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Full text of "American Silurian crinoids"

SbX 
1926 
INVERT. 
ZOOL. 



SMITHSONIAN 

INSTITUTION 

AMEIRICAN 

SILUEIAN CRINOIDS 

BY 
FRANK SPRINGER 
LAS VEGAS, NEW IVlEXICO 
ASSOGIATE IN PALEONTOLOGY, U. S. NATIONAL NIUSEUM 

(Publication 871)  ¢.-,, - 

PUBLISHED 

CITY OF WASHINGTON 
BY THE S/VIITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
926 



BALOEIMORE MD.» U. S. A. 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION ...... 
Erly Geologists .... 
The Tennessee Area . 
The Indiana Area ............................................... 6 
The New York Area ........................................... 7 
The Foreign Silurian ................................................ 8 
Origin of the work .................................. 9 
Collections used ......................................... 
Acknowledgments .............. 1 
Order CAMERATA ................. 
Family DI MEROCRINIDAE ............................. 12 
Dimerorrimts ........................................ 
F..tdim«rocrimts, new genus ............................................................. 
Cyphocrimts ................................... 14 
Gaaacrin us .......... 
Lamptcrocrimts ............................. 19 
(;enus and spccics indct. 
Family RHODOCRINIDAE .............................................. 22 
lParaga:acrimts, new genus .......................................... 2_2 
lP«ulocrinus, new genus .................................. 22 
llïlsonictqm«s, new genus ..................................... 23 
Eudimerocrinus, new genus .......... 24 
Gcmtx and spccics itdct ............................... 24 
L yriocrimts ................................. 24 
Family [ELOCRINIDAE 25 
J[acrostylocrinus ........................................ 25 
Melocrim,s ..... 27 
Cytocrinus ....................... 
Mariacrin us .... 28 
. lllocrinus .................. 3o 
t'atclliocrimts .............................. 
Gcnus and species indet ................... 32 
Laurclocrinus, new genus ... 32 
CIonocrinus ............................. 34 
Family C.«LrPOCmlVmaE ........................... 35 
Eucalyptocrinus ........................................... 35 
Callicrinus ............................................................ 39 
Family BaTOCRIIVaE ............................. 4 
Carpocrinus ........................................................... 42 
Desmidocrim,s ............................. 43 
Cflicocrin us ........... 43 
lPeriechocrinus ................................. 44 
çaccocrimt.s ...................................... 45 
Aorocr[mts ........................................................... 47 
Family PLaTVCRmaE ....................................................... 48 
Lyonicrimts, new genus ....................................... .8 
Myrtillocrinus ......... 9 
Coccocr[mts ................................................................... 
Culicocrinus ............................................................. 5I 
Gemts and species indet., No. I ............................................... 5I 
Gemts and spec[es indct., No. 2 ................................ 51 
Gemts and species indet., No. 3 ..................................... 52 
Hapalocrinus ....................... 52 
Brahmacrinus ............................................. 53 
Nyctocrin us ........................................................................... 54 
Marsipocrimts ........................................................................ 55 
I!1 



iv CONTEN TS 

PAGE 
64 
Order FLEXIBILIA ...................................... . ......... 64 
Farnily LECAIOCRIIIDAE 
Lecanocrinus ................................................................ 
65 
.qnisocrinus ......................................................... 
66 
H ormocrinus ................ 66 
Asaphocrinus ...................................... 67 
Pycnosaccus ........................................................... 68 
Family SAGENOCRINIDAE .. 
Sa9enocrinus ............ 68 
Family ICHTHYOCRINIDAE .... 
Ichthyocrinus ....... 68 
Clidochirus .............. 
Family TAXOCRIN'II)AE . 69 
Protaxocrinus . 69 
Gn orim ocrim«s ........... 70 
Order INADUNATA ........ 7I 
LARVIFORMIA ...................................................................... 
Pisocrinus ....................................................... 72 
Trîacrinus ...................................................................... 74 
8 
Zophocrinus .................................................................. 
8 
Tiaracrinus ................................ 
Mysticocrinus ........................................................... 83 
Family HETEROCR1NIDAE ......................................................... 85 
Myclodactylus ...................................................................... 85 
Family CALCEOCRI NIDAE .................................................................... 

Morphology and evolutionary sequence ................................................... 88-o3 

Analysis of Genera ......................................................... 
Cremacrim, s ...................................................................... IO5 
Eucheirocrinus ................................................. 
Calceocrims ...................................   5 
Halysiocrinus ........................................................ 
Family PETALOCRINIDAE ................................................................ 126 
Pctalocrim«s .......................................................................... 
Crotalocrinus ...................................................................... 128 
Family CYATHOCRIN'IDAE .............................................................. 131 
Thalamocrinus ........................................................................ 3I 
Ampherisfocrim«s .................................................. 132 
Lecythiocrinus ........................................................ 133 
Cyathocrinus ........................................................ 133 
Parisocrinus ........................................................ 135 
Gissocrinus ......................................  35 
Botryocrin,«s ........................................ I35 
INSERTAE SEDIS ...................................... I37 
Parastcphanocrinus .................................................... 139 
Stcphanocrinus ................................................................ 139 
BLASTOIDEA AND CYSTI]3EA ................... I4I 
Troostocrims ............................................................... I4 
Tctracystis ......................................................................... 14 I 
Stribalocystites ............................ I42 
Lysocystites ................................... 142 
Caryocrhus ................................................................... 143 
PERSONAL RECORD ................................................................ 
I44 
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AUTHOR'S V¢ORKS. I46 
A. Sclcntific ................................................. 
.................. 146 
I. In Collaboration .................................. 
.......................... I46 
» I, Sole Authorship. I46 
B. [isccllancous ......... 
IIx ............................... .................... 
EXPLANATION OF PLATES ........................... 
16 7 
........................... 73 



ANERICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS 
tlY FRANK SPRINGER 
ASSOCIATE IN PALEONTOLOGY, U. S. NATIONAL _IUSEUII 

INTRODUCTION 

\Vestern Tennessee has been classic ground for American paleontologists 
ever since Gerard Troost, State Geologist of that state, brought to the I849 meet- 
ing of the American Association for the Advancement of Science a series of 
fossil crinoids collected by him in Decatur and neighboring counties, and sub- 
mitted through Professor Louis Agassiz 1 an imposing list of genera and species 
nev to science, of which he had prepared a monograph with full descriptions and 
numerous illustrations. For want of funds to defrav the expense, the mono- 
r  . 
graph was not published during the autho s lifetime, but remained buried until 
9o9, when it was issued by the United States National Museum as Bulletin 65, 
the MS., together v«ith the collection, having been left bv Troost to tbe Smith- 
sonian Institution with a viev to publication. Er that time most of the new 
forms had been described by other authors, and the credit for the original dis- 
coveries announced in his list was lost to the one by whom it was so well deserved. 
In 1847 came the eminent German paleontologist, C. Ferdinand Roemer, 
who became deeply interested in the prolific fauna of the Tennessee Silurian, 
and during a sojourn of several weeks made extensive collections in Decatur 
County. The results of his researches were published in 186o in his well known 
monograph entitled " Die Silurische Fauna des \Vestlichen Tennessee:" 4to, 
Breslau, Germanv. Manv new species were brought out, and the work has been 
regarded as a standard for the area of which it treats. 

The Tenuessee .qrca 
The region under consideration lies along the Tennessee river and within 
its drainage. It abounds in natural exposures in the bluffs of the river and its 
tributaries, and in numerous glades where the fossiliferous limestone was ex- 
posed on the surface and disintegrated bv erosion of the softer overlying 
clays and marls. Fossils in great numbers were weathered out upon those 
glades, which produced the greater part of the specimens obtained bv the earlv 
collectors. 
Following the two pioneers above mentioned, Prof. J. M. Safford as State 
Geologist made extensive studies of the Silurian formations, and his accounts 
1 Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Sci. (2), VIII, read Atg. 1849, vol. 2, I85O , pp. 59-64. 
! 



2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

of the stratigraphy were published in the American Journal of Science for I86 I, 
and in his Rel' ort of t860.. Ile gave to the Niagaran, rocks the collective naine 
leniscus, which he subdivided int twc porti«,ns, a lower Ol- variegated bed, and 
an upper, or sponge-bearing led. I le also ruade important collections, which 
are n«w in the l[useum of Vanderl»ilt University at Nashville. 
In consequence of the pullication of the works of these early geologists, the 
Sihnian area became an attractive field fol collectors, and was visited ri-oto time 
to time by manv ardent fossil hunters, among them Col. Sidney S. I,yon, 
l'fol. ,\. I I. \Vorthel, of lllinois, ])r. Carl Rominger, of Michi.gan, Mrs. J. I. 
3lilligan, who resided in Decalur Cotmtv fol a considcrable time, and lny old 
associate, Charles \Vachsmuth, who ruade two journeys along the Telmessee 
river durinR his sojourns in the South in the 'go's. He was greatly impressed 
with the richness of the fossil beds, and the opportunities which thev offered for 
intensive collecting, which the state of his health did hot permit him to utilize in 
that then rather wild country--although even with his lilnited facilities he lnade 
important acquisitic, ns. 
In more recent tilnes the geology of the western Tennessee region has been 
studied in detail bv Dr. -\ug. F. Foerste, whose vahmble pal»er on " Silurian and 
Devonian Lilnestones f \Vestern Tennessee" was pullished in 19o,3.' tle recog- 
nized in Safford's variegated beds the Clinton, Osgood, Laurel and \Valdron 
fiwmatins of the nrthern areas, and at the tp f this division two new foui-- 
mations, the Lego and 1 )ixn beds ; while to the upper or sponge-bearing bed of 
the lIeniscus he al»plied the new naine Brownsport. Still later investigations 
were ruade by Prof. \V. F. Pate, of Lebanon, Kentucky, and Dr. R. S. Bassler, 
of the United States National .hluaeuln. Their joint work pul)lished in I9o8 , 
entitled " The Late Xiagaran Strata of \Vest Tennessee," - contains the latest 
and fullest infornmti«m on the subject. It '`'`'as based upon several seasons of 
studv and collecting by llr. Pate, the last two of theln in mv service, supple- 
lnented by a careful review f the stratigl-al»hy by the two authors together in 
a field excursion ruade expressly fl" the lmrpose in I9o 7. Manv sections of 
typical lcalities are given, and the paper slmuld be consulted for a more detailed 
presentation f the facts than i. attempted here. 
Pate and Bassler fotlnd that the Brownsport and succeeding heds, which 
have furnished bv far the gl-eatel-part of the fossils from the glade region, are 
.eparal)le into four principal divisions, well marked faunallv and lith«logicallv 
fol- which thev pl-l),sed the forlnation lames Beech River, Bol», Lobelville and 
l)ecatur. The tabulation opposite of the several classifications as ruade bv them 
will be tlseful in tracing the horizons as mentioned in the works of different 
authors. 

1 Journal of Geology, il, pp. 554-75. 
2 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 34, PP. 407-43e. 



INTRODUCTION 3 

The collections ruade by \Vachsnmth in the glades of Decatur County, and 
his observations on the mode of occurrence of the fossils, gave me a very strong 
ilnpression of the possibilities of that region for the paleontologist. In 9o5 
I purchased the collection of l'rofessor ['ate, containing alnong other material 
considerable obtained bv hiln from the glades of Decatur and Perrv counties. 
From him I secured additional authentic information regarding the local condi- 
tions and prospects for further collecting, Oll the basis of which I arranged with 

Niagaran .çtrata of lVest Tcnnessce 

AFFORI3, I9. 

"Sponge-bearing bed 

Variegated bed 

Gant 

FOERSTE, I9o3. 

Brownsport 

PATE AND ]ASSLER, 19o8. 

Decatur 

 Coral zone 
Lobelville I.Bryozoan zone 
t Conchidium zone 
Bob Dyctyonella zolae 
1. Uncinulus zone 
/ Eucalyptocr. zoile 
Beech River Troostocr. zone 
_ Coccocr. zone 

Dixon Dixon 
Lego ] Lego 
Waldron Glenkirk \Valdron 
Laurel Laurel 
Osgood } Osgood 
Maddox 
Clinton Clinton 

him to make a systematic campaign in that area the follovcing season. Ail the 
crinoids that had been round up to that time had been in the form of specilnens 
weathered out upon the glades, and consisted lnainly of the loose calices with 
which the arms or finer structures were rarely preserved. If the beds from which 
they came could be located in place, there would be a possibility, in accordance 
with out long experience in the Burlington limestone, of finding some colonies 
with the cl-inoids imbedded in the lnatrix as originally deposited. Accordingly, 
[r. Pate, at the outset of his excursion in the summer of 9o6, xvas instructed 
to trace the crinoids by the fragments to their layer, and then dig. 



4 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

The first result of this method was to locate along the bluffs of t3eech River 
in Decatur County an exposure of shales and shaly limestone some 60 feet in 
thickness, containing the beds from the erosîon of whîch the most productive Of 
the glades were derived. Preliminary tests showed that some layers of this 
contained crinoids in place in good preservation, and thereupon a force was 
organized for extensive quarrying, with proper blasting equipment, and the 
work of uncovering the fossiliferous layers was carrîed on for the remainder of 
the summer under Mr. Pate's energetic direction. It was resumed the follow- 
ing summer, during which by persistent quarrying and blasting the favorable 
exposures were thoroughly excavated, and the accessible crinoid-bearîng strata 
exhausted. These were chiefly in the upper shales, now known as the Euca,pto- 
crizus zone. Some smaller exposures in the vicinity produced the name-giving 
genera of the Troostocriu,s a:d Coccocrbms zones. Several vears later Fred- 
erick Braun was sent for a final inspection of the Tennessee river area, especially 
the weathered quarry dumps, which yielded some excellent additional specimens. 
The occurrence of the crinoids as disclosed by these quarrying operations 
was rather irregular, and much material was moved that proved tobe barren. 
But in the aggreate the work of the two seasons was eminently successful, 
yielding a total of ninety-five species of crinoids, of which fifty-nine were new, 
distributed among thirty-three genera, besides a blastoid and a few cvstids. The 
crinoids from the shales were usually silicified, and for the most part in excellent 
preservation. The matrix was readily removed by preparation, so that manv 
of them when ready for study lmd the crown freely exposed on one or ail sides. 
In some cases considerable colonies were round; for example, the hitherto rare 
"" Coccocri,us" bacca, of which about a thousand calices were recovered from 
a bed of shaly limestone of limited area. Taking the collection as a whole, it mav 
be said without exaggeration that more finely preserved crinoids were secured b 
Mr. Pate's two summers' campaign than had been round by all the collectors in 
the Tennessee Silurian during the sixty years preceding. 
Many rare forms, hitherto known onlv fronl isolated or fragmentary speci- 
mens, occurred in numbers sufficient for a thorough elucidation of their charac- 
ters, and an even greater number were entirelv new. This xvas conspicuouslv 
true for the Flexibilia, the Clceocrinidae and several genera of Cmerata, o'f 
which there were forms and specimens such as had never been seen before. 
Details of these, however, will be better shown bv the figures upon the plates. 
Upon the broader question of the parallelism of the crinoidal fauna with 
that of the north European Silurian, the collection furnishes a wealth 15f infor- 
mation confirmatory of the existence of a migrational connection between the 
two areas. In several rare and specialized genera, as well as in some of abundant 
occurrence, species are round which except for difference in matrix can scarcelv 
be distiuguished from the English or Swedish forms. The general racles of the 
fauna proclaims a close relationsbip, and this impression is reinforced bv the 
silnilaritv of manv of the other fossils. 



INTRODUCTION 

5 

The prominent exposures thus worked belong to the Beech River forlna- 
tion of the Brownsport group as designated by Pate and Bassler in their paper 
already inentioned, which they furthersubdivided into three zones called in 
ascending order Coccocrin us zone, Troostocrin us zone and Eucalyptocrinus zone. 
Of these the last, or upper, zone was by far the most important, the greater part 
of the crinoids having corne front it. The other two are chieflv characterized 

Ge,eral Section Tennessee, etc. Niagaran 

Devonian 
Helderbergian 

TENNESSEE 

Linden 

Decatur limest. 

Lobelville, coral zone 

Bob, limest, and shale 

Eucalyptocrinus zone, 
shale 

Troostocrinus zone, 
shale and limest. 

Coccocrinus zone, 
shaly limest. 

Dixon, shale and red limest. 

Lego. limest. 

\Valdron, shale 
Laurel, massive limest. 
Osgood, shale and limest. 

OTHER AREAS 

Louisville ls. 
Kentucky, Ind. 

d 

Cedarville dol 
Ohio 

Racine dol. 
Illinois 

Hopkinton dol. 
Ioxva 

Indiana 
Indiana 

Rochester shale 
New York 

I 
EUROPE 

by the forms from which their llalnes are given. Al»ove the shales is a consider- 
able thickness of the Decatur lilnestone, which yielded only a few specimens 
here, but at a locality along the bluffs of the Telmessee river some remarkably 
distinct forms were obtained. At other places in the immediate vicinity the lower 
Niagaran formations occur, from Osgood to Dixon, so that the p.rincipal mena- 
bers are represented in their proper sequence within a short distance. 
To facilitate reference to the horizons mentioned in the descriptions, I give 
above the general section of the Silurian forlnations of Tennessee as deter- 
mined by Pate and Bassler, together with the equivalents which mav etater into 
tbe discussions. 



6 SMITHSONIAN 1NSTITUTIç)N 

TIe Izdiaa .4'ca 
Next to Temlessee tlle most imlmrtant western Silurian area is in ]ndiana. 
which is the typical region f,-r the three lwer Niagaran formations. The first 
important devdopment there was matie by James Hall ad under his direction 
at XValdron, in the shale beds which bear its naine. Among a wealth of other 
fossis these produced a remarkable crinoidal fauna, containig numerous nexv 
forms which were described bv I lall in several publications from 869 to 882. 
Underlyin K the XValdron, at the town of St. Paul in the saine vicinitv, is an 
immese exposure of the Laurel formation, a massive limestone of considerable 
thickness, which bas vielded a crinoid fauna c,f a racles markedly different from 
those of the other Silurian members. An excellent collection from this area was 
ruade bv the 1)octors t-Imvard, which was acquired bv the Geological Survey of 
1ndiana and formed the basis of descriptions bv S. A. Miller in the  7th and gth 
Annual Reports. Dr. C. C. XVashlmrn also ruade an extensive collection from 
which a ch,,ice selection of crinoids passed into my hands, the main collection 
leing afterwards acquired bv the Universitv of Chicavo. G,o(l crinoid material 
was ,l)tained at St. Paul, as well as in the XVabash area to the north and the 
Osgood beds to the south, bv A. C Benedict, and in the XValdron shale at Harts- 
ville lv Dr. 5Ioses Elrod, both of which were subsequeltly acquired bv me, as 
was also the large collection of 5If. John F. Hammell, of Madison, Indiana, 
which contained important material from ail these formations. 
The northern area of XVabash, Grant and ç[adiscm coumies presents differ- 
ences in the crinoid content from the l.aurel which suKgest a connection, in part 
at least, with the Racine dol«mite of the Çhicago area. The most characteristic 
species of the St. Paul rocks are hot round there, although some of the northern 
species are thoug-ht to occur at St. Paul. The geologT of the lndiana Niagaran 
bas been carefully studied bv Dr. Foerste, and his papers on the subject will be 
round fully instructive. ' 
Being reatly impressed with the possibilities of the St. Paul expasures of 
the I.aurel f«wmation, and the strikinK character of its fauna as indicated by 
tle earlier collections, I ruade some special eorts from rime to rime to secure a 
more complete representation of its c,ntents. The crinoids were chieflv con- 
tained in the softer interbedded lavers between the beds of lnassive limestone 
which were extensivelv quarried f,u- comme-cial purposes. These layers consti- 
tuted the débris of the quarries left in scattered dumps, in which the specimens 
became exposed b) weatherin from vear to year, affordin the main resource 
of the collectors. No prolific colonies were uncovere(l, and no great quantity of 
specimens was observed, but tle l)reservation was excellent, and new or rare 
forms were ahvavs to be expected. Crefnl overhauling of this materiaI was 
ruade tmder mv direction during several vears by Carles S. Beachler in 1887, 
 eist Ann. Rep. Dep. Geol. Indiana, I8, pp. 213- ; 22d ibid., 897 , pp. I9S_28S. 



I NTRODUCTION 

7 

Frederick 1-',raun in I)I l, and, most ilnportant of all, duri11p_, the three seasons 
of t0tS, 9 6, aud 97 bv lnV forluer assistant, the late l )r. I lerrick E. Wilson, 
who had befcwe that ruade some collections there fl- the Universitv of Chicago. 
Local cç, nditic,11s wele favorable during his calupaigns, which xvel-e fairly suc- 
cessful, and aln,n,el his acquisitions were some of the ilnl)«wtant types described 
in this work. 
The New ]'ork /lrca 
In the eastern Silurian area the classic localitv is I,ockpol-t, New York. 
Extensive exposures of the Rochester shale vielded a 1-ich and varied fauna, 
aluon which were luany new forlns of crinc, ids which forlned the ty'pes of 
.enera and species descl-ibed bv Hall in the earlier volumes of the Paleontolo.y 
of New York. The pioneer collections lnade lv Professor Hall and Colonel 
Jewett ultimatelv passed into the possession of the Alnericala Iuseunl of Natural 
Nistorv at Ne v Vork, and the State 5Iuseuln at Albanv, where I have been 
afforded abundalt opportunity for their study, as well as the types c,f Hall's 
lmmel-ous species from \Valdl-ol. Another fine collection fl-om the saine fol-ma- 
tion at Grimsl)y, Qntario, vas assembled bv the elninent financier, the late 
Sir Edluund \Valker, which was also placed at mv disposal, and is now in the 
Univelsitv of Toronto. 
The most intilnate and protracted studv of the Lockport beds, shales and 
ulMerlying lilnestones, was ruade lv the resident lfllysician, f)r. E. N. S. Rinue- 
ber,. Durin, a residence of m(re than thirtv vears he accumulated a large col- 
lection which formed the basis of several important publicatiolS bv him ff-oto 
882 to 89o, in which a nulnler of new enera and species were described.  The 
crinoids and cvstids, ilcludin the types of Rin-uebel--'s species, were acquired 
bv me, and form an ilnportant part of the luaterial studied. In additiou to this, 
] bave the fruits of three Calupaigns in the vears 9o, 9  2 and 9  4 at Lockport 
bv the veteran collector, Frederick P,l-aUl, in mv service. Ill the course of an 
intensive studv of the shales he carried on lar,-e quarryin,e, operations where the 
conditions were round favorable. Some of his acquisitions vel-e of the p41-eatest 
importance, notablv alnong the Flexihilia and the al»errant genus z][yclodactyhts, 
as fullv described in mv monogl-alh of the former ,q-roup of 02o, and in the 
paper on Unusual 13"OrlnS of Fossil Cl-inoids, of 926. 
While the I.ockpol-t fauna does hot fall strictly within the lilnits of this 
Wol-k, SOlne COllsideration of it is essential fc, r purposes of COlnparisola, as the 
formation is to be correlated with the Osgood of the Iidiana area. 

 Tvo New Species of Crinoids from Shale of the Niauara Group. Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist.. Oct., x882, 
p- I9: New Fossils from the Niagara Period, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 884, p. 44; Nev Genera and 
Species of Fossils from the Niagara Shales, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., x886, p. 5; Some New Species of 
Fossils from the Niagara Shales, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 888, p. x3 ; The Niagara Shales of Western 
New York, Ara. Geol., May, x888, p. -63: The Calceocrinidae: A Revision of the Family, and Description 
of New Species, Anu. New York Acad. Sci., 889, p. 388 The Crinoidea of the Lover Niagara Limestone 
at Lockport, Ann. N. Y..Acad. Sci., July, 89o, p. 30. 



tq SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

Th e CI[ica9o .ŒE rca 
Another important Silurian area to be considered by wav of comparison 
is that of the Racine dolomite at Chicago, which has produced a considerable 
crinoidal fauna, heretofore fully worked up and described by Stuart \Veller 1 
and A. \V. Slocom." In this formation the calcareous test of the crinoids has 
been largely dissolved bv chemical action, so that for the most part only the inter- 
nal casts are preserved. For this reason close comparison of characters is usna]]v 
difficult. Dut the general racles of the fauna is very important, differing in manv 
respects from those of southern Indiana and Tennessee, and paral]eling that of 
the European Silurian in the presence of the highly specialized genus Crotalo- 
crius. In this it is reinforced by the occurrence in the equivalent Hopkinton 
dolomite of Iowa of the equally specialized Petalocrinus, also of Gotland. 

The Foreig Siluria 
In view of the close parallelism between the Alnerican Silurian and that 
of northern Europe before alluded to, it becalne desirable to secure an adequate 
representation of the crinoids froln the two principal localities, Dudlev in En- 
land, and the island of Gotland, Sweden. I had the advantage during a sojourn 
in Europe in I887 of personal examination and studv of the p_,reat Silurian col- 
lections in the British ][useuln, and in the Dudlev Museum, and also of several 
private collections at Dudley during a visit to that field, especially tho.e of 
Mr. Charles Holcroft, now in tbe Birmingham [useuln, Of Mr. John Gray, 
since acquired bv the British Museum, and of Mr. \Villiam Madely. Through 
the good offices of l[essrs. Holcroft and lIadely, and from other local collectors, 
I was able to secure considerable useful material from that ramons locality, 
which has been increased by purchases and exchanges since. From Gotland the 
more common species were obtained from time to time from dealers, and rarer 
ones from the Riks ]Iuseuln at Stockholm by exchange, thanks to the liberalitv 
of mv good friend Prof. G. Lindstr/Sm. In more recent years I secured the ser- 
vices of local collectors on the island, first of Prof. G. Klinteberg, and after- 
wards of Mr. A. Florin, an experienced collector, who l,:l-lew the geology of the 
island thoroughly, whom I engaged for a season's operations with blasting equip- 
ment. This resulted in SOllle valuahle acquisitions in the way of rare, and even 
new, forms, which have aided materiallv in the comparative studv of the faunas. 
All of the material thus accumulated forms part of mv personal collection 
iii the United States National l[useum, where it will remain in perpetuity. 
The total number of species herein illustrated and discussed is 98 helong- 
ing to 63 genera; of these 74 species are new and I2 undetermined. Thev are 
distributed as follows" Camerata, total lO 3, new 43, undetermined 12; Flexi- 
bilia, total 18, new 3 : Inadulaata, total 77, new 28. 
 Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 4, pt. , 9oo. 
- Field Columbian Museum, 2, Geol. Ser., No. o, 9o8 



INTRODUCTION 9 

01-icait oj  the lVork 
The idea of a systematic work upon the American Silurian crinoids was 
first suggested by the account of the wonderful crinoidal fauna of Gotland by 
Angelin in lais Iconographia Crinoideorum, and afterward by Bather in tbe Cri- 
noidea of Gotland, and by my observations upon lae 1Znglish collections from 
the Dudley area al»ove mertioned. The collections made bv Wachsmuth in Ten- 
nessee and Beachler in Indiana indicated a certain correspondence between the 
Silurian crinoidal faunas of the two continents which offered an inviting subject 
for investigation, and it was probably this consideration which induced the be- 
ginning of efforts toward the assembling of material with reference toit. It was 
hot until the discovery of the rich collections ruade bv Pate in 9o6- 7 that the 
plans took definite shape with the starting of drawings bv .Ir. Chapman, con- 
current with the work upon the Flexibilia. These were prosecuted froln time to 
time in a desultory way, as the demands of business and of other work permitted, 
and were continued as additional material was acquired. Preliminary studies 
and notes xvere ruade in the saine irregular war, but it was only in I923 that I 
round myself in a position to assemble the drawings, and begin the final prepa- 
ration of the text. 
At this point the work was suspended bv a protracted physical breakdown 
incident to an impaired heart, from which a slow recovery has enabled me to 
resume it at intervals. That I have been able to bring the work to a conclusion 
is a result that was hot expected : and for which I ara profoundly thankful. 
In conformitv with the preparatory field-work, this treatise is chiefly limited 
to the Silurian faunas of Tennessee and Indiana. The crinoids of the Lockport 
field have been thoroughly treated bv Hall and Ringueberg. and a few of them 
.q , 
since by myself. \Veller's and locom s works upon the Çhicago crinoids cover 
that field exhaustivelv. Therefore. except for incidental reference to a few 
forms for special reasons, it bas hot been deemed necessarv to include those of 
either field. For a similar reason I ana omitting most of tbe \Valdron species, 
which were so fullv described by Hall. 
The effort is ruade to reduce the treatment of species to a simple presenta- 
tion of the essential facts, avoidin.o, so far as possible the formal recital of char- 
acters which often becomes irksome. In some in.tances, where a form or group 
bas been the subject of extended discussion hitherto, or where the acquisition 
of new material has thrown important light upon forms or questions before 
obscure, full latitude is employed. This will account for some differences in 
method that ma3, be noticeable. 
In the descriptions it has hot been thought necessary to include tables of 
dimensions. They are usuallv only a pedantic incumbrance, inasmuch as the 
saine information is more conveniently furnished bv the drawings, which are 



IO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

alwavs ruade to scale upon a photograplic basis, and are of natural size except 
as indicated in the legend. 
kVhile the chier purpose of this treatise is to brin K to light the nexv Kenera 
and species which have been discovered within the areas hereinbefore indicated, 
it is also boped to increase our knowle(1Ke of forms l)revi.usly known where nexv 
information ha been Kained by later discoveries. But where such species have 
already l»een adequately illustrated and dcscribed, thev will hot 1)e included here. 
As to synonymy, Dr. assler's Bibliogral)hic Index of Ordovician and 
Silurian Fossils, pullished bv lhe Uni/ed States National 5[useum as Hulletin 94, 
in o5, brinKs references to ail esseutial literature relative to Alnerican genera 
and species down to that date in the Kreatest detail and most convell{ent form. 
The publicatim has beeu widely distributed, and is available in everv scieutific 
lil)rarv and in the hands of ail working 1)aleontoloR-ists. It is therefore unneces- 
sarv to encuml)er these paKes wiIh the usual full citations of authors previ(.us ta 
that date, inasmuch as a simple vcference tc that work will afford all the needful 
information. I ara thus at libertv to Iimit mv references coveriu K dates previous 
t 05 to such of the treatises as may for the sake )f claritv or convenience be 
deemed of special importance iu the historv of the fc)rm under consideration. 
Iu the notation of Horizon and Localitv in connection with species,  ara 
avoiding the needless repetition of tbe terre '" Silurian," inasmuch as all species 
herein descrilmd, unless otherwise stated, are from that horizon, and reference 
to the respective formations is usuallv quite suflcient t identifv the Keoloical 
position. 
The material upon which this work is based is derived from the folIowing 
sources, consistin K «f collectims either ruade fw, or acquired by, myself, and 
uow in the United States National 5Iuseuln, and those lelonvin K to other own- 
crs which I bave been privileged to studv: 

. luthot"s Collcctimzs Uscd 
Rocms'rwR SHaLE : Lokporl, New York 
Bv Frederick Braun, Igio, I, I9 4. From Dr. E. 
collection, Lockport. 

N. S. Ringueberg, 

Oscoor, I.AtRL AND \VaLDRON ; Indiana and Te:messee 
P,v Charles S. I3eachler, 8,qî; St. Paul and \Valdron. P, raun, I)I- at 
St. Paul. assler and Bl-atm, at Newsom, Teunessee. Herrick E. \Vilson, i95, 
1916, 917; St. l?aul. ]ndiana. 
From Dr. Moses Elrod, collection- Hartsville, ]ndiana. Dr. C. C. \Vash- 
lmrn" \Valdr,m, lndiana. [r. John F. Hammell, collection- [adison, Indiana, 
includilg-that of A. C lqenedîct- St. Paul and other southern localities and 
northern area. 



INTRODUCTION 

I..vr Na(;aR^N (BROWNSI'ORT) ; Tennessee 
Bv Charles \Vachsnmth, ,q85 to 888. \V. F. Pate, I9O6 , 9o7 . Braun, 
From Col. S. S. Lyon, collection, 85 ) to 86o. 5Ifs. J. M. 5Iilligan, collec- 
tion ; Jacksonville, Illinois. Pate, collectiou; before 9o6. 

OTHER COLI.ECTIONS STUDIED 
Alnericall 5[useuIn Natural H istory, Xew York, Hall Collection ; Lockport. 
State Museum, New York, Albany, t]all and Jewett collections; Lockport and 
Valdron. Sir Edmund Valker, Toranto; Grimsby, Ontario. Valker Museum. 
Universitv of Chicago ; Çhicago area and St. Paul. Unix ersitv of lllinois, Cham- 
paign: Vorthen collectim. Vauderbilt University, Nashville; Safford collec- 
tiou. United States National Museum: Çontaining Troost collection, Termes- 
sec; Rominger collecticn, Tennessee and 5Iichigan: [r. Ulrich's collection of 
Ordovician from [ilmesota. 
British 5[useuln ; London. Dudlev Museum ; Dudlev. England. 
All of these last mentioned collections were most generously placed at mv 
disposal or studv, for which I aih deeply indebted to the owuers and authorities 
in charge of them. 
I ara also under renewed obligation to I lon. Charles D. XValcott, Secretarv 
of the Smithsonian Iustitution : to Dr. Geo. P. Merrill, head of the Divisiou of 
Geology in the National 5Iuseum, for their continued interest in mv researches : 
to Dr. R. S. Bassler, Curator of Paleontology, for his unflaggin assistance 
durin K their prosecution: aud fa 5Iiss 5largaret XV. Moodey, Registrar in the 
Division of Geology, wh, has direct charge of mv collection and library, and 
has adlniuistered mv «»Nce in the Xatimal 5Iuseum durin K my protracted dis- 
abilitv, when I was endeavoring to Calnplete the later stages of this work through 
the medium of correspondence. This invlved llUlneraus COlmnissions in the 
wav of selecting and sending specimeus, looks and notes, looking up references, 
and attendiug to the endless details incideut to such investigalions..kll of these 
were executed bv her, uuder advice of Dr. Bassler when needed, with a zeal and 
iutelligent interest that met, and often anticipated, everv requirement. 
The drawings for the plates have been in the course of execution during 
a peri)d of more than fifteen years, bv [r. Kenneth M. Chapman, of Santa Fé, 
Xew [exico, the artist of manv of mv former works. Thev are based upon 
1)hotographs ruade bv himself at first, and in the later stages bv Dr. Bassler and 
Dr. C. E. Resser. To his keen observation I owe their accuracv of details, and 
as works of art the drawings speak for themselves. 
Except as otherwise stated, the originals of all the drawings, including the 
types of the nexv species herein described, are in the author's collection in the 
United States National Iuseum. 



I2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Order CAMERATA Wachsmuth and Springer 
CRINOIDEA IN WHICH TI[E LOWER BRACHIALS TAKE PART IN TIlE DORSAL CUP. ALL PLATES OF 
CALYX UNITED BY CLOSE SUTURE AND IMMOVABLE. ]V[OUT/-I AND FOOD-GROOVES COMPLETELY 
COVERED, THE COVERING PIECES OF THE LATTER FREQUENTLY INCORPORATED IN THE TEG- 
MEN..NAL OPENING EXCENTRIC OF SUBCENTR-AL, FRE_OUENTLY AT THE END OF A TUBE. 
ARMS UNISERIAL OR B[SERI_AL, AND PINNULATE. 
The crinoids of this order constitute more than hall of those hereln treated, embracing 
31 genera of which 7 are new, and 43 new species out of a total of Io 3. Important new light 
is shed upon some forms heretofore hot xvell understood such as Gaacrinus, Laniterocrim«s 
and Lyonicrinus. The most prolific of the genera is Marsipocrim«s, hitherto accounted rare, 
which now appears from the Tennessee area to the number of Io species, some of tbem in a 
preservation and with a wealth of individuals belote unknown. 

Family DIMEROCRINIDAE Bather 
This falnily, embracing substantiallv all dicyclic Camerata with truncate 
9ost. B in which the RR are in contact except at the anal side, while it has an 
extreme range from Ordovician to Devonian, is essentially a Silurian form, of 
which w4 have four well marked genera in the present collection. 

DIMEROCRINUS Phillips 
Plate « 
Dim.erocrin.i¢«s Phillips in Murchison's Sil. Syst., I839, p. 674. 
Dinerocrinus D'Orbigny, Prodr. Pal., , 85o, p. 46.Vachsmuth and Springer, ev. Pal., 2, I88I, pp. 
97.--Bather, Treatise on Zool. (Lankester), 3, 9oo, p. 98.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., d Ed., 
93, P. 87.Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, 98, p. 4L--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, Bull. 92, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 95, P. 438. 
Thysanocrims Hall, Pal. New York, 2, 852, pp. 88, 355.--'0,rachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Cin. Cam., 
897, p. 9o. 
Glypa«ter Hall, Pal. New York, 2, I852, p. I87; 28th Rep. New York St. l{us., I879, p. I3L--\Vachsmuth 
and Springer, Rev. Pal., 2, 88i, p. I93. 
Eucrinus Angelin, in part, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 878, p. 98. 
Calvx rather elongate : IBB 5 ; post. B truncate ; first anal plate in line with 
RR, followed by 3 in second range ; iBr in several ranges : anus without a tube ; 
arms biserial, simple, 2 or 4 to the ray, directed upwards; cohmm round. 
Gcnotyie. Dimerocrimts dccadactyh¢s Phillips. 
Distribution.. Silurian; England, Gotland, America. 
This genus is xvell represented in the English Silurian under Phillips' type from Dudley, 
in Gotland by several species under the naine Eucrinus, and in America bv a series of species 
under Thysanocrin-us and G,plaste; to which nmst now be added importnt new forms from 
the Tennessee collections. In the monogrvph of Crinoidea Camerata of 897 priority was 
given to the naine Thysanocrinus, a course which has since been modified in fayot of the per- 
fectlv recognizable type described bv Phil]ips. 



D[ MEROCRI N1DAE 

13 

Dimerocrinus planus nexv species 
Plate r., figs. -7 
A finely preserved species, with elongate conical calyx, smooth surface, and 
verv stout arms . to the ray; the interl»rachial svstem is well developed in sev- 
eral ranges, 1) 3- which the brachials are incorporated to the third or fourth IIBr. 
IBB Slnall, rarely visible from a side view. Anus directlv through the tegmen. 
Çolunm long, composed of uniformly short columnals, averaging about ._2, nana. 
This is a conspicuous fossil in the Tennessee Silurian, of which besides the seven speci- 
mens figured there are a nulnber of others showing similar characters. In having only ten 
arms it is closer to the Dudley species than to those from Gotland. 
Horicon aud locality. Beech River formation, Brownsport group, Niagaran; Decatur 
Çounty, Tennessee. 
As collections are ruade, it is not always possible to give the subdivision from which the 
species is derived. For the P, eech River formation, by far the greater part of the specimens 
are from the upper, Eucalyptocrimts, zone. 

Dimerocrinus milliganae (Miller aud Gurley) 
Plate _r, fig. 8 
Glyptastcr milliganae Millet and Gurley, Bull. m, Illinois St. Mus., 896, p. 87, pl. 5, figs. 7-9. 
I am figuring the type of this Tennessee species, formerlv in the collection 
af Mrs..I.M. Milligan. Only the calvx is preserved, but it is well differentiated 
by the prominent ridges along the basal and radial series, more angular contour 
generally, and larger IBB. 

Horizon and local#y, saine as last. 

Dimerocrinus nodobasis new species 

Platc z. figs. 9, zo 

Similar to D. planus but differing in the presence of sharp angular cusps 
upon the basals; the IBB are extremelv small, entirely concealed bv tle top 
columnal. 

Horizon and locality, saine as last. 

Dimerocrinus inornatus (Hall) 
Plate z. figs. zr, ze 
Gl3'ptastcr inornalus Hall, Trans. Aih. Inst., 4, 863, p. o5; 28th Rep. New York St. Mus., x879, p. 34, 
pl. x4, figs. x-6.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, x95, P. 439. 
A massive species with strongly nodose basals, producing a stellate base. 
Flom the Waldron formation, Hartsville, Indiana. D. (Glyptaster) occidcntalis 
(Hall). 28th Rep. New York St. 3[us., I8î9, p. 33, pl. 13, figs. 7-ri, a much 
more delicate species with sharp surface sculpturing, is from the saine formation 
at \Valdron. 



14 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

To the foregoing Anlerican species may be added Rhodocrinus halli Lyon, from the 
Louisville limestone, a doubtful species from the XValdron, three species fronl the Racine 
dolomite, rive from the Rochester shale, and one from the Helderbergian--atl as listed in 
Bassler's bibliography. 
The follmving rive species of Angelin from Gotland, Eucrimts intcrmdialis, ornatus, 
hwvis, quinqanc, qula.ris and spcciosus, with 4 arms to the ray, are referred to this genus, alld 
probably two or more of them are synonyms. 

Eudimerocrinus multibrachiatus new genus and species 
Plate z, ficjs. .r 3, z3a. b, z 4 
The difference in arnl structure between this and all species referred to 
Dimerocriuus is so great that to be consistent with the practice follovced in other 
cases, it seems imperative to propose a new genus for its receptinn. \Vhile in 
those forms the arms are alxvays simple, hot branching beyond the calyx, here 
they undergo several bifurcations at wide angles up to as manv as three, giving 
6 or 8 final branches. These are all stout, and biserial both above and below the 
bifurcationsa type of arm highly distinctive of several enel-a. such as 
.4bacocriuus, Clonocrius, Mcgistocrinus. etc. In the COlnpositiorl of the calyx 
there is no difference, and with specimens consisting of the calvx alol]e it would 
be impossible to point out anv character for distinction more than specific. But 
we have two unusuallv fille specimens, with the arnls ahnost completely pre- 
served to the numerous bifurcations, and both entirelv freed from the matrix, 
so that the characters of the calyx are fully disclosed ou ail sides. The surface 
structure is remarkabh" clear and distinct, with Stl-ong sculpturing, many of the 
plates sharply projecting and ahnost spinose. 
If in this species the interbrachials extended down to a connection with the basals, it 
might fairly go with Eucrimts vemtstus and E. udnor of Angelin, for which \Vachsmuth and 
Springer established the genus Anthcmocrimts  under the Rhodocrinidae. 
Horizon and locality. Beech River formation, Brownsport group, Niagaran; Decatur 
Çounty, Tennessee. 

CYPHOCRINUS S. A. Miller 

Plate I 
Cphocrhms MiIler, I8th Ann. Rep. Dep. Geol. Indiana, 1894, p..3o4 (adv. sheets 1892).Bather, Treatise 
on Zool., 3, 19oo, p. I99.--WeIIer, BuIl. Chicago Acad. Sci., 4, pt. 1, p. 75 (synonymy discussed).-- 
Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d Ed., 1913, p. I87.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 1915, p. 34o. 
Iqyptiocrinus Wachsmuth and Springer, Ara. Geol., IO, I892, p. I38; N./. Crin. Caln., 1897, p. 200. 
Clyx constructed as in Dimerocrinus, but low, wide, and recurving from 
a narrow obconical base to a spreadin, inverted bowl, with arms directed down- 
wards; axillary and ceutral teganen plates spiniferous. 
Genotype. Cyphocrimts 9orbyi S. A. Miller. 
Distribution. Silurian; hot known outside of America. 

1 Rev. Pal., 2, 1881, p. 208. See also Jaekel, Phylogenie tuld System, 1918, p. 4o, where he claims that 
E. minor may have only 4 IBB. 



DI M EROCRI NI DAE 1 5 

Cyphocrinus gorbyi S. A. Miller 
Plate _r. figs. r5-z8 
Cyphocrinus 9orbyi Miller, I8th Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 1894 (adv. sheets, 1892, p. 5I), p. 305, pl. 7, 
figs. 14-I6.--Hyptiocrim«s typus \Vachsmuth and Springer, Am. Geol., IO, 1892, p. 138; N. A. Crin. 
Cam., I897, p. 2Ol, pl. I9, figs. 6 a-c. 
This genus, while contrasting in the hemisl)heric and dl-ooping contour 
widely with the preceding, clearly exhibits the essential characters of the falnilv 
in the construction of the calyx. The arlns have hot been round beyond slight 
remnants, from which it is evident that thev were biserial, stout and unbranched" 
and from the appearance of the extremelv elongate spilaous anabulacrals upon 
the tegmen SUlmOUlting the rays, and the direction of the arm-openilagS, it 
might be inferred that thev were of the reculalbent type, with the pinlmles directed 
outward. 
Four specimens of the type species, which is quite abundant at the type locality, are 
figured in order to show some details mooe fullv than appeared in the original description. 
This applies especially to the interbrachial openings at the margin of the tegmen for fixed 
Ifinnules to the number of 4 or 6 between the ravs and their divisions. These openings, 
formerly interpreted as " respiratory pores," are now traced in several Camerate genera with 
unbranched arms to a connection with the arm-groove? 
\Veller has described a species, C chicagoensis, from the Racine dolomite of the Chicago 
area, but otherwise the form bas only been round in the Laurel limestone at St. Paul, Indiana. 
This and the next following f«,rm were independently described by Wachsmuth and 
Springer and S. A..Iiller in 892. The \Vachsmuth and Springer names xvere published in 
the American Geologist for September, 8c2, but owing to some delay in printing, that 
number of the magazine was not actuallv issued until some weeks after its purported date. 
[eantime Ir. Miller issued advance sheets of the Sth Rep. Geol. Indiana containing his 
new names, which were specially distributed to his correspondents. The claire was ruade that 
this distribution antedated the delivery of the magazine to its subscribers. Dr. \Veller in con- 
nection with lais Chicago species considered the question in the light of such evidence as could 
be obtained, and decided in fayot of the priority of liller's names, which I bave accepted. 
Horizon and Iocalitv. Laurel limestone. St. Paul, Indiana. 

GAZACRINUS S. A. 5Iiller 
Plate 2 
Gaacrimts Miller, ISth Rep. Geol. Dep. Indiana, I894, p. 3o3 (adv. sheets, I892, p. 49), N. A. Geol. Pal., 
ISt App., I892, p. 679: ibid., 2d App., I894, p. 746.--Weller, t3ull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 4. pt. I, I9OO, 
p. 78, fig. 38 (synonymy discussed).--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 9co, p. I88, fig. Ii9.---Zittel- 
Eastman, Textb. Pal., _'2d Ed. I913, p. i87.--Jaekel, lhylogenie und System, I918, pp. 4t, 8o.--Bassler, 
Bibliogr. Index, I915, p. 545. 
Idiocrinus Wachsmuth and Springer, Ara. Geol., IO, I892, p. 35; N. A. Crin. Cana., I897, p. 2o2. 
Base concave, ]Y',, confined to the caxrity; i]3r in cup limited to a single 
large plate in each interradiu. COlmecting with tegaalen, that of posterior side 
followinff the truncate B : arrllS biserial, simple, directed upwards. =k_nUS without 
a tube. Teaaen composed of a few plates, crowned with a central pyramid. 

 See Springer, Scyphocrim«s, Smithsonian Inst., I97, pp. 33-37- 



I6 SM1TIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

Gcnotype. Gacacrim«s inornatus S. A. Miller. 
Distribution. Silurian to Devonian; America. Not recognized in the foreign Silurian. 
The position and relations of this genus have been misunderstood. Bather placed it 
anmng the Flexibilia. Jaekel in his latest attempt at the systematic arrangement of the crinoids, 
Philogenie und System, I918, does hot fully agree with this reference, but in order to be on 
the sale side places it in each of lais two most widely distinct grand divisions ; first under his 
subclass Cladocrinoidea, equivalent to the Camerata, in a familv next to the Dimerocrinidae 
(p. 4I), and then in lais other subclass, Pentacrinoidea (p. 8o), in a family Gazacrinidae under 
the suborder Calpiocrinitesan association of types about as illcongruous as could possibly 
be imagined. 
As originally described, partly through errors of definition and partly through limita- 
tion of material, the essential characters of the genus were hOt fully di.closed, it belng known 
only bv two species from a single locality, specinlens of which were rare and imperfect. Later 
acquisitions have furnished much nmv information, giving us now a series of seveu or more 
species ranging through several formations of the Silurian in different localities and up into 
the Devonian. These bave added greatly to our knowledge of strtctures unsuspected before. 
From them it nmv appears tlmt the enus has ten heavy, biserial arms, directed upward 
and closely abutting. The tegmen is unlike tbat of others of the family, and is a distinct 
variation from that of the Camerata generally, being composed of a fmv large interambula- 
cral plates, surnmmated by a set of triangular interlocking plates thought to be orals which 
vary in different species, being suturallv closed or even anchylosed iu some to form a solid 
pyramid with angular vertical ridges forming grooves into which the arms may fit. The 
various forms of this structure are well shown on plate 2, aud from these it mav be seen that 
there is a strong analogy between this tegmen and that of the Calyptocrinidae, as will appear 
by comparison with the figures of Eu«alyptocrinus crassus Oll plate 7, figs. i 9, o. This will 
furnish the desired line of connection with the Camerate type. See also \Vachsmnth and 
Springer, N. A. Crin. Cm., I897, pl. 8I. fiZs, z2-I5 alad Hall 28tla Rep. Nev York St. Mus., 
I879, pl. 9, figs. I, 3, 4, 5- 
The interpretation of the pyramid of plates that we call orals is involved in considerable 
doubt. They are buried under closely fitting arms, which xvould affect the reflarity of their 
development, and there is manifest in some species a strong tendency to fusion, by which the 
relation of the component plates may bc greatly modified. 
The definition of the genus bv Ir. Miller, and description of the type species, are erro- 
neous as to the composition of the base in the definite statement that it has " no subradials " 
that is, that it is a monocvclic criuoid, which is a serious and fundamental error. This was 
due to loose observation, and the lack of careful preparation of the specimens to bring out 
the infrabasals at the bottom of the cavity, where they are plainly to be seen in more than a 
dozen of my specimens. \Vachsnmth and Springer's definition of ldiocrinus, based on the 
saine species as Miller's under a different naine, specified the 5 small IBB at the bottom of 
the cavity, and the fact is shown by numerous examples of this and other species. It is also 
stated by Millet that the arms are composed of fi single series of flattened plates, which was 
pure guess-work, and contrarv to the fact as now known. 

Gazacrinus inornatus S. A. 3[iller 
Plate 2, figs. r_-O 
Gazacrinus inornatus Miller, Sth Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., I894 (adv. sheets, 892, p. 49), P. 3o3, pl. 5, 
figs. 9, m, 5-7.---ldiocrinus elon9atus ,Vachsmuth and Springer, Ara. Geol., xo, 892, p. I36- N. A. 
Crin. Cam., I897, p. 2o3, pl. I8, figs. 8 a-c. ' 
Specilnens slnall, average height to width at top of iBr 12 X I I 111111. Clvx 
elonffate conical. Base narrow with 1313 higher than wide, curving abruptly into 



DIMEROCRINIDAE 

17 

a cavity forlning an iuverted cone with the small IBB at the bottom. RR very 
large, iBr and IIBr projectiug over into the teg-mel, lmt exteriorlv the brachials 
pass illseusiblv into the large biserial arlns, two to the rav, wbich abut closely 
both between the ravs and tbeir divisious. \rentral pyralnid somewhat variable 
ill sbape, asymlnetric, consistiug of rive similar plates x ith a sulaller central one 
interposed" or tbe central plate lnay represent the posterior oral pusbed in be- 
tweeu the others by aual structures, with the posterior triangular plate flauked 
bv two others connecting folming the border of the anal opeuiug. These pyramid 
plates abut by their proximal edges upon the bent over processes formed by ex- 
teusions of the IIBr and iBr plates. Surface Slnooth. 
Horizon and localily. Laurel limestone, Niagaran ; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Gazacrlnus magnus nexv species 
Plate 2, figs. IO, II, 12 
This species, from the sarne horizou and locality as the preceding, is known 
oulv from the teRlniual pyramid, which is of great size, aud exhibits in a re- 
markable degree the sharp ridges-- 5 or ]o in number--forlning the border of 
vertical grooves or compartlnents iu which the arlns may rest as in Eucalyp- 
tocriuus. There are 3 specilnel]s. Fig. 12 has ouly .5 broad grooves, while 
fig. IO has I.O, with extremely sharp dividing ridges. This pylamid is formed 
by the sutural union of .5 elongate plates, as is clearly shown bv the interior view 
of the sanie specilnen in fig. Ioa. This is further confirmed by fiX. I I. which 
shows a single detached plate of a similar and larger pyramid. Here there is no 
questiou of a central plate as in the preceding species. 
]-[orizon and locality, saine as last. 

Gazacrinus depressus new species 
Plate 2, figs. 3, 14 
A crushed specilneU from St. Paul of differeut type from the preceding, 
rather resembling the Tenuessee form. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 

Gazacrinus ventricosus (\Vachsmuth and Spriuger) 
Plate 2, figs. 1.5-I6 
Idiocrinus ¢,entricosus Wachsmuth and Springer, Ara. Geol., IO, p. I37; N. A. Crin. Cam., I897, p. 2o5, 
pl. I8, figs. 9 a-b. 
Specimens verv small, height to width at top of IIBr about 2 by 2. 5 mm. 
Calvx low, subglobose, but with base excavate and IBB sunken in the cavity. 
iBr large, elongate, projecting iuward where their extensi«,ns support the teg- 
minal pyralnid, which here consists usuallv of anchvlosed plates bv the fusion 



18 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

of which the identitv of the conlponent plates is lost; in this condition the solidi- 
fied pyralnid is frequently found isolated, while the calyx of the species is ex- 
tremelv rare and the arlns unknown. These detached pyramids are usually 
strongiv marked with radiating ridges and groc, ves, as shown in figs. 6, 6a, 
which converge exteriorly into a fused glohular mass at the center. FrOl]l such 
examples the inference xould be that in the course af the lnodification of the 
tegmen incident to COlnpression by the closely packed almS the original function 
of the structure had been lost. Surface smooth with calyx plates moderately 

convex. 
These isolated bodies when first cbserved xvere supposed bv Miller and by \Vachsmuth 
and Springer to represent the ventral structure of Pisocrinus, specimens of which were numer- 
OtlS il the saine bed. 
tIoricon atd locality, saine as last. 

Gazacrinus ramifer { Roelner) 
Plaie _, figs. rT-_,r 
Eucalvplocrin.us tamiser Roemer, Sil. Fauna \Vestl. Tennessee, 8.5o, p. 5L pl. 4 a. b.--Callicrinus tamiser 
\Vachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Cin. Çam.. 897, p. 358. 
A large species: calyx wider than high, average about o bv ._, mm. Base 
broad, excavate, the plates strongly marked by a stellate rira bordering the cavity, 
which is here wide and shallow. Other ridges passing from BB to RR divide 
the surface into prominent triangles. IBB fairly large..Arlns long and heavy, 
directed upward, lying parallel but not so closelv abutting as in the type species. 
The ventral pyramid is relativelv very large, with only a few sharp ridges, as 
shown in fig. 9a. 
It is an interesting fact that Roemer wheu describing this species, one of the rarest 
known to the early Tennessee collectors, should bave bien led by an indefinable resemblance 
in the calyx alone to refer it to EucaI.rplocrims, and that \\rachsmuth and Springer, upon 
the evidence of a solitary specimen which thev had obtained, while in much doubt as to its 
generic relations, recognized a possible affinity 'ith the other Calyptocrinid, Callicrin««. 
The shales of the Beech River forlnation have yielded some remarkably fine specimens 
of this species, throwiug nev light on the relations of the genus, free from the matrix and 
exposing arms and surface characters at all sides. The clue to the actual structure first 
afforded by this material xvas later confilmed by the finding of the equally instructive speci- 
mens of the type species at St. Paul. 
Horizot a.d locality. Beech River formation, Niagaran; Decatur and \Vayne counties 
Tennessee. 

Gazacrinus milliganae (Millet and Gurley) 
Thysaocrim«s milliganae Miller and Gurley, Bull. 8, Illinois St. Mus., ]896, p. 5[, pl. 3, figs. 23-25. 
Similar to the preceding, and perhaps only a varietv of it, represented bv 
imperfect specimens. I ara figurin.q .[iller and Gurlev' type specimen and a 



DI MEROCRINIDAE 

I9 

couple of others that may l»crhaps go with it. The chier difference ol»servable 
is that here the lase is less deeply excavate, and the BP,, instead of being raised 
into a stellate ridge, are sharply nodose, forming a well defined pentagon. 
Horizon and locality. Beech River formation, Niagaran; from the glades in Decatur 
County, Tennessee. 

Gazacrinus stellatus uexv species 
Plate 2, figs. 25 a-c 
This species is the onlv instance in which the genus has been recognized 
from bevond the limits of the Silurian. The unique specimen upon which it is 
based c(mes fr(ln the Linden formation of the Helderbergiau, the lmver beds 
of which in some Tenuessee localities lie in verv close relation to the Decatur 
limestone et the top of the Niagaran, where it almost seems as if there is an 
intermingling of typical fossils. The species, while in geueral similar in size and 
proportious to G. ramifer, is clearly distinct in detail. The basal cavity is sharply 
defined, the edge forlning an acutely pointed pentagon with straight sides. The 
lï)B and other calvx plates are covered with coarse pustules, which tend to 
coalesce below into lines forming raised triangles on the radials, but with more 
isolated rugose lnarkings on the other plates. 
]-[orL:on and locality. Linden formation, Helderbergian, Lower Devonian; Hardin 
County, Tennessee. 
Two species have been descril,ed by Weller from the Racine dolomite of the Chicago 
area, and one bv Hall from the Rocbester shale et Lockport as Th3'sanocrims has been re- 
ferred to the genus. For list and synonymy, see Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, I95, p. 545- 

LAMPTEROCRINUS Roemer 
Plate 3 
Lampterocrinus Roemer, Sil. Fauna Westl. Tennessee. 86o, p. 4o.--Vachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal. , 
I88L pp. 84, I99; 3, 885, p. lOI ; N. A. Crin. Cam.. 897, p. -'2oT.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 9oo, 
P- 99, fig- I24 .--Zitte1-Eastman, Textb. Pal., d ed., 93, P- 87.--Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, 
98, p. 4L For further references see Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, I95, p. 689. 
Clyx snl)tul-lfiuate, similaï to that of Dimerocrin us but asvmmetrical owing 
to lmlging at anal side; iBr few, anal ilatel-l-adius wider than the others; ravs 
produced into 5 tulmlar extensions, beal-ing uniserial, pinlmlifel-ous al-ms at 
each side, with more than one pinnule to a brachial: tegnen composed of 
numerous couvex plates passing into a strong, sui)central tube; colulnu sharpl3r 
pentagonal. 
Gc,otyl, c. Lamptcrocrimts Tenucssccnsis Roemer. 
Diçrribttiom Silurian : America. 
In the Revision of the Palaeocrinoideaç pt. ". p. zoo, and in N. A. Crinoidea Camerata, 
p. ",o7, \Vachsnmth and Springer described the brachial arrangement of this genus as con- 
sistin of lateral appendages, in which the brachials, from primibrachs up, roofed bv covering 
pieces were extended into single rigid tubes, or free rays. giving off the arms laterallv. This 



20 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

was an inference bv Vachsmuth of a structure xx hich had not actuailv been seen, based upon 
analogy of the Batocrinid genus ._çteyanocrimts. It was criticised bv gather in his review of 
the Camerata monograph, 6th notice, Geol. Mag., Match, 899, p. I25, callin attention to the 
fact that our interpretation had hOt yet received confirmation. 
This objection can now be met by the proved fact. Lampterocrimts is one of the best 
known and almndant crinoids in the Tennessee rocks, and from Roemer's time on tlm calices 
were to be round in collections generally. Tbey are firm, strong fossils, with thick plates 
solidly cemented together, well adapted to resist weathering in the glades. From these rotund 
bodies the other parts are readily detached, so that untii now no one has ever seen anv vestige 
of the arm structure. ]3y the fortunate occurrence of some specimens intact in the Neech 
River shales, protected by the matrix which could be removed by preparation, we are noxv 
enabled to exhibit the complete crown with all tbe appendages in their natural position. 
the remarkable series of specimens here studied, there are two with the tubular rays and side 
arms and the anal tube in place, and four otbers with parts of the radial extensions favorablv 
located for inspection. There are rive beavy tubes composed of the primibrachs and higher 
brachials curved like arm plates, with their covering plates, fringed with very long, slender 
arms given off alternately from each side, and bearing delicate pinnulesprecisely the struc- 
ture of ._çteyanocri.n.us sculptus of th Burlington limestone. The ide-arms are uniserial, and 
each ossicle bears two pinnules, one from each side. 
While the type species remains as the chief representative of the genus, the new material 
has produced a well defined nmv one with a variant for a possible third. 
Hall described a smail species L. parwts, from the Valdron sha]e, and a]so one from the 
Racine dolomite of the Chicago area, from which three species are also described bv \Veller. 
Rowley described another from the Missouri Silurian. None of these throw anv liht on 
the structure. See ]assler's Index for list with references. 

Lampterocrinus tennesseensîs Roemer 
Plate 3., figs. r-6 
Lampterocrimts t«nnesseensis Roemer. Sii. Fauna ,Vestl. Tennessee, 86o, p. 37, pl. 4, figs.  a, b.-- 
Vachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. 2o9.--Bassler, Bihliogr. Index, 95, p. 69o. 
This original species, so well known in all collections bv weathered speci- 
mens from the glades, is strongly chavacterized by its elongate form, sharp stel- 
late sculpture, and prominence of the anal interradius, which is larger than tle 
others, and curves over into the tegnen where it passes into the strong sub- 
central tube, while the lower part is more or less svcollen so as to produce a de- 
cided asymlnetry. This anal "hump " is a most conspicuous cbaracter, bv which 
the weathered calices are usually recognized at a glance. The sculpture takes 
the form of highly raised ridges passing from center to center of the plates, 
outlining a variety of triangles and hexagonal figures. At the anal side these 
often connect in such a xvav that thev frm a strong median ridge runnin- the 
full length of tbe interradius from the posterior basal to the anal tube. 
The complete crown, free on both sides, was imbedded in a shalv limestone, vhere several 
instructive fragments of arms also occurred showing their mode f connection and relation 
to the tubular rays, and especially their bipinnulation, as in fig. 6. This peculiar structure, 
at one time considered to be an impossibility in crinoid morphology (Crin. Gotland, 893 ' 
p. 36), is nmv known to exist in several genera. I figure on plate 7 a specimen of Carpocrinus 
from Gotland in which the two pinnules to a brachial are well developed ; and the structure 



DIMEROCRINIDAE 

2I 

was fully described in a Devonian genus in my paper on DolatocriJzus, 1 with 2, 3 and 4 pin- 
nules to a brachial. Since then it bas been further observed by Miss Goldring. Devonian 
Crinoids of Nev York, 1924, in the genera Clarkeocrinus, p. I8o, and Liparocrinus, p. 397, 
with like numbers of pinnules to the brachial. 
This leading species for the Tennessee Silurian was recognized by Troost long be- 
fore Roemer's time,, and fully described under the name Balanocrinitcs in his unpublished 
monograph. 
Horicon and localitv. Shaly limestone of Beech River formation. Niagaran; Decatur 
and adjoining counties, Tennessee. 

Lampterocrinus sculptus new species 
Plate 3, fic3s. 7, 8 
A variant of the preceding, from the saine horizon and locality, with a lower 
and lnore spreading calyx, more dclicate sculpture and more nulnerous ridges. 

