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Full text of "Bulletin of the bureau of fisheries"

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105 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND 

BULLETIN 

LABOR 

OF THE 

BUREAU 

OF 

FISHERIES 

VOL. XXXI 
1911 
IN TWO PARTSPART I 

GEORGE M. BOWERS 
COMMIS51ONER 

"rvon of Molhmks 
YîotI Ibrcrr 

WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
191 



A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE WATERS OF WOODS HOLE 
AND VICINITY 
In Two Parts --, 
PART I 
Section I.--PHYSICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL. By Frands B. Sumner, Ray- 
mond C. Osbum, and Leon J. Cole. 
Section II.--BOTANICAL. By Bradley M. Davis. 



CONTENTS. 

PART !. 

SECTION I.--PHYsICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL. By Francis B. Sumner, Raymond C. Osburn, and 
Leon J. Cole .................................................................. 
Chapter I. Introduction .............................. 
II. Geographical and physical conditions ..... 
I. Geography ......................... 
2. Character of the shores and bottoms.. 
3- Currents and rides .................. 
4- Temperature ...... 
5- Salinity ................ 
111. S3mopsis of zoological data ........... 
I. The dredging records .......... 
2. The distribution charts ............................... 
3. The fauna considered according to regions and habitats... 
4- The average yield of the dredge hauls ................ 
5- Explanation of the faunal catalogue... 
6. Synopsis of faunal catalogue ............................... 
7- Comparison of the Woods Hole catalogue with certain others.. 
IV. The fauna considered by s3-stematic groups ....................... 

i. Protozoa ........................... 
2. Porifera .......... 
3- Coelenterata ............................ 
4- Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, etc... 
5. Bryozoa ............................... 
6. Echinodermata ................ 
7- Amaulata and Sipunculida ..... 
8. Arthropoda .................. 
x. Phyllopoda.. 
Il. Ostracoda .... 
Ix. Copepoda .... 
Iv. Cirripedia .... 
v. Amphipoda.. 
vI. !sopoda ............................. 
vil. Schizopoda, Cumacea, Stomatopoda . 
vin. I)ecapoda ......................... 
IX. Xiphosura ..... 
x. Pycnogonida .............. 
xI. Insecta and Arachnida... 
9. Mollusca ...................... 
x. Pelecypoda ...... 
Ix. Amphineura.. 
1II. (3astropoda... 
Iv. Cephalopoda... 
Io. Adelochorda ....... 
i I. Tunicata ..... 

lma. 

II 
II 
28 
29 
34 
38 
64 
85 
9 I 
93 
95 
IOI 
102 
IIO 
117 
126 
127 
127 
128 
128 
131 
I35 
142 
142 
143 
I55 

I2. Pisces .............................................................. 6o 
I 3. Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia ........................ I69 
5 



 CONTENTS. 

SECTION I.--PHYsICAL AND ZOOLOGICALOntinued. Page. 
Chaptcr V. Thcorctical considcrations ................................................. x7 o 
. Factors dctcrmining distribution ....................................... 7o 
2. Thc local fauna as influcnccd by thc charactcr of thc bottom ........... z7 
3- Thc influemcc of tcmpcraturc .......................................... 74 
4- Thc influence of dcpth ................................ 7 
5- Position of thc local fauna in zoogcography .................. 
6. Comparative distributions of closely rclatcd spccics .................. 
7- Changes in thc composition of thc local fauna ...................... 9 o 
8. Conclusion ..................................................... z9 
Bibliography for section I ...................................................... z95 
Description of drcdging stations occupicd during thc prcsent Survcy ..................... 
Charts -227 .......................................................................... 
SEczION II.--BoTANCAL. By Bradley Moore ])avis ....................... 443 
Chapter I. Introduction ................................................................ 443 
I I. Some factors affecting the distribution of algoe at Woods Hole and vicinity ........ 445 
. The coast ............................................................ 445 
2. The bottom in deeper water ....................................... 445 
3- The rides and tidal currents .................... 446 
4. Thc effect of ice .................... 446 
5. ])epth of water ................................ 447 
6. Light ..................................... 448 
7- Temperature and seasonal changes ........ 449 
8. Salinity of the water .................................................. 452 
III. Characteristic algal associations and formations at Woods Hole and in Buzzards 
Bay and Vineyard Sound ........................................... 453 
Algal associations ............................. 456 
The cool-water sublittoral formation ..... 468 
The waxm-water sublittoral formation ............. 47 ° 
The Zostera formation ........................... 472 
A winter sublittoral formation ................... 473 
The littoral formations ..................... 474 
The plankton ................................................... 475 
IV. A report on the algœe of Spindle Rocks, Woods Hole Harbor .................... 476 
V. The distribution of marine algœe in the deeper waters of Buzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sound ................................................... 48o 
L The middle regions of Buzzard's Bay ........ 48o 
2. The middle regions of Vineyard Sound .............. 482 
3- Certain inshore regions of particular interest ............................ 487 
4- Some statistics relative to the distribution of algoe in Buzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sound .................................................. 494 
Literature cited for Section I I .......................................................... 497 
Charts 228-274 ......................................................................... 498 



CHARTS. 

Clmrt No. Pa.e. 
x. Biloculina ringens .................... 219 
2. Miliolina seminulum .................. 220 
3- Miliolina oblonga .................... 22 i 
4- Miliolina circularis .................. 222 
5- Polymorphina lactea ........... 223 
6. I)iscorbina rosacea ...... 224 
7- Pulvinulina lateralis.. 225 
8. Rotalia beccarii ................. 226 
9. Polystomella striatopunctata ........... 227 
xo. Grantia ciliata? .................... 228 
xx. Cliona celata ........................ 229 
x2. Chalina sp ..................... 230 
x 3. Microciona prolifera ............ 23i 
x4. Pennaria tiarella ............... 232 
x 5. Hydractinia echinata ............... 233 
x6. Eudendrium ramosum ................. 234 
XT- Eudendrium dispar ................... 235 
xS. Tubularia couthouyi ............. 236 
xg. Tubularia crocea ................ 237 
20. Obelia geniculata ...... 238 
2i. Halecium halecinum ..... 239 
22. Thuiaria argentea ......... 240 
23. Schizotricha tenella ........ 24 I 
24. Alcyonium carneum ............. 242 
25. Metridium dianthus ................... 243 
_°6. Astrangia danœe ...................... 244 
27. Crisia eburnea ............. 24 
28. Tubulipora liliacea ......... 246 
29. /Etea anguina .................. 247 
3 o. Bicellaria ciliata ................. 248 
3i. ]3ugula turrita ....................... 249 
32. Membranipora pilosa .................. 250 
33- Membranipora monostachys ............ 25i 
34- Membranipora tenuis ................ 252 
35- Membranipora flemingii .............. 23 
36. Membranipora aurita ................ 254 
37- Cribrilina punctata .................... 255 
38. $chizoporella unicornis ................ 26 
39- Schizoporella biaperta ............... 257 
40. Hippothoa hyalina .................. 258 
4I. Cellepora americana ................. 259 
42. Lepralia pallasiana and americana .... 260 
43- Lepralia pertusa ...................... 26 
44. Smittia trispinosa nitida ............. 
45. Bowerbankia gracilis .................. 263 

Chart No. 
46. Hippuraria armata ...... 
47. 
48. 
49- 
50. 
53- 
54. 
56. 

Page. 
.... 264 
Henricia sanguinolenta ...... 265 
Asterias forbesi .......... 266 
Asterias vulgaris ......... 267 
Amphipholis squamata .............. 268 
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis... 269 
Arbacia punctulata .................. 270 
Echinarachnius parma ............... 27i 
Eulalia annulata ........... 272 
Harmothoë imbricata ............... 273 
Lepidonotus squamatus ......... 274 

57- Nephthys incisa ..................... 275 
58. Nephthys bucera ..................... 276 
59- Nereis pelagica ....................... 277 
60. Platynereis megalops .................. 278 
6x. Marphysa leidyi ..................... 279 
62. Diopatra cuprea .................. 280 
63. Arabella opalina .................... 
64. Lumbrineris hebes .................. 282 
65. Ninoë nigripes ....................... 283 
66. Rhynchobolus americanus .......... 284 
67. Choetopterus pergamentaceus .......... 285 
68. Spiochoetopterus oculatus .............. 286 
69. Leproea rubra ......................... 287 
70. Pista intermedia ..................... 288 
7 I. Pista palmata ....................... 289 
72. Polycirrus eximeus ............. 290 
73- Ampharete setosa ....... 
74- Melinna maculata ................ 292 
75- Cistelaides gouldii ................... 293 
76. Clymenella torquata .............. 294 
77- Maldane elongata .......... 295 
78. Trophonia affinis .................... 296 
79- Parasabella microphthalmia ........... 297 
80. Pseudopotamilla oculifera .......... 298 
8x. Hydroides dianthus .......... 299 
82. Sabellaria vulgaris ............ 300 
83. Phascolion strombi .......... 3ox 
84. Balanus eburneus ....... 302 
85. Lysianopsis alba .................. 303 
86. Haustorius arenarius ................. 304 
87. Ampelisca macrocephala .............. 305 
88. Ampelisca spinipes .................. 306 
89. 13yblis serrata ......................... 307 
90. Calliopius loeviusculus ................ 308 



8 

CHARTS. 

hart lqo. Page. 
9 I. Pontogenia inemis .................... 3o9 
92. Batea secunda ........................ 3io 
93. Gammarus annulatus .................. 3ii 
94. Elasmopus lœevis ...................... 312 
95- Autonoë smithi ................ 313 
96. Ptilocheirus pinguis ................... 314 
97. Amphithoë rubricata ................. 315 
98. Jassa marmorata ............. 316 
99- Ericthonius minax .............. 317 
ioo. Corophiurn cylindricum ........... 318 
iOl. Unciola irrorata .............. 319 
io2. Caprellidœe sp ............. 32o 
Io 3. Leptochelia savignyi ..... 32I 
Io4. Idothea baltica ............ • ...... 322 
io 5. Idothea phosphorea ....... 323 
lO6. Erichsonella filiforrnis .............. 324 
io 7. Crago septemspinosus... 325 
xo8. Homarus americanus .............. 326 
io 9. Pagurus pollicaris ............. 327 
1 lO. Pagurus acadianus ....... 328 
1ii. Pagurus longicarpus ..... 329 
Ii2. Pagurus annulipes... 33 ° 
il 3. Pelia mutica ........ 33 x 
Ii4. Libinia emarginata ................. 332 
1I 5. Cancer irroratus ............. 333 
116. Cancer borealis ............. 334 
ii 7. Ovalipes ocellatus ........... 335 
Ir8. Neopanope texana sayi.. 336 
ix 9. Pinnotheres maculatus.. 337 
12o. Tanystylum orbiculare... 338 
x2 I. Anoplodactylus lentus.. 339 
I22. Ostrea virginica ......... 340 
i23. Anomia simplex ........... 34I 
i24. Anomia aculeata ............ 342 
x25. Pecten magellanicus .... 343 
i26. Pecten gibbus borealis.. 344 
i27. Mytilus edulis ............ 345 
i28. Modiolus modiolus... 346 
129. Modiolaria nigra ..... 347 
x3o. Crenella glandula ..... 348 
x3i. Arca ponderosa ............. 349 
132. Al'ca transversa ............. 35 ° 
i33. Arca campechiensis pexata... 35 x 
i34. Nucula proxima .............. 352 
i35. Yoldia limatula .... 353 
i36. Solemya velum ............. 354 
i37. Venericardia borealis... 355 
I38. Astarte tmdata ............ 356 
i39. Astarte castanea ................ 357 
I4o. Crassinella mactracea ........... 358 
I4I. Divaricella quadrisulcata ............ 359 
I42. Cardium pimaulatum ................... 36o 

Chart No. Page. 
I43- Lœevicardium mortoni ................. 36t 

Cyclas islandica ....... 
Venus mercenaria ............... 
Callocardia morrhuana ............... 
Petricola pholadiformis.. 
Tagelus gibbus ........ 
Tellina tenera... 
Macoma tenta .... 
Ensis directus ........... 
Cumingia tellinoides.. 
Spisula solidissima ......... 

36 
364 
365 
..... 366 
........ 367 
........ 368 
........ 369 
. • 370 
.... 37z 

I44. 
I45- 
I46. 
I47- 
I48. 
I49. 
I5o. 
t5 I. 
I52. 
53. 

i54. Mulinia lateralis ....................... 372 
I55. Thracia conradi ........................ 373 
156. Cochlodesma leanum ......... 374 
I57- Lyonsia hyalina ........... 375 
158. Clidiophora gouldiana... 376 
i59. Corbula contracta ....... 377 
I6o. Mya arenaria ............ 378 
i6I. Chœetopleura apiculata.. 379 
I62. Tornatina canalieulata.. 38o 
163. Cylichnella oryza ....... 38t 
I64. Busycon canaliculatum.. 382 
165. Busycon carica ............... 383 
I66. Buccinum nndatum ....... .. 384 
i67. Tritia trivittata ....... 385 
i68. Ilyanassa obsoleta.. 386 
i69. Anachis avara ........ : 387 
i7o. Astyris lunata .............. 388 
i7I. Eupleura caudata ............. 389 
I72. Urosalpinx cinereus ......... 39 ° 
I73. Eulima conoidea ...... 39 z 
i74. Tttrbonilla sp ............... 392 
I75. Seila terebralis ...................... 393 
i76. Cerithiopsis emersonii .............. 394 
IïT. Bittium alternatum ..... 395 
178. Cmcnm cooperi ......... 396 
179. Vermicularia spirata ........... 397 
18o. Littorina litorea ........ 398 
i8I. Lacuna puteola ......... 399 
i82. Crucibulum striatum.. 4oo 
i8 3. Crepidula fornicata .... 4oi 
I84. Crepidula convexa... 402 
I85. Crepidnla plana ...... 4o 3 
I86. Polynices duplicata.. 404 
I87. Polynices heros ....... 4o 
I88. Polynices triseriata.. 4o6 
I89. Loligo pealii .......................... ' 407 
19o. Molgula arenata and Eug3'ra glutinans. 4o8 
19i. Molgula manhattensis ................ 4o 9 
I92. Styela partita .......... 41o 
I93. Perophora viridis ................. 4xz 
194. Didermaum lutarium ................. 4za 



CHARTS. 

9 

Chart No. Page. 
I95. Amaroucium pellucidum ............. 413 
x96. Amaroucium pellucidum form constel- 
latnm ............................ 414 
i97. Amaroucium stellatum.. 415 
x98. Raja erinacea ........... 416 
i99. Syngnathus fuscus ....... 417 
2oo. Ammodytes americanus... 418 
2oi. Stenotomus chrysops ...... 419 
202. Tautogolabrus adspersus.. 420 
2o 3. Spheroides maculatus .... 421 
204. Myoxocephalus œeneus.. 422 
2o 5. Prionotus caroliuus ..... 423 
2o6. Pholis anellus ......... 424 
2o 7. Paralichthys dentatus ..... 425 
208. Paralichthys oblongus ........... 426 
2o 9. Pseudopleuronectes americanus.. 427 
2io. Lophopsetta maculata ................ 428 
2II. Temperature chart, Buzzards Bay 
and Vineyard Sound, August, 19o 7 429 
212. Temperature chart, Buzzards 13ay and 
Vineyard Sound, November, i9o 7 . 43 ° 
213. Temperature chart, Iuzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sound, March, 1908 ...... 431 
214. Temperature chart, Buzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sound, June, I9o8 ...... 432 
215 . Density chart, Buzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sotmd, August, i9o 7 ..... 433 
216. I)ensity chart, Buzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sound, November, 19o 7 434 
217. Density chart, Buzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sotmd, Match, 19o8 .... 435 
218. Density chart, Buzzards Bay and 
Vineyard Sound, June, 19o8 ...... 436 
2i 9. CtllWeS showing annual range of air and 
water temperature at Woods Hole, 
Mass., 19o2-19o6 .... facing page.. 436 
220. Surface temperatures, Northwestern 
Atlantic Ocean--January, Feb- 
ruary, Match, April .............. 437 
22 i. Surface temperatures, Northwestern 
Atlantic Ocean--May, June, July, 
Angust .......................... 438 
222. Surface temperatures, Northwestern 
Atlantic Ocean--September, Oc- 
tober, November, December ...... 439 
223. Cape Cod and neighboring areas of land 
and water, showing geographic and 
hydrographic features (based, in 
part, on U. S. C. & G. S. Chart No. 
iooo) ............................ 440 
224. Woods Hole Harbor and vicinity, large 
scale (basedon U. S. C. & G. S. 
Chart No. 348) ................... 441 

Chart No. Page. 
225. Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, and 
adjacent bodies of land and water, 
with especial reference to local 
geographic names, as used in the 
text (based on U. S. C. & G. S. 
Chart No. i12) ...... facing page.. 442 
226. Shoxving position of Fish Hawk and 
Phalarope stations of the survey, 
19o3-19o 7 ........... facing page.. 442 
2oe 7. Showing depth and character of bottom 
at each of the stations of the 
survey ............. facing page.. 442 
228. Choetomorpha melagonium ............ 498 
229. Cladostephus verticillatus.. 499 
23o. Arthrocladia villosa ........ 5oo 
23i. Desmarestia aculeata ....... 5oi 
232. Desmarestia viridis .......... 5o2 
233. Dictyosiphon hippuroides.. 5o3 
234. Chorda filum ........... 5o4 
235. Laminaria Agardhii .............. 5o5 
236. Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata ....... 506 
237. Laminaria digitata ............. 5o7 
238. Sargassum Filipendula ..... 5o8 
239. Antithamnion cruciatum.. 509 
240. Ceramium rubrum .......... 5io 
241. Griffithsia Bornetiana. 5xx 
242. Griffithsia tenuis ....... 512 
243. Plumaria elegans .......... 513 
244. Spermothamnion Turneri... 514 
245. Spyridia filamentosa ....... 515 
246. Polysiphonia elongata ............ 516 
247. Polysiphonia nigrescens .......... 517 
248. Polysiphonia variegata... 518 
249. Ahnfeldtia plicata .......... 519 
25o. Chondrus crispus .......... 520 
251. Phyllophora Brodioei ........... 52x 
252. Phyllophora membranifolia ....... 522 
253. Agardhiella tenera ................ 523 
254. Cystocloninm purpurascens ........... 524 

255. Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cir- 
rhosum .......................... 525 
256. Champia parvula .............. 526 
257. Lomentaria rosea .................. 527 
258. Lomentaria uncinata ............. .- 528 
259. Rhodymenia palmata ......... 529 
26o. Delesseria sinuosa ........... 53 ° 
261. Grinnellia americana ...... 53 I 
262. Polyides rotundus ..... 532 
263. Corallina officinalis ......... 533 
264. Hildenbrandia prototypus ...... 534 
265. Lithothamnion polymorphum.. 535 
266. Zostera marina ....................... 536 
267. Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, 
Mar. i7, i9o 5 ..................... 537 



IO 

CHARTS. 

Chart No. Page. 
268. Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, 
Apr. 22, 19o 5 ..................... 538 
269. Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, 
May 22, 19o5 ..................... 539 
27o. Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, 
June 29, igo 5 ..................... 54o 
271. Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, 
July 22, 1905 ...................... 541 

Chart No. Page. 
272. Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, 
Sept. 2, 19o 5 ...................... 542 
273. Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, 
Sept. 19 , 19o4 ..................... 543 
274. Distribution of algoe on Spindle Rocks. 
Dec. 30, x9o4 ...................... 544 



A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE WATERS OF 
WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

Section I.--PHYSICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL. 

By FRANCIS B. SUMNER, RAYMOND C. OSBURN, and LEON J. COLE. 

Chapter l.--INTRODUCTION. 
One of the necessary conditions for the intelligent understanding of a nation's 
population, its resources and its needs, is the taking of an adequate census. So aise 
we tan bave no proper appreciation of the resources of the sea, and of the means by 
which we may develop and conser-e them wîthout first making an accurate inventory 
of its inhabitants. This view was stated quite explicitly by Baird (1873, p. xIII) in 
his first report as Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, and bas been the assumption 
upon which much of the scientific work of the United States Fish Commission bas been 
based. Accordingly it was appropriate that the first annuM report of the commission 
should eontain not only a Catalogue of the Fishes of the East Coast of North America, 
so far ns then known, but an extended report upon the invertebrate animais of one 
important section of the toast, and a list of the marine algœe inhabiting this saine region. 
The preparation of these detailed lists of the animais and plants occupying regions 
of greater or less extent has long been the favorite occupation of a certain class of natu- 
ralists. Such lists abound in the annals of botany and zoology. It is onlv thus, indeed, 
that we have learned how out planer is populated. The cumulative labors, first of 
individuals, then of scientific organizations and of governments, bave given us the data 
fronl which to formulate the laws of geographical distribution. In the beginning we 
have the bare facts of occurrence; then correlations are established between given con- 
ditions of environment and the presence of given species or vareties; finallv we are 
brought within striking distance of the great central problem of the origin of the species. 
So much for the scientific aspect of the case. On the practical side, faunistic and 
floristie studies need offer no apology for their existence. They have, indeed, formed 
a part of the established policy of out Government for many years. The Department 
of Agriculture has long maintained a biological survey of the land animais and plants 
of this continent, while out Bureau of Fisheries, following the example of its illustrious 
founder, bas slowly but steadily been conducting a census of the inhabitants of out seas 
and lakes. Truly, these creatures are hot ail fit for food, nor indeed for any commercial 
purpose whatever--though we must add that there are probably many more animais 
and plants of economic value than we now realize. But the lire of the earth is an inter- 
related whole. One species stands in relation to another as its enemy, prey, food, 



1 2 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
parasite, host, messmate, or the like, and intimate chemical relations may exist, as we 
find to obtain between the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom, as a xvhole. More- 
over, as we now view the case, ail these multitudinous living creatures are, so to speak, 
related by "blood." The knowledge which we gain from one is commonly applicable 
to its nearer relatives and frequently to a long series of other forms. Hence the futility 
of endeavoring, even on economic grounds, to restrict our investigations to food fishes 
or other animais of obvious commercial importance. What we learn from the study 
of a minnow is, in the great majority of cases, quite as applicable to a mackerel or a cod. 
But the minnov is easier to obtain and easier to manipulate. Thus it is that we find 
a staff of experts, under Government employ, devoting themselves, in many cases, to 
the study of obscure and apparently insignificant forms of life. 
A full account of zoological explorations in the coastal waters of New England 
would occupy a volume of considerable size. As pioneers in this work stand forth the 
names of Gould, C. B. Adams, Couthouy, Desor, Girard, and Storer; of Ayres, Stimpson, 
Mighels, Leidy, and Louis Agassiz. A later period was inaugurated by the establish- 
ment of the United States Fish Commission in i87 , and the commencement of the 
reportant dredging explorations of Verrill and his colleagues. Beginning with the 
shallower waters of the bays and sounds of New England, these naturalists extended 
their observations to the broad continental shelf, and finally to the depths of the ocean 
beyond. The construction by the United States Fish Commission of the steamer Fish 
Hawk in 1879 and of the Albalross in 1882 gave great impetus to the exploration of the 
deeper waters off the North American coast; although work of the first importance in 
this field had already been donc by Pourtales and by L. and A. Agassiz with the Coast 
Survey steamers Corwin, Bibb, Hassler, and Blake, and by Verrill himself with various 
Government vessels detailed for the service of the Fish Commission. 
Manv years ago, Woods Hole was selected by Prof. Baird as the most promising 
spot upon our coast for the commencement of a scientific study of fisheries problems. 
From the very outset he gathered about him a staff of naturalists of the type that was 
dominant in that generation--men eager to seek out every living thing concealed be- 
neath the waves, to describe and figure and name. Foremost among these was Addison 
Verrill, who, with his colleague Sidney Smith and some others, vas for manv years 
active in exploiting the marine fauna of New England. 
In spite of the previous observations of Desor and Adams and Gould and Stimpson, 
and the elder and younger Agassiz, vho had already ruade essavs into the waters of 
southern Massachusetts, Verrill and Smith round in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay 
an almost virgin field. We begin to realize the pioneer nature of much of their work 
when ve recall that even some of out most abundant and familiar species (e. g., Chalina 
arbuscula, Hydroides dianthus, Virbizs zostcricola, Orchestia. agilis) were first described 
in the Report upon the Invertebrate Animals of Vinevard Sound (873), while others, 
including some of out commonest ascidians, had been only recently described by Verrill 
from specimens taken in the vicinity of Voods Hole. Indeed, the report of Verrill and 
Smith, hasty and ill digested as it was, remains to this time out chief single reference 
work upon the fauna of this section of out coast. 
That first inclusive list of local species has been much extended, it is true, partly 
by the original authors themselves, partly by a younger group of naturalists, who bave 
prepared synopses and annotated lists of particular sections of the local fauna. Certain 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

I3 

of these have been published by. the United States Fish Commission, others bv the 
National Museum and by the Boston Society of Natural History. So far as they bave 
dealt vith the fauna of the Woods Hole region, it is fair to say that these papers are 
based chiefly, some of them perhaps wholly, upon records or collections made by the 
United States Fish Commission or by its successor, the Bureau of Fisheries. Within 
recent years reports bave appeared comprising the following groups of animals repre- 
sented in our local marine fauna a Protozoa, Foraminifera, Hydrozoa, Medusœe, Entozoa 
(of fishes), Copepoda (free), Copepoda (parasitic), Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Echinoder- 
mata, and fishes. Others dealing with the local Actinozoa, Bryozoa, and Polychoeta 
are ready for press, and it is the policy of the Bureau of Fisheries to continue this work 
until every group having any considerable biological or economic importance has been 
treated in this wav. 
The task undertaken by the prescrit authors has been twofold: First, to make as 
conplete a census as possible of the marine fauna and flora of an arbitrarilv litnited 
region within the vicinity of Woods Hole; and, second, to carry on svstematic dredg- 
ing operations throughout that portion of this region comprising Vineyard Sound and 
Buzzards Bay. b 
In carrying out the former division of our work, i. e., the "census," which appears 
as seetions HI and v of this report, we bave resorted for data to a variety of sources. 
First of all we mav mention the records of the dredging operations, including, on the 
one hand, those of the smwey, in the restrieted sense, and on the other hand the results of 
manv special trips to various points within the region. It lnust be admitted, however, 
that out of the grand total of over 1,6oo speeies of animals there listed, seareelv more 
than 5oo are included in the dredging records; while of those species encountered in the 
dredging opera.tions, the great majority had already been listed bv previous writers. 
On the zoologieal side, at least, the main source of the data reeorded in the catalogue 
was thus necessarily the literature treating of the local marine fauna. And of this 
the quantity is verv great.  For 3o years or more Woods Hole has been the chief 
station for the pursuit of studies in marine biology on this side of the Atlantie. 
Fortunately, frotn the eompiler's point of view, a relatively small proportion of the 
resulting literature eontains data relevant to the present work, sinee the trend of modern 
biological work is at present physiological and morphological rather than taxonomic 
and eeologieal, a But the list of papers abstraeted for the catalogue of marine fauna and 

a The 13apers coml3rised in the "Fauna of New England'" scies 13ublished by the Boston Society of Natural History are 
hot included here, since they have a different scope. 
b A brief report upon some of the results of this undertaking was prepared by the senior author of the present work for 
the Fourth International Fisheries Congress. (Suraner, 
c In addition to making a general search for appropriate bibliographic references, almost to the date of publication of this 
report, the following periodicals were examined systematically for data relating to the local latma: 
American 3onrnal of Science (lrom 87o to 19o7). 
American Naturalist (frora x875 to lgog). 
Biological Bulletin (complete to x9o9) 
Boston Journal ot Natural History (complete). 
Journal ot lIorphology (complete to x9o9). 
lemoirs Boston Sodety o[ Natural History (complete to 
Prnceedings Boston Society ot Natural History (complete to I9O9}. 
Proceedings Washington Academy ot Sciences (I899 to x9o7). 
Proceedings U. S. National Museum (complete to 
Transactions Connecticut Academy ot Sciences (x87o to x9o7}. 
U. S. Fish Commission bulletins and reports (complete to x9o9). 
 A noteworthy illustration ot this tact is thi pauiity ot our data regarding the reproductive period ot local animais. The 
meager notes of Bumlous, lIead, and ThomlosOn comprise the larger part of such definite observations as bave been recorded 
on this subject. 



14 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

flora nevertheless contaiias more than -5o titles. Moreover, it has not been thought 
worth vhile for the purposes in hand to make any very thorough exanfination of the 
works preceding the publication of the Invertebrate Animals of Vinevard Sound, since 
Verrill and his collaborators have there included the rather scanty records of their 
predecessors. And only such statements were œeonsidered by us as relate directly to the 
occurrence of species within the linits of the tenon defined hereafter. 
Another source of the data accumulated in the course of out "census" was the 
wealth of information acquired during the past 40 years by the veteran collector of 
the United States Fish Commission, Mr. Vinal N. Edvards. Much of this, it is true, 
has already been incorporated into a score of different published papers, with or with- 
out due acknowledgment of the real source of the information. It is sale to say that 
most of the lists and synopses of Woo,ts Hole species that have appeared since the first 
report of Verrill are based in large measure, if hot primarily, either upon records lnade 
by Mr. Edwards himself or at least upon material collected bv him. The descriptions 
and, in a large measure, the determination of the species have, however, been the work 
of others. It was found bv us that .Mr. Edwards still possessed copious notes relating 
to the yield of fish traps, fyke nets, seining trips, and tow-net collecting which had never 
been utilized; and that he had gathered much material which had hot yet been iden- 
tified. Such records have been abundantly employed in the course of our work, and, 
in general, Mr. Edwards has been continuallv called upon for information during the 
preparation of the faunal catalogue. Indeed, one of the motives which originally 
prompted its compilation was a desire to incorporate in a permanent form the valuable 
but still unpublished data in the possession of this indefatigable collector and obsera, er. 
From rime to rime notes of value have been contributed by various investigators 
belonging to the local scientific colony, vho have become experts upon one or another 
group of animais or plants; and in certain cases coaasiderable manuscripts bave been 
furnished us, notably by Messrs. W. R. Coe, J. A. Cushman, V. C. Curtis, C. W. Hargitt, 
Lynds Jones, Edwin Linton, J. P..Moore, A. L. Treadwell, and C. B. Wilson. Likewise a 
card catalogue, which had been formerly maintained by the Marine Biological Laboratory 
as a receptacle for ecological notes, was put at our disposal by the director of that labora- 
tory, and a considerable number of these data were found tobe relevant to our purposes. 
lir. George M. Gray, the curator of the saine institution, has also responded liberally to 
the numerous queries vhich we bave put to him, and thus we have profited to a large 
degree from his wide experience as a colIector. At the commencement of the present 
undertaking the practice was encouraged, among investigators in the Fisheries Labora- 
tory, of recording the results of collecting trips of any sort or of observations or dis- 
coveries which they might make bv chance relating to local ecology. Later a printed 
form was devised whereby such random records could be entered upon single cards. 
Finally, although it was no part of the Survey, as at first planned, to include the 
littoral or intertidal zone, it was thought desirable to carry on a certain amount of careful 
shore collecting in order to obtain definite local records for the catalogue. With this in 
view, parties from the laboratory visited Nobska Beach and Point, Great Pond, Tashmoo 
Pond, Vineyard Haven, Lagoon Pond, Katama Bay, Cedar Tree Neck, Menemsha I3ight, 
Tarpaulin Cove, Robinsons Hole, Nantucket Harbor, No Mans Land, West Fahnouth 
Harbor, Scraggy Neck, Wareham River, New Bedford Harbor, and Round Hill Point. 
No such exhaustive inventory was ruade at these shore stations as was the case with the 



BIOLOGICAL SURVlY OF WOODS HOLI AND VlCINITY. 

dredging work, and lists of the aggregate fauna and flora at these points were hot pre- 
pared; but definite records of occurrence were obtained in sonle cases where previously 
only general statements had been given, and the range of some species was extended in 
an interesting manner. 
The territory covered by the "census" was the entire "Woods Hole Region," to use 
a rather indefinite and nluch misused expression. This terre, in the present work, is 
employed in a quite arbitrary sense, as judged from the viewpoint of zoogeography. 
Generally speaking, the Woods Hole Region has been held to include the entire area of 
sea and of littoral readily available for collecting purposes from 3,Voods Hole as a base. 
Of course such an area comprises a great diversity of conditions, and supports a most 
diverse fauna and flora. In compiling the census the criterion generally employed in 
admitting or rejecting specics was as follows: Records were admitted from points 
extending from Newport on the west fo Chatham and Sankaty Head upon the east. 
Narragansett Bay, except that portion in the immediate vicinity of Newport, was 
excluded; but the whole of Buzzards Bay, Vineyard Sound, and Nantucket Sound were 
included, together with the ocean shores of Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket and the 
adjacent ocean area southward to the 2o-fathom line. It is hot a part of our present 
purpose to define and delimit the Woods Hole Region for future investigators. There is, 
of course, no such region geographically speaking. Unfortunately this terre, and even 
the naine Woods Hole itself, have been used by various writers in an extremely mis- 
leading sense. Certain species have been listed in published records as taken at "Woods 
Hole" which we know to have corne from considerable distances. In the case of certain 
fishes, indeed, it is quite evident that they were bathysmal species, collected at great 
depths and far from land. 
The second part of out underta-king comprises the systematic dredging operations 
which were conducted during the summers of 19o3, 19o4, and 19o5, together with 
supplementary work carried on during the four following seasons. This project has 
been very generally referred to as the "Biological Survey of the Woods Hole Region," 
and this terre is a convenient one, provided that too much is hOt implied by it; for 
this has obviously been a biological survey in a rather limited sense. Neither the 
plankton nor the exclusively littoral (intertidal) fauna and flora are included within 
the scope of the operations in question, though abundant data relating to these 
are, of course, included in the "census." 
The Surv-ey, in this restricted sense, has been confined to Vineyard Sound and 
Buzzards Bay, with the exception of one day's dredging at Crab Ledge, near Chatham. 
The Crab Ledge records, having been ruade with neady the saine degree of care and 
thoroughness as those ruade in strictly local waters, have been included within the 
limits of the present report, though otherwise they would not have been regarded as 
relevant to it. As will appear later, this procedure has ruade possible some most inter- 
esting and instructive comparisons. 
During the eafly explorations of Verrill in the waters adjacent to Woods Hole 
little system, or at least little regularity, seems to bave been employed in the choice of 
dredging stations. Certain lines were followed, it is true, whose position appears to 
bave been known with some definiteness, and the dredge was lowered at more or less 
regular intervals. These stations all appear upon the chart which accompanies his 
report (The Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound) ; but there is little if any reference 



i6 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

to specific stations in the text of that report. From the earliest days of the United 
States Fish Commission, when naval tugs and other small Government craft had to be 
requisitioned to meet the needs of its scientific explorations, down to the days of the 
Fish Hawk and Albatross, it has been the custom to record serially numbered dredging 
stations, with the bearings, depth, and other data by which each spot could be identified. 
From rime to rime lists of these stations have been published (Smith and Rathbun, 1882; 
Sanderson Smith, 1889). Thus far, however, no lists bave ever been offered showing 
the total array of species round at the various stations, nor bas the distribution of a 
single species been described in detail or plotted out graphically for local waters. 
Whether or not the data necessary for such an undertaking were ever gathered in the 
past, they have never been published, and those earlier records are scarcely available at 
present. 
For this reason it seemed desirable to repeat the earlier exploration of the shallower 
waters in the vicinity of Woods Hole, in an endeavor to deal with certain problems more 
intensively than has ever been done before. A systematic survey of the bottom of 
Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bar was accordingly planned, with a view to showing 
(i) the aggregate fauna and flora associated together at each point dredged; (2) the 
detailed distribution of each species which was found; and (3) the depth, character of 
bottom, temperature, etc., which might explain the observed facts of distribution. 
The incidental discovery of new species xvould, of course, be welcomed, though this was 
not the primary object of the investigation. 
In the dredging work the steamers Fish Hawk and Phalarope were chieflv employed. 
With the formervessel much larger dredges could be used, and the positionof the stations 
could be determined more accurately. The Phalaropc, on the other hand, having a 
smaller draft and being more wieldy, could be employed in shallower waters. This vessel 
was consequently the one used for the inshore vork, both in the Bar and the Sound, 
though the still smaller Blue Win 9 vas employed on a few occasions. 
Three types of dredging apparatus were employed by us. (1) The beam trawl, of 
which descriptions and figures may be round in several previous reports of the United 
States Fish Commission (Verrill, 1883; Tanner, 1884, 1897). The trawls employed in 
the present work were quite diminutive in comparison with those used in commercial 
trawling, having a beam length (width of aperture) of from 6 to 9 feet, and a depth of 
net hot much exceeding io feet. This appliance can be employed to best advantage on 
a level bottom of hard sand or fine gravel, upon which the lead line fits closely. It is 
well adapted to scraping up the larger mollusks, fishes, crustacea, echinoderms, algoe, 
etc., which lie upon the surface, but hOt to penetrating the sand or gravel; and it conse- 
quently fails to disturb those forms which burrow in even a slight degree. For this 
reason, and because of the large size of its meshes, the beam trawl was commonly not 
employed alone; but a dredge of the next type was ordinarily appended to the lower 
end of the bag. 
(2) The ordinary naturalists' dredge, of the type originally devised by O. F. Mfiller 
(see Verrill, 1883; Tanner, 1884, 1897; Agassiz, 1888). This, as is well known, con- 
sists of a heavy, rectangular, iron frame, to which is fitted the mouth of a bag of stout 
netting. In the commoner pattern the two longer sides of the frame consist of sharp, 
outwardly flaring edges, adapted to cutting into the sand, gravel, or mud;,and the 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

17 

dredge is practically certain to drag in such a way that one or the other of these edges is 
lowermost. 
A modification of this type of dredge which was freely used during the present work 
was the "rake dredge," which differs from the ordinary pattern in possessing heavy teeth 
along the cutting edge. The frame, in both types, is fitted with two heavy movable 
iron arms, to which the dredge line is attached. Commonly a comparatively light rope 
was fastered to one of these handles, so that in case an obstruction was encountered 
this line might part and allow the dredge frame to free itself without escaping altogether. 
The dredge net was protected from tearing by a sheathing of heavy canvas, which was 
attached to the frame outside of the net and formed a bag, open at the lower end. The 
netting commonly employed in these dredges had a ½-inch or a 1-inch mesh a in the 
upper portion, while the lower end was quite closely woven. Such meshes were likely 
to retain hot onlv the stones, shells, and the great majority of living organisms, but 
even considerable quantifies of the bottom material. Fine loose sand, however, and in 
less degree mud, were likely to be washed out almost completely during the reeling in 
of the dredge line. Where such bottoms were encountered, the canvas sheathing of the 
dredge was frequently tied up at the lower end, or sometimes a simple canvas bag alone 
(mud bag) was attached to the frame. During the last season of the regular dredging 
work (I905) the mud bag was nearly always employed in connection with the beam 
trawl. It is obvious that a much fairer bottom sample could be collected in this way. 
The dimensions of the frame in the type most commonly used during the Fish Hawk 
dredging were i2 bv 22 inches. A smaller size (8 by 16 inches) was, however, some- 
times used in the Phalarope and Blue Win 9 work. 
(3) The third type of dredge employed was the "oyster dredge." This was inter- 
mediate in size between the beam trawl and the scrape dredge and was verv heavily 
constructed, being well adapted to use upon rocky bottoms. The scraping edge at the 
mouth of this implement was armed vith powerful spikes or teeth, designed to dig deeply 
into the sand or gravel. The bag of the dredge was ruade up of iron rings, linked 
together after the fashion of chain armor. In order to retain the smaller organisms, 
this chainwork bottom vas commonlv lined with fine netting. The oyster dredge was 
employed on bottoms too stony for the other appliances, or where it vas desired to 
penetmte more deeply beneath the surface. 
The Fish Hawk is a steam vessel having a length of I46 feet at the water line, or 
of 156 feet over all, a beam of 27 feet, and a draft of about 7 feet. She carries adequate 
machinery for the reeling in of heavy dredges, and despite her limited speed and unsea- 
worthy construction is an extremely serviceable vessel for scientific operations in quiet 
vaters. A full description of the Fish Hawk has already been given by Tanner (I884), 
and therefore need not be repeated here. 
The material taken by the Fish Hawk dredges was commonly emptied into a series 
of trays, constituting the table sieve of Verrill and Chester (Verrill, 1883), having graded 
meshes, the coarser ones naturally being uppermost. After a superficial examination 
and preliminary search for specimens a stream of salt water was played upon the mate- 
rial, and the sand, mud, and small unattached organisms were thus washed into the 

a These measurements refer to the "stretched" mesh. Such meshes would be t inch or  inch square when open. 
I6269°--Bu11.31, pt 1--13--2 



I8 

BULL1TIN OF TH1 1UR1AU OF IISHIRI1S. 

underlying, smaller-meshed trays. The contents of each tray were examined in turn, 
according to a system to be deseribed later. 
The Tanner sounding apparatus a was employed at eaeh of the Fish Hawk stations, 
together with the Sigsbee "water speeimen eup," and the Negretti-Zambra thermometer. 
Thus the temperature and density were reeorded, as well as the depth of the water. 
It was later realized, however, that ttie figures for temperature and density obtained 
during the regular dredng operations were hot suffieiently exact for the purposes of 
the work, and, likewise, that no fair comparison would be possible of the different 
waters in the region unless we possessed a set of determinations whieh had been ruade 
nearly or quite simultaneously throughout its entire extent. For this reason a new set 
of temperature and density observations, taken with standardized instruments and 
within the briefest period possible, was ruade after the eompletion of the dredging 
work. Such determinations vere repeated several rimes at intervals of a few months, 
so that the seasonal conditions are now pretty well known. These will be discussed in 
a later section. 
The position of the vessel was determined in the earlier part of the work by means 
of an azimuth eompass loeated on the roof of the deek bouse, just abaft the pilot bouse. 
Bearings were taken upon two, sometimes three, landmarks, usually lighthouses. This 
was commonly done just before the lowering of the dredge. The "station," as re- 
corded on the chart, was thus the point vhere the dredge haul commenced, while the 
direction and amount of the drift was estimated rather roughly, b Later, tripods were 
erected upon a number of Coast Survey triangulation points and sextants were employed 
in locating the ship's position. Angles were taken simultaneously bv two observers, 
one of whom round the angular distance between X and Y, the other that between 
Y and Z. The position of the vessel vas determined both at the beginning and at the 
end of the dredge haul, and frequently atone or tvo intermediate points. Thus upon 
the maps the later stations in Vineyard Sound appear hot as single eireles but as straight 
or eurved lines, at intervals in which are to be round the points (a, b, c, etc.) at whieh 
sextant readings were taken. 
The Phalarope is a steam vessel, originally designed as a yacht, having a length of 
82 feet at the water line, or of 9z feet over all, and a beam of 16 feet. She draws 7/g 
feet of water, and ber average speed is probably about x x knots. The Phalarope carries 
no dredng machinery and is hot permanently equipped for this work. In landing the 
dredge a small derrick was employed, this being operated by hand power. The contents 
were emptied upon a special movable platform built over the forward eabin. A set of 
sieves was employed similar in principle but smaller than those used on the Fish Hawk. 
With this vessel the use of the beam trawl was impracticable, and even the oyster dredge 
was too heavv to be employed very frequently, though it was used to advantage under 
certain conditions. The second type of dredge mentioned above was therefore the 
principal one employed. 
Sinee the Phalarope dredging was, for the most part, donc within a quarter of a 
mlle from land, it was found to be possible to locate the stations with a fair degree of 
accuracy by reference to features of the shore. Bearings upon lighthouses were hot 
commonlv praetieable, nor indeed were they believed to be espeeially desirable. The 
soundings indicated, with sufficient precision, the distance from land, and the direction 

For descriptions and figures see Tanner (I884, I897). 
This last bas been omitted ,rm the I0o3 records. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ]VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 19 
of various landmarks was noted. An ideal degree of accuracy in locating these stations 
might have been attained through the sacrifice of much time and effort, but it is doubtful 
whether the scientific value of this report would thereby have been greatly enhanced. 
In the case of both -essels the same general procedure was adopted in respect to 
the listing and the preservation of material. One or more of the authors of this report 
accompanied each dredging trip, and one or several assistants were detailed from the 
laboratory staff. On many occasions specialists interested in particular groups of 
organisms accompanied us on these expeditions and participated in the identifications. 
The more obvious and easily recognizable species were listed on the spot, mention being 
made of their relative abundance and other facts of interest. These observations »vere 
dictated to an assistant. At the saine rime samples of the sand, stones, mud,seaweed, etc., 
and any specimens concerning which the least doubt was entertained were preserved, with 
a record of the station from which they came. This material was later sorted over in the 
labo,atory and further species were identified and listed. Those concerning which there 
was still any doubt were bottled and subsequently rcferred to the proper specialists. 
Formalin was commonly employed for fishes, mollusks, coelenterates, and worms, alcohol 
(after the earlier dredgings at least) bt.ing generally used for crustacea, bryozoa, and 
echinoderms, the calcareous parts of which, as is well known, are damaged by formalin. 
The authors of the zoological section of this report early familiarized themselves 
with a large proportion of the commoner species encountered, including the great 
majority of larger animals, and after a few preliminary safeguards it was believed that 
any one of us could identify these with a fair approach to certainty. Minute organisms, 
or any which required careful study before they could be specifically determined, were 
either subjected to careful examination in the laboratory by the authors themselves, or, 
more commonly, were reserved for reference to one or another of the taxonomic experts 
who have assisted us. 
Acknowledgment must here be made, accordingly, to the specialists who have 
g-ix'en their services, in most cases without any remuneration, to the task of identifying 
the Survey collections. The following deserve mention: Dr. Paul Bartsch (mollusks), 
Dr. R. P. Bigelow (decapods), Dr. H. L. Clark (echinoderms), Prof. W. R. Coe (nemer- 
teans), Dr. J. A. Cushman (Foraminifera, Pofifera, Ostracoda), Dr. W. H. Dall (mollusks), 
Dr. B. W. Evermann (fishes), Dr. J. H. Gerould (sipunculids), Prof. C. W. Hargitt 
(coelenterates), Prof. S. J. Holmes (amphipods), Dr. B. W. Kunkel (amphipods), Prof. 
F. M. MacFatland (nudibranch mollusks), Dr. J.. P. Moore (annelids), Prof. C. C. 
Nutting (hydrozoa), Dr. H. A. Pilsbry (barnacles), Miss M. J. Rathbun (decapods), 
Dr. Harfiet Richardson (isopods), Prof. W. E. Ritter (simple ascidians), Mr. R. W. 
Sharpe (copepoda), Dr. V T. G. Van Naine (compound ascidians). The part played 
by each of these specialists will be referred to in connection with the various divisions- 
of the animal kingdom. A few insects, most of which were taken during the shore and 
brackish-water collecting, were identified by a number of entomologists in the National 
Museum. 
In the case of certain groups it was round impossible to obtain any assistance from 
previously trained specialists, or at least to the extent needed for the complete identi- 
fication of our collections. In such cases it became necessary for one or another of the 
authors of this report to acquire a certain degree of mastery of the group in question. 
This has been true particularly of the Bryozoa, Cirripedia, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and 
Pycnogonida. 



20 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU QF FISHERIES. 
The identification of the first-mentioned group of rganisms was undertaken by 
Dr. Osburn, who, as a result, has been led to the preparation of a synopsis of the Bryozoa of 
this section of out coast. Dr. Osburn likewise disposer of the isopods collected by us after 
the first season's work. The pycnogonids and a large proportion of the amphipods from 
out dredgings were identifier by Dr. Cole, while Dr. Sumner bas given considerable time 
to an examination of the barnacles of the survey. The study of the Foraminifera, 
Porifera, and Ostracoda was first undertaken by Dr. Cushman, vhile employer as a 
salaried assistant in the Woods Hole Laboratory during the progress of the survey. In 
respect to the second-uamed group, his identifications are admittedly somewhat tentative. 
The determination of the marine algoe was carried out by Prof. B. M. Davis and Iiss 
Lillian 1HacRae, one or both of whom accompanied nearly every dredging expedition 
belonging to the regular series. Doubtful cases were referred to Mr. F. S. Collins, to 
whom our thanks are likewise due in this place. 
Various types of pdnted cards and other blank forms bave been employed in the 
course of this work. (i) A large sheet x_/ by x6 inches, of which an incomplete repro- 
duction appears below. Upon this were transcribed the original dredging records, ruade 
in the field and in the laboratory. « The array of species for each station was here given, 
together vith various relevant notes. 
This form was drawn up and adopted before the commencement of the dredging 
operations and before the requirements were definitely known. Experience bas very 
naturally suggested changes. The columns headed "Sexual condition,""Age or size," and 
"Special habitat" might better be dispensed with, since such data can only be properly 
recorded for each dredge haul separately, and the column headed "Total" is likewise of 
no use. Furthermore, there should bave been ten columns instead of rive devoted to 
dredging stations, since more than rive dredge hauls were commonlv ruade during a 
single day's work. It might also be worth while, in another edition of these sheets for 
local use, to print the names of the species xvhich occur most frequently in the lists. 
COLI,ECTING RECORD. b 
Locality ........................... Date ......................... Observers ............................ 

Time of day.. 
Tide 
Weather ........ 
Air temperature. 
Wind ........... 
Prior conditions.. 
,lethod of collecting... 

• Number o| set or 
haul. etc. 
: Locality,in degs. 
and tains. 
Depth .......... 
•.. Character of bot- 
tom. 
.... Water tempera- 
ture, surface. 
.., Water tenapera- 
ture, bottom. 
..... Density o[ water. 

I 

Remarks. 

a The copdng o| these records was largely the work of lIessrs. D. W. Davis and Ma.x Morse. 
b In the form actuallv used there was space for a large number of species. 

I Remarks. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 2I 
(2) From an analysis of these large sheets the distribution of each spccies was 
ascertained. The list of stations for each of these species was recorded serially upon 
large blank cards 5 by 8 inches in size. Here were entered, along with each station 
number, the abnndance, where stated, or any item of interest which had been noted in 
the original records. « These cards, under each major group, were arranged alphabetic- 
ally and kept for reference. The distribution of each species by stations could thus 
be determined on a moment's notice. 
(3) A sheet 8 by  inches in size was devised, having the headings indicated 
herewith. This was intended either for use in abstracting data from various pub- 
lished records, or for the entry of information furnished directly by observers. A 
single sheet was devoted to each species so listed, and the printed headings are self- 
explanatory. These sheets were padded in blocks of 50 each. 
RECORD ]LANK FOR NOTES UPON LOCAL SPECIES, 
Observer's name ......... 
Name, specific ............ 
Naine, popular or local.. 
Relative abundance .................................................. 
Distribution, geographical (ste any locality where species is known to occur) .... 
Distribution, seasonal (with exact dates, in case of rater species) ............... 
Habitat (host, if a parasite) ..................................... 
Reproduction (sexual condition, breeding habits, etc.)... 
Food ...................................... 
Method of collecting ......... 
Economic data ..................................... 
References in literature (to local occurrence only) ........................................ 
Remarks (any ecological or other data of interest. May be continued on back) ....................... 
(4) A rather elaborate system of cards was devised for recording in permanent form 
the summarized data derived from all of the sources detailed previously. Separate cards 
4 by 6 inches in size were printed, wlth headings corresponding to each of the subdivisions 
of the sheet just described (3)- The naine card was of hevier material and provided 
with a projecting index margin, or "tab" intended to bear the specific naine. Thus a 
complete record for a single species vould consist of i i cards, although, as-a matter of 
fact, this number vould seldom be used, oving to the lack of certain data. In addition, 
a heavy red index card was provided for each family, and a blue one for each class. A 
large mass of data vas transcribed upon these cards in typewriting, but it must be 
confessed that the system was found to have serious faults in practice. In the first place, 
it was, as should have been foreseen, too cumbersome. In the second place, data were 
entered on different cards which should hot have been separated. For instance, "rela- 
tive abundance" should hot commonly be separated from "geographical distribution," 
since it often happens that a species may be abundant in one locality and very rare at 
others. The phrase "scarce to abundant" does hot describe such a situation with 
sufficient precision. In a similar manner "habitat" and "season," or date, should be 
included with each individual entry of the occurrence of a species. The total number of 
cards per species should evidently be greatly reduced. Nevertheless, the system, even 
as described, served a useful purpose during the preparation of this report; and it is 

a The burdensome task of transcribitag these records was carried out with great care and lrecisiota by Air. C. V. IorriB. 



22 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

recommended that a simplified tard catalogue be maintained at the laboratory in the 
future for the reeeption of further data as they aeeumulate. Sueh a system, if properly 
eared for, would furnish a reeeptaele for fragmentary notes and records whieh otherwise 
would be lost. 
(5) For oecasional or random observations by local observers a provisional mode of 
entry was adopted and another type of eard, uniform in size with the last, was printed for 
the purpose. This eard, although likewise capable of improvement, proved to be 
extremely useful. 
We trust that the following explanations and admissions will hot be eonstrued as an 
apology for the results herein ofïered. Without sueh a frank confession of the limita- 
tions of our work and of the diffieulties eneountered, we should expose ourselves to the 
eritieism of making pretensions whieh bave hot been realized. It is only fair to our- 
selves that we should disarm sueh eriticism as is based upon the assumption that we have 
enjoyed greater faeilities and opportunities than was aetually the case. Moreover, 
fairness and scientific accuracy demand that there be a elear separation between those 
of our results whieh we regard as clearly established and those which are to be 
regarded as merely probable. The reader's confidence in what we trust are really sub- 
stantial and valuable acquisitions should hot be shaken by the discovery of various 
undeniable sources of error and uneertaintv. 
The faet must be emphasized at the outset that the work of the Survey, with a few 
important exceptions, was restricted to the summer months. The vessels employed 
were eommonly available hot earlier than July  and hot later than September l. This 
is likewise the period during whieh those immediately in charge of the dredging opera- 
tions were free for work of this sort. Without exception, the biologieal staff was con- 
stituted by university or eollege men--instructors or graduate students--who were 
busily oeeupied in their teaehing or their studies for about nine months of the year. 
From these circumstances there has resulted a two-fold limitation of the work. 
First, with respect to the dredging results, we tan onlv ofïer a record of midsummer 
conditions; second, it is obvious that neither as mueh work noras high a degree of prepa- 
ration ean be expeeted of a staff thus eonstituted as from one eomposed of naturalists 
permanently engaged in pursuits of this sort. We must confess in all frankness that we 
round it neeessary in large degree to develop out own methods through experience, 
and that the earlier dredging operations are to be regarded as in large measure practice 
work. This faet, however, has been reeognized by the authors throughout, and for this 
reason the field of these earlier labors was explored later with far greater eare and 
thoroughness. 
Due allowanee must likewise be ruade for the faet that those of us who listed and 
sorted the dredging material in the field and in the laboratory make no pretensions to 
being universal naturalists having a "speaking aequaintanee" with pmetieally every 
speeies of animal and plant likely to be eneountered by us. We will add the further 
admission that on manv occasions no one of the party thus employed was a reeognized 
authority upon a single group of animals, considered from the standpoint of taxonomy. 
But this state of afïairs has resulted, we believe, almost wholly in errors of omission, 
man)" of whieh bave been subsequently rectifie& At the outset we familiarized our- 
selves with those speeies which were readily recognizable, and endeavored to learn in 
just what cases confusion was possible and speeial eare neeessarv. The advice of 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

23 

various systematic zoologists who happened to be at the laboratory was constantly sought. 
Specimens from eaeh dredge haul of all speeies eoneerning whieh any doubt was believed 
to be possible were brought baek to the laboratory for further examination, and were 
eommonly bottted for referenee to speeialists. Some confusion of speeies probably 
oeeurs in the records here presented, e»peeially those derived from the earliest dredging 
work; but we believe these cases to be few, and we have endeavored to indieate sueh 
possibilities in their proper place in the records. Moreover, the supplementary dredging 
trips to be mentioned below have removed many of these ambiguities. 
Cases of omission are doubtless prescrit in great frequeney, and many of them would 
bave been inevitable under the most favorable eireumstanees. Mieroseopie organisms 
were entirely overlooked. The Foraminifera were eolleeted and listed during only one 
of the seasons in whieh the original "stations" were dredged. The smallest erus- 
taeea and worms, and in faet minute organisms in general, were undoubtedly over- 
looked in very large measure. Certain forms were regularly negleeted during the earlier 
portions of the work, but were later sought for and preserved, af ter out attention had 
been ealled to them by speeial students of the organisms in question. This was partieu- 
larly true of some of the more minute hydroids, Bryozoa, amphipods, and Annulata. 
The eharts representing the distribution of sueh forms would eonsequently be misleading 
unless this faet were taken into eonsideration. The apparent absence of a speeies through- 
out a wide area would hot in such cases imply its actual absence. But here again we 
have indicated sueh possibilities in the discussions of the various groups. In a large 
proportion of cases an example of a doubtful speeies was preserved from eaeh station 
at whieh it oeeurred. Sometimes, however, a single speeimen was ehosen as representa- 
tire of a eonsiderable number of stations. This proved to be a dangerous praetiee. 
It has sometimes happened (most often, perhaps, in the case of enerusting Brvozoa and 
of certain small mollusks) that the representative sample proved to comprise two or more 
species. The identitv of the speeies whieh had been taken at the other stations was, of 
course, rendered uneertain. Sueh ambiguities are duly noted in the records, as also 
other possible sources of error and confusion. 
Again, certain misleading results have arisen from the differenees in the dredges 
employed at various points. So far as these relate to the eharaeter of the bottom they 
will be discussed under that head. It need only be pointed out here that the beam 
trawl alone would bring up no bottom sample exeept oeeasional stones, and would thus 
miss most of the organisms exeept the larger algoe and sueh animals as crawl upon the 
bottom or at least projeet eonsiderably above its surface. On the other hand, the serape 
dredge alone, on aeeount of its small aperture, would eommonlv miss the fishes and 
other aetively swimming organisms, and, indeed, would have a mueh smaller chance 
of gathering in any of the forms whieh dwell freely on the bottom. The burrowing 
speeies, however, or sueh, at least, as do hot burrow deeply, would eommonly be eap- 
tured. At the majority of the Fish Hawk stations, as already stated, the two were 
used together or in succession. 
During the earlier part of the work the bottom material (sand, gravel, shells, etc.) 
was hot searehed with suffieient eare, and eonsiderable numbers of speeies were doubtless 
overlooked for this reason. Later more eareful methods were adopted, sueh as have 
alreadv been dëseribed. 



24 

BULLETIN Oie THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Errors have doubtless crept in during the copying and tabulating of the records. 
It will be readilv appreciated that the clerical work herein involved was enormous and 
that it was necessary to intrust much of it to assistants. Although methods of cor- 
roboration and verification were commonly employed, and while we belkex'e the records. 
to t)e reasonably free from errors of this sort, instances have been discovered of regret- 
table carelessness on the part of certain assistants employed during the eaflier stages 
of the work. But the total number of such cases is in all probability proportioflately 
very small; and they commonly can not seriously x-itiate the results, since the most fre- 
quent errors made have been the transpositions of the records of adjacent stations. 
In no case can such a mistake have resulted in assigning to the fauna of our region a_ 
species which has not been found hëre, or even in the confusion of records from widely 
different points within the area dredged. 
And, finally, it ,nust be pointed out that even our highest authorities are not infal- 
lible and that they do not in all cases appear to have been consistent in the determina- 
tion of species. 
But after ma -ldng all these admissions--and honesty demands that they should be 
madewe insist emphatically upon the substantial accuracy of the results herein pre- 
sented. We have ruade due allowance for the various sources of error and have, in many 
cases, been able to correct them by supplementary work. Indeed, during every season 
since the conclusion of the original survey dredging trips ha,ce continually been ruade 
with a view to rectifying specific errors. To what degree these supplementary dredg- 
ings confirm the earlier results and to what degree they reveal inaccuraies or omissions 
will be pointed out later. We have been most fortunate in having the active coopera- 
tion of more than a dozen systematic naturalists of high standing, without whose assist- 
ance, indeed, this work would have been utterly impossible. 
While, then, more and better work could have been done under ideal but impossible 
conditions, we think that no apology is necessary in offering the results already accorn- 
plished. Ve are able to portray with a fair approach to accuracy the detailed distribu- 
tion of a large number of species of plants and animals and are able to portray with less 
completeness the distribution of a much greater number. We have been able to correlate, 
in a large number of cases, the peculiarities of distribution with peculiafities in the 
character of the botto,n or with the temperature of the water, and to compare in an inter- 
esting way the distribution patterns of closely related species. And, finally, we believe 
that we have laid a foundation upon which others may build in the future. And here a 
few words as to the needs of the future may not be out of place. As it does not seem 
likely that those who have been most active in the present undertaking will be able to 
devote much more of their ti,ne to it, we venture to offer the following tentative program 
to our possible successors: 
() A repetition of this entire dredging work after the lapse of io or 2o years 
would be highly desirable. We should recommend relatively less attention to Vineyard 
Sound and relatively more to Buzzards Bay. This later work could doubtless be accom- 
plished more rapidly than was done in the present case. The mistakes and failures of 
the present report could perhaps in considerable measure, be rectified. Such a repe- 
tition of the present SUlTey would not improbably reveal interesting changes in the 
occurrence of various species, and it doubtless would result in supplementing and cor- 
recting our rather expefimental labors. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY Olq" WOODS HOLE AND \rICINITY. 2 5 
(2) Seasonal changes in the fauna and flora hould be determined by observations 
throughout the year. 
(3) A more definite system of classifying botton deposits is desirable. (See p. 30-32.) 
(4) Temperature and density records should be taken throughout the entire region 
for every month of the year. 
(5) The intertidal and the pelagic fauna and flora should receive the saine detailed 
attention as has been accorded to the bottom-dwelling species. 
(6) The limits of the area dredged should be extended from the mouth of Buzzards 
Bay and Vineyard Sound out to the 25-fathom line, and farther if practicable. Such 
work as has already been done points to the possibility that the limits of distribution of 
a considerable number of species would be successively encountered as the work was 
extended outward. We should likewise predict in full confidence a greater and greater 
predominance of such northern types as just enter Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bav. 
We hope that such a progran nay be carried out in the future. Much of it could 
only be accomplished, it is true, by the establishment of a permanent scientific staff at 
the Bureau's Woods Hole Laboratory. Out hope, therefore, embraces this feature 
likewise. 
The senior anthor of this report, as director of the Woods Hole Laboratory, has had 
general supervision of the ]3iological Survey from its inception, including executive man- 
agement, selection of assistants, correspondence with specialists, etc. Upon him, also, 
has fallen the duty of compiling the results and of writing the entire report, excepting 
that portion devoted to the marine algœe. The latter has been prepared by Dr. Davis. 
On the other hand, both Dr. Osburn and Dr. Cole have played an essential part in this 
undertaking, and are fully entitled to tank as joint authors. 
During the summer of  903, in which the Fish Hawk alone vas used for the Surx-ey 
dredgings, the fiild work and subsequent disposition of the zoological matefial were in 
direct charge of Dr. Sunmer and Dr. Osburn. In I9O4 the Fish Hawk dredging, aftei a 
few preliminaiy trips, was iu charge of Dr. Cole, who was likewise largely responsible for 
the identification of the matefial collected by that vessel. During the latter season the 
inshore dredging with the Phalarope was commenced, and this, almost from the outset, 
was in charge of Dr. Osburn, who identified a large proportion of the specimens and drew 
up the records for these trips. Dufing the summer of i9o 5 practically the saine arrange- 
ments were continued, Dr. Osburn superintending the work of the Phalarope and Dr. 
Cole that of the Fish Hawk. Thus the two last-named members of the staff have been 
responsible for about four-fifths of the field work dufing.the first three seasons of the Sur- 
»-ey dred#ng, together with a proportional amount of the task of identifying the zoolog- 
ical specimens, while perhaps one-fffth of this is to be credited to Dr. Sumner. This 
estimate leaves out of consideration the services of the botanists of the staff, Dr. Davis 
and Miss MacRae, who participated in the field work dufing the second and third sea- 
sons of the survey. 
The supplementary dredging trips of later seasons were in charge of different mem- 
bers of the laboratory staff, accordin'g to the nature of the material sought. During 
the summers of i9o 7 and I9O8 Messrs. D. W. Davis and C. B. Bennett were each detailed 
for duty on the Fish ttawk for a considerable number of days, with instructions to search 
for and preserve all material belonging to certain specified gioups. The sorting and 



26 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

subsequent disposition of these specimens fell to the lot of Dr. Sumner. The tempera- 
ture and density determinations of August, I9O7, were conducted by Mr. D. W. 
Davis, the series of November, 19o7, and of March and June, 9o8, being carried out 
by Dr. Sumner. The temperature records of August, I9O9, for Nantucket Sound and 
Crab Ledge were obtained by Dr. Osburn and Dr. Cole. The systematic shore collect- 
ing already referred to was almost wholly in charge of the two last-named persons, each 
supported by a number of assistants detailed from the laboratory, while a careful 
examination of the fauna of certain brackish ponds of the region was undertaken by 
Dr. E. D. Congdon. 
A really complete list of those who are entitled to rank as collaborators in the 
work of the Survey or in the preparation of this report would include a larger number 
of names than could well appear upon the title-page. Our indebtedness to Mr. Vinal 
Edwards has alreadv been expressed, and the services of certain assistants have been 
acknowledged in the discussion o1 various phases of the work. No inconsiderable credit 
for such success as bas attended our efforts must be given to the commanders of the 
vessels employed during the dredging operations. Espccial mention must be ruade of 
the able services of Boatswain James A. Smith, United States Navy, and Lieut. Franklin 
Swift, United States Navy, commanding in successi'e years the steamer Fish Hawk, 
and those of Mr. Robert N. Veeder, commanding the Phalarope. 
A list has already been given of those who bave aided in the determination of 
species, and reference has been ruade to the fact that certain of these experts accom- 
panied many of the dredging expeditions, or at least examined the material immedi- 
atelv after its arrival at the laboratory. Thus Messrs. Bigelow, Cushman, Hartt, 
and Moore, and Misses Rathbun and Richardson were each present at the Woods Hole 
Laboratory during one or more of the seasons devoted to the Survey operations. 
Acknowledgment must here be ruade of the cordial cooperation and willing help.of 
the foregoing persons and a number of others throughout the preparation of this report. 
Each portion of the annotated list, or "catalogue," has been referred to a specialist for the 
revision of the nomenclature. In the main, the list given on page 19 might be repeated 
with the following qualifications: To Dr. Dall has been referred the portion of out list 
relating to the Mollusca, with the exception of the nudibranchs and the Pyramidellidœe, 
concerning which Dr. F. M. MacFarland « and Dr. Paul Bartsch, respectively, have 
been consulted. To Miss Rathbun alone we have referred the manuscript relating to 
the local decapods; to Prof. Hargitt alone that relating to the coelenterates; and to 
Dr. Holmes alone the list of amphipods. Certain specialists not hitherto named have 
likewise been kind enough to criticize the classification and nomenclature in the case 
of vafious groups not represented in the dredging collections. Those deserving mention 
are: Dr. G. M. Allen and Dr. Lynds Jones (birds), Prof. G. N. Calkins (Protozoa, other 
than Foraminifera), Prof. Edwin Linton (parasitic fiat worms and round worms), Mr. 
R. W. Sharpe (free living copepods), Dr. Leonhard Stejneger (reptiles), Dr. F. W. True 
(mammals), Prof. C. B. Vilson (parasitic copepods). 
In the case of certain minor groups the authors of the report must themselves 
assume responsibility for the nomenclature employed, this being based upon the best 
published work available. Some discussion will be devoted to the subject of classi- 
fication and nomenclature in the section dealing with the annotated list. 

a Dr. MacFarland bas gone so far as to prepare for us a ssruopsis of cousiderable length, includinq the Woods Hole nudibratxclxs. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 2 7 
From October, 9o6, to December, I9o9, the senior author of this report was 
almost continuouslv in residence at Woods Hole, cngaged in the task of compiling the 
data and preparing the results for publication. The great amount of skilled clerical 
work herein involved has been largely performcd b)" Miss Edith Chapman and Mr. 
James W. Underwood, whose patience and conscientiousness throughout these monot- 
onous labors deserve ample recognition. For the accurac)" of each step iu the task of 
compilation, however, the senior author makes himself full)" rcsponsib!e. The manu- 
script of the present report has been read over and discussed by all of the authors and 
is to be regardcd as expressing our substantiallv harmonious views. 
The ncxt chapter will consist of a preliminary discussion of the va,-ious physical 
factors which affect the marine fauna and t]ora of the region. A chapter uill then be 
devoted to a statistical analysis of the results of the Survey, as well as of the census 
of animal species. Next, the various groups of animals will be discussed separatel.v 
and in greater detail. Following this an attempt will be ruade to interpret some of 
the phenomena herein discussed, and to shov the bearing of our rcsults upon some of 
the broader problems of biology. Thcre will then follow, in order of arrangement, a 
list of the regular dredging stations of the Survey, the faunal distribution charts and 
the physical and geographical charts. 
Section  will consist of a presentation of the chief results on the botanical side, 
followed b) T the distribution charts for the marine algoe. Sections  and v will 
comprise the faunal and floral catalogues or annotated lists. Rat her full bibliographies 
have been appended, comprising works relating to the occurrence of the various ani- 
mal and plant species at Woods Hole. 
There would have been much in favor of considering the fauna and flora together 
throughout the present report, and particularl.v in the general discussions relating to 
distribution. Since, hovever, the dav of the universal naturalist has passed, and since 
each one of us must content himself with being either a zoologist or a botanist, it has 
not seemed practicable to throw together the discussion of the entire "biota" of the 
region. The botanical portions of thc work, as well as the field vork upon which thev 
have largel)- been based, represent the labors of botanists who have worked, to a con- 
siderable degree, independently of the z-)logists of the staff. Thus we have thought 
it advisable to present the results as far as possible separatel)-. This arrangement 
likewise corresponds to the difference in authorship between the two main subdivisions 
of the work. 
The introductor)" chapter, together with that upon environmental conditions, are, 
however, just as essential to an understanding of the botanical data as of the zoological, 
and the geographical and ph)'sical charts are likewise equall)- related to both subdivisions 
of the report. Thus the entire report is, in a sense, a unit, and indeed the zoological 
and botanical members of the staff have conferred to a considerable extent during its 
preparation. 



Chapter II.--GEOGRAPHICAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. 

1. GEOGRAPHY. 

The general geographical features of the region may be seen ata glance by referenee 
to charts 223, 224, and 225 a. Vineyard Sound bas a length of from 5 to 7 nautical 
toiles, depending upon the limits arbitrarily ehosen, b and a width of from 3 to 6 nautical 
toiles. Itsmain axis bears from nortlleast to southwest. The southeastern boundary is 
constituted by the island of Marthas Vine.vard, the northwestern by the Elizabeth Islands 
and for a short space bv the mainland of Cape Cod. At its eastern end Vineyard Sound 
passes imperceptibly into the far wider Nantucket Sound, while to the westward it 
opens freely to the Atlantie Ocean. It is eonnected with Buzzards Bay by a series 
of narroxv straits, of which Woods Hole is a type. Through theln the tidal currents are 
very swift. These straits separate the Elizabeth Islands from the mainland and from 
one another. There are no streams of anv consequence emptying into either Vinevard 
Sound or Nantucket Sound. 
Leaving out of consideration certain shoals and the zone immediatelv adjacent to 
the shore line, the depth throughout Vinevard Sound ranges between 6 and 18 fathoms, 
most soundings lying between o and  5 fathoms. There is in no sense a progressive 
deepening of the water as we pass toward the western end of the Sound, although some 
of the greatest depths (i 8 fathoms c) occur in the vicinity of Gav Head and Cuttyhunk. 
At least one sounding as great as this bas, however, been ruade back of Middle Ground 
Shoal, and depths as great as 17 fathoms occur at more than one point in the eastern 
hall of the Sound. As a rule, the o-fathom line runs within a hall toile from shore, 
though mention must be ruade of an elongated shoal reaehing well toward the middle 
of the Sound and extending throughout about hall its length. This is known at its 
eastern end as the Middle Ground, the opposite end being called Lucas Shoal. In the 
former portion the vater mav be no deeper hlan 4 feet or less in depth at mean lov tide. 
Buzzards Bay bas a length of about 25 nautical toiles, as measured from the railway 
station known as Buzzards Bay to the Hen and Chickens |loal. Its main axis is nearly 
parallel to that of Vineyard Sound, from which it is separated throughout the lower 
hall of its length by the Elizabeth Islands. Elsewhere it is bounded by the mainland of 
Massachusetts. At its northern end and along its entire western side the shore line of 
Buzzards Bay is very irregular, being indented by a eonsiderable number of estuaries, 

a These and other geographic and hydrographic charts used in the present report are the vork o[ Ir. W. F. I-Iill, [ormerly 
dra/tsman in the Bureau d lisheries. 
b The region explored during out dredgings extends a short distance into what would probably be commonly regarded as 
belonging to Nantucket Sound, though there is, of course, no definite line oI division between the two. 
e Out ovwn soundings give 9 [athons at one point (Fish HawI station 7683), while the greatest depth indicated on the Coast 
Survey chart [or Vineyard Sound is x8 [athoms at mean low ride. lerhaps the phase o| the tide is partIy accountable (or this 
diIïerence; perhaps it tests upon an erzor o[ observation. The depth recorded by us [or station 768z (19 [athoms) is quite likeIy 
due to an error. Otherwise no serious discrepancies bave been detected between the Fish Hawk soundings and those of the 
Coast Survey. In gene;al out soundings (Fish HavI and Phalarole), while hot always taken with grcat care, are believed to 
be close enough approximations, especially when the variability in depth throughout the extent oI the ]3ay and the Sound are 
considered. 

8 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 29 
which penetrate deeply, into the mainland. Some of these, as will be shown later, 
furnish considerable quantities of fresh water at certain rimes of the year. The depth 
of Buzzards Bay beyond the "adlittoral" zone (see p. 179 ) ranges from 3 fathoms near 
its head to 18 or more fathoms at its mouth. About a mlle west of Penikese Island 
occurs a deep hole only recently charted. Here a depth of 24 fathoms has been round, 
this being, so far as khown, the deepest sounding obtainable within a distance of io mlles 
or more from land. Throughout most of its extent, however, Buzzards Bay is much 
shallower than Vineyard Sound, and a depth of to fathoms is seldom or never encoun- 
tered except near its loxver end. 
The conditions existing in Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound can not be understood 
without reference to the adjacent features of thc coast and the ocean. The tidal cur- 
rents, as well as the character of the water, are doubtless influenced by the proximity 
to the westward of Narragansett Bay and Long Island Sound. From the mouth of 
Vineyard Sound the Atlantic Ocean, throughout an arc of about 12o °, extends for an 
indefinite distance uninterrupted either bv land or bv shoals. The depth, on the whole, 
increases very gradually, the "continental shelf" extending out to a distance of over 
75 miles to the sonthward of Gay Head, where the oo-fathom line is encountered. 
Shortly thereafter an abrupt descent commences. South of Marthas Vineyard the 
2o-fathom line lies o mlles or more off shore, and the distance increases as we pass to 
the westward. South of Narragansett Bay, however, it sends a long sler]der loop in a 
northeasterly direction toward the mouth of Vinevard Sound, reaching a point within 
about 6 mlles of Gay Head. 
To the east and southeast of Woods Hole the geographical conditions are peculiar, 
and are highly important in determining the nature of the fauna and flora on this part 
of the coast. The peninsula of Cape Cod, together with the two large islands to the 
southward, inclose a broad, shallow bodv of water--Nantucket Sound. This attains a 
high temperature during the summer months, and doubtless in large degree influences 
the temperature of Vinevard Sound, with which its waters mingle freelv as a result of 
tidal currents (p. 36). It is possible, also, as has been held bv certain writers, that Cape 
Cod, together with Nantucket and its associated shoals, constitute a barrier which 
deflects a well-defined cold ocean current awav from the mainland of the continent. 
Whether or not this is true, it is an undoubted fact that the coastal water temperatures 
to the east and north of Cape Cod are much lower during the summer months than 
are those immediately to the south of it. The resulting faunal differenceswill be dis- 
cussed elsewhere, and the temperature conditions will likewise be considered more fully 
in another plaee. 
2. CHARACTER OF THE SHORES AND BOTTOMS. 
The dominant feature of the shores and bottoms along this section of the coast is 
the glacial débris. Although the main outlines of the land topography of this region 
may be preglacial, as Shaler (t898) contends, there are extensive morainal deposits 
upon Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, and the Elizabeth Islands, as well as on neighboring 
parts of the mainland. Indeed, a large part of the local shore line and sea bottom still 
consists of practically unaltered glacial boulders and gravel, which have been.subjected 
for only a comparatively brief period to erosion and transportation by waves and cur- 
rents. Even the Middle Ground in Vineyard Sound is regarded by Shaler as "a bit of 



O BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FSHERES. 
submerged land topography," and hOt as the creation of currents acting upon shifting 
sands. Sandv beaches are common upon the ocean shores of Marthas Vineyard and 
Nantucket, vhere the SUlq is heavy and erosion is known to be progressing rapidly. 
Elsewhere within our region stones and gravel are a characteristic feature of the shore 
line. Commonly, this coarser material extends down the beach to low-tide mark or 
beyond, being succeeded by a gently sloping sand fiat, more or less interspersed with 
scattered stones and boulders. In places where the shores are hOt too steep the stony 
belt gives place on its landward side to a sandy beach of varying breadth, or the littoral 
zonation may at rimes be even more complex. On the other hand, there are many 
tracts of shore where this phenomenon is hot manifest at all, the entire shore and the 
adjacent sea bottom, so far as visible, being wholly stony. Mud, largely of organic 
origin, occurs in abundance in bays and inclosed waters which are hot swept by tidal 
currents. 
At certain points within our area preglacial formations have become exposed. 
As the most eonspicuous instances of this we may cite the cliffs of coloïed clay at Gay 
Head and the outcroppings of granitic rock in the vicinity of New Bedford Harbor. These 
last represent a formation "which probably in large part constitutes the foundation rocks 
beneath the sea and under the islands which lie to the north of Marthas Vineyard." 
(Shaler, i888, p. 323.) This formation is the probable source, according to Shaler, of 
the glacial b6wlders oi Marthas Vineyard. Passing reference may be ruade here to 
Shaler's hypothesis that Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound each represents the sub- 
merged valley of a former river. It does hot lie within the province of this report, 
however, to consider the various problems relating to local geology, a 
As regards bottom characters, Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bar stand in striking 
contrast to one another. In the former, stones, gravel, and sand predominate; in the 
latter, mud. These differences are very readily explained. Vineyard Sound is con- 
stantly swept by strong tidal currents, which prevent the accumulation of fine deposits 
except in sheltered bays, such as Tarpaulin Cove and Menemsha Bight. Buzzards Bay, 
on the other hand, being open only at the lower end, is hot sub]ected to such a thorough 
scouring by the tides (see p. 37), and here, therefore, large deposits of mud occur, as, 
indeed, they do at ail points on the sea bottom off shore at depths which are beyond the 
influence of currents. Moreover, there open into Buzzards Bay a number of rather 
large estuaries, which doubtless furnish much of the material which becomes deposited 
as mud. It has been shown that silt so fine as to remain for a long period in suspension 
in fresh water is soon precipitated when mixed with sea water. (Allen, I899, p. 38o.) 
Thus it is evident that a considerable part of the suspended material from the brackish- 
water estuaries which empty into the northern and western parts of Buzzards Bay must 
settle to the bottom before it can be transported to any great distance. 
One of the data recorded at eaeh dredging station was the nature of the bottom 
so far as revealed by the sample brought up. The classification was a very rough one, 
and it must be freely confessed that it could have been greatly improved. The follow- 
ing were the principal ingredients recognized: (i) Sand; (2) gravel (referred to as 
"pebbles" when fine); (3) stones; (4) shells; (5) mud. These ingredients occurred 
singly or in almost any combination. 

a The reader is referred to Shaler's two papers already cited. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS ttOLE AND VICINITY. 31 

Referring to the first three heads, it must be stated that the ordinary glacial drift 
of the region, like that which is distributed so widely elsewhere, consists of a mixture, 
in varying proportions, of sand, gravel, and stones. These three terres are not employed 
in the saine definite sense as they are, for example, by E. J. Allen (I899). This writer 
restricts the word "sand" to mixtures of particles the coarsest of wh,.'ch will pass through 
a i  mm. sieve, the finest passing through a  mm. sieve, but not remaining in suspen- 
sion for more than one minute in sea water. Under this main class he recognizes three 
subdivisions. "Gravel" (also subdivided into "fine," "medium," and "coarse") com- 
prises aggregations of particles ranging from i. 5 mm. to 15 mm. in diameter. Anv 
inorganic material coarser than this was listed by him as "stones." Our use of these 
terres, though far less precise than Allen's, we believe to correspond more nearly with 
common usage. In manv cases our "sand" would probably comprise Allen's finer 
grade of" gravel," and out" gravel" would comprise much which he would terre "stones." 
Thus stones which were frequently as large as an inch or more in diameter were con- 
sidered as belonging to the "gravel." 
The truth is that any such classification is arbitrary, and, unless actual measure- 
nient is employed, as bas been done by Petersen and by Allen and Worth, these designa- 
tions must be extremely ambiguous. Moreover, it is very doubtful whether an exact 
classification, such as the foregoing, would be of any service in the case of out local sea 
bottoms, which vary so much, even within the limits of a single dredge haul. « As will 
be pointed out later, the nature of the methods employed renders it possible to state 
with only a rough degree of approximation the extent of the correlation between the 
distribution of a given species and the character of the sea floor. 
Another source of difficulty relates to the character of dredge employed at a given 
station. A canvas bag (p. 17) would retain all of the ingredients, and this could be 
washed and sifted and properly deseribed. Such a small bag would frequently fill almost 
immediately, however, and thus fail to represent the entire course of the haul. During the 
earlier portion of the work the sample was commonly collected by an ordinary dredge 
net having a very close mesh at the bottom. It is obvious that if the mixture consisted 
of sand and gravel, much of the former might be lost during the reeling in of the dredge 
line, and that the sample might be listed as merely "gravel,'" whereas sand predominated 
at the outset. On the other hand, a sample in which sand predominated was doubtless 
at first often listed as "sand " in cases where careful washing would have revealed the 
presence of small proportions of gravel or shells. The beam trawl, having no cutting 
edge, and having a net with a wide-meshed bottom, would bring up merely the loose 
stones lying freely upon the surface. Thus the "stony" bottoms of the earlier records 
may in some cases bave included a certain proportion of sand and fine gravel, though 
such cases are probably infrequent, since the beam trawl »vas commonly not used upon 
bottoms known to be stony. Where no stones appeared in the trawl net it was usuallv 
assumed, in the absence of data to the contrary, that the bottom was sandy. However, 
as already stated, a small dredge was generally used along with the beam trawl. 

a An idea of the variability in the character of the bottom within comoaratively narrow limits will be gained from considering 
the results of some of our supplementar- dredgings, in the course of which over xoo of the ori#nal stations were repeated with a 
rather rottgh approach to accuracy. On comparing in each instance the earlier and later record for the saine station it was 
round that in only 14 per cent of the cases were identical tsqoes of bottom recorded, while in only 33 per cent of the others were 
they substantially identical. In 47 per cent of the cases the ingredients recorded were Dart|y the saine, while in 6 per cent they 
were totally different. The later entries were as a rule fuller than the earlier ones, and this fact dottbtless accotmts for some of 
the difterences, but they are likewise largely the result of real differences in the bottom passed over. 



3 2 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
Large beds of nearlv pure sand are without doubt common in Vineyard Sound, 
and are occasionally met with even in Buzzards Bay. Such are the great shoals of 
shifting sand of which Middle Ground in Vineyard Sound is a fair sample. These are 
veritable submarine deserts, often being almost devoid of lire. Despite Shaler's asser- 
tion that in Vineyard Sound "the amount of sand at the disposition of the currents and 
wa'es is not large," we believe that such transportation is sufficientlv active in some 
localities to be a determining factor in distribution. In the vicinity of Middle Ground 
and Lucas Shoal we have frequently observed the water to be rendered turbid by sand 
and fine sheI] fragments which had been brought up by the currents from a depth of 
sex'eral fathoms. 
Beds of dead shells, accompanied by sand, gravel, or mud, occurred frequently, 
both in the Bay and in the Sound. These sometimes represented extinct mussel beds, 
though the shells of Spisula solidissima, Arca lransversa, Vcnzts ncrcenaria, Veneri- 
cardia borealis, Astarte castanea, Callocardia morrhuana, A nomia simplex, Pecten gibbus, 
and other lamellibranchs sometimes occurred in great quantifies. Among the gastro- 
pods, Crepidzda ]ornicata is perhaps the only one which contributed materially to shell 
deposits, although the shells of many of the commoner species, occupied by hermit 
crabs, are frequently taken in great numbers. 
Under "mud" is included a considerable diversity of material, differing in origin and 
in chemical composition, but agreeing in consistency and in general appearance. In a 
few cases the deposits represented upon the chart by the conventional shading for mud 
are fairly pure clay. Beds of this last material occur, as is well known, at Gay Head and 
the neighboring parts of Marthas Vineyard, and outcroppings of it are met with along the 
shores at various points within the region. In the course of the dredging clay was brought 
up in Vineyard Sound near the island of Cuttvhunk. Most of the mud, however, is 
composed in considerable part of organic matter. It is dark in color, and frequently has 
an offensive smell. It may be either sticky or semifluid or it may contain enough sand to 
alter the texture visiblv. According as the mud or sand seemed to predominate in such 
a mixture, it was listed as "sandy mud" or "muddv sand." Sometimes such mixtures 
were called "sand and mud;" and in all probability the sand was at times overlooked, 
and the deposit was listed nrely as "mud." Indeed, it is likely that almost any sample 
of mud, however pure in appearance, would be round upon careful sifting or decanting 
to contain a certain percentage of sand, and sometimes small amounts of fine gravel or 
shell fragments. 
It had been out expectation to include in another chapter of this work the results of 
petrological and chemical analyses of the various bottom deposits, undertaken by Prof. 
Gilbert Van Ingen, of Princeton Universitv. Thus far, however, Prof. Van Ingen has 
failed to complete his report upon these deposits, and its publication must therefore be 
deferred. The specimens upon which these analyses have been based were collected in 
i9o 5 during the third series of dredgings by the Fih Hawk in Vineyard Sound and 
in the course of some supplementary dredging, during the following summer, in Buzzards 
Bav. Satisfactory bottom samples from the earlier dredgings had not been preserved. 
In the present instance they were obtained exclusively by the use of a canvas bag, which 
preverted the washing out of the finer constituents. The larger ingredients, such as 
stones and large shells, were not, however, included in these samples preserved, so that 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

33 

such analyses, while highly valuable as studies in mineralogy, would not alone ve a 
fair idea of the respective bottom areas considered as the habitats of living beings. 
The chart showing bottom characters represents rather crudely the condition of the 
roof of ]3uzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, certain conventional modes of shading 
being adopted to represent the chief ingredients. The circles having a composite shading 
are commonly divided into equal halves or thirds, as if the various constituents were 
present iu equal amounts. This results from the imperfections, in this regard, of the 
records upon which this chart is based. In the plotting of these circles, likewise, it has 
been necessarv to adjust the position of each to that of its neighbors, vith the result that 
in certain cases the symbol is removed some distance from the bottom designated. This 
is particularly truc of the adlittoral (Phalarope and Bhte IVing) stations. 
Excluding a more or less narrow adlittoral zone, the bottom area here portrayed 
divides itself into three main regions : a 
(I) Vineyard Sound, from its eastern end to a transverse line of division passing 
at a level somewhere between Tarpaulin Cove and Robinsons Hole. Here the pre- 
dominant feature is the presence of gravel and stones. This area, it is truc, contains 
one extensive shoal of sand, the so-called Middle Ground, and many other sandy areas. 
In the bays mud likewise occurs. 
(2) Vineyard Sound from the line above referred to to its western end. Here the 
bottom is predominantly sandy, though gravel, stones, and mud occur in places. The 
presence of shell beds does not, of course, exclude the occurrence of an undeflying bottom 
of sand. 
(3) Buzzards Bay as a whole. Here mud predominates, except close to the eastern 
shore, and at the extreme lower end. The latter might be regarded as an independent 
area, but it seems scarcely large enough to warrant this. 
The inshore (adlittoral) dredngs reveal in many cases a distinctly different type 
of bottom from that of the adjacent deeper waters; and various restricted areas of one 
or another kind of bottom may be found almost anywhere. 
Owing to the methods employed, it is vident that the correlation of bottom charac- 
ters with the distribution of species can be indicated with only rough approximation. 
During a given haul the dredge passes over a considerable stretch of sea floor and may 
collect samples of several totally different sorts of matefial. Organisms may likewise be 
collected from all points in this path. To deternfine by such means the kind of bottom 
proper to every species encountered is obviously impossible. A species may appear in 
the records as coming from "sand," whereas it may have been scraped from the surface 
of large stones at any point during the haul. Only the broader correspondence between 
the larger areas in which certain types of bottom predominate, and the general dis- 
tribution of the species in question, is commonly to be regarded as significant. Again, 
when certain organisms are listed from certain types of bottom, the inference must not 
alwavs be drawn that such bottoms themselves constitute its truc habitat. Thus 
encrusfing I3ryozoa, which occurs upon shells, or algoe, are frequently listed from 
bottoms of sand or even mud. 

« These divisions do hot correspond to those recognized in the botanical section of this report. Of the latter there are rive. 
x6269°--t3ull. 3 , pt. x--3--3 



34 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
3. CUIRRENTS AND TIDES. 
The first currents which concern us are two of the great permanent streams vhich 
maintain the circulation of the ocean, namely, the Gulf Stream and the southwardly 
flowing Labrador Current. Off the Massachusetts coast, the Gulf Stream is first encoun- 
tered at a distance of about 85 nautical mlles south of larthas Vinevard and Nantucket; 
that is, just beyond the edge of the continental shelf. Its distance from shore varies from 
year to year, and even during fesser periods. It has been shown by Libbey (I895) that 
the Gulf Stream, during this part of its course, at least, presents by no means a regular 
outline in crosssection, but exhibits, on its coastal side, a wall having very roughly the 
contour of an inverted S. Its lower boundary, which Libbey identifies approximately 
with the 5 °0 (F.) curve, sends a projection coastward between the adjacent colder zonc 
and the bottom, while at a higher level the cold stratum referred to projects seaward 
into the midst of the warmer water of the Gulf Stream. (Sec Libbey's fig. i-_i.) 
This brings about the result that throughout a narrow strip along the continental declivit v 
the latter is bathed by warmer water than it would otherwise be exposed to, and con- 
sequently supports a different fauna. 
A hot wholly convincing illustration of the dependence of the fauna of this section 
of the oceml upon the chance relations of these temperature zones is offered by the case 
of the well-known tilefish, which suddenly disappeared from the edge of the continental 
platform for a period of about o years. (Sec Collins, I884; Verrill, I884; Libbey, I895; 
Bumpus, 1899.) Its extermination was first revealed by the presence, during the sprîng 
of 188_% of enormous numbers of the dead fishes floating upon the surface of the sea 
throughout a belt parallel to the coast and about 170 toiles in length. At the saine time 
Verrill (I884, p. 656) reported the "scarcity or absence of many of the species, especially 
of Crustacea, that were taken in the two previous years, in essentially the saine localities 
and depths in vast numbers--several thousand at a rime." Verrill accounted for this 
wholesale destruction of life by the occurrence of a heavy storm, which he believed to 
have "forced outward the very cold water that, even in summer, occupies the wide area 
of shallower sea, in less than 60 fathoms, along the coast, and thus caused a sudden 
lowering of the temperature along this narrov, omparatively warm zone, where the 
tilefish and the Crustacea referred to were formerly found." Libbey has endeavored to 
correlate the reappearance of the tilefish, about 1892 , with a change in the position of the 
5 °° curve; and, indeed, the first successful search for the fish after the catastrophe of 
88_ was suggested bv the discovery of changed temperature conditions. 
But the influence of the Gulf Stream extends much nearer to the coast than the 
edge of the continental shelf, and vithout doubt affects our local faunal conditions. 
The presence nearlv every year in Vineyard Sound of considerable masses of the Sar- 
9as»-um bacci[«rum, with its attendant fauna, shows that strong southerly winds mav 
drive the surface water of the Gulf Stream as far as the mainland of Massachusetts.« 
And, apart from these occasional and obvious effects, it is probable that the warm current 
exerts a constant influence upon the coastal waters of southern Nev England, the tvo 
undergoing a certaîn degree of intermingling as a result of winds and tides. Indirectly, 

a The prevaillng -ind during the ser months biows frorn the southwest quadrant. From records kept for rive ,ears 
on the ïn¢3"ard Sound Lightship (1Rathbtm, x887), southwesterly winds are fotmd to be the most frequent ones during the months 
of April to September, inclusive. At Nantucket. aiso, according to the report of the Chie[ of the Weathet Bureau for x9og-xo 
the prevailing direction of the itad |rom lay to September. itaclusive, is southwest. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

3 

also, through its influence upon the atmosphere, the Gulf Stream must have a very 
pronounced effect in tempering the climate of this section of the coast, and this without 
doubt reacts upon the local sea areas. 
As regards the presence of a definite southward-flowing cold current on the New 
England coast, there seem to be decided differences of opinion. According to the 
prevailing view, the Polar or Labrador Current may be detected along practically the 
entire Atlantic coast of the United States. A concise statement of this view has been 
furnished us by thc Navy Department: 
A cold current originating in high northern latitudes floxvs down past Labrador and Newfoundland, 
after which a portion trends away toward the southward over the Grand 13anks, past Nova Scotia, and 
on southward in a narrowitlg belt as far even as the coast of Florida. From Sable Island to Florida 
its course is in general parallel to the Gulf Stream, near which it presents the frequent phenomenon 
of cold water welling up from below. In the shallower waters of the coast this colder current gives 
way to tidal influences which prevail to seaward over a wide area east of Nova Scotia, throughout the 
entire Gulf of Maine, and over Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals. 
Similar views are embodied in a number of different publications of the Hvdro- 
graphic Office and Coast Survey and in certain Govemment charts. (E. g., Current 
Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, No. 13o8, pub.. I892. ) They appear likewise in 
various popular accounts and atlases. (See Boguslawski, I884, p. 269-272; Bogus- 
lawski and Krummel, I887, p. 436, 437-) This assumption of a continuation of the 
Labrador Current along the southern shore of New England xvas ruade by I,ibbey, who 
thus interpreted the temperature relations which he observed there. Indeed, Libbey 
believed that the line between the two currents could often be seen from the deck of a 
vessel. (Libbey, i89ia, p. 236.) Various biologists also, including Packard and Verrill, 
have invoked the aid of this northern current in endeavoring to explain certain phe- 
nomena of geographical distribution. Verrill (I87I, p. 258), indeed, believed that he 
round evidences of an offshoot of the Labrador Current extending for some distance 
into Long Island Sound. 
According to another view of the case, the Labrador Current can hOt be traced 
farther south than Newfoundland, along the American coast, and has no connection 
with the "cold wall" or belt of cooler water lying between the Gulf Stream and the 
shores of the United States. It is held by Schott (I897, p. 204--208; see also Supan, 
19o3, p. 295) that such southward-flowing cold water as is found along the New Eng- 
land coast cornes mainly from the Gulf of St. Lawrence; that the extent of this flow is 
but slight, and that the presence of the "cold wall" is largely a contrast phenomenon, 
due to the presence of the warmer Gulf Stream beyond. 
Whether or hot there occurs along the southern coast of New England a definite 
cold outrent of any considerable velocity, and, if so, whether this current is a continuation 
of the Labrador Stream, are matters of subordinate importance for our understanding 
of the biology of this region. The undisputed facts in the case seem to be that there 
is a belt of relatively cold water lying between the Gulf Stream and the New England 
shores, and that in summer this belt bas a temperature very much lower than that of 
the waters immediately skirting the coast, particularly those of the partially inclosed 
bays and sounds, with whose fauna we have at present to deal. There is evidence, also, 
that north of Cape Cod this cold belt reaches the shores of the mainland itself and 
directly influences the littoral fauna; while south of Cape Cod it lies at some distance 
from the mainland, though its presence is felt upon the outlying shores of Marthas 
Vineyard and Nantucket. Referring to the temperature charts or the northwestern 



36 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
Atlantic (charts 220, 22i, 222), it will be seen that during the rnonths of June to Sep- 
tember, inclusive, the waters of Long Island Sound and those at the station just south 
of Buzzards Bay have a ternperature several degrees higher than that of the first two 
stations to the eastward of these points. Farther yet to the eastward, however, the 
ternperature again rapidly rlses, owing to the presence of the Gulf Stream. The local 
"relations will be discussed more fully in the next section of this chapter. 
In addition to these great ocean strearns, the local currents due to rides are very 
irnportant in deterrnining the fauna and flora of out xvaters. Tidal currents of sufficient 
velocity to be reckoned with by rnariners occur at considerable distances offshore 
and, when deflected and concentrated by features of the coast line o by shoals, their 
velocitv rnay be very great. In Woods Hole Passage, for exarnple, they attain the 
speed of 8 rniles per hour at spring ride. Such rapidly flowing currents, where the 
water is shallow and the bottorn rocky, rnust result ina very high degree of oxygenation 
of the water. Moreover, a rapid current, of course, bears a more abundant food supply 
to those fixed or slow-rnoving organisrns which depend for their food upon minute 
particles brought to thern passively, or, as is the case xvith plants, upon gases or other 
substances in solution. Accordingly, we find beds of rnussels and luxurious growths 
of anernones, ascidians, hydrozoa, bryozoa, and algoe insorne of these tidal strearns. 
On the other hand, tidal and other currents undoubtedly have a deleterious influence 
upon certain other organisrns, which, through their agency, rnay becorne buried in sand 
or rnud. 
But the most widely prevailing effect of the rides locally is the continual rnixing of 
the warrner (in surnrner), less dense, and relatively impure water of the coast line with 
the unlimited reservoir of cooler and pur'er water offshore. An idea of the rnagnitude 
of this process rnay be gained by considering the rate of ride flow in Vineyard Sound. 
This is as high as 2.6 knots per hour in the rniddle of the channel at the tirne of rnaxirnurn 
velocity of the current. It is stated that "an object set adrift at the tirne of slack belote 
flood will be carfied 7 sea mlles eastward belote the reversal of the current, and an object 
set adfift at the time of slack before ebb will be carfied 9 sea mlles westward belote the 
beginning of the flood strearn." « Thus a certain part of the water at least travels a 
distance of one-half or more of the length of Vineyard Sound during a single phase of the 
ride. Owing to the retardation due to the friction of the shores and bottorn, the rnean 
sectional velocity would perhaps hot exceed hall the figures stated above. Even so, 
however, the water throughout the entire section would be displaced on the average to 
the extent of 3 x/4 nautical rniles during the flood phase and to the extent of 4 x/4 mlles during 
the ebb. 
There would thus be a net westerly rnovernent of the water arnounting to about i knot 
during each cornplete tidal cycle, or about 2 knots in 24 hours. V¢EEere this the only factor 
concerned, it would thus require about eight days to cornpletely replace the water of 
Vineyard Sound. In reality the ocean water brought in during the flood ride constantly 
mixes with that already present in the Sound, and this process of diffusion rnust result 
in a fairly rapid renewal of the latter, quite independently of the transfer of water result- 
ing frorn the predorninance of the westedy current. It seerns likely, therefore, that a 
week would rnuch more than suffice to bring about a practically cornplete change of 
water in Vineyard Sound. Obviously, the conditions are rnuch less simple in reality 

Thèse data. though hot the deductions which bave been drawn from them, were furnished by the office of the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey. See also cttrrent diagram for Nantucket and Vineyard Sotmds. in U. S. Coast liiot, Atlaati¢ Coast, lot. m, 
x52. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

37 

than is implied in such a computation, for the rate of reneval is very different in different 
parts of the Sound. The more central portion of the stream would enter to a much 
greater distance than that close to shore, while the waters contained in various depres- 
sions of the bottom (if we may judge from temperature considerations) are probably 
renewed at a comparatively slow rate. 
In Buzzards Bay the change is in all probability much more slow, owing to the fact 
that this body of vater communicates with the ocean at one end only, and that its mouth 
is very narrow in proportion to the total area of the Bay. Here there plainly can be no 
such continuous displacement in one direction as was round to occur in Vineyard Sound, 
and the renewal must be effected entirely through the mixture of waters resulting from 
the ebb and flow of the tide. The amplitude of the tides is, hovever, considerably 
greater in the Bay than in the Sound. Since the mean depth of the former is nmch less 
than that of the latter, a proportionally larger degree of change must result from this 
cause. The mean depth of Buzzards Bay, as computed from the 9 soundings indicated 
upon the chart contained in the Atlantic Coast Pilot, part III, is a little over 4 feet. 
The average rise and fall of the tide in Buzzards Bay is about 4 feet. Thus the amount 
of water brought in by the flood ride is equal to about one-tenth of the total volume 
already contained in the Bay. To what degree this ocean water mixes with that already 
present in the Bay, and, conversely, what proportion of the water which leaves the Bay 
on the ebb tide consists of that which entered on the previous flood, would be impossible 
to determine even approximately. Assuming that as much as one-half of this remains 
behind, which seems an extreme supposition, then the entire Bay would require 2o tides 
or IO days to effect a complete renewal. On the whole, therefore, it seems likely that 
the average rate at which the water is renewed in Buzzards 13ay is not o-ver hall that 
which obtains in Vineyard Sound. 
It is obvious, however, that this renewal of vater would take place at quite different 
rates in different parts of the Bay. Near the mouth the change is probably much more 
rapid than the above figures would imply, while at its head the renewal of water is 
probably far slower. Likewise the surface water is probably changed at a much more 
rapid rate than are the lower strata. It must be remembered, also, that it is hot pure 
ocean water which enters either the Bay or the Sound, but coastal water, which has been 
contaminated during previous ebb tides. Nevertheless, even such crude estimates 
may be of service in showing the relative stagnancy of the two bodies of vater under 
consideration. 
A feature of great importance in determining the character of the local littoral fauna 
and flora is the slight amplitude of the tides throughout the entire region. A table will 
best illustrate the amplitude of the mean, swing, and neap tidesat   representative points. 

Wareham ................... 
New 13edford ............. 
Wods Hole (lay side) ........ 
Mouth of lay (Westport) ..... 
OEttyhunk ......... 
Gay Head ................ 

_Mean. 
Feet. 
3-5 
3-0 

Spring. 
Feet. 
3-8 
4-3 
.-7 

: Neap. 
Feet. 
7.6 

Tarpaulin Cove ....... 
Vineyard Haven .............. 
Woods Hole (Sound side) ..... 
Edgartown .............. 
Nantucket Harbor... 

Iean. 

Feel. 

Spng. 

Feet. 
2.8 

Neap. 

Feet. 



 BULLE'IIN OF "FttE UREAU OF FISERIES. 
The resulting narrowness of the littoral (intertidal) zone is a characteristic feature of 
the region, and stands in decided contrast to the conditions encountered on the Mairie 
toast, where the average tidal range is hot less than o feet. 
4. TEMPERATURE. 
The surface and bottom temperaturcs were recordcd for each of the regular dredging 
stations of the Fish. Ilawk and were entcred in the original records for these. I t became 
evident, however, that the methods then employed were hot sufficiently accurate for 
purposes of careful comparison; likewise that the temperature determinations should be 
taken as nearly simultaneouslv as possible throughout the entire area under considera- 
tion. Accordingly, new observations were ruade at four different seasons of the year, 
with standardized instruments and in accordance with more precise methods. Densitv 
determinations were made at the saine time as those upon temperature, but a discussion 
of these will be deferred till the following section. 
The methods pursued in making the temperature observations were a» follows: 
Certain stations were selected whieh were believed to be representative of all sorts of 
conditions as to geographical position, depth, tidal influences, etc. These were commonly 
selected from among the regular dredging stations plotted upon the distribution charts, 
but they were hot located by the vessel with any close approach to accuracy. In a few 
cases, however, other points were chosen, so that it was thought best to give a new set 
of numbers, or rather letters, to the temperature stations. Thev ranged from A to "x" 
in the Sound and from A to Vin the Bay. a (Sec chart _-.) In taking the August 
series of temperatures the Fish Hawk was employed; in November and June the 
Phalarope was used; in March the Blue Win 9. The bottom temperatures were obtained 
with Negretti-Zambra thermometers, provided with the Tanner inverting case (Tanner, 
884, p. -6) ; and the instrument was in ail cases left at the bottonl for a period of o 
minutes. Ourown and previous tests (sec Kidder, 887, p. 2o3) bave shown that reliable 
results ean hot be obtained in less rime. The thermometer was then upset bv a 
"messenger," rendering impossible an), further change in the column of mercury, except 
the slight expansion or contraction of the thread itsélf, which could be allowed for 
whenever the water and air temperature differed sufficientlv. The surface temperature 
was taken bv means of an ordinary thermometer of the Queen or Tagliabue make, 
having a long scale. Surface water was drawn in a dip bucket and kept in the shade 
while the thermometer was in use. When air and water temperature differed ranch, 
the pail of water was changed at least once before the final reading was ruade. The 
air temperature was likewise recorded, though this was far from exact, oving to the 
artifieial sources of heat necessarily prescrit on a steam vessel. 
August series.--The first series of temperature determinations was ruade between 
August 4 and 29, 9o7 • Twenty-five observations in Vinevard Somld were ruade 
on August 4, tS, and 6. The order followed was such that stations scattered 
throughout nearlv the whole length of the Sound were visited on the saine day. Thus, 
differences due to locality would hot be eonfused with differences due to meteorologieal 
changes. Buzzards Bar was then covered on August t9 and 2o, most of the stations 
being reached on the first da),. Certain stations in Vineyard Sound were also revisited 

a lqot ail of these station» were inclnded in every series of observations, while the greater number of the Bay stations wer© 
olnitted from the Match series. 



B[OLOGICAL SURVEY OF VOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 

39 

on August 2o, as likewise on August œe2; and stations in both Vinevard Sound and 
Buzzards Bay were visited for a second, third, and even fourth time on August 28 and 29. 
Thus, while itis not possible to present simultaneous readings throughout all the waters 
under consideration, the most extreme points were reached within a limit of rive days 
(August x4-x9); and such supplementary determinations xvere ruade as to eliminate 
confusion of results bv seasonal change. A consideration of these supplementary 
temperature determinations, 4 in number, shows that, although thev were ruade after 
an average interval of nine days, the mean difference (irrespective of sign) between the 
fit and the later determination was t.8 ° F. It will be noted also that in manv cases 
the later temperature was higher, instead of lower, though, on the average, it was found 
to be about  degree lower. Moreover, a eonsideration of the ehart (No. 29) repre- 
senting the mean annual temperature curves for the Woods Hole station shows that the 
variation in vater temperature at the latter point during the entire pefiod of the prescrit 
observations (August I4-29) is, in this five-year average, but a trille over t° F. The 
variations within the limits of a single da)', due to tidal influences, are doubtless more 
serious sources of error, at least for surface temperatures; but it was, of course, 
impossible to eliminate these. 

TABL I.--TI3IPERATURI AND DNSTY: VINIYARD SOUND, AUGUST, I9o 7. 

G (repeated)... 
I (repeated) .... 
J (repeated) .... 
L repeated)... 
N (repeated).. 

TemDerature station. 

Date. 

.. Aug. x 
.... do... 
•. .do... 
.. Aug. x 4 
I 
...[ Aug. 5 
...] Aug.  
 Aug. 6 
. Aug. t4 
.I Aug. 2 
] Aug. x 5 
. Aug. 22 
[ Aug. I6 
.. _kug. x 4 
i Aug. x 5 
.. ! Aug.  

, Aug. x4 
Aug. x6 
P (repcated) .......... } Aug. 22 [ 
P (repeated) ...... I Aug. 28[ 
Q .............. [ Aug. 
R ....... [ Aug. x 4 I 
T ........... Aug. x6 [ 
U .................... Ii. odO ..... 
U (repeated) ............ Aug. OE2 I 
U (rcpeated) ......................................... ,ug. 28 I 
X .................................................... Ang. x6  

Delth in 
iathoms. 

Air [ Surface 
retapera- tempera- 
ture. turc. 
67-3 I 
67. 7 
68-3 67.6 
67. 7 66.8 
67, o 
67. 8 
66. 7 
67. 8 67. 3 
68.3 67-3 
67- 3 64. 
68.3 66. 3 
67. 8 66. 8 
67. 6 65. 
70. 3 62. 8 
3 65-3 
-3 64.3 
67. x 65. 
66. 8 64. 
66. 2 6L 
70. 3 63.7 
69.8 63.8 
69. x 69- 3 
OE7 
64- 5 63. c 
64.9 62. 4 
7L 8 63. 3 
70. 3 62. 3 
64. 63. 

Surface 
density 
(atx5*C. 

x. 0239 
. 0238 

z. 0235 
] 10-'43 
z. 0238 
x. 0237 
X. 0240 
Z. 0249t 
Z-o237 
z. o23g 

Bottom 
tempera- 

67. 4 
66. 3 
69-3 
68. 5 
66. 9 
66. 3 
65-3 
67- 5 
65. 5 
67. 4 
63-4 
65. 3 
65. S 
62. 4 
6z. 4 
6x. x 
60- 3 
63.5 
6o.9 
58. 2 
6L 4 
5 3 
61. 4 
58-6 
58- 8 
59-  
6. 7 
6L • 

Bottora 
density 
(att5°C.). 

X. 0239 
x. 0239 
L 0237 
I. 024I 
x. 0237 
I. 0237 
I. 0240 
. 0«39 
. 0Z36 
x. 0239 
x. o236 
x. 0239 
z. 0240 
l. 0236 
I. o243 
:t. 0239 
I. 023 7 
I. 024I 
I. 024I 
x. oz37 
l. 0238 
L O243 
X. O39 
z. oz4t 
I. oa39 
. o36 
x. 0237 
l. o24t 



4 ° BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
TABLE I.--TEMPERATURE AND I)ENSIT¢: VNIYARD OUND, JkUGI_:ST, i9oT--Continued. 

Temperature station. 

(repeated) ............... 
(rexted) ....... 
(repeated) ....... 
......................... 
(repeated) .................... 
(repeated) ......... 
(reDeated) ......... 
................ 
(repeated) ....... 

Date. 

Aug. 2o 
Aug. 8 
Aug. 29 
Aug. 16 
Aug. 2o 
Aug. 8 
Aug. 9 
Aug. 16 
Aug. 28 
Aug. i6 

Mean ..... 

- .n I Air 
Depth   tempera- 
fathoms. I ture. 
9 I 67 
 I 68. 3 
9 I 64.3 
17¾ I 64.3 
xç  7 I. 8 
x I 63- 8 
i6 [ 69. 3 
  63.8 
......... [ 67. 68 

I Surface 
I tempera- 
ture. 

4. I 
60-3 
64.3 
-9 
61.5 
4-8 
65 
63.3 
64-70 

Surface Bottom 
density temDera- 
(at15°C.). ture. 

X. o233 61. 
I. o240 6  
I-o24o 58. 
1.0241 55-0 
I. 0234 5 o 
t. 0239 59. 9 I 
I. 0240 57- • 
1. o24I 57- 
1. 0234 53.2 
1. O240 61.3 
I.O2385 62.28 

Bottom 
density 
(atzs°C.). 

I. 0236 
1. o238 
1.0239 
1. o237 
1.0242 
1.0241 
I. o239 
1-o239 

I. 02389 

TABLE 2.--TIMPERATURI AND DENSITY: ]UZZARDS ]AXZ, JkUGUST, 19o 7. 

L (reDeat¢d)... 
M... 
P (repeated) .... 
R (repeated) .... 
U (repeated)... 
V (repeated)... 

I 
Temperature station. [ Date. 
....... Aug. i9 
...do ..... 
•..do ..... 
.... do ..... 
. Aug. 20 
. Aug. i9 
..... do .... 
.. Aug. 20 
... Aug. 29 
Aug. ao 
....... do ..... 
Aug. 19 
... Aug. 9 
. Aug. i9 
. Aug. 2o 
. Aug. 9 
.... Aug. o 
........ do .... 
Aug. 29 
.. Aug. 2o 
... Aug. 29 

Deth in Air Surface Surface Bottom Bottom 
iathoms, tempera- tempera- density retapera- density 
ture. ture. '(at 15 °C.). ture. Iat 15 °C.). 

3 65.1 7 I- 3 
3 66, 3 71. 5 
5 64-3 o-3 
4 66. 3 71. 1 
54 67. 3 70.3 
5 62. 8 69- 5 
5 I 7 x" 3 69. 8 
9/ 69.9 70- 5 
6 66- 5 69. 3 
S 69-5 69.8 
8 66.3 69.8 
9 66. 8 67- 6 
96 65. 2 65- 2 
7 67.9 68. 8 
63/4 67- 9 66. 9 
7 66.6 67.8 
xo 67. 8 66. 8 
8 65. 3 65. o 
8 66. 1 67.3 
6/44 71- 3 67- 3 
64 66- 5 65- 4 
2 74- 8 67- 8 
6 72. 4 65. 8 
9' 68-9 66. 9 
lO 64- 7 64. 8 
123" 72. 3 64. 8 
9 64- I 62. 7 
[ 67. 56 67. 
93 

Z. O226 îI. 3 Z. O224 
I. O229 71. O I. O23I 
I. O229 îO- 7 1-O232 
1-O233 7O. 2 Z-O234 
1-O235 70-4 1-O234 
1"O234 ('3 I"O235 
I-O236 61 3 X. 0238 
I. o234 66.0 1. o236 
1-0240 68-4 1-0235 
1-O237 68.3 .o236 
I-O234 65.0 z. o234 
I-o232 6,6 I. o236 
1-o237 64-3 z. o238 
1-o233 67.6 1. o237 
1"o235 65-3 Z. o236 
1-0237 67.1 1. o236 
Z-o234 6 2 1. o236 
1-0235 6 3 1-0237 
z. 0235 64-I l. 0235 
Z-0235 66.6 z. o234 
1-0235 64-7 1-0237 
1-o233 63.2 1. o236 
1. o233 63.2 1. o233 
1-O236 6 3 Z-0233 
1. 0238 6o Z. 0239 
1-0234 60.2 1.0236 
1-0241 60.6 1.0237 
023,a,. 19 1-O2350 
66. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS ttOLE AND VICINITY. 41 

Tables i and 2 show the temperature  and density conditions encountered during 
the August observations. Chart 211 represents the surface and bottom temperatures 
for each station, the figure used being in each case the eafliest one taken. The following 
generalized statements may be ruade regarding these figures: 
(i) The greatest extremes of temperature recorded are 7r.5 ° and 55.0 °, giving 
a range of 16.5 ° within the limits of the region. 
(2) The surface temperatures average 2.2i ° higher than the bottom temperatures, 
the differences increasing as we pass toward the western end of Vineyard Sound and 
the lower end of Buzzards Bay. The mean figures (based upon all the figures of the 
tables) are surface 66.04 °, and bottom 63.83 °. 
(3) Buzzards Bay contains warmer water than Vineyard Sound, the mean figures] 
being 67.93 ° (surface) and 66.i9 ° (bottom) for the Bay, and 64.7 °0 (surface) and 62.28 ° 
(bottom) for the Sound. 
(4) In both Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, both at the surface and the bottom, 
there is a steady decrease in temperature as we pass from northeast to southwest; i. e., 
toward the open ocean. 
In Buzzards Bar the maximum surface temperature (71.5 °) was fdund near the 
head, while the minimum (64.8 °) occurred off Cuttyhunk. The maximum bottom 
temperature also occurred at the hcad of the Bay, where surface and bottom waters 
were practically of equal warmth. A minimum of 60.2 ° was round off Cuttyhunk, 
just at the mouth of the Bay. 

a We bave very reluctantly decided to employ the Fahrenheit scale in the present work, for the following reasons: Our in- 
struments, and practically ail those in use by the Bureau of Fisheries, are graduated in this scale, iXIoreover, i past &merican 
hydrogralohie work ternloeratures bave usually, if hot always, been exloressed in Fahrenheit degrees. XVeshould, however, bave 
emloloyed the centigrade scale, desloite the foregoing considerations, were it hot for the fact that our tenaloerature charts were 
drawn before due consideration was given to this marrer; and it does hOt seem worth while to change them now, particularly 
as plates bave akeady been ,repared from some of them. For the convenience of those who are more familiar with the centi- 
grade scale we aloloend a conversion table: 

FOR CONVERSION OF IAHRENHIT "fo CENTIGIRakl) I)EGREES. 

lahren- 
heit. Centigrade. 
© o 
+80 +6-67 
79 26. x1 
78 2S.$6 
77 25 -oo 
74 23-33 
73 22. 78 
72 2-22 
7x 21.67 

Fahren- Centigrade. Fahren- 
heit. heit. Centigrade. 

o 
+69 
68 
67 
66 
65 
64 
62 
6z 
6o 
59 

o 
+20.56 
20.00 
z8.89 
8.33 
x7-78 
X7.22 
X6.67 
x6. xx 
x5.56 

o 
+58 
57 
56 
55 
-;4 
53 
52 
5x 
5o 
49 
48 

+I4- 44 
x3. 89 
I3- 33 
x2. 78 
ix. 67 
xo. 56 
9- 44 
8.89 

Fahren- 
heit. 

o 
+47 
46 
44 
43 
42 
4 z 
40 
39 
38 

Centigrade. Fahren- 
heit. Centigrade. 

o 
-]-8. 33 
7.2 
6. 67 
5- 56 
5- oo 
3- 89 
3- 33 

o o 
+37 +2. 78 
36 2. 22 
35 I. 67 
34 I. xI 
33 o. 56 
32 O. OO 
3I --0. 56 
28 --2. 22 



42 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

In Vinevard Sound, the maximum surface temperature (69.3 °) oceurred near 
Nashawena Island, but such a temperature was quite exceptional in this portion of 
the Sound, as reference to the chart will show at a glance. With this exception, the highest 
temperatures are at the eastern end. At one station just bevond the western limits 
of Vineyard Sound (W) the surface and bottom figures were 6o.3 ° and 55.o °, respectively. 
A rather abrupt fall in temperature is encountered in passing southwestward through 
the Sound when we reach the line passing from Robinson Hole to Kopeecon Point. 
The mean bottom temperatures for the portions of the Sound lying above and below this 
line are 67.35 ° and 6o 24 °, respectively (based upon chart figures only). As we shall 
find later, this lower temperature of. the outer portion of the Sound is correlated with 
important differences in the bottom fauna. In Buzzards Bay the lowering of tempera- 
ture toward the mouth is less abrupt, and water colder than 64 ° occurs only near the 
extrelne end. The vater appears to be at no point as cold as it is on the other side of 
the Elizabeth Islands. 

