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Full text of "Extracts from newspapers and periodicals in relation to the condition of the insane in New Hampshire, previous to the erection of the N.H. Asylum for the Insane"












YALE 




MEDICALJ^RARY 



Clements C. Fry 
Book Fund 



i ) 

i EX LIBRIS ) 

i ) 

{ ) 

| CUttMENTS C. FRY, IN. 1>. > 

i i 



/f 



EXTRACTS 



-FROM- 



NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS 



IN RELATION TO THE CONDITION OF THE INSANE IN 



NEWHAMPSHIEE, 



PREVIOUS TO THE ERECTION 



OF THE 



n:h. asylum for the insane. 



G®A£fi*za£n^~-~* 



ASYLUM PRESS, 
1890. 



CONTENTS. 



EXTRACTS FROM STATE NEWSPAPERS 



New Hampshire Sentinel ( 1834 to 1839 ) Page 1 

New Hampshire Patriot (1836 to 1843) " 58 

Portsmouth Journal ( 1833 to 1843 ) " 297 

Exeter News Latter ( 1833 to 1843 ) "451 

Dover Enquirer ( 1838 to 1839 ) "488 

Nashua Gazette ( 1838 to 1839 ) "496 

Christian Panoply ( 1839 to 1840 ) "503 



APPENDIX 



Report of select committee to the House of Represen- 
tatives on the building of an Insane Hospital , in 1832. 

Lecture on Insanity delivered by Dr. William Perry in 
1834 in the House of Representatives at Concord. 

Extract from Charles H. Peaslee's Report on the Insane 
in 1834. 

Report to the Legislature upon the Insane of New Hamp- 
shire in 1836 by Dr. Luther V. Bell. 

An appeal to the citizens of New Hampshire in 1838 in 
behalf of the Suffering Insane. 

First Report of the Trustees of the N. II. Asylum, Nov- 
ember , 1840 . 

Second Report of the Trustees ot the N. H. Asylum, 
June . 1R41 . 



PREFACE . 

The following extracts from periodicals , newspapers , and 
other sources furnish much interesting information concern- 
ing the early history of the N . H . Asylum . Many of the 
pamphlets from which these extracts were taken are exceed- 
ingly rare , in many instances only a few copies remain , and 
they are retained in private or public libraries . The various 
articles possess a peculiar interest to the student of psycholog- 
ical medicine in that they reflect the opinions of the medical 
profession and the laity of fifty years ago concerning insanity. 
Some of these opinions are exceedingly creditable to their 
authors , and indicate a broad and advanced conception of 
the subject that is being realized in the modern classifica- 
tion and treatment of mental disease . 

It seems quite proper that in this 50th anniversary year 
of the New Hampshire Asylum these interesting articles 
should be collected and preserved for future reference in 
book form . The publication of the book is wholly private 
and interesting , too , because it is largely the work of pa- 
tients in the winter workshop . The compositing and press- 
work has been entirely done by patients. The bequest of 
Hon . Isaac Adams of Sandwich , furnishing a yearly income 
for the providing of indoor employment during the winter 
months , has , in this little publication , met a useful and valu- 
able realization . C . P. B. 
New Hampshire Asylum , March, 18P3. 



EXTRACTS FROM 
NEW HAMPSHIRE SENTINEL. 



December '2~>, 18:M. [Extract i)i Sentinel, taken from a 
Report of the Prison Discipline Society, published in the Chris- 
tian Register.] 

Mr. Editor: 1 have read the last, as well as the preced- 
ing Reports of this institution with great satisfaction; not in- 
deed at the dreadful disclosures, which in some of them have 
been made, of human vice and wretchedness, but at the faithful 
investigation of established abuses and at the successful efforts 
made to remove them. 

The most important topic in the present Report, it seems 
to me, is that in relation to the •'Asylums'' for poor and 
imprisoned lunatics. We scarcely know of one among the sub- 
jects of an enlightened philanthrophy, demanding more urgent- 
ly the attention of the wise and the charity of the benevolent. 

The heart shrinks at the very thought of the horrid wretch- 
edness, physical and mental, of the wicked neglect and in 
some instances atrocious barbarity to which this most unfort- 
unate class of the human family have been subjected. He 
that wishes to know facts upon this subject, may read, 
among other documents, collected here by Mr. Dwight, the 
Report of "a committee of the Legislature of New Hamp- 
shire, to whom was referred that part of Governor Dinsmore's 
message relating to insane persons in that State." 

The bare statement of such sufferings and of such cruelties is 
sufficient to melt the most insensible spirit. And heartily do 



we concur with the faithful agent of the society in the hope, 
that such a document will not be sufferred to sleep with 
other forgotten records of New Hampshire. "We mistake'' 
says he "the character of the birth-place of Daniel Webster, 
if all this is to pass for nothing"" 

Let the following extract from this able report from New 
Hampshire suffice. The committee, having stated that 
though they had anticipated a melancholy account of suf- 
fering and distress, they had yet formed no conception of 
the extremity of the wretchedness which their examination 
exposed; having promised also that from the imperfect re- 
turns given by the different towns they are unable to show 

I he full extent of the evil, proceed thus "Where are these 

insane?" What is their condition? There are individual cases, 
which, by the kindness of friends able and willing to provide 
the means, ,aie rendered as comfortable as their situation 
will admit. The number thus fortunate, the committee are 
constrained to believe, is comparatively small. 
< Many, laboring under an inoffensive hallucination of mind. 
wander about , the sport of; unthinking boys and unprincipled 
men. A large proportion— seventy-six — are reported 'to be in 
dose confinement; some are in the out-buildings, garrets, or 
cellars of private bouses: some are in our County Jails, 
shut up with felons and criminals of every description; some 
are in Alms- Douses, ill brick cells never warmed by tile or 
lighted by the rays of the sun. The facts presented before 
the committee not only exhibit severe, unnecessary suffering', 
but utter neglect, and in many cases actual barbarity, 'to 
convince the house of the correctness of this general re- 
mark, they feel it to be their duty to report some of the 
instances to which they refer, however painful the account 
may be to every one not dead to all humanity. An insane 
woman, who had wandered from her friends, was confined in 
in one of our Jails, 'in winter and without fire. From the 
severity of the cold ami her fixed position her feet became so 
much diseased that it was considered necessary to amputate 
them at the ankle, which was accordingly done, and the 
woman afterward- restored to her friends in this mutilated 
condition. 

Another female was confined in a garret, where, from the 
lowness of the roof and her consequently constrained position 
she grew (1 uilile. and is now obliged to walk with her hands 



as well as her feet, on the floor. A man was confined for 
years in a cellar, nearly naked, with a bed of wet straw. An- 
other is at this time chained to the floor in an out-building', 

glad to pick the bones thrown into his kennel, like a beast 

one with sufficient property once in every respect as active 

and happy as the best of us. It is admitted that these are ex- 
treme cases: but let it be recollected, these are but a few of 
such cases known to the committee. The accounts submitted 
to them exhibit a mass of extreme, unmitigated suffering', from 
the details of which humanity revolts. 
Makch 5. 18B5. 

It should be recollected that Gov. Dinsmoor, much to his 
honor, proposed to set apart a portion of the State funds in 
Dank, for the erection of an Insane Hospital a most be- 
nevolent institution thai the proposition was advocated by 

his political opponents generally, the Whigs and voted down 
by his friends. The money lias been swallowed up in the 
State Prison. 

Junk i. 1835. 

The subject of erecting an Insane Hospital will be brought 
forward this year in our Legislature. Mr. Peaslee's Report is 
now published, which recommends the following Resolution: 

Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Court convened, that the sum of twelve thousand five 
hundred dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated for 
the purpose of erecting a Hospital for the Insane, when an 
equal sum shall have been subscribed and secured by corpora- 
tions and individuals for the same purpose. 
December 17 1835. 

Provisions for Poor Lunatics. 

The example of Massachusetts has been followed by Maine 
so far that the Legislature have appropriated $20,000 for an 
Insane Hospital, provided an equal sum should he given by 
individuals. Two inviduals, Benjamin Brown of Vassalboro' 
and lfcuel Williams of Agusta, with prompt munificence, prom- 
ised to give .f lO.ooo each to secure the object of the Legisla- 
ture. The time for fulfilling that promise was the 4th of 
March last. Vermont is moving in the same cause stimulated 
by a bequest of Mrs. Anna Marsh, for an Asylum for the In- 
sane on the banks of the Connecticut river, in "Windham Coun- 
ty- 

In New Hampshire, it lias been ascertained by a committee 



of inquiry appointed by the Legislature, that there are more 
than two hundred insane persons, more than halt of whom are 
paupers in a deplorably Buffering condition ; but we do not 
learn that any measures have been taken for their relief. 

The same subject lias been agitated in the Legislature of 
New York, and it cannot be doubted that ample provisions 
will be made for the lunatic paupers of that State. An estab- 
lishment is in progress for poor lunatics on Blackwell's Island, 
a city institution, which is intended to provide for several 
hundred of that unhappy class. 

The time is not far distant, we should think, when every 
State will regard it as an imperative duty, demanded by hu- 
manity, to provide a lunatic Asylum on a plan similar to that of 
Massachusetts — as a receptacle for persons who have been ar- 
raigned as criminals, and acquitted on the ground of insanity; 
for maniacs whom it is dangerous to allow to roam at larjzc; 
and for pauper lunatics, whose sufferings under die common 
municipal provisions have in many instances been most piteious 
and heart-rending. 
April 7. 1h,n7. 

Public Meeting. 

Insane Hospital The condition of the Insane has excited 

the sympathy of all men. in all nations, and at all times; and 
inquiries and discoveries lately made, have increased the in- 
tensity of that sympathy, by showing that cases of insanity 
are more numerous than had been supposed, that the Buffer- 
ing? of the afflicted are deplorable, and that proper and judi- 
cious treatment, especially in the commencement of the dis- 
order, will, in by far the greater portion of the cases, restore. 
r mso i to the afflicted., and render them again useful and hap- 
py niemhes of society; and will, in those cases when cure is 
impossible, greatly mitigate their sufferings. 

Experience has moreover shown that such treatment cannot 
he as well administered to patients at iheir homes, as at hospi- 
tals erected and designed for that purpose. In other States. 
Insane Hospitals have been established by the joint efforts of 
Philanthropists and the Government, and measures are now in 
progress for the establishment of a similar institution in this 
State. 

The subscribers therefore invite the citizens of the County of 
Chashire to meet at the Town Hall, in K-ene. on Thursday 
the 7th day of April next, at 7 o'clock, I' M. to devise such 



means and take such measures as may be thought expedient 

to accomplish this laudable object. 

Joel Parker, John H. Fuller, 

S. Hale, Henry Seymour, 

Z. S. Barstow, George W. Sturtevant, 

John Prentiss, J. B. Donsinan, 

John Foster, George Tilden, 

B. Cooke, Abel Wilder, 
Lewis Campbell, Henry Coolidge, 
S. A. Gerould, James Wilson, 
Aaron Hall, Calvin Page, 
Amos Twitchell , John Wood , 
Levi Chamberlain Sumner Wheeler 
Justus Perry, P. Handerson, 
Eliphalet Briggs, D. W. Farrar, 
Abijah Wilder, Stephen Harrington, 

C. G. Adams, S. Goodridge, 
Thomas M. Edwards, H. Holbrook, 

Jona K. Smith. 
April 14, 1830. 

Insane Hospital. 

Pursuant to notice, a large number of citizens of Cheshire 
County met at the Town Hall in Keene, April 7th 1836, and 
organized by choosing Hon. Frederick Vose of Walpole, Chair- 
man, and A. H. Bennett and L. G. Mead, Secretaries. 

The following resolution was introduced by Mr Hale: 

Resolved, That it is expedient and desirabie to establish an 
Insane Hospital in this State. 

After some able and eloquent remarks from Mr. Hale, Mr. 
Prentiss, aud Mr. Barstow, it was unanimously adopted. The 
following memorial was then presented and read by Rev. Mr. 
Barstow : 

To the Honorable, the Senate, and House of Representatives, 
to be assembled at Concord, June, 1836; 

We, your memorialists, inhabitants of the County of Chesh- 
ire, do humbly represent, that in our opinion measures 
should be taken to establish an Asylum for the Insane poor of 
New Hampshire, as a place of refuge for those, whom their 
friends are able and willing to sustain. 

1. Your memorialists need not inform your Honorable body, 
that insanity is a disease, as capable of being cured, as other 
diseases, when not suffered to grow inveterate bv neglect. It 



is well established, by the statistics of Insane Hospitals; that 
from eighty to ninety cases, out of one hundred, can be re- 
stored to sanity, if taken in season; and that even some cases 
of twenty years standing have yielded to the benign influence 
of medicine and kindness, and been restored to soundness of 
mind. 

■2. It has been ascertained, that, in one hundred and forty- 
one towns in the State, there are two hundred and one insane 
persons, one hundred and three of whom are paupers. And 
if we reckon the remaining towns, according to what is found 
the usual ratio, that is. one insane person to a thousand, it 
will give two hundred and sixty-nine for the Slate, and one 
hundred and thirty-seven who are paupers; some of whom are 
in cells and cages, in chains and irons; some are in out- 
buildings, garrets, or cellars of private houses; some are in 
county jails, shut up with felons and criminals of every de- 
scription; some are in alms-houses, in brick cells never 
warmed by fire, or lighted by the rays of the sun. And 
the one hundred and thirty-two, who are in the families of 
their friends, are the cause of anxiety and distress by day 
and by night, so that domestic comfort and quietude are 
wholly unknown by those families. 

:>. We beseech your Honorable body lo look at the Report 
of a Committee on a part of Governor Dinsnioor's Mes- 
sage of June l«:S:i, in relation to this subject; which is so 
able, philanthropic, and satisfactory, that we had almost 
adopted its language as a proper expression of our views 
and feelings for this memorial; being persuaded that its 
considerations will lead you to resolve: "That it is expedi- 
ent that an Asylum for the Insane be established". Resides, 

4. Xew Hampshire should not be behind her sister States 
in this humane enterprise. She has been before many others 
in her eft >rts to do away with imprisonment for debt, to lessen 
public executions, and to prom >te the comfort and improve- 
ment of her prisoners. But she is behind Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, 
Vermont, and some others, which have Asylums for those 
whom their friends are able to support. \Y v hy sh mid she 
not immediately follow the example of Massachusetts 
which is the only State that has made provision for the 
insane poor; and thus hive a portion of th it meed of glorv 
which arises fro.n "rocking th ■ era He of lib'rty;" and be- 



ing first in "works of faith and labors of love," to amelio- 
rate the condition of the unfortunate? We pray your Hon- 
orable body, to listen to your memorialists, and to establish 
an Asylum for the Insane poor, and a refuge where the 
wealthy can sustain those of their friends who are now 
their terror by day and their anxiety by night. 

Voted, That the memorial be adopted. 

Voted, That John Prentiss. B. Cooke, and A. Twitchell, 
be a Committee to procure the printing of the above memo- 
rial, and to distribute the same to the several towns in the 
County for signatures. 

The following resolution was introduced by Mr. Mead: 

Resolved, That the several Representatives in the County 
be requested to take charge of the memorial adopted by 

this convention, after the signatures shall be obtained 

cause the same to be presented to the Legislature at its 
session in June next, and use their exertions to promote its 
object . Adopted. 

Voted, That the proceedings of this convention be signed 
oy the Chairman and Secretaries and published. 

Voted, To dissolve this convention. 

A. H. Bennett,} Federick Vose, Chairman. 

V Secretaries. 

L. G. Mead, ) 

From the Portsmouth Journal, published in N. II. Sentinel. 

Public Meeting in Portsmouth, on the subject of an Asy- 
lum for the Insane. 

The citizens of Portsmouth, and delegates from several 
other towns in this State, in compliance with previous pub- 
lic notice, assembled in the Methodist Chapel, on State 
street, Portsmouth, on the evening of the Oth of April 1836: 

The meeting was called to order by John Rice, on whose 
nomination Daniel P. Drown was chosen President, and on 
motion of Ichabod Goodwin, Wm. II. S. Hackett was appoint- 
ed Secretary. Mr. Drown on taking the Chair, stated the 
object of the meeting; recapitulated the causes wnich had 
heretofore prevented the adoption of any effectual means to 
provide for the Insane of the State, and noticed the gratify- 
ing indications that these causes were likely not much long- 
er to exist, and expressed his sympathy in the objects con- 
templated by the meeting. 

At the request of the President. Mr. Chamberlain. Pas- 



tor of the Methodist Church, opened the meeting by prayer: 
Mr. Cones presented the following Resolutions: 

1. Resolved, That it is the duty of communities to relieve 
the calamities, which from their peculiar character and ex- 
tent, are beyond the reach of individual benovolence. 

2. Resolved, That well ascertained facts show that the dis- 
ease of insanity is extensive, and that it yields to moral 
and medical treatment. 

3. Resolved, That long and uniform experience proves 
that the most successful remedies for insanity can be applied 
only by means of a well regulated public institution. 

4. Resolved, That provisions ought to be |made by the 
Legislature of this State, fir the erection of an Asylum for 
the Insane. 

5. Resolved, That a Committee of nine, to be designated 
by the Chair, be appointed to correspond with gentlemen 
in the various pails of this State, and to net in concert 
with such Committees as may be appointed for the pur- 
pose of calling attention to the wants of the Insane, and 
the appropriate remedies. 

(i. Resolved, That a Committee of nine, to be designated 
by the Chair, be appointed to prepare a' petition and pro- 
cure signatures, to be presented to the next Legislature, re- 
questing an appropriation for the purpose of establishing, 
within this State, an Asylum for the Insane. 

7. Resolved. That for the purpose of diffusing correct in- 
formation, ii is advisable that the friends of the object of this 
meeting in the several towns in this State, be requested to meet 
i.i their respactivd town*, and to appoint committees of cor- 
respondence^ and also committees to procure signatures to pe- 
titions to be presented to the Legislature in June next, for an 
adequate appropriation l« defray the expense of erecting the 
proposed Asylum. 

« Resolved, That the President and Secretary be requested 
to furnish to each member of the Genera) Court a copy of 
th^ pr iceedings of this meeting. 

The Resolutions were supported and the claims of the In- 
sane ui)on the sympathy and aid of the people of this State 
enforced in addreses from S. E. Cones, of Portsmouth; C. 
II. Peaslee of Concord; Abrus Greenleaf, Ichabod Bartlett, 
C. A. Clieever, Charles Burroughs, of Portsmouth ; and 
Geo. Gardiner, of Exeter. 



9 

The ^Resolutions then passed unanimously. 

On the motion of Andrew P. Peabody, Ordered, That the 
President and Secretary be requested to cause the proceed- 
ings of this meeting to be published. 

On motion of C. W. Cutler, Ordered, That the editors of 
the several newspapers in this State be requested to pub- 
lish the procedings of this meeting in their respective jour- 
nals. 

On motion of John Pice, Resolved, That this meeting 
now adjourn without day. 

Daniel P. Drown, President. 

W. II. S. Mackett, Secretary. 
April 21, 18:«. 

Asylum for the Insane. 

We propose to publish the remarks of the various speak- 
ers, at Portsmouth, reported in the journals, as we can con- 
veniently, as the subject will be brought forward in June 
next. 

Samuel E. Cones, Esq. introduced the Resolutions pre- 
sented above, (published last week) with a statement of the 
facts in relation to the introduction of |the subject to our 
Legislature live years since, by the late Gov. Dinsmoor, 
and the results of the inquiries which that body ordered as 
to the number and situation of the Insane in New Hamp- 
shire. The returns made at the next session, presented a 
mass of extreme and unmitigated suffering arising from the 
want of suitable provisions for lunatics. But, Mr. C. con- 
tinues, the subject was a new one for Legislation, and it 
was postponed until the next session, without any great in- 
n-ease of the number in favor of a definite action in favor 
of the plan. The chief obstacle has been the indifference 
and apathy of the people. The Legislature appeared to wait 
for the action of their constituents — to ascertain their wishes 
ere they would make the appropriation. But remarked Mr. 
C we are happy to sec that the people are awakening to a 
sense of their duly. The interest in attending this meeting 

is a strong evidence of the fact for, about thirty towns 

of our State are represented here this evening by letter 
or by delegates. The delegates and correspondence giving 
flattering accounts of the State of public opinion in their 
respective towns; and besides, the papers are full of calls 
for meeting for this purpose, to be held in every section of 



1(1 



this Stale. 

With regard to the number of the Tnsaiio, and the extent 
of their suffering', lie said that the returns made in Other 
States, and corroborated by the returns from some sections 
of New Hampshire, certainly one in a thousand are afflict- 
ed with insanity. This would give to our State no less 
than three hundred unfortunate individuals, most of whom 
are now shut out from the world, incapable of its enjoy- 
ments and in many cases deprived of many comforts 

which even brutes enjoy. 

No less than 7(i have been reported in this State who are 
now confined in cages, in cellars, in garrets, in out-houses, 

and in jails and this too of individuals who once adorned 

their ranks in society, but now disimally secluded as the noon 
day sun bid in the tempest cloud. He spoke of an individual 

who had been in confinement more than thirty years most 

of the time in chains his dirty pallet, like the dog's cot, 

strewed around with the bones he fed upon; Also of a lady 
who is now a cripple, from many years close confinement; Of 
a human being- confined in a cellar, who had not been seen 
for months, and was fed through a trough in an opening in 
the wall. 

He also very feelingly adverted to other cases, in illustra- 
tion of the suffering of the Insane; among them not the 
least touching was the following, which few can read with- 
out the tear of sympathy: A gentleman travelling in New 

Hampshire, was overtaken by a storm, and compelled to put 
11 1 > for the night at a farm house. The night was boisterous, 
but the noise of the elements was not sufficient to shut 
from his cars the moans and cries of distress which seemed 
to In- near the dwelling. The night was dark, he could' dis- 
cover nothing from his window. In the morning- he sought 
and found an insane boy confined in a pig sty, retired to the 
most distant part to escape the storm, and yet continuing his 
nioinful cry ••Father! Father!" 

Mr. ('. remarked that the disease was a curable one. Ex- 
perience has shown that about 90 in 100 of new cases have 
yielded to medical treatment. The proper treatment cannot, 
however, be had without a Hospital where experienced attend- 
ants understand the wants and modes of treatment of the in- 
sane: where they can be [placed in such a situation, that in 
their lucid intervals they may not be driven at once in'o madness 



11 

from a consideration of (lie situation in which they are placed. 
He made a strong- appeal to those who live in the light of the 
present day, when facts so strongly prove the justice of the 
call of humanity for an Institution for the Insane: for if in 
future time the cages, the dungeons, and the chains of the 
Insane are suffered to exist in our State, it will he because 
we are indifferent to one of the most important subjects ot 
benevolence which can engage our attention. 

M. C. here submitted the Resolutions, which were read by 
the President. 

Charles H. Peaslee, Esq. of Concord, after the reading of 
the Resolutions, rose and said: 

That many of us were told last evening by a lecturer on 
this subject, that the present age is emphatically an age of 
benevolence. He said, it is true that the present age is no less 
remarkable for the liberality of the humane, than for the 
powerful intelleeturnl exertion and political revolutions. He 
alluded to the relief which is afforded to the blind, the deaf 
and dumb, the poor, and the distressed of almost every class: 
and said, that even the idle and vicious, the guilty criminals 
of our Penitentiaries, are compelled to acknowlege (such have 
been the efforts of late to improve the physical, religious and 
intellectual condition) that there is some disinterested kind- 
ness extant, and that man does feel for his fellow man. 

lie did not wish to divert the stream of benevolence, but he 
considered the indifference to the wretchedness of our Insane, 
which has until recently existed in this State, unaccountable, 
except it was from ignorance of their situation, while so much 
has been done to enlighten the heathen of foreign countries; 
and he thought it more strange that the same persons should 
pass heedlessly by the loathsome dungeon of the guiltless 
maniac, who were so earnestly engaged in improving the con- 
dition of convicts. He was rejoiced that the the people were 
manifesting their determination, that those who were devoid of 
criminality but deprived of their reason, should not be much 
longer confined to our jails, with untried persons accused of 
every degree of crime, and to have different treatment adopt- 
ed towards the Insane; for he said that the present was in its 
general tendency precisely such, as is calculated to fix the dis- 
ease more firmly upon the attacked. 

The same remark he thought might be applied to our State 
which was made by the best authority in reference to Massa- 



12 



chusetts previous to the erection of a Hospital at Worcester; 

viz.: That were a system now to be devised, whose express 

object it should be to drive every victim of insanity beyond 
the limits of hope, it would scarcely be within the power of a, 
perverse ingenuity to suggest one more infallible in its general 
tendency, than that which has been, and is now in practical 
operation amongst us. 

lie believed only two or three instances of recovery from in- 
sanity were ever known during the confinement of a person to 
a j til or house of correction. Among medical men there was 
one point on which there was great uniformity of opinion, and 
that is, the importance of separating the patient from his fam- 
ily and customary associations. But our insane must from 
necessity be either wandering about to the danger of the pub- 
lie, or under the care of their friends, or confined to jails or 
houses of correction. He maintained therefore, that the neces- 
sary curative rcmedes could not be had while we were desti- 
tute of an Asylum. The institutions in Massachusetts were 
not at all times accessible te even those of our insane, who 
were able to pay the price charged, it being from $4.50 to s2 
per week. Within a period of five months 98 applications were 
made for admission at Worcester: of these 47 were received, 
and 40 rejected, for want of room. 

It was the unanimous opinion of the Committee of our Leg- 
islature in 1834, also the Committee of 1835, to which thiei 
subject was referred, that the expense of erecting a building 
like that at Worcester, and furnishing the rooms, (calculated 
to accomodate 130 patients,) would not exceed $25,000 exclu- 
sive of slating the roof, and that the expense of supporting 
that number would not exceed .$80 per year exclusive of cloth- 
ing. 

The number of Insane in the 48 towns reported to our last 
Legislature was 115: of whom oil were male and 02 females. 
The clurali >n of their insanity varied from 2 to 53 years. The 
whole number of years all had been insane collectively, was 
1527. Of them more than half were supported as paupers, 
and about one fifth by friends not legally liable for their 
suppirt. In only three ca>es was the expense of supporting 

them mentioned, and these were town paupers two of 

them post $100 per year each, the other $3.50 per week. 
There was one town pauper supported at the private institu- 
te i t l'epperell. but the expense was not reported. If 



u 



the insane throughout the State is in proportion to the towns 
heard from, according to the population, the whole number 
would be 517. But this, he said was probably larger than the 
actual number, and not near all would be suitable subjects for 
a Hospital. 

The whole number of years of their insanity would be 7038. 
If nine-tenths of this insanity could have been avoided, (and 
he maintained that nearly that amount could have been, 
had the proper medical and moral treatment been applied in 
the first stages of the disease) the saving to the State and in- 
dividuals in a pecuniary point of view would have been im- 
mense, to say nothing of the thousands of years of mental 
anguish also avoided. He then spoke of the blessings which 
sucn an institution would confer not only upon the insane in- 
dividual, his family and parents, but also society at large, by 
returning some of our most talented and respected citizens to 
the duties of life. He insisted upon the indispensable neces- 
sity of an Asylum to recover our insane, as proved by the ex- 
perience of our own and other States and statistical informa- 
tion furnished by reports on this subject. 

To imagine, that the people of New Hampshire, if acquaint- 
ed with their deplorable condition and the advantages to be 
derived from such an institution would hold back, would be a 
slanderous imputation upon their humanity, their intelligence 
and sense of justice. He alluded to the Turk's answer, to the 
question of a captain of a trading ship: Where is your jail 
for the imprisonment of debtors? who replied, "that the be- 
lievers in their prophe were above shutting up their fellow 
men in cages to persecute and torment them ; that he had 
never looked at one of our debtors prisons without horror." 
After describing the barbarous manner, in which some of 
the Insane were treated in States, where provision for them 
were similar to ours, and also the extreme sufferings of many 
among us, he said that such cases would not make an impres- 
sion on the same Turk either favorable to our religion or to 
our constitution and laws. 

The plea of ignorance, he said could no longer avail us, 
and if we continued our present system we. were equally bar- 
barous, with those who stoned their insane to death'. In fact 
he said sudden deal lis were mercy, kindness, in comparison to 
the lingering one, to which the friendless insane were liable to 
be doomed by us under our present laws. 



14 

He was happy to perceive the interest and excitement on 
tliis subject which existed here and in other parts of the State 

hoped it would continue, growing stronger and stronger 

until it reached every nook and corner, and until it excited 
our Government to erect an asylum to do an act, demand- 
ed by justice, humanity, economy and sound policy. 

Continued. April 28, 1886. 

lion. Aimer Greenlcaf next addressed the meeting-. He 
brought forward many curious and interesting facts respecting 
Insanity, and the mode of treatment of the Insane. He show- 
ed the necessity of constant kindness and affectionate treat- 
ment to overcome the disease and how the present mode is 

at variance witli that system. He was convinced of the neces- 
sity of an Asylum, and hoped that its establishment would be 
no longer delayed. One idea in his address we think worthy 
of particular notice, as attending to decrease the amount of 

insanity; it is This : When an Asylum is once established in 

our State, it will he a place of resort for our physicans and 
medical students. 

There, by acquainting themselves witli the various states and 
stages of the distase and modes of treatment, they will obtain 
more practical knowledge of the disease than they call now 
possess. This knowlege will enable them to cure many cases 
in their early stages, which otherwise might grow into con- 
tinued lunacy. He said he did not cast any reproach upon 
our State for the long neglect of the subject; it is a new one 

to our State it is in fact a new subject. For even now, 

there is but one State in the Union where the insane poor are 
provided for. Insane Hospitals exist in other States, but they 
are for the benefit of those only who can find friends to pay 

for them while those who are suffering in alms-houses, and 

as paupers, who most need relief, must suffer and die. Let us 
not at this jtinie reproach ourselves or others, that the sub- 
ject has been '\ neglected, but let us now place our hands to 
the wheel, and not only hope that the work will be commen- 
ced this year, but that it will be speedily completed. We are 
told that there is a time for all things, and it is to be hoped 
that this is the time for the important movement which now 
engages the attention of the friends of humanity in New 
Hampshire the establishment of an Asylum for the Insane. 

Continued. May .i. i836. 

Hon. Ichabod Bartlett next addressed the meeting. In the 



13 



course of liis remarks, he said that from the facts already 
before them, it could no longer be doubted that the suffer- 
ings of the insane in this State were great, that the malady 
was one which could be relieved or mitiogated by proper reme- 
dies; that those remedies could be succesfully applied only by 
means of a public institution for their cure; and that he 
would submit a remark or two on one view only on the sub- 
ject the bearing of the establishment of such an institution 

upon the administration of civil and criminal law. Our courts, 

he observed, have jurisdiction over our property our char- 
acter our lives. Acts done or committed in one state of 

mind, might forfeit property, character and life while the 
same acts, unaccompanied with that state of mind which 
constitutes the motive, should draw after them none of those 
penalties. 

He spoke of the ancient rule of law, by which all were 
made responsible, except the raving maniac, or idiot in the 

confirmed state of fatuity; and of the rule of law, as 

mitigated by the present greater light of mental philosophy. 
He adverted to those classes and grades of Insanity, where 
the understanding is perfect, but senses deceive, or the imagin- 
ation deludes when the sufferer reasons correctly from 

false promises. The senses then serve as false beacons to the 
mind. 

Two other conditions of the malady, where the understand- 
ing may be perfect, and the senses perfect, but where, by 
reason of some spasm, or morbid influence, the power and 

control of them is lost they reason wrong from right 

premises. They are as a ship without a rudder. , Volition 

has no control over their acts any more than over the pulsa- 
tions of their arteries. He adverted to that class of the 

afflicted, whose derangement may be exhibited on a single 
subject, while perfectly rational on every other. That al- 
though the improved and humane principles of modern law 
do not hold persons responsible for acts done under the in- 
fluence of such malady the difficulty the impossibility 

of making the nature of this protection to the innocent, in- 
telligible to a jury, in a community where no light exists 
upon the subject, exposed every one to the 4 danger of un- 
justly suffering the penalties of guilt. 

Mr. B. remarked upon the want of all information upon 
this subject as the necessary result of the present treat- 



lfi 

ment of the insane. No light comes from the dark recesses 
of their prison house, where even friends look not in upon 
them, and, if more humane, the affected sufferer is turned 
loose, a houseless wanderer upon the cold charity of the 

world. — every eve is averted from him; all "pass by 

on the other side." except the thoughtless, heartless children, 

who follow only to mock at his calamities. He spoke of 

a public asylum as the only means by which information of 
the nature, character; and evidences of this malady could he 

understood, even by those of the medical profession; and 

as t lie only mode of diffusing that information through the 
community which could give any assurance of a just admin- 
istration of the principles of law applicable to such cases. 
That this would extend the means of detecting the exis- 
tence of the disease in its early stages, and prevent hun- 
dreds of cases from terminating in fatal calamities to the 
sufferers or to their friends. 

He spoke of the danger of conviction and the infliction of 
the highest degree of infamous punishment upon the inno- 
cent, as not imaginary, but real. That records of criminal 
courts show hundreds of cases, where persons have been 
convicted and executed upon the charge of crimes for which 
they were no more responsible, than the sleeping infant for 
its dreams. He adverted to a recent case in this iState, as 
one in his solemn judgement, of that character. He spoke 
in terms of strong feeling, of this calamity, as one to which 
each of us was exposed. 

Mr. 15. called the attention of the meeting to the laws of 
this S.ate. which provides that where grand Jurors refuse 
to present or the traverse jury to convict a person charged 
with an offence, on this ground of insanity, that the court 

may be empowered to commit such person to prison 

••there to be detained till he or she shall he restored to his 
or her riijht mind, or otherwise delivered hit due course of 
t<nr." A sentence to imprisonment for life, because they 

had been guilty of no offence and not to such humane 

imprisonment as the manslaver, burglar, the highway robber 
lias provided for him, with clothing and food, air, exercise, 

and warm apartments while the prisons for the guiltless 

insane, were the crowded, dismal dungeons of our county 
j,iK 

lie spoke of the expense of $80,000 for an Asvlum as 



17 

loss than ninausncs 01 each individual in the State less 

than a dollar to the taxable inhabitants be compared the 

sacrifice to the Moloch, Aoerace, more horrible in its char- 
acter than the hecatombs ottered by pagans to their heathen 
idols. He appealed feelingly to the citizens of this State to 
redeem them from this reproach. 

Asylum for the' Insane. 

The recent measures calling public attention to the subject 
of an Asylum tor the Insane, has revealed a state of pub- 
lic feeling more favorable to that object than was expected. 
From all quarters we hear the most encouraging accounts. 
Recently a large meeting has been held in Cheshire County. 
Meetings have also bean held in Stratford, Exeter, Concord, 
Gihnanton. Stratham, Gilford and Portsmouth, and have in- 
structed the Representatives to use their exertions to pro- 
cure an appropriation from the Legislature to erect the 
proposed Hospital. 

Letters from very many towns represent public sentiment 
as nearly unanimous upon the subject. Nothing very defin- 
ite has been heard from Grafton County. But we have 
every reason to hope that- that flourishing part of the State 
will not be wanting in that sympathy and liberality which 
are moving the other parts of the State. 

We believe that all the newspapers are united in advocat- 
ing this enterprise. Indeed as yet we have heard of no 
voice being raised against- it. Why then should not a meas- 
ure succeed which is universally approved by the people, 
called for by prudence and policy as well as benevolence. 

Portsmouth .Journal. 

We have before us a letter from one of our Cheshire 
Representatives, who would, he says, in 183-1 have given his 
vote against the erection of a Hospital had the vote been 
pressed. He was impressed with the belief that insanity was 
in most cases incurable, and had heard frightful stories of 
the abuses, and bad treatment of the insane, at some pri- 
vate institutions. He now acknowledges that he was misin- 
formed, that his prejudices are removed, and will give 

the project his hearty support. 

"The Institution," he says "should be so managed, 
and the expenses so easy, that every class of our fellow 
citizens, the poor and middling, as well as the rich, may 
have access to it. 



18 

•■An institution founded on the iibove principle, would, I 
think, meet the general approbation, I am sure it would 
mint', and secure my feeble support." 

A portion of the Clergy, in the Eastern part of the State, 
principally, of various denomination* 1 , have addressed a cir- ' 
tular to their brethren ou the importance of bringing be- 
fore their congregation the benevolent project of establish- 
ing an Insane Hospital. 
May 12. 1*36. 

Asylum for the Ixsixe. 
Meeting at Pot turn 'lit. 

Dr. Charles A. Cheever, in addressing tie meeting, was 
very happy to lend his voice and efforts to the noble ob- 
ject, lie considered the present situation of the insane in 

point of comfort far below that of the brute creation ; 

the poor insane are doomed to dungeons and chains, and not 
(infrequently hawked about to the lowest bidder for their 
keeping to mercenary wretches who would hardly be tol- 
erated to look after even the worst of our species: that our 
reflections must be still more fearful when we remember 
that with the exception of a small and yearly decreasing 
minority, its victims are often struck down as shining marks 
from the ranks of the fair, talented and virtuous: 

That in this philanthropic age, and b lasted land of liber 
ty, while we bad compassed sea and laud to seek our ob- 
jects of benevolence, the dungeon of the unfortunate insane 
hud been passed heedlessly by, and he condemned to suffer 

:i> no criminal ever did suffer before; that the pathet'c 

cases which had been so touchillgly i elated by gentlemen 
that evening, and recently spread before the public in the 
prints of the day. were no fictions, but sad realities in- 
ch id so far from being ovei strained, that he did not be- 
lieve the half had been told, and but for exciting their sym- 
pathies, be could relate ca^cs within his own observation. 
ihat would more than corroborate them. He did not con- 
sider that the past treatment of the Insane should be a sub- 
ject for reflection vpon their friei.ds, as their treatment was 
no doubt the effect of compulsion, resulting from fear and 
from an opinion that their condition was irremediable and 
hopeless, from the prevalent belief that insanity was a disease 
of the spiritual nature of man, and consequently beyond 
ihe co. trol of remedial agents. lie demonstrated however. 



19 



that insanity was not a disease of the mind but of the 

body, if the contrary doctrine were true it endangered 

our hopes of immortality, for if the mind could sicken 

it could die. He then passed some high eulogiums upon 
Spurzheim, Combe and others for having thrown so much 
light upon the necessary connection of mind and matter, and 
more particularly for having demonstrated by their skilful 
dissections of the brain, that insanity is in all cases from a 
lesser or diseased action of its structure ; that we owed them 
a debt of gratitude for the very best and most scientific 
works upon the subject, leading to a more correct treatment 
of this terrible scourge. 

He then stated that now having a correct theory, the 
treatment of course must be morn correct. He considered 
the very best treatment for the insane to be the very re- 
verse of what it had heretofore been; the iron which had 
entered their hearts and seared their affections must be re- 
moved the manacles which had galled their limbs, must 

be knocked off must be demolished, and give place to well 

ordered homes, where affection and comfort should usurp 
the places of filthy misery and [savage barbarity. He then 
gave some important statistical facts, drawn from a variety 
of Hospital reports, showing that while under the old sys- 
tem not more than one in twenty of the insane were restor- 
ed, under the treatment which had been adopted at regular 
Asylums, at least nine out of ten had been restored to health, 
to their friends, and to all enjoyments which render life de- 
sirable. 

ltey. Dr. Burroughs closed the discussion by a strong and 

eloquent appeal claimiiig the establishment of an Asylum 

for the Insane, not only as a matter of expediency, but also 
as a matter of imperative duty. He spoke of the two great 
principles which are the acknowledged basis of true religion 

love to God, and love to man. He said that every man 

who is in want and suffering is our neighbor every in- 
sane person in New Hampshire he held to be his neighbor, 
who claims his sympathy and relief. He spoke most feeling- 
ly of the extreme mental anguish the unfortunate insane 
must suffer from the course now necessarily pursued towards 
them for the personal safety of their best friends: they are 1 

sensible to every act of unkindness there is scarcely an 

individual now confined in the drearv cells of the insane. 



who lias not lii* disease more irremediably stamped upon him, 

by Hie consciousness of unkindncss. He adverted with much 

effect to the case of King Lear, and the ancient Bablyonian moir 
arch. Dr. 15. remarked, that recent statistical returns show a 
great increase of cases of insanity within a few years, in Eng- 
land and in Franci and the same causes to some extent ex- 
isting in this country will doubtless tend to similar results. 

As the means of giving them relief, he considered an Asylum 

for the Insane one of the greatest blessings in the world he 

had never viewed one without contemplating it us the footstep 
of the Son of God". 

Longer to delay the establishment of an Asylum he held to 
he mortal turpitude. Is any one pi i pared i.iu'.tr the light 
which now exists, to say, I will let it rest another year, 

when we shall be better prepared and thus let the intense 

sufferings of the insane continue, and insanity to increase 
among ui? He happily adverted to the case of the Good 
Samaritan and Strongly exhibited the claims of the In- 
sane, not on the sympathy of the rich, but also upon every 
poor man: for under the distressing visitation of Provi- 
dence, it was the | r man who would be peculiarly bene- 
fitted by its establishment. lie closed his remarks by an 
expression of gratification at being present on an occasion 
where all party and sectarian feelii <;s sic laid Bfitfr, ill d a] 
are uniting to promote one of the noblest objects in the cause 
of humanity. The Resolutions were 1:1 aniii oni-ly adopted 
by the meeting,' and at 10 o'clock it adjourned with >ut-d iv. 
June .':'.. 1836. 
Extract from the Governor's Message. 

If it be the duty of the Legislators to promote the culti- 
vation of the human intellect by providing for the general 

education of youth if, it be their duty to provide for the 

sustenance of those who cannot sustain themselves how 

much higher the obligations to furnish means of comfort for 
the poor insane. Bereft of reason, a simple supply of the 
wants of nature is not all that is required for them! It has 
1 » found that a certain course of treatment under compe- 
tent physical and intellectual management, may restore to 
usefulness hundreds who without such treatment will be for- 
ever lost to themselves and their fellow men. An Asylum 
in this State, at which provision can be made as well for 
the permanently deranged as for the recovery of those of 



21 



■whom hopes are entertained, would do credit to the cause 
of humanity. 

It may not he expected of the State that she shall he more 
than a liheral patron of such an Institution; towns would 
pay for the support of their poor, and individuals who were 
able, would by themselves or their friends be provided for at 
such an institution. Th? State might make a grant condi- 
tional that another sum should be furnished by niuriificient 
individuals. Such an institution, with the aid of an outset 
by the State, it is believed could be so managed as to near- 
ly defray its own expenses. It might be conducted under the 
State authorities, or, it might be managed by trustees with 
Mich occasional aid from the State Treasury or from any 
f.md provided by the State as might be deemed indispen- 
sable. 

The expenses of the State Government are almost exclusive- 
ly defrayed by a direct tax upon the people; and it is de- 
sirable that all additional permanent expenses that can be 
avoided should be dispensed with. But so loud is the call 
of human suffering upon the generosity, it not upon the jus- 
tice of the State, that it may be hoped that the representa- 
tives of the people, expressing their wishes and feelings upon 
this subject, will consider the time as having arrived when the 
foundation of such an institution can be laid. 
July 21, 1836. 

Surplus Kevenue. 

We are glad to see prevailing, very generally, the idea, that 
our portion of the surplus revenue should be safely invested, 
and the interest (only become available, witii the exception 
of some $20,000, perhaps, for an Insane Hospital. 
July 28, 1830. 

Insane Hospital. [Nashua Telegraph] 

The report of the Committee appointed by the Legislature, 
upon this subject is an able document, and we hope it will be 
extensively circulated and read. It gives the most interesting, 
satisfactory accounts of the success which has attended every 
institution of the kind, and places all doubt of its utility, or 
oven economy, out of question. It dwells much upon the suc- 
cess of the Massachusetts Hospital at Worcester, which is 
conducted precisely upon the principles which we must adopt 
here, being founded for the maintenance of the poor, and 
the duly one in the country, so founded. 



The other institutions are the result of private enterprise and 
are supported by individuals who are able to pay an equiva- 
lent for the benefit conferred, and are not cases precisely pa- 
rallel with our own, yet they tend to show the same result, 
and their history |is full of encouragement. We have now 
great advantages which Massachusetts had not. She was en- 
gaged in a glorious experiment, uncertain of its issue, but she 
carried it through successfully and we have the rich fruits of 
her experience. The whole matter is brought to us in a state 
of certainty, and we have only to do the work — -the result is 
certain. 

The committee received returns from Ul towns having in- 
sane, with a population of 173773: 20 towns having no insane, 
with a population of 19706 whole number of insane 312—152 of 
whom are supported at public charge, and 81 confined in 
cages, jails, close rooms, chains, hand-cuffs eet. The aver- 
age period for which insanity has existed in 233 cases, com- 
prising periods from GO years to 2 weeks, is about 13 1-2 
years. Tne Report says: 

"From the number of insane in the towns reported, 312, 
your committee feel safe in estimating the whole number in 
the State, at about 350; of these about 120 or thirty can be 
judged tit subjects for the aids of a public institution, making 
a number about equal to that accommodated at Worcester. 
By these returns your committee are satisfied that the pre- 
sent actual average cost of supporting the Insane poor in this 
State is very near the sum estimated by the late Gov. Dins- 
moor, viz: about $78 each per annum. We have seen 

that at Worcester the expense of one class of petients is 
$2.50 per week; and of another $1.50; if these classes were 
equal in number as they nearly are at that Hospital, the 
average cost (hen remains $2.00 per week. Let any person 
make the briefest comparison of the leading items of expense 
such as salaries, wages, provisions, fuel etc., in the large 
and populous town of Worcester, with what it would be in 
the interior of New Hampshire, and not a doubt can re- 
main that the same number could be equally well sustained 
here at 81.50 ner week, a cost in fact actually below their 
present actual expense to our communities. 

If in addition io this the very important fact be regarded, 
that each one of those insane, who is so situated to have 
others depending upon him for support, is of necessity com- 



pelled to transfer the burden over to the public, thus in- 
directly increasing the cost of insanity upon the people; and 
if it also be considered that a burden of years must be ex- 
pected in every case from the hopelessness of cure, which 
would to a great extent be removed, by the curative influ- 
ence of an asylum, the committee feel sure that, so far 
from the institution being an expense to the public, it would 
be most desirable as an economical, money- saving establish- 
ment, without looking at any benefits of cure, amelioration 
or safety. The committee rejoice that there is still another 
point of view, which has been presented by the experience 
of the few last years in such institutions, which they feel 
must remove the lingering apprehensions of any that an In- 
sane Asylum would be an additional charge beyond its first 
erection and commencement. It has been found by actual 
experience that such establishments can be made to a very 
considerable extent self-supporting institutions; that a very 
large proportion, about one half, at most hospitals, are in 
such condition as to render them not only capable of produc- 
tive labor, but that such labor is of immense consequence as 
regards cure."' 

The committee, aided by men of experience in such mat- 
ters, have made an estimate of the expense- of building an 
Asylum in this State on the plan of that at Worcester. The 
result is, cost of building, $19,860; furnishing 120 rooms 

$1080 total $20940. Allowing the whole expense to be $25, 

000, there would remain $1060 to be expended in the prepar- 
ation of the grounds etc. 
Oct. 13, 1836. 

Shocking Cruelty The contemplated building of a Luna- 
tic Asylum in New Hampshire, ami doing something to amelior- 
ate the wretched condition of the Insane. To this end many 
philanthropic gentlemen are exerting themselves strongly. 
Among them is a highly respectable physician, who, urging 
the subject upon the consideration of the people, relates, 
through the columns of the New Hampshire Telegraph, the 
following shocking ta'e of the sufferings and death of a poor 
maniac!, an inmate of the almshouse, whom he was called to 
visit in the winter of 1833. When he was first cast as a pau- 
per upon the public charity, he was -'set up at auction," in 
conformity with the humane custom which prevails in many 
New England towns, and for a succession of years was ear- 



24 

ried about from erne ptirt of the town to another— no* an 
inmate of a house not sufficient to shield him from the cold of 
winter, and now where the occupants were obliged to beg 
their daily bread. In the course of his weary pilgrimniage 
through the parish, he had been "bid off" by the intemperate, 
the worthless and lewd; indeed by almost every species of hu- 
man beings whose avarice, or what is worse, whose love of 
••strong New England" might induce to become the lowest 
1. idler. 

Traversing a town in this manner, with no one to sympa- 
thise with him in his distress, receiving sometimes a rebuke 
and a curse — now a shove with the elbow, then a kick, in or- 
der "to make him know something." It was not much matter 
what be had to eat, he was crazy, find would uerer know the 
difference. » 

When the poor house was established, he was carried there 
truly an object of commiseration, with scarcely power to walk — 
a mere skeleton. Having now a permanent home, a gleam of 
happiness was anticipated for the wanderer But no! his 
former sufferings were felicity compared with what lie after- 
wards suffered. The almshouse was small, and, the Overseer 
said, "he must put the crazy man into the shed," which was 
in the same building, and separated only by a partition of 
rough planks, from the swine.. The dreary month of Novem- 
ber had nearly passed when the humane overseer felt somewhat 
alarmed from the appearance of his pale and haggard counten- 
ance, lest he might die there alone, and, as he said, ''folks 
might blame him." In this dilemma he applied, as is usual in 
such cases, to that epitome of omnipotence, the board of Select- 
men. These gentlemen willing to do everything to accommo- 
date, very Im nanelv ordered a place to be built in the cellar 
for his special accommodation. A pen six feet by eight, of 
rough planks, and six feet high, was erected, but which was 
not calculated to exclude any of the air of the cellar, so that 
the temperature in and about the dungeon remained the same. 

He was kept in his abode without a fire or a suff'ciency of 
bed clothes, the landlady observing that she was afraid that if 
she trusted him with tire that he would burn the house. 
During his residence in the cellar, apples, potatoes and cider 
froze within a few feet of him, and as might have been expected, 
his limbs shared the same fate. During all this time he was 
.perfectly passive ami harmless. The Select-men happening to 



to call arid finding he must soon die, advised him to send for a 
doctor. "I found him," says the physician, -'his feet and 
hands frozen, with other symptoms of extreme suffering' from 
cold, which I cannot put on paper. In this situation he lan- 
guished several days, when the welcome messenger — death — 
put an end to his sufferings'. I do not hesitate to say that the 
immediate cause of his death, was being frozen in that cellar. 

[Boston Times.] 

[Let us with one consent, vote in November to build an 
Insane Hospital, even if the State has to borrow the money 

but we can use a portion of the surplus revenue for the 

benevolent object.] 

November 10, 1836. 

The Election*. 

On the question ot the Insane Hospital, the town was 

addressed by several individuals in favor of the measures 

by none as eloquently as by the Moderator, Gen. Wilson. 
The vote was unanimous — all present (141) calling upon the 
Legislature to go forward in this humane and benevolent 
work. (Jen. W. paid a merited tribute to the late Gov- 
Dinsmoor, who first brought forward this subject before the 
Legislature. This is not the only good thing Gov. Dinsmoor 
did while in office. He made one of the best judicial appoint- 
ments that could, perhaps, have been made, at the time, 
breaking through the trammels ot party, and he recommend- 
ed that excellent provision which partially relieves towns in 
certain (vises, from the sole expense of roads which do not es- 
pecially benefit them. 

[On all the Democratic Electoral votes, sent out from Con. 
coid, the question in relation to the Insane Hospital was 
stated, and the decision "yes'" printed. The Patriot folks 
are so much in the habit of dictating, they could not, it 
seems, refrain from deciding the question for all their party. 
.Such dictation was resisted, and the cause thereby injured. 
Another objection has operated widely. The State Prison 

has been miserably managed $30,000 or $40,000 has been 

sunk. This is to be a State Institution, and may be badly 
managed. 

Votes for Electors. 

For Tnsane Hospital. Against 

Keene Ml 

Chesterfield 10 70 



2C 



Swanzey 


25 


Fit zwilliain 


47 


Jaffrey 


all 


Surry 


38 


WaJpoie 


70 


Sullivan 


9 


Gilsum 


9 


Marlborough 


28 


Kindgc 


19 


Alstead 




Nelfion 


C 


Troy 


6 


Westmoreland 


11 


Dublin 


89 


November!?, 188G. 





7C 

8 



17 

12G 

24 

70 

35 



25 
25 



4 
(( lontinued) 

In Grafton and Sullivan Counties, tlio majority who acted, 
were against the appropriation for an Insane Hospital, and in 
all probability, notwithstanding the vote in most of the large 
towns, a majority will be found in the Slate against the meas- 
ure. We are, from the conversation with many individuals 
strongly inclined to believe, that had the subject of an insane 
Hospital been presented to the people accompanied by proper 
explanations, the vote would have been decidedly in favor of 
an appropriation. For instance, bad it been understood that 

the State would be made chargeable for the State pool' 

that Counties would be required to pay the expenses of Coun- 
ty piipers, Towns, of Town pauper-, and the friends of 
others, who sought an asylum in the hospital, should he re- 
quired, if able, to give bonds for paying the bills of expense. 

In tlii* case, the annual appropriations by the State would 
be trifling — almost the only difference would be that between 
the present State support and the accommodations furnished in 
the hospital. The best plan should have been embodied at the 
last session in the form of a statute, with the sum necesary to be 
appropriated, and postponed for the decision of the people. 
January 26 l.s:>7. 

The Insane Hospital. — The eight week's session of our Leg- 
islature has passed away, and so far as we can learn, the sub- 
ject of an Insane Hospital has not been brought forward in 
any shape — nor have we seen any record of even a count of 
the votes of the people in their primary assemblies in Novem- 
ber last. Every one supposed that this would be a leadiii"' 



topic of debate but alas! who would risk his popularity 

to bring it forward? The tariff, the surplus fund, and aboli- 
tion, took up all the spare time, — and no one would risk his 
reputation for sanity of mind, by advocating the cause of this 
(iod-xtr token class of our community, who are wandering 
about the country, or are confined in gaols, cages, or cellars. 
Our State is already a by word abroad. This neglect is not 
calculated to elevate it. 
September 21, 1837. 

Extract from the funeral sermon of Miss Fisk, by Dr. 
Bur stow. 

Perhaps it may be expected that I advert to the disposition 
which she has made of the handsome property which she has 
acquired, and the desire which she had that it might do 
good from generation to generation. Her first wish is, and 
it reminds us of the conduct of Him, who amid the agonies 
of the cross, commended his mother to the beloved John, 
that his beloved mother may have every possible comfort 
during the few remaining days of weakness and sorrow that 
she may continue on earth; next that those who have con- 
tributed to her relief amidst her sufferings may be rewarded, 
that those who have members of her family, whether as as- 
sociates in instruction, pupils in the seminary, or domestics 
in her service, should experience her benefactions, if they 
should ever need assistance; and that then, after a term of 
years, the residue of her property should go to aid the first 
charitable establishment for the insane that may be made in 
New Hampshire. 
March 22. 1838. 

The Insane: — By Rev. A. A. Livermoue. 

Tt is the acknowledged duty of the strong to aid the weak, 
the rich to relieve the poor!, the well to minister to the 
sick, and of all to do good as they may find the means and 
the subjects of benevolence. This is so manifest that even 
under the "disastrous eclipse" of heathenism men compre- 
hended faintly this high truth: So the old classic stories 
have revealed. "Who was Hercules, the invincible giant, but 
one who avenged the wrongs, redressed injuries, defended 
the exposed, and slew the savage monster and more savage men 
that lived by blood and rapine? Who were the Knights of 

the middle ages a period of virtual heathenism but the 

champions of innocence, the succorers of the friendless; 



heroes, whoso exploits set on lire the poetic soul, and Cftsl a 
tremulous, glorious «ray of light and beauty into the heart of 
th.1t thick Stygian night? And since the Gospel has been 
nunc known, loved, and obeyed by misguided men. this gen- 
erous devotion to the cause of the oppressed a/id suffering hu 
inanity lias stirred more and more the dead heavy mass of man- 
kind. 

But the weapons arc changed. The Hercules of old is tabled 
to have fought with his celebrated club the battles of right 
and truth. The gallant Knight dashed upon his foes with his 
fierce war-charger, '•clothed with thunder.'' and hewed them 
down with his good Damascus steel. ]!ut these carnal arms 
drop powerless before the sublime spiritual forces, that have 
taken up the cause of philanthropy, thai wield the majestic 
SWOl'd of the spirit, cleaving' to the heart and conscience, 
sounding in the reccs-e-. of the soul the obligations < f duty, 
and calling' unto man to do good unto man. Splendid speci- 
mens of generous sympathy, of true hearted charity, of disin- 
terested benevolence, are sprinkled here and f.h«ic over the 
black register where the crime- id' the past ale recorded. But 
never till the nineteenth century did philanthropy become a 
common stock to leaven tin 1 race, sketch vast public schemes of 
doing good, and convert the squandered revenues of chics and 
-laics into the mighty instruments of humane relief and im- 
provement. Here is a principle of love beginiug to beat al 

the cold I. earl of man. which will work gi'ea.er wonders than 

the Press, Magnet, Steam, or Magnetism. The pure, gentle 
spirit of an humble Jewish pea-ant will shame, the adioitest 
inventions, the most studied philosophies, the brightest beam- 
ings of genius. Those simple words "Love thy neighbor 

a- thyself" outdid Pluto, outdid Bacon. They stiuek upon a 
principle that will re-create the world, when it shall enter 
lovingly c\(iy heart; that will in its purifying flame consume 
to ashes all evil institutions, customs, and habits, and re- 
turn the veritable golden age of goodness and peace, 

A dense array of facts might be summoned to testify as to 
the truth of these sayings. But a single feature of modern 
philanthropy will suffice. I refer to the exertions made in be- 
half of the Insane. Formerly this most unfortunate class of 
curatives went nneared for. They were apparently deemed 
t > be out of the paie of human sympathies, and having lost 
the grand characteristic of man — reason — were treated as un- 



29 

feelingly as the brute beast, and sometimes even more so. But 
the gentle eye of Christian Love sees even in these poor 
wretches the scattered fragments and remnants of a kindly na- 
ture, and while others sail for Greece ,or Koine to nurse their 
tender contemplations over the fallen grandeur of those queens 
of the earth, she wants not the broken pillars, and the pros- 
trated marble ruins of once beautiful temples and palaces to 
awaken a luxurious melancholy, but sees a disolution move 
grand and awful, more saddening and subduing, in a brother 
man, bereft of reason; thrown out of his orbit, and dead to 
all the hopes and purposes of a rational and probationary ex- 
istence. 

Nor has this melancholy spectacle been witnessed ineffectual- 
ly. By the good will of individuals and the wisdom ol States, 
Asylums have been founded for the relief and recover} - of 
the lunatic and madman. 

Success has smiled on these philanthropic establishments. 
Many have been entirely cured and restored to their afflicted 
friends "clothed in their right mind." Many have been par- 
tially restored and most have been much benefitted. Such an 
Asylum is very much needed in this State. From four to five 
hundred persons amongst us have lost "heavens best gift" — 
their reason, and surely if means can be put in operation for 
restoring the greater part of this dark chaotic mass to light, 
order, and happiness, the work ought ^speedily to be done; 
for every year's delay renders a cure more and more hopeless. 
Some efforts have already been made but they have failed of 
success. But the friends of the cause never will give over, un- 
til it is triumphant, for it is the cause of much neglected and 
much abused humanity. 

A few short articles on this important and deeply interesting 
subject will in future papers be presented to the attention of 
the reflecting and philanthropic, with the hope that they will 
produce a better informed and livelier interest in the Insane, 
and accelerate tlw founding of a State Asylum for thsir bene- 
fit. 

March 29. 1838. 

The Insane — By Kev. A. A. Livermore. ' 

The proportion of sane to insane persons has commonly 
been estimated at 1000 to 1, but this does not probably give 
the full amount of insanity. Taking however this estimate, 
and as in 1830 the population of New Hampshire was 2G9, 



30 

528, the number of lunatics would be at least 2G9. 

It is proved to be greater than 1 to 1000, certainly in this 
State, by the following tacts: Gov. Dinemoor, an early and 
active friend of the insane, issued a circular to the select- 
men of the several towns, dated July 27, 18S2, requiring the 
number, condition, etc. of the deranged to be reported. 

Through negligence, or some other cause, only 88 towns 
out of 210 returned answers. Those 8:> reported l!)il insane, 
of whom 98 were paupers. But another fact is quite con- 
clusive. In a report to the Legislature in June, 1886, Dr. 
Hell, now sit the head of the McLean Asylum, Charlestown, 
Mass. slated that at that time reports had been obtained 
from ltll towns in the State, which with a population of 
1,985,69, had 812 lunatics. Personal observation also, though 
limited, has shown that towns of from 1,000 to 2,000 have 8, 4, 
or o insane, though some are happily exempt from this dread- 
ful evil. 

Insanity increases in the world as civilization advances, be- 
cause the causes which disturb or overthrow reason become 
more numerous. Dr. Rockwell of the Urattleboro Asylum ob- 
serves that "perhaps there is no country in which it pre- 
vails to so great an extent as in these United States. Among 
the greatest moral causes, are disappointed hopes and in.n'ti- 
tied pride." How discreditable to us then, if we have a 
large amount of the evil, not to take the be: t measures lo 
diminish il ! 

In the report of 1886 before referred to. out of 312 in- 
sane there were 152 paupers, supported entirely at the public 
expense. The old custom was to put them with other pau- 
pers up at auction, and band them over to those who would 
bid the lowest on their support. It is easy to imagine into 
whose hands they would generally fall, and how they Would 
be treated. They must often have fallen to the "tender 
mercies" - of those totally incompetent to do much either for 
their comfort or their cure. Fortunately, poor farms are 
gradually taking the place of selling at auction. 

As many of the insane are furiously mad, it is necessary 
to confine them. Confinement exasperates them, and thev 
gradually sink into a hopeless and incurable state. Those 

who ca >t be kept at home are often sent to the jails. 

Here they have sometimes been neglected, and treated with 
a cruelty, worthy only of a barbarous people. A deranged 



31 



female was thus confined in this State. During the winter 
her feet froze and both required to be amputated. And when 
not kept in jails, their confinement has often savoured more 
of Olmutz or the Bastile than of New England humanity. 
A friend in this State writes as follows: "An. insane pau- 
per in a neighboring town was confined in a brick cell, in 
the cellar, in the midst of winter, and without a lire, until 
his feet froze and dropped off, and the poor wretch perish- 
ed!" Of the 312 insane reported in 1836, 81 were confined 
in various ways, in cages, jails, close rooms, chains, hand- 
cuffs etc. One had been chained most of the time for 10 
years. One was confined several years a gentleman per- 
fectly harmless at first, who was gradually reduced to abject 
misery by hard treatment. One always confined in irons, 
sometimes in jail, had been insane 20 years. One female 
was confined in a small room in the poor house for many 
years, so that she lost the use of her limbs. 

When therefore we see how many are, and art likely to 
be, insane in our State, it is becoming a civilized and 
Christian community to do something to remove or to mitigate 
so much woe and wretchedness? Shall it be said of New 
Hampshire that she is the last of the States that welcome 
and prosecutes philanthropic objects? When we consider the 
cruelty, neglect, and hopelessness of cure, to which many in- 
sane are now subjected, and that a majority might be restor- 
ed to perfect reason, or so far improved, as to cease to be 

a curse and terror to their friends as to labor and help 

support themselves. What mind is not convinced that a State 
Asylum of some sort ought forthwith to be provided for the 
recovery and relief of these poor outcasts of the human 
family? The subject will be continued. 
April 12, 1838. 
The Insane By Rev. A. A. Liveumore. 

The duty of establishing an Asylum was urged in the last 
piper on the ground of the number find the .fit tint ion of the 
i'lsane in this State. The present article will be devoted to 
the means mid the success of euting these unhappy beings. 

In their present condition few can be, few are cured. The 
causes that made them insane are around them, tending to 
keep them so. House and friends are hateful to them, and 
serve to perpetuate the disorder. Some run at large, expos- 
ed to the summer's heat and the winter's cold, indebted to 



32 

charity for a crust of bread or a resting- place in (lie barn, 
subjected to insults and injuries, maddened by the wanton 
treatment of the unfeeling; and spreading anxiety and ter- 
ror wherever they roam. Others, still worse off, are con- 
signed to jails, cages, cellars, and out-houses, sometimes chain- 
ed till they lose tne use of their limbs, often naked, filthy be- 
yond disruption , long-haired and long-bearded, and resembl- 
ing the wild beasts of the forest more than creatures made 
in the image of <<od. 

As has been strongly said by another "To him, whose 

mind is acienatCll, n prison is a tomb, and within its walls 
he must slitter a> one who wakes to life in the solitude Of 
the grave. Existence and the capacity of pain are alone left 
him." To show that these me facts and not fancies, we may 
appeal to Mass. In that State 80 lunatics were foun 1 in 
prisons. One had:!, one 6, one li, one 111, and Offers differ- 
ent number-. '-One man had been confined !» years, lie had 
no bed., chair, or bench, and no clothing except a wreath 
of rags wound his neck, and another around his body. 
Two or three rough planks were Strewed around the room, 
a heap of lillhy straw, like the nest of swine, was in the 
corner." In the prison of ."> lunatics they weie confined in 
seperate cell-, whieh were almost dark dungeons. 

The ventilation was so incomplete that more than one per- 
son on entering them has found the air so fxhid as to pro- 
duce nan-eou-iie-- and almost vomiting. In the prison where 
there were G lunatic-, their condition was also wretched, 
hut the apartment of the females opened into the yard of the 
men. The prison, in which there were 10, contained two, a male 
and a female, in the same room, about seventy years of 
age; the man hud been confined there 21 and the woman 'J 

years: they were lying upon straw, covered with a few 

filthy and tattered rags, and a snow storm driving in upon 
them through the broken windows. Another had been eon- 
fined 8 years. This room was wanned by no tire. When 
seen through the orifice in the door, through which his food 
was conveyed, the first queston was, is that a human being? 

The hair gone from one side of bis bead, and his eyes 
were like balls of tire. In the cellar, without tire and with 
broken windows, were five of these poor wrelcl.es, and, as 
might be supposed, the woman of the bouse said: " We 
have ■> m'ght 1o rfo, to keep them from freezing.'''' One fe- 



male had been committed to this cellar 17 years ago: one 
man was put in there in 1810. 

If the dungeon of the Inquisition or the mines of Siberia 
can tell of barbarities more horrible, let them speak. But 
the flame is not to be measured out to those concerned in 
such things without palliation. It was deemed necessary to 
be harsh with the insane formerly. They must be restrained 
and there was no safer or more summary way than to lock them 
up or chain them. They were then neglected, they tore 
their clothes from their bodies, destroyed the furniture in 
their rooms, broke all the glass that came within their reach, 
could neither be shaved, combed or washed; could not be 
trusted with any lire and in the course of 10, 20 or 30 
years, during which some were held in durance, they were 
reduced to this more deplorable condition, above described. 
Under circumstances of neglect, ftlth, cold and brooding con- 
stantly over their woes, or collapsing into idiocy, how were 
any cures to be expected? Where will yon point to any cures 
taking place under this inhuman regime. 

But turn your eyes from this black picture to the bright- 
er day which is arising upon this most pitiable class of 
earth's sons and daughters. New modes of treatment are ap- 
plied to the insane, and the most sanguine hopes have been 
outdone. Many scandals have, however been circulated re- 
specting Insane Asylums. Because some private institutions 
have been mismanaged, a sweeping inference of condemna- 
tion has bee;i drawn against all Lunatic Hospitals. Bnt the 
large public Asylums, such as the McLean, the Worcester, 
Bloomingdale, and the Brattluboro, challenge inquiry; they 
desire not concealment, but publicity; they demand to be 
known, to be tested; they receive visitors, public reports, and 
from year to year urge upon the attention of an unawakened 
public the claims of those who, in losing their reason, have 
lost all that constitutes the hope, the end, the improvement, 
the happiness of human life on earth. 

In these Hospitals the insane are placed in warm rooms, 
kindly treated, allowed to take the air, to exercise, labor, 
and to amuse themselves. Some are put under a course of 
medical treatment, which restores the diseased functions of the 
brain to soundness. And what is the result of this regimen, 
so opposite to imprisoning, chaining, whipping, starving, terri- 
fying and freezing the ancient modes? The results seem 



34 

more like fiction than stern reality, but they arc too well 
attested to be gainsaid. No one, who lias a human heart 
beating in his own breast, can read unmoved the reports of 
these Asylums. He must either be something more than man, 
or something less than man, that feels no warm thrill in hi* 
veins, as he peruses the account of the restoration of 207 out 
of 268 insane persons, at Worcester in 5 years, to the capacity 
of reason, virtue and happiness. Where is he that sees reason 
himself, and knows its solid joys, who can coldly pass over 
tlii- radiant chapter in the chronicles of philanthropy. 

Besides those who are entirely restored, many are very es- 
sentially improved, by the medical, mental and moral treat- 
ment of the Asylums. Dr. Woodward of the Worcester State 
Lunatic Hospital, -ays in his report of 1884, that '•/» re- 
cent vases of insanity, under judicious treatment , as lurye n 
proportion oj recoveries trill take place, «•••' jvont any other 
acute disease <>/' <-</h<i/ severity." Under his excllent care, ihe 
recoveries, including all cases, have been at the rale of .">7 per 
cent: new cases, or less than a year's duration at x'.i per cent: 
anil old cases, or more than a year's standing at 25 per cent. — 
Other hospitals in our own. and other countries afford similar 
encouraging accounts of the curahlity of the insane. Many 
coses like the following are related of those who have been 
entirely cured or very much improved at the Asylums: — '■ — 

"One man had committed homicide and had been in prison 

28 years 7 years he had not fell the influence of fire, and 

many nights he had not lain down for fear of freezing, lie 
had not been shaved for 20 years, and he had been provoked, 
and excited, hy the introduction of hundreds, to see the ex- 
hibition!) of his raving. He i> now in comfortable health, well 
clad, keeps his bed and room remarkably clean, and, al- 
though very in-ane on certain subjects, is most of the lime 
pleasant, companionable, and entirely harmless and docile. 

lie shave- himself twice a week .-.its at table with sixteen 

Others takes hi- meals walks about the village and over 

the fields with an attendant to accompany him, and enjoys 
hiiii-elf a- well a- his illusions will permit. 1 ' 

'■One had been confined a violent maniac. Had been ca^- 
cd and chained for years. It was concluded to set him free 
and see how he would conduct. (This was before he came 
to the Asylum.) He fell foul on his brother, and killed him 
with a bludgeon, and. pursuing his sister, would probablv 



have done the same to her, had he not heen arrested in 
season to prevent it. When caged he was naked and filthy, 
but now dresses neatly, is cleanly and civil: mingles freely 
with sixteen other persons, and, though quite insane, is to us 
perfectly harmless." 

"One, a female had been insane three months. Trial had 
been made in a private institution to remove the disease, 
without benefit. When this patient came into the Hospital, 
her situation was truly deplorable — violent, filthy, noisy, and 
ill-natured in the extreme. She refused her food, and resis- 
ted every effort to administer it as she did every attempt to 
make her comfortable in other respects. She has been re- 
duced by depletion and starvation, without any favorable in- 
fluence upon her mind. She was immediately put under the 
influence of active remedies, and every effort was made to ex- 
cite some feeling of self respect. In a few days there was a 
manifest amendment; her appetite improved, and she began to 
give some attention to personal cleanliness. She exchanged her 
filthy and tattered garments for decent apparel. In two 
weeks, she sat at work, in one month, she was transformed 
into a beautiful and intelligent woman, and left the Hospital, 
at the end of two months, quite recovered." 
May 31. 183«. 
The Insane — By Rev. A. A. Livermoke. 

A few weeks ago a circular was sent to each town in this 
County, to some person who it was presumed, or known, 
would take an interest in the subject, and reply to the ques- 
tions. The circular contained the following queries: 

1. What is the number of insane, in ? 

2. How many of each sex? 

8. How many paupers? 

4. How long has each been insane? 

5. What are the causes of insanity in each case? 
(1. What are the respective ages? 

7. Are they natives or foreigners? 

•S. Have they committed any crime before, or since they 
were insane? 

9. How are they kept, treated, supported, ect.? 

10. Has any one recovered entirely who was once insane? 

11. Has any one been at an Insane Asylum, and what has 
been the result? Mention the Asylum if known. 

12. What is the state of opinion on the subject in . 



36 



and what are the objections to the establishing of a State 

Lunatic Hospital? 
13. Was your town for or against such an institution, when 

the vote was taken in N, II. on the question in 1S:!0, 

and how did the vote stand? 
Out of 22 towns comprising Cheshire County, I have receiv- 
ed replies from 14, and hoped to have done from all, ere this 
time, and hope to do eo yet, before the session of the Legisla- 
ture I will place the answer under the figures, referring to 
tin' preceding question. 

1. Fourteen towns, with a population of 18,481) occording to 
the cen-u-. of 18:>o, give fort;/ insane. In addition many cases 
are mentioned of those who have been insane lately, but who 
are now will, or who could not he with propriety denomin- 
ated insane. Four insane persons, not reckoned amongst the 
4ii. committed Buicide within a year past, and several others 
previously. One town has ten insane now, and has had eigh- 
tei n , within a leu yearsl 

If these 11 towns ;ire a specjnien of the whole State, W1 
have more than 561 insmie, as the population in 1880, was 
269,633. What a mighty mass of unrelieved ami comparatively 
unknown suffering! Shall nothing be done to lesson or remove 
i:? Thanks to heaven, measures are on foot to ih) something, 
a- well as to t:dk and write about the subject. 

2. Twenty are female, eighteen are males, and .WO not 
known. 

•i. Eleven of the forty are paupers. 

4. The length of insanity varies from a lew weeks to 30 or 
40 years. 

•">. Tin- causes of insanity are various, as unkind treatment, 
sickness embarrasmeut in business, religious concern and 
ex,citem:nt, (ear of coming to want, ill health, disappoint- 
ed atfv.i.m. intemperance, trouble of mind and constitu- 
tional tendencies. In many cases the causes not known. 

(i. The ages vary from 2o to 80. 

7. All are stated to be natives of this Country. 

8. X >ne of them have committed any crime worthy of no- 
tice. Some have attempted suicide and failed. 

9 Their treatment is various. Eleven are supported by the 
public, some are their friends, and some by either po- 
-e--ed of property, or can work for their support. One 
is said to be emphatically a wanderer. -'He is harmless, 



and travels in the towns bordering on the Connecticut river, 

on both sides, and subsists on Charity." One who is about 

70 years old, has been insane 38 years; and has for more than 
30 years been confined in a wooden cage. 

10. Besides the 40 now insane, 11 others have been insane 
within a few years and have recovered. '■'■One was kept nak- 
ed in a cage, placed in a barn, during the most part of a 
cold winter, yet he survived, and now maintains his family." 

11. Several have been at the different Insane Asylums, at 
Groton, Pepperel), Charlestown, Hartford, Bloomingdale, and 
Brattleboro ; and the result in a majority of cases has been 
strikingly in favor of such institutions. 

12. The state of opinion in general, on the subject, is best 
described by the word indifference; though it is hoped that 
the efforts that have been made by the friends of the insane, 
<laring the past winter and spring, have not been without 
some good results, in enlightening the minds and removing 
the prejudices of men, and showing them a great and neg- 
lected duty. The objections against such an institution, are 
thus stated by different correspondents: the expense of erect- 
ing, and maintaining it; its liability to be mismanaged, as 
the other State trusts are thought to have been; the cost to 
tho-e who wish to place friends at the institution, or to 
towns which wish to send their insane paupers there; a 
want of confidence in the people of the propriety of such an 
Asylum, prejudice against private Asylums; ignorance, a 
jealousy lest the poor will not be admitted to its privi- 
leges as well as the rich; that the salaries of the officers 
would require a large annual State tax ect. The expense is 
the greatest objection. The purse is the most tender nerve 
in the human constitution, and if you touch that you touch 
t lie apple of the eye. But what is money good for except 
to do good with? And how can it be better bestowed than 
in relieving the sufferings and restoring the reason to the 
deranged? He that uses his money in doing good lends to 
God, and receives the highest interest. 

13. Of the 14 towns, the vote in 5 has not not accertained, ex- 
cept in general 3 were almost unanimously in favor, and 

•2 opposed an Asylum. Of the remaining 9 towns, 5 were 
(ipposed, and 4 in favor, in the whole giving a vote of 380 
against, and 24K for an Asylum. In most towns a very 
small vote was cist. It is to be hoped that a different vole 



38 



would lie thrown if the question was taken now. 

I hope in due time to be able to complete the statistics of 
the inline in this county; and that the interest that has 
been awakened throughout the State will not be suffered to 
die away, before effective measures arc adopted for the re- 
lief of a large body of lunatics in our midst. Any subscrip- 
tions tor a Lunatic Asylum, or statement of mums that will 
he paid, whenever a Hoard of Directors is chosen, will he 
gratefully received bj the subscriber in Keene, or in his ab- 
sence by Mr. George Tjldeu, and an account thereby rendered 
at the meeting in Concord, on the LStli of June next. 
Julj 19, 1838. 

Tin-. Insane Hospital. 
The meeting in the Unitarian Church, of the friends of the 
insane, at Concord, was highly interesting, and had a must 
happy effect. These friends are from every section ol the 
Siatc. ami the members of the Legislature being present, 
mosi of them had the best opportunity to become acquainted 
with 1 1 if subject. The number of this unfortunate cla-s 

anongst us the sufferings many of them endure, by bt;i:ig 

routined in gaols, in cages, or wandering aboiu w > 1 1 ■ little 

hope of their ever being restored, and becoming useful to 
themselves, their Families, or society, without an institution of 
this kind— the great success which has attended their efforts 

ii oilier States, where hospitals have been erected the tact 

that iu sanity is a curable disease, in most cases, the mind 

becoming affected by the state of the body our duty its 

philanthropists and Christians were all dwell upon by the 

gentlemen who addressed the meeting, and produced con- 
viction in all mind-. .1. II. Steele Esq. of Peterboro presid- 
ed. The several speakers Mr. Peaslee and Rev. Mr. Uouloii 
of Concord, Rev. Louis Dwighl of Ma--. Judge Parker and 
Rev. Mr. Livermore of Keene, Mr. Fox and Rjv. Mr. Osgood 

»f Xa-!m:i. I Mr. Haven of Portsmouth. Mr. Livermore 

has collected sonie -valuable statistics on the subject in tins 
county. These he detailed accompanied with many appro- 
priate genera! rem. irk- Mr. Haven was eloquent, a very ready 

speaker: in fact all the speakers were listen to with deep 
attention though it must he confessed Mr. Dwight's de- 
tail- of eases ware too much extended for the occasion. 

Tie Observer thus notice- Judge Parker's remark-: 

■•Among ih. 1 addresses ai the Unitarian Church, on Wed- 



39 



nesday evening', we were particularly pleased with that given 

by Judge Parker and for two reasons, he was brief 

and clear: lie urged the necessity of a hospital on the 
ground of justice. If the insane become injurious and dan- 
gerous, they are required to be incarcerated in a gaol until 
they are made better. They are punished for their insanity. 
They are confined with felons till they are restored to rea- 
son . The very course is taken which it is likely will con- 
firm the derangement. This is unjust: it is inflicting pun- 
ishment of those who do not deserve it. 

When Judge Paker had finished, he left off speaking an 

excellency not found in all who spoke.'' 
Aug. 23. 1838. 

Asylum for tiik Insane. The meeting for accepting the 

charter and for preliminary steps, was numerously attended 
:it Concord'. John Conant, Esq. of Jaffrey, has subscribed 
the very liberal sum of $500 and several others $50. The 
sum necessary will doubtless be obtained. 
Nov. 28. 1838. 

An adjourned meeting of the citizens of Ke p ne, in favor of 
the erection of a State Asylum for the Insane was held at 
the Town Hall, on Tuesday evening, Nov. 20, Dr. Amos 
Twitched, in the Chair, and C. C. Denny, Secretary. 

On motion, a Committee, consisting of lion. Joel Parker, 
John Prentiss and Rev. Z. S. Barstow, was appointed to 
draft Resolutions for the meeting, and reported the follow- 
ing, which, alter many interesting: and eloquent remarks, were 
unanimously adopted. 

Resolved-, That we highly appreciate the philanthropic efforts 
that have been made m various parts of the State in behalf 
of that unfortunate portion of our fellow citizens who are 
deprived of reason. 

Resolved, That the results presented by the Reports of the 
establishments in other States, give encouragement that so 
out of 100 of all recent cases may be restored to their families 
and friends, and the enjoyment of society. 

Resolved, That the subject of an Insane Hospital in this 
State makes a strong appeal to the benevolence of all persons 
in tie community to contribute according to their ability. 

Resolved, That the sum of fifty thousand dollars ought to 
lie raised, for the erection and endowment of the Hospital, 
in order that gratuitous assistance may be given to such for 



40 



the insane (hat are unable to pay the necessary expenses. 

Voted, That the Chairman of the meeting be requested to 
procure an Agent to visit each family in town, and solicit sub- 
scriptions. 

Voted, That the proceedings of this meeting together with 
the Resolutions, be published in the Keene newspapers. 

Amos Twitched, Chairman. 

c. c 1 Jenny. Secretary. 
Dec. 19, 1838. 

Tiik INSANE. Our readers will notice the meeting adver- 
tised to be held al Concord, Jan. 9th. All subscribers to the 
amount of .*.'>() are members, and will take part in the organ- 
ization, as well as in locating the Institution, it may not be 
ami-- lo say that the generous sum of Fifteen hundred and 
fifty Dollars, ha- been secured in this town towards the $15,000 
required. The Ladies of the two principal Religious Societies 
have made their L'astors members of the corporation. The 
small town of Surry has subscribed, perhaps her fair propor- 
tion. Arc there not some towns in Cheshire where nothing 

has yet I n done? If so, w ill they not be up and doing! 

.Ian. Hi, 1889. 

Asyi.i M nut tiik Insaxk. The first annual meeting took 

place in Concord on Wednesday evening last. It was well at- 
tended ami a good -pirit prevailed. A committee reported 
thai 117,400(2,400 more than the sum necessary to secure Ihe 
grant of the State) was secured by subscription. The corpor- 
ation proceeded to appoint the eight Trustees on their part. 
On perceiving their representation that the sum necessary was 
secured, the Governor gave hi- assurance that be would trans- 
fer Ihe bank -hares | () the Corporation; and at the request of 
the Corporation, he has agreed to call together the Council to 
appoint ihe four Trustees on the part of the Stale, on or be- 
fore the 24th hist. The meeting was adjourned to the 80th, when 
measures will be taken to fix upon a suitable site for the 
buildings. Tim- far all has gone on well. The Trustees ap- 
pointed are 

Samuel Coues and Ueo. W. Haven. Portsmouth. 

William Hale Dover. 

Joseph Low. Concord. 

Daniel Abbot. Nashua 

.John II. Steele I'eterboro. 

Amos Twi'chell. Keene. 



41 



Dixi Crosby Hanover 

Charles J. Fox, Nashua. Treasurer. 

Dr. Amos Twitehell, of Keene, was Chairman of the meeting', 
and Charles J. Fox, Fsq. of Nashua, Secretary. 

Jan. 30, 1839. 
Insane Hospital, The Governor, Council, ect. have ap- 
pointed Mr. Quinsy, of Eumney, Mr. Peaslee, of Concord, 
Gov. Badger, of Gilmantown, and Mr. Conant, of Jaffrey, 
Trustees, on the part of the State. The Board is now full. 
The adjourned meeting of the Corporation takes place this day, 
to amend the by-laws and appoint the location committee. 
The Concord Patriot has already selected a "central situation,'' 
and the Statesman presumes that the Trustees will immedi- 
ately proceed to locate! -They will if the Corporation empow- 
er them to do so, but not without. There are sound reasons 
why a committee for this purpose should be a select committee, 
part of our own citizens, and partly of judicious persons 
from abroad. 

Feb. 0, 1839. 

Insane Hospital. At the adjourned meeting at Concord 

on Wednesday last. Dr. Amos Twitehell, of this town, was 
elected President of the Corporation, Isaac Waldron, Esq, of 
Portsmouth, Vice President, Dr. Dixi Crosby, of Hanover, 
Secretary and James Thorn, Esq. of Londonderry, Treasurer. 
Mr. F.jx having declined to act permanently. 

After a protracted debate to a late hour, the Corporation 
voted, 105 to 15, to appoint a locating committee, whose de- 
cision should be final, and the several gentlemen hereinafter 
named were chosen by ballot, viz: 

Within the State. 

Dr. Amos Twitehell, ' Keene. 

Ceo. W. Haven, Esq. Portsmouth. 

Charles H. Peaslee, Esq. Concord. 

Out of State. 

Dr. L. V. Bell, head of Charlestown Asy. 

Dr. S. B. Woodward, head of Worcester Asy. 

Dr. W. H. Rockwell, head of Brattleboro Asy. 

This is an excellent Committee, competent and as impartial 
as could be selected; and it becomes all to bow in submis- 
sion to their decision. We trust no time will be lost, in 
visiting different parts of the State, that they may be prepar- 
ed to decide at an earlv day. 



42 

March Q, 1839. 

Insanity. For the N. II. Sentinel. 
The sixth Annual Report of the Mass. Lunatic Hospital at 
Worcester, has been received through the kindness of Dr. 
Woodward. No document could be more interesting. It 
breathes that spirit of science and philanthropy. It demon- 
strates that insanity is a disease, or when incurable, yet 
capable of great amelioration by proper medical and moral 
treatment. It points to the causes which are productive of in- 
sanity, some, of which may be avoided by those forewarned of 
the consequences. The. three highest are Intemperance, III 
Health, and Masturbation. ' None can doubt after reading this 
Report that Insane Hospitals are highly economical, as well as 
benevolent, institutions for the community; for by curing, and 
restoring a large proportion of the Insane to usefulnsss, they 

save hundreds and thousands of dollars, which would Other- 
wise be spent in maintaining them through long years of 
wretched and remediless lunacy. Even those that are psst 
cure can be made comfortable at a Hospital, can enjoy a 
good degree or health and happiness, and employ themselves 
so as to diminish very much the expenses of their support. 
Since tbis noble institution was put into operation the admis- 
sion.- have been 855, and .">44 have been entirely recovered, in- 
cluding both old anil recent cases. And numbers that have not 

been fully restored to reason, have been much improved. 

What a triumph of humanity. What an achievement of intel- 
ligence and religion over the old system of imprisoning, whip- 
ping and freezing! That is a beautiful passage which treats 
of the effect of religious worship on Sunday upon the disor- 
dered intellects of these poor beings. Christ's religion seems 
to retain Christ's power. "With authority and power he 
commandcth tin' unclean s|iirits, and they came out."' 

May we not hope that our own State will soon see a kin- 
dred institution established within her borders, rescuing many 
From tin' awful horrors and sufferings of "a mind diseased," 
and pouring light and comfort into many agonized families. 
April 24, bs;)9. 

Insane Hospital. In answer to the numerous enquiries, 

in reference to the progress making, we now learn that the 
locating Committe have had no meeting and probably will not 
meet at present. On the 9th of Jan. last, there was a meeting 
of the subscribers of the fund, and others named in the act of 



Incorporation, and they proceeded to organize the Institution, 
by choosing- 8 Trustees and other necessary officers. The Gov- 
ernor then being called upon to transfer the 8tate fund, 
agreed to do so, when the Trustees appointed by the sub- 
scribers should fill a certificate that they believe the $15,000 
to be raised by individual subscription was subscribed, and 
would be secured for the object. They did so before they left 
Concord. The Governor then, by request called the Council 
together, and on the 21th proceeded to choose four Trus- 
tees on the part of the State. The meeting- of the Corporation 
was adjourned to the :50th of January. The organization was 
'hen completed, and a committee (3 in the State and 3 out 
of it) appointed to locate the buildings. Understanding that 
the Gov. had not taken measures to transfer the State funds 
into the hands of the Treasurer of the Corporation, meas- 
ures were taken to secure the individual fund, and nearly 
$15,000 of about $18,000 subscribed, have been paid into the 
Treasury and put at interest. Still we learn, the State fund 
has not yet been transferred, and until that fund is secured, 
the Cjinmtttee declines to proceed and incur expenses. 
May 8, 1839. 

Insane Hospital. We understand the Secretary of the 

Trustees has called a meeting of that body — to do what? 
The Corporation, many think, should be called together be- 
fore the Legislature convenes. That body may have something 
to d>. The State fund has not yet beeu transferred. 
May 15, 1831). 

Insane Hospital. There is something in the conduct of 

the Gov. in this matter that requires explanation, if indeed it 
is not entirely inexplicable. The terms of the grant are plain 
and imperative; The moment •'satisfactory evidence", is in 
possession of the Gov. that the sum of $15,000 has been paid 
b/ i:i liviilails in aid of tha eslablislunaufc of the Asylum, he is 
required to issue his orders for the transfer of the State fund. 
Nil -li evidence, it appears, has-been presented. Why then is 
the bounty of the State withheld? Why is the work retard- 
ed at a season when much progress might be made in putting- 
matters in trim for energetic operations hereafter. 

Claremont Eagle. 

We learn that a meeting of the Corporation has been called at 
Concord, on Thursday, first week in June, at C P. M. at the 
request of more than 50 members. 



44 



May 22, l.H.'W. 

New Hampshire Insane Hospital. 

Extraordinary Proceedings. As we staled last week, the 

Prea. of the Corporation forwarded a notice to the editors of 
the X. II. Patriot, and the X. H. Statesman, to he published 
in their last papers, for a meeting of the Corporation, to take 
place ill Concord on the first Tuesday in June, in pursuance 
of a request signed by more than 50 |tnembers. One of the 
subjects to be acted upon was to provide in the by-laws for call- 
ing legal n tings of the Trustees, that provision having been 

accidentally omitted. It was also well known that the Gov, 

bad n it transferred the Slate fund to the Corporation lb: t 

all proceedings on the part of the locating committee bad in 

eoHsequence been suspended; and it became necessary, in the 

view of those who requested the call, to meet and take such 
action as circumstances might seem to require. Instead of the 
expected notice, the public are saluted with the following 
■•extraordinary" advertisement in the Patriot and Statesman. 
••\. II. Asvi.t m bob the Insane." 

The undersigned having been appointed a committee for the 

pm pose of receiving proposal-, and to aid the Committee se- 
lected by the Trustee- to recommend a suitable location for the 
Asylum, hereby give notice that we are ready to receive all the 
propositions in relation to the above subject the towns or in- 
dividuals choose to make; and that we will meet at Concord, 
on Monday evening, May 27, 1889, and on the following day 
proceed to examine all proposed locations 

All communications to be addressed to Joseph Low of Con- 
cord. John II. Steele. 

Samuel E. Cones. 
Joseph Low. 
"Edilors of new-papers are requested to copy the above." 
The solution we have now, through Col. Sleele of I'eier- 
ln.ro. one of the Trustees, who made Keeue in bis way borne, 

is that six of the twelve Trustees bad held a meeting ai 

Concord, on Thursday: and that (notwithstanding seven in tin? 
by-laws are necessary to constitute a quorum) the proceedings 

indicated in the above notice, were then and there bad thus 

;■ Ueciny the three committee men appointed by the Corpor- 
ation, (in conjunction with the three physicians of neighbar- 

i g Hospitals) and appointing three of the Trustees one gen- 

lleinan in Portsmouth, one in Peterboro, one in Concord, a 



-15 

kind of advising' Committee to assist the three gentlemen out 
of the State. And it would appear that the whole business 
may be done up before the Legislature comes together. It is 
not pretended that there is any legality in this latter move- 
ment it must be sanctioned by a higher authority, and to 

that authority the six gentlemen will, we learn, confidently 
appeal! We are likewise informed that individuals members 
of the Trustees "took the responsibility" of requesting the 
editors not to publish the notice of the Pres., presuming all 
would be pleased and satisfied with the assumption of power 
by the six Trustees. 

We shall make no comment or inference at this time, fur- 
ther than to say, we see not how the acts of the Corpor. 
ation can be nullified by this strange proceeding. The 
brate fund having now been transferred, (done on Thursday 
last, after the notice of the meeting must have known to be 
in the hands of the Printers) the locating committee, duly 
appointed, may now proceed at once. But we know not 
what course the Chairman of that committe and the Pres. of 
the Corporation will deem it proper to take. We learn that 
the meeting of the Corporation will be called in the N. II. 
Ccluier, on Friday, to take place on Friday, June 7, at 8, 
A. M. instead of Thursday, tith it being' necessary to post- 
pone it, one day to give the legal (14 day's) notice. Until 
the power of the six Trustees is aequieced in by the Cor- 
poration, or made legal by some higher authority, the highly 
respectable portion of the committee out oi the State, will 
not, we suspect, proceed to "recommend." By the vote 
of the corporation, the action of their committee is to be 
final. 

We understand the Treasurer presented evidence that about 
$14,600 of the $15,CC0 required, (and $18,000 subscribed) had 
been secured. 

Gov. Hill, we understand, was elected a Trustee of the 
Insane Hospital, at the la^t meeting, in place of Gov. Badger, 
resigned. There are now 3 Trustees in Concord. 
May 29, 1839. 

INSANE Hospital. 

The Nashua Gazette, speaking of the late meeting of the 
six Trustees of the Insane Hospital, remarks that "the best 
feeling's exist among all concerned." This is necessarily a 
forced inference. Five out of the six concerned, were, doubt- 



4(i 

less, in favor of locating the Hospital at Concord, and 
events have thrown a majority of the 12 most probably in- 
to that scale. But we contend that the sole power, in the 

Charter, is in the Corporation, and we are sorry to sec 
members of the Hoard of Trade contending for this power. 
If the Corporation choose to annual their former proceed- 
ings, and surrender their power we have nothing to say. We 
perceive by the Portsmouth Gazette, that that town will pre- 
sent strong claims for the location. Keene, also, has claims 
which, in the view of her own citizens, at least, should not 
he disregarded; and wc shall urge them, as soon as the (or a) 
legally constituted hoard is ready to decide a question so im- 
portant. The new advisory committee advertise that the 
committee of location, (out of the Stale) will he called on 

shortly to ''recommend" a suitable site! and we learn 

they have been notified to attend, for this purpose, at Con- 
cord, on the 5th of June, by John II. Steele, Chairman of 
tic committee to receive proposals. Now Keene (and prob- 
ably other towns) may not even he heard from, and it 
would seem that the Trustees, disregarding entirely the legal 
proceedings of the Corporation, assume the authority to re- 
gard or disregard the "recommendation" of the three gentle- 
men from abroad. This proceeding, this ucsurpation. (for we 
may as well call thing-' by their right names) is not exactly 
calculated to insure ••the boat feelings amongst all concerned. ' 

Suppose the committee from abroad recommend a site 
which does iii>I meet the views of the Trustees? They give 
us to understand they are not hound by il, hut will disre- 
gard it, and do the thing up in their own way! We have 
seen much of parly proceedings in our day, hut were wholly 
unprepared for this. 

Six gentlemen not even a quorum assume the power grant- 
ed to another body, and some of them proceed to advise the 
printers, under the impression that "the best feelings exists 
amongst all concerned," not to publish notices of a meeting 
called according to law, as required by 55 members of the 
Corporation! By the Charier, notice must be given in a Con- 
cord paper. 

There are good reasons, nut proper perhaps to urged now, 
why the claims of Keene should he fairly and candidly 
weighed. Her citizens are liberal, and appreciate the impor- 
tance of increasing the fund for this most noble object. 



47 

The impression that if not located at Concord, where all 
State taxes are disbursed, we may as well have no Hospital, 
will do well enough, as an argument, by the citizens of 
Concord; but should not be convincing to others, unless 
this more central position is fortified by other and more 
weighty considerations. 

A letter from Concord, in the last Claremont Eagle says: 

"The Asylum for the Insane will be located at Concord. 
The Trustees have decided that the power is with them to 
locate anil the three Doctors out of the State are only to 
advise, not to locate. The six loco foco Trustees and Gen. 
Low on the part of the Corporation, will be for Concord. 
Murk that! The whole concern will yet be completely under 
the control of party. More of this "hereafter." 

The Concord Courier thinks that town has many advant- 
ages over any other, but is ''very far from wishing this 
desirable end by unfair means, or {invading the rights of 
others." It says truly, that the late act of the six "makes 
the three members of the committee residing out of the State 
merely advisers to the Trustees, as to the location of the 
Asylum. The Trustees claim, and intend to exercise the right 
of locating, while the public at .large are given to undeV- 
stand that the three gentlemen at the heads of Asylums out 
of the State are to locate the institution. 

It may be totally useless to offer inducement for a location 
out of Concord to a body, with a majority decided in their 
views, even if they had any legal power to act on the ques- 
tion. We have published the call for a meeting of the Corpor- 
ation, and hope there will be a full personal attendance. To 
the decision of that body we bow in submission, whatever it 
may be. It may be proper further to remark, that the $15,000 
would never hare been raised, on any other principle than 
that the location should be decided by a competent and im- 
partial committee. Such was the committee appointed by the 

Corporation three out of the State, presuming to have no 

partiality, but looking solely to the greatest good of the insti- 
tution and the three associates, from the three great divis- 
ions of the State the most interested. The Corporation will, 
we trust, insist on this they must, in justice to the con- 
tributors. If this power be taken [from them, it becomes a 
State institution, to be managed by the party in power. As 
such, the funds should be wholly State funds. 



4 s 

[A meeting of 25 members of the Corporation was hoklen in 
Portsmouth, on Thursday last, Samuel Hale, chairman. The 
meeting adopted a preamble and resolutions, in view 'of the 
proceedings of the six Trustees. One of the resolutions calls 
imperatively tor a meeting of the Corporation. The oall, it 
will be seen, has been complied with by the Press, of the in- 
stiiuiion, in pursuance of the previous request.] 

[We are somewhat surprised to see in the Statesman, n lame 
attempt to apologize for the Gov's, neglect in transferring the 
Stale fund until the present time. He made out. it seems, 
the certificate of transfer "as soon as the necessary evidence 
of the subscription secured had been presented. " The Ti us- 
tees on the pari of the State wen' appointed. (-Mb of Jan. 
last) and he gave it to one of the Trustees! This is a singu- 
lar way of transferring State property to an iucorprruted in- 
stitution, with a Treasurer, to say the least. But a further 
justification is attempted, by a most singular statement, (hat 
at a subsequent meeting of the Corporation, measures weie 
taken for the appropriation of the fund (by appointing a 
committee to locate the buildings.') "The Trustees were not 
allowed to represent the subscription of the State!"' We ask 
if the Trustees did not net with others, and if the Corpora- 
tion were not present? If BO, the State was duly rrpr'-eu <\l. 

We are not surprised at the Patriot. B view of the subject. 

If the "'satisfactory evidence" required bad not been produc- 
ed, why was the transfer made out last .Ian., and placed in 
the bands of ,-i Trustee? The evidence was scttixfuelory. all 
that tin 1 Gov. required; vet the transfer nit* nut made; and 
to pal a: ro-t all doubt, by advice of the officers of the Cor- 
poration, the Treasurer requested the subscribers to advai.ee 
the money. The Patriot says ''there are no difficulties iii'tho 
way now."' if men are nit actuated by the "uaroio and mer- 
cenary motive of promoting in interest of a village or t >wu 
perhaps upon the borders or in one corner of the State." 
Ali the subscribers upon the borders and in the corners of 
the S ate. a :., is. that the impartial committee appointed to 
locate be p •rmitted to act their judgement. Is this unreason- 
able? 

[The notice in the Statesman, too late to he legal, of the 
meeting- of the Corporation, should conform, at least, to the 
i invci d notice in the Courier.] 

1 or the X. II. Set t'nel. 



4!) 

2V. II. Asylum for the Insane. 
Messrs Editors. 

I perceive that a difference of opinion exists in regard to 
the powers possesed by the Corporation, and by the Trus- 
tees, of the N. H. Asylum for the Insane. Some -believe 
that the power to decide where the Hospital shall be located 
is vested in the Corporation, others, that it is given to the 
Trustees. To enable me to form an opinion for myself, I 
have examined the acts of the incorporation, and this exam- 
ination has left no doubt on my mind that the power was 
given by the act to the Corporation. 

In the second section, it is enacted that the -'Corporation 
may receive, purchase, and ho'd lands, subscriptions of money, 
mt. to be used and improved for the erection, support and 
m liutenance of an Asylum for the Insane, and to manage, 
exchange and convey the same as may be necessary to effect 
the objects" of the institution. The power to purchase land 
for the erection of the Asylum teems to imply necessarily 
the power to decide what land shall be purchased, and 
trhere it shall lie. No power to purchase or receive land or 
money, or to use or improve either is given to the Trustees; 
and if they should decide that the Hospital should be erect- 
ed at Concord, and the Corporation should purchase no land 
there, their decision must be nugatory. And it would not 
alter the case if land there, or any where else, should be 
offered gratuitously for that purpose, for the Corporation are 
not bound to receive it, and might be of opinion that a 
site given at one place, was not eligible as one which could 
bo purchased elsewhere. 

In regard to the power of the Trustees, the following ex- 
tract, from the third section, comprises every word in the 
act conferring power on them: "The said Asylum shall be 
under the direction and management of a board of Trustees 
consisting of twelve." Nothing is said here about the loca- 
tion or erection of a Hospital that had been provided for 

before; the plain import of the words is, that the Hospital, 
after it has "been erected, shall be under the direction and 
management of the Trustees; they by virtue of the act, can 
exercise no power, until the Asylum has been erected and 
placed in a condition to require their "directing and man- 
agement." Besides, it is unusual, in acts of incorporation, 
to give such power to trustees, or directors, or anv other 



50 

officers of the Corporation; it cannot be given to them by 
implication, but only by clear, delinite and unambiguous ex- 
pressions, meaning that and nothing else; for they are but 
servants of the Corporation. 

A. B. 
June 12. 1839 

N. II. Asylum TOR tiik Insane. We are glad to learn 

from Concord that the difficulties arising from the conflicting 
action of the Trustees and Corporation are happily settled. 
Mr. Haven on behalf of the committee for locating the in- 
stitution, made a verbal report in answer to a call lor in- 
formation. He stated the reason 'why the committee, appoin- 
ted by the Corporation in Jan. last, had made no progress. 

After remarks of a conciliatory character from several 

gentlemen, depricating any action to put at hazard the suc- 
cess of the Institution, a committee consisting of three from 
the Corporation and three from the Trustees was appointed 
to recommend resolutions and a course of action to heal all 
dissensions. 

The committee reported, and their report was adopted with 
good unanimity. The three medical gentleman out of the 
Slate, by this arrangement, constitutes the sole locating com- 
mittee, and their decision, or the decision of two of them, 
is final. The three gentlemen formerly appointed with the 
State, and the three recently appointed at the late imformul 
meeting of the hoard of Trustees, are now constituted, by 
the act of the Corporation, a committee to receive pro] o- 
sals and otherwise aid the locating committee. This arrange- 
ment will put a st( p to further legislation, aid will, we sup- 
pose give general satisfaction. 

Mr. Atherton of Amherst was elected by the Corporation 
at an adjourned meeting in the evening, a Trustee, in place 
of Mr. Hale of Hover, who declined. We may now confi- 
dently expect that tie location will be promptly decided up- 
on and the necessary buildings commenced the present sea- 
son. 

June 19. 1839. 

>^. II. Asylum. The Statesman says the towns desirous 

of furnishing a location for this institution, are making very 
liberal offers for the purchase of land and erection of build- 
ii gs. We see, however, that the town of Portsmouth defies 
all i ompcti ion. by offering, at a legal town meeting, all 



51 



their surplus money amounting- to $23,000, provided the Asy. 
lum is located there- 5 — and also that the Legislature will 
pass an act permitting the transfer. 
July 3, 1839. 

Letter from Concord. 

Yesterday, the bill amendatory to the act chartering the 
Asylum for the Insane, was taken up in the Senate. The 
indications were too plain to be mistaken that the bill must 
pass. The late Gov.'s Message at the commencement of the 
session was committed to a select committee; but for nearly 
a fortnight nothing: was heaid from them. At length Mr. 
Gove (not of the committee) gave the usual notice that he 
should introduce a bill, ect. The bill was word for word 
as recommended in the Message. Mr. Prentiss called on 

the C Jininittee in vain lie then called on the Senate or from 

No. 10 (Mr. Gove) to offer some plea, for bringing for- 
WMvl this bill, so disturbing the harmony which now exist- 
ed. 

Mr. G. had nothing to say, it became necessary to give 
a concise history of facts. This Mr. P. did, to show that 
whatever reasons existed when this Message was prepared and 
sent to the Legislature, there could now be none, if that 
compromise was sincere on the pact of certain members of the 
board of trust. Finding however, that nothing would satisfy 
short of transferring all the power reserved, in the act of 
incorporation, including the locating, and the power to break 

up the compromise in fact to accept or reject the decision 

of the committee last appointed. Mr. P. offered an addition- 
al section, authorizing and requiring the Treasurer to refund 
the money paid to any one making application previous to 
the 30th of Sept. next, or cancel any note or subscription. 
The hill was amended and then laid on the table. On Friday, 
Mr. P., on reflection, withdrew this amendment, and offered 
a proriso, to the principle section that nothing in this act 
should be construed to interfere with the compromise be- 
tween the Board of Trustees and the Corporation which was 
effected on the 7th, by which the location of the Asylum 
was left to the final decision of the three neighboring Supts., 
of Insane Asylums, and that should any circumstances pre- 
vent such decision . that question should still be submitted to 
an impait'al con mittec out of the State, to be agreed on by 
the Trustees on the »ne part and the Pres. of the Corporation 



on the otlier. Mr. Brown (No. 8) advocated this proviso, as 
did Dr. Adams, in a very able nianm'%. Mr. Laighlon op- 
posed it, with his usual vehemence. Mr. P. stated that 9 of 
the 12 Trustees had openly expressed their satisfaction with 
the compromise, giving their names (and can now add an- 
other, Dr. Crosby) that of the two remaining, one (Mr. 

Conant) had been absent on a long journey, and this left one, 
Mr. Hill, as the only advocate of this high-handed proceeding! 
If the members of the Board were sincere, they could not ob- 
ject to the proviso. The proviso was, however, rejected 9 to 
:!, and the bill passed. 10 to 2, Mr. Brown, although wilU 
imj to adopt the proviso, appeared very willing to get back 
again into the ranks, as if any diviation was too dangerous. 
The bill has gone down to the House, all action on the part 
of their committee having been suspended. 

Before the bill passed, its principal advocate openly de- 
clared its object lo be to give the Board of Trust the power 
to disregard the decision of (lie compromising committee, if 
they disliked it. That there has been disgraceful double- 
dealing, 1 have not a doubt. The public hearing on the ques- 
tions whether Portsmouth shall be allowed to give her fund, 
and whether the State will, in any event, lend her credit for 
internal improvements, is put off till Wednesday next, so that 
the Legislature cannot, I think, rise before Saturday. 
.Inly 1", 1989. 

Two of the locating committee for the N. 11. Asylum of the 
Insane, Drs. Woodward and Rockwell, accompanied by two 
of the committee of the State, Dr. Twithehe.l and Col. 
Steele, examined the sites in this town, on Tuesday,, and 
proceeded this morning lo the more central parts of the 
State, where they hope to be joined by Dr. Bell. 
Sept. 10, 1839. 

The Trustees of the Insane Asylum meet today at Concord. 
The Patriot says the proceeding of going about to e\; mine 
sites, was "a farce," and that "their mind was made up be- 
fore they started" that one wished to get it located i,s far 

a« possible from Brattieboro, another was for Portsmouth, 
knowing there was but little intercourse between the interior 

and that town compared to Boston and Charlestown that 

pure water to be carried into the third story was a sine am 
iimi every where but at Portsmouth, ect. ect. 

The motive so far as Dr. Bell is concerned, we conceive has 



53 



no foundation, as the Hospital at Charlestown is always 
crowded and needed for State accomodations so at Brat- 
tleboro; it is the nearest for the whole State of Vt. and be- 
ing yf limited extent Dr. R. could hardly be supposed to be 
actuated by such a selfish principle. The other advantages 
must we acknowledge, be greater than we had supposed, to 
overcome the expense and inconvenience of raising water, if 
"pure and soft," by steam power. That four at least of the 
Trustees will use their efforts to reverse the decision, we feel 
well assured, and they may succeed in gaining over a major- 
ity. But we will not anticipate evil for success would prove 

an ecil indeed. 
Oct. 23, 1839. 