Lampterocrinus roemeri new species 
Plate 3, figs. 9-r4 
Differs from the type species in the nmch plainer character of the surface 
markings. The ridges are fewer and lnore prolninent, and the rholnboidal areas 
enclosed by theln are ahnost uniforlnly smooth, alld hot crossed by other ridges ; 
thus the stellate appearance is largely wantilg. The specilnens all COlne froln 
a sort shale at a little different level froln the former species. 
In addition to the small crown with arms and anal tube, fig. o, there are 4 calices with 
parts of the radial appendages attached, as in fig. 9. and 2o other good specimens, in all of 
which the characters above mentioned are constant. I[ere aL, o mav be seen the sharply pen- 
tagonal stem characteristic of the genus, with concave sides, as shown in figs. 9 and Io. I have 
caIIed this species L. rocmcri, in honor of the founder of the genus. 
Horizon and locality. Soif shale of the Beech River formation, Niagaran" Tuck's Mill, 
Decatur County, Tennessee. 

genus and species indet. 
Plate 3, lqg s. z5, r5a 
This fragment, of which there is not enough of the calyx left to indicate its generic 
relations, is figured on account of the very unusual feature of a hexagonal stem. almost un- 
known among crinoids. Aside from its six-sided section, the stem in detail strongly resembles 
that of Lamptcrocrimts, and the specimen may be only a sport from that genus. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 

genus and species indet. 
Platc z, lqgs. IQ-22 
Stem fragments of unkllOWll crinoid froln St, Paul, ]ndiana. 

t Bull. II5, 1_1. S. Nat. Mus., I92I, pp. 5. 8. 



22 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Familv RHODOCRINIDAE Roemer 
This dicyclic famil.v, similar to the Dimerocrinidae except tbat the radials 
are separated ail around, is introduced to receive a number of peculiar t'orms 
fallin.,o- within its limits t"or which it has leen necessary to propose nexv genera. 

Paragazacrinus rotundus new genus and species 
Plate 4, fi(,qs. >4 
O11 account of the strong resemblance c»f the tegminal parts this small 
species was af first supposed to be a varietv of Ga.:'acris; but when it xas 
round tiret in three gc»od specimens the RR were separated all around bv 
truncating all 5 BB that interpretation became untenal)le, and there seemed no 
recourse except to place it as a new genus under the Rhodocrinidae. There are 
5 IBB sunken in an indented pit, and 4 or .5 large iBr in the CUl) separating the 
ravs up to the tegmen, which branch and become free cm lhe first IIBr, giving 
o arms in all, which are hot flrther known. They test in grooves bounded by 
ridges forming a ventral pyramid which is surnmunted by an elongate spine. 
This is sulported bv 5 tegmen plates, the exact relation of which is dicult to 
determine, but they are thought to be interamlmlacral in position. The three 
rotund calices are figured, t(Nether with a detached central spine, as to which 
the question remains open whether it mav hot belong to Ga.vacritus, although 
it is helieved that the spine is a separate element covering the pyramid. The 
two ¢orms are from tbe saine localitv and formation, but whether ff-oto the 
saine laver is hot lmown. 
Horisou and locality. Laurel limestone, Niagaran ; St. Paul, hMiana. 

Paulocrinus biturbinatus new genus and species 

Plate 4. fi9s. 5.5a-c 

This genus and species are proposed for the reception of a solitary calyx, 
which both in general form and in cup structure is totally unlike anv other 
lmown from the Silurian. It is large, rbust, with truncate conical CUl) spread- 
ing to the arm-bases, and frm there c,ntracting to an opposite cone consisting 
of a many-plated tegmen passing into a large, subcentral anal tube. The calvx 
plates are lhick and strongl)" elevated, those «f the tegmen rather nodose, and 
those of the cup more r less acuminate, and ornamented bv radiating- ridges. 
The most peculiar thing al»out tbis form is tbe base, forming the truncate end of the 
dorsal cone. There are 5 IP, B surrounding an enormous lumen, and no two of them alike, 
3 slnaller and pentagonal on the posterior and left posterior sides ; the other 2 hexagonal and 
truncated bv 13B are larger than the former 3 combined. A similar inequality pervades the 
BB but reversed in position as if compensatory, tbe two larger being the posterior and left 
posterior (see diagram, fig. 5c). Also the Rit are nacre or less tmequal, and asynametric in 



RHODOCRINIDAE 

23 

form, two of them connectiug with the I P,[l. Arm olenings 4 to the ray, directed horizontally 
from a projecting rira ; the r. post. ray bifurcates on the first IBr, but by way of compensation 
this is followed by more than two III;r: the amas not preserved. 
AI1 this l)oints to an abnormal specimen, or sport--but of what ? The form and genera! 
structure of the calvx are positive and xvell defined, and in alI the collections from St. Paul 
and the Tennessee localities nothing bas been round with which it can be compared. Therefore 
it will have to stand upon the above description until the normal form is shown bv further 
discoverv. 
Horizon, and locality. Laurel lilnestone, Niagaran; St. Paul, hdiana. 

Wilsonicrinus discoideus new genus and species 
Plate 4, figs. 6, 6a 
This is another Rhodocrinid straggler frOlll the St. Paul beds, knov,n onlv 
bv the single type specimen, and apparently without close relatives. The calyx 
is a broad, wheel-shaped disk, wifi smooth plates, slightly convex below and 
contracting above to a large subcentral anal tube. ]t has 4 IBB sunken into 
a small indented cavity, BB fairly equal in size, truncate above and connecting 
with single large iBr. Arm-openings to, small and widelv separated, issuing 
from a series of cuneate llBr. 
The outstanding feature of thi,; genus is the fixed lfinnules origiuating upon the longer 
face of the IIBr to the number of 4.5 or 6 on each side in the form of more or less irregular 
pinnulars, which by contact with the IIBr and with each other are incorporated in the cup; 
they lead directlv to interbrachial openings for free pinnules independent of the arms, emerg- 
ing at the margin of the tegmen between the ravs and their subdivisions. These are verv con- 
spicuous, corresponding in number to the incorporated pinnules. Thus the interbrachiaI areas, 
above and bevond the single large iP, r plates which abut upon the truncated BB, are occupied 
by these fixed pinnules, which have every appearance of higher iBr. For a fui1 discussion of 
the fixed pinnules lu various genera and the interpretation of their openings at the mar.q-ila 
of the tegmen, see my papers on Scyphocrinus  and Dolatocrim«s? 
The type specimen was round by mv former assistant, the late Dr. Herrick E. \Vilson, 
who recoguized its highly distinctive characters, and the generic laame is proposed in lais 
memorv. 
Horizon. and locality. I.aurel limestone, Niagaran" St. Paul, Indiana. 

Emperocrinus indianensis 5Iiller and Gurlev 
Plate 4. ficjs. 7, 7a 
Em.perocrinus indianensis Miller and Gurley. Bull. 6, Illinois St. Mus., I895, p. 43, pl. 4, figs. I6, I7.-- 
Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, I9oo, p. 2o2.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, I915, p. 476. 
Another rare form, of simpler construction than the preceding, which I 
ara illustrating from a new specimen. Instead of being discoid, the calvx is 
pentagonal, and the iBr areas, instead of bein, filled to the margin with the 
incorporated pinnules, are depressed, contracted and limited to the single large 

 Smithsonian Publication No. 244o, I917, pp. 33-37, 4c-46: pl. 9, figs. 5-6. 
e Bull. 115, U. S. Net. Mus., 192I, pp. 24, 25, pl. 7, figs. 2-5. 



24 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

plate. There are a few openings £or ree interbrachial pimIules, apparently 
only one to each ami on the outer side of the ray, lying close under the ami- 
base. These structures were hot brought out in the original description, and 
whereas the number of II] is there said to be three, it is distinctly rive in my 
specimen. Iiller and Gurley treated the enus as belonging to the Flexibilia. 
Hori«on. and locality. Laurel Iimestoue, Niagaran; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Rhodocrinidae gems and species indet. 
Plate 4, fis. 8, Sa 
A fragment with onlv part of the lase, attached in a slanting position to a very large 
stem. There are 4 IP, B at the botton of an indented cavity as in severaI of the associated 
forms, and entirely covered by the stem. None of the others of this family here described 
have any part of the stem preserved, and it mav be that, large as it seems, this is the normal 
type for the group. But the sloping attachment to the calyx is unusual. The BB are truncate 
for a connection with the succeediug iBr, separating the RR, so it probably belongs here. 
Horizon. and localitv. Laurel limestoue, Niagaran; St. tanl. Indiana. 

Lyriocrinus melîssa t l all 
Lyriocrinus melissa, Hall, 28th Rep. New York St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1879, p. 1.39, pl. 15, figs. I8--W; Ilth 
Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 1882, p. 269, pl. 14, figs. 18--'7, pl. I5, fig. II.Wachsmuth and Springer, 
N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 263, pl. ii, figs. 4a-l.--For complete synonymy, Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 
]ull. 92, U. S. Nat. Mus., I9IS, p. î'î'4; also for the genus, and other species, p. 773. 
This very typical Rhodocrinid species is one of the leadinx fossils in the \Valdron for- 
mation, occurring abundantly at the type locality, Waldron, Indiana, and in the rich exposure 
of \Valdron shale at Newsom, near Nashvitle, Tennessee; it has also been identified in the 
Racine dolomite of the Chicago area. Reference to the thorough discussion and illustration 
of the species by Hall and by Wachsmuth and Springer MI1 afford alI needful information, 
and it is accordingly omitted from consideration here. 
Another fine species, L. dactylus, was described by Hall froln the Rochester shale at 
I.ockport, of xvhich unusually perfect specilnens from Grimsby, Ontario, are in tie Sir Ed- 
lnund Walker collection in the University of Toronto. I bave an undescribed specimen from 
Dudley, indicating the presence of the genus in the English $ilurian. 



MELOCRI NIDAE 

Family MELOCRIXIDAE Zittel 
Of this extensive lnonocyclic falnily, with the radials in contact all around, 
the collections here in hand contain eight genera, two of them foreigners now 
first recognized in this country, one which thougi known belote has developed 
an unexpected wealth of species, and one new. 

MACROSTYLOCRIN US 
Plate 4 
Macro«tylocri»zu« Hall, Pal. New York, 2, I852, p. 2o3.--Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., , I88L 
pp. 96, xo2; N. A. Crin. Cam., x897, P. 285.--]ather, Treatise on Zool., 3, xgoo, p. 6œ.Zittel- 
Eastman, Textb. Pal., d ed., x93, P. 9L--Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, x918, p. 36.--Bassler, 
Bibliogr. Index, Buli. 9 -9, U. S. Nat. Mus., x95, P- 782. 
BB 3 unequal: anal interradius wider than the others above level of RR; 
arms IO, simple, biserial. 
Gcnotype. Mcrostylocrinus ornatus Hall. 
Distribntion. Silurian and Devonian : America, England. 
This typically Silurian genus, but now known to occur in the Lower Devonian, a which 
has hitherto been accounted as one of the rare fossils, is well represented in the present collec- 
tions, especially for illustrating the structure of the tegmen, heretofore unknown. Several 
species are figure& all but one previousl.v described, and of these it is hot deemed necessary 
to repeat the descriptions. 

Macrostylocrinus fasciatus Hall 
Plate 4. fi9 s. 9, ça. b 
Macro«tylocrinu« fa«ciatu« Hall, 28th Rep. New York St. iIus., 879, p. 3o, pi. 3, figs. 5, 6.--Wachsmuth 
and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. z88, pl. zz, fig. 3.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 95, P. 78. 
The specilnen here figured has the fasciculated striae, rardv well preserved. 
perfectly distinct, and shows correctlv the full dimensions of the calyx and the 
forln and proportions of ail the plates. The important feature, however, is that 
it has the tenen intact, which bas not been round belote. Usuallv the upper 
part is broken away, so that the great elongation of the cup does hot appear. 
The tegmen is composed of a great number of slnall smooth plates, traversed 
fl-Olll the center to arm-bases bv narlow, almost linear, ambulacra. The small 
anal cpening lies at the extreme lnarKin, where it projects between the tv«o 
posterior rays, connecting with the median row of anal plates on the dorsal side. 
Radial series sharply defined bv a lnedian ridge. Total height of calvx 13 111111. 
Hori»on and loc«lity. \Valdron shale, Niagaran ; Hartsvilte, Indiana. 

 Springer, Unusuai Forms of Fossil Crinoids. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 67. 9-'6. p. 35- 



26 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Macrostylocrinus granulosus Itall 
Flate 4. figs. fo-z3 
Macrostylocrinus striatus var .qramtlosus :Hall, 28th Rep. New York St. Mus., I87o. p. I29.--\Vachsmuth 
and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 289, pl. 22, figs. I5a, b.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, I915, 
p. 782, 783. 
There is here illustrated a fOrlll with turbinate calvx, expanding upward 
as most frequent in the gelms, in which the tegmen is also beautifully preserved 
in two specimens. This is of a somewhat different type, in accord with the more 
spreading fornl of the calyx, in which the ambulacra tend to becolne wider, 
and the anal opening very nmch larger; it is situated in the depressed posterior 
interanlbulacrum between the nlargin and the center, and in one specimen is 
closed by a pyranlid of slnall plates. The granulose surface, completely devoid 
of striae, together with the general form and proportions, seems to indicate the 
reference to this species. It is verv small, as is best seen bv comparing the draw- 
ings, which are mostly double size. 
Hori:on a»td localitv. \Valdron shale, Niagaran ; Madison, ]ndiana, Newsom and perhaps 
Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Macrostylocrinus laevis new species 
Plate 4. figs. 4-9 
This naine is suggested to desiffnate a snlooth form occurring rather plen- 
tifullv in the Beech River formation, having relatively small RR and wide IBr, 
and in which we bave the stout biserial arms partly preserved. 
Horizon. md local#y. Beech River formation, Niagaran : Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Macrostylocrinus meeki (Lyon) 
Plate 4, fios. o-:2 
• 4ctitocrimts mceki Lyon, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., x86t, p. 4ri, pl. 4, figs. 4a, b.--Macrostylocrinus 
meeki, Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., , p. xo3 ; N. A. Crin. Cam., x897, p. 29o, pl. 2, figs. 6a, b. 
A broader and more rotmld calyx than usual in the genus, and notable ¢or 
the shar nledian ridges which follow the ravs from radials into afin-bases; it 
mav also be more or less striate. 
Horizon. atd local#v. Louisville limestone. Iefferson County, Kentuckv, and Black River 
formation, Niagaran; Decatur Count)-, TennessC. " 

(?) Macrostylocrinus pustulosus new species 
Plate 4, fig.«. 25, -Sa 
It is hot clear that this tlniqtle specimen belongs to the genus. The general 
contour and pustulose ornament would seem to ge exceptional, while the arrange- 
nient of the anal side is consistent with the reference. In the large side of 
the RR it bears considerable resemblance to the early Platycrinidae, and if we 
had the terrien preserved it nlight be fcund to go with Clicocriuus 



2I ELOCRI N I DAE 

27 

Hori,r, on. aod locality. Beech River forlnation, Niagaran ; Decatur County, Tennessee. 
Of other species there is 3[. stria.tus Hall from the \Valdron, three from the Racine 
dolomite, one from the Rochester shale (see Bassler's Index. p. 782) ; and a thoroughly repre- 
sentative species froln Èngland, 3[. anglicus, by Jaekel. M. indianensis Miller and Gurley, 
from St. Paul, does not belong to the genus, and mav be a Patelliocrim«s. I aih figuring (.pl. 4, 
fig. -'24) a complete specimen of the type species, M. ornatus, from Lockport, New York. 

MELOCRINUS Gc,ld fuss 
Platc 5 
3lclocrinitcs Goldfuss, Petref, Germ., 8-6, p. 97- 
Mclocrims, Agassiz, Ann. Nat. Hist., 838, p. 447.--Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., , I88I, p. 8; 
N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. -9z.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 9oo, p. 6L--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. 
Pal., ed ed., I93, p. 9o.--Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, 98, p. 3z.--Goldring, Devon. Crin. New 
York, 9z3.For complete list of references and table of synonyms, Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, Bull. 9, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 95, P. 794. 
BB 4, unequal; iBr numerous, anal interradius but slightly distinct; ravs 
produced into two main rami, giving off unilateral, pinnulate arlns, uniserial 
or biserial, to the outside of the dichctoln: the rami mav be separate (Silurian 
species), or mare or less fused by their limer lnargins (Devonian species) : 
column round. 
Gcnotype. Mclocrimts hicroglyphicus Goldfuss. 
Distribution. Devonian and Silurian; Germany, Gotland, England, America. 
Few genera have had so much written about them as this, or have been treated under so 
manv different names, as will be seen bv the list of references in the P, ibliographic Index. 
The most recent discussion is that 1,y ,hliss (;oldring in the monograph of the Devonian Cri- 
noids of New York. of which this genus and its allies form a most important part of the 
fauna. I titherto it has been allnost negligihle anaong American Silurian fossils, the few species 
described being neither characteristic nor well represented. That which gives a renewed 
interest for this work is the discovery of a single specimen in the 13eech River formation 
showing a wide distribution of the typical form, and the parallelism of its occurrence in this 
country and the north European Silurian. Verv conspicuous species of what I regard as the 
Silurian type of the genus have been found in England and Gotland, some of them described 
by Angelin. Now for the first time we have a parallel to them from the American Silurian. 

Melocrinus tennesseensis new species 
Platc 5, fig. z 
Although the calyx plates of this unique specimen are SOlnewhat disturbed. 
the decisive features of the rays are well preserved, and the general aspect of 
the fossil points Unlnistakablv to a close relationship with the t.vpical fcrms 
of England and Gotland. For comparison I ana fi.uring two specilnens of an 
abundalat species from Dudley, England, which if nc, t elsewhere described mav 
be taken as :1I. spcctabilis of Angelin (pl. 5, figs. _% 3)- The remarkal»le simi- 
larity of type in the two fOrlnS is apparent at a glance,--even the stem of one 
being ahnost a duplicate of the other. Evidently the calvx of the American 
species is much the shorter, the base of the cup less turbinate than in the English 
form, and the iBr in the latter lnore ntlmerouslv dex;eloped. 
Horicon and localitv. Beech River formation. Niagaran • Decatur County. Tennessee. 



28 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Melocrinus oblongus Wacllsmuth and Springer 
Plate 5, fiç«. 5, 6 
Melocrinus oblon9us Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., p. 2oo, pi. 22, figs. 9, I2. 
Confined to the higher Niagaran beds. Tv,'o specimens are figured espe- 
ciallv to show the division of the ravs into txvo rows o brachials, for compati- 
son ,vith the similar elongate form "referred to Roemer's Cytocrinus v«ith only 
one such row. 
Horizon and locality. Louisville limestone, Louisville, Kentucky, and Bob formation, 
Niagaran ; Decatur County, Tennessee. 
Other Niagaran species are M. obconicus Hall, of the Waldron beds, M. aequalis S. A 
Miller, of the Laurel; one from Missouri by Rowley, one from the Racine dolomite of the 
Chicago area and one from the Rochester shale at Lockport. 

Melocrinus onondaga nexv species 
Plate 5, fig. 4 
 figure here what appears to be a very young stage of the genus from 
the middle Devoniau, which is interesting for the remarkable shortness of the 
calvx compared with the well developed arms. 
Horizon a,d locality. Onondaga formation, Iiddle Devonian; Sylvania, Ohio. 

Cytocrinus laevis Roemer 
Plate 5, fi9s. 7, 7a, 8 
Cytocrhu«s laevis Roemer, Sil. Faun. "Vestl. Tennessee, 86o, p. 46, pl. 4. figs. 2a-c. Melocrinus roemeri 
Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., I897, p. 3m, pi. 22, figs. IIa, b.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 
95, PP- 795, 796. 
The brachials in this form are extended into 5 trunks composed of a single 
series of plates, which is a good generic distinction from similar lobate species 
such as Melocrîmts oblon9us, according to the pract;ce follov,'ed in other groups ; 
while the arms themselves bave hot been seen, the direct succession of primi- 
brachs into the arm opening shows how thev must be. 
Horizon and local#v. 13eech River formation, Niagaran; Decatur Count?-, Tennessee. 

MARIACRINUS Hall 

Plate 5 
Mariacrhu«s Hall, Ara. Jour. Sci. (2), 25, I858, p. 278; Pal. New York, 3, I86I, pp. o4, I39.--Wachsmuth 
and Springer, Rev. Pal., 2, 88I, pp. I4, II8, 233: ibid., 3, I885, p. 326; N. A. Crin. Cam., I897, 
p. 281.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., I913, p. 19o.--Goldring, Devon. Crin. New York, I923, 
p. o9.Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 915, p. 785. 
BYI 4; similar to Mclocrinus, but arms free, bralching once or twice, with 
alternating pinnules or ramules. 
Genotype. Mariacrimts phtmosus Hall. 
Distribution. $ilurian, Devonian: America, England, Gotland. 



MELOCRI N IDAE 2 9 

Mariacrinus carleyi (Hall) 
Plate 5, figs. 9, IO 
Glyptocrim«s carlcyi Hall, Trans. _A_lb. Inst., 4, 1863, p. 203; 28th Rep. New York St. Mus., I879, p. I32, 
pl. I4, figs. 7-IO.-lariacrinus carleyi, Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 282, pl. 22, 
figs. 2a-c.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 1915 ' pp. 785, 786. 
A very elongate, turbinate species, widely distributed and round at ail 
the principal \Valdron localities, and also in the Laurel. The specimen from 
the latter here figured lacks the sharp radiating ridges upon the loxer plates 
usual in the \Valdron specimens, the gralmlose surface predominating, but in 
the other characters the two agree. 
\Valdron shale, Niagaran: \Valdron and Hartsville, Indiana, and Newsom, Tennessee; 
also Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Mariacrinus aureatus S. A. Miller 
Plate 5, figs. _r_r, _rza 
Mariacrinu« aureatus Miller, 17th Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 189oe, p. 644 (adv. sheets, 1891), pl. 6, fig. 36. 
A broadlv rotund species, in almost every way the reverse of the preced- 
ing, especially in the hihly sculptured ornament which covers the eutire cup 
with delicate, stellate figures. 
I4orLon and localiy. Laurel limestone, Niagaran; t. Paul, Iidiana. 

Mariacrinus sp. 
Plate 5. fig. z3 
This specimen, associated with Mclocrinus in the beds at Dudley, illustrates the pres- 
ence of the txvo closely allied genera there as here: it shows the arms branching in the usual 
way, which is the distinguishing character. 
I4orion and locality. \Venlockian, Silurian: Dudley, England. 

(?) Mariacrinus rotundus ne»v species 
Plate 5, figs. z_, 
This is one of some stralage forms from the topmost Silurian, occurring 
in close relation to the Lower Devonian. It is so utterly different in general 
aspect from an)" other species of this or allied genera that it is placed here with 
much doubt. If seen in a v«ell weathered condition in a miscellaneous collection. 
the specimen would without hesitation be taken for Dizygocrinus rotmdus of 
the ]3urlington limestone. Yet according to the structure of the cup as plainly 
delineated, with no anal plates, and radials in contact all around, it must belong 
to the Melocrinidae, having abnormally small basals which cannot be defined 
in the narrow indented cavitv, compensated bv relatively large radials. The 
highly rounded teela is filled with numerous but very definite plates pierced 
by a small subcentral anal opeuing, while the i]3r in the cup are but few. 
[-[orizon and locality. Decatur limestone. Niagaran; below Grandviexv in the bluffs of 
the Tennessee river, Perrv Cotlllty, Tennessee. Associated xvith .4orocrinus nodosus, infra. 
3 



.0 SM ITIISONIAX INSTITUTION 

ALLOCRINUS \Vach¢,muth and Springer 
]'late O 
.qllocrinus \Vachsmuth and Springer, (;eoi. Surv. IIlinois, 8, 89o, p. 2; N. A. Crin. Cam., I897. p. 3o6. 
Eather. Treatise on Zool., 3, , P- 6.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., zd ed. 913, p. I9[.Jackel, 
Phylogenie und System, 98, p. 36.Eassler, Bibliogr. Index, 95, P- zS- 
ll 3, unequal, i)-l-sal CUl» h,w an(1 bra(l. N anal ldates: ill- , large. 
Arms o, unisel-ial. 
Gcnotyc. ,lllocrinus t3'us Vachsmuth and SlWinger. 
Distribution. Si]urian ; America. 
This genus was proposed upon the basis of very scant material, consisting of a calvx 
and a detached set of arms. The extremeiv iow and Iwoad contour of the former with its 
concave base. and the massive character of the latter, marked it as thoroughly distinct, con- 
firmed later I,y a second species from a different horizon, also described from a poor sl)eci- 
men. Vhile hopilg for further information, I was agreeably surpried at the xvealth of new 
materiai disclosed by the Telmessee collections, containing hot only immerous excellent speci- 
inens of the type species, but also of at ieast two others, among them some with almost the 
complete crinoid beautifu]]y preserved. Only a few of these are 5hown bv the drawings. 

Ailocrinus typus \Vachsmuth and Springer 

Plate 6, fils. -4 
Wachsmuth and Springer, Geo[. Surv. Illinois, 8, 89o, p. "o7, pl. 4, figs. 7-8; N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. 3o7, 
pl. 24, figs. 7a, b. 
The hmg, 1,-,ad and s«,mewhat convex uniserial brachials give to the arms 
an aspect of lnassiveness and simplicity. Having a shallow, concave bae. with 
radials forling part «)f the cç, ncavity and projecting into a prominent rira at 
the margin, tbe calyx is fairlv l)road and exl)al(ls upward t the afin-bases. 
Cup plates all strongly ne,ch,se. With c,ne of the well preserved crowns we are 
able to show the round stem, with its rather long c,,hmmals, to its full length, 
with terminal roots attached indicating attachment to a soft bottera. 
Ilori:on atd localitr, l]ee:h River formation, Xiagaran- Decatur and Vzvne counties, 
"1 ennessee. 

Aliocrinus ponderosus new speci«s 
Plate 6. fi(qs. 5, 6 
Similar tc the t.vle , but differing in the eXtl-clnely 1)(l(lel-(ts arlS, widelv 
swollen in the middle, c(mbined with a verv sh-rt and narr(w calvx. 
Horieot and local#v. Ileech River formation. Niagaran : Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Ailocrinus longidactylus new species 
Plate 6_. 
I)istinguished ly extrelne length and relative slendel-ness of the arlllS, 
which impart a different aspect to the complete crown. Thus tbe arms lie much 



IELOCRINIDAE 

farther apart and afford a vi«w ,f the cl«)se fringe of pimlules, which are 
scarcelv visible in the preceding species. The calvx is relativelv broader, and 
the ne, des upon the CUl» plates are verv consl)icu,_,us, especially the single large 
iBl" which l»v its central ncde stands out distinct fron the others. One specirl'lel 
is characterized bv excessivelv lar.-e radials. 
Horizon and localitv. Beech River forlnation, Niagaran : Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Allocrinus benedicti S. A. 5Iiller 
Plate 6, figs. __. _ œe 
.lllocrimts be»wdicti Miller, 7th Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 892, p. 64ï, pl. 7, fig. I---\\rachsmuth and 
Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., I897, p. 308, pl. 24, figs. Sa,/9. 
çliller's fiï_.ure gave no idea cf generic or .specific characters, beia ruade 
fr,,m a fragment. I ara figuring two gcd crowns tc show the f,,rm as it Jccurs 
in the ].autel. in which the calvx plates are me, re br,,adlv r,,unded and the arms 
rather less rolm.t than in the type. 
Hori::on and localitv. Laurel limestone, Niagaran: St. Paul, Indiana. 

PATELLIOCRINUS ,\n?_.elin 
Plate 6 
Patelliocrlnus Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc. I878, p. L--Zittel, Handb. Pal., 1879, p. 368.Vachsmuth and 
Springer, Rev. Pal., z, 88I, p. IOo.Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, o, p. I6z.Zittel-Eastman, 
Textb. Pal., 5d ed. I913, p. I9t.Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, 1918, p. 36. 
tl 3, unequal, 1 )wsal CUl» ehmgate. 'o anal plates; iIr few. Arms biserial 
or cuneate uniserial. 
Genotypc. Patclliocrimts pachydactyhts Angelin. 
Di«tribution. Silurian ; Gotland, America. 
This Gotlandian genus, now for the first time doubtfullv recognized in America, while 
having a simple calvx with 3 I[ and a large iBr with anal side lOt differentiated, is widely 
separated from the !weceding bv its elongate, conical cup and biserial arms. Angelil de- 
scribed 9 species in which there is considerable confusion of çeneric characters. The figures 
cannot be depended on (Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, p. 5) for details, aud it is hard to tell 
exactly what should be considered as the type. But I have taken P. pinmtla.ttts, pl. 2 4, fig.., 
as a fait representative, and there is anaong several of the species a general similarity which 
seems to warrant the reference of out species, in default of anything better. 

Patelliocrinus ornatus new species 
Plate 6..figs. z3-5a 
The surface, as shown by several specimens, is almost invariably ornate, 
with variations in intensitv due to erosion or growth. ]t is best shown bv 
figs.  5,  Sa, ¢rom a ¢ree specimen unusuallv well preserved, in which the stout 
biserial arms and crowded pinnules are in place. The relativelv small radials 



3 2 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

are comlnon to all the specimens. It is probable that the specimen named by 
Miller and Gurley Macrostylocrinus indianensis, Bull. 6, Illinois St. Mus., pl. 3, 
fig- 33, belongs to this genus, but the figure is too indistinct for comparison. 
Igorizon and localiry. Laurel limestone, Niagaran; St. Paul. Indiana. 

Patelliocrinus rugosus nexv species 
Plate 6, fi9s. 6-18 
Vith its strong rugose sculpturing, this species may le distinguished from 
the preceding bv the great preponderance in size of the radials. 
Hori:on and locality, saine as last. 

Patelliocrinus laevis new species 
Plate 6, fic.qs. 9, 20 
Differs from the two preceding 1Lv its perfectly: smooth surface and greater 
elongation of calvx. 
Horizon. ad locality, saine as last. 

genus and species indet. 
Platc 6, figs. 2z-2zb 
An apparently complete crown, having a low calyx of smooth, rounded 
plates, three snaall unequal BB, large RR followed by a singlë IBr wlaicla is 
axillary, filling most of the distal face of the R, and supportiu two stout, biserial 
arms. There seems to be a single iBr, mostly hot verv well defined, but witla 
the posterior one the largest, and no other indication of anal structures. It 
would seem that with so manv details available it should hOt be difficult to de- 
termine the systematic position of this fossil, but after repeated efforts, aided 
by consultation with colleagues, I aln still obliged to confess mv inability to 
treat-it intelli.o4ently. It is doubtless a new genus, but wbere to place it. I do hot 
knmv. So I aln giving the facts as I and the artist see tbem, aud leaving it to 
others to continue lhe -uessing. 
Hori»on and locality. Beech River forlnation, Niagaran ; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

LAURELOCRINUS new genus 
Plate 7 
This genus is proposed for au asselnblage of peculiar fOrlns from the 
St. Paul beds, which will hOt fit into anv alreadv known. But for the tripartite 
base it might go under Clonocrinus. but that would mean rather wide variation 
from the type. Our specimens, while in considerable number, are all deficient 
in tbe upper part of the calvx and crown, so tbat we are without information 



MELOCRI NIDAE 

33 

as to the arms, or even with certainty as to the higher brachials. The characters 
are an etongate calyx, cylindrical or slightly contracting upxvards; base com- 
posed of 3 small BB, unequal, forming with tbe RR a broad, flattened, or shal- 
loxv concave disk; RR very large, curving below into the base and upward into 
the sides of the cup; I Br and iBr bave peculiar variations--the latter usually 
one elongate plate with or witbout a small one in succession. Four species are 
indicated, based upon rather mincw differences viaibte in the specimens as 
preserved. 
Gcnotype. La.urelocrinus pa.ulcn«is new species. 
Distribution. Silurian ; America. 

Laurelocrinus paulensis nexv species 
Plate 7, figs. -8 
A large, robust species, with broad base and sides rMng nearlv straight; 
first IBr quadrangular, usuallv about square, and iBr elongate, 6- or 8-sided, 
followed by a second one mucb narrower; or exceptionally IBr mav be elongate 
and iBr acuminate, hot followed by a second; axillarv IBr short, followed bv 
3 IIBr, the third axillary, indicating probably four arlns to tbe rav. BB lilnited 
to a sballoxv cavity, occupied largely bv the cohmm-facet witb verv large lulnen. 
Surface smootb. 
Horizon and locality. Laurel limestone, Niagaran; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Laurelocrinus wilsoni nexv species 
Plate 7, figs. 9-3 
A much smaller form than tbe preceding, even more so than tbe drawings 
indicate at first glance, those of the latter being natural size and of this enlarged 
bv one hall; and it is of similar contour; first IBr hexagonal, ter 5-sided, fol- 
lowed by one or t»vo others. Arms apparently 4 to the ray. Surface in lower 
part tending to be striate. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 

Laurelocrinus gibbosus new species 
Plate 7, figs. 4-6 
A similar calyx but much more rounded, witb extremelv large RR and iBr, 
and small quadrangular IBr, ail strongly gibbous; base somewhat convex, with 
small column lacet and pentagonal lumen. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 



SM[THSONIAN IX STITUTIONT 

Laurelocrinus spinoradialis new species 
Plate 7, ficjs. I7-zïb 
. mediuln sized species, with R R arlned with sharp spines 1)rojecting dow- 
ward: first lfr quadrangular, short; ilr 2 in successi¢,n, very elongate, 8- or 
-sided ]lBr 3 in series, the first verv lavée, the next two llarr¢w and divided 
lw an ilIBr, the third axillarv, indicating 4 avms te» the var. ]',ased on the unique 
slecimen fi,.e,u r ed. 

HorLvolz azzd locality, saine as ]ast. 

CLONOCRINUS (...)uenstedt I hot t )ehlert) 
l'late 7 
Clonocrim«s Quenstedt, Petref. Deutschl., 4, 876, p. 638 (hOt Oehlert, 879).Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 
9oo, p. 62.ZitteI-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed. 193, p. 9o.Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, 
98, P. 32. 
Corymbocrim«s Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., I878, p. 8.Zittel, llandb. Pal., 879. P. 373.Wachsmuth and 
Springer, Rev. Pal., 3, 885, p. . 
I 4, hidden bv column" ir few, ne lav-e fl,llowed l)v small ones in 
vertical ri, w" no anals. Amas dich ,t, ,m, ,us, lfiserial below and above the 
lfifurcati ms. 
Gcnotype. Eucalyptocrimts polydactyhts McCoy. 
Distribution. Siluriala Gotland, Enland, America. 
Tbis g-ems is regarded as ]eadin- from the _Xlelocrinidae towards the Calyçtocrinidae. 
having a simi]ar distribution of the cup idates, but with i[lr bevolad the first hot paired, and 
the arlns hot resting in COlapartments between partitions. It is essentially a Gotlandian form, 
of which six pecies have been described tmder tbe naine Çorvmbocrimts. The genus is doubt- 
fullv recognized here from SOlne imlerfect specimens derived frlaa a formatiola which has 
produced a number of new and strange fol-ns, one of which is figured. 

Clonocrinus occidentalis new species 
Pate 7, fins. I8, zSa 
tIas deeply StlllkCll lasal cavity, with the slnall /3[ at the botte, m: and the 
i Ir folhwin the fivst in sin,.o_,-le vertical succession. 
This may be compared with Corymbocrimts hwz'is Ang., pl. 23, fig. 20. 
ttorizon and local#v. Decatur limestone ; near l'erryville, Tennessee. 



CALYPTOCRIXI DAE 

35 

Familv (AI.Y I'T CRINI DAE Angelin 
5hmocvclic. Dcwsal CUl) usuallv with 4 P'P' and concave ba,e; hmer brach- 
ials and interlwachials incorp«wated in CUl), which above the base is perfectly 
lentamerous; plates of calyx usuallv limited to a definite number; radials in 
contact all al-mnd : n,- anals" arms, usuallv _o. resting in pairs in cmpartments 
fol-med hv vertical l)artitions ]orne lv pr«cesses rising lCr(m the fixed iBr and 
il I Br t« varyin, heights" teglnen elevated i_ a central anal tube, arld composed 
'f 4 circlets of large plates vari«mslv shaped bearing the partiti(ms. Silurial» 
and Devcmian. 
For instructive diagrams illustrating the structure, see N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. 

EUCALYPTOCRINUS G,-,ld fuss 
Platcs î, ?. 9 
Eucalyptocri»dtcs Goidfuss, Petref. Germ., 8-6, p. e 4. 
Eucalyptocrim«s. Agassiz, Ann. Nat. Hist., 838. p. 447.Vachsmuth and Springer. Rev. Pal., 3, 
P. 7; N. A. Crin. Cam., 7. p. 33z-Bathe r, Treatise on Zool., 3, ]o. p. 64.Veller, Bull. 
Chicago Acad. Sci., 4, pt. ], goe, p. mz.Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., 93, P. gz.Jaekel, 
Phylogenie und S'ystem, I018, p. 3z.Çomplete reference with iist of synonyms and species, Bassler, 
Bibliogr. Index, 95, PP. 5o-5o7. 
Clyx el«mKate to wide spreading" BB 4-. at 1)cttom f an inverted fulmel 
fiwmed bv RR at le sides, followed bv l-Br. lier and ll-lBr. 2 each iBr one 
large 8- or o-sidcd. angular al)ove. SUlq«,rting a pair ,f ehmgate plates of 
second range extending upward l,etween the afin-bases t,, a connecti,m with 
the partitions" a single iI [tIr «f similar f«,rm rests Ul)m the truncate second 
l-Br and COllllects with the partition in line with the rav. Xo anals. Al'lns 
biserial, paired, restin in o vertical c,,mpartlnents botmded bv pal-titi,ms sup- 
p¢wted bv lw«cesses arising fl-Om the iBr and ilIBr plates extending the full 
height of the tegmen and lneetin al»ove in a circlet of peripheral plates. Teglnen 
COlnposed usually «)f 4 ranges of plates, ttl»ulal-, expanding upward into a 
canopy having an inner set of plates variable in lmmlmr, often 4, surrounding 
a central anal ,q)ening, either direct, or produced into a short tube. 
Gcnotypc. Ettcal3'ptocrinus rosaccus Goldfuss. 
Distribution. Silurian" Gotland, England, Anml-ica. 3ne species in Middle Devonian, 
GerlllallV. 
This prolific Silurian gelms, first described froln a Devonian species, which still remains 
the olllv olle klloWil frOlll that epoch, has bv the growth of research becolne the leading known 
crinoid of its typical horizon, both in variety and distribution. Some 4o species have now 
been described froln the Eurol)ean and Alnerican areas, ilcluding 7 from Gotland. 3 from 
England, and 3o from the Xiagaran of America, some of which are prolmbly synonyms. 
The Alnecan species are distrilmted among the subdivisions of the Xiagaran as follows" 
Rochester 4, Waldron 7, Racine , Beech River 8, Decatur . The last e are now first de- 
scribed, one of theln marking a new departure fl-elll the type. The Tennessee collections 



36 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

from the 13eech River formation and the Waldron shale at Newsom have yielded exception- 
ally fine material of already known species, some of which I am illustrating with new figures, 
where the characters are better shown than in the originals. Several of the leading forms are 
so amply treated in the published accounts that further attention is hot needed. A full list 
of the species with their references is given in Bassler's Index. This genus is remarkable for 
the absolute uniformity of its cup plates. In all the numerous species there is scarcely a 
variation from the number, form and distribution of the plates as above stated. 

Eucalyptocrinus elrodi S. A. h'Iiller 
Plate 8, figs. _r, z 
Eucalyptocrinus elrodi MilIer, 17th Rep. Indiana Dep. GeoI., 189z, p. 650 (adv. sheets, p. 4o), pl. 7, 
figs. 9, lo.Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 339, pl. 81, figs. 7a, 8-13.Bassler, 
]ibIiogr. Index, 1915, p. 5o3, 5o4. 
The colonv of the \Valdron shale at Newsom seems to have been particu- 
larly favorable to the growth of this and the succeeding species, they having 
attained a size unprecedented in the genus. I figure here two calices far exceed- 
ing those from the type locality, and in v,hich the pustulose ornament in t',vo 
styles is wonderfullv sbarp, and the calvx plates are delineated with the clarity 
of a diagram. 
Horizon and locality. \Valdron shale, Niagaran; Hartsville and Waldron, Indiana; 
Newsom, Tennessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus magnus \Vorthen 
Plate 8, fig. 3 
Eucalyptocrinus magnus Worthen, Geol. Surv. Illinois, 6, 187, p. 5Ol, pl. 25, fig. 3.--Wachsmuth and 
Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 348, pl. 82, figs. 7, 8.--]assler, Bibliogr. Index, I915, p. 5o5. 
This fire of a cup 75 mm. in diameter is given to show the maximum 
size that may be attained by the genus. It is hot an isolated example, as the 
species is typically large, with cup lov, broad and smooth, and specimens are 
hot uncommon of approximately the dimensions of this. It is abundant in the 
Waldron beds at Newsom, and a characteristic fossil of them, hot having been 
found at the Indiana localities, although it is reported from the Racine dolomite 
of the Chicago area. For the opposite extreme in size reference should be had 
to E. ovalis, of which some specimens are less than 5 mm. in diameter, and which 
rarely exceed IO or IZ mm. (see N. A. Crin. Cam., pl. 8z, fig. 4). 
Horizon and locality. Waldron shale, Niagaran; Newsom, Tennessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus lindahli \Vachsnmth and Springer 
Plate 8, figs. 4-5 
Eucalyptocrinus lindahli Wachsmuth and Springer, Ara. Geol., 189, p. 139; N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 347, 
pl. 82, fig. 9.--VVood, ]ull. 64, U. S. Nat. :Mus., 9o9, p. 47, pi. 12, figs. 5, 6.--Bassler, BibIiogr. Index, 
1915, p. 504. 
A rare species, which was tllkllown to collectors from the tilne of Troost, 
who exhibited in 1849 what he rightly called a maffnificent specilnen tlnder the 



CALYPTOCRINIDAE 

37 

naine Eucalyptocrinus splendidus which remained buried in lais unpublished 
monograph until 19o9, down to the date of Wachsmuth and Springer's descrip- 
tion. Only two or three specimens have been found, all remarkably true to type, 
from v«hich I ara giving figures of a very mature and what may he a young indi- 
vidual. The depressed interbrachial partitions wholly lack the thickening and 
wide extension of those of E. milli9ame; instead they are narrow and knife- 
like, v,ith a peculiar splitting or doubling at the extreme upper end--seen also 
in E. z'entricosus. 
Horison and locality. Beech River formation, Niagaran; Wayne and Decatur counties, 
Tennessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus milliganae Miller and Gurlev 
Plate 8, figs. 6-8 
Eucalyptocrhms milli9anae, Miller and Gurley, Bull. IO, Illlnois St. Mus., 1896, p. 88, pl. 5, figs. 4-6. 
Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 1915, p. 5o5. 
This is one of the best defined species of the genus, but Millet and Gurley's 
type specimens were imperfect and failed to show its most distinctive character, 
the wing-likë projections of the interbrachial partitions, as is seen in the three 
specimens I have figured, especially fig. 6. These are selected out of a dozen or 
more crovns ahnost equally perfect, fron a colony in the uppermost shale of 
C ' 
the Beech River formation at Tu k s Mill, which bv their prominence gave to 
that bed the naine Eucalyptocrimts zone. These specimens vary greatly in size, 
from 2o to 5o mn. in height of crown, but without exception they have lhe pro- 
jecting partitions more or less indicated by which the species is readilv distin- 
-uished. This is modified by growth, being lnore pronounced in the older indi- 
viduals. Along with this character the turbinate calyx, broadly truncate at the 
base, and the smooth surface, are substantiallv as described, and the median 
swelling of the arms, narrowing to fine points above, is to le noted : they do hot 
fold over the tegmen or encroach upon it in anv v,'ay, but the widening parti- 
tions curve over to a junction with the central parts, formin,e, a broad, fiat cir- 
cular roof, v«ith all its plates well exposed. This is in marked contrast with 
E. ventricosus in which the exposed part of the teg-men is reduced to a small disk. 
Hori:on and localita,. Beech River formation. Eucal3,Ptocrim«s zone, Niagaran- Tuck's 
lkçill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus ventricosus \Vachslnuth and Springer 
Plate 8. fi,qs. 9-12 
Eucalyptocrinus ventricosus XVachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 341, pl. 83, figs. II, I2. 
Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, I915, p. 507. 
The most abundant species in the ]eech River formation, being' round at 
almost all the localities throughout the Tennessee river area, but only at the 
Tuck's lnill beds bave such finely preserved specimens been recovered as those 



,]g SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

I ara figurine. It is n«)tal)le alwavs f«)r the full rotundity of ce)rite)u1", the arlnS 
infolding ch,selv, t,ver the mar¢in of the te-lnen, with slightly visille pal-titi,laS, 
lcavinp_, exposed onlv a small disk in the center, in strong contrast to the wide- 
spreading ro«,f of E. milligcmae. 
l;eech River formation, Niagaran" Decatur, \Vayne and Perry 

Horizon and local#v. 
counties, Tem]essee. 

Eucalyptocrinus sp. 
Platc g. fi'd. I3 
\ form from the P, eech River formation, Decatur Comty, Tennessee, with cup once 
and a hall wider than high, and unusually tumid plates, probably different from the other 
species. 

Eucalyptocrinus pernodosus new species 
Platc O. fiys. r- 4 
This species, fr,ln the Ulqerln«st NiaR-aran, stands out distinct fro,in the 
others lw its extremelv low a(l broad cup, twice a wide as high, relatively 
en,wlnOUS RR, and the hih convexity of its cup-plates. In mature specilnens, 
as in figs.  and 2, this oes to the extreme of nodcMtv, the plates beinff mediallv 
1)r«),luced illt,) spil«,US projections reselnl)linR" l)effs. The Cl-OWll is unusuallv 
elonFate, exceeding the longest c)f E. milliganac 1)v o per cent, but this exces- 
sive lelRth is strictlv in the arms, which are also st«)ut, with little taper, but 
fi-)ldin-«)ver at the tips )etween the nal"row 1)artitk)ns, which are thus left well 
expc)sed surrc)unding a relativelv small median disk. This aud lhe forlnS fc)llow- 
ing are the OlflV exalnl)les of the genus as vet round in this fOl-lnatiola. In con- 
t«)ur «)f cup the species mav 1)e CC)lnpared with E. dcprcssus of S. A. Millet. froln 
the Racine dolomite, fiured in N. A. Crin. Cam., pl. 8z. fig. 3- 
Horison a.d localitv. Decatur limestone, Niagaran: quarries above Perryville, Ten- 
nessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus sculptilis new species 
Platc 9. fig.". 5-6a 
This companion species, from the saine h,-,riz,n as the last, is the reverse 
«,f it in most of the characters. Inslead of the lwoad, low cul, it is here of the 
sul»turlfinate t.vle fre«luent in the ,-enus, .and in place of the striking convex or 
nodose elevati,-,n ,f thc plates, there is an e«lually strikin.o,q surface marked lw a 
delicate sculpturing extending from the RR t, the uppermost cup-plates. The 
singular appearance of the stem shown in fi.. 5 is due to a peculiar spreadin 
of the lmp_, nodal ossicles, exposin 1)etween them a Rreater number of short 
internodals. The structure is evidentlv similar to that seen in the Devonian 
Dolatocriuus, as is fully explained and illustrated in my paper upon that R-enus, 



CAL YPTOCRI NIDAE 

39 

lhlll. I 5, U. S. Nat. lus., i)2i, lp. 6-, pis. 9, io. ['l-esunlablv the long 
runded cohmmals in the stem of tiR. 5 are ncdals siluilarlv overgl-OWil, but 
with,ut separati,n to exp«,se the intervenin" plates. 
Horizon and locality. Decatur limestone, Niagaran" Bluffs near Perryville, Tennessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus Sl). 
Pl«tc O, figs. 7, 7a 
A form from the saine h«izcn as the preceding having a perfectly smooth surface and 
turbinate calyx, which mav l»e a nexv species, l»ut the characters are hot sufficientlv pro- 
nounced for descril»tion, and there it a little uncertainty as to the number of IBr. 
Horizon and 16calitv. saine as last. 

Eucalyptocrinus crassus ] l all 
['latc 7, .filS. I0, 20 
lç.ucalypto«rinus crassus Hall, Trans. AIbany Inst., 4, 1863, p. 197.assler, ibliogr. Index, I915, p. 503. 
The most alnmdant American pecie, amlly illustrated ia various l)ublica- 
ti(ms n()te(1 in the Index. The two fiures arc iven here mçrelv fc)r COml)arison 
with Gacacrinus in regard to the ventral l)yramid. The structure is further 
hown in the Camerata m()nogral)h, pl. S, tiRs. )2, 4, Il- 
Horizon and locality. XValdron shale : the specimeus figured are from Hartsvil!e, lnd]ana, 
but the species also occurs abundantly at Wahlron, and at Newsom, Telmessee, and is reported 
frç)m the Racine doh)mite of the Chcago area. 

CALLICRINUS D'Orbigny 
Plate 9 
Callicrinilcs D'Orbigny, Prodr. Pal.. , 849, p. 45- 
Callicrim«s Pictet, Traité Pal., -d ed., 4. 1%7, P. 3oL--\Vachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., 3, 885, p. 35; 
N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. 353.Veller, Jour. Geol., 5, 7, P- 774; ull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 4, pt. 
ooo. p. tT, fig. 47.Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 9oo, p. 64. fig. 77.Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 
d ed., 913, P. i9.Çomplete reference and list of sp«cies, Bassler, iblingr. Index, 95, p. 
imilar t [ttcalyptocrintts in the CUl», l)tlt l)asal concavitv uuallv broader ; 
temen c«,ntracting to a decanter shape, and partitions only extendin part wav 
to ends of arms" large spin,us processes freluently given ff frolu plates of cup 
and tegmen, the upper circlet of the latter often extended in four quadrant- 
shaped horizontal lwojections, sometimes to a considerable length. 
Gcnotype. Eu.eeniacrinitcs costatus Hisinger. 
Distribution. Siluriau" Gotland, England, America. 
This closely allied form, also typically Gotlandian, bas added eight more species to the 
Calyptocrinid type for that area. besides one or two perhaps undescribed, from England. It 
also became well established in the American Silurian, where if judged by the number of 
repoed species it would appear to be one of the leading crinoids, limited, with one exception, 
to a single formation or its equivalent, the Racine dolomite of the Chicago area, from which 
nine species have beeu described. A these species are nearlv all based upon internal casts of 
the calvx, in which some of the characters are O»scure or hot shown at all, there is probably 



d.O SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

in this genus, as well as in EucaIyptocriJms, some duplication. The generic relations of the 
species were at first hot understood, some being described under Eucalyptocri»ms and some 
as a strange organism called by I-lall C,ptodisct«s, now known to be appendages of the 
Callicrinus tegmen. Weller was the first to point out this fact, and his studies upon the 
abundant material of the Cicago area did much toward clarifying out understanding of the 
American occurrences. 
Most instructive figures for the explanation of the genus are given by Bather in the 
Treatise on Zoology (Lankester), 3, I9OO, p. 163. 
The exceptional species from the Laurel formation described by Wachsmuth and 
Springer from a single specimen can now be further iIlustrated, and some of its characters 
better defined. Froln fragments we know that there were other species in the same beds. 

Callicrinus beach|eri \Vachsmuth and Springer 
Plate 9, fi9s. 8- 3 
Callicrim«s beachlcr Wachsmuth and Springer, Ara. Geol., IO, 1892, p. 14o; N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 355, 
pl. 83, figs. I4a, b. 
The series of figures froln six specilnens here given are especially directed 
to the surface characters of the dorsal cup, which is ntable for the extremelv 
high and sharp wavy ridges which traverse the plates from radials to afin-bases. 
In the type specimen this v«as much obscured by hard lnatrix, but these speci- 
lnens occurred in a sort gralmlar limestone readily removed bv preparation. 
The smooth, decanter-shaped pyramid enclosed by the arlns, with the ver', short 
partitions at the lower mar.o_,-in, are also well shown. 
Horiaon and locality. Laurel limestone, Niagaran; St. Paul. Indiana. 

Callicrinu-. sp. 
Plate 9, figs. _r_l-_r 5 
These are the terminal quadrant-shaped plates of the tubular tegmen which 
abut by fours, with a small anal opening in the middle. First described bv Hall 
as Cryptodiscus, they have been thoroughly explained by \\relier in Iris paper 
for the Chicago Academy, and Bather's figures 2, 3 and 4, on page 16 3 of the 
Lankester Zoology, show how they go together. 
Horizon and locality. Laurel limestone, St. Paul, Indiana. 

Callicrinus sp. 
Plate 9, fig. 6 
This is auother of the quadrant plates which were only connected with 
their fellows by short sutures, and beyond that were produced into greatly 
elongated, rounded appendages. Doubtless these types represented different 
species, perhaps some of those described by Weller from the Chicago area, but 
we have only the franents of this and the preceding form, v,hich are too 
meagre for comparison of species. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 



BATOCRINIDAE 41 

Falnily ]3ATOCRINIDAE \Vachslnuth and Springer 
Monocyclic. ]3ase hexagonal. BB 3, equal. Lower brachials and inter- 
brachials incorporated in dorsal cup; radials in contact except at anal side; 
proximal anal plate in line with RR, heptagonal, followed by three in second 
range; ravs usually branching within the cup, and the free arms simple, pin- 
nulate; first prilnibrach quadrangular except in Periechocrinilme. Oldovician 
to Carboniferous. 
Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, I918, p. 34, goes back to the plan of Angelin, and while 
rejecting Monocyclica and Dicyclica as grand divisions of the crinoids, proposes monocyclic 
suborders based upon the number of basals" but after listing those of 4 and 5 BB as Tetramera 
and Pentamera, he throxvs the remainder, whether with 3, 2, or undivided basals, into a 
single suborder, [iomera. LTnder this he puts together all Batocrinidae and Actinocrinidae 
into the younger family, Actinocrinidae, a short-lived derivative of the other, on the ground 
that the distinguishing character between them, viz." that the first has three and the last txvo 
anals in the second range would scarcelv be suflcient even for separating oene a. In this 
he completely ignores the ahnost unrivaled constancv of the characters by xvhich these two 
familles are separated according to the accepted classification. 
It is now well known that among the crinoids modifications of the anal structures yield 
characters of the highest taxonolnic value. A character in zoological classification derives 
its value, as has been repeatedly pointed out by the most eminent authorities, hot from its 
1-,hysiological irnportance, but from the uniformity xvith which, however unimportant func- 
tionally, it prevails throughout manv different species, and is common to a great number of 
forms and hot common to others. Here the familv Batocrinidae, extending from the Ordo- 
vician to the later Loxver Carboniferous, with nearly 300 species, distributed among -'24 genera 
which differ alnong themselves bv many striking and conspicuous features, is held together 
by a definite structure of the anal area, xvithout the slightest deviation save an occasional 
sporadic specimen. A perfectly evident transitional genus leads to the Actinocrinidae, the 
character of which is equally constant and invariable in over oo species, and 7 thoroughly 
well defined genera, 
No one looking at a complete collection exhibiting tle entire assemblage of genera and 
species under these txvo forms, or at the ample illustrations of them as given in the Camerata 
monograph, will doubt for a moment that the far-reaching characters by xvhich they are 
defined mark the lines of descent. For an author of a systematic work to say that they xvould 
hardlv serve {or separating genera, is pure dogmatic assertion, ruade xvithout the slightest 
consideration of the facts. 

Subfamily CARPOCRININAE ]3ather 
]3]3 3; RR rather large; I]3r quadrangular; IIBr usually passing into the 
free arms, mostly 2, occasionally 3, 4, or 5 to the ray; iBr definitely arranged; 
anal plates in vertical row; tegmel composed of numerous small plates, with 
orals in the center compressed : column round. 



.Jr2 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION" 

CARPOCRINUS  Iiiller 
Plate 7 
Carpocrinzts Millier, Monatsb. Berlin Acad. Wiss., I, 1848, p. 208; \crh. Naturh. \ erein, Iz, I855, P- I9--- 
Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal.. z, i88I, p. o5 (full synonymy, pp. o7, Jo8).--Bather, Treatise 
on Zool., 3, I9oo, p. iOS.--ZitteI-Eastman, Textb. Pal., ;d ed., I913, p. I94.--Jaekel, Phylogenie und 
System, I918, p. 37. 
Phoenicocrmuts Austin, Ann. Mag. Nat. Itist., II, 843, p. zoS.--.lbracrinus D'Orbigny, Prodr. Pal., 
185o, p. 47.--Habrocrimts Angelin, Icon. Crin. Succc., 1878, p. 3; Pionocrinus Ang., ibid., p. 4; Lcpto- 
cri»nos Ang., ibid., p. 3. 
Calvx rotund with protul»eralt lmse; iBr usuallv in several ran-es; anals 
in 1rcmlinellt ridge : arms st«,ut, nct over tWo to the ray,  ith brachials uniserial, 
quadrangular or slightly cuneate, l»earing a pinnule on each side, s(,metimes 
two at the longer face. 
Genol3,]e. ,4ctinocrinites sim]@.r l'hillips. 
Distribution. Silurian; Gotland. England, America. 
This genus, treated tmder several names, is one of the most prolific of the north Euro- 
pean Silurian, frm which no less than nineteen species have been described, all occurring 
in Gotland. and at least one also in England. A full list is given bv \Vachsnmth and Springer, 
Rev. Pal., 2, pp. o7-8. Representing as it does an earlv and simple Batocrinid type, some 
migrational extension into the American Silurian might well be expected, and in fact was 
looked for with confidence as the Niagaran fauna of Indiana and Tennessee began to shoxv 
its remarkable development: So far this expectation has been realized by onlv a single species, 
which is believed to be fully characteristic as judged by the calyx alone. For comparison, and 
to illustrate the accompanying type of arms with their doubled pinnules, [ ara figuring on 
plate 7 a complete crown of C simpL'.r, the species which is common to Egland and Gotland. 

Carpocrinus sculptus new species 
Plate 7, figs. _" t-_'«b 
F.xcept fc, r the absence of arnls, tle sl»ecimen is very perfect, the calvx 
being entirelv free including the tegmen • even «,f the arms there are short stumps 
in one rav. enough to show that they hax e the ntmflel-, stoutness and uniserial 
brachials characteristic of the genus. The calvx is well rounded, with protuber- 
ant base, prçporti«mally more elongate and with m,re ranges of iBr than usual. 
ledian row of anal plates very consl)iCU«Us , passing up int« the tegnen to an 
opening midwav fr«m the center and next to the p«,sterior çral, bordered bv a 
circlet of small convex plate.a. Tegnen str«,ngly marked l»y 5 very distinct orals. 
4 small partly enclsing the much larger p,sterior me, and extremelv conspicu- 
ous ambulacra with a double series of c«,vering plates, passing outward and 
l»ranching to the o arm-opelfings" ilteralnl»tlacra small and numerous. Surface 
of cup plates very çrnatelv sculptured" this is sharp and distinct cm the part 
which was imledde(1 in the sort matrix, fig.  , lmt in fig. ea. owing to erosion. 
the surface appears perfectlv Snlooth. 
Two of Angelin's species, Habrocrims or«tissiuurs and H. oratus, have a similar orna- 
mentation, but are otherwise different. 
Hori=on and lo««litv. I,aurel limestone. Xiagaran- St. Paul. lndiana. 



BATOCRINIDAE 43 

DESMIDOCRINUS Angelin 
Plate î 
Dc«midocrinus Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 878, p. 5.Vachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., 2, 88, 
p. m8.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 9oo, p. 66.--Zittel-Eastman, 2d ed., I93, P. 94.--Jaekel, 
Phylogenie und System, I98, p. 37- 
Calvx as in CarpocriuuÆ. but with iI;r few, anals hot in promhmnt row, 
arms irregular, 3, 4, «,r perhal»s 5, t the rav, uniserial ; brachials quadrangular. 
Gcnotypc. D«smidocrim«s pentadactylus Angelin. 
Distribution. Silurian ; Gotland. England, America. 

Desmidocrinus laurelianus new species 
Plate 7, figs. 24-24h 
This and the succeedin..q- species are referred to the ab,,ve Gc, tlandian enus 
lecause of the increase ,-,f arms alpe, ve no. and the smaller iBr areas, t tere the 
latter consist chiefly c,f a sine-le lal"e plate. 111 bolh the anal interradius is fullv 
developed, but not in the f,)l-ln of a raised vertical row as in Crpocri, us. Ill 
this the rav hralches on the second llP, r. Çup plates are cc, nvex and smooth. 
Horizon and locality. Imurel limestone, Niagaran: St. Paul, lndiana. 

Desmidocrinus dubius new species 
Plate 7. fig. 25 
l)istinguished fro,in the l»l-ecedin " bv the ln,de of al-ln-l»ranchi_, which 
here occurs first Oll alout the sixth II Fit. alld lel'hal)s a..qain (ll ¢-,lle l-alllUS, thus 
iving 4 or 5 arms t, lhe rav. The calvx is me, re el,,ngate and CUl» more tur- 
binate, and the reference tn the Renus is ruade with some d-ubt. 
ltori:ot and locality, saine as last. 

Cylicocrinus canaliculatus S..\. Miller 
Plate 7, figs. 26-20 
Çylicocrimts canaliculatus Miller, Sth Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 894. p. 285 (adv. sheets, 892. p. 3), 
pl. 5, figs. 3, 4.--As Barrandcocrinus. ¥achsmuth and Springer, N. A. Cin. Cm., 897. pp. 484. 
485.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 9oo, p. t66.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., tgt3, P. g5--- 
Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 95, P. o. 
The mystery surrounding the relations of the genus founded upon this species as type 
has hot been solved bv anv of the recently acquired material, bv which our information is 
still limited to the dorsal cu l) below the arm-bases; it remains insufficientlv known for a 
generic definition. It has the calvx of the Batocrininae, similar in all visilfle respects to that 
of the Swedish BarrandcocrinltS with the recumbent arms--a similarity which led \Vachsmuth 
and Springer to think it might possilfly belon¢ to that genus. The specimens I have since 
obtained show a thin, flange-like projection at the base which seem to me inconsistent with 
the close enveloping of the cu l, by the pendent arms such as is indicated bv the various figures 
of Barrandcocrimts. for example in mv recent paper on Unusual Forms of Fossil Crinoids, 
['roc. U. S. Nat. Ius., 67, 1926, pl. 9. figs. 6- 7. 
Horicmt and locality. Laurel limestone. Niagaran : St. Parti, Indiana. 



44 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Cylicocrinus spinosus ne\v species 
Plate 7, figs. 3 o. 3oa 
Founded upon an isolated hexagonal base with prominent spinose projec¢ 
tions, differing thus from all the other specimens. [av be only a variant of 
the type. 
Horiou and local#y, same as last. 

Subfamily PERIECHOCRININAE Barber 
BB 3- IBr hexagonal ; iBr numerous, passing into iAmb ; tegmen composed 
of numerous small undifferentiated plates. 

