then came to Pittsburg 
and sought subscriptions to the stock. That 
was along in the late 70's. They secured in 
Pittsburg subscriptions altogether for $1,400,- 
000 of the proposed capital of $2,000,000, 
Jacob Henrici, then head of the Harmony So- 
ciety at Economy, taking $250,000. 

The Pittsburg & Lake Erie Company was 
formed May 11, 1875, with Mr. McCreery as 
president and the following directors : Joshua 
Rhodes, James Westerman, George C. Reis, 
John P. Dravo, P. W. Keller, John Bissell,. 
secretary, William M. Short, treasurer, and A. 
J. McKinley. Seven days later the company 
was chartered, and the line was surveyed and 
and located from Water street depot of the 
Baltimore & Ohio across the Monongahela and 
across the south bank of the Ohio over its- 
present location. In February, 1876, President 
McCreery was sent to Europe to confer with' 
the officers and stockholders of the Atlantic & 
Great Western railway at London to secure 
their assistance in building the railroad. He 
failed, and that was how the English missed 
one of the golden opportunities of their lives. 

The stockholders kept alive the organiza- 
tion and continued their efforts in Pittsburg, 
and early in 1877 they interested the late Dr. 
David Hostetter, James M. Bailey, M. W. 
Watson, and Col. James M. Schoonmaker in' 
their project, and these business men were 
added to the board, John D. Scully having, 
succeeded A. J. McKinley the year previous. 
James I. Bennett was also made a director in 
place of Mr. Short. In April, 1877, the ar- 
ticles of association were filed to protect the- 
Ohio location, James I. Bennett, James M. Bai- 
ley, and Captain Dravo were made the execu- 
tive committee, and in July, 1877, Ihe board 
was reorganized and J^Ir. Bennett was made- 
president, and John Reeves, Jacob Henrici. W. 
M. Lyon, and Jacob Painter directors in place 



of J\Ir. McCreery, George C. Reis, P. W. Kel- 
ler and Mr. Bissell ; Samuel George, Jr., was 
elected treasurer and Samuel Rea secretary. 

In the fall of 1877 the Vanderbilts sub- 
scribed $300,000 of the stock, and the contract 
for the building of the road was awarded to 
B. J. McGrann of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
who agreed for $1,150,000 cash, $1,150,000 
iirst mortgage bonds, and $200,000 common 
stock, to build the line from the mill of Jones & 
Laughlin's, limited, to Haselton Furnace, Ohio, 
including the grading, masonry, bridges and 
main track, and 10 per cent of the main track 
in additional sidings. The extension from the 
Smithfield street bridge to Jones «S: Laughlin's 
had been covered by a charter for the Pitts- 
burg & Becks Run Railroad, the cost to the 
Lake Erie being only $50,000. 

It was in October, 1877, that the important 
contracts which still remain were made with 
the Vanderbilts for an interchange of traffic. 
The Atlantic & Great Western also made a 
similar contract, and the voting power was 
placed in the hands of five trustees to ensure 
the execution of the plan of the original stock- 
holders. This trust consisted of William H. 
Vanderbilt, president of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern; J. H. Devereux, Jacob 
Henrici, James I. Bennett and David Hostet- 
ter. In the late fall the capital was increased 
to $2,000,000, and in December, 1877, a con- 
'tract was made with the Mahoning & Pitts- 
burg Railroad for certain property rights in 
'Ohio which it had secured by the consolida- 
tion of the Pennsylvania & Ohio canal in 1873. 
' ^ In January, 1878, the Youngstown & Pitts- 
Tjurg Railroad was consolidated with the Pitts- 
burg & Lake Erie, and the old directors were 
re-elected, John Reeves being made vice-presi- 
dent ; Samuel George, treasurer ; Sebastian 
Wimmer (who, by the way, assisted in the 
construction of the Wabash extension), chief 
engineer; Samuel Rea, secretary; James H. 
McCreery, general solicitor, and William 
Stearns, superintendent of construction. 

On September i, 1878, the first locomotive 
-crossed the Ohio river bridge, W. C. Quincy 
;was made general manager, and in (Dctober 

the construction of the New Castle branch was 
determined upon. 

The promoters had wisely provided for 
•tonnage by enlisting the interest of the promi- 
nent South side manufacturers and coal op- 
erators, and in February freight was moved 
in small quantities. On Februar)- 24, 1879, 
regular passenger trains began to move, the 
New Castle branch was opened, and the first 
car of coal from the Montour railroad was 
sent over the line on June 1 1 , 

Although many difficulties were encoun- 
tered in the early building, the road at once 
proved itself a money maker. During 1879 
alone, it earned $335,649, leaving a profit of 
$157,589 net. The policy of placing the earn- 
ings into the rebuilding of the road was then 
begun in a small way, and the following year 
the gross earnings climbed to $840,578, with 
a net profit of $441,565. The line had been 
built economicalh', naturally so because of the 
contract with McGrann. The bridges were 
single track, the grading was as slight as it 
could possibly be made, and from Saw Mill 
Run into Pittsburg the road ran along the 
Monongahela river over a right of way of pil- 
ing. Everything was done on a modest scale. 
But the wisdom of it all was shown in the 
rapid increase of earnings, and the gross earn- 
ings have now grown to over ten million dol- 
lars, and the net earnings to more than the 
original capital, although liberal dividends 
have been paid for years. The wisdom of the 
^^ 'abash will probably not be realized for a de- 
cade, but financiers believe time will tell. 

There was one time in the early history of 
the Pittsburg & Lake Erie when the Vander- 
bilt influence almost reached the vanishing 
point. That was during the early Bo's, when 
the line into the Connelsville coke region and 
the famous South Penn Railroad were first 
contemplated. It was all because of the old 
voting trust which the original stockholders 
wisely devised in order that they might be as- 
sured of a road independent and intended to 
serve them as well as the people. It was the 
late Henry W. Oliver, coupled with good legal 
talent, who swung the pendulum toward the 



side of the Vanderbilts, and few have since 
regretted it, unless it be because tlie Vander- 
bihs joined the iniquitous community-of-inter- 
est arrangement, and arraigned tiiemselves on 
the side of seltish railway management. 

The original voting trust was formed Oc- 
tober 20, 1877, the majority stockholders exe- 
cuting a deed of trust, and placing the power 
of control in the hands of five trustees — Will- 
iam H. Vanderbilt, president of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern ; J. H. Devereux, 
president of the Atlantic & Great Western; 
Jacob Henrici, trustee of the Harmony So- 
ciety; James I. Bennett, then, president of the 
Lake Erie, and David Hostetter, a member of 
the executive committee, and one of the largest 
individual holders of stock and bonds. James 
I. Bennett had succeeded William McCreery 
as president on July 6, 1877, and on January 
12, 1 88 1, Jacob Henrici had assumed the reins 
of power. There was also a considerable 
shift in the board at that time. 

Bennett and David Hostetter were elected 
vice-presidents, and Joshua Rhodes, Captain 
John F. Dravo and Jacob Painter disappeared 
from the board, while John Dunlap, Herbert 
DuPuy (son-in-law of David Hostetter), A. 
E. W. Painter and Ralph Baggaley were elect- 
ed. Bennett, Hostetter, M. W. Watson, 
James M. Bailey, William M. Lyon and John 
Reeves and John Dunlap were made members 
of the executive committee. 

In 1882 C. W. Whitney, attorney for the 
West Penn syndicate, conceived the idea that 
a connecting line between the pet Vanderbilt 
scheme of Southeast Pennsylvania and Pitts- 
burg was necessary; and the Vanderbilts had 
decided to project, finance and build the Pitts- 
burg, McKeesjxjrt & Youghiogheny to effect 
a connection along the Youghiogheny. The 
earnings of the Pittsburg & Lake Erie had 
shown a gratifying increase by that time. The 
gross earnings of $335,649 and net of $157,- 
932 had grown to $1,265,748 and $508,704, 
respectively at the close of 1882, the surplus 
after payment of fixed charges alone being 
$344,671. The property was getting to be a 
tidy affair, and the mill owners began to 

feel their oats. They wanted to run the rail- 
road according to their own ideas. The Van- 
derbilts had had enough experience in railroad 
matters by that time to realize what that 
meant, and they became quite active — sub rosa. 
They thrust out the mailed hand. 

The Vanderbilts had taken the stock and 
bonds of the new road to the coke region, and 
they thereby had a very substantial and dan- 
gerous interest in the Lake Erie. But the vot- 
ing trust was in the way. And that meant a 
great deal. The Pittsburg, McKeesport & 
Youghiogheny had cost $4,848,389.35 for sev- 
enty-five miles, and $3,000,000 of stock and 
$2,250,000 of first mortgage bonds had been 
issued, but that was not enough to down the 
Southside mill owners. The quarrel evidently 
drifted to the outside and discouraged some 
holders, as the stock declined in price to $8 and 
$10 per share during 1882 and 1883. Henry 
W. Oliver and David Hostetter, whether by 
prearranged plan or not, picked this up quietly, 
and by the end of 1883 they had a very com- 
fortable load of very cheaply obtained valuable 

Then Cornelius Vanderbilt unlimbered his 
guns and went after the control. He bought 
the stock held by Oliver, which gave him a 
comfortable majority, and he received the 
friendly assurances of David Hostetter, who, 
as a reward for his faithfulness and loyalty, 
was continued as vice-president of the pros- 
perous property until his death in 1888. 

Cornelius Vanderbilt entered suit in the 
United States Circuit Court asking for the dis- 
solution of the voting trust and the right to 
vote his individual holdings as he pleased. He 
obatined the decision and the trust was dis- 
solved, and the original stockholders awoke to 
find that they had been outwitted. President 
Jacob Henrici, David Hostetter, W. K. Van- 
derbilt, James I. Bennett and John Newell, 
then president of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railway Company, at that time com- 
posed the trust, and some bitter fighting was 
done, but James H. Reed, P. C. Knox and D. 
T. Watson won their spurs in a brilliant legal 
controversy to the discomfiture of the minority. 



On January 14, 1884, Jacob Henrici was 

.relieved of the necessity of acting as president, 

.and John Newell, a tried and true Vanderbilt 
man, was chosen as his successor. Henrici was 
let down easily. He was appointed a member 
of the executive committee and was retained 

.as a member of the finance committee, while 
Ralph Baggaley had to make way for Newell. 
In 1885 Baggaley replaced Henrici on the ex- 
ecutive committee, and in 1886 the Vander- 
bilts entered strongly on the board, Cornelius 

.and William K. Vanderbilt being elected, with 
.the addition of Henry Hice, to the exclusion 
of Baggaley, Henrici and John Reeves. 

The finance committee were also com- 
bined and W. K. Vanderbilt, David Hostetter, 
James I. Bennett, Mark W. Watson, Henry 
Hice and J. H. Devereux were named, while 
David Hostetter was given the lonely honor of 
being vice-president, with W. C. Quincy still 

. as general manager, and D. T. Watson as chief 
legal expert. Another of the Vanderbilt fam- 
ily, Hamilton McK. Twombly, entered the 
board in 1888. Knox and Reed became coun- 

.sel, and Elliott Holbrook, who holds the dis- 
tinction of having devised the Pittsburg and 

.Mansfield bridge and terminal, by means of 
which the Wabash was enabled to enter Pitts- 

.burg, became general superintendent. 

In 1889 two more Vanderbilts were elected, 
F. W. Vanderbilt and E. D. Worcester, of 
New York, while J. H. Reed was also chosen 

.a director to represent the Vanderbilt inter- 
ests. With the death of David Hostetter, Her- 

.bert H. DuPuy retired, as did A. E. W. 
Painter. In 1892 Judge Reed was chosen 
vice-president, and in 1893 A. E. W. Painter 
was again elected to the board in place of 
James I. Bennett. Since then there have been 
few changes save by death. 

Newell remained one of the best and most 

■ exacting presidents the system ever had. It 
was his plan, and it was during his adminis- 
tration that the radical changes and the entire 
rebuilding of the road occurred. He simply 
ripped the little system from one end to the 
other, poured money into it, and made it the 

-perfect system tliat it is today. It was Judge 

Reed who planned the present splendid ter- 
minals on the Southside, and it was he who 
purchased the property for them; and it was 
Colonel James M. Shoemaker who actively 
took up the work, spent money liberally, 
sought increased tonnage energetically, and 
who put interest, skill, and enthusiasm together 
to make the road one of the most perfect and 
profitable in the world. 


In February, 1881, the Pittsburgh, 
Youngstown and Chicago Railroad Company 
was incorporated in Ohio and a similar incor- 
poration taken out in Pennsylvania. These 
two companies were consolidated on April 15, 
1 88 1. The consolidated company intended to 
build from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Chi- 
cago Junction, Ohio, passing through Youngs- 
town and Akron. Certain real estate was pur- 
chased, but no actual work of construction was 
undertaken by this company. 

In April, 1882, the Pittsburgh, Cleveland 
and Toledo Railroad Company was incor- 
porated in Ohio to construct a line from the 
Pennsylvania-Ohio state line, in Poland town- 
ship, Mahoning County, to Pikes Station, 
Canaan township, Wayne County. At the 
same time a company was incorporated in 
Pennsylvania to construct a line from New- 
Castle Junction, Pennsylvania, to the Ohio- 
Pennsylvania state line. 

In June, 1882, these two companies were 
merged and consolidated under the name of 
the Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Toledo Railroad 
Company, with a capital authorized of $3,000,- 
000, with C. H. Andrews, of Youngstown, 
Ohio, as president. Associated with him were 
W. J. Hitchcock and L. E. Cochran, both of 

In August, 1882, the Pittsburgh, Youngs- 
town and Chicago Railroad Company con- 
veyed by deed to the Pittsburgh, Cleveland and 
Toledo Railroad Company all of its charter 
rights and property. The Pittsburgh, Cleve- 
land and Toledo Railroad proceeded to con- 
struct the line, which was completed and op- 



ened for traffic on March i, 1884, and has been 
an important factor in the development of the 
iSIalioning vahey. 

The Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Toledo 
Railroad was leased to the Pittsburgh and 
Western Railroad Company and was operated 
as a part of the Pittsburgh and Western sys- 

The president of the Pittsburgh and West- 
ern Railway Company in the annual report for 
1891-92 states: "That the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company had purchased a con- 
trolling interest in the stock of the Pittsburgh 
and Western Railway Company and that our 
road will become a section of the main line of 
the great B. & O. system." Since that date 
the property has been continually improved 
and enlarged and has played a most important 
part in the great local development that has 
taken place. 

In June, 1887, the Trumbull and Mahon- 
ing Railroad Company was incorporated to 
build a line of railroad from Niles, Ohio, to a 
point on the Pennsylvania-Ohio state line. This 
railroad has constructed and in operation a 
line between Haselton, Ohio, and Girard, 
Ohio, which is operated in connection with the 
Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Toledo Railroad 
Company as a part of the present Baltimore 
and Ohio system. 

In order to further develop the resources 
of the ]\Iahoning valley, there was incorporated 
in July, 1902, the Mahoning Valley Western 
Railroad Company to construct a railroad 
from Girard, Ohio, to Cuyahoga Falls. This 
railroad has been completed and is being oper- 
ated as a part of the Baltimore and Ohio sys- 

The construction of the Pittsburgh, Cleve- 
land and Toledo Railroad was mainly the re- 
sult of the efforts of C. H. Andrews, of 
Youngstown. It formed the link by which the 
great Baltimore and Ohio Railroad system 
gained entrance to the Mahoning valley and 
Its extensive manufacturing plants. 


On July I, 1902, the articles of incorpora- 
tion of the Youngstown & Southern Railway 
Company were filed by R. L. Andrews, W. S. 
Anderson, John H. Ruhlman, Asa Jones and 
W. H. Ruhlman. The first meeting had been 
held Tune 7, 1902. The capital stock was 
$1,800,000, with a bond issue of $1,500,000. 

The road was originally planned to run 
from Youngstown to Columbiana, through 
Leetonia and Salem, Lisbon, Westpoint and 
East Liverpool. The construction of the road 
was begim at Youngstown in the spring of 
1903. and the track was laid through to Co- 
lumbiana during the summer of that year. The 
first train carrying passengers and freight was 
run between Youngstown and Columbiana in 
October, 1904. In May, 1905, the property 
was purchased by John and Henry Stambaugh, 
Richard Garlich, David Tod, James Campbell, 
Warner Arms, and other well-known Youngs- 
town business men. 

During the summer of 1906 an extension 
of the road between Columbiana and Leetonia 
was begun and preparations made for chang- 
ing from steam operation to electric operation. 
It is expected that the trains will be electric- 
ally operated by April i, 1907. The line will 
terminate at Leetonia, Ohio, where connec- 
tions will be made with the Youngstown & 
Ohio River Railroad, which is now building 
between Salem and East Liverpool. The road 
is single track, with first-class construction all 
through. The Youngstown terminal is on East 
Front street, near the post office; the general 
offices of the company are to be at 21-23 East 
Front street. Tlie officers of the company are 
John Stambaugh, president ; S. J. Dill, vice- 
president and general manager, and David 
Tod, secretary and treasurer. The business 
done by the steam road up to the present time 
has demonstrated that the road will cover a 
profitable territory. 



The County Formerly an Important Coal Mining Center — Extensive Operations — The Man- 
ufacture of Iron an Old-Establislied and Leading Industry of the Mahoning Valley — A ^_ 
Large Anionut of Capital Invested in These Tzijo Industries in Mahoning County. - ^H 

The exact limit of black coal areas in the 
Mahoning valley has never been ascertained, 
owing to the irregularity of "the deposits and 
to other reasons which the reader will find 
more fully explained in the first chapter of this 
volume. It may be here said, however, that 
but little knowledge can be obtained from sur- 
face indications, and the location of a profita- 
ble shaft can be determined only by piercing 
the ground. The coal beds have been rarely 
found more than four feet thick and in some 
instances they lie as far below the surface as 
one hundred and fifty or two hundred feet. 
The quality of the coal also greatly varies. In 
the townships where productive mines have 
been found not one out of ten drillings passed 
through veins of workable thickness. Block 
coal has been found in all five of the northern 
townships of Mahoning County. In Canfield 
township a block coal seam of workable thick- 
ness was found at a depth of i6o feet, and a 
bed of the same coal two feet thick was found 
in Ellsworth at a depth of 150 feet. The Min- 
eral Ridge block coal, in a bed two feet thick, 
was found overlaid with a ten-inch band of 
shale and immediately under the coal was a 
ten-inch vein of black band iron ore, this in 
turn being covered by a bed of nearly three feet 

thick of an inferior, soft, pitchy coal, contain- 
ing a large per cent of bitumen, which has re- 
ceived the name of black-band coal. It has 
been proved by geologists to be of a later form- 
ation than the superior block coal, though es- 
sentially the same in kind. It was for some 
time mined and worked with profit. The Min- 
eral Ridge belt in Mahoning County extended 
from the old Warner & Company's mines in 
Weathersfield to the southern part of Austin- 
town, and included eight workable slopes. 
There was a similar belt in the western part of 
Youngstown township extending into Coits- 
ville. Owing to the reasons already referred 
to, man}^ of the shafts sunk in these belts failed 
to strike coal, and the operations were attended 
consequently with much financial risk. From 
the place of the first development of the coal 
resources of the valley — the old Brier Hill 
mine on Governor Tod's estate, which had a 
famous reputation — the search for coal radi- 
ated in every direction. In 1847 Governor 
Tod's mines furnished 100 tons of coal per 
day. A number of extensive basins were prof- 
itably worked in the neighborhood of Youngs- . 
town. Among others, the mines of Crawford, 
Camp & Company yielded sixty tons per day. 
These profitable banks, however, have been all 



worked out, and owing" to the great element 
of chance which attends the sinking of new 
shafts, the coal industry in Mahoning County 
has died a natural death, and it is improbable 
that it will ever be resuscitated. One of the 
most extensi\e mines \vas known as the 
Church Hill mine, in the township of Liberty, 
in Trumbull Count}, and there were several 
others in the adjoining townships of Hubbard 
and Vienna. ' , 


"The beginning of the iron industry in 
Ohio is contemporaneous with the admission 
of the state into the Union. It was admitted 
in 1802, and in 1803 its first furnace, Hope- 
well, was commenced by Daniel Eaton, or 
Heaton, and in 1804 it was finished. The fur- 
nace stood on the west side of Yellow creek, 
about one and a cjuarter miles from its junc- 
tion with the Mahoning river, in the township 
of Poland, in Mahoning County. On the 
same stream, about three-fourths of a mile 
from its mouth, and on the fann on which was 
furnace of the Struthers Furnace Company, in 
the town of Struthers, another furnace was 
built, in 1806, by Robert Montgomery and 
John Struthers. This furnace was called 
Montgomery. Thomas Struthers writes : 
'These furnaces were of about equal capacity, 
and would yield from about two and a half to 
three tons each day. The metal was prin- 
cipally run into moulds for kettles, bake ovens, 
flat irons, stoves, and irons and such other arti- 
cles as the needs of a new settlement recjuired, 
and any surplus into pigs, and sent to the Pitts- 
burg market.' A lean 'kidney' ore, which was 
found in the hills near the furnace, furnished 
the basis for the iron, and limestone could be 
had on either side. 

"Hopewell furnace is said by Mr. Struthers 
to have had a rocky bluff for one of its sides. 
It was in operation in 1807, but it was soon 
afterwards blown out finally. Montgomery 
furnace was in operation until 181 2, when the 
men were drafted into the war, and it was 
never started again. This furnace stood on 
the north side of Yellow creek, in a hollow in 

the bank. About 1807 Hopewell furnace was 
sold by Eaton to Montgomery, Clendenin & 
Company, who were then the owners of Mont- 
gomery furnace, John Struthers having sold 
his interest in this furnace, or part of it, to 
David Clendenin in 1807, and Robert Alexan- 
der and James Mackey having about the same 
time become part owners." 

