s&tftofow'&umoM ROOM ./■ 3 1223 90159 8160 Book No nidlUMY 711 Sa522m 588190 NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THE LIBRARY FORM 3427 SOOO 10-48 Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from California State Library Califa/LSTA Grant http://archive.org/details/2reportofmarsdenm00mans REPORT OP MARSDEN MANSON TO THE MAYOR AND COMMITTEE ON RECONSTRUCTION ON THE IMPROVEMENTS Now Necessary to Execute AND An Estimate of the Cost of the Same FIRE AVENUES AND THOROUGHFARES LOWERING RINCON HILL AUXILIARY FIRE SYSTEM * WATER FRONT IMPROVEMENTS OCTOBER 1906 REPORT OF MARSDEN MANSON TO THE MAYOR AND COMMITTEE ON RECONSTRUCTION ON THOSE Portions of the Burnham Plans WHICH MEET OUR COMMERCIAL NECESSITIES AND An Estimate of the Cost of the Same FIRE AVENUES AND THOROUGHFARES LOWERING RINCON HILL AUXILIARY FIRE SYSTEM WATER FRONT IMPROVEMENTS OCTOBER 1906 To the Public : — I have carefully examined the plans submitted by Mr. Manson for the widening and extension of streets and also for better- ing the harbor front for better shipping facilities. They are in line with what I have been planning since the fire and if adopted by the people will make San Francisco what we expect her to be, one of the best and most progressive cities on this continent. The plans have my hearty endorsement and I sincerely hope they will be realized at a very early date. (Signed) E. E. SCHMITZ, X nu Mayor. Sept. 28, 1906. ^5*2^ 588190 September 25, 1906. HON. E. E. SCHMITZ, Mayor and Chairman of the Committee on Reconstruction. My dear Sir: — The Committee on the Reconstruction of San Francisco, with your approval, directed me to make an examination of the reports of the several com- mittees. I was instructed to study the plans and simplify them, also to make estimates of the cost of the more important improvements suggested. After several months of careful study I unhesi- tatingly recommend to the Mayor and the People the carrying out immediately of the following work: (a) Widen Folsom street from East to Tenth street, and lower the grade from Spear to Third street ; (b) Extend Montgomery avenue from Wash- ington street to Market street ; (bi) Widen Fremont street and lower its grade as hereinafter named; (c) Extend Eighth street to Mariposa street and widen this latter street to Illinois street; (d) Open a new avenue from the Ferry to Fol- som and Fremont streets; (e) Close Commercial street and add its width to Sacramento and Clay streets; (f) Widen Pacific street; (g) Widen Sansome street by setting curbs back and pass it under Broadway, as recommended by the Board of Public Works in 1902-3 ; (h) Lower Rincon Hill to a plane sloping from Third street to the waterfront ; (i) Auxiliary Fire System Salt Water. Con- struct fire cisterns as recommended by the Chief of the Fire Department, and build one or more pumping stations for bay connections with distributing mains. Nearly all of these improvements have, with many others, been recommended try the Committee on Re- construction, and I have selected them by reason of their vital relation to the protective commercial and industrial needs of the city. The relation of these improvements to the future growth of the city will appear from Map "A" accom- panying this report. I estimate the cost of all the lands required to open or to widen the streets named above at the sum of $4,695,330.00 I estimate the cost of grading and paving all the new oblique streets named at $526,250.00; for grading streets through Rincon Hill at the sum of $1,100,000.00; and for fire cisterns, etc., $1,500,000.00. Total, $7,821,580.00. This will make an expenditure of less than $7,900,000.00, and will secure all the land required and make all the improvements necessary to give San Francisco reasonable protection and enable her to expand commercially and to achieve her des- tiny as the chief city of the Pacific. Such an expen- diture made now, should add not less than $75,000,- 000 to the assessed valuation of city property in ten or fifteen years. Five or ten years from now it will be absolutely impossible to make these improve- ments; they must be made now or they will never be made. It is evident that the property-owners unassisted cannot make these improvements. The plans recommended affect the whole city. Fire barriers are created which, with existing wide thoroughfares, will restrict great fires to the district in which the)' originate, and they also serve as adequate and direct thoroughfares between the water-front and manu- facturing and commercial districts, as well as relieve the congested condition of the Ferry and Market street. And it will be noted that the fire avenues or high- ways herein outlined, together with Market street, Van Ness avenue, Channel street and Dolores street, divide the city into areas within which conflagra- tions can be controlled, and that by systematically disposing the auxiliary fire system along these lines the areas within them can be subdivided for a more detailed distribution ot tire protection. The only way to pay for these improvements is for the city to authorize a bond issue, the bonds to be at least 40-year bonds and bear not more than 4 per cent interest. These bonds can be readily sold and should command a premium. It is evident that all the suggestions recommended by the Committee on the Reconstruction of San Francisco cannot be carried into effect now. Let us commence to carry out the improvements that are vital. Other recom- mendations by Mr. Burnham and the Committee on Reconstruction can be carried into effect at a later date. Before presenting in more detail the principles upon which the above improvements were selected it is best to present an outline of all the projects and the order of their development, as reported by the Committee on Reconstruction. These are repro- duced on Map "B" of this report. There were collected from the Assessor's office diagrams of each block cut directly or obliquely by the proposed improvements showing the area and extent that the property of each owner will be affected or cut by these oblique streets; also the values of each piece of this property and the assessed values of each block on the streets which are to be widened. These values are generally about 60 per cent of the market values, and thus form a definite basis on which to determine costs and benefits. The plans recommended by the Committee of Forty are divided by them into four subdivisions, rated in accordance to their importance and to the date or time they should be carried out and paid for. They are: FIRST : The work to be carried out immediately (designated in blue). SECOND: That to be carried out in five years (designated