PERIECHOCRINUS Austin 

Plate 

Perlcchocrinitcs Austin Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Io, I842, p. o9. 
Periechocrlnus McCoy, Syn. British Foss., x855, P. 56. \Vachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., 2, p. 27 
(list of species) : N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. 59.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 9oo, pp. 66, x68. 
Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal.. 2d ed., I93, p. I94.--Jaekel, Phylogenie und System, 98, P. 35--- 
Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 95, PP- 953, 954 (references, synonyms and list of American species). 
Calyx elongate, slender, expanding to the arm-bases; cup-plates long and 
rhin, with prominent axial folds along radial series; rays bifurcate two or three 
times within the cup, leading to from 20 to 40 free arms, biserial, and usually 
hot branching after beconfing free. 
Genotype. Actinoo'inites monili.oruds Phiilips. 
Distribution. Silurian: GotIand, EngIand, America. 
Of the large number of Siluriav_ species which have been referred fo this genus, at least 
one is from England, 9 are from Gotland. and  froln North America. The latter are dis- 
tributed as follows : Rochester shale, I ; Laurel limestone, 2 ; Waldron shale, I ; Brownsport. 3 : 
Racine dolomite, 4. Besides these are two froln the Lower Carboniferous. and one in Europe 
from the Devonian which may go better under Saccocrimts. 
The typical form, as represented bv the abundant and well known English species. 
P. moniliformis, is well marked and readilv distinguished by the extremely elongate, slender 
cup, thin plates, unusually high RR and IBr with their conspicuous axial folds running to the 
arm-bases. Several species of that type have also been described from America, but along 
with them are some others which while having the saine general calvx arrangement are want- 
ing in the above characters, having the cup-plates lower, thicker, more convex and Mthout 
folds. Taking as an example of this type such a form as the Carboniferous P. wl,;tei, pictured 
in N. A. Crin. Cam.. pl. 6, fig. . one is impressed with the force of the doubt vith vhich it 
is listed. In the Zittel-Eastman Textbook, edition of 93, 1 undertook to revive Hall's dis- 
carded genus çaccocrimzs as a receptacle for some of these non-characteristic species, and 
am making the distinction accordingIy here for two species. An entirely new form for the 
Tennessee Silurian turned up in the Beech River formation, cIearIy belonging to the English 
and Swedish type, but unfortunatelv too nmch iniured for a specific definition. 



BATOCRI N [DAE 45 

Periechocrinus tennesseensls (Hall) 
Plate zo, figs. z- 4 
Saccocrlnus temesseensls Hall, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Pal., 2, 875, p. 25, pl. 6, fig. IO.--Periechocrinus termes 
scensis, Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., I897, p. 528, pl. 5o, fig. 4 (figùred as Roemer's 
type of Saccocrlnus speciosus).--Wood, Bull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., 9o9, pp. 76, 78, pl. 6, fig. o.-- 
Saccocrinus speciosus Roemer (not Hall), Sil. Fauna Westl. Tennessee, 86o, p. 42, pl. 3, figs. 3a-c.-- 
]3assler, ]3ibliogr. Index, 915, P. 956. 
The species is well known to collectors in the Tennessee area from the 
earliest times. Both Troost and Roemer recognized it, and in the modern col- 
lections it is hot uncommon. It is rather on the border liue between the two 
allied genera as they are here defined. I ara figuring four specimens in order 
to show sonle of the minor variations which must be considered in anv critical 
comparison of the described species. ollle show the axial folds by obscure 
traces, and some scarcely at ail; but all have the slender calvx and narroxv tur- 
binate base usuallv seen in the genus. The arms varv lu different individuals 
hot otherwise distinguishable, from 4 to 5 to the rav. The species has beel 
round at the priucipal localities of the Brownsport group. 
Horigon and locality. Beech River and perhaps other formations of the Brownsport, 
Niagaran ; Decatur, Perry and Wayne counties, Tennessee. 

Periechocrinus sp. 
Plate zo, figs. 5, Sa 
The crushed and damaged specilnen here fiured is of a distinctly different 
type from the preceding, and has much the character of the typical English 
form: it is the onlv one thus far round that seems to approach the European 
type so closely; if in better condition for observation it would doubtless bear 
close comparison with some of those species. The calyx walls are very thin, and 
the axial folds leading to the arms sharp and prominent. In the number of the 
branching, biserial arms, which seem to run to 7 or 8 to the ray, the specimen 
shows a significant resemblance to Angelin's figures of P. moniliformis, Icon. 
Crin., pl. 9, figs. 4, 4b. 
Horizon and locality. ]3eech River formation, Niagaran ; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

SACCOCRINUS Hall 
Platc zo 
Saccocrlnus Hall, Pal. New York, 2, 852, p. 2o5: 28th Rep. New York St. Mus., 879, p. I27. Roemer, 
Sil. Fauna Westl. Tennessee, I86O, p. 44.--Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. Illinois, 3, 868, p. 347; 
ibid., 5, 873, p. 394---Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., 93, P. 94.--13assler, ]3ibliogr. Index, 
95, P- 954. 
Calyx arranged like Periechocrinus. but the arms from about 20 (excep- 
tionally o) openings branch after becoming free, and are biserial botb below 
and above the bifurcations. Plates usuallv thicker and more convex, and with- 
out axial folds. 

4 



46 SM ITHSONI-\N INSTITUTI()N 

Genotype. Saccocrimts spcciosus Hall. 
Dislribution. Silurian. Devonian and Lower Çarboniferous. America, lïurope. 
One of the Gotlandian species, P. lacz,is (Ang. hot Portlock)=P. ninor \Vachsmuth and 
Springer, Icon. Crin., pl. 18, fig.  , differs from the dominant type in a way that would lead 
toward this genus. The Carboniferous species belote alludcd to would be nmch more at home 
in this restricted company, and thê larger genus will be 1)etter balanced and lnore consistent 
in its characters with such forms as the first one hêre recorded eliminated. 

Saccocrinus benedicti S. A. 5Iiller 
Plate IO, fis. 6-Il 
Saccocrlnus benedicti, Miller, 7th Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., I892, p. 283 (adv. sheets, p. 29), pl. 5, 
fig. I.--Periechocrh, us ornatus, Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., I897, pl. 5, fig- 7 (hot 
pl. 5o, figs. 3a, b). 
A stronly" marked species, almndant at St. l'aul and obtained in excellet 
preservation lnilms the alms. The contrast letween it and P. tcntesscetsi« 
figured on the saine plate is most Stl-ikinK. There is a stout, ovoid calvx, with 
rather 1)l-oad base, thick plates of which the surface varies froln silnple convex 
to rugose, ne,dose, and even perhaI»s stellate ornament. The al-m-cq)elings stand 
out boldlv fl-om the calvx at al)crut the third III;r, thus lilniting the free arms 
to two to the rav: how they bl-anch, if they da, bevond that is unkla,wn. In riais 
slnall numl»er of arlns the species diffel-s widelv froln all cthers of the genus 
thus far known. The crue specilnen with stellate Ol-lamentation, fig. 14, is l)rob- 
allv of a different species, but lacks t lnuch in the arm l-egion for definition. 
Horizon a»d locality, kaurel limestone, Niagaran : St. Paul, Indiana. 

Saccocrinus cuspidatus new species 
Plate IO, ff(q. I fi 
A form partakin K more of the general shape of Pcriechocriuus than the 
preceding, but with a less slender, far larger and more robust calvx; wb_ile the 
shorter cup-plates with their sharp cusps instead of folds diffel-entiate it COln- 
pletely, and the latter character fr«,m all other species otherwise associated. The 
arms apparently lecome free with the III P,r. which would give an average of 
four to the rav, lmbably subjcct w variatim. The specimen is from a higher 
formation than the others mentioned. 
Horizon. and locality. Louisville limestone, Xia.e,aran : .[efferson County, Kentuckv. 
In the Laurel limestone at St. Paul. there is another large species, ill defined, described 
by Miller and Gurley as 5"accocrimzs umbrosus. Bull. 6, Illinois St. 5Ius., 895, p. 24. pl. 2, 
figs. 13, I4. 
Sul»falnih-I;.-T(')CI X INAE 
Temen lwcad, well diffelentiated. )lates large and heavy, fOllning a riid 
roof; arms n(,t lwanchin 1)evond the CUl): lfisel-ial ; fil-St IBr u.uallv quadlanKu- 
lat. Silurian to l.(,wer Çarl3«mifelCus. 



BATOCRINIDAE 47 

This extensive subfalnily, typicall.v Carboniferous, and hitherto considered as having 
originated in the Devonian, nmst now be lnoved a step farther back in the geological scale 
and credited to the terminal Silurian, as is proved by the occurrence of a weil defined species 
in the Tennessee area. 

Aorocrinus nodosus new species 
Platc o, fi.qs, ±6-±6b 
Clvx rotund, with slightly l»rotubcrant be; 1)lates elevated into sharp 
no(les: iBr few, hOt c«mnecting with tegmen except at the anal side. Anus sui»- 
central withat a tube. Tegmen plates SlnOth, and none of them spiniferous. 
The single specimel upon which this species is based was round in the uppermost forma- 
tion of the Tennessee Niagaran, the Decatur limestone, in a bed which is closdv associated 
with the overlying I.inden with its characteristic Helderbergian species of the Devonian 
çcvphocrinus. Xevertheless the presence in the saine laver of such an unquestionable Nia- 
garan form as Carvocr[nus orua.tus leaves no roo«n for doul,ting the stratigraphic position 
of our species, which is thus in accord with the great difference in its racles from that of the 
hitherto known Devonian forms. The extremely rotund and robust calvx and sharply nodose 
cup-plates produce a distinctlv new type. for which, however, we may bave a connecting link 
in a species from the Hamilton recently acquired, and herewith figured. 
It has been contended that the genus, torocrinus as fotmded lw Wachsnmth and Springer, 
N. A. Crin. Cana., I897, p. 470. should give wav to Coclocrinus of 5Ieek and Vorthen. kVhile 
this nmv be true for SOlne Lower Carboniferous species, that genus was founded upon a type 
with verv broad, concave base, from which most of the f.rms referred to ,4orocr[ntts are 
sufficiently differentiated, but which mav also have a forerunner in the new Devonian species 
here figured. 
Hori:on and locality. Decatur limestone, Niagaran: below Grandview. o mlles above 
Clifton on the Tennessee River, Perry County, Telmessee. Assoeiated with Mariacrinus 
rotundus. 

Aorocrinus clarkensis new species 
Plate Io, figs. r7, r7a 
This isolated specimen from the Devonian is figured for comparison with 
the preceding species. Whether it belongs to this genus is hot clear, in the ah- 
sence of the parts in the afin-zone, h is derived fr«,m the Hamilton leds of 
Clark Çountv, lndiana. 



48 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Familv PLATYCRINIDAE Roemer 
3[onocvclic. RR in contact all around. No anal. ]3B 3, unequal, forming a 
pentagon. 
This monocyclic family is intermediate between the typical Camerata and the Inadunata. 
As in the latter, the dorsal cup consists chiefly of basal and radial structures, those of inter- 
radial origin being in the Iater stages largely confined to the tegmen. It had a long geological 
range, from Silurian to Lower Carboniferous, and in the latter its typical fonns were fully 
developed, in which the plates above the radials enter but slightly into the cup, and the stem 
becomes remarkably specialized with an elliptical section and transverse ridge. It cuhninated 
with a great number of characteristic species, in which the dominant characters mav be seen 
and studied to best advantage. 
The Silurian and Devonian stage exhibits some marked variations, but in the main 
embraces forms of the simpler and more primitive types, showing the Ieast departure from 
the Camerate plm. .Vhile they are for the most part rare, the prescrit collections bave yielded 
abundant representatives of two of the subdivisions. In each the material is of exceptional 
importance, because the specimens belonging to some forms occur in such numbers and 
preservation as to afford the means of comparative studies hot hitherto possessed on either 
continent, requiring in one case the recognition of a new genus. 

Section I. Subfamilv COCCOCRININAE Bather 
Ravs with two or more primibrachs. 
The division here first discussed, embracing forms with 2 or more IBr, represents the 
simplest form of the Camerata, the calyx consisting only of 3 BB forming a pentagon, 5 RR, 
2 x 5 IBr, 5 iBr and 5 orals. The tegmen is ahnost completely occupied bv 5 large triangular 
orals forming a closed pyramid analogous to the lard-al stage of the crinids. Anal opening 
is lateral, in the interradio-oral suture, and the arms usuallv two to the ray. Column round, 
no sign of the elliptic columnals having yet appeared. 

LYONICRINUS new genus 
Plate   
Pro Coccocrims bacca Roemer, Sil. Fauna Westl. Tennessee, 86o, p. 5L--Cf. Coccocrinus Joh. Mailler, 
in Wirtgen und Zeiler, Verh. Naturh. Verein Rheinl., 2, 855, p. o.Zittel, Handb. Pal., , 
879, p. 347.--Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., pt. , 88, p. 58; pt. 3, t885, p. r4; N. A. Crin. 
Cam., t897, p. 738.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., pt. 3, 9oo, p. 56.Jaekel, Krinoid. DeutschI., 895, 
P. 95; Phylogenie und System, 98, p. 9L--Zittel-Eastrnan Textb. Pal., x93, P. x99.Bassler, 
Bihliogr. Index, 95, P. 248. 
Dorsal cup as in the Platycrinidae. Small basal in left posterior position. 
]Br 2. IIBr mol-e than 2. Tegmen composed of 4 large, triangular interambu- 
lacral plates (? orals) surrounding a central space, perhaps for posterior oral, 
with open clefts between them for amlmlacra; plns one large posterior plate 
f]anked by  smaller ones supporting a protulerant anal opening. Arms tell, 
unbranched, nniserial, v,'ith quadrangular brachials. 
Genolype. Coccocrims bacca Roemer. 
Distribution. Silurian; America. 
This genus is founded upon the species Çoccocrims l, acca. Roelner, of the Telmessee 
Silurian. Much has been written about the genus Coccocrims, and it still remains illy under- 



PLATYCRINIDAE 49 

stood, partly owing to scarcity of material, and partly to the inherent obscurity of all the 
early Platycrinidae because the dorsal cup is so simple and alike in so many genera. It has 
been shifted about in classification ; but most of the later authorities agree in placing it among 
the Platycrinidae along with Culicocrimts. From this Jaekel in lais worl on Phylogenie und 
System, I918, dissents, and while placing Culicocrimts among the Platycrinidae greatly re- 
stricted, transfers Coccocrimts to an entirelv different order, and ranks it in a suborder 
Hvocrinites al.ong x-ith Iesozoic and Recent forms such as Eudcsicrimts, Hyocrimts, lPtilo- 
-crimts, etc. 
The typical species, C. rosacezts, described bv Roemer in I844 as Plat3,cr[mts , vas ruade 
bv Johannes lIiller the type of Coccocrimts in 855. It has a tegmen constructed mainly of 
rive large triangular plates, interlocling and forming a pyrarnid somevhat resembling that 
of Haplocrizzus, hax-ing grooves along their edges: but with this difference, that vhereas in 
Haplocrimts the x'entral pyrarnid tests directly upon the shoulders of the radials, in Coccocrimts 
there is a set of plates interposed called " suborals," interbraclial in position, on which the 
trianflar plates rest in direct succession. The anus is at the line of junction between the 
posterior interbrachial and the triangular plate, each being notched for the opening. The 
structure is vell shoxvn by fiires  and 2 on plate . the first being from vhat is probably 
the original of Schultze's figure in lais monograph of the Eifel iEchinoderms, and the last 
from the specimen figured by \Vachsmuth and Springer in the Camerata monograph, pl. 3. 
fig- 4, obtained bv me at Gerolstein in 887. There is a slight difference in the contour of 
the tegmen of the two specimens, and in the appearance of the grooves, partly due to differ- 
ence in preservationthe last bein somewhat crushed--but the essentials are the saine. It 
is a [iddle Devonian species. 
The nearest allied form to Coccocrimt.s i,; Czdico,rimts, d'escribed bv Johannes lIfiller 
from the I.ower Devonian, xvhich bas likewise a tegmen composed of 5 large orals,,but thev 
are closely united bv suture, without anv groove along their edges : thev are also preceded bv 
plates interbrachial in position (pl. . figs. 3. 3a, 4, 4a. b. c). The chier difference between 
the two genera, so far as can be ascertained from the material available, is said to be that 
Culicocrizus has heavy, biserial arms. while in Coccocrimts, the arms are supposed to be uni- 
serial and rather delicate, and that the former has the lower brachials more deeply incor- 
porated in the cup than the latter. 
The tegmen of ('ttlicocrintts is paralleled bv that of M'rtillocrimts Hall, from the Onon- 
daga of New York, in being composed of closelv interlocking oral plates, bt without any 
underlying interbrachial structures (pl. x, figs. 5, 5a) • 
In 86o F. Roemer described the species Coccocriztus bacca, from the Silurian of Ten- 
nessee. It was a rare form, and he had but fev specimens, vhich disclosed nothing of the 
tegmen; but he saw the beginning of the interambulacral plates, which he and subsequent 
authors took to be the " suborals " as in C. rosaces. Little addition to his knowledge was 
obtained bv later collectors, \Vachsnmth in lais Tennessee excursions finding but four speci- 
mens, one of vhich preserved some of those plates, but hot intact. This vas figured in the 
Camerata rnonograph, pl. 75, figs. 5a-. It has been assumed that the interbrachiallv situated 
plates here. as in Coccocrimts, were followed bv a pyramid of trîangular plates substantially 
covering the ventral side. 5Iuch of the discussions of the generic position of Coccocrimti 
hitherto has been based on this species, noxv here separated. 
Among the collections ruade for me in Tennessee in 9o6- 7 is an extraordinary lot of 
rnaterial of this species from vhich considerable nexv information has been derived. There 
are in ail about ,ooo specimens, from tvo colonies hot far al)art. They occurred mostly in 
a shalv and limestone deposit disintegrating into clay, forming part of the lower member of 
the Beech River formation designated by Pate and P, assler as the Coccocrimts zone. The 
specimens chiefly consisted of the calx'x only, but a few were round with more or less of the 
arlns attached, uniserial, and ten in number. Iany of the specimens ha-e the interambulacral 



5o 

SM ITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

tegmeu plates tu gooE1 coudition, together with some additional structures connected with the 
anus. aud traces of aml)ulacra. 
In uumerous examples the base is well exposed, so tbat the positiou of the small basal 
can be observed. Jaekel and l,ather bave stated that this is n«,t a reliable character for the 
genus, and _laekel declares it is hot constant in C. bacca. These specimeus show that it is 
thorouglaly constant for the species, but that its position is hot in accordance with lhe general 
rule in crinoids with an unequallv, tripartite, monocyclic base, namely, left anterior (or 
7 o'clock). ¢3u the contrary it is here uniformlv at the left postericw ( o o'clock, pl. r t, figs. 8, 
-t, _-e2), whereas in C. rosacctts, as shown bv my specimens, it is normal. The former alpears 
t, be the case in the specimen figured in the Camerata mongraIh, pl. 75, fiffs, i Sa-c: but 
through misunderstanding a n»te was inserted in the expla:ation of fiff. Sa statinff that it is 
drawn with the anal side at the left lower corner (.vhich would naake it according to rule), 
whereas it is actuallv at the right lower corner. Fig. c, the l)osterior view, shows this by the 
position of the interhasal suture, which wouhl be to the right of the interradial suture if the 
explanation was correct. 
_N,'ov the tegmen of C. bacca appears to be consideral»Iv different from that of the typical 
C. rosaccus. ]nstead of leing suboral plates succeeded bv the large triangular plates, as in that 
species, and as heretofore suppsed tu this. the interamhulacrals are themselves almost tri- 
angular, the lower face «,btuselv angular to fit directlv into the notch formed 1)y the sloping 
shoulders of the radials, while al)ove they are extended to an acute angle, so that when 
normal position thev would form a low pyramid, lq, ut instead of interlocking at the ai)ex thev 
leave a considerable open spacc in the middle, and are also hot in contact laterally, but are 
parted by open clefts running between their edges to the arm bases, along which traces of side 
pieces of ambulacra can occasionally be seen (pl. ] t. figs. 6 to 8). 
The larffe tegmen plates are analogous in position to orals, and that is prol)ab!y the 
lwoper terre for them. Four of them are of like shape and size. 1,rit the fifth remains to be 
accounted for. The central vacant space seen in ail the specimens is of the proper size aud 
position to l,,dge the posterior oral, pushed in between the other four by the anal structures, 
as in the tegmen of manv Camerata illustrated bv Vt'achsnmth and Springer on plate 3 of their 
monograph, and precisely as seen in that of Culicocrimts lgured herein on plate  I. figure 4c. 
It is evident that this tegmen was of rather fragile construction, as the ceutral plate is iu- 
variablv wanting, and the ambulacra only represeuted by traces. Thus the tegminal structure 
differs also from that of Haplocrimts and Cu[icocritus. in the fact that the plates of the ven- 
tral pyramid in those genera are closelv joined, those of Culicocritus without anv grooves, 
and those of tlal, locrimts with snperficial grooves at their edges, hot for ambulacra, but as 
mere receptacles for the arms, as herein now shown for the first time in I-t. mespili[ormis 
(pl. 25, figs. 28, 29. 29a. See abo Devonian Crinoid of N'exv York, pl. 4o, figs. o-I4. 
There is also a verv material difference tu the anal structure of the two forms. 
Coccocritttts there is a simple openin- at thc base of the posteri,r oral. In C. bacca, the anus 
is at the end of a short protuberauce, of which we oft, en find one plate, and sometimes one or 
two more succeeding it. in llace above a large posterior plate flanked bv a smalIer plate at 
either side. In one specilne_ font »lates in this sertes are visible, leadinff to the opeuing. 
The two flanking plates served as a strong sui»port, for we frequently see them. and the inter- 
vening posterior plate standing firmly upright, while all other plates of the tegnfiual arch 
have fallen down ('pl.  , figs. IO-2O). 
The evidence is conaplete to prove that the structure of C bacct is different frona that 
of C rosacetts in three major characters, riz. : the composition of the tegmen, the anal struc- 
ture, and the position of the small basal. From this it follows that thev cannot be retained 
in the saine genus. ,ccordingly I ara l»roposing for the Tennessee species the nexv genus 
L3'odcrimts, tu memorv of Cool. Sidnev ._"3. I.yon. who was an ardent student of the crinoids, 
and atlthor of Inauv notable genera and species from the I'entucky-lndiana area. 



PLATYCRI N 1 I)AE 

Lyonicrinus bacca (Roemer) 
Plate l l, fgS. 6-_ 3 
Coccooimts barre F. Roemer, Sil. Fauna \Vestl. Tennessee, I86O, p. SI, pl. 4, figs. 5a-c.--\Vachsmuth 
and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 1897, p. 739, pl. 75, fig- 5.--Wood, Bull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., I9O9, 
p. -09, pl. 4, figs. o.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 915, p. ;48. 
The species is sufficientlv discussed in the remarks upon the genus. 
Horizon and localitv. Coccocrim«s zone of lleech River formation, Brownsport group, 
Xiagaran : Decatur and Perrv counties, Tennessee. 

Coccocrlnus rosaceus (F. Roemer) 
Plate r. fi9s. . ra. b; 2 
Platycrim«s rosaccus Roemer, Rhein. Ueberg, 844, P. 63, pl. 3, fig. 3.--Coccocrinus rosaceus Job. Mfiller, 
Verh. Naturh. Verein Rheinl. I:, I855, p. _I, pl. 7, figs. 5a-c.--Schultze, Echin. Eifl. Kalk., 867, 
p. 89, pl. i2, fig. I3.--Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., I897, pl. 3, fig- 4. 
For comparison with L3'onicrinus l,acca. Iiddle Devonian : Eifel, Germany. 

Culicocrinus nodosus (Wirtgen and Zeiler) 
Plate . ficds. 3.3a 
Platycrinus nodosus \Virtgen and Zeiler, Verh. Xaturh. Verein Rheinl. i2, I855, p. 5, pl. 6, figs. 3.-- 
Culicocrinus nodosus Job. Mfiller, ibid., p. -'4, pl. 8, figs. I-4. 
See discussion under L3,onicrim«s. 
Lower Devonian : Çol,lentz, Germany. 

(?) Culicocrinus spinosus new species 
l'late I I, fi9S. JE' 4 a-c 
This naine is given to a solitarv specimen from Tennessee, xxith much 
doubt as t« its generic affinities, but chieflv on accc,unt of the rive large spinifer- 
ous interlockin,e, orals, which differ fr«,m those of the typical species in having 
the posterir plate flanked ou the outer side bv anal structures and smaller 
lateral plates, but nevertheless present considerable similarity in proportion 
and general arrangement. The 1)rimibrachs are also less deeply incorporated 
in the cup. 
Beech River formation, l;rownsport group. Xiagaran; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Platycrinidae indet., :No.  
Plat« ±z. figs. 2 4. e_/a, b 
A dorsal cup with massive l)late, and large BB. Beech ]ïiver formation " Decatur County, 
Tennessee. 

Platycrinidae indet., No. - 
Plate ±r. ficd. 25 
Calyx with large interambulacral plates in position. Laurel limestone" St. Paul. Indiana. 



52 SMITHSONIAX INSTITUTION 

Platycrinidae indet., No. 3 
Plate , figs. 26, 27, 28, 29 
A small species rather common lu the Laurel limestone at St. Paul, Indiana. 
The three foregoing species are figured in order to preserve a record of their occurrence, 
hoping that future discoveries may throw more light upon them. 

Hapalocrinus Jackel emend. Barber 
Plates II, 12 
Hapalocrinus Jaekel, Krin. Deutschl., I895, p. 37.--Bather, Geol. Mag., 4, I897, p. 342; Treatise on Zool., 
3, I9oo, p. I56. 
Platycrinidae with 2 or more [Dr; orals small; arms uniserial with cuneate 
brachials tending to biserial, branching once or twice; column large, bearing 
strong cirri. 
Genotype. Hapalocrinus clwans Jaekel. 
Distribution. Silurian to Lower Devonian; England, Gotland, Germany, America. 
The specimens which I have referred to this genus are notable for their profuse develop- 
ment of arms and pinnules, and of strong cirri occurring in definite whorls, at intervals ex- 
tending apparently the full length of the cclumn. The generic characters of these forms are 
not very certain. Some of them might perhaps better be placed under Cordylocrimts of 
Angelin, but the distinctions are hard to point out with confidence, and I have chosen the 
easier course by throwing them all under the one fonn, which is strongly typified by the 
"' .Platycrinus '" retiariu.s PhiIlips of the English Silurian. This arrangement would seem to 
include both uniserial and biserial arms--a variation that may occur among the later Platy- 
crinidae within the saine species, or even the saine individual, incident to growth, as seen for 
exatnple in P. huntsvillae. A very strongly marked species from the Lower Devonian is 
figured for comparison. 

Hapalocrinus gracilis new species 
Plate _r_r. figs. 30, 3-r, : 
With heavy cuneate arms and strong pinlmles, and 
plates. 

rather high tegmen 

Hapalocrinus cirrifer new species 
Plate _r2, fis. r, 2, 3, 4 
Remarkable for the long, slender arlns, in some specimens ahnost thread- 
like; the calvx is large, bnt details of its structure are obscure. 

Hapalocrinus pinnulatus nmv species 
Plate r_,. fiç. 5 
Calvx narrow and relativelv smaller, but bearing nmch stronger arlns and 
pinnules. 



PLA rYCRIN [D_\E 

53 

Hapalocrinus tuberculatus new species 
Plate _r2, fig. 6 
Arms and pinnules similar to the preceding, but calv-,= rotund, and with 
tubercular surface. 

Hapalocrinus tennesseensis new species 

Crown much displaced, 
brachials. 

Plate , fig. 7 
:ith sharply uniserial arms and quadrandar 

Ail the foregoing rive species from the Beech River formation, Brownsport grcup, Nia- 
garan: Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Hapalocrinus devonicus new species 
Plate 12, fi7. 8 
Unusually strong stem and cirri, large calyx, and tubercular surface. 
Kevser formation, Helderbergian, Lower Devonian ; Keyser, West Virginia. 

Brahmacrinus elongatus new species 
Plate 12, fiçs. 9-15 
The genus to which this species is referred was proposed bv Sollas, 1 to 
receive a Platvcrinid form frona the 13ritish Lower Carboniferous of true 
Camerate type, having the lower brachials completely incorporated in the cup 
bv means of solid interbrachials. Some of the earlier American species of simi- 
lar type, such as P. cricnsis. - might wetl be placed under it. and it affords a prac-, 
ticable resting place fol- the present singularly distinct forln. 
It mav be defined as a Platvcrinid with large I13r and II13r incorporated 
in the cup bv i13r in two ranges, huge 1313. and relatively smaller RR than in 
Platvcrinns. Mong with this it is remarkable for having the base divided iuto 
3 subequal plates, which are sharply excavate into a saucer-shaped depression 
surrounding a rather small stem. This bas a minute axial opening, which is a 
Platvcrinid characteristic, but there is no sign of elliptic columnals. The pecu- 
liar excavate base is seen in sex-eral species of Platvcrinus--such as P. hmtts- 
'illae and others shown in N. A. Crin. Cam.. pl. îo. fig, 12- pl. 73. figs. I I, 12. 
In the present species the elongate, rather cylindrical, form of the calyx is different from 
that of the l:'latvcrinidae generally', as is also the great size of the basals. Apparently there 
are two arms to the ray, which probably branch again. There are two good specimens of the 
calyx, and several bases. 
Horizon and locality. Laurel limestone, Niagaran; St. Paul, Indiana. 
1 Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 56. I9oo, p. -264, pl. I6, figs. I, . 
- N. A. Crin. Cam., 897, p. 676. See also as to the British form, p. 644. 



_.1. SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTI)N 

INSERTAE SEI)IS 
Nyctocrinus magnituBus new genus an«l species 
Plate .r2. fi.]s. O-2t 
.111011" the Telmessee cdlectims thel-e is a fOl-iii almlldantlx" l-el)reselted 
lv well lweserxed specimels, of whicl after fl-equcnt -eviews [ have l»een 
unable t,, fix the svstematic positiol. It is a dicyclic cri,,id of Çalnel-ate aspect, 
with 5 1BII. stlggesti tbe 1-)imel-occinidae" l»ut it bas the RR in comact all 
around, with no anal in the CUl, wbich excludes tbat falnilv as well as the 
Rh,d,crilfidae. The dicvclic base excludes the 3Ielocrilidae, and «,tbec Çam- 
elate familles tlmt might be suggested. Excelt fol- this, there would be a some- 
 -. large RI¢, with one or two 
what near approach t,) tbe llatvc-inidae. T1 e e a-e . 
1B-. filling ,mly part of the distal face, leaving well defined shculdel-S support- 
ing large iIr chiefly al)ove the line cf f¢R {pel-hals more popelly tegminal 
iAlb.), of wbich the poslerior ole seelns to le l-ather the lal-gest. Basals are 
lalge. CUlVilg into a shall,w c«mcax'itv, in whicb the fi ]I}[} f,-m a bl-oad. 
inverted coe. .rlnS are st,rot, lisel-ial. 2 ,,r 4 to the l-aV with occasionallv 
al,thel- l»iful-caticn. The lU,st remal-kalle charactel- is a long, spinose anal 
tube, x-lich projects bev,»nd the limits of lhe amns. 
Except for the well defined interbrachial plates resting o the radials, this form nfight 
fall under some of the dicyclic I.adunata" but with out present knowledge it mav as well be 
left in an imermediate lositio. In addition to the rive specimens figured in which more or 
less of the arms and anal tube are shown, and the two giving perfect internal and external 
views of the base. there are hall a dozen calices in which the saine type of dicvclic base 
clearly appearsso that the definition of characters here given mav be regarded as beyond 
question. It is a sigular fact that all the specù0ens in which the tube is shown differ from all 
çthers of the formatiçn, even those in the saine marix, in being very dark in colorwhich 
suggests the generic naine. 
leech River formation, Brownsport group, Niagaran" Decatur Çounty. Tennessee. 



PLATYCRI NIDAE 

55 

Section 2. Sulfamilv .IlAI¢SI]'CCR]NINAIï Bather 
Rays with olllv Olle primil)rach. 
Thc next subdivision, with ravs limited to a single primibrach, is abun- 
dantlv represented bv its earliest genus, remarkalle for the manner in which 
its lrachials to the axillarv secundibrach are buried in the cup. s as to produce 
a thoroughly Camerate structure, and for the constancv with which its charac- 
ters are maintained throughatt ntmerous species, now to le described. 

MARSIPOCRINUS Bather 
Platcs r3-rO 
.l[«rsupiocrinites Phillips (hOt de Blainville, 83o, in Murchison's Sil. Syst., 1839, p. 67z.--Austin, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., m, I84-', p. IO9. 
3Iarsul, iocri, us McCoy, British Pal. Rocks and Foss, 1854, p. 54.--Wachsmuth end Springer, Rev. Pal., _% 
88I, pp. 63, -3o; N. A. Crin. Cam., I897. p. 73o.--Weller, Bull. Chicago, Acad. Sel., 4, pt. 1, 19oo, 
p. I37. 
Marsipocrinus Bather, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 45, I88O, p. 73; Treatise on Zool., 3, 19oo, p. 156, 
fig. 7o.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, Ara. Ord. Sil. Foss., IOIS, p. 786. 
Cupcllaecrinites Troost, Ara. Jour. Sel., I849, p. 49; Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Soi., I85O, p. 6 (not defined.-- 
Cpellaccrims Meek and Vorthen (not Steininger), Proc. Acad. Nat. Soi. Phil., I865, p. I6; Geol. 
Surv. Illinois, _*, i866, p. 7;.--Shumard, Trans. Acad. Soi. St. Louis, _, I866, p. 36 ; p. 387, footnote.-- 
Meek, Ara. Jour. Soi., I866, p. I8. 
Platvcrinidae with «me ] I_,r, small, axillarv, and I1P,r cm either side of it 
resting m RR and whollv incorporated in d-rsal cup. fcllc, wed by another axil- 
larv in case of further divisim" ,ne large iP, r supported bv shc, ulders of RR. 
flanked bv smaller crues at Upler c,rners  hich mav le restricted to the terrien : 
arms stout, biserial, two or four to the ray. with large pimmles: tegmen com- 
posed of numerous oE1nl. and i_-\ml, plates: anu.q subcentral, directlv through 
the terrien, without a tube" orals small, unsvmmctric, pushed anteriç)rl_v, the 
posterior plate letween the other four; stem circular in section, lumen large, 
usually pentagonal or l)entapetal(us • small basal at 1. ant. side. 
Gcnotype. Marsttpiocrimts coclattts Phillips. 
Distribution. Silurian to I.ower Devonian" England, Sweden, America. 
The naine ll[arsupiocr[ntts, proposed bv l-'hillips for the English species, was l»reoccupied 
bv «le Blainville. Altbough Troost's ls. naine. Cup«llaccriuitcs, given for the form after- 
wards described bx r Roemer as Platvcrintts tctttcssct'nsts, wêts adopted and pul»lished by 3[eek 
and \Vorthen and bv Shumard, it is held invalid bv most authors for conflict with Cypcllac- 
crintts of Steininger. Bather's modification of Pbillips's naine, proposed to relnedy the exist- 
ing confusion, has been generally accepted. 
\Vhile the European Silurian bas furnMaed some excellent examples for illustrating the 
structure of the genus, especially those fiured bv Anelin from I;otland. the little that has 
been published in regard to it in America has been far /rom commensurate with its impor- 
tance as now known. This has been due to the extreme raritv o¢ specimens hereto¢ore avail- 
able. \Vachsmutla and Springer for the Çamerata monograph had verv lneagre lnaterial, either 
of our own or in other collections. \Ve had onlv two specimens with the tegmen preserved. 



56 S,XIITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

which were considered quite wonderful, and the Troost collection which has since become 
accessible was hOt much better supplied. The few calices that had been picked up on the 
glades consisted mostly of the dorsal CUl), or of the basal plates only, with the surface more 
or less smoothed by. erosion, and such as wel-e fotlud were usually assumed to belong to 
Roemer's species, M. tcmwssee,lsis. The publication later of Troost's lnonograph (P, ull. 64, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., I9o9) indicated the existence of a wider range of forms than had been 
previously known, and brought out a number of new specific names, but the preservation of 
the specimens was for the most part poor, and not much aid was given toward fixing tlae 
diagnostic characters of the species. The elaborate original descriptions were of specimens 
rather than of species. 
The collection now assembled furnishes for the first time adequate material for the study 
of the American forlns of the genus, which seems to have flourished profusely in the Ten- 
nessee area. Most of it was derived fronl the shales of the Eucalyptocrimts zone of the Beech 
River formation. These vielded numerous specimens from the sort matrix, in exquisite preser- 
ration, admitting the most delicate preparation, by which the surface ornament, details of 
tegmen, and in many cases the arlns and pinnules, were brought to light with a perfection 
never before seen in this country. The study of this collection bas resulted in the recogni- 
tion of ten species belonging to this field alone, of which three are new, while rive of those 
proposed by Troost are confirmed by ample evidence among the new material. Thus we are 
able to place the leading species upon a firm footing, and to bring out in detail the great 
diversity by which the gentls is characterized upon a well defined structural plan. In other 
areas a species has been described by \Veller from the Racine dolomite at Chicago, and one 
bv Hall from the Ohio Silurian, as well as from the IIelderbergian of New York, by which 
the range of the genus is extended into the Devonian. Of tb_e Europeau Silurian there is a 
fine species from England, and four from Gotland described by Angelin, some of which may 
be synonyms. These fonns for the most part differ consistently from the American species. 
A notable fact is the extreme rarity o.f this genus in the Laurel formation of St. Paul, where 
its presence is barely indicated by a few fragments. 
No genus of fossil crinoids is more clearly defined than Marsipocrin,«s. The general 
form, with broadly arched tegmen, and the peculiarity bv which the secundibrachs rest directly 
upon the radials and are thus, as well as by contact with the large interbrachials, incorporated 
it the cup, impart a certain physiognomy by which it is readilv rec%onized. Typicallv the 
calyx is low and broad in the proportion of I to 3, or I to 2, with somewhat less differece in 
the English species. From others of the falnily it is also decisivelv set off by its many-plated 
tegmen and large stem-hlmen. 
Within the genus there are several prominent specific characters by which the limits of 
the species are fairly well defined: 
I. Form of calyx, which may be either--a, concavo-convex or hemispheric, with radial 
facets directed below the horizontal, and tegmen exceeding dorsal cup in size" or b, bi-convex, 
with radial facets intermediate and tegmen about equaling dorsal cup; or c, convex conical; 
dorsal cup deep convex, tegmen low conical, constricted, narrower than cup. 
2. Basal penta..on fiat or convex with raised margil, to concave with basals at bottom 
of cavity. 
3. Interbrachial plate pro.iecting witb corrugated arch, or smooth without pro.iection. 
4- Tegmen either--a, sharply tubercular, or with raised', an.,.mllar, diamond-shaped plates, 
and ambulacra not conspicuous; or, b, smooth, or with rounded plates, and ambnlacra well 
defined. 
5- Surface markings either--c, coarse granular; b, corrugated, with coarse wrinkles 
or tuberdes; c, tubercles confluent forming more or less interrupted lines or coarse striae 
part way on plates; d, fine striae traversing the plates; e, entirelv smooth. 
6. Number of arms, 2 to the ray as in most American species, or 4 to the rav as usual in 
the European species. 



PLATYCRINIDAE 

57 

Marsipocrinus rosaeformis (Troost) 
Platc _r 3, fic.qs. I78; I5, ficds. O, ça 
Cupellaecrinites rosaeformi.¢ Troost, Ara.. Jour. Sci., I849, p. 419; Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Sci., 85o, p. 6I 
(nom. nud.).--Cupcllaecrinus rosaeformis Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 2, 1866, p. 36L 
Marsipocrinus rosa.eformis (Troost) \Vood, tlull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., 9o9, p. 37, pl. 3, figs. 5, 6. 
A large species, typical specimens I2 nm. height of calvx by 3 ° 111111. xvidtb, 
to a maxinmm of 5 by 40 mm. Calyx concavo-convex or lemispheric; if rest- 
ing on a plane surface will touch bv radials or afin-bases. Basal pentagon fiat, 
relatively small, about one third the total diameter, usually with a small rira 
around the column-facet. RR horizontal, with facets directed out or down- 
ward; axillarv IBr ,,'er 3- small, triangulal", uot over one tbird the width of the 
radial, flanked bv large transverselv elongate IIBr which rest upon the radial 
and meet by their short inner faces above the axillary; they curve around on 
the outer side, abutting upon the large iBr and the smaller ones above, and are 
followed by higher brachials leading to the biserial arms. iBr large, arched, 
projecting in a curved lip outward and upward, often strougly corrugated or 
wrinkled, giving to lhe calvx a decagonal outline as seen from above; a much 
smaller plate abreast of the iBr at either side rests upou the IIBr, sometimes 
limited to the tegmen. Arms stout, biserial, two to the rav. T%o-men broadly 
arched, larger than dorsal cup; plfites strongly uodose, shading to angular in 
some specimens, somewhat obscuring the ambulacra, which are not conspicuous. 
Surface ornament of cup verv strong, either lu form of a simple corrugation 
with wrinkles or tubercles hot forming lines, or more or less confluent in radiat- 
ing lines forming triangles, or parallel striae. 
l'l-ris is the most prominent species in the Tennessee collections, represented by many 
fine specimens mostly obtained from the excavations. Comparison of Troost's type specimen 
in the National Museum, as figured in 9o9, although in poor condition, established that the 
henispheric calyx is the typical form, and enables us to assign to the species the other char- 
acters so fully illustrated bv the new material. The specimen figured herein, pl. 5, figs. 9. 
9a. reproduced from mv work on çcyphocrim«s, 97, pl. 9, figs. 5, 5a, as M. tcwssecnsis, 
is probably referable to this species. 
Horizon atd locality. Chiefly Eucalyptocrim«s zone of the Beech River formation, 
Brownsport group, Niagaran; Tuck's Mill, near Decaturville, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus tennesseensis (Roemer) 
Plate -I, figs. -6 
Platycim«s temtessee»zsls Roemer, Sil. Fauna \Vestl. Tennessee, I86o. p. 35, pl. 3, figs. 4a-f.oElatycrim«s 
(Cupellaecrinus) tennesseensis Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 866, p. 362. .l[arsupocri»zus 
tennesseensis, \Vachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., 2, 88L p. 65: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 888, 
p- 373, pl. 2o,. fig. 7; N. A. Crin. Cam.. 897. p. 7., pl. 75, figs. 6a, b.--\Vood, ]3ull. 64, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 9o9, p. 3, pl. 9, figs. 5, 6.--]3assler, Bibliogr. Index, 915, P- 788. 
Similar to M. rosaeformis in size. geueral proportions and form of iBr 
plate, but witb calyx bi-convex, and dorsal cup and arched tcgmen about equal. 



. SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

l;asal pentag,n l»l-q),l-ti,,lmlly lal-.-er ; surface ornalnel]t similar but usually less 
lronCmnced. Radial facets directcd al»ove the horizontal. TeRmen plates raised, 
s»mewhat n,-,dose, angular, or Slooth ; amlndacra fairlv dcfined. 
Roemer's P. tcnnesscensis as described by him contains two species, of which his figures 
4a, b, c, must he taken for the type. His specimen was weathered, and surface of both cup 
and tegmen probably eroded, llut the characters above specified are sufficient to identify the 
species, of which XVachsmuth and Springer figured a well preserved example (N. A. Crin. 
Cna., pl. 75, fig- 6, but hot fig. 7)- 
Horizon and localitv. Beech River formation, Iirownsport group, Niagaran ; Eucalypto- 
crinus zone and glades, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus striatus (\Vachslnuth and Springer) 
l'latc z1, figs. ï-z  
Marsuplocri»us striatus Vachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., 7, p- 73z, pl. 75, fig- 8 only. Not 
Cupellaccrinus striatus Troost, nor Marsipocrinus striatus, Wood, Bull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., , 
P- 33, pl. 9, figs. 3, 14M. infatué. 
A S«,lnewhat smaller species than the precedinx, varying fl-om r2 to 14 ri]iii. 
hei-ht of calyx to 5 t« 26 mm. diameter. Calvx lfi-convex, dorsal cup usually 
higber than tegmen. Basal pemaon shallowlv depressed, al»out one hall the 
total width. Radial facets directed upwards, iBr usuallv nt projectinç, smooth, 
curvin over ede «,f tegmen. Tegqnen low, l»lates rounded, smooth and but 
Iittle raised, leavin ambulacra well defined. Surface of cup usuallv striate, 
continuous from plate to plate, sometilnes rather owrugate with striae more 
obscuremuch dependent upon preservation. 
A considerable number of specimens answer to this description, and agree fairlv well 
with the type of Wachsmutla and Springer, pl. 75, fig- 8. It is a variable form, tending to 
shade into other species, but the strong striate ornament and prominent exposure of ambu- 
lacra are the features chiefly relied on. In specimens from the glades the striae are usually 
much obscured by weathering, for which allowance must be ruade. 
Horizon a,d localitv. Beech River formation, Brownsport group, Niagaran; Tuck's 
Mill and on glades, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus inflatus (Troost) 
llatc z 5. ficd s. _r-8 
Cupcllaecrinites i,aatus Troost, Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Sci., 185o, p. 6I.Marsupiocrinus 
Wachsmuth and Springer, iN. A. Crin. Cam., I897, pl. 75, fig. 17.--Wood, 13ull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
9o9, p. 34. 
A fairlv lar,e species, with calvx relativclv hip,h, the averae hein al)out 
20 mm., by 3 ° mm. wide. Dorsal cu l) o,nvex and rather deep; basal pentagon 
large, about three fifths the total diameter, margins usuallv notchëd at the inter- 
basal sutures, and s,,metimes xx'ill slight pr,trusions at the middle of the sides. 
iP, r hOt projecting, but flush with calvx wall and curvinR over into the teglnen. 



PLATYCR[NIDAE 

9 

Arms stout, two to the rav. with pinnule l)el]in.gs 1,etween their bases 
rimes seen. Te..o.men Ioxv cc, nical, al)rul,tly constricted al»ove the avm-bases, and 
distinctlv narvower thal the cup; plates ttat or low c¢,lavex, smooth or studded 
with small tulercles : amlulacra n,,t con.picu,-,us. Surface of CUl) ,,rnate. usuallv 
corrugate, sometimes xvith rid-es f,»vming stviae, ol- lines parallel to mal-gia 
of plates: sutures often sharply 1)eveled. 
A xvell marked species, usuall.s readily recognized bv the high calyx, large basal pen- 
tag.o, and a certain massiveness hOt al»parent in most other species. The constricted tegmen 
is very decisive, lut this is seld«m preserved, and with onlv the dorsal cup the large pentagon 
and vertical sides are usuallv sttfficient. In well preserved specimens the sculpturing i higlaly 
ornate. This is clearly the form described lv Troost under the names C. striatus and C. in- 
flatus, as shown bv lais type of the latter, and the figures of the former in the monograph of 
]0OE), pl. 9, figs. 13, 4- The first naine being preoccupied by \Vachsnmtla and Springer, the 
last shofld stand for the species..\ specimen of it xvas figured l»y us as M. temcsseensis 
(N. A. Crin. Cana., I897, pl. î5, fig. I7 only). 
The enlarged details of a specimen of this species shown bv figure 8 of plate ]5, alog 
with ancther which mav be of M. rosacfornis, are reproduced from nav works on .çcypho- 
c'inus, ]0I 7. pp. 33-38, pl. 9, figs. 5a-c. and Dolarocrinus, Bull. ]]5, U. -q. Nat. Mus., ]92I, 
p. 24, pl. 2, figs. 3, 4- They were -iven for demostrating the true nature and function of 
the interbrachial apertures observed in various genera of the Camerata. and frequently desig- 
nated as " respiratory pores," which are now seen to be the openings for pinnules, the ambu- 
lacra leading to which are shown in some specimens of other species. For a full discussion 
of this subject, and the significance of these specimens, reference should ie had to those 
papers, at the pages indicated. 
HoHzo and localitv, l leech River formation, chiefly Eucalyptocrinus zone, P, rownsport 
group, Niagaran ; Tuck's Mill aad glades. Decatur Cotmty, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus verneuili (Trc«st) 
Plate _r 6. figs. _r-6 
Ct«pcllaccrinitcs z,crneuili Troost, Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Sci., xSSo, p. 6t (nom. mtd. J.--.Uacsipocriutts 
;'erteuili (Troost), \Vood. Bull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., 9o9, p- 32, pl. 9, figs. o, II, I2. 
A small species, average diameter of calvx al)out 5 mm. Calvx 1)i-cc, nvex. 
with shalh-,w colacave base. heig-ht t, width al,,ut as l to 2. P, asal pentagcn aboutit 
ball the tc, tal diameter, br,adlv e×cavate. 1),tmded by a conspicu«»us, c,btuselv 
trial.gular rira. much larger thala tbe c,,lumn-facet, flaring cutxvavd tc a sharp 
edge. iP, r nct lr¢,jecting, bent over int,-, the te3nen. Arms taperil, two tc the 
rav. Tegmen lower ttaal cup, xvith h,w. SlnC«thlv rounded plates" ambulacra 
narrow, uell defilaed, with some outer divisiola« 1-unniag to pimaule ,)pelings. 
Surface of cup coarse striato-o,rruvate ,,r ru.ose. 
This species as represented bv Troost's type is well defined, and is confirmed bv seven 
specimens in the present collection. The flaring rira around the column is a striking character, 
seen to some extent in other species, but in none so conspicuous as this. 
Horizon. and local#v. P, eech River ormation of P, rownspsrt group. Eucalyptocrhnts 
zone, Xiagaran" Tuck's 5IiI1, Decatur Çounty, Tennessee. 



60 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

Marsipocrinus excavatus lleW species 
Plate _r6, fiçs. 7-7 b 
Calyx plano-convex, with basal pentagon abruptly sunken around a small, 
round column-facet, iBr projecting in small points. Tegmen conical, higher 
than cup; plates low, covered with small tubercles. Surface markings on cup 
coarse, with irregular strong wrinkles and obscure striae. Founded upon a 
single specimen 3 mm. high by _'28 lnm. wide, with basal pentagon about one 
third the total diameter. 
Horizon and locaHty. Eucalyptocrinus zone of Beech River formation, Brownsport 
group, Niagaran ; Tuck's Mill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus concavus new species 
Plate _r6, fig. 8 
Calyx with deep funnel-shaped basal cavity, involving part of the radials. 
P, asal pentagon very small, ahnost covered by column at bottom of cavity, bor- 
dered by a rhin rira. Radials long, extending far dovn into the basal cavity. 
Surface ornament strong, composed of some irregular striae, and concentric 
ridges roughly parallel to margins of pentagon. Tegmen and other parts 
unknown. 
A thoroughly distinct species, differing from all others as Pisocrinus quinquelobus differs 
from species with large basals. Unfortunately represented by only a single imperfect speci- 
men consisting of basals and radials. 
Horizon and locality. Eucalyptocrimts zone of Beech River formation, Brownsport 
group, Niagaran ; Tuck's Mill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus stellatus (Troost) . 
Plate _r 7, fic.qs. _r-_r o 
Cupellaecrlnites stellatus Troost, Ara. Jour. Sci., x849» p. 49 ; Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Sci., x85o, p. 6 (nom. 
nud.).--Cupcllaccrim«s stcllatus Shurnard, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 866, p. 36.larsipocrinus 
stcllatus (Troost) Wood, ]3ull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., 9o9, p. 36, pl. IO, figs. x, . 
A rather small species, w':th dorsal cup perfectly smooth, ranging froln 8 
and o lnm. height of calyx to 6 and 24 lnln. width. Calvx bi-coin'ex, broadly 
spreading, with base fiat or sligbtly convex, t3asal pentagon about two fifths 
the total diameter; interbasal sutures often obscure, i]3r with rather sharp pro- 
jecting lip. Arlns directed horizontal, long and slender toward the extremities, 
two to the rav. Tegmen broadlv rounded, smooth in interalnbulacral regions, 
or with scattering sbarp nodes; ambulacra conspicuous from middle to afin- 
bases, with some outer branches leading to pinnule openings. Surface of cup 
entirely devoid of ornalnent. Stem stout, tapering distallv dividing into terminal 
branches for attachment. 
The smooth surface in this species is hot a matter of erosion, but is a thoroughly definite 
character, as is shown by at Ieast a dozen specimens in the collection, mostly well preserved 



I'LATYCR I X I DAE 

6I 

in the matrix and several with arms and stem attached, in none of which is there any trace 
of surface markings. The tendencv is toward anchylosis of the basals. Along with these 
characters the low and broadlv spreading calyx makes the species readily recognized. 
Horizon and localita,. Eucalyptocrinus zone of Eeech River formation, Erownsport 
group, Tuck's lIill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus striatissimus new species 
Plate ±8, figs. ±-7 
A Yerv lare species, attaining a diameter of .5o or 6o mm., with ext-emely 
rhin plates, sa that specimens are rarelv round undistovted, or with anything 
lut the basal pentaR-on preserved. Çalvx low and broadlx- speadin, xvith arm 
facets directed about horizontal. Base convex, xvith narrow romaded rira about 
column lacet, iBr projectin.e, but little, mostlc smooth. Terrien low. usuallv 
cvushed, xvitla plates level, smo,th, or covered xvith small lodes or tubercles; 
ambulacra hot conspicuous. Sm-face of cup marked lx- an exceedingly fine 
striatio, xvith straight lines ccossin the sutures from plate to plate. 
Roemer's figure 4d naav be of lhis species, and it was also this which \Vachsnmth and 
Springer had in mind when in describing their much smaller and more robust M. str[alus 
they stated that it sometimes reached 6 cm. in width. It is nct uncommon on the glades as 
fragments only. characterized by large size and the extreme thinness of the plates. The 
crushed specimen figured on plate 8. figures , a, is the nearest to a complete calvx that is 
known. Two fairlv robust dorsal cups have the characteristic delicate striation, while in the 
specimen with arms it is almost obliterated by pressure. 
Hori=o. ad localiy. Etcal3'Pocrinus zone o Eeech River formation, Brownsport 
group, Niagaran : Tuck's Mill and glades, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus magnificus (Troost) 
Plate zo., .figs. z-b 
C«pellaecri»Htes ntagnitcus Troost, Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Sci., I85O, p. 6 (nom. uud.).--Cupellaecrinus 
ma9nitc«s Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 2, 866, p. 36L Marsipocrinus mag»,ic,«s (Troost) 
\Vood, Bull. 64, U. S. Bat. Mus., I9O9, p. 34, pl. o, figs. 5-7- 
A verv larg-e and robust species, with four arms to the rav. Clvx bi- 
covex : hei-ht _2 7 mm. xvidth 4o mm. Base about fiat. with a thickeled romaded 
rira surroundin.o.e, tlle colunm-facet : basal pentago about three fifths tlae diame- 
ter of calvx. Two secundibrachs in succession meet al)ove the tviangulav p-imi- 
brach, the second one axillacx', folloxved bv a second divisio of the rav. giving 
fouc arm openi,o.e,-s instead of two as in all the preceding species, iBr verx- large, 
b-oadlv shield-shape, tcuncate above, and but little projecting. Tegmen com- 
posed of stro.,o conx'ex or nodose plates, uith ambulacra hOt conspicuous. 
Sm-face of cup deeply sculptm-ed, with beveled sutures, ap._d coarse tubercles 
coalescin into pominent ridges to the corners of the basal pentagon, and 
from there across the radials, forming conspicuous triangles uith apex at the 
ptimibrach. 
5 



62 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Known only from the fine and perfect calyx of the type specimen in the Troost collec- 
tion. and distinguished from all other known American Silurian species by having four arms 
to the ray, as in the Englisb and Swedish species. But it is remarkable that whereas in the 
latter the interbrachial plate is compressed by the increased number of arms sa that it is elon- 
gate and pointed above, in the present species it is wide and broadly truncate al»ove as in the 
2-armed forms, the expansion at the arm bases being accommodated by the great convexity 
of the tegmen. In fact, aside from tbe number of arms this species bears hot the slightest 
resemblance to the European forms. That other species with 4 arms existed in the Tennessee 
area is indicated by two fragments from Wavne County, insufficient for description. 
14orizo-** ad locality. P, rownsport group, Niagaran; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus turbinatus new species 
Plate 7, figs. -3 
Among all the collections from the Laurel forlnation at St. Paul the four 
franentary bases here figured are fle only specilnens round belonging to tbis 
gelms. They are of a wholly different type froln all the other known species, 
with their turbinate base indicating a more or ]ess elongate calyx; but the pen- 
tagonal form, with the riln surrounding the cabrera-lacet, and the large lumen. 
would seeln to settle lhe generic affinities of the species. 
Horizn and Iocalitç. Laurel formation, Niagaran; St. Panl, Indiana. 

Marslpocrinus coelatus Phillips 
Plate _r9, figs. -7 
Marsuplocriites coclat«s Phillips, Murchison's Sil. Syst., I839, p. 672, pl. 8, fig. L--Austin, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. ttist., 84 -, p. o9.Bather, Lankester Zool., pt. 3, P. I57, fig. 70. 
A mediuln sized species. Calvx convex-conical, ranging from 7 to  5 mln. 
height to 2 to 3 ° mm. width. Dorsal cup rather deep, broadly rounded below; 
basal pentagon nearlv fl.at, sometimes excavate, about one third the total width. 
RR mostly horizontal in mature specilnens- IBr rather large, triangular ; IIBr 2 
in series, the second one axillary for a secon,.l division, followed bv 2 or 3 bra- 
chiais passing into the bi.erial arlns. Arlns 4 to the ray, directed vertically, 
fairly stout, iBr e]ongate, narrowing to an apex between the rays, almost com- 
pletely enveloped by the lower ]rachials and incorporated in the dorsal cup. 
Tegmen low conical or rounded, composed of numerous slna]l plates, often 
covered by a gastropod COlnmensallv attacbed over the anus: alnbulacra hot 
prominent, but distinctly marked bv small covering plates, with outer branches 
running to ilterbrachial pinlmle openings. Surface of cup striato-corrugate, 
marked in xvell preserved specimens bv strong ridges crossing the sutures, but 
more often obsolete. Stem stout and appareltly fixed. 
An abundant and well known species of the lZnglish Si]urian, here figured for com- 
parison: it has been best illustrated heretofore by Bather in the Lankester Zoology, part 3, 
page 57, figure 7 o. Specifically it bears little resemMance to anv. American form, while it is 
a fine representative of the 2o-armed type which seems to have predolninated in tbe European 



PLATYCRI NIDAE 6 3 

area, in contrast to that of IO arms chiefly characteristic of the American ocks, from which 
itis also sharply distinguished by its elongate, pointed interbracbial plate. 
A feature of this species hot heretofore mentioned to my knowledge is the tendency to 
grov in clusters, several individuals in a group being attached by their stout stems to corals 
or other fixed objects. I ana illustrating this by a slab from Dudley, shown bv a reduced 
photograph on plate 19, vith nine stems springing from a common base, four of them with 
the crowns attached and visible, and the others with the crowns imbedded in the matrix. 
Such a multiple fixation is unusual among crinoids, but here it seems to be a character more 
than merely incidental, as other specimens are kuown, one very fine one, for example, in the 
Dudley Musemn, and another in the collection of the late Mr. Charles Holcroft, now in the 
IIuseum of 13irmingham. 
Horizon and locality. Wenlockian group, Silurian; Dudley, England. 
Of other described species there are one bv \Veller from the Racine dolomite, one bv 
Hall from the dolomite at Cedarville, Ohio, one by Hall from the Helderbergian of New 
York; and four by Angelin from Gotland. 



64 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

Order FLEXIBILIA Zittel 

CRINOIDS WITH A FLEKIBLE CALYX IN WIIICII TIIE LOWER lqRACIIIAI-S ARE LOOSELY  INCOR- 
PORATED INTO THE DORSAL CUP EITIIER II,'V LATERIAL UNION WITtI EACFI OTHER, BY MEANS 
OF INTERBRACHIALS, OR OF A LOOSE SI:IN STUDDED WITH CALCAREOUS PARTICLES..ALL 
PLATES BEYOND TIIE RADIALS UNITED B LOOSE SUTURE, AND MORE OR LFSS MOVABLE. 
MOUTH AND TEGMINAL FOOD GROOVES EXPOSED. PASE DICYCLIC, WITI{ "r'I{REE I'NFRA- 
BASALS, UNEQUAL. ARlXtS NON-PINNULATE. STElXI ROUND. 
In view of the fact that this order of the Crinoidea bas recently been treated mono- 
graphicaIIy in mv work on the Crinoidea Vlexibilia, 2 volumes 41o, Smithsonian Publication 
25Ol, 192o, in which nearly all the species occurrin K in the areas here under consideration 
have been fullv described and their generic relations discussed, it is hOt deemed necessary to 
repeat the descriptions, or to do more than give a list of the Kenera and species with references 
to that work where the complete bibliography will be round, togelher with a selection of the 
principal figures--for the greater convenience of students of the Si!urian faunas. 
Of the Flexibilia group there have been recognized from this area IO genera and 18 
species, all bttt two of the genera from Tetmessee. Three of the species are new :   are from 
Tennessee, 6 from ldiana, and one from Obio. They are distrilmted amonK the four fami- 
lies of the order as follows : Lecanocrinidae 12, Sagenocrinidae 2, lchthyocrinidae 2, Taxo- 
crinidae ". Thus the great preponderance of this type as round in the present collections be- 
longs to the small, robust and better preserved Lecanocrinidae. 
Of the ten genera, nine are common to both Europe and America. Of these, six were 
formerly considered to be exclusivelv Swedish and English. One newly described genus is 
represented bv species from both continents. One highly typical Gotlandian and English 
genus, Pycnosaccus, hitherto barelv recognized in this country, appeared in the Beech River 
formation in considerable abundance, one species of which can scarcely be distinguished from 
its foreign prototype. Sagcnocrimts , another specialized form of the European Silurian, is 
represented here by a thoroughly typical species. And a third, Gtorimocrius, now appears 
for the first time in .\merica. Besides these important contrilmtions from the Tennessee 
Silurian there are two well defined new genera, Hormocrimts and Asaphocrinus, in the form 
of finelv preserved specimens, the first of which also occurs in Europe as new species. Thus 
the Flexibilia, usually the rarest of the crinoids, take their place among this fauna as one of 
its most important constituents. 

Suborder SAGENOCRINOIDEA 
Posterior interradius either hot differentiaed or containing anal plates, 
hot usually formed into a tube. the first of which is incorporated in the calvx 
bv sutural union with adjacent brachials for at least part of its height on hoth 
sides; posterior basal, if difl:erentiated, truncate or angular, and suturallv con- 
nected with succeeding anal plate. 

Family LECANOCRINIDAI?; Sprinaer 
lnfrabasals more or less erect, forming an essential part of the calvx wall" 
crown usuallv short, rotund. 



LECA XOCRI N 1 DAE 6 5 

LECANOCRINUS Hall 
Plate 20 
Lecanocrinus Hall, Pal. New York, 2, I852, p. I99.--Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, I92o , p. I25. 
Ravs in contact except at the anal side. Radianal rhombic, obliquelv to 
lower left of r. post. R. Anal .r alone. Arms dichotomous, interlocking. 
Genotype. Lecanocrim«s macropetalus Hall. 
Distribution. Silurian to Devonian" Gotland, England, America. 
Lecanocrinus pusillus Hall 
Plate 2o, fige. _r- 5 
Lecanocrim«s pusillus Hall, Trans. Albany Inst., 4, I863, p. 2oo.--Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 192o, 
P. I3L pl. , figs. -3. 
\Valdron shale; \Valdron, Indiana" Newsom, Tennessee. 
Lecanocrinus pisiformis (Roenaer) 
Plate 2o, figs. 6-2 
Poteriocrinus pisiformis Roemer, Sil. Fauna \Vestl. Tennessee, 86o, p. 54, pl. 4, figs. 7a-d.--Lecanocrinus 
pisiform4s Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, I92O, p. I35, pl. , figs. 4-36. 
P, eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 
Lecanocrlnus elongatus new species 
Plate 2o, figs. 3, 4 
Similar to L. pisiformis, but crown more elongate, and basals relativelv 
higher. 
Laurel limestone; St. laul, hadiana. 
Lecanocrinus meniscus Springer 
Plate 20, figs. r5-±sb 
Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, I92O, p. 14o, pl. , figs. 37a-c. 
]3eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 
Three species have been described from the Rochester shale, one from the Racine, and 
one from the ainbridge of Missouri; and o species described as Lecauocriuus have been 
referred to other genera. See ]3assler's ]3ibliogr. Index, page 692. 
ANISOCRINUS Angelin 
Plate 20 
tnisocrimts Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 878. p. 13.--Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, I9---'o, p. 6o. 
Rays above radials separated by solid plates arched over by brachials. RA 
irregularly under r. post. R, above line of ]3]3. Anal .r and one large iI3r alone 
or followed bv others. Arms dichotomous. 
Gcnotype. ,uisocrimts iuterradiatus Angelin. 
Distributiou. Gotland, Alnerica. 