Daniel Eaton disposed of his interests for 
$5,600 — furnace, land, ore rights and every- 
thing. He recei\-ed $600 in cash in the first 
payment, $300 in sixty days and 40,000 
pounds of castings on July i, 1808, 40,000 
on July I, 1809, and 40,000 on July i, 18 10. 
The Eatons came from the east and were de- 
scendants of Theophilus Eaton, or Heaton, a 
deputy in the British India Company and a 
merchant of great wealth and influence in 
London, England, until 1637, when he brought 
a Puritan colony to Boston. 

The foregoing details relate to what may 
be termed the charcoal era of the Ohio iron in- 
dustry. The second stage in the development 
of the iron industry of this state dates from the 
introduction in its blast furnaces of the bitu- 
minous coal of the Mahoning valley in its raw 
state. This coal is known as split coal, or 
block coal, or as Brier Hill coal, from a local- 
ity of that name near Youngstown, where it 
was largely mined. The first furnace in Ohio 
to use the new coal was built expressly 
for this purpose at Lowell, in Ma- 
honing county, in 1845 and 1846, by 
Wilkeson, Wilkes & Company, and it was suc- 
cessfully blown in on the 8th of August, 1846. 
The name of this furnace was at first Anna and 
afterwards Mahoning. A letter from John 
Wilkeson, now- of Buffalo, New York, informs 
us that William McNair, a millwright, was the 
foreman who had charge of its erection. It 
was blown in by John Crowther, who had pre- 
viously had charge of the furnaces of the Bra- 
dy's Bend Iron Company, at Brady's Bend, 

The first blast furnace in Youngstown, con- 
structed for the use of this coal, w'as also 
erected in 1846. This was the Eagle furnace, 
built by William Philpot, David Morris, Jona- 
than Warner and Harvey Sawyer, on land pur- 



chased of Dr. Henry Manning, lying between 
the present city Hmits and Brier Hill. The 
coal used \^^s mined from land contiguous, 
leased from Dr. Manning. The terms of this 
lease as to price, were one cent per bushel for 
the first 25,000 bushels, and one-half cent per 
bushel for all over 25,000 bushels dug in any 
one year, and to mine not less than 75,000 
bushels per year, or to pay for that quantity if 
not mined. _ The money paid for coal not 
mined in any year was to be applied on the ex- 
cess mined in any other year. A bushel of coal 
was to weigh seventy-fi'Ve pounds, and the 
lease was to continue in force for twenty years- 
This lease. Dr. Manning stated was the first 
coal lease made in this township. In 1847 ^'"'^ 
amount of capital invested in the manufacture 
of iron in Youngstown was about $200,000, 
which at that time was considered a very sat- 
isfactory figure. There were then three fur- 
naces here — the Eagle, Brier Hill and Mill 
Creek — each having a capacity of from sixty 
to one hundred tons of pig metal per week. 
There was also a rolling mill at which were 
made various sizes of bar, rod, and hoop iron, 
sheet iron, nails and spikes. 

Immediately after the successful use of un- 
coked coal in the furnace at Lowell, many 
other furnaces were built in the Mahoning val- 
ley to use the new fuel, and it was also substi- 
tuted for charcoal in some old furnaces. At a 
later day the use of this fuel in other parts of 
Ohio contributed to the further development 
•of the manufacture of pig iron in this state, 
and at a still later date the opening of the ex- 
tensive coal beds of the Hocking valley and the 
utilization of its carbonate ores still further 
contributed to the same development. 

The proximity of the coal fields of Ohio to 
the rich iron ores of Lake Superior has been a 
very important element in building up the 
blast furnace industry of the state. The use 
of these ores in Ohio soon followed the first 
use in the blast furnace of the block coal of the 
Mahoning valley. An increase in the rolling 
mill capacity of Ohio was naturally co-incident 
with the impetus given to the production of 
pig iron by the use of this coal and Lake Su- 
perior ores. David Tod, afterwards Governor 

of Ohio, bore a prominent part in the develop- 
ment of the coal and iron resources of the 
Mahoning valley, where, however, there is no 
longer any coal mined to an appreciable ex- 
tent, the beds having been worked out. 


The beginning of the iron industry at 
Youngstown dates from about 1835, when a 
charcoal furnace called Mill Creek was built 
on the creek of that name, a short distance 
southwest of the city, by Isaac Eaton, a son of 
James Eaton. There was no other furnace at 
Youngstown until after the discovery at Low- 
ell that the block coal of the Mahoning valley 
could be successfully used in the smelting of 
iron ore. In a sketch of the history of Youngs- 
town, Hon. John M. Edwards said: "In 1846 
William Philpot & Company built in the north- 
western part of Youngstown, adjoining the 
present city, and near the canal, the second fur- 
nace in the state for using raw mineral coal as 
fuel. In the same year a rolling mill was built 
in the southeastern part of the village and ad- 
joining the new canal, by the Youngstown 
Iron Company. This mill is now owned by 
The Republic Iron Company." In a sketch of 
"Youngstown, Past and Present," printed in 
1875, a fuller account is given of the first bitu- 
minous furnace at that place. It was known 
as the Eagle furnace, and was built in 1846 by 
William Philpot, David Morris, Jonathan 
Warner and Harvey Sawyer, on land pur- 
chased of Dr. Henry Manning lying between 
the present city limits and Brier Hill. The 
coal used was mined from land contiguous, 
leased from Dr. Manning. The second fur- 
nace at Youngstown to use raw coal was built 
in 1847 by Captain James Wood, of Pittsburg, 
It was called Brier Hill furnace. 

It was not until 1844 that we commenced 
to roll any other kind of rails than strap rails 
for our railroads and not even in that year 
were we prepared to roll a single ton of T rails. 

What wonderful changes have taken place 
since those good old colony times and the early 
days of the new republic, when our forefathers 
needed only a little iron, and what little they 



required was made by slow and simple meth- 

A feature of our iron and steel industries 
which has attended their marvelous produc- 
tiveness in late years is the aggregation of a 
number of large producing establishments in 
districts or "centres," in lieu of the earlier 
practice of erecting small furnaces and forges 
wherever sufficient water power, iron ore, and 
charcoal could be obtained. This tendency to 
concentration is, it is true, not confined to our 
iron and steel industries, but it is today one of 
the most powerful elements that influence their 
development. It had its beginning with the 
commencement of our distinctive rolling mill 
era, about 1830, but it received a powerful im- 
petus with the establishment of our Bessemer 
steel industry within the last twenty years. 

All of our leading iron and steel works, 
and, indeed, very many small works are now 
supplied with systematic chemical investiga- 
tions by their own chemists, who are often men 
of eminence in their profession. The man- 
agers of blast furnaces, rolling mills and steel 
works are themselves frecjuently well-edu- 
cated chemists, metallurgists, geologists or me- 
chanical engineers and sometimes all of these 
combined. Our rapid progress in increasing 
our production of iron and steel is not merely 
the result of good fortune, or favorable legis- 
lation, or the possession of unlimited natural 
resources, but is largely due to the possession 
of accurate technical knowledge by our manu- 
facturers and by those who are in charge of 
their works combined with the characteristic 
American energy which all the world has 
learned to respect and admire. The "rule of 
thumb" no longer governs the operations of 
the iron and steel works of this country. 

Owing to the extreme reticence which 
modern iron and steel manufacturers preserve 
in regard to the details of their business, we 
have l^een unable to obtain full and reliable 
statistics of a later date than 1902, which we 
here append. 


The aggregate tonnage of raw materials 
consumed in the blast furnaces, rolling mills. 

steel plants, foundries, structural iron and plate 
works, etc., together with the tonnage produc- 
tion of the industries of the Mahoning and 
Shenango valleys in 1902 were as follows: 


Production — 

Pig metal 2,604,344 tons 

Stock on hand 32,087 tons 

Receipts — 

Ore 7,604,071 gross tons 

Cinder 34,342 gross tons 

Coke 2,827,973 net tons 

Slack & Coal 205,476 net tons 

Limestone 1,344.643 net tons 

Sand 108,211 net tons 

Production — 
General machinery and machine tools, 
engines, rolls, mills, steel plant, 
blast furnace, machinery, stoves, in- 
got moulds, etc S8,5S1 tons 

Grey iron, machinery, malleable, steel, 
semi-steel castings, used in con- 
struction at same plant and shipped 13,603 tons 

, Total 72,154 tons 

Brass and bronze castings 994 tons 

Receipts — 

Pig metal 50,455 tons 

Receipts — 

Plates and sheets, steel 30,805 tons 

Structural iron 148 tons 

Structural steel 10,703 tons 

Rivets 1,001 tons 

Castings 2,198 tons 

Total 44,855 tons 

Finished shafting 7,939 tons 

Production — 

Muck bar 215.110 tons 

Skelp & plates 13,583 tons 

Billets 584,955 tons 

Tin bar 100,110 tons 

Sheet bar 265,259 tons 


Bars, iron & steel 423,229 tons 

Hoops, bands, cotton ties 147,232 tons 

Sheets, black & galvanized 86,223 tons 

Wire, barb & plain S4.816 tons 

Wire nails 739,639 tons 

Rails 325.000 tons 

Pipes & tubing 39,513 tons 

Ingots & blooms 1,599,699 tons 

Wire rods 77,316 tons 

Scrap 79,698 tons 

Tin plate 77,500 tons 

Total 4,828,882 tons 


Pig metal 372,886 tons 

Muck bar 6,474 tons 

Skelp 42,666 tons 

Billets 193,806 tons 

Sheet & tin bar 50,272 tons 

Scrap (iron, steel and old rails) 116,917 tons 

Slack & coal 1,248,024 tons 

Bar iron & steel 12,106 tons 

Total 2,043,151 tons 

Lumber consumed 490,051 feet 

Production — 

Limestone 2.039.401 tons 

Brick (all kinds) 88,705 tons 

Clay 13,726 tons 

Total 2,141,832 tons 

The Mahoning and Shenango valleys 
above referred to include the towns and cities 

of Warren, Niles, Girard, Youngstown, 
Struthers, Powellville, Hubbard, Wheatland, 
South Sharon, Sharon, Sharpsville, West Mid- 
dlesex and New Castle. 

The returns above given represent an ag- 
gregate of the reports submitted to the stock- 
holders of the several independent interests 
and directorates of the combined concerns, 
gathered after the close of the year's business, 
and were first published in Iiuiiistrics, Youngs- 
town, Ohio, March 26, 1903. 

The feature of the result is probably in the 
vast output of the valley furnaces, of which 
there were then thirty-two. Their combined 
output for the year was 2,604,344 tons, which 
represents nearly 14 per cent of the entire 
product of the United States, which, according 
to the American Iron and Steel Association, 
was 17,821,307 tons. This includes all kinds 
of pig iron, as does that of the accompanying 

The above is in spite of the fact that, ow- 
ing to coke shortage, all the furnaces, except 
six stacks, were obliged to bank at one time 
or other during the period, losing time rang- 
ing from one week to two months. 

In June about one-half of the average 
month's output was lost by reason of the fur- 
nace strike. 

More detailed information in regard to the 
county's principal manufacturing establish- 
ments inay be found in the following chapter. 




The Coitiity's Chief Manufacturing Establishments. 


The Republic Iron & Steel Company, of 
New Jersey, was organized in May, 1899, its 
main offices being located in Jersey City, with 
executive offices in the First National Bank 
Building, Chicago, Illinois. The officers were : 
President, Alexis \V. Thompson ; vice presi- 
dent and treasurer, John F. Taylor; vice-pres- 
ident, Archibald W. Housten, in charge of pur- 
chases ; vice-president and treasurer, John F. 
Taylor, of Southern Works; vice-president, 
George A. Baird, in charge of sales. Execu- 
tive committee : Colonel George W. French, 
chairman ; Harry Rubens, Alexis W. Thomp- 
son, Archibald W. Housten, Georg-e A. Baird. 
In addition to the above named the com- 
pany had the following directors : Charles A. 
Wacker, L. C. Hanna, Peter L. Kimberly, 
Edwin N. Ohl, August Belmont, Grant B. 
Schley, George R. Sheldon and John Crerar. 
When in full operation, the company em- 
ploys a total number of 21,000 men. 

The Republic Iron and Steel Company 
owns extensive mining properties in the south, 
operating three blast furnaces in Alabama and 
the mills which were formerly owned by the 
Alabama Rolling Mill Company, and the Bir- 
mingham Rolling Mill Company. These are 
now operated under the names of the Ala- 
bama Works and the Birmingham Works. 

The new blast furnaces are, without doubt, the 
best blast furnaces in the south and are now 
operated under the name of the Pioneer Min- 
ing and Manufacturing Company, the product 
being exclusively foundry and mill pig iron. 

In addition to the southern mills, the Re- 
public Iron and Steel Company have a number 
of rolling mills located throughout the central 
west, namely. Central Works, Brazil. Indiana; 
Corns Works, Massillon, Ohio; Eagle Works, 
Ironton, Ohio; Indiana Works, Muncie, In- 
diana; Inland Works, East Chicago, Indiana; 
Mitchell-Tranter Works, Covington, Ken- 
tucky ; Muncie Works, Muncie, Indiana ; 
Spring-field Works, Springfield, Illinois; Syl- 
van Works. Moline. Illinois ; Terre Haute 
Works, Terre Haute, Indiana ; Toledo \\'orks, 
Toledo Ohio; Tudor Works, East St. Louis, 
Illinois; \\'abash Works, Terre Haute, Indi- 
ana ; Wetherald Works, Frankton. Indiana. 

These works, together with the local ones 
at Youngstown, New Castle and Sharon, have 
a total finishing capacity of 1.200.000 tons per 
annum, distributed among all kinds of ordi- 
nary merchant iron and steel, with a numljer 
of well-known shapes and s])ecialties, consist- 
ing of trun-buckles. harrow teeth, spikes 
and splice bars, nuts and bolts, track l)olts and 

Besides the southern milK and 
property, the company own? 

s anci mmuig 
I large acreage 



of good Connellsville coke, a portion of the 
property being developed and operated by the 
Connellsville Coke Company, with main offices 
in the Frick building, Pittsburg, of which 
company George L. Pearson is general super- 
intendent. Edwin N. Ohl has had a great deal 
to do with the development of this property. 
They also own, or control under favorable 
leases, vast quantities of ore in the Lake re- 

The local properties of the Republic Iron 
and Steel Company consist of the works for- 
merly operated by the Brown-Bonnell Iron 
Company, to which has been added the Besse- 
mer Steel Works, the old Mahoning Valley 
Iron Company's property, now operated as the 
Mahoning Valley Works and the Hannah 
Furnace; the Andrews Brothers Company, 
now operated as the Haselton Furnace, and the 
Andrews Works. In Sharon they have the plant 
formerly known as the Sharon Iron Company, 
in which Mr. F. H. Buhl was interested, and 
the Hall Furnace, which was acquired with 
the Sharon Iron Works property. At New 
Castle the Republic Iron and Steel Company 
own the stock of the Atlantic Iron and Steel 
Company, and these properties are operated 
under the name of the Atlantic Iron and Steel 

These local properties are operated from 
the district office of the Republic Iron and Steel 
Company, located in the old Brown-Bonnell 
Company's office in this city, with Mr. Charles 
Hart as general manager and Mr. J. W. Deet- 
rick, district superintendent. 

The Brown-Bonnell Works consist of twen- 
ty-six double and one single puddling furnaces, 
eight gas and six coal heating furnaces, one 7- 
inch, one 8-inch and one lo-inch continuous 
train; one 8-inch, one lo-inch and one 12-inch 
giiide train; one 8-inch hoop train; one 18-inch 
and one 20-inch bar train ; one 20-inch univer- 
sal train ; two 20-inch puddle trains ; five spike 
and two washer machines, 8,000 spikes and 
400 tons washers. Product, engine, stay bolt 
iron, angles, channels, universal plates, bar 
iron and steel from 34 to 5 1-16 round, J4 
square to 43/2 inches, flats up to 20 inches, etc. 
Annual capacity 250,000 gross tons. Fuel, 

producer gas and coal. The number of men 
employed at these works is over 1,200. 

The Mahoning Valley Works consist of 24 
double and two single puddling furnaces ; one 
double and one single busheling furnace ; seven 
coal and five gas heating furnaces; 55 cut nail 
machines with an annual capacity of 120,000 
kegs; two 20-inch muck trains and seven 
trains of rolls, one 7-inch, one 9-inch, one 12- 
inch, one 16-inch, two 18-inch and one 24-inch. 
Product, merchant bar, angle, tank and plate 
iron, etc. The annual capacity is 110,000 
gross tons. There are about 1,040 men em- 
ployed at these works. 

The Shafting Works Company of the Re- 
public makes the well-known brand of Acme 
shafting, and is located at the Mahoning Val- 
ley Works. They have an annual capacity of 
10,000 gross tons. 

During the summer of 1903 the Bessemer 
Steel Works were remodelgd and the capacity 
doubled. The semi-annual statement of this 
company for the first half of that year credits 
these works with an annual capacity of 400,000 
tons, and there is no doubt that this figure is 
within easy reach. The equipment consists of 
the necessary cupolas, five in number, for 
smelting the pig iron which is furnished by 
the company's own blast furnaces and such 
iron as they may buy from outside parties. 
The converters are two in number, of ten ton 
capacity and of the eccentric type. The air 
for blowing the steel was furnished by the 
Allis-Chalmers Company, of the vertical steeple 
type and 3,000 horse power. The ingots are 
stripped from the molds by Aiken strippers, 
from which they are transferred to soaking 
pits of the usual type used at steel works for 
this purpose. 

The fuel used is producer gas, made in 
producers of the Laughlin Water Sealed Gas 
Producer variety. For reducing the ingots 
from molds to billets, a pair of William Todd 
reversing engines is used. These engines are 
54x66 inch cylinders and have a horse power 
of approximately 6,000. These engines drive 
a 40-inch blooming mill, which has the power 
of reducing ingots weighing 23^2 tons in about 
a minute and a quarter. This mill is one of 



tlie best in operation in this country and was 
desigTied l>y Willis McKee, chief engineer, and 
is used to supply blooms to the 26-inch mill, 
which comes next in line, or for rolling- slabs 
which are sheared and shipped from the bloom- 
ing mill proper. 

The 26-inch mill is a 2-high, semi-continu- 
ous mill with three pairs of rolls, and will re- 
duce a 7^x634 bloom to a 4-inch billet in five 
passes and to a 3-inch billet in seven passes. 
Four-inch and 3-inch billets are sheared and 
shipped to the other mills, or the entire piece 
is transferred to the 18-inch billet mill, of the 
Morgan type, which reduces it to a 2-inch, 
I ^4-inch or ij^-inch billet, depending upon 
the size desired. The 26-inch mill is driven 
by a tandem compound engine, built by the 
William Todd Company of this city, with an 
accredited horse power of 5,000, and the 18- 
inch mill is attached to a 5,000 horse power 
Filer & Stowell engine. These mills are en- 
closed in one building. The engineering work 
in connection with the same was done by S. V. 
Huber, the well-known engineer, having offices 
in Pittsburg. The mills proper were built by 
the Lloyd Booth Department of the United 
Engineering & Foundry Company, and most 
of the tables and other parts were made by the 
Youngstown Foundry and Machine Company. 
Great credit is due both these concerns for the 
excellence of their work. The power for 
operating- these tables and the other auxiliary 
machinery is furnished by a separate power 
plant. The installment of this department 
consists of two generators, one of 50 K. W. 
capacity and the other of 300 K. W., which 
are driven by tandem compound Buckeye en- 
gines. The steam is generated throughout 
this plant by Stirling boilers. 

The Hannah furnace is equipped with three 
new Weirher blowing engines with Stirling 
and Wheeler boilers. The Haselton is 
equipped with two E. P. Allis engines and one 
new Weimer engine, with Heine and Cahill 
boilers. The balance of the equipment is of 
the usual type and having the necessary stoves, 
trestles and other equipment. Both of these 
furnaces are equipped with the Rader Bosh 
Jacket, designed by Charles I. Rader, former 

manager of the blast furnace department, and 
are giving excellent results. Hannah furnace 
employs a total number of 140 men, and 
Haselton furnace employs 150 men. 

The Republic last year (1906) erected at 
Haselton two^ new Bessemer furnaces of 500 
tons daily capacity each, making three in all 
on the site of the old Andrews Bros. & Co. 
works. Anotlijer furnace just ready to l)e 
blown in, after being remodeled and enlarged, 
is located at New Castle, and is known as the 
Atlantic stack, while a fifth furnace, the Hall 
stack, is located in Sharon. From the three 
Haselton furnaces the molten metal is con- 
veyed to the Bessemer steel mill in ladel cars, 
while the pig metal from the Atlantic and Hall 
furnaces is remelted in the cupolas at the 
Bessemer mill here. 

All of this system is purely Bessemer and 
it has been officially announced that the next 
additions that the Republic Iron & Steel Com- 
pany w-ill make in Youngstown will be for the 
manufacture of open-hearth steel under the 
basic process. The Republic Iron & Steel 
Company several months ago purchased the 
Lansingville site to build from ten to twelve 
open-hearth furnaces, a billet mill, finishing 
mills, and either a rail mill or wire mill. The 
open-hearth furnaces will be built in pairs until 
the additions have been completed. It is in- 
tended that the new plant will turn out 2,000 
tons of finished steel every twenty-four houri^ 

The progressive spirit of John W. Gates 
at the helm of the Republic Iron & Steel Com- 
pany, and the fact that the great corporation 
is passing through an unprecedented period of 
prosperity, with the operating department 
hardly able to keep up with the deluge of or- 
ders, gives those in a position to prophesy cor- 
rectly the impression that the plant planned for 
Lansing\'ille will be built within the next two 
or three years. 


Throughout the industrial world there is 
not a more extensively known plant of its 
nature than the Ohio works of the Carnegie 
Steel Company. The works are splendidly 



situated on the south side of the Mahoning 
river in the extreme western part of the city. 
The Ohio Steel Company was organized by 
Youngstown capitalists and the first finished 
material was turned out February 4, 1895. 
The first officers of the company were Henry 
Wick, president ; J. G. Butler, vice president, 
and W. H. Baldwin, secretary and treasurer. 