in red) . THIRD: That to be carried out in ten years (designated in green). All of these are to be paid for by the City through taxes or bonds. FOURTH : Those improvements which are to be carried out at once by the property-holders, desig- nated in yellow. Now before considering these plans as essential elements in the growth and prosperity of San Fran- cisco, it will be necessary to consider those great functions which San Francisco must discharge to the State, to the country and to the world at large. These great functions are commercial. By virtue of her geographic position, San Francisco is essen- tially a commercial city. Therefore, all develop- ments should meet these essential and prime requirements first, and next those which are sec- ondary. When these essentials shall be ade- quately met, the others will take care of themselves. It has therefore been found necessary to recast these four propositions in their relation to our com- mercial development, but to do this it is first necessary to bring into the scheme some plan of waterfront development. RELATION OF PROPOSED IMPROVE- MENTS TO THE WATER-FRONT The facilities upon our waterfront were utterly inadequate before the catastrophe. They are more so now. A plan for their betterment and develop- ment will be first blocked out. It is manifest that the great deficiencies in our commercial facilities are: (1) Inadequate areas, means and appliances for receiving and handling foreign and coastwise freight, both in cargoes and carloads. (2) Deficient areas and means for handling grain, fruit and other domestic products, involving direct transfer to and from canneries and factories; and to retailers and consumers. It is also necessary to note that the mode of pay- ing for and administering our present inadequate waterfront facilities is radically wrong. We tax the commerce of the port not only for the use, main- tenance and administration of these facilities, but also for their original construction. We lay the burden of building and maintaining these structures, through a very expensive system of administration, upon the commerce of the port; thereby driving commerce and shipping to more favorably inclined ports instead of offering them every possible induce- ment. Furthermore, the prosperity of the entire State is dependent upon the extent and manner these facili- ties are provided and used and upon the part which San Francisco plays in the world's commerce. This has been made so manifest by the late catastrophe and by our inadequate commercial facilities that throughout the State it is recognized that every industry must directly or indirectly suffer loss until the commercial requirements of this port are adequately met. The first group of works which should be done is : (a) To construct two sections of the seawall from Section 14, at the Mail Dock, northerly to the foot of Main street, and to fill the seawall lots adjacent thereto. (b) To provide adequate wharf facilities and means for handling fruit and produce adjacent to the foot of Jackson street and a fruit market area commensurate with the importance and require- ments of this industry. (c) In conjunction with the city, to provide better approaches to the great flat area between Third, Mission, Ninth and Channel streets. (d) To provide more piers on which rapid trans- fer of cargoes can be made. (e) To inaugurate seawall building and the pro- vision of dockage room in Islais and India basins. Secondly, to follow these works with the exten- sion of the seawall from Main street to Mission street, and to extend the Islais and India basin work to completion; and to co-operate with the city and with existing and projected railroads in providing for rapid handling of freight into and from ware- houses and factories. The need of these improvements has been made so manifest that it is recognized throughout the State that until the State can provide the improve- ments which she controls, every industry within her borders must suffer, and in a measure the commerce of the world will be forced to seek other marts. These conditions are so evident that upon a proper presentation of the conditions the State will be war- ranted in making provision for improving the water- front and will make such changes in the administration of this great work as experience has amply demonstrated to be necessary. I estimate that there should be made available for these works in the next ten years the sum of $15,000,000, in sums of $1,500,000 each fiscal year, commencing with 1907-8. This sum the State should provide by a bond issue The assessment roll of the State is now over $1,300,000,000. A tax of four and sixty-two one- hundredths mills ($00.00462) per $100 of as- sessed valuation will pay the interest on each year's issue; and, without any increase in the assessment roll in the decade following 1907-8 will call for a maximum increase in the tax rate of only four and sixty-two one hundredths cents ($00.0462) per $100 in 1917-18. The plan of waterfront development having been outlined and the means of its accomplishment indi- cated, we can now consider those portions of the plans of the Committee of Forty which bear directly upon this commercial development. These, with minor exceptions, are based on the BURN HAM PLANS. (a) The widening and lowering of the grade of Folsom street and its conversion into a great thoroughfare parallel to Market street. (b) The extension of Montgomery avenue and widening and lowering the grade of Fremont street as a great thoroughfare parallel to the waterfront. (c) The extension of Eighth street to Mariposa street, and the widening of this latter street thence to Kentucky street as a great thoroughfare west of the Railroad yards into the center of the city. (d) The opening of a wide thoroughfare from East and Market streets diagonally to Folsom street and Fremont street. (e) The closing of Commercial street and ad- ding its width to Clay street and to Sacramento street. (f) The widening of Pacific street. (g) The widening of Sansome street by setting curbs back and lowering its grade to pass under Broadway, as recommended by the Board of Public Works in 1902-3. (h) Lowering the grades on Rincon Hill as has been long discussed and open direct lines of com- munication between the water-front from the Ferry to Channel street to the great manufacturing and commercial area bounded by tfhird, Mission, tfenth and Brannan streets. All of these thoroughfares should be kept free of tracks; and the roadways of other important streets should be widened by setting back the cuibs five (5) feet, as was done in the case of Third street in 1903. LOWERING OF GRADES ON RINCON HILL ESSENTIAL TO THESE IMPROVE- MENTS. It will be noted that three of these improvements recommended by the Committee of Forty depend upon lowering the grades of Rincon Hill, namely: Widening Folsom street and lowering the gradients from Main street to Third street; (2) widening Fremont street and lowering its gradients from 10 Howard street to Brannan street; (3) the oblique avenue from East and Market streets to Folsom and Fremont will reach this latter intersection ad- vantageously only after it shall be lowered from 20 down to 5 feet. Moreover, upon lowering the two great avenues, Fremont Street and Folsom street, to reasonable gradients, the remaining streets over Rincon Hill must be lowered. This long contemplated improvement is the key to the great improvements of the commercial facili- ties of the city in two ways : 1st. The area to be lowered is 120 acres, adja- cent to the waterfront, but now useless for commer- cial purposes. 