N. H. Asylum for the Insane. One word more. 

When the Trustees were to be chosen 8 by the Corpor- 
ation, and 4 to be added by the Board oc Visitors, there was 
but one professed desire; viz: that the manat/ement of the 
institution should be entirely free from partv politics. The 
location of the institution was by the charter supposed to be 
in the Corporation exclusively. No doubts on this subject 
were expressed when the Trustees were chosen. The Board 
of Visitors consisted of Gov., Council, Pres. of the Senate, 
and Speaker of the House; all of one political party. The 
Corporation therefore made choice of six of one political party, 
and two of the other, leaving the Board to choose their four, 
as a matter of course, from the ranks of their political friends, 
that the Board might be equally divided. But here, excep- 
tion was taken at once. The loco foco party wanted the Cor- 
poration to choose 4 to 4, and leave the choice of the other 
4 to the magnanimity of the Hon. Isaac Hill and his friends, 
without even an honorary individual pledge to carry out the 
principle. Now what was the next course of the Board of 
Visitors? Mr. Peaslee of Concord is appointed one of the 
four; and to this no objection could be made on account of his 
residence, as two had been chosen in Portsmouth by the Cor- 
poration but at this time a portion of the Trustees assum- 
ed the authority to locate the institution the Gov. withheld 

the State fund Gov. Badger was induced to resign, and 

the Board of Visitors, Hon. Isaac Hill at its head, elected a 

third member of the board of trust in the person of the 

Hon. Isaac Hill!! Then followed the vsiirpation; that of 
assuming the principle that the location should he invested in 



54 

the board of trust. The five or six only, wlio convened, 

appointed a new committee to recommend a site, and the 
Board of Visitors, on condition that their head man would 
graciously condescend to do what was his duty to have, done 
long before, and which he pledged himself to do on certain 
conditions, { t" it 1 ! tilled within 24 hours after the requirement) 

directed the head man to apply to the Legislature for 

new powers. Tin' full history of our State disgrace, of 
broken pledges, to feed the appetite of certain honorable men, 
is before the public. The subscribers to the fund have done 
their duty. The unfortunate insane are the sufferers. 

There is little doubt but Mr. Hill's chicanery will leave the 
sufferings of the insane of our State ummitogated for the pre- 
sent age. 

Portsmouth Journal 

The reason why Dr. Crosby moved a reconsideration of 
the vote by which the report of the locating committee was 
rejected, we understand was this: that as he had. on two 
previous occasions voted to leave the whole matter of loca- 
tion unconditionally to the committee out of the State, he 
could nol now conscientiously vote to reject their report. 
[('an any one give a reason why Dr. Crosby voted not to 
accept the report, pledged as he was?] There are other 
members of the board who are in the same predicament 

in regard to their votes, rind it is a pity they were not so 
in regard to the matter of conscience also. Gov. Hill, we 
are told, played the part of a madman on the occasion, 
whose insane ravings went further than anything else to con- 
vince every member present of the imperious necessitv of 
having the Asylum established at once and on the spot! 

Claremont Eagle. 
Dr Crosby has at length officially published the proceeding's 
of the late meeting of the Trustees of the N. II. Asylum 
Ml. Haven's report was correct. This brought out the Sec- 
retary. 

Nov. G, 1839. 

Jxsaxe Asylum. Again. 

Insane Asylum. r Tlie official report of the proceedings of 

the Trustees of the Asylum, at their late meeting at Con- 
cord, at which the report of the locating committee was re- 
jected; his at last b 'en published. It docs not differ mater- 
ially from that furnished in the statement of Mr. Haven's 



55 



which we published a week ago. The following is the re- 
port of the locating committee; 

To the Trustees of the N. H. Asylum lor the Insane: 
The committee appointed to fix upon a location for the 
N. H. Asylum for the Insane at a final meeting holden at 
the State Lunatic Hospital at "Worcester, this 30th of July 
1839: Report that they have examined the various places 
pointed out to. them by the committee of the Trustees, and 
after mature deliberation do decide that said Asylum be lo- 
cated at Portsmouth, on condition offered by said town. 
They further report that the spacious and splendid mansion 
known as the Cutts house as being in every respect calcula- 
ted for the central edifice of an Insane establishment, and 
thus saving a heavy outlay of money, and the thirty acres 
of land now connected with the same is the most eligible 
situation for said Asylum. Provided said house and land 
can be obtained for a sum not exceeding $0,900, and that 
not less than 30 additional acres of land adjoining can be 
acquired at a price not exceeding' $100 per acre. Provided 
that the road on the north side of said house shall be so 
changed in its direction and a sufficient quantity of land ob- 
tained to allow a wing to be added on the, north side of the 
house. 

They also report and decide that in case said Cutts house 
and additional land, and said change in the road cannot be 
obtained, that the most suitable place is the Freeman Farm, 

so called, provided not less than GO acres of land can be 

obtained, of tic portion adjoining the river and running 
back to the highest point of land on the same, at a price 
not exceeding $10) per acre. 

They likewise decide that in case neither of the prececd- 
ing places can be acquired, that the said Asylum be placed 
on the Hall farm, near the Cemetery in Portsmouth, provid- 
ed that not less than 60 acres of the same can be had at a 
price not exceeding $100 per acre. They therefore deter- 
mine and decide that one of the^e places, having regard to 
the order in which they are above preferred, in the said 
town of Portsmouth, be the location of the N. II. Asylum 
for the Insane. 

Which is respectfully submitted. 

Samuel B. Woodward. 
William II. Rockwell. 



oO 



Luther V. Bell. 

From the Nashua Telegraph. 

The following letter has been adtlressd by a minority of 
the Board of Trustees of the N. H. Asylum for the Insane, 
to the Board of Location. 

To Luther V. Bell, Esq., Physician and Supt. of the Mo. 
Lean Asylum for the Insane in Charlesto wn : S. B. Wood- 
ward, Esq., Supt. and Physician of the State Lunatic Hospi- 
tal at Worcester: and Win. II. Rockwell, Supt. and Physician 
of the Vt. Asylum for the Insane: 

Gentlemen: Disappointed and mortified by the manner in 
which your Report for the location of the N. II. Asylum for 
the Insane has been treated by the Board of Trustees, of 
which w" are in a minority, we feel it is due to you as well 
as ourselves, that you should be put in possession of the 
circumstances under which you were appointed; and that you 
should 6eel assurances of our request that your report in favor 
of Portsmouth was not immediately and unhesitatingly accept- 
ed anil carried into effect by ail uiianiiiuous vote. 

The subscriptions constituting members of the Corporation 
bad been made with a view to the location of the Asylum. 
There were undoubtedly local feeling and perhaps prejudices on 
this subject. The Corporation believing that the power of lo- 
cation wa> vested in thorn by the charter, elected their, eight 
Trustees, being two-thirds of the Board, without any regard 
to that question. A majority of the Board when formed, saw 
tit to claim the right of location. ll<>w were these clashing 
interests and claims of power to be reconciled? From the first 
it was foreseen that there would be a diversity of views and 
feeling upon the -subject. For the preservation of harmony 
therefore, in eiich a charitable and noble enterprise, it was 
early proposed and became generally understood that the site 
of the Asylum should be determined by an impartial conimifee 
from without the State, and who were acquainted with, and 
take an interest in the wants of the insane. 

In .lime last the Corporation at a very full meeting of itR 
members fron every part of the State, manifested their will- 
ingness to submit the final decision to such a committee, with 
the understanding that such was also the wish of the Trustees, 
who had their meeting at the same time and place. The Cor- 
poration accordingly voted that you should be the committee, 
and that your report should be conclusive. The loud ap- 



57 



pointed the same committee with a vote that your report 
should be final and conclusive. These votes were unanimous 
in both bodies. Expressions of satisfaction were universal. 
The opposing parties congratulated each other that the threat- 
ening- appearances of division had been happily dissipated by 
these concurrent votes. That your report would be cordially 
acquiesced in did not appear to be doubted by any one. 

Judge, then, gentlemen, of our surprise, when on a meet- 
ing of eleven of the twelve Trustees, Josiah Quincy, Esq. 
being absent, in Sept. last it was found that these pledges 
and votes were not to be regarded that the question of lo- 
cation was considered as still open that no vote confirming 

your report could be obtained, and that these would prefer to 
have the whole clearly defeated, rather than have the location 
at Portsmouth. They would throw away the $23,000, offered 
by Portsmouth, reducing the capital from $53,000, a sufficiant 
sum to put the institution into successful operation, down to 
$30.000 — a sum inadequate for that purpose — and look to the 
State to make up the deficiency, by a direct tax on the peo- 
ple. Independently of this great and essential increase of the 
fund, by a location at Portsmouth, there are other circum- 
stances favorable to that place that might well have given to 
it your perference. It happens that three of the Trustees re- 
side in Concord they speak of a more central location, by 

which they mean Concord, and no other place, as if the terri- 
torial centre of such an institution was to control all other 
considerations, and even the existence of the institution itself. 

You who feel a deep interest in the condition of the insane, 
and would rejoice to see them released from the prisons, 
dungeons and chains in which they are now suffering in this 
State, will deeply regret with us, that the charity, which was 
to give them relief, is by a Board of Trustees, established 
for their benefit, postponed to a future and distant day. But 
it is not the delay only that alarms and grieves us the char- 
ity itself is put in jeopardy and threatened with annihilation. 

There seems to us something so extraordinary in these pro- 
ceedings of the Trustees, we have felt, anxious to assure you, 
that so far as we have been concerned, either as Trustees or 
members of the corporation in submitting the question of loca- 
tion to you, we voted in good faith, with a view to har- 
mony, and with a determination to be governed by your de- 
cision. We had no idea of requesting of you the performance 



58 

of a vain and idle labor, or of converting that which was in- 
tended for harmony and the best interests of the insane, in- 
to an occasion for protracting their Buffering, or a cause of 
disagreement and contention. 

With these views and feelings, gentlemen, we ask you to ac- 
cept the assurance of our continued esteem, respect and con- 
fidence. 

Amos Twitchell, 

George W. Haven, 

C. H. Atherton, 

Daniel Ahbott. 
Oct.' 24, 1839. 
[All the evils attendant upon this disgraceful business might 
have been prevented had the Corporation been aware that 
the Trustees would claim and assume the power to control 
the location. But, as we have before observed, they were 
selected with reference only to the permanent management of 
the Asylum, and so composed equally of the two political 
parties. Now how does it so happen thai the six democratic 
members (presuming that Mr. Quincy if present, would have 
voted with the majority) with (Jen Low, (residing in Con- 
cord) have forfeited the pledge of the Trustees in June, as a 
body, to abide by the decision of the committee agreed up- 
on and individuals of the same body have disregarded subse- 
quent pledges, made before the committee visited Poi'tshmouth? 
The Hoard of Visitors, very improperly, appointed two re- 
siding in Concord, in addition to Gen. Low, and it seems 
the three, with three others, have done the mischief. We 
ought to have expected nothing else from some of them, bu 
we confess we did not expect to find Gen. Low supporting 
this utter disregard of pledges. Without his vote, the report 
of the committee could not have been rejected, and with it, 
it would have been accepted.] 



EXTRACTS FROM 
THE NEW HAMPSHIRE PATRIOT. 



Is it expedient for the State to grant an appropriation to 

BUILD AN INSANE HOSPITAL? 

The facts which will enable the citizens of this State to ans- 
wer this interrogation understanding^ and correctly, (which 
they are by resolution of their Legislature called upon to do at 
the next November election,) are comprised under the follow- 
ing dec's'.ons; 

1. What is the number and condition of the Insane at pres- 
ent within our borders? 

2. What change and amelioration in their number and situa- 
tion would consequently result from such an institution? 

3. What would be the actual cost of such an establishment? 
and upon whom would the cost fall? The first of these 
inquiries is pretty extensively examined in the report of 
the Special Committee on the Insane to the House of 
Representatives, at the June session. The following is 
an abstract of the reported returns ; 

In 141 towns with 173,778 inhabitants, there were 312 insane 
persons ; in 20 towns with 19,796 inhabitants, there were no 
insane; the remaining towns which have not far from 85,431 
inhabitants made no returns. Tf they actually have as great a 



60 



proportion as the place? heard from, the number of insane in 
the State would be 4G2. 

The Committee, however, believeing that so much negli- 
gence in making returns would not have existed if sueh towns 
were so unfortunate as to have the expense and trouble of in- 
sane paupers, and desirous of placing the estimate at a safe 
amount have judged that there are only 3. r >0 in the State, and 
that of these 120 or 30 are from the recent seizure or the vio- 
lence of their disorder, subjects for the aid of an insane asy- 
lum; that this number could all be cured or ameliorated, while 
in their present state no change for the better can possibly be 
expected. 

The number reported as confined including all in jails, cages, 
cells, chains, handcuffs, strongrooms etc. etc. was eightyone. 
The number of insane paupers supported at public charge was 
152; this number supported in part by the public, by their own 
means, by their friends or in part by their own labour was 
160. 

From a publication of some additional statistics drawn from 
the same returns by one of the committee, it would appear 
1 1 iiit almost all the 812 cases are constantly and actually insane; 
idiots, imbeciles, occasional lunatics not having been includ- 
ed. The number of males, as far as the sex was distinguish- 
ed was llii; of females 169.. The ages as far as reported viz. 
in 184 persons, were as follows: Under 20 years, 5; from 20 
to 30, 25; from 80 to 40. 35; from 40 to 50, 39; from 50 to On, 
30; from 60 lo 70, 32; from To to 80, 15; from HO to 90, 3. 

The duration of the insane state as far as particularized, viz. 
in 221 cases was as follows; (many other cases being returned 
as "long insane." "many years deranged" etc.) Under 6 

months. 18; from 1 to 2 years 11: from 2 to 3, 10; from 

3 to 4, 13; from 4 to 5. Hi; from 5 to 10, 41; from 10 to 20. 
60; from 20 to 80, 21); from 80 to 40, 1!); from 40 to 50, 7; 
from 50 to 60, 2: the average of all cases being somewhat 
more than 13 and a half years. 

So much for the numbers. The condition of the insane is a 
subject which cannot be elucidated in a few words;— in fact 
one half of its horrors is not known, even to those who have 
been most interested in acquiring the facts; the public know, 
it may truly he said, nothing on this subject; they can hear no 
adequate conception of its realities. The simple statement that 
81 citizens of \ew Hampshire, at lea^t are known at the 



01 



present day to be in jails, chains, handcuffs, strongrooms etc. 
and an appeal to the reader to think on the situation of any in- 
sane person he ever saw confined, will perhaps give some idea 
of their condition. Confined, chained, manacled! and for what? 
for crime? no, for bodily desease, for the dispensation of Prov- 
idence. 

Ye who are shedding tears on the condition of the slave, 
look here! ye who send dollar after dollar, to civilize the bar- 
barians, to christianize the savage, regard some four hundred 
of your fellow citizens, around your own homes, grovelling in 
a degree of darkness, of degradation, of desolation without a 
parallel amongst heathen. 

Ye would not surely permit this solicism in chirstianity , 
this misplacement of charity except from one cause, — this 
is ignorance of the fact, hereafter to be pointed out that 
these wretches, whom you have believed too low to be raised or 
assisted, are capable of being civilized, of being made moral, 
accountable agents in a vast deal higher proportion than the 
savage of our own or foreign lands. 

You would feel that you were accomplishing much if one 
tenth of the inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific could un- 
der your Missionaries be made civilized beings, knowing right 
from wrong, good from evil. Come with me presently and I 
will show you some seven out of ten degraded lunatics restor- 
ed to more or less reason, accountability, and happiness. The 
actual state of the entire body of insane and especially the in- 
sane paupers can be deduced from a few instances observed, 
for in a community like ours, similar circumstances will be 
met nearly in the same way. A town having a raving mani- 
ac has but a single course to persue; the way this must be ef- 
fected will depend on the character, strength, or ferocity of 
the subject and the conveniences of the town. There is no 
inhumanity to be presumed. 

Necessity, the preservation of the lives and peace of the 
public, require the insane to be secured; this must be done and 
is done perhaps generally as well as possible out of an institu- 
tion expressly made foe this purpose. A single instance which 
has fallen under the notice of the writer within the last 24 
hours will give some idea of the ordinary condition of the in- 
sane pauper. Being called professionally to an almshouse, a 
most lamentable and pitiable groaning was heard from a cor- 
ner of the barn. Application was made to the overseer for 



62 



permission to see the "crazy man" who, we learned, was eon- 
lined there. 

He took the key from a nail, and went out a distance of 
near 20 rods to the barn through the barnyard, opened a pad- 
lock on the hovel door, (a place made to keep a cow and 
calf, etc.) and ushered us in: on looking around at first the 
tenant could not be seen, but he was soon noticed in a corner 
doubled up in an incredibly small space, his knees being in 
contact with his chin, a tow shirt alone covering him, which 
the keeper said had just been put on him and which would 
last him about ten hours. He was looking out through a 
crack in his tenement, groaning and lamenting piteously his 
condition, beseeching us with tears streaming over his cheeks 
to take him away. 

On enquiring whether he could not stand up or walk, we 
were informed that for about a year his position had been so 
little changed that his joints had stiffened as we now saw 
them, and would probably always remain so: assuredly they 
will, if he continues in his present situation. A hole was 
cut through the partition to hand in his food, which was 
done without his being seen; a parcel of straw was thrown 
a >< ut on which he laid. 

In the winter he is removed to the house, in which however 
his dreadful habits and hideous cries rendered him the great- 
est trial to the other inmates, many of whom, besides the 
overseer's family were worthy, aged, though reduced people. 
His age I was told was about fifty; had been insane seven 
years without any effort for his restoration. His constitution 
was unbroken and unimpaired, and if his limbs should not 
prove permanently fixed, capable so far as bodily power is 
concerned, of doing a full days labour. There is every prob- 
ability that the town will be burdened with his support at 
least 25 years longer, at an annual expense of not less than 
one hundred and fifty dollars per annum. 

Here is a case occurring in a town noted for opulence, the 
intelligence and the liberality of its citizens; a town from 
which hundreds of dollars go away every year to the be- 
nevolent societies of the day, to spread light and civilization 
and religion across the ocean. Probably nineteen twentieths 
of the citizens know respecting this individual only this; that 
he is crazy and that he is necessarily confined; — the tax- 
payers also think once a year, at lea»t that he is a consider- 



able expense. Ex uno disce omnes. This siugle case is prob- 
ably a fair example of the kindest, most expedient course 
possible under such circumstances; there is no inhumanity in 
it, for it is the best course they can take. 

Contrast this man, (for a few minutes, discourse with him, 
will convince you that he is still a man,) a few months 
after he shall have resided, in an Insane Hospital, with the 
wretch whom we saw. You shall And him clean, comfortable 
if not happy, his limbs probably restored, and if so, capable 
and desirous of doing an amount of labour equal to the sup- 
port of himself and at least of two others ; if still insane on 
what is now the only subject of his derangement, for he is 
monomaniac merely, yet managable aud safe, sitting at a 
table to eat instead of feeding literally like the swine, read- 
ing his Bible or the newspaper; on the Sabbath dressed with 
cleanliness, listening with attentive propriety to the gospel, 
uniting in the daily worship of the family, with Ins careworn, 
haggard, tearful countenance changed to the expression of con- 
tent. 

This is the last improved condition in which yon will find 
him; perhaps you will find him "sitting and clothed in his 
right mind.'' Is this a fancy sketch? 

Visit any lunatic asylum in this country and you shall see its 
often repeated parallel; read the report of any such institution 
and you will be convinced that these happy results are so far 
from being exceptive to the general rule, that in fact the un- 
improved condition of a lunatic in a proper asylum is an ex- 
ception truly rare. 

In the same poor-house our attention was called to a female 
routined in a chamber: she had been insane at intervals for 25 
years; for a considerable uumber of months, some years ago, 
before a poor- farm was purchased, she was so violent that a 
strong man was employed to guard her at $1.00 per day, 
chains not being enough. She is now confined all the time 
when insane, for security, and in her lucid intervals to keep 
her from absconding. She is strong, healthy, and ikely to live 
to an old age. How surely would her lucid intervals be 
lengthened, her frantic violence repressed, at a well conducted 
asylum ! 

Under the kind, firm discipline, of such an institution, her 
ability and capacity for useful labour would render her far 
more than equal to her support and that of one more fe- 



04 



male, even if her insanity should remain. I speak of la- 
bour, not because I should grind the poor and unfortunate 
in order to make them support themselves upon whom the 
hand of Providence has been laid so heavily as to demand 
all our symapthy and assistance. God forbid! that a question 
of dollars and cunts should stay the hand of duty and mercy. 

Employment is referred to only as all modern experience 
has shown that it is of indispensable value to the restoration of 
the insane of a population having the working character of 
the American people. 

For views upon this subject the reader is referred to the 
late "Report on the Insane." These arc two cases from a 
town of about 2000 people having several others less suited 
tor an asylum. On referring to their official return to the 
Legislature it is found that merely the ages, duration of 
disease and annual cost of these two lunatics, is given. In 
fact, there is nothing peculiar or extraordinary about them; 
they are average cases probably of the confined lunatics of 
this state, except from the character, wealth,' pauper arrange- 
ments, etc. of the town, they are rendered as comfortable 
as any pauper lunatics are, whilst there is reason to tear 
that a mode of "selling poor al auction," letting to individ- 
uals or neglect of town officers, render a great many instan- 
ces throughout the state worse than they ought to be. under 
even our present circumstances. 

Indeed the instances of horrible neglect and even barbar- 
ity which have been detailed and undented, are wisely pass- 
ed over by the Legislature Committee, fearing perhaps that 
the character of our community would suffer more from 
their exposure than would be recompensed by their effect on 
the public mind. They have said nothing of several instan- 
ces of lunatics and idiots burned to death by the straw in 
their cages being set on tire by themselves, of their losing 
limbs or lives by extreme cold. etc. etc. These are extreme 
cases; it is only the general condition and treatment that 
should effect the public decision on the question before them, 
and if the public would form a judgement from the beat 
managed of the 120 or 130 supposed suitable subjects for a hospi- 
ital alone, the friends of the measure might safely trust in an 
impartial and critical investigation of such cases. 

The next consideration on this subject, is the amount of 
good which the establishing of an Hospital for the Insane 



65 



will effect. 

This good consists first, in the cure of the Lunatic, thus 
restoring- him to station aud duties in society, and replacing 
his ability to support himself and those dependant on him; — 
secondly, in the improvement of his condition, the augmentation 
of his enjoyments and diminution of his sufferings, if not entirely 
recovered, and the acquisition of the capacity of doing more or 
less useful labour, tending to relieve the public of a portion of 
his cost; and, lastly, the security which it affords to the pub. 
lie and to the sufferer against melancholy consequences of his 
violence and the removal of the heavy burden of care and anxi- 
ety which is the unavoidable lot of his friends. There is also, 
as in the sequel we shall have occasion to emonstrate, anoth- 
er advantage in the actually diminished expense of support- 
ing the insane with all the advantages of an asylum compar- 
ed with the present indefensible mode. 

With regard to the absolute incurability of insanity, when 
treated by physicians under ordinary circumstances, little argu- 
ment or illustration will be required. 

It is admitted by the profession themselves (one society be- 
ing unanimously petitioners to the Legislature in their behalf,) 
and has for half a century nearly, been laid down as a funda- 
mental alienation. 

The public must also be sufficiently aware of this hopeless- 
ness of cure, as hardly any individual can recall an example of 
decided, settled insanity yielding, at home, of itself or under 
the care of a physician. Another fact exhibits this incurabil- 
ity as well as illustrates another important consideration, viz 
that the insane are very long-lived. 

In the returns to the Legislature of the duration of the in- 
sane state, in 221 cases, 117 had been insane between 10 and 
60 years, and the entire average was more than 13 % years. 
If the many others which were returned as "long-insane, 
''many years deranged" etc. had been specified, the average 
would have been still greater. 

It is believed that it may safely be asserted that one case in 
fifty recovers in the usual circumstances. Now what is the 
fact amongst the institutions for lunatics within two or three 
days journey of our capital, without referring to more dis- 
tant or foreign establishments. The "Report" of last June 
gives some statements, of which the following are the results. 

At Bloomingdale, N. Y., in U years, 1777 patients wore ad- 



66 

milted and of these, 1039 were cured and improved. At Hart- 
ford, since 1H24, 510 patients were received, 258 of whom 
had not been insane longer than one year. Of these 253 re- 
cent cases, 230 were recovered or nearly 91 per cent; of the 
remaining 2G3 old cases, 62 cured or more than 27 per cent. 
At Charlestown, Mass., from May to December of last year, of 
39 recent cases 34 were recovered, and 6 out of 59 old cases. At 
Worcester 485 cases have been received since the hospital was 
opened; 80 per cent 'of the recent, and 27 per cent of the old 
subjects, have been entirely restored. 

The results of these various institutions, corroborated also 
by extensive examination into those of France, England and 
Italy, demonstrate that at least Jlvt — sixths of recent, 
and more than one — half of all eases collectively, are cur- 
able by the aids of an Asylum. Trace the consequences of 
these restorations a step beyond their relation to the individ- 
uals returned to their pleasures and duties in society, and 
without reference to the public, saved from further expense, 
danger and anxiety on their account. 

Watch the influence of their renewed existence on their 
families, relations, friends, neighborhood, and even to an- 
other generation. Calculate the difference between supporting', 
or rather partially supporting an individual in a lunatic re- 
treat a year or two, and having him a public charge upon 
n town or county dining the 20, 30 or 40 years of a mani- 
ac's old age. 

I tut these are not all the benefits conferred by lunatic 
asylums upon the insane. It is a melancholy fact that after 
all. a considerable proportion of these long afflicted will re- 
main hopelessly, incurable. The prevailing false idea can 
never be replaced by the true mental operations. 

It i- obvious, that even if an asylum is forthwith establish- 
ed, a considerable number of years must elapse before this 
class will he extinct. But betwixt them as lunatic- around a 
poor-house, at home, or wandering around the country, and 
as inmate- of a well conducted asylum, the difference is (hat 
between light and darknes. For ample and interesting illus- 
trations on this important point, let the reader constrast the 
historic- of a larger number of eases reported in Massachusetts 
by the Commissioners for erecting a Hospital, with the re- 
port of the Trustees and .Superintendent on their present con- 
dition. A few of these sketches are incorporated into the re- 



C7 



port to our Legislature and form an extraordinary and 
striking index to the whole system. 

Men confined in dungeons for a quarter of a century, fil- 
thy, degraded, frantic, suicidal or homicidal, though still in- 
sane have become peaceable, industrious and profitable mem- 
bers of that community which has been so wisely establish- 
ed for them, and for which alone they are adapted. 

The heart refreshing effects of these institutions can only be 
duly realized by actual inspection. Let us visit such an asy- 
lum. Externally we find all order, neatness, and beauty. Its 
blooming gardens, its highly cultivated fields, its fragrant 
shubbery, all the product of the directed labour and taste of 
its inmates, reminds us of the villa of European M r ealth and re- 
fined fancy. Classified and divided into groups and as it were 
families of such numbers and characters as are best suited to 
eace other's habits, tastes, kind of illusion and capacity of enjoy- 
ment we find these inmates in their persons neat and clean- 
ly, in their habits decorous and regular, in their conduct po- 
lite, civil and inoffensive. Rising early to their moderate la- 
bours, their first duties of prayer and praise are directed to 
that Being, who has inclined the hearts of men to mercy 
and benevolence. To the native of New P^ngland whatever 
may be his state, education or rank in society, the next 
spontaneous wish of his heart is for useful, productive la- 
bour; the thousand forms in which this is combined with in- 
terest and amusement, calling into exercise the pleasures of 
mechanical ingenuity, the attractions of novel experiment, or 
the pursuits of the sufferer's early associations, will depend 
much on the character, zeal and kindness of those having 
supervision ; but in no case is the mind allowed to sink in- 
to sullen indifference, to brood over the phantoms of a mor- 
bid imagination or to be run into the encentric, violent, un- 
controllable revolutions of an unpivotted intellect. A healthy 
appetite, undisturbed slumber and bodily health are the nat- 
ural consequences of moderate, regular corporeal labor com- 
bined with manly amusements and relaxation. A plain nu- 
tritious diet well adapted to the wants and peculiarities of 
each class or subject, and' a discriminating employment of 
medicinal agents soon produce that sanity of body so closely 
connected with mental health, and places the individual in 
that condition best fitted for the influences of moral treat- 
ment. 



68 



A few fact- will further illustrate the change wrought in 
the amount of happiness enjoyed by the insane. It is to be 
presumed that generally the greatest proportion of t ho in- 
mate-, of such institutions will be of the most violent and 
unmanageable description. In the asylum in which the friends 
support, it is natural that most of those whose safe keeping 
is practicable and conveient at home, shall, if hopeless of 
cure, lie kept among their friends. In others, like that at 
Worcester where the selection of subjects is made by the 
public authorities, it is obvious that the most violent and 
dreadful cases will generally be preferred, as they ought to 
he. having a due regard to duration of disease and prob- 
ability of relief. For example at the last named place, 
-nine thirty were taken from dungeons and county prisons 
where they hail been confined by order of Court as dangerous 
to go at large Now in these asylums only tive or six in a 
hundred arc required to be kept restrained and perhaps these 
or most of them ,-it night only. I>r Macdonald of the ISIoom- 
ingdale Asylum, in a report to the Common Council of the 
city Of New "York, respecting an asylum for the hitherto" 
dreadfully neglected and degraded insane poor of that great 
metropolis incidentally remarks thus: '"Take mo insane pa- 
tient-, of thai number perhaps five require at niyht, strong- 
rooms," etc. In a plan for an Insane Hospital which -the, 
writer has in his possession, made by Dr. Lee the distin- 
guished Superintendent of (Ik- Mc Lean Asylum at Charles- 
town designed tor 120 or 130 patient,-, the number id' ''lodge 

rooms*' Or cell- delineated seem- to lie hut ten to meet all 

contingencies, and in other institutions the proportion i- 
equally small. What a change i- this! 

What a noble opportunity here for benevolence ••to break 
the chain- of die captive and let the oppressed go free.'' 

In thi- state al ■ tin- establish men I of a Hospital would be 

an edict by which more than T.'i human beings men, citizens, 
would be liberated al once. It would be an occasion like 
the ancient jubilee when the dungeon jiates were unbarred. 

Willi tin' abolishment of chain- and confinement, has also 
passed away the whole inquisitional system of the scourge, 
the strait — waistcoat, the handcuffs, and in fact all measures 
of severity or coercion. The astonishing changes we have 
witnessed have resulted from the application of the noble 
law of love alone: kinilue-- united with firmness, indiiliience 



G9 

with systematic performance of duty, lenity, forbearance 
and gentleness with decision, have accomplished what our 
forefathers never dreamed to be possible. 

The next point of view in which an asylum is now to be 
considered is as a place of security for the public and the 
sufferers against the consequences of insane violence. A part 
only of this relief can be realized in the intense anxieties 
and fears of friends assuaged, and the apprehensions of neigh- 
borhoods quieted. 

Imagine yourself, reader, compelled for a single night on- 
ly to lodge at a dwelling where the howls of a maniac broke 
the silence of midnight, and then conceive the situation of a 
family having to endure such an inmate month after month , 
year after year. 

The last public advantage to be secured by the establish- 
ment of an Insane Hospital, the actual economy in expense 
as contrasted with the present cost of lunatics in the State, 
will be considered when examining the pecuniary relations of 
this subject. 

The immense public, and private advantages offered in the 
establishment of a Lunatic Hospital being admitted, (and it 
is believed there arc none whose feelings are so perverted 
as to gainsay or deny them) the next thing to be consider- 
ed is the expediency of such an Institution being founded 
in New Hampshire and through the agency of the people 
themselves collectively. 

There are, it is true, many projects of a highly benevo- 
lent character, worthy of the highest praise, which while 
kindly adapted to one people or community would be mis- 
placed and uncalled for in another. Thus the facilities for 
instructing the deaf and dumb, or the blind are very valu- 
able and commendable; the state does and ever has done it- 
self honor by i's liberal patronage, (liberal indeed in pro- 
portion to the number of these unfortunates within its bor- 
ders,) to these charities elsewhere, yet no one would be so 
absurd as to think of endowing seminaries of those kinds in 
this State. 

The misfortune to be alleviated does not exist to an ex- 
tent justifying such measures for its relief. Again, other in- 
stitutions apparently of a benevolent character, have been 
found to be so in appearance only: they "keep the word 
of promise to the ear. but break if to the hope." Found- 



ro 



line- hospitals, alms-houses without any employment for the 
able-bodied, houses of correction, state prisons, etc. where 
villain- and vagabonds are associated night and day without 
labour, arc of this last class. Benevolence may also be mis- 
directed in a thousand ways, and especially towards objects 
of distant charity, as we have too often reason to fear it is. 
Is the present object obnoxious to these objections? The im- 
mense numbers of sufferers requiring assistance, as appears 
by the official documents, demonstrates that the Held tor be- 
nevolent action N wide enough* Can we send the 130 luna- 
tic- whose pitiable cases call so loudly for the help of an 
asylum to foreign institutions a- we do our dozen or two 
of "deaf and dumb, and blind? In Massachusetts and Con- 

necticul the institutions are running over in the abundance 

of their own subjects. At Worcester and Charlestown a 
large proportion of the applicants are rejected for want of 
room and thc\ arc going on still futher to increase the ac- 
commodations for their own citizens. In Connecticut meas- 
ures are in progress, a- the writer has within a few days 
been informed by one of the directors of the Hartford Re- 
treat, to establish an asylum for the insane poor of that 
rtt-ate, probably after the model of that at Worcester and in 
connection with the present Retreat. In Maine and Vermont 
the institutions established are adequate only to the relief of 
their most trying necessities. If then our insane are to he 
provided for ii must be by founding an asylum amongst and 
by ourselves. 

Nor can ii be pretended that the establishment for the in- 
sane can necessarily or even possibly draw any such evils in 

their train, a- tin' objectionable charities referred to. So far 
from augmenting the number of objects for benevolence, they 
evidently tend t<> diminish them rapidly, unless tin' misfor- 
tune of insanity is from certain moral and public causes on 
the increase amongst us a- there is too much reason to fear 
i- the case. Old and incurable cases, entailing a lon^ and 
hopeless burden on society will be constantly wearing away 
and would eventually be almost unheard of. fur a- soon as 
an individual was siezed with this dreadful malady he would 
be placed where his malady would be treated to advantage, and 
with how much probability of relief we have before seen. 

('an this object be effected by individual enterprise or exer- 
ion and i- there any good reason why it should fall upon in- 



71 

dividual citizens? Our state fortunately as far as the general 
good is concerned, has no great commercial advantages, — it 
presents few fields tor magnificent speculations to make men 
rich in a night; — we have few men of overgrown fortunes. 

"Wealth is equally divided to a degree probably unknown in 
the civilized world. If there are any disadvantages in this 
blessed mean, it is that no splendid gifts of humanity, no no- 
ble contributions to the arts and sciences, no magnificent en- 
dowments to perpetuate the names and the liberality of the 
donors can reasonably be effected. In all the public call for 
funds however, for any purpose of benevolence real or imag- 
inary, contrast the receipts from New Hampshire with those 
from any equal amount of population elsewhere, and we shall 
have no reason to blush for the generosity of our community. 
If none out of their abundance are able to give abundantly, 
the disposition to bestow in proportion to means seems spread 
widely and generally. Everyone appears willing to do his 
part. For example in the last number of the Missionary 
Herald, just handed the writer, there is acknowledged as hav- 
ing been received from the interior towns in the western 
section of Rockingham Co., containing about 15,000 inhabitants 
the sum of $628, contributed by a single object, and this too an 
annual and customary donation. If the entire state gives in 
proportion, and this is probably the fact, here is more than $15, 
O00 raised for one noble cause annually; more than enough 
devoted to the single object of foreign missions to build an 
Insane Hospital every two years! 

There seems no reason, however, to doubt that many gener- 
ous donations may be expected towards this object if it is un- 
dertaken. We have an earnest of this in some thousands al- 
ready promised. But let not this source be depended upon. 
If there are any whose wealth and generous sympathies concur 
in wishing well to this object let their donations be gratefully 
acknowledgc d and prudently expended. But in the name of all 
that is noble in humanity, or generous in charity, let us re- 
pudiate that miserable system of forced gifts and compulsory 
volunteered donations which the modern tactics of benevo- 
lence have introduced. Reference is made to the plan of con- 
tingent donations; — a certain amount being promised, provid- 
ed another given sum is first secured; or nothing to be collect- 
ed if a stipulated amount fixed by the supposed duty aud abil- 
itv of the public to be solicited is not secured within a speci- 



tied time. The whole system of raising such charities is un- 
worthy the independent people of New Hampshire, and under 
the operation ot this Jesuitical scheme some moral frauds have 
been perpetrated that our citizens would blush to know. 
No! if our wealthy citizens are inclined to give, let them give 
freely, unshackled and unconditioned. 
"The quality of mercy is not strained: 
"It droppcth as the gentle rain from heaven 
"Upon the place beneath: it is twice blessed, 
••It blesseth him that gives and him that takes." 
This object is by no means a partial or local one. The tax- 
now paid by the public for the insane need only be directed 
into another and better channel. In the system which will 
hereafter be suggested, it will be shown — that the public need 
be called npotl only for a first endowment, the simple expense 
of building and famishing the edifice of an asylum; that its 
subsequent Biipport will be secured by the compensation re- 
ceived from those towns, counties and individuals who choose 
voluntarily to take advantage of its offered benefits. 

The expense of this first outfit would not fall unequally or 
partially. The tax. if the requisite funds should be provided 
in thi< manner, would come proportionally from the rich and 
from those of moderate "state, and its advantages woidd be 
open alike to all. If one county or town should not have its 
full proportion of subjects so much, greater the probability 
that in a tew yeara the ratio would bs reversed. Even 
should the operation of an asylum be somewhat local and 
pirtial (which it would not.) the people would not object 
if a great public good resulted. We see thousands of dollars 
distributed year after year in the crow and wild beast bounty; 
enough in fact to build an asylum every few years. Yet the 
operation of those laws are local; conferring privileges confin- 
ed nearly to one class of citizens and to particular sections of 
the state. 

The principle of insane asylums being proper subjects for 
the fostering hand of a state government has been settled and 
acted upon in all the states around us. New York as long 
ago as 1816, when its population was not more than half 
What it now is granted the sum of $10,090 annually for the 
support of a lunatic asylum. Massachusetts devoted $30,000 
for the hospital at Worcester: Maine has recently given $20, 
000 to this object, and had not an individual who. bv sudden 



turn of laud speculations became immensely wealthy, given an 
equal sum, that patriotic state would doubtless have taken 
the office into her own hands. Connecticut long since did her 
duty to her insane, and Vermont has already an institution in 
successful operation. New Hampshire, it is believed, is the on- 
ly one of the northern states, which has not done anything to- 
wards this cause. The time has almost arrived when the ques- 
tion is to be tested — whether or not she will also engage in 
this work: a question, the decision of the people upon which, 
will be final for a great number of years, perhaps for half a 
century. It is certain that so favorable a period of general 
prosperity, such an overflowing abundance of pecuniary ability 
can hardly be again lookod for, united with that freedom from 
politcal or sectional asperity which has hitherto preserved this 
subject from all unnatural entanglements. 

After even a feeble expression of public sentiment at the 
ballot — box against the expediency of building an asylum, it 
cannot be expected that the legislature will take any further 
action until they are convinced that there is a decided change 
in public opinion, and even should that change be evidently 
brought about, as it surely should be, it might then be found 
that one or the other branch of the Legislature might be be- 
hind the public voice and opposed to the object. As it now is 
there seems to be no obstacle, if the expression of the wish of our 
citizens is in its favor. Executive after executive has recommend- 
ed and urged the measure. The willingness of the present 
legislature to lay the facts collected by their direction before 
the community as well as to refer the decision of the point 
to their judgment, is ample confirmation of their willingness to 
act. The entire facts necessary for a wise and conscientious ac- 
tion will be before the voters, and when they meet it is to be 
hoped, that all will express their opinion whether for or against 
this measure; that they will vote as they would do were (he four 
or five hundred maniacs of New Hampshire present before them. 
In our next the attempt will be made to compare the present ac- 
tual expense of taking care of the insane with what it would be if 
the most proper subjects were collected into a Lunatic Hospital, 
deducing the conclusions from the official returns made by the se- 
lectmen and overseers of the poor to the towns and from the au- 
thentic published dates of similar establishments in neighboring 
states. If our facts are duly collected and candidly canvassed 
(and we entreat the public attention to investigate their accuracy 



and fairness) the intelligent voter of New Hampshire will be grat- 
ified in admitting- that the proposed Insane Hospital will he desir- 
able not only on account of its abstract advantages to the insane, 
but even as a matter of public economy. 

It is impossible to ascertain the exact amount expended in the 
support of the insane under the present mode. The most that 
can be expected is an approximation towards the fact. In many 
cases the sufferers are kept in poor houses in common with the en- 
tire pauper population of a town, of course, an estimate only of 
their proportion of the expenses can be made. Others are "sold 
at auction'* and ''bid off" by some friend or relation, who feels 
willing to bear part of their support beyond the pittance paid by 
the public; some are capable of doing something towards their 
own support and the balance is paid by the town. So that it is 
probable that in many instances the returns represent the amount 
expended actually below the cost. Talcing them however as 
we find them, the following results appear. The specific fads 
are given somewhat in detail, for minute accuracy alone renders 
statistics of the kind of any value. The actual and estimated ex- 
pense is given in 104 cases of the :il8 heard from, of these three 
were maintained at 920 per annum ; lat$2(j; 4at830; lnt$35; 
i at-887; 4 at 939; 6 at 840; l at $42; 3 at 845; l at 849; 
•s at $.">o ; 11 at 852; 2 at 960; 1 at $('5; 6 at $78; 1 at, $80; 
I at $«7: 1 at 890; 8 at $10(1; 2 at 8104; 1 at 8180; 
■s at 8135; 1 at 8160; 20 at 8156; 1 at 8200 ;1 at 8208: 

I at 8234; making an average of 891.60 per annum for each indi- 
vidual. The estimate made by the late Gov. Dinsmore in 18M2, 
( when the expense of living was somewhat less than at present,) 
from the comparatively small number of returns which have been 
made, was in round numbers 81.50 per week or $78 per annum, 

II is probable that the present returns making the cost 81.75 per 
week are very near the truth. The kind of support, attention and 
kindness that these children of misery receive we have 
alluded to. and our surprise is rather that the average cost 
is so much than that it should be so small. Now let us examine 
tie expense at Worcester, the only asylum established on such 
general grounds as would be expected or desired here. For two 
years 1834 and 1835, the annual average cost of each patient was 
found to be $2.50 per week. This included every expense of main- 
taining the hospital. But in a new arrangement for separating 
into another building the incurables, it is stated in the annual re- 
port to the Legislature of Massachusetts that the expense of this 



class would be reduced to $150, which if the numbers were equal 
would render the average of all $2. In comparing' some of the 
leading' items of cost then with what they could be in the interior 
of our state, we can determine with some accuracy the proportion- 
ate decrease of expense. By the report of 183-1 we find amongst 
other items of expenditure which are given very much in detail, 
that there were consumed at that establishment 11,531 lbs. beef at 
512 cts. 2703 blsveal at 5 cts. 117-1 lbs, pork at8cts. 951 lbs. ham at 
1 1 cts. 17 bbls. salt pork $20.50. 3871 lbs. cheese at 9 cts. -1704 lbs. 
butter at 17 cts. 1251 galls, milk at 13 )._. cts. 446 bushs. potatoes 
at 34 cts. 377 cords wood at $4.30. 826 bushels charcoal at 19 cts.: 
besides large quantities of hay, grain etc. at rates not specified , 
but undoubtedly, being bulky articles, at a still greater compara- 
tive price. 1 n view of the large quantities to be contracted for and 
the year (1834) in which they were delivered, we are informed each 
by competent judges, those three purchases could have been made 
here at prices averaging from 19 to 15 or even more per cent less 
of this, however, the intelligent reader will judge for himself. 
Again, it would seem that in the original arrangements at Worces- 
ter a great error or oversight was made in neglecting to attach a 
suitable quantity of land to the Institution. It has been found of 
late years that these asylums can be rendered to a certain extent, 
siilf- supporting institutions; that much productive labour 
can be effected by the inmates and this with the most beneficial 
effects as a curative means. Dr. "Woodward in his report to the 
Trustees of the Worcester Hospital informs them how profitably 
productive and useful, agricultural pursuits had been found there, 
even on hired land, and assures them that he could easily save 10 
per cent of the present expense of its support if he had 100 acres 
of land at his command. In these two items then, it is obvious, 
that there would be a saving in this State of 25 to 30 per cent re- 
ducing the price of the weekly stipend from $2 to 1.40 or 50. per 
week, which is actually below the present cost of our insane, 
that being as just shown, $1 .75, and this reduction would be 
made without abating a single dollars expense in salaries, wages, 
attendants or any other advantages. 

1'nless there is some error in these calculations it is manifest that 
there will be an actual saving to the state by the establishment 
of such an asylum. If there is some undesigned error in fact 
or conclusion, it is to be hoped that some person will have the 
kindness t<» correct it before it misleads ourselves or others. 

If an fusane Hospital be established, how shall it be carried ony 



70 

by whom shall the cost of the patient be remunerated? shall it be 
by general tax assessing the whole upon the people at large, or 
shall the present system of support be pursued. Taking the 
only strictly general asylum in the country for our model, a por- 
tion of the patients will be maintained by their own means or by 
the aid of their friends; those who are paupers will l>e supported 
by the counties and towns which are liable for them. This 
svstem seems convenient and eqditable; liable, it seems to us, to 
a single objection only, which is that while the placing of the pau- 
per insane in a Hospital should he entirely optional with town offi- 
cers, in some occasional instances such a spirit of selfish and 
narrow minded parsimony might exist as to prompt them 
to deny the opportunities of recovery to the sufferer, if some sor- 
did wretch couldbe found whose cupidity would prompt - 'to hid 
oil" the insane at a lower rate than could be afforded at an asylum. 
But few such instances would he probably met with: still it might 
he expedient that some discretionary power should he lodged in 
(he courts or elsewhere to prevent any such abuses. As a general 
rule it would undoubtedly be best that admission of the insane 
should he entirely voluntary and optional to the towns or friend 
having charge of them. The moment that such guardians found 
that they could support them cheaper or better elsewhere, they 
should have permissiou to do so. Judging from the experience at 
Worcester, there would lie hut little danger hut that the asylum 

would be filled. In the de of remuneration now suggested. 

there would he no change in pauper laws, required, nor would 
i here he any injustice or inequality more than there is at present. 
The only other financial question to he determined and which in- 
deed, a- we believe i- the only one which the voters of New 

Hampshire will he obliged to consider, i- what will he the cost of 
the reipiisite outfit for the asylum. Here again, we can very sat- 
isfactorily refer to that which must he the prototype of the kind 
of institutions in the United States for a long series of years to 
come, the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester. The edifice there 
with all it* appendages, was completed at an expense of s.in.ouu, 
being within the sum originally estimated. The style of its exte- 
rior is probably rather more ornamented and cosily than it would 
have heen. if il had not been situated in the centre of a large and 
wealthy town, perhaps hereafter to he the seat of government of 
the -late. It telis as a highly creditable fact to those «rentlenaen 
under whose direction the plan was accomplished . that such an es- 
tablishment should have heen completed at such a Host. Yet theie 



seems to be little doubt that the same work could be finished in 
this state at a very considerably diminished cost; the price of 
building materials, granite, brick, boards, timber &c. as well as 
labor being considerably less. The committee of our Legislature 
in 1884 made an investigation into this subject by consulting prac- 
tical mechanics and was assured that precisely the same structure 
could be completed here, with the single substitution of a shingle 
roof for a slate one, at a cost of less than $21,000; adding to this 
the requisite funds to provide furniture and make improvements 
in the grounds &c. the sum of $4000, would render an appropria- 
tion of $2u, 000 necessary to obtain the desired end. It would 
not, perhaps, be too much to expect the vicinity in which the insti- 
tution shall be located to afford a suitable quantity of land for ag- 
ricultural operation, as an equivalent for the advantages which so 
extensive an establishment would be to a town. If however noth- 
ing should be received, the addition of a suitable farm, woodland, 
&c, would be covered by making the entire amount $30,000. This 
Mini large as it may appear in individual transactions, when divid- 
ed amongst the population of a state seems sufficiently practicable . 
If borrowed on the credit of the state the annual interest at 5 per 
cent would be $1500, being the sum for many years appropriated 
to the Hartford Asylum for the deaf and dumb; it would 
be about one third the amount now annually expended for 
the destruction of crows, foxes, &c. The entire cost if di- 
vided amongst our voters would average considerably less than 
a single dollar to each, if divided among our population it 
would be less than 11 cents to each. Lives there a man in our bor- 
ders who would not willingly tax himself to a far greater amount 
to itisure himself and his children against the present lot of the lu- 
natic, if, (and who i« secure?) such should be his fate in the pro- 
gress of life? 

The ground originally proposed for examination, comprehend- 
ing the number of the insane, their present condition, practicabil- 
ity and probable actual extent of relief, and the cost of affording 
such aid, having been rapidly surveyed and such facts presented, 
as il is hoped, are in some some measure satisfactory, the nature 
and importance of the subject call for some additional and 
strengthening views on certain points which will be presented in 
a rapid and somewhat desultory manner, an apology for which, 
if any is required in such a cause, must bo found in the multiplied 
and pressing engagements of a laborious vocation. The present 
condition of the insane is a subject we felt disinclined to dwell up- 



on for two reasons: first, because the details ore too painful and 
revolting to be spread before the public, and secondly it was 
feared that the character of our community for common humanity 
would be compromised by the disgusting and repulsive state- 
ments which must be presented to do it entire justice. On more 
mature reflection, however, it was felt that this was a duty which, 
to gome-extent, must not be passed over; — if our object is to give 
the intelligent voters of this State reasons for the belief that it is 
expedient for us to have an Insane Hospital, they ought to know 
facts, (exc spt such as from the delicacy of individual circumstan- 
ces are obviously improper to be exposed) which will enable them 
to know how the insane are treated amongst us. As to any feared 
discredit from the hapless situation of our lunatics, let that com- 
munity which has not erred in the same way, "cast the first stone." 
To be sure if there was no motive in exposing the condition of 
the insane, (both rich and poor, for it is not a discreditable fact 
1 1 i:it they have been treated about alike.) we might allow them to 
rest in that darkness and silence, to which they now by universal 
consent and a morbid delicacy , are condemned ; their agonies and 
brutal degradations would not be dragged from the cells and 
cages iu which they arc entombed to meet the fi'a/.e of day. Hut 
there is a motive, which we feel irresistible, overwhelming. Let 
the citizens ot New Hampshire know that they have it in their 
power io relieve and io save these wretched beings, and, my life 
on it. il will be accomplished ! All that they require is to lie in- 
formed. The generous ami philanthropic course which so 
many of our papers have already evinced, is an earnest 
thai this will lie effected, as well as ground for hope, 
whether these journals lead or follow public sentiment, that 
the State will be redeemed in November, from what here- 
tofore was based in ignorance not error, but which when the 
facts have reached every ear may be deemed ckime. Here are a 
tew facts, the authority for which is freely accessible to any one 
who has any interest to wish for it: — communicated, we hope so 
a- not to wound the sensibilities, the unfortunately morbid feel- 
i ti«»- of any who may be connected with the details. They are tak- 
ea not from any extended knowledge of cases iu this state on the 
part of the narrator, but now suggest themselves spontaneously 
to his recollection . 

A youn:» man. a physician by profession, left this section of the 
country some ten years since, after finishing his studies, for the 
South. Gradually his rouimunication»to his friends became more 



and more unfrequeiit, as well as at last, exhibiting' a strange 
flightiness of style indicative of incipient derangement. For 
several years his anxious parents . heard no tidings of him ; 
he had left the place where lie had first settled, and his for- 
mer friends there had lost all trace of him. Three years ago this 
winter, a man living in a neighborhood where this sufferer had 
once kept school, going out at day light one morning to feed his 
cattle noticed a horridly haggard, half-clothed, ragged, filthy, un- 
shorn being just leaving his barn. A few words showed that he 
was a raving maniac, as well as afforded means of his recognition. 
He was soon carried to his father's house; the son was not known 
by the father that begot him; he could not trace in that shivering 
wretch who stood before him one line by which to recognize the 
healthy, happy, promising young man who had, a few years be- 
fore left him. His mother, with a mother's instinctive love knew 
her son on the instant, and greeted with a mother's welcome, the 
wanderer, wretched, repulsive as he was. He returned no signs 
of recognition, but in curses; no consciousness of being at the 
home of his youth, except in the ferocious hatred he evinced to 
every inmate! Hopeless as his case seemed to be, his father from 
the little property which a long and faithful service in that minis- 
try which his pure and blameless life has adorned had left him, 
sent him to the McLean Asylum. Here he remained six months; 
though managed so as to be safe and perhaps, if they had had fa- 
cilities for productive labor he might to some degree have been 
usefully employed, the directors candidly advised that they could 
give no encouragement as to his ultimate restoration, so long and 
so firmly had his disease been seated. The father felt unable to 
pay the cost of mere security and comparative comfort which a hos- 
pital afforded, though if any hope had been expressed of a final 
cure, no money would have been valued. As no such hope was 
held out, he felt injustice to the rest of his dependent family, that 
all the care and danger of taking care of him must be assumed by 
them at home. A few day's residence at his father's of course 
found him more exasperated and dangerous. As a last resource 
and as the mode in which he could be kept with least suffering to 
himself and most safety to those around him, he was put in a 
strong cage which was placed in a front roomof his father's dwell- 
ing. The young, educated, and not unaccomplished physician 
there laid like a beast, "making night hideous" with his screams ! 
He finally refused to speak, lost all susceptibility to external im- 
pressions and could neither be persuaded nor compelled to eat. 



80 

For 08 days he did not, as his friends assured me, take the value 
of a pound of nourishment , and died, still a maniac to the last, of 
starvation. I saw him for the first time when his wasted, attenu- 
ated corpse was uncovered for post mortem examination; a 
record of the appearance presented was published in the 
I'mvton Medical Journal last year. Suffice it to say, that no 
organic change was found from which it could be judged that this 
man would have been insane for the rest of his life, if he bad not 
thus died prematurely, or even to account for bis being insane at 
all. Hence we have the authority of facts, multiplied, undeniable 
facts for believing that if an insane asylum had received him with- 
in the first year of his disease, there would have been 9 chances 
out of 10 that he might now have been fulfilling bis duties on the 
the stage of life. Or if such an institution bad been established 
as is now proposed, he could have been placed where a sum with- 
in his father's means would have kept him in safety and comfort 
perhaps not wholly useless, instead of dying, unanointed, uuan- 
nealed, with all Ins imperfections on his head, — a suicide! 

Header, how much that man suffered in his weary wanderings 
from Louisiana, in hunger and cold and darkness and nakedness, 
mental anguish and horror you may conceive, but to feel what 
his kindred endured, you must have seen as I did, that venerable 
servant of God, his father, worn out with care, watching and 
anxiety, or the sunken cheek of that aged mother telling more elo- 
quently than language, that she" had that within that passeth 
show." ' 

The following ease was mentioned in conversation with a re- 
spectable gentleman now representing in part the town of N 

in the Legislature, in which or an adjacent town it occurred. A 
man had a son who from idiocy or insanity, which was not recol- 
lected, was necessarily confined. Owing probably to the offensive 
and dangerous habits which persons <>f alienated mind, are apt. to 
tall into, his father had a cell constructed in the side of a neigh- 
boring hill of brick and mortar, like a tomb, in which the hapless 
boy was immured and where he remained unseen and unattended 
to, except that his food was thrust in to him through an opening. 
In contradiction to that blessed law of human nature, which bears 
out so beautifully from the depravity of the heart, the father 
worn out and dispirited with anxiety and grief, suddenly removed 
to the western country, leaving behind this entombed being to the 
tender mercies of such as should find him. Mr. B. of X. saw him 
when his cell door was opened and represents the spectacle to have 



81 



been heart — sickening in the extreme. The cell was so low that 
he could not stand up, and hence his joints were so iminoveably 
fixed that he could move only by jumping with his feet together! 

Mr. B. the worthy senator from Dis. No. 11, related that some 
years since while travelling in the upper part of the State, he had 
occasion to call at a decent looking farm house on the road. He 
saw a careworn, downcast looking man at the door, to whom he 
was about speaking when he was surprised by hideous yells of 
mixed profanity and indecency. The man remarked that 
it was his wife, who was crazy. On entering the house, Mr. B. 
cast his eye into a back room in which a cage was fenced off by 
thick stout spruce poles. The maniac woman with eyes flash- 
ing fury, hair dishevelled, and clothing half torn off , was flying 
from bar to bar, like a caged tiger, having literally worn the 
rough spruce trees to a polished smoothness by the incessant rub- 
bing in her attempts to get out. Is it not wonderful that, to the 
husband, children, friends who were inmates of the dwelling, the 
insanity should not have proved contagious : — that their minds, 
ever kept on the rack by such a scene constantly before them, 
should not also have been estranged: 

In the town in which I am now writing is a man aged near 65, 
who has been insane for nearly 40 years. Having jointly with 
others of his family some property, he was supported from it. 
till it was exhausted. He was constantly distracted, keeping 
himself secreted like a beast, in a dark apartment, occasion- 
ally committing violence to his nearest friends even to the ex- 
tent of fracturing limbs on two occasions. He was taken to the 
poor farm ; unlike most other town paupers he was an entire 
stranger; a new generation, unknown to him, had come upon the 
stage in the more than 40 years he had been shut up in darkness. 
Of course, he was entirely relinquished to strangers, which expe- 
rience has shown is so essential a circumstance in managing the in- 
sane. Put to moderate labor, he soon improved and in a few 
months became an useful, industrious and peaceful man, doing as 
much work as can be at his years; in fact he was returned to the 
Legislative committee as being no expense to the town. He, 
however, is still insane to a certain degree. What an instance is 
this! a whole life, commenced under favorable auspices as far as 
friends, standing and property were regarded, completely sacri- 
ficed! AVho can resist the belief that the early influences of hos- 
pital management would have saved the life of this man to him- 
self and to society? If the mere influences of separation, moder- 



82 



ate labor and such moral management as a common pnorhouse af- 
fords produced such a change, what might not be expected even 
at a late hour from the treatment of an asylum! 

We would again remark here, as was formerly done in sketch- 
ing a case which had accidentally fallen under our own observa- 
tion, that such cases are neither peculiar nor strange. They are 
merely average instances of severe grades. These are an index 
to Mich scenes as are now, every day, transacting in the HI known 
instances of confined lunatics in New Hampshire. There are many 
examples far worse than these, which have been laid before the 
public years ago. See report of the Committee of 1833, for the 
account of a female, both of whose feet were amputated in conse- 
quence of her being allowed to freeze while insane, as well as 
other horrid details. 

That the insane are occasionally worse treated than either from 
neglect or ignorance, is a pninful truth which duty compels us 
not to conceal. The official returns of course rarely allude to such 
facts — they were not called upon to do so; the authors of there- 
turns were generally selectmen whose duty it was to take care of 
the insane poor: if guilty of neglect they would not proclaim their 
own shame; or citizens of towns who would not willingly quarrel 
with their municipal officer or degrade the character of their own 
townsmen by any uncalled for evidence of cruelty. Once in a 
while the fad of barbarous cruelty and unjustifiable severity to 
the insane is hinted; but much of the sufferings of these children 
of sorrow will only be known when all things will be revealed "at 
that day." If they could tell their woeful history, they too truly 
— "iron/d a hi/r unfold, whose lightest word, would hnrrow n/> 

I In/ nun/'. 

P. S. To sLime of our readers, as a change from these melan- 
choly details, the following' interesting ease, selected from the 
gloomy documents, referred to the Legislative Committee, may he 
acceptable. It is annexed to a reply to the circular requiring in- 
formation from a town in Rockingham County: 

••There is at our poor house an individual, who though not com- 
prised under the subjects of your inquiry, deserves to be men- 
tioned in this connection. His faculties are bright and unim- 
paired, but being destitute of two of the ordinary inlets to ideas, 
his mental characteristics in some respects resemble thoso of the 
in- me. His name is AVilliam Hogg, aged about ISO, congenitally 
deaf and dumb, and blind since childhood — has been supported by 
the town for a number of vears. His sagacitv and intelligence 



83 



are truly wonderful , certainly not surpassed by Julia Bruce', the 
deaf and dumb and blind girl at Hartford. The powers which 
seem to have replaced those wanting, by their increased delicacy, 
arc small, touch and the ability to distinguish the slightest jar of 
his person, such as arises from walking, even at a considerable 
distance from him. 

The mechanical ingenuity he exhibits is surpassing as is evinced 
in the collection of miniature wheelbarrows, sleds, coffins, cradles, 
&c. he has manufactured, as well as the faculty of order, each 
piie of his in iveahles liaving its distinct place where it, always is 
replaced. II? is allowed annually to cultivate a little plat of 
ground of which he has the entire charge and produce. He may 
be -ecu early in the spring, feeling around the fences to ascertain 
if the snow is gone; and exhibits great jndgmont in his time of 
planting, hoeing, harvesting, &c. in which he acts without any 
interference, any attempt at which, in fact, irritates him. 

Vyiien irritated anil provoked his temper is as ferocious and un- 
governable as a brute, but is naturally harmless, peaceable and 
nit ■'■['] mate The instances of his shrewdness and intelligence are 
very numerous and souie of them' very curious. !i To any person 
v, ho i, in tiie habit of observing the insane, and yet has not been fa- 
m i li ir with the management and results of Asylums', no part of our 
suggestions will probabl y .be so problematical as that in regard 
In these individuals being induced by kindness alone to engage in 
useful and profitable labor. If there is any one point on which the 
character of lunatic,, c unciiies under the present system of manage- 
ment, it is in refusing employment; — neither force nor persuasion 
seem to induce them to return to their former habits, even when 
formerly most enterprising and industrious. The entire schedule 
of c ises shows that it is very seldom that a single one is reported 
a d ling any thing towards his support, and only two or three in 
the entire :>12 are capable of earning their own living. The first 
symptom of lunacy is frequently noticed in this disinclination to 
useful lalcir. We find them wandering about the country day af- 
ter day, or keeping themselves shut up awaj from society, or 
prowling about in the night regardless of darkness, cold or hun- 
ger, in fact in the most opposite conditions and habits, but all 
agreeingin this one particular. Yet it is an interesting fact, and 
one which we hope will weigh on the minds of those if any such 
there are who feel thai we are not able as a State to meet the ex- 
pense Of an Insane Hospital,, that in all the most successful and 
best arranged institutions of Europe and this country, a large 



si 



amount of useful and productive labor is effected by the 
inmates: that they are induced to engage in it, of their 
own free will, without compulsion and almost without per- 
suasion, and that this employment for reasons hereafter referred 
to, is of immense and indispensable value as a means of instruc- 
tion and improvement, as well as proving, as every additional 
years experience demonstrates, a more and more considerable aux- 
iliary towards the expenses of carrying on institutions. To es- 
tablish these facts we shall bring forward the highest testimony of 
which the subject is susceptible; the evidence of those men whose 
lives are and have been devoted to the insane, and who stand at 
the head of their profession in this department. 

Dr. Macdonald of the Bloomingdale Asylum, in his report to 
the Common Council of New York City on an Asylum for the 
insane poor, observes: '-Until recently the insane were thought 
to be incapable of useful or regular employment. It may now be 
said that after classification, the most important of all considera- 
tions in their management i< occupation. The utility arising 
from employment ia not only positive but twofold: utility to the 
person employed, ami utility to the establishment. The salutary 
influence on the patient is both moral and physical; it gives health 
and vigor of body , while it diverts the mind from brooding over 
it» own sorrows or dwelling upon its favorite delusion. In a pau- 
per establishment like that in contemplation, it is presumable that 
all or nearly all the inmates will be persons who have been used to 
manual labor. How important then does it become to provide for 
manual labor, in such a way that the different tastes and trades 
may be suited. The day rooms or other large apartments includ- 
ed in the general plan . may serve for the women but it will be 
necessary to construct distinct workshops for the men. It may be 
thought by some, that this is one of those crude plans so often 
suggested by unreflecting philanthropy, but its practicability has 
been demonstrated by repeated experiments. In the strictly pau- 
per Asylums of England and Scotland, a large proportion of the 
patients have of late been employed ; thus in the Middlesex county 
establishment , two fifths are employed ; the men as shoemakers, 
tailors, weavers, carpenters, bricklayers, bakers, brewers, gard- 
nors, laborers, &c; — the women at knitting, sewing, straw-hat 
making, washing, cleansing house, feeding poultry, working the 
garden, &c. At Wakefield, nearly the same proportion, while at 
the Dundee Asylum, more than one half are employed. 

"In the public asylums both of Ireland and Germany, the in- 



85 



sane have also been extensively employed, with advantage to them- 
selves and with the effect of materially lessening expense. 

"In France, employment is considered of no less importance, 
though it has not been very extensively introduced into the public 
establishments. In the course of his observations on this subject 
the distinguished physician above named [Esquirol] says, "In our 
asylum the word labor is always in the mouth of the medical at- 
tendant: — this word strikes without ceasing the ears of the patient 
who mutually encourage each other; it is the predominent idea. 
In persuading the insane to labor, we afford them at once the 
most useful diversion and the means of ameliorating their condi- 
tion. It is not rare to see the unfortunate, whom excess of mis- 
ery has deranged and brought into our asylums, leave them with 
their reason entire and a little sum of money to provide for their 
first Wants or to commence a little establishment. " 

' 'To provide the insane with employment to pay them however 
small a sum for the produce of their labor, is to lay hold of a prin- 
ciple deeply rooted in human nature; and to turn it to account is 
to carry out the principle already established; to treat the insane 
as nearly as possible as if in perfect possession of reason." 

The peculiar description of labor and mode of its adaptation it 
is obvious will vary with the circumstances of every asylum. 
This branch of the topic as relating to an institution in Xew Hamp- 
shire and adapted to the habits, means and views of our citizens 
deserves deep consideration and perhaps may hereafter be exam- 
ined. 

The next valuable testimony on the point now under consideration 
is from Dr. Woodward, the distinguished physician and superin- 
tendent of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester. It is from a 
private letter to a gentleman making inquiries, under date of Feb. 
28, 1*36. Though evidently not prepared for the public eye, we 
know too well the philanthropic character of the writer to fear that 
he would feel any objection to its being published when any good 
might be accomplished through its means: "My dear sir — We 
have for two years past hired land or taken it upon shares, but this 
is not the way a State institution should do. We can rarely hire 
land that is in a high state of cultivation and if we hire that which 
is poor we lose all the improvements. But this is not all; we 
would wish to possess the lands that we may try various experi- 
ments of different modes of employing men ; — some would be am- 
bitious to cultivate a spot in their own way with a particular veg- 
etable: — another might like hedging, another ornamenting and in 



tills way various tastes might be gratified and competition excited 
which would amuse and benefit the inmates. < me 111:1:1 has a taste 
for horticulture; — another for farming on a large scale; sonic for 
faking care of pigs and poultry, another cows or stock. And 
though 1 doubt not land- in this way would be rendered profitable 
and very productive, yel this is a secondary object. How soon do 
men in health relapse into imbecility of mind, when the powers 
are nol kept in perpetual activity. This is not less true of the in- 
Bane; — almost all subjects of insanity fall into a state of im- 
becility of mind, rather than actual idiocy. The powers and facul- 
ties become dormant, after the acute stage subsides, for want of 
active exercise, and the individuals fall into various ill habits Cor 
want of the incaus of employing (lie menial ami physical powers. 
•■riace a man in solitary confinement and he will most certainly 
tear his clothing, besmear himself or hi- apartment. Give him 
society and employment and hi* self-respect will prevent his re- 
ing to degrading practices, and hi- mental and phyi i al excita- 
bility will be otherwise expended. 

••It is as idle to keep an insane man con lined after his pci.iod of 

it has passed by . as to keep a patient with a frui fined 

leg in ibcd, after the union of the bones is accomplished. Tile 

mind oi one and the limb of the other will never he lit for useful- 

i] , till b exercise, strength and vigour are imparted to them. 

■ 'The common amusements of the hospitals are useful and far 
better than nothing, but they will uol compare with labor a a 
mean of restoring the empire of reason or renovating the ph\ i- 
c.il powers. It i- true that "all work aufl no play, makes Jack a 
dull boy:" — ii is no less true that all plaj and no work becomes 
insipid after a while and does not give that healthy impulse to the 
mind, which the id 1 ot utility in labor is sure to impart. 

"I do nol wish a large quantity of arable land; 2'J acres added to 
our !>:•:■-•■ it supply. will d.>, but ,w J want 50 more of m?a.l >w and 
pasture laud to keep <tor,k to furnish nril'.i.fn - our patients, an. 1 
intuitu*; to raise the standard of our land to the highest pitch of 
productiveness. On 30 rods of laud we raised this year n7.1 worl Ii 
of produce, and the labor did not cost u - $10. We could raise i 
worth as well as not, i!' we had the land a! the same proportional 
expense of labor and we could have ready market for three times 
licit amount at the estimated price. 

■'Thus, my dear -ir. in a hasty and imperfect 111 inner. I reply 
t» your letter. Give us the means of einploymeni fir the insane 
0:1 lands and in shop* audi think we will exhibit re nits which 



87 



would grntifiy the public. 

•'I hope all the new institutions will look well to the matter, 
The commissioners to erect the Ohio Insane Hospital wrote to me 
that they had procured 30 acres of tillage land. I wrote advising 
them to add nO acres mare for mowing and pasturing." 

For additional details on this point from the same gentleman, 
and from Dr. Lee of the McLean Asylum, the reader is 
referred to pages l'j and 20 of the late "Report on the 
Insane. " 

Ln our next the experience of some foreign institutions willjbe 
detailed, corroborating in their extended attempts, the expediency 
of this course. Here we would stop a moment to anticipate an 
objection to the idea of the labor of the insane being ot any mate- 
rial value in the support of an asylum. It will be asked why, 
when our State prisons, as shown in the ten years reports of the 
Prison Discipline Society, with a body of healthy males in the 
prime of life, do not generally earn their ordinary cost of subsis- 
tence, a community of lunatic males and females, many of course, 
in uncertain health of body, under the influence of restricted diet 
or in sdictnal agents in many cases, or unwilling to work in some, 
should not be an absolute and total bill of expense? The answer 
to this natural inquiry, we believe, perfectly satisfactory. The 
nature of prison discipline renders it unavoidable that criminals 
should be engaged in manufacturing; — their manufactures 
must be connected with trading; hence all the uncertain- 
ties, lisks and agencies of these changing and precarious 
employments must be a necessary contingency of such establish- 
ments. They must enter into competition with other manu- 
factures, empoly commission merchants, suffer losses, pay 
guaranties and balances of interest, and in fact do all their 
commercial business at the greatest disadvantage. Once in 
a while, as these reports of the Discipline Society fully 
show, for a few years, a State Prison may pay a bona fide 
balance into the Treasury of a Slate, but general experience shows 
that these obstacles are so many and so great as to be fatal to all 
pecuniary profit. 

Now an insane asylum would be strictly a great agricultural estab- 
lishment, with this additional circumstance in its favor that every 
thing which was produced would be consumed within its walls. 
There would be neither agencies, nor losses of payments. Wheth- 
er money was plenty or scarce, easy or hard, it would be the same 
to its operations ; whether its products were cheap or dear, they 



88 



would be ever sure of a demand, and without risk of non-pay- 
ments. — How much a few well managed acres will yield is well 
known : and how many of the essentials and necessaries of life the 
labor of a few persons or a single person will produce on a farm, 
is obvious to any one who will east his eye round our State and 
witness a single man with perhaps some occasional help, bringing 
up a large family with all the comforts and most of the luxuries 
of life. It is not however pretended or expected that the labor of 
the inmates of an asylum should do more than reduce the average 
cost of the establishment. A slight reduction even as we have seen, 
will bring the actual expense below what it is now known to be. 
The fact that the Insane under the influences of suitable Institu- 
tions arc capable of doing much profitable labor and that with 
great moral and physical benefit to their condition, is one which 
is so important and new to the public in general, that we feel it 
necegsarj to make out this point decidedly and satisfactorily. If 
so established, it commends itself particularly to any who may 
doubt whether such provision for lunatics as contemplated can be 

afforded without great and serious expense to the public, beyond 

what their necessities or our ability should sanction, as well as to 
say. if any there are, who feel a repugnance that those should eat 
the bread of idleness, whose misfortune has too often as we con- 
fess, been brought upon themselves by their own folly, impru- 
dence or intemperance. 

In our last number, some results w«ro given from the experi- 
ence of the hospitals in this region of the United States. Here 
we will present some evidence from Europe where the experiment 
has been long tried and conclusively settled. M. 1'inel who de- 
serves to be honored as the father of the present system of hu- 
mane ami successful management of the insane observes; 

••That at the principal hospitals in Spain those of the insane ca- 
pable of working, are distributed every morning into separate 
parties, an overlooker is deputed to each class, who apportions to 
thorn individually their respectiv nplovinents, directs their ex- 
ertion-, and watches over their conduct. The whole day is thus 
occupied in salutary and refreshing exercises, which are interrupt- 
ed only by short intervals of rest and relaxation. 

The fatigues of the day prepare the laborers for sleep 
and repose during the night. Hence it happens, that those 
whose condition does not place them above the necessity 
of submission to toil and labor, are almost always cured; 
whiNt the grandee who would think himself degraded l>v exercise 



S9 



of this description, is generally incurable.'' 

The following facts are from Mr. Halliday's valuable work en 
the insane hospitals in Great Britain. ''It is not by seclusion an J 
mystery, that they can be properly watched over, or by confine- 
ment in the wards or cells of an hospital that they are to be cured. 
Experience has shown that a regulated intercourse with the world, 
and constant employment of the mind and body, are the best aids 
to medical treatment, and in the construction of every Asylum, 
these ought to be kept constantly in view. The great objection to 
the generality of the public Asylums in England, is their want 
of space for different work shops, and of a sufficient quant- 
ity of ground on which the patients can be employed in 
agricultural labor. At Wakefield the patients have uniformly 
been employed at their various trades, and in agricultural labor, 
and the best results have followed this judicious system. 
Dr. Ellis in a report remarks, that no accident has ever occurred 
from allowing- the insane the use of instruments necessary for 
their trades or occupation, and that while labor has tended greatly 
to lessen the expense of the establishment, it has also aided in 
hastening their cure. 

"At the Lancaster Asylum, all who are in a fit situation are em- 
ployed in such occupations as are adapted to their abilities and pre- 
vious habits, some in husbandry and gardening, getting stones 
and making roads upon the waste grounds adjoining the house, 
under the direction of attendants, and the women are employed 
in sewing, washing, and all household work. 

' 'At the Stafford Lunatic Asylum, with one hundred and twen- 
ty patients, they cultivate thirty acres of pasturage, pleasure and 
garden grounds. The labor is performed entirely by the patients, 
assisted by two attendants, and all the making of linen and mend- 
ing of 'clothes is done by the females— and the number of cures 
bears ample testimony to the judicious arrangement and proper 
treatment established in the Asylum. 

' 'At the Gloucester Asylum, many of the men are regularly em- 
ployed in cultivating the ground, and, notwithstanding they are 
entrusted with spades and other garden tools, no accident has oc- 
curred, not even among those who as carpenters arc allowed the 
use of edge tools. The females assist in all the household duties, 
and in needle work which, as the report states, is found not only 
useful to themselves, but also, most beneficial to the establishment. 

At the Richmond Lunatic Asylum, Ireland, the average num- 
ber for 1H27. was about two hundred and sixty: seventy three 



90 



were discharged recovered, thirteen relieved, and twenty-seven 
died. At the close of the year, twenty-five were convalescent , 
one hundred and thirty- two curable, and one hundred and twen- 
ty incurable. Eighteen patients were employed in garden' labor, 
sixteen in spinning, twelve in knitting, and eighteen at needle 
work; twenty-six were employed in keeping the house clean; 
twelve in washing, and sixteen in other employments, such as car« 
rying coal, white washing the wards, weaving, tailoring; twelve 
were learning to read, so that of two hundred and seventy-seven, 
not less than one hundred and thirty were actively and usefully 
employed. Daring the year not less than .'ilKS skeins of yarn spun, 
406 pairs of men's, and :!49 pairs of women's stockings were Unit, 
and of linen woven in the establishment, there were made by the 
female patients for the use of the inmates, ltd shirts, ISO chemises, 
115 pillow cases, ,",i; pairs of sheets, 58 roller. 38 bodices, .so night- 
caps, besides (he whole clothing of the male and female attend- 
ants. 

"The Armagh District Asylum, Ireland, had been in operation 
about two years. Average number of patients about 7ii. Had re- 
ceived in that period 14n patients, of whom 41 had been discharged 
cured, 9 relieved, 6 not relinved, 8 died, and 7G remained in the 
Institution, at the close of the second year. There are thirteen 
acres of land attached to the Institution, which is cultivated by the 
patients, and furnishes potatoes and vegetables for the consump- 
tion of the whole establishment. AH the linen for the house con- 
sumption is woven by the patients in the Asylum, and all of their 
clothing is made by themselves, The average number of patients 
employed daring the second year, is thus stated by the Superin- 
tendent. Mr. Jackson. Of the males in garden labor 12; weaving 
'■'>: tailoring.^; mat making 2; household work <j; whitewashing 
1 : and of the females in spinning flax (i; making female clothing 
8; washing 3; and in household duties 4. Total 48. Taking 7H 
(he number at the close of the second year as the average number, 
though it was not probably so large, nearly two-thirds were em- 
ployed'. "As employment," adds this intelligent Superintendent, 
is now generally allowed to be one of the best restorati- 
ves, every means has been used to promote it. Such as are 
at all capable among the females, are constantly occupi- 
ed at plain work, spinning, &c, and the division in which 
l here are most regularly carried on, is remarkable for its 
regularity and cheerfulness. The patients, with a few exeep- 
1 ions . seem happy and grateful. Avoiding all compulsion. I 



91 



mostly find a small premium has the desired effect." "Among 
the lower classes of the people, it will generally be found 
that useful occupation in the pursuits to which they have been 
most accustomed, is their best amusement, and such employ- 
ment the most salutary mode of recreation that can be resorted to. 
One of the principle objects kept in view in the direction of this(the 
"Wakefield) Asylum, has been to obtain for the patients constant 
and regular employment; and for that purpose, not only farming 
and gardening, but all trades, have been forced into the service — 
we have spinners, weavers, tailors, shoemakers, brewers, bakers, 
blacksmiths, joiners, painters, brick layers and stone masons, all 
employed. All the clothing is manufactured and made by them- 
selves; we bake our own bread, brew our own beer, and nearly 
one half of both male and female patients are constantly engaged 
in some kind of labor. The moment there is convalescence, the 
patient is enticed to occupy himself with his usual healthy pursuits, 
and indeed many may never begin to amend until we have induced 
them to engage in such employments. 1 am thankful to say, that 
this has been done, hitherto, without an injury of any conse- 
quence from our patient's striking another when they are em- 
ployed; and besides the great and evident benefit which such a 
system has had in the recovery of the patients themselves, it is a 
source of great saving to the institution ; for notwithstanding 
that we have for many years received only seven shillings a week 
for a pauper, a fund has accumulated, which by the end of the 
year will exceed three thousand pounds.' ' 

—Dr. Ellis. 
With respect to employment in this State, the great consid- 
eration would be undoubtedly to engage only in those pursuits, in 
addition to the multifarious and never ceasing employment of a 
great farming establishment, which would require neither any 
considerable outlay of capital , little superintendence or direction 
beyond the ordinary assistants of the Asylum, and no machinery. 
The branches of business should be ot those common and useful 
descriptions involving little trading operations, and directed as 
much as possible for the immediate wants of the institution itself . 
Yet with these restrictions, an ingenious manager would find 
no difficulty in keeping a portion of the inmates voluntarily em- 
ployed and interested. What situation would present greater fa- 
cilities for testing the practicability of raising silk in the domestic 
way? The planting, transplanting and cultivating the mulberry, 
collecting the leaves, feeding the worms, the preparation of the 



eoecoons, and perhaps the utlimate processes of reeling the silk 
&e. would all he practiable. Where could be found a more eligible 
Situation for the experiment of separating the sugar of the beet, 
now so much the subject of examination, the raising and prepara- 
tion of madder, or of various at present untried pursuits which 
eventually may afford employment and profitable returns to thou- 
snads of our citizens? Or if novel and experimental employments 
should not he preferred, the many already tried and proved 
branches of New England domestic labor would all he well adapt- 
ed to the peculiar family of an insane retreat, such as the manu- 
facture of palmetto and straw hats, brooms, raising and preparing 
teazles, &c. &c. &c. 

There is still another point of view in which the establishment 
of an Insane Hospital commends itself to the good wishes and ex- 
ertions of the enlightened moral and religious community of New 
Hampshire, In the present condition of the insane, they are all 
treated alike, as if like brutes, they had no moral sentiments to he 
guided, no religious feelings to he encouraged, no soul to be saved : 
There may he. it i> true, siidi forms of mental alienation that the 
whole responsibilities and accountabilities of the men are merged 
in the chaos of madness; there are other states of menial Imbecili- 
ty in which the intellectual functions are no longer capable of per- 
ceiving, nor the moral affections of appreciating right from wrong, 
good from evil. But it is no less true, that in a great many in- 
stances the entire mind is not wrecked; that though on some 
points — all may he confusion, wrong impressions, insanity, 
on many or all others there may remain an adequate de- 
gree of sanity. The public loses Right of this distinction 
almost always. The terms insane, deranged, are so compre- 
hensive with them as to include all forms and degrees of mental 
change. Our courts of Justice and JuroVs it is to he feared have 
not always conceived the exact degree of accountability of those 
whose mental soundness is affected; and that an individual may 
In' hopelessly bereft of reason on some subjects and yet undoubt- 
edly responsible and deserving punishment for certain oiHenees 
and crimes. For example; a lew years ago there was a barber 
in one of the middle states, who continued to occupy himself reg- 
ularly and cheerfully with his customers and to converse rationally 
upon all subjects except his own future and the universal conspiracy 
amongst his neighbors to poison him. lie cooked his own victuals 
and regularly every morning went about a mile to the river to sup- 
ply himself with water, which he asserted could contain no poison. 



since the fish continued lo live in it. Now had this individual de- 
tected a person in such a situation as would have led his diseased 
fancy to imagine him to he introducing poison into his food and 
had destroyed the supposed offender in the act, a jury would un- 
doubtedly have acquitted him and rightly'. But had this barber 
been proved guilty of larceny, or arson or any offence not connect- 
ed with his peculiar hallucination, he unquestionably would have 
deserved punishment. A case is now going the rounds of 
the newspapers involving this same principle. At a late term 
of the Supreme Court at Worcester, a Mr. D. was brought 
into Court at Worcester, on a writ of habeas corpus granted at 
his own request, and summoned the Physician of the Hospi- 
tal to show couse for his detention. Mr. D. managed the case for 
himself , able counsel being opposed. He claimed his release on 
the ground that he was not insane ; and in support of this position, 
the officers of the institution testified that his general conduct, 
since he had 'been with them, did not indicate insanity, that he 
was considered docile and civil in his deportment— conversed on 
general subjects with propriety and reasoned well — and ap- 
peared to understand fully his lights and duties as a citizen and 
rightly to appreciate his moral obligations. It appeared how- 
ever that on one subject he was exceedingly lunatic; this con- 
sisted in a kind of false hearing; fancying that he heard insulting 
and opprobrious language" and that even the musical instruments 
and bells chimed in, to ridicule and abuse him. Mr. D. explained 
all this on a fine drawn theory, illustrated with examples from 
books and natural philosophy, that he had a peculiar sensibility of 
organs . an unusual delicacy of ear that conveyed these sounds to 
him, while they were, as he admitted, perfectly inaudible to man- 
kind in general. lie exhibits no higher degree of wrath and ag- 
gravation than any natural man would do were the occasion real. 
On all other subjects he is rational and intelligent. He writes and 
converses well; and all his excitement grows out of this difficul- 
ty and the abridgement of his liberty, which he believes to be un- 
just and oppressive. No man would suspect his insanity if he 
were with strangers. The Physician of the Hospital, however, 
was not willing to hazard an opinion that he would be safe at 
larn-e with his impression and prejudices against some persons 
whom he supposes are his enemies; or that in case he should 
chance to be on trial for a felonious assault upon their per- 
son, there would not be sufficiant evidence of insanity to induce 
his acquittal on that ground for any charge which might be 



94 



brought against him, in reference to any of those individuals from 
whom lie conceives lie has received so much insult and oppression. 
On this ground, he was remanded to the Institution by the Court. 
In this case it is obvious, that the individual could not justly be 
held responsible for any crime which he should commit connected 
with the peculiar illusion under which he suffers; quoad hour he is 
undoubtedly insane and irresponsible; neither in the eye of 
God or man ought to be held guilty. But let him commit a for- 
gery or a theft, having no bearing upon the subject of his mono- 
mania, and there would be no reason why he should not he 
amenable to punishment; so far, sin committed under the 
same restrictions and circumstances, the individual above refer- 
red ti> would be justly answerable to the righteous law of 
God, and of that guilt, original or immediate, resulting from 
infractions and transgressions on the part of the unaffected 
portion of his intellectual and moral agencies, they can on- 
ly be cleansed by the acceptance of that atonement ''which takcth 
away the sin of the world." 

It has been found of late years that the introduction of religious 
worship and instruction can be accompanied with the happiest, re- 
sult-. As our object is to communicate facts, we prefer to intro- 
duce the accounts of those who have long and extensively tested 
and proved their opinions; their statements have a weight and 
authority which any comparatively less experimentally grounded 
views would not command. We will again quote from the able 
report of Dr. MaeDonald to, the Common Council of the city of 
Xew York, a document embracing the entire detail of what the in- 
terior arrangements and management of an insane Asylum should 
he: ■• It ha- been doubled if religious exercises could be intro- 
duced with advantage into asylums for the insane. From numer- 
ous experiments made in England and Scotland and 1 may add, 
more recently at our own asylum at Blodmingdale, the question 
i- now at rest. At least it is the opinion of the majority of persons 
connected with public establishments, that the precepts and conso- 
lations of religion may be made most useful in the moral manage- 
ment of the imuates. Chaplains are now attached to most of the 
large County asylums of England, which they visit at least once a 
week, when service is regularly performed. In Catholic countries, 
chapels form an essential part of almost all asylums. Here, such 
patients as are in a proper condition, attend mass once a week; 
a priest being usually attached to the establishment, where 
he permanently re-ides. It is now a year since religious service 



was introduced into the Bloomingdale Asylum, and it may be 
said to have answered the most sanguine expectations of the 
governor, and it is not surprising, that it has, when we consider 
that one of the grand principles in the management of the in- 
sane, is to treat them as nearly as possible like rational beings. 
This being acknowledged and the large proportion of people in 
this country being in the habit of attending religious worship, 
is it not reasonable to suppose that to deprive them of this privi- 
lege when removed from home and from the natural objects 
of their affections, will be to deprive them of one of the few 
consolations that are left? Setting aside the more lasting and 
important influence of religious service, and viewing simply 
as a moral agent in the treatment of insanity, as promoting 
order, as reviving long neglected habits or as continuing these 
that have been well established, it may be considered as an im- 
portant part of our regimen. Besides how important, it is in so 
large a household and among so many attendants and other 
persons employed to preserve decorum and regularity of habits, 
and to this, it must be allowed, that religous instruction con- 
tributes in no small degree. Almost one half of the persons 
in the Bloomingdale Asylum usually attend service." 

Dr Lee reports the following, as the result of this measure at 
the McLean Asylum over which he presides: 

"The experiment of allowing the patients to attend the worship 
of the family, thus far exceeded our expectations, and has 
been attended with the best results. 

"Ninety-five, out of the hundred and thirty-six, have attend- 
ed upon these exercises, and a large part of them with great 
regularity. It has been with a few exceptions entirely voluntary. 
It is regarded as a privilege and as such is eagerly sought. 
The slightest irregularity of conduct has been followed by the 
omission of the individual from the list for a few evenings, 
and the deprivation has secured order and propriety. Patients, 
who could not otherwise be kept decently clothed, have exert- 
ed their powers of self control to be allowed to attend. 

..It is now about two months since we commenced service on 
the sabbath. The clergymen in this vicinity upon whom we 
have called, have very cheerfully consented to officiate: their 
remarks to us have corresponded with those of other strang- 
ers who have been present at these exercises — "how perfectly 
quiet."' Several have observed that it was the most interest- 
ing audience they had ever addressed. 



"Fifty of the patients have been permitted to attend churcli 
on the sabbath, in company with the officers and attendants; 
the effect of these exercises, is, not only to break in upon the 
monotony of their lives, and to induce habits of order and 
regularity, but, to sooth the feelings, awaken the affections, 
and carry the mind back to the memory of other and better 
days; and also to cause them to recollect the infinite good- 
ness and all- wise Providence of God. If all are not edilied, 
mosl are interested, and all are attentive and respectful.'' 

Another extract, giving' the experience of an institution 
at Edinburg, will close our remarks on this topic, which we 
recommend to the serious and devout attention of the phil- 
anthropist and christian. 

'•In general from forty to forty-five of the patients at- 
tend divine service. Their conduct in the chapel might in- 
deed afford a salutary lesson to many in the possession of all 
their faculties. To these poor maniacs it is no light, trifling, 
or-matter-of-form business to engage in the services of their 
God. Disposed to look for indifference instead of affection from 
their fellow-creature*, and cut off from their business and 
innocent enjoyments of time, many of them go to the chapel de- 
lighted with the remembrance that there is a friend whom 
adversity cannot change. — a blessed Redeemer, who visits the 
humble apartment into which the parent or child cannot, of- 
ten dare* not, enter. 

■•The duties of the Sabbath have (by their own admission) 
occupied many a thought during the preceding week. When 
engaged in these duties, 'their cares and sorrows arc for a 
time lost sight of. and even the most wretched manifest, by 
their deportment, the soothing effects of religious feeling. Af- 
ter leaving the chapel, the duties of the morning form the 
subject of conversation during the rest of the day: and ser- 
mons heard in happier scenes are remembered and compared 
with that delivered to them by their chaplain. "Formerly, (partly 
perhaps on account of the surrounding stillness, the Sabbath 
appeared to be the most disturbed day of the week; ever 
since the worship of God commenced, it has been the most 
peaceful, and evidently the most delightful to the patients. 
••On different occasions individuals returned, some time af- 
ter having been discharged, requesting to be permitted 
again to join in worship with their former partners in afflic- 
tion: and several who either met the chaplain by accident, or 



called upon him, have testified, in the strongest terms, the 
happiness they enjoyed when surrounding the family alter 
during- their days of darkness. 

"The foregoing- general Statements might be sufficient to 
prove the benefit which the insane derive from religious ex- 
ercises, but a more minute account may, perhaps, be desired 
of a field but lately opened through Christian benevolence. 
To gratify such a wish, the following tacts may be stated, 
illustrative of the conduct of the insane in the chapel, and 
of the effects produced upon them by the worship of God. 

"On one occasion, in the middle of the sermon, a man 
subject to epilepsy sunk to the ground in frightful convul- 
sions. If any fear was entertained lest others might have 
been excited by the distressing spectacle, it was but for a 
moment; two of his companions, both generally restless and 
troublesome, voluntarily went to the assistance of ths super- 
intendent, and removed the unhappy man. Whenever the 
door was closed, the rest prepared again to listen with tin- 
shaken composure. 

"Mad nothing more been effected by divine service in the 
Asylum, than merely securing by this means to the insane, 
.luring- a peacful hour, forgetfulness of their sorrows, and, 
by breaking in upon the monotonous round of a solitary 
life, awakening early recollections, thus proving to them that 
they are still united with, and remembered by, their fellow - 
men, the benefit conferred upon them -n ould have been great; 
but the foregoing statements will prove that more has been ac- 
complished. The living are soothed and comforted, the dying 
have been strengthened by the service of God, and the oft 
expressed desires of many have been gratified : for, repeatedly, 
before the service of God was established in the Asylum, the 
patients, upon hearing the tolling of the bells for public 
Worship, remarked to Mrs. Mackay, the matron, how much 
they felt the want of religious instruction, and with what de- 
light they would have joined the multitude that kept the 
solemn holy day. They now receive the wished-for religious 
instruction, and meet in their solitary mansion to worship 
Him who is not confined to temples made with men's hands; 
and highly do they seem to value the blessed privileges. — 
MaV the happy effects produced upon them by Divine truth, 
be the means of directing public attention in the spiritual 
necessities of the insane in general, and dispose those to 



whose care they are entrusted, to introduce the service of 
the only Physician of the grieved in spirit into every simi- 
lar institution!'' 

There are several circumstances which would render the 
advantages of an Insane Hospital in this State very pre-em- 
inent, and its operations and management peculiarly satisfac- 
tory and unperplexing beyond most of them established on 
different principles in this country, and especially as contrast- 
ed with those of Europe. There a very considerable propor- 
tion of all the pauper lunatics are of the lowest and most 
degraded character, independantlv of their mental alienation, 
beggars, lazzaroni, beings in fact not so much elevated in 
the scale of existence as our southern slaves; human beings 
who have never been accustomed to bodily exertion, to any 
elevated reflection or to maintain any personal character or 
responsibility in society. 

With us on the contrary, however abject and degraded the 
present condition of the lunatic may be, we are almost certain 
in every instance that under the repulsive exterior, there is 
to be found a pearl which is worthy of the scearch and which 
will repay the labor of the polish. With us in New Eng-- 
land, there is none BO poor as not to have received some 
rudiments of education, of morals and of religious instruction; 
none so abject but that at some period or other of life, the 
attempt has been made to inculcate habits of industry, order 
and foresight. There is a foundation of moral and intellectual 
character, which however concealed and broken down by the 
rubbish of vicious propensities or mental dilapidation, en- 
courages the attempt to clear it away for a new and useful 
superstructure. In Europe, on the other hand, not the tythe 
of any such inducement can be held out for making exertions 
to relieve the insane poor, as with us. for when restored they 
are found hardly worth the labor and cost expended upon 
them. For example, a twentieth part of all the female pa- 
tients, admitted into La Salpelriere, the grand lunatic hospi. 
tal of Paris, are previously prostitutes; a still greater pro- 
portion are street-beggars and vagabonds of the lowest de- 
scription. There are also some horrible occasions of insanity 
on the heaven abandoned continent of Europe, which can 
only be alluded to here, which form the physical cause of 
no inconsiderable portion of the admissions to their asylums. 
In a vast majority of all the cases restored bv their skill 



9!l 

and care, a Pinel or Esquired could only hope to see them- 
selves rewarded by returning their patients back to those 
abject grades from which they had been received. Here on 
the contrary, whenever a lunatic is restored to reason, the 
advantage to the individual and to society is manifest and 
undoubted. There is no class amongst us whose existence is 
not as a' whole of advantage to the community; none whom 
we could spare without loss. It was well observed in relation 
to our last war, that opposing our citizen soldiers to the 
mercenary troops of Europe was staking guineas against half- 
pence; the illustration is equally good in contrasting the 
value of our restored insane with theirs. 

Again, the citizens of New Hampshire, from the local 
situation and persuits of their state, will have the satisfaction of 
knowing that whatever sacrifices and expenditures are made, 
for this object will be for the benefit of our own fellow-citizens 
almost exclusively. The institutions of other states are over run 
witli foreign paupers, for whom no sympathy or fellow feeling 
can be experienced other than which common humanity dictates; 
no conviction that in restoring them to reason we benefit ourselves, 
our posterity, or our country. In Massachusetts of 16-1 patients 
admitted during the first year of their operations 33 were foreign- 
ers; at Clooiuingdale the proportion is still larger. Here, it is 
not recollected that there are in the official returns more than a 
case or two of such objects. Our insane are of our own coun- 
try and kindred, and will always continue so to be to a great 
extent. Another circumstance which will render the operations 
of an Hospital amongst us paticularly satisfactory, is the gen- 
eral uniformity of condition amongst our people. No one who 
has not been familiar with the management of Insane Asylums 
can be aware of the embarrasments, perplexities and difficulties 
arising from the artificial differences of the patients founded on 
their wealth, standing, manners, &&. These distinctions which must 
be maintained in private institutions or in those depending on 
their popularity with the wealthy for their support, strike at the 
root of that system of classification which is so absolutely es>en T 
tial in the management of the insane: a classification which ought 
to be based on other conditions of the sufferer than his own or 
his friends pecuniary ability ; and which forms so important a feat- 
ure in the very ground work of the proper arrangements for any 
such establishment, as deserves a few minutes consideration. 
"The moral treatment of the insane, " — observes Dr. MacDon- 



1IM> 



aid of the Bloorr.'ngdale Asylum, "which in general terms is so 

comprehensive, and includes the various kinds of employment and 
recreation, the personal influence of physicians, superintendent, 
nurse; &c. in a word every agent brought to hear directly on 
the mind of the patient begin with classification. With- 
out it the whole management of an establishment for the 
insane becomes confused and irregular. Before adopting' 
any plan for building, some classification or other should he 
fixed upon and the internal arrangements made accordingly. 
Though until recently it has been scarcely thought of in the con- 
struction of asylums, yet classification is now justly considered by 
almost all persons of experience of the first importance in the treat- 
ment of insanity. There may yet remain, perhaps, some individ- 
uals long weiled to antiquated notions or blinded by favorite theor- 
ies, who can see nothing but vanity and amusement in the indis- 
criminate mingling of the insane. Hut the number of such think- 
ers is small and their arguments feeble. The chief of these is. 
that a maniacal will serve to divert a melancholy patient. This 
we approve of and this we seek ami effect by classification : while 
by the want of it there is perhaps a more heteorogeneous mixture 
than any other kind of society of equal numbers can present. The 
indiscriminate mingling of the mild and furious, clean and filthy, 
convalescent and idiotic, need only be witnessed to be deprecated." 
It fortunately happens that with us. those conventional distinctions 
which are the basis of unnatural classifications elsewnere are not 
to be found to any marked extent. There are no classes of society 
amongst us who are virtuous and respectable who cannot associate 
in every day life and on terms of kindness and courtesy. There 
would be still less distinction amongst the intrinsically equal in- 
mates of an asylum. Their exterior habiliments would be the 
same, the kindness and attention they receive would be identical, 
in that no preference or distinction would be felt or recognized 
except that arising from the grade, character and degree of their 
disease. It is well known that in the institutions established by 
private enterprise, or supported by private expense the rate of ex- 
pense rises with the means of the sufferer or his friends, and the 
accommodations, convenience ami comforts of the inmates are 
guaranteed according to this unnatural standard. This is a course 
naturally attended with invidious and unpleasant distinctions, cal- 
culated to have an injurious effect on the popular feeling respect- 
ively as well as on the immediate management of the institution. 
Whether some grades of compensation might not be introduced 



1(11 



according' to the actual cost of the patients to the institution, as 
might admit of consideration, but there should be no difference 
dependant on the parts of the patients, greater ability and least, of 
all on any superior grade of attention or comfort bestowed on any 
such account. An impression has obtained to a considerable ex- 
tent of circulation that if an insane asylum were established, its 
rates of charges for bad cases would be so high as to forbid the 
idea of those of moderate property being able to support their 
friends there. This very natural error arises from the high com- 
pensation necessarily charged in the magnificently expensive asy- 
lums intended for and supported by the rich mainly, elsewhere. 
The evidence we have adduced shows that no such result is to be 
feared of any institution based on the model of that at Worcester. 
Our view of such an institution designed for our people is that 
it should be a great agricultural family. Here there would be no 
opportunity for grades of respectability or differences of attention 
ami comfort, except that which would arise from the actual state 
of the mental and moral qualities of the inmates. The great 
proportion would be, from choice alone, agricultural labor 
crs, some to a greater and some to a less extent according 
as their health, and propensities might permit or induce. In 
such a great farming establishment as this would be, the luxuries 
of life, the delicacies of the table, and the splendid and ostenta- 
tious style of the furniture and accommodations; such as are essen- 
tial in some of our private establishments would neither be expect- 
ed nor desired. Every thing should be carried on in a style of the 
greatest simplicity and plainness. While on the one hand every thing 
which would add to the actual comforts or prospect of cure to the 
insane was scrupulously provided, there would be no room for the 
imputation that the inmates fared more sumptuously than the 
great bulk of those who would be compelled to contribute to their 
support. The great end and aim of such a concern would, as fai- 
ns its financial affairs are considered, if our view be correct, be 
that of the truly independent farmer, to live as far as possible 
within its own resources; to depend mainly for its subsistence, 
upon the products of its own territory raised by its own hands, 
leaving its receipts from abroad to meet its demands for salaries, 
wages, medicines, &c. &c; and to avoid as far as possible all 
trading operations or engaging in any business or pursuits in 
hopes of mercantile profit, which of course would be subject to the 
vicissitudes and losses of trade. An institution established on the 
unerring principles of a just and equal regard to the claims of all, 



Ml' 



and carried on with a single-eyed aim to its true end, unconnected 
with and uninfluenced by all circumstances foreign to its 
only object, the cure and ameliorating custody of the insane, 
could not fail to be a blessing to society and an honor to our 
state and time. There is a single circumstance which should com- 
mend itself to the serious and conscientious attention of those, 
who may not have fully investigated, or are in any doubts as to 
the expediency of voting in the affirmative of the above question) 
which is at ihe November meetings to be presented to them. This 
is the probable fate of this cause for the future, if from neglect, 
indifference or conviction of its inexpediency, it should not re- 
ceive the sanction of a majority of our voters ; a contingency which 
we can hardly, believe possible, and from advices from various 
sections of the State we are convinced is very improbable.- But as 
thi< is a cause which eminently stands on its own merits, offering 
HO inducements of selfishness, unconnected with factitious influ- 
onces, presenting no lucrative offices to be contended for, no rich 
endowment- to he managed, there can be little expectation of its 
being forced forward and urged through with that zeal and per- 
severance which personal motives naturally bring to an object pre- 
sented to popular suffrage. 

If the friend- of this measure rely solely on the mild and silent, 
eloquence of benevolence to wlii-pcr to the busy and hurried atten- 
dants of a town meeting that they should vole in favor of this ob- 
ject . they may find the voice of justice and humanity is too small 
to be heard amidst the din of local and political contentions. 
To judge what the future probable fate of all hopes at least for 
many year-, of seeing an asylum for the lunatic provided in (In- 
state, let u- regard for a moment the history of this movement in 
New Hampshire. 

It is well known that this subject has been before the public for 
a few year- only. Prior to this, little feeling and still less informa- 
tion wa- abroad respecting the condition of the insane, and scarce- 
ly anything wa- understood as to their treatment. They were not 
generally considered so much objects of commiseration themselves, 
as their friend- were. The repulsive, loathsome aspect of the lu- 
natic, his profane, ob-cene or unintelligible language, his mali- 
cious, violent and dangerous actions, his hideous screams and noc- 
turnal wanderings all united in rendering him an object of terror 
and abhorrence to be avoided, rather than of pity, or for (he ap- 
plication of benevolence. The first public appeal to the citi- 
o s.)/.nf New Hampshire w.i- made in thp annual message of 



103 



the late Gov. Dinsmore to the Legislature in 1832. It is so full 
of true feeling and genuine eloquence that it well merits a reperu- 
sal. 

•'There is" he remarks, "still an other class of sufferers far 
more deplorably afflicted, than any of the present beneficiaries of 
the State, to alleviate whose wretchedness is an undertaking highly 
worthy the exercise of legislative wisdom. I feel that no apology 
need be made, in an age so distinguished for its publie and private 
charities, for calling your attention to a subject, which has so mueh 
reason and humanity on its side as a measure for the security and 
recovery of the lunatic or insane. The Legislature of this state 
has never yet recognized these unfortunate beings as entitled to 
any special favor from government. The period indeed is not very 
remote when the insane were thought to be the victims of an incu- 
rable and hopeless malady; and before the establishment of suita- 
ble hospitals and retreats for their reception, they might justly be 
considered so. It is well known how delicate and difficult is the 
task, even under the most advantageous circumstances of "min- 
istering to the mind diseased." Great tenderness, discre- 
tion, temper, unwearied patience, and varied experience in 
mental affections, are with other qualifications, indispensable 
to success. When therefore the Insane are left as now to 
the insufficient means and incompetent skill of relatives and 
friends, or still worse to the negligence and indifference so of- 
ten exhibited in the treatment of patients of every kind in town 
poor houses, or when they are subjected as is frequently the 
case to the privations and solitude of a gaol, where attention 
is limited to the mere personal security of the individual, we need 
not be surprised, that a restoration of the mind to a healthy state 
should so seldom happen. The results of experiments in other 
states and countries are, however so perfectly well authenticated 
and so highly favorable, that no doubt can now be entertained 
that lunacy yields as readily to skilful medical treatment and prop- 
er regimen, when combined with judicious and humane care and 
attention, as most of the other diseases incident to mankind. Re- 
ports from some of the best conducted retreats in England and 
the United States show, that of patients received within three 
months of the first attack the propotion recovered is more than 90 
percent; of those admitted after three and within twelve months 
the ratio recoveries is as 25 to 45; and when the disease is of more 
than two years standing, the average of cases is somewhat less than 
30 per cent. These statements establish the importance ofhaving. 



104 



in some convenient part of the state, a place where patients of this 
description can be received, with as little delay as possible after 
the commencement of the disease and before improper manage- 
ment shall have aggravated its character and lessened the chances 
of cure.'' After recommending an accurate census of the Insane 
he further remarks; "Should. the inquiry be faithfully made, 
it is believed that these unfortunate persons would be found 
to be so numerous and their sufferings in the aggregate so great as 
to persuade every considerate friend of his species, that something 
should be done for their relief. They can look for help only to 
those whose official stations give them the means, as they impose 
the duty of watching over and promoting the happiness of all. " 

Pursuant to his recommendation, the first very imperfect re- 
turns were made to the succeeding legislature and in his next 
message Gov. D. presses the subject upon their considera- 
tion. "1 have never lost,' ' he says, the hope of seeing at an 
early period, a zealous co-operation of the several branches 
of the Government with the friends of suffering humani ty in 
prmoting a charity so plainly recommended by the principle 
Of our religion ami by every consideration of justice ami philan- 
thropy. While the most liberal provision is made for the victims 
of their own idleness and vice, with an inconsistency not easily ac- 
counted for, we abandon those who are afflicted with a calamity of 
all others demanding sympathy and solace, to a state of unallevialed 
wretchedness and almost hopeless incurability. From a somewhat 
attentive examination of the history of experiments undertaken 
elsewhere for the security and recovery of the insane, I have no 
doubl remaining that policy as well as humanity require of us 
something in behalf of that unfortunate class. — Our resources are 
fortunately, ample for accomplishing, tltis object, but should there 
lie an unwillingness to appropriate the state funds to the extent re- 
quired, there can be no doubt that a liberal and christian commu- 
nity would cheerfully supply the deficiency. Nothing could be 
more truly honorable to our state character, or give stronger proof 
that we are willing to assist in the triumph of m >der/n civilization." 

It was not to be expected that a subject so entirely novel as this 
to the great bulk of our citizens should be at once carried into ac- 
tion. The succeeding chief magistrate expressed his approbation 
of the .measure by assuming the language of his predecessor; an- 
other census more complete than the former but still far behind the 
truth was taken; some indecisive legislative action was had, indic- 
ative of a want of sufficient information in the premises, and the 



in;, 



topic was referred trom one session to another ; never rejected but 
evidently considered as requiring still further investigation. It was 
evident to the friends of the measure that a powerful change was 
working in its favor; the legislature representing, as it eminent- 
ly 'does in our state from the limited space of its sessions and fre- 
quent rotation of its members, the views, feelings and wishes of 
the people at large, evidently entertained a different view of its ex- 
pediency from that with which it had entered the walls of the capi- 
tol. The public press too had without exception evinced a true un- 
derstanding of the merits of the case and the tone of public senti- 
ment so far as expressed was in its favor. 

The session of last June was opened with far different impres- 
sions of the expediency of establishing a Hospital from those of 
any former period. A third census had been taken of the Insane, 
which carried conviction to| every mind of the horrible condi- 
tion and unexpected numbers of the lunatics. A circum- 
stance will show that even now when so many appalling facts 
have been collected respecting the number and condition of our ins 
sane, enough surely to induce action if any such facts can wake up 
our citizens, the returns in regard to them are exceedingly incom- 
plete and imperfect. Spending some little time at the McLean 
Asylum last week, the writer examined particularly the patients 
from our State, who were found to be nine in number, (about one 
sixth of the initiates,) and comprising some very interesting cases, 
the young, the beautiful and the educated. On my return home, 
examining the abstract of the three returns to the legislature, 
no less than eight of these cases, and several were of many years 
duration, were not to be found as having been returned! 

Facts also had been more generally spread abroad as to the exact 
measures to be taken in establishing such an institution as well as 
the results to be expected from it, deduced from the experience of 
parallel institutions elsewhere. Another chief magistrate gave 
his warm and decisive approbation in favor of immediate action. 

But there is left an object of public charity that perhaps mor e 
than nny other deserves consideration. I am happy to see the pub- 
lic attention in this Slate called to it, and the degree of zeal with 
which hundreds have embarked in a cause so interesting to human- 
ity. If it be the duty of legislators to promote the cultivation of the 
human intellect by providing for the general education of our 
youth— if it be their duty to provide for the sustenance of such as 
cannot sustain themselves — how much higher the obligation to fur- 
nish means of comfort for the poor insane? Bereft of reason, a 



II Hi 



simple supply of the wants of nature is not all that is required for 
them. It has been found that a certain course of treatment, under 
competent physical and intellectual managemement, may restore 
to usefulness hundreds who without such treatment will be for- 
ever lost to themselves and their fellow men. An Asylum in 
this State, at which provision can be made for the permanently 
deranged as for the recovery of those of whom hopes may be 
entertained, would do credit to the cause of humanity. 