TABLE 3.--TRMPERATURE AND DF, N'SITY: V[N'EYARD SOUND, NOVEMBER, I90 7. 

Temperature station. 

G (repeated)... 
M (repeated) .... 
S. 
 (repeated) ...... 

Mean ..... 

Date. ,fathoms. " ate." 
8 39-0 
xt 47.0 
6 46, o 
13 48.0 
zo 40.0 
z12 37.5 
7 39. o 
49.0 
39.5 
40.5 
49. o 
4o-5 
39-o 
 39-o 
49-o 
? 42.0 
 4I-0 
49-0 I4 42-0 
o' 41.o 
8 43-0 
z8 4 o 
8 4t. 5 
4.64 

Surface 
temDer- 
ature. 

5I. 4 
51.7 
49- 7 
49- 7 
50. 7 
51. x 
5o. 6 
5z. 2 
5x. 1 
49- 7 
5z. 1 
50. 7 
51. 7 
51, 7 
5x. 2 
So- x 
5x. 2 
50. 9 
5o. 9o 

Surface 
density 
(at zs°C.). 

z.o4o 
z. o237 
1. 0238 
Z-o238 
1. o238 
1-o240 
1.0240 
I. O24t 
1.0242 
I. O24I 
1, O243 

Bottooe Bottom 
temDe deusity 
ature. (at 15°C.). 
5x, 6 x. oa4t 
51-4 1.074I 
5I-4 g-038 
5x. 5 z.o74x 
3 I. o74o 
5o- 8 X-0242 
5z. 4 1. o38 
5z. 5 1. o24 
5z. 4 1. o238 
5z. 8 z. o24o 
5o-$ z. o24o 
51-5 1-O24 
50.9 X-0238 
52-O 1. O241 
5o.5 t.o4o 
52-0 1,0241 
51.9 1-o243 
5X. 9 X. 0238 
5-0 1.0241 
51.6 x. o241 
5-$ 1-0244 

S I" 44 I . 03406 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

43 

TABLE 4--TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY: BUZZARDS BA¥, NOVE_MBER, 
Teml.erature station, te. 

] DeDth in 
fathoms. 

Air 
temper- 
ature. 

t9o7. 

Nov. 3 3 
• .do ..... 
•..do ..... 6 
..... I 6» 
...do ..... 
•..do ..... 
Nov. 25 6 
. .do ..... 
• .do ..... 8 
t...do ..... 
.... do ..... [ 

351 O 
37-O 
31 O 
4J- O 
36. o 
,5l o 
39- o 
41. o 
33- o 
4L 5 
42. o 
43- o 
3& o 
35.5 
35-5 
36. o 
36. o 
39. o 
40.0 
39- o 
43- o 
40. o 

Surface 
temper- 
ature. 

46.3 
47. 7 
48. 2 
48. 2 
47- 3 
48-5 
48-7 
49- 2 
48. 2 
49- 7 
49-5 
47- 2 
48.0 
48.5 
48.7 
47- 9 
49-7 
49-7 
48-7 
49- 7 

Surface Bottom Bottom 
density temDer- density 
(at Is°C.). ature. (at I5°C.) 

38- 25 [ 48- 50 

t. 0228 
x. 0228 
I. 0230 
I- 0226 
I. 0236 
L 0237 
t. 0235 
I. o234 
x. 0237 
l. 0237 
I. O238 
X. O238 
t. o238 
i. o239 
x. o238 
l. 0236 
t. 0237 
l. 0240 
x. 0236 

49- 8 
49.4 
50. z 
49-» 
50. o 
49-I 
49-3 
49-8 
49-8 
48-9 
50. 5 
50. x 
47- 5 
48- 8 
50- o 
49- t 
49- I 
5o. 5 
5 o. r 
49-0 
$o. 4 

I. 0220 
l. 0229 
I. 0229 
I. 0230 
t. 0228 
l. 0236 
l. 0237 
I. 0238 
1. 0233 
I. 0237 
I. 0237 
I. O237 
1. 0239 
t. 0238 
t. 0240 
I. 0239 
I. 0236 
x. 0237 
l. 0240 
r. 0236 
I. 0240 

1. O2342 [ 49.51 1.O2349 

November.--Temperature and density conditions at the middle of November, 19o7, 
are shown in tables 3 and 4, the temperature conditions being shown on chart 212. 
When compared with the conditions during August, the chier facts to be noted are: 
(i) The great reduction in water temperature naturally resulting from the approach 
of vinter. The mean of ail the figures is 5o.4 ° as against 64.9 t° during the August 
observations. 
(2) The comparative uniformity of all the figures, the extremes being 46.3 ° and 
52.5 °, showing a range of 6.2 °, in place of a range of i6.5 ° as in August. 
(3) The exact reversal of the differences found in August. Here the surface temper- 
atures are somewhat lower than the bottom ones (average=49.78° and 50.47 ° respec- 
tively); the Bar is coldcr than the Sound (average=49.oo ° and 5[.i6°); and we meet 
with slightly higher temperatures as we pass toward the open ocean. This last tendency 
is not very evident in Vineyard Sound, but is quite marked in Buzzards Bay. All 
these differences are, of coursë, quite intelligible. At this time of the vear the air tem- 
perature has become much colder than that of the water. It is natural, therefore, that 
the surface of the sea should cool more rapidly than the bottom, and that the shallower, 
more sheltered waters should cool more rapidly than the open ocean. 



44 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
5.--TEMPERATURE AND DENSIT¥, VINI,YARD SOUND, V[ARCH, 19o8. 

Temperature station. 

I (repeated) .... 

Mean.. 

Date. 

Iar. 21 
Iar. o 
.do .... 
..do .... 
...do ..... ' 

Depth in Air 
fathoms, temper- 
ature. 
5/ 3 x. 5 
13 9- 5 
ix 33-0 
zi 28. 5 
8 32-5 
7 30. o 
3. o 
3L 5 
28. e 
8 33-  

.... 30.87 

Sttrfao 
temor 
ature. 

36. 9 
36. 2 
36. 4 
36. 3 
36. 9 

36-3 
37.0 
37.1 
36.6 
36.8 
36.5 
36-7 
36-64 

Surface 
density 
Car xs°C.). 

i. o36 
I. 0235 
x. 0233 
I. 0237 
1.0232 
z. o38 
z. 0237 
I. 023 ° 
L 0238 
I. 

z. o2356 

]3ottot 
temDel 
ature. 

36. 8 
37-6 
36. 5 
36. 3 
36- 7 
36. 2 
36. 6 
36.6 
36. 5 
36. 6 
36. 6 
37- 4 

36.70 

]3ottom 
densit  
(at ]s°C.). 

z. 0233 
- 0234 
i. 0235 
i. 0235 
. 0237 
1. o233 
].0238 
.o24o 
I. 0236 
I-o239 
z. 0238 

TABLE 6.--TEMPERATURE AND DENSIT z, ]3UZZARDS BAY, IARCH, I908. 

Temperature station. Date. 
............ Mat. 2i 
............ do ..... 

Delth 
in 
fathoms. 

s½ 
4 
9 

Air 
tempera- 
ture. 

30- 5 
28. o 
31. o 
30- o 

29-41 

Surface 
tempera- 
ture. 

37-I 
37-4 
36- 8 
36. 2 
37- o 
36- 7 

36.86 

Surface 
density 
Car zs°C.). 

I.o226 
I.o226 

Bottom 
tempera- 
ture. 

37-6 
36.6 
37-I 
36- I 
36. 5 
36-3 

36. 70 

]3ottom 
density 
(at 

1.0224 
x.o234 
1.0227 

z-o2305 

.?Ia?ch.--Another set of determinations xvas made on March 20 and 2 i, 1908 (tables 
5 and 6; chart 213). Owing to the inclemency of the weather and to the fact that only 
the Blue Win 9 was available for the work, a smaller number of soundings was ruade at 
this rime, and indeed the lower part of Buzzards Bay was entirely neglected. The 
results are none the less interesting. The mean for the entire set of 36 determinations 
(including both surface and bottom) was 36.7 l°. A high degree of uniformity was 
manifest throughout the entire re#on, for the most extreme temperatures recorded 
were 36.1 ° and 37.6 °, while the average deviation (i. e., the average departure from 
the average) w,as only o.32°. Moreover, such slight differences as did occur seemed 
to bear no definite relation to locality. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 
TABLE 7.--TEMERATURE AND I)ENSIT¥, VlNEYARD SOUND, JUNE, i9o8. 

45 

Temperature station. 

Mean ............... 

Date. 
June 
. .do ..... 
............. I • .do ..... 
. .do ..... 
............. do ..... 
................. do ..... 
............... do ..... 
...... do ..... 
• . .do ..... 
.... do ..... 
..... do ..... 

Depth 
in 
fathoms, i 

5 
8 
13 
18 

Air 
tempera- 
ture. 

»6 
56 
57 
59 
59 
59 
59 
57 
»9 
60 
58- 61 I 

Surface 
tempera- 
Utre. 

58- 4 
57- » 
58.0 
57- 4 
57- 4 
57- 2 
56- 3 
56-3 
56- 8 
54- 3 
55- 3 
55- 8 
54- 6 

56.56 

,Surface 
density 
(at x5°C.), 

z.o233 
x 0234 
z 0233 
I. o234 
x.o233 
z 0234 
z.o234 
I 0233 
1-o233 
I.O234 
I-O233 
z.o243 
I.O234 
1"°2342 

Bottom 
tempera- 
ture. 

58-4 
57- 4 
57- 7 
58.3 
56. 7 
56-5 
56.0 
55- 4 
55- 8 
49-8 
53-3 
47- 9 
53- o 

5S- 09 

Bottom 
density 
(at15°C.) 

1.0234 
l. 0234 
1. o234 
t. 0233 
1-0235 
l. 0232 
z. 0235 
1. o234 
X. 0233 
I. O234 
l. 0234 

Z.O233( 

TABLE 8.--TEMPERATURE AND I)ENSITY, BUZZARDS BAY, JUNE, I9o8. 

TemDerature station. Date. 
................................. Jtme 6 
................. do 
..................... do ..... 
................ do ..... 
.............. do ..... 
.............. i!.. ..... 
..................... I...dO 

Depth 
in 
fathoms. 

4 
5 
5 
8 
9 
5 
6M 

Air 
tempera- 
ture. 

60 
59 
64 
64 
61 
56 
57 
59 
55 
56 
58 
55 
57 

58-53 

ternpera- 
ture. 

64. o 
63-3 
61.8 
»9- 5 
56- x 
61.4 
59- 7 
57-8 
61.3 
59- 3 
58-3 
58-3 

60. 23 

Surface Bottom 
density tempera- 
(at iS°C.) ture. 
.I 
I- 0224 64. 4 
z. 0223 62. 8 
x. 0227 6x. 6 
1.27 60.3 
z. 0233 59" x 
I. 0233 55- x 
1. 0229 60. 8 
x. 0232 58. 7 
x. 0232 59- o 
g. 0230 59" 8 
l. 0232 57- 6 
x. o235 57- 9 
l. 0232 56. 7 
I"02299 [ 59"52 

Bottom 
density 
(atis°C.). 

1-0223 
1-0222 
X. 0227 
z.o234 
1.0229 
1. 0231 
1-0234 
z. 0233 
l. O23I 

X-02295 

June.n June 5 and 6, 1908 , surface and bottom temperatures were determined 
at 26 stations in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay (tables 7 and 8; chart 214). The 
lnean of all these 52 figures is 57.85 ° F., or 7.06 ° lower than the mean for the August 
observations. The relations which were found to obtain during August are, however, 
manifested with equal clearness in the June series, the fires being: 
Maximum ........................ 64. 40 
Minimum .................. 47- 9 ° 
Mean for Buzzards Bay .......... 59- 88 
Mean for Vineyard ound... 55- 83 
Mean for surface ...................................................... 58. 39 
Mean for bottom ....................................................... 57- 3  



4 6 

BULLETIN OF "FILE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

It is likewise plain that the temperatures decline noticeably as we pass toward the 
open ocean, the maximum temperature being round at the head of Buzzards Bay, the 
minimum at the mouth of Vineyard Sound. There was, however, at the rime of the 
June observations, no abrupt fall of temperature beyond Robinsons Hole. 
.4n»zual tcmpcratm'e cycle.--Before discussing the probable significance of these 
observations upon the waters of Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, mention must be 
ruade of the annual temperature cycle at Woods Hole. 

TABLE 9.--AIR TEMPERATURE AT NOON: ,VOODS HOLE STATION. 

i9o3.. 
|904 l . 
I9O 5 . . 

19o2. - 
19o 3 .. 
1904. . 
1905 . . 

Five years.. 

Janua'. i February. 

Min. Mean. 

Max. Min. Mcan. 

6 xa 30.3 42 
46 lo 3-5 5z 
45 2 6. 3 45 
47 14 29. x 4I 
53 x8 37-0 47 
53 • 3I-o3 5 a 

• I 30-7 
io 34-6 
8 6.6 
12 27-0 
8 3o-39 

May. i June. 

Max. [ Min. i Me.an. iMax. 
66 49 57-6 i 7z 
69 5o I 58.4 i 8 
67 45 i 5 9 8t 
î6 [ 45 59-x 8x 

Max. I 

lin. Me-an. 
58 65-9 
5x 63. z 
54 66. i 
48 66.4 
55 68-5 " 
48 OEo 

Five years.. 

19o 3 ................... 
19o4 .......... 
Five years ........ 

September. 

75 
74 
7x 
75- S 
$8 

Min. 

October. 

4I 
40 
38 
49 
38 

57. 7 
57-8 
54- 9 
57- 7 
58.9 
57- 39 

3I arch. ApriL 

Min. Mean. 

lax. 

62 40 
6S 36 
58 36 
57 37 
59 38 
65 36 

' I 
Max. lin. lean. 
49- 4 
5o-3 
45- 4 
47- 7 
48-9 
48.32 

November. 

54 7 42- x 
59{ -gl 
571 331 45-, 

December. 

Max. Min. [ Mean. 
47 i • 33-6 
SOl I6 32. 5 
55 I 39- o 
48 "3- 4 
55 33- g 

72.4 I 76 
74- o 79 
74- o 8o 
72- 35 ] 82 

64 7x-9 
57 
65 7g-4 
6 70- 
67 75-0 
57 7x-95 

67. Ol 

67-9 
67.6 
65.8 
66. 
67-7 

54 
48 
Sx 
58 
4 

09 I 

3lax. iMin. 
79 i 64 
• 83 68 
g I 63 
8o I 65 
83 63 

Jttly. 

53 9 42.7 
SS 33 44-9 
50 2z 37-z 
54 24 37-9 
5 x 24 35-3 
55 e 39-5 ' 

Attgttst. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 47 

TABLE IO.--,VATER TEMPERATURE AT NOON, WOODS HOLE STATION. 

Z92.. l 
I903 ......... 
1904 .......... 
1905 ........... 
I9O ..... 
Five years... 

Years. 

i9o2 ........... 
1903 
I905 
I906 .............. 
Five years 

= I 
January. February. 3Iarch. I Aprii. 
Max. 

.-- 34-5 
.. 36.5 
...... 39-5 
.. 39-5 

Max. 
...... 59- o 
........ 61.5 
. 59-0 
58- 5 

6i. 5 

.Min. I 3[ean. 
29- . 31- 7 
29- 5 33- o 
a28. o 29" 5 
29- 5 31-0 
33- 5 36- .ç 
a28. o 32- 33 

Max. 31in. Mean. 
31.5 ,a28.0 29-3 
35- o 3 o. o 32- 4 
29" 5 2. 5 29- I 
3O'0 ] -'9-0 29-5 
37-0 33.0 34. 7 
37-0 a28.0 31-00 

.May. June. 

3tin. ! Mean. 
51-o 54.6 
5o. o 59- o 
46. 5 54- t 
47-0 I 52.8 
48- 5 54- I 
46- 5 54- 92 

Max. Min. ! 3lean. 
65. o 58-5 6a.9 
62-5 59-0 6Z-3 
69. o 58.5 6a.8 
66.5 57.5 62.0 
68-5 58-5 63.2 
69-o 57.5 62.42 

Max. Ii 
Min. 5lean. IMax" 
I 
I 
42-5 , 32-5 36.6 52-o 
44.0 . 34-0 39-6 5o. 5 
39"° i 29"5 33.8 45-5 
39- 5 29- 5 32. 9 48- 0 
38.01 3--s 35.2 1 48.0 
44-o [ 29-5 35-64 52-0 
JuiF. 
Max. AIin. 3tcan. Max. 
69. o 64. o 66. 7 7 I. O 
70-5 63-O 67.9 69-5 
73-O 67-O 69-8 72-O 
74- O 66. O 70. 4 73- O 
73. o 67.0 69-3 74-5 
74- o 63- o 68.83 74- 5 

' 3lin. Mean. 
4I-5 45.8 
44-0 46.6 
36. 5 41- 3 
39- 5 42.9 
37- o 4a. 7 
36. 5 43- 90 
I 
August. 

Min. Mean. 

68.0 69.3 
63.0 67.7 
69.0 o. a 
67.5 7o.o 
69-5 7I-4 
63. o 69. 74 

. ears. 

02 .................... 
)03 ...................... 
)05 ............... 
Five years .......... 

.... 70-0 
.... 69- o 
....... 7O. 0 

September. 

Min. Mean. 
65.0 67.S 
63.5 66.6 
64.o 67.o 
63.o 66.4 
66. o 68. 5 
63- o 67. 2o 

Octobet. 

Max. 

65. 0 
64- o 
63.0 
64-o 
65- o 

65. 0 

November. 

Min. 

54- 0 
5x-5 
51.5 
54- o 
56. 5 
51-5 

Mean. Max. 
6o. 5 55. o 
59.2 53-5 
57-6 52.0 
59-6 54-5 
60-3 54-0 
59-44 55-o 

Min. 

47-o 
38- 5 
40- o 
44- o 
42.5 
38- 5 

Mean. Max. 
52.0 47-5 
47-9 4o.o 
46.3 4z.o 
48.2 44-5 
47-0 42-5 
48.28 47-5 

December. 

Min. ] Mean. 
35 .0 ! 38.9 
32-o 36-6 
31-5 34-4 
38.0 I 4o.o 
33-5  36-3 
I 
3x-5 37-22 

a Based doubtless npon an inexact observation, since this tcmDerature is beiow tbe freezing point of sea water. 

Curves showing seasonal variations in the air and water temperatures at the Woods 
Hole station for rive vears are presented on chart 219. These curves are based upon 
the noon temperatures contained in the station records from i9o2 to 9o6, inclusive, b 
The ordinate for each day is the mean of the rive years' figures for that day. Such 
curves do not, of course, exhibit the extreme conditions, since maximum and minimum 
figures are neutralized in the process of averang. The water temperatures are natur- 
ally those which chiefly eoncern us at present. It will be seen that the highest point in 
the curve showing these is at August i2, where the meau temperature is slightly over 7 ° 
Reference to table  o shows that the maximum temperature for August (and for the year) 
recorded during these rive years is 74.5 °. The lowest point in the cur-e is on February 
x9, where a mean temperature of 3 °o is almost reached. The minimum for the entire 

b CI Edwards in First Report U. S. Fish Commission. with which these figures agree fairly closely. 



4 S BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
period is about 28.5 ° F., a vhich is the freezing point o[ sea water. This ternperaturc 
is perhaps reached at one tirne or another nearly every vinter. 
An analysis of this curve reveals several other facts worthy of mention. (We 
ornit as irrelevant the interesting relations betwin the curves for air and for water.) 
There are two cornparatively level sections having a duration of about two rnonths 
each, olurring in rnidwinter and rnidsurnrner, respectively. During each of these 
periods, the range of ternperature is only about 3 degrees. The rernainder of the year 
is rnade up of thc long vernal ascent, and the sornewhat more abrupt auturnnal decline. 
During 13i days, or rather more than a third of the entire year (June 3 to Oct. i2), the 
temperature remains above 6o°; frorn May 5 to Novernber 8, the temperature exceeds 
5o°; while frorn Apfil 3 to December 5, the curve is above the 4 °° line. On the other 
hand, frorn December 26 to Match 14, the ternperature of 35 ° is not exceeded. 
The water here ernployed was that drawn frorn the surface at the local pier, close 
to the buildings of the station. This water rapidly changes w;_th the rides which swip 
through XVoods Hole Passage, and therefore is not liable to the extrerne fluctuations 
round in more inclosed areas. The figures doubtless represent fairly well the surface 
(and likewise the bottorn) ternperature of Woods Hole Harbor and of the adjacent 
shallower parts of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. The rnean water ternperature 
for this entire period of rive years vas 51 .o ° F. ; the rnean air ternperature for the sarne 
period xvas 5.98°. Since these figures are based upon ternperatures taken at noon, 
they are doubtless sornevhat too high, though the error in the case of the water ternper- 
atures is probably slight. 
It will be important for our future discussion to make a cornparison of the water 
temperatures at Woods Hole and those at the United States Fisheries stations at Glouces- 
ter, Mass., and Boothbay, Me. For this purpose we have ernployed the records of 
only three years at each station, the sarne years (I9o 5, I9o6, 9o7) being used in each 
case. Thus the figures here presented for Woods Hole necessarily differ sornewhat 
frorn those given in the preceding table. 
TABLE II.--MEAN WATER TEMPERATURES (NooN) AT BOOTHBAY, C-LOUCESTER, AND WOODS HOLE 
FOR THE "=EARS I905. 19o6. i9o7 .a 

oothbay ................ 
Houcester ............... 
Voods tIole ............ 

I 
Janu- !Febru- lIarch. April. lXIay. June. 
ary. ary. 

b 33"5 b 3o. 3 32-2 37-8 44-x 5x-8 
36-I 3-7 35-7 4x-4 48-2 56-6 
33-9 3x-2 33-6 42"x 5I-9 6x-3 

July. 

58- 5 
63- x 
69., 

August. 

63. I 
7 o- 4 

Sel- 
tember. 

56. o 
59- 8 
67. 4 

Octo- 
ber. 

48- 7 
53- 2 
59- t 

ber. 

4 2. 4 
4- ; 

ber. 

37-c 
38- 

a ]3ased upon records Iurnished by the superintendents of these stations. 
b ]3ased on two years only (x9o6. i9o7). 

Frorn the foregoing figures the following facts rnay be gathered: 
(i) That the rnean water ternperature for these three years was highest at Woods 
Hole (5o.59°), next highest at Gloucester (47.95°), and lowest at Boothbay (44.44°). 
(2) That these differences are at a maximum during the sumrner rnonths, being 
reduced to a minimum or even reversed during the winter m6nths. Thus the annual 
range of temperature is greater as we pass to the southward. 

o Stated as 28" in the table. This was doubtless due to an error in the reading. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS ItOLE AND VICINITY. 

49 

(3) For every month of the year the water temperatures at Gloucester are higher 
than those at Boothbay. On the other hand, during the months of December, Janu- 
ary, February, and l.larch the Woods Hole temperatures are lower than those reported 
from Gloucester, despite the more northerly location of the latter station. This is 
probably due to the fact that the water used at the Gloucester station is in more imme- 
diate connection with the great reservoir of ocean water, vhich responds more slowly 
to the winter cold. Moreover, a rapid intermingling of the two is effected by the rides, 
which have a far greater amplitude at Gloucester than at Woods Hole. a 
(4) During the montlls of May to November, inclusive, the water temperatures at 
Woods Hole are much higher than those of either of the more northerly stations, while 
the mean difference between Woods Hole and Gloucester for July, August, and Sep- 
tember (7. °) is over t»vice as great as that between Gloucester and Boothbay (3.5°). b 
This last feature of the comparison is the most important of ail for our present 
purposes. The difference in latitude between Woods Hole and Gloucester is about 
I° 7', while that between Gloucester and Boothbay is about i ° 12'. Nevertheless, the 
difference in water temperature between those two stations, which are separated by 
the peninsula of Cape Cod, is twice as great during the three months of the year when 
the water is warmest as that betveen the t»vo stations lying to the north of Cape 
Cod, even though the latter are divided by a greater interval of latitude. While the 
waters whose temperatures are here recorded may hot be entirely representative of the 
neighboring sea areas, and while the number of years here comprised is small, the main 
points in our comparison are believed to be sucicntly well established. Let us now 
return to a consideration of the temperature conditions at Woods Hole. 
Significant ]ealures o] the local ten]erature conditions.--If we take the average of 
ail the temperature determinations (surface and bottom) recorded on chart 2i  for the 
14 stations westvard of Robinsons Hole, »vithin and at the entrance to Vineyard Sound, 
we find the mean temperature of these vaters, at practically the period of maximum 
temperature, to be 62.7 .° At Woods Hole this temperature is exceeded during the 
entire period of the year between June 4 alad October 6. If we consider only the 
figures for bottom temperature in this western area of the Sound (and these it is, in the 
main, which influence the bottom fauna), we find the mean to be 60.24, a temperature 
which is exceeded at Woods Hole, from June 3 to October i . In Buzzards Bay, on 
the other hand, a temperature as low as this last »vas hot once recorded during the 
August sefies of observations, though in one case it was found just beyond the mouth 
of the Bay (V). Bottom temperatures between 60 ° and 65 ° vere, however, found 
throughout the lower third or fourth of the Bay, except near the vestern shore. 
It thus appears that the summer conditions of temperature such as obtain in the 
vicinity of Woods Hole dufing the months of June, July, August, and September do 
not directly affect the southwestern-third of Vineyard Sound and in only a limited 
degree the lover end of Buzzards Bay. It »vill be shovn that this fact is of supreme 
importance for the understanding oï certain features of distribution. 
It might reasonably have been expected that the winter temperature of these 
outlying waters, adjacent to the open sea, would be considerably higher than that 

a This is in full agreement with the explanation of the relatively high winter temperatures at Gloucester and Boothbay; 
independently offered by Superintendents Corliss and Hahn. 
b This difference is likewise somewhat greater for October, and is practicall- the saine for May. 
X6269°--13ull. 3 , pt X--X3--4 



50 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

elsewhere recorded within the region, owing to the conservative influence of the ocean 
in retaining the heat received during the summer. It would have given no surprise, 
therefore, to find the mean annual temperatures approximately the saine throughout all 
these waters. Unfortunatelv we bave no data for the coldest period of the winter. 
Reference to the tcmperature CUlWes for the Woods Hole station shows that the water 
cure reaches its lowest level on February 9- It was planned, accordingly, to obtain a 
series of observations in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay at about that date in  9o8. I t 
is a matter of much regret that no boat was available for this purpose until a month later, 
when the water temperature throughout the entire region had risen to nearly 37 ° F. 
At this rime, as bas already been pointed out (p. 44), a great uniformity in water tem- 
perature prevailed throughout the region explored, and the outlying waters, off Gay 
Head and Ctttylmnk, did hOt differ appreciab]y from those of the other portions of 
¥ine.ard Sound and I3uzzards Bay. It will be recalled that in November there was 
likewise a large measure of uniformity, though at that rime the outlying waters were 
somewhat warmer than the rapidly cooling waters of the upper hall of the Bar. In 
tle absence of further data it might be contended that at the time the November obser- 
vations were ruade the inshore temperature was just passing the ocean temperature 
in its annual dccline, while, on the other hand, it might be supposed that the Match 
temperatures were taken at a rime when the inshore temperature curve was again about 
to cross that for the ocean temperature. And indeed it is possible, that in the inter- 
vening months the latter did remain somewhat higher than the former. 
But even on the impossible supposition that 36o F. represents the minimum tem- 
perature of these outlying waters,  this figure vould be only about 7 ° higher than the 
lowest recorded elsewhere (i. e., the freezing point of sea water), whereas in summer 
the extremes of temperature varied as videly as 5 °. Thus, in any case, the mean 
annual temperature of the bottom waters in the outlying portions of Vineyard Sound 
and Buzzards Bay is undoubtedly lower than that of the more inclosed areas to the 
northeast. For Vineyard Sound the mean bottom temperature of the stations lying 
to the seaward of Robinsons Hole, as based upon the four seasonal averages obtained 
by us, is 5o.53 °. The corresponding figure for the remainder of Vineyard Sound was 
round to be 53.3 t°. This difference, however, is entirely determined by the June and 
August results, so that for the summer months alone the difference would be about 
twice as great. 
Another plain deduction from the foregoing figures is that the total annual range 
of temperature in these outlying waters is far less than in the more inclosed waters 
of the region. For the former the temperature range is probably about 3 °o F. ; for 
the latter it ma)- reach 45 ° or more. 
The occurrence in summer of colder waters in the ocean immediately beyond the 
mouth of Vineyard Sound was pointed out by Verrill as long ago as I87I, and a few 
definite temperature figures were then presented by him. These last were also included 
in the chart accompanying the "Report on the ]nvertebrate Animals of Vineyard 
Sound." On September 9 the lowest figure recorded by Verrill was 57 ° F., which 
was the bottom temperature at a point several mlles beyond Gay Head. Vithin the 

a Rathbun (xSET) in a cbart (No. xT), giving temperatures taken during rive years at the Vineyard Sound Lihtship, off 
and l°]gs Reel. records figures as low as .9 ° and 3o ° during January and February. For most ol the rime during these 
months, moreover, the temperature remained below 3S °. These were surlace temlxratures, it is true. but it is likely, a above 
ated, that the figures for surface and bottom are hot far from equal in w-inter. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

5I 

mouth of Vineyard Sound, on the saine day, the surface temperature was 67 ° F. Tem- 
peratures xvere likewise taken west of No Mans Land and south of Narragansett Bay 
in 29 fathoms. These agree in being considerably lower than the temperatures known 
to occur at the saine time in the more inclosed waters of the neighborhood. The pres- 
ent writers have round still more extreme conditions to prevail at certain points imme- 
diately to the east of Cape Cod. At Crab Ledge, a few mlles to the east of Chatham 
(chart 223), at a mean depth of I72 / fathoms, two observations on August 12, i9o9, 
gave a mean surface temperature of 65 ° F. and a mean bottom temperature of 47.2 ° F. 
These figures accord pretty well with some obtained at nearly the saine point by Robert 
Platt, United States Navy, on September 14 and I5, I877 .a The latter round a mean 
surface temperature of 60.3 ° F. and a mean bottom temperature (28 fathoms) of 48.2 ° F. 
It is interesting to compare the figures obtained by us on August 1o and i2, 19o9, for 
a series of points between Woods Hole and Crab Ledge. These are presented in the 
following table : 

laollock Rila (just without Nattucket Sonnd) ....... 
Haudkerchief Shoal (eastern exd Nantucket Sound)... 
Cross Rila (middle of Nantucket Sound) ................ 
West Chop (eastern end Vineyard Sound) ......................... 

Surface 
temlaer- 
ature. 
63.o 
62.5 
tz7o. 5 
îI.O 

Bottom 
temlaer- 
ature. 

62. o 
60.0 
t 70. 2 

o The mean of two determinations on difterent da_vs. 

Verrill explained the loxv temperatures of the outer waters bv invoking the aid 
of "an offshoot of the arctic current," which he believed to pass xvestward into Long 
Island Sound. The question whether or not there is a definite southward (and west- 
ward) flowing current which affects this part of the coast has already been discussed 
briefly on another page. No conclusive answer to this question appears to be forth- 
coming at present. Undoubted, however, is the fact that during the summer months 
there lies a comparatively cold zone between the warm coastal water and the yet warmer 
Gulf Stream. This may, as has been suggested, merely represent the normal ocean 
xvater which would be proper to this latitude in the absence of the Gulf Stream. If this 
view be accepted, the higher temperature attained during the summer months by the 
waters of Buzzards Bay and of Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds is simply the result 
of their shallowness and comparative detachment from the great reservoir of ocean 
water outside, just as we knoxv that sait marshes or shallow lagoons become even 
warmer than this during the summer months. 
The question here suggests itself why the coastal waters north of Cape Cod, e. g., 
at Gloucester and at Boothbay, do not likexdse become much warmer than they do 
during the summer months. X, Ve have seen (p. 49) that the relations between the 
temperatures at these points and those at \Voods Hole are not such as are xvholly 
explained by differences in latitude. It is highly probable that one factor in the case is 
the far greater depth of the waters north of Cape Cod, at slight distances from shore. 
For example, the 5o-fathom line passes within from 5 to 1o (nautical) toiles of Cape 
Ann and of many parts of the Maine coast; while at the nearest point it lies over 5 ° 

« These data were furnished us by the Su13erintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



52 

BULLE'FIN OF 'FHE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

miles from Marthas Vineyard. The tides, likewise, are of much greater alnplitude 
north of Cape Cod, insuring a far more rapid intermingling of the coastal waters with 
those of the open sea. South of Cape Cod there is an extensive area of shoal water, 
much of which is pretty definitely bounded off from the open ocean. Reference bas 
already been ruade to the occurrence of a net westerly tidal movement through Vine- 
yard Sound. This implies, of course, that the latter derives much of its water from 
Nantucket Sound, a broad and on the whole very shallow area of sea, pretty well shut 
in by land and by shoals. 
5. SALINITY. 

Salinity or, more properly, density deterninations were ruade along with those for 
temperature. The Sigsbee water cup was employed for obtaining samples from the 
bottom, while the surface water was merely drawn up in a pail. The salinometers 
employed were of the Hilgard pattern and were previously tested by the Bureau of 
Standards. Great care was taken to prevent the soiling of the stem by the hands, 
which was round to exert a marked effect upon the level reached by the instrument. 
A bottle of caustic soda solution, or a mixture of sulphuric acid and potassium bichro- 
mate, was kept at hand, and used from time to rime for cleaning the stem. It was 
round more practicable to read from the summit of the meniscus, or cone of fluid sur- 
rounding the salinometer stem, than to read from the actual water level. The value 
of the meniscus in terres of the scale was later determined. Since the temperature of 
the water is an all important factor in determining its specific gravity, as referred to 
distilled water at maximum density, careful record was kept of the water temperature 
at the rime of taking the reading for density. Knowing these two factors, reduction 
was easily accomplished by the aid of a table furnished by the Bureau of Standards. a 
The figures, as presented, represent the specific gravities which would bave been 
obtained had the water samples in all cases been ata temperature of 5  C. Thus each 
fiare represents the relative weight of a given sample at 5 ° C. compared Mth an equal 
volume of distilled water at 4 ° C. The density of a solution depends, of course, upon 
two factors, its temperature and its concentration. Having eliminated all differences 
due to the former factor, the fires here given represent the concentration, i. e., the 
salinity of the water. 
The density readings here recorded were in nearly all cases ruade aboard ship. 
More precise determinations would of course bave been possible if the water samples 
had been bottled and brought back to the laboratory where the ship's motion would not 
have disturbed the observationsP And our results would have been still more precise 
had we resorted to the method of titration with nitrate of silver, as employed in recent 
hydrographic studies: The latter method has, however, been used by us as a check 
upon out specific gravity deterrninations, and the results of the two accord so well on 
the whole (sec p. 54) that the figures here presented are probably exact enough to meet 
the demands of the present work. Our figures for density are recorded to the fo-arth 
decimal place. From comparison with the chlorine tests it seems likely that in 

aVarious tables of this sort bave been published; e. g., Libbey, I89r, p. 397; Tanner, I897, 13- 337- 
b In rive cases, in which this was done, and the results of the two indeDendent determinations were compared, a rnean diHer- 
ence of o.0oo4 was round; i. e.. the error affected only the fourth decimal place, or last one considered in making the reading. 
 See Pettersson, t894 , lo. 296; also account of International Conlerence for the Exploration of the Sea, in Journal of the Marine 
iological Association, vol. v, 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF \VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

53 

some cases they are accurate only to the third decimal place. Those familiar with 
recent hydrographic studies will perhaps regard such figures as too rough approxima- 
tions to have any scientific value. This would doubtless be truc if we had to do vith wide 
expanses of the sea, containing faifly permanent currents or strata of water, the limits of 
which could only be ascertained by determining slight differences of salinity. ]3ut in the 
inclosed bays and sounds of out region the continual intermixture of the waters resulting 
from rides and winds would tender mflikely any constant stratification on the basis of 
salinity, and it is certain that rapid variations occur within the saine area. As was the 
case with the temperature records already discussed, a sefies of determinations having 
no reference to the phase of the tide are open to rather serious objections. But it would 
be practically impossible to make such a series simultaneous!v throughout so large an 
area, and almost equally difficult to make each of them ata corresponding phase of the 
ride. For these reasons, therefore, only the larger differences of water density, such as 
are indicated by figures in the third decimal place, seem to be of interest in attempting 
any correlation between this factor and the distribution of out local marine animals 
and plants. And it will be round later that, so far as out dredging records are concerned, 
even the greatest extremes of salinity vhich are recorded by us have little or no effect 
in limiting the distribution of most of the species. This statement, of course, is only 
intended to apply to the fauna taken by the dredge. Great numbers of littoral or 
shallow-water organisms, here as elsewhere, obviously thrive best in brackish water or 
at least in somevhat diluted sea water. The salt marshes and the estuaries, indeed, 
are largely populated by a fauna of their own. 
The figures for density are given in the saine tables (i-8) as those for temperature. 
From the density figures those for salinity proper, or percentage of salts, may readily 
be obtained from the table offered by Pettersson 0894, p. 298 ). The following eqtfiva- 
lents have been computed for such degrees of density as are to be round in ]3uzzards 
Bay and Vineyard Sound. They represent the percentages of salt by weight in a given 
quantity of sea water: 

Density. 

Salinity. 

. 84 
e. 98 
3.03 

I)ensity. 

- o45 

Salinity. 

3. o9 
3- 6 
3- 3 
3- 

The differences of salinity, in relation to locality and season, are represented upon 
charts :5 to 28. Several facts of importance are to be derived from these tables 
and charts. 
0) Even the highest figure recorded here 0.o44) is considerably lower than that 
found throughout the north Atlantic at great distances from land, where a specific 
gravity of x.o7o to x.o8o prevails. 
() The greatest extremes to be round among our determinations are .o and 
Lo44, representing a difference of about  5 per cent in salinity. 
(3) The average surface density 0-o337) is lower than the average densitv at the 
bottom 0.o349). This difference is more marked in the ]3ay than in the Sound. It is 



54 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
manifested in six of the eight pairs of contrasted figures, the June figures (both for the 
Bar and Sound) being exceptions. 
(4) The average density for Buzzards Bav ([.o23[4 a) is lower than that for Vine- 
yard Sound (1.o2.372) and is particularly low at the head of the Bav. This condition 
is readily understood bv reference to the estuaries which discharge into it. 
(5) Certain seasonal differences appear which are, perhaps, of questionable sig- 
nificance. In Vineyard Sound the density figures for the seasons may be arranged in 
the folloxving order" 
June ................................................................. L oz339 
Match ............................................................... t. 02358 
August ............................................................. t. o2387 
November ............................................................ t. o24o3 
For Buzzards Bar the figures can not be given for the entire area, since in March 
only six stations, nearly all of thenl in the upper haff, were visited. Taking the figures 
for these same six stations for the four months we find the following order to obtain: 
L 02266 
Match ......................................  .... 
June ...................................................... - 02273 
November ................................................. L 02290. 
August ................................................ L 02327 
The figures for the different seasons were obtained at intervals of about three 
months and bv two different observers. Differences due to "'personaI equation" 
bave thus perhaps played a part in the results. And even if that source of error xvere 
eliminated, it is quite likely that the figures for the saine month in different years would 
hot agree at all exaetly. In November, [9o8, eight of the determinations of the pre- 
ceding November were repeated. The average difference between the earlier and later 
figures was 4 in the fourth deeimal place, i. e., a quantity in exces» of some of the sea- 
sonal differences appearing in the foregoing tables. 
In order to compare the results of hydrometer readings with those obtained by titra- 
tion for chlorine, 17 water samples were subjected to both tests, b The chlofine deter- 
mination in each case was compared with the value, computed from Pettersson's table, 
for water of the specific gravity recorded. It was round that the actual and the expected 
values differed on the average by 1.5 per cent. On the assumption that the figures for 
the titrations were absolutely correct, which is scarcelv allowable, this discrepancy 
ilnplies an average error in the salinometer readings amounting to a little over 3 in 
the fourth decimal place. We bave thus, in anv case, some measure of the accuracy 
of the specific gravity determiuations hcre recorded. As alreadv stated, the fourth 
figure is hot entirely trustworthy. It must be remembered, however, that local dif- 
ferences have been pointed out within pur region equal to about ten rimes the amount 
of this average error. 
Seven water samples obtained by us in August, 9o9, at points within Nantucket 
Sound and beyond its eastern end, yielded specific gravities varying only from 1.o237 
to 1.o239. These figures are close to, but slightly lower than, those round in Vineyard 
Sound during the same month two years previously. 

a This figure is somewhat top low, since only the upper hall of the Bay was represented in the Match scies. Here, as 
stated, the density is particularl.v low. 
b These titratiotxg were for the most part ruade by Dr. V'. M. Clark. then a scieutific tssistant at the Vroods Fiole 
hborator:. 



Chapter III.--SYNOPSIS OF ZOOLOGICAL DATA. 

I. THE DREDGING RECORDS. 

Complete records were kept of every dredge haul of the Suta'ey', comprising such 
data as the bearings, date, depth, etc., at each station, as well as a list of the aggregate 
fauna and flora round tooccur there. It was out original expectation to publish the entire 
set of station records as an appendix to the present report, for it would certainly be 
desirable to insure the permanency of these records through printing. Thev are the 
crude data upon which most of out ensuing discussion is based, and it is highly probable 
that they would yield other results of value if subjected to further analvsis. Here, 
and here only, do we find what fornls of life are associated together upon a x-en 
area of the sea bottom. Owing to the voluminous character of these records, however, 
it has hot been round practicable to publish them in their entirety, although a "List 
of Stations" is presented at the close of ,section I. As regards the associations of 
species, we must be content at present with presenting the data in .a generalized form, 
except for the reproduction of a verv few complete station records by way of ïllustration. 
In ail there are 458 stations, belon#ng to the regular sel-les, which mav be dassi- 
fied as follows: 

Fish Hawk, Vineyard Sound .............................................. 2 t8 

Fish Hawk, Buzzards Bay ............ 
Fish Hawk, Crab Ledge ...................... 
Phalarope and Blue Wing. Vineyard Sound.. 
Phalarope, Buzzards Bay ...................... 
Total ...................................... 

7 
77 
.. Oo 
4»8 

With a few exceptions (see below) these stations were all dredged during the sure- 
mers of 19o3, I9o4, and I9o5. The Fish Hawk was employed during ail three of these 
seasons, the Phalarope (supplemented bv the Bhte H:ing) during the second and third 
seasons. Owing, hovever, to an accident which prevented the use of the Phalarope 
along the western shore of Buzzards Bay in 19%, the latter re#on was not dredged 
until the summer of 19o7. These 19o 7 stations have been charted along with the others 
and the records included in the saine series. There are likewise included with the regu- 
lar series certain repeated stations. Owing to the somewhat tentative character of 
the Vineyard Sound dred#ngs in I9o3, 34 of these earlier stations were redredged (ap- 
proximately) in 19o4, partly with the Fislt Hawk, partly with the Phalarope. Such 
stations have been designated by the ori#nal number, with the addition of the Latin 
word "bis." The "bis" stations have all been treated as Fish Hawk stations, and a 
list of them is published at the end of the Fish Hawk series. The records for the occur- 
rence of each species at this group of repeated stations have been ineorporated seriallv 



56 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERES. 

with the others in the annotated list, and these records have been included in plotting 
the distribution charts. 
Dufing the summers of 19o6, 19o 7, 9o8, and 19o9 various supplementary dredg- 
ings xvere carried on with both the Fish Hawk and the Phalarope, and at least 5o sta- 
tions were dredged. These were in most cases more or less approximate repetitions of 
stations of the regular series. On most of these occasions search was ruade only for 
particular species, and no list was kept of the entire collection of organisms brought 
up. In the case of the hydroids, Bryozoa, and Foraminifera, hov¢ever, and of unusual 
species belonng to any group, the records derived from these supplementary stations 
are to a large_ extent included with the others, the year of the dredging being indicated. 
During the sumlner of 9o9, 26 of the earlier stations in ]3uzzards Bay (mainly of the 
Fish Hawk sefies) were repeated with rough appromation by the Phalarope, and 
faifly full lists were ruade of the organisms taken at each. a These lists have been 
appended to the regular series. Several tfips were likewise ruade dufing the summer of 
19o7 for the special purpose of collecting algœe. 
To what degree the earlier records bave been confirmed or corrected by these sup- 
plementary dredgings will appear from time to rime in the special discussion relating 
to particular species. It may be noted in passing, however, that the later operations 
have added very matefially to the accuracy of our results as a whole. 
A chart (no. 226) has been prepared indicating the position and, so far as possible, 
the direction and extent (see p. 18) of the dredngs of the survey. Upon this chart 
the stations are numbered, these numbers corresponding to those given in the lists. The 
numbers employed are arranged consecutively according to date. They do not there- 
fore bear any necessary relation to the position of the stations. In order to facilitate 
the finding of a given station by the reader the following general statements are offered: 
(1) The Fsh Hawk stations are all indicated by numbers of four dits, commenc- 
ing with 7, thus: 7521, etc. The Pha[arope and Blue H/'ing stations are indicated by 
numbers ranng from i to x67. 
(2) Fish Hawk stations are designated either by a circle or by a chain of txvo, 
three, or four smaller circles, connected by a straight or curved line (see p. 18). Phala- 
ropc and Bh«e H/ïng stations are designated by arrows, which shoxv the direction of 
the haul, and, very roughly, its relative duration. These last are in all cases near shore, 
except for a fe»v upon the Middle Ground shoal at the eastern end of Vineyard Sound. 
(3) Fiçh Hawk stations 752i tO 7602 are in Vineyard Sound, commencing near 
Nobska Point and running to the westward. They are arranged at intervals of about 
three-fourths of a toile along lines crossing the Sound at a distance of about i toile from 
one another. Near the western end of Vinevard Sound three of these lines are num- 
bered in a reversed order, i. e., stations 7581 to 7587 are along the line connecting Gay 
Head and Cuttyhunk, the next stations in serial order, being upon a line passing from 
Nashawena to a point about  toile east of Gay Head. 
(4) Stations 7603 to 7609, inclusive, are at Crab Ledge (see chart 223) , and are 
therefore not included upon the present chart. 
(5) Stations 76o to 7675 are in Buzzards Bay--76io to 7635 are in the upper 
hall, starting from a point near Woods Hole; 7636 to 7675 are in the lower hall. 

Certain groups, however, did hot receive adequate attention, and comparatively few of these slaecimens xvere referred to 
Slaecialists for identification. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF W'OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 57 

(6) Stations 7676 to 7783 (except 77  to 776) are in Vineyard Sound, beginning 
at the western end and passing eastward, though the order is hot at all regular. 
(7) Stations 77  to 7716, inclusive, do hot appear upon the chart. 
(8) Stations  to 9, 24 to 43, and 52 to I67 were dredged by the Phalarope; 20 to 
23 and 44 to 5 x by the Blue Win 9. 
(9) Stations t to 77 are in Vineyard Sound. No. x is along the shore of Nonamesset 
Island. The first series continues, not always in regular order, to 38, at Cuttyhunk, 
though 35, 36, and 37 are at Sow and Pigs Reef. Stations 39 to 43 are along the shoal 
Middle Ground. Stations 44 to 5 t and 56 to 60 are at Gay Head; 6, 62, and 63 are near 
West Chop; 64 to 68 are along the shore of Marthas Vineyard from Prospect Hill to 
Cedar Tree Neck; 69 to 7-" are in Vineyard Haven; while stations 73 to 77 extend from 
Nortons Point to Cedar Tree Neck. 
(o) Stations 78 to x67 are in Buzzards Bay. They commence at Nashawena 
Island, and extend northeastward along the shores of Pasque and Naushon; the series 
then s!ips to Cuttvhunk (99 to xo4), then to Weepecket Islands (o5 to  o), then to 
Cuttyhunk again ( and 2) and to Penikese (1 3 to i6). Station xTisat Unca- 
tena Island, and x x8 to i23 are in the immediate neighborhood of "Voods Hole. From 
this point the series extends pretty regulafly up the eastern shore of Buzzards Bay, 
and from the head of the ]3ay, down the western shore, at wider intervals. 
The complete records of four of out stations (dredge hauls) are presented herewith. 
We have selected one Fish Hawk station in Buzzards Bay (7656), one Fish Hawk station 
in Vinevard Sound (773o), one Phala.rope station in Vineyard Sound (52), and one 
Phalarope station in 13uzzards 13ay (83). In each case, that station, within each group, 
has been selected from which the greatest number of species was recorded. Thus, 6x 
species of animals and 20 species of plants were found at station no. 7656; 8 animals 
and x3 plants at no. 7730; 72 animals and x 4 plants at no. 52; and 68 animals and x 
plants at no. 83. These are accordingly hOt typical dredge hauls in the sense of being 
average ones, numerically speaking, a On the other hand, the bottoms which were 
traversed werc probably chamcteristic enough of the reons which they represent. 
No attempt has been made by us, here or elsewhere, to count the number of indi- 
vidual or9anisms taken in a single haul of the dredge. Such figures are, however, so 
entirely dependent upon the character and size of the dredge employed, and the dura- 
tion of the haul, that we do hOt believe that the value of any results of this sort would 
have been commensurate with the labor involved in counting. 
Even these maximum figures from our dredging in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards 
Bay fall much below some of those offered by Herdman and Dawson (x 902, p. 20 et seq.). 
For example, in three successive hauls in the neighborhood of Port Erin, at depths of 
 6 to  8 fathoms, these writers record 93, x x , and  56 species of animals, l[oreover, 
we are informed that these hauls are "charactefistic" and not "picked" ones, being 
made "for the purpose of compafison with some published from other seas." Further 
compafisons between the fauna of our region and that of the Irish Sea, in respect to 
wealth of spccies, will be found on pages 88 and 89. 

a The numbers |or these stations are about twice the average ones. See p. ??. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

FISH HAWK STATION 7656. 

August x2, x9o4.--North end Penikese Island W. by S., 3t/ toiles; Dumpling Rock 
Light NNW.  W., 4 mlles; 8 fathoms; sandy mud; 7-foot beam trawl, serape dredge; 
drift NE. / mlle. 

ANIMALS. 
HYDROZOA: 
?Obelia geniculata (on Laminaria). 
Tubularia crocea (few colonies). 
BRYOZOA." 
.Etea anguina. 
Bugula turrita. 
Cellepora americana. 
Lepralia sp. (americana or pallasiana). 
Membranipora pilosa. 
Schizoporella unicornis. 
ANXULATA : 
.rabella opalina (x). 
Brada setosa (x). 
çistenides gouldii ( tube). 
Clymenella torquata (several tubes). 
Diopatra cuprea (few tubes). 
Harmothoë imbricata (i tube). 
Lumbrineris hebes (i). 
Nephthys incisa (several). 
Nicolea simplex (i tubes on Laminaria). 
Ninoë nigripes (several). 
Rhynchobolus americmaus (x). 
Spiochoetopterus oculatus. 
Spirorbis spirorbis (on Laminaria, etc.). 
Trophonia affinis (several). 
CIRRIPEDIA : 
Balanus sp. (probably eburneus) (few). 
DECAPODA" 
Cancer irroratus (several). 
Libinia emarginata (several large and small). 
Neopanope texana sayi (x). 
Pagurus longicarpus (several in shells of Nassa). 
AMPHIPODA." 
2Eginella longicornis (i). 
Amphithoë rubricata (i). 
Caprella geometrica (x). 
Ptilocheirus pinguis (many). 
ISOPODA: 
Erichsonella filiformis (i). 
PELECODA; 
Anomia simplex. 
Arca transversa (few shells). 
Astarte castanea (several shells). 
Astarte undata (several shells). 
Callocardia morrhuana (few shells). 
Cardium pinnulatum (few shells). 
Clidiophora gouldiana (few). 
Ensis directus (few shells). 
5iytilus edulis (several large and small shells). 

PELECYPODA--Continued. 
Nucula proxima. 
Petricola pholadiformi. 
Tellina tenera. 
Venus mercenaria (few small shells). 
X;oldia limatula (). 
GASTROPODA: 
Anachis avara (few shells). 
Astyris lunata. 
Crepidula fornicata (few shells and living). 
Crepidula plana (few shells). 
Littorina litorea (i shell). 
Tritia trivittata (several shells). 
Turbonilla vinoe. 
Tnrbonilla winkleyi. 
Turbonilla sp. 
CEPHALOPODA" 
Loligo pcalii (cggs nnd young). 
PISCES: 
Paralichthys oblongus (i). 
Prionotus carolinus. 
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (3)- 
Spheroides maculatus (x). 
Stenotomus chrysops (many young). 
Urophycis tenuis (i living). 

PLANTS. 
PH.:EOPHYCEA: 
Chorda filum (x). 
Chordaria flagelliformis (many). 
Desmarestia aculeata (few). 
Dictyosiphon hippuroides (many). 
Ectocarpus fasciculatus (many). 
Laminaria Agardhii (many) 
RHODOPHYCEtI: 
Ahnfeldtia plicata (few). 
Callithamnion Baileyi (many). 
Ceramium rubrum (many). 
Champia parvula (few). 
Chondrus crispus (many). 
Cystoclonium pnrpurascens (few). 
Cystoclonium purpurasecns var. 
(few). 
Dasya clegans (i). 
Phyllophora Brodioei (many). 
Polysiphonia elongata (r). 
Polysiphonia nigrescens (few). 
Rhodomela subfusca (i). 
Rhodymenia palmata (i). 
Spyridia filamentosa (few). 

cirrhosum 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE" OF VvOODS HOLE AND VICINIT'. 59 

FSH HAWK STATION 773o. 
August 8, x9os.--(a ) Prospect Hill-Nashawena, 5 ° 59', Nashawena-Gay Head, 
87 ° 59'; (b) Prospect Hill-Pasque, 920 27', Pasque-Gay Head, 5 ° 22'; (c) Prospect 

Hill-Pasque, o ° 57', Pasque-Gay Head, 
beam trawl and mud bag. 
ANIMALS. 
FORAMINIFERA; 
Bilocnlina ringens. 
Discorbina rosacea. 
Miliolina seminnlum. 
Rotalia beccarii. 
PORIFERA : 
Cliona celata (much). 
HYDROZOA; 
Eudendrium dispar. 
Halecium halecinum. 
Hydractinia echinata. 
?Obelia geniculata. 
Pennaria tiarella. 
]RYOZOA: 
tea anguina. 
Bicellaria ciliata. 
Bugula turrita. 
Cellepora americana. 
Hippuraria armata. 
Lichenopora verrucaria. 
Mcmbranipora tennis. 
Schizoporella unicornis. 
Smittia trispinosa nitida. 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Asterias forbesi (i). 
Asterias vulgaris (2). 
Henricia sanguinolenta (I large). 
OPHIUROIDEA: 
Amphipholis squamata. 
CHINOIDEA: 
Echinarachnius parma (2 shells and I living). 
ANNULATA." 
Diopatra cnprea (i tube). 
Harmothoë imbricata (). 
Lepidonotus squamatus. 
Nicolea simplex (3)- 
Pseudopotamilla oculifera (many tubes). 
?Spirorbis spirorbis (few). 
COPEPODA: 
.argulus megalops (I). 
DECAPODA: 
Cancer irroratus (several). 
Crago septemspinosus 
Homarus americanus (several). 
Libinia emarginata (many small). 
Ovalipes ocellatus (few). 
Pagurus acadianus (several). 
Pagurus annulipes (several). 
Pagurus longicarpus (few). 

18° 4'; 2 fathoms; hard sand; 9-foot 

AIVIPHIPODA : 
.ginella longicornis (very many large and 
small). 
Ampelisca macrocephala (x). 
Ampelisca spinipes (3)- 
Amphithoë rubricata (). 
Byblis serrata (4). 
Corophium cylindricum (2). 
Ericthonius minax (4 males.  female). 
Ericthonius rubricornis (I femme). 
Pontogenia inermis (o small). 
Unciola irrorata (2 small). 
SOPO DA: 
Edotea montosa (i). 
Erichsonella filiformis (2). 
Idothea phosphorea (several). 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (many shells). 
Astarte undata (several shells). 
Callocardia morrhuana. 
Cardium pinnulatum (few living and shells 
Clidiophora gouldiana (i living and i shell). 
Cyclas islandica (i shell). 
Divaricella quadrisulcata (i shell). 
Ensis directus (t shell). 
Lyonsia hyalina (3 shells). 
Modiolaria nigra (few -,'er 3" small living). 
M)oEihts edulis ( living). 
Nucula proxima (i shell). 
Pecten gibbus borealis (i fragment and i shell). 
Pecten magellanicus (i fragment). 
Spisula solidissima (several shells). 
Tellina tenera (few living and i shell). 
Venericardia borealis (few shells). 
Venus mercenaria (i large shell). 
ASTROPODA: 
Anachis avara (few). 
Astyris lunata. 
Lacuna puteola (2). 
Polynices heros (several). 
Tritia trivittata (few living and she[ls). 
Vermicularia spirata (i shell). 
CIPHALOPODA: 
Loligo pealii. 
UNICATA: 
Amaroucium stellatum. 
PISC ES: 
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (3). 
Rata erinacea (3)- 
?Rata ocellata (). 



60 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

ILANTS. 
Chorda lum (drfted fragments). 
Desmarestia aculeata (few). 
Desmarestia viridis (few). 
Dictyosiphon hippuroides (few). 
Fucus vesiculosus (drifted fragment). 
Sargassum Filipendula (drifted fragments). 

RHODOPH¥CE2: 
Agardhiclla tcnera (fcw). 
Antithamnion cruciatum (few). 
Ceramium tenuissimum (few). 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. 
(many). 
Grinnellia americana 
Polysiphonia elongata (fev). 
Polysiphonia nigrescens (many). 

cirrhosum 

PHALAROPE STATION ,2. 
49u.st H, 9o4.--7-6/4 fathoms; shelly and gravelly. 

ANIMALS. 
I-l. YDROZOA : 
Tubularia crocea (fcw tubes). 
BR¥OZOA: 
Bugula turrita (many). 
.STEROIDEA: 
Astcrias forbesi (several). 
Astcrias vulgaris (sevcral). 
Henricia sanguinolenta (2). 
ECHINOIDEA: 
Arbacia punctulata (few). 
Echinarachnius parma (many). 
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis 
living). 
ANNULATA: 
Diopatra cuprea (many tubes). 
tIarmothoë imbricata (common). 
tIydroides dianthus (few). 
Nephthys incisa (x fragment). 
Nereis pelagica (several). 
Pista sp. (fragment of x tube). 
Pseudopotamilla oculifera (i). 
Sabellaria vulgaris (t tube). 
DECAPODA: 
Cancer irroratus (many small). 
Crago septemspinosus. 
Libinia emarginata (several small). 
Pagurus acadianus (2 small). 
Pagurus annnlipes (few). 
Pagurus longicarpus (many). 
AIVI2tI[PODA : 
Corophium cylindricum (t). 
Ischyrocerus anguipes (t small). 
Unciola irrorata (x). 
ISOPODA : 
Erichsonella filiformis. 
PELECYPODA : 
Anomia aculeata (I shell). 
Anomia simplex (few shells). 

(several 

Arca transversa (fev living and shells). 
a The occurrence of this species in the present dredge haul fs inexplicable 
nearer shore, being retuined in the net, perhaps, from the preeeding haul. 

IELECYPODA--Continued. 
Astarte castanca (several). 
Astarte nndata (fcw). 
Callocardia morrhuana (many shelIs). 
Cardium pinnulatum (common, living). 
Clidiophora gouldiana (many shells). 
Cochlodesma leanum (abtmdant). 
Corbula contracta (i shcll). 
Crassinella mactracea (many living). 
Crenella glandula. 
Cumingia tellinoides (few shells). 
Ensis directns (small living). 
Lyonsia hyalina ( living). 
Modiolaria nigra (fcw shells). 
Modiohts modiolus (few shells). 
Mulinia lateralis (few shells). 
Mytilus edulis (few). 
Nucula proxima (few). 
Pecten magellanicus (.i shell). 
Petricola pholadiformis (2 shells). 
Spisula solidissima (many shells). 
Tellina tenera (few shells). 
Venericardia borealis. 
Venus mercenaria (few shells). 
Xfoldia limatula ( shell). 
ASTROPO DA: 
Anadfis avara (several shells). 
Astyris lunata (many living). 
Busycon canaliculatum 
Coecum cooperi. 
Cerithiopsis emersonii (x shell). 
Crepidula convexa (several living). 
Crepidula fornicata (many shells). 
Crcpidula plana (many living). 
Lacuna puteola (few shells). 
Littorina rudis (t living, 2 shells), a 
Polynices duplicata (few, I living). 
Pol)mices heros (few shells): 
Pol)mices triseriata (several living and shells). 
Tritia trivittata (living and many shells). 
The speciraens doubtless carne fr0m ranch 



BIOLOICAL SURVEY OF VOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. ! 

(ASTROPODA--on[inucd. 
Urosalpinx cinereus (few). 
AMPHINEURA : 
Choetopleura apiculata (several). 
CEPHALOPODA : 
Loligo pcalii ( mass of eggs). 
IISCES : 
Myoxocephalus oeneus (few). 
Raia sp., egg capsule (I). 
ILANTS. 
PHOPH¥CE: 
Chordaria flagelliformis (few). 
Ralfsia clavata (few). 

IIIODOPHYCEA : 
Agardhiella tenera (many). 
Antithamnion cruciatum (few). 
Corallina oiïïcinalis (few). 
Cystoclonium purpurascens (few). 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. 
(few). 
Griffithsia Bornetiana (few). 
Lithothamnion polymorphum (few). 
Phyllophora Brodioei (few). 
Polysiphonia nigrescens (many). 
Rhodymcnia palmata (few). 
Seirospora Grithsiana (many). 
.Spyridia filamentosa (many). 

cirrhosum 

PHALAROPE STATION 8 3. 

July x2, x9o5.--North shore of Pasque Island; 5-7 fathoms; sand. 

ANIMALS. 
FORAMINIFERA : 
Miliolina circularis. 
PORIFERA : 
Cliona celata (2 pieces). 
HYDROZOA : 
Hydractinia echinata. 
Sertularia sp. 
Thuiaria argentea. 
Tubularia crocea (dead tubes). 
ACTINOZOA : 
Astrangia danoe (several small). 
]RYOZOA: 
tea anguina. 
Bugula turrita. 
Crisia eburnea (few). 
Hippothoa hyalina. 
Lepralia sp. (americana or paIIasiana). 
Membranipora pilosa. 
Membranipora tenuis. 
Schizoporella unicornis. 
Smittia trispinosa nitida. 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Asterias vulgaris ( small). 
Henricia sanguinolenta ( small). 
ECHINOIDEA : 
Arbacia punctulata (spines). 
Echinarachnius parma (i shell). 
ANNUOEATA : 
Diopatra cuprea (few tubes). 
Harmothoë imbricata (2 very small). 
Hydroides diantllus (several). 
Lepidonotus squamatus (1). 
Nereis arenaceodentata (I). 
Nereis pelagica (i young). 
Pista sp. (fragments of several tubes). 
Spirorbis sp. (2 tubes). 

CIRRIPEDIA : 
Balanus sp. (probably eb-m-neus) (few). 
,CIIIZOPOD : 
Schizopod (undetermined). 
DECAPODA : 
Crago septemspinosus (many). 
Homarus amcricanus (i fragment). 
Libinia emarginata. 
Pagurus annulipes (several). 
Pagurus longicarpus (common). 
AMPHPODA : 
Leptochelia savignyi. 
ISOPODA : 
?Edotea acuta (i). 
[ NS ECTA : 
Sarcophaga sp. larva (probably hot actually 
dredged from bottom). 
PELECYPODA: 
Arca transversa (several). 
Astarte castanea (few living). 
Callocardia morrhuana (few). 
Cardium pinnulatum (several shells). 
Clidiophora gouldiana (i living). 
Corbula contracta (few shells). 
Crassinella mactracea (several living and 
shells). 
Crenella glandula (2 shells). 
Cumingia tellinoides (2 sllells). 
Ensis directus (shells). 
Mytilus edulis (fragments and young). 
Ostrea virginica (i living). 
Pecten gibbus borealis (2 shells). 
Xroldia limatula (few, i living). 
AMPHINEURA : 
Chœetopleura apiculata (2). 



62 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

GASTROPODA • 
Anachis avara (common. living and shells). 
Astyris lunata. 
Cochlodesma leanum (t shell). 
Crepidula convexa ( living). 
Crepidula fornicata (many shells). 
Crepidula plana (fexv). 
Eupleura caudata (several shells). 
Littorina litorea (t shell). 
Polynices triseriata (common, living and 
shells). 
Tritia trivittata t many living). 
Urosalpinx cinereus (few shells). 
Vermicularia spirata (several shells). 
TUNICATA ." 
Didemnum lutarium sex-eral masses). 
Molgula manhattensis (2). 

PiscEs: 
Myoxocephalus oeneus. 
PLANTS. 
PHOPHYCE. ". 
Desmarestia aculeata t many). 
Leathesia difformis ( drift). 
]0, HODOPHYCEI: 
Callithamnion roseum t 2). 
Corallina oflïcinalis  x drift). 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum 
(many). 
Phyllophora Brodioei (many). 
Phyllophora membranifolia many). 
Polyides rotundus (many). 
Polysiphonia nigrescens t many). 
Polysiphonia urceolata (i). 
Rhodomela subfusca ( 

2. THE DISTRIBUTION CHARTS. 

We have deemed it advisable to publish a large number of charts portraying the 
distribution of speeies as revealed bv the station records. It is hot likelv that the 
lists of station numbers given in the text for eaeh speeies will often be translated bv 
the reader into definite loealities; xvhile, on the other hand, the generalized statements 
of the anthors are neeessarilv ineomplete and at best do hot take the place of graphie 
representations sueh as the eharts. Some explanation is neeessarv for a proper under- 
standing of these last. With a few exceptions, they are based upon the records of the 
regular dredging stations only, i. e., those for the vears 9o3, 9o4, and 9o5. a No data 
derived from outside information, however reliable, bave been ineluded here, nor even 
data from our own shore eolleeting, or (exeeptioIls aside) from our supplementary dredg- 
ings and repetitions of earlier stations, though, of course, sueh additional data have 
been ineorporated in the text. The exceptions mentioned inelude the "bis" stations 
as a whole (sec p. 55), the records from whieh have been plotted for all speeies. 
In the case of the Foraminifera, hydroids, and Bryozoa, many records derived from 
supplementary dredgings (repeated stations) during the summers of 9o6-19o 9 have 
been plotted upon the eharts. This has been eonsidered advisable owing to the probable 
imperfection of the original records for all of these organisms. 
Sueh proeedure is open to two objections. In the first place, the repeated stations 
are at best rather rough approximations to the original ones whose numbers bave been 
given them. Even with the greatest eare, it is impossible to lower a dredge at preeisely 
the saine point as on a previous occasion, and in the case of most of out repetitions, laek 
of time prevented the maneuvering neeearv to a very exact location of the spot origin- 
ally charted. In the second place, the repeated stations were hOt distributed xvith any 
regularity throughout the region dredged, and unless due caution is exercised the results 
of these are likely to be misleading. Moreover, since the records from these bave been 
plotted onlv for certain groups, undue emphasis bas in some cases probably been thrown 
upon the latter. Despite these objections, however, we believe that the distributions 

a hacludiag the completioa of the westera shore of Buzzards Bal." in i9o 7. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 'OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 6 3 

of the species in question have been portrayed more fairly, on the whole, than if the 
supplementary records had been omitted. 
Without making certain allovances one might be greatly misled by these charts. 
Some of the sources of possible misconception have just been referred to. For all groups 
the greater apparent abundance of various species in Vineyard Sound, as compared with 
Buzzards Bay, is frequently to be explained merely by the greater number of dredging 
stations in the former. The Fish Hawk was employed during two seasons upon the 
Vineyard Sonnd series of stations, while systematic dredging by this vessel in Buzzards 
Bay vas limited to the summer of  9o4. Thus there are 2  8 Fish Ha',c,k stations in Vine- 
yard Sound and onlv 66 in Buzzards Bay, although the latter is a considerabh" larger 
body of water. The concentration of stations in the Sound, so obvious upon the chart, 
is thus explained. The latter condition is emphasized by the inclusion in the distri- 
bution charts of records from the "bis" stations (see above), all of which were in Vine- 
yard Sound. This disparity in the thoroughness with which the two bodies of water 
were worked was due (t) to the fact that the earlier and more or less experimental 
dredngs were conducted in Vineyard Sound, and it was regarded as desirable to repeat 
these; and (2) to the greater uniformitv of conditions throughout the bottom of Buz- 
zards Bay, rendering it unnecessary to dredge at such frequent interals. 
Another point for which allowance must be made is the fact that the apparent 
absence of a species from a given area is in some cases due merely to the absence, for the 
time, of a collector accustomed to search for this particular form, or even to the lack 
of dredging apparatus suitable for bringing it up. Such cases, and other possible 
sources of error, will be discussed in their proper places in connection with particular 
groups of animals. 
Finally, reference must be ruade to certain spurious distribution patterns, which 
result, hOt from anv defect in out own methods, but from the transportation of organic 
remains to points where the animals themselves had probably never lived. As an 
illustration of this phenomenon we mav mention the occurrence of shells of the common 
oyster in the deeper parts of Vinevard Sound, where their presence is probably to be 
attributed to passing vessels. Another instance is the transportation of littoral shells 
(e. g., Littorim litorca) bv hermit crabs, and it is likely that the lighter shells of certain 
mollusks and the remains of various other organisms are carried to considerable distances 
by currents. 
The distribution charts are reproduced from maps plotted out by Mr. James W. 
Underwood and Miss Edith Chapman. These assistants employed a blank form based 
upon a chart prepared bv the draftsman of the Bureau, Mr. W. F. Hill. The stars were 
first put in with a rubber stamp and then filled out with a drawing pen and india ink. 
Owing to the crowding of stations or the proximity of some of these to shore, the star is, 
in many cases, at some distance from the station to which it belongs. 
It has hot been thought worth while to plot the distributions of any species which 
were taken at less than io of the stations. On the other hand, the distributions of all 
animals, « with a few special exceptions, which were listed from Io or more stations 
have been presented herewith. Thus the charts are restricted to the more representa- 

a This statemeut does hot strictly hold [or the lalants. 



64 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

tire species comprised in our local benthos. In many cases, however, highly instructive 
data hax-e been obtained regarding forms of less frequent occurrence. Such have been 
referred to in the text. 
Records entered as doubtful have been excluded in plotting the distribution charts. 
In the charts for the shell-bearing mollusks and echinoderms, and for the coral Aslrançia, 
it will be round that the stars are in many cases surrounded bv circles. The circle in 
each case indicates that one or more living specimens were recorded from the station in 
question; absence of the circle implies eitllcr that the records indicate the presence of 
dead shells only, or that no statemcnt has been ruade on the subject. 

3. THE FAUNA CONSIDERED ACCORDING TO REGIONS AND HABITATS. 

Many of the species encountered during our dredging operations were round to 
have a practically unrestricted distribution within the vaters explored. In the case 
of many other species, their distribution was found tobe definitely restricted, i. e., 
they vere adapted to particular temperatures or to particular kinds of bottom. These 
vafious types of distribution will be discussed at some length in relation to particular 
species which serve to illustrate them, and many cases are portrayed graphically by 
means of charts. But it is like»vise import.ant that a list of the more prevalent species 
should be presented synoptically for each subregion of our chart and for each variety of 
habitat. With this in view the stations were tabulated in various ways, according to 
the type of bottom or the like; and for each of these groups lists »vere prepared 
comprising all of those species which were taken at one-fourth or more of the stations 
in question. « We believe that lists thus restricted may be regarded as comprising 
onlv such species as are truly representative of these various bottoms. It must be 
conceded, however, that many of the less common forms which do hot appear in the 
lists at all may be highly characteristic of one or another group of stations, and may, 
indeed, be limited to these. 
Preceding the lists for particular waters or particular types of bottom we present a 
table comprising those species which çvere taken at one-fourth or more of the total 
number of dredging stations of the Survey, i. e., at  15 or more of the regular stations, b 
Itis believed that such a list conveys a good idea of the prevailing benthic fauna of our 
local waters, so far as »ve can speak of any single prevailing fauna where the conditions 
differ so widely. This list will perhaps render possible the detection of future changes in 
the relative abundance of certain species. 

a At first only those species were listed which were present at bal/or more o[ a gi»-en group of stations, but it was fotmd that 
all of the resulting lists were very brief, and that they omitted ilany highly characteristic forms. 
b None o the suplolementary stations, excelot the "bis" stations of x9o4. bave been considered in the prescrit computations. 
The inclusion o the x9o9 records wotdd doubtless change the complexion of these tables somewhat, though hot, we believe, very 
materially. 



BIOLOGICAL 
I. Species recorded ]rom one-]ourth 

PORIFERA: 
Cliona celata (I7I). 
ACTINOZOA : 
Astrangia danm (I58). 
BRYOZOA: 
Crisia eburnea (2Ol). 
*Bugula turrita (255). 
Schizoporella unicornis (i97). 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (163). 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Henricia sanguinolenta (i i8). 
Asterias forbesi (2o6). 
F_HINOIDEA: 
Arbacia punctulata (156). 
Echinarachnius parma (I 70). 
ANNULATA : 
Harmothoë imbdcata (189). 
Lepidonotus squamatus (165) 
Nereis pelagica (I 92). 
Diopatra cuprea (I98). 
Hydroides dianthus (237). 
CIRRIPEDIA : 
Balanus eburneus (162). 
AMPHIPODA : 
Unciola irrorata (115). 
DECAPODA: 
Crago septemspinosus (i69). 
Pagurus longicarpus (29o). 
Pagurus annulipes (196). 

SURVY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 6,5 

(H5) or more o] the re9ular dred9in 9 stations o] the 
S urve y.o 
DcAPODAontinued. 
Libinia emarginata (192). 
Cancer irroratus (2o9). 
Neopanope texana sayi (143). 
PELECYPODA: 
«Anomia simplex (256). 
Pecten gibbus borealis (162). 
Mytilus edulis (217). 
Modiolus modiolus (i 2o). 
«Arca transversa (264). 
Nucula proxima (205). 
Crassinella mactracea (I82). 
Cardium pinnulatum 
Callocardia morrhuana (192). 
Tellina tcncra (i93). 
«Ensis directus (235). 
Spisula solidissima 
«Clidiophora gouldiana (234). 
Corbula contracta (128). 
GASTROPODA : 
Tritia trivittata (373)- 
Anachis avara (295). 
Astyris lunata (245). 
Urosalpinx cinereus (i 56). 
Littorina litorea--shells only (131). 
Crepidula fornicata (326). 
Crepidula plana (29i). 
Polynices heros (i65). 
Polynices triseriata (I44). 

PORIFERA: 
Cliona celata (76). 
HYDROZOA: 
Eudendrium ramosum (58). 
Hydractinia echinata (62). 
kCTINOZOA: 
Astrangia danoe (70). 
BR¥OZOA: 
Crisia eburuea (97)- 
Bugula turrita (135). 
Schizoporella unicornis (112). 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (84). 
Cellepora americana (55)- 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Hcnricia sanguinolcnta (62). 
Astcrias forbcsi (119). 
Asterias vulgaris (73)- 

II. Species which were taken at one-]ourth (55) or more o] the Fish Hawk sations in 
Vineyard Sound. 
ECmNOIDEA: 
Arbacia punctulata (lOl). 
Echinarachnius parma (i3o). 
A NN U LATA: 
Harmothoë imbricata (9o). 
Lepidonotus squamatus (86). 
Nereis pelagica ( i 15). 
Diopatra cuprea (75)- 
Hydroides dianthus (94)- 
CIRRIPEDIA: 
Balauus eburneus (83). 
D EC APO DA: 
Crago septemspinosus (73)- 
Pagurus pollicaris (7o). 
Pagurus Iongicarpus (131). 
Pagurus annulipes (77)- 
Libinia emarginata (99)- 
Cancer irroratus (134). 
a The number in parenthesis indicates the number of stations at which the species was round. Species are starred (in the first 
list only), which were taken at one-halI or more of the stations 
I6269°--Bu11.31, pt 1--13-- 5 



66 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

AMXHIPODA: 
Unciola irrorata (68). 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (93)- 
Mytilus edulis ( 136 ). 
Modiolus modiolus (83). 
Arca transversa (i 16). 
Nucula proxima (82). 
Venericardia borealis (59)- 
Astarte castanea (74)- 
Crassinella mactracea (9o). 
Cardium pinnulatum (66). 
Callocardia morrhuana (62). 
Tellina tenera (77). 
Ensis dircctus (94). 
Spisula solidissima (14o). 

PELECYPODA--Contilued. 
Clidiophora gouldiana (94). 
Corbula contracta (64). 
(ASTROPODA-" 
Tritia trivittata (163). 
Anachis avara (i3i). 
Astyris lunata (16). 
Urosalpinx cinereus (63). 
Crepidula fornicata (144). 
Crepidula plana (136). 
Pol)mices heros (119). 
CEPHALOPODA: 
Loligo pealii (55)" 
TUNICATA: 
Amaroucium pellucidum (57)- 

In a considerable measure the above list is a repetition of the first. Only four 
species comprised in the first list are wanting in the second, while only nine aààitional 
ones are to be founà in the latter. This close agreement is àoubtless àue to the fact that 
the Fsh I-Iawt stations in Vineyarà Sounà are more than three times as numerous as 
are those in Buzzards Bay. They thus have an undue share in àetermining the character 
of the first of out lists. 

III. Spccies taken af one-]ourth (I 7) or more o[ the Fish Hawk stations in Buzzards Bay. 

PORIFERA: 
Cliona celata (32). 
ACTINOZOA: 
Astrangia danm (29). 
BRSrOZOA: 
Crisia eburnea (24). 
2Etea anguina (22). 
Bugula turrita (35)- 
Schizoporella unicornis (31). 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (25). 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Asterias forbesi (23). 
ANNULATA: 
Nephthys incisa (34)- 
Diopatra cuprea (34)- 
Ninoë nigripes (31). 
P, hynchobolus americanus (22). 
Choetopterus pergamentaceus (21). 
Spiochoetopterus oculatus (28). 
Cistenides gouldii (9). 
Clymenella torquata (25). 
Hydroides dianthus (3o). 
CIRRIEDIA: 
Balanus eburneus (36). 
AMPHIPODA: 
Ampelisca macrocephala (17). 
Ptilocheirus pinguis (26). 
Unciola irrorata (22). 

DECAPODA: 
Crago septemspinosus (28). 
Pagurus longicarpus (52). 
Pagurus annulipes (27)- 
Libinia emarginata (39). 
Cancer irroratus (26). 
Neopanope texana sayi (31). 
IELECYPODA: 
.omia simplex (52). 
Pecten gibbus borealis (32). 
Mytilus edulis (17). 
Arca transversa (5o). 
Nucula proxima (37)- 
Yoldia limatula (44). 
Crassinella mactracea (21). 
Cardium pinnulatum (55)- 
Lœevicardium mortoni (26). 
Venus mercenaria (34). 
Callocardia morrhuaa (56). 
Tellina tenera (37)- 
Macoma tenta (19). 
Ensis directus (4o). 
Mulinia lateralis (45). 
Clidiophora gouldiana (52). 
GASTROPODA: 
Busycon canaliculatum (3). 
Tritia trivittata (65). 
Anachis avara (37)- 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

67 

(ASTROPODAontinued. 
Ast)s lunata (18). 
Eupleura caudata (40). 
Urosalpinx cinereus (18). 
Littorina litorea (28). 
Crepidula fornicata 

(ASTROPODAOntinued. 
Crepidula plana (46). 
Polynices duplicata (21). 
Polynlces triseriata (30). 
CIPHALOPODA: 
Loligo pealii (18). 

The number of species in the foregoing list (55) is slightly greater t,han that in the 
one immediatcly preceding it (5). It will be shown later that the average number of 
species per dredge haul was likexvise somewhat greater in Buzzards Bay. This is true 
despite the fact that in the aggregate about 25 per cent more species were taken in 
¥ineyard Sound than in Buzzards Bay. Of the 55 species contained in the foregoing 
table, 33 (55 per cent) are common to the list for the Fish ttawk stations in Vineyard 
Sound, while 22 are to be regarded as more particularly characteristic of Buzzards Bay. 
On the other hand, i8 of the more prevalent species in thc Sound list do hOt appear in 
that for the Bay. Of the 22 characteristic Bay-dxvelling species, 7 are annelids and 1 i 
are mollusks; the i8 species peculiar to the Vineyard Sound list are more diversified. 
The Phalarope and Blue Win 9 stations represent dredgings in the shoaler waters, 
and are for the most part much closer to land than those of the F.ish Hawk. The more 
prevalent species from these stations will therefore be presented in separate lists. 

IV. Species taken af one-]ourth (9) or more o] the Phalarope and Bhe Win 9 stationç in 

PORIFERA: 
?Grantia ciliata (21). 
Cliona celata (32). 
HYDROZOA: 
Tubularia crocea (27). 
ACTINOZOA: 
Astratagia danœe (26). 
BRYOZOA: 
Crisia ebttrnea (5o). 
Bugula turdta (42). 
Schizoporella tmicornis (29). 
Smittla trispinosa nitida (25). 
ASTEROIDIA: 
Hendcia sanguinolenta (36). 
Astcrias forbesi (24). 
ECHINOIDEA : 
Echinarachnius parma (3i). 
ANNULATA: 
Harmothoë imbricata (40). 
Lepidonotus squarnatus (37)- 
Nereis pelagica (5i). 
Diopatra cuprea (35)- 
Hydroides dianthus (47)- 
,/laHIPO DA : 
Amphithoë rubricata (26). 
Corophium cylindricurn (2I). 
ISOPODA: 
Idothea phosphorea (30). 
Erichsonella filiformis (25). 

V ineyard Sound. 
DECAPODA: 
Crago septernspinosus (27). 
Pagurus longicarpus (46). 
Pagurus annulipes (44). 
Libinia emarginata (29). 
Cancer irroratus (33)- 
Neopanope texana sayi (23). 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (4I). 
Anomia aculeata (28). 
Pecten gibbus lmrealis (26). 
Mytilus edulis (42). 
Arca transversa (36). 
Nucula proxima (25). 
Crassinella mactracea (32). 
Cardium pinnulatum (35)- 
Callocardia rnorrhuana (2o). 
Tellina tenera (3). 
Ensis directus (33)- 
Cutningia tellinoides (23). 
pisula solidissirna (35)- 
Clidiophora gouldiana (28). 
GASTROPODA: 
Tritia trivittata (59)- 
Anachis avara (63). 
Astyris lunata (57)- 
Urosalpinx cinereus (36). 
Littorina litorea (19). 



58 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(ASTROPODA--Continued. 
Lacuna puteola (39)- 
Crepidula fornicata (55)- 
Crepidula plana (50). 
Polynices heros (27). 
• Polynices triseriata (35)- 

TUNICATA: 
Amaroucium pellucidum (25). 
Amaroucium pellucidum constellatum (23). 
Didemnum lutarium (24). 
PIscEs: 
Myoxocephalus oeneus (22). 

The number of species here comprised is very close to those in the two lists immedi- 
ately preceding it. Of the 54 species here present, 38 (70 per cent) were contained in the 
list for the Fish Hawk stations of Vineyard Sound, 16 being wanting from the latter. 
Conversely, the Fish Hawk list contained I3 species which do hot appear in that for the 
Phalarope. It does hot follow, by any means, that a species which is limited to one or 
the other of these lists is actually restricted as to depth or proximity to shore. Indeed, 
most of them appear with considerable frequency in the dredgings of both vessels. Of 
the i6 species which are confined to the Phalarope list, only 3 show a marked restriction 
to the vicinity of the shore line. These are Amph.fthoë rubricata, Lacuna puleola, and 
Liilorina litoma. The last named, as is well known, is strictly littoral (i. e., intertidal) 
in its habitat. The dredging records refer exclusively to shells, most or all of which were 
doubtless transported from the shore by hermit crabs. On the other hand, of the i 
species restricted to the Fi«h Hawk list, only 6 give any evidcncc of a preference for 
deeper waters than those dredged by the Phalarope nd Blue Wing. These are Euden- 
drium ramosum, Cellepora americana, A xterias wdgaris, .lodiolux modiolus, Vewricardfa 
borealix, and A«tarie ca«ianea. In the case of the last two species named, the avoidance 
of the inshore waters is quite obvious. Of the others this can hot be stated as confidently. 

V. Species taken at ow-[ourth (23) or more o[ the Phalarope stations in Buzzards Bay. 

PORIFERA: 
Cliona celata 
HYDROZOA: 
Hydractinia echinata (33)- 
ACT NOZ OA: 
Astrangia danoe (33)- 
BRYOZOA: 
Crisia eburnea (30). 
Bugula turrita (45)- 
Schizoporella unicornis 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (29). 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Asterias forbesi (39)- 
ECHINOIDEA: 
Arbacia punctulata (29). 
ANNULATA: 
Harmothoë imbricata (4o). 
Lepidonotus squamatus (28). 
Diopatra cuprea (53)- 
Pista palmata (25). 
Clymenella torquata (24). 
Hydroides dianthus (66). 
ClRRIPEDIA: 
Balanus ebumeus (27). 

D ECAPO DA: 
Crago septemspinosus (4x). 
Pagurus longicarpus (59)- 
Pagurus annulipes (48). 
Libinia emarginata (25). 
Neopanope texana sayi (37)- 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (68). 
Pectcn gibbus borealis (6x). 
Arca tran'sversa (62). 
Nucula proxima (6i). 
Voldia limatula (26). 
Crassinella mactacea (39)- 
Cardium pinnulatum (62). 
Lœevicardium mortoni (60). 
Venus mercenaria (4Q. 
Callocardia morrhuana (54). 
Tellina tenera (48)- 
Ensis directus (68). 
Cumingia tcllinoides (38). 
Spisula solidissima (28). 
Mulinia lateralis (3o). 
Lyonsia hyalina (3x) 
Clidiophora gouldiana (59)- 
Corbula contracta (36). 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS IqOLE AND ¥ICINITY. 69 

APHINEURA: 
Chœetopleura apiculata (23)- 
GASTROPODA: 
Busycon canaliculatum (24). 
Tritia trivittata (85). 
Anachis avara (64). 
Ast)s lunata (54)- 
Eupleura caudata (37)- 
Urosalpinx cinereus (39)- 

(ASTROPODA--Continued. 
Bittium alternatum (37)- 
Littorina litorea (54)- 
Crepidula fomicata (72). 
Crepidula convexa (32). 
Crepidula plana (58). 
Polvniccs duplicata (36). 
Polyniccs triseriata (3o). 
TUNICATA: 
Didemnum lutarium (27). 

The total number of species in the foregoing list (54) is exactly the saine as that 
contained in the one immediately preceding it. In fact there bas been a rather striking 
uniformity in the numbers comprised in these lists, ranging as they do from 46 to 55- 
Of the 54 species in the foregoing table, 4I (76 per cent) are common to this and to the 
list of Fish Hawk species in Buzzards Bay. On the other hand, a number not much 
inferior to this (37=69 per cent a) are common to the present list and to that g;.ven 
for the Phalarope stations of Vineyard Sound, among the latter being some which are 
not recorded in the other Buzzards Bay list. A few others in this list are only round 
elsewhere in the Fish Hawk list for Vineyard Sound. 
While, therefore, the Phalarope list for Buzzards Bay resembles the Fish Hawk list 
for Buzzards Bay more closely than any of the others, it must be pointed out that it 
contains a considerable number of species which are prevalent throughout the Sound, 
but which in the Bay are to be round only at the inshore dredging stations. This fact, 
which is not very strikingly illustrated by these figures, will appear much more clearly 
when the charts portraying the distribution patterns of certain species are scrutinized. 
Tables bave likewise been prepared listing the "prevalent" species for each type of 
bottom. The same criterion bas here been employed of admitting only those species 
which bave been encountered at one-fourth or more of the number of stations belonging 
to the group in question. 
Af ter considerable thought the folloxving classification of bottoms has been adopted 
for present purposes, not as being an ideal one, but as being the most simple one possible 
consistent with a fait regard for accu-racy. The only strictly exact classification would 
recognize as many types of bottom as there are combinations of ingredients listed; but 
such a classification would be altogether too cumbersome for the purposes of out statis- 
tical treatment. We realize that the grouping here employed must result in a quite 
inadequate characterization of the habitat of many species. A specimen may ostensibly 
bave corne from a muddy or a sandy bottom, when, in reality, it was growing attached 
to a shell or other solid object. "xVe have, nevertheless, included as muddy and sandy 
those bottoms in which shells were likewise recorded. This has been done for the reason 
that shells or fragments of these were scarcely ever wholly lacking from the contents 
of the dredge. Again, certain living mollusks which move freely over the bottom afford 
support for attached organisms just as well as do dead shells. Surely the presence of 
such should not suffice to constitute a "shelly" bottom. The same may be said regard- 
ing shells occupied by hermit crabs, which abound throughout the entire region, giving 
support to hydroids, Bryozoa, barnacles, Crepiduloe of several species, and other 
organisms. 

a Only 55 laer cent of the Flsh tIat,k list for Buzzards Bay were common to the Fish .t-Iaw list for Vineyard Sound. 



7 ° BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

We have accordingly adopted the following classification of bottoms in the ensu- 
ing discussion of habitats: 
A. "Sand," including bottoms reeorded as pure sand, or sand and shells. Bot- 
toms eontaining stones, gravel, or mud are e_xeluded. 
I3. "Gravel and stones," ineluding records whieh list either of these ingredients 
singly or in eombination with one another or with sand. No bottoms containing mud 
are here ineluded. 
C. "Mud," including bottoms reeorded as of mud, muddy sand, or sandy mud. 
13ottoms are hem ineluded in which shells are listed, but not those containing graveI or 
stones. 
Certain eombinations (e. g., gravel and mud) are exeluded from this classification, 
and records from sueh stations are not included in the present list. Such cases are, 
however, relatively very few. 

VI. Species taken at one-]ourlh (43) or more o[ the stahons dredged on sandy bottoms. 

ORIFERA : 
Cliona celata (49)- 
]-IYDROZOA : 
Hydractinia echinata (46). 
{ RYOZ O A: 
Crisia eburnea (74)- 
Bugula turrita (o7). 
Schizoporella unicornis (63). 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (44). 
STEROIDEA: 
Asterias rbesi (Tt). 
Asterias vulgaris (56)- 
ECHINOIDEA: 
Arbacia punctulata (48). 
Echinarachnius parma (o). 
ANNULATA: 
Harmothoë imbricata (72). 
Lepidonotus squamatus (54)- 
Nercis pclagica (72). 
Diopatra cuprea (72). 
Hydroides dianthus (6). 
ClRRIPEDIA : 
Balanus eburneus (51). 
DECAPODA: 
Crago septemspinosus (80). 
Pagurus longicarpus (o). 
Pagurus annulipes (59)- 
Libinia emarginata (62). 

I) ECAPODA----ontinued. 
Cancer irroratus (92). 
Ovalipes ocellatus (43)- 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (97). 
Pecten gibbus borealis (52). 
Mytilus edulis ( I3). 
Arca transversa (lO5). 
Nucula proxima (62). 
Venericardia borealis (49). 
Astarte undata (44)- 
Astarte castanea (59). 
Crassinella mactracea (72). 
Cardium pinnulatum (83). 
Callocardia morrhuana (78). 
Tellina tenera (96). 
Ensis directus (84). 
Spisula solidissima (1o9). 
Clidiophora gouldiana (88). 
Corbula contracta (46). 
(ASTROPODA: 
Tritia trivittata (142). 
Anachis avara (95)- 
Astyris lunata (94). 
Urosalpimx cinereus (46). 
Crepidula fornicata (24). 
Crepidula plana (). 
Polynices heros (8o). 
Polynices triseriata (50- 

Of the foregoing 46 species alI but 2 appear in one or both of the lists for Vine- 
yard Sound. On the other hand, 8 of the species do not appear in either list for Buzzards 
Bay, and 14 do not appear in the Fish Hawk list for Buzzards Bay. These facts follow 
directly, of course, from the well-known chfferences of these two bodies of water in respect 
to the character of their bottoms. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 7 I 
VIL Species taken at one-]ourlh (42) or more o/lhe stations/or which bolloms o/9ravel or 
stones were recorded. 

PORXrFERA: 
Cliona celata (91). 
I-IYDROZOA." 
Eudendrium ramosum (43). 
Hydractinia echinata (43). 
Tubularia crocea (44). 
Thuiaria argentea (47)- 
ACTINOZOA: 
Astrangia danœe (98). 
]RYOZOA: 
Crisia eburnea (97)- 
2Etea anguina (5o). 
Bugula turrita (99)- 
Schizoporella unicornis (96). 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (9o). 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Henricia sanguinolenta (82). 
Asterias forbesi (83). 
ECILINOIDEA: 
Arbacia punctulata (8o). 
ANNULATA: 
Harmothoê imbricata (8o). 
Lepidonotus squamatus (87). 
Nereis pelagica (93)- 
Diopatra cuprea (7o). 
Pseudopotamilla oculifera (42). 
Hydroides dianthus (riS). 
ClRRIPE DIA: 
Balanus eburneus (63). 
AMPHIPODA: 
Unciola irrorata (46). 
ECAPO DA ". 
Pagurus pollicaris (47)- 
Pagurus longicarpus (io6). 

DEcAPODA--Continued. 
Pagurus annulipes (93). 
Libinia emarginata (69). 
Cancer irroratus (71). 
Neopanope texana sayi (64). 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (83). 
Pecten gibbus borealis (51). 
Mytilus edulis (74)- 
Modiolus modiolus (69). 
Arca transversa (81). 
Nucula proxima (69). 
Crassinella mactracea (78). 
Cardium pinnulatum (55)- 
Ensis directus (86). 
Cumingia tellinoides (59)- 
Spisula solidissima (84). 
Clidiophora gouldiana (66). 
Corbula contracta (55)- 
AMPtlINEURA: 
Choetopleura apiculata (55)- 
GASTROPO DA" 
Tritia trivittata (117 )- 
Anachis avara (127). 
Astyris lunata (Io3). 
Urosalpinx cinereus (79). 
Littorina litorea (42). 
Crepidula fornicata (i r3). 
Crepidula plana (lO3). 
Polynices heros (59)- 
Polynices triseriata (48). 
TUNICATA: 
Amaroucium pellucidum (49)- 
Amaroucium pellucidum constellatum (6r). 
Didemnum lutarium (7o). 

Of the 54 species in the foregoing list, only 4 are lacking from one or both lists for 
Vineyard Sound, while t i are not to be round in either list for Buzzards Bay. Thirty- 
seven of the species (69 per cent) are common to the list for sandy bottoms. 

VIII. Species taken af one-]ourth (28) or more o] the stations dredged on muddy bottoms. 

PORIFERA: 
Cliona celata (3r). 
ACINOZOA: 
Astrangia danm 
BRYOZOA: 
Crisia eburnea (3o). 
Bugula turrita (49). 
Schizoporella unicornis (35): 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (29)- 

ASTEROIDEA: 
Asterias forbesi (48). 
ANNULATA" 
Harmothoë imbricata (35)- 
Nephthys incisa (43)- 
Diopatra cuprea (54)- 
Ninoë nigripes (35)- 
Cistenides gouldii (32). 
Clymenella torquata (36). 
Hydroides dianthus (55)- 



7 2 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

ClRR]/*EDIA : 
Balanus eburneus (46). 
AM/'HIODA: 
Ptilocheirus pinguis (41). 
Unciola irrorata (32). 
DECAPODA: 
Crago septcmspinosus (5o). 
Pagurus longicarpus (83). 
Pagurus annulipes (44). 
Libinia emarginata (57)- 
Cancer irroratus (43). 
Neopanope texana sayi (43). 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (74)- 
Pecten gibbus borealis (57)- 
Arca transversa (78). 
Nucula proxima (74)- 
¥oldia limatula (66). 
Crassinclla mactracea (29). 
Cardium pinnulatum (79)- 
Lœevicardium mortoni (45)- 

PELECYPODA--Continued. 
Venus mercenaria (52). 
Callocardia morrhuana (8o). 
Tellina tenera (63). 
Macoma tenta (3o). 
Ensis directus (64). 
Spisula solidissima (29). 
Mulinia lateralis (6o). 
Clidiophora gouldiana (8o). 
GASTROPODA: 
Busycon canaliculatum (43)- 
Tritia trivittata (lO8). 
Anachis avara (67). 
Astyris lunata (48). 
Euplcura caudata (48). 
UrosaIpinx cinercus (29). 
Littorina litorea, shclls only (48). 
Crcpidula fornicata (84). 
Crepidula plana (74)- 
Polynices duplicata (35)- 
Polyniccs triseriata (41). 

Of the 5 ° species comprised in the above list only tvo « are absent from that repre- 
senting the prevailing species dredged by the Fi.çh Ilawk in Buzzards Bay; while only 
7 species in the latter list are lacking from that for the muddy bottoms. The two groups 
of species are thus hot far from identical. On the other hand, 3 of those in the list for 
muddv bottoms do hot appear in either table for Vineyard Sound. Thirty-three of the 
species (66 per cent) are common to the list for sandy bottoms, while 34 species (68 per 
cent) are common to that for bottoms of gravel and stones. 
Comparing the lists for the three types of bottom, we find 13 species which appear 
onlv in that for bottoms of stones and gravel, an equal number which appear only in 
the list for muddy bottoms, while 6 are peculiar to the list for sandy bottoms. Of the 1 3 
prevalent mud-dwelling forms, all but  are annelids or mollusks. Of the 3 species 
pçculiar to the list for gravelly and stony bottoms, 3 are hydroids and 3 are ascidians, the 
remainder being distributed through various phyla. The number of forms -hich are 
restricted to out list of prevalent species for bottoms of pure sand (free from mud on 
the one hand, and from stones and gravel on the other) is a very short one. This is due 
to the fact that the great majority of sand-dwelliug species are not deterred by the pres- 
ence of a certain proportion of stones and gravel, while many of them are equally at 
home in sand which is somewhat muddy. In out classification, however, such bottoms 
have been included under "gravel and stones" and "mud," respectively. At least two 
of the species listed are, nevertheless, pretty definitely restricted to bottoms of pure 
sand. These are the "lady crab" (Ovalipes ocdlatus) and the "sand dollar" (Echina- 
rachnius parma). 
In any consideration of such tables as the foregoing, it must be borne in mind that 
the fact of a species being restricted to one or another of the tables does hot imply that 
it is absent from the other types of bottom, or subdivisions of the region. Indeed, it 

a These two are contained in the Phalarope Buz22ds ]y  



• BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF rOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 73 

sometimes happens that the species is recordcd frorn an absoh«lcly realrr number of 
stations of another group than that for which it is here listed. Again, the caution must 
be repeated (cf. p. 31 , 33) that in the ficld a specimen was frequently recorded from a cer- 
tain type of bottom when it seerns probable that the dredge, at the moment of taking it, 
was passing over a quite different type of bottorn. In rnany parts of our local sea floor 
several distinct varieties of bottonl rnay be encountered witllin a quite limited area. 
Nevertheless, we believe that real and irnportant facts of ecology are revealed by 
such tabulations as the foregoing, even though these may hOt in thernselves present a 
complete picture. For concrete illustrations of the assemblage of organisrns which may 
actually occur together on a given bottom, or at least vithin the area traversed during a 
single dredge haul, the reader is referred to the tables on pages 58 to 62. 
Thus far the lists of "prevailing" species for oue or another group of stations have 
had no reference to the ternperature factor. It has been thougllt desirable, however, to 
present a list of tllose species which have been taken at one-fourth or more of the stations 
within the cold-water area of the region, i. e., the area throughout which the water tem- 
perature in SUnlrner bas been round to be considerablv lower than elsewhere. For this 
purpose the Ff«h Hawk stations (and these only) were choseu, lying, in Vineyard Sound, 
beyond (southwest of) a line drawn from Robinsons Itole to Kopeecon Point, and in 
Buzzards Bav below a line drawn fronl Barneys Joy Point to Penikese Island. One 
hundred and one stations were included in this area. 

IX. Species takcn at o»w-[ourth (25) or morc o] th« stations in the cohh'r watcrs adjacent to 
thc open 

HYDROZOA : 
Hydractinia echinata (34)- 
Obelia geniculata (7)- 
Halecium halecinurn (7)- 
]3RYOZO,ç : 
Crisia eburnea (43)- 
,tea anguina (5)- 
Bugula turrita (7o). 
Schizoporella unicornis (46). 
Cellepora americana (3o). 
ASTEROIDEA: 
Asterias forbes (5 )- 
Asterias vulgaris (58). 
ECHINOIDEA: 
Arbacia punctulata (5)- 
Echinarachnlus parma (7oL 
ANNULATA: 
Harmothoë imbricata (39)- 
Nereis pelagica (35)- 
Diopatra cuprea (43)- 
CIRRIPIDIA: 
Balanus eburneus (37)- 
A I¢[P HIPOD A: 
Unciola irrorata (7)- 
.Eginella lonqicoris (35)- 

SOPODA : 
Idothea phosphorea (6). 
DECAPODA: 
Crago septemspinosus (49). 
Pa9urus acadianus (39)- 
Pagurus longicarpus (59)- 
Libinia emarginata (37)- 
Cancer irroratus (75)- 
Oralipes ocellalas (40- 
PELECYPODA: 
Anomia simplex (54). 
Pecten rna9ellanicus (6). 
Mytilus edulis (8). 
Modiolus modiolus (5)- 
Arca transversa (6oL 
Nucula proxima 
Venericardia borealis (63). 
Astarle undata (5). 
Astarte castanea (44)- 
Crassinella mactracea (4x). 
Cardium pinnulatum (55)- 
Calloeardia morrhuana (63) 
Tellina tenera (55)- 
Ensis directus (3oL 
Spisula solidissima (72). 



74 BULLETIN 

PLcPODA-Continued. 
Clidiophora gouldiana (58). 
Corbula contracta (88). 
GASTROPODA : 
Trifia trivittata (88). 
Anachis avara (4o). 
Astyris hmata (48). 
Crepidula fornicata (65). 
Crepidula plana (62). 

OF 

BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

GASTROPODA--Continued. 
Polynices heros (60). 
Polynices triseriata (35)- 
CEPHALOPODA : 
Loligo pealii (37)- 
PISeES: 
Raja erinacea (3x). 
Lophopsetta naculata (3x)- 

Iu the foregoing table it will be noted that only nine species (those italicized) have 
not already appeared in one or more of the lists for Vineyard Sound or Buzzards Bay. 
And not all these nine are species whose distribution has been determined by temperature; 
for example, Ovalipes, Raja, and Lophopsetta (see below). Such a list is thus ill adapted 
to displaying the peculiarities of the fauna occupying the colder waters of the region. 
But an examination of the distribution charts reveals the presence of a considerable 
number of species which are chiefly or wholly restricted to the colder waters under con- 
sideration. A list of these has been given below, along with the recorded range of each 
upon the North American coast. It will be seen that in 5 out of 2o cases the range of 
these species is predominantly northward, a some of them, indeed, being near their 
southern limit of distribution. The presence of three of the others (Ovalipes ocellatus, 
Molgda arenata, and Lophopsetta maculata) is sufficiently explained by the nature of the 
bottom at the western end of the Sound, since these are characteristic sand-dwelling 
species, b 
X. Species restricted to, or at least occurrin 9 predominantly in., the coldcr waters o[ Vineyard 
Sound and Buzzards Bay. (Limited to species occurring at o or more stations.) 
CœEELENTERATA: 
Eudendrium dispar.--Vineyard Sound to Bay of Fundy. (N.) 
Alcyonium carneum.--Rhode Island to Gulf of St. Lawrence. (N.) 
ECHINODERMATA: 
Asterias vulgaris.--Labrador to Cape Hatteras, but hot littoral south of Woods Hole. (N.) 
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis.---Circumpolar, south to New Jersey. (N.) 
CRUSTACEA: 
Calliopius loeviusculus.--Narragansett Bay to Greenland. (N.) 
Pontogenia inermis.--Vineyard Sotmd to Arctic Ocean. (N.) 
Pagurus acadianus.--Grand Bank to mouth of Chesapeake Bay. (N.) 
Ovalipes ocellatus.---Cape Cod to Gulf of Mexico. (S.) 
MOLLUSCA : 
Pcctcn magellanicus.--Labrador to Cape Hattcras. (N.) 
Modiolaria nigra.--Arctic seas to Cape Hattcras. (N.) 
Crcnclla glandula.--Arctic seas to Cape Hattcras. (N.) 
Vcncricardia borealis.--Arctic scas to off Cape Hatteras. (N.) 
Astarte undata.--Gulf of St. Lawrcncc to Cape Hatteras. (N. and 
Cyclas islandica.--Arctic Occan to Cape Hattcras [in decp watcr]. (N.) 
Thracia conradi.--Labrador to Cape Hattcras. (N.) 
Buccinum undatum.--Arctic seas to Charleston Harbor. (N.) 
Crucibulum striatum.--Nova Scotia to Florida Kcys. (S.) 

a 8ee p. x84 for standard employed in grouping species as "northward ranging" or "southward ranging " 
b Ovalipes and Lophopsetta. indeed, are knowa to occur on sand flats at various points throughout the region irrpectlve o[ 
temperature. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 75 

TUNICATA : 
Molgula arenata.--New Haven to Nantncket. (?) 
Eng-yra glntinans. (N.) 
PISCES: 
Lophopsetta maculata.--Casco Bay to South Carolina. (S.) 
Passing reference should likewise be ruade to certain species which were taken at 
less than o stations, and which, therefore, are hot included among those charted. 
Some of t hese species are Polymastia robusta (a sponge), Tealia crassicornis (an anemone), 
Ophiopholis aculeata (an ophiuroid), Thyone unisendta (a holothurian), Pandalus lep- 
tocerus (a shrimp), and Hyas coarctatus (a crab). Each of these has been recorded 
more than once at the open ends of the Bay and the Sound, but never, so far as we know, 
in the more inclosed waters. 
For the sake of comparison with the foregoing, a list is presented herewith com- 
prising those species which were taken at two or more of the seven regular Survey stations 
at Crab Ledge, off Chatham. Here, as stated above (p. 5),'the bottom temperature of 
the water in summer is considerably lower than at the western end of Vineyard Sound, 
and many degrees lower than in the greater part of the area dredged by us. 
XI.--Species dred9cd at 2 or more o[ thc 7 Survcy stations at Crab Led9e. 

FORAMINIFERA : 
l)iscorbina rosacea (3)- 
PORIFERA : 
Polymastia robusta 
Halichondria panicea 
Desmacidon palmata (6). 
HYDROZOA : 
Eudendrium ramosum (2). 
Hydractinia echinata (7)- 
Tubularia tenella (3)- 
Tubularia crocea (6). 
Sertularella tricuspidata (3)- 
ACTINOZOA ." 
Metridium dianthus (5)- 
Alcyonium carneum (3)- 
BR¥OZOA: 
(Not listed for these stations individually.) 
ASTEROIDEA : 
Henrlcia sanguinolenta (5)- 
Asterias austera (6). 
Asterias vulgaris (7)- 
OPHIUROIDEA : 
Ophiopholis a¢uleata (6). 
ECHINOIDEA : 
Strongdocentrotug droebachiensis 
ANNUOEATA : 
Harmothoë imbricata (3)- 
Nereis pelagica (5)- 
Nothria conchylegia (2). 
Thelepus cincinnatus (6). 
Pseudopotamilla oculifera (4). 
Chœetinopoma greenlandica (2). 
Filograna implexa (5)- 

AMPHIPODA : 
Ericthonius rubricornis (2). 
I)ICAPODA : 
Pagurus acadianus (6). 
Pagurus kroyeri (4)- 
Hyas coarctatus (5). 
Cancer irroratus (3)- 
PELECYPODA : 
Anomia simplex 
Anomia aculeata (4)- 
Pecten magellanicus (4). 
Mytilus edulis (2). 
Modiolus modiolus (6). 
Modiolaria loevigata (5)- 
Venericardia borealis (3)- 
Astarte undata (3)- 
Cyclas islandica (2). 
Spisula solidissima (4). 
Thracia septentrionalis (2). 
Saxicava arctica (4)- 
Cyrtodaria siliqua (3)- 
GASTROPODA : 
Coryphella salmonacea (3)- 
Buccinum undatum (6). 
Chrysodomus decemcostatus 
Tritonofusus stimpsoni (3)- 
Boreoscala groenlandica (S)- 
Polynices triseriata (2). 
Velutina zonata (2). 
TUNICATA : 
Halocynthia echinata (2). 
Amaroucium stellatum (3)- 
Didemnum lutarium (6). 



76 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
Among the foregoing species, the following bave been already mentioned as 
restricted, in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, chiefly or wholly to the colder waters 
adjoining the open ocean: Polymastia robusta, Alcyoniwm carneum, Asterias z'ulgaris, 
Ophiopholis aculcata, Slrongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Paguru.s acadianu.s, Hyas coarc- 
tatus, Pecten agellanicus, l'ewricardia borealis, Astartc -undata, Cyclas islandig, Buc- 
cinum undatum. In reality the numbcr of those species which are common to Crab 
Ledge and the colder parts of Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, but which are hot 
encountered clsewhere in local waters, is considerably greater than this brief list would 
imply. 
A contrary condition is round in the case of certain species which are of general 
distribution throughout Vineyard Sound, and in many cases throughout Buzzards Bay 
as well, but which are nearly or quite absent from just those waters to which the fore- 
going species seem best adapted. The following is a partial list of such, based upon an 
examination of the distribution charts. 
XII. Spccics which appear fo bc scarce or lacking in thc colder waters o] Vineyard So.und 
and Buzïards Bay. (Limited to species which occur at o or more stations of the 
Survey.) 
COELENTERATA: 
Astrangia danœe.--Florida to Cape Cod. (S.) 
Thuiaria argentea.--North Polar regions to Maryland. (N.) 
ECHINODERMATA: 
Arbacia punctulata.--Nantucket Shoals to Yucatan. (S.) 
ANNI_OEATA: 
Lumbrineris hebes.--Casco Bay fo New Jersey. (N. and 
Hydroides dianthus.--Massachusetts Bay to Charleston, South Carolina. (S.) 
CRUSTACEA : 
Batea secunda.Local. (?) 
Pagurus annulipes.--Nantucket Sound to Ylorida. (S.) 
Pelia mutica.--Vineyard Sound to Florida. (S.) 
Neopanopc texana sayi.--Cape Cod to Florida. (S.) 
PYCNOGONIDA : 
Anoplodactylus lentus.--Long Island Sound, Vineyard Sotmd, Eastport,  record. (?) 
Tanystylum orbiculare.--Marthas Vineyard to Virginia. (S.) 
].I OLLUSCA : 
Vermicularia spirata.--New England to West Indies. (S). 
Choetopleura apiculata.--Cape Cod to West Indies. (S). 
TUNICA'fA: 
Perophora viridis.--Woods Holc to Beaufort, N. C., and Bermuda. (S.) 
Styela partita.--Massachusetts Bay to North Carolina. (S.) 
Amaroucium stcllatum.--Capc Cod to North Carolina.? (S.) 
Amaroucium peIIucidum.--Vineyard Sound to North Carolina. (S.) 
It will be noted that onlv one of these species bas a predominantly northern range 
upon out coast. It is also to be pointed out that, with a single exception (A maroucium 
stcllatum), none of these species have been recorded by us from Crab Ledge. a We 
do hot wish to lay undue emphasis upon such correspondences, hovever. It is likely 
that some of these species actuallv occur at Crab Ledge, in spite of out failure to find 
them. It is likewi probable for some of them, at least, that their distribution in 
o I. e., hot once. XVe do hot here refer to the above table of sl0ecies taken two or taore rimes 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

77 

Vineyard Sound is not determined by temperature, but by the character of the bottom. 
Nevertheless, after making these allowances, the significance of the facts discussed upon 
the last few pages can scarcelv be doubted. 

4. THE AVERAGE YIELD OF THE DREDGE HAULS. 

Another method of portraying synoptically the general facies of our local fauna, as 
revealed by the dredge, is to present the average composition of the dredge hauls. This 
we have computed for the Survey as a whole, and for the separate groups of stations 
which have been distinguished above; for the animal kingdom as a whole, and for its 
main subdivisions. In the following tables certain groups which were represented very 
sparingly in out dredgings, or which were not looked for systematically, and certain 
others which do hot properly belong to the benthos have been omitted. 

I. Avera9e nunber o[ 9enera and species o[ animals taken per dredgc haul. 

Genera. SDecies. 
Survey as a whole (458 stations) .................... ç ........ 34- 3 37- o 
Fish Hawk, Vineyard 8ound (2t8 stations) ............ 33- 7 36. 5 
Fish Hawk, Buzzards Bay (66 stations) ................. 36. 3 38. 7 
Fish Hawk, Crab Ledge (7 stations) ........................... 37- o 39. 7 
Phalarope and Blue Wing, Vineyard Sound (77 stations).. 32. I 35- « 
Phalarope, Buzzards Bay (9 ° stations) ................... 36. o 38. 5 

While there is a rather surprising uniformity amongst these figures, it will be noted 
that the average number of species is slightly greater for the Fish Hawk than for the 
Phalarope stations; likewise that it is greater for Buzzards Bay than for Vineyard Soud, 
and greatest of all for Crab Ledge. It is of interest, likewise, that the average number [ 
of genera per dredge haul is nearly equal to that of the species. This point will be 
discussed later. 

II..4vcra9e nurnber o[ 9encra and species [or the 458 re9ular stations o[ the Sur'vey, showin 9 
represodatio.n o[ cach 9roup o[ aninals. 

Potinera ................. 7 
Hydrozoa .... [ *- 4 
Actinozoa ..... 4 
Nemertinea.. . o4 
Bryozoa ....... 2.8 
Asteroidea ..... 8 
Ophiuroidea ...... x 
Echinoidea ...... 8 
Holothuroidea.. . o8 
Annulata .... 4. 8 
Sipunculida.. • 05 

Species. 
-7 
.4 
• o 5 
.8 
4-3 

GtouD. 

Cirripedia .... 
De¢-apoda ..... 
Amphipoda... 
Isoi)oda ........ 
Pycnogonida... 
Pelecypoda ............ 
Amphineura ...... 
Gastropoda .... 
Cephalopoda... 
Tunicata ...... 
Pisces .......... 

Si»ecies. 
-4 
3-5 
-4 
6.8 

In the foregohag table, it is nearly certain that the figures for certain groups, 
especially, perhaps, for the Porifera, do hot fairly represent the number of these forms. 
For this reason, indeed, the Foraminifera have been omitted altogether. As stated in 
another section (p. 9), the Foraminifera were looked for systematically during one 
season only, while the Porifera at no rime received adequate attention. 



78 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
III. Average mtmber ol species per dredge haul lot lhe two vessels and the two bodies o] 
water considered separatdy. 

Group. 

Porifera .......... 
Hydrozoa .......... 
Actinozoa.. _ 
Nemertinea ..... ' 
Asteroidea ...... 
Ophiuroidea ...... 
Echinoidea ......... 
Holothuoridea ........ 
Annnlata .................. 
il3un¢ulida ...... 
Cirripedia ........ 
Amphipoda ..................... 
Isopoda ............. 
De¢aDoda ............... 
PyoEogonida ............ 
lele¢ypoda .......... 
)Lmphinenra ...... 
Gastropoda ....... 
Cephalopoda ....... 
Tunicata ................. 
Pisces ..................... 

Fish Hawk stations. 

Vineyard uzzards 
Sound 
(x8). Bay (66). 
0.6 o. 8 
2.0 -7 
3-4 
3-5 
•4 
1.8 
-3 
3.8 
5-4 
-3 

PhalaroDe and Blue 
XVing stationS• 

Crab Ledge 
(7). 
2-3 0-9 
3-9 I-I 
I.I "4 
(a) 3- o 
3-0 x.o 
......... • o 
5-9 4-6 
• 7 t-9 
3"3 3 - 

L5 7.4 
7-4 4-7 
• 4 3-3 
x-3 -4 

Vineyard Buzzards 
Sound Bay (90)• 
.8 
-4 
.6 
-4 
4-6 
-3 
?-5 IX. 6 
7-2 9" 
1.6 "7 
.6 

a The Crab Ledge ISr-ozoa have hot been listed by stations. 

