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J . ' 

Washington and Washington 


, AND 

Representative Citizens 


Joseph f. McFarland 




F. I. RICHMOND. Pres.: C. R. ARNOLD. Sec'y and Trkas. 

■ c0<\. 



The aim of the publishers of this volume and 'of the author of the history has been to secure 
for the historical portion thereof full and accurate data respecting the history of the county from 
the time of its early settlement, and to condense it into a clear and interesting narrative. All topics 
and occurrences have been included that were essential to this object. 

.The reviews of resolute and strenuous lives that make up the biographical part of the volume, 
and the authorship of which is, for the most part, independent of that of the history, are admir- 
ably calculated to foster local ties, to inculcate patriotism, and to emphasize the rewards of 
industry dominated by intelligent purpose. T hey constitute a most appropriate medium for per- 
petuating personal annals, and will be of incalculable value to the descendants of those commem- 
orated. These sketches are replete with stirring incidents and intense experiences, and are flavored 
with a strong human interest that will naturally prove to a large portion of the readers of the book its 
most attractive feature. In the aggregate of personal memoirs thus collected will be found a viv ' 
epitome of the growth of Washington County, which will fitly supplement the historical state-', ne 
for its development is identified with the men and women to whom it is attributable. Sketches unre- 
vised by subscribers are indicated by a small asterisk, placed after the name of the subject. 

Special prominence has been given to the portraits of representative citizens which appear 
throughout the volume, and we believe that they will prove not its least interesting feature. We 
have sought in this department to illustrate the different spheres of industrial and professional 
achievement as conspicuously as possible. 

The publishers have endeavored to avoid slighting any part of the work, to fittingly supple- 
ment the editor’s labors by exercising care over the minutest details of publication, and to give to 
the volume the three-fold value of a readable narrative, a useful work of reference, and a tastefi 
ornament to the library. We believe the result has justified the care thus exercised. 

In preparing the historical part of the work the editor has relied upon facts stated in previo’ 
historical and biographical works pertaining to this county, Fayette, and Westmoreland, and to t 
following books and histories, among others: The histories of Beaver County, by Bausman; A 1 

gheny County, by Warner & Co. ; and Old Westmoreland County, by Ilassler; Washington County 
Biographies, by Beers & Co. ; Washington and the West, by Hurlburt ; The Scotch-Irish in America, 
by Dinsmore ; Canonsburg, by Ewing ; The Sherrard Family, by Thos. J. Sherrard ; Steubenville 
Association, by M. A. Cooper; Monongahela City Anniversary; Monongahela City Old Home 
Week; Recollections of Seventy Years, by Jennings; Presbyterianism, by Hays; and History of the 
Presbyterv of Washington. Among those who assisted with material and otherwise are John \V . 
Boileau, Hon. E. F. Acheson, Hon. C. E. Crothers, Frank R. Hall, L. W. Morgan, M. Riddle Allen, 
Isaac Yohe, James E. Barnett, and editors of papers throughout the county who furnished special 
or industrial issues of their publications. 


Chicago, March, 1910. 



Genesis of the County 2 7 


Discovery and Settlement . 3 2 


Events of 1763-1768 39 


Events to 1769 44 


From 1768 to 1773 i u : 50 


Conflicting Claims of Pennsylvania and Virginia 56 


The Jurisdictional Conflict Continued 65 


Events of 1776-1780 74 


Events of 1781-1782 82 


From 1783 to 1795 97 


Development of. the County 116 


Wars After the Whiskey Insurrection T32 


Political and Legal History ■ 146 


Religious History. . . . 164 


Religious History (continued) i 178 





Religious History (Book of Mormon) 183 


Educational History 19° 


Public Buildings, Improvements and County Organizations , f 208 


Internal Improvements 214 


Geology 2 35 


Oil and Gas 2 3§ 


Coal v 247 


Banks and Banking / 2 5^ 


Indian Mounds. : 2( M 


History of Townships 2 7 2 ~ 35 ° 


History of the Boroughs and Monongahela City 374-5 1 ' 1 

Representative Citizens 537 



Abolitionists 129 

Academies, early 97 

Acheson, Judge Alex. W 153 

Acheson, Gen. Tlios 181 

Addison, Alex. Judge 152 

Addison. Judge, opposes excise law 194 

Additional law judge* 156 

“Advance” newspaper 494 

Aggression of whites against the Indians 75 

Agnew, Hon. Daniel, his remarks on land titles.. 50 

Agnew, Samuel: 

Fined as rioter, represents Washington County 

in legislature 103 

Agriculture, condition of in early days 119 

Agricultural societies 125 

Allensport & lloseoe Street Railway 228 

Allen Township: 

Erection of and boundaries 272 

Voters and taxables 272 

Geology of 272 

Roads 272 

Early settlers 272 

Schools .. 272 

Railways and towns 273 

Churches and societies. 273 

Industries, etc 273 

Alexander & Co.’s bank. Honor 520 

Allegheny County established 101 

Allenport 273 

American Steel and Wire Company 432 

Amity I 274 

Amity gas field 244 

Amity quadrangle 240 

Ainwell Township: 

Erection and boundaries \ 273 

Towns 274 

Early settlers . , 274 

Industries 274 

Churches and societies. 274 

Public roads 277 

Anderson's Company, Capt., muster toll 133 

Anderson station _ 343 

Annual musters f 118 

Anti-Federal sentiment 146 

Anti-Masonic excitement 147 

Anton’s Lamp Factory 523 

Arden Milling Company 1 , 296 

Automobiles introduced 117 

Arden station 296 

Articles of Federation adopted 31 

-Asiatic cholera 118 

Attorneys, famous 152 

Associate judges 156 

Assistant district attorneys 157 

Attorneys, roll of 161 

Atwater, Caleb, his rare book 312 

Aubrey Planing Mills. 508 

Augusta County: 

Organized 65 

Its limits 65 

First court meets 65 

Augusta Town: 

Jail built at 70 

Site of 70 

Auld House 463 

Avella village 326, 327 


Baird ' 

Baird, Judge Thos. H 

Banditti terrify pioneer settlers. 

Bank directory 261, 

Bank dividends 

Bank of Coal Center 

Bank of Donora 

Bank of Washington 

Bank statements for 1908 

Bank stock values 

Banks and banking 

Baptist church 

Baptist doctrine 

Bar association 

Barclay’s Tavern 


Beasontown (Unioutown) visited by Washington. 

Bellevernon gas field 

Bcallsville Borough : 

Origin and situation 

Population and taxables 

Gas ana coal 

Early taverns ’ 

Industries and public service 

Schools and churches 


Beaver Refining Company 

Bedford County, erection of 

Beham village 

Bell, Sammy 

Bentley ville Borough: 

Origin and situation 



























Tax valuation 375 

Population '375 

Early industries 375 

Building activity 375 

Mining and manufactures 375 

Streets and roads.. 375 

Schools 376 

Street and electric railways 376 

Churches and societies 377 

Banks 377, 378 

Bentleyville National Bank 377 

Berea sand 243 

Besco station 310 

Bicycle introduced 117 

Big Injun sand 239 

Birch, Rev. Thos. L., opposition to 168 

Bishop 289 

Bitter Rock sand 243 

Black Diamond 286 

Black Diamond Engineering Company 520 

Blaine, Ephraim, commissary of Eighth Regiment, 

and Revolutionary army 72 

Blaine, James G., visits Washington 119 

Blainesburg 315 

Blaine Township: 

Erection of and boundaries 277 

Schools 277 

Towns 277 

Industries 277 

Churches 278 

Oil and gas 278 

Roads and statistics 278 

Boat building 231 

Book of Mormon 183 

Book Peddler Smith 118 

Boundary circle surveyed from New Castle, Del. .. 44 

Boundary commission proposed by Pennsylvania. . 60 

Bouquet, Col., defeats Indians 41 

Bower Hill 343 

Bowman, Capt. Joseph, takes Cahokia garrison. . . 78 

Braekenridge, Hugh M 154 

Braddoek’s defeat, effect of 37, 38 

Braddock, Gen., sent to America 

By England 37 

His defeat 37 

Braddock road 50 

Bradford, David: 

Attends insurgent meetings 108 

His part in insurre tion 109, 115 

Commands insurgents 109 

Loses influence 112 

His escape to Louisiana 115 

Bradford's Mill 338 

Bradstreet’s expedition 41 

Brady, Capt. Sam, scout 101 

Brady, John S 155 

Brndy ’s tunnel 155 

Brave girl abolitionist, A 129 

Briar Hill mines 292 

British garrison at Et. Pitt withdraws, 1772 55 

British incite r mns against American frontier.. 73 

British posts in northwest surrendered 102 

British supply arms to savages 102 

Broadhead, Col. Daniel 

Takes command of Fort Pitt 79 

Removed on charges 79 

Depletion of his forces 79 

His report of Indian atrocities 79 

Broadhead, Gen., attacks Delawares 82 

Budaville 306 

Budke Stamping Works 410 

Buffalo Creek settlers request protection 90 

Buffalo gas field 243 

Buffalo village 324 

Buffalo Township: 

Erection and boundaries 278 

Schools and education 278 

Early settlers 278 

Churches 279 

Oil and gas 280 

Statistics, etc 280 

Roads; town officials 280 

Buggies introduced 214 

Bulger, town of 350 

Burgettstown Borough: 

Origin and situation 37S 

Its founder, Sebastian Burgett 378 

Postal facilities 378 

Hotels 378 

Temperance sentiment 371 

Public service 379 

Oil wells 379 

Manufactures and industries 380 

Newspapers 380 

Banks , . 3S0 

Lodges and societies 380 

Schools 380 

Physicians 380 

Churches 380 

Burgettstown “Enterprise" 380 

Burgettstown Fair 353 

Burgettstown ‘ ‘ Herald ” 380 

Burgetts* ..ira Milling and Plate Ice Company 380 

Burgettstown National Bank 380 

Burgettstown oil field 240 

Burgettstown National Bank 258 

Burgettstown Savings Bank 380 

Burgettstown Trust Company 3S0 

Burnsville 370 

Byer’s Burial Ground 313 

Cabot, John, discoveries of 32 

Campbell, Alexander ISO 

Campbell, John, justice, captured by the Indians. . 80 

Campbell, Thomas 179. 180 

Campbellites 179 

California Borough 

Origin and situation 382 

Original proprietors 3S2 

Slow early growth 382 

Job Johnson, his character and enterprise. . . . 382 

New growth after Civil War 3S2 

Mr. Morgan s reminiscences 382 

Boatyards 383, 387 

Brick making and lumber yards 383 

Ante-bellum politics 384 

Singing and inusica' Hass 384 

Population and s* ustics 384 

Water supply 384 

Public service companies 385 

Postal facib s 385 

Newspapers 3S6 

Banks and 3an ;ing 386 

Recent ' dustries 387 


Hotels , ,. . . 


Lodges ana societies 

California Glass Company 

California “Sentinel’ 

Candor village 

Canon, John: 

Appointed a magistrate for West Augusta... 

Furnishes rations 

Gives money lor aeademy 

Washington’s opinion ot 

Canonsburg Borough: 

Origin and situation 

John Canon, the first proprietor 390, 

Early coal mine 

Taverns discouraged 

Early markets 

Early town ordinances 

Early voting place 

Hundredth anniversary celebrated 

Created a borough 

Canonsburg centennial 

Growth of town as described in Canonsburg- 


East Canonsburg 

White Lawn Terrace 

Alexander Place 

Railway service 

Sewerage and paving 

Fire alarm system 

Borough building 

Street lighting .7 

Orderly population 

Burgesses since incorporation 

Population statistics. . . A 

Civil progress and growth 

Early industries 

Early inhabitants 


Early taverns 

Interesting events 

Schools 399, 

Jefferson College 

U. P. Theological Seminary 

Olome Institute 

Fire companies 

Market house 


Canonsburg General Hospital 

Oak Spring Cemetery 

Speers Spring Cemetery 

Pennsylvania R, K. station 





Canonsburg “Daily Notes” 

Canonsburg Electric Light, Heat and Power Co. . . 

Cannonsburg Marble Works 

Cannonsburg Milling Company 

Cannonsburg Savings Fund Society 

Cannonsburg “Herald ” ! . . . 

Cannonsburg Ice Company 

Canonsburg “Luminary” 

Canonsburg Pottery Company 

Canonsburg Savings Bank 

Canonsburg Savings Fund Society 

Canonsburg Steel and Iron Works -j)0 

Canton Township: 

Erection and boundaries 281 

, Soil and population, etc 281 

Early settlors i 281 

Early mills and taverns 281 

Schools apd teachers 281 

Oil and gas 282 

Towns ’ ' Hgg 

Manufactures and industries 283 

Coal, railroads, etc 283 

Public roads ’ ^H2 

Capitol Oil, Paint and Varnish Company 473 

Carborundum Works 524 

Carleton, Sir Guy, writes to Washington ' ' 95 

Carlisle county seat in 1759 30 

Carnegie Steel Company 432 

Carroll Township: 

Erection and boundaries 284 

Drainage .....’ is4- 

Population 284 

Railways 284 

Roads and taxes 284 

Coal mines 284 

Towns and villages 285 

Schools and education 285 

Churches 28(5 

Industries 287 

Bridges ’ 287 

Catfish, location of his land 51 

Catfish Camp: 

Council held at 1777 74 

Superior importance of the settlement 74 

Second war council held, 1777 75 

Militia council held at, 1782 95 

Cattle of settlers seized to feed soldiers 80 

Cattle statistics x22 

Cecil Township: 

Erection and boundaries 288 

Early settlers 288 

Towns and villages 289 

Population 289 

Railways 290 

Roads and taxes 290 

Industries 290 

Oil and gas * 290 

Schools 292 

Churches 292 

General statistics 292 

The Pierce murder 292 

Coal operations 292 

Cecil Improvement Company, Canonsburg .! 412 

Cecil, town of 289 

Centerville Borough: 

Origin and situation 413 

Population, taxables, ete 413 

Roads and railways 413 

Coal and gas 444 

Villages 444 

Schools 444 

Churches 445 

Centerville village 444 

Chamberlain, Judge B. B 453 

Charleroi Borough: 

Early history 445 

Its large coal interests 415 

Glass manufacture 445 












, 396 























































Founders and developers 415 

incorporation and description 41(3 

Schorls 416 

Hotels, buildings, population 416 

TrolUy systems and bridges 416 

Public service companies 417 

Schools and education t 418 

lire department, newspapers 416 

Banks and trust companies 418 

Industries, societies 421 

Churches 422 

Charleroi Brick Works 420 

Charleroi Hard Wall Blaster Co 451 

Charleroi Lumber Co 421 

vnarieroi-Monessen Bridge 449 

Charleroi Plate class Co 419 

Charleroi Savings & Trust Co 258 

Chartiers Township: 

Predion aiid boundaries 294 

Draiuage 294 

Population and statistics 294 

Loads and railways 294 

Coal operators 294 

FarJv settlers 294 

Towns and villages 294 

Schools and churches 298 

Chartiers’ Creek, location of 52 

Chartiers Valley Agricultural Association 413 

Chartiers Valley kail way 224 

Chartiers Wooien Factory 413 

Cheese, manutacture of 122 

Cherry Valley 351 

Chess Tavern 515 

Chewtown 414 

Chief of Pluggy and Pluggystown 73 

Chief White Face, his remark on land purchased 

1784-85 48 

Children’s Aid Society 213 

Christian church 179 

Christian nations disregard Indian rights 32, 35 

Christman Publishing Co 492 

C liristian Science Society 500 

City Hospital, Wash 478 

Citizens .National Bank, Wash 258, 4S7 

Citizens’ Oil & (ias Co 2'3S, 481 

< itizens’ Trust Co., CanonSb’g 258, 406 

( itizens’ Water Co., V\ ash . . . 483 

Civil cases 155 

Civil War 135 

( lark, (ten. Geo. Bogers — 

His account of Duumore’s War 61 

His famous expedition 77 

Organizes “County of Illinois” 77 

Compels Hamilton’s surrender 77 

Saves five states to the U. S 77 

His methods criticized 84 

Furnished with money by Virginia 84 

Destroys Indian towns on the Great Miami... 95 

His last days 89 

r resented with sword 89 

His death 89 

Clay, Henry, investigates roads 216 


Origin and situation 423 

Incorporation 423 

Population, real estate 423 

Business enterprises ‘423 

Claysville cemetery 


Public improvements 

Livestock operations 

Flour mills, greenhouses 

Banks, schools, churches 


Claysville Cemetery 

Claysville Flour Mill 

Claysville quadrangle 

Clipper Sand Works 

Clokev ville 

Clover Hill village 

Clover introduced 

Coal : 

As part of geological system 

Composition of 

Operations in 

Qualities of (table) 

Becent development 

Statistics for 1907 

Coal Bluff 

Coal Center: 

Origin and early history 

Population and real estate 

Bailroads, public service, etc 

Schools and churches 

Cokeburg Borough: 

Origin and location 

Population and taxes 

Mining interests. 


Coke manufacture 

Collins Boiler Works , 

College politics 

College statistics 

Collector’s office established ■■ • • • 

College sports 

Committee of Safety organized 17S1 

Committee of Saf “- in Western Insurrection 

Committee of twef ■ in Western Insurrection. .. . 

Common schools ■ 

‘ ‘ Commonwealth ’ ’ newspaper 

Co. A, 100th Begt 

Co’s A & H. Tenth Begt 

Co’s A, B, D, and E, 85th Begt 

Co. D, 79th Begt 

Co. D. 10th Reserve 

Co’s C, D, E, G, and K, 100th Begt 

Co. E, 12th Begt 

Co. G, 12th Begt 

Co. H, 159th Begt 

Co’s I and K, 1st Pa. Cav 

Co. K, 37th Begt 

Co. K, 161st Begt 

Concord (C. P.) church organized 

Conditions causing Western Insurrection. . 

conditions in 1794 described by ■ > '’ge Addison.. 

Conditions when county est: <ed 

Congress withhold.- ad grants 

Congressional contests 

Conflicting officials 

Connecticut claims Susquehanna lands 

Connelsville quadrangle 

Connolly, Dr. John: 

Dines with Washington in Pittsburg 

Orders militia assembly 





















































Appoints magistrates 58 

Is arrested 59 

Released and holds fort with militia 59 

Appears with militia at Hannastown court 

house 59 

Arrests Westmoreland County judges 60 

Changes name of Ft. Pitt.... 63 

His outrageous conduct in Duumore’s War... 63 

Is kidnapped, released 66 

Arrested in Maryland 69 

His public career terminated.... 69 

Constitution of 1838 150' 

Corbly. Rev John: 

IT is treatment in Western Insurrection 113 

Corn, amount grown 120 

Cornstalk, Indian chief, massacred 78 

Cornstalk and Logan defeated by Col. Lewis 64 

Cornstalk parades 118 

Corn Law of 1779 SO 

Coroners 157 

Counter proclamations by Penn and Dunmore . . . . 65 

, County road statistics 222 

County roster .... 156 

County Seat located 27 

County societies 213 

County (school) superintendents 205 

Courageous trip of Wm. Smiley 165 

Court, first in Washington County 85 

Court, juvenile . . 153 

Court houses. 153, 208 

Courts, (1795) favor actual settlers 55 

Courtney 362 

Cowan mm 286 

Craig, Maj. Isaac, captured by rioters 108 

Craig, John, appointed exciseman 103 

Crall greenhouses, Monon City 524 

Crawford, Freegift 378 

Crawford, Col. William: 

Files land entries for Washington 52 

Reports for Washington 54 

Ejects settlors on Washington 's lands 54 

Commissioned justice of the peace 56 

His commission revoked 57 

Recommends fixing temporary boundary line.. 60 

.Raises troops in Dunmore ’s War 63 

Named magistrate for district of West 

Augusta 65 

Elected to command Sandusky expedition. .. . 92 

Is defeated and tortured to death by the 

savages .' 92 

Cremation first 464 

Cresap, Col. Michael: 

Opposes Pennsylvania authority 55 

His part in Dunmore ’s War 61 

Drainage 298 

Organizes force in Maryland 63 

His company dismissed by Connelly 63 

Croghan, Col. Geo.: 

Obtains large land grants from the Iroquois. . 52 

Accompanies Washington down the Ohio River 53 

Loses his lands 53 

Threatens tax collectors 55 

Cross Creek Township.: * 

Erection and boundaries 298 

Early settlers 299 

Churches 299 

Early events 300 

Industries 303 

Schools and teachers 303 

Population, real estate, etc 3o4 

Roads and taxes 303 

Cross Creek village 302 

Crothers Station 280 

Cumberland Presbyterian church 174 

Cumberland road 216 

Daisytown 315 

Dams and locks 230 

Daughters of Am. Rev 213 

Davin Oil, Tool & Repair Shop 475 

Decimal money system adopted 97 

Decker, Abram, sells land grant, to Joseph 

Parkinson 54 


Origin and early history 428 

Population and taxables 428 

Roads and railways 428 

Coal and gas 428 

Schools and churches 428 

Delawares become enemies 82 

Delawares complain of white settlements be- 
tween Ohio River and Allegheny Mountains.. 43 

Democratic Society of Washington 167 

Denbeau Station 414 

Deputy attorneys-general 156 

Devore’s ferry 511 

Dime Savings Institution 486 

Dime Savings Institution of Wash -5S 

Dinsmore, Dr. John W.„ reports Indian atrocity.. 29 

Dinsmore Station 356 

Dirt roads 214 

Diseases among pioneers 117 

Dissatisfaction with Sunday elections, 1776 72 

District attorneys 15. 

Dodd, Rev. Thaddeus. his school at Amity 190 

Dodd. Thadeus, establishes academy 31 

Doddridge. Dr.: 

Describes hardships of settlers -i4 

Describes the pioneers’ terror of Indians.... 30 

Doddridge’s Fort 328 

Doddridge, Rev. Joseph, (sketch) 213 

Doddridge, Rev. Joseph: 

Describes pioneer conditions of life 98 

Donegal Township: 

Erection, drainage and boundaries . 304 

Real estate and population 304 

Agriculture and wool industry 304 

Coal operations 364 

Timber industry / 305 

Roads and taxes 305 

Villages 305 

Early settlers 306 

Schools and Churches 306 

Donley 306 

Donley Brick Co 473 

Dcnora Borough: 

Population, public service 429 

Schools and churches 429, 432 

Growth of borough 430 

Real estate operations 430 

Railroad fight 431 

iNewspapers 431 

Industries, banks, etc 432 

Donora ‘ ‘ American ” 431 



Donora “Daily News” 431 

Donora Lumber Co 432 

Draft ordered to aid Clark 84 

“Dreadful Night” The 113 

Dugouts. early navigation in 229 

Dunlevy 273 

Dunmore, Lord: 

Appointed governor of Virginia 56 

Makes agreement with Dr. Connelly 57 

His supposed plans 57 

His attitude in regard to boundary line 60 

His success against the Indians 65 

Gives hearing to Thos. Scott 65 

Proclaims freedom to slaves defeated by 

patriots 72 

Takes refuge on British vessel 69 

Dunmore ’s War 61 

Dunn ’s Station 331 

Dunsfort 306 

Ear marks (cattle) registered 97 

Early bank paper, uncertain value of 257 

Early bankers 256 

Early brick houses 117 

Early coal banks 247 

Early political parties 146 

Early roads west of the mountains 50 

Early oil operations 2'3S 

Early river mines 247 

Ea rly Scandinavian settlements and explorations. . 32 

East Bethlehem Township: 

Erection and boundaries 307 

Population and taxes 307 

Coal 307 

Boads and railroads 307 

Early mills and ferries 308 

Early settlers 308 

Selftiols and churches 310 

Industries 309 

East Canonsburg 412 

East Finley Township: 

Erection and boundaries 310 

Soil and drainage 310 

Population 310 

, Geological conditions 310 

Oil and gas industries 310 

Boads and villages 311 

Early settlers 312 

Schools and education '312 

Churches and cemeteries 312 

East Finley village 311 

East Pike Bun Township: 

Erection and boundaries 313 

Soil, population and real estate 314 

Coal 314 

Boads and railways 315 

Villages 315 

Schools 315 

Ed. r, Judge James (sketch) 301 

Egypt village and mill 445 

Eighth Begt. raised 1'or Revolutionary service.... 72 

Hardships it endured 72 

Eighty-fifth Begt., Civil War 135 

Elco Borough: 

Origin and situation 434 

Origin of name 434 

Population, taxables. etc . 434 

Mining interests 434 

Schools 434 

Eldersville 329 

Eldora 286 

Election, spring of 1781 85 

Elliott, Matthew leads Indians against Rogers. ... 78 

Ellsworth Borough: 

Origin and situation 434 

Population and business interests 434 

Schools 435 

Banking interests 435 

Mining interests 435 

Ellsworth Branch of Penn B. B 226 

Ellsworth Colleries Co 250 

Elrama 361 

El villa 371 

Engleside Academy ‘ 443 

English settlers of more stable character than 

the French 35 

Episcopal church 166 

Eureka Oil Co 238 

Ewing, Hon. John H 155 

Ewing. Judge Nathaniel 153 

Excise law of 1772 passed 101 

Executive council remits fines on rioters 103 

Fallowfield meeting-house 166 

Fallowship Township: 

Erection and boundaries 316 

Soil and population 316 

Roads and railways 316 

Schools 316 

Early settlers 317 

Early mills, ferries, etc 317 

Industries 317 

Villages 317 

Churches and grange 318 

Gas and oil operations 318 

Coal mines 318 

Farmers ’ and Miners ’ National Bank 37S 

Farms, average size of • 120 

Farmers’ Bank of Deposit, Cannousburg 258, 405 

Farmers’ Inn - 463 

Farmers’ National Bank of Claysville 425 

Farmers and Mechanics National Bank of 

Washington 25S 

Findlay Clay Pot Co 472 

Finley, Bev. James: 

Sent to oppose founding of new state (Ohio) . 95 

His report. . , 

Finlevville Borough: 

Origin and situation 

Barclay ’s tavern * 


Importance of the town 


Business interests 

Bank statement 

Schools and churches 

F nleyville Cemetery 

First court house built 

First court session in Washington County 

First election in county 

First National Bank Monongehela C 

First National Bank of Cauonsb’g 

First National Bank of Cecil 

First National Bank of Claysville 

. 436 
. 436 
. 436 
. 436 
. 436 
. 437 
. 437 
. 345 
. 101 
. 85 
. 146 
. 520 
. 405 
. 289 
. 258 



First National Bank of Donora 432 

First National Bank of Finieyvilie 437 

First National Bank of Fredericktown 309 

First National Bank of Houston. . . 440 

First National Bank of McDonald 444 

First National Bank of Roscoe 450 

First National Bank of Washington 257, 487 

First U. S. Excise law passed 103 

opposed by Pennsylvania 103 

Fiv Points 322 

Flii a Road Act 215 

Flood in Chartiers Valley, 1888 398 

Florence 321 

Forbes Road 50 

Forgie’s Planing Mill 474 

Ford Burd built 50 

Fort Duquesne becomes Fort Pitt 38 

Fort Henry attacked by savages 77 

Fort Laurens established 79 

Garrison besieged 79 

X'Ort McIntosh established 79 

Fort Pitt Bridge Works 411 

Fort Pitt: 

AVeakness of garrison under Irvine 94 

F’t. Tjconderoga captured 69 

Franklin Bank of Washington 257, 486 

Franklin House ? 463 

Franklin-Wash. Natural Gas Co 482 

Fraternal orders. Wash 502 

Frederiektown 309 

French, early explorations of 35 

Found Montreal '35 

Their claims in 1603 35 

Their claims conflicting with English claims.. 35 
Froman, Paul, obtains lands etc., on the 

Monongaliela 54 

Fhrye Station 285 

Fulton, Robert 325 

Furniture, pioneer 98 

Gallatin, Albert, his road plan 215 

Gardener Convertible Steam and Gas Engine Co... 473 

Gas explosion at Cannonsburg. 398 

Gas explosion, Washington 464 

Gas operations 243 

Gastonville 362 

Geology of the county 235 

Georgetown 512 

Gibson and Linn, their expedition to New Orleans 

for powder 74 

Gibson, (.'ol John: 

Among the first settlers of Washington County 50 

Enters 400 acres at Logstown 51 

His titles and honors 51 

In command at Fort Laurens 79 

Jilmore, .Judge Samuel A 153 

Huger Hill village 317 

Girty, Simon: • 

Leads Indians against Rogers 78 

Globe Hotel 461 

Globe Inn 462 

Gloucester tract granted Decker and Froman 53 

Goat Hill 282 

Good (House 463 

Good Intent village 370 

Good Will Fire Co 477 

Gordon sand 243 

“ Gospel Reflector ” 450 

Graded schools 202 

Graham appointed exciseman 102 

Obliged to fly 102 

Captured and threatened 102 

Prosecutes offenders 102 

Granges 125 

Gt. Britain retains northwestern forts 101 

Great Meadows, battle of, 1754 37 

Greek, J. M., Coal Co 296 

Greek letter fraternities 193 

“Green House” 463 

Greer 290 

Gregg, Albert M., articles on mounds by 266 

Gretna 298 

Griffiths Tin Mill s 471 

Groghau, Geo.: 

Judge of West Augusta Court 72 

His plantation 72 

His character and death 72 

Growth of banks 261 

Gubernatorial contests 151 

Ilackett, town of 343 

Hallarn House 463 

Hamilton, Alex., enforces excise law 104 

Hamilton Bottle Works 420 

Hamilton, David, a justice in Western Insurrection. 108 

Hamilton, Gen. Henry: 

Sends Indian parties against Americans 77 

British commander at Detroit 73 

Gives bounty for American scalps 73 

Hand, Gen.: 

Succeeds Gen. Neville at Fort Pitt 78 

His failures 78 

Takes command of F’ort Pitt for 17. S 70 

Hanlin station 329 

Hannastown attacked by Indians and Canadians.. 94 

Hanover Township: 

Erection and boundaries 321 

Roads and villages 321 

Farming and dairying 322 

Cemeteries 322 

Roads 322 

Schools 322 

Early settlers 323 

Churches 323 

Harkawav Club 445 

Harmar, Gen. Josiah: 

His expedition; defeated by the Indians 101 

Harrison, Gen. W. H., at Monongahela 517 

“Hating out” offenders 98 

Hawkins, Col. A. L 136 

Hays, Christopher, his droll letter 93 

Hazel- Atlas Glass Co 469 

Hazel Kirk 286 

Hazlett Bank 257,- 486 

Hempfield railroad 223 

Henderson. “Uncle Joe” 148 

“Herald of Liberty” 491 

Hickory 334 

Hickory National Bank 336 

Hicksites, The 166 

Higher education 190 

Highland Glass Co 470 

Hills 290 

Hogs and pork 122 

Hoge, David 454 



Home Dressed Beef Co 474 

Home Hotel 463 

Home Telephone Co 326 

Hopewell Township: 

Erection and boundaries 323 

Towns and villages 324 

Churches 324 

Farming and stock raising 324 

Schools 325 

Roads, real estate and population 325 

Hopkin’s Infantry' 135 

Hopkins, Wright & Co.'s Bank 258, 486 

Horses and horse breeding. 122 

Houston Borough: 

Situation and surroundings 437 

Population, taxes, etc 438 

Railroads 438 

Incorporation 438 

Town "s first, officers 438 

Public service corporations 439 

Public library 439 

Schools 439 

Banking 440 

Churches 440 

Houston’s Inn 460 

Houston, Miss Margaret E., article on Indian 

fort, etc 269 

Houston Run 361 

Howden. James, born in sycamore tree 100 

Howarth Marble Works 473 

Hughes, John: 

Appointed captain of rangers 86 

His service with Wayne 86 

His death and funeral 86 

Hundred-foot sand 243 

Hunter, Joseph: 

Acquires large land grants through his children. 51 

Sells claim to David Hoge 51, 52 

Hupp, John, Sr., killed and scalped 95 

Hussey-Binns Shovel Factory 421 

Huston’s Old Home Inn 461 

Indefinite phraseology of early land deeds 41 

Independence Township: 

(ion and boundaries 325 

Towns and population 325 

Churches 325 

Farming and stock raising 326 

Roads and taxes 326 

Coal operations 327 

Trade and industries 32S 

Banks 328 

Early settlers, population, etc 328 

Independence village 326 

Independent coal companies 251 

Indian atrocities 28, 29, 30, 90 

Indian attack on British forts, 1763 40 

Indian burying ground 269 

Indian council at Ft. Pitt, 1766 42 

Indian council in 1742 41 

Indian council in 1764 41 

Indian mounds 265 

Indians surrender prisoners to Col. Bouquet 41 

Indian fort, old 269 

Indian treaty, January, 1785 100 

Indian depredations 79, 100 

Indian mound on Haines farm 339 

Indian trails 214 

Indian troubles in 1776 73 

Indians, northern, number of in 1763 40 

Indians poorly recompensed for lands 48 

Intermarriage of French with Indians 35 

Inter-state war threatened, 17S1 30 

Industrial development 127 

Insurgents pardoned 113 

Insurgent representatives refused seats in legis- 
lature 115 

Insurgents, severe treatment of 113 

Iroquois Indians 39 

Description of, by William Penn 40 

Irvine, Gen. William: 

Given command at Fort Pitt S4 

His views on Indian situation 91 

His views on Indian situation 94 

Jackson, Andrew, visits Washington 119 

Jackson’s Carriage Factory 474 

Jail 209 

James I issues land patents 35 

James River (Va.) as route to the South Sea.... 44 

Jefferson Academy at Canonsburg. 196 

Jefferson Light Guards 135 

•Jefferson Township: 

Erection and boundaries 329 

Roads and taxes 329 

Schools 329 

Towns and population 329 

Gas wells 329 

Coal industry 330 

Churches 330 

Jennings, Dr. Ebenezer 381 

Jennings, Obadiah 154 

Jessop Steel Co 472 

Jonestown 318 

“Journal” newspaper, Washington 494 

Journal Print. & Pub. Co ' 494 

Judges and attorneys, famous 152 

Jumbo mine 292 

Justices’ and Aldermen's Association 213 

Justices appointed by Gov. Penn in January, 1774. 58 

Juvenile court 153 

Kanawha, battle at mouth of 64 

Results of the battle 64 

Keel boats , 1 . . . 229 

Keenan & Piper Contr. Co 524 

Keeney greenhouse, Monongahela City 524 

Keystone House 379 

Killbuek, Indian chief, attacked by whites 91 

Description of his camp 91 

King of England forbids settlements west of the. 