2nd. To the west of this area, as far as Ninth street, is about twice this area of level lands now deprived of direct approach to the waterfront. If this hill be removed, there will then be four great and direct streets parallel to Market, Mission and Howard streets, of equal or greater importance in the growth and development of the city. These will be Folsom, Harrison, Bryant and Brannan, which, after passing through 120 acres of greatly improved blocks will extend into an area of 220 acres exclusive of streets. These four streets will be upon lighter and better gradients than the three first named streets, and develop and give access to an area a mile long by half a mile wide. In order to present a definite proposition of the possibilities, investment and returns which can be secured by grading the whole of Rincon Hill to a plane sloping from Third street between Townsend and Howard to Spear street, the area to be lowered is outlined in yellow on the accompanying map, and the present and proposed grades at each street inter- section are given. The following comparison of values, based on the assessments of 1905-6, gives a conservative esti- mate of the costs and results of this work: Area affected by a change of grade (yellow border), 11 4,443' 2 5° square feet, or over 120 acres, exclusive of streets, assessed value $3,241,520.00. Four million three hundred and eighty-four thousand square feet of surrounding and adjoining property are assessed at $5,859,890.00, or an excess of $2,618,370.00 in assessed value for a slightly smaller area. To grade Rincon Hill to the mean plane just indicated, will require the moving of about 6,000,000 cubic yards, much of which is suitable for seawall building and the remainder for filling sea- wall roadway, streets and lots. This can be moved at a cost of 35c per cubic yard, or $2,100,000.00, leaving a profit, on the basis of assessed values, of $518,370.00, which, on a commercial or sale valua- tion of the lots, and without the appreciation due to the locality, is more than $1,250,000.00. There will then be a clear sweep of practically level land from the waterfront, between Market and Channel streets, to Ninth street, and an extension southwesterly to Nineteenth street, a total area of more than \ T A square miles, and with direct and uninterrupted approaches to a half mile of the best frontage on the Bay. The commercial and industrial values of such an area in the heart of the city and with such approaches and frontage are inestimable. The rights of way necessary to open these streets, upon the basis of the assessed value per square foot are given below, this basis being the same as that used by me for estimating the work recommended by the sub-committee on extending and widening streets, etc., of the Committee of Forty. Where oblique streets are opened the estimated cost is on the market or sale value of each lot which value is estimated upon the basis that the assessed value is 60 per cent of the market value. In opening new oblique streets it is considered desirable that the city should bear the cost of grad- ing, paving, and sewering these streets, and an esti- mate of the cost of this is added. In repaving streets 12 which are only widened, or the roadways of which are to be widened by setting curbs back, it is recom- mended that this work be done, as has previously been the case, by annual provisions in the budget. Some of these streets are already provided for under the $17,000,000.00 bond issue adopted in 1904, and the remainder of the widened streets can be pro- vided for as above suggested. (a) Widening Folsom Street from East to Tenth Street $ 196,630.00 (b) Extending Montgomery Avenue 1,997,000.00 (b) Widening Fremont Street 170,400.00 (c) Extension of Eighth Street and widening Mariposa Street 675,000.00 (d) Avenue from Ferry to Folsom Street and Fremont Street 1,060,700.00 (e) Widening Sacramento and Clay streets by closing Commercial Street* 150,000.00 (f) Widening Pacific Street 445,600.00 (g) Setting back curbs and carrying Sansome Street under Broadway is work for budget, (h) Grading streets through Rincon Hill to plane of Third and Spear Streets 1,100,000.00 Grading, sewering and paving oblique streets above mentioned 526,250.00 Total $6,321,580.00 With the tax roll at $5'oo,ooo,ooo.oo four per cent interest on the above cost is less than six and *Note. — The value of the area occupied by Com- mercial street is greater than the assessed value of the lots which have a frontage only upon this street. A just and equitable adjustment of costs and bene- fits of this solution should accomplish this improve- ment without much cost to the city and add seven- teen and one-half (17J/2) feet to the widths of Sac- ramento and Clay streets, thus making them ade- quate for the traffic which now obstructs them. 13 three-tenths cents on the one hundred dollars of as- sessed valuation, and on property assessed at $5,000 will call for an annual tax levy of less than $3.15. Tnese improvements, coupled with those outlined for State work, would make the waterfront a far more efficient factor in the development of the wealth of the State, and under proper administration would make San Francisco supreme in the develop- ment of the commerce of the Pacific Ocean. I earnestly recommend that these improvements be inaugurated at once and pushed to an early com- pletion, so that San Francisco may at least stand forth as ready and able to hold her commercial supremacy on the Pacific Coast of the two Americas. for this is the great duty which confronts her in this, the most critical period of her existence. This being done she will be in a better position to carry out the rest of the great plans evolved through the labors of Mr. Burnham, aided by the best thoughts and energies of this community. 