In a similar way we have represented the wealth in species of each of the types of 
bottom which have been distinguished (see p. 70). 

IV. Avera9e nurnber o] 9entra amt species per dredge haul /or the thrce types o] bottom. 

Genera. Species. 
Sand (zTo) ........................... 33- 6 36. 5 
Gravel and stones (z67) ........... 35. 3 38. o 
Mud (112) .................................................. 34- 8 37- 2 
While there is here, likewise, a rather surprising uniformity among the figures, it is 
to be noted that the number of species is greatest for the stony bottoms and least for the 
sandy ones. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 79 
V. Aerage number o species per dredge haul, showing the representation o the various 
groups o] animals on each type o] bottom. 

Group. 
lori[era ......................................................................................... 
I-Iydrozoa ....................................................................................... 
Actinozoa ....................................................................................... 
Nemertinea ................................................................................. 
B ryozoa ............................................................................. 
Astoidea ........................................... 
Ophiuroidea .................................................................. 
Echinoidea ........................................................ 
ttolothuroidea ............................. 
Annulata .................................................................... 
Sipuculida ................................................................. 
Cirripedia ............................ 
Amphipoda ............................................................ 
Isopoda .............................................................. 

I)ecapoda .......... 
l°ytmogoida .... 
Pelecypoda ............... 
Amphineura ............... 
Gastropoda ............... 
Tunicata .............. 
l°isces ....................... 

(rave: 
stones, 
.7 
.o 
3-7 
.8 
.o 
4.7 
-4 
-4 
3-5 
-3 
6.7 
-7 

Mud. 

o. S 
8 
.3 
.6 
.4 
.os 
.4 
3-6 
.03 

To what degree such figures as the foregoing, giving the average number of species 
per dredge haul, represent the actual wealth in species of the various subdivisions of our 
local sea bottom can hOt be stated with certainty. Whether, for example, the greater 
number of species per dredge haul found in Buzzards Bay denotes an actually greater 
number of species per unit area of sea floor, is hot self-evident. It is plain that the 
dredge must eut more deeply into a bottom of soif mud than into one of hard sand or 
gravel, and that therefore a larger proportion of burrowing organisms vill be obtained 
in the former. It scems quite possible, therefore, that the excess in favor of Buzzards 
Bay has been exaggerated, or that it does hOt exist at ail. 
Now, an inspection of table ri, showing the total number of species taken at each 
of the rive groups of stations, reveals the fact that the number of species taken by 
the Fish Hawk in Vineyard Sound is about 25 per cent greater than that taken in 
Buzzards Bay. But it must likewise be borne in mind that the number of Fish Hawk 
stations in Vineyard Sound was over three rimes as great as that in Buzzards Bay, 
thus rendering probable the capture of a larger number of the less common species. In 
fact, it will be noticed that the figures expressing the total number of species for each 
of these groups of stations may be arrangcd in the saine order as those expressing the 
number of stations in each group, a We nevertheless think it likely, in view of ail our 
data, that the actual number of species inhabiting Vineyard Sound is greater than that 
inhabiting Buzzards Bay. This is probably due to the fact that the bottom of the former 

a That the number of species in each case is in no sense proportional to the number of stations is, however, quite plain. 



8o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

presents a greater diversity of conditions than that of the latter, rendering it a fit habi- 
tation for a greater variety of life. Such a view is in no way inconsistent with the 
supposition that the number of species per uni area is as great, or even greater, in 
Buzzards Bay. This xnatter will be referred to later. 

VI. NUMBER OF SPEClES TAKEN ONE OR IIORE TIMES ]ï)URING THE ]ï)REDGING. a 

(roup. 

Vineyard Sotmd. Buzzards Bay. 

Fish Phala- 
I-Iawk. tope. 
Foraminffera ..................................... x7 
Pori[era ................................ 9 8 
[-Iydrozoa ................................ 14 
Nemertinea .......................... 2 ........ 
Bryozoa .................................... 29 ! 
&steroidea .......................................... 3 
Dphluroldea .................................. 2 Z 
Echinoidea .................................. 3 
Holothuroidea ..................................  
Annulata .......................................... 5 41 
Sipunculida ........................... x 
Dstracoda ........................................ 2o .......... 
irripedia ............................................ 2 x 
Amphipoda ......................................... 25 
[sopoda ....................................... 6 6 
chizopoda ................................. l(+?) z(+?) 
Decapoda ................................. 20 
Pycnogonida ............................ 2 
Kiphosura ..................... i .......... 
Pelecypoda ...................... 49 36 
mphineura .................... x 
3EEastropoda ............ a8 34 
2ephalopoda ........... x .......... 
Funicata ....................... t6 
?isces ..................... 
Total .................. 345 243 

Crab 
Fish Phala- Total. ledge. 
Total. I-Iawk. tope. 

I8 ! ........ I9 19 
xo 5 7 9 
16 7 9 9 
3 3 3 3 
2 2 2 3 x 
2 2 X 2 .......... 
60 38 38 48 x7 
2 [ 2 3 .......... 
2o .......... 5 5 ......... 
2 9 1I I8 20 
8 2 9 9 .......... 
z(+?) .......... ff+?) z(+?) x 
2x xx 15 x7 9 
49 38 4 ° 43 
48 30 42 47 ' 
z7 4 8 9' 8 
384 I94 255 3oo b z 

a This table relates to the "' regular" stations only. Species of uncertain identity have been included 
mined ones in these computations. 
b Bryozoa hot included. 

along with the deter. 

5. EXPLANATION OF THE FAUNAL CATALOGUE. 

Part ZlZ of the present work consists of a catalogue or annotated list of the fauna 
of the XVoods Hole region. The extent of territory comprised within the limits of the 
"Woods Hole Region," as here conceived, has alreadv been indicated in chapter I, of 
the present volume, where we have likewise discussed the sources of information upon 
which the present catalogue is based. 
It is true that an insignificant proportion, numericallv considered, of those who fre- 
quent the laboratories at Woods Hole at the present rime are interested primarily in 
systematic zoology or botany. But every working biologist, whatever his specialty, 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

deals with one or more species of animals or plants, which constitute, or at least fur- 
nish him with, the raw materials for his research. Thus, it is of advantage to all that 
a carefully prepared list of these organisms should be published, if regarded merely as a 
catalogue of available material. And it will, ve trust, be of additional advantage to 
have at hand a single reference work which shall embody the nomenclature most recently 
adopted foï these species by some of our most competent systematic experts. Confu- 
sion will, we think, be minimized by the existence of some standard, even though this 
standard may be a fallible one. 
In the present catalogue we are offering, however, far more than a mere list of 
species. We have gathered together all available data regarding distribution within 
local waters, seasonal occurrence, reproduction, etc., and have added various ecological 
notes, where these have seemed appropriate. It is our hope that these data may be of 
service to those who are in search of material for embryological or other studies. And 
we further hope that thb decidedly meager notes which we offer may constitute a nucleus 
for future growth in this direction. 
It must be emphasized that we do not in anv sense gua.rantee the trustworthiness 
of all the records herein contained. A large proportion of them have been included 
wholly upon the authofity of others, whose names are mentioned in the text. Many 
species are included, indeed, which have never been seen either by the present writers 
or by the specialists vho have collaborated with us. While such citations are, in most 
cases, bascd u9on the statements of recognized authofities, it is more than possible 
that in some cases they rest upon errors of observation or of identification. But it 
would have een a very difficult task to cull out such mistakes, and we have therefore 
included all records based upon the statements of persons believed to be trustworthy, 
unless xve happen to have definite evidence that these statements were erroneous. The 
mere failure of subsequent observers to find a species which had been included in one 
of the earlier lists is not to be regarded as decisive evidence of an error, in view of the 
known instances of change in the population of our local waters. 
Due credit has been given in a large proportion of cases to the authoritv for each 
statement ruade, the naine of this person being inserted at the close of the citation. 
The person cited is responsible only for so much of the statement as immediately 
precedes his naine. Independent citations are in nearly all cases separated by 
periods. In many instances the statement cited has never been published by the 
hldividual referred to, but has been communicated to one of the present authors orallv 
or recorded in manuscript. Where no authority has been indicated for a given state- 
ment we mean either (i) that the present authors are themselves responsible for the 
observation, or (2) that the fact stated is a mattr of common knowledge to a large 
number of observers, or (3), in certain self-evident cases, that the bibliographic reference 
indicates the authoritv for the statement. 
With most groups of animals, as already stated, a certain proportion of the specimens 
collected were referred to specialists for identification. Since the value of a record 
depends, in great measure, upon the trustworthiness of the identification, xve have 
indicated in a large number of caseg, the authoritv for the latter. The symbols (* and 
the like) denote that specimens from the localities so designated have been dentified 
by persons mentioned in a foot note at the commencement of the list. In the case 
of those organisms specimens of which were invariably referred to specialists, symbols 
6269 °-Bull. 5, pt x--x36 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

have been omitted in connection with the records, the general acknowledgments in 
chapter IV being regarded as suflïcient. In other cases, failure to mention the authofity 
for a determination implies that the specimen was identified by one of the present authors. 
This is truc of the great majority of readily recognizable species belonging to various 
phyla. 
It must be borne in mind that the number of specimens reeorded for a given 
station represents, in many cases, the number saved and listed, rather than the number 
actually brought in by the dredge. For many animals, especially minute ones, the 
former figure may give no adequate idea of the relatix, e abundance of the species in a 
given dredge haul. 
The bibliographic references under each species will be round tobe very limited 
in number, and to include, with a few exceptions, only those works which mention the 
occurrence of this species within the limits of the region here under consideration. One 
work has been regularly included, however, even in cases where no mention was 
ruade of Woods Hole or vicinity by the authors. This is the "Report upon the 
Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound" by Verrill and Smith 0873). Likewise, in 
the list of mollusks, we have regulafly included page references to Binney's edition of 
Gould's "Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts," and for the fishes references 
to Jordan and Evermann's "Fishes of North and Middle America." 14 has hOt been 
thought worth while to cite the first description of each species nor ex,en to re_fer 
to any description or figure. To have included these would doubtless have added 
considerably to the usefulness of this report, but we need onlv remind the reader that 
the search for such few bibliographic citations as are here offered required many months 
of thoroughly uninspiring labor. In many cases reference to original descriptions and 
figures may be found in one or another of the works here cited. Bibliographic lists, 
limited almost wholly to the works referred to in connection with the separate species, 
have been appended to the zoological and botanical sections of the catalogue. 
In order to facilitate the finding of a species which has been listed by a naine unfa- 
miliar to the reader, a certain number of synonyms have been included in connection 
with the bibliographic references. Only those names are included, however, bv which 
the species in question has been designated in the various works relating to our local 
fauna. The synonyms here listed are all included in the systematic index. This will 
probably tender possible the finding of a desired species in a large proportion of cases. 
As respects classification and .nomenclature, we have found it expedient, and 
indeed unavoidable, to follow within each group some one authority, this authority 
being, in most cases, the saine person vho has been responsible for the identification 
of out species. Only thus has it been possible to avoid a quite interminable examina- 
tion of the literature on our part. This precedure has frequently led to out being 
obliged to substitute quite unfamiliar names for ones long current among American 
biologists, and to our listing under separate genera species which, to everyone but the 
taxonomist, are scarcely distinguishable from one another as species. No one could 
deplore more than we do the necessity for such changes, and this regret is the keener 
because of the confidence we feel that many of these names are hot the ones that will 
ultimately stand. 
Several years' experience in the preparation of our faunal catalogue has brought 
home to us in a forcible way some of the most exasperating of the evils relating to 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

83 

zoologieal nomenclature. Indeed, it is upon the authors of works like this, who nlake 
extensive use of taxonomie names, while having very little share in their ereation or 
transmutation, that these evils perhaps fall most heavily. 
On the other hand, we realize that there are many sides to this perplexing question, 
and that many of the generic and specific names in eurrent use among Woods Hole 
biologists are entirely un]ustified, as ]udged by any standard except local usage. Those 
who revoit beeause the long-cherished naine of a favorite species has been replaced by a 
totally urlfamiliar one, must be reminded that this is not always due to the caprice of 
some perverse "speeies monger." Nor are these changes in all cases due to the dis- 
eovery that some long-forgotten naine has "priority." There are several other (legiti- 
mate) reasons for changing the naine of a species, of which mention may be ruade of 
two. () Careful eomparison mav reveal the fact that two supposedly distinct species 
dwelling in different parts of the world are, in reality, identical. One or the other naine 
must be given up. Thus, we have over and over again been obliged to abandon names 
given by earlier American zoologists to species found upon the shores of the New World. 
We need only mention the "Spongia sulphurea" of Desor (=Cliona celata Grant), the 
"Hydractinia polyclina" of Agassiz (now bclieved to be identieal with H. echinata 
Fleming), or the "'Ascidia tendla" of Stimpson (Ciona intestinalis (Linnœeus)). In 
such cases, the changes may at first jar upon our ner-ces, but they must be accepted. 
(_-,) More complete knowledge of a species may show that its systematic position has 
at first been misunderstood. Here, as in the first case, we are not dealing with rules of 
nomenclature, but with facts. If the facts demand it, the species must be assigned to 
another genus. The most severe critics of our systematic brethren would hardly doubt 
the wisdom of removing the toadfish from the genus Gadus, to which it had been assigned 
by Linnœeus; nor the expediency of so restricting the genus Nautilus as to exclude the 
spiral Foranfinifera ! 
Many cases are sure to arise, however, when the mere user of zoological names--and 
to this class belong the great maiority of present day zoologists--may well query whether 
the more refined grouping of species could not better be carried out within the linfits 
of the genus itself. The latter procedure bas the advantage of leaving the generic 
naine (and therefore the full naine of the species) unaltered. It is not so much for the 
changing of their conceptions of relationship that systematic zoologists are criticised so 
sharply as for their persistent changing of the names which we are all obliged to use 
and which we must learn anew as often as substitutes are offered by accredited 
authorities. This criticism derives particular force from the fact that there is no general 
agreement as to how inclusive a division the genus shall be. It is safe to say that at the 
present time the "genera" of some groups of the animal kingdom are as inclusive as the 
"familles" of certain others, while the "genera" of these latter may correspond more 
nearly to the "subgenera" of the first. 
It will be understood without further explanation why we have not adopted the 
practice, current among certain systematists, of including the subgeneric naine, in 
parenth..esis, as an integral part of the naine of a species. The subgenus is of interest 
only to the systematist, who may readilv find it by reference to the appropriate sys- 
tematic treatise. The naine of the species is complete without it, and the biologist at 
large should not be burdened by having to learn trinomials of this sort. 



8 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
6. SYNOP$IS OF TH FAUNAL CATALOGUE. 
A table bas been prepared showin the total number of familles, enem, and species 
iomifised in out annotated list, rouped accordin to the larder divisions of the animal 
kindom; likewise the number whiih bave been recorded durîng out dredgng opertons 
and the umber of those encountered whieh had hot previousl been listed for local 
waters. In this table species have been entered as doubtful, either because the determi- 
nation of the species was ruade with doubt, or because of uncertainty whether the 
specimens taken really carne from within the region here considered, a 
In the "undetermined" column are included species which bave been referred to 
a genus but hot to a species, provided only that no determined member of the saine 
genus has also been listed with which the species in question may be identicaI. 
Species have been listed as "' taken by dredge" which were recorded either from the 
regular dredging stations of the survey or from any of out supplementary stations, 
numbered or unnumbered. 
Species have been listed as "added to fauna of region" when it is believed that their 
local occurrence was recorded for the first time, either as a result of the survey dredging 
or of the other collecting operations which were carried on during these saine years by 
members of the laboratory staff or by investigators who bave cooperated in the work. 
In many cases, it is true, these additions to out local fauna bave been announced in 
other publications, but their inclusion here seems none the less justifiable. 
SYNOPTIC TABLE OF SPECIES COMPRISED IN ANNOTATED LIST. 

Groups of organisms. 

lrotozoa .................... 
Potinera ............................................ 
Hydrozoa ........................................ 
Scyhozoa ................................. 
Actinozoa ............ 
Ctenotahora ......................................... 
Turbellaria b ........................................ 
Trematoda .......................................... 
Cestoda ............................................. 
Nemertinea ......................................... 
Nemathelminthes ................................... 
Choetognatha ..................................... 
Dinolahilea .......................................... 
Bryozoa ............................................. 
Asteroidea ......................................... 
Otahiuroidea ......................................... 
Echinoidea .......................................... 
Holothuroidea ....................................... 
Polychoeta .......................................... 
Oligochoeta .......................................... 
Hirndinea ........................................... 
Siiaunculida ......................................... 

Number of 
families 
sented. 

(?) 
8 
4(+x?) 
9 
(?) 
4 
4 

Number of 
gera. 

(+?) 
9 
4 
5 
98 
8 
3 

Nttmber of species 
(total). 

Deter- Undeter- 
mined, mined. 
99 
(+?) s 
:(+8?) .......... 
;(÷I?) .... 
(+3 ?) .... 
(+_-?) 
;(+x?) 
(+s?) 
6(+s?) ............ 
I33(-1-67) 
4 

a Certain species only recorded from be,ond the 20-fathom line. and thus taerhaps somewhat extralimital, are also here listed. 
b The species added b, von Graff (zgzz) bave been inclUded in this table. Von Graff's families are likewise included in 
the computation. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 
/NOPTIC TABLE OF SPECIES COMPRISED IN ANNOTATED LlsT--Continued. 

85 

Groups ci organisms. 

Number of 

Ostracoda ........ 
Copepoda (free)..... 

Copepoda (parasitic) .......................... 
Cirripedia ........... 
Amphipoda... 
Isopoda ............... 
Cumacea ......... 
Stomatopoda.. 
Schizopoda .... 
Decapoda ......... 
¢.iphosur a .......................................... 
Pycnogonida ........................... 
Arachnida ................................. 
Insecta .............................................. 
Pelecypoda ........................................ 
Amphineura ........................................ 
Gastropoda ................................. 
Cephalopoda ........................................ 
Enteropneusta ...................................... 
Tunicata ............................................ 
Pisces .............................................. ' 
Reptilia ............................................. 
llammalia .......................................... 

Total ....  ..................................... 

families 
sented. 

s(+?) 
3 
8 
4 
22(+2?) 
3 
20 
5(+z?) 

Number o! 
genera. 

(+x?) 
(+?) 
3 
(+?) 
4 
(+?) 

Number of species 
(total). 

Deter- 
mined. 

(+x?) 
6 
35(+i?) 
58(+2?) 
25(+3?) 
8(+?) 
3 
$ 
sz(+4?) 
5(+i?) 

SDecies 
added to 
fauna o| 
region. 

(?) 
4 
3 
99 
4 
6 

472(+?) 

8 
4 
x88(+27) 
5 

z6 
70(+6?) 
z9(+97) 
4 
22(+5?) 
347(+5?) 
5 

Species 
taken by 
Undeter- dredge. 
mined. 
.......... (+x?) 
3 35 
........... K+?) 
........... 27(+2?) 
........... 4 

I,O85(+s?) 

75 

z,625(+82 ?) 

I(+?) 
4 

Z3 

57 6 
65(+3?) xT(+?) 
14(+67) 3(+5 ? ) 
30 6(+z?) 
43 5zo(+2 ? ) z84(+ ?) 

7. COMPARISON OF THE WOODS HOLE CATALOGUE WITH OERTAIN OTHERS. 

WhiIe it is no part of our present plan to enter into a historical discussion of the 
progress which has been ruade in cataloguing the marine fauna and flora of other parts 
of the world, it has seemed worth while to compare out own annotated list with certain 
others, both American and European. Accordingly, we have presented in parallel 
columns the number of species belonging to each group which have been listed for 
Vineyard Sound and adjacent vaters by Verrill and Smith (1873); for eastern Canada 
by Whiteaves (1901); for the vicinity of Plymouth, England, by the Marine Biological 
Association (19o4); for the Irish Sea by Herdman and his colleagues (1896); and for 
the Gulf of Trieste by Graeffe (188o-19o3). 
The work of A. E. Verrill and S. I. Smith, which appeared in the first report of the 
United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, was the most ambitious attempt 
which had yet been ruade to catalogue the fauna of any section of out coast. While 
nominally a "Report upon the Invertebrate Fauna of Vineyard Sound and the Adjacent 
Waters," and baed primarily upon the earliest dredging operations of the United States 
Fish Commission, the scope of this work extended to the whole southern shore of New 
England, and incidentally to more distant points. The report is divided into two chier 



86 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

sections, the first of which comprises a discussion of the fauna, according to particular 
habitats and types.of bottom (e. g., "rocky shores of the bars and sounds," "muddy 
bottoms off the open coast," etc.), the second being constituted bv the catalogue or 
annotated list, together wdth a considerable number of descriptions and figures. The 
former section contains an extensive mine of ecological facts of interest and value, and 
despite the somewhat loose and desultory method of treatment the work will remain a 
classic in American marine ecology. In all, over 65o species were listed by these authors, 
a considerable number of these being described as new to science. The range of each 
species, so far as known, was stated, along with its bathymetric distribution and other 
facts in its natural history. 
In preparing out own catalogue of the fauna, we have incorporated all the species 
recorded from the "Report upon the Invertebrate Animals of Vinevard Souud," excepting 
such as are plainly extralimital, or such as are believed to have been wrongly identified. 
A detailed comparison of the two lists furnishes some evidence of a certain amotmt of 
change in the composition of out fauna during the past 40 years. Examples of such 
changes xdll be discussed in their proper place. 
Since the publication of the report of Verrill and Smith no work has appeared upon 
American marine ecology of a magnitude at all comparable vdth it. Annotated lists 
of species have been published, which have amended and extended the records of that 
report; but these, for the most part, have been restricted to single divisions of the animal 
kingdom and have given the bare data of distribution, with but slight comment. 
Probably the most comprehensive of these recent annotated lists dealing with the 
marine fauna of any portion of the Atlantic coast of the American continent is 
Whiteaves's "Catalogue of the Marine Invertebrata of Eastern Canada." This work 
lists more than a thousand species of invertebrate animals, and is said to consist "of 
a systematic list of all the species from the eastern Canadian seaboard that have 
been so far identified or described, with notes on their geographical distri[mtîon and 
bathymetrical range." 
In order to compare the fauna of these two sections of the American coast, belong- 
ing to two recognized zoogeographical "regions," we have indicated in out table the 
number of species belonging to each major group, which are common to the Voods 
Hole and the Canadian lists. These figures are probably, in some cases, too low, owing 
to out failure to recognize the saine species under two different names. 
Ever since the days of Edward Forbes the exploration of English waters by means 
of the dredge has been actively prosecuted, and the fauna of various sections of the coast 
bas been catalogued. In recent years the two principal centers for English faunistic 
studies have been Plvmouth and Liverpool. Commencing with the foundation of the 
Plymouth laboratory in 1887, the waters of that region bave been diligently explored, 
and from time to rime lists have been published comprising the entire known fauna 
and flora or particular groups of organisms, a The last of these inclusive lists vas 
published in 19o4 and embraced all pre»-ious records, so far as they vere believed to 
be authentic, b Over 1,2oo species of invertebrate animais are catalogued in this 
report, which includes copious notes upon local distribution, reproduction, and gen- 
eral ecology. 

a These may be fotmd in the Journal of the farine Biologica! Association. from x887 to the presetxt tlme. 
 Even this list has been supplemeated to some extent. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVIY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 8 7 

In its scope this Plymouth census covers an area which "roughly speaking ..... 
may be said to lie within a radius of 15 mlles from the laboratory," and "extends from 
the shore to a depth of 3 ° to 35 fathoms." The area is thus somewhat smaller than is 
comprised within the Woods Hole region, a as we have defined it, though considerably 
greater depths have been included. But the scope of the two catalogues is fairly com- 
parable, save for the exclusion of vertebrates from the Plymouth list, and some instruc- 
tive comparisons are possible. In the Plymouth region, as in out own, systematic 
dredging has been carfied on throughout considerable areas. Indeed the biological 
survey conducte.d by E. J. Allen b and his colleagues in adjacent portions of the English 
Channel appears to be one of the most exhaustive investigations extant of the rela- 
tions between fauna and bottom deposits. 
Commencing with I885, another group of English biologists, under the lead of 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, have been engaged in a systematic study of the fauna of the 
Irish Sea. e Especial attention has been devoted to Liverpool Bay and to the vicinity 
of the Isle of Man, but a large part of the bottom of the Irish Sea has been explored, 
and the fauna and bottom deposits have been analyzed with great thoroughness. The 
results of this work bave been communicated from rime to rime in the Reports of the 
Liverpool Marine Biology Committee, in the Transactions of the Liverpool Marine 
Biological Society, in the Reports of the British Association, as well as in a separate 
series of volumes entitled "Fauna of Liverpool Bay" (no. x-v). A complete list of the 
species recorded up to that date was published in the report of the British Association 
for x896, and a synopsis of this list has been included in out comparative table. 
The greater number, at least, of the leading biological stations of the world have 
devoted more or less attention to the enumeration of the organisms round in their 
inmediate vicinity. This is preeminently true of the Naples station, the pioneer 
among marine laboratories. One need allude only to the splendid monographs com- 
prised in the "Fauna und FloÆa" series, and to the less pretentious faunistic contri- 
butions published from time to rime in the "Mittheilungen" of the station. So far as 
we know, however, no single inclusive list of species has been published which renders 
possible, without great labor, a compafison with the fauna of Woods Hole. 
At the Trieste station, maintained by the Austrian Government on the Adriatic 
Sea, a census of the local marine fauna has for many years past been conducted by 
Graeffe (88o-I9o3), and lists of species have appeared comprising most of the chier 
divisions of the animal kingdom. Here, as at Plymouth, abundant data are recorded 
respecting reproduction and general ecology. In the last column of out comparative 
table we have indicated the number of species recorded by Graeffe for each group of 
animals. 
.t is obvious that these various faunal catalogues differ widely from one another 
in respect to their scope. Three of them are restricted to the invertebrates, while in 
only one (that of Woods Hole) are the marine birds listed. Likewise, at Woods Hole 
alone, among these stations, has any serious attempt been ruade to list the fish parasites, 
either the worms or the copepods. On the other hand, the Foraminifera and some 
other groups have received relatively little attention in out survey. 

a In reality, however, the vast majority of our records relate to a region d much smaller extent. 
b See Alletl (I899), p. 365-542. 
¢ Prof. Hcrdman had some years earlier taken part in a census o| the invertebrate fatma of the Firth of Forth. (Sec I,eslie 
and Herdman. x88L) 



88 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
Again, the areas comprised differ widely in their extent, ranging as they do from 
restricted bodies of water, such as the Gulf of Tfieste, to such extensive tracts of ocean 
as the Ifish Sea or the oeas rdefing the eastern coast of Canada. Even the report 
of Verrill and Smith, despite its title, covered a much wider terfitory than that dealt 
with in the prescrit work, and included greater depths of sea. Indeed, with the ex- 
ception of the waters of the Gu of Trieste, those of the Woeds Hole tenon, as here 
understood, are the most restficted among those considered in respect to bathymetfie 
range. 
It would hot be fait, therefore, to loek to tbe parallel columns of this table for 
any really accurate comparison of the faunas of the several ferons referred to, either 
in respoet to their wealth or their composition. Especial rese'ation must be ruade 
in accepting the figures repreoenting the number of scies common to Woods Hole 
and to Canada or Plymouth. Itis likely that the number of common species has been 
underestimated, partly owing to the diculty, without exhaustive research, of resolv- 
ing the synonymy of the vafious species; partly to the probable identity, not yet 
recogzed, of vafious European and Amefican forms. If due caution be exercised, 
however, we believe that facts of real value may be brought out by the comparison. 
Scies are heoe listed as doubtful which are either undetermined or of doubtful 
identity, provided that they are lieved tobe distinct from any others included in 
the saine list. Vafieties are omitted, except in those cases where the speeies is repre- 
sted only by one of its vafieties. 
SYNOPSIS O WOODS HOLE MANE FAUNA, AS COARED TH THAT O CERTAIN OTHER REGIO 
FOR WHICH LISTS HAVE BEEN PREPAD. 

Groups of orgmaisms. 

I 
Canada (Whiteaves). [ Pl-mouth. 
XVoods Verriii [ , 
Hole and 
(prestt Common 
report). Smith. to ] to Woods 
Hole. 

lrotozoa « ................. 
laoriIera .................... 
I-Iydrozoa .................. 
Scyphozoa ................. 
Actinozoa .................. 
Ctenophora ................. 
Turbellaria ................. 
Trematoda ................. 
Cestoda .................... 
2qemertinea ................ 
lemathelminthes .......... 
Chœetognatha ............... 
Dhaophilea ................. 
]3ryozoa ................. 
Brachiopoda .... 
Phoronis .... 
Asteroidea. 
Ophiuroidea ............. 
Echhaoidea ............... 
Hoiothuroidea.  ......... 
Crinoidea ........ 
lolychœeta b ... 

99(+5?) ........ 64 
2(+77) 8(+9?) 
x3(+87) 6o(+x?) 66 
5(+i?) 5(+2?) s 
I4(+3?) x 44 4 
8 4(+x?) 
4o(+x?) 9 4 
52(+4?) 
7x(+s?) ........... 
25(+I?) za(+s?) 
33(+5?) 
76(+5?) 
6 $ 9 5 
6 5  3 
4 4 3 
8(+i?) 6(+z?) zs 4 
3 
aa(+xo?) 88(+xa?) io5(+x?) 9 

x48 1o 

x9 
4(+i?) 
34(+6?) 
(2?) 
(+x?) 
• (+?) 

Irish Sea Trieste 
(I-Ierdman). (Graee). 
39 ............ 
58 
I29(+I?) 
6 9 
24 
24(+:?) ........... 

28(+4?) 

I2 zo 
7 8 
8 13 
87(+i?) "35 

a Of 98 Woods Iffo]e lrotozoa, only 29 are Foraminifera, while ail o[ those in the other coltttmas belong to the latter group. 
b Including Polygordiidœe. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 89 
SYNOPSIS OF WOODS ]-IoLE ]ARINE FAUNA, AS COMPARED WTH THAT OF CERTAIN OTHER ]EGIONS 
FOR WH/CH LISTS HAVE BEEN PREpAREDContinued. 

Groups of organisms. 

Dligochaeta ................. 
Myzostornida .............. 

7oods 
Hole 
(present 
report). 

Verrill 
and 
Smith. 

Canada (Wrhiteaves). 

iqumber Comraon 
of to XVoods 
species. Hole. 

Plymouth. 

Number Common 
of to Woods 
species. Hole. 
3 x 

Hirudinea ................. 
Gephyrea « ................ 
Phyllopoda ................ 
Ostracoda ................. 
Copepoda (free) ........... 
Copepoda (parasitic) ....... 
Cirripedia ................. 
Phyllocarida .................. 

5(+x?) ......................... 

Irish Sea 
(Herdman). 

2 
,(+?) 

3 2(+X?) 5(+I?) I 3 I 
2(+,?) , ......................... 3 2 
26 ............ 29(+97) IO 6 ............ 57(+X?) 
25(+17) ,(?) I(+,?) ............ 24 5 | 
58(+2?) ,9(+5?) 2(+x?) ............ x ............ / x95 
z5(+2?) z3 xo 6 zo 4 xo 

7o(+47) 2o 52 7(+z?) 
6 2 30 5 24 
,, 4(+z?) 6 z 
......................... I ....................... 
7 3 4 z z6 
34 z2 7I 3 

Amphipoda ................ 71(+67) 3x(+x27) 
lsopoda b .................. 25(+37) 2z 
Cumacea ................... 8(+2?) 
Stomatopoda ............... 3 
Schizopoda ................. 5 3( +' ? ) 
Decapoda .................. 5,(+4?) 36 
Xiphosura .................. z i 
pycnogonida ............... 5(+z?) z(+z?) 
Arachuida ................. z 2 
]nsecta ...................... 6(+x37} 
Pelecypoda ................. 7(+67) 84 
Amphineura ................ 2 
Gastropodae ............... ,29(+xo?) 

Trieste 
(Graeffe). 

3 
5 
4 
9 
56 
5 
5 
9 
3 

ai ,(+z?) 8 2(+,?) ,2 ........... 
zoe 55 86 5 zo8(+37) xo7 
8 z 6 ............ zo 5 
z6o 63 z64 z5 207(+3?) 285 

Scaphopoda .......................................... 5 ............ ' ............ 
Cephalopoda ............... 4 5 z 3 ............ z i ........... 
Enteropneusta ............. ! x , ............................................... 
Tunicata ................... 22(+t0?) 20(+5?) 27(+i? ) zo 36 2 
Cephalochorda .......................................................................................... 

3 2 
45(+'47) 75 
134 zSt 

,,828(+277) 1,449(+47) 
z,681(+277) : 

Reptilia .................... 
Aves ....................... 
Mammalia ...... 
Total ................. 
Invertebrates (including 
tunicates) ................ 
Vertebrates ................. 

247(+6?) ............................................................ 
S 
75 
x2(+37) ............................................................... 
626(+69?) x,o58(+2x?) 365(+4?) x.229(+3?) 162(+x7?) 
.:!:i!.l;.:!+.:.,:. ........ ::::========================= 

x,625(+x2s?) 

1,286(+Zz67) 
339(+9?) 

a Comprising both the "Gephyrea armata" and the Siptmculoidea. 
b Some of the species comprised in tbe Tf,este list are no, marine. 
c Seventy of the Plymouth gastropods are nudibranchs. 

Before leaving this hasty comparison between our own biological census and a few 
of the similar undertakings elsewhere, reference should be ruade to certain works in 
vhich some features of out own survey are closely paralleled. We must mention first 
of all the explorations in the Kattegat of the Danish steamer Haztchs, under the charge of 
C. G. J. Petersen. The resemblance between the Danish project and out own lies in the 
successful endeavor to correlate the distribution of various species vith peculiarities 
of bottom and of water temperature, and particularly in the presentation of a number 



9 ° BULLETIN O1' THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
of charts portraying the actual distribution patterns of certain species. Unfortu- 
nately Petersen thought fit to plot upon each of these charts the records for a consid- 
erable number of species (26 in one case), thus rendering it very difficult to distinguish 
the distribution of any one of these, and to a large extent impairing the usefulness of 
the charts. Petersen's "General results" (of which an English translation is provided) 
includes one of the most philosophical discussions which have appeared of the factors 
determining the distribution of marne animals. 
The important paper of E. J. Allen 0899) bas already been mentioned in an earlier 
chapter. Allen has, among other things, presented 6 charts, each portraying the 
distribution of several species, usually members of the saine zoological class. Each 
species is indicated by a letter, its relative abundance at various points being denoted 
bv the style of type. These distributions are plotted upon an identical form, having 
the bottom characters indicated by conventional shading. Only scattered patches are 
thus represented, ho»vever, and in general the charts have little in common with our 
own. 
The detailed distribution of numerous marine species bas likewise been ascertained 
by Herdman and his associates for the neighborhood of the Port Erin biological station 
on the Isle of lX.ian. Seven distribution charts bave been published (Herdman, i9oi), 
each chart embracing one or more entire groups of organisnls. Upon these charts each 
species is designated by a number, so that the total distribution of any given form may 
be ascertained (though rather laboriously) bv finding ail the' various positions occu- 
pied by the number which has been assigner to it. 



Chapter IV.--THE FAUNA CONSIDERED BY SYSTEMATIC GROUPS. 

I. PROTOZOA. 

This phylum is represented in our list bv 99 determined species, together with 5 
others which are entered as undetermined or doubtful. Of the 99 determined spëcies 
3-' are assigned to the Rhizopoda,  to the Heliozoa, _z to the Mastigophora, 38 to the 
Ciliata, 5 to the Suctoria, and _ to the Sporozoa. All but _ of the rhizopods belong to 
the subclass Foranfinifera, of which -3 species have been encountered during out dredging, 
and a number of others collected on piles, etc. With the exception of two or three 
species, no Foraminifera had been recorded for local waters prior to the operations of 
the present survey. 
The data which we have utilized relative to the Protozoa are derived mainly from 
two sources. The Foraminifera were obtained during the dredging operations of 19o 5 
and 19o7, and were, without excp. ption, identified by Dr. J. A. Cushman, of the museum 
of the Boston Society of Natural History. A nearly complete list of these species has 
already been published by Dr. Cusk.man (1908). The records for the other divisions 
were taken from the report of Calkins (1902) upon the marine Protozoa of the region, 
to which have been added a very few data from the writings of Peck (1894 and 1896 ). 
In out annotated list the classification which we have adopted is that of Professor 
Calkins, except in the case of the Foraminifera. For the treatment of the latter group 
Dr. Cushman is responsible. 
The local records for Protozoa are comparatively scanty. The report of Calkins 
represents the search of one investigator for a period of two months during the mid- 
summer alone. With verv few exceptions, the forms listed were taken from the local 
pier, close to the laboratory building. Nevertheless, as a result of this somewhat super- 
ficial examination, Calkins was able to record 7-" species, 8 of which were described as 
new to science. « 
No search was made for Foraminifera during the summers of z9o3 and i9o4, though 
Discorbinc rosacec was noted on several occasions without its identity being recognized. 
Dr. Cushman's presence at the Woods Hole laboratory during the season of 19o5 directed 
our attention to these organisms, and bottom samples from most of the stations of that 
vear were examined by him personally. The dredging during that season was restricted 
to Vineyard Sound (Fish Hawk) and the eastern shore of Buzzards Bay (Phalarope). 
Txvo years later, in order to obtain more complete records for the Foraminifera and certain 
other organisms, about -5 of the Fish Ha£,k stations in Vineyard Sound and about 3o 
of those in Buzzards Bay were revisited. Bottom samples from ail these points were 
submitted to Dr. Cushman, who was thus enabled to provide us with important supple- 
mentary data. Only two species were round, however, which had hot previously been 
recorded by us, and it is Dr. Cushman's belief that the list of local Foraminifera is toler- 
ably complete. But our knowledge of their distribution xvithin the region was greatly 
extended by these later dredgings. We have accordingly departed from the custom, 
which has been followed for most other groups, of including in out distribution charts 

a Two o[ these are no longer regarded by Dr. Calkins as good species. 
9 t 



9 2 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

only data derived from the regular dredging operations of the first three years, and bave 
plotted out the records of these supplementary dredgings in the case of the Foraminifera. 
The meager representation of the Foraminifera in our local fauna is realized in a 
stdking way when the prescrit records are compared with those for deep-sea dredging. 
There oceurs in these waters none of the "ooze" whieh forms sueh a marked feature of 
the ocean bottom the world over. The maximum number of speeies round by the survey 
at any single station was 9 (Phalarope station 78), and the average number round 
throughout the period dudng which a careful examination was ruade a was 1.4 species 
per dredge haul. During the Challenger dredgings, it was hot uncommon to find 
species of Foraminifera at a single station, and ox,er 24o species were round in one case. 
The Canadian list of Whiteaves comprises 64 members of this group, I3 of which 
are known to occur in our local waters; while the Plymouth list comprises Io9 species, 
19 of which are common to Woods Hole. The list for the Irish Sea comprises -o9 species 
of Foraminifera. AI1 three of these foreign surveys have extended to waters of consider- 
ably greater depth than any which occur within the "Woods Hole region" of the present 
report. The great disparity in the wealth of Foraminifera is thus largely accounted for. 
Distribution charts have been plotted for those 9 of our local species which were 
taken at io or more of the dredging stations, legarding the distributions here por- 
trayed few definite conclusions can be offered, owing to the incompleteness of the records 
upon which they are based. As already stated, these organisms were hot looked for 
during the regular dredgings of the Fish Hawl in Buzzards Bay, nor during the Phala- 
vope dredging in Vineyard Sound, though the former deficieney was in some measure 
rectified during the summer of 9o7. As a consequence, one might easily be misled 
respecting the relative abundance of certain species on various parts of the local sea 
floor. For example, most of the species seem to be scaree or absent in the central parts 
of Buzzards Bay. This is doubtless due in part to the fact that material was examined 
from less than 3o stations in the deeper parts of the Bay, as compared with about 
in the Sound. During the supplementary dredging of 9o7 a number of species (Mili- 
olina seminulum, Polymorphina lactea, Polystomellct st'icttopunctaa, and Rotalia beccarii) 
were encountered at Fish Hawl stations in the Bay; the two last named, indeed, being 
taken with considerable frequency. It does hot seem unlikely, however, that the sort, 
black mud which prevails throughout much of Buzzards Bay is unfavorable to some 
species of Foraminifera, as to many other organisms of all sorts. On the other hand, 
with a very few exceptions, every species which was recorded from Vineyard Sound was 
taken with greater or less frequency along the island shores of Buzzards Bay. 
One feature in the distribution of nearly ai1 the species which have been plotted 
is the greater frequeney with which they occur at the western end of Vineyard Sound. 
Indeed, certain species are entirely lacking in the eastern haff. So far as is known, the 
saine degree of care was taken in preserving and examining the bottom saŒEples through- 
out the whole length of the Sound during the Fish Hawk dredging of x9o 5. This greater 
abundance of Foraminifera at its western end would thus seem to be a genuine fact in 
distribution. Whether it is due to the character of the bottom, which is predominantly 
sandy in the western hall of the Sound, or to the comparative absence of the swift tidal 
eurrents in the latter part tan hot be stated with any certainty. 

a Inclumg only te Fh Hawk anal œehalaro,e stations o 9oS. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

The following is a list of the Foraminifera dredged by the Survey. 
denotes species which were recorded from io or more stations: 

Astrorhiza limicola. 
Reophax dentaliniformis. 
Haplophragmium canariense. 
Webbina hemispherica. 
Spiroculina limbata. 
*Biloculina ringens (chart 
13iloculina tubulosa. 
*Miliolina seminulurn (chart 2). 
*Miliolina oblonga (chart 3)- 
*Miliolina circularis (chart 4). 
Miliolina boueana. 
Miliolina venusta. 

93 
The astensk 

Miliolina bicornis. 
Verneuilina polystropha. 
Polymorphina lactea (chart ). 
Polyrnorphina concava. 
Polytnorphina rotundata, • 
Discorbina rosacea (chart 6). 
Truncatulina lobatula. 
Pulvinulina lateralis (chart 7). 
Rotalia beccarii (chart 8). 
Polystomella striatopunctata (chart 9)- 
Polystomella crispa. 

2. PORIFERA. 

The treatment of the sponges constitutes decidedly the weakest spot in out report. 
In addition to the naturaIIy great difficulties presented to the svstematist by these 
animals is the fact that the group has been verv largely neglected bv local zoologists. 
Since the work of Verrill in the early seventies, in which a considerable proportion of 
the forms recorded were not specificaIly determined, no attempt has been ruade to list 
or describe the sponges of the shaIIower waters of the Nev England coast. VerriIl's 
later studies were devoted to species taken at considerable depths and belonging to a 
fauna quite distinct from that under consideration. Lambe, a it is true, has given much 
attention to the Canadian sponges, some of which are identical with species included 
in the present work, and H. V. Wilson b has reported upon the Porto Rico forms, 
none of which, however, are known to occur in the Woods Hole region. The paucity 
of out data relating to the shallow-vater species constitutes a conspicuous gap in out 
knowledge of the local fauna. 
In view of this condition of affairs, Dr. J. A. Cushman, of the museum of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, undertook during the summer of 19o5 and during the fol- 
lowing winter to identify the sponges coIIected in the course of the Survey dredging. 
Twelve species were specificaIIy determined by him with more or less certainty, four of 
these being forms which had been overlooked or left unidentified bv Verrill at the rime 
of the writing of the "Report upon the Invertebrate Anirnals of Vineyard Sound." 
Certain other species were provisionally assigned to genera, and an even greater number 
remained undetermined. It was unfortunatelv impossible for Dr. Cushman to continue 
this work after 19o5, and thus the results here presented are fragmentary and perhaps 
hot wholly consistent. 
In ail, 14 determined species of sponges are comprised in out annotated list, the 
identity of which is hot certain in all cases. We have also included, on the authority of 
Verrill and of Cushman, a number of unidentified forms, to which generic names have 
been provisionally assigned. 
The C_anadian list of Whiteaves comprises 36(+ 2 ?) species of Porifera (identified 
in the main by Lambe), six of which are common to our Woods Hole list. At PIymouth 
only t8 sponges have been catalogued, of which fore- or rive are common to out own 

Sponges from the Atlantfc coast o| Canada. Transactions of tLe Royal Society of Canada, vol. u. sec. iv, x896, 13. tSx-2L 
Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission, vol. xx, x9oo (x9o2), I- 375-41I- 



94 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

waters, a Herdman records 58 species from the Irish Sea, while Graeffe liits 45 species 
from the Gulf of Trieste. As implied in the foregoing discussion, it is likely that the 
VVoods Hole list will be greatly extended bv further investigations. 
Referring to our dredging records for this group, the distributions of certain forms, 
such as Cliona cdala, Microciona proli]cra, Tethya gra.vida, and Polymastia robusla, have 
probably been ascertained wlth a fait degree of accuracy. On the other hand, it is 
probable that some confusion occurs between the two species of Chalina, since specimens 
which were listed in the field records as C. arbuscula were in a number of cases subse- 
quently identified as C. oculala (see catalogue). For this reason a single chart has been 
prepared, which includes all the records for this genus. A similar confusion exists 
regarding the two species of Halichondria (H. panicca and H. cadwa). And in addition 
to these equivocal records specimens belonging to entirely undetermined species of 
this genus are listed from about 20 of the regular dredging stations and were doubtless 
taken at many others. 
Under such circumstances littIe of a general nature can be said regarding the 
distribution of these animals in local waters. The species having the most general 
occurrence was Cliona cclata Grant (---Spongia «Mphtrea Desor), which was recorded 
from 7 of the regular stations. This form seems to flourish nearly as well on one 
kind of bottom as another, though it is much less common in the western hall of the 
Sound than in the eastern half) That its scarcity in the former region is not due to 
the lower summer temperature of the water there is rendered probable by the fact that 
this species has been reported by Lambe from Prince Edward Island, in the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence. It has hot been taken bv us, however, at Crab Ledge, where many of 
the typical cold-water species occur and many southern ones are lacking. 
3licrociona proli]cra is hot uncommon in the Sound in the form of reddish incrus- 
tations on the surface of stones and shells. In Buzzards Bay, particularly in the inshore 
waters, it frequently grows up into the characteristic and beautiful arborescent form. 
A species of Granlia, wh]ch has been regarded as G. ciliala (Fabricius) by Verrill 
and others, is common on piles, and one or more species of the saine genus (hOt improb- 
ably identical with the foregoing) were encountered at various points in dredging 
(chart o). 
An interesting case of restricted distribution is exemplified in the case if Polyma.slia 
robusta, for which, however, no chart bas been prepared, owing to the limited number of 
stations from which it was recordcd. This readily recognizable species was taken by 
us a few times at the western entrance of Vineyard Sound and in the mouth of Buz- 
zards Bay; likewise at rive of the seven regular stations of the survey at Crab Ledge. 
It is thus a representative of that colder water fauna which just enters the limits of out 
region. So far as we know, this species has hOt been listed from points farther south 
upon out coast than Marthas Vineyard, though ranging northward at least to the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. 
Another case of definitely restricted distribution, for which, however, no explanation 
can be offered at present, is that of Tcthya gra.wida. This species, which was first described 
by Hyatt from specimens taken in Buzzards Bay, was encountered by us eight times, 

« It is stated by the authors that "the list is a very imlerfect one, many common species hot having been identified and 
recorded." 
b Th¢ chart for this species likewise shows .a considerable gap in th¢ central egion of the Ftay. but specimens were later 
taken at several points in this area. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

Ascortis fragilis. 
?**Grantia ciliata (chart io). 
**Cliona celata (chart ii). 
Polymastia robusta. 
Tethya gravida. 
Haliehondria panieea. 
Haliehondria eaduea. 

but always within a very limited area near the head of the Bay. Mr. G. M. Gray also 
reports finding it at Bird Island, in the saine vicinity. We know of no other records 
of the occurrence of this species. 
The following is a list of the species recorded from the Survey dredgings. The 
asterisk denotes those which were taken at xo or more of the stations (exclusive of Crab 
Ledge). 
Chalina arbuscula. 
Chalina oculata. 
Esperella modesta. 
Desmacidon palmata. 
M3-xilla sp. undet. 
**Microciona prolifera (chart 13). 

A chart (12) has been prepared based upon the equivocal records for one or both 
species of Chalina. 
Of the three determined speciés so common as to have been recorded from io or 
more stations, one appears to be distinctly northern, another to be distinctly southern, 
while the third appears to have a range of nearly equal extent in both directions. The 
ranges, as given by Verrill (1873), are as follows: 
Granfia ciliata: Rhode Island to Greenland. 
Cliona celata: South Carolina to Portland, Me. 
Microciona prolifera: South Carolina to Cape Cod. 
Cliona, as already stated, has since been reported from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

3. COELENTERATA. 

Our list comprises 160 determined species belonging to this phylum, together wlth 12 
others which are undetermined or doubtful. These are assignable to 54(+3 ?) familles 
and 98(+ 7 ?) genera. The representation of the various classes is as follows: Hydrozoa, 
132(+87); Scyphozoa, 5(+17); Actinozoa, 14(+37); Ctenophora, 8. Among these, 
28(+1?) of the Hydrozoa and 4(+2?) of the Actinozoa have been encountered 
during the Sur,ey dredgings. The Scyphozoa and Ctenophora, oving to their pelagic 
mode of existence, do hot figure in the dredging records, although the latter frequently 
and the former occasionally were taken during the reeling in of the dredge or trawl. 
Furthermore, a large majority, even of the fLxed hydroids, eomprised in our catalogue, 
find their proper habitat in shallower vaters, where they grov attaehed to plants or 
woodwork, and are rare or absent upon the bottoms reached by the dredge. 
The identification of specimens concerning which any doubt was felt by the col- 
lectors was ruade by Prof. C. W. Hargitt, of Syracuse University, and Prof. C. C. Nut- 
ring, of the University of Iowa, to vhom we again take occasion to express our thanks 
for their assistance. The identification of the 19o 3 specimens was performed by Prof. 
Nutting, that of the subsequent material by Prof. Hargitt. A comparison of the deter- 
minations ruade by these two authorities revealed certain differences of opinion, some of 
which were later adjusted. In other cases, such differences are indicated in the text. 
Prof. Hargitt was prescrit at the laboratory as a member of the investigation staff dur- 
ing the summers of 19o 5 to 19o9, inclusive, and the records for those seasons are doubt- 
less on this account more complete than during the two previous seasons of the Survey's 



96 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

work. During these two earlier seasons it seems probable that certain minute and 
inconspicuous forms were overlooked by the collectors. It is likewise probable that 
some closely related species were confused in the field records. This is perhaps truc to 
some extent even of such common forms as E«dendrium ramosum and E. dispar, though 
samples from many of the stations were fortunately preserved for future reference. 
The apparent scarcity of nearly all hydroids throughout Buzzards Bay, as por- 
trayed by the distribution charts, may be due in ome measure to the fact that no 
specialist in this group was present during the season of x9o4, when the original Fish 
Hawk dredging was carried on in that body of water. We are, however, inclined to 
attribute a minor importance to this fact in judng of the occurrence of hydroids in 
Buzzards Bay, since records from -9 stations which were redredged in I9o9 do not 
materially affect out ideas regarding the local distribution of these organisms. 
The data utilized in the preparation of out catalogue, aside from those derived 
from out own collecting operations, are based principally upon the published works of 
A. Agassiz 0865), Verrill 0873), Nutting 09ox), and Hartt (9o-9o8). In addi- 
tion, special records were furnished by members of the investigation staff or by others. 
Particular mention must be ruade of some rather extensive manuscript notes kindly 
contributed by Prof. Hargitt. The latter authority likewise consented to revise our 
annotated list in respect to nomenclature and classification, though he regards these as 
being till to a considerable extent provisional. 
About 20 species new to science have been described during the past io years by 
Hartt, Nutting, Mayer, and others from specimens taken within the limits of the 
present tenon. At least two of these (Ectopletra prolifica Hartt and Keratosa com- 
plexttm Hargitt) were described from specimens obtained during the course of the survey 
dredng; while a number of them were first collected and described during this saine 
period, though independently of the dredging operations. Still other species (Calypto- 
spadix cerulea, Opercularella pumila, Sertularia versluysi, Sert-ula»ella polyzonias, A glao- 
phenia mimtta, Tealia crassicornis), though more or less familiar elsevhere, bave been 
added to the known fauna of these waters through the dredging and eolleeting opera- 
tions whieh form the ehief subjeet of the present volume. 
Verrill and Smith (873) reeorded 7z determined species of e6elenterates from 
definitely stated points within the limits of the reon, together with a eonsiderable 
nmnber of others whîeh were doubtful, undetermined, or extralimital. Among the 
foregoing 7z speeies were 57 Hydrozoa, 3 Scyphozoa, 8 Aetinozoa, and 4 Ctenophora. 
Certain of the speeies listed by Verrill (e. g., Halecium 9facile, Edwardsia [arinacea. and 
E. lineata) do hot appear to have been eneountered in local waters by later naturalists. 
Indeed, repeated seareh by our parties for Edwardsia lineata at points where it was 
said to be abundant by Verrill failed to bring to light a single speeimen. On the other 
hand, certain speeies whieh were hot listed at all in the "Invertebrate Animals of Vine- 
yard Sound" are now known to be eommon in these waters. Sueh are Podocoryne 
carnea, Lizzia grata, T-ztbularia couthouyi, Staurostoma laciniata, Epenthesis [olleata, 
Halecium halecinum, Gonionemus mtrbachii, and Sagartia luci¢. The last-named 
species we know to be a recent immigrant into these waters, which probably arrived 
here within the past 15 years. Indeed it has, during this bfiet period, become by far 
the most abundant of out local actinians. Whether or not anv of the other species are 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

97 

immagrants of recent standing can not be stated. We have no satisfactory evidence 
that such is the case. 
The Canadian list prepared by Whiteaves includes 66 Hydrozoa, 5 Scyphozoa, 44 
Actinozoa, and 4 Ctenophora. Of these, 4I Hydrozoa, 2 Scyphozoa, 4 Actinozoa, and 
4 (ail) of the Ctenophora are common to our Woods Hole list. It is interesting that 
while the number of hydroids in the Canadian list is only hall as great as in out own, 
the number of actinians is about three times as great. 
The catalogue for Plymouth includes x2x Hydrozoa, 8 Scyphozoa, 34 Actinozoa, 
and 3 Ctenophora. Of these, 34 ( + 6 ?) Hydrozoa, 2 (?) Scyphozoa, (2 +  ?) Actinozoa, 
and 2 Ctenophora are known to be common to the Woods Hole region. 
The list of Herdman for the Irish Sea comprises 129(-{- ! ?) Hydrozoa, 6 Scyphozoa, 
24 Acfinozoa, and 4 Ctenophora. There is a rather close agreement between the 
Woods Hole, Plymouth, and Irish Sea lists in respect to the number of Hydrozoa 
comprised. On the other hand, both of the latter lists agree in including a considembly 
greater number of actinians than have been recorded from the Woods Hole region. 
For the Gulf of Trieste, Graeffe catalogues 64(+ 2 ?) Hydrozoa, 9 Scyphozoa, 29 
Acfinozoa, and 5 Ctenophora. 
In all these comparisons the differences in area and in bathymetric range among 
the various regions must of course be kept in mind (see p. 87). 
On the average x.8 species of coelenterates were recorded for each of the 458 regu- 
lax stations of the Survey. The species found to be of most general occurrence was the 
oeml Aslrangia dance, which was encountered at i58 of the stations, this being the only 
coelenterate which was so prevalent as to be recorded from one-fourth of the stations 
dredged. It is likely, however, that Hydraclinia echinata was actually present in at least 
one-fourth of the dredge hauls, and that it was frequently overlooked by us in listing 
the species in the field. 
Referring to the table on page 78, it will be seen that on the average nearly three 
times as many species of hydroids per dredge haul were recorded for the Fish Hawk 
stations in Vineyard Sound as for those in Buzzards Bay, while the average number of 
Actinozoa was the saine in both bodies of water. The Phalarope stations in Vineyard 
Sound likewise show an excess of hydroids as compared with the stations in the Bay. 
From the table on page 79 it is evident that there is a greater wealth both of hydroids 
and of actinians on bottoms of gravel and stones than upon bottoms of mud or of 
pure sand. As respects Hydrozoa, the average number of species is nearly twice as 
great upon sandy bottoms as upon muddy ones. The distribution of most ccelenterates 
upon the local sea roof is, we believe, almost wholly conditioned by the character of 
the bottom. 
Charts have been prepared showing the distribution, in local waters, of io species 
of Hydrozoa and 3 of Actinozoa. A list of these, with a statement of the geographical 
distribution of each is given below. Owing to the probable incompleteness of out 
earlier records for the Hydrozoa, the practice of basing out charts upon the original 
dredgings of the "regular" series only bas not been adhered to for this group. The 
results of various supplementary dredgings (see p. 6) bave been incorporated here 
as in the case of the Foraminifera and the Bryozoa. 
x669°Bull. 3 r, pt 



98 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

These charts nearly ail agree in showing the paucity of coelenterate life in Buzzards 
Bay, to whieh reference has already been ruade. In fact, but two species (ElMe,ldrium 
ramosum and Astrangia danoe) appear to be of anything like as general occurrence in 
the Bay as in the Sound. Two speeies among those charted were hot reeorded from a 
single station in the former body of water, while some of the others are confined within 
its limits to the extreme lower end or to the immediate neighborhood of land. This 
last condition fs round to obtain in the case of many speeies belonging to nearly every 
group whieh do hot thrive upon muddy bottoms, and their distribution is readily 
explainable by reference to this fact. Hydroids, as fs well known, depend for support 
upon a solid substratum, such as fs afforded by stones or dead shells, and their frequent 
occurrence upon bottoms which are listed as of pure sand fs doubtless ruade possible 
by the presence of shells. Where such solid objects oceur in the Bay, however, they 
are eommonly more or less eovered by sort mud. Nevertheless, at least one speeies of 
hydroid, Eledrium ramosm, has established itself in eonsiderable abundanee on 
the roof of Buzzards Bay, a faet which fs diflïeult to explain when we eonsider the 
almost total absence there of Penari Hardla, a speeies having a quite sirnilar mode of 
lire, and one whieh fs abundant throughout the Sound. 
Of eonàderable interest fs the searcity of HydracH@t ech{nata over the whole central 
area of ]3uzzards Bay. That this fs hot due to the seareity within this area of the her- 
mit crabs upon whose shells Hydracf{nia eommonly dwells may be seen by reference to 
charts io9, i i i and 112, from which it fs evident that the three eommonest local Paguri 
are present throughout the entire Bay. It was at first thought possible that the non- 
appearance of this hydroid in the records of the Fsh Hawk for Buzzards Bay rnight 
bave been due to the failure of those responsible for the latter series of stations to 
inelude it when listing the eontents of the dredge. That this fs hOt a satisfaetory expla- 
nation was shown in the course of some supplementary dredgings ruade during the 
summer of 19o 9. Herrnit erabs (P. lon9icarpus and P. annulipes) were taken at 16 of 
tbe former Fish Hawk stations, but in only a single instance was Hydractinia met 
with, though Podocoryne was noted three rimes. « 
Several of the bydroids, particulafly Tubdaria couthouyi and Thuiaria ar9entea, 
appear to show a marked preference for the eastern half of Vineyard Sound, where the 
bottom is in large measure stony. The distribution of Obelia 9eniculata is probably 
dependent upon that of certain algoe, to which it is generalIy round attached. Its 
abundance in the vicinity of Gay Head probably stands in direct relation to the occur- 
rence tbere of large numbers of tbe kelps (Laminaria), upon vhich it frequently grows. 
At least two very instructive cases are to be noted among the species charted, 
which appear to be intelligible only by reference to temperature conditions. We re_fer 
to the two actinians, Alcyonion carneum and Aslrangia da,ŒEE. The former was round 
to be confined to the western end of Vineyard Sound and the extreme lower end of 
Buzzards Bay. It was hot surprising, therefore, to meet with this species at several 
of the Crab Ledge stations. The case is quite comparable with that of the sponge, 
Polymastia robusta, referred to on page 94, and with many others which will be considered 
later. The limits of distribution for this species, so far as known, are: Rhode Island 

 These supplementary dredgings, however, added several species to the fatma o[ the ]Bar, so far as recorded b.v us. These 
were Clytia ¢ylindrica, Pennaria liarella (which is doubtless common erlough in shallow waters near shoIe), Podocore camea; 
and Schi:oIricha Ier.ella. SVhile none o[ these were taken with suflïcient frequency to affect seriously out conceltion o[ the coeleno 
terate fatma ol the Ba'. they point to the probability oI considerable gaps in out original records for this group. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

99 

(Verrill) to the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Whiteaves). It is thus predominantly a northern 
form, which here approaches the southern limit of its range. Temperature is, with 
little doubt, the determining factor in the distribution of this species in local waters. 
What appears to be a type of distribution exactly converse to the last is to be 
round in the case of the simple coral, Astran9ia dance. This species is abundant and 
of very general distribution throughout most of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. 
Indeed, it seems to be almost equally at home upon every sort of bottom, including 
sort black mud. Now, it will be seen that this form is conspicuously scarce at the open 
end of Vineyard Sound, i. e., in those saine colder waters to which Alcyonium seems 
adapted to live. Astrangia, we learn, is a southern species, finding its northward limit 
at or near Cape Cod, so that its scarcity in the colder waters of the reon a is thus perhaps 
explained. It may be suggested, on the other hand, that this gap in the local distribu- 
tion of Astrangia may result from the character of the bottom, which is almost wholly 
sandy throughout the area in question. The species bas, however, been dredged else- 
where upon bottoms of practically pure sand, so that this explanation does not seem 
sufficient. 
If we seek for compafisons between the distfibutions of different members of the 
same genus, we find that out dredging records furnish few data of importance upon this 
subect. Tubularia couthouyi and T. crocea are seen to present certain charactefistic 
differences., in that the former is largely restricted to stony bottoms, while the latter is 
of much more general occurrence upon the local sea floor and is abundant, likewise, 
even upon pries, etc., in shallow water. The former species has not been taken with 
living hydranths during the summer months, except at Crab Ledge and in the deeper 
waters south of Marthas Vineyard, while T. crocea bas been round within the region in 
an active condition throughout the summer. 
Referring to the two commoner species of Eudcndrium (E. ramosum and E. dispar), 
it would seem probable that the distribution of the latter in local waters is far more 
restricted than that of the former. Indeed, our records point to the scarcity or 
absence of this species in 13uzzards 13ay,  a condition which affords an interesting con- 
trast to that of E. ramosum, one of the few hydroids which were dredged with any 
frequency in the latter body of water. 
Even more stfi-king differences of habitat shown by closely related species of 
coelenterates might be chosen among genera which do not figure in out dredging records 
at all, e. g., Edwardsia and Sagartia. 
The following is a list of the species taken in the course of the Survey dredging. As 
usual, those species are designated by an asterisk which were taken at io or mot-e of the 
stations : 
I-IYDROZOA. 

Ectopleura prolifica. 
«Pennaria tiarella (chart 14). 
Podocoryne carnea. 
Hydractinia echinata (chart 15). 
«Eudendrium ramosum (chart 16). 
«Eudendrium dispar (chart i7). 
a It was uot round bF us at Crab Ledge. 

Eudendrium carneum. 
Eudendrium capillare. 
Eudendrium album. 
«Tubularia couthouyi (chart 18). 
?Tubularia spectabilis. 
Tubularia tenella. 

b In the course of the a9 supple_mctary dredge hauls in ]3uzzards Bay in x9o9, E. raraoura was taken eight rimes, but E. 
dispa was uot noted once. 



IOO BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Tubularia crocea (chart 19). 
Clytia cylindrica.. 
Campanularia verticillata. 
Obelia commisuralis. 
*Obelia geniculata (chart 20). 
Hebella sp. undet. 
Keratosum complexum. 
Lovenella grandis. 
OperculareIla pumila. 

*Alcyonium carneum (chart 24). 

Calycella syringa. 
*Halecium halecinum (chart 2i). 
Sertularia pumila. 
Thuiaria argentea (chart 22). 
Thuiaria cupressina. 
Sertularella gayi. 
Sertularella tricuspidata. 
Hydrallmania falcata. 
Schizotricha tenella (chart 23). 

ACTINOZOA. 
Tealia crassicornis. 

I 
?Pterogorgia gracilis (one small dead fragment). I *Astrangia danm (chart 26). 
*Metridium dianthus (chart 25). 
If we consider, with respect to their known ranges upon our toast, these 13 species 
of ccelenterates which were of most frequent occurrence in out dredge hauls, we may 
group them as follows: 
Predominantly northern. 
Hydractinia echinata ......... Greenland (M6rch)to Charleston, S. C. (McCready). 
Eudendrium dispar ............ Bay of Fundy to Vineyard Sound (Verrill). 
Halecium halecinum .......... Gulf of St. Lawrence (Whiteaves) to Long Island Sotmd (Hargitt). 
Thuiaria argentea .............. North Polar regions to Maryland (Nutting). 
Alcyonium carneum ........... Gulf of St. La,ence (Whiteaves) to Rhode Island (Verrill). 
Metridium dianthus ............ Labrador to New Jersey (Verrill). 
Predoninantly southern. 
Pennaria tiarella .............. Mairie to West Indies (Mayer). 
Schizotricha tenella ........... Marthas Vineyard (Nutting) to Beaufort, N. C. (Fraser). 
Astrangia danœe ............... Cape Cod to Florida (Verrill). 
Havin 9 range of approximately equal extent north and south. 
Eudendrium ramosum .......... Labrador (Verrill) to Bermuda and Beaufort, N. C. (Hargitt). 
Obelia geniculata ............. On ottr coast recorded from Labrador (Verrill) to Beaufort, bi. C. 
(Fraser). [Cosmopolitan, according to Mayer.] 
Range of doubtful extent. 
Tubularia couthouyi ........... Probably predominantly northern. 
Tubulariacrocea ............... Casco Bay (Hargitt)to Brooklyn, N. Y. (Verrill), and perhapsto 
Charleston, S. C. 
Thus six of these species appear to be predominantly northern in their range, while 
only three are known to have a range which is predominantly southern. This is a 
condition different from that shown by the local representatives of most of the phyla 
of animais, which as a rule show a decidedly southern bias. We do hot believe, 
however, that this difference bas any special significance, particularly since the propor- 
tion of out coelenterates which are common to Canadian waters is no greater than that 
for the fauna at large. 
With the exception of the two cases discussed above (Alcyonium and Astrangia), 
none of these species appears to be distributed in relation to temperature in local waters. 
In the foregoing calculation -,ve are of course onlv considering a few of the com- 
monest bottom-dwelling species. Were we to include the multitude of pelagic forms 
(Medusœe), many of which are stragglers borne hither by the Gulf Stream, it is probable 
that the ratio of northern to southern forms would be quite different. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

lOI 

4. PLATYHELMINTHES, NEMATHELMINTHES, ETC. 

The various classes of "fiat worrns" are represented in our check list as fcllows: 
Turbellaria, 40(+  ?); Trematoda, 52(+4?); Cestoda, 71(+37); Nemertinet, 25 (I ?). 
Of the "round worms" there are 14 Acanthocephala and 21(+5?) Nematodes. The 
anomalous group of Choetognatha is represented by a single determined species of Sagitta, 
though there may be one or more undetermined members of the genus in local waters, 
The Dinophilea, which are included in the present section only for the sake of conven- 
ience, appear to be represented by at least three species, none of which, however, bas 
been observed during the Survey dredgings. 
Except for a conlparatively small number of nemerteans (6 species), no representa- 
tives of these groups of "worms" appear in the dredging records. Certain nemerteans 
are abundant locally in the shallow waters near shore, where they live under stones or 
burroxv in the mud or sand; xvhile Turbellaria of a considerable number of species are 
likewise common in shallow weedy waters. From the fragmentary condition of ail the 
nernerteans which were dredged by us it is evident that the apparatus employed xvas ill- 
adapted to unearthing deeply burrowing worms such as these. It is likely, therefore, 
that our scanty records give a very inlperfect idea of the distribution of these species 
throughout the area dredged. 
It was accordingly inevitable that the greater part of our data respecting these 
groups of organisms should be derived from previously published statements. The 
records for the Turbellaria and Nemertinea are based chiefly upon the works of Verrill 
and of Coe, supplemented, in the case of the latter group, by our own dredging records 
and by a set of manuscript notes kindly furnished by Prof. Coe. a The records for the 
endoparasitic worms (trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, and Acanthocephala) are based 
for the most part upon the works of Prof. Edwin Linton, who for many years has 
studied our local fish parasites on behalf of the Bureau of Fisheries. To these published 
sources of information we must add, however, some valuable unpublished notes, kindly 
put at our disposal by Dr. Linton. 
Acknowledgments for the revision of those portions of the checklist which include 
these groups are duc Prof. Linton and Prof. Coe. To Dr. Coe we are likevise indebted 
for the identification of the nemerteans taken during the Survey dredging. We have 
thought it expedient to follov Dr. Linton in retaining provisionally in their earlier 
sense certain of the genera (e. g., Dislomum), which have been greatly subdivided by 
some recent writers. In his own published works, Dr. Linton has taken occasion fully 
to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Mr. Vinal N. Edwards, who collected a large 
part of the material described by him. 
Of the 4 Turbellaria comprised in our catalogue, 9 were listed by Verrill in the 
report of 1873, though only 2 of these were recorded specifically for points within the 
limits of out region. The records for most of the other species have been defived 
from Prof. Verfill's later wfitings and from the recent report of von Graff. 
The number of Turbellaria which have been listed from Plymouth, England, is 
about fffty per cent greater than that contained in out catalogue, and so far as is apparent 
only two of the species are common to the two regions. Herdman's list for the Irish 
Sea contains 27 members of this group. 

a The additional records for Tttrbellaria contained in the important paper of von Graff (I91I) have also heen incorporated 
dring the revision of the prescrit report 



102 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Of the 26 nemerteans of our catalogue, 7 appear to be common to the Canadian list 
and 5 to that of the Plymouth station. The former list comprises 20(+ I ?) species, the 
Iatter 35- Herdman has listed 24(+2 ?) species for the Irish Sea. None of the groups 
of parasitic worms appear to have been catalogued at any of these other stations. 
Under the circumstances which we have stated, it is natural that few generalized 
statements can be ruade regarding the distribution of these groups locally. The para- 
sites were of course taken from the fishes, and it would therefore be futile in most cases 
to state specific localities for these. Only such species have been listed, however, as 
are believed to have been taken from fishes captured in strictly local waters. 
Regarding the nemerteans, it may be said that in 18 out of the 21 occasions upon 
which these worms appear in the dredging lists they were taken in ]3uzzards ]3ay. It 
is quite possible, however, that these fol-ms are much more abundant throughout Vine- 
yard Sound than would be implied by these records. As is well known, many of the 
species burrow rather deeply into the shores and bottoms which they frequent, and con- 
siderable digging is often necessary in order to unearth them. Now, the soif bottoms 
of Buzzards Bay were doubtless, as a rule, penetrated more deeply by the dredge than 
were the sandy or gravelly bottoms of Vineyard Sound. 
Of the six determined species of nemerteans recorded for the Survey dredgings not 
one was taken with sufficient frequency to warrant our plotting a distribution chart. 
The species of most frequent occurrence was Cerebratulus luridus, which was recorded 
xo times, though some of these records are regarded as doubt_ful. This species was 
taken throughout the lower hall of Buzzards ]3ay. 
The six species recorded by us from our dredgings are: 
Lineus bicolor. Cerebratulus marginatus. 
Micrura leidyi. Cerebratulus luridus. 
Cerebratulus lacteus. Amphiporus ochraceus. 

5. BRYOZOA. 

Of the Bryozoa, 76(-}-5? ) determined species are recorded for the 'oods Hole 
region of which 5 are Endoprocta, the remainder belonging to the Ectoprocta. These 
species are assigned to 2  familles and 36(+  ?) genera. Out of the total number of 
species recorded, 67 (+  ?), or about 85 per cent, were taken during our own dredging 
operations; some 6 or 7 more were collected by other means during the progress of the 
Survey, while 5 or 6 others are included wholly upon the authority of published statements. 
Several new species have been encountered during the Survey dredging, descriptions 
of which have been prepared by Dr. Osburn; while about 45 species have been added 
by us to the known fauna of the region. This latter number is considerably greater than 
we have been able to record for any other group of organisms, a fact which should hOt 
surprise us when we recall that no systematic study of the ]3ryozoa had been ruade in 
these waters within the past 30 years. Indeed, the subject has remained until recently 
in the same incomplete and rather chaotic condition in which it was left by Verrill. 
One of the authors of the present report was led to undertake the determination of the 
species collected during the Survey dredging. This was found to necessitate a critical 
examination of the literature of the group and a comprehensive studv of the bryozoan 
fauna of out Atlantic coast, the results of which have recently been published. « 

a Osbttrn, Raymond C.: Brltozoa -of the Woods Hole region. Bulletin U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 
p. 203-266, pl. XVlII-XXXL 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. IO 3 
Desor, in 1848, described two species of Bryozoa (Bgula turrita and llembranipora 
tenu{x) which were collected by him in the vicinity of Nantucket. 
Verrill, in the report upon the invertebrates of Vineyard Sound, listed 33 species of 
Bryozoa, of which 27 determined specics and several doubtful ones were rccorded for 
specified points within the limits of the "Voods Hole region. Only one of out local species 
was there described for the first time. In subsequent papers Verrill added a consider- 
able number of new Bryozoa to the fauna of the deeper waters off the American coast, 
but not more than 5 of these last fall within the limits embraced by the present report. 
Nickerson (1898) added a single species of endoproct (Loxosoma daenporti) to out 
local fauna, this being first described from specimens taken by him at Cotuit Harbor. 
So far as we know this is the only addition which has been ruade to Verrill's lists of 
Bryozoa down to the time of the present Survey. 
Whiteaves catalogues i 15 species of Bryozoa for the waters of eastern Canada. Of 
these species, 45 ( n u 2 ?), or about 4 ° per cent, have been recorded from the Woods Hole 
region. On the other hand, these 47 species which are common to the two lists 
constitute nearly 6o per cent of the number comprised in out own catalogue. 
The Plymouth list records the occurrence of Io3(÷ i ?) members of this group, a 
number which is also considerably in excess of that recorded for thc Woods Hole rcgion. 
About 30 per cent of the Plymouth species (about 4 ° per cent, thercfore, of the Woods 
Hole species) are common to the two lists. 
Herdman catalogues i36 species of Bryozoa (along with many varieties) for the 
Irish Sea; while Graeffe has recorded 56 species for the Gulf of Triest. 
It is scarcely likely that these figures give us any accurate idea of the relative rep- 
resentation of this phylum in the respective areas of sea bottom. It is hot at all prob- 
able that the search for these organisms has becn equally exhaustive at the various 
points named, and it is certain that the areas explored are far from being comparable in 
magnitude (see p. 87). We mav assert in full confidence that the extension of out own 
dredging operations to the 5o-fathom line would have very greatly increased out list of 
Bryozoa. 
The average number of species per dredge haul recorded for the stations of the 
regular series was 2. 9. The species having the most general distribution was Bmyula 
turrita, which wa present at -55 (more than half) of the dredging stations. Those 
which were encountered so frequently as to be taken at one-fourth or more of the total 
number of stations are: 
Bugula turrita (255 stations). 
Crisia eburnea (2oi stations). 
Schizoporella unieornis (i97 stations). 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (r63 stations). 
Representatives of this group are to be found attached to almost every sort of solid 
object within the waters of our region. Upon stones and shells they form calcareous 
incrustations, which may be white, gray, yellow, or red in color, and are often many 
layers in thickness. Such are Smittia trispinosa zitida and various species of Schiiopo- 
rella, Membranipora, and Lepralia. 
Other calcareous forms ( Cellepora americana, Schizo porella un.icornis, and S. bia perta) 
ve rise to coral-like nodules or foliaceous expansions upon Hydrozoa, algoe, or other 
Bryozoa. Erect, hydroid-like colonies, such as those of Bugula, Bicellaria, or Crisia, 



IO4 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

attach themselves to various other fixed organisms, or directly to piles or stones. Flus- 
trella hispida forms a thick matting over the rockweed along shore, and several species 
may be fotmd upon active living animals, such as crabs. One, indeed, makes its home 
in the gill chamber of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Various minute Bryozoa may 
readily be mistaken for hydroids, or may be overlooked altogether. Thus there is little 
doult that many such fol-ms escaped the collectors entirely dufing the earlier dredging 
work of the survey. With some few exceptions, the incrusting species are the ones 
which figure most prominently in the dredging records, colonies of this sort seldom being 
absent from stones or shells. Owing to the superficial similafity of several quite dis- 
tinct species of incrusting Bryozoa, it was our practice throughout the dredging work to 
save for preservation samples of even the commonest species from every dredge haul in 
which they occurred. Only three species of Bryozoa (Bugula turrita, Crisia eburnea, 
and Cellepora americana) were regularly identified by the collectors in the field, and there 
seems to be little probability that these were confused with any less familiar forrns. 
Ail other speeies, so far as detected, were preserved for future examination. These were 
later identified by Dr. Osburn, who is likewise responsible for the classification here 
adopted. 
Charts (27-46) bave been prepared showing the distribution of those speeies which 
were recorded from io or more of the dredging stations, a Two of these speeies, Lepralia 
americana and L. pallasiana, were confused in the earlier dredging records to such an 
extent that it bas been thought best to plot their combined distributions upon a single 
chart. Thus there are only 2o charts for these 21 species. 
Less of general interest is to be gathered from the local distribution of the Bryozoa 
than from that of many other groups which we have considered. Only two distinct 
types of distribution are to be found among those forms which have been dredged with 
any frequency in local waters. We have (i) speeies whose distribution is general, or 
without any definite restrictions throughout Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay; and 
(2) speeies fotmd wholly, or at least predominantly, in Vineyard Sound. Not a single 
species bas been found which appears to be restricted in any degree to the Bay. Thus 
the phylum has a considerabh" greater representation in the Sound than in the Bay. 
The avemge number of speeies taken per dredge haul b may be tabulated as follows: 
Vineyard Sound: 
Fish I-Iawk stations ........................................ 3.4 
Phalarope stations ......................................... 3- o 
]3uzzards ]3ay: 
Fish Hawk stations .................................. 2.7 
Phalarope stations ................................................... 2. o 
The average number of species for the Crab Ledge stations would doubtless greatly 
exceed any of these figures, but unfortunately the data are not available. 
It is highly probable that the chamcter of the bottom has been the chief factor in 
determining the results here tabulated, just as in the case of the Hydrozoa. Reference 
to the table on page 79 shows that the avemge number of species per dredge haul for 

a lncluding the suDDlementary stations of tgo6-x9og, for the saine reason as already stated in the ca of the Foraminifera 
and cceleaaterates. 
b Based uDon the original stations only. Were the supDlementary dredgings to be considered in this computation, it is likely 
that the figures for luzzttrds lay would be somewhat greater, though it is quite improbable that they would equal those lor 
V'meya.rd Sound. 



Crisia eburnea. 
3Etea anguina. 
Bugula turrita. 
?Membranipora pilosa. 
Membranipora aurita. 
Schizoporella unicornis. 

BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 10 5 
gravelly and stony bottoms is 3-7, that for sandy bottoms being 2.8, and that for muddy 
bottoms being 2.0. 
, The saine fact is shown by an enumeration of those species which were taken at 
one-half or more of the dredging stations on each type of bottom. Four species (Crisia 
eburnea, Bugula turrita, Schizoporella Unicornis, and Smittia tris pinosa nitida) are recorded 
as present in more than half of the dredge hauls ruade upon gravelly or stony bottoms; a 
single species (Bugula turrita) is listed for as great a proportion of the dredge hauls upon 
sandy bottoms; while hOt a single species was fotmd with sufficient frequency upon 
muddy bottoms to appear in this list. a 
Il is obvious, however, that no such bare characterization of the type of bottom 
properly describes the habitat of a fixed organism which depends for support upon the 
presence of some solid substratum. Now various solid objects, organic and inorganic, 
are commonly present, even upon bottoms of practically pure sand, and such objects 
frequently furnish attachment for Brvozoa. Even sort mud commonlv contains dead 
shells or fragments of these, and some typical fixed organisms, such as the coral A slrangia 
and the serpulid worm, Hydroides, are consequently of frequent occurrence upon muddv 
bottoms. We believe, nevertheless, that the comparative paucity of Bryozoa upon 
such bottoms is due in part to the scarcitv of suitable objects for attachment. Thus 
the relative infrequency of Ccllepora americana and Hippothoa hyalina in Buzzards 
Bay is probably correlated with the scarcity of hydroids and algœe. On the other hand, 
it seems probable that the continued deposition of silt is unfavorable to the growth of 
many forms, even though a suitable basis of support be present. 
Grouping those species which have been charted bv us, according to whether their 
distribution is general or restricted, we mav arrange them provisionally under two 
heads. In making this classification, the greater absolute number of dredging stations 
in Vineyard Sound must be taken into account. 
Species having a general or unrestricted distribution in local waters. 
Schizoporella biaperta. 
Lepralia americana+ pallasiana. 
Lepralia pertusa. 
Srnittia trispinosa nitida. 
Hippuraria arrnata. 

Tbus the majority of out commoner species do hot appear to show any marked pref- 
erence for one or the other body of water. One of the foregoing species (Membranipora 
.pilosa) appears, however, to display an avoidance of the more central regions of the 
Bay. In the above list it will be seen that both erect and incrusting forms are included. 
Specics retricled wholly or mainly lo l ïneyard Sound. 
Nttmber ol stations. 
Bicellaria ciliata ............................. 6 Sound+ 3 Bay. 
Membranipora tenuis ....................................... 59 Sound+i7 Bay. 
Membranipora flemingii .............. 12 Sound+ o Bay. 
Cribrilina ptmctata ........... i2 Sound+ o Bay. 
Hippothoa hyalina ..................................... 26 Sound+ 7 Bay. 
Cellepora americana ...............  ........................ 66 Sound+x 3 Bay. 

a It must be added, however, that the lists (pp. 7o, 7t above) ol species present in one-fourth or more ol the dredge hauls 
upon these respective types ol bottom comprise about equal nttmbers of Bryozoa. 



o6 

BULLETIN OF' THE BUREAU OF' FISHERIES. 

At least two of the foregoing species (Membranipora tenuis and Hippothoa hyalina), 
while occurring with some frequency in the Bay, are restricted for the most part to the 
neighborhood of land. 
The preponderance of some of these forms in the Vineyard Sound records is prob- 
ably due in part to the relative imperfection of our data for Bryozoa from ]3uzzards 
t3ay. Supplementary dredgings in the t3ay, during the summer of t9o9, revealed the 
presence of a number of species not hitherto found there, and indicated that certain 
others were not so scarce in this body of water as had been supposed. Indeed, it has 
been necessary to remove certain species from this second list which had earlier been 
placed there. Concerning the following species it is not believed that we have sufficient 
data to warrant any conclusions as to their relative abundance in the t3av and the Sound : 
Tubulipora liliacea. 
Membranipora monostachys. 
Bowerbankia gracilis. 
As a marrer of fact ail three of these species are recorded from an absolutely greater 
number of stations in the Sound than in the Bay. One of them (Membranipora mono- 
stachys) has been recorded in the latter onlv from the stations near lard. 
Aside from the few cases mentioned, in vhich the occurrence of certain species in 
the Bay is limited to the inshore waters, there is nothing in the distribution of any of 
the species, so far as shown bv the charts, vhich c'an be regarded as in any sense "bathy- 
metric." Certain species which do rot appear in our distribution charts, however, are 
restricted to shallow waters, or to the immediate neighborhood of lard, and indeed may 
fmd their proper habitat in the littoral or intertidal zone. The most familiar instance of 
the last sort is the abundant Flustrella hispida, which occurs in great profusion upon the 
rockweeds, Fucus and Ascophyllum. Certain other species, likewise, such as Eucratea 
chelata, Amathia dichotoma, and Bugula flabellata, have seldom been encountered by us 
except upon piles. Another species, Mernbranipora tehuelcha, has only been noted upon 
the floating gulfweed, vith which it is borne passively to our waters. This, like so many 
other species having the saine habitat, is a southem form which does hot properly 
belong to our local fauna. 
Not a single instance has been found among our dredging records of a species of 
this group vhose distribution in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay appears to be 
determined by temperature. There dwell, hovever, within the outlying colder waters 
of the region considered bv us, a considerable number of speeies, most of vhich repre- 
sent a strictly northern fauna, and many of which, indeed, find in Woods Hole or vicinity 
their southern limit of distribution. A number of these have not previously been re- 
corded south of Canada. A list of those species is presented, herevith, whieh have been 
taken by us at Crab Ledge or in the vicinity of Nantucket, but hot within Vineyard 
Sound or Buzzards Bar. Data are ineluded respecting their distribution as heretofore 
known. 
Crisia eribraria ................. Canada. 
Stomatopora diastoporoides ... British Isles, Baffins Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Tubulipora atlantica ............ North Atlantic from Lablador to Florida; Australia. 
Tubulipora flabellaris .......... Northern Atlantie and Aretie seas; Greenland, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
Grand Manan; Mediterranean ? 
Gemellaria lorieata .............. Northern Atlantie and Aretie seas; Labrador, St. Georges Banks, Grand 
Manan. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. IO 7 
Scruparia clavata .............. British Isles, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Cellularia peachii ............... Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas; Labrador, Gulf of St. Lawrence, St. 
Georges Banks. 
Menipea ternata ............... Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas; Labrador, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
Grand Manan. 
Caberia ellisii .................. Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas; Greenland, Labrador, Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, Maine. 
Bugula cucullifera .............. Maine, off Cape Cod. 
Bugulamurrayana ............... Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas; Greenland, Labrador, Gulf of St. 
Larence, New England. 
Membranipora cymboeformis .... Northcrn Atlantic and Arctic seas; Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Membranipora craticula ......... Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas, Davis St_rait, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Membranipora unieornis ........ Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas; Greenland, Gulï of St. Lawrence, 
North Pacifie. 
Membranipora arctica ........... 
Cribrilinaannulata ............. "Eminently a northern form;" Spitzbergen, Greenland, Labrador, 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, Grand Manan. 
Porina tubulosa ................. Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas: Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Schizoporella auriculata ........ Red and Mediterranean 8eas to Arctic Ocean; Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
chizoporella sinuosa ........... Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas; Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Celleporacanaliculata ........... Gul of St. Lawrence; off Halifax. 
Mucronella pavonella ........... Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas, Gulf of St Lawrence, North Pacifie. 
Smittia porifera ................ North Atlantic and Arctic seas; Gul of St. Lawrence, Florida, South" 
Africa, Australia. 
Porella propinqua .............. Northern Atlantic and Arcfic seas; Gulf of St. Lawrence, Davis Strait. 
Porella acutirostris .............. Northern Atlanti¢ and Arctic seas; Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Porella eoncinna ............... Arctic seas to Mediterranean; Greenland, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Rhamphostomella eostata ....... Northern 2ktlantic and Arctic seas; Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Alcyonidinm parasiticum ...... British Isles. 
The following notes have been furnished by Dr. Osburn relative to differences of 
habitat displayed by different members of the same genus: 
Crisia. 
C. eburnea: Out most familiar species; abundant in shallow waters, but extending to the deepest 
waters of the region. 
C. cribraria: Fotmd only in the outside, colder vaters. 
Bugula. 
B. turrita: Abundant under all conditions in the inner waters; less common in the cold waters off 
shore, e. g., at Crab Ledge. 
B. flabellata: On plies and in shallover waters down to a fev fathoms; almost wholly confined to 
adlittoral zone. 
B. murrayana: Abundant in outer waters on stones and shells; not found in itmer waters. 
Membranipora. 
M. cymboeformis: Common upon hydroid and other stems in outside waters. 
M. pilosa: Common throughout out vaters on shells and algoe; differing in the form of t,he zooecia, 
according to substratum occupied. 
M. unicornis: On stones and shells in outer waters. 
M. monostachys: Throughout out waters; common, usually upon very smooth surfaces, such as 
inside of shells, on skate eggs, carapace of Limulus, etc. It presents differences of form, accord- 
ing to whether it grows in inner or outer vaters. 
M. tenuis: Common upon stones and shells, but not in shallow waters near shore. 
M. flemingii: (Much as last). 
M. aurita: Common on stones, shells, and algœe, at all depths. 
M. tehuelcha: Only round upon drifting gulfweed. 



IO8 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
Cfibrilina. 
C. punctata: Common in Vineyard Sotmd and outer waters, on stones nd shells. 
C. annulata: Only in outer, colder waters. 
Schizoporella. 
S. unicornis: Everywhere, forming massive colonies; less frequent in outside waters. 
S. biaperta: Throughout out waters, forming fiat colonies on stones nd shells, or (more frequently) 
forming fanlike expansions on algœe, etc. 
S. auriculata: Only ht outside waters. 
S. sinuosa: Only in outside waters. 
tIippothoa. 
H. hyalina: Of general distribution on algœe, shells, stones, etc.; best devcloped on stemsof algœe 
and hydroids, where it forms nodular crusts. 
H. divaricata: Locally, hot at all common and round only in the outer waters, though bot else- 
where restricted by temperature. 
Lepralia. 
L. americana: Throughout out waters on stones and shells, especially in deeper waters. 
L. pallasiana: On stones, shells, piles, and eel grass; of general occurrence, but more frequent in 
shallow waters. 
L. pertusa: Of general distribution; most common on shells emd pebbles. 
Mucronella. « 
M. peachii: Occasional in Sound and in ontslde waters, forming fiat crusts on stones and shells. 
M. pavonella: In outside waters only, forming fiat colonies npon stoaaes and shells, or rising into fan- 
like expansions on stems of hydroids, etc. 
8mittia. 
8. trispinosa nitida: Of very general occurrence, growig pon ail sorts of objects, and forming 
massive nodular crusts on stones and shells. 
S. porifera: In onter waters, on stones and shells; smaller colonies scmetimes taken in inner waters. 
Cellepora. 
C. americana: Of general distribution on stems of hydroids or algœe, forming nodules or irregular 
masses. 
C. canaliculata: In outside waters, forming rounded, pisiform colonies on stems of laydroids, etc. 
Alcyonidium. 
A. verrilli: Western end of Vineyard Sotmd; erect and branching. 
A. parasitieum: In outside waters, incrusting stems and stones; argillaceous matter combined in 
zoarium. 
A. mytili: In various situations in inside waters, incrusting, hot argillaceous. 
Bowerbankia. 
B. gracilis and its variety caudata: Creeping over stems of other organisms, or upon piles; occurring 
together. 
/-Iippuraria. 
H. armata: Of general occurrence; creeping upon stems, et6., or erect. 
H. elongata: Commensal in branchial chamber or on carapace of crustacea. 
The following list comprises the Bryozoa collected by us in the course of the Survey 
dredging. A considerable number of these species were hot taken, however, at anv of the 
regular (numbered) stations, and a good many have been recorded only from outlying 
points, such as Crab Ledge or the shoals to the east of Nantucket. Those species which 
were taken at o or more of the stations in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay are, as 

usual, designated by an asterisk. 
Pedicellina cernua. 
Barcntsia major. 
Barentsia discreta. 
*Crisia eburnea (claart 27)- 
Crisia cribraria. 

*Tubulipora liliacea (chart 28). 
Tubulipora atlmatica. 
Tubulipora flabellaris. 
Stomatopora diastoporoides. 
Lichenopora verrucaria. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVIY 

.Etea anguina (chart 29). 
Gemellaria loricata. 
Scruparia clavata. 
Cellularia peachii. 
Menipea ternata. 
Scrupocellaria scabra. 
Caberea ellisii. 
Bicellaria ciliata (chart 30). 
Bugula turrita (chart 3i). 
Bugula gracilis tmcinata. 
Bugtfla cucullifera. 
Bugula flabellata. 
Bugula murrayana. 
Membrani )ora cymboeformis. 
Membranipora pilosa (chart 32). 
Membranipora craticula. 
Membranipora lineata. 
Membranipora tmicornis. 
¢Membranipora monostachys (chart 33)- 
Membranipora tenuis (chart 34). 
Membranipora flemingii (chart 35)- 
**Membranipora aurita (chart 36). 
Membrani )ora arctica. 
Membrani )ora arctica armifera. 
Cribrilina )unctata (chart 37)- 
Cribrilina annulata. 
Porina tubulosa. 
Microporella ciliata. 
Microporella ciliata stellata. 
Schizoporella tmicornis (chart 38). 
**Schizoporella biaperta (chart 39)- 

OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

Schizoporella auriculata. 
Schizoporella sinuosa. 
Hippothoa hyalina (chart 4o). 
Hippothoa divaricata. 
Cellepora americana (chart 4)- 
Cellepora canaliculata. 
Lepralia americana (chart 42). 
Lepmlia pallasiana (chart 42). 
Lepralia pertusa (chart 43)- 
Lepralia serrata. 
Mucronella ventricosa. 
Mucronella peachii. 
Mucronella pavonella. 
Smittia trispinosa. 
Smittia trispinosa nitida (chart 44). 
Smittia porifem. 
Porella propinqua. 
Porella acutirostris. 
Porella concinna. 
Porella proboscidea. 
Rhamphostomella bilaminata. 
Rhamphostomella costata. 
Rhamphostomella ovata. 
Alcyonidium verrilli. 
Alcyonidium parasiticum. 
Alcyonidium myfili. 
¢Bowerbankia gracilis (chart45). 
Bowerbankia gracilis caudata. 
Anguinella palmata. 
¢Hippuraria armata (chart 46). 

Io9 

Referring to the 2i commoner species, it has not been found possible to distinguish 
the majofity of them, according to their range, as predominantly northern or southern. 
This results partly from the fact that so man3 of the 13ryozoa are surpfisingly cosmo- 
politan in their distribution, partly from the fact that out knowledge of their distribu- 
tion in Amefican waters is so meager. In a considerable number of instances it would 
appear from the few American records at out disposal that a species was predominantly 
northern or southern in its distribution, when reference to foreign records shows that 
such is not the case. Even those few species which we have here distinguished as pre- 
dominantly northward or southward ranging are so designated in a purely tentative way. 
Predorninantly northern. 
Tubulipora liliacea ............ Labrador to Long Islmad Sotmd. 
]3icellaria ciliata ............... Northward on our coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Membranipora flemingii ....... Greenland to Vineyard Sound (recorded from Adriatic). 
Cribrilina ptmctata ............. Northward on our coast to Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Predorninantly southern. 
]3ugula turrita .................. Casco Bay to Florida. 
Membranipora monostachys .... Nantltcket Sotmd to Beaufort, N. C. 
• Membranipora tenuis .......... Saine as last. 
I-Iippuraria armata .............. Saine as last. 
Three of the four last named species are ones which bave only been listed from 
American waters. 



II0 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Of vcry "a'idc range in both directions. 
Crisia eburnea .................. Labrador to Florida (cosmopolitan). 
2Etea anguina ................ Cosmopolitan; upon out eoast recorded from points as far south as Beau- 
fort, N. C. 
Membranipora pilosa ........... Greenland to Beaufort, N. C. (eosmopolitan). 
Sehizoporella unicornis ......... Greenland to Florida (Europe and Africa). 
Schizoporella biaperta ..... Greenland to Florida (Spitzbergen, Algiers, etc.). 
Hippothoa hyalina ............. Greenland to Florida (cosmopolitan). 
Lepralia pertusa ............... Greenland to Florida (cosmopolitan). 
Position doubtful, owin 9 to insufficiency of data. 
Membranipora aurita .......... Not previously recorded from America. 
Cellepora amerieana ............ (?) 
Lepralia pallasiana ............. Perhaps northern. 
Lepralia americana ............. Knoaa only from a small section of out coast. 
Smittia trispinosa nitida ....... Knoxaa from only a small section of out eoast (also Australia). 
Bowerbankia graeilis caudata .. Known only from a small section of out eoast. 
Thus a eonsiderable majority of these speeies bave either an almost unrestrleted 
range in latitude, or a range of doubtftfl extent. Four bave been elassified as predomi- 
nantly northern and an equal number as predominantly southern. If, however, out 
ealeulations had been based upon the entire list of local Bryozoa, ineluding the many 
speeies (p. 1o6, Io7) whieh were listed onlv from outlying points, we should bave been 
led to regard our bryozoan fauna as being, on fhe whole, preponderatingly northern in 
its eharaeter. 
6. ECHINODERMATA. 

This phylum fs represented in local waters bv onlv 24(+ I .)) known spcies. Of 
these, 6 belong to the Asteroidea, 6 to the Ophiuroidea, 4 to the Echinoidea, and 8 (+ 1 ?) 
to the Holothuroidea. Eighteen of these species appear in the dredging records of the 
Survey, as follows: Asteroidea, 6; Ophiuroidea, 5; Echinoidea, 3; I-Iolothuroidea, 4- 
Data relating to several other species have, hov«ever, been furnished by various of our 
Woods Hole collectors. The other records for local echinoderms are based mainly upon 
the published statements of Verrill and of H. L. Clark. In the classification adopted 
by us we have followed Dr. Clark. To this authority we are indebted for the identifi- 
cation of many specimens, as well as for thc criticism of those portions of out manu- 
script which relate to the Echinodermata. 
Verrill and Smith (1873) listed 19 species of echinoderms for Vineyard Sound and 
adjacent waters. Among these were comprised 5 species belonging to the Asteroidea, a 
4 to the Ophiuroidea, 4 to the Echinoidea, and 6 to the I-Iolothuroidea. To these must 
be added I holothurian (Molpadia oolitica), which was included doubtfully, and I 
ophiuran (Amphiura abdita.), which was reported by Verrill only from Long Island 
Sound, but which has since been found in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay. Disre- 
garding the holothurian just mentioned, all of the species listed by Verfill for these 
waters have been taken by subsequent collectors. 
Except in one questionable case, our dredging operations bave added no species 
to the known fauna of the region. This exception fs the brittle star just referred 

a One of these, it is true ("Ast¢,ias «ren.icola Stimpson"). is hot now regarded as a distinct sledes, but is, as Verrill hlm. 
self thought likely, identical with A. forbesi. The naine "-reen starfish,'" by 'hich Verrill repeatedly refers to this species, 
fs certainly a misnomer, so far as our local specimens are conce.'ned. 



BIOLOGI(AL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY, I I I 

to (Amphioplus abdita (Verrill)), which was taken at about the same time by Mr. G. M. 
Gray and by out own collectors on the Fish Hawk, nd has since been dredged by us 
on several occasions, a It appears, indeed, that this species is not uncommon in local 
waters, and the same has proved to be true of the holothurian Caudina arenata, which 
was previously regarded as verv rare locally. 
Reference to the comparative table on page 88 shows that the phylum of Echino- 
dermata is very poorly represented in the Woods Hole region, as compaied with each of 
the other localities which have been considered. For the phylum as a whole we have 
the following figures: Woods Hole, 24(-I-1 ?); Eastern Canada, 7i; Plymouth, 36; Ifish 
Se_a, 35; Triest, 37. 
In the case of the Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea in particular, these figures are uni- 
formly higher for the other stations than for Woods Hole. Again, our own list is the 
only one among them which is completely lacking in crinoids, for even Antedon has hot 
thus far been met with in out waters. 
Fourteen of out 24 echinoderms are common to Whiteaves's list for eastem Canada, 
while only 2 (perhaps only i) are common to the Plvmouth list. 
In making any comparîsons between these faunal lists, the usual allowance must be 
ruade for the widelv different areas to which they relate, as xvell as to the widely different 
ranges in depth. Comparisons with Plymouth or with Trieste appear to be much fairer 
than with either of the other regions, so far as area is concerned. 
The average number of species of echinoderms dredged at the 458 regular stations 
of the Survey was i -9. The species which was encountered xvith greatest frequency was 
Asterias [orbesi, which was recorded from 2o6 of the stations. The only ones which 
were recorded from as many as one-fourth of the total number of stations are: 
Number of stations. 
Asterias forbesi .......................................................... 2o6 
Echinarachnius parma ...................................... i7o 
Arbacia ptmctulata ..................... i56 
I-lem-icia sanguinolenta ..................................... ii8 
Owing to the comparatively large size of most members of this phylum, and to the 
very limited number of species which occur in local waters, it seems likely that out list 
of echinoderms is particularly complete. If additions are ruade subsequently, it will 
probably be among the ophiuroids and the holothurians, some of which are of small 
size and given to burrowing or to concealment in crevices of stones, etc. It is likely, too, 
that our dredging records for this group are fairly free from errors of omission or con- 
fusion of one species xvith another. Reference should be made, however, to certain 
mistakes of identification, which we believe to have been ruade at first. 
0) It is probable that during the early davs of the work the younger specimens of 
Asterias ulgaris and A. ]orbesi were sometimes confused in the field. So far as this con- 
fusion may relate to Vineyard Sound, the results can not be serious, since out later and 
more accurate exploration of the Sotmd has shoxvn that both species occur throughout 
practically its entire length. As regards Buzzards Bay, specimens of Asterias ulgaris 
were recorded from rive stations within its interior, which it has been decided to leave out 
of consideration in plotting the distribution chart for this species. The records have, 

a See Clark, itl Science, Jan. 4, x9o8, and Stmmer, itl American/aturalist, lIay. 9o8. According to Dr. Clark, lIr. Gray's 
spec-imen was taken in August, x9o7 (exact date no! stated). Our own first specim«n was dredged on Aug. 6. x9o-. Here, then, 
rat)st perplexing question of priorJty! 



II2 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

however, been retained in the list of stations for this starfish, as given in out catalogue, 
though their doubtful nature bas been indicated. Supplementary dredgings were 
ruade in Buzzards Bay dufing two subsequent seasons, partly for the purpose of 
testing this feature in the distribution of Asterias 7;ul9aris. Out of a total of nearly 
60 stations, starfishes of this genus were recorded for ii. These were in all cases 
assignable to Asterias jorbesi, with the exception of a few small specimens of A. 
zdgaris taken at two stations situated near the island shores and not far from the 
mouth of the Bay. Accordingly we regard the occurrence of the latter species in the 
interior portions of Buzzards Bay as being extremely doubtful. 
(2) Doubt has been cast upon out earliest field identifications of the ophiuroids. 
For this reason, it has been regarded as fairer to bfing together the records for the first 
year, except such as are based upon authofitative determinations, under the heading 
"ophiuroids unidentified." Such specimens were probably in most cases referable to the 
species A ,zphipholis squarnata. 
Distribution charts have been plotted for seven species of echinoderrns (charts 
47 to 53). a It will be seen at a glance that only two of these species (Asterias [orbesi and 
Arbacia punctulata) were encountered with any frequency in Buzzards Bay, while of 
these two the former alone was generally distributed throughout the central portions 
of the Bay. Arbacia and certain other species (notably ttenricia) were round to be 
largely restricted, in Buzzards Bay, to the immediate neighborhood of land. For these 
facts, as for similar ones already discussed in out treatment of other groups, we befieve 
that the char'acter of the bottom is chiefly responsible. Most of out commoner local 
echinoderms prefer bottoms of gravel or sand to ones of mud. To this statement, it is 
true, exceptions are offered by some of the holothurians and ophiuroids. 
From the table on page 79 it will be seen that the average number of species of 
echinoderms per dredge haul, taken upon bottoms of gravel and stones, is 2.2; that for 
sandy bottolns being 2.0, and that for muddy bottoms being only 1.2. The different 
classes, however, do not agree in these preferences. The figures both for holothuroidea 
and ophiuroidea are greatest for muddy bottoms; but, owing to their infrequent occur- 
rence in the dredge hauls, they do not sefiously affect these averages. 
The relative wealth of the echinoderm fauna upon different types of bottom is 
shown in another way by an enumer'ation of the species which were taken in one-fourth 
or more of the dredge hauls ruade upon bottoms of each type (p. 70, 7I). In the list 
for sandy bottoms are comprised  asteroids and 2 echinoids; in that for gravelly and 
stony bottoms,  asteroids and t echinoid; in that for muddy bottoms, a single asteroid 
and no echinoids. Similarly, 3 asteroids and 2 echinoids appear in the fist of species 
(p. 65) taken at one-fourth or more of the Fish Hawk stations in Vineyard Sound, while 
only t asteroid and no echinoids appear in the corresponding list for Buzzards Bay. The 
lists for the Phalarope stations in the two bodies of water do hot show as great differ- 
ences, since the conditions in the "adlittoral" region are more nearly similar throughout, 
but the preponderance is nevertheless somewhat in favor of Vineyard Sound. 
A species whieh is restricted more than any other to bottoms of pure sand  is the 
"sand dollar," Echinarachnius parma. Charaeter of the bottom, rather than tempera- 

a In the case o| the charts for shell-bearing organisms, the occm'rence of living specimens at a given station has been indicated 
by a c]rcle surrotmding the star. mong the echinodetms this practice bas been followed only in the case of the two sea urchin, 
21rbada and Stran¢ylocentrotus, these being the only ones which would be likely to leave behind enduring remains. It ha 
been assttmed for these two that all the field records relate to living specimens unless the contrary is expressly stated. 
b The dead tests are o| more general occurrence, owing probably to the fact that they may be drffted by tidal ettrrents. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

ture, is probably responsible for the greater prevalence of this species in the western 
hall of Vineyard Sound, where, as we have pointed out elsewhere, certain typical sand- 
dvelling species find their most congenial habitat. 
On the other hand, certain less frequent species (not among those charted) were 
dredged chiefly upon muddy bottoms. Particularly worthy of mention is the holo- 
thurian Caudina arenata, which was taken by us seven times in Buzzards Bay and onlv 
once in Vineyard Sound. 
The part played by temperature in determining distribution is rather strikingly 
illustrated by some members of out echinoderm fauna. The local distribution of the 
two commoner species of Asterias is quite in keeping with what we know of the ranges 
of these two forms upon out coast. A glance at charts 48 and 49 shows us that whereas 
Asterias [orbesi has a practically unrestricted distribution in local waters, A. vul.qaris, 
on the contrary, is most prevalent in the colder portion of Vineyard Sound. Indeed, 
there is seen to be a progressive concentration of the distribution symbols as we pass 
from the eastern to the western end of the Sound, while in the Bav the records are con- 
fined to the neighborhood of the open ocean. It is likewise worth noting in this con- 
nection that the latter species was recorded from ail seven of out regular dredging 
stations at Crab Ledge, while Asterias [orbesi was recorded but once. 
As stated by Clark, the range of the latter species upon out coast is from "Maine to 
the Gulf of Mexico," but it is said to be "rare or local north of Cape Ann." It is pri- 
marily a shallow water form, which does not appear to pass beyond depths of 25 or 30 
fathoms. A. vulgaris, on the other hand, ranges from Labrador to "Cape Hatteras, 
though it is "rarely seen in shallow water * * * south of the Woods Hole region." 
It is recorded from depths as great as 358 fathoms. 
Such natural expectations as to distribution in local waters are not, however, 
realized in the case of another starfish, Henricia sanguinolenta. This species, also, is 
listed as "littoral only as far south as the Woods Hole region," while, to the northward, 
it extends to Greenland. The dredging records show it to be abundant throughout 
the length of Vineyard Sound and, indeed, to be rather commoner in the eastern 
(warmer) hall. It is likewise recorded from scattered stations in Buzzards Bay, even 
well toward its head. For this species, then, temperature seems to be a minor factor in 
determining the distribution in local waters. 
Of considerable interest are the relative distributions of out two local sea urchins, 
Arbacia punclulata and Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The former species appears 
to be of general occurrence throughout Vineyard Sound, except for the portion adjoining 
the open ocean. In Buzzards Bay it occurs as far as the upper end, but it seems here 
to be restricted largely to the vicinity of land. Strongylocentrotus, on the other hand, 
occurs in greatest abundance in the western portion of Vineyard Sound, though occa- 
sional specimens have been taken as far eastward as Vest Chop. In Buzzards Bay it 
is found only near the extreme lower end. Again, Strongflocentrotus »vas taken at ail 
seven of the stations at Crab Ledge, while Arbacia was not found there once. The 
latter species occurs locallv at ail depths, even up to the low-water mark. The former 
species, on the other hand, is rarely if ever taken at such slight depths, except in 
northern waters. « We bave very few records of its occurrence in less than 5 fathoms, 

« Verrill. it is true. states that this species occurs "at low water on the outer rocky shores." "l'his can hot be a common occttr- 
tence locally, however. 
I6269°--Bu11.3 I, pt 1--i3--8 



I 1 4 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
and in the great majority of cases (72 per cent) it was taken at depths greater than o 
fathoms. « 
Comparing the range of these two species upon out coast, we find that Arbacict is 
said to occur from "Nantucket Shoals and Woods Hole to west Florida and Yucatan" 
(Clark), i. e., out region lies at its northern lirai, of distribution. The range of Stron9Y- 
locenlrolus, on the other hand, is said to be "circumpolar; southward in the western 
Atlantic to New Jersey (no, in shallow water south of Cape Cod)." 
That Arbacia is no, adapted to enduring temperatures lower than those generally 
prevailing in out local waters during the winter months is indicated by the fact that a 
large proportion of these urchins seem to have been exterminated in Vineyard Sourd 
during the winter of 19o3- 4. This winter was an extremely severe one, the ice being 
greater in quantity and lasting longer than for many years previously. Even Woods 
Hole passage, where the tidal currents are extremely swift, was frozen over so firmly 
that Mr. Viral Edwards accomplished the astonishing feat of walking over to Nona- 
messe, Island. Reference to the temperature tables for the Woods Hole station (p. 47) 
shows that the mean water temperature for January and February, 19o4, was 29.3 ° F., 
as compared with 32.3 °, the mean of these two months for the other four years comprised 
in the table• 
Now the sudden and ex,reine scarcity of Arbacia in Woods Hole Harbor and else- 
where in the summer of  904 was noted by local collectors generally, and we are informed 
by the curator of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Mr. George M. Gray, that this 
species did no, for several years resume anything like its former abundance in local 
waters, b 
Fortunately we are in possession of definite data on this subject, based upon a 
comparison of out dredging records for the summers of I9O3 and i9o 4. As has been 
stated on page 55, a considerable number of the i9o 3 stations were repeated in the 
following summer for the sake of comparisons and verifications. In the two parallel 
columns below we present the records for Arbacia, obtained during these two seasons, 
in that part of the Sound (the eastern two-thirds) in which the stations were duplicated: 

a9o3 • 

7522 (many living). 
7523 (several living). 
7524 (very abundant, living). 
7526 (2). 
7529 (few). 
753 o (abundant). 
7531 (i dead). 
7532 (many). 
7533 (few, many spines). 
7534 (numerous). 
7535 (few shells, many spines). 

7537 (many, rather small). 

7539 (few). 
7540 (few). 

9o4. 
752ibls (fragments and spines). 
7522bis (none). 
753bis (xspine). 
754bis (none). 

753obis (none). 
753 ibis (few fragments). 
7532bis (few spines). 
7533bis ( small living). 
7534bis (few spines). 
7535bis (many spines). 
7536bis (many spines). 
7537bis (none). 
7538bis (spines and fragments). 
7539bis (none). 

a This deslite the tact that hardly more than a third o! out stations were in waters as dee0 as that 
t In I908 and t9o9 we were able to obtain large quantifies ot these urchins in Vines,ard Sourd by means of tangles 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

II 5 

x9o3 • 
îS« (Iew). 

7543 (fragment). 
7545 (numerous living). 
7546 (few living). 

7549 (many living). 
755 ° (fragments). 
755  (few living). 
7552 (few). 

7554 (i small dead). 
7555 (numerous). 
7556 (few). 
7557 (i shell). 
7558 (many living). 
7559 (few living). 
756x (about 2 bushels). 
7562 (few living). 
7563 (many living). 
7564 (many living). 
7566 (many spines). 
7567 (many spines). 
7568 (many spines). 

I9o4. 
7541bis (many spines). 
754zbis (several spines). 
7543bis (none). 
7545bis (fragment of shell and many spines). 
7546bis (spines). 
7547bis (several living and fragments). 
7549bis (few fragments and spines). 
755obis (fcw spines). 
7551bis (i living, several fragments). 
7552bis (fev spines). 
7553bis (few spines). 
7554bis (none). 

7556bis (many fragments and spines). 

7562bis (none). 
7563bis (spines and fragments). 
7564bis (many spines). 

7569bis (spines). 

Thus in 19o 3 the presence of living specimens is expressly recorded in 2 out of 
36 stations at which A rbac{a occurred, and it is certain that they were present at many 
of the other stations, perhaps in ail cases where the contrary is hot explicitly stated. 
Such records as "few," "many," or "2 bushels" certainly refer, for the most part, to 
living specimens. We may state confidently, therefore, that living sea urchins of this 
species, sometimes in large numbers, vere taken at from one-half to tvo-thirds of the 
stations in question. In 19o4, on the other hand, living specimens (never in large 
numbers) were recorded from only 3 of the 23 stations at which Arbac{a or its remains 
wcre taken. In ail other cases the records are for spines and fragments, a Further- 
more, this condition was equally manifest during the succeedigg season. Stations 7735 
to 7757 (dredged in 19o5) cover practically the saine region of the Sound as stations 
75- to 7569. At these 23 stations of the later vear spines (in one case fragments) are 
recorded in 12 cases; in hot a single case was a living Arbac¢r taken. Reference to the 
complete station list for this species shows that throughout the Sound as a whole (sta- 
tions 7678 to 7783) living specimens of Arbaca were taken but 5 rimes during the 
summer of I9o5, and that never more than _ (in four cases a single one) were taken 
at one rime.  

a The nttmber of records for sl9ines only vould have been sornewhat greater, it is true, during the summer of 9o3, had the 
sand, etc., brought up by the dredge, been searched as carefully that year as during subsequent seasons. 
b It is to be noted in the case of Stronylotrotus, likewise, that a large proportion of the later (x9o5) records (7678 to 775) 
indicate the 19resence of sl9ines and fragracnts only, while living Sl9ecimens alone were noted in x9o3. This last circumstance 
was, however, doubtless due in considerable measure to the fact that the looee spines of the green urchin were overlooked dur'ng 
the first season (see preceding Iootnote). The absolute number of stations from which living specimens are recorded in 9o5 
(counting as living ail those hot listid as "fragments" or "sl9ines") was 8, as coml9ared with xo during the summer of xoo3. 
Moreover, at 4 out of 5 of the "bis" stations (x9o4) at which this species was taken the records indicate living Slecimens. 
Thus it seems unlikely tliat Stronylocenlrotus was unfavorably affected during the winter which wrought such havoc vith 
Arbacia. The saine marc be said of the "sand dollar." Echiarochnius. V, re find no evidence of any destruction of this species 
at that rime. 



116 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

How the severe eold prevalent during the winter under consideration could have 
resulted in the death of organisms dwelling in several (sometimes many) fathoms of 
water is difficult to see. With animais so situated an actual freezing seems to be out 
of question, and the temperature to vhich they vere subjected on this occasion was 
only a few degrees lower than that ordinarily endured by them in the winter. Further- 
more, it must be pointed out that the peculiarities in the local distribution of Arbaca 
correspond to known differences in summer temperatures, hot winter temperatures. 
As bas been shown above (p. 5o), it is likely that in vinter ail our waters attain 
practically the saine temperature at the coldest period of the year; and indeed it is the 
shallower, more inclosed waters, such as those frequented by Arbacia, which are the 
ones to respond most quickly to the winter cold. Further consideration will be given 
to this subject in chapter v (p. 77). 
In addition to these illustrations, which bave been discussed at length, we find 
several other instances among this group of species whose distribution in local waters 
is certainly related to temperature. Thus Asterias austera, Solaster endeca, and Gor- 
gonocephalus agassizii, which reach their southern limit of distribution in this region, 
bave been taken by us only at Crab Ledge; while Asterias tenera, though recorded from 
points as far south as New Jersey, is predominantly a northern forrn, and locally is 
only known from outlying points such as Crab Ledge and Sankaty Head. Again the 
brittle star Ophiopholis aculeata and the peculiar little holothurian Thyone unisemita, 
the first of which, at least, is known to be a predominantly northern form, have only 
been recorded by us from the western end of Vineyard Sound and from Crab Ledge-- 
a hOt unusual combination, as we have seen. 
Although it is a problem to what degree depth, as such, can be regarded as a factor in 
deterrnining the distribution of marine animals, we find of course many species which 
appear to show marked preferences for the deeper or the shoaler waters of the reon. 
Among the echinoderrns, it has already been pointed out that the sea urchin StrongyIo- 
centrotus occurs in Vineyard Sound chiefly at depths of io fathoms or more. The saine 
is true to a less extent of Asterias ulgaris. a Now both of these have alreadv been 
mentioned as northern forms, which are restricted in large measure to the colder waters 
of the region. Their avoidance of the shoaler waters near land is probably dependent 
upon their preference for lower temperatures. 
Some of out local holothurians have a converse type of distribution; i. e., they 
show a decided preference for extremely shallow waters. To what degree this fact is 
related to temperature, and to what degree it depends upon the character of the bottom, 
in which they burrow, need not be considered here. One of this group, Thyone briareus, 
was dredged by us several times but never far from land, and its more characteristic 
lrabitat is probably in waters which are not accessible to the dredge at all. 
The following is a list of the echinoderms which were taken by us in the course of 
the Survey dredging. The asterisk denotes as usual those species which were encountered 
at xo or more stations in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, and for which, consequently, 
distribution charts have been plotted. 

a To a certain degree Henricia san¢uinolenta is more prevaleiat in the deeper waters. Only 7 per cent of out records for th;.s 
species are from depths les» than 5 fathoms, although 24 per cent of ail out stations were at depths hot exceeding that figure. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

Solaster endeca. 
"XHenricia sanguinolenta (chart 47). 
Asterias austera. 
*Asterias forbesi (chart 48). 
Asterias tenera. 
*Asterias vulgaris (chart 49)- 
Ophioderma brevispina. 
Ophiopholis aculeata. 
*Amphipholis squamata (chart 5o). 