The plant was absorbed by the National 
Steel Company, February, 1899, and after- 
wards l^ecame constituent to the United States 
Steel Corporation. Today the Ohio works of 
the Carnegie Steel Company is recognized as 
one of the most important and and best paying 
investments of that great corporation. One 
of the first movements of the original company 
was to secure the services of Thomas McDon- 
ald as general manager, a step that has never 
been regretted by the successors of the old 
company. Under his capable management 
and direction the plant has developed with a 
rapidity that is wonderful. Mr. McDonald has 
no peer in his line of work. He has sur- 
rounded himself with a corps of capable as- 
sistants, who have added to the success of the 
local works. 

The immense plant is laid out with the 
idea of continuous progression in the manu- 
facture of iron and steel. All raw material, 
such as ore, coke, and limestone, is received at 
one end of the plant and deposited in an enor- 
mous yard capable of holding 500 cars at one 
time. There are altogether forty miles olf 
track in the yards. 

Four first-class stacks constitute the blast 
furnace department, which are built in almost 
a straight line, near what is known as the ore 
yards, facing the Mahoning river with suf- 
ficient frontage to allow for the tracks. Being 
in operation almost constantly, these four 
stacks furnish an output which keeps the plant 
running to a certain degree. The diameter of 
the bosh is 23 feet and the height of No. i and 
No. 2 is 1061^ feet. At the time of erection 
No. 3 was the same height as the other two, 
but since then it has been found that it did not 
give good satisfaction, therefore 163/2 feet 
were taken off. 

These furnaces are equipped with closed 
tops, thereby allowing the ore to pass through a 
mixing-hopper to the throat ; then to the small 
bell, from where they pass through what is 
called the gas seal onto the large bell and from 
there into the furnace. There are sixteen tuy- 
eres through which each blast furnace is blown. 
There are seven cross-compound condensing 
horizontal blowing-engines used to supply the 
furnaces with blast. There are three engines 
54x102x108x60, two engines 50x96x100x60, 
two engines 58x110x108x60. 

The \A^illiam Tod Company furnished all 
the engines with the exception of two, which 
were installed by the Allis-Chalmers Company. 
At Nos. I and 2 there are located three engines,, 
at No. 3 there are four. A 48-inch Worthing- 
ton condenser is used to condense exhaust 
steam at Nos. i and 2 furnaces, and at Nos. 3 
and 4 there is installed one 54-inch Alberger 
condenser. The Worthington condenser also 
takes care of all exhaust steam from auxiliary 
machinery, electric light plant and the pump- 
ing station. 

There is a battery of 15,000 H. P. Sterling 
boilers, which supplies the entire furnace plant 
with steam, and a large quantity to the steel 
works. Furnace gas is used uniler the boilers, 
as is also coal to keep up the fires. Large 
cinder ladles take care of all slag which runs 
directly therein while still in a molten state, 
and is taken away for filling-in purposes about 
the plant. After the iron is turned into the 
ladles in the furnace, it runs direct to the mix- 
ers at the converting mill. When the iron can- 
not be cast in this way there is what is called 
a pig-casting machine installed by Heyl & 
Patterson. On Saturday and Sunday nights 
the iron is not taken to the mixer but gent tOj 
the casting machine. This machine consists 
of four strands of moulds. There is a trough, 
through which the molten iron is poured into 
the molds, which operates on an endless chain. 
The strands pass through a large vat of water, 
thereby cooling the iron, and upon reaching 
the other end of the machine pass up an incline 
from which point the iron is dropped in the 
shape of pigs into a car and prepared for ship- 



nient. After the iron has g^one through this 
process it is taken to the concerting mill where 
it is remelted in the cupolas. 

Much has been said of the excellent work 
these furnaces have done in regard to produc- 
tion, as they have produced since the first one 
was put into service to December i, 1904, in- 
clusive, 2,033,589 tons of Bessemer iron. In 
January, 1902, No. 2 stack produced in one 
month after being in operation one and one- 
half years 19,645 tons, which established a 
world's record. It was in March, 1902, that 
No. I furnace took the record by producing 
19,734 tons. This record held first place until 
October, 1904, when No. 2 furnace of the Du- 
■quesne furnace produced 20,659 tons. The im- 
mense magnitude of these furnaces can well 
be imagined when the four stacks forming 
the furnace department of the National Steel 
Company in Youngstown can produce almost 
as much iron in a year as the 21 furnaces in 

J. C. Barrett has established an enviable 
record as superintendent, and has worked earn- 
estly to bring the department up to its present 
standing in the iron world. He has had years 
of experience as a chemist and superintendent 
and has been with the company since its or- 

The next step is to the two convertors, or 
vessels, where all impurities are blown from 
the metal. The converting mills are located in 
the center of the plant and consist of a mixer 
building, cupolas, converting-house, ingot strip- 
per building, bottom-house and engine-house. 
The mixer building is two stories in height, 
containing two metal reservoirs of 250 tons 
capacity, each located in the second story. An 
elevated track leads to the building on which 
the ladles filled with molten metal from the 
furnaces enter and are hoisted by hydraulic 
jacks to the mixers and are poured in. 

An electric engine shifts the ladles to their 
positions and place them for the return to the 
furnaces. Iron is poured from the mixers into 
the ladles at the other end and sent to the con- 
verting house to be concerted into steel. 

In direct line with the mixer building comes 
the cupola house. This building consists of 

four stories 78 feet high, containing five cu- 
polas 24 feet high with a diameter of 10^ 
feet for each cupola, and blown through 12 
tuyeres with a melting capacity of 1800 tons 
in 24 hours. A double hoist 62 feet high car- 
ries all raw material to the top for consump- 
tion. In front of the cupolas are bins 560 feet 
long containing pig iron, coke and limestone 
and other material necessary to the manufac- 
ture of iron through the cupolas. In tapping 
the cupolas 2 iron ladles with a capacity of 
1 3 1/2 tons each are run under the tapping hole 
and filled. The ladles are then conveyed to 
the converters by means of an electric motor 
pulling a cable attached to the ladle. These 
ladles also travel to the mixers for the iron. 

To convert the iron into steel, the iron 
when brought either from the mixers or cu- 
pola is poured into the converters, one of which 
is located at either end of the building. The 
converters are 93^! feet in diameter with a ca- 
pacity of 10 tons each. The iron is poured 
through a trough leading to the nose of the 
vessel intO' the converter, which is placed at 
an almost horizontal position. The converter 
is then raised to the vertical position and the 
blast turned on. The blast is conveyed into 
the interior of the converter through the bot- 
tom, which contains 19 tuyeres imbedded in 
a highly refractory material. One horizontal 
cross compound Allis engine 40x78x60x60, 
and one steeple-type nose, compound engine, 
42x84x68x60, are required to blow the ves- 

The iron usually requires blowing about 
eig'ht minutes in order to remove therefrom 
the impurities ; the \'essels are then tipped over 
and the contents poured into a lo-ton ladle, 
operated by a 20-ton hydraulic crane placed 
in the center of the house, and which can be 
swung from either side. The ladle is then 
brought to the pouring platform and the steel 
poured into the molds. Each mold when re- 
moved leaves a solid piece of steel weighing 
2^ tons and mea.suring i8'/ix22!/x70 inches. 
The steel is then conveyed to the iieatiug furn- 
aces to be heated with gas. In the process of 
conversion the brilliancy of the flames is daz- 
zling, and the sparks fill the converting house, 



lighting it up with a wonderful brilliancy and 
keeping its spectators entranced. As the blast 
burns out the impurities the variety of colors 
is amazing. L. N. McDonald is the efficient 
superintendent of this ver}^ important depart- 
ment of the works. 

After passing through the converters the 
purified metal is next cast into molds or ingots 
and conveyed to the blooming mill. Here the 
steel is rolled down into great lengths and cut 

There are 24 pits holding four ingots each, 
the entire building being commanded by two 
5-ton capacity traveling cranes, whose duties 
are divided between placing the ingots in the 
pits and withdrawing them when ready for 
rolling. When the steel has remained in the 
pit the required length of time, it is withdrawn 
and placed on an ingot dumping car, electric- 
ally operated, which removes the ingot to the 
blooming train table ready for the rolling. 
Here it is quickly reduced from 183/^x223/^ in 
size to a long piece 3/2x8 inches. This is done 
in 13 passes through the blooming mills and 
the time averages a minute and a half. It is 
then brought down to the shears and cut into 
several lengths called blooms. In this mill, as 
in the other departments of the plant, the steel 
is handled without manual labor, the ingot is 
passed back and forth through the rolls on its 
13 passes and is operated entirely by the ma- 
chinery controlled by the roller from a sta- 
tion over the rolls. 

The four by four billet-mill is next reached, 
and duplex billet shears cut the product in 
the desired lengths, and the billets are then 
loaded, by means of an endless chain, into 
small cars, cooled off, and finally deposited in 
the railroad cars for shipment. 

Under the same roof is the tin bar-mill, at 
present in full operation. Further on is the 
sixteenth-inch continuous mill, made by The 
Morgan Construction Company, the fastest 
mill of its kind in the country. Eight passes 
are required to the rolls, and the 4x4 billet 
size comes out of the last pass a rod 13^ -inch 
finished material, at the rate of 650 feet a 
minute and without stopping, by the flying 

shears is cut into 30-inch lengths. These 
shears were built by the Loyd Booth plant of 
the United Engineering and Fountry Co,. 

Probably the rail mill is the most interest- 
ing department of the entire works, and it is 
worth one's while to watch the formation of 
the steel from the bulky bloom into a finished 
rail ready for laying. In this mill are four 
rail-saws. The regular regulation rails are 
sawed into 30-inch lengths while still red rot. 

The cold saw is used principally for orders 
of special lengths and a ninety-pound cold rail 
can be cut in twain in the remarkable short 
space of thirty seconds. Previous to shipping, 
the ends of the rails are chipped and filed. 

One of the most remarkable features of 
these mills and one that most strongly im- 
presses the sightseer is the apparent absence 
of men in the vicinity of the rolls. The blooms 
billets, bars and rails seem to come and go of 
their own volition, passing and repassing 
through the various stages of the work in a 
manner most bewildering and interesting. 
From the time the raw material reaches the 
yards until it is on the cars again a finished 
product, no human agency seems to be em- 
ployed while it is progressing through its var- 
ious steps. This work is mostly accomplished 
by electricity, assisted to some extent by hy- 
draulic power. 

The electrical power is furnished by three 
dynamos 550 K-W and one 200 K-W. Seventy- 
five skilled men are employed in this depart- 
ment. All the ore is handled by electric ma- 
chinery and in the plant there are thirteen 
cranes ranging in capacity from 73^2 to 33 tons. 
The entire rail department is operated by elec- 
tricity and four electric locomotives are used 
at the plant and a storage battery is also in 
use since 1902. 

At the works will be found modern ma- 
chine shops, boiler shops, blacksmith shops and- 
every necessary adjunct to a first-class in- 

An emergency hospital has been established 
at the Ohio Works, and skilled nurses with- 
knowledge of medicine and surgery are con-^ 
stantly in attendance. 




The works are thoroughly poHced, the 
chief being Capt. James A. Freed, and his 
force consists of no less than twenty men. 

A splendid laboratory, with every needful 
appliance, is situated within the grounds, and 
a short distance from the works is a commod- 
ious brick structure, a portion of which is used 
for drafting purposes. 

The Ohio works of the Carnegie Steel 
Company is without doubt Youngstown's lead- 
ing industry, its products are known and ap- 
preciated throughout the entire civilized world 
and the chances are that this plant will in a 
short time be further enlarg'cd until it rivals 
the largest in the world. 

The lines for the stone and iron work that 
will form the foundation of No. 6 furnace, 
in the group at the Ohio works, have lately 
been laid out and the work of constructing this 
giant smelter is now well under way. 

Indications are that the group of 12 open- 
hearth furnaces, the first of their kind ever 
planned for Youngstown, will be completed 
at the Ohio works of the Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany before any of the other new work. 

At the Homestead works a group of ten 
smelters for the manufacture of open-hearth 
steel was completed in exactly nine months. 
Just six months elapsed from the time the first 
drawing was made until four of the furnaces 
were completed and in operation. The local 
force desires to come up to this record, and it 
is possible that it may even be beaten. The 
work on the live Bessemer stacks that will 
supply basic iron for the group of open hearth 
smelters is also being hurried. The contract 
for the iron has been let to Wm. B. Pollock Co. 
of this city. 


No more wonderful mills exist throughout 
the country than the local ones of The Ameri- 
can Steel Hoop Company. In the two plants 
in this city, grades and classes of iron and 
steel products are made such as can hardly be 
duplicated anywhere else in the world. On 
their mills the experience of years and the ex- 
periments of the most expert have been ap- 

plied with wonderful success. There are ideas 
and appliances put into efifect on those mills- 
which are used nowhere else in the country. 
Everything has been done to increase the out- 
put and vary the class of steel made, adding 
constantly new grades of work. 

A few years ago some considerbale changes 
and improvements were made in these works. 
The Lower Plant, so-called, begins a short dis- 
tance above Spring common and runs to West 
Avenue ; the Upper Plant begins just across the 
street from the Lower Plant on West Avenue 
and extends far up into Brier Hill. The Lower 
Plant is what was known as the Cartwright- 
McCurdy mill, while the Upper Plant was the 
Youngstown Iron Company's mill. These were 
consolidated first under the name of the Union 
Iron & Steel Company, and later became a 
part of the National Steel Company, finally 
being merged into the American Steel Hoop 
Co., which in turn became really a part of the 
Carnegie Steel Company. 

In the lo-inch continuous or cotton tie mill 
the Upper Plant has one of the most famous 
mills in the country. It is run largely on cotton 
ties, and supplies an enormous amount of the 
ties which are used in the country. This mill 
was built in 1894 and the vibrator on the hot 
bed is used by no other mill. 

The Lower Plant of the Company has but 
one continuous mill, that is the continuous 
guide mill. The plant has five finishing mills 
which are all good and efficient and will pro- 
duce 10,000 pounds a month. The products 
of the 12-inch mill are giving the company a 
great reputation. One of the features of this 
mills is the cold straightening plant of 24 mo- 
chines. It straightens special Red Cross round 
edged tires, channels for rubber tires, etc., 
specially fine finished and perfectly straight. 
The specialty of buggy tires on this mill makes 
it one of the most valuable in the plant. All* 
the puddle furnaces in the Upper Plant were 
torn out in 1898 to make way for the new im- 
provements, which have made it one of the 
most modern and up-to-date plants for the 
same kind of work in the country. 

There is a boiler plant of sixteen boilers 
outside of the lo-inch contiiuious boiler plant. 



The gas producers are all hoppers, automatic 
stokers are used, and all furnaces fed by man- 
ufactured gas from the twelve gas producers. 
The 7, 8. and lo-inch hoop mills deliver 
hoop longer than any other mill outside of the 
cotton tie (lo-inch continuous), which has 
rolled a piece of hoop longer than any other 
mill in the city, 1,700 feet. 


The Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company 
was organized November 21, 1900, under the 
laws of Ohio, and under the name of the 
Youngstown Iron, Sheet & Tube Company, the 
.autlitorized capital being $600,000.00. The 
incorporators were Mr. George D. Wick, Mr. 
Wm. Willkoff, Mr. E. L. Ford, Mr. George 
L. Fordyce and Mr. J. A. Campbell The pur- 
pose of the company was to build and operate 
q mill for the production of iron sheets dnd 
tubes. Mr. George D. Wick was elected presi- 
dent, Mr. J. A. Campbell, vice-president, Mr. 
Robert Bentley, secretary, and ]\Ir. W. C. 
Reilly, auditor. 

In December, 1900, the capital stock of 
this company was increased to $1,000,000.00. 
Pending the investigation of certain patents 
for the making of tubes, nothing was done for 
the erection of a plant or the selection of a site 
until February, 1901. The ground was broken 
in May, 1901', at the present site of the plant 
between Struthers and Hazelton. In June, 
1 90 1, it was decided to increase the size of the 
plant and the capital was authorized to be in- 
creased from $1,000,000.00 to 2,000.000.00. 
In December 1901, the company purchased 
from Pickands, Mather & Company, the 
Alice Furnace, located at Sharpsville, and also 
purchased a three-fifths interest in ore prop- 
erty in the Mesaba Range now known as the 
Crete JMining Company. 

In January, 1902, the company was again 
authorized to increase its capital stock 
from $2,000,000.00 to $4,000,000.00, 
the increase to be devoted to the pur- 
pose of building an open-hearth steel plant. 
The officers of the company at this time were : 
Mr. George D. Wick, president, Mr. J. A. 

Campbell, vice-president, Mr. W. H. Foster, 
secretary, and Air. Richard Garlick, treasur- 
Mr. C. W. Reilly, who had taken the posi jci 
of general superintendent, was at that time 
placed in charge of the operations. 

In February, 1902, the original porti' r' 
this plant consisted of the sheet mill anr" 
die mills, were started into operation, the com- 
pany employing at that time all told about 800 

In October of the same year, three pipe 
mills of the company were placed in operation, 
employing an additional 800 men. 

In May, 1902, the president of the com- 
pany, Mr. George D. Wick, was compelled to 
retire owing to ill health, and his successor 
was not elected until July, 1904, when Mr. J. 
A. Campbell was elected president. 

In luly, 1902, the directors of the com- 
pany decided to abandon the building of the 
open-hearth plant owing, first, to the lack of 
funds, and, second, to the fact that open-hearth 
steel had not been proved to be desirable for 
the making of pipe, and all contracts which 
had been made toward the erection of this 
plant were therefore cancelled. 

In July, 1904, Mr. J. A. Campbell was elec- 
ted president of the company ; Mr. H. G. Dal- 
ton of Cleveland, vice-president; Mr. Richard 
Garlick, treasurer, and Mr. Geo. Day was elec- 
ted secretary and general sales agent in place 
of Mr. W. H. Foster, who had resigned early 
in 1904 owing to ill health. W. B. Jones was 
elected auditor. 

In September, 1904, the company com- 
menced the erection of a large pipe furnace, 
which was completed and placed in operation 
in the spring of 1905, giving employment in 
the neighborhood of 200 additional men. 

In October, 1905, the company com- 
menced the payment of a dividend at the rate 
of five per cent per annum. In October, 1906, 
this dividend was increased to six per cent. 
In July, 1905, the name of the company was 
changed to the present style. 

In July, 1905, the company found that it 
was necessary for them in order to meet suc- 
cessfullv the severe competition on the pro- 
duct of' their manufacture to build a Bessemer 



steel plant, and for this purpose the stockhold- 
ers authorized the issue of two aud one-half 
million of bonds. These bonds were taken al- 
most entirely by the stockholders of the com- 
pany, and the company then proceeded with 
the erection of a large Bessemer steel plant, 
plate mill and a lo-inch mill for making- small 
skelp. The Bessemer steel plant and plate mill 
were placed in operation in the fall of 1906, 
and gave en:ployment in the neighborhood of 
1800 additional men, making a total of about 
3,600 men then in the company's employ. 

In January, 1907, the capital stock of the 
company was authorized to be increased from 
$4,000,000.00 to $6,000,000.00, the additional 
$2,000,000.00 of stock to be devoted to the 
purpose of building two blast furnaces. This 
building is now under way at the present time 
and will probably give employment to 500 ad- 
ditional men. This work is expected to be 
completed by July, 1908. 

In January Mr. C. S. Robinson, who came 
here from the Colorado Fuel & Mining Co. of 
Pueblo, Colorado, was elected second vice- 
president of the company. 


The American Tube & Iron Co., manufac- 
turers of wrought iron and steel pipe and tub- 
ing of every description, was incorporated in 
1880 under the laws of Pennsylvania, with a 
capital of $100,000 and purchased the prop- 
erty of the old Middletown Tube & Iron Co., 
at Middletown, Pennsylvania, which had been 
out of business for years. They at once re- 
modelled and enlarged the plant, put the same 
into operation, and were successful from the 
strat. The capital stock was changed to $500,- 
000, and afterward increased to $1,000,000. 
At the annual meeting in January, 1886, it 
was decided to build a branch western mill to 
better supply the rapidly increasing western 
trade, and the officials who at that time were 
Jas. Young, president, George Matheson, trea- 
.surer, John J. Spowers, managing director, A. 
\V. Momeyer, secretary, and A. S. Matheson, 
general superintendent, at once began to look 

for a suitable location. They had about decided 
on New Castle, Pennsylvania, when Mr. 
Chauncy H. Andrews convinced them of the 
advantages of Youngstown, Ohio, as a manu- 
facturing point, and to clinch the matter of- 
fered for the location of the works to donate 
free of any cost a tract of land of about eight 
acres of land on the south bank of the Mahon- 
ing river, at what was then called Gibsonville. 

After due consideration the proposition of 
Mr. Andrews was accepted, and ground was 
broken in the latter part of April ; James Ma- 
theson was made superintendent, and Walter 
L. Kauffman, chief clerk and purchasing agent, 
and the work was pushed as rapidly as poss- 
ible, so that the plant was ready for operation 
by the middle of the following October, the 
first finished pipe being turned out on October 
16, 1886. The first order was a line of 8-inch 
pipe for the Mahoning Gas Fuel Co., which 
line is still bringing in the natural gas to sup- 
ply Youngstown. 

In 1890, on account of failing health, Mr. 
James H. JMatheson went abroad and W. L. 
Kauffman was made local manager of the 
Youngstown Mills of the American Tube & 
Iron Co., the officers of the company at that 
time being as follows : president, George ]\Ia- 
theson; vice-president, S. C. Young; secretary 
and treasurer, F. Musselman ; general man- 
ager, A. S. Matheson; superintendent, Jas. H. 
Matheson ; local manager, W. L. KaufTman. 