"Such an institution, with the aid of an outset by the State, 
it is believed, could be so managed as nearly as to defray its 
expenses. It might be conducted under the State authorities, 
or it might be managed . by Trustees with such occasional 
aid from the State Treasury or from any fund provided by 
the State as should be deemed indispensible. The expenses 
of the State Government are almost exclusively defrayed by a 
direct tax upon the people; and it is desirable permanent 
expenses that can be avoided should be dispensed with, lint 
so loud the call of human suffering upon the generosity, if 
not upon the justice of the State, that it may be hoped 
the representatives of the people, expressing their wishes and 
feeling on the subject, will consider the time as haei in.;/ arrived 
when the foundation of truck an institution can be laid." The 
short session of the legislature necessarily prevented any decision 
until autumn, although from the prompt and unanimous readme-" 
with which I he report of the committee oil the subject was ordered 
to be published for Ihe information of the people and from the 
feeling generally prevalent, little doubt can exist that a large ma- 
jority of he representatives see their way clearly to take immedi- 
ate action on the subject. A proposition was made to refer the de- 
cision on this question, as one involving considerable expenditure 
directly to the people in their meetings; the friends of the meas- 
ure at once confidently accepted the issue, and by the almost unan- 
imous voice of their representatives the enlightened, humane and 
just voters of New llamp-hire are called upon on the seventh of 
November next to decide the question at the head of these articles : 
/.-• it expedient for the State In //rant an appropriation to Inula' on 
Insand Hospital? 

The consideration of the probable fate of this measure if then by 
any accident or indifference it should be rejected, will be contin- 
ued in our next. 

In our last number the belief was confidently expressed that a 
majority of the present Legislature are in favor of establishing an 



LOT 

hospital for lunatics in this State. The session of June was howev- 
er too short, an autumnal meeting being determined upon, to allow 
the expectation of any measures being then decided upon, and 
there seemed a peculiar propriety as well as an unanimous willing- 
ness that the final decision of the question should be refer- 
red directly to the voters themselves. Two motives co-oper 
ated in producing this unanimity; — those who had doubts 
whether an appropriation would meet the wishes of their 
constituents, would have the responsibility transferred where it 
would be willingly assumed, to the people themselves while 
the friends of the measure felt so confident of the favorable 
disposition of the community that they relied on them for so 
unanimous and overwhelming a voice in its favor as should justify 
a certain, direct, liberal and immediate appropriation, resting on 
no contingencies and shackled with no conditions, as would cer- 
tainly and adequately secure the objects. And nothing has yet 
occurred to make the last regret having so willingly and freely 
relinguished the hopes of this cause to the good sense, the gener- 
osity and the justice of the enlightened citizens of New Hamp- 
shire. Thus far, everything bearing upon its prospects has 
seemed to work together in its favor. If there were any who might 
doubt the ability of our comparatively small and but moderately 
wealthy stale to engage in this expenditure, the almost prov- 
identially deodand of the surplus funds, for which or even 
any potion of its income there seems as yet no other purpose 
hardly suggested or generally agreed upon, must have entire- 
ly extinguished any such apprehensions. This subject has, 
to the honor of our leading citizens and the public press be it 
spoken, been kept unentangled by and disconnected from all for- 
eign political or local considerations. Our public journals have 
all exhibited the utmost readiness to urge its claims; — our largest 
towns and villages have almost all held public meetings in its fa- 
vor. No open objections have been encountered, nor has any con- 
cealed or indirect opposition been heard of, nor is any appre- 
hended : but numerous, powerful and influential friends are ev- 
erywhere disinterestedly exerting themselves in its behalf. AVhat 
then, with every present prospect so auspicious, can endanger and 
eventually sacrifice this cause at the ballot-box? A single reason 
can by any possibility effecuatc such a result, and this is neglect 
and indifference on the part of those who have investigated and in- 
formed themselves on the true merits of the question. These, 
however it may be with others less informed, can have but a sin- 



108 



gle opinion on its expediency ; — from such, we have never heard 
any discrepancy of sentiment. But from those, who from situa- 
tion, inclination or accidents have never instructed themselves on 
the subject or who may have imbibed some of those vague preju- 
dices always floating in a community against such institutions, 
is it not right and natural to expect a refusal to authorize an ap- 
propriation? Such persons are not yet Satisfied of its expediency ; 
when in doubt, it cannot be denied that duty calls upon them to 
vote in the negative; they ought not, unconvinced, to vote away 
public property. It is such, from whom an unfavorable decision 
is to he apprehended, and such result can only be expected , if 
those who feel satisfied that this measure is called for by the pub- 
lic good, remain inactive and indifferent in convincing others, or 
who arc so deaf to what to them must he imperative duty, as to 
neglect depositing their affirmative vote on the question. 

If this measure now fails hefore the people, can any hope for 
its future success be reasonably indulged? Certainly [he General 
Court cannot he expected to act in direct and immediate contraven- 
tion of the expressed wishes of their constituents. If an appeal 
hereafter to the people shall he again suggested, what more favoi - 
ahle or promising concatenation of circumstances can ever be 
found than now concur in this behalf ? We can asl< for none, wo 
i an conceive of none. If with the conclusive evidence, the over- 
Whelming multiplicity of fads, demonstrating the expediency 
and necessity of an Asylum, and which are now new, startling 
and impressive, the public mind is not awakened and impressed, 
il will he moved hereafter when these piteous histories shall he a 
I lu-ice 1 1 ili | tale? Time enough has elapsed for the proper investi- 
galion of the tacts, for them to have a convincing influence if ever ja 
longer period will render them stale, flat and unprofitable.' Already 
the fate of scores of the insane has been sealed since this subject 
has been before our citizens for their conclusion. In those live 
years, many a curable case has been added to the gloomy list nf 
the hopeless, anil the aggregate woe. which might have been spared, 
of four hundred lunatics for that long period, what tongue can ni- 
ter or what heart can conceive? If while involved with all adven- 
titious connections, and Open to the exertions of all classes in 
politics or religion as well as in every local situation, the cause of 
the insane cannot force its way to general favor, how can it pre- 
vail when sectional, local, political or other adverse motives are 
arrayed against it, as may be the case hereafter? 

If with an overflowing treasury, so full that ingenuity has not 



109 

even devised any probable or generally received plan for its appli- 
cation, a doubt can prevail as to the ability of the people to meet 
such an enterprise, how can it be hoped for in that contingency 
of our state affairs by no means impossible, when there would be 
no funds except from direct taxation? 

If with the warm approbation of the executive in its favor and 
the concurrent feeling of both branches of its legislature, the peo- 
ple decline giving the authority for the appropriation, what pros- 
pect is there if any or all these bodies should be hereafter of dif- 
ferent views? An honest regard to these considerations, it is be- 
lieved, must convince the friends of the insane that the exertions 
they now make in their behalf are for the last time. If they are 
not now crowned with success, there can be no reason to hope for 
anymore favorable, future results: — duty would henceforward 
seem to prescribe for their efforts some other channel of benevo- 
lence, where successful results of good would not be so problemat- 
ical. This reflection too, that this is the last probable opportuni- 
ty of publicly benefitting this hapless class, should induce every 
voter when called to decide the question to act as he may wish he 
had done when next he sees the haggard inmate of some freezing 
cage or his hardly less to be pitied kindred! B. 



INSANE HOSPITAL. 

In our paper of this week we conclude a scries of numbers on 
the question of the expediency of founding an Insane Hospital in 
this State, which our readers will recollect is to be submitted for 
decision to the voters at the November meetings. The facts which 
have been adduced, evidently the result of considerable investiga- 
tion of the subject, we trust, have been candidly considered, for 
they would appear to form a sufficient basis for a correct judgment. 

AVe shall here present a brief analysis of some of the most 
striking statistical statements as to the number and condition of the 
insane, proposing hereafter to make some remarks respecting the 
results fairly to be anticipated from an institution, as well as the 
probable expenditures requisite for carrying the object into effect. 
We would here express our entire coincidence in opinion with our 
correspondent that there can hardly be a difference of sentiment 
on the disposition of this question among those who have investi- 
gated and examined it ; for apart from all considerations of human- 
tv and the distribution of equal justice to all classes of the un- 
fortunate, modern experience in lunatic asylums demonstrates 



110 



thai public policy and actual economy of expenditure are best sub- 
served by this provision for the recovery and safe custody of 
the insane. 

The number of lunatics actually returned in this Slate was :H2, 
and more than one-third of the population was not heard from; 
hence the entire number is no doubt over 400. This propor- 
tion agrees with the general results of other States in which the 
insane have been enumerated by census, and have been found 
tn be rather more than one in every thousand, without includ- 
ing idit)t« , imbeciles from old age, «fcc. Of these lunatics of our 
State about one quarter are known to be kept confined. Af- 
ter all, such a fact as that stated by our correspondent last week, 
shows that even yet the full extent of this evil is not accurate- 
ly- known: he remarks that on examining the insane inmates 
at the Asylum at < 'harlestown, Mass. recently , eight out of the 
nine citizens ot this State, bad not been included in either of 
the official retains of our insane! 

The condition of our insane as developed within a year or two 
is truly appalling. It is very similar to that in Massachusetts, a 
few years since, as reported by the Commissioners for erecting 
the Worcester Hospital, find no doubt the facts on this point aro 
identical throughout the country, wherever no public provision for 
Ibis unfortunate class has been made. If no other benefit results 
from the movement in behalf of the insane, the dreadful and fre- 
quently fatal cases of the insane of neglect and cruelty will be less 
likely to be repeated, since the attention of the public will he 
awake to such horrible abuses. 

IXSANK HOSPITAL. 
In our la-l weeks paper, we expressed our decided conviction 
that the time is arrived when some measures should be taken for 
the relief of the insane, and especially the pauper insane of our 
Slate, whose numbers and present condition have been found to 
speak so loudly. That such relief would be found in a Hospital 
for their cure and safe keeping seems proved by sufficient experi- 
ence elsewhere, and that this result can be obtained at a moderate? 
cost is evinced by the success of that at Worcester: in which if the 
detailed official reports can be relied upon, the actual cost of every 
patient, including every expense and contingency, does not exceed 
the probable previous charge of the same subject before entering 
the institution. If to this be added the probability of restoration, 
which would of course save further expenditure for the account of 



• Ill 

the insane and those dependant upon him, the relief of the 
anxiety of friends and the safety of the community, there 
would seem to be no room for doubt that the means of relieving 
the lunatic is of the highest and most unquestionable value, and 
, deserves to be imitated by all communities where it is practicable. 
We are satisfied that true policy and economy as well as humanity 
require that our citizens should express their assent to the pro- 
posed measure at the ensuing meetings. 

HOSI'ITAL FOIt THE INSANE. 

Most cheerfully do we comply with a request to insert in our 
columns the following call for a general meeting at Portsmouth, 
designed to bring out and so embody public sentiment, that it may 
be rendered effectual to the adoption of proper measures for the 
relief of a most unfortunate and pitiable class of the community. 
We rejoice to witness this movement by the intelligent and philan- 
thropic citizens of our commercial metropolis, and we trust it will 
be powerfully seconded by those in either sections. Every senti- 
ment of benevolence, every feeling of humanity demands that 
something be immediately done to ameliorate the condition, allevi- 
ate the sufferings and mitigate the woes of more than three hun- 
dred miserable lunatics lingering in the "night of living death" 
within our borders. But to effect anything, the popular mind 
must be aroused from the lethargic apathy in which it has too long 
reposed, information must be diffused among the people, and a 
full knowledge of the distress and wretchedness actually exis- 
ting among them, nine tenths of which might readily and at 
once be removed by the establishment of an asylum for the 
insane, be brought home to their bosoms; and for doing this no 
time can be more opportune than the present. The subject of 
erecting a Hospital has been repeatedly before our Legislature, 
and, at its last, a resolution making appropriations for that purpose 
was postponed to its next session. This resolution will accord- 
ingly again come before them ,and it is highly important that, ere 
the period for acting upon it arrives, public opinion in relation to 
the expediency and necessity of its adoption should be known and 
expressed. To this end the proposed convention is calculated to 
contribute, and we therefore hope it may be numerously attended. 
We hope also that similar meetings may be holden in other parts 
of the state. Would it not accomplish much for the cause, if its 
friends in Keene, Hanover, Haverhill , Plymouth, and other towns, 
will imitate the example of those at Portsmouth? 



11-2 



1'IBLIC MEETING. 



We tlie undersigned, being sensible of the extreme suffering- of 
the Insane Poor of this State, and fully impressed with the neces- 
sity of Legislative action for their relief, deem it our duty to 
call the attention of our fellow citizens to the subject. We, 
therefore invite those who are in favor of the proposed 
"Asylum fur the Insane"' to meet together in Portsmouth, on the 
first Wednesday in April. The hour and place of meeting will be 
hereafter designated and published. 

The object of this call is to fix public attention upon the impor- 
tance and necessity of affording to this unfortunate class ot men 
that relief which private charity cannot impart. This meeting is 
not intended to change public opinion. It matter not how strong 
may be the feelings of individuals in favor of relief for the Insane: 
their unexpressed, unknown, good wishes can effect nothing; 
they must be publicly manifested that they may have their proper 
influence on the Government of the state. It is well known that 
public opinion has been regularly strengthening in favor of this 
benevolent project. Many it is true, are still indifferent, but this, we 
are persuaded arises from ignorance of the situation of the Insane in 
our State; and we seldom, if ever, meet any one decidedly op- 
posed to Legislative .action for their relief. How can it be other- 
wise? I- it not established as truth, that in the State of New 
Hampshire there are at least two hundred and fifty insane persons, 
most of whom are exposed to the most intense physical sufferings 
some lying hopelessly in our County jails, many confined in cages. 
others in cellars and garrets, whose lives are one long night of 
darkness and de-pair, without one ray of hope, one gleam of corn- 
fort? Unquestionably it is so ; and equally undeniable is it, that 
had our Insane at an early period of the disease, been placed in 
an Asylum, more than ninety out of the hundred would at this 
time have been Useful, lespeclablc and happy ; and even now 
from one third to one-half of those afflicted can 'be restored 
to perfect health by the proper treatment in a Hospital, and even 
the incurable may be rendered perfectly comfortable. The conclu- 
sion is irresistible, that the intense suffering of the Insane arises 
not so much from the nature of the malady, as from inattention, 
ignorance, or neglect. 

With this conviction forced upon us by an investigation of the 
subject, it is painful to reflect that year after year passes away and 
nothing is done. The means of relief are in our hands, yet we ap- 
pear contented to leave the subject to the Legislature without the 



llf! 

least manifestation of our wishes that the means should be used. 
And it is not surprising that our legislature lias made no ap- 
propriation, when nothing- but indifference and apathy appears on 
the part of the people. The result of this procrastination is the 
continuation of the severe, unmitigated, and unneccessary suffer- 
ing of the Insane, and the daily augmentation of the numbers of 
those whose reason is quenched forever on earth. 

If the object be thus valuable ; if the common feelings of human- 
ity prompt us to exert ourselves, if a suitable provision for the 
Insane be a debt which the prosperous and happy owe to the af- 
flicted and suffering, let us not shrink from our duty, let us not 
delay the work by our indifference. There is a responsibility rest- 
ing on eacli of the citizens of this State. If, therefore, we do 
not accomplish the object, let us resolve that the failure shall 
not be caused by our apathy and neglect. All those in .other 
towns of the State who feel an interest in the condition of 
the Insane, are respectfully invited to attend the meeting, and to 
co-operate with the citizens of Portsmouth. [Signed by sixty 
four respectable citizens of Portsmouth.] 

[Although we regret that a feeling of hostility to so benevolent 
an object as the establishment of an Asylum for Insane, should be 
cherished in any part of the State, or that the efforts now making 
for thg amelioration of the condition of that unfortunate class of 
persons, should meet with opposition from any of the citizens of 
a community, celebrated for their benevolence and humanity, 
as are the people of New Hampshire, yet we do not feel at liberty 
to exclude from our columns, the communication which follows. 
The subject is one on which the people of this State will soon 
be called to act,— is open to discussion, and the writer, alth- 
ough his opinion on the subject is adverse to our own, has an 
undoubted right to be heard.'] 

For the N. H. Patriot. 
THE INSANE ASYLUM. 

The time will soon arrive when the inhabitants of the State of 
New Hampshire will be called upon to express their sentiments in 
public meeting, respecting the expediency of erecting and sup- 
porting an insane asylum in said State, and as this is a subject of 
no ordinary magnitude, it ought not to be acted on without cau- 
tion and consideration. Our Legislature, aware of this, have done 
themselves honor in referring the matter to their constituents, 



lit 



though perhaps under no obligation so to do. According to the 
report of the committee of the House of Representatives, there are 
in 1G1 towns which have been returned, 223 insane persons, all of 
which are found in HI towns, — 20 towns having no insane. Of 
(he 223 insane, 152 are supported entirely at a public charge, and 
the number returned as confined, either in cages, jails, close rooms, 
chains, handcuffs, &c. is 81, a few of whom are reported as some- 
times confined. The whole expense of erecting and furnishing the 
asylum, is stated at about $21,000, and the annual expense of sup- 
porting 120 patients in the asylum, at about $9,150 more. 
Now fellow-citizens, the question is, whether you are will- 
ing, individually, to pay your proportion of this sum of $21,000 
to begin with, and of the annual sum of $9,1.50 to keep the estab- 
lishment in operation. You will consider that though this project 
is foMiidcd on the principles of humanity and benevolence, yet the 
result i- doubtful; and though the anticipated benefit of the asy- 
lum, should never be realized, the rich, who always have their 
ways and tbeirmeans, would feel but little pressure from the taxes, 
whereas the middle class i^tlie poor exempted) would feel the loss 
more sensibly. It is stated by the Committee, that from informa- 
tion received from the superintendent of an insane asylum in tl.<! 
State of Xew York, that in a period of 14 years, 1777 patients 
were admitted, of whom 770 were cured, 319 improved, 130. died, 
ami 44.H were discharged, eloped, or considered as improper sub- 
jects. In a medical work (well known to the faculty) it is stated 
thai in a department of France, from the year 1804 to 1813, 2sot 
patients entered an insane asylum, of whom 604 recovered in the 
first year. 502 the 2d. 86 the 3d, and 41 in the seven following 
years, and of one twentieth of those who recovered, the slightest 
causes endangered a return of insanity. 

It is natural to suppose that those who are so unfortunate as to 
have friends who are ins:me, w mid clio >se to take care of them 
themselves, rather than to send them among strangers, though 
ever s ; > kind : and that most of the insane, who have homes, would 
phoo*e to live with their friends. Indeed so irritable are the 
nerves of some persons, that even the idea of being separated 
from their friends, and shut up in bedlam among a company 
of strange-faced lunatics, would almost if not quite, cause them 
to become insane, if they were never so before. All circumstances 
considered, would it not be advisable to postpone the building of 
an insane hospital, until more information can be obtained as to 
the real benefit of such an establishment? Especially as it must 



115 

be borne in mind that though hospital discipline cures some who 
are insane , yet in others it aggravates the malady. 

A VOTER. 
Meredith, Sept. 27, 1836. 

THE INSANE ASYLUM. 

"A Voter" falls into some.no doubt unintentional errors, in 
his communication. I say unintentional because the general can- 
did character of his notice shews that his views are honest, and 
result only from the evident fact that he has not inquired or re- 
flected much or long upon the subject. It is for this reason he 
advises a postponement "until more information can be obtain- 
ed as to the real benefit of such an establishment." 

He evidently mistakes his own want of acquaintance with this 
subject for a general fact. In this he is evidently in er- 
ior; the intelligent and sagacious citizens of New Hamp- 
s lire have not had this subject under consideration for five years, 
have not had it urged upon their attention by executive 
message, every year since, by report after report of their legisla- 
tures, by the continual efforts of the public press, by documents 
spread far and wide, by public meetings in almost all our consider- 
able places, with so little effect as to need any further delay for 
them to inform themselves. Is there any one point on which 
the fullest and most authentic data for action are not now before 
the public? The numbers, condition, expense, results elsewhere 
every thing which the most cautious prudence could require for 
judicious conclusion, are before the public and within reach of 
every individual who wishes to inform himself, and the facts have 
generally been improved: though it is quite probable that the at- 
tention of "a voter" has been too recently awakened for him to 
be aware how much in advance of him the great body of the peo- 
ple are. But "better late than never;" a diligent and serious 
attention to this subject during the Ave weeks now prior to elec- 
tion, may convince him that any farther delay is inconsistent with 
justice, expediency or humanity.. 

A very important error, (no doubt clerical) in his communica- 
tion deserves to be corrected; he states the number of the insane 
to be 223, when thece are, as actually known, 312, and in all hu- 
man probability (if the parts not heard from have as many as the 
rest of the State,) exceed 400! And probably over 100 are con- 
fined in cages, cellars, &c , # enduring tortures more than inquisi- 
tional. 



11C 



With respect to his novel, unproved and unfounded suggestion, 
that an asylum ever aggravates the malady ; — it there is ' 'the shad- 
ow of a shade" of any such evidence will 'a voter' produce it? It 
will'be then time to combat for a principle established for centur- 
ies and never before, to our knowledge, denied or even questioned. 
That a man who quotes a medical book, should hint so preposterous 
an idea and refer to it as if it had any where else been heard of or be- 
lieved — as one 'which must especially be borne in mind,' is proof 
that his medical studies must have begun and ended in the single 
Statement he lias quoted. If there ever was a principle in medical 
treatment grounded beyond dispute, established beyond gainsay, 
settled beyond a rehearing, it is this, in the words of the celebrat- 
ed medical jurisprudent. Beck, that it is the peculiar and melan- 
choly characteristic of insanity, which forbids any reasonable hope 
of cure unless the diseased subject is removed from his home and 
relative.-." A Bingle representation in this article savours of un- 
fairness The question is, he says, whether the citizens are will- 
ing to pay their proportion of the first cost and annual expense of 
a hospital? thus giving the impression that this institution is to 
COSt over $9000 a year to be received by tax from the people. The 
readers of the public prints and reports are aware that no such 
scheme was ever designed or suggested; thai no plan has ever 
been proposed in the legislature or openly elsewhere, based on 
having the inmates of ar Hospital maintained in any other mode 
than the present, that is, those having ability by their own means 
ami the poor by the counties, towns, or relatives liable for them 
selecting or declining the. proffered advantages of an asylum, as 
their own views of expediency or interest should dictate. 

••A Voter' speaks of the proposed hospital as if it were an ex- 
periment; no doubt he is sincere; to one unacquainted with the 
thorough, Ion" tried and successful results effected within 25 miles 
of our State line, it may all appear novel and experimental, but to 
those who iike a great proportion of our citizens Aaresome knowl- 
edge of the subject, there seems nothing uncertain or doubtful. 
The true issue before the people is not that stated by him. It is 
whether the people of New Hampshire, after their jna/twre deliber. 
at ion of five years, with every possible fact in the premises before 
them, anil in the light of exactly identical institutions in Massachu- 
setts and other states will bestow enough from their overflowing 
abundance to build and furnish an Hospital, which hereafter will 
be of little or no cost to the people at large, diminish materially 
the charge to those now burdened with the insane, restore almost 



n; 



all recent cases, ameliorate all, and save an amount of mental and 
bodily anguish beyond description or belief? 

ANOTHER VOTER, 

MEETING AT GILMANTON. 

At a large and respectable meeting of the citizens of Gilmanton, 
holden agreeably to previous notice, on the 17th inst. at the Hall 
of the Academy, for the purpose of taking into consideration the 
call of their fellow citizens of Portsmouth for a convention to de- 
vise measures for securing the establishment of an Asylum for the 
Insane in this State, after an address by Charles H. Peaslee, Esq. 
of this town on the utility, importance and necessity of the object 
proposed to be accomplished the following resolutions were intro- 
duced by a committee, appointed for that purpose, and unani- 
mously adopted: 

Resolved, That the success which has attended the providing of 
Hospitals for the reception of the insane in Europe and in neigh- 
boring States should stimulate us and our State government in this 
work of benevolence. 

Resolved, That the practice of confining insane persons in jails 
and in houses of correction with criminals and persons charged 
with the commission of crimes, discards the distinction between 
calamity and guilt, and punishes the misfortunes which it is the 
duty of society to relieve. 

Resolved, That since the cheering fact has been demonstrated 
that insanity is a disease easily cured, it has become one of the 
most imperative duties of every government to provide suitable in- 
stitutions for the reception and remedial treatment of the insane. 

Resolved, that we approve of the meeting to beheld at Ports- 
mouth on the first Wednesday of April next, pursuant to the call 
of the citizens of Portsmouth, and that John S. Sliannan, Jeremiah 
Wilson, Stephen Moody, John Ham, 2d. Andrew Mack, David 
Bean,Jedutlian Farrar, Samuel Gate and Peter Clarke be requested 
to attend from this town as delegates to said meeting. 

Resolved, That Nahum Night, Jonathan Clark and Caleb Web- 
ster, be a committee to draft a memorial and procure signatures 
to be presented to the next Legislature of this State in behalf of 
the unfortunate class of our fellow beings. 

THE INSANE. 
A meeting was held at the Court House on Thursday last on this 



118 



(subject 1{. Bradley, Esq. in the Chair, and Doctor Ezra Car- 
ter, Secretary. After the passage of resolutions approving of 
the object, the following delegates were chosen to attend the 
meeting at Portsmouth on Wednesday next: Nathaniel Bou- 
ton, Hall Burgin, Joseph Low, Charles H. Peaslee, Thomas 
Chadbourne, Richard Bradley, Theodore French, Ezra Carter, 
William Kent, Benj. Gale, Timothy Chandler, Cyrus Barton. Geo. 
W. Ela, Jacob B. Moore. E. E. Cuinmings. Samuel Herbert and 
Wm. Gault, 

HOSPITAL FOB THE INSANE. 

We regret, that we have not room in this week's paper, to pub- 
lish an account of the meeting held at Portsmouth on the 6th inst. 
The towns in the vicinity were most of them represented there and 
some of our largest of the interior. In addition, letters were re- 
ceived from about thirty other towns, and all of which, except two, 
represented the inhabitants as earnestly in favor of the erection of 
an Asylum and both of the writers of these, were in favor of the 
object themselves but thought it doubtful whether their citizens 
were. The meeting was addressed by Messrs. Cones. ( ireenleaf. 
r.artlett. Cheever and Burroughs of Portsmouth and Peaslee of 

( oncord. A farther account of the proceedings ami s) dies shall 

appear in our next, 

PUBLIC MEETING LN PORTSMOUTH ON THE SUBJECT 
<)1' AX ASVLl M FOB THE INSANE. 

The citizens of Portsmouth, anil delegates from several other 
towns ill ibis State, in compliance with previous public notice, as- 
sembled at the Methodist Chapel, in State street. Ports] th, on 

the evening of the Gth ol April, 183fi, 

The meeting was called to order by John Bice, on whose nomi- 
nation, Daniel P. DitouN was chosen President, and on motion 
of Ichabod Goodwin, William II. Y. Hackett was appointed 
Sec*y. Mr. Droun, on taking the chair, stated the object of the 
meeting: recapitulated the causes which had heretofore pre- 
vented the adoption of any effectual means to provide for the 
Insane of thi- Slate, ami noticed the gratifying indication that these 
ctfliscs were likely not much longer to exist, and expressed his 
sympathy in the objects contemplated by Ibe meeting. 



11 it 



At the request of the President, Mr. Chamberlain, Pastor of 
the Methodist Church, opened the meeting by prayer. 

Mr. Coues presented the following resolutions, 1. Resolved, 
That it is the duty of communities to relieve those calamities, which 
from their peculiar character and extent, are beyond the reach of 
individual benevolence. 

'2. Resolved, That well ascertained facts show that the disease 
of insanity is extensive, and that it yields to moral and medical 
treatment. 

3. Resolved, That- long and uniform experience proves that the 
most successful remedies for insanity can be applied only by means 
of a well regulated public institution. 

4. Resolved, That provision ought to be made by the Legislature 
of this State, for the erection of an Asylum for the Insane. 

5. Resolved, That a committee of nine, to be designated by the 
(hair, be appointed to correspond with gentlemen in the various 
parts of this State, and to act in concert with such committees as 
may be appointed for the purpose of calling attention to the wants 
of the Insane and the appropriate remedies. 

(i, Resolved, That a committee of nine, to be designated by the 
chair, be appointed to prepare a petition and procure signatures 
to be presented to the next Legislature, requesting an appropria- 
tion for the purpose of establishing, within this State, an Asylum 
for the Insane. 

7. Resolved, That for the purpose of diffusing correct informa- 
tion, it is advisable that the friends of the object of the meet- 
ing in the several towns in this State, be requested to meet in 
their respective towns, and to appoint committees of correspon- 
dence; and also committees to procure signatures to petitions to 
be presented to the Legislature in June next, for an adequate 
appropriation to defray the expense of erecting the proposed 
asylum. 

.s. Resolved, That the President and Secretary be requested to 
furnish to each member of the General Court a copy of the pro- 
ceedings of this meeting. 

The resolutions were supported, and the claims of the Insane 
upon the sympathy and aid of the people of this State enforced in 
addresses from Samuel E. Coues, of Portsmouth ; Charles H. 
Pcaslce. of Concord; Abner Greenleaf , Ichabod liartlett, Charles 
A. Cheever, Charles Burroughs, of Portsmouth ; and George Gard- 
ner of Exeter. 

The resolutions then passed unanimously. 



120 



The Chair announced the following named gentlemen to consti- 
tute the Committee of Correspondence, in pursuance of the pro- 
visions of the 5th resolution. 

Samuel E. Cones, Thomas B. Laighton, S. Chamberlain, Xehe- 
miah Moses, Charles W. Brewster, John Laighton, Elisha (' 
Crane, Abner Greenleaf , Charles A. Cheever. 

The Chair also announced the following- gentlemen, to constitu- 
te Committee to prepare a memorial, and procure signatures, 
in pursuance of the provisions of the sixth resolution. 

Charles Burroughs, Benjamin Carter, Jr. , Ichabod Goodwin, 
John X. Nutter, John Rice, John Christie, James Perkins. Rich- 
ard Jenness, Thomas Clapham. 

On motion of Andrew P. Peabody, Ordered, That the President 
and Secretary be requested to cause the proceedings of this meet- 
ing lo be published. 

On motion of Charles M'. (/utter, Orderd, That the cditiors 
of the several newspapers in this State, be requested to pub- 
lish the proceedings of this meeting in their respective journals. 

On motion of John Rice, Resolved, That this meeting now ad- 
journ without delay. 

Damk.i. P. Drown, President. 

YV. II. V. I lackett. Secretary. 

Mr. Geo. Gardiner, of Exeter, opened the discussion with a 
few remarks in approbation of the object of the meeting. 

Samuel K. ( 'ones. Esq., then introduced the resolutions with 
u statement of the facts in relation to the introduction of the sub- 
ject to our Legislature five years since, by the late Gov. Dinsmoor, 
and the results of the inquiries which that body ordered as to the 
number and situation of the Insane in X T . II. The returns made 
at the next session, presented, a mass of extreme and unmitigated 
suffering arising from the want of suitable provision for lunatics. 
But Mr. ('. continued— the subject was a new one for legislation 
and it was postponed until the next session. The subject 
lias been kept alive at each succeeding session, without any 
great increase of the numbers in favor of a definite ac- 
tion in favor of the plan. The chief obstacle has been 
the difference and apathy of the people. The Legislature 
appeared to wait for the action of their constituents— to as- 
certain their wishes ere they would make the appropria- 
tion. But remarked Mr, ('. — we are happy to see that the people 
are awakening to a sense of their duty. Tl.e interest in attend- 



121 

ing tliis meeting is a strong- evidence of the fact — for, about 30 
towns of our State are represented here this evening by letter or 
by delegates. The delegates and correspondence giving flattering 
accounts of the state of public opinion in their respective towns: 
and besides the papers are full of calls for meetings for this 
purpose, to be held in every section of the State. 

With regard to the number of the Insane, and the extent of 
their sufferings, he said that by the returns made in other States, 
corroborated by the returns from some sections of New Hampshire, 
certainly one in a thousand are afflicted with insanity. This would 
give to our State no less than three hundred unfortunate individu- 
als, most of whom are now shut out Jrom the world — incapable of 
its enjoyments — and in many cases deprived of many comforts 
which even brutes enjoy. No less than 70 have been report- 
ed in this State who are now confined in cages, cellars, in gar- 
rets, in outhouses and in jails — and this too of individuals who 
once adorned their rank in society, but now dismally secluded as 
the noon-day sun hides in the tempest cloud. lie spoke of an in- 
dividual who had been in confinement more than thirty years — 
most of the time in chains — his dirty pallet, like the dog's cot 
strewed around with the bones he fed upon. Also of a lady who 
is now a cripple, from many years close confinement. Of a hu- 
man being confined in a cellar, who had not been seen for months, 
and was led through a trough in an opening in the wall, lie also 
very feelingly adverted to other cases, in illustration of the suffer- 
ings of the insane; among them not the least touching was the fol- 
lowing, which few can read, without the tear of sympathy: — A 
gentleman travelling in N. II., was overtaken by a storm, and 
compelled to put up for the night at a farm house. The night was 
boisterous ; but the noise of the elements was not sufficient to shut 
from his ears the moans and cries of distress which seemed to be 
near the dwelling. The night was dark he could discover nothing 
from his window. In the morning he sought and found an insane 
boy, confined in a pig stye, retired to the most distant part to es- 
cape the storm, and yet continuing his mournful cry — "Father! 
Father"! 

Mr. C. remarked that the disease was a curable one. Experi- 
ence has shown that about 1)0 in 100 of new cases have yielded to 
medical treatment. The proper treatment cannot, however be 
bad, without a Hospital where experienced attendants understand 
the wants and mode of treatment of the insane; where they can 
be placed in such a situation, that in their lucid intervals they may 



122 



not be driven at once into madness from a consideration of (lie sit- 
uation in which they are phued. He made a strong appeal to 
those who live in the light of the present day, when facts so strong- 
ly prove the justice of the call of humanity for an Institution for 
the Insane: for if in future time the cages, the dungeons, and the 
chains of tlie Insane are suffered to exist in our State, it will be 
because we are indifferent to one of the most important subjects 
cif benevolence which can engage our attention. 

Charles H; Peaslee, Esq., of Concord, after the reading of 
the resolutions, rose and said; — That many of us were told last 
evening by a lecturer on this subject, that the present age is em- 
phatically an age of benevolence. He said it is true that the pres- 
ent age is no less remarkable for the liberality of the humane, than 
for powerful intellectual exertion and political revolutions. He al- 
luded to the relief which is afforded to the blind, the deaf and 
dumb, the poor and the distressed of almost every class; mid said, 
that even the idle and vicious, the guilty criminals of our peniten- 
tiaries, are compelled to acknowledge, (Mich had been the efforts 
of late to improve their physical, religious and intellectual condi- 
tion) that there is some disinterested kindness extant, and that, 
man does feel for his fellow man. lie did not wish to divert the 
streams of benevolence, but he considered the indifference to the 
wretchedness of our insane, which has until recently existed in 
thi- State, unaccountable, except it was from ignorance of their 
situation, while so much had been done to enlighten the heathen 
of foreign countries; and he thought it more strange that the same 
persons should pass heedlessly by the loathsome dungeon of the 
guiltless maniac, who were -o earnestly engaged in improving the 
condition of convicts. lie was rejoiced that the people were man- 
ifesting their determinaton that those who were devoid of criminal i- 
ty but deprived of their reason. Bhould not be much longer confined 
to our jails, with untried persons accused of every degree of crime, 
and to have a different treatment adopted towards our insane; for 
he said that the present was in its general tendency precisely such, 
as i^ calculated to lix the disease more firmly upon the attacked. 

The >ame remark he thought might be applied to our Slate 
which was made by the best authority in reference to Massachu- 
setts previous to the erection of an Hospital at Worcester, viz: — 
That were a system now to be devised, whose express object it 
should be to drive every victim of insanity beyond the limits of 
hope, it would scarcely be within the power of a preverse ingenu- 
ity to suggest one niai-p infallible in its general tendenev, than 



123 

that which has been, and is now in practical operation amongst us. 
He believed only two or three, instances of recovery from insanity 
were ever known during confinement of a person to a jail or house 
of correction. — Among medical men there was one point on which 
there was great uniformity of opinion, and that is, the im- 
portance of separating the patient from his family and cust- 
omary associations. But our insane must from necessity be 
either wandering about to the danger of the public, or under 
the care of their friends, or confined to jails or houses of cor- 
rection.— He maintained therefore, that the necessary curative 
remedies could not be had while we were destitute of an asylum. 
The institutions in Massachusetts were not at all times accessible to 
even those of our insane, who were able to pay the charges, it be- 
ing from $4.50 to $20 per week. AVithin a period of five months 
93 applications were made for admission at Worcester, of these 
47 were received, and 46 rejected, for want of room. 

It was the unanimous opinion of the committee of our Legislature 
in 1834, also the committee in 1835, to which this subject was re- 
ferred, that the expense of erecting a building like that at Worces- 
ter and furnishing the rooms, (calculated to accommodate 130 pa- 
tients) would not exceed $25,000 exclusive of slating the roof, and 
that the expense of supporting that number would not exceed 
$80 per year each exclusive of clothing. The number of insane 
in the 48 towns reported to our last legislature was 115, of whom 
53 were males and 02 females. The duration of their insanity va- 
ried from 2 to 55 years. The whole number of years all had been 
insane collectively was 1527. Of them more than halt were sup- 
ported as paupers, and about one-fifth by friends not legally liable 
for their support. In only 3 cases was the expense of support- 
ing them mentioned and these were town paupers— two of them 
cost $100 per year each, the other $3.50 per week. There was 
one town pauper supported at the private institution at Pepperell, 
but the expense was not reported. If the insane throughout the 
State is in proportion to the towns heard from, according to the 
population, the whole number would be 517. But this, he said 
was probably larger than the actual number, and not near all 
would be suitable subjects for an Hospital. The whole number 
of years of their insanity would be 7038. If nine tenths of this 
insanity could have been avoided, (and he maintained that 
nearly that amount could have been, had the proper medical and 
moral treatment been applied in the first stages of the disease,) 
the saving- to the State and individuals in a pecuniary point of 



l.M 



view would have been immense, to say nothing of tlic thousands 
of years of mental anguish also avoided. He then spoke of the 
blessings which such an institution would confer not only upon 
the insane individual, his family and friends, but also society at 
large, by returning some of our most talented and virtuous citizens 
to the duties of life. 

He insisted, upon the indispensable necessity of an Hospital to 
recover our insane, as proved by the experience of our own and 
other Static and statistical information furnished by reports on 
this subject . 

To imagine that the people of X. 11. if acquainted with their de- 
plorable condition and the advantages to be derived from such an 
institution would hold hack would lie a slanderous imputation up- 
on their humanity, their intelligence and sense of justice. He allud- 
ed to the Turk's answer, to the question of a Captain of a trading 
ship: Where is yeur jail for the punishment of debtors? who repli- 
ed ••that the believers in their prophet were above shutting np their 
fellow men in cages to persecute and torment them: that he hail 
never looked at one of our debtor's prisons without horror." Af- 
ter describing the barbarous manner, in which some of the insane 
were treated in States, where provision for them was similar to 

ours, and also tl xtremc sufferings of many among us, he said 

that such cases would not make au impression on I he same Turk 
either favorable to our religion or to our Constitution and laws. 

The plea of ignorance, he said could no longer avail us, and if 
We continued our present system we were equally barbarous, with 

those who who stoned insane to death. In tactile said sudden 
death were mercy, kindness, in comparison to the lingering one, 
to which the friendless insane were liable to he doomed by us un- 
der our present laws, lie was happy to perceive the interest and 
excitement on this subject which existed here and in other parts of 
the State — hoped it would continue, growing stronger and strong- 
er until it reached every nook and corner, and until it excit- 
ed our ( oivernnient to erect au asylum — to do an acl demanded 
by justice, humanity, economy and sound policy. 



Till". INS am;. 



We have -ecu a circular issued by the committee (consisting of 
i II. I'enslee. Concord: .1. Sullivan. Exeter; .lohn I.. Peaslee, 



12.') 



Meredith; Luke Woodbury. Antrim; George Huntington, Wal- 
pole: John Bryant, Plainfiela ; Ira Perley, Hanover; and Jared 
"W. Williams, Lancaster;) appointed under the resolution of our 

last Legislature requiring-, '-That a committee be appointed con- 
sisting' of one member from each county of this State— that it shall 
be the duty of each member of said committee to ascertain the 
number of insane persons in each town in the county in which he 
resides — how long each has been insane — whether such persons 
are supported at public or private expense — if supported as 
paupers, whether they are confined, and how and in what place 
and bow long, and at what expense is each pauper supported — 
and that each member of said committee shall furnish to the chair- 
man thereof, such information so obtained; who shall report the 
facts to the House of Representatives, during the first week of 
the next session of the Legislature. - ' 

We understand that one or more of these circulars have been or 
will be sent to individuals in every town in the State, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining the facts required by our representatives , that 
they may act more understanding!}' on the subject of making an 
appropriation for the erection of an Asylum. It is hoped, that 
every person, to whom these circulars may be addressed, will 
feel sufficiently interested to ameliorate the condition of this un- 
fortunate class of our fellow citizens, to furnish the information 
sought, as to the town in which he resides. The committee have 
undertaken to collect these facts without any expense to the State 
and it is presumed every one anxious to have known the situation 
of our insane, especially those to whom the committee apply, will 
aid them in the performance of their duty. Last year, only 4s 
town's were heard from; according to a resolution passed the pre- 
vious year, making it the duty of selectmen to furnish similar in- 
formation . 

It will be a long'. long time before our insane, can come forward 
to make known their wants, maintain their rights and advocate 
their claims upon the sympathies and charities of their fellow 
men : for however possible may have been their recovery in 
the. first paroxysms of their disease, could the proper curative 
means have been adopted, their treatment is generally precisely 
such as is calculated to increase their malady. Let not then the 
present attempt prove ineffectual. 



X. II. Patriot April 18, I SSI!. 



12H 
HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

Judging from its manifestations, the feeling in favor of the pro- 
posed institution,' for the relief of that suffering and distressed 
portion of our population visited with mental alienation, is rapid- 
ly and constantly augmenting in different sections of tne State. 
Besides the meeting at Portsmouth on the (1th instant, the proceed- 
ings of which appeared in our last, a ( ionvention of delegates from 
several towns in Cheshire county assembled at Keene, which res- 
olutions were passed approving of the contemplated project, and a 
circular memorial to the next Legislature was reported, adopted, 
ordered to be printed and afterwards circulated among the citi- 
zens .We are also happy to learn that at a recent adjourned town 
meeting in Portsmouth, the subject of Ihe Hospital was discussed, 
a unanimous vote in iis favor taken, and their Representatives in- 
structed to use all laudable exertions to 'procure its immediate es- 
tablishment. Our correspondent writes that the like result would 
be had in all the tow u- in that vicinity. Let the friends of , the 
cause persevere — success must ultimately crown their benevo- 
lent effort*. NT. II. Patriot April 25, 1836. 

[NSANJTY. 

few— very few ot Ihcg I citizens of this State have any just con- 
ception ot the extent of insanity within its limits. The number of 
insane i> stated in round numbers, to be 250. We think if all cases 
should he taken into the account, it would hi' found much larger. 
We believe there are in this town alone nearly twenty — many 
of them old and desperate cases, and others every hour becoming 
more and more confirmed in the dreadful malady. In all of our 
neighboring towns we can count about the same proportion and if 
there i- falling off in the other parts of the State, the actual num- 
ber canno! be, far short of 500! Not a doubt can be entertained 
that if these unfortunate beings could he placed in an institution, 
similar to those in other sections of the union, nine tenths of them 
could be cured arid restored to their afflicted friends. Who then 
will hesitate to bend every energy of his mind to the task? Who 
■u ill dare lift a linger to prevent that which duty, humanity and 
justice demands? If there is any in whose bosom still linger 
doubts, let him examine the subject dispassionately — Let him see 
what has already been effected and what is still to be done.— Let 
him go to the madman and behold his wretchedness — let him hear 



127 

his wild and furious ravings— examine Iris chains— the miserable 
kennel— the wretched pallet— the shrinking, freezing- wretch, and 
then reflect that he too may be soon his rival in despair. He will 
turn away with other and better feelings and outstrip the benevo-, 
lent in their attempts to do good. 

Portsmouth Gazette. 
N. H. Patriot May 2, 1836. 

To the Rev. Clergy of N~eic Hampshire. 

Christian brethren axi> friends, 

We take the liberty of calling your attention to the present con- 
dition and claims of the Insane in this State. It is estimated that 
the number of the Insane among us cannnotbe less than five hun- 
dred, nearly half of whom are paupers. Even members of wealthy 
families, who are visited with this malady, are often exposed 
to cruel neglect and intense suffering, — chained in out-houses, 
garrets and cellars — their food thrown to them as to dogs in their 
kennels— their personal comfort wholly uncared for. Of those 
dependent on the public for their support, some are entrusted to 
the care of the lowest bidder for the pittance of profit accruing 
from their board; others confined in narrow, dark, cold cells in 
almshouses; others and many in our common jails. The most 
comfortable condition of the imprisoned insane is that, in which 
they share the common lot of felons, and mingle freely in their so- 
ciety. Otherwise they are confined in cells, hardly opened from 
year to year, never fanned by a breeze or visited by a ray of sun- 
light, — exposed to all the inclemencies of the climate, and with 
hardly any furniture except a heap of filthy straw. The cases have 
not been wanting, in which the limbs of those thus confined have 
been frozen; and in one instance a deranged female was restored 
to her friends from one of the jails in this State, with the loss of 
both her feet, which had become so badly frozen as to render am- 
putation necessary. These unhappy sufferers, it must be remem- 
bered, have for the most part been brought to their present condi- 
tion, not by their own fault, but by hereditary predisposition, 
diseases of the brain, unavoidable accidents, harassing duties or 
overwhelming calamities. Many of them deserved well of societv, 
by tilling, while they were able, with exemplary diligence and 
fidelity, important posts of private and public duty. Insanity is 
now generally admitted by physicians to be a merely bodily disor- 
der and yields as readiiv as any other disease to skillful medical 



128 

treatment and a judicious regimen. But common physicians see 
in the whole course of their practice very few cases and cannot 
have iu the treatment of this malady the advantage which in other 
cases they enjoy, of frequent observation and extensive experi- 
ence. Moreover, in the most favorable private situations there 
cannot be that constant oversight, that security from the frequent 
recurrence of causes of excitement, that combination of congenial 
and attractive scenery, that minute attention to diet, exercise and 
recreation, all of which are found to be highly essential items iu 
the management of insane patients. The consequence is that out 
of the insane Hospitals cases of recovery are very rare; and in the 
great majority of instances, the disorder becomes exasperated to 
such a degree, that solitary confinement is the only resource left, 
even to humane and faithful friends. But in the hospitals which 
have been established for the the benefit of the insane in different 
parts of the country, nine tent hs of recent rases and at least one 
fourth of the chronic cases are cured; and, where the disorder i.+ 
incurable, the patient is restored to the comforts and enjoyments 
of civilized and social life. Even, those who have been confined 
for twenty or thirty years in cages in alms-houses and county jails r 
without clothes or fire, are now at large within the limits of hos- 
pital grounds, engaged daily in suitable labor or recreation, neat- 
ly clad, taking their tood in company, and sufficiently sane to in- 
voke the richest of heaven's blessing upon the humanity which 
has drawn them from hopcltss misery and restored them to peace 
and joy, A plan has bee*)! for several years before our Legislature 
for the establishment of an asylum for theinsanein our own State; 
but it has been from time to time postponed on the ground that it 
has not been called for by the people at large. Within a few 
weeks, large and respectable public meetings have been called in 
different sections of the State; resolutions have been passed fa- 
vorable to the object in question ; and preparations are making in 
various quarters to memorialize the legislature in its behalf at their 
approaching sessions. Believing that the object is pre-eminently 
one of Christian philanthropy, oue which, (were we to leave out 
of question the grounds of expediency and political obligation,) 
we might safely rest on the law of christian brotherhood, on the 
Saviour's definition of the term neighbor, we respectfully invite 
you to lend your aid in the efforts now in progress for the relief 
of this unfortunate class of our fellow citizens. We would beg 
you at some early opportunity to plead their cause from the pulpit r 
to present their claim to your several congregation*, and thus, so> 



129 

far as in you lies , to produce a simultaneous feeling and action 
in behalf of this object previously to the approaching' session of 
the Legislature. 

We remain, brethren, 

Yours in the faith and fellowship of the gospel, Charles Bun- 
ltouGHS, Rector of St. John's Church. Moses Howe, Pastor of 
the first Baptist Church. Andrew P. Peabody, Pastor of South 
Church and Society. Wm. B. Jacobs, Present officiating Cler- 
gyman of Middle St. Baptist Church and Society. Schuyler 
Chamberlin, Minister of Methodist Episcopal Church, Ports- 
mouth. E. E. Cummincs, Pastor of the Baptist Church. A. D. 
Jones, at present supplying the pulpit of M. G. Thomas of the 
Second Cong. Soc, Concord. John G. Adams, Pastor of the Uni- 
versalist Societies in Concord and ltnmney. J. G. Dow, Presid- 
ing Elder of the N. H. District and Minister of the Methodis Epis- 
copal Church, Dover. Samuel Hoyt, Minister of Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Concord. 

The foregoing communication, having been laid before the Hop- 
kinton Association of Ministers, assembled at Canterbury, April 
27, 1836, they hereby unanimously express their approbation of 
the same, and unite in recommending it to their brethren through- 
out the State. 

Ebenezer Price, West Boscawen . 

Abraham Burnham, Pembroke. 

Abraham Bodwell, Sanbornton. 

Wm. Patrick, Canterbury. 

Liba Conant, Northtield. 

Isaac Kkight, New Chester. 

Salmon Bennet, East Boscawen. 

Henry White, Loudon village. 

Samuel Nichols, Franklin. 

Moses Kimball, Hopkinton. 

Nathaniel Bolton. Concord. 

A. P. Tenny, West Parish Concord. 

Isaac Willey, Pembroke. 

Editors of Newspapers in favor 'of ameliorating the condition 
of our insane are requested to insert the above. — Ed. 

N. II. Patriot May 2, 183C. 

Insane Hospital. 
Atanieetiug; of the Union Association, at Bedford, May 10' 



1.1(1 



1836, it was resolved, that the establishment ot an Insane Hospi- 
tal in New Hampshire, as recently proposed, is a measure fitted to 
furnish important relief to a multitude of afflicted individuals and 
families, and worthy in a high degree of the consideration and pa- 
tronage of the Christian community. (Signed.) 

•loin M. VVhiton, Thomas Savage, Archibald Burgess, Nathaniel 
Kingsburv, Silas Aiken, Edwin Jennison , David Stowell, TSzra 
Jones. Amherst Cabinet. 

X. II. Patriot, May 23, 1837. 

Til sane in New Hampshire. 

The following extract from a Memorial in favor <>f a Lunatic 
Hospital, drawn up by the citizens of Portsmouth and designed 
fur presentation to our next Legislature, exhibits the probable 

number of per - within our limits, afflicted with that worst of 

all diseases, mental alienation : 

By the returns from other States, aud some sections of our, qwfli 
State it is ascertained, that one person in a thousand is suffering 
from that disease, at least in some of its grades. According to 
this estimate, the number of our insane, in proportion to the popu- 
lation of New Hampshire, would be about 280 Let us lake an 
other estimate, By the Selectmen's returns on the first June, last 
year, it appear-, that there wire then eighteen insane persons in 

that town; and thi> number did not embracc'thc whole list; yet 
this rat'o would make the whole number in the state to be 080, 
The returns to tbe Legislature, at ii- last session, from 48 towns 
imuh the number of insane in them, to,be 110. This proportion 
would make the whole number in the State 517. The average fof 
these loinputations would probably give with considerable accur- 
acy the appalling estimate ot at least four hundred maniacs in our 
State. This statement perhaps might be enlarged, as it is extreme- 
ly difficult to obtain correct statistical information on this subject; 
since somecases of the rnaladv may be mild, and hardly classed as 
such, and many, even severe cases may be studiously concealed 
from public knowledge. 1- not this number sufficient to awaken 
the humane interposition of the General Court? 

X. II. Patriot May 30, 183G 

Ifasjiitiil fur the Insane. 
. On Friday evening last. S K. Cms; Esq.. of Portsmouth, do- 



i:n 



livered a very interesting, forcible and eloquent address in the rep- 
resentatives Hall upon the nature and extent of insanity and the 
best method of treating it, in which he very satisfactorily showed 
that it was a mere disease of the physical organization, under prop- 
er medical and moral treatment as susceptible of cure as any other 
of the ills to which flesh is heir, and that this necessary curative 
treatment was beyond the reach of its victims except at a lunatic 
asylum — hence enforcing, with much ability, the utility, import- 
ance and necessity even of the establishment of au institution of 
that kind in New Hampshire. We have not time or space to give 
so much as an outline of his remarks which it would afford us 
great pleasure to do: it must suffice to say, that the discourse con- 
ferred much credit upon the speaker, and can scarcely have failed 
top roduee a conviction in the minds of his audience of the correct- 
ness, practicability, expediency and economy of the views it so 
clearlv and powerfullv sustained. 

N. H. Patriot June 13, 1836. 

The Insane. 

We published in our last paper, an address "to the friends of 
the Insane'" signed by a number of gentlemen, residing in differ- 
ent sections ot the State, urging the necessity of an Asylum and 
proposing the manner of obtaining the funds for so important and 
philanthropic an object. 

We hope it will be read by all, especially by those (if there can 
be such) who are opposed to taking the necessary means for the 
recovery, or ameliorating the condition of nearly five hundred of 
our fellow citizens, suffering most of them, all that is possible for 
human nature to suffer; and also hope that its publication in the 
papers of this State will induce a general simultaneous inqui- 
ry in every town and village, whether some additional provision 
ought not immediately to be made for our now wretched lunatics? 
Almost every Editor in New Hampshire is in favor of an Asylum, 
and no doubt w ill advocate its necessity, and if sufficient interest 
can be awakened, to occasion the reading of whatever is pub- 
lished in relation to the subject previous to the next session 
of the Legislature, and also an interchange of thought and 
sentiment among the people in regard to its expediency in a pecu- 
niary view, and our duty on the score of humanity and justice, 
we have no fears as to the result. If our insane cannot burst their 
bars, and come forward with their manacled hands and haggard 
looks and supplicate or speak for themselves— maintain their 



1S2 



rights and advocate their claims upon the sympathies andjchar- 
ilies of their fellow men; yet we have no doubt the people, lit- 
erally and truly the people, men of all classes, professions and 
pursuits in life, will at the next session of our Legislature pe- 
tition (in such manner as cannot be misunderstood) for an ap- 
propriation, on condition that ten or twelve thousand dollars 
be raised by subscription as proposed in the address alluded to. 

We have for two or three year- past published much upon this sul>- 
jiit. and $0 long as there is the least prospect of success, \vc 
shall continue to do so until an Hospital for the insane is erected, 
and especially until June session shall we devote weekly some pari 
of our paper to the accomplishment of the object. 

No individual written to lias refused his aid and hearty co-oper- 
ation in favor of the plan proposed — the following arc sonic of the 
communications received from Gentlemen too late to annex their 
names to the address as was intended. 

Lancaster, April 14th, 1838. 
< maim i> II. Peasli i . Esq. — 

Dead Sir: — In reply to your favor of the 9th inst., I would 

say thai I have for a long lime been in favor of having an Insai'e 
• Am Iiiiii ivithin the borders of the Stale, and believe it the duty of 
the Legislature to raise the necessary funds for its accomplish- 
ment ; Mill I would cheerfully aid the views of the associated Gen- 
tlemen with the little influence I may possess and you are at per- 
fcit liberty to make the desired use of ray name for that object. 
I am sir, very respectful!, Your obedient servent, 

John II. "White. 

Columbia, April l:i, 1838. 
CriARLES II. Peaslee, Esq. — 

Dear Sra: — Yours of the Wth inst. was received last evening — 
From the time, and even before, the first agitation of the subject 
of an Insane Hospital, 1 have been very decidedly in its favoiand I 
fully believe that the State ought to build and endow one, even 
without any contributions of individuals; and it is one of the few 
subjects on which I have never been troubled with a doubt. 

You are at liberty to affix my name to a circular for the object as 
specified in your letter, and have my ardent wishes for success. 

We have had the friends of all ' 'interests," mercantile, asricnl- 



133 

tural. and manufacturing, urging' the claims of each to public fa- 
vor and protection, while the poor, demented maniac is left to 
"shift for himself." this sught no longer to be suffered. 

Yours, dtc. in haste, 

Eph. H. Mahurin. 

Claremont. April 14th, 1838. 
C. H. Peaslee, Esq. — 

Dear Sir: — Your communication of the 11th is before me. 
Sir — [ have long felt an interest in the cause in which you are en- 
gaged, yon may be assured of my efforts and limited influence in 
favor of the noble and philanthropic object contemplated. I 
am willing my name should be used, but any further co-opera- 
tion must not be expected of me before the meeting of the next 
Legislature, as I expect to be absent from this State, most of the 
time until June. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

J. S. Spalding. 

Lancaster, April 13th, 1838. 
George Kent, Esq.— 

Dear Sir: — I received a letter, under date of, the 7th instant, 
from Messrs. Haven and Coues of Portsmouth, in which they 
say ''That an association of about 30 gentleman had been formed 
for the purpose of aiding in erecting a Hospital for the Insane in 
this State ; and that a circular address upon the subject was soon 
to be published, to further the objects of the association, with a 
request that my name might be used along with others. They 
further requested me to address my answer to you. 

As this effort is to be made for the relief of persons the most un- 
fortunate of our race, I cannot withhold my name, humble as it is, 
if it can in any way advance a cause, having for its object, 
the alleviation of human suffering. 
J am sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Adino. Brackett. 

Dartmouth College, April 14th, 1838. 

George Kent, Esq.— 

Dear Sir:— In answer to your inquiries respecting my serving 



134 



on a committee organized for tlio purpose of establishing 
an Asylum for the Insane, I will say that I shall he hap- 
py to lend the association any aid in my power and to do 
them any service which will not interfere with my duties in 
College. — If I can do any thing in the vicinity of Hanover by cir- 
culating a subscription paper or in any other way that might be 
thought advisable by the association , I shall be happy to co-operate 
with them in the furtherance of so laudable an object. 
Yours &c, 

E. 1). Sanborn. 

Shelbnme April 1411*. 1838. 
0. 11. Peaslee, Esq.— 

DEAR Sir: — Your letter of t ho April Kith relating to a Hos- 
pital for the Insane, has been received. The Circular prepared 
for publication, to which you allude. I have nol seen; but presume 
it will meet with my approbation. I am decidedly in favor of (lie 
erection of an Insane Hospital in our State, and you are at liberty 
to annex my name to a Circular in favor of such an Institution. 
Very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

Oi.ivki: B. Howe. 

A letter has also been received from the Hon. Joel Parker, of 
Kcene. saying thai the lion. Leonard Biscoe, of Walpole, and 
Pliny Jewell, Esq. of Winchester, had cheerfully promised their 
co-operation, and desiring that their names be added he added to 
llie circular. 

\. II. Patriot April 23, 1838. 

Tin-: Insane Am i.i m. 
■■Another Voter 1 ' appears to view some things relating to 
an Instate Asyliljn , in a different light from what I do. If we 
have not got the right of the matter, do let us get the right of it 
if we can. The general candor and urbanity of the style 
in which Ibis other Voter has penned his remarks, entitle 
them to a respectful consideration, and I am not disposed to 
call in question the rectitude of his motives; but his apparent lim- 
ited knowledge of the nature of things, and of that acquired 
by extensive reading, have led him into some unintentional 
errors, a« he said of me. — " Another Voter "says the vntelliqeM 



vx, 



and sagacious citizens of Hew Hampshire need no further delay 
for them to inform themselves. ' Who are these intelligent and 
sagacious ones? We might reasonably suppose that the members 
of the SLate Legislature would be included in that class, but if 
they had no doubts on the subject, why did they refer it to their 
constituents? ' 'Another Voter" says that I stated the number of 
insane persons retuned to be 223, which ought to have been 312; 
in this he is correct: it was an oversight, yet I do not consider it 
as an important error, as the number I stated was nearly double 
of that for which the annual expense is calculated in the 
contemplated asylum. "Another Voter" asserts that the idea 
I quoted from a medical book, that an asylum sometimes ag- 
gravates the malady, is proof that my medical studies began and 
ended in the single statement I quoted ; this remark, if not a quib- 
ble nor a quirk, is futile, and foreign from the merits of the cause. 
This other Voter asks if I will produce the eyidence that asylums 
sometimes aggravate insanity ; this he has a right to do. He shall 
be gratified. In BartletV s Synopsis, a late practical and valuable 
work on medical and surgical diseases, article or subject insanity, 
he may find the following statements, namely: Sometimes ma- 
niacal extravagance has a contagious effect, especially on recent 
insanity. Insane people often seem deeply impressed by horror of 
confinement with others insane. Will not insanity be aggravated 
especially in a house devoted to insane people, when the disease 
is partial?' ' &c. 

Another Voter' ' states that the sum of $9,150 annually, to 
support the insane, was never intended to be levied as a tax on 
the people, but to be paid principally by those who receive the 
benefit of the asylum. If that was the understanding of the com- 
mittee, it ought to have been explicity stated in the report. I am 
no enemy to the motion for building an asylum; I think the pro- 
ject reflects honor on the projectors, but I cannot but also think 
that this year, fixed upon to lay the subject before the people, hap- 
pens to be the most unfavorable that has been these twenty years, 
by reason of the scarcity of bread-stuff. A sudden transition from 
plentv to want, makes folks feel poor, if they are not so. Besides, 
as our legislature holds two sessions this year, we shall probably 
have state tax enough to pay next year, without increasing it by 
.an immediate appropriation for erecting an asylum. 

N. H. Patriot Oct. 31. 1830. A Votkr. 



1.1(5 



The Insane Hospital. 

Glancing my eye over the Patriot of last week, I notice that 'a 
voter' endeavors to sustain an assertion formerly boldly advanced 
by him, (the utter absurdity of which has been shown by 'another 
voter,') that Insane Hospitals are injurious to the lunatic in some 
cases, by a quotation from a little student's manual of med- 
ical practice, known as BartletVs Synopsis. As the sub- 
ject of insanity has formed the basis of hundreds of volumes, 
solely devoted to its investigation, it seemed sufficiently strange 
that he should attempt to establish a principle of such immense 
importance to humanity and public economy, by a quotation 
from a single book, and least of all from such an omnium iiather- 
ii m as this little epitome. Knowing however, that its articles on 
mental alienation, were prepared by Dr. George Parkman, long 
known as a most indefatigable advocate for these institutions, for 
several years the manager of a private one. and one of the prime) 
originators of the McLean Asylum, I was confident that there 
must be sonic mistake. On turning to the little volume, (not so 
very recent as 'a voter' would insinuate, having been printed 14 
years since,) with equal regret and surprise I found the extract 
advanced by him so garbled and mutilated, as to make it 
intimate what its author never could have intended. At best 
the alleged remark is merely thrown out as an enquiry, 
and does not bear a single tittle against a doctrine perhaps more 
universally agreed to than any other point in the whole theory or 
practice of medicine viz. the indispensible necessity of asylums in 
treating insanity . Here is the sentence: — "Will not insanity be 
aggravated, especially in a house devoted to insane people, when 
the disease is partial . &c," [with this &c. 'a voter' stops; reader, 
mark the rest,] ••when the disease is partial, not connected with 
the sufferer's habits, domestic affections or particular objects, if 
he is very susceptible, considerably intelligent, does not dislike his 
home or friends if his fears and disquiets are not kept up by the 
objects among which he lives, or by a strong passion, or if he has 
long lucid intervals?" A case uniting these possible objec- 
tions to asylum treatment may perhaps be imagined, but in ac- 
tual practice would rarely be met with; certainly never in a selec- 
tion of 120 worst cases from over 400! But enough of this;— to 
contend for the indispensible value of hospital treatment is as super- 
fluous as to demonstrate mathematically that five and five are ten. 
— It is probably injudicious to even argue a point, never before 



denied, lest the ignorant or the wrong-headed may think that there 
is some question or division of sentiment, when in fact there is 
none. Even the good sense of 'a voter' already sees the ab- 
surdity of his former hasty and unreflecting assertion and he 
now says he is a friend to an asylum, notwithstanding its dreadful 
effects he so lately apprehended! He now places his opposition on 
new grounds, viz. short crops. In the name of common humani- 
ty, shall it be argued to the independent farmers of our State, that 
when every article of produce is bringing a price far beyond the 
depreciation of the harvest, when there never was so general a time 
of prosperity as has prevailed for years past, when a flood of un- 
anticipated public wealth is about to be poured upon us, that they 
have an imaginary sensation of "feeling poor." The man who 
now feels too poor to do justice and love mercy never will feel richer 
even had he the wealth of Croesus. Can a better reason be given 
for immediate action than that the crops are short? The insane 
the pauper, may feel this; if 'bid off' and 'let out' will feel this, 
in unsatisfied hunger and starvation. And though prices are high 
their chains set no easier, their cellars are no lighter, their garrets 
are no warmer! 

But, says 'a voter,' the Legislature will have two sessions, this 
will make tax enough. If public sentiment grudges their rep- 
resentative his paltry stipend, hardly equal to his current expense, 
let it call upon their legislature to adjourn the moment they have con- 
vened and decided this question, rather than that the judgments of 
Heaven should be provoked upon us, as a people, for our deliber- 
ate, prepense barbarity and neglect of our insane brethren and fel- 
low citizens! 

A Physician. 
N. II. Patriot Nov. 5, 1836. 

Remember the Insane. 

Every friend of humanity and of equal rights must not forget to 
vote for the the Insane Asylum on Monday. The State is about 
to receive a large sum from the National Treasury, the interest of 
which for a single year will be amply sufficient, to build an asy- 
lum and to put it in operation. Not a cent will be required from 
the pockets of the people for the noble object. And who is there 
so destitute of humanity — so lost to sympathy — so regardless of hu- 
man suffering, as to vote against the philanthropic enterprise? 
Who will not rather record his vote in favor of breaking the shack- 



138 

les, and relieving from their dungeons, from filthy cages and loath- 
some jails, more tin. n 300 of his fellow citizens? It cannot, it 
must not he, tliat this enterprise is to he voted down, at a time 
when it can he carried forward without the least inconven- 
ience to anybody. Such a decision would he disgraceful to the 
character of our State, and a lasting stigma upon our people. 
****** * GT-*T. f * 

It has been calculated that the expense to each inhabitant of this 
Slate, to he incurred by the erection and endowment of a suitable 
Hospital for the comfortable accommodation, relief, and curative 
treatment of that portion of our insane, most likely lo become ils 
inmates, will amount to about. fire rents. Shall it not he cheerful- 
ly and promptly incurred? Let justice, humanity, a sense of what 
is due to ourselves and posterity answer! 

X. II. Patriot Nov. 5, 1886. 
'In mi. I'i.ii'.m>s of the Insane. 

The snbject of Insanity i- one of great importance, ttfjshoul 

I iic of deep and general interest. The condition and sufferings 

of the insane, when fully realized, must excit • the svmpathy.of 
every feeling heart. Deprived of God's most precious gift,— 
the distinguishing attribute of man, — Reason:— visited with a mis- 
fortune worse than poverty, and often added to poverty itself: — 
a terror, a disgrace, and an aversion not nnfrequeiitly even 
to their friends, and yet unable to take care of themselves, 
they appeal most touchingingly to the friends of humanity 
for protection. By a deep rooted prejudice, which almost 
believes them possessed of Evil spirits and smitten with a judg- 
ment from God, they are in agreal measure shut out from the 
pale of general sympathy. Tiiey are denied the rights of human, 
brotherhood. While christian zeal and philanthropy arc travers- 
ing the world for objects of benevolence, there are hundreds of our 
fellow beings, even at our own doors, who now suffer unheeded, 
and without an effort for their relief. While the law throws its 
shield of protection around the weak, and extends its supporting 
arm to the unfortunate, — while legal provision is made for the 
poor anil diseased, and the deaf and dumb, and blind, arc educat- 
ed by the public bounty,— the poor lunatic, though suffering under 
a misfortune worse than either of these, and more deserving of 



mo 

pity, is treated like a convicted criminal, and subjected to impris- 
onment and even stripes! Still more unfortunate, in their case 
disease instead of being a claim for compassion and kind treatment, 
becomes an excuse for injustice and injury. With a nervous sys- 
tem shattered and morbidly sensitive, they are perpetually and 
wantonly excited, instead of being soothed and caressed. Distrust- 
ed, feared, and shunned by all, they learn to shun and hate all, and 
the excitement which might have been checked by timely and judi- 
cious treatment, terminates in hopeless madness. They become a 
tax upon society, -a burden to their friends,-a misery to themselves. 

Several years have now passed away since public attention was 
first called to the condition of the Insane in New Hampshire. By 
direction of the Legislature, a Circular was issued to the several 
towns calling for information and official returns were made. 
From these it is clearly ascertained that there are now within the 
limits of this State, at least Three hundred and Fifty Insane! 
Nearly One Hundred of these are in confinement! They are sup- 
ported at an annul expense and loss of more than Twenty Thous- 
and Dollars] The situation of many is pitible almost beyond 
conception. Often chained and scourged, without crime and 
without right, as terror or caprice dictates, — shut up in cages, 
cellars, garrets and outhouses, — they suffer more than crim- 
inal rigour. They are deprived of the protection of the law, and 
placed under the ban of public opinion. When punishment is thus 
dictated by fear, and inflicted in imaginary self defense; — when 
conduct is so slightly controlled by self interest, or by public senti- 
ment, — we need not wonder at the perpetration of frequent enor- 
mities. We would not impeach the motives of the keepers of the 
insane, — we would not accuse of intentional barbarity, — but nev- 
erth'dess, with existing fears and prejudices, cruelty must and will 
be practised under the plea of necessity. The situation of these 
poor outcasts demands alleviation, for the facts are indeed start- 
ling, and thanks to a kind Providence, justice and mercy, economy 
and charity, public good and private interest, all point to the 
same end and the same remedy. 

The establishment of Hospitals for the Insane in several of our 
liberal and enlightened sister States, has settled the question of the 
curability of insanity. Their success has indeed been won- 
derful. Insanity is a disease; as much so as a fever, and no 
more. It is a little more dangerous, and may be cured almost as 
readily by timely attention and proper treatment. In either case, 
if not treated promptly and skillfully, delierium and death may be 



]4n 



the result. But if so treated within & few months after the first 
attack of the disease, more than nine out of every ten have been 
restored to health and' sanity. And all this has been, and may be 
accomplished at a cost but little exceding the present actual ex- 
pense of their support! 

Experience has shown too that a removal from familiar scenes 
and face', and a peculiar moral and medical treatment to be 
learned only by long and extensive practice, I are essential to 
success. Employments and recreations are necessary; liberty 
which sball not endanger safety, and restraint which shall not ag- 
gravate disease. These and other requisite- can only be found in 
:, Public Asylum. And how great a blessing to the individual, to 
families and to the community is such an Institution! Husbands 
have been restored to wives and wives to husbands, parents re- 
stored to children, and children to parent, all "clothed, and ill 
their right mind." Those who have only been a terror, a ;>;ricf, 
and a disgrace, have returned to their 1 tes a joy and a blessing. 

Those who were a burden and a tax upon the commu- 
nity, have now become active and useful citizens. Instead of be- 
ing useless consumers of the earnings of others, they are now pro- 
ducers; instead of being supported, they now aid in supporting 
others. They have been shut out too from religious privileges. 
— The light of hope and joy never broke in upon their 
mental darkness. Yet to them, for brightening the gloom 
of despair, awakening indifference or ca'ming excitement, 
religious consolations are doubly necessary and effectual. The 
\ nice of religion can ■ 'minister to a mind diseased,** when all oth- 
er voices are powerless. When all these facts are undeniable, does 
not philanthropy, does not christian duty, does not patriotism, 
does not even self interest demand the establishment in New 
Hampshire of an Asylum for the Insane? 

lint the question arise-, how can this be accomplished? In the 
present slate of things it is scarcely to be expected, even if it were 
on the whole desirable, that such an Asylum should be founded and 
wholly supported by the Stale. Experience proves that those Insti- 
tutions flourish best, where private influence and responsibility are 
enlisted in their superintendence. Individuals must commence the 
work, and lay the foundation. Let them unite their zeal, their 
influence, and their charities in its favor, and such an union will 
be irresistible. When this is done, the great public benefits to be 
derived, and the public honor involved, will undoubtedly deter- 
mine the State to grant a liberal appropriation In aid of the enter- 



ltl 



prise. The people will demand its encouragement by all suitable 
means. When Maine and Massachusetts, Connecticut and Ver- 
mont; when New York aud Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Ohio 
have already erected and endowed Asylums for the Insane; 
when Bhode Island and New Jersey, and even New Brunswick 
and the Canadas have been moving- in the good work, we cannot, 
w r e will not believe that New Hampshire will be behind all her sis- 
ter States in this contest of benevolence. The sum of Twenty- 
five Thousand Dollars will be nesessary to complete the work. 
But before the State will probably grant its aid, individual charity 
must bring forward its offering. Ten or twelve Thousand Dol- 
lars must be raised by private subscription. A small sum from 
each friend of the cause will easily accomplish it, and place the 
enterprise on a secure and honorable foundation. Donations to 
a considerable amount are already offered, and only await the 
organization of some body to receive and appropriate them. All 
things are auspicious to the success of the work. The more the 
subject is discussed, the more favorable is public sentiment. 
The longer other similar Institutions are in operation, the more 
satisfactory is the result. And as the plans, objects, and pros- 
pects of an Asylum in New Hampshire are being unfolded new 
friends are springing up in every quarter of the State, and with 
heart and hand they bid 'God speed' in the cause. 

But to effect these obects some organization is necessary, and a 
concentration of effort. A number of individuals, from various 
sections, all feeling a deep interest in the welfare of the in- 
sane, and in the establishment of an Asylum for their ben- 
efit within this State, have formed for this purpose an associ- 
atjon. — It is a voluntary one, composed of those whose 
opinions became known to each other, and is open to all 
who feel the necessity of action and relief. We wish an increase 
of strength. Time has not allowed a more general consultation, 
but accessions will be hailed with pleasure. We are only anxious 
that the donations offered shall- not be lost, and are prepared to 
sacrifice all minor considerations for the promotion of this object. 
The members of the Association be]ie\e that the present is aus- 
picious for the commencement of this work. They have 
pledged themselves to each other to use all their exertions 
and influence for its speedy accomplishment. They offer 
their gratuitous services to hasten this desirable end. In behalf 
of this cause they would now ask a contribution from the friends 
of the Insane— from every humane and liberal man: and they 



142 



pledge themselves fpr (he prudent investment of all funds re- 
ceived, sind for the fuilliful discharge of all the duties of the sa- 
cred trust. Application 'will be made at the next session of the 
Legislature for aid from the State, and we trust that with an en- 
lightened liberality it will be granted. Much however will de- 
pend on the success of this appeal to private charity. But even if 
nut granted this year, the fund now raised will be constantly 
increasing by the accumulation of interest, by legacies, by do- 
111111111-. and by new contributions. It will form a nucleus 
around which other charities will gather, and will soon swell to 
an amount sufficient for all the purposes of the undertaking. 
The foundation will be already laid, and the edifice must and 
will be built, — ONWARD. Let individual liberalty but perform 
its own part of the work, and the State by its bountv, must 
and will complete it. 

The friends of the Insane must now come forward . and yield 
their assistance and co-operation. To relieve misery is a solemn 
duty which the happy and prosperous owe to the unhappy anil 
anil unfortunate. The man who shuts his heart, or his purse 
Rgainst the cry of the miserable, maybe called upon to suffer a 
just retribution in hi.- unpitied misfortunes. The victims of Insan- 
ity are all around 11-. They are among our own neighbors, and 
relatives, and friends. Neither sex, nor age, nor condition may 
hope to e-cape. Neither rich nor poor arc exempt from the afflic- 
tion, (hough upon the farmer, the laborer, aad the mechanic it falls 
inosl frequently and most heavily. It may even overtake us, and 
sou e who aid in founding thi- A-yluni for the benefit of others, 
may sooner or later experience ii- blessed ministrations for them- 
selves or their friends. A gentleman of wealth, education, and 
talents, w ho once offered a large donation for this very object, lias 
since been -mitten with the disease himself, and a recipient of the 
same privileges be labored to extend to others. 

In behalf then of the Insane of New Hampshire, — of nearly 
nn K hundred of our own fellow citizens now lost to usefulness 
and to happiness ; who have few friends to step forward in their 
defence; — we appeal to you for protection and relief. They 
cannot plead their own cause — they cannot make known their 
own wauls and sufferings, but their cry has gone up to Heav- 
en and it will not be in vain. The appeal should touch the 
heart of every christian— every philanthropist — every patriot— 
every man who even regards his own best interests. Listen 
to their wild despairing moans, or frenzied ravings, and 



1-1; 



remember that "blessed are the merciful for they shall ob- 
tain mercy.'' The light of reason is dimmed but not quen- 
ched ; aid in dissipating' the cloud that is fast overshadowing 
them, before it is too late. Restore them to their homes, and to 
society, happy, intelligent and useful. Give back to the poor lu- 
natic the dearest of blessings, and remove a burden and disgrace 
from the community. Our sister States already have the vantage 
ground, and are now reaping the rewards of their liberality. Let 
not New Hampshire — our own New Hampshire, stand alone, and 
behind all her sisters in this enterprise of charity. Let us each 
strive to remove this opprobrium, and pledge our subscriptions, 
our exertions, and our influence that New Hampshire too shall 
possess an Asylum for the Insane. 

All donations received may be retained in the hand of the col- 
lectors, or forwarded to Charles H. Peaslee or George Kent, Con- 
cord, or transmitted to Samuel Lord, Esq. Portsmouth, who will 
act for the present as Treasurer. 

Charles II. Peaslee, ) 

•Joseph Low, } Concord. 

George Kent, J 

Charles J. Fox, \ 

Daniel Abbot, > Nashua. 

Edmund Parker. ) 

Joel Parker, ) 

Amos Twitchell, > Keene. 

Abiel A. Livermore, ) 

John H. Steele. Peterborough. 

John Conant. Jaffrey. 

Alfred W. Haven, ) 

Isaac Waklron, > Port.hm.outh,. 

Samuel E. Cones. ) 

John R. Reding, Haverhill. 



William Hale, 



X 



Dover. 



Moses Paul, ) 

Hamilton Perkins, Ilopkinton. 

James Thorn, Berry. 

Samuel Collins, Deerfleld. 

Josiah Quiucy, Rvmney, 
John Sullivan, ) 

\ Exeter. 
William Perry. ) 

Nathaniel P. Rogers, Plymouth. 

John J. Gilchrist, Charleston™. 

Joel Eastman, Conway. 

Stephen C. Lvford, Meredith. 

Henrv A. Bellows, Littleton. 

Niithaniel S. Berry', Bridol. 



141 



George Huntington, Walpole. 

Joshua Darling, Hermikef. 

Richard H. Aver. Hboksett. 

Charles ]Ef. Atherton, Amherst. 

John Chadwick , MiddMon . 

John Bryant, Plainfleld. 

Daniel M. Smith, Lew /jitter. 

Leonard Wilcox, Orford. 

Benning \Y. Jenness, Straffurd. 

William Plumer, Jr. , Eppivy. 
Editors of newspapers are respectfully requested to copy the 
above. 

N. II. Patriot April 16, 1838. 

Dictation. Mr. Prentiss attributes the defeat of the Insane 
Hospital to an attempt at dictation on the part of the "Patriot 
tolks."' "On all the Democratic votes" says he. "sent out from 
Concord, the question in relation to the Insane Hospital was stat- 
ed, and the answer 'yes' printed. This is not true. On all the votes 
first sent nut fur Cheshire, the question was not answered at all. 
Hut after the federalists had destroyed ^ great part of those first 
sent, their place was supplied by some which had been printed at 
the special request of some of the friends of the Insane, not hnv- 
ing any others on hand at the time. So in regard to Coos Coun- 
ty. The supply first printed being exhausted, those having the 
•'yes - ' ;it the end of the question were sent there. All the rest, 
with very few exceptions, were left blank. The whig tickets sent 
out from this town . all, we are informed, had the 'yes' printed 
on them. If the •/'•// /V/.v of old Cheshire could not withstand this 
dictation, it is not our fault. Hut it is not certain yet, that the 

I lospital ha- I n voted down. We have strong hopes it has not 

been. 

X. II. Patriot May 21, 1888. 

Tilt: INSANE. 

• 

A meeting of the friends of a Hospital for the Insane in this 
Slate will be held at the Unitarian meeting house in this town on 
Wednesday the 18th inst. at 1-.' past o'clock, P.M. A general 
attendance of the associates and all others interested is requested. 

< uncord. .June fi, 1S38, 



1 1." 



INSANITY; WHAT IT IS. 



In this, and in succeeding' numbers of the Patriot, we propose 
to treat of the following subjects, viz: 1st. What is insanity? 
2d. What are the most suitable means to be adopted for its cure? 
3d. AV r hat is the condition of the insane in this State? 4th. 
What course ought the people to take in regard to building a Hos- 
pital lor the insane? 

1st. What is insanity? Is it strictly speaking- a disease of the 
mind? Many regard it as such ; and perhaps a large proportion 
of the community are of the opinion, that the soul, the immaterial 
part of our nature is subject to disease like the material. It is not 
strange, that such is the belief with many, who judge of things by 
their appearance alone; and who seldom take much pains to 
draw any nice distinctions between cause and effect, when there 
is any liability of their being confounded. But to the man of 
deep reflection does it appear reasonable, that the mind, that es- 
sence from the Invisible One, which is destined to an eternal, un- 
corruptible existence, is forever liable to become a prey to the lan- 
guishment of disease? — that it is exposed to the casualties of life, 
like its frail tenement, which ''is cut down, and withers in an hour?'' 
As insanity is often but the symptom of some bodily disease, is 
there not reason for believing that it always is so? For ourselves 
we can conceive of no way to account for madness, but by sup- 
posing it to spring from the derangement of some bodily organ or 
organs, which convey impressions to the mind. How can it be 
otherwise? The mind can receive intelligence of the exter- 
nal world only through the medium of the body; and can re- 
ceive food for reflection only through the same medium. In a 
word all its perception, and consequently all the materials upon 
which it exerts its powers, and manifests itself, must be drawn 
from impressions made through certain organs of the body. Now 
if any one of these organs be disordered, the impression conveyed 
to the mind by such organ will be erroneous, and the act of the 
mind consequent upon such impressions will be wrong. This 
would constitute derangement; which has been defined, every de- 
parture of the mind in its perceptions, judgments, and reasonings, 
from its natural and habitual order; accompanied with corres- 
ponding action. " If the organs, which convey impressions to the 
mind are all healthy, we believe insanity can have no existence, 
in as much as the reflective and reasoning powers of the mind 
must, as we conceive, derive their support from these impressions. 



ll(i 



Tlie degrees and shades of insanity are as various as those 
of any other disease of the body; and its violence will depend 
upon the extent to which derangement of the bodily organs is 
carried. One with diseased perception will kneel to a post, as 
if it were a monarch ; and perform all the acts of the most 
humble suitor for his majesty's favor. Here nothing appears 
to be wrong, but the first perception; and all the reasonings, 
all the acts correspond to these erroneous impressions. Another 
from some d ranged impression conceives his neighbor guil- 
ty of some crime — or of an attempt at some crime, perhaps vio- 
lence upon his own person; and his reasonings are correct, in ac- 
cordance with such impressions; but his conclusions are wrung, 
because his data were false. This was most unfortunately the 
e:t8e with the monomn'ac and homicide, who was recently tried 
tor his life in this county. This unhappy man conceived, that 
all with whom he associated were leagued together against 
his life; and the result of this impression was the taking of the 
life of an innocent man in imagined self defence. Here the 
reasonings were just, had the impression been correct; and 
what was there wrong, but the deranged organs, which con- 
vex ed the impression to the mind? Again an individual may 
beli"ve all the fancies of the imagination to be realities, trans- 
form himself into a king or beggar, believe himself great or 
mean, just as happens. In other eases complete fatuity may take 
place. Thus it appears; that insanity is endless in the variety of 
its states; as it also is in the degrees of its violence. It otherwise 
makes it- first appearance in as great variety of forms — though it 
seldom makes its attack suddenly, or vehemently. One will lor 
.1 time show unusual elevation or depression of spirit — is easily 

irritated— discovers > eccentricity of character; until at last 

some particular hallucination fixes upon his mind, as the disease 
is more fully developed. Another is more cautions, shy, and tim- 
id than usnftl; distrustful of his friends, whom he thinks guilty of 
planning his destruction; or he may think himself haunted by evil 
spirit-, when little do his friends, much less himself, imagine that 
hi- disturbers are but the -evil spirit' of his dreamy imagination, 
which may e're long work him into raving insanity; seldom 
does madness commence 'vehemently,' and I may add seldom 
does it continue in the mild form in which it commences. By- 
some strange sympathy, when one faculty is disordered, 
others appear to follow in the derangement, until he who 
at first only excited the wonder, perhaps the mirth of 



1 17 



friends, by his strange deportment, becomes a wild and raving 
maniac — tlie unwilling subject of the straight jacket and the chain 
— the poor tenant of the cold and dreary cell, to be gazed at, and 
talked about by neighbors, who come to see the "crazy man*' in his 
wildness. We have considered insanity as a disease of bodily or- 
gans — and we might add in furtherance of this view the statement 
of Dr. Rush, who says "there are but two instances on record of 
the brain's being found free from morbid appearances in persons 
dying of insanity," which we should not expect if it were only a 
disease of the mind. A disease of the body, but how different 
from other diseases in which, while the body is racked with pain 
anil weakened by continued suffering, there is always a bright and 
watchful guide to minister to its wants — while this, whercall com- 
munications with those around is in effect cut off — where the di- 
rector of life is struck from his station — all the world without is 
arrayed in unnatural hues, and the world within is a continued 
scene of strife and turmoil. Indeed, if there be anything to excite 
our deepest sympathy — any disease which should call up our noblest 
efforts for its removal, it should be this, where the man devoid of 
■nan's noblest attributes goes forth in his uncertain wanderings 
knowing not, what he does. Come, then friend of humanity, go 
with us to the deranged man's cell, (it is near your dwelling) and 
as you look upon his worse then brute condition, consider with us 
the most effectual means for the amelioration of his dreadful state. 

"After the history that has been given of the distress, despair, 
and voluntary death, which are induced by derangement; I should 
lay down my pen and bedew my paper with my tears, did I not 
know that the science of medicine has furnished a remedy for 
it. and that hundreds are now alive and happy, who were once 
afflicted with it." 

When speaking of the seat of insanity, and of its phonomena, 
we might have mentioned the. intensity of suffering, which the ma- 
niac is doomed to experience. It is not true, as some imagine, 
that the deranged man is in a state of happy release from all '-the 
ills which flesh is heir to " Xo. '-That burning brow, that quiv- 
ering frame, that parched tongue, that dry and haggard eye, from 
which no tear will gush to give relief " for the torpid maniac feels, 
but cannot weep— that coward shrinking from imagined evil, 
th it wild, unearthly shriek, which rises so fearfully at times in the 
deep hush of midnight, all, every thing in the deranged man's ap- 
pearance betokens a state of exquisite suffering, of which the sane 
man can form no just conception. Yet he who has been afflicted 




148 



but mildly with hypochondriasis, may have some faint wfea of 
what one suffers in a single form of madness. And can one, who 
lias not only s.c<-ii friends and relative suffering under alienation 
nf iiiiikI. but who himself, like Lear, lias had occasion to cry 
out in his anguish, "I am bound upon a wheel of Are;" can any 
such person refrain from enquiring with eagerness, is there no 
run/ There i- a cure. Medicine has furnished a remedy for "the 
mind diseased. "Blessed science! which thus extends its friendly 
empire, not only over the evils of the bodies, hut over those of the 
mind of the children of men. ' * 

lu seeking for the most suitable means to be adopted for the cure 
of insanity, lei us be governed by reason enlightened by experience. 
Empiricism in this, of all discuses, should stand aloof, and let 
knowledge bear sway, [guorance should retire, and let science 
reign as master. In a word, they, and they alone, who make it 
a business to investigate and treat this disease, should as a gener- 
al thing have care of insane patients. For the mode of remedial 
management to be adopted in the infinite varieties of mania can 
not be learned by rote. Hooks cannot teach it : in them generali- 
ties only are deal) with: and the thousand minutiae to which one 
uiiisl direct his attention in any hope of success, hi the treatment 
ol this disease, can only be learned by long, and diligent attention 

i aniacal patients. Now such efforts, such attention is not to 

I x pec ted in the common practitioner of medicine. Mis field of 

practice is in one sense, too limited for this; in another too ex- 
l ended. It is too limited, in as much as he seldom sees a mad- 
man in his regular round of business; too extended, as he has to 
devote t< o much time to those, who arc afflicted with other diseases. 

And how i- it one becomes a Successful praetil iolier ill the treat- 
ment of any complaint? It is by experience coupled with knowl- 
edge lie may read a world of hooks, and yet fail to prescribe 
judiciously. Mi- eye, and his reason must labor for him, as we'l 
:i- hi- iiicniorv lie must see for himself, and pass judgment up- 
on each case as it occurs, lie must discriminate, and study the 
physiological and moral character of each patient in order to 
meet with that success, which will satisfy himself and his employer. 
Ii i- -aid of a Professor in one of the first medical institutions in 
our country, that he can tell with great exactness the general 
symptoms of all the diseases treated of in the books, and the mode 
of treatment in each disease: and yet if called to the sick bed. i- ;it 
:i loss what to do in the most simple case. He has knowledge and 
judgment, (tor he possesses an intellect of the highest order) hut 



It!) 



wants the experience, which would teach him how to apply that 
knowledge If this be so in maladies, which afflict the body alone, 
and in which the mind is left free to tell the weakness and failing 
of its servant; of how much greater importance is it that one 
should have extensive experience to crown with success his efforts 
in setting free the trammelled and imprisoned soul, which cannot 
speak its wants. 

The mode of treatment in insanity, as recommended by those 
who have made this subject their particular study; and who have 
long' been conversant with lunacy in all its forms, is of two kinds, 
viz. that which is calculated to operate directly upon the body, and 
that which operates upon the body, through the medium of the 
mind. In other words, the treatment is physical and moral, on 
the latter of which, it is now generally conceded, the greater de- 
pendence for a cure is to be placed. 

In regard to the physical treatment of mania, ''more*' says Dr. 
Mackintosh," is to be done by attending to the bowels, to the reg- 
imen, and to the temperature of the patient's body, than by hero- 
ic remedies, such as bleeding and blistering, exhibiting digitalis, 
and pcrsvering in the use of drastic purges." If this be true, 
and we believe the sentiments of this distinguished writer upon 
this subject will accord with the experience of all those who have 
been most successful in the treatment of this disease, we see un- 
der what disadvantages the common practitioner labors, when called 
upon to combat this powerful malady. He sees his patient for a half 
hour to-day, leaves directions for his treatment with the madman's 
friends, who, to say the least, are illy qualified for the trust with 
which they are invested. A mistaken tenderness on the one hand, 
and a more mistaken severity on the other, prompt them to vary in 
a slight degree from the strict prescription — and so slight a varia- 
tion in the regimen, or in the administration of medicine, cannot 
make much difference! (although the result of the whole treat- 
ment may depend on this slight variation) and on the physician's 
next visit, which may be threeA&ys after the first, he finds his suf- 
fering patient no better, perhaps worse. Here had the insane 
man been constantly under the physician's supervision, the result 
would have been entirely different. Further, the friends of the 
maniac, who perhaps never saw one mad before, cannot know how 
to adapt their management to the ever varying character of the. 
disease; nor can his physician, whose experience on this subject 
is of necessity very limited. No wonder then, that the medical 
man is obliged to acknowledge that not one in ten in his practice. 



I. Ml 



(it lie should ii I will i ten during a long life) recovers from ilii- 

malady. All these considerations prompt the enquiry: is there 

no better i le of treatment for insanity than thai practiced 

among asr 

The second class of means, moral means, which is considered 
the mosl important <>i the two, should accompany the first. Ami 
here everj thing' calls for the constant supervision of an expt rit need 
physician. The utmost discrimination is requisite in the adapta- 
tion of the treatment to the circumstances ever changing of each 
individual case. The physician must know when to bo 
kind, when apparently severe, when to humour the insane 
man's fancies, when to contradict. He must gain the confidence 
of hi- patient— which he onn only < 1> k > by being muc'i with him 
and then strive i<> sel free lii> imprisoned soul, which lub been in- 
carcerated in it- nun citadel, its servants having turned traitors, 
and false to their trust. Often a word, a look, an act judiciously 

perfori I, will break the chain of the lunatic's fancies, and 

bring back to their proper state his disorderd faculties A word, 
.1 look, .'in mi. iimy in like manner, when improperly per- 
formed, fasten more firmly the bonds wherewith he is bound, 
A friend - officious kindness — a k< epers barbarous severity — each 
may be the means of aggravating the disorder, which they him 
meant to enre Again old associations must be liroken up, to ac- 
complish which the patient must change his residence, his dress, 
his company — must leave scenes familiar, and which continually 
renew his erroneous impressions; and go where everything, as 
much :i- possible, soothes his excited brain. I'.ut without entering 
farther into minutiae in regard to the treatment of insanity; suffice 
it to say. that experience in the attendant and physician, constant 
cure mi the pari of both, wiili favorablencss of situation and cir- 
cumstances, are all important r squisiles, ( for it were vain to know 
flic means of cure, if we i mid not in our utter wan I apply them) ; 
and these cat ly be had in those Institutions, which are express- 
ly devoted to the treatmentof lunacy; in other words, in the In. 
'pane Hosp'tals. Is it the duty of the people of this State to grant 
an appropriation for such an institution? Let n-. before an- 
swering ilii- question consider the condition and number of the 
insane within onr borders, which we will do in our next eom- 
iii 1 1 11 ii vi ! i in. 

'•How dangerous i- it. that ilii- man goes loose! 

Vet niusi we not put the sirr.ni/ fair on him!" 

TlamM. 



151 



From a Report made to the Legislature of this State during 
June session 1836, we learn that returns in regard to the 
insane had been received from 161 towns, 141 of which had 
lunatics within their borders. The number of towns, includ- 
ing Grants and Locations in the State, is 234, with a pop- 
ulation of 269,000. The population of the 161 towns, from 
which returns had been received was 193,569 — about three fourths 
of the inhabitants of the State. — The number of insane persons in 
these towns was 312, or 1 to every 620.41 inhabitants; 152 of 
whom were supported entirely at a public charge. Taking the pro- 
portion of the insane to the entire population as given above, we 
have in the remaining 75,431 Inhabitants, from whom no returns 
have been received, 123 lunatics or 435 in the whole State. This 
estimate we are persuaded, falls far short of the truth, inasmuch 
as there are some towns from which it is known all the insane 
were not returned; so that we shall be safe, wo think, in placing 
th ! number of these poor unfortunates, who need our sympathy 
and aid at450. 

Finn- hundred mul fifty unhappy individuals! deprived of 
the light which reason would shed upon their path; in a condition, 
in comparison with which that of the most degraded heathen is 
truly to be envied; for the heathen has the light of nature — 
dim though it be — which their creator has given for their guidance, 
while these are not only cut off from all the civil and social life, 
but even their souls are shut out in darkness from all correct com- 
munication with the word of God. And shall it be said that in 
reaching forth with eagerness a helping hand to the unhappy and 
benighted in far-off lands, we stumble blindfolded over the children 
of want, who lie in wretchedness at our doors? Oh, should not 
charity begin at home? Should we not rather minister to the «uf- 
ferin"' among us, than go to the ends of the earth in search of ob- 
jects for our benevolence? 

Of th.' occupations of lunatics returned, no account was given; 
but from statistics furnished by the Worcester Hospital, we are 
led to believe, that while the disease under consideration attacks 
all classes indiscriminately, the laboring — producing portion of the 
community furnish much, very much the greater proportion of its 
victims. By the report of the Hospital mentioned made in 1836 to 
the Mass. Legislature, it appears that of 260 inmates, there were 
52 farmers— 57 common laborers— 18 manufacturers — 16 seamen — 
68 mechanics — with only 37 merchants, teachers, professional men 
nd vagrants. By a report of the same institution, made in 1837. it 



lo-2 

appears that out of 401 inmates there were 41 merchants and pro- 
fessional men, and 360 farmers, mechanics, &c. — Such are the oc- 
cupations of maniacs who have heen admitted to one of the first 
Hospitals in our country ; and were we in a condition to know, 
we doubt not we should find quite as great a proportion of the in- 
sane among us from the producing classes. What a motive is here 
presented for the yeomanry of the Granite State to lend their aid 
in behalf of the insane! — The disease is one to which they, as well 
as others are liable. And will not //(('//—the free hearted— the high 
soulcd — the pride and hope Of the land — they to whom the country 
ever looks for strength — will not they come up to the work in a 
cause like Ihis? The disease is one to which all are liable : for no man 
has the holy, averting mark of blond upon his lintel and doorposts 
to stay the hand of the destroying angel in his progress. Indeed 
all. of all aj:es and circumstances, may be suddenly struck with 
madness. We have -ecu one in the heyday of youth, with the blush 
of health yet fresh upon his cheek, and his pulse yet beating free 
:iud bounding with joyousness and excitement ; and while every 
thing bespoke a heart of happiness, in a moment "a change came 

o\ er the spirit of his dream - ' ' the destroyer broke in upon his glee, 
and left a dark and dreary waste to tell who had been there. All- 
Other in manhood's pride, busy, and active, and useful, in the 
midst of hi- exertion for good, has bad the light within him turned 
into darkness ; while a third in the eve of life, whose morn and 
midday had been -weet ly serene, lias seen his sun go down in 
clouds ot despair, mad despair. All ••from the first born of Pha- 
roah, that sittclh unto his throne, even upon the first born of the 
maid servant, that is behind the mill" may be subject to the at- 
tacks of this dreadful malady. 
Ii is an uninviting task at any time to draw the veil from misery, 

anil show it in it- nakedness to the world: yet when dut\ calls, we 
should not hesitate even iii this business. And now who can jusf- 
ly paint the c mdition of the lunatics within our borders? On this 
subject, if on no other.it may with propriety be said, "truth is 
strange, stranger than fiction."' So strange is it, that they who 
are not conversant with this subject, would accuse us of uross ex- 
aggeration , if we should represent the condition of the insane 
among us just as it is. Vet. we had almost said, the most fertile 
imagination would fail to conjure up any thin<>- more dreadful, 
more hcartsickening than the state of madmen in New Hampshire, 
and in other States, where no proper provision is made for their 
treatment. But we will not say their condition is any worse, than 



153 



in the present state of things, we should expect. No doubt the 
best is done for them, which under existing circumstances can be 
done. But come, ye who are incredulous in regard to the madman's 
suffering condition, go with us and unbar his dreary cell, would 
that we could at the same time open the portals of his mind, and 
let the heavenly light of reason in — but hark! hear that wild and 
hollow laugh (it is not of joy, but of madness) which rings out so 
startling from his abode of wretchedness. — There sits the unhappy 
man, upon his filthy straw , his once beautiful hair hanging tangled 
and gorgon-like down upon his broad pale brow, and around his 
wan and wasted cheeks, which were once as plump and fair as 
yours— his eyes, which now are wild and bloodshot, once beamed 
with intelligence — that book over which he poured at our entrance 
he lias had fur weeks, and long, long hours will he gaze intently 
upon iN pages, as though he read there his doom — his chain] is 
he a felon, that he must lie, chained and manacled, in this cold, 
tireless dungeon, into which the sweet light of heaven never en- 
ters, except in scattered, struggling rays? how smooth and pol- 
ished it is by his continued action upon it— (this is not the only 
madman that loves to wear a '.littering chain) — his dress, it is as 
good as prudence dare furnish. You see him now ; but he was not 
always thus. He was once our school fellow, and a kind and am- 
iable boy was he — his father's pride and hope. All who knew him 
loved him, he was so good and obliging, and besides, as he arrived 
at manhood, his lips were never opened but to instruct and delight. 
But now fiom an injury he received when at work for his father, 
|i3 lias become a maniac and you see his condition. This is no 
fancy sketch which we have drawn, but the unvarnished truth. 
We give another. When travelling a short time since through the 
town of —we saw. by the dim light of evening, an objacl lying at 
length in the horse path. It was a female, who had fallen there 
in a ti', and who might have been crushed by the stage coach, had 
not the driver'-; quick eye detected her in season to check his hors- 
es. Her person was so exposed, that we restrained the ladies in 
the coach from the indelicate sight. The neighbors said she 
was "crazy,'' and subject at times, to (its; but as she never 
injured any one slie was suffered to go at large. Poor creat- 
ure; alas for thee, that there is no friendly asylum for thy resting 
place. We might goon multiplying instance upon instance like 
these to show the pitiable state of the insane in this community. 
There are now within two miles of where we write, five individu- 
als afflicted with manh, three of whom are confined in cheerless 



154 

cells, away from light and hope, while one other is mi tiered to 
wander at large, a danger to himself and to his neighbors. No one 
can look over the returns made to the Executive on the subject of 
insanitv, and read the accounts there given of the condition of lu- 
natics in different parts of the State, without feeling acute pain at 
their condition, and deep regret that nothing is as yet done for 
their relief. One " has been chained most of the time for ten 
years" — another was "confined in the poor house until she lost 
the use of her limbs" — another was confined in jail, killed a hoy' * 
— another, "a gentleman perfectly harmless at first, gradually 
reduced in abject misery by Imrsli treatment" — many others, "con- 
fined in ceUs and cages" — others "in jails, handcuffed— "others 
••chained in their rooms." And is tin- the way to effect their cure, 
Plunge them into darkness to brood over their stale— to fret under 
the severity practised upon them! Oh humanity weep for them. 
Hut we forbear, fan it be, that the people of .New Hampshire 
can look upon their Buffering fellow citizens — those who were once 
useful and active, a blessing to the State, and who might he mi 
again if properlj treated, and not extend a hand for their relief! 
We cannot believe that they who have always heen so liberal here- 
tofore, have now forgotten their nature. We cannot believe that 
we -hall he taunled with having hearts as hard as our Granite 
rock-. 

[n a former communication , when speaking of the cure of in- 
sanity, we attempted to -how I hat there wa- no hope for the luna- 
tic, while in tl Olldition in which he is placed iii this Slate ; while 

at (lie -ame time, if hi' was -iluatcd in a suitable asylum, there 
would he the greatest reason to expect relief. This was inferred 
from the nature of tin' disease; and we will now refer to statistics 
furnished by different lunatic asylums to show that experience 
sanctions tfie conclusions at which we arrived. At the Friends 
Asylum, near Philadelphia, of 9 patient- who had been all icted 
less than three nionlh- 7 recocrved; and of 11 over three months and 
under twelve ■< recovered. At the Bloomingdale Asylum near the 
city of New York, out of (19 recent ease- admitted during- die year 
1835, 56 were discharged cured, and of others remaining after Jan. 
1. the recovery of 12 was considered certain, making of the recent 
cases, -ay the governors, lis percent, of recoveries. At the retreat 
at Hartford. Conn., the proportion of recoveries is something 
over .">1 per cent and in recent cases the proportion is 91 per cent. 
At the Asylum in Worcester, Ma-s. of 272 patients, received prior 
to the publication of the Institution's Report in 1833, 154 had heen 



105 



discharged. Of 49 old mses 10 had recovered and of GG recent fases 
;>i had recovered, being more than 82 in the hundred. We learn 
from these statements, not only that insanity can be cured, but 
that if treated in due season, about 90 per cent, of those afflicted 
with it recover, as in any other disease' whatever — while if left to 
run on year after year scarcely 20 per cent, recover. Hence a 
louder call for the people of this State, if they wish the recovery 
of the insane among' them, to be up and doing now, for the lon- 
ger the delay the less the hope of him at present afflicted. 

Lest some may suspect, that when recoveries are reported, the 
individuals afflicted had received but slight attacks, we will quote 
a few cases from Dr. Lee's Report to the Trustees of the McLean 
Asylum, made in 1835; to show such suspicions to be groundless. 
O le "was brought here in a'state of chaotic madness, regardless 
of personal cleanliness, noisy, and excited. He improved, became 
neat, quiet, engaged in labor and amusements, and was getting 
well ; in this state he was removed and recovered six weeks 
after his removal." Another, was apparently idiotic, paid no re- 
gard to personal cleanliness, tore her clothes and bedding was 
noisy, &c. At the end of six months, she was so far improved as 
to ride out with our best class of patients, and was doing well. 
In this state she was removed on a visit; at the end of a fortnight 
she was returned much worse than ever, more filthy and trouble- 
some, tore and ate her clothes and blankets; and indeed would 
swallow every thing she could get into her mouth. After another six 
months attendance, we have the satisfaction to believe she is again 
recovering, and, if not removed will soon be well." Another, 
"was brought here in a cataleptic state. She appeared idiotic, 
was inattentive to cleanliness, and indeed was in every respect as 
helpless as an infant. She was put under a course of treatment 
and began to improve, but was still filthy in her habits, and of 
course made a great deal of very unpleasant labor. A nurse, on 
one of the other stories, who had charge of the worse class of pa- 
tients, and who had been quite successful in correcting their bad 
habits, expressed the wish that I would let her have this patient in 
her story; which was granted. Her habits were soon corrected, 
and from being a very troublesome, she became a very comforta- 
ble patient. She was so much improved in three months from her 
entrance into the Hospital as to be able to attend the family wor- 
ship and parties, and engage in various kinds of light labor. ** 

In the Hospital then, and there alone, where experienced kind- 
ness officiates as minister, is the lunatic to look for relief: and con- 



15C 



sideling the Dumber of madmen within our borders, is it not our' 
duty to provide them with a Hospital/ Humanity as well as 
policy answers yes. And shall New Hampshire stand back, 
while hundreds of her citizens are crying aloud for relief from the 
worst of maladies ; and that too, when she has the proof before 
her cit the usefulness of the institutions for insane in accomplishing 
the ends for which they were designed? Shall it be said, that (In- 
land of the Slack- and Millers — of the great and fret — the laud 
Which justly prides itself upon the patriotism and intelligence of 
ii- -oil- i- wanting in that quality alone which will give sacred liess 
to her renown— in humanity? Is it indeed (rue, that New Hamp- 
shire is behind her sister States in this generous quality, when 
she stands prominent in all other ennobling' traits? No. The 
provision she has made for the Deaf and Dumb, and Bliud, 
places n contradiction upon any sueh suspicion. It mu.-i be 
want of information on this Bubject which has heretofore caused, 
ami now causes, the poor lunatic to languish unrelieved in his 

dreadful abode It must have been fr want of knowledge in 

regard to insanity and the treatment of the insane iii Hospitals 
creeled for their benefit, which prompted a Representative to our 
Legislature to rise in hi- place, and propose thai ihc unfortunate 
one-, from whom God has taken reason, be lodged with criminals 
iii our State Prison ! And may we not hope that as this subject 
is more thought of , more will be d for the uuhappy maniac? 

Il would indeed be a -trange phenomenon, ill this age of enlight- 
ened and enlarged benevolence, for any object of suffering worth 
to present himself as an humble suitor for charily at the feet of 

a liberal community, and be -pur 1 away with contempt, or 

turned from with cold, heartless indifference to his wants. We 
can not believe ii in the nature of men. much le-s of Christian men 
to look upon distress in any -hape without feeling: or without ex- 
tending si band to give relief: especial y when ii is known that the 
object soliciting aid i- in all respects worthy of sympathizing regard. 

Witness the efforts which are made a ng us yearly— nav daily— 

for the enlightening of heathens in foreign land-: count up the 
hundreds of dollars weekly contributed in their behalf, and tell us 
if humanity 'has fled to brutish beasts,"— and men have lost all 
feeling. Yet it i- .1 melancholy truth, that here are at our doors 
near five hundred unfortunates, in ■, worse condition than any 
heathen, crying hourly for relief (nml they tni ; //i/ be relieved) and 
where is the minister of Christ that lifts his voice, even in prayer, 
in their behalf, where the christian that contributes one cent for 



(heir aid. Tell not the story of our negligence — shall not we 
say impiety — to the follower of Mahomet or Juggernaut. Wit- 
ness the sums expended for the purpose of breaking the shackles 
which slavery has riveted upon her victims — look at the mighty ef- 
forts made — and tell us if men have lost all feeling for others woe. 
And yet the hundreds of insane among us are at present in a state 
of bondage infinitely more dreadful than that of the most degrad- 
ed slave, which Africa can claim as a child; and where is the phi- 
lanthropist that is ready to do his might to set these captives free? 
Shall it forever be said of us, that we have our eyes and hearts 
open to the wants of strangers, but have no eyes to see, 
no hearts to feel for the sufferings of our neighbors and 
friends? If so, let us not complain, if we are termed pseudo phi- 
lanthropists; for it is too mild a term to apply to us. 