Amphioplus abdita. 
Gorgonocephalus agassizii. 
*Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (chart 51). 
*Arbacia punctulata (chart 52). 
*Echinarachnius parma (chart 53). 
Cucumaria pulcherrima. 
Thyone briareus. 
Thyone unisemita. 
Caudina arenata. 

Considering the 7 more prevalent species of local echinoderms, we may group 
them, as usual, according to their range upon our coast, as predominantly northem or 
southern. The distributions here stated are those given by Clark. 
Predominantly northern. 
I-Ienricia sanguinolenta ............. "Greenland and Labrador to Connecticut, off New Jersey and even 
Cape Hatteras." 
Asterias walgaris ................... "Labrador to Cape Hatteras; but south of the Woods Hole region 
rarely seen in shallow water." 
trongylocentrotus droebachiensis.. "Circumpolar; southward in the western Atlantic to New Jersey 
(hOt in shallow water south of Cape Co0t)." 
Predominantly southern. 
Asterias forbesi .................... "Maine to the Gulf of Mexico, rare or local north of Cape Ann." 
Arbacia punctulata ................. "Nantucket Shoals and Woods I-Iole to West Florida and Yucatan." 
Of uncertain position. 
Amphipholis squamata ............ Arctie Ocean to West Indies and South Ameriea. (Australia; 
Mediterranean Sea.) 
Echinarachnius parma .............. On our toast, from Labrador to New Jersey (also Red ,Sea). 
It is obvious that no fait opinion can be formed regarding the zoogeographical 
position of our local echinoderms from a consideration of these few species. According 
to Clark, 5 of the 6 truc starfishes of the region are northem, though the Asteroidea 
are the only group which show this preponderance of northern forms. 
7. ANNULATA AND SIPUNCULIDA. 
ANNULATA. 
Of the Annulata proper 148 determined species are recorded, to which number 
must be added 4 undetermined species and a few others which are doubtfully to be 
included in this list. These species represent lO 9 genera and 4o families. Of the total 
number of species recorded, 83, or more than 5o per cent, vere taken during our own 
dredging operations; 46 others are recorded for local waters on the authority of persons 
who have participated in the work of the Sm-vey, vhile 3 ° species are included wholly 
on the at=thority of published statements. The great majority of the segmented worms 
here recorded belong to the subclass Polychoeta, of which about 135 species have been 
listed for the region. In addition to these, however, are x i species of Oligochoeta and 
4 of the Hirudinea. 
Only a single nev species (Arabdla spini[era Moore) bas been described from speci- 
mens taken during the Survey dredging. A number of species hitherto unrecorded 
locally bave, however, been added to the knovn fauna of the region. Such are Myxcola 
steenstrupii, Pista intermedia, Polycirrus phosphoreus, Spiochatopterus oculatus, Spirorbis 



Ii8 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

tubce]orrais,.and some or all of the following: « A,philrite cirrata, Chcetinopoma green 
landica, Cirratulus cirratus, Glycera capitata and Praxilclla zonalis. 
Verrill and Smith 0873) listed 70 determined species of Annulata from specifiecl 
localities lying within the limits of our re#on, and some 5 others whose range, as stated, 
would include Woods Hole and vicinity. Our present list thus comprises about twice as 
many representatives of this phylum as were catalogued for the re#on in the "Report 
upon the Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound." More than 20 other determined 
species, however, were recorded at that time by Verfill for adjacent portions of the Atlantic 
coast; while in later papers he added many more to the fauna of the Woods Hole region 
itself. Most of those species of out own list which are hot comprised within the various 
papers of Verrill have been recorded upon the authority of Dr. J. P. Moore, who bas 
devoted some years to a systematic study of the ,Voods Hole Polychœeta. Some of 
these, as above stated, were first taken during the survey dredging operations, while a 
yet greater number were collected independently by Dr. Moore before the latter opera- 
tions were commenced. It is understood that Dr. Moore has noted the occurrence of 
a number of species which are not included in this report, but these records are unfor- 
tunately not available at present. Except in the case of certain familiar and easily 
determined forms, all of the annelids from the dredging collections were idenfified by 
the last-named zoologist, to whom we are likewise indebted for the revision of our check 
list of species. This authority is also responsible for the terminology adopted, though 
not, of course, for all the statements in the text. 
Our list of Annulata considerably exceeds that given by Whiteaves for eastern 
Canada. Of the IO5 Polychœeta compfised in the latter catalogue, 29, or somewhat 
more than one-fourth, appear to be common to the Woods Hole re#on. None of the 
other groups of segmented worms bave been considered by Whiteaves. 
The total numbcr of annelids listed in the Plymouth catalogue is surprisingly near 
to that in out own. The number of Polychœeta is somewhat greater 048) in the former; 
the number of Oligochoeta being smaller (only 3)- Of the Plymouth Annulata, o of the 
Polychœeta and  of the Oligochœeta appear to be common to Woods Hole. 
Herdman has listed 90(+2?) members of this phylum for the Irish Sea; while 
Grœeffe records 42 species for the Gulf of Trieste. 
Certain defects of method must be taken into account in jud#ng of the complete- 
ness of out dred#ng records for the annelids. As is well known, a large proportion of 
the species burrow in the sand or mud, in some cases quite deeply. When disturbed, 
they retreat hastily from the surface. In order to obtain such forms without mutila- 
tion, or in many cases even to obtain fragments of them, it is necessary to dig deeply 
into the soil. Dredges such as those employed in the present work removed, at best, 
but a few inches from the surface of the mud and sand, giving the burrowing worms an 
ample opportunity to escape. 
An impressive instance of the incompleteness of out records for some of these bur- 
rowing annelids is furnished by the case of Diopatra cuprea. This species, as is well 
known, constructs a parchment-like tube, extending down some feet into the ground. 
Tbe terminal, exposed portion of the tube is reinforced by any small bits of solid marrer 
which happen to be at hand, e. g., pebbles, shell fragments, or bits of eel grass. By the 
exercise of considerable care the living worm mav be dug up in shallow water. But 
a These species were all dredged during the course of the survey. Whether or hot they had previottsly been collected inde- 
lendently by Dr. Moore is hot known. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLI AND VICIN-ITY. 1 19 
although we have encountered these tubes (or mther short segrnents of tubes) at I98 
stations throughout Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, we have not a single record 
of having taken even the anterior portion of the worm itself in the course of our dredg- 
ing. Our records for Ch¢eetopterus pergamentaceus, Clymenella torquata, Melinna rnacu- 
lata, and the two species of Pista likewise relate almost exclusively to tubes; although 
the first two of these speeies, at least, may be readily eolleeted by digging in shallow 
water. It is highly probable also that some small and inconspicuous speeies were 
pretty constantly lost or overlooked in the process of washing large quantities of mud 
or sand, partieularly as we were seldom assisted in the field by anyone having an ade- 
quate knowledge of this group, a 
Mistakes due to the. aetual confusion of one speeies with another in the field records 
are probably particularly infrequent for the annelids, in as much as nearly all of the 
speeimens were reserved for identification by Dr. Moore. The one known case in whieh 
a certain degree of confusion e_xists is that of the small tube-dwelling worms of the genus 
Spirorbis. It was not at first realized that several speeies of elosely similar appearanee 
existed within the limits of the region dredged, and for this reason it was hOt thought 
neeessary to save samples from every dredge haul. It has consequently been found 
neeessary to list a eonsiderable proportion of our speeimens merely as "'Spirorbis sp. 
undetermined;" and it has not seemed worth while to present the distribution eharts 
for any members of the genus, although at least one of these (S. tubce]ormis) is known 
to have been taken at more than I o stations. 
On the average, 4-3 species of Annulata were recorded for each of the Survey dredge 
hauls. The species found to have the most general distribution was Hydroides dianthus, 
whieh was taken at 223 of the 458 stations. Those eneountered so frequently as to be 
taken at one-fourth of the total number of stations were: 
I-Iydroides dianthus (223). 
Diopatra cuprea (98). 
Nereis pelagica (92). 
Harmothoë imbricata (89). 
Lepidonotus squamatus (65). 
As might have been readily inferred from the habits of this group of organisms, the 
character of the bottom was found to be the dominant influence in determining their dis- 
tribution. Now, we have seen that the bottom of Buzzards Bay, as a whole, is muddy, 
whereas most portions of Vineyard Sound, however much they differ in other respects, 
agree in the scarcity of mnd. Accordingly we find it possible to divide the majority of 
the annelids from the Survey dredngs into predominantly Bay-dwelling and predom- 
inantly Sound-dwelling forms. 
As judged by onr dredging records, members of this phylnm are enconntered with 
considerably greater frequency in Buzzards Bay than in Vineyard Sound. b The average 
number of species taken per dredge haul for each body of water and for each vessel may 
be tabulated as follows: 
Vineyard Sotmd: 
Fish Hawk stations .................................................. 3- 5 
Phalarope stations ............................................. 4- 6 
Buzzards Bay: 
Fish Hawk stations ................................................. 6. 2 
Phalarope stations .................................................. 4- 6 

o To obtain satisfactory results, portions of the bottom material should be covered with sea water and left standing in dishes 
ior some hours. 
b This statement is in no way inconsistent with the fact that the total number of species recorded for the Sound as a whole 
is considexably greater than that recorded for the Bay (I. 8o). 



I20 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
It is to be noted that this preponderance in fayot of the Buzzards Bay stations 
relates only to those of the Fish Hak. Itis in the deeper portions of the Bay, where 
the FCsh Hak dredgings were rnade, that the rnud predominates. Elsewhere the bot- 
tom agrees more closely with that of Vineyard Sotmd. 
These sarne facts are shown by a cornparison of the lists of "prevalent" species for the 
different groups of stations (p. 65-70, i. e., the lists of those species which were taken at 
one-fourth or more of the stations belonging to each group. Thus the list for the 
Hak stations of Vineyard Sound contains rive species; that for the Fish Hak stations 
of Buzzards Bay, nine speeies. The list for the Phcdarope stations in Vineyard Sound 
eontains rive species; that for the Phalarope stations of Buzzards Bay, six species. 
With reference to the wealth of annelid life upon the three types of bottom whieh 
we have considered, we have the following figures, representin the average nurnber of 
species per dredge haul: Sand, 3-4; stones and gravel, 4-7; rnud, 5.2. 
To what extent the greater wealth of annelid life upon rnuddy bottorns is actual 
and to what extent it is apparent tan hot be stated. Sort mud is of course eut into 
much more deeply with the dredge than is sand or gravel, and thus a larger proportion 
of the burrowing worms would be eollected frorn the former type of bottom, even if they 
were equally common upon both. 
Those species which were taken in one-fourth or more of the dredge hauls rnade upon 
sandy bottorns are: a 
Harmothoë imbricata. Hydroides dianthus. 
Nereis pelagica. Lepidonotus squamatus. 
I)iopatra cuprea. 
It will be seen that thÎs list comprises exactly the saine species as were recorded 
for one-fourth or more of the total nurnber of stations. It likewise comprises the saine 
species as are to be round in the lists for both the Fish Havk and Phalarope stations in 
Vineyard Sound. 
The following is a list of prevalent species (according to the saine standard) taken 
upon bottorns of gravel and stones: 
Hydroides dianthus. /-Iarmothoë imbricata. 
Nereis pelagica. I)iopatra cuprea. 
Lepidonotus squamatus. Pseudopotarnilla oculifera. 
The only one of these which was hot cornprised in the preceding list is the last one 
narned. 
The corresponding list for muddy bottorns is as follows: 
Hydroides dianthus. Harmothoë imbricata. 
Diopatra cuprea. Ninoë nigripes. 
Nephthys incisa. Cistenides gouldii. 
Clymenella torquata. 
Three of the foregoing species (Hydroides, Diopatra, and Harmothoë) were cornprised 
in ail of the preceding lists, and indeed they may be regarded as alrnost ubiquitous in 
local waters. The other four are to be regarded as characteristic of rnuddy bottorns, 
and indeed ail of the seven appear among the "prevalent" species for the Fish Hawk 

a In this and ail similar lists, the slecies are arranged in the order of freqtaecy. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS I-IOLI AND VICINITY. I2I 

statio'as in Buzzards Bay. The latter list is seen to be the most extensive one, so far 
a, annelids are concerned. It will be round upon p. 66 and need not be repeated here. 
Distribution charts (54-82) have been prepared for those 29 species (exclusive of 
.b'pirorbis) which were taken at io or more dredging stations. With respect to their 
distribution in local waters, we mav arrange the species in the rive following groups: 
Species nearly or quite restricted to I ïneyard Sound. 
Number of stations. 
Eulalia annulata ..................................... 17 Sound+a I Bay. 
Leprœea rubra .................................. 22 Sound÷ i Bay. 
Polycirrus eximeus ................................. .- ...... io Sound+ o Bay. 
These species and some less frequent ones which might have been included are 
recorded almost exclusively from bottoms of sand or gravel. It is perhaps worth noting 
that the three listed are ones which are found most commonly in the interstices of the 
sandy ascidian, A.maroncium pdlucidurn. Polycirrus eximcus is recorded bv us only 
from the eastern half of the Sound. 

Species occurrin 9 predoninantly in Vineyard Sound, though more or less common in Buzzards Bay. 
Number of stations. 
Harmothoë imbricata ..................................... t22 Sound÷6o Bay. 
Lepidonotus squamatus .................................. Il 3 Sound+44 Bay. 
Nereis pelagica ......................................... I52 Sound+23 Bay. 
Lumbrineris hebes ....................................... 15 Sound+ 5 Bay. 
Pseudopotamilla oculifera ............................... 59 Sound÷ i8 Bay. 
Sabellaria vulgaxis ....................................... 60 Sound÷x2 Bay. 
Reference to the charts shows that in the case of four of these six species, their 
occurrence in Buzzards Bay is in a large degree restricted to the inshore stations. This 
is a type of distribution which bas been met with frequently, being exemplified by 
animais belonging to nearly ail phyla. The comparative scarcity of mud at these 
inshore stations of the Bay is doubtless responsible for this peculiarity in their distri- 
bution. 
Species nearly or quite restricted to Buzzards Bay. 
Number of stations. 
Nephthys incisa ............................................ 46 Bay+ 3 Sound. 
Ninoë nigripes .............................................. 38 Bay+i Sound. 
Rhynchobolus americanus .................................. 2z Bay+z Sound. 
Chœetopterus pergamentaceus ................................ 43 Bay+o Sound. 
Spiochœetopterus oculatus .................................... 35 Bay+2 Sound. 
Pista intermedia  ....................................... i8 Bay+2 Sound. 
Melinna maculata ..................................... i6 Bay+o Sound. 
Cistenides gouldii .......................................... 37 Bay+o Sound. 
Maldane elongati ........................................... i6 Bay÷o Sound. 
Species occurrin 9 predominantly in Buzzards Bay, though taken occasionally in Vineyard Sound. 
Nttmber of stations. 
Pista palmata b ........................... 23 Bay÷ 7 Sound. 
Ampharete setosa ..................... 15 Bay÷ 5 Sound. 
Clymenella torquata ......................................... 50 Bay÷ lO Sound. 
Trophonia affinis ........................................... 17 Bay÷ 4 Sound. 
a At mouth of tlay. b .Mostly inshore stations. 



I22 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISIIERIES. 
With a very few exceptions the last two lists comprise species which primarily 
inhabit muddy shores and bottoms. In the case of certain species (Clymenella and 
Rhynchobolu«) it is to be note.d that the few records of their occurrence in Vineyard 
Sound refer to areas whose bottoms are known to be partially muddy. This type of 
distribution is hot, however, wholly intelligible in the case of Clymenella torquata, since 
it is known to occur in abundance in shores of pure sand. Unlike most of the foregoing 
species, Pista Da[mata and P. incrmedia appear to be restricted, both in the Bay and 
in the Sound, to the adlittoral zone. They are round upon various types of bottom, 
including muddy ones. Platynereis megalops might perhaps bave been included in 
the last of the foregoing lists, snce it was recorded more frequently (absolutely as well 
as relatively) from Buzzards Bay. Like the two spccics of Pista, it was taken much 
more often at the inshore stations. 
As the last of out groups vith respect to distribution, we bave: 
Species exhibilin 9 no evident preferen.ce for one or lhe other body of u, ater. 
Number o! statiot 
Nephthys bucera ........................................... 6 Sotmd+ 5 Bay. 
Marphysa leidyi ........................................... 7 Sound+ 5 Bay. 
Diopatra cuprea ............................................ o 5 Sound+86 Bay. 
Arabella opalina ........................................... 27 Sound+i7 Bay. 
Parasabella microphthalmia ................................. 6 Sound+ 6 Bay. 
Hydroides dianthus ......................................... i3o Sound+93 Bay. 
The distribution of most of these last species seems to be entirely independent of the 
character of the bottom. Two of them (Diopalra and Hydroides) are among the most 
ubiquitous of our local Annulata, though it is possible that the distribution of Diopatra 
is hot so general as the wide-spread occurrence of its tubes v¢ould lead one to suppose. 
Regarding three of the foregoing species the records are too meager to permit of out 
forming any conclusions of value. Nephthys bucera is probably hot of general occur- 
rence in the Bay, since it is known to be predominantly a sand-dwelling species. 
The temperature factor, which bas been shown to be such an important one in 
determining the distribution of many species belonging to other groups of organisms, 
probably applies to certain of the local annelids, though it appears to play a relatively 
insignificant part with respect to the species for which charts bave been plotted. The 
only case among the latter which seems to fall under this head is that of the serpulid 
worm Hydroides dianthus. The absence of this species from the western portion of 
Vineyard Sound is a conspicuous feature in its distribution, especially when coupled 
with the fact that it has hot once been recorded from Crab Ledge, despite the favorable 
bottom at the latter point. It is of probable significance in this connection that 
Hydroides is predominantly a southward-ranging species, which may, on this account, 
be poorly adapted to the colder waters of the region. The case resembles that of the 
coral Astrangia (p. 99) and that of the sea urchin Arbacia (p. I x3), which bave already 
been discussed from this point of view. So far as out records go, however, there are in 
Vineyard Sound none of those characteristic cold-water species which are confined 
to the neighborhood of the open ocean. But there are a number of species of annelids 
recorded from the Crab Ledge stations alone among the dredgings of the survey. For 
most of such species Cape Cod is believed to lie at the southcrn limit of distribution. 
Some of these are included in the following table. The statements as to range have 
been furnished us by Dr. Moore. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I2 3 
Norlhern types aken onl) ai Crab Ledge. 
.k mmor_rypane fimbriata ........................ Gulf of Mairie to Vineyard Sound. 
_Xmphitrite cirrata .............................. Northern Europe to Crab Ledge. 
Chœetinopoma greenlandica ...................... Northem seas, south in deep water to Massachusetts. 
l.unoë oerstedi .............................. Greenland to Vineyard Sound. 
/:ilograna implexa ........................ North Atlantic, south to Nantucket; off Sankaty Head. 
Glycera capitata ................................ Northern Europe to Crab Ledge. 
Nothria conchylegia ........................... North Atlantic, south to Cape Cod. 
Myxicola steenstrupii ........................... North Atlantic, south to Massachusetts. 
Thelepus cincinnatus .......................... North Atlantic, south to Massachusetts. 
The low temperature of the bottom waters at Crab Ledge was considered on p. 5  
and has been referred to elsewhere in out discussions of distribution. 
Attention has alrcady been called to the fact that a number of our charted species 
of annelids are recorded primarily from the inshore (adlittoral) stations, both in the Bay 
and in the Sound. This is true of tista palmata, tista intermedia,, tarasabella microph- 
thalmia, and in a lesser degree of tla, tyner«is rnegalops. The saine phenomenon is 
exhibited by certain less common species, such as Sthenelais picta and Dodecaceria coralii. 
All of these species were recorded wholly or chiefly from the thalarope and Blue Wing 
stations. 
On the other hand, certain species appear at first sight to show a tendency exactly 
the opposite of that manifested by those just mentioned. These others were encoun- 
tered with considerable frequency dufing the Fish Hawk dredging, but were seldom 
taken by the Phalarope. Examples of such species are Eulalia annulata, Nephthys 
bucera, Ninoë nigripes, Arabella opalina, and Rhynchobolus americanus. As a matter 
of fact, however, the last two species, at least, are known to be common along shore, 
where they may be dug up with the spade. Their absence from the Phalarope records 
is very probably due to the failure of the dredges employed on the latter vessel to eut 
deeply enough into the bottom. Indeed, it is quite possible that this saine explana- 
tion will hold for most of the cases in which species of Annulata seem to be restricted 
to the Fish Hawk stations. 
And, in general, when we are considering any case in which a given species has 
been obtained almost exclusively by one or the other vessel, the question must be asked 
whether the personal element may not have played a part in determining this result. 
It has been stated that the Fish Hawk and Phalarope dredgings were under the super- 
vision of different persons. As is well known, different observers see different things, 
depending upon what has especially been brought to their notice. We do not believe 
however, that much importance need be attached to this source of error in considering 
most of the species which have been listed here. In the case of certain of those which 
have been mentioned as having a predominantly adlittoral habitat (e. g., Pista inter- 
media,), it is noteworthy that even the Fish Hawk stations at which they were taken 
were mainly near shore. 
A considerable number of the Annulata, the names of which appear in out faunal 
catalogue, are strictly intertidal in their habitat, or at least are confined to the shallow 
waters just below the tidal limits. Such forms have naturallv not been taken with the 
dredge, although many of them are common enough in their proper habitat. Examples 
of species such as these are Podarke obscura, Nereis limbahz, Scoloplos ]ragilis, Amphi- 
frite ornata, Notomastus luridus, Arenicola cristata, Arenicola ,m, rina, spirorbis spirorbi.% 



I24 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
and all of the Oligochoeta so far as listed. As has alreadv been stated, it is likely that 
most of the benthic species extend nearly or quite up to the littoral zone; and indeed 
they often occupy the latter as well. 
On the other hand, many of out local Annulata are pelagic during a part, at least, of 
their existence. This is true of the larvoe of nearlv all the Polychœeta, and holds for the 
sexual phase of many adult worms, particularly the Syllidoe and Nereidoe. One highly 
modified and typically pelagic form, Tonzopteris hdgolandi«a, is taken in the local tow 
during the winter and spring, sometimes occurring in abundance. Two exotic species, 
which may perhaps be termed pelagic, were round upon floating timbers among goose 
barnacles. These are Amphinome pallasii « and Hipponoë 9a,tichaudi. 
A few of the more stfiking examples of a difference of habitat being shown by 
different members of the saine genus are as follo¥s: 
Nephthys. 
N. incisa: Frequents bottoms of sort mud. 
N. bucera: Frequents sandy bottoms. 
Nereis. 
N. pelagica: Clear watcrs, non-muddy bottoms. 
N. limbata: Strictly littoral, preferring foui and brackish waters. 
N. virens: Diverse habitat. 
Cirratulus. 
C. grandis: Shores and deeper waters in sand and gravel. 
C. parvus: Deeper waters only, in colonies of Amaroucium pellucidum. 
Amphitrite. 
A. ornata: Inner waters of region, strictly littoral. 
A. brunnea and A. cirrata: Only recorded from Crab Ledge. 
Pista. 
P. palmata: Said to frequent purer waters and cleaner sand than P. intermedia. 
Spirorbis. 
S. spirorbis: On rock-weed, littoral. 
S. tubaîformis: On Phyllophora and Chondrus, from adlittoral zone to greatest depths of regio. 
S. quadrangularis: At Crab Ledge only. 
S. stimpsoni: At Crab Ledge only. 
S. fewkesi: From algœe in deeper waters of Vineyard Sound. 

The following species of Annulata were 
Survey : 
Autolytus ornatus. 
Eusyllis fragilis. 
Odontosyllis lucifera. 
Poedophylax dispar. 
Syllis pallida. 
Trypanosyllis sp. 
Eulalia annulata (chart 54)- 
Eulalia gracilis. 
Eulalia pistacia. 
Eumidia americana. 
Phyl locloce catenula. 
Eunoë oerstedi. 
«Harmothoë imbricata (chart 55)- 
Lepidonotus squamatus (chart 56). 
Lepidonotus sublevis. 
a This, 'e learn, is known lo be 

taken during the dredging operafions of the 

Sigalion arenicola. 
Sthcnelais gracilis. 
Sthcnelais picta. 
Nephthys bucera (chart 57)- 
Nephthys incisa (chart 58). 
Nereis arenaceodentata. 
Nereis dumerilii. 
Nereis pelagica (chart 59)- 
Ncreis virens. 
Platynereis megalops (chart 6). 
Marphysa leidyi (chart 6). 
Diopatra cuprea (chart 62). 
Nothria conchylegia. 
«Arabella opalina (chart 63). 
I)rilonereis longa. 
littoral in the West Indies. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ 

«Lumbrireris hebes (char 64). 
Lumbrineris tenuis. 
«Ninoë nigripes (chart 65). 
Euglycera dibranchiata. 
Glycera capitata. 
«Rhynchobolus americanus (char 66). 
Scoloplos fragilis. 
Scoloplos robustus. 
Polydora concharum. 
Scolecolepis viridis. 
Spio sp. undet. 
Choetopterus pergamentaceus (chart 67). 
Spiochœetopterus oculatus (chart 68). 
Ammochares artifex. 
Cirratulus cirmtus. 
Cirratulus grandis. 
Cirratulus parvus. 
Cirratulus tenuis. 
Dodecaceria coralii. 
Amphitrite cirrata. 
Leproea rubra (chart 69). 
Nicolea simplex. 
«Pista intermedia (chart 7o). 
«Pista palmata (chart 70. 
Polycirrus eximeus (chart 77). 
Thelepus cincinnatus. 
Sabellides pusilla. 

OF WOODS HOLE AND VlClNITY. I2 5 

Ampharete setosa (chart 73)- 
«Melinna maculata (chart 74)- 
*Cistenides gouldii (chart 75)- 
Capitella sp. 
Ammotrypane fimbriata. 
Ophelia denticulata. 
*Clymenella torquata (chan 76). 
*Maldane elongata (chart 77)- 
Praxilella zonalis. 
Scalibregma brevicauda. 
Brada setosa. 
Trophonia affinis (chart 78). 
Euchone elegans. 
Myxicola steenstrupii. 
«Pamsabella microphthalmia (chart 79)- h 
Pseudopotamilla oculifera (chart 8o). 
Protula sp. 
Choetinopoma greenlandica. 
Filograna implexa. 
*Hydroides dianthus (chart 8). 
Spirorbis quadrangularis. 
Spirorbis spirillum (probably taken more than ten 
times). 
Spirorbis tubaeformis. 
*Sabellaria vulgaris (chart 82). 
Ichthyobdella funduli. 

If we classify our 3o commoner species of bottom-dvelling annelids as predomi- 
nantly northern or southern, according to their known range upon our toast, we have 
the following groups :« 
Predomiantly northern. 
Harmothoë imbricata .......... Circumboreal; south on out coast to New Jersey. 
Lepidonotus squamatus ......... Both sides of North Atlantic; Greenland to South Carolina: also reported 
from north Pacific. 
Nephthys incisa ............... Spitzbergen to Long Island Sound. 
Nereis pelagica ................ Greenland and Labrador to Beaufort, N. C., becoming smaller and less 
common south of Vineyard Sound. 
Ninoë nigripes ................. Eastport, Me., to Block Island. 
Predominantly southern. 
Eulalia annulata ............... Provincetown, Mass., to New Jersey. 
Nephthys bucera ............... Massachusetts Bay to Charleston, S. C. 
Platynereis megalops ........... Cape Cod to Beaufort, N. C. 
Marphysa leidyi ............... Massachusetts td North Carolina. 
Diopatra cuprea ................ Cape Cod to Charleston, S. C. 
Arabella opalina .............. Massachusetts to Porto Rico. 
Rhynchobolus americanus ...... Massachusetts to Charleston, S. C. 
Choetopterus pergamentaceus...Cape Cod to West Indies. 
Spiochoetopterus oculatus ...... Wellfleet, Mass., to Virginia. 
Leproea rubra ................. Massachusetts to North Carolina. 
Pista palmata .................. Cape Cod to Virginia. 

a The ranges are stated upon the authority of Dr. Moore. 



BULLETIN OF THI BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Polycirrus eximeus ............ Cape Cod to Beaufort, N. C 
Ampharete setosa .............. New Haven to east of Falmouth. 
Melinna maculata ............... Woods Hole to Virginia. 
Cistenides gouldii .............. Casco Bay to North Carolina. 
Clymenella torquata ............ Eastport, Me., to Porto Rico. 
Maldane elongata ............... Massachusetts to North Carolhaa. 
Trophonia affinis ................ Massachusetts Bay to southern New Jersey. 
Parasabella microphthalmia .... Massachusetts Bay to Beaufort, N. C. 
Hydroides dianthus ............. Casco Bay (in sheltered places) and Massachusetts Bay to Charleston, 
Spirorbis tuboeformis ........... Vineyard Sound to New Haven. 
Sabellaria vulgaris .............. Provincetown to Beaufort, N. C. 
Havinç a rançe of approximalely equal extent north ad south. 
Lumbrineris hebes ............. Casco Bay to New Jersey. 
Pseudopotamilla oeulifera ...... Bay of Ftmdy to Virginia. 
Of doubtful position. 
Pista intermedia .............. Cape Cod to Bloek Island, 
It will thus be seen that a large majority of the more prevalent benthic species of 
Annulata round in this vicinity are predominantly southern in their range, while of the 
few species whose range is predominantly northern all but two bave a range which 
extends far to the southward of Woods Hole. 

• SIPUNCULIDA. 
So far as known, this group of worms has a scant representation in our local fauna. 
Only three determined species are included in our list, of which only one (Phascolion 
strombi) was encountered with any frequency in the dredge. This was mainly recorded 
from the inshore stations of Buzzards Bay, though taken elsewhere on a number 
of occasions (chart 83). On account of its peculiar mode of lire it was probably fre- 
quently ovedooked dudng the carier days of our dredging. This worm, according to 
Gerould, is "found ail along the eastern toast of North Amedca from off Virginia 
northward to Labrador." Since it occurs in such widely different latitudes as the West 
Indies and the northern toast of Asia, the distribution of this speeies ean bave little 
relation to temperature. 
Another of our local sipunculids (Phascolosoma verrillii Gerould) has been taken 
on a very few occasions only. It was apparently observed by Verrill, though hot 
described by him. 
8. ARTHROPODA. 

With a few exceptions the phylum Arthropoda is represented in our marine fauna 
by the class Crustacea alone, the members of which occupy somewhat the saine position 
in the lire of the sea as do the insects upon land. The total number of Crustacea thus far 
listed for this region is about 3oo, which is a larger number tha is recorded for any 
other class of animais or even for any entire phylum besides the Arthropoda. There 
are comprised in our catalogue 289 definitely determined species of Crustacea, together 
with 3 which are undetermined and 18 whieh have been determined with doubt. Of 
these, 126(+ 6 ?) are to be assigned to the subclass Entomostraca and i63(+ 15 ?) to the 
subelass Malacostraca. Since the former subclass comprises for the most part small 



13IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF rOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

and inconspicuous forms, it is likely that the list of these is far less complete than that 
for the latter group, which comprises, for the most part, species of moderate or large 
size. It is the Malacostraca, likewise, which are chiefly represented in out dredging 
records; indeed, we should say exclusiwely represented but for the ever-present barnacles. 
Owing to the magnitude of this class and to the fact that different sections have 
been treated by different specialists, it seems best to consider the orders separately. 

I. PHYLLOPODA. 
The Phyllopoda are represented in out list by two members of the Polyphemidoe, 
which were identified by Mr. R. W. Sharpe among material collected with the townet 
at Woods Hole, and by a species of Arlemia, which was observed by Verrill in "salt vats" 
at Falmouth, and is perhaps not to be included in out marine fauna at all. One or more 
specles of Polyphemidœe are at times excessively abundant in the Woods Hole plankton, 
and it is likely that out phyllopod fauna is far more extensive than the present meager 
records would imply. 
II. OSTRACODA. 

Twenty-six species of ostracods have been identified by Dr. Cushman a among 
specimens collected in the vicinity of Woods Hole. Of these, 21 were recorded from 
the Survey dredgings. Since this group had never been studied locally prior to the work 
of Dr. Cushman, all of these 26 species may be regarded as additions ruade to out local 
fauna through the operations of the Survey. Ten of them were described for the first 
rime by Dr. Cushman from specimens dredged or otherwise collected during the summer 
of  905. 
Mr. R. W. Sharpe, who has examined large quantifies of townet material collected 
in V0ods Hole Harbor, believes that he has met with "perhaps 20 forms, certainly new 
to out shores, and mostly new to science." Thus far, however, he has not published 
descriptions of any of these local species. 
Reference to the comparative table on page 88 shows that 29(+ 9 ?) species Of ostra- 
cods have been listed for eastern Canada, 6 for Plymouth, 57(+ i ?) for the Irish Sea, 
and 9 for the Gulf of Trieste. It is likely that these numbers represent the relative thor- 
oughness of the search which has been ruade for these organisms rather than the relative 
wealth of species at these points. Ten of the Canadian species are known to be common 
to Woods Hole, but so far as we may infer from the lists there are no species coin- 
mon to Woods Hole and Plymouth. 
None of the Ostracoda were recorded from a sufficient number of dredging stations 
to warrant our plotting distribution charts for them. Moreover, they were only sought 
for during one season of the regular dredging work of the Sur-ey b and consequently 
we have a very imperfect idea of their distribution in locM waters. From out records 
the ostracods appear to be chiefly restricted to the western end of Vineyard Sound, and 
it seems Iikely that their scarcity in the eastern part is in a considerable measure 
real, since bottom samples from the entire length of the Sound were examined by 
Dr. Cushman. 

a A list of these has already bee 13ublished in Proceedlngs of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. 32, x9o6. 
b A few additional records 'ere obtained in x9o7. 



x28 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

III. COPEPODA. 

These fall into two rather natural subdivisions, including the free-living and the 
parasitic forms, respectively, though the line of division is hot strictly a taxonomic one. 
The list of free-living copepods, including 25 (+ x ?) species, is derived from the published 
reports of W. M. Wheeler (I9OO) and of R. W. Sharpe (xgxo). « Wheeler listed 3 ° spe- 
cies for the "Woods Hole Region," though the majority of these were recorded only from 
waters lying well without the limits of the region considered in the present report. Mr. 
Sharpe examined collections taken by himself in the tow net throughout the season of 
9o8, as well as material which had already been gathered by the schooner Grampus 
and by Mr. V. N. Edwards. He bas catalogued 6o species, of which, however, more 
than half are extralimital. 
The parasitic copepods of this region, of which 58( +2 ?) species are comprised in 
our catalogue, bave been listed by S. I. Smith (in Verrill and Smith, t873), R. Rathbun 
(t884-x887), M. J. Rathbun (t9o5), and by C. B. Wilson in a seriesof recent papers. We 
are indebted to the last-named authority for examining the manuscript of out annotated 
list of this group, as well as for furnishing a valuable set of notes wlfich bave been incor- 
porated in the latter. The nomenclature and the classification adopted are his. 
Scarcely any copepods, either free or parasitic, are recorded in the Canadian cata- 
logue of marine invertebrates. The Plymouth list comprises 24 free-living species and 
one parasitic. Herdman bas listed x95 copepods (chiefly free-living) from the Irish 
Sea, while Graeffe's catalogue for the Gulf of Trieste includes 56 free-living copepods and 
x t o parasitic species. Here again, it is quite unlikely t hat these figures are at ail indic- 
ative of the actual wealth of the copepod fauna at the respective points. 

IV. CIRRIPEDIA. 

Of this order, x7 species are listed for the region, though two of these are included 
somewhat doubtfully. Of these only two (Balanus eburneus and B. porcatus), and possibly 
a third (B. crenatus), bave been taken during our Survey dredging. Most of the speeies 
listed in the catalogue have, however, been eolleeted at one point or another by out 
parties. One speeies, Chthamalus stdlatus, although very abundant at present, seems 
to bave eseaped the notice of local zoologists and had not apparently been reeorded 
for New England waters until attention was reeently ealled to it by one of the present 
writers, b Another (Balanus t.intinnabulum) had not, so far as we know, been definitely 
reeorded for points within the region. This last is, however, an exotic form, and is not, 
probably, to be ineluded in our fauna. 
Verrill and Smith (t873) listed I3 speeies of barnaeles, most of v«hieh, however, 
were not reeorded from definitely indieated points within the limits of our region. AIl 
but one of our 7 speeies are.ineluded by Miss Rathbun in her "List of the Crustaeea," 
though hot in all cases reeorded for strietly local waters. 
Seant attention has been given, however, to the sessile barnaeles of out eoast, and 
it is not unlikely that further studies will eonsiderably inerease the number of known 
speeies. Notwithstanding this probable incompleteness of our list, it will be seen 

a The list of Rhode Island stoecies larelaared by Vrilliams (19o6) bas hot been considered here, sice the records relate only to 
larragansett Bay. 
b Science, Sept. tT, xgo. (See also footaote on page xgo o! this report.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VIClNIT¥. 

129 

(p. 89) that a greater number of cirripedes have been catalogued from Woods Hole 
than from any of the other stations considered in our table. Only io species each 
bave been listed by Whiteaves, Herdman, and the Plymouth laboratory, while 15 have 
been recorded by Graeffe. Six of the Canadian species and 4 of those listed for Plymouth 
are common to our Woods Hole catalogue. 
The barnacles, particularly the sessile forms, are a very baffling group to the tax- 
onomist, and it must be admitted that our local collections have not received the treat- 
ment which they deserve. During the greater part of the Survey dredging separate 
specimens were preserved from each station at which barnacles were taken. A large 
proportion of these specimens were immature, many others were waterworn and imper- 
fect. The small collection ruade during the summer of 19o3 was examined by Dr. H. A. 
Pilsbry, who furnished a list of identifications covering this earlier period. The survey 
was unable to obtain the services of this specialist in determining the barnacles dredged 
during the subsequent seasons of the work. a This task was finallv undertaken by the 
senior author of this report, who offers his results with considerable reservation. Atten- 
tion must be called to the frequently reiterated statements of Darwin, the chief monog- 
rapher of this group, respecting the high vafiability and the indefinite limits of the 
species of Balanus. As evidence of the impossibility of distinguishing these species by 
external characters, he writes (Monograph of the Cirripedia, vol. II, p. 187) : "After hav- 
ing described nearly 40 species, and when my eye was naturally able to appreciate small 
differences, I began carefully to examine varieties of B. tintinnabulun, a»nphitrite, impro- 
visus, porcatus, vestitus, etc., without even a suspicion that they belonged to these species, 
at that rime thoroughly well known to me." It must be added, however, that the case 
is far less difficult to one who deals with a very few species occupying a very limited area. 
Unless certain species which have never been reported from the Woods Hole Region are 
nevertheless common here, our determinations are probably.correct in the great majority 
of cases. 
By far the larger proportion of specimens coming from the Survey dredgings which 
have been examined have been referred to Balam,s ebzo'neus. Large specimens of this 
species, found upon the bottom of a boat and elsewhere, have been studied carefully, 
with reference both to the internal and external structure of the shell. The saine careful 
examination was extended to certain of the specimens coming from the dredgings. 
None of the latter, however, nearly equaled in size the examples taken from woodwork 
in shallow water, and are probably for the most part immature. The longitudinal 
striation of the terga is faintly indicated, or altogether wanting, and the general shape 
of the opercular plates differs from those taken from adult specimens. It must be 
confessed, therefore, that general appearance and the process of elimination have 
led us to out decision in regard to most of these specimens. They are obviously 
hot to be referred to Balanus balanoides, for they have a shelly base, and differ in other 
conspicuous ways. Moreover, the latter species is strictly intertidal in its habitat. 
Nor are they to be assigned to Balanus crenatus, B. porcatus, or, indeed, to any of the 
other species which have thus far been recorded from this region. At least one source 
of serious confusion seems to be possible, however. Darwin tells us that "diagnosis 

a We are indebted to him, however, for the identification of a considemble number of stalked barnacles of the genera Lepas 
eaxd Conclwderma. 
269°--Bu11.3 t, pt I--I3--9 



I3o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

i most difficult without long practice" between immature specimens of B. eburneus and 
the young of B. improvisus. According to both Darwin and Gruvel, the latter species 
is recorded from Nova Scotia and the coast of the United States, though no definite 
localities are stated. Thus it does hOt seem unlikely that this species occurs in our local 
waters and that it may have hitherto been confused with Balanus eburneus. Barring 
this possibility, however, of a confusion with some closely similar species which has 
not been recorded from local waters, it is probable that nearly all of the barnacles 
dredged by the Survey are to be assigned to Balanus eburneus. Acting upon this suppo- 
sition, we have plotted out a single distribution chart based not only upon the specimens 
which have been identified as Balanus eburneus but upon those which, owing to imma- 
tufity or poor preservation, could not be identified with confidence. The two sets 
of records have, however, been separated in the faunal catalogue. 
The chart (84) shows us that this species is of general occurrence and of considerable 
abundance throughout both the Sound and the Bay. It was recorded from 157 stations, 
• or somewhat more than one-thïrd of the total number dredged. The specimens which 
were dredged were commonly attached to stones or shells, very frequently to shells 
which were occupied by hermit crabs. This last circumstance may account, in some 
measure, for the very general distribution of this species upon the local sea floor. 
Balanus eburneus occurs at ail depths within our region, even extending up to the 
neighborhood of the low-water mark, where its zone overlaps that of B. balanoides, a 
The range of Balanus eburneus, according to Darwin, is from Massachusetts (" about 
lat. 4 2°'') to Venezuela and the West Indies. ]t thus falls within the class of southward- 
ranging species. 
Barnacles of one (perhaps two) other species were dredged by us. Large specimens 
of Balanus porcatus were taken at Crab Ledge, and at least one slecimen of this saine 
species was taken in Vineyard Sound. Other worn shells, which are believed to be 
those of either B. porcatus or B. crenatus, were dredged on several occasions in the Sound. 
The latter species was said by Verrill to be "abundant" in Vineyard Sound, but this is 
directly contradicted by our own experience, though we have round it growing in 
considerable numbers upon piles at Vineyard Haven. 
Above low-water mark Balanus balanoides occurs in prodigious profusion, being 
one of the most abundant and conspicuous members of our littoral fauna. With it 
upon rocks and piles, though commonly at a somewhat higher level, is to be round 
Chthamalus steIlatus, which is likewise abundant and generally distributed along our 
shores locally. 
A nurnber of species of stalked barnacles of the genera Lepas and Conchoderma 
are included in our list. Several of these species, notably Lcpas ]ascicularis, L. hilli, 
and L. anati]era, are sometimes found in considerable profusion. They are, however, 
pelagic organisms which find their proper home in the open sea. 

« We bave found Balanus balanoides, B. erurneus, B. crena¢us, and Chthamalu$ $Iellatus growing together on a sixgle piece of 
bark removed from a wharf pile at Vineyard Haven. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLt AND VICINITYo 

131 

V. AMPHIPODA. 

Locally, at least, the amphipods are by far the most abundant of the Malacostraca, 
both in respect to the number of individuals and of species. Seventy-one determined 
species are recorded for the region, to which number must be added 6 which are listed as 
undetermined or are doubtfully to be included in this list. These species belong to 
54(+5?) genera and 7-(+2?) families. Of the total number of species recorded, 35, or 
about one-half, have been taken during our own dredging operations; 76 others have 
been identified from shore or townet collections ruade during the progress of the survey; 
while the remainder are recorded solely upon the authority of published statements. 
None of the species encountered during the present work have been described as 
new to science, though it is believed that the collections contain trie or more unde- 
scribed species. About nine species have been added to the fauna of the region either 
through our dredging operations or through the identification of material in the posses- 
sion of the laboratory. 
Verrill and Smith (I873) listed 3I species of amphipods, of which only 16 were 
determined species recorded for specified localities within the region. Many of the 
others must, however, have been observed in local waters, although the ranges were 
stated in general terres. 
Holmes (i9o5) lists 79 determined species of amphipods, some of which were first 
described in his report of that date. From this number, however, must be deducted 
about 7o species which were hot recorded for points within the area at present undcr 
consideration. Miss Rathbun, in her "List of the Crustacea," includes over xoo species 
and varieties for the whole of New England, but a considerable proportion of these are 
extmlimital as regards our present region. 
The list of invertebrates for eastern Canada comprises 7o(+ 4?) species of amphi- 
pods, a number almost identical with our own. Of these, -o are known to be common 
to the two lists. The Plymouth catalogue records 5 - members of this )rder, of which 
only 7 or 8 appear to be common to our Woods Hole fauna. Herdman catalogues 179 
species for the Irish Sea, while Graeffe lists 49(+ I ?) for the Gulf of Trieste. 
Since the amphipods are contained very largely in the sand and mud brought up 
by the dredge, the completeness of the record for any region depends, of course, upon 
the character of the bottom sample obtained and upon the thoroughness with which it 
is subsequently washed. Thus in the first season (i9o3) few amphipods were listed, 
owing to the imperfect methods then employed. Another possible source of error is the 
likelihood of free-swimming species from any depth being caught in the dredge during 
the passage of the latter through the water after lea»-ing the bottom. Thus, some of 
those amphipods which constitute at rimes such an important element in the plankton 
may figure as bottom dwelling species in the records. It is believed that cases of this 
sort are comparatively few, however, owing to the probability that these free-swimming 
species would pass out through the meshes of a dredge net. 
With a few exceptions no effort was ruade to identify the amphipods in the field, 
but the specimens from each station were preserved for future determination. For 
the identification of many of these we are under obligation to Prof. S. J. Holmes, to whom 
we are likewise indebted for a critical examination of our check list of amphipods. The 
greater part of the work of identification was, however, performed by Dr. Cole. A 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISItERIES. 

large collection of specimens taken by Mr. Edwards with the tow net, or gathered by the 
Survey parties during the shore collecting, bas been identified for us by Dr. B. W. 
Kunkel. A few of the readily recognizable forms (e. g., Unciola irrorata) were frequently 
listed in the field. Unfortunately during the first season all the Caprellidœe were recorded 
by the collectors as "Caprella geometrica." Since some other members of this genus 
have been recorded from the region, and particularly since the allied ¢Eginella lonçicornis 
is found with great frequency, such records are, of course, equivocal, and they bave been 
changed to "Caprellidoe sp." Later dredgings bave, however, resulted in differentiating 
to some degree the distributions of these species, but not sufficiently to warrant 
our plotting out a separate chart for each. We bave consequently prepared a single 
chart showing their combined distribution. 
On the average i .6 species of amphipods are recorded for each of the Survey dredge 
hauls. The species found to have the most general distribution was Unciola irroraa, 
which was taken at ii 5 of the regular dredging stations. No other member was 
encountered at as many as one-fourth the entire number of stations. 
The most salient fact respecting the distribution of the bottom-dwelling amphipods 
in local waters is the paucity of specics in Buzzards Bay as compared with Vineyard 
Sound. In fact, of the 19 species for which distribution charts have been plotted, only 
2 are shown to be of greater abundance in the Bay, while not more than 2 others seem 
to be present in about equal numbcrs in the two bodies of water. Vfe may for con- 
venience group the species as follows with reference to their comparative abundance 
in one or the other bodv of water. 

Species wholly or chiefly restricted to Vineyard Sound. 

Lysianopsis alba ....... 
ttaustorius arenarius... 
Byblis serrata ...... .. ........ 
Calliopius loeviusculus ....... 
Pontogenia inermis .............. 

Sound 
stations. 
... II 
... II 
... x6 
.. 15 

Batea secunda ............................................... -4 
Gammarus annulatus ............................................. 9 
Elasmopus lœevis ......................................... 
• ...30 
? Autonoë smithi (data too few) ...........................  
Amphithoë, rubricata ............................................. 3  - 
Jassa marmorata ..................................... 6 
Ericthonius minax .............................................. 3 
Corophium cylindricum ........................................ 59 
2Eginella longicornis  
Caprella geomtrica / .......................... 78 
Species chiefly restricted fo Buzzards Bay. 
Ampelisca macroccphala .................................. 4 
Ptilocheirus pinguis ................................. 4 
Species of nearly unrestricted distribution. 
Ampelisca spinipes ............................................... 32 
Unciola irrorata .................................................. 70 

Bay 
stations. 
4 
0 
3 , 
5 
9 
7 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 33 
With the exception of those four species comprised in the last two lists, the amphi- 
pods, when recorded from ]3uzzards ]3ay at all, were neafly always taken in the vicinity 
of land, i. e., at the adlittoral stations. In a large proportion of cases the ]3ay stations 
were near the passages connecting with Vineyard Sound, or close to the lower end of 
the Bay. « 
On the other hand, even within the Sound, certain species are round hot to have 
an unrestricted distribution. For example, Haustorius arezarius, Byblis serrata, 
Calliopius lceviusculus, Pontogenia inermis, and Jassa marmorata are in large degree 
restricted to the western half of the Sound, while Lysiawpsis alba, Batea secutda, and 
Autonoë smithi are for the most part restricted to the eastern half. One of the two 
predominantly Bay-dwelling species (Ampelisca ,acrocephala) and perhaps also the 
other (Ptlocheirus pinguis) appear to be in some measure restricted in the Sound to 
points where the botton is muddy. The difference between the Bay and the Sound 
in respect to tneir amphipod faunas, and in considerable measure the local distribution 
within eacla of these bodies of water, are for the most part explainable by reference 
to the character of the bottom. Just such types of distribution bave already been 
encounteed in the case of other groups and need hot be discussed here. Certain cases 
which appear to be explainable by reference to temperature will be considered shortly. 
An interesting feature respecting the amphipod life of the Bay and the Sound 
appears when we consider the average number of species taken per dredge haul for 
each body of water and for each vessel. The figures are as follows: 
Vineyard Sound: 
Fish I-Iawk .................. x. 8 
Phalarope ....................... x. 9 
Buzzards Bay: 
Fish Hawk ............................................... x- 3 
Phalarope .......................................................... x. x 
While these figures were considerablv higher for the Sound stations than forthe 
]3ay stations, there is nothing like the disproportion which might have been expected 
in view of the fact that the number of predominantly Sound-dwelling species which 
were shown upon our charts was so much in excess of (7/ times) the number of 
predominantly 13ay-dwelling species. 
Again, the average number of species per dredge haul is the saine 0.6) for each o[ 
the three types of bottom distinguished. And when we consider the lists of "preva- 
lent" species for the various groups of stations, we find that only such one (Unciola 
irrorata) occurred at one-fourth of the Vineyard Sound stations of the Fish Hawte, 
while three species (Ptilocheirus pinguis, Uciola irrorata, and Ampelisca macrocephala) 
occurred at an equal proportion of Buzzards Bay stations. This condition seems to be 
only explainable on the supposition that while the number of species which inhabit 
Vineyard Sound is greatly in excess of the number round in Buzzards Bay, such 
species as do occur in the latter are of much more general prevalence throughout its 
extent. A discussion of similar phenomena bas already been given in chapter ut. 
Two apparent cases o[ distribution in relation to temperature are Calliopius lcevius- 
culus and Pontogeni inermis, which oeeur, so far as our dredging records show, primarily 

« In some cases, just without. Here and elsewhere stations have been classed as nay or Sotmd stations which lay on th nay 
or Sound sides, respectivel$,, of Sow and Pigs Reef. extending from the end of Cuttyhnnk Island. 



134 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

in the colder region of the Sound. Both of these are predominantly northern species, 
as will be seen by reference to the table on page 135, giving the ranges of some of the local 
amphipods. It must be added, however, that the first species is taken throughout the 
year in the surface tow at Woods Hole and has been collected along shore at various local 
points even in midsummer. In the case of two other species, Byblis serrata and Haus- 
torius arenarius, there appears to be likewise to some extent a preference for the western 
extrernity of Vineyard Sound. Neither of these, so far as known, are predominantly 
northern species, and it is likely that the character of the bottom is the determining 
factor in their distribution, particularly since Hauslorius is known tobe abundant on 
sand rats near shore. Its preference for the western portions of the Sound is thus com- 
parable with that of the lady crab, Ovalipes ocellatus. A few species, on the other hand, 
appear from out rather nleager records to occur predominantly in the varmer vaters 
of the region. Such are Lysianopsis alba, Batea secunda, and Autonoë smithi. Ail of 
these have been recorded only for the immediate neighborhood of Woods Hole, and 
their general distribution is unknovn. Little stress is to be laid upon any of these 
cases, however, especially since a number of other species which here reacll their north- 
ern or their southern limit are distributed locally without anv apparent reference to 
temperature. 
Amphithoë rubricata alone, among those species whose distributions have been 
plotted with arly degree of completeness, seems to be restricted to the littoral and 
adlittoral zones. It is recorded chiefly from the inshore stations dredged by the Pha- 
larope and Blue Wing, and the comparatively few Fsh Hawk stations at which it was 
taken are ail in the neighborhood of land. 
The following amphipods were recorded during the Survev dredging, those taken 
at io or more stations being designated as usual by an asterisk: 

?Talorchestia megalophthalma (perhaps hot from 
bottom). 
Anonyx nobilis (generic naine questionable). 
*Lysianopsis alba (chart 85). 
*Haustorius arenarius (chart 86). 
Phoxocephalus holbolli. 
Paraphoxus spinosus. 
*Ampelisca macrocephala (chart 87). 
*Ampelisca spinipes (chart 88). 
*Byblis serrata (chart 89). 
Stenothoë minuta. 
Sympleustes latipes. 
*Calliopius loeviusculus (chart 90). 
*Pontogenia inermis (chart 9t)- 
Dexamine thea. 
*Batea secunda (chart 92). 
Gammarus locusta. 
*Gammarus annulatus (chart 93)- 

Elasmopus loevis (chart 94)- 
Gammarellus angulosus. 
Microdeutopus danmoniensis. 
«Autonoë smithi (chart 95)- 
«Ptilocheirus pinguis (chart 96). 
Podoceropsis nitida. 
Amphithoë rubricata (chart 97)- 
Amphithoë longimana. 
Sunamphithoë pelagica. 
Ischyrocerus anguipes. 
Jassa marmorata (chart 98). 
Grubia compta. 
Ericthonius rubricornis. 
Er;.cthonius minax (chart 99)- 
Corophium cylindricum (chart roo). 
«Unicola irrorata (chart xor). 
.,Eginella longicornis/., o ,, . ,, 
« claart io , Caprelhdoesp ) 
Caprella geometrica - " " 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I35 
The x 9 commonest species of amphipods are herewith grouped with reference to their 
known range upon out coast. The ranges stated are those given by Holmes (i9o5). 

Northu, ard rangin 9. 

Ampelisca macrocephala ....... Off Halifax to Newport. 
Calliopius loeviusculus ......... Greenland to Narragansett Bay. 
Pontogenia inermis ............. Arctic Ocean to Vineyard Sound. 
Ptilocheirus pinguis ............ Labrador to New England. 
Amphithoë rubricata .......... Labrador to Newport. 
Unciola irrorata ................ Greenland to New Jersey. 
/Eginella longicornis ........... Greenland to Narragansett Bay. 

Soulhtard rangin 9. 

?Haustorius arenarius ........... Cape Cod to Georgia, Norway, British Isles. 
Elasmopus loevis ............... Provincetown, Mass., to New Jersey. 
Ericthonius rninax ............. Vineyard Sound to Great Egg Harbor, N. J. 
Corophium cylindricum ....... Provincetown, Mass., to New Jersey. 
Caprella geometrica ............. Southern coast of New England to Virginia. 

Of uncertain position. 
Lyslanopsis alba ................ Woods Hole. 
Ampelisea spinipes ............ Long Island Sound, Woods Hole. (Norway.) 
Byblis serrata .................. Woods Hole, Newport. 
Batea secunda .............. Woods Hole. 
Gammarus annulatus ........... Vineyard Sound, Gloucester. 
Autonoë smithi ................. Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay. 
Jassa marmorata ................ Woods Hole region. 
Thus there seems to be a slight excess of northern over southern species among 
those x9 amphipods whieh we bave dredged most frequently. Little importance is to 
be attributed to this faet, however, in eonsidering whieh element is preponderant in 
out fauna, particularly sinee for more than one-third of these eommoner speeies the 
range is not known with any degree of eompleteness. 

VI. ISOPODA. 

This order is represented in the local fauna by 25 or more species, of which IO 
were recorded from our dredging stations and at least 7 more were taken by col- 
lectors from the laboratory during the progress of the Survey. One of" these (Erich- 
sonella atteindra) is here recorded for the first rime for this region. 
Our knowledge of this group in Nev England waters is due chiefly to the labors 
of O. Harger and Dr. Harriet Richardson. To the latter authority we are indebted 
for the identification of some of out earlier specimens, though the greater part of the 
material was determined bv Dr. Osburn. The nomenclature employed by Miss Rich- 
ardson has been adopted by us without modification. 
Twenty-one species of isopods were listed by Harger in the "Invertebrate Animals 
of Vineyard Sound," of which only a small proportion were at that rime recorded for 
definitely stated points within the limits of the region. In a later paper (88o) the 
group was treated much more fully by this writer. 



36 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

The Canadian list of Whiteaves records about the saine number of isopods (26) as 
have been listed for Woods Hole. Of these, neafly half (i2) are common to the two 
lists. A somewhat greater number (30) is comprised in the Plymouth list, of which 
only 5 appear to be common to out local fauna. Twenty-four species have been 
recorded by Herdman for the Irish Sea, while Graeffe lists 51 species, some of which, 
however, are terrestrial. 
The representation of this order in out dredgings is very slight. The figure repre- 
senting the average number of species per dredge haul is only 0.4, while not a single 
species was taken with sufficient frequency to occur at one-fourth or more of the sta- 
tions. The species having the widest occurrence was Idothea phosphorea, which was 
taken at 72 of the regular stations. 
Only four species of this order were dredged by us with any frequency, and ont 
of these (Idothea baltica) probably finds its more proper habitat among rockweed and 
eelgrass, whether growing alongshore or floating at the surface. It is thus possible 
that all of the specimens which were dredged by us actually came from floating material 
of this sort. « 
One of the other species, Leptochelia savignyi was only taken at i i stations, and 
these were all inshore stations of the Phalarope series. The species is abundant among 
floating weed, upon #les, etc., and probably does not belong to out deeper water fauna. 
The two remaining species (Idothea phosphorea and Erichsondla ]ili]ormis) appear 
with considerable frequency in out dredging records. Of these the latter appears to be 
of pretty general distribution, occurring with neaflv the saine relative frequency in the 
Bay and the Sound, while the former is in a large degree restricted to the Sound, appear- 
ing in the Bay records only from stations near the lo'er end, in the vicinity of landP 

*Leptochelia savignyi (chart lO3). 
Cirolana concharum. 
Chiridotea coeca. 
Idothea metallica. 
*Idothea baltica (chart lO4). 

Isopods dredged by the Survey. 
*Idothea phosphorea (chart lO5). 
Edotea acuta. 
Edotea montosa. 
*Erichsonella filiformis (chart lO6). 
Stegophryxus hyptius. 

Of the four commoner spedes, one (Idothea phosphorca) may be regarded as pre- 
dominàntly northern, having a range upon out coast which is stated by Miss Richardson 
as "coast of New England to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence." 
Two of the species may be regarded as predominantly southern, as follows: 
Leptochelia savignyi .......... Provincetox'n, Mass., to southern New Jersey (England to Senegal). 
Erichsonella filiformis ......... Nantucket Sound to Florida and the ]3ahamas. 
One of the species (Idothea baltica) may be regarded as cosmopolitan, having been 
recorded from points as widely removed as Java and the Baltic Sea. On out coast it 
is said to range "from Nova Scotia and Gulf of St. Lawrence to North Carolina." 

a iss Richardson gives the bathymetric range of this species as "surface to x*9 fathoms." 
b Ottr x9o9 dredgings confirm these statements as to both sDecies. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF V«OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. i37 

vII. SCHIZOPODA, CUMACEA, STOMATOPODA. 
Litt|e attention bas bcen given to tbe local representatix;es of the first of these 
groups since the work of S. I. Smith in 1879. The majority of the determined species 
of Schizopoda in out list are included solely upon the authority of Prof. Smith and 
of Miss Rathbun. Schizopods teem in the local plankton at certain seasons of the 
year, and specimens are occasionally taken in the dredge, though it is hot at ail certain 
that such specimens are actually brought up from the bottom. Only one species from 
our dredging collections (Nycliphanes nor'«gica) has been definitely identified, since we 
bave unfortunately been unable to final anvone who would undertake the task of 
determining our local Sehizopoda. It will be seen that this order bas a greater repre- 
sentatiou in each of the foreign lists which bave been summarized in our comparative 
table. In the Plymouth list, indeed, the nur0ber is nearly rive rimes as great. 
Members of the ortier Cumaeea are rather common in the Woods Hole plankton, 
and bave oeeasionally been met with during the dredging. Dr. W. T. Calman (i912) 
bas reeently prepared a report upon the Cumacea of the U. S. National Museum. 
Eight of these species are reeorded from definite points within the Woods Hole Region, 
two of them, indeed, being described from speeimens obtained loeally. One deterrnincd 
speeies (Lcptocuma ninor) was taken during the Suta-ey dredging. 
The Stomatopoda are represented in out waters by three speeies, of whieh onlv one 
(the eommon "Squilla") is at all familiar. None of these speeies oeeur, however, in 
the dredging records. 
'III. I»ECAP{3DA. 

This group, comprising the largest and most familiar of our Crustacea, is represented 
Iocally by 55 species, including four which are listed doubtfully. These are aignable 
to 20 familles and 37 (+ 2 ?) genera. Of the total number of species listed by us, 27(+ 2 
or almost exactly one-half, were taken during the sur'ey dredging. Many others were 
collected by our parties along shore, upon gulfweed, or elsewhere, while a few are 
recorded wholly on the authorit'« of previous writers. Several of the species (Porlunus 
ordwayi, A rcncus cribrarius, Palcmon ton uicornis, and perhaps Dissodactylus rnellitce) 
had hot, so far as we know, been previously listed for the shores of New England. 
The published sources of information respecting the occurrence of this group are 
many. The chief contributors, so far as our New England species are concerned, have 
been S. I. Smith and M. J. Rathbun. 
Smith, in the "Report upon the Invertebrate Animais of Vineyard Sound," listed 
36 species of decapods, of which hot over a third were definitelv recorded for specified 
points within the region, while at least 5 were extralimital. 
In ber "List of the Crustacea" ("Fauna of New England" series), Miss Rathbun 
has included all but four of the decapods comprised in our own list, together with many 
others which are peculiar to more northern waters. 
Whiteaves lists 34 decapods for the waters of eastern Canada, of which 2 are 
common to the Woods Hole region. The Plymouth catalogue contains 71 representa- 
rives of this order, of which only 3 appear to be common to our \Voods Hole fauna. 
Herdman lists 6i decapods for the Irish Sea, while 73 are comprised in Graeffe's catalogue 
for the Gulf of Trieste. 



I58 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Most of the decapods collected by us, being of large size and having rather obvious 
specific distinctions, were listed with full confidence in the field. The others were, for 
the most part, referred to Miss M. J. Rathbun, to whom we are likewise indebted for 
criticizing our check-list of local decapods and for information generously given through- 
out the progress of this work. To Dr. R. P. /3igelow we are indebted for the identifica- 
tion of a number of specimens collected during the first season of the dredging work. 
Errors due to the confusion of one species with another in our dredging records are 
probably negligible in extent, excepting, perhaps, such as may relate to the small crabs 
of Pa»wpeus group (now split into several genera). Upon this point the reader is 
referred to the statements ruade under the head of Eurypanopeus depressus, Neopa.nope 
tcxana sayi, and Hexapanopeus angusti]ro.ns in the annotated list. It seems possible 
that speeimens identified by the eolleetors as "Panopeus sayi" were in some cases 
referable to one of the otber speeies. It is probable, however, that the great majority 
of tbese erabs aetually belong to the speeies last named, sinee noue of the others are 
comparable with it in respect to frequency of occurrence. The examination of a 
large number of our speeimens by Miss Rathbun indieates that Eurypanopeus depressus 
is at present comparatively rare in these waters, being by no means the eommon speeies 
whieh one would infer it to be from the statements of Smith. 
The average number of speeies of deeapods reeorded by us from the 458 regular 
stations of the Survey is 3-5 per dredge haul. ]3y far the most prevalent single speeies 
was Pagurus longicarpus, whieh was reeorded from 290, or over 6o per cent, of the 
stations. Those speeies whieh were dredged at one-fourth or more of the total number 
of stations (arranged in order of frequeney) are: 

Pagurus longicarpus .............. 
Cancer irroratus ............. 
Pagurus annulipes .......... 
Libinia emarginata .............. 
Crago septemspinosus .............. 

Ntmaber ol statioas. 
.......... 290 
..... 2o 9 
...... 196 
......... I02 
.... 169 

Neopanope texana sayi .................................................. 143 
For the various groups of dredging station and for the various types of bottom 
the averages are surprisingly uniform. The following figures are taken from the tables 
on pages 78 and 79: 
Vineyard Sound: 
Fish ttawk ............................................... 3- 8 
Phalarope .......................................................... 3-  
Buzzards ]3ay: 
Fish awk .................................. 3- 4 
Phalarope .................... 
Type of bottom: 
Sand ............................ 3.5 
Stones and gravel ................. 3- 5 
Mud .............................................................. 3- 6 
The lists of "prevalent" speeies for these different groups of stations are likewise 
surpfisingly uniform in respect to the speeies eomprised. Of the 6 species listed for 
one-fourth or more of the total number of stations, 3 appear in all seven of the lists 
of "prevalent" speeies; 2 others appear in all but one of these Iists, while the remaining 
species appears in rive of the seven lists. The lists of "prevalent" speeies for the three 
types of bottom comprise 5 species eaeh. Of these, 4 are eommon to all three lists. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

t39 

Of the 13 species for which distribution charts have been presented, 8 are of more 
or less general occurrence throughout the Sound and the I3ay, so that their distribution 
bears little apparent relation to the character of the bottom. For this reason no such 
sharp division between Bay-dw.elling and Sound-dvelling specics can be ruade here, as 
was possible, for example, with the Annulata. The species vhose distribution is most 
clearly determined by the nature of the bottom is the "lady crab," Ovalipes ocellatus. 
It will be seen from the chart that this crab is for the most part restricted to the 
western hall of Vineyard Sound, where the bottom is knovn to consist for the most 
part of clear sand. That this peculiarity in the distribution of Ovalipes is related to 
the character of the bottom is shovn by the fact that it was dredged by us several 
rimes near the head of Buzzards Bay, i. e., in the varmest waters of the region, while 
itis a marrer of common knowledge that this species frequents sandy bottoms in 
shallow water. 
Other species which appear upon the chart as restricted wholly or chiefly to 
Vineyard Sound are Pnnotheres rnaculatus, Cancer borealis, Pelia nulica, and Pa9urus 
acadianus. The first of these is commensal in the mussels, ]llodiolus ,nodiolus and 
Mytilus edulis and in the common scallop, Pecten gibbus. The distribution is thus 
dependent upon that of the hosts. The most frequent host, ]llodiolus rnodiolus, was, 
however, very scarce in Buzzards Bay, while Mytilus was found living only near the 
lower end. The occurrence of this species in the dred#ng records is likewise dependent, 
of course, upon whether or not the mussels from a given station were opened and 
examined for the crabs. This was probably done more commonly in Vineyard Sound 
than in Buzzards Bay. Pinnotheres has been taken by us at two supplementary stations 
in the Bay, on one occasion in Pecten, on the other in Modiolus. 
Cancer borealis was recorded from only one regular station in the Bay, a and its 
occurrence there is certainly infrequent. It is most common at the western end of 
Vineyard Sound, though taken sparingly throughout its length. The absence of this 
species from the Bay is probably due in part, at least, to the temperature factor. 
Pelia nutica is much less common in the Bay than in the Sound, and its occurrence 
in the former is restricted mainly to the inshore stations. The distribution of this 
species displays certain other peculiarities which will be discussed under the head of 
temperature. 
Pagurus acadianus was not recorded once from the 13ay, nor indeed was it recorded 
from the eastern hall of Vineyard Sound. Here, too, temperature rather than bottom 
seems to be the determining factor. 
As is well known, the distribution of many of the littoral species of decapods is 
conditioned by the character of the shore. Certain forms (e. g., the fiddler crabs) are 
chiefly confined to muddy situations; others (Palcemonetes ulgaris and Hippolytc 
zostericola) are found mainly in the beds of eel grass, while the common "Hippa" burrows 
in the sand at low-tide mark, etc. It is therefore rather surprising to find how few of 
the deeper water species are distributed in accordance with the character of the bottom 
Much more striking, on the other hand, are the examples of distribution in accord- 
ance with temperature. While manv of our species display no restriction whatever in 
relation to this factor, certain others are pretty dcfinitelv limited to the colder waters 
of the region, while others still appear to avoid these colder waters, although elsewhere 

 I.ater at two supplementar" stations near the lower end. 



140 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
of general distributioa. These types will be considered separately. The ranges here 
stated have been furnished bv Miss Rathbun. 
Species found predoinantly in Lhe colder 'aters. 
Pagurus aeadianus .............. From the Grand Bank of Newfoundland to the mouth of Chesapeake 
Bay. 
Cancer borealis ............. Nova Scotia to deep water off South ffarolina. 
Considering the range in latitude alone, itis questionable whether we may fairly 
assign either of these species to the "northern" group. In both cases, however, itis 
possible that their occurrence in southern waters is restricted to considerable depths. 
Two other species (not plotted) which were taken by us only at the open ends of 
Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bar and at Crab Ledge are Hyas coarctatus and Padalus 
lep¢ocerus. These may, perhaps, be regarded as predominantly northern species, though 
they are recorded (depth hot stated) for points far to the southward on out coast. 
Species which seem to a','oid the colder waters, though clsewh«rc of 9«neral occurrence. 
Pagurus annulipes ............. Nantucket Sound to Indian River, Fla. 
Pelia mutica .................. Vineyard Sonnd to West F/orida. 
Neopanope texana sayi ......... Provincetown to East Florida. 
Another species, Pagurus pollicaris, rnight perhaps be added to this list. This 
hermit crab, it will be seen, was hot recorded frorn the stations at the extrerne western 
end of Vineyard Sound, though elsewhere prevalent. The case is not so striking, how- 
ever, as those mentioned previously. The range of this latter species is said to extend 
from Cape Cod Bay to South Carolina. 
None of these four species are recorded by us from Crab Ledge. AI1 show, or appear 
to show, an avoidance of the coldest waters of Vineyard Sound, and all are predorni- 
nantly southern in their distribution upon out coast. It seerns quite likely, therefore, 
that ternperature has been the factor responsible for the peculiarities in their local 
distribution. 
Mention rnay appropriately be ruade here of certain species frorn southern waters 
which do not properly belong to out local fauna at all. Arnong these are four crabs 
(Plancs mim«tus, Portu.nus sayi, Porlunus ordwayi, and Arenccus cribrarius) and two 
shrirnps (Penaeus brasiliensis and Latreutcs cnsi]erus). In nearlv all cases these species 
have been round upon the floating gulfweed (Sargassum bacci]crum), which is the home 
of so rnany waifs from the far south. 
On the other hand, several shrirnps of the genus Spirontocaris, which are known to 
be representatives of a northern fauna, have only been taken frorn the outlying colder 
waters of the region. 
Very few species anaong those dredged by us showed any evident restrictions as to 
depth. This staternent does not hold, however, for Ovalipes occllatus, Cancer borealis, 
and Pagurus acadian,.s. All of these were dredged rnost frequently at depths of xo 
fathoms or more, despite the cornparatively small nurnber of dredging stations at which 
such depths were recorded. Ovalipes, as 3ve have seen, is by no means to be regarded 
as a deep-water crab, since it is known to be cornrnon on sand flats in shallow water. 
The greater average depth of the stations from which it was recorded results from its 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

prevaler_ee in the middle of the Sound near the western end. The bottom here is largely 
of elean sand and many typieal sand-dweIfing speeies, sueh as Echinarachnius parma 
and various flounders, eonsequently flourish in this area. Cancer borealis and Pa9urus 
acadianus, on the other hand, are probably lirnited to the deeper waters on aecount of 
the lower temperatures prevalent there. The latter speeies was taken only four times 
by the Phalarope, though dredged at 4 of the Fish Hawk stations in Vineyard Sound. 
Among our local deeapods we find a number of cases where interesting differenees 
of habitat are displayed bv the various speeies within a genus. Only a few sueh may 
be mentioned here. The differenees in habitat shown by the two local members of the 
genus Cancer have already been referred to. These differenees seem to relate to tem- 
perature, depth (if this is reallv an independent factor), and perhaps to eharacter of 
bottom. One Libinia (L. enar9inata ) is of almost universal occurrence throughout 
both the Bay and the Sound; the other (L. dubia) appears to be restrieted to shallow, 
inelosed waters. Although it is known to be abundant at some of these points, we do 
hot have a single authentic record of its occurrence in the dredgings, a The differenee 
displayed by the various local representatives of the genus Pa9urus have likewise been 
diseussed in another connection. The almost complementary eharaeter of the distribu- 
tion patterns for P. acadimus and P. anndipes is espeeially to be noted. 
The following decapods were taken vith the dredge during the operations of the 
Survey. The asterisk, as usual, denotes species which were recorded from xo or more 
dredging stations. For all of these, charts bave been plotted. 

Pandalus montagui. 
Pandalus leptocerus. 
Hippolyte zostericola. 
Spirontocaris groenlandica. 
Spirontocaris pusiola. 
*Crago septemspinosus (chart XOT). 
*Homarus americanus (chart io8). 
Callianassa stimpsoni. 
aPagurus pollicaris (chart io9). 
aPagurus acadianus (chart i io). 
aPagurus longicarpus (chart x  x). 
Pagurus kroyeri. 
ePagurus annulipes (chart i -). 
Heterocrypta granulata. 
Hyas coarctatus. 

*Pelia mutica (chart II3). 
*Libinia emarginata (chart II4), 
?Libinia dubia (very young). 
Cancer irroratus (chart  
Cancer borealis (chart i 6). 
?Callinectes sapidus (fragment). 
Ovalipes ocellatus (chart 7)- 
Panopeus herbstii. 
Neopanope texana sayi (chart i i8). 
I-Iexapanopeus angustifrons. 
«Pinnotheres maculatus (chart If9). 
Pinnixa chaîtopterana. 
Pinnixa sayana. 
Dissodactylus mellitœe. 

Grouping, as usual, the more prevalent species according to the extent of their 
known range upon our coast,  we have--- 
Predom inantly northern forms. 
Homarus americanus .......... Labrador to New Jersey. 
Pagurus acadianus ............ Grand Bank of Newfoundland to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. 
(Northern ?). 

a A few small specimens were thus identified at first, but fur'cher quite extensive collecthag bas thrown doubt upon these 
detea-minations. 
b We are indebted to lliss Rathbun for these statements as to range. 



I42 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISttERIES. 
Predoninanlly southern for*ns. 
Pagurus pollicaris ............ Cape Cod Bay to South Carolina. 
Pagurus longicarpus. Cape Ann, Mass., to Texas. 
Pagurus annulipes ...... Nantucket Sound to Florida. 
Pelia mutica ............ Vineyard Sound to West Florida. 
Libinia emarginata ......... Casco Bay to West Florida. 
Ovalipes ocellatus ....... Provincetown to the Gulf of Mexico. 
Neopanope texana sayi .... Provincetown to East Florida. 
linnotheres maculatus ......... Cape Cod to Texas. 
Of approximalely equal rmge north and south. 
Crago septemspinosus .......... East Florida; Arctic Alaska. 
Cancer irroratus ............... Labrador to South Carolina. 
Cancer borealis ................ From Nova Scotia to deep water off South Carolina. 
Thus, as in the case of the Annulata and indeed of the majority of other groups, the 
commoner local Decapoda are predominantly southward ranging species, while only two 
of them are to be regardcd as predominantly northern. Of these two, indeed, one is 
only doubtfully so classified, xvhile both of them occur far to the southward of the Woods 
Hole reon. The inclusion of various stragglers, both from the north and south, would, 
of course, increase both lists, but much the saine proportions would probably be main- 
tained. 
IX. XIPHOSURA. 
This order bas been established to include the genus Limuhts, a group of organisms 
having both crustacean and arachnidan affinities. Limtdux polyphemux, out only 
American species, was very seldom taken during the survey dredgings, being primarily 
a shallow-vater animal. With respect to its distribution, it is predominantly a south- 
ward-ranging form, occurring, according to Verrill, from Casco Bay to Florida. It bas 
not been recorded for Canadian waters. 

X. PYCNOGONIDA. 

Of the sea spiders onlv 6 species appear in our catalogue, and of these 6 one is per- 
haps extralimital. Our knowledge of the New England species is due in large measure 
o the labors of E. B. Wilson, supplemented recently by the studies of L. J. Cole. 
Only txvo of the species (Tanyslyh«m orbiculare and Anoplodaclyhtx lenlus) appear 
with any frequency in the dredging records. The local distributions of these tvo species, 
so far as these are shown by our dredgings, are represented in charts 12o and 12 . Both 
species are seen to be confined almost exclusively to Vineyard Sound, and both (partic- 
ularly Anoplodaclylu«) appear to be restricted to the eastern half of the Sound. One 
might reasonably expect to find a more exact correlation between the distribution of 
these species and the distribution of the hvdroids among which they lire. But little 
correlation is to be observed, so far as ou. charts go. 
The smaller and less conspicuous of these txvo pycnogon'ids (Tayst)ium orbicu- 
lare) was probably frequently overlooked in listing the contents of the dredge, and it is 
likely, therefore, that this spccies is of more frequent occurrence than appears from 
our records. Its distribution, likewise, may be somewhat more general. 
This class is represented in our list by a smaller number of species than have been 
recordcd for any of the othcr stations considered in our comparative table, a To what 

a Except Trieste, where apparentl, no record bas been kept of the Pytmogonida. 



13IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

143 

degree this is due to the small number actually present in our local waters and to what 
degree itis due to an insufficient search can hOt be stated. 
The ranges of our two commoner species, as stated by Wilson, are: 
Tanystylum orbiculare ......... From off Marthas Vineyard to Virginia. 
Anoplodactylus lentus ......... Long Island Sound; Woods Hole; Eastport, 1Vie. (x record), a 
Thus the former appears to be a predominantly southern form, while for the latter 
the data are insufficient to warrant us in assigning to it a range. 
One pycnogonid, which was taken upon the gulfweed on a number of occasions, 
is Endeis spinosus Montagu. This, like the gulfweed fauna in general, is doubtless an 
exotic species which cornes to us from southern waters. Its presence on the weed is 
rather unexpected, considering the ordinary habitat of this species in European waters. 

XI. INSECTA AND ARACHNIDA. 

There are, of course, very few strictly marine insects in existence, and it is doubt- 
lu1 whether any of our local species can be so regarded. The thvsanuran species 
Anurida maritinu is, however, perhaps as nearly marine as are certain of out littoral 
Crustacea. Verrill and Smith record having taken in the vicinity of Woods Hole a 
number of insect larvoe, which appear to bave been living in sea water. One of these was 
described by Packard as a new species. Most of the insects listed in that report were, 
however, beach-dwelling species, which seldom or never enter the water. 
The list prepared by the writers comprises for the greater part species taken in 
brackish ponds in the neighborhood. Many of these were lar'oe, and about half of 
them have hot been determined specifically. In many, if hot most, cases these insects 
are ones xvhich are known to dwell in fresh-water ponds as well as brackish ones. It 
has been thought worth while to include them here, however, since no list bas ever 
been published of out local brackish-water insects. 
The single arachnid here listed (Chcrnes oblongus ) is scarcely to be regarded as 
marine, though it has been taken under stones along shore, near low-water mark. 

9. MOLLUSCA. 

Mollu3ks, or their shells, have cornmonly constituted bv far the most conspicuous 
feature of the organic contents of the dredge. In respect to the number of species 
likewise, the rnollusks have generally preponderated, there frequently being more rep- 
resentatives of this group contained in a given dredge haul than of all the other phyla 
combined. Likewise the total number of molluscan species recorded in the course of 
our dredging operations is considerably greater than that of even the Crustacea, though 
the latter group preponderates as regards the number recorded for the region as a whole. 
It must be stated, however, that the vast majority of specimens taken were merely 
dead shells, and that many species were rarely or never taken in a living condition. 
This preponderance of molluscan remains in out dredng records is obviously due to the 
endufing character of the exoskeleton of these animals, which insures the accumulation 
of shells, even in the case of the less common species. Another fact which results 
directly from the one just mentioned is the relatively great frequency with which most 
of the rnolluscan species were dredged. Of the I27 species which appear in out dredg- 
ing records, 68, or more than half, are recorded from more than io stations each, while 

a This is to be regarded as a doubtful record. 



44 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

23 of these mollusks appear in the list of speeies whieh were taken at one-fourth or 
more of the total number of stations. Thus exactly one-half of the latter list is consti- 
tuted by Mollusca. 
We regard out molluscan records as being, on the whole, relatively complete and 
eomparatively free from error. The species are for the most part large and easy of 
identification. Fortunately for the collectors, systematic conchology is based largely 
upon shell characters, so that the determinations could commonly be ruade with a high 
degree of confidence in the field. The few cases among the larger species in which 
confusion was believed to be possible were early recognized, and we believe that errors 
respecting such forms were nearly always avoided except at the beginning of the work. 
Wherever doubt was felt, and especially in the case of the smaller species, specimens 
were preserved for identification by specialists. We were fortunate enough to have 
the assistance of such well-known authorities as Dr. W. H. Dall and Dr. Paul Bartsch 
in the identification of the less familiar species of shell-bearing mollusks. We are like- 
wise indebted to Dr. Dall for the critical examination of out manuscript check list 
and for supplying us with the ranges of distribution which are given below. The classi- 
fication and terminology adopted are his. a The nudibranch mollusks, on the other hand, 
including many specimens taken in the townet, as well as those which were dredged, 
were identified by Dr. F. M. MacFarland, of Stanford University, and Dr. MacFarland 
bas likewise kindly revised that portion of the manuscript devoted to this group. 
Certain sources of error have, notwithstanding, to be considered in the records for 
the Mollusca. Some of the minute forms representing the genera Turbonilla, Odostornia, 
Caecun, Cylichna, etc., were doubtless frequently overlooked, as likewise such small 
species as Astyris luata, Lacua puteola, Tri]oris nigrocinctus, and Bittiltrn ni9rurn. 
During the first season's vork, especially when less thorough methods of sifting the 
bottom deposits were employed, it is likely that the records for these forms were much 
less complete than they were later. Again, the failure to use a canvas mud bag and 
the consequent escape of the finer components of the bottom material doubtless resulted 
in many cases in the loss of these small mollusks. 
As already mentioned, it was found that during the rather experimental earlier 
work of the Survey certain forms having a close superficial resemblance had been con- 
fused with one another. Since it is believed that these ambiguities have in most cases 
been eliminated by special dredgings at the points in question, they can not seriously 
affect the value of out results. Some of the smaller species of Natica (Polynices) were, 
it is believed, wrongly identified in the field, and in such cases these records have been 
entered merely as "Polynices sp." Ex-en Polynices triseriala was not during the first 
season always listed separately from 19olynices heros, of which species it has often been 
regarded as a variety or even as an immature stage. In consequence of this the records 
for 19. heros are doubtless somewhat fuller than they should be, those for 19. triseriata being 
correspondingly curtailed. 
In a few cases, notably with the small shells of the genus Turbonilla, confusion was 
brought about by out failure to recognize the presence of several species among the 
specimens taken. Instead of preserving samples of Turbonilla shells from every station 
at whîch they were encountered it frequently happened that the collectors chose speci- 

a Except that we have retained the Amphinettra in a separate class. ]Dr. Dall has recently expressed the belieI that ther 
eonstitute "at most an ortier." 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VlClNITY. 

145 

mens from one of the dredge hauls, believing these all to be of one species and therefore 
regarding them as representative of the specimens taken from various other dredge 
hauls. Since an examination by Dr. Bartsch revealed the presence at rimes of three 
or four species of Turbonilla from a single dredging station, itis obvious that such rec- 
ords as are not based directly upon preserved material taken atone station are worth- 
less so far as specific names go. It bas been necessary, therefore, to record a large 
proportion of our Turbonillas merely as "Turbonilla sp. ;" and thus out data for this 
interesting genus are in a large degree rendered valueless. 
There are some other possible sources of error in interpreting our records which 
have no relation to defects of method. For example, for certain of the gastropods the 
apparent distribution is doubtless much more extensive than the actual one, owing to 
the transportation of their shells by hermit crabs. This is notably truc of the intro- 
duced periwinkle, Littoriza litorea, which is typically and indeed al.most exclusively a 
littoral (intertidal) species. Nevertheless the shells of this mollusk were found at I3I 
stations, occurring even at depths of io or I5 fathoms. Other gastropods whose shells 
are most commonlv occupied by the pagufi are Tritia trivittata, A hachis avara, Ilyanassa 
obsoleta, Polynices heros, P. lriseriata, P. duplicata, Busycon canaliculatm, B. carica, 
Urosalpinx cinereus, and Euplenra caudata. To what extent the distribution of these 
species, as plotted in the charts, has been the result of transportation by hermit crabs 
is impossible to state. It is not recorded in all instances whether or not a given shell 
was inhabited by one of the crabs, and in any case the presence of the latter in a shell 
would not by any means prove that this had been carfied to any great distance bevond 
the point vhere the mollusk lived. 
In the case of certain rhin shells of light weight it is quite probable that the tidal 
currents have often been instrumental in carrying them beyond the original habitat of 
the animal, though we can not, of course, assume this in any single case. Man, like- 
wise, has almost certainly been responsible for the occurrence of the shells of one species, 
at least, in unexpected localities. The large oyster shells which have been taken not 
infrequently in various parts of the main channel of Vineyard Sound have probably 
been cast overboard from passing vessels, since living oysters of out Amefican species 
are not knoxvn to occur in such situations. 
In the charts for the Mollusca, as for other shell-bearing organisms, we have indi- 
cated the known presence of living specimens at a given station by means of a circle 
surrounding the star. It must not be inferred, however, that only dead specimens 
were taken.at the other stations. Absence of the circle denotes either that the occur- 
rence of shelfs only was specified or merely that living specimens were not recorded. « 
It is qnite certain that living mollusks were of much more frequent occurrence in out 
dredge hauls than the circles upon the distribution charts would imply. This is prob- 
ablv particularly truc of the small gastropods. Indeed, the chiton Chaïtopleura apicu- 
lata, which was seldom taken except alive, was hot commonly designated as living or 
dead in the dredging records. For this reason, it has been necessary to omit the circles 
from the chart. 
For the remainder of this discussion it will be best to consider the classes of Mollusca 
separately. 

« For certain mollusks we bave employed the circle whenever the nature of the record rendered it probable that living speci- 
mens were taken, even though this was not expressif" stated. For example, the note "on [or in] hermit crab shells," when 
applied to Crepidula, bas been regarded as equivalent to a record o| living specimens. 
x6269°--Bull. 31, pt 1--13--1o 



146 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

I. PELECYPODA. 
Of the bivalve mollusks 70 (+ 6 ?) species have been recorded belonging to 31 fami- 
lles and 48(+  ?) genera. Of these, 57 species were taken during the Survey dredging 
and 6 of them were new to the region when first collected by us. So far as known no 
species new to science have been found. 
Verrill and Smith in I873 listed 84 species of lamellibranchs, of which, however, 
only 6I were recorded for specified points within the Woods Hole region, although the 
stated ranges of  2 others would tender their occurrence here probable. 
In subsequent papers Verrill added greatly to out knowledge of the north Atlantic 
Mollusca, but most of these later papers dealt chiefly with collections ruade in much 
deeper waters. 
Before Verrill, Gould (I84, I87o) had catalogued the Mollusca of this state in his 
well-known "Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts." There were here included 
a large proportion of our Woods Hole species, though comparatively few definite records 
are offered by Gould relating to the occurrence of mollusks within our region. 
It is worthy of note that, although out list of local Pelecypoda is probably fairly 
complete, it is considerably exceeded by that comprised in each of the other faunal 
catalogues which have been summafized in out comparative table. Thus the Canadian 
list contains ioo species, the list for Plymouth 86, that for the Irish Sea io8(+ 3 ?), and 
that for the Gulf of Trieste Io7. Thus, even in those cases where the areas comprised are 
roughly comparable, the other regions exceed out own in the wealth of species. Of the 
Ioo Canadian species 55 (--55 per cent of Canadian list, or about 75 per cent of our own) 
are common to the Woods Hole region. On the other hand only 5 of the 86 Plymouth 
species are known to be common to out own fauna, a 
On an average 9.2 species of bivalve moliusks were taken per dredge haul at all of the 
458 regular stations of the Survey. This figure is consideÏably larger than that repre- 
senting any other class of organisms. The single species which was taken most fre- 
quently was Arca transversa, which was recorded from 264 of the stations. The following 
is a cornplete list of those species which were taken at one-fourth or more of out dredging 
stations, the species being arranged in order of frequency: 
Number o! stations. 
Arca transversa ......................................................... 264 
Anomia simplex .......................................................... 256 
Ensis directus .......................................................... 23 
Clidiophora gouldiana ..................................................... 234 
Spisula solidissima ....... . ........................... .- .................... 222 
Cardium pinnulatum ................................................. 2i 9 

Mytilus edulis ..................... 
Nucula proxima ............ 
Tellina tenera .............. 
Callocardia morrhuana ......... 
Crassinella mactracea ....... 
Pecten gibbus borealis ................... 

...... x93 
.............. igz 
................... I82 
.......................... I62 

Corbula contracta ......................................................... i28 
Modiolus modiolus ....................................................... a2o 

a As already pointed out, a careful study o! synonymy might testtlt in somewhat incxeaing this nttmbet. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I47 
A study of the distribution charts shows us that, whereas a considerable number of 
our local lamellibranchs are of very general distribution throughout Vineyard Sound 
and Buzzards Bay, a yet greater number show definite restrictions in relation either to 
the character of the bottom or to temperature. The part played by the bottom in 
determining the wealth of lamellibranch life is indicated to some extent in the figures 
representing the average number of species per dredge haul taken upon the three chief 
types of bottom. These are: Gravel and stones, 7.7; sand, 9.8; mud, i I.o. 
These figures are quite in accord with those giving the average number of species 
per dredge haul in the Sound and the Bay : 
Vineyard Sound: 
Fish Hawk .................................. 8. 2 
Phalarope .................................. 7- 5 
Buzzards Bay: 
Fish Hawk ...................... x L 5 
Phalarope ......................................................... i. 6 
It is hOt evident, however, why the Phalaropc stations of the Bay, which, on the whole 
were decidedly less muddy than the Fish Hawk stations, should none the less show a 
larger number of species. 
The lists of "prevalent" species for the three types of bottom (i. e., those present at 
one-fourth or more of the stations) display a degree of uniformity which was unexpected 
in view of the above shown differences in the wealth of species per dredge haul. The 
number of prevalent species (16) is the saine for sandy as for muddy bottoms, while 13 
such species are listed for bottoms of gravel and stones. Of these, 9 are common to the 
three lists. 
Passing to a consideration of the charts (122-16o) we find a considerable variety 
among the distribution pattems, but it seems possible to reduce these to comparatively 
few types. These last are hot, however, to be distinguished sharply from one another. 
Of general distribution. 
Anomia simplex. 
Pecten gibbus borealis (scarce, hovever, in center of Bay). 
Arca transversa. 
Nucula proxima. 
Cardium pinnulatum. 
Callocardia morrhuana. 
Tellina tenera. 
Ensis directus. 
Clidiophora gouldiana. 
General in the Sound; common in the Bay, but restricted to inshore stations. 
Crassinella maetracea. 
Divarieella quadrisuleata (only 2o stations altogether). 
Cumingia tellinoides (hot exaetly general in Sound, and some records for middle of Bay). 
Spisula solidissima (some records for middle of Bay). 
Coehlodesma leanum. 
Corbula contraeta. 
Ge-neral in the Sound; in the Bay, rearicted to lou,er hall. 
Mytilus edulis. 
Astarte castanea. 
Petrieola pholadiformis. 



I48 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Restricted wholly or chiefly to the Sound. 
Anomia aculeata. 
Pecten magellanicus. 
Modiolus modiolus (a few inshore stations in Bay). 
Crenella glandula. 
Arca ponderosa. 
Venericardia borealis. 
Thracia conradi. 

Restrictcd wholly or chiefly to tloe Bay. 

Arca pexata. 
¥oldia Iimatula. 
Solemya velum (confined to inshore stations). 
Loevicardium mortoni (most abundant at inshore stations). 
Venus mercenaria. 
Tagelus gibbus (confined to inshore stations). 
Macoma tenta. 
Mulinia lateralis. 
Mya arenaria (confined to inshore stations). 

Pecten magellanicus. 
Modiolus modiolus. 
Modiolaria nigra. 
Crenella glandula. 
Venericardia borealis. 

It wilI be noted that even some of those species which are restricted to Buzzards Bay 
(Solcmya vclum., Ta9elus 9ibbus, Mya arenaria) are round there only at the inshore 
stations. Another species which is, on the whole, restricted to these stations, both lu 
the Bay and the Sound, is Lyonsia hyalina. 
An analysis of our records shows that certain species appear to exhibit marked 
preferences as to the depth of the water which they occupy. The following, for example, 
are in considerable degree restricted to depths of 5 fathoms or less: 
Pecten gibbus. Tagelus gibbns. 
Arca pexata. Lyonsia hyalina. 
Solemya velum. Mya arenaria. 
Four of these six species are those which have just been mentioned as restricted to 
the inshore stations. 
Species which were dredged most frequently at depths of io fathoms or more a are: 
Astarte undata. 
Astarte castanea. 
Cyclas islandica. 
Thracia conradi. 

With the exception of the two species of Astarte, all of those comprised in this last 
list will be found in the list of predominantly northern species given below. And, with 
the exception of Astarte casta-n«a and Modiolus modiolus, ail are more or less restricted 
to the colder portions of the Sound and the Bay. b Reference to the charts sho»vs that 
the remaining seven species occur vhollv or predominantly in the western half of Vineyard 
Sound and the lower end of Buzzards Bay. Five of these species (Pecten ma9ellanicus , 
Crenella 9landtda, Venericardia borealis, Astarte «ndata, and Cyclas islandica) were like- 
wise taken at Crab Ledge, where, as we have seen, many of our typicaI colder water 

a Depths of xo [athoms or more were recorded at only 36 per cent of the 458 stations. Ali these species were, nevertheless 
dredged an absolutely greater nttmber of rimes at such depths. 
b As stated above (p. 8), the western hall of Vineyard Sound is littleiI any deeper than the eastern hall. The greater average 
depth at which these species occurred results [rom he fact that they were rarely taken near shore. Thus they figure but little in 
the Phalaroçc dredgings. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS FIOLE AND VICINITY. I49 
species are to be round. And six of them are compfised in the list of predominantly 
northem species given below. 
Interesting comparisons between the distributions of different members of the 
saine genus may be ruade for the genera Anomia, Arca, Astarte, and Pecten. The case 
of the two local species of Astarte is peculiar inasmuch as there is nothing in their ranges, 
so far as we know, which gives a clue to the differences which they display in their 
local distribution. 
Certain species among the lamellibranchs dredged by us bave never been taken in 
a living condition. Of these the most striking examples are Arca ponderosa and Thracia 
conradi. The former, indeed, has never been recorded living, so far as we know, north 
of Cape Hatteras, although fairly fresh shells have sometimes been found. It seems 
likely that both of these species mav bury themselves too deeply in the bottom to be 
taken by the dredge. 
Those species which were taken at io or more dredging stations have, as usual, 
been grouped, so far as possible, into predominantly northern and predominantly 
southern forms. The ranges given for the Pelecypoda and for the mollusks in general 
are those stated by Dall. « 
Predoninanlly orthern (13). 
Anomia aculeata (chart 124) .... Arctic Ocean to Cape Fear. 
Pecten magellanicus (chart 125). Labrador to Cape Hatteras. 
Mytilus edulis (chart 127) ...... Arctic Sea to North Carolina. 
Modiolus modiolus (chart x28).. Arctic Sea to North Carolina (Florida?). 
Modiolaria nigra (chart 129) ..... Arctic Sea to Cape Hatteras. 
Crenella glandula (chart 13o ). .. Arctic Sea to Cape Hatteras. 
Nucula proxima (var. trunculus 
Dall) (chart 134 ) ............. Nova Scofia to New York. 
Yoldia limatula (chart 135 ) ..... Arctic Ocean to North Carolina. 
Venericardia borealis (chart 137 ) Hudson Strait to off Hatteras. 
Cardium pinnulatum (chart 142) Labrador to Cape Lookout. 
Cyclas islandica (chart 144) .... Arctic Ocean to Cape Hatteras (at latter point in deep water only). 
Spisula solidissima (chart 153).. Labrador to Cape Hatteras. 
Thracia conradi (chart i55 ) ..... Labrador to Cape Hatteras. 
Predominanlly soulhern (I9). 
Ostrea virginica (chart 122) .... Prince Edvard Island to West Indies. 
Anomia simplex (chart i23) .... Cape Sable to Martinique. 
Pecten gibbus borealis (chart 
i26) ........................ Nova Scotia to Tampa, Fla. 
Arca ponderosa (chart 13I) ..... Provincetown to Yucatan. 
Arca transversa (chart 132 ) ..... Cape Cod to Mexico. 
Arca campechiensis pexata 
(ehart i33 ) .................. Cape Cod to Texas. 
Crassinella mactracea (chart 
14o) ........................ Cape Cod to Florida. 
Divaricella quadrisulcata (chart 
141) ........................ Cape Hatteras to Brazil. (Woods Hole region.) 
Lœevicardium mortoni (chart 143) Nova Scotia to Vene zuela. 
Venus mercenaria (chart 145).- .Nova Scotia to Yucatan. 

« Dr. ball bas kindly furnished us with some unpublished notes, whieh rnodiIy to some degree the ranges as stated in hi$ 
"Preliminary Catalogue of the Shell-bearing Marine Mollusks." 



5o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHEF, IES. 

Callocardia morrhuana (chart 
I46) ........................ Prince Edvard Island to Florida. 
Petricola pholadiformis (chart 
I47) ........................ Prince Edward Island to Nicaragua. 
Tagelus gibbus (chart 148) ...... Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Tellina tenera (chart 149) ...... Prince Edward Island to Barbados. 
Macoma tenta (chart 15o ) ..... Cape Cod to Haiti. 
Cumingia tellinoides (chart 152) Cape Cod to south Florida. 
Mulinia lateralis (chart 154 ) .... New Brunswick to Texas. 
Lyonsia hyalina (chart 157 ) .... Nova Scotia to Texas. 
Corbula contracta (chart 159)...Cape Cod to Jamaica. 
Of approximately equal range north and south (7). 
Solemya velum (chart 136 ) ..... Nova Scotia to North Carolina. 
Astarte undata (chart 138 ) ...... Gulf of St. Lawrence fo Cape Hatteras. 
Astarte castanea (chart 139 ) .... Nova Scotia to New Jersey and off Hatteras (deep). 
Ensis directus (chart 151 ) ...... Labrador to Texas. 
Cochlodesma leanum (chart 156 ) Nova Scotia to Hatteras. 
Clidiophora gouldiana (chart 
158 ) ........................ Nova Scotia to New Jersey (North Carolina?). 
Mya arenaria (chart i6o) ........ Arctic Sea to Miami, Fla. 
It will be seen that exactly one-third of these species bave been listed as predomi- 
nantlv northern, vhile very neaflv one-half are to be regarded as southern. The seven 
remaining species are hot assignable to either division. 
The following species are recorded from our dredgings, but were hOt taken frequently 
enough to warrant us in plotting their distributions: 
Pecten islandicus. Tellina tenella. 
blodiolus demissus. Siliqua costata. 
Modiolaria loevigata. Thracia septentrionalis. 
Nucula dclphinodonta. Periploma papyracea. 
Astarte quadrans. Saxicava arctica. 
Aligena elevata. Cyrtodaria siliqua. 
Phacoides filosus. Pholas costata. 
Cardium ciliatum. Zirphoea crispata. 
Gemma gemma. Teredo navalis. 
Most of these species apper to be actually rare vithin the region. Several of them, 
on the contrary (Mod.iohts dcmissus, Gemma gern.ma, Teredo navalis) are e_xtremely 
abundant in their proper habitats, though rarely taken with the dredge. 

II. AMPHINEURA. 

Of the Amphineura, or chitons, only two species are found in this region. One of 
these, Trachydcrmon tuber, is quite rare locally. We bave met vith it but twice in 
dredging, only a single specimen having been taken on each occasion. /3oth were 
found near the lower end of/3uzzards Bav. This species is essentially a northern one, 
being said to range from the Arctic Sea to Nev Vork. The other, Chcetopleura apicdata, 
is scattered pretty generally throughout the eastern half of Vineyard Sound and along 
the shoresof/3uzzrds Bay (chart i6i). Its scarcity in the western portion of the Sound 
and its apparent absence from the deeper vaters of the/3ay are perhaps due chiefly to 
the character of the bottom. As is well known, the chitons adhere to solid objects, such 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

I5I 

as stones and shells, a On the other hand, it is not improbable that the temperature 
factor has been partly responsible for the distribution of Chcetopleura in Vineyard Sound, 
as in the case of a number of other southern speeies whieh appear to avoid the eolder 
waters of the region. Like those which have previously been diseussed, Chcetopleura 
was not reeorded by us from Crab Ledge. The range of this speeies, as stated by Dall, 
extends from Cape Cod to Haiti. Our region thus lies at or near its northernmost 
limit of distribution. 

III. GASTROPODA. 

Of the Gastropoda we have recorded I23 determined species, together with IO 
whieh were doubtful or undetermined. Sixty-four (+ 2 ?) of these speeies were eneoun- 
tered during our Survey dredgings, and at least 17 are believed to have been previously 
unreeorded for the region. 
Verrill and Smith, in their Vineyard Sound report, listed 93 speeies, of whieh, 
however, only 65 were definitely recorded for specified points within the region, although 
the ranges of 2o more, as stated by them, would include the Woods Hole region. The 
completeness of Verrill's list, as regards our more familiar species, renders conspicuous 
two exceptions. One is our now abundant perixvinkle, Littorina litorea, which did hot 
reach Woods Hole in its southward migration until the year 1875 ; the other is Lacuna 
puteola, an allied speeies though quite a minute one, xvhich is likewise very eommon 
here at the present rime. Whether or hot this latter mollusk is also a eomparatively 
reeent immigrant ean hot be stated. It has long been knoxvn in the British Isles. 
In the case of the gastropods, as in that of the lamellibranchs, our list of speeies is 
greatly exceeded bv ail of the other faunal catalogues which have been summarized in 
our comparative table. The difference in favor of the Plvmouth catalogue is due largely, 
if not wholly, to the inclusion of a greater number of nudibranchs. It is not unlikely that 
sufficient attention to our local nudibranchs on the part of a speeialist would result in 
adding considerably to the number of species recorded for the region. As regards the 
shell-bearing species, however, we believe our list to be relatively complete for local 
waters. 
The average number of species of gastropods taken per dredge haul for the 458 
regular stations of the Survey was 6.8. This figure is only exeeeded by that for the 
Pelecypoda. 
Those species which were so eommon as to be recorded from one-fourth or more of 
our dredging stations are listed herexvith in the order of frequency: 
Number o[ statiotas. 

Tritia trivittata ......................... 373 
Crepidula fornicata ....................... 326 
Anachis avara .................. 295 
Crepidula plana .......... 29x 
Astyris lunata ........ 245 
Polynices heros .......... 165 
Urosalpinx cinereus ............. I56 
Polynices triseriata .................................... I44 

Littorina litorea (shells only) ............................................ i3i 

a Its apparent scarcity, even upon the stony bottoms off the shores of Cuttyhunk and Gay Head, renders the alternative 
e.xplanation more likelyf or these points. 



152 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
As in the case of the lamellibranchs, the average number of gastropod species taken 
per dredge haul was considerab]y greater for Buzzards Bay than for Vineyard Sound. 
This statement applies equally to the Fish Hawk and the Ihalarope stations. The 
average number for dredge hauls upon muddy bottoms (7.8) is ]ikewise seen to exceed 
that for the other types of bottom, though the difference is much less pronounced than 
for the bivalve mollusks; while the figure for sandy bottoms (6.5) is seen to be practically 
the saine as that for bottoms of grax-el and stones (6.7). The difference, in this respect, 
between the two chier classes of mollusks is doubtless due to the fact that the Pelecypoda 
comprise a considerab]e proportion of burrowing forms. 
Reference to the tables giving the "prevalent" species for each type of bottom 
shows that there are 8 such species recorded for sandy bottoms, 9 for gravelly and stony 
ones, and 11 for muddy ones. Of these, 7 species (or their shel]s, at least) are common 
to the three lists. 
Charts i62 to I88 portray the°distribution of most of those species which were 
recorded from io or more of our stations in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay. The 
exceptions are Natica pusilla, for which no chart has been presented, owing to the 
ambiguity of many of the records (see p. I44), and certain species of Turbonilla, several 
of which were doubtless taken with considerable frequency. Owing to a confusion, 
already referred to, in out original records we have devoted a single chart to all the 
members of this genus, so far as recorded by us. 
In respect to their distribution in local waters, we may group the gastropods in 
much the saine way as has already been done for the pelecypods. 
Of 9eneral distribution. 
Bttsycon canaliculatum. 
Tritia trivittata (commonest recorded species). 
Anachis avara. 
Urosalpinx cineretts (comparatively few in middle of Bay). 
Turbonilla sp. sp. 
Crepidula fornicata. 
Crepidula plana. 
Polynices duplicata. 
Polynices triseriata. 
General in çou,d: n a ,nai l' co*fized lo inshore saliozs. 
Astyris lunata. 
Cerithiopsis emersonii (hardly general in Sound). 
Vermicularia spirata (hardly general in Sound; mostly confined to eastern half). 

Re, tricted mainly or wholly to Sound. 

Buecinum undatum. 
Crucibulum striatum. 
Polynices heros. 
Re, tricted mainly or wholly lo Buzzards Bay. 
Tornatina canaliculata. 
Cylichnella oryza. 
Busycon carica. 
Ilyanassa obsoleta (mostly in upper half of Bay). 
Eupleura caudata (in Sound, mainly near shore). 
Bittium alternatum (adlittoral). 
Coecum eooperi (adlittoral). 
The last two species (Bittium alternatum and Ccecum cooperz) were confined almost 
wholly to the inshore stations of the Bay. Two other species, Lacz¢na puteola and 
Crepidula convexa, while round alike in the Sound and the Bay, are restricted in both largely 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I53 
to the inshore stations. The case of Crepidula convexa is peculiar, inasmuch as the two 
other local species of Crepidula are both of very general distribution. The distribution 
of this species is particulafly unintelligible, in view of the fact that none of out hermit 
crabs, upon whose shells it finds lodgment, are in any degree restricted to the shallower 
waters along shore. Yet this mollusk was recorded from 45 of the Phalarope and Bh,.c 
Wing stations, as compared with only i6 Fish Hawk stations; and of these last, indeed, 
there is reason for regarding a considerable number as doubtful. This species is known 
to be the commonest Crcpidula upon the smaller herrnit crabs in shallower waters 
near shore, but it is difficult to understand why this mollusk is not more frequently 
carried by its hosts into the deeper waters as well. 
As in the case of the Pelecypoda, certain species of gastropods are restricted to the 
colder vaters of the Sound. The only two to be mentioned are Buccimrn ,«datum and 
Crucibuhrn striatum. The former was likewise taken at 6 of the 7 regular stations at 
Crab Ledge, and is known to be a predominantly northern species. Such is not true 
of Crucibulum, however, and we are at a loss to explain this peculiarity in its local 
distribution. 
Both of these species (and these alone among the gastropods) were taken pre- 
dominantly at depths of io fathoms or more. In fact Cruvibulum vas dredged only once 
by the Phalarope, and vas never taken in less than io fathoms of water. 
Certain species anlong those charted are seen to be less common, or to be wanting 
altogether, in the westenl hall of the Sound, although present in the eastern half. Such 
are Cerithiopsis cmcrsonii and i'«rm.i:daria spirata. Two others (Eulirna conoidca and 
Seila terebralis) might also be mentioned here, though neither has been taken with 
sufficient frequency to warrant out drawing any general conclusions. 
The distfibutions of two species of gastropods as portrayed upon our charts are 
obviously largely fictitious. We refer to Littorina litorea and Ilyanassa obsoleta, both of 
which are known to be restricted, vhen listing, to the immediate vicinity of the shore. 
The broadcast way in which the shells of these species, particularly the former, are 
strewn around the local sea roof testifies strongly to the part played by hermit crabs in 
transporfing them. 
Several genera comprise species which display among themselves interesting differ- 
ences of habitat. Such are Busycon, Crepidula, Littorina, and Polynices. For most of 
these the differences may readily be seen by reference to the charts. The case of Crepi- 
dula has just been discussed; that of Polynices receives some mention in chapter v 
(p. 186). As regards Littorina, only one species is represented upon out chart, and this 
latter in no way represents the distribution of the living animals. In the catalogue of 
species (.section II), hovever, the differences in their respective habitats bave been 
briefly indicated. 
A glance at the subjoined lists shows that out local assemblage of gastropods, or at 
least the commonest and most representafive among them, are even more dominantly 
southern than are the pelecypods. Of the 27 species there considered, 22 are to be 
regarded as southena, 3 as northern, while the remaining 2 are not to be assigned to 
either category. 
Predominantl)' northern (3). 
Bueeinum undatum (ehart i66) .... Aretie Sea to Charleston Hbor. 
Polyniees heros (ehart I87) ....... Labrador to Virginia. 
Polyniees triseriata (ehart i88) ..... Labrador to off Hatteras. 



I54 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISI-I]RIIS. 

Predominantly southern 

Tornatina canaliculata (chart i62).. Portland, Me., to Haiti. 
Cylichnella oryza (chart i63) ...... Cape Cod to Charleston, S. C. 
Busycon canaliculatum (chart x64).. Beverly, Mass., to Gulf of Mexico. 
Busycon carica (chart x65) ......... Cape Cod to St. Thomas, West Indies. 
Tritia trivittata (chart 67) ........ Nova Scotia to St. Augustine, Fla. 
IIyanassa obsoleta (chart i68) ...... Nova Scotia to Tampa, Fla. 
Aalachis avara (chart r69) .......... Casco Bay to Florida Keys. 
Astyris lunata (chart 7 o) .......... Cape Ann to Brazil. 
Eupleura caudata (chart x7x) ....... Cape Cod to West Indies. 
Urosalpinx cinereus (chart i72 ) . . .Prince Edward Island to St. Augustine, Fla. 
Eulima conoidea (chart 73) ....... Hatteras to West Indies. (WoodsHole region.) 
Seila terebralis (chart I75) ......... bIassachusetts Bay to Haiti. 
Cerithiopsis emersonii (chart 76)... Cape Cod to Grenada, West Indies. 
Bittium alternatum (chart 77) ..... Prince Edward Island to Louisiana. 
Coecum cooperi (chart x78) ........ Cape Cod to Jamaica. 
Vermicularia spirata (chart 79) .... New England to Bahia, Brazil. 
Crucibulum striatum (chart i82)... Nova Scotia to Florida Keys. 
Crepidula fornicata (chart x83) ..... Prince Edward Island to New Granada. 
Crepidula convexa (chart 84) ..... Nova Scotia to Florida; (Texas?). 
Crepidula plana (chart i85) ........ Prince Edward Island to Bahia, Brazil. 
Natica pusilla .................... Eastport, Me., to Florida. 
Polynices duplicata (chart 86) .... Massachusetts Bay to Mexico. 

Of approximately equal range, north and south. 
Littorina litorea (chart 18o) ........ Nova Scotia to Cape May, N. J. 
Of doubtful position. 
Lacuna puteola (chart 18x) ........ Woods Hole region; Stonington, Conn.; England. 

The following is a list of species which were recorded vith relative infrequency (at 

less than o stations) during the dredging: 
Cylichna alba. 
Haminea solitaria. 
Cratena pilata. 
Coryphella mananensis. 
Coryphella salmonacea. 
Doto coronata. 
Mangilia cerina. 
Drillia sp. 
Chr,sodornus decemcostatus. 
Tritonofusus islandicus. 
OEritonofusus stimpsoni. 
/krcularia vibex. 
Thais lapillus. 
Boreoscala groenlandica. 
Epitonium multistriatum. 
Epitonium dallianum. 
Epitonium lineatum. 
Stilifer stimpsoni. 
Turbonilla nivea. 
Turbonilla vineœe. 

Turbonilla elegantula. 
Turbonilla areolata. 
Turbonilla interrupta. 
Turbonilla winkleyi (this and probably several 
others were taken at more than io stations). 
Turbonilla rathbuni. 
Odostomia seminuda. 
Odostomia trifida. 
Triforis nigfocinctus. 
Coecum pulchellum. 
Littorina rudis. 
Lacuna vincta. 
Rissoa arenaria. 
Cingula minuta. 
Polynices immaculata. 
Velutina loevigata. 
Velutina zonata. 
Acmoea testudinalis. 
Margarites obscurus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

155 

Some of these species (Thais lapillus, Littorina rudis, Lacuna vincta, Acmaa b.:stu- 
dinahs) are more or less common along shore, but rarely find their way into the dredge. 
A considerable number of the species vere, on the other hand, onlv taken at Crab Ledge, 
and thus do not form any part of the fauna of Vineyard Sound or Buzzards Bay. 
The group of oelagic gastropods known as the Pteropoda is represented locally by 
a few species which are occasionally round in the outlying waters of the region. Only 
one of these, Cavolina tridentata, has been met with in the dredge, a single shell having 
been taken near the western end of Vineyard Sound. Such a state of affairs is in striking 
contrast to the condition in some parts of the Atlantic Ocean, where the remains of 
this class of nollusks accumulate to such a degree as to form a veritable "pteropod 
ooze," covering wide tracts of the sea floor. 

IX'. CEPHALOPODA. 

Two species of squid, Lolçqo pealii and Onmastrephes illecebrosus, are found in these 
vaters. Only the former of these has been met with in dredging. Loligo has been 
frequently taken in the Fish Hawk dred#ngs throughout both the Sound and the Bay, 
being recorded from 73 stations (chart 189). It has never, however, been dredged by 
the Ptmlarope. This is doubtless due to the active movements of this animal, which 
would not be readily caught in a small dredge net, although it would be taken with- 
out difficulty by the beam trawl. The eggs of the squid, on the other hand, were 
brought up very frequently both by the Fish Hawk and the Phalarope. The range 
of this species, as stated by Dall, is from Penobscot Bay, Me., to South Carolina. It 
thus ranks among the predominantly southern species. 
Shells of the little known Spirula pcronii sometimes drift to the outer island shores, 
and one specimen of an octopus (Parasira cate.nulata) was taken many years ago in Vine- 
yard Sound. 
10. ADELOCHORDA. 

One species of Balanoqlossus (B. aura'ntiacus (ç, irard)) is common at various points 
along shore, where it burrows rather deeply into the sand or gravel. So far as we know, 
it bas never been taken locally vith the dredge. 

I 1. TUNICATA. 

Tunicates, particularly the compound forms, constitute a conspicuous feature of the 
fauna of some portions of our local sea bottom. Certain species likewise abound on 
piles and on eel grass and rockveed along shore, while one or more pelagie Ionns are 
occasionally abundant within the limits of our region. The total number recorded, 
however, is small, only 2 a determined species being included vith certainty in our cata- 
logue; together with about xo which are unidentified or doubtful. Of these x4(+6?) 
were encountered during our dredging operations. The average number of species taken 
per dredge haul vas only ., though considerable clusters of Styda partira, associated 
with P¢Iol9ula manhattensis, Perophora viridis, Didemnum httarium, and perhaps other 
compound forms were at rimes brought up together. The form having the most general 

a Throughout ottr records Amaro'uc,um pcllucidum and "A naro'uc*um conslellalum" were listed seDarately and treated as 
indetoendent stoecies. Owing to the ready distinguishability of these two forms and their somewhat different habitats we have 
hot thought it worth while to readiust out records and computations, despite Dr. Van Name's seeming demonstmtion of the 
stoecific identity of the two. 