Kirkpatrick, Maj. Abram, captured by rioters.... 108 

“Labor Journal” 494 

Laboratory 359 

Lafayette, visit of 462 

Lafayette visits Washington 119 

Land deed of Nov. 5, 1768; its indefinite terms... 43 

Land office opened by Pennsylvania, 1769 49 

Lands assigned Delawares and Shawanese by. the 

Iroquois 41 

Lawrence, George V '. 516 

Lawrence, Joseph .148 

Lee, Gen. Henry, in command of troops to sup- 
press insurrection 113 



Legal history 152 

Legislative apportionments 148 

LeMoyne, Dr. i'\ nominateil for Vice-President. 180 
.Lenox, Maj. David, serves writs in Western In- 
surrection 107 

Liberty poles in Western Insurrection lln, 111 

Licentious soldiery 01, 94 

Liggett Spring & Axle Works 524 

Lincoln National Bank, Savella 328 

Linden village 339 

Lindley’s Mills 331 

Lind ley, Rev. Jacob 175 

Linn and Gibson, their expedition to New Orleans 

for powder 74 

Little Turtle defeats St. Clair 102 

Local militia ordered to Continental army 75 

Loehry, Col., raises men for Gen. Hand 78 

Locks on Monougahela River 230 

Logan and Cornstalk defeated by Col. Lewis 64 

Log cabin and hard cider campaign 150 

Logan, Chief: 

His family massacred 62 

Retaliates on whites 62 

His letter to Capt. Cresap. 62 

Defeated at mouth of Kanawha 64 

Lone Bine 276 

Long Branch borough: 

Origin and situation 440 

Coal deposits 440 

Population and taxables 440 

Schools and churches 440 

Long Knives, Virginians so called by Indians 62 

Luxurious residence in 1792 117 

Macbeth-Evans Glass Co 420 

McCarty & Robb lumber yards 445 

McClain, Alex., prevented from surveying state 

McClure Tin Mills 471 

McConnel’s Mills 297 

McDonald borough: 

Origin and situation 441 

Oil interests 441 

Schools, etc 442 

Early settlers 442 

Fire department and fires 442 

Public service, car lines, etc 442 

Schools and academy 443 

Water company 443 

Churches and societies 443 

Newspapers 444 

Banks and trust companies 444 

Business interests (general) 444 

M c 1 Jouald ‘ ‘ Budget ” t 444 

McDonald fairs •. 445 

McDonald, John, appointed to administer oaths of 

fidelity to A'irginia 77 

McDonald Oil Field 239 

McDonald “Outlook" 444 

McDonald “Record” 444 

McDonald Savings & Trust Co 444 

McFarlane, Andrew, captured 73 

Imprisoned at Quebec 73 

His death 73 

McFarlane, Maj. James, killed in Western In- 
surrection 107 

McFarland, Samuel 155 

McGovern station 297 

Mcllvaine, Judge John A 

McIntosh, Gen., placed in command at Fort Pitt.. 

His forces depleted 

M c Kean, Thomas 

McKennan, Thos. M. T 

McMillan, Rev. John, his early school 

McMurray village 

McPeak mill 

McPherson’s mill 

Mackey, Eneas, appointed colonel of Eighth regi- 
ment; his death 

Malatc, battle of 

Manila, attack on 

Mansion House 

Manufacturers' Light & Heat Co 

Manufacturers’ Natural Gas Co 

‘ ‘ Manuscript Found ’ ' 

Marianna, town of 

Marksmanship of early settlers 

Marshall, Col. James, county lieutenant: 

Opposes Gen. Clark 

Requests men for defence against Indians. . . 

Matthews oil well 

Matthews Woven Wire Fence Co 

Meadowlauds Coal Co 

Meadowlands, town of 

Mechanics Library 

Medical history i 

Medical societies 

Meetings against excise law 

Mercantile Bridge Co 

Methodist church 

Mexican war , 

Midland Coal Co 

Midland, town of 

Midway borough: 

Origin and situation 

Egypt village and mill 

Early settlers 

Business interests 



Banks and banking 

Churches and societies 


Midway National Bank 

Militia call in 1781 

Miller, Jacob, Sr., killed and scalped 

Miller, Oliver, killed by rioters 


Mingo Club 

Mingo Creek meeting-house, political meetings 

held at 

Insurgents meet at 

Mingo region, lawlessness in 

Missionary efforts 

Moffatt, Rev. James I) 

Monongahela Bridge Co 

Monongahela City: 

Early proprietors 

The Parkinsons 

Early settlers 

Parkinson’s ferry 

Transportation facilities 

Early trade and travel 

Original plot 

Georgetown laid out 

Public square and market 




154 - 


1 ' • 

































Williamsport made borough. history 

Real estate valuation 

Early flat boat traffic 

Keel boats 

Railroad enterprise 

Early settlers 

Early taverns and industries 

Private currency. 

Early politicians 

Distinguished citizens 516, 

Public service corporations 517, 




c- -els 

Banks and trust companies. . . ._. 

. Manufactures 520, 

Schools and education 


Praternal organizations 

Parkinson, Joseph (sketch) 

Monongahela County formed 

Court assumes jurisdiction over part of Washing- 
ton County 

Wants land office law repealed 

Opposed by Yohogania County court 

Monongahela City Dock Company •. . . 

Monongahela City Gas Company 

Monongahela City Macaroni Factory 

Monongahela City Memorial Hospital 

Monongahela City Trust Company 

Monongahela Clay Manufacturing Company 

Monongahela Consolidated Coal and Coke Co 

Monongahela “Daily Republican” 

Monongahela “Democrat” 

Monongahela, early settlement at 

Monongahela, English settlements on, burned by 

the French 

Monongahela Foundry and Forge Company 

Monongahela Glass Works 

Monongahela Granite and Marble Works 

Monongahela Manufacturing Company 

Monongahela Milling Company 

Monongahela River 

Geologically considered 

Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke 


Monongahela Valley: 

Distressed condition of in 1780 

Monongahela Water Works 

Monroe, President at Canonsburg 

Moral teaching . 

Moravian missions 

Morgan, Col. George, and John Neville appointed 

to confer with Indians 

Morgan, Col. George: 

Accuses Gen. McIntosh of incapacity. . : 

Arrested and removed by Congress 

Writes British commander at Detroit 

Morgan, Dr. John, his land grant 

Morgan. Gen. John, placed in control of Indian 

affairs by Congress 

Morgan, L. W., his reminiscences.- 

Morgan’s llifle Corps recruited from Eighth fiegt. 


Morganza, origin of name 

Mormon, book of 183 

Mormon church 183 

Morrison Free Public Library 139 

Morris Township: 

Erection and boundaries 331 

Towns 331 

Early settlers 332 

Roads and taxes, etc 333 

Population 333 

Mason and Dixon’s line 44 

Mason and Dixon survey interrupted 47 

Mount Pleasant Township: 

Erection and boundaries 333 

Springs and drainage 333 

Soil 333 

Agriculture 333 

Sheep and wool growing 333 

Early settlers 333 

Schools 334 

Towns and villages 334 

Churches 334 

Oil and gas wells 335 

Mills and industries 336 

Roads 336 

Population, taxes, etc 336 

Mount Wheeler hill 338 

Mountain, Jan es 154 

Murder cases 155 

Murdock’s greenhouses 290 

Murdoeksville 322 

Murdocksville oil field 240 

Muster roll of Captain Anderson’s company 133 

Nanowland, the “pet Indian” killed 91 

National Bank of Claysville 425 

National pike, travel on 118 

National Roadhouse 462 

National Wrought Iron Annealing Box Company. . 473 

Negro slaves registered, 1781-82 97 

Neville, Capt. John, placed in charge of Ft. Pitt. . 70 

Neville, Gen. John: 

His house attacked 107 

His escape 108 

Neville, Col. Pressley, captured oy rioters 10S 

Newspapers 205 

- (See also under separate towns.) 

New State (Ohio) proposed.... 95 

Nitro-glyeerine, explosion of 467 

Niagara Oil Company 481 

Nickel Plate Coal Mine 41-1 

North Charleroi: 

Origin and situation 44S 

Population and taxes 448 

River locks 44S 

Government shops 448 

Coal tonnage 44S 

Railroads and bridges 449 

Schools 449 

North Frankliu Township: 

Erection and boundaries 337 

Soil and agriculture 337 

Oil and gas 337 

Roads and real estate 337 

Cemeteries 338 

Water reservoirs 338 

Early events 33S 

Schools 337 
























































' 74 







Northrup Machine Shop 473 

North Star 346 

North Strabane Township: 

Erection and boundaries 338 

Churches 3'38, 340 

Soil and agriculture 339 

Villages ■ 339 

Roads and taxes.. 339 

Schools 340 

Real estate valuation 340 

North Strabane Water Company 413 

Nottingham Township: 

Erection and boundaries 340 

Schools and teachers 340 

Churches 340 

Trade and agriculture 340 

Population, real estate, etc 341 

Drainage 340 

Roads and taxes 340 

Novelty Glass Company. . 471 

Oak Grove 2S2 

Oats, amount grown 120 

Ohio County formed 71 

Ohio Presbytery 168 

Ohio, state of, proposition to establish 95 

Oil and gas 238 

Oil and gas sands 245 

Oil and gas sands, table of 245. 

“Old Black’s Dam’’ 287 

Old Briceland Tavern, Canonsburg 397 

Old Fulton House 460 

Old glass works, Monongahela 515 

Old Indian Fort 269 

Old National pike 215 

Orchard crop 120 

“Our Country” newspaper 493 

Outrages by U. S. troops in Western Insurrection. 112 

Pack-peddlers 118 

Paris 321 

Parkinson’s ferry established 54 

Parkinson, Joseph, acquires rights on the Monon- 
gahela River 54 

Establishes ferry 54 

Parkinson, Joseph, sketch of 529 

Parkinson, Thomas and William, appointed to pro 

vide military stores 75 

Parkinson ’s ferry 511 

Passengers, distinguished, over National Road.... 217 
Patent of lands in “Augusta County, Va.,” grant- 
ed by Dunmore to Washington 57 

Patterson’s Mill 302 

Payroll statistics, Charleroi 419 

Peace vote in Western Insurrection 112 

Penn Bridge Company 425 

Penn, William, His instructions to agents 164 

Penn’s grant, terms of 44 

Pennsjdvania assembly warns settlers from land 

west of mountains ! 42 

Pennsylvania Reform School 210 

Pennsylvania loses land under Virginia warrants.. 81 

Pennsylvania magistrates seized. 66 

Pennsylvania ’s officials restrained 66 

Pennsylvania throws western lands open to set- 
tlement. 1769 43 

Penobscot Coal Company 327 

Pentecost, Dorsey: 

Magistrate and county commissioner 59 

Appointed clerk of court 71 

Elected president of war council 74 

Nearly precipitates Indian war 75 

Given command of the militia 80 

Becomes lieutenant of Yohogania County.... 83 
His hostile attitude toward Pennsylvania.... 86 
Resigns as councillor and appointed common 

pleas judge 86 

Goes to Virginia 89 

Is suspended from office 89 

His death and influence 89 

People aid academy 170 

People’s Bank of California 258 

People’s Bank of Monongahela City 258 

People’s Light & Heat Co 238, 481 

Peters, William, Indian, granted land title 51 

Peters Township: 

Erection and boundaries 


Farming and dairying 

Real estate valuation 

Coal deposits 

Roads and railroads 


Towns and villages 



Coal mines 

Petition for erection of Westsylvania county 

Petition from Laurel Hill settlers against pro v in 










7 b 

cial officials 

Petition to Lord Dunmore from settlers on the 


Ohio 60 

“Petroleum Exchange” 494 

Petroleum Iron Works 173 

Philadelphia Bank 256 

Phillipsburg 315 

Phoenix Glass Works 470 

Physicians in pioneer days. 117 

Pike Run Meeting-house 105 

Pioneer clothing 98 

Pioneer conditions of life described 98 

Pioneer diet 717 

Pioneer manners and customs 116 

Pipe, Indian chief, sides with British 76 

Pittsburg and Steubenville Turnpike 220 

Pittsburg and Washington Turnpike 219 

Pittsburg-Buffalo Coal Co 248, 364, 412 

Pittsburg Casket Co 412 

Pittsburg coal bed • • • 237 

Pittsburg Coal Co 248 

Pitsburg, court removed from 70 

Pittsburg, description of in 1770 53 

Pittsburg Mercantile Co 088 

Pittsburg Plate Glass Co •„ 120 

Pittsburg Southern Railroad 223 

Pittsburg, Virginia & Charleston R. R 226 

Pittsburg Window Glass Co 171 

Pitsburg & Charleroi Street Railway 228 

Pittsburg & Southwestern Coal Co 327 

Pittsburg & Steubenville Railroad 224 

Pittsburg & Westmoreland Coal Co 250 

Pleasant Grove ’ll 

Pleasant Hill Seminary..... 325 

Pluggystown, expedition against 75 

Plummer, Jerome, his aid to temperance cause... . 130 



Poe, Adam: 

Receives reward for taking- ludian scalp 29 

Paid for Indian scalp 86 

Political complexion of county 151 

Pontiac, conspiracy of 40 

Population statistics 125 

Postoffice, Washington borough 475 

Postal facilities 128 

Pratt, Parley P. (Mormon) 187, 188 

Presbyterian church 167 

Presbyterian church, early strife in 168 

Presbyterian statistics...- 

Presbyterianism explained 167 

Presbytery, first west of mountains 167 

President judges 156 

Presidents medical society 213 

Presidential contests 151 

Primitive settlers, character of 81 

Primrose station 334 

Principals’ Round Table 204 

Production of coal for 1907 251 

Proprietary Government of Pennsylvania, non- 

eombative character of 49 

Prosperity Plank Road 221 

Prosperity village 331 

Prothonotaries 157 

Prothonotaries since Civil War 151 

Pryor Coal Co ’. 327 

Quakers or Friends 165 

Queer map of Virginia, 1651 44 

Racine 310 

Raccoon Church Cemetery: 

First person buried in 29 

Raccoon Graveyard 348 

Raccoon station 351 

Railroads 223 

Rangers recruited, 1781 29 

Rank Forging Works 444 

Rankin House 463 

Rankin, Matthew, his land graut 53 

Real Estate Trust Co., Wash 491 

Record Publishing Co 494 

Redstone Baptist Association 179 

Redick, David, describes military conditions in 

Feb., 1792 102 

Redstone, land entries filed at 51 

Redstone Quarterly Meeting 165 

Reed & Snee Greehouses 424 

Reissing 292 

Religion among pioneers 117 

Religious paper signed, 1782 164 

Religious revivals 97 

Religious services introduced SI 

Representatives in General Assembly 160 

Reserve Corps of Penna 135 

Resistance to Great Britain organized 69 

Revolutionary War closes 95 

Reward offered for Indian scalps 29 

Richardson, Thomas, executed for burglary 30 

Ridgeway mines 292 

Rigdon, Sidney 181, 182, 185, 186, 189 

Ring: old Cavalry 135 

Ritner, Joseph 147, 279 

River improvements 230 

Riverview 286 

Road, national 214, 215, 217 

Road legislation 221 

Robertson, John, excise collector, maltreated 104 

Robinson Township: 

Erection and boundaries 345 

Villages '346 

Coal, oil and gas 346 

Roads and taxes 346 

Schools 347 

Early settlers 347 

Churches 347 

Raccoon Graveyard 348 

Interesting events 348 

Indian mound 349 

Rogers, Capt David: 

Assists Clark against Hamilton 78 

His career and death 78 

Rogue Alley 436 

Roseoe Borough: 

Origin and situation 449 

Real estate and population 449 

Boat building 449 

Public service and car lines 450 

Newspapers 450 

Banking 450 

Hotels, schools, and churches 450 

Societies 451 

Roseoe ‘ ‘ Ledger ” 450 

Roverville 310 

Royal proclamation forbidding settlements west of 

the Alleghenies 42, 49 

Rural high schools 204 

Rush for lands in 1769 50 

Russell. A., machine shop 380 

Ryan Boiler & Iron Works : .472 

St. Clair, Gen. Arthur: 

Appointed prothonotary of Westmoreland- 

County 56 

Describes conditions in Dunmore’s War 62 

Endeavors to bring about peace 63 

Commissioned colonel in the American army. . 71 

Defeated by Indians 101 

Salvation Army 500- 

Sample ’s Inn 463 

Sandy Plains Fair '309 

“Saturday Evening Supper Table” 4Si 

“Saturday Voice” 519 

Scalp bount}- revoked 29 

Scarcity of mills in 1S72 97 

Scenery Hill.. 365 

Schools, common 201 

School superintendents 203 

School statistics 205 

“Scotch-Irish Pickett” 494 

Scott, Thomas: 

Appointed first prothonotary 85 

Imprisoned 66 

Sheep aud wool statistics 120 

Sheriffs 157 

Shingiss i on 297 

Shire Oa 361 

Shipyard California 383, 387 

Shirtee i , origin of name 52 

Silk, eai anufacture of 122 

Simpson, ■< . es, historian 300 

Simpson tore Works 413 

Sixth R< ?. V. M 136 

Slavery 128 



Smiley, William, his courageous trip 165 

Smith, Devereaux, wounded and arrest'd for mur- 
der 69 

Smith, James, hook peddler 118 

Smith, Joseph (Mormon apostle) 186 

Smith, Rev. Joseph, his school at Buffalo 190 

Smith, Thomas, attorney for George Washington 

in ejectment cases 99 

Smith Township: 

Erection and boundaries 350 

Coal, oil and gas 350, 352 

Towns and villages 350 

Roads and taxes 351 

Old forts 352 

Schools and churches 353 

Union Agricultural Association 353 

Real estate and population 354 

Smith, William, & Sons’ Bank 257 

Soldiers’ claims encouraged by Yohogania County 

officials 80 

Somerset Township: 

Erection and boundaries '354 

Soil and crops 354 

Oil and gas 354 

Roads and railways 354 

Villages 355 

Schools 355 

Churches 356 

Population, real estate, etc 354 

Early settlers 355 

South Canonsburg (see Panouslnirg) 389 

South Eranklin Township: 

Erection and boundaries 356 

Schools 357 

Roads and taxes 357, 358 

Churches 357 

Coal, oil and gas 357 

Stores, etc 357 

South Strabane Township: 

Erection and boundaries 358 

Towns 358 

Agriculture and trade 358 

Coal and oil 358 

Roads and taxes 359 

Population, statistics 359 

South Washington (see Washington). 

S. W T . Penn. Pipe Lines Co 482 

Southwestern State Normal school 200 

Spanish-American War...... 136 

Sparta 331 

Spaulding, Solomon 183, 184 

Speers borough: 

Origin and situation 451 

Population, tax statistics 451 

Schools 451 

Sand works 451 

Plaster works 451 

Churches 451 

Industrial facilities 452 

Public service companies 451 

Sprowls Road Act 215 

State constabulary in Burgettstown 379 

State line survey urged 83 

Standard Oil Co... 239 

Standard Real Estate Co., Donora 432 

State road statistics 222 

Standard Tin Plate Co 290, 412 

Steamboat navigation 231 

Stephens Bros., contractors 524 

Stevenson ’s Laundry, Wash 485 

Stills seized 114 

Stockdale borough: 

Incorporation 452 

First proprietor 452 

Population, taxes, etc 452 

Roads 452 

Schools and churches 452 

Stockdale, Thomas 452 

Stogie cigar 464 

Street railways 227 

String options 251 

“Students’ Enterprise” 404 

Subscription schools 202 

Sucker Rod Factory 473 

Superstitions and signs 118 

Susquehanna Company’s claims 60 

Swearing punished 72, 76 

Sycamore, old, at Monongahela, birthplace of 

James Howden 100 

Synod of Pittsburg, 1819 173 

Tanacharison, Chief: 

Threatened by the French 36 

Counsels Washington 36 

Taylor, Col. Henry (Judge) 152 

Taylor, Henry, president of quarter sessions court 86 

Taylor, Judge James F 

Taylorstown 277 

Taxation statistics 126 

Teeter ’s Fort 328 

Telegraph lines. 233 

Telephone service 233 

Temperance, progress of 130 

Ten Mile Baptist church 178 

Ten Mile Creek, possession of desired by Virginians 83 

Tenth Regt. Inf., N. G. P 135 

Texan War 135 

Thirteenth Virginia Regt 73 

Thomas village 339 

Thompsonville 342 

Tillinghast Machine shop 445 

Title Guarantee & Trust Co 258 

Tom, the Tinker 108, 110 

Town Hall, Wash 476 

Trade & Labor Organization 503 

Trails, Indian 214 

Transportation 214, 232 

Trinity Hall 337 

Truce recommended between Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania : 70 

Tubbs Business College, Charleroi 422 

Twelfth Pa. Regt 135 

Twilight borough: 

Origin and location 452 

Coal and gas 452 

Population, taxes, etc 452 

Schools 452 

Mining interests 452 

Tyler Tube & Pipe Co 471 

Tyler dale Connecting Railroad 226 

Underground Railroad 129 

Union Agricultural Association 353 



Union Holiness Association camp meetings 

Union Paper Mill 

United Presbyterian church 

Union Township: 

Erection and boundaries 

Soil and drainage 

Character of population 

Mining operations 

Railroads V 

Public roads 

Early settlers 


Towns and villages 


Real estate, statistics, etc 

Union Trust Co. of Wash 

U. S. Mail carrier robbed by insurgents 

Upper coal beds 

Valentine House 

“Valley Messenger” 

“Valley Record,” newspaper 

“Valley Republican” 

Valley Supply Co 

Vance’s Port 


Van Eiuan 

Van Swearingen, Capt., in Eighth Regt 

Van Voorliis mill 

Venango, old Indian town, location of 


Venitia village 


Vesta Coal Co 

Vester, Stewart & Rossell Co 

Vienna village 

Vilna, town of 

Virginia Controversy, The, causes of the dispute. . 
Virginia oath of allegiance administered to 


Virginia opens land offices on the Monongahela. . . 

Virginians, aggressive character of the 

Virginia’s terms to settlers more liberal than those 
of Pennsylvania 

Wabash R. R. ’s Pittsburg terminal 

Walker & Slater, contractors 

Wallace, Robert: 

His cabin burned and wife and child killed by 


His revenge 

Recovers one of his children 

War of 1S12-15 

War poem • 

Ward, Edward, refuses to act as sheriff 

Ward, Ensign, erects fort at the forks of the Ohio 

Warner Glass Co 

Washington as an agriculture county 

Washington Baptist church 

Washington borough: 

Origin and situation 

Original plot described 

Original proprietors 

Catfish’s camp 

Early settlers 

Early merchants 

Early physicians 455 

Old houses 455 

Assessments of 1807 455 

Census of 1810 456 

Building & Loan associations 457 

Oil and gas excitement 457 

Annexations to borough 457 

Population in 1900 458 

East Washington real estate.....' 458 

Description of present town 458 

Public school system 459 

Water supply 459 

Fire department and lighting 459 

Hotels and public service 464, 459 

Early taverns and inns 460, 463 

Centennial celebration (county) 464 

Manufactures 467, 474 

Postal facilities , 475 

Market house 475 

Town hall 476 

Libraries 476 

Fire department 477 

Hospital 478 

Cemetery 478 

East Washington schools 480 

Trinity Hall 480 

Business colleges... 481 

Gas companies 4S1 

Oil and gas operations 481 

Light and heat company 482 

Water company 483 

Electric light and pow-er 484 

Banks and banking 486 

Building and loan associations 491 

Newspapers 491 

Churches 494 

Societies ; 502 

Washington Business College 4S1 

Washington & Canonsburg Railway 227 

Washington Carbon Works 471 

Washington Cemetery 338 

Washington County: 

Extent and situation 27 

Original boundaries of 27 

Its material resources 27 

Topographical features of 28 

Included in both French and English claims. . 35 

Erection of 27, 83 

Its population in 1790 216 

Washington County Centennial 464 

Washington County Coal Co 327 

Washington County Home 210 

Washington County Children’s Home 211 

Washington County Ranging Company discharged. 101 

Washington County W. C. T. U 213 

Washington ‘ ‘ Democrat ” 494 

Washington Electric Light & Power Co. 484 

Washington Electric Street Railway 227 

Washington “Examiner” 493 

Washington Female Seminary 199 

Washington Gas Co 481 

Washington gas field 244 

Washington, George: 

tt" n i- • _ n -nr l. l r\ j. or- 

Meets Chief Shingiss 36 

Defeats French force nder Jumonville, 1754 
36, 37 





























































Surrenders to De VillierB 

His opinion of Dr. Connelly 

Carries letter to the French commander from 

Gov. Dinwiddie 

Obtains 1,768 acres 

Gives dinner in Pittsburg 

Seeks land to reward Virginia’s soldiers 

Appointed commander-in-chief of the army... 

Character of his troops 

Stops expedition against savages 

Speculates in western lands 

His large patents 

Visits his lands 

Extracts from his diary 

Settlers refuse to vacate his lands 

Wins suit to eject settlers 

Studies western waterway connection 

Calls out troops to suppress insurrection 

Visits Canon’s mill 

Washington Glass Co 

Washington Hospital 

Washington Ice & Storage Co..: 

Washington and Jefferson Academy 

Washington aud Jefferson College 

Washington Mechanical Society 147, 

Washington Library Co 

Washington, Lund, his land tract 

Washington National Bank of Burgettstown 

‘ ‘ W ashington Patriot ” 

Washington “Reporter” 

Washington Savings Bank 

Washington Steam Mill & Mfg. Co 

Washington Trust Co 258, 

Washington “Weekly Review” 

Washington and Williamsport Turnpike 

Watchorn, Robert 

Water transportation 228, 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony, defeats Indians at Fallen 

Waynesburg & Washington It. R 226, 

Wells, Alex 

West Alexander borough: 

Origin and situation 

Early settlers 

Borough officials 

Business interests 

Schools and churches 

Agricultural association 

Population, taxes, etc 

West Alexander Agricultural Association 

West Augusta, district of: 


Magistrates appointed 

Magisterial oath taken 

First court 

Road petitions presented 

Ferry licenses granted 


Defenceless condition of, in 1777... 