We may in a future number show that economy as well as hu- 
manity should prompt us to the erection of an Insane Hospital 
in as much as the expense to the State from lunatics*, when a 
Hospital is provided for them is less than when they are in want 
of such an institution. LANGDON. 

N H. Patriot June 4, 1838. 

RELIEF FOR THE INSANE. 



The subject of Insanity and its remedies has now been fairly 
laid before this community. The public have given it their atten- 
tion and we believe are prepared for action. If any doubt re- 
mained, it must have been removed from the minds of those 
who had the pleasure of hearing the address of George Wallis 
Haven, Esq. on Tuesday evening. The address was worthy the 
subject, and listened to with deep interest by a crowded audience. 

We believe too that the proper preliminary measures have been 
taken to command success. Nearly fifty gentlemen, from every 
part of the State, have associated for the promotion of the object. 
They offer their services to the public, and each in. his own vicini- 
ty will exert himself to disseminate information, collect the sub- 
scriptions, and do all in his power that an asylum be provided for 
the suffering Lunatic- -The character of these gentlemen and their 
zeal in this benevolent enterprise, prove that the disgrace of being 
without a provision for these outcasts, will be taken away from 
our State. 

AVe understand that these gentlemen with such others as may 
associate with them , will meet at Concord early in June. They 



158 



will then obtain an act of incorporation and organize under the 
charter, and apply to the State for an appropriation to aid in the 
object. We have no doubt they will select such a board of direc- 
tors and other officers as will guarantee the faithful application 
of all funds to the sacred object. 

It has been suggested that it might be well to suspend the sub- 
scription until the board of Directors was chosen under (lie act of 
incorporation. We tear this would cause the delay of another 
vear. We need the subscription to show to the Legislature that 

the i pie arc awake on this subject — that their charity is not coil- 

ti 1 to mere words and petitions, but that they themselves are 

deeply interested for the insane. This will enforce the argument 
for a grant : and with the grant and the subscription , we can open 
the door of the cell, strike off the manacle and (he chain and set the 
captive free. To save one year of misery to il i is worth a sacri- 
fice,— for one year may consign many to hopeless irrecoverable in 
canity.— Let then, those who do not wish now to pay their sub- 
scription, manifest what they will do, when the proper organiza- 
tion i> made. We wish to -how to the legislature that the insane 
poor are not without friends, who will never desert them or aban- 
don their cause. 

We appeal then to the public and earnestly request our fellow 
citizens, one and all. to step forward, each according to his own 
ability . and the work i- done. 

We might forbear, to extend the baud of charity if there were 
any doubt lingering of the extremity of suffering in our very midst ; 
we might forbear, it we knew not that our sister States had re- 
moved t hi- direful plague spot from their territory : we might for- 
bear if God had thro WJ1 a shield over our own households — and 
leave the wretches to their fate, selfish and low as might be the 
motive: bui. knowing the "secrets of the prison house," know- 
ing our own liability, knowing that means of relief are in our own 
hands, what shall be our apology if these things remain. Forget 
them, forget the suffering lunatic! we cannot. And in after times, 
when our thought- may be recalled to the subject, when there comes 
over the mind the scenes which have been described to us; and con- 
science whispers, this suffering continues by our neglect! Where 
trill he our solace? Wait not then to be solicited, but voluntari- 
ly throw in your offering, — be it little or much, you have per- 
formed your duty, and given your aid and countenance to a most 
benevolent enterprise. "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall 
obtain mercy." Ports. .Journal. 

X. II. Patriot. Mav 7. 183S. 



159 

TilK INSANE. 

Since the publication of the circular of the friends of the insane, 
almost every paper in N. H. has advocated the establishment of 
an Asylum. Whoever lias attentively read the publications allud- 
ed to. must be conduced, that our pecuniary interest, no less 
than justice and mercy, call upon us to erect a Hospital for their 
medical treatment and moral cure. But suppose the expense were 
a trifle more— there is not, there cannot be imagined so affecting a 
spectacle on earth as a manacled lunatic — and who is willing' to sec 
one of his fellow men placed in one scale and balanced with a cent 
in the other. Benevolence never suggested, charity never opened 
her hands to a nobler object than would be the endowment of the 
institution proposed. 

Liberality on this subject would indeed be a charity, doubly. 
>es, trebly blessed — it would bless not only the individual with 
the richest of Heaven's blessing by restoring him to his reason, 
to the enjoyments of social life, but his connections by enabling, 
them to welcome again to their embrace a husband, a wife, a child, 
a fitliv and friend; and in addition, society at large, by 
giving back to it, some of its most valuable, efficient and vir- 
tuous members. 

There are more than Four Hundred lunatics in New Hampshire. 
Ninety out of a hundred might have been cured, had they been 
sent to an asylum within three months after their first attack; but 
their present treatment is such from the want of an institution of 
this kind, as to render, generally, their cure hopeless. Instead 
of adopting the measures suitable for their recovery, precisely 
those are taken generally, which have a direct effect to inflame 
and irritate the disease. The unfortunate and guiltless individ- 
ual with us, is either immured in chains and handcuffs in ourcoun- 
tv jails, there perhaps tortured with the sport and ridicule of the 
abandoned criminal, or we would fain put reason to rights, by 
keeping him 'hi trembling subjection at the poor house or work 
shop, committed to custody of persons, who feel no interest in his 
recovery, or what is but little better, though less repugnant to our 
feelings, he is confined to places where he has been accustomed 
to feel perplexity of thought, to scenes and associations that re- 
vive the disease, and to on. account of their inexperience, the can' 
of unskillful physicians. No fact was ever better established by 
experience, by the united testimony of all medical men, than Unit 
the first and most important step towards a recovery of the insane. 



ICO 



i- to separate bim from all customary associations, from the ob- 
jects exposed to hi- senses during the approach of the disease for 
with these, are connected hi- false notions and harrassing impres- 
sions His relations, those who were once dearest to him, be- 
come first stale and uninteresting, afterwards, sources of angry 
irritation. Numerous instances might be adduced of the disease 
beim: revived, | where the patient was apparently re :overed) while 
receiving the congratulations of his friends. The madness of Dr. 
Zimmerman , which had been suspended for three months while 
travelling, returned on the day he entered his own house. lint 
whither can the insane in our Stale, flee from the presence of ob- 
jects which occasion his distress and increase hi- malady? Where 
shall he •j.o from the sight of persons that first excited his disease 
or were first connected with it? We have no plan- of refuge for 
him to be received and treated as a being capable of feeling and 

a- worthy of relief. There i- a place, however, to which he may 
<jo, and where many are now, and lemain till death shall relieve 
from hi- miseries; and in that place, he may see no kind look, hear 
no soothing voice and have no medicine administered save bars, 
holts and manacles. Our statute provides, that if he should be 
held to answer for any offence and be acquitted by reason of in- 
sanity (consequently must In as innocent as the sleeping infant ) ' ' 
"he may be committed to prison then to be detained I ill he or she 
in restored to his or ht r right mind or otherwise delivered by due 
course of law." ■■Ami every person so committed shall be kept 
at his or her own expense, if he or she have estate sufficient for 
that purpose: otherwise at the charge of the county in which such 
person i- committed.'' — What a noble, humane, generous, and 
glorious privilege! How worthy an enlightened, civilized and 
christian community; What a powerful argument might be 
drawn from it, in favor of the benign influence of our holy relig- 
ion, bv our missionaries to the Heathen! How readily would the 
Turks (who have no jails for the imprisonment of debtors, and 
who cannot look upon our- without horror) yield to us the palm 
in philanthropy . in every virtue that adorn- and dignifies man : if 
they knew that we christians, knowingly so incarcerated our guilt- 
less fellow men for life: when nine tenths of them with less ex- 
pense might have been recovered and the remainder now made 
wretched and miserable a- wretched and miserable can lie by 
such treatment, might he comparatively happy had we an asylum 
with no little or less expense! One of the insane inmates of the 
Worcester asylum, who had been confined in jail . when asked 



llil 



whether he preferred his present situation to his former, replied, 
'•Oh that was hell, but this is Heaven." 



X. H. Patriot, May 21, 1838. 
INSANE IN CHESHIRE. 



Returns from 14 of the 22 towns in Cheshire county, show the 
number of insane within their limits to be forty. In 1830, the 
population of these 14 towns was 18,489, and taking them as a 
specimen of the whole State, the population of which was 269,033 
the aggregate number of lunatics in New Hampshire exceeds five 
hundred and sixty one ! Imagine to yourself, reader, the vast 
amount of unmitigated, unassuaged suffering annually endured 
by such a mass of your fellow beings, bereft of reason, and exclud- 
ed from all the enjoyments of civilized and social life. 

N. H. Patriot, May 21, 1838. 

THE CAUSE OF THE INSANE. 

We are informed that the subscription paper for an Insane Hos- 
pital, which has been circulated two or three days in this town, is 
already rilled up to the amount of four thousand dollars and up- 
wards, and that it is confidently expected that live thousand or 
more will be raised here with very little exertion. 

The cause is receiving firm friends every where in the country; 
the papers exhibit a tine spirit on the subject indeed there has been 
no sulij 'ct before the people, excepting political questions, 
which has been so fully canvassed as the contemplated relief 
to the insane. In this section the matter is well understood, 
so much so that newspaper efforts have become unnecessary. 
Every benevolent heart is alive to the occasion, and all that is 
required is. action on the part of ils immediate friends. 

Portsmouth Gazette. 

X. 11. Patriot May 21. 1838. 

MEETING FOB THE INSANE. 



In pursuance to a previous notice, a meeting of the friends of 
the insane, was holdcn at the Unitarian meeting house in Concord 
at half past six o'clock on the evening of Wednesday the 13th inst. 



162 



The meeting was called to order by Charles H. Peaslee, Esq. 

Of Concord. :md proi •ceiled to the elioiee of Jul in II. Steele, Esq. 

of Peterborough for Chairman, and John L. Hayes, Esq. of 
Portsmouth for Secretary. 

After prayer by Rev. Mi'. Thomas of Concord, the following 
resolutions were submitted by Mr. Peaslee with appropriate re- 
marks. 

Resolved, That the large and increasing number, and abject 
condition of the insane within this State, demand that something 
he done for their relief, and that the experience of all insane hos- 
pitals, both in our own land and in Europe, proving that insanity 
i- as curable as other acute diseases of equal severity, point to 
them a- the most effectual mode of relief. 

Resolved, That justice to the poor lunatic, and an enlightened 
regard to our ow n interests are equally urgent in favor of such an 
institution, and that it is the duty of every patriot and christian, to 
aid the enterprise by hi- exertion and influence. 

Resolved. That in our opinion the State should grant an appro- 
priation in aid of individual exertion, and that we will one anil all 
use our best effort- to ensure the complete and immediate attain- 
ment of this object - 

These resolutions were severally supported by pertinent and elo- 
quent addresses from Rev. Mr. Bouton of Concord, Rev. Mr. 

Dwightot Boston, Rev. Mr. Liver ■<• ofKeene, Charles J. 

Pox of Nashua, Hon. Joel Parker of Eeene, George W. Haven. 
Esq. of Portsmouth and Rev. Mr. Osgood of Nashua. 

The resolutions were then read and unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Bouton submitted to the meeting, (he following resolution, 
adopted by the pastoral convention of the Congregational and 
Presbyterian ministers of New Hampshire, at Concord, June 7th. 
1838, viz: 

Resoh'ed, That we feel a deep sympathy with that portion of 
our fellow creatures, amounting in X. II. probably to 500 or 600, 
who are deprived of reason, and who, in many cases are subject- 
ed to every hardship which poverty, neglect and severity can im- 
pose upon them: and that we would, as the Saviour of the world 
did, use our influence to restore them to their reason. 

Resolved, That we rejoice greatly in the success of hospitals for 
the insane in other State-: from the reports of which it appears 
that of recent cases of insanity eighty-six per cent., and of all 



103 



cases about 54 1-2 per cent, have been restored. 

Resolved, That we cordially approve of the incipient measures 
that have been taken to call the attention of the community to 
this important subject in this State. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the ministers in our con- 
nection to preach or otherwise address their people on the subject, 
to communicate facts which may tend to awaken a general inter- 
est and to consummate an object so devoutly to be sought as the 
establishment of a hospital for the insane of N. H. 

Adopted unanimously. 

Voted. That the foregoing resolutions be communicated by the 
Scribe, to the public meeting, to be held in Concord, on the sub- 
ject of a hospital for the insane next week. 
A true copy, 

X. BOUTON, Scribe. 
Concord, rlime, 1838. 

Upon motion of Mr. Peaslee, the meeting adjourned until the 
next Thursday evening, to hear a lecture upon insanity and the 
benefit of hospitals, by llev. Mr. Dwight of Boston. 

JOHN II. STEELE, Chairman. 
John L. Hayes, Secretary. 

X. II. Patriot June 18, 1838. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 

The first meeting of said ( 'orporation will be held at the Grecian 
Hall in Concord, on Tuesday the 14th of August next, at 5 o'clock 
P. M. , to accept the charter — to choose a committee to prepare a 
code of by-laws— to appoint individuals to solicit subscriptions, 
and to transact such other business as may he deemed important 
to he immediately attended to. 
Samuel e. Couks, ) Authorized by the 

Charles H. Peaslee, .' charter to call the 

JoelParker, ) first meeting. 

Concord, July 13, 1838! 

N. 15. The election of Trustee will not be made, until $15,000 
shall have been subscribed; that any one may have an opportu- 
nity of becoming a member of the corporation , according to the 
terins of the charter, previous to said elections. 

X. II. Patriot Jul v 23. 1838. 



li',4 

Asylum for the Insane. 

We have received the proceedings of the first meeting of the 
grantees of the N. H. Asylum for the Insane, and regret that they 
came to hand at too late an hour for insertion this week. They 
shall appear in our next. The meeting was numerously attended, 
and the beat spirit prevailed. All were full of confidence, and 
evinced their determination to persevere in their efforts until the 
final accomplishment of the great and glorious work in which they 
are en^aucd. A letter from .lohn Conant, Esq. of Jaffrcy ten- 
dered his subscription of $500, and Messrs Abiel Rolfe and Timo- 
thy Chandler, of Concord, and William S. Morton, of Hopkinton, 
were enrolled as members of the corporation, having complied 
with the provisions of the charter, by contributing each $50 to its 
fund-. A committee to obtain subscriptions was appointed, and 
papers will soon he extensively circulated. It is expected the 
building for the institution will be erected next year. 

X. II. Patriot August 29, 1838. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE ASYLUM FOB THE INSANE. 



The first meeting was held at Grecian Sail in Concord, n. h, 
Aug v si 14, 1838, at ■'> o'clock, p. m. 
On motion of Charles II. Peaslee, Esq. 

RICHARD II. AYER was chosen Chairman of the meeting and 
Samuel E. Cones Secretary pro tempore. 

The notice for the meeting 1 , as published in all the papers of 
( loncord, was then read. 

The act of incorporation was then read to the meeting. 

Whereupon — 
Voted, That it be accepted. 

I oted. That a ( 'oinmittee of five he appointed to draft bye-laws 
for the regulation and government of the Asylum and for the man- 
agement of the affairs of the corporation, to report at an ad- 
journed meeting, and that the committee prepare a seal for the 
corporation. 
Voted, That 

Daniel M. Durrell of Dover, 

John II. Steele of Peterborough. 

Charles .1. Fox of Nashua, 

Joel Parker of Keeue. 

Charles II. Peaslee of Concord, be the committee. 



IGo 



Voted. That 

Samuel E. Coues of Rockingham Co. 

Franklin Pierce of Merrimack Co. 

Alfred W. Haven of Rockingham Co. 

William Hale of Strafford Co. 

Daniel Abbott of Hillsborough Co. 

Amos S. Twitchell of Cheshire Co. 

John J. Gilchrist of Sullivan Co. 

JOSIAH Quincy of Grafton Co. 

John H. White of Coos Co., be the committee. 
Voted, That the Committee appointed to superintend the sub- 
scription , be authorized and requested to receive and hold all 
money and property of the corporation until the appointment of a 
Treasurer. 

Voted. That in the opinion of this meeting, if there should be 
subscribed over fifteen thousand dollars, the surplus should form 
a fund, the interest of which should be used under the direction 
of the Trustees for the reduction of the expenses of such patients 
as are destitute of sufficient means for their support at the pro- 
posed Asylum. 

Voted. That the Committee appointed to superintend the sub- 
scription, be authorized to appoint an agent or agents in all the 
towns in the State; as also to employ a general agent, if they 
deem expedient. 

Voted, That Samuel E. Coues and William Hale be request- 
ed to prepare the subscription paper, so that the papers used 
through the State may be to the same effect. 

Voted , That when this meeting adjourn, it adjourns to meet in 
this town on the first Wednesday in October next, at Grecian Hall, 
at 7 o'clock in the evening. 

Voted. That the Secretary be requested to notify the adjourned 
meeting by an advertisement in one of the papers printed in this 
State, with the request that all the other papers should copy the 
notice. 

A letter was read from John Conaut. Esq. of Jaffrey, stating 
that he was prevented from attending the meeting by ill health, 
and tendering his subscription of five hundred dollars. The sug- 
gestions therein made relating to the subscription through the 
State were referred to the committee on the subscriptions. 

Messrs. Abiel Rolfe, and Timothy Chandler of Concord, and 
William 8. Morton of ETopkinton, were enrolled as members of 
the corporation, having c nnplied with the provisions of the act of 



Kill 



incorporation, by contributing fifty dollars each to the funds of 
of the corporation. 

Voted, That this meeting now adjourn. 

Richard II. Ayeu, Chairman. 
S. E. Col'es, Secretary pro tempore. 
New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette. 

August -.'7. 1838. 

X. X. ASYLUM FOB THE IXSAXK. 



At a meeting of the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, 
held by adjournment at Concord on the third of October 1838 — 

S. E. Coues, in behalf of the Committee appointed to prepare 
a subscription paper for general circulation through the State, re- 
ported that the committee had attended to their duty and had for- 
warded the papers to the Committee for each county so that each 
town could be supplied ; but that sufficient time had not elapsed lo 
receive tin 1 returns. * 

<;. Wallis Haven, who, as agent of the Committee on Subscrip- 
tions, bad visited many of the large towns of the State, reported 
that the subject was exciting the proper attention; and that he had 
no doubt by the continued exertions of the friends of the cause, 
the necessary amount would be obtained; hut that more time was 

required for the circulati f the subscription papers in many 

towns. 

Voted, That the choice of officers be deferred until the next 
meeting of the Corporation, in older to give to each subscriber to 
the amount of fifty dollars, the privilege of voting thereon. 

I). M. Durrell, in behalf of the Committee appointed to prepare 
by-laws for the government and regulation of the Corporation, re- 
ported a code of by-laws which was read and discussed. 

Voted, That C Wallis Haven. Charles J. Fox and Franklin 
Pierce, be a Committee to prepare a circular letter to the Clergy 
of the Stale: and that they address the public through the news- 
papers. 

Voted, That this meeting now adjourn to meet at Grecian Hall 
in Concord, on the second Wednesday in January next, at li 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

The following is a summary of the By-Laws as adopted, subject 
of course to such amendments as future meetings of the Corpora- 
tion may make. 

Art . 1st . — entitles each member to one vote, to be given person- 



167 



11 y or by proxy, duly authorized in writing. 

Art. 2d — establishes the second Wednesday in January in every 
year as the annual meeting for the choice of officers. 

Art. .'3d— prescribes the manner of dividing the Trustees by lot 
into classes, so that three each year shall vacate their seats at the 
board, according to tbe provisions of the Charter. 

Art. 4th — provides the notice to be given for the annual and 
special meetings of the Corporation. 

Art. oth— relates to the organization of the board of Trustees 
by the choice of their President, &c. 

Art. 6th authorizes the calling of special meetings. 

Art. 7th it 8th — refer to the appointment of a Secretary and 
Treasurer, and prescribe their duties. 

Art. 9th— empowers the Board of Trustees to take charge and 
watch over the general interests of the Institution; and place un- 
der their control the immediate management of the property and 
concerns of the Asylum, — subject to such directions as they may re- 
ceive from time to time from the Corporation. 

A copy of the By-laws will be furnished to the members of the 
< lorporation previous to the annual meeting, so that any desirable 
alterations or amendments may be made. 

S. E. Coues, Sec. pro. tern. 

New Hampshire Patriot, October 22, 1838. 

TO THE FRIENDS OF THE INSANE. 

At the last session of our Legislature an act was passed granting 
an appropriation of fifteen thousand dollars to aid in the erection 
of a Hospital for the Insane within this State, to be paid whenever 
individuals shall have subscribed an equal amount. An effort is 
now being made throughout this State to raise this sum, and se- 
cure the appropriation — A large propotion of it has already been 
contributed, and the appeal is now made in behalf of the poor In 
sane, to each of you now to come forward, and assist in this be- 
nevolent object accordingly as God has given you the means. 

It is intended thai the Institution shall be as far as possible, a 
charitable one, and open to all. The money contributed will be 
expended in erecting buildings, and furnishing suitable accommo- 
dations for the inmates, the use of which will be gratuitous. The 
prices charged to patients will be barely sufficient to defray the 
expenses of the establishment, and if there should be a sur- 
plus of contributions, the interest will be appropriated to lessen 



16S 



1 1 10 charges to the poorer patients. These charges will be gradu- 
ated according to the accommodations and circumstances of each 
individual, and it is hoped that through the liberality of the public, 

the contributions may be SO much increased as to enable the Tins- 
tees to offer the benefits of the asylum gratuitously to a large num- 
ber of the insane. 

The general government of the institution will be vested in twelve 
Trustees, eight of whom are to be chosen by the members of the 
Association, and tour by the State Any individual may become 
a member by the payment of fifty dollar-, by himself or by others. 
In this mode every town or society may be represented, and all may 
have a voice in its direction. In order to guard effectually against 
even the suspicion of self interest, or the liability of abuse in its 
management, the charter expressly provides "that no emolument 
or profit in any shape whatever, shall accrue to the members of 
the Corporation , or the Trustees," and the power of supervision 
is given to the Governor and Council, who are required to exam- 
ine into it> management, and report to the Legislature annually. 
In regard to it- location nothing has been determined, but it will 

probably be submitted to the opinion of the Supeiintendents of 
Hospitals in adjoining Stati — men who are capable ami disinter- 
ested, and who will duly examine and weigh the comparative ad- 
vantages of all the locations pointed out . 

This i- a brief outline of the plan propt 1 — if not the very best 

thul could lie devised, yet the best under the circumstances attaina- 
ble. It combines in a measure the peculiar benefits both of a pub- 
lic ami a private Hospital, by giving the control partly to the State 
and partly to individuals, while it guards against many of the de- 
fects of each system. More than all, it has been tried in practice, 
ami found highly successful. When we know that it is practica- 
ble, and that by it much good has and may be done, no teal friend 
to the insane, can stitie the whispers of conscience, and turn a deaf 
ear to the appeals of charity, by the poor pretence of objection to 
the plan. lie will give, and thank God that he possesses the 
means and the opportunity to relieve in any degree, by any mean-, 
the misery of his suffering brother. 

It is now more than six years since the question of electing a 
Hospital for the Insane was first brought before the Legislature of 
Xew Hampshire. The experimeut was then comparatively an un- 
tried one. its results doubtful, and its friends few. In the com- 
munity there was ignorance to enlighten, and indifference lo 
arouse, and prejudice to overcome. Through the press, by tart- 



169 



and by arguments its Mends labored to spread the troth, and it 
lias prevail d. Meanwhile and elsewhere, Hospital after Hospital 
was being opened for the Insane. The results of experience con- 
vinced the most sceptical. Hundreds have been raised from hope- 
less suffering', and restored to friends, to society, and to useful- 
ness. He who was lately a burden, a disgrace and a terror, has 
become a help and a joy. Already there are five Insane Hospitals 
in New England, and fourteen in the United States, and every 
year are new ones being added to their number. Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, Vermont, and Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio, already possess them. With an en- 
lightened liberality, and a far-sighted economy, encouraged by 
their experience, they are now building others, so that even the 
most destitute may share their benefits. The way is now opened 
for New Hampshire, and shall she acquire the unenviable reputa- 
tion of standing alone and last in this contest of charity? 

Four hundred of our fellow citizens, it is probable, have be- 
come insane since this subject was first agitated in this State. Of 
this number one hundred have committed suicide, and as many 
more have died or recovered, while the remaining two hundred 
are now living in the midst of us, miserable and hopeless Lunatics, 
a burden to theinseves. their friends, and the State. Had a Hos- 
pital then been bmlt four fifths of this number might have been 
saved, as experience has everywhere shown. Does not every one 
mourn that so many hopes have been blighted, and so many hearts 
broken which a small and seasonable expenditure might have pre- 
vneted? Bui even now is this sad destruction going on. Month af- 
ter month is adding new victims, and can we sit still and refuse to 
give even a pittance, when we know that it will alleviate so much 
distress, and prevent so much anguish? If we now neglect their 
civ. another six years will add an equal number to the long list of 
wretched maniacs. The appeal comes home to the conscience of 
every individual. Docs any one feel that he is not in danger? 
None are exempt. — The rich and the poor, the learned and the un- 
learned, the man of leisure and of labor, are alike exposed toils 
attacks. Upon the poor and hard working it falls most frequent- 
ly and with most withering power.— But if spared the suffering 
we should be grateful for the mercy, and manifest our gratitude 
bv lightening the suffering's of our less fortunate neighbor. If not 
we may well fear the infliction as a judgement for our hardness of 
heart. Does your neighbor neglect his duty? so much greater 
then is the need that you should do your duty. Can you give but 



170 



little? A little from every individual ; — twenty-five cents from 
every voter or one-fourth of each man's State Tax: — will suffice 
to build a Hospital. Already more than one-half of the sum re- 
quired is subscribed. A little effort will ensure success. If you 
have ever pitied the poor lunatic— if you have ever wished to re- 
lieve hi- misery— now is the opportunity offered for ifs act - 

plishment. If now slighted it may never return. And if the 
project should fail, or even if the burden of it* unsuccessful prose- 
cution should be thrown upon a few through your indifference, 
will the reflection he a pleasing one, that hundreds arc pining, 
■•-ick and in prison," whom you might have relieved, yet whom 
you " have not visited?" But if you now listen to their appeal, 
and give them aid. in after years, when hundreds through 
vour timely charity -hall have been restored to home and happi- 
ness, -and joy shall revisit many a lonely dwelling, and prayers 
and blessings -hall gush forth from many a heart for their kind 
benefactors, it will he a Bource of grateful recollection that you 
were permitted to -hare in so blessed a work. For the sake of 
the insane, for your own happiness, for the interest of the commu- 
nity, for the credit of our State, let not this last appeal he in vain. 
( 'll \-. .1 . FOX . ) < 'oniniillee 

Geo. W. Haven, > of the 

Franklin Pierce, ) Association. 

Nashua, Oct. 28, L888. 

Editors throughout the State are respectfully requested to copy. 

X. II. Patriot. Nov. 12, 1888. 

HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

We have been informed, by Mr. Hildreth of Derry,that already 

the citizens of that town had subscribed ahout eight hundred dol- 
lar-, toward the accomplishment of this noble work and that more 
w oulil he obtained. 

This is a liberality worthy of the undertaking, worthy of their 
high minded and illustrious ancestry and worthy of the humane 
spirit of the age in which we live. If all the towns contributed, 
according to their population, in proportion to Derry; then more 
than one hundred thousand dollars would he voluntarily given by 
the citizen- of this State to this noblest, of all charities. 

Should any more than the amount required by the act be sub- 
scribed, it will doubtless be kept by the Corporation as a fund for 
the snpport of the indigent insane. Let no one then hold hack. 



171 

because he imagines that sufficient has already been obtained ; 
enough will not have been done, until every poor and wandering 
lunatic in the State shall have found in the Asylum a resting place 
from the mockery of an unfeeling' world, and where every proper 
curative means can be adopted to relieve him from his wretched 
and agonizing condition. 

N. H. Patriot, Dec, 17, 1838. 

HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

We have been informed, that nearly Four Thousand dollars 
will be subscribed in the County of Hillsborough (previous to the 
meeting of the Corporation on the ninth of January next) for this 
benevolent purpose. In Nashua the amount secured, will be 
about $1200 — in Amherst more than $500 — in Peterborough about 
$400— in New Ipswich nearly $300— in Hancock $200— and in 
Deering about $150. — This is an example worthy of imitation for 
the County of Merrimack and those north of us. 

We have made inquiries during Court, from the citizens of most 
of the towns in this county, and also in Grafton ; and from what 
we have heard, fear that those who have received the subscription 
papers in some of the towns, have not acted with the energy 
and zeal necessary to obtain, what might be got and is expect- 
ed. 

Individuals have told us, that they would have subscribed, but 
had not been applied to. Every thing that can be done, ought 
to be, previous to the meeting on the second Wednesday in Janu- 
ary, and the subscription papers, returned that they may be seen 
at that meeting. We hope those who have the subscription pa- 
pers will no longer delay attending to the trust confided in them, 
if there has been any neglect heretofore. 

X. H. Patriot, Dec. 24, 1838. 

HOSPITAL FOB THE INSANE. 

It will be seen by the advertisement in our columns, that the 
meeting for the choice of Trustees will be held at the Grecian Mall 
in this town, on the second Wednesday, it being the ninth day of 
January. It is expected that all the subscription papers will be re- 
turned at this meeting, in order that the amount subscribed, can 
be accurately ascertained; and it is hoped that as many of the 
members of the corporation as can conveniently, will be present. 

X. H. Patriot Dec. 31. 1K38. 



From Gov. Dinsinore's message, June 7, 1833. 

In former communications to the Legislature I have recommend- 
ed to their notice the condition and sufferings of the Insane. 
Their claims have been fully exhibited in the several reports made 
under the direction of the General Court, and the expediency of 
adopting measures for their relief has been ably and feelingly ad- 
vocated in the course of the Legislative proceedings on the subject . 
Although your predecessors did not feel prepared to sanction the 
measures recommended. I have never lost the hope of seeing, at an 
early period, a zealous co-operation of the several branches of the 
Government with the friends of suffering humanity in promoting a 
charity so plainly recommended, by the principles of our religion, 
and by every consideration of justice and philanthropy. While the 
most liberal provision is made for the victims of their own idleness 
and vice, with an inconsistency not easily accounted for. we aban- 
don those who are afflcted with a calamity, of all others demanding 
sympathy and solace, to a state of unalleviated wretchedness and 
almost hopeless incurability. From a somewhat attentive exami- 
nation of the history of experiment's undertaken elsewhere for the 
security of and recovery of the Insane, I have no doubt remaining, 
that policy as well as humanity require of us something in behalf 
of that unfortunate class. Our resources are fortunately ample 
for accomplishing this object; but should there be an unwilling- 
ness to appropriate the State funds to the extent required, there 
can he no doubt that a liberal and christian community would clieer- 
fully supply the deficiency. Nothing could hi' more truly honora- 
ble to our State character, or give stronger proof, that we are will- 
ing to assist in the triumphs of modern civilization. 

X. II. Patriot June 10. 1833. 

Ptioi'osEn Asyutu nu; Lunatics. 



Mi; Kwrojt: — The attention of our Legislature, at two past ses- 
sion-, having been directed to the establishment of an Insane Hos- 
pital, for the reception and relief of a portion ot the community 
possessing the highest claims upon the sympathy and assistance of 
all; and entertaining no doubt that the expediency of founding such 
an institution, will be again freely discussed and warmly pressed 
the ensuing June, I beg permission, through the medium of your 
paper, to offer the public such thoughts on the subject, as at pres- 



Vi 



eut suggest themselves. They will, perhaps, seem crude, imper- 
fect, and superficial; for all which deficiencies, I would apologize 
by the fact, that constant employment leaves me little time for 
meditation and reflection. I long waited in expectation that some 
person with the necessary leisure, and better qualified by talent 
and education, would come forward in favor of a design so im- 
portant to the interests of an unfortunate and numerous class, 
that some Howard would generously volunteer his benevolent ser- 
vices in defence of suffering humanity; but, as none appears, an 
imperious sense of duty compels me, however reluctantly, to as- 
sume the pen. 

In order to judge correctly of the practicability and efficacy of a 
proposed remedy for any evil, whether moral, mental, or physi- 
cal, it is essential first to obtain correct notions of its nature, loca- 
tion, extent and operations. Thus to determine the utility, pro- 
priety or impropriety of endowing from the funds of the State a 
hospital devoted exclusively to supplying the wants, and alleviat- 
ing the woes of the unfortunate insane, it is peculiarly necessary 
to form and entertain clear and right views of insanity; for, we 
contend, that very much of the continuance of the evil proposed to 
be obviated by such an establishment, has arisen from ignorance or 
misunderstanding of its cause, origin, qualities and manifestations. 
Insanity has been generally reckoned a disease of the immaterial, 
sentient principle alone— a mental sickness not unfrequently pro- 
duced by super-natural agency, witchcraft, sorcery, or direct dia- 
bolical influence, or else the consequence of secret, unknown, but 
enormously wicked crimes, and inflicted by Heaven, as a just re- 
ward of such awful offences. Hence, it has too often been consid- 
ered by the great mass of the uneducated and thoughtless, (always 
the creatures of prejudice and deciding rather from impulse and 
habit than the dictates of reason and sound sense,) to be incurable 
—absolutely beyond the reach of the physician's skill! And, if 
their conceptions of the disorder were well founded, they undoubt- 
edlv arrived at a right conclusion. For, what effect could the ma- 
terial prescriptions of the man of mere medical science be sup- 
posed to induce upon the subtle, evanescent and incomprehensible 
essence called soul or mind'! Or if the miserable maniac were re- 
ceiving - the righteous awards of divine wrath and vengeance, what 
presumption, what impiety, could venture to withstand the power, 
and oppose the will of offended omnipotence? What could human 
effort avail in so unequal a contest? There can be but one 
answer. Hence the wretched lunatic, has too frequently been 



174 



consigned to darkness and seclusion, as if undeserving' compassion; 
incarcerated within the walls of a. desolate and gloomy prison 
noun , -1 i.t out from communication with his fellows — from all 
in!"rcou se with society, as though his presence were contamina- 
tion; almost wholly deprived of the means of sustenance and 
warmth absolutely indispensable to the support of animal existence, 
as if it were a duty to superadd to all his other calamities, the 
gnawing pains of starvation , and biting, freezing cold. In such 
.. situation, the sooner death approached to terminate his sufferings, 
the greater joy to relatives and friends. Numerous examples of 
this kind might be adduced, hardly paralleled in the annals of 
European cruelty, the bare recital of which would make the most 
insensible shudder. 

This whole business, however, is beginning to be better under- 
stood. Philosophy is giving tone to public sentiment.— The inde- 
fatigable labors and patient research of Gall, Spurzheim, Combe, 
and others, have done much towards dissipating the baneful dog- 
ma, thai the mind is subject to disease. 1 call the doctrine bane- 
ful, because in the whole circle of physical and metaphysical inves- 
tigation . nothing has ever been broached. -.0 well calculated to 
support the revolting and degrading idea of annihilation, as the 
notion of the mimN liability to sickness. For if it be subject to one 
01' nit. nil kinds ot disease, there can be no good reason why not nil, 
and consequently to decay and death, thus at once putting tonight 
tin 1 glorious truth of man's immortality! Thanks to the progress 
of knowledge and science, it is presumed few hut the most igno- 
rant continue to indulge a belief so destructive. 

It is now established beyond cavil or reasonable dispute, and al- 
most with the certainty of demonstration, that the cerebral mass, 
contained m the cavity of the cranium or skull, is the gn at and sole 
organ of the intellect ; and that the different portions of the brain 
are separate and distinct organs of the several mental faculties and 
moral dispositions. Itfollows that whatever disturbs the regular 
and accustomed functions of any one of these portions, must be pro- 
ductive of a corresponding irregularity in that power or faculty, of 
which it serves as the instrument. Hence, we clearly perceive the 
cause, why snch bodily diseases, as act on the nerves and blood ves- 
sels, thereby exciting and inflaming the brain, almost invariably 
beget temporary alienation. Hence, too, the. reason of thai spe- 
cies of madness (commonly) attendant upon excessive indulgence 
in the use of intoxicating drink. The brain is stimulated slight in- 
flamation ensues, and some organs become preteriiaturally acrive, 



17.5 



while others lose their energy. We might bring forward other 
instances in illustration, but treatises on the subject, are so easily- 
accessible we only remark, that sometimes insanity is produced in 
this way by excitement— pressure of the blood, and inflammation, 
often the brain is injured by external violence, as falls, blows, 
and such like; sometimes, apparently, its disease originates and 
is confined within itself, until by sympathy other parts of the 
frame partake of the malady ; but in all cases it is believed there 
exists some real organic affection of its parts prior to, and pro- 
ductive of insanity. 

The brain then being a collection of mental organs, and each in- 
dividual portion the exclusive organ of some distinct individual 
faculty, we are fully authorized to regard insanity as a disordered 
state of the intellectual and moral manifestations, consequent up- 
on a diseased condition of the cerebral organs, and susceptible of 
correction, like all other remedies, by removal of the morbid af- 
fection, or by counteracting its effects. The mind, immaterial, 
spiritual, knows not disease or decay — will ever flourish in health- 
ful, immortal youth ; of course madness must have its seat in 
some derangements of our physical organization — must, as to its 
origin and location, be a physical disease, and, considered in this 
point of light, is a proper object for medical treatment. There is 
no pretence for believing a priori, that it is less capable, (under 
equally skillful and judicious management, of perfect cure, or at 
least of radical and important melioration) than any other disor- 
der of the human system. The reports of all lunatic asylums 
abundandly warrant the assertion, that, in avast majority of 
cases, even in almost every one of recent occurrence, it will readi- 
ly yield to the influence of rightly administered medicine, and 
kind, careful treatment, — that rapid and thorough recovery will 
follow the use of proper means. These, from the inexperience of 
physicians and other circumstances, cannot possibly be received by 
patients except by a residence in some institution designed for 
their accommodation. 

On these grounds the advocates for an Insane Hospital rest their 
cause. They rely solely upon well known facts and manifestly 
correct principles for success. They demand the endowment 
of a II >spital, on the basis of public, enlarged and liberal 
practical utility. They show clearly that insanity is a disease 
of the physical system, and, as such, just as capable, so far as our 
knowledge and experience extend of being perfectly cured — 
Of being benefitted by medical advice and skill, by assiduous 



17G 



unremitting attendance, by regular diet and proper exercise, as 
anv other. These advantages are now beyond the reach of its vic- 
tims, in this state. They can be obtained only in a hospital. The 
question then is, and it is the only one, will our Legislature do 
something to lessen the amount of human suffering? Will our 
wise and benevolent legislators lighten the misery, mitigate the 
distresses, and assuage tba griefs of their fellow-citizens, when 
perfect lv in their power to do so? 

MEDICUS. 
X. II. Patriot, June 9, 1834. 

REPORT. 



On tin: expi diencg of establishing hi New Hampshirea hospital 
fob thk insane, made to the House of Representatives, June ses- 
sion lts:i4. 

The Committee, to which was referred so much of the Govern- 
or's message as relates to Insane persons in this State — and also a 
resolution appropriating 910,000 for the erection of a Hospital for 
Insane people — ask leave lo Report : 

In considering tin 1 deplorable condition of the Insane in New 
Hampshire, we can devise no means of affording them effectual, 
permanent and economical relief , except by the erecting of an 
Asylum for Insanity. It is believed no one will deny the right, 
duty and expediency of governments establishing Hospitals for at 
least some purposes; when we have the experience of not only our 
sisters States, but of all nations, Catholic and Protestant, in their 
favor. If then it is admitted that they should ever be established, 
on any emergency, in any slate or condition of society, for any 
class of invalids whatever, it requires, as it seems toils, but a 
slight consideration of the causes of Insanity — the individuals lia- 
ble to attacks of the disease — the treatment indispensible necessary 
lo their recovery — the curability of the disease in Asylums where 
it is subjected to proper medical and moral treatment, and its pro- 
portionate incurability elsewhere with ordinary treatment, and, in 
fact, all the advantages in this and a pecuniary point of view to 
the State — to be convinced, that there are no institutions, in the 
establishment of which to a proper extent, the interests of human- 
ity, of governments, and ull individually, are more deeply con- 
cerned, than Lunatic Asylums, and that no State should neglect to 
make provision for them. 

As regards the treatment of the Insane, there is no general max 



177 

iin in which medical practitioners are more unanimous than recom- 
mending the separation of the patient from all customary associa- 
tions, from his family, home and whatever objects lie has been ha- 
bituated to behold. This is the first and most important step to- 
wards recovery. His false notion and harassing impressions are 
connected in his mind with every thing exposed to his senses dur- 
ing the approach of the disease. His relations become at first stale 
and uninteresting to him, and afterwards sources of irritation. 
The places where he has long felt perplexity, he never can see 
without in some measure aggravating his malady. But whither 
can he flee from these scenes of anxiety, distress and torture? We 
have no Asylum in this State into which he can be admitted, and 
treated as capable of feeling and suffering, and as deserving relief. 

Insanity is so obscure in its nature, so untoward in its mani- 
festations, that the mass of medical practitioners, consid- 
ering it a disease that ought to be treated in an Asylum, do not 
study it with the same attention as others. They generally know 
little concerning its ten thousand modifications, varieties and 
forms, or the proper treatment to be adopted in any particular 
case, but commonly agree in recommending the removal of their 
patients to Hospitals. As to the number actually cured in those 
institutions, very indefinite and erroneous opinions have hitherto 
prevailed. Reports from several show that, although the disease 
becomes more hopeless in proportion to its continuance, yet in 
most cases it is as curable as any other disease, either spontaneous- 
ly or under medical skill and moral discipline. It appears by re- 
turns from all the principal Hospitals for Insanity in England, 
Scotland, France, and the United States that the proportion 
discharged completely recovered was between forty and fifty per 
rent , or nearly one half of the number admitted, to which might 
be added the partial cure of many, and a general improvement in 
the condition of the remainder— this, too, while there had been re- 
ceived persons of every age, rank and situation in life, and labor- 
ing under Insanity of every degree of severity and every length of 
continuance. 

In several Asylums the recoveries, in cases of not more than one 
year s standing, are seventy per cent., while in some of three or 
four months duration, immediate relief has followed their recep- 
tion into these institutions. In the York (Eng.) Retreat, out of 
47 patients admitted, 40 were restored; and of the remaining 7, 
three died of other complaints, under which they labored at admis- 



17s 



There may be instances of hereditary Insanity, some where it 
is occasioned by blows on the head, or where (he train of morbid 
associations has become fixed and habitual, or where physical dis- 
ease ha- been a long' time deeply rooted in the system, which may 
be temporarily relieved, yet cannot be permanently cured ; but re- 
ports of well regulated Hospitals show, that of patients received 
within three months from their first attack, more than ninety per 
cent, have been recovered. 

These authorities forcibly illustrate the necessity of providing 
some institution in our own State, where our Insane may receive 
proper attention during the first stages of their disorder. The 
nearest to us are in Massachusetts, and accessible only to persons 
possessed of wealth, or whose friends have the disposition amiabil- 
ity to support them. Frequently admittance is entirely refused 
to those from other states, from the impossibility of accommodat- 
ing them; and when they are received, it is only at a price 
per week (from 03,50, to $16,00) far exceeding in amount 
the sum of which) as wc shall presently endeaver to show, 
they might be supported in a Hospital here. Thus are the 
Insane among us obliged altogether to forego the advantages 
of such an institution, or compelled to contribute enormously 
lor the maintenance of those in other Stales. 

Your committee further report that, though there may be some 
ease- where uature herself effects a cure, they have no recol- 
lection <>r knowledge of a solitary instance where a patient was re- 
stored to reason during his confinement in prison or (he house 
of correction. To such there gleams no ray of hope, save 
in death. It is indeed lo be wondered at that a lunatic should 
ever he cured by the treatment adopted in States without Asylums : 
for. generally, instead of those measures being taken that are cal- 
culated to remove, precisely those are adopted that directly tend 
to irritate and inflame, the disease. The unfortunate and guilt- 
less individual i~ cither immured, chained and handcuffed, in their 
common county jails, there perhaps to be tortured by the sport 
and ridicule of abandoned criminals — or his reason is attempted to 
be put to rights; by keeping him in trembling subjection at 
the poor house or work shop, in the custody of persons who 
have no interest in his recovery, or, what is scarcely better 
for the disease, though less repugnant to our feelings, he is con- 
fined to places where he has been accustomed to experience per- 
plexity of thought, to scenes and associations that but revive his 
calamity, and confided lo the unskillful care of inexperienced phy- 



179 



siciaus. Ifc'u'ot unfi-equently happens with us, that the friends, 
even of those in affluent circumstances and who are finally sent to 
an Asylum, from the length of the journey, ignorance of the ad- 
vantages to be obtained or difficulty in ascertaining whether ad- 
mission can be had, suffer the first few months of the disease to 
pas> unimproved by any effort for its relief; while the great mass 
of those unfortunately poor are consigned to hopeless neglect. 
Surely no one will pretend to deny but that it is our own imperi- 
ous duty, as Legislators, to see that our luntics, so far as practica- 
ble, are not only so governed as to secure them from injuring 
themselves and others, but receive proper attention as respects 
their food, dress, cleanliness and other bodily comforts, and in ad- 
dition, we should take care to afford them opportunity for a full 
trial of a proper curative treatment, so as to give them every pos- 
sible chance of restoration to reason and liberty. It must be ack- 
nowledged that , in every State where the almost universal treat- 
ment bestowed on them has a directly opposite tendency, there is 
something wrong — oinething left undone which ought to have 
been performed — and that our republican institutions, founded as 
they are on sympathy, charity and equality, have there, on this 
subject at least, failed to produce their usual and legitimate effects. 

If (ben at present, the rich experience serious inconvenience and 
the poor are deprived of all reasonable expectation of recovery, 
when both classes might be almost certain of speedy and effectual 
assistance from an Asylum — evidently the interests of the com- 
munity demand its establishment, unless the expense wpuld be 
such as to render it impracticable, or such as would overbalance 
the good to be obtained. 

In regard to the expense, your Committee are of the opinion, 
that, apart from the claims of suffering humanity , the endowment 
of a Hospital would in the end prove by far the most economical 
method of supporting the insane in this Stale. The whole cost of 
erecting, furnishing and fully preparinga Hospital, suitable for the 
reception of 120 patients, on the plan of the Worcester Asylum, the 
best constructed of any within our knowledge, would not, in our 
opinion, exceed $25,000. One half of this we recommend to be ap- 
propriated by the Legislature; the other half it is believed, might 
be raised by private subscriptions and donations. 

"The Hospital at Worcester .Mass. , consists of a centre build- 
ing and two wings. The centre building is 7(i feet in length, 40 
feet in width, and four stories in height. The wings are each HO 
feet in front, and 100 in Ihe rear. 36 feet wide, and three stories 



high. They are in the same line, extending to the rig-lit nnd left 
from the opposite ends of the centre building. The front 
of the centre builbhlg projects twenty-two feet forward of 
ihe front of the wings. The wings, being 36 feet wide, half 
their width, or 18 feet, joins upon the centre building: the 
other half falls in its rear. This arrangement connects the centre 
with the wings, so far as to allow a free communication between 
them by means of stair-ways and thorough-fares, and, at the same 
time, so far disconnects them, that the inside ends of the long halls 
in the wings, (hereafter mentioned) falling in the rear of the cen- 
tre, open into the external air, and thus, as it regards ventilation, 
the advantages of separate buildings are secured to the wings. 

The cellar extends under the whole edifice. An excavation to 
the depth of three or fonr feet was necessary in order to lay the 
foundation; ami, by excavating a little deeper than was indispen- 
sable for that purpose, a great amount of room is obtained, and 
many obvious advantages are secured. 

The basement story of the centre building is designed for store- 
rooms, a kitchen, laundry, &c. The front part of the second 
story . contains fonr rooms of convenient size, which with the 
chambers immediately over them and the small sleeping apart- 
ments into which the fourth story is divided, arc intended for a 
Superintendent and his family, a steward, and the domestics and 
laborers necessarily employed in and about so extensive an estab- 
lishment. As this portion of the Hospital is to be used in 
the same as any ordinary dwelling house, it is according to the 
plan, to be finished in a similar manner. The rear of the 1st., 
2d , and 3d stories of the centre building is designed for the dining 
and day-rooms of the insane. 

The wings are, in each story, divided in the centre by a long 
hall or aisle, 12 feet in width, and extending from end to end. 
In consequence of the wings falling half their width, as before 
mentioned, in the rear of the centre building, these halls commu- 
nicate, at both ends, with the external air and thus the means of 
a most thorough ventilation are secured. Whoever has visited 
any public establishment, where the entire end of a wing is met 
and closed in by the side of th ■ main building, cannot fail to have 
perceived the noisomeness of the at atmosphere at that place, com- 
pared with it at the outer end. where free admission has been 
given to the pure air. On each side of these halls are situated the 
the apartments designed for the insane. They are 8 feet by 10, 
and all are provided with a permanent seat secured in the wall. 
Each apartment has a large window with an upper sash of east 



181 



iron, and a lower sash of wood, both of which are glazed. Imme- 
diately without the wooden sash is a false sash of cast iron, corre- 
sponding with the wooden one ill appearance and dimensions. This 
is set firmly into the sides of the window-frame, a narrow space be- 
in^ loft at the bottom for water to pass off and save the frame from 
decay. When the wooden sash is raised, the false iron one presen 
ts a barrier against escape or injury from leaping out through the 
window. It is said, that a man, however furiously mad, or impa- 
tient of confinement he may be, will rarely attempt to break through 
a window until he lias first tried unsuccessfully to raise it. If it 
be so, this simple contrivance will afford effectual security both to 
propci ly and person, without inflicting upon the patient any inju- 
rious restraint. Each of these apartments is provided with two 
air flues, one for heated, the other for cold air. It is intended to 
warm the wings by furnaces placed in the cellar. The hot air is 
to be conducted from the furnaces through flues in the hall walls, 
and to be discharged through apertures into the halls. 

By these means, the air in the halls may be raised through- 
out to any desirable temperature. Over the door of each a- 
partment, there is a small aperture, through which the heated 
air in the halls will pass into the rooms and thence will be 
carried off into the attic by means of the hot air flue of the 
room. The aperture of this flue is at the bottom of the room, and 
is to be kept open only in winter. The aperture of theotherflue is 
at the top of the room and is to be kept open in the summer, so that, 
as the air is made light by heat, it will rise and pass off through 
this channnel, and the cool air from without will rush in to supply 
its place. All these flues open into the attic, wich is ventilated by 
sky-lights in the roof, and large fan-widows at the ends. At the 
end of the wings, where they join on and are connected with the 
rear part of the centre building, the halls open into the dining and 
day rooms, before mentioned, in the centre building., These 
rooms are lifted up with the same means of strength and security 
as are provided for the apartments in the wings, and, being direct- 
ly connected with the halls, are to be warmed from them. The 
diuin" rooms, occupying the rear of the 1st , 2d. , and 3d stories 
of the centre building, are of course situated immediately over a 
portion of the kitchen. Adjoining these rooms a perpendicular 
space is left open from the kitchen to the third story, through 
which, by means of an apparatus to a windlass, and called a dumb 
waiter, the food can be raised from the kitchen and distributed to 
one hundred and twenty persons in six different divisions without 
inconvenience. 



Each story in the wings is provided with a bathing room, wash- 
ing' room. &c. The large windows at each end of the hall, are pro- 
tected by an open frame work of iron. Each ball has a separate 
stair- way. leading into an outer yard, so that each story in each 
wing is as entirely disconnected from all the others, as if it were 
a separate building. This allows that separation and classification 
of the patients, on which all treatises upon the means of restoring 
the insane, so strenuously insist. 

The roof of the Hospital is covered with slate. Besides the se- 
curity, winch this material furnishes against fire, any other cover- 
ing, it was believed, would seem incongruous with the public char- 
acter of the building, its solidity, and expected durability. 

To prevent unhealthful moisture from being deposited upon the 
inside wnll. df the edifice, an interstice or open space is left be- 
tween the external and internal courses of bricks — the courses be- 
ing strongly fastened together by tile — SO that a free circulation 
(if air through all the exterior walls, from the underpinning to the 
attic, will effectually obviate that almost universal inconvenience 
of brick habitations."' 

The commissioners to erect the Hospital at Worcester, stale ill 
their report, that the preparation (if the grounds; the excavation 
and stoning of the cellar; the construction of a road by which an 
easy acee-s is gained to tiie elevated site of the building, requiring 
the removal of about 9000 cubic feet of gravel; raising the exteri- 
or wall of the edifice, which is 256 feet in length, with partition 
walls of brick . carried up from the foundation, and dividing it in- 
to more than bin apartments; the roof of slate; the very expen- 
sive windows; with all the carpenters labor, and materials so far 
as the same have been necessary in (he progress of the work; 
have been accomplished at an expense of something less than 
824,000. 

Your (•'onunittee. aided by persons acquainted with building, 
have made an estimate of the expense of erecting and furnishing 
an Asylum in this State, on the plan of that at Worcester, with the 
following result. The calculation is made for walls of brick, 2Q 
inches thick in the lower story, diminishing 4 inches in each as- 
cending story, and cellar wall of stone 2 feet thick. 

Expense of excavating and stoning cellar under the whole build- 
ing, including underpinning stone and door steps, ,*2,U0O 
Brickwork. 1030 m. at $8. 88,240 
Timber. 100 m. at ? 
Boards. J00 m. at (, .*« .1 ,600 



183 



Shingles, 100 m. at $3 300 

Doors and Windows, 1,100 

Nails, door hinges; and trimmings, 250 

Plastering, 500 yds. 600 

Carpenters and joiners work, 2,500 

Furnaces, 1,000 

240 Cast Iron Casemens, at $8 1,920 

Painting, 350 



$19,860 

The above estimate may not be correct in every particular, but 
mechanics, who have seen the Asylum at Worcester, say such an 
one may be built in this State for $20,000 or less, with the excep- 
tion of slating the roof. 

The furniture in each room, consisting of hair mattress bed,bed- 
stead with board bottom, bedding, &c. will cost $9,00, which, for 
120 rooms, will make $1,080. 

Add building, 19,860 

And the whole expense of erecting and furnishing is $20,940. 

Allowing, then, the whole expense of erecting and furnishing 
the establishment to be $25,000, there would remain $4,060, to be 
expended in adorning the grounds, providing the necessary out 
buildings, fencing out separate yards and other purposes. 

There should be about 20 acres of land attached to the institu- 
tion, to furnish agricultural and horticultural employments for 
such patients as are able to labor. This- doubtless would be given 
by the town in which the Hospital was located, in addition to oth- 
er individual subscriptions. 

As regards the expense of supporting 120 patients at the Hospi- 
tal, it is believed it would not much exceed $75 each per annum 
exclusive of clothing, and our conclusion is thus arrived at: 
Salary of Physician and Superintendant, $1 ,000 

Wages of 6 male attendants, 900 

Wages of 5 female attendants, 450 

Do. of Steward and Matron, laborers, cooks, and 

other domestics, 1,000 

Provisions, groceries and medicines, 5,000 

Fuel and Lights, 800 



Making the whole #9 ,150 

or $76,25 to each of 120 patients. 
From official information communicated to this House in 1832. 



184 



the number of Insane persons, in 141 towns heard from, was 18'J; 
103 of whom were paupers. The expense of supporting all of 
whom, as appears from information as to the expenses of more 
than two-thirds the number, would be, if the proportion held, 
§14,557, or more than §7,700 per year each. A large proportion, 
v. verity-six, were reported to be in close confinement ; and to such, 
with their present treatment, there can be no reasonable hope of 
recovery. For them is left only existence, capacity of eudurmg 
pa4fl and Buffering all it is possible for human beings to suffer. 
"They are visited with a heavier doom than that inflicted upon 
the voluntary contemners of the laws. They are condemned, as 
no criminal ever has suffered." Such as are paupers, too, must 
remain a burden for life on their respective.counties and towns— 
■a burden frequently increased by their families being deprived of 
I heir natural supporters. We could mention an instance in Massa- 
chusetts of an individual, who had been chained 15 years, until 
she had entirely l08l the use of her limbs, but. being conveyed to 

the Asylum in Worcester, she completely recovered in less than 
nine months. There is a case in New Hampshire of a person, who 
has been confined in jail SO years by reason of insanity, and proba- 
bly at an annual expense to the county of not less than $100.1.0; 
anil many similar instances have and will hereafter occur. Could 
such, in the early stages of the disease, be restored to socit ty anil 
usefulness, the saving in a pecuniary sense would be immense, to 
say nothing of the mental anguish avoided. 

But your Committee cannot overlook the great alleviation of suf- 
fering by means of an Asylum, even where the maniac might not 
be fully restored to his former elevation as a rational and accounta- 
ble being. Formerly, to be sure, the very name of an Asylum, 
such were the strictness and severity of discipline therein adopted, 
served to suggest revolting ideas of gloomy prisons, dark and nar- 
row cells, fetters, chains and all the terrors and horrors of Bed- 
lam. But since the subject has become better understood, both 
medical and mental philosophy have united in exploding the 
former terrific system, and in demonstrating the value and efficacy 
of enlightened medical practical practice in many cases, and of the 
moral treatment of mildness, free exercise, regular diet and separa- 
tion from the exciting objects of derangement in all. It has been 
clearly shown that even when medicine is useless and entire re- 
covery hopeless, bodily health, comfort and happiness may, in a 
considerable measure be secured, and that the appropriate mean-, 
for the attainment of the blessings are constant kindness, convex- 



185 



sation, amusement and the use of no more restraint than is abso- 
lutely necessary for the proper government of the patients. And 
this treatment can no where be so well attained, or at so little ex- 
pense, as at an Asylum. 

The augmented number of Asylums established within the last 
20 years, dragging the wretched victims of disease from the miser- 
able abodes of prisons, workshops and poor houses, and restoring 
them to their reason, to their friends and society, clearly prove 
the necessity and value of such establishments, and that our pecu- 
niary interests, no less than justice and mercy, call upon us to pro- 
vide the necessary means for their medical treatment and moral 
care. It cannot be doubted, that with appropriate treatment, two 
thirds of the lunatics whose support must now continue to be a 
burden upon the State while they live, might have been restored, 
and these two thirds might have added as much to the resources 
of the State, as the other third would have subtracted from it. 

Should an Asylum be established, the richer patients might be 
required to contribute to the support of the poorer, by proportion- 
ins- the price of board to the circumstances of the patient, the only 
object being to obtain the necessary funds to carry it on. — This 
additional expense, beyond the average price, would be readily in- 
curred by the more wealthy, from its being the cheapest means of 
support that could be by them procured even then, from the supe- 
rior recuperative system adopted at the infirmary, and from the 
difficulty of obtaining a person in any degree qualified for the task 
of taking care of a maniac, especially from among his relatives, his 
servants and those he has been accustomed to command. If how- 
ever, the charge for lunatic paupers were in full proportion io the 
whole sum necessary to defray the expenses of the institution, we 
have no doubt of its being by far the most economical course to the 
State that could be adopted, on account of the facility and certain- 
ty of cure in those cases, which by the present treatment are pro- 
tracted and finally rendered hopeless. 

If, then, insanity is not synouomous with unparallelled guilt, 
unheard of crimes and monstrous villanies, why should so large a 
number of our fellow-citizens be cut off from all hope, be doomed 
to all the mysterious and indescribable horrors of madness, when 
with less expense they might be restored to reason and to their 
friends. 

But suppose the expense were a triflle more, shall we disregard 
every principle of social obligation, will we persist in a system the 
operation of which is to sink every victim of insanity deeper and 



1*1', 



deeper in the dungeon of misery and despair? 

Is this practical effect of our constitution and laws in which we 
say triumph the purest principles of Legislation that ever adorned 
civilized society, and shall \vc continue to hoast of our proud pre- 
eminence among the nations of the earth, and talk of christianiz- 
ing, civilizing and humanizing others? Arc the afflicted and dis- 
tressed in New Hampshire less entitled to sympathy and relief, 
less dear to their friends, than those of other States, and are we 
alone to persist in driving our insane beyond the limits of hope, 
beyond the reach of recovery? Are we to be taunted with having 
feelings frigid as our winters climate, hard as our granite rocks, 
with being willing to see one of our fellow-men placed in one 
scale and balanced with a cent in the other? Liberality bestowed 
lo relieve the Insane would be a charity doubly, yes, trebly 
blessed — it would bless not only the individual with the richest of 
Heaven's blessings, by restoring him to his reason and the enjoy- 
ments of social life, by saving him from a lingering death, and from 
anguish the most agonizing, but Ids connections, by enabling them 
to welcome to their embrace a parent or child, husband, or wife, 
and society at large, by giving back to her some of her most virtu- 
ous, talented and efficient members. The credit of Christianity, no 
less than the honor of our republican institutions, the general in- 
terests of the State and the claims of our Insane, imperiously de- 
mand that New Hampshire should be no longer in arrear, while 
our sister states comprehend within their views the lowest pauper 
who may suffer under mental disease and have provided Asylums 
for their recovery, and while even European governments, estab- 
lished tor the benefit of the few to the oppression of the many, 
extend their care and management to all persons, of whatever rank 
or condition, suffering under this most melancholy of human af- 
flictions. Your committee have felt confirmed in the views they 
have taken, by the able and ingenious lecture recently deliv- 
ered by Dr. Perry of Exeter in the Representatives Hall on 
this subject, and are unanimous in recommending an appropria- 
tion for this purpose, as coincident with the clearest prescriptions 
of duty, justice humanity and policy. All of which, with the ac- 
companying resolution, is respectfully submitted. 

C. II. PEASLEE, for the Committee. 

Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Court convened, that the sum of twelve thousand five hundred 
dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated for the purpose of 
erectinsr a Hospital for the Insane, when an equal sum shall have 



1*7 



been subscribed and secured by corporations and individuals for 
the same purposes. 

N. H. Patriot, May 18, 183.5. 

HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 



We have published in this weeks paper the report made by (he 
chairman of the Select Committee to the House of Representative s 
at its last session upon the subject of building a Hospital for the 
Insane people. The attention of our Legislature has for a num- 
ber of years past been officially called to this important subject, 
but as yet no decisive action has been had. The resolution accom- 
panying the report having been postponed to the coming session, 
and one also having been passed requiring the Selectmen of every 
town to make out certified lists of the number of insane persons 
within their towns, containing the names and ages of each person, 
their pecuniary circumstances, the number of years during which 
they have been deprived of their reason and the cause to which the 
same is ascribed, and to transmit the same to the Secretary of 
State whose duty it is to lay them before the House of Represen- 
tatives at the approaching session, the next Legislature will be 
prepared to give an unequivocal expression of their views in re- 
gard to the expediency of the proposed Asylum. We hope no se- 
lectmen of any town are ro indifferent in regard to the treatment 
and recovery of this truly unfortunate class of our fellow citizens, 
that they will neglect to furnish the required information. It is 
needed that our Legislature may act understanding!}' upon the 
subject: and the Representatives elect, knowing that they will 
be called upon to decide so important a question, should feel 
it incumbent upon them to see that the desired information 
concerning the Insane in their respective towns is communi- 
cated. It should be remembered that those, who ask and 
speak for the Insane, are acting and speaking for those who, with- 
out the least fault on their part, are incapacitated by their disease 
for protecting and defending themselves. We have no doubt that 
could half the physic".] and mental sufferings of this class in our 
State be portrayed to our Legislature, they would immediately 
take decisive and vigorous steps in favor of an Asylum, or, at 
least, of making some additional provision to what we now have 
for them. But if we are to wail until the maniac shall burst from 
bis chains of his noisome cell, and with glaring eyes, dishevelled 



l.SS 



air. wop-worn and haggard features, come forward and proclaim 
his wrongs, assert Ids rights, and advocate his claims upon the 
sympathies and charities of his fellow men, then indeed is his case 
hopeless.— For however hopeful it may have been ill its inception 
and first paroxyisms, could lie have been placed where judicious 
moral treatment and medical skill would have seconded the efforts 
of nature for bis recovery, he is now, if in confinement at a jail. 
house of correction or poor house, or even at his own home, treat- 
ed prei isely the way best calculated to drive his mind into return- 
less banishment, and to remove him farther aud farther beyond 

the reach of recovery. 

There have never been more than three or four instances known 

of restoration to reason in any State during any length of time, 

where the Insane were subjected to similar treatment to that of 
nearly an hundred with us. It was officially communicated to our 
Legislature three years ago, that seventy-six deranged persons 
were known to be in close confinement in New Hampshire, and 
returns from all the towns were liol received and others were i r- 
roueous. Some of them were reported b> be in chains or cages, 
made for their confinement : some of I htm in out buildings, gar- 
rets or cellars of private bouses; -ome in county jails, shut up 
with felon- and criminals of every description ; some in alms- 
houses, iu brick cells never warmed by lire or lighted by the rays 
of the sun. One insane woman, who had wandered from her 
friend-, wa- reported t i have been confined in one of our jails 
in winter anil without tire. From the severity of the cold and her 
ii\cd posture, her feel became so much diseased that ii was con- 
sidered necessary to amputate them at the ankle, which was ac- 
cordingl) done and the woman afterwards restored to her friends 
in this mutilated condition. Another female was confined in a 
garret, where, from the lowness of the roof and her consequent- 
ly constrained po-ition. she grew double, and is now obliged to 
walk with her hands us well a- her feet on the floor. A man was 
reported to have been confined for years in a cellar, nearly naked, 
with a bed of wet -(raw for bis couch, and there to have 
pined away in lonely wretchedness and want, unnoticed and 

unattended. Tint it is 1 dless to multiply examples so rife 

with every thing wretched and pitiable. Those who wish for 
more of them, can find an abundant detail in the Reports of the 
Prison Discipline Societv, for the last six years. 

Without attempting to enumerate the many different causes of 
insanity, or stopping to prove the folly of that superstitious be- 



189 

lief by which it was attributed to the influence of evil spirits rath- 
er than to moral and physical causes, we deem it sufficient to say 
that all the powers of the mind, through their organ- of develop- 
ment, areas liable to be afflicted with disease and that too of vari- 
ous kinds, as those of the body; and either the mind or the 
body may be enfeebled at the same time in the whole of its 
powers or in a single one. No one can have any personal assur- 
ance against insanity. The virtuous and vicious, the idle and in- 
dustrious, the weak and strong, the rich and pool', the learned and 
ignorant, are alike liable to be precipitated into the gulf of mad- 
ness—into that state the very thought of which involuntarily tills 
us with horror. 

All past experience demonstrates that adequate relief can be on- 
ly obtained in an Institution exclusively devoted to the treatment 
of this subtle and intricate disorder. If, then, all are liable to its 
attacks, all are interested in the establishment of an Asylum for 
the restoration of its unfortunate victims to the enjoyment of rea- 
son and the pleasures of social life. At Worcester, Mass., during 
the past year, of one hudred and fifteen patients discharged from 
the Asylum, sixty-four were completely cured, and twenty-two 
greatly improved — the cures amounting to fifty-five and three- 
fourths per rent Any one who reflects for a minute, that within 
that period sixty-four persons, who by a dreadful malady had 
been cut off from all the enjoyments of life, have been restored to 
reason, to health, to a power of menial action and enjoyment, will 
acknowledge at once the wisdom of the benevolent institution 
which accomplished such a result; but when we add to this the 
recollection of the circle of family and friends around each of 
these unfortunate beings who now are grateful for the return of 
their relatives to health and happiness, the parent or child that 
blesses the provision which has made home again the abode of do- 
mestic bliss— every one will rank such an institution among the 
most valued in the land— and bless the Legislature by whose boun- 
ty it was founded *' 

We commend the Report of the Committee to the attentive and 
careful perusal of our readers, and hope the subject may attract 
the notice of the conductors of the press in every section of the 
Stale. Particularly do we trust that Selectmen will not neglect to 
forward their returns on or before the second Wednesday of June 
next, agreeably to the Resolution of the last Legislature, alluded to 
in the commencement of this article. Let their duty, in this re- 
spect, be faithfully and universally discharged. 

X. H. Patriot. Mav 18. 1S:V>. 



1(1(1 
HOSPITAL FOE THE INSANE. 



AVe are aware, that it is difficult. almost impossible, to excite a 
deep and genera] feeling upon any subject, which does not more 
directly and immediately affect the interests of our active men, 
than the one at the head of this article. We do not however de- 
spair of exciting inquiry, anion';' those whose duty particularly it 
has been made to attend to the subject and we are in hopes to en- 
list and stimulate many others to aid in the benevolent attempt to 
rescue our Insane from their heart rending situation. Surely no 
mail, who is not abandoned by every moral sentiment and every 
feeling of compassion, run look with indifference upon the dis- 
tress of the lunatic: — and there is no one, who would not hail with 
encouragement . any plan, which affords the faintest ho] f ameli- 
orating the distracted persons condition, and of restoring him to 

the blessings of a sound mind and the duties and joys of life We 
published in our last paper Mr. Peaslee's Report, and made sonic 
remarks upon the subject with a view to keep the public mind 
alive, to draw the attention of our Legislature to a question , which 

will doubtless be submitted to their decision at the next session, 
and to occasion a full and general return from tin' Selectmen, as 
lo the slate and condition of the Insane in their respective towns. 
If this information is faithfully and universally given in every par- 
ticular required by the last legislature, an important point will he, 

gained, and much will have been done towards the accomplish- 
ment of the main object. The facts developed will exhibit such 
an amount and scene of bodily suffering and mental agony, as is 
but little imagined to exist in New Hampshire, and sufficient, to 
call forth tears of blood from the hardest hearts. It will then ap- 
pear, that many of the good, the great and virtuous with us, (as 
in other Slates having no Asylum) without the least fault on their 
part . have been most cruelly consigned to chains and dungeons, 
to cold, filth and nakedness; and that the very means have been 
for a long' time, and are now. in practical operation among us, di- 
rectly calculated to fix more firmly their disease and prolong their 
misery. 

Il has been often said that •'man's inhumanity to man makes 
countless thousands mourn," but one spectacle there is, 
• 'The saddest seen in Time: 
A man to dav the glory of his kind : 
In reason clear, in understanding large, 
In judgement sound, in fancy quick. 



iai 



In hope abundaiit, in promise, like a field. 
Well cultured and refreshed with dews from God; 
To-morrow chained and raving mad and whipped 
By servile hands; sitting on dismal straw, 
And gnashing with his teeth against the chain, 
The iron chain that bound him hand and foot; 
And trying whiles to send his glaring eye 
Beyond the wild circumference of his woe. 
Or humbling more, more miserable still, 
Giving an idiot laugh, that served to show 
The blasted scenery of his face; 
Calling the straw his sceptre, and the stone 
On which he sat, his royal throne. 
Poor, poor, poor man! fallen far below the brute. 
Mis reason strove in vain to find her way, 
Lost in the stormy desert of his brain : 
And being active still she wrought all 
Fantastic, execrable, monstrous things. 
Little do those in health imagine what days, what nights are 
spent by our maniacs in tideless, sailless, shoreless, woe, "or we 
should long ere this have reckoned among our brightest ornaments 
si Lunatic. Asylum ; for there, ninety out of a hundred, of those 
i ow suffering all that it is possible for human beings to suffer, 
would have been recovered. Other afflictions may admit of relief 
the consolation of religion, the sympathies of friends and the ap- 
proval of conscience, but to most of our Insane there is no allevi- 
ation. Is there an individual in our State fearing an attack of the 
disease? He can calculate upon no kind and skillful hand, to guide 
bini in the storm, but must be thrown helmless upon the surge, 
while insanity is rolling its fiery torrents through his brain, lash- 
ing his passions into fury, leaving not a ray of reason to guide, or 
of consciousness to bind his actions. Would those who are so 
much engaged in civilizing and christianizing the heathen of for- 
ci"-n climes, or in freeing the slaves of the South, listen to the 
piercing midnight shrieks, to the howlings night and day of our 
distressed Insane, they might engage their sympathies and direct 
their energies to an object which could be accomplished and which 
confer benefits invaluable. This indeed would be a charity wor- 
thy of the noblest heart, rich in its blessings as heaven, and lasting 
as eternity. 

The impression made upon our feelings by once unexpectedly 
seeing a maniac at the break of day, befoi* any of the villagers 



I III' 



had arisen, sallying with the moat hurried and violent motions 
backwards and forwards in the deep snow, with his head, and 
arm*, and feet bare, eat) never he effaced, lie was ;i soldier of 
the last war, and his insanity was occasioned by a contusion of the 
head received while in actual service. It was freezingly cold, and 
a severe storm was heating violently upon his almost unclothed 
limbs. As we approached him he heeded us not, for however 
great were his sufferings and anguish of body, still grVater was 
the horror and agony of mind depicted in his pallid and haggard 
features; — but we thought as we drew near, he might well say — 
"Rase wind, crack your cheeks, rage, blow, I tax not your ele- 
ments with unkinduess, I never fought and bled in your service. 
I laid not on the cold damp ground, night after night, by the little 
Charge liver, to protect your rights, to secure your freedom, lo 
give \ on the wonderful blessings of civil and social life ; why then 
let fall your horrible pleasure! Here I am your slave, a poor, in- 
firm, weak, despised Old man, but yet I call you servile ministers. 
that have with my ungrateful State joined your high engendered 

battles against a head mi old and white as this!"* Oil the succeed- 
ing 4lh of July, when we heard described in all the beau lies of 
thought and elegance of language the inestimable value of our 
civil and political institutions, extending their care and protection 
to the unfortunate and distressed of every rank and condition, 
our unexampled prosperity — the achievements of our sainted pal- 
riots -when joy was lighted up in every countenance and every 
tongue was telling of the debt of gratitude we owed, not only to 
the patriot soldier of the revolution, but the patriot so dier 
of the last war, we seemed to hear a shriek louder than tin; ear 
piercing bujilc. interrupting the festivity of the day, the shriek and 
voice ot the same quietless maniac, breaking out from yonder 
prison in the mingled accents of distress and despair. — ''Once I 
too freedom enjoyed, was happy as happy could he; but how «tjiI I- 
ing these chains, how degrading this filthy pallet of straw!" 

It is an erroneous opinion that lunatics are insensible to cold, 
hunger and to their degradation by confinement with the offscour- 
ing of the earth. From the high excitement of the system, there 
i* a morbidly increased sensibility to physical and mental suffering. 
A nobleman in England, being confined with a strait waistcoat, 
was urged to walk in the garden for exercise. ''No, sir'' he re- 
plied "I will not, while in this degraded condition'' (glancing at 
the strait waistcoat.) "But, my Lord, no one will see you there.' 
— "Ah sir! what a base man vou must be, to think it is the heinfr 



198 



seen! Mo, sir, it is my body's degradation: it is my mind that is 
degraded and suffers." This man while most furiously insane, 
felt the .ignominy to which he was exposed by confinement and 
constraint. There is not a more affecting spectacle on earth than 
Lunatics imprisoned in damp dungeons, degraded by heavy chains 
and exasperated by unkind treatment. AVe cannot in this age of 
civilization and refinement endure to see even thecriminals tongue 
extirpated, and every one would be shocked to behold even the 
most guilty pierced with a pointed pole, pinched to death with red 
hot pincers, hacked to pieces, quartered alive his heart torn out, 
dashed in his face and broiled before his eyes; but pangs like these 
are momentary, are a bubble, are nothing in comparison with the 
prolonged, excruciating, unutterable agonies of the innocent Lu- 
natic. The tornado tearing up the most sturdy oaks by the roots 
and sweeping off with destruction every thing in its way, the ocean 
lashed into foam and fury of the most violent tempest is mildness 
and calm, in comparison with the tumult and ravings of the fren- 
zied mind The parching fever, holding one's hand during the 
burning flame, to be stretched upon the rack while the quivering 
flesh should fall from every bone and the joints burst from their 
sockets, were a bed of down in comparison with the writhings, 
throes and paroxysms of the Insane. 

Conceiving that nine-tenths of such unparallelled misery might 
be entirely removed by an Asylum, and that all the remaining un- 
fortunate would experience less relief from their sufferings than 
the Lunatic at Worcester, who, when asked if he preferred his 
present situation to his former, replied, "Oh! that was hell, but 
this is heaven,*' we cannot forbear an endeavor to rouse our fel- 
low citizens to a sense of justice and humanity. 

X. H. Patriot, May 25, 1835. 

A SHOUT DISCOURSE. 

Mr. Edit.or:—U is Bometirnes said in conference meetings, and 
the like, that if any of the brethren or friends have any thing to 
offer there is an opportunity to do it. Now if I may have similar 
liberty to talk through your columns I will offer a few remarks, 
although my opinions or suggestion may by some be accounted 
heterodox . 

In the first place, then I say, that I have read in your last paper, 
with a good deal of interest, the report of the committee in rela- 



!"l 



tion to a hospital for the insane; brotcer Peaslee talks well: but I, 
am not fully satisfied with the Resolution reported — as to the land 
— say twenty acre — I think ii proper as suggested in the report, 
that it should be furnished by the town in which the Asylum may 
be located, and for this the town would probably receive an equiv- 
alent from the location within its limits; but as the other expense 
— twenty-five thousand dollar — I say. let the State go the whole 
figure. If our Legislature can lawfully make an appropriation 
for one hall' of the expense of such an establishment— about which 
there can be no doubt — they may also do it for the whole;- aud 
inasmuch a- there i- no want of ability on the pari of the State, it 
i- hardly consistent with the feelings and spirit of tree and inde- 
pendent republicans to go about begging for individual contribu- 
tions to help defray tin 1 expense of getting up an establishment 

designed to aid the cause of humanity, and intended for the bene- 
fit of the whole community. 1 have no doubt that the Resolution 
was reported by the Committee in it-, present shape with the best 
intentions; yet I hope that reliance may be placed upan the hu- 
mane, enlightened, and liberal views of our Legislators, and I lint 

when the time come- for action, an amendment may be made in 
accordance Willi what I have suggested. 1 am, for one. perfectly 

willing to pay my proportion of the whole expense, and 1 think 
mj neighbors are ready and w illing to do the same. 

HALESTOWN. 
N . II. Patriot, June 1 . [Mb. 

Insane Hospital. 



There appears to be a very general feeling among the members 
of the Legi-lature in favor of doing something to ameliorate the 
condition of the unfortunate Insane; but many express doubts, 
on account of the expense attending the enterprise. To be sure 
the expense will be something; but when divided equally among 
the people, it will be but a trifle for each to pa} ; and probably in 
the end would prove a saving — fur in a majority of cases the In- 
saue are now supported at expense of the towns, and the people 
are taxed for their support. The State has already paid more to 
educate the deaf and dumb at Hartford, where the whole amount 
is carried out of the State, than would suffice to build a hospital 
for the Insane — and recently a new object of expenditure has been 



195 

created for educating the blind at Boston , where the amount is al- 
so expended out of the State. Now the question arises, is it bet- 
ter to expend two thousand dollars a year, for mere purposes of 
education, out of the State, or to appropriate some thousands of 
dollars to be expended in the State, to relieve the intense suffer- 
ings of a large number of Insane, and to restore a portion of them 
to usefulness, to their families and friends? For our own part we 
should be glad to see the sufferings of the Insane alleviated, and 
the deaf and dumb and the blind at the same time educated: but 
if but one object can be accomplished, we believe it would be much 
better to stop the appropriations for the latter, and erect an In- 
sane Hospital. The comforts and happiness of the deaf and dumb 
are doubtless increased by being educated — but without education, 
they partake in many of the enjoyments of life, and they seem in 
tact as happy as most other people — whilst the Insane, shut up in 
cages, poor houses and jails, or confined in dungeons and chains — 
frequently deprived of tire and clothing, are suffering the most 
excruciating torments. These can all be made comfortable at an 
Insane Asylum, and many of them may be restored to reason, to 
happiness and society — and it has been clearly shown that the ex- 
pense, (if mere dollars and cents are to be taken into account) will 
be less to the community and to individuals than it now is. We 
now pay two thousand dollars a year for the deaf and dumb and 
blind, which in a very few years amounts to a sum equal to what 
would be required for the erection of an Insane Hospital: and as 
we before observed, if but one object can be accomplished, we be- 
lieve the cause of humanity would be much better subserved by 
stopping the appropriations of money now carried out of the State 
for the benefit of the deaf and dumb and appropriating a sufficient 
sum to erect an Asylum for the Insane, which would be expended 
in the State, and in the benefits of which the people of the State 
would more generally participate. 

N. H. Patriot June 15, 183ft. 

THE INSANE. 



I5v the report of a select Committee, consisting of two from 
eacli County, made to the House on Friday last, it appears, that 
returns have been received from only 48 towns, concerning the in- 
sane. These towns contain a population of about 60,000, and the 



106 



number of persons insane reported is 110, of whom 53 are males, 

and G2 females. The duration of their insanity varies from 2 to 55 
years, excepting in one instance, which is of C months continuance 
The whole number of years all have been insane collectively, is 
1527 or more than 13 on an average. More than half are support- 
ed as paupers, about one-tifth part by the charity of friends not 
legally liable for their support. If the insane in our State is in pro- 
portion to the town- beard from, according to t lie population, and 
the duration of their insanity also in proportion, the whole num- 
ber of years would be 7038. By the same report, it was abundant- 
ly proved from tables of all the principal Hospitals in France, Eng- 
land, and the United States, that in cases of not more than :! 
months duration. Ho per cent, recovered; those of not more than a 
year's standing, 70 per cent, and in cases , of every length of contin- 
uance, degrees of severity and difficulty of cure, over 41 per cent. 
If the recoveries in our Stale would have been the same in propor- 
tion, as in the vast number of cases alluded to by the committee, 
treated at Hospitals, the saving to us by an asylum in a pecuniary 
point of view, would have been immense, to say nothing of the 
thousand of years of mental anguish avoided. Let any one go into 
the calculation, reckoning the cost of supporting them at $100 per 
year, and the value ol their lime at .*75 on an average, and he will 
be startled at the enormous amount to which it swell.--. The com- 
mittee report that, from investigation and the best information 
they could obtain, the cost of erecting an Asylum suitable for 
accommodating 120 patients, furnishing the same, erecting the 
out buildings, fencing out the yards, &c. would not exceed 
$25,000, and that the whole expense of supporting the institu- 
tion if divided among 120 would not exceed $78 1-3. Taking 
into consideration, the eases at the numerous Hospitals in foreign 
countries and our own: and also that the treatment of our insane, 
without an Asylum must from necessity, be such in most cases, 
as is directly calculated to prolong and inflame the disease, there 
can be no doubt as to the expediency in a pecuniary point of view 
of establishing an Hospital. 

X. II. Patriot, dune 22, 1835. 

From (-MIV. Dinsmore's Message. 



There is ;i class of sufferers, far more deploralih afflicted than 



197 



any of the present: beneficiaries of the State, to alleviate whose 
wretchedness is an undertaking highly worthy the exercise of Leg- 
islative wisdom. I feel that no apology need be made in an age so 
distinguished for its public and private charities, for calling your 
attention to a subject which has so much reason and humanity on 
its side, as a measure for the security and recovery of the lunatic 
or insane. The Legislature of this State has never yet recognized 
these unfortunate beings as entitled to any special favor from gov- 
ernment. The period, indeed, is not very remote, when the insane 
were thought to be the victims of an incurable and hopeless malady ; 
and before the establishment of suitable Hospitals and Retreats 
for their reception, they might justly be considered so. It is well 
known how delicate and difficult is the task, even under the most 
advantageous circumstances, of "ministering to a mind diseased." 
Great tenderness, discretion, temper, unwearied patience, and 
varied experience in mental affection are, with other qualifica- 
tions, indispensable to success. When, therefore, the insane are 
left, as now, to the insufficient means and incompetent skill of rel- 
atives or friends, or, still worse, to the negligence and indiffer- 
ence so often exhibited in the treatment of patients of every kind 
i i town poor-houses, or when they are subjected, as is frequently 
the case, to the privations and solitude of a gaol, where attention 
is limited to the mere personal security of the individual, we need 
not be surprised that a restoration of the mind to a healthy state 
should so seldom happen. The results of experiments in other 
States and other Countries, are, however, so perfectly authenticat- 
ed, and so highly favorable, that no doubt can now be entertained, 
that lunacy yields as readily to skillful medical treatment and prop- 
er regimen, when combined with humane and judicious care 
and attentions, as most of the other diseases incident to man- 
kind. Reports from some of the best conducted Retreats in Eng- 
land and the United States show, that of the patients received 
within three months after the first attack, the proportion recovered 
is more than ninety per cenf. Of those admitted after three, and 
within twelve months from the commencement of the disease, the 
ratio of recovery i- ;>s twenty-five to forty-five; and when the 
disease is of more than two years standing, the average of 
cures is somewhat less than than thirty per cent. — These state- 
ments establish the importance of having, in some convenient 
part of the State, a place where patients of this descrip- 
tion can be received, with as little delay as possible after the 
commencement of the disease, and before improper manage- 



I&8 



mcnt shall have aggravated its character, and lessened the chances 
of cure. The slight aberrations of a fine understanding are. 
without doubt, often exasperated by injudicious treatment, 
into tlic worst form of confirmed lunacy. I would not un- 
necessarily impute blame to any, because the insane are not 
now belter managed, yet there may be some reason to fear, that a 
true disclosure of their condition, would exhibit instances of suf- 
fering from intentional unkindness and neglect, that would sur- 
prise and shock every friend of humanity. Without, however, in- 
sisting upon what is rather suspected, than known to be true, it is 
enough for our purpose to be assured, as we are by the testimony 
of all accurate observers, that the consequences resulting from 
misconception of the nature of the disease, and ignorance of the 
proper mode of treating 1 it, are scarcely less deplorable than the 
effects of the most criminal misconduct, and that these evils must 
continue to be experienced so long as the insane arc abandoned to 
I he care of uninstrueted or irresponsible individuals. 

The want of more suitable places for their reception, has made 

it frequently necessary, for (he public safety, to imprison the in- 
sane like criminals in the common county gaols. I am sure it 
needs no argument to convince you, how entirely unsuitable and 
undeserved, is this species of confinement The public may indeed, 
in this way, be secured from danger, but the protection is general- 
ly purchased by the sacrifice of the miserable victim. The moment 
the doors of the prison arc closed upon him all hope of his 
recovery may be considered as destroyed. Is it just, or mer- 
ciful, to treat thus those, whom law and reason pronounced inca- 
pable of wrong? 

The first step to be taken preparatory to the establishment of a 
State Lunatic Hospital, and what I would beg leave to recommend 
for your consideration is the institution of an enquiry to be made 
in such manner as you in your wisdom may think proper, to as- 
certain with as much exactness as practicable, the wdiole number 
within the State, distinguishing paupers from others: the number 
that have been committed to gaol within a given time by authority 
of conn , or by their friends or others without the order or sanc- 
tion of judicial proceedings, and the length of their respective 
terms of confinement; and to ascertain, in like manner, the actu- 
al or probable amount of costs of courts and gaolers fees, and ex- 
penses of their support and maintainance in cases of commitment. 
It would also be desirable, to have as minute information with re- 
spect to the present condition and treatment of the insane gen- 



199 



erally, and the extraordinary charges for taking care of them, as 
can be obtained without an improper violation of domestic privacy. 
Should the inquiry be faithfully made, it is believed that these 
unfortunate persons would be found to be so numerous, and their 
sufferings in the aggregate so great, as to persuade every considtae 
friend of his species that something should be done for their relief. 
They can look for help only to those, whose official stations give 
them the means, as they impose the duty, of watching over and 
promoting the happiness of all. 

N. H. Patriot June 11, 1832. 

COURT OF COMMON PLEAS. 



Sept. Term for Merrimack Co., 1838. 
To the Hon. J okl Parker, Chief Justice for State of Mew Hamp- 
shire. 
The Grand Jury for said County, believing that the publication 
of your charge delivered them at the present session of said court, 
would have a tendency to correct public opinion in regard to the 
mysterious subject of insanity, and subserve the cause of humani- 
ty, respectfully request you to furnish the same for that purpose. 
Concord, Sept. 18, 1838. 
SAMUEL JONES, Foreman. 
John Cooswell, John Sawyer, 

James Johnson, John Hersev, 

Tristram C. Dow, Henry M. Moork, 

John Emerson, Nathaniel Kimball, 

Noah YV Drake, John Clark, 

Jonathan Milton, Mitchell Gilmore,Jr., 

Jonathan Chase, Joseph Fellows, 

Watson Dickinson, 
Moses Nokris, Jr. , Solicitor. 

CHARGE. 



Gentlemen of the. Grand Jury. — 
The oath you have just taken requires of you diligently to in 

quire, and to make a true presentment of all such matters and 

things as shall be given you in charge. 
The form of the oath is of very ancient origin, and was adopted 

in England when the law did not define with much ncouracvihe 



21 ii i 



jurisdiction and powers of the grand jury, but when the subject to 
Which their inquiries were to be directed depended in some meas- 
ure upon the charge of the court. 

Those subjects were of various character, relating not only to 
crimes committed, but to the revenues of the government, and oth- 
er subjects connected therewith. 

As the administration of the law assumed a more definite and 
distinct form, the duties of grand jurors came to he tixed b\ known 
laws, and their proper jurisdiction to he confined to the present- 
ment of offenders, siill the form of tin' oath has been preserved, 
and the customary charge from the court has continued to he de- 
livered to the grand jury at the commencnient of each term, not- 
withstanding the duties of grand jurors have long since been made 
to depend, not SO much upon what should be said in the charge, 
as upon tixed principles of law, by which it is given in charge to 
all grand jurors to inquire and present all offences against the 
criminal code, properly cognizable by the court, committed with 
in the bounds of their respective counties. 

And in consequence Of this change, the charge itself has been of- 
ten varied, and instead of containing a recapitulation of the crimes 
falling within the cognizance of the gram] jury, and forming prop- 
er subjects of punishment, it ha-- often been deemed of such impor- 
tance to call the attention of that body to subjects having a more 
general reference to the administration of justice, and the welfare 
and happiness of the community. 

Topics of this character may occupy us quite as usefully as mere 
definitions of crimes, and specification of their several punish- 
ments; and there i- at the present time a peculiar propriety in ask- 
ing your attention to the subject of Insanity. It is one which has 

a *t intimate connection with administration of jurisprudence 

in all its departments, whether of common law or equity; one 
which is constantly presented not only in the civil, but in the crim- 
inal jurisdiction, and in all our tribunals, from the magistrate of 
the most limited authority, to the court of final resort, it is con- 
stantly recurring for consideration. The authorities of our towns 
are, from time to time, called on to provide for the support of in- 
dividuals, who but for aberration of mind would be fully compe- 
tent to provide for their own wants. The courts of probate pos- 
sess', and not uufrequently are called upon to exercise, the power 
of appointing guardians to persons non compos mentis. And 
not the least difficult among the labors of that court, and of thi- 
on the issue formed upon appeal, are those occasioned by contro- 



201 



yei'sies respecting wills, where it is alleged that the testators were 
of non-sane memory. The courts of common law are from time to 
time required to determine respecting contracts, which are alleg- 
ed to be invalid from want of capacity to contract — and above all 
to pass upon the guilt or innocence of citizens, who are defended 
against an accusation for a capital crime on the ground of insanity. 

It is surely not astonishing, that in one way or another it so of- 
ten becomes the subject of examination before the judicial tribun- 
als. 

By returns from 83 towns made by order of the legislature in 
1832, there were within those towns one hundred and ninety-three 
cases of insanity, from 127 towns no report was received At a 
similar ratio for all the towns in the State, the number would 
lie About Ji re hundred. Of those returned ninety-eight were pau- 
pers, and ninety-Jive not so. From the returns about half were 
or had been in confinement, and probably omissions in that re- 
spect gave a less number who had been restrained in this way, 
than the facts would have warranted. Some were in cages, and 
cells — some in irons, and chains — and some in jails. 

The report of a committee in 18.16 shows returns from 161, in 
141 of which the whole number of insane returns wasthree hun- 
dred and twelve. In 20 of the towns from which returns were re- 
ceived there were no insane. The period in which the insanity 
had existed, as far as reported was from two weeks to sixty years, 
and gave an average of about thirteen and a half years duration — 
Taking the ratio of the population of the towns from which the re- 
turns were received, as compared with the population of the State, 
and the whole number of the iusane would be nearly four hundred 
and fifty. There are obvious reasons why this should be below 
the actual number. 

By inquiries recently made it appears that the number of the in- 
sane in the county of Cheshire is fifty— nearly two for every one 
thousand inhabitants; which would give about five hundred for 
the whole State. 

it mav then safely be assumed that there cannot be much less 
than that number. 

Of the actual condition of this number of people it is of 
course impossible to spe:ik with precise accuracy; with some 
there is no doubt that the malady exhibits itself in an inoffen- 
sive manner, and in such a way as to require but a moderate de- 
gree of care and attention on the part of their friends. But in re- 
lation to others, although but a portion of the truth has been dis- 



2( \i 



closed, the confinement of nearly hall', according to the returns of 
1832— the resort to chains, and cages, and jails, tells a frightful 
tale of misery and woe endured, not only by individuals thus de- 
prived of reason, but by relations, and friends, and neighbors, 
to whom, in the providence of God, their custody and care have 
been committed. 

We do not need the particular details. We have only to recur to 
our own knowledge of the effects of insanity to bring before us 
the sullen mood — the meditated revenge for fancied injuries— the 
wild halloo — the attack — the struggle in some instances, alas! the 
fatal struggle with near kindred — with a wife, a father, or a son. 
And on the other hand the reported returns made to the Legislature 
"confined* - — "sometimes confined" — "confined in the poorhouse" 
— "confined in a cage" — "chained"— "confined in jail" assured 
us beyond the possibility of question, that hardship and suffering, 
and misery, such as falls not commonly to the lot of mortals, has 
been endured by those who have, (in many instances without doubt 
in the existing state of things necessarily,) been subjected to re- 
straints of such a character. 

Whether we regard the suffering of the insane, and the burdens 
imposed upon relations and friends, and upon the public charity; 
or whether we consider it with reference to its connection with 
our jurisprudence it is of the highest importance that Insanity 
should be more fully understood, and that suitable measures should 
be taken for the relief and security of the insane themselves, of 
their friends and connections, and of the community at large. 

Notwithstanding all that has been said and written within a few 
years past, in relation to this most interesting subject, it is appar- 
ent that correct information respecting it is diffused in but a very 
limited degree among the people of this country. 

The public papers, in giving reports of trials, often say "the 
defence was. as usual, insanity," or make use of some other 
expression, indicating a belief that this species of defence is re- 
sorted to in desperate eases, for the purpose of aiding in the es- 
cape of criminals from justice. Such opinions are propagated in 
many instances by those who=e feelings are too much enlisted, or 
whose ignorance respecting the subject is too great to permit them 
to form a dispassionate and intelligent judgment; and they have a 
very pernicious tendency, inasmuch as they excite prejudices in 
the public mind, and the unfortunate individual who is really en- 
titled to the benefit of such a defence is thereby sometimes de- 
prived of a fair and impartial trial. They tend to make the de- 



20:1 



fence of insanity odious— to create an impression against its 
truth in the outset, and thus to bias the minds of the jury against 
the prisoner, and to induce them to give little heed to the, evi- 
dence, in the very cases where the greatest care, and attention, 
and impartiality are necessary for the development of truth, and 
the attainment of justice. 

We all concur in the doctrine of the law that for acts committed 
during a period of insanity, and induced by it, the party is not re- 
sponsible — that where the criminal mind is wanting, when instead 
of being guided by the reason which God bestowed, the individu- 
al is excited and led on by insane fury and impulse; or by the 
aberrations of a wandering intellect ; or a morbid and diseased 
imagination; or a false and distorted vision, and perception of 
things; punishment should not follow the act as for an offence 
committed — that when the faculty of distinguishing between right 
and wrong is wanting;, the individual ought not to be held as a 
moral and accountable agent. As well — nay much better might 
we, as was formerly done in France, institute prosecutions against 
the brute creation for offences committed by them, and hang a 
beast for homicide, than to prosecute and condemn a human being 
who is deprived of his reason; for in such case, there is no hope 
of a restoration to a right mind, and a reinstating of a fellow citi- 
zen, who has been once lost to the community in the rights and af- 
fections of humanity. 

But if we imbibe the idea that instances of insanity are very- 
rare — that derangement exists only when it manifests itself by in- 
coherent language, and unrestrained fury — that the defence when 
it is offered is probably the last resort of an untiring advocate; 
who convinced that no real defence can avail, will not hesitate to 
palm off a pretended derangement to procure the escape of his cli- 
ent from a merited punishment— if in this way we steel our hearts 
against all sympathy, and our minds against all conviction, it 
is of little avail that we agree to the abstract proposition that in- 
sanity docs in fact furnish a sufficient defense against an accusa- 
tion for a crime. 

There «re undoubtedly instances in which this kind of defence 
is attempted from the mere conviction that nothing else can avail 
—cases in which the advocate forgets the high duty to which he is 
called, and excites a prejudice against the case of others by at- 
tempting to procure the escape of a criminal under this false pre- 
tense, but such cases are truly rare, and usually unsuccessful. 



20-1 



The reason which the Creator has bestowed upon mankind for 
their guidance is strong within them, and breaks through the flim- 
sy vail under which a counterfeit madness attempts to conceal it. 

But if there were difficulties here they would only add an addi- 
tional proof of the necessity of a more thorough knowledge upon 
the subject of insanity itself, in order more certainly to ensure tlic 
detection of impOStei'S. 

It is not within the scope of the present occasion to examine at 
much length the various forms of Insanity, but there are some to 
which it maybe useful to advert at this time, as they are of a 
character most likely to become the subject of examination in the 
courts of justice. 

There is a mania of the intellectual faculties, ' 'characterized by 
certain hallucinations, in which the patient is impressed with the 
reality of facts or events that have never occurred, and acts more 
in- less in accordance with such belief; or having adopted some no- 
tion not altogether unfounded carries it to an extravagant or ab- 
surd extent." 

This may be general or partial. 

General intellectual insanity •'involving most of the operations of 
the understanding." presents such manifestations of its presence 
that there is little or no danger of mistake respecting the existence 
of the malady. The individual is not obliged to encounter an in- 
credulity, which sets evidence at nought and defies argument. 
There is no difficulty in sticb cases in attributing any atrocious act 
to the influence of the insanity. 

It is when this kind of insanity is partial, affecting only a par- 
ticular idea or train of ideas, that it becomes strange to us, and m 
that form we are disposed to treat it, not as an alienation of the 
mind , but as a perverse state of it out of which the individual 
should be driven by forcible means, and to hold him accountable 
tor his acts, even to the forfeit of life itself, because, having the 
full control of most of his faculties, it is difficult for us to realize 
the impossibility of his overcoming the insane idea by an effort of 
reasoning powers which appear to act with SO much soundness up- 
on other subjects. 

l'ersons of this class often manifest great acuteness in concealing 
their insanity, being sensible that others differ from them, and 
that it is prejudicial to their interests. 

There are two cases of this character related by Lord Erkskine, 
on the trial of Hadfleld for shooting at the king, which illustrate 
t hi - fact in a striking manner. 



21 lo 



"I well remember" said Lord Erkskine ("indeed I can never 
forget it") that since the noble and learned Judge has presided 
in this Court, I examined, for the greater part of a day, in this 
very place, an unfortunate gentleman who had indicted a most af- 
fectionate brother, together with the keeper of a mad house, at 
Iloxton, for having imprisoned him as a lunatic; whilst, accord- 
ing to the evidence, he was in his perfect senses. I was, unfortu- 
nately, not instructed in what his lunacy consisted, although my 
instructions left me no doubt of the fact; but, not having the clue, 
he completely foiled me in every attempt to expose his infirmity. 
You may believe that I left no means unemployed which long- 
experience dictated ; but without the smallest effect. The day was 
wasted, and the prosecutor, by the most affecting history of 
unmerited suffering, appeared to the Judge and Jury, and to a 
humane English audience, as the victim of the most wanton and 
barbarous oppression ; at last, Dr. Sims came into court, who had 
been prevented, by business, from an earlier attendance; from 
him I soon learned that the very man whom I had been above an 
hour examining, and with every possible effort which Counsel are 
so much in the habit of exerting, believed himself to be the Lord 
and Saviuur of mankind; not merely at the time of his confine- 
ment, which was alone necessary for my defence; but during the 
whole time that he had been triumphing over every attempt to sur- 
prise him in the concealment of his disease. I then affected to la- 
ment the indecency of my ignorant examination, when he ex- 
pressed bis forgiveness, and said, with the utmost gravity 
and emphasis, in the face of the whole Court, "I am the Christ," 
and so the cause ended. Gentlemen, this is not the only 
instance of the power of concealing this malady; I could con- 
sume the day if I were to enumerate them; but there is one so 
extremely remarkable that 1 cannot help stating it." 

"A man of the name of Wood," said Lord Mansfield,' ' had in- 
dicted Dr Monro for keeping him as a prisoner, (I believe in the 
same mad house at Hoxton.) when he was sane. He underwent the 
most severe examination by the defendant's Counsel without expos- 
ing his complaint, but Dr. Battye, having come upon the Bench by 
me, and having desired me to ask him what was become of the 
Princess whom he had corresponded with in cherry juice, he 
showed in a moment what he was. Tie answered; that there was 
nothing at all in that, because, having been (as every bodyknew) 
imprisoned in a high tower, and being debarred the use of ink, he 
had no other means of correspondence but by writing 1 his letters in 



jmi 



cherry juice, ami tin-owing them into the river which surrounded 
the tower, where the Princess received them in a boat. There ex- 
isted, of course, uo tower, no imprisonment, no writing in cherry 
juice, no river, no boat : but the whole the inveterate phantom of 
.-, morbid imagination. "1 immediately," continued Lord Mans- 
tield. directed Monro to be acquitted; but this man. Wood, being 
a merchant in Philpot Lane, and having been carried through the 
city in bis way to the mad house, be indicted Dr. Monro over again, 
for the trespass and imprisonmnent in London, knowing that lie 
bad lost his cause by speaking of the Princess at Westminster; 
•and such," -aid Lord Mansfield, is the extraordiary subtlety and 
cunning of madmen, that when lie was cross-examined on the trial 
in London, a- be bad successfully been before, in order to expose 
hi- madness, all the ingenuity of the Bar, and all the authority of 
the Court, could not make him say a single syllable upon that 
topic, which had put an end to the indictment before, although 
he -till had the same indelible impression upon bis mind, as be sig- 
nified to those who were near him , but conscious that the delu- 
sion had occasioned his defeat at Westminster . be obstinately per- 
sisted in holding it back." * 

Another remarkable instance of the concealment of insanity is 
stated by Mr. Haslam, the superintendent of a hospital in Eng- 
land. It may be found in a very valuable treatise upon the medi- 
cal Jurisprudence of Insanity, recently published by Dr. Pay. of 
Kaslport . in Maine. 

After speaking in general terms of (he cunning and address ex- 
hibited by the insane. Dr. Pay proceeds: 

' • When desirous of leaving their confinement also, the consum- 
mate tact with which they will set suspicion at rest, the forecast 
with which the) made their preparations for escape, and the sa- 
gacity with which they choose the time and place of action, would 
do infinite credit to the conceptions of the most intelligent minds. 
Mr. Haslam has related a case SO strikingly illustrative of this 
trait, that it is well worth extracting in this connection. An Es- 
sex farmer, after having so well counterfeited recovery as to pro- 
duce his liberation, and being sent back again . immediately be- 
came tranquil, and remonstrated on the injustice of bis confine- 
ment. Having once deceived me lie wished much that my opin- 
ion should be taken respecting the state of his intellect, and as- 
sured his friends that he would submit to my determination. I 
had taken care to be well prepared for this interview, by obtain- 
ing an accurate account of the manner in which he bad conducted 



207 



himself. At this examination lie managed himself with admirable 
address. lie spoke of the treatment he had received, from the 
persons under whose care he was there placed, as most kind and 
fatherly: he also expressed himself as particularly fortunate in be- 
ing' under my care, and bestowed many handsome compliments on 
my skill in treating this disorder; and expatiated on my sagacity 
in perceiving the slightest tinges of insanity. When I wished him 
to explain certain parts of his conduct , and particularly some ex- 
travagant opinions, respecting certain persons and circumstances, 
he disclaimed all knowledge of such circumstances, and felt 
himself hurt that my mind should have been poisoned so 
much to his prejudice, lie displayed equal subtlety on three oth- 
er occasions when I visited him; although by protracting the con- 
versation . he let fall sufficient to satisfy my mind that he was a 
madman. In a short time he was removed to the hospital, when 
he expressed great satisfaction in being under my inspection. 
The private mad house which he had formerly so much commend- 
ed, now became the subject of severe animadversion ; he said he 
had been there treated with extreme cruelty; that he had been 
nearly starved, and eaten up by vermin of various descriptions. 
On enquiring of some convalescent patients, I found, (as I had 
suspected) that I was as much the subject of abuse, when absent as 
any of his supposed enemies, although to my face, he was courteous 
and respectful. More than a month had elapsed since his admis- 
sion into the hospital, before he pressed me for my opinion ; prob- 
ably confiding in his address and hoping to deceive me. At length 
he appealed to my decision, and urged the correctness of his conduct 
during confinement, as an argument for his liberation. But. when 
I informed him of circumstances he supposed me unacquainted 
wilh. and assured him. that he was a proper subject for the asylum 
which lie then inhabited, he suddenly poured forth a torrent of 
abuse; talked in the most incoherent maimer; insisted on the 
truth of wlial he formerly denied: breathed vengeance against his 
family and friends; and became so outrageous that it was necessa- 
ry to order him to be strictly confined. He continued in a state of 
unceasing fury for more than fifteen months!" 

Jidji'x Med. Jin-. page 44. 

Partial insanity is perfectly consistent with the exercise of clear 
and strong reasoning powers upon all other trains of thought ex- 
cept that connected with the insane idea. 

"A person" says Dr. Kay "may regard his child with the feel- 
ings natural to the paternal bosom, at the very moment he believes 
himself commanded by a voice from heaven to sacrifice this child 



208 



in order to secure its eternal happiness, than which, of course, 
he could not accomplish a greater good. The conviction of a ma- 
niac's soundness on certain subjects, is based in part on the moral 
aspect, in which he views those subjects; for, it would be folly to 
consider a person rational, in reference to hi* parents or children, 
while he labors under an idea, that it would be doing God's ser- 
vice to kill them; though be may occasionally talk rationally of 
their characters, dispositions and habits of life, their chances of 
Mine--, in their occupations, their past circumstances, and of the 
feelings of affection, which lie has always cherished towards them. 
Before, therefore, an individual can be accounted sane on a partic- 
ular subject it must appear that he regards it correctly, in all its rela- 
tions to righl and wrong. Tbe slightest acquaintance with the insane 
will convince any one of the truth of this position i In no school of 
logic, in no assembly of the ju-t, can we listen to closer and 
shrewder argumentation, t<> warmer exhortations to duty, to more 
glowing descriptions of the beauty of virtue, or more indignant 
denunciations of c\ il doing, than in (be hospitals and asj buns for 
the insane. And yet many of those very people may imike no se- 
cret of entertaining notions utterly subversive of all moral pro- 
priety; and. perhaps, are only waiting a favorable opportunity, to 
execute some project of wild and cruel violence. The purest 
minds cannot express greater horror and loathing of various crimes, 
than madmen often do, and from precisely tbe same causes. Their 
abstract conceptions of crime, not being perverted by tbe influence 
of disease, present its hideous outlines as strongly defined, as they 
ever were in tbe healthiest condition; and tbe disapprobation they 
express at tbe sijrht arises from sincere and honest convictions. 
The particular criminal act, however becomes divorced in their 
minds from its relations to crime in the abstract; and, being re- 
garded only in connection with so favorite object, which it may 

belli to obtain, and which they see no reason to refrain from pur- 
Suing, is viewed, in fact as of a highly laudable and meritorious 
nature." 

Ii'ni/'s Mai. ,Tur. paae 32. 

Insanity, however. is not confined to the intellectual faculties 
alone. 

It seems now to be settled by tbe best of medical authority, that 
the propensities and sentiments may become deranged, and this is 
denominated moral mania, or moral insanity — consisting in a mor- 
bid perversion of the natural feelings, affections, temper, habits and 
moral dispositions, or a morbid condition and excitement of the 



209 



passions and feelings. This also may be general or partial. 