156 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

distribution was Did«m»mm htariurn Van Naine, which was taken at 99 of the regular 
dredging stations; thus hot a single species was taken with suflïicient frequency to appear 
in the list of those recorded from one-fourth or more of the entire number of stations. 
Only eight species were taken at as many as IO of the stations. 
As in the case of some other groups, certain of the eadier identifications by the col- 
lectors in the field were ruade with a confidence which did hot afterwards seem to us 
justified. During fhe later seasons, accordingly, we preserved for reference to specialists 
a much larger proportion of the specimens taken. The only instances of ambiguity in 
out records, which seem worth considering, relate to the species of AmarolwiUm and to 
Molflula are71ta. The former were commonly identified in the field by means of a super- 
ficial examination. Subsequent information leads us to believe that such identifications 
were for the most part correct; since the commoner, at least, among out local species 
are in most cases readily disti.nguishable by obvious characters. The small, sand-covered 
solitary ascidians, taken in the western portion of Vineyard Sound, were at first referred 
by us to a single species, lol.qltla ar«uzta. We were informed by Prof. Ritter, however, 
that another of our local species, tïu.q.'a _ohtlian«, is superficially very similar to the 
Iormer, and that, in the case of preserved specimens, dissection is necessary in order to 
distinguish between the two. Both species bave been determined by Prof. Ritter in the 
material submitted to him; so that we feel confident in listing both of them for the 
western part of Vincyard Sound. On the other hand, itis more than possible that some of 
out earlier records for "Molflda areala" refer in reaiity to tïu_qyra fl!u¢ns, while some 
of those for the latter species depend upon an assumed specific identity between specimens 
which were hastily examined and others which had been authoritatively determined. 
In view of this uncertainty, it bas been thought best to plot but a single chart for these 
two species, denoting by the stars of solid black those stations from which Molflla 
arena¢a was recorded, and by the open stars stations from xvhich tïuflyra glu¢inans was 
recorded. 
It is thought likelv that errors of omission have been relatively infrequent in out 
records, since few of the local species, so far as known, are minute or inconspicuous. It 
is hot un!ikely, however, that some of the smaller sand or mud covered solitary ascidians 
mav have escaped us, and it is possible that certain less common species (e. g., of Mol- 
flu!) have been confused with the more familiar ones and recorded along with the latter. 
We are indebted to Prof. W. E. Ritter, of the University of California, for identifying 
a large number of the simple ascidians, and to Dr. W. G. Van Naine, of New Haven, 
for identifying many of the compound forms. To these saine authodties xve are like- 
wise indebted for criticizing the manuscript relafing to each of these respective subdi- 
visions, and we bave adopted the classification and nomenclature advised by them. 
Prof. Ritter expresses himself as being skeptical regarding the identity of many of the 
Atlantic coast species, and some of his determinations have been ruade with no great 
confidence. In such cases the doubfful character of the identification has been indicated 
in the list. Dr. Van Naine has felt himself justified in making two rather radical changes 
respecting the genera Amarow¢um and Le¢oclnum (Ddemn¢um). (See faunal cata- 
logue, p. 73--73). 
To Prof. W. A. Herdman, of Liverpool University, we are indebted for suggestions 
and advice relative to this group dudng the later stages of the wrifing of this report. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I57 
Verrill and Smith (I873) listed I8 determined species of tunicates for local waters, 
together with two which were not definitely recorded for the region, and rive others 
which were not specifically determined. A number of these ascidians had been recentlv 
described by Verrill himself from specimens taken in the vicinity of Woods Hole. The 
Leptoclinum luteolum of Verrill is not regarded by Dr. Van Naine as specifically dis- 
tinct from the L. albidum of the saine author, which, contrary to the belief of-Verrill, 
does not appear to occur within the limits of out region. The "Ciona tenella" of 
Stimpson and ot Verrill is now regarded as identical with C. intestinalis (Linnoeus), 
while the "Salpa caboti" of Desor, which appears in Verrill's list, is not believed to be 
distinct from the Salpa dcmocratica-mucronata of Forsk/l. a 
Certain speeies listed by Verrill (Molgula papillosa, M. pellucida, M. producta, Eugyra 
pihdaris, Cynthia carnea, Glandula arenicola) have not been reeorded for local waters by 
any subsequent writers.  On the other hand, one species new to science (Bostricho- 
branchus molgtdoides ) was deseribed by Metealf from speeimens taken within reeent years 
in Buzzards Bay. Another speeies (Didemnum httarium Van Naine) although abund- 
ant and familiar locally, was only recently described for the first time. This species 
had hitherto been confused with Verrill's Leptoclinum albidum (=luteohtm), the truc 
home of which is north of Cape Cod. The survey has eneountered a number of speeies 
which have not previously been listed in any published report of the fauna of this region. 
Sueh are Ascidia complanata, Etgyra 9lutinans, and Salpa zonaria-cordi]orrnis; also 
(doubtfully determined) :lIolgttla koreni, M. citrina, and M. pannosa. 
Twe.nty-eight species of Tunicata are recorded by Whiteaves for eastern Canada; 
36 species are comprised in the Plymouth list; 45(+ I47) for the Irish Sea; and 75 for 
the Gulf of Trieste. Ten of the Canadian species and 2 of the Plymouth species appear 
to be common to our Woods Hole fauna. In considering any such comparisons, how- 
ever, it must be borne in mind that practically no papers have been published during 
the past 3o years which deal with the New England Tunicata. 
Onlv eight charts (I9o-I97) have been presented as illustrating the distribution 
of the bottom-dwelling ascidians of Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay. Of these, 
seven are each for a single species, while another is based upon the records for two 
speeies (Molgtda arenata and Eugyra 91utinans) eoneerning whieh some confusion e.,dsts 
(sec p. I56). 
Like most of the fixed organisms which have been discussed in the present report, 
the ascidians are of far less frequent occurrence in Buzzards 13ay than in Vineyard 
Sound. Indeed, only two species, Molgula rn.ahattensis and Didemnurn lutarium, 
occur with any frequency in the Buzzards Bay dredgings. The following figures permit 
a comparison of the average number of species per dredge haul taken in the two bodies 
of wat er: 
Vineyard Sound: 
Fish Hawk ....... L 3 
Phalarope ...... L 6 
t3uzzards 3ay: 
Fish Hawk.. • 4 
Phalarope ................................. ï 
a .itter. 
 These are all eontained in the list of molgullds having "very imper[ect descriptions" in I-Ierdman's "Revised Classification 
of the Tunicata" (Journ. Linnaean Soc., vol. xxm, I89t, pp. 557-65). 



I58 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Far in excess of any of these figures is that expressing the number of species taken 
at the seven Crab Ledge stations. This is 3-3 per dredge haul. Certain loealities in 
Vineyard Sound, likewise, notably the area between the Middle Ground and the shores 
of Marthas Vineyard xvere especially .rich in tunicates. For example, rive species each 
were taken at stations 63 and 75_5, while six species were taken at station 775x. 
As in many previous cases which have been discussed by us, »ve believe that the 
well-known difference between the bottoms of Buzzards Bay and Vinevard Sound is 
chiefly responsible for this difference in the wealth of their ascidian faunas. This belief 
is strengthened by a consideration of the average number of species per dredge haul 
taken upon the three principal types of bottom which have been distinguished by us. 
The figures, according to this basis of classification, are as folloxvs: Mud, o.4; sand, o.9; 
stones or gravel, .9. Moreover, as in many previous cases, some of the species which 
are absent elsewhere in the Bay have been taken near shore, where the mud of the central 
region largely gives place to sand, gravel, and stones. Such in particular are Styela 
partira and A marmwiu» pellucidum constcllatum. 
As is well known, ascidians are dependent upon ciliary currents for the food and 
oxygen brought to them in the water. It is thus natural that bottoms of sort mud should 
hot eommonlv offer them a eongenial habitat, even though a suitable basis for attaeh- 
ment should be present, a The occurrence of stones, shells, and algoe, or other suitable 
bases of support is likewise an important factor in determining the distribution of most 
species, as is evident from a comparison of the abundance of ascidian lire upon bottoms 
of stones and gravel with that upon bottoms of sand. Herein, also, probably lies the 
explanation of the seareity of bottom-dwelling tunieates in the western hall of Vineyard 
Sound. 
Of the seven species b for which separate distribution charts have been plotted, all 
agree in being either wholly lacking in the western hall of Vineyard Sound, or, if present 
there at all, in being eonfined to the inshore (adlittoral) stations. As has been already 
pointed out, this western area of Vineyard Sound (barring the inshore region) is charac- 
terized bv the presence of sand, and by the comparative absence of stones and gravel. 
In the case of Styela partira, Molgul« manhattcnsis, and Perophora. ",'iridis, it is possible 
that distribution is in some measure determined by that of certain algoe, sinee these 
speeies are very frequently attached to the latter. An inspection of the distribution 
charts for the algoe, hoxvever, shows few speeies, if an)-, whose distribution would satis- 
faetorily aeeount for that of the ascidians namcd. 
On a number of previous occasions, we have shown the likelihood that temperature 
bas been the factor chiefly concerned in excluding certain species from the western end 
of Vineyard Sound. Various predominantly southern speeies seem unable to thrive in 
the colder waters of the region, just as certain northern forms seem unable to thrive 
elsewhere. Now an inspection of the table below, giving the ranges of our commoner 
speeies of aseidians, shows that none of t hose listed are predoninantly northward ranging 
forms, while four, on the other hand, are predominantly southward ranging forms, some 
of which, indeed, reach their northern limit in Cape Cod. Despite these facts, it seems 
to us unlikely that temperature has been the factor ehieflv eoneerned in determining the 
a Exception must be tnade in the case of those Slaecies occttrring in dtep-sea oozes, mata$- of which are stalked. (Herdman). 
b Two oi these are hot now regarded by Dr. Va Naine as beig specifically distinct, but ior reasons stated above (p. x55, 
footnote) their distributions have been lalotted sepatately. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ,VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

scarcity of ascidians in this portion of Vineyard Sound, since several of the forms in 
question (Didcmnum and all of the species of Amaroucium) are abundant in this cold 
water, on the stony bottoms close to shore, « and even on Devils Bridge, off Gay Head. 
On the other hand, ]lolg«da arcnala (chart 19o), likewise a predominantly southward 
ranging form, as judged from known records, occurs chiefly in the western part of 
Vineyard Sound, xvhere its congenial habitat, a sandy bottom, is more prevalent, b 
It would thus seem probable that the temperature factor plays little or no part in 
determining the distribution of ascidians within the limits of our charts, the primary 
factor being the character of the bottom, either directlv or in its effect upon the distri- 
bution of marine algœe. 
In the outlying colder waters, however, where northern representatives of nearly 
every phylum have been met with, we have found a number of ascidians proper to the 
"Acadian" fauna. Such are Halocynthia echbtalaf Ascidia cornplamla, and the Boltenia 
recorded in the annotated list, all of whicb species bave been dredged by us at Crab 
Ledge. 
An interesting difference of distribution in relation to depth is revealed by an 
analvsis of tbe records for Amarmtcium pdlucidum constellatnm and A. stellatm. The 
latter was dredged onlv once at a depth less than 5 fathoms, while in more than 60 per 
cent of the cases it was taken at depths of lO fathoms or more. à A. constellatum, on the 
other hand, was recorded 15 rimes from depths less than 5 fathoms, while in over 60 per 
cent of the cases it was taken at depths under o fathoms. This form is likewise 
known to occur upon piles, etc., in shallow water, while we have not observed A. stel- 
latum in such situations. 
The fol]owing list comprises ail those species which were recorded in out dredging. 

The asterisk has the usual significance. 
? Molgula citrina. 
? Molgula koreni. 
* Molgula manhattensis (chart gx)- 
? Molgula pannosa. 
* Molgula arenata (chart xgo). 
Eugyra glutinans (chart 9o). 
I-Ialoc,nathia echinata. 
Boltenia sp. 
* Styela partita (chart x92 ). 
Styela sp. (Perhaps new.--Ritter). 
Ascidia complanata. 

]3otryllus schlosseri. 
* Perophora viridis (chart x93)- 
 Didemnum lutarium (chart x94 ). 
Aplidium pallidum, t 
* Amaroucium pelludicum« (chart x95 ). 
* Amaroucium pelludicum constelIatumt (chart 
x96). 
Amaroucium glabrum, t 
* Amaroucium stellatumt (chart x97 ). 
Amaroucium sp. (Perhaps new.--Ritter). 

The ranges here stated for te eight commoner species are given for the most part 
on the authority of Verrill 0873) and of Van Naine (1910). The statements of the 
latter author have been followed for the compound forms, but for the simple ones no 
data later than those offered by Verrill appear to be availabIe. 

a It is true that the summer temperatureof these shoal inshore waters is somewhat higher than that of the deeper waters in 
the middle of the channel. 
b Eu¢yra ¢lutinans. another sand-dwelling species occurring in this saine region, is however, a predominantly northern form. 
« This was likewise taken at Sankat, Head and once in Vineyard Sound. 
a This notwithstanding the fact that depths as great as this were encotmtered at onlv 36 per cent of the stations. 
• These rive sDecies are among those listed by Herdman as "unrecognizable Pol'clinidoe." Iffowever imper[ect the original 
descriptions xnay have been, these names none the less reIer to well-known and readily distinguishabIe xnembers of out local [auna. 



i6o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Predominantly southern. 

Molgula manhattensis ........ Casco Bay to North Carolina. 
Styela partira ................. Massachusetts Bay to North Carolina. 
Perophora viridis ........ Vineyard 8ound to Beaufort, N. C., and Bermuda. 
A. pellucidum ........... Vineyard Sound to North Carolina. 

Of uncertain position. 
Molgula arenata ............ Long Island Sound to Nantucket. 
Didemnum lutarium ..... New England coast south of Cape Cod. 
Amaroudum stellatum ......... Vineyard Sound to North Carolina (?). 
A. pellucidum constellatum .... Isles of Shoals (?) and Gloucester to Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island. 
Thus, according to the information at our disposal, four of these eight species are 
to be regarded as predominantly southern, while the remaining four have only been 
authentically recorded from a very limited section of the coast. Only three species are 
known to occur north of Cape Cod. 
12. P1SCES. 

The group of fishes occupies a peculiar position in the present work. The total 
number of species iisted for this region is greater than that for anv other group 
exeept the Crustacea. There are 247(+6 ?) speeies « representing 88(+2 ?) genera 
and 99 families. Only a very small proportion of these (3o species) have, however, 
been taken in the dredge, owing, first, to the fact that the great majority of 
the species do hot ordinarily lie upon the bottom, and, secondly, to the fact 
that even the largest dredges and trawls which were employed were hot well 
adapted to retaining active fishes. In general, we may say that this Survey bas 
dealt only incidentally with the fishes, since the latter do hot, for the most part, 
belong to the benthos, any more than do the Medusœe and free-swimming Crustacea. 
Our knowledge of the distribution of fishes within the narrow limits of such a small 
body of water, and of the causes determining this distribution, could be substantially 
increased only bv the use of quite other implements than the dredge. As regards the 
catalogue, on the other hand, it seems likely that the list of local fishes as a whole is 
more complete than that of any other extensive group of organisms. And even our 
dredging has resulted in the capture of one fish which was hOt previously known south 
of Cape Cod. This was the little blennioid speeies, Ulvaria subbi[urcata. 
For the past 4o years Mr. Vinal Edwards, throughout the year, and various nat- 
uralists, during the summer months, have been engaed in an active seareh for new 
fishes. To the extraordinary zeal of Mr. Edwards and his rare power of observing 
small differences and reeognizing unusual speeies has been due, in large measure, the 
completeness of our knowledge of local fishes. As early as 873 Prof. Baird published 
a list of Woods Hole fishes, some of which had already been recorded for local waters by 
Storer many years before. This list has received continual additions from year to 
year in various publications of the United States Fish Commission. In  898, Dr. H. M. 
Smith brought together all the previously published records relating to local fishes 
together with a large number of additlonal ones, and prepared the most complete list 

« Two sDecies of marsiDobranchii bave been included with the truc fishes in this comDutatlon. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 161 

thus far presented. This contained over 200 species of marine fishes. In several sup- 
plementary lists and special notes Dr. Smith has amplified this catalogue. « 
In 1908 Kendall published a "List of the Pisces" for the "Fauna of New England," 
series of the Boston Society of Natural History, but few changes or additions were ruade 
as regards the fishes of the vicinity of Woods Hole. Ail this material, together with 
many new data and a few entirely new records for species, have been summarized in the 
annotated list included in the present report) In the preparation of the latter con- 
siderable collections of unpublished notes by Mr. Edwards were examined, and he 
himself was continually questioned throughout the progress of the work. The data 
contributed by Mr. Edwards were based (i) on records from the fish traps operated by 
the Bureau of Fisheries in the neighborhood of the Woods Hole station; (2) on records 
[rom the fyke nets, which have been set during the fall, winter, and spring in both the 
harbors of Woods Hole; (3) on the records of innumerable seining trips made at various 
times of the year, but particularly in the summer months; (4) the collections made by 
the tow net suspended from the end of the pier (furnishing records of the occurrence of 
young fishes); and (5) from specimens or information received from fishermen through- 
out ail of the local waters. Most of the specimens collected during the dredging opera- 
tions, and many more which were caught in other ways during this period, were identi- 
fied by the authors of this report. Those concerning which any doubt was felt were 
referred to the ichthyologists of the Bureau of Fisheries. To Dr. H. M. Smith and Dr. 
W. C. Kendall we are indebted for a critical examination of our check list of fishes. 
In our list of species are comprised 2 Marsipobranchii, 26 Selachii, and 29(+47 ) 
Teleostomi. In our comparative table (p. 89) it will be seen that the fishes have been 
included in only two of the other faunal catalogues therein considered. Herdman 
records 134 species for the Irish Sea, i. e., hardly more than hall the number comprised 
in our own catalogue, while Graeffe lists i8i species for the Gulf of Trieste. Here, as 
elsewhere, it would be interesting to know how largely these differences in the number 
of species are actual and how largely they are due to the thoroughness ofthe collecting 
and recording. It must be borne in mind that our own list comprises a large number of 
species which are not indigenous, being stragglers, whose presence in our waters is due 
to the proximity of the Gulf Stream. The number of such exotic species is probably 
peculiarly high in our region. 
Owing to the small number of species taken bv the dredge and to the comparative 
paucity of the records even for such as were taken, the data thus gained relating to the 
local distribution of these species have not been very impressive. In general we may say, 
however, that while some species appeared to have an unrestricted distribution in local 
waters, many more fishes were taken in Vineyard Sound than in Buzzards Bay; likewise 
that a number of species occurred wholly or mainlv at the western end of the Sound. e 

« See bibliographic ligt [or the [aunal catalogue. 13. 79x. 
b The records of Cope (x87o) fer Newport have been included here. although they were hot considered by Smith. who limited 
the "vicinity o! Woods Fiole" to a somewhat smaller area than the "Woods Hole Region" o[ the present report. 
¢ It is likely that this latter fact is in a certain measure due to the greater [requency with which the beam trawl was employed 
upon the sandy bettoms at the western end o[ Vineyard Sound. This instrument was obviously better adapted to catching and 
retaining fishes than were the other types o! dredge employed. 
x6269°--Bull. 3 z, pt I--I3--IX 



I62 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

There is no evidence whatever for distribution in accordance with temperatnre 
within the narrow limits of the present region. Most of the species taken in the dredge 
are ones which have a more or less extended northerly as well as southerly range along 
the coast, and it so happens that Pholis gunndus, the only strictly northern species 
which was dredged with any frequency, was taken at scattered stations throughout 
most of the Sourd, but was rot recorded from its vestern end. It is quite likely that 
the local distribution of this fish is limited by the character of the bottom (by preference 
stony) and by the occurrence of certain r_Igaî. Those fishes which are recorded with 
greatest frequency at the western end of the Sourd are mainly species of flounders and 
skates, which occur predominantly on sandy bottoms. Of the rive species thus restricted 
(Raja erinacea, Lophopsetta maculata, Paralichthys oblongus, and, to a less extent, Para- 
lichthys dentatus and Pseudopleuronectes americanu.ç), two are predominantly southward 
ranging, while the other three bave ranges whieh extend about equally in both directions. 
Thus the character of the bottom in this vestern area of Vineyard Sourd is doubtless 
responsible directly or indirectlv for the distribution of these fishes. The case is quite 
different from that of many other organisms which bave been considered bv us, whose 
presence near the open end of the Sourd is to be explained by referenee to the lower 
water temperature which obtains there. 
Even if we had a full and accurate knowledge of the local distribution of these 
various fishes, ve should hardly expect to find the saine dependence upon temperature 
conditions as was found in the case of some other organisms. Since fishes are free to 
more from place to place according to their needs, they are rot subject to the constant 
influence of any set of conditions acting throughout the entire life cycle, as is the case 
with fixed or slowly moving organisms. It may well be (see pp. 75-77) that the restrict- 
ing effects of a colder or warmer environment in relation to distribution depend in many 
instances upon its action during the reproductive period alone, and that the adult 
organism itself might be able to thrive under conditions unfavorable to its early develop- 
ment or to its reproductive activity. Indeed it is likelv that such a possibility is of ter 
realized in the case of animais having sufficient powers of locomotion. And it is perhaps 
among the fishes themselves, many of which migrate to warmer waters for the purposes 
of reproduction, that the best examples may be round. 
The distribution of most fishes within the narrow limits of such a region as the pres- 
crit one is doubtless determined chiefly by the occurrence of their food supply. This ve 
may say with a high degree of probability, although ve may rot be able to determine 
many definite cases of correlation between the occurrence of particular species of fishes 
and the particular organisms xvhich serve as their food. In the case of such predom- 
inantly bottom dwelling species as the flounders and the skates, it seems very probable 
that the character of the bottom is an independent factor in deterrnining distribution. 
Such fishes require beds of comparatively clear sand, upon which they rest or under 
which they may fmd concealment, ° 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VIClNITY. 

163 

The following is a list of the species of fishes recorded during the survey dredging. 
The asterisk, here as elsewhere, denotes those species which were taken at io or more 

stations. 
Raja erinacea (chart 198 ). 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 
Syngnathus fuscus (chart x99)- 
Ammodytes americanus (chart 2oo). 
Poronotus triacanthus. 
Centropristes striatus. 
«Stenotomus chrysops (chart 201). 
¢SI'autogolabrus adspersus (chart 202). 
Monacmathus hispidus. 
«Spheroides maculatus (chart 2o3). 
Myoxocephalus oeneus (chart 2o4). 
Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. 
I-Iemitripterus americanus. 
Cyclopterus lumpus. 
Neoliparis atlanticus. 

*Prionotus carolinus (chart 205). 
Gobiosoma bosci. 
*Pholis gunnellus (chart 206). 
Ulvaria subbifurcata. 
Zoarces anguillaris. 
Merluccius bilinearis. 
Urophycis regius. 
Urophycis tenuis. 
Urophycis chuss. 
*Paralichthys dentatus (chart 207). 
*Paralichthys oblongus (chart 2o8). 
Limanda ferruginea. 
*Pseudopleuronectes americanus (chart 209). 
*Lophopsetta maculata (chart 2io). 
Lophius piscatorius. 

The 13 most common species which were taken in the dredge may be grouped as 
follows in respect to their known geographical range: Predominantly northern, 2; pre- 
dominantly southern, 5; approximately equal, 6. The ranges for these species will not 
be stated here, since these are given in the table below, which gives the distribution 
of all out local species. 
Leaving the consideration of these few species which were taken with the dredge 
and passing to a consideration of the entire array of species which have been reported 
from the vicinity of Woods Hole, we may say that out local fish fauna is overwhelmingly 
southern in its character. In the subjoined lists the Woods Hole fishes have been 
grouped into (i) those which are predominantly northward ranging; (2) those which are 
predominantly southward ranging; and (3) those which have an approximately equal 
range in both directions or regarding which the data are not sufficiently known. The 
distributions here stated are taken in the main from Jordan and Evermann's "Fishes 
of North and Middle America," supplemented by data published by H. M. Smith and 
by W. C. Kendall. 
It will be seen that only 29 species, or less than 12 per cent of the entire number, 
are grouped among the northward-ranging forms, vhile over 75 per cent are grouped 
among the so.uthward-ranging forms. The remaining 13 per cent can not well be classed 
in either division, and thev have accordingly been grouped by themselves. 
Viewing these data in another way, it will be seen that nearlv half of the total 
number of species (48 per cent) have not been recorded from any point north of Cape 
Cod. In this connection allowance must of course be ruade for the possibility that the 
frequent appearance of Cape Cod as the northern limit of distribution, according to 
published reports, results largely from the circumstance that the fishes of Cape Cod 
and vicinitv have been more fully listed than those of almost any other point on the 
toast. An equally diligent search of the waters to the northward will probably reveal 
the presence of many species which have hitherto been supposed to be limited bv this 
barrier. « 

« For example, Kendall (9o8) records a number of species Ior northern New England, which by Jordan and Evermann were 
hot listed for points to the north of Cape Cod. 



I64 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
Again, if is truc that a very large number of the species which have been recorded 
for the Woods Hole region do hot really belong to our local fauna ai all, but are fo be 
regarded as occasional stragglers which probably follow the Gulf Stream hither from the 
tropical or semitropical seas. Such without exception are the barracudas (Sphyroenidoe), 
pompanos (Trachynotus), groupers (Epinephel-zts, Garuppa, llycieroperca), snappers 
(L,ttianus), parrot-fishes (Scarus, Sparisoma), butterfly-fishes (Chcetodon), surgeon-fishes 
(Teuthis), trunk-fishes (Lactophrys), and the sargassum-fish (Pterophryne histrio); 
together with most of the flying-fishes (Exoccetidce), drums (Scioenidce), and many others. 
But the list of southward-ranging speeies is likewise seen to comprise the greater 
number of our most familiar local fishes, both the permanent residents and the "migra- 
tory" species, which are only observed during hall of the year or less. 
Of the northern speeies less than hall are taken with any frequeney in local waters. 
To this group belong most of the stieklebacks and seulpins, the lumpsucker and "'sea 
snails," all of the "blenniform" fishes (Pholis, Ulvaria, Cryptacanthodes, Anarhichas, 
Zoarces, Lycodes), about half of the Gadidoe, three of the flounders, and several others. 
It is quite likely that in the deep, eold waters offshore other representatives of the 
northern fish fauna would be taken. 
The following table ineludes all of the identified speeies eomprised in our annotated 
list, grouped aeeording to their known range as northern or southern. 
Species having a predominantl)' northward range (29). 
Myxine glutinosa .............. North Atlaxatic, south to Cape Cod; one record off Delaware. 
?Cetorhinus maximus ........ Arctic seas, straying as far as Virginia. 
Raja ocellata ............... :.. Eastport to New York. 
Salmo salar .................... Hudson Bay to Cape Cod: formerly in Hudson River and Delaware 
River. 
Pungitius pungitius ............. Arctic Sea to Long Island. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus .......... Labrador to New Jersey. 
Gasterosteus bispinosus ......... Bay of Fundy to Woods Hole and perhaps Comaecticut. 
Tautogolabrus adspersus ........ Labrador to Sandy Hook. 
Sebastes marinus ............... Greenland to New Jersey. 
Myoxocephalus groenlandicus..Greenland to New York. 
Myoxocephalus octodecirnspino- 
sus .......................... Labrador to Virginia. 
Hemitripterus americanus ...... Labrador to New rork. 
Cyclopterus lumpus ............ North Atlantic south to New York. 
Neoliparis atlanticus ............ Newfoundland to Cape Cod; Woods Hole. 
Liparis liparis .................. Spitzbergen to Connecticat. 
lholis gunnellus ................ Labrador to Bridgeport, Conn. 
Ulvaria subbifurcata ............ North Atlantic south to Cape Cod; Vixaeyard Sotmd. 
Cryptacanthodes maculatus ..... Labrador to Long Island Sound. 
Axmrhichas lupus ............... North Atlantic south to Cape Cod; Narragansett Bay. 
Zoarces anguillaris .............. Labrador to Delaware. 
Lycodes reticulatus ............. Greenland to Narragansett Bay. 
lollachius virens ............... North Atlantic south to Cape Cod; Long Island Sound. 
Microgadus tomeod ........... Labrador to Virginia. 
Rhixaonernus cimbrius .......... North Atlantic south in deep water to the Gulf Stream. 
Gaidropsarus argentatus ..... Greenland to Vineyard Sound. 
Brosmius brosme ............... North Atlantic south to Cape Cod; off Newport. 
Hippoglossus hippoglossus ...... Northern seas southward to Sandy Hook. 
Hippoglossoides platessoides .... North Atlantic south to Cape Cod; Rhode Island. 
Limanda ferruginea ............ Labrador to New York. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 
Species havin 9 a predominantly southward range (I9O). 
Mustelus canis ................. Salera, Mass., to Cuba. 
Galeocerdo tigrinus ............. Cape Cod to tropical seas. 
Prionace glauca ................. Woods Hole southward; warm seas. 
Carcharhinus obscurus ........ Nahant to North Carolina. 
Carcharhinus milberti .......... Cape Cod to Florida. 
Carcharhinus limbatus .......... Woods Hole (stray specimens) to Brazil. 
Sphyrna zygoena ................ Cape Cod to warm seas. 
Alopias vulpes ............... Eastport to warm seas. 
Carcharias littoralis ....... Casco Bay to North Carolina 
Isurus dekayi .................. Casco ]3ay to West Indies. 
Carcharodon carcharias ......... Eastport to tropical seas. 
Squalus acanthias ............... Canada to Cuba. 
Squatina squatina .............. Cape Cod to Florida. 
Raja eglanteria ................ Gloucester to Florida. 
Raja loevis ..................... Eastport to Florida. 
Tetronarce occidentalis ......... Casco Bay and perhaps Nova Scotia to Cuba. 
Dasyatis centrura .............. Coast of Maine to Cape Hatteras. 
?Dasyatis hastata .............. Chatham to Brazil. 
Pteroplatea maclura ............ Woods I-Iole to Brazil. 
Myliobatis freminvillei ......... Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Rhinoptera bonasus ............. Cape Cod to Florida. 
Acipenser sturio ............... Penobscot River to Charleston. 
Felichthys marinus ............ Cape Cod to Texas. 
Galeichthys relis ............... Cape Cod to Texas. 
Anguilla rostrata ............ Gulf of St. Lawrence to Mexico. 
Leptocephalus conger ........... Mairie to Brazil. 
Murœena retirera ................ Tuckcrnuck Island to coast of South Carolina. 
Tarpon atlanticus ............... Buzzards Bay to Brazil. 
Elops saurus .................... Woods Hole to tropical seas. 
Albula vulpes ................. Voods Hole to tropical seas. 
ttrumeus teres ................. Cape Cod to Gulf of Mexico. 
Clupanodon pseudohispanicus.. Cape Cod to Gulf of Mexico. 
Pomolobus mediocris ........... Mairie to Florida. 
Alosa sapidissima ............... Gulf of St. Lawrcaee to Alabama. 
Opisthonema oglinum ......... Vineyard Sound to West Indies. 
Brevoortia tyrannus ............ Nova Scotia to Brazil. 
Anchovia brownii ............... Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Anchovia ar-rophanus ........ Gulf Stream; oceasional northward to Woods Hole, Mass. 
Anchovia mitchilli .............. Casco Bay to Texas. • 
Trachinocephalus myops ....... Voods Hole to Brazil. 
S)naodus foetans ................ Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Fundulus majalis ............... Salera to Florida. 
Fundulus heteroclitus .......... Coast of Maine to Rio Grande 
Lucania parva .................. Woods Hole to Kcy West, 
C),prinodon variegatus ........ Cape Cod to Rio Grande. 
Tylosurus marinus ......... Casco Bay to Texas. 
Tylosurus acus ................ Buzzards Bay (occasional) to West Indie$. 
Athlennes hians .............. Woods Hole to Brazil. 
Hyporhamphus roberti ......... Woods Hole to Panama. 
Hemirhamphus brasiliensis ..... Woods Hole to Brazil. 
Euleptorhamphus velox ........ Massachusetts to West Indies. 
Parexocoetus mesogaster ........ West Indies; north in the Gulf Stream to Newport. 
Exocoetus rondeletii ............ Vineyard Sound to tropical seas. 

165 



166 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Exocoetus volitans ............. Banks of Newfoundland to West Indies. 
Cypselurus heterurus .......... Banks of Newfoundland to southern toast of United States. 
Cypselurus furcatus ............ Cape Cod to warm seas. 
Fistularia tabacaria ............ Rockport, Mass., to West Indies. 
Syngnathus fuscus .............. Eastport to North Carolina. 
I-Iippocampus hudsonius ....... Massachusetts Bay ? to Charleston. 
Menidia beryllina cerea ........ Sandwich, Mass., to South Carolina. 
Mugil cephalus ................ Casco Bay to Brazil. 
Mugil curema .................. Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Sphyrmna barracuda ............ Woods Fiole to Brazil. 
Sphyrœena guachancho ........... Woods Fiole (occasional) to West Indies. 
Sphyrmna borealis ............. Cape Cod to Cape Fear. 
Polydactylus octonemus ......... Woods Fiole to the Rio Gra.nde. 
Fiolocentrus tortugœe ............ (?) 
Mullus auratns ................. Cape Cod rb Pensacola, Fla. 
Auxis thazard ................. Cape Cod (occasional) to warm seas. 
Gymnosarda pelamis: ........... Cape Cod to warm seas. 
Gymnosarda alleterata ........... Cape Cod (occasional) to West Indies. 
Thunnus thynnus ............... Newfoundland to Caribbean Sea. 
Germo alalunga ................ Woods Fiole to tropical seas. 
Sarda sarda ..................... Fiarpswell, Me., to Flatteras. 
Scomberomorus maculatus ....... Maine to Brazil. 
Scomberomorus regalis ......... Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Scomberornorus cavalla ......... Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Trichiurus lepturus ............ Mairie to West Indies. 
Istiophorus nigricans ............ Woods Fiole to West Indies. 
Tetrapterus imperator ........... Cape Cod (occasional) to W.est Indies. 
Xiphias gladius ................ Cape Breton to Cuba. 
Oligoplites saurus ............... Woods Fiole to West Indies. 
Naucrates ductor ................ Mairie to West Indies. 
Seriola zonata .................. Salera, Mass., to Ca, pe Flatteras. 
Serlola lalandi ................. Woods Fiole to Brazil. 
Seriola dumerili ................ Woods Fiole to West Indies. 
I)ecapterus punctatus .......... Cape Cod to Brazil. 
I)ecapterus macarellus .......... Cape Cod to warm parts of Atlantic. 
Trachurus trachurus ............. Newport; Pensacola. 
Trachurops crumenophthalmus.Cape Cod (occasional) to West Indies. 
Carangus bartholomœei .......... Woods Fiole to West Indies. 
Carangus hippos ............... Lynn to tropical America. 
Carangus crysos ................ Ipswich Bay, Mass., to Brazil. 
Alectis ciliaris ................. Cape Cod to tropical America. 
Vomer setipinnis ............... Maine to Brazil. 
Selene vomer .................. Casco Bay to BraziI. 
Trachinotus falcatus ............. Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Trachinotus goodei .............. Woods Fiole to West Indies. 
Trachinotus argenteus .......... Woods Fiole to Vest Indies. 
Trachinotus carolinus .......... Cape Cod to Gulf of Mexico. 
Rachycentron canadus .......... Cape Cod to warm seas. 
Nomeus gronovii ............. Woods Fiole to tropical Atlantic. 
Coryphœena hippurus ............ Cape Cod to Texas. 
Palinurichthys perciformis ...... Maine to Cape Flatteras. 
Peprilus paru ................... Cape Cod to Brazil. 
Poronotus triacanthus .......... Nova Scotia to Florida. 
Apogon imberbus .............. Mediterranean and neighboring waters; Brazil. 
Apogon maculatus ............. Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS I-IQLE AND VICINITY. 

Roccus lineatus ................. New Brtmssvick to Florida. 
Morone americana ............... Nova Scotia to South Carolina. 
Epinephelus adscensionis ....... Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Epinephelus niveatus .......... Woods Hole to Brazil. 
Epinephelus morio .............. Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Garrupa nigrita ................ Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Mycteroperca bonaci ........... Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
?Mycteroperca interstitialis ..... Marthas Vineyard to Cuba. 
Centropristes striatus ........... Mairie to Florida. 
Rypticus bistrispinus ......... Newport to Key West. 
Lobotes surinamensis ........... Cape Cod to warm seas. 
Priacanthus arenatus ........... Woods Hole to Brazil. 
Pseudopriacanthus altus ......... Marblehead, Mass., to West Indies. 
Lutianus griseus ................ Woods Hole to Brazil. 
Lutianus jocu ................... Woods Hole (occasional) to Brazil. 
Lutianus apodus ................ Woods Hole (rare) to Brazil. 
Lutianus blackfordii ........... Woods Hole (occasional) to Brazil. 
Lutianus analis ................ Woods Hole (occasional) to Brazil. 
Ocyurus chrysurus .............. Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Orthopristis chrysopterus ........ Marthas Vineyard to Rio Grande. 
Stenotomus chrysops ............ Eastport, Me., to South Carolina. 
Lagodon rhomboides ............ Cape Cod to Cuba. 
Archosargus probatocephalus... Cape Cod to Texas. 
Eucinostomus gula ............. Woods Hole to Brazil. 
Kyphosus sectatrix .............. Cape Cod to West Indies. 
Kyphosus incisor ............... Nantucket to Brazil. 
Cynoscion regalis ............. Mairie to Gulf of Mexico. 
Larimus fasciatus ............... Woods Hole (occasional) to Texas. 
Scioenops ocellatus ............. ]3uzzards Bay to Texas. 
Leiostomus xanthnrus .......... Cape Cod to Texas. 
Micropogon undulatus ........... Cape Cod to Texas. 
Menticirrhus saxatilis .......... Casco Bay to Florida. 
Pogonias cromis ................ Provincetow to Rio Grande. 
Eupomacentrus leucostictus .... Marthas Vineyard to West Indies. 
Abudefduf saxatilis ............. Newport to Uruguay. 
Tautoga onitis .................. New Brunswick to Charleston, S. C. 
Sparisoma flavescens ........... Woods Hole to Rio Janeiro. 
Scarus croicensis ............... Marthas Vineyard to West Indies. 
Choetodipterus faber ............ Cape Cod to Rio Janeiro. 
Choetodon ocellatus ............. Woods Hole to West Indies. 
Chœetodon capistratus... " "..Woods Hole to West Indies. 
Teuthis coeruleus ............... Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Teuthis hepatus ................ Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Teuthis bahianus .............. Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Balistes carolinensis ........... Annisquam, Mass., to tropical Atlantic. 
Balistes vetula ............. Woods Hole (6ccasional) to West Indies. 
Balistes forcipatus .............. Newport (?)to Brazil. 
Canthidermis sobaco ...... Vineyard Sound to West Indies. 
Monacanthus hispidus ........... Lynn, Mass., to Brazil. 
Alutera schoepfii ............... Portland, Me., to Texas. 
Alutera monoceros ...... Woods Hole to West Indies. 
Lactophrys triqueter ........ Mart_has Vineyard to West Indies. 
Lactophrys trigonus .......... Woods Hole to West Indies. 
Lactophrys tricornis ............ Mart_has Vineyard to tropical Atlantie. 
Lagocephalus lœevigatus ......... Cape Cod to Brazil. 

167 



I68 BULLETIN OF THI BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
8pheroides spengleri ........... Woods Hole to Rio Janeiro. 
8pheroides maculatus ........... Casco Bay to Florida. 
Spheroides testudineus ......... Newport to West Indies. 
Diodon hystrix ................. Buzzards Ba N to tropical seas. 
Chilomycterus schoepfi .......... Massachusetts Bay to Florida. 
Chilomycterus antillarum ...... Woods Hole; Cuba and Jamaica. 
Mola mola ...................... Off Portland, Me., to tropical seas. 
Scorpœena plumieri .............. Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Scorpœena grandicornis .......... Marthas Vineyard to Brazil. 
Prionotus carolinus ............. Mairie to South Carolina. 
Prionotus strigatus .............. Salera, Mass., to Virginia. 
Cephalacanthus volitans ........ Mairie to Gulf coast. 
Gobius stigmaticus ............. Marthas Vineyard to Rio Janeiro. 
Gobiosoma bosci ............... Cape Cod to Florida. 
Echeneis naucrates ...... Salera, Mass., to warm seas. 
Remora rernora ........ Salera to West Indies. 
Remora brachyptera ........... Massachusetts Bay to warrn seas. 
Rhombochirus osteochir ....... Cape Cod to West Indies. 
Lopholatilus chamœeleonticeps.. Deep waters of the western Atlantic. 
Opsanus tan ................... Massachusetts Bay, pcrhaps Mairie, to Cuba. 
Macrourus bairdii ............. Eastport to West Indies. 
Paralichthys dentatus ......... Casco Bay to Florida. 
Lophopsetta maculata ........ Eastport to South Carolina. 
Platophrys ocellatus ............ Marthas Vineyard to Rio Janeiro. 
±_chirus fasciatus .............. Cape Ann to Texas. 
Gymnachirus nudus ............ Woods Hole; Brazil. 
Pterophryne histrio ............ Woods Hole to tropical Atlantic. 
.çpecies havin 9 an approximately equal range to the north and south, and ones whose range is hot definitely 
known (32). 
Petromyzon marinus .......... Eastport to North Carolina. 
?Lamna cornubica ............. North Atlantic; occasionally taken on coast of New England and south- 
ward. 
Raja erinacea .................. Mairie to Virginia. 
Raja radiata ................... North Atlantic. 
Clupea harengus ................ North Atlantic Ocean, chiefly north of Cape Hatteras. 
Pomolobus pseudoharengus ..... Atlantic coast of the United tates. 
Pomolobus œestivalis ............ Aflantic coast; Eastport; Southern tates. 
alvelinus fontinalis .......... Labrador to Georgia. 
Osmerus mordax ............... Gulf of St. Lawrence to Virginia. 
Maurolicus pennanti ......... Open seas, occasionally off New England" eoast. 
Fundulus diaphanus ....... Coast of Maine to Cape Hatteras. 
Scombresox sattrus ............. Newfoundland to Beaufort. 
Cypselurus gibbifrons ........... Only two specimens knoxn. 
Apeltes quadracus .............. Maine to New Jersey. 
Menidia menidia notata ........ Nova cotia to North Carolina. 
Ammodytes americanus ........ Newfoundland to Cape I-Iatteras. 
comber scombrus ............. Labrador to Cape Hatteras. 
8comber colias ................. Maine; England to Mediterranean; Pacifie Ocean. 
Pomatomus saltatrix ............ Atlantic and Indian Oceans, widely disttibuted. 
Brama rail ..................... Open seas, widely distributed. 
Centrolophus niger .............. Coasts of southern Europe. 
Tetragonurus cuvieri ........... Open Atlantic; off Toulon and Marseilles and near Madeira. 
Myoxocephalus œeneus .......... Casco Bay to New York. 
Meduccius bilinearis ........... Straits of Belle Isle to Bahamas. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

Gadus callarias ................ North Atlantic, south to Virginia; North Carolina. 
Melanograrnrnus œeglefinus ...... North Atlantic, south to North Carolina. 
Urophycis regius ............... North Atlantic, south to Charleston, S. C. 
Urophycis tenuis ............... Banks of Newfoundland to Cape I-Iatteras. 
Urophycis chuss ............... Gulf of St. Lawrence to Virginia. 
Paralichthys oblongus ........... Coasts of New England and New York. 
Pseudopleuronectes arnericanus.Labrador to Chesapeake Bay; Georgia. 
Lophius piscatorius ............. Nova Scotia, in deep water, to Barbados. 

169 

13. REPTILIA, AVES. MAMMALIA. 

These groups have been included in our catalogue for the sake of completeness, 
though they occupy a very different position in our marine fauna from anv of the groups 
which have thus far been discussed. 
Of the reptiles, rive species have been listed, of which only three are to be regarded 
as marine in the strict sense of the word. These are the sea turtles, which are occa- 
sionallv taken in fish traps or otherwise during the summer months. We are indebted 
to Dr. Leonhard Stejneger for criticizing our manuscript list of Reptilîa and for aiding 
us in the identification of one species. 
Of the birds, only swimming species which are known to frequent sait water have 
been listed. In some cases it has hOt been easy to decide whether or not a given bird 
should be regarded as "marine." In the preparation of this list we have received much 
help from Dr. G. M. Allen and Prof. Lynds Jones. Dr. Allen has kindly examined the 
manuscript of our check list. The nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union 
has been adopted without modification. In the preparation of this list, as in many other 
parts of our work, xve have received substantial assistance from lir. Vinal Edwards, who 
has for many years collected birds at Woods Hole. 
With the exception of the muskrat, mink, and seals, the mammals of our list are 
ail Cetacea. The source of these records has been indicated in the list itself. Verv few 
of these animais are seen xvith any frequency in the neighborhood of Woods Hole. 
Indeed some of the whales have hot been noted within the region for many years. We 
are indebted to Dr. F. W. True for a number of the records for species, as well as for 
criticizing our manuscript. 



Chapter V. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

I. FACTORS DETERMINING DISTRIBUTION. 

As a result of our labors, the distribution patterns of a large nurnber of speeies 
bave been portrayed graphically. Even if these were offered rnerely as ernpirical 
facts, without any atternpt al an explanation, we feel that their publication would be 
fully justified. But rnany of these distribution patterns are not purely ernpirical. On 
the contrary they stand in evident relation to certain physical factors in the environ- 
ment. The nature of these factors bas been already discussed rather fully in chapter 
ri, and concrete exarnples of their influence upon distribution bave been instanced 
repeatedly in chapter iv. The factors which we believe tobe rnost effective directly 
and indirectly in deterrnining the distribution of the bottom-dwelling species through- 
out these waters are () the character of the bottorn, considered chiefly in relation 
to its physical texture; and (2) the ternperature of the water. To these we rnay add 
another factor of far less extended application, so far as concerns our dredging results. 
This is (3) depth of water, or, perhaps, rnore strictly, proxirnity to shore, though this 
staternent dernands considerable explanation. 
We are quite aware that several other factors are generally recognized a as being 
of importance in determining the distribution of marine organisrns; and we do not 
wish to be understood as lirniting these agencies to the ones here enurnerated. But we 
are concerned al present only in explaining the phenornena encountered by us during 
our dredging operations in the vicinitv of Woods Hole. The factor of salinity is doubt- 
less of the highest importance in determining the fauna of sait rnarshes and estuaries, 
and even that of the open sea near the rnouths of rivers.  But there are, within the 
limits of our region, no strearns of sufficient rnagnitude to seriouslv affect the fauna al 
anv considerable distance frorn shore. Among ail the species taken in the course of our 
dredging, we bave encountered not more than two or three which seerned to be restricted 
to the upper portions of Buzzards Bay, where alone the water was round to be diluted 
in any considerable degree (cf. charts _215-28). The most striking case of this sort was 
that of the sponge Tethya 9raTAda, which, so far as we know, bas only been taken near 
the head of Buzzards Bay. 
The presence or absence of other organisrns, which rnay serve as the food of a given 
species or which rnay furnish il with a necessary basis for attachrnent, is surely to be 
ranked as an important factor in influencing distribution. But these other organisrns 
are, in turn, dependent upon inorganic factors, such as those which we bave rnentioned, 
and thus the latter rnay be regarded as ultimatelv responsible for the distribution in ail 
cases. 

a For admirable general discussions of this subiect the reader is referred to C l G. J. Petersen (I893). I-Ierdman et al. (x894), 
'alther (1894). and Allen (x899). 
b Certain marine fisheS bave been held to be sensitive, directly or indirectly, to comlaratively slight differences in the densité, 
ol their surrotmding meditma. Petterssen (t894) bas show that the apl3earance of herring uI3on the Norwegian toast is corre- 
lated with periodic changes of water salinity; but since the latter changes are simultaneous with changes in the temlaerature 
and in the food supply, il would seem difficult to exclude the influence ol these latter factors. On the contrary, il is well know 
(vide Sumner. r9o6, . 68) that many marine fishes are capable of living eqttally well in waters of dely dLfferent degrees ol 
alinit¢. 

170 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

2. THE LOCAL FAUNA AS INFLUENCED BY THE CHARACTER OF THE BOTTOM. 

Of the three factors enumerated above, the first (character of bottom) is beyond 
doubt the most effective one in determining the distribution of organisms within the 
limits under consideration by us. It is a mere truism that solid objects are necessary 
for the attachment of whole groups of fixed organisms, e. g., hydroids, Bryozoa, ascidians, 
barnacles, etc., as well as of manv algoe. The presence of stones or shells is therefore 
essential to the existence of such forms. The absence of a suitable basis of support we 
believe to account in the main for the comparative scarcity of hydroids in Buzzards 
Bay. Sort mud doubtless interferes, likewise, with the respiratory currents of many 
organisms, and these, too, would be better fitted to lire in Vineyard Sound. Other 
forms, on the contrary, require a muddy bottom in which to burrow. Thus, many of 
our local annelids and certain bivalve mollusks are, for the most part, restricted to 
Buzzards Bay. In some cases, as stated above, the relation between fauna and bottom 
is less direct, as witness the small tube-dwelling worms of the genus Spirorbis, which 
commonly adhere to various algoe. 
Since, as we have seen, Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay are rather sharply 
distinguished from each other by the presence or absence of mud on the one hand, and 
of clean sand and gravel on the other, it is natural that the most obvious distinction in 
distribution should be that between the predominantly Sound-dwelling species and the 
predominantly Bay-dwelling species. By reference to the lists of species contained in 
chapter lit it will be round that 40 per cent of the more prevalent species dredged by 
the Fish Hazok in Buzzards Bay do not appear in the list of the more prevalent species 
dredged by the Fish Hawk in Vineyard Sound; while 35 per cent of the species con- 
tained in the latter list do hot appear among the former. Our distribution charts, 
likewise, reveal the occurrence of many species which are restricted wholly or chieflv 
to Vineyard Sound, and a considerable number of others which are restricted wholly 
or chiefly to Buzzards Bay. 
Furthermore, within each of these major bodies of water, the local distribution of 
many forms is very obviously determined by the presence of one or another variety of 
bottom. Thus it happens that many species whose occurrence in Vineyard Sound is 
general are round in Buzzards Bay only in the adlittoral zone, particularly along the 
Elizabeth Islands. Here the mud is less prevalent, and the bottom approximates in 
character much of that to be met with in Vineyard Sound. A type of distribution 
which is almost the converse of the last is met with in the case of certain mud-dwelling 
species, which are of general occurrence throughout the bottom of Buzzards Bay, but 
which in Vineyard Sound are confined to a few definite areas where mud is known to be 
present (e. g., Yoldia limatula, chart 135 ). Vineyard Sound is divisible, as has been 
already stated, into an eastern half, in which the bottom is predominantly gravelly 
and stony, and a western half, in which the bottom is mainly of sand (see chart 227). 
Accordingly, manv species, particularly among the attached forms, are lacking in the 
western hall of the Sound, except in the littoral and adlittoral zones; while certain 
sand-dwelling species (e. g., the "lady crab," Oz, ali[es ocellatus, and among fishes the 
ravs and flounders) are especially prevalent in that very region. Such cases as these 
are not always easy to distinguish from those to be discussed presently, in which temper- 
ature dctermines which hall of the Sound is inhabited by a given species. The lower 



172 

BULLETIN OF 'IHE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

end of Buzzards Bay, like its eastern shore, is comparatively free from deposits of mud, 
and accordingly we often meet with species here which occur in various parts of the 
Sound, but which are rarelv or never met with in the more central parts of the Bar. 
Here again the temperature factor often leads to similar appearances, and itis therefore 
necessarv to consider the total range of a species before we can form any definite con- 
clusions as to which factor is responsible in a given case. 
The scarcity or apparent total absence in Buzzards Bar of a considerable number 
of species belonging to each of the subkingdoms is, we believe, due chieflv if hOt entirely 
to the character of the bottom. Itis true that the annual extremes of temperature are 
somewhat greater in the Bay than in the Sound, and itis true that the water density 
of the former is slightly lower; but we would attribute little importance to these factors 
in determining the differences in their respective faunas. 
Tables presented in chapter Iii show that the list of prevalent species for the 
Fish Hawk stations in Buzzards Bay is almost identical with that for muddy bottoms; 
while the list of prevalent species for the Fish Hawk stations in Vineyard Sound includes 
but two species which were hOt contained either in the list for sandy or in that for gravelly 
• bottoms. This, however, can hardly be regarded as indepec*zt evidence that the 
differences in fauna between the two bodies of water are due to differences of the bottom. 
As regards the varietv of lire round to occur upon the various types of bottom, it 
was shown above that the number of species per dredge haul was greatest for the bottoms 
of gravel or stones and least for the sandy bottoms, while the muddy bottoms held an 
intermediate position in this respect. It was pointed out, however, that the greater 
wealth in species, recorded for the muddy bottoms, as compared with the sandy ones, 
might be due, in part at least, to the fact that the dredge cut more deeply into the 
former, and fhus obtained a fairer representation of the burrowing organisms. 
It was likewise shown statistically that the average number of species per dredge 
haul was greater in ]3uzzards Bay than in Vineyard Sound. This was true despite the 
fact that the total nfimber of species encountered was much greater in the Sound than 
in the Bay. We have interpreted these facts as signifying that while the wealth of spe- 
cies is, on the average, as great or even greater at each particular point on the floor of 
Buzzards Bay, the greater diversitv of conditions in Vineyard Sound as a whole results 
in its furnishing a habitat to a greater variety of species, a This conclusion is quite in 
harmonv with the fact that the number of "prevalent" species for Buzzards Bay--i. e., 
the number of those taken at one-fourth or more of the dredging stations--is about the 
saine (slightly greater, indeed) than the similar number for Vineyard Sound. On the 
assumption of a greater uniformity of lire conditions throughout the former, a larger 
proportion of the Bay-dwelling species might be expected to occur at one-fourth or more 
of the stations, even though the total number of such species were smaller. 
We think that the reader will be impressed, as are we, by the appromate agreement 
among the figures representing the wealth in species of the different types of bottom 
distinguished bv us and of the different subdivisions of the area dredged. The figures 
(P. 77) denoting the average number of species per dredge haul range from 35.2 for the 
Phala.ropc stations in Vineyard Sound to 39-7 for the Crab Ledge stations, the mean for 
all the stations being 37.0. Again, the lists of more "prevalent" species for various 

a Sec, however, discussion on pp. 79, 80. which renders this conclusion somewhat uncertain. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

I73 

habitats and regions are of approximately equal length, the number of species ranging, 
with a single exception, between 50 and 55. These figures, of course, in no wav express 
the relative wecltlz of c,zimal lire in these situations, this last being dependent upon the 
number of {ut{vidcls rather than the lumber of species. Unfortunately we have no 
data sufficient for the purpose of giving a statistical expression to the real wealth of lire 
upon different portions of the local sea floor. Particular spots vere round, it is true, 
v¢hich v¢ere in large degree destitute of life, but whether or not anv one of the types of 
bottom or of the larger subdivisions of our region was more densely populated than 
any other can hot be stated with mathematical certainty. It is out general impression 
that living organisms were found to be somewhat less abundant upon bottoms of com- 
paratively pure sand, although it is true that this is the prevailing type of bottom in the 
western portion of Vineyard Sound, to which many of out species are restricted. « 
Another fact which may be regarded as surprising, despite the differences pointed 
out above, is the comparatively small proportion of the species which are restricted to 
any particular type of bottom. Thirtv species are common to ail three of the lists 
which give the prevalent forms for each type of bottom, this number representing, on the 
average, 6o per cent of te number contained in each lst. But even this figure does not 
fairlv express the number of those which were actually round vith considerable fre- 
quency upon ail three types of bottom, since each list is restricted to species so common 
as to have been encountered at one-fourth of a given group of stations. Again, only 
26 per cent of the species contained in the list of prevalent mud-dwelling forms is pecul- 
iar to that list; while only 24 per cent of the list for bottoms of stones and gravel, and 
only 3 per cent of that for sandv bottoms are peculiar to their respective lists. 
We do not think that these figures fairly express,,hov¢ever, the obvious differences 
in the characteristic faunal aggregations for different types of bottom, as presented to 
the eye. This is because they do not take into account the relative number of indi- 
viduals belonging to the various species. Certain species which are characteristic of 
muddy bottoms (e. g., certain bivalve mollusks and worms) are present in great numbers 
in an average dredge haul ruade upon such a bottom. But along with them are smaller 
numbers of a great variety of species, which are not especially characteristic. The same 
may be said of the other types of bottom. Thus the real distinctness of the faunal 
aggregations in question could only be adequately expressed by reference to the relative 
abundance of each species, b Again it must be once more emphasized that the mixing 
up, in a single dredge haul, of organisms from several quite distinct bottoms is in some 
measure responsible for this apparent lack of distinctness in their respective habitats. 
This is particularly true of relatively small areas of sea floor, such as those under consid- 
eration, in which quite various deposits are round to alternate wth one another at fre- 
quent intervals. It is likely, indeed, that under such circumstances there is much over- 
lapping and intermingling of faunal aggregations which elsev¢here might be far more 
distinct. Finally, it must be remembered that the lists of "prevalent" species, as here 
eonstituted, exclude many forms which are highly characteristic of the bottoms in ques- 
tion, and which, in some cases, are restricted to them. 

a It is here, indeed, that line fishing [or mackerel and flounders is carried on with the greatest success. 
b O[ course, in a certain measure the wealth o[ a given species in individuals determines the [recIuency with whichit appeaçs 
in the dredging records. It is sell-evident that the more abundant species are more likely to be taken than less common ones. 



x 74 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
It would be hard to characterize in any brief staternent the faunal assemblages 
proper to the various types of bottorn. Such assernblages have been presented in 
four illustrative cases (p. 58-62), and cornposite pictures, including the more charae- 
teristic species, bave been given elsewhere in chapter . An atternpt to still further 
condense these data would, we fear, result in a rnere staternent of platitudes. It may be 
allowable to mention, however, that the rnost characteristic species found upon muddy 
bottorns were annelids and bivalve rnollusks, many of which were restricted to such 
bottorns; the rnost charactedstic species found upon bottorns of stones or gravel were 
hydroids, Bryozoa, and ascidians; while the few species which were in any real sense 
restrieted to bottorns of clear sand were either burrowing species (Ovalipes, Echinarachnius, 
certain larnellibranchs), or fishes (flounders and skates) which adhered closely to the 
bottorn. 
3. TME INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE. 
The ternperature factor is, with little doubt, the controlling one in the case of rnany 
spedes belonging to several different phyla. On page 74 is given a list of species which 
were dredged predorninantly or exclusively in the colder waters of the region, i. e., at 
the western end of Vineyard Sound and the rnouth of Buzzards Bay. Here the summer 
temperature of the bottorn water averages about xo ° F. (5.6 ° C.) lower than in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of Woods Hole. Reference to the stated ranges of these species 
revealed the fact that in x 5 out of the 2o cases they are predorninantly northward-ranging 
forms, sorne of which, indeed, are near their southern lirnit of distribution. Referenee 
bas also been rnade to a nurnber of less cornrnon forms having a similar distribution, 
but which are not included among those for which distribution charts bave been pre- 
pare& This large proportion of,northward-ranging species among those oceupying the 
eolder waters of Vinevard Sound and Buzzards Bar is significant in view of the fact 
that a decided rninoritv (23 per cent) of the species dredged by us with any frequeney 
throughout the region at large are to be classed as northvard-ranging, aeeording to the 
standard employed. 
It is of interest, also, to note that a large proportion of these eolder water speeies 
were likewise taken bv us at Crab Ledge, off Chatharn, where the water ternperatures in 
summer are even lower than at the rnouth of Vinevard Sound. At Crab Ledge and at 
certain other outlying points were also taken a considerable nurnber of speeies whieh 
appear never to enter Vinevard Sound or Buzzards Bar at all. So far as we bave 
aseertained the ranges of the speeies, thev belong, alrnost without exception, to the 
"Acadian" fauna characteristic of the waters north of Cape Cod. 
Another list was presented (p. 76) of species which, though otherwise of general 
distribution throughout Vinevard Sound, and in rnanv cases throughout Buzzards Bay 
as well, are absent from just those waters to which the northern types are restricted. 
This list was round to include none of the strictly northern types, while more than hall 
of the species there included were forrns which round in Cape Cod their northern lîmit 
of distribution. It is probable that the ternperature factor is the one responsible for 
this type of distribution in sorne cases at least. Many of these species, it is signifieant 
to state, are conspicuously absent frorn Crab Ledge. On the other hand, it is likely that for 
sorne other organisrns (e. g., the asddians) the uniformly sandy condition of the bottom 
in this outer portion of Vineyard Sound and the scarcity of solid objeets suitable for 
attachment render it an unfavorable habitat. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

I"75 

Although we believe these evidences of the distribution of local species with relation 
to temperature to be well-nigh conclusive, the fact must be adrnitted that there occur 
in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay a considerable number of predominantly north- 
ward-ranging species, and a yet greater number of southward-ranging ones, whose 
distribution within local waters bears no possible relation to temperature. These are 
in some cases of very general occurrence; in others their distribution appears to be 
determined by the character of the bottom. 
The actual mode of operation of temperature in restricting the distribution of 
species locally is no.t easy to state, and it is probable that no single formula is appli- 
cable to all cases. In chapter I the temperature conditions throughout local waters 
have been discussed rather fullv. It has been shown that the temperature of those 
portions of Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay which immediately join the ocean is 
lower than that of the more inclosed waters for probably hot more than hall of the 
year, the ditterence being greatest during the summer months. It was also shown to 
be probable that all the waters of the region reach a point hot far from the freezing 
point of salt water for a longer or shorter period during the winter. In the light of 
what we know regarding local temperature conditions on the one hand and the dis- 
tribution of our marine fauna on the other, it t'ill be of interest to consider certain 
theories which have been put forward to explain the part played by this factor in 
limiting the distribution of organisms in general. 
The influence of temperature in determining the distribution of marine animais 
was emphasized by Forbes and by Dana more than 50 years ago, and has been accepted 
as almost self-evident by a large number of naturalists. Just how this factor operates 
in limiting the distribution of a given species is, however, far from plain. Dana, « in 
1852, introduced the concept of "isocrymal lines," or lines showing the mean tem- 
perature of the waters along their course for the coldest 30 consecutive days of the 
year. Ordinary isotherms, or lines of mean annual temperature, he rejects as inade- 
quate, on the ground that "the cause which limits the distribution of species north- 
ward or southward from the Equator is the cold of winter rather than the heat of 
summer or even the mean temperature of the year" (p. 1452). 
Such a principle certainly does hOt explain the effect of temperature upon distri- 
bution within the limits of our local waters. Here the minimum winter temperatures 
are probably nearly the same throughout the entire region. If there are any local 
ditterences of regular occurrence, it is without doubt the shallower, more inclosed 
waters which attain the lowest tdnter temperatures. But these are precisely hOt the 
ones which are occupied by the northern forms of which we have spoken. Within 
local waters it is certainly the summer temperatures rather than the t'inter ones 
which are chiefly effective in limiting the distribution of species. 
Verrill (1866, p. 249) maintained that for birds "the essential limiting cause is 
the average temperature of the breeding season, which for the majority of our birds may 
be taken as April, May, and June." This idea was apparently suggested by the con- 
elusions of certain botanists respecting the distribution of plants, lXIerriam (1895 , 
1898), following out the same thought, has been led to the belief that "[land] animais 
and plants are restricted in northward distribution by the total quantity of heat during 

a Da.ha, z85=. p. x45z-x$92; 1853, p. z53-Z67o 3z7-327 . 



1 7 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

the season of growth and reproduction" (1895, p. 233); while "animais and plants are 
restricted in southward distribution by the mean temperature of a brief period eovering 
the hottest part of the year" (p. 234 ). The phrase "total quantity of heat" above 
employed is hot to be taken in a strict sense, however, but implies "the effective tem- 
peratures or degrees of normal mean daily heat in exeess of this minimum [6 ° C.]" 
which "have been added together for each station, beginning when the normal mean daily 
temperature rises higher than 6 ° C. in spring and eontinuing until it faIls to the saine 
point at the end of the season" (p. 232-233). "Io conformity with the usage of bota- 
nists, a minimum temperature of 6 ° C. (43 ° F.) bas been assumcd as marking the 
inception of the period of physiological activity in plants and of reproductive activity 
in animais" (p. 232 ). 
It is obviously impossible without qualification to apply this principle in explaining 
the distribution of marine animals. Many of these, as is well known, breed during the 
coldest months of the year, at a time when the temperature lies considerably below that 
assumed by Merriam as a necessary minimmn for physiological activity; and there is no 
general agreement in the breeding season of even closely related forms. Unfortunately, 
the period of sexual reproduction is hot definitelv known for the vast majority of out local 
species. The greater part of such definite observations as are available are contained 
in the rather meager notes of Bumpus (I898, 1898a, I898b), Mead (I898), and Thomp- 
son (i899), which cover only the spring and summer months. For a few species, how- 
ever (e. g., certain amphipods a and the mollusk Littorina palliata), we bave definite 
evidence that eggs are laid nearly or quite throughout the year. 
From the data offered by Garstang (I894) for the breeding periods of marine 
animals at Plymouth, England, we mav make a rough computation of the percentage 
of the species which breed during each month of the year in those waters. The follow- 
ing table, based upon records for about 200 species, presents these figures: 

January ......................... I4 [ 
February ......................... 20 
I 
Match ............................. 23 
April ............................. 29 
May ............................. 33 
June ............................. 28 

Per cent. 
July .............................. 2 3 
August ............................ 2 i 
September ................ i6 
October ...................... 9 
November ........................ 
I)ecember ........................ 

It is impossible to state how far these figures are representative of the total marine 
fauna, even at Plymouth, and how far they bave depended upon the relative activity 
of the observers during different months, but they seem to show that a considerable 
proportion of the species reproduce during the coldest months of the year. b And if 
would be a safe assumption, even in the absence of such confirmatory evidence as we 
possess, that the saine statement would hold for the region of Woods Hole. 
Before the operation of Merriam's law can be accepted as a sufficient explanation 
of the non-occurrence of certain southern species in the colder waters of this region, it 
must be shown that the "season of growth and reproduction" coincides with the period 
during which these waters are colder. As a matter of fact, we know that a considerable 

 One ot these, Calliopius lxiusculus, is included in the list of the cold-water, northward-ranging species, which are. in ou 
dTedging records, restricted to the western part of Vineyard Sound. 
6 It must be added, however, that the waters in the neighborhood of Plymouth never reach such low temperatures as are 
recorded during the winter months for Vineyard otmd and ]uzzards ]a¥. (See p. x83. z84. below.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

177 

number of species belonging to this category (though not these in particular) do repro- 
duce sexually during the summer months. In few cases, if any, however, do we know 
from local observations that their sexual period is confined to these months. We may 
comment parenthetically upon the urgent need of determining the reproducfive condi- 
tion of local marine organisms throughut the entire year. a 
In the case of one species among those which appear to be restricted to the warmer 
waters of the region we have definite evidence that an actual destruction of adult organ- 
isms may occur as a result of extreme cold in winter. 'ff'e refer to the common sea urchin, 
Arbacia punctulata, which, as our records show (see pp. 1 I4, 1 i5), was almost exterminated 
in Vineyard Sound during the winter of I9o3-4. And it is well known to fishermen and 
others that great numbers of dead fishes and mollusks of certain species are frequently 
found after a particularly hard spell of cold weather, b This is sometimes attributed 
to the action of "anchor ice" or "ground frost." Gould (I84o) cites the case of an 
extensive destruction of oysters which was believed to be due to this agency. That 
anchor ice does form in sait water, even at the depth of a number of fathoms, and that 
it may "freeze around fish caught in nets," is vouched for by Sir William Dawson and 
others, e On the other hand, we are informed by Prof. Herdman that he has had personal 
knowledge of the death from cold of fishes in aquaria, and even of burrowing mollusks 
along shore, in cases where actual freezing was out of question. It seems difiàcult, indeed, 
to believe in such a wholesale formation of anchor ice throughout Vineyard Sound as 
would be necessary to account for the extermination of the sea urchins by this agency. 
However, the extermination did occur during an exceptionally cold winter, and it seems 
a legitimate inference that it resulted in some wav from the cold. 
Now it is known that Arbacia finds in this region its northern limit of distribution 
upon our coast. It would seem, therefore, that in this latitude it is adapted to withstand- 
ing the average winter but not the exceptional one. On the other hand, no mere refer- 
ence to winter temperatures can explain the absence of this species from the western end 
of Vineyard Sound, or from Crab Ledge. For, although at these latter points the sure- 
mer temperatures are considerably lower than they are nearer Woods Hole, the winter 
temperatures are no lower, and possibly, indeed, not so low. Here, then, the law of Mer- 
riam may have application. Arbacia may not be adapted to reproducing in these colder 
waters. 
But Merriam's principle, in its completed form, really contains two wholly distinct 
principles. The second is that animals are "restricted in southward distribution by the 
mean temperature of a bfief pefiod covefing the hottest part of the year" (I895, p. 234). 
It is not stated whether this effect has to do with the ability of the adult organism itself 
to withstand higher temperatures, or whether the reproductive power is curtailed. 
As regards the distribution of our local marine fauna, this phase of I\lerriam's law 
can apply, if at all, onlv to those predominantly northern species which were round to be 
restricted to the waters which were cooler during the summer months. And it does seem 
likely, indeed, that some of these species are unable to endure the high temperatures 

a Aside from the case d certain fishes, our data for the winter months are derived almost wholly from an examination of 
tow-net collections ruade by Mr. Edwards. 
b The scral0ing action d ordinary floating ice in removing the rock-weeds (Fucus and Ascol, hyllum)from the boulders along 
shore is pointed out in the botanieal section of tb.is report. This saine agency doubtless restricts the distribution of such littoral 
animais as inhabit these weeds, and malr even affect certain other forms, e. g.. barnacles, which occur directly on the rocks. But 
it ean. of course, bave no influence upon the benthos, with which we are especially concerned here. 
cCf. Barnes, x9o6, 19. xo, 23--5 . 
x669°--Bull. 3, pt 



I78 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

attained by our more inclosed waters during the hottest part of the summer. For the 
great majority of cases, it must be admitted that this explanation is wholly conjectural. 
We know of at least one species of animal, however, which occurs in an active condition 
throughout Vineyard Sound during the winter and spring, but which, in these waters, 
passes into a condition of oestivation during the ummer. This is the hydroid Tubularia 
coulhouyi (sec p. 565). Now it is of significance that in the colder waters at Crab Ledge, 
and beyond Marthas Vineyard, at a depth of 29 fathoms, active hydranths of this species 
have been dredged by us in July and August. Certain others among our local hydroids 
are likewise known to be dormant, or at least less active during the summer months. It 
is quite conceivable that at somewhat higher temperatures such species would be 
destroyed altogether. 
We may say, then, that while there is some evidence for the operation of the principle 
of Merriam, in both of its phases, in determining the distribution of marine organisms 
in local waters, it seems likelv that no single formula will suffice to explain all the phe- 
nomena involved; a and it is certain that we tan for/n no adequate explanation of these 
until vastly more data are at hand. Both observation and experiment are demanded. 

4. THE INFLUENCE OF DEPTH. 

The great majority of species which were dredged by us in Vineyard Sound and 
Buzzards Bav were found to have a distribution, in local waters, which plainly bore no 
relation to depth. There are notable exceptions to this statement, however, some of 
which it is our purpose to discuss in the present section. 
Leaving out of account the multitude of strictly "littoral" or intertidal forms, we 
meet with a considerable number of species which are limited to comparatively shallow 
waters. An analysis or the depth records for all these species b reveals the occurrence 
of many which were taken by us nearly or quite exclusively in waters less than o fathoms 
deep. Many of these species, indeed, occur wholly or predominantly at depths of less 
than 5 fathoms. A considerable number of such instances hante been mentioned in the 
discussions for the separate subdivisions of the animal kingdom. A few of the commoner 
species, among those dredged, which show a distinct preference for the shallower waters, 
both in the Bay and the Sound, are: Pista palmata, P. intermedia, Araphilhoë rubricata, 
Billium nigrum, Cerilhiopsis emersonii, Crepidula convexa, Lacuna puleola, Lyonsia 
hyatina, and Mya arenaria. Nov, an examination of the distribution charts for these 
species shows that they were dredged chiefly, if hot wholly, near shore. Some of them, 
at least, are known to inhabit the intertidal zone as well. It is a noteworthy fact 
fact that in some cases these speeies were dredged by the Fish Hawk, as well as by the 
Phalarope, but only at such of the Fish Hawk stations as were situated in the neighbor- 
hood of land. The depth at these points vas often considerable, however (o to 5 
fathoms). Facts of this nature point to the conclusion that proxiraity to shore rather than 
depth, as such, may be the factor concerned in determining the lower limit of distribu- 
tion for species of this sort. Before deeiding the point definitely, it would be necessary 
to determine whether these "adlittoral" species oceurred likewise on shoals at considera- 
ble distances from the land. Unfortunately, we have no satisfactory data on this subject, 

Petersen (I893, p- 44$),declares the view of Semper that "every single species fs affected by the temperature in a way char- 
acteristic to itselI alone is, I think, in the highest degree applicable to our marine animals." 
Tables presenting these data were prepared for use in the preparation of this report, but thev bave hot been included 
herewith. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

179 

since the only shoal so situated (the Middle Ground), lying within the territory dredged 
by us, is ruade up to a considerable degree of shifting sand, ill adapted to the support of 
most animal life. 
It may be well at this point to recall the type of distribution displayed by many 
species whose occurrence is general in Vineyard Sound, but which in/3uzzards/3ay are 
limited to the immediate vicinity of shore. If we had the data for the ]3ay alone at 
our disposal, it would be natural to suppose that the species had a definite bathymetric 
limit. We have, however, the best reasons for believing that it is the muddy character 
of the bottom, throughout the deeper parts of the /3ay, vhich restricts the distribution 
of such forms. 
Whatever be the causes vhich are responsible for lirniting certain species to the 
shallower waters skirting the shore, it is certainly desirable that we should have a suitable 
word by which to designate both the fauna inhabiting these waters and the habitat which 
they occupy. For this purpose we have already ernployed at various tirnes the terre 
"adlittoral," which, so far as we know, has hot been used by previous writers. Were 
there any unanirnity, even among zoologists, in the use of the word "littoral" itself we 
should have no hesitation in recommending this terre adlittoral. But the former word 
has been applied with very different degrees of inclusiveness, having been restricted by 
some to the intertidal zone; while by others it has been so extended as to take in the 
whole continental shelf, a It is in the more restricted sense that the term has been 
employed in the present report. For this, the word "tidal" b would be unequivocal 
and, indeed, self-explanatory. But, unfortunately, we could not well speak of a "tidal 
species," however appropriate the expression "tidal zone" would seern. Again, this 
word does not lend itself readily to a cornbination with Latin prefixes such as "sub" 
and "ad." 
Now the word "sublittoral" has likewise been used vith very var.ving inclusiveness, e 
frorn "just below the shore line" (Standard Dictionary) to a zone reaching to the greatest 
depths at which algœe flourish (Kjellman). à This latitude of definition tests upon the 
inherent ambiguity of the vord itself. For there is nothing in its composition to imply 
a limit of depth, any more than there is in the words "subrnarine" or "subterranean." 
It is therefore with hesitation that we have chosen the terre "adlittoral" as 
designating the zone of shallow water irnrnediately adjacent to the shore. We have 
not, it is true, set any definite lower limit of depth to this zone. That vould doubtless 
vary with different species; likewise with the abruptness of descent of the sea floor, e 
But even in this loose and inexact sense it is certainly a convenient terrn by which to 
designate such waters as those dredged by us with the Phalarolge and Blue Win 9. As 
a useIul alternative term "infratidal" might be employed, though there is no implication 
in this word of a lower lirnit of depth any more than in "sublittoral." 
A converse type of distribution to that just discussed is exhibited by certain other 
forms which were dredged predominantly at depths of io fathoms or more. A few of 
the commoner of such species are: Tubularia couthouyi, Stron9ylocentrot«s droebachi- 

a E. g., by Petersen and by Ortmann. The littoral zone of Edward Forbes, on the other hand, extended from high-water 
mark to a de13th o! 2 fathoms. To make confusion worse confounded, we have the '" littoral" fauna and flora of land zoolog and 
botany, which are hot marine at ail 
b The substitution of this term is favored by Dr. Stejneger in a letter to one of the authors. 
e A circular 1errer o! inquir which we sent to eight leading American ecologists revealed a surrising lack of unanimity in 
the use o! all these terres. 
à It is in this latter sense that the terre is employed in the botanfcal section of this report (cf. p. 453,454)- 
e Perhaps it would ordinaril, be limited, in Bttzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, by the 5-fathom line, but this would hot 
alwa,s be true. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

ozsis, Cancer borealis, OvaHpes ocellatus, Paçurus acadianus, Astarle castanea, Astarte 
u,data, Venericardia borealis, and Amaroucium stellatun. Now, a number of the fore- 
going species, and in general a considerable proportion of those species which are 
limited to the deeper waters, have already been mentioned among the northern forms 
whose distribution is determined locally by temperature conditions. It must be 
repeated, however (see p. 28), that the waters of the »vestern end of Vineyard Sound 
are little if any deeper on the average than those in the vicinity of Nobska and West 
Chop. The preference of these species for deeper waters is shown by their scarcity in 
the adlittoral zone. Certain of them, indeed, were dredged only by the Fish ttawk. 
It is more than likelv that the somewhat lower summer temperature of these bottom 
waters, as compared with those skirting the shore, is the factor responsible for the 
restriction of some species to the former. The temperature factor is rot the one directly 
concerned, however, in the case of all of the animals named. The distribution of 
Ovalipes, for example, is probably wholly determined by the character of the bottom. 
It is indeed known to occur on sand rats in shallow, warm water. The case of Amar- 
oucium stellatum is interesting, since, although a deep-water species in the sense here 
employed, it is for the most part restficted to the more easterly portions of the Sourd, 
where the bottoms are gravelly or stony. Thus its preference for deeper waters does 
rot appear to be related to the temperature factor, though this is rot entirely certain, 
since the deeper waters are everywhere somewhat cooler in summer than are the shoaler 
ones. The marked restriction of this species to the former is in stfiking contrast to the 
condition shown by the related Arnarouciura pellucidum constellatum (=A. constellatun 
Verfill), which, although associated with A. stellatum at various points, is likewise 
found in profusion in shallow waters and even upon piles. 
The vertical distribution of marine organisms is commonlv designated by the terre 
"bathymetric," and it has been sometimes supposed that depth was one of the primary 
factors determining distribution. There are, of course, at least four factors bound up 
in this one, riz, pressure, temperature, light, and gas content. Now, it is rot at all 
certain to what degree, if any, pressure inltuences distribution. For the limited depths 
within our region, we may certainly leave it out of accourt. 
Temperature is, as we have seen, definitely correlated with depth in the sea, just 
as it is with altitude on lard. But there is, in local waters, little difference between 
surface and bottom temperature, except in those portions of the Sourd and the Bay 
which adjoin the open ocean. Some of the cold-water species inhabiting these last 
are, as just stated, restficted to the greater depths. On the other hand, the restriction 
of certain species (see above) to the shallow water immediately skirting the shore rnav 
be due in some cases to the palpably higher temperature commonly met with at such 
points dufing the summer. 
The relation of light to depth has been treated at some length in the botanical 
section of this report (p. 447-449), to which the reader is referred. It is likely that 
for relatively slight depths, such as those we are considering, the light factor has little 
direct effect upon the bathymetfic distribution of animals. Indirectly it may be of 
influence in the case of certain forms which dwell upon algœe, and it is possible that some 
of the adlittoral species which have been discussed above are limited in this way. 
It may be repeated in conclusion, however, that, as regards the species taken 
during our dredging operations, the great majority show little or no evidence of 
bathymetric distribution. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY O1 WOODS HOLI AND ¥ICINITY. 

18I 

5. POSITION OF THE LOCAL FAUNA IN ZOOGEOGRAPHY. 
Certain questions will naturallv present themselves to the student of geographical 
distribution : "What is the position of the Sçoods Hole fauna in the fauna of out American 
coast? "1"o which of the larger zoogeographical regions does it belong? And is it 
situated in the middle of that region or close to one of its limits? In other words, do 
the majority of species have a range which extends mainly to the northward along this 
coast, or do the majorîty bave, on the whole, a southward range; or is there no appreci- 
ble preponderance of one sort over the other? Simple as these questions may seem, 
it is difficult to give them an ansver that is at all satisfactory. The known range, as 
distinguished from the actual range, of a species, is very frequently determined by 
historical accident. Thus the Bar of Fundy, Massachusetts Bay, Sçoods Hole, Newpo.rt, 
New Haven, Charleston, etc., frequently figure in out literature as limits of distribution, 
and this for reasons which are obvious to anyone familiar with the historv of American 
marine zoology. Verrill and Smith, in their %'inevard Sound report, give Cape Cod as 
the southern limit, or the northern limit, of distribution for many species whose known 
range has since been extended far beyond this point. 
Likewise the impossibility must be borne in mind of forming a just estimate of the 
geographical range of a species from any mere statement, however correct in itself, of 
the extreme limits of its distribution. The bathymetric range and other factors of its 
habitat at various latidudes must be taken into consideration. It was long ago pointed 
out by ]dward Forbes (i844, p. 33) that "parallels in depth are equivalent to paral- 
lels in latitude." Valther (i894) states that from the surface down the temperature 
declines about i ° C. for each i8 meters. Accordingly, a species which is truly "boreal" 
in its general tendencies, and which occurs in abundance atong the littoral zone, in 
northern latitudes, may none the less be round in the deeper colder waters of a region 
far to the southward. To state such a range merelv in terres of latitude would be 
highly misleading. Again, it is obvious that the saine importance must hot be attributed 
to *he isolated and occasional occurrence of a given species as to its occurrence at points 
where it is widespread and abundant. But in manv of the tables which are available 
for consultation no distinction is ruade between the tvo. 
Furthermore, the question as to the position of the Sçoods Hole fauna, from the 
standpoint of zoogeography, can hot be answered until we have ruade clear what is to 
be understood by the "$çoods Hole fauna." If bv this expression we are to mean the 
aggregate number of species which have evcr been taken within the limits adopted, the 
question would be a dicult one to answer, and the answer, when given, would be of 
little value. Such an inclusive list (which would be coextensive with out ovn annotated 
list or catalogue) would comprise hot onlv the truly indigenous species, characteristic 
of the region, but the occasional stragglers borne from southern vaters by the Gulf 
Stream, and likewise those northern, forms which ve have met with onlv at Crab Ledge 
or in the colder waters off Gav Head. These are mostly rare species locally, and are 
in no sense characteristic of the shallower waters of this section of the New England 
toast, yet the total number of such species is Yery considerable. In practice, however, 
it is difiïcult to separate the truly indigenous types from those vhich are to be regarded 
as exotics or stragglers. An arbitrary basis of selection must therefore be adoited. 
For the purposes of the ensuing analysis we bave included as representative local species 
on])" those vhich have been taken at io or more of the dredging stations. There are 



I82 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

thus eliminated a large number of forms which are relatively uncommon in these waters. 
The remaining ones, on the other hand, being, for the most part, of comparatively 
common occurrence, are just those whose general range of distribution is probably 
known with the greatest accuracy. Such a list, of course, comprises only bottom- 
dwelling organisms which occur at depths sufficiently great to be taken by the dredge. 
It consequently excludes the littoral and pelagic life as a whole, and therefore does hot 
represent every element of the fauna. 
Belote entering upon such an analysis, however, it may be of interest to consider 
some of the prevalent opinions regarding the distribution of marine animals and plants 
upon this section of the coast. 
It has been pretty generally assumed that Cape Cod forms a rather definite bound- 
ary between the fauna and flora inhabiting the regions above and below it. This was 
urged by Gould as early as I84o (sec Gould, I84o, p. 491), as the result of a study of 
the distribution of marine mollusks. Gould asserts that "many whole genera do hot 
pass from one side to the other of this limit. Of the 203 marine species, 8i do hot pass 
to the south and 30 have hot been round to the north of the Cape, though many of 
them approach within a very few mlles of each other." It was the opinion of Dana, 
likewise (I852, I853), that there occurred at Cape Cod "a remarkable transition in 
species, and a natural boundary between the south and the north." Dana recognized 
four zoogeographical divisions of the Atlantic coast of North America, riz, the Acadian 
(first called by him "Nova Scotian"), Virginian, Carolinian, and Floridan. Cape Cod, 
he believed, served to divide the Acadian, lying to its north, from the Virginian on the 
south. Packard sought to distinguish another region, the "Syrtesian," on the north of 
the Acadian, between the latter and the arctic or polar. « 
From a consideration of the actinians and echinoderms, in particular, Verrill (i866) 
was led to the belief "that there are portions of three distinct Faunœe to be distinguished 
on the coast of New England, viz: First, that known as the Virginian Fauna, extending 
from Cape Hatteras to the southern side of Cape Cod. * * * Second, that known 
as the Acadian or Nova Scotian Fauna, which extends along the shore from Cape Cod to 
the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, and includes * * * and many of the banks 
to the southward of Cape Cod, such as Nantucket Shoals; and perhaps the extreme end 
of Long Island. * * * Off the coast of New Jersey, also, there are deep-lying banks 
or shoals, which may be referred to this Fauna. * * * Third, a more arctic Fauna 
characterizes the eastern coast of Labrador and Newfoundland, and the Grand Banks, 
which extends far southward along out coast in deep water, influenced by the polar 
current of cold water b which skirts the northern part of our coast." Thîs is the "Syr- 
tesian" fauna of Packard. 
Later (I87x), referring especially to his dredging operations in Vineyard Sound and 
vicinity, Verrill writes: "One of the most important of the results of these investiga- 
tions • * * is that while the shores and shallow waters of the bays and sounds, as 
far as Cape Cod, are oceupied chiefly by southern forms, or the Virginian fauna, « the 
deeper channels and the central parts of Lon.g Island Sound, as far as Stonington, Conn., 
are inhabited almost exclusively by northern forms, or an extension of the Acadian 
Fauna." 

a Gill, ,87à, p. 782, likewise recognizes the Arctic, Syrtesian, Acadian, Virginian, and Carolinian faunas. 
b Concerning the probability of the existence o[ such a current, sec Claapter II o! the prescrit report. 
c Perkitas. on the other hand. from a consideration of the mollusks of tlae vicinity of New HavetL wrote in *869: "The |atma 
of the reglon belongs about equally to the Aeadian and Virginian fatmoe. " 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I8 3 
S. I. Smith (1879), likewise, from a study of certain groups of Crustacea, was led to 
believe that "the fauna from Cape Cod to Labrador is essentially a continuous one, or 
at least that there are no changes in it comparable with the differences between the 
fauna south and that north of Cape Cod Bay." 
By the botanists, also, an equally great importance has been attributed to Cape 
Cod as a division between the floral regions distinguished by them. Harvey (1852) 
recognized one region north of Cape Cod, "extending probably to Greenland," while 
his second region extended from Cape Cod to the southward as far as Cape Hatteras. 
Farlow wrote in 1882 : 
It will be seen that Cape Cod is the dividing line between a marked northern and southern flora. 
In fact the difference between the floroe of Massachusetts Bay and Buzzards Bay, which are only a 
few mlles apart, is greater than the difference between those of Massachusetts Bay and the Bay of Fundy 
or between those of Nantucket and Norfolk. 
omewhat earlier (1873), in answer to the question "whether northern species do 
not occur at exposed southern points, as Gay Head and Montauk, and southern species 
wander northward to Cape Ann," he gave the answer: "Most decidedly, I think, such 
is not the case." Such an extreme position as this has not, however, been taken by 
the author of the botanical section of the present report. 
It would be futile, on the basis of our own researches into the fauna of the Woods 
Hole region, to enter into any extended discussion regarding the position of this region 
upon the zoogeogmphical map of the world, a As an adequate preliminary to such a 
discussion one would need to have a more or less intimate knowledge of the fauna of 
both shores of the Atlantic from the Arctic Ocean to the Tropics. 
In a table in chapter III (p. 88, 89) we have indicated the number of species, repre- 
senting each of the chier subdivisions of the animal kingdom, which have been recorded 
from the Woods Hole region and from seveml other localities where a careful inventory 
of the fauna has been ruade. The number of species has been stated, also, which are 
known to be common to Woods Hole and to eastern Canada, and the number common 
to Woods Hole and to Plymouth. It will be round that 365(+4?) species are com- 
mon to the Woods Hole and the Canadian lists. This number represents more than 3 ° 
per cent of the total number of determined Woods Hole species belonging to groups 
which were considered in making the Canadian list (i. e., omitting vertebrates and 
parasitic worms). On the other hand, only 15 per cent of the determined Woods 
Hole species (belonging to groups for which a comparison is possible) are common to 
the Plymouth list. A critical comparison of American and European species, and 
particulady an exhaustive search of the synonymy, would probably increase the latter 
figure somewhat. 
It is much to be regretted that no list has been prepared with similar care of the 
fauna of some region lying about as far to the south of Woods Hole as the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence lies to the north. It might be confidently predicted that the percentage 
of our local species which would appear in such a list would be very greatly in excess 
of the 3 ° per cent which are common to Canada. Data bearing upon this phase of 
the subject will, however, be introduced presently. 
One might perhaps have expected to find a much larger proportion of our Woods 
Hole species in the vicinity of Plymouth than the 15 per cent which have been recorded. 
To what degree these differences in fauna are due to differences in physical conditions 

a We tear that much ingenuitlr has been wasted in the past in an endeavor to distinguish ail the various "[aunas" repr¢sented 
on a single section o! our coast. Such entities are, a[ter ail. to a large extent figments of the imagination. 



I8 4 BULLETIN OF THE ]3UREAU OF FISHERIES. 
and to what degree thev are due to geographical isolation we tan hot say. The surface 
temperature of the sea in the neighborhood of Plymouth is said to range from about 
44 ° F. (February) to about 59 ° F. (August). (See Dickson, 892, p. 276.) In this 
respect the conditions are far different from those in Vineyard Sound, in which the 
annual range of temperature is roughly from 3 °o F., or less, to 7o °. On the other hand, 
we know that broad expanses of ocean are effective barriers to distribution, even for 
marine organisms. 
Although we have hot undertaken the ambitious task of making extended com- 
parisons between the Woods Hole fauna and the faunas of other sections of the Atlantic 
toast, we have nevertheless been able to give some answer to the questions: (x) Have 
the majority of our more representative speeies a range which is predominantly north- 
ward or one which is predominant]y southward ? (2) In how large a degree is Cape 
Cod a barrier to distribution ? 
As stated above, we have considered for this purpose only those speeies whieh have 
been taken at xo or more of our dredging stations, and which, therefore, may be regarded 
as those which are most truly representative of our local benthos. Of such species there 
are 202, excluding 9 species of Protozoa. In the various seetions of ehapter IV these 
species have been grouped aceording to their range upon our toast, and a synopsis of 
these separate lists is presented in a table herewith. It may be repeated that a species 
has been regarded as predominantly northward-ranging, whose range (in latitude) to 
the northward on our toast is at least twice as great as its range to the southward. « 
A speeies has been regarded as southward-ranging which presents the converse type of 
distribution. The column headed "Equal" refers to those species whose known range 
in one direction does hot greatly exceed the known range in the other direction; while 
the doubtful column ineludes those concerning which our data are insufficient. In many 
cases they have been found onlv in the immediate vicinity of Woods Hole. 

Predom- Predom- Known to occur 
inantly inantly Equal. Doubt- Total. to occur south of 
northern, southern, fui. north ol XVoods 
Cape Cod. Hole 
region.b 

2telenterates ........................................ 6 3 2 2  3 
Br3rozoa .............................................. 4 4 7 6 , 
Echinoderms ...................................... 3 
xnnulata ............................................ 5 22 2 30 
Sipunculida ........................................................... 
_ïrpedia ....................................................... x ............. x 
,mphipods .................................. 
[soDods .......................................................  x .......... 3 
De¢apods ............................ 
Pycnogoids ........................ 
/ollusks ..................... 
ïunicates ................................................... 4 ......... 4 8 
Fishes ................................... 
Total ........................................... 46 

6 
8 
3 

2 
7 
7 
7 
$ 

I65 

- This criterion has hot been applied to those cases inwhich it is definitely known that the extreme southern records relate 
only to izreat depths. 
b Long Island Sound bas hot been relmrded as south ol the Woods Fiole region. Fiad it been so Considered, the figures in 
this colttmn wottld bave been materially increased. 



]31OLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I8 

Of the entire zo2 species, ox, or exactly 50 per cent, are believed to bave a range 
upon our toast which is predominantly southward; 46 species (23 per cent) bave a 
range vhich is predominantly northward; while 3I of them (I5 per cent) have a range 
of approximately equal extent, so far as known, in both directions. The remaining 24 
species have been relegated to the doubtful column. The fact to be emphasized is that 
the ratio of southward-ranging species (as thus defined) to northward-ranging species is 
greater than two to one, while about 5 per cent of them do hot seem to be thus 
restricted in latitude. « 
Viewing these 2o2 species in another way, it is to be noted that 3o, or about 64 per 
cent of them, are knovn to have a range extending north of Cape Cod, leaving 72 of 
them (36 per cent) which, so far as reported, bave hot transcended this barrier. Doubt- 
less more complete information will reduce the latter figure. As has already been 
pointed out, any locality where extensive collecting has been done is sure to figure as the 
reputed limit of distribution, vhether northern or southern, for many species. It is 
significant, therefore, that only 37 of the species under consideration (i8 per cent) bave 
not yet been recorded from points south of Woods Hole. b Comparing this figure with 
the 36 per cent vhich are hot known to occur north of Cape Cod, it may be that ve 
bave some measure of the real effectiveness of the last as a barrier to distribution. 
Crude, in the extreme, as any such computations must be, the conclusions seem to be 
fairly well grounded (i) that Cape Cod does have an appreciable influence as a barrier to 
distribution, and (2) that the southern types preponderate considerably over the north- 
ern ones in our Woods Hole fauna, or at least in that part of it which is accessible to the 
dredge. These generalizations may not be true of each individual group (e. g., coel- 
enterates and amphipods); and in. general it must be remembered that a considerable 
minority of northern forms are included in our local fauna, while about 64 per cent of 
our species are known to occur north of Cape Cod. On the other hand, it is well to 
state that our local fish fauna, which is but sparingly represented in our dredging records, 
and consequently plays little part in the foregoing tabulation, is overwhelmingly south- 
ern, 75 per cent being southvard-ranging in the foregoing sense of the terre, while nearly 
5o per cent of the total number of recorded species are such as are reputed to find in 
Cape Cod their northern limit of distribution. And, lastly, we must bear in mind that we 
are here dealing only with the benthos of the region, the plankton, as well as the littoral 
fauna, being left out of consideration. 

6. COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSELY RELATED SPECIES. 

Turning to another phase of our subject, it would be unreasonable to look to the 
results of such a survey as the present one for an)" considerable light upon the origin of 
species. Those who insist upon the importance of isolation as a factor in species differ- 
entiation are wont to maintain that different subspecies do hot coincide in their ranges, 
but that these supposedly incipient species are practically always separated from one 
another, geographically or otherwise. After the complete splitting of a species, i. e., its 
replacement by several specifically distinct forms, these latter may by migration, it is 
said, corne to occupy the saine territorv. 

a The similar treatment by Hoyle of the deep-water fauna of the Clyde sea-area was unknown to the present wrters at the 
Lime when the |oregoing discussion was written. (See I-Ioyle, x89o, p. 463 et seq.). 
b More st r3ctly, south of Vineyard Sotnad and Buzzards Ba-. Block Island and Iong Island Sotmd bave hot been regarded as 
farther south. 



186 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Jordan, who is one of the foremost recent advocates of the theory of evolution by 
isolation, tells us (t9o5) that "it is extremely rare to find two subspecies inhabiting or 
breeding in exactly the saine region." Again: "Given any species in any region, the 
nearest related species is not likely to be found in the saine region nor in a remote region, 
but in a neighbofing district separated from the first by a barrier of some sort" (p. 547)- 
This, he says, "may be raised to the dignity of a general law of distribution." 

Few groups of marine animais have been worked as 
and fresh-water fishes upon which Jordan chiefly relies 
theory. It is largely due to this fact, probably, that " 

intensively as have the birds 
for evidence in favor of his 
subspecies," "varieties," and 

"geographical races" play a relatively minor part in the taxonomy of marine animals. 
We thus bave practically no data at our present disposal to test the first of Jordan's 
assertions quoted above. A case wfiich perhaps deserves mention at this point, though 
its relevance may well be questioned, is that of the mollusk Polynices heros, and its 
supposed variety, triseriata. We must make the reservation at once that these are 
regarded by some conchologists, e. g., Dall, as distinct species, and in fact we bave our- 
selves followed Dall in so listing them in out catalogue. « A glance at thecharts a 
087,,88) reveals the fact that while the two forms coexist throughout much of 
their range, they nevertheless do hot present the saine distribution patterns, but appear 
to show distinct preferences as to habitat. There is, however, no real 9eographical 
isolation, for the two forms occur on closely adjacent parts of the sea floor, being 
taken together, hot infrequently, in a single dredge haul. c Whether or hOt these two 
species (or varieties ?) cross freely, and with what results, we have no means of know- 
ing at present. 
It is impossible, likewise, for us to state whether or hOt the species nearest related 
fo any given one among our local fauna occurs in this region, or in a "' neighboring 
district." Such a question could be answered only af ter an exhaustive research into 
the fauna of neighboring parts of out coast. We bave a considerable collection of 
data, however, with which to answer the kindred questions: () To what extent do 
members of the saine genus tend to differ in habitat ? and (2) Are different members 
of the saine genus less likely to be associated together than species not so elosely 
related ? 
As bearing upon the first of these questions, the comparative distributions of dif- 
ferent species of the saine genus bave been presented by us in a large number of cases. 
The reader is especially referred to the following examples: 

Eudendrium, 2 species (charts 16, i7). 
Tubularia, 2 species (charts 18, 19). 
Asterias, 2 species (charts 48, 49)- 
Nephthys, 2 species (charts 57, 58) • 
Ampelisca, 2 species (charts 87, 88). 
Pagurus, 4 species (charts IO9--II2 ). 
Cancer, 2 species (charts i15, 116). 
Anomia, 2 species (charts i23, I24). 

Pecten, 2 species (charts 125, 126). 
Arca, 3 species (charts 131-133 ). 
Astarte, 2 species (charts 138, 139 ). 
Busycon, 2 species ( charts 164, I65). 
Crepidula, 3 species (charts 183-185). 
Polynices, 3 species (charts 186-188). 
Amaroucium, 3 speciesa (charts 195-197 ). 

a In any case the relationship will be conceded as being very close. 
b Only the occurrence o[ living specimens (designated by circles) can be taken into accotmt here, since the de.ad shells are 
probably transported considerable distances by hermit crabs. 
e As regards geographical range, that o[ Poltices hetos is stated by Dall as extending from Labrador to Virginia; that off 
griseriata being practically identical, i. e., |rom Labrador to Cape Hatteras. 
à In ottr catalogue we bave followed Dr. Van Naine in hot regarding one of these as a distinct species. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

I8 7 

There are several ways in whieh two species may differ in respect to their dis- 
tribution patterns: (x) The species may occu« throughout practically the saine area, 
differing only in their relative abundance; (2) the range of one may be restricted to 
a portion of the area occupied by another; (3) they may have distributions which are 
in a certain degree complementary to one another. 
Referring to the genera named, it will be round that in few cases, if any, are the 
distributions of two members of the saine genus practically identical, both as regards 
the area inhabited and the frequency of occurrence. In a number of instances, how- 
ever, they differ only in respect to frequency. 
The type of difference most often realized upon our charts is the second among 
those mentioned above. In such cases one species may occur throughout only a por- 
tion of the territory occupied by the other; or, at least, it may hot be well established 
except in this portion. 
The third condition--that of two species of the saine genus having distribution 
patterns which are complementary to one another--is realized in a surprisingly small 
number of cases upon our charts. It appears most clearly from a comparison of the 
distributions of Pa9urus acadianus (chart IIO) and P. atnulipes (chart 2). We 
have seen that these are respectively northward-ranging and southward-ranging spe- 
cies; so that the habitat selected bv each in local waters is not improbably determined 
by temperature. 
It is a familiar fact to field naturalists that the various members of the saine genus 
frequently, if not gener&lly, occupy somewhat different habitats. Obvious instances 
of this are not uncommon among out local littoral and shallow-water fauna, as for 
example the three familiar species of the genus Littorina. Now, out dredging charts 
are not adapted to revealing such slight differences of habitat as may occur within 
the limits of a single "station." In the charts for Crepidula, for example, there is 
nothing to show that C. [ornicata does not coincide in its habitat as well as its distri- 
bution, with C. plana; whereas we know that, in most cases, the latter occupies the 
inside of a hermit-crab shell, while the former may occupy the outside of the saine 
shell, or may adhere to any solid object whatever. It is probable, likewise, that the 
drifting of shells and other lifeless remains mav result in an apparent obliteration 
of actual distinctions in the distribution of species. Finally, it seems needless to 
remark that in no single case is the entire range of a speeies indicated upon one of our 
charts. Thus, even in cases where two species appear to coincide in their distribution 
locally, the range of one mav extend into far deeper water, off the eoast, than that of 
the other. It seems to us, therefore, that the differences in the distribution of closely 
related species have been minimized, rather than exaggerated, in out graphic represen- 
rations. 
Whether or not specific differentiation preceded or followed these changes of hab- 
itat, or whether they went on pari passu with such changes, is not even suggested by 
any of the facts which we have encountered. Who can say, for example, whether the 
tendency to restrict itself to muddy bottoms preceded or followed the differentiation 
of the amphipod Ampelisca macrocephala as a species distinct from A. spinipes? Never- 
theless, the bare fact that various closely related species do show decidedly different 
distribution patterns is one of great interest, for it shows that the slight morpholo#eal 
differences by which the species are distinguished from one another are oftentimes 



188 IULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

correlated, vith Inarked physiological differences sufficient to adapt the two to differing 
habitats. Thus the assertion so often Inade that the slight structural differences by 
which we distinguish one species from another are coininonly of no conceivable utility, 
and therefore can never bave arisen through the action of natural selection, loses Inuch 
of its force. While it Inay be true that these slight struc{ural differences in theinselves 
can play no significant rôle in the life of the organisins concerned, it is likewise evident 
that there are certain correlative physiological changes snfficient to adapt the organisins 
to soinewhat different Inodes of existence. That natural selection bas been the con- 
trolling factor in the originatit,n and perpetuation of such specific differences, whether 
morphological or physiological, is far froin certain. But that thê charactêrs con- 
cêrnêd are in Inost cases too insignificant to bê of sêlectivê value is also far froin certain. 
Wherê wê bave to do Inerêly with the adoption of a Inorê restrictêd habitat by 
one spêcies than by another, it is quitê possible that thê physiological diffêrencê in 
question relates Inêrely to gênerai constitutional vigor; i. ê., thê less hardy spêciês 
Inay rêstrict itsêlf to thê more favorable portion of thê habitat. « Wherê, howêvêr, thê 
ranges of the two species are more or less coinpleinentary to one another, particularly 
if thêy do hot coincidê throughout any portion of their êxtênt, such an êxplanation is 
of course out of question, and wê are obliged to fall back upon thê assuinption that êach 
is more or lêss spêcifically adaptêd toits respective habitat. 
In order to throw light upon the second of the abovê questions (i. ê., Are Inêinbêrs 
of thê saine gênus less likêly to bê associated together than spêciês which are hot so 
closêly rêlatêd ?), wê bave adoptêd a Inethod einployed by Herdinan ( 895). This author, 
after noting thê relatively large nuinber of genera rêpresêntêd by thê speciês takên 
in a singlê dredge haul, b writês: " Thesê figures are particularly interesting in their 
bearing on the Darwinian principle that an aininal's Inost potent eneinies are its own 
close allies. Is it then the case, as the above cited instances suggest, that the species 
of a genus rarêly live togêther; that if in a bau] you get half a dozên spêcies of lainêl- 
libranchs, amphipods, or annelids they will probably belong to as Inany genera, and 
if thesê genera contain other British species thêsc will probably occur in soinê othêr 
locality, perhaps on a different bottoin, or at anothêr depth ? It is obviously nêcessary 
to courir thê total nuinber of genêra and spêcies of thê groups in the local fauna, as 
known, and compare thesê with thê nuinbers obtainêd in particular hauls." In Liver- 
pool Bay, for exainple, "the known number of species of higher Crustacea is 9o, and 
these fall into 6o genera. So the genera are to the species as 2 to 3," whereas in certain 
dredging collections cited "the genera are to the species on the average about as 28 to 
3, or nearly 7 to 8. Again, the total nuinber of speciês of Tunicata is 46, and these 
are rêferrêd to 2o genera: whilê in the case given abovê * * * thê 2 spêciês taken 
on one spot represented o genera, or a little over a quarter of the species represented 
half thc genera. These, and Inany other cases which wê Inight quote, sêein to show 
that a disproportionately large nuinber of genêra is represented by thê assemblage of 
speciês at one spot, which Ineans that closely relatêd speciês are, as a rule, hot found 
o" -- r ' 
toaethe (p. 4-63). 

a This suggestion has been ruade to us by lrof. I-Ierdman. 
b This fact was lointed out by Sir John Murray (Challenger "' Surnmary," 1. xa35), who, however, restricts its alllication 
to great depths, conclttding "in the deepest zone, thereiore, the Deci stoml fo the genera in the ratio of s to 4. and in the 
shallowest zone nearl¥ as 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

I89 

When subjected to statistical anaIysis, our results are in fuIl agreement with those 
of Herdman, though we are not convinced of the truth of his interpretation. 
As shown in the table on page 77, the average number of species per dredge haul, 
as based upon the 458 regular stations of the Survey, is 37.0, while the average number of 
genera per dredge haul is 34-3- Thus the average number of species per genus is approxi- 
mately I.o8, « or the ratio of species to genera is about 3 to I2. This ratio we have 
thought best to compare, not with that derived from a consideration of the entire array 
of species and genera for the Woods Hole Region, but with that based upon the total 
number of species and genera, so far as encountered by us in the dredge. Among 
these are included 5o determined species, representing 36x genera. The average num- 
ber of species per genus is thus approximately 1.4I, or the ratio of species to genera is 
as 7 to 5- 
So far, then, we seem to be in complete agreement with Herdman. A quite different 
explanation from that given bv him has, however, suggested itself. It has occurred to 
us that the same relations would foIlow if some of our genera contained a considerable 
number of uncommon species. These latter might hot be taken with sufficient fre- 
quency to affect appreciably the average number of species per dredge haul, but they 
would greatly augment the number of species per genus when the total number of those 
encountered were taken into account. Now, as a 1natter of fact, manv of the genera 
do contain a considerable number of rare species--species which were taken once only, 
or a very few rimes--in addition to common ones. On the other hand, it is true that 
we also meet with certain rare species which are the only representatives in local waters 
of their respective genera. Thus there vould seem tobe nothing to shov whether the 
inclusion of these less common species would augment or decrease the average number 
of species per genus in our fauna. 
One test mav be applied, however. \Ve may restrict our computation to the com- 
7noner species, and determine the ratio of species to genera among these. For this pur- 
pose let us employ those species which were taken at IO or more of our dredging sta- 
tions. Arnong these we find 209 species b representing  78 genera. The average number 
of species per genus is thus about .8, a figure very much smaller than that represent- 
ing the number of species per genus in the entire array of organisms dredged bv us. 
Indeed it approaches more nearly the figure (.o8) expressing the average ratio within 
the limits of a single dredge haul. Thus the conclusion seems warranted that the 
larger number of species per genus found to occur in the fauna at large, as com- 
pared with the average number for a single dredge haul, is due largely, if not wholly, to 
the inclusion in the former reckoning of the rarer members of certain genera. 
Such species do not, on the other hand, occur with sufficient frequency to appreciably 
affect the ratio for the average dredge haul. If this reasoning be correct, what seemed 
to be a fascinating and clear-cut demonstration of a significant principle of distribution 
faIls to the ground. 

« We are quite aware that the ratio between these gross averages has hot exactly the saine value as the average o[ the separate 
ratios [or the various dredge hauls. In other words, a+b+c, x+y+z has hot the saine value as (_a+b__+_c) +3. VVhere the hum- 
3 3 \x y z 
ber of terres is so great, however, the results derived [rom the two methods o[ computation must be stttticiently close [or present 
purposes. 
b Including lrotozoa. 



9 o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

7. CHANGES IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE LOCAL FAUNA. 

Every area of land or sea doubtless undergoes more or less frequent changes in the 
composition of its fauna and flora, due to the immigration or artificial introduction of 
exotic species or the extinction of indigenous ones. For the Woods Hole region we 
bave certain well-knovn and highly authentic instances of this phenomenon, together 
with some others which seem probable, if only inferential. 
The best-known local instances of the sort are those of the European periwinkle, 
Lillorina lilorea, and of the small sea anemone, Sagartia hci«. Rather full accounts of 
the history of both of these immigrants are fortunately extant. (See Verrill, 188o; 
Ganong, i886; Verrill, I898; Parker, I9o2. These accounts are summarized in our own 
catalogue.) It may be here remarked that the periwinkle reached Woods Hole from 
the north about I876; while the anemone seems to bave corne from the south, 
arriving about I898. Within about 3o years, and perhaps much less, Litlorina litorea 
has become the most abundant and generally distributed of our littoral (intertidal) 
mollusks, while Sagartia hcice in a considerably shorter time bas become bv far the 
commonest local actinian. It vould be interesting to know what effects, if any, these 
immigrants have had in limiting the abundance or restricting the distribution of species 
already present. Unfortunately few observations, if any, have been ruade to test this 
point. 
Concerning certain other species, we have some reasons for believing either that 
they are, in local waters, far more abundant now than formerly, or that they have actu- 
ally migrated hither within recent vears. The only other alternative seems to be that 
they were overlooked or confused with quite distinct species by a number of competent 
naturalists. For example, of our four local species of hernfit crabs, Pa9urts annulipes 
is second in abundance only to the ubiquitous P. lonqicarpus. Its distribution in local 
waters is almost universal, as will be seen from a glance at the distribution chart for 
this species. Yet this hermit crab was not mentioned by Verrill and Smith in i873, a 
nor, so far as we are aware, bas it been recorded for local waters in any work prior to 
Miss Rathbun's catalogue of the Crnstacea of New England (I9O5L We have, it is trne, 
learned from Miss Rathbun that specimens of this crustacean were recentlv found 
among the eaflier material dredged bv Verrill and Smith. But the fact that it was 
oveflooked, or at least not mentioned bv these wfiters, raises strong doubts as to whether 
it occurred then in its present abundance. 
Another problematic case is that of one of the shore barnacles, Chthamahts stellatus,  
which at present is extremely abundant upon stones and boulders between tides everv- 
where. This well-known European species is, in out waters, at least, quite distinct 
in appearance from the other common shore barnacle (Balatus balanoides). Yet it 
has not been mentioned in anv catalogue of New England fauna, although several far 
less common cirripedes have been listed. It is hard to believe that this species has 
been habitually confused with Balanus balanoides bv the long succession of field natu- 
ralists and systematic zoologists who have exploited the shores of New England for 

a Allowance must be ruade for the fact that, in the words of one familiar with the circumstances, "the Vineyard Sound report 
was loreloared when the lish Commission had sl3ent but one summer at Woods Hole, and was rushed through exl3editiously for 
insertion in the lish Commission Report for 1871-72. It did hot list everdthJng that had been discovered, but omitted much 
that had hot been sufficiently studied." 
b For an accotmt of this cae, sec tmaer, x9o9. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY 

191 

over a century, a These men erred rather in the direction of discovering too many new 
species than in ignoring well-established ones. 
The medusa, Goioemus murbachii, does hot seem to have been observed until 
I894, when according to Perkins (9o2) it "ruade an astonishingly sudden appearance 
upon the scene." Yet at present this relatively conspicuous and readily recognizable 
medusa is one of the most familiar objects of research in the Woods Hole laboratories. 
Its distribution, locally, appears to be rather restricted, however, most of the collecting 
for this species being carried on in one small salt-water pond. 
The large noncolonial hydroid, Tztbttlarça couthouyi, whose conspicuous yellow 
perisarcs are dredged with considerable frequency in Vineyard Sound, was likewise 
not referred to in the report of Verrill and Smith, although this latter listed a number 
of other hydroids which have not been noted by any subsequent observers. And it is 
likewise somewhat astonishing that neither of our local species of Arenicola was men- 
tioned in the Vineyard Sound report, although one, at least, of these immense annelids 
is now common at points in the vicinity of Woods Hole. 
We can not attribute so much importance to the failure of previous writers to 
record the gastropod Lacuna puteola, since this species, although very abundant, is like- 
wise very small. The saine may be said of a considerable number of other species 
which are comprised in out list but were not recorded by various previous obselwers. 
Inconspicuous or uncommon species may readily be overlooked, even by competent 
collectors. Such an oversight seems unlikely, however, in the case of the other examples 
cited above. 
Just the opposite state of affairs is to be noted in the case of certain species which 
were recorded by Verrill as common in local waters, but which the present writers 
have seldom or never met with. As a striking instance of this is to be mentioned the 
anemone Edwardsia lineata Verrill, concerning which the last-named zoologist makes 
the following entry (p. 739): "Vineyard Sound and off Gay Head, 6 to i2 fathoms, 
among ascidians, annelid tubes, etc., abundant." A search in just such situations, 
both by Prof. Hargitt and by ourselves, has failed to disclose a single specimen. The 
size, as stated by Verrill (25-35 mm. long), makes it unlikely that the species has been 
persistently overlooked by us. 
The barnacle Balanus cre.natt,s was recorded bv Verrill and Smith as "dredged 
abundantly in Vineyard Sound." While we have round it to be common upon piles 
at Vineyard Haven, we have never, with a few possible exceptions, encountered this 
species with the dredge, either in Vineyard Sound or Buzzards Bay. This is true 
despite the fact that practically all of the barnacles dredged bv us were saved for 
subsequent inspection. 
The crabs Libinia dnbia and Panopeus [Eurypanopeus] depressus are of far less 
general occurrence in these waters than the statements of Verrill and Smith seem to 
imply. Although we have encountered both of these species in the shallow waters 
near shore, we have not a single authentic record of either species having been taken 
in the dredge during the course of out operations. 
While it is not likelv that all of these discrepancies between earlier and later state- 
ments can be attributed to actual changes in the occurrence of species, it is probable 
that some of them are due to such changes. 

a It has just been learned fom Prof. [. A. Bigelow that he noted the occurrence of this barnacle at Woods Hole in x898 



192 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
8. CONCLUSION. 
To the reader »vho would demand an exact economic equivalent for the labor and 
money here expended, our answer must be a very general one. Science and industry 
more together. Industry is helpless without the aid of science, and the greatest indus- 
trial progress is at present being ruade by those countries which realize this fact most 
fullv. But science can never prosper if forced to play the rôle of a servant. She must 
be free to pursue her own ends without being halted at every step by the challenge: 
Cul bono? The attempt to restrict our scientific experts to problems of obvious eco- 
nomic importance would be equivalent to depriving ourselves of their services altogether. 
Itis to-day accepted as a commonplace that all the great discoveries of a practical 
nature have rested ultimatelv upon principles first brought to light bv the seeker after 
truth. The enlightened manufacturer of Germany looks upon a »vell-paid scientific 
investigator as a good invesment. As a result of this polîcy the rest of the world is 
looking on uneasily, while its own industries pass into the hands of this farsighted 
competitor. Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries, the great fishing nations 
of Europe, have long been leaders in the scientific investigation of the sea. And in 
recent years we have witnessed the formation of an international council, representing 
all of those nations having an immediate interest in the fisheries of the North Sea, and 
organized for the study of hydrographic and biological problems as well as of purely 
economic ones. To Americans there should be no novelty in all this. Let us keep in 
mind the oft-quoted words of the distinguished founder of our Fish Commission in 
outlining the policy adopted by him: 
As the history of the fishes themselves would hot be complete without a thorough knowledge of 
their associates in the sea, especially such as prey upon them or in turn constitute their food, it was 
considered necessary to prosecute searching inquiries on these points, especially as one supposed cause 
of the diminution of the fishes was the alleged decreasë or displacement of the objects upon which they 
subsist. 
Furthermore, it was thought likely that peculiarities in the temperature of the water at different 
depths, its chemical constitution, the percentage of carbonic-acid gas and of ordinary air, its currents, 
etc., might ail bear an important part in the general sure of influences upon the fisheries; and the 
inquiry, therefore, ultimately resolved itself into an investigation of the chemical and physical char- 
acter of the water, and of the natural history of its iuhabitants, whether animal or vegetable. It was 
considered expedient to omit nothing, however trivial or obscure, that might tend to throw light upon 
the subject of inquiry, especially as without such exhaustive investigation it would be impossible to 
determine what were the agencies which exercised the predominant influences upon the economy of 
the fisheries. 
So that if we can not, from our present labors, offer any suggestions of direct value 
to the practical fisherman, we trust that we have at least added to the intelligent under- 
standing of the marine life of our coast. And we likewise trust that the ultimate benefit 
to the practical fisherman will be as great as that to the man of science. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR SECTION I. 