West Augusta Regt 

West Bethlehem Township: 

Erection and boundaries 

Population and real estate 

Roads and railroads 

Soil and drainage 

Coal and gas operations 364 

Towns and villages 365 

Schools and teachers 368 

Early settlers 368 

Mills and taverns 368 

Churches and societies 36!) 

West Brownsville borough: 

Origin and situation 507 

Early settlers 507 

Population and taxes 507 

Public service companies 507 

Water supply 507 

Monongahela bridge 507 

Railroads and ferries 508 

General industries 508 

Schools and churches 509 

Mining interests 509 

Old taverns 509 

West Columbia village 430 

West Finley Township: 

Erection and boundaries 369 

Agriculture and stock raising j. . 369 

Coal 369 

Roads, population, etc 370 

Schools 370 

Towns and villages 370 

West Middletown borough: 

Origin and situation 509 

Early churches 509 

Borough officials 508 

Business interests 508 

Schools 508 

Population and taxes 508 

West Pike Run township: 

Erection and boundaries 371 

Population and taxables 371 

Roads 371 

Early settlors 371 

Villages 372 

Churches and cemeteries 372 

West Washington 480 

Westland 335 

Westland Friends 165 

Western Indians dissatisfied with Fort Stanwix 

treaty 101 

Western (Whisky) insurrection 102 

Western Missionary Magazine 170, 493 

Western ‘ ‘ Telegraph ” ‘ 491 

Western Washington Railroad 225 

Westland Branch Railroad 225 

Westmoreland County: 

Established 56 

County seat of 5S 

Sends delegates to Philadelphia convention... 60 
Westmoreland County judges arrested by Dr. Con 

nelly 1 I 60 

Wheat, amount grown 120 

Whig meeting of 1840 119 

Whipping post erected 80 

White Eyes, Indian chief 76 

Advocates neutrality 76 

His speech to the Senecas 76 

Postpones Indian war 76 

He is murdered 76 

White School 306 

White & Sous Marble Works 424 

Wiekerhnm, Adam 514 
































48 S 





102 ' 



























Williamsport Bridge Co 518 

Williamson, Col. David: 

His first expedition to the Moravian settle- 
ments 89 

His second expedition; massacres the Mora- 
vian Indians 89, 90 

Suggests and accompanies Sandusky expedi- 
tion 92 

Wilson, George, Connelly’s complaint against him 

dismissed 69 

Wilson, George, appointed colonel eighth Kegt; 

his death 72 

Wilson tragedy 398 

Witch-masters as doctors 98 

Wolftown 282 

Wood, Col., explores branches of the Mississippi. 

1654-61 35 

Wood Park tract surveyed 54 

Wood ell 


Wool growing 

Wjdand village 

Wylie homestead 

Yellow Tavern 

Yohe Bros., contractors 

Yohe, Isaac, article on mounds by 

Yohogania County: 

Method of districting 


Seat changed to Andrew Heath’s house 

Young Packing Co 

Y. M. C. A., Washington 













Zelt Flouring Mill 467. 474 

Zollarsville 367 

Zollarsville gas field 244 


Abbott, William 875 

Acheron, Hon; Ernest F 812 

Acheson, Chas. L. V 875 

Acheson, Janies Cl 888 

Adams, Alex. G 650 

Aikin, William M 815 

Ailes, John W 1108 

Akins, 0. W 1009 

Aitken, George R 1322 

Alexander, William H 1216 

Algeo, Albert M 1214 

Allen, Moses E 841 

Allen, S. M 794 

Allison, Archibald H 1269 

Allison, John M 836 

Allison, Hon. Jonathan 538 

Allison, O'Dell 1328 

Allison, R. M 1067 

Allison, Thomas 602 

Alton, George 769 

Alton, Wilhelm F 769 

Alton, Joseph T 652 

Altrutz, Charles P 1299 

Altrutz, Frederick 1265 

Ames, U. G 1 159 

Amspoker Family 1257 

Andrew, John N 856 

Angemeer, William J 937 

Anton, George 726 

Anton, John 726 

Armor, A. M 664 

Armor, William S 1109 

Armstrong, W. Harry 1129 

Arnold, Prank LeMoyno 1238 

Arnold, James G 1241 

Arnold, Wilson L 1354 

Arthur, James S., Jr 1232 

Arthur, Robert 1340 

Aten, William 538 

Baer, John M 1141 

Bailey, Joseph S 544 

Bailey, William 544 

Baird, W. A 837 

Baker, Charles E 1145 

Baker, Colin L 856 

Baker. Frank R 596 

Baker, L. Frank 1361 

Baker, Nathan, Sr 1263 

Baker, Walter H 621 

Baldwin, J. F 991 

Baldwin, William E 867 

Bamford, David G 1103 

Bamford, Robert 971 

Bamford, William 621 

Barnett, James E 830 

Barnes, David 1190 

Barr, Berton B . . 646 

Barr, Capt. George C 835 

Barr, George L 643 

Barr, John A 1279 

Barr, John S. 728 

Barre, G. M. . . 734 

Bartlett, Clark T 1285 

Baum, Isaac W 650 

Beaumariage, A. O 1038 

Beazell, Edwin H 1242 

Beazeil, William S 1249 

Bebout j Frank 980 

Bebout, Herman H. 828 

Helmut, T. C 1362 

Bebout, Thomas M 720 

Bedsworth, Leroy 1084 

Beedle, Edward T 907 

Bell, Dr. D., Major 721 

Bell, .James P 592 

Bell, Lieut. John F 592 

Bell, S. H 1190 

Bell, Thomas R 1085 

Bemis, Dr. David II 761 

Bemis, Dr. James N 761 

Benney, C. W 1103 

Bentley, Benjamin P 810 

Bentlej", Hon. Chas. A 681 

Bentley, Sheshbazzar 1097 

Berry, John A 1037 

Berry, John M 1044 

Berry, Matthew ..1037 

Berryhill, Thomas M 1055 

Billick, Dr. Harvcv T 690 

Biddle. Dr. J. T 971 

Bingham, Charles A 613 

Birch, Hon. John 547 

Birch, Thomas F 547 

Birch, William 547 

Black, Daniel 1185 

Black, John W 781 

Black, Morton 1243 

Black, Robert H 781 

Black, William C 704 

Blayney, James P 804 

Bloomingstock, George 610 

Boak, U. G 1305 

Boggs. Hon. George C 1250 

Bonar, William A 683 

Booth, Dr. Alex. N 1130 

Borchers, William P 1273 

Bourns, Henry 1205 

Bowers, Johnston R 805 

Bowes, Dr. S. Cameron 836 

Boyd, James P 57S 

Boyd, James V 942 

Boyd, L. R 940 

Boyd, Nelson II 1261 

Boyd, Capt. Robert P 832 

Boyer, Joseph P 1065 

Boyle, James 857 

Boyle, Wiiliam H 1297 

Braden, Alfred G 391 

Braden, C. 0 768 

Braden, James P 541 

Braden, Hon. John D 595 

Brady, Charles N 1186 

Brennan, Dr. James L 998 

Brenton, William G 1297 

Brieeland, George C 1300 

Bristor, J. F 843 

Bristor, James N 853 

Brown, Alexander M 1005 

Brown, E. Irving 1037 

Brown, Matthew B 1062 

Brown. William J 644 

Brownlee, Charles F 873 

Brownlee, James P 658 

Brownson, James 1 544 

Brownson. Rev. James 1 544 

Bruce, William 1126 

Bubbett, James A 1303 

Buchanan, James S 1133 

Buchanan, R. C 804 

Budke, Hon. John F 1321 

Burgoon, Rev. Joseph A 932 

Burkett, Alexander 993 

Burley, William M 1108 

Buni9, Addison F 571 

Burns, T. J 969 

Burns, Dr. William J 1306 

Burnside, John T 1213 

Burroughs. John M 791 

Bushfield, Samuel 874 




Butler, C. J 1227 

Buxton, George W 614 

Byerly, Joseph W 721 

Byerly, Walter 1056 

Byers Bros 1068 

Byers, L. Henry 1068 

Byers, Robert E 1030 

Byers, T. Franklin 1068 

Cain, Robert 992 

Caldwell, Asbury B 693 

Caldwell, Charles S 1301 

Caldwell, D. F 696 

Caldwell, Robert S. 979 

Caldwell, William 1' 543 

Calvert, William H 1339 

Cameron, George M 1279 

Cameron, Wilfred 949 

Cameron, William 587 

Campbell, Leslie 1314 

Campbell, Robert 1289 

Campsey, Hon. David M 1346 

Campsey, James D 635 

Cannon, Harry W. B 701 

Carl, Henry F 609 

Carlisle, A. M 587 

Carmichael, John F 920 

Carothers, Hon. C. Edward S12 

Carr, William B 897 

Carroll, H. B 950 

Carroll, John W 1337 

Carrons, Robert M 915 

Carson, John 1 543 

Carson, Joseph 614 

Carson, Leman 671 

Carter, Robert L 971 

Cashman, Dr. T. F 870 

Castmer, James P 1000 

Chalfant, Odell S 1145 

Chamar, Martin 1266 

Cliamar, Victor 1266 

Chamberlain, Elgy 1306 

Chambers, Frank M 907 

Chambers, William B 6S3 

Chaney, George S 1175 

Charlier, Jules J 620 

Charlton, S. M 901 

Christman, Enos L 909 

Christman, William 921 

Clark, Dr. Byron 1081 

Clark, Dr. Homer L. . . 1075 

Clark, John M 1005 

Clark, Hon. J. Verner 1194 

Clark, Norman E 708 

Clarke, Hon. John G 764 

Clarke, J. Howard 716 

Claybaugh, Lucian T 1336 

Clokev, Samuel J 1356 

Clutter, John W 983 

Coakley, Mrs. Elizabeth 812 

Coates, Charles C 788 

Coatsworth, Geo. W 880 

Coatsworth, J. Edgar 8S0 

Cobb, Dr. F. Floyd 12S0 

Cochran, Alexander B 1089 

Cockins, John L 707 

Coffey, George W 1043 

Collier, Dr. E. L 1071 

Collins, James M 701 

Collins, S. R 1044 

Colvin, J. Fremont 1153 

Conner, D. F 1316 

Conner, Samuel 1034 

Conner, Rev. S. G 1183 

Cook, John V. II 838 

Cook, Robert J 767 

Cook, Capt. R. M 1213 

Cook, Samuel H 740 

Cook, Willard G 727 

Cooke, M. L 763 

Cooper, Henry ( 787 

Cooper, Josiah Q 992 

Cooper, Murray A 898 

Cooper, Philip A 928 

Corrin, James C 571 

Corwin, Dr. James H 959 

Coulson, Emery G 1049 

Cov Lson, Eneas 803 

Co;.lson, William 622 

Coulson, W. J 1324 

Courson, William 891 

Coventry, Jarrett 1215 

Outran, Thomas H 1170 

Cowiden, Robert, Sr 1315 

Craeraft, Dr. Charles C 1155 

Craig, John S 640 

Craig, Prof. J. A. A 906 

Craig, Robert D 641 

Craig, William 719 

Crall, Charles S 675 

Cramer, Walter G 610 

Crane, Daniel W 557 

Craven, Hon. Frank 1U74 

Crawford, Charles L 1016 

Crawford, James M 1235 

Crispin, William R 869 

Criswell, Robert W 694 

Crosbie, William 925 

Crumrine, Homer 804 

Crumrine, L. R 919 

Culbertson, Alex. J., D. D. S. . . .1013 

Culbertson, Edward 927 

CuHey, W. B S82 

Cummins, Erwin 849 

Cummins, George N 1297 

Cummins, S. C 558 

Cundall, Willard G 731 

Cunningham, John 676 

Cunningham, S. C 1345 

Curran, Corneliur 687 

Curran, P. A 1214 

Curry, Joseph R. . 1262 

Curry, Oliver S 752 

Curry, William P 752 

Dague, Stewart A 1 084 

Dally, Addison L 1338 

Dally, Christopher Z., Sr 927 

Daly, Kerfoot W 1316 

Danley, Joseph S 773 

Darroeh, Donald 916 

Darsie, Burns 598 

Davidson. James M 1345 

Davin, J. J 780 

Davis, Mi's. Elizabeth M 1149 

Davis, Harry H 1225 

Davis, Mrs. Mary G 1128 

Davis, Milton L 926 

Davis, Robert W 1202 

Davis, Dr. E. W 1202 

Davis, William E S28 

Davis, William H 1057 

Day, Alanson R 1076 

Day, Arthur 6S2 

Day, Hugh A 1134 

Day, John M 626 

Day, Dr. Minor H 1320 

Day, Ransom M 664 

Day, Stephen B 836 

Deems, Elmer R S32 

Dennis, George P 12S2 

Dennison, Hon. James S 604. 

Dennison, William R 604 

Denniston, Thomas 946 

Denny, Harry W 1322 

Deseutner, Florimon L 1343 

Dickerson, Joshua 989 

Dickson, Robert M 675 

Dickson, Samuel 1021 

Dickson, S. Gillmore 670 

Dickson, William A 1273 

Dickson, Dr. William E 572 

Dievart, Albert L. G 1327 

Dimit, Jacob 1027 

Dinsmore, James M 670 

Dinsmore, J. R 975 

Dinsmore, William McC 1071 

Dinsmore, William Malcolm 699 

Dixon, John N 785 

Dodd, Dr. Cephas T. 930 

Dodd, Dr William L 603 

Donaldson, Evan C 1110 

Donaldson, Frank W 792 

Donaldson, John McBurney 823 

Donaldson, J. M. K 902 

Donaldson, Dr. John B 775 

Donaldson, Dr. Louis D SIT 

Donaldson, Robert A 1257 

Donehoo, D. M 1228 

Donehoo, Dr. J. Frank 1228 

Donley, William S41 

Donnan, Alv">n 969 

Donnan, John H 1368 

Donnan, John W 1368 

Donohue, Thomas 1256 

Dorsey, Cassius A 1303 

Dorsey, Charles 1 1303 

Douds, Robert F 896 

Dougherty, Dr. Geo. A. 558 

Douglass, Mitchell 929 

Douglass, Thompson M 563 

Downer, Samuel M 985 

Dulaney, William J 1033 

Duncan & Miller Glass Co 709 

Duncan, A. P 709 

Duncan, H. B 867 

Duncan, James E., Jr . 672 

Duncan, Hon. Thomas 1115 

Duncan, Thomas J 553 

Dunlap, George D 919 

Dunlap, James B 919 


Hodgens, A. M 779 

Hodgens, dames 779 

Holland, Hon. John B 1255 

Holleran, James 1210 

Holliday, Benjamin 1210 

Holmes, John S 057 

Hoon, James D 556 

Hopper, Arthur .1 1154 

Hopper, Harry B 1154 

Hopper, James 0 1154 

Hopper, Wesley J 1154 

Hormell, David R 1115 

Horn, Andrew 861 

Horn, J. Newton 1135 

Horn. William M 972 

Hornbake, George 8 1047 

Hornbake, Joseph I) . . 634 

Hornbake, Oliver O 1122 

Horner, Hiram C 716 

Hott, James J 580 

Hough, Samuel J. T 994 

Hough, William 1202 

Houston, William B. . . 677 

llowarth, William J 713 

Hoxworth, John A 853 

Hoyt, W. W 734 

Hughes, Workman, Jr 1244 

Humphries, Howard F 1122 

Hunter, John A 1323 

Hunter, Dr. Joseph W 1015 

Hunter, N. G 1037 

Hunter, William W 746 

Hupp, Joseph 957 

Hupp, Joseph C. R 959 

Huston. James D 837 

Hutchison, John S 1228 

Imhoff. Samuel 0 592 

Insley, Dr. William W 1344 

Irons, Rev. William 1) 646 

Irvin, John 1097 

Irwin, Clifford T 758 

Irwin, Fred C 1258 

Irwin, James D 862 

Irwin, Dr. J. B 745 

Irwin, Leman N 1 288 

Irwin, L. M 587 

Irwin, Lloyd 8., D. O 963 

Irwin, Milton C 585 

Irwin, Robert W 570 

Irwin, William M. 1022 

Jackson, Dr. Ckarle: I) 806 

Jackson, Ellsworth 803 

Jackson, J. Dallas 1117 

Jackman, Wilbur S 1220 

Jackson, Samuel II 577 

Jeffrey, Andrew R 577 

Jeffrey, Robert G 561 

Jenkins, William .061 

Jewell, John H 1303 

Johnson, Charles C 6b.' 

Johnson, Joseph B 561 

Johnson, George L 847 

Johnson, William M 1312 

Johnston, Aaron L 104S 

Johnston, Robert L 620 

•Tones, Albert S 990 

Jones, Benjamin T 864 

Jones, David G 1.179 

Jones, Rev. Fleming 1097 

Jones, Frank A 990 

Jones, George W. P 993 1 

Jones, Harry A 635 

Jones, I. L 902 

Jones, Mrs Lavinia B 1097 

Jones, R. L 1097 

Jones, Samuel D 1315 

Jordan, James A 690 

Junk, James 1015 

Hammerer, Joseph 1236 

Kamp, Frank 781 

Kamp, James 1 287 

Kane, Anthony 1089 

Kapp, Adolph 745 

Keeny, Henry M 862 

Kellogg, Clarence B 854 

Kelso, Benjamin McC 969 

Kelly, Sidney S 927 

Kennedy, John F 1290 

Kennedy, P. G 827 

Kennedy, William A 1019 

Kent, James 956 

Kerr, A. H. ‘ 688 

Kerr, James 945 

Kerr, Reuben 945 

Klein, J. William 1141 

Knox, R. W 757 

Kochendarfer, Charles 896 

Kocher, Frank 1199 

Kuntz, John R. 750 

Kurtz, J. H 722 

Kvle, Dr. Edward 5’ 1010 

Lacock, Dr. H. M 960 

Lacoek, Dr Samuel A 966 

Laing, John C 1084 

Lambie, Charles H 716 

Lane, William E 591 

Lank, Dr. John L 1081 

Larkin, M. W 792 

LaRoss. Dr. William A 950 

Lawton, Ernest C 733 

Le Comte, Alexis- C 727 

Lee, Hugh, Sr . 549 

Leech, Pressly 910 

Leet, Dr. Wil 1 ' im C 725 

Lehley, Lewis 1307 

Lenhart, G. W 1171 

Leslie, George C 905 

Leslie, William W 787 

Letherman, D. Victor 1279 

Lethe rman, Dr. John A 1027 

Lewis, Benjamin ..1305 

Lewis Bros 1305 

Lewis, Dr. O. G 1307 

Lewis, Thomas 1185 

Lewis, Thos. (Lewis Bros.) 1305. 

Leyda, Harrison II 90S 

Liggett, Perrv 569 

Lilley, Ellis M 1352 

Lilley, Thomas 970 

Lindley, V. L 857 

Lindlev, Demas 1074 

Lindley, Dciuas E 656 

Lindly, Dr. C. M 821 

Linn, Aaron T 1321 

Linn, Andrew M 853 

Linn, Dr. Chas. F 547 

Linn, C. M 1153 

Linn, Israel B 809 

Linn, John P 682 

Linn, Robert F 643 

Linn, W. B 584 

Linville, Jeremiah M 751 

Lockhart, William A 1336 

Long, W. K 90S 

Longwell, Capt. David 914 

Louttit, Henry 1172 

Lutton, R, G 809 

Luyten, J. C ...1313 

Lyle, Aaron K 670 

Lyle, Dr. John W 1139 

Lyle, J . Reed 1040 

Lyon, George M 901 

Lysle, George B 870 

Lytle, Benjamin B 978 

McBride, John B 976 

McBride, W. B 1004 

McBurney, James II .. . . 879 

McBurney, James M 585 

McBurney, John F 1000 

McCaffrey, William V 1330 

McCall, Dr. W. A 1176 

McCalmont, James A 1206 

McCalmont, James P 1090 

McCalmont, S. A 1079 

McCardle, John E 1354 

McCarrell, Lode wick 564 

McOarrell, Leman 1116 

McCartney, Dr. James 8 1122 

McCartney, Robert M 1098 

McCarty, B. R 1184 

McCarty, John S 709 

McChain, Robert C 1160 

McChain, William B 1021 

\i :( lain, John i i 738 

McClain, John V 1314 

McClay, John 562 

McClay, Robert H 556 

McClay, William W 588 

McCleery, Robert D 984 

McClelland, John L 732 

McClelland, William C 1115 

McClenathan, William 8 848 

McCTosky, David M 547 

McClure, Alex. C 768 

McClure. B. F 1242 

McClure, B. F 768 

McClure. John B 1305 

McClurg, John S 688 

McCollum, .T. Moss 661 

McConnell, Alexander , 1004 

McConnell, D. T 1013 

McCormick, John G 1068 

McCoy, J. R 942 

McCracken. B. E. . 811 

McCracken, John l r 676 

McCracken, W. E 1026 

MeCreight, Thomas A 73. 



Dunlap, William H 651 

Dunlap, William Hamilton 919 

Dunn, John M 799 

Dussere, Adrien 1337 

Duvall, Alexander B 1054 

Duvall, Chauncey S 1054 

Duvall, David E 1329 

Duvall, George W 978 

Duvall, Jefferson P 1101 

Dye, E. J 1005 

Dye, Mrs. Mary E 1005 

Eagleson, Lieut. A. S 695 

Eagleson, James P 793 

Eagleson, Dr. Bobert M 695 

Eakin, Ambrose L 625 

Ealy, John Nelson 1164 

Ealy, Jonathan 1312 

Eatherton, Harry A 798 

Eaton, Hon. Henry 658 

Eekbreth, Theodore .T ,. . . . .1331 

Edmonds, W. G 756 

Edwards, Bobert M 799 

Egan, Prank J 1363 

Ehrenfeld, Dr. Chas. L 1169 

Elliott, Ambler M 782 

Elliott, Humphrey B 863 

Elliott, Mrs. Jane 970 

Elliott, William J 1016 

Elliott, Wilson L 608 

Elwood, Bobert L 622 

Ely, Dr. John W 997 

Endeman, A. C 1288 

Enos, Dr. J. Clive 1103 

Erdelyi, Albert 1069 

Evans, Abel M 663 

Evans, Nathan B 663 

Ewing, James C 81S 

Ewing, B. N 1338 

Parmer, James MeD 864 

Parrar, John W 744 

Parrer, Samuel, Sr 542 

Passbacli, William 1159 

Pawcett, Thomas J 1306 

Pee, David H 1022 

Pee, William H 1026 

Pehl, Melchior 1030 

Penner, Samuel B 849 

Pereday, Benjamin . . .1249 

Pergus Family, The 1343 

Fergus, Hugh E 553 

Fergus, Samuel 1343 

Pergus, Thomas 1343 

Fergus, f. H. W 651 

Ferguson, A. J 757 

Ferguson, Charles F 980 

Figley, B. B 1356 

Finley, Francis M 567 

Fischer, F. W 1165 

Flack, John A 774 

Flack, Samuel L 850 

Flanegin, Bobert S 670 

Fleissner, George J ... 870 

Fleming, J. M 1336 

Fleming, Samuel E 1287 

Foie, , John J 1039 

Follet, Louis 689 

Forrest, J. B 710 

Forrest, Bichard 1335 

Forrest, Bobert B 858 

Forsythe, James S 774 

Forsythe, Bobert A 1091 

Foster, Edward L 856 

Fox, Chas. L 1171 

Frankie, Benjamin 1096 

Frantz, Dr. G. B 1287 

Frasher, Fielding 798 

Freeby, George H 1339 

French, Dr. Edward E 1183 

French, Capt. J. C 1183 

Fries, Bev. William D 946 

Fritchman, Christopher 955 

Frost, John W 1116 

Frye, Albert B .1090 

Frye, Charles O 1142 

Frye, C. K 1134 

Fulton, David M 1281 

Fulton, John C 635 

Fulton, John M., D. D. S 932 

Galbraith, James A 583 

Galbraith, James L 539 

Galbraith, W. K 539 

Gamble, Davis E 1066 

Gamble, John B 1205 

Garee, Samuel '. 1273 

Gaston, Alexander 633 

Gaston, Hon. John H 1135 

Gault, Henry M. 607 

Gault, James C 601 

Gault, John A 1256 

Gaut, William B 1090 

Geary, Bobert A 578 

Geddes, Dr. C. P 998 

Gedeon, Andrew A 1331 

Gerlein, Jacob .1170 

Ghrist, Harry T. . . 539 

Gibson, Carl E 696 

Gibson. Capt. James B 1280 

Gibson, James D 970 

Gibson, Levi W .1039 

Gillespie, James W 626 

Gilmore, George W 1125 

Gilmore, Hon. Hugh J 986 

Gilmore, William L 633 

Gladden, Bichard 591 

Gladden, Thomas D 1355 

Glasser, Otto P 1206 

Gottheld, Daniel 1058 

Gottheld, William C 1058 

Gowern, William ,T 740 

Graves, Dr. Chas. T 994 

Gray, David G 775 

Grayson, Harry S 862 

Greer, Culbert M 570 

Grier, Thomas S 720 

Griffiths, W. H 1176 

Grimes, James W 651 

Grimes, William S 1272 

Grubbs, John W 1195 

Gunn, William B 882 

Hackney, Charles E 861 

Hackney, Clark M 690 

Haines, Dr. Dempsey D 956 

Hall, D. Nelson 941 

Hall, Gen. John 576 

Hall, John G 572 

Hall, Thomas M 739 

Hallam, Alexander 940 

Hallam, Charles F 752 

Hallam, George T SIS 

Hallam, Glenn George 7S8 

Hallam, John W 770 

Hallam, Lewis 1104 

Hambry, Frank B 1209 

Hamilton, Alexander 662 

Hamilton, Harold A. 548 

Hamilton, Harry D 11S3 

Hancher, D. 0 939 

Hanna, Dr. Hugh 739 

Hanna, William H.\ 1331 

Happer, Maj. Andrew G 550 

Harbison, John M 1308 

Harding, C. V 850 

Hardy, Janies E 811 

Harper Bros 1127 

Harper, C. H 1127 

Harper, James C 1126 

Harper, William E 1127 

Harper, W. P 1127 

Harris. Nathaniel E 1193 

Harsha, Dr. Charles L 613 

Harsha, George V 1264 

Harshman, .Jacob 1125 

Harsbman, Jacob M 714 

Harshman', W. T 1285 

Hart, David 644 

Hart, Dunning 616 

Hart, Guy 1337 

Hart, Thomas B. . . . 794 

Hart, W. M 1019 

Hastings, E. W 1320 

Haube, Joseph J 1092 

Hawkins, Col. Alex. L 8S5 

Hawkins, William N 6S9 

Hayden, Harry B 738 

Hays, Bobert B 539 

Hayward, James B 1347 

Hazen, William 1056 

Hazlett, Dr. E. M 1253 

Hazlett, Samuel L 843 

Hazlett, William 11S9 

Heany, Bev. Brainerd F 950 

Heft'ran, James T 1058 

Henderson, James L 634 

Henderson, J B 562 

Henry, Bobert J 1160 

Hepler, J. A 597 

Herron, Joseph A 625 

Herron, Matthew C 1361 

Hess, John F 859 

Hetherington, B. L 984 

Higbe, James H 1010 

Hil l, C. E 1194 

Hill, Dr. H. H 1122 

Hill, James B 1347 

Hill, Thomas 1288 

Hindman, Dr. A. 0 592 

Hockley, William 984 

Hodge, Bennett n 999 


7 - 5 ' 

McCullough, Dr. William J. L. . . 873 McNary, .1 R 1293 

McCurdy, W. E 626 McNary, John R 1030 

McCutchen, H. Ed S53 McNary, John T .. . 

McDermid, Dr. Claude E 12S1 McNary, Joseph D. 

McDonald, Andrew 1149 McNary, Thomas H. 

. 835 
. 980 

McDonald, Charles A 1262 McNary, W. J 1139 

McDonald, Edward 722 McNelly, Harry 816 

McDonald, Hon. John \ 722 McNulty. Edward T 1140 

McDonnell, David 964 McNutt, Geo. J) 1235 

McDowell, James W 672 McNutt, Joseph K 858 

McDowell, John N 645 McPeake, George C 1364 

. 1330 

McDowell, John W 672 McPeak, S. N. 

McDowell, Joseph li 672 McPeak, William 

McDowell. Virgil M 1050 McPherson, J. R 1243 

McElree, William H 854 McWilliams, James M 636 

” ‘ . 728 

. 713 
. 998 

McEnrue, William H 682 McWilliams, Samuel 

McFarland, Joseph F 942 Me Wreath, Ewing S. 

McFarland, Samuel 1054 Mackey, John L 

McFarland, Samuel G 1072 Madgwiek, William . 

McGough, John L 1107 Manifold, John B 1130 

McGregor, E. G 1363 Manon. J. W.. D. D. S 665 


McGregor, William 1227 Manson, Robert A. 

Mcllvain, Robert 0 1231 Markey, John J... 

Mcllvaine, Albert F 881 Marple, Leslie G. 

Mcllvaine, Hon. John A 572 Marquis, Charles M 671 

McLvaiuo, John M 986 Marquis, Eli 1278 

1 Mcllvaine, W. A. H 1210 Marquis, J. G 786 

Mcllvaine. Winfield 641 Marquis, Rev. John A 1278 

Mcllvaine, W. R 616 Marquis, Prof. John S 1278 

McKay, Dr. Edwin 1083 Marquis, William K 1277 

McKay, William A 666 Marriner, Rufus S 822 

McKeag. Hugh E 854 Marsh, Hon. Addison C 586 

McKean,. William R 1075-TXlarsh, Col. L. M 586 

McKee, Rev. Clement L 1110 Marshman, John 

McKee, Dr. George L 1353 Martin, A. J. 