"An irresistible propensity to steal" — ''an inordinate propensity 
to lying" — "a morbid activity of the passions" — "a morbid propen. 
sity to incendiarism" "and a morbid propensity to destroy; when 
the individual without provocation or any other rational motive, 
apparently in the full possession of his reason, and oftentimes, in 
spite of his most strenuous efforts to resist, imbrues his hands in 
the blood of others, are set down as among the characteristics of 
partial moral insanity. It is principally cases of the latter char- 
acter, which have occupied the attention of the judicial tribunals; 
and it will ere long be more generally admitted, that the want 
of proper information respecting this form of insanity has consign- 
ed to the gallows many unfortunate individuals, who should have 
been committed to the custody of some skillful superintendent of a 
lunatic hospital, instead of being delivered over to the executioner. 

Several cases of this character are stated by Dr. Woodward, Su- 
perintendent of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, in an appendix to the Reports of that Institution, pub- 
lished in 1837 — 

"A man now under my care' ' says he ''will in a few moments 
tear up all his clothes, and then say he was a fool and knew better, 
and ought to have been punished, yet he could not help the act 
and often repeats it. A fem de in the Hospital seized an attend- 
ant by the throat, and, would, perhaps, have strangled her if she 
had not been protected and defended by other patients; this was 
twice repeated, and yet she declared she had no hostility to the at- 
tendants — that they were kind and obliging, but she felt, as she 
expressed it, that she must kill them; she had no motive no delu- 
s j n — she obeyed no secret mandate from a power that she dared 
not resist and disobey : yet she felt that the impulse to destroy 
them was irresistible." 

(ieorget mentions a case of a woman who consulted him, and 
who was evidently healthy and rational, whose irresistible propen- 
sity was to murder her children : she abhorred herself for the feel- 
ing, and avoided windows and sharp instruments, and often fled 
from the house to get out of their way." 

"Some of the most atrocious homicides on record have been per- 
petrated under the influence of like feelings. The apparent dis- 
cordancy between the evidence of insanity in such cases and the 
magnitude of the crime committed has led the best men to doubt 
and the community to disbelieve the irresponsibility of the individ- 
ual. The cases of Hiller, of Rabello, of Southwick. of Preseott, 



210 



two of whom were executed for their crimes, and two were saved 
by the lucid exposition of the principles of insane impulse, -.'ivpn 
by the medical witnesses and enforced by intelligent and able 
counsel will elucidate the view of the subject which I have taken." 

Reports &c. page 17j. 

lie then proceeds to give a detail of those cases; and in his fifth 
report several othercasesof individuals, now in the Hospital, 
are stated. A large number of cases of this character, which have 
occurred in this country and in Europe, are collected in Dr. Ray's 
work. Two of them will suffice for the present occasion. 

•■William Brown was executed at Maidstone. England, in 1812 
for strangling a child whom he accidentally met one morning 
whilst walking in the country. On the trial, he said he had never 
seen the child before, had no malice against it. and could assign no 
motive for the dreadful act . I le look up the body and laid it oil 
sonic steps, and then went and told what he had done, requesting 

to lie taken into custody . lie bore an exemplary character and 
hail never been suspected of being insane." 

"A country gentlemen enjoying good health ami easy circum- 
stances, consulted Esquire — " (a distinguished French physi- 
cian) in regard to his singular and unhappy condition. lie 

related that he had read the indictment of Henrietta Cornier" 
(for the murder of a child) which however did not excite 
hi- attention. In the course of the night he suddenly awoke 
with the thought of killing his wife who was lying beside him. 
lie left his wife's bed for a time, but within three weeks the same 

idea seized upon his mind three times and always in the night. 
During the day, considerable exercise and occupation preserved 
him from this fearful inclination. He evinced not the slightest 
mental disorder: bis business was prosperous, hi' had never expe- 
rienced any domestic chagrins; and he had n<> cause of complaint 
or jealousy in regard to his wife whom he loved and With whom 
he never bad the least disagreement. With the exception of a 
li^hl headache occasionally, he had always been well and free from 
pain. He is -ad and troubled about his condition and has quitted 
his vvife for fear lest he might yield to the force of his desire." 

Hull's Med. Jour. page 202. 

Cases of partial moral mania are undoubtedly to be admitted 
with great caution and circumspection, but that such do exi-t 
seems to be satisfactorily established. 

There can be little inducement for any one to attempt the perpe- 
tration of crirtic, with the hope of escaping under this plea; for 



•.'1 1 

whenever there has been a quarrel, or when a motive of any kind 
operaters showing a reason for the commission of the act, such 
defence would ordinarily he of little avail. 

Mental deficiency is treated as a species of insanity, and may be 
of such a degree as to render the subject of it irresponsible for his 
acts. 

It has been divided into imbecility, and stupidity; the former 
consisting in a defect of "the power ot the mind to examine what 
is presented to it by the senses, and there from to deduce correct 
judgments;" the other is an inability of the mind to perceive 
and embrace what is presented to it. The one is a defect in the re- 
flective powers, and the other m the powers of perception. 

in regard to the latter class, or idiots, no difficulty is experienced 
in ascertaining their state, and in according to them the exemption 
from punishment which that state requires; but the other class, 
which often possesses many of the faculties of the mind in the or- 
dinary degree, occasionally presents some of the most difficult 
cases for the consideration of the legal tribunals. 

Georget, a French writer of eminence, after speaking of those 
whose mental deficiency is such that they have no idea or a very- 
imperfect one of society, laws, and morality, and some of whom 
have no conception of propriety, says — 

Among the lower orders of society, are many imbeciles, a little 
more intelligent than these, and, not considered as utterly devoid 
of understanding, who, nevertheless have but vague and imper- 
fect notions, of social duties and of justice. They engage in occu- 
pations that require no great extent of intellect, and even in the 
simplest of the mechanic arts. If they do not pass among their 
acquaintances for imbeciles, they are at least regarded as singular 
beings, with feeble understandings, and arc teased and tormented 
in innumerable ways. Many of them, for want of some powerful- 
ly restraining motive, indulge in drinking, and become lazy,. 
drunken and dissipated, and finally fall into the hands of justice 
in greater numbers than is generally suspected. They steal adroit- 
ly, and hence are considered as very intelligent; they recommence 
their offences the moment they are released from confinement, and 
thus are believed to be obstinately perverse: they are violent and 
passionate, and the slightest motive is sufficient to plunge them 
into deeds of in«'ndiarism and murder. Those who have strong 
sexual propensities, soon become guilty of outrages on female 
chastity. 1 have had occasion to see many of this class in prison, 
who bad been judicially decided to be rational but whose demi-im- 



_'T'' 

becilitj w:i» manifest enough tome.'" 

Ray's Med. Jour. 8T. 

Among the instances of this character is the case of John 
Schmidz, aged 17. who was tried at Met/, in November 1821, for 
parricide. 

"He had manifested from an early age proueness to mischief 
and even cruelty. As soon as lie was old enough to vun in the 
street^, he would amuse himself by throwing stones into tlie rivu- 
let thai ran through the village, in order to spatter and hurl the 
people who were passing by, many of whom were injured by him. 
They contented themselves, however, with charging his parents 
to take care of him. tor he was even considered to l>e inad." 

••The first count in the indictment charged him with wounding 
on the head his sister— in law in one of their domestic quarrels. 
The second charged him with an attempt on the life of one of his 
cousins, whom he pushed into the water whilst fishing by the - i < l< 
id' a pond, and then laughed at his struggle to extricate himself. 
When he finally succeeded, Schmidz approached him and asked if 

he was wet. and if the water hild reached his skin; the hoy, to 

show that it had, opened his shirt, when Schmidz plunged a knife 

in hi- I no. Happily the wound was not severe." 

••()n the night of i in parricide the father was boiling pot ashes. 
At four o'clock in the morning he called to his wife to conic and 
assisl him in lifting tin- kettle from the lire. ImiI -he refused and, 
ordered John to go-. John went in his shirl and set the kettle on 
the floor, and while his father was bending over tu stir the pot- 
ashes, he -truck him a lilow with a hatchet lying near, that felled 

liim senseless to the ground, lie then ascended to the garret, 

where hi- brother and sister were Sleeping and severely wounded 

the latter with hi- hatchet. < >n heme' seized by his brother soon 
after, he asked to. see his father who had just expired; and when 
gratified in hi- wish he uttered these remarkable words: •■Ah tnj 

dear lather when- are you now? What will beco of me? Yon 

and in\ mother are the cause of all my misfortunes, I predicted 
it long ngo-, and if yon had brought me up better l hi- would not 
have happened."' When asked what had induced him to commit 
such an atrocious crime, he answered that the devil undoubtedly 
instigated him Several witnesses testified that he had always 
been remarkable tor profound piety and religiouf habits, lie ron- 
fcs-ed that whenever he -aw a cutting instrument, such as ;i, 
hatchet, a knife. &c. he felt the strongest desire to seize it, and 
wound the first person who came in bis wav. His counsel uiisi.h- 



2T13 



cessfully pleaded in his defence mental derangement, though 
Schmidz interrupted him by declaring that he was not mad. Short- 
ly before the fatal hour, food was brought to him, but observing 
it to be meat he refused to eat it, saying that, in a few minutes it 
would be Friday. As lie walked barefooted to the place of execu- 
tion, his confessor asked him if the pavement did not hurt him?" 
"I wish 1 ' he replied "they had made ine walk on thorns. " When 
arrived at the scaffold, they cut off his hand, but he uttered not a 
word or cry, and remained firm to the last. ' ' 

Bay 101. 

The case of Prescott is regarded by Dr. Ray as of this character. 

Cases of irresistible impulse to kill may well be connected with 
this imbecility or deficiency of intellect. 

Persons of this description often act from motives, in such a 
manner as to subject themselves to legal accountability, if there 
was not a deficiency of intellect. 

"On the 14th of May, 18:>;i, a young man man, John Barclay was 
executed at Glasgow, for the murder of Samuel Neilson, for whom 
be had previously showed some affection. He took from him three 
one pound notes and a watch, to obtain possession of which seems 
to have been the cause of the murder. When questioned he could 
see no difference between killing a man and killing an ox, except 
that he "would never hear him fiddle again;"' and so little did he 
know of the nature of the watch that he regarded it as an animal, 
and when it stopped from not having been wound up, believed it 
had died of cold from the glass being broken , So obvious was Bar- 
clay's mental deficiency, that the court of justitiary, before whom 
he wa- brought, declined proceeding to his trial till it was decided 
by medical evidence that he was a fit subject for trial.' ' Notwith- 
standing the fact that weakness of mind was recognized by all par- 
ties from the judge downwards, and that the jury strongly recom- 
mended him to mercy on that account, he was condemned and ex- 
ecuted . " 

Ray 117. 

Connected as this subject is with jurisprudence, we may well. 
within these walls, inquire, what has been done, and what meas- 
ures ought to be adopted for the security of the community, and 
for the relief of those who are or may become the subjects of this 
frightful malady. 

The answer to the first branch of this question may be comprised 
in a few words. 

Our laws have provided for the appointment of guardians for 



I'M 



(he insane: a measure which, however efficacious it may be in the 
preservation of their property, it is very evident can be of little 
avail in securing the family and friends of the maniac, or the com- 
munity at large, from his insane violence and. it is, perhaps, still 
less available in aiding to restore him to his right mind. And in ad- 
dition to this our statute provides, that whenever any person in ens- 
tody, or in prison, to answer for any crime or offence shall be ae- 
quitted by the petit jury, or shall not be indicted by the grand jury 
by reason of the insanity or mental derangement of such person, 
and the discharge or going at large of such person, shall be deem- 
ed by the court to be dangerous to the safety of the citizens, or 
the peace of the State, the court is empowered to commit such per- 
son to prison, there lobe detained till he or she be restored to his 
or her right mind, or otherwise delivered by due course of law . 

In other words, by our statute provision, when it shall be ascer- 
tained that an individual has committed an ail which would he a 
crime if he was of sound mind, but which is no crime by reason 
of mental derangement, he shall be confined in the common, 
prison like a criminal-fed like a criminal-placed in the society of 
criminals ami treated as they are — and that this shall be continued 
nut il by such process he shall be restored to his right mind — or be 
otherwise discharged by due order of law which he may be if his 
friends will give bond- for his safe keeping, and for the payment 
of damages sustained by Ins acts. 

There is one particular, however, in which be is unlike the felon, 
which is, that the latter is punished at the expense of the public, 
whereas the individual who ha- committed no crime is punished 

at hi- own expense if he ha- wherewith to pay. 

The inju-tice of such a course need- no comment . but it is exhib- 
ited in -till more glaring color-, when we consider that the individ- 
ual thus confined in the common jail is in most instances laboring 
under disease, and a disease which, like other diseases, yields to 
medical ami moral treatment, if the proper mean- are used with- 
in a reasonable time after the attack. 

Krotn the fifth annual Report of the Trustees of the Mas-achu- 
setts State Lunatic Hospital, made in December 18.17, it appear-, 
f hat "the proportion of cures of the who'c number discharged" 
since January 1833, is fifty-four awl <t ha[f 'per cent : of the whole 
number of recent eases discharged eighty-nix per cent : an I 
of the old eases discharged twenty per cent'" — and the report 

proceed — "Favorable a- the general result for five years i-. 
t e result for the la-t vear is -till more so. It will he 



-216 



perceived that the proportion of recoveries of all cases dis- 
charged during that year is fifty seven percent, of the recent 
cases eighty- nine and tkree fifths per cent; and of the old cases 
twenty-five and one-third per cent; being an improvement of 
two and one half percent, upon the average, and a much 
greater upon the result of any one proceeding year." 

It will be perceived also, that there has been a regular yearly 
improvement in the treatment of recent cases, since the opening of 
the Hospital; of these, in 1834, the recoveries were eighty-two per 
cent., in 1835, eighty-two and one half per cent., in 1836 eighty-four 
and one-fifth per cent, in 1837 eighty-nine and three-fifths per cent. 

In this estimate, all those are denominated recent cases, in 
which the insanity has existed less than one year previous to 
admission to the Hospital. "These results cannot be consid- 
ered otherwise than highly favorable, and as establishing, be- 
yond question, the success of the Hospital as a curative insti- 
tution. The large proportion of recoveries of recent cases af- 
fords additional evidence of the truth of a position, lately but 
little credited, that insanity may be treated with as much 
certainly of c.ire as any physical disease of equal severity, 
provided the proper skill and remedies are resorted to in its 
earliest stages." 

'•Two hundred and sixty-seven insane persons have, in five 
years, been restored to their friends, to society, and to the 
enjoyment of the blessings of life, from all of which they have 
been cut off by the severest, affliction which can befall suffer- 
ing humanity. — Were the institution to be this moment strick- 
en out of existence, what philanthropist, what statesman 
would not admitt, that this achievment, whether regarded in 
its relation to the interests of humanity, or to those of civil 
society, is more than a compensation for all the expense 
which the Commonwealth has incurred, in its erection and sup- 
port. But when it is considered, that the institution is to 
continue it* beneficial operations through an indefinite future, 
and to exert its healing energies upon thousands of our fel- 
low citizens, who might otherwise become the hopeless vic- 
tims of madness, he must be something less than man, who 
can doubt the wisdom of the government, or complain of its 
profuseness in establishing it. 

Dr. Kay in his treatise remarks— "It would seem indeed 
from some reports that in recent cases medical treatment is 
almost as successful, as in those of long standing it is tin- 



■21fi 



successful. Dr. Burrows stales the proportion of recent cases 
cured under his care so high as ninety-one in one hun- 
dred." 

In a report made to our own Legislature, in 1830, by Dr. 
Luther V. Bell, it is stated that the proportion of recoveries 
in the Blooiningdale Asylum in New York was some years 
since seventy in one hundred of the whole nnmber of cases not 
exceeding one year's standing — And that in the Connecticut 
Retreat for the insane ••the entire number admitted since its 
establishment has Been ."» l ( j of winch 253 have been recent 
cases of these last 280 have recovered, a ratio of a little more 
than 90 9-10per cent, of 263 old cases, (>"-' have recovered, a 
ratio of 21 Ij-IO per cent. 
A report of the Medical Visitors of the Connecticut Retreat, 

ill 18811, gave "a cure of over ninety-one per cent, of recent 

cases and an average of Jfjty- one of all.'" 

The annual report of the McLean Asylum, made January 
1. 1888, by Dr. Bell, now the physician and superintendent of 

that iustituti saj — ••the proportion of recoveries of those 

discharged during the past year has been in recent cases, .si; \--i 
percent., of old cases, 88 per cent, and of all about 71 per 
cent.; a measure of success, which it is believed will not be 

found to have been exceeded in the annals of institutions of 

this kind" 

How long it will take to restore an insane person to his 
right mind by the medicine of holts, and bars, and shackles. 
and by such society and moral influence as be will find with- 
in the walls ot tl minion jail, i- a problem which the experi- 
ence of our prison houses has rarely solved. The number dis- 
charged "cured" by means of such a process has probably 
never yet been summed up. 

The Reports of the Hospitals respecting the alleviation of the 

diseases, where no hope of recovery is entertained, is little less 
satisfactory . 

Two cases, from a number stated in the third annual report 
of the Trustees of the Massachuesetts State Lunatic Hospital, 
will serve to illustrate this part of the subject. 

"No. 1. — One case, reported by the Commissioners for the 
erection of the Hospital, had been, when he was brought to 
the institution, twenty-eight years in prison — seven years he 
lied not felt the influence of fire, and many nights he had not 
ain down for fear of freezing. He had not been shaved for 



twenty-eight years, and lie had been provoked and excited by 
the introduction of hundreds to seethe exhibitions of his rav- 
ing'. He is now and he lias been comfortable in health — well 
clad — keeps his bed and room remarkably clean, and although 
very insane on certain subjects, is most of the time ydeasant, 
companionable, and entirely harmless and docile. He shaves 
himself twice a week — sits at table with sixteen others — takes 
his meals — walks about the village and over the fields with an 
attendant to accompany him. and enjoys himself as well as his 
illusions will permit. This man committed homicide." 

••No. •_'. — An old man of 70 years of age or more; had been 
chained for twenty- fixe years, and had his chain taken off but 
once in that time. Has for many months been quiet and civil, 
and behaves like a gentleman: and although quite insane, keeps 
his room in order, and takes his meals at table with seventeen 
others with the utmost propriety." 

Respecting- the oilier branch of our inquiry, what measures 
might be adopted for the security of the community,, and for 
the relief of the sufferers, can there any longer remain a doubt. 

Does not everything point to the propriety and the necessity 
of the erection and endowment of a Hospital for the Insane. 

We have the example of those around us to show the esti- 
mation in which such institutions are regarded elsewhere. Maine, 
and Vermont, and Connecticut have their institutions already in 
operation. In Massachusetts there are two, and another is to 
be elected in the city of Boston. In New York there are 
three erected or in progres? Other States have made provision 
for similar establishments, and the result to which I have allud- 
ed fullv sustain the wisdom, to say nothing of the benevolence. 
of such a procedure. 

Many of the insane, it is well known, are furious and dan- 
gerous, and with any ordinary mode of treatment require to 
ba guarded and confined. Provision for their security by 
means of a Hospital must be the most eligible mode of provid- 
ing for the public safely. It possesses all the means of safety 
furnished by prisons and cages, and even greater inasmuch as 

by the iiiitig.iti f the disease the patients are rendered less 

dangerous and in most instances harmless. 

Another benefit to be derived from the establishment of such 
an institution is the relief thereby afforded to the friends and 
relations of the insane. We can hardly realize how great is the 
burden sustained by those who, too kind to permit an insane 



218 



relative to be thrown upon the unwilling charily of the town.*, 
and of moans too limited to provide for tlicm at private asy- 
lums, have made hospitals of their dwelling houses, and nurses 
and attendants of themselves through wearisome days and 
nights until exhausted nature has almost sunk under the ef- 
fort. Language is inadequate to portray the reality with the 
coloring of truth, and it is not the least among the recom- 
mendations of public hospitals that they enable the friends of 
such patients, cither to place them upon the foundation of a re- 
spectable and efficient charity, or to provide for them at an 
expense within the limits of their ability. 

l.ut the great recommendation of such an establishment un- 
doubtedly is its efficiency in the alleviation of disease, the promo- 
tion of the happiness of the patients, and in the final cure 
of the malady. 

The liumbei'8 of the deaf and dumb in the State are few com- 
pared with those of the insane, but legislative aid in their fa- 
vor has caused the dumb to speak, if not in articulate sounds, 
in a language which enables them to become the recipients and 
communicants oi knowledge; and instead of remaining burdens 
upon society, they air taking an active part in its affairs, pur- 
suing' many branches of industry, and promoting their own 
happiness and that of their friends 

The numbers of the blind are still less, but the public muni- 
ficence, or rather justice, if it has not the power of bestowing 
sight, has given them to a considerable extent, the means of 
education. 

The blind read in books prepared for their use — they trav- 
erse the towns and villages without attendants— the specimens 
of their iudustrv would oft-times do credit to one who is pos- 
sessed of the p iwer of vision — and their voices swell the choir 
in [liaise of Him who has influenced tl e hearts and minds of 
their fellows to become the active agents in bestowing such 
blessings 

An. efficient legislative action has at last been extended to 
l he condition of the insane, if not in such measure as to ac- 
complish all that is needful, to such an extent that private 
benevolence may well persevere in its labors 

It is to that benevolence that they are now committed, and 
let us hope that it will not fail to accomplish what it has so 
well began. 

X. H. Patriot, October 15—22—29, 1838. 



219 



Hospital for the Insane. 

At a meeting' of the members of the Corporation on Thurs- 
day last, the following gentlemen were elected Trustees on 
the part of the subscribers: 

Amos Twitchell, Keene; John H. Steele, Peterborough: 
Daniel Abbott, Nashua: Dixi Crosby, Hanover; Joseph Low, 
Concord: William Hale, Dover; Sam'l E. Couse and Alfred 
\V Haven, Portsmouth. Four Trustees are to be appointed 
by the State, and the Board when thus filled, will determine 
upon the location. The Institution will of course be located 
centrally where it will be of easy access to the people of all 
parts of the State, and convenient for the Board of Visitors 
and committees of the Legislature, to overlook its proceed- 
ings. It will be essentially a State Institution, endowed in the 
first instance by the State with more than half its funds, 
and depending upon the same source for such further aid as 
may be needed for its successful operation. 

N. H. Patriot, Jan. 14 1839. 



N. H. ASYLUM FOl; THE INSANE. 

VVe learn I hat at a meeting of the Board of Visitors of 
this Corporation, holder] in this town last Tuesday, Hon. 
wili.iam badger of Gilmanton, John conant , Esq. of Jaffrey, 
Charles h. peaslee, Esq. of Concord, and .iosiah quincy, 
Esq. of Runiney, were appointed Trustees, and an adjourned 
meeting of the members of the Corporation is to be holden 
at tin- Eagle Coffee House next Wednesday, as we under- 
stand, for the transaction of such business as may be sug- 



sted. 



X. 11. Patriot, Jan. 28. 1839. 



ASYLUM FOB THE INSANE. 

At an adjourned meeting of the Corporation of the New 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane holden at Grecian Hall in 
('uncord. Jan. 30, 1839. Dr. Amos Twitchell of Keene, was 
elected President. Hon. Isaac AValdron of Portsmouth. Vice 



220 



President, .lames Thorn, Esq. of Derry, Treasurer, and Dr. 
Dixi Crosby of Hanover , Secretary. 

Voted, That Samuel B. Woodward. Luther V Bell and 
William H. Rockwell, Superintendents of the Asylums of 
Massachusetts and Vermont with three persons to be ap- 
pointed by the Corporation, be a committee to decide upon 
t lie location of the Asylum, and that the Trustees be and 
hereby arc instructed to accept the report of a majority of said 
coi ittee and act accordingly. 

Voted, To elect three persons to be joined to Samuel 1$. 
Woodward. Luther V. Bell and William 11. Rockwell, as n 
committee of location. Whereupon. Dr. Amos Twitched of 
Keene. G. W. Haven , Esq. of Portsmouth, and Charles II. 
Peaslee, Esq. of Concord, were chosen. 

Voted, That the Committee appointed to select a site for 

the Asylum be directed to inquire what sum* will be con- 
tributed toward the purcha f land and the erection of 

buildings by individuals, and take the same into considera- 
tion, along with the cheapness of materials and labor, and such 
other matters as may properly have a bearing in determining 
the location. 

Voted, That 'he Committee appointed to locate tin' Asylum, 

appoint time and places, when and where they will heal' all 
persons who wish in be heard on this subject, and that thiy 
give notice thereof in the papers printed in f 'uncord. 

Voted, That the Secretary publish as much of the proceed- 
ings of (his meeting as he may think proper. 

1)1X1 CROSBY, Secretary. 
Kditors throughout the State ninj confer a favor upon these 
patron- by copying the above. 

.V. //. Patriot Feb. Z8. 183!). 



'tin- [tisane TJospHal ', 

li seems to be the determination of certain individuals lo 
••rule ay ruin" the institution, or to prevent the accomplish- 
ments of the benevolent objects for which it was created. 

Among these individual- tl dilor of the Keene Sentinel i- 

most prominent. But for his mancevcring, and perhaps that 
of one individual of Portsmouth, who controlled the proceed- 
ings of the last meeting of the corportion, bv wielding forty 



aSf'i 



or fifty proxies, to vote down the members present, as well 
as to establish rules completely nullifying- the voice of the 
State, it is believed no difficulty would have ever occurred. 

The editor of the Sentinel has repeatedly charged Gov. Hill, 
with unlawfully refusing to transfer the stock in the N. H. 
Bank, voted to the institution. — Now how is this? By the act 
of incorporation, it is provided, that whenever "satisfactory 
evidence shall he presented to the Governor, that the sum of 
fifteen thousand has been paid or secured to be paid, by indi- 
viduals, etc. thereupon the Governor shall issue his order to 
the Treasurer of the State, directing him to transfer the thirty 
shares.*' etc. 

By Mr. Prentiss' own paper of last Wednesday it appears, 
that as late as last week, the ''Treasurer presented evidence 
that about $14,600 of the $15,000, required (and $18,000 sub- 
scribed) had been secured.'' By this it would appear that the 
Governor finally, after all the delay complaned of, actually or- 
dered the transfer of the stock before the law had been com- 
plied with on the part of the corporation, and before the $11,000 
required had "been paid or secured to be paid.'' And it is a 
fact, that when the Treasurer of the Corporation, first applied 
lor a transfer of the stock, scarcely any portion of the $15,000 
had been paiil or secured, and that but a small portion even 
of the subscription papers were in his hands? Yet Mr. Pren- 
tiss for many weeks has been carping and complaining that the 
Governor unlawfully withheld the order of transfer. 

Heretofore we have forborne making any allusions to the 
subject from a sincere desire that all difficulties would be 
amicably adjusted, and that the benevolent and praiseworthy 
objects might be carried forward in harmony. From the 
same desire, we now forbear going into a detail of the 
proceeding's which meant to deprive the State, as the largest 
contributor, of any voice in the affairs of the corporation, by 
nullifying; the power of the Trustees. There arc no difficulties 
in the vvav now. if men arc actuated by the noble and patriotic 
desire of establishing an institution with reference only to the 
interests and honor of the whole State, and not by the 
narrow and mercenary motive of promoting the interests of a 
village oi town perhaps upon the borders or in one corner of 
the "state, to the detriment of all the other [sections of the 

State 
Th" Trustees having assumed the duties manifestly intend 



222 



to be conferred on them by the act of incorporation, we trust 
and believe that the institution may now go forward without 
further interruption. 
jff. If: Patriot, May 27, 1839. 



MESSAGE. 
OX THE SUBJECT OF THE INSANE HOSPITAL. 



Gentlemen of the Senate, and House of Representatives — 

I had at this time expected to address no additional com- 
munication to the Legislature, other than to take t lie usual 
leave of its members, until circumstances which have tran- 
spired recently in relation to a law of the last session seem to 
render such, a step expedient, if not necessary. 

At the last sitting of the Legislature was passed the act in- 
corporating the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane. This 
acl granted funds of the State to the value of about eighteen 
thousand dollars, provided thai individuals should pay or 
secure to be paid from other sources the further sum of fif- 
teen thousand dollars for the same object. It also enacted 
that the said Asylum bhojlld be under the direction and man- 
agement of a Hoard of Trustees consisting of twelve persons, 
four of whom were to be appointed on the part of the State. 
and the remainder elected by the Corporation. The proper 
appropriation and application of the funds vested by the State 
in behalf of this benevolent object was supposed to be am- 
ply secured by a provision giving to the State a representa- 
tion of its funds to this extent; and it was supposed no possible 
jealousy or distrust could be entertained by the individual 
members 01 the Corporation while they had the selection of 
a majority of two-thirds of that Board. 

The acl made futher provison that the Governor and Conn 
cil. the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives for the time being, should constitute 
a Board of Visitors on the part of the State, to visit and in- 
spect the institution, as often as might be necessary, and to 
examine the by-laws and regulations and the general man- 
agement thereof, and generally to see that the design of the 



228 



institution shall be carried into full effect; anil that this Board 
should report to the Legislature the result of its examination. 

A considerable time after the passage of the act was requir- 
ed to raise the requisite subscriptions required by the act: 
consequently no organization under it so as to elect Trustees took 
place until January last, at which time eight Trustees were 
elected on the part of the subscribers, and four Trustees have 
since been appointed on the part of the State. 

No progress in the location and erection of the necessary 
building's for the Asylum has been made, and of course no 
visit or inspection could take place on the part of the Board 
of Visitors; but a code of by-laws and regulations has been 
adopted by the subscribers to the fund for the general man- 
agement of (he institution, which it is made the duty of the 
Board to examine. 

These by-laws were furnished the Board of Visitors at a 
meeting' called for the purpose of their examination; and at 
this meeting such action was bad in relation to them as the 
Board deemed to be fitting' their general duty of superintendence. 

According' to the unanimous opinion of the Board of Visi- 
tors, the by-laws which had been adopted by the subscribers 
were framed under an entire misapprehension of the spirit in 
which the donation was made by the State, and of the essential 
provisions of the charter. The departure from these provisions 
involved principles of such importance, that the Board deemed it 
to be a duty to express its opinion in relation to them, on 
account of the conflicting opinions which had already arisen, and 
which must necessarily continue to exist, unless the rights of the 
respective parties to the corporation could be asserted and main- 
tained! Their action on this subject it becomes my duty to com- 
municate to the Legislature. The proceedings of the Board of 
Visitors, together with the sevpral sections of the by-laws relating 
In the power of the Trustees and other votes and doings of the 
subscribers l<> the AsyJi are herewith transmitted. 

It will be perceived, thai the by-laws lake away all power 
and control from the Trustees, and vest it entirely in the 
private subscribers to the fund, calling themselves, in their 
collective character, the Corporation. According to these by- 
liws no act can be done by the Board of Trustees except such 
»s may be directed by the Corporation entirely reversed and 
over ruled, so that the appointment of any Trustees on the 
part of the State, si far a- regards the exercise of any pow- 



224 



er, becomes a mere nullity. The proceedings of the subscribers 
in rejecting every proposition, giving to the State any repre- 
sentation for the amount of its donation, show the extent of 
the power claimed by these subscribers and that I have not 
mistaken their construction of these by laws. 

The title of the act is to incorporate "the New Hamp- 
shire Asylum for the Insane" and when provision was made 
that the funds of the institution were to be given by differ- 
ent bodies in a certain ratio, and that portions of the Trustees 
were to be appointed by each, that the Asylum was to be 
under the direction and management of such Board of Trus- 
tees, there could have been no possible doubt in the minds of 
the members of the Legislature, that the entire protection of 
the mutual rights of the contributing parties was vested in 
such Hoard It would be absurd to suppose, that while they 
insisted on the rights of the State to appoint a portion of 
the Trustees, which was the sole basis of union between the 
public and private contributors, at the same time such :i 
construction should be given as would totally destroy all pow- 
er in one party contributing, and give it wholly to the other; 
and that even the small power nominally given to the Trus- 
tees should be a mere control of the buildings, after they 
shohld be erected, and the action of the Trustees on the most 
trivial matter entirely taken away by the by-laws. 

Il i- clear that the construction put upon the act by the 
private subscribers was never designed by the Legislature. 
The corporators might make by-laws regulating their own 
meetings; they might do other acts respecting their own man- 
agement as ;i corporation apart from the power of the trus- 
tees. In .'ill other respects the entire management and con- 
trol of (he institution, of it> funds, its investments and pur- 
chase-, are vested in the trustees; and the corporation, as 
such, has no power to limit, control or direct thier action. 
The power of the corporation vests in the trustees as finally 
and as fully for all purposes necessary to carry the charit- 
able object into effect, as the power of the State rests from 
time to time in her elected representatives embodied in the 
Legislature. The act creating the corporation vested such pow- 
er in the trustees. All purchases of lands, devices and be- 
quests are to be received in the name of the corporation, and 
are holden by the corporation, but the only legal power to do 
acts binding the Corporation in any of these respects is in the 



fib 



trustees. 

These views were fully entertained by the Board of Visitors. 

The by-laws adopted by the corporation undertake to limit, 
define and control the power of the trustees, assuming it as 
their province so to do. The same by-laws also provide di- 
rectly, that all questions coining before the trustees as to the 
management and concerns of the institution, shall be deter- 
mined by a majority of the trustees "except in eases in which 
it shall be otherwise determined by the corporation,' 1 '' thereby 
expressly claiming the power to control the institution, when 
the private contributors shall so determine. 

The by-laws further provide, that the trustees may make 
such rules and regulations for the well ordering and con- 
ducting the Asylum as to them may seem proper: "proxid- 
ed, however, that such rides and regulations shall at all times 
be subject to be altered or amended by the corporation at the 
annual meeting, or at any legal meeting called for that, pur- 
pose . ' ' 

The by-laws likewise prescribe the officers of the trustees — 
that they shall choose a chairman, instead of a president as 
is usual in other boards of trustees: and the original draft of 
the by-laws required that the Secretary of the corporation, who 
was entirely beyond the election and control of the trustees, 
should be Secretary of the trustees. 

The proceedings of the corporation herewith transmitted 
show th it every proposition in which the right of the State 
and of the Trustees were urged either upon the liberality or 
the justice of the corporation was overruled. The claim of 
power on the part of the corporation against the State and 
tin' Trustees was in all respects objected to and resisted, but 
with no avail. 

No proposition favoring the rights of the State and the 
trustees was adopted, saving rescinding the provisoins, which 
made the Secretary of the corporation the Secretary of the 
Trustees. I have been informed, however, that in every vote 
passed, a majority of the individuals present was opposed to 
this assumption of power by the corporation. The passage 
of the vote was effected by proxies, previously obtained, by 
which a single person threw a large proportion of the votes 
of the whole meeting. 

The collection of proxies by a few individuals and thus at- 
tempting to control the rightful power of the Trustees, although 



22i ;. 



it i> merely a void act, is calculated to occasion dissatisfaction 
and dissension. It is essential to the wellfare of the institu- 
tion, that the proper duties and powers of the corporation 
should lie settled beyond all question, and he understood by 
all, at the outset, otherwise excuse may he had for endless 
collision. Such was the opinion of the Board of Visitors. 

The proceedings of a majority of the present board of trus- 
tees, appointing a committee to recommend a suitable place 
of location for the Asylum, also recommending the passage 
of an explanatory act to that constituting the Asylum for the 
insane, which are herewith transmitted, were communicated to 
the Board of Visitors in the belief that they would meet the 
approbation of the Legislature and of all true friends to the In- 
stitution. These views were concurred iii by the Boardi and 
the funds were transferred to the trustees in the confident 

hope and expectation that the proposed act, as well as their 

action under 'hi' present charter, would he cheerfully acquiesc- 
ed iii by a majority, if not by all the corporation. All that 
M'rin- necessary to immediate progress in the benevolent objects 
of the institution i-, that the recommendation of the Board 

of Visitors anil trustees shall he adopted. 

I have considered it expedient to communicate the proceed- 
ings of the Board of Visitors, with other matters, together 
with these remarks, for the reason that new causes of collision 
seem to he sought in a puhlic ad vert iseme!!t calling a further 
meeting of the subscribers by the same interest concerned in 
the previous exceptionable doings, and for the reason that 

misrepresentations of the matter in controversy and of the mo- 
tives of those interested in behalf Of the State have heen made. 
Sinister reports have heen circulated of the motives of tllfi 

trustees and others, who hare taken an interest for the rights 

of the Slate, of designs a- to the location of the Institution. 
If it s|, mlil turn out that the trustees in behalf of the State 
.■ire only nuciou's to carry into effect the wishes of ,-i large ma- 
jority of the people, who are ino-i interested ill this as ii pub- 
lic institution — that they are entirely unconimited and free to re- 
ceive propositions and advice or aid from all such as are best 
informed to guide them in the faithful discharge of their du 
tv. such accusations must hereafter be withdrawn. The matter 
in controversy is of a deeper and higher character than a mere 
question of location — it i« whether the State will, without re- 
sistance, see its rights trampled upon, and the -mall portion of 



227 



control to a great public charity, which have been reserved, to 
herself, shall be forced from her. 

It is hoped and wished that the benevolent intentions of the 
Legislature may not be changed by any unanticipated difficul- 
ties and collisions that nicy have occurred; but that the repre- 
sentatives of the people will assert the supremacy of their laws 
in an extended charity for the relief of the suffering insane, 
who are greater claimants upon the public benevolence, than 
any other class which has hitherto been favored with the pub- 
lic support. 

ISAAC HILL. 

Council Chamber. June 6, 1829 



The following is a copy of the votes of the Corporation of 
the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane holden in Concord 
in Jan. last. 

Mr Haven presented the following resolution: 

Resolved. That Luther V. Bell, Samuel B. Woodward, Wil- 
liam II. Rockwell, and Lewis Dwight be a committee to decide 
upon the location of the New Hampshire Asylum for the In- 
sane: and that the Trustees be and hereby are instructed to ac- 
cept the report of said Committee, and to act accordingly. 

Motion was made to adjourn to meet at this place to-morrow 
morning at eight o'clock. Which motion did not prevail. 

The following amendment was offered by Mr. Parker, and 
accepted by Mr. Haven. 

Voted, That Samuel B. Woodward, Luther V. Bell and 
William H. Rockwell, Superintendents of the Asylums in Massa- 
chusetts and Vermont, with three persons to be appointed by 
the Corporation, be a Committee to decide upon the location 
of the Asylum: and that the Trustees be and hereby are In- 
structed to accept the report of a majority of said Committee, 
and act accordingly. 

Hon. J. Darling proposed the following amendment. 

That the report of the Committee to be thus appointed, 
shall be final and conclusive, when and only when approved 
by two thirds of the board of Trnstees.— Not adopted. 

Mr. Kent of Concord moved as an amendment to Judge Par- 
ker's resolution that the words • 'to be appoitnted by the Cor- 
poration'' be stricken out, and the words "two of them shall 



228 



be appointed by the board of Visitors.' - Not adopted. 

Motion was now made to adjourn and lost. 

Gen. Colby of New London moved as an amendment that 
the report of the Committee shall be final and conclusive, 
when and not until approved by a majority of the Trustees. 
Not adopted. 

Mr. Steele of Peterborough ottered an amendment, That 
the board of trustees be authorized to locate the Asylum by a 
vote of two thirds, and if they cannot locate, they shall ap- 
point a committee out of the State for that purpose; which 
i i dment was lost by a vote of 19 to 94. 

Second amendment by Mr. Steele: 

That the Trustees be authorized and directed to appoint a 
committee out of the State, whose duty it shall be to locate 
the Asylum. Lost 21 to 107. 

Motion to adjourn by Mr. Steele lost by vote 21 to 89. 

VOTED, to adopt Judge Parker's amendment which pre- 
vailed. l'.» to 107. 

VOTED, to elect three persons to be joined to Samuel 15. 
Woodward, Luther V. Bell, ami William II. Rockwell, as a 
committee for location. Whereupon Amos Twitchwell of Keene, 
<;. W. Raven of Port-mouth and Charles W. Peaslee of Con- 
cord were chosen. 

VOTED, That the Trustees make and publish an appeal 
to the public for more funds. That they publish the Charter 
and by-laws; amount of subscriptions, and where from, and 
the names of the members of the Corporation. 

VOTED, That the Trustees be a committee to propose, and 
present a memorial to the Legislature, asking for a further 
grant to constitute a fund, the income of which shall be ap- 
plied, under the direction of the Trustees, in aid of such of 
the Insane a- are not paupers, but whose means are too lim- 
ited to enable them to sustain the whole expense of a resi- 
dence in the Asylum. 

VOTED, That the board appointed to select a site for the 
Asylum be directed to inquire what sums will be contribu- 
ted toward- thi' purchase of land, and the election of build- 
ings, by individuals, and take the same into consideration 
along with cheapness of materials and labor, and such other 
matters, as may property have a bearing in determining the 
location. 

VOTED. That the committee appointed to locate the Asylum 



IV. I ■ 



appoint times and places, when and where they will hear all 
persons, who wish to be heard on this subject, and will give 
notice thereof in the papers in Concord. A true copy of the 
records. 

DIXI CROSBY, Secretary. 



Copy of the By-laws of the New Hampshire Asylum for the 
Insane. 

Article loth of the By-laws of the N. H. Asylum for the 
Insane. 

The Trustees herein directed to be elected, together with 
four others to be appoined agreeably to act of incorporation , 
-hall constitute a board for the immediate management of all 
the property and concerns of the institution, seven of whom 
shall constitute a quorum. They shall meet at such time and 
place as they shall determine, and all questions coming be- 
fore the hoard, shall be determined by a majority of the 
Trustee* present and voting thereon , except in casesi in which it 
shall be otherwise ordered by the rote of the Corporation. They 
shall have power to take any measures, they may deem expe- 
dient for encouraging subscriptions, donations, and bequests 
to the Corporation: to petition the Legislature for any addition- 
al privileges or grants; and for such amendments and altera- 
tions of the several acts relative to the corporation, as they 
may deem advisable, to take charge of and to watch over the 
general interests and concerns of the institution; to enter into 
and hind the corporation by such compacts, agreements, and 
enii'aoeincnt- as they may deem advantageous; to appoint an- 
nually or otherwise all proper and necessary physicians, sur- 
geons, officers, assistants and servants for the superintendence 
and management of the Asylum, with such salaries and allow- 
ances, as they, from time to time may tix and determine; to 
make such rules and regulations for the government of the said 
physicians, officers, assistants, and servants, and for the admis- 
sion of patients, and the veil ordering and conducting the 
Asylum, as to them may seem proper and expedient- provided, 
however, that the said rules and regulations shall at all times be 
subject to be altered or amended by the corporation, at the an- 
nual meeting or at any legal meeting called for that purpose. 
Thev shall cause a fair record of all their proceedings to be 



230 



kept, which be laid before the corporation at every meeting 
thereof. They shall make a written report on the Treasurer's 
accounts, and on the general state of the institution, compris- 
ing a statement of the number of patients admitted and dis- 
charged during the year, for which purpose they may appoint 
a committee from their own board. 



Copy <>f 1 1 10 resolutions passed at the Board of Visitors, May 
last. 

Resolved, That the act incorporating the New Hampshire 
Asylum for the Insane was exceedingly liberal in its provisions 
to the Corporation, giving to them a selection of two thirds of 
the Trustees, while but one third was to be appointed by the 
State, though the State contributed equally to its funds. That 
the design of the act was, that these funds should be under 
the entire control of the Trustees, in which board the Slate 
lias this limited representation, while a large majority was ap- 
pointed by the Corporation, and that it was never anticipated, 
that all power should be taken from the State, and the object 
of the appointment of Trustees by them be entirely nullified, 
by placing such Board wholly under the control of the Corpor- 
ation) thus taking away the whole fund, and depriving the 
Stale of any voice or control in the institution, and electing 
in substance the whole twelve Trustees, and managing the 
Corporation independent of State representation. 

Rexoloed. That such is the result above named by us, of 
the action of the Corporation, and such are the express pin- 
visions of their by-laws, and the design as openly avowed in 
them — thai the by-law s of the ( lorpoi ation c hum to | reserve to the 
Corporation the right to determine what majority of the Trustees 
-hall be sufficient to effect the transaction of any business by the 
Board of Trustees, and provides, that all regulations of super- 
intendence and management of the Asylum shall at all times 
be subject 10 be altered and amended by the Corporation at 
any annual meeting or othtr meetings called for that purpose; 
and undertake to specitiv the duties of the Trustees in all 
other respects, and to fix and to limit them, and of course 
claims the right at all times to vary and alter them, as they 
shall see tit — thus totally destroying and overruling the charge 
and management of the interests of said Corporation in the 



aSli 



Board of Trustees, when it had been especially confided by 
the act of incorporation, and taking away the little remnant 
of power and representation origiualy retained in the State. 
That there is no pretence that the Corporation have author- 
ity to make by-laws other than to govern their own proceed- 
ings, independent of the Trustees, and some regulations as to 
the internal economy and government of the Asylum, and that 
the attempt on their part to specify, limit and control the 
action of the Trustees in all respects, is entirely contrary to 
the spirit and provisions of the charter. 

Resolved, That however deeply we regard the interests of the 
institution, and however much we would sacrifice individual feel- 
ing' on such a subject, our imperative duty to the State as a Board 
of Visitors, who are required by the charter to visit and in- 
spect til.- Asylum and examine the by-laws and regulations, 
and general management of the same, and to see that the 
design of the institution is carried into full effect, and an- 
nually to report to the Legislature the result of the examin- 
ation, requires, that we protest against such proceedings — and 
we recommend, that until some harmony of action can be 
agreed upon by the Trustees on the part of the State and the 
Corporation — or until some satisfactory assurance be given of 
assent to the nesessary measures to be adopted to secure their 
proper power in the Trustees, that his Excellency the Governor 
do not transfer the funds of the State appropriated to this 
object. 



The following communication received from the Trustees of 
the N. II. Asylum for the Insane was read at t he Board, 
viz: 'In the Hoard of Visitors of the N. H. Asylum tor the 
Insane. 

The following is a true copy of the proceedings and votes 
passed at a meeting of the New Hampshire Asylum for the 
Insane, holden at Grecian Hall in Concord (in pursuance of 
notice by the Secretary) on the ltjth day of May, A. D. 1C39 
at 7 o'clock P. M.— John H. Steele being present and Chair- 
man. Charles II. Peaslee was chosen Secretary Pro tern. 

Voted, That Dr. Woodward, Dr. Bell and Dr. Rockwell be 
a commute to recommend to the Trustees of the N. FT. Asy- 



232. 



lain for the Insane the most suitable place, in their opinion, 
for its location. 

Voted, That John H. Steele, Samuel E. Cones, and Joseph 
Low, Esqrs. be a committee to receive applications and pro- 
posals for the location of said Asylum, and make a report to 
the committee appointed to recommend a place of location, and 
to afford said committee Mich aid a* may be necessary to the 
performance of their duties. 

Voted, That the following amendment be recommended to 
he made at the next session of the Legislature, viz: ''An 
Act in amendment to, and explanatory of an act to incorpor- 
ate the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane. 

"Sec.l, I!r it enacted by the Semite a ml House of Itepre- 
seiitiil i r.s in (irii.ru/ ('unit convened, That the direction, man- 
agement and control of all the property and concerns of the 
New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane shall be vested in the 
Hoard ot Trustees appointed by said corporation and bv the 

Slate. Mild the -aid Board of Trustees shall have power lo lake 

an) measures they max deem expedient in encouraging sub- 
scriptions, donation- anil bequests for the corporation, and to 
take charge of and watch over the general interests and con- 
cerns of the institution — to enter into and hind the corpora- 
tion by -uch compacts, agreements and engagements as they , 
may deem advantageous to such an institution, and shall ap- 
point their own President, Secretary and Treasurer, and all 
proper necessary physicians, surgeons, officers, assistants and 
servants, for the superintendence and management of the Asy- 
lum with -uch salaries and allowances, as they may from 
time to time fix upon and determine, and make -uch other rules 
and regulations for the government of the said physician-. 

surgeons, officers, assistants and servants, and for the ad- 
mission of patients and the well ordering and conducting of 
the Asylum, and such by-laws for their own government, 

a- lo them may seem propel- and expedient. And -aid tiu-- 
tees shall have the appropriation and control of all fund-, 
devices, grants of land and bequests made with such corpora- 
tion with power to convey the same and make such invest- 
ment of the same at such time, place, and manner, as they 
shall deem proper, and as may best promote the interests of 
said corporation. 

Sir. 2. Ami be it further enacted. That said trustees shall 
keep a full record of all their proceedings, which shall at all 



23$ . 

times be kept open to the inspection of any incorporator or 
subscriber to such institution, and shall annually make and 
publish a statement of the concerns of said institution, and 
the accounts of the treasurer, the number of patients admit- 
ted and discharged, and all other matter connected with the 
general interest and welfare of the corporation, and shall at 
times communicate any information in reference to the insti- 
tution that may be desired by vote of the corporation or 
board of visitors or either branch of the Legislature. 
Signed by John H. Steele, 

Daniel Abbott, 

Isaac Hill, 

S. E. Coues, 

Charles H. Peaslee, 

Joseph Low, 
Charles H. Peaslee, Sec. pro tern. 



Votes of the Board of Visitor.-. 

Whereas a certified copy of the procedings and votes of the 
trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, pass- 
ed at a meeting of said trustees, duly notified and held in 
Concord on the luth inst. has been furnished the board. There- 
lore 

Voted, That Mich proceedings and assent to an amend- 
ment <>t the charter be considered as a sufficient assurance 
that the rights of tl.e tiustees and State will be secured, and 
that we recommend that the Governor, on such assurance, 
and having received satisfactory evidence that the sum re- 
quired by the original act has been secured to the corpora- 
lion, transfer the stock to said Asylum. 

Vtiteil , That the Hoard of Visitors recommend the passage 
of the above amendment of an act to incorporate the New 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane. 

X. II. Patriot &State Gazette. 
June 17, 1839. 
Tin' inquiry i> every day made, why the President of the 
Xew Hampshire Asylum for the Insane does not promulgate the 
report of the locating committee, or call the Trustees together, 
to submit that report to their consideration. The people are 
anxious for the reasons which induced the committee to lo- 



234' 



cate the New Hampshire Asylum on the borders of Maine— 
and a few are so unreasonable as to speak of the decision of 
the committee as most extraordinary. For ourselves we will 
not make up an opinion until we see all the reasons by which 
the committee were governed — perhaps they will appear entire- 
ly satisfactory. 

N. II . Patriot, 
August 19 1839 

INSANE ASYLUM 

We learn that the Committee for locating the N. II. Asy- 
lum for tin' Insane, in making' their report have given no 
reason for their dicision: but merely say, that having consid- 
ered the subject, they select Portsmouth as the place of lo- 
cation. Now there may be good and sufficient reasons for 
this dicision — but we venture the opinion, that these reasons 
are not so -elf evident and obvious that one in ten of our 
citizens will be able to discover them, unless specified by the 
committee. We have been told all along thai the committee 
would make a detailed report, stating all the circumstances 
connected with a location in the several places, and setting 
forth the advantages which the place selected, possesses, in 

their opinion, over tl ther places proposed. The Trustees and 

the community could then judge of the sufficiency of these 

reason-. If the reasons were conclusive the Trustees and the 
community would of course acquiesce. lint in the absence of 
all reasons, it becomes the Trustees to exercise their own 
judgement, and confirm or reject the report as to them shall 
seem proper. As to the pledge, which we hear about, of 
acquiescence in the report of the committee, if any such was 
given, the subsequent action of the legislature has absolved 
the Trustees from that, and left them at perfect freedom to 
pursue such course as to them shall seem proper and right. 
At any rate, as the committee had no reason- to give, the 
people will at least expect of the Trustees good and sufficient 
reasons of their own conduct — a better reason certninlv will be 
expected than that they had blindly surrendered the interests 
of the people of this State, to be disposed of by a committee 
residing out of the State, and which does not even condescend 
to give one single reason for its conduct. 

N. II. Patriot, 
Sept. -1 1839. 



233 



New Hampshire Insane Hospital. — The New Hampshire Pa- 
triot is quite severe in its strictures upon the committee ap- 
pointed to locate the hospital, because they selected Ports- 
mouth, at one corner of the State, and give no reasons for 
their choice. The Vermont hospital is located on the eastern 
border of that State; rannot the Patriot see that therefore it 
might be desirable with some folks to locate the New Hamp- 
shire hospital as far as possible from Vermont without car- 
rying- it absolutely into Maine? — Worcester Palladium. 

It requires but half an eye to sec all this and more too. 
Not only was the Principal of the Brattleborough Institution 
interested to send the New Hampshire Asylum out of the range 
of its own patronage, but the Principal of the Charlestown Insti- 
tution also well knew that the people of the interior of this 
State have (en times as much infercouse with Boston and 
Ciarlestown as with Portsmouth. Wi'er was a sins qua non 
with the committee in examining all sites in the central towns 
— pure, soft water,, must be had in such sositions as to be 
<•<) iveiiicntly carried in pipes, to the ehi.id story of the Hof- 
pital. But water, pure, soft wafer, 'was not mentioned at 
Portsmouth, and a location was selected where not a drop of 
water can be caried in pipes to any part of the proposed 
building. The whole proceeding of going about to examine 
sites was as complete a farce as was ever enacted— and it is 
now apparent that the minds of the committee were all made 
up before they started, and their opinions known to the wire- 
workers before their appointment. 

N. II. Patriot. 

Sept. 9. 1839. 



SEW Hampshire ASYLUM. — The Trustees met in this town 
last Wednesday and organized by choosing john h. Steele, 
President, dixi CROSBY Secretary, and .ia.mes thom, Treasurer. 
The Trustees voted to reject report of the locating committee, 
which vote w.i> afterwards reconsidered, and the subject post- 
poned to the 20th June next. These proceedings amount to 
a virtual rejection of the report of the Committee, and the 
subject remains open for the action of the Legislature. 

We would say one word to those that condemn what we 
have said on the subject of the Asylum, and who attribute 
our remarks as disappointment because the committee did not 
fix on Concord as the place of location. Now we have nev- 



23ft,. 

er even named Concord in this connection. All that we 
have insisted on was, that the people of the State; whose 
money has been appropriated to the object, have an equal 
interest in the Institution, and havea right to demand that 
it shall be located in such a place as shall be most conven- 
iently accessible from every part of the State, if such a lo- 
cation can be found combining' the other requisite facilities. 
We care not whether the Institution be located in Concord 
Or not. All we say is, that it should be located where the 
whole people can derive eg mil, and the greatest possible ad- 
vantages from the Institution. We have not spoken for Con- 
cord, but have raised our voice in behalf of the people of 
New Hampshire, who contributed their means to build up an 
Institution for their own State, and not one. the benefits of 
which were to be shared jointly with the State of Maine. 

N. H. Patriot. 
Sept. 16, 18S9. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



The following record of the proceedings of the Trustees at 
their last meeting has been communicated to us for publica- 
tion by the Secretary. It will be seen that the Report of 
the ••pure, soft water" committee is embraced, and it will be 

seen that the gentlemen who voted in favor id' locating the 
Institution on a point of laud projecting some miles from 
the southeastern corner of the Stat" into Maine, also voted 
to reject the provision of the amended charter, after having- 
pledged their acquiescence by previously amending their by- 
laws so as tn embrace the same provisions. Sixty acres of 
land, an old house and well water, or water raised by a 
steam engine, it seems would answer the purpose at Ports- 
mouth; whilst one hundred acres at least, new buildings. 
and pure. s () tt water, carried in pipes to the third story, 
would only answer any where el-e. But ••genteel society" for 
the insane from the dungeons, cages, chains and jails, accord- 
ing to one of the trustees, could only be found in Ports- 
month, and possibly this circumstance had great weight with 
the soft water committee. But we have no disposition to 
multiply words or unnecessarily to provoke controversy upon 
this subject. We only wish that the Asylum may go for- 



237. 



ward, and in such a manner too, as to promote the best in- 
terests of the unfortunate class for whom it was designed, 
and tlje best interests of the people of this State. 
For the N. II. Patriot, 
The Trustees of the Xew Hampshire Asylum for the Insane 
met, agreeably to the call of the chairman at the Eagle Cof- 
fee House in Concord on Wednesday Sept. 11th, 1839 at 6 
o'clock. 

Present Messers. Steele, At her ton, Abbott, Hill, Twitchell, 
Conant, Low, Cones, Peaslee, Haven and Crosby. 

Mr. Atherton, called for the reading of the records of the 
last meeting — which were read by the Secretary. 

Mr. Conant moved to organize the board agreeably to the 
provisions of the amended charter. 

Motion was made to postpone Mr. Conant's motion. 
The Yeas and Nays being called for were as follows: 
Yeas Mesei'R. Atherton. Abbott, Twitchell, Cones and Haven. 
Xays Messrs. Steele. Hill, Conant, Low, Peaslee and Cros- 
by 
On motion to adopt Mr. Conant's motion. 
Yeas Messrs. Steele, Hill. Conant, Low, Peaslee and Cros- 
by. 
Navs Messrs. Atherton, Abbott, Twitchell, Cones and Haven. 
The ballots being collected and counted John H. Steele, Esq. 
was declared unanimously elected President and James Thorn 
Esq Treasurer. 

Moved to proceed to classify the trustees and determine by 
lot the term of office of each class which resulted in the fol- 
lowing. 

1st. Class To go out of office at the end of the first year. 
Corporation Trustees State Trustees, 

(i. W. Haven. John Conant. 

S. K. ('ones. 
•2nd. ('lass. To go out at the end of the second year. 
Amos Twitchell. Josiah Quincy. 

John H. Steele. 
3rd. Class. To go out at the end of the third year. 
Daniel Abbott. Isaac Hill. 

Joseph Low. 
4 h. Class. To go out at the end of the fourth year. 
C. H. Atherton. C. H. Peaslee 

Dixi Crosbv. 



'238 



The President read the following report of the Locating 
Committee. 

To the Trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum for the In- 
sane. 

The Committee appointed to fix upon a location for the 
New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, at a final meeting 
holden at the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, the SOtll 
day of July 1*39, Report. — That they have examined the vari- 
ous places pointed out to them by the Committee of the 
Trustees and after mature deliberation do decide that said 
Asylum be located at Portsmouth on the conditions ottered by 
said town. 

They further report that the spacious and splendid mansion 
known a- the Cults house, as being in every respect calcu- 
lated for the central edifice of an Insane establishment and 
thus saving a heavy out-lay of money, and the thirty aires 
of land now connected with the same is the most eligible 
situation for said Asylum. Provided said house and land can 
be obtained for a sum not exceeding six thousand dollars, 
and that not less than thirty additional acres of land ad- 
joining can be acquired at a price not exceeding one hun- 
dred dollars per acre. Provided that the road on the north 
side of said house shall be so changed in its direction and a 
sufficient quantity of land obtained lo alljw a wing to be 
added on the north side of the house. They also report and 
decide that in case said Cutis house anil additional land and 
said change in the road cannot be obtained that the next most 
suitable place is the Freeman farm so called provided not 
less than sixty acre- of land can be obtained of the portion 
adjoining the river and running bnck to the highest point of 
land on the same at a price not exceeding one hundred dol- 
dars per acre They likewise decide that in case neither of 
the prcceeding places can be acquired, that the said Asylum 
be placed on the Hall Farm near the Cemetery in Portsmouth, 
provided that not less than sixty acres of land can be ob- 
tained at a price not exceeding one hundred dollars per acre 
They therefore determine and decide that one of these places, 
having regard to the order in wich they are above preferred, 
in said town of Portsmouth be the location of the New 
Hampshire Asylum tor the Insane. Which is respectfully sub- 
mitted. Samuel 15. Woodward, 

William II. Rockwell , 
Luther V. Bell. 



i.W 



Mr. Atherton moved the acceptance of the report of the lo- 
cating; committee. 

The Yeas and Nays being called were as follows: 

Yeas Messrs. Atherton, Abbott, Twitchell, Coues and Ha- 
ven. 

Nays Messrs, Steele, Hill, Conant, Low, Peaslee and Cros- 
by. 

After a full and long discussion motion was made by Cros- 
by to reconsider the vote respecting the report of the locating 
committee. 

The Yeas and Nays being called were 

Yeas Messrs. Atherton, Abbott, Twitchell. Coues, Haven and 
Crosby. 

Nays Messrs. Steele, Hill, Conant, Low and Peaslee. 

Mr. Steele moved to adjourn to meet at this place on the 
third Wednesday of June, 2810. 

Yeas Messrs. Steele, Abbott, Hill, Conant. Low, Peaslee 
and Crosby. 

Nays Messrs. Atherton, Twitchell, Cones and Haven. 

After the vote for adjournment had passed and been re- 
corded it was voted that the Secretary publish the proceed- 
ings of this meeting with the report of the locating committee. 
A true record. 

Dixi Crosby, Secretary. 

Hanover, Oct. 11th, 1839. 

N. H. Patriot, Net. 21st, 1839 



X. H. ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



nil., barton— sir: Being one of the Trustees of the New 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, I trust you will give the 
enclosed an insertion in your paper. 

Having borne In silence the repeated attacks made by anony- 
mous writers in several of the newspapers, it was still my in- 
tention to have remained silent— trusting to the good sense of 
the citizens of New Hampshire for an unbiased justification or 
condemnation ot my conduct in regard to the various transac- 
tions connected with the contemplated |IIospital, in which 1, 
together with others, have been engaged; even Mr. Haven's 



■441) 



account of the hot meeting of the Trustees, one-rided as it is, 

intolerant as every tiling coining from that source in relation 
to the Hospital always has heen; even his contemptible fling 
at invself would not have provoked a reply; hut the letter of 
condolence from the five Trustees whose names ase signed 
thereto demands at least a passing notice. That letter may 
have eased the minds of the signers, and had those gentlemen 
seen tit to confine themselves to a statement of their own views 
without attempting to criminate those, who differ from them, 
no one would have objected; but by giving publicity to their 
letter, it i> fairly to be presumed, that they not only intended 
to condole with the locating committee, hut to appeal to the 
public for a justificttoil of the course, which they have pursued. 

tt is with reluctance, that I now come before the public, and 
with still greater reluctance, that I am necessitated to allude 
to or animadvert on any thing said or done by the locating 
committee: that committee must cast the blame if any there is 
on the five condoling Trustees. 

The host of literary and legal talent posessed by those the 
Trustees cannot deter me. who have no pretentious to either, 
from at least attempting to justify my own conduct to the 
public. 

Although I have been often deceived, yet full faith is had 
that a majority, if not the whole of the Trustees, who have 
differed from me in regard to the acceptance of the locating 
committee's report, will not resort to sophistry or concealment , 
but if they have any further appeal to make to the public, 
will confine themselves to know truths and not attempt to 
till by conjecture any link, be it ever so necessary, to com- 
plete or hold together the chain, wilh which they expect to 
bind others or sustain themselves. 

Yours, etc. etc. 



.IOMN II. STEELE. 



Peierbttro' Dee. 9, 1839. 



TO Till: CITIZENS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Gentlemen— I trust you will excuse, if you do not justify 

the liberie now taken bv an individual, almost, if not en- 



241 

tirely unknown to most of you, for calling your attention 
to the concerns of the New Hampshire Asylum for the In- 
sane. A communication purporting to be a letter to the late 
locating committee, signed by five of the Trustees of that 
Institutian, requires, that I should lav before you a full ac- 
count of the proceeding's, which have led to the results com- 
plained of by those five Trustees. If as they say, they are 
• disappointed and mortified,'" I can assure you, that I am 
astonished at the course those gentlemen have seen fit to pur- 
sue. If they simply wished lo assure that committee of their 
good wi'l and continued confidence, no one could or would 
object; hut is it obvious, that they had other motives? Do I 
accuse those gentlemen wrongly, when I say, that their main 
motive must have been to east reproach on the Trustees, who 
differ from them, and voted against the acceptance of the lo- 
cating committee's report. — For myself I have no wish to 
conceal any vote or act of mine; my course, whether right 
or wrong has been an open one, and although on more than 
one occasion I have stood alone or unsupported, my opin- 
i >ns were freelv an 1 undisguisedly given. That I have com- 
mitted errors both of opinion and action in regard to the 
best mode of advancing the interests of the unfortunate In- 
sane, I now well know — that 1 may coroinit more is not un- 
likely; but if I do, whenever satisfied of the fact, I shall un- 
hesitatingly do, as I have heretofore done, retrace my steps and 
endeavor to rigid the wrong. No factious cry of pledges 
shall prevent while in the station I now hold from en- 
deavoring to ascertain the will or wishes of the public and 
be guided thereby. 

The fears of offending others, even the highest of the hind. 
shall not deter me from saying- nay to the report of any 
committee, let their respectability be what it may. Rut to 
the facts. On the 9th day of January last, the members of the 
corporation held their first annual meeting. A Secretary was 
chosen, and after various attempts to postpone the choice of 
Trustees unit/ the Trustees on the part of the State were 
cither chosen or nominated tnj the Governor, eight Trustees 
on the part of the Corporators were chosen. At this meet- 
ing the first move was made to take from the Trustees the 
power of locating the Asylum: this move was resisted and 
for the time laid aside. The by-laws, which had been adopt- 
ed at a previous meeting were referred to a committee for 



i42 



revisal, the meeting was then adjourned to the last of ,lan- 
Ui.ry, and at that meeting a new code of by-laws reported, 
FO framed, as to deprive the Trustees of all power and give 
to the fifty dollar subscribers the entire control, not only of 
tie Trustees chosen by them, but of those appointed by the 
State. In fact, the entire board of Trustees were made mere 
tools of by a majority of the fifty dollar subscribers, who by 
chance or design chose to meet and give their orders. After 
the adoption of the by-laws a motion was made to choose a 
Secretary; why or for what purpose I know not. The Secre- 
tary chosen at the annual meeting hail not declined: the only 
reason given in my hearing was, that '"the corporation had 
adopted a new code of by-laws and therefore had a right 
to choose a new Secretary.'' A new Secretary was chosen. 
Then a Treasurer. Then came Mr. Haven's motion to ap- 
point Doctors Woodward. Rockwell and Bell, a committee to 
locate the Asylum, without appeal. Thi> motion was nt once 
rexisted, every argument that could be thought of, was urged 
against such an assumption of power, the glaring impropriety 
of one part alone, of equal contributors to one object, assui::. 
ing the entire control of so important a matter as the loca- 
tion of the Asylum f'ii> urged in vain: nothing that was 
Slid or in my belief could have been said was for one mo- 
ment willingly listened to by those, who had the power: ev- 
en a motion lo adjourn until the next morning with the avow- 
ed request, that the members would at least take one night 
to consider, before the) adopted a course, which would de- 
prive tin' State of all voice in so important a matter, was nt 
once voted down, not only by a majority of the members 
present, but by proxies, and some of those proxy votes given 
in a most insulting manner. 

Those present at that meeting will not soon forget the 
number, 48, nor the tone and manner in which it was pro- 
claimed. Finally a locating committee was chosen consisting 
of the three gentlemen above named, to whom were added 
Messrs, Twitehell, Haven, and Peaslee, the latter as was said 
tor the purpose of representing the State's interest. Mr. Peaslee 
being one of the State's Trustees. What mockery. What con- 
summates assurance, for any man or set of men to suppose, 
that the State's interest could or would be considered proper- 
ly represented by having only one representative out of six. 

Late at night this meeting closed. Mr. Conant, Mr. Peas- 



243 



lec and myself retired to the American Hotel — were there 
conversing' on the transactions of the meeting, when we were 
interrupted by the entrance ot Messrs. Twitchell, Cones, Crosby, 
and Haven all of them Trustees J who at once proposed organiz- 
ing the board of Trustees. This, after some conversation and 
inquiry was assented to, and on motion of Doct. Twitchell or 
Mr. Haven, (not certain which,) I was chosen chairman. This 
I had no doubt at the time, nor have I now, was done for the 
purpose (to use a phrase well understood) of '-soft soaping" the 
opposers of the measures, that had been taken by the corpor- 
ators, particularly myself. Doct. Crosby was chosen Secretary 
of the board, which office he now holds by virtue of the vote 
then taken. A committee was chosen to procure the nesessary 
bonds from the Treasurer. Other business was transacted, not 
now necessary to relate. I will however here state that every 
meeting of the Trustees since holden, has been held by au- 
thority derived from this meeting and from no other source. 
No provision was made in the by-laws of the corporation for 
Killing the Trustees together, nor in my opinion was it nec- 
essary, the Trustees, being a separate body, had a right to call 
their own meeting; independent of the subscribers. I5e that as 
it may, it was afterwards said, by those who contended that 
the Tirstees could not convene until the corporation said so. 
that the mission in the by-laws was accidental— this may be 
so, but 1 have good reasons for believing, that the omission 
was designed and for the purpose of preventing the Trustees 
from having any thing to do with the location of the build- 
ing. I may be mistaken but such is my belief. The Trustees 
however took no measures in regard to the location, but pa- 
tiently if not contentedly waited from that time until the 16th 
of May, daily expecting to hear that the locating committee 
had performed the duty assigned them. Nothing being done, 
the mm~o:i fast passing away, the Secretary was requested to 
call the Trustees together. On the ltith day of May six of 
the Trustees met. This i- the meeting which Mr. Haven takes 
upon himself to call an illegal one. and on its doings, charges 
all the mischiefs "in/ delays that have taken place — ev- 
en Mr. Coues suffers himself to say that '-five only of the 
Trustee, attended.*' these says he ••were Messrs Abbott, Low, 
Peaslee, Steele and Coaes," and adds "as the meeting did not 
constitute a quorum the meeting was informal.'' 1 do not be- 
lieve that, Mr. Coues meant to misstae the facts, but in the 



244 



forgetfulness of the moment strangely forgot to insert the 
name of Isaac Hill. Mr. Hill was there, and 1 again repeat 
that the meeting consisted of six out of the eleven Trustees, 
then in office, being an undisputed majority of the Hoard. 
The mx Trustees unanimously agreed to take the location into 
their own hands, and go forward without delay. They unan- 
imously agreed, and did under their hands recommend an amend- 
ment to the charter, which would, when made a law, effect- 
ually settle the controversy, between the corporation and Trus- 
tees. (The amendment then recommended is the same a- that 
transmitted by the (inventor to the Legislature and by them 
made a law in June last ) The six Trustees unanimously 
agreed and did appoint Doctors Woodward, Rockwell and Bell, 
a committee to recommend a suitable site fur the location of 
the Asylum; they also appointed a committee consisting of John 
II. Steele, Gen. Joseph Low and Samuel E. Cones, whose du- 
ty it should be to receive proposals from towns and inuividu- 
uls lor the location and to examine every proposed site, col- 
lect tact- relative to the price Of lands, building materials etc. 
arrange and lay the same before the locating committee; 

all this wa- not onlj unanimously agreed upon, but a deter- 
mination expressed that all would stand to and carry through 
the measures above stated. Were there any pledges here given? 
Haeethey been redeemed? if not, what are the reasons for non- 
lullilmcnt ? 

Here let u* pause, and endeavor to bring up an account of 
the Sin/, s fund, a theme on which much has been said, and 
much written. The then Governor has r-ome in for his full 
share of abuse, for not tran-tering the .State's funds to the 
corporators; that abuse commenced, before the corporators 
had chosen a single Trustee or even a Treasurer, to receive 
ami take care of any of the funds belonging to the Institu- 
tion: for be it remembered, that there was no Treasurer until 
the last of January, and no bond given by that Treasurer un- 
til February 1st, nor was there paid, or secured to be paid as 
the charter requires from other sources than the grant, from 
the State, the required -urn of $15,U00. If there was, where 
was the evidence that would have justified the Governor in 
causing the transfer of the State- property? I answer nowhere, 
within the control of the Asylum: all the evidence that ever 
had existed was scattered at the close of the annual meeting, 
on the nth of January, to the four winds. Yet notwithstand- 



245 



iug all this, you will all remember the abuse cast on that 
time worn public servant, our late Governor, for not placing 
the State's funds unconditionally within the reach of the cor- 
porator. At the meeting of the Trustees above named, the 
Treasurer being present, lie exhibited to them for the first time 
a slatmsnt of the amounts, which he had collected or secured 
to be paid to the Institution, amounting to near $15,000. In 
addition to this he named several subscription papers believ- 
ed to be goad, of sufficient amount to make up the required 
$15,000 or more. These facts were at the request of the 
Treasurer, and [ believe of all the Trustees present, made 
known by Mr. Peaslee and myself to the Council then in ses- 
sion, and from our representations of the unanimity and de- 
termination of the Trustees to adhere to the course, which 
they had agreed upon. I believe the council were induced 
t ) advise the Governor to transfer the State's funds. That 
the Governor was right in withholding the State's funds up 
in that time. 1 have no doubt. If be had still withheld, un- 
til the Trustees had located or caused the location to be made 
under their sanction he would now in my opinion have re- 
ceived as many thanks for his firmness, as he has heretofore re- 
ceived curses for not complying with the unauthorized de- 
mands made upon him: unfortunately I among others was 
made a cat's paw of to clear obstructions, which lay between 
the greedy expectants and the treasurer. 

lint to proceed, the committee chosen by the Trustees to 
collect facts, etc., preparatory to a location, immediately 
<»ave n )ticc in the newspapers to that effect. Gen. Low and 
myself met at the time appointed. Mr. Coues was prevented, 
hut wrote u~. thai he would join on our route, at the same 
time he suggested the propriety of giving a longer time, for 
the purpose of enabling towns that intended to make pro- 
po-il-. to hold legal meetings. This was at once complied 
with, and notice given accordingly. In the meantime a meet- 
iii" of the corporators was holden in June. At that meeting 
the chairman of the locating committee chosen by the cor_ 
porators on the last of January, (Dr. Twitchell,) was call- 
ed upon for the reasons, why that duty had not been at- 
tended to. Whether Dr. Twitchell called on Mr. Haven or 
not, to answer for the committee. 1 know not. Mr. Haven 
answered in a well conned speech, as long or longer than 
this communication, without, stating one solitary reason for 



546 



tin- (Ichiv. It is true, lie gave as a reason for the commit- 
tee's negl*ct, "that the Governor had not until a few days 
since transfered th<- State's funds,'' and this was the only 
reason if reason it can be called, that was given. No doubt, 
many like myself, will ask what the transfer of the State's 
funds, hail to ih) with the roniniilte's locating the Asylum. 
If it hail anything' to do with their duties or interfered in 
any manner with them as a locating committee. I cannot for 
the life of me, see how or where — surely even Mr. Haven 
would not agree, that the public should come to the con- 
clusion that a pint was then laid to locate the Asylum, 
where the committee were conscious, that the public would 
not he satisfied, hut would he so much dissatisfied, tnat they 
would ai once tall on the Governor to withhold or on the 
Legislature to interfere. 

The evening previous to the last meeting of the corpora- 
tion, Mr. Coues represented to several of the Trustees, that 
if the Trustees would agree to have the report of the loca- 
ting eonimitte final and conclusive, all difficulties would he at 
an end. the corporators would he satisfied to have the Trus- 
tees proceed as they had proposed; to this proposition I as 
well as others assented, thereby placing ourselves, as soon 
appeared, in a trap, set as l believe on purpose to catch us, 
not contrived by Mr. ('ones, for I cannot bring myself to 
believe, thai Mr Coues would knowingly have suffered him- 
self to have aided in any Buch scheme. On tin' meeting of 
the corporators next morning, it soon becams apparent, that 
we were not only caught in the jaws of th ! trap, hut 
that we would he there held. A vigorous effort alone could 
again place us on the ground we had foolishly abandoned. 
That effort I attempted to make, hut unfortunately was not 

able at tin' li t > make others see. where we were about 

to he led. Doctors Woodward, Rockwell and Bell were 
agaii! chosen by the meeting a locating committee with final 
(lowers. Messrs. Twitchell, Haven. Peaslee, .Steele, Low and 
Ooncs a committee to collect facts, etc. Not content with 
this the corporators presented a vole that the J'mt meet- 
ing ot the Trustees should he hidden that day at 7 o'clock, 
P. M. and then adjourned to meet at !"> o'clock. Whether 
for the purpose of confirming or annulling- whatever the Trus- 
tees saw tit to do. I know not. The Trustees having an adjourn- 
ed meeting on that evening, met according to the adjourn- 



247 



nient, and proceed to business, without noticing the vote of 
the corporation. On motion, it was voted that, Doctors Wood- 
ward, Rockwell, and Bell be a locating committee and that 
their report should be final and conclusive — the yeas and nays 
were taken on this question. Messrs. Abbott, Low, Quincy, 
Crosby and Peaslee assented with a reservation, that the pow- 
er to locale was in the Trustees, not in the corporation. 
Messrs. Atherton. Twitchell and Haven assented with the res- 
ervation , that the power to locate was in the corporation , 
not with the Trustees. Mr. Coues assented without making 
any reservation. Messrs. Hill and Conant were not present, 
and I declined voting and declared that I felt myself absolved 
from any agreement of the last evening 

I will here take the liberty to state, that there was no com- 
promise on the part of the Trustees with the corporators, far- 
ther than may be inferred from the vote above named, and 
the adding Messrs. Twitchell, Haven and Peaslee to the 
<■ imrnittee previously chosen to collect facts, etc. 

On the meeting of the corporators at 8 o'clock the proceed- 
ings of the Trustees were read by the Secretary, and on mo- 
tio i of Mr. Atherton after much sideway opposition, the ob- 
ii ivi.ms clauses in the by-laws named by the Governor in 
his message were repealed. And here let me add, took place 
the congratulations of which so much has been said, and which 
scives to make quite a conspicuous paragraph in the letter 
of condolence by the live Trustees. I and possibily others may 
have done the sail)'', congratulated Mr. Atherton and that 
heartily on his success -a success that was unlooked for by me; 
for those very clauses, which Mr. Atherton so easily succeed- 
ed in repealing, were the same, that led to all provious diffi- 
culties, and which others, as well as myself had endeavored 
in vain to s< t aside. Was the repeal made in fiood faith? 1 
su'pioMvl so at the time, but have long since been well satis- 
tied, that tin' public have strong grounds to doubt. If it was, 
what meant the strenuous opposition in the Legislature, and 
out of it. to the passage of the amendatory act, which was, 
and is in fact nothing more than taking power out of the 
hands of the corporators, to reenact those repealed clauses of 
the by-laws. I may be mistaken, hope that 1 am in believing, 
that if the Legislature could have been induced not to pass 
that amendment, all the opposition, that the Trustees could 
have made to an improper location, would have been nn- 



348 



availing; the die would have been cast, and the State of New 
Hampshire compelled to witness the expenditure of their mon- 
ey oil an institution notoriously intended for the benefit of 
the whole Slate in a remote corner of her territory, when: 
ii could not. without the aid of extra thousands have been 
rendered useful. 

It was my fortune to attend on the locating committee 
through the state I had the utmost confidence in those gen- 
tlemen — the thought never entered my mind until their report 
was received, that the interest of the Slate was not safe in 
their hands. I was the more convinced, if conviction was nec- 
essary, after hearing their voluntary remarks in regard to the 
essential requisite for an Asylum for the State. I hail no 
thought that what was required at one place, would be en- 
tirely overlooked at another. It was almost if not always, a 
question asked by them, whenever they were shown a pro- 
posed Bite, where is the water to coiiie from? It is indispensable. 
said they, that a plentiful supply of good soft water should 
be brought by an aqueduct into the upper story of the Hospi- 
tal. The building should be built of firm durable materials, the 
paititions n ade of brick to prevent the transmission of noite. 
and to secure the plastering from being torn off by the in- 
sane, which on wooden partitions would often be done in a 
single night, also as a greater security against lire. It was 

said that the Hospital should be located on a sighllv spot, 
so that the inmates could see the active in iveiucnts of the in- 
habitants around, but at a sufficient distance from other 
buildings to prevent all sounds being beard and that disagree- 
able sights should be kept out ot view. Wben at Concord .» 
spot was shown nearly back of a graveyard: this was at once 
objected to on that account. From tin- above opinions of sonic 
of them, ! perhaps should except Dr. Bell, as be bad not 
joined the committee until alter they had viewed the spot 
above alluded to. nor do 1 know what bis views arc. Although 
I was not only disappointed, but astonished at the committees 
repirt. yet [ hid been called upon to accept or reject it. 
without knowing the opinions of others better able to judge 
than myself, or if I had found much division of opinion on 
the subject; well satisfied as I was. of the ruin which await- 
ed the Institution if located at Portsmouth or any other town 
remote from the centre of the State, yet singly aixl alone, 
would not have ventured to vote against the report. Look 



■M- 



at the committee's report, read it over carefully, omparre it 
with what was stated to be requisite, if not indispensable 
for a site on which to build a Hospital, and if you say abide 
their decision, so be it; [ for one will endeavor to Garry your 
wishes into effect or resign my trust. When the Trustees 
met on the 11th of September last, all the Trustees were pres- 
ent except Mr. Quincy. A motion was made to organize the 
Board according to the requirements of the amendatory act 
of last June. This was opposed by Mr. Atherton, on the plea, 
if I understood him correctly, that it was a subject on which 
the Trustees had no power to act, being a question for the 
corporators to decide, whether they would or would not i;c- 
cept of the amendment to the charter. This was, to say the 
least of it, strange doctrine. It looked very much like setting 
the powers of the corporation above the legislature. Not be- 
ing a lawyer. I may be mistaken and if so, it would be well 
t.i cea-e granting charters for any purpose whatever. The 
question was taken—Yeas, Messrs. Hill, Conant, Low, Crosby, 
l'easlce and Steele. Nays, Messrs. Atherton, Twitchell, Abbott, 
( 'ones mid Haven. It will be recollected that Messrs. Abbott 
and Cones were two of the six Trustees who recommended 
the passage of the very act, which they now voted against. 
Mr.. Abbott gave no reason for his change of opinion. Mr. 
Ooues was opposed, as he said, because we could get along 
well en nigh without it, after organizing. Mr. Atherton call- 
ed for the reading of the locating committee's report. This 
was done; thin Mr. AtheiCon moved the acceptance of the re- 
port, and the question was taken without one word of de- 
bate, and was rejected by a vote of 5 for, and six against— 
the the in favor were Messrs. Atherton, Twitchell, Abbott, 
(,'oues and Haven. Those against were Messrs. Hill. Conant, 
Low. Crosby, Peaslee and Steele After the rote was de- 
clared a dibate of several hours duration ensued. Much was 
said on both sides. The opponents to the report were 
urged to retrace their steps, to redeem their pledges. The 
principal advocate for the acceptance of the report urged as 
reasons why Portsmouth should be the place, that it was the 
best fish market in the world, and that fish was the cheap- 
est and best food for insane persons, — he also said, that it 
was extremely fortunate that Portsmouth had been selected 
for the location of the Hospital, being in the neighborhood 
of genteel society, and added ■'that no respectable physician 



•JbO 



could be induced to take charge of the Hospital if located 
in Hopkinton or Pembroke."' Fellow citizens, I do not trifle 
with, when L assure you that the above is the substance, if 
not the very words used on that occasion ; in fact with the ex- 
ception of the various shapes in which the $23,00U offered 
by Portsmouth was urged on us, are all the arguments offer- 
ed on that occasion. 

Against the location, it was urged that although some of 
the opposers had agreed to abide by the decision, yes pledged 
themselves so to do, if gentlemen chose so to call it, yet 
they felt themselves not only justified but imperiously called 
upon as representatives, if not as principals, to oppose by 
every means iii their power the destruction of an institution, 
which was, if properly located and well conducted, calculated 
to do much good. The $28,000 offered by Portsmouth, we 
considered when taken iii connection with the extra price of 
land, extra prices of building materials, of provisions, of live 
wood, etc.. etc. as a bribe offered for the destruction of the 
Asylum. We believe that those extra charges would in a lew 
years entirely consume the whole $23,000 and leave the in- 
stitution to struggle mi with many of those extra charges, 
amounting to at least from 12 to 1500 dollars a year, without 
possessing one solitary advantage over the interior of the Slate, 
unless we change the diet of the insane from what was the 
uniform practice of the locating committee themselves in their 
respective institutions. In regard to genteel society," we 
contended that the sober homespun people of New Hampshire 
would learn with surprise, that they could not have a public 
institution, without it being placed under the superintendence 
of what i- generally termed "genteel society." 

In regard to the obligation urged on us. not to reject the 
doings of so highly respectable and well qualified committee, 
it was admitted that it was with much reluctance that we felt 
ourselves called on not to doubt their integrity but their 
judgement. We believe that they had been misled by design- 
ing persons, or they never would have chosen a spot where 
no water could be bad except by pumping; nor would they, 
if not improperly influenced, have recommended a great wood- 
en building as ■ -every way calculated for a centre edifice" and 
thai wooden building standing on the brow of a hill some 
•2i> or 'J") feet above the ground on which one of the wings 
must of ueccssitv be located. — nor would thev as thev have 



■>t>\ 



<'one in the third spot named, have chosen n site directly 
back of a grave yard, particularly after objecting-, as they did 
at Concord, to a spot similarly situated, unless they were 
governed by the same motives concerning the dead, which 
was urged on us in regard to the living viz: that in Ports- 
mouth it was the remains of the genteel dead, who wire or 
would be deposited in the cemetery, while at Con .'old, it was 
a common grave-yard. 

The five Trustees in their letter say "The subscriptions con- 
stituting members"' "of the Corporation had been made with a 
view to the location of the Asylum." This sentence lets in a 
flood of light— it at once explains the reasons why the locat- 
ing committee were so anxious to ascertain the amount sub- 
scribed by individuals in each town There can now be no doubt 
<>f the improper influence which was brought to bear on them. 
But have those gentlemen stated the tacts in regard to the 
subscriptions having "been made with a view to the location.' 
I am bound to believe, that so far as they are concerned they 
did subscribe each $50.00 or more, merely for the purpose of 
controlling the location of the Asylum. For myself (and I have 
little doubt. I might add for the most if not all the other 
subscribers) I protest against any such inference. In fact I 
■lid do yet believe that the subscribers gave their money for 
benevolent purposes alone. 

One word more and I have done. The condoling Trustees 
say "It happens that three of the Trustees reside in Concord; 
they speak of more central location by which they mean 
Concord and no other spot." Where did you learn this? did 
those three Trustees or either of them, tell you so? If not, from 
what source did you derive your information? Should it not 
have been from a source entitled to the utmost confidence to 
enable you to assert in so positive a manner, what many and 
I among the rest doubt. 1 can hardly bring myself to believe, 
that \ottr assertion was made merely for the purpose of keep- 
ing up a prejudice against Concord. It has been my fortune 
to have; considerable intercourse with not only the three Con- 
cord Trustees, but, with many of the inhabitants concerning 
the Asylum, and I have no hesitation in assuring the public, 
that of all the towns who have put in claims for the loca- 
tion, the citizens of Concord have shown the least anxiety 
and have so far as my knowledge extends, kept more aloof 



252 



from attempting to influence the Trustees, or others, than any 
of them. 

Yours truly, 

JOHN IT. STEELE. 
Peterboro' , Dec. 0, 1839. 

People and Patriot. 
Dec. 16, 18:» 

THE INSANE ASYLUM. 



The editor <it the* Keeuc Sentinel takes exception to a para- 
graph in our paper in which we said that the State funds 
were procured "by a fraud and cheat practised upon the 
representatives of the people." This we maintain, for it is 
susceptible of the clearest proof. In all the speeches and re- 
ports in the Legislature it was constantly declared as an in- 
ducement for the representatives to make the grant, the towns 
would have the right t<> send their pauper lunatics to the 
Asylum, where they would be maintained at an expense not 
exceeding the cost oi maintaining them at home: that our jails 
were to be emptied of all Buch as were confined there for of- 
fences committed when under the influence of lunacy: that 
the whole unfortunate class were t> be relieved from their 
dungeons and their chain-, and to fi ml a home at the Asy- 
lum. We appeal to every member of that Legislature, if it 
was not upon Mich representations that they voted for the 

grant. The institution was to he a public institution a 

stair institution, in the broadest sense In this consisted the 
fraud and the cheat — for the managers now contend that it i- 

:i mere pril'flte affair, with which the Stale has nothing" to 
to do. No town can send a pauper lunatic then — the State 
cannot do so. The poor lunatic may still groan in his chains 
and grope in his dungeon — for the locating committee have 
decided that the Asylum i- a private institution — the Trustee- 
in favor of their report so decide. The State has in fact, no 
more rights at this Institution than it has at those of other 
States. The Trustees may receive or they may exclude whom 
they please, and upon their own term-: they may makefile 
eost so high that none but the rich and the "i/enteeP' can 
avail themselves of its advantages. Can any one say there 
has been no fraud in all this? 



■ibs 



Then in regard to the '-packed committee," does anyone 
doubt that the managers knew how they would decide be- 
fore they were appointed? So well were they aware of the 
absurdity of their decision, that the committee dared not give 
a reason for it— or the managers dared not permit them (for 
they bad them entirely in their hands) to do so. They know 
there were no good reasons for their decision, and they did 
wisely not to oner any, since "fish" and "genteel society'' 
were the only ones they could offer, for locating the institu- 
tion in a corner, and declaring it a private concern. 

We repeat, the next Legislature ought either to make the 
location and declare it a public Institution, such as its advo- 
cates promised it should be, or repeal the charter and order 
the fund back into the State Treasury. 

X. II. People and Patriot Feb. 3, 1840. 

Till: NEW HAMPSHIRE INSANE ASYLUM. 



A pretended copy of the vote of the town of Portsmouth, 
relative to tin- New Hampshire Asylum, for the benefit of the 
Insane, was published in the papers some months since: but 
we have never seen the entire vote, until the present time. 
We now publish it, that the public may see, what it amounts 
to, and whether it is a donation, or a mere relinquishment 
of the funds in their hands to the State, on condition that 
the State would apply it to the benefit of the Asylum and 
release the Town 

The Mil" is as follows: 

■•Town-Clerk's office Portsmouth. Jan. 10. 18:59. 

At a legal town-meeting, duly notified and holden at 
.Jefferson Hall Ibis day, the following Preamble and Resolu- 
tions were adopted at said meeting, viz: Whereas the surplus 
monies of the U. S Treasury deposited with the several States, 
under the Depo-ile Act . so called, passed by Congress ill 1836, 
was raised by contribution from the people in proportion to 
their consumption of foreign dutiable articles, in which way 
the poor became contributors in at least equal proportions 
with the rich— and whereas the town of Portsmouth is desir- 
ous t.> make such a deposition of that portion of said sur- 
plus deposited with said town for safe keeping, as shall near 
:i« mav be secure to the poorer classes of the community a 



-'64 



fall share of the benefits resulting- from said deposites, aid 
believing that this object may as well be obtained by dipos, 
ing of it for the benefit of the New Hampshire Asylum as 
in any way, it is therefore. Resolved, by the town of Ports- 
month in legal meeting assembled for that purpose, that that 
portion of the surplus revenue of the United States deposited 
with the town of Portsmouth under the Art of the State 
Legislature, approved January 17th, 1887, lie yearly relin- 
quished for the benefit of the N. H. Asylum for the Insane, 
on the condition that the said Asylum shall be located in 
said town of Portsmouth — Provided the Law <>f the State 
Legislature of 1n:Ss in amendment of said Act of Jan. 18th, 
1887, >liall be so fir repealed or amended as to permit the 
transfer of said deposite to said Institution. Resolved, That 
our Representative in the Legislature be instructed and that 
the Senator of District No. 1 be requested to endeavor to ef- 
fect the passage of an act so far repealing or (intending the 
aforesaid Act of 1888, as shall permit the transfer ot said de- 
posite of the surplus revenue to the X. II. Asylum for the 
Insane. Ext, from the records 

A true copy, Atlc-t, 

JOHN 11EXXETT, Town Clerk. 

Before considering the effect of this vote, we have some 
remarks to make as to the power of the town, at the time 
of holding thi'ir meeting, to act upon the subject, either by 
any direct or conditional donation, and we contend that, they 
had no Mich power in either modi'. 

It is clear, that the town, at the time of their meeting, 
had no more right to give these funds to the N. II. Asylum, 
than they had to give them for the benefit of the South Sea 
Exploring Expedition or to the Sandwich island •; Mis ion- 
orics or for some Whaling Expedition, or other causes, good, 
bail or indifferent. They had no right to call the town t.u- 
geiiier in consider these subjects, which were totally beyond 
it- power- as i corporation — much less, bad they a right, 
when having //" power upon the subject, to bind the citizens 
of the town by a conditional donation, to take effect if they 
should subsequently have the power of action granted to 
them. 

Nothing can be plainer, than that the town had no author- 
ity to act binding its citizens until the power was given 
them. Whatever mav have been the term- of the vote— in 



255 



substance and in legal effect, it could in no manner be any 
tbing more than a request of a permission from the Legisla- 
ture to give this fund for the benefit of the Asylum, pro- 
vided the town, when the permission was granted should so 
elect 10 do. 

When the power is granted, then the citizens can be call- 
ed upon to act and can act, and not before. If a meeting 
is then called to act upon the subject, the citizens who stay 
away, stay at their peril; the town can then bind them by 
their proceedings. All votes upon the subject or donations 
previous to this time are merely void acts. The farmers and 
mechanics can not be called away from their farms and shops, 
and the seamen from their fisheries to vote on mere specu- 
latiee propositions, and no set of men can vote away the mon- 
ey of the citizens of any town in this mode. 

It is time enough for the citizens generally to come out, 
when there is power for them to act. The loungers about 
change and speculators and philanthropists who are anxious 
for money to control as a charity in their own pockets, can 
attend a fancy town meeting at, any time, but they cannot 
take away the money of the working citizens in tliis way. 
They may tell what the town would do, had it the power, 
or they may vote conditionally to their hearts' content, but 
they never can bind the citizens, except by a deliberate vote 
and action of the town after such power is granted. 

[9 there any citizen of Portsmouth that doubts this? Is 
there any honest man, that can gainsay it on the ground of 
common justice, or honesty or sound principles of law or com- 
mon sense? We submit these questions to the answer of any 
unbiased individual 

We intended to have shown from the vote of the town, 
that no donation had been made by the town, even had the 
town power to act upon the subject. But the vote speaks 
clearly f >r it-clf. It is merely that the town "relinquish 
the deposits for the benefit of the Asylum, ''not convey 
it to the Asylum, the town of course being absolved from 
their liability to the State, and that the act be so far amend- 
ed as to permit the transfer; after it had been relinquished 
as above, that is relinquished to the State— to permit the 
transfer of the deposits by the State or on account of the 
State— with or to the Asylum. 

Such is the nature of this donation. It is a mere proposi- 



W66 



tion that if the State will release the town from its liability 
fi>r this money, and will give the money as a State to the 
Asylum, the town will relinquish their claim to it. Bui has 
the Slate pissed any such vote? An examination of the ait 
ot the last Legislature upon this subject will show that the 
State has passed no such vote. The State is liable to the gen- 
eral government for this money, ami will never consent to 
release any town in order that they may make a donation of 
any kind. 

The matter stands then, just where it did. The proposi- 
tion in ide by the town of Portsmouth was not acceded to 
by the Legislature; of course nothing was done, even hail 
I he town power at that time to hind its citizens by Blich a 
proposition, which we have shown it had not. 

We ill hi/ therefore, that the town of Portsmouth, as •* tov:n 
lias ever given <mr farthing for the benefit of the N. II. 
Asylum, or that it has ever acted upon the subject at n meetinr/ 
of its citizens when then were by law legally qualified la art. 

No meeting has been called for this purpose, since they 
have been empowered to act upon it. The N. II. Asylum has 
not the least pretence of a claim to this money. It is still tile 
undoubted and undeniable right and property of the citizens 
oi Portsmouth, to he disposed of according to their sovereign 
will and pleasure under the Statutes regulating its deposit 
with that town. 



Peterboro' Feb. 7, 1840. 

COL. barton: 

Sir. — 1 have received a newspaper (the Portsmouth Journal 
dated .Ian. :.'">. 1810.) containing' what purports to bean offi- 
cial account of the proceeding of the Corporation of the New 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, hidden at Portsmouth, dm. 
8. 1840 

Before answering the call made on me, not only as one of 
the Trustees of that institution, hut as President of the board 
of Trustees. 1 trust you will permit to ask through your col- 
umns of sonie one or more of the main movers in that meet- 
ing a few questions. 

Gentlemen, do you claim the right as a corporation under 
the charter granted by the Legislature in 1838, and its amend- 



267 

meat in 1£33, to instruct the Trustees in relation to the loca- 
tion of tl.e Asylum? 

Do you claim for tlie Corporation under the entire charter 
the rigut ro choose a Treasurer for the Asylum? Or did you 
ch >ose a Treasurer merely for the purpose of taking charge of 
the Portsmouth "donation'' (as you are pleased to call their 
conditi I'i'il offer) which it seems you have voted to accept? 
Under the entire charter as a Corporation, do you claim the 
p nver or right to locate? Do you claim the right as a Cor- 
p i.ati in to accept or reject any part of the charter granted 
by the State, and still continue to act as Corporation under 
such part as you may choose to retain? 

Yoar early attention to the above questions is earnestly re- 
quested, and on your answer will depend my future action, 
n .1 only as an individual Trustee, but as President of the 
board. Anonymous or evasive answers will be unheeded by 

JOHN H. STEELE. 
People and Patriot, Feb. 17, 1840. 

From the Granite State Democrat. 
ASYLUM . 



Portsmouth, N. II. 2nd. April, 1840. 
To the E litor of G. S. Democrat. 
deaii sir: At the last town meeting in this place, the re- 
solution which was adopted by the town in June last, appro- 
priating the Surplus Revenue of the United Slates, which has 
been deposited with said town, was reconsidered. This has 
been the cause, not only of some excitement, but of some 
misrepresentations against myself which need collection. The 
reflections which I have had upon this subject have convinc- 
ed me that the whole difficulty has had its origin in the wide 
ditlerenc • which exists between warm hearted philaiithrophy , 
and the cohl sordidness of the human mind. It was a dis- 
interested love of mankind, which prompted the Legislature 
of this Slate to form a Corporation for the purpose of es- 
tablishing an Asylum for the ln>ane and which induced sun- 
drv human and benevolent individuals to make liberal dona- 
tions, with the State, for the accomplishment of this desir- 
able object. 



358 



And there is no doubt resting' upon my mind, that the same 
exalted spirit which prompted the establishment of the Asy- 
lum would also have found a central location therefor, had 
it not have been for the grovelling disposition which caused 
it to he set up at public auction. 

The moment this benevolent enterprise was turned into a 
Jlmise of merchandise, the legal voters of the town of Ports- 
mouth were summoned together to make a bid for its location. 
At this meeting, which was held at Jefferson Mall <m the tenth 
of June last past, a proposition was made to appropriate the 
Surplus Revenue above mentioned to the Asylum for the In- 
sane upon condition it should be located in this town. 

The sum which the town had on deposit ainoun ed to twen- 
ty three thousand dollars, and the question was whether that 
sum should be bid for the sake of having said Institution lo- 
cated within our own jurisdiction. Here was the first agency 
which 1 had in this business. On this occasion, I thought it 
my duty to enter my protest against a scheme, which I then 
thought and which I still think . was both unjust and oppres- 

-h e. 

Entertaining this belief, I moved an indefinite postpone- 
ment of the \x hole subject.— This motion I sustained, as well 
a> 1 was able upon two grounds. First, that the town had not 
the ability to make such a sacrifice — that the town debt al- 
ready amounted to almost fifty thousand dollars, which of it- 
self was a very heavy burden for a town containing only nine 
thousand inhabitant-. Secondly, that the meeting was much 
smaller than we had at the annual town meeting in the 
month of March. And as the subject was of an extraordin- 
ary nature it would -eem to be but just and proper that it 
should be postponed until the next annual meeting — that out 
of more than sixteen hundred legal voters, there were not then 
present more than three or four hundred. Not one fourth of 
the whole number, and not more than one third which usual- 
ly attended the annual meeting in the month of March. 

1 then staled, postpone this subject until the next annual 
town meeting that the citizens generally, may have an op- 
portunity to attend, and if they then voted to appropriate 
till — money to the Asylum for the Insane, I would not utter a 
murmur. I also declared at the same time, that I did not be- 
lieve that such an appropriation could be made at a full 
meeting, and that a majority of the people would vote to dis- 



959 

tribute the money per capita. I contended as the money had 
been wrongfully taken from the United States Treasury, and 
as there was no probability that it would again be returned 
(<> the place from whence it had been taken, that a distribu- 
tion according' to the number of inhabitants, was the most just 
and equitable distribution that could be made of it. The only 
reply made to the argument for an indefinite postponement 
was, that there was a regular town meeting, duly notified and 
warned, and if the people did not choose to attend it was their 
own fault, for hundreds of our people were then absent at 
work in our neighboring' towns and cities, or were riding upon 
• lie mountain wave or engaged in the fisheries, I thought 
therefore that it would be extremely unjust to act upon such 
an important measure behind their barks. All however, wa-s 
unavailing. The thirty pieces of silver must not only be given 
to secure the location of that Institution in this town, but 
they must be given at that time. The motion on the inde- 
finite postponement was then put by the Hon. Mr. Drown, 
who presided on that occasion, when on a decision of the house, 
it appeared that there were about one hundred and thirty in 
favcr, and about one hundred and sixty against it. Conse- 
quently it did prevail. The main question was then put on the 
adoption of the resolutions, and decided in the affirmative. 

Tie above- is. in my belief, a true history of the proceed- 
ings Of the town, at the time above mentioned. From that 
time till the present moment, my opinion has been, that could 
the united voice of (he town be obtained that that voice would 
be to annul the vote which was there passed. This fact has 
been verified. — That vote has been repealed, annulled and 
rendered void and of no effect. This was not done at so full 
a meeting- as was desirable, but it was done by a very de- 
cided vote of those who were present. The vote on the mo- 
lion for an indefinite postponement stood two-hundred and 
thirty-five in favor and two-hundred and thirty-nine against. 
The motion then was on the adoption of the resolutions which 
had been offered by myself and decided by a hand vote, ac- 
cording to my belief of two (o one. The citizens of the town 
had then been kept together ten hours, and many of the fann- 
ers who lived at a distance, had previous to this time left 
the meeting', but who would, had they been present, as it is 
believed, voted in favor of those resolutions. In consequence 
of the part which I have thought it to be my duty to take 



2<jD 

in this affair, it has made me the object of many a bitter 
epithet. Some have been so uncharitable as to assert that I 
had lost all interest for the welfare of my own town. But 
I his is a great mistake. I have now been a permanent resi- 
dent ill this town for almost twenty-four years, and I can 
truly say that it always has been, and siill is my desire to 
do every tiling in my power to promote the prosperity and 
happiness of this people. As one individual, 1 should very 
well like to see this Institution erected in this place, if we 
could have it without purchase. But we are not able lo make 
such a purchase. 

Sonic have also so far departed from the truth, as to assert 
that the above mentioned subject had again been brought be- 
fore the town by me in pursuance of an order issued by Gov. 
Mill and the Concord, '•faction'' as they please to term it. 
Xo man unless he wishes to pollute his lips with falsehood 
can make such an assertion. Whenever I have had occasion 
to speak of this subject to Gov. Hill or any other gentlemen, 
I have uniformly given the same history of the transaction as 
above stated. When that gentlemen was in town last au- 
tumn, I told him as I have my own townsmen and others, 
that I did not believe that the town at a full meeting would 
consent to appropriate the surplus revenue to the asylum for 
the insane. This Gov. Hill had an undoubted right to repeat 
to the hoard of trustees, or anywhere else, and quote me as 
the authority for so doing. He had a right also to infer from 
that statement, that the inhabitants of Portsmouth did not 
wish to have the Hospital located in this place. 1 may have 
stated the same thing in substance, that is, that I did not be- 
lieve that the inhabitants of this town would consent to give 
twenty-three thousand dollars to have thai institution located 
here. This 1 still believe But neither Gov. Hill, nor any 
other gentlemen of Concord, ever requested me to bring this 
subject again before the town. This request came from my 
fellow townsmen, and from them alone. From thtit the Con- 
cord ■faction" as it is called, is entirely innocent. 

It has also been said that my intention was to distribute the 
money according to the rateable polls.— This assertion has been 
made for the purpose, probably, of disaffecting some of those 
who were in favor of a distribution. This is a mistake. 1 
never had any such intention, but on the contrary, my inten- 
tion has been to effect a distribution per capita. In the resolu- 



2<tt 

tion as originally drawn, the expression according to the polls. 
Not taxable , polls, but polls, the true signification of which 
is, in the connection in which the word was used, a register 
of heads, that is of persons. This would include every man, 
woman and child in town. Such a distribution ought first 
to be made, and then if the people, to whom the money be- 
longs, have a mind to give it to the Hospital or to any other 
charitable object, they have an undoubted right to do so. 

So friendly am I to the interests of Portsmouth, that had I 
the ability, I would build an Asylum for the Insane poor of 
this town myself. .So would I, were I able to do so, build 
one for the Insane poor of the State of New Hampshire, but 
in that case, I should be morally bound to locate it where 
it would best accommodate the greatest number. I could not 
locate it here, because it might be of some pecuniary bene- 
fit to my own town with any more propriety than I could 
defraud my neighbor to increase my own wealth. The prin- 
cipal argument which has been ! dduced in support of this 
location is founded upon dollars and cents. And in this scram- 
ble for money, those who are suffering under the miseries of 
insanity, are lo^t sight of. This is to be regretted, and if I 
have done any thing towards overturning the tables of the 
money changers, and of establishing more correct and right- 
eous views upon this subject, I shall feel very thankful. With 
great respect. 

Your obedient servant. 

SAMUKL CUSHMAN. 

People and Patriot, April 13, 1840. 

ASYLUM. 



To the Editor of the Granite State Democrat. 

DEAR sin: 

Since writing yon, the other day, upon the subject of the 
Asylum for the Insane, one of the members of the corpora- 
tion, a gentleman who has taken a very active part in the estab- 
lishment of that Institution, and one who is well acquainted 
with all the facts in the case, has openly and publicly con- 



562 



fessed that "Me Locating Committee based their report on the 
Grant marie by the town of Portsmouth. ' Here is an admis- 
sion from one who knows the fact, that it was not the fit- 
ness of the place which induced the locating committee to 
give the Hospital to the town of Portsmouth, hut the gener- 
ous auction bid made by the town in June last. 

After the State of New Hampshire had established this 
benevolent institution, and had given fifteen thousand dollars 
of the people s money to assist in carrying forward such a 
beneficent work, is it right, is it honest, is it just, to seek 
any other than a central location which would best accomo- 
date a majority of that people? It appears to me that this 
would be the natural dictate of every honest mind and heart. 

That man must have a hard heart and a disordered mind 
who would do otherwise. — One would naturally suppose that 
the man who could not see the injustice of departing from 
such a proposition must have a mind wonderfully obscured 
from gold dust, or entirely eclipsed by a hard and sellisli 
heart. 

Upon the same principle the location might have been made 
at ( 'olebrook. or some other town in the other extreme end of 
the Stale. 

Suppose the town of Colebrook had outbidden Portsmouth, 

and ottered thirty thousand dollars upon condition the Hos- 
pital be located therein, what would have been said had "the 

locating committee based their report upon the grant made by 
that town ?' ' 

Would there not. in that case, have been one general out- 
cry of injustice and oppression? Would it not have said that 
the donation made by the State had been sacrificed, and that 
the rights of the people were set at naught or trampled 
under foot? 

In siiih an event would not every man have exclaimed, in 
the most indignant manner, thai the coiner stone of an edi- 
fice, based upon such a Grant would he laid in bribery and 
corruption? 

Lei every man answer for himself. Now if money is to he 
the sole foundation upon which the locating committee are 
to "base their report," upon the above supposition, the loca- 
tion would have been in Colebrook instead of Portsmouth. 
And why not? That town is situated on the flowing waters 
of the Connecticut river, and it is no further from Ports- 



~26S 



mouth to Colebrook than from thence to this place. It is true 
that the southern part of the State is rather more populous 
than the northern, and upon the money '■'basis'' this is the 
only argument why Portsmouth should be preferred to Cole- 
brook. 

Let the Hospital be located in this town, and every mile 
which an individual is thereby compelled to travel further 
than he would have done if the Grant of the town had not 
been made, together with all the time an.d money therein ex- 
pended will be a direct tax imposed upon such individuals 

by the " Grant" made by the town of Portsmouth This 

truth no one can deny. A truth which cannot be very flat- 
tering to the feelings of any one who rightly estimates the 
correct doctrine of equal rights and privileges. 

I commiserate the situation of those unfortunate fellow be- 
ings, who have been deprived of their reason, as much as any 
man living and will go as far as him. who will go furthest, 
to belter their situation, according to my ability, provided it 
be done without violating the rights of others. 

Let even handed justice be done to all men. This is a 
claim which all have a right to make. The high and the 
hiw, the rich and the poor, the learned and the unlearned, 
as it respects natural rights, stand upon a level. This is not 
only a Democratic doctrine, but is also a doctrine inculcated 
by Him, in whose service every man should find his highest 
happiness. 

Let the above rule of conduct be adopted, and the lips of 
those who advocate the money bants of the above mentioned 
report, would be hushed forever. 