66 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Anisocrinus greenei (Millet and Gurley) 
Plate 2o, figs. t6, 7 
Lecanocrbzus 9rccnei Miller and Gurley, BuIi. 8, Illinois St. Mus., 1896, p. 52, pl. 3, fig- 28.--Anisocrinus 
9reend, Springer, Crinoidea FIexibilia, I92O, P. 163, pl. IO, figs. 8, 9- 
Louisville iimestone; Jefferson County, Kentucky; Eeech River formation, Decatur 
County, Tennessee. 
There are also figured for comparison" 
Anisocrimts o,egoensis (Miller and Gurley), plate 20, figure 18, from Crinoidea Flexi- 
billa, plate IO, figures 7a-c. Oswego, Illinois. 
Anisocrimts angclini \Vachsmuth and Springer, plate 2o, figure 19, from Crinoidea Flexi- 
bilia, plate IO, figures 4a, b. Gotland, Sweden. 

HORMOCRINUS Springer 
Plate 22 
Hormocrim«s Springer, Crinoidea FIexibilia, 19-'o, p. 16o. 
Ravs above radials separated by solid plates followed bv perisome. !N'o RA. 
Anal x and large iBr followed by otbers abreast and perisome, or directly by 
perisome. Arns dictaotomous. 
Gcnotypc. Centrocrim«s tcnnessecnsis \Vorthen. 
Distribution. Silurian" America, England, Gotland. 

Hormocrinus tennesseensis (\Vorthen) 
Plate 22, fiçls, t-3b 
Centrocrim«s tcmwssccnsis çVorthen, Geol. Surv. Illinois, 8 189o, p. 96, pl. 14, fig. I.--Hormocrinus ten- 
ncsseensis, Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 192o, p. 167, pl. 14, figs. I-5. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

ASAPHOCRINUS Springer 
Plate 20 
• 4saphocrinus Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 192o, p. 174. 
Rays above radials separated by perisome only. RA rhombic, obliquely to 
left of r. post. R. Anal x followed by others passing into a tube. No iEr, areas 
filled with perisome, SOlnetimes hot expose& Arlns dichotomous. 
Gcnotype. .4saphocrim«s b«sslcri Springer. 
Distributiou. Silurian; America. 

Asaphocrinus bassleri Springer 
Plate œeo. figs. 20, 2r 
Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, gzç, p. x78, pl. lO, figs. lO-I4. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



LECANOCRINIDAE 

67 

Asaphocrinus minor new species 
Plate 20, fig. 22 
An imperfect specimen lackiug the basal parts, referred with doubt to this 
genus. The general proportions, distribution of arms, and extent of anal struc- 
tures, are in fayot of it. 

Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

PYCNOSACCUS Angelin 
Plate 21 
Pycnosaccus Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 1878, p. I3.--Springer. Crinoidea Flexibilia, I92O, p. 18o. 
Ravs al»ove radials separated bv perisolne onlv. RA rholnbic, obliquely 
to left of r. post. R. Anal .r alone, followed by perisome. IBr I to 4. Arms 
dichotomous.- 
Genotype. Cyathocrinitcs scrobiculatus Hisinger. 
Distribution. Silurian to Devonian; Gotland, England, America. 
The first indication of the presence of this genus in America was given by the imperfect 
specimen described by \Veller in 19oo as P. americamts from the Racine dolomite. It has 
since appeared probable that the species described bv Hall as Lecanocrimts caliculus from the 
Clinton of New York belongs here. Recent discoveries have extended the range of the genus 
into the Lmver Devonian, and perhaps into the middle Devonian of Canada. The material 
from the Beech River formation of Tennessee not onlv furnished fine specimens for illus- 
tratilg the general habitus of the genus, but has tbrown a flood of light upon its detailed 
structure, by means of which its actual characters became for the first rime understood. 

Pycnosaccus patei Springer 
Plate 2, figs. >4 
Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, I92O, p. 186, pl. 12, figs. 1-9. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Pycnosaccus welleri Springer 
Plate 2, fis. 5-7 
Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, I92O, p. 186, pl. 13, figs. 3-5. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Cov.nty, Tennessee. 

Pycnosaccus laurelianus new species 
Plate 2, fi9s. 8, Sa 
A small species (the figures are double size), with more robust arms and 
smaller radianal than the Tennessee forms, and a peculiar upward videning of 
the anal plate hot observed in others. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 



68 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Pycnosaccus dubius Springer 
Plate 2 r. figs. o. 9a 
Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 192o , p. 189, pl. 13, figs.  a, b. 
eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 
Family SAGENOCRINIDAE Roemer emend. Springer 
Infrabasals more or less recumbent, taking little part in calyx xvall. Crown 
usually elongate. Rays above radials partly or wholly separated. 
SAGENOCRINUS Austin 
Plate 22 
SageuocriMtes Austin, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 842, p. o.çagnocrinus Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 
I920, p. 215. 
RA obliquely under r. post. ray, more or less between BB. Post. P, truncate. 
Anals and iBr numerous. Arms dichotomous, hot abutting. 
Gcnotype. Actinocrinites? c.rpansus Phillips. 
Distribution. Silurian; England, Gotland, America. 
Sagenocrinus clarki Springer 
Plate 2_,, figs. 4, 4a 
Springer, Crinoidea F]exibilia, 92o, p. 2eo, pl. 9, figs. 4a-d. 
Beech River formation: Decatur County, Tennessee. 
Sagenocrinus americanus Springer 
Plate 22, fig. 5 
Springer, Ana. Geol., 30, I9o2, p. 86; Crinoidea Flexibilia, i92o, p. 22L pl. 9, fig. 5. 
\Valdron shale; Valdron, Indiana. 
Familv ICHTHYOCRIN1DAE Angelinemend. \Vachsmuth and Springer 
1-nfrabasals horizontal, hot appearing externallv and taking no part in the 
calvx wall. Crown elongate or rotund. Rays widening upward to accommo- 
date expansion of calyx, lmt in close contact, usuallv interlocking or abutting 
above interbrachials. 

ICHTHYOCRINUS Con,ad 
Plate 22 
Ichthyocrims Conrad, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 8, I842 , p. 279.Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 02o, 
p. 264. - 
Rays in contact all around. RA in form of R under r. post. R. No anal or 
iBr. Post. B hot differentiated. Arms dichotomous, interlocking. 
Genotype. Ichthyocriuus laevis Conrad. 
Distribution. Silurian to Devonian" .\merica, England, Gotland, Bohemia. 



TAXOCRI NIDAE 69 

Ichthyocrinus subangularis Hall 
Plate 22, fiqs. 2, 3 
lchthyocrhn«s subangularls Hall, Trans. AIbany Inst., 4, I86O, p. 2oI.--Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 192o, 
p. 281, pl. 34, figs. I-Io. 
\Valdron shale; \Valdron, Indiana. 

CLIDOCHIRUS Anffelin 
Plate 
Clidochirus Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 1878, p. I2.--Sprlnger, Crinoidea FIexibilla, 192o, p. 294. 
Ravs in contact except at anal side. RA iii fOl'lll Of R under r. post. R. 
Anal x alone or followed bv others. Post ]3 truncate. Al-ms dichotomous, 
interlocking. 
Gcnotype. Clidocl, irus t, yrum Angelin. 
Distribution. Silurian to Devonian: Gotland, America. 

Clidochirus americanus Spl-ingel- 
Pla te 2 z, fi9s. zo, z r 
Springer, Crinoidea FIexibilia, I92O, p. -'298, pl. 37, figs. 7, 8. 
Clinton" Dayton, Ohio. 

Suborder TAXOCRINOIDEA 
Family TAXOCR]NIDAE \Vachsmuth emend. Springer 
Posterior interradius always differentiated and occupied bv anal plates in 
a tube-like series, none of which are hlcorporated in the calyx. All anal plates 
ffoin post. ]3 up separated bv perisolne from adjacent brachials at one or both 
sides. Distal face of post. B not suturallv connected with anal plate. Rays above 
radials partly or whollv separated all around. Cl-ovn usuallv elongate. 

PROTAXOCRINUS Springer 
Plate 2_) 
Prota.rocrim«s Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 192o, p. 345. 
RA in form of P,. under r. post. P,.. i]3r few. 
or perisome. Arms dichotolnous. 
Genotype. Taxocrinus ovalis Angelin. 
Distribution. 

Rays wholly separated by iBr 

Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian; Gotland. America. 



70 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Protaxocrinus robustus Springer 
Plate ce, figs. 6, î 
Springer, Crinoidea l:lexibilia, I92o, p. 349, pl. 45, figs. 9-I. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

GNORIMOCRINUS \Vachslnuth and Springer 
Plate 22 
Gnorimocrinus SVachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., I, :t879, p. 5o.--Springer, Crinoidea Flexibilia, 92o, 
P. 353. 
RA rhombic, obliquely to left of r. post. R. iBr few, rays wholly separated 
by iBr or perisome. Arms dichotomous. 
Genotypc. Tarocrimts e.rpansus Angelin. 
Distribution. Silurian; Gotland, America. 

Gnorimocrinus cirrifer Springer 
Plate 22, figs. 8-o 
Springer, Crinoidea :Flexibilia, 92o, p. 355, pl. 47, figs. 7-I. 
]eech River formation; Decatur County, Termessee. 

Gnorimocrinus varians Springer 
Plate 2, figs. H, Ha 
Springer, Crinoidea l:lexibilia, 9o, p. 356, pl. 47, figs. 3-7. 
]eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



PISOCRI N I DAE 71 

Order INADUNATA Wachsmuth and Springer 
CRINOIDEA WITH A RIGID CALYX IN WItICH THE BRACHIALS ARE FREE (OR SOMETIMES LOOSELY 
CONNECTED) ABOVE THE RADIALS. 10 INTERR kDIALS OR INTERBRACHIALS EXCEPT AT THE 
POSTERIOR SIDE AND BRACHIALS NEVER NORMALLY INCORPORATED IN THE CALYX. PLATES 
OF THE CUP UNITED BY CLOSE SUTURE. IOUTtI SUBTEGMINAL; FOOD-GROOVES SUPRA 
TEGMINAL BUT MAY BE CLOSED BY FIXED AMP, ULACRAL PLATES. ARMS WITH OR WITHOUT 
PINNULES. 
Of this order by far the most important development resulting from the present collec- 
tions is in the Calceocrinidae, which in their peculiar anatomy stand out apart from all other 
crinoids. This has hot onlv furnished the material for the first satisfactory comparison of 
European and American forms, but also has produced an example of evolutionarv modifi- 
cation, with the process clearly visible, that is without precedent among the crinoids. This 
succession involves a long course from the Ordovician to the Lower Carboniferous, and in 
the somewhat elaborate treatment of the familv which its history has dictated, it has been 
round necessary to include rather full discussion and illustration based upon those epochs in 
addition to the Silurian. 
Another strange form, ]llyelodactylus, with its coiled bilateral stem. has proved to be 
prolific in instructive material, revealing close relationship with some of the European species. 
The genus Gissocrimts, hitherto known onlv from Gotland and England, is represented here 
l)v at least two species, one of them of a type dccidedly new and distinct. 
Among the Larviformia, the puzzling genus Zophocrim«s is now illustrated more com- 
pletely than ever belote, and doubtful points of its structure cleared up: and the mysterious 
.'l[ysticocrinus re-figured and described. The inconspicuous and widelv distributed Pisocrim«s 
is represented by such a wealth of new material as to require a complete review of the numer- 
ous species already known. 

Suborder LARVIFORMIA Wachsmuth and Springer 
Monocyclic (with exceptions). Clyx above the base consisting only of 
radials and orals, without anal plates, and usually v,'ithout visible ambulacra; 
plates imnmvably united by close suture. Arms non-pilmulate, simple and uni- 
serial. Tegmen when kllOWll consisting chiefly of orals. 

Family PISOCRINIDAE Angelin 
Basals threie to rive" radials rive, unequal, r. post. and r. ant. compound, 
1. post. and ant. llltlch the largest, 1. ant. reduced. 



7 2 

SMIT]ISONIAN INSTITUTION 

PISOCRINUS De ],(oninck 

_Plates »  
-», 24, 2.5 
Pisocrinus De Koninck, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, 2me. ser., 4, 1858, p. 93.--Ang elin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 
I878, p. 2o.--\Vachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., 3, 1886, p. 172.--S. A. Miller, Jour. Cin. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 1879, P. IO; Ara. Geol., 189o, p. 356: 17th Ann. Rep. Dep. Geol., Indiana, 189-'2, P- 636- 
642 (adv. sheets, pp. 26-32).--Bather, Crin. Gotl., 1893, P- 21; Treatise on Zool., 3, 19 °°, P" 149, 
fig. 62.--Jaekel, Zeitschr. d. D. Geol. Gesell, 19oo, p. 482; Phylogenie und System, 1918, p. 89.-- 
Etheridge, Rec. Australian Mus., 19o4, P. 289 --Zittel-V-astman' Textb. Pal., 1913, p. 2oS.--Thomas, 
Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., 22, 1916, p. 29I. -Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 1915, p. 98o. 
Trlacrinus Ringueberg (hot Munster), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884. p. 144. 
Crinoids of vel-y slnall size. 1313 5, unequal; r. p. and r. a. truncate distally 
and slnaller than the otller three, which are angular above. RR unequal and 
UlSylnlnetric: 1. post. and ant. large, widest below, and meeting BB by trun- 
cate faces, the other three RR small, angular below and hot touching BB; 
r. post. R. transverselv bisected, the large lower seglnent serving as inferradial 
for it and the r. ant. i. thus forming the RA, which separates theln both froln 
BB: this plate and the two large RR constitute the greater part of the calyx. 
:\l-iris 5, unlwanched non-pinnulate, colnposed of verv long brachials beyond 
the first, which is short" thev spring ri-oin indented facets at the middle of tlle 
radials bounded bv processes or partitions at either side projecting upward and 
iuward; the processes are various in form and size, froln low, narrow, rectan- 
gular, to high, wide and of spear-head shape, that on the posterior side, forlned 
by the right and left posterior radials, being lower and wider than the others, 
and curved inward for support of the anal tube. Tube crescentic or triangular 
in section, reselnbling an arln. Te,o,-lnen arched by 5 solid orals which interlock 
at tlle tenter, meet closelv at their lateral faces, and COlmect with the radial 
processes. Stem round, with short columnals, thickened in the lniddle. Surface 
usually smooth, exceptionally tubercular. (.C, ee generic diagraln, pl. 23, fig. 46.) 
Genotype. Pisocrinus pihtla De I£onincl« 
Distribution. Silurian; Gotland, England, America, Australia. 
Pisocrimfs is a form of cosmopolitan distribution, being round ahnost wherever Silurian 
strata are exposed, hot only in Europe and America, but also in the antipodes, two species 
having beeu described from Australia. A characteristic fossil of the \Venlockian beds of 
England and Sweden. from the former of which it was t]rst described, the genus has been 
recognized from American rocks in Nev York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri and 
Tennessee, in almost all the subdivisions of the Silurian from the Clinton and Osgood to the 
Racine dolomite and the Louisville. In some of these areas it is an important fide fossil. 
Species are numerous, and in some of them iudividuals are abundant. Comparison of Euro- 
pean and American srecies shows a striking correspondence in some of them, which con- 
tributes important evidence of a migrational connection bv wav of a northern route between 
the faunas of northeru Europe and the United States during Silurian epochs. 
For a full discussion of the relations of Pisocrinus and the literature concerning it, 
reference should be had to Dr. ]3ather's Crinoidea of Gotland, 8c 3. The parallelism of 
European and Americma species is recognized, being emphasized bv the statement on page 2 7 



PISOCRINIDAE 73 

that except for tbe difference in matrix and mode of fossilization he could hOt undertake to 
discriminate between some of the species from the two continents. This agrees with my own 
observations ruade wbile assembling a representative series of foreign species for comparison. 
as is shown bv forms herein illustrated on plate 25. 
Bather's studies upon the morphology of Pisocrinus were very important, especially in 
placing upon a logical basis the orientation of the calvx, which had hot theretofore been 
properly understood. Thus the relation of the peculiar large plate lying underneath the right 
posterior and right anterior radials as the radianal became clear. He recognized three de- 
scribed species in the European Silurian, and noted an undescrihed species from Dudley. 
In America eleven species have heen described, of which at least one is a synonym. 
Certain of these species are beautifully distinct, so that there is hot the least difficulty in 
recognizing them, eveu from inferior specimens: such, for example, as P. gc.mniformis and 
P. baccula, occurring at the saine localitv in the Laurel formation, and P. quinquelobus mad 
P. tc,:nesseensis of the P, rownsport ; whereas P. canpana is so variable and xvidely distributed 
tbat some varieties are easilv confused witb other species, and one is inclined to see among 
them an admixture of European forms. 
For one of so sma!l and inconspicuous a habitus, this genus pos.esses some remarkablv 
distinctive characters. In the unequal distribution of radials, it partakes of the sinular type 
of irregularity xvhich characterises its family, as well as tbe Calceocrinidae and several other 
monocvclic genera, such as Heterocrinus, Haplocrimts, M,cocrimts, Calillocrimts, etc., in 
which two of them--and those alwavs the saine, 1. post. and ant.--are simple, larger than the 
others aud of a different shape, while the other three are trausverseh" divided or nmch re- 
duced iu size. The projecting processes between the radial facets are peculiar to this and a 
few other genera having narrow, unbranched arms ; their varyin.,-" shape offers useful specific 
characters; the projections are often built up about equally from the apposed radials, in 
which case the interradial suture bisects the process, while in others the division may be 
unequal, or the projection entirely confined to one of the radials. 
The inequality and difference in shape of the basals is a character iu which this genus 
differs from most other crinoids, even from those of its mwa family. 
The arms are characterized hv a great length of bracbials--an unusuaI feature which 
is repeated in some of the contemporaneous Calceocrinidae. Tiais fact led S. A. Miller into 
some curious notions about the brachial appendages of Pisocrinus, be declaring with charac- 
teristic assertiveness that they vere hot arms, but something else of unknown function for 
vhich he coined a new terre, " arm blades." The arms varv considerablv in length in different 
species; in some it seems as if thev vere limited ahnost to a single brachial. vhile in others 
they extend to a dozen or more. The ventral furrov in some species is broad and deep. 
fringed with side pieces so large as to produce a considerable resemblance to pinnules (pl. 24, 
figs. 8, 9)- 
The structure of the tegmen, which was formerly misunderstood--certain isolated, radi- 
ately folded, conical plates being supposed to belong to it which we nmv know to be the fused 
orals of Gaacrim«s--has been ruade clear bv the discovery of two specimens in wbich it is 
perfectly preserved, consisting of rive closelv apposed orals similar to those of OE,mbathocrinus. 
The characters available for the discrimination of species are for the most part xvell 
defined. They are: 
I. General form of calyx, xvbether a. conical, elougate, or short and wide; b, ovoid, ex- 
panding upward or contracting: c, globose: d, Iobed or round. In some species these 
are constant and re|iahle, while in others with a wide range of variation all of the first 
three may be included. 
2. Base. whether a. convex xvith small indented colunm-facet : b, concave, broad and shal- 
low. or with deep, funnel-shaped pit: c, truncate, with cohunn-facet ahnost to full 
width. 



74 

SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

3. Basals, whether a, large, visible completely in side viev, or only by points of the larger 
ones; b, small, hidden at bottom of a deep cavity. 
4. Radial facets, whether wide or narrow, plain or dove-tailed. 
5- Processes, whether a, low and narrow, straight : b, angular, widening upward or inward; 
or c, high, spear-head shape. 
No discussion of the genus tisocrinus wou]d be complete without consideration of the 
Devonian forms from tbe Eifel described by Mfinster  and Schtfltze " as Triacrimts, in which 
the arrangement of calyx plates is the same, except that it is said to have onlv three basals 
instead of rive. This probably holds good for T. altus, but in T. depressus the basals vary 
from 3 to 5; and in my specimens those with 3 are rather more rare than those with 5- In 
other ways this species shows a considerable similarity to P. tenwssecnsis. The tri-partite 
base of the Devonian genus is an evident derivative by fusion from the 5 basals of its Silurian 
ancestor, and the occasional occurrence of 4 and 5 basals a reversion to tbe older type. I ara 
giving a series of figures of both species on plate 2 5, showing these facts. 
The other member of the family, Calycanthocrimts. also from the Devonian, represents 
a development of the saine plan of radial arrangement from Triacrimts in the direction of 
the Catillocrinidae, by means of an increased nmnber of arm-bearing segments. 
In the description of species of Pisocrius the terres " large" and " small " are only 
relative, all forms of the genus being very small as compared with crinoids generally. The 
figures on the plates are mostly double size. 

Pisocrinus gernrniforrnls S. A..liller 

Platc _ » " figs. r-ga 
Pisocrim*s gemmi[ormis Millet, J«mr. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1879, p. 113, pl. 9, figs. 6a-c; 7th Ann. Rep. 
Jndiana Dep. Geol., 892, p. 6.36, pl. 6, figs. lO-12, 24-25 (adv. sheets, 89, p. 26).--Foerste, Jour. 
Geol., I9O3, p. 562.--S1ocom, bïeld Columb. Mus., 2, Geol. Ser., 9o8, p. 278, pl. 84, figs. I-4. 

A small species" diameter of maximum specimen at lower tbird of cup 
6 mm., usually much smaller, ranging down to 2. 5 mm. Calyx ovoid, truncate 
above, contracting at arm-facets; smaller specimens globose. Base broadly 
rounded, with cavitv for column small, abruptly sunken. BB large, well exposed 
in side view, where the larger ones reach one third the height of calvx. Radial 
facets wide; processes low, narrow, rectangular, hot widening inward. Arms 
short and heavy. Tegmen arched bv 5 interlocking orals, closely bounded bv 
the short first brachials. 

One of the two most characteristic species of tbe Lmrel at St. Paul, where it occurs in 
almndance, mostlv less than 4 mm. in diameter ; the habitus is small, larger specilnens being 
the exception. The verv low, narrow processes between the facets, coupled with the promi- 
rient basals, are the distinctive characters. The type o.f the original description in x879 was 
said to be from the lower part of the Niagara group, in Ripley County, Indiana, and in that 
of I89i in the ITth Indiana, the type locality was given as Osgood, and the species said to be 
"now known from Madison and other places in the Niagara group of Indiana." Thus it 
might bave been derived from the Osgood or Laurel formations. According to Foerste 
(Jour. Geol., I9o3, p. 562) it extends from the Osgood to Laurel in Tennessee. $1ocom 
identifies it in the Racine of the Chicago area. but the altered condition of the dolomite speci- 
mens may prevent a close comparison. It is also reported from tbe Bainbridge limestone of 

 Beitriige z. Petrefaktenk., 839, p. 3- 
-" Echin. Eifl. Kalk., 866, p. 



PI SOCRI N I DAE 

Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri. As the first American species of Pisocrimts to be de- 
scribed, tbere is a tendency to identify as P. gemmiformis any small, globose form, which 
mav in some cases be the younger stage of other species. I have round this to be the case in 
the Tennessee collections. The one thing certain is that the species is characteristic of the 
typical Laurel formation. The oral plates are shown in figs. 8, Sa. 
Hori:on and locality. Laurel formation and perhaps Osgood, Niagaran ; St. Paul, Osgood, 
Madison, Indiana, and possibly other localities as noted. I have figured a specimen from 
Gotland, plate 25, figure 13, wbich bas ail the characters of this species. 

Pisocrinus baccula liller and Gurley 
Plate 23. figs. 9-*5 
Pisocrinus baccula Miller and Gurley, Bull. 7, Illinois St. Mus., 895, p. 79, pl. 5, figs. z3-26. 
A relatively, large species, maximum specimens 5 mm. high by 8 lnm. ,,vide. 
Clyx globose to ovoid, widest in lower third, contractin. upwards. RR and RA 
curving sharply inward, formin.o.q a brad trian<ular base bv which the calvx 
tests. BB almost wbolly concealed iu shallow concavity, only points of larger 
plates sometimes visille froln side; outline of base seen froln beloxv obtuselv 
triangular. Radial facets narrow, contracting upwards" processes large, spear- 
head shape. A-ns longer tban in precedin.o.q species. 
The most characteristic species of tbe Lanrel limestone at St. Paul. and not recognized 
elsexvhere. It is associated with P. 9emmiformis. but whether in the same layers cannot be 
ascertained--presumably not, as the formation is thick, and the material of the qnarry dumps, 
from which most of the specimens are collected, is intermingled from different levels. It 
differs from that species in almost everv essential character, especially in the radial facets 
and processês, and is recognizable at a glance in adult specimens from all other species by its 
broad, triangular base. It is abundant at the type locality, and is fonnd il1 various sizes from 
3 to 8 mm. in diameter. 
Horicon atd localitv. Laurel formation, Niagaran ; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Pisocrinus granulosus Rowlev 
Plate -'3, figs. 37-39 
Pisocrinus gramdosus Rowley, Ara. Geol., 9o4, p. -°69, pl. I6, figs. I-3. 
A medium sized species. Clyx globose, contracting at the afin-bases, about 
as high as wide, a maximum specimen being 5-5 by 6.q mm., smaller ones al»out 
equal. Base convex, with verv small colunm-facet, sharply indented; basals of 
good size, angles of largest ones visible from side viexv. Radial facets small, 
dove-tailed; processes lai,ge, bl-oadlv rounded, angular to spear-bead shape. 
Surface smooth to granulose, or tubercular. 
Professor Rowley's types were from brownish or reddish clays in the Bainbridge forma- 
tion of Ste. Genevieve County, [issouri, associated with his other species, P. sphericus, and 
some other forms, to which there is to be added P. tennesseensis as recently discovered by 
Dr. \Veller. Among my Telmessee collections is a series of specimens from red clays of the 
Dixon formation at the top of Safford's variegated bed, just below the Beech River. They 
partake of the color of the matrix, in which they differ from all the other Tennessee occur- 



76 

SMITItSONIAN INSTITUTION 

rences" and they undoubledly beIong to the present species, having the saine more or less 
granulose surface, depending upon preservation, some being exceptionally tubercular. My 
figures on plate 23 are ruade from Tennessee specimens. 
Hori»on and Iocality. Dixon and Bainl»ridge formations, Niagaran; Decatur County, 
Tennessee, aud Ste. Genevieve County, Iissouri. 

Pisocrinus campana S. A. 5Iiller 
Plate 24, figs. 6-27 
Pisocrinus campana Miller, îtll Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 1892, p. 642, pi. I, figs. 4, 5 (adv. sheets, 
i89i , p. 32).Pisocrinus sp. undet., \Vachsmutla and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., pl. 8, fig. o. 
A rather large species. Calyx bell-shaped, conical to ovoid, expanding 
upward to the arm-facets: beight of typica] specimen 5 mm., width at base 
3-5 mm., at facets 6 mm. Base truncate, narrow, with small indented colulnn 
lacet. Basals large, extendin well up the sides, ail rive plainly exposed. Radial 
facets wide; pl-ocesses low, rather narrow, square, usually wideninR,- inward, 
rareh" obtuselv apgular. Arms long, composed of 5, 6 or more long brachials, 
7 111111. or rnore in lengtb, with sutures well defined. 
A widelv distrilmted species, variable in general form, but with two outstanding charac- 
ters; the sinalI rectangular processes and high basals, the combination of which, especially 
when reinforced bv the expanding calyx, offers good criteria for identification. The long 
arms, as shown ira 5 specimens, is also a good character, in contrast to the short appendages 
of several other species. No other species, excepting P. pocilhrm of Gotland, bas such uni- 
formlv prominent basals, which in some cases fise to one third the height of the calyx at the 
arm bases. In fact there is a tendencv of tbe angular basals to fise still higher to a connection 
vith the shorter radials, wb.ich normally they do hot touch. This bas been observed in many 
specimens, especially from the type localitv. Tbe connection mav be establisbed bv the down- 
ward extension o.f one or more of :he :hort radials. This abnormality, which I bave illus- 
trated by three figures on plate 24, has not been observed in :.ny other species. 
As stated, v«ith the expanding and bcll-shaped forms the identification is easy, but those 
with a lower calyx, ovoid to globose, are confusing; if thev have fairly high basals, we mav 
call them campctna, while those with basals but little visihle will bave to go into bencdicti. 
Thus there will be an intermediate zone in which the distinction is shadox» T. 
The t.vpical area for this species is ira Wabasb, Grant and Madiso.n counties in northern 
Indiana, where it is associated with the other two species described at the sane rime, P. gorbyi 
and P. bcncdicti. The formation is a dolomitic limestone with interbedded clavs or shale, in 
which the few species of crinoids chieflv occur, tbought to he equivalent to. either the Racine 
,,r the Waukesha formations of the Chicago area. 
The material studied by )lr. MiIler wheu descrilfing these species was collected bv A. C. 
Benedict and later acquired by me in the Hammell collection, including the types of this and 
P. gorbyl. Specimens more or less typical, in considerable variety, but ail having the charac- 
teristic high basals, bave been recognized iu various localities of the Tennessee area, ranging 
from the Laurel to the Lobelville formations. 
Pisocrhtus campctna is to the American rocks what P. pihrla is to the European--a pro- 
tean species which incIudes in its variations the priucipal forms of calvx from conical through 
ovoid to globose; to which our species adds another bv expanding at the distal margin until 
it is hell-shaped. If casts of specimens from the two regions were intermingled, some of them 
would be difficult to separate. Bather's observations in the Crinoidea of Gotland, page 30, 
upon the various forms of P. pihda would apply with equal force to the present species, and 



I'ISOCRI XIDAE 

77 

his opinion as to the probable identity of some of them with P. benedicti and some other 
American species will be shared by every one who has looked for reliable characters for dis- 
tinguishing them in our own collections. 
Hori:on and locality. Dolomites of \Vabash, Marion, Anderson, Northern Indiana; 
Osgood and Laurel: St. Paul and other localities in southern Indiana. Laurel and Browns- 
port formations: Rise Iill and Flatwoods, Perry Çountv; Iartin's Mill, Sinking Creek, 
\Vavne Çounty: Tuck's BIill and various glades in Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Pisocrinus benedicti S. A. Miller 
Plate 2I, fiç. 28-36 
Pisocrinus benedicti Millet, ITth Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., I892, p. 639, pl. 6, figs. 13-I6 (adv. sheets, 
I89I, p. 29).--Slocom, Field Columb. Mus., 2, Geol. Ser., I9o8, p. 279, pl. 84, figs. 8-11. 
Any rather small, g-lobose o1" ovoid forlll, expandin upward, with fairly 
wide radial facets and low, square or slightly widening processes, iii which the 
basals are olllx" slightly ",isible--il other words, which is l'lOt campam--lnay 
be talcen as this species. To jude by the lnaterial rioto the type localities in 
nortl.erla Indiana used by 5[r. llllel and bearing his labels, it is a rather gener- 
alized form, without anv verv distinctive characters. I haYe referred to it with 
doubt specimens froln the Bl-OWnsport group in Telmessee, with a considerable 
ran,a'e of variation in general fol-ni frolll ovoid to oblate. Slocolll has recog- 
nized it in the dololnites of the Chicago area, and lllOl'e receltlv in SIS. fronl 
the Bainbrid,o..e fOl-lnatiol in lIissoul-i, lX,'one of these identifications are lnade 
with much coafidence because the species as descl-ibed is tmsatisfactorv. 
Hori«on. and local#,. Dolomites of .Vabash and Iadison counties, northern Indiana: 
Brownsport group of Decatur. Perrv counties, Tennessee; ]3ainbridge limestone, Ste. Gene- 
vieve County, Missouri. 

Pisocrinus quinquelobus I3ather 
Plate 2 3 . ticC. 16-2 9 
Haplocridtes hemisphcricus Troost, Ara. Jour. Sci., 849, p. 420; Proc. Ara. Assn. Adv. Sci., I85O, p. 6I 
(nom. nud.).---isocrinus 9orbyi (in part) Miller, Iîth Rep. Ind. Dep. Geol., 1892, p. 64o, pl. 6, 
figs. 21-23.--Pisocrinus quinquelobus Barber, Cin. Gotl., 1893, pl. 27; Ara. Geol., I896, p. I84.-- 
Slocom, Field C]umb. Mus., 2, Geo]. Ser., 9o8. p. 280, pl. 84, figs. 5-7.--isocrinus milliganae Millet 
and Gurley, Bull. 7, I11. St. Mus., 896, p. 80, pl. 5, figs. 27, 28.--Millet, N. A. Geol. Pal., 2d App., 
897, P. 749, figs. 369, I37O.--Foerste, Jour. Geol., I9O3, p. 72.--Wood, ]3ull. 64, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
19o9, p. 28. 
A mediuln sized species, exceptimally attailfing a width of 8 ii111. Clyx 
much wider than high, measured froln the level of the arln-facets, height to 
width of an avel-age specimen being 3 by .5.5 mm.; cup COlfical, 5-1obed with 
interradial depressions, expanding upward, and the large radials recurving into 
an inverted basal funnel. Basals entirely hidden at bottom of funnel, covered 
by a narrow column. Radial facets narïow, dox-e-tailed to receive wedge-shaped 
processes; processes ver)" large spear-head shape, sometilnes petaloid. Arms 
6 



78 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

short, with hot over two or three long brachials bevond the first short one, taper- 
ing to a pointed apex. 
This is the most common species of the Tennessee area, occurring by the hundreds at 
various localities in the Brownsport group. It is what Millet and Gurley undertook to de- 
scribe as P. mîlliganae, but they entirely missed the prime character of the hidden basals, by 
which alone it is distinguished from P. gorbyi, and v«hich it shares with _P. sphericus of 
Rowlev. Although the authors declare emphatically that their species has "large basals, seen 
in sidé view even plainer than in P. gorbyi,'" this does hot appear in their figures; and the 
type specimens, formerlv in the collection of Mrs. Milligan and now in my possession, show 
the large radials recurving deep into the basal pit. It is a singular fact that it should have 
remained for a foreign author, purely in an incidental way, to give the valid naine to the 
most abundant of all the Pisocrbms species; but ]ather's description is perfectly correct, and 
will hold. 
The characters are distinctive, as appears by several figures on plate 23 showing the 
form in all stages, especlally the exact location and minute size of the basa]s as seen in the 
fractured cross-section at figure 29. The great size and deep undercutting of the spear-head 
processes is a striking feature of this species. In some specimens, such as figure I8, thev are 
almost as high as the remaining portion of the cup, and in general thev occupy over a third 
the total height of the cup measured to their angular points. 
The wealth of material in hand affords full information regarding the arms, of which 
I figure 4 specimens. All exhibit the saine elongated brachials, with a tendencv to a decided 
taper. Aside from its typical region in Tennessee, the species has been recognized sparsely in 
Missouri and Illinois. 
Horizon and locality. rownsport group of the Niagaran. Collected in ail glades in 
Decatur County, and in excavations at 4 different localities along leech River, and at 6 other 
localities in Perry and Wayne counties, Tennessee. In collections from the glades there may be 
some intermingling with P. sphericus, but wherever quinquelobus xvas round in place it did 
hot intergrade from lobate to round. Also in the Bainbridge limestone, Ste. Genevieve 
County, Missouri, and Racine dolomite of the Chicago area. In the sunken basals this species 
finds a parallel in P. olhda of Gotland, as shown by figures 8, 9, o of plate 25. 

Pisocrinus gorbyi S. A. Miller 

Plate 23, figs. 40-45 

Pisocrinus gorbyi Miller, I7th Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol.. 1892, p. 640, pl. 6, figs. I7-20 (adv. sheets, 
1891, p. 30); N. A. Geol. Pal., ISt App., 892, p. 681, fig. I243.--Rowley, Ara. Geol., 19o4, p. 269, 
pl. I6, figs. 4-7. 

A small species. Similar to P. quinquclobus except that the basals, instead 
of being hidden in a cavity, form a triangle, partly occupying a shallow depres- 
sion, and are more or less visible in a side view. Radial facets rather narrow; 
processes large, lance-head shape. Surface usually smooth, perhaps sometimes 
tubercular. 

Miller described under this species specimens from two remote areas, northern Indiana 
and western Tennessee, which agreed in having a lobate calyx. Tbe Tennessee specimens were 
afterwards separated by liiller and Gurley under the naine P. milligana.e, which they pro- 
posed for the prolific species already named bv Bather P. quinqtwlobtts. The original descrip- 
tion holds good for the hldiana form, which is fairlv conanaon at its type locality. It is readilv 
distinguished from the other two species of tlmt area by its lobed calyx, and it is important 



PISOCRINIDAE 79 

to note that the basals are visible from a side viev, which is the only character that separates 
it from the Tennessee form. This appears in Mr. Miller's figure I8, vhich is confirmed by 
the type specimen, now in my possession. \Vith it are about 20 others from the Benedict col- 
lection, in several of which this character is shown, so that it may be accepted as reliable, 
although in the majority of specimens as round the basal plates cannot be ruade out. 
The species has been recognized at two localities in Tennessee in the upper part of the 
Brownsport group, and in the Bainbridge limestone of Missouri. 
Horizon and localitr. In dololnite of \Vabasla and Madison counties, Northern Indiana; 
Lobelville formation; Flatwoods and Rise Mill, Perry County, Tennessee; Bainbridge lime- 
stone; Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri. 

Pisocrinus sphericus Rowley 
Plate 23, fiçs. 30-36 
Pisocrinus sphericus Rowley (P. globosus? Ringueberg), Ara. Geol., No. 34, x9o4, p. 27o, pl. x6, figs. 8, 9- 
Similar to P. quinquclobus in having the saine minute basals, hidden at 
the bottom of a deep cavity, and verv large lanceolate processes; but with calyx 
globose in contour instead of lobate, hot expanding upward, and perfectly round 
as seen from above or below. The distinctiou between the two forms is sup- 
ported by ample evidence, aud lu about 60 specimens of this species from a 
single locality, ranging from small to maximum size, there is no tendencv to a 
lobate form. In Tennessee it occurs chieflv in the uppermost beds of the Beech 
River formation, probably passing up into the Lobelville; its horizon is usuallv 
different from that of qdnquclobus. It also occurs in the Bainbridge formation 
of Ste. Genevieve Cunty, Missouri. from which Rowley figured it with doubt 
as P. 9lobosus of Ringueberg, but added tentativelv a naine of his own, which 
will staud. 
Horizon and locality. Brownsport formation, Niagaran • clays at top of the Beech River, 
and base of Lobelville; near Rise Mill, Perrv County, and in Decatur and \Vayne counties, 
Tennessee. Bainbridge formation" Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri. 

Pisocrinus tennesseensis (Roemer) 
Plate 24, figs. z- 5 
Symbathocrinus tennesseensis Roemer, Sil. Fauna \Vestl. Tennessee, 86o, pl. 4, figs. 6a, b.--Wood, Bull. 64, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., I9o9, p. 26.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 95, P- 1249.--Pisocrinus tcnnesseensis 
Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., 3, 886, pp. 66, 74. 
Attaining a large sizethe largest known species. Calyx conical, usually 
• ,vider than high. Column lacet large, shallow, sharply indented, leaving a thin 
rira at the margin. Base broadly truncate; basals almost entirely confiued to 
the cohmm lacet, only a slnall point of one occasionally seen. Radial facets very 
wide, narrowing inwards; processes fiat above, remarkablv narrow at the con- 
necton with the radials, and widening both imvard and upward, giving the 
effect of a mortise or dove-tailed union with the facets. They are so much under- 
cut that it is difficult to remove the matrix without prying them off. Specimens 



80 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

are usuallv large, small ones rarely seen; maximum calyx 6 mm. high at arm 
facets, 9 mm. wide at that level and 5 mm. wikle at the base. Arms unknown. 
This is a ver T characteristic species of the Brownsport group of Tennessee; is widely 
distributed, occurring at numerous localities and ranging through several formations. It has 
latelv been discovered bv Dr. X, Veller, with thoroughly representative specimens, in the Bain- 
bridge limestone of Missouri. While nowhere abundant, itis well represented in the collec- 
tions, and is renarkablv constant in its characters. The onlv species at ail resembling it is 
Triacrbms dcpressus of the Eifel Devonian, through which the evident succession of the 
two genera can be readily traced, specimens of it showing variations of 3 to .5 basals. 
PisocHnus lennessecnsis is hot listed in Bassler's BiblioEraphic Index, nor was it recog- 
nized by Miss \Vood in the Troost Monograph, being reported in both under Roemer's naine 
çymbathocrim«s, notwithstanding \¥achsnmth and Springer in part 3 of their Revision, had 
in two places definitely referred tlie species to Pisocrim«s. 
Horizon and local#y. Dixon beds and through the P, rownsport, Niagaran. At four 
localities along Beech River in Decatur County, at Martin's Mill and another locality in 
\Vayne County, and one in Perry Cotmty, Tennessee. Also Bainbridge limestone, Ste. Gene- 
vieve County, Missouri. 

Pisocrinus pyriformis (Ringueberg) 
Plate 24, fig. 37 
Triacrhms pyriformis Ringueherg, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 884, 1. 145, 1I. 3, fig- 

Pisocrinus globosus (Ringueberg) 
Plate 2 4, fi(d. 3 8 
Trlacrinus 91obosus Ringueberg, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., x884, p. 46, pl..3, fig. e.--Pisocrinus 9lobosus 
S. A. Miller, N. A. Geol. Pal., x889, p. 69.--Rowley, Ara. Geol., 894, p. zîo, pl. 16, figs. 8, 9- 
These two species, from the Clinton of Lockport, New York, bear a close relation to 
some of the western forms and are occasionally identified as occurring in that area; I am 
therefore figuring the type specimens for comparison. 

Pisocrinus pilula De Koninck 

Plate 25, figs. 1-6 
Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, x893, p. 27, for full synonymy. 
A series of figures of this protean species from the Wenlockian of Gotland and England 
is given for comparison with our P. campa.ne. AIso for comparison with other American 
species, P. olhda Angelin, figures 7-io; p. pocilhtm Angelin. figures I I, I Ia; both from 
Gotland and fully described in Bather's work" and two specimens of undescribed species 
from Dudley, England, figures 12, 2a and 3-4- 



PISOCRINID.\E 8I 

ZOPHOCRINUS S. A. Miller 

Plate 2 5 
Zophocrims Millet, I7th Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 1892, p. 642 (adv. sheets, 1891, p. 32).--Weller, 
Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 4, 19oo, p. 152 , fig. 57.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., pt. 3, 19oo, p. I5I , 
fig. 63.--Slocom, Field Columb. Mus., _'2, Geol. Ser., 19o8, p. 284, fig. 5.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 
2d ed., 1913, p. I58.--Bassler, 13ibling.r. Index, 1915, p. 1339. 
[onocvclic. Calyx elongate pyriforln ; P,B 3, large, 2 equal and one larger" 
RR 4, the one on the posterior side lar.e,-er than lhe others, probably representing 
r. and 1. post. RR fused. Tegmen solid, composed of 5 spade-shaped orals, inter- 
locking at the center and extending outward narrower to the periphery, where 
thev cgnnect with the radials : post. oral the largest, pushed in between the points 
of the other four; rive groups of narrov plates resenlbling brachials, usuaily 
three in each group, closeiv united, two lneeting behind the third, lie between 
the peripheral extensions of the orals; they spring froln the radials and their 
distal ends are marked bv fossae, indicating articular facets for slender arms. 
Surface slnooth. Column-facet small. Specimens small, ranging from 5 lnlll. 
high to a maximum ot' IO mln. 
Genot3,pe. Zophocrinus hovardi S. A. Miller. 
Distrib.«tion. Niagaran; America; not observed in Europe. 
Chiefly known from the type species, ri'oto which the characters of the genus are taken ; 
it occurs t.xpically in the Laurel lilnestone, at St. Paul, Indiana, but has been round in Ten- 
nessee, and two species bave been described from the Chicago area. 
This singular form is remarkable for the fact that whereas the dorsal cup is comt0osed 
above the base of four radial elements, evident!y forlned bv fusion of two from the primi- 
tive rive, the tegmen is constructed strictly on the quinqueradiate plan, with 5 large orals 
meeting toward the center like those of HapIocrim«s; but unlike the latter connecting with 
the dorsal cup bv extensions of a different shape, between which are groups of narrow plates 
supposed to be brachials. These groups, while connecting with the 4 large radials, do not 
seem to stand in any definite relation to thena, as thev do uot, except occasionally, spring from 
their middle. Hence it would seem that the disturbance in radiatiou internally was greater 
than would be caused by a simple fusion of two radials, as in that case there should be a 
group of brachials ri-oto the middle of each of the three equal original radials, and two from 
the larger one. The anal opening is not always distinctly shown, but seems to lie closelv 
alongside the peripheral exteusion of the posterior oral" apparently this does hot alwavs coiu- 
cide with the larger radial. 
Now it happens that the essential structures by which Zophocrimts differs so markedly 
from other crinoids are round in the Devonian genus Tiaracrim«s froln the Eifel. This was 
described by Schultze in 1867 (Mon. Echin. Eifl.. p. 226, pl. I3, fig- 8) l'rom a single species, 
T. quadrifron, but with a complete misconception of its characters. The tegmen with its 
border of narrow margiual plates he lnistook for a stem segment, and figured his specimen 
upside down, so that the small cavity for the cohmm-facet was conceived to be the tegminal 
opening where the calyx plates ahnost came together. This fact was noted by Zittel in 1879  
and has been further mentioned by Oehlert in colmection with the description of a uew 
species, T. soa,ci.  

x Handb. Pal., I, Il. 425. 
-Bull. Geol. Soc. France, Ser. 3, 1882, p. 359. 



82 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

I have given on plate 25, figures z7-27c, careful figures of the specimen used by Schultze 
as the type, to show the remarkable parallelism with Zophocrimts. The two forms differ 
widely in certain details. Tiaracrimls hzs a verv small, concave base, apparently of 3 plates, 
and the surface of the cup is covered bv 4 series of sharp, transverse folds passing from 
one radial to another, ending in deep pits formiug vertical rows separated by a wide groove 
atong the middle of each radial--in contrzst to the perfectly smooth surface of Zophocrimts. 
The cu l) has 4 unequal radials, but instead of the posterior one being largest, it is scmetimes 
the smallest. 
l:ut the solid tegmen is constructed on precisely the saine principle as that of Zopho- 
crimls, being comlr)osed of 5 orals meeting at the center and interlocking, with extensions or 
connections reaching to the periphery between which are 5 groups of extremely narrow 
plates, presumabty br;achials, springing from the radials ;and forming with the interposed 
oral extensions a conspicuous border around the margin. Instead of 3 to a group, the number 
of brachiaIs here is   or ',, and they do hot coincide in position with the radials. Thus the 
4 radials, quinquepartite tegmen, and the peripheral border of narrow brachials, are the 
essential characters common to the txvo forms. The enlarged figure of this tegmen on plate 5 
shows some indefinite small plates at the outer ;angles of the or;als which are hot understood. 
As the structures are preserved in this unique specimen, some of the sutures are obscure, and 
these snmll plates are hot to be depended on. 
The interpretation of the peripherat border of uarrow plates in Zophocrinus bas been 
somewhat of a puzzle. Those of Tiaracrimts represent the saine element xvithout doubt, the 
onty difference being their greater number, anaounting to 55 or 6o instead of about 5. That 
they are brachials, in view of their form, and positiou rel;ative to the radials, seems highly 
probable, and ]3ather's suggestion that they may be compared with the arms of Catillocrimts 
accords with my own view. In both cases there would be the unusual featv.re of several arms 
originating upon a siugle radial, and in the Catitlocrinidae we bave a range in number of 
arms--from a to 57simiiar to that in the two genera under consideration, riz.: 5 to 55 
or 6o? The distiuct presence of fossae upon the distal face of the brachiats in Zophocrims 
indicates that they lnust bave borne articulated arms. 
As to the systenmtic position of these genera ]3ather and Jaekel are in substantiat agree- 
meut, placing Zophocr[nltS anaong the Ionocvclic Inadunata, while referring Tiaracrimts to 
the Cystidea (Lankester Zool., 9oo, pp. 5 t, 2o: Phylogenie und System, 98. pp. 89, 99), 
the latter based upon the belief that the rows of pits up and down the middte of the radials 
represent pore-rhombs. There is no suggestion of pores on the smooth surface of Zophocrinus 
to call for a reference to the cystids, and the renaarkable identitv in essential calyx structure 
vould seem to preclude placing the two genera in different divisions of echinoderms. It may 
be that the extreme specialization of the tegmen and arms common to the two is an indeoen- 
dent development, but it seems more reasonable, and in better accord with the facts as îaov 
disclosed, to regard them both as aberrant crinoids, in Solne way related, and modified from 
the Silurian to the Devonian. 

Zophocrinus howardi S. A. Iiller 
Plate 25, figs. z9-26 
Zophocrimts hozz,ardi S. A. ]/iller, 7th Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 892, p. 642 (adv. sheets, 89, 
P. 33), pl. 6, figs. -6-8; N. A. Geol. Pal., st App., 89z, p. 683, fig. -54.Veller, Bul]. Chicago 
Acad. $ci., 4, pt. , 9oo, p. 5-% pl. x5, fig. 3.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., pt. 3, 9oo, p. I5, fig. 63. 
Graban and Shimer, N. A. Index Foss., , 9o, p. 474, fig. 785. 
Type of the genus. The characters are fully stated in the general remarks. 
The species is rather al)undant at the type locality, St. Paul, Indiana, but speci- 
 Springer, On the family Catillocrinidae, Smithsonian lkIisc. Coll., vol. 76, x923, p. o. 



PISOCRINIDAE 83 

mens showing the structure of the teganela alad margillal brachials clearly are 
rare. The foregoin K description1 is ruade from twelve specimens in which the 
g'roups of tbree bracbials and the ilterposed orals are distinctlv sbown. In 
these small specimens the sutures i Ibe tegmel are usually rather obscure. 
Sir. Chapman's elflarged fiR-ure 22 Oll plate 25 was ruade many years ago after 
a cal-eful studv of two xx-ell preserx'ed specimens. A specimel subsequently ac- 
quired, figures 2, 2Ia, havinp, the oral plates slightly parted, confirms the 
original fi,q-ure in ex-ery particnlar. The species ralges il size from 5 to o mm. 
height to the top of the radials; the latter figure is rare, the usual beigbt beilg 
from 6 to 8 mm. 

tforio» ad localily. Laurel limestone; St. Paul and Greensboro, Indiana; and Beech 
River formation; Flatwoods, Perry County, Tennessee; perhaps Racine dolomite; Lemont, 
Illinois. 
Zophocrim«s 91obosus $1ocom, Field Columb. Mus., Geol. Ser. 2. 9o8, p. 285, pl. 85, 
figs. 5-9, from near Lemont, Illinois, and Zophocri-ms pyriformis Sloeom, ibid., page 285. 
plate 85, figures I2-I 4, from Romeo, Illinois, are both referred to the Racine division of the 
Niagaran. 

MYSTICOCRINUS Splillger 
Plate 26 
Springer, Amer. Jour. Sci., 46, 98, p. 666. 
Calx-x globose, rigid, with o ildicatioa of loose sutm-e or flexibilitv; lower 
braclials do laOt take part in calyx xvall. Dicx-clic; IBB 3, the small plale in 
r. post. position. RA ila pl-imitix'e posiiola beloxv r. post. R. beilg the lower 
seent of tbat radial, wbicla (and no other) is compotmd. RR unequal, with 
lateral processes projectilg betxveen afin-bases: facets CUl-x'ed and excavated, 
hot filling dista] face of radials. Anal plate , large, aagular above, pro.iecting 
aboYe lex'e! of radials; opening nnknown. Arms tmiserial, branching once, com- 
posed of only a felv brachials. Teg-men narroxv, probably covered by a pyramid 
of orals as in Pisocrints and Swbathocrinus. 
Genotype. Mysticocrim«s wilsoi Springer. 
Distribution. Silurian; hot knoxvn outside of America. 
This diminutive crinoid', described by me in 98 from a very perfect specilnen, and of 
which a fragment of another slightly larger is known, is of a wholly novel type, xvith such a 
complex assemblage of characters that its systematic position is tmcertain. It is an Inadunate, 
superficially resembling the Larviformia, and upon a preponderance of characters coming 
nearer to that group than to any other2 The primitive radianal is against it, and the dicyclic 
base also, although the latter ma3' fall vithin an admitted exception. It would seem to be 
intermediate between the Iarviformia and the Fistulata" in the primary composition of the 
cup, especially in the radianal under the right posterior radial, it is similar to the Dendro- 
crinldae, although wholly ulalike them in the dvarfed arms and interbrachial processes, both 
of which are Iarviformia characteristics. The 3 IBB, with small plate at right posterior, is a 
character of the Flexibilia. from which it is excluded on other grounds. 



84 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Aside from this combination of general characters, the most striking feature is the in- 
equality of the radials, and the distribution of the processes on radial and anal plates in such 
a way that there is an arrow-head projection between the afin-bases in every interbrachial area. 
Processes ana]ogous to these, of various shapes, are characters of Pisocrinus. 

Mysticocrinus wilsoni Springer 
Plate 26, figs. .ra-g 
Springer, Amer. Jour. Sci., 46, TgtS, p. 666, pl. I I, figs. -8. 
Calvx very small, the size of small Pisocriutts, about 2. 7 mm. height and 
width of type, with but little height added bv the infolding arms; flattened be- 
Iow, strongly constricted at the arm-bases. IBB torlning a sha]lmv saucer, éx- 
ternally concave, the smaller r. post. plate being more than oe fifth the area 
of the pentagon. BB strongly convex, bent outward and upward, forming about 
one third the height of the cup; post. B heptagonal, wider than high, subangular 
below, truncate above; r. post. and r. ant. BB hexagonal, the other txvo pen- 
tagonal. RA pentagonal, truncate above to meet r. post. R. and beveling the 
lower corner of anal. Anal .v verv large, sagittaeform, higher than wide, beveled 
laterallv bv the RA; apex acuminate, rising ahnost to the height of first secundi- 
brachs; offsets of arrow-head resting upon and interlc, cking with shoulders of 
post. RR. 
RR unequal and differing in shape; angular processes project nearly as 
high as the anal between the arm-bases froln three of the RR, riz., at one 
(outer) side of each posterior and at both sides of the anterior R, while the 
laterals have none" each process bas an offset like those of the anal interlocking 
with adjacent RR. Radial facets deeply curved, occupying a median position 
except on the two post RR, in which the single outer processes occupy about 
one-half the distal width of the plate and the facets toward the posterior side 
the remaining hall. Ant. R. the largest plate in the cup ; it and the two post. RR 
widen upwards, while the two lateral RR correspondingly dilninish in width, 
and by reason of the absence of processes are shorter than the former; the R. 
post. R is the smallest, although with the RA added it is about equal to and 
slightly longer than 1. post. R. Arms unequal, uniserial, branching once, infold- 
ing and apparently very short; the two post. and probably the ant. arms have 
2 IBr, while the laterals seem to have but olle; the axillaries are followed by 
series of 3 or more subquadran.ular brachials which taper gradually. Anus 
and teglnen unlmown. Steln circular. 
Horiao» ad local#y. Laurel limestone, at top of chert- St. Paul, Indiana. 



H ETEROCRI N I D OEE 85 

Suborder FISTULATA Wachsmuth and Springel- 
Monocvclic or dicyclic. Posterior interambulacrunl usuallv more or less 
extended into a strongly plated anal tu]e or sac. Arms pinnulate or non- 
pinnulate, usually uniserial, but biserial in some of the later genera. Tegnnen 
composed of numerous plates, either orals with supra terminal ambulacra pass- 
over their edges, and interambulacra, or more or less undifferentiated plates. 

Falnilv HETEROCRINIDAE Zittel 
3[onocvclic. Basals rive. One or more of radials compound. Anal x 
usuallv resting on left shoulder of r. post. R, supporting a tube. Arms rive, 
non-pinnulate, uniserial, dicbotomous or heterotomou% or mav bifurcate with 
ranmles : proximal IBr usuallv full width of RR. Tegmen little known. 

MYELODACTYLUS Hall 
Plate 7 
Myelodactylus Hall, Pal. New York, , 85z, p. 9L--Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 878, p. L--\Vachsmuth 
and Springer, Rev. Pal., , 879, P- 46.--Wellcr, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 4, 9oo, pp. 45, 68. 
Springer, Unusual forms of Fossil Crinoids, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 67, 926, pp. 3-3, pls. -6. 
Hcrpetocrinus Salter, Catal. Camb. Sil. Foss., 873, p. 8.--Bather, Crin. Gotl., 893, p. 36, text-fig. :, 
pl. , figs. 24-77 ; Amer. Geol., 895, p. 24 : Nat. Sci., 2, 898. p. 339 ; Treatise on Zoel., 3, 9o, p. 46, 
fig. 49.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., 93, P- 22.--Bassler. Bibliogr. Index, 95, P- 844. 
Thomas, Proc. Iova Acad. Sci., -6, 99, p. 
An Inadunate crinoid with coiled stelll, more or less completely enveloping 
the crown, circular in proximal region: bilaterallv symmetric, elliptic or sub- 
crescentic in middle and distal regions ; with two rows of cirri along the lnargins 
or back of the bilateral part. Crown similar o tiret of Iocrinus. 
Genotype. 3Iyelodactylus cmvolutus Hall. 
Distribution. Silurian to Lower Devonian; America, England, Gotland. 
t-Iaving recentlv in the paper on " Unusual Forms of Fossil Crinoids," above cited, dis- 
cussed this remarkable form and its congeners at considerable length, with descriptions and 
illustrations of the known American species, it is unnecessarv to go into details concerning it 
here. Inasmuch, however, as some of the most important of the new material belongs to the 
Tennessee fauna under consideration, and for completeness must be given a place in this 
work, it has been thought best to reproduce a selecfion from the principal figures, assembled 
upon a single plate the better to show at a glance the varietv and range of this greatly special- 
ized genus. To this end a list of the species as figured will be given wih a brief résumé of the 
salient characters, while for more complete informatien the reader is referred to the paper 
alluded to. 



86 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Myelodactylus ammonis (Bather) 
Plate 27, ri9 s. -r-5a 
Herpetocrinus amnonls Bather, Crin. Gotl., I893, p- 49, pl. 2, figs. 54-63.--1IY cl°dactylus ammonis Springer, 
Unusual Forms, I926, p. IO, pl. 2, figs. I-9. 
Coil very close; stem short, tapering to a point; cirri short, alternating 
from broad end of successive columnals. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County; and \Valdron shale; Newsom, Tennessee. 
M. gorbyi Miller and Gurley, 7th Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., I89, p. 72, from near Nashville, 
Tennessee, is too indefinite for comparison. 

Myelodactylus convolutus Hall 
Plate 27, fi9s. 6-8 
Myclodactflus convoMtus Hall, Pal. New York, 2, 852, p. 92, pl. 45, figs. 5, 6.Springer, Unusual Forms, 
I926, pp. 8, 6, pl. x, figs. I-8. Hcrpctocrim«s com,olut«s Bather, Crin. Gotl., I893, p. 48, pl. 2, 
figs. 50-53. 
Coil open and broadly convolute distalwards; stem long; columnals short, 
quadrangular, uniform; cirri fiat, regularly paired on successive columnals. 
Rochester shale; Lockport, New York: Laurel limestone, St. :Paul, [ndiana; and other 
Silurian horizons and localities. M. bridgcportcnsis S. A. Millet, Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
I880, p. I4I, figs. 2a-c, from the Racine dolomite, and Eomyclodactylus rotundatus Foerste, 
Bull. 9, Sci. Lab. Dennison Univ., 99, p. 9, pl. , fig. 8. pl. 2, fig. 3 are thought to belong 
to this species. 

Myelodactylus brevis Springer 
Plate 27, fi9s. 9, 9a 
Springer, Unusual Forms, 9-6, p. o, figs. 9, 9a. 
Like convohttus, but with coil close and stem short, tapering to a point. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Myelodactylus fletcheri (Salter) 
Plate 27, fi9s. zo, oa, b 
Hcrpetocrinus tet'chcri Salter, Catal. Camb. Sil. Foss., 1876, p. 8.--Bather, Crin. Gotl., 893, p. 16, pl. 
figs. 34-49, and p. 82, under fig. 38.--Myelodactylus tetcheri Springer, Unusual Forms, x926, p. xo, 
pl. , figs. 
A species from the \Venlockian of Dudley, England, and occurring also in 
Gotland. Similar to M. con',ohttus, hut with cirri round aud bead-like. The 
specimen figured is notable for being the onlv one of the genus froln the Silurian 
which shows the exact structure of the crown, of Iocrinid type, with only 4 ravs. 
It was noticed in Bather's v,ork of 893, on p. 182. 



II ETEROCRI N I DAE 

87 

Myelodactylus extensus Springer 
Plate 27, fige. II-i8 
Springer, Unusual Forms, 926, p. I4, pl. 3, figs. -I3. 
Like ammoni.r, excel)t that the coil is open bevond the proximal region, 
and s'rem extended for a considerable distance in a broad curve toward the dis- 
tal end. 
leech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 
Myelodactylus brachiatus Hall 
Plate 7, fig. 19 
Myelodactyh«s brachiatus Hall, Pal. New York, 2, ]852, p. 232, pl. 45, figs. 7a-e.--Springer, Unusual Forms, 
926, p. 14, pl. 4, figs. I-iO. 
Coil open, circular part of steln very long and slender, with crown tending 
to be free of the coil; cirri limited to the distal end, few, long, branching, and 
alternating at intervals of several cohlmnals. 
Rochester shale : Lockport, New York. 
Nlyelodactylus keyserensis Springer 
Plate 27, figs. o, 2oa 
Springer, Unusual Forms, 1926 , p. 19, pl. 6, figs. 1-3. 
Coil open; cirri numerous, long, slender, paired on successive columnals; 
crown large, with lon.e, arms branching repeatedly, swelling between the two 
rows of closely packed cirri; rays 5, of Iocrinus type. 
Keyser formation, Helderbergian ; Lower Devonian ; Keyser, \Vest Virginia. 
Myelodactylus schucherti Springer 
Plate 7, fig. I 
Springer, Unusual Forms, 1926 , p. 21, pl. 5, figs. 9-9c. 
Coil close, circular part of stem thick and long; cirri round, short, paired 
on successive columnals. 
Linden formation, Helderbergian, Lower Devonian; Benton County, Tennessee. 
Myelodactylus nodosarius (Hall) 
Plate 7, figs. -24 
Brachiacrinux nodoxarlux Hall, PaL New York, 3, 859, P. I I8, pl. 5, figs. 5-7; pl. 6, figs. I-3.--Goldring, 
Devon. Crin. New York, 1923 ' p. 332, pl. dI, figs. 1-4.---Herpctocrinu-s nodo«arius Bather, Amer. GeoI., 
16, I895 , p. 213.Myelodactylus nodosarius Springer, Unusual Forms, 1926, p. 20, pl. 5, figs. 1-8. 
Coil open; stem elongate, terminating in a bulbous enlargement; cirri few, 
short, thicker than the stem and thickest in the middle, alternating at intervals 
of  to 5 columnals, composed of a few rounded, bead-like cirrals. 
New Scotland formation, Helderbergian, Lower )evollian ; Schoharie County, New York. 