AGASSIZ, ALEXANDER. 
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ALLEN, E- J. 
i89. On the fauna and bottom deposits near the thirty-fathom line from the Eddystone Grounds 
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365-542. charts i-xvI. (June, 1899.) Plymouth. 
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AccEm, E. J-, AND TODD, R. A. 
I9oo- 3. The fauna of the Exe estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, vol. w, n. s., 
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I89I. Mollusks of the Atlantic coast of the United States south to Cape Natteras. Journal of the 
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BAIRD, S. F. 
I873. Reporton fixe condition of the sea fisheries of the south coast of New England in i87i and 
i872. Report U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries i872-73, p. -28o. Washington. 
i873a. List of fishes collected at Woods Hole. Ibid., I872--73 ' p. 823--827. 
I876. Ibid., 1873-74 and 1874-75 (i876), p. VlI-LL 
I879. Ibid., 1877 (I879), p. 1-48. 
I885. Ibid., I883 (I885), p. I-xcv, 
BAIRD, S. F., AND JACOBSON, H. 
.878. Tables of temperatures of air and water at sundry stations of fixe United States Signal Office, 
from March, i874, to February, i875, and from March, i876, to February, 1877, inclusive. 
Report U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for i875-76 (i878), p. 851-861. Wash- 
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BAI,CH, F. N. 
1899. List of marine Mollusca of Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, with descriptions of one new 
genus and two new species of nudibranchs. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, vol. XXlX, October, 1899, p. i33-i62, pl. 7- Boston. 
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I9o6. Ice formation, with special reference to anchor ice and frazil. 260 p. New York, i9o6. 
BOGUSLAWSKI, G. vON. 
I884. Handbuch der Oceanographie, bd. L 1884, 386 p. Stuttgart. 
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i887. Handbuch der Oceanographie, bd. n, 1887, 592 p. Stuttgart. 
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I0o8. The Nev England marine area. Museum and Library Bulletin, no. 7, May, i9o8, p. 2, 3, 4- 
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i898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of March, i898. Science, n. s., vol. 
Vil, no. i71, April 8, 1898, p. 485-487. New York. 
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no. 185, July 15, i898, p. 58i. 
I898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July, and August. Ibid., 
vol. viii, no. 2o7, December i6, i898, p. 85o-858. 
i899. The reappearance of the tilefish. Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, vol. xvlII, i898, p. 32i - 
333- Washington. 
I6269°--Bu11.31, pt x--I 3 193 



I94 BIdLLETIN OF TtIE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
COLaNS, J. W. 
I884. The history of the tilefish. Report U. S. Fish Commission x882, p. 237-292, pl. 
Washington. 
CUNNINOMAM, J. T. 
895-1897- Physical and biological conditions in the North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biologieal 
Association, vol. xv, n. s., 1895-x897, p. 233-63. Plymouth. 
D ALL, W. H. 
1871. Remarks rccordcd in Procccdings of the Boston Societ-N of Natural History, -ol. xnI, 
p. 164. Boston. 
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eastcrn coast of the United States, with illustrations of man of the spccies. Bulletin of 
the U. S. National Muscum, no. 3î, i889, 2j2 p., pl. I-xcv. Washington. (Reprinted, 
with additional plates, in i9o3. ) 
DAN*X, J. D. 
x852. Crustacea. United States Exploring Expedition, vol. xin, i852. (Especia: reference to 
section "On the geographical distribution of Crustacea," pt. m, p. i451-1592.) 
i853. On an isothermal oceanic chart, illustrating the geographical distribution of marine animals. 
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i67,317-327, 1 chart. New Haven [" From the author's Expl. Exped. Report on Crus- 
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D^WSON, W. B. 
i9o6. The currents of the southeastern coasts of Newfoundland [etc.]. Published by the Depart- 
ment of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, Canada, 19o6, 32 p., 9 pl. 
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I848. [Notes in report of meeting.] Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. ni. 
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i891-92. Physical investigations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, vol. n (n. s.). 
1891-92, p. 159-I7o, 272-276. Plymouth. 
EDWARDS, B. J. 
i873. Table of temperatures of the Little Harbor, Woods Hole, Mess., from January, i873, to De- 
cember, i873 (inclusive). Furnished by the Lighthouse Board, from observations of Capt, 
B. J. Edwards. Report U. S. Fish Commission i872-73, p. 828-831. Washington. 
F^ow, W. G. 
i873. List of the seaweeds or marine algoe of the south eoast of New England. Report U. 
Fish Commission 187i-72 (1873), p. 281-294. 
1882. The marine algoe of New Englmld. Ibid., 1879 (i882), p. 1-2io, pl. I-XV. Washington. 
]ORBES, EDWARD. 
1843. Report on the Mollusca and Radiata of the 3Egean Sea, and on their distribution, considered 
as bearing on geology. Report i3th meeting British Association for the Advancement of 
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coastsof Great Britain. Ibid,, 2oth meeting, i85o (i851), p. 192-263. 
I859. The naturel history of the European seas. (Edited and continued by Robert Godwin-Austen. 
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IORBES, EDWARD, AND HANLEY, SYLVANUS. 
1853. A history of British Mollusca and their shells. 4 vol. London, 
GANONG, W. F. 
1886. Is Littorina litorea introduced or indigenous? American Naturalist, vol. xx, p. 931-94 o. 
Philadelphia. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS ItOLE AND VICINITY. 

I95 

GA.RSTA-,N G, WALTER. 
i893-95. Fatmistic notes at Plymoutb during 1893-94. Journal of the Marinc Biological Association, 
n. s., vol. ni, 1893-95 , p. 21o-235. Plymouth. 
i897-99. Hjort's hydrographic-biological studies of the Norwegian fisheries: A review. Ibid., 
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GILL, THEODORE. 
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GooDE, G. ]3. 
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GOULD, A. A. 
184o. Results of an examination of the shells of Massachusetts, and their geographical distribution. 
Boston Jottrnal of Natural History, vol. ni, 184o, p. 483-494. Boston. 
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and Radiata. Cambridge, 184 I, 373 P-, 15 pl. 
GRAEFFE, EDUARD. 
i88o-i9o 5. Uebersicht der Seethier-Fauna des Golfes von Triest, nebst Notizen flber Vorkommen, 
Lebensweise, Erscheinungs- und Fortpflanzungszeit der einzelnen .4a-ten. Arbeiten 
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I9O 7. Mauual of rides. Part v.--Currents, shallow-water rides, meteorological rides, and miscella- 
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1888. Preliminary report upon the fauna and flora of tlymouth Sotmd. Journal of the Marine 
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part of the North Sea in the year i9o2. In: Report on fisher T and hydrographical investiga- 
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in cooperation with the International Cotmcil for the Exploration of the Sea. 19o2-o 3 
(pub. i9o5), p. 1-49, pl. I-ni. London. 
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I895. The marine zoology, botanv, and geology of the Irish Sea. Third report of the committee. 
Ibid., 1895 (I895), p. 455-467. 
I896. The marine zoology, botany, and geology of the Irish Sea. Fourth and final report of the 
committee. Ibid., 1896 (1896),p. 417-45o. 



I96 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

HERDMAN, W. A., AND DAWSON, R. A. 
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I906. Some results of the international fishery investigations. Journal of the Marine Biological 
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III, 2d ser. Philadelphia. Reprlnt, i855, p. 2-19, pl. x, xI. 
LESLIE, GEORGE, AND HERDMAN, W. A. 
I881. The invertebrate fauna of the Firth of Forth. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of 
Edinburgh, vol. ri. i88i, p. 68-95, 2oi-231,268-316. Edinburgh. 
LIBBEY, WlLLIAM. 
I891. Report upon a physical investigation of the waters off the southern coast of New England, 
ruade during the summer of i889 by the U. S. Fish Commission schooner Grampus. Bulle- 
tin of the United States Fish Commission, vol. ix, 889 (i891), p. 391-459, pl. CXXlV-CLVln. 
Washington. 
i89Ia The study of ocean temperatures and currents. Biological lectures of the Marine Biological 
Laboratory, i89o (pub. i89i), p. 231-250. Boston. 
I892. On an investigation of the relations of cold and warm ocean currents off the New England 
coast, by the U. S. Fish Commission, with the cooperation of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. Report U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, I89I (1892), pt. II, p. o_79-28L Wash- 
ington. 
1895. The relafionships of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current. Report of the Sixth Inter- 
national Geographical Congress, London, 1895, p. i3, 1 pl. 
LO BIANCO, SALVATORE. 
I888, 1889. Notizie biologische rignardanti specialmente il periodo di maturita sessuale degli ani- 
mali del golfo di Napoli. Mittheilungen der zoologischen Station zu Neapel, bd. 8» 
1888, p. 385-44o; also (saine title) bd. i3, 1899, p. 448-573. Berlin. 
1V[&RINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 
1904. Plymouth marine invertebrate fauna, being notes of the local distribution of species occurring 
in the neighborhood. Compiled from the recordsof the laboratoryof the lVIarine Biological 
Association. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, vol. vï% n. s., no. 2, December, 
19o4, p. 155-298. Plymouth. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 197 

MARION, A-F. 
883. Esquisse d'une topographie zoologique du Gol[e de Marsci]le. Annales du Musce d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Marscille, t. I, 883 
MEAD, A. D. 
i898. The breeding of animals at Wroods Holl during thc month of April, i89. Science, n. s., vol. 
vu, no. i77, May 2o, i898, p. 7o2-7o4 . Ne,v 'ork. 
MEI:I:A, C. H. 
i889. General results of a biological survey of the San Yrancisco mountain region in Arizona, with 
special reference to the distribution of species. U.S. Department of Agriculture, October, 
I889. North American Fatma no. 3, P-5-34, Washington. 
1895. Laws of temperature control of the geographic distribution of terrestrial animals and plants. 
National Geographic Magazine, vol. vI, i895, p. 229-238, pl. I2-I4. Washiugton. 
1898. Life zones and crop zones. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey, 
Bulletin no. io, 898, p. 1-79. Washingtou. 
' URRAY, JOHN. 
I895. A summai" of the scientific results obtained at the sounding, dredging, and trawling stations 
of H. M. S. Challenger, pt. I and n, I8çS. Report on the scientific rcsults of the voyage of 
H. M. S. Challenger during thc years i872-875. London. 
NOMAN, A. M. 
869. Shet]and final drcdging report. Part n.--On the Crnstacea, Tunicata, Po]yzoa, Echinodcr- 
mata, Actinozoa, Hydrozoa, and Porffera. Report of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, 1868 (pub. 1869), p. 247-336. London. 
NORTH SEA IISHERIES INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE. 
19o 5. Report on fishery and hydrographical investigations in thc North Sea and adjacent waters. 
19o2- 3 (pub. 19o5"*. Conductcd for the Fishery Board for Scotland, in cooperation with the 
International Cotmcil for the Exploration of the Sea, 618 p. London. 
19o5a. First report on fishery and hydrographical investigations in the North Sea and adjacent waters 
(southern arca}. Conducted for His Majesty's Govcrnment by the Marine Biological Asso- 
ciation of the United Kingdom. 19o2- 3 (pub. 19o5), 377 P- London. 
19o 7. Second report (northern area) on fishery and hydrographical investigations in the North Sea 
and adjacent waters. 19o4- 5. Part I.--Hydrography. Conductcd for thc Fishery 
Board for Scotland in cooperation vith the Intërnationl Council for the Exploration of 
the Sea tmder the superintendence of D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, 19o 7. p. 209. 
London. 
PACKARD, A. S. 
863. A list o[ animais dredged ncar Caribou Island, soutllern Labrador, during July and August, 
186o. Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, vol. vln, Decembcr, i863, p. 4o-4_9. Montreal. 
PARKER, G.H. " 
I9O2. Noteson the dispersal of Sagartia ]uciœe Verri]l. American Naturalist, vol. xxxvI, no. 426, p. 
401-493 . Boston. 
PERKINS, G. H. 
I869. Molluscan fauna of New Haven. A critical review [etc.]. Proceedings of thc Boston Society 
of Natural History, vol. xin, 869, p. io9-i36, i39-i63. Boston. 
PERKINS, H. F. 
i9o=. The developmento[ Gonionema murbachii. Proceedingso[ the Academyof Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, i9o_, p. 75o-79o, pl. xxi-xxxiv. Philadelphia. 
PETERSEN, C. G. Joie. 
1893. Det Vidensksbelige Udbytte af Kononbaaden "Hauchs" Togter. (General results trans- 
lated into English.) 464 p., î pl., and 14 distribution charts. Cnpenhagen, 1893. 
PETTERSSOIN, OTTO. 
1894. A review of Swedish hydrographic research in the Baltic and thc North Seas. Scottish 
Geographical Magazine, vol. x, i894 (i894), p. 28i-3o2 , 352-359, 413-427, 449-462, 525-539 , 
617-635. Edinburgh. 



I98 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

PRUVOT, {. 
1894. Essai sur la topographie et la constitution des fonds sous-marins de la plaine du Roussillon 
au Golfe de Rosas. Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale, 3d ser., t. IL 1894, p. 
599-672, i pl. Paris. 
1895. Coup d'oeil sur le distribution générale des invertébrés dans la région de Banyuls (Golfe de 
Lion). Ibid., 3d ser., t. 3, 1895, P- 629-658. 
1897. Essai sur les fonds et la faune de la Manche Occidentale (côtes de Bretagne) comparés a ceux 
du Golfe de Lion. Ibid., 3 ser., t. v, 1897, p. 5II-664, pl. xx-xxvI. 
RATHBUN, R. 
1887. Ocean temperatures of the eastern coast of the United States, from observations ruade at 24 
lighthouses and lightships. The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States, 
sec. 11I, 1887, p. 157-238, 32 charts. U.S. Fisll Commission, Washinon, 1883-i887. 
I?d'TTER, W. E. 
1912. The Marine Biological Station of San Diego, its history, present conditions, achievements 
and aires. University of California Publications in Zoolog3", vol. 9, no. 4, P. 137--248, 
pl. 18-24, 2 maps. Berkeley. 
HARF'F, R. F. 
1899. The fauna and flora of Valencia Harbor on the west coast of Ireland. (Communicated by Dr. 
R. F. Scharff.) Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadcm3", 3d ser., vol. v, 1898-19oo 
(coin. June 26, 1899), p. 667-84S, pl. xx-xxL Dublin. 
ÇC HoTT, GERHARD. 
1897. Die Gewasser der Bank von Neufundland und ihrer weitern Umgebung. Petermann's 
Mitteilungen, 43 bd., 1897, p. 2Ol-212, taf. 15. Gotha. 
SHALER, N. S. 
1888. Report on the geologry of Marthas Vinevard. Seventh Annual Report of Director of U. S 
Geological Survey, 1885-86 (i888), p. 297-363, pl. xx-xxx. Washington. 
1898. Geologry of the Cape Cod district. Eighteenth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
1896<)7 (i898), pt. i, p. 503-593. Washingrton. 
SMITH, SANDERSON. 
1889. Lists of the dredging stations of the U. S. Fish Commission. the U. S. Coast Survey, and the 
British steamer Challenger,. in North American waters, from 1867 to 1887, together with 
those of the principal European Government expeditions in thë Atlantie and Arctic Oceans. 
Report U. S. Fish Commission 1886 (i889), p. 873-1Ol 7, 9 charts, lVashingrton. 
SMITH, ANDERSON. AND PRIME, TEMPLE. 
i87o. Report on the Mollusca of Long Island, N. ç., and of its dependencies. Annalsof the Lyceum 
of Natural Histor 3" of New ¥ork, vol. IX, i87o, p. 377-407. New York. 
SMITII, SANDERSON, AND RATttBUN, RICHARD. 
1882. Lists of the dredging stations of the United States Fish Commission from 1871 to 1879, inclusive, 
with temperatttre and other observations. Report U. S. Fish Commission i8ï9 (1882), 
p. 559-6Ol. Washington. 
Sinon, S. I. 
1879. The stalk-eyed crustaceans of the Atlantic coast of North America, north of Cape Cod. Trans- 
actions of the Connecticut Academ V of Arts and Sciences, vol. v, I879, p. 27-138. pl. vnI-XII. 
New Haven. 
1884. Report of the decapod Crustacea of the Albatross dredgings off the east coast of the United 
States in 1883. Report U. S. Fish Commission 1882 (I884), p. 345-426, pl. I-X. Wash- 
ington. 
SnlmS, C. W. 
19o 5. The international code of zoologieal nomenclature as applied to medicine. Bulletin no. 24. 
Hygienic Laboratory of the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, ,eptember, i0o5, 
p. 50. Washington. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. I99 

TIMPSON, W. 
1851. Shells of New England. A revision of the synonymy of the testaceous mollusks of New 
England, with notes on their structure, and their geographical and bathymetrical distribu- 
tion. 58 p. pl. I and II. Boston, 1851. 
1853. Synopsis of the marine invertebrata of Grand Manan, or the region about the mouth of the 
Bay of Fundy, New Brnnswick. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, January, 
1853, p. 16, pl. i-/n. Washington. 
SIJMNER, F. B. 
19o4-19o 9. Reports of the work of the biological laboratory of the Bureau of Fisheries at Woods 
Hole, Mass. (Titles differing somewhat from year to year.) Science, Febrnary 12, 
19o 4 (report for 19o3); April 14, 19o5 (for 19o4); December 29, i9o 5 ([or i9o5); May3» 
19o 7 (for 19o6); New York. American Naturalist, May, 19o8 (for 19o7); New York. 
Science, June 25, 19o 9 (for 19o8 ). 
19o6. The physiological effects upon fishes of changes in the density and salinity of water. Bulle- 
tin of the Bureau of Fisheries, vol. xxv, 19o 5 (19o6), p. 53-1o8. Washington. 
19o 9. On the occurrence of the littoral barnacle Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) at Woods Hole, Mass. 
Science, n. s., vol. xxx, no. 768, September 17, 19o 9, p. 373-374- New York. 
191o. An intensive study of the fauna and flora of a restricted area of sea bottom. Bulletin of the 
Bureau of Fisheries for 19o8, vol. XXVlII (Proceedings of the Fourth International Fish- 
eries Congress), p. i225-1263 (dot. no. 716). Washington. 
SUPAN, A. 
19o 3. Grnndztige der physischen Erdkunde. 19o 3, 852 p. Leipzig. 
T&NNER, Z. L. 
1884. Report on the construction and work in 188o of the Fish Commission steamer Fish Hawk. 
Report U. S. Fish Commission 1881 (1884), p. 3-53, pi l-xwiI. Washington. 
i884a. A report of the work of the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Fish Hawk for the year ending 
Deeember 31, I88r. Ibid., r881 (1884), p. 55-85. 
1885. Reporton the construction and outfit of the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross. Ibid., 
1883 (1885), p. 3-116, pl. I-IV. 
1897. Deep-sea exploration: A general description of the steamer Albatross, ber appliances and 
methods. Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, 1896 (1897), p. 257-428 ' pl. i-xt,. Washington. 
THOMPSON, M. T. 
1899. The breeding of animais at Woods Holl during the month of September, 1898. Science, 
n. s., vol. lX, no. 225, April 14, 1899, p. 581-583. New York. 
UN]TED STATES COAST AND GEODETIC SURVY. 
19o 7. Tide tables for the year 1908. 524 p., 2i illus., 15 diag. Washington, 19o 7. 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
1911. Report of thc Chier of the Weather Bureau, 19o9-1o, 28i p. 
UNITED STATES HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE. 
1891. Sailing directions for Nova Scotia, Bar of Fundy, and south shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Washington, 1891, p. 305 . 
VIRRILL, A. E. 
1866. On the polyps and echinoderms of New England, with descriptions of new species. Pro- 
ceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. x, 1866, p. 333-357- Boston. 
1866a. Note on the distribution of North American birds. American Journal of Science and Arts, 
2d ser., vol. XLI, Match, 1866, p. 249-250. New Haven. 
I871. On the distribution of marine animais on the southern coast of New England. Ibid., 3 d 
ser., vol. Il, 1871, p. 357-362. 
i873. Resultsof recent dredging expeditions on the coast of New England. Ibid., 3 d ser., vol. v, 
February, 1873, p. 98-1o6. 
i88o. Rapid diffusion of Littorina littorea on the New England coast. American Journal of Science 
and Arts, 3 d ser., vol. xx, p. 25i. New Haven. 
1883. Description of some of the apparatus used by the United States Commission of Fish and 
Fisheries in dredging off the New England coast. Report U. S. Fish Commission 188o 
(1883), p. 65-74, pl. I--IV. Washing-ton. 



200 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

V]RRILL, A. E.--Continuett. 
x884. Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occnpying the outer banks off the southern coast of 
New England, andof some additions to the fauna of Vineyard Sound. Ibid., x882 (x884), 
p. 641-669. 
x885. Results of the explorations rnade by the steamer Albatross off the northern coast of the United 
States in 883. Report U. S. Fish Commission 1883 (885), p. 503-699, pl. 1-xLIv. Wash- 
ington. 
898. Descriptions of new Arnerican actinians, with cfitical notes on other species. American 
Journal of Science and Arts, 4th ser., vol. w, p. 493-498. New ttaven. 
VIRR]LL, A. E., AND SMITH, S. I. 
1873. Report upon the invertebrate animais of Vineyard Sound and the adjacent waters, ,afith an 
account of the physical characters of the region. Report U. S. Commissioncr of Fish and 
Fisheries 1871-72 (1873), p. z95-778, pl. I-xxxvm. Washington. 
WALTHIR, J. 
1893-94. Einleitung in die Geologie als historische Wissenschaft. I. Theil: Bionomie des Meeres 
II. Theil: Die Lebensweise der Meeresthiere. lO55 p., Jena, 893-94. 
WALTON, C. L. 
19o8. Notes on some Sagartiidoe and Zoanthidoe from Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biologica 
Association, vol. wu, n. s.-, no. 2, May, 19o8, p. 2o7-2i 4. Plymouth. 
WH]TEAVES, J. F. 
19Ol. Catalogue of the marine Invertebrata of eastern Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, 19Ol, 
p. 272. Ottawa. 
WOODDTARD, S. P. 
188o. A manual of the Mollusca, being a treatise on recent and fossil shells. 4th cdition, with ap 
pendix by Ralph Tare; 542 +86 p., 23 pl., London, x88o. 
WORTH, R. H. 
19o8. The dredgings of the Marine Biological Association (1895-19o6), as a contribution to the 
knowledge of the geology of the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Asso 
ciation, vol. vin, n. s.,no. 2, May, 19o8, p. 118-i88, pl. w-xwL Plymouth. 



DESCRIPTION OF DREDGING STATIONS OCCUPIED DURING PRESF_3qT 
SURVEY. 

FISH HAWK STATIONS. 

Nobska Light, NE, /g2 toile; lO fathoms; coarse sand; 24-inch rake dredge. 
(Dredge frame broken during haul.) 
July 28, 19o 3. Nobska Light, N  W, i toile; lO fathoms; stony; 24-inch rake dredge. 
July 28, 19o 3. Nobska Light, NW by N  N, i.s./ toiles; 13 fathoms; stony; 24-inch rake dredge. 

Station 
7521. July 28, 19o 3. 
7522- 
7523- 
(Dredge net torn during haul.) 
7524. July 28, 19o 3. Nobska Light, NNW 
7525 . July 28, 19o 3. Nobska Light, NNW 
7526. July 28, 19o 3. Nobska Light, N 
7527. July 31, 19o 3. West Chop SE by E, 
dredge. 
7528. July 31, 19o 3. 
dredge. 
7529. July 31, 19o 3. 
753 o. July 31, 19o 3. 
531. July 31, 19o 3. 
rake dredge. 

7532 . 
7533- 
7534- 
7535- 
7536 . 
7537- 
7538 • 
7539. 
7540. 
7541- 
7542. 
7543- 
7544- 
7545- 
7546. 

/ W, 2" toiles; lO fathoms; stony; 7-foot beam trawl. 
*/ W, 2-}' mlles; 7 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam trawl. 
4 
W, 25 toiles; 7./ fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam trawl. 
Tarpaulin Cove W by S .4 S; 9 fathoms; sand; 24-inch rake 

West Chop SE by E  E, Nobska NE / N; 13 fathoms; sandy; 24-inch rake 

West Chop ESE, Nobska NNE; 13 fathoms; sand and gravel; 24-inch rake dredge. 
Nobska N  E, West Chop E by S  S; 12 fathoms: stony: 7-foot beam trawl. 
Tarpaulin Cove W  N, Nobska NE by N / N; 8I/ fathoms; sandy; 24-inch 

August 3, 19°3- West Chop ESE, Tarpaulin Cove W by S/a  S; io fathoms; sand and stones 
24-inch rake dredge. 
August 3, 19o3- West Chop E by S Jç S, Tarpaulin C_ove W by S; io fathoms; sandy; 24-inch 
rake dredge. 
August 3, 19o3- West Chop E by S, Nobska Point NE, Tarpaulin Cove W / S; IO/ fathoms; 
stony: 24-inch rake dredge. 
August 3, 19o3. Nobska Point N by E .s-4/ E, Tarpaulin Cove W by N; io fathoms; gravel and 
sand; 24-inch rake dredge (2 hauls). 
,2 N, 5I fathoms; sandy; 
August3,19o 3. NobskaPointNbyE*E, TarpaulinCoveWbyN I" • 
24-inch rake dredge. 
August 7, 19o3. Tarpaulin Cove W by S .t  S, West Chop E by S ,14/S; 15 fathoms; coarse gravel; 
24-inch dredge (2 hauls). 
August 7, 19o3- Tarpaulin Cove W ,« / S, West Chop E JK S; lO fathoms; stony; oyster dredge. 
August 7, 19o3- Tarpaulin Cove W s/4 N, Nobska NE; 13 fathoms; stony; oyster dredge. 
August 7, 19o3- Nobska NE  N, Tarpaulin Cove W by N 12/N; 5 fathoms; sand and shells; 
oyster dredge and beam trawl. 
August 7, I9O3- Nobska NE by N /g2 N, Tarpaulin Cove WNW: 13 fathoms; sand and gravel; 
oyster dredge. 
August 7, 19o3- Nobska NE by N s/4 N, Tarpaulin Cove NW by W * W; 7 fathoms; sandy; 
beam trawl. 
August 11, 19o 3. Gay Head SW /2  S, Nobska E by N _, N; 12 fathoms; coarse gravel; oyster 
dredge. 
August ii, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove W *z N, Nobska NE by E _- E;  " 
4 .. " io.  fathoms; coarse gravel; 
oyster dredge. 
August ii, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove WNW, Nobska NE _. F: lo " fathoms; stones and coarse 
gravel ; oyster dredge. 
August ii, 19o 3. Tarpaulin C.ove NW by W .4" W. Nobska NE ' ç N; 5 fathoms; sand and stones; 
7-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 



202 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Station no. 
7547- August 11, 19o 3. 
7548. August ii, 19o 3. 
traw|. 
7549-August 12, 19o 3. 
755 o. August I2, I9O 3. 
beam trawl. 

Nobska NE by N, Tarpaulin Cove NW W; 12 fathoms; stony; oyster dredge. 
Tarpaulin Cove NW  W, Nobska NE by N; 6 fathoms; stony; 7-foot beam 

Tarpaulin Cove NW, Nobska ENE; r2 fathoms; stony; oyster dredge. 
Nobska NE by E J/ E, Tarpaulin Cove NW «I/N; 12 fathoms; stony; 7-foot 

7551. August 12, 19o 3. Nobska NE  E, Tarpaulin Cove NW a/6" ¢ N; 9 fathoms; sand; 7-foot beam 
trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7552. August 12, 19o 3. Nobska NE  N, Tarpaulin Cove NW by N; 13 fathoms; sand and shells; 
oyster dredge. 
7553- August 12, 19o 3. Nobska NE a/6"¢ N, Tarpaulin Cove NW by N; 7/ fathoms; sand and shells; 
7-foot beam trawl. 
7554- August 15, 19o 3. Nobska ENE, Gay Head SW a/6"¢ S; 71/2 fathoms; muddy; 7-foot beam trawl, 
oyster dredge, 24-inch dredge. 
7555- August 15, r9o 3. Tarpaulin Cove N by E  E, Nobska NE by E  E; r2 fathoms; sandy; 
7-foot beam trawl. 
7556. August 15, 19o 3. Nobska NE I/2 E, Tarpaulin Cove N; 912 / fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam trawl. 
7557- August 18, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove N by W, Gay Head SW a/6"¢ W; 31/2 to ioI' fathoms; sandy; 
7-foot beam trawl. 
7558. August 18, 19o 3. Gay Head SW by W /W, Tarpaulin Cove N by W  W; i71' fathoms; sand 
and shells; 7-foot beam trawl. 
7559- August i8, r9o 3. Tarpaulin C.ove N by W / W, Gay Head WSW; 5/ fathoms: sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl. (Very little material obtained.) 
756o. August i8, 19o 3. Gay Head WSW, Tarpaulin Cove N  W; 7 fathoms; sand and pebbles; beam 
trawl, and oyster dredge. 
7561. August 18, 19o 3. Gay Head SW by W  W, Tarpaulin Cove N  E; I21/ fathoms; sand and 
stones; 7-foot beam trawl. 
7562. August i8, i9o 3. Gay Head SW / W, Tarpaulin Cove N a/6" ¢ E; 5/ fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7563 . August 18, r9o 3. Gay Head SW, West Chop E by N; 8 fathoms; gravel; 7-foot beam trawl. 
7564. August rB, r9o 3. Gay Head SW a/6"¢ S, West Chop E 22 / N; i 3 fathoms; sand; 7-foot beam trawl. 
7565 . August 18, r9o 3. Gay Head SW by S/4 / S, West Chop E 1/4 N; 15 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam 
trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7566. August 2i, i9o 3. Gay Head SSW, tangent Naushon E by N  N; 71/2 fathoms; sandy; oyster 
dredge. (Scanty haul.) 
7567. August 21, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove NE  E, Gay Head SW by S  S; 12 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. (Seanty haul.) 
7568. August 21, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove NE by N, Cedar Tree Neck E; 7/ fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. (Scanty haul.) 
7569 . August 21, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove NE by N a/6"¢ N, Gay Head SW; 7 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam 
trawl and 24-inch dredge. (Scanty haul.) 
757 o. August 2i, i9o 3. Gay Head SW a/6"¢ W, Tarpaulin Cove N by E / E; 12 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. (Scanty haul.) 
7571. August 21, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove N by E, Gay Head SW by W  W; 12 fathoms; muddy; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7572. August 2r, 19o 3. Tarpaulin Cove N I/2 E, Gay Head W by S  S; io fathoms; sandy and stony; 
7-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7573- August 24, I9O3. Gay Head S by W, Buoy No. 2, Quicks Hole, in line with Dumpling Light; 8 
fathoms; muddy; oyster dredge. 
7574- August 24, 19o3. Gay Head S by W/2 t/W, Nobska ENE; io fathoms; sandy; 7-foot bearn trawl 
and 24-inch dredge. 
7575- August 24, 19o 3. ayHeadSWbySa/4 S, NobskaNE bya/6"¢ E; I2/4" fathoms; sandy; 7-footbeam 
trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7576. August 24, I9o3. Gay Head SW ,a, S, Cuttyhunk Lire Saving Station W by N /4 / N; 9 t œe fathoms 
sand and fine gravel; 7-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 20 3 

Station no. 
7577- August 24, 19o3. Cuttyhunk Lire Saving Station NW by W  W, Gay Head SW  S; 8 fathoms: 
fine gravel and broken shells; 7-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7578. August 24, 19o3. Gay Head SW by W, Cuttyhunk Lire Saving station NW by W - W; 4 fathoms, 
sand and mud; F-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7579- August 24, 19o3. Gay Head WSW, Tarpaulin Cove N by E  E; lO/ fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl, 24-inch dredge. 
758o. August 24, 19o3 • Gay Head W  S, Tarpaulin Cove N by E; 9./ fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam 
trawl, 24-inch dredge. 
7581. August 27, 19o 3. Gay Head S  W, Cuttyhunk Lire Saving Station NW by N  N; 6-" fathoms; 
black mud and shells; 7-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7582. August 27, 19o 3. Gay Head S by E, Black ]3uoy on Devils Bridge SW; 14 fathoms; mud and 
shclls; 7-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7583 . August 27, 19o3. Cuttyhunk Light NW  W, Black Buoy S  W; 13 fathoms: sand and shells; 
î-foot beam and trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7584. August 27, 19o3 . Gay Head SSE, Cuttyhunk Light NW by W; 14/ fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam 
trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
585. August 28, 19o 3. Gay Head SE by S  S, tangent Cuttyhunk Island WNW: 15 fathoms; sandy; 
7-foot beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7586. August 28, 19o 3. Gay Head SSE 4 E, tangent Cuttyhunk Island W by N ./ N; 13 fathoms; snd 
and mud: 7-foot beam trawl and -4-inch dredge. 
7587 . August 28, 19o3 . Gay Head SE by S /4 S, tangent Cuttyhunk Island W 4 N; lO fathoms; coarsc 
gravel; oystcr dredge. 
7588. August 28, 19o 3. Gay Head S by EI E, tangent Cuttyhunk Island W  N; 1o fathoms, sand; 
oyster drcdge. 
758. August 28, 19o 3. Gay Head S 3 E, tangent Cuttx-hunk Island W by N; 3 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
759 o. August 28, 19o 3. Gay Head S  E, Nobska NE by E 3 E; 143 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam 
trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7501. August 8, 9o3 . Gay Head S  W, tangent Cuttyhunk Island WNW; 14 fathoms; sand; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
1592. August 28, 19o 3. Gay Head S by W 3; W, tangent CutWhunk Island NW by W ," W; 6 fathoms; 
broken shells; 7-foot beam traxvl and 24-inch dredge. 
7593- August 8, 10o3. Gay Head SW, tangent CuttyhnnI NW by W; 13 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam 
traxvl and 24-incli drcdge. 
7594- August 28, 19o 3. Gay Head SW by W / W, Nobska NE x " 
 E; lO fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam 
trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7595. September 1, 9o3 . Gay Head S  W, bell buoy E by N;  fathoms; stones and gravel; oyster 
dredge. 
7596. September 1, 19o 3. Gay Head S / W, Nobska NE by E =/ E; 7 fathoms; hard sand and rock; 
7-foot beam trawl, 24-inch dredge, and oyster dredge. 
7597. September 1, 19o 3. Nobska NE by E i/ E, Gay Head SW by S  S; 2 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl and 24-inch dredge. 
7598. September i, 19o 3. Nobska NE by E i/ E, Gay Head SW by S J/ S; 13 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot 
beam trawl, oyster dredge. 
7599. September i, 19o 3. Gay Head SW  S, Cuttyhunk Life Saving Station NW 3/44 W, 12I/2 fath- 
oms; black mud; 7-foot beam trawl, 
760o. September i, 19o 3. Gay Head SW by W  W, Tarpaulin Cove NE by N  N: o fathoms; hard 
sand; 7-foot beam trawl. 
76Ol. September i, 19o 3. Gay Head W by S .( S. Nobska NE; xo fathoms; muddy sand; oyster 
dredge. 
7602. September i, 19o 3. Gav. Head W, Nobska NE / /N; 7 fathoms; muddy sand: 7-foot beam trawl 
and 24-inch dredge. 
7603. September 2, 19o 3. Chatham Light WNW, 7 toiles 17? fathoms; stones and pebbles: ï-foot beam 
trawl and small scrape dredge; drift S/i mlle. 



-204 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Station no. 
7604. September , 9o3. Chatharn Light W by N 3 « N, distance 7 rniles: 19 fathorns; sand and gravel. 
oyster dredge; drift W ' toile. 
7605. September , i9o 3. Chatham Light W by N  N, distance 7 rniles; '7 fathon,s; pebbles and 
gravel; oyster dredge; drift SE { toile. 
7606. September , i9o 3. Chatham Light W by N '3/4 N; 7 toiles; ,6 fathorns; large stones and gravel; 
oyster dredge; drift SE y rnile. 
7607. Septernber , 9o3 . Chatham Light NW by W  W, 7 mlles; I6'4 fathorns: large stones and 
gravel; oyster dredge; drift WSW ' toile. 
76o8. September 2, 19o 3. Chatham Light WNW, 7'4 toiles; '924/fathoms; sand and gravel; 7-foot beam 
trawl and small scrape drcdge (3 separate hauls were ruade); drift SSW  toile. 
76o9. September 2, 19o 3. Chatham Light W '« N, 7' rni]es; 5 fathorns; shells and pebbles; oyster 
dredge; drift SE  toile. 
76o. July 2, i9o4. South end Big Weepecket W by S 
mlles; 4½ fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam trawl; scrape dredge; drift SE '/ mlle. 
76ii. July , 19o 4. Nobska Light SE '/E, 3'/ rniles;  srnall Weepecket Islands in line, xy rniles; 
7;/ fathorns; black mud; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift E y toile. 
76I. July 2, 19o 4. Bird Island Light NNE, 
fathoms; black sandy mud; 7-foot beam trawl: scrape dredge ; drift ENE y mlle. 
76, 3. July 22, 19o 4. Bird Island Light NE . N, 6 toiles; Fait Haven standpipe NW  N, 61/ toiles; 
7 fathoms; black sandy rnud; ï-foot beam trawl; scrape dredge; drift ENE ys toile. 
76,4. Jttly 2, 9o4. Fairhaven standpipe NW, 5 miles; Angelica and Cormorant Point beacon in line, 
z/ toile; 5 fathoms; black muddy sand; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift E ' mlle. 
7615. July 22, x9o 4. Bird Island Light NE by E 
mlles; 3 fathoms; black muddy sand: 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift E ' mlle. 
766. July25, x9o4. NorthWeepecketIslandWbyS''4 S,3''4 toiles; endofQuarnquissetPointSbyE 
'  E,  toile; 5'{ fathoms; muddy sand; oyster dredge; drift E  toile. 
7617. July 5, 9o4 - Wings Neck Light NNE/4'  E, 7 mlles; Mattapoisett Light NW by W, 6" mlles; 
7'/ fathoms; black rnud; 7-foot beam trawl; drift ENE '/4 rnile. 
7618. July 5, 9o4. Wigs Neck Light NE/i- N, 
miles: 7 fathoms; s»ft black rnud; 7-foot beam trawl: scrape dredge; drift ENE .( toile. 
7619. July 25, 9o4 - Wings Neck Light NE by E 
mlles; ï fathoms; sort black mud; 7-foot beam trawl: scrape dredge; drift ENE ;4 mlle. 
762o. July 5, 19o4- Bird Island Light NE by E, 
mlles; 4 fathoms; black muddy sand; oyster dredge; drift NE ' mlle. 
762,. July 7, 19°4- Wings Neck Light N 4/ E, 6.1/4 miles; Mattapoisett Light NW  N, 7/ toiles; 
5  fathoms; coarse sand and shell fragments; oyster dredge; drift NNW '/ toile. 
ï62. July 7, I9o4- Wings Neck Light N by E 4 / E, 5 toiles; Mattapoisett Light NW  N, 61/ 
toiles; 7 fathoms; black muddy sand; 7-foot beam trawl: scrape dredge; drift NE  mlle. 
î63 . July 7, x9o4- Wings Neck Light NE ,34/ N, 4/4 rniles; Mattapoisett NW  W, 4/4 toiles; 7 
fathoms; black mud; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift N  mlle. 
7624. July 7, 9o4 • Wings Neck Light NE by E, 4' rniles; Mattapoisett NW 
fathoms: muddy sand and shell fragments; 7-foot beam trawl; scrape dredge, drift NE /4 mlle. 
7625. July 27, i9o 4. Wigs Neck Light E by_ N «'/N, 4- rniles; Mattapoisett Light NW by W : '/W, 
2 toiles; 43 fathoms; muddy sand; oyster dredge; drift SSW  toile. 
766. July 9, 9°4 - Wings Neck Light N by E, 4 mlles; Mattapoisett Light NW by W 
mlles; 434/fathoms; muddy sand and shell fragments; oyster dredge; drift SW '/ mlle. 
767 . July 9, 9o4 - Wings Neck Light NE by N, 
mlles; 5'/4 fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam traxx-1; scrape dredge; drift SW /4 mlle. 
7628. July 29, 9o4 • Wings Neck Light NE by E ½ E, 3 toiles; Bird Island Light N  W, :,{ toiles; 
4 fathoms; muddy sand and shel/fragments; oyster dredge; drift SW '/ mlle. 
769- July 9, 9o4- Black Buoy on Boxv Bells SSW  W, / mlle; Bird Island Light E ; N,  toile; 
4 fathoms; sandy mud; oyster dredge; drift SW  toile. 
763 o. August , 9o4 . Wings Neck Light N  E, ''4 mlles; Bird Islmad Light NW '/W, mlles; 
.4 3 4 
fathoms; sandy; oyster dredge; drift SW '  mlle. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF V¢OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 20 5 

Station no. 
763L August x, x9o4 . Wings Neck Light NE «I  E, x/mlles; Bird Island Light NW by W  W, 
mlles; 5 fathoms; mud and shells; oyster dredge; drift SW / mlle. • 
7632. August , 9o4 . Wings Neck Light E ..i. S, 2 mlles; Bird Island Light SW by W .I4 W,  mlles; 
3..I / fathoms; mud; oyster dredge; drift 8W / mlle. 
7633 . August , 9o4 . Wings Neck Light SE by E, - mlles; Bird Island Light SW 4 W, / mlles; 
3..I / fathoms; muddy sand; oyster dredge; drift SW .  mlle. 
7634. August , 9o4. Wings Neck Light SSE,    mlles; Bird Island Light SW by W  « 
, W, 2  2" mlles; 
3g fathoms; sand and shell fragments; oyster dredge; drift SW  mlle. 
7635 . Angust , x9o4 . Wings Neck NE by E  E, s mlle: Dry Ledge N by W -'4 W, 2 mlles; 
fathoms; mnddy sand and shell fragments; oyster dredge; drift SW  mlle. 
7636. August 3, x9°4 - Nobska Light E by S  S, 334 mlles; Little Weepecket Island and Sippowisett 
Hotcl in line SSE  E; North Weepecket Island _ mlle; 7 fathoms; rocky with coarse sand; 
oyster dredge ; scrape dredge ; drift NW  mlle. 
7637 . August 3, x9°4 • Nobska Light ESE, 5 toiles; Sippowisett Hotel E  N, 5'" mlles; 8 fathoms; 
black sandy mud; 7-foot beam trawl; oyster dredge; scrape dredge; drift E .4 mlle. 
7638. August 3, 9o4 • Nobska Light SE by E/4 / E, 61 ," mlles; Mattapoisett Light N }/ E, 6 mlles; 
8 fathoms; black sandy mud; 7-foot beam trawl: oyster dredge; drift ENE  mlle. 
7639 . Angust 3, 9°4 - Nobska Light SE by E, 7- / mlles; Cormorant Rock Spindle NE by N, 
miles; 5t/a fathoms; hard sand and rocks; oyster dredge; drift ENE  mlle. 
7640. August 5, 9o4 - Large Weepecket Island NE / E, i  mlles; Clark's Point Fort NW /N, 
toiles; 6 fathoms; black sandy mud; oyster dredge; drift NW  mlle. 
764L August 5, 9°4 • North Weepecket Island, E /N, 2/ mlles; Clark's Point Fort NW by N, 7k 
mlles; 7I fathoms; sort sandy mud; 7-foot beam trawl; scrape dredge; drift SSE mlle 
7642. August 5, 9°4 - Sippowissett Hotel E  N, 7 mlles; Clark's Point Fort NW by N, 5' mlles; 
8 fathoms; sort black rond; oyster dredge; drift SSE) mlle. 
7643 . August 5, 9o4 - Clark's Point Fort NW by N 4 " toiles; Sippowissett Hotel E / S, 8 mlles; 7 
fathoms; mud and muddy sand; beam trawl: oyster dredge; drift SSE 4 mlle. 
7644. Angust 5, 9°4 - Dumpling Rock Light W by S. 34 miles; Clark's Point Fort NW by N, 3 mlles; 
5 r/2 fathoms; sand and mud; beam trawl; scrape dredge; oyster dredge; drift SSE - mlle. 
7645. Angust 8, 9o4 . Lookout on West Island E by S * S, 2J toiles; Bntlers Fiat Light NW, " toile; 
4 fathoms; muddy sand with" many cinders; oyster dredge; drift SW / mlle. 
7646. Angust 8, 9o4 . Dumpling Rock Light SW 2  S, 3 mlles; Sconticut Neck Beacon SE by E t/2 E, 
/ mlles; 5 fathoms; soif sticky mud; oyster dredge; drift SW / toile. 
7647. August 8, 9o4. Dumpling Rock Light SW 3/4 W. 3 mlles; Clark's Point Fort NW  N,  i  mlles; 
6 fathoms; soit sandy mud; oyster dredge; drift SW J mlle. 
7648. August 8, 9o4 . Clark's Point Fort N by E  E,  mlle; bell and black can buoy in line, SE 
E, 21" mlles; 4*- fathoms; sandy and many cinders: oyster dredge; drift SW  mlle. 
,4 
7649 . Angust 8, x9o4. Dumpling Rock Light SW,  mlle : Barekneed Rocks Spindle NW by W ,  W, 
x mlle; 5/ fathoms; soit mud; oyster dredge; drift SW J mlle. 
7650. August 8, 9o4 . Dumpling Rock Light W 3/ S, x*s toiles; Clark's Point Fort N .4 E, 2ï toiles; 
7 fathoms; sandy mud; oyster dredge; drift SW  mlle. 
765 La August xx, 9o4 . North Rock and tangentof Pasque Island in line, /s mlles; Lone Rocks Bell 
Buoy W by N / N, .- mlles; 7/2 fathoms; soft black mud; oyster dredge. 
7652. August x, 9o4 . Lone Rock bnoy W 3/ S, 2,:- mlles; south end Big Weepecket Island NE by 
Ecci/ E, 3.I/s mlles; 7 athoms; sort sandy mud; oyster dredge; drift NW )' toile. 
7653 . August x, 9o4 . Lone Rock bnoy SW t/a W, 25 mlles; North Weepecket Island E by N, 
mlles; 8 fathoms; black sandy mud; beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift SW ..I«4 toile. 
7654. Aug-ust , 9o4 . West end Penikese Island SW by W, 5 mlles; Dumpling Rock Light NW  W, 
3/, mlles; 9 fathoms; black sandy mud; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift SW/i toile. 
7655 . Angust x, 9o4 . West end Penikese Island SW t/2 S, 54 toiles; Dumpling Rock Light WNW, 
2 mlles; 
7/ fathoms; black sandy mud; oyster dredge; drift SW « mlle. 
7656. August 2, 9o4 . North end Penikese Island W by S, 3/ mlles; Dumpling Rock Light NNW 
34 / W, 47 mlles; 8 fathoms; sandy mud: 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge: drift NE .i. mlle. 

a This station as plotted on the chart is considerahly nearer shore than the bearings given would indicate. 



-o6 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Station no. 
7657 . August x2, x9o 4. North end Penikese Island SW 
//W, 34 mlles; 8 fathoms; sandy mud; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift SW 4 mlle. 
7658. Auust x2, i9o 4. I-Ien and Chickens Lightship SW by W s W, 6s mlles; Dumpling Rock Light 
NNW, x4 mlles; 9 fathoms; black mud; oyster dredge. 
7659 . Auust x2, i9o 4. llishaum Point SW by W /W, 
mlle; 54 fathoms; rockw, with gravel and shell fragments; oyster dredge; drift SW / mlle. 
766o. August i2, x9o 4. I-Iens and Chickens Lightship SW by W /W, 4/ toiles; Dumpling Rock Light 
NNE _/ E, 2?/8 mlles; 7 / fathoms; muddy; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift SW 
rnile. 
766x. Auust x2, i9o 4. I-Ien and Chickens Lightship W by S, 54 mlles; Dumpling Rock Light N y E, 
33 toiles; i3x/ fathoms; muddy; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift SW I4 mlle. 
7662. August i-% x9o 4. Hen and Chickens Lightship W  N, 6 toiles; Dumpling Rock Light N  W, 
43.g toiles; io fathoms; soft mud; 7-[oot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift SW I4 mlle. 
7663. August i2, x9o 4. North Rock E by !N  N, ./ toile; Dumpling Rock Light N by W  W, 6 
mlles; 7 fathoms; mud and shells; 7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge; drif[ SW / toile. 
7664. August 15, i9o 4. Cuttyhunk Light E  N,  toile; I-Ien and Cbickens Lightship NW s N, 
3 toiles; i2 fathoms: small stones; oyster dredge; drift SW t mlle. 
7665. August i5, i9o 4. Cuttyhunk Light SE by E Is toiles; Hen and Chickens Lightship 
2 mlles; ii/ fathoms; rock-y and sandy; oyster dredge; drift SW y toile. 
766o. August i5, i9o4. North end Peaikese Island E, 4 mlles; Hen and Chickens Lightship NVv s/.f N. 
 mlle; ii fathoms; rocky and small stones; oyster dredge; drift SW y toile. 
7667. Auust i5, i9o 4. Dumpling Rock Light NE by E, 67/ toiles; Hen and Cbickens Lightsbip SE by 
S ./ S, /4 mlle; 9 fathoms; small stones; oyster dredge; drift SW ]-g mlle. 
î668. Auust 15, I0o4. /vlishaum Point NE by E  E, 3) toiles; Cutt3"hunk Light SSE, 5 toiles; 8 
fathoms; muddy sand; oyster dredge; drift SW  toile. 
7669. August i5, i9o 4. Dumpling Rock Light NE, 57/8 mlles; Cuttyhunk Light S by E 
m/les; 13 fathorns; black sandy mud; o)ter dredge. 
767o. August 15, i9o 4. Dumpling Rock Light NE by N 4 N, 6 toiles; north end Peaikese Island 
E / N, 2 mlles; 19 fathoms(?); small stones; oyster dredge; drift SW  toile. 
767i. August i5, i9o4. Cuttyhunk Life-Saving Station SE by E  E, I)/4 mlles; Cuttyhunk Light 
SW / S, i mlle; 9 fathoms; stones and muddy sand; 7:foot beam trac-l, oyster dredge; drift 
SW .x. toile. 
767. August 17, i9o4. Cuttyhunk Light SW by S, ,s toiles; Hen and Chickens Lightship W  N, 
4 toiles; io fathoms; small stones, sand, and shells; oyster dredge; drift SW  mlle. 
7673. August 17, i9o4. Cuttyhunk Ligbt S 34/W, 3, 
34 toiles; 17 fathoms; sandy mud and stones; beam trawl, scrape dredge; drift SW  mlle. 
7674. August 17, i9o 4. Dumpling Rock Light NE  E, 4 mlles; Cuttyhunk Life-Saving Station 
SE by S /S, 4/ toiles; 7 fathoms; coarse sand and mud; oyster dredge; drift SW 4 toile. 
7675. August 17, i9o4. IVlishaum Point E by N,  toiles; Hen and Chickens Lightship SW by S ,/S, 
3sg mlles; 6/ fathoms; muddy sand; beam trawl, oyster dredge; drift SW / mlle. 
î6ï6. July 17, i9o5. Gay Head Light SW  S, Prospect Hill SE by E 4 E; 9/ fathoms; hard sand: 
7-foot beam trawl. 
7677. July 17, 19o 5. Gay Head Light Sby W /4W, Prospect Hill ESE / E, 11,/fathoms; hard sand; 
7-foot beam trawl; scrape dredge. 
7678. July 17, 19o 5. Prospect I-lill SE by S, Gay Head Light SW  W, 12ï fathoms; hard sand; 
7-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge. (Ver 3- little in flae scrape dredge.) 
7679 . July 24, I9o5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 40 ° 4ï , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 27 ° o5; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 38 ° 36 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 3 ° 44/; i3, / fathoms; sand and shells; 6-foot beam 
traxvl and scrape dredge. 
768o. July 4, I9o5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 33 ° , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 22 ° 3oZ; (b) Pasque- 
Nashawena 33 ° 35 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 2 ° o; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 3 ° 4ï , Nashawena- 
Cuttyhunk 2 ° i9; i3./ fathoms; hardsand; 6-foot trawl and scrape dredge. 
768. July 24, I9o5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 35 ° 56', Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 3i ° o5/; (b) Pasque- 
Nashawena 34 ° 4i; Nasbawena-Cutt3"hunk 9 ° ii; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 33 ° o5 , Nashawena- 
i  fathoms; hard sand; 6-foot trawl; scrape dredge. 
Cutt'hunk 8 ° o8; 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS IIOLE AND VICINITY. 20 7 

Statio, no. 
76_'. July 24, 19o5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 37 ° 4o', Nashawena-Cnttyhnnk 19 ° o7'; (b) Tarpanlin 
Cove-Nashawena 89 ° o8', Nashavena-Gay Head 95 ° o9; (c) Tarpanlin Cove-Nashavena 9 l° o9; 
Nashavena-Gay Head 89 ° 37; 19 fathoms(?); hard sand, rond, and shells; 6-foot trawl and 
scrape dredge. 
7683. July 26, lO95. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena 127 ° 48, Nashavena-Cntt-yhunk 61 ° o7; (b) Gay Head- 
Nashawena 12o ° 5 o, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 6o ° oo'; (c)Gay Head-Nashawena 114 ° 
Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 61 ° 45'; 19/(?) fafloms; hard sand; 7-foot beam trawi, rond bag 
and oyster dredge. 
7684. Jnly 26, 10o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena lO5 ° 43 , Nashawena-Cnttyhunk 59 ° 4or; (b) Gay 
Head-Nashawena 1oo ° 3 or, Nashawena-Cuttyhnnk 57 ° 33; (c) Gay Head-Nashawena 94 ° 
Nashawena-Cuttyhnnk 55 ° 43; 13. / fathoms; hard sand; 7-foot beam trawl, nmd bag, oyster 
dredge. 
7685. July 6, 19o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena 129 ° 44 , Nashawena-Cnttyhnnk 75 ° 4; (b) Gay 
Head-Naslmwena 123 ° 46", Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 75 ° 2o'; (c) Gay Head-Nashawena 116 ° 
Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 77 ° 46; 17 fathoms; hard sand; 7-foot beam traxvl, mud bag, and oyster 
dredge. 
7686. July 26, 19o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena lO2 ° 34 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 73 ° 55; (b) Gay Head- 
Nashawena 99 ° 42', Nashawcna-Cuttyhunk 71 ° 15; (c) Gay Head-Nashawena 93 ° 52, Nasha- 
wena-Cuttyhunk 68 ° 34; 17'/ fathoms; hard sand; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, and oyster 
dredge. 
7687. July 6, 19o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena lO5 ° 11 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk lO9 ° 5; (b) Gay Head- 
Nashawena IO3 ° 6 )', Nashawena-Cuttyhunk lO4 ° 43; (c) Gay Head-Nashawena 97 ° 5 , Nasha- 
wena-Cuttyhunk lO3 ° 23; 12 fathoms; h«trd sand; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7688. Jnly 26, 19o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena ço ° 36", Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 96o 36; (b) Gay Head- 
Nashawena 85 ° 4 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 9 °o 57'; (c) Gay Head-Nashawena 79 ° 59 , Nasha- 
wena-Cuttyhunk 9 °o 38; (d) Gay Head-Nashawena 76o 37 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 9 ° 44"; 
13 fathoms; hard, coarse sand; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, oystcr dredge. 
7689. July 6, 19o 5. (a) Nasha»vena-Cuttyhunk Lire Saving Station 92° 12', Life-Saving Station-Cnt- 
tyhunk Light 46° 59; (b) Nashawena-Cuttyhunk Life-Saving Station 69 ° 21', Life-Saving Sta- 
tion-Cuttyhunk Light 54 ° 4o; (c)Nashawena-Cuttyhtmk Life-Saving Station 59 ° o , Life- 
Saving Station-Cnttyhnnk Light 57 ° 46'; 9 fathoms; hard sand and rocks; î-foot beam trawl, 
mud bag, oyster dredge. 
769o. July 6, 19 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashavena 7 o° 11 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk lO6 ° 4 t ] (b) Gay Head- 
Nashawena 7 l° o3 , Nashawena-Cutt)_,hunk lO6 ° 57; (c) Gay Head-Nashawena 7 l° 14 , Nash- 
awena-Cuttyhunk 93 ° 31; 9 fathoms; rocky; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
760. July 6, 19o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashavena 69 ° 46 , Nashawena-Cuttyhtmk 119 ° 59; (b) Gay Head- 
Nashawena 7 °o 33 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 113 ° 58; 9 fathoms; rocky; 7-foot beam trawl, 
mud bag, oyster dredge. 
692. July 6, 19o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena 61 ° 57 , Nashawena-Cuttyhnnk 8o ° 86; (b) Gay Head- 
Nashawena 6o ° 4o , Nashawena-Cnttyhunk 7 ° o7; 9 fathoms, rosky; 7-foot beam travl, mud 
bag, oyster dredge. 
7693. July 26, 19o 5. (a) Gay Head-Nashawena 82 ° 15 , Nashavena-Cnttyhunk 13 ° 5o'; (b) Gay Head- 
Nashwena 87 ° 44 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 13 ° 59; (c)Nashavena-Cnttyhunk Life-Saving 
Station 117 ° 41, Life-Saving Station-Cuttyhnnk Light 1 ° 55; ii fathoms; rock-y bttom; 
7-foot beam trawl, oyster dredge, mud bag. 
7694. Jnly 26, 19o 5. (a) Nanshon SW-Nashawena 46o 37 , Nashawena-Cutt)-hunk 99 ° 3'; (b) Naushon 
SW-Nashawena 8o ° 13 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 66 ° o6; (c) Naushon SW-Pasque 9 ° o1 , Pasque 
Nashawena 82 ° 13: 1-'4 fathoms; rocky; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7695 Jnly 6, 19o 5. (a) Nanshon SW-Pasque 5 l° 5 , Pasque-Nashawena 9 °o 38'; (b) Naushon SW- 
Pasque 61 ° 47 , Pasque-Nashavena 8o ° o3; (c)Naushon SW-Pasque 66 ° 59 , Pasqne-Nasha- 
wena 7 ° 56; io fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam travl, mud bag, o)-ster dredge. 
î696. Jnly 6, 19o5 . (a) Naushon SW-Pasque 81 ° 18 , Pasque-Nashawena 56o 28; (b) Nanshon SW- 
Pasqne 85 ° o4 , Pasque-Nashawena 47 ° 4o; (c)Nanshon SW-Pasque 81 ° 3 , Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 41 ° 33; io fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 



208 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Station no. 
7697 . ]uly 26, r9o 5. (a) Tarpaulin Cove-Naushon SW 360 41", Naushon SW-Pasque 66 ° 33"; (b) Tar- 
paulin Cove-Naushon SW 56 ° 34 r, Naushon SW-Pasque 45 ° 39r; (c) Tarpaulin Cove-Naushon 
SW 66 ° oo r, Naushon SW-Pasque 320 431; sand and mud; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, and 
oyster dredge. 
7698. ]uly 28, z9o 5. (a) Nashawena-Gay Head 9 °° o2", Gay Head-Prospect Hill 75 ° 27; (b)Nasha- 
wena-Gay Head 89 ° 33", Gay Head-Prospect Hill 73 ° 2i'; (c) Nashawena-Gay Head 87 ° o6", 
Gay Head-Prospect Hill 71 ° i4r; (d) Nashawena-Gay Head 84 ° 45"; Gay Head-Prospect Hill 
69 ° 56"; i2 fathoms; sandy. 
7699 . July 28, ,9o5. (a) Nashawena-Gay Head 87 ° 33'. Gay Head-Prospect Hill 68 ° 49"; (b) Nasha- 
wena-Gay Head 91 ° o8 t, Gay Head-Prospect Hill 68 ° 3i; (c) Nashawena-Gay Head 93 ° 22", 
Gay Head-Prospect Hill 67 ° 4If; IO fathoms; hard sand. 
77oo. ]uly 28, 19o 5. (a) Nashawena-Gay Head 9 -° 2o', Gay Head-Prospect Hill 66 ° 35"; (b) Nasha- 
• vena-Gay Head 98° 39", Gay Head-Prospect Hill 64 ° I7"; (c) Nashawena-Gay Head 99 ° I6, , 
Gay Head-Prospect Hill 62 ° 54'; (d) Nashawena-Gay Head 99 ° 52", Gay Head-Prospect Hill 
61 ° "gr; IO fathoms; sand. 
77oi. ]uly 28, 19o 5. (a) Nashawena-Gay Head ioI ° 35 t, Gay Head-Prospect Hill 58° I9r; (b) Nasha- 
wena-Gay Head lOI ° 36r, Gay Head-Prospect Hill 56° 3if; (c) Nashawena-Gay Head lOI ° oi r, 
Gay Head-Prospect Hill 54 ° 45r; (d) Nashawena-Gay Head IOO ° 55 r, Gay Head-Prospect Hill 
53 ° ITr; 13 fathoms; sand. 
77o2. ]uly 28, 19o 5. (a) Nashawena-Gay Head I1 ° 43", Gay Head-Prospect Hill 68 ° 43r; (b) Nasha- 
wena-Gay Head 124 ° I5 r, Gay Head-Prospect Hill 66 ° oir; (c) Nashawena-Gay Head i25 ° 25 r, 
Gay Head-Prospect Hill 64 ° o2"; (d) Nashawena-Gay Head 126 ° 27 r, Gay Head-Prospect Hill 
62 ° 26r; 13 fathoms; sand. 
77o3. ]uly 28, 19o 5. (a) Nashawena-Gay Head 129 ° o5", Gay Head-Prospect Hill 55 ° 23"; (b) Nasha- 
wena-Gay Head 29 ° 2o , Gay Head-Prospect Hill 53 ° oo'; (c) Nashawena-Gay Head i29 ° 45 r, 
Gay Head-Prospect Hill 51 ° 36"; (d Nashawena-Gay Head 19 ° 55 r. Gay Head-Prospect Hill 
50 ° O8r; 12 to 7 fathoms; sand. 
77o4. ]uly 31, I9O 5. (a' Pasque-Nashawena 72 ° I2 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 43 ° 23r; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 63 ° 47", Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 47 ° 44"; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 57 ° 55r; Nashawena-Cut- 
tyhunk 49 ° 37r; IO/4 fathoms; sand. 
77o5 . ]uly 31, 19o 5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 53 ° 47 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 43 ° 55"; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 51° 32"; Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 4 I° 2o'; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 480 52 r, Nashawena-Cut- 
tyhunk 39 ° 53; 7I./, fathoms; sand. 
77o6. July 3 I, 19o 5. (a) Pasque-Nashavena 43 ° 33", Nashawena-Cuttyhtmk 38° i3r; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 4 l° 52 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 37 ° 24"; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 4o ° i6 r, Nashawena-Cut- 
tyhunk 36° o2r; (d) Pasque-Nashavena 38° 49 r, Nashavena-Cuttyhunk 34 ° 55r; i3/ fathoms; 
Sallfl. 
7707. July 31, 19o 5. (a) Pasque-Cuttyhunk 63 ° 41 r, Cuttyhunk-Gay Head 13 ° 22r; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena (rejected), Nashawena-Cuttyhunk (rejectedl; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 29 ° 26"; Nashawena- 
Cuttyhunk 38 ° 25r; 5 fathoms; sand. 
77o8. July 31, 19o 5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 3 °0 23", Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 41 ° 34r; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 31 ° 14 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 43 ° 5'; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 32° 27 r, Nashawena-Cut- 
tyhunk 44 ° 32"; 13/4 fathoms; sand. 
77o9. July 31, 19o 5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 33 ° 35 ¢, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 48° o2r; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 33 ° 4 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 51 ° lO; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 34 ° 43 t, Nashawena-Cut- 
tyhunk 53 ° 15r; 13 fathoms; sand. 
771o. July 31, 19o 5. (a) Pasque-Nashawena 30 ° 26 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 65 ° 37r; (b) Pasque-Nasha- 
wena 27 ° 51 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 71 S3r; (c) Pasque-Nashawena 26 ° o r, Nashawena-Cut- 
tyhunk 7 ° 23r; (d) Pasque-Nashawena 25 ° 4 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 77 ° o2r; 13  fathoms; 
fine sand. 
7717. Auust 4, 19o5- (a) Naushon SW-Nashawena 45 ° i6¢; Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 52 ° 46r; (b) Nau- 
short SW-Nashawena 46 ° 57 r, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 50 ° 12r; (c)Naushon SW-Nashawena 
48 ° 15 ¢, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 48 ° 2r; 134" fathoms; sand; beam trawl and scrape dredge. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 20 9 

Station no. 
77x8. August 4, x9o5- (a) Naushon SW-Nashawena 43 ° 32", Nashavena-Cuttyhunk 45 ° 55; (b) Nau- 
shon SW-Nashawena 43 ° 59 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 44 ° 25; (c)Naushon SW-Nashawena 
44 ° 17 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 43 ° 26 , I4 fathoms; sand and shells; beam trawl and scrape 
dredge. 
7719 . August 4, r9o5- (a) Naushon SW-Nashawena 43 ° o', Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 40 ° 3o'; (b) Nau- 
shon SW-Nashawena 42o 57 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 39 ° 47; (c)Naushon SW-Nashawena 
42o 57 t, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 39 ° 5; (d) Naushon SW-Nashawena 42 ° 57 , Nashawena-Cut- 
tyhunk 38o 48; 17 fathoms; sand and shells; beam trawl and scrape dredge. 
772o. August 4, I9o5- (a.) Naushon SW-Nashawena 42o 5 t, Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 37 ° 3it; (b) Nau- 
shon SW-Nashawena 42o oo', Nashawena-Cuttyhtmk 37 ° o8; (c)Naushon SW-Nashawena 
4 x° o , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 37 ° t2; 13/ fathoms; sand and shells; beam trawl and scrape 
dredge. 
772i. August 4, I9o5- (a) Naushon SW-Nashawena 32o 5 o', Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 5 ° 13'; (b) Nau- 
shon SW-Nashawena-33 ° 15', Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 49 ° 3or; (c)Naushon SW-Nashawena 
33 ° 47', Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 47 ° 39;   fathoms; sandy; beam trawl and scrape dredge. 
7722. August 4, I9o5. (a) Naushon SW-Nashawena 37 ° 27", Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 4o ° 51'; (b) Nau- 
short SW-Nashawena 37 ° 55', Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 39 ° 3o: (c)Naushon SW-Nashawena 
38° 2 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 38° 28; 3 fathoms; hard sand; beam trawl and scrape dredge. 
7723 . August 4, x9o5 • (a) Cuttyhunk-Gay Head 77 ° 59', Gay Head-Prospect Hill 26 ° 35; (b) (rejected); 
(c) Cuttyhunk Life-Saving Station-Gay Head 88 ° 24 , Gay Head-Prospect Hill 2 ° 33; 13 
fathoms; hard sand. 
7724- August 8, t9o 5. (a) Gay Head-Prospect Hill 141 ° 44 , Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 
66 ° 58'; (b) Gay Head-Prospect Hill 33 ° 35', Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 69 ° 42"; 
(c) Gay Head-Prospect Hill 127 ° 29', Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 72o 15'; io fath- 
oms, hard sand; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
7725 . August 8, 19o5 . (a) Gay Head-Prospect Hill 6 ° 32', Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 
75 ° 49; (b) Gay Head-Prospect Hill HI ° 44 , Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 76 55'; 
(c) Gay Head-Prospect Hill lO8 ° 59 , Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 76o 25; o fath- 
oms; hard sand; 9-foot beam trawl and mud bag. 
7726. August 8, i9o 5. (a) Gay Head-Prospect Hill lO5 ° 24 , Prospect Hill-Tarpaulin Cove i ° 33'; 
(b) Gay Head-Prospect Hill o2 ° 57', Prospect Hill-Tarpaulin Cove o8 ° 4; (c) Gay Head- 
Prospect Hill oo ° 44 , Prospect Hill-Tarpaulin Cove o6 ° 59'; 15 to 13" fathoms; sandy mud; 
9-foot beam trawl and mud bag. 
7727 . August 8, i9o 5. (a) Cay Head-Prospect Hill 93 ° o7 , Prospect Hill-Tarpaulin Cove o3 ° 56z; 
(b) Gay Head-Prospect Hill 89 ° 45 z, Prospect Hill-Tarpaulin Cove io3 ° 3iz; (c) Gay Head- 
Prospect Hill 87 ° 2 , Prospect Hill-Tarpaulin Cove o3 ° 18'; 12 fathoms; hard sand; 9-foot 
beam trawl and mud bag. 
7728. August 8, i9o 5. (a) Prospect Hill-Pasque 98° 45 , Pasque-Gay Head 83 ° o3; (b) Prospect Hill- 
Pasque o4 ° 5 I, Pasque-Gay Head 88 ° 23; (c) Prospect Hill-Pasque lO7 ° 45 , Pasque-Gay 
Head 9 °° 57'; 8 fathoms; stick-)- mud; 9-foot beam trawl and mud bag. 
7729. August 8, I9o 5. (a) Prospect Hill-Pasque i 6 ° 5 Iz, Pasque Gay-Head ioi ° oir; (b) Gay Head-Pros- 
pect Hill i35 ° 3 o', Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 5 °° 52; (c) Ga)r Head-Prospect Hill 
129 ° 24', Prospect Hill-tangent Cedar Tree Neck 5 °° 52'; io½ fathoms; hard sand; 9-foot beam 
trawl and mud bag. 
î73 o. August 8, 19o 5. (a) Prospect Hill-Nashawena 5 ° 59 , Nashawena-Gay Head 87 ° 59'; (b) Pros- 
pect Hill-Pasque 92° 27 t, Pasque-Gay Head i5 ° 22'; (c) Prospect Hill-Pasque o ° 57', Pasque- 
Gay Head 8 ° 4V; 12 fathoms; hard sand; 9-foot beam trawl and mud bag. 
7731. Aug'ust 8, 9o5 . (a) Naushon SW-Nashawena 43 ° i7 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 3 °° o6'; (b) Nau- 
shon SW-Nashawena 42° o5 , Nashawena-Cuttyhunk 29 ° 48; (c) Naushon SW-Nashawena 
4 I° 35 , Nashawena Cuttyhunk 29 ° 39: 12 fathoms; hard sand; 9-foot beam trawl and mud bag. 
7732. August io, i9o 5. (a) Naushon SW-Tarpaulin Cove 59%6 ", Tarpaulin Cove-Nashawena 37 ° 34t; 
(b) Naushon SW-Tarpaulin Cove 53 ° o , Tarpaulin Cove-Nashawena 38o 43; (c) Naushon SW- 
Tarpaulin Cove 51° 32'; Tarpaulin Cove-Nashawena 4 °° 3o; 2 / fathoms; sand and pebbles; 
9-foot beam trawl, scrape dredge. 
16269 °-Bull. 3, pt i--3-- 4 



210 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Station no. 
7733- August IO, 19o 5. (a) Naushon SW-Tarpaulin Cove 16 ° 4o t, Tarpaulin Cove-Nashawena 67 ° 
(b) Naushon SW-Tarpaulin Cove 16 ° 42p, Tarpaulin Cove-Nashawena 63 ° 2P; (c) Naushon SW- 
I 
Tarpaulin Cove i6 ° i8 t, Tarpaulin Cove-Nashawena 580 3 , 3 fathoms; pebbles; 9-foot beam 
trawl, scrape dredge. 
7734- August io, i9o 5. (a) Tarpaulin Cove-Naushon SW 3 I° i8 , laushon SW-Pasque 52° 28; (b) 
Tarpaulin Cove-Naushon SW 3 l° 47 , Nanshon SW-Pasque 48 ° 48; (c) Tarpaulin Cove-Naushon 
SW 31° 3 or, Naushon SW-Pasque 45 ° 55P; io54 fathoms; sand and shells; 9-foot beam trawl and 
scrape dredge. 
7735- August io, i9o 5. (a) Gay Head-Prospect Hill 66 ° oo t, Prospect Hill-Kopeecon Point 43 ° 57t; 
(b) Gay Head-Prospect Hill 68 ° 38, Prospect Hill-Kopeeeon Point 47 ° 2i , (c) Gay Head-Prooe 
pect Hill 71 ° O4 t, Prospect Hill-Kopeeeon Point 5 °0 3It; 9 fathoms; sand; 9-foot beam trawl 
and scrape dredge. 
7736. August lO, i9o 5. (a) Prospect Hill-Kopeeeon Point 560 2o t, Kopeecon Point-Tarpanlin Cove 
i2 ° o3t; (b) Prospect Hill-Kopeeeon Point 6o ° 21 t, Kopeecon Point-Tarpanlin Cove io8 ° 13P; 
(c) Kopeecon Point-Tarpanlin Cove io6 ° 24; 13 fathoms; sand and shells, 9-foot beam trawl 
and scrape dredge. 
7737. August 12, 19o 5. (Z) Nobska-Naushon Tripod 12o ° 5i , Naushon Tripod-Tarpaulin Cove 32° o8; 
(b) Nobska-Naushon Tripod 115 ° i8 t, Naushon Tripod-Tarpaulin Cove 32° 31; (c) Nobska- 
Naushon Tripod 115 ° I5 p, Naushon Tripod-Tarpanlin Cove 320 5i; 12 fathoms; pebbles. 
7738. August i2, 19o 5. (a) Nobska-Nanshon Tripod 85 ° 8 t, Naushon Tripod-Tarpaulin Cove 720 44t; 
(b) Nobska-Naushon Tripod 83 ° 43 t, Naushon Tripod-Tarpaulin Cove 7 l° 38t; (c) (Dredge 
caught). 12 fathoms; sand and gravel. 
7739. August 12, i9o 5. (a) Nobska-Naushon Tripod 74 ° 2 , Naushon Tripod-Tarpaulin Cove 37 ° 56t; 
(b) Nobska-Naushon Tripod 7o ° 36', Nanshon Tripod-Naushon SW 61 ° o6t; (c) Nobska-Nanshon 
Tripod 67 ° 14 p, Naushon Tripod-Tarpanlin Cove 34 ° 38t; 8 fathoms; sand and gravel. 
7740. August 12, I90 . (a) Kopeecon Point-Indian Hill 73 ° ioE, Indian Hill-Nortons Point 48 ° o2; (b) 
Kopeecon Point-Indian Hill 780 3ff, Indian Hill-Nortons Point 460 22; (c) Kopeecon Point- 
Indian Hill 8o ° o3 t, Indian Hill-Nortons Point 43 ° iot; 15 fathoms; sand and gravel. 
774I. August 12, 19o 5. (a) Prospect Hill-Indian Hill i12 ° 2ff, Indian Hill-Nortons Point 22 ° 
(b) Prospect Hill-Indian Hill lO8 ° 37 . Indian Hill-Nortons Point 2i ° 02t; (C) Prospect Hill- 
Indian Hill io2 ° 4 It, Indian Hill-Nortons Point 21 ° 3or; 15 fathoms; sand and shells. 
7742. August 17, 19o . (a) Nobska-Nanshon Tripod loi ° 34 t, Nanshon Tripod-Nanshon SW 35 ° 47t; 
(b) Nobska-Nanshon Tripod 99 ° 37 t, Naushon Tripod-Naushon SW 35 ° 5ff; 9 fathoms; rocky; 
7-foot beam trmvl, rond bag, oyster dredge. 
7743- Angust 17, i9o . (a) Nobska-Naushon Tripod 09 ° 4o t, Naushon Tripod-Naushon SW 37 ° 44t; (b) 
Nobska-Naushon Tripod 97 ° 42t, Nanshon Tripod-Nanshon SW 38° oit; lO54 fathoms; pebbles; 
7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7744. August 17, 19o 5. (a) Nobska-Tarpanlin Cove 9 °° 58, Tarpanlin Cove-Nashawena 31 ° o5; (b) 
Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 89 ° 37 , Tarpaulin Cove-Nashawena 31° 3or; (c) Nobska-Tarpaulin 
Cove 87 ° 39 , Tarpanlin Cove-Nashawena 320 32; 12 fathoms; pebbles and shells; 7-foot 
beam trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7745- August i7, 19o 5. (a) Nobska-Nanshon Tripod 73 ° 55 t, Nanshon Tripod-Naushon SW 33 ° 46t; 
(b) Nobska-Naushon Tripod 73 ° 5 St, Naushon Tripod-Naushon SW 3 l° 3or (c) Nobska-Nau- 
short Tripod 73 ° i7 , Nanshon Tripod-Naushon SW 29 ° 52; 12 to 8 fathoms; rocks and pebbles, 
7-foot beam trawl, rond bag, oyster dredge. 
7746- August 17, 19o 5. («) Gay Head-Nortons Point 480 2o t, Nortons Point-West Chop 780 2ff; (b) 
Gay Head-Nortons Point 4o ° o9 t, Nortons Point-West Chop 83 ° iTt; (c) Gay Head-Indian Hill 
28° 3ff, Indian Hill-West Chop 920 18t; 
i3  to I3J/2 fathoms; stones and gravel; 7-foot beam 
trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7747- Augnast 17, 19o 5. (Z) Gay Head-Indian Hill 23 ° 6', Indian Hill-West Chop 89 ° 4; (b) Gay 
Head-Indian Hill 2o ° II t, Indian Hill-West Chop 86 ° x6; (c) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 
67 ° 4ff, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 63 ° 46; 4 fathoms, large stones; 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, 
oyster dredge. 



13IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF "VOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 2I I 

Station no. 
7748- August 17, 19o 5. (a) Observatory-Nobska 8 ° 37/, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 43 ° 55/; (b) Falmouth 
Observatol3--Nobska 79 ° 46 t, Nobska-Tarpanlin Cove 380 42/: (c) Falmonth Observatory-Nobska 
75 ° 24 t, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 37 ° oSt; 13 fathoms; pebbles and sand; 7-foot beam traxvl, mud 
bag, oyster dredge. 
7749- August 17, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 59 ° 3 or, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 56° 11/; 
(b) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 58° o2 t, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 53 ° o5t; (c) Falmouth Ob- 
servatol-y-Nobska 57 ° o3/, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 5 I° 33t; lO] fathoms; hard sand; 7-foot 
beam trawl, rond bag, oyster dredge. 
775 o. August lï, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 5 °° 33 t, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 56 48t; 
(b) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 5 °° 21 t, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 58o lot; sandy; 9-foot beam 
traxvl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7751. August 17, 19o5 . (a) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 42° 31/, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 6o ° 45t; 
(b) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 41 ° io/, Noksba-Tarpaulin Cove 69 ° 28/; (c) Falmouth Ob- 
servatory-Nobska 4o ° 48/, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 69 ° lot; 9' fathoms; sand; 9-foot beam 
trawl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7752. August 17, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 32o 42 t, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 87 ° 32/; 
(b) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 3 I° 57/, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 86 ° ii'; (c) Falmouth Observ- 
atory-Nobska 31° o'', Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 85 ° 43/; lO fathoms; sand and pebbles; 7-foot 
beam traxvl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7753- August 7, 9O5- (a) Naushon SW-Indian Hill 66 ° 35/, Indian Hill-West Chop 75 ° 22"; (b) Nau- 
short SW-Indian Hill 65 ° 28 t, Indiml Hill-West Chop 72 ° 52; (c) Naushon SW-Indian Hill 
64 ° 34 t, Indian Hill-West Chop 7 l° 22/; 13I/2 fathoms; pebbles: 7-foot beam trawl, mud bag, 
oyster dredge. 
7754. August 17, 19o 5. (a) Indian Hill-West Chop 76 ° 29 , West Chop-Falmouth Observatory 63 ° 53; 
(b) Indian Hill-West Chop 73 ° 27 t, West Chop-Falmouth Observatory 62 ° 43t; (c) Indian Hill- 
West Chop 72 ° o2 t, West Chop-Falmouth Observatory 62 ° 22/; 131/2 fathoms; pebbles and sand; 
7-foot beam travl, mud bag, oyster dredge. 
7755- Angust 17, 10o 5. () Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 05 ° 43", Nobska-Naushon SW 61 ° 26; (b) 
Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 98o ii t, Nobska-Naushon SW 62 ° 27/; (c) Falmouth Observa- 
tory-Nobska 98° 45", Nobska-Naushon SW 65 ° 45t; (d) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 97 ° o5 t, 
Nobska-Naushon SW 7 o° 51t; lO fathoms; sand and gravel: 7-foot beam traxvl, mud bag, oyster 
dredge. 
7756. August 2i, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth Observatol-y-Nobska 88 ° o5 t, Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 53 ° 14/; 
(b) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 84 ° 58t, Nobska-Tarpaulin C.ove 52o o5/; (c) Falmouth 
Observatory-Nobska 8o ° i5" , Nobska-Tarpaulin Cove 54 ° 33/; 1112/fathoms; stones and pebbles; 
9-foot beam travl, mud bag. 
7757- August 21, 19o5 . (a) Falmouth Obser,atory-Nobska 68 ° 2i', Nobska-Nortons Point 78o 49; (b) 
Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 65 ° o5 , Nobska-Nortons Point 80 ° 48; (c) Falmouth Observa- 
tory-Nobska 63 ° 38", Nobska-Nortons Point 85 ° 4o; 13 fathoms; stones and shells; 9-foot beam 
trawl, mud bag. 
7758. August 21, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 62 ° oo t, Nobska-Nortons Point 69 ° 22/; (b) 
Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 6o ° 37 t, Nobska-Nortons Point 67 ° oit; (c) Falmouth Observa- 
tol--Nobska 58 ° 58/, Nobska-Nortons Point 66 ° o2/; 13 fathoms; stones and shells; 9-foot beam 
traxvl, mud bag. 
7759- August 21, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth Observatol-y-Nobska 53 ° o5 , Nobska-Nortons Point 61 ° i5t; 
(b) Nobska-West Chop 65 ° 36, West Chop-East Chop 95 ° 4o'; (c) Nobska-West Chop 55 ° 39 , 
West Chop-East Chop lO5 ° 55"; 11./2 fathoms; sand and stones; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
776o. August 21, 19o 5. (a) Vineyard Haven Water Toxver-West Chop 61 ° 28 t, West Chop-East Chop 
113 ° lXt; (b) Nobska-West Chop 3 °° 28 t, West Chop-East Chop 11o ° 37/; (c) Nobska-West Chop 
27 ° 73/, West Chop-East Chop lO8 ° 32"; 8 fathoms: pebbles and shells; 9-foot beam trawl, 
mud bag. 



212 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

tation no. 
776. August 2x, x9o 5. (a) Nobska-Vineyard Haven Water Tower 7 s° 56', Vineyard Haven Water 
Tower-East Chop 86 ° 46"; (b) Nobska-Vineyard Haven Water Tower 74 ° 2 , Vineyard Haven 
Water Tower-East Chop 99 ° 42'; (c) Nobska-Vineyard Haven Water Tower 76o 5 , Vineyard 
Haven Water Tower-East Chop xrx ° rot; 7 fathoms; sand and shells; 9-foot beam trawl, mud 
bag. 
776. August , x9o5- (a) West Chop-Vineyard Haven Water Tower 78o x3", Vineyard Haven Water 
Tower-East Chop 34 ° 5o; (b) East Chop-West Chop 39 ° 3 r', West Chop-Vineyard Haven 
Water Tower 8s ° 23"; (c) East Chop-West Chop xxo 43 , West Chop-Vineyard Haven Water 
Tower 93 ° 83t; (d) East Chop-West Chop 4 ° o8', West Chop-Vineyard Haven Water Tower 
xoo ° o4"; 4 fathoms; mud and shells; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
7763 . August x, 9o5 . (a) Nobska-West Chop 6r ° o , West Chop-East Chop 7 -,° rB'; (b) Nobska-West 
Chop 6o ° 24 , West Chop-East Chop 78o o3"; (c) Nobska-West Chop 59 ° 36", West Chop-East 
Chop 8s ° 4"; 3 fathoms; shells and pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
7764 . August _, r9o 5. (a) Nobska-West Chop 7 ° 3 C, West Chop-East Chop 45 ° 55t; (b) Nobska-West 
Chop 7 ° 3 St, West Chop-East Chop 48 ° 4C; (c) Nobska-West Chop 74 ° r9, West Chop-East 
Chop 5i O iot; 6 fathoms; sand; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
7765 . August 2i, i9o 5. (a) Nobska-West Chop 8x ° o', West Chop-East Chop 55 ° 59"; (b) Nobska-West 
Ehop 80 ° 52", West Chop-East Chop 59 ° 50'; (c) Nobska-West Chop 8o ° 4 C, West Chop-East 
Chop 63 ° 48'; x3r/ fathoms; rocky; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
7766. August si, x9o5 . (a) Nobska-West Chop 74 ° o3", West Chop-East Chop 3x ° 4x'; (b) Nobska-West 
Chop 75 ° 3î', West Chop-East Chop 32 ° -"9"; (c) Nobska-West Chop 78o x2", West Chop-East 
Chop 33 ° 03"; 5 f.'homs; pebbles and sand; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
7767. August 25, i9o 5. a) Nobska-West Chop 76o 2x', West Chop-East Chop 36 ° 35"; (b) Nobska-West 
Chop 76o 3C, West Chop-East Chop 39 ° 23t; (c) Nobska-West Chop 76o 57 t, West Chop-East 
Chop 4 I° 58"; io to 4 fathoms; sand and pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl and mud bag. 
7768. August 23, I9O5. (a Nobska-West Chop 96o 45", West Chop-East Chop 35 ° 47"; (b) lVobska-West 
Chop ioo ° 3 s', West Chop-East Chop 36 ° 4o'; (c) Nobska-West Chop xo3 ° -"9 t, West Chop-East 
Chop 37 ° i3'; io fathoms: stones; 9-foot beam trawl, rnud bag. 
7769 . August 23, 9o5. (a) Nobska-West Chop 93 ° 2o', West Chop-East Chop 28 ° -"52; (b) Nobska-West 
Chop 95 ° 2', West Chop-East Chop 28 ° 38'; (c) Nobska-West Chop 97 ° 9 , West Chop-East 
Chop 28 ° -7'; 7 fat]l.)ms; pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
777 o. August 23, i9o 5. (a) Nobska-West Chop io8 ° 34', West Chop-East Chop -7 ° 53; (b) Nobska-West 
Chop ils ° 47 , West Chop-East Chop s8 ° 58"; (c) Nobska-West Chop fo9 ° 45 z, West Chop-East 
Chop -"9 ° 5s'; xo to is fathoms; sand and pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl and mud bag. 
777 r. August s 3, i9o 5. (a) Nobska-West Chop ios ° 48 z, West Chop-East Chop 2o ° i4z; (b) Nobska-West 
Chop io4 ° 4o', West Chop-East Chop 20 ° 2"; 7 fathoms: sand and rocks; 9-foot bearn trawl and 
mud bag. 
7772. August -"3, 9o5 - (a) Nobska-West Chop ii5 ° 34", West Chop-East Chop i9 ° xg"; (b) Falmouth 
Water Tower-Nobska 59 ° 07", Nobska-West Chop i8 ° 57'; (c) East Chop-Falmouth Observa- 
tory. xi5 ° 48", Falmouth Observatory-Nobska loi ° 04"; 6 to 8 fathoms; sand and pebbles; 9-foot 
bearn trawl, mud bag. 
7773. August 23, 9o5 . (a) East Chop-Faimouth Observatory xo9 ° 4x', Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 
9 s° 52t; (b) East Chop-Falmoufll Observatory o6 ° 42 z, Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 89 ° i5 z, 
(c) East Chop-Falmouth Observatory o4 ° 46', Falmouth Observatory-Nobska 87 ° 30'; ixJ-" 
fathoms; pebbles and stones; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
7774- August 23, 9o5. (a) Falmouth Water Tower-Nobska 8o ° 58', Nobska-West Chop ii3 ° si'; (b) 
Falmouth Water Tower-Nobska 77 ° o5', Nobska-West Chop ss ° igZ; (c) Falmouth Water 
Tower-Nobska 73 ° 45", Nobska-West Chop i3 o° oi; 7/ fathoms; pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl, 
mud bag. 
7775. August s 3, x9o5 . (a) Falmouth Observatory-Nobska xo8 ° oo', Nobska-Nortons Point 87 ° 33"; 
(b) Fa!mouth Observatory-Nobska xo ° I5", Nobska-Nortons Point 93 ° oo'; (c) Falmouth 
Observatory-Nobska 969 i8 , Nobska-Nortons Point 98° 44; 9 fathoms; pebbles and stones; 
9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 2I 3 

Station no. 
7776. August 23, 9o5- (a) Falmouth Water Tower-Nobska 121 ° 21 t, Nobska-Nortons Point 43 ° 15t; 
(b) Falmouth ,ater Tower-Nobska 116 ° 56", Nobska-Nortons Point 5 °o 36t; (c) Falmouth 
Water Tower-Nobska 111 ° 54 t, Nobska-Nortons Point 58 ° 4o; (d) Falmouth Water Tower- 
Nobska lO4 ° 14 t, Nobska-Nortons Point 70 ° 45t; 5 to 7 fathoms; stones and shells; 9-foot beam 
trawl, mud bag. 
7777. August 26, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth Water Tower-Nobska 49 ° o3 t, Nobska-East Chop 92 ° 19t; (b) 
Falmouth Water Tower-Nobska 5 °0 32, Nobska-East Chop 9 °0 1; (c) Falmouth Water Tower- 
Nobska 53 ° 4î', Nobska-East Chop 9 °o o2; 5./ fathoms; sand and pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl 
and mud bag. 
7778. August 26, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth water tower-Nobska 59 ° 42t, Nobska-East Chop 88 ° 47; (b) 
Falmouth water tower-Nobska 63 ° 32, Nobska-East Chop 86 ° 55; (c) Falmouth water tower- 
Nobska 66 ° o3 , Nobska-East Chop 85 ° lO; 4 fathoms; sand and pebbles; 9-foot beam travl 
and mud bag. 
7779- August 26, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth water tower-Nobska 46o 29 , Nobska-East Chop xo4 ° 21; (b) 
Falmouth water tower-Nobska 5 °o 48, Nobska-East Chop lO5 ° oTt; (c) Falmouth water tower- 
Nobska 54 ° 5 -, Nobska-East Chop io4 ° o8t; 12½ fathoms; sand; 9-foot beam trawl and mud 
bag. 
7780. August 26, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth water tower-Nobska 64 ° o2 t, Nobska-East Chop lol ° 21; (b) 
Falmouth water tower-Nobska 72 ° 5 , Nobska-East Chop 98 ° o8; (c) Falmouth water tower- 
Nobska 80 ° 51, Nobska-East Chop 95 ° 18; 7 z fathoms; sand and pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl 
and mud bag. 
781. August 26, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth water tower-Nobska 95 ° 2o , Nobska-East Chop 91 ° oC; (b) 
Falmouth water tower-Nobska lO8 ° o3 , Nobska-East Chop 86 ° 4OE; (c) Falmouth water tower- 
Nobska 121 ° 43 , Nobska-East Chop 82 ° 13; 5 fathoms; coarse sand and pebbles; 9-foot beam 
trawl and mud bag. 
7782. August 26, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth water tower-Nobska 60 ° 57 , Nobska-East Chop xx2 ° 47; (b) 
Falmcuth water tower-Nobska 66 ° 59 , Nobska-East Chop 113 ° 11; (c) Falmouth water tower- 
Nobska 75 ° 59 , Nobska-East Chop 111 ° 51; io fathoms; sand and pebbles; 9-foot beam trawl, 
mud bag. 
7783. August 26, 19o 5. (a) Falmouth water tower-Nobska 95 ° 53 , Nobska-East Chop lO6 ° 3C; (b) 
Falmouth water tower-Nobska lO5 ° 35 , Nobska-East Chop lO3 ° 23; (c) Falmouth water tower- 
Nobska 121 ° 58, Nobska-East Chop 96o 42, (d) Falmouth water tower-Nobska 136o 41 t, Nobska- 
East Chop 88 ° 47; (e) West Chop-Falmouth observatory 83 ° 28 , Falmouth observatory-Fal- 
mouth water tower 58o 12; 5 fathoms; sand, pebbles, and shells; 9-foot beam trawl, mud bag. 
The following Fish Hawk stations of I9O3 vere repeated with approximate accuracy 
by the Fish Hawk and Phalarope during the summer of I9O4: 
Station no. 
7521bis. July 14, 19o4. Nobska NE by E,  toile; 7I/d fathoms; coarse stones and sand; 24-inch 
scrape dredge; drfft SW A" toile. 
7522bis. July 14, I9O4. Nobska N  W, i mlle; 14/ fathoms; sand and gravel; 7-foot beam trawl; 
drift SW A" mile. 
7523bis. July 14, 19o4. Nobska NNW, 1.s/8 toiles; 12 fathoms; stones and coarse gravel; 7-foot beam 
trawl, 24-inch dredge; drift SW A" toile. 
7524bis. July 14, I9O4. Nobska NW by N ½ N, 2" toiles; lO fathoms; small stones; 7-foot beam 
trawl, 24-inch dredge; drift SW A" mlle. 
7525bis. July 14, 19o4 . Nobska NNW /W, 2ç toiles; lO fathoms; sandy; 7-foot beam trawl, 24-inch 
• scrape dredge, oyster dredge; drift SW / toile. 
753obis. September 3, 19o4- 1 fathoms; stones and shell fragments; scrape dredge. 
75j1bis. September 2, 19o 4. 8/ fathoms; gravel and small stones; scrape dredge. 
7532bis. July 18, 19o 4. West Chop ESE, Tarpaulin Cove W by S// S; 9 fathoms; mud and gravel; 
rake dredge, drift SSW  mlle. 
7533bis. July 18, 9o4- Tarpaulin Cove W by S, West Chop E by S ½ S; 15 fathoms; sand and gravel, 
rake dredge; drift S L toile. 



2I 4 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Station no. 
534bis. July 8, 9o4 . 

7535 bis- 

7536bis. 

7537bis. 

7538bis. 
7539bis. 

754Ibis. 
7542bis. 
7543bis. 

7544bis. 

7545bis. 

7546bis. 

7547bis. 

7549bis- 
755obis. 
7551bis. 
7552bis. 
7553bis. 
7554bis. 
7556bis. 
7562bis. 
7563bis. 
7564bis. 
7565bis. 
7569b. 

Tarpaulin Cove W/4 8, West Chop E by S; Nobska NE; 12 fathoms; coarse 
gravel; trawl; drift SW  mlle. 
July 18, 19o 4. Nobska NNE, Tarpaulin Cove W by N s N; 12 fathoms; stones and coarse 
gravel; beam trawl; drift SW t/ toile. 
/4 
July 18, 19o 4. Nobska N by E M E, Tarpaulin Cove W by N /N: 11xoe fathoms; coarse 
sand and shells; beam trawl, 22-inch scrape dredge; drift SW ,x toile. 
July 18, 19o4. Tarpaulin Cove W by S / S, West Chop E by S .r S; 4 fathoms; gravel 
and mud; rake dredge; drift SW by S . mlle. 
September 6, 19o 4. 11 fathoms: scrape dredge. 
September 3, 19o4- 12/ to xz fathoms; gravel and stones; scrape dredge. (Very scanty 
haul.) 
September 7, 19o4. Ill/2 fathoms; gravel and stones; scrape dredge. 
September 7, 19o4- 7./ fathoms; sandy; scrape dredge. 
July 20, 19o 4. Gay Head SW /S, Nobska E by N / N; 13 fathoms; sandy (?); 7-foot beam 
trawl; drift NE  mlle. 
July 2o, 19o4 . Tarpaulin C.ove W 3/ N, Nobska NE by E  E; 13 fathoms; rake dredge; 
drift NE/i/mlle. 
July 2o, 19o 4. Nobska NE  E, Tarpaulin Cove NW by W J/ W; 12 fathoms; sand and 
gravel; 24-inch scrape dredge; drift NE  mlle. 
July 2o, 9o4. Nobska NE M E, Tarpaulin Cove NW bv. W , *  W; lO fathoms; shell fragments; 
oyster dredge; drift NE }g mlle. 
July 2o, 19o4. Nobska NE ,3/ N, Tarpaulin Cove NW / W; 13 fathoms; sand, coarse gravel, 
and shell fragments; 7-foot beam trawl, oyster dredge, scrape dredge; drift NE J/ E /4 toile. 

September 6, 19o 4. 
September 6, 19o4. 
September 6, 19o 4. 
September 7, 1904- 
eptember 7, 19o4- 
September 7, 19o4- 
September 7, 1904- 
September io, 19o4. 
September io, 19o 4. 
September IO, 19o 4. 
September io, 19o 4. 
September io, 19o 4. 

12 fathoms; small stones; scrape dredge. 
17 fathoms; stony; scrape dredge. 
I I fathoms; small stones and mussel shells: scrape dredge. 
12 fathoms; sand; scrape dredge. 
8 fathoms: scrape dredge. 
12 fathoms; mud (?) and sand; scrape dredge. 
5 fathoms; coarse sand; scrape dredge. 
4.- z fathoms; sand; scrape dredge. 
7 fathoms; coarse sand; scrape dredge. 
12 fathoms; muddy sand and gravel; scrape dredge. 
15 fathoms: sandy; scrape dredge. 
5.t fathoms; fine sand; scrape dredge. 

PHALAROPI STATIONS. a 

x. July 6, 19o4. Vineyard Sound south shore of Nonamesset Island; 4% / fathoms; gravel; 22-inch 
dredge. 
. July 6, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, south shore of Nonamesset Island; 6I. fathoms; sand and gravel; 
22-inch dredge. 
3- July 6, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, south shore of Nonamesset Island; 5/4 fathoms; sandy; 22-inch 
dredge. 
4. July 6, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, south shore of Nonamesset Island; 2 to 5 fathoms; sandy; 22-inch 
dredge. (Scanty haul.) 
5- July 8, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, south shore of Naushon Island; 8 to lO fathoms, stony; 22-inch 
dredge. 
6. July 8, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, south shore of Naushon Island; io to 9 fathoms, stony and gravelly; 
22-inch dredge. 
7- July 8, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, sottth shore of Naushon Island; 6t fathoms; stones and gravel; 
22-inch dredge. 
8. July 13, 19o4. 5 to 4 fathoms; soft mud, hard mud, 22-inch dredge. 
9. July 13, 19o4. 5/ to 8 fathoms; hard sand; 22-inch dredge. 

a Including aiso Biue Wing stations, as indicated. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 'OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

25 

xo. July i3, 19o 4. f to 14 fathoms; hard sand, sand and gravel; 22-inch dredge. 
ii. JulyI 3, 19o4. iotogfathoms; hardsand, sandandrock; 22-inchdredge. 
i2. July 13, 19o 4. 13 fathoms; hard sand; 22-inch dredge. 
13. July 15, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, shore of Naushon; 12 to I2 fathoms; gravel, gravel and sand; 
22-inch dredge. 
14. July 15, 19o4. Vineyard Sound, shore of Naushon;  to 6 fathoms; stones and sand, stone; 22-inch 
dredge. 
r 5. July r 5, i9o 4. Vineyard Sound, shore of Naushon; 7 r  to 7/ fathoms; stones; 22-inch dredge. 
i6. July r 5, I9o4. Vineyard ound, shore of Naushon; 4 to 5 fathoms; stones and sand; 22-inch 
dredge. 
17. July 19, 19o 4. Tarpaulin C.ove; 24 / to 4 fathoms; «and and gravel; oyster dredge. 
18. July 19, 19o 4. Tarpaulin C.ove; 2,/2 to 2}/4 fathoms; soft mud and eelgrass; oyster dredge and 22- 
inch drcdge. 
19. July 19, 19o 4. Tarpaulin Cove; 4 to 3 fathoms; mud, sand; 22-inch dredge. 
2o (Blue Wing). July 23, 19o 4. Robinsons Hole; 2 ç to 2 fathoms; stony vith many algoe. 
21 (Blue Wing). July 23, 19o 4. Robinsons Hole; 3 to i. I  fathoms; rocky with many algoe. 
22 (Blue Wing). July 23, 19o 4. Robinsons Hole; 3.ç fathoms; gravel. 
23 (Blue Wing). July 23, 19o 4. Robinsons Hole; 2I/2 fathoms; sandy. 
24. July 26, 19o 4. South side of Pasque Island; 5 to 5 /2 fathoms; hard sand. 
25. July 26, 19o 4. South side of Pasque Island; 5 to 5 fathoms; hard, rocky. 
26. July 26, 19o 4. South side of Pasque Island; 6 to 61/2 fathoms; partly soft mud. 
27. July 28, 19o 4. Quicks Hole; 4 to 5 fathoms; stony. 
28. July 28, 19o 4. Quicks Hole; 5 fathoms; muddy sand. 
29. July 28, 19o 4. Quicks Hole; 3 fathoms; sand. 
3 o. July 28, 19o 4. South side of Nashavena; 4 to 5 fathoms; stony, sandy. 
31. July28, 19o 4. outhsideofNashawena; 4to4.1/2 fathoms; hard, cleansand. 
32. July 3 o, 19o 4. South shore of Cuttyhunk Island; 5 to 5I/2 fathoms, stony. 
33- July 3 o, 19o 4. South shore of Cuttyhunk Island; 5 to 51 fathoms; gravel and hard mud. 
34- July 3o, 19o 4. South shore of Cuttyhtmk Island; 5/ to 6 fathoms; sandy. 
35- August3, 19o4- OffovandPigsReef; iotogfathoms; stones. 
36. August 3, 19o4- Off Sow and Pigs Reef, 61ç to 9 fathoms; stony. 
37. August 3, 19o4. Off ov and Pigs Reef; 4,4 to 5 fathoms; stones, sand. 
38. August 3, 19o4- Off Sow and Pigs leef; 4I2 fathoms; stony. 
39- August 4, 19o4- Middle 3round; 7 to 3/ fathoms; clean sand. 
4o. August 4, 19o4. Middle t3round, 6 to 5 fathoms; sand and broken shells. 
41. August 4, 19o4- Middle t3round; 2 to 4/2 fathoms; sand and broken shells. 
42. August 4, 19o4- Middle t3round; 3.x. to 6 fathoms; sand and broken shells. 
43- August 4, 19o4. Middle t3round; 2,x to 5 fathoms; sand and broken shells. 
Near Gay Head; 31 to 5 fathoms; stony, hard sand; 22-inch scrape 

4; (Blue Wing). August 9, 19o4- 
dredge. 
45 (Blue Wing). August 9, 19o4- 
46 (Blue Wing). August 9, 19o4. 
dredge and tangle. 
47 (Blue Wing). August 9, 19o4- 
tangle. 
48 (Blue Wing). August 9, 19o4- 
49 (Blue Wing). August 9, 19o4, 
5o (Blue Wing). August 9, 19o4- 

Near Gay Head; 5 fathoms; stony; 22-inch serape dredge. 
Near Gay Head; io feet to 3I/2 fathoms; hard sand; 22-inch scrape 

Near 3ay Head; 8 to 12 feet; rock, sand; 22-inch scrape dredge and 

Near Gay Head; sand; 2-inch scrape dredge. 
Near Gay Head, sand; 22-inch scrape dredge. 
Near t3ay Head; sand; 22-inch scrape dredge. 
51. August 9, 19o4- This includes several hauls, about alike in character, done with i6-inch scrape 
dredge, operated from a skiff close to shore, i to 1I2 fathoms; sand. Collectionswere also ruade 
from stones and from piles, between rides. 
5. August ii, 19o 4. 7 to 6I/2 fathoms; shelly and gravelly. 
3- August ii, 19o 4. 5 to 5/2 fathoms, shelly and sandy. 
54- Auonast ii, 19o 4. 5J/ to 7 fathoms, hard, clean sand. 



216 

55 August xx, x9o 4. 
56. August 15, x9o 4. 
57- August 15, 9o4. 
58. August 15, 19o4. 
59- August 5, 19o4- 
6o. August xS, t9O 4. 
6I. August 19, tgo 4. 
62. August 19, t9o4. 
63. August xg, x9o4. 
64. August 24, x9o4. 
65. August 24, 19o4. 
66. August 24, 19o4. 
67. August 24. 19o4. 
68. August 24, 19o4. 
69. August 26, x9o 4. 
7o. August 26, 19o 4. 
7L August 26, 1904. 
72 . xugllst 26, 1904. 
73- August 3o, x9o4- 
74- August 3o, 19o 4. 
75- August 3o, 19o4- 
76. August 3 o, 19o 4. 
77- August 3 o, 19o 4. 
78- July 6, x9o 5. 
79- July 6, 19o 5. 
8o. July 6, 9o5 . 
8x. July 6, 19o 5. 
82. July 6, x9o 5. 
83. July 1, 19o 5. 
84. July 12, 19o 5. 
85. july x2, 19o5. 
86. July 2, 9o5 . 
87. July 15, 19o 5. 
88. July xs, x9o 5. 
89. july xs, x9o5- 
9 o. july xs, x9o 5. 
9 . July 15, 9o5 . 
92. July 15, x9o 5. 
93- July x 5, x9o 5. 
94. july 18, 9o5 . 
95. July 8, 9o5. 
96. July x8, x9o5. 
97- july x8, x9o5 . 
98. July 18, 9o5 . 
99- July o. i9o 5. 
lOO. July 2o, 19o 5. 
XOl. july 20, 19o 5. 
xo2. July 20, x9o 5. 
o3. July 20, 19o 5. 
fo4. July 20, x9o 5. 
xo 5. July 22, x9o 5. 
xo6. July 22, 19o 5. 
o 7. July 22, x9o5. 
xoS. july 2, 19o 5. 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

7 d to 8  fathoms; clean sand. 
Near Gay Head; 7 to 7/ fathoms; gravel and sand. 
Near Gay Head; 5 to 9 fathoms; sand and gravel. 
Near Gay Iffead; 6/ to 9/ fathoms; sand and gravel. 
Near Gay Head; tx to x2 fathoms; shell bottom. 
Near Gay Head; 8/ to 6 fathoms; sand and shells. 
5'4 to 5 fathoms; clean sand. 
7 to 7 fathoms; sandy and pebbly. 
7 to 6/ fathoms; sandy and pebbly. 
6/ to 6 fathoms; hard sand. 
6 to 3/ fathoms; gravel. 
6 to 7/ fathoms; sandy. 
4 / to 3r/2 fathoms; sandy. 
6/ to 8 fathoms; sandy and shelly. 
Vineyard Haven; 3.1/2 to x1'1/ fathoms: rock and stones; 2_-inch scrape dredge. 
Vineyard I-Iaven; 4 to 4 fathoms; shelly mud; 22-inch scrape dredge. 
Vineyard Haven; 3/ to 3/ faflloms; shells and mud; oyster dredge. 
Vineyard Haven; 3 to 4 fathoms; shells and mud; oyster dredge. 
5 to J/fathoms; mud; scrape dredge. 
5/ to 6 fathoms; sandy; scrape dredge. 
5/4 to 5 fathoms; sandy and eelgrass; scrape dredge. 
7 to 8/ fathoms; sandy; scrape dredge. 
4çto 7 fathoms; gravelly; scrape dredge. 
North shore of Nashawena, at western end; 6 to 5 fathoms: sand and mud. 
North shore of Nashawena; 5'1/ to 5/ fathoms; mud. 
North shore of Nashawena; 6 to 5 faflloms; sandy. 
Buzzards Bay, near Quicks Hole; 7 to î fathoms; sandy. 
Shore of Pasque Island near Quicks I-Iole; 8 to 8./ fathoms; sandy. 
North shore of Pasque Island; 5 to 7 îathoms, sand. 
North shore of Pasque Island; 6/ to 7/ 'faflloms; shells and mud. 
Robinsons Hole; 5 to 6 fathoms; sand and shells. 
West end of Naushon; 5 to 6 fathoms; sand, 
Northwest shore of Naushon; 33 to 3 fathoms; algoe, stony. 
Northwest shore of Naushon; 3J / fathoms; clean sand. 
Northwest shore of Naushon; 3/ to 5 fathoms; muddy sand. 
Northwest shore of Naushon; 4 / to 47 fathoms; clean sand. 
Northwest shore of Naushon; 34/to 3 fathoms; clean gravel. 
Northwest shore of Naushon; 43/4 to 5 fathoms; sand. 
Northwest shore of Naushon; 7 to 8 fathoms; sandy mud. 
Northwest shore of Naushon Island; 2 to 6.ç fathoms; sandy mud. 
Northwest shore of Naushon Island; 4 fthoms; mud and sand. 
Northwestern extremity of Naushon Island; 4 to 3J/ fathoms; clean, coarse sand. 
4/4 to 33/4 fathoms; coarse muddy gravel. 
West end of Uncatena Island; 4 to 3,3/4 fathoms; muddy sand. 
Near western end of Cuttyhunk Island; 3 to 3/ fathoms; sand. 
Northwest shore of Cuttyhtmk Island; 4 to 5 fathoms; sandy mud. 
Northwest shore of Cuttyhunk Island; 4 to 4/ï fathoms; clean sand 
Northwest shore of Cuttyhunk Island; 5 to 5 fathoms; loose sand. 
North shore of Cuttyhunk Island; 4 to 5/ fathoms; clean sand. 
Cuttyhunk I-Iarbor; 23/4 to 3 fathoms; sand. 
Near Weepecket Islands; 6 to 6 fathoms; clean sand. 
Near Weepecket Islands; 6 to 6 fathoms, clean sand. 
Near Weepecket Islands; 51/44 to 5 / fathoms; mud and shelis. 
Near Weepecket Islands; 4/ to 5 fathoms; sand and gravel. 



tIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 'OODS HOLI AND VICINITY. 2 1 7 

Io 9. July 22, 9o5 . 
o. July 22, 9o5 . 
Ill. July 25, I9o 5. 
I2. July 25, 9o5 . 
13. July 25, i9o 5. 
14. July 25, 19o 5. 
il 5. July 25, 59o 5. 
16. July 25, I9o 5. 
117. July 27, i9o 5. 
x18. July 27, 19o 5. 
119. July 27, 9o5 . 
52o. July 27, 59o 5. 
21. July 27, 19o 5. 
22. July 29, 19o 5. 
23. July 29, 19o 5. 
24. July 29, 19o 5. 
125. July 29. 19o 5. 
I26. July 29, 9o5 . 
i27. August 3, 19o5- 
I28. August 3, 59o5- 
i29. August 3, 19o5- 
i3o. August 3, 5905- 
i31. August 3, 19o5- 
i32. August 5, 19o5- 
133. August 5, 59o5- 
134. August 5, 19°5- 
i35. August 5, 19°5- 
i36. August 5, I9o5. 
i37. August 5, I9°5- 
i38. August î. 19o 5. 
i39. August 7, 19o5- 
I4o. August 7, I9o5- 
I41. August 7, I9o5- 
i42. August 7, I0o5- 
I43- August 7, 59o5- 
I44. August 9, 9o5 - 
145. August 9, x9o5 - 
46. August 9, 59o5- 
I47. August 9, 19o5. 
I48. August 9, I9o5- 
I49. August 9, x9o5- 
I5o. August , 19o 5. 
51. August 55, 5905. 
x52. August ix, i9o 5. 
I53. August 11, i9o 5. 

Near Weepecket Islands; 0-/44 to 7)g fathoms; clean sand. 
Near Weepecket Islands; 5/4 to 7  fathoms; muddy gravel. 
Sow and Pigs Reef; 2/ to 7 fathoms; stones and pebbles; scrape dredge. 
Western end of Cuttyhunk Island; 5 to 6 fathoms; stones; scrape dredge. 
Near Penikese Island; 7 to 8 fathoms; sand and gravel; scrape dredge. 
Near Penikese Island; 7 to 7/ fathoms; sand; scrape dredge. 
Near Penikese Island; 5 to 7 fathoms; sand and gravel; scrape dredge. 
Near Penikese Island; 3 / to 4 fathoms; pebbles and sand; scrape dredge. 
North shore of Uncatena Island; 3 to 4 " fathoms; pebbles and stones. 
East of Uncatena Island; 7 to 5 fathoms; sand and shells. 
Hadley Harbor; 3 to 4 iathoms; mud and sand. 
Entrance to Hadley Harbor; 5 to 4t fath9ms; sand and mud. 
Woods Hole passage; 4 to 4 / fathoms; sand and stones. 
Near tip of Penzance Point; 4 to 5 iathoms, sand and gravel. 
Near Penzance Point; 3 to 4 fathoms; sand and gravel. 
North of Penzance Point; 4 to 4/ fath9ms; fine sand and stones. 
Bay shore, near bathing beach; 3 to 4 fathoms; elean sand. 
Near entrance to Quisset Harbor; 4 to 4 / fathoms; shells and mud. 
Quisset Harbor; 3 to x / fathoms; black mud. 
Near cntrance of Quisset Harbor; 4 to 5 fathoms; roeks and gravel_ 
North of Quisset Harbor; 3 to 4 fathoms; clean sand. 
Near Gunning Point; 3' to 5 fathoms; sand and gravel. 
Near Hamlin Point; " 
2  to 34 / fathoms; stones and sand. 
East shore, Buzzards Bay; 4: to 5 fathoms: sand and gravel. 
South of Hog Island Harbor; 5  to 6 fathoms; sand and gravel. 
Near entrance of Hog Island Harbor; 3. to 4/ fathoms; stones and many algoe. 
Entrance of Hog Island Harbor; 3/ to 5 fathoms; sand and pebbles. 
North of Hog Island Harbor: 3./ to 4./4 fathoms; sand. 
Between Hog Island Harbor and Wild Harbor; 4 to 4/ fathoms; stones and sand. 
South of Wild Harbor; 5" to 6/" fathoms: clean fine sand. 
Wild Harbor; 7 to 5/ fathoms; clean sand. 
Nyes Neck; 5 to 7/ fathoms; sand and shells. 
Cataumet Harbor; 3 to 4 fathoms; sand and gmvel. 
Cataumet Harbor; 3 to 5,/ fathoms; pebbles and stones. 
Cataumet Harbor; 4 to 6, fathoms; mud. 
Off Scmggy Neek; 4./ to 4/ fathoms; sand and shells. 
Shore of Scraggy Neck; 4' to 3/ fathoms; sand and shells. 
Between Scraggy Neck and Wenaumet Neck; 3 to 4 fathoms; fine sand. 
Near Wings Neck Light; 3 to 34 / fathoms; fine gravel. 
Off Wings Neck Light; 4 to 4 fathoms; sand and shells. 
North shore of Wenaumet Neck; 5 to 34 / fathoms; sand and shells. 
North shore of Wenaumet Neck; 4/ to 2 fathoms; fine sand. 
North shore of Wenaumet Neck; 2/4 to 1'4 fathoms; muddy sand. 
Near head of Buzzards Bay; 2 to 2/4/4 fathoms; fine sandy mud. 
Off Monument ]3each; 2 to 2/4/4 fathoms; fine muddy sand. 

I54. September 
I55. September 
I56. September 
I57. September 
I58. September 
I59- August 27, 59o . 
15 minutes. 
I6o. August 27, 19o 7. 

6, 19o 5. Mouth of Weweantic River; 12 feet; sort black mud. 
6, i9o 5. Wareham River; 14 feet; sort black mud. 
6, 19o 5. Wareham River; 15 feet; soft black mud. 
6, 19o 5. Wareham River; 15 feet; soft black mud. 
6, x9o 5. Wareham River; 15 feet; shells. 
Off Sippican Neck; 3] / fathoms; black sticky mud, few shells; 22-inch dredge; 

Aucoot C.ove; 4 fathoms; fine sandy mud; 22-inch dredge; 15 minutes. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

161. August 27, 19o 7. Mattapoisett Harbor; 3 fathoms; black mud; 22-inch dredge; repeated with 
"scollop dredge." (Scanty haul.) 
16o. August uT, 19o 7. West shore of West Island; 5 to 5I/ fathoms; mud, slightly sandy, and a little 
fine gravel; i2-inch dredge; 15 minutes. 
163. Auast 27, 19o 7. End of Sconticut Neck; 4 to 3I/ fathoms; sandy mud and stones; 22-inch 
dredge and "seollop dredge." 
164. August UT, 19o 7. Below New Bedford Harbor; 3 to 2s/, fathoms; black mud with a little sand, 
few stones, and shell fragments; 22-inch dredge; 2o minutes. 
165. Aug-ust 27, 19o 7. Entrance of Clark C.ove; 3 fathoms; mud, shell fragments, and stones; 22-inch 
dredge. 
166. Aug-ust 27, 19o 7. Rotmd Hill Point; 3 fathoms; black mud and shells; 22-inch dredge. 
z67. August 27, i9o 7. Mishaum Point; 3"a fathoms; shells and gravel; 22-inch dredge. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 219 

C H,RT 0" 
\'INEYARD SOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS 13Ah" 
SHOWiNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECES 

NEW 

CH.RW x.--Biloculina ringens. 



220 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CH_ART .--Miliolina seminulum. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF x, VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 221 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
UZ ZARDS 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEl)FO: 

C»,R 3---Miliolina oblonga. 



222 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C HAIT OF 
VI NEYAIRD SOUND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAY 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHART 4.--Miliolina circularis. 



IIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 223 

NEW 

CHART 5.--Polymorphina lactea. 



224 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYAD NOUND 
iUZ ZARDS BAY 
$ MOwqG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEçlES 

NEW 

• Cr,RT 6.--Discorbina rosacea. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF VOODS HOLE AND VICINITYo 225 

CHanT OF 
ç[NEYAIRD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEC[ES 

CHART 7.--Pulvinulina lateralis. 
x6269 °-Bull- 3, pt r--t3r 5 



226 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF I¢ISHERIES. 

NEW 

CHART OF" 
VINEYARD S OUND 
[3UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

Cal'f 8.--lotalia beccarii. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS I-IOLE AND VICINITY. 

BUZ ZAF1DN BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHa_ 9.--Polystomella striatopunctata. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Crm io.---Gramia ciliata? 



]3IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 229 

CHRT oF" 
VINEYAD NOUND 
13UZ ZARDS BAY" 
S HOW I NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART "'.--Cliona celata. 



230 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
t3UZZARDS 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CttART z.---Chalina sp. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

23x 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD S 0UND 
AblD 
IUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART r3.--Microciona prolifera. 



232 

BL, LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIIS. 

CHART OF 
VINIYA1RD N 0 UND 

AND 

IBUZ ZARDS BAY" 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW" 

CmRT 4.--Pennaria tiarella. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

233 

C H,a.RT OF 
VINEh'A1RD S 0 UND 
13UZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

ÇI-IART 15---Hydractinia echinata. 



234 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHARï OF" 
VINEYA1RD N 0 UND 
AND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF' SPEClES 

NEW BE DFOII) 

CHA.RT i6.--Eudendrium ramosum. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 235 

CHART OF' 
VINEYA1RD N O UND 
.BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRI_BUTION OP SPECINS 

NEW iE DFORD 

CH.RT i7.--Eudendrium dispar. 