I should like to unite with my friends and fellow citizens 
in effecting the location of the Hospital in the town of Ports- 
mouth, if it could he done without infringing upon the rights 
of others. But I will not knowingly, strive to obtain any per- 
sonal advantage at the expense of any portion of my fellow 
citizens, and what I cannot in conscience do for myself I 
ought not to do for the town in which I reside. 
Yours respectfully, 

SAMUEL CUSHMAN. 

Portsmouth. April 7th, 1840. 

Patriot, April 20, 1840. 



264 

To the Trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane. 



Gentlemen: — It is now more than twelve months since tba 
fund of $3»,000 was subscribed for the purpose of purchasing 
the necessary lands and erecting and furnishing the necessary 
buildings for an Insane Hospital. 

It is al>o well known that said Hospital when elected was 
intended mainly for the benefit of the poor and the criminal 1 1 ■ — 
Mine of the whole Stale. On this ground, and this alone, was its 
erection advocated both in the newspapers of the day and in pub- 
lie meetings held expressly fur that purpose. — It is also well known 
that in an evil hour a contest arose between the private corpora- 
tors and the Trustees in regard to the power of location. 

It is equally well known that through distrust on the one part 
and want of confidence on the other, this subject was unwisely 
Submitted to men who did not and from the nature of the case 
could not understand the wants or lucid situation of the State as 
well as the Trustees themselves. Although We all know the re- 
sult, perhaps none of us know all the reasons which led to it . He 
that as it may. we all know the unfortunate situation in which our 
own thoughtlessness in attempting to have others do that which it 
was our duly to have done ourselves, has placed this noble chari- 
ty. And 1 now appeal to each one of you to say whether the poor 
suffering Insane throughout the State tire to be deprived of the 
means of restoration mereh because a committee have reported in 
favor of a location which it is manifest does not convene the 
State or satisfy (he reasonable expectations of the public. Are 
we to sacrifice the general good of the whole to the local interests 
of a part, merely for fear that we may wound the feelings of the 

locating committee? I trust not. Let us then agree to do that 
which I am confident a large majority of the Trustees would have 
dole, had this question been settled by them without improp- 
er interference from abroad. Nameh , agree on some central spot 
and forthwith proceed to erect the necessary buildings, etc liv a 
central -pot I do not mean Concord or any other particular town, 
but mean within 10 or li' miles of the capital. Are you ready to 
name or agree upon a spot within this distance of the Slate House? 
If you are I am ready and willing to join with any six of the Trus- 
tees and proceed accordingly to locate and erect the necessary 
buildings, etc. Your answers either bv letter direct to mvself or 



thronyli the public papers will meet with prompt attention by 

JOHN H. STEELE. 
Peterborough, April 19, 1840. 

Patriot, April 20, 18-40. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE ASYLUM FOP THE INSANE. 



We have barely space to say, that the act, which has passed the 
Legislature relating to the Asylum, provides that whenever the 
fund appropriated by the State, together with such donations as 
shall be left or hereafter maybe made, shall amount to Forty 
Thousand dollars, or at (ivy previous time, the legislature shall 
direct, the Trustees shall proceed to establish a Hospital. The 
amount given by the State is now valued at Twenty Thousand 
Dollars, we hope that of the Eighteen or Nineteen Thousand dol- 
lars with the interest subscribed, but a small part of it, if any, 
will lie withdrawn, and believe and in fact know, that other do- 
nations to a considerable amount will be made.— In addition, this 
institution will eventually be entitled to the Legacy of Mrs. Fisk, 
of Keene, amounting to about Ten Thousand Dollars, and be- 
sides, we think, that when the facts required to be furnished by 
the act. >hall be communicated by the Trustees, the Legislature 
will be convinced that so large a sum as Forty Thousand Dollars 
will not be necessary to obtain the necessary land, erect and fur- 
nish the necessary buildings, on as large a scale as is desirable for 
the commencement. The town in which the institution is located 
must make a liberal donation for the benefit conferred. If we 
should he disappointed in any of the above particulars, the State 
has stock still left in the New Hampshire Bank worth Twelve 
or Thirteen Thousand Dollars: and all the friends of this benevo- 
lent object may feel confident, our present Legislature, unless 
we mistake the character of its members entirely, will take such 
measures this tall as to secure the establishment of an Asylum 
for the criminal and pauper as well as other insane on a Arm and 
broad basis. Communicated. 

N. H. Patriot, June 22, 1840. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE ASYLUM FOB THE INSANE. 



At a meeting of the Board >f Trustees of the above Asylum, 



266 



hold in this (own on the 28th ult. . a committee was appointed to 
procure the statistical information required by the Legislature of 
of last June, to be transmitted to them at the November session. 

Among other tacts to be communicated, is the amount of funds 
which may with certainty be relied on — the expense of a suitable 
farm and of erecting and furnishing the necessary buildings for 
the accommodation of 120 patients, together with the annual aver- 
age cost, which the patients themselves their friends, or the towns 
that might desire to send their pauper insane would beat; allow- 
ing that the whole expense of supporting, or in other words, of 
curing and saving from wretchedness those who receive its benefits, 
wa> defrayed by them, or those bound to support them, and not a 
dollar be drawn from the State Treasury, other than that already 
appropriated for the first outlay. 

This information i^ needed for the purpose of deciding whether 
the stun already bestowed by the State, together with such sums 
as shall be left by the donor-, with such sums as shall be given by 
the town in Which it may be located, would be amply sufficient to 
get everything in readiness for the reception of patients, and 
whether the average expense, graduating it according to the sums 
necessary to meet the whole expenditure of the institution or pa- 
tients, would be so cheap, that the insane, or their friends, or 
the towns legally liable for their support would gladly avail them- 
selves of it- advantages. 

So many institution- of a similar kind have there been erected in 
the neighboring State- so long have they been in operation, and 
-o clearly have they demonstrated that it is for the pecuniary in- 
terest of the town- and counties liable for the support of pau- 
per and criminal insane, to -end them there for recovery, and 
thus be released from a burden, which otherwise would have 
continued tor year-, and in all probability during the life of 
the individual, and so crowded are these hospitals at the pre- 
en! time, that it can be reduced to almost a mathematical cer- 
tainty, not only the precise -urn necessary for obtaining the land 
and buildings, the price per week of board, but also whether 
an institution accommodating 120 insane, will be constantly 
full on the voluntary application of towns and individuals, 
allowing they were required to pay their proportional share 
of the whole expense for carrying on the same. 

If it should turn out. that the sums set apart for the 
building-, etc., will be beyond all question adequate for that 
purpose, and if it should turn out. that the insane can be 



#67 



supported at the Asylum at an expense not exceeding 82.00 
per week, and probably not exceeding $1.5u exclusive of 
clothing — if it should turn out, from the ecu- us recently 
taken, and from other sources of information, that the pres- 
ent expense of supporting the paupers and criminals, as well 
as other insane, is, under the present cruel system, even 
in ire per week than it would be at an Asylum, where the 
medical means for their recovery could he adopted, although 
the State should not even appropriate another dollar, beyond 
what it has already pledged, if it should turn out that so 
numerous are our insane, and so full are the Hospitals in 
other Slates, that it is utterly impossible for them to be 
put :ii the way of recovery, even at a far greater expense 
than it would be, if we had a State institution then may 
we expect that a cautious hut enlightened Legislature, will at 
its next session tike such measures as our pecuniary inter- 
est,!);) less tli in ji-:i-' ail irurcy require, in regard to the 
i ii uedi ite forwarding of this benevolent object. We confi- 
dently hop', with many others, that before another year 
rolls oyer the maniac's head, the agonizing madness which 
his so long lolled through his brain will be checked, 
thrmigl' i the happy'fying influences of the. New Hampshire Asy - 
lum for tin' Insane. 

X. II. Pul riot. Or/. 12. 1840. 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 



Thursday, Dec. l<>, 1840. 

MR. SUASEY, from the select committee, to whom was 
referred so much of the Governor's message as relates to the 
e.-tublishmeiit of an Asylum for the Insane, reported a bill 
to locate and authorize the erection of the New Hampshire 
Asylum lor the Insane. 

Tiie bill provides for the location of the Asylum within 
the limits of the town of ('uncord us soon as the town 
shall transfer the sum of $9,£00 to the Trustees of said Asy- 
lum, agreeably to a vole of said town, towards the erection of 
said Asylum. The bill was read twice : nd Oil motion of 
M:t. Sawyer, of Nashua laid on Ww tabl :. 

X. II. Pal riot, Dec. 11, 1840. 



i!b8 
THE N. H. ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



A bill has been passed by the Legislature, locating- thi* In- 
stitution in Concord and authorizing the Trustees to go on, 
make purchases and erect the necessary build. ng within the 
limits of Concord. It will without doubt be approved by the 
Governor and become a law. We are informed, that a meet- 
ing of the Trustees has been notified to be held here on Satur- 
day next, for the purpose of taking immediate and efficient 
measures to ensure the completion of the Asylum at the ear- 
liest possible day, by fixing upon a farm, making purchases 
of materials and getting all things in readiness to commence 
the buildings in the spring, as soon as the weather will per- 
mit. The funds on hand are amply sufficient, to build an 
institution, and prepare it for the reception of l'.'O patients. 

The public and especially the friends and relatives of the 
unfortunate insane, may now rest assured, that this great 
and benevolent undertaking will be accomplished without un- 
necessary delay. 

A". //. J'otriot, Dec. IS, 1*40. 
ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE 



The Trustees at their recent meeting fixed upon a location 
for this Institution. It is the Gale place, so called, and is 
situated on the llopkiuton Road, south-west of the State 
House, and about a third of a mile from Main street. The 
position is elevated and commands an extensive and pleasant 
view of the village, of the river and of the country about. 
The farm for the Asylum will contain about 110 acres of 
land. 

Messrs. C'onant and 1'easlee were appointed a Committee to 
superintend the erection of the building and have already in- 
vited proposals for the furnishing or manufacture of bricks, 
as will be seen by an advertisement in this paper. 

A 7 . H. Patriot, Jon. 29, 1840. 



2t>9 
NEW HAMPSHIRE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 



The location of the Hospital is about half a mile south- 
west of the State House at Concord, on a beautiful eminence 
which commands a view of Concord, Pembroke, Bow, Hop- 
kinton, Boscawen, Canterbury and Loudon. The walls of 
the building' are now up, and the roof slated. The form of 
the building on the ground is somewhat .like the following 
diagram: 

{Here follows a diagram.) 
It is three stories high, each wing is about 120 feet in 
length, and the central house about 40 feet. There are six- 
ty rooms in each wing, of about 12 feet square. The cen- 
tral house is for the hall officers' rooms and the superintend- 
ent's family. The windows in the wings are all protected by 
cast iron gratings in imitation of sashes. It will probably 
be completed early next year. 

Notwithstanding our preference for a location in our own 
neighborhood, yet we cannot but rejoice that an Asylum for 
the Insane has been erected in our State, and that so tine 
a location has been found. The labors of our friends in 
this cause of humanity have been successful, and their ex- 
ertions will doubtless call down the blessings of many who 
will be relieved from a thraldom worse than death when 
permanently settled on the human mind. 

Portsmouth Journal . 
X. H. Patriot, Nor. 11, 1841. 

THE N. H. ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



In an a: tide which appears in Hill's 2\". II. Patriot of 
the 2d inst. upon the location and erection of the New 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, a compliment is paid to 
the "building committee, and especially to Messrs. Conant 
and Stevens.'" No one doubts that both these gentlemen 
have done their duty, that Mr. Conant has rendered invalu- 
ble: services during the last summer in the superintendance 
of the works, and for such deserves the hearty thanks of 



•J70 



the community; but whether the writer of that article, by 
his "especially," intended to except (.en. Peaslee, i- doubt- 
ful. 

From the moment thai the project of an Insane Asylum 
was . Gen. Peaslee was foremost, a- a member of 

the House of Representatives, and as a citizen of Lhe Slate, 
in urging the claims of ihi> unfortunate class of the c immu- 
nity before t In- Legislature of the State, and to benevolent 
citizens, and the building which ha- this season been erect- 
ed, -land- as a monument of his untiring energies ami la- 
bor for year? past. He was no: only active in calling the 
attention ol the community to the subject; but to no man 
does the Slate owe more toward- the rice. ion of the build- 
ing this seasou, in the manner ii has been erected, than to 
him. This i- stated, but to do justice to the efforts of 
Gen. Peaslee, as it was evidejd to hi- friends that the omis- 
sion "f !ii- name in the article referred to, did him much 
injust ire 

X. If. Patriot, Nov. 11. 1841. 

X. II. ASYl.r.M FOB THE INSANE. 



'l'lir Trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum for Ha' In- 
• tre tender their (hanks to the Norrh Church, in Concord, 
for :i donation "i $22. 7o, and to William Plummet', Esq., 
of Derry, for n donation "l $(i0, of which they have been 
notified l>y their Treasurer, Gen. Joseph Low. 

The Board from the commencement of the erection of the 
present building have been aware, such was the condition ol 
their fund-, that unless the sympathy of the benevolent 
should !"• enlisted in behalf of this noblest of all charities, 
the Institution must for a few year- at least be embarrassed, 
and the price of board for the pauper insane mijihl from 
nece sity, in order to defray tin- expenses of the Ar-yHuii,ue 
so high a- lo prevent -nine from being made comfortable 
and clothed in their right minds, who arc now chained in 
out- buildings, "glad to pick the bone- thrown into their 
kennels like wild beasts. 1 ' 

The Asylum will probubly be opened for the reception of 
id' patients in September or October next. 



2.7* 



The farm consists of about 120 aeres. A neat, spacious 
and airy building 1 is being erected on the most approved 
plan, in the most substantial manner, on a spot elevated 
and salubrious, capable of being tastefully laid out in gar- 
den, shrubbery, park and orchard, commanding a delightful 
view of the Capital of the State, as well as an extensive 
prospect of the Merrimack river, and the fertile hills and 
valleys with which it is surrounded. It will soon be occu- 
pied by those, whose flesh is now galled by the chains of 
the cold, filthy prison and dungeon, and their midnight 
shrieks, then/ unearthly howls, their horrid oaths will soon 
he changed to accents of gratitude to the Legislature and 
the benevolent individuals who have assisted in providing 
them such a retreat. An insane person in the Worcester 
Asylum, soon after it was opened, when asked if he pre- 
ferred his present to his previous condition, replied, with 
the m ist emphatic utterance and gesture, "O, that was 
Hell, hut this is HeavenV" 

When the community shall have witnessed the numerous 
recoveries of those, whose friends had given them up as past 
a'l hope — the ameliorated condition of those who had pre- 
viously been suffering all that it was possible for human be- 
ings to suffer — when the State shall have become from ex- 
perience fully satisfied that everything has been managed in 
a judicious manner, and on principles of the strictest econo- 
my, there can he no doubt but the Institution will be gen- 
erously sustained. 

At the present time and at its opening, however, it will 
need the sympathies and kind offices of its friends more 
than at any other period, and the Trustees are cheered with 
the hope and belief, that the above entire voluntary dona- 
tions will not he the only ones which they shall have occa- 
sion to acknowledge previous to the reception of patients — 
for they expect, through the charities of the humane to be 
able to commence the Institution at a considerable lower 
rate of board, for the pauper insane especially, than any 
other Asylum. May the above donations prove a nucleus 
around which shall gather a fund, that shall enable the As- 
ylum to extend its benefits to every poverty-stricken insane 
so j and daughter of New Hampshire. 

For the Board of Trustees. 

C. H. PEASLEE, Secretary. 
JV. II. Patriot, Bee. 30. 1841. 



■tit 

N. H. Asylum for the Insane. 



We are infjrmsd that the services of Dr. George Chand- 
ler who lias been for some time connected with the Worces- 
ter Asylum for the Insane, lias been secured a* Physician 
and Superintendent of the N. II. Asylum for the Insane, at 
an annuil salary of $1000. Dr. Chandler is eminently quali- 
li •>! tor the important station. The superintendent of the 
Worcester Institution speaks of him in his report, as essen- 
tial to the well being of that institution. It is expected to 
open our institution for patients about September next. 

If. II. Patriot, Jan. 20, 1842. 
The Trustees of the X. II. Asylum for the Insane, would 
gratefully acknowledge their obligations to the United Socie- 
ties of Shakers at Canterbury and Enfield, for their liberal 
donation of five hundred dollars in aid of the objects of 
the Institution, as appears by the following correspondence. 

For the Board oj 1'runtees, 

C. II. PEASLEE, Secretary. 

Concord. April 12, 1K42. 

Concord, February 8th, 1842. 
To the Society of Shakers in Canterbury: 
The Trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum for the In- 
sane, feel it to be a duty which they owe to (hut unfortunate 
class of our fellow citizen-, who are now dragging out a 
wretched existence in chains, darkness, filth and misery, and 
who cannot -peak for themselves, to appeal to you for aid 
in alleviating the immense muss of undiluted misery, which 
now and for a long time has existed in this State for the 
want of an Asylum. We are aware, that you support your 
own helpless, aged and sick people, and that you neither need 
Or ask any assistance of a pecuniary nature from others. AVe 
rejoice, that you and they are so fortunately situated, and grie\e 
that this world i- the theatre of so many heart rending scenes, 
one of the saddest of which, is that occasioned by insanity. 
But notwithstanding your making no claims upon others, and 
your comparatively prosperous condition, we know from your 
1 iber.ility, when a,>i lied to for assistance on account of losses by 



37* 



fire and on other occasions, that your philanthropy is of a 
more extensive, and nobler character, than that which would 
he limited to one's own family, or to merely self, and that 
you will not therefore deem this application intrusive. 

It seems to us, that the benevolent can find no object 
m >re worthy of assistance than Hospitals for the Insane, 
and thereby causing the wretched in body and mind to be 
taken from poor houses and prisons, and placed in circum- 
stances of comfort, and where the proper medical means can 
be used for their recovery, and we confidently hope and be- 
lieve, that should you be satisfied, on inquiry, that the In- 
stitution thus far has been managed economically and with- 
out sinister motives, and that it probably will be so in fu- 
ture, vou will a*dst us in a manner both worthy of the 
object and the givers. 

At no time will the Asylum probably need assistance so 
much as at the present time, or in the course of the com- 
ing summer, for we believe that when its benefits shall have 
been seen and felt, charity will flow in upon it liberally as 
the rain flowed) from the Heavens, and no personal appli- 
cation will be necessary to sustain it. 

Hoping that in the day of need, in the day of small 
thiie's, you will cone up to its aid, we subscribe ourselves. 
Very respectfully, 

Your Friends, 

The Trustees of /he N~. II. Asylum for the Insane. 

By C. H. PEASLEE, Secretary. 

N. II. Patriot, April 14, 1842. 

REPLY. 



To the Trustees of the X. II. Asylum for the Insane. 

Your application, soliciting aid from our Society, in behalf 
of the Insane has been received and taken into consideration. 

We are disposed to assist in alleviating, to the extent of 
our means and ability, those who are so unfortunate as to 
be in a state of insanity. We are aware that much wretch- 



*A 



ednese, misery, distress, and even abase exist among- this 
class, ;iikI more particularly among the indigent. 

We anticipate no benefit whatever, either directly or indi- 
rectly, by the establishment of an Insane Hospital, as we 
probably never should avail ourselves of the privilege of 
placing any of the members of our society there, believing 
we are so situated, that we eould provide tor, and take 
care of such of our members as might he deprived of their 
reason, within the limits of the Society, quite as well as any 

other-. 

We are inclined to believe, however, that an Asylum for 
the Insane, established in behalf of that unfortunate rla-s, 
for the poor a- well as the rich; free from party spirit, 
sectarianism, or from any selfish purpose of aggrandisement 
whatever, would he in reality a valuable Institution, and 
would he considered by all classes a- an object worthy of 
their charity and benevolence. We bope and trust the New 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane will he such an Institu- 
tion. 

We therefore subscribe Five hundred dollars, or Five 
shares in the Mechanics' Bank, Concord; Three hundred in 
behalf of the Sjciety at Canterbury, and Two hundred in 
behalf of the Society at Enfield, which you will please re- 
ceive and appropriate according to your discretion. 

It i- our wish ami desire, however, that this amount lie 
received, and considered as given wholly for the benefit and 
in behalf of the indigent Insane, those who have no means 
of placing and supporting themselves in euch an institution. 

In behalf of the United Societies at Canterbury and En- 
held 

117/// perfect respect and esteem, 
Your Friends, 
FRANCIS WINKLEY, ) Truster* ofthe 
WILLIAM WILLARD, | Society, Canter bury. 

OTIS HOLBROOK. | Trustees of the 

CALEB M. OVER. J Society. Enfield. 
April 1st, \6i2. 

y. II. Patriot, April 14, 1842. 



-a? 5 
N. H. LEGISLATURE. 



Thursday, June 23, 1842. 

The resolution appropriating $6000 for the finishing and 
furnishing the N. II. Asylum tor the Insane, was read a 
second time. 

On motion of Mr. G-lidden, the resolution was laid apon 
the table and made the special order of the day at 3 o'clock 
this afternoon. 

Afternoon. 

On motion of Mr. Glidden, the resolution making an ap- 
propriation for the Insane Asylum, was taken up. 

HI". G-lidden moved to amend the resolution by striking 
out all after the enacting clause, and insert a clause author- 
izing the Governor lo draw to the amount of $4000 for the 
purpose of finishing and furnishing the Insane Asylum, which 
was adopted. 

Mr. Foss moved, that the resolution be indefinitely post- 
poned, and the ayes and noes being demanded, it was de- 
cided in the negative — yeas 50, nays 162. 

The resolution was then read a third time and passed. 

2V. H. Patriot, June 30, 1842. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Court convened: 

'That the Governor be authorize. 1 and directed to draw 
his warrant upon the Treasurer of this State for such sum 
or sums of money as may be necessary to complete the 
building now erected as an Asylum for the Insane in New 
Hampshire, and to furnish the same for the reception of pa- 
tient^, not exceeding in the whole four thousand dollars, and 
the Treasurer is authorized to pay said sum or sums upon 
such warrant to the Treasurer of said Asylum for the pur- 
poses aforesaid. 

Approved, June 24, 1842. 

X. TI. Patriot, July 7, 1842. 



37 b 
REPORT OF THE BOARD OF VISITORS. 



OF THE X. H. ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 

June Session. 184:.'. 
To ili<- Honorable Striate and llmise of Representatives: 
Under the Act of the Legislature approved 'July 2, 18;S.h, 
the Governor and Council, the President of the Senate and 
Council, the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives for the time being, were constitut- 
ed a "Board of Visitors of the New Hampshire Asylum for 
the Insane," and it is made their duty to visit and inspect 
the Asylum a~ often as may be necessary, to see thai the 
design ol the institution is carried into full effect, and to 
report to the Legislature the result of their examination. 

In compliance with the act, the Hoard of Visitors have. 
since the commencement of (he present session, carefully 

examined the buildings now being erected, and which are 
nearly completed for the w-c of the Institution. They an' 
all correctly described in the Report of the Building com- 
mittee, which, with the Report of the Trustees, will accom- 
pany tiiis communication, and we have u > hesitancy in ex- 
pressing our opinion, that all the buildings have been con- 
structed of the most appropriate materials, anil when com- 
pleted . cannot fail to answer tin? benevolent object contem- 
plated by the Legislature in their erection. Not only have 
the mosl suitable materials been used in the construction of 
the buildings, hut their internal arrangements, as to rooms 

for the use ot the patients and for oilier necessary pur- 
poses, could not well he improved. They are calculated to 
afford accommodations for about one hundred and two pa- 
tients. The Board of Visitors feel justified in communicat- 
ing to the Legislature that a judicious, and at the same 
time a rigid mi lomv In- governed the doings of the Trtts- 

tees of tin' Institution in their expenditures. It will he seen. 
by a reference to their Report, that the whole cost and ex- 
pense of I his Institution, from its commencement up to the 
time when it will hi' in readiness for the reception of pa- 
tients, will not have been, (by at least 65 per cent.) the 
average cost of similar Institutions in the different States — a 
fact highly creditable to the judgment and good management 



57: 



of those charged with the execution of this work. It must 
afford great satisfaction to the members of our Legislature, 
and to the people of our State, that the actual cost of the 
New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane will not much ex- 
ceed in amount one-third of the actual cost of the "State 
Lunatic Asylum" ' at Worcester in Massachusetts; which is 
probably one of the best constructed Institutions of the kind 
taking into consideration the extent of its accommodations, in 
the United States. 

It should ba b.irne in mini that of the sum of S34.0o4.23, 
the estimated cost of our Asylum, nothing has yet been 
drawn from the Treasury. A grant of thirty shares, 
amounting to fifteen thousand dollars, which the State 
owned in the New Hampshire Bank, has been made to the 
Asylum. The proceeds of this stock have, up to this time, 
comprised all the funds drawn from the State for the ac- 
complishment of the work. The remainder has been liber- 
ally granted to the State in aid of the object by the town 
of Concord, by the Society of Shakers and by other benev- 
olent individuals. 

The Board of Visitors have ascertained that it will be 
necessary to have erected an additional building, for the 
better accommodation of those patients, who may be so fu- 
rious and violent in their insanity as to render their con- 
nection with other patients, by occupying rooms in the same 
building, hazardous to their own safety, and to the well- 
being of those who may he suffering from a partial aberra- 
tion of mind. The reasons, showing the necessity of this 
additional building, are set forth with great force and pro- 
priety in the report which has been submitted by the Trus- 
tees, and to whi-'li we would refer the Legislature, and in 
our judgment are sufficient to justify the expense. — AVe 
would, therefore, respectfully suggest that the benevolent 
purposes of the Institution cannot be fully accomplished, 
without an additional building detached from the Asylum. 

We have satisfied ourselves that such an appendage has 
been regarded as of indispensible necessity at other similar 
institutions. It must be known to every observer, that the 
human mind is so wonderfully constituted, that by reason 
of some peculiar morbid affection, a slight insanity only, in 
some cases, exists upon some particular subject, when upon 
all others sanitv and right reason is discoverable; while in 



<•- 



other Rases an infuriated, violent and uncontrolled madness 
prevails. It would seem to the Board of Visitors to ar- 
i- nil with that spirit of humanity, which induced the early 
movements of our Legislature in this work of benevolence 
and philanthropy, to place these two classes of patients in 
apartments in the same building. The effect would he inosl 
unfavorable to those who are suffering from partial insanity, 
produced by some excitement or temporary cause, and who, 
we all know, by a course of judicious treatment, have been 
soon restored 10 their right minds, and to the enjoyments of 
Social life. — And it is no less true that the more furious 
ami violent would he managed with greater difficulty, if they 
were permitted to mingle with those affected (although to 
a less degree) with the same malady. The treatment and 
aire of the maniac require extraordinary skill, and great 
self-command. It is a matter of fact that the must furi- 
ous ami violent patients have been greatly benefitted and in 
some instances restored to reason at these Institutions. 

In their early confinement it is made necessary to keep 
this class of patient- under the most rigid restraint. Strong- 
er apartments, finished in different order, and with different 
materials, are necessary for their security. In the course of 
time a discriminating Superintendent discovers the. secret, 
springs ol their actions, and by keeping the sources of their 
conduct unagilated. they have been able to brieg hack their 
minds to an Uliexcited and composed condition. This can 
only be done by Keeping this unfortunate class <f our fellow- 
beings in well seemed apartments and entirely separate from 
other-, especially from those who may he afflicted to some 
extent in (he same way. 

Policy, then, as well as a sense of humanity require that 
there should be a separate building for the exclusive accout- 
re] idation of this class of patients. We have no reason lo 
doubt, considering the size and appropriate materials neces- 
sary to !)■ used ill the construction of the building, looking 
tu it- strength and durability, that the estimated cost is as low 
as would cover its actual expense. We would, therefore, re- 
spectfully recommend to the Legislature to make the appro- 
priation requested for this purpose. The IJo.nl of Visitors 



a: 'j 



would respectfully suggest to the Legislature that it is, in 
their opinion, a matter of great importance to the State, 
that the "New Hampshire Asylum lor the Insane" should 
commence its operations under such auspicious circumstances, 
as would give to it .a character that would insure success. 
We have within the limits of our own State many per- 
sons suffering, to a greater or less degree, the most afflict- 
ive malady which can possibly afflict the children of men: 
the deprivation of their right reason, the partial extinguish- 
ment of that light given to them for guide and direction 
through life. It would seem from experience that this mal- 
ady, great as it is, may be mitigated, if not wholly cured, 
by human skill. And this conviction has already stimulat- 
ed those who have gone before us, to devise ways and 
means for improving our condition of this unfortunate por- 
tion of the community. It remains for the present Legis- 
lature to consummate the benevolent and praiseworthy pur- 
poses of our predecessors. 

By a reference to the act of the Legislature of June 19, 
1840, it would seem that the probable expense of this Insti- 
tution was computed, by its early friends, at not less than 
folly thousand dollars. f 

The Board of Visitors feel assured that the cost will fall 
much below that sum, and excluding what has been and 
may be realized from the Bank Stock given by the State to 
the Asylum, not more than Eight Ihousand dollars will be 
required to erect the additional building and put the Insti- 
tution into full operation. We would therefore respectfully 
suggest that the Legislature should, at its present session, ap- 
propriate that sum for the use of the Asylum. We are all of 
the opinion that it would be economy for the State now to 
complete this institution. Materials are on hand which may 
profitably be used, and laborers are now in the employ of 
the Stale whose further services could he advantageously se- 
cured. And as we have commenced this work of philan- 
thropy, every consideration of humanity should prompt us to 
go forward, and do what we can to give to those, who 
are now involved in darkness and derangement, the light of 
intelligence and the restoration of reason. 



280. 



H ENRY HUBBABD, 1 
CYRUS BARTON, 
SAMUEL G. BERRY, 

JAMES M'K. WILK1NS | Hoard of Visilors of 

SAMUEL EGERTON, } the N. II. Asyluui 
JAMES II. JOHNSON, for Ihe Insane' 

JOSIAH QUINCY, | 

SAMUEL SWASEY. | 

Concord, June 3. 1842. J 



REPOKT OF THE BUILDING COMMITTEE. 



Pursuant to the request of the Board of Visitors of the 
New Hampshire Asylum tor the Insane, the Building Com- 
mittee and the Trustees of said Asylum make to them (ho 
following statements of their acts and doings, amount of 
their fund on hand, and their Minis estimated necessary to 
complete and furnish tin 1 buildings and put the establishment 
into successful operation. 

Immediately after the passage of the act of Dec 17. I84U, 
authorizing the Trustees to proceed in the erection of an 
Asylum in Concord, on condition that the town of Concord, 
should transfer and convey to said Asylum sccurieties to the 
amount of $9,£C0, Ihej met and organized 1 1 j * - Board by 
choosing a Picsident, Secretary and Treasurer, and proceed- 
ed to locale said Asylum in tlic town of Concord, about 
three-fourths of a mile south- westerly from the State House; 
said Town of Concord having previously secured to said Asy- 
lum the- sum oi Nine Thousand Five Hundred Dollars, A 
building committee was soon after appointed authorized lo 
erect suitable buildings on the land obtained for that pur- 
pose 

They have nearly completed 1 1 1 « - Asylum, consisting of a 
centre building and two wings. 

Tin' centre building is 48 feet in length, -It in width, and 
four stories in height, with a basement. The wings are each 
90 feet long, 36 feet wide and three stories high. They are 
in tlic same line, extending to the right and left from the 
opposite ends of the centre building. The front of the 
centre building projects' 26 feet forward of the front of 



-281 

the wings. The wings being' 3G feet wide, half their 
width, or thirteen feet joins upon the centre building; the 
other half falls in its rear. This arrangement connects the 
centre with the wings, so far as to allow a tree communica- 
tion between them by means of stairways and thoroughfares, 
and at the same time so far disconnects them, that the in- 
side end-; of the long halls in the wings (hereafter mention- 
ed) falls in the rear of the centre, open into the exter- 
nal air, and thus, as it regards ventilation, the advantages 
of separate buildings are secured to the wings. The cellar 
extends under both wings. An excavation of three or four 
feet was necessary in order to lay the foundation, and by 
excavating a little deeper than was indispensible for that 
purpose, a great amount of room is obtained and many ob- 
vious advantages secured. 

The basement story of the centre building is designed for 
a kitchen, dining-room, laundry, &c. The front part of 
[he first, second and third stories of the centre building con- 
sisting of six rooms 17 by 18, three halls with large closets 
to each of them and two sleeping rooms, and the fourth 
story divided into nine suitable sleeping apartments with 
large closets to 8 of them, are intended for a Superintend- 
ent and hi- family, a steward and the domestics and labor- 
ers necessarily employed in and about so extensive an es- 
tablishment. The attic is designed, and will be suitable 
when finished, for a chapel. 

The wings are in each story divided in the centre by a 
long aisle, 12 feet in width, and extending from end to end, 
to be u-ed as day rooms for the insane, with their apart- 
ments In consequence of the wings falling half their width, 
as before mentioned, in the rear of the centre building, 
these halls communicate, tit both ends, with the external 
air; an 1 thus the means of a most thorough ventilation tire 
secured. Whoever has visited any public establishment, 
where tlic entire end of the wing is met and closed in by 
the side of the main building, cannot have failed to per- 
ceive the noisomeness of the atmosphere at that place, com- 
pared with it at tint outer end where free admission has 
been given to the pure air. On each side of these halls 
are the apartments designed for the insane. They are 8 
feet by lu. and are all provided with a permanent seat se- 
cured in the wall. Each apartment has a large window. 



willi an upper sash of cast iron, and a lower -ash of wood 
both of which are glazed. Immediately without the wooden 
sash is .1 false sash of east iron, corresponding with I he 
wooden one in appearance ami dimensions. This is set 
firmly into the sides of the window frame, a narrow space 
being left at the bottom for the water to pass oil' and save 
frame from decay. When the wooden sash is rai-cd the 
false one presents a harrier against escape or injury from 
leaping out through the window. It is said thai a man, how- 
ever furiously mad or impatient of confinement he may hi', 
will rarely attempt to break through a window until he has 
first tried unsuccessfully to raise it. If this he so, this sim- 
ple contrivance will afford effectual security both to proj erty 
and person, withoul inflicting nn\ injurious restraint upon the 
patieut. Each of these apartments is provided with two air 
lines, one for heated and the other for cold air. ll is in- 
tended to Warm the wine- by furnaces placed In the cellar 

The hoi air is to he conducted from the furnaces through 

filies in the halls' walls, and to lie discharged through aper- 
tures into the halls. By these means the air in the halls 
may he raised to any desirable temperature. 

Over tin' door of each apartment, there is a small aperture, 
through which the healed air in the halls will pass into the 
rooms, and thence he carried into the attic by means of 
the hoi air tine of the room. The aperture of this Hue is 
at the bottom of tin' room, and is to he kepi open only in 
the winter. The aperture of the other line is at the lop 
of the loom and is to he kept open in the Slimmer, SO thai 
the air when made light by heat will life aid pass ell' 
through this channel, and the cool air from withoul will 
rush in lo supply its place. All these Hues open into the 
attic, which is ventilated by skylights in the loot, and 
large fan windows at the ends. At the end of the wings, 
and where they join on and are connected with the rear part 
of the centre building the hall- open into the dining and 
day rooms before mentioned in the centre building. These 
rooms are titled up with the same means of strength and se- 
curity as are provided for the apartments in the wings, and 
being directly connected with the halls, are to be warmed 
from them. The dining-rooms, occupying the rear of the 1st, 
2d and od stories of the centre building, are of course situated 



•ass 



immediately over the kitchen and laundry. Adjoining these 
rooms a perpendicular space is left open from the kitchen 
to the third story, through which, by means of an appara- 
tus similar to a windlass, and called a dumb-waiter, the 
food can be raised from the kitchen and be distributed to 
all the patients in the six different divisions without incon- 
venience. Each story in the wings is provided with a bathing- 
room, a washing room, water-closet, &c. The large win- 
dows at each end of the hall, next to the centre building, 
arc !o be protected by an open framework of iron. 
Each hall has a separate stairway, leading into the cellar of 
each wing, so that each story in each wing is as entirely 
disconnected from all the others, as if it were a separate 
building. This allows that separation and classification of 
the patients on which all treatises upon the means of re- 
storing the insane so strenuously insist. 

The roof of the Hospital is covered with slate. Besides 
the security which this material furnishes against fire, any 
other covering, it was believed, would seem incongruous 
with the public character of the building, its solidity and 
expected durability . 

To prevent unhealthful moisture from being deposited upon 
the inside walls of the edifice, an insterstice or open space 
is left between the external and internal courses of bricks — 
the courses being strongly fastened together by tiles — so that 
a free circulation of air through all the exterior walls, from 
the underpinning to the attic will effectually obviate that 
almost universal inconvenience of brick habitations. 

Careful inquiry was made previous to the commence- 
ment of the present building, of Superintendents of various 
Hospitals and of Architects, as to the best plan to be 
adopted, and from information then, as well as since ob- 
tained, we believe that for cheapness, durability and conven- 
ience, no better mode of construction could have been adopt- 
ed than that which has already been adopted' We have been 
informed by those who have visited various Hospitals in the 
United States, and who were good judges of the wants of 
such an institution, that this wiil be far more convenient 
than many they have seen erected at a much greater ex- 
pense, and that they know of none so well calculated for 
the purposes intended. 



284 



.Having the experience of other Hospitals, the Committee 
have eudeavored to improve upon them, not only in conven- 
ience but iii cheapness of construction, and they flatter them- 
selves they have so far succeeded, that should they he able to 
finish it according to their expectations, an institution will be 
erected and put in operation both worthy of the object and the 
character of the State. 

They hive built a barn also, which is nearly completed, 42 
feet by 60, with IS feet posts, with a cellar under the whole, 
and to be finished with all the necessary stalls, a granary and 
carriage room. The farm consists of one hundred and twenty- 
one acres of land of different varieties of soil adapted to agri- 
culture, almost every part of which may be seen from the Asy- 
lum. 

At an institution like this there are always, from time to 
time, some patients sent so furiously mad. noisy ami violent, 
as to render it necessary for them, as well as most indispensa- 
ble to the safety and quiet of other patients, that they should 
be placed in a separate building. A building no by 30 feet, two 
stories on one -icle and one on the other, would be sufficient 
to accommodate 8 males, and 4 female patients, and also fur- 
nish room for washing and those who shall attend to the same 
and have the care of the patients. It should be placed on the 
side bill directly in the rear of the Hospital. The outside of 
the buildings should be of brick, and need not be very strong 
— eight inches in thickness would be sufficient -the covering 
to be of slate. The inner walls or partitions should be strong 
and commenced at the foundation; they should be twelve 
inches thick and the front of the same rooms sixteen inches. 
Three or four of the rooms for males should be stronger, and 
the sides of the rooms or walls should he made of solid 
blocks of granite or in courses. — The floors of all the pa- 
tients rooms should be of stone in one or two pieces, and the 
top sealed up with plank or boards. The doors may be of 
plank with an opening through them or an opening at the 
side of them for lighting and ventilating the rooms. There 
should be a ventilating chimney from the to)) of each room 
into the attic. The rooms are to be heated by furnaces or 
stoves under them so arranged that the stone floor may al- 
ways be warm, that the patient in the coldest weather may 
not expose himself by tearing off his clothing. The patients 
rooms should he nine feet or more square, placed in two 



286 



rows back to back, opening by a door into the areas intend- 
ed nearly to surround them. In the same building should 
be a room 20 by 30 feet for washing, supplied with two or 
three copper kettles and permanent tubs; also a room 12 
by 15 feet for the man and his wife who shall have the 
care of the patients in this building, and who will do the 
washing with what assistance they may have from the in- 
habitants of the Hospital. The cost of such a building is 
estimated at $2,500. 

The committee have made no preparation for the erection 
of such a building on account of the want of funds. Should 
the Legislature think it expedient to furnish the necessary 
means, however, it can be constructed the present season, 
and as so m as it will be needed for the purpose. The 
principal reasons in favor of such a building are, because 
t!ic noise of suuh patients would disturb the other inmates, 
an. I keep them in confusion; because they would be dan- 
gerous In the other patients and do injury to the build- 
ing: because of their tendency to tear off their clothes and 
d ■struy clothing; because the habits of some are so fil- 
thy tint they cannot be kept sufficiently decent to mingle 
with others: because they need a warmer place thai the 
rooms in the main building when they are too furious to 
wear clothing and the rooms in the building described can be 
made warm en nigh for chase who will wear no clothing, 
and because; it would be better for the recovery of such 
persons, that they should be secluded for a time until they 
shall have become calmed and quieted. Such a building is 
especially necessary at the outset, while the institution is till- 
ing up. in order that the same remedial means for the recovery 
of patients may be n-ed as advantageously at this Asylum as 
at others, i hit it may obtain a character which will entitle 
it tu the confidence and patronage of the public and of the 
fiiends of the Insane. 

Amount paid for farm by the Asylum, $4,100 00 

In addition to that sum over §1,000 

was paid to the owner by the 

citizens of Concord who were 

desirous of a location on the 

spot selected. 
Amount already expended towards 

erection of the Hospital and Barn 



J8K 



ami other incidental expenses, $18,992 23 

Amount necessary for furniture 

of both wings and centre building es- 
timated in the report of Nov. Session, 1840, 
and which we have re-examined and be- 
lieve to be in the main correct, $2,7(32 0u 

Amount necessary to complete the Hospital 

building and Dam, $5,400 00 

Amount necessary to be expended im- 
mediately for wharf ing up about the 
Hospital and barn, estimated at, $200 On 

Amount necessary for the building for the 
furious insane and washing room, &c, 
as estimated above, $2,600 00 

$84,054 28 

Amount necessary for Horses and Car- 
riages, Oxen, Cows and farming utensils, $1,000 00 

Amount a> estimated, necessary to furnish 
provisions, wood and other stores and 
pa\ the expenses of the Asylum io be 
incurred before payment can be received 
of the patients, $2,000 00 

Whole amount extended and estimated 
necessary io be expended to put the 
Asylum in operation, $117,001 23 

Amount which has been expended for 

the farm and erection of the Hospital 

so far, 82S,0!>2 23 

Amount of available funds on hand. $0,901 00 

Amount expected to be realized from 

Bank Slock at Portsmouth within a year, 

above the par value already paid. §82o 00 

Whole amount ot funds expended and on 

baud deemed available, $29,8G8 29 

lialancc wanted. $7,6*0 f J4 



2»7 



Of the above $5,961.06 deemed available, $500 is reck- 
oned given by the Societies of Shakers at Canterbury and 
Enfield, to be disposed of as the Trustees think proper; al- 
though they expressed a desire that it should be applied to 
the relief of the indigent insane. 

In compliance with a suggestion of the Board of Visitors 
the committee would here state some of the large contracts. 
The stone work was all contracted for by the foot— the 
trench and cellar stone, and door stone and steps at 20 
cents per foot; the underpinning ( being -1 feet 8 inches 
in height) at 33 cts. per foot, measuring but one face of 
either. The hammering was done at the Prison — door 
stones, steps, &c, at one shilling per foot; window caps 
and sills at one dollar per window; the whole expense of 
which was $2,300. The quantity of brick purchased and 
laid into the building and well, was but a few short of 
one million — at an average cost of aboul $4.12 1-2 per 
thousand, delivered at the Asylum. The carpenters' and join- 
ers work of every description was contracted for at $3,120. 
The committee would do injustice to their own feelings 
were they to omit expressing their gratification at being able 
to state that Mr. Laban Page, the stone contractor, Messrs. 
Adams, Somes and Price, the contractors to lay the bricks at 
$2.25 per thousands— Mr. Whittemore, who contracted to do 
the plastering at $000 — Mr. Watson to do all the carpenters' 
and joiners' work-- have all been punctual and faithful in the 
performance of their several contracts, and have done their 
work to our acceptance so far as the same is performed — 
the stone and brick workmen having finished their contracts. 

It will be perceived, by the foregoing communication, that 
an additional appropriation will be necessary to put the In- 
stitution into successful operation, and more than was origi- 
nally expected by die Board of Trustees. This is occa- 
sioned in part from their not having as yet realized so 
inucli by $2,5Dii from the Bank Stock appropriated by the 
Stale as was hoped, it having been supposed, from infor- 
mation obtained, that tlie shares were worth $2,500 above 
par value: in part on account of the roof of the build- 
ing, being slated instead of shingled, as was originally 
contemplated, at an extra expense of $800; in part from 
the Trustees not being aware of the necessity of erecting 
another building for the more furious insane, which is es- 



•288 



mated to cost S2,500; in part from their not having con- 
sidered the amount which will be wanted, to defray the ex- 
penses of the Institution previous to rt-ceiving any pay from 
Ihe patients, which is estimated at $2,500: in part from 
their having caused to be erected a barn, which with the 
cellar will cost $850,00 — aud numerous other incidental ex- 
penses being incurred which had not been fully considered, 
and which when taken separately, are small, hut in the ag- 
gregate amount to a considerable sum, such as digging t lie 
well ."in feet deep and bricking it up with 20,000 of brick; 
furnishing a pump and lead pipe for the same; paying Ihe 
architect for drawing plans and superintending the work u 
part of the time; excavating sand and filling up around 
the Asylum, &c. 

The committee have ascertained the cost of eleven other 
AR.vlums tor the Insane in different parts of the United 
States, including lands, buildings and furniture attached lo 
each and which is exhibited in the following table : 



Names and where located. 



Bloomiugdale, X. V 

State, at I'lica, X. V. 

I'enu. Hospital, Philadelphia 

Friends A&) him. Frankford, Pa 

ln>aue Hospital, Baltimore, Md 

McLean. Charlestown, Mass. 

State L. Hospital, Worcester, Mass. 229 

State Hospital, Columbus, Ohio 

Slate. South Carolina 

Western Va., at Staunton 

Augusta, Maine 

X. 11. Asylum for Insi.n?, Concord li-t 

It will he perceived by the above table that the X. II. 
Asylum when completed, with strong rooms, &c, will cosl 
but a little more than one quarter of the average cosl at 



«2 

si 

O « 
© 

a 

as 


o 

V 

3 


a* 

© u 

o 
O 


T3 

P 

a 

Q 

3 

o 

< 


150 $219,000 


$1460 


11 


280 


275,000 


'.IS.' 




JIM 


825,000 


1500 




65 


<s'4,UIM 


I860 


01 


120 


l'i 10 ,000 


1666 


10 


1-10 


250,000 


LSI 10 




229 


104,404.81 


455. 


il 65 


14.", 


108,000 


7 4.-> 


:,: 


100 


100,000 


1000 


:;t 


140 


70,000 


500 


ij.'i 


120 


inn. noil 


880 


7ii 


1 1 4 


:)4,n;,4.L':; 


300 


121 



289 



the Asylums for at least the same conveniences, and one- 
third less than the cheapest. The average cost of all the 
Hospitals has been $1,113.00 for each patient they will ac- 
commodate, while our own cost but about $300.00 for 
each patient; and the State Hospital at Worcester, Mass., 
the least expensive of the whole, excepting our own, cost 
over $450,00 for each patient. From this statement a com- 
parison can be formed of the economy with which the Hos- 
pital has been erected. The average amount of land con- 
nected with the Hospitals is about 50 acres, while we have 
121 acres; and the largest amount belonging to any other 
Asylum is 77 acres. The importance of a large farm can- 
not be too highly appreciated. 

It is to be considered that of the $29,8G8.29, the whole 
funds of the Asylum including the amount expended as well 
as 1 lie available funds on hand, only about $10,000 has been 
derived from appropriation fo the State, the rest having been 
derived from the town of Concord and benevolent individu- 
als who have contributed in aid of the object. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J01LN' CON ANT, ) Building committee 

C. II. PEA8LEE, !• of the A'. H. Asy- 

JOSIAH STEVENS, JR. j him Jar the Insane. 

REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES. 



The building Committee have above presented a statement 
in detail of their proceedings during the past year, and of the 
present condition of the Hospital. It is a gratification that 
it is so near its completion and that the prospects of the in- 
stitution are so favorable. Applications have been made for a 
considerable number of patients; and when we consider that 
fifty or more insane persons from this State are now support- 
ed at great expense in Hospitals in other States, and when 
the census of 1840 shows us about 400 insane persons in the 
State, we cannot doubt that its apartments will be filled, 
and that speedily. When we reflect that many of the in- 
sane are shut up in jails or confined in dwellings deprived 
<>f lomforts and a grief or terror to their friends, who that 
has a heart does not rejoice that a Home is soon to be 
prepared where they may be kept safely and treated tender- 
ly and probably restored to their right mind? 



*9u 



During the past year 37m patients have been discharged 
from the Hospitals at Worcester, Charleetowa and Prattleboro', 
of whom lys were entirely restored, and about 70 others 
much relieved. Of the new cases nearly '.Mi in every 100 were 
cured. This is the result everywhere, if the cases are attended 
to like other diseases upon- the first attack. What joy must 
be carried to many a home at the restoration of a father 
or mother, a brother or sister, a wife or child, and if the 
New Hampshire Asylum could but relieve one half as many, 
who would begrudge the expense? 

Insane Hospitals now exist in every State in New Eng- 
land, in New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, 
South Carolina, Kentucky. Ohio and probably in some other 
States. Their value and importance is settled beyond a 
question. They are Institutions which the increasing intelli- 
gence and philanthropy of the age have rendered necessary, 
and which determine to some extent the character of the 
the State. In most cases so useful and popular have they 
been found, that they have been compelled to extend their 
accommodations. We would place our native State, in this 
respect, in that elevated position which she occupies in ><> 
many others. She has made liberal appropriations for the 
support and education of the deaf, dumb and blind; the in- 
sane form a larger class in -number and more deserving of 
pity and aid. In point of education no State is her supe- 
rior. Her common schools and scholars, her higher semina- 
ries and their scholars, and her professional men arc more 
numerous than in any other State. All this is justly a 
subject of Slate pride, but the best proof of intelligence is 
an enlightened philanthropy, and a regard for the well-being 
of those unfortunate members of the community who cannot 
take care of themselves. In so good a cause New Hamp- 
shire will never allow herself to be behind the sister States. 

This institution is the property of the Slate, although 
nearly one-half of its cost is the gift of individuals anil of 
the town of Concord. Thus far the State has acted with 
praiseworthy liberality, and the Stale may well hi; proud of 
her Asylum. — The funds given by the Slate, however, have 
proved much less than was anticipated, while necessary ex- 
penses have been incurred which were not estimated, and a 
further appropriation will be necessary to furnish the build- 
ings, and put the Institution in a fit state for the reception 



ittU 



of patients. The Trustees have no personal interest in 
this matter except as trie. id; of the insane and citizens of 
the State. — They receive no compensation for their time or 
trouble. It is a labor of love aud given for the sake of 
the cause. That the H ispilal is built thoroughly we know. 
That it is convenient and well adapted to its purpose we 
have the assurance of competent men. That its erection has 
been economical is evident from the fact that its cost, when 
completely furnished and in operation, including- the appro- 
priation required, will be less thin two-thirds of that cf any 
v.lher Hospital of which we have an account. That there 
is pressing' demand for its immediate completion is proved 
by repeated applications for admission. We cannot believe 
then that the Legislature will with-hold an appropriation suf- 
ficient to put it in operation, or delay the hopes of those 
who are looking forward to it for relief. 

JOHN CONANT, 1 

JOSEPH LOW, 

CHAKLES .). EOX, 

HtA ST. L'LAlIt, 

JOSlAli STEVENS, JK , 

G. W. KITTP.EDGE, 

C. H. PEASLEE, 

JT. H. Patriot, Oct. 

The State Insane Asylum. — The Asylum for 
is now open for the reception of patients. The price of 
board for patients has been fixed at $2.25 per week— very 
low compared with other similar institutions. Bonds with 
good surety for payment of the board are required. People 
w. suing for information can apply to the Trustees or to 
Dr. Geo. Chandler, Superintendent. "We congratulate the 
friends of the Insane that the services of so able, learned 
and eminently qualitied a gentleman, have been secured as 
Superintendent. 

One patient was admitted Lift week. He is from Tiiftou- 
borough, and was rendered insane by excitement upon the 
subject of the second advent. He prays, preaches, exhorts 
and harangues every morning four hours upon the stretch 
and during the rest of the day is qu^te easy. 

N. H. Patriot, Nov. 3. 1842. 



Trustees of the N. H. 
} Asylum for the In- 
sane. 



6, 1842. 
the Insane 



MB 

ASYLUM FOR THE IXSAXE. 



At the cold and inclement season of the year, we would 
particularly remind those who have friends and relatives in- 
sane, thai a retreat has been provided for Ihem, where the)' 
can he made warm and comfortable and receive the attentions 
of a long experienced Physician and nurses from the Asty- 
luin at Worcester, ami where every curative means will he 
adopted for their recovery, at the low price of *-2.-'-"> per week. 

One of the twelve which has been received at the Hos- 
pital, was discharged a few days since, completely recovered, 
who was brought there hut three weeks previous a raving 
maniac — cursing screaming, shouting and holloing as he 
came from hi- place of residence to the Institution. l?'o fu- 
rious was he. that three or four men were deemed necessa- 
ry to safely convey him to his new place ot abode; ami 
the whole amount of charges for his hoard, washing, &c, 
was hut SILT.'*. It is tine that instances of recovery in so 
short a time are not frequent; there is no doubt however 
hut Insanity yields a- readily as any other acute disease of 
equal severity, if the proper remedial means are seasonably 
adopted, and there is as little doubt, that those only can 
be obtained at the Asylum. Economy then, as well as jus- 
tice and mercy, require that immediately on their first attack, 
the insane should he sent to the institution prepared with 
so much care and expense for the express purpose of afford- 
ing them every means of comfort and care — to an institu- 
tion where the architectural arrangements are such, that the 
proper classification of patients can he had — where chains 
are not used and even confinement to the cells seldom re- 
sorted to — where harsh treitimmt and all needless restraint 
are avoided — where they can be taken out to ride in pleas- 
ant weather — where some can be permitted to go about the 
House and employ themselves in different occupations and 
partake of various amusements — where the Physician ami 
attendants by constant and patient care inculcate habits of 
personal neatness, and pleasantly check the noisy and petu- 
lent. cheer the despoiulijig, turn the thoughts of those occu- 
pied in insane illusions, into a new channel, walk, ride, en- 
gage in amusements with them, to whom they look as their 
benefactors, friends and companions, and not as their ser- 
vants or taskmasters. 



An insane man at the "Worcester Asylum being once asked 
if he did not ti.nl his pres?nt situation more comfortable 
thin the o ic In; hid left, replied with most emphatic utter- 
ance ami gesture, "Oh, that was Hell, but this is Heaven!" 
So would hundreds of insane in New Hampshire think and 
feel, could they he transferred from the dark, cold, filthy 
miserable abodes, where they are now dragging out a wretch- 
e I existence, to the neat, spacious and well warmed and 
Will ru'itilite 1 lulls of the Asylum, where they would meet 
with every kindness and attention: where every fear would 
be soothed; every want would be promptly supplied; every 
needless retrain t removed; every harmless indulgence granted 
and the mind in ruins be gradually built up to its former 
elevated condition. 

The town of Hudson, Franklin and some others have al- 
ready se it their pauper insane and there can be no doubt 
that every town in the State would find it for their pecuni- 
ary interest on account of the comparative quickness of re- 
covery which can be obtained at the Asylum, if they would 
immediately adopt the example dictated alike by humanity 
and enlightened economy. Let the Christian and Philan- 
thropist, while extending his sympathies beyond the ocean, 
barken to the groans of the insane in our own jails — to 
the cl.riki ig of fieir eh tins in cages tit only for wild 
beasts, and in our poor houses. Let kind and benevolent 
ladies think of I he many pure and virtuous females who 
are now.in-ane, but were once as sensitive and delicate as 
themselves, the pride and ornament of every circle, admired 
and caressed in the bloom of beauty, health and innocence 
by smiling friends, joyous companions and doating pa- 
rents; and who arc now but partially covered with a few 
filthy and tattered garments, obscene, loathsome and impure 
in language and manners, subject to the mockery, derision 
and insults of the young and degraded: and let all for once 
engage in seeking out the unfortunate, forlorn, forsaken, 
and wretched beings in our own towns and neighborhoods; 
and si. ice we have an Asylum of such cheap and easy ac- 
cess, cause them to be sent to a place where they will be 
cared for, and made as comfortable and happy as their con- 
dition will allow, and soon to be restored to their friends 
and relatives, to happiness, to usefulness and society. The 
benevolent could not engage in a nobler, holier work, for — 



994 



"The saddest scene beheld in Time, 

Is a man, to-day the glory of his kind, 
In reason clear, in understanding luge, 

In judgment sound, in fancy quick, in hope 
Abundant, and in promise like a field 

Well cultured and refreshed with dews from God ; 
To-morrow, chained, and raving mad, and whipped 

By servile bauds; sitting on dismal straw. 
And gnashing with his teeth against the chain, 

The iron chain that b mud him hand and foot; 
And Irving whiles to send his glaring eye 

Beyond the wide circumference of his no -- ; 
Or humbling more, more miserable still, 

Giving an idiot laugh, that serves to show 
The blasted scenery tif his horrid face; 

Calling the straw his sceptre, and the stone 
On which he pinioned sits, Ins royal throne. 

Poor, pon-, poor m in ! fallen far below the brute! 
His reason strives in vain, to find her way, 

Lost in the Storm) desert of his brain, 
Anil being active still, she works all strange. 
Fantastic, execrable, monstrous things.'' 

X. II. I'd/ riot, Dec. 22, 1842. 
The Trustees of the X. II. Asylum for the Insane would 
gratefully acknowledge the receipt of forty dollars recently 
given by William I'lumer, Esq., of Londonderry, and sixty 
dollars previou-l. given by the same person. 

At no pel i. id probibly will the Asylum so much need the 
assistance of il> friends as at its commencement. Donations 
therefore at the present time acquire additional importance 
from the peculiar situation of the institution. 
C. II. PEASLEE, 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees. 
X. H. Patriot, Jan. b, 181 A. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE ASYLUM FOK THE INSANE. 



We understand that twenty-nine patients have been re- 
ceived at the Asylum and that rive of them have been re- 
stored to their re ison and families. The average amount 
paid by those recoveied for boarding, nursing and medical 
attendance would be onlv about fourteen dollars each. 



■Ab 



There are now ten male and fourteen female inmates of 
the Hospital, and some of them are often seen riding in our 
streets with the superintendent and frequently at church. 
The trustees were exceeding fortunate in obtaining so excel- 
lent a man as Dr. Chandler to take charge of the institu- 
tion. We frequently hear him and also the attendants 
spoken of in the highest terms of commendation by the 
friends of the insane and others who visit the Asylum. It 
may now be considered fairly and successfully in operation, 
and we have no doubt it will fully answer the most san- 
guine anticipations of its friends. We advise all who are 
so unfortunate as to have their delations insane, to send 
them immediately on their first attack to this admirably 
managed institution, where every thing will be done for 
their comfort, happiness and recovery which possibly can be 
done and in the kindest manner. 

JV. H. Patriot, Jan. 19, 1843. 

ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



We understand that in the month of January thirteen pa- 
tients (seven males and six females) were received into the 
Asylum. There are now about forty inmates of the Hospi- 
tal, and we learn that they are generally calm and are en- 
joying a reasonable degree of health. Patients have been 
received from every county except one or two in the State, 
and also from two or three other States. 

Considering the number of insane who have already 
sought relief at this institution, so recently opened — the 
number already discharged cured, and the improved condi- 
tion of the remaining patients, its friends cannot fail to be 
cheered and animated it! the contemplation of its future 
prospects and usefulness. It is an honor to the State, and 
will not suffer in comparsion as to benefits and blessings 
conferred by it, with any object ever before undertaken by 
the Christian and Philanthropist. 

For the small sum of two dollars and twenty-five cents 
per week, the patients are furnished with board, washing, 
mending of their clothes, fuel and lights, medicine for the 
sick, the services of experienced ;.nd faithful nurses, the 



constant attention of the matron and the incessant care and 
watchfulness of the physician, not to mention the spacious 
buildings and halls so well adapted in their architectural ar- 
rangements for their restoration and comfort; the gratuitous 
services of the Trustees, the provision that is made for rid- 
ing and walking out with their attendants in pleasant 
weather. Those who have under their charge and control 
the unfortunate and afflicted beings, who are unable to pro- 
tect or speak for themselves, are assuming a f.arful respon- 
sibility if they wilh-l.old fiom tin in the means of recovery 
and happiness which can now be procured at so cheap a 
rate. Selectmen of towns and overseers of the pauper in- 
-ane ought not to be indifferent as to their comfort and 
and cure — but if they are so, the humane and benevolent, 
in vuch towns -houlil sec to it, that the poor insane with 
t lis- in are cured for and tint justice is done them. One se- 
lectman, who was lirought to the Hospital a few weeks 
since a raving maniac, has been cured and restored to his 
family, to his duties and usefulness. — Others now in 
health max now be in the same dreadful situation, and it- 
may be equally important for them that they should be sent 
to a place of recovery. Let those then who have placed 
under their charge the helpless insane, mete out the same 
measure which they would have meted to them, if they were 
in the same deplorable condition. 

-V. //. Patriot, Feb. 28, 1848. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE PORTSMOUTH JOURNAL. 



THE INSANE HOSPITAL. 

Messrs. Editors, — Allow me, through your paper, to re- 
call the public attention to the purpose, entertained at the 
late Session of the General Court, of establishing' an Insane 
Hospital. This design had for some time before, been the 
subject of frequent and favorable mention in several quarters. 
— When introduced to the attention of the Legislature, it 
was thought sufficiently important to be referred to a Select 
Committee. Their report took an able view of the subject, 
described in eloquent and faithful terms the horrors of in- 
sanity, treated the question of this method of its relief, on 
the large principles of humanity, and concluded forcibly 
in favor of the design. As the subject had not, however, 
been generally brought to the notice of the people, previ- 
ous to the Session, many members did not consider them- 
selves sufficiently informed of the dispositions of their con- 
stituents, to justify acting definitely upon it at that session; 
it was therefore allowed to lie by for the time, with the 
understanding I am informed, on the part of its friends, 
that a renewed action on the subject would be called for at 
a future Session. 

That the public mind may be turned to this design, and 
definite conclusions arrived at before the next Session of the 
General Court, is my object in this notice. No period can 
be better calculated than the present, for unbiased consider- 
ation of it. The excitement of politics, during its continu- 
ance too absorbing for the existence of any other interest. 



has in a degree passed away. And I am not aware that 
at the next Session any subject is to be brought forward. 
which will divide the members by those distinct party lines 
bo destructive of all beneficent designs, however remote from 
the main "rout of bitterness." Under these impressions, I 
hope that the coining Legislature will improve this season 
of political calm to distinguish its existence, and the Slate 
it will represent, by a great measure of humanity. 

No affliction to which our race is liable, calls more impe- 
riously for the aid of public beneficence than insanity. 
No other so effectually severs the ties of private feeling. --- 
The insane man is marked off from the communion of his 
race. His nature is the more revolting, that while he wears 
the form and visage of man, they are in him either rendered 
frightful by phrensy, or sink into the gross inanciiess of id- 
iocy, lie caracatures his species in every particular which 
shocks its pride <>r its sensibilities, lie stands among them 
as not of them, hut a fearful example of what each, in the 
last state of fallen humanity, feels with horror that he liny 
become. The insane man feels none of the sympathies of 
kindred; he knows, he loves no home, no country; he has 
none of the higher reaehings of the soul. All, all, is low, 
gross, fearful and revolting. He receives protection with- 
out gratitude and turns in phrensy upon the very hand that 
is stretched out to help him. The sick man may regain 
his health, and pour forth his gratitude over the heart 
which has felt for him in his weakness. Poverty may he 
changed into wealth, and he who is the object of protection 
and assistance to-day, may he the powerful friend and pa- 
tron of to-morrow. But the insiuie is hopeless; his future 
i- a long prospect of still deepening horror. The watch- 
fulness that never falters, every year becomes more anxious, 
as the consequences of remissness become more fearful. 
Thus it is that no affliction tends so much to loosen the 
ties of kindred, as no other is so burdensome, so revolting, 
and so thankless. The expose given in the last message of 
our Governor, shows this point in a fearful light. The 
remedies of chains and fetters and prisons, therein detailed, 
while proving the dreadful demands of this affliction, equally 
show how far its treatment is necessarily removed from that 
of every other evil which our nature inherits. —And, every 
faet whi-h , roves this affliction more than anv other out of the 



299 



pale of private kindness, and indeed of private ability shows 
equally the need of public beneficence. 

An argument for the exertion of public beneficence in re- 
lation to insanity may be drawn from the wonderful success 
of Hospital treatment; and this is the strongest from its 
contrast with the usual hopelessness of private management. 
Perhaps, of insane persons in private keeping, not two in 
ten are ever restored, while I am yet persuaded from hav- 
ing given the subject no short nor limited attention, that of 
those placed under Hospital treatment in New England. I 
do not overrate results in stating, that, two-thirds, I think 
more, ultimately return to the enjoyment of their reason. 
This results from from the systematic treatment adopted 
from an extensive and professional view of the disease 
Such institutions, under the control of physicians, whose pro- 
fessional labors and studies have been especially directed to 
this form of disease, of large practice in connection with it, 
of the utmost sagacity in detecting the movements of the 
sane, and in following the wanderings of the insane mind, 
uniting an untiring benevolence with immoveable firmness, 
and simplicity with self-possession, (and in relation to this 
subject, none otherwise than thoroughly qualified ,in all 
these particulars should be thought of for a moment , ) un- 
der such management these institutions are more successful — 
more unexpectedly and astonishingly so — than any public 
benevolences with which the age abounds. 

[ have written more than I intended, and if successful in 
(•ailing public attention understanding!}' to the subject, shall 
perhaps take occasion at some future time to lay before it 
some facts, showing as well the necessity, as the results of 
Hospital management, under the present advanced views and 
treatment of the disease of insanity. 

P. ESPECTFUI.LY, &c. , 

Portsmouth Journal, March 2, 1833. 



REPORT RECOMMENDING AN INSANE ASYLUM IN N. II. 



The Committee, to which was referred "so much of the 
Governor's message as relates to the return of the insane 
persons in this State,'' ask lea re to report: 
Insanity is one of the most afflictive dispensations of 
Providence. Whatever be the form which ibis deplorable 
calamity assumes, to the maniac it is the end of all useful- 
ness and the closing of all the avenues of enjoyment, and 
to the family of the sufferer it is but one continued scene 
of solicitude, if not of tenor. The unfortunate being ap- 
pears to exist only to suffer, and to excite most painfully, 
the sympathies of ihose with whom he is connected. From 
the nature of the case, an examination into this subject must 
present to the House a melancholy account of suffering and 
die tress. The committee were not, however, prepared for the 
result which the examination affords. They were not aware 
of the extent of the disease. They had formed no conception 
of (he extremity of the wretchedness to which the insane 
are reduced. In the prosecution of the inquiry, by the re- 
turns made lo the executive, and by the collection of furls 
on I his subject from those professionally acquainted with Ihe 
condition of Ihe insane, their situation throughout this State 
is found to be deplorable in the extreme, for the milijua- 
tion of which the prompt attention of the Legislature is im- 
peratively demanded. 

The number of the insane, as returned to the Governor, 
is two-bundled and one, more than half of whom are sup- 
ported as paupers. From many towns no returns have 
been received; from others, the accounts are erroneous, 
there being cases known to the committee which escaped ihe 
notice of the selectmen. The actual number of insane is 
therefore much larger than appears by the documents sub- 
mitted to the committee. 

Where are the insane — what is their condition? There 
ale individual cases, which by the kindness of friends able 
and willing to provide the means, are rendered as comforta- 
ble as their situation will admit. The number thus fortu- 
nate, the committee are constrained to 1 elieve, is compara- 
tively small. Many, laboring under an inoffensive hallucina- 
tion of mind, wander about, the sport of unthinking hoys 
and unprincipled men. A large proportion, seventy-six, are 



aui. 



reported to be in close confinement. Some of them in 
chains, or in cages, made for their confinement; some are 
in the out-buildings, garrets or cellars of private houses, 
some are in our county gaols, shut up with felons and 
criminals of every description ; some are in almshouses, in 
brick cells •'never warmed by fire or lighted by the rays of 
the sun." The facts presented to the committee not only 
exhibit severe and unnecessary suffering, but utter neg- 
lect, and in many cases actual barbarity. To convince the 
House of the correctness of this general remark, they feel 
it to be their duty to report some of the instances to which 
they refer, however painful the account may be to every 
one not dead to all feelings of humanity. An insane wo- 
man who had wandered from her friends was confined in 
one of our gaols in winter and without fire. From the se- 
verity of the cold and her fixed posture her feet became so 
much diseased that it was considered necessary to amputate 
I hem at the ankle; which was accordingly done, and the 
woman afterwards restored to her friends in this mutilated 
condition. Another female was confined in a garret, where 
from Iowness of the room and her consequently constrained 
position, she grew double, and is now obliged to walk with 
her hands as well as feet on the floor. A man was con- 
fined for years in a cellar, nearly naked, with a bed of wet 
straw; — another is at this time chained to the floor of an 
out-building, "'glad to pick the boiies thrown into his ken- 
nel like a beast" — one with sufficient property — once in every 
respect as active and happy as the best of us. It is admitt- 
ed that these are extreme cases; but few of the many known 
to the committee. The aci-ounts submitted to them exhibit 
a mass of extreme, unmitigated suffering, from the details 
of which humanity revolts. 

This slate of things has been permitted to exist merely 
because it was unknown. In the extremity of the disease 
the maniac is with-drawn from observation. He is placed 
out of sight and forgotten. The prosperous look not in up- 
on the secrets of his prison house. His voice, in his rav- 
ing, grates not on the ear of the happy. They who have 
the custody of the wretched being are too prone to forget their 
duty and his claims upon them for kindness and forbearance. 
Their sympathy is exhausted and their kindness becomes blunt- 
ed by familiarity with misery. They often give up the feel- 
ings of the friend, for the apathy of the jailor, and after re- 



302 



during the madman to the utmost degradation of which human 
nature is capable, so that lie has lost almost the form and ap- 
pearance ol a man, lliey have in many cases utterly neglected 
even the appearance of ministering to his wants. There is too, 
on this subject a common error, that the maniac is insensible 
to suffering, and that the disease is incurable; thus the unfort- 
unate subjects of this malady, as if they had Io*t their birth- 
right :i> men — "a- it liny had fallen stars from the sphere of 
reason," are consigned over to chains and imprisonment and 
doomed to wear away a wretched existence until death like 
a kind angel comes to their relief. 

We need BOinethillg to supply this defect in private sym- 
pathy, for it is not true that the insane are insensible to suf- 
fering. — Hunger, cold, confinement, neglect and the privation 
of all the accustomed comforts of life affect them as it would 
affect ii--. Besides, in many cases of insanity there is a 
morbidly increased sensibility to physical suffering. They 
shrink from the least exposure and from the high excite- 
ment of the system have not the ordinary power of endur- 
ance even nt the common evils of life. Excepting in cases 

of complete idiocy the disease is confined to a part or 
portion of the mind. fjnusunlly, the patient is sane on all 
subjects hut the one hallucination which, to a superficial ob- 
server appears to engross every faculty, and to completely 
enslave the intellect. The fear of some impending calamity 
— the dread of some unknown danger is frequently the 
mark of the disease This must certainly he increased by 
neglect .ami physical suffering; and if on all other subjects, 
the mind judge correctly, no one. from this partial insanity 
can he insensible to injurious treatment. 

The suffering of the insane in their present situation can- 
not he avoided. A very small portion of them have friends 
able and willing to procure a watch by night and by day_ 
Imprisonment or chains is the only resource for the nece-sa- 
rv restraint. Nor have they the means to render this con- 
finement tolerable. In many towns there are no pauper estab- 
lishments, and where they are, they are not adapted either 
tin- the comfort or recovery of the lunatic. The cage, the cell, 
the garret, the oat-building, the gaol and the brick cell of the 
poor house are the only alternatives. This state of things 
is not peculiar to our community. A recent report to the 
Legislature of Massachusetts observes, that there were more 



sua 



imprisonments for insanity than for debt; and that the lu- 
natic was visited with a heavier doom than the felon. To 
quote the language of this report, "they have been con- 
as no criminal was ever condemned and have suffered as no 
criminal ever suffered. The code by which they have been 
adjudged denounces against them the penalties due only to 
crime, while it it is unmitigated by any of those merciful 
provisions which in the penal code attemper justice with hu- 
manity. ' ' 

The claims of the lunatic in this age of benevolence have 
not been entirely forgotten. The public attention is turned 
towards them. Recent disclosures render it certain that their 
situation will be improved and their abject sufferings will 
be mitigated. The time we trust is not far distant when 
the evils we have described will be unknown. Hospitals for 
their recovery — retreats for their comfortable support, have 
multiplied around us. They have been established in 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York and 
l'eiin., and probably in many other of the more distant 
States. They are not mere experiments. Time has tested 
their value. They open their doors for the relief of 
these forlorn beings; they empty the cell and the prison; 
they remove from the family the woe-worn maniac whose 
presence would seem to blight every prospect of happiness; 
they strike from off' his hands and feet the manacle and 
chain, furnishing a home, where he can be securely kept, 
and rendered as comfortable as his situation will permit, 
nay more; they restore back to friends, to happiness, to 
usefulness, hundreds annually who would otherwise have 
writhed in chains and imprisonment as incurable maniacs. 

In these establishments alone can the means of restoration 
be used with any assurance of success. As the insane 
are now situated there is reason for the opinion that for 
them there is no hope but in death. 

The treatment to which they are so often subjected — treat- 
ment which would make the sane mad, gives strength and 
permanency to a slight attack of tl.e di.ease. The most violent 
svmptotns, requiring the closest confinement, are found to 
yield more easily to medical skill than the gradual and pas- 
sive form of insanity. Yet the treatment of the former is 
such, from the necessity of the case, as to quench the faint 
spark of reason and doom the victim to a lengthened night 



804- 



of mental darkness. It is this, not the nature of the mal- 
ady, which places them out of the hope of restoration. 
Even when the kindness of friends is exerted to the utmost 
— when all is done which humanity can prompt and which 
wealth can execute, they have not at home the mean?, of 
relict' nor the professional skill which their case demands. 
The physician of a town who sees hut one or two cases of 
insanity in a year cannot he proficient in its treatment, 
lie has not the experience which extensive practice alone 
can give, lie cannot devote to the patient the time and 
attention which are required, lie cannot Use the moral 
means on which he must depend principally for success. 
Tie p itie.it mast he taken from his accustomed associa- 
tions. Tli; peculiarity of the disease, ami there is every 
shade and -pvies of insanity, must be known and under- 
sto id. That part of the mind which is morbidly ex- 
cited nui-t be soothed and regulated. Indeed, the skill 
ami attention thus required, the means and opportunity 
on which success depends, cannot be had without the walls 
of a hospital. 

The disease is tar from being incurable. It has been 
slated to the conniiiiicc by professional gentlemen, anil their 
statements are fully supported by reports from various hos- 
pitals, 1 1 >:il nine oul of ten insane have been restored to 
reason, when placed under judicious treatment ill the early 
stages of the disease. Cases of very long standing have 
been relieved, and instances often occur of the restoration 
af.er \eais ot insanity. The report of an as\!uni near 
Philadelphia gi\es the following result; admitted in live 
years, one hundred and fifty-eight patient; discharged in 
the same time, recovered, fifty- three; improved, seventeen; 
much unproved, twenty-three; without change, nine. In the 
retie.it at York, England, out of forty patients admitted 
within three mouths after the first attack, the whole num- 
ber. loit>, were restored to their friends recovered; of 
those admitted after three an 1 within twelve months, the 
proportion of cures was as twenty-live to forty-live; but of 
those whose disease was of more than two years standing, 
the proportion of cures was only as fourteen to seventy- nil*. 
A report from the Connecticut Retreat shows the ratio of 
recovery in the old cases to be twenty-six to the hundred, 



305.. 



ami out of twentv-f >ur recent cases twenty-two were re- ■ 
covered. With tlusa fasts before tlis public— with the pros- 
pects these reports furnish, shall we with-hold the means 
and permit so many of our fellow beings, suffering under 
this awful visitation, to remain like the beasts of the field 
on which the light of reason never dawned ? 

If it were but to relieve their physical suffering, we need 
in this State the establishment of an Insane Hospital. The 
inmates of the cage and dungeon, from whom all the com- 
forts of life are taken, w hose existence is but one continued 
scene of abject suffering, claim relief from our hands as 
fellow-beings, this claim cannot, will not be disregarded. 
They ask from us a retreat from their suffering — a home 
where they can again be treated as men — where restraint 
when necessary can be rendered tolerable — where the ever 
varying nature of insanity can be treated with discrimina- 
tion and humanity — where they can in some degree be re- 
stored to the dignity of their nature. 

Even motives of economy urge upon us the establishment of 
a hospital for the insane. From an estimate made by his Ex- 
cellency, the Governor, the citizens of the State annually ex- 
pend the sum of $16,000 for the support of lunatic. The corn- 
mi! tee do not consider it in (heir province to report a plan for 
the erection of a hospital, nor have they information to furnish 
an accurate estimate of cost of suitable buildings. They are 
of opinion however, that twenty thousand dollars — a sum but 
little more than the present annual expenditure for the mainte- 
nance of the insane, would be sufficient for this purpose. The 
expenses of the clothing and board of the inmates might he 
borne by the friends of the insane, and when paupers, by the 
town in which they have residence. 

An annual appropriation from the State would be required 
for the pay of the superintendence only, and the terms of ad- 
mission lie so low as to enable all the subjects of insanity to 
avail themselves of the beneiits of the asylum. It should in 
their opinion be located in a central part of the State, and be 
under the control and supervision of the Executive. The time 
appears favorable for the enterprise, as the condition of the 
Treasury will admit of this disbursement without a resort to a 
lax — a tax, however, for this object, if required, would be 
cheerfully paid by the citizens fo the State. The committee, 



306 



impressed with these considerations unanimously recommend 
the establishment of an asylum for the insane. Their exami- 
nation into the condition of these unfortunate beings lias re- 
filled in the conviction of the necessity of an immediate at- 
tention to the subject. The suffering of those by the Provi- 
dence of God thus thrown upon the humanity of the public. 
is truly great, and no other means of relief, in the opin- 
ion of the committee, is adequate to remove the evil. They 
believe no legislative act is more loudly called for — that in 
no other way can the guardians of the public happiness in 
a greater degree subserve the cause of benevolence than by 
making the necessary appropriation for this important object. 

The subject i^ highly interesting to every citizen of this 
State. It comes home to the feelings of every individual in 
this community. 

It cannot be known on whom this calamity may fall. No 
man has a warrant of exemption for himself, or those who 
are necessary to his happiness. No one can say that he 
shall escape, or that there is a shield held over his house- 
hold that the •'troubled spirit," may not enter there. The 
decrees of Providence are inscrutable. The happy and pros- 
perous of this year are often the sick and distressed of the 
next. If insanity sometimes come as the curse of evil 

deed to chastise the wicked, it spares not the virtuous 

and the pure! if at limes it be the consequence of unre- 
strained passions, or the excessive indulgence of appetite, it 
often arises from the keenness of those very feelings, and 
the strength of those very affections which when in subjec- 
tion to reason, so highly adorn and so strikingly elevate the 
human character. 

Which, with the accompanying resolution, is respectfully 
submitted. S. E. Coins, 

For the committee. 

Resolved, That it is expedient that an Asylum for the In- 
sane be established. 

Portsmouth Journal, Jan. 5, 1833. 



;iu7 
ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



"We are much pleaded to And that the public attention is 
directed to (lie accomplishment of tins benevolent object. 
Much infoimatioii respecting' the condition of the Insane, and 
the benefit of these establishments in other States, has been 
disseminated among the people. The consequence has been, 
a genera/ and strong interest in the subject throughout the 
State. 

We learn from gentlemen now visiting the town, at this 
session of the Conrt, that the question of the establishment 
of i lie Asylum, is considered one of the most prominent 
qursiions, which will demand the attention of our Legisla- 
ture. One of the objections urged during the last session 
of the Legislature, was, that it was a new subject, that the 
] eople were uninformed as to the necessity and effects of 
these estalments, that their constituents should be consulted 
on such a heavy expenditure of the public money. This ob- 
jection, we think, will be done away. The public voice, so 
far as it is now heard speaks loudly; and it is now expected 
that the expression of the wishes of the people, will con- 
vince the Legislature that they feel a deep interest in the 
subject. 

The sum required, at first sight, appears large; but at 
most, if evenly divided, it would be but the fraction of a 
dollar to each of our voters. We are for economy in the 
public « x] ci. dilutes -- -for strict economy; and are pleased 
with the feelings of accountability which our our office hold- 
ers manifest to their constituents; but let it be recollected 
that economy is but the proper expenditure of money for 
valuable purposes — and the individual can hardly be termed 
" economical '' who, (o save a fraction of a dollar to each 
voter, would leave a hundred of his fellow beings in abject 
suffering —not necessarily resulting from the disease, but 
from a criminal neglect to furnish the means of relief which 
is in our power. 

Portsmouth Journal, March 23, 1833. 

The Legislature. — The New Hampshire Legislature com- 
menced its annual Session at Concord on Wednesday last. 
No subject of any great and special importance is likely to 
tn be agitated during its present sitting; at least we be- 



a u* 



Move none which relates to the State exclusively has hern 
discussed by the people or the press. An Asylum for the 
Insane was a topic of considerable legislation last season; 
but the manner in which this important subject was dis- 
posed of, leads us to apprehend that much effort will lie 
necessary on the part of the people at home, in order to 
bring about such a result as the the condition of the insane 
in our State scents to demand. The very interesting report, 
made by the special committee to which the matter was re- 
ferred, is replete with facts at.d aiguuients clearly indica- 
ting that the condition of those who are bereft of their rea- 
son in our State, calls loudly for legislative aid; and so far 
as we have been able to learn public opinion, we ate fully 
convinced that our Representatives would' be sustained by 
the almost unanimous voice of their constituents, in making 
competent appropriations for the establishment of an Asylum 
that should accommodate those unfortunate beings for whose 
benefit it should be erected. We cannot but hope this sub- 
ject will occupy a prominent place in the mind- of all our 

legislators until a suitable provision is made for the comfort 
and convenience of those who arc now or may hereafter be- 
e mil' the victims of mental alienation. Such a measure 
would reflect the highest honor upon our Stale, ami afford 
the best Of the humanity and benevolence and wisdom of 

its citizens. 

Portsmouth Journal, June .'). 1888. 

The remarks which were offered on the subject of Insani- 
ty, in Mr. ('one-' lecture before the Lyceum, particularly de- 
serve the attention of all who arc interested in the cotidi- 
ti hi of that peculiarly unfortunate portion of society, who, 
shut out from the light of reason and from the sympathies 
of their fellow men, are incapable of making known their 
wants, or pleading their own cause. The institutions of be- 
nevolent objects everywhere to be seen throughout New- 
England, have long been, and will long continue to he, 
its greatest boast and ornament ; nowhere has Christianity 
more widely spread abroad its spirit of love to all mankind 
than here, and nowhere has man more readily extended 
to his fellow m mi the open hand of kindness. Vet of the 
wants of one portion of the community, more perhaps to be 
pitied than any other, those sick not only in body but in 



309 



mind, there has been a strange forge tf illness. 

Of all the ills which fall to our portion in our present 
state there is none from which we shrink with such a feel- 
ing of horror as from Insanity, a disease blotting out the 
mind, checking all pi ogress onward or upward, tearing asunder 
all sympathies and all affections, and levelling man with 
the mere brute creation. Our best, and most fruitful source 
of happiness, is that which springs from mutual kind- 
ness and mutual regard, vet from this last earthly refuge of 
the unfortunate, no one is entirely cut off, but him whose 
affections and sympathies are weighed down by the thick 
cloud of mental darkness. Is it not strange then and have 
we not cause to reproach ourselves, that in communities 
where so much is going on for the good of mankind, so little 
has been done tor this huge and increasing portion of it? 

Insanity is a disease, which prevails in this country to a 
degiee far greater than in any country in Europe. The 
cause is probably to be sought for in a much higher degree 
nf mental excitement which prevails among us, especially on 
the subjects of politics and religion; at any rate, the fact 
i-i clearly proved, that in the New England Slates, there is 
to he found one insane or idiotic person, for about every 
two bundled and fifty of its inhabitants! What a fearful 
proportion, bowed down by a disease to most minds infin- 
itely worse than death itself ! Owing to the imperfect man- 
lier in which this disease is understood and treated by the 
greater portion of physicians the number of the perma- 
nently cured is exceedingly small, while in very many in- 
stances, from the ignorance or the prejudices of those about 
them, these wretched beings arc made to suffer in a degree 
which it chills the blood to think upon, and this must 
almost always be the same, until something is done by the 
community to alleviate their condition. 

In the lunatic asylums of this country, of Great Britain 
and of France, where the best medical treatment can always 
be had, the cures of this disease, once accounted almost be- 
yond the reach of medical art, are surprisingly great. Of 
the patients treated in its early stages, more than three- 
fourths have been discharged entirely cured, while of the 
whole number, from one-third to a half, have returned to 
the duties of life. It is not to be wondered at, that in 
former times, when Insanity was looked upon as the iinme- 



■i\u 



diate curse of heaven, and was treated only with the 
whip, the dungeon and the chain, as is even now too often 
the case, and while this branch of medical knowledge was 
almost unknown, that little should have been done for its 
unfortunate victims, hut let it be our reproach that we have 
looked with apathy upon the worse affliction which falls to 
the lot of humanity, and that too, one to which we. as a 
people, are more than all others exposed. 

In the State of Massachusetts, always among the first in 
all good undertakings, there has recently been established 
from the funds of the State, a Hospital for the Insane, 
where not only those capable of supporting themselves, bill 
the afflicted of whatever station, may receive the benefits of 
the best medical and moral treatment, united, and it can- 
not he doubted that through this institution, the amount of 
human suffering in that state, will he greatly ami rapidly 
diminished. It is to he hoped that exertions tor the same 

object, may llOl long he wauling here, hut that our own 
Slate may soon follow her excellent example. 

Portsmouth Journal, March l. 1884 
ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



When the delicate Structure of the human frame — that 
fine loncd "harp of a thousand strings," is duly contemplat- 
ed — and when the discovery is made that the slight inter- 
ruplion of a single fibre may untune the whole, it is a 
matter which ought to excite our grateful admiration of the 
wise and beneficent providence of our Creator, that so large 
a portion of our race have left, to them the enjoyment of 
their reasoning faculties. 

If the mind, that noble part which bears the impress of 
Deity, can be so easily prostrated and sunk in ruins, all 
hope of usefulness sinking with it, and no higher hope pre- 
sented in this life than that of a rank scarcely above the 
brute creation — how great, bow alarming that wreck! 

Yet lo such a wreck all are liable — no favored one can 
say, ••from this fate 1 am secure. ' All the riches and 
splendor, which the Babylonian monarch once found in his 
palace, did not save him from the degradation of a rank 



ill 



and a dwelling with the beasts of the field, when reason 
was dethroned. 

But why go back to distant times for examples, when we 
have among us, in almost every town, striking instances of 
the most disastrous visitations of Providence? Here we see 
one who has been chained for almost half a century — there 
another who is caged up to protect a family, in which he 
was once beloved and caressed, from his unwitting savage 
ferocity ! There was another human being confined for years 
in a cellar, and fed through a hole in a floor: — and yet 
another, a father caged in the same room in which his fam- 
ily live, a spectacle of disgust, blunting all the nicer deli- 
cacies of feeling of a young family, and without hope of 
relief till death arrives. 

Such are scenes from life, and are only a specimen of 
what a portion of the tiro hundred and fifty Insane individ- 
uals in New Hampshire have to undergo for the want of a 
proper Asylum where they might receive that treatment and 
attention which, if there were no hope of their reason, 
would place them in a comfortable situation, and relieve that 
enormous weight of suffering and privation which they are 
now compelled to bear in addition to their disease. 

The subject of an Asylum for the Insane has been before 
the Legislature of New Hampshire for several years. H 
was brought up there we think in 1831, by Samuel E. 
Cones, Esq., of this town, who at that time and since has 
advocated it with that ardor which the interest of the sub- 
ject demands. As it can only be owing to the lack of 
general and extended information on the subject, that noth- 
ing has yet been done, we hope that no means will be 
spared at the present time, to spread such information be- 
fore the public as cannot fail to awaken an interest for the 
most unfortunate class of our fellow citizens— a class among 
which our relatives — nay even ourselves may ere long be 
numbered. 

The general course of treatment pursued towards those in- 
sane persons, who are privately confined for the safety of 
their friends, is such as to irritate and perpetuate that in- 
sanity, which under a mild treatment, by persons who un- 
derstood their management, might in nine cases out of ten 
be entirely cured. This result has been found by actual ex- 
perience in Massachusetts and Connecticut. In one year out 



315! 



of 41 admitted to the Hospital, ;J7 were cured. In anoth- 
er \ear on i oi K2, -■< were cuied, i ; were miuli better, and 
the oilier improved. 

The third annual report of the Massachusetts Lunatic Hos- 
pital haR recently been submitted by the Governor to the 
Legislature of that .State. It contains stiong evidence of 
the good effects of the institution, in the cases of the amel- 
iorated condition of tl.e unfortunate patients. Among them 
v e Mini the follow ing : — 

•■In one case, ;i man hail been previous to his entering 
the institution, 28 years in prison — seven years he had not 
tilt ilr influence of lire, and many nights he had not laid 
down lioni tear of freezing. He bud not been shaved lor 
28 years, and had been provoked and excited by the intro- 
duction nf Ian. (beds to sec the exhibition of his ravings. 
lb- i- i;n\\ icniiirkably clean, shmes himself twice a week — 
sits ;it table with sixteen others, and enjoys himself as well 
:i- his illusions will permit. Another person, a violent ma- 
niac had In en coi limd. caged and chained for years. it 
wii' in w concluded to set him lice, and see bow he would 
comIiici I, In. ■<•.!. lie immediately fell upon his brother, and 
killed him with a bludgeon, and pursued his sister with 
intent lo Kill her. When caged, he was naked and filthy; 
he now dresses neatly, i- civil, mingles freely with six- 
teen other persons, and though insane, is perfectly harmless. 

Another pcT601) had been insane 8 years, almost all of 
(his lime in jail aid eaged. lie cut the throat of an in- 
fanl wl.ile sUipiig in a cradle, instantly killing it, and made 
an attack with an axe upon an aged nan. at (he Fame time. 
He is now insane, but pleasant; keeps hi- bid in good order, 
lakes his meals regularly, spends much time in leading and 
conversing with the inmates. 

During the year there have been 231 patients in the hos- 
pital, and in the management of this number of insane per- 
sons no accidents have occurred, endangering tl.e lives of 
officers "i' innate-. The tact is rendered more striking when 
we consider that J'JIkh persons have been admitted to il.e 
Hospital who previous to their entrance bad actually com- 
mitted homicide. 

The beneficial effects of industry in the promotion of men- 
tal and physical strength, and the restoration of the empire 



aia 



of reason, is highly recommended hi the report. Shut up 
in the halls or cells, they are unhappy, restless, and dis- 
contented, and in consequence less mild and docile. But 
when suffered t.i labor, they become cheerful and happy." 

From the report it appears that not far from Iwo thous- 
and dollars were realized from the productive labor of the 
insane: from individuals who at home were generally kept 
in confinement for the safely of others : two such individu- 
als could be seen ploughing' peaceably and happily together 
in the held, who when at home were kept in confinement. 

It is to be hoped that no one who has a spark of philan- 
thropy in his bosom, will any longer sleep over this subject, 
as one in which he feels no interest; and when the sub- 
ject is again brought up in our legislature, that no unfeel- 
ing ; enurious policy will again cry out against the cost, 
when a tax of eight or ten cents on each individual in the 
♦Stall', would raise up an institution for which hundreds 
lor themselves, and lens of thousands for their relations 
and neighbors, would have constant eau-e for thankfulness. 
Portsmouth Journal, March 5, 1836. 



ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



We invite the attention of our readers to the call for a 
public meeting' to be held in this town, which appears in 
our columns to-day. 

The invitation is to all who feel an interest in the object 
proposed, and is signed by many of our most respectable 
citizens, and we believe expresses the feeling of the whole 
town. 

The object proposed is the establishment of an Asylum for 
tin' Insane in this State, an object which we cannot doubt 
will be accomplished as soon as the people shall have known 
the facts that made it necessary and have had opportunity of 
indicating' their wishes. 

We know of no other direction which the benevolent feel- 
ings of the times are taking which promises more practical 
good. It has been thought that all our duties to the In- 



314 



sane were performed when they were so confined that they 
could do no harm lo others. Experience i» dissipating this 
delation. Thai indifference which ignorance excused is now 
rendered criminal. Our duties to the insane are not all 
performed until the physical suffering is removed, and un- 
til kindness and attention restore them to reason and hap- 
piness. This can he done and has been done, not in a 
few. but ill an overwhelming majority of cases. We caunol 
doubt that public sentiment in other parts of the State, 
when ascertained, will he as decidedly in favor of the in- 
sane a- it is in this section. 

Portsmouth Journal, March 12, 1836. 

ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



We arc happy to find a good spirit abroad on this sub- 
ject. The libera] donation proffered in the following letter, 
speaks well not only of the liberality of the donors, hut 
also shows th,- important light in which such an institution 
is held by the Philanthropists of the age. 

Portland, March 15, 1886. 

Samuel E. Cones, Esq., 

Sir: —Observing your name on a list for calling a meet- 
ing of the cilizeus of Portsmouth and of the Stale, on the 

subject of a contemplated Asylum for the Insane, I take the 
liberty to address you. 

My design is not in this communication to add anything 
to the claims of such an Institution, an institution which 
would occupy such a high place among the benevolent enter- 
prises of the day. 

The Portsmouth Journal which has made me acquainted 
with the design, shows that its claims to such prominence 
are already well understood by yourself and your associates. 

I have long' felt a desire to act with the citizens of my 
native town and State in some useful, moral enterprise — 
and as I cannot expect to find a better opportunity, please 
accept my proffer of the annexed subscription rather as a 
proof of interest in the wel.are of Portsmouth and of New 
Hampshire, than as contributing in any essential degree to 



a is 



the advancement of an object which may require a hundred 
thousand for its completion. 

If on coming together as you suggest, it should be thought 
advisable to prosecute the design of founding an Insane Hos- 
pital in the State of New Hampshire, you may consider nie 
a subscriber for a Thousand Dollars payable in April of 
next year, provided the stun you in.iy think you need, shall 
be obtained during any previous term you may propose. 

Respect fully, 

HENRY GODDAIJD. 

We trust that the above liberal contribution will be prompt- 
ly followed up by those residents of our State, who have 
the means. Let the interest felt and manifested abroad in so 
important an enterprise, excite a corresponding interest at home. 
The cost of a suitable building probably could not exceed thir- 
ty thousand dollars "We hope that the Legislature may as- 
sume the whole of the burden; but with a grant of twenty 
thousand from the State, we cannot for a moment doubt but 
that private munificence will complete the sum required. 

After the building is once erected and furnished, the insane 
poor could be supported as cheaply in such an establishment as 
they are now in the several almshouses and jails where they 
are kept; and the expenses of the Asylum might be borne, (as 
are those of the Worcester Asylum) in part by the friends of 
private patients, in part b\» the towns to which insane paupers 
belong, in part by the counties which support those committed 
to jail by the court for insanity. 

Portsmouth Journal, March 19, 1836. 

Messrs. 'Editors: — 1 rejoice to see the movement which is 
beginning to take place in regard to an Asylum for the Insane. 
1 rejoice in the hope that in this thing, New Hampshire will 
determine not to be behind her sisters of New England. Let. 
the kindlings wlii-di are about being laid to the hickory wood 
of our legislature be tanned into a flame, and we shall see that 
there is substance in the kind hearts of, our hardy population 
to sustain the warm and permanent fire of benevolence. 

Let them only be brought to think of the sufferings of hun- 
dreds of their fellow beings in the very midst of them, and let 
them be convinced how much may be done to alleviate 
or to remove those very severe sufferings, and they will 



316 



show, that while they may be slow to move in doubtful 
schemes of philanthropy, they are not insensible to a call which 
comes from the clanking of chains iu their verj neighborhood: 
from the cages ; ml dens which sad necessitj has erected iu 
their very dw ellings. 

Iu addition to Ihe facts of successful efforts in behalf of the 
insane, published in your last, 1 wish you would publisb the 
following from a late Pari- paper. 

MORAL MANAGEMENT OF THE INSANE. 



[The following striking account of .1 scene in the Bedlam 
of Paris is extracted from a paper read at the Acndenn of 
ivi' um'-. h\ 1 he -mi of lie celebrated Piucl, describing an 
act ni hi- father's which deserved everlasting honor, from 
the wisdom, courage, and humanity which it displays.] 

Towards Ihe cud of 1 7 ; < ^ . I'incl, after having n\ times 

urged lie Government to allow him to unchain the maniacs of 
the Uicclrc, but in vain, went himself to the authorities, and with 
much earnestness and warmth advised the removal of this mon- 
strous abuse. Couthou, a member of the commune, gave way to 
M Pinel's arguments, and agreed lo meel him at the Bicetre. 
Couthou then interrogated those t\i" were chained, but the 
abuse he received, and the confused sounds oi cries, vocifera- 
tions and clanking of chains, in the filthy and damp cells, made 
him recoil from Pinel's proposition. "You may do what you 
will with them, (said he, ) but I tear you will become their 
vier.im . " Pinel instantly commenced hi- undertaking. There 
wen' about iilt\ w hum he considered might without danger to 
the others be unchained, and he began by releasing twelve, 
with ihe -ole precaution of having previously prepaieri ihe 
panic number of -none, waistcoats, with long sleeves, which 
could he lied behind ihe hack ii necessary. The lir-t man or! 
wham the experiment was to be tried was an English captain, 
whose history no one knew, as l.e h: d been in chains 
fort) year-. lie was thought to be one of the most J'mi- 
011- among them. Hi- keepers Mpproached him with caution. 
as he had. in a tit of fur., killed one of them on Ihe -pot 
with a blow from hi- manacle-. lie was chained more rig- 
orouslv than anv of the others. Piuel entered hi- cell un- 



an 



attended, and calmly said lo him, Captain, I will order your 
chains to be taken ofl', and give you liberty to walk in the 
court, if you will promise me to behave well, and injure 
no one." ''Yes, 1 promise you (.-aid the maniac;) but 
you are laughing at me — you are too much afraid of me." 
'■1 have six men (said l'inel,) ready to enforce ray com- 
mand-, if necessary. Believe me then, on my word. I will 
give you your liberty if you will put on this waistcoat." 



lie submitted to this willing 



without a word. 



His 



chains were removed, and the keepers retired leaving the 
door open. lie raised himself many times from his seat, 
but fell again on it, for he had been in a sitting posture 
so long, that, he had lost the use of his legs. In a quar- 
ter of an hour be succeeded in maintaining his balance, and 
with tottering steps came to the door of his dark cell. His 
fire I look was at the sky. and he cried out enthusiasti- 
cally, "how heauiiful !" During the rest of the day he 
was constantly in motion, walking up and down the stair- 
cases, and uttering short exclamations of delight. In the 
evening he returned of his own accord into his cell, where 
a belter bed I han he had been accustomed to, had been 
prepared for him, and lie slept tranquilly. During the two 
sue. ceding years which she spent in the Bicetre, he had no 
return of his previous paroxysms, but, even rendering him- 
self useful by exercising a kind of authority over the in- 
sane patients, whom he ruled in his own fashion. 

The next unfortunate being whom Pine] visited, was a 
soldier of the French guards, whose only fault was drunk- 
enness; when once be hist bis self-command by drink, he 
became quarrelsome and violent, and the more dangerous 
from his gieal bodily strength. From his frequent excesses, 
he had been discharged from his corps, and had speedily 
dissipated bis scanty means. Disgrace and misery so depress- 
ed him that he became iu.-ane: in his paroxysms he believed 
himself si General, an I fought Hose who would not acknowl- 
edge his rank. After a furious ftruggle of this sort, he 
was brought to the Bicelre in a state of great excitement, 
lie had now been chained for ten years, and with greater 
care than the Others, from having frequently broken his 
chain- with hi- hands only. Once when be broke loose, he 
defied all his keepers to enter his cell until they had each 
passed under his legs: and he compelled eight men to obey 



818 



this strange command. Pine], in his previous visits to him, 
regarded him as a man of original good nature, but under 
excitement incessantly kept up by cruel tieatment; and lie 
had promised speedily to ameliorate his condition, which 
promise alone hud made him more calm. Now he announced 
to him that he should lit' chained no longer, " and to prove 
that he had confidence in him, and believed him to be a man ca- 
pable of better things, he called upon him to assist in re- 
leasing those others who had not reason like himself; and 
promised, if he conducted himself well; lo take him into his 
own service. 

The change was sudden ami complete. No sooner was he 
liberated than he becaiue attentive, following with his eve 
every motion of Pinel; ami executing his orders with much 
address and promptness; he spoke kindly ami reasonably lo 
the other patients; and during the resl of life was entirely 
devoted to his deliverer. And I can never hear without 
emotion ( *ays Pinel's Bon ) the name of this man, who 
some years after this occurrence shared with me the games 
of my childhood, ami to whom I shall feel always attached." 

In the next ceil were three Prussian soldiers, who bad 
been in ciiains for many years, but on what account no one 
knew. They were in general calm and inoffensive, becom- 
ing animated only when conversing together in their own 
language, which was unintelligible to others. They were 
allowed the only consolation Of which they appeared sensible 
— to live together. The preparations taken to release them 
alarmed them, as they imagined the keepers were come to 
inflict new severities; and they opposed them violently when 
removing their irons. When released they were not willing 
to leave their prison, and remained in their habitual posture. 
Either grief cr lo-s of intellect had rendered them indifier- 
ent to liberty. 

Near them was an old priest who was possessed with the 
idea that he was Christ, his appearance indicated the vanity 
of his belief; he was grave and solemn, his smile ~ott and 
at the same time severe, repelling all familiarity: his hair 
was long and hung on each side of his face: lie was pale, 
intelligent and resigned. On his being once taunted with a 
question that if he was Christ he could Ineak his chains, 
he solemnly replied, "Frustra tentaris Dominum tuiun. " 



AW 



His whole life was a romance of religious excitement. He 
undertook on foot pilgrimages to Cologne and Home; and 
made a voyage to America for the purpose of converting 
the Indians; his dominant idea became changed into mania, 
and on his return to France he announced himself the Sav- 
iour. 

He was taken by the police before the Archbishop of Par- 
is, by whose orders he was confined in the Bicetre, as either 
impious or insane. His hands and feet were loaded with 
heavy chains, and during twelve years he bore with exem- 
plary patience martyrdom and constant sarcasms. Pinel did 
not attempt to reason with him, but ordered him to be un- 
chained in silence, directing at the same time that every one 
should imitate the old man's reserve, and never speak to 
him. This order was rigorously observed, and produced on 
the patient a more decided effect than either chains or the 
dungeon, he became humiliated by this unusual isolation, and 
after hesitating for a long time, gradually introduced him- 
self t ; the society of the other patients. From this time 
his notions became more just and sensible, and in less than a 
year he acknowledged the absurdity of his previous preposses- 
sion, and was dismissed from the Bicetre. 

In the cnirse of a few days, Pinel released 63 maniacs from 
their chains; among them were men of all conditions and 
countries; workmen, merchants, soldiers, lawyers, &c. The 
result was beyond his holies. Tranquility and harmony succeed- 
ed to tumult and disorder; and the whole discipline was 
marked with a regularity and kindness which had the most fa- 
vorable effect on the insane themselves; rendering even the 
most furious more tractable. 

Portsmouth Journal, March 12, 1836. 



The. following notice we copy from the Nittional Eagle, pub- 
lishi-il nt ( 'laremont 

Asylum for the Insane. — We publish, with pleasure, from 
the Portsmouth Journal, the subjoined call for a meeting at 
Portsmouth of those who are in favor of the establishment in 
this State of an Asylum for the Insane. It is signed by many 
of the most influential and respectable citizens of that town, 
without reference to party distinctions, and we trust it will be 
responded to by those of other sections of the State. Before 



360 



the sc c sion of our last legislature, we in common with several 
of our co-temporaries, uiged the importance — the necessity of 
some efficient action on the part of out legislators upon a sub- 
ject so deeply interesting to every citizen in the the communi- 
ty. The legislature broke np without doing anything, just as 
preceding legislatures had done, rather from an apprehension, 
ii i- lo be hoped, thai public sentiment did not call for their 
action, th*:n from am nettled feeling of indifference to a mat- 
ter of such vast importance to the community. lint we he- 
Mr <■ public sentiment will be found sound on (his subject, and 
that the meeting in question, while it will go far towards 
developing it, will also hasten the philanthropic object in view. 
Certainly there can be no worthier subject <it legislation than 
that which would alleviate the sufferings and administer 
in the comfort and well-being of the uufoitunate class which is 
more ini mediately to be benefitted. It has been estimated 
that a building something on the plan of that of Worcester, 
Mass., could lie erected in this State for twenty-live thousand 
dollar-, which sum would include the purchase of about twen- 
ty five acres of land, to be attached to the establishment for 
agricultural ai.d horticultural employment, for such patients as 
are able to labor, adorning the grounds, erecting out-houses, 
&c. from official information communicated to the legisla- 
ture in l.s!"-'. it appears ibat there were 189 insane persons 
in i4l towns in the State, a bundled and three of whom 
were paupers. It was also estimated that these were support- 
ed at an expense of fifteen thousand dollars. If there are two 
hundred and fifty individuals of this description in the Stale, 
and wc should think there must be at least that number, 
the expense of supporting them would be not far from the 
sum estimated as the cost of the building, at least twenty- 
thousand dollars. There can surely be but one opinion 
among the people of this county respecting the importance 
and expediency of Inning an Asylum for the Insane in some 
central position, and we trust our representatives, of what- 
ever party, will do what they ran towards effecting so phi- 
lanthropic an object. Cannot half t dozen individuals from 
tli.s county attend the Portsmouth meeting? 

Portsmouth Journal, April 2, 18o0. 



321 
INSANE ASYLUM. 

By a reference to our first page, it will be seen Iliat the 
contemplated meeting on this subject will be held at the 
Mdthodist Chapel, in this town, on Wednesday evening' next, 
at 7 o clock. Gentlemen from other towns are requested to 
meet the Committee at the Chapel at 3 o'clock P. M. 

The invitations which the committee have extended to gen- 
tlemen in a great number of towns in this Stale, have elic- 
ited a sympathy in the public feeling' on this important sub- 
ject highly gratifying to the friends of the institution. 

Public meeting's have been called in several towns The 
proceedings of the meeting at GUmanton are published on 
our first page. We have also received an account of a 
large and respectable meeting at Derry on Tue-day last, of 
which C. C. 1' Gale was chairman, and Nathaniel Aiken, 
Secretary: the subject was discussed by Dr. L. V. Dell. 
Among' the resolutions introduced by James Thorn, Esq. and 
passed were the following : 

1. Resolved, That we sincerely sympathize with the suf- 
ferings of the Insane, and are desirous that every reasona- 
ble effort should be made to afford relief to this unfortu- 
nate class of our community. 

2. Resolved, That relief cannot be afforded by private 
charily; that it requires the interposition and aid of t lie 
State: that while every other class of society are protected 
and provided for agreeably to their necessities, this unfortu- 
nate class of the community have hitherto been neglected. 

.'!. Resolved, That an Asylum for the Insane should he 
established on liberal principles by this State; and that the 
Legislature of this State should make ample provision tor 
such an establishment. 

1. Resolved, That the Representatives of (his town use 
their utmost exertion to effect this important object at the 
next session of the Legislature. 

o. Resolved, That the citizens of the town of Portsmouth 
deserve the grateful acknowledgements of the public for their 
generous and spirited interposition in behalf of the Insane, 
and that we will cheerfully co-operate with them in any 
measures which may promote an object of so much import- 
ance. 



83:' 



6. Resolved, That a copy of the proceeding's of this meet- 
ing be forwarded to Samuel E. Cones and others, the Com- 
mittee who have railed the public meeting at Portsmouth, on 
the first Wednesday of April next, to be signed by the 
Chairman and Secretary of this meeting. 

7. Resolved, That similar copies be given to our Repre- 
sentatives as the basis of some action in our next Legisla- 
ture. 

Portsmouth Journal, April 9, 1886. 