14 ESTIMATE OF COSTS OF RIGHT OF WAY TO CARRY OUT THE PLANS FOR WIDENING AND EXTENDING STREETS RECOMMENDED FOR IM- MEDIATE ADOPTION BY THE COM- MITTEE OF FORTY. PRINCIPLES CONSIDERED IN DETERMINING THE COST OF WIDENING AND OPENING NEW STREETS. Relations of Ozvners and General Public 'thereto. WIDENING STREETS. Widening a street adds materially to the value of abutting property* in two ways: First, it affords better fire protection, and, second, the advantage of fronting on a more commodious and serviceable highway. The general public shares in these better- ments and should bear its proportion of their cost, either in paying in part for the rights of way or in contributing in whole or in part for the improvement with sewers and pavements. The object of this study is to outline the general principles upon which a just and equitable division of these costs and bet- terments can be reached. A local and notable instance will be first cited: In 1901-2 it became apparent that the roadway of Third Street, between Mission and Channel Streets, was too narrow to meet the demands of growing traffic. The curbstones were therefore set back 5 feet towards the building lines. Some of the prop- * Unless the widening reduces (he area of a lot to too small a size or shape to be useful, which cases have been consid- ered separately in each particular street. 15 erty holders persistently opposed and delayed this improvement, which as soon as the scope of the im- provement became apparent, added more than double its cost to the value of the properties, and upon completion added far more; and owners on other streets clamored for similar improvements. In most instances the rights of way for wider streets should be donated, provided the city assumes the cost of grading, sewering and paving. In order, however, to present the maximum cost to the city I have assumed that in widening a street the basis of cost to the city for the additional rights of way shall be the proportionate assessed value of the property required, the owners to contribute as their share of the improvement the difference between the assessed and market value, which is generally about 40 per cent. In the case of widening by taking a strip only on one side of a street, the opposite propeity to con- tribute one-half of the 40 per cent, the city to bear by general tax levy or bond issue the cost? of sewer- ing and paving. OPENING NEW AND OBLIQUE STREETS. On opening new and oblique streets it frequently happens that lots are cut into disadvantageous shapes or left too small for practical use. In these instances I have taken the market value of the lot on the basis that the assessed value is 60 per cent of the market value. In widening certain streets, like Commercial and Powell, in which a nearby parallel street or inter- vening property lessens the depth of a shallow lot, so as to render it practically useless, the market value of the lot enters into the estimated cost of the right of way, in which case the surplus can be sold by the city to an adjacent owner or his property bought by the city and the whole then sold upon equitable terms. 16 Upon these principles, which I consider sound and just, the maximum costs have been estimated of the necessary rights of way for carrying out the first group of improvements recommended bv the Sub- Committee on Widening and Extending Streets, etc., for immediate construction and approved by the Committee of Forty. These are designated in blue on the maps prepared under their direction and on the map accompanying this report. It is manifest that unless sdme such broad and equitable basis for this work be the foundation of these improvements the work will go for naught to the eternal loss, dis- advantage and disgrace to the city. The maps which accompany this report are re- productions of the sewer grade map, prepared under direction of the Board of Public Works in 1902-3. The proposed improvements are shown in full on shaded blue lines and are those adopted by the Committee of Forty. The improvements in alignments and grades, to be undertaken 5 years hence, are shown in red ; those to be undertaken 10 years hence are shown in green; those to be executed by property holders are shown in yellow. Estimated Cost of Rights of Way for Carry- ing out Improvements Recommended by the Committee of Forty for Immediate Construction. Blue Scheme. N. B. — Benefits arc not estimated; those in wid- ening streets are nearly if not quite equal to the value of the additional rights of way, provided the 17 city assumes the cost of grading, sewering and paving. (l)a Montgomery Avenue extension (a) $1,168,000 (l)b Widening Fremont Street 170,400 (2) Widening Pacific Street 445,600 (3) Widening Commercial Street *8 17,300 (4a) Widening North Point Street. . . 46,400 (4b) Widening Bay Street 17,500 (5) Widening Powell Street, Pacific to Pine 99,700 (6) Oblique winding avenue, Block 164, California, Pine, Powell, Mason. . (a) 230,000 (7) Oblique winding avenue, Block 117, Pine, Bush, Stockton, Grant (a) 225,000 (8) Oblique avenue from Kearny and Commercial, to Taylor and Pacific (a) 157,500 (9) Widening Pine Street, Stockton to Van Ness 106,600 (10) Lowering grades to be done at cost of budget (11) Widening Folsom Street, East to Seventh 156,630 (12) Extend Van Ness Avenue to Twelfth and Mission (a) 286,570 (13) Extension of Sansome Street, (a) 1,115,000 (14a) Extension of Seventh Street to Leavenworth (a) 713,500 (14b) Widen Golden Gate Avenue. . . . 507,600 (15) Diagonal Street, Market and Van Ness to Seventh (a) 727,900 (16) Diagonal Street from Market and East to Fremont and Folsom .... (a) 636,400 (18) Semi-circular space foot of Mar- ket (a) 879,400 Widening Eleventh Street 305.500 $8,814,500 * Note if Commercial Street be closed and its width (35 feet) added to Clay and to Sacramento Streets the assessed value of lots cut off from frontage by reason of fronting only on Commercial Street is $346,420 and the value of Commercial Street as lots is about $406,000. 