McKeAnan Family, The 793 Martin, James 1149 

McKennan, Dr. Thomas 880 Martin, J. Willis 1163 

JIcKennan, William B 794 Martin, John White.. 782 

McKeoiwn, John .1020 Martin, Sylvester 1219 

McKeown, Seott A 1020 Martin, William H 1163 

McKeown, W. W 1281 Mason. R. W 776 

McKinley, Alexander 1128 Hatchett, Joseph A... 

McKinley, Frank B 1219 Mathers, Richard J. . . 

McKinley, Thomas C 963 Mathias. J. W 

McKinney, Robert 993 Maxwell, Dr. John R. 

McLain, John W 922 Mebaffey, William J. 

. 989 
. S8S 
. 1009 
. 694 
. 557 

McLain, Hon. Joseph R 608 Meloy, R. H 811 

McLaughlin, n. J. 1356 Messner, David F 1147 

McLaughlin, Thomas E 1065 Mesta, Henrr 1009 

McLeod, E. S 1347 

McLeod 1 , George 1101 Meyer, Frank H 

McMahon, W. E 1096 Miller, D. C 

Metzger, Charles .1 1029 



McManus, Bartley 1323 Miller. E. L 1369 

McMillan, Thomas R 960 Miller, Frank W 945 

MeMurray Bros., The 1233 Miller, Dr. Geo. H 

McMurray, Charles R 1233 Miller, Isaac N 


McMurray, Harvey B 1233 Miller, John C. F 1258 

McMurray, Hervey 1233 Miller, Johu E 856 

” ” ' " .1083 

. 805 
. 719 
. 1015 

McMurray, James H 1233 Miller, John M 

tcMurray, James M 920 Miller, Richard G 

cMurray, Dr. J. B 950 Miller, Robert H„ D. O. . 

cMurray, John A 1233 Miller Thomas 

Murray, William J 1233 Miller, William .1 

all, James A 999 Mills, Harry 

ary, R 66a Milne, William L 882 

try Family Genealogy 1295 Minton, S. D 1353 

' iry, John 960 Mitchell, William T 1298 

Muffin, J. Bennett 

M offitt, John H 

Montgomery, James B 

Montgomery, John X 

Moody, George W 

Moore, Frederick W 

Moore, Harry F 

Moore, Dr. James M 

Moorhead, Mel S 

Morgan, John C 

Morgan, Lewis W 

Morgan, Luther M 

Morris, Benjamin F 

Morris, Joseph P 

Morron, George S • 

Morrow, Abraham Go. 

Morrow, Cyrus 60q 

Morrow, David 1128 

Morrow, Matthew 868 

Mounts, James A 868, 

Mount sei. R. C 13 

Muehlbauer, George 11 ‘ 

Muuce, William James U , 

Munee, William .1 

Munnell, J. Wilbur 

Munnel, Samuel W9' 

Murdoch, Alex., Jr 929 

Murdoch, John H 541 

Murdoch, William B 575 

Murphy, Edward J 1016 

Murphy, Dr. George H 642 

Murphy, John B 1354 

Murphy, John 0 710 

Murray, Dr. 17. B 

Myers, David W i 

Myers, John H . . 1 3( 

Myers, Thomas H 1001? 

Myford, George 1296 

Naser, Frederick G 797 

Needham, William M 75'. 

Neill, John C 913 

Nelson. William J 1061 

Newcomb, Neri 1038 

A'ichols. Andrew 986 

Xicodenv , William S 1080 

Noble, . hn G 110 

Noble. .\ lUriee II 110..' 

Noble, Mrs. Sarah J S3 4 

Noble, W. S 

N older, John 1 

Northrop, Blancber D L. 

Noss, Rev. Then. B 1 76 

Oliver, G. B 7V 

Oliver, W. S '1 > 

Orr, Robert E 326 

Osburn, J. J 725 

Painter, Joseph B 702 

Painter, Joseph M 117! 

Parkinson, DeWitt C 71?. 

Parkinson. R. W., Jr 

Parry. Thomas 

Pate, G S 

Patseh, Isaac C 

Patterson, D. Wallace 


son, John L 584 

«on, Rev. Thos ti(i6 

son, Josiah M 1125 

William. 1150 

William W 830 

■l, Dr. C. P 642 

l, James M 1226 

i, John 843 

'•i, John R 843 

i, Mathew 843 

n, William H 1270 

in, Wilson N S43 

Nicholas 1080 

C. E 72o 

PSflRDb, William E 1285 

Jei i, Clyde H 596 

Pfleghardt, W. B 1306 

Phennieie, William 132S 

Philips, John P 10S3 

Charles E 656 

lillipR, C. W 1354 

ill.'ps, E. N 1134 

T.;.ps, John M 684 

'lips, J. W 1272 

ins, Wayne J 1038 

Picfeett, John 1319 

Pickett, John H 990 

Pickett, Thomas P 1319 

Pickett, William . . . 786 

Piersol, Jacob W 1148 

Pinar, J. W : . . . 782 

Piper, Lewis D 1047 

j'Wna, Henry H 1332 

.ts, Robert B 1146 

• mire, Andrew G 1125 

jymire, Mrs. Melissa E 1125 

■’olnn. Samuel A 743 

Pollock, James W 1113 

' hillock, Oliver C 636 

Pollock, William T 762 

Porter, D. D 1141 

Post, Clark C 767 

Post, Hamilton R 1013 

Potter, Cuitis R 687 

Potter, James 990 

Potter, Mrs. Saiah J 990 

otter, William G- 714 

'otts, Jerome W 762 

Ports, ^homas M 933 

■•else, i. Hon. George IT 1201 

tg, J. Oliver 702 

■ rjug, Morgan R 703 

Prufidfit, A. J 715 

Brovines, John 1287 

Prewitt, James L 945 

Pn Hon. D. M 1352 

Pry., John. W 603 

Pylps, Samuel H 773 

ijuivey, John W 895 

Raab. John M 1075 

‘ ibe. James A 1314 

William T 824 

i, fhomas H 1289 

c, IT. B 731 

William C 732 

. Dr. John C 755 

Rankin, Jonathan 782 

Basel, David W 540 

Ray, John A 1029 

Rea, Charles M 678 

Reed, Campbell L 1311 

Reed, David S S67 

Reed, Haines H 58S 

Reed, Joseph 1196 

Reed, J. Winfield 806 

Reed, William P 744 

Reese, Thomas M 699 

Repman, Dr. Harry J 1331 

Reynolds, D. L 1289 

Richards, Isaac W.". 104S 

Richards, Thomas C 1040 

Richards, William H 663 

Richardson, J. E 1062 

Richardson, R. Kirk 1340 

Richardson, Stephen C 1034 

Richardson, Winfield P 1096 

Riethmiller, J. P ^ . . . 1147 

Rietseh, Louis 68 1 

Biggie, Henry M 1072 

Riggs, James A 1003 

Risbeck, George W 563 

Risbec-k, William B 849 

Riva, Frank ...1010 

Robb. James H 1362 

Robb, J. W 916 

Robinson, Robert H 650 

Rodgers, Mrs. Jane M 816 

Roney, W. G 1175 

Ross, Thomas " 1202 

Ross, William E 630 

'Rossell, H. B S31 

Roth, Andrew 111S 

Roth, Andrew J 1282 

Roth, Fred J 1282 

Roth, Joseph S 1118 

Rowe, Allison A 1359 

Runion, Dr. Legrand 921 

Ruple, Charles M 895 

Ruple, Gen. James .B 889 

Rush, Remembrance H 1200 

Russell, A. J 734 

Russell, James C 575 

Russell, J. A 773 

Russell. O. E 1175 

Russell, R. A 776 

Russell. William F 1209 

Russell, William M 965 

Eyau, James 1270 

Saekyflie, E. H 1286 

Sampson, Adam C 669 

Sampson, William T 1091 

Sawhill, John ' 786 

Schade, Charles G 873 

Schade, George C 1163 

Schafer, John B 1234 

Scblehr, George C. s 89 

Schwartz. Daniel 1185 

Scott, Albert D 5S0 

Spott, A. T 1369 

Scott, Charles W .. .1129 

Scoit, George D . 656 

Scott, .Tames K 1286 

Scott, Dr. Jesse Y 542 

Scott, John, Jr 1271 

Scott, John E.... 1250 

Scott, John T 956 

Scott, Joseph A 597 

Scott, Hugh C 1286 

Scott, M. W 542 

Scott, Oliver S < . . 1361 

Scott, Thomas 1262 

Scott, Thomas (Donegal Twp.) . . 548 

Scott, William 1339 

Scott, W. F 70S 

Scott, Dr. W. L 1254 

Scouvart, Frank J 743 

Seaman, Joseph H 1006 

Seng, Emil 1254 

Sessi, Angelo 1330 

Shaee, Samuel 758 

Shannon, Dr. J. H 906 

Shaw, Thomas 1231 

Shearer, Emanuel 744 

Simpler, Wilbur S 1118 

Sheplev, William E. . 1136 

Sherrard, J. B 822 

Shidler, Dr. W. J 793 

Shillito, AT. G 630 

Shipe, Abel W 841 

Shonts, John 1176 

SKrontz, C. A 913 

Shrontz, John F - 

Shrojitz, John F., Jr 913 

Sibert., James 1359 

Sidle, Samuel S 1308 

Simington, AValter 1328 

Simmons, John 1015 

Simpson, Harry B 564 

Simpson, John H 1028 

Simpson, William 1614 

Sipe. William H 955 

Slater, John 743 

Sleeth, John R. v 959 

Sloan, Dr. David E 991 

Smallwood, Bernard S 649 

Smith, Charles H ." 1337 

Smith, Henry 1 165 

Smith, Dr. J. K 1186 

Smith, John A 1304 

Smith, Joseph B 749 

Smith, Alary AX 615 

Smith, Samuel C 823 

Smith, William J 1851 

Smith, AAA McK 876 

Smith, AAA AA T 876 

Snyder, John 1201 

Snyder, John N 1364 

Snyder, Lewis 887 

Speer, Alexander 763 

Speer, James F 56S 

Speers, Chas. P 100f 

Speers, Charles P.. Jr 100 

Speers. Solomon C 9' 

Sphar, Henry C.., H 

Sprawls, George B . 

Sprawls, Jeremiah 

Sprowls, Dr. Jesse A 

Sprowles. Dr. J. X .'.... 

Sprowls. Seaman 


Sprovvls, Dr. William W 

Starr, John T 

Ston, John A 

Stephens, Charles E 

Stephens, W. R 

Stephenson, James 

Sterrett, L. E 

Stevenson, Orrin B 

Stevenson, Robert 

Stevenson, Robert P 

Stevenson, Robert P 

Stewart, Alex. J 

Stewart, Edward C 

Stewmrt, Frank T 

Stewart, Jacob M 

Stewart, J. Elliott 

Stewart, John W 

Stewart, Dr. Robert S 

Stewart, Dr. Robert V 

Stockdale, John 11 

Stocking, Hon. James S 

Stork, Henry 

Strain, Thomas R 

Stroud, Basil E 

Studa, J. R 

Sumny, David H 

Supler, James H 

Sutherland, George L 

Sutherland, J. C 

Sutherland, Thomas H 

Sutherland, W. J 

Swart, D. H 

Swingle, George 11 

Taggart, Charles L 

Tague, Edward H 

Talbot, Benjamin M 

Taylor, D. S 

Taylor, Hon. James F 

Taylor, J. B 

TajTor, John R 

Taylor, Matthew 

Taylor, O. K., Jr 

Taylor, William H. H 

Temple, Henry W., D. D ... 

Templeton, David A 

Templeton, James M 

Tener, Hon. John K 

Theakston, H. A 

Theurer, William G 

Thistle, Archibald 

Thistle, Dr. Joseph L 

Thomas, Charles F 

Thomassy, Fernand A 

Thompson, Dr. Albert E 

Thompson, Boyd B 

Thompson, Charles F 

Thompson, George A 

Thompson, John M 

Thompson, Noah 

Thompson, Samuel 

Thompson, William II 

Thompson, Dr. William R. . . 

Thompson, William S 

Thompson, William W 

886 Throckmorton. Dr. William S. . . . 629 

7 1 0 Titus, John II 822 

1098 Tomer, Lewis G 1340 

601 Tope, Thomas J 1028 

1102 Troutman, Charles B 930 

"02 x Tucker, John 1363 

"27 Tuttle, John 1 1250 






















1 1 80 



. 757 

1 1U2 













Ulery, Joseph G 1189 

Underwood, Joseph H., Jr 800 

Underwood, Joseph. Sr 1053 

Underwood, Thomas J 1324 

Valentour, August 1225 

Vance, R, C 652 

Vance. Willison K 1133 

Vance, William S 704 

Van Eman, James .T 769 

Van Eman, S. L 769 

Van Keuren, Henry 715 

Van Keuren, Herbert G 715 

Van Kirk, Charles 842 

Van Kirk. Charles C 1121 

Van Kirk, James H 640 

Van Kirk, John C 892 

Van Kirk, John H 892 

Van Kirk, John W 901 

Van Ness, Aaron 1320 

Van Orden, Louis 897 

Van Voorhis, Chas. E . . .1114 

Van Voorhi6, John 1220 

Veatch, Dr. Nicholas S 1076 

Veeser, Nicholas 1076 

Vester, David C 848 

Voye, Louis 1117 

Wagner, Adam 

Wagner, George 

Walker, George T 

Walker, J. C 

Walker, John N 

Wallace, James E 

Wallace, James M 

Wallace, J. Harper 

Warne, A. Clark 

Warne, Boyd E 

Warne. William P 

Warrick, George M. . . . 

Warrick, John W 

Warrick. William J. . . 
Washabaugh, Jeremiah S 

Watkins, George A 

Walson. Alfred 

Watson, James 

Weaver, John H 

Weaver, Thomas C 

Webb, Asbnry B 

Webb, Samuel C 

Weir, Adam 

Weir, Morris R 

Weirich, Israel 

Weirich, Jacob 

Weirich, William R.... 
Weirich, V illiam W. . . . 
























Weise, E. R 1298 

Wells, John J 1 193 

Westlake, James F 707 

White, John P l 232 

White, Samuel D 1247 

White, Simon 558 

White, William G 1247 

Whitehill, M. F 925 

Whitham, William F 567 

Whitledge, William T 1352 

Widdowson, Dr. W. Charles 1273 

Wies, George 1332 

Wiles, Hon. John W 616 

Wiley, James A . 920 

Wiley, Judson 1263 

Wilkins, Fred T .1109 

Wilkins, Capt. Henry i> .1109 

Wilkinson, Donald G 792 

Wilkinson, George T 1335 

Will, Jacob . . . ': 1299 

Willets, El.nore A 1033 

Williams, David L 1338 

Williams, Harry L 701 

Williams, Howell P 902 

Williams, William F 957 

Williams, William W 1356 

Wilson, Hugh 689 

Wilson, James B 1048 

Wilson, J. Frank 855 

Wilson, John 1003 

Wilson, John R 1185 

Wilson, Robert 1140 

Winer, Samuel Z 1266 

Wingett, Silas 1244 

Winters, W. J 827 

Wise, David H 881 

Wishart, Dr. David 1005 

Woods, Rev. Henry 8S2 

Woods, W. F 1219 

Workman, Maj. William 628 

Wright, John S 906 

Wright. William A 1058 

Wulf Theodore 1005 

Wylie, James B 869 

Wylie, Robert D 1073 

Wylie, William 5TS 

Yarnell, Dr. Chas. W * 91 

Yates. Harry M 

Yohe, Charles N 1319 

Yohe, Clyde 621 

Yohe, James L -506 

Yohe, Joseph X '355 

Yohe, Lewis N 621 

Young, John A 610 

Zahniser, A. J 829 

Zahniser Family, The 59S 

Zahniser, Michael 598 

Zahniser, Montgomery .1 806 

Zahniser, M. R ‘ 939 

Zahniser, Y. 0 755 

Zellers. William H i<o3 

Zelt. Albert 926 





~= or E- 



Compiled Br Ch/inet & Armstrong, 



'MOU 6 TO* 



,bl,aine ! 

F'R A N 


y' 0 j:AVr < 

fiistory of Ula$bington County 



Washington County Established 1781 — Its Streams — Location of County Seat— In the Forest— Indians — Banditti — 

il'ars and Complications — The First Academy. 

Washington County, so called because it was the first 
county erected in the State of Pennsylvania after George 
Washington became illustrious, lies southwest of the 
city of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, its nearest boundary 
line being about ten miles from that city. A circle of 
50 miles in diameter, drawn around the city of Pitts- 
burg, it is said, would include the richest part of the 
earth, and Washington County is by nature the most 
richly endowed portion of that circle. Whether or not 
this be an exaggeration, it will be difficult to disprove 
the statement. 

A study of its history and resources, its hundreds of 
thousands of acres of finest pasture and agricultural 
lands, its millions of tons of bituminous and coking coal, 
its great lakes of golden, flowing, amber oil, its brilliant 
lighting and wonderful heating natural gas, its salubrious 
atmosphere filled with mysterious, powerful, dangerous 
electricity, all ready waiting to be used in its multitude 
of mills and factories, should be interesting. It is 
reasonable to believe that no other small portion of the 
United States has been such a cause of turmoil because 
of complications and overlapping of titles and sup- 
posed titles as the original territory of this county and 
the region of Pennsylvania adjoining it. No other county 
has had two courts and two sets of State officials man- 
aging its affairs at the same time, with their manifold 
conflict of jurisdiction, and probably no other county 
in the State has a judicial bench better qualified to settle 
disputes about lands and chattels, than has this county 
at this present writing. 

The Secretary of Internal Affairs in Pennsylvania 
says (Report for 1895, Section A, pp. 208, 212) : 
“Today, within the territory so long a matter of 

contention, land titles are so well settled that there 
is probably no section of the State, unless in the three 
original and a few others of the older counties, in which 
there is less land litigation than in the counties formed 
out of the disputed district.” 

Washington County was erected from Westmoreland 
County by an act of the Legislature of Pennsylvania 
passed the 28th day of March, 1781, for the reason, as 
stated in the preamble of the act, that the inhabitants 
of that part of Westmoreland County which lies west 
of the Monongahela River had represented to the 
Assembly of the State the great inconvenience and hard- 
ships they were under from being so far remote from 
the seat of justice and the records of titles in Westmore- 
land County. Therefore, to accommodate the people with 
more , convenient courts and public county offices, Wash- 
ington County was established to include all the land in 
the southwest corner of Pennsylvania. 

It was bounded on the north by the Ohio River, on 
the east by the Monongahela River, and on the south and 
west by lines uncertain in location and description, sup- 
posed to divide Pennsylvania from Virginia. 

By the same breath and ink that created Washington 
County, the present location of the county seat was 
designated as the place where the courts would be held, 
for the said act of March 28, 1781, directs the electors 
to meet at the house of David Hoge, at the place called 
Catfish’s Camp,* to hold their elections, “And courts 
shall sit and be held in said county at the house of David 
Hoge aforesaid” . . . “until a court house shall be 
built.” The present borough of Washington is located 

* Named after a famous Indian chief and catled by some 
"Catfish Camp.'’ 



on the ground then occupied by Catfish’s Camp. David 
Hoge claimed, under paper, title from Joseph Hunter 
and his three children, Abraham, Joseph and Martha, 
but the Indian warrior, “Catfish,’’ whose Indian name 
was Tingoocqua (sometimes spelled Tingooqua), was, 
and probably had been residing on this land for many 
years prior to 1781. He had his camp not far from 
the present location of Main street depot of the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad. Afterward be moved it to 
Shirl’s Woods, now in the Eighth Ward, and northwest of 
the Chestnut street depot of the Pittsburg, Columbus, Cin- 
cinnati & St. Louis Railway, and from thence he went to 
Ohio, moved and removed no doubt by the offensive 
encroachments of the pale-faced race. Apparently 
neither Hoge nor the Hunters ever resided in Washington 

Thus was established the county of Washington and 
its county seat, within a mile of the center of said 
county as it was originally, and almost in the center 
of the county as it now exists. As will be shown here- 
after the present boundaries of Washington County do 
not now reach the Ohio River on the north nor the Vir- 
ginia ’ ne on the south, the north part having been 
contributed to help erc't Beaver and_Allegheny Coun- 
ties, and the southern part to liely erect Green County 
Neither was David Hog< nor were the Hunters the first 
owners or occupants of this land, nor the courts estab- 
lished by the Act of 1781 the first courts that were 
provided for and held within the boundaries of Washing- 
ton County. 

The Indian nations were here as owners, for they 
were nations, many nations, or tribes if you prefer, with 
tribal relations and government, and subject to tribal 
councils and decisions, just as certainly as a resident in 
Pennsylvania or Virginia is subject to the laws and 
decisions of his State. There was tlys difference, how- 
ever. Their titles to their lands we.e not recorded ii^ 
writing, and the Pennsylvanian and Virginian being able 
to survey and procure written evidence and description 
of land, '■ontest.-i! most bitterly for many years with 
the Indians and the French and the English, as well 
as among themselves, over the ownership and for the 
possession of the land kuk anuivn and definitely desig- 
nated in written records as Washington County. But 
wampum belts transferred by the red man were not as 
good evidence of title as the written book of the pale- 

What kind of a land is this and was this, that caused 
these hitler dispute, ’egal. legislative and with imple- 
ments of war, bringing often swift death, by stealth and 
open battle, and also imprisonment and oppression 
through the conflict of laws and jurisdiction? The same 
streams of water running here now, ran then. The 
Big Raccoon Creek, running north, and emptying into 

the Ohio, a few miles below Beaver River; the Chartiers 
Creek (named for a Frenchman), running northeast and 
emptying into the Ohio a few miles below the junction 
of the Allegheny with the Monongahela; Peters, Mingo, 
Pigeon, Maple, Pike Run, and Big Ten Mile Creeks, 
flowing east to help swell the Monongahela River; 
Wheeling Creek, Middle Wheeling Creek, Buffalo Creek, 
Cross Creek, Harmon’s and King’s Creeks, hurrying west 
out through the Panhandle of Virginia, to join the Ohio, 
all good-sized creeks, with their headwaters well in 
toward the center of the county, are fed by an innumer- 
able number of rippling streams, which all seem to point 
toward Washington as the very center and heart of that 
wonderful horseshoe formed by the Monongahela and 
the Ohio Rivers. (Examination of Vanhook’s map of 
Washington County, published in 1903, will surprise 
_those who have never studied this watershed.) 

This county was then, in 1781, a dense forest, only 
broken by small patches, with dead trees, made so by 
the early pioneer or burnt for a clearing by the Indians. 
The site where Washington nov: stands, then known as 
Catfish Camp and Bassettown, was a vast thicket of 
black hawthorn, wild plums, hazel bushes, shrub oak3 
and briars. Trees were here in abundance, for the 
stumps were standing in the one street of Washington 
seven years after the county was ereeted and the plot 
of Bassettown laid out. Fully 100 years afterward the 
trunks of some of these trees, still in sound condition, 
were taken out of North Main street in front of Phoenix 
Row when excavation was being made to lay the first 
sewc 1- pipes some 12 feet below the street surface. 

Those who resided here were in a wild state of mind 
also because of Indians and banditti. The Supreme 
Executive Council of the State of Pennsylvania, on 
October 11, 1781, assembled in Philadelphia, ordered the 
lieutenant of militia in Washington County to call forth, 
agreeable to law, upon his requisition, such militia as 
may be necessary for the post and protection of the 
county, and on November 24, after a free conference 
being held, it appeared to be the sentiment of the coun- 
cil and of the committee “that an additional company is 
necessary for the defence of Washington County, and 
to complete the four companies now established, and that 
it might be proper to make application to Congress 
for such assistance from the United States as would 
render an incursion into the Indian country prudent and 
practicable. The following mentioned depredations, and 
no doubt many similar cases, were known to the council 
at that time. 

Col. Daniel Broadhead, of the Eighth Pennsylvania 
Regiment, had mitten to Washington on the 31st of 
July, 1779: “I have just learned that two soldiers have 

lately been killed at Fort Laurens, two boys at Wheeling 
Creek, and one man slightly wounded, and a soldier last 



evening at Fort McIntosh (Beaver), and a soldier 
slightly wounded. ’ ’ 

They had been informed by letter, March 18, 1780, 
that, “Last Sunday morning, at a sugar camp upon 
Raccoon Creek, fiyo men were killed and three lads and 
three girls taken prisoners.” 

A year before this date, says Bausman, in his history 
of Beaver County (1904), “Between 40 and 50 men, 
women and children had been killed and taken from this 
region in less than two months.” 

Raccoon Church in Smith Township was located close 
to Beilor’s Fort, and the first person buried in its ceme- 
tery, Mrs. Martha Bigger, died May 20th, 1780, in a 
fort located on Miller’s Run, where the family had fled 
for safety. Shortly afterward, nearby, were buried Mr 
MeCandless and two Shearer brothers, who had been 
scalped by the Indians while gathering in their harvest. 
(History of Raccoon Church, by Miss Margaret S. Stur- 
geon (1899;. 

On December 11, 1781, Col. Lewis Farmer was directed 
by council to purchase for the company of rangers to 
be raised in Washington County, 50 coats, 50 waistcoats, 
50 pairs of overalls, 50 hats, 100 shirts, 100 paiTS of 
shoes and 50 blankets. On December 19, Captain Joseph 
Stiles, commissary of military stores, was directed to 
deliver to Hon. Dorsey Penticost, Esq., five hundred- 
weight of gun powder, and one thousand-weight of lead, 
1,000 flints,* to be forwarded to Col. James Marshall, 
lieutenant of the County of Washington, for the defence 
of the frontiers of said county. 

December 29, John Canon, Esq. (for whom Canonsburg 
Borough was named), was given an order for supplying 
the militia and rangers of Washington County, which 
may be employed for the defence of the frontier, with 
one pound of bread, one pound of beef or three-quarters 
of a pound of pork, 1 gill of whiskey per day and 1 
quart of salt and 2 quarts of vinegar for every 100 
rations, also soap and candles. John Canon was to 
receive twelve pence per ration, and on February 15, 
1783, his bill was approved for £98, 6s, a balance for 
rations, furnished to militia and rangers in Washing- 
ton County from February, 1782, to February, 1783. 

On January 5, 1782, Henry Taylor was entrusted with 
the sum of £250 specie, to be by him delivered to Capt. 
John Hughes, Lieutenant Peterson and Ensign Morrison, 
for the purpose of recruiting the company of rangers 
for the County of Washington. Henry Taylor, Esq., was 
the first judge of Washington County, and great-grand- 
father of our present judge, J. F. Taylor. 

April 2, 1782, an order on the state funds was drawn, 
to pay Adam Poe £12, 10s, “for ta kin g an Indian scalp 

* Flints were pieces of flinty rock which were fastened 
In the hammer of the guns to produce sparks when struck 
against Iron close to the powder-pan In the gun. They had 
no other known way of firing the powder. 

in the County of Washington, agreeably to the order of 
the board.” 

July 4, 1782, Col. James Marshal, lieutenant, or mili- 
tary commander in Washington, wrote from Catfish 
to Gen. William Irvine, commanding at Fort Pitt, as 
follows: “Repeated application has been made to me 

by the inhabitants on the south line of this county, 
namely from Jackson’s Fort to Buffalo Creek, and I 
am at a loss to know what to ’do. The people declare 
they must immediately abandon their habitations unless 
a few men are sent to them during harvest.” 

Petitions were also sent in to Irvine at Fort Pitt 
from many parts of Washington and Westmoreland Coun- 
ties, setting forth the distress of the inhabitants, and re- 
questing him to furnish men to protect them during 
harvest time and at their mills. 

It is doubtful whether any help was sent to Washing- 
ton County from Fort Pitt at that time, for the troops 
there hod great difficulty in obtaining supplies and 
“cut a truly deplorable and at the same time despicable 
figure. ” “ It is difficult to determine whether they were 
white men.” They were in such a state of insubordina- 
tion that more than one was court martialed and 
sentenced for execution, and at least one was executed. 

September 28, 1782, the Council directed the lieutenant 
of Washington County to call out no more militia after 
the expiration of the time of those now in service; his 
Excellency, George Washington, having received intelli- 
gence that the British have called in all the savages, and 
that no more parties are to be permitted to be sent out 
against the frontiers. The Council, taking into considera- 
tion the proclamation of the 22d day of April, 1780, 
offering a reward for Indian scalps, and the reasons 
upon which the same was found no longer continuing, 
resolved March 21, 1783, that the same be made null 
and void, and ordered that notice of the re-ocation of 
this Indian scalp bounty be sent to the lieutenant of 
the County of Washington. 

Revoking the scalp bounty, and “calling in,” or call- 
ing off, the savages by the British, did not put a stop 
to the massacres, for many more heart-rending scenes 
are described in the histories and traditions of this 
region. Dr. John W. Diusmore, in his “Scotch-Irish in 
America” (page 39), writes: 

“Even after they had been driven across the Ohio, 
the Indians made frequent forays, burning cabins, laying 
waste the settlements, and massacring the people. I 
have heard my grandfather tell of such an invasion as 
late as 1874, when within a few miles of the present 
city of Pittsburg, the whole county was devastated by 
a sudden incursion of savages. He was a little fellow of 
five, and, with his two elder sisters and three little 
cousins, was playing in the edge of the clearing, while 
the parents were scutching flax across the ravine. The 
Indians broke from the woods, barbarously tomahawked 



two of his little cousins, and took their sister, a girl of 
fifteen, prisoner, while he and his sisters by swift flight 
escaped. ’ ’ 

A man was killed, in 1783, within a mile of the new 
county seat (Washington), on Chartiers Creek, and a 
dozen persons captured. Two of these, Mrs. Walker 
and a boy, regained their liberty, but the others were 
carried to the Shawnee towns on Big Miami River. 
(2 Penna. Archives, Vol. 10, p. 167. Old Westmoreland, 
by E. W. Hassler, p. 1S9; 1900.) 

These are a few of the very many things which 
happened suddenly, and are mentioned here in order to 
impress on the reader the dreadful insecurity among these 
lovely hills at the time when the court was erected for 
the purpose of bringing order out of confusion. They 
are best expressed by Dr. Doddridge, as quoted by 
Blaine Ewing, Esq., at the Canonsburg Centennial. (See 
Canonsburg Centennial, by Blaine Ewing, Esq., pp. 129, 
130; 1902.) 