236 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHANT Ol- 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAï  
$ HQNING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART i8.--Tubularia couthouyi. 



BiOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 237 

CHART OF 
\'-INEYARD NOUND 
IBUZ ZARDN BAY 
$ HOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CI:I.a.R'f x9.--Tubularia crocea. 



238 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHART OI  
VINEYAHD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CrmT uo.--Obelia gexaiculata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

239 

CH.RT OF" 
VINEYA1RD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
.DISTRIBUTION O1  SPECIES 

CIAT 2.--Halecium halecinum. 



240 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAIRT OF 
VINEYA1RD SOUND 
AND 
EIUZ Z.:\[tDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 22.--Thuiaria argentea. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITV. 

24I 

CIl.ART OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZZARDS 
5 HOWIiIO 
DISTRIBUTION OP 

Cn. -3.--Schizotricha tenella. 
z6269°--J3ull. 3 t, pt 



242 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD S 0 UND 
BUZ ZAIRDS BAY" 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEçIES 

Cz»'r 4.Alcyonittm carnettm. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF V¢OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

243 

CHART OF" 
VINEYARD NOUND 
IIUZ ZAIDN BAY 
S HOWING- 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

ÇHART -5..--Metridium dianthus. 



244 13ULLETIN OF THE 13UREAU OF FISHERIES 

 H,T OF 
VINEYARD S OUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNO 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

C-IART 26.--Astrangi. danse. 

Upon the chart for this coral, and those for the shell-bearing echinoderms and mollusks, the circles 
surrotmding certain stars denote that living specimens were recorded from the stations thns designated. 
The absence of a circle at a given station denotes either that dead remains a!one were recorded or that 
the records do hot indicate the condition of the specimens. This practice bas not been followed 
except in the case of shell-bearing organisms. For others, it may be assumed that the records neaxly 
always relate to living specimens. 



BIOLOGICAL URVEY OF XVOODS ttOLE AND VICINITY. 

245 

C I,RT OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZAFIDS BAY 
S HOWING 
DIST.RIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 27.--Crisia eburnea. 



246 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAR'I" OF' 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
]3UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 
NEW BEDFORI)  

CHANT 28.--Tubulipora liliacea. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 247 

VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
S I-IOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION Ol  SPECIES 

NEW 



248 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHRT OF" 
VINEYA1RD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 3o.Bicellaria ciliata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOL] AND VICINITY. 

249 

C H,I:IT OF" 
VINEYARD NOUND 
BUZ ZAFIDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 3 x,--Bugula turrita. 



250 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYAID S 0 UND 
D 
EIUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

Ct.RT 32.--Membranipora pilosa. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF rOODS ItOLE AND VICINITY. 

25 

CHRT OF 
VINEX' D NOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAV 
$1qOWlNG 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 33.--Membranipora monostachys. 



252 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART 34.--Membranipora tenuis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

CHART OI " 
VINEYAI:ID SOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOW,NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CI-IART 35.--Membranipora flemingii. 



254 

BULLETIN OF TItE BUREAU OF FIStIERIE. 

CHART 36.--Membranipora aurita. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

255 

C H,«RT OI  
VINEYARD SOUND 
13UZ ZARDS BAY 
S HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFORI) 

CT 37.---Cribrilina punctata. 



56 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

NEW BE I)FORI 

ÇItART 38.--Schizoporella unieornis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF VOODS ttOLE AND VICINITY. 

257 

CHAR'I" OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
IUZ ZAHDS B.\V 
5HOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION Ol " SPEIES 

ffHART 39.--Schizoporella biaperta. 
x6z69°--Bull. 3 , pt 



258 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISItERIES. 

CH^Rr 4o.--Hippothoa hyalina. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLI AND V1CINITY. 259 

C H,*, RT OF" 
V! N-F_,YAR D SOUND 
AND 
[IUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOW|NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CrARr 4z.--Cellepora americatm. 



260 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FIHERIES. 

CART OF 
VINEYAIRD NOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY" 
SHOWNG 
DISTHIBUTION OF SPECIFS 

CH«RT 42.--Lepralia pallasiana and L. americana. 
Owing to a confusion of the records, the distribution of these two species bas been plotted upon 
a single chart. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY 26I 

CHANT OF 
\rlNEYARD SOUND 
13UZ ZARDS BAh r 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

Cu_.r 43---Lepralia pextusa. 



26"2 BULLETIN OF TItE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CUARZ 44.Smittia trispinosa nitida. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

263 

CHANT OF 
\'INEYARD SOUND 
lD 
13UZ ZARDS BAY 
5 HOWtNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF' SPECIES 

CHART 45.--Bowerbankia gracilis. 



:'64 

BULLETIN OF OEHE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
HUZ ZARDS BAY" 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

C.T 46.--Hippuraria armata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY O WOODS IDOLE AND VICINITY. 

265 

ŒE A "r OF 
VI NtgYAI::t D SOUND 
EIUZ ZAIRDS BAY 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

kÀIART 7.--I-Ienricia sanguinolenta. 



266 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHEIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
13UZ ZARDS BA  
5140WG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEC|ES 

CIx'r 48.--Asterias forbesi. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 26ï 

CHRT OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAS  
SHOW,NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEC[EN 

NEW BE 

CmT 49.--Asterias vulgaris. 



2 ULETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

NEW BE DFOID 

C^s 5o.--Amphlpholis squamata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE%" OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 260 

NEW DE D FOID) 

ÇHART 5t.---Strongylocentrotus droebachiensi_. See explanation of chart 26.) 



270 EULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIESo 

NEW 

C HAI'r OF 
VI N.EYAHD SOUND 
ND 
IUZ ZAFtDS BAV 
5 HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CJAIz 52.--Axbacia punctulata. (See explanation of chart -0.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF M:OODS HOLE AND X'ICINITY 27I 

CHART 53.--Echinarachaius parma. (See explaaation of chart 6.) 



272 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF F!SHER!ES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYA1RD NOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAS  
$ HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFO 

CHART 54.--Eulalia annulata. 



13IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 

273 

CIaARr 55.--Harrnothoë imbricata 
16269°--Bu11.3 I, pt 1--i3--i8 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

NEW EEDFOF ce 

CH'r 56.--Lepidonotus squamatus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

75 

C H A I::l T OF 
\'iNEYA1RD NOUND 
13UZ ZADS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 57.Nephthys incisa. 



276 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAR'I" 58.--Nephthys butera. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF %VOODS HOLE ,AND VICINIT¥. 277 

CHART OF 
VI NxfA1.D SOUND 
UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW B E DFOII 

CraRr 59.1Nereis pelagica. 



278 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAfT OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
ANO 
RUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWINO 
DISTRIBUTION OF' SPECIES 

CAR 6o.Platynereis megalops. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

279 

C H.RT OF 
"Vi NEYAID SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAV 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPE(JIES 

NEW BEDFOI 

CHART 6L--Marphysa leidyi. 



2SO BULLETIN OF THE BURExU OF FISHERIES. 

CH, T OF 
VINIYAD SOUND 
BUZ ZAttDN BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIHS 

NEW 

CIq.çx:r 6=.--Diopatra cuprea (tubes only). 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 'OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 2SI 

CnnR 63.--Mabella opalina. 



282 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

GH.T OF" 
VINEY.A1RD S 0 UND 
IUZ ZARDS BAY 
S HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHANT 64.--Lumbrineris hebes. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF W*OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 283 

C.Rr 65.--Ninoê uigripes. 



284 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Cn.r 66.--Rhynchobolus americanus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ,VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

CI-IART 6 7 --Chtetopterus pergamentacetts (tubes only). 



86 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHER1ES 

CHA RT OF" 
V'INEYRD SOUND 
AI'D 
I3UZZARDS BAY 
5HOWNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

Cmax, 68.--Spiochoetopterus oculatus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 287 

C H,T OF" 
VINEYAID SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 09.--Leproea rubra. 



288 

BULLETIN OF TItE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

NEW 

CHART 7o.--Pista :ntermedia. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 289 

CHANT OF 
\,qNEYARD SOUND 
ND 
I3UZ ZAllDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE D FO|D 

R^Rr 71.--Pista palmata. 
x669°--Bull. 3 t, pt 



290 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CIIART 72.--Polycirrus eximeus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

29 

CH.RT OF 
VINEYA1RD .N O UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF' SPEClES 

NEW BE DFOID. 

CUART 73.--Ampharete setosa. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

C H., RT OF 
VINEYARD S OUND 
A/'4D 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
S HOWIN( 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

Ci»a 74.--Melinna maculata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

293 

CNART OF 
VINEYARDSOUND 
AtD 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHARS" 75.---Cistenides gouldii. 



94 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C H,tT OF" 
VINEYAID S 0 UND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHAR'I' 76.--Clymenella torquata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF "WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

e95 

VINEYARD SOUND 
BU Z ZA1RDS BAY 
S N 0w, NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CT 7 7---Maldane elongata. 



296 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAIT OF 
VINEYARD S OUND 
IUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OP SPECIES 

NEW BEl 

CHART 78.--Trophonia aflïnis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLI AND VICINITY. 

297 

CHanT OF" 
VINEYAID S OUND 
13UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOW«NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

I-I^R 79.Parasabella microphthalmia. 



.-,9 8 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C H,&I T OF" 
VINEYA1RD N 0 UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

Crar 8o.--Pseudopotamilla oeulifera. " 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 299 

CHART OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
[3UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOW,NG 
DISTRIBUTION OP SPECIEN 

NEW BE DFORD 

CH,RT 8z.--Hydroides dianthus. 



300 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

VI NEYA1RD NOUND 
IUZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE D FOID 

CHART 82.--Sabellaria vulgaris. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 301 

,CHRT OF 
VI NEYAIqD _OUND 
.lq D 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFO 

 83.--Phascoliotl strombi. 



302 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

 HIT OF 
VINEYA1RD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEGIES 

NEW 

CaRT 84.--Balanus eburneus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 303 

CIART 85.--Lysianopsis alba. 



304 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

NEW BEDFORD 

CItAR 86.--Haustorius arenarius. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

305 

VINEYA1RD S 0 UND 
]UZ ZARDS BAY 
ShOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE DFORD() 

CttART 87.--Ampelisca macrocephala. 
6269°--Bu11.3 , pt t--x3o 



306 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHART OF' 
VINEY.ARD NOUND 
AND 
13UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

Cigx 88.--Ampelisca spinipes. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

307 

CHART OF 
VIN_A1RD N O UND 
IUZ ZARDS BA r 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

C.R: 89.--Byblis serrata. 



308 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAR'T OF 
VINEYAFID S;OUND 
A.t D 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFOHD 

CHART 9o.--Calliopius loeviusculus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY O1 WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 309 

NEW 

CIl'ART 9 x.-Pontogenia inermis. 



3IO BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHANT OF" 
VINEYAYID N 0 UND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEçIES 

CIIART 92.]3atea secunda. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT'. I I 

CHRT OF 
VINEYAYD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDN BAY 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW" 

CrARI" 93.Gammarus annulatus. 



I2 13ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
V[NEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECES 

CI-IART 94.--Elasmopus lœevis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 313 

CHAIT OF' 
VINEY.AIRD S 0 UND 
ANO 
BUZ ZA, RDS BAY 
SHOWNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHART 95.--Antonoë smithi. 



314 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CI-IART OF 
VINEYA1RD NOUND 
BUZ ZAIïlDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF' SPEClES 

CttART 96.--Ptilocheirus pinguis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT r. 

35 

CHART OF' 
VINEYARD SOUND 
B U Z ZARD 5; BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CmR 97.--Amphithoë rubricata. 



316 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD S 0 UNI 
AD 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
S I-IOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEID 

Ca.R 98.Jassa marmorata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VIClNITY. 317 

CFIART 99.--Ericthonius minax. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

GHART 0- 
VINEY.AID NOUND 
AND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWNG 
D1STttIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHANT Ioo.--Corophium cylindricum. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

319 

CH,RT OF » 
VINEYAD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

,  
NEW BEDFOID) 

(IffART IOi.--Uaciola irrorata. 



320 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHANT OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BA¥ 
SHOW|NO 
DISTRIBUTION. OF SPECIES 

CI-IAPT io2.--Caprellidoe sp. 

Owing to a confusion in the earlier records, the distributions of tvo nmmbers of this family 
(Caprella geometdca and zEginella longicornis), and possibly some others, bave been plotted upon a 
single chart. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY 32I 

CHART OF' 
V|NEYARD SOUND 
A 
BUZ ZARDS BAY" 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

"NEW BEDFO 

CHART zo3.--Leptochelia savlgnyi. 
x6269°--Bu[l. 3 x, pt x--x3--2x 



322 

BULLETIN OF THIE BUREAU OF FISHERIIES. 

CH,&T OF 
VINEYAID SOUND 
AND 
BUZZARDS 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEÇIES 

NEW BE DFOII 

CHART o4.Idothea balt]ca. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 323 

CHART OF 
VINEYA1RD 0UND 
BUZ ZAFIDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECES 

NEW BE 

CHART o5.--Idothea phosporea. 



324 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CrmRT xo6.--Erichsonella filiformis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 325 

CHART O" 
VINEYARD NOUND 
ALOI) 
13UZ ZARDS BAY" 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE DFOIRD) 

(2RT xo7.--Crago septemspinosus. 



326 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CH.ART o8.--Homarus americanus 



BIOLOGICAL SURV]Y OF WOODS HOL] AND VICINITY. 2 7 

CHART xo0.--Pagurus pollicaris. 



328 BLLETIN OF THE BREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINE'hSOEID S OUND 
,AND 
B.U.Z ZAR D S BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION Ol  SPECES 

CI^RT x o.--Pagurus acadimaus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 329 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CItART I I I.--Pagurus longicarpus. 



33 ° BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AIID 
BUZ ZARDS BAi" 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 112.--Pagurus amaulipes. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 331 

CH,T OF 
VINEYAI:tD SOUND 
IUZ ZAIDS 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEÇIES 

CHS 3.Pelia mutica. 



332 BULLETIN OF TItE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C H , I::lT OF' 
VINEYAID S 0UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CAgw  x4---Libi'nia emargi'nata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 333 

CHART OF 
VllXIEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS IBAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

.--Cancer irroratus. 



334 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

NEW I3 

CmuT xx6.Cancer borealis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 'OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 335 

CItAR ii7.lOvalipes ocellatus. 



336 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C H,, I::1T OF 
VINEYARD NOUND 
EIUZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF .SPECES 

CHART I I8.--Neopanope texana sayi. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVIY OF WOODS HOLI AND VICINITY. 

337 

CI-IART I z9.--Pinnotheres maculatus. 
669°BulI. 3, pt. --r3zz 



338 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CH,RT OF" 
VINEYAID SOUND 
I3UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CIIART x2o.--Tanystylum orbiculare. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF "VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

339 

CART  .--Anoplodactylus lentus. 



34o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CH,RT OF' 
V[NEYARD SOUND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 22.--Ostrea virginica. (See explanation of chart 26 0 
The distribution pattern for the oyster, as here portrayed, i largely a spurious one, due to the 
occurrence of shells thrown overboard from passing vessels. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 341 

CHART x23.--Anomia simplex. (See explanation of chart -6.) 



342 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

Crt«R x24.--Anomia aculeata. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥ 343 

CHART OF 
VINIYA1RD N O UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

Cr«R x25.--Pecten magellanictts. (See explanation of chart 260 



344 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

NEW BEDFOD 

CuART xz6.--Pecten gibbus borealis. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VlCINITY. 345 

CHART x27.Myfilus edulis. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



346 BULLETI_N OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAR'Il" OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
t3UZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE DFORD) 

CHART xz8.--Modiolus modiolus. (See explanation of chart .-6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS IfOLE AND VICINITY. 347 

CHART i29.--Modiolaria nigra. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



348 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

VINEY.ARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE DF01RD 

CImZ x3o.Crenella glandula. (Sec explanation of chart 6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 349 

C H..IT OF 
VINEYAD SOUND 
131_lZ ZAHDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF-SPECIES 

NEW BE DFOID 

CART i3i.--Arca ponderosa. (8ee explanation Dr chaxt 26.) 



35o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CIAgX x3.--Arca trasversa. (See explanation of chart 6l) 



]3IOLOGICAL SURVF, Y OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

35 

CHART OF" 
V'INEYARD SOUND 
t'lD 
BUZ ZARDS BA 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 
NEW . 

CmRX x33.--Arca campechiensis pe_xata. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



352 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART 34.--Nucula proxima. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

353 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AD 
EIUZ ZARDS BAi" 
5; HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

@ @ 
@ 

@ 
® 
® 
® 
® 

@ 

® 
® 

® 
@ 
® 

® 
@ 

® 
® 

C[-IART 35.--Voldia limatula. (See explanation of chart 26 ) 
x669°--Bull. 3 , pt 



354 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHART OF 
VINI'f'I:tD SOUND 
IBUZ ZAIRDN BAY 
$ NOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

C2Rr 36.--Solemya velum. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

355 

CHART OF 
VINEYAD SOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
HOWlN( 
DISTRIBUTION OF- SPECIES 

NEW BE 

CH.T x37.--Venericardia borealis. (See explanation of chart 26 ) 



356 

BI. LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISIIERIES. 

CH,&T OF" 
VINEYA1RD N 0 UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
'HOW I NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CtART i38.--Astarte tmdata. (See explanation of chart 26 0 



IIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 357 

CAT OF 
\INEYA1RD SOUND 
b, ID 
I3UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW IE I)FOII 

Il 

CHART x3o.--Astarte castanea. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



358 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

NEW 

VINEYAID SOUND 
BUZ ZAIïlDS BAY" 
SHOWJNG 
DISTHIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CItART 4o.--Crassinella mactracea. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEV OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

359 

CHART x4x.--Divaricella quadrisulcata. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



36o 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CH AR'I OF 
VINEYARD S 0 UND 
I3UZ ZARDN BAY 
SHOW|NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CH.«RT 142.--Cardium pinnulatum. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 361 

CHanT OF 
V-INEYARD S 0 UND 
&ND 
BUZ ZAFIDS B-\" 
S IIIOW,NG 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART i43.--Lœevicardium mortoni. (See explanation of chart 26 ) 



362 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF" 
\'INE'A1RD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAV 
SHOWtNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CltAR'f x44.--Cyclas islandica. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 363 

CHAçT OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
KIUZ ZARDS BAY 
SH0WlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART x4$.Venus mercenaria. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



364 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF F1SHERIES. 

VI NEYAt-tD ;OUND 
BUZ ZAFIDS BAY 
5 HOW/ING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE 

CHRT 146.--Callocardia morrhuana. (See explanation of cha 260 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF V(OODS HOLE AND VlfilNITY. 

365 

CHART OF' 
VINEYAID SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY" 
S H[:)WING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFORD 

CRT x47.1petricola pholadiformis. (See explanation of chart z6.) 



366 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

VINEYARD SOUND 
IUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CH&RT I48.--Tagelus gibbus. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGIçAL SRVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VIçlNITY. 

367 

CHART z49.Tellina tenera. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



368 BULLETIN OF THI BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

VI NEY'ARD SOUND 
AND 
SHOW«NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CI-IART i5o.--Macoma tenta. (Sec cxplanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 369 

CHART 
VINEYARD SOUND 
DUZ ZAID S 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHxT 5.--Ensis directus. (See explanation of chart 26. ) 
I6e69 °-Bull. 3L pt --3--e4 



5;0 

BULLITIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C H, IT OF 
VINEYABD SOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAN 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFOR 

CI-IART x52.--Cumingia tellinoides. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

371 

CHART i53.--Spisula solidissima. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



,.372 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

VINEYARD SOUND 
HUZZAHDS B.\V 
5HOWING 
DI-STRIIUTION OF SPEIE 

NEW BEDFORD 

» 

CHAR i54.--Mulinia lateralis. (See explanation of chart m6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 373 

CmRr 155.--Thracia conradi. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



374 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHAI:Il" OF 
VINEYAHD NOUND 
BUZ ZAIDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF" SPECIE,'-'; 

NEW 

CH.Ra' x56.--Cochlodesma leanum. (See explanation of chart z6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 375 

VINEYAID SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION" OF SPECIES 

CHART 57.--Lyonsia hyalina. (See explanation of chart -6.) 



376 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHART OF 
VINIYAID S 0 UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

® 

CJART 58.--Clidiophora gouldiana. (See explanation of chart a6.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

377 

C.«RZ z59.--Corbula contracta. (Sec explanation of chart 



378 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF F[SHERIES. 

CHART OF" 
VI NFYAID N 0 UND 
l'qD 
IUZ ZARDS BAY" 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CART i6o.--Mya arenaria. (Sec explanation of chart 26 ) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF W'OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 379 

CHART OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CH,mT i6i.--Chœetopleura apiculata. 
Despite the omissiott of the cixcles from this chart, nearly ail of our records are for living 
specimens. 



380 BULLETIN OF THI BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART Oi r 
VINEYAHD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW IED 

CART z62.--Tornatina canaliculata. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

CHARç x63.--Cylichnella oryza. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C H, IT OF 
VINEYABD SOUND 
BUZ ZAFIDS BAY 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

® 

IEW 

@ 

@ 

CZART I64.--Busycon canaliculatum. ($ee explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SI_'RVEY OF WOODS IqOLE AND VIClNIT¥. 383 

ÇIIART x65.--]3usycon carica. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



384 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

C N. lq T OF' 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTIRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW lq E D FOIRD( 

CRARZ x66.--Buccinum undatum. (Sec explanation of chart 26 0 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS tIOLE AND VICINITY. 35 

VINEYARD SOUND 
AI0 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF NPECIES 

CHART I67.--Tritia trivittata. (See explanation of chart 26.) 
I6269°--Bu11.31, pt i--x3--25 



386 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD NOUND 
BUZ ZARDN BAh r 
SPIOWING 
DISTRIB.UTION OF SPECIES 

CHART I68.--Ilyanassa obsoleta. (See explanation of chart 6.) 
For the most part shells which had been transported by hermit crabs. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE:Y OF' WOODS HOLE AND VIClNITY. 387 

CHART OF" 
VINEYARD NOUND 
AND 
IUZ ZAHDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

"NEW BEDFOI 

CHART x69.--Anachis avara. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



CUART xTo.--Astyris lunata. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 389 

CHAçT OF 
VINEYARD NOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOW,NG 
DISTRIBVTION OF SPECIES 

Ca.Rr z?x.Eupleura caudata. (See explanation of chart a6.) 



39 ° 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AtD 
BUZZARDS BA7 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE 

CtAR7 x72.Urosalpinx cinereus. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



 BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 391 

CHART OF" 
VINIYARD SOUND 
IUZ ZARDS BAh r 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OP SPEGIES 

Ctt.RT z73.Eulima conoidea. (See explanation of chart z6.) 



392 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF" 
VINEYARD NOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

C{^Rnr x74.--Turbonilla sp. (See explanation of chart 6.) 
Owing to a confusion in the earlier records, tlae distribution of ail members of this gents laas been 
plotted upon a single chart. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 393 

VINEYAID S OUND 
IBUZ Z.RDS BAY 
HOWING 
DIS.TRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CUARr x75.--Seila terebralis. (See explanation of chart 6.) 



394 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAIT OF 
VINtYAYID SOUND 
I:3UZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF' SPECIES 

NEW" 

CHART I76.Cerithiopsis emersonii. (Sec explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

395 

V[NEY.ARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWINO 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART i77.--littium alternatum. (Sec explanation of chart 26°) 



 6 
09 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINIYA1RD NOUND 
BUZ ZAIRDS; BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF' SPECIES 

CnART x18.--Cœecum cooperi. (Sec explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 397 

CHRT OF" 
V[NEYARD SOUND 
AND 
EIUZ ZARDS 
SI-IOWNG 
DIST[tlBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CIAI x79.--Vermicularia spirata. (See explanation of chart a6.) 



398 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU Ol FISHERIES. 

VINEYARD SOUND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAN" 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART i8o.--Littorina litorea. (See explanation of chart 26.) 
In nearly every case these records are for sheIls which ]lad been transported by hermit crabs. 



]3IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 399 

CHAR'I" O 
VINIYA1RD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART x8x.--Lactma puteola. (See explanation of chaxt 26.) 



400 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

® 

CH^Rr i82.--42rucibulum striatum. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

4OI 

CH«RT x83.--Crepidula fornicata. (Sec explanation of chart 26.) 
x669°--Bull. 3 r pt. r--r3--6 



402 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CnaRT 84.--Crepidula convexa. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SI_RVEV OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT.. 

403 

CHART x85.--Crepidula plana. (Sec explanation of chart 26.) 



404 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CH' I86.--Polynices duplicata. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 405 

VINEYARD SOUND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

Cmr t87.--Polynices heros. (Sec explanation of chart 26.) 



406 BULLETIN Oit THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHANT x88.--Polyaxices triseriata. (See explanation of chart 26.) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

407 

CH»a: 189.--Loligo pealii. 



408 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

C HAIT OF' 
V[NEYAD NOUND 
BUZ ZADS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART I9o.--Molgula arenata and Eugyra glutinans. 

The stars of solid black denote those stations from which the first-named species was recorded, the 
dotted stars denoting those stations from which the second was recorded. Owing to the probability 
that these two species were in some cases confused, their occurrence bas been plotted ttpon a single 
chart. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 409 

CHART OF 
V[NEYARD SOUND 
AO" 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART x9I.--Molgula manhattensis. 



410 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

V[NEYA1RD SOUND 
IUZ.ZARDN BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIE 

NEW BED 

Cm¢g'r r92.Styela partita. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 4II 

ÇHART OF" 
M[NEYARD S0UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
$.OwlG 
DISTFI|BUTION OF NPECIES 

NEW BE D FORD( 

CARr x93.--Perophora viridis. 



BULLETIN OF TI-IE BUREAU OF FISI-IERIES. 

Cu,a x94.--Didern'um ltttarium. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY 

43 

CHART OF" 
VINEYAID SOUND 
iUZZARDN BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFO 

CHART x95.--Amarou¢ium pellucidum. 



44 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Cri^re" 96.--Amaroucium pellucidum constellatum. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 415 

VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS; BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES' 

NEW BE 

CHART i97.--Amaroucium stellatum. 



416 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHART OF 
VINEYAtD SOUND 
IUZ ZARDS BAY 
¢SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFO 

CHAR'£ r98.Raja erinacea. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

CHART OF" 
V[NEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SH0WNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART x99.Syngnathus fuscus. 
x6269°--Bull. 3 z, pt I--I3--2 7 



418 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHAR 2oo.Ammodytes americanus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURV]Y OF WOODS HOL] AND VICINITY. 419 

(H , çT OF" 
\;INEYAD NOUND 
ArqD 
IUZ ZARDS BAY 
HOWING 
.DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFORD 

CH,RT oi.--Stenotous chrysops. 



42O 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

VI NEYAlD -SO UND 
lUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION O[  SPECIES 

NEW 

CH&RT 202.--Tautogolabru adspersus. 



]3IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF hrOODS HOLE AND VICIN1TY. 

421 

ç HAR'I" 01  
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
$ HOVVING 
DISTRII3UTION OF SPECIES 

NE.W 

CH^lZ o3.1Spheroides maculatus. 



422 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIIS. 

CHART OF" 
V[NEYARD SOUND 
AND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CIIART 2o4.--Myoxocephalus mrteus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITV. 

423 

CHART 2o5.--Prionotus carolims. 



424 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C 4 , IT OF 
V[NEYAD SOUND 
IUZ 7ARDS BAY 
SHDWING 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHART o6.Pholis gtmellus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 42 

VINEYAID SOUND 
BUZ ZAIïlDS BAY 
SHOWING 
D1STIIBUTION OF SPECIE 

NEW 

CIART 207.-Paralichthys dentatus. 



426 

BULLETIN OF THI BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF" 
V[NEYA1RD SOUND 
BUZZARDS 
S HDWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 2oS.--Paraliehthys oblongus. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 427 

CI-IART 2o9.--Pseudopleuronectes americanus 



428 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD NOUND 
t3UZ ZARDS B.sA" 
5HOWING 
DISTIIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

C}tART 2io.--Lophopsetta maculata. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VlCINITY. 429 

TEMPERATURE CHART 
AUGUST 1907 
UPP£R F'I6URE DENOT¢'S TEMPE:RATURE AT SURI:'ACI:" 
LOWER -- » -- ., BDTTOM 

70.7 

U 

6.8 

CHART 21 i.--Temperature throughout Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sotmd, August, z9o 7. 



43 ° BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

$0.0 

CHART 2z2.--Temperature throughout ]3uzzards Bay and Vineyard Sotmd, November, z9o 7. 



13IOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 431 

TEMPERATURE CHART 
MARCH 1908 
UPPER fIGURE DEI0TE$ TEMPERATURE AT SURFACE 
L0ER ........ BOTTOM 

CI:fART 2 x3.--Temperature throughout 13uzzards 13ay and Vineyard Sound, Match, z9o8. 



432 BULLETIN OF THI BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

TEMPERATURE CHART 
,.TUNE .1900 
UPPER FIGURF.. OEIIOTF..' TEMPF..RATURE AT SURFÀCç.. 

CI-IAR'r 214.--Temperature throughout Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, June, I9o8. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

433 

1 ] I 

DEIXISIT Y CHART 
AUGUST 1907 
UPPER rlGURF" DEftDTF__$ OF_-ftSITY AT ,SURFACE 
LOWCR " , "" " • BOTTO 

10255 

.0255 

1.02 9 
,.od 0 

I I 

L0237 

CA 2xs.--Densitythroughout Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sotmd, August 9o7 . 
x6269°--Bull. 3, pi 



434 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

, i 

i 

DENSITY CHAIRT 
NOVFII MBE. R 1907 
UPPER FIGURE DEINOTICS DF'IN,ITY AT $uRFIIAçI,,IE 
LOWIrR «  " ", BDTTOM 

CHaRr z6.--Density throughout Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, November, x9o7. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEV OF XVOODS HOLE AND VICINITVo 435 

CnART 27.--Density throughout Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Match, 9o8. 



436 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHtRIF, S. 

DENSITY CHART 
,5 (.JNE 1908 
UPPER FIGURE EOTE$ DESIT AT SURFACE 
LOWF_ oo ,, -- -- BOTTOM 

J,OP.Sz 

CHaRT 218.--Deusity throughout Buzzards Bay and Vineyar.d Sound, June, 9o8. 



I 
Y OF THE YEA 1 
SEPTEMBE 

IT.I_"?T.. " ':'.: 
" -lk,,-,! " F i ........... 
:ï, "ÇI .ç\' : Il v 
..  
[t: I ....... 
I't "ïl .................. ,., 
[:: .... .... 
I1 ............ 
IL ............. 
I: .--.::::.:.t .... 
I:1[ .............. 
I:1: ................ 
I;I 
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 
;_.; ;;;;..;;;I .... ,,, 
I1"  ........ 
I'1 
I[1";;1 -' ......... 
I:1 ..................... 
I1; .................. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 437 

55" 

IY 46 49 5 5@59 62 

 40 40 39 39 40 
Cî 4 3 4 51 55 
0 61 65 67 60 66 
yjC. Hatteraa 
/./" 6 "69 67 Ç 6 

60" 

CHART 22o.--Sttrface temperatures, northwestern Atlantic Ocean, during January, February, Match, 
and April. (Furnished by Hydrographic Office, United States Navy Department, from com- 
pilation of British Meteorological Office.) 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

$5 

$$" 80 80 

 9 64 65 69 72 74 
74 78 78 78 79 
7 0 80 79 80 
7" 60 

CHART z.r.--Surf-ce temperatures, nortlwestern Atlantic Ocean, during lIay, June, July, and August. 
(Furaished by Hydrographic OoEce, Lnited States Na,,-y Department, from compilation of British 
Meteorological Office ) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 439 

Sëtember  - 
 59 5 60 3 62 
CI Cod. 

6 

55" 

CHART 222.--Surface temperatures, northwestern Atlantic Ocean, dnring September, October, Novem- 
ber, and December. (Furnished by Hydrographic Office, United States Na y Department, from 
compilation of British Meteorological Office.) 



440 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



BIOLOGICA SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 441 

0 R 



0 N AU T=ICAL MLLES 

41°zo'-. 



Section II.--BOTANICAL. 
General Characteristics of the Algal Vegetation of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard 
Sound in the Vicinity of Woods Hole. 
By BRADLEY MOORE DAVIS. 

Chapter I.--INTRODUCTION. 
Ever sinee the publication of Harvey's "Nereis Boreali-Amerieana," in 852, I857, 
it bas been reeognized that the marine algoe of the Atlantie eoast of North Ameriea 
svere separated by Cape Cod into two floras. The distinction was diseussed in detail in 
Farlow's report "The Marine Algoe of New England," t88t, and in his earlier "List of 
the Sea-weeds or Marine Algoe of the South Coast of New England," 873. The work 
of later algologists bas only served to emphasize the fundamental differenees between 
the two marine floras, and the results of this survey add further evidenee in support of 
this general conclusion. 
Similar conclusions bave been reaehed by zoologists respeeting the distribution of 
marine animals north and south of Cape Cod. The fauna from the cape northsvard to 
Labrador is regarded as essentially a eontinuous one, with no changes that are com- 
parable to those which appear southward. Tsvo faunas separated by Cape Cod bave 
thus been distinguished, and there seems to be a differenee between these similar to that 
between the two marine floras. The most important reasons for the differenee between 
the faunas and floras north and south of Cape Cod are undoubtedly the saine. 
The marine algoe north of Cape Cod, as pointed out by Farlosv (x88x), are in general 
a part and eontinuation of the flora of Greenland and Newfoundland. Manv of the 
most eharaeteristie speeies of the flora, as judged quantitatively, are identieal with those 
of the Seandinavian eoast, and it seems elear that the algoe of the west and east side of 
the north Atlantie are a part of a general Atlantie boreal flora. 
The reason for the boreal charaeter of the algal flora north of Cape Cod is undoubt- 
edlv the low range of temperature which prevails even through the warmer months of 
the year. The eoast is bathed by a belt of cold water that lies between the eoast and 
the Gulf Stream, this belt being from 2o0 to o toiles broad off a large part of the Nev 
England toast, although the Gulf Stream is only about 8o toiles from Marthas Vineyard 
and Nantueket. The temperature of these waters, exeept in sheltered situations, only 
reaches 60 ° F. or slightly above for a few weeks in midsummer, and for the greater part 
of the year is below 5o °, and remains below 4 °o throughout the winter. The explanation 
of this condition involves a number of factors, whieh are diseussed in section , ehapter 
It, pages 35 and St, to whieh the reader is referred for details. The most important 
point for present eonsideration is the undisputed faet of the presence of a belt of rela- 
tively eold water north of Cape Cod, lying between the Gulf Stream and the Nesv 
England shores, which directlv influences the algal flora. 
The marine algoe south of Cape Cod mav be grouped into what Harvey 085-% p. 6) 
ealls the flora of Long Island Sound, extending from Cape Cod to New Jersey. It includes 
443 



444 BULLETIN O1' THE BUREAU O1' I'ISHERIES. 
a large number of species not round at all north of Cape Cod and some that bave been 
reported only in a few sheltered situations where the temperature of the summer undoubt- 
edly rises much above the average of the general region. It comprises certain species 
which are present in the north Adriatic and other parts of the Mediterranean and some 
that are found south of New Jersey, in the West Indies, and in other warmer seas. The 
generaIly sandy character of the coast from New Jersey southward serves to separate 
the flora of Long Island Sound from that of Key West and the West Indies. Certain 
species that are typicaIIy northern or arctic in their habitats are found all the year round 
in some localities south of Cape Cod where the conditions are sufficiently favorable for 
their growth, and a number of other species appear in the winter season. However, 
the algal flora of the summer stands in sharp contrast to that north of Cape Cod, and 
resembles in many respects the floras of warmer seas, although a number of important 
groups, characteristic of such regions, are hot represented in the flora of Long Island 
Sound. 
The reasons for the peculiarities which are noticed at once in the algal flora south 
of Cape Cod are in general quite as evident as are those for the boreal characteristics 
north of the cape. Cape Cod forms a barrier which holds the cold waters of the north 
somewhat as in a pocket and greatly checks their mingling directly with the waters of 
Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds to the south. Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard, 
together with various shoals, form barriers which still further protect these sheltered 
sounds from the cooler water which lies off such exposed points as Gay Head and No 
Mans Land. This offshore cooler water is probably an extension of the.cold belt north 
of Cape Cod, which continues southward around the cape. The proximity of the Gulf 
Stream, which lies only about 80 nautical toiles off the coast of Nantucket, is also a 
factor of considerable importance. While the Gulf Stream does hot send any well- 
marked side currents toward the coast, it nmst, nevertheless, greatly modify the tem- 
perature of the water which lies between it and the shore. It is well known that southerlv 
storms bring surface water from the Gulf Stream toward the coast, for masses of gulf- 
weed, Æargassum bacci]erum, with animal inhabitants characteristic of sargasso seas 
(such as the nudibranch, Æcyllœeea pelagica, certain crabs, Planes minutus and Portunus 
sayi, and the fish Pterophryne historio) are hot infrequently round in Vineyard Sound 
and other bodies of water, especially where tidal currents are so strong as to bring them 
near to land. 
The waters south of Cape Cod, embracing such bodies as Vineyard Sound, Buzzards 
Bay, Narragansett Bay, Ldng Island Sound, and the regions that lie between, are then 
effectively protected from the influence of the cold water north and east of the cape, and 
consequently are able to become relatively warm during the summer months. The fact 
that these waters are generally shallow permits them to respond very quickly to the 
atmospheric changes at different seasons and makes possible great extremes during the 
year. Their temperature in the winter falls close to freezing point, but rises in the 
summer to 7 °0 F. and above. Some of the most sheltered harbors and bays may even 
become much warmer than that during the summer, while they regularly freeze over in 
the winter. Such a wide range of temperature throughout the year permits a great 
variety in the life conditions, which is expressed by sharp seasonal changes in the char- 
acter of the flora. It is the high temperature of the summer which at this season accounts 
for the development of the characteristic summer algal flora with its resemblance to the 
floras of southern seas. 



Chapter II.--SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALG,ZE AT 
WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

I. THE COAST. 

The shore line of ,Voods Hole, of the Elizabeth Islands, and of neighboring regions 
along Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay is in some respects remarkably varied (see 
chart 225), but lacks certain important physical features present in other localities. 
The coast, wherever exposed to wave action or ride currents, is composed of bowlders 
and stones or consists of sandy and stony beaches. This is because the bowlders and 
stones have remained at the shore line as the finer material of the glacial deposits covering 
this region was vashed away by the erosion of the coast. The sheltered coves, bays, 
and harbors vill generally have a sandy or muddy shore, sometimes gravelly, with scat- 
tered groups of stones or bowlders. There are also small salt marshes connected with 
some of the coves, as at Quisset and HaSley Harbor. There are no outcroppings of 
rock, except in the vicinity of New Bedford Harbor, to make possible perpendicular 
or slanting ledges and rock pools. An account of the geography of the region, together 
with the character of the shores, is given in section t, chapter t, pages 28 and 29. 
For the reasons stated above one misses some of the very characteristic associa- 
tions of algoe which may be noted in tide pools and along the sides of rock masses where 
there is opportunity for the development of conspicuous bands or zones of vegetation 
between tide marks and below--associations that are well illustrated in such localities 
as Newport and at Nahant, near Boston. A shore of bowlders presents a broken line 
at the water's edge which can hot show to full advantage the distribution of algoe in 
zones. There are good illustrations of zonation in places, but they are on a comparatively 
small scale and become evident only as groups of rocks or parts of the shore are studied 
in detail, as was done for Spindle Rocks in the harbor of Woods Hole, to be described 
later (pages 476-479)- Another factor that works against the conspicuous zonation 
of algoe in this region is the relatively small ride, vhich does not give much opportunity 
for the development of broad zones of differentiated algal growth. 

2. THE BOTTOM IN DEEPER WATER. 

As vould be expected in an area of glacial drift, the bottom offshore and in the 
deeper portions of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound mav consist of sand, gravel, or 
stones, with or without deposits of mud, but is frequently of a more or less mixed or 
spotted character. Channels swept by swift rides are likely to be stony and sandy, 
while sheltered coves, bays, or other regions, free from the scoufing action of tidal 
currents, usually have a muddy bottom. The ledges or other areas composed of bowl- 
ders are simply pi'ns of stones heaped together where they were laid after the finer 
matrix of the glacial drift had been washed avay. The muddy bottoms are due to 
deposits of silt where the water is suflïciently quiet because of its depth, or because of 
the absence of tidal currents or wave action suflïciently strong to prevent the accumu- 

445 



446 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

lation and settling of finer material. A detailed description of the bottom characters 
will be round in section I, chapter II, pages 29-33, and the peculiarities are graphically 
presented on chart 227. 
The luxuriance and to a large extent the nature of the algal vegetation depends 
upon the character of the bottom. Rocky, stony, and shelly bottoms are the most 
favorable for the attachment of algœe and, in general, support the heaviest growths of 
marine vegetation. Sandy and muddy bottoms are less favorable and are generally 
very barren, although some species are confined to such situations. It is clear that 
the shifting nature of sand and mud, frequently stirred by rides and storms, presents 
conditions very unfavorable for the germination of algal spores, which quickly become 
covered by sediment. Sandy or muddy bottoms are, however, apparently necessarv 
for the development of extensive beds of the eel grass, Zostera ,narina. 

3. THE TIDES AND TIDAL CURRENTS. 

As stated before, the tides at Woods Hole and adjacent portions of Buzzards Bay 
and Vineyard Sound are of relatively slight amplitude. There is considerable variation 
at different points in the Bay and Sound and in the harbor of Woods Hole, due to the 
peculiarities of the tidal currents in the region. At Woods Hole, on the Sound side, 
and in Vineyard Haven the average ride is i .7 feet, at Gay Head it is 3 feet, in Buzzards 
Bay at Woods Hole 4- feet. With such small tides it is clear that the strip along the 
shore habitable for a littoral algal flora--that is, a flora above the lowest tide mark--could 
not be very broad. It is generally only a few feet wide, and one notices at once in this 
region that the receding tide fails to expose broad stretches of rock, sand, or mud in the 
manner characteristic of the coast north of Cape Cod, where the rides are much greater. 
The arrangement of the land that bounds Vineyard and Nantucket Sounds is 
responsible for the remarkable tidal currents that flow east and west in Vineyard 
Sound, and in and out of Buzzards Bay through the channels of Woods Hole, Robin- 
sons Hole, and Quicks Hole. These tidal currents must be very effective in distribut- 
ing algal spores, and it seems probable that the rapidity with which algal vegetation 
springs up af ter each change of season (as over areas scraped clear bv floating ice) 
must be due, at least in large measure, to the tidal currents. It is certain that anv 
alga which develops large crops of spores has by such means the opportunity of dis- 
tributing these very rapidly throughout practically all of the waters of this region. 
This factor must be of considerable importance in securing the almost universal presence 
of some species that can grow under a wide range of lire conditions, as well as the 
appearance of others at distantly separated stations. 

4. THE EFFECT OF ICE. 

The upper portions of Buzzards Bay are at rimes during the winter more or less 
completely frozen over, and small harbors, such as Little Harbor at Woods Hole, may 
have a thick covering of ice. Sheltered portions of the coast, wh_'_" ch are not exposed 
to suif or stong tidal currents, are fringed with ice. There is also much floating ice in 
the Bay and Sound consisting of large cakes which corne from the breaking up of larger 
masses. This floating ice is swept by the rides back and forth in the Bay and Sound 
and through such channels as Woods Hole. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS ItOLE AND VICINITY. 

447 

The movement of the ice along the shore and through the channels, whether due 
to the fise and fall of the tide, to storms, or to tidal currents, serves to scrape bare the 
large stones and bowlders, wherever they are exposed, so that they are frequently 
almost or entirely free from algoe in the spring when the ice disappcars. These effects 
are particularly evident on the exposed shore line of the upper portion of Buzzards 
Bay and in portions of Vineyard Sound, where the rocks in the winter are hot only bare 
of algoe, but alsoat rimes free from the common barnacle (Balanus balanoides) which 
covers their surfaces in the summer. This action of the ice along exposed shores and 
channels thus prevents or greatly reduces the littoral growth during the winter, when 
the conditions are most favorable for the development of a very characteristic flora, 
with species of the rockweeds (Fucaceoe) as the most conspicuous forms. If it were 
hot for these facts we should expect in the winter heavy fringes of rockweeds along the 
shore, for these grow Iuxuriantl); where thev are not exposed to the scraping of the ice, 
as, for example, along the shore of Cuttyhunk and elsewhere in the lower portion of 
Buzzards Bay and the westerly portion of Vineyard Sound. 
The scraping effects of ice on a particular group of rocks may be better understood 
by compafing chart 267 of Spindle Rocks with chart 274 and the charts that show the 
coming in of the spring and summer floras after the ice has disappeared (charts 268, 269, 
and 270 ). Rocks which are perfectly bare after the winter become thickly covered 
during the spring and summer with algoe characteristic of these seasons. 

5. DEPTH OF WATER. 

Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound are relatively shallow bodies of water. As 
may be seen from chart 227, at only a few stations was a depth greater than 18 fathoms 
obtained. There were a number of stations with a depth between 14 and I7/ fathoms, 
but by far the larger number in the middle regions of both Bay and Sound were between 
8 and 14 fathoms. The Bay in general gradually deepens toward the lower portion, 
but the Sound, on the contrary, shows no marked progressive deepening toward the 
western end. 
The depth at which algoe will grow is determined chiefly by the penetrating power 
of light and consequently varies in different seas according to the relative amount of 
sunshine during the year and the clearness of the water. Rosenvinge (1898, p. 233) 
places 20 fathoms as about the limit of growth for algoe in northern seas where, how- 
ever, the proportion of cloudy and foggy days is very large. B6rgesen (19o5, p. 700) 
found the limit of growth around the Faroes to be between 25 and 30 fathoms. In 
southern seas, where there is a very large proportion of sunny days and more direct 
penetration of the sun's rays, as in the Bay of Naples and off the ]3alearic Islands (Rod- 
riguez 1888) in the Mediterranean, deep-water algoe have been reported to grow at 50 
to ioo fathoms. Most of the species at these great depths belong to the Rhodophyçeoe, 
but there are many of the Phoeophyceoe in water deeper than 50 fathoms, and several 
species of the Chlorophyceoe are found at 20 to 60 fathoms. 
,Vith respect to the amount of sunlight during the year ,Voods Hole probably stands 
somewhat midway between the conditions over northern seas and thosé of the south. 
It certainly has both in xdnter and summer a large proportion of fair and sunny days. 
Consequently there are no parts of either Buzzards ]3ay or Vineyard Sound included in 
the limits of the survey that are too deep for certain algoe. The dredgings of the Survey 



448 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

at the deepest stations have shown abundant growths of algoe wherever the bottorn was 
suitable, but two of the deepest stations in the westerly portion of Vineyard Sound (7682 
and 7683, I9 and i9I/ fathorns, respectively) were over a sandy bottorn unfavorable for 
the attachrnent of algoe. Station 767o (I9 fathorns), in Buzzards Bay west of the island 
of Penikese, showed a stony bottom with rnany plants of Larninaria A9ardhii var. vittata, 
and in srnall quantity Charnpia parvula, Chondrus crispus, Ceraniurn rubrum, Grinnellia 
americana, P ol ysi phonia urceolata, and Rhod ymcnia pal,zata. 

6. LIGHT. 

As stated above, the depth to which certain algoe may descend depends upon the 
penetration of light. The factor that deterrnines the lowest lirnits of algal life is not 
depth of water but absence of light. 
The Cyanophyceoe, or blue green algoe, and the Chlorophyceoe, or green algoe, 
require the greatest illumination and are rarely, if ever, round at Woods Hole and vicinity 
in water more than 2 or 3 fathorns deep, but are for the rnost part near the surface or 
between tide rnarks. The Rhodophyceae, or red algoe, reach the lovest depths, although 
rnany species grow near low-water mark and sorne even above it. The Phoeophyceoe, 
or brown algoe, are sornewhat rnidway between the green and the red algœe in their light 
relations. Sorne species of the brown algoe grow at low-water mark and above, but 
rnany grow below low water and to a considerable depth; few, however, are found at 
the greater depths of the red algoe. There are apparently no regions in Buzzards Bay 
and Vineyard Sound too deep for certain species of brown a4goe, for Desnarestia aculeata, 
Laminaria Agardhii, and Laminaria Agardhii var. OE,ittata were found betveen I7 and 
I9 fathoms. The list of red algoe present at these depths (I7 to I9 fathoms) is, how- 
ever, rnuch longer: Charnpia parvula, Chondrus crispus, Cystocloniurn purpurascens var. 
cirrhosurn, Delesseria sinztosa, Grinnellia araericana, Phyllophora Brodi6ei, Phyllophora 
rnernbrani]olia, Plurnaria elegans, Polysiphonia elongata , Polysiphonia urceolata, Rhody- 
rnenia palrnata, Sperrnothamnion Turneri. 
There is therefore in a broad sense a distribution of algoe in zones depending upon 
light relations, the blue-green and green algoe growing under the brightest illumination, 
the brown algoe requiring on the whole less light, and the red algoe able to flourish under 
the veakest illumination. It must constantly be borne in mind, however, that there is 
always an oveflapping in the habitat of species arnong these groups, many brown and red 
algoe growing side by side and even with the green algoe under very bright illumination. 
It is a rnatter of dispute whether the lire habits of marine algoe with respect to illu- 
rnination are influenced chiefly by the quality of the light or by the quantity. The red 
rays of sunlight, it is claimed, can hOt penetrate much below 7 fathorns, and the light 
at greater depths is mainly composed of blue and green rays, is feeble in yellow, and 
lacks red rays entirely. Certain investigators, notably Engelrnann (I883, I884) and 
Gaidukov (I902 , i9o4, i9o6), hold that the quality of the light rather than its intensity 
determines the distribution of the green, brown, and red algoe. According to this view 
the green algoe grow under bright illumination because they require the maximum of 
red rays, whilè the red algoe are able to live in deep water because their color allows 
thern to absorb the green rays vhich they especially need. The brown algoe in 
general adjust thernselves to light conditions interrnediate between these extremes. It 
is well known that a number of the Rhodophyceoe which grow near the surface of the 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

449 

water are colored, not the characteristic red of this group, but shades of brown and 
green; for example, the Irish moss, Chondrus crispus, is frequently green under bright 
illumination in the summer at Voods Hole. Furthermore, Nadson (19oo) has shown 
that certain species of the Cyanophyceœe and Chlorophyceœe, which are green near the 
surface, take on reddish colors in deep water. 
These conclusions that the colors of algœe depend upon the quality of the light are 
opposed to views held by Berthold (i88_), Oltmanns (x89_), and others who have con- 
sidered the Rhodophyceoe to be merely shade plants, the distribution of which was deter- 
mined by the quantity of light. They have ruade much of the fact that in dimly lighted 
caves and shaded situations red algœe, which usually grow at some depth, are found very 
near the surface; but it should be borne in mind, as B6rgesen (I9O5, pp. 702, 703) points 
out, that while these algœe receive a much weaker white light in these caves, they may 
have the benefit of much blue and green reflected light. 
Gaidukov (I902, 1906), in a series of interesting experiments, has shown that certain 
algœe (species of Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Porphyra) take on complementary colors 
when subjected to pure rays from a spectrum, becoming, for example, green under red 
and yellow light and red or purplish under green or blue light. This phenomenon, called 
complementary chromatic adaptation, is shoxvn only by living plants and is believed to 
involve changes in the structure of the pigments. The reason why green algœe tan not 
lire in deep water is clear, since the red rays upon which they depend are not there 
present. The red algœe, on the contrary, may lire at the surface as well as at depths 
below the penetration of red rays, but at the surface they meet the competition with 
green algœe from which they are free in deep water. 
However, it can not be said that all of the phenomena are clearly explained by the 
hypothesis of chromatic adaptation held by Engelmann and Gaidukov. Thus, Rodrfguez 
(i 888) reports the following Chlorophyceoe off the Balearic Islands at much greater depths 
than would be expected for any of the green algœe: Palrnophyllum orbicularis Thuret, 
3o meters; Cladophora pdlucida Kfltzing, 40 meters; Codiurn tornentosurn Agardh, 48 
meters; C. tomentosurn var. dongaturn, 90 to ioo meters; Udotea Des]ontainii Decaisne,  20 
meters; and somexvhat similar records are known for certain of the Chlorophyceœe in the 
Gulf of Naples. 
7. TEMPERATURE AND SEASONAL CHANGES. 

The temperature of the water, the depth, and the eharacter of the bottom are the 
chief factors in determining the distribution of the algoe in the region covered by the 
survey. The influence of temperature must be of fundamental importance where the 
seasonal extremes are as great as those of the summer and winter at W'oods Hole. The 
conditions in the winter would admit a rich northern or boreal algal flora at Woods 
Hole were it possible for the species to reach this sheltered situation by traveling around 
Cape Cod and to survive the xvarm summer. As it is, a number of northern species do 
grow at Woods Hole in the favorable winter and spring seasons and some are able to 
vegetate through the summer. In striking contrast with the winter's cold is the summer 
temperature, which is so high that it tan support a flora with many points of resem- 
blance to the floras of warmer seas. The subject of temperature receives considerable 
attention in section L chapter , pages 38-52, where the detailed records of the Survey 
i6269°--Bu11.3 , pt i--x3--29 



45 ° BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

are presented in a series of tables, and likevise on charts 211 to 214, giving the 
location of the stations. 
The average monthly temperature of the water off the Government wharf in Great 
Harbor, Woods Hole, for the years 9o2-i9o6 (rive years) is given in table o, page 
47, and the seasonal changes are portrayed graphically in chart 2i 9. It will be seen 
that during January, February, and March the me_an temperature was below 35 ° F. 
The period when the temperature was below 35 ° actually extended from about 
December 25 to IMarch 5, and this may be considered the winter season. After March 
 5 the temperature rose rapidly, passing 6o ° about June i; this constitutes a spring 
season. Between June i and October 2 the temperature remained above 6o °, holding 
between 69 ° and 7 ° from July  to August --8, a period of 48 days; this is the long 
summer season of warm water. After October 2 the temperature fell rapidly from 6o °, 
until December  , when it reached 37 °, and it remained between 37 ° and 35 ° until 
December 26, vhen it passed below 35°; this period may be considered the autumn 
season. A table of averages such as that of table xo does hot give the xtremes of 
temperature, the lowest of which was 8/4 ° in January and February, and the highest 
74 ° in July and 74.5 ° in August. It should also be remembered that the extremes are 
much greater in situatious more sheltered than Great Harbor, Woods Hole, as, for 
example, in the upper portions of Buzzards Bay, »vhere the water may be heavilyfrozen 
for several weeks and the summer temperature probably rises close to 8o °. 
It is very important to contrast the seasonal range of temperature at Woods Hole 
with that of the bottom water between Gay Head and the ledges of Sow and Pigs, for 
in this region of the survey the range of temperature is the least. On August i6, 9o7, 
the bottom temperature off Gay Head was 57.2 ° F. (i63/4 fathoms) and 59.2 ° (Ix/'4 
fathoms), off Sow and Pigs 6o. ° (ioM fathoms), and in Vineyard Sound between these 
two points 55 ° (7/'4 fathoms) ; the surface temperature at these stations was from 3 ° to 
5 ° higher. On November i, 9o7, the bottom temperature off Gay Head was 5x.9 ° 
(xoM fathoms), off Sow and Pigs also 51.9 ° (8 fathoms), and in Vineyard Sound between 
these points 530 (8 fathoms); the surface temperature at these points was about to 
lower. On March 2o,  9o8, the bottom temperature off Gay Head was 36.6 ° (8 fathoms), 
off Sow and Pigs 36.6 ° (5 fathoms), and in Vineyard Sound between these two points 
37.4 ° (i 8 fathoms); the surface temperatures being almost the same. On June 6, i9o8 , 
the bottom temperature off Gay Head was 57.6 ° (I2M fathoms), off Sow and Pigs 55.x ° 
(7/ fathoms), and on June 5 in Vineyard Sound between these two points 53.3 ° 08 
fathoms) ; the surface temperature at these points was then from  ° to 3 ° higher. These 
data are presented in tabular form below, the surface temperature being gis-en above 
the line and the bottom temperature below. 

Og Ga, Het ................................ 

Off Sow and Pigs ............................ 
Betwee Ga" Head and Sow and Pigs ....... 

Aug. x6, xçoT. Nov. x2. xçoT. Mar. 20, x9¢8. Jtme 5-6. x9¢8. 

60 e 
3._ (x7.4 fath.) 

So. 7 ° 
 (o Iath.) 

-9 
8 tath.) 

3 6. 8 ° 
.OE (8 fath.) 

« s_" (_ ath.) 
36. 6  " 
36. 7_ (z8 fath.) 
37-4 

Sg" 3 t (Ill/2 fath.) 
57, 6  (Jtme 6) 
6. : ( [ath.) 
SS- z (June 6) 
57-- (18 fath.) 
" 3 ° (Jtme ) 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 45][ 

These records of the bottom temperature between Gay Head and the ledges of Sow 
and Pigs indicate that the average range is from below 35 ° in tbe winter to about 6o e 
in the summer. The bottom temperature probably does not fall to the lowest winter 
temperature of the sheltered waters of the ]3ay and Sound and does not fise to within 
I5 ° of the highest summer temperatures in such situations; the total range is close to 
26 °. The surface temperature between Gay Head and the ledges of Sow and Pigs is at 
times in the summer 4 ° to 5 ° higher than the bottom temperature, and in the winter 
probably somewhat lower; the total fange is close to 32% The seasonal range in Great 
Harbor, Woods Hole, is about 46°, and it must be more than 5 °o in the upper portions 
of Buzzards Bay. 
The causes of these very different conditions are not difficult to understand. The 
great range of temperature in the sheltered waters of the ]3ay and Sound is simply the 
result of summer and winter atmospheric temperatures acting on bodies of water suffi- 
ciently shallow to respond very quickly to their influences. Tables 9 and o (pp. 46- 
47), giving the average monthly range of the temperatures of both air and water at 
Woods Hole over a five-year period, make clear the relationship, also shown on chart 
219. The small range of the temperature of the bottom water between Gay Head and 
the Sow and Pigs, together with the greater range of the surface water, shows the effect 
of proximity to the deeper cold water of the open sea, water which, as stated before, 
appears to be an extension of the cold belt north of Cape Cod. 
It is clear from the above statements of the seasonal ranges of temperature in the 
two extremes of the conditions presented within the linfits of the Survey (first, the 
bottom temperatures off Gay Head and Sow and Pigs; second, the temperatures of shel- 
tered waters of the Bay and Sound) that several very different types of floras would be 
expected, and this is the case. The uniformly cool bottom water of Gay Head and the Sow 
and Pigs (generally below 6o °) admits of the development of a flora with a number of 
species characteristic of northern waters. This flora is restricted to the lower portion of 
Buzzards Bay and the westerly portion of Vineyard Sound and is distinguished by the 
presence of the following species which are never round (at least during the summer) 
in the more sheltered regions of the ]3ay and Sound: Chctomorpha nelagonim, Lami- 
naria digitata, Plumaria elegais , Rhodornela sub]usca, Actiwcoccus pdtce]ormis, Gyrn- 
nogongrus zorvegicus, Euthora cristata, Lomentaria rosea, Rhodymetia palmata, Deles- 
seria sinuosa. It would be very interesting to know whether other northerly species 
may hot be prescrit during the winter and spring and vhether this cold-water flora 
extends its range during the vinter into more sheltered portions of the Bay and Sound, 
but vve bave ruade no dredgings for algoe off Gay Head in the winter and knov nothing 
of the deep-water flora of that season. 
The seasonal extremes in the sheltered portions of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard 
Sound, as would be expected, give at least two distinct seasonal floras, (x) that of the 
winter and early spring, and (2) that of midsummer and the early autumn. Some speeies 
are found all the year round, but they are generally much more luxuriant at one season 
than at the other, lXIany of the speeies are limited to a season of perhaps two or fhree 
months and are never found at other rimes. It is hot at prescrit possible to diseuss sat- 
isfactorily the seasonal habits of the algoe at Woods Hole, for they have been very little 
studied during the winter, but such data as are known are included in the Catalogue. 



45 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

The study of Spindle Rocks (pages 476-479) has shown in a rather surprising way the 
degree of change which takes place on a small mass of rocks over a 12-month period. 
The northerly species which would be most likely to invade the Bay and Sound dur- 
ing the favorable winter season would be forms that reproduce rapidly through large 
crops of spores and mature so quickly that several generations may develop during the 
season. The tidal currents of the region would serve to distribute such species very 
widely, even though the favorable season might be short. 

8. SALIN1TY OF THE WATER. 

There are no fresh-water streams of importance in the immediate vicinity of Woods 
Hole to affect markedly the salinity of its »vaters, which are hot much less dense than 
the open sea, having an average density of about i .o24 (the density of water in the north 
Atlantic being from i.o_- 7 to I.o28). In the westerly portion of Vineyard Sound and 
lower portion of Buzzards Bay the density is somewhat greater, having been round af 
one point as high as I.O243 (November, 19o7). In the extreme upper portion of Buz- 
zards Bay the density is considerably less than at Woods Hole, having been recorded 
as low as i.o212 (March, i9o8 ). Details of the observations on density ruade by the 
survey are presented in section , chapter rr, pages 52-54 . 
The lower density of the upper portion of Buzzards Bay is evidently due to the 
proxirnity of a number of small streams that empty into the head of the Bay, but these 
are too far removed from Woods Hole to influence materially the salinity of the water 
at that point. The swift tidal currents of Vineyard Sound keep its waters fairly uniform 
in density. It is hot probable that density is a factor of importance in determining the 
distribution of algoe in the deeper waters of the Bay and Sound, and it certainly is hot 
to be compared with the two chief factors of temperature and the character of the bottom. 
The only bodies of brackish water in the immediate vicinity of Woods Hole are 
those of small ponds or areas of salt marsh which are connected with the sea by channels 
and rendered saline in various degrees by the inflow of tides or during storms. Such 
brackish waters support characteristic floras totally unlike those of the Bay and Sound 
proper, well illustrated by the Lyn9bya salt-marsh association and the Enteromorpha 
salt-marsh association (sec page 456). 



Chapter III. CHARACTERISTIC ALGAL ASSOCIATIONS AND FORMATIONS AT 
WOODS HOLE AND IN BUZZARDS BAY AND VINEYARD SOUND. 

As stated in the preceding pages, the life habits and distribution of marine algœe 
are affected by a number of factors, the most important of which are temperature, 
light, depth, character of the bottom, and salinity of the water. Some or all of these 
factors, and in special cses others as well, determine, as a rule, the habitats and sea- 
sons of the different species. As a result, various algœe are frequently round to be 
characteristic of particular situations, where they constitute groups or ]ormatio-ns 
of species. 
J. G. Agardh (i836) was the first to describe regions of algal vegetation, recog- 
nizing on the Scandinavian coasts the presence of a zone characterized by green algœe 
(Regnum Algarum Zoospcrmarum), a zone of brown algœe (Regmtm Algarum OlioE'a- 
cearum), and a zone of red algœe (Re9num Algarun Floridearum). Other authors have 
attempted similar, but more elaborate, divisions of the algal flora into regions and 
zones, but none have been very satisfactory for the reason that the brown and red 
algœe have species which range far outside the depth or zone which is in general most 
characteristic of their class. 
It later became apparent that the algœe must be split into smaller assemblages 
than the zones of green, brown, and red algœe, and Kjellman (I877 and 878), also in 
studies on the Scandinavian coast, developed such a classification in detail, applying 
the naine "formation" to each group and usually nanfing each formation after the alga 
most characteristic of it. Kjellman's paper of I878, "Ueber Algenregionen und 
Algenformationen ira 6stlichen Skager Rack," stands, as far as the author is aware, 
as the first algological contribution introducing the methods and terminology of 
ecology as at present practiced. Later authors have followed the methods of Kjell- 
man to a greater or less degree, and among them one of the most elaborate studies 
has been that of 136rgesen (i9o5), "The Algœe Vegetation of the Fœer6ese Coasts." 
The reader will find in these two papers of Kjellman and t36rgesen historical treat- 
ments of the literature, which need not be repeated here, especially since they deal 
with conditions in northern waters, which are x-ery different from those at Woods 
Hole. 
Kjellman (i877) employed the terres "littoral," « ,,sublittoral,,, and "elittoral" to 
define three regions of distribution, and these terres are in wide use among botanists 
and, with certain modifications of his definitions, they have replaced earlier expres- 
sions designating regions occupied by the green, the brown, and the red algœe. Kjell- 
man defined the littoral region as that between lowest and highest ride marks, the 
sublittoral region as that from the lowest tide mark to the furthest depth at »vhich 
algœe will grow (about 20 fathoms on the Scandinaxdan coast), and the elittoral region 
as that bottom below the sublittoral. 

Cf. discussion on pages x78-18o, section I, Of 13resent report. 

453 



454 

BULLETIN O1' THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Kjellman's limitation of the littoral region has not proved altogether satisfactory, 
since many marine algoe range far above the highest tide mark, especially along coasts 
wet by the spray from heavv suif, and other species are able to live in water that is 
brackish or, indeed, actually fresh. Rosenvinge 0898, p. x89) pointed out that the 
upper boundary of the littoral region should be considered as that level at which 
marine algal vegetation begins, and B6rgesen 0905, P. 7o9) agrees with this view. 
The littoral region can then best be defined as the zone extending from low-water mark 
to the highest point where marine algoe cease to grow. As a matter of fact, however, 
in sheltered waters the upper limit will generally coincide closely with high-tide mark. 
The line between the littoral and sublittoral regions is hot always easily deter- 
mined, for conditions vary in different localities. It is hot safe to limit arbitrarily the 
upper boundary of the sublittoral to the lowest water or neap ride mark, for many 
species characteristic of the sublittoral will grow a little above such a line. Rosen- 
vinge and B6rgesen agree in placing the boundary between the littoral and sublittoral 
somewhat above the lowest ride mark. It is probably very near to the average low- 
water level. 
The lower limit of the sublittoral region varies greatly in its depth from the sur- 
face and can hot be defined with exactness. It merely marks the gradual diminution 
of vegetation until a bottom is reached that is devoid of plant life. There is no sharp 
line showing the lower boundary of the sublittoral, such as defines its upper limit at 
low-water mark. Consequently there is no line marking the upper limit of an elittoral 
region or depth from which plant lire is absent. Indeed, to speak of an elittoral re#on 
is to use a negative expression, and the terre is hOt important in descriptive studies on 
the distribution of algoe. 
The line of greatest significance in determining regions of marine vegetatiort is 
that between the littoral and sublittoral, near the level of average low water. Above 
and below this boundary the life conditions differ more than at any other point between 
the upper and lower limits of marine algal life. Exposure to the air, to tain, and to 
the heat and drying influence of untempered sunlight introduce very important fac 
tors in the littoral region which are hot present in the sublittoral and make this line 
of 6eparation a most significant one. For these reasons the littoral and sublittoral 
regions are natural divisions, and further subdivisions are of far less import and, indeed, 
ean hardly be ruade under ordinary conditions, although some authors have attempted 
to define a supralittoral region above the littoral. 
Certain of the Cyanophyceoe and Chlorophyceoe and a few of the Phoeophyceoe and 
Rhodophyceoe are most commonly found only in the upper region of the sublittoral 
either just below the lowest ride mark or in shallow water. For these a separate zone 
might be distinguished; but there are so many species of the Phoeophyceoe and Rho- 
dophyceoe which are present in both shallow and deep water that the limits of such 
a zone, at least in the Woods Hole region, is hot easily determined, since there is a 
very complex overlapping of species. For these reasons we have hot attempted to 
separate and designate regions of the sublittoral further than to qualify the terre with 
the vords "upper" or "lower" in certain instances where speciès are very clearly 
restricted in their habits. 
When the algoe of the littoral and sublittoral regions are studied closely, certain 
groups of species will be found in more or less close companionship, with definite rela- 



BIOLOGICAI, SURVIY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 455 
tions to such factors as proximity to low-water mark, temperature, exposure to air or 
to sunlight, sheltered and shaded stations, salinity of water, character of attachment, 
etc. These groups of species may cover large areas and even form broad zones of 
vegetation so clearly defmed and conspicuous as to deserve the naine of ]orrnations; 
but the vegetation more often consists of small and scattered groups the limits of which 
are generally more easily recognized and in which a single species very greatly predomi- 
nates. These smaller units, usually recognized by the preponderance of a single spe- 
cies, are called by BSrgesen (19o5, p. 7o7) associations, and we shall employ that term 
in the brief account that follows. 
The regions included in the limits of the Survey do hot, on the whole, afford mate- 
rial for a very satisfactory study of algal associations and formations. There is noth- 
ing that compares with the picturesque zonation of algoe above and below low-water 
mark, as illustrated in many localities north of Cape Cod, and such as have been so thor- 
oughly studied by Kjellman, Rosenvinge, and others along the Scandinavian coasts 
and in Greenland, and by BSrgesen for the Faroes. The chier reasons for the compar- 
atively undeveloped character of the formations and associations at Woods Hole and 
vicinity are four in number: (1) The small rides give a relatively narrov strip of coast 
line, generally only a few feet wide, available for the development of a littoral flora; 
(2) a shore line of bowlders, frequently broken by sandy or gravelly beaches, presents 
no smooth perpendienlar or slanting surfaces where the attachment afforded to algoe 
is uniform in character; (3) the absence of a marked boreal flora, except for the rela- 
tively few representatives that are present chiefly in the winter and early spring, deprives 
the region of a number of species of Monostroma, Alaria, Dictyosiphon, Fucus, Laminaria, 
Sacchoriza, C_ri9artina, and Halosaccion, which are conspicuous north of Cape Cod; and 
(4) the scraping of the ice along the more sheltered shores effectually prevents the 
development of a littoral flora in the winter season, which is the most favorable for 
the growth of green and brown littoral species. 
One has only to look at the remarkable plates of B6rgesen (19o5) illustrating the 
littoral algal associations and formations along the coasts of the Faroes to realize how 
poorly developed is the littoral flora at Woods Hole. There are also no rock pools or 
caverns harbofing the stfiking assemblages of algoe characteristic of such situations. 
On the other hand, certain peculiarities of bottom, tidal channels, shallow harbors, and 
coves give conditions and resulting floras that are hot present in many northern seas. 
The arrangement of the associations follows in general the order of the Catalogue, 
where will be round the records upon which these brief accounts are based. The number 
of species discussed or listed is far short of the total list given in the Catalogue; they are 
merely those suflïciently conspicuous to be worthy of attention in a treatment of algal 
associations. 
For descriptive purposes Buzzards Bay has been regarded in this section of the 
report as being divided into an upper and lower portion by a line drawn from the west 
end of Naushon (Robinsons Hole) to Round Hill Point. Vineyard Sound has been 
divided into three regions, (a) the westerly portion from the entrance at Gay Head to a 
line drawn from the west end of Naushon (Robinsons Hole) to Kopeecon Point, (b) 
the narrow portion from this line to one between Nobska Point and West Chop, and 
(c) the easterly portion from the latter line to one drawn between Falmouth Heights 



456 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

and East Chop. « The lower portion of the Bay and the westerly portion of the Sound 
have in the summer a flora, here termed the cool-water sublittoral formation, with a 
number of striking peculiarities, while the more sheltered regions have in the summer 
a stfictly warm-water sublittoral formation. 
Only the most stfiking of the algal associations and formations will be described, 
for this is a subject which might be folloved into such detail that the broad and stfing 
peculiarities would be lost among the minor features. Moreover, for the reasons given 
above, the physiographical features and other conditions of Woods Hole do hot lend 
themselves to the development of picturesque algal associations. 

ALGAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

(I) THt LYNGBYA SALT-MARSH ASSOCIATION. 

The bottom and sides of shallov bodies of water in sait marshes, and other brackish 
ditches and pools, are frequently covered by felted growths, which are largely composed 
of Lyn9bya, most commonly the species L. cestuarii and L. seraiplena. Mixed with the 
Lyngbyas may be found Chroococcus turgidus, Iicrocoleus chthonoplastes, Microcoleus 
enerriraus, Spirulina subsalsa, A nabcena torulosa, Nodularia Harveyana, and other forms. 
This is a very characteristic association of blue-green algoe frequently forming 
extensive growths in the summer months in the salt marshes and brackish pools of 
Quisset, Penzance, and Hadley Harbor. 

(2) THE ENTEROMORPHA SALT-MARSH ASSOCIATION. 

Brackish pools in sait marshes and other situations frequently contain extensive 
floating or loosely attached growths, which are chiefly species of Enteromorpha, the 
commonest species being E. clathrata, E. crinita, E. percursa, and E. prolijera. Clado- 
phora expansa is round under similar conditions, frequently mLxed with the Entero- 
rnorphas. 
This association of green algoe forms surface growths in situations where the Lyn9bya 
association is likely to be round over the bottom. It is frequently conspicuous during 
the summer months in brackish pools of Quisset, Penzance, and Hadley Harbor. 

(3) THE CALOTHRIX ASSOCIATION. 

Of the four species of Calofl,rix which may be found on stones and woodwork 
between tide marks, C. pulinata is the most conspicuous, developing thick patches 
resembling honeycomb on the woodwork of wharves (wharf of U. S. Bureau of Fisheries). 
Calolhrix scopulorum, also conspicuous, grows on rocks near high-water mark or above, 
occasionally in company with Codiolum gregarium, forming large indefiite patches; it 
also grows on piles. 
(4) THE RIVULARIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Riularia niHda is round in salt marshes (as at uisset) forming thick growths over 
mud and roots of SparHna well above low-water mark. Riularia atra is occasionally 
plentiful on rocks and barnacles near high-water mark. 

« Geographically this region might be considered as a portion of Nantucket Sound if one were disposed to draw an 
arbitrarylLue between Vine'ard Sound and that bod" of water. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY O1 WOODS HOLE AND VlCINITY. 457 

(5) THE PLEUROCAPSA ASSOCIATION. 
Pleurocapsa ]uliginosa grows on rocks and stonework, forming a conspicuous dark 
stain at high-water mark and in depressions wet by waves and spray. 

(6) THE ULVA, ENTEROMORPHA, AND MONOSTROMA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Roeks and stony beaehes above low-vater mark frequently exhibit striking growths 
of species of Ulva, Eniero,torlha , and llonosirona. Ulva Laciuca var. rçqida is common 
above low-water mark on rocks exposed to waves where it frequently forms dense 
zones of growth. Eneromorpha inieslinalis is often abundant in quiet waters attached 
to stones and shells and sometimes to woodwork of wharves between ride marks; it may 
develop broad zones of growth in such situations. Enieromorpha linza is also round in 
the same situations as E,cromorpha inlesiinalis and is sometimes mixed with it. Enicro- 
morpha minima is very common dufing the spring and summer in situations similar to 
those of E, iero,»orpha intesiinalis, but always growing near high-water mark. In the 
spring llonostro,na Grevillei is abundant on stones and larger algœe a little above low- 
water mark. 
These forms, together with certain species of Cladophora descfibed in association 9, 
make up the most characteristic associations of green algoe in the littoral region. They 
are generally responsible for the conspicuous green zones on wharves, rocks, and beaches 
above low-water mark. 
(7) THE ULOTHRIX ASSOCIATIONS. 

Ulolhrix flacca is hot uncommon in the summer, forming large patches on stones 
and woodwork of wharves above low-water mark; it is sometimes epiphytic on Fucus. 
Uloihrix i,,plcxa is also present in the spring on rocks abox'e low water. 

(8) THE CH3ETOMORPHA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Ch¢onorpha Lium is common growing in wiry masses over sandy and muddy 
bottoms. It was dredged by the Sur'ey as deep as 5 fathoms, but is generallyfound 
in shallow water in the upper regions of both the cool-and warm-water sublittoral 
formations (A and B). 
"Chceo,norpha melagoniurn is present in deeper water off exposed points, such as 
Gay Head and Cuttyhunk (chart 228). This species v¢as dredged in 4 to 9 fathoms and 
is a characteristic member of what is here termed the cool-water sublittoral formation. 

(9) THE CLADOPHORA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Several species of Cladophora develop conspicuous associations in the upper level 
of the sublittoral region. Cladophora albida and C. albida var. rc/raca form in the sure- 
mer patches on rocks. Cladophora arca is very abundant in the spring on wharxies and 
harbor walls near low-water mark and below, and is one of the most charactefistic of 
the green algoe at that season. C. lïexuosa is common in the summer on rocks, and C. 
glaucescens, a delicate species, is also abundant at the saine season on rocks and wharves 
near low-water mark. C. gracilis grows luxufiantly duri.ng the summer in quiet sheltered 
waters. C. lanosa is epiphytic on larger algoe generally below low water; C. la,osa var. 



458 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
uncialis grows on rocks above and below Iow-water mark and is conspicuous in the 
winter and spring. C. refracta and C. Rudolphiana are frequently abundant on stones 
near low water and below. C. rupestris is a stfiking species growing off exposed points 
as at Nobska and Gay Head. 
The list of Cladophoras in this region is large, but they are apt to grow mLxed with 
other algoe. However, C. albida, C. albida var. refracta, C. arcta, C. 9racilis, and C. 
lanosa var. uncialis frequently form extensive and almost pure growths, which are as 
conspicuous as the zones of Ulva, Entcromorpha, and )Ionostro.ma. 
(IO) THE VAUCHERIA .SSOCIATIONS. 
Vaucheria litorea and V. Thuretii are occasionally found foming rather extensive 
and sometimes matted growths over gravel and mud near low-water mark and below. 
(I I) THE ECTOCARPUS ASSOCLTIONS. 
Most of the species of Eclocarlbus grow attached to larger algoe or to Zostera, but 
some are round on stones and the woodwork of wharves near low-water mark and below. 
Ectocarlus concrvoides and E. sgiculosus are frequently present in the latter situations, 
forming at rimes extensive growths. Some of the epiphytic species may grow so thickly 
over such forms as Scytosi[hon lomentariu's, Desmarestia aculeata, Chordaria flagelli- 
ormis, Chorda filun, La»rinaria Agardhii, and Zostera as to form a conspicuous part 
of the associations that contain these larger algœe and the eel grass. The commonest 
of the epiphytic species are Ectocarlus cecidioidcs on old Laminaria, E. con]ervoides on 
Scytosipho and Chordaria, E. asiculatus on Chordaria and Chorda, E. çranulosus on Sar- 
9assura, E. [enicillatus on larger algoe and Zoslera, and E. siliculosus on Scytosi[hon, 
Zotcra, etc. 
(I2) THE CL.DOSTEPHUS ASSOCIATION'. 
Cladosielhus werticillatus grows in fairly deep water and has a scattered distri- 
bution in Vineyard Sound (chart 29). It was dredged in 2 to 3 fathoms over sandy 
and stony bottoms. Although hot plentiful, this species is conspicuous for its size; it 
is a member of the warm-water sublittoral formation (B). 
(13) THE SPHACELARIA ASSOCIATIONS. 
Sphacelaria cirrhosa is epiphytic on Fucus, Ascophylhm, Sargassun, and occasion- 
ally on Zostera; it may also grow on stones. The species is probably widely distributed 
along the coast and was dredged in 3 to 8 fathoms on Sargassum and stones at several 
scattered stations in Vineyard Sound. 
Sphacdaria radicans is common attached to stones, shells, and mud-covered rocks. 
It was dredged in 3 to 5 fathoms, chiefly at stations near Vineyard Haven. 
The two species are in the varm-water sublittoral formation (B). 
(14) THE DESOTRICHUM .ND PUNCT.RIA .SSOCIATIONS. 
Desmorichurn balicu and D. undulaturn are common, especially in the spring, 
forming dense growths on Zostera; they are occasionally round on larger aIgoe and on 
rocks. 
Pun[taria latifolia and P. plantaginea are likewise common in the spring, the former 
on Zost,:ra and Iarger algoe, the latter on algoe and rocks. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF V¢OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

459 

(I5) THE PHYLLITIS AND scYToSIPHON ASSOCIATIONS. 

Phyllitis ascia is common in the winter and spring on rocks just below low-water 
mark and in the littoral region. Scytosiphon lonentarius is also abundant in stmilar 
situations on rocks, and also on stony beaches, where it develops extensive growths 
during the winter and spring extending above the Phyllitis in the littoral region. 
These two algoe, so conspicuous in the littoral during the winter and spring, prac- 
tically disappear during the summer, being then round only in very favorable situations, 
as, for example, at Gay Head and at Grassy Ledge, in XVoods Hole Harbor, on the 
side of the ship channel. They frequently forma mixed association, but Scytosiphon 
is the commoner of the two and more widely distributed. 

(I6) THE ARTHROCLADIA ASSOCIATION. 

Arthrocladia villosa, vhich has been considered rather rare, was round by the Survey 
to be widely distributed in ]3uzzards ]3ay and Vineyard Sound (chart 230 ). Although 
generally dredged in small quantifies, it was obtained in abundance in the cove west 
of Cuttyhunk Neck (near station ioi) July 27, i9o 5. At this date large plants in full 
fruit grew on shells and stones in 4 to 5 fathoms, forming large patches over the bottom. 
The species is a member of the warm-water sublittoral formation (B). 

(17) THE DESMARESTIA ASSOCIATION. 

Desmarestia aculeata is a large coarse species plentiful in the lower portion of 
Buzzards Bay and westerly portion of Vineyard Sound (chart 23I ). It grows over sandy 
and stony bottoms in 1 to 14 fathoms. Although the plants are more often scattered, 
they sometimes form patches which would be considered as associations. The species 
is frequently a member of the cool-water sublittoral formation (A). 
Desmarestia viridis is round not only in the saine situations as D. aculeata, but 
also in quieter and warmer regions of the Sound (chart 232 ). It is common at Woods 
Hole in the spring and early summer, a little below low-water mark. The growths 
are generally scattered, but they may also form dense associations. This species is a 
member of the warm-water sublittoral formation (B), but is also present in colder 
waters, although not so common there as Desrnarestia aculeata. 

(18) THE DICTYOSIPHON ASSOCIATION. 

A species of Dictyosiphon is present during the summer months rather widely 
distributed in both Bay and Sound on stones and over sand in 3 to lO fathoms (chart 233 ). 
The form compares well with material and descriptions of Dictyosiphon hippuroides. 
However, in view of the difficulties in determining species in this genus and the fact 
that our material was evidently a summer seasonal condition, we d hot feel sure of 
its affinities. It was round at several stations in sufficient quantity to constitute asso- 
ciations, and is present in both the cool- and warm-water sublittoral formations. 

(19) THE CASTAGNEA ASSOCIATION. 

Casta9nea Zostcrce is common at Woods Hole in the summer, attached to Zostera 
Castagnca iresccns is occasionally round on rocks, Zostera, and larger algoe below low- 
water mark. ]3oth species are present in the warm-water sublittoral formation (), but 
C. irescens is also a spring species. 



460 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(20) THE CHORDARIA ASSOCIATION. 

Chordaria fla.gelli]orm.is during the summer develops extensive grovths oll stones 
and rocks a little below low-water mark. It grows in large masses and is frequently 
the most conspicuous member of the zone of brown algœe, fringing exposed rocks near 
low-water mark. The other prominent members of this zone are commonly Phyllitis 
]ascia and Scytosiphon lomentariu.ç, which grow above the Chordaria and in the littoral 
region. The Chordaria is frequently overgrown with Ectocarpus con]ervoides. E. 
]asiculatus or E. siliculosus, and it also harbors Callithamnion Baileyi, C. corymbosum, 
and other algal epiphytes. 

(2i) TIIE MESOGLOIA ASSOCIATION. 

z'lfesoflloia, divaricata grows in masses on stones and algoe in relatively quiet waters 
a little below low-water mark. It is a conspicuous summer plant occupying a situation 
somewhat similar to that of Chordaria fla.fldli]ormis in more exposed situations 

(22) THE RALFSIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Ral]sia clavata is very abundant on stones and shells at low-water mark and below. 
It is widely distributed throughout the sublittoral region at XVoods Hole and in the t3ay 
and x)und, and has been dredged in 3 to 12 fathoms. Ral]sia crrucosa is less widely 
distributed, but in certain localities has been found in quantity (Grassy Ledge, Little 
Harbor, Tarpaulin Cove); it grows on stones near low-water mark. 

(2 3) THE CttORDA ASSOCIATION. 

Chorda filum is a summer species very common in the sublittoral region on stones 
and shells in water 3 feet or more in depth. It frequently forms large beds and some- 
rimes supports extensive epiphytic growths of Ectocarpus ]asiculatus, Ceramium rubrum, 
and other species. Chorda filum is widely distributed throughout the ]3ay and Sound 
(chart 234) and was dredged in 2 to I4 fathoms. 
Chorda tomentosa is a ver- beautiful spring species common at Woods Hole in the 
saine situation as Chorda filum, which takes its place later in the season. We know 
nothing of its distribution in Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. 

(24) THE LAMINARIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

The genus Laminaria has only three representatives in the waters of ]3uzzards 
Bay and Vineyard Sound. In comparison with the flora north of Cape Cod the kelps 
play but an insignificant part in the vegetation of this region. 
Laminaria Agardhii is rather widely distributed (chart 235), being common at Woods 
Hole on wharves and stones in water 3 feet or more in depth ; it was dredged over sandy, 
shelly, and stony bottoms in 2 to  7 fathoms. 
Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata, is restricted in its distribution chiefly to the lover 
portion of the Bay and westefly portion of the Sound (chart 236) ; it grows over sandy, 
shelly, and stony bottoms in 2 to 7 fathoms, sometimes forming beds of considerable 
extent frequently mixed with Laminaria A.qardhii. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 46I 
Laminaria digitala was found only off Gay Head (chart 237) over sandy and stony 
bottoms in 3 to I3 fathoms, accompanied by the other forms of Laminaria. All of 
these kelps are characteristic members of the cool-water sublittoral formation (A), but 
Laminaria Açardhii is more widely distributed than the others. 
(25) THE FUCUS AND ASCOPHYLLUM ASSOCIATIONS. 
Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus esiculosus are the onlv rockweeds that develop 
extensive associations in these waters; the other two species of Fucu« do hot form 
very conspicuous growths. 
A scophyllum nodosum grows plentifully over rocks near low-vater mark and above 
in somewhat sheltered situations. It is found in its best vegetative condition during 
the winter snd spring culminating with the fruiting period in May; the summer growth 
is somewhat dwarfed and much lighter in color (yellowish) where exposed to bright 
sunlight. 
Fucus z'esiculosus, with its several forms and varieties, is more plentiful than A sco- 
phyllum, growing over a wide zone from below low-water mark to a high point in the 
littoral region. It is likewise found in its best vegetative condition during the winter 
and spring, fruiting most abundantly in the latter season. It is represented during 
the summer by dwarfish growths, frequently lighter in color than the winter condition, 
except off exposed points as at Gay Head, where the growth and fruiting is more uniform. 
The Ascophyllum and Fucus frequently form a mixed association at Woods Hole, 
which during the vinter develops a broad zone in the littoral region over rocks that are 
not subjected to severe scraping by the ice. Most of the winter growths matures during 
the spring and the display during the summer is comparatively poor. 
(26) THE SARGASSUM ASSOCIATION. 
Sargassum Filipendula is common during the summer in the warmer and more 
sheltered regions of the Bay and Sound (chart 238); it was dredged over sandy, shelly, 
and stony bottoms in 2 to 5 fathoms, sometimes froming rather large beds. At 
Woods Hole there are conspicuous associations at the entrance to the Eel Pond and off 
Juniper Point, where the plants grow in large patches in 3 feet to i or more fathoms of 
water. Sargassum is thus strictly sublittoral, in sharp contrast to the habits of the 
species of rockweeds, and it is characteristic of the warm-water sublittoral formation (B). 
(27) TIE BANGIA ASSOCIATION. 
Bangia [usco-purpurea is hOt uncommon, forming patches on rocks and woodwork 
of wharves near high-water mark. Ulothrix flacca is frequently mixed to a greater or 
less degree vith the Bangia. 
(28) THE PORPHYRA ASSOCIATION. 
Porphyra laciniata frequently develops heavy growths on the harbor walls at Woods 
Hole near low-water mark. Porphyra leucosticta is a spring species common on larger 
algoe and on Zostera. 



462 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(29) THE CHANTRANSIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Chatransia v'9atula is abundant, fringing the leaves of ZosIera, and is a conspic- 
uous member of the Zostera formation (c). Ctmntransia secundata is sometimes coin- 
mon on Zoslera, Ccramium rubrum., and Porphyra laciniala. Chantransia Thuretii is 
occasionally found in quantity on Ceramium rubrum and on Cysloclonium purpurascens 
at a depth of i to 3 meters (off Juniper Point). 

(30) THE NEMALION ASSOCIATION. 

Nemalion mullifidum is a very characteristic summer species, frequently forming a 
broad zone on rocks a little above low-water mark. This is, perhaps, the best illustration 
of a red alga with lire habits in this region apparently demanding a certain degree of 
exposure to the air. 
(3 I) THE ANTITHAMNION ASSOCIATION. 
A ntithamnion, cruciatum proved to be very widely distfibuted during the summer in 
Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, attached to stones and larger algœe in 3 to I5 fathoms 
(chart 39)- It frequently forms dense epiphytic growths on Chondru.s, PhylloDhora, 
and Polyides. The species is a common member of the warm-water sublittoral formation 
(B), but it is also found in exposed situations, as off Gay tIead and Cuttyhunk. The 
other species of Antilhamnion are not round in sufficient quantity to forrll conspicuous 
associations. 
(3 2) THE CALLITHAMNION ASSOCIATIONS. 

Of the rive species of Callilhamnion found in this region onlv three forms develop 
growths so extensive as to be worthy of consideration in this connection. 
Callilhamnion roscum is common dufing the summer in the more sheltered waters 
of the Bay and Sound, growing on stones, shells, larger algœe, and Zostera in 3 to I3 
fathoms. It is especially abundant in the easterly portion of Vineyard Sound, where 
Choutrus, Phyllophora, and Sar9assum frequently support heavy epiphytic growths. 
The species is a charactefistic member of the warm-water sublittoral formation (B). 
Callithamnion Baileyi and C. Baileyi var. laxum are also common during the summer, 
but generally only as scattered plants. Callithamnion Bailcyi grows on rocks, and is also 
frequently epiphytic on larger algœe, such as Chordaria and Ceramium rubrum, in the 
upper level of the sublittoral. It was dredged in 3 to 13 fathoms attached to Des- 
marestia, Choutrus, Phyllophora, and Cystodonium. The species seems to prefer the 
conditions of the warm-water sublittoral formation. 

(33) THE CERAMIUM ASSOCIATIONS. 

Of the six species of Ceramium present in these waters, C. rubrum deserves the 
most attention, on account of its abundance and very. wide range (chart 4o). This 
species is conspicuous in the upper level of the sublittoral, as one of the commonest 
members of the zone of red algœe frequently round on rocks a little below low-water 
mark in company with such forms as Polysiphonia fibrillosa, P. urceolata, P. violacea, 
and Chondrus crispus. Ceramium rubrum is also abundant in deeper water, and was 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF wrOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

463 

dredgcd in i to 19 fathoms attached to stones. It is a very common epiphyte on Chorda, 
Choutrus, and Phyllophora, and on Zoslcra. The species is present in both the cool 
and warm-water sublittoral formations. 
Ceramium fastigiatu.m is frequently abundant on Zostera and on larger algœe, such as 
Phyllophora, and sometimes on stones; it was dredged in 2 to 7 fathoms. Ceramium 
strictum and C. lenuissimum are also common on Zostcra and on larger algœe, and occa- 
sionally on stones; they were dredged in 2 to 15 fathoms. These three species have a 
scattered and probably wide distribution in sheltered regions of the Bay and Sound, 
but are not present in abundance; they belong to the warm-water sublittora! forma- 
tion (n). 
(34) THE GRIFFITHSIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Gri]fithsia Bornetiana is common in the summer in the more sheltered portions of the 
Bay and Sound (chart 24I ). The species is an epiphyte on larger algœe, such as ChoMrus 
and Phyllophora, and was dredged in 2 to I5 fathoms (most plentiful between 3 and 6 
fathoms) ; it is a conspicuous member of the wann-water sublittoral formation (). 
C-ri]fithsia tenuis has a distribution restricted to the extreme upper portion of 
Buzzards ]3ay (chart 242 ), where it nay be round in large patches loosely attached over 
sandy and muddy bottoms in 2 to 4 fatholns. It is a striking species in these sheltered 
regions (that support comparatively little algal vegetation), evidently preferring warm 
waters. 
(35) TItE PLUMARIA ASSOCIATION. 

Plunria clegans is restricted to exposed situations, such as Gay Head and Sow and 
Pigs (chart 243 ). There it is abundant as an epiphyte on Chondrus and Phyllophora 
over sandy and stony bottoms in 3 to I7 fathoms. It is one of the most charactefistic 
species of the cool-water sublittoral formation (A). 

(3 6) THE SEIROSPORA ASSOCIATION. 

Seirospora Gri]fithsiana is sometimes very common on stones, shells, Zostera, and 
larger algœe in 3 to IO fathoms. It has a scattered distribution in both Bay and Sound, 
and is frequently present in the warm-water sublittoral formation (). 

(37) THE SPERMOTHAMNION ASSOCIATION. 

Sperraolharanion Turneri is very abundant as an epiphyte on such algœe as Chondrus, 
Phyllophora, and Polyides in I to 7 fathoms, over sandy, shelly, stony, and muddy 
bottoms. It is distributed widely in the Bay and Sound (chart 244) and is present in 
both the cool- and warm-water sublittoral formations. 

(38) THE SPYRIDIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Spyridia filamentosa is verv videly distributed in both 13ay and Sound (chart 245 ) ; 
it is found on stones and shells, frequently over muddy bottoms, and on Zosera and 
larger algoe, and was dredged in 3 to 15 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to Io fathoms). 
The species is a characteristic member of the warm-water sublittoral formation (). 



464 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(39) THE CHONDRIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Chondria tenuissima is abundant on rocks and larger algoe below low-water mark 
along somewhat sheltered shores; it was dredged as deep as 2 to 5 fathoms at Phalarope 
station 73, but the species is on the whole rather characteristic of the upper level of the 
sublittoral region. Chondria tenuissima var. Baileyana is less common, but found 
in similar situations. 
Chondria dasyphylla is also found on rocks and larger algoe and sometimes on Zostera 
below low-water mark. It is a coarse species, generally present in less sheltered situ- 
ations than Chondria tenuissi,na and was dredged in 4 to io fathoms, chiefly in the 
eastefly portion of Vineyard Sound. Clwndria sedi]olia is closely related to C. dasy- 
phylla, and has been classed as a variety of the latter; it is less common, but is found 
in similar situations. 
All the species of Chondria are members of the warm-water sublittoral formation 
(B), preferring shallow water and sheltered situations. 

(4 O) THE DASYA ASSOCIATION. 

Dasya de9ans is very abundant during the late summer below low-water mark, 
generally in sheltered situations on Zostera, on larger algoe, and occasionally on stones; 
it was dredged over sandy and stony bottoms in 2 to 13 fathoms and bas a wide and 
scattered distribution throughout the Bay and Sound. The species is a member of the 
warm-water sublittoral formation (B) and is also frequently conspicuous in the Zostera 
formation (c). 
(4I) THE POLYSIPHONIA ASSOCIATIONS. 
Of the  2 specics of lolys{lho,zia found in this rcgion 8 are sufficicnt]y common to 
prescnt conspicuous associations. 
lolysil)honia elongata, the largest spccics, grows on stones and rocks in faifly deep 
water over sandy, shclly, and stony bottoms in 2 to 7 fathoms (most plentiful in 5 to 3 
fathoms). The spccics is common and widcly distributcd throughout Vineyard Sound, 
but is found on]y in the ]owcr portion of the Bay (chart 246 ). It is present in both the 
warm- and coo]-water sublittora] formations, but is more plentifu] in the latter. 
Polysiphonia fibrillosa is common at Woods Hole in the summer, frequently forming 
a zone on rocks at and just below low-water mark. Although characteristic of the 
upper re#on of the warm-water sublittoral, the species was dredged at several scattered 
stations in Vineyard Sound in 2 to i  fathoms. 
Polysiphonia Harveyi and P. Olneyi form tufted growths on eel grass in quiet water, 
and are members of the Zostera formation (c). 
Polysiphonia nigrescens is very abundant on stones and shells frequently over 
nmddy bottoms in i to 15 fathoms (most plentiful in 5 to io fathoms). The species is 
widely distributed in both Bay and Sound (chart 247), and is present in both the cool- 
and warm-water sublittoral formations. 
Polysiphonia urceolata is abundant in the spring and very conspieuous in the zone 
of red algoe on stones and wharves below low-water mark. The species at that season 
is probably widely distibuted in both the Bay and Sound and is then a prominent mem- 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF W'OODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

465 

ber of the eool-vater sublittoral formation; it was dredged in the summer in the lower 
portion of Buzzards Bay in 2 to I9 fathoms. 
Polysiphonia variegata is common in the summer on stones, Zostera, and larger 
algoe, and also grows loosely attached over sand and mud in sheltered situations; it 
was dredged in 3 to 6 fathoms in the upper portion of Buzzards Bay (chart 248). The 
species belongs to the warm-water sublittoral formation, preferring sheltered situations. 
Polysiphonia iolacea is abundant in the summer on stones, rocks, and on the larger 
algoe below low-water mark; it was dredged in I to 13 fathoms over sandy and stony 
bottoms and has a wide though scattered distribution in the 13ay and Sound. The 
species is an important member of the zone of red algœe below low-water mark on rocks 
in exposed situations, taking the place which P. **rceolata occupies in the spring. It 
belongs to the warm-water sublittoral formation. 

(4 2) THE RHODOglELA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Rhodomela Rochei and R. sub]usca are probably very abundant in the spring through- 
out the Bay and Sound. The bases of old plants were dredged during the summer 
at scattered stations in 3 to 8 fathoms for Rhodom«la Rochei, and 3 to 12 fathoms for 
R. sub]usca. In the spring these species are undoubtedly conspicuous members of 
the cool-water sublittoral formation (A). 

(43) THE AHNFELDTIA ASSOCIATION. 

Ahnieldtia plicata is common in exposed situations as off Gav Head and Cutty- 
hunk (chart 249). It was dredged in x to x4 fathoms (most plentiful in 7 to I3 
fathoms) over sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms, and is one of the cool-water sublittoral 
species. 
(44) THE CHONDRUS ASSOCIATION. 

Chondrus crispus, the Irish moss, is abundant along the shores of the Bay and 
Sound below low-water mark; it was dredged in x to x9 fathoms (most plentiful in 
4 to I2 fathoms) over sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms. The species is widely dis- 
tributed through the Bay and Sound (chart 250), wherever the bottom is favorable, 
and grows in dense patches on the rocks. It does not as a rule corne so close to the 
surface as Ceraium ru,brum, Polysiphonia fibrillosa, P. urceolatct, and P. violacea, 
but it is the most conspicuous member on exposed rocks of the zone of red algoe some- 
what below these species. Chondr,s crisp,s is a very important member of both 
the cool and warm-water sublittoral formations, with preferences for the former; for, 
although enduring the warm water of the summer, it grows most luxuriantlv in colder 
temperatures. 
(45) THE PHYLLOPHORA ASSOCIATIONS, 

The two species of Phyllophora have very similar lire habits; they are rarely round 
in the upper level of the sublittoral reon and are generally present only at a considerable 
depth. 
Phyllophora Brodiaei grows on stones and in sand and mud and was dredged in 
x/ to 15 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to IO fathoms). It is distributed very generally 
6269°--Bu11.3 , pt I--3--3o 



466 BULLETIN OF THE II_ REAU OF FISHERIES. 
throughout the Bay and Sound (chart 251), but is most abundant off exposed situations, 
as at Gay Head and Cuttyhunk, where extensive growths are prescrit. 
Phyllophora merabrani[olia is also round on stones and over sand and mud; it was 
dredged in 3 to I7 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to lO fathoms). The species is likewise 
distributed very generally throughout the Bay and Sound (chart 252), but appears to 
prefer rather more sheltered situations than Phflloplwra Brodi6e¢. 
Both species of Phfllophora are prominent in the cool- as well as the warm-water 
sublittoral formations. 
(46) THE AGARDHIELLA ASSOCIATION. 
Agardhiella tenera is very eommon on stones and shells in faifly deep water; it 
grows in 2 to 15 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to IO fathoms). The species is very widely 
distributed throughout both the Bay and Sound (ehart 253), but prefers rather sheltered 
waters and is a charaeteristic member of the warm-water sublittoral formation (), 
where it is commoniy associated vith Cninwllia americana. 
(47) THE CYSTOCLONIUM ASSOCIATIONS. 
Cystoclonium p,rpurascens has a scattered distribution in both Bay and Sound 
(chart 254). It was round in 2 to 13 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to io fathoms) 
attached to stones over sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms, occasionally over mud. The 
species rarely forms extensive patches but is conspicuous because of its large size; it 
is round in both the cool- and warm-water sublittoral formations. 
Cystoclonum purpurascens var. cirrhosum is abundant in the lower portion of the 
Bay and westerly portion of the Sound (chart 255). It was dredged in i to 17 fathoms 
(most plentiful in 4 to 12 fathoms) attaehed to stones and to larger algoe over a bottom 
similar to that of the preceding species. The variety is much more luxuriant than the 
species and frequently forms large patches of vegetation; it clearly prefers the condi- 
tions of the cool-water sublittoral and is a prominent member of that formation 
(48) THE CHAMPIA ASSOCIATION. 
Champia parvula is one of the most widely distributed algoe of the region, occa- 
sionallyforming extensive patches in the Bay and Sound (chart 256 ). It grows in i to I9 
fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to I2 fathoms) attached to stones, Zoslera, and larger 
algoe, over sandy, shelly, stony, and muddy bottoms; it is frequently round in shallow 
water along the shore. The species belongs to the warm«vater sublittoral formation 
(), being round most abundantly in sheltered regions. 
(49) THE LOMENTARIA ASSOCIATIONS. 
Lomentaria rosea is round only off the exposed points of Gay Head and Cuttyhunk 
(chart 257). It was dredged in 4 to 13 fathoms on stones, shells, and on larger algoe, over 
sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms. The speeies is restricted to the cool-water sublittoral 
and although never abundant is one of the most characterisfic members of this forma- 
tion (A). 
Lomentaria unciata grows in the sheltered waters of the Bay and Sotmd (chart 258). 
It was dredged in i/4 to 15 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to io fathoms) over sandy, 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

467 

shelly, and stony bottoms, and it is also abundant in shallow water along shore. In 
sharp contrast to L. rosea, this species is characteristic of the warm-water sublittoral 
formation (B) and prefers sheltered situations where it frequently accompanies Chanpia 
parvula. 
(50) THE RHODYMENIA ASSOCIATION. 

Rhodymenia palraata, the dulse, is found chiefly in the lower portion of Buzzards 
Bay and westerly portion of Vineyard Sound (chart _'259 ). It was dredged in i to 9 
fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to i2 fathoms) growing on stones and larger algœe, over 
sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms. A prominent member of the cool-water sublittoral 
formation (A), this large species is conspicuous for its size, although the growths in this 
region are never extensive. 

(5I) THE DELESSERIA ASSOCIATION. 

Delesseria sinz,osa is practically restricted to the lower portion of the Bay and 
westerly portion of the Sound (chart 260). It grows on larger algoe, such as Chondrus 
and Phyllophora, occasionally on stones, and was dredged in /4z to I7 fathoms (most 
plentiful in 4 to i2 fathoms). The species is a member of the small group of algoe 
peculiar to the exposed conditions off Gay Head and Cuttyhunk, and is one of the 
noteworthy forms in the cool-water sublittoral formation (A). 

(52) THE GRINNELLIA ASSOCIATION. 

Grinnellia americana is almost universally distributed throughout the Bay and Sound 
(chart 26i). It was dredged in 2 to 19 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to i2 fathoms) on 
stones and shells, over sandy, shelly, stony, and muddy bottoms, but it likewise cornes 
close to the surface, as on piles of wharves (Little Harbor, Woods Hole). Although 
apparently in all regions of the sublittoral, this species is partial to the more sheltered 
situations, and consequenfly warmer waters, where it is one of the most characteristic 
and abundant orms together with Agardhiella rentra and Charn.]ia parvula. 

(53) THE POLYIDES ASSOCIATION. 

• Pdyides rotundus, although never abundànt, has a rather wide distribution in both 
the Bay and Sound (chart 262). It is found only in fairly deep water, i  to 15 fathoms 
(most plentiful in 4 to io fathoms), over sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms, occasionallv 
over mud. The species is a member of both the cool- and warm-water sublittoral forma- 
tions, and is conspicuous for its size, although the plants grov in scattered groups. 

(54) THE CORALLINA ASSOCIATION. 

Corallina ofïwinalis grows in dense patches over rocks in exposed situations below 
low-water mark and to a considerable depth; the species is widely distributed in the more 
open portions of the Bay and Sound (chart 263). It was dredged in 4 to io fathoms, over 
sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms. The associations of Corallina are generally so dense 
that they occupy the surface of their attachment to the almost complete exclusion of 
other algœe; the species is present in both the cool- and warm-water sublittoral formations. 



468 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(55) THE HILDENBRANDIA ASSOCIATION. 

Hildenbrautia prototypus is common on stones and rocks near low-water mark and 
extending into deep water, where it grows in I/ to 4 fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to 
o fathoms) ; it is widely distributed in the Bay and Sound (chart 264). The species is 
round in both the cool- and warm-water sublittoral formations. 

(56) THI LITHOTHAMNION ASSOCIATION. 

Lithothamnio», polymorphum grows on stones and shells in fairly deep water and is 
rather widely distributed in the Bay and Sound (chart 265). It was dredged in 2 to 5 
fathoms (most plentiful in 4 to o fathoms) over sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms. 
Lithothamnion, although never round in abundance, is present in both the cool-and 
warm-water sublittoral formations. 

(57) THE MELOBESIA ASSOCIATIONS. 

Melobesia ]arinosa is fairly connnon on Fucus vesiculosus, Chondrus, Phyllophora, and 
Zostera at low-water mark and below, being dredged in 3M to  M fathoms, at seattered 
stations in the Sound. The species is a member of the warm-water sublittoral formation. 
Melobesia Le]olis.ii is very abundant on Zostera throughout the Bay and Sound in 
both shallow and deep water; it was dredged in 2 to I2M fathoms. The speeies prefers 
rather sheltered waters, where it may cover the eel grass with a rhin incrustation; it is 
characteristic of the Zostera formation. 
Mdobesia nembranacea is oeeasionally found on Chondrus and Phyllophora, generally 
in exposed situations as off Gay Head, Cuttyhunk, and Penikese. It was dredged in 
3M to Io fathoms and clearly belongs to the cool-water sublittoral formation. 
B¢elobesia p,stulata is eommon on Ascophyllum, Chondrus, and Phyllophora, and is 
prescrit in both shal!ow and deep water, being dredged in IM to x4 fathoms off Gay 
Head, Cuttyhunk, and in the easterly portion of the Sound. The species has a scattered 
and probably rather general distribution along the shore, and is a member of both the 
cool- and warm-water sublittoral formations. 

THE COOL-WATER SUBLITTORAL FORMATION. 

The cool-water sublittoral formation of the summer contains a number of very 
interesting and characteristic algœe, some of which are limited in their distribution to the 
exposed waters off Gay Head and the reefs of Sow and Pigs. Other species have a more 
extended range throughout the lower portion of Buzzards Bay and the westerly portion 
of Vineyard Sound. Finally there is a group of species which, while most abundant in 
the regions described above, are also round in other portions of the Bay and Sound, where 
they form a part of the sublittoral flora characteristic of these more sheltered, and in 
the summer, warmer waters. 
The species in these lists preceded by an asterisk (*) are the larger or more abundant 
forrns which dominate the formation; species which are rare or occasional are followed 
by an (o). 
The most interesting and noteworthy species in this formation are those which are 
especially characteristic of the cold waters north of Cape Cod and have been recorded only 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

469 

south of the cape in exposed situations where they may be expected to find conditions 
approaching those of the north coast. The list is as follows: 

Choetomorpha melagonium. 
*Laminaria digitata. 
*Plumaria elegans. 
Rhodornela subfusca. 

Actinococcus peltoeformis (o). 
Gymnogongrus norvegicus (o). 
Euthora cristata (o). 
*Lomentaria rosea. 

*Rhodymenia palrnata. 
*Delesseria sinuosa. 
Melobesia membranacea (o). 

Another group of species comprises those vhich range both north and south of Cape 
Cod; many of them are conspicuous in the warm-water sublittoral formation (B). The 

following are prominent" 
Chœetornorpha linum. 
Cladophora albida var. refracta. 
C. gracilis. 
C. rupestris. 
Ectocarpus confervoides. 
E. fasciculatus. 
E. siliculosus. 
*Desrnarestia aculeata. 
*D. viridis. 
*Dictyosiphon hippuroides. 
*Chordaria flagelliformis. 
Leathesia difforrnis. 
*Ralfsia clavata. 

Chorda filum. 
*Laminaria Agardhii. 
*L..Agardhii var. vittata. 
*Ceramium rubrum. 
Polysiphonia atrorubescens (o). 
*P. elongata. 
*P. nigrescens. 
P. nigrescens var. fucoides (o). 
P. urceolata. 
Actinococcus subcutaneus. 
*Ahrtfeldtia plicata. 
*Chondrus crispus. 
*Phyllophora Brodiœei. 

*Phyllophora membranifolia. 
Agardhiella tenera. 
-*Cystoclonium purpurascens. 
*Cystoclonium purpurascens var. 
cirrhosum. 
Grinnellia americana. 
Polyides rotundus. 
Corallina officinalis. 
Hildenbrandia prototypus. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum. 
Melobesia membranacea. 
M. pustulata. 

Finally there is a group of species which are widelv distributed in the warm-water 
sublittoral. Chief among them are-- 
Cladostephus verticillatus. I *Spermothamnion Turneri. 
*Antithamnion cruciaturn. Rhodornela Rochei. 
The lists of species in the genera Cladophora and Ectocarpus are undoubtedly far 
from complete, for studies at other seasons of the year would be expected to give many 
additions. It must be remembered that we know nothing of this formation in the lower 
portion of Buzzards Bay and the westerly portion of Vineyard Sound in the winter and 
spring when the conditions are much more favorable for the support of a cool-water 
sublittoral flora. 
The chier factor which determines the cool-water sublittoral formation is the 
relatively low temperature of the bottom water during the summer months. The 
records of the temperatures off Gay Head and Cuttyhunk for the summer, as well as for 
other seasons of the year, are presented in a table on page 450, to which the reader is 
referred. It is probable that the lowest winter temperatures of the bottom water at 
these points fall somewhat below 35 °, and that the highest summer temperatures are 
close to 60 °. This represents about the yearly range of the bottom temperatures off 
the exposed points of Gay Head and Soxv and Pigs, and in general of the extreme westedy 
portion of Vineyard Sound and the deeper water of the lower portion of ]3uzzards Bay. 
The cool-water sublittoral formation may then be said to endure a maximum tempera- 
turc of about 60 ° for a short period in midsummer, but to lire for most of the year at 
temperatures considerably lower. Its most favorable temperature is perhaps close to 
5 °° or below. Whether essentially the saine formation is present during the winter 
is not known, but it seems very probable. 



470 13ULLETIN OFTHE 13UREAU OF FISHERIES. 

THE WARM-WATER SUBLITFORAL FORMATION. 

A characteristic warm-water sublittoral formation is present during the summer 
in the more sheltered regions of the Bay and Sound--that is, in the upper portion of 
Buzzards Bay and in the narrow and easterly portions of Vineyard Sound. The con- 
ditions in these regions are much more varied than in the lower portion of the Bay and 
the westerly portion of the Sound occupied by the cool-water sublittoral formation. For 
example, the conditions and flora of the upper end of Buzzards I3av are quite different 
from those around Woods Hole. Further subdivisions of the warm-water sublittoral 
formation could undoubtedly be ruade to advantage, but it would be umvise to attempt 
to do so on our present information. Accordingly, »ve shall treat the warm-vater 
sublittoral as a very large and widely distributed formation, excluding, however, those 
algoe which are characteristically associated with beds of Zostera in an assemblage called 
here the Zost«ra formation (c). 
The species in these lists (as in those of the cool-water sublittoral formation) 
preceded by an asterisk (*) are the larger or more abundant forms xvhich dominate 
the formation; species which are rare or occasional are followed by an (o). 
The most interesting and noteworthy species in the warm-water sublittoral forma- 
tion are those which have hot been reported at ail north of Cape Cod or are present 
there only under exceptional conditions. This list includes the following species: 

Cladophora albida. 
Eetocarpus granulosus var. ten- 
uis (o). 
E. lutosus (o). 
E. Mitchelloe (o). 
Cladostephus spongiosus (o). 
#C. verticillatus. 
Rhadinocladia Farlowii (o). 
Striaria attenuata (o). 
*Arthrocladia villosa. 
Elachisa stellaris var. Chordoe 
(o). 
Myriactis pulvinata var. rninor. 
Stilophora rhizodes (o). 
8argassum bacciferurn (o, float- 
ing in Sottnd). 
*S. Filipendula. 

S. Filipendula var. subedenta- 
tutu. 
Scinaia furcellata. 
*Antitharnnion cruciatum. 
A. cruciaturn var. radicans (o). 
A. plumula (o). 
Callithamnion Baileyi var 
laxurn. 
*C. roseurn. 
C. tetragonum. 
Ceramiurn botr)Tocarpum (o). 
C. capri-cornu (o). 
*C. tenuissirnum. 
*Griffithsia tenuis. 
Pleonosporium 13orreri. 
*Seirospora Griffithsiana. 

*Spermothamnion Turneri. 
*Spyridia filamentosa. 
Chondria dasyphylla. 
C. sedifolia (o). 
*Polysiphonia fibrillosa. 
P. vestita (o). 
Rhodomela Rochei. 
R. virgata (o). 
Actinococcus aggregatus (o). 
Gymnogongrus Griffithsioe (o). 
Gracilaria cordervoides (o). 
G. mulfipartita. 
G. rnultipartita var. angustissi- 
ma (o). 
ttypnea muciformis. 
Lithothamnion polymorphurn. 

Another group of species comprises those vhich range both north and south of Cape 
Cod, some of them being also conspicuous in the cool-water sublittoral formation (A). 
The list includes the following: 

Chœetomorpha linum. 
Cladophora albida var. refracta. 
C. arcta. 
C. glaucescens. 
C. gracilis. 
C. hirta (o). 
C. lanosa. 
C. ludolphian :. 

C. rupestris. 
Bryopsis hypnoides (o). 
13. plumosa (o). 
Ectocarpus confervoides. 
*E. fasciculatus. 
E. granulosus 
*E. siliculosus. 
E. siliculosus var. hiemalis (o). 

Pylaiella littoralis. 
Sphacelaria cirrhosa. 
S. radicans. 
Punctaria plantaginea (). 
Desmarestia aculeata (o). 
*Desmarestia viriis. 
Dictyosiphon hippuroides. 
Myriotrichia filiformis. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

47I 

Castagnea virescens. 
*Chordaria flagelliformis. 
*Leathesia difïormis. 
*Mesogloia divaricata. 
*Ralfsia clavata. 
*Chorda filum. 
Laminaria Agardhii. 
Laminaria Agardhii var. vit- 
tata (o). 
Antithamnion americanum (o). 
Callithamnion Baileyi. 
C. byssoideum. 
C. corymbosum. 
*Ceramium rubrum. 
*C. strictum. 
*Griffithsia Bornetiana. 

*Chondria tenuissima. 
C. tenuissima var. Baileyana. 
*Dasya elegans. 
Polysiphonia elongata. 
P. fastigiata (o). 
*P. nigrescens. 
*P. variegata. 
*P. violacea. 
Actinococcus subcutaneus. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata. 
*Chondrus crispus. 
*Phyllophora Brodiœei. 
P. Brodiœei var. catenata (o). 
*P. membranifolia. 
Sterrocolax decipiens (o). 

*Agardhiella tenera. 
Cystoclonimn purpurascens. 
C. purpurascens var. cirrho- 
sun (o). 
*Champia parvula. 
*Lomentaria tmcinata. 
Rhodymenia palmata (o). 
*Grinnellia americana. 
Gloiosiphonia capillaris (o). 
Polyides rotundus. 
Corallina officinalis. 
Hildenbrandia prototypus. 
Melobesia farinosa. 
M. membranacea (o). 
1ri. pustulata. 

The xvarm-water sublittoral formation of the summer is known not onh" from the 
dredgings in the deeper waters, but also from many observations in the shallow waters 
at a number of points at or near \Voods Hole, where the algal flora along shore has 
been studied by the writer for some ten summers. Extensive studies along shore have 
hOt been possible in the regions of the cool-water sublittoral formation (that is, in the 
lower portion of Buzzards Bay and westerly portion of Vineyard Sound), and the flora 
of the shallow water is known only at a few points, such as Gay Head, portions of Cutty- 
hunk, and Penikese. 
It is interesting to note that a considerable number of species in the above lists are 
restricted wholly or largely to shallow water in a zone from low-water mark to a depth 
of 3 to 6 feet. The characteristic algœe in this zone of the upper warm-water sublittoral 
re : 

Chœetomorpha linum. 
Cladophora, the species in the 
above lists. 
Ectocarpus, the species in the 
above lists. 
Pylaiella littoralis. 
Sphacelaria cirrhosum. 
S. radicans. 
Punctaria plantiginea. 
Castagnea virescens. 
Chordaria flagelliformis. 