18 I. have not included in the above the cost of widen- ing Dupont Street, as, in my opinion, this improve- ment can be made to subserve property interests and traffic better by a slight change as follows : Di- vert the alignment from Grant Avenue and Bush Street slightly easterly and reach California and Du- pont Streets on a three and one-half per cent grade ; thence diagonally through Block 115 to the south end of Waverly Place, and widen same to Washing- ton Street; thence diagonally through Block 112 to Stockton and Jackson; thence along Stockton and Green to Powell and Green (making a court or circle at Stockton and Green and Montgomery Avenue) ; thence diagonally through Blocks 155, 154, 181, 180, 208 and 207 to junction of Jones and Lombard and to Lombard and Chestnut; thence diagonally through Blocks 234 and 233 to Leaven- worth and Bay Streets, crossing the former at ele- vation 82 and widening the latter street to Bay and Hyde. This thoroughfare will at no point exceed 4 per cent gradient and will connect the junction of Grant Avenue and Market Streets with the Presidio upon very light gradients. Another slight modification is to make Bush Street, from Stockton and Bush westwardly the main avenue to the Western Addition, instead of Pine Street, and to reach this intersection by an oblique street on a 5 per cent gradient from Dupont and California Street through Blocks Nos. 1 16 and 1 17; then to reach the top of the California Street hill at Mason and California Streets, from Bush and Leavenworth upon a gradient of 6 per cent. From Mason and California Streets Taylor Street affords an easy gradient to the saddle at Pacific and Jones Street by a diagonal street through Block 214, and also to the splendid property on Russian Hill by the green line scheme of the Committee. A long familiarity with the situation leads me to consider these slight modifications more serviceable than the plan proposed; they are outlined in dotted blue on the map. 19 There appears to be some difference of opinion among property holders as to the best location and gradients upon which to rise to the splendid resi- dence properties on California and Russian hills. I have therefore suggested, in dotted blue lines on Map B, what I consider the most desirable. These gradients do not exceed six per cent (6%), the curves are gentle and the alignment adds to the values of abutting property. These grades and alignments bring into full use, via existing streets of light gradients, the excellent system of new streets laid out by the sub-committee for Russian Hill and indicated in green lines on Map B. The suggested extension of Grant Avenue as in- dicated in dotted blue lines makes use of Bush Street as a boulevard, with light gradients, and connects the Presidio with Market and O'Farrell Streets via Grant Avenue, upon gradients less than three and one-half per cent (3^4%) except on the existing gradient on Grant Avenue, between Sutter and Bush Streets, which is about five per cent (5%). Whatever may be finally agreed upon, it must be recognized that grade contour streets must be adopted in the place of some of our present impracti- cable rectangular streets; and I recommend that money be raised by bond issue, direct taxation and subscription for this purpose as soon as the best alignments for all interests can be agreed upon. Of the above there are ten (10) projects marked (a), amounting to $6,138,770 which are oblique streets and will require full market values for the rights of way. On the basis that the assessed values are 60 per cent of the market values, these projects represent $10,231,300. The other projects foot up $2,675,730, or a total of $12,907,030. If bonds for the full amount named above, or $12,907,030 at 4 per cent and an assessment roll ot $500,000,000 a levy of a little over 10c, or five two- cent stamps per year per $100 of assessed valuation will pay the interest. 20 WIDENING MONTGOMERY STREET. COSTS OF RIGHTS OF WAY ON THE BASIS OF ASSESSED VALUES. The committee having the widening of streets under consideration recommended that Montgomery street be widened 20 feet on the west side from Market to Washington streets, and included this work in the list of improvements to be done by the property owners. The following data regarding this work may be of service to the property holders on that street and vitally interested in its improvement: ESTIMATED COST OF LAND REQUIRED FOR RIGHT OF WAY TO WIDEN MONTGOMERY 5T. BY 20 FELT ON THE WE5T SIDE. BLK NO. BOUNDED BY ASSESSED VALUE OF RIGHT OF WAY. 76 Montgomery, Post, Kearny, Market $ 21,000.00 75 " Sutter, Kearny, Post 126,600.00 74 " Bush, Kearny, Sutter 187,000.00 73 " Pine, Kearny, Bush 110,000.00 72 California, Kearny, Pine 114,300.00 71 Sacramento, Kearny, California 71,500.00 70 " Clay, Kearny, Sacramento 57,300.00 69 " Washington, Kearny, Clay 39,200.00 Total, $726,900.00 The assessed value of real property fronting on Montgomery street between Washington and Market streets and one-half way to Kearny and Sansome streets is $10,605,000.00. The right of way for wid- ening on this basis is about 7°/o of the value of the real estate directly benefited. The widening will undoubt- edly add far more than 7°/o to the abutting property, and I recommend that steps be at once taken to execute this important improvement. In the preparation of this report I have conferred from time to time with the City Engineer, Mr. Thos. B. Woodward, and desire to express my obligations for the suggestions and assistance he has given me, and for data furnished from his office. 21 AUXILIARY FIRE SYSTEM (SALT WATER SYSTEM). It is essential that San Francisco should have an Auxiliary Fire System; both for her own safety and protection and to give investors confidence in their investments in property and industries. The maximum amount of water used in a year for fire purposes is less than one-third of one per cent of the annual consumption; or, about one day's sup- ply for domestic and industrial purposes. Therefore at least this volume of water should be available inside of the closely built up portions of the city in well-located and securely constructed reservoirs and fire cisterns. They should be so grouped that, inde- pendent of hydrants on the distributing pipe system, a sufficient volume of water could be concentrated upon any given area to control a serious fire. Moreover, through important districts it should be possible to promptly open connections between the distributing pipe system and pumping stations and fire tugs on the Bay, as outlined in the report of the Sub-committee on Water Supply and Fire Pro- tection of the Committee on Reconstruction. I have therefore included the sum of $1,500,000.00 for the purpose of repairing and con- structing the system of fire cisterns recommended by the Chief of the Fire Department and estimated by the City Engineer to cost $1,137,418.00, the ad- ditional amount to be expended in large reservoirs within the limits named and in building and equip- ping the auxiliary pumping stations and mains for valuable and hazardous districts. SUMMARY. For work now needed, namely : ( 1 ) Opening and widening fire avenues, which will also serve as thoroughfares to serve industrial and commercial needs ; (2) For grading, paving and sewering those which cut property obliquely; (3) For grading streets through Rincon Hill, 22 which will bring into direct communication with the central portion of the waterfront one and one- half square miles of the heart of the city; and (4) For constructing an auxiliary fire system, as above outlined, I recommend the issuance of $7,900,000.00 in four per cent 40-year bonds, the specific items of this expenditure being — (a) Widening Folsom Street from East to Tenth Streets, as a great thoroughfare parallel to Market Street $ 196,630.00 (b) Extending Montgomery Ave., 1,997,000.00 (bi) Widening Fremont Street as a great thoroughfare parallel to the waterfront 170,400.00 (c) Extending and widening Eighth Street and widening Mariposa Street as a great thoroughfare west of the railroad yards, and connecting the center of the city with the Potrero 675,000.00 (d) Avenue from Ferry to Folsom Street and Fremont Avenue. . . 