Remarks mode of the meeting in Portsmouth, on the subject 
of an Asylum for the Insane 

Hon. Abner Greenleaf addressed the meeting. Lie 
brought forward many carious and interesting facts respect- 
ing insanity, and insane persons, some of the causes of 
insanity, and the mode of treatment of the insane. He 
showed the necessity of constant kindness and affectionate 

treal nl to overcome the disease, and how the present 

mode is at variance with that system. He was convinced 
of the necessity of an Asylum, ami hoped that its establish- 
ment would be no longer delayed. One idea in his ad- 
die-- we think worthy of particular attention, as tending to 
decrease the a nut of insanity; it is this: when an Asy- 
lum is once established in our State, it will be a place of 
resort for our physicians and medical students. Thereby 
acquainting themselves with the various states and stages of 

the disease and modes of treatment, I hey will obtain inure 
practical knowledge of the disease than they can now pos- 
-e-s. This knowledge will enable them to cure many cases 
in their early stages, which otherwise might grow into con- 
firmed lunacy. lie said that he did not cast any reproach 
upon our Stale for the long neglect of the subject; it i- a 
new one to our Slate, it is in fact anew subject. For even 
now there is but one State in the Union where the insane 
pour are provided for. Insane Hospitals exist in other 
States — but they are for the benefit of those only who can 
find friends lo pay for them — while those who are suffer- 
ing in aim-houses, and as paupers, who most need relief, 
must suffer on and die. Let us not at this time reproach 
ourselves or others, that the subject has been neglected, but 
let us now place our bauds to the wheel, and not only hope 
that the work will be commenced this year, but also that 



d23 



it will be speedily completed. We are (old that there is a 
time for all tiling, and it is to be hoped that this is the 
time for the important movement which now engages the at- 
tention of the friends of humanity in New Hampshire, the 
establishment of an Asylum for the Insane. 

llox. Ichabod Bautj.ett next addressed the meeting'. — In 
the course of his remarks, he said, that from the facts al- 
ready before them, it could no longer he doubted that the 
suffering's of the insane in the State were great: that the 
malady was one which could be relieved or mitigated by 
proper remedies: that those remedies could be successfully 
applied only by means of a public instituti in for their cure, 
and that he would submit a remark or two on one view 
only of the subject — the bearing of the establishment of such 
an institution upon the administration of civil and criminal 
law. Our courts, he observed, have jurisdiction over our 
property — our character — our lives. Acts done or committ- 
ed in one stale of mind, might forfeit property, character 
and life, while the same ((cts, unaccompanied with that state 
of mind which constitutes the motive, -should draw after 
them none of those penalties. 

lie spoke of the ancient rule of law, by which all were 
made responsible, except the raving maniac, or idiot in the 
confirmed stale of fatuity; and of the rule of the law, as 
mitigated by the present greater light of mental philosophy. 
He adverted to those classes and grades of Insanity, where 
the understanding is perfect, but the senses deceive, or the 
imagination deludes, when the sufferer reasons correctly from 
fal-e premises. The senses then serve as false beacons to 
the mind. 

To other conditions of (he malady, where the understand- 
ing may he peifeii, anil the senses perfect, but where, by 
reason of some spasm, or morbid influence, the power and 
control of them is lost, they reason wrong from right prem- 
ises. They are as a ship without a rudder. Volition has 
no control over their acts any more than over the pulsations 
<>r their arteries. lie adverted to that class of the afflicted, 
whose derangement may be exhibited oil a single subject, 
while perfectly rational on every other. That although the 
improved and humane principles of modern law do not hold 
persons responsible for acts done under the influence of such 
malady, the difficulty, the impossibility of making the nature 



»-2i 



of this protection to the innocent intelligible to a jury, in a 
community where no light exists upon the subject, exposed 
every one to the danger of unjustly suffering the pen- 
alties of guilt. 

Me. B. remarked upon 'lie want of all information upon 
this subject as Ihe necessary result* of the present treatment 
of the insane 2v'o light comes from Ihe dark recesses of 
their prison house, where even friends look not in upon 
t hem, and. if more humane the afflicted snfferer is turned 
loose, a houseless wanderer upon the cold charity of the 
world, every eye is averted from him; all "pass by on ihe 
oiher side, except the thoughtless — heartless children, who 
follow only to mock at his calamities, lie spoke of a pub- 
lic Asylum a- the only means by which information of the 
nature, character and evidences of this malady could he un- 
derstood, even by tho-e of Ihe medical profession; and as the 

only mode of diffusing that information was through the com- 
munity, which could give any assurance of a jusi adminis- 
tration of the principles of law applicable to such cases. 

That this would extend the means of delecting the existence 

of the disease in its early stages, and prevents hundreds of 
cases from terminating in fatal calamities to the sufferers 
or to his l'r ei d . 

lie spoke of the danger of conviction, and Ihe infliction 

of the highest degree of infamous punishment upon the in- 
nocent, as not imaginary l>ut real. That records of crimi- 
nal courts show hundreds of cases, where persons have 
been convicted and executed upon the charge of crimes for 
which they were no more responsible, than Ihe sleeping in- 
fant for its dreams. lie adverted to a recent case in this 
State, as one in his solemn judgment, of that eharncti r. 
He spoke in terms of strong feeling, of this calamity, as 
one to which each of us was exposed. 

.Mr. 11. called the attention of ihe meeting to the law of 
Ibis state, which provides that where Grand Jurors refuse 
to he present, or the traverse jury convict a person charged 
with an offence, on the ground of insanity, that the court 
may he empowered to commit such person to prison, 
''there to be detained till lie <*r she ■•■hall In: restored to his <>r 
Iter right mind, or otherwise be delciered by due course of 
law." A sentence to imprisonment for life, because they 
had been guilty of no offence — and not to such humane im- 
prisonment as the manslayer, the burglar, the highway rob- 
ber has provided for him, with clothing, and food, air. 



826 



exorcise and warm apartments, wliilc the prisons tor the 
guiltless insane, were the crowded; dismal dungeons of our 
cjunty j ids. 

He spoke of the expense of $30,000 for an Asylum as less 
than ninepence on each individual in the State — less than a 
a dollar to the taxable inhabitants, he compared the sacrifice 
of our fellow beings to the present system, as a sacrifice 
to the Moloch. Avarice, more horrible in its character than 
the hecatombs offered by Pagans to their heathen idols. He 
appealed feelingly to the citizens of this State to redeem 
themselves from this reproach. 

Dn. Charles A. Cheevek, in addressing the meeting, was 
very happy to lend his voice and efforts to this noble ob- 
ject. He considered the present situation of the insane in 
point of comfort far below that of the brute creation; the 
poor insane are doomed to dungeons and chains, and not 
(infrequently hawked about to the lowest bidder for their 
keeping, to mercenary wretches who would hardly be toler- 
ated to look after even the worst of our species; that our 
reflections must be still more fearful when we remember 
that will) the exception of a small and yearly decreasing mi- 
nority, its victims are often struck down as shining marks 
from the ranks of the fair, talented and virtuous: that in 
this philanthropic age, and boa-ted land of liberty, while 
we had compassed sea and laud to seek out objects of be- 
nevolence, the dungeon of the unfortunate insane had been 
passed heedlessly by, and be condemned to suffer as no 
criminal ever did sutler before; that the pathetic cases 
which had been so touehingly related by gentlemen that 
eve., ami recently spread before the public in the prints 
of the day, were no fictions, but sad realities, indeed so 
far from being overstrained, that he did not believe that 
half bad been told, and but for exciting their sympathies he 
could relate cases within his own observation that would 
more than corroborate them. 

He did not consider that the past treatment of the Insane 
should be a subject of reflection upon their friends, as 
their treatment no doubt was the effect of compulsion, 
resulting from personal fear and from an opinion that their 
condition was irremediable and hopeless from the prevalent 
belief that insanity was a disease of the spiritual nature of 
man. aid c >ns .;qu jntly bjyond the control of remedial agents. 
He demonstrated however, that insanity was not a disease 
of the mind but of the hod//, if the contrary doctrine 



SM 



uiiv true ii endangered our hopes of immortality, foj if 
the m('ntf could sicken it could die. He then passed come 
high eulogiums upon Spurzheim, Combe and others, for hav- 
ing thrown so much light upon the necessary eouupution of 
mind and matter, and more particular!) for having demon- 
strated by their skilful dissections of I lie brain, that insani- 
ty is in all cases from a lesser or diseased action of iis 
structure'; that we owed them ;i debt of gratitude for 
the very l)f-t and most scientific works upon the sub- 
ject, leading to a more correct treatment <)f. this terrible 
scourge. 

He then staled that now having a correct theory, the 
treatment of course must be more correct. lie considered 
the very best iie:iin:ent for (he insane to he the very re- 
verse of what it had heretofore hi en : the iron which had 
entered their heart- and scared their affections must lie re- 
moved, the manacles which had galled their limb-, must be 
knocked oft and demolished, and give place to well ordered 
home-, where affection and comfort should usurp the places 
hi filthy nii-ci \ and id' ravage baibarity. lie then gave some 
import an I statistical fads, drawn from a variety of Hospital 
reports, showing thai while under the old system not more 
than inn iu twenty Hi the insane were restored; under the 
treatment which had been adopted at regular Asylums, nl 
leasi nine nut of everj ten had been restored to health, to 
their friend-, and to all the enjoyments which render life de- 
sirable. 

I.'kv. I >i; Burroughs closed the discussion bj a strong 
and eloquent appeal — claiming the establishment of an Asy- 
lum for the Insane, not only as a mailer of expediency, but 
also as a mailer of imperative duty. He spoke of the two 
great principle- which are the acknowledged basis of Hue 
religion — love to God, and love to man. He -aid Jhal 
every man who is in want and suffering is our neighbor — 
every insane person in New Hampshire he held to he Ids 
neighbor, who claim- hi- sympathy and relief. He spoke 
most feelingly of the extreme menial anguish the unfortunate 
insane must suffer from the course now necessarily pursued 
toward- them for the personal safety of llieir best friend-: 
they are sensible to every act of unkindness — there is scarce- 
ly an inliviluil now confined in the dteary cell- of the 
insane, who has not his disease more irremediable stamped 



i#7 

upon him, by the consciousness of unkindness. He advert- 
ed with much effect to the case of King Lear, and the an- 
cient Babylonian monarch. Dr. li. remarked ttiat recent 
statistical returns show a great increase of cases of insanity 
within a few years, in England and in France — and the 
same causes to some extent existing in this country, will 
doubtless tend to similar results. As the means of giving 
them relief, he considered an Asylum for the the Insane one 
of the greatest blessings in the world — he had never viewed 
one without contemplating it as the footstool of the Sou of 
God. Longer to delay the establishment of an Asylum 
he held to be moral turpitude. Is any one prepared, un- 
der the light which now exists, to say, I will let it 
rest another year, when we shall be better prepared — and 
thus let the intense sufferings of the insane continue, and in- 
sanity increase among us V He happily adverted to the case 
of the Good Samaritan — and strongly exhibited the claim of 
the insane, not only on the sympathy of the rich, but also'upon 
every poor man: for under the distressing visitation of Provi- 
dence, it was the poor man who would be peculiarly benefitt- 
ed by its establishment. He closed his remarks by an expres- 
sion of gratification at being present on an occasion where all 
party and sectarian feelings are laid aside, and all are uniting 
lo promote one of noblest objects in the cause of humanity. 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted by the meeting, 
and at 10 o'clock it adjourned without day. 

Portsmouth Journal, April 'J, 1836. 

ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



The recent measures calling public attention to the subject of 
an Asylum for the Insane, has revealed a state of pub.ic feel- 
ing more favorable to that object than was expected. From 
all quarters we hear the most encouraging accounts. Recently 
a large meeting has been held in Cheshire County. Meetings 
have also been held in Stafford, Exeter, Concord, GilmauLoii, 
Siratham, Gilford and Portsmouth, have instructed the repre- 
sentatives to use their exertions to procure an appropriation 
from the Legislature to erect the proposed Hospital. 



»28 



Letters from very ninny towns represent public sentiment as 
nearly unanirnuus upon ihe subject Nothing very detini:e litis 
been hoard from Graf: on County. But we liave every rca- 
son to hope that 1 1ml fl< tni-hing part of the State will not 
be wanting in svmpalln aid lilieialily which are moving 
tin' other part- ol the Slate. 

We believe Hint all the newspapers are united in advo- 
cating this enterprise. Indeid ax yet we have heard of no 
voice being raised against it. Why then should not a 
measure succeed, which is universally approved by t lie peo- 
ple, and called for b) prudence and policy as well as be- 
nevolence? 

Portsmouth Journal, April 28, 1886. 

ASYLUM FOH THE INSANE. 



Memorial on thk subject of an asylum fob the insane 

in new ii vmpshike 
The following memorial to tin: Legislature of this 

State ma- been proposed r<>'; the sigkati res ot run cit- 

l/.l N- OF PORTSMOI 111- It Is PUBLISHED IN THIS FORM THAT 
ALL MAY HAVE N OPPORTUNITY FOR THE IX.VMIN I ion OK 
II BEFORE AFFIXING THEIR NAMES. It is A DOCUMENT DRAWS 
IP WITH MUCH ABILITY AND Is WORTHY Till: PERUSAL OF 
EVERY ONE. 
A COPY OF nil: MEMORIAL WILL BE LEFT AT Till'. PORTS- 
MOUTH ATHENEUM, AT THE DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLICAN AND 
Till: MECHANICS' READING KCOMS, .' M> AT X. MARCH 4 < O.'B 
STORE, FOR Till. SIGNATURES OK THE FKEINDS OF IHE PRO- 
POSED ASYLUM. 

MEMORIAL. 



To tin- Senate and Bouse of Representatives of the Slate 
of Xi'/r Tlampihire in Geiieral Court convened. 

The undersigned citizens of the town Poiii-mont ,h would 
represent, the nun. her and condition of the insane persons oi 
this Slate are such a- to demand some new and merciful in- 
terposition in (heir favor; that modes of alleviation and rem- 
edy are vviihin the power of the community that the legislature 
is the onlv public body, wliieJ can act efficiently in this respect, 



H29 



and that there seems to be a special obligation on litem to 
use the most generous exertions in behalf of this imperious 
and afflictive case of humanity. In respectfully soliciting 
the Legislature for the adoption of such a course, the un- 
dersigned would advert to some of the leading features, 
connected with cases ot insanity. One of them relates to 
the number of persons among us, that are visited with that 
dreadful malady. By returns from other Stales and some 
sections in our own State, it is ascertained that one per- 
son in a thousand is suffering from that disease, at least in 
some cf its grades. According to this estimate, the num- 
ber of our insane, in proportion to the population of New 
Hampshire, would be about 21-0. Let us take another esti- 
mate L5y the Selectmen's return on the first of June, last 
year, it appears that there were then eighteen insane persons 
in this town; and this number did not embrace the whole 
list : yet this ratio would make the whole number in tin! 
Slate to be 63o. The returns to the Legislature, at its last 
session, from 48 towns, made the number of the insane in 
them, to be 115 This proportion would make the whole 
number in the State to be 517. 

The average of these computations would probably give with 
rousidi i.\hlc accuracy the appalling- estimate of at least four 
hundred maniacs in our Slate. This statement perhaps might 
be enlarged, as it is extremely difficult to obtain correct sta- 
tistical information on this subject: since some cases of tlos 
malady may be mild and hardly classed as such, and many, 
even severe cases may lie studiously concealed from public 
knowledge. Is not this number sufficient to awaken the 
humane interposition of the General Court ? 

In reply to this plea, it may be said, that the statement 
of numbers is no proof of any amount of aggravated 
case-; that insane persons are usually harmless; that heart- 
rending and violent instances are too few to demand legisla- 
tive action. lint here again statistical returns give us a 
most distressing answer. It is an actual fact, that there are 
now fifteen inveterately. and absolutely distracted persons, 
and seven others partially insane or idiotic, in the almshouse 
in this town. This shows the enormous amount of pauper 
cases of distraction, of the large number bereft of reason. 



w. 



who are also bereft of friends :uul pecuniary resources. 
Four of the cases of insanity in our almshouse :ire of a most 
aggravated nature, whore almost constant and severe confine- 
ment is deemed necessary. Two of those unfortunate beings 
have long been almost constantly endungeoned; one of them, 
says the superintendent, is "occasionally taken out for air." 
There have also been reported to the State, from oilier towns, 
no less than seventy -six cases of maniacs, who are now confin- 
ed in cages, cellars, garrets, out-houses and jails, indescribably 
loathsome, wretched and destitute; and some of them have been 
ornaments of society. In this aye of enlightened benevolence, 
shall seventy-six poor wretches be doomed still to remain in 
their mist ry, and shall the hearts of christian statesmen manifest 
no soli, 'nation, no commiseration, no charily? How powerful 
then must be the appeal to legislative interposition, when it is 
considered, that there must be among us tit least four hundred 
maniacs; that a very large proportion ot them are paupers, 
thl'OWll with all their shattered intellects on the mercies of the 
win Id; that at least one hundred of them are suffering front 
aggravated distraction in its most violent tonus; that they 
have been, and still •uc, subjected to a bondage, even mine 
horrible than their malady; an agonizing bondage, inflicted 
through lamentable ignorance and a perverted judgment; a 
bondage that would he pronounced cruel to the most abandoned 
criminals. 

The undersigned would also appeal to to sympathies of the 
legislature, in behalf of the insane, on account of the great 
an. I various miseries, to which they are subjected by their mal- 
ady, They cannot speak for themselves. They have not 
sufficient steadiness ot mental light to tii.d their ways to halls 
of legislation. They cannot reason long enough to form a 
petition; and their judgment is too much impaired even to 
ask any one to plead for them. They can seek the Icgis- 
h.tive sympathy, only through the eloquence of their hitler 
\isitatiou. They are afflicted with a malady which is con- 
: idereil by many tu he the utter forfeiture of every claim 
of humanity, and to cut them off from the common senti- 
ment of commiseration; a malady, which is too often 
viewed as a disgrace, a mortification, a curse: or as having 
.o completely injured the powers of their minds, as to place 



331 



them beyond the consciousness of kindness, or of distress. 
Hence they are concealed from every eye to avoid awaking 
shame or giving offence; or because deemed past the pow- 
er of affording or receiving pleasure; their names are no 
more breathed; their misfortunes are taken as the signal 
that none should henceforth care for their bodies or souls. 
Ju consequence of these prevailing impressions they usually 
experience the worst of ill treatment, they are denounced as 
not fit to be associated with the dogs of the street, or with 
the filthiest swine. They are looked upon, as smitten in 
wrath by the righteous judgment of Heaven ; as beneath the 
mercy shown to felons, as doomed to the most awful priva- 
tions, as insensible to the roughest, visitings of cold and 
storms, as outcasts from the benignant smiles or cares of 
man, or the soothing tones of Christian solace and prayer. 

This is the condition of at least seventy-six of our fellow- 
citizens and of how many more we know not. This is the 
treatment, shown to infuriate maniacs, even in our alms- 
houses; not because their friends are unkind; nor, that they 
would not shrink at the idea of committing an act of inhu- 
manity; but because they think, that no other treatment is 
consistent with their own personal safety; and that it cannot 
be unfeeling, because they believe it to be unfelt. This very 
cour.se of conduct pursued towards the insane, is the very 
means by which their malady becomes aggravated and confirmed; 
for when cleanliness, diet, temperature, care, kindness and com- 
fort arc neglected, the bodily health becomes of course more 
impaired, the brain more diseased, the mind more frantic, 
and incurable habits become fastened on the constitution. 
While the community shall continue to act as it has hither- 
to acted, it will continue to rivet insanity on all, who are 
visited with it, and constantly to increase all its loathsome- 
ness and horrors. 

Another feature of misery with the insane is that they 
are sensible to unkindiiess. They may reason wrong about 
certain points, they may have no control over their wills, 
they may have perpetual confusion, of. ideas; but sensation 
is not destroyed, their "flesh will quiver where the sleel is 
driven," their souls are not extinct; they are living sen- 
tient beings; they can weep in bitterness of soul; they writhe 
under their galling chains; they tremble at the wintry blast, 
and bind their bands of straw closer about them, as the 



38L' 

raging winds- and driving snow visit their exposed, dark and 
comfortless cells. Though distracted in many respects, yet in 
others they can reason forcibly and ably; and it often hap- 
pens that, after such sufferers are cured, they can remember 
all their woes and the keenest of them all is the recollection 
of unkindness. In their calm hours they have told of their 
anguish under the pelting of the storm and the laceration 
of their chains, but knew not how to avoid such torments, 
or find relief: and often, when a lucid mental ray showed 
the darkness of their pris.m house, no ear was near, or 
conscious, to hear their cries for mercy. 

The insane arc 1 generally long lived. The vital prin- 
ciple seems to have an extraordinary tenacity where the 
intellect is shattered. The constitution, by habitual endur- 
ance, seems (o be hardened against every assault. We have 
two insane persons in our almshouse who arc more than 
ii."> years of age, and oik; of them has been deranged 4U 
years. One of our maniacs, now 00 years of age, has been 
distracted from bis youth. Hence insane persons have not 
only the worst of all afflictions, and generally the worst 
possible treatment under them, but the greatest quantity of 
misery, the most dreadful prolongation of it that falls to 
the lot of mortals, under the dispensation of a righteous 
Providence. A prenitis, a raging fever, agonizing pains 
are bard to be borne, but they are short. The maniac 
seems to be doomed to a longevity of agony. Here is a 
feature of his misery, that irrisistibly commands lis to labor 
for bis cure, and at least to "pour oil into bis wounds." 

Another feature in bis affliction is, that he is armed with 
a bitter and almost uncontrollable Spirit of hostility against 
himself and others; be is daily in danger of destroying his 
own life, and that of some of bis fellow beings. Should 
be be so unfortunate, as to commit homicide, he may hi; 
brought to a public trial, and perhaps consigned to the dun- 
geon of a prison for securicty ; and possibly, through an un- 
intentionally erroneous course of judicial proceedings, he may 
be convicted of a wilful murder, and executed on the: 
scaffold, and falsely registered on the annals of capital crime. 
Sujh are some of the powerful claims, which the insane 
have upon the humane interposition of the legislative author- 
ity of the Slate. 



333. 



The numerous and painful evil consequences, that must 
flow from suffering the condition of the insane to remain 
unaltered, must powerfully appeal to the sympathies and 
consciences of the benevolent. Without a change of their 
treatment, there will be neither any alleviation, nor cure of 
their malady. It has been ascertained, by a full and fair 
examination, that cases of recovery among' maniacs seldom 
or ever, occur, during their confinement in jails, houses of 
correction, bridewells or any sort of soliarv cells. It has 
been established, as an axiom among medical men, that it 
is essential to separate insane persons from their families, 
and from all family associations, in order to break up the 
peculiar irritability of their nervous temperament, and effect 
a revolution of their thoughts and habits; and the very 
f ict of the private care of a maniac at his own house oper- 
ates, as an insuimountable obstacle to his recovery. As 
aim-houses are designed for paupers, they cannot, unless at 
a very great expense, make proper provision for the cure or 
even the requisite medical treatment of maniacs; and, un- 
der the present organization of things, aim rather at their 
custody; than their recovery. 

Without some generous and decisive change in the condi- 
tion of maniacs, without the interposition of public author- 
ity, there will not be simply the confirmation, but the in- 
crease of an immense mass of private and public misery. 
Of the four hundred maniacs among us, there will be few 
or no cures; there will be no alleviation, but rather an ag- 
gravation of their woes. They will linger out their lives 
in agony, at our almshouses, kindling no sympathies, and 
dispensing no comfort, except by their deaths; or, they 
will continue chained in some secure apartment of their own 
homes, tilling with agony by their howling, and shrieks, and 
the dread spectacle of infuriate wildness and offensive 
wretchedness, the hearts of those, once most dear to them ; 
or, perhaps so agitating the nervous sympathies of their re- 
lations, as to make their madness infectious. It will be- 
come more and more inveterate; and their loathsomeness and 
brutality will be more and more horrible. The miseries of 
their connections will be aggravated; and an increasing burden 
of expense w.ll be imposed upon them. Without some bold 



334 



effort to relieve them, the sin of inhumanity must be 
charged the public; and in such a ease, every maniac's 
shriek, that we could repress, must fill us with the deep- 
est alaim at our responsibility. "Where is the conscience, that 
can remain calm, under the sense of such an outrage on 
the feelings of the distracted, under the consciousness of 
having done nothing to remedy such evils, and under the 
guilt of holding back from themselves, their friends, and 
ihe public, ble.-sed and benignant operation of minds and 
hearts, that would otherwise have awakened joy. love, grati- 
tude and virtue, but now awaken oulv mortification, sor- 
row, agonv and despair! 

In proposing a remedy for these difficulties, the under- 
signed would now represent the advantages of a regular, 
public establishment for the reception and proper treatment 
of the insane. The benefits of asylums for them have been 
too well known to require any elaborate exposition or de- 
fence. An institution of this kind, established among us, 
would spread its arms of mercy over every maniac of our 
Slate, and over every family where such a sufferer might be 
found. It would not only seek his cure, but would do it 
gratuitously, if lie were unable to meet the expenses inci- 
dent to the remedies provided. It would manifest an in- 
creasing and benevolent guardianship over his person and 
over all his movements. It would encompass him with a 
course of perpetual watchfulness and kindness. It would 
conduce to the recovery of his reason; for the experience 
of such institutions already prove, that ninety in a hundred 
new cases yield to medical treatment, but, if it effect no 
cures, it will alleviate, to a very great extent, the miseries 
of the loathsome, horrible maniacs, who have been confined 
in chains, on being' admitted to proper asylums, released 
from their manacles and fetters, and treated kindly, and 
have become geutle, comparatively happy, and even useful; 
and have been rendered susceptible of the instructions and 
consolations of Christianity. Asylums have indeed accom- 
plished unexpected recoveries even of inveterate and most 
furious cases of insanity; and (heir introduction will of 
course afford to every disordered mind a chance of recovery, 
and the certainty of real alleviation. It therefore sheds its 
mercy, not only on the maniac himself, but on his friends 
and the community, by dispensing to them with new joy 



335 

a-i.l piwer the precious riches of his intellect and virtues 
Such asylums aid the cause of medical science, in relation to 
all mental diseases, and impart to our medical practitioners 
eminent skill in the treatment of a malady, demanding ahove 
all others, the highest efforts of human intelligence, and the 
mo t tender and enlarged benevolence of the human heart. 
(Such asylums are not only among the most merciful institu- 
tions of humanity, but among the most enlightened systems 
of political economy; being not only among the best, but 
among the cheapest modes of providing for the insane; re- 
ducing the cases of the malady by cures, and taking care 
of the patients, at a more moderate expense, than can pos- 
sibly be done, either privately or at an almshouse. It is 
estimated that, for about eighty dollars a year, an insane 
person can be maintained at an asylum, but that, upon an 
average, it will cost double that sum to support him else- 
where. Who then can doubt of the necessity and expedi- 
ency of an asylum, that can thus save many thousands of 
dollars annually to the State, and moreover can effect an in- 
calculable alleviation of mental misery, and spread annually 
new joys over very many afflicted families in our State? 

The undersigned, in presenting this memorial, cannot but 
feel, that it is the duty of our legislature most energetically 
and liberally to interpose their patronage on this subject. 

What is the object of government? Is it not to protect 
individu Is in the enjoyment of their rights, to shield their 
persons, as well as their property, from injury, &c. ; to de- 
vise ways and means for the alleviation of human suffering; 
as well as for the extension of public prosperity? Now has 
a maniac no personal rights, demanding protection, because 
he is depriv d of hi- reason? Have any private persons 
just authori y to confine maniacs as they please, to deny 
them every comfort, and to doom them to every severe pri- 
vation, without the special interposition of the civil authority? 
By the English law, the king is the guardian of lunatics; 
and not only preserves their lands, but provides for their 
custody, and interposes his authority to prevent all abuses 
incidental to private custody. The guardianship and benefit 
of the insane seem to be admitted features and obligations 
of every good constitution. 

Nor can any one reasonably doubt of the power of a free 
governmsnt to make legislative provision for the iltsa.ie. 



3St> 



Sticli a course not only falls within the aim and juri-di . 
tion of civil authority, but must ever form one <>t the chief 
features, of its benevolent obligations, and one of lie most 
brilliant results and decorations of civil liberty. Nothirg 
can exceed the beautiful character of that administration, 
which not only dispenses justice, but mercy everywhere; 
and that does all in its power to relieve personal suffering, 
as well as to protect personal rights. Besides, ours is a re- 
publican and popular government. The voice of i he peo- 
ple is the voice of sovereignty. Now there semis to be 
but one feeling throughout the Stale, in relation to 11, e claims 
of t lie insane; and legislative action on tliis point seems to 
be but natural and necessary response of the the public will: 
a response which must resound loudly, warmly, and unani- 
mously, especially as unchecked by the existence of even the 
slightest shadow of any constitutional restrictions. 

It' these positious be true, and ihey cannol be controvert- 
ed, can it be consistent with enlightened, liberal and hu- 
mane legislation to disregard the loud appeals (hat are made 
to it by the distresses of the insane ? If for thai class of 
sufferers an appropriation should be made, it would be most 
just and equitable, thai it should be made by the authority 
of the State for the sufferings of the insane who are a 
common concern; especially inasmuch as many of ihem are 
paupers; and private relief will not alleviate, much less Leal 
their malady. They have claims on every individual of tl.e 
Slate in In* christian and civil capacity to do Miii.clhing for 
them. None among us can feel exempted from I his de- 
mand of humanity. An appropriation by the State would 
be less oppressive, as well as most equitable; it would be 
si> light as to be unfelt. An asylum, costing tliiity thous- 
and dollars, the extent of the sum required, would be lc>s 
•than a dollar oil each taxable inhabitant and less than ninc- 
pence on each individual of the State. An appropriate n by 
the legislature would be the most honorable mode of rais- 
ing the requisite amount: for all our citizens seem to lie 
under equal obligation in this respect : and i one should 
shrink from his duty, to impose a heavy burden on the af- 
fluent, and thus induce them to do with their wealth that 
which even the poor are solemnly bound to do in their pen- 
ury. 



337 

A strong consideration in favor of legislative obligation 
arises frotn the benefits which asylums bring to the insane, 
from their chances ot recovery. Insanity is not a disease that 
actually injures the soul. That, remains untouched, amidst 
the most furious distraction, and is the same ethcrial spirit, 
that (iod created, uninjured, unsoiled, except by sin. All 
its other miseries, and wanderings, and horrible imaginings, 
and '-chimeras dire " amidst insanity, flow from diseased 
physical organization, from some morbid state of the organs 
of the brain. All these are usually within the power of 
medical cure; and nothing hut death should ever discourage 
us from diligent and unwearied efforts to restore reason to 
to the maniac's mind. We must all therefore despair of 
doing our duty faithfully to the distracted, unless we sub- 
mit them to the vigilant and merciful power of an asylum, 
where healing efficacy, under heaven, is the most sure, on 
which we can depend. 

There is another department on this subject, that calls for 
legislative action, and it is an intensely interesting one, 
touching important cases of medical jurisprudence. Govern- 
ment is bound, as far as possible, to walch over the per- 
sonal safely of each member of society Every one de- 
prived of reason, is liable not only to the commission of 
personal as-aults bul of the offence of homicide; and the 
civil authority therefore is, in some degree, responsible for 
not properly guarding such an insane person, and for not 
endeavoring to restore him to such a state of mental and 
moral consciousness, as to make him no longer dangerous. 
Now, how can a State so effectually do its duty in this 
particular, as by founding an asylum for placing such in- 
sane persons, not in a cruel, but in a merciful custody, and 
by employing the host medical means for their restoration? 
The public safety seems to require this course; mercy to 
the insane seems to demand it; that he may be spared from 
the horrors of h imi ide, tbonjfh committed involuntarily, and 
from the sad retribution, which the present statute on the 
case would now inflict upon him, if betrayed into such an 
act; for, though it would be followed by an immunity 
from punishment, could his insanity be proved; yet would he 
have a constraint, more than that of the most abandoned 
felon, a constraint that would "detain him in prison till re- 



Btored to a right mind, or otherwise delivered by due course 
of law." 

Our State should be respectfully urged to the duly of leg- 
islative action, in relation to the insane, from the example 
of other Stales, several of which have evinced it their duly, 
interest, constitutional obligation, and hi" best expediency, to 
make generous appropriations for insane asyhir.s; and tl.ey 
have received the warm approbation of their constituents ami 
the community, and have (riven noble proofs of enligblei.ed 
christian principles and enlarged philanthropy. If our Slate 
will not follow Mich examples, very few of our maniacs will 
ever be restored to reason; and the community as the funi- 
ilies of the insane must he deprived of i he valuable services 
of manv bright intellects and benevolent hearts, that would 
Otherwise he eminent, public and private blessings. 

The duty of the State will he more apparent, if we con- 
sider the characters of those, who ate most likely lo fall 
victims to distraction. They are the intelh clual. the l< fined, 
the sensitive; those, who have the most brilliant faculties ami 
delicate feelings ; those whose mental energies arc mist upon 
tlic stretch, and whose moral sensibility is the n.ost tremb- 
lingly alive; those, on whom calamities fall with the heav- 
iest load, and who arc the least aide to suslain then. Selves 
nnder the pressure of adversity. Tf.e brightest faculties are the 
most likely to become dim: the tenderest heart is soonest brok- 
en; the most resplendent lights of society most easily sifter 
a disastrous mental eclipse. Such arc the most common sub- 
jects of insanity; and the consequences of such visit ,. ions, 
in their loss of usefulness, in the distress produced among 
friends, and the awful hazards of their destructive, uncon- 
trolled passions, and almost universal propensity to suicide, 
make them roost eminently the peculiar subjects of the pro- 
tection, guardianship and mercy of the Slate. 

In urging an appropriation for an Insane Asylum we must 
also regard the benefit of such a school for medical practi- 
tioners in relation to all cases of insanity. The duly of 
the legislature to act with promptness and liberality on this 
subject also atises from the fact, that maniacs have no oil- 
er hope for relief and comfort. No dependence can be 
placed on private beneficence; and the asylums, which al- 
ready exist in other places, are so full, that only a snail 
portion of the insane of our State could find access to them 



839 



One other principle still remains to urge legislative inter- 
position in helialf of the insane. It is founded, not sim- 
ply on the claims of humanity, not simply on the voice of 
the multitude, speaking with resistless eloquence from every 
part of our State — hut on that Christian code, which pre- 
sents to us every insane person in our State as our neigh- 
bor, who addresses us with a pathos and authority, that 
seem to disarm us of all objections and excuses; whose re- 
garded plea will bring mercy on him, and on the whole 
community, but whose rejected plea may be followed by some 
sad retribution, and perhaps by the perpetual defeat of his 
imperious claims on legislative justice and mercy. In view 
of the above, the undersigned would respectfully solicit such 
an appropriation as will accomplish the object, for which 
this memorial is presented — the founding of an Asylum for 
the Insane in the State of New Hampshire. 

Portsmouth, JST. H., May 7, 1836. 



ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



Messrs. Editors : — It does seem to me, that a good 
Providence has at once removed almost the only obstacle in 
the way of our having in this State, an Asylum for the In- 
sane. That obstacle was the expense. It was feared that 
many of the Representatives might not feel willing to vote 
for the erection of the Asylum, lest their constituents should 
complain of the heavy State Tax which must be assessed in 
consequence. 

The large sum of money, however, which this State will 
shortly receive as her dividend of the Surplus Revenue of 
the United Slates, will render a State Tax wholly un- 
necessary: And I, for one, can imagine no better or no- 
bler purpose, to which a portion of this money can be ap- 
propriated, than the erection of a building, and the estab- 
lishment of an institution, whose object it is to accommo- 
date the unfortunate Insane, and especially the insane Poor, 
with a suitable home, and suitable treatment, blessings which 
are now denied to them from the necessity of the case; in- 
asmuch as there are no places among us which are fit for 
them; nor can they be suitably attended, while thev mingle 



340 



with the society of the busy, the thoughtless, the selfish 
world. 

I should have been, for my own part, in favor of a 
State Tax or a State Loan, for the whole sum wanted, in 
case no surplus were to be divided, I am in favor of the 
object, and wish to see it prosper, by all means. But this 
unexpected income seems to be sent on purpose to lake 
away the only unpleasant aspect which the tiling presented, 
and leaves it so easy, that it is only necessary to say ire 
will In"'!' It, and we shall have it. 

1 presume no person will object to this method of using 
the money. No improvement or benefit could be more clear- 
ly tin- tin 1 public good, The liberality and humanity of the 
Slate can ill this way be exhibited to best advantage and 
tin' unfortunate Insane be placed where they can be made 
comparatively comfortable, and in many cases, sent back lit 
their riiihi mind, to their families and friends, 

1 wish, gentlemen, that you, and all the other editors in 
the Slate, would notice the subject frequently for a few 
weeks to come, and thus arouse t lie People to prompt, and 
vigorous, and energetic measures, to secure the great bene- 
fit <>t an Asylum tor the Insane in New Hampshire. In 
so doing, you will promote an excellent object, while you 
also oblige. 

Yours, etc.. 

Public Spirit. 

Portsmouth Jovmal, July 80, 1886. 
ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



Messrs. Editors : -- 1 am sorry that some neighboring edi- 
tors mistake my meaning, as they certainly do, when they 
suppose me to make the Asylum contingent on the Surplus 
Revenue. 

I proposed no such thing. So far from it, I should very 
much approve of the editors' plan, viz. to have an act, estab- 
lishing the Asylum, and appropriating a good round sum for its 
erection, passed when first the General Court gets together. 
And I have already said, that I should be willing to help 



341 

pay a State Tax for the object. But having seen in some 
paper, some time since, a fear expressed, that the General 
Court might not be willing to lay a State Tax for the pur- 
pose. I regarded the dividend of the surplus revenue as a 
providential loan, coming just in time to do away with the 
only difficulty in relation to the whole matter. I rejoice that 
the editors of that paper, who go with their whole heart 
into whatever cause they espouse, agree with me and with 
you, in the ardent desire to see the Asylum for the Insane 
completed : I would by no means wish to see this impor- 
tant subject mingled with the politics of the day, and lost 
in the din of party strife — nor would I connect it, improp- 
erly, with any other matters. 

Sensible and well informed men, of all parties, and of all 
sects, desire to have this important charity go forward : 
and he who would wilfully or carelessly throw obstacles in 
its way, deserves a severe reproof. 

It may, notwithstanding, be a question, whether the sur- 
plus, when our State gels it, can be better applied than by 
devoting it to this very object. 

Look at it one moment. Call the money, if you please, 
a deposit, in the hands of the State. If it lie idle in the 
Treasury, it is useless. If it be taken to pay our State ex- 
penses, the Governor's salary, the Representatives' pay, and 
so on, there will be a strong temptation to increase sala- 
ries, to prolong sessions, and do other things no wiser than 
these. If it be loaned to banks, they may break; if to in- 
dividuals, they may never pay. If you divide it among the 
people, you offend them, however you do it. For, if you 
divide it according to numbers, to every man his dollar, you 
displease the rich : if according to taxes, you offend the 
poor. 

But the Asylum is truly a State concern, in the best 
sense. And if the money, or a part of it, be loaned to 
build it, the thing will bear equally. When pay-day 
comes, (and it may come) the people, according to the prop- 
erty they hold, must pay a State Tax to repay the United 
States their loan, or deposit, or whatever it is called. And 
this will be equal; if I understand that equality. 

Public Spirit. 
Portsmouth Journal, Aug. 13, 183G. 



545 
ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



AVe are very much gratified to notice the very general in- 
terest which the project for the relief of the Insane of New 
Hampshire, ha-, excited throughout the State. Almost every 
paper we receive, contains articles on the subject. Letters 
from many sections of the State express a decided convic- 
tion that the people, wherever the subject has been present- 
ed, are unanimous in its favor. Still much is to be done. 
There are town- and counties where the the public attention 
has not been awakened. This was the case in Hillsboro 1 
till within a short time. Now it appears thai this 
county is alive to the work. We herewith present to 
our reader'- an extract from an address to the peo- 
ple of that county, which i> equally well adapted to some 
other sections of the state. Will not the friends of benev- 
olence in Strafford diffuse information in that County ? 

How i- this? whence this apathy in a cause which hu- 
manity, religion and public policy unitedly approve? 

If you have not -nine good ami sufficient reasons for the 
course you as a community have pursued, if you are not 
satisfied that you are acting, or rather continuing, as duty 
and interest demand of you, hearken to some facts in re- 
gard to the insane which are presented for your careful in- 
vestigation and reflection; for the consideration of men who 
feel that there may be error in not instructing themselves 
in what their duty is in this regard, as well as sin in not 
doing what they are satisfied the good of society requires. 
If there ha- been a blameworthy indifference on your part 
in all public neglect of this subject, it fortunately happens 
that the day for vigorous, decided, general and successful 
action has not passed by. After long delays and doubtful 
struggles even to get to such, as we believe, favorable 
ground, the question will be presented at the November 
town meetings. Is il expedient for the State to grant mi 
appropriation in build mi Insane Hospital? That every in- 
telligent voter, after a careful and honest examination of the 
tacts which have been brought to light, will feel hound to de- 
posit in the ballot-box his decided Vis, we believe, tor the fol- 
lowing amoilffSl manv other reasons which could be adduced: 



343' 



1. In this State there are reported officially insane 312 
human beings who have been afflicted during all intermedi- 
ate periods from 2 weeks to GO years, and averaging more 
than 13 1-2 years of derangement to each person. A part 
of the population has not been heard from, ( and we regret 
to say has more than its proportion of this neglect ) which 
if proportionally afflicted, would make the whole number of 
the insane 452 ! 

2. Of these 312 are actual lunatics, SI are known to be 
confined in cages, cells, chains, strong rooms, in jails, gar- 
rets, barns, &c . , &c, and if the whole State be judged 
in the same ratio as that heard from, more than 100 are 
thus shut up in cold, darkness, nakedness, and shall we 
say it in this land of plenty ? too probably at times in 
want ! 

3. These insane are now utterly hopeless, as far as a 
prospect of cure is regarded, and it is hardly possible 
that even amelioration of their dreadful condition can 
be made under present circumstances. Nor is the pub- 
lic adequately secured, as the records of our courts will 
prove, against the danger and violence of the uncontrolled 
maniac. 

i. About one-half of the insane are now maintained by 
their own means and friends, and one-half by the public as 
paupers. Supported in the wretched state they now are, in 
almshouses, '-bid oft' at auction," too frequently to the 
basest of society, and their actual cost by two dis- 
tinct returns to the legislature, is near §80 per annum, 
or $1.50 per week to each person. This includes their 
bare subsistence merely, no medical or. moral manage- 
ment being practicable, even if appropriated. Neither does 
this estimate include the charge to the public or to friends, 
of the support of those dependent on those insane, but now 
necessarily thrown on other hands. 
After looking "on this picture, look on this.'' 
1. In the insane hospitals of the U. S. now in operation, 
FIVE -SIXTHS of all who have not been lunatics more than 
one year are cured, and more than ONE-HALF of all who are 
received are discharged recovered, are rendered safe, decent, con- 
tented and capable and willing of doing useful labor, enough 
to relieve the public of a portion of their cost and with the 
highest advantage to themselves in body and mind? Their 



S44 



friends and relatives arc also relieved from an immense weigh! 

of care and anxiety and often danger. 

•2. The cost of those at the public lunatic 
hospital in Mass. it' the annual report of the trustees can be 
relied upon, will be, when the present arrangements are 
completed, less than $2 weekly for each, including every item 
of Stippor attendance, treatment and incidentals. It is al- 
-ii demonstrated by facts, that in this State, taking into 
view certain valuable arrangements discovered and recommended 
there, the same advantages can he seemed at 25 per cent, 
less, leaving the amount no greater than is now expended 
for hare subsistence, 

:i. [t is also stated, and the reasons fur this conclusion laid 

before the public in the printed LiepOl'l to the Legislature, 
so that every competent man may judge for himself whether 
the facts are s (1 or not. that the expense of creeling, fur- 
nishing and putting into operation an insane hospital for 120 
or 1:10 patients. ( as large as that at Worcester ) whose cases 

from their receucj or their violence are most pressing, would 

he not more than $39,000 at the out8ide : a sum. the inter- 
est of which would be at 5 per cent, if borrowed on the credit 
of the Slate, $1500, ju-i the amount for the last fifteen years 
annually given to the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Hartford, 
lor the benefit of the comparatively insignificant number ■>( 
tlie-e unfortunates of our community. If raised by fax, 
the entire principal will he rather more than four and six- 
pence io each voter, hut not quite a ninepence to each in- 
habitant. If accomplished from the process of the deposited 
surplus fund, which it would seem has almost fallen to n- 
for tin- purpose, it would require one-half of its interest for 
a couple of years. 

Are these tacts? Let every of voter of Xew Hampshire ex- 
amine, and if he docs so, he cannot hut give his sanction 
and vote to a measure, which if it fails at the next elec- 
tion, fails forever in all human probability, as far as a vast 
majority of voters now on the stage, are personally interest- 
ed, if in the inscrutable dispensations of an all-wise Provi- 
dence, tiny of them should he doomed to lie victims to the 
••unclean spirit" of insanity! If this scheme, after live 
or six years maturing, is rejected, twenty years will not 
place it on the ground it now occupies. 

Portsmouth Journcd, Sepl '■>. 1336, 



INSANE IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Of the 400 lunatics within this State, about 200 are pau- 
pers, and now supported at the expense of the towns or 
counties to which they are chargeable. The others are sup- 
ported by themselves, or their friends, with perhaps occa- 
sional assistance. The latter class may receive some portion 
of kindness and attention, for the claims of kindred and 
friendship may overcome the deep rooted prejudice and aver- 
sion so generally entertained towards the insane. But we 
cannot conceive of any situation so utterly miserable — so full 
of unmitigated suffering, and yet so devoid of every thing 
which can alleviate it, as that of the insane pauper. A bur- 
den upon the community, and an object of fear to all with- 
in bis reach, who take charge of him ! In some few cases 
motives of humanity may induce; but will he not generally 
become the victim of those who will take him for the least 
compensation, whose only object will be money ? The main- 
tenance of a human being sold at auction to the highest bid- 
der. Dollars and cents wrung from human suffering, and 
in proportion to its intensity! such have been the facts, and 
what must be the consequences? 

We propose in illustration of the condition of the insane 
to present a few cases of the treatment of those who now 
are or have been confined in this State. 

There is a woman now living within a few miles of this 
town who has been confined 2o years in a narrow box or 
cage, chained to the floor, without chair or table, or even 
a bed, and never once leaving her place of confinement in 
all this long period ! 

A married female in a neighboring county was confined 
by her husband in an unfinished part of his dwelling house, 
during the severest part of the winter ot 1835. She was 
allowed no tire to warm and little clothing to protect her 
from the inclemencies of the season. The nipping winter 
blasta eddied through her apartment, and the snow drifted 
in at every crevice. Here she remained, calling on every 
passer by for relief in most hiteous tones, until her hands 
and feet were frozen to an alarming extent, and that 
neighbors interfered to preserve her life. At their entreaty 
she was removed, and chained in a corner of the kitchen, 



84C 



where she died during the last winter without medical at- 
tendance — without nursing or assistance — unpited even upon 
her death bed ! 

There arc cases of married females still under the dwell- 
ings and protection of their husbaild9, where affection might 
be supposed yet to exist and to alleviate their sufferings as 
Ear as consistent with personal safety. Here are manifold in- 
ducements to kind treatment, and yet are not such cases horri- 
ble ? It may. indeed, be all necessary, and may cause more 
pain to the person who inflicts than to the one who suffers, 
but i- it not radically wrong that there should be a necessity 
for such treatment at all? 

I!ut in most cases all inducements to kind treatment are 
removed, and what pen can describe their situation or suf- 
fering? Without friends to care for or protect them — ob- 
jects of aversion and fear to all. are (here not strong temp- 
tations to cruelty, and a few considerations to restrain? 

Heretofore these cruelties have been practiced from igno- 
rance and prejudice, not from inhumanity, and are the sub- 
ject Of pity rather than blame. 15llt now the people are 

awaking. From every quarter of the State encouraging ac- 
counts are received. E\ ery-w here is the question nsked, 
rannol this burden be removed, and this suffering alleviated ? 
If cruelty has been heretofore necessary, shall it be nec- 
essary any longer ? 

Nashua Gazette, 
Portsmouth Journal, Oct. Id, 1880. 



Insane Hospital. — The returns, so far as received, give 
a small majority in fax or of an insane Hospital; although 
it i~ probable from the general character of (he returns 
from the interior, that the agricultural towns will go against 
it. The individual tax for this purpose woidd be verj in- 
considerable, and the narrow policy of the small towns in 
refusing to lax themselves, as they say, to support the in- 
sane of the large towns, is very injudicious, and founded 
on wrong premises. However singular it may appear, it is 
the Farmer and the laborer that are to receive the larg- 
est proportion of the benefit of such an institution. This 
is clearly demonstrated by the following table of occupations 
of the inmates of the Hospital at Worcester, as appears by 



347 



a recent report. The occupation of the 250 male inmates 
were as follows. 

Coinmou laborers 58; Farmers 52; Manufacturers 18; 
.Shoemakers 19; Seamen 16; Teachers 13; Carpenters 10; 
Merchants 8; Machinists [6; Blacksmiths 5; Tailors 4; 
Pi-inters 3; Paper - makers 2; Clothiers 3; Millers 2; 
Calico-printers 2; Cabinet-makers 2; Bakers 2; Stevedores 
2; Stone-cutter 1; Comb-maker 1; Cooper 1; Harness- 
maker 1; Tanner 1; Pedlar 1; Currier 1; Bricklayer 1; 
Clergyman 1; Lawyer 1; Physician 1; Vagrants 3; Total 
250. 

Let not Farmers after reading this, say that they do not 
wish to tax themselves for the support of the Insane of the 
large towns, when in fact it is evident to every one, that 
next to common laborers, they will come in for the largest 
share of the benefits of such an institution. 

Portsmouth Journal, Nov. V-K 1836. 

INSANE HOSPITAL. 



Since the piece on this subject on the opposite page was 
in type, we have received information verbally, which shows 
a greater strength in favor of the Hospital than the first re- 
turns promised. 

In Grafton County, though the general character 'of the 
retuns were against the hospital, we find some towns unan- 
imous in its favor. Sotnersworth, Milton, Ossipee, in the 
county of Strafford, voted also in favor. Besides, in many 
towns, the returns from which were against the project, we 
learn that a large majority are in favor of relief to the in- 
sane. Many believing that there would be no danger of 
losing the question, did not think it an object to vote. Our 
impressions are, that on the meeting of the Legislature, a 
very considerable part of the votes will be found in favor 
and also an efficient majority of the representations. 

In the town of Eye for instance, the vote stood VJ to 19. 
From conversation with many from this town, and from its 
character, we have no doubt the general opinion is in favor. 
In the town of Hanover, the vote stood 24 ayes and 71 noes. 
We cannot believe that this town is in opposition. It would 
prove but little for the character of the vicinity of Dart- 



848 



month College to manifest this result; 24 votes in favor. 

In many towns we are informed a new zeal and spirit is 
awakened. The progress of popular opinion on tins subject 
may be >lo\v, but it is sure. The project will eventually 
succeed — and we believe at the approaching session. 

Portsmouth Journal, Nov. la, 1836. 

The Insane Hospital. — Gov. Hill, in his message, ob- 
serves that the question put to the people "may he and 
probably was understood that the .State was exclusively from 
its own treasury to erect and support the hospital and that 
on this view it would have been surprising that it received 
so large an affirmative vote." He also expresses the opin- 
ion, that the people would have given a more decided ex- 
pression in favor, had the question been " Shall the State 
giant an appropriation in aid of the object.'' lie goes on 
to intimate that there is no doubt but the people would 
giant from time to time temporary aid ill so laudable a 
public charity. 

The question we take it is now settled, that the Hospital is 
to hi' erected. We come to tlii- opinion, from the increasing in- 
terest which the people of New Hampshire manifest on the 
subject. Every year siuce it was first proposed, there has been 
a constant and regular accession of friends. From being a 
small minority, they are now strong and confident. The ex- 
ecutive of the State, and probably a majority in our legislature, 
are in favor of the appropriation. We come to this opinion 
because it will require no tax upon our citizens. A small 
part, a very small part of the interest on the funds from the 
Treasury of the United States will be needed. We come to 
this opinion because both sound economy and benevolence de- 
mand the work. 

The true and proper course for the State to preserve is, to 
erect the proper building, and there stop the appropriation. 
The Hospital should support itself. Let the ordinary expenses 
be borne by those who receive the benefit. The buildings 
would cost from 20 fo $30,000, a sum which the Stale would 
el eei fully appropriate for so desirable an object. 

We may be premature, and the object be accomplished, not at 
this session, but at the next. It is indeed desirable that there 
should be no delay ; and we trust our present legislature will 
not leave their successors to discharge this important duty. 



349 



And if any towns in its favor liave been misrepresented by 
their votes, now is the time for them to make their voice heard 
in the Legislature. 

As for reiving' upon private charity to effect the object, it is 
out of the question to raise a large sum from individuals. 
And what propriety is there in asking hundreds of dollars from 
benevolent individuals to save a few cents to each of the citizens 
of the State? The difference between an appropriation of 20 and 
3U,U00 dollars, can scarcely be felt by the citizens. What voter is 
there who would not cheerfully pay 25 cents if he could but restore 
one lunatic to reason? And who that has examined the subject 
fully does not know that an asylum would be a blessing to hun- 
dreds now in abject suffering ? 

Portsmouth Journal, Dec. 3, 1836. 

THE TRUTH AND A DAY DREAM. 



Go with me through our State; not, however, to indulge 
the feelings of satisfaction with which we look upon her 
fruitful fields, the cattle upon a thousand hills, her well 
filled granaries, and the cheerful homes of her happy yeoman, 
not to feel ourselves enchanted with the grandeur of her 
scenery, her extensive forests, her sparkling streams, her 
granite-capped mountains, not to bless God that we are sons 
of New Hampshire, when the sturdy and the healthy, the 
ruddy and the beautiful stand before us. Alas ! no. Let 
us go on the errand of mercy, which turns from the bright 
and happy to seek out the forgotten ones — those who have 
no friend, no hope — those who are hidden from sight, doom- 
ed to one long dark night of despair. 

Are there any such ? Stop with me for a moment at that 
house upon the hill side, on the right of the road before us. 
The sun shines brightly upon the roof, and the birds sing 
merrily among the trees which surround it. Yet there is 
one whom we should • visit; her moan almost reaches ns 
where we stand. Enter with me. See a wife, a mother, 
as a wild beast in a cage ! The bars of her prison are 
worn smooth by her ceaseless struggles to free herself. Hear 
her cry! "Mary, Mary, my child, let me out!" She thus 
cried for years, and her voice has become a familiar sound 



350 

— so familiar that it ceases even to weary. But she is fed 
pretty regularly, and sometimes spoken to ! 

The town now rising before in looks prosperous and thriv- 
ing. Sit its hundreds of homes into which wealth lias 
poured all the luxuries of life; sec. rising among them the 
steeples of the churches, where the Divine command to bind 
up the broken-hearted, to set the prisoner free, is so often 
proclaimed. In one of those houses an elderly lady has hern 
chained by the leg tor eighteen years. But we will stop in 
tin- outskirts; a man i- there chained whom we must look 
in upon. Poor old man ! He was once rich, prosperous, 
the owner ol thai ouce beautiful man-inn on the left. What 
avails all his property now ? it lias been taken from him, 
and lie is thrust aside to wait for death. Have you ever 
seen such a painful object ! His hair, white as ever floated 
on the head of the ancient patriarch, knotted and tangled, 
mingled wiili his beard, has covered up all the face, his Hash- 
ing eye only is seen. Hi- nail- have grown like a birds claws 
and his voice i- changed to a surly growl. See the door of 
his hovel is littered with bones - his food ha- been thrown to 
him as to a dog. Let u- gel away from this sight. 

We must visil thi- Almshouse. There air but two or three 

in Bridewell now. It wire hitter not tu look into llntl cell. 

lor the poor woman in h i- not always lit to he seen: turn lo 
the next. Ii a brick cell; a slide in the door for the keeper 
In look through, and to pass in the man - food, .1 very small 
grated window, not glazed, -tupped with a piece of hoard. 
•■ I- this young man always kept here nothing to do, nothing 
in think <>{ , in solitude and darkness? No wonder thai lie 
i- crazy ! " •■Well, what else eould we do with him: he i- 
very noisy and would disturb the house; we take him out to air 

someti -. But it is not our fault; his friends pay us for 

keeping him. lie i- not a pauper. 

In thi- rapid sketch we can hut glance at -Mew of the ea-e- 
of abject suffering, cutting into the very soul, which we know 
exist in thi- State. We cannot adequately describe the suffer- 
ings In aped upon the Insane. We ran hut say — in that out- 
house — in thi- garret — in the cave laid by, dug lor the very 
purpose, aie there men. squalid, miserable, filthy, naked. 
The voice of kindness i- never more to reach their ear-, ndr 
one look of compassion tu warm their hearts. In cold, and 
hunger, and darkness must they live on. I have heard of oni 
poor creature who escaped from the cellar in which he had 



851 



been for years — once more lie felt the warm beams of the sun , 
the breeze again fanned bis cheek, again bis eye wandered over 
the beautiful face of nature — but in a few hours he was caught 
and thrust back again to his damn cell, there to abide his time. 
Oh even now rings through my ears, the cry of the poor 
idiot boy, "Father, Father!" It was one of those cold 
stormy nights, when wind, and sleet, and hail combined, make 
the traveller seek for the first shelter. I was hospitably en- 
tertained, but ever through the live- long night were my slum- 
bers broken by that cry rising above the bowlings of the storm 
"Father, Father! ' In the morning, directed by the 

sound 1 found him; be was tied in a hogpen, in the farthest 
corner of which was a little straw, but it was then nearly 
covered with sleet and snow. Poor child, doubtless he is now 
released from his earthly sufferings! 

Again, again, is borne towards me the scream of the young 
man who dreads the Evil One, who shudders al the thought of 
unforgiven sin. His once smooth and lofty forehead is gath- 
ered in knots, bis cheeks are pale and sunken, and his eyes 
restlessly look around for one sign of hope. His father lifts 
his hands towards Heaven, exclaiming, " what can 1 do ! I 
;im poor, O God, enable me to keep this beloved one from 
the almshouse — take him rather to thyself. My poor boy! 
I can do nothing for you and others will not . ' 

These are not exaggerations. They are faithful pictures, 
true to the very life. Header do you doubt it V You 
cannot, you cannot. There are over three hundred lunatics 
in New Hampshire. You know the nature of the malady, 
\ on know too what a large number is exposed from the 
1 very necessity of the case, for what can the poor man do 
with the raving maniac ? Knowing this, will you turn a 
deaf ear to their cry 'i will you brush away the tear and 
forget the sufferings of the Insane, and this too with the 
means of relief in your bands ? Are you a father — 
the little ones whom you cherish, who now turn their laugh- 
ing eyes upon you. who now twine themselves so closely 
about, your heart — look to them and ponder upon the ques- 
tion where shall future years find them — over whose household 
is there a shield held, that the troubled spirit may not en- 
ter ? But I bear the exclamation — away with considerations 
that, apply only to one's self; we are all children of one 
family — that which I would wish done for my own, will I 



35? 



do for others, it i- not hard heartedness but a want of re- 
flection thai has kept us back. 

These are scenes of horror — enough to sicken the heart. 
Let ii- turn to fiction for relief; let us draw on the imag- 
ination for something to soothe u.-; let us dream s ething 

that may enable us to think on the subject with composure. 

1 see before me spread out a highly cultivated farm, un- 
dulating over lull ami dale, varied by corn field and mead- 
ow, the waving grain coming up to the very verge of a 

fruitful garden. The river -weeps by it- herder-, and the 

light clouds oi' summer hang over the whole. The vener- 
able elm- «a\e a- in triumph over the Retreat for the In- 
sane—a plain and extensive building which rises up in the 
midst. <>\er ii- gates i- written, ••('nine in thou troubled 

spirit and be at peace 

Let ii- enter. There is the wife and mother whom be- 
fore we -aw iii the cage. She is neatly dressed, busy at 

hia- work; there i- even a -mile playing upon her lip-. " 
'• What plea-e- you my friend V ' ' Pleases me; why I 

shall go home in a few weeks well and happy. I'.ul are 
vou tired Of this place? Oh; no, no: but I have a hus- 
band and daughter al home; how thankful they will he to 
-ee me. 1 shall -it again at the table with them, I shall 
have my own chair at the fireside! 

"They have taken away the chain, '* cries another, I can 
walk now. I can do good now. Sometimes 1 am good 
hut sometimes a cloud of darkness rolls in upon m\ mind, 
like the breaking in of many waters. ' Then I do not know 
what I do — but 1 am cared for. 1 am as weak as a 
nursling child. They watch over me and love me. I shall 
never more go home, but I love this place. Sirs, sirs, they 
brought in an old man the other day — he looked like a 
wild beast. How he growled, and hi- eyes flashed! Now he 
-il- quiet, and he follows with his eye the kind friend who 
loves u- all. a- he walk- among us, and he seems to want 
to plea-e him. Don't you think lie has a -only I once 
thought mine was dead; I am as one raised up from the 
dead. 

Here tn<. 1- tin- crazy stripling who feared that he was 
forsaken of God. Every feature yet bears the mark- of 
Strong excitement. Vet how beautiful ! how interesting in 
the intensity of the expression. There is a change already 



for the better; though he is still pale and his eye restless 
a shade of joy seems to He upon his parted lips. He is 
like the tempest-tossed mariner, fearing yet hoping — for the 
clouds are thinner and the winds are somewhat hushed. 
15ut alas, see his forehead begin to knot again. It is ob- 
served — the kind friend has placed his hand upon his brow, 
and the touch of kindness has rubbed out the lines of an- 
guish. 

The boy rests his head upon the friend's bosom and weeps. 
He shall go home restored — the first born and only son to 
a father who has none else to love ! 

" tsliull I go in with you to prayer this evening, '" asks anoth- 
er "1 will be quiet, very quiet.* 1 have not screamed out all 
day. When the til came I pressed this handkerchief to my 
mouth and stopped it; 1 know I can keep quiet: I want to 
pray to God as I did once when " — 

Yes; and we will enter too and pray with them. More 
than than one-half of the Insane are present, subdued, thought- 
ful, some even thankful. Observe the stripling who has so 
much interested us. He has taken the lowest and farthest 
scat as one unworthy, he has buried his face in his hands, and 
is bowed down. A heart-felt humility seems to have taken 
the place of despair. He will soon cling to a Saviour, and hear 
with joy these blessed words, "Come upon me all ye weary 
and heavy laden, and 1 will give you rest. " 

How beautiful this place, how precious this privilege which 
makes the light of Christian truth to shine through the dark- 
uess of the mind into their very hearts ! How truly is this 
temple which Christian love has set up, a refuge for the strick- 
en ! The prayer ascends — not a sound breaks the serene still- 
ness ; a communication with their Father in Heaven has given 
peace to the afflicted. They sing; sweetly and soothingly vi- 
brates the hymn upon the ear: 

•'Let cares like a wild deluge come 

And storms of sorrow fall, 
.Max- I but safely reach my home. 

My God, my Heaven, my all. 
There shall I bathe my weary soul 

In sea-, of Heavenly rest, 
And not a wave of trouble roll 

Across my peaceful breast . ' ' 



S54 



We have emptied the cell, we Lave taken the lunatic from 
the jail, the almshouse, the cave, we have stricken off the 
manacle and chains, we have set the prisoner free: ami even 
in a few short month- have sent hack many to their homes 
and firesides who otherwise must have passed a long life of mis- 
1 1 \ . God helping us, we have done much good; we have 
poured the stream <>( gladness through many a heart. 

Must (hi- remain hut the sketch of fancy — a mere day- 
dream ! The answer is in part with you, my friend. 

Portsmouth Journal, March 81, 1888, 



A PLEA FOH THE INSANE. 
I 



Mr. Brewster: — Permit me through your columns to offer 
an additional pica for the insane, I will ground my plea on 
the nature id' their disorder, the treatment il demand-, and 
the actual success of such treatment where employed. 

Insanity i- often spoken of a- a disorder of the mind, hut 
wrongly, 'the mind, the -oul. the immaterial existence with- 
in, cannot lie -irk. any more than it can die II- medium of 

communication with the outward universe may he partially 
Hi- entirely cut off, so thai is can neither receive right im- 
pressions, nor express or communicate its own volitions. 
This i- the case in insanity, which is a disorder not of the soul 
itself, hut of it- bodily instruments or organs. Sometimes 
wrong impressions only are conveyed to the mind which still 
hold unimpaired it- capacities of reasoning and expressing it- 
self, and in such cases the patient retains all his powers of iu- 
tellecl and dispositions of heart, reasons a- soundly as in health, 
though on false pretences, and manifests his wonted emotions 
and principles of actions, though he mistakes the occasions 
tor their exercise. In such instances tin' unimpaired, hut 
deluded -oul, proffers the strongest of claims upon the sym- 
pathy id' it- fellow spirits upon their most earnest effort- to 
do away with the delusion. In other cases the -oul leads a 
hidden, secluded life, is embalmed in its inmost shrine, kept 
like a sealed fountain, holds no converse with the outward 
universe, retains no impression of what transpires during 
its hallucination, and, if the disease is removed, commences 
ii- action at the very point where the fit of insanity had 



855 



suspended it weeks, or even years before. Of this entire 
suspension and passiveness of the intellect during insanity, 
and its capacity of taking up the thread of its operations 
where it dropped them, I will relate one in lieu of many 
perfectly authenticated instances. A man had been employed 
for a day with a beetle and wedges, in splitting pieces of 
wood for erecting a fence. At night, before going home, 
he put the beetle and wedges into the hollow of an old 
tree, and directed his sons who had been at work in an ad- 
joining field, to accompany him next morning to assist in 
making the fence. in the night he became maniacal, and 
continued in a state of insanity several years, during which 
time his mind was not occupied on any of the subjects 
with which he had been conversaut when in health. After 
several years his reason returned suddenly, and the first 
question he asked was whether his sons had brought home 
the beetle and wedges. They, being afraid of entering up- 
on any explanation, only said that they could not find them; 
on which he arose from his bed, went to the field where 
he had been at work so many years before, and found 
where he had left them, the wedges and iron rings of the 
beetle, the wooden part being entirely mouldered away. 
Cases like this are valuable, as showing that in insanity the 
mind receives no stain, contracts no impurity, however de- 
formed the images which may float before the heated brain, 
however gross the obscenities, however horrid the blasphem- 
ies to which the wandering lips may give utterance. That 
which is pure remains pure still; that which is holy, is 
holy still. What a powerful motive does this circumstance 
furnish for efforts to restore a gifted intellect, a fervent 
heart, to its wonted functions. Moreover, the idea that in- 
sanity is but a bodily disorder furnishes antecedently the 
best possible ground to hope in every case for its cure. 
Were it what it is commonly called, a mental malady, vain 
would be the help of man; the only appeal would be to 
the direct interposition of the Father of spirits. But if sim- 
ply a bodily disorder, then it falls within the range which 
Providence has assigned to human skill and efforts; and 
the treatment of it constitutes a distinct branch of medical 
science, like every other, capable of indefinite improve- 
ment. 
But for the purpo;e of applying right means of restoration, 



8515 



so far n~ they are known, and of making new discoveries 
with regard to the management of the insane, hospitals are 
indispensible, as we shall see by a momentary glance at the 
nature of the treatment to be employed. It is two-fold, phy- 
sical and moral, the physical desigued to reduce the body to 
a heathy State, and thus to furnish the soul with a safe anil 
fine avenue of communication with the outward world; the 
moral aiming to overleap the barriers which shattered nerves 
in- ;l disordered brain may have interposed, to hold direct con- 
verse with the imprisoned soul, and enlist its healthy and vigor- 
ous action in bringing back its servant, the body to its rightful 
post of duty. The physical treatment requisite, consists less 
in a regular course of medicine, which could be administered 
anywhere, than in a strict and minute regimen, by which 
every item of diet, exercise, labor or recreation shall he made 
to bear on the end proposed. There must he in all these 
particulars a close adaptation to the circumstances, of each in- 
dividual, and a change from time to time according as he is 
excited or quiet, gay or sad, convalescent or the reverse. 
This requires a constant supervision on the part of the experi- 
enced and skilful, and a management equally removed from 
the indiscriminate indulgence of injudicious kindness and 
i hi' severity of unnatural kindred or cruel keeper. These 
requisites cannot possibly he combined, except in an estab- 
lishment devoted expressly and entirely to that one purpose. 
To the second class of means, moral means, it is impossi- 
ble to assign too high an efficacy. Severity and unkindness 
aggravate the disorder. Merely ordinary measures of care, 
expressions of interest, manifestations of love reach not the 
shrouded soul, which seems like an apartment artificially 
darkened. Hut as by the sun's noon day beams the crev- 
ices of such an apartment will he penetrated, and its daik- 
ness changed into twilight; so by careful concenfratfd rays 
of benevolence, may tie soul he reached through the thick 
walls within which disease has pent it. Chid ran {hold 
direct communication with the darkened intellect: and we 
cannot doubt, does visit it in its right reason, "hintf it 
meat to eat which lie world knows not of, infusing inlojit 
a light and peace which his works have lost the power of 
imparting. He. who on earth bore the impress and wield- 
ed the power of God, could by his very look break 
down the prison walls of disease, and call hack the long 



S57 



alienated soul to its wonted functions ; and I can easily 
conceive that such momentary restorations were but the nat- 
ural and necessary effect of the divinity which must have 
beamed in his every glance, and breathed in his every word, 
of that snrile ot divine love, which played unceasingingly upon 
his features, and made him literally and truly the Sun of 
righteousness. The fulness of the Godhead is no longer man- 
ifested bodily among us, and instantaneous restorations can- 
not therefore be effected; but the moral treatment of insan- 
ity consists in carefully concentrating those same genial rays 
of love, which shone in their peerless effulgence in the in- 
carnate Deity. Nature must be permitted to exert her 
charms, to (spread her verdure, to hold forth her beauties, 
to warble her music, and to appeal with her thousand 
voices of love to sensibilities unquenched, though dormant. 
Then that human kindness and love, which is an ever 
present manifestation of the Deity, must be constantly filled ; 
every needless restraint removed; every harmless indul- 
gence granted; and thus must the alienated spirit be wooed 
forth from its retreat by the energy of love. Thus this 
class of means cannot be employed to the full with a pri- 
vate patient. There is no choice of residence; no opportu- 
nity to enlist the brightest and most salubrious influences of 
nature, to which happy experience authorizes us to attach 
the very first importance. Moreover, it is hard to shield 
a private patient from insult. It is often unsafe for want 
of sufficient supervision to release him from restraint, and 
allow him indulgences, which might prove beneficial, and it 
has been seen that the great majority of instances, those, 
whether rich or poor, high or low, who are left either to 
relatives or to the public, are treated with absolute cruelty. 
But in public establishments, particularly in this country, for 
the relief of the insane, the law of love is made the ruling 
principle. A spot is always selected (at least this is the case 
with five, which I have myself seen) which nature has made 
lovely, elevated, airy, salubrious, commanding an extensive 
prospect, capable of being laid out in ornamental grounds, 
in garden, shrubbery, park and orchard. The house is always 
fitted up with neatness and elegance well ventilated, thorough- 
ly heated. The utmost kindness is observed in the treatment 
even of refractory patients; and the slightest deviation from 
this rule is deemed a sufficient reason for discharging any 



858 



attendant. Willi numerous overseers and a large, but well 
fenced and guarded territory, personal confinement is deemed 
for the most part needless; the patient sees not the eye that 
watches him, feels not the hand which restrains him, frets 
not against the grates of a prison, whose area is measured 
not by feet, but by aires. Their employment and recreation, 
whether of a bodily or mental character, are furnished to 
each according to hi- peculiar tastes and wants; and 1 am 
gratified to find that religion is invited as a prime means of 
restoration, that the influences of Him, at whose word in - 
sanity so often took it- flight, yet by the abuse of wliose 
name it has still oftener been produced, are now invoked to 
dispel the spirit of wildness and darkness, and to bring the 
sufferer to himself. At tin- Bloomingdale Asylum near New 
York, a venerable, mild, judicious, and faithful chaplilin is 

constantly employed, and every Sabbath may be seen a 

company ot maniac-, silting 1 as did the Gudarene demoniac al 
the feet ot Jesus, clothed, and to human appearance in their 
right mind, listening earnestly to (he soothing accents of chris- 
tian love, uniting devoutly in the resj ses of the liturgy, 

and in lifting in faultless melody their songs of praise to 
] I tin. who commands the light to shine out of darkness. 
The physician of the Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, has al- 
ways warmly urged, and in hi- last report owns with fer- 
vent gratitude for his own successful and happy experience, 
the establishment of a regular chapel of daily worship and 
stated Sabbath services, a- one of the best means possible 
lor soothing, cheering and restoring the inmates. 

I. el us now look for a moment at the re-ults which our 
hospitals manifest, and the encouragmeut which they afford 
for the establishment of similar institutions. 

In the first place, it is satisfactorily ascertained, that even 
in desperate and hopeless cases confinement is entirely un- 
necessary; and that the most frantic can be admitted to all 
physical comforts and enjoyments of civilized life. 

In the Worcester Asylum, there are very many going at 
huge, entirely harmless, to whom it had been deemed un- 
safe to give the smallest share of liberty. 

The two chief managers of the farming establishment, are 
men who had been confined in jail for many years for homi- 
cide committed in insanity, but who now plough and nap 
side by side, unguarded and alone. I quote from an early 



369 



report of that hospital, two or three of the most striking- cases. 
One is that of a man who had committed homicide, had been in 
prison twenty-eight years, tor seven years of that time had not 
felt the influence of tire, and many nights had not lain down for 
fear of freezing'. He had not been shaved for twenty-eight years, 
and had been provoked and excited by the introduction of hun- 
dreds to see the exhibitions of his ravings. He is now comfort- 
able in health, well clad, keeps his bed and room remarkably 
clean, and, although very insane on certain subjects, is most of 
the time pleasant, companionable and entirely harmless and do- 
cile, lie shaves himself twice a week, sits at the table with six- 
teen others, takes his meals, walks about the village and over the 
fields, with an attendant to accompany him. Another ease is 
named of a man, who committed homicide, was in one prison 
fourteen years, was during that time without clothes, his hair and 
beard uncut, his skin so entirely tilled with the dust of charcoal 
that it was impossible from its appearance to discover of what 
nation he was. He was in the habit of screaming so loud as to 
annoy the whole neighborhood, and was considered a most dan- 
gerous and desperate man. When he came to the hospital, he 
was provided with a new suit of clothes, which the sheriff advised 
to have taken off and preserved, not doubting that he would strip 
them in tatters in two hours. He was however induced to pre- 
serve them with great care; and has constantly for two years 
worn his clothes, sleeps in a good bed, sits at the table to take 
his meals, and is quite a civil, although a very insane man. 
Another case is related of a mechanic, who had been in close 
confinement for six years. He committed homicide; and, if 
this institution had not been erected, would probably never have 
been permitted to leave his cell. He is now a useful mechanic, 
labors a great portion of his time, often reads his bible, and 
the public papers, is exceedingly happy that this place has been 
provided for him, and blesses its founders and conductors daily 
for the benefits conferred by it on himself and other inmates, lie 
walks abroad and often attends church. These are only a few 
of many cases that have been from year to year reported. And 
if this were all. could an asylum only be afforded by 
public charity, for the freedom and comfort of those inno- 
cent being-, whom an inscrutable Providence has cut off from 
usefulness, humanity would plead most loudly for the imme- 
diate supply of the deficiency. But this is not all. Even 
in these old and desperate cases, not only improvement, but 






entire recovery sometimes take-; place, t lionyli in more than 
two-thirds of the cases. which are left without proper treat- 
ment for more than a year, tlie disease becomes chronic and 
incurable. Lint if the patient be carried to an asylum with- 
in three months of tlie first attack, recovery is almost cer- 
tain; the risk of permanent insanity is hardly worth men- 
tioning; and tlie proportion of the cures among those whose 
insanity is le^s than a year's standing is estimated by a com- 
parison of several reports to amount to nine-tenths of the 
whole number. Now. were an asylum for the insane es- 
tablished in our State and in successful operation, every pa- 
tient would lie carried to it at once, and the present gen- 
eration of the incurably insane would be the last. 

In view of such results, we would earnestly plead willi 
our civil fathers, and an enlightened and humane public, lo 
provide an asylum for this unfortunate class of our fellow- 
beings, not for guilty, but for innocent men and women, 
who have been, but who. if left in chains and darkness, can 
never again be. an ornament and blessing to society. It is 
to put an end to the most loathsome and cruel sufferings, 
to raise the maniac from a condition worse than that of 
horses and cattle, to clothe him, to warm him. to feed him, 
to screen him from insult, to protect him from the gaze of 
brutal curiosity, and, by the smile of Providence to re-invest 
him with the attributes of a rational and accountable being, 
that we implore the aid of a public, that can reach the 
arms of its charity across oceans and continents, yet, too of- 
ten forget claims, which lid close to its own doors. 

Portsmouth Journal, April 14, leS8. 



86 J 



SOME PECUNIARY CONSIDERATIONS TOUCHING THE 

INSANE. 

We wish to show in this article, that, setting aside all 
motives of a higher, and purer character, it is expedient for 
us to proceed to immediate action in regard to an Insane 
Hospital, by reason of the pecuniary economy which must 
of necessity result therefrom. We assume as our basis that 
there are GOO insane persons in the State of New Hamp- 
shire, although we believe that nearly 300 more could safely 
bi' added to the list. Now by a careful examination of va- 
rious statistical tables as published in the annual reports of 
the Ma>s. Insane Hospitals, we find the number of deaths 
to be about 1 in 12, of the aggregate number of admissions 
into the two Asylums of that State. Supposing then, that 
no new cases of Insanity should occur, it is evident that in 
12 years our whole present Insane population of 600, would 
have disappeared. 

Again, as appears by the statistical tables already alluded 
to, as well as by the statistics of many European Hospitals, 
and the opinion of those skilled in matters of Insanity, the 
average proportion of cures in recent cases admitted into the 
Asylums is y to 10, while the whole number of annual new 
cases of Insanity in this State is 50, upon the very lowest 
and fairest computation we have been enabled to make. 
Consequently had we a Hospital, 45 out of our 50 annu- 
al new cases would be restored to a right mind. 

Let us, before proceeding to our deductions, briefly reca- 
pitulate the above statements. 

Mortality among the Insane, 1 in 12. 

Whole number of insane in N. H. 000, all which would 
disappear in 12 years. 

No. of cures of new cases in Hospital, 9 out of 10. 

Annual number of new cases in N. H., 50. 

Annual number of cures had we a Hospital, 45. 

It is therefore evident that at the expiration of 12 years, 
we should have of Insane persons, first, our 50 annual new 
caseR — secondly, over one-tenth of incurable cases multiplied 
by 12, making GO. In all, 50 new cases — (JO Incurables — 
110 Total. Let us however, in order to stand within in- 
disputable limits, add 40 more, giving us a total of 150 
cases of insanity. Subtracting therefore 150 from 600, our 
present number, we have at the end of twelve years a dim- 



362 



inution of 450; that i-. we shall be railed upon at the ex- 
piration of twelve year- to support 150, instead of 600 in- 
-:inr persons. 

Niiw , although the expense of caring for the insane must 
greatly exceed the expense ol caring for the poor, we are 
willing, in order to be within Mire bounds, to rate the ex- 
penditures as equal; and although the average yearly ex- 
pen f paupers ia nearly •*7." ) , we will take off 83 1 3 per 

cent, and call ii only $50. 

- ■■' multiplied by 6U0, our present number 

ol Insane, $80,000 

$50 multiplied 150, our number at their 

expiration of twelve years, $7,500 

$22,50U 
Consequently, al the expiration of twelve years we have 
a reduced expenditure of $22,5UU annually for the support 
of Mie Insane. 

Lei ii be noted however, thai we are perfectly aware that 
the expense of caring for the insane in Hospitals must 
greatly exceed 50 dollar.- per year; bul lei it at the same 
time be time be noted, that we have, in the first place, 
struck oft 300 from the list of our Insane population; 
in the next place, reduced the the present expenditure 33 l-:i 
per cent.: and in the third place, made no calculation of 
the annual deduction for the twelve years during which 
there i- a yearly decrease of more than 50 eases of our 

present number. And if all these consideration- do not 
suffice, w e will double the supposed yearly expenditure at 
the end of our twelve years and call it $15,000, and <till 
we shall have a yearly showing to the State oi $15,000 by 
the establishment of a suitable Asylum for the reception of 
the Insane. 

Portsmouth Journal, April 28, ls."" s . 



363 
PROSPECTS OF THE ENTERPRISE. 



Benevolence of action is rapidly overtaking benevolence oi : 
of purpose, and the time seems fast approaching when an 
Insane Hospital, which has so long existed only in the 
minds of the philanthropic, will have an existence in truth 
and reality. To judge from intelligence received, there ap- 
pears to be one united, resolute, energetic movement in this 
behalf throughout the State; and if the call upon the be- 
nevolent be met elsewhere with the same generous alacrity 
as in this town, success is no longer a subject of hope but 
of certainty. Thus far, our subscriptions have been made 
without hesitancy, and with a liberality which even the 
most ardent well-wisher could not have dared anticipate. 
To judge by what has already been effected, (the paper 
having been circulated only three days, and not presented 
to more than one-third of those whose names will speedily 
be added, and yet the amount subscribed already exceeding 
Twenty-five Hundred Dollars.) There cannot be a doubt 
that Five Thousand Dollars and upwards, will be the small- 
est limits of the contribution in this place; while many in- 
dividuals have professed a readiness to double the amount 
set against their names, rather than see this generous enter- 
prise frustrated — an enterprise against! which not one of 
the ordinary and ofttimes justifiable objections of inexped- 
iency, has been or ever can be proffered. 

Before the present system of prisons and prison discipline 
could be adopted, it was necessary to combat the objection 
that, by ameliorating the condition of the convicted culprit, 
ihe terror of the law would be diminished, and new in- 
ducements held out for the commission of crime; so also in 
regard to relieving the destitute and providing asylums 
where their every want should be supplied, the momentous 
question as to the encouragement of indolence and conse- 
quent pauperism, in those who saw a comfortable refuge 
awaiting them the moment they chose to avail themselves of 
it, was first to be met and answered; but in regard to 
this great public charity the question of expediency cannot 
for a single moment be urged; for no one can pretend 
that an Insane Hospital will encourage Insanity, or that 



364 



there is any possible mode in which the benevolent provis- 
ions of such an Institute, can be abused by the recipients 
of iis favor. On the contrary, the experience of other 
States ;ui(l other countries, satisfactorily shows that if there 
be any charity which is twice blessed, "which blcsseth him 
that gives and him that takes," it is this; for though the ad- 
Vantages to the afflicted inmates are beyond all computation, 
mi tin- measure of advantage is meted hack a thousand-fold 
to the community at large. 

In view of these tilings, therefore, let us take all encour- 
agement, and as we have begun so let us go forward with 
one heart, with one mind, with one resolve, with a hear) 
healing warm and loud at the call of the Suffering maniac, 
with a mind fertile in schemes of benevolent relief, and 
with a ie-olve, fixed and determined, that the cause we 
have espoused shall not he forsaken till we have borne it 
triumphantly through. 

Portsmouth Journal, May .5, 1888, 

THE CAUSE OF HUMANITY. 



"J// Appeal to the Citizens of New Hampshire, in behalf 
of the Suffering Insane. Blessed are Hie merciful." 

Such i- tin' title-page of the pamphlet just issued from 
the press of the Portsmouth Journal Office. 

It i- exactly what it purports to he, an appeal to the cit- 
izens of (his State in behalf of the suffering [nenne, an ap- 
peal, not to the heart alone, hut equally to the understand 
ing; and we believe no one can peruse the facts therein set 
forth without feeling, not only the duly but the absolute ex- 
pediency, of hastening, with eager steps, to the immediate 
relief of those whose cry has so long gone forth, unnoticed, 
from all our borders. 

And. in the language of the writer, "Who are (he indi- 
viduals thus bereft of intellectual light'/'' There is hut 
one class to which we can allude at present; a elas^ em- 
bracing almost the entire mass of the population of this 
State; a class generally supposed to be more exempt than 
any other from the fearful ravages of Insanity, yet. in 
whose midst it will be found to prevail with more frequen- 
cy and greater violence than under any other form of socie- 
ty whatever. We refer to the agriculturalist, the tiller of 



3C5 



the soil, the Fanner. The language of the writer upon 
this point, is most striking, fully sustained, as it evidently 
is. by the statistics both of England and America. 

" In twelve exclusively agricultural counties in England, 
the proportion of the insane was recently reported to be 
1 in 82ti. In twelve other counties, where the inhabi- 
tants arc differently employed, the proportion of the insane 
was found to be but 1 in 1200. In the last report of 
the Worcester Asylum we have a list of the occupations of 
382 of its past and present inmates. On this list we have 
!)1 /tinners and 75 laborers, while the remaining 215 are di- 
vided among 38 different trades and professions, averaging 
less than G to each. We do not then petition our agricul- 
tural districts to make provision for the insane poor of our 
populous towns and villages, but to provide a house of ref- 
uge for a malady, to which our own precincts are peculi- 
arly exposed. " 

This is a home appeal to the iudwellers of New Hamp- 
shire, from which there is no escape: for, whether we can 
account for it or not, these are the tacts of the case, incon- 
trovcrtibly proving that, notwithstanding the seeming calm- 
ness of agricultural pursuits, the tranquility of the farmer's 
life, the seclusion in which he follows his daily and honorable 
toil, and his removal from the strife, the weariness and tur- 
moil which pervade the mercantile and manufacturing districts 
of the community, yet for all this, the destroying angel hath 
chosen the tiller of the soil as the peculiar object for his des- 
olating shaft. And when to this we add the difficulty, the al- 
most impossibility of making suitable provision for the comfort, 
much less for the restoration of the Insane, detached and scat- 
tered through a wide-spread agricultural community, methiiiks 
we have said enough to secure the efficient co-operation and 
generous aid of the Farmers throughout this State, in behalf 
o£ that great and merciful object, toward the accomplishment 
of which so many are putting forth their resolute and united 
efforts. 

In the strong language of the writer, "We implore help in 
this great work from a christian public, a public that can reach 
the arms of its charity across oceans and continents, yet too 
often forgets claims which lie close to its own doors." 

In conclusion, we urgently ask of those, if such indeed there 
should still be, who doubt the expediency, or who feel not the 



861 



christian obligation of this beneficent charity, to peruse the above 
named pamphlet, and doubt not, that after Buch perusal, they 
will become zealous joint workers with those whose sympathies 
are already enlisted, whose action has already commenced, and 
whose resolution is as immovable as the great law of charity 
which has inspired them. W. 

Portsmouth Journal, May 19, 1838. 

Till; INHUMANITY AND INJUSTICE OF SUBJECTING 

THE GUILTLESS INSANE TO SOLITARY 

CONFINEMENT. 



If the statistics we have been enabled to collect respecting In- 
sanity be, in any degree accurate, there are. within the bounda- 
ries of New Hampshire, more than 150 Insane persons now held 
prisoners in bridewells, in cages and in jail-, and consequently 
150 persons subjected in a greater or less degree to solitary con- 
finement. 

Let us lor a moment direct our attention to the effects of this 
desolating seclusion upon those of sound mind, and to whom all 
the resources of intellect, of memory and of hope are still open. 
In the report of the Prison Discipline Society for 1827, we find the 
following account of one of the inmates of the Stale Prison of 
Maine, where the utility and influence of solitude was fully tested 
and utterly condemned. 

'•In 'he case of .1. D. it was necessary to remove him to the 
Hospital four times, to enable him to endure tifiy-six days soli- 
tary confinement. The last time he was removed from his cell, 
he -hiveied like an aspen leaf; his pulse was very feeble; his artic- 
ulation could scarcely be heard from his bed to the grate of his 
cell, eight feet; and when he was taken out lie could scarcely 
stand alone. 

In another instance the unfortunate victim was found dead, on 
the morning of the fourth day of solitary confinement, having 
hung himself to the grate of his cell with a piece of the lashing of 
his hammock. As before remarked, this system is now wholly 
abandoned in the above named prison and solitary confinement is 
resorted to only to enforce prison discipline upon the refractory. 

Again, when, during' the years 1825-26, it was strongly urged 
upon the legislature of Pennsylvania, so to construct their prisons 



so; 



that solitary confinement might he effectually and systematically 
enforced, Gen. Lafayette employed the following strong- and con- 
clusive language in writing to one of his friends in this country: 

'•The people of Pennsylvania think that the system of solitary 
confinement is a new idea, a new discovery; not so, it is only the 
revival of the system of the Bastille. I hope they will consider 
the effect this system had on the poor prisoners there. I repaired 
to the scene, on the second day of the demolition and found that 
all the prisoners had heen deranged by their solitary confine- 
ment, except one; he had heen a prisoner twenty-five years. 
He looked around with amazement, for he had seen nobody dur- 
ing that space of time, and before night he was so much affected, 
that he became a confirmed maniac, from which situation he never 
reci vered.' ' 

Citizens of New Hampshire: in view of such statements, will 
you longer allow one hundred and fifty guiltless fellow-beings to 
languish unheeded, uncared for, cut oft' from hope and debarred 
the pale of sympathy and consolation? Will you longer deny re- 
lief and comfort to those whom an invisible hand has struck 
down, in mid career of usefulness, of industry and of honor? 
Times of ignorance alone God winks at; this can no longer be 
your plea; year after year has this subject been urged home upon 
you with arguments, with facts, with eloquence and with appeals 
to every sentiment of justice and of humanity. You may indeed, 
if you be so minded, turn a regardless ear to all this, but should 
you longer deny relief to guiltless insane captives, will not a 
thousand voices hereafter utter the fearful words of condemna- 
tion, "I was sii k and in prison, and ye visited me not?" 

W. 
Portsmouth Journal, June 2, 1838. 

MEETING OF THE FRIENDS OF THE INSANE AT CON- 
CORD, ON WEDNESDAY NEXT. 



It is now six years since the subject of a Hospital for the Insane 
was first brought before the public mind of this State. We be- 
lieve Gov. Dinsmoor was the first who alluded to it, in his mes- 
sage to the Legislature, June 7, 1832; and from that time to the 
present, it has been kept in view with greater or less distinctness, 
hut still without any decisive and efficient action. 

Each successive Governor has made the necessity and duty of 
establishing an Insane Hospital a prominent item in his message. 



86* 



Committees have been appointed by the Legislature to inquire 
into the need and expediency of such an Institution, and the re- 
ports have been that the numbers and sufferings of the Insane in 
New Hampshire, were such as to call for the immediate and unde- 
layed interposition of the Legislature in their behalf, no less <>n 
the grouud of justice than of humanity. "The maniac," says the 
Committee of 1834, "has been condemned a* no criminal was ever 
condemned, and has suffered as no criminal ever suffered. The 
code by which he has been adjudged, denounces against him the 
penalties due only to crime, while it is unmitigated by anj of 
those merciful provisions, which, in the penal code attemper 
justice with humanity. 

Appeals, under various forms have been made to the community, 
aud strenuous efforts put forth in behalf of these guiltless suffer- 
ers, and although the last Prison Discipline Report speaks with 
less encouragement and hope than heretofore upon ihis subject, 
yet we arc fullj confident that the moment for determined and ef- 
fectual effort has now arrived, and that the 18th of June, 1888, shall 
be looked back upon by thousands, as the brightest anniversary of 
their li\ e-. Henceforth we shall be able to proceed with system- 
atic and organized strength, and with a resoluteness of purpose 
sustained by the encouragement ami ardor ol thousands, whose 
individual efforts might indeed be unavailing, but whose concen- 
trated strength will fully suffice tor the accomplishment of the 
great and generous purpose lor which they have pledged their 
efforts. 

Lit then, every friend of this cause, whose avocations can per- 
mit hi- attendance, be present at Concord on Wednesday next, 

that we may show that our numbers are neither few nor scattered, 

that we may inform ourselves more thoroughly, as touching the 
procedure necessary to he adopted for the accomplishment of our 
purpose, and that we may gather new zeal and encouragement for 
the work upon which we have entered. 

To use the striking language of another, "we believe that the 
time has arrived when the caverns of oblivion, to which so many 
are yearly consigned, shall no longer be tilled with misery, unseen 
and unthought of; but that even their secluded cells shall be pen- 
etrated by the rays of benevolence, and the heart of the maniac 
captive be soothed and softened by the gentleness of compassion. 
Once more we call upon those to whom the happiness of thousands 
is given in charge to hear the groaning of the prisoner; to loose 
those that are appointed unto death. * ' \V. 

Portsmouth Journal, June 9, 18 18 



869 
ASYLUM FOK THE INSANE. 



The friends of Immunity will bo gratified to learn that we have 
now a fair prospect fur the establishment of an Asylum in New 
Hampshire. The bill to incorporate an Association for the pur- 
pose of establishing an Asylum, has become a law; it appropri- 
ates thirty shares of the New Hampshire Bank, being the prop- 
erty of the State, for the purpose of erecting the necessary estab- 
lishment, to be made over to the Association, whenever they shall 
hive furnished to the Governor satisfactory evidence, that fifteen 
thousand dollars has been raised from other sources, or secured to 
be appropriated to that object. 

As about one-third of the necessary sum has been already sub- 
scribed in our vicinity, the remaining ten thousand will doubtless 
be speedily taken up elsewhere, and we hope another year will 
find the site selected, the buildings completed, and one of the 
noblest charities of which our State can boast, exerting its life- 
giving influence over the unfortunate and suffering insane. 

We cannot forbear a word of commendation upon the assiduous 
industry of those gentlemen who have been so deeply impressed 
with the importance of the enterprise, that it seemed to breathe 
with every breath of their life. If acts of benevolence reward 
the benefactor, thrice happy are they. 

The matter of location we have never heard discussed. In 
whatever part of the State it may be, it should be in the most 
healthy location, a pure air, good scenery, and fertile land. Per- 
haps some benevolent individual who possesses such a site, may be 
disposed to bestow it for the purpose. 

Portsmouth Journal, July 7, 1838. 



370 
ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



The following gentlemen, residents ol the several towns in 
Rockingham county, will act as Agents for the New Hampshire 
Asylum for the Insane by taking charge of the subscription papers 
in their respective towns. They feel a deep interest in the snl>- 
ject, unci their exertions will very materially ■serve the benevolent 
object. It i> u> hoped that others ma) volunteer their services; 
and such as wish and any of the gentlemen named who have 
not been supplied will receive the subscription papers from the 
subscribers. Any documents needed, or any further information 
required, will be promptly furnished. 

We believe the county of Rockingham will do its duty. There 
is. we inist. no town which would try to escape its share of lliis 
burden; we feel confident something will be received from all. 
Many towns have already commenced their subscriptions liberally 

and freely. 

It i- deemed very important that the collection should be made 

as early as possible, in order tint the transfer of the Stock from 

the state should be made in December. The subscription papers 
should be sent hack to the Secretary of the Corporation , early in 
December, or - ter when practicable. 

It will he remembered that a subscription of fifty dollars con- 
stitutes the subscriber a member of the Corporation; also that a 
number can join in a subscription to that amount for the purpose 
of constituting any one a member. 

The subscribers in Portsmouth tire requested, as soon as it may 
hi' convenient, to pay the amount they have subscribed. 

S E. COUES, 
A. W HAVEN. 



Committee for l/u j County of Rockingham.. 



Danville, Nicholas Quimby, Esq. , Rev. Joseph Fullerton, Dea- 
con Thomas Colby. 

Sandown, Samuel Pillsbury, Esq., Eliphalet Hunt, Esq. 

Newton, Matthias Bartletfc, Esq., E. R. Currier, Esq., J. G. 
Gale, M. 1). 

Candia, Moses Lane, Esq., Moses Sargent, Esq., Rev. Mr. 
Russell. 

Hampstead, Lorenzo Batchelder, Esq., Rev. J. N. C. Bartley, 
Andrew 15. Marshall, Esq. 

Seabrook, E. Dearborn, M. D., Rev. Sereno T. Abbot. John 
Philbrick, Esq. 

North Hampton., Moses L. Hobbs, M. D., Nathaniel Batch- 
elder, Esq., Rev. Jona French. 

Atkinson, Lion. John Vose, Dr. Hovey. 

Brentwood, Joseph Graves, Esq., Joseph Dalton. M. D., Rev. 
Mr. Gunnison. 

Deerfleld, S. Brown. M. D., Ira St. Clair, Esq., H. G. Cilley, 
E<q. , Peter Jenness, Esq. , Dudley Freese, Esq. 

East Kingston, Amos Merrill, Esq., Capt. Sanborn, Amos 
Tilton, Esq. 

Hampton, Ebenezer Lawrence, M. D. , Rev. Mr. Eldridge. 

Hampton Falls, Levi Lane, Esq., Wells Healey, Esq., John 
Weare, Esq. 

Kensington, Hon. Smith Lamprey, Ira Blake, Esq., Dr. Osgood. 

Kingston, J. Bartlett, M. D. , Isaac Webster, Esq. 

Londonderry, Benjamin Mack, Esq., Deacon J. Holmes, Dr. 
Sawyer. 

Herri/, James Thorn, Esq. 

Newington, Cyrus Frink, Esq., Winthrop Pickering', Esq. 

Eye, Jona Philhrick, Esq., T. J. Parsons, E^q. 

Stratham, James Foss, E^q., Dr. Bartlett. 

Greenland, Dr. Brown, Rev. S. W. Clark. 

Newmarket, G. W. Kittredge, M. D., Benj. M. Wheatland, 
Esq., Col. J. B. Creighton. 

Nottingham, Joseph L. Cilley, Esq., Hon. Bradbury Bartlett, 
Col. Joseph Cilley. 

Plaistow, Dr. Kelley, Col. Stephen Tucker. 

Poplin, D. B. Chase, Esq., Perley Robinson, Esq. 

Raymond, Joseph Blake, Esq. , Stephen Osgood, Esq. 

Salem, Hon. John Woodbury, Rev. Mi-. Gushing. 



872 



South Hampton, John Palmer, Esq., J. White, Esq., And 
Brown, Esq. 

Windham, Isaac M'Gan, Esq., Col. Alexander Parks, Jr., Dr. 
A. 1*. Putman. 

Epping, William Phimer, Jr., Esq. 

Chester, Hon. Samuel Bell, Rev. Mr. ('lenient. II. S. French, Esq, 

X'irtliiriiiiil , Ebenezer Coe, Esq., lion. John Harvey. 

Newcastle, T. Tarlton, Esq. 

Exeter, Dr. Perry. J. Sullivan, Esq., George Gardner, Esq, 

Portsmouth, S. E. (one-. Alfred W. Haven. 

Portsmouth Journal, Oct. 20, 1888. 

iNSAXi: ASYLUM. 



It will l»- Been by a notice h r advertising columns, thai the 

animal meeting of the Corporation will he held at Concord in a 
few weeks. Although many liberal donations have been made, 
yel much more i- needed before the work can he accomplished. It 
is tu lie hoped that those to whom circulars were addressed in 
October, will make a return of their doings before tin 1 animal 
meeting, whether they have been enabled to accomplish little or 
much. Let all those who have not yel contributed for this benev- 
olent purpose, come forward and enroll their names as the friends 
of the unfortunate insane. It i- a charity of which no donor can 
lie assured that he will not, at some future time, he a partaker. 

Portsmouth Journal, Dee. 15, 1888. 

X. II. ASYLUM FOR Till; IXSAXE. 



We congratulate the friend- of the- Asylum of the Insane for 
New 1 lamp-hire on the prospect for complete success. ( There can 

he no doubt hut that a refuge for ''the afflicted" will now he pro- 
vided. We leel great satisfaction that the appeal to the citizens of 
I hi- Slate ha- been so promptly responded to. 

The subscription and the donation from the State together are 
sufficient for the erection of the necessary buildingi — but more is 
wanted. A fund should be created BO that the interest may re- 
duce the expenses of the Asylum, that it- door- may be open to all. 
The poor must be taken care of, and the price of board placed 



373 



so low that it will be within thu reach of every one who is insane. 
We have been requested once more to call the attention of the cit- 
izens of those towns which have yet done nothing, to the neces- 
sity of immediate exertion. There are many towns in this neigh- 
borhood which have made no report. Are the citizens of these 
towns willing to place their share of the burden upon others? 

We are also requested to state that it is considered a great object 
to make the collections as speedily as possible. The subscribers 
in this town and vicinity are reminded that a prompt attention to 
the payment of their subscriptions will be an additional aiil to the 
cause. An account is opened at the Piseataqua Bank, and money 
deposited will he placed to the credit of the Treasurer, with the 
name ot the donor. 

Portsmouth Journal, Jan. 19, 1839. 



INSANE ASYLUM. 



The question is frequently asked, why is not the site of the 
contemplated Asylum selected, and the work progressing? The 
following is the explanation, given by the editor of the Claremont 
Eagle. It appears to be a sine qua nun with the State regency 
that the location shall be at Concord. AVe have no doubt that the 
subscribers in this vicinity (and the proportion is not small; are 
willing to abide the decision of the committee appointed to select 
(he site, whether it be in Rockingham, Cheshire, or Sullivan 
County — but they are very unwilling to be under arbitrary. dicta- 
tion. It is to be hoped that petty local predilections or party ani- 
mosities, will not impede a work which was undertaken in christ- 
ian benevolence, contributed to by the hand of true philanthropy, 
and if completed in a right spirit, will be a meet residence for the 
angel of mercy. 

Asylum FOR the Insane. It is to be regretted that this impor- 
tant work is not advancing more rapidly towards completion. It 
is now nearly a year since the act of incorporation was granted, 
and yet but <i little more than a commencement has been made. 
The requisite amount of individual subscription was raised four 
months ago, the Trustees of the Institution on the part of the 
State and the corporation were appointed, and a committee chosen 
to select a site for the erection of the necessary buildings. At this 
point the matter seems to have come to a dead stand, in conse- 



871 



quence, it is given out, of tlic course taken by the Governor in 
the premises. The sixth section of the act of incorporation is as 
follows: — 

"Sec. 6. Ami Ik it further enacted, That Thirty Shares of the 
Stock which the Slate now owns in the New Hampshire Bank be 
and the same are hereby made oxer to the New Hampshire Asylum 
for the Insane in aid of its benevolent objects: Provided, this 
section -hall not take effect until satisfactory evidence shall be 
presented to tbe Governor, thai the sum of Fifteen Thousand Dol- 
lar- has been paid or secured to he paid, by individuals or from 
other sources than t lie above grant, and thereupon tht Governor 
shall issue his ord> r to the Tn asurt r of l/n' State. Directing him 
to transfer to I In- corporation the said Ihirty Shares, and the 
suiii Treasurer is hereby authorized and required to make said 
transfer accordingly. " 

We learn from the Keene Sentinel, that on the 9th of January 
last, tin' Governor was called upon to transfer the State fund, ami 
agreed to do so when the Trustees appointed by the corporation 
should file n certificate that they believed the fifteen thousand dol- 
lars to be had by individual subscription was raised and would be 
secured for (he object. They did so before leaving Concord, but 
no measures have yet been taken to transfer the State fund into 
the bands of the Treasurer of the corporation. In view of this 
extraordinary course oji the pari of the Governor the Locating 
committee decline to proceed and incur expenses, and measures 
have been taken to secure the individual fund, and put the saute 
out at interest. Nearly fifteen thousand out of about eighteen 
thousand subscribed have been paid into the treasury. 

There i- something in the conduct of the Governor in this mat- 
ter thai requires explanation, if indeed it be not wholly inexplica- 
ble. The term- of the grant are plain and IMPERATIVE. The 
moment "satisfactory evidence" is in possession of the Governor 
that the stini of, fifteen thousand has been paid by individuals, in 
aid of the establishment of the Asylum, he i- required to issue Ins 
order for the transfer of the state fund. Such evidence, it ap- 
pears, ha- been presented. Why then is the bounty of the Slate 
withheld? Why i- the work retarded at a season when much 
progress might be made in putting matters in train for energetic 
operation- hereafter? The Concord Courier says, the Governor 
ha- pursued an • 'unfair and shuffling'' course towards the corpo- 
rate n, and intimites that an explanation of the causes of the 
delay will soon be forthcoming from the Trustees. 



375 



AVe hope it will not turn out that His Excellency has been gov- 
erned in his conduct by any paltry considerations of a local and 
sectional character, and that his ill-timed opposition to the ad- 
vancement of this benevolent work arises from a fear that Con- 
cord may not be selected as the place of location for the Asylum. 
It has been said that there is no use in having an Asylum for the 
Insane, unless it can be at Concord, and from the Governor's 
tardiness in helping on the work, it is possible he assents to the 
truth of the declaration — a declaration, we add, which is the very 
essence of selfishness and illiberality, and can meet the approval 
of no one who has a heart for the welfare of the suffering' Insane. 
That there is a strong fueling of opposition in the public mind to 
having the proposed Institution at the Capital, is undeniable. 
The prejudices of some have carried them so far that their sub- 
scriptions have been given only on the condition, expressed in 
writing, that some other place than Concord should be selected. 
This singling out of a particular place so pointedly may seem 
ungenerous if nor spiteful. Perhaps it is so, but we are per- 
suaded that (he opposition arises front no ill will or improper 
feeling towards the enterprising citizens of Concord. Far from 
it. There are reasons why Concord is not the most eligible place 
for such tin Institution. If that town, however, will give more 
than any other in the State towards the erection of the Hospital, 
she will probably get it. 

Portsmouth Journal, May 18, 1839. 

INSANE ASYLUM. 



There seems to be a contest going on. whether the subscribers 
■or the trustees have the power to choose the location. In the 
meantime nothing is done, and the Insane are left to their suffer- 
ing, when the money has been got together for their relief. 

How is this quarrel to be settled? 1 believe there can be no 
necessity for contending, and I am against, all contention that is 
not necessary. Now 1 have no doubt but both parties have done 
wrong, as they usually do when they oppose each other. Which 
is the most in the wrong I do not think worth while to decide; but 
1 propose the following settlement: 

Let the Trustees say they will abide by the report of the Com- 
juittee out of the State; let the Corporation say the same. The 



Committee being authorized by both, can go to work without 
raising the question under whose authority they act. 

I feel convinced that this course will quiet the troubles, and 
that all the friends of the Institution here will agree thai is the 
right way of avoiding any further dispute. Subscriber. 



INSANE ASYLUM. 



The difficulties which attended the progress of the Asylum have 
been done away. The Corporation lia* appointed Drs. Bell, 
Woodward and Rockwell t<> report to the Trustees the most Buit- 
able location, whose report is to be final and conclusive. The 
Trustees have voted that the report of the said gentlemen shall be 
final. We thus have an intelligent and impartial locating com- 
mittee whose decision is to be final, supported by the concurrent 
vote of: the subscribers and by the Board of Trustees. 

\ sub-committee, whose duty it i- to examine the different 
Mir-, when requested, to receive proposals and to aid the locating 
committee, (but without any vote in the location) has been also 
appointed, by a concurrent vote. This committee consists of the 
three gentlemen appointed for thai purpose by the Trustees and 
the three gentlemen appointed by the Corporation. 

Much ol the difficulty, now so happily ended, has arisen front 
the t 'orporation claiming all the powers in the management of the 
Asylum. By their rude of by-laws, uo power was surrendered 
except n itli the provision "until otherwise ordered by the ( 'orpo- 
ration." After some debate, these limitations were' stricken from 
the by-laws by an almost unanimous vote of the Corporation. 
And we arc happy to add that harmony and confidence appear to 
be full) restored. 

Mr. Atherton of Amherst, was chosen one of the Trustees in 
place of William Hale of Dover, who declined accepting the ap- 
pointment. 

The advertisement for the proposals for the location, appears in 
our paper; we trust our citizens will as early ax possible hand to 
the < lommittee their propositions. < ' 

Portsmouth Journal, June 15, 1839. 

Insane Asylum. The location lias not yet been officially an- 
nounced, but it is rumored on all hands that Portsmouth has been 
selected. Tlic papers of the interior of the Stale generally speak 



with approbation of the decision, should it so be. The following 
we copy from the Claremont Eagle: 

Insane Hospital. — We understand that the Locating Commit- 
tee, consisting of Messrs. Bell, Woodward and Rockwell, at their 
meeting at Worcester last week, were of the unanimous opinion 
4 hat the Hospital should be located at Portsmouth. This decision 
will of course he final— SO that the vexed question of location is 
disposed of. Portsmouth is not, in some respects, so eligible a 
place as might have been selected, but she offered about as much 
ajrain — thirty thousand dollars — towards the institution as any 
other town in the Slate, provided it were located in her limits. 
Pecuniary considerations should undoubtedly have much weight in 
such case— as the resources of an institution of the kind should be 
as abundant as possible — and perhaps they should outweigh all 
others, unless the place which presents them be in other respects 
very objectionable. This is not the case with Portsmouth, and 
although its distance from some sections of the State may be an 
objection with some, yet we are satisfied the people, and the cor- 
poration, will cheerfully acquiesce in the decision of the commit- 
tee. — Claremont Eagle. 

The spirit of the Concord papers is not so amicable. Various 
arguments arc brought forward to show the advantage of that 
town over Portsmouth. There is but one however, that of being 
more central, which has any weight. The peculiar advantages of 
Portsmouth, aside from its donation, would more than counter- 
balance all that can l*e said of other siles. 