In July, 1899, the National Tube Co. was 
formed by the consolidation of a number of 
pipe and tube manufacturers throughout the 
United States, the American Tube & Iron Co. 
being one of the number absorbed. Mr. W. L. 
Kauffman was retained as manager of the Na- 
tional Tube Co. — Youngstown department, as 
it was then named, with Mr. \V. Ed. Samp as 
chief clerk, and the plant was considerably en- 
larged and its output increased. In April, 
1901, the United States Steel Corporation was 
formed, the National Tulae Co. becoming one 
of its constituent companies. The plant has 
added to its real estate, so that it now occupies 
about thirteen acres. It is admirably lixated 
for shipping, having the Pennsylvania Co. and 
the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. tracks running 



iaito the grounds, and is connected by transfer 
switching arrangements with the Erie, the 
Lake Shore and the Pittsburg & Lake Erie 
railroad systems. The works have a capacity 
-of 250 or more tons per day, and employ 425 
men, their product going to all points of the 


The Brier Hill Iron & Coal Company was 
originally known as the Akron Manufactur- 
ing Company, and was incorporated in the year 
1838, lor a period of thirty years, by Messrs. 
James R. Ford, Daniel Townsend, John Wil- 
liams, Jr., George B. Martin, David Tod, Si- 
mon Perkins, Jr., and Arad Kent, for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing iron, steel, nails, stoves, 
pig iron, and castings of all kinds. The capital 
.stock of the company was $250,000. In the 
year 1859 the office of the Akron Manufactur- 
ing Company was moved to Brier Hill, Ohio, 
.and firm name changed to Brier Hill Iron 
Company. In the year 1867 the Brier Hill 
Iron Company was merged into the Brier Hill 
Iron & Coal Company, for the manufacture of 
pig and merchant iron, and for the mining of 
-coal, David Tod, William Pollock, Nelson 
Crandall, John Stambaugh, Jr., and Henry 
Tod — all local people — being the incorpora- 
.tors. The capital stock was $432,000.00. The 
original plant for the manufacture of pig iron 
consisted of one blast furnace, with a capacity 
■ of about seventy-five to eighty tons of pig iron 
per week, and employed from twenty-five to 
thirty men. Additions and improvements have 
been made at various times until the plant now 
has a capacity of about twenty-five hundred 
tons of pig iron per week. Mr. David Tod 
was the first president of the Brier Hill Iron 
-& Coal Company and Nelson Crandall, secre- 
tary. In March, 1869, Mr. John Stambaugh 
was elected president to fill the vacancy made 
by the death of Mr. Tod. In the year 1882, 
the Brier Hill Iron & Coal Company was 
merged into The Brier Hill Iron & Coal Com- 
pany, the incorporators being John Stambaugh, 
"William Pollock, Henry Tod, George Tod, J. 

G. Butler, Jr., Nelson Crandall, and John Tod, 
with John Stambaugh, president ; Nelson Cran- 
dall, treasurer; H. C. Marshall, secretary; and 
Joseph G. Butler, Jr., general manager. The 
capital stock of the company was $500,000.00. 
In January, 1883, Mr. H. H. Stambaugh was 
elected treasurer and William B. Schiller was 
elected secretary. Mr. George Tod was elected 
president of the company in 1889, in the place 
of John Stambaugh, deceased. In January, 
1890, Mr. H. H. Stambaugh was elected secre- 
tary and treasurer. The present directors of 
the company are Mr. George Tod, J. G. Butler, 
Jr., H. H. Stambaugh, David Tod and John 
Tod. The officers are Mr. George Tod, presi- 
dent; J. G. Butler, Jr., vice-president and gen- 
eral manager ; R. C. Steese, secretary, and H. 
H. Stambaugh, treasurer. The company now 
manufactures pig iron and cement. The works 
are provided with a well equipped chemical 


This company was organized in 1882 by 
Edward L. Ford and the late John Stambaugh, 
for the purpose of making steel castings. A 
small plant was erected on South Market street 
but was never operated as a steel casting foun- 
dry. About the time the plant was completed, 
the company started experimenting in refining 
pig iron. In the years 1884 and 1885 a plant 
was built at Brier Hill alongside of the Tod 
Furnace, which was then owned and operated 
by the Brier Hill Iron & Coal Co. The plant 
erected by the Youngstown Steel Company 
was for refining pig iron, making a product 
which has since been sold and very largely 
used by steelmakers throughout the world, and 
known as "washed metal." 

In the year 1890 the Youngstown Steel 
Coinpany bought from the Brier Hill Iron & 
Coal Company the Tod Furnace. Since that 
time the furnace and washing- plant have been 
operated almost continuously. The annual pro- 
duction of the company is 100,000 tons of pig 
iron and 40,000 tons of washed metal. 

The present officers are: Tod Ford, presi- 



dent; Paul Jones, vice-president; John Stain- 
baugh, secretary and treasurer; Edward L. 
Ford, general manager. 


The works of this company were estab- 
lished in 1856 by Mr. Homer Hamilton, and 
were known as the "Hamilton Works." 

The plant was operated from 1878 to 1901 
by William Tod & Company, a partnership, 
and was incorporated in 1901 as "The Wil- 
liam Tod Company," with the late William 
Tod as president. 

The company is engaged in the manufac- 
ture of special engines in the largest sizes, sup- 
plying blowing engines and reversing engines 
for blast furnaces and steel plants, and general 
power engines for all purposes ; municipal 
water-works pumping engines and gas engines 

i ranging in size from 500 to 5,000 H. P. are 

I also being manufactured. 

I The plant occupies about eight and one-half 

I acres, and furnishes employment to from 500 

! to 600 men, and has an annual output of about 

I 7,000 tons of finished machinery. 

I This company is the onlv one in the Ma- 

j honing valley engaged in the construction of 

I heavy engines. 

1 The present officers of the corporation are : 

i John Stambaugh. Jr., president; Irving H. 

I Reynolds, vice-president and general manager ; 

' H. J. Stambaug'h, secretary and treasurer. 



j The United Engineering & Foundry Com- 
; pany, one of the oldest and most important 
; industrial enterprises of Youngstown, had its 
origin as far back as 1849, i" a stove foundry 
which was established here and carried on for 
i some years under the firm name of Parmelee 
i & Sawyer, and afterwards under that of Ward, 
j Kay & Co. Still later, under the style of Ward, 
i Margerum & Co., the firm began the manufac- 
' ture of rolling mill machinery, which business 
; was continued under the successive stvles of 
1 Ward, Booth & Miller, and Booth, Miller & 
jCo. On JMardi jst, 1888, the Lloyd Booth 

Company was organized, with a capital of 
$100,000, which was subsequently increased 
to $225,000, and with officers as follows: 
Lloyd Booth, president; H. M. Garlick, vice- 
president; C. W. Bray, secretary, and C. H. 
Booth, treasurer. A more important change 
took place, July i, 1901, when the United 
Engineering Company was organized with a 
capital stock of $5,500,000. 

The company are now the largest manu- 
facturers of rolling mill and steel-works ma- 
chinery in America, and the largest producers 
of steel, chilled, and grey iron rolls in the 

The concern consists of five separate de- 
partments : The Lloyd Booth Company depart- 
ment, which includes two separate plants, is 
located at Youngstown and is engaged in the 
manufacture of rolling-mill and steel-works 
machinery, grey iron and chilled rolls. The 
McGill department, located at Pittsburg, Penn- 
sylvania, manufacturers of rolling-mill and 
tube-works machinery. The Lincoln Foundry 
department, also of Pittsburg, manufactures 
only rolls, from the smallest to the largest, 
used in rolling mills and steel plants. The 
Frank Kneeland department, of Pittsburg, 
turns out rolling mill and steel works ma- 
chinery; while in the chilled roll foundry de- 
partment, located at Vandergrift, Pennsyl- 
vania, are manufactured iron and steel cast- 
ings and the celebrated water-chilled rolls. 

The company has received and satisfactor- 
ily executed some large and important con- 
tracts. They built the blooming mills and rail 
mill, besides furnishing other machinery, for 
the Ohio Works of the Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany; the blooming mill, rail mill and billet 
mills for the Bessemer department of the Re- 
public Iron & Steel Company: and the blix)m- 
ing mills, .sheet, bar and billet mills fur the new 
plant of the Youngstown Sheet and Tube 
Company. They are now engaged in build- 
ing the rail mills and structural mills for the 
Bethlehem Steel Company, of Bethlehem. Pa., 
and have under contract what will be the first 
installation of mill machinery for the great 
steel plant of the L'nited States Steel Corpora- 
tion, at Gary, Indiana. This consists of five 



blooming mills and one continuous rail mill, 
with the necessary tables, saws, and other ap- 
pliances for handling the material. 

The present officers of the United Engi- 
neering & Foundry Company are I. W. Frank, 
president ; C. H. Booth, vice president ;■ G. G. 
Small, second vice president : Edward Knee- 
land, treasurer, and C. E. Satler, secretary. 


In 1859 C. H. Andrews and W. J. Hitch- 
cock formed a partnership for the mining of 
block coal, in which business they continued 
for about ten years. With a view to the manu- 
facture of iron, they began the erection of a 
furnace at Hubbard, Ohio, which was finished 
and started in 1869, and is known as No. i 
furnace. No. 2 furnace was finished and 
started in 1873. In 1892 the furnaces were 
turned over to a stock company, which was 
org-anized under the name of the Andrews & 
Hitchcock Iron Company, with William J. 
Hitchcock, president ; John A. Logan, Jr., 
vice president, and Frank Hitchcock, secretary 
and treasurer, for the manufacture of Hub- 
bard, Scotch, Foundry and Bessemer pig iron. 
C. H. Andrews died December 25, 1893, and 
W. J. Hitchcock on November 18, 1899. 
The present officers of the company are Frank 
Hitchcock, president; William J. Hitchcock, 
vice president, and H. W. Heedy, secretary 
and treasurer. 


The Finished Steel Company, whose up-to- 
date plant is located at 1 623-1 631 Wilson Ave- 
nue, Youngstown, was incorporated in 1895, 
with a capital stock of $100,000, for the manu- 
facture of cold-drawn steel in rounds, squares, 
hexagonal, flat and special forms for machine 
construction. C. Seymour Button was presi- 
dent and general manager, and Thomas E. 
Davey secretary and treasurer. After an ex- 
istence of some seven years the plant was pur- 
chased by Thomas G. FitzSimons of Cleve- 
land, O., and the company reorganized, with 
Thomas G. FitzSimons, Roljert F. FitzSimons, 

James R. FitzSimons, Thomas L. Johnson and 
W. J. FitzSimons as directors, and with the 
following officers : Thomas G. FitzSimons, 
president; Robert F. FitzSimons, vice presi- 
dent; J. R. FitzSimons, treasurer, and W. J. 
FitzSimons, general manager. The company 
is enterprising and prosperous, the present out- 
put of their plant being about 500 tons per 


The Youngstown Pressed Steel Company, 
was organized in November, 1905, for the 
manufacture of agricultural and other pressed 
steel specialties, the office and works being 
located at No. 1931 Wilson Avenue. It is now 
doing a prosperous business in the manufac- 
ture of pressed steel for agricultural imple- 
ments, pressed steel singletrees and double- 
trees of an improved construction for wagons, 
felloe plates, wrought washers, riveting burrs, 
sad-iron stands, and other steel specialties. 
The officers of the company are : L. E. Coch- 
ran, president; Charles B. Cushwa, vice presi- 
dent; John O. Pew, general manager; Mason 
Evans, treasurer ; C. A. Cochran, secretary, \ 
and G. F. Danielson, superintendent. j 




The General Fireproofing Company of 
Youngstown, was incorporated January, 1902, , 
with a capital of $500,000. and the following i 
officers ; M. I. Arms, president ; A. P. White, 1 
vice president; George D. Wick, vice presi- 
dent ; W. H. Foster, secretary ; W. A. Kings- 
ley, treasurer and general manager, and H. E. 
White, chief engineer. 

The company started by the purchase of 
the business and plant of the International 
Metal Lath Co., manufacturers of "Herring- - 
bone expanded steel lath." whose plant, located ' 
at Niles, Ohio, consisted of two lath machines 
and four lath presses. The General Fireproof- ; 
ing Company immediately purchased a site 
from the Paul Wick estate at Crab Creek, 
Youngstown, and in the summer of 1902 built ■ 
the original buildings of the present plant. 



which inchulecl a two-story brick and steel 
building, with reinforced concrete floors, 135 
feet by 250 feet, for the manufacture of all- 
steel furniture and filing equipment for of- 
fices, banks, public buildings, libraries, etc.; a 
one-story brick and steel building, 65 feet by 
216 feet, for the manufacture of "Herringbone 
expanded steel lath," and a power plant, 34 
feet by 65 feet. The entire plant was equipped 
with the most up-to-date machinery, most of 
which was built to order from the company's 
own designs, the power being supplied by 
individual motors driven by a dynamo con- 
nected directly to the engine shaft. 

In the fall of 1902 the new- plant at Crab 
Creek was occupied, the offices of the com- 
pany being in the Federal Building at Youngs- 
town, Ohio, and the Niles plant abandoned. 
During the summer of 1903 a two-story office 
building, 44 feet by 60 feet, was erected at the 
plant and was occupied that fall. In 1903 a 
machine was installed for making Expanded 
]\IetaI for reinforcing concrete and by the fol- 
lowing summer this part of the business had 
so increased that a new building, 52 feet by 
175 feet, was installed to accommodate the 
Expanded Metal part of the business. In the 
spring of 1 906 it became necessary to add a 
building, 130 feet by 135 feet, for the joint use 
of the lath and expanded metal departments; 
there having been installed by that time two 
additional lath machines and a second expand- 
ed metal machine. In the fall of 1906 an addi- 
tion was added to the furniture building, 60 
feet by 180 feet, two stories, built of rein- 
forced concrete, using the company's system of 
Pin Connected Girder Frames for beams 
and girders : Cold Twisted Lug Bars for 
columns ; and Expanded IMetal for floor rein- 
forcement. A crate factory, 24 feet by 60 feet, 
was also added to the Metal Furniture Depart- 
ment. Also in the latter part of 1906 the 
manufacture of Pin Connected Girder Frames 
for reinforcing concrete beams and girders was 
started, and this necessitated the erection of a 
brick and steel building 85 feet by 200 feet. 
The introduction of the Cold Twisted Lug 
Bar, which is a bar for reinforcing concrete, 
invented by the company's engineer and sold 

exclusively by the company, was also taken up 
in the fall of 1906, and to take care of this 
part of the business a bar storage house, 100 
feet by 325 feet, served by a ten-ton Gantry 
crane, was erected early in 1907. 

With the increased output and new lines 
which had been added, more power was called 
for, and during 1907 the power plant was more 
than doubled, and to house the executive and 
clerical force required an addition to the office, 
36 feet by 75 feet, which is joined to the old 
building by a connecting building, 36 feet by 
36 feet, all of which are two stories and of 
cement si'ding style of architecture, being 
lathed on the exterior with "Herringbone Ex- 
panded Steel Lath" and plastered with cement 
mortar, a style of building which is becoming 
very popular and is at its best when "Herring- 
bone Lath" is used. 

The products of the General Fireproofing 
Company include Herringbone Expanded 
Steel Lath, Diamond Mesh Expanded Metal 
Lath, All-United Steel Studding, Expanded 
Metal for all purposes. Cold Twisted Lug Bars, 
Pin Connected Girder Frames, Trussit Metal, 
Steel Equipment for banks, court houses, of- 
fices, vaults, public buildings, libraries, etc., 
which include roll top and flat top desks, 
counters, filing devices of every kind and sec- 
tional filing cases, all built entirely of steel. 

The capital stock of the company is now 
$900,000. The employes number 460, of 
whom 400 are employed in the works and 60 
in the otfice. The yearly output is $700,000. 
The following are the officers : M. I. Arms, 
president; A. P. White, vice president; H. B. 
McMaster, secretary ; W. H. Foster, treasurer 
and general manager ; G. H. Knowlson, man- 
ager furniture department; H. E. White, chief 
engineer; O. D. Ivaiser, auditor; P. G. Mars- 
teller, purchasing agent ; ^\^ H. Ham and E. 
N. Hunting, concrete engineers. 

The company maintains offices in six dif- 
ferent cities, namely: New York, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, J. L. Sharkey, manager; W'ashington, 
420 Colorado Building. W. A. Kennedy, man- 
ager; Chicago, 115 Adams street, A. C. Tobin, 
manager; St. Louis. 710 Missouri Trust Build- 
ing, W. A. Chestnut, manager; Xew Orleans, 



409 Hennen building, C. W. J. Neville, man- 
ager; Boston, 161 Devonshire street, W. E. 
Kearns, manager. 


The Youngstown Car Manufacturing Com- 
pany, whose plant is situated at the corner of 
Wilson avenue and Jackson street, in the 
southeastern part of the city, was started in 
1 88 1 as a private company, under the name of 
Milliken. Boyd & Co., for the building of rail- 
road freight cars. In 1883 it was incorporated 
as the Youngstown Manufacturing Company, 
with a capital stock of $100,000, its officers be- 
ing: L. A. Cochran, president; Andrew Milli- 
ken, general manager; B. F. Boyd, secretary 
and treasurer. In 1902 the plant was pur- 
chased by Mr. George T. Oliver, of Pittsburg, 
Pa., and associates, who are its present pro- 
prietors. The present officers are : George T. 
Oliver, president; Alexander C. Blair, vice 
president ; Charles A. Palmer, secretary ; John 
P. Young, general manager. 


The Republic Rubber Company, whose 
offices and works are located on the lines of 
the Erie and Lake Shore railroads, at Crab 
Creek, was incorporated in 1901, with a capital 
of $1,000,000, the first officers being: H. K. 
Wick, president ; A. E; Adams, vice president ; 
John Tod, secretary and treasurer, and J. S. 
McClurg, superintendent. Though one of 
Y^oungstown's later industries, the excellent 
grade of goods turned out by the company 
has already made it widely and favorably 
known, its product being found in all parts 
of the United States, and its business increas- 
ing with each passing month. In the spacious 
and substantial plant are manufactured nearly 
all kinds of rubber goods, including search- 
light sheet packing, cross arm, tubular gasket, 
firestone piston packing, belting, hose, valves, 
gaskets, rubber-covered rolls, molded special- 
ties, automobile and solid vehicle tires, and 
mechanical rubber goods in general. 

The present officers of the company are : 

Warner Arms, president ; C. H. Booth, first 
vice president ; L. J. Lomansey, second vice 
president ; John Tod, secretary ; and L. T. Pet- 
erson, superintendent. The company has 
branch offices in New York, Pittsburg, St. 
Louis and Chicago. 


This company, whose plant is located at 
No. 193 1 Wilson Avenue, in the southeastern 
part of the city, was organized as a stock com- 
pany in July, 1894, with a capital of $12,000, 
which was increased in January, 1898, to 
$25,000. The primary object was the manu- 
facture of metallic roofing and John O. Pew's 
patent fastening 'for metallic roofing. The 
company has as a board of directors : G. M. 
McKelvey, Mason Evans, L. E. Cochran, Hor- 
ace P. Heedy, and John O. Pew ; and as offi- 
cers : L. E. Cochran, president ; John O. Pew, 
secretary and Mason Evans, treasurer. 

In 190 1 the company built a rolling mill 
for the manufacture of sheet iron and sheet 
steel, the capital stock being then further in- 
creased to $300,000. Their product now in- 
cludes, galvanized and black sheet iron and 
sheet steel, curved corrugated iron, iron and 
steel roofing and sidings sheet and expanded 
metal lath, heavy expanded metal, bridge and 
fire proof flooring, roll cap, ridge roll, and var- 
ious steel specialties, and amotmts to about 
2,500 tons per month. 

The present officers of the company are : 
L. E. Cochran, president ; John O. Pew, vice 
president and general manager; C. A. Coch- 
ran, secretar}-; and Mason Evans, treasurer. 
The directors are : John O. Pew, Henry W. 
Heedy, Mason Evans, C. A. Cochran and L. 
E. Cochran; Charles B. Cushwa, general 


The Falcon Bronze Company originated in 
1893, when G. A. Doeright and J. B. Booth 
formed a partnership for the manufacture of 
brass and bronze castings for engines and for 
rolling mill and steel plant purposes. This 



partnership lasted until October, 1895, when 
the firm was incorporated as a company with a 
capital stock of $10,000, which in 1898 was in- 
creased to $25,000, J. B. Booth being presi- 
dent, John Tod, secretary and treasurer, and 
G. A. Doeright, general manager. Owing to 
the death of Mr. Booth in the following year, 
a change in officers took place, Richard Gar- 
lick becoming president, John Tod, vice presi- 
dent, W. W. Bonnell, secretary, and G. A. 
Doeright, treasurer and general manager. 

On March 2, 1907, Mr. Doeright pur- 
chased the interests of Mr. Tod, Mr. Garlick 
and Mr. Bonnell, thereby obtaining a controll- 
ing interest in the company. The company 
was thereupon re-organized with G. A. Doe- 
right, J. G. Haney, and R. H. Doeright as 
directors, and with officers as follows : G. A. 
Doeright, president and general manager; 
Thomas Parrock, vice president; J. G. Haney, 
secretary; E. E. Miller, treasurer, and R. H. 
Doeright, superintendent. The company has 
its plant at No. 218 S. Phelps street, where 
they employ from fifteen to twenty men, turn- 
ing out from nine to ten hundred tons of brass 
and bronze castings in a year. 


The Youngstown Bronze Company, manu- 
facturers of iron castings, located at 548 Po- 
land avenue, was incorporated in 1902 with a 
eapital of $50,000. Its officers are G. L. Jones, 
president; J. W. Wright, vice president; Fred 
C. Noll, secretary and treasurer; J. Watson 
Long, manager. 


The Youngstown Foundry & Machine 
Company was organized at Girard, Ohio, in 
1888 by William J. Wallis and F. A. Williams, 
and was first known as the Wallis Foundry 
Company. In 1890 they took over the Girard 
Stove Works and incorporated as the Girard 
Stove and Foundry Compan\^ Two years 
later they bought the Youngstown Foundry 
and Machine Shops from John Miller and 
moved to Youngstown. In 1893 ^'^^ name was 

changed to the Youngstown Foundry and Ma- 
chine Company, with Thomas Parrock, presi- 
dent; William J. Wallis, vice president and 
general manager, and F. A. Williams, secre- 
tary and treasurer. In 1902 a consolidation 
with the Yovmgstown Steel Casting Company 
was effected, the firm name remaining The 
Youngstown Foundry and Machine Company, 
with Thomas Parrock, president and general 
manager ; William J. Wallis, vice president, 
and B. G. Parker, secretary and treasurer. 
The company are manufacturers of sand, 
chilled and steel rolls, rolling mill machinery, 
and iron and steel castings. 