1,060,700.00 (e) Widening Sacramento and Clay Streets by closing Commercial St. 150,000.00 (f) Widening Pacific Street as a fire avenue and thoroughfare through the district north of Market Street 449,600.00 Total for rights of way $4,695,330.00 For grading streets through Rincon Hill, bringing ljA square miles of valuable property into direct communication with the water- front $1,100,000.00 For grading, sewering and paving oblique streets under (b), (c) and (d) 926,290.00 For auxiliary fire cisterns and system 1,900,000.00 Total $7,821,580.00 23 These figures are based on the principle that a broad and generous spirit will actuate property- holders in view of the benefits which will accrue to them by the opening of these fire avenues and high- ways, and that normal values for rights of way will be accepted. Respectfully submitted, MARSDEN MANSON. 24 LETTER FROM MR. WALTER J. BARTNETT. After every great fire elaborate plans are prepared for the construction of a new and greater city. This was the case in London. After the great fire of Lon- don, Sir Christopher Wren prepared plans for a greater London. Lack of concerted action on the part of the people resulted in the city being rebuilt on the old lines. The same was true in Baltimore, and will be true in San Francisco unless our authori- ties speedily adopt some plan and proceed to carry it out. Mr. Manson has carefuly reviewed all the plans submitted by the Committee on the Reconstruction of San Francisco. The result of his studies is a plan which should meet the approval of the com- munity. It should be evident to all that no public improvements of any magnitude can be made now unless the same be financed by means of a bond issue. In our opinion, steps should be taken immedi- ately to authorize an issue of bonds for an amount sufficient to carry into effect the improvements rec- ommended by Mr. Manson. PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS. To enable the reconstruction of San Francisco to be carried out on broad lines, it is essential that cer- tain of the proposed Constitutional Amendments be adopted by the people at the coming election. Amendment No. g authorizes the deposit of State, county and municipal funds in national and State banks, the banks to secure such deposits by bonds of the United States, of the State of California, or of counties, municipalities and school districts within the State; the bonds to be of a value at least ten per cent in excess of the deposits, and the banks to pay not less than two per cent per annum interest on daily balances. This amendment should meet the approval of all voters. Each year millions of public funds are locked up in the treasuries of the State, 25 counties and municipalities. Under the proposed amendment these funds can be deposited in the national and State banks of California and will be properly safeguarded. This amendment will also make a market for our State, county and municipal bonds, for our bankers, in order to secure the deposit of public funds, would be required to deposit State, county, municipal, or school district securities. Amendment No. ij proposes to repeal the mort- gage tax. This will enable anyone who may desire to borrow on mortgage to agree to pay the tax on the property subject to the mortgage. It is impossible under our present law to get capital from without the State to loan on mortgages in California. The present law fails to protect the borrower; it is of no benefit to him. San Francisco will require many millions of Eastern or foreign capital, if it is to be reconstructed on broad lines. Under our present system of laws, Eastern and foreign capitalists are unwilling to lend money here on mortgages. This law prevents the sale of bonds of industrial and commercial corporations. This has had the effect of checking the industrial development of the State. This amendment should be supported by all who have the welfare of the State at heart. Amendment No. 14 authorizes San Francisco and San Jose to issue municipal bonds which will run 75 years instead of 40 years. This will diminish the burden on taxpayers. Amendment No. 4 authorizes bonds of the State and of its political subdivisions to be made payable at any place within the United States. The object is to make the bonds more salable. Amendment No. 11 confers on the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco for the period of two years certain powers and rights relating to streets, parks and boulevards. This amendment was framed to facilitate the acquisition of property required for street widening and street improvement purposes. It requires a two-thirds' vote of the Board of Supervisors and the approval of 26 the Mayor. The present charter provisions of San Francisco are inadequate to meet the existing con- ditions. For this reason it is advisable to confer these powers on the Board of Supervisors. This amendment simply provides machinery whereby property needed for street widening and street im- provement purposes can be acquired. The amend- ment is a useful one and should be approved. Other constitutional amendments have been pro- posed, but the foregoing are the principal ones that affect the reconstruction of San Francisco. The Judiciary Committee of the Committee of Forty on Reconstruction of San Francisco, and the Legislature of the State have given much study and considera- tion to these amendments. If the amendments re- ferred to above are approved by the people, the work of reconstruction of San Francisco will be materially advanced. W. J. BARTNETT. 