88 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

CALCEOCRINIDAE Meek and Worthen 
Calceocrlnidae Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. Illinois, 5, 873, P. 5o2.--Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. 
Pal., 3, 886, p. 273.--Ringueberg, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 4, 889, p. 388.--Bather, Crin. Gotl. 
1893, P. 54; Treatise on Zool., 3, 9oo, p. i47.--Cremacrinidae Ulrich, 14th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Minnesota, 886, p. o5. 
l[onocvclic Inadunata, with crown pendent or recumbent on the stem, in 
which the radials are connected with the base by muscular articulation instead 
of by suture, and in which bilateral symmetry, at first disturbed, has been 
progressively established bv the location of the stem first to the right of the anal 
tube, and afterwards in the saine plane; anterior and left posterior radials large 
and simple; left anterior, right posterior and right anterior radials originally 
compound, the last two finallv obliterated or non-arm-bearing; anal .v shifted 
over the right posterior radius, and supporting a massive anal tube; arms of txvo 
types, one (1. ant.) median, marking the plane of l»ilateral symmetry, and three 
lateral in earlv stage, afterwards, and filmIIy, 1)ecoming definitely fixed at two, 
xvhich are peculiarly modified by a doubly heterotomous mode of branching, 
wholly distinct îrom that of the median arm; basals first 4, later reduced by 
fusion to 3; calyx antero-posteriorly compressed, especially at the junction of 
radials and basals, where it is almost linear; transverse section about middle 
of radials triangular. 
Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous ; America and Europe. 
This sinflarly modified crinoid differs from all others by having the base united to the 
radials by a hinged muscular articulation, allowing motion of the crown above the base up 
and clown in the plane of its bilateral synmaetry. Bv this character, without precedent among 
the echinoderms, the family is set apart from the remainder of the class as a distinct zoological 
unit. Its morphology bas been studied bv Wachsmuth and Springer, Ringueberg, and B-ather. 
The most extensive study is that of Bather, contained in lais monograph on the Crinoidea of 
Gotland, 893, which embodied an elaborate treatise on the family Calceocrinidae, with the 
advantage of the fine material from the Swedish and English Silurian, and is enriched with a 
wealth of beautiful figures drawn by the toaster hand of Georg Liljevall. No Silurian material 
at all comparable to that had been available to the American authors, nor bas there been since 
until the collection herein described was assemble& In the treatment of the familv. I bave 
availed myself of Bather's work, and of lais later treatise in the Lankester Zoology, part 3, 
i9oo, page 47- 
The literature on the subject is difficult to foIlow, aside from the obscurity inherent in 
the anomalous structure, because the authors bave employed different terminology for the 
parts which are peculiar to it. It is therefore necessary, before entering upon the discussion 
of a type of which the superficial appearance in its later stage is so widelv different from that 
of other crinoids, to settle the orientation of the calyx. This depends chieflv upon the rela- 
tion of the radials, which are so greatly affected bv the modifications that have occurred. 
Wachsmuth and Springer and Ringueberg treated the radius which is located between the 
two large radials, and thus occupies a conspicuous median position, and which had been called 
" dorsal" bv Hall, as the anterior. Bather, on the other hand, regarded the median radius 



I I ITERO('R I X I D.\E 

89 

as the left anterior, the anterior being tbe large plate adjoining it to the left. I bave adopted 
this plan, as being the logica! deduction from the facts about which there is no dispute. 
The type under consideration is beyond question closelv related to the Heterocrinidae, 
with which it was COlatemporaneous in the early stage, and o which it was evidently an off- 
shoot. E. P, illings described the first two species of it as Heterocrinus. In most of the earlv 
monocvclic genera of that type having uneqv.al radials, such as Hcterocrinus, Ectenocrius, 
Ohiocritus, and also those of otber groups, as Pisocrimts, Triacrimts, Mycocritus and Catillo- 
crlmts, it is always the anterior and left posterior radials that are large and simple, while the 
others are compound or much reduced in size. (See pl. 23, fig. 46.) 
Having thus the essential characters of the Heterocrinidae, and the two large radials 
with the arlns they bear being clearly identified as the anterior and left posterior, it necessarily 
follows that in this family the arm or radius which lies between them, and xvhich on the side 
avav from the anal tube occupies the median position, is the left anterior. \\rith this fact 
established to begin with, we are prepared to trace the modifications which followed the 
reversal of tbe crown upon the stem. 
The first departure from the primitive type was the disappearance of one basal and the 
r. post. arrn. and tbe location of the stem at one side of the anal tube, and to the right of the 
r. post. radial- the plane marked by the stenq and 1. ant. radial is one of imperfect bilateral 
svmmetrv. R. post. arm being now absent, its place is occupied bv the anal tube. Next the 
r. ant. arm also disappears in the later genera, in which the stern shifts so as to coincide with 
the anal tube in the median posterior position, thus producing complete bilateral symmetry; 
the r. post. and r. ant. superradials fuse to form a transversely extended subanal  plate, 
sometimes T-shaped, tmderlying the anal a,; whicb is the direct support, or beginning of the 
anal tube" later the subanal piece atrophies, and the anal x or tube tests upon the correspond- 
ing inferradials ; finally also the left basals fuse into a single plate. The simple radials (1. post. 
and nt.) increase in size, forming the sides of the cup, and bending around toward the pos- 
terior, where the tube is, as well as in the opposite direction where they eventually meet 
between the two segments of l. ant. compound radial. 
These segments are quite variable in shape and size, and the variation is decidedly progres- 
sive. In the Ordovician forms the lower one, inferradial, is elongate quadrilateral, rather 
broad, and connects by its distal face vith the rougbly triangular superradial. A similar con- 
nection, with a gradual decrease in width of the inferradial, is maintained in some Silurian 
forms; in others the two segments are separated, both becoming triangular, and this struc- 
ture remains fixed and constant throughout the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous. The 
proximal margin of tbis and the adjoining radials next to the hinge is often strongly denticulate. 
The arm system becornes peculiarly modified, both in general plan and nailaor details. 
It consists of two distinct types, one of which is limited to a single arm. the left anterior, 
while the other contains two or more arms, first unsvmmetric and afterwards equally balanced 
on either side of it. The former is an element sui 9eneris, standing alone, distinguished from 
all the others by its median location and exclusive characters, l,y reason of its size, position, 
and relation to the other arms, it dominates the anterior region of the crown, and as the dia- 
metrical opposite of tbe reversed stem fixes the plane of bilateral syrnmetry sornewhat after 
the manner of a spinal column. In view of its strictlv median position between those borne 
by the two large, simple radials, I have round it convenient in discussion to desio'nate this as 
the "median arm," rather than as the " dorsal " as is done by Hall and some other authors, 
that terre being objectionable because currently used among the echilaoderms in an entirely 
different sense. Of course the terre " left anterior" is retained as the correct technical 
expression. 

 I prefer the terre "subanal," which is self-explanatory and correct in fact, to that of "T-piece" as 
employed by some authors, which is misleading in that the plate is scarcely ever round of that shape. 



90 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
The median arm is borne by the 1. ant. R, and it varies greatly in size; it is sometimes 
much the largest, furnishing the main controlling element in the movement of the crown; 
frequently it remains simple, extending distally bevond the ends of the other arms; it mav 
branch, usually only once in the earlier forms, but sometimes twice or even more in some of 
the later ; also it varies in the number and length of brachials, from 2 or 3 of extreme length 
to 20 or more short ones; occasionally this arm is relatively slcnder, and even shorter than 
the lateral arms. But always it is a unit by itself, without anv corresponding etement. 
The two side arms borne by the large, simple radials, each at first symmetrically divided 
into two equal rami, are later extraordinarily deve]oped into numerous branches springing 
from successive diminishing axillaries having unequal articu]ating faces, each giving off from 
the shorter, inner face a branch called an " axil-arm," and from the longer, outer face the 
next axillary. The latter constitute the main ranms of each of these arms, composed of a 
series of 3 to 8 axillaries, termed " main-axils," which lie side by side and curve around 
transverselv to»vard the anal tube in form of an arch : the branch (axil-arm) springing from 
each main-'axil on the shorter side toward the mcdian arm gives off ramules in alternate 
succession, of which those on the inner side are often invisible from the exterior of the folded 
arm, while those on the outer side, especially the first one, mav reach the height of the crown 
and form the chier visible part or: the arm. This plan of arm-branching may be cal]ed the 
" axil-arm system." 
The base also undergoes notable modifications. In the first remove from the ancestral 
form, concurrent with the as-mmetric location of the stem and the disappearance of the 
r. post. arn, the r. post. basal atrophies, and is only rarely, perhaps doubtfully, represented 
by a minute triangular relic ; tlms there are left 4 BB, which form a semicircular base, hinged 
bv muscular articulation to the radials, with the hinge on the straight side and the larger r. ant. 
and post. BB on the curve. All the basals are in contact with the stem as usual in crinoids; 
the median two next to the hinge, 1. post. and 1. ant. BB, called the left basals, enter or touch 
the stem-facet by narrow points, and their outer sides make a reverse crve, ving a peculiar 
and characteristic outline. In the next, 3-armed, stage, with the stem shifted back to the 
median position, the 4 basals remain as before, the two left BB in contact with the stem bv 
their points, and preserving the saine general shape. But in the next, axil-arm, stage these 
basals are completely detached from the stem, and fuse into a single plate which is usually 
triangular with straight sides in the Silurian forms, and finally becomes curved in the Car- 
boniferous. Thus whi|e in the Ordovician stage and its immediate Si]urian successor the four 
basals are connected with the stem as in their ancestor when erect upon the stem, a progressive 
change occurs with the establishment of the axil-arm system, by which two of them are entirely 
withdrawn from contact with the stem or its lacet. These differences are further important 
because they can be recognized from the isolated base alone, which is often the only part 
recovered in the fossils. 
These various stages form an evolutionary series, the members of which mav for the 
present be designated as A, B, C and D. ]t begins in the Ordovician with Form A, having 
3 lateral arm-bearing rays, hereinafter for convenience called simply arms, the stem alongside 
the anal tube, the lateral axillary prim[brachs equal-faced (in which three characters it differs 
from all the test of the familv), also 4 basals unfused, the r. post. and r. ant. inferradials 
separated from one another and from the anal x by the corresponding superradials, and the 
two segments of 1. ant. R broadly connected ; is modified in the Silurian with Forms ]3 and C, 
having the lateral arms reduced to two, balanced, the stem shifted to the plane of the anal 
tube, the primibrachs unequal-faced : the left basals in the former divided, and in the latter 
fused into a single triangular plate ; and it cuhninates in the Devonian and Lower Carbonifer- 
ous with Form D, in which, along with the foregoing characters of C, the fused 1. post. and 
1. ant. basals finallv form a curved plate as wide as the hinge, the r. post. and r. ant. infer- 
radials bave corne together underneath the anal x, the suIerradials which as the subanal piece 



I[ETEROCRINIDAE 

91 

Lateral arms as in C; inferradials of vanished 
arms meet under x; segments of 1. ant. R alxvays sepa- 
rated. BB 3, the fused left basal more 6r less curved, 
not touching stem. Devonian to Lower Carboniferous. 
Halysiocrinus. 

Lateral arms 2, balanced, with axil-arms borne 
on short faces of successive axillaries, archlng to- 
ward anal tube; inferradials of vanished arms sepa- 
rated by subanal piece; segments of 1. ant. R usually 
separated. 3 BB, l. ant. and l. post. fused to a trian- 
gular plate, not touching stem. Silurian. Calceo- 
crbus. 

R. ant. arm vanished, leaving median and 2 lat- 
eral arms balanced; stem shifted to plane of anal 
tube; segments of l. ant. R narrowly connected ; 4 BB, 
all touchlng stem. Silurian. Eucheirocrinus. 

Crown bent upon stem; r. post. arm and basal 
vanished, leaving median and 3 lateral arms, un- 
symmetric, anal tube, and 4 BB ail touching stem; 
stem af side of tube; segments of 1. ant. R broadly 
connected. Ordovician to Silurian. Cremacrinus. 

Probable ancestral form like Heterocrim«s, vith 
5 arm-bearing RR, 2 simple, 3 compound; crovn 
erect upon stem; anal tube springing from r. post. R. 
Ordovician. Dotted line indicates arm and basal first 
fo be eliminated. 

Fc. I. The Series of Calceocrinidae 
Read from below up 



9 2 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

before selarated them baving disappeared, and the two. segments of 1. ant. radial, baving 
as a rule become disconnected lu C, are now widely and permmaently" separated by the tvo 
large radials meeting betweeu tbem. In P, the lateral arm structure is of an intermediate 
stage, while C, which is abundantly represented in tbe fauna herein described, has in common 
with D the axil-arm structure, and differs from it in tbe fact that in most species the two 
inferradials are still separated by the subanal piece formed by the fusion of tbeir respective 
superradial s%maaents, and also in the size and shape of the fused basals. 
This may be better understood by reference to the accompanying series of diagrams on 
page 9t constructed as if the cup were opened betweeu the anterior and left anterior radials 
and spread out fiat ; this puts the left anterior rav alwavs at the left end, with the anal tube and 
stem at tbe front. The relative position of the respective parts is maintained throughout. 
In tbe ()rdovician type, which passes over into tb_e Silurian, the side arms branch so that 
the ray divides equally upon the axillary primibracb into two main divisions, which are sym- 
metric as between themselves. From these ramules are given off from successix,e brachial series 
alternatelv on opposite sides after the usual manner of the heterotomous arm. 
In the other leading Silurian form, C. as belote stated, the axil-arm system, a wholly 
dïfferent and unprecedented plan of arm structure, was developed, in which, instead of the rays 
dividing symmetrically into two e¢mal rami, they divided upon the primihrach from unequal 
articulating faces, the sborter one giving off an axil-arm and the longer one another axillary, 
likewise unsymmetrical, from wbich the saine process was repeated several times. Thus the 
brancbing ,cas by successive axillaries from one side of the ray outward from the median arm 
toward the anal tube, producing a somewhat fan-shaped arrangement of the ray on either side. 
Tbis modification changed' the general aspect of the crinoid, and the relation of its calyx and 
arm plates, to such an extent that in order to understand the descriptions it is desirable to bave 
a little clearer acconnt of what happened during the course of the evolution from Ordovician 
to Carboniferous times. 
Starting, for example, with the cup of Heterocrinu.s bcllcï,illensis of \V. R. Billings, as 
given opposite 0 at the bottom of tbe series, we bave a circlet of rive arm-bearing radial plates, 
three of them compound and two simple, together with an anal tube sprinng from the 
r. post. radial, all underlain by 5 basals. The plane of bilateral symmetry in this circlet bisects 
the anal tube and the simple anterior radial, with two radials on either side, one simple and 
one compound at the left, and two compound ones at the right. Bv reason of the stemward 
bending of the crown, and consequent pushing of the anal tube to the right, the two arms to 
the right of it were one after the other crowded out: the superradials aud inferradials were 
modified until the arm-bearing segments disappeared or ceased to function, and there were 
left onlv three arm-bearing radials, the 1. post., I. ant. and ant. RR in tbat order. Tl:e 1. ant. R 
became the base of the median arm : the other two, having greatly increased in size, supported 
the side arms, which bv their numerous branches spread around toward each other, and 
toward the anal tube, usually overlapping and concealing it from view. This resulted in a 
flattened or elliptic ring of calyx plates, consisting of a median and two lateral arm-beariug 
radials and the anal series, in which the radial antipodal to the anal tube was now the left 
anterior instead of tbe anterior as in the ancestral stage, leaving one of the large simple radials 
at either side; so that the plane of bilateral symlnetry would lie from the stem and anal tube 
to the median arm. 
Thns the goal toward which tbis family group was tending was a tri-radial form with a 
perfect bilateral symmetry. It was attained by I t) complete elimination of the ancestral 
r. post. and r. ant. ravs through atrophy of their superradials and iucorporation of their infer- 
radials with the anal structures; (2) restoration of the stem to the plane of the anal tube; 
along with these occurred (3) the equal develolment of the axil-arm system on either side 
of the median arm; and (4) the permanent deta-chment of 1. ant. inferradial from the rav bv 
the meeting of the two large radials al»ove it. " 



IIETEROCRINIDAE 93 

Such is the general type of the prevailing post-Ordovician forms, of which there is 
herein illustrated a series of typical Silurian and Çarboniferous species. Orienting the crinoid 
in the usual way by viewing it from the anal side, the large anterior radial would be said to 
lie at the right side, and the left posterior at the left: each supports a rnanv-branched arrn, 
and between thern is the left anterior, rnedian radial supporting its arrn of different type which 
is frequently unbranched. But for descriptive purposes, on account of the very peculiar mode 
of branching of these side arms in Silurian and later forrns, it bas been round more cou- 
venient to view the crinoid from the conspicuous median arm, and while retaining the desig- 
nation of the arms themselves as I. post. and ant., according to the conventional plan, to reckon 
direction of their component parts from the median arrn otttward and around toward the anal 
side. Therefore from this view the anterior arm lies toward the left. and its branches as seen 
from the exterior diminish in size frorn the median arrn stemward, such branches as are 
given off in that direction being terrned in the literature "adanal," "outer," or " left," while 
those that lie toward the rnedian arrn, and therefore away frorn the stem and anal side. are 
terrned " abanai," " inner," or " right." In describing the corresponding details of the arrn 
at the opposite side (left posterior) these " right " and " left " directions are reversed. 

Thc :7xil-arm Systcm 
\Vith this distinction borne in rnind, some of the confusion iu the descriptive literature is 
clarified, and we are now in a position to give a more detailed account of the mode of branch- 
itag v«hich -,vas finally attained in the farnily, and which forrns one of its rnost striking charac- 
ters. In this later and final stage of arm structure the axil-arnls, borne upon the outer and 
sborter faces of tbe rnain-axils, are cornposed of a succession of brachials in series of tvo 
or more each. called for convenience Alphabrachs, t3etabrachs, Garnrnabrachs, etc. The distal, 
or upper, Alphabrach is an axillary, of which the inner articulating face bears a rarnule, rarelv 
seen ; the outer face carries the main arrn with the second series of brachials, Betabrachs. the 
upper or distal one of wbich gives off from the outer side an unbranched rarnule, and frorn 
the inner the third series of brachials, Garnrnabrachs; and so on alternatelv--a rarnule and 
then a continuation of the main arm, until the latter terrninates xvith an equal bifurcation. 
The outer rarnules of each axil-arm always tend to be larger than the inner, as explained 
bv Barber, so that the first rarnule on the extrerne outer, or adanal, side. with the Betabrachs 
that support it, becomes the most conspicuous branch of the arm, while the rest of the arrn 
is correspondingly dirninished and sornetirnes cornpletely hidden from view. Thus it results 
that the Alphabrachs, the outer Betabrachs, and tbe outer rarnule appear to form a continuous 
arrn, often ail that is seen frorn the exterior, while the inner Betabrachs. Garnrnabrachs and 
the series which follow them. if an'`', although morpholocally the rnain element of the axil- 
arrn, are often inconspicuous or even invisible. In the closed condition of the arrns as usually 
seen in the fossils, they are frequently folded under the adjoining outer ramules, while the 
latter constitute the visible axil-arrns, lyinff parallel and gradually dirninisbing in length and 
thickness toward the anal side and stern. Especially the first or lowest rarnule, given off bv the 
axillarv Alphahrach toward the rnedian arrn, is usually obscured in forrn C, but is more freely 
exposed in the later species of Form D. 
The axil-arrn is a direct developmet'.t frorn the equally divided, rarnule-bearing arrn of 
Forrn A. as rnay be seen by cornparing it with the arms showa in figures 9. ii. and 13 of 
plate 28, in which the alternate ramules frorn about each second or third brachial reach the 
full height of the crown--the essentialdifference being that in the earlier forrn both rarni of 
each arm branched that way, and the main branch rnaiutained its preponderance over the 
rarnules. Frorn the svrnntetrical rav of Form A, vdth its two equal and sirnilar rami cornposed 
of successive ramule-bearing brachial series, and dividing upon an equal-faced primibrach, to 
the fullv developed axil-arrn svstern of Forrn C. borne upon an unequal-faced primibrach. 
with nothing of the original arm-divisions left visible but a set of closely packed parallel 
7 



94 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

ramules, seems a long jump. But the intermediate stage is beautifully shown in the Gotland 
species, CalceocriJms 9otlamticus, where a stemward diminishing sertes of rami similar to 
those of Form A is combined with a succession of unequal-faced axillaries following an 
unsymmetric l,rimil)rach. The three stages are shown in the accompanying text-figures. 
If in b the left ramule of each tanins enlarges, and all parts to the right are dwarfed and 
hidden behind it, as in certain species of Form C, the ann system of c will result. 
The prime morphological factor at the bottom of these modifications is the change in 
shape of the lateral m, dllarv primibrach (IAx) from equal- to unequal-faced, from which 
the unequai division of the ray necessarily foilows. This actuatlv begins with Form B, in the 
typical species of which the articulating faces of the primibrach differ in length about as 
4 to 3, giving fise to an unsymmetric division within the ras'. Therefore we have in this a 
third broad character bv which Form A is differentiated from all the test of the familv. 

a. 3- 
l:m. 2. Three Stages in Development of Axil-Arm 
a. Cremacrinus tubuliœcrus. Equal rami from symmetric IBr. 
b. Calceocrims gotlandicu.s. Unequal rami from unsymmetric IBr. 
c. Calceocrim,s [oerstei. Axil-arm system, with only parallel ramules visible from short faces 
of IBr and successive axillaries. 

Other Progressive Characlcrs 
Thus the axil-arm as a post-Ordovician development is a most conspicuous character 
marking the evolutionary succession of the family in geological rime. It is now a further 
striking fact that there is correlated with it another character more often seen because it ap- 
pears in the calvx plates, which are the most frequently preserved in the fo.ssils. 
That is the greater or less separation of the two large simple radials bv the connection, 
or want of connection, of the npper and lower segments of the l. ant. radial. The chmage vas 
incident to the transverse extension of those radials to form the sui»port of the mxil-arms, so 
that the two structures underwent a parallel progression. In al[ the Ordovician species the 
segments were broadly connected, the inferradiat being an elongate, quadrangu[ar plate; this 
was constant in Form A, of which some species passed over into the Sihrian. In Form ]3 
of the Silurian the connection was maintained, with a tendency to modification by the narrow- 
ing of the inferradial at the top, leading toward an acute-angled apex. In the Silurian Form C 
the complete change was effected by the transformation of the inferradial from a quad- 
ranflar to a triangtflar plate, and the consequent severing of connection between the two 
segments. Exceptionally as a survival the Ordovician type persists in this form, as in Calceo- 
crimts focrstci, C. ittcrprcs and C. pimmlatus; and rare[y in o.ther species the two segments 
may touch by their apices. Finally with Form D in the Devonian and Carboniferov.s the 
separation of the segments by the interposition of the simple radials was completely estab- 
lished, and became a constant character of the genus Hal-vsiocrims. 



HETEROCRINIDAE 95 
The evideuce on this point is remarkablv decisive. OEmong upwards of 400 specimens of 
Form D front the American Devonian and Lower Carboniferous in wltich these plates are 
visible, there is hOt a single case in which the left anterior radial is hot completelv and widely 
separated into two triangular segments, with the anterior and left posterior rac]ials meeting 
betveen them. These are distributed as follovs: Heldcrbergian I ; Oriskany I ; Onondaga 4: 
Hamilton IO; typical Lower urliugton 6; Upper Yurlington 37: Keokuk 58: the remaining 
300 are from tbe I(nobstone, or Nexv Providence shale, equivalent to the Lower l],urlinon 
in part, in whicb at several localities tbe flattened cups of nnited radial plates and detached 
anchvlosed basals occur in great nuulbers. 
Tbus it is seen that the two structnres, the axil-arm and the divided segments, arose 
together, and continued in conjunction to the end of the family. The presence of the two 
segments unconnected proclaims tbe axil-arm almost without exception, which is the impor- 
tant fact because nearly always in evidence. 
The axil-arm system of branching as above described is modified in the Gotland species, 
Calceocrimtx pitmda.tus of Bather: here the anns are composed of two main trunks with 
cuneate brachials, from each of which a pinnule is given off at the longer side, thus forming 
two similar rows of altenmting pinnules, or ramules, af ter the ntanuer of Decadocrimt.s. This 
is so different from all otber species in tbe family that it will undonbtedly, as ]3ather bas sug- 
gested, form tbe type of a new genus. 
The branching of the median arm is also a feature of considerable variability. Dr. tather 
in the Crinoidea of Gotland, page 72, stated that " the 1. ant. arm gradually bifurcates at a 
greater distance from the CUl», and eventuallv ceases to branch altogetber." Examination of 
the American material, with the important dditions now available, shows that the modifica- 
tion in this character is hot attended bv anv such regularity. 
In the Ordovician Form A the arm is either simple or bifurcates once at varying heights. 
In Form C, wbile the arm in most species as herein described is unbranched, there is one 
from the saine localitv in which it bifurcates tbree or four rimes. In the Carboniferous species 
tbe tendency in regard to the brancbing of this arm is the reverse of that abo,,-e supposed ; 
HaI3'siocrimts dact,hts from the Burlinon, for example, branches once ald then again in 
one ramus, producin, 3. or perhaps 4, finials: while in H. todostts, the most prominent 
species from the later t(eokuk, represented in the collection bv numerous specimeus, the 
median arm divides twice aud three rimes, and sometimes even once more, to a maximum of 8, 
or o, finials. Thus there is a progression in tbis character from a median arm simple or 
xvith a single bifurcation in the Ordovician, to one of three or more bifurcations in the 
Carboniferous. 
In a similar xvay the primary branches of the lateral arms increase in number from the 3 
of Form t to the 5 or more axil-arms of Forms C and D. 
So also in regard to the form and proportions of the flattened cup as seen from. the left 
anterior side. 111 Forms A and t it is usuallv subquadranflar, about as high as wide (pl. 
figs. 5a, t4) ; it changes in many species of Form C to a trapezoidal form xvider than high, 
and widening toward tbe proximal margin (pl. 29. figs. 7 a, i2a): in mature specimens of 
Form D the cup bas spread out transverselv until the margin at the hinge mav exceed the 
height as 3-5 to 2 (pl. 3 o. figs. 8, 9. o). 
Tbus there were at least six definite phylogenetic modifications from the Ordovician to 
the Carboniferous, which were more or less concurrent, riz : 
. Stem from unsvmmetric lateral to median position. 
2. Number of basals from 4 to 3- 
3. Number of lateral arms from 3 to 2. 
4. Segments of 1. ant. R from connected to disconnected. 
5- Median arm from simple to manv-branched. 
6. Lateral arms from equal bifurcation to axil-arm system. 



9 6 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Now these progressive modifications that bave occurred in the phylogeny of the family 
are paralleled and recapitulated to some extent in the lire history of the individual, as will be 
seen in the description of some of the later species. While not absolutely uni¢orm, but marked 
by some exceptions and recessions, yet in general the facts indicate a well defined progression 
within this familv from the early to the later geological stages comparable to that which 
occurred from thé young to tbe mature stages of individual growth in the later forms. 

The Aal Tube 
The anal tnbe, although often concealed from view by the posterior arm brauches, is 
usually large, and is composed on the po,sterior side of massive plates, somewhat resembling 
brachials ; they do hOt etatirely enclose the tube, but are cresceutic in section, outwardly curved 
and leaving a space at the anterior sid'e which is filled bv an integument of small plates, similar 
to what bas been described in Catillocrinus and .çynbathocrinus.  The anal x is always a large, 
convex plate, constructed like the robe plates. The statement of \Vachsnmth and Springer  
tbat the tube extends to the tips of the arms and perhaps beyoud their limits, was doubted 
bv P, ather (Crin. Gotl., p. 7 ), but is confirmed for the Silurian species bv the new material 
(pl. e 9, figs. 7b, 8b, I fb). Of tbis the naost remarkable example of all is the new species 
Cremacrinus tubulifcrus, in which the tnbe is hOt onlv of great size, but may bend outward 
like a bow, so that for a part of its length it is free from the arms. s 

Shi[ting of thc Stem 
Aside from the reversal in direction, tbe qbifting of the stem in this familv is a remarkable 
pbenomenon, which I think has hOt been n.iced heretofore bv authors. Correlated as it is 
with other changes of first tank, it becomes a character of much significance in the evolution 
of the group. It bas to do directly with the equilibrium of the organism, which is so notable 
a feature anaong paleozoic echinoderms. 
In the 5-rayed ancestral form, the plane of bilateraI symmetry is from the anal tube to 
the anterior ray, leaving two arm-bearivg radials on each side of it. When in connection 
with the bending of the crown upon the base the right posterior arm is eliminated, and the 
reversed stem falls into its place, the left anterior arm becomes the dominant factor ou the 
anterior side, and the lqane fixed by these two bisects the calvx so as to leave an arm and the 
anal tube on one side to balance the two arms remaining on the other. With the èlimination 
of one of these two arms in the next stage, tbis balance would be disturbed, but for the fact 
that it is at the saine time restored by the stemward torsion of the parts from the right to fill 
the vacancy, and the consequent shifting of the stem to a median position directlv in front 
of the anal tube, thus establishing a plaue of perfect bilateral swnmetrv with one large arm- 
bearing radial on either side. This being the condition of stable equilibrium, it is maintained 
to the end of the group. Thus it is seen that the location of the stem in its two positions bas 
a definite connection with the changes accompanying the progressive mot!ifications witbin 
the family, and marking the broad separation of Form A from all other forms. 

The Hinge 
The outstanding character of this family, bv wlaich it is broadlv set off from all other 
known crinoids, is the mobilitv of the crown upon the base incident to, tbe connection of the 
radials with the consolidated basals bv muscular articulation instead of the usual sutnre, by 
 Springer, On the Family Catillocrinidae, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 76, No. 3, 923, pp. 7-2o. 
-"Revision of the Palaecrinoidea, pt. 3, 886, p. 28t. 
a See also Miss Goldring's description of the tube in Halysiocrimts secundu.s, Devonian Crinoids of 
New York, r924. p. 339, pl. 4t, fig. 6. 



H ETEROCRINIDAE 

97 

means of which the crown could swing back and forth like a door upon its hinge. The 
anatomical feature most frequently discussed iu relation to such movements of the crown 
toward or from the stem, as has been very fullv descrbed in Dr. Riugueberg's excellent paper 
on the Clc'eocrinidae, is the externallv conspicuous hinge-like joint fornled bv deep grooves 
along the straight transverse edges of the consolidated basal and radial plates, which "bas 
e.xternallv the appearance of a gaping fissure, but is closed internally by tbe exact approxi- 
mation of the iuner edges of the grooves." The fissure is formed by the articular margins of 
the 1. ant. inferradial and adjoining radials meeting the apposed basals, bordered on either 
side by a broad and deep fossa, and divided bv a straight line of contact the approximated 
edges of which mav form a fulcral ridge. Descriptions of this hitherto have dwelt chieflv 
upon the articular surface as usuallv seen from the anterior side, which occupies an equal 
space upou the faces of the respective plates. These spaces are often filled with numerous 
small, irregular plates, which bave been described bv Ulrich and by Bather, the latter uuder 
the terre " supplementary plates," with several good figures, and v,-hich are here sho»m bv 
figure 2oa, on plate 28. Thev are of a sonlewhat scaly appearance, not meeting by suture, and 
bave a darker color and denser composition than the other calvx plates. In some specimens 
similar plates are also observed in the gaping articulations o the axillaries or brachials. Their 
office iç hOt clear. That the hinge represents a muscular articttlation, with the usual com- 
bination of muscle and ligament, there can be no doubt. 
This structure would provide the power for one movement of the crown. But to pro- 
duce a complete up and down nlotion from a recumbent to a partially erect position and 
vice versa, there must be a reciprocal mobilitv and musculal control between basals and radials 
at the opposite side. Almndant evidence of this is seen in the fossils, sometimes in well- 
preserved crowns where the base stands at a considerable angle from the radials, but especially 
lu the nunlerous weathered specimens of consolidated bases and united radials, separated 
from one another along the line of the basi-radial contact. Instead of a sutural union between 
the basals and the two large inferradials at the posterior side, the edges of these plates are 
rounded or beveled, and there are marks of mt:scular attachment on the inner surfaces similar 
to those along the external fissure. Thus the opposing musculature is furnished for motion 
by way of flexure or extension either way. 
The mechanism of the hinge can be better uuderstood bv reference to the figures on 
plate 30, part of them based upon specimens composed from the detached elements al»ove 
mentioned, and some upon crowns with the parts in position as round in the fossi!s. This 
structural material is chieflv of the abundaut species Halysiocrimts perplc.rus Shumard, from 
the basal Lower Carboniferous. Figures 4 and 5 show the anterior aspect of the calvx when 
the articulated parts are opened as far as they vill go. ahnost to the saine plane, with the 
transverse grooves forming the two sides of the gaping fissure which lodged the exterior 
muscles actuating the movement in that direction. The floor of the grooves next to the divid- 
ing line is marked bv bands of striae vertical to the margin. In figure 6 the exact opposite is 
seen, showing the disposition of the parts at the interior, and their appearmace when fully 
extended. The joint-faces of the median and two lateral arms are shown, xvith their muscular 
lnarkings, and bv contrast the rounded edges of the two large radials which would be in appo- 
sition to the corresponding edges of the basals when closed, but without anv sut-ural maion. 
Here the relation of all the plates composing the calvx may be seen, as well as the cavity which 
lodges the viscera. From the margins of the apposed basal and radial plates wide bands of 
vertical striae extend inward, marking the attachment of powerful muscles bv the contraction 
of which the crown was closed down upon the base and breught into the position in which 
it is usuallv round, as in figures 17. 18, 19. (Best seen with a low magnifier.) 
Starting x-ith these two examples, we can readil.v trace the relation of the parts in several 
positions incideut to different degrees of opening or closing. In fire I6a, from a conaplete 
crowa, in the most frequent position of rest, the basals are firlnlv closed against the radials 



98 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

and the inferradials of the lost arlns, here meeting underneath the anal series to forma sul)- 
maal piece. [11 filre 7 they are opened to about a right angle; while in figure 15 the very 
mmsual condition is seen of tbe crown widely opened out almost to an erect position upon 
the stem. Solne other figures, 8, 9, IO, are given showing in part the saine structures, but 
more especially to illustrate the change in sbape of the calvx due to growth, from elongate 
with nearlv parallel sides in the younger individuals, to relatively short and widely spreading 
downward toward the base in the older. 

Mobility of the Crown 
"Vith the establishment of the tri-radial svmmetry in the group, the organism after an 
earlv beginning seems to have finally adalsed itself to the recumbent habit as the position of 
test, from which it could readily change as occasion required. The widely gaping articula- 
tions between radials and arms, and between manv of the successive brachials, secured in 
addition to the larger movement upon the base the naaximum of flexibilitv above the hinge 
line, whereby the aliris could be flexed or extended bv the contraction of their own muscles. 
Change of position of the crown was furtber facilitated bv the curvature of the stem at its 
proximal end, as shown by the presence of wedge-formed columnals, bv the articulation of 
which it could be beut or straightened to some extent. The closed condition is by far the most 
frequent as round in the fossils. Evidence of habitual pressure of the crow upon the stem 
is not uncommoll in the form of deep indentations upon the anal plates, or in the Ordovician 
form upon the interray to tbe rigbt of them, as shown in figures 17 of plate 28 ; 24 of plate 29, 
and 4, 6a of 101are 3o. In others equaIly firmlv closed, the indentations are hot present, the 
pressure being relieved by the sli.ht proximal bending of the stem. 
Excellent illustrations of the adaptability of tbe crown to these movements are afforded 
b)" fi,tlres 5 of plate 28 and 17, I8, If) of plate 30, xvith the crowa3 lying closely recumbent 
upon the stem. and fi,ure 2I of plate 28 in which it stands almost at a right angle, and figure 15 
of plate 3 ° before mentic;ned in which it is extended ahnost in the saine line. 
The expression " bending of the crown upon the stem " recalls the structure of the pre- 
ceding Heterocrinid derivative, Myc[odactyhts, to which the saine terre might be applied. 
There, also, is some diminution of radials due to pressure or a cramped position, accompanied 
bv.a specialization of stem in its wav equally remarkable with this. ut the chauge in direc- 
tion of the crown is accomplished bv simple curvature of the stem; there is nothing in the 
structure analogous to the hinge and the consequent mobility of the crown upon the base. 

Mode of Lire 
The question arises, what is the "relation between the extreme departure of the crinoids 
of this family from the usual habitus of crinoids and their mode of lire? Primarily, all such 
modifications bave to do with the food supply and tbe mode of obtaining it. In some genera, as 
Torynocrhuts, the arms are bent frorn the calvx to one side, from which presumablv the food- 
bearing currents came. In others, such as Mo;obrachiocrimts and ,Ibrach[ocrimt.ç. the arms 
bave progressively been reduced in number and finallv eliminated entirely, because, as is sup- 
posed, the crinoids lived iu an environment where thé food was brought to them bv the cur- 
rents i1 such quantities that arms xvere no longer needed to gather it. 
Here, in the form now before us. hot only tle arms were affected bv the adaptation to 
tlnusual conditions, but the entire crown above the base was forced out of'its natural utsright 
position on the stem. It has hitherto been generally assumed that the crown had bècome 
habitually pendent uçon the stem, so that while the steln itself remained upright, the normal 
position of the crown was reversed, and the arms pointed downward, with, however, some 
power in the crinoid, bv means of the hinge between basals and radials and the muscular 
articulation, to raise itself to a h,srizontal or partially erect position. This supposition was 



HETEROCRINIDAE 

99 

expressed bv statements such as " the crinoid hangs downward along the colun-lll," and "the 
upper part of the cl-inoid could be bent upward and brought into an erect position." Such a 
lifting of tbe entire crown upou so small a fulcrum would seem to call for a muscnlar equip- 
ment rather greater than is indicated bv the evidence in tbe fossil state. 
A more recent interpretation bas been given bv Jaekel (Phylogenie mad System, I918, 
pp. 86-88), whicb seems to accord better with the observed facts. He considers these crinoids, 
which he groups as a snborder Calceocrinites, to be reef-dwellers, living exposed to tidal 
cnrrents, the stem lying recvlnbent upon the bottom, where when at rest the crown was closed 
down at one side like a barnacle. \\-hela feeding, the arlns opened out toward the current, for 
which but little movelnent of the crown as a whole upon the base was required. When the 
tide turned, the arlns would readily close down, the larger ones serving as a protection for 
the more delicate parts against in jury froln the el)b-cnrrent. Thns the crown habitually was 
in a horizontal position to start with. ri-oto whicb onlv a relativelv small movement was 
needed beyond the ordinary opening of the arms to enable the organism to obtain food from 
above like other crinoids. The theorv is graphically presented I,y Jaekel's fignres, 8I, 83, 
representing the closed and open conditions. 
This interpretation presnpposes a sessile condition bv means of a distal attachmeut of 
the stem to the reefs. Some evidence of this is seen in specimens from Dudley, England, in 
which the stem is sometimes round rather short with a foreign object attached. ]u the Ten- 
uessee specimens it is hOt so. evident, tbe few stems preserved being fairlv lon, and apparently 
tapering towards a point. 
\\ïth the recnmbent position as that of rest, in which the crinoid habituallv reclined 
except when feeding, the dilnilmtiola in size of the arms toward the posterior side, which 
became snch a marked character of the post-Ordovician forms, is accounted for as the result 
of a cramped position, pressnre, and loss of motion. 

Evohttion in the Act 

Returning to tbe evolutionary modifications exhibited in this group, the study of the 
material now in hand has brought to light som,e remarkable facts. The most striking move- 
ment within the family, next to the development of the axil-arm, was the elimination of the 
fonrth arm from lVorm A, concurrent with the shifting of the stem back to its normal posi- 
tion in the plane of the anal tube, and the restoration of bilateral s.vnmaetry in the resulting 
3-armed crinoid, thus establishing a condition in which all the other forms differed in a large 
wav from the typical C)rdovician form. Such a change in characters of major importance, 
involving some of the larger factors in the anatomv of the group, would be expected to occur 
in a gradual way, scarcelv discernible in individual cases. Hence we were prepared to observe 
results rather than the process bv which they were obtained. 
\Vhen preparing the finely preserved Tennessee material belonging to. this form, I was 
surprised to find in some instances a marked difference in the size of the lateral arms. Upon 
foIlowing this up in seven of the nine specimens herein described under three species, it was 
disclosed tbat in everv one of them the right anterior arln was snaaller than the anterior arm 
adjoining it. The diminution was in various degrees, in some cases amounting to well-defined 
atrophy by which the arna was reduced to less tban one fourth the size of its adjacent fellow. 
The reduction is decisively showu bv the figures on plate 28. especially figs. 3b and 4b, in 
which the smaIler arm occupies but a small part of the space on that side; in the former 
specimen its branches are like very short pinnules, in contrast to the long and robust ramules 
of the other arm alongside; and in the latter it lies against the large anal tube with scarcely 
more than a renmant of its primitive dimensions. In another species, figure 7 of plate 28, 
having both arms spread like a fan in excellent position for observation, the area of the 
anterior arm is al»out rive rimes that of the dwarf. Iii every case, with the two lateral arms 
of the anterior side lying side bv side for comparison, the difference in general dimensions, 



IOO SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

in width of brachials, |en°-th and stoutuess of ramules, and where observable in number of 
branchings, is perceptible at a glance without the need of meaqurements. 
Now the arl-n which is thus dwarfed is alwavs the right anterior, the one which is destined 
to disappear iu the course of the modifications which produced the 3-armed form of subse- 
quent and some contemporaneous types, and the manner of the change by which that result 
was attained is apparent before our eves. Upon first discovering this fact, I assumed that 
tbe change took place wholly lu the Silurian" but examination of the Ordovician species, 
especiallv, some exceptionallv, well preserved specimens from the Trenton of Kirkfield in 
Ontario, showed that the tendencv to atrophv of the fourth arnl began n'luch farther back. 
There are eight specimens of C. articulosus Billings or a closely allied species, in which the 
two adjacent arms are seen, and in ail of them the diminution of the right anterior arm is 
almost as great as in the Tennessee species, as will be seen in figures c) to 13 of plate 28. It is 
observable in varying degree lu some of tbe other Ordovician species in which the arms call 
be compared, and in some the fourth arm seems to be as large as the others. Bather (Crin. 
Gotl., p. 61) observed that this arm was smallest in Castocrinus. 
Thus it is evident that we bave in this instance a concrete example of the process bv 
v«hich the change from one genus to another was accomplished in the course of geological 
time. The atrophy of the two arms was clearly tbe direct result of pressure incident to the 
reversal and recumbent position of the crown against the stem, and when the axil-arm system 
was established, the saine influence was reflected in the reduced size of tbe branches in the 
stemward direction. 

Distribution 
So far as known, Form A does hot occur in the European areas. Its presence lu the 
Silurian of Tennessee is a new and unexpected discoverv. It is in the $ilurian development 
of the family, as evidenced by the forms included under Form C, that the most interesting 
facts relating to distribution are round, bearing on the relation between the European and 
American faunas. About seven species of Calceocrim«s have been recognized from Gotland. and 
there are at least two or three from England. ç)[ the American species only those from the 
Rochester and Waldron formations of Nev York and Indiana have been heretofore figured, 
and these are mostly not in good condition for comparative study. 
The Beech River formation of Tennessee has yielded remarkable material mostlv in fine 
preservation, embracing three well-marked species suitable tor comparison with European 
forms. Of these two, C. foerstci and C. bassleri, are o[ similar types to certain Swedish forms, 
but still are differentiated by good specific characters. Of the Swedish species. C. 9otlandicus, 
C. pimmlatus, and C. nitidus are thoroughly distinct. Thus there are left C. pu9il, C. tucatus 
and C. interpres on the other side, and C. focrstei and C. bassleri from here, through vhich 
a migrational connection may confidently be traced. 
No member of the family has yet been round in the European Devonian or Carbonifer- 
ous, but in America it occurs in most of the principal formations from the Ordovician to the 
middle of the Lower Carboniferous, viz. : Black River, Trenton, of the Ordovician : Roches- 
ter, \Valdron, Laurel, ]rownsport of the Silurian; Helderberan, Oriskany, Onondaga, 
Hamilton of the Devonian; New Providence, Burlington and Keokuk of the Lower Car- 
boniferous. 
It is recognized that among the known species beloning to this family, from all three 
of tbe countries where it occurs, there are some which migbt form the types of new genera. 
One of these has been suggested by Dr. Bather, but without proposing a naine. Mr. Ulrich 
bas defined several others, for which he proposed names orally at the New Haven meeting 
of the Paleontological Society in 1912. It is not mv purpose to enter upon these questions, 
which it is hoped will be taken up again b tbose authors with a view to publication. 



HETEROCRI NIDAE 

IOI 

.\'OlllCIldal'llr¢' 
The broader taxonomic questions relative to this family, as presented bv the hitherto 
published literature, are somewhat complex, and have given rise to considerable difference 
of opinion. Thev have been discussed bv Wachmuth and Springer? Ulrich, 
and ather. « 
The first name to be employed for a member of the famih" was (Iceocrimts by Hall in 
852,  based on the comlnon semicircular basal piece, to whch no specific naine was given. 
In 86o  he proposed the genus Chcirocrimts, with C. chrysdis, a Silurian species, as geno- 
type. This naine being preoccupied, 5[eek and Worthen in 869 and 873 z proposed Eucheiro- 
crimts to replace it, with the smne species for genotype. At the saine time they described and 
figured a species as Ca[ceocrimts bradleyi, s and in connection with it proposed the family 
name Calceocrinidae, saying: " It is evident that this remarkable enns differs so delv 
from all the other knoxa tys that it must be rearded as belonging to an entirely distinct 
and unnamed family, which might be called Calceocrinidae." ha I879  Hall published a 
Silurian species as Calceocrius stçqmatus, with a description, figvres, and diagram which he 
said " illustrate the generic structure." 
In 886 (op. cit., p. o7) Ulrich proposed the genera Crcmcrimt, s, with the Ordovician 
C. pmwtatus as genotype; D«Itacrim«s, based upon Chcirocrinus c[arus Hall, of the Middle 
Devonian. as genotype: and Halvsiocrinus with C. dactylus Hall, of the Lower Carboniferous, 
as genotype. IIe regarded Calceocrim«s as hot established, on the ground that it was de- 
scribed without a type species, and therefore proposed the naine Cremacrinidae for the famih" 
instead of Calceocrinidae, althouh at lhe saine time he did not entirelv discard Calceocrim«s, 
but listed under it four species which a!l have the familv characters. 
In 8 Ringueberg (op. cit., p. 392) proçosed the genns Castocrim«s for the reception 
of the Ordovician species described bv Billings and V. R. Billings, and some new species of 
his own: also Proclh'ocrim«s for a gilurian form clearly identical with Euchcirocrim«s. He 
also redescribed Calceocrims from specimens identical with Hall's original, together with a 
new species called C. t3,P,s showing the correlated characters, to serve as the type swcies. 
These forms were illustrated with good figmres and diagrams, bv which the generic structures 
were clearly shown. 
XVachsmnth and Springer in part 3 of their Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, 886, pp. 273- 
28, recognized CalceocrMus as valid. Bather in Crinodea of Gotland, 893, Pp. 54-99, 
accepted Castocrint5 Eucheirocrim«s, Halysiocrims, mad upheld Calccocrim«s, under which 
he described seven species from the Swediqh Silurian. Both of these authors, as well as 
Ringneberg. adopted Meek and XVorthen's familv name Calceocrinidae. 
XNen preparing the revision of the chapter on the Crinoidea for the Zittel-Eastman 
Textbook of Palaeontolo', edition of I9 3. I recorded E,cheirocrinus and Halysiocrints, 
Imt included Crenacrim«s and Deltacrim«s in place of Cstocrinus and Calceocrim«s. 
Re-examination of the facts, with more detailed studv of the material in hand than I was able 
to give it at that time on account of the pressure of other work, bas led me to the opinion 
that the arrangement then adopted should be modified in some respects. 
Cremacrim«s as proposed in 886 xvas described as having a dorsal or centrodorsal 
(median) and two lateral arms, svmmetric, one on each side. No mention was made of the 
 Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, pt. 3, 8, pp. z73-zSL 
z 4th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Minnesota, 886, pp_ o5-2. 
 Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 4, 889, pp. 388-406 (separate -9)- 
 Crinoidea of Gtland, 893, pp. 54-99. 
n Pal. New York, , 85, P. 85, figs. 5. 6. 
 3th Rep. New York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., pp. 2-22. 
 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil.. 869, p. 73: Geol. Surv. Ill., 5, 873, pp. 443, 5o2. 
 lbid.. Geol. Surv. HI.. 5, 873, p. 5o2, pl. 4, fig. 9. 
 28th Rep. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 879. P. 47, pl. 9, figs. 



IO2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

fourth arm, which is clearlv specified in the description and figure of Castocrimts. But it now 
appears upon further examination in the light of subsequently acquired material that the 
fourth arm was acmally present in the type specimen of Crcmacrinus pnnctattts, now in the 
U. S. National Musemn. Therefore the species of Crcmacrimts and Castocrintts are generi- 
caIlv identicaI, and Cremacrintts, being the earlier in date, wilI be valid for the species falling 
under Form A. This conclusion is reinforced by the further fact, hot mentioned in the 
description of either, that ail species referred to the two genera in which it can be seen bave 
the stem in the position at the right of the anal tube, which is such a fundamental character 
of Form A. 
That the fourth arm was hot mentioned in the original description of Cre»acrim«s was 
owing to the imperfection of the type specimen upon which the genus and species were 
founded. This was apparentIy well preserved, and showed the mediau and two lateral arms, 
one on each side, as described. At the right of the anal tube, however, is a vacant space about 
the size of a lateral arm where the specimen had been attached to the rock, and from the 
information now afforded by several other specimens of the saine species since obtained, it is 
evident that the missing arm was imbedded in the matrix and pulled off in collecting (pl. 
figs. 6, 6a-). \Vith out present understanding of the structure, traces of the fourth arm 
may now be recognized in the type, but with no othcr gtide than the imperfect original it was 
natural that the author should describe only what he could see, and frame his diagnosis 
accordingly. 
For the forms which had formerly been referred to Calceocrfntts, and which vould now 
fall under Form C, preference vas given to Dcltacrim«s, which as before stated was proposed 
to take the place of Calceocrimts, rejected because Iacldng a type species. It vas based upon 
Chcirocrfm«s clarts Hall for genotype, a MiddIe Devonian species represented by the single 
type specimen from the Hamilton of New Yorl« The species is so completely non-characteristic 
of the $ilurian forms belonging to Form C, that I cannot reconciIe the genus founded upon it 
with th.e highly distinctive characters for which thev are so conspicuous. It entirelv lacks the 
arched axil-arm system bv which Forms C mad D are distinguished from al/ other crinoids 
(te,:t figs. IC, D, and pl. e9, figs. 7, 8, 9, 4, _o). This cannot be shovn better than by the 
renmrks of the author himself in lais paper of i886, from which I take the following extracts" 
On page  o, tmder ttalysiocrim«s, it is said" 
" In the formation of the dorsal side of the calvx this genus is precisely 1)eltacrint«& 
The onlv difference so far detected is round in the nm{aber of arms. In Cremacrim«s we bave 
three.primary radials, and in Deltacrin«s rive; whiIe the species for which the above generic 
terre s proposed have eleven, one large central arm on the dorsal side and ten smaller ones, 
the first pieces of which project abruptlv outward and extend in a curved series transverselv 
around the ventral side. Their inner ends articulate with the ventral arch." 
By comparing my diagrams of Forms C and D in text-figure t, and various figures of 
Calceocrim«s on plate 2 9, it will be seen that they have exactly the characters which are above 
ascribed to Halysiocri»us as distinishing it from Deltacrim«s. That the two forms cannot 
go together is ftrther emphasized bv the author in the continuation of lais discussion on 
page  I2 : 
" There are at least three American species that have the characters ascribed to Halvsio- 
crimes. These are the C. dact.vhts and C. nodos-tts HaI1. and the C. wachsmt«thi iI. & \V.'. Iae 
first and last from the Burligton limestone and the second from the Keokuk Gr. Besides 
these the Chcirocrims Gotlandictts of Angelin is an tmquestionable member of the genus 
.... In the construction of the body and in the possession of a strong dorsal arm. these 
species do hot differ from Dcllacrinus. The lateral arms, however, differ conspicuouslv from 
all thc specics o[ both Crcmacrim«s a»d Ddtacrius in being much more numerous, stt:bequal, 
and extending completely around the ventral side .... The ventral arms give to these cri- 
noids a different appearance from that presented bv the more simple species Ol c 
and Dcltacrimts. In my opinion thea constitnle an important de,iation [rom the type of thosc 
gcnera, and ftll 3, a'arrant gcncric separatton." " "" " 



IIETEROCRI N I DAE 

IO 3 

That is to say, in the opinion of the author himself, species having the axil-arm system, 
borne on short faces of successive axillaries, arching around to the anal side--Forms C and D 
of mv diagrams--do hot belong under Dcltacrinu«, and should be separated from it 
generically, lE 
Therefore, whatever else Dcltacrinus mav be, it cannot include the Silurian species which 
corne under Form C. They are, however, clearly covered by the genus Calceocrin-us Hall. if 
hOt as described and figured bv him in 1879 under the naine :alccocrinus sti9matus, then 
certainlv as amended and redescribed bv Ringueberg in 1889 under C. halli as the original 
unnamed species of Hall, and a nev species, C. typus, showing the correlated characters, for 
a genotype. I bave no doubt that Ringueberg's identification of Hall's original Calceocrinus 
was correct, and that it is congeneric witb C. halli and C. typus (i/1. ;9, figs. 17, 18, I9). There 
are two known generic forms of the hinged crinoid in the New York Silurian, and they can 
be distinuished by the base alone, without the aid of other charaçters" 
. \Vitb 4 basals" in which the two left basals, those in the middle next to tbe hin, 
retain tbe cbaracters of the Ordovician fonn. being in contact with the stem bv their narrow 
points, their outer sides making a sinuous curve, and bein still divided but with a tendency 
to coalesce and their dividing snture to become obsolete. This is Hall's Cheirocrinus (Eucheiro- 
crinus I. and W.). His figure in the 3th Report, I86O, page 23, is incorrect in that it does 
hot show tbe two small basals touching the stem-facet or divided, though it does indicate the 
curving of the sides" but both the missing characters appear in the type specimen, as here 
figured, plate "9. fiwe IC, confirmed bv numerous other identical specimens from the saine 
locality, some of them figured bv Ringueberg (lais pl. IO. figs. 6, 7b, 3), and herein (pl. 29, 
fig. 2). Errors in the original description or figure due to incorrect observation or imperfect 
material cannot control the definition where lbe actual fact is shown bv the type and identical 
specimens. Tbe balfitus of this base is thoronghly characteristic, recoaizable at a glance; 
auv New York Silurian species with that type of base nmst be Çhcirocl"inlts, and anv one with 
a different t.vpe of base cannot be Chcirocrinus. 
2. \Vith 3 basals" in which the txvo left basals are detached from the stem and fused 
into a single triangular plate. Any species with sucb a base cannot be Cheirocrinus as deter- 
lnined bv the type, regardless of how the naine lnav bave been applied bv authors, including 
Hall hilnself, who listed species having both forms of base under Chcirocrinus of the I3th 
Report.. and sbifted tbem to Calceocrinns in the 28th Report. ]3ut such a base is precisely that 
of Calccocrinu-s halli. C. typns, or any of the lmlnerous species falling under Form C (perhaps 
excepting one in Gotland). Hall's original Cal«eocrinus must be one or the other of these two 
forlns. His fire (Pal. New York, 2, pl. 85, fig. 5) shows a base with a triangular plate 
fitting into a much larger somewhat lunate-shaped piece, having the cohmm-facet xvidely 
separate from the triangular plate (pl. 29, fig- 18). The description speaks of onlv two plates 
visible, but adds that the plates are so closelv anchvlosed as to obscure or obliterate the lines 
of suture. 
The fact tbat he lnentions onlv two plates is not lnaterial, for we know there nmst bave 
been a suture from tbe apex of the triangle tbrough tbe stem-facet, as is the case in everv 
species of the entire fami!y; so that the lunate-shaped piece into which the trianflar plate 
fitted necessarily consisted of the two large basals, making the tbree wh{ch were correlated 
witb the axil-arm system of Forms C and D. It is immaterial, because the undivided trian- 
flar plate is the decisive cbaracter, which excludes Chcirocrinu.s. defines what the original 
Ca[ccocrinus is, and determines the fact that it must be congeneric with C halli and C. typus. 
It cannot be anything else. 
Therefore Rineberg's idelatification of Clceocrinus as lais C. halli was founded upon 
an unnaistakable diagnostic character of generic value, clearly expressed in the original de- 

1 Dcltacrim«s dactylus and D. nodosus, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 76, No. 3, 923, p. 9, pl. 5, figs. 20, 
2I, should be written Halysiocrinus. 



IO 4 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

scription and figure; and he was entitled to alnend the genus bv setting out the other corre- 
lated characters which go with it. Thus there can be no rcasonable doubt of the validity of 
the genus as of ole or the other of the above dates. 
\Vith the genus tlms validated and recoguized, it would seem that the familv naine 
Calceocrinidae proposed by Meek and \Vorthen in 873, and adopted by De Loriol, \Vachsmuth 
and Springer, Ringueberg, S. A. Millet, P. H. Carpenter and Bather, will have to stand. 
From these considerations it follows that the four stages of the family herein discussed 
are locally expressed by the following genera, the relations of which, in their broader aspects, 
may be thus sumlnarized : 

Analysis of the Genera 
Radials 2 simple, 3 compound, connected with basals by muscular articnlation instead 
of suture, admitting mobility of crown upon base as by a hinge, and 
consequent be]ding upon the stem to a pendent or recumbent posi- 
tion ................................................. CALCEOÇRINIDAE. 
Form A. Arm-bearing rays 4 (median and 3 lateral) ; stem at right of anal tube, 
and bilateral swnmetrv disturbed. IAx equal-faced; arms heteroto- 
mous; P,B 4- rdovician to Silurian .......................... Cre.macrimts. 
All others. Arm-bearing rays 3 (median and 2 lateral) ; stem in plane of anal tube, 
and bilateral symmetry restored ; IAx unequal-faced. 
Fornl B. I,ateral arms unequally dichoto.mous, with few branches ; BB 4 ; Silu- 
rian ................................................... E*cheirocrim«s. 
C and D. Lateral arms heterotomous, branching numerouslv with axil-arm sys- 
tem from unequal-faced axillaries; BB 3- 
Form C. R. post. and r. aut. inferradials separated hv subanal piece; main 
branch of axil-arlns mav be hidden bv outer ramule; segments of 
1, ant. R usually separated ; fused basal uualh, triangular and narrower 
than hinge; median arm usuallv simple. $ihrian ............... Calceocrinus. 
Form D. Inferradials meet under anal .r" main branch of mxil-arm alwavs 
more or Iess visible; segments of 1. ant. R. always separated; fuséd 
basal usuallv curved and about as wide as hinge; median arm fre- 
queutly bralching. Devonian to Carbo.liferous ............... Halysiocrintts. 



H ETEROCRI N I DAE 10 5 

CREMACRINUS Ulrich 
Plate 2S 
Ccmacrinus Ulrich, I4th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Minnesota, z886, p. zo7.--Castocrinus Ringueberg, Ann. 
New York Acad. Sci., 4, I889, p. 392.--Bather, Crin. Gotl., 1893, pp. 56, 6I ; Treatise on Zool., Echino- 
derma, 3, t9oo, p. I48.--Zittel, Grundzfige Pal., I, I91o, p. ISz.--Crcmacrinus Zittel-Eastman, Textb. 
Pal., 2d ed., I913, p. 213.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, ]ï:,ull. 92, U. S. Nat. Mus., I915, p. 288. 
Arm-bearin rays 4- Calyx unsymmetric. Stem not in plane of anal tube, 
but lyin to the right of it. [ediau (l. ant.) arm simple, or 1)ranching once: the 
inferradial of its compound radial quadrilateral, connecting with superradial: 
lwimibrach alwavs short. I.ateral arms 3, two on ant. side and one on 1. post., 
each dividing into two equal a_d svmmetrical rami, heterotomous, bearing alter- 
nate ramules at intervals of 2, 3, or sometimes 4 brachials; primibrachs z, the 
axillarv with articulatin faces equal. R. post. superradial supporting anal 
tube, and r. ant. superradial the r. ant. arm. which is usuallv smaller than ant. ; 
the two superradials meetin. above the stem-facet; r. post. and r. ant. infer- 
radials separated from one another and from anal .r by their respective super- 
radials. asals 4, all in contact with the stem ; the two left ]:_1 entering into, or 
touching by their points the stem-facet; also much narrower than the others, 
and their outer sides making a reverse curve. Proximal margin of radials bor- 
dering hinge often strongly denticulate. 
Gcnotype. Crcmacrinus ptnctatus Ulrich. 
Distribution. Ordovician and Silurian; America. 
A widelv distributed form of the Trenton or underlying horizons, occurring at various 
localities in Canada, New York, Minnesota and Kentucky, from vhich seven species bave 
been described, and passing up into the Silurian in Tennessee, with four hitherto undescribed 
species herein illustrated. It is not known outside of America. The genus forms a section 
bv itself, broadly differentiated from all others of the familv bv its 3 heterotomous lateral 
arms and asymmetric stem. 

Cremacrinus ulrichi new species 
Plate 28, figs. I, 2 
Crown relatively large for the genus, about 40 rein. high in two specimens. 
Median (1. ant.) arm fairly strong at the base, about as long as the adjacent 
lateral arms, and tapering to a narroxv point; consisting of about 7 brachials, 
long and slender bevond the short IBr; inferradial elongate rectangular, broadly 
connecting with superradial. 3[ain rami of ant. and 1. post. arms giving off 
from successive series of 2 or 3 brachials--A1phabrachs, ,etabrachs, etc. 
alternately at each side a lare ramule the full length of the arm, composed of 
one short and several long ossicles, ending with an equal bifurcation, to a total 
of 6 or 7 ramules to each ramus. R. ant. arm much smaller than the others, and 



IO6 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

its two slender rami baving fewer l»rancbes. I.ateral IBr 2. Anal tube hot ex- 
posed. Stem in largest specimen 4-5 cm. long, diminishing distalwards; col- 
umnals al»out _'2 mm. 1o11,o.9, except in tbe proximal prt, where they become much 
shorter and cuneate in tbe curve. 
This species is founded upon two crmvns, one of which has the stem nearly complete. 
Both are exposed from the anterior side only, so that we are without information as to the 
character of the anal series and tube. The relative length and slenderness of the brachials 
impart a certain lightness and delicacy of construction which is in contrast to that of the 
accompanying species. In superficial appearance of this and the following species there is 
a considerable resemblance to the Clccocrimts gotla,zdicus of Angelin. but the fine illustrations 
of that species in Dr. Bather's work give no indication of any of the generic characters which 
are here so pronounced ; its mode of arm-branching, however, represents an intermediate stage 
between the two equal rami of Cremacrimta, and the complete axil-arm system of the typical 
Calceocrimts and Halvsiocrimts. 
The specific naine is in honor of the eminent geologist and paleontologist, Mr. E. (-). 
Ulrich, of the United States Geological Survey and the National Museum. 
Horizon. attd locality. Eucalyptocrinus zone of the Beech River formation, Brownsport 
group, Niagaran ; Tuck's Iill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Cremacrinus tubuliferus new species 

Plate 28, fic.qs. 3, 3a, b, 4, 4 a, b, 5, 5a, 6 

Crown uni formly small, ranging in heig-ht from _'20 to 23 mm. in rive speci- 
mens. Cul» elongate, quadrangular, but little constricted- average height 6 nain. 
to width at binge of 4-5 mm. Median (1. ant.) arm short and slender, tapering 
to a uarrow point aud nt reacbing the beight of the adjacent lateral arms ; with 
t:ew verv long bracbials, sometimes o1»13:2 oi 3 in all beyond the short primi- 
brach; inferradial truucate, broadly connecting with triangular superradial. 
Main rami of adjacent (ant. and 1. post.) lateral arms have from 6 to 9 axillarv 
bracbials eacb, nodose and prominent, giving off alternate ramules with verv 
long ossicles bevond the first, reaching the full height of the arms, from succes- 
sive series of two or three l»rachialsA]phabrachs, Betabrachs, etc.ending 
in an equal bifurcation; thus there are 2 to 18 finials to each of these arms; 
r. ant. arm similarlv divided into two rami, but greatly dwarfed in size, much 
narrower at the primibrach, shorter than the other arms and having fewer and 
smaller ramules. In one specimen where the anterior arm is 8 mm. long, the 
r. ant. arm bifurcates fiuallv at about 9 mm. : and in two specimens having both 
arms perfectly exposed the area covered by the anlerior arm is about four times 
that of tbe r. ant. Lateral IBr. 2. Anal series extended into a massive tube, 
exceeding in diameter anv of the arms, and apparently equaling them in length, 
sometimes curving outward like a bow. Stem prominent at right of the tube, 
stout, with colulnnals beyond the proximal curve 1.5 to 2 nllll, long; in one speci- 



I I ETEROC R I N I 1)AE 10 7 

men it is about complete, attaining a length of 9-5 cm., and tapering to a narroxv 
distal end. 