“Dr. Doddridge tells us that in his lifetime he had 
noticed marked changes in climate. When he first ven- 
tured into this section the snow lay long and deep amid 
the unbroken forests, and the summers were short and 
hot. With the first breath of spring, the season that 
brings such joy to the hearts of all in this day, the 
fathers and mothers of that day looked with a kind of 
terror on the trees, as they clothed themselves in verdure, 
and deepened the gathering shadows of pathless woods. 
Then it was that the Indian chose his season of warfare 
and rapine. Then was the season of their scanty har- 
vests, planted in fear, and worked in parties large enough 
to afford a respectable fighting force, while the families 
huddled together in the stockades and forts, watched 
and waited for the return of the men. Not a single time 
did they open the gates of their forts in the mo: ing, 
without the fear that the savages were lying in a; bush. 
Then the adventurous pioneer, who refused to listen to 
war nin gs, boasted that his crop of corn was better 
worked than that of his more circumspect neighbor, who 
retired within the fort at the first call of spring. If 
the savages had been seen in the neighborhood, runners 
weTe sent out in t al] directions. At night he came 
stealthily to the window or door, and gently rapped to 
awaken the sleepers. Constant fear taught our fore- 
fathers to sleep lightly. A few whispered words ex- 
changed, and he disappeared in the forest to warn the 
next cabin. All was then quick and silent preparation. 
No light dare be struck, not even to stir the fire, but 
dressing the children as quickly as possible, and praying 
that the baby would continue to sleep, — for his cry- 
might mean destruction, — they caught up a few articles 
in the dark, and taking the rifle from the peg, feared 
every shadow, while they stole off to the fort. The 

older children were so imbued with fear, that the name 
Indian, whispered in their ears, made them mute. ’ ’ 

In May, 1784, three years after the county was organ- 
ized, a letter written from Uniontown, says: 

“The Banditti have established themselves in some 
part of this country, not certainly known, but thought 
to be the deserted part of Washington County, whence 
they make frequent incursions into the settlements, under 
cover of night, terrifying the inhabitants, sometimes 
beat them unmercifully, and always rob them of such 
property as they think proper, and then retire to their 
lurking places.” 

On June 28, 1784, the county commissioner of “Wash- 
ington County v.rote to his Excellency President Dickin- 
son, of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 
stating, that, 

“This county, as well as Payette, has for some time 
past been greatly affected by a troop of robbers from 
the lower parts of the state, namely the Doanes and 
others, who by frequent burglaries and robberies, under 
the protection and countenance of divers evil disposed 
persons amongst ourselves, have reduced us to the 
necessity of calling out parties of the militia and making 
general search for the burglars and their accomplices, 
whereupon the said burglars, with numbers of horses, 
negroes and other valuable property, of which they 
had robbed the inhabitants (in the most daring and 
insolent manner), set off for Detroit. After one hun- 
dred miles of pursuit, Abraham Doane, one who called 
himself Thomas Bichason, and two women who professed 
to be wives to some of the party, were captured, and the 
greatest part of the property recovered, but the others 
escaped . ’ ’ 

These and several others, held as accomplices, were 
confined in the jail, although it was by the county com- 
missioners declared to be insufficient, and this same 
Abraham Doane had been rescued from it once before 
by an armed party. A strong armed guard was kept 
constantly over them, and the commissioners were at a 
loss to know what to do with them. 

The commissioners apparently forgot that they had a 
three-year-old court just at hand which could dispose 
of them, and which did afterward dispose of such as 
could not escape, as is shown by the record and conviction 
of Thomas Richardson, for burglary, and his execution 
on Gallows Sill, near the present residence of Mr. 
Joseph C. Baird, in the Thornycroft plan of lots, on 
October 2, 1784. 

The year 17S1 stands very prominent in history. 
Pennsylvania was on the verge of a war with the colony 
of Virginia over the state line, an'd the right of govern- 
ment and autno. ty in Washington County, and also in 
Pittsburg. No landowner knew whether his holdings of 
land were in Virginia or in Pennsylvania. So great 
was the opposition to the control of this region by Penn- 
sylvania, that a number of prominent men endeavored to 
prevent the first judges of our courts from obtaining 



their commissions. Virginia was pursuing, among others, 
some of the very persons who had recently been elected 
justices under the act organizing this county, seeking 
to arrest them, and many persons were refusing to aid 
the military commanders in their effort to protect this 
county from the Indian marauders. The war between 
England and her thirteen colonies, covering from 1776 
to 1783, had already been exhausting the people for 
five years, and she had the savage tribes for her allies, 
with but a few exceptions. The frontiers were left 
largely to themselves, without much aid from the colonial 
government, to act as buffers against the Indian. 

The very month Washington County had its birth, the 
Articles of Federation between the colonies, “to be 
forever free and independent,’’ were adopted by all the 
states. After this, and before our first court convened, 
the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, having been two years at Ten 

Mile Church, wrote upon his church book that communion 
services could not be held prior to that time “because 
of the incursions of the savages.” Tor the same reason 
Redstone Presbytery failed to meet in September, as 
bad been appointed. The very month when the Wash- 
ington County Court first met, Lord Cornwallis sur- 
rendered his British troops at Yorktown, which virtually 
closed the war. One little ray of light begins to glimmer 
in this gloom. Thaddeus Dodd and his neighbors that 
year built a cabin near his house, and here began “the 
first classical and mathematical school or academy west 
of the mountains,” the beginning of Washington Col- 
lege, now the far-famed Washington and Jefferson 

In the midst of all these “fightings within and wars 
without,” Washington County was set upon its feet, and 
largely left to shape its own destiny. 



Early Explorations — Early Claims of England and France — Washington County Included in Both — Conflicting Grants 
—George Washington the Envoy — His First Sight of This County — His First Battle — His First Entry on 
Washington County Soil is with Foreign Troops — Braddock’s Defeat — Effect Upon Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia — Extends to South Carolina — Fort Pitt Established — Success and Peace of Paris. 

No one can understand the history of Washington 
County without going far back of its origin; therefore, 
it is necessary to take a brief review of the early his- 
tory of Virginia and of the Colony and State of Penn- 
sylvania. Redstone — Old Port, Fort Bird, both now 
known as Brownsville; Pittsburg, called Fort Duquesne 
by the French, Fort Pitt by the English and Pennsylvan- 
ians and Fort Dunmore by the Virginians, Logans- 
town, (Logstown), on the Ohio River, 17%. miles and 57 
perches from Fort Pitt (Bausman’s Hist, of Beaver 
County, pp. 972, 976); Beaver, formerly Fort McIntosh; 
Mingo Bottom, 2% miles below Steubenville; Fort Henry, 
now Wheeling — all have a history linked very closely 
with Washington County. They were just across the 
river from Washington County, and the wars and dis- 
putes between the French and English, the Penn- 
sylvanians and Virginians, the Indians and the indi- 
viduals and governments of intruders, the farmer dis- 
tiller and exciseman, which affected the one, affected the 
other just as seriously. 

Who were the Indians? How did they come to give 
up their possession and right of possession? Why was 
this region not settled by the Scandinavians, the Spanish, 
or French-speaking peoples, instead of by the English? 
Why was the settlement not made by the “Virginian 
gentlemen,” as they were pleased to call themselves, or 
by released convicts, as was attempted by the French 
near Montreal a few hundred miles north of us, instead 
of being made by the sturdy Scotch-Irish, Quakers, and 

People differing very much from those who were in 
Washington County when our county government was 
established, were the first to discover the ocean shores 
east of us, and to make settlements there which would 
give them claims to all lands extending back westward. 
The Scandinavians from the north found our coasts 
several times just before and just after the year 1000, 
made some weak settlements, and explored along the 

Atlantic Coast perhaps as far south as eastern Virginia. 
They called this coast line Vinland, a name suggested 
no doubt by the sight and taste of wild fruit. Although 
the land was pleasing and beautiful to their eyes, and 
they had as good a title to it as either the English or 
French obtained 400 years afterward, yet they abandoned 
it. During three centuries the Norsemen visited this Vin- 
land, if traditions are correct, and from the same kind 
of authority came news of a visit from Prince Madoc of 
Wales in 1170. (Official Reference Library of U. S., 
p. 37; 1901.) 

John Cabot, a Venetian by birth but with his home in 
England, seeking for the northwest passage to the East 
Indies, discovered North America by reaching the cold 
and uninviting coast of Labrador in the year 1497, 
and planting the flag of England, took possession in the 
name of King Henry the Eighth, who had sent him. 
This was fifteen years before the aged Ponce de Leon, 
while seeking for the fountain of perpetual youth, the 
first Spaniard to see North America, planted the Spanish 
banner in Florida, and two years before Amerigo 
Vespucci saw America. The following year his son, 
Sebastian Cabot, returned and sailed from Labrador 
along the coast through more than twenty degrees of 
latitude, until he had passed the entrance to the Chesa- 
peake Bay, below the site of our national capital. 

It was in this manner that the right of England to 
the better part of North America was first declared, 
and this included Washington County, which lies 220 
miles back from the Atlantic Coast. The “right” in 
question may be strongly criticised by posterity, as it 
rested wholly upon the fact of first view by a company of 
English sailors looking shoreward from their vessels, in 
the summer of 1498. But this first view was called 
discovery, and the Christian nations of Europe had 
agreed among themselves that discovery should hold, that 
it should constitute a right which they would mutually 
respect and defend. This right of coast line discovery 



■ ^TPR, lenox And 



carried with it the right, or at least, the claim to all land 
extending back from the coast discovered. 

In this compact not the slightest attention was paid 
to the rights of possession and occupancy enjoyed for 
unknown generations by the native peoples of the new 
lands. All the claims of the original races were brushed 
aside as of not the slightest consequence or validity. 

It took more than 100 years for the English to effect 
any permanent settlement, although during this period 
they had found courage to sail directly across the ocean 
instead of by the islands of the south, or Labrador in 
the north, and had fallen in love with the sunny country 
around Eoanoke, which has ever since been called Vir- 
ginia, in honor of the virgin queen Elizabeth. During 
this delay the French had, in the year 1524, traveled 
along the coast line, from what is now New Jersey, 
northward, to Newfoundland; and the king called this 
discovery New France. They had given name to the 
town Montreal, destined to be a strategic fort and base 
of French operations, and in 1603 had granted the 
sovereignty of the land froM the latitude of Philadelphia 
to one degree north of Montreal (in Canada), to the 
French count, Gaust or de Mont, with the right to 
monopolize the trade in furs. 

Three years after France assumed to grant ownership 
to this vast area, England’s king, James I, issued two 
great patents to men of his kingdom, authorizing them 
to possess and colonize that portion of America lying 
between the 34th and 45th parallels of latitude. Geo- 
graphically, the great territory thus granted extended 
from Wilmington, north Carolina, to northward of Ban- 
gor, Maine, and westward to the Pacific Ocean. 

The reader will notice that the French and English 
grants of title overlapped, thus interfering with each 
other as well as with the Indian possessions, and that 
the lands of Washington County were included in both 
the French and English claims of discovery, and close 
to the latitude of Philadelphia. The French claimed all 
the land drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
because one from their nation, La Salle, had explored 
it and discovered its mouth. This claim also included 
Washington County, because it was drained by the Ohio, 
a tributary of the Mississippi. 

The discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi was 
in 1681, the same year in which William Penn obtained 
a charter for hi 3 possessions, now known as Pennsylvania, 
and just one hundred years before the organization of 
Washington County. A Virginian, Colonel Wood, is 
alleged to have explored several branches of the Mescha- 
ceba (Mississippi) from 1654 to 1664. (Western Annals, 
p. 94.) 

The result of these claims was war between France and 
Great Britain, extending from the year 1753 to the year 
1760, for the control of the upper Ohio Eiver region, the 

forks of the Ohio Eiver, with the little unnamed fort 
then being erected by Ensign Ward, as the first point 
for contest. This was known as the French and Indian 
War, a general “rnixup” between the French and their 
Indian allies on the one side, and the British and their 
Indian allies on the other. The question fought out 
was, who should possess this region where the Ohio 
gathers its waters. 

The English people who came early to America came 
for homes or for peace and liberty, and were not so 
much inclined to roving as the French, who had settle- 
ments at Montreal, Canada, Detroit, and other cold 
regions not so well adapted to early agriculture. 

The former were held together in self-centered settle- 
ments because of some religious or selfish principle, 
for which they had left the Mother Country, while the 
latter moved about and explored more readily, inter- 
mingled more easily with the Indians and intermarried 
with them. If it had not been that the Iriquois Indians, 
known as the Six Nations, had their headquarters in 
central New York, between the English and the French, 
and if the Iriquois had not harbored an ancient grudge 
against the latter, the French might have held the 
headwaters of the Ohio, embracing the whole of Wash- 
ington County. An intimation of conditions, differing 
from what we now enjoy, is hinted at in the language 
of a recent writer, when he says : 1 ‘ The intermarrying 

policy of the Latin nations had in the main been pro- 
ductive of peace, while the civilizing policy of the 
European settlers has led to many difficulties, but the 
civilizing policy has saved the white race from a serious 
degradation. ’ ’ 

This war is here very briefly reviewed because the first 
messenger between the two races was our hero and name- 
sake, and because the little cannon at the little unnamed 
fort may have been heard and the smoke from the fire 
at the same place when Fort Duquesne was abandoned, 
may have been seen afar off by our oldest inhabitant, 
Catfish, here in his camp, twenty-five miles away. 

George Washington, one of the adjutants-general of 
troops in Virginia Colony, hurried along the Indian 
paths, in the late of fall of 1753, through “heavy rains 
and vast quantities of snow,” in search of the French, 
to deliver them a letter from his colonial governor, Din- 
widdie, demanding of them in the name of his Britannic 
Majesty, what they meant by building forts up along 
the Allegheny Eiver, at Venango and elsewhere, in dis- 
regard of the rights and claims of England 

The young traveler, 21 years of age, following around 
the big streams Monogahela and Ohio, from the mouths 
of Turtle Creek to Logstown (from above Homestead 
nearly to Beaver), little thought that all the wooded 
land, across the river to his left, would soon proudly bear 
his name. (The land he saw became Washington County 



but is now part of Allegheny.) His wildest dreams 
could not have imagined the great cities which now 
cover his trail nor the great free bridges across the river 
where he swam his horses and in which he floundered 
a few days later. He called upon Shingiss, the Dela- 
ware Indian saehem, or chief, then living at the mouth 
of Chartiers Creek, who safely guided him to his superior, 
Tanacharison, known also as Half-King, the Iroquois 
sachem, whose home was then at Logstown. From him 
he took counsel, guidance and safe escort for the 150 
miles yet to go before facing the French. Governor 
Dinwiddie had sent Captain Trent on the same errand 
sis months before, and in a letter says: “He went no 

farther than Logstown on the Ohio. He reports the 
French were then 150 miles farther up the river, and I 
believe was afraid to go to them.” (Washington’s 
Journal. By the Ohio he meant the Allegheny Biver. 
Early travelers thought the Monongahela was only a 
branch of the Ohio, and the Allegheny was the continua- 
tion of the Ohio.) 

The Indians were pleased to know that the young pale 
face and his Virginia backers were taking up the hatchet, 
because Tanacharison and others had gone up to the 
French at different times, remonstrating against the 
building of the same forts in the Indian’s country, and 
had been called “old women” by the French, and so 
insulted, - threatened and intimidated, that they were 
not only frightened on their own account, but for the 
life of their friends, the English traders, who for 
years had been trading trinkets for their beaver, deer, 
bear, wolf, and other furs, perhaps including that of 
the buffalo. 

But the wily and fluent Frenchmen had assumed their 
most pleasing manners and set out their best drinks, in 
hopes of separating the Indians from their traveling 
companion; which separation took place on their return 
trip, at old Venango, which, as the young messenger 
noted down, “was an old Indian town situate at the 
mouth of French Creek on Ohio, and lies near north 
about sixty miles from Logstown, but more than seventy 
miles the way we were obliged to go.” The energetic 
youth was too impatient to delay with the worn down 
horses in the heavy snows and freezing roads or foot- 
paths, so with gun in hand and a pack on his back con- 
taining his papers and provisions, he struck out to tramp 
it entirely alone, except for one companion, Christopher 
Gist. After some hairbreadth escapes and chilling ex- 
periences in walking from near the center of the present 
County of Beaver to Gist’s cabin near the center of 
Fayette County, where he bought a horse and saddle, 
he reported to Governor Dinwiddie at Williamsburg, Va. 

Two months and a half after reporting, or on April 
2, 1754, he was starting on his way back from Alex- 

andria, Va., commissioned as a lieutenant-colonel, chief 
in command of about 150 men, to aid in establishing a 
fort at the Forks, and to help repel the French. 

He was not quite soon enough, for the little fort at 
the mouth of the Monongahela was surrendered before 
it had been completed, and he was met by Ensign 
Ward hurrying back to tell the governor how it had 
happened, how that the Captain Ti'ent, who last summer 
seemed to be afraid to carry the Governor’s letter to 
the French, and who had been sent recently in command 
of soldiers and builders to erect this fort, had sent 
General Washington word that he was hourly expecting 
a body of about 800 French, had quietly left for old 
Virginia; and Lieutenant Frazier had gone home to 
Turtle Creek just before a body of 1,000 French and 
Indians had silently dropped down the Allegheny and 
suddenly called for surrender. He would report that the 
faithful Iroquois sachem Tanacharison, was with him 
as his only counsellor and that no words of delay suited 
the polite Frenchmen. Therefore Ward, with his three 
or four dozen men, vacated the Forks on April 17, 1754. 

This bloodless and smokeless victory gave the Freneh 
the control of the Ohio and the little unfinished fort 
became Fort Duquesne, in honor of the noted Frenchman, 
then governor-general of Canada. 

The Indian allies of the French on this occasion were 
largely from the Ottawas and Chippewas and bands from 
the upper Allegheny. 

Washington then being near Wills Creek (now Cum- 
berland, Md.), called a council there and it was decided, 
so he writes, “to advance as far as Bedstone Creek, on 
Monongahela” (the edge of Washington County again), 
1 ‘ about 37 miles this side the fort, there to raise a forti- 
fication, clearing a road broad enough to pass with all 
our artillery and baggage, and there to wait fresh 
orders. ’ ’ I thought it proper also to acquaint the 

governors of Maryland and Pennsylvania of the news.” 

He kept sending out reconnoitering parties, to hunt 
for the French on every side through the woods, along 
the. roads and Indian trails an several times got the in- 
formation that the French army was hunting his forces 
and were near at hand. Governor Dinwiddie, of Vir- 
ginia, reports the result by letter to Governor Hamilton 
of Pennsylvania, on June 21, 1754, that: 

“On the 27th of May the Half King sent Col. Wash- 
ington Notice that a Party of the Freneh Army were 
hankering about his Camp; if he would march some of 
his People to join them, he did not doubt of cutting 
them off. Col Washington marched that Night and came 
up with the Indians; one of the Indian Banners tracked 
the Frenchmen’s Feet and came up to their Lodgment; 
they discovered our People about one hundred yards 
distant, flew to their Arms, and a small engagement 
ensued. We lost one Man and another wounded; the 



French had Twelve killed and Twenty-one taken 
Prisoners, who are now in our Prison; the Indians 
scalped many of the dead French, took up the Hatchet 
against them, sent their Scalps and a string of black 
Wampum to several other bribes of Indians, with a 
desire that they should also take up the Hatchet against 
the French, which they have done.” (Colonial Records, 
Vol. 6, p. 55.) 

This was Washington’s first battle, the first skirmish 
between the French and the troops of Virginia, the 
opening of war between England and France. The 
French had been warning English traders and others 
against locating near the Ohio for two or three years, 
claiming the land against all comers, but explaining to 
the Indians that this was being done to preserve that 
land to the Indian and to protect him against the Eng- 
lish. They claim to this day that the Juraonville party, 
which Washington and the Iroquois sachem attacked, 
was only another little warning-out party. Of course, if 
Jumonville’s party had been as large as the warning-out 
party which a few days prior had confronted the un- 
finished fort at the Forks, our Virginian probably would 
have fallen, as Jumonville did, and there never would 
have been a Washington County. 

Washington kept cutting his road through the woods 
toward the mouth of Bedstone Creek at the rate of about 
a mile per day. Arriving at Gist’s, the news of the 
approaching French caused him to retrace his steps as 
far as possible. Owing to bad road and shortage of 
supplies he was obliged to stop at the Great Meadows 
in the eastern part of what is now Fayette County, and 
strengthen a little fort which he then or afterward 
called Fort Necessity. Here occurred the battle known 
in history as the Great Meadows, where Washington with 
about 400 men surrendered to De Villiers with a force 
of about 500 French and 400 Indians on July 3, 1754. 
He had fought most of the day and had only three days’ 
rations and was 70 miles, as he estimated, from supplies 
at Wills Creek (now Cumberland, Md.) 

The French having driven the Virginians over the 
mountains and away from the headwaters of the Ohio 
and Monongahela, returned and burned the ‘‘Hangard” 
storehouse formerly erected by the Ohio company of 
Virginians, and burned all the settlements they found 
while going down the Monongahela. Washington 
County was not yet settled by the pale-face, so the 
settlements then destroyed must all have been just 
across the Monongahela from us. (The reader will be 
interested in examining Thomas Carlyle’s review of this 
conflict in ‘‘Frederick the Great,” Vol. 5, p. 417; copied 
in Bausman’s History of Beaver County, p. 54.) 

Virginia had no assistance in that battle from any 
other colony nor from the sachem representative of the 
Six Nations (or Iroquois Indians), who must have taken 
a separate trail through the woods to the Susquehanna 

River when the retreat began and provisions ran low. 
Three months after this surrender Tanacharison died at 
Fort Harris on the Susquehenna. 

England had given instructions but very little aid. 
The British Government, aroused now by the defeat of 
the colony and imagining something of the value of the 
country being lost to that nation, sent over his 
Majesty’s troops in charge of Gen. Braddock, and a 
conference between him and the governors of several 
colonies, including Gov. Morris, of Pennsylvania, was 
held April 14, 1755, at the Capitol of Virginia. The 
military movements which followed did not receive much 
support from Pennsylvania, other than that colony fur- 
nishing some horses and wagons, purchased through the 
assistance of Dr. Benjamin Franklin and paid for by 
England. The slow-blooded eastern Pennsylvanians had 
not yet become aroused, or perhaps were averse to a con- 
test for land not yet known to belong to Pennsylvania. 

Gen. Braddock ’s forces, without any Indian scouts or 
allies, followed the military road opened by Washington 
the previous summer, passed Fort Necessity and Gist’s, 
and crossed over into what afterward became Washing- 
ton County, (now Allegheny) three miles above Turtle 
Creek, then recrossed the river at Frazer’s, just below 
the mouth of Turtle Creek. 

Washington, although not an officer, was with the 
1,400 and 1,500 soldiers, and we may with reason assert 
that this fateful 9th day of July, 1755 was the first day 
he ever set foot in the country afterward called for 
him. These were the only foreign troops that ever set 
foot on Washington County soil. 

Historian Sparks writes: 

‘‘Washington, just recovering from fever, overtook 
the forces at the mouth of the Youghiogheny, fifteen 
miles from Fort Duquesne. * * * The whole train passed 
through the river a little below the mouth of the 
Youghiogheny and proceeded in perfect order along the 
southern margin of the Monongahela. Washington was 
often heard to say during his lifetime that the most 
beautiful spectacle he ever beheld was the display of 
the British troops on this eventful morning. Every man 
was neatly dressed in full uniform, the soldiers were 
arranged in columns and marched in exact order, the 
sun gleamed from their burnished arms, the river flowed 
tranquilly on their right, and the deep forest over- 
shadowed them with solemn grandeur on their left. In 
this manner they marched until noon, when they arrived 
at the second crossing place, ten miles from Fort 
Duquesne. ’ ’ 

The effect of Braddock ’s dreadful defeat that after- 
noon upon Pennsylvania was anticipated by Sir John 
Sinclair, the English quartermaster general, in April of 
the same year, when he raved at George Crogan and five 
other road viewers because they had not sooner viewed 
and reported a road over the mountains so it could have 
been prepared before the march of the troops. 



That these fears were justified is briefly shown by the 
following quotation from a letter of a Frenchman, Rev- 
erent Clocquard: 


‘ ‘ I eommuicated to you last fall the news from this 
country much abridged. I could have enlarged more 
on the victory we gained on the Ohio over General 
Braddock’s army, but sufficient for you to know that 
with his life he lost more than 1,800 men and immense 
booty, with scarcely any loss on our side. * * * you 

will learn first that our Indians have waged the most 
cruel war against the English; that they continued it 
throughout the spring and are still so exasperated as 
to be beyond control; Georgia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
are wholly laid waste. The farmers have been forced 
to quit their abodes and to return into the towns. 
They have neither plowed nor planted. * * * The 

Indians do not make any prisoners; they will kill all 
they meet, men women and children. * * * On the 

29th of January we received letters from M. Dumas, 
Commandant at Fort Duquesne on the Ohio, stating that 
the Indians, in December, had more than 500 English 
scalps and he had more than 200 prisoners.” (Penna. 
Archives, 2d Series, Vol. 0 , p. 459.) 

It is impossible situated as we are after a century 
and a half to comprehend the dire results. Bands of 
heathen savages, with modem arms and ammunition. fur- 
nished by the French, who aided and sometimes person- 
ally commanded their expeditions, roamed eastward 
through mountain and valley day and night, killing, cap- 
turing, burning and carrying off without opposition, even 
to within twenty miles of the eastern boundary of 

Pennsylvania and to the east of Cumberland, Md. 
Shingiss, chief of the Delawares, had moved from the 
mouth of Chartiers Creek in Washington County to 
Kittaning up the Allegheny, and was most ferocious and 
vindictive. The helpless Virginians fought fire with 
fire by obtaining Cherokees from South Carolina and 
soon the scalps of French officers and soldiers were 
being carried eastward. War arose in South Carolina 
over an alleged massacre of some Cherokees by some 
Vinginians, and this being encouraged by the French 
sending powder and ball and Frenchmen to aid the 
Indians there, it became necessary for South Carolina 
to call for assistance from North Carolina, Virginia and 
the British forces in America. That war, with similar 
scenes being enacted in Pennsylvania and Maryland, was 
carried on for five years, ending in 1761. 

In the meantime Fort Duquense had been vacated by 
the French to avoid a fight, on the 28th of November, 
1758, and became the English Fort Pitt. 

From this time forward fortune favored the English 
and colonists, who carried the war to the north and west 
until this region and the Province of Canada became 
English acquisition by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. 

Our young general had taken a very active part in 
the preparations and campaigns which had led to the 
dislodgment of the French and the following patched-up 
peace of submission entered into by the Delaware and 
Shawenese, which secured for us the rich but unoccupied 
lands west of the Monongahela. 


EVENTS OE 1763-1768. 

Might males Eight — Iroquois Indians, the Conquerors — Their Landed Claims — Their Standards — Peace Treaty 
with English — Wars with France — Councils — Description of Aborigines and their Disposition — Pontiac’s 
Organized War 1763 — Nations Engaged — Simultaneous Attach — Their Football Game — Ft. Pitt Beset— 
Settlers Flee — Belief — Treaty — Descriptions in Indian Grants Indefinite — Encroachments by Whites — - 
Remonstrance by Indians — Fruitless Proclamations by Governments of Pennsylvania and Virginia — Sermon 
at Bedstone — Council at Ft. Pitt — Treaty of 1768 Including Washington County — Indefinite Boundary — 
Opening of Land Office. 

The much-talked claim of “right of discovery’’ having 
thus been fought out and decided on the principal that 
‘ ‘ might makes right, ’ ’ it remained to be seen whether 
the right of first-possession could withstand the claims 
of “might.” The French could withdraw to their 
homeland, but the Indians had no other land. The latter 
perceived that he could no longer gratify his warrior 
instincts by assisting either one of the foreign nations 
against the other, and by so doing gain rewards and 
scalp-bounties which were given by both the so-called 
Christain nations; nor could he reap rich spoils of all 
kinds from the settlers. It became now a war of patriot- 
ism, and for subsistence in their native land which the 
pale face was beginning to overcrowd. 

The greatest nation of the Middle States was the 
Iroquois, sometimes called Mingoes, Five Nations, Six 
Nations, or the United People. Although their home 
settlements were in central New York, where there are 
many most beautiful lakes, and where there is at present 
the “Onondago Indian Beservation, ” they had rapidly 
grown to be the leading tribe of the whole North, and 
finally of the whole continent. (Thatcher’s Indian 
Biography, Vol. 2, p. 38.) During a career of victory 
which began with the fall of the Adirondacks, they 
became entitled, or at least laid claim to all the territory 
not sold by the English from the north side of Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, until it falls into the Mississippi. 
Their territory was estimated at 1,200 miles in length 
by TOO to 800 miles in breadth. The combination of 
government embraced the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagos, 
Cayugas and Senecas. The Tuscaroras were included in 
1812, making the Six Nations. Their power was made 
effective by bands of the United People remaining with 
the subjugated tribes. They claimed that the Delawares, 

Shawanese and other tribes were a conquered people, 
living within Iroquois lands by sufferance only. 

Every nation had its peculiar ensign or standard. 
Those among the Five Nations were the bear, otter, wolf, 
tortoise and eagle, and by those names the tribes were 
usually distinguished. (History of North and South 
America by Bichard Snowden, Esq., Vol. 2, p. 11; see 
also Life and Writings of De Witt Clinton, p. 215.) 

The Iroquois made a peace treaty in early days with 
the English and kept the obligation for more than a 
century during all the revolution and machinations of 
the French and English governments, on either side. 
With the former of these people they were often at war. 
At one time 1,200 of their warriors besieged Montreal, 
Canada, sacked all the surrounding plantations, killed 
more than 1,000 French, carried away many others with 
a loss to the Indian army of but three men. 

Their national affairs were conducted by a great 
annual council held at Onondago, the central canton, 
composed of the chiefs of each republic. It took cog- 
nizance of the great questions of war and peace, of the 
affairs of the tributary nations, and of their negotiations 
with the French and English colonies. They held many 
serious council meetings at Albany, N. Y., with the 
governor, whom they called Corlear, and no doubt it cost 
the English a goodly sum from time to time to hold 
unbroken the chain which bound the Iroquois to that 
peace which kept them from joining in the French and 
Indian war. Had they broken faith the French would 
have reigned triumphant. 