27 Letter from Potrero Commercial and Manu- facturers' Association. San Francisco, October 26, 1906. To the Committee on Reconstruction, City, Dear Sirs — We have had submitted to us the plans proposed by Mr. Marsden Manson for the benefit of the future commercial and protective de- velopment of this city, and we most heartily endorse everything that he proposes. We believe that now is the time for action, and it will be a shame and dis- grace that will reflect seriously on the future welfare and prosperity of this city and State and retard its development if the plans proposed are not adopted and made effective. It is admitted by all that the future development of this city and State depends upon the improvement in its trade and commerce, and with this object in view we urge and recommend city and State authorities to take prompt and imme- diate action in this matter that means so much to this city's and State's future, and is absolutely essential to its growth and development. Yours respectfully, Potrero Commercial and Manufacturers' Association, By Isidor Jacobs, President. 28 THE SAN FRANCISCO REAL ESTATE BOARD. J. R. Howell, President; John T. Harmes, Vice- President; Samuel G. Buckbee, Treasurer; B. L. Cadwalader, Secretary. Board of Directors — Samuel G. Buckbee, Samuel Center, John T. Harmes, E. L. Hoag, J. R. Howell, Frederic E. Magee, David Rich, John H. Speck, George D. Toy. San Francisco, October 26, 1906. VIEWS OF THE SAN FRANCISCO REAL ES- TATE BOARD UPON THE PLAN SUB- MITTED BY MR. MARSDEN MANSON FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SAN FRANCISCO. The San Francisco Real Estate Board heartily en- dorses the plan submitted by Mr. Marsden Manson for the reconstruction of San Francisco, and respect- fully recommends to his Honor, the Mayor, to the Honorable Board of Supervisors and the Board of Public Works, the adoption and execution of the plan at the earliest possible moment. The most vital question which confronts the peo- ple of the city of San Francisco at the present mo- ment is that which might in general come under the head of "street improvement." That this subject was considered a vital one, years before the great fire, is shown by the fact that the eminent city builder, Mr. D. H. Burnham, was requested to pre- pare a comprehensive plan for the improvement and adornment of San Francisco. Mr. Burnham's ad- mirable plan, completed shortly before the fire, con- cerned itself in large part with this same question of "street improvement." His plan, however, consid- ered the subject both from its commercial and esthetic standpoint. The occurrence oi the greatest conflagration in history rendered it necessary that a more modest, and utilitarian plan should be pro- 29 posed. This was done by a sub-committee of the Committee of Forty, appointed by his Honor, Mayor E. E. Schmitz. The able plan evolved by this Committee, and adopted and approved by the Board of Supervisors, still contained many beauti- fication features not strictly necessary. At the re- quest of the Committee Mr. Marsden Manson then drew up the plan now in question, which contains no beautiflcation featuies, but calls only for those improvements which are of strict commercial value and which will immediately aid in the reconstruction of the city from a business standpoint. It is on the last grounds that the San Francisco Real Estate Board so emphatically endorses Mr. Marsden Manson's plans. The burned area of four square miles was essen- tially the business section. Without the speedy re- construction of this section the prestige and pros- perity of San Francisco will never recover during the present generation. How may this be avoided 1 ? San Francisco, like all cities of natural growth, was laid out without systematic plan in reference to topography, and without consideration for the fu- ture interests of the city. One of the exceptions is Market street, the original road from the water- front to the Mission, which was then formerly the chief settlement. This street, by becoming the main artery for traffic, because it was laid out with strict regard for the public use, both in direction and width, has shown, by contrast, the faults in the rest of the city's ground plan. San Francisco is a city with great variation of topography, such as steep hills, deep valleys, swamps, inlets, etc., which can only expand on the south and on the west, except by projection of population across the Bay, which, of course, removes it to an- other jurisdiction. The chief defect in our city is the ground plan which runs streets at right angles, over steep hills and through deep valleys. The chief necessity at the present moment is the widening of streets, both to facilitate traffic and as barriers to 30 prevent the reoccurrence of any great conflagration; the cutting of diagonal streets to shorten distances; and the removal of grades which render certain sec- tions of the city inaccessible, which sections would otherwise be of the highest commercial importance. The fire has removed all improvements, which might otherwise bar the contemplated changes in Mr. Manson's plans. London, Baltimore and Chicago have bitterly regretted, since their great fires, that they did not improve their streets. Are we to fail to take advantage of their mistakes'? The benefit of Mr. Manson's plans will be immediate and their cost will be strictly within the city's fiscal capacity. Mr. Manson's plan is made with special reference to the water-front, as this is naturally the focus of our commercial greatness. He suggests, first, that the State should issue bonds in the next ten years in the sum of $15,000,000, in sums of $1,500,000 each fiscal year, commencing with 1907-08. With this money he would extend the seawall from the Mail Dock to the foot of Mission Street, and would fill the seawall lots adjacent thereto. He would make provision for the better handling of fruit and produce at the foot of Jackson Street, together with a fruit market area; he would add additional piers and would complete the Islais and India Basin work. This work would be done by the State. For the city's share he proposes the following, which bears a harmonious relation to the work to be done by the State. 1st. The widening and lowering of the grade of Folsom Street from Tenth Street to the water- front. This creates a great thoroughfare from the water-front into the South-of-Market-Street dis- trict, which will also relieve much of the congestion on Market Street. 2d. The extension of Montgomery Avenue across Market Street into Fremont Street, and the widening of the latter as a great thoroughfare paral- lel to the water-front. This will create a direct approach to the North Beach District from the foot of Market Street, and the Mail Dock, the lack of which has always been keenly felt. 3d. The extension of Eighth Street to Mariposa Street, and the widening of this latter street; thence to Kentucky Street as a great highway from South San Francisco into the center of the city, west of the railroad yards. 