The outstauding character of this relnarkable species is the relativelv enormous, curved 
anal tube. It is represented bv a wonderful series of six specimens, four of them having the 
tube intact, which are all figured, in order to show that the dwarfing of the fourth arm is no 
mere sporadic occurrence but a definite process ; a fifth, with the stem complete, has the tube 
plates displaced, and the sixth is fragmentary. Auother striking character of this and some 
of the associated species is the great length of brachials in the median arm, and of the ossicles 
in the ramules-except the first which is alwavs short--reaching sometimes rive times their 
width: this would seem to make for lessened flexibility in the arms. In two of the specimens, 
figures 3 and 4, I bave been able to free the crowns colnl)letely from the matrix, so that in 
both ail the lateral arms may be inspected and compared, and the abnormal position of the 
stem clearlv seen--thus furnishing a full exposition of the essential characters of the genus; 
in one the tube is visible from both sides. 
Horizon and locality. Eucalyptocrimts zone of Beech River forlnation, Brownsport 
group, Niagarau ; Tuck's Mill, Decatur County, Telmessee. 

Cremacrinus decatur lleW species 
Plate _8, fig. î 
Similar to C. lubttlifcrns, but larger, the crmvn leing 35 mm. high, with 
distal end incolnplete. 5[edian arm relativelv stout, quite in contrast to that 
of the two preceding species; 2 long brachials of about 3-5 mm. are preserved 
bevond the short prilnibrach, and judging by the taper there were probably one 
or two more. Anterior arm has 6 axillarv brachials in each ramus, giving off 
ralnules with verv long ossicles after the first altel-natelv to a total of _. and 
perhaps one or two more at the br«,ken distal end; interposed brachials mostlv 
in .aeries of two, the upper one often long enough for a third: r. ant. arm less 
than Olle fourth the size of ant., and apparently lwanching onlv two or flwee 
times; IBr 2. Anal plates and tuhe hot visible, onlv the anterior side being 
exposed. Stem stout, with long colulnnals, those hevond the proximal curve 
beinff --5 mm. long. 
The species is based upon a single very perfect crown, slightly brokcu at the distal end. 
and imbedded at one side" if it had a curved anal tube it would stand l-ather close to the last 
species, but the strong median arm is characteristic. The difference in size of the anterior and 
right anterior arms is most pronotmced, the area covered bv the former being about rive rimes 
that of the latter. It is froln a much laigher horizou than anv of the other species, in a forma- 
tion that has vielded a lmlnber of crinoids vith lnarkedly distinct characters. 
Horizon and locality. Decatur limestone, Niagaran" near Rise Mill. Perrv County, 
Tennessee. 
Cremacrinus simplex lew species 
Plate e8, ficjs. 8, Sa 
Of a verv different aspect from anv of the preceding, in the small number 
of afin-branches, and their dichotomous bifurcatiola, which miRht well warrant 
a reference to a new genus. Crown small, 8 mm. in height. 3ledian arm fairlv 



IO8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

stout, reaching the full hei,e,-ht of the crown; it consists of 4 very long brachials 
beyond the short prilnibrach, tapering to a narloW end; I. ant. inferradial quad- 
rilateral, fairly wide. IBr of lateral arlns 2. L. post. arm dividing o13 second 
prilnibracl into two rami, the in13er one bearing a long branch on the second 
Alphal)rach, and bifurcating on the second Betabl-ach into two equal branches; 
tbe outer ramus divides in a similar way, but begins o13 the first Alphabrach. 
Thus there are only 6 branches o13 that side. in contrast to the I2 to I8 ramules 
of other species, and these are rather of the dichotomous type than the heteroto- 
mous. The arm arrangement o13 the anterior side is different; the anterior arm 
divides into two large apparently unbranched rami, and the r. ant. arm, decid- 
edly smaller than the former, has an unbrauched inner ramus, whiIe the outer 
branch, next to the anal series, divides again into slender finials scarcely more 
than hall the length of tbe other amas. Brachials on both sides long and slender, 
similar to those of the median arln. Anal series strongly rounded, to the left 
of steln. Stem stout, asylmnetl-ic in position, with fairly long columnals, about 
1.2 nm. beyond the CUl-Ve. 
The species is founded upon a single specimen, associated with the first two preceding; 
it is a complete crowaa, exposed on both sides, and having a short section of stem attached. 
It may be regarded as an intermediate stage between Forms -k and ]3, the latter being dis- 
tinctly foreshadowed in the arm arrangement, while it whollv lacks tbe ramule-bearing feature 
of the former. Yet the presence of the fourth arm, and the asvmmetric position of the stem. 
determine its close relation to the Ordovician type, bevond question, thus furnishiug another 
unmistakable link in the chain of evolutionary modifications so conspicuous in the history of 
this family. 
Horio and locality. Eucalyptocrinus zone of 13eech River formation, ]3rownsport 
group, Niagaran; near Tuck's Mill, Decatur Courir.v, Tennessee. 

Cremacrinus articulosus (]3illings) 
_la te 28, fiTs. 9--r3 
Heterocri»us articulosus Billings, Geol. Surv. Canada, Dec. 4, 859, p. 5 r, pl. 4, fig. 8.--Castocrinus 
articulosts Ringueberg, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 4, 889, p..395, pl. o, fig. 4.--Springer, A Tren- 
ton Echinoderm Fauna, Mem. i5-P, Geol. Surv. Canada, i9IX, p. 5. 
] ana illustraling this species rather ¢ullv chieflv to show the incipient 
dwarfing of the r. ant. arm in the Ordovician stage of the genus. It has been 
knoxvn heretofore onlv from very scant materia], consistin, solelx- of the 
perfect type specimen from Ottaxxa, Canada, which was refigured bv Ringue- 
berg. The single arm preserved shows very clearlv the strongly no'dose axil- 
laries xx13icl3 constitute its leading character. Our I,mowledge of this rare form 
bas been enlarged in recent vears bv the acquisition of a fine series of specimens 
from I,irkfield, in Ontario, in exquisite preservation, bv which all the charac- 
ters are brought out in detail. These are supplemented bv an excellen specimen 
¢rom an equivalent horizon in Kentuckv. ]3v a selection from this material the 
heterotomou. structure of the two equal rami of the lateral arms, with their 



IIETEROCRIN ID.\E 

o9 

5 to 7 ralnules given off at intervals of 2, 3 or 4 lwachials, is thoroughly shown, 
and the fourlh arm, l»egilming the process of atl-ol»hy by which it is eventually 
elilninated, can l»e seen and studied. The area which it occupies is al»out one 
half that of the permanent lateral arms. The median arm is long and slender, 
with î to 2o short lwachials, either ending beyond lhese in a narrow point or 
in an elual bifurcation of very slender finials. The cup is but little constricted, 
with height and width about the saine. Surface in well preserved specimens 
somev«hat punctate. 

Horizon and loca[itv. Trenton (Curdsville), ¢3rdovician" Ottawa and Kirkfield, Canada, 
and \Voodford County, Kentuckv. This horizon is somewhat bigher than that of C. pun.ctat,s. 

Cremacrinus kentuckiensis (5liller and Gurley) 
Plate 28. figs. -4, 4a. r5 
Cal«eocrinus kcntt«kicnsis Miller and Gurley, Bull. 5, Illinois State Museum, 894, p. 29. pl. z, figs. 24, 25. 
This species, of SOlnewhat coarser construction than C. orticMosus, is in- 
troduced with two specilnens from the "FreltOn of Kentuckv on account of the 
striking" lnanner in which thev illustrate the peculiar relati,m in this genus of 
the stem and anal tube. In figure  5 the tube ,ccupies the middle space between 
the two arms at the postel-ior side, which in cl-inoids generally would be in the 
plane of bilateral sVlnlnetry. But that is lmt the case here, because the afin that 
is seen lying to the right of it is lhe fcurth, or odd, arm, thus giving two arms 
on that side as against onlv one on the other. This would result in a complete 
loss of balance between the respective sidesa condition that is contrarv to the 
whole tendencv of the echinoderln cwganizatiç, nwere it hot that the equilibrium 
is preserved by the locatian of the stem in the plane af ilnperfect bilateral svm- 
metrv passing through it and the median arm, leaving the anal tube in contact 
with the left posterior afin as it was belote; thus these two rotin a counterpoise 
to the two arlns at the 1-ight, and the stem, instead of the anal tube, occupies 
the true middle position with regard to the calvx as a whle, as shown in 
figure 4a. XVhen the odd arln atrophies in the next stage of the family, there 
must he a different arralelnent in order to maintain a balance between the 
two sides, which bave lmW becolne equal, with one large simple radial at each 
side. This is effected bv the shifting ç,f the steln into the saine plane with the anal 
tube, thus establishilg the perfect lfilateral SVlnlnetrv characteristic of the suc- 
ceedinff venera. 
The r. ant. arm in both specimens is markedlv smaller than the other lateral arms, as may 
be seen in figure 15. where one ramus of each arm adjoining the anal tube is visible on eitber 
side and their relative sizes may be compared. The median arm in this species is relatively 
shorter and stouter than in C articulosus, and hifurcates on about the I4th brachial into 
fairlv strong branches. 
Horizon and locality. Trenton (Crdsville), Ordovician; near High Bridge, Mercer 
Çounty, Kentuckv. 
8 



IIO SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Cremacrinus punctatus Ulrich 
Plate _8, figs. z6-2o 
Crcmacrinus p,otctat,ts Ulrich, I4th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Minnesota, i886, p. IO7, fig. I. 
This species is figured here in ,rder to correct the error in the original 
descriptio due to imperfect material, by which it appeared to have only two 
lateral arms, one on each side. It has the four arms characteristic of the genus, 
one median and three lateral, unsVlnlnetric. The fourth arm, right anterior, 
which owing to injury is missing in the type (fig-. 6a), is present in several 
specilnens subsequently acquired from the saine locality and horizon, as shown 
by figures 17, I8, and 19, but in none of theln are all the side arlns preserved 
to their ull length. So far as can be observed, the fourth arm (les hot appear 
to be materially smaller than its ellows, which would lead to the inference that 
in this species, derived from an earlier formation than the Canadian species, 
the process of elimination by dwarfing of the fourth arm had hot vet begun. 
The median arm is preserved to the end in one specimen, where it consists of 21 bra- 
chials, the last one axillary, and beeomes verv slender. One ramus of the left posterior arm is 
also intact, showing 7 ramules, with two more added by a terminal bifurcation. The position 
of tbe stem to the right of the anal tube in the hollow of the right posterior interray is ad- 
mirably shown by figure 7, with the deep indentation resulting from contact when the crown 
was recumbent. Another specimen, figure 2oa. gives an excellent picture of the hinge, with 
its denticulate margin and numerous " supplementary plates." The cup in this species is 
slightly constricted, widening downwards, height to greatest vidth as 6 to 6. 5 ; primibrachs 2 ; 
brachials in series of 2 and 3- 
Horizo ad locality. Black River (Decorah), Ordovician, below the horizon of C. artic- 
ulosus; i [inneapoIis, i [innesota. 
Additional species referable to Cremacri.ts are CaIceocrimts furcillatts and C. rugostts 
of \V. R. Billings, and Ca,¢tocrims bi[li,gsiams Ringueberg, ail from the Trenton of Canada. 



HETEROCRINIDAE 

III 

EUCHEIROCRINUS Ieek and Worthen 
Plate 2 9 
CheirocrinltS Hall (hot Eichwald), 13th Rep. New York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., I86O, p. 122.--Eucheirocrinus 
Meek and \Vorthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., I869, p. 73" Geol. Surv. Illinois, 5, I873, pp. 443, 
5o2.--Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, I893, pp. 56, 6t, fig. 13b.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., 
I913, p. 213.--Bassler, Bibliographic Index, Bull. 95, U. S. lqat. Mus., 1915, p. 5o8.--Proclivocrinus 
Ringueberg, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 4, I889, p. 396 (sep., p. 9)- 
Arm-bearin K ravs 3, the r. ant. arm having entirely disappeared. Stem 
shifted back to median position in plane of anal tube, and perfect bilateral sym- 
metry restored. 5[edian arm simple or branching; seDaaents of its 1. ant. com- 
pound radial usually narrov«lv connected, inferradial widening downward. 
Lateral arms symmetric, one 011 a side; unequally dichotolnOUS, dividing into 
two bralches, which bifurcate once or twice again; r. post. and r. ant. super- 
radials fused to forln subanal piece supportin K anal tube, and separating the 
respective inferradials from one another and froln anal .r. Lateral primibrachs 
usuallv 2, the aŒEillarv with unequal faces. P, asals 4, as in Crcmarr[nus, with 
suture between left ]B sometimes obscure. 
Genotype. Ckcirocrinus ckrysalis Hall. 
Distribution. Silurian" America. England. 
This Silurian form bas tlms lost the fourth arm, and recovered the sy_mmetric position 
of the stem, but has hot yet acquired the doubly heterotomous mode of branching of the two 
lateral rays, which marks the axil-arm systeln--although the unequal-faced primibrach prob- 
ably forms the first step towards it. The arm structure, although in the main rather simple, 
is subject to considerable variation. In the typical form the lateral arm divides on the axillary 
second primibrach, and branches again. The mediau arm typically is simple, or onlv dix-id'es 
lfigh up, while in E. ontario and the English species E. anglicus it branches near the calyx and 
at least twice above. In E. chrysalis this arm is relativelv massive, and in the other two species 
its robustness is compensated by the lower and more numerous bifurcations. Thus the arms 
in this genus may be considered to be in a state of flux, leading toward the axil-arm plan. In 
the connection of the segments of 1. ant. radial it represents a rather intermediate stage between 
the Ord'ovician C.remacrimts and the Devonian and Carboniferous Ha.lysiocrinus, the tendency 
being for the inferradial to become narrower upward. The base remains substantiallv as in 
Cemacrinus, the unfused left BB together being small, touclaing the stem, and having the saine 
characteristic curved outline, with a tendency to coalesce, which became a fixed character in 
the succeeding genera. 
The genus as now understood has a considerable distribution, from New York, Canada, 
Indiana and Tennessee in America to Dudley in England. It is essentially Silurian, but it 
mav be that Clceocrinus barrandci Walcott. froln the Trenton, should be referred to it. 



I I2 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

Eucheirocrinus chrysalis (t ]ail) 
Plate 20, figs. c, ca-c, 2, 3 
Ckcirocrinus ckrysahs Hall, 13th Rep. New York St. Cab. Nat. ist., 186o, p. 122, diagrams 1-5; 28th 
Rep., 1879, p. 147, fig. 2.--Euchcirocrinus chrysalis. Meek and rorthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sic. PhiI., 
1869, p. 73; Geol. Surv. IlIinois, 5, 1873, p. 443, 5o2.--Proclivocrhtus ckrysalis Ringueberg, Ann. 
New York Acad. Sci., 4, 889, P. 399 (12), pl. 1o, figs. 2, 3.--Procli,,ocrin.us radiculux Ringueberg, 
ibid., p. 397 (IO), pi. ?, fig. 6. 
The genotype. To facilitate comparison of the g-eneric characters I ara 
figurin. the type specimen from the Rochester shale of the Silurian at Lock- 
port, New York, t(-ether with some others from the saine loca]itv. In the type 
the uture dividin7 the left ]IP, is indistinct, but can le seen in stron sunli-ht. 
In these specimens the outer articulatin face cf the axillary primibrach ex- 
ceeds tbe inner in widtb about as 4 to 3- I a]so give herewith some dia.-rams to 
illustrate tbe variatic, as in arm structure of dais and the two species sbowing 
the greatest departure rom type, E. ontario and E. an(dlicus. 

FG. 3- 

a. 6 c. 
Varieties of Arm-Branching in 12u«keirocrims. o. E. «kr3'salis; b, E. ontario; c, E. anglicus 

Eucheirocrinus minor new species 
Plate 20. fi9s. 5, 5a, b 
A small species. Cown 39 mm. lai.e-la, of which the calvx occupies 6. 5 lnm. 
tlas 3 arms, and stem in plane of anal series. Median arm fairly stout, tapering, 
as lon as the lateral arms, consistin cbieflv of two lon K bracbials, four or rive 
times as lon as wide, preceded bv the short primibl-ach and followed bv a third 
brachial shorter and narrowin,o_." to a point; segments of 1. Int. 1-adial COlmected, 
with inferradial elon,vate quadrilateral. I.ateral al-mS 2, one on each side, divid- 
ing on second plimil»racl into 2 rami, dichotonaous, 1)rancbing somewhat un- 
equa]ly at inter'cals of 3 or 4 brachials to abc,ut 6 finials, the ramus next to tbe 
anal tube being tlle smallest. Stem long-, slendel, about three times tbe Ieng-th 
of the crown, tapering gradually to a narrow distal end : coluumals iii proximal 
part about I lama. ]oLo,9 ,- and wide, 1)ecomiug longer with hall the vddth distallv. 
In form and proportions of the median arm this species differs strongly from the type, 
and resembles those of the associated species of C)'cmacrimts occurring in th-e saine formation ; 
but the absence of a fourth arm and the ,nedian position of the stem clearIv excIude it from 



IIETEROCR[NIDAE 

Il 3 

that genus, while the structure of the lateral arms is substantiallv that of Euchch'ocrinus, 
with a difference, however, in the proportionate size or the branches. The specimen figured is 
uniqne, and only the left posterior side is fully exposed; but I was al»le to free the opposite 
side sufficiently to show that it has but one lateral arm. It is an intermediate form of uncertain 
position. 
Horizon. and locality. Eucalyptocrim«s zone of ]3eech River formation, ]3rownsport 
group, Niagarau ; Tuck's Mill. Decatnr Countv, Tennessee. 

Eucheirocrinus ontario Springer 
Text-fig. 3b 
Eu,'hcirocrinus ontario Springer, Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 3, No. 91, I919, p. I27, fig. 6. 
This species, described by me some vears ago, is of somev«hat earlier age than the type; 
it is inserted for comparison of afin structure, especially of the median arm, which bifurcates 
on the third brachial, and the branches at least once more at like intervals bevond. This 
arrangement is showa hy text-fig-ure 3b under E. chrysalis. From the Ctaract formation, 
5[edinan ; Stony Creek, Ontario, Canada. 

Eucheirocrinus anglicus nexv species 
['latc 29. figs. 6, 6a ; tc.rt-fig. 3c 
This Slnall species frcnl the English Silurian is described here on account 
of the extraordinary varia'ion fronl the t_vle which it exhilfits in the branching 
of the median arm. This lfifurcates oaa the first and onlv prinaibrach, and then 
once or twice more to the number of at least 6 ultimate branches: the lateral 
arms are irregular, hoth their rami and their branches being of an intermediate 
character (text-fig. 3c). The branching of the median arm on the primibrach 
is paralleled onlv bv the species Calccocrinus pinnulatus P, ather (Crin. Gotl., 
pl. 4, fig. 33) of Gotland; but whereas in that species the lateral arms bave the 
usual two primibrachs, here the single axillary primibracla extends to the lateral 
arms also, thus duplicating the otherwise unique character of another Gotland 
species, C. nitidus, which occurs also in England in the saine formation and 
localitv as the present species. In the profuse branching of the median arm 
this species recalls a similar departure fi-na type in Calccocrinus bif-urcatus. 
The species is based upon a single specimen, unique so far as I know, from Dudley, 
England, which I obtained manv vears ago from lhe well known dealer, Robert Damon of 
Vv:eymouth. It is notable for the rather ponderous character of the arm branches, the great 
predominance of the median arm, and the relatively small size of the calvx. It bas a short 
stem, appareutly about hall the length of the crown, which seemed to end alnid the déhris 
of some other fossils so that it could hOt be determined whether the stem was attached to a 
forein object or not. The cohmmals increase in length rapidly toward the distal end, where 
they become twice as long as wide. In this respect the form has a rather juvenile aspect. The 
crown, which is considerablv flattened by pressure, has a height of zo mm. 
Horizon atd localita,. \\'enlockian, Sihlrian" Dudley, England. 



I 14 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Eucheirocrinus indianensis (S. A. lIiller) 
Plate -o, fi9s. ./, -la, b 
Calccocri»zus i»zdiancnsis S. A. Miller, ITth Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., I89, p. 645, pl. 6, fig. 37 (adv. 
sheets, p. 35). 
Founded tlpOll a very imperfect specimen with onlv part of the calyx preserved, but 
enougb to show the narrow and tapering inferradial of tbe left anterior ray, and the 4 basals,- 
indicating the probable presence of tbe genus among tbe many rare forms of its locality. No 
others bave been round. 
Horizmt atd locality. Laurel formation ; St. Paul, Indiana. 



Il ETEROCRINIDAE 

Il 5 

CALCEOCRINUS Hall em. Ringueherg 
Plate 20 
Calceocrinus Hall, Pal. New York, 2, 1852, p. 352, pl. 85, figs. 5, 6; 28th Rep. New York St. Cab. Nat. 
Hist., I879, p. I46, figs. I, 2; 12th Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geo|., I882, p. 281.--Shumard, Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 2, I866, p. 358.--Meek and \Vorthen, Geo|. Surv. II]inois, 5, I873, pp. 443, 502, 
pl. I4, fig. 9.--Ulrich, 14th Am. Rep. Geol. Surv. _Mimesota, I886, pp. to4, It3.--Wachsmuth and 
Springer, Rev. Pal., 3, sec. 2, t886, p. 274.--Ringueberg, Ann. New York Acad..Sci., 4, 889, p. 4ol.-- 
Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, I893, p. 67; Treatise on Zool., 3, I9oo, p. 147.--Jaeke|, Phylogen[e und 
System, I918, p. 86.--Dcltacrinus, Bassler, tibliogr. Index, tull. 92, U. S. Nat. Mus., I915, pp. 56, 393. 
Arm-bearin ravs 3- Calyx hilaterally sylnmetric, with stem in plane of 
anal tube. 5Iedian arm simple or brauching, supported by compound 1. ant. 
radial, the segqnents of which are usuallv separated. Lateral arms one on each 
side, supported by the large radials, branching- from unequal faces of the axil- 
lary primibrach and of successive diminishin axillaries curving around trans- 
verselv toward the anal side, each axillarv supportin. at the shorter, inner face 
an axil-arm composed of successive series of 2 or 3 brachials, and bearing- alter- 
nate ramules, and at the longer, outer face the next axillarv: primibrachs of 
lateral arms usually 2. R. post. and r. ant. superradials fused to form a subanal 
piece underlying anal .r. usually separated from the large radials by their respec- 
tive inferradials, or thev may be eliminated. P, asals reduced to 3 bv fusion of 
1. post. and 1. ant. ]l, the fused plate never or rarely entering the stem-facet. 
The fore,e,oing characters al»ply also to the genu Halysiocrinus. 
R. post. and r. ant. inferradials usually hot in coutact, interposed between 
anal .r or subanal piece and the large radials. The txvo segments of 1. ant. com- 
pound radial exceptionally connected by short suture, but usually entirely sepa- 
rated as triangles by the large radials meetinff between them. Fu.ed left basal 
usually triangular with straight sides, and narrower than the hinge iu the 
American species. Median arln usually simple. 
Gcnotype. Calceocrhms typus Ringueberg. 
Distribu.tion. Silurian" America, England, Gotland. 
The characters stated in the first paragraph are common to this and the next following 
genus. The axil-arm system characteristic of the two. is a feature unknown in other crinoids ; 
in this by atrophy and fusion the two non-arm-bearing radials have beome to a large extent 
eliminated, leaving the suprabasal portion of the calyx to consist, in addition to plates of the 
anal area, ahnost entirelv of the two large simple radials, and the more or less interposed 1. ant. 
compound radial, upon the former of which the one-sided, thoroughly unique type of afin- 
structure has been established. This begins in the Silurian with numerous species in the 
Wenlockian of Sweden and England, and in the Niagaran of :New York. Indiana, Missouri 
and Tennessee, extending through the Devonian into the Lower Carboniferous. where it 
culminates with the end of the familv in the Keokuk and Warsaw beds of the Mississippi 
Valle.v. The extreme stage, in which the brachial series of the main arm are subordinated 
to the over developed outer ramules and thus hidden from view at the exterior, is confined to 
certain species of Calceocrim«s, viz." C. focrstci, C. bifm*catns and C. typus of the American 
rocks, and C tcm.r, C. nitidt«s and C intcr[,rcs of the European : but never occurs, so far as 
known, in Halysiocrinns, in which some portion er the main arm is alwavs more or less ex- 



I I6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

posed. Thus while a species with the main arms partly exposed might belong to either genus, 
we can be fairly certain tbat one in which these parts are hidden by the outer ramules does 
not belong to Halvsiocrius. 
Coincident w'ith the development of tbe axil-arm system and the enlargement of the 
simple radials came the separation of the two segments of the i. ant. compound' radial. This, 
as before shown, was a progressive feature, aplearing first in the Silurian among species of 
this genus pari paa:çu with the axil-arms, and becoming established as an invariable structure 
in the later stages of the familv. It is a thoroughly reliable cbaracter for distinguishing the 
two genera here defined from those preceding them, as is also the fusion of the two left basals 
into one triangular or convex plate hot connected with the stem. this being especially valu- 
able because determinable from the base alone. The minor differences bv which the two are 
separated are hot conspicuous, but the division, confirmed as it is by stratigraphie considera- 
tions, is useful, and the characters if carefullv observed are usually sufficient for identifying 
them. In some of t'he Gotland species the fused left basal is ahnost, and rarely quite, as wide 
as tbe hinge. 

Calceocrinus foerstei new species 
Plate 29, figs. 7a. b, 8a, b, 9, ro, rr 
Cown çf lne(liun size, ranging fr«,m 37 t,» 5 o mm. in height, and fairly 
stout. Çup as seen from 1. ant. side relatively short, obtusely trapezoidal, but 
little constricted; height to the xvidth at hinge as I to I. 4. Iedian (1. ant.) al-m 
verv stout, simple, and longer thal] the axil-arms; bl-achials averaging 3.4 mm. 
high by 4 rein. wide in a large specilnen ; senents of 1. ant. R connected, infer- 
radial elongate quadrilateral. Lateral IBr z. Main-axils of lateral arlns 5 to 8. 
Axil-arms stout, with brachials of exposed ralnules as wide as high, about -5 
lnm. in large specilnen; outer (adanal) ralnules iollowing Betabrachs closely 
apposed, decreasing regularly in size stemwards, and orlning the chier visible 
arn-branches; when closed they hide frc, m view the lnain arms, as well as the 
inner (al)anal) ramules. Anal tube stout, composed of large seDnents resem- 
bling brachials, projecting beyond the axil-arms ; anal .r large, strongly rounded, 
may be slightly indented by pressure of column ; subanal piece fairly large, wider 
than high, usually lin»re or less indented. Steln stout, appareltly rather shol-t, 
the longest one preserved beginning to taper at 5.5 cm. ; columnals about I. 5 
mm. high and 3 mm. wide in middle portion" with but little curvature, the stem 
lying closely parallel to the anal series. 
This species is described upon the evidence of eight crowns, mostly well preserved, and 
one having the short stem probably to near the distal end; three of them are figured. In the 
exceptional presence of a quadranular inferradial and the resulting comection o.f the segmelts 
of 1. ant. R., it shares with the Silurian swcies of Cremacrims in the survival of this primitive 
ç)rdovicima structure, and in this character differs from all other species of this genus except 
C. pimmlatus and intcrpres of Gotland. In the al»proxilnation o.f the outer ramules of the 
axil-arms it is of the type of the Gotlandian C. tem.r. One sl»ecimen, fire IO, SOlnewhat 
distorted, differs from the others in the proportions of the brachials and mxil-arms, but upon 
the more essential characters appears to belong with the species. It was figured under the 
ilnpression that it might have to be separated. Figure  I is from a set of arms of unusual size 
wlfich exhibits especially well the characteristic disposition of the axil-al-m in the extreme 
stage. 



IIETI£ROCRI NII)AE I 17 

The specific naine is given in recognition of the extensive and vaiuable researches of 
Dr. August F. Foerste in the Siluriau and Devonian formations of Telmessee. 
Hori'on and locality. Eucalyptocrimts zone of Beech River forlnation, Brownsport 
group, Niagaran ; Tuck's Mill, Decatur County, Tenuessee. 

Calceocrinus bassleri nexv species 
Plate 29. ri.c/s. I2a, b, 13. L[; ff. _8, ,fig. 2z 
CI-OB.ll of large size, froln 5o to 56 rein. in height. Cup seen froln left 
anterior side ol»tusely sU]nluadl-allgn]ar , rclativelv short and wide; hei.ht to 
width at hinge line in maximum Sl»ecimen I to -5 ; but little constl-icted. 5[edian 
( l. allt.) ami simple, stout, lllllch thicker and longer than the axil-arms ; brachials 
about 3 111111. high; seg-lnents of 1. ant. R tl-iangular, widely separated bv the 
large RR abntting 1)etween them, exceptionally touching bv their apices. Iateral 
IBr _o. 5[ain-axils of lateral arms 5 to 8, brachials iii series of  to 4; inner 
Betabrachs (abalml) and followin K series more or less exposed alongside the 
outer ramules, their brachials lnoniliforln. Alml tube projectinK bevond arlns, 
llot so stout as in pl-eceding species; anal .r large, strongly rounded, but little 
indented ])v coltlllnl ; subanal piece rather short, usnallv widening upward. Stem 
long, stout, bnt little curved next to calvx ; co!ulnnals very short, at 2 5 mm. froln 
base averagilLe, .7 111111. long and .3 lnm. diameter. 
This spec!es is founded upon six crowns, four of which are figured, one with ahnost the 
complete stem attached. It differs from the preceding species in having the seglnents of 1. ant. 
R disconnected as usual in the genus, in the exposure of the main hranch of the axil-arms. 
and in the short columnals of the stem. It is to be COlnpared with (7".. [,ug[l aud (7".. turamt.v of 
Gotland. with whicb it is evidentlv closelv related, the chier differences being its larger size 
and greater number of axil-arms. In the relative exposure of the lnain axil-arm it is doser 
to those species than the published fiures would indicate, as is shown bv a specimen frorn 
Gotland in my collection herein figured, plate 2 9, figure 2I. 
This fine species is named in honor of Dr. R. S. Bassler, of the United States National 
Museum, whose field-work during several seasons has greatly enlarged out knowledge of the 
geological structure of Tennessee. 
I-[oricmt and locality. Euca,ptocrimts zone of Beech River formation, Brownsport 
group, Niagaran ; Tuck's Mill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Calceocrinus bifurcatus new species 
Plate 29, fi,qs. 15, ISa. b 
Crcwn of mediuln .ize, ab, rot 45 11-1111. high, of slender orm as COlnpared 
with preceding species. Cul» widenhlK basalward, height 7 11111"1., width o mm., 
and but little constricted. Median (1. ant.) alin slender and verv deep, bifur- 
catin on the third brachial al)ove the pl'ilnil)rach, and a.ffain on the second, the 
inner branch dividing again, thus gVill" ( or cq t:illials ; all the brachials are long 
and 1-1arrow, the lower three being 4.5 rein. lon,R by 1.5 wide : segments of 1. ant. 
R widely separated bv large RR. the SUl)erradial triangular and the inferradial 



1 18 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

narrowlv acuminate. Lateral I]1- 2. Main-axils of lateral arms 6. Outer 
ramules of axil-arms closelv apposed, concealing the main branches and inner 
ramules. Anal plates strongly convex, partly obscured by the closely adhering 
stem. Tube not visible. Stem fairly strong, with colunanals t. 5 111111. long at 
al)out midway of the crown. 
onlv the single type specimen is known, and that is from a slightly lower horizon than 
the preceding species. The crown is in the recumbent position, ciosely covering the stem which 
is almost enveloped by the smaller axil-arms. The striking character by which the species 
differs from almost all others of the genus is the repeated bifurcation of the median arm, in 
which it anticipates the later Carboniferous forms. 
Horizon and localité,. Coccocrinus zone of the Beech River %rmation, Brownsport 
group, Niagaran ; West of Tuck's 5Iill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Calceocrinus stigmatus tlall 
Plate 29, fig. 
Cheirocrimts «timau« Hall, Trans. Alb. Inst., 4, 863, P. 225; Calceocrlmts stigmat*ts Hall, 28th Rep. 
Nev York St. Mus., 879, p. I47, pl. I9, figs. 9-11; IIth Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., I882, p. 28I, 
pl. I9, figs. 9-II. 
Copy of Hall's figure of the type, to show the occurrence of the {orm in the \Valdron 
formation of the Silurian. Only the radial part of the calvx is preserved, showing a vv-ide 
separation of the segments of 1. ant. compound radial. This will distinguish it from Eucheh'o- 
crimts, but hot from Halysiocrimts, and the other characters are hot in sutîficient detail for com- 
parison. The geological position, however, raises a fair presumption against the latter. The 
species is extremelv rare, no other specimens having been found. 
\Valdron shale, Niagaran; 'Valdron, Indiana. 

Calceocrinus typus Ringueberg 
Plate e9, figs. -r 7, zTa 
Calceocrimts typus Ringueberg, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 4, 889, p. 4o2, pl. o, fig. 8. 
Ringueberg's type specimen, now in mv collection, is figured to illustrate 
the typical form as recognized amonp,- the New York specimens. It bas the axil- 
arms of the type of C. foerstei and C. tena.r, and the disconnected segments of 
l. ant. R. 

From the Rochester shale of the Niagaran • Lockport, New York, where it is one of the 
rarest fossils. 
In addition to the two foregoinç species Ringueberg described Calceocriuus bidentatus 
and C coutractus, both rom the Niagaran at Lockport, New ¥orl« 

Calceocrinus t Iall 
Plate 29, fig. 8 
Hall, Pal. New York, .'2, 1852, p. 352, pl. 85, fig. 5- 
The original figure upon which the genus was proposed. After Hall. It is 
figured here for comparison with C. halli and C. t3,Pus ' identified as congeneric 
witb this. 

Horixon and locality. Rochester shale- Lockport, New York. 



HETEROCR[N[DAE 

Calceocrinus halli Ringuel)el-g 
Plate 29, tic d. _r 9 
Ringueberg, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 4, I889, p. 403, pl. IO, fig. 9- 
Type of the species which Ringuel)el..R considered identical, with Hall's 
original. The consolidated left basal, fused into a single tl-iangular plate hOt 
touching the stem, is the dolninant character in both, fullv establishing their 
generic identity, and 1)y 1-eas{,n of its exceptic}nal width their specific identity also. 
Ho.rizot and locality, saine as last. 

Calceocrinus alleni Rowley 
Amer. Geol., 34, I9O4, p. 275, pl. i6, figs. 3o-33. 
Described from fragments of calvx only, v«hich show onlv the probable generic characters. 
Bainbridge formation. Niagaran; Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri. 

Calceocrinus nitidus Bather 

Platc 29, tic.c/. 20 
Calceocrim¢s »fftidus Bather, Crin. Gotl., I893, p. 9L pl. 3, figs. II7-I22.--çynchirocrinus anplicus Jaekel, 
Phylogenie und System, t98, p. 86, figs. 81-83. 
I ara illustrating this species froln an unusually fine specilnen in my collec- 
tion frOln Ellgland, ill which the C1-O1VII iS l'nOl-e COlnpletely preserved than in 
the types. ]11 the principal C}lle o:f these the median arm bas onlv 8 brachials 
relnaining, whereas here they 1-each a total of  5- The arm is decidedlv stouter 
and longer than those adjoining it, and has a graceful curvature parallel to 
the 6 visible axil-arms, of which o1115- the outer o1 adanal ramules are seen, the 
main branches being entirely concealed underneath them. The species is re- 
markable for having Ollly a single lateral prilnibrach, hl which it differs from 
ail others in the family kllOWll to me, with the exception of the singular English 
species herein desclibed as Euchcirocrius au(dlfcus. 
Although described fro,n Gotland, C nfti&ts is apparently the most common species of 
this genus i,a the English Silurian. as among my own material are no less than four good 
specimens, besides two casts fro,n specimens in British collections, in all of which the char- 
acters are remarkably constant. O,ae of these has the stem in place, but incomplete, for a 
distance of once and a half the length of the crown, which is closely recumbent upon it; the 
columnals in the more distal portion bave increased to 2 ha,n. i,a length for 3 nu'n. diameter. 
This species is undoubtedly the saine form for which Jaekel in his Phylogenie und Sys- 
rem, 98, has encumbered the literature with two useless synonyms as ,_çynchirocrimts anflicus. 
Horiaon. and locality. Wenlockian, Silurian; Gotland, Sweden, and Dudley, England. 



120 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

Calceocrinus pugil ]3ather 
l'late 2 9. tic.q. 2 I 
Calceocrinus pugil Bather, Crinoidea of Gotland, 1893, p. 82, pl. 3, figs. 98-1o4. 
Figured £rom a specimel il my collection from Gotland for comparison 
with C. bassleri from Telmessee, which resembles it in the relative visibility of 
the main branches of the axil-arms. The exposure in that respect is somewhat 
greater in this specilnen than in lhose figured by Dr. I3ather, and the ossicles 
il the main branches are more distinctlv nodose. In decided contrast to the pre- 
ceding species, the median afin in this is slender and short, shorter than the ad- 
joining axil-arms; in ihe prilcipal type specilnen this al-m bas 8 brachia|s visible, 
with room for only I more, and here the lumber is appareltly limited to 8. 
Horizon and localit3. \Venlockian, Silurian ; Gotland, Sweden. 



HETEROCRINIDAE 

I2I 

HALYSIOCRINUS Ull-ich 
Plates 29, 3 ° 
Chcirocrinus Hall (hOt Eichwaid), 13th Rep. New York St. Cal)., 186o, p. 123.--Halysiocrim«s Uirich, 
I4th Ann. Pxep. Geol. Stlrv. Minnesota, 1886, p. IIo.--Bather, Cin. Gotl., 1893, p. 61, fig. I3b.--Zittel- 
Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., 1913, p. 214. 
;rlllS and stcnl as in Clccocrittus, except that the axil-arms do not reach 
the extreme stage, and the main branch is alwavs more or less exposed. The 
two segments of 1. ant. I triangular, and alwavs completely separated bv the 
simple radials. Sui»anal piece atrophied or hidden, its place being taken by the 
posterior shifting of r. post. and r. ant. inferradials, v,hich have met, support- 
ing anal .r directlv. Fused left basal usuallv convex toward the stem, and nearly 
or quite the full width of hinge. Iedian arm frequently branching. 
Genoty'p'e. Chcirocrimts doctylus Hall. 
Distribution. Devonian to Carboniferous ; America. 
As stated under Clccocrin«s, the first paragraph of the dianosis of that genus appliÇs 
to thls, in vhich the axil-arm s.vstem is equally characteristic, but developed in a somewhat 
different way, the exposure of the main branch being here a constant character, as is also the 
separation of the segments of 1. ant. R. There may also be noted an increasing tendency te 
branclfing of the median arm. The difference in the structure of the posterior side, marking 
for this genus the final stage in the elimination of the radials of the vanished arms, in which 
their inferradial renmants are pushed to a position directlv underneath the anal tube, is a 
reliable criterion" and the greater width and convex form of the fused basal is a useful 
guide in practice, being fairly estal_,lished in the Devoniau and apparently constant in the 
Carboniferous. 
The genus is essentiallv an American form, being represented bv species in the Helder- 
bergian, Onondaga and Hamilton of the Devonian, and the New Providence, Burlington, 
Keokuk and Warsaw of the I_ower Çarboniferous. It has hot thus far been recognized in 
Europe. 

Halysiocrinus keyserensis new species 
Plate 29, fi9. 22 
This earliest kllOWll representative of its gellUS, frolll the Lower Devonian, 
while it has the predominant outer ramules and the dwarfed 1nain branches 
somewhat exposed, as usual in the gelms, differs from the axil-arln type gener- 
allv bv having the axillarv prilnibrach and the succeeding main-axils al»out 
equal-faced. The median arm is long and simple, with brachials lnoniliform, 
and the axil-arlns four in numl-er. The anal plates at base of tube are large 
and broadly rounded, lmt the tube itself is hot exposed. In the nearly equal 
bifurcation upon the main-axils there is solne reselnblance to Dcltacrbttts clarus 
and Halvsiocritus secuMts of the i[iddle Devonian, as figured and redescribed 
in the recent volulne on the Devonian Crinoids of New York. plate 4t. 
Based upon a unique specimen from the Keyser formation of the Helderbergian, at 
Keyser, \\'est Virginia. 



I22 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Halysiocrinus marylandensis (Oherr) 
Pate 20, fiçs. 23, 23a, b 
Calccocrqnus nar3'lazdcusis Ohern, Maryland Geological Survey, Lower Devonian, 1913, p. 253, pl. 40, 
figs. 1-3. 
This species, described for the lk[aryland Geological Survey, is figured here 
to show the occurrence of the gelaus i1 the Oriskaav divisiola of the Lower De- 
xonia. It is remarkalfle for its rolmst l»rOl)orticls in coltrast to the other 
Devofian fourres, but the geeric characters are thorouglfly well established. 
There are at least six axil-arms springi1g from extremely tmequal-faced main- 
axils, and tbe main arln-branches are fairlv well exposed alongside the lare 
outer ramules. The lnedian arm is simple to the elex'elth brachial, and of un- 
usual size, as are also the plates of tbe aal stries. Tbe whole aspect of tbe 
crinoid is oe of massive1ess ot belote observed in lhe familv. 
Only the type specimen is l¢now, from the Criskanv sandstone at Cumberland, ikTarx'land. 

Halysiocrinus carînatus nexv species 
Plate 29, figs. 24, 24a, 25, 26 
This Hamilto species is introduced in order further to show the course 
of development of tbe familv during the Devonian, and especially as a fine ex- 
ample of the ildematiol of tbe large aml plates bv pressure on the stem. It is 
remarkable for the extraordinary mmber of axil-arms, Io on each side, the 
arroxx-ness of the 1. ant. superradial, and slenderness of the median arm follow- 
ig it, of xYhich only a few brachials are preserved ; tbis is Yery small and keeled. 
in contrast to the broad, rounded arm of most otber species. The space gained 
by the reduction in width of this arm affords room for the increased number of 
main-axils, as a result of xYhich the lateral arm-facets are directed more nearly 
upward than in other species; this character is colstant in specimens from the 
three localities. The axil-arms are also slender, with ehmgate brachials in two 
or more well exposed bralches. Tbe aml plates are x'erv large, ad the inden- 
tation ruade bv the stem is sharp and deep, ad could only haYe been produced 
by strong and persistent pressure, such as would result from a habitual recum- 
bent position of the crown upon the stem. 1',,'o mere temporary suspension of the 
crown alongside the stem would account for it. Tbe aal tube is sharply ang-u- 
lar, taperilg to a poit below the distal end of the arms" this form of tube is 
a strikig character of the species xvhich bas hot been seen in alv otber, and 
remids one of tbe pointed tube in some species of Zcacrius, leaving tbe posi- 
tion of the anal opening in doubt. Surface of radials ad basals corrugated or 
pustulose. 
The species is fotmded on two crowns from the Traverse formation of northern Michi- 
gan; the type here figured, 38 mm. in height, is sharply and accurately preserved, except for 



}I ETERO ('R I N I I)AE 

I2 3 

the dital part of the median arm. Two calices are also figured of the same or a closely allied 
species froln equivalent horizon i,a other areas. 
Horfo»t and locality. Hamilton group, Middle Devonian; Alpena, Michigan, New 
Buffalo, Iowa, and Clark Cotmty, Indiana. 

Halysiocrinus perplexus (Shumard) 
Plate 30, figs. .t-z 3 
Cheirocrinus (Calceocrinus?) pcrplc.rus Shumard, Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., 1866, 2, p. 358. 
Some specimens of this species are figured in connection with the explana- 
tion of the hinge already given, for which it offers unusual facilities. It occurs 
in the New Provide'nce shale of the basal Lower Crboniferous,  and is found 
chieflv on weathered exposures at ]3utton _[ould and other knobs south of 
Louisville in Kentucky. Cmplete crowns are unknown, but the two charac- 
teristic elements of the united radial plates and separate consolidated basals bave 
been collected bv hundreds, among which are manv that furnish a clear expo- 
sition of the structure of these parts. Thev vary in size from cups o mm. high 
bv 6 mm. wide at the top and g mm. at the hinge line, to those 20 mm. high, 
which increase in width from 4 lnm. at the top to 33 mm. at the hinge--thus 
showing a tendency to becolne wider basalward with age. Some differences mav 
be noted among the specimens whicla might indicate the presence of more than 
one species, such as the greater or less projection of the superradial, and varia- 
tion in surface from pustulose to smooth; but the latter is largely a marrer of 
erosion, and in default of more complete material I bave referred them all to 
the original species. 
Horio»t and locality..New Providence shale, Mississippian: P, ntton lXlould Knob, and 
other localities videly distributed in Kentucky and Tennessee, and Clark County, Indiana. 

Halysiocrinus dactylus (Hall) 
Plate 3o, figs. z, 2, 2a, b.. 3, 3a 
Chcirocrinus dactylus Hall, 13th Rep. New York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., 186o. p. 123. figs. , 2.--Halysiocrinus 
dactyh',s Ulrich, 14th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Minnesota, 1886, p. lo.--Cheirocrinus ventricosus Hall, 
I3th Rep., supra, p. 23.--Halys;ocrinus ventricostts Bather, Crin. Gotl., pp. 65, 66, pl. 4, figs. 141, 142. 
I ana illustrating this Lower Çarboniferous species because it bas been 
designaed as the type of the genus, and for the further reason that doubt has 
been expressed as to its standing, some authors thinking it may be a synonym 
of Hall's C. ventricosus from the saine formation--both having been described 
in the saine publication. I ara therefore figuring the type specimen in the 
Museum of Cmparative Zoology, together with some others from mv own 
collection showing further details. The type, also well figured by Hall, gives 
a complete picture of the generic characters, whereas C. ventricosus was de- 
 Knobstone of authors, and b'y some erroneouslv referred to the Keokuk. See Springer, The Crinoid 
Fauna of the Knobstone formation. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 41, 1911, p. 178. 



I2 4 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

scribed without figure from an isolated calyx only, without anv distinctive char- 
acters. As there is nothing- in the description to estallish priority, it is deemed 
proper to hold it for the species which is recognizable. 
This is the dominant species of the genus in the 13urlington limestone, where it is round 
in excellent preservation. Itis represented in the collection by upwards of zo specimens, which 
exhibit some of the variations tobe expected in a prolific species. Normally it has 4 axil-arms, 
but there may be 3 or 5 : the median arm branches on the 6th to the 8th or 9th brachial, usually 
with a single bifurcation, but sometimes with two; the ramules of the lateral arms usually 
occur at intervals of 4 brachials, llut occasionallv 3 or 5, mostlv in two series but mav l»e three, 
ahvavs exposed. The form of the cup changes with maturitv of the individual, that of the 
_vounger ones leing higher and narrower than in the older ; as a fuie the cup is more elongate 
than in other species, the average of four specimens 1,eing 9 nana. heig'ht bv 8.5 mm. width at 
the hinge. A striking example of the difference in this and other respects due to age is fur- 
nished bv an extremely young individual associated with this species and presumably be- 
longing toit, which I have illustrated on plate 3 o. The comi,lete crown is onlv _ mm. high, 
and the stem, also about complete, zz nain. long ; the CUl) is 4-5 nana. high, -%5 mm. wide across 
the 1. ant. side at the top, diminishing to 1.7 mm. at the hinge ; on the 1. post. side, as originally 
exposed, there is but one arm, unbranched, and on the anterior side, as seen by removing 
the crown from the matrix, there are two lranches, besides a curving anal tube, also -isible 
from the first position. Enlarged figures were ruade from both these views (pl. 3 o. figs. 3, 3a)- 
HoHoz azd localité,. Upper Burlington limestone, Mississippian: Burlington, Iowa. 

Halysiocrinus nodosus (Hall) 
Plate 3 o, figs. 
Clteirocrim«s todost¢s Hall, 3th Rep. New York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., 186o, p. 24; Phot. Plates of Cri- 
noids, 87_, pl. 6, fig. 15.Hal3,siocrints odosts UIrich, x4th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Minnesota, 
1886, p. xx2.--Deltctcrhuts odosts, Spr., Smitlasonian Misc. Col/., 76, 1923, pl. 5, fig. x. 
This species may be taken to represent the culninatiou of the family in 
the lower Carboniferous. At least one species from a later horizon is known, 
which is rare and shows a reversionarv tendency. The present form is selected 
for illustration to complete the picture of the type we have been discussing, 
because it is the most striking species of all the Carboniferous in its chartcters, 
is round in remarkablv fine preservation, and in such abuudance as to offer 
excellent facilities for the studv of variations within the limits of a well defined 
species. The large size, robust habitus, sharp nodosity, curvature and frequent 
branchin K of the median arm, and free expo.ure of main axil-arms, are COla- 
spicuous and decisive characters. 
I ana illustrating it on plate .3o rather fully, first, because the recumbent habitus, with 
the crown pressing closely down over the stem, is so admirablv shown, for example by figure 19 
in which the arms seem actually to evelope the stem 
figure 7, the suggestion that the crown might close dowll like a baruacle is brought forcibly 
to mind ; it is here strongly curved in the plane of its bilateral svmmetry,, with the large median 
arm at the perimeter ; it is a peculiar posture, which might be described bv. the word " humped," 
and the resulting general form, when seen froln the side, is semi-elliltical. This is the typical 
form for the species, and while there are some specinens hot otherwise distinguishable in 
which the " hump " is hot so pronounced, it is a fact that out of about fortv well preserved 



IIETER()CRI NIDAE I2 

crowns in the naaterial now in hand. considerably naore than hall of thena have the decided 
appearance of a tightlyr strung bow, and practically all of these bave tbe stem lying close under- 
neath on the side opposite the curve. No crinoid with such a curvature of the crown could 
conceivably occupy a habitual position either erect, or hanging down along an erect store; 
whereas the form here exhibited lends much plausibility to the idea of a recumbent habitus. 
A single specinaen, figure 5, alreadv alluded to in the discussion, shows the crown almost 
fully opened upon the hinged articulation :vith the base, but this is believed to be incidental, 
due to sonae spasnaodic naovenaent at death. 
It also illustrates the great and' final extension of tbe two large radials toward the tube, 
thev being now separated only bv the inferradials of the vanished arnas, which are here re- 
duced to a relativelv snaall size, and with wbich, indeed, they naay be occasionallv fused. 
Along witb this. the visible anal plates are nmch reduced, being but little exposed at the base 
of the tube, in strong contrast to their condition as usually seen in the Ordovician, Silurian 
and Devonian species ; nevertheless the tube extends to tbe fuil beigbt of the arlns (fig. 6a). 
Secondly, the species exemplifies in a striking manner the variations that nmst be ex- 
pected mad allowed for in a prolific forna, especially one that is marked bv such strong charac- 
ters that it is readily recognized, even in naanv cases from fragments. As above stated, there 
are about forty good specimeus iu the collection with the crown intact, ail from a single re- 
stricted colouv in the Keokuk group. They rauge in size frona îo nana. height of crown down 
to 2o mm., so that we bave the oppc, rtunity to conapare tbe condition of young and adult. Upon 
tabulating the characters as exhibited bv this series of specinaens, it is round that as to several 
of thena there is a definite progressive variation according to the maturitv of the individual: 
The proportions of the cup. Typically as seen frona the left anterior radius this be- 
conaes wider toward the hinge-line, where its width exceeds the height from there to the top 
of the superradial. A composite of rive naature specimens gives 5 mna. height by 6 nana. 
width, with a maxinmm of 17 mm. by 20; whereas in the young of about 2o nana. height of 
crown these proportions are reversed to 8 mna. height by 5 nain. width (pl. 3 o, fig. 2o). 
The bifurcation of the naedian afin. Here this reaches its culmination for the family to 
a naaxinauna of 8 and IO branches. It bifurcat, es throughout the species on "from the fifth to 
the tenth brachial--in 70 per cent ou the seventh or eighth, which is the nornaal--but the 
nurnber of branches differs with growth. Specinaens of frona 35 to îo nana. height of crown 
bave from 6 to 8 (rarely Io) finials, while those of 20 to 35 nana. bave frona 2 to 4; in the 
youngest individuals only about 20 nana. bigh, where the median arm narrows alnaost to a 
point, there is evidence of a single bifurcation upou the sixth or seventh brachial. 
Iu like nammer the number of axil-arnas increases with age, specimens above about 
40 nana. in height having 5 and 6 on a side. the fornaer nunaber predominating" those frona 
3 ° to 40 nana. bave usuallr 4, and below 3 ° nana. 3- The juvenile condition in this and the 
preceding species, with their snaall lmmber of lateral arna-branches, recalls the arna-structure 
of Euchcirocrinus, frona which the axil-arna systena naay bave been derived. In the present 
species the Alphabrachs and Betabrachs range in their series from 3 to 5, the prevailing hum- 
ber being 4. 
From this résunaé of tbe facts resulting frona a careful tabulation, it is evident that naost 
of these variations are progressive with individual growth, and that, in this form at least, 
such differences would not forna any sure basis for the separation of species. 
The progressive variations tlms exbibited dne to growth in the individual are analogous 
to those which occurred in the sanae characters during the lire of the family from the earlier 
to the later geological stages. 
Horizon ad localiy. Keokuk group, Mississippian; Indian Creek, Montgomery County, 
Indiana; and rare in the vicinity of Keokuk, Iowa. 

9 



126 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Family PETAI.OCRINIDAE \Veller arld Davidson 
Fistulata in which IBB are minute and probably fused, and in which the 
branches of each arm, from JAx to the finials inclusive, are fused into rigid 
arln-fans, articulating with the cup bv means of a free IBr. No anal. 

Petalocrinus \Veller and Davidson 
Platc 26 
Petalocrhus Weller and Davidson, Jour. Geol., 4, 1896, pp. 166-17o.--Bather, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 
54, I898, pp. 4oI-44I, pls. 25, 26; Treatise on Zool., pt. 3, I9 oo, P- 175, fig. xci.--Thomas, Proc. Iowa 
Acad. Sci., 22, 196, p. 289. 
A dicyclic Inadunate crinoid, with ravs multibrachiate, fused into rigid, 
fan-shaped appendages, smooth and amrphous at the dorsal side, and grooved 
for the ambulacra at the ventral, articulated to the radials through a single 
short primibrach : with pentamerous symlnetry: IBB lninute, hidden by colulnn ; 
5 BB similar in form; RR 5, equal, with no anals. Stem subcircular. 
Gcnotype. Petalocrinus nU'abilis Veller and Davidson. 
Distribution. Silurian; America and Gotland. 
In the fusion of its nanv-branched arms into solid appendages this genus differs from ail 
other crinoids. Described by the discoverers, \Veller and Davidson, in 896 from the Silurian 
of Iowa, it later formed the subject of an elaborate memoir by Bather in 898, based upon 
the type and other material from America loaned to him for study, together with specimens 
from the corresponding horizon in Gotland. From the latter he described three new species 
and from the former two, making a total, including the type, of six species. To his complete 
and exhaustive discussion of the morpholog-y and systematic relations of this unique form 
I would refer the student for all needful information. 
The genus is introduced here because my collections from St. Paul, Indiana, have yielded 
several excellent specimens confirmatory of one of Bather's species. For the better under- 
standing of this, I ara giving some instructive illustrations of the type species, t 9. mirabilis, 
especially one of an unusually fine specimen from the original locality in the rare condition 
of having the calyx and appendages, which are called afin-fans, in place. For the use of this 
I ana indebted to the tholghtfulness of Prof. A. O. Thomas, of the University of Iowa. 
Of the six described species, all but the type are represented only by the isolated arm- 
fans; and of the type, while these fragxnents are numerous, only three or four specimens 
have been round with the fans in position and the calyx preserved. From this lack of other 
elements for comparison, specific characters must be sought in the relative proportions of the 
arm-fans, their shape as determined by the angle forlned bv their sides with one another, and 
the number and distribution of the ventral grooves. The fans are somewhat paddle-shaped, 
and the lacet for articulation at the narrow proximal end is almost the width of the radial. 

Petalocrinus mirabilis \\relier and Davidson 
Plate e6, figs. ze-±4 
Petalocrinus mirabilis Weller and Davidson, Jour. Geol., 4, 1896, p. 66.--Bather, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 
London, 54, 898, p. -I-Z7, pl. 6, figs. 37-56. 
Dorsal cup bowl-shaped, flattened dorsally, height about hall its width 
hich varies froln 3._5 to 6 mm.; dialneter of crown with fans outstretched 



PETALOCRINIDAE 12 7 

about 20 111111. Arln-fans bilaterallv svnmetl-ical in nunlber and distribution of 
gl-ooves; average of 3 ° isolated fans gives length 2o.6, width 3 mm., with 
range of variation from 7.75 to 4-5 mm. length aud 7 to 6 mm. width. Ventral 
grooves, finial, Inostlv i6, rarelv 14. Angle of arm-fans 5 ° to 8.3 °, normal 
variation 7  ° to 78°; ridges usuallv narrower than the grooves. 
The above figures are taken from 13ather's tabulation of a large number of specimens. 
They are confirmed bv a series of about 8o fans in mv own hands which indicate a range of 
g to 3o mm. in diameter of crown, with slight difference of average in some other respects. 
Cmbining the data there is thus established a limit for the species not exceeding 4 mm. 
lenh and x6 mm. width of fan, and hot less than 5 °° nor more than 83 ° angle of the sides. 
A fair representation of its form and proportions is given by the figures on plate 26. Figure 3 
shows the smooth, anaorphous dorsal surface of a set of isolated fans. artificiallv arranged, 
and figure 2 the sharply grooved ventral furrows of another set. The ten pieces have a 
range of o-3 mm. length and o-4 mm. width. Itis there[ore a relativelv small species. 
In figure 4 we have a double size view of the complete calvx with all the arm-fans in posi- 
tion. but the dorsal side is stripped off, leaving onlv the inuer surface of the ventral grooves 
visible. 
There is a verv close resemblance between this species and the Gotland form, P. visby- 
ccnsis of 13ather, which is of similar small size and number of grooves, but has a greater range 
of variation. 
Horizon. and local#y. Hopkinton stage of Niagaran" n.ear Monticello, Jones County, 
Iowa. The original Of figure 4 was collected by the late Professor Sanmel Calvin. in 899- 

Petalocrinus inferior Bather 
Plate -6, figs. 5-±6 
Petalocrinus inferior Bather, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 54, I898, pl. _-',6, fig. 57, text-fig, io. 
From the American material loaned him Bather described two nev« species, 
P. inferior from the type localitv in Jones County, Iowa, aud P. lotçtts !from 
St. Paul, Indialm, each based upon a single arm-fan in the \Valkel- Museuln, 
Universitv of Chicago, from approximately equivalent INiagaran horizons, the 
former perhaps a little the higher. 
Among inv collections froln the Laurel fol-matiol1 at St. Paul are four 
specimens of afin-fans of dilnensions far exceeding those of the type species, 
but which at once invite COlnparison with the two al)ove mentioned. Three of 
them exhibit relnarkable uniformitv of characters, as shown by the following 
data" Length of arm-fan 23, 28, 28 ulnl. ; greatest width __.2, 2 5, 26 mln. ; nunl- 
; "- ° 65 ° , 68 ° . Thegrooves are 
ber of finial grooves 3 o, 3 o, _08 angle of fau /o , 
divided into two closely symlnetrical halves. 
Two of these specimens are figured; the first, plate 26, figures 5, 5a, enlarged, is a 
very well preserved fan with the grooved ventral and smooth dorsal surfaces exposed free 
of the matrix. The second, figure 6, natural size, shows onlv the ventral snrface; and in 
both the division of the ventral grooves into two svmmetrical halves, and the paddle-shaped 
handle of the fan at the proximal end, are well marked, as they are also in the third specimen 
of about the saine size and form, not figured. 



I28 SMITHSONIAN ]NSTITUTION 

Of ]3ather's two American soecies we wotlld naturally expect to find the prototype of our 
specimens in the one from St. Paul, P. lon.qus; but the disparity lu dimensions, and its extreme 
atte,mation of form as indicated by its angle of only 3,q °, must clearly differentiate it; while 
his Iowa species, closely approxinmte iu size, with :,8 grooves in symmetrical halves, and angle 
of 7o °, seems to fit the case exactlv. Therefore I ana referring the three specimens confi- 
dently to P. infcrior. 
The fourth specimeu, hot figured as it onlv sl-lows the amorphous dorsal side, is much 
larger and more elongate than the others, being 45 mm.. in lenh, with angle of 55 °, prob- 
ably belongs to P. longus, but the absence of other characters makes comparison unsatisfactory. 
Horizon and local#v. Hopkinton and Laurel formations; Monticello, lowa, and St. Paul, 
Indiana; Dr. Foerste has also obtained a well marked speçimen in the equivalent dolomite at 
Cedarville, Ohio. 