Those who read this book will never see the Indian 
in his prime, and it is fitting here to preserve a descrip 
tion of that early people as given by William Penn, the 
founder of Pennsylvania, in the following words: 



‘ ‘ They are generally tall, straight, well built, and of 
singular proportion; they tread strong and clever, and 
mostly walk with a lofty chin; of complexion, brown as 
the gypsies in England. They grease themselves with 
bear’s fat clarified; and using no defence against the 
sun or weather, their skins must needs be swarthy. 
Their eyes are little and black, not unlike a straight- 
looked Jew. I have seen as comely, European-like faces 
among them, as on your side of the sea. An Italian 
complexion hath not mueh more of the white; and the 
noses of them have as much of the Roman. Their 
language is lofty, yet narrow, but, like the Hebrew, 
in signification, full ; like shorthand in writing, one 
word serveth in the place of three, and the rest are sup- 
plied by the understanding of the hearer. Imperfect in 
their tenses, wanting in their moods, participles, ad- 
verbs, conjunctions, and interjections, I have made it 
my business to understand it, that I might not want an 
interpreter on any occasion; and I must say, that I 
know not a language spoken in Europe that hath words 
of more -sweetness or greatness in accent and emphasis 
than theirs.” (History of North and South America, 
by Richard Snowden, Esq., Vol. II, p. 25, 1811). 

The same author (in Yol. 2, p. 11) speaking of their 
disposition says : ‘ ‘ There are no people who carry 

their friendships or resentments as far as they do; this 
naturally results from their peculiar circumstances. The 
Americans live in small societies, accustomed to see but 
few objects, and few persons; to be deprived of their 
objects to which they are closely attached, renders them 
miserable. Their ideas are too confined to enable them 
to entertain just sentiments of humanity, or universal 
benevolence. But this very circumstance, while it makes 
them cruel and savage to an incredible degree toward 
those with whom they are at war, adds a new force to 
their particular friendships, and to the common tie which 
unites the members of the same tribe, or those in alliance 
with them. 

The well organized attempt of the Indians in 1763 
to hold possession of their lands, has been, improperly 
we think, called the conspiracy of Pontiac. It should 
be called the Supreme Savage Campaign. It was the 
“prosecution of one of the mightiest projects ever con- 
ceived in the brain of an American savage.” 

The transfer of forts and power along the lakes from 
the French to the English in 1761 was a great cause of 
dissatisfaction to the lake Indians. The English and 
their language were not so agreeable as the French. One 
chief said, ‘ ‘ When the French arrived at these falls 
they came and kissed us. They called us children and 
we found them fathers. We lived like brethern in the 
same lodge. ’ ’ The English were too austere, formal and 
business-like. Pontiae, a leader of the Ottawas, who 
was a great assistance at Braddock’s defeat, gets the 
credit of the greatest organization ever made of inde- 
pendent Indian nations or tribes. In order that the 
reader may have more comprehension of the magnitude 
of that organization we name the combination as given 

by Thatcher as follows: “The Ottawas, the Chippewas, 

and the Pottawatamies were among the most active. 
The two former of these had sent 600 warriors in one 
body to the defence of Fort Duquesne. The Ottawas 
of L ’Arbre Croehe, alone, mustered 250 fighting men, 
The Miamies were engaged; so were the Sacs, the Otta- 
gamies (or foxes), the Menoninies, the Wyandots, the 
Mississagas, the Shawanese; and, what was still more 
to the purpose, a large number of the Pennsylvania and 
Ohio Delawares and of the Six Nations of New York. 
The alliance of the two last named parties — in itself 
the result of a masterpiece of jrolicy — was necessary to 
complete that vast system of attack which compre- 
hended all the British positions from Niagara to Green 
Bay and the Potomae. ” 

In a paper prepared by Sir William Johnson in the 
fall of 1763, he gives the number of the northern 
Indians, not including the Illinois, Sioux and some other 
western tribes at 11,9S0, and an inventory amounting to 
10,060 (warriors alone) was made by Indian Agent, Col. 
George Morgan, about ten years later at the beginning 
of the Revolution. (History of Beaver County, p. 21.) 
Morgan sets down the Iroquois warriors at 1,600. 
Thatcher says the most moderate account of the popula- 
tion of the Five Nations he had seen was by an agent 
of Virginia who held a conference at Albany with their 
chiefs in 1677 and their warriors were given at 2,150. 
It may be that a great part of these were not actively 
engaged in the war led by Pontiae. 

The grand simultaneous attack on all the string of 
British forts from Niagara to Green Bay and the 
Potomae, from May to July, in 1763, was carried out 
with a very fair degree of success. Fort Pitt, with the 
smaller forts Ligonier, Bedford and others in Pennsyl- 
vania were closely beset, and Fort Pitt was entirely cut 
off from, communication but successfully defended until 
relieved in August by Col. Bouquet and British troops. 

A game, a mixture of tennis and football was used by 
the Indians as a crafty scheme to get possession of a 
northern fort. “The game, baggatiway, was played 
with a bat and ball, the former being about four feet 
long, curved and terminating in a sort of racket. Two 
posts were placed in the ground a half mile or mile 
from each other and the ball placed half way between 
them. Each party has its post, and the game consists 
in getting the ball to the adversary’s post. The game 
is necessarily attended with much violence and noise. 
Not less than 400 players were engaged on both sides.” 
The scheme was a success, and the result was fiendish 
destruction to the English at Fort Michilimackinac. The 
French looked on undisturbed. The savages made 
amends for their failures by a series of the most hor- 
rible devastations in detail, particularly in New York, 
Pennsylvania and northern Virginia, which have ever 



been committed upon the continent. A few passages 
from periodical publications of that date will give a bet- 
ter conception of conditions. 

“Fort Pitt, May 31st. 

‘ ‘ There is melancholy news here. The Indians have 
broken out in divers places and have murdered Colonel 
Clapham and his family. (This is probably the same 
William Clapham who made a list of the inhabitants 
of Pittsburg, April 15, 1761: Inhabitants, 332, includ- 

ing 95 officers, soldiers, and their families, and 104 houses. 
Hist, of Beaver Co., Bausman, p. 148, note 3.) . . . 

Last night eight or ten men were killed on Beaver 
Creek. We hear of scalping every hour. Messrs. Craig 
and Allison’s horses, 25, loaded with skins, are all 
taken. . . . ” 

“Fort Pitt, June 16th. 

“Every morning, an hour before day, the whole garri- 
son are at their alarm posts. Capt. Callender’s people 
are all killed and their goods taken. There is no 
account of Mr. Weleh, etc. Mr. Crawford is made 
prisoner and his family all murdered. Our small posts 
I am afraid are gone. . . .” 

“Philadelphia, June 23. 

“By an express just now from Fort Pitt we learn the 
Indians are continually about that place; that out of 
120 traders but two or three escaped. . . . ” 

“Philadelphia, July 27. 

“ Shippensburg and Carlisle are now our frontiers, 
none living at their plantations but such as have their 
houses stockaded. Upwards of two hundred women and 
children are living in Fort Louden, a spot not more 
than one hundred feet square. Col. S , of a Vir- 

ginia regiment, reports upwards of three hundred per- 
sons killed or taken prisoners; that for 100 miles in 
breadth and 300 in length, not one family is to be found 
in their plantation, by which means there are 20,000 
people left destitute of their habitations. From the 
neighborhood of Fort Cumberland (Maryland) near 500 
families have run away within this week (June 22nd). 
It was a melancholy sight to see such numbers of poor 
people who had abandoned their settlements in such con- 
sternation and hurry that they had scarcely anything 
with them but their children.” (Thatcher, pp. Ill, 
112 .) 

Belief came on August 5 and 6, by Col. Bouquet’s 
ambush of the Indians at Bushy Run, east of but near 
Pittsburg, and was a bloody revenge to his Scotch High- 
landers for the slaughter of their fellow countrymen 
under young Maj. William Grant five years before, near 
the present location of the court house at Pittsburg. 

The Indian forces not having sufficient supplies to 
hold any ground gained, were obliged to retire still 
further westward to the unsettled lands in Ohio and on 
the Great Lakes. The following year, 1764, they were 
overawed by English forces. Col. Bradstreet’s forces 
went toward Niagara, where during the summer he held 
a grand council, which nearly 2,000 Indians attended. 
Bouquet’s division went from Carlisle by way_of Fort 
Pitt and along the north side of the Ohio River to the 

Muskingum, the region near the new location of the 
hostile Delawares and murderous Shawanese. A treaty 
and surrender of prisoners to the number of 300 by the 
Indians was effected and finally concluded in the spring 
of 1765.* 

This ended the seeond great remonstrance and demon- 
stration by the Indians, who had been taught little else 
besides war by their white associates, but who were now 
forced into a sullen peace which lasted about ten years. 

The Delawares and Shawanese had been assigned to 
this region west of the Allegheny Mountains by the 
Iroquois, it to be reserved for them as a hunting ground 
according to the statement made by some Iroquois 
chiefs. (Old Records, Vol. 4, p. 580.) There had been 
much friction among these subordinate nations because 
of several treaties or sales of land in Pennsylvania 
made by the Iroquois to the agents of William Penn 
and of Pennsylvania Colony. The effect of such treaties 
was to force these unconsulted, subordinate tribes grad- 
ually back from the Delaware River to the wilderness of 
Ohio. Nearly all early titles in any land lack certainty 
in description. The early deeds above indicated were 
peculiarly indefinite and had such expressions as the 
following: (See Creigh’s History, p. 29.) “Lands 

between two creeks” and “back as far as a man can go 
in two days;” “backward from the Delaware (River) 
as far as a man could ride in two days with a horse;” 
‘ ‘ as far back as a horse can travel in two summer 
days. ’ ’ 

A deed in 1737 known as the walking purchase, “as 
far as a man can go in a day and a half from the 
westerly branch of Neshaming up the Delaware” was 
complained of by the Delawares, and this caused a coun- 
cil meeting in 1742 to which they were invited and at 
which a great chief of the Iroquois clutched a Delaware 
chief by the hair, pushed him out of the door with 
violent, threatening words, saying: “We conquered you 

and made women of you, and you can no more sell 
lands than women. We charge you to remove instantly; 
we do not give you liberty to think about it. Don’t 
deliberate but remove away. ’ ’ (Bausman ’s History of 
Beaver County, p. 20.) 

This with other disturbances ended the possession of 
that nation near their namesake river — the Delaware — 
and led up to their location west of the Alleghenies, 
from which they were again driven off, as has been 

This last removal was necessary in spite of the fact 
that Pennsylvania had not yet purchased any Indian 
titles west of the Allegheny Mountains. His Majesty, 
the King of England, had by royal proclamation on 

* Does it not strike the reader with surprise that no ac- 
counts are given of deliveries of prisoners by the pale face 
to the red man ? This suggests the old saying : the only 
good Indian is a dead Indian. 



October 7, 1763, forbidden any settlements west of the 
Alleghenies. On October 24, 1765, he again instructed 
John Penn, lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania in the 
following terms: 

‘ ‘ It hath been represented unto us that several persons 
from Pennsylvania and the back settlements of Vir- 
ginia have immigrated to the westward of the Alle- 
gheny Mountains, and there have seated themselves on 
lands contiguous to the river Ohio, in express disobedi- 
ence to our royal proclamation of October 7, 1763. It 
is therefore our will and pleasure and you are enjoined 
and required to put a stop to all these and all other like 
encroachments for the future by causing all persons who 
have irregularly seated themselves westward of the Alle- 
gheny Mountains immediately to evaeuate these prem- 
ises. 5 ’ 

On May 24, 1766, the Six Nations (or Iroquois) at 
a council at Port Pitt complained of the white people 
settling at Bedstone Creek and upon the Monongahela 
immediately after the peace of 1765, and contrary to 
the treaties. The English Gen. Gage complained to 
Penn in July, offered to send English troops from Port 
Pitt to drive off the settlers near Brownsville, and 
Prancis Farquier, lieutenant governor of Virginia, also 
wrote to Penn on this subject in December. The Gen- 
eral Assembly of Pennsylvania passed resolutions and 
the governors of both the colonies issued proclamations, 
(Virginia issuing as many as three) calling upon all 
settlers to remove ; threatening them with what the 
Indians might do to them, and also with military execu- 

All these admitted that the land westward of the 
mountains was the property of the Indian and showed 
much fear, evidently of the Iroquois. 

The Assembly passed a warning-off law on the sub- 
ject and Penn issued a proclamation and appointed Eev. 
John Steele (the Presbyterian minister at Carlisle) and 
three others of Cumberland County — this western county 
still extending to the western line of Pennsylvania, 
wherever that might be — a commission to visit the 
Monongahela Biver region, to read the proclamation and 
induce settlers to remove. This proclamation speaks 
of these as “unpurchased lands,” declares that all 
settlers who do not remove within thirty days with their 
families shall suffer death without the benefit of clergy, 
except those who are settled on the main roads through 
the Province of Fort Pitt under permission of the com- 
mander-in-ehief of his Majesty’s forces, or of the chief 
officer commanding in the western district to the Ohio, 
for the convenient accommodation of soldiers and others, 
and persons settled in the neighborhood of Port Pitt 
under permission, or those on a settlement made by 
George Crogan, deputy of Indian affairs on the Ohio 
River above said fort. (For the full text of proclama- 
tion see Creigh’s History, Appendix, p. 7-8.) Under no 

pretense was any one to remain after thirty days from 
May 1. Rev. John Steele preached a sermon on March 
27, 1768, to the settlers at Redstone settlement (Browns- 
ville) after a journey of twenty-one days from Carlisle 
to the river. A number of Indian^, principally from the 
Mingo villages, were at Indian Peter’s just across the 
Monongahela. They seem not to have been invited to 
the sermon but were only at the business conference 
held after the sermon, in which it was agreed between 
the settlers and these Indians present that the settlers 
could remain until the conclusion of the treaty between 
them and George Crogan, deputy superintendent of 
Indian affairs. 

These early settlers were a stubborn, determined people 
who had come to stay, and were ready to take the 
risks. Associating with the most friendly of the Indians, 
they did not fear the distant rulers, whether they were 
white or red men. These were stern times and it was a 
stern and nervy people who were seeking, and believed 
they had found, rich lands for homes. To appreciate 
them one must read “The Scotch Irish in America,” by 
John W. Dinsmore. They were the advance guard of 
civilization, were resolved to maintain the position they 
had gained for themselves by their courage and deter- 
mination. Rev. Steele writes July 11, 1768, that there 
were about 150 families in the different settlements of 
Redstone, Youghiogheny and Cheat Rivers, eight or ten 
of which were in a place called Turkey Foot, and it was 
the opinion of the visiting commissioners that some 
would move off in obedience to law, and that the greater 
part will wait the early expected treaty. He further 
stated to the governor of Pennsylvania that ‘ ‘ the people 
of Redstone alleged that the removing of them from 
the unpurchased lands ” . . . “ was a contrivance of 

the Gentlemen and merchants of Philadelphia, that they 
might take Rights for their improvements when a Pur- 
chase was made.” No doubt the “contrivance” of hav- 
ing these settlers removed would have been in accord 
with the wishes of many eastern Pennsylvanians. 

_ The Indians as well as the officials of Pennsylvania 
knew the impending treaty would result in purchasing 
more land from the Iroquois, which purchase would 
extend at least to the Monongahela River. The Indian 
knew he must sell out for whatever the white man would 
give, or war in a deadly, losing contest. The colonial 
officials knew, after five years’ effort, that it was impos- 
sible to keep the settlers off these goodly lands, and 
they must either purchase or do battle. Everybody — 
homesteader and business man — knew there would soon 
be a rush for land at the land office far off in the eastern 
part of the State. 

The seat of power and courts of justice being all east 
of the Alleghenies, the eastern people had great advan- 
tage in knowing when the land office would be thrown 



open and how to obtain a legal title. The only hope 
of the westerner was to ‘ ‘ squat ’ ’ to hold down his 
claim. He was ready to claim by discovery and occu- 
pancy as indicated in his tomahawk blazing on his 
corner and line trees, and also to resort again, if need 
be, to the principle that might makes right. 

They did not have long to wait. Deputy George 
Crogan,* John Allen and Joseph Shippen, Jr., com- 
missioners representing Pennsylvania, were attended in 
council at Fort Pitt by 1,103 Indians, not counting many 
women and children. The council began April 26, and 
lasted fourteen days. The complaint of murders which 
the whites had committed were satisfied by presents or 
payments in nature of damages. This was a frequent 
method of settlement among the Indian nations them- 
selves, either a life for a life, or compensation in dam 
ages by blankets or other common currency. 

The question of trespass was not so easily settled, as 
the white men were in an apologetic state of mind and 
a helpless condition. They did some special pleading 
by setting forth the acts of the few Mingoes at Rev. 
Steele’s conference within the last sixty days which had 
induced the trespassers to hold their guard ; the several 
proclamations of the colonies and alleged warning-out 
visits by soldiers under Gen. Page, the authority of His 
Majesty of England; and that, anyhow, the majority 
of these trespassers were from Virginia. 

During this council the Delawares gave notice again 
of their title, by their chief, claiming that ‘ ‘ The country 
lying between this River and the Allegheny Mountains 
has always been our hunting ground, but the White Peo- 
ple who have scattered themselves over it have, by their 
hunting, deprived us of the Game, which we look upon 
ourselves to have the only right to, and we desire you 

* Au Irishman from Dublin, w'ho had lived on the north 
side of the Ohio below the Forks in 1748. He and Conrad 
Weiser, a German by birth, both had much influence with 
the Indians, and were frequently called upon by Pennsyl- 
vanians to represent that colony in adjusting Indian affairs. 

will acquaint our Brother, the Governor, of this, and 
prevent their hunting there for the future.” This claim 
should be remembered, for while it seems to have been 
ignored then, it may have been the underlying cause of 
many depredations years afterward, until the Delaware 
and other subordinate titles were finally recognized by 
a purchase twenty years later. 

This attempt at Fort Pitt was only preliminary, for 
the great treaty and purchase including the land of 
Washington County took place at Fort Stanwix, now 
Rome, N. Y., for the convenience and in the home land 
of the ever-feared Iroquois or United People. 

The deed made November 5, 1768, frequently called 
the new purchase, was for all the land on the east side 
of a boundary ‘ ‘ beginning where the northern state line 
crosses the north branch of the Susquehanna River, and 
running a circuitous course by the west branch of that 
river to the Ohio (Allegheny) at Kittanning; thence 
down that river to where the western boundary of Penn- 
sylvania crosses the Main Ohio ; then southward and 
eastward by the westward and southward boundaries of 
the State, to the east side of the Allegheny Mountains.” 
The deed was made by the Six Nations alone. 

What could be more indefinite than such a description? 
Nobody knew where the western boundary of Pennsyl- 
vania was, nor where it crossed the Ohio; yet intelligent 
men made that imaginary and undetermined line a boun- 
dary between their trespassing people and the incensed 
and belligerent savages. 

To emphasize and illustrate this uncertainty, we must 
in the following chapter examine the contest then brew- 
ing between Pennsylvania and Virginia over this same 
boundary question. The wisdom and foresight of the 
settlers is demonstrated by the fact that on April 3, of 
the following spring their lands were thrown open to 
public settlement by Pennsylvania, after only thirty-five 
days’ notice given by the advertisements of the eastern 
land office. 


EVENTS OF 1763-1769. 

Boundary Complications Affecting Washington County — Mason’s and Dixon’s Line— Agreement between Lord 
Baltimore and the Penns— Troublesome Titles— Penn’s Boundary— American Surveyors Fail to Complete— 
Indians Stop the Imported Surveyors — English Surveyors Fail to Complete Uncertainty The Virginia 

Controversy — An Aggressive People — Handicapped. 


In 1763, when the hosts of Pontiac from the northwest, 
were making the existence of the pioneer settler 
extremely precarious an important event was taking 
place at the southeastern corner of Pennsylvania. All 
the adjoining colonies were interested in the little seg- 
ment of a circle which always looks so odd on the map 
of our State. And the Indians were vitally interested 
also, for upon that circle, drawn twelve miles out from 
the court house at New Castle, Delaware, and the line 
to start west from it, would depend not only the lines 
of four provinces, but also the western boundary of the 
Indian land soon to be purchased in 1768 — the western 
boundary of Pennsylvania. 

Lord Baltimore of Maryland and the Penns of Penn- 
sylvania agreed in August, 1763, to have the dividing 
line measured and located by Charles Mason and Jeie- 
miah Dixon of England, and in November hurried them 
across the ocean to Philadelphia to begin work with the 
most approved instruments, among them a four-foot 
zenith sector. These two provinces and Delaware had 
become weary of over eighty years of litigation con- 
cerning their lines, and had one of the parties been 
Indians, bloodshed would have been resorted to instead 
of courts. The great grants of the English Kings were 
as prolific of disputes and trouble as the Indian titles, 
but the troubles were fought out in a legal form until 
the principal was established, which many litigants miss, 
that adjustment is better than contention. 

The land grant to William Penn by England’s King 
in 1681, was not only a puzzle to him and his successors, 
but to all his adjoiners. The portion of the description 
which concerns Washington County is : 

“All of that tract or part of land in America, . . . 

as the same is bounded on the east by Delaware Kiver, 
from twelve miles distant northwards of New Castle. 
. . . The said land to extend westwards five degrees 

in longitude to be computed from the said eastern 
bounds ; and the said lands to be bounded on the . . . 

south by a circle drawn at twelve miles distance from 
New Castle northwards unto the beginning of the for- 
tieth degree of northern latitude, and then by a straight 
line westwards to the limit of longitude above men- 
tioned. ’ ’ 

William Penn never knew where his western line was, 
nor whether it was straight or crooked. Indeed it is 
stated that his successors supposed his western boundary 
line was as crooked as the Delaware Kiver on the east. 
It is possible he may have thought his five degrees 
measured westward would carry his possessions to the 
Pacific Ocean, for at this time the Pacific Ocean or 
South Sea was supposed to be much closer than it is 
to the Atlantic.* 

The location of the western line of Washington 
County being dependent entirely upon the little bow 
around New Castle and on the Mason and Dixon line, 
one of the most noted boundary lines in history, some 
attention must be given to this most noted survey and to 
the effects upon our country had there been some dif- 
ferent interpretation given the words used in the King’s 

Mason and Dixon broke ground immediately upon 
reaching Philadelphia and in two months after their 
arrival had completed what is said to be the first astro- 
nomical observatory in America and began to look at the 
moons of Jupiter. (Veech’s History of Mason and 
Dixon Line.) 

They found their work under headway, for they based 
their calculations upon certain peninsular lines estab- 
lished by Delaware authorities thirteen years before, and 

* In 1608 an expedition was organized to find a passage 
to the South Sea by sailing up the James Kiver, and Cap- 
tain John Smith was once commissioned to seek a new route 
to China by ascending the Chicahominy. A map of 1651 
represents Virginia as a narrow strip of land between the 
two oceans. 






. — r.^ LENOX A™ 

■'. V., TOU NPftTIONS^ 



upon the little segment of the circle so carefully marked 
out by the three years’ effort of John Lukens and other 
American surveyors and commissioners. These had been 
appointed by Pennsylvania and Maryland in 1760, with 
instructions to complete and mark the line to the west- 
ern end of Maryland by Christmas of 1763. But the 
contract was greater than had been anticipated. The 
extreme carefulness of the American surveyors brought 
about their release and gave the English surveyors and 
astronomers a task which they never completed, although 
they worked diligently with all needed assistants during 
the years 1763-4-5-6-7 and took another year to make 
their final report before being discharged. They did 
complete the line of division between the three colonies, 
but Penn’s representative must have engaged them to 
go to the western extremity of his lands, for they seem 
never to have stopped at the western end of Maryland, 
but cut their way on westward until abruptly halted 
by an authority higher than the colonial governors’, the 
feared Iroquois. Virginia does not appear to have been 
consulted about the extension of Penn’s lines, but the 
Indians must be. 

None but a star-gazing mathematician can under- 
stand why so much time was consumed by Mason and 
Dixon in assuring themselves that the earlier surveyors 
had located correctly an apparently short circular line, 
and in fixing the course for the westward line at 39°, 
43', 26", instead of latitude 40“ as expressed in Penn’s 
original charter. One explanation of the change is that 
the 40° line would have left Penn’s Philadelphia town in 
Maryland, which was never intended by Penn or his 
King, and this change was one of the many made neces- 
sary between the lords of the soil. Suppose if you will, 
that Lord Baltimore had insisted and succeeded in estab- 
lishing that line at 40°. He would not only have owned 
Philadelphia, but Greene County, a southern part of 
Washington and nearly all of Payette with their riches 
of coal, oil and gas, would be in Virginia. 

At last, in June, 1765, the skilled engineers started 
in our direction, making a 24-foot line-way or course, by 
cutting the timber and setting boundary stones every 
mile, those at the end of every fifth mile (before enter- 
ing the mountains) were engraved with the English coat 
of arms of each of the proprietors. They make a point 
95 miles west of the Susquehanna River that summer, to 
the end of a temporary line which seems to have been 
run in 1739. 

Pushing on next spring, by June 5, 1766, they arrived 
on the first chain of the Allegheny Mountains about 
directly south of Johnstown. The Indians had not yet 
granted the lands farther than the east side of the moun- 
tains, and these must have used the same expression 
which the celebrated Pontiac used near Detroit to Maj. 

Henry when his English sailors were taking possession 
of the country vacated for them by the French: “I 

shall stand in your path until morning.” Everybody 
stops. The natives have spoiled a good summer’s work 
by this stand, and it cost the Quaker owners and their 
adjoining English lords £500 to hold an Indian Six 
Nation pow-pow away up in New York State the follow- 
ing winter. 

A whole year is lost before the ‘‘morning” in June, 
1767, arrives, and the tree cutting and star gazing party 
is permitted to proceed, but under control and protection 
of fourteen warriors, headed by a chief of the Iroquois 
with his interpreter. By the 25th of August they cross 
the Braddock road. Here the Six Nation chief and his 
nephew leave. The Shawanese and Delawares, tenants 
of the hunting grounds, look so dangerous and threat- 
ening that twenty-six laborers desert and the axe men 
dwindle to fifteen. Being so near the southwest corner, 
the surveyors run the risks by moving on while they send 
back for aid. The final stand is taken a month later, 
‘ ‘ where the state line crosses the Warrior branch of the 
old Catawba war-path, at the second crossing of the 
Dunkard Creek, close to the village of Mt. Morris, now 
in Green County and almost directly south of Zollars- 
ville, Scenery Hill, and Thomas Station in Washington 
County, and Carnegie in Allegheny County. Here the 
surveyors pack up their instruments, for the decree had 
gone forth from the great Indian council : ‘ ‘ Thus far 
shalt thou come but no farther. ’ ’ The line has made 
immortal the name of Mason and Dixon, but the uncom- 
pleted work is stopped for fifteen years. 

The reader will observe that this ending would have 
thrown the western part of Washington County, includ- 
ing Canonsburg and Washington, in Virginia. It left 
all claimants, red or white, to guess whether or not Fort 
Pitt was in Pennsylvania. The engineer’s map, and re- 
port made to the employers November 9, 1768, show 
they had been stopped S3 miles and 83 perches short of 
the southwest corner of Pennsylvania. (Creigh’s History, 
Appendix, p. 29.) But Mr. Latrobe says 36 miles. 

A surveyor of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 
(Cumberland County then extending to the western 
boundary), when written to, about a year after this 
report was filed, replied that he could not tell precisely 
where the western boundary crossed the Monongahela, 
but he ‘‘inclined to the belief that Chartiers’ Creek 
must be in the province of Pennsylvania, as its junction 
with the Ohio is but four miles from Fort Pitt, about 
northwest, and on going to Redstone Old Fort (Browns- 
ville) you cross it several times, and Redstone Old Fort 
is several degrees to the westward of south of Fort 
Pitt.” Col. William Crawford three years later says: 

‘ ‘ It was the opinion of some of the best judges that 



the line of the province would not extend so far (as 
that of Mr. Hendricks) as it would be settled at 48 
miles to a degree of longitude, which was the distance 
of a degree of longitude allowed at the time the charter 
was granted to William Penn. (The width of a degree 
of longitude decreases from the equator to the poles. 
Mason and Dixon had figured on 53 miles and 167 1-10 
perches to one degree.) Lord Dunmore wanted the five 
degree line measured along the northern side of Penn- 
sylvania and this would have thrown the western line of 
Pennsylvania fifty miles east of Pittsburg. Michael 
Oresap, a trader at Bedstone, diligently proclaimed that 
Pennsylvania did not extend west of the mountains. 
One of his letters argues that if any objections be made 
to the collection of taxes and laws of Pennsylvania it 
will be entirely owing to her failure in not ascertaining 
the true limits of her jurisdiction, and publishing it to 
the people. 

This ‘ ‘ standing in the path ’ ’ by the Indians must 
have hastened the “new purchase” of their lands by 
the deed November 5, 1768, preceded by the two great 
council meetings mentioned in our last chapter. The 
wonder now is, why the engineering work was not im- 
mediately prosecuted to completion from the above date, 
for it certainly would have been a great satisfaction 
and probably a saving of life to settlers, as well as to 
Indians, to have known where Penn’s line ended. Was 
it because no settlement had been made with the Dela- 
wares (and possibly the Shawanese), the hunting tribes, 
then tenants, in possession of our native heath? No 
doubt there was dissatisfaction, and even if paid, some 
would express themselves in the language of Chief White 
Pace after the final purchase of lands in 1784-85: “The 
price is not one pair of moccasins apiece. ’ ’ 

Bausman’s History of Beaver County (p. 181), speak- 
ing of Penn’s dealing with the Indians, says: “Through 

a long term of years treaties were made with them, for 
the purchase of their lands. Payments were made in 
blankets and other wearing apparel, in pins, needles, 
scissors, knives, axes and guns. Por some of their lands 
they were paid twice, on account of dissatisfaction with 
the purchase price, so anxious were the proprietaries to 
keep on friendly terms with them.” No doubt the inten- 
tions of the authorities were honest enough, but when 
we consider the vast extent of the territory surrendered 
by the Indians, and the purchase price, a few thousand 
dollars worth of “goods, merchandise and trinkets,” 
the justice of the transactions is not striking. And 
despite the formal acceptance of the terms made in the 
treaties, the Indians were wise enough to see that they 
were being very poorly compensated for their lands. 