The American Belting Company was in- 
corporated in May, 1901, by Mr. J. Edwin 
Davis, of Boston, who took a controlling in- 
terest in the business. The original capital 
stock was $50,000, only a part of which was 
paid in, and the business was started in rather 
a small way. The company manufactures 
stitched canvas belting exclusively, under the 
name of "Alpha" brand, the product being 
shipped to all parts of the United States and 
Canada. In 1903 the local stockholders in the 
company bought out the "interest held by Mr. 
Davis, and the capital stock of the company, 
which is now $100,000, is all owned by local 
people. In 1906 the size and capacity of the 
plant was doubled by building on an addition 
700 feet long, and the business which was 
started in a small way five years ago, now 
aggregates several hundred thousand dollars 
annually. The officers of the company are : 
John Tod, president ; H. K. Wick, vice presi- 
dent; and H. R. Greenlee, secretary and treas- 
urer; the directors being John Tod, H. K. 
Wick, C. H. Booth, H. M. Garlick and A. M. 
Clark. The plant of the company, which is 
now the largest canvas belting plant in the 
world, is located on Albert street, and extends 
from the street to the Erie Railroad tracks. 


The Enterprise Boiler Company was or- 
ganized in 1886 by O. C. Beatty, F. II. Klipp, 
and George Rudge, Jr. It was incorporated 


in 1897 with a capital stock of $50,000 by the 
same people, with O. C. Beatty, president ; 
F. H. Klipp, vice president and general man- 
ager, and George Rudge, Jr., secretary and 

In 1898 George Rudge, Jr., purchased the 
interest of F. H. Klipp, and was elected secre- 
tary and general manager, and J. F. Rudge, 
treasurer, Mr. Beatty remaining as president. 
The plant was partially destroyed by fire in 
1903, was rebuilt, and totally destroyed by fire 
in 1906. At the time of its destruction the 
annual business amounted to about $500,000 
per year, and the company employed from 125 
to 150 men. While it is not the intention of 
the company to rebuild in Youngstown at 
present, they will maintain their offices here. 


The Standard Table Oil Cloth Co., of 
Youngstown, was established in 1898 as a 
stock compau}', with a capital of $200,000, by 
the Ohio Oil Cloth Co. The concern was pur- 
chased by the Standard Table Oilcloth Com- 
pany in 1 90 1, the capital being increased to 
$4,000,000 preferred stock and $4,000,000 
common stock. The company is engaged in 
the manufacture of light weight oil cloth of 
all colors, turning out 2,500 pieces 12 yards 
long, lyl yards wide per day. They employ 
about 60 hands. The present officers of the 
company are H. M. Garlick, president and 
treasurer; George H. Hughes, vice president; 
Alvin Hunsicker, secretary and general man- 
ager, and W. E. Thatcher, assistant treasurer. 
The general office of the concern is at 320 
Broadway, New York. 


The Youngstown Carriage & Wagon Com- 
pany was established in April, 1881, with a 
capital of $100,000, for the manufacture of 
high-grade carriages, wagons, buggies, phae- 
tons, and other fine vehicles, and has since car- 
ried on a successful business in this line. Their 
office and works are located at the corner of 
Boardman and Hazel streets. The present 

officers are W. J. Hitchcock, president ; John 
Tod, vice president; W. P. Williamson, gen- 
eral manager and treasurer, and D. E. Web- 
ster, secretary. 


The Crystal Ice & Storage Company was 
incorporated in 1892 with a capital of $50,000, 
of which $40,000 was paid in. Its object was 
the manufacture of ice from distilled water. 
The first capacity of the plant was 25 tons per 
day. In 1902 this capacity was increased to 
60 tons per day, its present output. In addi- 
tion to the manufacture of ice the company 
manufactures distilled water for drinking and 
mechanical purposes, much of it being sold to 
the electric companies, and to chemists for use 
in the manufacture of various compounds. 
This product, which is double distilled and 
filtered, is known as Colonial Drinking Water. 
The company also has fourteen rooms devoted 
to the cold storage of perishable goods, some 
of the rooms having a temperature of 10 de- 
grees below zero. They are also engaged in 
the manufacture of ice cream. In the plant 
are three ice machines of the latest and most 
approved manufacture. The water is pumped 
from wells 375 feet deep by compressed air. 
The plant is run day and night the year round. 
The present officers of the company are : John 
McGuire, president; John Gallagher, vice 
president; George Rudge, Jr., secretary; J. C. 
Drury, treasurer and general manager. 


The Youugstown Engineering Company 
was organized in 1901 as an incorporated stock 
company, the officers being- John Runette, pres- 
ident ; B. F. Boyd, vice president ; Harry A. 
Boyd, secretary and treasurer. Capital, $100,- 
000. The company is engaged in general 
foundry and machine work. 


In the City Mills, located at loi Oak Hill 
avenue, Youngstown possesses an establish- 



ment long famed for the manufacture of su- 
perior winter wheat flour. The proprietor, 
Mr. Homer Baldwin, first began milling in 
1846, in Girard, taking a part interest in a 
mill with his brother Jesse. In 1858 he dis- 
posed of his interest to his brother and, com- 
ing to Youngstown, built a mill and began the 
manufacture of flour at the location above 
mentioned, where he has since continued in 
business. In 1875 he took the highest pre- 
mium at the Northern Ohio Fair, held in 
Cleveland, also in the same year at the Pitts- 
burg Exposition, and at the Cincinnati In- 
dustrial Exposition, held under the auspices 
of the Chamber of Commerce. In the follow- 
ing vear he took the highest premium at the 
Centennial Exposition, held in Philadelphia, 
and in 1878 he took two first prizes, a third 
competition being limited to local exhibitors, 
in which, of course, he was unable to partici- 
pate. For several years he has manufactured 
both spring and winter wheat flour, the aver- 
age output of his mills being 200 barrels per 
day. In February, 1906, Mr. Baldwin was 
awarded a patent for an improved separat- 
ing machine, which is said to be superior to 
any other existing contrivance of its kind, and 
is now in use in the City Mills. 

Trigg Brothers (Wallace and Frank G. 
Trigg), No. 13 Oak Hill avenue, manufact- 
urers of granite and marble monumental work 
of every description, began business in 1878 
on Spring Common, where they remained for 
four or five years. Afterwards they were lo- 
cated for several years on the site of the pres- 
ent office of the Youngstown ]^ indicator. 
About twelve years ago, they removed to their 
present location. They use the latest and most 
improved machinerv, including pneumatic 
tools and are widely known as master workers 
of their craft. 

Kuhns Brothers (John W. and Henry J.) 
are well known in Youngstown and the vi- 
cinity as manufacturers of wagons and car- 
riages, their manufactory being located at No. 
21-23 N. Walnut street. They give work on 
an average to about twenty employees. 

In Youngstown and the vicinity aire a 
number of large planing mills und luml>er 

yards which are, in general, doing a prosper- 
ous business. 

The planing mills controlled and operated 
by the executors of the G. N. Dingledy Estate, 
at the corner of Basin and Boardman streets, 
was established in 1865 by N. Dingledy, and 
now has thirty employees. G. N. Dingledy is 
the manager. 

Scheetz Brothers' planing mill, which is lo- 
cated on North West Avenue, was established 
in 1899 by John Henry and Philip Scheetz, 
with a capital of $40,000.00. The plant is well 
supplied with modern wood working machin- 
ery, and turns out $50,000 worth of product 
per annum, chiefly sash and doors. The pres- 
ent proprietors and officers of the concern are 
all members of the Scheetz family. 

The B. C. Tibbits Lumber Company, 
Cherry street, was incorporated in 1903, with 
a capital of $40,000. It is engaged in the 
manufacture of doors, sash, and mill-working 
appliances, and in the retail luml^er business, 
and has about twenty employees. The present 
officers are : B. C. Tibbits. president and 
treasurer; A. G. Sharf, vice-president and 
manager; and W. P. Schmid, secretars'. 

The Jacobs Lumber Company, on the 
Hubbard road, was established as a stock com- 
pany, February i, 1906, b-"- B. M. Campbell 
and R. H. Jacobs, with a capital of $50,000. 
The company is engaged in a general lumber 
and planing-mill business which gives employ- 
ment to about twenty-five hands. B. M. 
Campbell is president of the company, with 
H. W. Williamson, vice-president, and R. H. 
Jacobs, secretary and treasurer. 

Heller Bros. & Co., corner Rayen avenue 
and Furnace street, was incorporated in 1891, 
with a capital of $40,000. 

The Mahoning Lumber Coini>any, Brier 
Hill, was incorporated in 1902; capital, 

Valley Lumber Co.. Holmes and Chestnut 
streets, was incorporated in 1905 ; capital, 

The Smith Brewin.g Company, Youngs- 
town. was established about 1846 by John 
Smith, a native of England, who came to 
America with his family in 1842, and who 



was for some time before coming to Youngs- 
town manager of a rolling-mill at Pittsburg. 
After his death the business was carried on for 
many years by his sons under the firm name 
of John Smith's Sons Brewing Company. In 
1900 the Smith Brewing Cornpany was incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $250,000. 

The City Brewery, Youngstown, was es- 
tablished in 1885 by George J- Renner, Jr., 
its present proprietor. It is engaged in the 
manufacture of high grade malt liquors, bot- 
tled beers, ale and porter. The plant is lo- 
cated on the South Side at 203-209 Pike 





YoungstoTcii Banks — First A'atioiial — Mahoning Ahitioiial — Coiinncrcial National — Dollar 
Savings and Trust Co. — Home Saz'iugs and Loan Co. — Equity Savings and Loan Co. 
— Yotmgstozi'n Saz'ings and Banking Co. — International Bank. 


At the beginning- of this half of the cen- 
tury on August 7, 1850, the Mahoning County 
Bank was started at Youngstown, Ohio, with 
Judge Wm. Rayen as its first president. It 
was Judge Rayen who founded the Rayen 
School, which recently celebrated the comple- 
tion of its enlarged building. He was a strong 
man and a wise man, and the fact that the 
bnk, afterwards made the First National 
Bank, has also just occupied a beautiful new 
home, bears additional testimony to wise plans 
carried out by capable successors. 

The record of the Mahoning County Bank 
was excellent. When Judge Rayen died in 
1854, he was succeeded by Dr. Henry Man- 
ning, a man who had the courage of his con- 
victions in finance, as well as in medicine. He 
was not one of those who refuse credit because 
it is needed, or because others do. He granted 
it liberally where he thought it was deserved, 
and the results, owing to the trying times of 
1857, and the years when our iron industries 
were struggling for a foothold, showed the 
soundness of his judgment and the wisdom of 
this policy, "not only in the good it did to 
others and to the town in general, but also in 
the increased business it brought to the bank." 

When the national banking law was passed 
the officers of the Mahoning County Bank 
were quick to avail themselves of its provi- 
sions. That bank was closed, and the First 
National Bank was organized as its successor, 
June 2, 1863, having the third place in the list 
of National Banks, which has since run up 
into the thousands. Dr. Manning was elected 
president and remained at the head of the bank 
until January 9, 1866, when he resigned on 
account of the infirmities of old age. 

Mr. William S. Parmelee, a man of con- 
servative judgiTient, already identified with the 
management of the Rayen estate, succeeded 
him and held the office for eleven years. He 
declined a re-election, because of his removal 
to Cleveland, and on January 9, 1877, Mr. 
Robert McCurdy, who has held the position 
ever since, was elected president. 

The first cashier of the Mahoning County- 
Bank was Hon. Robert W. Tayler. aftervvards 
for so many years Comptroller of the United 
States Treasury. On his resignation. January 
2, i860, Mr. Caleb B. Wick was elected cash- 
ier, and remained until Octol^er 9, 1862, when 
he resigned to go into the iron business at 
Sharon, Pennsylvania. His successor was 
Mr. John S. Edwards, wlio served until the 
Mahoning County Bank was wound up, when 
he became the cashier of the First National 


Bank. When he left the bank, June 20, 1865, 
Mr. Robert McCurdy was chosen cashier, and 
filled the place until he became president in 
1877. Mr. Wm. H. Baldwin was then elected 
cashier and held the office for ten years, un- 
til he resigned in 1887 to go into the iron bus- 
iness. Since then the duties of cashier have 
fallen upon the president. 

All of these men were at all times entirely 
faithful to the bank and its interests. There 
has never been the slightest irregularity, nor 
has even a suspicion ever attached to any one 
connected with the institution. 

The liberal policy began so many years 
ago, has always been followed. The bank has 
never charged excessive rates, nor sought to 
make large profits. It has never speculated in 
any form. It has faithfully tried to serve the 
true purpose of a bank in the community, and 
to win a fair return on the money invested, 
by maintaining proper relations with proper 

How well it has succeeded in doing this 
since its organization as a National Bank, the 
following statistics show : 

Original Capital $156,000.00 

Increased by cash in 1866 to 250,000.00 

Increased from profits in 1870 50,000.00 

Increased from cash in 1875 200,000.00 

Present Capital 500,000.00 

Present Surplus and Undivided Profits 283,652.64 

Total Dividends paid 1.223,417.47 

Total Taxes paid 336,053.73 

The bank has never passed a semi-annual 
dividend, nor has it ever made a dividend of 
less than four per cent with all taxes paid. 
Large as these figures seem in the aggregate, 
they simply show the result of steady work 
year after year, for more than thirty years in 
the midst of a growing community. The an- 
nual profit on the capital used is small, com- 
pared with that of other kinds of business, to 
the success of which the bank's money has 

In January, 1896, Mr. Myron E. Dennison 
was made cashier. In 1904 Mr. Robert Mc- 
Curdy, who had been president since 1877, 
died and soon after the First and Second Na- 

tional banks were consolidated, the capital be- 
ing then increased to $1,000,000, Mr. Henry 
M. Garlick, who had been president of the 
Second National, becoming president of the 
consolidated bank. The vice-presidents were: 
Henry M. Robinson, Myron I. Arms, and 
Henry Tod. ~ R. E. Cornelius was made as- 
sistant cashier. The condensed report of the 
bank made to the Comptroller of the Currency, 
November 12, 1906, is as follows: 1 


Loans, Discotints and Investments $4,985,787.79 

U. S. Bonds to Secure Circulation 950,250.00 

U. S. Bonds to Secure Deposits 75,000.00 

Real Estate 85,980.00 

Due from Banks 1,253,527.31 

Cash 509,602.91 


Capital $1,000,000.00 

Surplus and Profits 953,322.50 

Circulation 941,850.00 

Deposits 4,964,975.51 


The present officers are: Henry M. Gar- 
lick, president ; Myron I. Arms, vice-president; 
Henry M. Robinson, vice-president; Myron E. 
Dennison, cashier; Ralph E. Cornelius, assist- 
ant cashier. 


The Mahoning National Bank is the suc- 
cessor to the Young'stown Savings & Loan 
Company, which was organized in 1868, with 
a capital stock of $600,000 ($150,000 paid in), 
and with the late Governor Tod as president. 
The bank was continued under that name and 
with the original charter until 1877, when it 
was reorganized as the Mahoning National 
Bank, with the same officers, directors and 
stockholders, and with a capital stock of $229,- 
000. It was thus continued until July i, 1906, 
when the capital stock was increased to $300,- 
000, and the surplus to $200,000. The origi- 
nal twenty-years charter having expired in 
1897, it was then renewed for twenty years 



An abstract of the report made to the 
comptroller of the currency, No\ember 12, 
1906, by the Mahoning National Bank shows 
the following resources and liabilities : 


Loans, Discounts and Investments $4,985,787.79 

U. S. Bonds 300,000.00 

Banking House 54,750.00 

Cash and due from Banks 359.947-33 


Capital Stock $ 300.000.00 

Suiplus Fund 200,000.00 

Undivided Profits 40,426.76 

Circulation outstanding 290,000.00 

Deposits 1,347,295.64 


The present officers of the bank are : W. 
Scott Bonnell, president; Walter A. Beecher, 
vice-president; J. H. McEwen, cashier; 
Thomas A. Jacobs, assistant cashier. 


The Commercial National Bank of 
Youngstown was organized in 1881, with a 
capital stock of $200,000. C. H. Andrews 
was the first presiclent. The capital has l:>een 
lately increased to $350,000, the bank having 
a surplus fund of $100,000, with undivided 
profits of $56,000. President Andrews died 
December 25, 1893. and was succeeded in the 
presidency of the institution by the late George 
M. McKelvey, whose death occurred Decem- 
ber 24, 1905. Up to the time of Mr. Mc- 
Kelvey's election General T. W. Sanderson 
had served as vice-president. Early in Janu- 
ary, 1906, Mason Evans, who had been cash- 
ier from the beginning, was elected president, 
which office he still retains. The other of- 
ficers are : L. E. Cochran, vice-president ; C. 
H. Kennedy, cashier; Harry Williams, assist- 
ant cashier. 

The following is a condensed statement 
of the bank's condition made to the comp- 
troller of the currency, November 12, 1906: 


Loans and Discounts $ 999,019.23 

U. S. and other Bonds 328,979.90 

Due from Other Banks 1 10,278.45 

Cash on Hand 156,351.71 


Capital Stock $ 300,000.00 

Surplus and Profits 150,361.71 

Circulation 193,850.00 

Deposits 1,100.417.58 



The Dollar Savings and Trust Company, 
otie of Youngstown's leading financial institu- 
tions, was organized in 1887, with a capital 
stock of $100,000.00. Its first president was 
John I. Williams, who continued in that of- 
fice until 1902. He was succeeded by Asael 
E. Adams, who is now president. The capi- 
tal stock of the bank has been increased four 
times, and is now $1,500,000. The deposits 
have been increased to $6,500,000. The bank 
is now the largest bank in Ohio outside of 
Cleveland and Cincinnati, and combines with- 
in itself all the elements of a savings bank, a 
commercial bank, and a trust company. The 
following statement of the condition of the 
bank was issued December 31, 1906: 


Cash on Hand and in Bank $1,443,360.82 

Loans and Bonds 6,772,933.47 

Real Estate 300,000.00 


Capital Stock $1,500,000.00 

Surplus and Profits 343,094.67 

Unpaid Dividends 45,166.50 

Deposits 6.628,033.12 


The present officers of the bank are : A. 
E. Adams, president ; John C. Wick, vice-pres- 
ident; Henr\' M. Garlick, vice-president; E. 



Mason Wick, secretary; Rolla P. Hartshorn, 
treasurer; Charles J. Wick, cashier; Paul H. 
McKelvey, assistant treasurer; E. H. Hosmer, 

assistant cashier. 


This company was organized in 1889 ^"d 
its charter dated on January 15th, of that year. 
Among its incorporators were such men as 
Jolm R. Davis, then a leading fire insurance 
agent, P. D. Cotter, a successful merchant, and 
other well known men, most of whom are now 
deceased. The only survivors of the original 
incorporators are Mr. J. R. Woolley, who is 
now vice-president of the company and Mr. 
James M. McKay, who has been it's secretary 
from the start. 

The company opened for business on Feb- 
ruary 28, 1889. Its first location was up- 
stairs in the Excelsior Block over the store 
room now occupied by the Mullaly-Reilly 
Company. Mr. McKay had been occupying 
this room as a law office for some years and 
for quite a while the company had the use of 
the room without expense. The business at 
first grew slowly; by January i, 1890, the 
deposits amounted only to $3,652,00'. The ex- 
pense had been light, however, and a good div- 
idend was left for the depositors. Steadily and 
surely, if not rapidly, the business increased 
and in about four years time the deposits 
reached $100,000.00. By this time it was felt 
that a location nearer the ground floor would 
be more accessible and accordingly the base- 
ment room of the Mahoning National Bank 
was leased for a period of five years and the 
company took possession of it. This term was 
afterward extended and the company occupied 
the basement for a little over ten years. From 
'93 to about '97 or 98 times were bad in 
Youngstown and the growth was small ; still 
the company managed to forge ahead a little 
each year and add new depositors to those al- 
ready secured. On January i, 1898, its depos- 
its reached a quarter of a million. From this 
time on times began to get better, but it was 
still a year or two before there was much ac- 
tivity in real estate and the growth of the com- 

pany continued to be slow. In the fall of 1901, 
however, the deposits had increased to more 
than half a million and the basement room was 
getting too small to accommodate the business. 
Inquiries were made which finally resulted in 
the purchase of the property at 129 West Fed- 
eral Street, where the company is now located. 
This property was purchased from Reel & 
Moyer in November of that year, but being 
under lease at the time, the company was not 
able to occupy it until two and one-half years 

From the time that the property was pur- 
chased, the growth of the company was more 
rapid. By January i, 1904, their deposits 
exceeded a million. Two years later they 
were over a million and a half and their net 
increase during 1906, which was more than 
three quarters of a million, stands unparalleled 
in the history of savings institutions in towns 
the size of Youngstown. 

Mr. McKay has been secretary of the 
company since its organization. For the first 
four or five years he did all the clerical work 
himself, drew up the mortgages and personally 
examined the records for all loans on real 
estate. In time, however, it became necessary 
to make additions to the clerical force until 
now it requires the constant services of ten. 
people to look after the affairs of the institu- 
tion, while still others are employed part of 
the time in appraising property and doing 
other outside work. 

The form of investment which has been 
favored by this company from the first is to 
lend its money on mortgage of real estate. Of 
all the monies that it has handled, 98 per cent 
have been invested and its loans have been se- 
lected with such care that not a dollar has been 
lost. During the hard times which prevailed 
from '93 to "98 the company was compelled' 
to foreclose a few mortgages and occasionally 
had to take a piece of property and hold it 
until a purchaser could be found, but these 
were all sold without loss and on most of them 
a profit was realized. 