Family CR()TAI.OCRINIDAE Angelin 
Ge,ms CROTALOCRINUS Austin 

Plale e6 

Crotalocrinus Austin, AIII1. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. o, 842, p. o9.--\\rachsmuth and Springer, Rev. 
Pal., 3, 886, p. 45; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 888, pp. 364-39o, pis. 9, o.--Bather, Treatise on 
Zool., pt. 3, 9oo, p. 76.Weller, Jour. Geol., o. 9o, p. 532.Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., d ed., 
93, P. 6.P, assler, Bihliogr. Index, vol. , 95, P. -92. 
While there is a certain analogy between this and the preceding genus 
owing to the fact that in both the afin-branches do hot more independently as 
usual in crincids, but are more or less conuected laterallv within the rays, upon 
which ground the two were thought lv \\reller when describing Petalocrinus 
to be closely related, there are also broad differences between them. Here the 
rive rays, instead of being rigidly fused, have their manv branches connected 
at short intervals so as to form a flexible network, in which the outlines of the 
brachials are plainly delineated on both dorsal and ventral surfaces; these are 
connected laterallv by points of attachment from near the middle of each ossicle, 
with open spaces between them, forming iunumerable elongate meshes; owing 
to these lateral projections the brachials have the form of a cross with short 
arms: they are long and fiat on the dorsal surface, and deeply grooved for the 
ambulacra on the ventral. This pliant network is capable of considerable motion 
by wav of foldin, and stretching, and in one species, C. pulcher, forms rive 
broad, reticulate leaves which when closed over the calyx overlap one another; 
and in auother, C. rugosus, it is continuous for some distance around the calyx, 
and wheu spread out may be inrolled from the distal margin. 
In the formation of the calyx the two are also strongly different. Instead of having pen- 
ta,nerous symmetry as in Pctalocrinus, the dorsal cup of Crolalocrimts is divided bv an anal 
plate in line with the radials, after the manner of the Cyathocrinidae, and the infral;asals are 
large and prominent. In Pctalocrimts the rav is articuIated to the calyx by means of a single 
primibrach filling the entire radial lacet, whereas in Crotalocrimts the lower brachials as far 
as the third or fourth order test within the radial lacet, and are more or less rigidlv incor- 
porated into the dorsal cup by sutural connection among themselves, with the radials and 
with tegmen plates. It is onlv higher up in the rays, where the plates are no longer in contact 



CROTA LOCR I NI DAE 

t2 9 

with the radials, that the Inuscular articulation admitting motion begins. The systematic posi- 
tion of the genus has been differentlv interpreted bv authors, and fs evidently intermediate, 
pointing on the one hand to a connection with the Camerata, and on the other with the Inadu- 
nata, with the preponderance in fayot of the latter. 
A more comprehensive discussion of this remarkable genus, with ample illustrations, 
mav be round in Wachsnmth and Springer's paper of 1888. entitled " Crotalocrinus, its Struc- 
ture and Zoological Position. ''1 It contains an especially fine picture of the form having 
the reticulate rays continuous part wav and inrolled fr-m the ends, for which I have hot room 
enough on my plate. The genus, although rare, fs one of the most characteristic of the 
specialized forms in the Silurian of England and Gotland. 
Crotalocrinus has not been round thus far xvithin the area embraced in this work, but 
it fs liable to appear at any time, as it has been recognized in the Racine dolomite of the 
Chicago area by \Veller, and recentlv in the Silurian of Gaspe by Schuchert, thus adding 
another significant link to the chain of connection of the hmerican Silurian with that of 
northern Europe. For this reason, as well as for comparison with the other highly specialized 
Petalocrinus. I bave thought it would be of service to give some figures showing the charac- 
teristics of the type. 
Crotalocrinus cora (}[all) 
Platc _6, fig. 7 
Cyathocrims cora Hall, "2_oth Rep. New York St. Mus., x868, p. 34, 131. 
p. 366.Crotalocrim«s amcricc,»ms Veller, Bull. 4, Chicago Acad. Sci. Nat. Hist. Surv., 19oo, p. 143, 
pl. x4, fig.- i; Crotalocrim«s cora. Jour. Geol., xo, p. 53-', pl. 3, figs. I-5.--Slocom, Field Columb. 
Mus., z, Geol. Ser., IO, I9O8, p. 292, pl. 86. figs. 3, 4.Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, vol. I, I915, p. 29 -. 
This species occurs in the Racine dolomite at Racine, \Visconsin, and at 
Chicago, described at an earlv day but its generic affinities hot recognized until 
long after, lts history and characters are fully set forth in I)r. \\ eller's paper 
above cited, reinforced by further illustrations by Slocom, leaving no doubt of 
the correctness of his reference to the genus. ]?,v wav of confirmatorv evidence 
I give a figure of another specimen from Chicago shmving an intensity of sur- 
face sculpture similar to that of the English species following. 

Crotalocrinus rugosus (J. s. Miller) 
Plate _6, figs. zS-_o 
Cyathocrt»n«s rugosus Miller, _Nat. Hist. Crin., x82x, p. 89, xvith plate.--Crotalocrinus rugosus Austin, 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xI, I843, p. x98.--Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec., 1878, p. 26, pis. 7, fig. 4; 
xT, figs. 8, 8a (not figs. 3, 3a, b).--Wachsmuth and S13ringer, Proc. Acad. Sci. Phil., x888, pp. 364, 
386, pl. 19, figs. 1-5. 
I ara figuring a calvx of this species from the type lcality at Dudley, 
England, for comparison with out Chicago sl»ecimens in the matter of surface 
markings and arrangement of plates, plate _26, figure 18. There are also two 
instructive structural figures, 19 and _2o, from a Gctland specimen, the first 
showing the arrangement of the lower brachials in contact with the radial, and 
the second the lnode of connection between the brachials of abutting arln- 
branches with the projecting processes lnidway and the open spaces between 
them forming the flexible net work; and also the covering plates of the ambulacra. 

1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., Nov., I888, pp. 364-390; pls. I9, 20. 



I30 SMITHSONI N INSTITUTION 

Crotalocrinus pulcher (Hisinger) 
Plate 26, fie.q. 2_r 
Cyathocrilus pulcher Hisinger, Leth. Suecc., Supp. 2, 184o, p. 6, pl. 29, figs. Sa, b.--Çrotalocrim«s pulcher 
Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 1878, p. 26, pls. 7, figs. 5-7; 8, figs. 1-9; I7, figs. Ia-d; 25, figs. 8-20.-- 
Wachsmuth and Springer, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sel. Phil., 1888, p. 386, pl. 20, figs. la, b. 
The figure of a very complete specimen of this species is given to afford 
a general idea of the formation aud arraugement of the reticulate flexibIe ap- 
pendages into which the ravs are formed bv the lateral connection of the afin- 
branches as illustrated in figure 2I. In this form the network is divided iuto 
rive leaf-Iike fronds which when folded overlap one auother. The oue in which 
the reticulation is continuous around the calvx and inrolled from the distal 
margin is shown in the Wachsmuth and Springer paper, plate 9, figure Ia, 
which should be consulted for comparisou. The species occurs both in Gotland 
and England. 



CYATHOCRINIDAE 

Falnily CYATHOCRINIDAE Rcenier 
Dicyclic: I BB usually 5- Radial facets usually selnicircular, less than 
"« idth of radial; unioll with brachials bv inconIplete articulation, without trans- 
verse ridge. Arms uniserial, non-pilmulate, mostly dichotomous. Tegmen com- 
posed of rather large orals, rigid alnbulacral.% which often encroach upon and 
obscure the other plates. 

Thalamocrinus liller and Gurley 
Plaie 26 
Millet and Gurley, Bull. 7, Illinois St. Mus., 189.5, p. 82.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, I9oo, p. -'o4. 
Dicyclic. [IBB 5, large, about one third the height of cup; BB still larger, 
nearlv hall the height of cup: RR much shorter, llOt over one sixth the height 
of cup: radial facets curved, shallow, narrower than RR, directed upward. 
RA small, rhombic, abutting on .r, supported bv post. and r. post. BB. Anal .- 
small, in line with RR. Arms slender, with elongate brachials, uniserial, hum- 
ber unknoxvn. 
Genolypc. Thalamocrim«s oz,al«s Miller and Gurley. 
Dislrib,tion.. Silurian to Devonian- America. 
This genus falls under the Carabocriuinae sul.,division of the Cyathocrinidae, vitl-t RA 
similar to that of Palcaeocrin,.v. It is rather near to Homocrin,«s, as interpreted by Bather in 
connection with his Gotland species. Crin. Gotl., p. o, pl. 4. figs. 43-47, bu has narrower 
facets and more silnple arms. Miller and Gurley mention the " radials or third series of 
plates " as six, thus iicluding what we know as the anal .'. They missed the important ele- 
ment. the radianal, both in their descriptions and figures; but it appears plainly in ail four of 
the species, including some of the specimens examined by the authors from the collection of 
Mrs. Milligan. It is a rare form, and most of the principal specimens are figured here. 

Thalamocrinus ovatus Miller and Gul-ley 
Plate 26. ficds. 2- 5 
Miller and Gurley, Bull 7, IIIinois St. Mus., I895, p. 82, pl. 5, figs. z9-3I.--MiIIer, N. A. Geol. Pal., zd App., 
I897, p. 754, fig. x4o2. 
Characterized by its elongate ovoid forln, which is well lnaintained among 
several specimens, the great height of BB, and constriction at the distal mat- 
gin, whereby the space is reduced to verv narrow facets for slender arms. In 
the only specimen with anv part of the arIns preserved thev are shattered so that 
little can be seen except the displaced brachials, which are long, narroxv and 
rounded; it is evident that the arms were long and slender, probably simple or 
only branching once. 
Hori.:on and localily. Beech River formation, Niagaran ; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



SMITHSONIAN I NSTITUTION 

Thalamocrinus cylindricus l[iller and Gurley 
Platc 26, figs. 6-9 
Millet and Gurley, Bull. 7, Illinois St. Mus., 895, P. 8-', pl. 5, figs. 32, 33.--Miller, N. A. Geol. Pal., 2d App., 
897, P. 754, fig- 4oI. 
Differs from the type species in its narrow, cylindrical forln, greater rela- 
tive height of IBB, and less constriction at the distal margin. 
Hori:on a.»td locality, saine as last. 

Thalamocrinus globosus new species 
Plate 26, figs. Io-xob 
Calvx short and ahnost perfectly spherical, but otherwise similar to T. o'a- 
tus, of which it may be only a variety. This and the two preceding species have 
a narrow colunm-facet, followed by an expanding base. 

Horicm a.td local#y, saine as last. 

Thalamocrinus elongatus llew species 
Plate 26, tic d. II 
In the unique specimen of this Devonian form of the geuus the RR are 
missing, but otherwise the CUl» above the column shows tbe essential elements. 
including the RA, similar to the foregoing species. ]3ut the basal parts are 
widely different ; instead of the BB curving inward to a narrow lacet, thev are 
enveloped to about their full width by the proximal ossicle of a large cohmm 
which expands broadly towards the calvx. In general contour it resembles 
T. cylidricus, but is considerably larger than any of the other species. 
Horir, on and locality. Linden formation, Helderbergian, Lower Devonian" Bentn 
County, Tennessee. 

(?) Ampheristocrinus typus -Iall 
Plate 3_r, fig. _r 
Hall, tth Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 882, p. 278, pl. I5, figs. I7, 8.--Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. 
Pal., 3, 886, p. 29.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 1915, p. 32. 
A complete crov,n with elongate, slender and sharply angular cup: long, 
delicate arlns bifurcating at a rather wide augle three or four rimes; radial 
facets curved and very narrow; arms uniserial with rather long, rounded bra- 
chials. IBB elongate, their number uncertain. Aual tt,.be long, projecting be- 
yond the arms. Stem stout and long, composed of short, alternating cohmmals. 
This genus and species were founded upon a dorsal cup only, without either arms or 
stem. It is characterized bv 3 IBB and a prolninent anal area with an oblique RA. and large 
anal x. Neither of these is shown bv the unique specimen figured, which is imbedded upon the 
posterior side, tbus leaving the generic characters in doubt. But the calvx v«ith its sharp 



CYATHOCRINIDAE 

33 

longitudinal angularity and its extremelv narrow radial facets is so remarkably like the type, 
that we cma readily conceive that the delicate arms would go with it, and that the other charac- 
ters probably are present. The genus has been but !ittle known, and this specimen certainly 
shows how it ought to look, so I ara venturing to place it accordingly, despite the difference 
in horizon. 
Horir, on and locality. Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee; type is from 
Waldron shale, Waldron. Indiana. 

(?) Lecythiocrinus problematicus nexv species 
Plate 3z, fiçs. zz. .rza, b 
Lecythiocrinus White, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 2, 88o, p. 256, pl. I, figs. 4, 5.--Worthen, Geol. Surv. Illinois, 
7, P- 37, pl. 3, fig- 8.--Wachsmuth and .Springer, Rev. Pal., 3, 886, p. 228. 
Calyx small, low and broad. IBB 3. the small plate in r. post. position. 
BB unequal, all rather small except poqt. B, which is much the largest, rising 
high up between RR. RR large and ,nassive, with facets deeply horse-shoe- 
shaped" dorsal canal about the middle, and food groove at upper margin. Anal. 
opening directlv through the calvx wall at the junction of post. B and the two 
post. RR, carved about equally out of each of tlaem. There is no plate above it 
analogous to an anal .r, the two RR abutting directly. Te.,mnen apparently com- 
posed of interlocking orals, the sutures of which cannot be ruade out ; ambulacra 
with alternating covering pieces pass from the radials under the orals. 
While this species bas a strong snperficial resemblance to some of the Devonian forms 
embraced in the subfamily Gasterocominae, it is definitelv excluded from them by its lack 
of nndivided infrabasal disk and peripheral axial canais, which are so characteristic of them. 
A later genus with which it would seem to agree in part is the !ittle knovn Lecythiocrimts 
from the American Upper Carboniferous, having 3 IBB and a simple axial canal, but the 
radial facets are directed differently. Although hot stated in the diagnosis, this genns is now 
known to have the anal opening through the dorsal cup as in the Gasterocominae, as was indi- 
cated by \Vorthen when describing L. ad«msi, and confirmed by specimens in my possession 
since discovered. Comparison should also be ruade with Hypocrimts of Bevrich from the 
Permian of Timor, fully described bv \Vanner in his treatise on the Timor crinoids. The 
reference here ruade is admittedly doubtful. 
Horicon and locality. I_aurel limestone, Niagaran; St. Paul, Indiana. 

CYATHOCRINUS Miller 
Plate 3 1 
Cyathocrinus J. S. MiIler, Nat. Hist. Cin., 1821, p. 85.--Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., I, 1879, 
P- 79; 3, 1886, p. 2I.--]3ather, Crin. Gotl., 893, P. x26; Treatise on Zool., 3, ooo, p. I73.--Zittel- 
Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., 1913, p. 22o.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 915, p. 316 (complete synona-ny). 
IBB 5- No RA. Anal .r in line with RR; anus at end Of a tube short and 
rounded, or long v«ith valvular pyramid at distal end. Radial facets horse-shoe- 
shaped, directed outward. Arms dichotomous, brancldng" numerouslv at rather 
wide ang"les. 
Genotype. Cyathocrin-us plamts Miller. 
Distribution. Silurian to Lower Carboniferous: Europe and America. 



I34 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Cyathocrinus decatur new species 
Plate  _r ri.cl.  
A complete crown, with elongate cup l»erfectly smooth and rounded. IBB 
elongate, probably 5, anal side not exposed. BB large; RR small, facets dis- 
tinctlv facing outward, making afin-bases horizontal. Arms stout, with three 
or four wide-angled bifurcations; brachials longer than wide. Stem wide, the 
full width of base, with columnals lenhening distally nntil as long as wide. 
Horison and localitv. Beech River formation, Niagaran; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Cyathocrinus cf. striolatus Angelin 
Plate 3z, figs. 4-7 
Cyathocrlmts striolatus Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 878, p. 23.--Bather, Crin. Gotl., 893, P. 36, pl. 7, 
figs. 28-2I. 
Dorsal cup forming a truncate cone with nearlv straight sides : plates folded 
into sharp ridges radiating from plate to plate, leaving distinct pits at the cor- 
nets ; surface smooth to tubercular. [',B fairly high, with lower margin slightly 
raised into a rira, forming a broad, truncate base. Bt', large. RR large with 
fairlv wide, curved facets. Anal .v small, scarcelv hall the size of RR. Axial 
canal large. 
I have referred the four specimens here figured to the Gctland species with considerable 
confidence, but the arms if known might disclose a specific difference. In three of them the 
surface markings are sharp, but in the fourth they are smoothed bv erosion. The It3B are not 
uniform in size, one being usually smaller than the others, and in the specimen of figure 6 
there are six I]313, thus indicating a tendency to instability in this element. 
Horizon and locality. Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Cyathocrinus wilsoni new species 
Pla te 3 r, figs. 3, 3a 
Distinguished by its conical calyx, expanding froni a very small column- 
lacet, and the great length of its deeply rounded brachials; these are hot en- 
tirely uniforln, and some are more than twice as long as others. RR facets 
deeply excavate; arms bifurcating widely at verv short intervals in lower part, 
some with only one brachial. IBB 5, smal], and RR much ]arger than ]3B. 
Anal .- of true Cvathocrinid type, but smaller than usual. 
Hori,on and locality. Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. Named for the late Dr. 
Herrick E. \Vilson, who collected the type. 



CYATHOCRIN1DAE 

I35 

Parisocrinus siluricus new species 
Plate "z 
» ,figs. g, ga 
Parisocrinus Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., 1, 1879, p. 115; ibid., 3, 1886, p. 2el.--Springer, New 
Amer. Foss. Crin., Mem. M. C. Z. Harvard, 1911, p. I57.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 2d ed., 1913, 
p. 218. 
This primarily Lower Carboniferous type, occurring sparsely in the De- 
vonian, nmst now be moved a step further back in the geological scale as the 
result of the discovery of the fine species here iIlustrated. The genus bas been 
described as a Çvathocriuid with Poteriocrinid anal side--that is, it bas curved 
radial facets onlv part the width of the radials, and non-pinnulate arms, com- 
bined with a large radianal; as a further Çyathocrinid character it bas the anal 
opening at the distal end of a large tube. These characters are strongly empha- 
sized in the present species. It bas a smooth, expanding turbinate calyx with 
5 large IEB, large RR with facets directed upward; rather stout arms bifur- 
cating twice or oftener, with fairlv long brachials. The tube is large in propor- 
tion to the calyx, as usual in the genus, and is heavilv plated to the end. RA is 
only partly shown in figure Sa. but it is nearlv as large as x. Column large, 
composed of alternating colunmals. 
Horizon and locality. Laurel limestone; St. Paui, Indiana. 

Gissocrinus Angelin 
Plate 3 2 
Gissocrinus Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 8î8, p. lO.,Vachsmuth and Sprlnger, Rev. Pal., I, p. 89. 
Bather, Crin. Gotl., 1893, P. 152; Treatise on Zool., 3, 19oo, p. I75.--Zittel-Eastman, Textb. Pal., 
ed., 1913, p. 22o. 
Similar to CvathocrMus, but with less than 5 IBB, and a tendency to greater 
surface sculpture and variation in arms. 
Genotype. Gissocrimts typtts Bather. 
Distribution. Silurian; Gotland, England, America. 
This genus, one of the most prominent Inadulmte crinoids of Gotland and England, has 
hOt hitherto been known in America. It is now represented in out Silurian fauna bv several 
species, one of which presents characters whollv novel. Nine species are recog'nized from 
Gotland, two of which are also well known in England, and one is common at Dudley only. 
The Gotland species are all fully described in Bather's work of 1893, above cited. 

Gissocrinus lyoni new species 
Plate 3 2. figs. I, Ia 
A rather massive species, of the type of the English species G. 9on[adactylus 
Phillips (Cyathocrinitcs 9oniadactylus. in Murchison's Silurian System, 1839 , 
p. 6îI, pl. Iî, fig. I). IBB 3- Cp rather low, broadly spreading. Arms stout, 



i3 6 SMITtISONIAN INSTITUTION 
angular at the back, branching but few times. It is based o11 a single specimen 
from a higher horizon than those following, and I bave been able to expose the 
crown fullv for both lateral and dorsal views. 
Horicon and locality. Louisville limestone; Jefferson County, Kentucky. 

Gissocrinus delicatus new species 
Plate   
A small species, of the type of G. typus Bather, Crin. Gotl., p. 155, but 
xvith cup more slender and turbinate, and arms more delicate with numerous 
bifurcations. IBB apparently 3, followed by very elongate BB. Anal tube ex- 
tremely long, projecting levond the tips of the arms. There is onlv the one 
specimen, verv well preserved. 
Horizon and locality. Beech River formation" Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Gissocrinus magnibrachiatus new species 
Platc »  
.,-, figs. 3-6 
Of very large size, far larger than anv olher l«own species; crown so far 
as preserved about 75 mm. high. Calyx small, crushed in the onlv specimen 
preserving it and its composition unknown. Arms of relativelv enormous size 
compared with the calyx, composed of long-, broad, low convex and very thin 
brachials with slnooth surface, ranging from to to 14 mm. high to 7 to IO mm. 
wide, with frequent bifurcations in the lower part, even from successive bra- 
chials; articulating faces of brachials connected l)v I, 2, or occasionally 3 small 
patelloid plates, most frequently 2 in succession, arising from deeply curved 
facets occupying less than half the width of the brachial; the distal faces of the 
axillaries have 2 pairs of patelloid plates abreast and near the lateral margins, 
while on the other faces the patelloid is in the middle; they are as thick as the 
brachials, and pass through to the inside. The positions of these comecting 
plates coincide exactly vith the course of the ventral furrows or food grooves 
on the inner side of the brachials, which 1)ranch upon the axillaries and are 
doubled at the distal end; the grooves are extremelv narrow, not over one fifth 
the total width of the brachial, and are closed by a double row of small, alter- 
nating covering plates not over half a millemeter long and wide. 
Having assembled an excellent series of specimens of the principal English species, the 
study of these in connection with Bather's exhaustive illustrations of the Swedish forms gave 
me a mental picture of this as a genus of wide variations, especially in the arms, under which 
the unexpected was alwavs liable to occur. \Vith this in mind, when the first specimens of 
this extraordinary form were disclosed among the Temessee collections, I labeled them 
Gissocriuus without any very definite reason for it. As other specimens appeared showing 
complete constancy of characters hitherto without precedent, I began to wish for assistance 
toward the understanding of it, and accordingly sent a photogral,b of one of the most instruc- 



CYATHOCRI NI DAE 137 

tive specimens to Dr. P, ather at the British iXluseum, requesting lais opiniou on the tentative 
identification I had ruade. His answer was that upon first lookiug at the picture, before 
reading anything 1 had written about it, he had said '" Gissocrbms," but without knowing why. 
So in view of out scant knowledge concerning the structure of the calyx, these two concur- 
rent guesses will bave to be taken as the chier authoritv for the generic reference. 
The most remarkable feature of the species is the small oral connecting plates at the 
brachial articulations, sometimes two, or even three, in succession, and located precisely where 
the food grooves, whether one or two, cross the faces of the brachials : thev are hot confined 
to the dorsal side, but extend entirelv through to the interior, where they are equally promi- 
rient, as is leautifnlly shown bv figure 6. I know of nothing else like them in crinoid mor- 
phology. The terln " patelloid plates " which I have applied to them will doubtless recall the 
terre as used bv Hall for some supposed intervening plates connecting successive brachials in 
Forbesiocrimts and other genera ; but those, as I have shown at length in the Flexibilia mono- 
graph of 92o, pages 44, 2, 239, etc., are hot plates, but onlv superficial processes from 
the proximal face of brachials at the dorsal side, which sometimes get broken off and thus 
may resemble plates. This crinoid must bave been of fragile construction, as indicated by 
the extreme thinuess of the wide-spreading brachials ; this is well shown by figures 3 and 6, 
where several of them are seen superimposed in two or more layers. They recall the paper- 
like calvx plates of Uinta«rinus. 
Horizon and locality. Beech River formation: Ttlck's Mill, Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Gissocrinus approximatus new species 
Plate »_,"  fic3s. 7-9 
Fraaentary brachials found at St. Paul indicate that forms similar to 
the last exist in the Laurel limestone, with an important difference in the ap- 
parent absence of the patelloid plates. We bave isolated axillary brachials with 
food-grooves both open and covered, as figured, one of them of even greater 
length than in the Tennessee specimens. 
Horizon and locality. Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Gissocrinus quadratus nexv species 
Plate 3 2, fis. zo. z r 
I figure under this naine an axillarv plate and the two following it which 
are nearly rectang-ular, and clearly devoid of any patelloid plates, and also a series 
of nearly square plates with the food-grooves covered. 1X'o other parts of this 
or the precediug species were found, but their occurrence is important as evi- 
dence of the wide distribution and varial)le nature (,f this peculiar type. 

Horizon a,nd local#y, saine as last. 

Botryocrinus tenuidactylus uew species 
Plate 3 z, fic 3. 9 
Botrs, ocrimgs Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suecc., 878, p. 24.--VCachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Pal., L I879. p. 97; 
3, 886, p. 9L]3ather, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7, I89L p. 392; ibid., 9, 892, p. 89; Treatise on 
Zoo[, 3, 9oo, p. 3, figs. 2L 79.-Zittel-lïastman, Textb. Pal., d ed., 913, p. 22I.Bassler, 
Bibliogr. Index, 915, p. x3o. 
This genus is chiefly distinguished from the Çyathocrinidae by its mode 
of arm-branching, which is mostly of the heterotomous type, the ravs dividing 



138 SMITItSONIAN INSTITUTION 

into tv,'o main ralni which give off ramules, sometimes approaching pinnulation. 
It also has the RA small, rhomboidal, in the oblique position. RR facets curved, 
less than width of plate. Out sl»ecimen unfortunately lacks the calyx, but the 
set of arlns figured bas a racles hot dissilnilar to that of the English species 
13. ramosus, but the arms are more slender and brachials longer. The ramules 
are long, and in turn bear pilmules which are apparently confined to the side 
next to the main arm. No other specimen was round. 
Two species from the \Valdron shale described by Hall from the calvx only as Dendro- 
crimts nuclcus and C'va, thocrinus polyxo, have been referred to Botryocrfnus, and I mn 
figuring a calyx perhaps of the latter, from Hartsville, Indiana, seeu from the anal side, to 
show the type which might be expected to go with these arms, plate 3 , figure IO. 
Hori:on and locality. Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



I NSERTAE SEDIS 39 

INSERTAE SEDIS 
Parastephanocrinus typus new genus and species 
Plate 3r, figs. I2-I2C 
Dicvclic. Clvx slna11, low and broad, height to width 5 to 7 mm., xxith a 
concave base. ]P,B 5, at the bottom of the cavity. P,P, large, elongate, forming 
more than hall the Imlk of the calyx, curving upwards, and elevated into high 
median ridges which lranch to the next plates; post. B rises above the others 
to about half the hei,<ht of RR, curving- inward to the anal opening. RR nmch 
smaller exteriorly, but massive, extending deeply in toward the oral center, and 
forking into strong projecting processes at either side which lneet and abut in 
pairs, except at the posterior interradius where they are separated bv the anus; 
thev are deeply indented mediallv bv grooves for amlmlacra toward the central 
cavity, with narrow, lound facets facing outward, and occupying al)out one 
third the width of the plate. Anal opening at the margin between RR and post. 17,. 
Plates of teglnen unknown, lmt the central space was probably filled bv solid orals. 
The first thought on looking at the ventral side of this crinoid is of the ever-puzzling 
Stephaocrim«.r. The deep ambulacral grooves, and the paired processes of the forked radials, 
are substantially on the saine plan: the open space at the center is just right to accommodate 
a set of interlocking orals, witb_ covered ambulacra passing under them. But tbe dicyclic base 
and concave cup must exclude it from that genus, and the onlv recourse is to propose a nexv 
genus for its reception ; in doing so, I recognize how limited our understanding of it is. From 
the form and position of the facets it is improbable that the arms could have been like those 
of Stepha.ocrim«s; but at ail events they vere sma!l. As an aid to the discussion, I give some 
figures showing the leading characters of Stcphaocrim«s. 
Horiaou atd localitv. Louisville limestone, lx,*iagaran; I3 toiles east of Bob, Decatur 
Çounty, Tennessee. 

Stephanocrinus angulatus Conrad 
Plate 3 , figs. I3-6 
çtcphanocrim«s Conrad, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., :Phil., 8, I42, p. 278; p. 279, pl. 15, fig. I8.--Wachsmuth 
and Springer, Rev. Pal., 3, 1886, p. 29I.--Bather, Treatise on Zool, 3, 19 oo, P- 97, fig. _'2, p. 145.-- 
Zittel-Eastman, Textb. :Pal., 2d ed., 1913, p. oT.Jaekel, :Ph.vlogenie und System, I918, p. 109.-- 
Wanner, Permischen ]31astoiden von Timor, 1924, p. I86.Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 1915, p. I187 (com- 
plete synonymy and list of species). 
This genus is of debatable systematic position, and has been variously con- 
sidered by different authors as a crinoid, a cystid or a blastoid. In favor of the 
first viexv are the branching, biserial arms ; while the forked radials, resemblance 
of the orals to the deltoids, and the orientation of the small basal in the r. ant. 
interradial position instead o the 1. ant., as in crinoids with 3 basals, are ail 
characters which tend toward the blastoids. I ara figuring some specimens of 
the type species from Lockport, New York, and alother from Tennessee, for 



I40 SM ITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

comparison v,'ith the preceding species, to show the extremes in general form 
of calyx, variation in the forked radials, the ovals covering the central space 
of the tegmen, and a detail of the avm clusters. 
S. angdatus Conrad, the type, is front the Rochester shale, and .ç. 9emmiformis Hall, 
plate 3 , figures 7-9, a species of wide distribution and in many ways the opposite of the 
former, was described from the saine horizon and locality, as well as from the Waldron for- 
mation of Indiana, and is also round at Newsom, and other localities in Tennessee. 



P, LASTOIDEA AND C'STIDEA i41 

The BLASTOIDEA and CYSTIDEA 
It has hot been mv intention to lnake a critical study of these two classes; 
vet in view of their intimate association with the crinoids in the formations here 
discussed, it seems advisable fo illus/rate the more prolninent forms which have 
appeared in the collections. These include two species of blastoids and seven of 
cvstids. 
Trootocrinu reinwardti (Troost) 
Pla*c 33, ficjs, r-8 
Pen.trcmitcs reinzva»'dti Troost, Trans. Geol. Soc. Penns'ylvanla, 835, p. -'4, pl. m, figs. 9-; 5th Geol. 
Rep. Tennessee, 84o, p. 55.--Pcmat»'cmitcs rcinrz'ardti Roemer, Sil. Fauna 1,Vestl. Tennessee, 86o, 
p. 60, pl. 3, figs. -a-c.PeȢremites (Troos*ocrims) rcb.'wardti Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci. 
St. Louis, , 866, pp. 384, 385.--Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 95, P. 3o5; complete synonymy of 
genus and species. 
This species has been well knmw] by weathered specimens in the Tennessee glades from 
the earliest rimes, but it is onlv with the present collections that its proliric occurrence in a 
definite horizon became manifest. Here in the middle zone of the Beech River shales it was 
obtained in place in large nmlbers, being so characteristic that the generic naine was attached 
to that subdivision. It is probable that most of those from the glades were derived from 
erosion of the saine bed. The species has a wide distribution throughout the Tennessee area, 
and has also been reported from the Louisville limestone of Kentuckv. 
\Vhile specimens from the glades nsually have the extremelv narrmv base broken off, 
the preservation of those round in the shales is excellent, presenting in a well defined type a 
cousiderable variation in size and proportions. I ara figuring a representative selection rang- 
ing from o to 45 mm. in height : and along with these a unique specimen with the bracllioles 
intact--a condition hot belote seen. 
Horizo ad localiy." T'oostocrim«s zone of the Beech River formation, Xiagaran; 
Tuck's Mill and on glades in Decatur, \Vayne and Perry counties, Tennessee. 

Troostocrinus sanctipaulensis Foerste 
Plate 33, fig. 9 
Ohio Jour. Sci., , 92o, p. 64, pl. , fig. 6. 
An imperfect specimen from the Lanrel limestone at St. Paul" differing but little from the 
preceding. 

Tetracystis fenestratus Schuchert 
Platc » »'., figs. zo-z 4 
.chi»oe»crinitcs fenestratus Troost, Ara. Jour. Sci., (z) 8, 849, p. 49 (hOt detined) ; Bull. 64, U. S. Nat. 
3Ius., 9o9, p. 8.--Tctracystis fencstratus Schuchert, Smithsolian Misc. Coll., 47, 9o4, p. -'9, pl. 34, 
iïgs. 6-8.Wood, Bull. 64, U. S. Nat. IV[us., I9O9, p. 8.Bassler, Bibliogr. Index, 95, p. -'63. 
This form was recognized by Troost in 849, aml formed the subject of an elaborate 
description in his then unpublished monograph, as now appears in the U. S. National Museurn 
Bulletin 64. In the meantime Schuchert's description was published, based upon Troost's 
solitarv specimen, with proper credit to him. The species is quite rare, hot having been round 
bv anv of the collectors since Troost and Roemer until the material now in hand was obtained 
in the E«ca,ptocrin.u« zone at the Tuck's Mill excavations. This consists of eight specimens, 
of which I ara figuring rive, giving lateral views from four positions and one ventral. The 
circular cross-section of the calyx, the three abutting pairs of pectinirhombs, the four open 
ambulacral grooves traversing the surface longitudinally, are all thoroughly shown. The 
grooves were bordered bv about   pairs of brachioles marked by their slightly raised bases, 

10 



14 2 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 
and in one instauce traces of the brachioles themselves are seen in place. The hydropore 
exhibits a tendency to doubling, saine specimens having two pores. The surface of the plates 
fs deeply sculptured into rugose ridges or folds, mostly vertical to the sutures; the preserva- 
tion of this ornament fs variable, but in several specimens it is verv sharp and distinct. In the 
last three characters there are saine differences from the type as described, which may be 
due to individual variation, or upon closer study may warrant the proposal of a new species. 
It fs interesting to note, as bearing upon the relation of the American and European 
Silurian, that Angelin described and figured a remarkablv similar form from the \Venlockian 
of Gotland, 1 and referred it to the American species Lcpadocrinus gcbhardi Cnrad. Another 
of similar type bas been described from the English Silurian under the naine P«eudocrim«s 
qfadrifasciat,s, illustrated by ]3ather in Lankester Z0ology, page 62. On the other hand 
Car3,ocrims, tbe toast prolific American type. fs hot represented in the European Silurian. 
Horizon and locality. Beech River formation, E,calyptocrims zone, Niagaran: Decatur 
County, Tennessee. 
Stribalocystites gorbyi S. A. Miller 
Plate 33, ficjs. 1.5-18 
çtribaloc3,stites gorb3'i Miller, ISth Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 1894, p. 265, pl. 2, figs. 3-8.--Bassler, 
Bibliogr. Index, 1915, p. 12o9, for genus and species. 
This peculiar genus, wbich fs said by the author to bave no arms, is represented by a 
series of good specimens of this slnall species from the type localitv. It fs notable for the 
extremelv small size of the tegmen, which fs composed of only 5 or 6 plates without anv 
fixed plan of arrangement. Arm-facets are certainly present, though obscure, 3 to 5 in num- 
ber. Otherwise the structure is that of Caryocrimfs, the folds and raised pores being in a 
variety of conditions. In general form and appearance of the calvx in a lateral view the 
species seems quite similar to Caryocrims bulbul**s. 
Hori.on and localitv. Laurel limestone, Niagarau: St. Paul, Indiana. 

Lysocystites sculptus (S. A. Millet) 
Plate 33, fic.qs. 19-22 
L3soc3'stites Miller, N. A. Geol. Pal., 1889, p. 259.--Bather, Treatise on Zool., 3, 19oo, p. 7o..-Icthoc3'sttcs 
scMpt«s Miller, ISth Ann. Rep. Indiana Dep. Geol., 1894. p. 264. pl. 2, fig. 2 (adv. sheets, 1892, 
p. io).--Lysoc3,stitcs sc,«lpt«s Foerste, Ohio Jour. Sci., vol. 21, 192o, p. 44, fig. 3- 
Originally described' from imperfect material which left toast of the characters in doubt. 
In 192o Dr. Foerste, from a study of the specimens here figured together with the types, 
worked out the plate system of this species, showing that it belongs to the genus Lvsoc3,stites 
proposed bv Millet for tbe preoccupied' Echinoc3stiIes and referred by Bather to the fmnilv 
Cryptocrinidae of the rare order Aporita, without pores or rhombs. The cup consists of three 
circlets of plates, the first containin 3 unequal plates, the equivalent of 5 with two pairs 
fused; the second 5 very large elongate plates, obtusely hexagonal, and about as high as the 
first and' third combined; the third 5, pentagonal, convergin to the terrien..-k prominent 

tubular fold runs from the column to each salient 
each plate of the second circlet and on to the upper 
the middle of those of the third circlet. The wall 

angle of the base, tbence to the center of 
corners, and from there less prominent up 
of these folds fs verv thin, and they are 

frequently broken down, leaving open fissures ; this fs especially true in the third circlet, where 
with considerable uniformity large longitudinal openings are exposed. Tbe tubular folds 
enclose diamond-shaped areas which are traversed bv low vertical striations extend,.'ng up the 
middle of the plates for their full height, with transverse bands of striae from center to 
center of the large plates of second circlet. The anal opening fs outside the tegmen toward the 
apex of plates of third circlet. 

a Icon. Crin. Suecc., 1878, p. 32, pl. II, figs. 29-35; pl. 19, figs. I8a-c. 



CYSTIDEA I43 

The tegmen is extremely small, in mature specimens about one fourth the greatest diame- 
ter of the cup; it contains a fourth circlet of rive slnall plates enclosing a central space, from 
which shallow food-grooves extend outward. The apparently central plate shown by the 
drawing in fig. 22 proves to be a foreign substance. 
Tlfis form is represented by four good sl»ecilnens , two large and two small, ranging in 
height from 3o down to IO mm. The former are typical for the species, while the latter, figs. er, 
22, represent a more globose species which may take the naine Lysocystites .qlobostts. 
Horison. and locality. Laurel limestone, Niagaran ; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Caryocrinus bulbulus liiler and Gurley 
Plate 7 ».,, fiçs. 27-27. 
Caryocriaus bulbulus Millet and Gurley, 13u11. 5, Illinois St. Mus., 894, p.  x, figs. 5-xS.--13assler, 13ibliogr. 
Index, x95, p. x86. 
I have referred a.series of rive good specimens to this species, on account of the general 
contour and the strong protuberance on the middle of the second range of plates. In the 
description the surface is saJd to be otherwise smooth, but here it is marked by a varietv of 
sculpture. They all bave a juvenile aspect, and may be merely the young of C. milliga.me. 
tto.rison and locality. ]3eech River formation, Niagaran; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Caryocrinus persculptus new species 
Plate 33, fig. 28 
_A_ strongly marked form of turbinate contour, in which the entire surface is covered with 
such an intense sculpture that the folds and pores are transformed into solid, rugose ridges, 
strongly elevated, hot only on the lines of folds but between them.. It is from a different 
horizon from all the described species, none of which agree with it in the characters stated. 
The one that nearest resembles it in surface markings is Ca3,ocrimts ellipticus l.Iiller and 
Gurley, from the Osgood. 
Horicon and locality. \Valdron shale, Niagaran: Nevsom, Tennessee. 

Caryocrinus milliganae Miller and Gurlev 
Plate 33, figs. 29-36 
Caryocrinus milliganae 3/[. & G., 13uli 9, Illinois St. Mus., 896, p. 63, pl. 5, figs. 3, 4.--Wood, Bull. 64, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., x9o9, p. io.t3assler, 13ibliogr. Index, x95, P. I86, for genus and species. 
This is the most abundant cystid in the Tennessee area, and is subject to considerable 
variation in general form, from pear-shaped to ovoid, and from rotund to elongate. It attains 
a large size. The stereom folds radiating froln the middle of the plates, and the lines of pores 
with their raised margins, characteristic of the genus, are abundantly shown in this material. 
Troost proposed three species for different varieties, all of which are listed under the 
present species in Miss \Vood's edition of his monograph. Among the earlier collectors this 
form was always referred to C. ornattts Sav. I ara figuring rive rather well marked types, 
which will give a good idea of the range of variation sbown bv the collection, supplemelated by 
an instructive figure of Sav's well known genotype from Lockport. 
Horizon and localitv. ]3eech River formation, Niagaran; Decatur County, Telmessee. 

Caryocrinus ornatus Say 
Plate 33, fiç. 37 
Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. lhiI., 4, 825, p. 29o.Bassler, libliogr. Index, 95, P- 87. 
For comparison with the forms from the Tennessee area, and to show the structure of the 
biserial arms. 
Horizon and locality. Rochester shale, Niagaran; Lockport, New York. 



I44 

SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

PERSONAI RECORD 1 
FRANK SPRINGER 
LAS \rEGAS, NEW MEXlCO 
SKETCH 2 
Frank Springer, son of Vrancis and Nancy R. Spriuger, was boru at \Vapello, Iowa, 
June 17, I848. He received lais education in the public schools aud at the State University of 
Iowa. He was admitted to the bar in Iowa lu I869, and came to New Mexico in 1873, settling 
at Cimarron, where on October Io, 876, he was married to Josephine M. BishoD. He imme- 
diatelv took foremost tank in his hoseu profession, and has since been recognized as one 
of the leaders of the New Mexico bar. In 89o he was elected president of the New h[exico 
Bar Association, in which capacity he delivered an address dealing entirely with the urgent 
necessitv for the immediate settlement by tbe Congress of the United States, througb a proper 
tribuual, of titles under Spanish and Mexican land grants. The bill. which finallv became a 
law, was drafted principally bv him. The bar association attached so lnuch importance to this 
address that it was printed in full, and distributed anaong members of Congress, and filed 
v«ith the Land Deparlment at Washington. The subject matter of the address produced a 
profound impression at \Vashington with the President f the United States and members 
of Congress alike. A direct result was the passage of the act establishing the court of private 
land claires. As attorney for the Maxwell Land Grant Company, Mr. Springer achieved lais 
gTeatest professional success. Iu the trial of manv causes in the courts of New Mexico in 
which that company was a party, and in the fiual determination of the title of the company 
to tbe lands embraced within the limits of flac grant, as confirmed bv Congress, decided lu 
favor of the company in Unitcd States vs. Thc Marwcll Land Gran.t Compan3,, his prepara- 
tion. argument, and management were masterlv, eliciting commendation from members of 
the uprenle Court of the United States. He is the president of the board of trustees of the 
Maxwell Land Grant Company, whose business affairs under his management and direction 
bave been phenomenally successful. He retired from the active practice of his professiou in 
I9O6, since which time he bas given nmch attention to scieutific study and research. He was 
twice a member of the legislative couucil of New Mexico, in which position he rendered the 
territory great service. As a paleontologist he takes first rank among scientists iu America. 
He is a member of the Arcbaeological Institute of America, aud a patron of the School of 
American Archaeology at Santa Fé, New Mexico. Through the geuerosity of Mr. Springer 
the restorations, in part, and manv of the mural decorations in the Old Palace, have been 
accomplished under the direction of Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, director of the school. 
(Fu.rther note by R. E. T.) : 
To the union of Frank and Josephine _I. Springer seveu children were born, four 
daughters and three sons, viz." 
Laura, wife of Mr. Johu J. K. Caskie, General .-\ttornev of the Philade!phia Rapid Transit 
Company, residing in Pbiladelphia. 
I-Ielen, wife of I)r. Jolm F. Fairbairn. of 13uffalo, New York. 
Ada, wife of Dr. \Varren 13. Davis, of Philadelphia. 
 From T¢xqtchcll's l.eadin9 Facts of Nezv Mexican History, Vol. Il, p. 453. 
" [F_.DI'IOR'S NOT.--The biographical material given ou pages 44-5 aud 53 to 66 is taken from a 
memorial volume compiled by Ralpb Emerson Twitchell, lire long friend of Mr. Springer; it is here 
included at the express wish of Mr. Springer who feels that the present paper perhaps may be bis last 
personal contribution to science, and desires Io present tbe background for bis scientific activities in its 
relation to affairs in bis state.] 



FRANK SPRINGER 



PERSONAL RECORD I4 5 

These three daughters pursued different lines of studv in American colleges, supple- 
mented bv several years of work in Europe. Ada received the degree of Master of Arts from 
Colulnbia University. 
The husbmads of the last two are surgeons eminent in their profession, each of whom, 
as well as the first, left a lucrative practice to serve the government as a volunteer during the 
Great \Var. 
Eva Springer, ail artist, whose paintings have been accepted at the exhibitions of the 
Paris Salon, the London Academ.v, the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts and other prin- 
Cil»al art exhibitions of this country. A collection of miniatures by her forlned one of the 
attractions of the New llexico Museum for several years. 
llajor Edward T. Springer, of Cmarron, New Mexico. _[anager of the live stock busi- 
lless ill which the familv are interested. 
I.ieutel.ant L. \Vallace Springer, of Cimarron, New Mexico. Manager of the irrigation 
enterprise which built the Eagle's Nest Data. 
The two last mentioned bovs represented the family in the Great \Var, serving in the 
A. E. F. at the front during the American campaign in France. Edward was a captain in 
the _,tst Field Artillery of the Fifth Division, being promoted to that rank during the Argonne 
offensive, and to that of Major in the Reserve Army after the war. \Vallace entered the 
aviation service, and was ruade a first lieutenant in the Eleventh Squadron, taking part in the 
air battles on the Argonne front, in one of which he was wounded a few days before the 
Armistice. 
Henrv S. Springer, formerlv of Cimarron, New llexico. A well known live stock 
grower, who was selected bv the familv to remain in charge of necessary productive industry 
during the war. He was prominent in ail the home activities relating to the war, and rendered 
vahable service on the Council of Defense. He died of pneumonia in I92O. 



P, ! P, I. ! OGRA PI 1 Y 

I877. 
1878. 
I879. 
188. 
I883. 
I883. 
1883 . 
I885. 
I886. 
1887 • 
1888. 

1888. 
189o. 
189o. 
1897. 

A. SCIENTIVIC WORKS 
i. IN COLLABORATION WITH CHARLES \VACIISMUTH 
Revision of the Genus Bclcmnocrinus, and Description of Two New Species. 
can Journal of Science (3), vol. xiv, I877, pi ). 253 -266-) 
Transition Forms in Crinoids. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 187g, pp. 
I plate.) 
Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, part i. 
379: plates I5-I7. ) 
Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, part il. 
414: plates 17-19.) 
Remarks on Glyptocrimts aud Rctcocrimts, Tw Genera of Lower Silurian Crinoids. 
(Ara. Jour. Sci. (3), vol. xxv, I883, pp. 255-68; I figure.) 
Hybocrinus, Haplocrinus and Bacrocrimts. (.km. Jour. Sci. (3), vol. xxvi, I883, 
pp. 365-367 • ) 
Descriptions of Fossil Invertebrates. (Illinois Geol. Surv., vol. vil, 1883. pp. 339-345-) 
Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, part iii, section 1. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
1885. pp. a5-364 : plates 4-9.) 
Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea. part iii: section z. I Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
18°-, pp. 64-226. ) 
Summit Plates in I:lastoids, Crinoids and Cvstids, and Their 5[orphological Relations. 
I Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1887, pp. 8-1 I4: I plate.) 
Discoverv of the Ventral Structure of Ta.rocrimts and Hap[ocrfmts, aud Çonsequent 
[odifications in the Classification of the Crinoids. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
1888, pp. 337-36 : 2 plates.) 
Crotalocrinus, Its Structure and Zoological Position. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
I8q8, pp. 364-.390; 2 plates.) 
Perisomic Plates of the Crinoids. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 189o, pp. 34.q-39; 
I plate.) 
New Species of Crinoids and Blastoids from the Kinderhook Group of Le Grand, 
Iowa. (Illinois Geol. Surv., vol. viii, I89, pp. 157-251 : 3 plates.) 
Description of Two New Genera and Eight Species of Camerate Crinoids from the 
Niagara Group. (American Geologist, vol. x, I802, pp. 134-144.) 
Monograph of the North American Crinoidea Camerata. 4to, 3 vols.. 800 pp. text, 
and atlas «f 83 plates. ([emoirs Museum of Comp.arative Zoology, Harvard 
College, vols. xx and xxi. I807. Reviewed under title '" Au t2poch in American 
Science '" in dnnals of Iowa, 3 d series, vol. il, I8C;6. pp. 345-364 : under N. A. Fossil 
Crinoidea Camerata in Reirt of Iowa Geological Survey, vol. 22, 1913, pp. 69-88 ; 
and bv F. A. |;ather in Geol. Magazine London, Dec., iv, vol. v. I808, in 5 lmmbers, 
Nov., etc. ) 

(Ameri- 
224-266 ; 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., Ig79, pP. 226- 
Il'roc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 188I. pp. 177- 

ISq 4. 
1890. 
1899. 

2. IN SOLE AUTIIORS111P 
tn the C)ccurrence of the Lower Durlington Lilnestone in New [exico. (_\lnerican 
Journal of Science, vol. xxvii, I884, pp. 97-to3.) 
Notice of a New Discovery Concerning Uintacriutts. (Alnericau Geologist, vol. xxiv, 
I899, p. 92.) 
Slab of Uintacrinus Presented to the Museuln of Comparative Zoology, Harvard. 
(Annual Report Mus. Çomp. Zool., I"K)9, v. 5. with plate. Bnrlington t-la,t,ke3,c ' 
Xov. 12, 19o3. ) 
46 



BIBLIOGRAPItY 

19oo. 
19Ol. 
I9OI. 

190t. 

1901. 

19o2. 

19o2. 

19o3. 

1905. 

1905. 

19o6. 

19o6. 
19o9. 

19o9. 

I9O9. 

1910. 

1910. 

1911. 

1911. 

1911. 

1911. 

On the l'resence of Pores in the Ventral Sac of Fistulate Crinoids. (American Geolo- 
gist, vol. xxvi, Sept., 19oo , pp. 133-15i ; plate xvi.) 
Associate in Paleontology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College. 
UintacrinltS, Its Structure and Relations, 4to. (Memoirs Museunl of Comparative 
Zoology, Ilarvard College, vol. xxv, No. 1, August, 10oi, pp. 1-89; plates 1-8. 
Cambridge, 5Iass. Noted in London Zoological Record for 19Ol , p. 1: Under 
Crinoidea: " The work of the year is Springer's nlafificent Monograph on the 
Structure and Relations of Uintacrimts.") 
Uimacrimts Slab Presented to American Museum of Natural History. New York, 
and U. S. National Museum. (American Museum Journal, vol. il, Xo. z, February, 
19o2, with 2 plates; Burlinon Hat,ke3,e, Nov. lZ, 19o3. ) 
Specimens of Uimacrimts Presented to Universities of Iowa and Chicago, British 
Museum, and iXIuseunl of Berlin. (Burlington Hawkc3,e , Nov. lZ, 19o3. ) 
On the Crinoid Genera ._çagcnocrimts, Forbesiocrimt«, and Allied Forms. (American 
Geologist, vol. xxx, August. 19o2, pp. 88-97; I figure.) 
Notice of a New Conlatula from the Florida Reefs. (American Geologist, vol. xxx, 
August, 19o2 , p. 98.) 
,qctinomctra ioecnsis, a Xew Unstalked Crinoid from the Florida Reefs. (Bulletin 
Laboratories of Xatural History, State University of Iowa. vol. v, No. 3, June, 
I9O 3. pp. 17-221 : plate 1.) 
Clciocrimts. 4to. (Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard College, vol. xxv, No. _'2, Jan., 
19o5. l)p-93-113; plate I. Cambridge, Mass.) 
Hypsocrimts, a New Genus of Crinoids from the Devonian. By Frank Springer and 
Arthur \Vare Slocum. (Field Columbian Museum. Publication Xo. 114, Geologi- 
cal Series, vol. z, No. 9, 19o5. PP- 267-274; plate Ixxxi, Chicago.) 
Discovery of the Disk of Onychocrimt«, and Further Remarks on the Crinoidea Flexi- 
bilia. (Journal of Geology, vol. xiv, No. 6, Sept.-Oct., 19o6, pp. 467-522; 
plates 4-7- Chicago.) 
Foreign Correspondent Geological Societv of London. 
Some Noteworthv Accessions to the Division of Invertebrate Paleontology in the 
Xational Museum. Bv R. S. B,ssler. (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
vol. 52, part 2, No. 1823, Jan. 3 o, 19o 9, pp. 26î-269; plates xvii, xviii.) Concern- 
ing specimens presented by F. S. 
A New American Jurassic Crinoid. (Proc. U. S. National Museunl, vol. xxxvi, 
Match, 19o 9, pp. 179-19o; plate 4- Washinon, D. C.) 
On the Nmne Ecrim«s. (Circular letter to Zoologists and Paleontologists generally, 
enclosing card for answers, May I, 19o9. ) 
Collection of Fossil Crinoids Presented to the State University of Iowa. (Resolution 
bv State Board of Education, at Cedar Rapids, March 2, 191o. ) 
Field Session of School of American Archaeology. (._çcicnce, Xov. 4, I9IO, Pp. 622-- 
624 ; Sante Fé New Mc.rican. Sept. 24, 191o. ) 
The Crinoid Fauna of the Knob'stone Formation. (Proc. U. S. Xational Museum, 
vol. xli, June, 1911, pp. I75-2o8. \Vashington, D. C.) 
New American Fossil Crinoids. 4to. (SIemoirs Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard C,llege, vol. xxv. no. 3, July, IOlI, pp. 117-161 ; plates I to 6. Cam- 
bridge, Mass.) 
Farewell to Crinoids. Removal of collection and library to the U. S. Xational Museum. 
(Burlington Ha«kcy«, Nov. 12. I9[I.) 
Great Library Cornes Here. The Xicolaus Finck linguistic library presented to the 
School of Anlerican Archaeology. (Santa Fé Arcze 21Ie.rican, May 25, 1911. ) 



148 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

1911. On a Trenton Eclainoderm Fauna at Kirkfield, Ontario. (Mem. Geological Survey 
of Canada, No. 15-P, I9II, pp. I-5O; pIates 1-5. Ottawa, Canada.) 
1913. Notes on an Unusuallv Fine Slab of Fossil Crinoids. P,v R. S. Bassler. (Proc. U. S. 
Natioual Musenln, vol. 46, Nov. 29, I9/3, pp. 57-59; pIates 1-2.) Presented 
153- F. S. 
1913. Exploration and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1913. (Smithsoniau 
Miscellaueous Collections, vol. 63, uo. 8. pp. 14-16, with plate.) Expedition sup- 
ported by F. S. 
1913. Chapters on Blastoids and Crinoids lu Zittel-Fastlnan's Text-book of Paleontology, 
2d edition, revised, 1913, pp. 161-243. 
1914. Associate iii Paleontology. United States National Museum. 
IC/I5. Review of Austin H. Clark's Monograph of the Existing Çrinoids. (Science N. S., 
vol. 42, no. lO8O, Sept. IO, I9t 5 , pp. 342-345.) 
1017. ,çc3,phocrin«s and Its Bulbous Root, Çanarocrimts. 4to. (Smithsonian Institution, 
publication no. 244o, I917, pp. 1-74, plates 1- 9. text-figs. I-I 9. Washington, 
D.C. Noted in Santa Fé Nee .llIc.aica, Aug. 21, 1917 .) 
I98. Iowa Anthors and Their Works. (State Historical Society of Iowa, 1918. Frank 
Springer, pp. 279-28o; Wachsmuth and Springer, pp. 3o2-3o3.) 
1918. On Mysticocrim«s. a New Silurian Genus of Fossil Crinoids. (American Journal of 
Science, vol. xlvi, Nov., I918, pp. 666-668, plate 2.) 
Ic/IS. A New Species of Fossil Pcntacrimts from the East Indies. (Nederlandische Timor- 
Expeditie, II. Jaarboek van het Mijnwesen, 45te Jaargang, 1916, pub. 1918, 
pp. I-8: plate I. Ieiden, Holland.) 
I919. A New Species of Crinoid, Etchcirocrimts ontctHo. (Geological Survey of Cnada, 
Memoir III, No. o, 99, p. I27, figure 6.) 
I92O. Die Botryocriniden. E. Haarmann. Communication bv F. S. (Jahrb. Preuss. geol. 
Land. Anst., Bd. xii, Teil I, Berliu, 192o, 87 pp. Taf. 1-6.) 
I92O. Monograph of the Crinoidea Flexibilia, 4to, 2 vols. (Smithsonian Institution, Pub- 
lication No. 25oi, two vols., 486 pp., text, 51 text-figures, and 79 plates, 192o. 
Washington, D. C. Reviewed in Gcological Magazine, London, vol. lix, April, 
1922, pp. I77-I78; American Jo«ral o[ ._çcicnce. April, 1921, pp. 369-37o: El Pala- 
cio, Santa Fé, N. M., June, t921 ; New York State Museum, 1921, pp. 1-43; 
Burlington Hawkeye, Oct. _o 3. 1921.) 
I92I. Degree of Doctor of Science bv George \Vashington Universitv. \Vashington, D. C., 
February 25. 1921. 
1921. The Fossil Crinoid Genus Dolatocrimts and Its Allies. I United States National 
Mttseum, Bulletin 1 5. IO2I, pp. 1-59; plates 1-16. Reviewed Americau Joztrnal 
o[ Science, vol. 2, 192I, p. 57-) 
1921. New Species of Devonian Crinoidea from Northern Cnada. (Geological Survey of 
Canada, Bulletin No. 33, I92I, PP. 15-17; plate I.) 
1921. The Existing Crinoids. By Austin H. Clark. (Vol. I. part 2, 4to. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
No. 82, 192t. 15. 1.) Assistance to author. 
I922. Çrinoids from the Upper Cretaceous of Tamaulipas, IIexico. (Proc. U. S. Xational 
Museum, vol. 6I, art. 5, I922, PP- I-4, plate I.) 
1923. The St. John Cllection of Fossil Fishes Presentêd to the United States National 
Museuln. (Report of the U. S. National Museum, June 30, 1923, pp. ,4-85.R ' 
\Vashington.) 
1923. On the Fossil Crinoid Fanlilv Catillocrinidae. (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions, vol. 76, no. 3, Publication 2718. Aug. 3, I923. PP. 1-41 ; plates 1- 5. ,Vashing- 
ton, D. C.) 



BIBLIOGRAPI[Y 

149 

I923. 

I924. 

I924. 
1924. 

1924. 

1924. 

I924. 
I925. 
1925. 
I926. 
I926. 
1926. 
I926. 

A Flexihle Crinoid from the Carboniferous Limestone of File, Scotland. By James 
\Vright. Communication by F. S. (Geological Magazine, London, Nov., i923, 
pp. 481-49o.) 
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Conferred by the Rheinische-Friedrich-\Vilhelms 
University at Boma, Germany, Jmmary 16, 1924, " upon Mr. Frank Springer, 
Las Vegas, New llexico, as eminently successful investigator of Fossil Crinoidea ; 
author of a reliable Treatise on the Palaeocrinoidea; disinterested promoter of 
Scientific Research" especially in reconition of the fact that all lais scientific 
accomplishnaents have been gained outside of his main calling in lire." 
A Tertiarv Crinoid from the \Vest Indies. (Proc. U. S. National Museum, vol. 65, 
art. 3, 1924, PP. i-8; plate 1.) 
On the Genus tlolopus, with description of a hitherto unrecorded specimen of 
H. ran.gii from Barbados. (State University of Iowa, Studies in Natural His- 
tory, Aug., 1924 • pp. 45-63" plates -3.) 
Die Permischen Krinoiden von Timor. Bv Johannes \Vanner. (Teil II, 1894. The 
Hague, 348 pp.. 22 plates. Introduction, p. 3-) Assistance to the anthor. 
A Remarkable Fossil Echinoderm Fauna in the East Indies. Review of \Vanner's 
monograph on Timor Crinoids. (American Journal of Science, 8, Oct., 19-'24, 
pp. 325-335.) 
The Devonian Crinoids of New York, by \Vinifred Goldring. Review of monograph 
in Science, Oct. -'24, 1924. 
The Genns Pcntacrimts in Alaska. (Proc. U. S. National Museum. vol. 67, art. 5, 
1924, pp. I-7; plate I.) 
Occurrence of the Crinoid Genus _/tpiocrims in America. (Proc. U. S. National 
MuseunL vol. 67, art. I8, I925, pp. I- 5 • plate I.) 
Unusual Forms of Fossil Crinois. (Proc. U. S. National Museum, vol. 67, art. 9, 
926, pp. I-37 ; plates 1-26.) 
Upper Devonian Crinoids from Iackenzie River Vallev. (Geological Survey of 
Canada, Bulletin 42, May, I926, pp. 27-I32, plate -'24. ) 
New Species of Crinoids from Anticosti. (Geological Survev of Canada. Awaiting 
publication.) 
American Silnrian Crinoids. (Smithsonian Institution Publication no. 28ïi, 4to, 
PP. 1-239" plates -33-) 

I867. 
I8îO. 

1871. 

1880. 

1884. 

B. M ISCELLANEOUS 
Science as a Civilizer. Graduating Oration, State University of Ioxva, June 18, 1867. 
Oration at Second Commencement Meeting of the Alumni Association of the State 
University of Iowa, June, 1870. Noted by Hon. John P. Irish in the Iowa çtate 
Prcss of June 20, 1871 : " The second meeting was last year, on which occasion 
Frank Springer, Esq., delivered one of the most remarkable speeches ever heard 
in Iowa. Remarkable for the reason that it sounded the slogan, and raised the 
standard of advance thought, and marked out the path which opinion will take 
when the alumni of our free western universities form a considerable part of the 
educated community." 
The Right of Rational Inquiry. Lectnre for the benefit of the Burlington, Iowa, 
Public Library. at Burlinon. Iarch 9, I872- (Published in Die Iowa Tribune, 
Match I2, I872.) 
Member of Territorial Senate, New Mexico. (Twitchell's Leading Facts of New 
Mexican History, vol. il. p. 45à-) 
Dedication of Monument to \Villiam R. Morley, at Las Vegas, New Mexico. Novem- 
ber 9, 1884" (Published in the Las \%gas Opt[c, Nov. IO, 1884.) 



I50 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

885. Quarter-Centennial of the State Universitv of Iowa. Address as representative of the 
almnni, at Iowa City, June -24, I885. (Published in Iowa Citv Republican, June 
85.) 
1887. Argument before the Supreme Court of the United States in the Maxwell Land 
Grant Case. at Washington, March o. 'q7- (Vol. 121, U. S. Supreme Court 
Reports, p. 3î7" 122 (2. S., p. 375- Published in Twitchell's Spanish Archives o 
New Mexico. vol. i, pp. 53-6o; Twitchell's I,eading Facts of New Mexican His- 
tory. vol. il, p. 453; Geo. \Vharton James, New Mexico. p. xix.) 
I888. Trust Deed of 3Iaxwell Land Grant Company. prepred and carried into executin, 
at Amsterdam, Holland. Jmmary 19, i888, under which the property was admin- 
istered for 38 years. 
1889. Member of Cnstitutional Convention. New Mexico. (Santa Fé Ncc, Mexican, 
Oct. I o, 188<).) 
189o. Land Titles in New Mexico. Address as President of New Mexico ar Associatiou, 
at Santa Fé, January 7. 89o- (Puldished in Santa FWdaily New MeMcan, 
Jmmary 8. 189o" minutes of New Mexic Bar Association for 189o. and in 
pamphlet edition for distribution; Twitchell's Leading Facts o New Mexican 
History, vol. il. pp. 453, 462.) 
President Board of Trustees Maxwell Land Grant Company. (Leading Facts of New 
3[exican llistorv, vol. il, p. 453-) 
Argument belote District Curt of New Mexico iu Cark vs. Maxwell Land Grant 
Cmpany, at Las Vegas. N. 1I.. December. 189o. (Reported in Las \-egas daily 
Optic, June 2, 89r.) 
Argument belote the United States Supreme Court in the Beales Grant case, 3[arch  I, 
891. (Vol. 139. U. S. Supreme Court Reports, p. 569- Santa Fé dailv 
Mexicain April 28. I891.) 
Remarks at Funeral of Charles Wachsmuth. at Burlington. Iowa. Februarv 9. 1896- 
(Published in [:url,.ngton Ha«keyc, Feb. o. 896 ; Annals o Iowa, Dés Moines, 
3d series, vol. il. 189(». pp. 354-357.) 
Au Epoch in American Science. By C. R. Keves. (Annals o Iowa, 3d series, vol. il, 
896. PP- 345-364-) 
Argument before the United States Supreme Court in the Bent Suit. "Washinon, 
November 8, 1897. (Vol. 168. U. . Supreme Court Reports, p. 45t ; Las Vegas, 
Nev Mexico, daily O?tic, Nov. 9 and Dec. 7, ,q97; see daily Ner« Me,vican, 
Santa Fé. çct. 3. 1895.) 
The Flag and the Nation. 5peech at the Rough Rider's banquet, at Santa Fé, New 
Mexico, February lO, 1899. (Published in the dail Ace Me,ricau, Feb. I, 
899.) 
Dedication Address, New [exico Nornlal University, at I_as \'egas, 3[arch 4. 1899- 
(Published Las Vegas dailv Optic and Santa Vé dailv New Me.rican, March 6, 
I899; South«cst magazine, March; 1899, pp. 84-89.  
3[edal for Governor Roosevelt. Presentation on behalf of people of Xew Iexico 
at the First Rough Riders' reunion, at Las Vegas, June 25, 1899. {Published in 
Las Vegas daily Optic, June 2(5, 1899 ; 1X'ew York Sun., lune _26, 899. and the 
daily press generally.) 
The Bar and the People. Speech at banquet of New Mexico Bar Associatiou, at 
Santa Fé, January 3. 19oo- {.Published in the dailv N« 3Ie.vican., Julae 4, lOOo.). 
Universitv of New Mexico. Conmencement address, at Albuquerque, June 7, 19oo. 
( Published in Albuquerque _llorizin9 Jom'ml, June 8, t9oo. ) 

I89O. 
I89O. 