However, it was not the savages who stopped the next 
company of surveyors on this south boundary line. It 
was the belligerent pale-face people claiming to be from 

a sister colony, and it occurred in the year following the 
erection of Washington County. 


Not far from the location of that great canal the 
United States is now completing, a noted English trav- 
eler stood on a mountain top and saw both the Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans. No doubt this reported fact bewil- 
dered their Majesties of England and led to granting 
dominion privileges “from sea to sea.” Such expansive 
expressions and others even more vague in ancient 
grants relating to Virginia, coupled with a burning 
desire for control, led that colony through its appointed 
rulers to contest with Pennsylvania for all land west of 
the Alleghenies. 

The charter obtained by William Penn in 1681 was in 
settlement of an ancient claim against the English gov- 
ernment. Having thus paid a consideration for his 
grant he was treated as a purchaser for the value, and 
he and the other Penns who took title from him were 
called proprietors. The Virginia governors, Dinwiddie 
and the last of all, Lord Dunmore, (in office from 1772 
until the Virginians on account of his oppressions drove 
him away in 1775), were royal governors appointed by 
England. They did not claim to own the land, as Penn 
did, but as representing the King they desired to lord 
it over all lands adjoining Pennsylvania and on the 
south and west. Whatever land Pennsylvania failed to 
occupy, or could be enveigled into receding from or into 
conceding to the King, would come under Virginian 
domination. This led the Virginian officials to deny 
Pennsylvania’s boundary claims, and, as far as possible, 
to diminish Penn ’s land area. It accounts for the 
Christopher Gist settlement near the eastern line of the 
present Fayette County by a Virginian corporation so 
early as 1753, and for the efforts of the young Vir- 
ginian, George Washington, as envoy, as lieutenant col- 
onel, and as aid to Gen. Braddock. 

The Virginians were an aggressive people. When the 
British passed the Stamp Act in 1765, introducing 
internal taxation in the colonies, Franklin, of Pennsyl- 
vania saw no other course but submission, but Virginia 
was the first to formally deny the right of Parliament to 
meddle with internal taxation, and to demand the repeal 
of the law. She had a Patrick Henry, and many such, 
whose proud independent spirits were so admired by the 
illustrious Pitt that he was impelled to exclaim in the 
very face of Parliament, ‘ 1 In my opinion this kingdom 
has no right to lay a tax on the colonies. America is 
obstinate! America is almost in open rebellion! Sir, I 
rejoice that America has resisted.” It was the instinct 
and energy of the Virginians which first opposed the 
French aggressions along the rivers in western Pennsyl- 
vania, and opened the way to defeat the French project 



■of cutting off the English colonies from all access to the 
west. These alone started the armed opposition “which 
unconsciously changed the history of the world.’’ 

Had this region been left entirely to the watchfulness 
of Pennsylvania we might now be upon French soil. The 
Quaker influence had left her people unprotected, with- 
out militia, and non-combatant. Her legislative body 
refused money to resist the French encroachments of 
1753 and ’54, and indicated their indifference by doubt- 
ing whether the Forks of the Ohio was within Penn’s 
purchase. The governor of Pennsylvania, who seemed 
to be more aggressive than his State Council, weakly 
suggested that it “ appealed’’ or “there was great rea- 
son to believe ’ ’ that the French forts and The Forks 
were really within the limits of Pennsylvania. The cor- 
respondence between the two governors, Dinwiddie and 
Hamilton, indicates fear of French possession by one 
and distrust of the Virginia possession by the other. 
The latter seemed more interested in locating a boundary 
line, while the former closed the fruitless correspondence 
on April 27, 1754, by sarcastically commenting on the 
failure of the Proprietary Government in not contribut- 
ing its assistance to hold the Ohio, especially when there 
is “doubt if the land we go to possess is not in your 
grant. ’ ’ 

The French possession of this land and the war which 
followed occupied the attention and seems to have pre- 
vented further correspondence about the boundary for 
twenty years, but in the meantime both governors be- 
came active for possession. Pennsylvania gained a great 
advantage by the ‘ ‘ new purchase ’ ’ from the Indians, 
extending to her western boundary, and opening at 
Philadelphia on April 3, 1769 her land office for sale 
and settlement of lands west of the mountains. In this 
move toward locating actual settlers Virginia was greatly 
handicapped. When Canada was ceded to England by 

the French at the close of the French and Indian war, 
it became necessary to make a royal decree relating to 
Indian rights and limiting the governmental authority 
to be exercised by her. The proclamation dated October 
10, 1763, stated that, “ Whereas it is just and reasonable, 
and essential to our interest and the security of our 
colonies that the several nations or tribes of Indians, 
with whom we are connected and who live under our 
protection, should not be molested or disturbed in the 
possession of sueh parts of our dominions and territories, 
as not having been ceded to, or purchased by us, are 
reserved to them or any of them as their hunting 
grounds; We do therefore, with the advice of our privy 
council, declare it to be our royal will and pleasure that 
. . . no governor or commander-in chief of our col- 

onies or plantations in America, do presume, for the 
present, and until our further pleasure be known, to 
grant warrants of survey, or pass patents for any lands 
beyond the heads or sources of any of the rivers which 
fall into the Atlantic Ocean from the west or northwest, 
or upon any land whatever, which not having been ceded 
to or purchased by us, as aforesaid, are reserved unto 
the said Indians. ’ ’ 

The restraining hand of his Majesty was upon Vir- 
ginia never to be removed until shaken off by the War 
of the Revolution some seventeen years later. Even 
under so great a restraint the Virginians made a bitter 
contest for this land and were a most valuable assistance 
to the settlers at the time of the later Indian invasions. 
The weakness of Pennsylvania’s defence of her settlers, 
coupled with an undefined and limited boundary and a 
higher price for her land, made many friends for her 

The effect of these uncertainties produced conduct and 
complications without a parallel in history. 


EVENTS OP 1768-1773. 

Chief Justice Agnew’s Remarks on Complicated Titles — Land Office Opened — Two Roads to the East — Nearest 
County Seat Carlisle — Some Entries in 1769 — John Gibson’s Land Opposite Logstown — Entered in Virginia 
— Indian Peter’s Entry — Catfish’s Camp — Hunter — Hoge — Sliirtee Creek — McKee’s Land at its Mouth — 
Morganza — George Washington’s Lands in Fayette and Washington Counties — His Banquet at Pittsburg — 
Croghan’s Claim — Rankin Settlement in 1770 — Lund Washington Land — Bedford County Erected — Objec- 
tions to Paying Tax — Sheriff Waylaid — Ft. Pitt Abandoned by the English. 

The Hon. Daniel Agnew in his ‘ ‘ Settlements and Land 
Titles,” page 182, uses the following language which 
applies to all of Washington County: “The variety of 

the original land titles in Beaver County exceeds that of 
any other county in the State. On the south side of the 
Ohio” (which was originally in Washington County), 
‘ ‘ we have all the various titles under warrants, im- 
provements and licenses, both of the Proprietary and the 
State governments applicable to the purchase under the 
treaty of 1768; to which may be added Virginia entries 
by settlement under the ‘corn’ law of the State of 1778 
and by special grants, recognized by Pennsylvania in her 
settlement of boundaries with Virginia.” We will not 
attempt to explain these titles except incidentally and 
briefly in showing how our people lived through these 

Pennsylvania having made her ‘‘new purchase” by 
the treaty at Port Stanwix, proceeded to open her land 
office at Philadelphia April 3, 1769, when there was a 
great rush to secure claim or title to some of the rich 
Indian lands. The stubborn little band of ‘‘about 150 
families” about Bedstone and Turkeyfoot, and those 
settlers and traders about Port Pitt, had previous to this 
time been deterred from settling west of the Mononga- 
hela Biver, and now they can only sit still and await 
results. The only two roads opened west of the moun- 
tains did not extend into Washington County. The one 
opened by the Virginians and extended by Lieut. Col. 
Washington and later by Gen. Braddock (in 1755) let 
the travel from Virginia and Maryland into Port Pitt 
from the southeast by way of Cumberland, and also from 
eastern Pennsylvania by way of Carlisle. The other 
road, known as the Porbes Boad, was cut through by Gen. 
Porbes directly from the east to relieve Port Pitt in 
1758, and let in through Carlisle, Bedford and Fort 
Ligonier the Pennsylvania and New Jersey immigrants. 
Col. Burd and a detachment of soldiers had in 1759 

opened a road across the Braddock Boad on top of the 
mountains to Bedstone, and built Fort Burd where 
Brownsville now stands. This opened the way to Port 
Pitt by river. At the junction of the two roads on the 
mountain is yet to be seen the large rock engraved with 
the Indian name for the Half -King. 

The nearest county seat in Pennsylvania was at that 
time Carlisle, our county seat, although 21 days distant 
according to the time occupied by Bev. Steele when he 
came to induce our settlers to leave. Carlisle was about 
two-thirds of the distance to Philadelphia where the 
advertisements were made of the proposed land sale. 
Of course not many of the actual settlers could be at 
that sale to point out their locations and make applica- 
tion for survey. 

On that opening day there were 3,200 applications 
filed for lands, most of which no doubt were in the 
‘‘new purchase.” The selection of lands was allowed 
by lot, and the first choice seems to have fallen to John 
Gibson, who although an early fur-trader, was among 
the very first to locate in what was once Washington 

The land he obtained is in that part of Washington 
County which now lies in Beaver County, and is men- 
tioned in Bausman’s History of that county in a quota- 
tion from what seems to be the affidavit of said Gibson 
as follows: 

‘‘In 1769 at the opening of the Land Office in the 
Province of Pennsylvania, an entry was made of 300 
acres of land to include the old Indian corn field opposite 
Logstown, for the use of John Gibson, Sen., he having 
drawn at a lottery the earliest number, and the land was 
surveyed for him in the same year by James Hendricks, 
Esq., District Surveyor; that in 1771 he, John Gibson, 
settled upon the land, built a home, and cleared and 
fenced 30 acres of ground, and in 1778 sold his claim to 
Mathias Slough of Lancaster, Pa.” 

This land was about six miles above Beaver Biver and 




in this house the year after it was built, the Rev. David 
McClure could not sleep well (he wrote) on account of 
the “howling of the wolves.” This same minister was 
made very nervous near the same place by the sudden 
appearance of John Logan, the peaceful Indian, who 
then had a camp at Logstown opposite John Gibson’s 
choice land, and had a dwelling place or “cabin” also 
at the mouth of Beaver River, where the white travelers 
were accustomed to stop for lodging and entertainment. 

In 1770 George Washington probably took breakfagfc^ 
with John Gibson on this land or at his trading post 
across the river; or he may have breakfasted with Logan, 
the friend of the white man, either here or at the mouth 
of the Beaver, for as late as 1772, the village at Beaver 
River was commonly called Logan ’s Town. This same 
Logan a few years later brought terror to every family 
in Washington County. 

The word 1 ‘ entry ’ ’ meant filing a claim in the land 
office to prevent any other person from settling upon 
the land thus claimed. To the claimant a 1 ‘ warrant ’ ’ 
is issued which entitles him to have a survey made of 
his lands. Gibson’s entry indicates that the white men 
preferred the corn fields or such land as the Indians had 
cleared, and that the claim would be made without 
regard to the Indian occupation. To illustrate the un- 
certainty of the times and of the public mind we may be 
pardoned for anticipating events by stating, that eleven 
years later John Gibson “entered” 400 acres of land 
at Logstown, apparently the same land as above men- 

This later entry dated June 23, 1780, was filed at 
Redstone or at Cox’s Fort within the bounds of our 
county, and with a board of commissioners acting under 
the laws of Virginia. His action shows lack of faith 
in his former Pennsylvania entry. Born at Lancaster, 
Pa., educated to the extent of some classical studies; a 
soldier with Gen. Forbes’ expedition against Fort Du- 
quesne; settled at Fort Pitt and at Logstown as a 
trader; captured in the Indian war of 1763 but saved, 
although his two companions were burned at the stake; 
adopted by a squaw to be a son and hunter for her 
support, instead of her dead son (a life for a life) but 
surrendered a year later; a commissioner to make peace 
with the Shawanese; a colonel during the Revolution in 
command at Fort Pitt, Fort McIntosh and Fort Laur- 
ens in Ohio — if any one had opportunity to learn which 
State had jurisdiction Col. Gibson was the man. 

His action in acknowledging the land office authorities 
of Virginia was not treasured up against him, for he 
later was a member of the convention which framed the 
Constitution of Pennsylvania, a judge of the Court of 
Allegheny County, Major General of Militia, and Secre- 
tary of the Territory of Indiana until it became a State, 
' and for a time acted as its Governor. 

There may have been a number of Indians residing 
here or having a ‘ ‘ lodge in the wilderness, ’ ’ but so far 
as history tells us, only one obtained a Pennsylvania 
title for land within our limits. This was William 
Peters, a friendly Indian who attempted to live a peace- 
ful life. We quote the following from the surveyor’s 
record in Washington County Recorder’s office: 

“In pursuance of an order, No. 2844, dated 5th of 
April, 1769, the above is a Draught of a tract of land 
--nailed Indian Hill, containing 339 acres and the usual 
allowance of 6 per cent for roads etc., situate on the 
west side Monongahela, surveyed 7th of Oct., 1769, for 
William Peters alias Indian Peter, 


James Hendricks, D. S. 

‘ ‘ To John Lukens, Esq., 

Surveyor General.” 

This land was bounded on the south and east by a 
curve of the river, and on land by two straight lines 
almost at right angles to each other, running west and 
south. It was afterward purchased by Neal Gillespie, 
great grandfather of the Hon. James G. Blaine, and the 
town of West Brownsville is on a part of this ground. 
Here is where the Indians were assembled opposite Fort 
Burd, when the Rev. Steele, in the previous fall, urged 
the settlers to remove from the eastern side of the river, 
to prevent, as he argued, an Indian uprising. 

History is silent as to the origin or the end of Indian 
Peter, but the name Peters had some importance in 
those days. Peters Creek empties into the Monongahela 
in this county. Henry Peters and Abraham Peters, 
chiefs or sachams of the Mohawk Nation, were the first 
signers to the treaty, July 6, 1754, by which Thomas 
and Richard Penn obtained land lying east and west of 
the Alleghenies for £400. (Penna. Laws, Vol. 2, p. 120.) 
And Richard Peters, with Conrad Weiser, Esq., were 
appointed commisssioners in 1758 to release to the Six 
Nations that portion of said lands lying to the north- 
ward and westward of the Allegheny Hills, because the 
Indians insisted they had been misled and overreached 
in that transaction. 

Another Indian’s improved land was “entered” the 
same year. Catfish occupied the land “on the path 
from Fort Burd to Mingo Town,” where is now the 
town of Washington, and no doubt he raised corn and 
beans, as was done by many others of that tribe. Some- 
one saw the goodly land, and on June 19th, three claims 
were filed in the names of three children of Joseph 
Hunter of Carlisle, in County of Cumberland. November 
11, 1769, a survey was made on warrants Nos. 3516-7-8, 
for over 300 acres each, adjoining each other. 

Joseph Hunter, after using the names of his children 
to get for himself three times as much as the laws 
would have allowed him alone, sold his claim, April 23, 



1771, to David Hoge, of the same place, by deed describ- 
ing the land as : 

“All that tract or parcel of land situate, lying and 
being on the Head Forks or Branches of Shirtee Creek 
and Taking Both sides thereof about Thirty miles from 
where Shirtee empties into the Ohio, known by the name 
of Cat Fishes Camp, containing twelve hundred acres, be 
the same more or less. The said tract of land was sur- 
veyed by a Pennsylvania Bight. ... To be held 
under the purchase money, interest yearly quit rents now 
due and to become due for the same to the Chief Lord 
or Lords of the Fee thereof. We warrant against every 
person whomsoever the proprietors only excepted.” 

His wife joined in this deed (signing by her mark), 
and three days later their three children, Abraham, 
Joseph and Martha (the first signing by mark), made 
a similar conveyance to Hoge for the same lands. The 
consideration in the father’s deed was £100 and that 
of the children was five shillings. 

It does not appear that any of the above parties ever 
lived upon these lands, but the rights of David Hoge 
were transferred to his two sons, and they purchased, 
the rights of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 
1788, seven years after the town of Washington (then 
Bassettown) had been laid out and our County Court 
put in operation. 

Shirtee Creek, mentioned in these deeds, is a nick- 
name for Chartier’s Creek. It rises southwest of Wash- 
ington and flows into the Ohio at McKees Bocks, about 
four miles below the center of Pittsburg. Another name 
for it, in many of the early documents, is Shurtee. These 
names were no doubt used by the early settlers in a 
sarcastic way, indicating contempt for Peter Chartier, 
from whom the creek received its name on account of 
his having a trading-post near its mouth. He had been 
licensed by Pennsylvania courts to trade with the 
Indians, but had afterward sided with the French. 
Before the French and Indian war, he had removed from 
this region, where he was not held in good repute by 
the English. Shingiss, the fierce Delaware chief, headed 
a village about the same place prior to said war, and 
no doubt these clearings, abandoned in 1756, were on 
the ground which Alexander McKee, in 1768 or 1769, 
located upon and improved, and which he was obliged 
to abandon as a renegade ten years later. The town 
of McKees Bocks is on or near the Shingiss clearings. 

Another interesting property was obtained this same 
year by Dr. John Morgan, of Philadelphia, and was soon 
afterward called Morganza. The four applications, 
entered the day the land office opened, were made in 
the names of persons unknown in this community, and 
these four, conveyed their rights to Dr. Morgan May 1, 
not 30 days after entering claim. Dr. John may have 
been prompted to use these, his acquaintances, to get more 

land than the law allowed him to take in his own name, 
and this perfectly legitimate plan may have been sug- 
gested by his brother George, who in 1789 became the 
owner of these lands as devisee of John. George was 
a member of the large trading firm of Wharton, Boynton 
& Morgan, organized in 1760, and he may have selected 
the Morganza tract, for he had been sent into this Ohio 
Biver region to establish trading posts, and had been 
somewhat of a traveler. He founded New Madrid, the 
first English colony in the Province of Louisiana, and 
was the first American to make the trip from the mouth 
of the Kaskaskia to the mouth of the Mississippi, which 
he did in 1766. He held the important position of Indian 
Agent for the middle Department with headquarters at 
Pittsburg, from 1766 to 1779, a most trying time in 
our history. 

Morganza is about two-thirds of the distance from 
the mouth of Chartier’s Creek to Catfish’s Camp, in 
Cecil Township, and is now occupied by the Morganza 
Beform School. Maj. Andrew G. Happer, husband of 
a great-granddaughter of said Col. George Morgan, is 
a member of its board of managers, appointed by the 
governor of Pennsylvania. 

George Wasington obtained 1768 acres in what is now 
Fayette County by the above indicated method, on the 
opening day. His entries were filed April 3d in his 
own name and that of four others, by the celebrated 
William Crawford, who was afterward burned at the 
stake. The efforts to obtain title to that tract and also 
to 2,813 acres in our Mount Pleasant Township have 
been narrated by several historians and will be again re- 
ferred to in the present history. Owing to the 
uncertainty of jurisdiction or for some other Teason,. 
Washington did not obtain patents for the Fayette 
County lands until 1782. His Fayette County titles 
were obtained under the laws of Pennsylvania, but those 
of Washington County lands he secured from Virginia. 
He and his agent Crawford were much hindered in ob- 
taining lands in the latter county by Col. George 
Croghan, who formerly had traded at Logstown and at 
the mouth of the Beaver, but who at this date and for 
twenty years past, was one of the most important men 
about Pittsburg. Croghan had obtained in 1759 a deed 
from four chiefs of the Six Nations, for 100,000 acres 
of land on the south side of the Monongahela and Ohio 
Bivers, covering from the mouth of Turtle Creek to Bac- 
coon Creek and extending 10 miles up that creek. He 
also claimed another 100,000 acres lying south of the 
above tract. From these lands he made conveyances 
by descriptions to extend as far south as Chartier ’s 
Creek, on the western side of which he conveyed 14,013 
acres, and on Bobinson’s Bun and Baccoon Creek north 
of that he conveyed 31,485%, acres. 

In the beautiful October weather of 1770, when George 



Washington was going down the Ohio looking for lands, 
he was in the company of Col. Crogkan, Mr. Hamilton, 
and Mr. Magee (probably the Alexander McKee above 
referred to, who soon after became an English Tory, 
causing the forfeiture of his lands). After leaving the 
village of Pittsburg they dined at Magee’s (or McKee’s) 
at two o ’clock, and the next morning Washington break- 
fasted at Logstown above Beaver Creek, probably enter- 
tained by John Gibson or Indian Logan. Col. Croghan 
was explaining that he owned all the land between Rac- 
coon Creek and the Monongahela River 1 ‘ and for 15 
miles back, ’ ’ under a purchase from the Indians con- 
firmed by his Majesty, King of England. He was 
offering as a specially attractive piece the land on 
Raccoon Creek, where the branches thereof interlock 
with the waters of Shurtees Creek, “as a body of 
fine, rich level land. ’ ’ He gives the visitor a special 
price, provided he can sell it in 10,000-acre lots. But 
Washington writes in his diary: “At present, the un- 

settled state of this country renders any purchase dan- 
gerous. ’ ’ The question of title confounded the wise 
as well as the most simple-minded. Croghan ’s title was 
never recognized by either Pennsylvania or Virginia, 
and these hundreds of thousands of acres were lost to 

Washington on this trip purposed not only to look 
up about 3,000 acres of good “level land” for himself, 
but to find lands to reward the officers and soldiers who 
had engaged in the expedition to drive out the French, 
under a proclamation of Virginia to give them 200,000 
acres of land around the forks of the Ohio. That was 
the proclamation which had aroused the temper and 
been bitterly resented by Pennsylvania officials, and had 
caused them to be lukewarm in assisting Virginia to 
chastise the Indians. 

Pittsburg in 1770 had about twenty houses, made of 
logs, ranged along the Monongahela shore, inhabited, as 
Washington writes, by Indian traders. These traders 
were nearly all Pennsylvanians, but most of the other 
inhabitants there, and those who came in soon after, 
were Virginians. Rev. David Jones, a Baptist minister, 
who visited the town in 1772, described it as “a small 
town, chiefly inhabited by Indian traders and some 
mechanics; part of the inhabitants are agreeable and 
worthy of regard, while others are lamentably dissolute 
in their morals.” 

On November 22d, Washington stayed in Pittsburg all 
day and gave a dinner party at Samuel Semples, who 
kept “a very good house of public entertainment” in 
the village which was about 300 yards from the fort. 
At this dinner were seated George Washington, then 
about 38 years old, the officers of the fort nearby, Dr. 
Craik, who had been in several battles with his host, 
Capt. William Crawford, whose most horrible fate is 

to come in a few short years; Dr. John Connolly, who 
soon hereafter figures as the most domineering enemy 
of Pennsylvania jurisdiction ; old Colonel Croghan, uncle 
of Connolly; and probably Alexander McKee, soon to 
become notorious. Our Virginia gentleman has at his 
table at least two guests who soon became English 
Tories and fought against him, and a third, Croghan, 
who was a strong Virginia sympathizer and for a time 
was suspected by the loyal Americans. 

No doubt Washington spoke of his journey out to the 
Kanawha River in Ohio and of the lands he was inter- 
ested in there. He probably told of the three deer and 
five buffalo killed and some others wounded on the 
Kanawha by himself, Dr. Craik and Capt. Crawford, his 
travelling companions on that trip; and possibly some 
of his guests would tell him that, far to the east of 
Pittsburg, there was a creek called Clearfield by the 
Indians, because, they said, the buffaloes formerly cleared 
large tracts of undergrowth there so as to give it 
the appearance of cleared fields. (Bausman’s History 
of Beaver County.) Our host would more particularly 
describe his return journey from Mingo Town along the 
Indian trail from west to east across the goodly lands 
(now in Cross Creek, Smith and Mt. Pleasant Town- 
ships) , ‘ ‘ where the branches of Raccoon Creek inter- 
locked with those of Shirtee, as stated to him last month 
by Croghan, the very lands he afterward obtained, much 
to Croghan ’s dissatisfaction. 

On this return trip they must have passed through 
the dense forest not far from Matthew Rankin ’s im- 
provement on the edge of Mt. Pleasant Township, ad- 
joining lands which afterwards became the location of 
Cherry’s Fort. Rankin obtained 380 acres and had his 
survey made. 15 years after this, based upon the Vir- 
ginia authorities certifying that he was “entitled to 
400 acres of land in the County of Youghiogheny to 
include his settlement made in the year 1770, also a 
right in prescription to 1,000 acres adjoining thereto.” 
Others of this family located adjoining. This land is 
still occupied by some of the Rankin family, one of 
whom is 8. Dallas Rankin. ‘ ‘ Rankin ’ ’ is marked on the 
map of Pennsylvania made by Reading Howell in 1792. 
There were other settlers at this early day scattered 
through the woods and those who were blazing trees, 
perhaps building a cabin and then selling their claim. 

Of the early settlements along the Monongahela River, 
none were so prominent on the west side as the land 
now occupied by the only city in our county, Mononga- 
hela. Abram Decker and Paul Froman obtained war- 
rants and surveys from Pennsylvania in the midsummer 
of 1769 for tracts called Southwark and Gloucester, 
which, with a smad arm of a survey called Mount 
Pleasant, covered all the river front from the mouth 
of Pigeon Creek down to ‘ ‘ Dry Run. ’ ’ Decker sold to 



Joseph Parkinson, his rights extending from Pigeon 
Creek down the river, but Parkinson did not complete his 
title from Pennsylvania until 28 years later. A river 
ferry was started here and the locality became well 
known as Devoe’s Perry and Parkinson’s Perry. Joseph 
was the inn-keeper for many years at this point, and had 
several brothers, one of whom, Benjamin, figured promi- 
nently in the Whiskey Insurrection. William Parkinson 
Warne, Esq., and Boyd E. Warne, Esq., of the Washing- 
ton County bar, are great-grandsons of Joseph. Paul 
Proman, next down the river, soon obtained other lands 
in the county, and his name is frequently used in con- 
nection with public roads and mills. 

Beginning at Dry Bun and extending on down the 
river, was the tract called Wood Park, surveyed in 1785 
under authority of a Virginia certificate, which indicates 
that either Joseph Parkinson or his assigns, Brady and 
Brooks, had a settlement on it in the year 1770. The 
plan of lots now below Dry Bun is called West Mononga- 
hela. It does not clearly appear whether Joseph Parkin- 
son resided first on that tract just below Pigeon Creek 
or this tract just below Dry Bun, neither is it easy to 
explain why he seemed to lose faith in Pennsylvania and 
obtained title to the last mentioned land from Virginia. 
His actions, however, illustrate the perplexities of the 
early settlers and of this well informed inn-keeper. 

The county filled up so rapidly, that on April 20, 1771, 
Capt. William Crawford, referring to Col. Croghan’s 
great tract of land, informed George Washington by 
letter that “what land is worth anything is already 
taken by somebody whose survey comes within the line 
we run.” It was impossible, even at that early date, 
to get in one tract, as many acres as Washington desired, 
so his agent, Crawford, had settlements made on lands 
in Mount Pleasant lying near and east of Bankins. He 
finally succeeded in obtaining possession by driving out 
the actual settlers, the McBrides, Biggers, Beeds, Seotts 
and others, by action of ejectment in Washington County 
courts, in 1784. He based his action in this Pennsylvania 
court upon a patent describing the land as in Augusta 
County, Virginia, issued by Lord Dunmore, dated July 
5th, 1775, although Lord Dunmore had become an Eng- 
lish Tory and had been driven away from that state 
by its armed patriots, led by Patrick Henry, on the 
8th day of June, preceding. 

Lund Washington, a relative of George Washington, 
obtained a patent in 1779 for 1,000 acres adjoining the 
Bankin and Cherry lands on the northwest. A portion 
of this land lying in Cherry Valley in Smith Township 
was purchased in 1804 by Samuel McFarland, grand- 
father of the writer, and was his residence and that of 
his descendants until the year 1890, when it was sold 
to Maxwell Work, who still resides upon it. The ancient 
Indian trail from the forks of the Ohio to a point 

between Steubenville and Wheeling, ran near or through 
the George Washington tract, within a few feet of 
Cherry’s fort, through Lund Washington’s tract and the 
Leech settlement. This was probably the by-path which 
led our illustrious land-hunter, in 1770, to the promised 
land for which he afterwards made his legal fight, and 
through the 1,000 acres of good land which Lund Wash- 
ington patented after he had purchased a military war- 
rant from Capt. William Crawford. 

The methods of the Virginia gentlemen and the specu- 
lator differed from that of those who came to live on 
the 300 acres (if so much could be found unoccupied) 
then allowed to actual settlers. The following picture 
taken from the diary of Dr. Doddridge (p. 118), shows 
something of the hardship of the latter. 

“April 24, 1773, Beached Ligonier. In this journey 
we overtook several families removing from the old settle- 
ments in the State, and from Maryland and New Jersey, 
to the western country. Their patience and perseverance 
in poverty and fatigue were wonderful. They were not 
only patient, but cheerful and pleased themselves with 
the expectation of seeing happy days beyond the moun- 

“I noticed, particularly, one family of about 12 in 
number. The man carried an* ax and gun on his shoul- 
der — the Wife, the rim of a spinning wheel in one hand, 
and a loaf of bread in the other. Several little boys 
and girls, each with a bundle, according to their size. 
Two poor horses, each heavily loaded with some poor 
necessaries. On the top of the baggage of one was an 
infant rocked to sleep in a kind of wicker cage, lashed 
securely to the horse. A cow formed one of the company, 
and she was destined to bear her portion of service; a 
bed cord was wound around her horns, and a bag of 
meal on her back. The above is a specimen of the 
greater part of the poor and enterprising people, who 
leave their old habitations and connections, and go in 
quest of land for themselves and children, and with the 
hope of the enjoyment of independence, in their worldly 
circumstances, where land is good and cheap. ’ ’ 

We have heretofore spoken only of our land being 
embraced in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. In this 
year, 1771, Bedford County was erected “because of the 
great hardships the inhabitants of the western part of 
the County of Cumberland lie under from being so remote 
from the present seat of jurisdiction and the public 
offices. ’ ’ The former county seat, Carlisle, had been 
distant about 175 miles from Catfish’s Camp, but now 
the county seat at Bedford is not more than 100 miles 
away. How convenient it must have been for litigants, 
witnesses and jurors, who must either go to court astride 
a horse, or walk. However, the earliest pioneers west of 
the river were not yet office-seekers. They were seeking 
farms and homes and were left largely to fight for them 
among themselves. 