Portsmouth Journal, Aug. 17, 1839. 
INSANE ASYLUM. 



We understand that a meeting of the Trustees will be held at 
Concord early in September; and we rejoice to believe that there 
is an end to all the difficulties attending this institution. It is to 
he hoped that progress will be made this autumn; so that the 
building can be made ready for the reception of the patients dur- 
ing the next year. 

As far as we can judge from the remarks of the papers in the 
Slate, the public are well satisfied with the location, with the, ex- 
ception of the town of Concord. Even there, there is no serious 
objection to the location, excepting on the ground that if is not 



378 



sufficiently central. But it appears that there are advantages suffi- 
cient to overbalance thi<. The change of air, and scenery, and 
diet, to those who come from ihe interior, will amply repay for 
the additional travel. Besides this, the extreme beauty of the >itcs 
that can be had, the large sum which is given by the town, the 
very strong interest which has ever been manifested by our citi- 
zens will tend tci reconcile all ii- friends) to this location. We have 
no doubt that those who are disappointed in the decision of the 
committee, will cheerfully acquiesce, We rest on their good faith, 
and on their spirit of accommodation , to the necessity of the case. 
Surely, if any other town had been .-elected, our citizens would 
have concurred in it. and we do not doubt hut our friends in the 
interior v\ ill do the same. 

We true! there will he now a perfect unanimity among the 
friends of the institution. Tin 1 committee of location was chosen 
unanimously by the corporation, and ten if not eleven of the 
i w eh e trustees assented to the arrangement. 

We are pleased to see that economy in the expenditure of the 
funds of the institution i- referred to, by many. We want no 
costl) building. Everything should he done to bring down the 
expenditures to the lowesl sum that will effect the object. We 
should suppose thai $20,000 would he enough to complete the 
building, leaving the balance of the funds to reduce the dehl to 
the patients for their hoard at the Asj luiu. 

Portsmouth Journal, Aug. 81, 1889. 

INSANE HOSPITAL. 



.I//-. Editor:—] learn from the papers, and from current report, 
that the Trustees of the Asylum for the Insane have had a meet- 
ing al Concord, to receive and act upon tin' report of the Com- 
mittee of location. The decision of that Committee was, that 
Portsmouth should he the place where the Asylum should In- 
fixed. Bui tlii— decision, it appears, does not meet the approba- 
tion of all the Trustees: five of whom voted to reject the report. 
This number is a minority of the board, which consists of twelve, 
eleven of whom were present. But it i> reported thai this minor- 
ity threatened to withdraw, and thus prevent a quorum, if the 
majority proceeded to act further upon the report? 

It should he remembered, however, that this report of the Corn- 



„-p 



mil tec of locntion was not an open question ; it was not a thing 
for the Trustees to rote upon (it all. The Corporation, at their 
meeting in June last, directed that the report shout/I be final. The 
Trustees also, at a meeting held on the same day as that of the 
Corporation, appointed the same gentlemen as their committee of 
location, and also voted that the report should be final. Tims 
putting at rest all questions of etiquette or jurisdiction as to the 
choice of -~ : i i < 1 committee, and both Corporation and Trustees 
agreeing in ;. positive vote that the decision of the committee 
should lie final. Besides all this the most positive pledges of honor 
were given by three if not all of the now dissenting trustees, that 
they would not attempt to interfere with the decision of the locat- 
ing committee, bul when it was made would act according to it. 

These pledges were given, and these mutual votes passed, as 
measure- of pacification, when some proceedings at Concord had 
excited suspicions of unfairness, and hud determined a large num- 
ber of subscribers to seek a dissolution of the Corporation . Yet 
now. this same minority of the Trustees refuse to conform to their 
own vote; break their word of honor, to which the members of 
I he ( Corporation were prevailed upon to give faith, and threaten to 
withdraw from the hoard, and prevent a quorum if the majority 
presume to go on and act upon the report of the locating com- 
mittee. 

If the above statements, which we obtain in part only from cur- 
rent report, he correct, it seems very clear to my mind that such 
men are unworthy to be trusted with any part in the administra- 
tion of a sacred charity; and that they ought to he removed, or 
else the corporation he dissolved. Among their very first actions 
a- holders of the trust, we see them disturbing, by local prejudices 
and selfish pus. ions, the harmony which should exist among mem- 
bers of a benevolent institution; we see them ready to sacrifice its 
pecuniary interests by giving up $22,000 of its funds, which the 
town of Portsmouth offer, oh the single condition that the build- 
ings should he erected here: and in short evincing a determination 
to have the whole under their own control, or to destroy the insti- 
tution : and this too. while they know they are acting contrary to 
the wishes of an overwhelming majority of the subscribers, both 
in numbers, and in amount of subscription. 

In the present -talc of things, we think it highly important that 
the majority of the hoard of Trustees should publish a plain 
statement of the facts, a history of the whole proceedings, from 
(he record- of the ( Corporation, and of the Trustees, so that aulhen- 



880 



tic information may be before t lie public. This, at least, is due to 
their constituents, and to the public generally, and to their own 
characters. The friends of this benevolent enterprise have a right 
to know why it is that their funds are kept locked up unused; why 
it is that the suffering insane are left in their dens and dungeons, 
without a ray of hope for their relief. We have a light to demand 
tlii— information from an official source, so that the sin may be 
laid at the right door. Let this information be spread before the 
public; and then let a meeting of the Corporation be forthwith 
called, and such measures will be taken as the cause of humanity 
ami duty may require. A SUBSCRIBER. 

Portsmouth Journal, Sept. 21, 1889. 

X. II. ASYLUM. 



After all the exertions which have been made, for several years, 

by individuals, actuated by the purest motives of humanity, to 

effect the establishment of an Asylum for the suffering insane, it 

i- almost incredible that the object is to be defeated by the misman- 
agement, or selfish views of one or two individuals. The public' 
bad a light to believe that the question of location of the institu- 
tion was fairly, amicably and honorably SETTLED, and that the erec- 
tion of the buildings would immediately commence. The locating 
committee were selected on account of their high qualifications, 
and superior intelligence upon the subject. All parties concerned 
agreed to submit to their decision. Indeed, it is distinctly under- 
stood that a majority of the Trustees, in order If) avoid the possi- 
bility of subsequent disagreement, entered into a written pledge 
to abide by the decision when it should be made. Such a pledge 
cannot be violated without attaching to the violators the highest 
degree of dishonor, unless indeed it can be proved that the locat- 
ing committee acted corruptly. Such an insinuation lias been 
thrown out in the X. II. Patriot, without any proof. Bill the 
high characters of the Committee, in the absence of all proof, can- 
not, in the slightest degree, suffer from such a wanton insinua- 
tion. It was naturally to be expected that a number, if not many 
towns should be disappointed in respect to the location. For that 
very reason the Trustees pledged their honor to abide by the de- 
cision. Had Nashua, Keene, Hanover. Salisbury, Concord, Hop- 
kiiiton, or Pembroke been selected, the people of the Eastern see- 



381 



tion would have acquiesced, and spurned tlie very idea of entering 
into an intrigue to induce the Trustees to violate their pledged 
honor. We view the plan to overthrow the institution, unless it 
should be located at Concord, with some degree of horror as well 
as indignation. As the case now stands, it is too apparent that 
the Corporation will be dissolved, unless the report of the locat- 
ing committee shall be fairly carried into effect. It may not be ex- 
pedient, at present, to assign the reasons which lead to this con- 
clusion, for we yet have some faint hope that some of the minority 
of the Hoard of Trustees may be convinced of the impropriety of 
their conduct, and act in good faith. But, to speak plainly, in 
respect to the late Gov. Isaac Hill we have no such hope. He is 
the cause of all the unhappy embarrassment that has occurred. 

His inveterate hatred of Portsmouth, and his selfish views to 
fix the location at Concord, will not permit him to alter his course. 
He may perhaps defeat the location at Portsmouth, but he has not 
sufficient power, for very conclusive reasons, ever to fix it at Con- 
cord. The location at Pembroke would unite advantages far 
superior to any location that could be found in any part of Con- 
cord. Surely we have no prejudices against Concord, or its high- 
minded inhabitants. We were in favor of locating the State 
House there, as a public record shows; but the location of the 
Asylum is a very different matter. Within a few years past we 
have heard learned lecturers on the subject of the requisites, the 
beautiful scenery in proximity to a flowing river, and various 
other things deemed essential to a proper location. No part of 
Concord possesses the peculiar advantages required. And but few 
such eligible sites can be found, we think, in the whole extent of 
Portsmouth. Were all the reasons, which influenced the Commit- 
tee, fully disclosed, the public would more fully perceive the wis- 
dom and the fitness of the location. The only objection raised by 
the Concord Trustee to Portsmouth, is that the latter is not the 
centre of the State, and therefore there would be an extra ex- 
pense of travel. Now is Concord the centre of the State in 
respect to territory or population? The objection has but little 
weight. The location at Portsmouth would increase the travel in 
respect to some parts of the Slate, while it would reduce it about 
as much in respect to other parts. As a public consideration there- 
fore it is not very important. In a few years we may travel on 
the railroad from Portsmouth to Nashua in two or three hours, so 
that the people of Cheshire and Hillsborough counties would find 
an easy conveyance for the insane from that place. The populous 



882 



counties of Strafford and Rockingham, on account of distance, 
would of course prefer Portsmouth to Concord. Nor need ever 
Concord complain any more in respect to distance about sending 
her insane down here, than we do about sending our Representa- 
tives, or stale convicts up there. Let Concord raise as large o 
fund a* Portsmouth has, before she claim- the ascendancy over all 
Other towns. Thirty thousand dollars is no small sum for one 
town to he-tow for such a charitable institution. The praise- 
worthy libera lity of Portsmouth, in this instance, has never before 
been equalled in this state. And some of her citizens have for 
years been foremost in the struggle to effect the grand object, so 
ardently desired by the friends of humanity. It is probable, very 
probable, that Gov. Hill's vast influence may defeat the whole. 
[f so, would he not be, in some measure, responsible for the con- 
tinued sufferings of the insane? Humanity. 
Portsmouth Journal, Sept. 29, 1839. 

LOCATION OF THE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



For some official ai mil of the strange proceedings nl the late 

meeting of the Hoard of Trustees, the public have been looking. 
We give below the statements of two members of the Board, 
which present a pretty full view of the subject. The closing par- 
agraph of Mv. ('one-,' statement is an expression of his individ- 
ual opinion only, not as a trustee but as a subscriber. We trust. 

thai if it had l n decided by the committee who were vested with 

full power, that the location should beat Concord, oral any other 
place, not a sound of opposition would have been heard, evi-ry 
subscription in Portsmouth would have been promptly paid, lint 
when it comes to the point that no decision of the committeeis 
acceptable unless Concordis the spot — we trust that but few would 
submit to such unwarrantable dictation. 



3s; 
N. II. ASYLUM. 

Mr. Editor: — At a meeting. of the Trustees of the N. II. Asy- 
lum for the Insane, hoklen at Concord on the 11th of September, 
1839, it was unanimously voted that the proceedings of said meet- 
ing be published in full in some of the newspapers of this State, 
and the Secretary was accordingly instructed to prepare copies of 
said proceedings and forward them to certain printers for the pur- 
pose of publication. This not having as yet been done, and the 
same causes which have thus far induced the Secretary to delay 
the matter being, perhaps, still in operation, I have thought good, 
in compliance with the often made request of the friends of the 
institution, to prepare for your paper such an account of the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting of the Trustees aforesaid, as my memory 
will serve mo to; leaving it to the Secretary to correct from the 
written records, which he has not yet been pleased to publish, any 
error into which 1 may inadvertently fall. 

The meeting was called to order by the chairman of the board, 
Mr. Steele ot Peterboro. On motion of Mi'. Conant of Jaffrey, 
the board proceeded to organize under the amended charter, elect- 
ing the same officers as before, and changing the name of chairman 
to that of President. The yeas and nays being called upon Mr. 
Conant's motion, stood thus: yeas. -Conant, Low, Peaslee, Hill, 
•Steele, Crosby. Nays-Twitchell, Atherton, Abbott, Coues, Haven. 

Mr. Atherton then moved that the Report of the Locating Com- 
mittee be read, which being done, Mr. Atherton further moved 
that it be accepted and acted upon. Upon which motion the yeas 
and nays being called, stood thus: yeas — Twitchell, Atherton. 
Abbott, Coues, Haven. Kays — Conant, Low, Peaslee, Hill, 
Steele, Crosby. 

A long discussion then ensued, wherein no little reproach was 
■east by Mr. Hill, both upon the Locating Committee, and the 
members from Portsmouth for tampering with said Committee, 
and wo were further assured by the same individual that the peo- 
ple of Portsmouth had no desire whatever that the Hospital should 
be located in their town, and that the appropriation of the surplus 
revenue had been made against the consent of the people of said 
town. When it was now near midnight, a reconsideration of the 
vote upon Mr. Atherton 's motion was made by Mr. Crosby 
and seconded by Mr. Coues; when Mr. Steele had serious doubts 
whether it were his duty to put the question of reconsideration un- 
less the motion was not only made but seconded by some one who 
had voted in the negative on the previous trial of the question. His 



S«4 



run -cient ions scruples beingat length overcome, t lie yeas and nays 
(involving the acceptance or rejection of the report of the Locat- 
ing Committee) were taken, ami Stood as follows : yea; — Twitch- 
ell, Atherton, Abbott, Coues, Haven, Crosby, [nays — Conant, 
Low, Peaslee, Hill. Steele. 

Mr. Peaslee then informed us that the absent member of the 
board, Mr. Quincy of Rumney, would doubtless vote against the 
acceptance of the Report, and Mr. Hill thought it would be but 
deferential to the member from Rumney, for the board to adjourn 
until he could be present, and quoted, as a precedent, the some- 
times adjournment of the L'. S. .Senate when any distinguished 
member, as Mr. Webster, or Mr. Clay, was absent, and an im- 
portant question was about to be voted upon. But when this de- 
sign of Mr. Hill did not succeed, Mr. Peaslee requested to be 
informed in what manner so small a majority could possibly hope 
to act with any prospect of S :eSS, when there was so large a 

minority determined in all things to oppose them. Whereupon 
the chairman of the board, Mr. Steele of Peterboro, moved thai 
the meeting adjourn to the 20th .June, 1840, and the yeas and 
nays being called, stood a- follows: yeas — Conant, Low. Peaslee, 
Hill, Steele, Crosby, Abbott. Nays— Coues, Twitchell, Ather- 

tOU, I lav tii, 

Mr. Abbott's vote was, we presume, inadvertently given. It 
was in vain that the minority protested against this ill-limed de- 
lay — in vain that they appealed again and again in behalf of five 
hundred suffering Insane, for whose relief the sum of $60,000 
had been obtained, and was intrusted to men who were thus 
ready, from the most paltry sectional considerations, to fall back 
from their written pledges and from the assurances which they 
had made to a high-minded, ami impartial Committee of Location, 
that the decision of said Committee should be final. 

I have thus. Mr. Editor, offered you a brief statement touching 
the proceedings of the Trustees of the X. II. Asylum, at their 
meeting in Concord on the evening of the 11th nil. If in any- 
thin* 1 have erred, the Secretary can set the public right when he 
shall see tit to comply with the vote of the Trustees, ordering a 
publication of the proceedings of the evening aforesaid. 

On those who at an illegal meeting of the Trustees, holden 
sonic months since, and at which a quorum was not present, rec- 
ommended an alteration of the Charter, taking all power from the 
Corporation, and vesting it in the Trustees, falls the first blame 
that this great charity is thus frustrated. It is not the least evil 



385 



of wrong doing that it makes right doing difficult. And a single 
illegal and wholly unjustifiable step at that early period has re- 
sulted in the overthrow of an institution, for whose advancement 
and success so many have labored long and diligently. , 

Yours, &c., George AV. Haven. 

As the Trustees of the N. II. Asylum for the Insane have been 
called upon for information of their doings in relation to their 
trust, I do not deem that any apology is necessary for adding to 
the statements from Mr. Haven such facts as appear to me neces- 
sary for the understanding of the position in which the asylum 
now stands. 

At the commencement of the enterprise it was supposed that 
sufficient funds to accomplish it could not be obtained, either from 
the State alone, or from private subscription. It was determined 
therefore to ask of the State $15,000, to be given on the condition 
that the same sum should be secured for the object by individuals. 
It was therefore a joint undertaking being neither a State institu- 
tion exclusively, nor a private Corporation; and by the charter, 
was to be managed by a board of twelve Trustees, eight of whom 
were to be chosen by the Corporation and four to be appointed by 
the State. By an omission, in the Charter no reference is male 
to the location of the Asylum; and the question, "does the power 
to decide upon the location belong to the Corporation or to the 
Trustees," became immediately a cause of contention. 

At the first meeting of the Corporation the Board of Trustees 
and other officers were chosen, agreeably to the provisions of the 
Charter. At the second meeting the Corporation proceeded to 
exercise the right, which they believed belonged to them, of locat- 
ing the Asylum by choosing a locating Committee. This was in 
January last. The locating committee however were not called 
together, as the Governor refused to transfer to the Corporation 
the money granted by the State, alleging as the reason, that the 
< ' irporation had assumed power which should of right be exer- 
cised by the Trustees alone. 

When it was found that the State funds were not, on this ac- 
count, paid over to the Treasurer of the Corporation, it appeared 
to many of the friends of the enterprise that there was great 
danger that the object would be lost; some wished that the Cor- 
poration should be dissolved because they saw no prospect of har- 
monious action, and a large number of the subscribers signed a 
cali for a meeting "to see if the subscribers would consent to dis- 



•M 



solve the Corporation." A short time before this meeting was t<> 
have been held, a meeting of the Trustees was appointed with 
tin' hope of settling the difficulties and of being able to proceed to 
flu' work: Five only of the Trustees attended. These were 
Mi'^in. Abbott, Lowe. 1'easlee, Steele anil Cones. As this 
number did not constitute a quorum the meeting was informal. 
The gentlemen who assembled believed however that the difficulty 
could be adjusted to the satisfaction of both parties claiming the 
right to loeate. They voted to recommend to the Legislature to 
give definitely to the Trustees full powers, and appointed on their 
pari Doctors Woodward, Rockwell and Bell, (he Locating Com- 
mittee. This satisfied the < roveruor, who immediately transferred 
the funds: and. as the Corporation had in their previous meeting 
expressed full confidence in the gentlemen nominated for the lo- 
cating Committee, it was believed that this proceeding would 
fully satisfy the ( 'orporalion. 

Soon after, in June last, both the Trustees and the ('orporalion 
held their meetings at Concord. To avoid collision, and to prn- 
venf any contest about (he right to locate it was concluded In 
irniri the question; and both the Trustees and the Corporation, 

by separate votes, concurred in appointing Doctors Woodward, 

Rockwell and Hell, the locating Committee; and Imlli the Board 
of '/'rushes and tin Corporation voted that the decision of this 
Committee should be fln<il. In the Corporation this vote was 
passed unanimously, one or two only dissenting in (his numerous 
body. In the Board of Trustees it was passed by a vote of nine, 
vtz.: Messrs. Quincy, Crosby, Abbott, TwitcheJ I, 1'easlee, Lowe, 
Atherton, Haven and ('ones: Messrs. Hill and Conant were ab- 
sent . and Mr. Steele declined to vote. 

The Locating Committee attended to their assigned duty and 
reported that the Asylum be located at Portsmouth. The board 
Of Trustees as has been stated, in their last meeting have virtually 

rejected this Report, Messrs. Hill, Peaslee, Steele, Conant and 

Lowe, being against the location at Portsmouth, Mr. Quincy 
absent and Mr. Crosby having voted to defer the decision until 
dune next. This has {nit off for another \ ear at least the building 
of (he Asylum. 

The gentlemen who have thus prevented the acceptance of the 
report have acted differently from what I expected they would 
aet. and in my opinion have done wrong. However, the responsi- 
bility for their thus voting is on them, not on me, and my object 
in making this statement is not to criminate others, but to free 



387 



myself and the otlier gentlemen who were ready to accept the 
report of the Locating Committee and to carry into effect their 
recommendation, from the blame of deferring year after year the 
relief to the Insane, when there is a capital of about $60,000, 
ready for this object. My term of office as Trustee expires by lot 
so soon as to preclude the necessity of my resignation; but I do 
not deem it right or proper to act again on a Board with the ma- 
jority of whom I differ so much in opinion of what is right . 

Whatever aspects this controversy may have assumed, the only 
real point of difference is in the choice of a location. There 
never has been any other difficulty, any other trouble. It was 
from the beginning a contest where the Asylum should be built. 
My duty as an individual subscriber appears clear to me. Itelief 
to the Insane is the true object to be obtained, and if a majority of 
the Board of Trustees, after due consideration, decide against 
what I deem the most suitable location in point of fact, and the 
<mly proper location because selected by a Committee of their own 
appointment I shall feel it wrong to attempt to throw any obsta- 
cles in their way, for on them will devolve the responsibility of 
relieving the wants of the Insane. In this case I will yield rather 
than contend, and in place of attempting to break down the Cor- 
poration because others have the control of it, I would rather 
abandon to them my subscription, with the earnest wish that they 
might succeed in their attempt to alleviate the sufferings of the 
Insane. If they fail I consider it better that the amount of the 
subscription should be lost than that I should keep myself in this 
exciting controversy, and if needs be I will exert myself to the 
utmost to aid in the establishment of an Asylum which shall ac- 
complish the purpose. 

But I am not yet without hope that the Asylum may be built 
according to the Report of the Locating Committee. The vote 
of the absent Trustee may be for the Report, and further light 
may change the opinion of some who voted against it; but if not — 
if a majority otherwise decide, 1 should feel it wrong to keep up a 
state of warfare in order to prostrate their plans, and thus leave 
(he Insane without relief. Samuel E. Coles. 

Portsmouth Jonrafit, Oct. 5, 183!). 



38R 



The following' remarks on the proceedings of the Trustees we 
cop.v from the National Eagle, published at Claremont. There 
is but little doubt but Mr. Hill's chicanery will leave the Buffer- 
ings of the Insane of our State unmitigated for the present age. 

Asylum fob the Insane. The Keene Museum thinks that no 
compromise can be effected, as there seems to be no probability of 
effecting one. that the Portsmouth people had better expend their 
fund- upon a hospital of their own, and the citizens of Keene 
and vicinity take measures to have one established in their midst. 
We have always supposed that if the decision of the locating com- 
mittee should be annulled, the Portsmouth subscription would be 
devoted to the establishment of a hospital in that section. The 
funds are ample, and we Bee not why it may not be done. If the 
people of Concord and Keene then wish similar establishments in 
their towns, let them increase their fund- and appropriate them 
accordingly. 

We fear, however, that the Insane of tin- State will not soon 
meet with such ample accommodations. There is great danger, if 
the decision of the locating committee should be reversed, that 
nothing will be done at present towards alleviating the suffering's 
of Ibis class of our citizens. An apathy on the subject will follow 
that must be the death of any new project. Instead of advancing 
we shall go backwards in the work of philanthropy, and those who 
were to be benefitted by the recent movement in this state in 
behalf of the insane, must remain as they are. For Ibis great 
stale of (bines they may bless the name of that great mad man, 
I-aac Hill and his coadjutors! 

Since the above paragraphs were written, the Portsmouth Jour- 
nal of Saturday has been received containing communications on 
the subject from two of the Trustees. George W. Haven and 
Sammuel K. Cones, of Portsmouth. Mr. Haven, in compliance 
with the repeated calls of the friends of the institution, gives an 
account of the stormy meeting of the Trustees at Concord on the 
evening of tin; 11th of September. His statements correspond 
with what we hail previously heard in regard lo the proceedings of 
the meeting of the Trustees. The reason why Dr. Crosb.v moved 
a reconsideration of the vote by which the report of the locating 
committee was rejected, we understand, was this: that as he had, 
on two previous occasions voted to leave the whole matter of loca- 
tion unconditionallyt o the committee out of the State, he could 
not now conscientiously vote to reject their report. There arc 
other members of the board who are in a similar predicament in 



889 



regard to their votes, and it is a pity they were not so in regard to 
the matter of conscience also. Governor Hill, we are told, played 
the part of a mad man on the occasion, whose insane ravings went 
further than anything else to convince every member present of 
the imperious necessity of having the Asylum established at once 
and on the spot! Portsmouth Journal, Oct. 19,1839. 

INSANE ASYLUM. 



The following letter has been addressed by a minority of the 
Board of Trustees of the N. II. Asylum for the Insane, to the 
Board of Location. 

To Lutheh V Bell. Esy., Physician and Superintendent of the 
Mi- Led u Asylum for the Insane in Charlestown, Samuel B. 
Woodward, Esq., Superintendent and Physician of the State 
Lunatic Hospital in Worcester, and Wm. II. Rockwell, Super- 
intendent and Physician of the Vermont Asylum for the Insane: 

Gentlemen: Disappointed and mortified by the manner in 
which your Report for the location of the N. II. Asylum for the 
insane has been treated by the Board of Trustees, of which we 
arc a minority, we feel that it is due to you as well as ourselves, 
that you should be put in possession of the circumstances under 
which you were appointed; and that you should receive assur- 
ances of our regret that your report in favor of Portsmouth was 
not immediately and unhesitatingly accepted and carried into ef- 
fect by a unanimous vote. 

The subscriptions constituting members of the Corporation had 
been made with a view to the location of the Asylum. There 
were undoubtedly local feelings and perhaps prejudices on this 
subject. TIk> Corporation believing that the power of location 
was vested in them by the charter, elected their eight trustees, 
being two-thirds of the Board, without any regard to that ques- 
tion. A majority of the Board when formed, saw fit to claim the 
right of location. I low were these clashing interests and claims 
of power to be reconciled? From the first it was foreseen that 
there would be a diversity of views and feelings on the subject. 
For the preservation of harmony therefore, in such a charitable 
and noble enterprise, it was early proposed and became generally 
understood that the site of the Asylum should be determined by 
,-ju impartial committee from without the State, and who were ac- 



800 



quainted with, and would take an interest in the wants of the In- 
sane. 

In June last the Corporation at a very full meeting of it- mem- 
bers from every part of the -State, manifested their willingness to 
Bubmit the final decision to such a committee, with the under- 
standing that Bach was also the wish of the trustees, who had 
their meeting at the same time and place. The Corporation ac- 
cordingly voted that you should he the committee, and that your 
report should be final and conclusive. The Hoard appointed the 
Same committee with a vole that your report should he final and 
conclusive. These vote- were unanimous or next to unanimous in 
both bodies. Expressions of satisfaction were universal. The 
opposing parlies congratulated each other that the threatening ap- 
pearances of division had been happily dissipated by these con- 
current votes. That your report would be cordially acquiesced in, 
did not appear to be doubtful to any one. 

.Fudge then, gentlemen, of our surprise, when on a meeting of 
eleven of the twelve trustee-, JoSIAH QuiNCY, ESQ. , being absent, 
in September last, it was found that these pledges and votes were 
not to lie regarded — that the question of location was considered 
as still open — that no vole confirming your report could be ob- 
tained, and that they woidd prefer to have the whole charity de- 
feated, rather than have the location at Portsmouth. They would 
throw away the 923,000, offered by Portsmouth, reducing the 
capital from $53,000, a sum sufficient to put the institution into 
successful operation, down to §30,000— a sum inadequate for that 
purpose — and look to the State to make up the deficiency by a 
direct tax on the people. Independently of this great and essen- 
tial increase of the fund, by a location at Portsmouth, there are 
other circumstances favorable to that place that might well have 
given to it your preference. It happens that three of the trustees 
reside in Concord — they speak of a more central location, by 
which they mean Concord, and no other spot, as if the territorial 
centre of such an institution was to control all other considera- 
tions, and even the existence of the institution itself. 

You who feel a deep interest in the condition of the Insane, and 
would rejoice to see them released from the prisons, dungeons and 
chains in which they are now suffering in this State, will deeply 
regret with us, that the charity, which was to give them relief, is 
by a Hoard of Trustees, established for their benefit, postponed to 
a future and distant day. But it i- not the delay alone that 
alarms and grieves us — the charity itself is put in jeopardy and 
threatened with annihilation. 



891 



There seems to us something so extraordinary in these proceed- 
ings of the trustees, that we have felt anxious to assure you, that 
so far as we have been concerned, either as trustees or members 
of the Corporation, in submitting the question of location to you, 
we acted in good faith, with a view to harmony, and with a deter- 
mination to be governed by your decision. We had no idea of 
requesting of you the performance of a vain and idle labor, or of 
converting that which was intended for harmony and the best in- 
terests of the Insane, into an occasion for protracting their suffer- 
ings, or into a cause of disagreement and contention. 

With these views and feelings, gentlemen, we ask you to accept 
the assurance of our continued esteem, respect and confidence. 

AMOS TWITCHELL. 
GEORGE W. HAVEN, 
C. H. ATHEUTON, 
SAMUEL E. UOUES, 
DAN'L ABBOTT. 
Octobek 24. 1839. 

Portsmouth Journal, Nov. 2, 1839. 

The editor of the Patriot insists that Portsmouth is in the State 
of Maine. If he would only talk so when the apportionment of 
the State tax is made, he might be of some benefit to us, but 
under present circumstances his good intentions are rather to be 
doubted. We suspect if the Asylum for the Insane had been 
located at Nashua instead of Portsmouth, the editor would have 
declared that place to be in the State of Massachusetts, and if in 
Keene or Hanover that they were in Vermont. Finally, we be- 
lieve it would be a hard matter to convince him regarding the 
matter of locating the hospital, that any place but Concord was 
in the State of New Hampshire. The volatile and arrogant Paris- 
ian thinks Pari9 all the world; so does the editor of the Patriot 
think Concord all the State, and the people around — his liege sub- 
jects who may be ruinously taxed to build up his "Palace''' and 
bastile, and generously give of their substance for the endowment 
of hospitals, but can have no voice in their location. 

We really wish the editor of the Patriot would take his slate 
and pencil and tell the public how much, if any, Concord is 
nearer the actual centre of population than Portsmouth. AVe 
guess the difference is not of material consequence in the present 
case, even if the State were more than a mere partner in the in- 
stitution. Gaz. 
Portsmouth Journal, Nov. 2, 1839. 



S92 



In-amtv in New Hampshire. We fear dure is "something 
rotten" in this State, judging from the proceedings about their 
Insane Asylum. After all their talk, it would seem that this 
noble design is delayed again, and likely now to be wholly de- 
feated, owing to a party in the Board having charge of it, who 
are determined it shall be located at Concord, or at all events not 
at Portsmouth, as decided unanimously bj a ( !om rait tee appointed 
by the Legislature for the purpose ol choosing a site: which Com- 
mittee consisted of three Superintendents of Blind As\ lump, includ- 
ing Dr. Woodward. Concord i- more central than Portsmouth, 
but everything else is in favor of the latter, which also has the 
claim of having subscribed $80,000 to the Institution proposed, 
while Concord scarcely helped it at all. The only consolation in 
this emergency is, that if the whole plan is defeated, a private 
asylum may he got up instead, which must always have very great 

advantages over one managed by the State — thai is, by everybody 
or nobody, as the case may be — and very troublesome and incom- 
petent bodies they frequently are. Perhaps this may be done at 
Kccne, where, it may be remembered, Miss Fiske lately be- 
queathed $10,000 tnvthejirsi Insane Asylum incorporated in the 
Mate. We hear there is a question , or is likely to be, what shall 
become of this fund, if the Slate Institution above mentioned he 
abandoned without having gone into operation, but after having 
been incorporated. Common sense would decide the question 
speedily, but common law may not. Meanwhile the insane are 
suffering, and the State is disgraced. Boston Transcript, 

Portsmouth Journal, Nov. '.*, 1888. 

[NSANE HOSPITAL. 



It can but be a matter of deep regret to all the friends of the 
suffering Insane, within ami without our borders, that such dis- 
parity ol views and sentiments obtains and distracts the counsels 
of those who have the immediate supervision of the affairs of the 
institution for the insane, committed to their charge. It seems 
indeed, by a decision of the board of trust, that operations arc to 
be delayed until the ensuing June. This great and philanthropic, 
and even now tardy, enterprise, is to be yet further suspended, 
for want of harmony of sentiment and unanimity of action in 
those, to whom has been confided its direction. AVe really fear 
there is something culpably wrong in this business — we have seen 



39." 



nothing from the official board, or any of its members, or any 
other source, which can claim even the merit of a reasonable pre- 
text for such delay. That some predilections, as to location, 
should exist in the minds of some individuals, is not strange nor 
unexpected; but that they should suffer themselves to be so un- 
compromisingly wedded to their prepossessions, in that particu- 
lar, as to stay the progress of such a benevolent undertaking, 
nay. even jeopard its ultimate success, does seem strange, and 
could not have been anticipated. Can it be possible, that the 
paltry consideration of a few dollars and cents, derived to them 
or their neighbors through the medium of furnishing the suste- 
nance and other supplies for the inmates of the institution and its 
dependants, lias been permitted for a moment by any of the board 
to come in conflict with the progress of the Asylum? We cannot 
entertain the suspicion. Or has an overweening regard to geo- 
graphical lines, centres of territory or population been the bane of 
harmony and the mischievous workers of unnecessary delay? Or 
have political animosities been allowed a place at the deliberations 
of the board, with the ever active and interminable jealousies 
which are wont to follow in their train? It has been apprehended 
by some, that these latter considerations have not been entirely 
inoperative and merged in the general jfood. Men of high and 
honorable feelings and truly benevolent intentions, should and 
will, banish all such considerations from them, as unworthy a 
moment's thought in view of the progress of such a work, of 
amelioration and cure of the ills, mental and physical, incident to 
their fellow creatures and themselves — and if such unworthy sen- 
timents have found place and cannot be uprooted in any particular 
case, let such have the magnanimity to resign his trust, that his 
place may be tilled by a successor disabused in these points. 

The present posture of the affairs of the institution, presents a 
singular anomaly. Ample funds contributed and secured to carry- 
forward the enterprise with dispatch and success. The patrons of 
the undertaking, the humane and sympathizing throughout the 
Mtate and the friends of the ''poor demented" everywhere ardent- 
ly wishing and expecting the expeditious advance of the benign 
object. The moanings and deprivations of the incarcerated luna- 
tic, and the deep-toned pathetic clanking of their manacles issu- 
iuo- from dungeon dens— the lessened chances of intellectual res- 
toration or even mitigation occasioned by the delay of the ade- 
quate remediate treatment which can only be had at a well-regu- 
lated Hospital or by the barbarous and unmitigated coercive 



304 



measures deemed necessary for the security of the insane, and the 
security of those around them from their infuriated attacks. The 
suicides which are frequently occurring in our midst, depriving 
dependant families of their natural earthly stay and support, and 
community often of its most active, enterprising, esteemed and 
worthy citizens and ornaments which arc in most instances trace- 
able to alienation of mind. Homicides with all their appalling 
circumstances, attributable to the same cause, all. all with one 
united voice, of supplicative, thrilling eloquence, asking for the 
unprotracted completion of the blest retreat, where justice can be 
done to the be-nighted mind — and who in view of this but just 
demand can oppose, with any satisfaction his own schemes of 
selfishness! What a responsibility if this act of delay should 
but perpetrate in one instance an ailment worse than death! Vet 
the board have taken the responsibility to respond to all this, and 
these by a cold unsympathetic vote of suspension until dune next, 
and the anxious public have been furnished with two meagre 
reports by way of cause showing, the one, the report of the locat- 
ing committee made to the board, and the other, the report of the 

doings of the board when (he above unwelcome and anomalous 

vote was passed. The subject has been alluded to by the press 
generally and not in terms of approval or even quiescence, with 
perhaps one or two instances excepted, yel no explanation worthy 
of the public, or the enterprise, the humanity and objects which 

set it in operati r of the hoard itself, has been given. In a 

matter of such deep and general concernment, it was to be ex- 
pected that the locating committee, composed as it was of gentle- 
men who. from their association with kindred institutions have 
been at once aware of the advantages or disadvantages in every 
re-peet. which appertained to the various localities they visited, 
and the spirit of rival-hip which existed between some of them 
would, in their report have adverted to the reasons of their pref- 
erence falling where it did. There were reasons undoubtedly of 
a weighty character which determined their choice, and we must 
acknowledge, that it would have been a matter of no small interest 
to ii- to have -een them spread out in detail for the public eye. 
A few mile- travel in passing to and from the institution with the 
subjects of its care, can be but an object of small moment com- 
pared with the certainty of its affording all the desired advan- 
tages when attained. The centre of territory or population might 
not and probably would not combine all the desirable or even nec- 
essary advantages. The centre of population, established upon 



:39fi 



the basis of the insane in this State would be the most equitable, 
provided all other advantages were concurrent. If it could be 
definitely ascertained the number of insane and their relative posi- 
tions in the State, it might also be assumed as a very consistent 
data for future estimates as to numbers and residence; for we 
believe the fact is familiar to all who have devoted much attention 
lo the statistics of the insane, that some countries and certain dis- 
tricts of the same country are more liable to the incursions of in- 
sanity in its population than others. It does seem to us, that the 
report of the doings of the board as published, needs explanation. 
The members of the board surely can assign the reasons which 
governed their suffrages. Those who acted in favor of the locat- 
ing report, can tell the public why they did so — and those who 
opposed its adoption can do the same — and the one who voted 
both ways, probably has reasons which at least renders such ac- 
tion consistent in his own mind — and if he would but deign to 
give them the form of language, the public might concur with him 
in that particular. 

The motives of those who voted the postponement of future 
operations until June next, may be susceptible of such explana- 
tion as to lie a reasonable and entire justification — and we think it 
due. to the community, the State and the individual donors, that 
they so explain, for we can assure them there is a sensation 
abroad, upon the subject, that will know no rest until the propri- 
ety of such action is made apparent, or the responsibility placed at 
the doors of those, who have stayed the progress of that IJetreat 

Where fall the manacles of the demented, 
Order succeeds confusion, fierceness, rage ; 
Comfort dawns, to assuage the maniac's woes, 
And reason, blest gift, resumes the shadowy mind, 

Dover Gazette and Strafford Advertiser. 
Portsmouth Journal, Nov. •2:\, is:;:). 

Mu. John II. Steele, of Peterborough. 



This gentleman, one of the Trustees of the N. II. Asylum, is 
the humble follower, and eulogist of Isaac Hill. "\Ve have just 
read three columns of their concocted production in the last 
X. II. Patriot. Mr. Steele's professions of candor are all pre- 
tence. It is quite evident that his object is to excite vulgar prej- 
udices against the town of Fortsmouth, and also the locating 



S96 



committee, gentlemen whose high character! l>iil defiance to all 
his slander and malice. He would fain have the public believe 
that the committee were virtually bribed; and he boldly affirms 
that the two main arguments used by citizens of Portsmouth why 
the Asylum should be located here, were that here the Insane 
would be in, or in the vicinity of, l 'genteel society ," and would 
have plenty of fishll! This reminds US of Isaac Hill's old story 
about "lisb and potatoes," and "milk* too. 

Mr. S. makes a great flourish about "genteel society.' ' evidently 
with the base design to induce the enlightened and respectable 
people of the State to believe, that certain citizens of Portsmouth 
have insinuated, that the society in our several towns and villages 
was not "genteel." No such invidious comparisons have been 
made by any respectable citizens of this town. We have long 
been acquainted with Mr. Steele, but hereafter can give him little 
credit as .1. man of candor or truth. Should we, upon reflection, 
deem tin' production, under bis name, as worthy of notice, we 
will give it some attention, although not a member of the cor- 
poration. .\. Y. 

Portsmouth Journal, Dec. 21, 1839. 

ASYLUM FOB THE INSANE. 
To I he Corporators and Trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum 

for the Insane. 

Gentlemen, — A brief law argument is now submitted to your 
consideration, proving conclusively that said Asylum is located. 
We believe that any learned jurist, or any man of sound sense, 
upon a little reflection, will ayree that our position is well founded 
in law. Every intelligent person will concede that either the cor- 
poration, or the Trustees thereof, or else both united, possessed 
the legal right to locate the institution, so soon as those bodies 
became organized, and previous to the Act of July (i, 1889. It 
appears by the extracts from the records of the proceedings of the 
Corporation, and of the Board of Trustees, us certified by Mr. 
Crosby, the Secretary, that the Corporation on the 7th June, 18'<9, 
appointed Messrs. Bell, Woodward and Rockwell, a Committee 
to locate the Institution — that the Hoard of Trustees had previous- 
ly appointed the same gentlemen for the same purpose — that the 
Corporation on the said 7th day of June passed a vote that the 
Report of said committee upon the subject of the location, "shall 



397 



be final and conclusive." The Board of Trustees also, on the 
same day, passed a vote that said Report "be final and conclu- 
sive." There had been some discussion relative to the respective 
rights and powers of the Corporation and the Trustees; but after 
the passage of those two votes, it may safely be affirmed that all 
the parties concerned and all who felt a deep interest in the suc- 
cess of the institution, considered the question as settled, that 
wherever within the limits of the State, the Committee should see 
tit to locate the Institution, there it should be established. No 
language can be more unequivocal than that in which the two 
votes arc expressed. No person expressed a doubt that the deci- 
sion would be tinal and conclusive, until after the report was dis- 
cussed. The conduct of a majority of the Trustees, resulting from 
disappointed hopes and expectations, or perhaps, the selfish views 
of two or three of 'the Trustees who may have exercised an influ- 
ence over several of the board, who attempted to nullity the deci- 
sion of the locating committee, was considered as dishonorable by 
all our high minded citizens. Indeed, a large majority of the 
Trustees "pledged their honor'' to abide by the decision of the 
locating committee. How much honor a portion of the Trustees 
bad to pledge, who may see tit to violate their honor, is a question 
irrelevant to our present legal question. We have adverted to 
the general opinion as expressed, as being founded in common 
sense, and that common sense fully coincides with our main legal 
position. On the 6th July, 18:i'J, the legislature passed an act in 
amendment to and explanatory of the act to incorporate the New 
Hampshire Asylum. This act in amendment gives to the Trust- 
ees the control of the property and concerns of the Asylum, and. 
among other things, authorizes the Trustees "to enter into and 
bind the Corporation by such compacts, agreements and engage- 
ments, as they may deem advantageous to such institution, ' ' and 
also gives them "the appropriation and control of all funds, de- 
vises, grants of lands and bequests made to such corporation,"' 
&c, but there is no attempt by said act to nullify the votes of 
the Corporation and Trustees to which we have referred, passed 
on the 7th June, nor has it any allusion whatever to the location 
of the Institution. Had the act expressly given to the Trustees 
the exclusive power to locate the institution, it would not alter our 
main position , because the Corporation or Trustees had the power 
previous to the date of the act, and if the act gives the exclusive 
power to the Trustees, it would be a ratification of their doings 
upon that subject, instead of nullifying their vote of the 7th June 



'S98 



rt is therefore wholly immaterial whether the power to locate is 
rested in the Corporation or Trustees, both having passed similar 
Miti'-. But the Corporation have not yet accepted the said act of 
the Gtli July. 1889, ami by law cannot lie compelled to; nor can ir 
be obligatory upon the Corporation, if it impairs the rights of the 
Corporation previously granted, or affects any vested rights. Un- 
der existing circumstances, it may be expedient that the Corpora- 
tion should not art at all upon the question of accepting said act 
in amendment. If it i- valid, ii would be valid without a vole of 
acceptance But there seems to be no very weighty objections to 
the amendatory act. except that the Legislature has undertaken to 
do whal more properly belonged to the Corporation. 

In pursuance of the voir- of the Corporation and the Trustees, 
Messrs Woodward, Bell and Rockwell accepted the trust, and 
made the following report and decision, viz.": "Thai they have 
examined the various place- pointed out to them by the committee 
id' the Trustees, and after mature deliberation, do decide thai 
said Asylum be located at Portsmouth, on the conditions offered 

by -aid tOWll.' 

The Corporation's vote solemnly declares that this decision 
••-hall be final and conclusive" and the Trustee-' vote declares 
the same thing. Corporations -peak by their voles— enter into 

compacts and contracts by their votes, and it no faith can he 

placed in their recorded votes, the community have no safety in 
having any dealings and negotiations with them. The law will. 
however, compel the faithful execution of their votes, especially 
when through Buch votes, compacts and agreements are made, or 
when rights io property are thereby acquired. The common law, 
a- well as the plain principles of justice' support this doctrine. 

The town of Portsmouth, al a legal town meeting voted to 
oe-iow upon this Institution twenty -three thousand dollars and 
the accumulated interest of thai fund, upon the condition thai the 
Institution should be located within the town. The said votes of 
the Corporation and Trustees, the vote of the town of Ports- 
mouth, and subsequently the decision of the locating committee, 
constitute a legal agreement or contract between said Corporation 
or Trustees (immaterial which) and said town of Portsmouth, 
from which neither party can be absolved under the laws of the 
land. Said Corporation or Trustees have thereby acquired a right 
to -aid $23,000, and in case the town should not ad in good faith 
b\ a refusal to execute the contract, can recover the sum thus 
voted, the condition under which it was oiven having been com- 



S99 



plied with. Can any jurist doubt this position? If not, lie must 
admit that the institution is located. The town has an equal right 
to insist upon the fulfillment of the contract on the part of the 
Corporation— tor it would be a violation of the principles of law 
and justice for the town to be compelled to pay over the fund, 
without having an adequate remedy against the corporation. This 
c mtraet cannot be rescinded at the election of either of the par- 
ties. But should the Corporation, in consequence of the disor- 
derly and illegal conduct of a portion of the Trustees, be dissolved 
by a vote of the corporators, an event deeply to be deplored, of 
course under existing circumstances, there would be an end of 
all legal remedies; and the Trustees, through whose instrumen- 
tality such public disgrace and calamity is effected, ought to be 
held responsible before Cod and an abused community. It is im- 
possible that we can speak with much charity in respect to Trust- 
ees wln> would violate the public faith, their own votes, their 
pledged honor, and the plainest principles of law. And in addi- 
tion to such perfidious conduct, defeat all the exertions for years 
of the most ardent friends of humanity to provide an Asylum for 
the poor, miserable and friendless Insane, whose sufferings, in a 
christian and civilized community, are enough to melt a heart of 
stone. The present location must be adhered to — else the Corpo- 
lion will be dissolved, and we are fully convinced that many years 
may roll away before the Stale would provide sufficient funds for 
a new Institution. Candor. 

Portsmouth Journal, Dec. 28. 18311. 

N. II. ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



Although the question in respect to the location seems to be set- 
tled conclusively, and the decision is obligatory upon all the par- 
ties concerned, yet it would be desirable that enlightened people 
of this State should acquiesce in the propriety of that decision. 
We will now therefore offer a few remarks relative to the same. 

Those Trustees, who now object to the location of the Asylum, 
attempt to excuse their opposition to the decision of the locating 
Committee, because, as they allege, Portsmouth is in a remote 
corner of the State, somewhere "down East'' and that had the 
committee possessed the necessary qualifications and proper judg- 
ment, they would have located the institution in the central part 
of the State, meaning, doubtless. Concord, where three opposing 
Trustees reside. Such objections to the qualifications of the Com- 



40( 



mittee came too late, nor would they probably have been made liv 
those gentlemen, had Concord been selected although situated at a 
great distance from the centre of the Stale, and being far front 
the centre of population. The claims of Portsmouth, with her 
nine thousand inhabitants, paying about an 18th part of the stale 
taxes, of the large populous towns of Dover, Somers worth, New- 
market and Exeter in the vicinity, and a large portion of Rock- 
ingham and Strafford counties must be overlooked. Why? Be- 
cause Concord i^ in the exact centre of the Stale? Why does not 
thi~ complaint come from the enlightened Trustees in more distant 
parts u |' tin' Slate? Because it is not well grounded. And musl 
the people of New Hampshire place implicit confidence in the 
judgment of the three Concord Trustees and one other, who con- 
fesses thai he has, .it least, once been made "a Catspaw of" while 

the judgment of the three learned men. superintendents of Asy- 
lums in other Mate-, chosen on account of their superior knowl- 
edge upon the subject, and having no partiality to any town in 
this State, must g<> for nought!!! 

Had the knowledge Of Mr. Mill .V. Co. upon the subject been 

sii|ieiii>r ti, that of tlose learned gentlemen, better would it have 
been t,, have selected Mr. Mill & Co. ill the lirsl instance, with the 
stipulation that he should first dispose ,,t' ids real estate in ihc 
vicinity of the site proposed for the location in Concord, II is 
painful to make any personal reflections even when the case re- 
quires it. from a sens,, ,,f duty to the public and the suffering 

insane. But we are convinced thai I loncord has been ' 'the central 
place'' whence the obstacles have been thrown in the way. Gen. 
Lou is one of the Concord Trustees, whom we have ever 68- 
leeined as an honorable man. and we are unwilling, for a mo- 
ment, to believe that the narrow, contracted and sellish views of 
a few of hi- townsmen will induce him to be the means of defeat- 
ing a charitable institution for the suffering insane 

We now contend tor the right- of Portsmouth: but had the 
Committee de ided to locate in any other town in the Stale, 
whether on (he borders of Maine, or Vermont, or .Massachusetts, 
or even in that •'exact centre of the Stale." Portsmouth, instead 
of raising objections, would have acquiesced, and the five thousand 
dollars siib-cribed by some of her citizens would have been paid 
for 'the benefit of the Asylum. Should the present location not 
be defeated, the town of Portsmouth, with the private subscrip- 
tions of -ome of her citizens, will pay to the Institution about 
TiiiliTY THOUSAND DOLLARS, being double the amount paid by the 



401 



wliole State. And this is the golden bribe Messrs. Steele and Tiill 
complain of! It is a nohle, a munificent donation, which reflects 
the highest honor upon the town. Mr. Hill has often eulogized 
some of our deceased patriots for a small treasure offered to he 
expended in the revolutionary war, for the public defence. Can 
this thirty thousand dollars draw from him no language compli- 
mentary lo the liberality of the town— and is it not freely be- 
stowed for a cause more consonant to Christian benevolence? 
While Portsmouth solicits no compliments for her liberality, she 
cannot desire the undeserved aspersions, reproaches, and vulgar 
prejudices attempted to be excited against her by the publications 
in the JV. 11. Patriot . 

We feel competent, did our Hunts permit, fully to vindicate the 
decision of the locating committee; to satisfy the public that a 
more suitable site for the Asylum than the Cutis or Freeman 
places, in Portsmouth, could not have been selected in the whole 
State; that the Asylum would have divers advantages here, not 
to be realized in any other part of the State; that the buildings 
can be erected here as well and as cheap as elsewhere, and that 
many of the materials required can here be more easily procured, 
and that the main argument of the opposing Trustees has hut little 
weight. Other Institutions of the kind are erected and about 
being erected in other States. No regard has been had to the 
centres of the States, because there are other requisites and ad- 
vantages vastly more important. Portsmouth is the only seaport 
in the State, and therefore has certain local advantages which 
Concord or other towns in the State can never have. It will be 
considered also that the population is more dense in this section of 
the State than in the agricultural districts in the interior, and 
therefore there is in this quarter a greater proportion of the in- 
sane. AVe admit that the distance from Coos county is consider- 
able. And is not Coos nearly equal distant from Concord? As 
all the towns cannot be equally accommodated in respect to travel, 
it becomes all to exercise liberal views in respect to the location. 
And after selecting the most competent committee that could be 
named, after expressing in advance the fullest confidence in their 
qualifications and judgment, for two or three disappointed trust- 
ees, perhaps poorly qualified to judge of the most suitable loca- 
tion, to turn round and asperse that committee, to charge them, 
without evidence, with having acted under a corrupt influence, 
seems to be as ungenerous as it is illiberal. Even could it he 
shown that the committee erred in judgment, that some other 



402 



town would have been preferable, the objection ought not to be 
raised afier their decision, which, as we have proved, is "final 
and couclnsive." The location is lixed. and cannot he changed 
without probably defeating the institution. 

In submitting these cursory remarks, we have no other motive 
than the success of the institution. And we express our lull con- 
viction that any other impartial committee, with competent knowl- 
edge upon the subject, would coincide with the decision which has 

I een made. C vndou. 

Portsmouth Journal. J an. 4, 1840. 

\. II. ASYLUM FOR Till'; INSANE. 



The annual meeting of the Corporation was held at the Rock- 
ingham House in this town on Wednesday evening last, and wan 

well attended. Gentlemen belonging to the corporation weie 

present from Keene, Amherst, Derry. Nashua, Hanover, Con- 
cord. Dover and the neighboring towns, who with their proxies 
cast 132 votes. 

Dr. Tw i 1 1 in. 1. 1. of Keene, was re-elected President; Hon. 
Isaac Walduon", Vice-President; Dixi Crosby, Esq., Secretary; 
.1 vin- Thom, Esq., Treasurer; and William M. Siiackford, Esq. 

and Dr. < 'll VRLES A. ( 'lli.i:v II:. Trustees to fill the two vacancies 
occasioned by the expiration of the term of Messrs. Coins and 
Haven. The above elections wen' by unanimous vote. 

After the choice of officers, c. ||. Atherton, Esq. of Amherst, 
introduced the following preamble and resolution, with some ap- 
propriate remarks on the necessity of commmencing immediate 
operations : 

Whereas, at a meeting of the Corporation, held at Grecian Hall, 
Concord, June 7ih. 183!), the following 1 vote was unanimously 
adopted: Voted, That Samuel I!. Woodwald, Llther V Bell 
and William II. Roi kwell be a committee to fix and report i<> 
the Trustees the location of the Asyum, and that the report of 
whom, or any two of whom, shall be final and conclusive: 

Whereas, at a meeting of the Trustees held at the Eagle Coffee 
House, Concord, June 7th, 1839, the following vote was passed, 
iii ,!• of the ten /n % tent Trustees voting for its adoption: — Voted, 
That the repoi t of the committee of location heretofore appointed, 
viz.: Samuel I'.. Woodward. Luther V . Bell and William H. Rock- 
well, or the report of any two of them he final ami conclusive: 



40", 

And whereas the Locating Committee have reported that they 
have examined the various places pointed out to them by the Com- 
mittee of the Trustees, and after mature deliberation, do decide 
that said Asylum be located at Portsmouth, on Ihe conditions 
offered by said town. 

Therefore Resolved, Thai the Trustees be requested and that 
the Trustees chosen by the corporation be and they are hereby in- 
structed, to interpose no obstacles by delay or otherwise, to the 
carrying of said location at Portsmouth into effect; and that they 
use officially their best endeavors to cause the said Asylum to be 
there erected and fitted tor use and the institution organized, for 
the relief of the Insane as soon as may be. 

The passage of the above was advocated by the mover, by Judge 
Dm-rell, of Dover, Messrs. S. Hale, J. W. Foster, S. E. Coues 
and several other gentlemen ; and opposed by Mr. Peaslee of Con- 
cord, on the ground that as a portion of the Trustees were ap- 
pointed by the State, hi- doubted the propriety of instruction by 
the corporators. If one parly has a right to instruct, so has the 
other. He thought the Trustees ought to act without being directed 
or controlled by either party. If a majority of the Trustees are 
to he governed by the Corporation, it in fact takes the business 
from their hands and nullifies their powers. 

Judge Durrell made some remarks in reply, lie thought the 
complaint was not at any action of the board, but for no action at 
all. He wished for action— immediate action. Thefund had now 
been long paid in, and the donors wished to see it used, or re- 
turned to them. The cause of humanity requires immediate 
action, which is all the resolution asks. 

Mr. Atherton remarked, that the usage of the day allowed of 
the right of instruction to the representatives of the people — and 
why may not this corporation have the power to request the 
Trustees to act not in opposition to their own propositions, but 
only agreeably to their own decisions. Surely, requests of this 
kind are not uncourteous or improper. The Corporation have the 
power in their own hands to locate— and shall they not have the 
power to instruct them to carry their own vote into effect. 

The resolution was adopted — 130 yeas, 2 nays. 

Mr. Thorn made a statement of the funds, which in round num- 
bers is as follows: Amount of subscription, including that of the 
State, nearly $36,000. In cash about $26,000. Due in notes about 
$7,000. This, with the Portsmouth bequest, will make the funds 
amount to about $60,000. The money collected and notes, are on 
interest. 



404 



Votes of thanks were parsed to Samuel E. Cone* and George YV. 
Haven, Esquires, ex-trustees, for their services; and on the suge 
gestion ol Mr. Atherton to the town of Portsmouth for their lib- 
eral bequest. 

A vote was passed to publish the official proceedings of the meet- 
ing in the newspapers. This we have not received, but probably 
shall next week. 

The meeting was characterized by good feeling, and we hope 
soon to see operations commenced for the erection of this Asylum. 
The need of the institution is everyday becoming more urgent, 
as we learned by a statement made by Mr. ('ones, at the meeting, 
that those in Massachusetts are so full, that it is not expected 
much longer to obtain admission fur any but residents of that 
State. 

Portsmouth Journal, .Ian. 11. 1840. 

ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 



The following, copied from the Concord Courier, shows how 
Portsmouth has been mis- represented in the Stale Legislature. 
But for the doings of her own delegation, the Asylum might ere 
this have been in progress of erection in the borders of Ports- 
mouth, without the opposition which now threatens its des- 
truction . 

"Nothing will be done by the Trustees until alter the nexl ses- 
Bion of the Legislature; by which time it will be settled with 
whom the power of location re*ts. We do not believe the N. II. 
Asylum will ever lie built at Portsmouth. The report of the Lo- 
cating Committee would have been final but for the course of I he 
Portsmouth Representatives, on the last night of the last session. 
Portsmouth folks must thank their own delegation for the result 
of this matter, as the additional act was by a count of the House 
postponed indefinitely by a majority of 20, when Jenness called 
for the yeas and nays, and be, his colleagues, and most of his 
party, voted against the indefinite postponement, and the bill was 
immediately passed. By the power given to the Trustees by this 
additional act. the Asylum will be located in some 'central place' 
in the State, and the State House is in quite a central place, and 
the Asylum sbould be within a mile of the Slate House. The 
Portsmouth gentleman should not accuse Concord people of being 
very selfish in this matter. for we owe it entirely to the Portsmouth 



4or, 



delegation that the Asylum is not. to be located at one corner -of 
the State" 

In the selection of our next candidates for Representatives, let. 
us send men who have at least as much regard for the local inter- 
ests, of Portsmouth, as they have for partizan popularity in the 
State. Portsmouth Journal, Feb. lp, 1840. 

To Messrs, Isaac Hill idkI John II. Steele. 



That you as trustees on the part of the State, have been the 
means of preventing' any progress being made in erecting the 
requisite buildings for the N. II. Asylum we have good authority 
for believing. The statement is made by one of the Trustees, and 
we therefore now call upon you to give an explicit answer to the 
following (|uestion : Did you, or did you not, just before the 
Trustees acted upon the question of accepting the report of the 
committee appointed to locate the Asylum, earnestly solicit one of 
the trustees cither to vote against, or to vote to postpone the ac- 
ceptance of, the report, under the positive assurance you gave him, 
that you would soon lay before him evidence, that the commmit- 
tee had been corrupted or bribed? 

To charge you directly with the perpetration of such an offence 
were the allegation false, might perhaps he held to be a libel. We 
therefore put the interrogatory, are you guilty or not guilty, upon 
your arraignment before the bar of an impartial public? You can 
easily answer the question. Yonr silence would be construed as 
a confession of your guilt. But should you deny it, the Trustee 
would doubtless confront you with sufficient testimony, and there 
is some evidence and circumstances which would corroborate his 
evidence, in addition to the charges already made in the JV. H. 
Pa/riot casting suspicion and reproach upon the characters of the 
Committee. Who will believe, that Messrs. Bell. Rockwell 
and Woodward could he corrupted or bribed! 

We feel confident, that you never had any such suspicion. The 
high characters of the gentlemen protect them against it. And do 
you really believe that, the citizens of Portsmouth would be guilty 
of the infamous deed of attempting to corrupt them? You know 
well, that if you made that bold declaration, the moral characters 
of the latter are equally implicated. By this base stratagem, if 
the story is true, you carried your point, and prevented the accept- 
ance of the Report; and thereby our suffering, unhappy insane. 



40G 



remain another year in distress and mental darkness. Do you 
not feel that a deep responsibility rests upon yon? 

Ekqcirer. 
Portsmouth Journal , Feb. 15, 1840. 



Wondi 1:1 "i i.. The la>t N. II. Patriot contains a piece, "Ion;;-, 
and (meant to be) learned," in which it is asserted that the town 
of Portsmouth has not given, and cannot give her surplus to the 
Asylum for the Insane, and stranger still it is asserted thai the 
••Mate never will consent to release any town, - ' &c. The arro- 
gance which dictated such assertions is exactly in keeping with the 
selfishness which has kept back the erection of the asylum. Who 
i- this that undertakes to say what the state will never do? 

Portsmouth Journal, Feb. 22, 1840. 



Insane Hospital. Among the articles in the warrant for the 
town meeting is one for the reconsideration of the vote passed ill 
•Tune last appropriating the Surplus Revenue fund to the erection 
of an Insane Asylum. When this article was published, we wen' 
so curious to know what Agency Isaac Hill had employed in tliis 

dernier resort to defeat the erection of the Asj i in Portsmouth, 

that we requested a sight of the petition for the insertion of the 
articles in the warrant. The whole mystery was solved at once, 
when we found it in the chirography of the Hon. Samuel Cush- 

m \\ \\ hose Maine headed the petition. 

Mr. (' i- well known to be hand in glove with Isaac Hill, and 
is endeavoring to befriend him in this effort to remove the last 
chance left tor the location of the Asylum in this place. Those 
who are ill favor of sustaining Mr. Hill's efforts to withhold every 
public institution from Portsmouth, will vote for the measures of 
bis agent, Mr. Cushman, and give up the idea of eve,r seeing an 
Asylum for the suffering insane in this section of the State. 

Portsmouth Journal, March 21, 1840. 

A DISTRESSED CONDITION. 

A few weeks since, an anonymous writer in the Journal sub- 
mitted a few plain questions to Messrs. Isaac Hill and John II. 
Steele, soliciting an answer whether they were guilty of a most 
base imposition upon one of the Trustees of the X. II. Asylum. 
in charging corruption and bribery upon the locating committee? 



4(17 



Tho only answer to those questions which Mr. Steele chose to 
make, is a short article published in the Journal and N. H. 
Patriot, in which he declines, in fact, to make any answer unless 
some responsible individual will appear as their accusers under 
his own signature. He might as well have declined answering, 
until the Grand Jury should present a bill of indictment against 
them. The first characters in England felt obliged to answer the 
accusations of Junius, an anonymous writer. Now instead of 
making all this parade in the public papers, how easy would it 
have been for Mr. Steele, had he and Mr. Hill been innocent, 
simply to say so. Then the duty would have devolved upon the 
Trustee imposed upon, to oiler evidence of the charge, and we 
doubt not that he is ready to support the charge, should Messrs. 
Hill and .Steele venture to deny it. The fact that they declined 
making any answer, will create strong suspicions, at least. We 
have the whole story from such high authority, that we have en- 
tire confidence in its truth, and we therefore think that Messrs. 
Hill and Steele will not venture to deny it. Let them, then, come 
out, if innocent, and relieve themselves from their present dis- 
tressed condition; and should they deny the story, perhaps now 
in general circulation, we will furnish them with the name of the 
honorable Trustee, who now deeply regrets the gross imposition 
practiced upon him — an imposition or stratagem, which has thus 
far. defeated all measures for the erection of the requisite 
buildings. 

But, on the other hand, if they are guilty, then of course, they 
well know the name of the Trustee imposed upon; and, therefore, 
why should we feel surprised, that they should resort to all man- 
ner of expedients and artifices to screen themselves from the pop- 
ular resentment? But as friends to those gentlemen we would 
explicitly say to them, "if you are innocent, say so, — if guilty, 
you have a legal right to act as you now do." The public have, 
however, a right to form their own opinions, judging from the 
conduct of men. The people of New Hampshire feel a deep in- 
terest in the establishment of an Asylum for the insane, and they 
will inquire into the true cause of the defeat of so desirable an 
institution. A Citizen. 

Portsmouth Journal March 21th, 1*4<>. 

The vote of this town, giving to the X. 11. Asylum for the In- 
sane, its portion of the Surplus Fund, on the condition that the 
said Asylum le located in this town, has been approved by the 
Legislature, accepted by the Corporation, and, in ouropinion.it 



108 



i- not in the power of Hie town, it' it had the disposition, to recall 
the money, until it is manifest that the Hospital will not be located 
here according to agreement. 

The honor of the town is concerned in this matter; it has be- 
come a party to a contract from which it cannot be relieved, either 
al it- own option or by the permission of the State; unless the 
contract be violated by the other party, or the Corporation dis- 
-nlveil by mutual consent. The state of the matter is this: The 
t !orporation appointed a t lommittee to lix the location of the Hos- 
pital: that Committee was approved also by the Trustees by a 
formal vote, and it was mutually agreed that the decision of the 

< ' 1 1 lit tee should be final and conclusive; so, whether the power 

of location rested with the Corporation or Trustees, (on which 
point there was a diffi reiicc of opinion at the time, ) it will not be 
questioned that their united power was binding. Under this 
agreement, the Trustees, in the first place, advertised for pro- 
posals from the towns wishing tor the location. This town, among 
ol li< is . by a formal vole, gave a slim of money, on the condition 
that the location should be here, and on the further condition that 
the Legislature should permit the transfer. The Legislature, by 
■a law distinctly recognized the vote of the town, did permit tin' 
transfer. The location was fixed here by the Committee commis- 
si d for the purpose; thus the contract was completed, and we 

bold il is competent for this town now to insist on its fullillnienl 
on the pari of the ( 'orporalion . 

The Legislature could not annul (lie contract if it would, unless 
all parties be agreed, for it is prohibited by the Constitution of 
the Tinted States, from passing any law impairing the obliga- 
tion of contracts. 

It ha- been asserted by those who have been trying every waj 

to find so (law by which to rob Portsmouth of her rights in 

this matter, that the law passed by the Legislature subsequent to 

the agreement above referred to, places Ibe executive powers in 
the Hoard of Trustees, and that they have a right to locate where 

they please. It i- true that such was the case with reference to 
the subsequent action of the Trustees respecting new duties, but 
tin' law could not impair any agreement already entered into, and 
we are in formed by a member of tin' late Legislature, that il was 
never intended that it should: that it was perfectly understood al 
the time, that the power of location was vested in the Committee 
appointed by mutual agreement of the Trustees and Corporation, 
and moreover, the absence of any subsequent vote on the part of 



409 



the Trustees, absolving them from their former vote, leaving the 
location to the Committee and abiding by their decision, shows 
conclusively that they so regarded it themselves, and that they 
never contemplated exercising that power, until the decision of 
the locating Committee was made known. 

The town of Portsmouth has a moral and legal right to the loca- 
tion; this right has been acknowledged and confirmed by the 
almost unanimous vote of the Corporation , and their Trustees in- 
structed to carry the location into full effect. It now remains to 
be seen whether they will conform to this democratic doctrine, 
and obey the will of their constituents or whether they will suffer 
themselves to be dictated to by the people of Concord. Mean- 
while we venture nothing in saying that the town of Portsmouth 
will take no sieps in the premises until it is decided whether the 
Asylum is to be located according' to contract. "When this is set- 
tled and if it should be decided against the location here, it will 
be time enough to talk about a new disposition of the surplus 
fund. But while things remain in their present state, it is, to say 
the least, highly dishonorable to exhibit any symptoms of hacking 
out. From the JSf. IT. Gazette. 

Portsmouth Journal., March 28, 1840. 

INSANE ASYLUM. 

At the town meeting of Portsmouth, the moderator, having 
stated the article in the warrant relative to the surplus revenue as 
next in order — 
Mr. Cushinan submitted the following motion, viz.: 
Itexolced, by the town of Portsmouth, in legal town meeting, 
that the vote or votes passed by said town of Portsmouth, at a 
Town .Meeting, held on the Kith day of June last past, passing or 
adopting a resolution relative to the Surplus Revenue of the United 
States, in the following words and figures, namely — "liesolred, 
by the town of Portsmouth in legal meeting assembled for that 
purpose, that that portion of the surplus revenue of the United 
Srales deposited with the town of Portsmouth under the Act of 
the State Legislature, approved January 17th. 18:17, be hereby 
relinquished for the benefit of the N. [1. Asylum for the Insane, 
on the condition that the said Asylum shall be located in said town 
of Portsmouth. Provided the Law of the State Legislature of 
1833, in amendment of said Act of .Ian Pith, 1837, shall be so far 
repealed or amended as to permit the transfer of said deposits to 
said Institution" — be. and the same are hereby reconsidered, re- 



41(1 



pealed, annulled and made void and of no effect : 

Resolved, That the Representatives of said town of Portsmouth 
to the General Court be instructed, and the Senator of District 
number < >ne be requested to use their influence to obtain an act of 
the Legislature to release said town from the contract made be- 
tween the state of New Hampshire and the town of Portsmouth 
to refund said surplus revenue to the state, when requested so to 
do. that the same may be distributed among the inhabitants of said 
town per capita. 

Mr. K. Sheldon moved the following amendment, viz.: 

Provided, the Corporation and Trustees of the Insane Hospital 
do not comply with the conditions of the donation made hv the 
town, on or before the first day of .Inly next. 

Mr, Samuel Spinney moved the following additional amend- 
ment, \ i/. : 

Provided that all persons residents of this town, of a personnl 
and real estate not exceeding $1000 free id' expense to them. 

[To find the meaning of this provision would puzzle a Phila- 
delphia lawyer.] 

Which amendments Mr. Cushtnan accepted as additions to 
his niol ion — 

I'pon which Mr. ClaggPtt submitted the following pre- 
amble and resolution lo postpone Indefinitely the whole subject, 
viz : 

"Whereas the Lcgisature of this sfal i the 2d day of July, 

A. 1 1. 1838, passed an act to incorporate certain persons bv 
the name of ''The New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane" 
and whereas the corporation, created in pursuance of said 
act. at a meeting held on the 7ih day of dune 1839, voted 
••that Samuel P.. Woodward, Luther V. Uell and William II. 
Pock well he a committee lo li\ and report lo the Trustees (ap- 
pointed on the part of said corporation and the State) the lo- 
cation of the Asylum, the report of whom, or any two of 
whom. shall be final and conclusive''' — and whereas at a meet- 
ing of the Trustees held on the same 7th day of .lime 1839, 
the Trustees, voted that the report of the same committee of 
location ••heretofore appointed by said Trustees, or the report 
of any tun of them, be Jinnl and conclusive" — and whereas 
the town of Portsmouth, on the 10th day of dune 1830, adopt- 
ed the preamble and resolutions, viz., transferring this town's 
portion of the surplus revenue to the Asylum, on condition 
that the Asylum should he located in Portsmouth, a copy of 



411 



which vote is published in the Journal of 25th January ult. 
and whereas the Legislature of this State, on the 4th day of 
July 1839, passed an act declaring that it shall be lawful for 
any town in this State, pursuant to a vote of such town at 
any legal meeting' duly holden for that purpose, which has al- 
ready been panned, or which may hereafter be passed, to trans- 
fer and convey to the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, 
in aid of the benevolent objects of that institution, that por- 
tion of the public money of the United States deposited with 
such town by virtue of a law of this State passed Jan 13th, 
1837, on condition that said institution shall be located in such 
town, any law, usage or custom to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing' — provided that nothing in this act shall be so construed 
as to release any such town from their obligation to return 
said money, or any part thereof to the State Treasurer pur- 
suant to the provisions of the act to which this is in addition." 

And whereas subsequently, on the 11th day of September 
1839, the said locating committee made report to said Trustees, 
"that they had examined the various places pointed out to 
them by the committee of the Trustees, and after mature de- 
liberation, DO decide that said Asylum be located at Ports- 
mouth, on the conditions offered by said town." And whereas 
subsequently, on the 8th day of January 1840, at the annual 
meeting of the members of said New Hampshire Asylum, the 
said corporation passed the following votes, viz., "that the 
Trustees he requested, and the Trustees chosen by the corp- 
oration be and they are hereby instructed, to interpose no ob- 
stacles, by delay or otherwise, to the said location being fixed 
at Portsmouth, and that they use officially their best endeavors 
to cause the Asylum for the relief of the insane to be there 
erected and lifted for use:" and also, "that said corporation 
accept the said donation, with the tender of their thanks to the 
town of Portsmouth for their distinguished liberality." 

And whereas the doings and proceedings of the said Corp- 
oration, Trustees and this town as aforesaid, in pursuance of 
the laws of the State, do constitute a contract, which is 
obligatory upon the parties thereto, which neither party can in 
guod faith or in law rescind, except with the concurrence of 
the parties thereto. 

Therefore Resolved, That the further consideration of the two 
articles in the town warrant relative to reconsidering, repeal- 
ing and annulling the said votes passed on the Kith day of 



41: 



June last, upon the subject of relinquishing the surplus rev- 
em f the United States deported with this town to the Asy- 
lum for the [nsane— and also of applying to the Legislature to 
release tin* town from the contract made between the Slate and 
this town to refund said surplus revenue to said State, &c, 
and also the several motions made upon this subject, be indef- 
initely postponed. 

Mr. Samuel Cushman and Mr. Samuel Spinney zealously op- 
posed the motion to postpone. Mr. Cushman alluded to charges 
that hail been made thai he acted under the influence of cer- 
tain gentlemen of Concord, which he treated as a slander upon 
his reputation, and most solemnly denied that he had any com- 
munication directly or indirectly with any individual of Con- 
cord mi the subject — >aid he had ever heen Opposed lo the 
cnur-e the town had adopted, and still is — that the meeting 
which passed the vote on the loth of dune was not numeroush 

attended, and that the vote ought to lie reconsidered . lie con- 
tended at some length that the surplus revenue oughl to he dis- 

ll'ilitltecl among the rateable polls of the town. 

Several gentlemen attempted to address the meeting in favor 
of the motion. Iiui for a long time were overpowered by the 

noise and tumultuous uproar, which the Moderator ill vain 

attempted to suppress. Ami it was quelled only in part at 

the request of Mr. Spinney to an associated phalanx which 

seemed to he under his influence. 

Mi-. G. \V lla\en whs finally permitted t<> make some re- 
marks, which made .1 forcible impression upon all candid and 
intelligent persons present, lie stated some of the great ben- 
efits to he derived from the institution, and deprecated the 
unfair course now attempted to he pursued. He also sta- 
led what Mi-. Hill ot Concord had disclosed lo the Trustees 
on the authority of Mr. Cushman, representing the people of 
Portsmouth as being somewhat opposed to having the Asy- 
lum in their own town. This matter being thus brought to 
Mr. (iishman's recollection, he admitted Mr. Haven's state- 
ment, with -ome qualifications persisting that he is still of 
the same opinion. 

Mr. Greenleaf made a i'fw remarks in favor oi the amend- 
ment offered by -Mr. Sheldon, and said that in ease measure, 
were not adopted for erecting the building's within the time 
mentioned in tic amendment, he should then be in favor of 
dividing the surplus per capita, but wholly protested against di- 



4 1 ;: 

viding it, as Mr. Cushmau wished, according to the polls. 

Mr. J. AY. Foster ably advocated the motion for postpone- 
ment—represented the importance to community of having the 
Asylum, and that should the present plan be defeated, a long- 
period would probably elapse, before any successful measures 
Mould lie adopted to establish an Asylum. His arguments 
were well adapted to stimulate the friends of humanity to per- 
severe in their present laudable efforts to meliorate the present 
condition of the insane. 

Mr. Ci.aggett, in support of his motion in favor of an 
indefinite postponement of the whole subject, contended that 
a vole to reconsider the vote of the town adopted on the 10th 
.Tune last, would be inoperative, and a nullity— that the town, 
lining made the donation upon the condition that the Asylum 
should be located in this town, in accordance with the act of 
(lie Legislature— and the committee, appointed by the Corp- 
oration and the Trustees, having decided that the Institution 
si onld be located in this town according to the terms offer- 
ed — aid the Corporation having afterwards, on the 8th day 
•of January last, by a vote of the corporation accepted that 
donation, and also instructed the Trustees to proceed in erect- 
ing the requisite buildings, the town has therefore entered in- 
10 such fohmn contract with the Corporation and Trustees, 
that tie town cannot be released from that contract by a re- 
<< nsidciation of the vole passed on the 10th June — that corp- 
orations and towns speak by their recorded votes, and when by 
such voles they enter into contracts, it is not in the power 
of one paify, without the consent of the other, to rescind such 
contract? — and that the attempt so to do would he in viola- 
tion of law and good faith, and tend to bring great re- 
pr< ach upon tie town. He contended that in case the town 
?1 ould low a] propriale ibis fund lo a different use, the 
4 oi | oiation. should the Trustees proceed to erect the build- 
ings here in pursuance of the report, of the locating commit- 
tee, could >t\\\ recover the amount of that donation, and in 
cafe of a suit at law, the town could make no legal defence 
— that an unreasonable delay to erect the buildings, or what- 
ever might be fairly deemed lo be a refusal to accept the 
donation, might discharge the town from their liability to 
1he Corporation — but at present the evidence was the other 
way. lie would not consent to do anything which 'would 
implicate the honor of the town, whatever may be the con 



411 



duct of a pari of the Turstces— and therefore boped, thai no 
action would. at present, be had, making a different ap- 
propriation of the fund, especially as it has been disposed 
of at a legal meeting which was very fully attended, and the 
subject was then fully discussed and maturely considered. 

The result of a poll of the house was 235 in favor, 289 
against the motion. 

We understand that many who would have voted in the 
affirmative, losi their votes in consequence of the passages 
leading into the hall being completely blocked up by the sup- 
porters of Mr. Cushmail's motion. A scene Of disorder en- 
sued too disgraceful to mention, and such as we never be- 
fore witnessed in a town meeting. The Moderater lefl his 
station, late in the evening, and for a long time attempted 
to clear the avenues. After he resumed his station, such 
was the tumult, that a large portion of the meeting could 
hear nothing distinctly which the Moderator said. Several at- 
tempting in a loud voice, to address the Moderator, could 
not, as appeared, be heard by him — and amid the uproar and 
confusion, a hand vote was taken on Mr. Cushman's motion, 
anil we arc not alone in believing thai a majority of hands 

were against it. At all events, the Moderator did not attempt 

to count, and indeed he could not, with accuracy. If he 

should direct the Clerk to record the motion a- prevailing, we 

feel certain thai be could only ■•i/nc.ss at it." 

Although the Moderator acted through the day with an im 
partiality which reflected credit upon him, yet in his decision 
on the ahove vote, we are not alone in pronouncing him iii 
error. Il would, however, be passed Over in silence, were the 
subject not an important one in which the character of our 
town is implicated. 

The vole on the indefinite postponement of the article in 

the warrant was taken by polling the hou-e: anil those who 
were in favor of the indefinite postponement were called upon 

to pass in froiil of the Moderator, and be counted. Those 
who chanced to be in the hall in favor of the postponement, 
immediately voted, An opposing cabal soon obstructed the pas- 
sageway, and the Moderator was compelled to leave his chair 
lo drive them back. About thirty more voters then passed— 
and the gang-wav was again obstructed, and the voters kept 
back. 



415 



Those who were in favor of recalling- the appropriation 
for the Asylum, were then called upon to pass, and probably 
nearly all who were in its favor were on the ground and 
voted. After they had passed around, the Moderator was re- 
quested to receive the votes of those in favor of the postpone- 
ment who were prevented from voting previously. The Mod- 
erator decided that they could not then be received ; and 
by the small number of 239 out of 1200 voters, it was resolved 
not to postpone. 

The hall was as full at the time, as we have at almost 
any previous time witnessed. The whole proceeding would 
have disgraced even the halls of Congress. 

(ieo. W. Haven gave notice that he would move a recon- 
sideration of these votes relating to the Surplus Revenue, at 
the adjourned meeting. 

Portsmouth Journal, March 28, 1840. 

THE IXKAXK ASYLUM. 



municipal business. The adjourned Town Meeting will be 
held on Wednesday next, when the resolutions adopted at 
(he late meeting respecting the Insane Asylum will be again 
taken up, and we trust will be so disposed of as to remove 
the stigma which their adoption would cast upon our town. 
On the result of the meeting last week, the opinions of 
our neighbor of the Gazette so nearly coincide with our own, 
that we copy them. The action of the Town on Wednesday 
evening last, on the article in the warrant to see if the 
town would repeal the vote it passed last year at a special 
meeting, giving its portion of the Surplus Revenue to the 
N. H. Asylum for the Insane on the condition it be located 
in this town, shows conclusively that the town has no dis- 
position to back out of the contract if the Trustees will go 
on and locate the Hospital as they have solemnly agreed to, 
within a reasonable time. We were glad to see this regard 
for the honor of the town so dintinctly manifested; it is an 
emphatic rebuke to those who have sought so industriously 
to create the impression that the vote of last year was not a 
fair expression of the feelings of the town, and will teach 
them that maugre the mad excitement they got up in favor 



-in; 



of a distribution of the Surplus Fund, (hey cannot bribe 
the people from the paths of honor and good faith. 

Mr. Sheldon's amendment to Mr. Cushman's resolution to 
repeal the vote of last year, fixing the 1st day of .Inly next 
as a limit sufficiently ample for the Trustees to act upon 
the subject of location, was perhaps justly deemed by some 
necessary to have the matter settled within a definite and 
reasonable time. 

The amendment of Mr. Spinney, if it has any bearing, 
defeats the original resolution in any contingency. The En- 
glish of it. as we understand it. is that if those who are 

not worth $1000 ai'e admitted to the Hospital IV f expense 

to them, the vote of last year shall be repealed, Ac., pro- 
vided the corporation and Trustees do not comply with the 
conditions of the donation of the town by the first of July: 
hut if they arc not admitted free of expense, then the vole 
of last year remains untouched, whether the Asylum is loca- 
ted here by the first of .Inly or not. 

We think il not unlikely thai Mr. Spinney MEANT that his 
amendment should have a meaning the very opposite of what 
il now expresses and instead of shutting out. the class he 
speaks of from a free admission, hi' intended to admit them 
free. The confusion at the time was not favorable for cor- 
rect action, and il is well, perhaps, that the amendment reads 
as il does; we doubt whether on mature reflection Mr. S. would 
wish io provide exclusive priveleges for any cla^s in commun- 
ity, rich or poor. He generally acts from the impluse of the 
moment and sometimes with good judgement, hut his zeal for 
I he poor on this occasion carried him too far — he sought for the 
poor w hat he would deny to the rich, and in this he erred, and 
especially so inasmuch as he attempted to add a new condi- 
tion lo the Former resolution, which he himself voted for and 
sustained to our positive knowledge. Jlesidcs he well knows 
the contract, at least on our part, is closed— we cannot im- 
pose new conditions; if he would make provision for any 
class, he should have done il last June, when the donation 
was made. The insane poor however, will probably he aid- 
ed by the Stale, by an annual donation for their benefit. 
For many years past, the State has voted annually $1200 for 
the indigent deaf and dumb to be sent to the Institution at 
Hartford, Ct., and sIl'Du tor indigent blind at lioslon, and 
we doubt not the State will lie quite as liberal in providing 



117 



for tlie Insane poor in an institution of our own. 

Some have mentioned that the poor boy had an equal share 
with the rich in buying the location of the Hospital; this is 
true to some extent, so far as concerns the Surplus Fund, 
hut it should be remembered that the rich in addition to their 
share of the Surplus Fund, have subscribed towards the same 
institution the munificent sum of $7,000, and we understand 
that at least two individuals have already made provision in 
their wills for handsome legacies to the same benevolent ob- 
ject, should the institution be located here according to agree- 
ment. And it should further be considered that this town is 
held responsible for the return of the Surplus Fund when call- 
ed for by the United States, in which event the tax would be 
put upon property and consequently the rich would have to pay 
the principal portion of it. Taking all things into consideration 
we think it is about as fair for the poor as it is for the 
rich. We cannot see but they have all done their part, and we 
cannot but regret to see any disposition, however limited, to 
back out from our liberal gift — a gift which is as honorable to 
the town as it is beneficial to her interests. 

i>. s. — Since writing the above we understand that there is a 
general disposition to reconsider the Resolutions and Amend- 
ments, parsed at (he late Town Meeting on this subject and 
either to postpone the whole subject and await the result of 
the meeting of the Trustees to be held in June next, or extend 
the time for locating the Hospital to the 1st of September next. 
The feeling in favor of some such action is general and will no 
doubt be carried by acclamation. We can think of no one who 
will he likely to oppose it, but the Honorable mover of the 
Resolutions. 

l.inAI. ADVANTAGES. 



AVe would ask those who see no advantage in having a 
Hospital for the Insane located ill our town where our poor 
insane may find relief without going fifty miles into the 
country as they would have to do should the Hospital not be lo- 
cated here, to look at the subject in another point of view. 
Look at it as a matter of pecuniary interest, to the town. 
Thus: if the Hospital is not located here, we get the Sur- 
plus distributed back, to be sure, but what object is $2 



IIS 



apiece — it would be forgotten in two days afterwards and 
we should hardly be paid for the time spent in quarrelling 
about it. But the money subscribed by the State($18,000)now 
consisting of bank stock in the N. II. Bank, would be taken 
out of the business of the town and carried away to Concord, 
and so would Iho subscription of our citizens, making together 
about $25,000 that would be taken out of the town. Whereas 
if the institution be located here, as it. will be if our citizens 
hold on to their rights, not only this $25,000 will be kept 
here, hut subscriptions from other places, amounting alto- 
gether, (the donation of this town included,) to some $60,000! 
will come with the institution, enabling it in the outset, to 
scatter some $30,000 among our laborers and mechanics, for 
the erection of buildings, and perhaps, $10,000 per annum, 
afterwards, for subsistence, muses, help, Ac. At this rate, 
then, the town woidd get back the $23,000 live times over 
in ten years, anil where is the man so unwise that he would 
reject this profitable investment of the Surplus fund, for the 
sake of getting his share of it, amounting, perhaps, to n 
couple of dollar-! If there be any, they know not which 
side of their bread their butter is on. Have they not dis- 
cernment enough to sec the motives of some who would sac- 
rifice the true interests of our own town? We would be£ of 
them to stand by their town, ''sink or swim. - ' We see, in 
Concord, that Federalists and Democrats, rich and pool, unite 
in one common effort to obtain the location of the Hospital: 

they siiek together like wax: and why cannot the same unan- 
imity exist hce? Is there really a difference of feeling among 
our people on the subject?- or is the division the result of the 
machinations of the enemies of this town, who operate here 
through agencies having an interest in pleasing litem— agents 
who have ever steadily opposed the erection of the Hospital in 
this place, who misrepresented at Concord, the attendance and 
character of the meeting which made the donation to the Hospi- 
tal, who wrote to our Representatives to persuade them to n- 
olatethe instructions of the town, and finally, who have been 
the public echo of the Concord papers of both parties, on the 
same subject, on all occassions? 

Portsmouth Journal, April 4th. ls-K". 



11!) 



Mr. Editor. — If our (own is to violate a sacred contract with 
the Trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, 
and the Surplus Revenue voted to said institution becomes 
again the property of the town, it becomes us to dispose of it 
in a manner that will redound to the honor and interest of the 
town. 

••That the same may be distributed among- the inhabitants of 
said town per capita." (exact from the resolution passed on the 
25th.) Can anything he imagined more ridiculous? Let lis 
create with it a common School Fund to advance the cause of 
education : or a Public Lyceum Room, and support as it will 
go, courses of lectures on scientific and instructive subjects; or a 
Public Library and Reading Room for the benetit if the indus- 
trious poor among us. There are very many ways in which 
this money can be disposed that will be of lasting benefit to us; 
lull do not let us adopt the selfish and contemptible mode of di- 
vision per capita. We shall be the contempt and laughing 
stock of the liberal and enlightened around us, and a bye-word 
and reproach for those that come after us. But I trust that 
these remarks are in vain, and that the money will be given as 
originally intended. To appropriate it to aid those unfortunate 
beings among us who are bereft of reason, is what every phil- 
anthropist and friend of humanity would wish: and hard is the. 
heart of that man who from interested or party motives would 
withdraw it from this noble cause. 



Q. 



Portsmouth Journal, April 4th, 1840. 

TOWN BUSOTESS. 



The adjourned town meeting was held on Wednesday last. 
and well attended. 

Voted. Thiil all the votes passed at the Town meeting of the 
2.~»th of March, in relation to the New Hampshire Asylum for 
the Insane, be reconsidered. 

\'(ilcil , That I he articles in the warrant relating' to the Surplus 
Revenue, be indefinitely postponed. 851 yeas, (l nays. 

The articles above indefinitely postponed, are the following: 
To see the town will reconsider, repeal and annul the votes 
passed by said town, at a town meeting held in said town on 



420 

the tenth daj • >t June past, relative to the relinquishment of 
the Surplus Revenue of t lie United States, deposited with said 
town, to the Asylum for the Insane." 

"To see if the town of Portsmouth will apply to the Legis- 
lature to release said town from the Contract made between the 
State of New Hampshire and said town, to refund said Surplus 
Revenue to said state, that the same may lie distributed among; 
the Inhabitants of said town according t<> the Polls?" 

The result of the action of the town on the subject of the 
Insane Asylum aud the Surplus Revenue, as reported above, N 
as honorable i<> the town as its citizens were unanimous in adopt - 
inn' it. Mr. Cushman, as the agent of Mr. Mill and Dr. Barnes, 
opposed with all his might all measures which mijilit lend to 
locate the State institution in this vicinity. So apparent was 
Mr. Cushman'e agency, that even his strongest coadjutor at a 

former i ting declared that the monster was developed "hoofs 

and horns," and voted for the indefinite postponement. When 
I he polls were opened, 351 passed in front of the moderator, 
jn favor of indefinite postponement. When the contrary was 
called for, the passage way was not darkened by a single 
individual ! 

The fact i-. thai many who at the meeting of the 25th 
nil. were under the impression that the surplus was to be 
bestowed upon the A-yluin without any regard to its location. 

\- the N. II. Patriot has taken pains |<> publish to tie 
Male that Portsmouth has withdrawn her oiler, when in fact 
the vote of March 25th only limited a time for tl.e acciptancc 

will the editor d<> the justice to publish the remit of tl.e 
above meeting. 

Portsmouth is as much pledged to the Asylum, as the trustees 
are hound to abide by the decision of the locating committee. 
The lienor of Portsmouth will he maintained. 

Portsmouth Journal, April 1 1 . 1840. 

\ curiosity! In the last X. II. Patriot, John II. Steele Esq., 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees of lite N. II. Asylum, ad- 
dresses the Trustees, inviting them to agree to locate the Asy- 
lum anywhere ••within 10 or 12 miles of the Slate House," 
and by the expression, ••central spot" he Fays he docs not 
mean Coim old. but assigns no reason why Concord should be 
excluded. The "central spot" of the Slate would be about 
25 or SO miles northerly cf the State House. Why did he no, 



421 



draw his line of circumference, of 20 miles in diameter, round 
the true centre? Mr. S. requests not the opinion of the Cor- 
poration, but the Trustees only, thus assuming the fact, never 
admitted by the Corporation that the sight of location is in the 
Trustees. lint Mr. S. cannot he ignorant of the fact, that 
the location is already fixed, and that the Trustees have no 
legal power to reverse it; and that the Trustees by their 
vole, and also word of honor, solemnly pledge'd themselves 
to abide by the decision of the committee of location. We 
therefore marvel at his strange appeal! 

Six of the twelve Trustees have requested Mr. S., their 
chairman, to call a special meeting of the hoard, in order 
to transact all necessary business. Why does he refuse? Dare 
he not trust their muted councils ? No — he calls, in ad- 
vance, for their individual pledges to his views, restricted 
within a small circle round the State House'* !! ! And docs 
he expect that any of them, separately, would agree to 
violate the public faith, and the honor of the Trustees, 
solemnly pledged? We advise Mi-. Steele, as he values 
his public reputation, to grant the request of the Trustees, 
and suffer them to hold a legal meeting. And when assembled, 
hi' can lay before them the evidence to which he has 
publiel\ alluded, and which he has repeatedly been publicly 
called upon l<> adduce, (if any he has) that the locating com- 
mittee were corrupted. I'nlcss he can substantiate that grave 
charge, we tru't that he will not transfer the present location 
to that peculiar "central spot, - ' which seems to have a magi- 
cal effect upon his mental vision! 

We learn that alter Dr. Woodward had declined accepting 
his appointment as one of the locating committee, Mr. Steele, 
with two other trustees, travelled to Worcester to prevail upon 
him to accept; that Mr. Steele was more importunate than the 
other trustees, and declared to Dr. Woodward that his ac- 
ceptance of the trust was the only way to prevent the 
difficulties which would otherwise arise in respect to (he loca- 
tion, thai after his lone- persuasion Dr. W. concluded to ac- 
cept: and that Dr. W's travelling expenses have not yet 
been paid. 

Mr. S. now seems to manifest some tender feelings for 
••the poor suffering insane." And this is creditable to the 
benevolence of his heart. If sincere, let him call the board 
together immediately, that immediate measures may be 



1-2-2 



adopted, to mitigate, if not end, their suffering's. Bj so 
doing, he would gratify the public, the Corporation, and. al 
least, half of the Trustees, and also remove, perhaps, any 
compunctious of conscience ho may feel in respect to the 
several hundred sufferers, whose deplorable condition excites 
hi- compassion. 

I loW Mill. 

Portsmouth Journal, April 25, 1840. 

Mil Editor :— [f 60,000 dollars will provide any sorl of 
an Asylum for the Insane to be found among the 300,000 in- 
habitants of the stale of New Hampshire, what sorl of an 

Asylum would :S7 i dollars provide for the insane lo lie 

found among the 9,000 inhabitants of the town of Ports 
mouth 't 

Lei us make n little calculation, reckoning the inhabitants 
of the State in round numbers al 1100,000, and those of 
Portsmouth al 9,000. Portsmouth has paid, or will pay, 
ii the Asylum be located in thai town, the sum of S0,0UU 
dollars towards it- erection and support, The State fur- 
nisher 15,000 dollars from (he public funds, and the private 
subscription in the whole State (excluding Portsmouth,) 
amounts to 15,000 dollars more. (Wo use round numbers 
for convenience, and they are understood to approximate 
nearly to the truth.) Set aside I lie Stale suhsbription, of 
which Portsmouth pays her part, and then let us see how 
much the people ol Portsmouth have contributed as citizens, 
towards the furtherance ol this humane project. The 9,000 in- 
habitants of Portsmouth pay $3,33 for <m-/i num. woman and 
rfiild. The 290,000 inhabitants of the remainder of the 
State pay the paltry sum of fn-c cents and a (juurter l'<<\- 
each man, woman and child! and yet Ihe Portsmouth people 
are called selfish in wishing tin; hospital P> bo located in 
this town! If they he selfish, what must he the char- 
acter of the rest of the State, in Ihe opinion of an impar- 
tial observer? We would not be understood lo utter a 
word in disparagement of those towns which have made surli 
liberal otter- in case the Asylum should be located within 
their borders. They have done well: their proposed dona- 
tions are generous; but, with the exception of Concord, 
their mites would do but little towards the support of the 
Hospital. Legally, the Asylum is already located at Ports- 



m 



mouth, but if the remainder of the State, through their ap- 
pointed trustees, refuse to act on the decision of the locat- 
ing committee, Portsmouth would do well to leave the rest 
of the State to take care of itself, and proceed to erect an 
Hospital independently. The charter having been violated, 
the citizens of Portsmouth might legally reclaim their private 
subscriptions, and adding them, with a few more which 
might be obtained, to the fund appropriated by the town, 
Portsmouth might build an Asylum fully adequate to accom- 
modate its own insane, and as many more from other towns 
as could pay a proper sum for their board. Thirty thous- 
and dollars would certainly support an hospital one half as 
extensive as one -which 60,000 dollars would support — or 
nearly in that proportion. If this sum be inadequate to the 
wauls of Portsmouth, how entirely insufficient must 00,000 
dollars be for the whole State! 

If 9000 inhabitants give 30,000 dollars, how much should 
300,000 inhabitants give? Why— one .million of dollars! 
so that to start upon as good footing as Portsmouth, 
the State should commence with one million of capital. Un- 
der these circumstances, why should Portsmouth stoop to 
crave humbly that the State would build them an hospital ? 
Why should they who furnish, each, $3.33, stand in the 
light of beggars to those who subscribe the magnificent sum 
of /i cents each? 

If the trustees refuse to act on the decision of the lo- 
cating committee, let the Portsmouth subscribers procure that 
the charter of the NT. II. Asylum for the Insane he an- 
nulled; and we have not a doubt that some individuals of 
every town in the State would generously tender their as- 
sistance towards the erection of an Asylum at Portsmouth. 
.Meanwhile let us wait until the trustees decide on sonic- 
thing, or confirm their former decision on nothing. 

Portsmouth .Journal. May 2, 1840, 



4i'4 



N. II. ASYLUM Rill THE INSANE. 



'I'ii the Citizens of J)Teit Hampshire: — The establishment 
of an Asylum for the Insane has for many years past en- 
gaged Hi" public attention; and ultimately the State made a 
(lunation which, added to private donations, was deemed to 
be sufficient to found such an institution. The Legislature 
created a corporation for the purpose; sufficient funds have 
been collected and secured: lime enough has elapsed for 
the erection of the buildings. Bnl before explaining the 
cause of this neglect we will offer a few remarks in favor 
nf such an institution lor this state. 

It has been estimated that there are over three hundred 
insane persons in New Hampshire, mum of whom poor and 
forsaken, wild and frantic, are confined in prisons, poor- 
houses, cages, out houses and even cellars, and some chained 
to the walls "I comfortless garrets! This is done in civi- 
lized, christianized New Hampshire, sometimes under the ex- 
cuse of stern necessity ! We need not say that ii is a sa- 
cred duty in meliorate their unhappy condition. Cheerfully 

In extend the hand of charity to comfort and aid the friend- 
less and the poor, the needy and the afflicted, is one of the 

noblest attributes of our nature. 

A mode of treatment, with the aid of medical skill, has 
I. ecu discovered, by which a very large proportion of these 
unfortunate beings may he restored to the reason and under- 
standing given them by the God of nature. How ought 
we to rejoice at the discovery? — For no one can say. 
however bright may he his intellect, that he i- not liable to 
insanity. Medical science has also discovered that insanity 
is a physical disease, and like other diseases it is finable. 
The fact seems to he established; by divers official reports. 
that if timely aid he afforded, about nine out of ten of this 
unfortunate class, may he restored to reason. The report 
of the London Prison Discipline Society, published in lb-7, 
discloses the astonishing tact that in the Retreat at York, of 
forty patients admitted within three months after the first 
attack, the whole number were restored to their friends, re- 
covered. Out where the disease has continued several years 
not one half the number were cured. 



425 



The report of the State Lunatic Asylum at "Worcester, 
Mass., states ''that, the number of the insane discharged in 
1839 was 168, of whom 80 were recovered, 20 improved, 7 
not improved, 30 harmless, and 22 died; — that it is near- 
ly 7 years since the Hospital was opened, and in that time 
1034 patients have been received, of whom 424 recovered, 75 
died, and Mfi7 have been discharged not recovered, some as 
harmless and incurable, some for want of room, and some 
by order of Courts, or at the request of their friends." 

But if only fifty, instead of ninety per cent., or even one 
out of twenty, can be cured by a timely application of 
remedies, where is the man of heart so hard, and so de- 
void of all feeling and sensibility as to withhold his efforts 
for their relief? Who would not use some efforts to estab- 
lish an institution for so benevolent a purpose ? 

Such institutions are now established in various parts of Eu- 
rope, and some upon a very costly and extensive plan. To 
the honor of our country be it said, they are now estab- 
lished in a majority of our sister States. Maine has ex- 
pended over $80,000, in addition to individual donations, 
for the purchase of a. site and the erection of buildings on 
thf banks of the Kennebec River. In Massachusetts there 
are Asylums at Charleetown, Boston and Worcester, besides 
several private Hospitals. In Connecticut there has been one 
for many years at Hartford — one in Vermont — Xew York 
and Pennsylvania have a number, to some of which dona- 
tions exceeding a hundred thousand dollars have been given — 
Xew Jersey has one under way ; and the States of Ohio, 
Kentucky. S. Carolina and Tennessee have each Asylums for 
the Insane. And it is to the credit of our State, that 
measures, deemed adequate to the object, have been adopted. 

The aggregate fund now ready to be supplied amounts to 
about sixty thousand dollars. But the local or sectional 
views of two or three of the Trustees have arrested all the 
proceedings in lespect lo electing the buildings, and even 
the abrogation of the Corporation is publicly threatened. 
We rely upon the high character and humanity of our en- 
lightened citizens and legislators to defeat this plot or con- 
spiracy. An attempt has been made and is still making to 
mingle party questions with this most benevolent object. 
We trust, however, that if anything on earth can escape 
party-feelings, it will be the Asylum for the suffering insane. 



42G 



'Die history Of the proceedings to establish the Asylum is 
so generally understood, that a brief statement will answer 
our present purpose. In 1888 the Legislature passed an act 
creating the corporation by the name of "N. II. Asylum 
for the Insane;" and part of the Trustees was appointed 
by the Corporation and the other by the slate authority. A 
serious question arose, whether the Corporation or the Trus- 
tees had the right to locate the Asylum. On the 7th .June 
183a, the Corporation and the Hoard of Trustees, each act- 
ing separately, each passed votes appointing a committee, 
consisting of .Messrs. Woodward, Bell and Rockwell, to lo- 
cate the Asylum, and also that their decision should be "Jin- 
nl null conclusive. " 

This committee, all living out of the state, was very 
harmoniously agreed upon, on account of their impartiality, 
integrity, and science upon the subject, till being superin- 
tendents of Lunatic Hospitals, and thus the question in re- 
spect to the li.Lihl Of location was amicably put to rest by 

"// parties interested. 

The town of Portsmouth on the 10th of June 1839, made 
a donation of Twenty-three thousand dollars, on the condi- 
tion that the Asylum should be located within the town, 

and at the same time voted to apply to the Legislature for 
legal authority to transfer their portion of the surplus fund 
to the institution, being -aid $23,000. <>u the 4th of July 
183!), the Legislature granted the desired authority, "in aid 
of the benevolent objects of the institution," for the benefit 
of Portsmouth as well as other town-, "on condition that, 
-aid institution be located in such town.*' And as the vote 
of Portsmouth had been previously adopted, the act of the 
legislature was made to ratify that vote. On the llth Sept. 
183!) the said committee of location made report to the Trus- 
tees "that they had examined the various place- pointed out 
to them by the committee of the Trustees, and after mature 
deliberation, DO DECIDE that said Asylum be located at 
Portsmouth, on the conditions offered by said town. 

On the I8th Jan.. 1840 the Corporation, by a vole (passed 
unanimously with the exception of two votes from Concord) 
accepted the Portsmouth donation, and directed the Trustees 
to "Use officially their best endeavors to cause the Asylum 
for the relief of the insane to be there [at Portsmouth] 
erected and lifted for use."' Having several month- since 



427 



presented to the public a inure extended argument proving 
conclusively that these doings and proceedings of said Corpo- 
ration, Trustees, and town of Portsmouth, in pursuance of 
the laws of the State, constitute a contract, which is ob- 
ligatory upon the parlies thereto, which neither party can in 
good faith or in law rescind, except with the concurrence 
of all the parties; we would now merely remark, that this 
position is too evident to be doubted by any learned Jurist, 
or any person of sound common sense. 

The X. II. Patriot, attempting to speak as the official or- 
gan of the state government, but perhaps more properly as 
the organ, in this respect, of the Trustees residing in Con- 
cord, declares that "one of the first acts of the Legislature 
will be to repeal the charter'' of said Corporation! It may 
be ( we have not examined the fact ) that the charter con- 
tains the usual clause, authorizing such repeal. But if it 
does, such repeal could not direst the rights, which the Cor- 
poration had previously acquired to the funds of $00,000 to 
endow the institution, nor could the State thereby recall its 
donation of $15,000: because the constitution of the United 
States expressly declares that "no State shall pass any law 
impairing the obligation of contracts?" And our State 
legislators make solemn oath that they will support the con- 
stitution of the V. States. We cannot believe that the leg- 
islature would attempt to repeal the charter, even could the 
State thereby regain its donation. And we have too good 
an opinion of our legislators to believe, for a moment, that 
I hey could decide lo destroy a corporation designed only to 
promote the cause of benevolence and humanity; or that 
they could be so legardless of the high character of the 
State or their own reputations as to attempt to act in bad 
faith — to violate a fair and legal contract, entered into by 
all parties with the purest motives! — that they could he 
guilty of an act, the effect of which would be to hold, for 
a long period, several hundred bereaved maniacs, in our 
midst, in their dreary and comfortless cages and prison 
houses! Could such an honorable legislator be found, thus 
devoid of the lender and sacred feelings of humanity, we 
would say — "'tell it not in (lath! - ' 

But we freely admit, that proof of fraud and corruption 
would avoid the contract. This is a sound principle of law. 
And if the locating committee, and citizens of Portsmouth. 



128 



have been guilty <>f the corruption publicly charged upon 
them. 1 1 10 contract ought to be avoided and set aside. Of 
course, one party is not guilty without the other, and the 
character of both i-. therefore, deeply implicated. If citi- 
zen* of Portsmouth are guilty, the high compliment the Cor- 
poration bestowed upon them for "their distinguished lib- 
erality" would be converted into their deep reproach and 
disgrace. And the generous act of the Committee in travel- 
ling through our State to select the besl location, would tix 
upon them a lasting stigma. We have assurance that two 
of the Trustees have made the charge, and it has been re- 
peated in the .V. //. Patriot. 

Fellow-citizens, we appeal to you, whether, in the ab- 
-ence of all proof, the character of so many shall even be 
sullied by foid suspicion and baseless charges? And wheth- 
er this charge shall be sufficient lo overthiow this benevo- 
lent institution? 

The contract must stand inviolable, unless Ihe charge of 
corruption shall be sustained; or unless, indeed, the honor 
of the state shall be sullied by unjustifiable legislation. Wc 
need not impute unworthy motives to the authors of (his 
slander, we submit that matter to the candid public. We 
may not distinctly trace the slander lo its tine source, bul 
have some suspicion that the Concord regency (but not (lie 
highly respectable citizen- of Concord) were its authors, with 

,'i view to defeat Ihe locution at Portsmouth, and secure it at 

Concord. And this suspicion seems to be corroborated by di- 
ver- circumstances Among which was the artful plot to cre- 
ate party prejudice- among the citizens of Portsmouth, through 
Ihe regency of faithful allies of thai regency, in order lo induce 
them to repeal the \ote bestowing their portion of the surplus 
fund, and thereby tendering the town obnoxious lo Ihn 
charge of acting in had faith toward- ihe Corporation and 
the Slate. lint no sooner was the plot disclosed, than the 
citizens of Portsmouth, with perfect unanimity, decided lo 
execute, in good faith, their part of the contract. 

We believe that the candid and enlightened public have 
already awarded to the citizens of Portsmouth hijih commen- 
dation and honor, for their noble munificence, in cheerfully 
bestowing in the whole amount about thirty thousand dollais 
in aid of the institution, being equal to the whole amounts 
granted bv the State, and subscribed by individuals in va- 



4-29 



rious parts of the State. That their "distinguished liberali- 
ty" ought to have some influence in the question of loca- 
tion, will, probably, be generally admitted. And if the 
charge of bribery be founded on their "liberality," then 
the term loses, at least, a portion of its odium, and con- 
veys a meaning not calculated to degrade the reputation of 
the town. And if this be bribery, then the town of Con- 
cord may share a portion of the honor, for they offered, 
upon the same terms, a sum nearly equal to half the Ports- 
mouth donation. And these offers were made in pursuance 
of an act. of the Legislature. 

As if the question of location were now opened for de- 
cision, the Concord regency contend that the Asylum ought 
to he located in a central part of the State, and because 
Portsmouth is not the territorial centre, that the location is 
unsuitable. Put the superior science of the committee led 
• hem to take various other matters into consideration. 
They deemed an eligible location to be of more importance 
than a mere central situation: and they knew that the lat- 
ter consideration had been disregarded in other States of the. 
Union, and that it could be of no importance, unless it 
should save travelling expenses. Had it been expedient to 
fix the location in the territorial centre, Sanbornton would 
probably have been the place. Yet we hear no complaints 
from the centre of (he State. The objections come from 
Concord, as if the Slate had not already done enough for that 
town. Concord affords no site which would bear a compar 
i-son with the first selected site in Portsmouth In our some- 
what extensive travel'- through the State, we have never 
seen a more eligible spot. Beautiful scenery is deemed to be 
almost a sine qua non to the success of Mich institutions. 
And the Committee's location at the Cutt'-i or Freeman place 
i< rendered truly delightful, having one of t lie most beauti- 
ful and piclure.-que landscapes that can be witnessed, per- 
haps, in any part of Kcw England. Easterly wt have a 
lull view of the town, the Navy Yard, the public work-; 
and