Leathesia difformis. 
Mesogloia divaricata. 
Ralfsia clavata. 
Chorda filum. 
Callithamnion Baileyi. 
C. Baileyi var. laxum. 
Ceramium rubrum. 
Chondria dasyphylla. 
C. sedifolia. 
C. tenuissima. 
C. tenuissima var. Baileyana. 

Polysiphonia fastigiata. 
P. fibrillosa. 
P. variegata. 
P. violacea. 
Chondrus cr[spus. 
Champia parxmla. 
Lomentaria uncitaata. 
Grinnellia americana (on piles). 
blelobesia farinosa. 
M. pustulata. 

The algœe listed in the Zostera formation (c) may also properly be included in this, 
the upper warm-water sublittoral formation. 
The summer temperature of the water is undoubtedly the chier factor in determining 
the warm-water sublittoral formation as a whole. The degree of exposure to wave action 
or ride currents and the character of the attachment are of course important factors 
affecting the local distribution of the algœe along the shores. Thus, the vegetation off 
exposed points, as at Nobska or on the ledges in the passage of Woods Hole, is subjected 
to conditions very different from those of neighboring sheltered coves. As stated before, 
the summer temperature in Great Harbor, Woods Ho!e (as shown bv dailv averages 



47 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

covering the years 9o2-9o6), passes 60 ° F. about June , holds between 69 ° and 7 ° 
from about July   to August 28, and passes 60 ° in it autumn decline about October 2. 
The bottom temperatures were taken at a large number of stations in both the Bay and 
the Sound during the month of August. They were at this rime highest in the upper 
portion of ]3uzzards ]3ay, where 7.3 ° was recorded, while in Vineyard Sound 68.8 ° was 
reeorded off Falmouth, and 66.9 ° off the west end of the Middle Ground, these temper- 
atures becoming in general lower toward the mouth of ]3uzzards ]3ay and the westerly 
portion of Vineyard Sound. The warm-water sublittoral formation may, then, be said 
to endure a temperature of about 7 °0 for midsummer, and its most favorable temper- 
ature is perhaps close to 60 ° or above, although many species live in colder water. It 
would be very interesting to know to what degree the place of the warm-water sublittoral 
is taken by representatives of the cool-water sublittoral as the temperature of the water 
falls during the autumn. The cool-water sublittoral might be expected to invade the 
narrow and easterly portion of Vineyard Sound and the upper portion of Buzzards ]3ay, 
but we have no data on this problem. 

THE ZOSTERA FORMATION. 

There are a number of algoe which have the habit of growing frequently or inva- 
riably attached to Zostera. They, together with the eel grass itself, constitute a very 
clearly defined assemblage which is here called the Zostera formation. It is really a 
specialized region of the warm-water sublittoral formation, for the eel grass vegetates 
during the summer when the water is warm. Many of the species listed below will 
eonsequently be round in the lists of the latter formation (B). 
Zostera marina, the eel grass, is very abundant in all sheltered regions of both Bay 
and Sound, forming thick beds in shallow waters. It was frequently round at inshore 
stations of the survey, and also at scattered stations in deeper waters of the ]3ay and 
Sound (chart 266), being dredged in _ to 3 fathoms, over sandy, stony, and muddy 
bottoms. The eel grass, however, prefers shallow water in coves and bays or along 
sheltered coasts, where it grows luxuriantly, developing extensive beds in depths of 
2 feet to 2 fathoms or more. Under these conditions the" formation described below 
is frequently developed to a greater or less extent. Species preceded by the asterisk 
are the most important forms; those which are rare or occasional are designated by (o). 
When the Zostera grows in very quiet and shallow waters the blue-green alga, 
Anabcena torulosa, is common on the mud at the base of the plants, frequently breaking 
loose and floating on the surface as slimy masses. Lyngbya ,m.iscula sometimes forms 
extensive tufted growths and, breaking free, also floats on the surface. Other blue- 
green algoe in the Lyngbya salt-marsh association () may be present. Hydrocoleum 
9lutinosum and Gloeocystis zostericola form coatings on the leaves, and Enteromorpha 
dathrata, E. pl«,osa, with other species, and sometimes species of Cladolbhora, grow in 
loosely attached masses. These algœe are all forms which may be expected in brackish 
water. 
When the eel grass grows in more open or exposed situations the list of epiphytes 
includes species which are never found in brackish water. Among these the following 
are conspicuous: 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

*Cladophora gracilis and occa- 
sionally other species. 
Ascocyclus orbicularis (o). 
*Ectocarpus confervoides. 
E- penicillatus. 
*E. siliculosus. 
Sphacelaria cirrhosa (o). 
*Desmotrichum balticurn (in the 
spring). 
*D. undulaturn (in the spring), 
Pogotrichum filiforme (o). 
*Punctaria latifolia. 
Rhadinocladia Farlowii (o). 
Giraudia sphacelarioides (o). 
Castagnea virescens (o). 
*C. Zosteree. 

Hecatonema maculans (o). 
Myrionema vulgare. 
Stilophora rhiz-»des (o). 
Erythrotrichia ceramicola. 
*Porphyra leucosticta (in the 
spring). 
Chantransia secundata. 
*C. virgatula. 
Antithamnion cruciaturn (in 
deep water). 
Callitharnnion Baileyi. 
C. Baileyi var. laxurn. 
*C. byssoideum. 
*C. corymbosum. 
«C. roseum. 
«Ceramium fastigiatum. 

C. rubrum. 
*C. strictum. 
*C. tenuissimum. 
*Seirospora Griffithsiana. 
*Spyridia filaraentosa (o). 
Chondria dasyphylla (o). 
Chondria sedifolia (o). 
*Dasya elegans. 
*Polysiphonia Harveyi. 
*P. Olneyi. 
P. variegata (o). 
Rhododerrnis Georgii (o). 
lVIelobesia farinosa. 
*M. Lejolisii. 

473 

The Zostera formation endures temperatures considerably higher than those given 
for the range of the warm-water sublittoral, especially where the eel grass grows in 
eoves or other sheltered stations. Such waters may remain above 7 °° F. for many 
days, probably at times reaching as high as 75 ° to 78°. These conditions as to heat 
are the most extreme of any in this region, except of course the small brackish pools 
and ditches of the salt marshes. 

A WINTER SUBLITTORAL FORMATION. 

It is clear that, as the temperature of the Bay and Sound falls during the autumn, 
the conditions become less favorable for the warm-water sublittoral flora. Many species 
characteristic of waters south of Cape Cod pass out of season, although certain species 
which may be said to endure the summer's heat are at their best in the winter season. 
A cold-water winter sublittoral formation is thus developed, which extends throughout 
the Bay and Sound, reaching its best development probably in the late winter and eady 
spring. 
We know nothing of this winter and spring flora in the deeper waters of the Bay 
and Sound, for there have been no dredgings for algoe at these seasons. The cool-water sub- 
littoral formation of the lower portion of the Bay and westedy portion of the Sound would 
be expected to enter the more sheltered regions occupied by the warm-vater sublittoral 
during the summer, but how far it may extend is a matter of conjecture. Undoubtedly 
species appear which are hot present in either Bay or Sound during the summer, some 
probably developing from resting spores that carry the forlns through the summer, and 
others coming in by means of spores brought from a distance. 
It is probable that numbers of northern species, the spores of which might be brought 
from a distance, would be able to establish themselves, develop to maturity, and perhaps 
pass through several generations before the temperature rises sufficiently in the spring 
to put an end to their growth. Species of Cladophora, Eclocarpus, and other rapidly 
growing green and brown algoe, reproducing by zoospores, are admirably fitted for a 
periodical winter invasion, and some of the smaller red algoe which mature quicldy 
would also be expected to take part in such a migration. 
Some observations on the algal vegetation along shore in shallow water have been 
ruade during the winter and spring, and if these are indices of the general change through- 



474 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

out the sublittoral, the flora of the bottom of the Bay and Sound must be very differcnt 
indeed from that of the summer. Especially interesting are the series of studies of 
the flora of Spindle Rocks, Woods Hole, which were ruade at intervals throughout a 
month cycle in i9o 4 and I9o5. These are described in the ne,t section of this paper. 
Such intensive studies over long periods of rime are very much to be desired to determine 
the seasonal changes in algal floras. 
We give beloxv a list of the algoe so far known to be present in the cold-water 
sublittoral formation of the winter and spring: 

Monostroma Grevillei. 
Ulva Lactuca. 
Chœetomorpha Linum. 
Cladophora arcta. 
C. lanosa. 
C. lanosa var. uncialis. 
Derbesia vaucherioeformis. 
Ectocarpus œecidioides. 
E. confcrvoides. 
E. elegans. 
E. fasciculatus. 
E. granulosus. 
E. ovatus. 
E. penicillatus. 
E. siliculosus. 
E. tomentosus. 
Pylaiella littoralis. 
Sorocarpus uvœeformis. 
Asperococcus echinatus. 

Desmotrichum balticum. 
D. undulatum. 
Pogotrichum filiforme. 
Punctaria latifolia. 
P. plantaginea. 
Desmarestia viridis. 
Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus. 
Giraudia sphacelarioides. 
Castagnea virescens. 
Chordaria flagelliformis. 
ttecatonema maculans. 
llyrionema corunnœe. 
M. vulgare. 
Chorda tomentosa_ 
Laminaria Agardhii. 
ttaplospora globosa. 
Scaphospora Kingii. 
Erythrotrichia ceramicola_ 
Porphyra laciniata. 

1 a. leucosticta. 
Chantransia secundata. 
C. virgatula. 
Antithamnion americanum. 
Callithamnion Baileyi. 
Ceramium rubrum. 
Polysiphonia fastigiata. 
P. nigrescens. 
P. urceolata. 
ILhodomela Rochei. 
R. subfusca. 
Alanfeldtia plicata. 
Chondrus crispus. 
Sterrocolax decipiens. 
Rlaodymcnia palmata. 
Gloiosiphonia capillaris. 
Rhododermis Gcorgii. 

The cold-»vater sublittoral formation accepts a »vinter temperature, which for at 
least two and a half months probably averages under 35 ° F., as indicated by the records for 
Great Harbor, Woods Hole (the average temperature between December 25 and llarch 
for the years x9o2-I9o6 »vas below 35°). lXlany of the species of this formation reach 
their best vegetative condition and fruit during the spring, and then pass out of season. 
During this period the temperature of the water rises steadily, passing 6o ° about June i. 

THE LITTORAL FORMATIONS. 

As has been stated before, the algal groxvths in the littoral region are not verv 
striking in the immediate vicinity of Voods Hole, chiefly for these reasons, 0) that the 
tides are small, (2) that the shore line is very broken, (3) a marked boreM flora is 
absent, and (4) the scraping of floating ice in the winter prevents the development of 
an extensive littoral flora at this season. Neighboring toasts exposed sufficiently as to 
be free from floating ice, as at Cuttyhunk, bave heavy growths of algoe in the winter, but 
there bave been no opportunities for thorough studies at this season. These growths 
are, however, undoubtedly composed largely of rockweeds (Fzcus and Ascophyllum). 
The littoral formations of the different seasons at Woods Hole are of a very spotted 
character, rarely being so extensive as to attract attention and generally breaking up at 
once into small associations. Of these the following are at times very evident: The 
Calothrix associations (3), the Rivularia associations (4), the Pleurocapsa association 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

475 

(5), the Ulva, Enteromorpha, and .lIonostroma associations (6), the Ulothrix associations 
(7), the Phyllitis and Scytosipho-» associations (5), the Fucus and Ascophyllum associa- 
tions (-'5), the Ban9ia association (-'7), the Porphj/ra association (.-8), the Nemalion 
association (3o). 
THE PLANKTON. 

The onlv studies on the plant lire present in the plankton of the region covered by 
the survey hare been those of Peck (I894 and i896), chiefly in relation to its value as a 
source of food, especially for the menhaden. In his second paper Peck (i896, p. 356) 
records his observations on the plankton of Buzzards Bay, describing and figuring a num- 
ber of microorganisms belonging to the Peridinales and Bacillariales (Diatomales), 
together with animal forms. His studies were quantitative rather than qualitative, 
and the identification of his material as regards plant lire was only par.ial, but it is 
clear that the plankton of these regions is very abundant and widespread, as would be 
expected of warm, shallow bodies of water. 



Chapter IV.--A REPORT ON THE ALOE OF SPINDLE ROCKS, WOODS HOLE 
HARBOR. 

That many algœe have well-defined seasons of vegetative growth is well known, but 
there have been very few detailed or intensive studies of particular regions covering 
sufficiently long periods to give important conclusions. It is certain, however, that 
there are seasonal floras which follow one another over the saine area in much the saine 
manner as terrestrial floras. This study was undertaken in the hope that observations 
on a particular group of rocks at Woods Hole at various seasons might bring out some 
important facts on the lire habits of the algoe of this region. 
The rocks selected for the study seemed particularly well adapted for the purpose. 
They vere a group of bowlders called by the writer Spindle Rocks because, lying off 
Grassy Ledge at the entrance to the ship channel in the passage of Woods Ho!e, they 
bore a light on an iron spindle. Unïortunately for the continuation of the work, the 
roeks were removed during the summer of I9o6 by dredging operations of the Govern- 
ment to widen the ship channel, and the spindle was shifted to another position. 
The destruction of the old group of rocks of course ended the observations, which 
had been in progress for 15 months, beginning in the summer of 9o4 and extending 
through the summer of 19o5- The studies over this period, however, are of considerable 
interest, since they cover the seasonal changes of one entire year. They are illustrated 
by 8 charts, which are selected from a series of io ruade during this period. 
Spindle Rocks, as shown on the charts (-67--'74), was a group of io bowlders, the 
smallest having a length of about 5 ïeet and the largest of about 9½ ïeet. Some portion 
of each rock was exposed at lov water and all of the rocks vere covered at high ride. The 
rocks lay to the north or right of the entrance to the ship channel leading through the 
passage ïrom Woods Hole Harbor to Buzzards Bay and vere an outlying portion of 
Grassy Ledge. The rocks were exposed to very swift tide currents, which flow through 
the channel at a rate of 5 to 8 toiles an hour. The ledge ïell off abruptly on all sides, 
but between the rocks the depth was i to 6 ïeet. The outlines of the bowlders were 
plotted in a chart showing their ïonn and position as viewed ïrom above. The low-water 
mark was sketched for each rock by a dotted line, and above it two other lines indi- 
cating ride marks 2 and 5 inches, respectively, above low vater. A plate was ruade from 
the original draving and charts were printed to be used for making the records. In the 
work of preparing this chart the writer received much assistance from Mr. F. W. Cushwa. 
The study was concerned entirely vith the flora over the tops of the rocks and 
below low-vater mark to a depth of 3 to 6 feet. Each species was given a number, and 
charts were plotted at intervals, the numbers Mth accompan.4ng notes shoving the 
position and abundance of the algœe over the rocks. It was found most convenientin 
practice for two persons to take the record of the ledge, one making the examination and 
the other recording by number on the printed chart the position of each species. At 
the end of the study the list of species was arranged in the order adopted in the Catalogue, 
476 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 477 
necessitating a new set of numbers, which were substituted for the old. In ail, 5o species 
were recorded on the rocks during the 15 months' study, the list being as follows: 
List o/algce/ou.nd on Spinclle Rocks. 

. Calothrix scopulorum. 

3- Ulothrix implexa. 
4- Ulva Lactuca. 
5- Ulva Lactuca var. rigida. 
6. Enteromorpha crinita. 
7- Enteromorpha intestinalis. 

x3. Ectocarpus mcidioides. 
I4. Ectocarpus confervoides. 
i5. Ectocarpus fasciculatus. 
16. Ectocarpus granulosus. 
17. Ectocarpus ovatus. 
18. Ectocarpus penicillatus. 
19. Ectocarpus siliculosus. 
2o. Ectocarpus tomentosus. 
21. Sorocarpus uvoeformis. 
22. Desmotrichum balticum. 
23. Desmotrichum undulatum. 
24. Phyllitis fascia. 

37- Porphyra laciniata. 
38. Acrochoetium secundatum. 
39- Acrochoetium virgatulum. 
4o. Nemalion multifidum 
4I. Callithamnion Baileyi. 
42. Callithanmion corymbosum. 
43- Ceramium rubrum. 

CYANOPHYCE2E. 
I 2. Rivularia atra. 
CHLOROPHYCE2E. 
8. Enteromorpha prolifera. 
9- Cladophora gracilis. 
io. Cladophora lanosa. 
 i. Chadophora lanosa var. uncialis. 
2. Codiolum gregarium. 
PHEOPHYCE2E. 

25. Punctaria plantaginea. 
26. Scytosiphon lomentarius. 
7- Desmarestia viridis. 
28. Chordaria flagelliformis. 
29. Mesogloia divaricata. 
3 o. Mydonema corunnoe. 
3 t. Chorda filum. 
32. Chorda tomentosa. 
33- Laminaria Agardhii. 
34- Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata. 
35- Fucus vesiculosus. 
36. Sargassum Filipendula. 

RHODOPH¥CE,E. 

44. Chondria dasyphylla. 
45- Dasya elegans. 
46. Polysiphonia fibrillosa. 
47- Polysiphonia urceolata. 
48. Polysiphonia violacea. 
49- Chondrus crispus. 
5 o. Champia parvula. 

The detailed records of the accompanying eight charts (no. 267-_74) bave been 
given in the legends, and it is only necessarv in this account to present the most 
important conclusions from the studv of the rocks throughout the seasons. 
Dufing the winter the tops of the tocks were scraped perfectly bare of vegetation, 
and even of barnacles, by the floating ice carried back and forth through the channel 
bv the svft tides, a The conditions at the end of the winter of I9o 5 are shown in chart 
267, recorded Match i7, i9o 5. It is interesting to compare this chart with chart 274, 
of December 30, 9o4, which shows algoe well di»tfibuted over the upper portion of 
almost everv rock. That vegetation had been entirely swept away in the two and one- 
half months elapsing between the two records, and no algoe had as )'et formed a per- 
ceptible new growth. This history is probably that of every bowlder along the shore 

a There are. however, winters at XVoods Hole when practicall$- no floatiag ice is present, and at such rimes the aigre are 
hot affected. 



478 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

when exposed to similar ice scraping and shows clearly vhy the littoral tlora xn mid- 
winter is so little developed in this region. Returning to chart 267, it will be seen that 
the algœe were ail below low-water mark, the most conspicuous forms bcing Ceramium 
rubrum (43) and Chondrus crispus (49), forming a zone around the rocks. 
The group of rocks a month later presented a very different aspect, as shown in 
chart 268, recorded on April _-,2. Cladophora lanosa var. nnc.ialis ( ) had appeared in 
considerable quantity near low-water mark, and somewhat lower down was an imperfect 
zone consisting of young growth of Phyllitis [ascia (-"4) and Scytosiphon lomottarius (26). 
Polysipho,ia urceolata (47) had appeared well below low-water mark and was the most 
conspicuous member of a zone of red algœe, including Ceramium. rubrum (43) and Chondrus 
crispus (49)- There were present Sorocarpus uvoe[ormis, four species of Ectocarps, and 
the two species of Desrnotrichurn, ail net, to the rocks, showing how quickly such algœe, 
reproducing by zoospores, may establish themselves. A notably new form t, as Chorda 
tomcntosa (32), which had begun to appear. 
Chart 269, recorded May 22, shows the.conditions af ter another month, and when the 
spring flora t, as at its full development. Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis (i ) t, as still 
the dominant green alga, but Entcromorpha intcstinalis (7) had begun to appear, and these 
two algœe had extended the green zone much higher ou the rocks than at the previous 
date, April 22 (chart 268). The brown zone at lov-water mark, composed chiefly of 
Ectocarpus penicillatus (x8), Phyllitis ]ascia (24), Scytosiphon lomentarius (26), and 
Chordaria flagclli[ormis (28), was mueh more evident. Polysiphonia urceolata (47) t, as 
very eonspicuous in the zone of red algœe below the brown. Chorda tomcntosa (32) vas 
abundant. 
Conditions were very greatly changed after another month, as shown in chart 27% 
• recorded June 29, the spring flora having given place to the beginning of the summer 
flora. Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis had entirelv disappeared, and the prominent 
green zone above lov-water mark was composed of Ulothrix irn.plexa (3) and Enteromorpha 
i, testinalis (7), vith young growths of Ulva Lactuca var. rigida (5). The brown zone 
near low-water mark t, as nov chiefly Scytosiphon lomcntarius (26) and Ckordaria flagcl- 
li]ormis (28); Phyllitis ]ascia t'as represented by only a few old plants and Ectocarpus 
penicillatus had disappeared. The other species of Ectocarpus, Dcsmotrichum, and 
Sorocarpus uvoe[ormis, as well as Chorda. tomcntosa, were also no longer prescrit. Polysi- 
phonia urceolata had disappeared, its place being taken by Polysiphonia iolacea (48), 
which with Cerarnium rubrum (43) and Choutr.us crispus (49) chiefly composed the zone 
of red algœe below the brown zone. Nemalion multifidum (4o), a eharacteristic summer 
species, had begun to appear at and above low-water mark. 
The typical summer flora is shown on chart 27x, recorded July 22. The conspicuous 
green alga t'as Ulva Lactuca var. rigida (5), growing in large patches tdth other green 
algoe in small quantities. There vas a well-defined brown zone just above low water 
composed ehiefly of Chordaria flagclli[orv,.,is (28) and Scytosiphon lome, tarius (26), both 
bearing Ectocarpus con[ervoides (I4) as a conspicuous epiphyte; Phyllitis [ascia had dis- 
appeared. Nemalion multifidum (4o) t, as nov plentiful, fringing the rocks at low-water 
mark. Below the brown zone and mixed with it were abundant growths of Cerami,«m 
rubrum (43), Polysiphonia wiolacea (48), and Cho,drus crispus (49)- Chart 272, reeorded 
September 2, is similar to chart 27 i, but with certain features more pronounced. The most 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE z OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT z. 

479 

prominent zone (much more conspicuous than in chart 27) was just below lov water and 
composed of Ceramium rubrum (43) and Polysiphonia violacca (48), these two forms 
having taken the region formerly occupied by the brown zone. Chart -73, recorded Sep- 
tember  9,  904, a year previous to the last, is interesting because there was no Chordaria 
flagdliformis that season and very little Polysiphonia wiolacea, but an abundance of 
Polysiphonia fibrillosa (46), which took the place of the first two species, forming with 
Ceramium rubrum (43) a dense zone below low-water mark. 
The conditions at the beginning of the winter and belote the rocks were scraped 
by floating ice are shown in chart 274, recorded December 30, 9o4. This chart in the 
sequence follows chart 273 , of September I9, 1904, and precedes chart 267, of March 17, 
9o5, by two and one-half months. The prevailing green alga was Cladophora lanosa 
var. uncialis ( ), which had taken the place of Ulwa Lactuca var. rigida (5), so abundant 
in the summer, but now only represented by the bases of old plants. The brown zone 
was composed of lhyllitis [ascia (24) and Scytosipho loncnlarius (26); there was no 
Choîdaria flagclliformis. Cerami**m rubrum (43) was abundant below the brown zone 
but Polysipho»tia fibrillosa (46) had almost disappeared. Two species of Ectocarpus were 
present, together with several other epiphytic brown and red algœe. 
A close study of this series of charts will show very graphically the general nature 
and extent of the seasonal changes that must take place on very many ledges and groups 
of rocks along the coast, and similar seasonal changes would be expected wherever there 
is a well-developed littoral and sublittoral flora near low-water mark2 Intensive studies 
of this character of well-chosen situations are far more important for our knowledge of 
seasonal habits and algal successions than random collecting undertaken along the shore. 
It is much to be desired that such work be systematicalIy undertaken by those in a 
position to make detailed records over extended periods. Perhaps this brief record of a 
study (abruptly terminated by the destruction of the selected station), which shows 
such interesting results, will lead others to make similar investigations. 
In conclusion we wish to acknowledge our indebtedness to Miss Lillian J. MacRae, 
who, with the assistance of Mr. Collins, made the records of several charts at seasons 
when it was impossible for us to be at Woods Hole. 



Chapter V.--THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MARINE ALG]£ IN THE DEEPER 
WATERS OF BUZZARDS BAY AND VINEYARD SOUND. 
By the deeper waters of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound are meant the depths 
of  fathoms or more, thus excluding the toast line between ride marks and the shalIows 
just below. The reader is referred to the "Description of dredging stations occupied 
during present Survey," section I, page oi, of this report, for detailed information as 
to th position of the stations, dates of the dredgings, depths, etc., whieh itis unneees- 
sary to specify in this general accourir. 
The varied character of the bottom of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound is respon- 
sible for many peculiarities of the algal vegetation. There are reefs of large bowlders off 
certain exposed points, but frequently the bottom in such situations is eomposed ehiefly 
of rounded pebbles of various sizes, ihen there are regions of gravel often mixed with 
shells and shell fragments, and large tracts of sand which are veritable deserts as far as 
plant lire is concerned. Finally, there are some very extensive regions of black mud, 
especially characteristic of the upper portions of ]3uzzards ]3ay; these are likewise very 
barren of plant lire, except where beds of Zostera maHna are present in relatively shaIIow 
water. These characteristics are fuIly described in section i, chapter ii, pages 29-33, 
and are graphically shown on chart 227. 
The lists of species are arranged af ter the plan in Collins' "Preliminary Lists of 
New England Plants: V. Marine Algoe," Rhodora, volume , page 4t, 9oo. That is, 
they are grouped alphabetically in the order of the Chlorophyceoe, Phoeophyceoe, and 
Rhodophyceoe. Bv far the greater number of species in the deeper waters belong to the 
Rhodophyceoe, the Phoeophyceoe coming next in number, and the Chlorophyceoe claim- 
ing only a small proportion. 
The dredgings of the survey fall into two groups, (I) those in the middle regions of 
the ]3ay and Sound, at some stations within one-fourth of a toile from the shore, but 
generally in water of 5 fathoms or more in depth, and (_-) those "inshore," i. e., imme- 
diately skirting the coast line in water sometimes as shallow as 2 fathoms. The material 
in this account will for geographical reasons be grouped under the following headings: 
i. The middle regions of ]3uzzards t3ay. 
2. The middle re, gions of Vineyard Sound. 
3- Certain inshore regions of particular interest. 
4- Some statistics relative to the distribution of algoe in Buzzards Bay and Vineyard 
Sound. 
I. THE MIDDLE REGIONS OF BUZZARDS BAY. 
Buzzards Bay, for conxenience in this account, has been divided into an upper and 
lower portion by a line manning from the xxest end of Naushon (Robinsons Hole) to 
Round Hitl Point. 
The upper portion of Buzzards Bay in the middle regions has a very scanty algal 
ftora. This is easily accounted for by the character of the bottom, which for the most 
48o 



BIOLOGI¹AL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 48I 

part consists of mud or fine muddy sand. Mud and fine sand furnish poor attachment 
for algoe, and their shifting nature, especially when disturbed by storms and ride currents, 
give conditions very unfavorable for algal growth. The water is relatively shallow in this 
region, occasionally more than 7 fathoms deep, but generally under 6 fathoms. The 
following species »vere round growing in the upper portion of the Bay, the numbers refer- 

ring to Fish Hawk stations: 
Arthrocladia villosa, 7653, few. 
Chordaria flagelliformis, 7653 and 7654, few. 
Desmarestia aculeata, 7653 and 7655, few. 
Desmarestia vixidis, 7653 many; 7654, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii, 7653 and 7654, few. 
Ralfsia clavata, 7639, few. 
Sargassum Filipendula, 763 ° (19o7), 7639, and 
7654, few. 
Agardhiella tenera, 7615, 7632, 7645, 7648, 7649, 
and 765 o, few. 
Callithamnion Baileyi, 7653, few. 
Ceramium tenuissimum, 7652, few. 
Champia parvula, 761o (19o7) , 7653 and 7654, many; 
763 ° (19o7), 7648 and 7651 (19o7), few. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens, 7653 and 7654, few. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum, 7639 
and 7653, few. 
Dasya elegans, 7632, few. 

Griffithsia tenuis, 7632, fev. 
Grinnellia americana, 762x, 7628, 7629 and 7648, 
many; 7615, 7624, 7625, 763 o, 7632, 7634, 7635, 
7639, 7649 and 7653, few. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum, 762 I, few. 
Lomentaria uneinata, 7632 and 7653, few. 
Phyllophora Brodiœei, 76xo, 76Ix, 76x3, 76x4, 76x5, 
7617, 76x8, 7627 and 7654, few. 
Phyllophora membranifolia, 7635, many; 76o 
(I9O7), 762I (I9O7), 763 o, 763 ° (I9O7), 763 I, 7632, 
and 7639 (I9O7), few. 
Polysiphonia nigreseens, 7648, 7654,and 7655, many; 
76IO, 7615, 7636, 7637, 7638, 7639, 7649, and 765 o, 
Polysiphonia variegata, 7632, few. 
Rhodomela subfusea, 7639 and 7652, few. 
Rhodymenia palmata, 7653 and 7656, few. 

The lower portion of Buzzards Bay presents conditions more varied than the upper 
portion. The depth is generally over 8 fathoms, and all of the stations of the greatest 
depth in the Bay (io to I9 fathoms) are found in this region. The natureof the bottom 
changes near the entrance of the Bay from mud and sand, characteristic of the upper 
portion, to gravel and stones, present at a number of stations (7664, 7665, 7666, 7667, 
767 o, 767, 7672, 7673). This is a much more favorable bottom for algoe, and the number 
of species and total quantity of vegetation are very much greater than in the upper 
portion of the Bay. The following species were found in the lower portion of the Bay: 

Chorda filum, 7656, few. 
Chordaria flagelliformis, 7656, many; 7667, few. 
Desmarestia aculeata, 7656, 7657, 7662 ,and 7671 ,few. 
Desmarestia viridis, 7665, few. 
Dictyosiphon hippuroides, 7656, many. 
Ectocarpus fasiculatus, 7656, many. 
Laminaria Agardhii, 7656 and 7657, many; 766o, 
7662, and 7663, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata, 767o, many; 7664, 
7665, 7666, 7667, and 767x, few. 
Ralfsia clavata, 767 r, few. 
Sargassum Filipendula, 7657, few. 
Agardhiella tenera, î66r, few. 
Ahnfeldtia pli, cata, 7656, few. 
Antithamnion cruciatum, 767x, few. 
Callithamnion Baileyi, 7656, many. 
Ceramium rubrum, 7656, many; 7665 and 767 o, few. 
x6269°--Bull. 3 I, pt x--x3--3x 

Champia parvula, 766x, 7662, and 7663, many; 7656, 
7657, 7664, 7668, 767 o, 767, and 7672, few. 
Chondrus crispus, 7656 and 7659, many; 7663, 7665, 
7668, 767o, 767-% and 7673, few. 
Corallina officinalis, ï663, many. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens, 7656, 7659, and î66o, 
few. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum, 765 x 
(x9o7), 7656, 7659, 7662 (x9o7), 7664, 7666, 7672, 
and 7673, few. 
Dasya elegans, 7656, 7666, 7674, and 7675, few. 
Delesseria sinuosa, 7664, few. 
Grinnellia americana, 76ïx, many; 766o. 766, 7663, 
767 o, and 7675, few. 
].,ithothamnion polymorphum, 7659, few. 
Lomentaria uncinata, 767  and 7675, few. 
Melobesia membranacea, 7672, many. 



482 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Phyllophora Brodioei, 7656, many; 7663, 7672 and 
7673, few. 
Phyllophora membranifolia, 7659 and 7662, many; 
7657, 7660, 7663 (I9o7), 7664, 7666, 7672 (I9o7), 
and 7675, few. 
Pleonosporium Borreri, 7675, few. 
Polyides rotundus, 7659, rnany; 7660 and î666, 
Polysiphonia elongata, 7656, 7662 (I9o7), 7665, and 
7675, few. 

Polysiphonia nigrescens, 7659, many; 7656, 7664, 
7666, 7668, and 767-% few. 
Polysiphonia urceolata, 767o, 7673, and 7675, few. 
Polysiphonia violacea, 7664, few. 
Rhodomela subfusca, 7656 and 7667, few. 
Rhodymenia palmata, 7664, 7665, 7666, 7667, 767 o, 
and 767 I, few. 
Seirospora Criffithsiana, 766o, few. 
Spyridia filamentosa, 767i, many; 7656 and 7675, 

Summarizing this statement of the algal vegetation in 13uzzards Bay, it may be said 
that the lire conditions are much more favorable in the lower portions of the Bay than in 
the upper, since the bottom is generally stony and the water clearer, because sir and 
mud are less frequent. These characteristics are graphically shown on chart 227, and 
it will be noted that the greater part of Buzzards Bay has a muddy bottom. Such 
reons in the deeper waters are almost deserts as regards vegetation. The algal flora 
of the upper portion of Buzzards 13ay is, in the smnmer, composed of species character- 
istic of the warm-vater sublittoral formation, which also extends somewhat into the 
lower portions of the Bay. However, the vegetation changes markedly toward the 
entrance of the Bay, both as to its characteristics and its quantity, as is shown by 
the above lists. Species appear which are peculiar to the cool-water sublittoral forma- 
tion. Around the exposed reefs of Sow and Pigs the vegetation is typical of this forma- 
tion, which is presented in even greater luxuriance off Gay Head. 

2. THE MIDDLE REGIONS OF VINEYARD SOUND. 

The conditions in Vineyard Sound differ from those of I3uzzards ]3ay in several 
respects. The rides which flow east with the flood and west with the ebb have a 
velocity of  to 3 knots an hour, which is so strong a current that extensive deposits 
of mud or fine silt are generally rendered impossible. The bottom is in consequence 
chiefly hard sand, frequently mixed with shell fragments, gravel, or stones. There is 
little or no mud in the middle regions of the Sound. The average depth is somewhat 
greater than that of the Bay, but hot enough to be an ilnportant factor in determining 
the character of the vegetation. There are no large areas of shallows under 6 fathoms, 
as are found in the upper portion of I3uzzards I3ay, the Middle Ground being the only 
extensive region of shoal water, and that is composed chiefly of sand and is quite barren 
of vegetation. 
Vineyard Sound within the limits of this Survey (that is, from a line dra»vn between 
the westerly end of Cuttyhunk and Gay Head to a line between Falmouth Heights and 
East Chop) has for convenience been divided into three regions as follows: (a) The 
westerly portion from the entrance to a line between the xvest end of Naushon (Robinsons 
Hole) and Kopeecon Point (Cape Higgon), (b) the narrow portion of the Sound between 
Naushon and Marthas Vineyard to a line connecting Nobska Point and West Chop, and 
(c) the easterly portion of the Sound from the last line to one between Falmouth Heights 
and East Chop. 
The westerly portion of Vineyard Sound includes large areas with a bottom of hard 
sand or sand with shell fragments, but exceptions to these conditions were round at a 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS ItOLE AND VICINITY. 

483 

number of stations (see chart 227). The greatest depths were between 17 and i9 fathoms 
(chart œ27), and the average for this portion of the Sound was about x 2/ fathoms. The 
following is the list of algoe round in the deeper waters of the westerly portion of Vineyard 
Sound : 

Arthrocladia villosa, 7734, many; 7725, 7728 and 
7729, few. 
Chorda filum, 7567, 7571, and 7591, few. 
Cladostephus verticillatus, 7717, many; 7598 and 
7734, few. 
Desmarestia aculeata, 7718, many; 7566, 7588, 7595, 
7596, 7719, 7720, and 773 o, few. 
Desmarestia viridis, 7731 (19o7), many; 7677, 7678, 
7706, 7707, 77io, 7725, 7728, 773 o, and 7734, few. 
Dictyosiphon hippuroides, 7725, many; 7676, 7729, 
and 773 o, fev. 
Ectocarpus siliculosus, 7717 and 7728, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii, 7718, many; 7581 (19o7), 7582 
7583, 7584, 7588, 7589, 7592 , 7593, 7595, 7599, 
7677, 7702, 7703, 7706, 7719, and 7728, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata, 7582, 7583, 7679, 
768o, 7681, 77Ol, 77o4, 77 o6, 77o7, 7719, 772°' 
7723, 7724, and 7731, few. 
Laminaria digitata, 7593 and 7722, few. 
Actinococcus subcutancus, 7583 and 7595, few. 
Agardhiella tenera, 7735, many; 7728, 773 o, and 
7734, few. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata, 7593, 7598, 7599, 7718, 7719, 
772o, 7721, 7724, and 7725, few. 
Antithamnion cruciatum, 77-4 and 7735, many; 
7566, 7571, 769 o, 772o, 773 o, and 7734, few. 
A_-.tithamnion plumula, 7678, few. 
Callithamnion roseum, 7725, few. 
Ceramium rubrum, 7721, many; 7571, 7575, 7576, 
7589, 7593, 7676 , 768o, 77Ol, 77o4, 77IO, 7717, 
7719, 7722, 7731 (I9O7), and 7734, few. 
Ceramium tenuissimum, 7724, 77-5, and 7726, 
many; 773o, few. 
Champiaparvula, 7572 and 7724, many; 7566, 7567, 
7568, 7569, 757, 7574, 7575, 7576, 7578 , 7588 , 
7676, 77o3, 7725, 7728, 7729, and 7734, few. 
Chondrus crispus, 7718 and 772o, many; 7566, 758i 
(r9o7), 7582, 7583, 7584, 7585, 7589, 759 I, 7596, 
and 7731 (I9O7), few. 
Corallina officinalis, 7566, 7583, and 7596, few. 

Cystoclonium purpurascens, 7720 and 7729, few. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum, 7ïo7, 
773 o, and 7731 (x9o7), many; 7585, 76Ol, 7676, 
7678, 7686, 7692, 7693, 77o3, 77o6, 7717, 7718, 
7719, and 7722, few. 
I)asya elegans, 7734, fev. 
]ï)elesscria sinuosa, 77Ol, 7719, and 7720, many; 
7582 , 7591 , 7593, 7595, 7690, 7692 , 7693, 7703, 
7709, and 7721, few. 
Grinncllia americana, 7734 and 7735, many; 7575, 
7576 , 7589, 7724, 7725, 7727, 7729, 773 ° , and 7736 ' 
Lomcntaria rooea, 7593, 778, and 7709, few. 
mentia uncinata, 7734 d 7735, few. 
Melobcsia pustulata, 758, many. 
Phyllophora Brodioei. 7583, 7584, 759 x, 7595, 7596, 
d 7598, few. 
Phyllophora mcmbranifolia, 7706, 77xo, 779, 77 , 
7725, and 7729, fcw. 
Pluma elegs, 7720, many; 7584, 77x9, and 
7728, few. 
Polyides rotundus, 758x (x9o7), 77Ol, and 77x7, few. 
Polysiphonia elongata, 7685, 77ox, 7723, and 7726, 
many; 758x (x9o7), 7678, 7686, 7698, 77o, 7706, 
7709, 777, 7724, 7725, 7727, 778, 773 o, 773 
(X0OT), and 7734, few. 
Polysiphonia nigrescens, 774, 775, 778, 779, 
773 o, 773 x (x9o7), and 7734, my; 758x (x9o7), 
77x7, 77x8, and 7726, few. 
Polysiphonia vlacca, 768x, 7704, d 77x, few. 
Rhodonela Rochei, 773 t (x9o7), few. 
[ Rhodymenia palmata, 7567, 7569, 7578, 758, 7584, 
7585, 7588 , 759 x, 7593. 7595, 77 o, 7703, 77 °8 , 
77x8, 77x9, 7720, 773, 774, 778, 779, and 
773 x (x9o7), few. 
8eirospora Griffithsia, 7728, many; 77e9, fe»v. 
Spermothamnion Turneri, 7585, 7588, 7589, 7598, 
77x7, and 77x9, few. 
Spyfidia filamentosa, 7724, 775, 776, d 7735, 
many; 757 x, 7572, 7588, d 77o, few. 

It is an interesting fact that the growths o algoe are most luxuriant nearest Gav 
Head, the Cuttvhunk side of Vineyard Sound in the deeper waters being very barren of 
vegetation. The depth is nowhere sufficiently great to be an important factor in 
deterrnining the distribution of the algoe, for stations 77 x 9 (  7 fat homs), 758-% 7583, and 
7584 (all about x 5 fathoms) gave a large variety of species in considerable quantity. 
Gravelly and rockv bottoms generally bave the greatest quantity of vegetation. The 
dredgings etermined the presence of extensive areas of sand, which support little or 



484 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

no algal lire. The most important of these were around the following groups of stations" 
(7677, 7592); (7708, 7709, 7590); (7679, 768, 7702); (7577, 7597, 7682, 7698, 7699, 
77oo, 7727); (7573, 7574, 7695); (7569, 757 o, 7736). 
Proceeding eastward into the Sound from the entrance the most marked change in 
the algal lire is the appearance of such species as Arthrocladia villosa, Chorda filum, 
Dictyosiphon hippuroides, Agardhiella tenera, Ceranium tenuissimum, Chan@la parvula, 
and Grinnellia americana. These were hOt found in the deeper waters at the entrance of 
the Sound, but were all fairly abundant eastward, Agardhidla, Champia, and Grinnellia 
being very charactefistic of the Sound flora from this point on. 
The most striking feature of the summer flora in the deeper waters at the entrance of 
Vineyard Sound is the presence in considerable quantity of certain species restficted 
wholly or almost wholly to the more open waters included in the survey. Prominent 
among these are Laminaria A.qardhii var. vittata, Laninaria digitata, Delesseria sinuosa, 
Lomentaria rosea, Plumaria dcgans, and Rhodymcnia palmata. Considered as a whole, 
the flora at the westerly entrance of Vineyard Sound takes its chief interest from the 
presence of species peculiar to the cool-water sublittoral formation. 
The narrow portion of Vineyard Sound will now be descfibed. This lies between 
the islands of Naushon and Marthas Vineyard and may be included between a line 
drawn from Kopeecan Point to the west end of Naushon (Robinsons Hole) and a line 
from West Chop to Nobska Point. The bottom is much more varied (see chart 227) 
than in the westerly portion of the Sound, which in the deeper waters is almost entire 
hard sand. There are, however, some extensive areas of sand adjacent to similar 
regions in the westerlv portion of the Sound, and the region between the Middle Ground 
and Marthas Vineyard is likewise sandy. A few stations (7554, 7564, and 7697) pre- 
sented a muddv bottom. All other stations comprising the greater part of the rniddle 
region of this portion of the Sound showed a bottom of gravel or gravel and stones. 
The general character of the bottom mav be described as variegated, areas of gravel 
lying next to areas of sand or of large pebbles, the distribution of the sand being deter- 
mined in all probability largely by the varied flow and scoufing of the tidal currents. 
The greatest depths vere from 5 to 7 fathoms; the average depth about o fathoms. 
The following algoe were found in the deeper waters of this, the narrowest portion 

of the Sound: 
Arthrocladia villosa, 7733 many; 39 and 7732, few. 
Chorda filum, 7542bis, ï55 x, 7557, and 7559, few. 
Chordaria flagelliformis, 7524 and 7525 , few. 
Cladostephus verticillatus, 7525bis, 7744, and 7753, 
few. 
Desmarestia aculeata, 7739, few. 
Desmarestia viridis, 7525bis, many; 7522bis, 
7524bis, 7543bis, and 7549 (9o7), few. 
Ectocarpus siliculosis, 7525 bis, few. 
Larninaria A,gardhii', 7525bis, many; 7524bis, 
7532bis, 7533 bis, 7536, 754, 7557, 7732, 7739, 
7740, and 7749, few. 
Mesogloia divaricata, 7548, few. 
Ralfsia clavata, 7524bis, few. 
Sargassum Filipendula, 7525bis, 7533bis, 7537, 
ï55 , 7554, 7555, 7557, 7740, î'42, 7744, 7749, 
and 775 o, fev. 

Actinococcus subcutaneus, 752ibis and 7525bis, 
many; 752bis and 7525bis, few. 
Agardhiella tenera, 7525bis, many; 7533, 7533 bis 
7535, 7536 , 7537, 754o, 754, 754bis, 754, 
7543 bis, 7553, 7559, 756, 7733, 7744, 775 x, 7753, 
and 7754, few. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata, 7524bis and 7525bis, few. 
Antithamnion cruciatum, 7543bis and 7554bis, 
many; 752ibis, 7522bis, 75œ3bis, 7533bis, 754xbis, 
773 , 7744, and 7745, [ew. 
Callitharnnion Baileyi, 7523, few. 
Callithamnion roseum, 75 - bis, 7744, and 7754, few. 
Ceramium fastigiatum, 7542 and 7548, few. 
Ceramium rubrum 754, 755 , 755 x (I9O7), and 7557, 
many; 754, 7525, 754bis, 7548, 7554, 7559, 756o, 
7565 bis, 773 , 7733, 7739, 7746, and 7749, few. 
Ceramium strictum, 7î46, few. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 

485 

Ceramium tenuissimum, 7542bis, many; 753obis, 
754rbis, 7554bis, 7559, and 7565bis, few. 
Champia parvula, 7549bis, 7732, 7733, 7745,. 7749, 
7752, and 7754, many; 752i, 752i (r9o7) , 7523bis, 
7525, 7525 bis, 7526 (I9°7), 7533 bis, 7534, 754 r, 
754 rbis, 7542, 7542 (r9o7), 7543 (r9o7), 7547, 7549 
(I9°7), 755 I, 7551 (x9°7), 7553, 7554, 7554bis, 
7557, 7559, 756o, 7562, 7565 bis, 7739, 774I, 7746, 
and 7753, few. 
Chondrus crispus, 752i (r9o7) , 7533bis, and 7749, 
many; 7523bis, 7524bis, 7525bis, 7536, 7542bis, 
7554, 7554bis, 756o, 756I, 7562, 7732, 7739, and 
7746, feu-. 
Corallina officirmlis, 7531bis, many. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens, 75_4bis, 7525bis, 
7542 (r9o7), and 7549 (r9o7), few. 
Cystoclonium purpttrascens var. cirrhosum, 39, 
7523, 7534, and 7740, few. 
Dasya elegans, 7733, 775 x, and 7753, few. 
Delesseria sinuosa, 39, few. 
Gracilaria multipartita, 7554bis, few. 
Griffithsia Bornetiana, 7533bis, 7749, and 7754, few. 
Grinnellia americana, 7542 and 7733, many; 752r, 
752I (r9°7), 7525 bis, 7527, 753 rbis, 7536, 7537, 
754o, 754 r, 7546, 7547, 7549, 755 r, 7553, 7554, 
7556bis, 7557, 7559, 756o, 7562, 7565 bis, 7732, 
7737, 774 r, and 7753, few. 
I-Iildenbrandia prototypus, 7544bis and 75Tbis, 
many; 7533bis, 7546bis, and 7747, few. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum, 7524bis, 7525bis, 
7533bis, 7534bis,and 7544bis, many; 7534,7535 bis, 
7539, 7539 bis, and 7752, few. 

Lomentaria uncinata, 7537, 7548, 755 r, 7557, 7733, 
and 775r, few. 
blelobesia Lejolisii, 7525bis, many. 
Melobcsia membranacea, 7739, few. 
Phyllophora Brodiœei, 752xbis, 7523, 7524, 7525bis, 
7526 (r9o7), and 7533bis, many; 7522bis, 7524bis, 
7525, 753 o, 7532, 7534, 7535, 7536, 7536bis, 7537, 
754 r, 7542 (r9o7), 7739, 7744, and 7749, few. 
Phyllophora Brodiœei var. catenata, 752i (r9o7), 
many. 
Phyllophora membranifolia, 752xbis, 7525bis, 
753 rbis, 7533 bis, 7739, 7740, 7742, 7744, and 7749, 
many; 7523bis, 7524bis, 753 ° (r9o7), 7542bis, 
7543 (r9o7),7549 (r9°7),774r, 7743, 7745, and 7754, 
Polyides rotundus, 7752, many; 7526 (r9o7), 7532bis, 
7533bis, 7536, 754bis, 7560, 7749, and 775r, few. 
Polysiphonia elongata, 7557, 7733, 7739, 775 r, 7752, 
and 7754, few. 
Polysiphonia nigrescens, 7752, many; 7523bis, 7549 
(r9o7), 755 r, and 755 r (r9oî), few. 
Polysiphonia violacea, 7523bis, few. 
lhodomela subfusca, 7554bis, few. 
Rhodymenia palmata, 753obis, few. 
Spermothamnion Turneri, 7525bis, 7533bis, and 
7749, many; 752rbis, 75-4, 7526 (r9o7), 753obis, 
7537, 7542, 7548, 755x, 7553, 756o, 7562, 7739, 
774 r, 775 r, 7752, and 7754, few. 
Spyridia filamentosa, 753obis, 7533bis, 7542, 7559, 
7562, 774 r, and 7749, few. 

The narrow portion of Vineyard Sound as well as the westerly portion presents 
some large areas practically devoid of vegetation for the reason that the bottom is 
sandy. The chief of these regions are around stations (7556, 7562, 7563, 7564, 7565, 
7697), (7547, 7549, 755o, 755I, 755 2, 7553), (7536, 7539, 7543, 7544, 7545, 7736, 7737), 
(753o, 753x), (75 2I, 7522, 7527, 7528, 7529, 7532, 7533)- 
The more varied character of the bottom in the deeper waters of the narrow portion 
of the Sound gives a larger representation of algoe, both in abundance and in number of 
species, than the vesterly portion. Certain species appear which were hot noted or were 
uncommon in the deeper waters of the westerly portion: Chordaria flagelli[ormis, 
Mesogloia divaricata, Sargassum Filipendula, Ral[sia clarata, Callithamnion Baileyi, 
Ceramium [astigiatum, Ceramium strictum, Co'acilaria multipartita, Grilfithsia Bornetiana, 
Hildenbrandia prototypus, Lithothamnion polymorphum, Mdobesia nwmbranacea, and 
Rhodomda sub[usca. 
Other species characteristic of more open waters are not present in this part of the 
Sound or are very rare; conspicuous among these are Chcetornorpha mda9onium , Lami- 
naria Agardhii var. ittata, Laminaria digitata, Delesseria sinuosa, Lomentaria rosea, 
Plumaria elegans, and Rhodymenia Dalma.ta. Considering the list as a whole, the most 
striking features are the abundance and widespread distribution of Sargassum Fil@en- 
dula, A gardhiella tenera, Ceramium rubrum, Champia parvula, Chondrus crispus, Coin- 



486 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

mllia araericana, Phyllophora Brodicei, Phyllophora raerabra-ni[olia, and Æpermotharanion 
Turneri; these species are round at 12 or more stations each, and mav be considered 
the dominant forms. The list in general clearly shows that the algue of the summer in 
the deeper waters of the narrow portion of Vineyard Sound belong to the warm-water 
sublittoral formation. 
The easterly portion of Vineyard Sound  included in this Survey is a triangular 
region between a line drawn from Nobska Point to West Chop and a line between Fal- 
mouth Heights and East Chop. The bottom here is much more stony than in the 
westerly portion of the Sound (see chart 227). While there is considerable sand in spots, 
there are no sandv areas so extensive as to include several stations. This region, there- 
fore, may be described in general as gravelly, stony, and rocky, with sand in spots. 
The greatest depths were about 13 fathoms (chart 227) , the average about 9 fathoms. 
The following algue were round in the easterly portion of the Sound: 

Arthrocladia villosa, 7755, fcw. 
Cladostephus vcrticillatus, 7760, 7771, and 7779, 
few. 
Dictyosiphon hippuroides, 7760, fcw. 
LaminariaAgardhii, 7755, 7767, 7775, and 7776, 
few. 
lalfsia clavata, 7780, few. 
Sargassum Filipendula, 7755, 7760, 7763, 7764, 
7î66, 7767, 777 , 7775, 7776 , 7778 , 7780 , 7ï 8I, 
and 7783, few. 
Sphacelaria cirrhosa, 7760 many; 7772, few. 
Agardhiella tenera, 7778 many; 7755, 7758, 7ï 6o, 
7763, 7763 (I9o7), 7764, 7765, 7766 , 7766 (I9o7), 
777I, 7772, 7775, 7777, 7779, 778o, 778, 778-% and 
7783, few. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata 7760, feu'. 
Antithamnion cruciatum, 7764, 7768, 777o, 7772, 
7773, and 7774, many; 7757, 7760, 7765, 7766, 
7771 , 7774, 7779, and 7780, few. 
Callithamnion Baileyi, 7768 and 777 , many; 7778, 
few. 
Callithamnion roseum. 7764, 7767, 7770, 777, 777 , 
7774, 7775, and 7776, many; 7756, 7759, 7766, 7768, 
7769, 7773, 7778, 7779, 778o, 778I, and 778, few. 
Callithamniontetragonum, 7764, 7ï65,and 7766, feu. 
Ceramium rubrum, 7755, many. 
-Ceramium strictum, 7763 and 7764, few. 
Ceramium tenuissimum, 7777 and 7783, many; 778I, 
few. 
Champia parvula, 7760, 7764, 7775, and 7776, many; 
7756 , 7757, 7758 , 7759, 7763, 7763 (I9oî), 7765, 
7766, 7767, 7769, 777 ° , 777I, 7772 , 7774, 7777, 
7778, 7779, 778o, 778I, 778, and 7783, few. 
Chondria dasyphylla, 7755, 7774, 7777, 7778, 778I, 
7782, and 7783, few. 
Chondruscrispus, 7764, 7766, and 7768, many; 7759, 
ï76o, 7763 (9o7), 7765, 7767, 7769, 777 o, ïTïX, 
7772 , 7777, 7779, and 778i, few. 

Cystoclonium purpurascens, 7760, fer,. 
Dasya elegans, 7775, many; 7755, 7768, 777 o, 7777, 
7778 , 7779, 778o, 778I, 7782, and 7783, few. 
Gracilaria multipartita, 7766, few. 
Griffithsia 13ornetiana, 7755, 7778, and 778, few. 
Grinnellia americana, 7755, 7756, 7758, 7759, 776o, 
7763, 7764, 7766 , 7767, 7768 , îï7 I, 777 , 7774, 
7775, 7776 , 7777, îï78, 7779, 778o, 778o (I9o7), 
778, 778, and 7783, few. 
ttildenbrandia prototypus, 7ï57, 7759, 776o, 7766, 
7777, 7778, and 7780, few. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum, 776o, many; 7757, 
7763 (I9o7), 7764, 7766 , 7767, 7769, 777, and 
7778, few. 
Lomentaria uncinata, î76o, many; 7757, 7759, 7763, 
7764, 7766 , 7777, 7778 , 778I , and 7782, few. 
Melobesia Lejolisii, 7779, 778o, and 7782, nmny. 
Melobesia pustulata, 7768 and 777 o, many; 7764 
and 7765, few. 
Phyllophora Brodioei, 7763 (i9o7) and 7766, few. 
Phyllophora membranifolia, 777 o and 7775, many; 
7755, 7759, 776o, 7764, 7765, 7766, 7768, 7769, 
7772, 7774, 778o, 778, and 7783, few. 
Polyides rotundus, 7759 and 7766, few. 
Polysiphonia elongata, 776o, 7766, 777 , and 778o, 
few. 
Polysiphonia fibrillosa, 7759, few. 
Polysiphonia ttarveyi, 7778, 7779, ï78o, 778I, 778, 
and 7783, feu-. 
Polysiphonia nigrescens, 776o and 7763 (i9o7) , few. 
Polysiphonia violacea, 7780, few. 
Rhodymenia palmata, 7755, few. 
Spermothamnion Turneri, 7764, 77îo, 7772, and 
7775, many; 7755, 7759, 7760 , 7763, 7771 , 7774, 
7777, 7779, 778o, 778I, and 7782, feu'. 
Spyridia filamentosa, 7776, many; 7759, 776o, 77.63, 
7763 (i9o7), and 7783, few. 

a As stated before, this region might be considered as within the limits of Nantucket Sound if an arbitrary line were draw 
between this body of water and Vineyard Sound. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

487 

The proportionate amount of algal life çvas very much greater in the deeper xvaters 
of this, the eastefly portion of Vineyard Sound, than in the other regions, and there 
were no extensive barren areas. The character of the algal flora was essentially similar 
to that in the narrow portion of the Sound. The following species, however, present in 
the narrow portion, were not observed, although it is probable that all of the forms 
occur at times in this region: 

Chorda filum. 
Chordaria flagelliformis. 
Desmarestia aculeata. 
Desmarestia viridis. 
Ectocarpus siliculosus. 
Mesogloia divaricata. 
Ralfsia clavata. 

Actinococcus subcutaneus. 
Ceramium fastigiatum. 
Corallina oflïcinalis. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum. 
Melobesia membranacea. 
Rhodomela subfusca. 

Some algoe were found which are not recorded in the previous lists: Sphacelaria 
cirrhosa, Callithamnion tetragonum, Chondria dasyphylla, lIclobesia Lejolisii, Polysiphonia 
fibrillosa, and Polysiphonia Harveyi. However, most of these latter were in small quan- 
tities, and the lIdobesia Lejolisii and Polysiphonia Harveyi occur in relation to beds of 
Zostera. The summer algal flora of the easterly portion of Vineyard Sound is clearly 
representative of the warm-water sublittoral formation. 

3. CERTAIN INSHORE REGIONS OF PARTICULAR INTEREST. 

It would be impossible in ttie limits of this paper to describe in detail the character 
of the vegetation along the entire coast line of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound as 
determined from the dredgings at the inshore stations. There are, however, certain 
regions of particular interest because of various physiographical peculiafities, and of 
these the following will be briefly described: (x)Gay Head and vicinity, (2)the reefs 
of Sow and Pigs, (3) the passage of Voods Hole, (4) Robinsons Hole, (5) Quicks Hole, 
(6) Menemsha Bight, (7) Tarpaulin Cove, (8) Vineyard Haven, (9) Cove west of Cutty- 
hunk Neck, (xo) the Middle Ground. 

(I) GAY HEAD AND VICINITY. 

The most interesting region in the limits of the Survey with respect to algal lire is 
that around Gay Head. This area presents a greater luxuriance of growth and variety 
of species than any neighboring region, chiefly on account of the varied character of the 
bottom and also because a number of forms characteristic of cold waters are able to 
live on the exposed reefs and ledges. Conspicuous among these are Laminaria digitata, 
Ddesscria sinuosa, Gymnogongrous norvegicus, Lomenlaria rosea, Plumaria elegans, and 
Euthora cristata. Ez«thora cristata was dredged byV. G. Fadow off Gay Head in 8 to o 
fathoms in September, 87, but we have not been fortunate enough to find this striking 
species, indicating that it is not common. The conditions under which most of the 
aIgoe of this region lire are cleafly those of the cool-water sublittoral formation. 
The region is complex and therè are at least three clearly defined zones. The first 
zone (stations 50 and 5 t) is in shallow water and includes large rocks, some of which 
fise above the water, with sandy are_as between them. The second zone (stations 44 



48S BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

to 49) comprises various reefs that lie off Gay Head, and especially the ledge known 
as Devils Bridge; these rocks are in 2 to 5 fathoms and the bottom between them is 
sandy. The third zone (stations 56-6o, 7581 and 7731) is in deeper water outside of 
the reefs and has a rocky, gravelly, or sandy bottom in 5 to 12 fathoms. These zones 
will be considered in order. 
The first zone (stations 5o and 5I) in shallow water was studied August 9, 19o4. 
It comprised the following species, chiefly growing on rocks: 

Calothrix scopulorum (on piles). 
Choetomorpha area (on piles). 
Cladophora albida var. refracta. 
Enteromorpha intestinalis. 
Enteromorpha prolifera. 
Ulva Lactuca var. rigida. 
Chorda filum. 
Chordaria flagelliformis. 
Desmotrichum undulatum (on Zostera). 
Ectocarpus fasciculatus (on larger algoe). 
Ectocarpus siliculosus (on larger algœe). 
Fueus evaneseens. 
Fueus veseulosus. 
Fueus vesieulosus var, sphœeroearpus, 
Laminaria Agardhii. 
Laminaria digitata. 

Phyllitis fascia. 
Scytosiphon lomentarius. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata. 
Callithamnion Baileyi (on Chondrus). 
Ceramium rubrum (on Chondrus). 
Champia parvula. 
Chondrus crispus. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum. 
Nemalion multifidum. 
Pleonosporium Borreri (on larger algœe). 
Polysiphonia fibrillosa. 
Polysiphonia nigresccns. 
Polysiphonia vio!acea. 
Rhodomela subfusca (on piles). 
Rhodymenla palmata. 
Spermothamnion Turneri. 

The second zone (stations 44 to 49) was also studied August 9, x 904. The list of 
species is as follows: 
Chœetomorpha melagonium, 44 and 45, few. 
Chorda filum, 47 and 49, few. 
Desmarestia aculeata, 46, 47, and 48, few. 
Desmarestia viridis, 46, few. 
Ectocarpus siliculosus, 44 and 45, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii, 44, 45, 46, 47, and 49, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata, 44, 45, and 47, few. 
Laminaria digitata, 44 and 48, few. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata, 47 and 49, many; 44, 46, and 8, 
Ceramium fastigiatum, 44, few. 
Ceramium rubrum, 44, 45, 46, 47, and 48, few. 
Champia par,¢ula, 49, many; 44, 46, and 47, few. 
Chondrus crispus, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49, many. 
Corallina officinalis, 47, many; 44, 45, and 48, few. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens, 44 and 49, many. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum, 44, 45, 
46, and 47, many; 48 and 49, few. 
The third zone (stations 56-60, 7581 and 7731) was studied August 15, 19o 4. The 
following list includes the species of the seven stations : 

Chœetomorpha melagonium, 56, 57, 58, and 60, few. 
Arthrocladia villosa, 56, many. 
Desmarestia aculeata, 57, many; 56, 59, 6o, and 
773 x, few. 
Desmarestia viridis, 57, 58, 773 x, and 773 (x9o7), 
many; 59, few. 

Delesseria sinuosa, 45, many; 46, few. 
Grinnellia americana, 49, fev. 
Lomentaria rosea, 45, few. 
Melobesia pustulata, 45, 46, 47, and 49, many; 44, 
few. 
Phyllophora Brodiœei, 45, many; 44, 46, 47, 48, and 
49, few. 
Plurharia elegans, 44, few. 
Polyides rotundus, 46, 47, and 48, many; 44, few. 
Polysiphonia elongata, 44 and 45, many; 4, 47, 48, 
and 49, few. 
Polysiphonia nigrescens, 49, rnany; 47, ew. 
Polysiphonia violacea, 45 and 48, few. 
R_hodymenia palmata, 45, 46, and 47, many; 44 and 
48, few. 
Seirospora Grifiïthsiana, 49, few. 
Spermothamnion Turneri, 44, 45, and 46, many; 47 
and 49, few. 

Laminaria Agardhii, 57, 59, 60, 758 (z9o7) , and 
773 z, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata, 57 and 773, many; 
59 and 60, few. 
Ralfsia clavata, 57, many: 56. 58, and 59, few. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata, 60, few. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 489 

Antithamnion cruciatum, 56, few. 
Antithamnion plumula, 57 and 58, few. 
Callithamnion roseum, 57, few. 
Ceramium rubrum, 57 and 773 I, many; 59and 773 I 
(I9O7), few. 
Chondrus erispus, 56, 57, and 58, many; 59, 60, 758I 
(I9O7), and 7731 (I9O7), few. 
Corallina officinalis, 56 and 57, many; 58, 60, and 
7581, fev. 
Cystoclonium pttrpttrascens, 56, 57, 58, and 59, 
many; 6o, few. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum, 56, 58, 
59, and 7731 (19o7), many; 6o, 7581 (19o7), and 
7731, few. 
Delesseria sinuosa, 56, 57, and 58, many; 7731, few. 
Grinnellia americana, 56, many; 7581, few. 
Gymnogongrus norvegieus, 56, few. 
Hildenbrandia prototypus, 58 and 59, many. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum, 57, 58, 59, and 6o, 
many. 
Lomentaria rosea, 57 and 58, many; 56 and 59, few. 

Melobesia farinosa, 57 and 58, many. 
Melobesia membranacea, 56, 57, and 58, many. 
Melobesia pustulata, 57, few. 
Phyllophora Brodiœei, 56, 57, and 58, many: 59, fev. 
Phyllophora membranifolia, 56, 57, and 58, many; 
60, few. 
Plumaria elegans, 57, 58, and 59, many. 
Polyides rotundus, 56, 57, 58, 6o, and 758i (19o7), 
few. 
Polysiphonia atrorubescens, 56, many. 
Polysiphonia elongata, 56, 59, and 7731, many; 6o, 
7581 (I9O7), and 7731 (I9O7), few. 
Polysiphonia nigreens, 60 and 7731, many; 59, 
7581 (19o7), and 7731 (19o7), few. 
tLhodomela subfusca, 56, few. 
1Lhodomela Rochei, 7731 (19o7), few. 
Rhodymenia palmata, 59, many; 60 and 7731 (19o7), 
Scinaia furcellata, 57, few. 
Spermothamnion Turneri, 56, 57, and 58, many; 
59, fev. 

(2) TtIE REEFS OF SOW AND PIGS. 

The bottom around the reefs of Sov and Pigs (stations 35, 36 and 37), lying off Cut- 
tyhunk, bas an algal flora noteworthyfor the presence of such spccies asDclcsscria sinuosa, 
Lomcnlaria rosea, and Plumaria clcgans, forms which are also characteristic of the ledges off 
Gay Head and are members of the cool-water sublittoral formation. The quantity of 
algoe is, however, not great. An examination of the reefs themselves, although difficult, 
would doubtless prove interesting. There were considerable amounts of Corallina 
olinalis (35, 36, 37), Delesseria sinuosa (35, 36), Phyllophora Brodizei (35, 36, 37), and 
Plumaria elegans (36, 37), and in addition relatively few plants of Cluelomorpha mclago- 
nium (37), Ectocarpus ]asciculatus (37), Laminaria Agardhii var. vittala (36, 37), Ahn]eldtia 
plicaia (36), Ceramium rubrum (37), Ceramium tcnuissimum (35), Cho-mtrus crispus (35, 
36), Cystoclonium purpurasccns var. cirrhosum (35, 3 6, 37), Lithothamnion polymorphum 
(35), Lomentaria rosea (37), ldobesia pusiulaia (36), Rhodymenia palmata (36), and 
Spermothamnion Turneri (35)- 

(3) THE PASSAGE OF WOODS HOLE. 

The easterly side of the passage of ,Voods Hole (station 122)off the end of the hook- 
shaped point of land called Penzance (Long Neck) has a sand and gravel bottom in 4 to 5 
fathoms. The following species were found in small quantifies: Cha mpia parvula, Dasya 
de9ans , Gri]fithsia Bornetiana, Grinnellia americana, Phyllophora Brodi¢i, Polysiphonia 
ni9resccns, Rhodomela Rochei, and Seirospora Grilfithsiana. 
The westerly side of the passage off Uncatena Island (station  18) on a bottom of 
sand and shells showed small quantifies of Chordaria flagelli[ormis, Ceramium rubrum, 
Chondrus crispus, Cysiocloniurn purpurasccns, and Lomeniaria u»cinata. Off the entrance 
to Hadley Harbor (stations t9 and 12o) the bottom is sand and mud, and appears 
to support no algal lire. 



49 ° BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

The main channel near Hadley Rock (station 12 i) has a bottom of sand and stones. 
There was an abundance of Laminaria Agardhii, Agardhidla rentra, Chondrus crispus, and 
Gracilaria multipartita, together with a fevv plants of Sargassum Filipendula. Dredgings 
of previous years have shown that Callithamnion rosem grows on shells in the narrower 
portion of the passage (Woods Hole proper), and also Scinaia ]urcellata. The passage on 
the south is bordered by ledges, chiefly submerged, and these are covered with heavy 
growths of algœe. The reader may obtain a general idea of the character of the algal 
life on these rocks bordering the channel from chapter IV, page 476, "A Report on the 
Algoe of Spindle Rocks, Woods Hole Harbor," a small group of rocks (destroyed in the 
summer of I9o5) that formerlv lay between.Grassy Ledge and Red Ledge. These sub- 
merged ledges are difficult to study, but detailed examinations of some of them carried 
on through various seasons of the year would undoubtedly give some interesting results. 
The algal life on the bottom of the harbor of Woods Hole and in the two ships' chan- 
nels that lead into it from Vineyard Sound on either side of Great Ledge is -«ery sparse. 
The bottom is hard sand and sandy mud, unfavorable for extensive growths of algoe. 
A haul (station 4) inside of Great Ledge in 2 to 5 fathoms over a sandy bottom gave a few 
plants of A ntithamnion cruciatum, Ccramiu.m rubru-m, ChondYus crispus, Gracilaria ntlti- 
partira, Grinnellia americana, Mdobcsia Lejolisii (on Zostera), and Phyllophora Brodicei. 

(4) ROBINSONS HOLE. 

Robinsons Hole, along the west end of Naushon (stations 20, 2i and 22), has a 
rich algal flora over a stony bottom in 2 to 31/2 fathoms. There was an abundance of: 

Chorda filum, 2i and 22. 
Desmarestia aculeata, 2o, 21 and 22. 
Desmarestia viridis, 2o and 22. 
Laminaria Agardii var. vittata, 2 l. 
Antithamnion cruciatum, 22. 
Ceramium fastigiatum, 2o. 
Ceramium rubrum, 2o, 21 and 22. 
Chondrus crispus, 2o, 2I and 22. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens, 2o and 22. 
In small quantities were round: 
Cladophora gracilis, 2o and 2 i. 
Cladostephus verticillatus, 2i. 
Ectocarpus siliculosus, 2 i. 
Laminaria Agardhii, 22. 
Leathesia difformis, 2o. 
Phyllitis fascia, 22. 
Ahnfeldtia plicata, 2i and 22. 

Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum, 2o 
and 22. 
I-Iildenbrandia prototypus, 2i and 22. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum, 2i. 
Phyllophora Brodiœei, 2o, 21 and 22. 
Phyllophora membranffolia, 22. 
Rhodymenia palmata, 21 and 22. 
Scinaia furcellata, 2 i. 
Spermothamnion Turneri, 2o 

Ceramium strictum, 2o. 
Champia parvula, 2o, 21 and 22. 
Corallina oflàcinalis, 2o and 2i. 
Dasya elegans, 21. 
Lomentaria uncinata, 21 and 22. 
lolysiphonia fibrillosa, 2o. 
Polysiphonia nigrescens, 2o and 22. 

Station 23, off the island of Pasque, at the entrance to Robinsons Hole, showed the 
presence of much A ntithamnion cr,tciatm, Chondrus crispus, Phyllophora ,nembrani- 
[olia, Rhodymenia palmata, and a few plants of Desmarestia acul«ata, Desmcrestia viridis, 
and Polysiphonia clongala. 
This flora has a mixed composition including forms characteristic of both the cool- 
and varm'water sublittoral formations, indicating that the summer conditions of Robin- 
sons Hole are somewhat midway between those of the open and those of Che sheltered 
waters of the Sound and Bay. 



BIOLOGIAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 491 

(5) 

.Quicks Hole does hot have so luxuriant a vegetation as Robinsons Hole, probably 
because the bottom is hot so rocky. On the easterly side (station 7), along the west 
end of Pasque, in 4 to 5 fathoms over a rocky bottom, there was a rich growth of 
Desmarestia aculeata, Laminaria Agardhii var. vitlata, Callithamnion Baileyi, Phyllophora 
Brodicei, Rhodymenia palraata, and a few plants were found of Desmarestia viridis and 
Cystoclon.ium purpurascens var. cirrhosum. The westerly side (station _-,8 and -"9) has 
a sandy bottom in 3 to 5 fathoms, with quite a different vegetation. There were round 
in abundance Chorda filum (station 9), Desmarcstia aculeata (station 29) ' Desmotrichum 
undulatum (station 9, on Zostera), Ectocarpus siliculosus (station 9, on Zostera), 
llelobesia Lejolisii (station 9, on Zostera), and Spermothamnion Turneri. The following 
were round in small quantifies: 

Chordaria flagelliformis, 9. 
Laminaria Agardhii, 28. 
Leathesia difformis, e9- 
Agardhiella tenera, 28. 
Chondrus crispus, e9- 
Corallina officinalis, 29. 

Cystoclonium purpurascens, 29. 
Hildenbrandia prototypus, 28. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum, 28. 
Polysiphonia elongata, 29. 
Polysiphonia fibrillosa, 29. 
Rhodomela subfusca, 29. 

(6) MENEMSHA BIGHT. 

A special trip to Menemsha Bight was made on July x7, 19o5, in the Genevieve of 
the Marine Biological Laboratory. Three hauls were taken, (i) at the east end of 
Menemsha Bight just outside of the fish traps, bottom sandy in 6}4 fathoms; (2) in 
the middle region between the fish traps, bottonl sandy nmd in 5/4 fathoms; and (3) 
about three-fourths of a toile offshore at the west end of Menemsha Bight, bottom 
sandy in 8/4 fathoms. The following species were recorded: 

Chœetomorpha Linum, 3, few. 
Desmarestia viridis, 2, many; i and 3, few. 
Laminaria Agardhii, r, 2 and 3, few. 
Ralfsia clavata, 3, few. 
Sargassum Filipendula, , few. 
Agardhiella tenera, i, many. 
Antithamnion cruciatum, r, few. 
Antithamnion plumula, x and 2, few. 
Callithamnion roseum, 2, few. 
Ceramium rubrum, 2, few. 

Champia parvula, 3, few. 
Cystoclonium purpurascensvar, cirrhosum, 2, many. 
Hildenbrandia prototypus, r and 3, few. 
Phyllophora 13rodiœei, 2, few. 
Polysiphonia atrorubescens, 2, few. 
Polysiphonia elongata, 2 and 3, many. 
Polysiphonia fibrillosa, _% few. 
Polysiphonia nigrescens, r, 2 and 3, very abundant. 
Seirospora Griffithsiana, r, 2 and 3, few. 
Spyridia filamentosa, , few. 

The most remarkable feature of this locality was the great quantity of Polys@honia 
nigrescens. The flora of these sheltered waters was clearly representative of the warm- 
water sublittoral formation, a fact of some interest considering its proximity to Gav 
Head. 
An examination in the Blœee Win 9 of the shallow waters of Menemsha Bight, off 
Lobsterville, on August 9, I9O4, showed a bottom of sandy mud in 3 fathoms. Zoslera 
vas plentiful in spots and seems to be establishing itself in this region; there was very 
little present four or rive years previous (Vinal Edwards). There were great quanti- 
ties of Ectocarpus siliculosus as well as Melobesia Lejolisii covering the Zostera, and a 
few plants of the following were found: A9ardhiella tenera, Chondrue crispus, and 
Cystodonium purpuraecens var. cirrhosum. 



492 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(7) TARPAULIN COVE. 

Tarpaulin Cove proved interesting in several respects. The westerly side (station 
17) bas a bottom of sand and gravel in 2/4 to 4 fathoms, and there was an abundance 
of Desmarestia viridis and Antithat»ion cr¢ciatum, and in small quantifies Cladophora 
gracilis, Agardhiella tenera, Antithamnion plumula, Callithamnion Baileyi, and Grin- 
nellia americana; the dredge brought up large quantifies of Zostera. The upper end 
of the cove (station 18) in 2½ fathoms has a bottom of mud and gravel supporting 
extensive beds of Zostera, and an abundanee of Polysiph.onia nigrescens. A line dredged 
across the entrance of the cove (station 9) showed a muddy bottom with occasional 
plants of Polysiphonia nigrescens. Hauls ruade at the entrance nearest the lighthouse, 
July 18, 19o 3 (Phalarope), showed the presenee of mueh Seirospora G«iffithsiana and 
small quantifies of Desmarestia viridis, Laminaria Agardhii, Agardhiclla tenera, Calli- 
thamnion Baileyi, Ccralnium ]asli9iattm, Ccramium rubrum, Champia parvula, and 
G«innellia americana. 

(8) VINEYARD HAVEN. 

Station 69 off West Chop, at the entrance to Vineyard Haven, was very rich in 
algoe and especially interesting as a locality for Rhadinocladia Farlowii. The bottom 
was sand and stones in 3/2 to 7 fathoms and supported extensive growths of Zostera. 

There was much of the following: 
Raffsia elavata. 
Rhadinocladia Farlowii (on Zostera). 
Sphacelaria radleans. 
Agardhiella tenera. 
Antithamnion cruciatum. 
Callithamnion roseum. 
Ceramium tenuisslmum. 
In small quantitles were: 
Cladostephus vertillatus. 
Desmotrichum undulatum. 
Ectoearpus confervoides. 
Sphacelaria cirrhosa. 
Ahnfeldtla plicata. 

Hildenbrandia prototypus. 
Lomentaria uncinata. 
Melobesia farinosa. 
Melobesia Le]olisii. 
Phyllophora Brodioei. 
Phyllophora membranifolia. 
Spermothamnion Turneri. 

Callithamnion eorymbosum. 
I)asya elegans. 
Lithothamnion polymorphum. 
Polyides rotundus. 
Spyridia filamentosa. 

Vineyard Haven proper (stations 70, 71 , 7"-, and 7762) presented little variety in its 
algal lire but considerable quantifies of certain species. Station 7o in 4 fathoms, with a 
bottom of stones and Crcpidula shells, gave much A.qardhidla tenera, Champia pa.vula, 
Grincllia amcri«ana, and Lometaria uncinata; in small quantifies were Rhadinocladia 
Farlowii (on Zoslcra), Antithamnion crnciatum, Callithamnion corymbosum, Ceramium 
stri«t¢m, Ceramium ton uissimum, Hildenbrandia prototypus, Lithothamnion polymor- 
phum, and Mdobesia Lejolisii. Station 7, with a bottom of clam and pecten shells, 
stones, and mud, in 3Jq fathoms, gave an abundance of Sphacelaria radicans, Agardh- 
iella lcnc a, Champia paroE'ula, Grinellia amcricana, Lomentaria ncinata, and Phyllo- 
phora Brodicei. Station 7 2, stones and mud, in 3 to 4 fathoms, showed large quantifies 
of Calothrix con]ervicola, Sphacclaria cirrhosa, A9ardhiella tenera, Champia parvda, 
Lomentaria uncitata, Mdobesia Leolisii, and Spermothamnion Turncri, and a few plants 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY Ol WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

493 

of Enteroraorpha clathrata, Sphacelaria radicans, Grinnellia anericana, and Polysiphonia 
Harveyi. Station 7762, in the middle of Vineyard Haven, had a bottom of mud and 
shells in 3/ to 4 fathoms; there was an abundance of Agardhiella ferrera, Champia par- 
vula, Grirtnellia amcricana, Lomcntaria «ncirtata, and small quantifies of Dictyosiphon 
hippuroides, Sargassum Filipcndula, Phyllophora membran#olia, Polysiphortia elongata, 
Spermohamnion Turneri, and Spyridia filarnentosa. The bottom of such a harbor as 
Vineyard Haven always receives large quan'ities of drifted algœe, some of which are able 
to vegetate loosely over the bottom; conspicuous among these are Champia parvula, 
Lomentaria uncirtata, and Sperraothamrtion T.urrteri. The shallow regions support 
extensive beds of Zostera marina. 
Station 776I, off East Chop at the entrance to Vineyard Haven, with a bottom of 
sand, cinders, and shell fragments in 6 to 7 fathoms, gave much Sargassum Filipendzda, 
Sphacdaria cirrhosa, A gardhiella tcnvra, Callitllannion roseun, Chanl.pia parvlda, Lomen- 
taria uncinata, Phyllopllora ncnbran#olia, and Spernolllannion Turneri; in small quan- 
tities were Chordaria flagclli]ormis, Cladostephts z,«rticillatus, Dictyosiphon hippuroides, 
Laminaria Agardhii, Chondrus crispus, Grilfithsia Born«tiana, Grinndlia a.mericana, 
Lithothamzion polymorphu,n, Phyllophora Brodi¢i, Polyidcs rotuutus, Polysiphonia 
nigrescens, Rhodymcnia palmaa, and Spyridia filarncntosa. 

(9) covE WEST OF CUTTYHUNK NECK. 
A cove west of Cuttyhunk Neck (station  oi) proved to be one of the most interesting 
stations in Buzzards Bay because of the abundance of Arthrocladia villosa. A special 
trip was ruade July 27, 1905, on the Genevieve of the Marine Biological Laboratory, one 
week after this station was disc6vered, to determine more precisely the habits of this 
interesting alga. Four hauls were carried across the entrance of the cove from south- 
west to northeast in 4 to 5 fathoms. The bottom was sandy, with quantifies of large 
clam shclls (Venus ncrc«laria), musseI shells, and pebbles, to which the Arlhrocladia 
was attached in great abundance. The plants were very large and in full fruit and 
supplied the set distributed in the Phycotheca Boreali-Americana, fas. I, no. xxx. 
Besides the Arlhrocladia, there was much D«srnare, tia acul«ata, Laninaria Agardhii 
var. vittata, Cystoclonium purpltrascc»s var. cirrhosum, Grizrtellia ancricana, Phyllo- 
phora Brodicei, and Polysiphonia dongata. In small quantifies were found Chorda 
Desnarestia z, iridis, Diclyosiphon hippuroid«s, Ectocarpus siliculosus, Laninaria Agardhii, 
Antithamnion crlciatun, Cailithamnion roseun, Corallina olficinalis, Polyides rotltndus, 
and Scinaia ]urcellata. 
(IO) THE MIDDLE GROUND. 

The shallow stretch in Vineyard Sound, knovn as the Middle Ground (stations 41, 
42, and 43), has a bottom of sand and broken shells, 2 to 4/ fathoms at station 4 t, 
36 to 6 fathoms at station 42, and 2/ to 5 fathoms at station 43- There was no evi- 
dence of algal life, and it is probably quite safe to say that no algoe grow on these b.nks 
of shifting sand scoured by ticlal currents. 



494 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
4. SOME STATSTICS RELATIVE TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALGOe IN BUXXARD£ BAY AND 
VINEYARD SOUND. 
It is a very difficult marrer to make in detail a satisfactory comparison of the dgd 
flora of Woods Hole and its vicinity with those of other coasts, chiefly for the reason 
that the lire conditions are so diverse in different sections of the region and at difïerent 
seasons that there are in reality several floras tobe considered. These have been 
descfibed in the account of the principal formations which may be distinguished (section 
I, chapter m, pages 468-475), but far more must be known of their composition and 
habits at other seasons of the year than the summer before their limits can be defined 
with exactness. The general characteristics of the summer flora of the warmer waters 
of the region, which is a part of the flora of Long Island Sound, are outlined in the 
introduction to section H, chapter L pages 443 and 444. 
Comparative studies of algal floras are dso rendered very difficult because the floras 
have generally been described more with regard to the variety and number of species 
than with respect to the quantities of the dominant forms. A comparison of two lsts 
of species may show that a very large proportion, perhaps a majority of the forms, are 
hot the saine, and yet when judged quantitatively, i. e., by the total mass of vegetation 
composed of species common to both, the two floras might be cousidered as essentially 
similar. We have examined lists of species published by sura,eys or from stations on the 
Scandanavian coast, the Faroes, Denmark, Clyde Sea area, Plymouth, the Irish Sea, 
Naples, etc., and considered the possibility of drawing up comparative tables of floras, 
but we must confess that to us there seemed so little promise of satisfactory results that 
the work was not undertaken. 
In connection with the zoological data presented in section I, chapter HL statistics 
were tabulated for the distribution of the four classes of algœe and of Zostera marina 
as determined by the dredging operations in Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. The 
results of that tabulation are presented below. Of especial interest are the statistics 
for the quantity of vegetation over three types of bottom: Division A, "sand," including 
bottoms recorded as pure sand or sand and shells (excluding bottoms containing stones, 
gravel, or mud); division B, "gravel and stones," including records which list either of 
these ingredients singly, or in combination with one another or with sand (excluding 
bottoms containing mud); division C, "mud," including bottoms recorded as of mud, 
muddy sand, or sandy mud (excluding bottoms containing gravel or stones, but including 
those in which shells are listed). Finally there is presented a table which lists those 
species that were of such general distribution as to occur at one-fourth or more of the 
total number of stations, at one-fourth or more of the stations dredged by the Fish 
Hawk and Phalarope in both the Bay and Sound, and at one-fourth of the stations of the 
three types of bottom designated as A, B, and C. These tables follow in the order 
outlined above. 
AVERAGE NUMBER OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF PLANTS TAKEN PER I)REDGE I-IAUL FOR TttE 458 
STATIONS oF TttE REGULAR SERIES. 

Groups. Genera. [ Species. 
o. oo4 I 

Cyanophyceœe ............ 
Chlorophyceœe ................................................................. 
Phœeophyceœe ............................................................ 
Rhodophyceoe .................. 
Zostera marina ............................................................................. 

. o9 

o, 004 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE.AND VICINITY. 495. 

AVERAGE NUMBER OF GINIRA AND SPECIES OF PLANTS TAKEN PER DREDGE HAUL AT THI FISIt HAWK 
STATIONS. 

Groups. 

Chlorophyceoe.. 
Phoeophyceoe ........ 
Rhodophceoe ..... 
Zostera marina ......... 

Vineyard Sound. 
Genera. Species. 
3-4 3-6 

Buzzards BaF. 

Genera. Species. 
2.8 

3.0 

AVERAGE NUMBER OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF PLANTS TAKEN PER DREDGE HAUL AT THE PIIALAROPE 
AND ]LUE WING STATIONS (INSHORE). 
VineFard Sound. Buzzards BaF. 

Groups. I- 
Genera. 
Cyanophyeeœe ............................. o. o3 
Chlorophceoe.. • 3 
Phmophyceœe.. t. 8 
Rhodophyceoe ........... . 7- 7 
Zostera marina ....... 3 

[ 
[ Species. Genera. 
0"0318.42-2.3"5 ........... o.I 

Species. 

5-2 

AVERAGE NU.VIl]ER OF (ENERA AND SPECIES OF PLANTS TAKEN AT IACH OF TttE FOREGOING (ROLrps 
OF STATIONS, TtlE CLASSES BEING COMBINED. 
StatiOnS• 

'ish Hawk: 
Vineyard Sound... 
]3uzzards Bay .......... 
'halarope (and Blue XVing): 
Vineyard Sound. inshore.. 
Buzzards Bay. inshore ..... 

Total.. 

2x8 
66 
7 
90 

Genera. Species. 
• 5 4- 
4-0 4" 
IO- I II.q 
6.3 6. 
5-7 6. 

VERAGE NUMBER OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF PLANTS TAKEN UPON IOTTOMS OF t'SAND," DIVISION 
A (IO STATIONS). 

Cyanophycem.. 
Chlorophyceœe ....... 
Phoeophceoe. ....... 
Rhodoph-ceoe ....... 
Zostera marina ....... 

Groups. 

Species. 

o. 0o6 



496 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 
AVERAGE NUMBER OF ENERA AND SPECIES O1¢ PLANTS TAKEN UPON BoTTOMS OF «'RAVEL AND 
STONES," DIVISION ]3 (67 STATIONS). 

Groups. Genera. Species. 

Chlorophyceœe ........................................................................................ 
Phoeophrceoe ....................................................................................... 
laodophrceoe ....................................................................... 
Zostera marina .............................................................................. 

o. 09 

o. 09 
6,0 

AVERAGE NUMBIR OF GENERA AND SPICIIS OF PLANTS TAKEN UPON ]30TTOMS OF "MuD," DIVISION 
C (ii2 STATIONS). 
Groups. G¢nera. Species. 

Cyanophyceoe ..................................................... - ..... 
Ch[orophyceæ .................................................... 
lhoeophyce'oe ............. 
lhodoph yceoe ........................................... 
Zostera marina ...................................................................................... 

-9 
2.8 

SPECIES DREDGED AT ONE-FOURTH OR MORE OF THE STATIONS. 
[The figures at the top o[ the columns represerlt one-[ourth d the total nttmber o[ stations in each group.| 

x  Z 9 [ e3 [ 4 Bottorn e8 
 •  .. , Fish Fish Phala- [ Phala- I Bottom I B, I Bottom 
bctes, ltal I Hawk. Hawk.  ro, I rope. I A, ["gravel] C. 
SoE[IOnS. Sound. Bay. Sound I Bay. "sand." and "'mud." 
arestia fidls 
. aah .............................. I .......... I .......... I   ..... 1 ......... I .......... I .......... 
a«i« ¢. .................... [ ......... [ ...... l  l l .......... I l .......... 
tithni çciatum ................ [ ......... ¢ .......... I e9 [ .................. [ 46 [ .......... 
Chm,i ,a ........... » l s .......... [  6z [ .......... 
o¢ï .................. l .................   ..... [ .......... [ " .......... 
............................. ] ........................... ................................... 
Gnnela amefioEna ............ x4o 6 ol 5o 6o 9 
Lithothaon lymorphum .....  .............................. ............................... 
».,o,ora o. ...... I .................... I I .......... I  [ .......... 
Polyides rotdus ................... [ ......... [ .................... I [ ....... [ .......  ...... [ .......... 
Polysiphonia elonta ............. [ ......... ] .................... [ .... [ ......  ...... ] .......... 
Polsiphonia nigrescs ........... [ ......... [ .................... [ [ ....... [ .......... [ ......... [ .......... 
s,«.. a .............. I ......... I ....................   .... I ...... I «  ......... 
zt ........................ I ......... ', .................... ' I ...... I .......... I ........ I .......... 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 497 

LITERATURE CITED FOR SECTION I1. 
AcR»u, J. G. 
1836. Novitim Florm Suacim ex Algarum familia. Lundoe. 
BERTHOLD, G. 
1882. Ueber die Vertheilung der Algen ira Golf von Neapel. Mittheilung aus der zoologischen 
Station zu Neapel, bd. III. Berlin. 
BRGESEN, F. 
19o 5. The algoe vegetation of the FoerÇese toasts. Botanyof the Foer6es, pt. II, p. 683. Copenhagen. 
ENGELMANN, T. W. 
1883. Farbe und Assimilation. Botanische Zeitung, bd. XLI, p. I, 17. Berlin. 
1884. Untersuchungen iiber die quantitativen Beziehungen zwischen Absorption des Liehtes tmd 
Assimilation ira Pflanzenzellen. Ibid., bd. XLII, p. 81, 97- 
FARLoW, W. G. 
1873. List of the seaweeds or marine algoe of the south coast of New England. Report U. S. Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries, 1871-72, p. 28i. Washington. 
1881. The marine algœe of New England. Ibid., 1879, p. 1-21o, pl. 1-xv. 
GAIDUKOV, N. 
19o2. Ueber den Einfluss farbigen Lichts auf die Farbtmg lebender Oscillarien. Anhang zut 
Abhandlungen der k6nigliche preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, bd. v, p.I. Berlin. 
i9o 4. Die Farbe der Algen und des Wassers. Hedwigia, bd. XLIII, p. 9 6. Dresden. 
19o6. Die komplemente chromatische Adaptation bel Porphyra und Phormidium. Berichte der 
deutschen botanischen Gesellschaft, bd. XXlV, p. 1. Berlin. 
HARVEY, W. H. 
i852-1857. Nereis Boreali-Americana. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, pt. I and ri, 
1852, pt. m, i857. Washington. 
KJELLMAN, F. R. 
I877. Ueber die Algenvegetation des Murmanschen Meeres an der Weskfiste von Nowaja, Semlja, 
und Wajgatsch. Nova Acta Regioe Societatis Scientiarum, ser. iii, Jubelbana, Upsala. 
1878. Ueber Algenregionen und Algenformationen ira 5stlichen Skager Rack. Bihang till Konglige 
Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademieus Handliugar, bd. v. Stockholm. 
NADSON, G. 
I9oo. Die perforierenden (kalkbohrenden) Algen und ihre Bedeutung in der Natur. Scripta 
botanica Horti Universitatis Imperialis Petropolitanae, las. xvui, p. 35- 
OLTMANNS, F. 
1892. Ucbcr Kulturcn tend Lcbcnsbcdingungcn dcr Mccrcsalgen. Jahrbfichcr fiir wisscnschaftlichc 
Botanik, bd. xxm, p. 347- Lcipzig. 
PECK, J. I. 
1894. On the food of the menhaden. Bulletin U. S. Fish Commission, vol. xnI, 1893, p. ii 3. 
Washington. 
1896. The sourcesof marine food. Ibid., vol. xv, 1895, p. 351. 
RODRfGUEZ, J. J. 
1888. Algas de las Baleares. Anales de la Sociedad Espafiola de Historia Natural, t. xv', p. 31i. 
Madrid. 
ROSENVlNGE, L. K. 
1898. Oto Algenvegetation ved Gr6nlands Kyster. Meddelelser oto Gr6nland, bd. xx, p. 131. 
16269°--Bu11.31, pt 1--i3--3 



498 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF ISHERIES. 

C HIRT OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
D]STIt]BUTION OF SPEÇIES 

CHA" 228.--Choetomorpha melagonium (Weber &. Iohr) Kiktzing. 
Present in the deeper and cooler  aters off exposed points, such as Gay I-Iad an4 Cuttyhunk. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

499 

CHANT OF 
VINEYA1RD SOUND 
AND 
IUZZARDS BAC 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CgA" 229.--Cladostephus verticillatus (Lighffoot) Agardh. 
A scattered distribution throughout Vineyard Sound in fairly deep water. 



500 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

VINEYAID SOUND 
AND 
DUZZARDS BA" 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION ON SPEçlES 

CHART 23o.--Art_hrocladia villosa (Hudson) Duby. 
This species, formerly considered rather rare, is widely distributed and at certain stations even 
plentiful. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

5OI 

CHAR'r- 0" 
\,riNEYARD SOUND 
ND 
iUZ ZARDS BAh r 
SHOW|NG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFO 

CHART 23r.--Desmarestia aculeata (Linnœeus) Lamouroux. 
This large species is almost restricted to the deeper and cooler waters of the lower portion of 
Buzzards Bay and westerly portion of Vineyard Sound. 



5o ° _ 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OP-' SPECIES 

CHART 232.--Desmarestia viridis (Flora Danica) Lamouroux. 
Presents a much more extended range than Desmarestia aculeata (chart 23i ), being fotmd in 
warmer regions of Vineyard Sotmd as well as in the cooler waters. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF VOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 503 

CHAR'I" 33.--Dictyosiphon hippuroides (Lyngbye) Areschoug. 
A scattered distribution in both Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sotmd. 



504 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERI-S. 

(HART OF" 
VINEYAI::ID S 0 UND 
BUZ ZAIRDS BAY 
.ç J-IOWiG 
DISTRIBUTION OP SPECES 

NEW 

CraRr 234.--Chorda filum (Linnoeus) Stackhouse. 
This species, ver T common in qiet shallow waters, is also widely distributed in the deeper waters 
oî both Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sotmd. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS I-IOLE AND VICINIT¥. O 

Cn.«R 35.--Laminaria Agardhii Kjellman. 
Widely distributed in the lower portion of Buzzards Bay and throughout Vineyard Sotmd, pre- 
ferring the cooler waters. 



506 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
B U Z ZAFID S BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHART 236.--Laminaria Agardhii, var. vittata Setchell. 
This characteristic form of the species (chart 235 ) is almost restricted to the cooler waters of the 
lower portion of Buzzards Bay and the westerly portion of Vineyard Sotmd. 



BIOLOGICAL SURX, EY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. ,.507 

CHRT OF 
VI NEYA1RD SOUND 
IUZ ZARDS BAV 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEIES 

CHART 237.1Laminaria digitata (Linnoeus) Lamouroux. 
Local distribution limited to the eooler waters off exposed points, as at Gay Head. 



508 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINYARD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OP SPECIES 

NEW 

ÇHART 38.--Sargassum Filipendula Agardh 
Abundant and almost restricted to the warmer and more sheltered regions of ]3uzzards ]3ay and 
Vineyard Sound. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

,509 

CIJ.RT 230--Antithamnion cruciatum (Agardh) Ngeli. 
Widely distributed in both Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound over stony bottoms that support 
extensive growths of Chondrus, Phyllophora. and Polyides, upon which it is a common epiphyte. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF" 
V! NEYAI:tD SOUND 
AqD 
UZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 24o.--Ceramium rubrum (Hudson) Agardh. 
This very common species of the shallow sublittoral zone is also abundant and widely distributed 
in the deeper waters. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

5II 

CH,RT OF" 
VINEYA1RD S OUND 
IBU.ZZARDS BAY 
SHOWNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPEClE5 

NEW BEDFORD 

CHAR'r 241.--Griflîthsia Bornetiana Farlow. 
Local distribution almost restricted to the warmer waters of t3uzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. 



512 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES'. 

CHAIa: 4_.---Griffit_hsia tenuis Agardh. 
Only found in the warm and sheltered portions of Buzzards Bay, where it forms large patches loosely 
attached over sandy and rn uddy bottoms. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINIT¥. 

CHART OF 
Vl N-E''Alïl D NOUND 
UZ ZARDS BAY 
SH0WlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECI"ES 

CHAR'r 243.--Plumaria elegans (Bormemaison) Schmitz. 
Local distribution limited to the cooler vaters off exposed points, as at Gay Head and Cuttyhunk. 
i6269°--Bu11.3 x, pt 1--33 



514 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

V[NEYARD S;OUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHDWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CrIAR 244.--Spermothamnion Turneri (Mertens) Areschoug. 
This striking epiphyte is widely distributed in both Buzzards Bay and Vmeyard Sotmd over 
bottoms that support growths of Chorglrus, Phyllophora, and Polyide. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD NOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CHART 245.--Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey. 
Widely distributed in both ]3uzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, but preferring the warmer waters 
of the more sheltered portions. 



56 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
B U Z ZARD S BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES_ 

CHART 46.--Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Harvey. 
Prefers the cooler waters of the lower portion of .Buzzards Bay and the westerly portion of Vineyard 
Sound, but presents a somewhat scattered distribution 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 5 I7 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD NOUND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAY" 
SNOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW 

CIIART 247.--Polysiphonia nigrescens (Dillwyn) Greville. 
A species abundant and widely distributed, growing on stones and shells frequently over muddy 
bottoms, vhich accounts for its presence in the middle regions of Buzzards Bay. 



518 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

çHART OF" 
VINEYARD SOUND 
AND 
FIUZZARDS BAY" 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OP SPECIES 

CnART 248.--Polysiphonia variegata (Agardh) Zanardini. 
Restricted to the warmer waters of sheltered regions and only dredged by the Survey in Buzzards 
Bay. 



BIOLOGICAI, SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

519 

CHAR'I" OF' 
V[NEYARD SOUND 
uz zAs A, 
SH0WlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHA 49.--.admfeldtia plicata (Turner) Fries. 
Prefers the cooler waters off exposed points. 



520 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

VINEYAFtD SOUND 
BUZ ZAFIDS BAY 
SHOWING 
D|STI:t[BUTION OF SPECIES 

CHaRT 25o.--Chondrus crispus (Linnœeus) Stackhouse. 
Widely distributed over sandy, shelly, and stony bottoms. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZZARDS BAY 
SHOWING 
DISTFtlBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BE D.FOBD{) 

CHART 25i.--Phyllophora I3rodioei (Turner) J. -Agardh. 
Very generaIly distributed throughout ]3uzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound but most abundant in 
exposed situations. 



522 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

* 

CIAtT 252.--Phyllophora membranifolla (Goodenough & Woodward) I. Agardh. 
As widely distributed as Phyllophora BrodioEi (chart 25 ) but apparently showing a preference for 
more sheltered regions. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF "WOODS HOLE AND VICINITV. 523 

CHART OF" 
VINEYAID NOUND 
tqD 
lUZ ZARDS BAV 
SHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART _%3.--Agardhiella tenera (J. Agardh ) Schmitz. " 
A very common and widely distributed species which, howeve_r, prefers waxm and shelter¢d waters. 



524 BULLETIN OF TItI BUREAU OF FISItERIES. 

CH,RT OF" 
VINEYARD NOUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

NEW BEDFO 

CHART -54.--Cystoclonium purpurasccns (Hudson) Kfitzing. 
A scattcrcd distribution in both luzzards ay and Vincyard Sound. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

525 

CHART 255.--Cystoclonium purpurascens var. cirrhosum Harvey. 
This form of the speeies (chart -54} shows a marked preference for the cooler waters of the lower 
portion of Buzzards Bay and the westerly porlion of Vineyard Sound. 



526 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CnART 56.---Champia parwala (Agardh) I-Iarvey. 
O-ne of the most widely distributed algœe cri the region but preferring warmer and sheltered waters. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

527 

(;HART OF' 
V.INEYARD S O UND 
B U Z ZARD S BAY 
SHOWING 
,DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CrAz 257.--Lomentaria rosea (Harvey) Thuret. 
Restricted to the cooler vaters off the exposed points of Gay Head and Cuttyhunk. 



528 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEYARD SOUND 
IBUZ ZARDS BAY 
SHOWlNG 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CI-IART 258.--Lomentaria uncinata Meneghini. 
In striking contrast to Lomentaria rosea (chart 257 ) this species is alfnost restricted to the warmet 
sheltered waters of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sotmd, where it is widely distributed. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

529 

CHagr 59.--Rhodymenia palmata (Linnoeus) Greville. 
A characteristic species of the coeler waters of the lower portion of Buzzards Bay and westerly por- 
tion of Vineyard Sotmd. 
x6269°--Bull. 31, pt x--i3--34 



53 ° BULLITIN OF TH] BURIAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART =6o.--Delesseria sinuosa (Goodenough & Woodward) Lamourou_x. 
A striking species practically restricted to the lower portion of luzzards Bay and westerly portion 
of Vineyard Sound. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 531 

VINEYABD S;OUND 
BUZ ZARDS BAY 
S HOWINO 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CrAT 6r.--Grinnellia americana (Agardh)/-Iarvey. 
This species is almost universally distributed throughout Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, but 
prefers the warmer and more sheltered waters. 



532 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OF 
VINEY.&/RD N O UNI) 
AqD 
I3UZ ZARDS BAY 
5HOWING DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 262.--Polyides rottmdus (Gmelin) Greville 
Presents a scattered distribution in 13uzzards 13ay and Vineyard Sotmd over sandy, shelly, and 
stony bottoms. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLI AND VICINITY. 

533 

CHART OF 
_rlNEYARD S 0 UND 
BUZ ZARDS BAN" 
sHOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OP SPECIES 

NEW 

C,g't 263.--Corallina officinalis Linnoeus. 
As dredged by the Survey the species shows a marked preference lot the cooler watexs off exposed 
points, as at Gay ttead and Cuttyhunk. 



534 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART OK 
VINEYARD SOUND 
BUZ ZAIïlDS BAY 
S HOWING 
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CHART 264.--Hildenbrandia prototypus Nardo. 
A scattered distribution in both Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

535 

CHART OF 
VINEYAD SOUND 
iUZ ZARDS BAY 
DISTttIBUTION OF SPECIES 

CrRr 65.--Lithotham_nion polymorphum (Linnoeus) Areschoug. 
Widely distributed in both Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sotmd. 



536 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHr 266.--Zostera marina Linnoeus. 
This eommon spermatophyte of the shallow waters presented a scattered distribution, but was 
unusually abtmdant off Marthas Vineyard. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVE¥ OF WOODS HOLI AND VIClNITY. 537 

I i i -i l 
£^T 7.--Disoebution o aloe on Spnàle Rocs, Match 7, [95. 
Ail the rocks were perfectly bare above low-water mark (the dotted line), having been scraped 
clean during the winter by floating ice. AIgoe were present below low watcr only in positions where 
they were protected from contact with the ice. The number of species on the rocks was small in com- 
parison with other seasons of the year, and limited to those that may grow at some depth. 
It is interesting to compare the rocks above Iow-watcr mark, now entircly bare, with thc conditions 
on December 3 o, tvo and one-half months previous (char 274), for at that date the rocks were covered 
by gro»vths of Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis (ii), Phyllilisfascia (24), and Scylosiphon lomenlarius (26). 
The first zone of algœe was well below low water and was composed of Ceramium rubrum (43), and Chon- 
drus crispus (49), the last extending into deeper water. Somewhat away from the rocks or between 
them were groups of Laminaria Agardl, ii (33), and occasional growths of Phyllilisfascia (24) and Scyto- 
siphon lomenlarius (26) were present. 
List of species: Ulva Lactuca, 4, few on Chondrus; Cladophora lanosa, xo; Ectocarpus siliculosus, 
on Scylosiphon; Phyllitisfascia, 4, fexv; Scytosiphon lomentarius, z6, few; Laminaria Agardhii, 33, groups 
in deep water; Porphyra laciniata, 37, occasional; Callithamnion Baileyi, 4 r, on Ceramiunt; Ceranhm 
rubrum, 43, abundant; Chondrus crispus, 49, abundant. 



538 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

28 47 47 26 

V 

CHART 268.--Distribution of algoe on Spindle Rocks, April 22, 9o5 . 
lZocks still very bare above low-water mark, where they were scraped clean durîng the winter by 
floating ice. Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis (zi) formed a green fringe on certain rocks near low-water 
mark (the dotted line), with the brown algm Phyllitisfascia (24) and Scytosiphon lomentarius (26) begin- 
ning to appear lower dom; this rather imperfect bro-n zone was composed of young growt_h and was 
hot very conspicuous at this date. Well below low water were groq3as of the conspicuous red algm 
Polysiphonia urceolata (47) and Chondrus crispus (49)- 
List of species: Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis, zr, very abtmdant; Ectocarpus cecidioides, 13, on 
old Laminaria; Ectocarpusfasciculatus, tS, abtmdant on larger algoe; Ectocarpus ovatus, 17, on mussel 
shells; Ectocarpus penicillatus, 8, very abundant on larger algœe; Sorocarpus ,voeforni«, 2, on mussel 
shells; Desmotrichum balticum, 22, mixed with Scytosiphon; Desmotrichum «mdulaturn, 23, mixed with 
Scytosiphon; Phyllitisfascia, 24, young growth on rocks; Scytosiphon lomentarius, 26, young grooEh on 
rocks; Desmarestia viridis, 27, many young plants; Chordaria flagelliformis, 28, young plants; Chorda 
tomentosa, 32; Laminaria Agardhii, 33; Acrochcetium virgatulum, 39, on Ceramium; Cerami.um rubrum, 
43; Polysiphonia urceolata, 47, abundant; Chondrus crispus, 49, abundant. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 

539 

4 27 
CHART 2.stSuton o Ioe on Spindl ocks, My 2, 9o. 
 rocks t this dtc proentd  chmctric Igl fior of th sprig t its [ull 
rocks n whr it w  monoE prvious (ch 26). Th 5ro on t lo-wtr mrk (th 
rc«ofa (47) fod  «onspicuous rd on 51o th brm, with xtsiv ooEhs of 
abundant; EcLocarpusfcicuMtus, 15, abdant on ler algoe; EcLocarpus penicilMtus, 18, abundant on 
larger algoe; Sorocarpus uvœeform, 21, few on mul shells; Dmotrichum balticum, 22, few mixed wioE 
Scytophon; Dmotrichum uuMtum, 23, few mixed with Scysiphon; Phyllitis fcia, 24, very abun- 
dant; Pumtaria pMntaginea, 25, few; Scytosiphon mentarius, 26, abundant; Dmartia viridis, 27, 
ery abundant; Chordariaflagelliformis, 28, much; Chorda tome»rtosa, 32, abundant; Laminaria Agardhii, 
33; Ceramium rubrum, 43, abundant; Polysiphonia urceoMta, 47, abundant; Polysiphonia violea, 48, 
few; Chondrus crispus, 49, abundt. 



540 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

31 26 :. 
: 

Pyramld Rock 

ÇItART 7o.--Distribution of algoe on Spindle Rocks, Jtme 9, x9o5 • 
The eharacter of the vegetation on the çocks had greatly changed from that of May se (ehart 269), 
and marked the beginning of the charaeteristie summer flora and the end of the spring season. A green 
zone on the upper parts of the rocks was eomposed chiefly of Ulothrix implexa (3), Ulva Lactuca var. 
rigida (5), and Entcromorpha intestinalis (7); Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis, formerly so abtmdant 
and eonspieuous, had entirely disappeared. The broç-n zone near low-water mark (the dotted line) 
was eomposed almost entirely of Scytosiphon lomentarius (6), and Chordariaflagelliformis (8); Phyllitis 
fascia (4) was only represented by a few old plants, and Ectocarpus penicillatus had disappeared. Poly- 
siphonia urceolata, so plentiful throughout the spring, was no longer present, but Polysiphonia violacea 
(48) was abundant and vith Ceramium rubrum (43) formed a fringe around the rocks a little below low- 
water mark with Chondrus cri@us (49) in deeper water. Nernalion multifidum (40) had begun to appear 
at and above low-water mark. 
List of algoe: Calothrix scopulorum, , in small patehes; Ulothrix implexa, 3, covering tahe top of 
III, VI, and Pyramid Rock; Ulva Lactuca var. rigida, 5, abundant yotmg growt_hs; Enterornorpha intesti- 
halls, 7, much; Codiolum 9regarium, o, abtmdant on bamaeles; Phyllitisfascia, 4, few old plants; 
Punctaria plantaginea, 25, few; Scytosiphon lo-mentarius, 26, abundant; Chordaria flagellif ormis , 28, very 
abundant; Chorda filum, 3; Laminaria Agardhii, 33, scattered plants; Laminaria Agardhii var. vittata, 
34, small group; Nemalion multifidum, 4o, young growth; Ceramium rubrum, 43, few; Polysiphonia 
violacea, 48, abundant; Chondrus cri@us, 49, abtmdant. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WOODS HOLE AND VICINITY. 541 

CHART 27L--Distribution of algoe on Spindle Rocks, July , 9o5 . 

The only conspicuous green alga was Ulva Lact«a var. rgida (5), now full grown and forming large 
patches on some of the rocks. There was a very vell-defined brovn zone just below low-water mark 
(the dotted line) composed of Chordaria fla9elliformis (-8) and old ScytosiDhon loraentarius (:6). Ecto- 
carpus co)oEeroides (4) vas plentiful on the Chordaria and Scytosiphon. Phyllilisfascla had disappeared. 
Nemalion nultifidum (40) fringed most of the rocks at low-water mark, and below was a characteristic red 
zone of PolysiphoniŒE iolacea (48) and Ceramium rubrum (43) mixed xvith the Chordaria, and with Chon- 
drus crispus (49) abundant from x-5 feet below low water. 
List of algoe: Calothrix scopztlorum, , small patches on barnacles and rocks; Rivularii alfa, 2, on 
barnacles; Ulotkrix implexa, 8, on Pyramid Rock; Ulva Lactuca var. ri9ida, 5, abundant on topsof 
rocks; Enteromorpha intestinalis, 7, few patches; Cladolhora 9racilis, 9, few tufts; Codiolum 9re9ariu-m, 
x2, on barnacles; Ectocarpus confervoides, I4, abundant on Chordaria and Scytosiphon; Scytosiphon 
lomentarius, 26, much old growth; Chordariafla9elliformis , 28, abundant; Meso9lola divaricata, 39, fexv 
patches; Chorda hn, 3, large patches; Laminaria A9ardhii, 83, few groups; F««cus vesiculosus, 35, 
few plants; Nemalion multifidum, 40, abundant; Ceramium rubrum, 43, abundant; Chondria dasyphylla, 
44, fev plants; Polysiphonia violacea, 48, abtmdant; Chondrus cril)us, 49, abtmdant. 



542 

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

43 

43 .. "43 : 

33 33 

43 

40 
28 /?8 

I 

5 
43 48 

43 

28 

28 

48 

• " 4 33 
1." /28 
. 248 
;"35 .: 41 Pyramid Rock 

3Z 
33 

CHART T2.--Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, September 2, x9o 5. 
The rocks on September 2 presented an aspect similar to that on July 22 (ehal't 2ÎI) with some 
features, however, more pronotmced. The prevailing green alga vas Ulva Lactuca var. rigida (5) form- 
ing large patches on the tops of rocks. The most conspicuous broxn algœe were Chordariaflagellifornis 
(28), growing in large masses, sometimes as a zone below low-water mark (the dotted line), and old 
Scytosiphon lomentarius (26) forming patches higher up oH the rocks. The most conspicuous zone (much 
more pronounced than in chart 27x ) was that near low-water mark composed of Ceramium rubrum (43) and 
Polysiphonia wiolacea (48). There was much less Nemalion ,r*dlifidum (40), which, however, formed a 
zone on rocks V, VII, and VIII. Chondrus criçpus (49) was plentiful in deeper water below the Chordaria. 
List of algoe: Calolhrix scopulorum, x, small patches on barnaeles and rocks; Rivularia atra, ., on 
bamacles; Ulva Lactuca var. rigida, 5, plentiful on tops of rocks; Enleromorpha crinila, 6, few plants; 
Enteromorpha prolifera, 8, few plants; Eclocarpus confer-aoides, 4, on old plants of Scytosiphon Eclo- 
carpusfasciculatus, x 5, abundant on Chordaria and Chorda; Scytosiphon lomenlarius, 6, patches of old 
plants; Chordariaflaçelliformis, 28, abtmdant; Chordafilum, 3 x, large patches; Lamiraria Agardhii, 33, 
occasional plants; Fucus wesiculosus, 35, scattered plants; Porphyra Iaciniata, 37, scattered plants; Nerna- 
lion rullifidum, 40, abundant; Callilhamnion Baileyi, 4, many on Chordaria; Callilhamnion corym- 
bosum, 42, many on Chordaria; Ceramium rubrum, 43, very abundant; Dasya eleçans, 45, occasional 
plants; Polysiphonia wiolacea, 48, very abundant; Chondrus crispus, 49, abtmdant; Champia parvula, 
50, occasional on Chordaria and rocks. 



BIOLOGICAL SURV]Y OF WOODS HOL] AND VICINIT¥. 5 

33 

CrlAR+ 273.--Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, September 19, 19o 4. 

This chart is introduced to shoxv variations that may be present in the algal lire on the same rocks 
at the saine season but in different years. It should be compared vith chart 272 , plotted September 2, 
i9o 5. The charts agree in having Ulva Lactuca var. rigida (5) as the conspicuous green alga on the tops 
of the rocks. There was lao Chordaria flagelliforzis this season and consequently no zone of broxxax 
algœe, although Scyosiphon lomenarius (26) grew in scattered patches. Nernalion ulifidu-m (4o) formed 
a zone of thick growth above low-water mark (the dotted line) on rocks III, VII, VIII, and Pyramid 
Rock. The most conspicuous zone was below low water and composed of Ceraium rubru (43)and 
Poly«iphoniafibrillosa (46)- The Polysiphoniafibrillosa, which was hot present at all in 19o 5, this season 
took the place of Chordariaflagellifor.mis and Polysiphonia violacea (48), usually abundant, but scattered 
plants of the latter vere present. Chondrus cri,pus, as usual, vas abundant, extending into deeper 
water below the Poly«iphonia. 
List of species: Ulva Lacluca var. rigida, 5, abundant; Scylosiphon lotentarius, 26, patches on rocks; 
Chordafilum, 31, large beds; Laminaria Agardhii, 33, scattered patches; Fucus wesiculosus, 35, scattered 
plants, Sar9assum Filipendula, 36, fev plants; Nemalion rnultifidum, 40, abundant; Ceramium rubrun, 
43, abundant; lolysiphonia fibrillosa, 46, very abundant, fringing rocks just below low-water; lolysi - 
phonia iolacea, 48, few; Chondrus crispus, 49, abundant. 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

CHART 274.--Distribution of algœe on Spindle Rocks, December 3 o, I9o4. 
This chart plots the vegetation oaa the rocks in the winter before the upper parts are scraped clean by 
floating ice. In the series of charts it shows the conditions two and one-half months before those pre- 
sented on chart 267. The prevailing green alga was Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis (II), present on the 
upper portionsof every rock above low-water mark (the dotted lines). Near low-water mark was a brown 
zone of Phyllilis fascia (24) and Scylosiphon lornentari,,s (26). Phyllilis fascia, which disappears in the 
summer, had returned in abundance. Below low xvater was a red zone of Cerarni.um rubrum (43), very 
plentiful, and in deeper water was the ever-present Chondrus crispus (49)- Polysiphoniafibrillosa (46), so 
abtmdant September 19 (chart 273), had almost disappeared, and there wasno Polysiphonia violacea, gen- 
erally characteristic of the summer. Only a few plants of Nemalion rnl, llifidum (4o) remained. 
List of algoe: Calothrix scopulorum, I, patches on the top of Pyramid lock; Ulva Lacluca var. rl9ida , 
5, bases of old plants; Enteromorpha inteslinalis, 7, few scattered plants; Cladophora lanosa var. uncialis, 
x,, abtmdant on the top of every rock; Ectocarpus 9ranulosus, 16, abundant on Sa'gassum and other 
large algoe below low-water; Ectocarpus lomeftosus, 20, abundant oaa larger algoe beloxv low-water; 
Phyllilisfascia, 24, abtmdant above low-water; Scytosiphon loraenlarius, 26, vet'y abundant above low- 
xvater; lIyrionema corunnae, 3 o, oaa Laminaria; Larninaria A9ardhii, 33, many old plants; F,cus vesicu- 
losvs, 35, few scattered plants; Sar9assum Filipendula, 36, few young plants; Porphyra laciniata, 37, 
scattered plants; Acrochaelium seciotdctllttt, 38, on Porphyra; Acrochaetium vir9atuhtm, 39, on Ceramiu»z; 
Nemalion multifidum, 4o, few plants; Ceramium rubrurn, 43, very abundant; Polysiphonia fibrillosa, 
46, few plants; Chondrus crispus, 49, abtmdant. 

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