Of all forms of loans on real estate, the 
management have always considered that 
loans made for the purpose of buying, build- 


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ing or improving homes were the most desira- 
ble. Manufacturing- plants especially have 
been avoided ; some business blocks have oc- 
casionally been taken, but homes have always 
had the preference and the company has aimed 
to be faithful to its motto, "The American 
Home the Safeguard of American Liberties." 
Its mortgage loans have been made on easy 
terms and the small borrower has always had 
as good a rate of interest as the large bor- 
rower. The company has been instrumental 
in purchasing, building or improving some- 
thing like 5,000 homes in Youngstown and 

In the division of its profits the Home Sav- 
ings and Loan Company is unique. It is a 
mutual institution and all its profits are di- 
vided ratably among its depositors. It thus 
returns to the man who saves his money all 
the profits that his money earns. Strictly 
speaking, its depositors receive a dividend in- 
stead of interest, but this dividend has been 
established so long at 5 per cent that the public 
look upon it as a fixed rate. Its directors do 
not consider themselves in any sense as own- 
ers of the business, but merely as trustees 
thereof and their detailed annual reports pub- 
lished each year, and mailed to each depositor, 
.show item by item how their trust has been ex- 
ecuted. These reports are also circulated 
widely among other financial institutions of 
the United States and copies are regularly sent 
to certain institutions in foreign countries. 

Like all growing cities Youngstown's pop- 
ulation is somewhat restless and her people 
move from place to place as better situations 
can be secured. Many depositors in the Home 
Savings and Loan Company who have thus 
changed their location have still retained their 
savings accounts here and continue to make 
deposits from their new location. In this way 
the patrons of the company have become scat- 
tered. Even.- important section of Ohio has 
depositors in the Home Savings and Loan 
Company. Over one-half of the states in the 
union and many foreign countries are repre- 
sented on its books and seldom is a mail de- 
livered at the office that does not contain 

checks or drafts from distant localities or for- 
eign countries. 


The Equity Savings and Loan Company 
was incorporated in 1900 by Asahel W. Jones, 
Harry A. Ernst, Ralph E. Cornelius, M. M. 
Phillips and E. H. Turner, with a capital stock 
of $500,000. Soon after its incorporation it 
came under its present management, and it is 
now one of the most successful and solid finan- 
cial institutions in Youngstown. On Septem- 
ber 20, 1905, its capital stock was increased to> 
$1,000,000. It guarantees 5 per cent interest 
on deposits of any amount from one dollar up- 
ward. During the five years or more that it 
has been in business it has handled over 
$1,000,000 for its patrons and has never lost 
a dollar. Its steady and rapid financial growth- 
is clearly shown in the following financial 
statement of its resources issued October i, 

October I, 1901 $ 8,000.00 

October I, 1902 80,000.00 

October I, 1903 165,000.00 

October i, 1904 233,000.00 

October i, 1905 310,000.00 

October I, 1906 400,ooo.oO' 

Besides accumulating, as above shown, 
over $400,000 in net resources, it has earned 
for its patrons in interest and dividends over 
$50,000, a record of which the officers and 
directors are justly proud. The credit for this 
excellent showing is largely due to the com- 
pany's secretary and manager, Mr. Harry H. 
Geitgey, who has worked for the interests of 
the institution with rare judgment and energy. 

The company's financial statement for 
October i, 1906, is as follows: 


First Mortgage, Real Estate, Loans $367,69305 

Collateral Loans 13,688.00 

Furniture & Fixtures 1,426.31 

Cash on Hand 17,414.07 





Paid in Capital $227,253.79 

Surplus & Undivided Profits 8.720.74 

Deposits 150,782.46 

Unfinished Loans on New Dwellings 13,464.44 


The Young-stown Savings and Banking 
Company was opened for business March 18, 
1905. The capital stock was $50,000, which 
was increased July i, 1906, to $100,000. The 
bank's statement for December i, 1906, is as 

follows : 


Mortgages and Loans $388,736.93 

Furniture & Fixtures 7.547.29 

Current expenses 3,o77-^7 

Cash on hand and in Banks 88,202.37 


Capital Stock paid in $100,000.00 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 8.238.92 

Deposits 379>325-54 


The officers of the company are: Hon. 
W. T. Gibson, president; W. R. Leonard, vice 
president; H. W. Grant, treasurer. 


The International Bank, located at No. 11 
North Phelps street, was founded soon after 
his arrival in Youngstown, by Mr. Gus- 
tave V. Hamory, who came here in 1900 
from Washington county, Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Hamory was born in Hungary in 1869 and 
came to America in 1885, locating first in 
Pittsburg, where he gained his knowledge of 
American banking methods. The Interna- 
tional Bank issues drafts and money orders on 
all parts of the world, makes collections on 
estates, handles various claims, and also sells 
steamship atid railroad tickets. It has a large 
patronage among the foreign residents of 
Youngstown and the vicinity, the business 
keeping a number of clerks busy. Mr. Ham- 
ory also has a flourishing branch office in 
Sharon, Pennsylvania. 




Its Early History — First Court and First Laic ycrs — Great Lazuycrs of Former Years- 
Present Bar and Its High Standing. 


Perhaps in no one respect is the advanced 
degree of progress attained by Mahoning 
county more clearly manifest than in the high 
standard of its courts, and the reputation for 
learning, dignity, and ability that has been 
long sustained by the members of the legal 
profession in this community generally. This 
high standard was early set, and has never 
been lowered as a whole, and but seldom in 
part, by any conspicuous shortcomings on the 
part of said members ; and it is safe to say that, 
outside of the city of Cleveland, no community 
in the state can claim precedence over Mahon- 
ing county in all thjit goes to constitute a 
model bench and bar. 


The lawyers and judges in the earliest 
period of our civil history performed their 
duties under very different scenes and condi- 
tions from those which now prevail. A brief 
description of these has come down to us in a 
small History of the State of Ohio, published 
at Cincinnati, as far back as 1838, by Caleb 
Atwater, A. M., who was himself in his 
younger days, an eye-witness to that which he 
relates. He says : 

"The president judge and the lawyers trav- 
elled their circuits holding courts. When ar- 
rived at the shire town the lawyers and judges 

were all generally thrown together into one 
room in a log tavern and slept under the same 
roof, and some of them very near it. The food 
was generally cooked out of doors, and the 
court house was not unfrequently some log 
cabin in the woods without a floor in it. We 
have seen a constable with a grand jury sitting 
under a tree, and the constable keeping ofif the 
crowd, so as to prevent their hearing the testi- 
mony of witnesses before the jury. Another 
constable was guarding a petit jury under 
some other tree while they were deliberating 
on their verdict. And when a new county 
was organized the newly-elected judges, jur- 
ies, etc., had to be instructed in their duties 
by the presiding judge and the state's attorney. 
These things are all in our recollection, fresh, 
and distinctly remembered." 

He further says : 

"Judges and lawyers rode from court to 
court and carried their provisions or stan'ed 
on the route. Though they generally got into 
some settlement before nightfall, vet not al- 
ways, as we shall long remember. When the 
streams were swelled with rain they swam 
every stream in their way." 

If such conditions now prevailed, a cer- 
tificate of natatorial proficiency would proba- 
bly be made a sine qua non of graduation in 
every law school course. 




The first court in Trumbull county after 
its organization, convened in Warren at 4:00 
p. m., on Monday, August 25, 1800. It was 
'held in primitive fashion between the corn- 
, cribs of Mr. Quinby, which stood where Main 
street passes in front of the Cleveland and 
Mahoning passenger station. Here the judge 
and justices of the county took the oath of 
.office, and proceeded to open the court of 
.Quarter Sessions and Court of Common Pleas, 
agreeable to the order of the Governor. They 
also divided the county into eight townships 
and appointed constables in each. A venire 
-was issued to summon eighteen persons as 
grand jurors. Information was lodged by the 
'state's attorney against Joseph McMahon and 
Richard Storer. On the 26th the jury found 
indictments against each of them for the mur- 
der of two Indians at the Salt Springs, and 
processes were ordered to be issued against 
'them, to be apprehended and held in close cus- 
tody until the Governor should order a court 
of Oyer and Terminer to be held to try them. 
The witnesses were recognized to attend said 
,-court. The court sessions lasted until noon on 
-the 29th. The civil officers for the county 
were as follows : John Young, Turhand Kirt- 
-land, Camden Cleveland, James Kingsbury 
and Eliphalet Austin, esquires, justices of the 
peace and quorum; John Leavitt, Esq., judge 
.of probate and justice of the peace; Solomon 
. Griswold, Martin Smith, John Struthers, 
Caleb Baldwin, Calvin Austin, Edward Brock- 

■ way, Tohn Kinsman, Benjamin Davison, Eph- 
raim Quinby, Ebenezer Sheldon, David Hud- 

. son, Aaron Wheeler, Amos Spafford, Moses 
Park, and John Minor, esquires, justices of 
the peace. Calvin Pease, Esq.. clerk; David 
Abbot, Esq., sheriff; John Hart Adgate, cor- 

,oner; Eliphalet Austin, Esq., treasurer; John 

. Stark Edwards, Esq., recorder. 

The following persons were impaneled and 

.: sworn on the grand jury: Simon Perkins, 

foreman; Benjamin Stow, Samuel Menough, 

Hawley Tanner, Charles Daly, Ebenezer 

■ King, William . Cecil, John Hart Adgate, 

Henry Lane, Jonathan Church, Jeremiah Wil- 
cox, John Partridge Bissell, Isaac Palmer, 
George Phelps, Samuel Quinby, and Moses 
Park. George Tod, Esq., was appointed by 
the court to prosecute the pleas of the United 
States, the present session, and took the oath 
of office. It was also ordered by the court 
that the private seal of the clerk should be 
considered the seal of the county, and be af- 
fixed and recognized as such till a public seal 
could be procured. A committee was ap- 
pointed by the court to divide the county of 
Trumbull into townships ; their subsequent re- 
port describing the limits of the townships of 
Warren, Youngstown, Hudson, Vernon, Mid- 
dlefield, Richfield, Payneville, and Cleveland, 
was accepted. The court appointed Turhand 
Kirtland, John Kinsman and Calvin Austin, 
esquires, a committee to fix upon and provide 
some proper place for a temporary jail, until 
a public jail could be erected. This committee 
reported that the room in the southwest corner 
of the house of Ephraim Quimby, Esq., was a 
convenient and proper place for a temporary 
jail, and the report was so accepted by the 
court, and it was ordered accordingly. Cer- 
tain limits were also assigned, embracing land 
around the jail, and called "the liberties of the 
prison," within which a prisoner on good be- 
havior and his parole was allowed to walk. 
The court also appointed constables for the 
respective townships to serve "for the present 
year," James Hillman being appointed for the 
township of Youngstown. On motion of Judge 
Kirtland, the court ordered that Jonathan 
Fowler be recommended to the Governor of 
this territory as a fit person to keep a public 
house of entertainment in the town of Youngs- 
town, on his complying with the requisites of 
the law. A similar order, on motion of Mr. 
Edwards, was made out in favor of Ephraim 
Quinby, of the town of Warren. 

Benjamin Davison, Esq., Ephraim Quinby, 
Esq., John Bently, and John Lane were bound 
over in the penal sum of $200 each to appear 
before the next court of Oyer and Terminer 
"to testify the truth between the United States 
and Joseph McMahon on an indictment for 



murder; and also between the United States 
and Richard Storer on an indictment for 

The session ended with an order by the 
<:ourt "that tlie clerk be authorized to procure 
a public seal for the county of Trumbull, of 
such a size and with such device as he shall 
■deem proper, at the expense of the county." 


At the next session of court on the Reserve 
-it was "ordered by the court that the county 
of Trumbull be divided into districts for the 
purpose of carrying into effect the territorial 
tax upon land, and that each town (as the 
towns were established by the court in August 
last shall constitute one district, and that each 
•district shall bear the same name with the town 
which constitutes it," Calvin Pease, clerk. It 
was also "ordered by the court that the county 
of Trumbull be divided into two election dis- 
tricts; that the towns of Middlefield, Rich- 
field, Paynesville, and Cleveland shall consti- 
tute the northern division, and that the house 
■erected by Mr. Simon Perkins at the intersec- 
tion of Youngs road and the Lake road, be the 
place for holding elections in the northern dis- 
trict. And that the towns of Youngstown, War- 
ren, Hudson and Vernon shall constitute the 
southern district, and that the house of Eph- 
raim Ouinby, Esq., in Warren, shall be the 
place of election." C. Pease, clerk. 

"Ordered by the court that the sum of two 
dollars shall be paid out of the treasury of the 
county as a reward for each and every wild 
wolf, of the age of six months and upward, 
that shall be killed within this county, to the 
person killing the same; and the sum of one 
dollar for each and every wolf under six 
months, that shall be killed in this county, to 
the person killing the same; under the restric- 
tions and regulations of an act of this terri- 
tory entitled, 'An Act to Encourage the Kill- 
ing of Wolves.'" Calvin Pease, '^clerk. 

A committee composed of David Abbott, 
Samuel Woodruff, Uriel Holmes, jr.. and 
Simon Perkins, that bad been appointed to 
draft the plan of a jail, having made report, 

the said report was accepted, with a slight 
alteration by the court, and Mr. Simon Per- 
kins was appointed "to superintend of the 
building of said jail, and to carry into effect 
such contract as the court of Quarter Sessions 
shall make with any person or persons for the 
building thereof." 

Later sessions were held once or twice a 
year, though with no great regularity, and 
their transactions generally concerned the lay- 
ing out of roads and the trying of a few as- 
sault and battery cases, which are of no inter- 
est to the public. 


Mahoning county was organized in 1846, 
with Canfield as the county seat. In the act of 
incorporation it was stipulated that "the court 
of common pleas and supreme court of said 
county shall be holden at some convenient 
house in the town of Canfield until suitable 
county buildings shall be erected." The trus- 
tees of the Methodist Episcopal church tend- 
ered their building for the purpose, their offer 
being accepted. James Brownlee of Poland, 
James Wallace of Springfield, and Lemuel 
Brigham of Ellsworth, were designated by the 
legislature to act as associate justices until an 
election should be held. They convened for 
the first time March 16, 1846,' in the office of 
Elisha Whittlesey, in Canfield. Hon. Eben 
Newton, at that time presiding judge of the 
circuit, administered the oath of office. Henry 
J. Canfield was chosen clerk pro tern. Some 
probate business was disposed of, and the 
county was divided into four assessment dis- 
tricts, with Thomas McGilligen, James Mc- 
Clelland, Samuel H-ardman and Herman A. 
Doud as assessors. 

The first regular term of the court of Com- 
mon Pleas was held May 11, 1846, with Hon. 
Eben Newton of Canfield as presiilent judge, 
assisted by the associate justices before men- 
tioned. William Ferguson, of Y'oungstown, 
w-as prosecuting attorney, and James Powers, 
of Milton, sheriff. By request" of the sheriff. 
Ransford Percival and John C. Fitch were 
appointed his fleputies. There were nineteen 



cases on the docket when the court opened and 
thirty-seven when it adjourned at the end of 
the term, which lasted three days. No case 
was tried to a jury. There were some de- 
cisions affecting the partition and sale of real 
estate; one judgment was rendered on con- 
fession; eight wills were proved; eight guar- 
dians of minors appointed, and administrators 
appointed on eleven estates. The court ap- 
pointed Robert W.Tayler, James B. Blacksom 
and John M. Edwards master commissioners 
in chancery; Hiram A. Hall, John M. Ed- 
wards, and Reuben McMillen were appointed 
as school examiners, and John Kirk and An- 
drew as auctioneers. William W. 

Whittlesey, of Canfield, on the last day of the 
term, was elected clerk for five years, and gave 
bond in the sum of $10,000. 

The first term of court was an event of 
some importance in Canfield, and was largely 
attended, not only by lawyers from this and 
neighboring counties, but also by citizens from 
all parts of the county. The terms of court 
continued to be held in the Methodist church 
until the fall term of 1847, by which time the 
new court house, which had been erected by 
the citizens of Canfield, in accordance with the 
provisions of the Act of February 16, 1846, 
■was ready for occupancy. 

After the removal of the county seat to 
Youngstown in August, 1876, an account of 
which has been given in a previous chapter, 
the first term of the Court of Common Pleas 
was held in the new court house at that city. 
It commenced September 10, and adjourned 
December 19, 1876. Hon. Philip B. Conant 
of Ravena, was judge, Henry B. Shields, 
clerk; John R. Davis, sheriff; and Charles R. 
Truesdale, prosecuting attorney. There were 
722 cases on the docket when court opened, of 
which 674 were civil and 48 criminal. At the 
close of the term, including those disposed of, 
the number of civil cases was 953, criminal 
cases 135, total 1,058. 


Hon. George Tod. — The biographical his- 
torv of the Mahoning County bar begins nat- 

urally with George Tod, the pioneer lawyer 
of Youngstown. He was born in Suffield, 
Conn., December 11, 1773, son of David and 
Rachel (Kent) Todd. After graduating from 
Yale College in 1795, he taught school for a 
while at New Haven, Conn. He then read 
law at the law school of Judge Reeves, in 
Litchfield, Conn., and was subsequently ad- 
mitted to the bar. In October, 1797, he was 
married, at New Haven, Conn., to Miss Sally 
Isaacs, who was born in 1778, a daughter of 
Ralph and Mary Isaacs. Their two eldest 
children — Charlotte L. and Jonathan I. Tod — 
were there born. In 1801, after first making 
a preliminary visit, he removed with his wife 
and children to Youngstown, being the first 
lawyer to settle here, and one of the earliest 
on the Reserve. His talents were soon recog- 
nized. At the first territorial covul of Trum- 
bull county, held in August, 1800, at the time 
of his first visit, he was appointed prosecuting 
attorney, and took the oath of office. In that 
capacity, in September following, he appeared 
in behalf of the United States against Joseph 
McMahon, indicted for the murder of Cap- 
tain George, an Indian, at the Salt Springs, on 
the 20th of July preceding. In 1801 he was 
appointed by Governor St. Clair, territorial 
secretary. He was three times elected town- 
ship clerk — in 1802, 1803 and 1804. In 1804-5 
he was senator from Trumbull county in the 
state legislature, and again in 1810-11. In 
1806 he was elected judge of the supreme 
court of the state. In the war of 1812 he was 
commissioned major and afterwards colonel 
of the Nineteenth Regiment of Ohio militia, 
and served with distinction at Fort Meigs and 
Sackett's Harbor. In 181 5 he was elected 
president judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
o'f the old Third circuit, and held the office 
until 1829. He was subsequently elected 
prosecuting attorney of Trumbull county and 
held the office for one temi. His latter years 
were devoted to the care of his large farm, at 
Brier Hill, which afterwards became cele- 
brated for its deposit of fine mineral coal, de- 
veloped by his son David, who was Governor 
of Ohio, 1861-63. Mr. Tod died at Brier 
Hill, April 11, 1841, widely honored and re- 



spected. As a lawyer and judge he ranked 
among the first in the state. He was followed 
a few years later by his wife, who died at 
Brier Hill, September 29, 1847. 

Hon. Samuel Huntington was born in 
■Norwich, Connecticut, in 1765. He graduated 
from Yale College at the age of twenty years. 
He read law, was admitted to the bar, and 
practiced law for several years thereafter in 
his native town. In 1800 he made a visit to 
Ohio, reaching Youngstown on horseback, 
July 25th. He was so well pleased with the 
Reserve that he determined to settle here. Be- 
fore his return to Connecticut he visited Mari- 
etta, where, the territorial court being in ses- 
sion, he was admitted to the bar of Ohio. It 
is said that he was present with Governor St. 
Clair, as counsel, at the trial of Joseph 
McMahon for murder of Captain George, an 
Indian, though on which side or whether as 
advisory counsel to the Governor, is not 
kncwn. He returned to Norwich on horse- 
back in the fail. In the following spring- he 
came back to Youngstown, bringing with him 
his wife and family in a covered wagon. He 
remained but a year or two in Yougstown, 
after which he removed to Cleveland, Ohio. 
In 1801 he was appointed by Governor St. 
Clair, lieutenant-colonel of the Trumbull 
county militia, and in January, 1802, was 
commissioned a justice of the court of Quar- 
ter Sessions, of which he became the presiding 
officer. He was a member of the convention 
which formed the first constitution of Ohio, 
and on its adoption was elected Senator from 
Trumbull county, in the first General Assem- 
bly, which convened at Chillicothe, in Alarch, 
1803. On April 2, 1804, he was elected by the 
Legislature a judge of the Supreme Court, his 
commission, signed by Governor Tiffin, being 
the first issued in the name of the State of 
Ohio. He served one term of two years as 
Governor, being elected in 1808. He was in 
the State Legislature, as representative from 
Geauga county, in 1811-12. In the War of 
1812 he ser\-ed two years in the X^orthwestern 
army, as district paymaster, with the rank of 
_colonel. He died on his farm at Painesville, 


in February, 181 7. He was greatly respected 
as a man of large business capacity, and of. 
unsullied personal character. 

Homer Hine was born in New Milford, 
Conn., July 25, 1776, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. 
His great-grandfather, who was the founder 
of the family in this country, was one of the 
early settlers of Milford, Conn. James Hine, 
the grandfather of Homer, was born in Mil- 
ford in 1696, and removed in early manhoods 
to New Milford, where he married Margaret: 
Noble. He had two sons — Austin and Noble 
— and several daughters. The son. Noble, 
was a colonel of Connecticut militia in the 
Revolutionary war. He had three sons, in- 
cluding the subject of this sketch, and six 
daughters. The youngest daughter, Sophia,- 
became the wife of Rev. Charles A. Board- 
man, who was for man}- years pastor of the 
First Presbyterian church of Youngstown,. 