4th. The opening of a wide diagonal thorough- fare from the Union Ferry Station, at East and Mar- ket Streets, to the intersection of Folsom and Fre- mont Streets. This is one of the most important projects, as it will accomplish wonders in relieving the congestion of Market Street; and as it is con- templated to widen both Folsom and Fremont Streets, their meeting will form a focus whence five great streets will radiate in star shape. 5th. The closing of Commercial Street and the addition of its width to Clay Street and to Sacra- mento Street. This is an improvement sorely needed and will create two large streets traversing the heart of the fruit and produce section. 6th. The widening of Pacific Street. This cre- ates a suitable avenue for travel from the central portion of the water-front to North Beach, and as Pacific Street has the lowest grades north of Sutter Street, it will create a thoroughfare from the Pacific heights to North Beach and the water-front. 7th. The widening of Sansome Street and the lowering of its grades to pass under Broadway by bridge. This will render the northern portion of the seawall accessible. 8th. Removing Rincon Hill, so that this great obstacle to the commercial development of the dis- trict bounded by Third, Mission, Tenth and Bran- nan Streets may be removed and that portion of the water-front rendered accessible, which it now isolates. It will be noted that three of the improvements already suggested involve the removal of Rincon Hill, namely, the improvement of Folsom and Fre- mont Streets and the cutting of the diagonal from 32 the Terry to their intersection. The removal of this great hill, which is useless commercially, is the most important of the projects. It is essential to the de- velopment of our water-front. It is, of course, in- tended that the city should onty lower the grades of the streets, but it is shown to be to the interest of the propertyowners to grade their lots, as they will more than recoup by the increase in their value. Mr. Manson suggests that the streets herein mentioned should have no street railroads, and that the side- walks of all important streets should be lessened in width, as has been done with such success on Third and Fourth Streets. It will be seen that Mr. Man- son's plan also contemplates fire barriers, as it will be seen that his great thoroughfares divide the burned section into ten fire districts. Mr. Manson adduces detailed figures to show that the contem- plated improvements could be met by the issuance of $7,821,580 in city bonds, the bonds to be at least 40-year bonds and to bear not more than 4 per cent interest. This figure also includes an auxiliary fire cistern and system, as laid out by the late able Chief of the Fire Department, Dennis Sullivan, to cost $1,500,000. This cost is well within the financial ability of the city and would add no great burden to the tax roll. The land demanded by the city for the purpose of street cutting and widening would be paid for on the basis of the assessment of 1905- 1906. Where diagonal streets create badly shaped lots the city will buy these lots and after shaping them up will reimburse itself by selling them. By these improvements an immense increase in the value of real estate will result. Mr. Manson esti- mates not less than $75,000,000 will be added to the assessed value of city real property in ten or fifteen years. These vital improvements cannot be accomplished by individuals, but must be clone by the State and the city, and that speedily, as in a few years the opportunity to prosecute them to a suc- cessful conclusion will have disappeared. Certain constitutional amendments are absolutely necessary to enable this plan to be carried out, to wit: 1. The amendment authorizing the depositing of State, county and municipal funds in national and State banks, to be secured by deposit of United States, California, county, municipal and school dis- trict bonds of the State. This will secure interest for funds otherwise locked up in treasuries, and will create a market for our local bonds, as bankers will have to purchase them in order to have the necessary security. 2. The amendment repealing the mortgage tax, which tax keeps Eastern and foreign capital out of California and prevents the selling of industrial and commercial bonds. 3. The amendment authorizing San Francisco to issue bonds running 75 years instead of 40 years. This will diminish the burden on taxpayers. 4. The amendment authorizing bonds of the State and its political subdivisions to be made pay- able any place in the United States, which will make the bonds more salable. 5. The amendment conferring power on the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Fran- cisco to buy and sell land for a period of two years. This amendment is absolutely necessary for the pur- pose of street cutting and widening. It contains sufficient safeguards to prevent the will of the peo- ple from being abused and should by all means be embodied in the Constitution. Every elector in the City and County of San Francisco should be in favor of the above-named Constitutional amendments, and should use his best efforts to bring about favorable action throughout the State. The San Francisco Real Estate Board compli- ments Mr. Manson upon his able and feasible plan and heartily endorses it, and calls upon all public officials, civic bodies and individuals to give the same their strong support. Now is the time to bring about these improve- ments, so that our city may speedily be reconstructed, 34 and forever hold a benign commercial domain over the western shores of the Pacific Ocean. SAN FRANCISCO REAL ESTATE BOARD J. R. Howell, President. B. L. Cadwalader, Secretary. 37 Realizing that without unity of action nothing can be done, the undersigned citizens, firms, corpora- tions and associations recommend to His Honor the Mayor, to the Honorable Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco, and to the Board of Public Works, the adoption of the plans suggested by Mr. Marsden Manson, which appear on Map "A," acompanying Mr. Manson's report. We do further recommend that the cost of the improvements be defrayed by a bond issue to be made by the City and County of San Francisco, said bonds to be payable in not less than forty years and to bear interest at a rate not exceeding four per cent. We do further petition all the authorities and officers of the City and County of San Francisco to take steps to carry said plans into force and effect at the earliest date possible.