The dissatisfaction naturally arising in those residing 
far from the seat of county government was decreased 
but little by the new organization, and it extended over 



our lands for only two years. There were but two town- 
ships in this great region west of the river, Pittsburg 
being north of Spring Hill Township, the dividing line 
between them running due west from the mouth of 
Redstone Creek to the (unknown) western line of the 
Province of Pennsylvania. The land of Greene County, 
and a strip of Washington County, lying a little north 
of Ten Mile Creek, was settled with more than five 
times as many men as the whole residue of old Washing- 
ton County, including from the Ohio River south almost 
to Greene County. It is evident that the great influx 
of earliest pioneers was over the Braddock and Col. Burd 
roads, instead of over the Forbes road through Pittsburg. 
This southern part, or Springhill Township, was safer 
because nearer Virginia and farther from the forks 
of the Ohio and the Indian country. 

Difficulties soon arose between the newly arrived and 
the provincial tax collector, and the sheriffs and other 
officers were no doubt often evaded, and no doubt often 
exercised, or seemed to exercise, great hardships on those 
who were haled into court, 100 miles away. Costs for 
long mileage and days ’ travel became enormous to those 
who had but little money, and the taxables thought 
it was ‘ ‘ an imposition to oblige them to pay taxes for 
building court houses, etc., in Bedford County.” 

They looked forward to an early time when His 
Majesty the King would establish a new organization, 
a colony or state west of the mountains. A certain 
Col. Michael Cresap, a fur trader, who had been at 
Redstone for a year or two, was prominent in furnishing 
arguments against Pennsylvania, while Col. Croghan re- 
sisted the tax collector with threats of death. Combina- 
tions were attempted and papers signed to oppose, even 
to the risk of their lives, ‘‘every of Penn’s laws,” as 
they called them, ‘ ‘ except felonious actions. ’ ’ A petition 
signed by 220 names of people living to the westward 
of Laurel Hill, was presented to court at Bedford in 
July, 1772, charging the government and officers of the 
court with great oppression and injustice, and prayed 
that directions be given to the sheriffs to serve no more 
process in that county, as they apprehended it was not in 
Pennsylvania. ’ ’ 

The attorney who presented this petition, Mr. Brent, 
a Marylander, offered as argument in support of it 
‘‘the uncertainty where Pennsylvania ends and the hard- 
ships on the people to live under authority that was 
perhaps usurped.” We of the 20th century would not 
expect to attend court at so great a distance from home, 
yet Capt. Arthur St. Clair, prothonotary of Bedford 
County, whose letter reports this proceeding, says, that 
‘‘many people from the doubtful part of the country 

were present.” These apparently were not the peti- 
tioners, for they seemed pleased with the conduct of the 
court in rejecting the petition. 

The failure to get relief through court did not allay 
the irritation, and soon we hear of the sheriff and his 
deputy being waylaid by about a dozen armed men, who 
threatened to put them both to death and swore in the 
most dreadful manner, that if they returned to attempt 
to serve process, they would be sacrificed or followed to 
their own houses and be put to the most cruel death. The 
sheriff knew several of them and mentions as the ring- 
leaders the two Teagardens, Abraham and William, Jr. 
This intimidation must have been on or near Washington 
County soil, as the Teagardens were assessed in 1772 in 
Springhill Township, above mentioned, and were located 
on lands near the mouth of Ten-Mile Creek. 

It does not appear that our inhabitants were much 
benefitted by being almost two years under the control of 
Bedford County. They were left to travel the old 
single-file Indian trails and to go across the Mononga- 
hela River to find any active justice of the peace or 
constable. The horrid savage, with his unintelligible 
grunt, frequently appeared, startling the laborer in the 
clearing or the dwellers in the little cabin with his 
stealthy actions or his demand for food, although pro- 
fessing friendship. The sense of insecurity was increased 
when, by orders of Gen. Gage, the garrison at Fort Pitt 
was abandoned in the fall of 1772, and the British, 
who had been guarding this frontier since the fort was 
built in 1759, marched off, leaving this region entirely 
in the hands of a civil government whose efforts, as they 
appeared to the frontiersman, were limited to the col- 
lection of taxes. 

What became of the early settlers who refused to 
remove from Redstone has not been recorded, but years 
afterward the courts decided that settlements on land 
prior to the opening of the land office gave no priority 
of title whatever, and that to obtain a title to lands 
lately sold by the natives it was absolutely necessary 
to apply to the land office in the usual and accustomed 
method. Indeed, “for a few years after the American 
Revolution, the sentiment of some of the judges were 
unfriendly to settlers and improvers, but a change of 
opinion took place about the year 1793, and the courts 
of nisi prius, held in the spring of 1795 in Washington 
County, gave preference to an actual settler over a subse- 
quent right expressly created by the laws of Virginia.” 
(Per Yeates, judge, in 3 Binney, p. 175; decided in the 
year 1810.) 

We are now entering into a long period when titles, 
jurisdictions, lives and liberty, are all uncertain. 



Westmoreland County Established — Western Boundary Uncertain — Lord Dunmore Visits Pittsburg — Westmoreland 
County Judge becomes an Adherent of Virginia — Dr. John Conolly Talces Possession of Fort Pitt — Dissatis- 
faction with the Location of the County Seat — Virginia also appoints Magistrates at Pittsburg— -Conolly 
Arrested — Intimidates the Court — Arrests of Justices and Others — Attempts to Compromise on State Line 
— Cresap and Other Traders and Speculators declare War of Annihilation — Indian Massacres : — Logan 
Betaliates — Dunmore ’s War — Peace Treaty. 

We come now to the establishment of Westmoreland 
County. Two years previously Bedford County had been 
organized upon petition of the frontier people, but it 
is elear the government by courts must be brought closer. 
The violent evidences of dissatisfaction and the deter- 
mined effort to avoid taxation and process was no doubt 
the chief incentive inducing those loyal to Pennsylvania 
to again petition the Legislature early in 1773. The 
first petition from a number of Freeholders and inhab- 
itants on the west side of Laurel Hill in the County 
of Bedford, praying the governor and Council “to 
erect said part of the County of Bedford, west of Laurel 
Hill, into a separate County,” did not arouse that slow 
acting body. But another petition being presented a 
few days later, and the information coming from the 
governor, Richard Penn, that he was ready to act, 
a bill was passed February 26th, erecting a county 
“henceforth to be called Westmoreland.” Up to this 
date county names, with the exception of Philadelphia, 
had been exclusively English, but the names of the 
counties hereafter will show allegiance to a new idea. 
This was the last county erected under the Proprietary 
Government, and we remained in it eight years — years 
full of disputes, doubts, war and lurking danger. 

The first doubt is the old uncertainty which had caused 
the riotous conduct during the two years we were in 
Bedford County. The line of Westmoreland followed 
the top of Laurel Hill or Ridge, so far as it can be 
traced, ‘ ‘ thence along the ridge dividing the waters of 
Susquehanna and the Allegheny River to the purchase 
line, thence due west to the limits of the Province and 
by the same to the place of beginning.” To state this 
boundary, with the map of Pennsylvania of today before 
us, we would say: “Westmoreland embraced the south- 

western corner of the State. The line followed the 

eastern line of Fayette, Westmoreland and Indiana to 
the corner of Clearfield County, thence across Indiana 
County westward to near Kittanning, thence due west to 
the western limits of the State, and thence by the un- 
known western and southwestern limits to the top of 
Laurel Ridge Mountains. The eounty seat was estab- 
lished at the house of Robert Hanna, in Hannastown, a 
little settlement on the Forbes road, 35 miles east of 
Pittsburg and about three miles northeast of the site 
of Greensburg. Arthur St. Clair, who had been prothono- 
tary or chief clerk of courts, at Bedford, petitioned for 
the same official position in this new county and got it. 
This is the name we must not forget, and his appoint- 
ment was an act of wisdom. He was a Scotchman, 38 
years of age, a graduate of the University of Edin- 
burg, and had been an English soldier and with Gen. 
Wolf in that decisive battle upon the Plains of Abraham. 
It was his pen that reported to the council in Phila- 
delphia the lawless acts of the dissaffeeted, and it is 
from his large correspondence we get the most interesting 
news from the early days. He held this office about two 
years, until he went into the American army in the 
Revolutionary War. 

William Crawford, the friend of Washington, being 
first named in the general commission of justices of 
the peace issued for this country became its leading 
justice, or president judge of the courts. He held his 
office about two years, when his commission was revoked 
because he had accepted a similar commission from Vir- 

In the midsummer of 1773 the newly appointed gover- 
nor of Virginia visited Capt. William Crawford, at his 
home, about 16 miles east of Brownsville on the Youghie- 
gheny River, and passed on down the Braddock road 
to Pittsburg. This Lord Dunmore was full of the im~ 




portance of liis office under the King, and the air* of 
royalty about him must have made quite a favorable 
impression upon the newly appointed president judge in 
the backwoods of Westmoreland County. Had he been 
attended on this trip by George Washington, who was 
only prevented from accompanying him by the death 
of his step daughter, Crawford would probably have gone 
with them down to Pittsburg, where Lord Dunmore met 
Dr. John Connolly. 

Governor Dunmore had come up from Virginia to 
arrange a scheme to secure Pittsburg, the Monongahela 
Valley and the land westward, for Virginia. It has been 
written by John Ormsby (or in a hand similar to his), 
that he came ‘ ‘ to sound the inclinations of the in- 
habitants as well as the Indians. . . . When Lord 

Dunmore arrived in Pittsburg he lodged at my house 
and often closeted me, as he said, for information 
respecting the disposition of the inhabitants. He threw 
out some dark intimations as to my usefulness, in case 

I would be concerned, but as he found I kept aloof 
he divulged his plans to Connolly, and I suppose to John 
Campbell, else why give him the aforesaid grant of land 
whieh he enjoys and is very valuable.” The same 
writing states that “Connolly, like a hungry wolf, closed 
with Dunmore a bargain that he would secure a con- 
siderable interest among the white inhabitants and the 
Indians on the frontier. In consequence of this agree- 
ment my lord made him a deed of gift of 2,000 acres 
of land at the Falls of the Ohio, and 2,000 more to Mr. 
John Campbell, late of Kentucky, both of which grants 
are now owned by the heirs of Col. Campbell.” (From 

II Olden Time, p. 93.) 

Dunmore ’s influence is shown by Campbell ’s actions. 
It is reasonable to conclude that the governor ’s argu- 
ments and plans, revealed to Capt Crawford on that 
visit, led that president judge of Westmoreland County, 
Pennsylvania, to advise his friend, George Washington, 
to take out a patent from Virginia for his Westmoreland 
County (now Washington County land, the land men- 
tioned in the preceding chapter), as in this wmy he would 
be sure to prevent future dispute and trouble. This 
letter of advice was written January 10, 1774, and no 
time was wasted in getting a survey made by Crawford, 
followed by patent dated July 5, 1775, issued by Lord 
Dunmore, governor of Virginia, to George Washington, 
for the lands, describing them as “being in Augusta 
County, Virginia, on the waters of Miller’s Run, one of 
the branches of Chartier’s Creek, a branch of the 
Ohio.” Strange to say, this patent is dated 27 days 
after Dunmore was driven from Virginia by the enraged 
inhabitants of that colony. 

On the 20th of June of that year Lord Dunmore wrote 
to Connolly at Pittsburg suggesting that he send Capt. 
William Crawford to fight the Indians, saying, ‘ ‘ I know 

him to be prudent, active and resolute, and therefore 
very fit to go on such an expedition. ’ ’ By the 1st of 
October Crawford is a major under Dunmore and one 
of his leading officers in what is known as Dunmore ’s 
War. On the following January 25th, Crawford ’s com- 
mission as justice or president judge was revoked by 
Pennsylvania, because he had accepted a commission as 
justice under Virginia and became a violent partisan. 

It has been suggested by some writers that Lord 
Dunmore on his visit to Pittsburg had a deeper design 
than the mere holding of Pittsburg and old Washington 
County for the State of Virginia. That he expected to 
bind the disaffected in this region to Virginia, to stir 
the Indians into war, then make a peace treaty, by 
which means he would have control of the dissatisfied 
whites as well as the Indians, to use them in behalf 
of Great Britain in her war with the colonies, now 
about to break out. Thinking men were then forming 
opinions and making alliances for or against the mother 
country. A royal schooner anchored at a seaport in 
Rhode Island had been burned by a mob of so-called 
patriots in 1772, and the “Boston Tea Party,” on 
December 16, 1773, had blackened the waters of the 
bay with tea chests upon which the colonists refused to 
pay import duty. Such unlawful and violent acts did 
not receive the approval of some of the wisest men, and 
tended to make them royalists in sympathy. 

Washington was a loyal Virginian, but not yet fully 
tested and known to be an American patriot. He could 
not then foresee that within two years he would be 
commander-in-chief of a continental army, fighting 
against the troops of Great Britain, under whose banner 
he had formerly marched; fighting against the imperious 
king whose subject he was. Had he traveled with his 
governor, the royal representative; had he been at the 
meeting at Capt. Crawford’s and with Dr. John Con- 
nolly at Pittsburg — Connolly, of whom he had written 
two years ago that he was ‘ ‘ a very sensible and intelli- 
gent man”; had he joined these men in their loyalty 
to the mother country and in their efforts to oppose 
the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, making their schemes 
his own — who can calculate the result and who can say 
what would have become of the War of the Revolution. 

It is not surprising that Justice Crawford became dis- 
gusted with the weakness and lack of support he received 
from Pennsylvania’s chief officials. However, he did 
not go so far from his allegiance as some of his associate 
justices. At least two of the dozen or more appointed 
with him to uphold the laws in Westmoreland County 
soon became English Tories, influenced no doubt by their 
daily associations with Dr. Connolly at Pittsburg. 

The Doctor had returned the visit of my lord and 
imbibed more fully of his ideas of vigorous government, 
so on January 1st, 1774, he proposed a New Year’s 



gift, and surprised the settlers by issuing a proclamation 
showing how he intended to aid the people in their 
government. He pasted up notices at Pittsburg to the 
effect that he was now ‘ ‘ Captain Commandant of the 
militia of Pittsburg and its dependencies, under appoint- 
ment from his excellency John, the Earl of Dunmore, 
Governor-in-Chief and Captain-General of the Colony 
and Dominion of Virginia, and Vice-Admiral of the 
same.” After overwhelming our plain people with this 
high sounding introduction, he assures ‘‘His Majesty’s 
subjects settled on the western waters, that, having the 
greatest regard to their prosperity and interest, and con- 
vinced from their repeated memorials of the grievances 
of which they complain, ’ ’ the governor proposes the 
erection of ‘‘a new County, to include Pittsburg, for 
the redress of your complaints, and to take every other 
step that may attend to afford you that Justice for 
which you solicit.” 

He required and commanded ‘ ‘ All persons in the De- 
pendency of Pittsburg, to assemble themselves there as 
a militia on the 25th instant, when other matters would 
be communicated. ’ ’ 

Much adverse comment has been made on this move, 
by Virginia, but it was a most natural and reasonable 
action. The inhabitants at Pittsburg had been much 
disappointed when the trustees to select a county seat for 
Westmoreland ignored Pittsburg and selected Robert 
Hanna’s house, 35 miles out in the country. Eneas 
Mackey, one of the justices at Pittsburg, complains 
seriously to the new prothonotary, St. Clair, about locat- 
ing where there are ‘ ‘ neither houses, tables or chairs. 
Certainly the people must sit at the Toots of trees and 
stumps, and in ease of rain the lawyers’ books and 
papers must be exposed to the weather and they cannot 
be presumed to write. The whole inhabitants (of Pitts- 
burg) exclaim against the steps already taken, to the 
injury of the county, yet in its infancy, and that too, 
before it got its eyes or tongue to speak for itself.” 
George Wilson, another justice, who lived among a 
nest of Virginians at George ’s Creek above Redstone, 
shared the disappointment, for he, as one of the trustees 
to choose the location, had voted for Pittsburg, which 
was much easier reached by his neighbors. 

The spirit of the Penns and their Councils east of 
the mountains was urging non-resistance. Sentiment east 
of the mountains was not alive to conditions in the 
west, and the west had largely lost interest in the 
faraway government in the east. Richard Penn, governor, 
urged the assembly to garrison Fort Pitt with enough 
soldiers for protection, but in vain. A quiet Quaker 
state was an uneasy abiding place for the self-reliant 
Scotch-Irish and those who had come up from Virginia, 
many of whom were of that descent. Virginia had made 
her claims years ago and some of the oldest inhabitants 

of Pittsburg are reiterating the statement that this is 
Virginia soil, while Pennsylvania tacitly admits it and 
shows her fear by establishing her court out in the 
country under the trees, instead of boldly coming to 
Pittsburg, where several of her magistrates reside. 

The truth is, the Virginia Colony was bold and 
vigorous and ready to fight ‘‘at the drop of the hat,” 
and Penn’s province knew it. It was stated in St. 
Clair ’s letters that when the petition was presented 
‘‘last year” to Bedford Court for an order restraining 
the sheriff from executing process, etc., west of the 
mountains, it was done with the expectation that the 
court might throw into jail the young attorney (grand- 
son of old Cresapa)- and others who were favoring the 
petition, so as to give the Virginians an excuse for war. 
Now Connolly’s act was tending in another way to give 
excuse for war between the two colonies, or to force 
the slow Pennsylvanians to recede from the Monongahela 
River by conceding a line eastward. The situation of 
having Pennsylvania claiming Pittsburg and the Monon- 
gahela Valley and authorizing surveys and settlements 
thereabouts, in that district which had been secured from 
the French by Virginia’s promptness, was unbearable. 
The handicap must be removed, a solution of the problem 
of government must be forced, and Dunmore and Con- 
nolly were sufficiently aggressive to undertake the dan- 
gerous job, believing that an armed contest would result 
only in confining Pennsylvania to the east of the moun- 
tains and also in giving Virginia all the western fur 

As a weak checkmate to Connolly’s move, Governor 
Penn appointed three more justices, on January 11, 
Alexander Ross, Andrew MeFarlane, and Oliver Miller. 
The first two were traders at Pittsburg, of whom we 
may here state Ross soon became an English Tory and 
MeFarlane endured three years of Indian captivity. 
(Old Westmoreland County, Hassler, p. 24.) MeFar- 
lane and Miller afterward resided in Washington County. 

Penn’s justices were expected to do more than hear 
cases. They were selected for the purpose of influencing 
the community and were expected to preserve the peace 
by hand to hand conflicts, if necessary. Yet letters from 
the chief authorities of the province warned against 
armed interference or open and organized opposition to 
Virginia’s oppressions, calling attention to the fact that 
Virginia had an organized militia, which Pennsylvania 

Connolly had also appointed six or seven magistrates, 
among whom were Major Smallman, John Campbell, and 
John Gibson. In the mind of Eneas Mackey, one of 
Penn’s magistrates in Pittsburg, ‘‘There is no doubt 
but all the disaffected and vagabonds that before evaded 
law and justice with so much art, will now flock in 
numbers to the Captain’s standard, if not prevented in 



time, the consequences of which we have just cause to 
dread. ’ ’ 

The war of wits is now begun in earnest. Connolly 
was arrested the day before the one he had set for the 
backwoodsmen to meet him in the capacity of militia- 
men, was taken out to Hannastown and locked in the 
little jail or perhaps incarcerated in Fort Ligonier, upon 
a warrant issued by Justice St. Clair, also prothonotary, 
clerk of courts, etc., of Westmoreland County. The bail 
was fixed purposely so high that he would not get free to 
attend his called meeting. The imprisonment must have 
continued at least a week, for St. Clair writes Governor 
Penn from Ligonier, February 2nd, that “about eighty 
persons in arms assembled themselves, chiefly from Mr. 
Croghan’s neighborhood, and after parading through the 
town . . . proceeded to the fort, where a cask of 

rum was produced and the head knocked out. This was 
a very effective method of recruiting.” The letter does 
not state why or when Connolly was liberated, but with 
his blood tingling he reached Virginia as a martyr, from 
which he soon returned to Pittsburg prepared for heroic 
measures. He was joined by a party from the “Chartee 
Settlement,” now Beck’s Mills or Linden, in North Stra- 
bane Township. As shown by court records, a road had 
been applied for in Westmoreland County Court the 
previous October by divers inhabitants of the township 
of Pitt, to lead “from the southwest side of the Monon- 
gahela River opposite the town of Pittsburg, by Dr. 
Edward Hand’s land on Chartiers, to the settlement on 
said creek, supposed to be at or near the western 
boundary of the Province of Pennsylvania.” Over this 
road these Chartiers settlers must have traveled and 
crossed the river at Bausman ’s ferry if it was in opera- 
tion at that date. Jacob Bausman (great-grandfather 
of the historian, Joseph H. Bausman) was one of the 
viewers of this road, and had a ferry opposite the town 
of Pittsburg prior to 1791. 

The Virginia sympathizers up the Monongahela had 
two or three musters about this time, one at Red Stone 
Old Fort, one at Paul Froman’s, now North Strabane 
Township, and one at Dorsey Pentecost’s, in conse- 
quence of which Mr. Pentecost wrote to Mr. Swearingen, 
who resided east of the Monongahela, to act no longer 
there as a Pennsylvania magistrate, at his peril. Pente- 
cost had been a magistrate when we were in Bedford 
County and was one of their county commissioners. No 
doubt he felt the sting when he was not appointed for 
Westmoreland and in consequence was thereafter a bitter 
opponent of Penn’s government. 

What followed within the next few weeks is given with 
considerable detail because it occurred in the county of 
which our land was than a part, and also because it came 
so near precipitating a bloody war, the results of which 
would have been to sever this region from Pennsylvania 

and to raise complications and bitterness which might 
have prevented the Revolutionary War. 

Connolly had possession of the fort with his body- 
guard of militia and had parties of armed men patroling 
the street “to the great alarm of the Indians,” and 
doubtless of some of the whites, because they were in 
constant pursuit of our deputy sheriffs and constables.” 

Westmoreland County’s sheriff, John Proctor, had 
arrested a militia lieutenant and had himself been 
arrested and detained for a time. Arrests and counter 
arrests and scuffles, with rough usage, followed rapidly, 
and it was reported that a deputy sheriff from Staunton, 
Augusta County, Virginia, was here to carry off Sheriff 
Proctor and Chief Clerk of Courts St. Clair. The letters 
of St. Clair admit that a part of the time he was in 
concealment to avoid difficulties. 

The original defendant, Connolly, in company with Mr. 
Pentecost, appeared in front of the little Hannastown 
court house in April, armed with letters from Lord 
Dunmore and attended by a company of militia number- 
ing about 200, with colors flying and officered by men 
with their swords drawn. Sentinels were at once placed 
at the court house door and the defendant walked in 
to find the place deserted. The magistrates had thought 
it prudent upon hearing that the defendant was approach- 
ing, ‘ ‘ to order the sheriff to raise as many men as he 
could collect. . . . The time was so short that but 

few were collected on our side and those few were ill 
armed, so that we found ourselves in a very disagreeable 
situation when we received information that Connolly 
was coming down with 200 men.” Court adjourned 
before the usual time and bench and bar must have 
scurried to cover like partridges. A member of the 
bench afterward attempted to go into the courtroom, 
but could not enter until the sentry received permission 
from the defendant. Connolly sent a message that he 
would wait on the magistrates and communicate the 
reasons for his appearance. The following relation of 
what took place is extracted from a letter to Governor 
Penn by Thomas Wilson, Esq., the member of the bar 
who twenty years afterward tried the ejectment suit 
of George Washington before the Supreme Court in 
Washington County, Pennsylvania, to drive the Reeds, 
McBrides, Biggers, et al. from the lands in Mount 
Pleasant Township. 

“The bench and bar were then assembled in Mr. 
Hanna ’s house, where we sent him word we would hear 
him. He and Pentecost soon came down and he read the 
paper which will be sent down to his Honor the Gov- 
ernor. The paper stated that ‘some of the Justices of 
this Bench are the cause of this appearance and not me. 
I have done this to prevent myself being illegally taken 
to Philadelphia. My orders from the Government of 
Virginia not being explicit, but claiming the Country 
around Pittsburg, I have raised the Militia to support the 



■ Civil Authority of that Colony vested in me. I have 
come here to free myself from a promise made to Cap- 
tain Proctor, but have not conceived myself amenable to 
this Court by any Authority from Pennsylvania. Upon 
which account I cannot apprehend that you have any 
right to remain here as Justices of the Peace, constituting 
a Court under that Province; but in order to prevent 
confusion, I agree that you may continue to act in that 
capacity, in all such matters as may be submitted to your 
determination by ihe acquiescence of the people, until I 
may have instructions to the contrary from Virginia, or 
until his Majesty’s pleasure shall be further known on 
this subject.’ ” 

The court soon returned an answer. It was couched in 
terms of firmness and moderation, with promises to do 
all they could to preserve the peace and to take steps 
to fix a temporary line between the colonies. 

On the following day, April 8th, 1774, Capt. William 
Crawford, president judge, reported the facts by a letter 
carried by Magistrate George Wilson to Governor Penn 
at Philadelphia, in which he spoke of the arrest of 
several persons by Connolly after leaving Hanna’s, and 
said, ‘ ‘ In other parts of the country, particularly those 
adjoining the river Monongahela, the magistrates have 
been frequently insulted in the most indecent and violent 
manner, and are apprehensive that unless they are 
speedily and vigorously supported by the Government, 
It will become both fruitless and dangerous for them to 
proceed to the execution of their offices. They presume 
not to point out the measures proper for settling present 
disturbances, but beg leave to recommend the fixing of 
a temporary line with the utmost expedition, as one step 
that in all probability will contribute very much towards 
producing that effect.” 

The troop in overwhelming force came back to Pitts- 
burg, arresting some persons on the way and in Pittsburg, 
where three magistrates, Eneas Mackey, Andrew McFar- 
lane, and Devereaux Smith, were also arrested as soon 
as they returned from sitting as judges at Hanna’s. 
Before that court had convened and while the militia 
were gathering, these three, with Sheriff Proctor, had 
dropped in at the old abandoned Port Pitt ‘‘to dis- 
cover, ’ ’ as they said, ‘ ‘ the Doctor ’s intentions and if 
we found them anywise tumultuously disposed, to read 
the Biot Act.” Their arrest was in retaliation for that 
visit. The offence charged against these three justices, 
in the King’s warrant for their arrest, is not their 
officious call upon Connolly, but the answer they made 
to him as judges of Westmoreland County. They were 
carried off to Staunton, Va., the county seat of Augusta 
County, 150 miles away, because they would not acknowl- 
edge the jurisdiction of Virginia by giving bail for their 
appearance there at the next term of court. Mackey 
secured a hearing with Governor Dunmore and obtained 
release for the three. Pate smote the heart of McFarlane 
during his captivity, and that summer he brought from 

Staunton to his log home in Pittsburg, his bride, Miss 
Margaret Lane Lewis, daughter of William Lewis, one 
of five brothers famous in Virginia military history. 
(Old Westmoreland County, Hassler, p. 25.) 

Their arrest brought a commission of two men from 
Pennsylvania to Dunmore, on May 19th, proposing a joint 
petition to England’s king, in order that the line might 
be established through his direction. Dunmore was 
willing to join in the petition but unwilling to share 
the expense of establishing a line for Pennsylvania. The 
commissioners finally offered to give away all of the 
present Washington County, making the Monongahela 
Biver the state line, but my Lord Dunmore could not 
give up Pittsburg. Again the negotiations ceased just 
as former efforts had ended 20 years before. 

A piteous appeal had reached Lord Dunmore in the 
shape of a petition signed by 587 inhabitants settled on 
the waters of the Ohio, ‘‘and had by him been laid 
before his Colonial Council, ’ ’ a week before he was 
visited by the commissioners. This petition set forth 
that the majority of the petitioners formerly lived in 
Virginia and preferred the mild, easy, and equitable 
government thereof to the administration of justice in 
Pennsylvania, oppressive to the poor and expensive to 
all, particularly in trying titles to land, and in recovery 
of small debts, wherein the officer’s fees are so dispro- 
portionate that they seem rather calculated for enriching 
individuals than the public good. It complains of the 
officers in Pennsylvania, of a heavy provincial tax, a 
great part thereof being swallowed up by the officers who 
lay and collect it, and of their ‘ ‘ imminent danger from 
contiguity to the faithless and barbarous natives, whose 
treaties, alliances, and sincerity are never to be relied 
upon, as well as a hearty conviction that the present 
Government is usurped. ’ ’ It prays that such provision 
be made ‘ ‘ for us in our present distressed condition, as 
to you shall seem meet. ’ ’ 

The petition reads like one written by Connolly, 
assisted by Dorsey Pentecost, when it complains that 
‘ ‘ the Proprietor ’s governor will neither appoint nor con- 
tinue in office any but those who adhere strictly to their 
master’s interests.” 

Penn’s Government was financially poor, and from 
fear of the expense, the fear of unfair treatment by his 
Majesty of England and his appointees, or from the 
natural sluggishness of Pennsylvania’s Council, no peti- 
tion to his Majesty was prepared, and not even a tempo- 
rary line was agreed upon. 

The need of a division line was not Pennsylvania’s 
only trouble, neither was our Westmoreland County the 
only one of that name claiming land inside the boundaries 
of Pennsylvania. The colony of Connecticut, or some of 
her inhabitants known as the Susquehanna Company, 
claimed that her territorial rights entitled them to lands