Homer Hine was graduated fruni Yale 
college in 1797. He had some distinguished 
classmates, among them being Rev. Dr. Ly- 
man Beecher, Horatio Seymour, United States 
Senator from Vermont, and Henry Baldwin,, 
judge of the United States Supreme Court. 
For a year after his graduation he was pre- 
ceptor of an academy at Stockbridge, ]\Iass., 
where he had for one of his pupils ]\Iiss Cath- 
erine Sedgwick, who subsequently became 
a noted authoress. During the same period he 
read law with her father, Judge Sedgwick. 
His law studies were continued in the follow- 
ing years with a Mr. Ruggles, of New Mil- 
ford, and subsequently he attended the law 
school of Judge Reeves and Gould at Litch- 
field. Conn. He was admitted to the bar in 
Litchfield in 1801. In June of the same year 
he removed to Canfield, Ohio, making the 
journey on borseback, and carrying his ward- 
robe in his saddlebags. In 1806 he came to 
Youngstown, where he continued to reside 
until his death at the age of eighty years, in 
July, 1856. He was engaged in the practice 
of law from the tinie he arrived on the Reserve 
until he had attained the age of sixtv years, 
after which he declined to engage in anv new 



cases. It was a common practice with Mr. 
Hine,, where practicable, to advise his cHents 
to settle, compromise, or arbitrate, though he 
often sacrificed his own interests by so doing. 
,He had compensation, however, in the ap- 
.proval of his own conscience, and also in the 
fact that his well known fairness and justice 
■often gave his arguments more weight with 
judge and jury, who placed the greater confi- 
dence in his statements on trial. He was four 
times elected to the office of representative 
in the Ohio legislature — in 1804, 1805, 1816 
and 1824. He served five years as non-resi- 
dent tax-collector, or until that office was abol- 
ished, about 1812. He was a soldier in the 
-War of 1 81 2 under Colonel William Rayen. 
In 1805 he was appointed, by the legislature, 
a commissioner to lay out a State road from 
Warren to such point on Lake Erie as, in his 
judgment, would make the most feasible route 
from Pittsburg to Lake Erie. The route he 
selected was one with a terminus at the mouth 
of Grand river, in Painsville township. Lake 
county, the ri\er at Fairport aflording the best 
natural harbor at that time on that part of 
Lake Erie. Mr. Hine was a regular attend- 
ant at the Presbyterisin church, and was fre- 
quently called upon, in the absence of a clergy- 
man, to read a sermon. He took an interest 
in all useful reforfns, and was especially active 
in the temperance cause for many years be- 
ing president of the Youngstown Temperance 
society. On removing to Youngstown, in 
1806. he bad purchased a frame house and 
two acres of land east of the Diamond, of 
Robert Kyle, the house being one of the first 
frame structures erected in the city. Here he 
dispensed a generous hospitality, and was par- 
ticularly fond of entertaining clergA-nren, on 
Avhich account his house was familiarly re- 
ferred to as "The Ministers' Tavern." 

He married, October 5, 1807, Miss Skin- 
ner, daughter of Abrabam Skinner, of Paines- 
ville, Ohio, and a native of Glastonbury, Conn. 
In 1818 they removed to a farm of no acres, 
which be had purchased, at the mouth of Crab 
Creek, and on which was a two-story frame 
dwelling built by Col. James Hillman, which 
bnd been occupied by him as a tavern. This 

house was for many years one of the land- 
marks of Youngstown. After the death of 
her husband, in 1856, Mrs. Hine resided in 
that homestead until 1872, when she went to 
live with a son at Painesville. She died at 
an advanced age, retaining to the last a lively 
interest in the welfare of her children and 

Hon. Calvin Pease, another pioneer lawyer 
of the Reserve, was born in Suffield, Hartford 
county. Conn., September g, 1776. Admitted 
to the bar in Hartford, in 1798, he practiced 
law in his native state until March, 1800, 
when he removed to Youngstown, Ohio, and * 
commenced practice here. He was the first 
postmaster of Youngstown, being appointed 
January i, 1802, and holding the office until 
he removed to Warren in 1803. He was for 
some time one of the township trustees of 
Youngstown. He was appointed clerk of the 
Court of Common Pleas of Trumbull county 
at \the first session in August, 1800. At 
the first session of the legislature after the 
admission of Ohio into the Federal Union, 
Mr. Pease, then only twenty-seven years of 
age, was elected president judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas, which was then the third 
circuit, and comprised the counties of Wash- 
ington, Belmont, Jefferson, Columbiana, and 
Trumbull. He abl}' served in this position un- 
til March 4, 18 10, wben he resigned. He was 
subsequently elected by the legislature one of 
the judges of the Supreme Court, and entered 
upon his duties in 1816. Here he was called 
upon to decide upon the constitutionality of 
some portions of an act of the legislature, 
passed in 1805, defining the duties of justices 
of the peace. His decision that such portions 
of the act were unconstitutional, though it 
was concurred in by a majority of the judges 
of the Supreme Court, caused great excite- 
ment among those who favored legislative su- 
premacy, and he and Judge Tod were im- 
peached. When brought before the Senate 
be maintained his right to make such a deci- 
sion, and to determine cases brought before 
him according to his conceptions of the law. 
.\fter an investigation lasting some days he 



was acquitted, it being fownd impossible to 
tibtain the necessary two-thirds vote for con- 
viction. The principles for which he stood 
were laid down long before by Lord Coke and 
other eminent judges in England, and are well 
recognized by lawyers and judges of today. 
His action in standing firm when he knew he 
was right, in spite of much personal abuse and 
unpopularity, will receive the commendation 
not only of every law student but also of every 
intelligent and fair-minded citizen. During 
■the War of 1812 with England Judge Pease 
Jield the important position of senator in the 
state legislature, the duties of which he per- 
formed with his usual ability and conscien- 
tiousness. He subsequently rendered good ser- 
vice in the legislature, to which he was elected 
in 1 83 1, by urging the construction of a new 
penitentiary and improving prison discipline. 
Judge Pease possessed a keen wit, which 
he exercised sometimes, though without in- 
tending any offense, to the embarrassment of 
the young lawyers in court. He died Septem- 
ber 17. 1839. leaving a family of five children. 
His wife, to whom he was married in 1804, 
was in maidenhood. Miss Laura G. Risley of 
Washington City. Judge Pease was a man of 
fine presence — full six feet in height and cor- 
pulent, with a face indicating strong character, 
softened by lines of kindness and humor. He 
was an ornament to the bar, and in private 
life a man of whom none could speak evil. 

Perlee Brush, another native of Connecti- 
cut, and a man oi considerable note in early 
days on the Reserve, was graduated at Yale 
College in 1793. He read law in Connecticut 
and was there admitted to the bar. After re- 
moving to Ohio he became a member of the 
Trumbull county bar. He resided for many 
years a( or near Youngstown. and practiced 
law in the justices' coitrts in the vicinity, and 
also to some extent in the higher courts at 
Warren. He was also, in all probability, the 
pioneer school teacher of Youngstown, having 
charge of the log school-house on the Dia- 
mond as early as 1806. He is said to have 
been still teaching school near Youngstown in 
1814. In 1826 he pureha.sed a farm of alwut 

100 acres of land in Hubbard, where he after- 
wards resided. A small stream flowed through 
his farm, on which there was an old-fashioned 
carding machine and fulling mill, which he 
operated for about a year. He does not seem 
to have married, as at this time he lived by 
himself, and boarded himself until his health 
began to fail, after which he took his meals at 
a neighbor's, still living at home. He is said 
to have been a fine scholar, well \-ersed in 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He died in 1852, 
at the age of eighty-four years. 

Elisha Whittlesey was born in Washing- 
ton, Litchfield county. Conn., October 19, 
1783, son of John and Mollie Whittlesey. He 
was a descendant of John Whittlesey, who 
emigrated from England to Saybrook, Conn., 
about 1630. In his youth he spent his sum- 
mers in working on his father's farm, and at- 
tended school in the winter. In 1803, at the 
ag"e of twenty years, he began to read law- with 
his brother, Matthew- B. Whittlesey, a lawyer 
of Danbury, Conn., with whom he had pre- 
viously resided. He was admitted to the bar 
at Fairfield, Conn., in March, 1805, and began 
practice at New Milford. On January 5, 
1806, he married Miss Polly Mygatt, a daugh- 
ter of Comfort S. Mygatt of Danbury. who 
afterwards removed to Canfield, Ohio. Prior 
to their marriag-e they had decided to emigrate 
to Canfield. Early in June, 1806, in company 
with other pioneers, they started on their jour- 
ney in a covered wagon. They came by way 
of Pittsburg, which at that time was an insig- 
nificant village, and arrived at Canfield on 
June 2/. 1806, ha\'ing been twenty-four days 
on the road. In the following August Mr. 
Whittlesey was admitted to the bar of Ohio by 
the Su])reme Court at \Varren. Sckiu after he 
became prosecuting attorney of the county 
which office he held until 1823, when he re- 
signed. In 1808 he was commissioned cap- 
tain of a military company in Canfield. Two 
years later General Elijah Wadsworth of the 
Fou"th Division. Ohio Militia, appointed him 
as his aide-de-camp, and in that capacity he 
entered the service of the I'nited States in 
the War of 1812 with Great P.ritain. He was 



afterwards appointed brigade-major and in- 
spector under General Perkins, and so re- 
mained until Fe1:)ruary 25, 1813, when the 
troops that had served six months or more 
were discharged. He continued in the service 
a few months longer as aid and private sec- 
retary to General Harrison, at the latter's own 
request. In 1820 and 1821 he was elected 
representati\'e in the state legislature. Be- 
ginning with 1822 he was elected eight times 
representative in Congress from the district 
composed of Trumbull, Portage, Geauga, and 
Ashtabula counties, making his congressional 
term about sixteen years. During a great 
part of this time he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on claims. From 1822 to 1841 he was 
engaged in the practice of law with Eben 
Newton, under the firm name of Whittlesey & 
Newton. The firm enjoyed a large practice 
and was widely and favorably known. This 
connection was interrupted by Mr. Whit- 
tlesey's appointment by President Harrison, in 
1841, as auditor of the treasury for the post- 
office department, which obliged him to take 
up his residence in ^^'ashington. In September, 
1843, he resigned the office of auditor, and re- 
turned to Canfield. and engaged in practicing 
law and other business. From 1847 to May, 
1849, l''^ ^^''^s general agent of the Washington 
Monument association, which office he resigned 
on being appointed by President Taylor, first 
comptroller of the treasury. He held this office 
through the Taylor and Fillmore administra- 
tions, resigning- on the election of President 
Pierce, to whom he was opposed in politics. 
President Pierce, however, so well understood 
his value, that in disregard of his political opin- 
ions, he urgently requested him to remain. 
This Mr. \\'hittlesey did, but resigned again 
for the same reason on the inauguration, his 
resignation being then accepted. In May, 
1 86 1, he was appointed to the same office by 
President Lincoln, and performed its arduous 
duties to the day of his death, January 7, 1863, 
being stricken do^^•n at his post in his office at 
Washington City. Said a Washington paper : 
"He was gifted with that admirable courage 
which never quailed before the seductive bland- 
ishments of wealth or the threatening impor- 

tance of power. He never hesitated to espouse 
the cause because it was weak. Strong com- 
binations by men of position to carry a point 
which he believed to be wrong had no terrors 
for him." At the time of his death he had es- 
tablished a national reputation for persever- 
ance, ability, and moral rectitude. 

Hon. Eben Newton was born in the town 
of Goshen, Litchfield county. Conn., October 
16, 1795. His parents were Isaac and Rebecca 
Newton, the lather a farmer, who died at 
Goshen. Airs. Rebecca Newton, who removed 
to Ohio in 1820, died at the home of her son 
in Canfield in 1833. Young- Eben's early edu- 
cation was acquired principally during the 
winter months in the schools of Goshen. In 
May, 1814, he emigrated to Portage county, 
Ohio, where for a while he worked on a farm. 
Subsequently, while a clerk in his brother's 
store, he began to read law in the office of 
Darius Lyman at Ravenna. After a short 
visit to Connecticut, in 1822, during which he 
continued his law studies, he returned to Ra- 
venna, where he read law with Jonathan Sloan. 
He was admitted to the bar at Warren, in 
August, 1823. and receiving an invitation from 
Elisha Whittlesey to enter into partnership 
with him, he consented, and removed to Can- 
field, which was subsequently his place of resi- 
dence until his death. The firm of Whittlesey 
& Newton continued for twenty years, fifteen 
years of which time Mr. Whittlesey was in 
congress. Their business extended all over 
the Reserve and into other parts of the state. 
In 1840 Mr. Newton was elected to the state 
'senate, and during his term he was elected 
president judge of the third judicial district, 
which office he filled with marked ability. He 
resigned the judgeship in 1846 and resumed 
his law practice. Elected to congress in 1850, 
he served two years, and then again resumed 
practice. In 1863 he was elected lor the sec- 
ond time to the state senate. Subsequently he 
took charge of the settlement of the Simeon 
Jennings estate, which involved much litiga- 
tion in many states, required extensive travel 
in this country and two visits to Europe, and 
occupied much of his attention for many years. 



He was also for a number of years president 
of the Ashtabula & New Lisbon Railroad Com- 
pany, later known as the Niles & New Lisbon, 
and it was largely owing to his exertions that 
it maintained its existence. He was greatly 
interested in farming and stock raising, and 
for several years was president of the Mahon- 
ing County Agricultural Society. While en- 
gaged in practicing law, before he entered 
congress, he had many law students, some of 
whom afterwards became noted lawyers, 
judges, and legislators, among the latter be- 
ing Senator Benjamin F. Wade and his brother 
Edward \Vade, Ralph P. Buckland and Joshua 
R. Giddings. Mr. Newton was married at 
Canfield on May 20, 1826, to Miss Mary S. 
Church, a native of that place, and daughter 
of Ensign Church, an early pioneer, who was 
a son of Nathaniel Church, one of the proprie- 
tors of the township. 

Hon. Robert W. Tayler was born in Har- 
risburg, Pennsylvania, November 9, 1812, son 
of James and Jane (Walker) Tayler. His 
parents removed with their family to Youngs- 
town in 181 5, where the father died in 1834. 
Mrs. Jane Tayler died ten years later. They 
were honest, industrious people, who gave 
their children a sound moral training and as 
good an education as they could afford, the 
father being a man of much reading and of 
more than ordinary intelligence. 

Robert W. Tayler, after teaching school 
for a while, became deputy to George Parsons, 
clerk of the courts of Trtunbull county, Ohio. 
He evinced his business ability in the summer 
of 1833, when he accompanied Calvin Cone, 
appraiser of real estate for taxation, as his 
secretary, through Trumbull county, his gen- 
eral aptitude, and the knowledge of real estate 
values which he displayed being considered 
remarkable for one so young. He subse- 
quently read law with Whittlesey & Newton, 
of Canfield, and was admitted to the bar at 
Warren, Ohio, in August, 1834, beginning 
practice at Youngstown. Here he continued 
in practice until i860, when he went to Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, to assume the duties of state 
auditor. He was afterwards in law partner- 

ship for a time with John Crowell, of Warren, 
and still later with William G. Moore, of 
Youngstown. Elected prosecuting attorney 
of Trumbull county in 1839, he held that office 
two years, ably performing its duties. On the 
organization of the ]\Lahoning County Bank 
at Youngstown, in 1850, at the earnest request 
of its directors, he became its cashier, continu- 
ing, however, in the practice of his profession. 
In 1855 he was elected state senator on the 
Republican ticket for the counties of Mahon- 
ing and Trumbull, and re-elected in 1857. His 
record while in the senate led to his nomina- 
tion by his party, almost without opposition, 
for the office of auditor of state, and he was 
elected in 1859, beginning the duties of the 
office in i860. "Upon the death of Elisha 
Whittlesey, his former legal preceptor, first 
comptroller of the United States treasury in 
1863, he was called by President Lincoln, at 
the suggestion of Salmon P. Chase, then sec- 
retary of the United States treasury, who 
knew his eminent fitness, to fill the vacancy in 
the office of first comptroller. For nearly fif- 
teen years he faithfully discharged the duties 
of that office and death found him at his post 
as the honest and incorruptible watchman of 
the treasury." He was stricken with paralysis at 
his desk in Washington, February 25, 1878, 
and lived only two hours. His funeral was 
one of the largest ever held in Youngstown. 

Mr. Tayler was first married March 24, 
1840, to Miss Louisa Maria, daughter of John 
E. W^oodbridge, of Youngstown. She died 
February 11, 1853. He married for his sec- 
ond wife, on January 12, 1854, Miss Rachel 
Kirtland ^^'ick, daughter of Colonel Caleb B. 
Wick, a son of Henry Wick, one of the early 
settlers of Youngstown. 

Hon. David Tod was born in Youngstown, 
Ohio, February 21, 1805. His parents, George 
and Sally (Isaacs) Tod, were early settlers 
on the Reserve, coming here from Connecti- 
cut. The father, Judge George Tod, a sketch 
of whom may be found elsev>here in this vol- 
ume, was a man of marked ability and high 
character, though not successful in accumulat- 
ing wealth. On this account, chietly. the early 


education of the subject of this sketch was Hm- 
ited to a term or two at the academy. He made 
the best use, however, of his facihties for the 
study of law, was admitted to the bar in 1827, 
and at the age of 22 years began practice in 
Warren. He was a successful lawyer, and his 
active practice covered a period of fifteen years. 
After the death of his father in 1841 he came 
into actual possession of the old Brier Hill 
farm near Youngstown, which he had really 
owned for some time, owing to the fact that, 
while yet a briefless barrister, he had, by the 
most strenuous efforts, and with the assistance 
of friends, saved it from falling into the hands 
of his father's creditors. This farm subse- 
quently became the source of great wealth to 
him owing to its large deposits of what was 
afterwards known as the famous Brier Hill 
coal. Mr. Tod gradually developed a market 
for this coal, which was greatly expanded on 
the introduction of raw coal blast furnaces, 
making the extensive deposits still more valu- 
able. Air. Tod also showed his business ability 
as a director in the Cleveland and Mahoning 
Railroad Company, his efforts being largely in- 
strumental in extracting it from a seriously 
embarrassed financial condition. 

Early in young manhood Mr. Tod became 
an ardent supporter of the Democratic party, 
and soon began to take an active part in poli- 
tics. He made a good stump orator, his clear- 
cut, pithy speeches appealing directly to the 
popular ear. In 1838 he was elected to the 
State Senate, running several hundred votes 
ahead of his ticket. During the campaign of 
1840 he rendered good service to his party, 
making speeches all over the state, and leaving 
everywhere a good impression. Nominated for 
the governorship in 1844, he cut down the 
majority of his Whig opponent, Mordecai 
Bartly, to one thousand, while Clay carried 
the state a month later by six thousand. In 
1847 Mr. Tod was tendered by President Polk, 
and accepted, the office of minister to Brazil. 
He remained in that country five years during 
which he negotiated some important commer- 
cial treaties, and was instrumental in settling 
a number of government claims of o\-er thirty 
years standing. On his farewell he was the 

subject of a highly complimentary address by 
the emperor. As vice-president of the con- 
vention which met at Baltimore in i860 to 
nominate a candidate for the Presidency, Mr. 
Tod took an important part in restoring order 
in the scene of confusion which ensued on the 
bolt by the southern delegates. Although fav- 
oring Douglas, he doubtless preferred the ■ 
election of Lincoln to the success of the Breck- 
enriclge wing of his own party. When the 
secession movement was started in the south- 
ern states Mr. Tod did all in his power to re- 
store peace; but after treason had thrown off 
the last disguise and the giuis of Fort Sumter 
had sounded a challenge to every loyal Union 
man, his voice was heard among the first in 
arousing his patriotic neighbors to action. The 
first company of troops organized at Youngs- 
town, a company of the Ninteenth Ohio Vol- 
unteer Infantr)', was recruited largely at his 
expense, and before leaving for camp, each 
member received from him, as a present, an 
army overcoat. These coats were known in 
the service as "Tod coats," and some of them 
were brought home after four years' service. 
In 1 861 Mr. Tod obtained the nomina- 
tion of the Republican party for the Governor- 
ship, and was elected by a majority of about 
fifty-five thousand. He made an efficient war 
Governor, aiding the soldiers in the field by 
every means in his power, and being particu- 
larly active in suppressing sedition. He was 
heartily in favor of the arrest of Vallandig- 
ham in 1863, for which he became the special 
object of hatred on the part of the anti-waf 
element of the Democratic party, and a favor- 
ite target for their abuse. Owing to the con- 
dition of politics in the state it was deemed 
advisable by the Republicans, in 1864, to bring 
out a new man, and John Brough was accord- 
ingly nominated. Although somewhat disap- 
pointed, the governor gave his cordial sup- 
port to the nominee. Retiring from office in 
January, 1864, he retired to his farm at Brier 
Hill, and thereafter devoted his chief attention 
to business affairs, though continuing to re- 
tain an active interest in politics. His death 
occurred on November 13, 1868, and caused 
wide-spread sorrow and regret among all who 


knew liim for what he was — a man of sterling- 
worth and unsuHieil i)atriotisin. 

Henry J. Cantield was a native of Connecti- 
cut, and son of Judson Canfield, a lawyer, 
and one of the proprietors of the township of 
Canfield, Ohio, to which he gave his name. 
Henry J. was graduated at Yale College in 
1806, read law with Judge Reeve, of Litchfield, 
Connecticut, and was admitted to the bar in 
Connecticut. Shortly afterwards he came to 
Canfield to take charge of his father's lands. 
Being admitted to the bar of Ohio, at Warren, 
he gave some attention to practice, but was 
chieljy engeged in farming, land-surveying 
and sheep-raising. He was the author of a 
highly-prized work on sheep. At the first spe- 
cial court held in Mahonjng county, after its 
organization in 1846, he was appointed clerk 
pro tem of the court of Common Pleas, which 
office he held until the first regular term of 
court held May nth, that year, when the 
clerk for the full term was appointed. He died 
in Canfield in 1856, respected as one of the 
old and useful residents of the township. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Hoffman was born in 
Chester county, Pennsylvania, January 25, 
1812, son of Joseph and Catherine (Stitcler) 
Hoffman. He was educated in his native state, 
and removed with his parents to Trumbull 
county, Ohio, in 1833. After having read law 
with Hon. David Tod, at Warren, for two 
years, he attended for six months the Cincin- 
nati Law School, conducted by Wright, Ben- 
ham & Walker. Here he was graduated in 
1836 as bachelor of law, and was at once ad- 
mitted to the bar by the Supreme Court at Cin- 
cinnati. Returning to Warren, he practiced 
law there for several years as a member of the 
firm of Tod, Hoffman & Hutchins. From 
October, 1838, to June, 1841, he was post- 
master at Warren. Mr. Tod removing to Brier 
Hill in 1844, and soon after retiring from 
practice, and Mr. Hutchins being elected to the 
legislature in 1849, ^^^- Hoffman carried on 
the law business by himself until 1853, when 
Col. R. W. Ratliff became his partner. In 
October. 1856, he was elected judge of the 

Common Pleas court for the second sub-divi- ■ 
sion of the Ninth judicial district, and served 
in that capacity five years. In 1861 Mr. Hoff- 
man became private secretary to Governor 
David Tod, and accompanied him to Colum- 
bus, where he capably performed the arduous 
duties which devolved upon him during the 
first two years of the Civil War. In 1865,, 
though a resident of Warren, he opened a law 
ofiice in Youngstown, where he resumed the 
practice of his profession; in 1870 he removed 
to this city. 

Mr. Hoffman was first married, in Decem- 
ber, 1837, to Elizabeth H. Cleveland, daugh- 
ter of Dr. John Cleveland, formerly of Rut- 
land, Vermont. She died in 1869, leaving two 
children, both of whom are long since deceased. 
In 1870 Mr. Hoffman married, for his second 
wife, Mrs. Alice W. Hezlep, of which union 
there was one daughter, born in 1877. Origin- 
ally a Democrat, Mr. Hoffman, as early as 
1841, become interested in the Abolition move- 
ment, and subsequently became a firm cham- 
pion of the cause at a time when it took some 
courage to express Abolition sentiments. Some 
years ago he removed with his family to Cali- 
fornia, of which state he is still a resident, 
having now attained the ripe age of ninety-five 

John AI. Edwards was born in New Haven, 
Connecticut, October 23, 1805, son of Henry 
W. and Lydia (Miller) Edwards. His pater- 
nat grandfather was Judge Pierrepont Ed- 
w-ards, one of the original proprietors of the 
Western Reserve, and a great-grandson of 
Jonathan Edwards, the noted divine and early 
president of Princeton College. On his mo- 
ther's side he was of English descent, the ma- 
ternal grandfather John ]\liller, being a native 
of London, and a sea-captain, who settled in 
America prior to the Revolutionary War. 

John IM. Edwards was graduated at Yale 
College in the class of 1824. He read law with 
Judge Bristol at New Haven, was there ad- 
mitted to the bar of Connecticut in 1826. and 
to the bar of the Circuit Court of the United 
States in 1828. After practicing law for a few 
years in New Haven, he remo\cd in 1832, to 


Ohio, at first settling in Youngstown. Here, 
Tiowever, at this time, he remained but a few 
months, soon removing to the north part of 
Trumbull count\, where he engaged in other 
than law business. He was admitted to the 
tar of Ohio by the supreme court August 30, 
1838, at Warren, and soon after began practice 
there. For a number of years, beginning with 
1840, he was engaged also in editing the 
TrniiibuU Democrat, a weekly newspaper. In 

1 84 1 he was appointed by the United States 
district court commissioner of bankrupts for 
Trumbull county, which office he held until 
the repeal of the bankrupt law. Nominated in 

1842 by a Democratic convention as represen- 
tative in congress from the old Nineteenth dis- 
trict, to fill the vacancy caused by the resigna- 
tion of Hon. Joshua R. Giddings, he largely 
•cut down the usual Whig majority. About 

1843 li^ ^^'^s appointed by the court of com- 
mon pleas school examiner for Trumbull 
•county, and held the ofifice for three years, or 

imtil his removal from the county. About 
1 841 he was elected and commissioned captain 
•of militia under the old military system. Re- 
moving to Canfield on the organization of 
Mahoning county in 1847, he practiced law 
there until 1864, when he removed his office 
to Youngstown, where in 1868 he also came 
to reside. At the first term of the court of 
Common Pleas he was appointed school exam- 
iner for Mahoning county for three years, and 
subsequently held that office by successive re- 
appointments until his removal to Youngstown. 
Shortly after his removal to Canfield. in 
1846, he became editor and one of the publish- 
ers of the Mahoning Index the first news- 
paper published in Mahoning county, and con- 
tinued as such for several years. From that 
time on he was intimately connected as editor, 
correspondent, or contributor, with newspapers 
in Warren, Canfield, Youngstown, and Cleve- 
land. During the 1864- 1865 session of the 
Ohio legislature he was one of the clerks of 
the Senate. From 1869 to 1878 he served sev- 
eral terms as justice of the peace of Youngs- 
town township. He was one of the founders of 
the Mahoning Valley Historical Society in 
1874, and was editor with William Powers of 

the interesting volume of Historical Collec- 
tions published by the society in 1876. As 
journalist and historian he performed a use- 
ful work in rescuing from oblivion many in- 
teresting reminiscences of pioneer days while 
some of the early settlers were still alive, and 
in preserving the biographies of many of the 

Mr. Edwards was married, July 14, 1842, 
at Warren, Ohio, to Miss Mary P., daughter 
of Joseph Crail. Mrs. Edwards was a talented 
amateur artist. She died at Youngstown, May 
15, 1877, leaving three children, of whom 
Henrietta Frances married Stanley M. Caspar 
of Youngstown, and Henry W. became a mer- 
chant in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

David AI. ^^'ilson was born in Guilford, 
Medina county, Ohio, July 21, 1822, son of 
David and Abigail (Porter) Wilson. His 
grandfathers were Revolutionary soldiers. He 
was educated in the common schools, and at 
Norfolk seminary, and taught school for one 
term. He read law with Hiram Floyd, at Me- 
dina, Ohio, and was there admitted to practice 
in 1844. In the following year he removed to 
Warren, Ohio, whence on the organization of 
Mahoning county, in 1846, he removed to 
Canfield, where he commenced practice. For 
a few years he was a partner of John W., after- 
wards Judge Church, the style of the firm be- 
ing Wilson & Church. In 1858 he removed to 
Youngstown, where he was successively the 
partner of James B. Blocksom, Robert G. 
Knight, Halsey H. Moses, and James P. Wil- 
son, his nephew. In 1863 he was nominated 
for attorney-general of Ohio, and in 1874 for 
representative in Congress, each time on the 
Democratic ticket ; though not elected in either 
case, his personal popularity caused him to run 
ahead of his ticket. He first married Miss 
Nancy Merrill, a native of Orangeville, New 
york. She died in 1851. He married for his 
second wife, in 1871, Miss Griselda Campbell, 
of Trumbull county, Ohio. Mr. Wilson died 
February 11, 1882, at Youngstown. 

William G. Moore was born at Freedom, 
Beaver county, Pennsyhania, January 7, 1822. 



His parents, Edwin and Mary A. Moore, were 
natives of county Leitrim, Ireland, and emi- 
grated to the United States in 1829, settling 
in Youngstown a few years later. Mr. Moore 
began the study of law in the office of John 
Crowell, at Warren, Ohio, and continued it 
with Robert \\\ Tayler, of Youngstown. He 
was admitted to the bar by the supreme court 
in 1847, and to the bar of the supreme court 
of the United States in 1854. He began the 
parctice of law at Youngstown, in 1847, as 
partner of \h. Tayler, and was afterwards 
a partner of Gen. Thomas W. Sanderson, 
which continued until Mr. Sanderson joined 
the army in 1861. He was afterwards in part- 
nership for a time with William C. Bunts, and 
still later with William J. Lawthers. He was 
elected mayor of Youngstown in April, 1854, 
and re-elected in 1856. In 1869 he was elected 
prosecuting attorney of Mahoning county, and 
served two years. He was married March 18, 
1852, to Miss Lura A. Andrews, a native of 
Vienna, Trumbull county, Ohio, whose father, 
Norman Andrews, was an early settler of that 
county, but later a resident of Youngstown. 

Gen. Th<imas W. Sanderson was born in 
Indiana, Indiana county, Pennsylvania, Octo- 
ber 17, 1829. His father, Matthew D. Sander- 
son, was of Scotch descent. His mother, Mary 
(Wakefield) Sanderson, was the daughter of 
Thomas \\^akefield, who was born in Armagh, 

Matthew D. Sanderson, in 1834. removed 
with his family to Youngstown. Ohio, where 
he continued the business of farming. He died 
in 1864. 

Thomas W. Sanderson acquired his pre- 
liminary education in the schools of Youngs- 
town. He read law with William Ferguson 
at Youngstown, and was admitted to the bar 
by the district court at Canfield in August, 
1^52. While reading law ha spent a part of 
the time in land surveying and civil engineer- 
ing, and for a period after his admission to the 
l:ar he followed the profession of civil engineer. 
In 1854 he commenced the practice of law r/i 
Youngstown in co-partnership with his brotli- 
«r-in-law, Frank E. Hutchins, under the stvie 

of Hutchins & Sanderson, which partnership 
was continued for several years. In 1856 he 
was elected prosecuting attorney of Mahoning 
county, and served one term. In 1861 he aban- 
doned for a time the practice of law and en- 
tered the United States army as lieutenant and 
adjutant of the Second Ohio volunteer cavalry 
He remained in the service over four years, 
passing through the several grades of promo- 
tion, and in 1864 was made brigadier-genera! 
for gallantry in action. A more detailed ac- 
count of his army record may be found in a 
biographical sketch of the General which ap- 
pears elsewhere in this volume. On leaving 
the army he returned to the practice of law in 
Youngstown, which he has followed up to a 
vei-y recent date, but is now practically retired. 
He has never sought but always refused politi- 
cal ofiice, but in 1872 was a delegate-at-large 
from the State of Ohio in the National Repub- 
lican convention which nominated General 
Grant for re-election as president. General 
Sanderson was married December 19, 1854, 
to Miss Elizabeth Shoemaker, of Mercer, Penn- 
sylvania, a member of one of the oldest fam- 
ilies of that state. 

Asahel W. Jones was born at Johnstonville, 
Trumbull county, Ohio. September 18, 1838. 
His paternal grandfather and great-grand- 
father were early settlers in Trumbull county, 
removing there from Burkhamstead, Connec- 
ticut, in 1 80 1, and erecting the second cabin 
in the township. William P. Jones, father of 
Asahel, was born in Hartford. Trumbull 
county. Ohio, July 11. 1814. He married 
Mary J. Bond, a native of Avon Springs, N. 
Y'., who emigrated to Hartford in 1833. at 
the age of seventeen years. She died in 
Youngstown, in March 1882. The subject of 
this sketch, after reading law with Curtis & 
Smith, at Warren. Ohio, was there admitted 
to the bar September 27. 1859. He practiced 
there a few years and then, in 1864. removed 
to Youngstown. where he was in partnership 
at different times with H. B. Case. Gen. T. W. 
Sanderson. R. B. Murray. W. S. .Anderson, 
and \\'. y. Terrell, for many years while thus 
connected he did a large amount of railroad 



and corporation law business. He was twice 
prosecuting attorney, being first appointed, on 
the death of Henr}- G. Leslie, in 1868, as his 
successor, an., the second time by election. He 
was also judg^e advocate general of Ohio for 
two terms. In 1874 he was active in the organ- 
ization of the Second National Bank of 
Youngstown, and for many years subsec^uently 
was one of its directors. In 1878 he became 
a director in the Brown, Bonnell & Co.'s manu- 
facturing concern, which is now included in the 
Republic Iron & Steel corporation. He was a 
delegate, with Judge Tripp, from the Seven- 
teenth Ohio Congressional district, to the Re- 
publican National Convention held in Chicago 
in 1880. He also served two terms as lieuten- 
ant-governor. About a year ago Mr. Jones re- 
tired from the practice of law and removed to 
Berg Hill, Trumbull county, Ohio, where he 
now resides, engaged in farming. He was 
married, September 24, 1861, to Miss Annette 
J. Palmer, who was born at Kingsville, Ash- 
tabula county, Ohio, June 23, 1840. He after- 
wards married Miss Louisa Brice of Oberlin, 

Hon. Laurin D. Woodworth was born in 
Windham, Portage county, Ohio, September 
10, 1837. His father was William Wood- 
worth, a substantial and highly respected far- 
mer. His literary education was acquired at 
Windham Academy and at Hiram College. He 
read law in the office of O. P. Brown, in 
Ravenna, Ohio, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1859. After pursuing further studies at the 
Ohio State and L^nion Law College at Cleve- 
land, he formed a partnership with Mr. Brown, 
which continued until the fail of 1861. In 1862 
he was appointed major of the One Hundred 
and Fourth regiment, Ohio infantry volunteers, 
which was ordered to Kentucky and was there 
engaged for some ten months in carrying on 
a guerrilla warfare. He was soon after obliged 
to resign on account of ill health which had 
been brought on by the hardships and exposure 
incidental to the service, and the next two 
years were spent in traveling, under medical 
advice, in an endeavor to recover his health. 
Having lost the use of his right eye, he was 

rejected on his attempting to re-enter the serv- 
ice. About 1865 he removed to Youngstown 
and resumed the practice of law. In October, 
1867, he was elected State Senator for the 
Mahoning and Trumbull district, and being 
re-elected in 1869, was chosen president pro- 
tem of the Senate. At the close of his second 
term he declined a renomination and resumed 
his law practice. In October, 1872, he was elec- 
ted representative in Congress from the Seven- 
teenth Ohio district, and was re-elected in 
1874. At the expiration of his second term he 
resumed the practice of law in Youngstown. 
He died in March, 1896. Mr. Woodworth 
was married, October 6, 1869, to Miss Ceiia 
Clark, of Windham, Ohio. 

Halsey H. Moses was born July 12, 1830, 
in Morgan, Ashtabula county, Ohio, to which 
place his parents, Jonathan and Abigail (Plum- 
ley) Moses, came in 1841 from Norfolk, Litch- 
field county, Connecticut. After attending the 
Grand River Institute, he read law with C. 
L. Tinker, of Painesville, and was admitted 
to the bar at Jefferson, Ohio, in August, 1861. 
He practiced for a few years in Ashtabula 
county, and then removed to Warren, Ohio, 
where he Avas a partner successively of Mat- 
thew Birchard, Ira L. Fuller, and of General 
Robert W. Ratliff. In 1872 he came to Youngs- 
town, though still retaining his law practice 
in the firm of Ratliff & Moses. In 1877 he be- 
came a partner of George F. Arrel in the firm 
of Moses & Arrel, and so continued until Mr. 
Arrel became judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, after which he practiced for some time 
alone and also in partnership with Cecil D. 
Hine. Subsequently he retired from the prac- 
tice of law, and went to Nebraska, of which 
state he is still a resident, being engaged in 
farming. He married, in 1852, Miss Mary L. 
Murdock, a native of Mesopotamia, Trumbull 
county, Ohio. 

Leroy D. Thoman was born in Salem, Co- 
lumbiana county, Ohio, July 31, 1851, son of 
Jacob S. Thoman. His parents were early set- 
tlers in Spring-field township, Mahoning coun- 
ty, Ohio. His mother, who was a daughter of 



Rev. Henrv Soniiedecker, was born in Woos- 
ter, Wayne county. Oliio. and accompanied 
her parents to Springfield in 1827. After a 
preliminan,' education obtained in the common 
scliools, with one year at an academy, Leroy 
D. Thoman read law with Joseph H. Adair, 
of Columbia City, Indiana, and was admitted 
to the bar there August 13, 1872, and to the 
bar of Ohio, in Mahoning county, in Septem- 
ber, 1S73. He was deputy prosecuting attorney 
of the Ninth judicial district of Indiana from 
August 14, 1872, until February, 1873. He 
then resigned and removed to Youngstown, 
where he formed a law partnership with Isaac 
A. Justice. In October, 1875, he was elected 
probate judge of Mahoning county, and re- 
elected to that office in 1878. After serving 
two terms he declined to be again a candidate, 
and resumed the practice of law. He also be- 
came connected with the Vindicator Publish- 
ing Co. as editor and part proprietor, in which 
he is still interested. A few years ago he re- 
moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he is now 
engaged in the practice of law. His wife, who 
in maidenhood was ]\Iiss Mary- E. Cripps, of 
Youngstown. whom he married March 29. 
1876, died December 4, 1876. 

Isaac A. Justice was born in Austintown, 
Mahoning county, Ohio, March 16, 1837. His 
parents, John and Nancy (Sexton) Justice, 
were natives of Washington county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and pioneers of Mahoning county, Ohio, 
coming here when quite young. They both 
died at Austintown in 1881, after sixty years 
of happy and prosperous married life. 

Their son Isaac was educated at the Ma- 
honing Academy, in Canfield, his winters from 
1856 to i860 being spent in teaching school. 
After reading law with S. W. Gilson, Esq., at 
Canfield, he was admitted to the bar there in 
the fall of 1867. Soon after he entered into 
a partnership with Mr. Gilson, which was con- 
tinued for some time. In 1872 he removed to 
Youngstown, where he was engaged in the 
practice of law until his death, which took 
place April 15, 1900. "In October, 1873, ^"d 
■during the contest for the removal of the 

c<iunty seat to Youngstown, he was elected on 
what was called the 'removal ticket,' prosecut- 
ing attorney and held the office for one term 
commencing January 7, 1874, and terminating 
Januan,' 7, 1876." He was subsequently ten- 
dered the office of school examiner of Mahon- 
ing county, but declined because of want of 
time to perform the duties of the office. In 
the late 70's he began to take an earnest inter- 
est in the temperance movement, and devoted 
considerable time to lecturing and otherwise 
advancing the cause. He was for some time 
president of the Ohio Christian Temperance 
Union, and was a prominent member of sev- 
eral fraternal societies. In 1892-3 he was city 
solicitor, being appointed by Mayor E. H. 
Moore. On the election of W. T. Gibson as 
prosecuting attorney in 1899 he again became 
city solicitor and served in that office until his 

He was married in i860 to Miss Dorcas 
Hitchcock, of Canfield, a class-mate of his at 
the academy. 

She died in December, 1870, leaving two 
children. In 1871 he married for his second 
wife Miss Helen A. Warner, of Lorain county, 
Ohio, another class-mate. She died in 188 1, 
after having been the mother of four children. 

Walter L. Campbell was born in Salem, 
Columbiana county, Ohio, November 13, 1842, 
a son of John and Rebecca P. (Snodgrass) 
Campbell. When about five years old, an ac- 
cidental injury to one of his eyes resulted in 
a total loss of sight. From his ninth to his 
sixteenth year he was an inmate of the Ohio 
institute for the blind, at Columbus. Here, 
besides gaining a high standing in the ordinary 
branches taught, he became proficient on the 
organ. After leaving the institute he taught 
music for nearly a year, and then, for the pur- 
pose of perfecting his musical education, spent 
five months at the Pennsylvania Institute for 
the Blind, at Philadelphia. He next entered 
the Salem, Ohio, High school, in order to pre- 
pare for college. He entered Western Reserve- 
College, at Hudson, Ohio, in 1863, and was 
graduated in 1867, standing second in his^ 



class, and delivering the salutatory oration. 
During his freshman year he took the prize 
for the best written translation, in Latin. In 
his sophomore year he took the prize for best 
English written composition, and at the jun- 
ior exhibition delivered the philosophical ora- 
tion. He commenced the study of law with 
Judge Ambler, of Salem, with whom he re- 
mained for a year, and then spent one year at 
the law school of Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. He was admitted to 
the bar of Massachusetts, by the supreme court, 
at Boston, June 17, 1869. Soon after he went 
to Wyoming- territo^)^ which was just then 
organizing, and of which his brother had been 
appointed governor. He received the appoint- 
ment of United States commissioner, and spent 
some time in the territory engaged in the prac- 
tice of lav,'. Returning subsequently to Ohio, 
he was admitted to the bar at Warren, in May, 
1873. A year later, not having engaged in 
practice in Ohio, he purchased an interest in 
in the Malioning Register, of Youngstown, 
and was the editor of that paper, and of other 
papers which grew out of it, and with which 
it was consolidated, until January, 1882. He 
then resumed the practice of law. and contin- 
ued it up to the time of his death, which oc- 
curred in Youngstown early in 1905. For a 
number of years Mr. Campbell was organist 
of the First Presbyterian Church of Youngs- 
town. He had a remarkable memory, which 
enabled him, after listening, to correctly re- 
port law testimony, political speeches, etc., 
which he frequently dictated or reproduced on 
the typewriter. This faculty was of great serv- 
ice to him in his editorial' career. Although 
totally blind, he was able unattended, and with 
the aid only of his cane, to visit all parts of 
the city, turning corners, crossing streets, and 
entering doors without hesitation or mistake; 
and also to make railroad journeys, visiting 
other cities, and finding his way about with 
ease and facility, as though he had full pos- 
session of his eyesight. He was married, at 
Youngstown, April 4, 1877, to Miss Helen 
C. LaGourge, a former resident of Cle\'eland. 
He left two children, a son Allen, now a mem- 
ber of the bar of New York City. 

Monroe W. Johnson was born in Pymatun- 
ing township, Mercer county, Pennsylvania, 
June 28, 1840, son of William and Hannah 
(Harris) Johnson. He was educated at West- 
minster College, Lawrence county, Pennsyl- 
vania. At the opening of the Civil War, be- 
ing- then a voung man of twenty, he enlisted in 
Company E, Twenty-third Ohio Volunteers, 
President Hayes' regiment, and served three 
years, taking part in the battles of Carnifax 
Ferry, South Mountain, and Antietam. Being 
severely wounded in the last-named engage- 
ment he was subsequently discharged for dis- 
ability. After recovering in part from his 
wound he re-entered the service and went in- 
to the quartermaster's department, and parti- 
cipated in the battle of Gettysburg. In 1867 
he came to Lowellville, Alahoning county, 
Ohio. He read law with T. W^ Sanderson at 
Youngstown, and was admitted to the bar at 
Canfield in 1868. He then began the practice 
of law in Youngstown, and so continued until 
his death, which occurred only a few years 
ago. From 1878 to 1882 he was prosecuting 
attorney of Mahoning- county. He was mar- 
ried in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in September, 
1869, to Henrietta Book, who was born in 
Poland, Ohio, in 1869. She was a daughter 
of John Book, a merchant and prominent anti- 
slavery man during the period of Abolition 
agitation. She was herself warmly interested 
in the same cause, and was a teacher of colored 
people at Fortress Monroe during the war. 
He left one child, Henrietta, now the wife of