I89I. 

1896. 

899. 

I899- 

899. 

19oo. 

1900. 



I9OI. 

IgOI. 

I9o2. 
I902. 

1902. 

I9O3. 

19o3. 

19o4. 
I9O8. 
1910. 

I9II. 

1916. 

1916. 
1916. 

BIIII.I();RAI'I[Y 

Marshall Day Oration. On the centenary of the appointment of John Marshall as 
Chier Justice of the United States Supreme Court. By invitation of the Supreme 
Court of New hlexico" before the Supreme (_ourt. the two IIouses of the Legis- 
lature, and the New .lIexico Bar .\ssociation, at Santa Fé, Feb. 4, I9oi- (Pub- 
lished in the dailv Nca, ]lIc.rican. Feb. 5, I9oi" and in the 5[inutes of the New 
Mexico Bar Association for I9OI, pp. I5-25. ) 
Member of Territorial Senate, New Mexico. (Twitchell's Leading Facts of New 
Iexican History, vol. ii, p. 453-) 
()n the Olympic Gaines. Address on presentation of medal for athletics, Xew Mexico 
Normal Universitv at I.as \'egas, June 2, I9Ot. (Published in Las Vegas daily 
Optic, June 22, I0OI.) 
Eulogy on \Villiam McKinlev. Before the literary societies of the New ,llexico 
Xormal University, at Las \ egas, October 4, I9oi- (Published in the Las \ egas 
daily Optic, October 5. I9O, and in pamphlet edition for distribution.) 
Colorado State Normal School. Commencement address, at Greeley, Colo.., June 5, 
19o2. (See Las Vegas dailv Optic, May 25.99o3 .) 
A Prize for Oratory. I-'resentation of a medal for oratorv, New Mexico Normal 
University, at Las \'egas. June 2o, I9o2. (Published in the dailv Optic, June 2t. 
I9O2. ) 
Portrait of Rev. \Villiam Salter. Address on presentation to State Historical De- 
partment of Iowa, at Des [oines, Noven:ber 24. I9O2" by invitation of citizens of 
Burlino-ton. (Published in Burlinon Ha.a,keye, Nov. 26, 9o2, and in Des Moines 
Statc Rcgistcr and Cpilal. ) 
New Mexico Normal Univeritv. Commencement address, Mav 28. I9O 3. (Abstract 
in Las Vegas dailv Optic. Mav 29, I9O3" also Mav 25, I9o3. ) 
Portrait for çtate, Presented to Historical Department of Iowa on Request of 
Governor. (Robert J. Burdette in Burlinon Ha«eke3,c, November 12, and 
November 15, I9O3; Annals of lowa, w,l. ri, 19o3, p. 390.) 
On complying F. S. wrote" '" If I have done anything worth commemorating, 
it is to show that a man can, bv husbanding his time. follow a reasonably success- 
ful business life, and at the saine time give some thought to the wealth of nature 
that is around him." 
Burlington High School. Commencement address, June, I9O4. (Burlington Havkeye, 
June 8, 19o4. ) 
Biographical Sketch. Leading Facts of New Mexican History, Twitchell, p. 453- 
The Unknown Soldier. Remarks at the annual encampment of the New k[exico 
National Guard Regiment on Las \-egas Field, August, i9o. (Published in 
Las Vegas daily Optic, Nov. 18, t92o. ) 
Opening of Republican Çampaign for First State Election in New A[exico. Speech 
by request of l.epublican State Central ÇOlmnittee, at Las Vegas, Oct. 7, I9I I. 
(Published in Santa Fé dailv New ]lIe.vican.. Las Vegas dailv Optic. Albuquerque 
Evcning Hcrald, and 20,000 copies in pamphlet distributed throughout the state.) 
A Man with a \ïsion. (Allmquerque Morning JonrnaI, July I2, I94.. ) 
A New Glorv for New [exico ; New Museum at Santa Fé. (Magazine Old çanta FO, 
vol. il, no. 4. April, I915. pp. 438-440-) 
Memorable Day in Annals of Santa Fé. (Daily Ncw Me.dcan, April I2, 9t6" 
EI Palacio, .\pril, I9r6" Scribner's Magazine, March, 1923, p. 38I.) Presentation 
of fund ensuring construction of new museum. 
Important Progress in Archaeology. Investigations of Frank Springer and party. 
(Albuquerque Morning Jom'nal, Sept. 12, 1916.) 
The Secret of Keeping Young. (Albuquerque Morning Journal, Oct. 8, 1916. ) 



I52 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

1917. 

98. 
I918. 
9t8. 
99 . 

I920. 
I922. 

l, Vhen Dreams Corne True. Dedication of lleW museum, at Santa Fé, November 25, 
97. (Published in daily New Me.ricam Nov. 26, I97; Las Vegas daily Optic, 
Nov. %" El Palctcio. Santa Fé, vol. iv, no. 4, for Nov., I917, pp. I-I8; 9o-97; 
,qrt and z4rchaeoloyy, Washington, D. C., Jan., 918, pp. 3-7; Geo. Vharton 
James. New Mexico, the Land of the I)elight Makers, I92o, pp. 4-28-443, and 
pamphlet edition of I,ooo copies by the School of American Research.) 
A Scientist's Opinion. Dr. F. A. Bather on the New Mexico State Museum. 
(Museums Journal, London, Match. I918. ) 
The St. Francis Murals" given bv F. S. to New Mexico State Museum. (Art and 
Archaeology, Jan., 98, p. 84.) 
The Paintings of Donakl Beauregard" given by F. S. to New Mexico Museum. (Art 
and Archaeology, Jan., I918, p. 79.) 
Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Service. (3ration bv invitation of the Legislature of the 
State of New Mexico, at Santa Fé, F'eb. O, I9t9. (Published in daily New 
Mc.rican, Feb. Io, 919; Las Vegas daily Optic, Feb. Io; Albuquerque lorning 
Journal, Feb. o; two ëditions in i-amph[et of ,ooo copies each for distribution 
in the State, and a third of IO,OOO copies bv order of the National Roosevelt 
Memoria[ Association, New York, for general distribution.) 
In lkIemoriam. Henry Strong Springer. Feb. 2, 92o. 
Bust by Scarpitta Presented to the State of New Mexico, at the State Museum, 
Santa Fé, Sept. 8, I922. (Daily Ne¢, 3[exican, Sept. 9, I922; EI PaIacio, Santa 
Fé, Oct. 2, I922 , pp. 75-88: Pat ztmcrican Gcologi«t, Des Moines, Iowa, Oct., 
I922, pp. I77-I86.) 



HON. FRANK SPRINGER 

(Bronze Bust by C. Scarpitta, presented to the State of New Mexico 
by Friends of Mr. Springer) 



PRESENTATION OF THE SCARPITTA BRONZE BUST 
OF 
IION. FRANK SI'RINGER 
TO THE 
STATE OF NEW MEXICOa 
Significant and melnorable was the presentation of the bronze bust of 
[r. Frank Springer to the state of Nexv Mexico on llle evening of September 8, 
922. The spirit of the celel)ratiOl-l, its setting and its import, made it an historic 
event il-i the annals of a state overwhehnin,e,-ly rich in traditions, thrilling events 
and picturesque episodes. To the hundreds of people who had gathered in the 
Saint Francis Auditoriuln to do honor to the man who had wrought so much 
for them and their commonwealth, and had achieved di,tinction and success in 
law, in lmsiness, in science, in statesmanship and in wise givin, it was an unfor- 
gettable occasion. 
The g]alnour and the shoutinp, of the 922 Fiesta had filled the fore part of 
the week, and were followed by the earnestness and interest of llle sessions of 
the Southwestern Division of the American Association fol- the Advancement 
of Science. Fridav evening had been set apart bv the Association for the exer- 
cises which proved to be the climax of a week crowded with stirring and notable 
incidents. It had been a typically sunnv Santa Fé day, followed by a night rap- 
turous with a 1,rilliant harvest mot, n. The menll,ers of the Science Association, 
just returned from a field excursion to San IIdefonso, where the Tewas had 
deli.e,-hted theln with a tablita ceremonv of wondertul color and grace---joined 
with the friends of Mr. Springer from far and near in fillinç comfortablv the 
St. Francis Auditorium of the new lmlseum. There were present former and 
present business associates froln as far awav as New York and St. Louis, froln 
cities and towns in New [exico and adjoining states; there were men and 
Wolnen in the audience who had won world-wide distinction in the fields of 
science, literature, art, music and the professions; there were represented the 
Indian, the Spanish American, the pioneers and the new comers to the South- 
west--as cosmopolitan and fine al-I audience as ever gathered to do hollor tO a 
fellow man. 
There were spontaneity and dignity al»out the program which translnitted 
themselves to the audience; a warmth of feeling and silnplicity which character- 
ize a neighl»orhood gathering rather than the forlnal state event ; and 3"et, withal, 
the impressiveness of a solemn service il-i cathedral or abbev where all hearts 
are lifted to one purpose. Under the indirect, mellow glow of the high ceiling 
s Presented ai the third annual session of the Southwestern Division of the American Association for 
the Adva,acement of Science ai the St. Francis Auditorium of the New Museum, Santa Fé, N. M., Friday 
evening, September 8, I922. Present accoimt reprinted from EI Palacio, Santa Fé, October 2, I92"2. 



I54 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 
lights of the nave the St. Francis murals took oll new values, and the carved 
vigas with their primitive color designs stood out in massiveness from the 
shadows. The transepts and the chancel were flooded with light. To the fore 
on the altar platform, o13 an ilnprovised pedestal, stood the veiled bronze bust, 
and to one side o13 a talle the scientific volumes of which Mr. Springer is the 
author. 
Dr. Edgar L. Hewett broke the hush of expectancy that fell upon the audi- 
ence when the speakers of the evening took their places o13 13e platform. It was 
obvious that the tribute he paid lXIr. Springer was heartfelt. Like the speakers 
that followed, he commanded the closest attention of the audience. Closely asso- 
ciated with Mr. Springer for a quarter of acentury in the Ul)building of such 
great institutions as the Normal University of New )exico, the 51ruseum of 
New Mexico, the School of American Research, and in the furtherin of re- 
search work, the renaissance of native arts and handicrafts, the fostering of art 
and literature in the Southwest, it was quite fitting that Dr. Hewett empha- 
sized Mr. Springer's contributions to science, education and art. 
Col. Ralph E. Twitchell, historian, author, lawyer, eloquently and farci- 
bly dwelt upon the high place lIr. Springer achieved as a meml)er of the bar. 
He, too, had been close to [r. Springer for decades, and prizes this association 
as the most precious in a lire filled with activities for the advancement of his 
beloved state a13d citv. He reviewed lXlr. Springer's achievements with the svn-l- 
pathy of a friend, and yet with the preciseness of evaluation of the trained 
biographer and historian. Momentarily shakerl with emotion as he paid an inti- 
mate tribute, he passed quickly to the orderlv marshaling of dates, figures and 
historical facts, imposing in themselves and overwhelming in their aggregate. 
In concluding his address Colonel Twitchell presented a handsomelv bound 
volume entitled " Notes and Memoranda Concerning the Legal, Scientific and 
Literarv Activities of Frank Springer as a Citizen of Nexv Mexico," to serve 
as a permanent record in the library of the State Museum. It contains a sketch 
of l[r. Springer's career at the bar and lis connection with public affairs, a 
hitorv of the most notable cases in which he was engaged, together with con3- 
ments by other lawvers and judges upon his argmnents before the United States 
Supreme Court; a reprint of his oral argument in one of the cases; and contem- 
porary newspaper comment upon these matters. Also reprints or original copies 
of many of his pubIic addresses upon legal, educational and liaiscellaneous sub- 
jects. Also accounts and reviews of his scientific works and publications, taken 
from periodicals of high authority. This compilaticn exhihits from the original 
sources evidence of the wide range of Mr. Springer's intellectual activities. It 
is understood that a slnall nulnber of copies of the work bave been printed for 
reference in libraries, and for the use of his familv and intimate friends. 



PERSONAL RECORD I 2 

Mr. Jalnes G. McNary, president of the First National Banks of E1 Paso, 
Texas, of Las Vegas and of Dawson, in New ]Iexico, who, too, had known 
Mr. Springer for a quarter of a century, spoke as a younger business man of a 
successful older lnan, emphasizing Mr. Springer's place as an empire builder, 
a man who touched the resources of northerla New Mexico so that they yielded 
al»undautly,creating irrigation works, developing lniues, founding settlemeuts, 
giving sustenalace and bringing happiness to a great lnultitude of people. 
Dr. D. T. MacDougal, general secretary of the Alnerican Association for 
the Advancement of Science and president of the Southwestern Division, who 
is in charge of the Desert Laboratorv of the Carnegie Institution at Tucson, 
Arizona, spoke as one scientist of another, referring also with approval to the 
business lnau in science--in the case of Ir. Springer achieving doubly, by giv- 
ing himself and giving of lais means. 
Then calne the moment for uuveiling. Dr. Hewett paid glowing tribute to 
lais friend as he removed the cover from the bust which stood revealed as a 
splendid piece of art; he tendered it on the part of Mr. Springer's friends as a 
gift to the state. United States Senator A. A. Jones, delegated bv Governor 
Merritt C. Mechem to receive the bronze on behalf of the state, was in a happy 
rein, his address of acceptance being felicitous in its warmth of feeling and 
eloqtience. 
At the conclusion of the addresses Homer Grunn, of Los Angeles, coin- 
poser aud pianist, rendered with exquisite feeling three of his thelnes, that stand 
alnong the lnOSt pleasing and beautiful modern compositions based on Pueblo 
melodv aud rhvthm. 
Following Mr. Grunn's numbers, ç[r. Springer, who had not been present 
during the exercises, was escorted into the auditorium bv Mrs. Laughlin and 
Mrs. Hewett, representing the \Volnan's Museum Board, and was given a warm 
and generous ovation, the audience rising and relnaining standiug while he re- 
sponded briefly, first in a lighter rein, to mask his evident elnotion, and then 
gravely, voicing lais real feeling in a single touching sentence. He then pre- 
sented to the audience Mr. Scarpitta, the sculptor, whose presence had uot be- 
fore been generally known, who with unaffected earnestness told of the deep 
feeling with which he had executed the portrait now before them. The remarks 
of the two gentlemen were as follows: 
Mr. Springer : 21Iy fricnds: I did' not corne here to make a speech, but I ara here in obedi- 
ence to the command of my superior authorities, representatives of the women of Santa Fé, 
to whose example and encouragement is due a large part of what the men have been able to 
accomplish for the betterment of this communitv. \Vhen I was summoned to appear at this 
stage of the proceedings, I knew, of course, that the summons came from the hearts of the 
friends whose infinite kindness and courtesv bave been so often manifested, the recollection 
of which makes this beautiful place seem even more beautiful. But I thought that it might 
also be intended to give to those in attendance here an opportunity to judge of the merit of the 



I56 SMITIISOXIAN INSTITUTION 

work v«hich thev have been invited to view by a direct colnparison with the original. On that 
point I th;nk there can be lmt one opinion. Looking at such an exarnple of the sculptor's art, 
one is inclined to rnarvel at his power to create out of inanimate materials so faithful a de- 
lineation of the hunmn features" but corne to think of it, it isn't so very wonderful after ail; 
it is really quite simple; all the sculptor has to dois to procure a supply of the p.roper kind of 
clav, and then put it in the right place. This disclosure of the mysterv is not original with rne, 
but probablv, has done dutv. ever since studios were invented. I cribbed it frorn a painter, who 
told an inquisitive visitor seeking to learn the secret of lais canvasses that it was easy, all that 
was necessary being two tbings" first, fo select the proper colors • that was very important, he 
said" and then--put them in the right place..'50 it is with one of Fritz Kreisler's rnasterpieces" 
s{mple enough, just pressing the proper string, and drawing the bow the right way. 
You know, it is against the rules for the subjcct who is being lmnored as I ana to attempt 
to sav anything serious ; but I ana wondering if in ail this nonsense [ mav hot inadvertently 
bave stumlfled tlpOll a great tnth, which is, that one of the chier prol»lerns of lire is to learn 
how to select the proper things, and to use them in tbe right wav. 
Now, having broken the rule once, I ara going to take another wlmck at it, and surn up 
what I really think and feel, by saying that the thing which is cuhninating tonight has touched 
me deeply; and that I wottld rather have it occur here, in this place, than anywhere else on 
earth. 
 )ne other privilege belongs to me, of which I avail rnvself with the most profound satis- 
faction" and tbat is, to present to this andience the man whose inspired art has created the 
work which vou have corne here to see--Scarpitta, the sculptor. 
Mr. Scarpitta" Mr..çpriger, Dr. Hewctt, Ladics and.Get[c.mcn: I would like to sav a 
word about this work of inine. I ana not a speaker, as vou know, but I cannot go through this 
without first of all telling you how profoundly impressed I ana that I was the one selected to 
make this portrait of Mr. Springer. The moment I came in contact with Mr. Springer I fer 
immediatelv the great force with which he has acconaplished all that von have heard related 
b the Chairmma and the other gentlemen. I went into this work with all mv love, because I 
felt tbe sinceritv of this naan" and I bave, I hope you will agree with me, put into this bronze 
sornething that will live on forever, and reveal the inner feelings of Mr. Springer, his intense 
love for humanity, and his power of convincing anv one of his profound sinceritv, which I 
have adrnired so, and of which I ana so prond to know and see that you all agree with me. 
I thank you. 
The program ",','as then concluded bv the gracious and beautiful Princess 
Tsianina in an exalted mood, who with the sympathetic accompaniment 
Mrs. Doll, gave some of the finest Indian songs in her repertoire, among theln 
the Zurii Invocation to the Sun-god, which, as she explained, she had substituted 
t:or another nmnber because it better expressed her feeling after listening to the 
addresses which had preceded. 
In the patio of the art museum the \Voman's Museum Board had spread 
a table ruade colorful with magnificent dahlia blossoms, h[oonli,e,-ht flooded the 
scene, and garlands of colored lights swung across the sward. Here thronged 
the people after pouring past Mr. Springer, offering their words of appreciation 
for all he has done and all he has stood t:or, and lingered until midnight and 
after. The literary folk were present under the leadership of hIarv Austin, who 
but recentlv returned from England; the anthropologists included Francis 
La Flesche and Miss Alice C. Fletcher, of \Vashin,e,ton, D. C. ; other branches 



PERSONAL RECORD 

I57 

of science were represented by Dr. llacDougal, of the Desert Laboratory; 
Dr. Larkin, of the Mount Lowe Observatory; Dr. Douglass, of the Lowell 
Observatory, and nlany other lnelnbers of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, nlost Of them engaged in research work in the South- 
west; the bar by Hon. Thomas B. Harlan, of St. Louis, and many others of 
the federal and state courts and bars;business by President Jan Van Houten, 
of the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific Co.; President Levi Hughes, of 
the First National Bank of Santa Fé; President James G..[cNary, of the First 
National Bank of E1 Paso; President George Ulrich, of the Exchange Bank 
of Crrizozo, and scores of others active and prolninent in the upbuilding of the 
Southwest; stateslnanship bv United States Senator A. A. Jones and other 
federal and state officials : while the presence of lnembers of the art colonies in 
Santa Fé and Taos, of leaders in music like Grnnn and Tsianina, as well as 
those active in social circles, lnade the assemblv a brilliant one indeed. 
The art alcoves were thrown open. The Fiesta exhibit of paintings by 
Santa Fé and Taos artists ruade theln tmusually attractive. In one alcove the 
Springer bust was placed together with a Madonna group also bv Scarpitta, a 
lovely piece of work. In the opinion of critics without exception the Springer 
bronze is a veritable lnasterpiece. It is more than a lnarvelous physical likeness, 
for it emphasizes the earnestness and power of concentration of the subject, 
at the saine tilne giving an intimation of his spirituality and idealism. The 
bronze is a gift of friends of l[r. Springer, who contributed through a colnlnit- 
tee consisting of Paul A. F. \Valter, chairman and treasurer, with Dr. Edgar L. 
Hewett in charge of contributions froln artists, scientists and educators, 
Mr. Jan Van Houten of contributions froln business associates of Mr. Springer, 
and Col. Ralph E. Twitchell, of contributions from lnembers of the bar. The 
bust will have a permanent place in the art nluseulll, whose creation is due pri- 
marily to the vision and generosity of Mr. Spriger. 
Herewith follows the text of the addresses delivered upon this lnelnorable 
occasion, reflecting as they do the spirit of the celebration : 

INTRODUCTORY 
Dr. Hewett: Fricnds: We have lnet here tonight to celebrate the life and 
achievements of a man of science. The Sonthwestern Division of the American 
Association for the Advancelnent of Science joins on this occasion with the 
people of New lIexico iii honoring a scientific lnall of the Southwest, Ir. Frank 
Springer. You, gentlemen of the bar and of the courts, may be surprised when 
I clailn Mr. Springer as a man of science, for he has been one of your most dis- 
tinguished associates for lnany years; and vou men of business of the South- 
xvest may also be SOlnewhat startled, for he has long lived among you as au 
exceedingly busy man of affairs. The fact is he belongs equallv with all of us. 

II 



15 8 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
To support my reference to lIr. Springer as a man of science, I ask you 
to inspect this shelf of works that would be a credit to one who had devoted lais 
entire lire to scientific pursuits. The majority of you have prcbably been igno- 
rant of the fact that this silent, modest next door neighbor of yours has been 
steadily publishing scientific COltributi,ms that bave ruade hiln known through- 
out the v«orld. 
Soit is a many-sided man that we are honoring tonight. \Ve are celebrating 
his achievelnents "c-bile he is still "«-ith usachievements in science, in law, bi 
business and in public affairs..It seelns fitting that one of his old neighbors, who 
has known intilnatelv his legal activities ahnost froln the leginning, should 
speak of l¥Ir. Springer as a lawyer and of his career at the bar. Col. R. lï. 
Twitchell has been invited to perform that service. IIe can speak with the 
authoritv of the historian. 

TIIE L».WYER AND CITIZEN 
Colonel Twitchell: Dr. Hewett, Ladics and Gentlemcn" I consider my having been 
selected for this great privilege a most notable distinction. To be associated in this wav in 
these exercises is ail honor which seldom cornes to a member of our profession. 
I first met i\[r. Springer forty years ago, and there are only nine members of the bar 
todav living who knew M r. Springer during all that period. 
Earlv in the "c)os, [ was twice honored with the presidency of the New Mexico Bar .Asso- 
ciation, and soon realized that the constructive power in the then " Territorv of New Iexico," 
the history makers in the development of a great commonwealth, remained largely with the 
legal profession, and became certain that there was no one among the members of the bar in 
the entire territory who would feel like giving his rime to the work of recording, biographically 
and otherwise, the efforts and achievenaents of that constrnctive element; and so I began a 
series of papers for the Bar Association, dealing with the historv of the bench and bar during 
the preceding years of American occupation. That early effort, more than thirtv vears ago. 
resulted finallv in ail amplification and concrete compilation which was published a few years 
since. 
In making a historical outline for these papers it became apparent that a certain classi- 
fication was necessary for the reader to properly understand the position which, in certain 
decades, had been filled by the members of the bench and bar. That classification was as to 
time, and it may be repeated here: Those who came with the American Armv of Occupation 
in 1846; those who came with Çarleton's column from California during the Civil \Var 
period ; and those who came shortlv belote and at the time of the coming of the railwavs into 
the southwest, lX'lr. Springer belongs in the last named classification, having corne to New 
][exico in 1873, anticipating the coming of the railways and the creation in a few vears of a 
great state in the American Union. 
Had it not been for the panic of 1873, and the failure of the great banking firm of 
Jay Cooke & Ço., of Philadelphia, the geography and the history of the states of Colorado 
and New lX[exico would hot be such as we find it todav. Had the efforts which were being 
ruade at that time bv lXlr. Springer and lais eastern associates borne fruit, the citv of Pueblo 
with all of its industries, all of its envirollment, in all probability would be located where the 
town of Cimarron, New lX[exico, was then situated. The entire proposition of financing of 
the transcontinental railwav into the southwest at that time had beeu consummated, but the 
failure of Jay Cooke & Co. in the panlc of 1873 changed the entire status of affairs, and it was 



PERSONAL RECORD 15 9 

hot until several years later, due to the activities of certain people in Pueblo, 3lessrs. Thatcher 
and Ravnolds and others, that a line of railwav was built down the Arl¢ansas to La Junta, 
where it joined the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Vé Raihoad in its construction into the 
Southwest. 
Mr. Springer was the retained counsel of the Santa Fé Railwav during that period; and 
during ail of the years of lais active career at the bar, either as trial lawyer or as counsel, was 
consulted in every case of anv consequence which was heard in the courts of New Mexico, 
as well as in many other jurisdictions where the interests of that great company were affected. 
These are matters of which I have personal cognizance. 
Mv acquaintance with .lr. Springer began in the spring of I883. In the summer of that 
vear there was celebrated here in Santa Fé the Tertio-_Iillenial Anniversary of Spanish con- 
quest and occupation of ail the areas between the Pacific al_d the Mississippi. 
When Mr. Springer came to New [exico the bar was composed of many distinguished 
lawvers. The ha.mes of these eminent jurists are round in the published reports of out 
Supreme Court. Within two vears after lais coming Mr. Sprinter took the position and was 
recognized as one of the leading lawyers at the bar. and during lais active career retained that 
position of leadership. And from my personal acquaintance with the volume and character of 
the litigation confided to lais charge, the manner in which it was handled, in results obtained 
and in the satisfaction always accorded to his clients, he enjo.ved a position pre-eminent anaong 
lais fellows at the bar. This became an accepted fact when the final determination of the most 
important suit. involving title to great tracts of land. was had in the court of last resort in 
this country. I refer to the Maxwell Land Grant case. Law'ers of the greatest distinction 
in America had been employed in the litigation involving the title to that great property, but 
it remained for [r. Springer to secure a final conclusion and determilation favorable to the 
contentions of the grant owners. 
The Supreme Court of the United States was right in f(,llowing the argument and con- 
tentions of Mr. Springer. -Few there were of the Anglo-Alnerican population who, with the 
advent of the tralaSCOntilaental railways, could appreciate or xvho would attempt to understand 
how anv one individual or company or organization could possibly bave the right of owner- 
ship in a million or more actes of the public domain. The real question at that aime was the 
one which a few Fears before had been dolninant in California--the question of the squatter 
and the l)on. or the Don's descendants and grantees. Few there were who understood or com- 
prehended the policy of the Mexican governmeut in making these grants ; a protective policy-, 
brought about largely owing to the experience which that P,,epublic had passed through in the 
case of Texas, and the settlement on Mexican soil of Americans from Tennessee, Mississippi 
and Louisiana. the final divorcement of the province from the Mexican Republic and its final 
entrance into the American Union. As a policy of protection, the 5[exican Government gave 
great grants of land on its northern frontier, which was the Arkansas, to 5Iexican citizens. 
Those granted were the Maxwell, the lIontoya, the Tierra Amarilla, and other grants of lands, 
empires in area and extent ; granted to Mexican citizens for the purpose of establishing upon 
the American frontier a zone of Mexican influence which would resist the advance of the 
American, brought about through the commerce of the prairies and the establishment of the 
Santa Fé trail. These are the facts which caused the creation of those great land grants, and 
it v«as the student of history, as well as jurisprudence, as exemplified in 5[r. Springer, who was 
thus enabled to sustain lais contentions in our court of last resort. The determination of that 
court in that case not onlv revealed him as the leader of the bar in New 5[exico, but gave him 
an international reputation : a rermtation of a character which anv lawyer, no matter where 
the scene of his activities, would appreciate as the acme of professional success. His reputa- 
tion must test upon his argument in that great case. The information which he obtained in 
its preparation, the knowledge that was lais, and exclusivel.v lais, relative to questions arising 
under the Treatv of Guadalupe Hidalgo in the matter of Spanish Land Grants and their rela- 



160 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

tionship to American occupation, was so comprehensive that when it came to the enactment of 
a law bv the Ame,ical Congress whereby a!l of these titles, in so far as any claire ruade by 
the Government of the l_'nited States was concerned, could be settled, his influence as a lawver 
and citizen of New lIexico before the Senate and Congress of the United States was so pro- 
nounced that he was in position to render the people of the southwest a great service, t-Ils 
testimonv and lais arguments before the various Congressional and Senate committees had 
more to Jo with the passage of the act providing for tbe establishment of tbe Court of Private 
Land Claires tban of all other New 3Iexicans combined. 
As I bave said. when I undertook the writing of the biograpbies of the members of the 
bench and bar, dealing with tbose classified as baving corne witb the American occupation 
period. I round verv little recorded in New lIexico beyond the decisions of our Supreme 
Cc, urt, and there were onlv two volumes of reports at tbat time. And soit was that I con- 
cluded that future bistorians and searchers would hot be put to tbat inconvenience if any of 
mv time could be profitalfly used in recording and accumulating information with reference 
to all of the naembers of the bar of my own period. Naturally there was much of interest in 
securing all lssible information from so prominent a man as Mr. Springer. XVhile my 
acquaintance with him was hot iltimate at tbat time but was of a professional nature, I round 
him then, as he is today, one of the most modest and reticent of men. It was almost impossible 
to acquire anv information in ordinarv conversation if he happened to know its purpose, and 
while living in Las Vegas, I took occasion to invite him to nav residence, wben unknown fo 
laina I was able to draw out the storv of all the facts relative to the early bistorv of the Maxwell 
Land Grant and earlier events occurrin¢ in Colfax County, every thing which had to do w.;rb 
the various lawyers and iudges who practised in tbe courts of Taos, Colfax, San Miguel. and 
Mora counties, and bad it verv carefullv recorded by a stenographer wbo was concealed in an 
adjoining room, Mr. Springer being at the time unconscious of the fact until vears later, when 
I published the Leading Facts of New 5Iexican History, and later, in some notes to my Span- 
ish Archives. Recognizing that he had played a most prominent 16art in the making of New 
Mexico, I began preserving all of the printed records, briefs, arDmaents, newspaper clipp':ngs 
and accounts of his activities, and soit is that upon this occasion I ara able, in a small way, 
to contribute a compilation of all of the printed accounts which bave been tbus preserved. 
This volume I ana now tendering as a small contribution on mv part to this really great New 
lklexican ; a contribtltion hot for todav but as a source book which tbe future historian will 
appreciate, who will amplify the work of those of us wlao bave sought to record the facts of 
bistorv in the southwest. This COlaapilation, I believe, will be appreciated bv the present and 
future generations of Mr. Springer's family-, as well as by the historical writers of the future. 
Ilis courteous treatment of lais fellow members of the bar, his consideration for the 
shortconfings and limitations of the younger members of tbe profession, lais great respect 
for judicial authority and personnel, and lais mastery of many unsolved legal problems v«laicla 
confronted tbe early practitioners in the courts of New Mexico, are outstanding features of 
Air. Springer's career. 
Dr. Hewett" Thanks to Colonel Twitchell for this sketch of air. Springer's 
activities in those great days of the makilaff of otr state. From among the men 
who bave more recently corne into positions of influence and usefulness I wish 
to present one who call speak of Ir. Spliner's place in business and public 
affairs. I iltroduce to vou [r. James G. IcNary,, president of the First Na- 
tional ]aanks of E1 l'aso and Las \:ega.. 



PERSONAL RECORD I6 ! 

TIIE [AN OF AFFAIRS 
Ir. l[cNarv: Mr. Prcsidcnt, Ladics and Gcntlcmc: I esteem it a high honor and a 
great pleasure to be invited to participate with vou in doing honor to the naine of Frank 
Springer. 
A quarter of a century ago through the instrumentality of Mr. Springer, president of the 
Board of Regents, and Mr. E. L. Hewett, president of the faculty of the Normal University 
of Las Vegas, the rates directed mv vouthful footsteps to New Mcxico, for which I have 
alwavs had reason to be deeply grateful. 
From the day, just 4 3ears ago, when I first met Mr. Springer, I have held it a high honor 
to call him mv friend, and who does hOt love to pay tribute to a friend of such il!ustrious 
achievemeuts that moderation ceases to be a virtue ? 
It would he impossible to overestimate the value of scientific knowledge. Each strav bit 
of such truth from the farther shore of human thought and inquiry, has its value in appiying 
the phenomena of the physical world to the needs of our complex social lire. 
Of Ir. Springer's unusual fuud of scientific knowledge and of lais generous nse of it, 
vou have heard and are to hear from others better qualified than I to speak, but I wish to tres- 
pass on their ground long euough to read a few lines dedicated to Mr. Springer and handed 
me bv a nmtual friend. Emerson said : " Next to the man who originates a beautiful thought 
is the man who qnotes it." 
" In solitude he played his flute and thought, 
Till finallv this miracle was wrought, 
The orde}ed working of his cultured brain, 
Gave power to his gaze and through the train 
Of aeons of dead years his piercing eve 
Sought out Earth's secrets where they uuderlie 
The cold faced rocks. Then slowlv page by page, 
He read through Nature's book and age by age 
I le round a storv there. Todav the world 
Is deeply in his debt, for he rêvealed 
To man the mystery the Earth concealed." 
I ara, however, delegated to speak especially of Ir. Springer's services as a builder of 
the state. How, I beg of you, can I do justice to this theme in ten short minutes ? 
When Mr. Springer first came to New Mexico, over a hall centurv ago, ber population 
was a scant one lmndred thottsand, ber developed resources scarcelv amounted to the value 
of the property now within the limks of this citv. Great resources of coal lay hidden in ber 
mouutains, wlfich required monev and brains to develop and railroads to haul to the consmner. 
Her streams carried a wealth of water for the thirstx" land, which it required the hand 
of naan to conserve, impound and distribute. 
Mr. Springer arrived in New Iexico in the vear 8î3. aud engaged in the practice of law 
at Cimarron. 
Oue of lais first public services was the founding of a newspaper and though I have never 
seen a copy, I can judge of the high spirit which must bave animated its pages. 
rly in his legal career Mr. Spriuger became identified with the iuterests of the 3Iaxwell 
Land Grant Ct:mpany, and in due rime hecame its president, which position he still occupies. 
He exerted an important influence on the industrial life of the state, as he was one of 
the first to recognize the importance of coal resources of New Mexico, and took aprominent 
part in the organization of the St. Louis, Rockv Mountain and Pacific company, the most ina- 
portant fuel producing company in the west, is todav one of its directors and has always 
exerted an important influence in its affairs. 
The greatest enterprise ever undertaken in the state of New 3Iexico by private capital, 
the building of the so-called Eagle Nest Data in the Cimarron Canyon, was carried tlarough bv 
Mr. Springer and his brother Charles. 



I62 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

While built prinaarily for the purpose of storing water for their own lands, it will also 
irrigate a large acreage of adjacent lands and result in the developnaent of one of the most 
ilnportaut agricultural areas of the state. 
The builders of this enterprise, in investing their capital, have taken all the chances, vhile 
the public and the state receives a large portion of the benefits. 
Mr. Springer's nanae has been frequently naentioned for the highest political honors 
withln the gift of the state, but lais inclination bas led hiln away frona the field of politics. 
]{is wise counseI, lais cool and deliberate judgnaent, have always been sought by the 
Ieaders of the state, and his influence and counsel bas been a naost important factor in guiding 
the state through her territorial period into fui1 statehood and in franaing lier laws and 
constitution. 
Mr. Springer was one of the first to see in New Mexico the naeaning of her past, the vaIue 
of ber present, and the pronaise of ber future. 
In addition to lais own constructive work, his assistance and support have been of im- 
naeasurable value to those other pioneers who bave Iabored to establish and build up the educa- 
tional and scientific institutions of the state. 
Dr. Hewett: \Ve bave heard of Mr. Springer's activities in law and busi- 
ness. We may nov hear something said of his achievements in science. I have 
the pleasure to introduce the distinguished President of tbe Southwestern Divi- 
sion of the American Association t'or the Advancement of Science, Dr. D. T. 
MacDougal, of the Carnegie lnaitute, head of the Desert Botanical Labora- 
tories at Tucson and Carmel. 

THE BUSINESS IAN IN SCIENCE 
Dr. MacDougal: Ladies and Gentlcmcn: The honor which cornes to nae is in no sense 
personal. I feeI that I ana here representing the I2,OOO lnenabers of the Anaerican Association 
for the Advancement of Sciencean association naade up of naen whose biographies would 
be the history of science of the world for the last seventv-five years. I feel especially happy 
on this occasion because the subject of ont felicitations represents the very idem and essence 
of this association which has given so nauch to the world. I have no conapromises to naake. 
I can speak frankly, and it is hot often that a speaker on these occasions can go without linaits. 
In order to put to you how a scientist wonld feel about this matter, I naust go aside for 
the naonaent and consider the state of society in which we lire. In a denaocratic form of gov- 
ernnaent our educational, scientific and artistic work naust take the forna of generalized effort 
which naostly bas no high peaks. To illustrate what I mean by that: an organization mav 
enaploy a great artist to make pictures ; naay give him so much for the month or dav: and in 
spite of the fact that they are in harness, our musicians, artists and poets do great things. But 
the great creative work of the world is donc on individual initiative. Quite regardless of what 
naav or mav not happen in Russia or in an 3, other experinaent, rational or crazy, whose nature 
is always such that the group of peopIe whom Janaes Harvey Robinson has designated as " the 
wonderers"--and in that group he includes the scientists, the poets and the artists--the 
creative work of these people will be donc not under direction but as a matter of personal 
effort--driven from within and not frona without. 
I ara hot here to decry denaocratic government, whatever its failings and failures may 
bave been. ]3nt I do wish to emphasize sonae of the finer graces that naay arise on the basis 
and on the snbstratum of sound democracy. The naost precious thing that can conae from such 
a substratmn is a sense of service, a sense of indirect acconaplishnaent. The artist or the scien- 
tist who gives himself to his own ]ongings, who pleases lais own curiosities, who does lais work 
hot because he is told to--these are the men who achieve. 



PERSON_\L RECI)RD 16 3 

Now it is quite obvious who bave found the course of lire during the first quarter of 
this century. I think this will be a notable quarter century in its accomplishments and its 
tragedies, but it will be most noticeable for the fact that we can discern a growing sense of 
service in men who accept out democratic limitations, who accept the firm knovledge that 
they live, and then seek by personal service to top it with something that neither democracy 
nor auy other form of governlnent cau evolve. This personal service has taken two forms. 
I have seen the men who are eminent in great industrial enterprises devote the profits and 
fruits of their work to the promotion of the dreams of artists, scieutists and poets and others 
of creative capacity. I have also seen those men who have shown great abilitv in industrial and 
other efforts give hot onlv the lnoney which they cannot use to the promotion of these things, 
but give themselves. 
It seems to me that the subject of our felicitatious tlfis evening is a man who bas become 
notable to you. to your state, to our country, and to the scientific world by giving service in 
both these wavs ; by giving substantial support for the promotion of the dreams of others, and 
by scientific effort in the wav of research, the fruits of which would be ample for the achieve- 
ment of a great scientist if he did uothing else during his lire rime. 

THE FRiEND OF SCIENCE, RT AND EDUCA'HON 
Dr. Hewett" I ara glad that we have had this SUmlnin up of the activities 
of Mr. Springer, for few have ever known him in all these capacities. Some have 
known Dira in law, some in business, some in the fields of science, some in the 
development of our educational, scientific and art work here, but few bave real- 
ized his eminence in all these lines. 
But after all has been appraised, something greater still remains to be told. 
There are those, and the number is large, who desire to pay a proper tribute to 
bim in another capacitv, that of the staunch inspiring friend. No one has greater 
reason to speak of him in this rein than I. 
Out old riend, Charles F. Lummis, on the occaqion of one of out encamp- 
ments in the Rito de los Frijoles, drew this portrait, than which I have seen 
nothing finer in color or bronze, and which vou will all recognize as a perfect 
likeness" 
" Grave and gentle and strong and still, 
Sits the Chier in the Council Tent: 
But when we corne to a breakneck bill 
His is the hand that is lent. 
There's a Something we all can feel 
Power and poise of the Elder stamp" 
%olomola must have ruade a deal 
With Springer, Dean of the Rito camp." 
No one will ever know how many have elt the support of his strong, kindly 
hand, ahvays extended in such an unostentatious way that it xas known only to 
the one receiving it. If we could assemble here the young artists, musicians, 
scientists, who bave been helped to their higher opportunities bv him, the hum- 
ber would astonish vou. And a greater effect than tbe material aid afforded was 
always the determined effort inspired bv his faitb. It called out the best in vou. 
Ne has ahvavs absolute faith in the visions of youth. Ne believed in you, trusted 
vou implicitly; )-ou simply bad to make good. 



164 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
\Vhen ] was at the head of the Normal University of Nev Mxico 
and he was president of the Board of Regents, he gave llle this admonition" 
" glr. Hewett, see that no deserving student ever leaves this institution for lack 
of funds. Alwavs let me know about such cases." I aih venturing to tell some 
things al»out 5If. Springer lhat bave not leen told in public before. These were 
the things that gave him lais greatest pleasure c,utside of lais falnily lire. 
His home was a sacred precinct that some of us have been privileged to 
enter. Among the greatest of lais successes, shared by a wise and beautiful wife 
and mother, ha. been the rearing c,f a rcmarkable family. Two things stand 
cut in mv mind as [ recall what I have seen of his family life--the solicitous 
care for the opportunities cf every son and daughter, and the veneration in which 
he alwavs held his forebears. He is the son of a great father, whose memory he 
holds in profound reverece, l-le is crue  f tlmse who believe that 
" Whatever is Man in the sons of men, 
\Vhatever is staunch and true, 
\Ve draw from our sires, and their sires again, 
.\nd mothers of lnothers who mated when 
The world and its heart were new." 
\Ve could speak h,ng of the qualities that bave endeared Sir. Springer to 
so many. He is all that has been claimed for him tonight, and something greater 
still. In the lnind cf everv one of vou who knows him well, he stands out as 
the incomparable gentleman. IIe bas reached that highest of alI distinctions 
throu-h lais interest in and practice of the finer things of lire: The things in 
which he bas taken deepest interest, science, art, music, education, public wel- 
rare, the good naine of lais state, the destiny of our country, which he has always 
staunchly held must be achieved on the lines laid down bv the founders of our 
great republic, make for nobilitv. It is lhe highest possible ideal of the citizen 
nohility in public and private lire. 
The friends of Mr. Springer have feh that at this tilne, when he bas reached 
the fullness of life and is still with us, they would like to do something that 
would stand as an enduring contril)ution from theln to this state in honor of its 
great citizen. Iii the olden tilnes, lnen honored hot only their soldiers and states- 
lnen, but their scholars and all who ccmtrilmted to the greatness of the state. 
It seelned to the friends of Sir. Springer that it would be a VOl-thv thing to 
present some inaperishalle gift that would stand forever as a tribute to hiln, in 
this temple of art which b_e helped so nmch to create, in this institution which 
he has froln its heginning enriched with his broad spirit and wise counsel, in 
this ancient capital which bas felt in so many ways the beneficence of his pres- 
ence, and in this great state of New Mexico, which he bas helped to ennoble bv 
his active, creative lire, and vhich he has always cherished and acknowledged 
his obligations to as the place of his earlv opportunities. 



PERSONAL RFCORD i6 5 

On nentioning it to one after another, every one xvithout exception said- 
" Iet me have a part in that. I want to contribute to that purpose." So to a 
sculptor who had gained high eminence in out country, Cartaino Scarpitta, was 
entrusted this sacred task. He brought to it hot onlv the skill of a toaster, but 
the spirit of a master--the discernment and zeal which produce vesults in art 
that lire as toaster work. [ ara now going to show vou the outcome of this plan 
that we have brought to a happy conclusion. When I told ,l[r. Springer what we 
xvere going to do here tonight, he promptly tock to the woods; but I ana in hopes 
thht during the social hour that follows, a committee of out \Voman's P, oard 
xvlaich provides these delightful social occasions for us, will see if they cannot 
final him and bring him into view. It gives me one of the greatest pleasures of 
my lire to pcesent to the state of New 5[exico through you, Senator Jones, 
representing the Governor on this occasion, this bronze of our great citizen, 
llr: Frank Springer. 

ACCEPTANCE FOR TIIE TATE 

Senator Jones: Dr. HeoEcctt, Ladics and Gcltlclncn: This is to nle a very gratifying 
occasion. Of course, I bring to you the regrets of our distinguished Governor that he is 
unable to be with us tonigbt, and in the naine of the state of Ne»v l[exico I accept this verv 
wonderful gift. I appreciate the fact that I ara priviIeged to bear lais commission and in lais 
naine perform this Junction. It is gratifying to me as a citizen of New Mexico and as a resi- 
dent of Las Vegas. which has for so lalalay years been the home of our distinguished citizen 
that we honor tonight. 
It vas my privilege to become acquainted with him back in the middle eighties and to 
have become intimately associated with him during subsequent years. During fourteen years, 
the latter part of lais activity in law, he and I occupied the saine offices--a close association 
which to me ruade all ever bindilag friendship. As a young lawver at the bar I used to sit 
council with him, and I can bear witness to the manv splendid qualities and great ability of 
Mr. Springer which bave been told to vou in such an eloquent wav bv Colonel Twitchell, who 
bas also been mv friend during all that period of years. So, from a personal standpoint, it is 
more than gratifying to appear before vou tonight and join in the tributes to my friend. 
I know lais ability as a lawyer and as a business man. and I bave known SOlnething of lais vork 
as a scientist and philanthropist 81ad big hearted citizen. 
On behalf of the state of New _Mexico I ana particularly pleased to speak on this occa- 
sion. To me it is unusual in bistory. \Ve are doing tonight two things which have seldom 
been done in the past. First, we are honoring a priv.te citizen. If vou will observe the statues 
of men througbout the United States. you will find that thev are dedicated generally to those 
who bave become famous either in war or statesmanshii3--in some public capacity. Tonight 
we are met to honor a citizen who has become famous in other walks of lire. It is mv hope that 
this occasion may become an inspiration to other sections of our country and to other coun- 
tries. Let us look into the lires of those with wholn we associate" let us COlnmelad the great 
and good things they are doing. To be noted at the bar, in business, in science, is something 
which should appeal to the rising generations, and tonight when we honor a distinguished 
citizen for all these qualifications, we honor one whose career should be emulated by the vouth 
of the land. So I ara especially pleased in the naine of the state of New Mexico to accept this 
gift to the state presented by the friends of the man who bas become thus distinguished and 
thus famous in private life. 



166 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

In another respect is this occasion unusual. The subject of our meeting this evening is 
still in lire. Too often, almost universally, tributes of this character are brought after we bave 
been laid under the sod. How much better it is that we should strew flowers alo.g life's path- 
wav and rnake it brighter and pIeasa.ter for those with whom we associate. This is another 
act which I hope may be repeated in the future in New Mexico and in the nation. So, speak- 
ing for the chier executive of this state, a.d I know that I speak for the citizens of New 
Mexico, I say that I ana proud and grateful to receive this monument, which wiI1 be preserved 
by the state for all tilne to corne, to one who is worthy of the highest esteern of our great 
people. 



INDEX 

The names of genera, species and larger divisions considered to be valid are printed in bold-face type; 
tbose regarded as synonyms, in italics. The bold-face figures indicate the page at xx, hich the genus species 
or term is defined. 

Abrachiocrinus, 98. 
,4bracrimts, 42. 
Actinocrinidae, defined by Jaekel, 41. 
Acthocrb«us sculptus, 142. 
Agassiz, Louis, I. 
Allocrinus, 30. 
 benedicti, 3I. 
 longidactylus, 30. 
 ponderosus, 30. 
 typus, 3o. 
American Museum Nat. Hist., 7, II. 
Ampheristocrinus typus, 132. 
Anal structures, modifications of, 41. 
-- tube, 96. 
Angelin, N. P., 9, 4I. 
Anisocrinus, 65. 
 angelini, 66. 
 greenei, 66. 
 oswegoensis, 66. 
Anthemocrinus, I4. 
Aorocrinus, 47. 
 clarkensis, 47. 
 nodosus, 47. 
Arms in Calceocrinidae, 89. 
 axil, 9o, 94, Iz5. 
 branching of, i12, I25. 
 disappearance of, 89, 99- 
 lateral, 90. 
 median, 89, 90, 95, 1-95. 
 modifications of, 89, 94, 99. 
Asaphocrinus, 66. 
 bassleri, 66. 
 minor, 67. 
Asymmetry of stem and arms, 89. 
Axil-arm system, 90, 92, 93. 
-- development, diagram, 94- 

Bainbridge formation, 75, 79. 
Barrandeocrinus, 43. 
13asals, atrophy of, 89. 
-- fusion of, 90. 
Base, modifications of, 89, 90. 
 mobility of crown on, 96. 
Bassler, R. S., -% IO, 11, 80, I17. 
 Bibliographic Index, IO. 
Barber, F. A., 9, 20, 82, 88, 96, 97, lOO, lO4, I26, I3I, 
136, I37. 
Batocrinidae, 41. 
 rejected by Jaekel, 4I. 
Beachler, Charles S., 6, 9, lO. 
Beech River formation, 3, 6. 
Benedict, A. C., 6, lO, 76. 
]3ibliography of author's works, I46-I52. 
Bilateral symmetry, 89, 96, 99. 

Birmingham Museum, 8, 63. 
Blastoidea and Cystidea, I4I. 
Bob formation, 2. 
Botryocrinus polyxo, 138. 
-- tenuidactylus, 37. 
P, rachials, 90. 
Brahmacrinus, 53. 
-- elongatus, 
Braun, Frederick, 6, 7, IO, II. 
British Museum, 6, II. 
Brownsport group, 2. 

Calceocrinidae, 7 r, 88, IOI. lO4. 
diagram of Forms A, B, C, D, 9 I. 
distribution, lOO. 
evolutionary series, 90, 91, 92, 99. 
genera of, lO4. 
mobility of crown on stem, 98. 
mode of lire, 98. 
nomenclature, IOI. 
orientation of calyx, 88. 
series of, 91. 
shifting of stem, 96. 
tri-radiate form, 9 -9. 
Calceocrinus, iOl, 102, lO3, lO4, IIS, II8. 
diagram, 91. 
generic position of, lO3. 
alleni, 119. 
bassleri, lOO, 117. 
bidentatus, 118. 
bifurcatus, 113, 117. 
bradleyi, lol. 
contractus, 118. 
foerstei, 94, lOO, 116. 
[urcillatus, 11o. 
gotlandicus, 94, lOO. 
halli, lO3, 118. 
interpres, 94, ioo. 
nitidus, lOO, 113, 9. 
pinnulatus, 94, 95, ioo, 1 I3, 116. 
pugil, lOO, 117, 2o. 
gl.ÇOSllS, I I0. 
stigmatus, ioi, i18. 
tenax, 116. 
tucanus, lOO, II7. 
typus, lol, lO3, 119. 
Callicrinus, 18, 39. 
beachleri, 4o. 
spp., 4o. 
Calvin, S., 127. 
Calycanthocrinus, 74. 
Calyptocrinidae, 35. 
Camerata, 12. 
Carpenter, P. Herbert, lO4. 

167 



I68 INDEX 

Carpocrininae, 4 L 
Carpocrinus, 4 L 
 sculptus, 41- 
-- simplex, 4L 
Caryocfinus bulbosus, I-3. 
-- milliganae, 43. 
-- ornatus, I43. 
 persculptus, 43. 
Ca.çtocr-[llll.ç, IOI. 
 billingsianus, 1Io. 
CatiIIocrinidae, paper on, 96. 
Catillocrinus, 73, 82, 89. 
Cbapman, K. M., 9, IL 
Characters in classification, 41. 
 changes in, 125. 
Chcirocrinus, loi, IO3. 
-- (lflFllS, IOI, 102, 121. 
 dactylus, loi. 
 vcntricosus, 123. 
Chicago area, 8. 
 University of, 6, II. 
Classification, 41. 
Clidochirus, 69. 
 americanus, 60. 
Clonocrinus, 32, 34. 
 occidentalis, 34. 
Clusters of crinoids, 63. 
Coccocrinus, 48. 
-- ZOlle, 4- 
- bacca, 3, , 49, 50. 
 rosaceus, 49, 5o, 51. 
Coelocrinus, 47. 
Collectious and localities: 
 American Mus. Nat. Hist., 7, - 
 Beachler, Chas. S., 6, 9, o. 
Rratm. Frederick, 6, 7, o,  L 
 Chicago area, 8. 
University of, 6, . 
 Decatur County, Tenuessee, 4. 
 Dudley, England, 8. 
 Erod, Moses, 6, m. 
 Gotland, Swedeu, 8. 
 Hall, James, 6. 7, . 
 Hammeil, John F., 6, o. 
 lllinois, University of, . 
 Jewett, Col., 7. 
 Lockport, New York, 7. 
 Milligan, Mrs. J. bi., 2, . 
 Newsom, Tennessee, IO. 
 New York State Museum, 7, . 
Pate, W. F., 3, 4, . 
- Ringueberff, E. N. S., 7. m. 
 Sabord, L . 
 Ste. Genevieve Co.. Missouri, 73, 79. 
 St. Paul, Indiana, 6. 
- Troost, Gerard, , . 
 Ulrich, E. O., . 
 Wahash. hdiana, 6. 
 Wachsmuth, Charles, 3. 
-- Waldron, Indiana, 6. 
 Walker, Sir Edmund, L 
 Worthen, A. H., . 
Corymbocrhms, 34. 
Cremacrinus, o, o2, o3, o4, lO5, 6. 
 diagram of, 9L 
 articulosus, mo, lO8. 
 billingsianus, o. 
 decatur, lO7. 
 furcillatus, IO. 

Kentuckiensis, IOÇ. 
punctatus, IOI, IO2, IIO. 
]llgOStlS I I0. 
simplex, lO7. 
tubuliferus, 94, 95, o6. 
ulrichi, o3. 
Crotalocrinus, 128. 
cora, 129. 
pulcher, 13o. 
rugosus, Iz9. 
Crown, mohility on base, 96, 98. 
recumhent position, 99, 24. 
Cryptodiscus, 40. 
Culicocrinus, 49, 5o. 
nodosts, 51. 
spinosus, SI. 
Cupelloecrbdtcs, 55- 
Cyathocrinidae, I31. 
Cyathocrinus, 133. 
decatur, 134. 
polyxo, 38. 
striolatus, 134. 
wilsoni, 34. 
Cylicocrinus canaliculatus, 43. 
spinosus, 44. 
Cypcllaecrinus, 55- 
Cyphocrinus, 14. 
chicagoensis, 15. 
gorbyi, I S. 
Cytocrinus laevis, 28. 
Dccatur formation, , 5, 47- 
Loriol, lO4. 
Deltacrinus, oI, m2, o3. 
clarus, lO2, I2I. 
Dendrocrinus nucleus, 138. 
Desmidocrinus, 43. 
dubius, 43- 
laurelianus, 43. 
Dimerocrinidae, 12. 
Dimerocrinus, 12. 
inornatus, 13. 
milliganae, 13. 
nodobasis, 13. 
planus, 3. 
Dolatocrinus, paper on, 23, 59. 
Dudley, F_ngland, 8. 
collections at, 8. 
Museum, 8, 11, 63. 
Ectenocrinus, 89. 
Eirod, Moses, 6, lO. 
Emperocrinus indianensis, 23. 
lïomyclodactylus rotundus, 86. 
Eucalyptocrinus, 8, 35- 
zone, 4, 37. 
crassus, I6, 39. 
depressus, 38. 
elrodi, 36. 
lindahli, 36. 
magnus, 36. 
milliganae, 37. 
ovalis, 36. 



XEX 6 9 

Faunas, American and European, 4, 8, 55, 72. 
Fistulata, 85. 
Flexibilia, 64. 
Florin, A., 8. 
Foerste, Aug. F., 2, 6, 7, 4I, 1t7. 
Foreign Silurian, 8. 
Forms of Calceocrinidae, A, B, C, D, ço, 91. 
Fusion of basals, 9o. 

Gasterocominae, 133. 
Gazacrinus, • 5. 
 depressus, i7. 
 inornatus, 16. 
-- lalagllU$, 17. 
-- milliganae, i8. 
-- rare•fer, •8. 
 steltatus, I9. 
 ventricosus, 17. 
Genus and species indet., 2i, 39, 58. 
Gissocrinus, I35. 
-- approximatus, •37. 
 flelicatus, I36. 
-- lyon•, •35. 
 magnlbrachiatus, 136. 
-- quadratus, •37. 
Glyptastcr, 12. 
Goldring, Winifred, 21, 27. 96. 
Gotland, Sweden, 8. 
Gnorimocrinus, 7o. 
 cirrifer, 70. 
- varians, 70. 
Gray, John, 8. 

H abrocrinus, 42. 
 ornatissimus, 42. 
 ornatus, 4 2. 
Hall, Jamês, 6, 7, 9, IOI, lO3. 
tialysiocrinus, lOl, lO2, lO4, 116, 
--- diagram of, 91. 
-- bradleyi, IOi. 
-- carillatus, 122. 
 keyserensis, 12I. 
-- OdOU, I24. 

perplexus, 97, •:t3. 
secundus, 96, I2i. 
I--lammell, John F., collection, 6, IO. 
Hapalocrinus, 5 :t. 
cirrifer, 52. 
devonicus, 53- 
gracilis, 5 . 
pinnulatus, 5. 
retiarius, 52. 
tennesseensis, 53. 
tuberculatus, 53. 
Haplocinus, 49, 5 o, 73, 81. 
mespiliformis, 5o, 81. 
Herpetocrimts, 85. 
Heterocrinidae, 85, 89. 
Heterocrinus, 89, 91. 
diaram of, 91. 
bellevillensis, 92. 
96. 
Holcroft, Charles, 8, 63. 
Homocrinus, I3I. 
Hormocrinus, 66. 
tennesseensis, 66. 
Hypocrinus, 133. 
tlyptiocrinus, 15. 
typus, I5. 

Ichthyocrinidae, 68. 
Ichthyocrinus, 68. 
-- subangularis, 69. 
Idiocrinus, 15, 16. 
-- elon.qatus, 16. 
Illinois, University of, I t. 
Inadunata, 7•. 
Indiana area, 6. 
Insertae sedis, 54, 139. 
Iocrinus, 85. 

Jaekel, 0., 4I, 49, 82, 99, t IQ. 
Jewett, Col., 7- 

Klinteberg, G., 8. 

Lampterocrinus, 1 Ç, 
-- palwus, 20. 
-- roemeri, 2i. 
--- sculptus, 2•. 
-- tennesseensis, 20. 
Larviformia, 71. 
Laurelocrinus, 3x. 
 gibbosus, 33. 
 paulensis, 33. 
-- spinoradialis, 34. 
 wilsoni, 33. 
Lecanocrinidae, 64. 
Lecanocrinus, 65. 
 caliculus, 67. 
 elongatus, 
 meniscus, 65. 
 pisiformis, 65. 
-- pusillus, 65. 
Lecythiocrinus adamsi, 133. 
-- problematicus, 133. 



i7 0 INDEX 

Lepadocrinus gebhardi, 142. 
1.cptocrim«s, 42. 
Liljevall, Georg, 88. 
I.obelville formation, 2. 
Lockport, New York, 7, 9, lO. 
Lyon, Sidney S., 2, 11, 50. 
Lyonicrinus, 48. 
-- bacca, 51. 
Lyriocrinus dactylus, 24. 
-- melissa, 24. 
Lysocystites sculptus, 142. 
Macrostylocrinus, 25. 
 anglicus, 27. 
---- fasciatus, 25. 
-- granulosus, 26. 
-- indianensis, 27, 32. 
 laevis, 26. 
 meeki, 26. 
 ornatu, 27. 
-- pustulosus, 26. 
---- striatus, 27. 
Made]y, XVil]iam, 8. 
Main-axils, 90. 
Mariacrinus, 28. 
-- aureatus, 29. 
-- carleyi, 29. 
 rotundus, 29. 
-- sp., 29. 
Marsipocrininae, . 
Marsipocrinus, .. 
-- coelatus, 2. 
 concavus, 60. 
-- excavatus, 60. 
-- inflatus, 58. 
-- magnificus, 6L 
---- rosaeformis, 57, 59. 
-- stellatus, 6o. 
---- striatissimus, 6. 
-- striatus, 58. 
-- tennesseensis, 56, 57, 59. 
 turbinatus, 62. 
-- verneuili, .59. 
Marsupiocrim«s, 55- 
3Iedian arm, 89, 90, 95. 
Meek and Worthen, lOl, lO4. 
Melocrinidae, 25. 
-- genus and species indet., 32. 
]VIelocrinus, 27. 
-- aequalis, 28. 
-- obconicus, 28. 
 oblonKus, 28. 
---- roem.eri, 28. 
-- onondaga, 28. 
-- spectabilis, 27. 
-- tennesseensis, 27. 
Mcrrill, Dr. Gco. P., II. 
Miller, S. A., 6, I5, 16, 73, 76, 1o4. 
MiIIer and Gurley, 78, 131. 
Milligan, Mrs. J. M., 2, II, 1.3I. 
Mobility of crown, 98. 
Monobrachiocrinus, 98. 
Moodey, Margaret XV., I. 

Mycocrinus, 73- 
Myelodactylus, 7, 85, 98. 
 ammonis, 86. 
-- brachiatus, 87. 
---- brevis, 86. 
-- brid.qcportensis, 86. 
-- convolutus, 86. 
 extensus, 87. 
-- fletcheri, 86. 
---- gorbyi, 86. 
-- keyserensis, 87. 
--- nodosarius, 87. 
 schueherti, 87. 
Myrtillocrinus americanus, 49. 
Mysticocrinus, 83. 
 wilsoni, 84. 
Mfinster, 74. 
Muscular articulation, 88. 

New Mexico, presentation to State, 153. 
Nexvsom, Tennessee, IO, 24, 36. 
New York area, 7. 
-- State Museum. 7, II. 
Niagaran, sections, 3, 5. 
Number of species, 8. 
Nyctocrinus, 34- 
-- magnitubus, 34. 

Oehlert, D., 81. 
0hiocrinus, 89. 
Oral plates, 73, 75, 82. 
Origin of this work, 9- 

Palaeocrinus, I3 I. 
Paragazacrinus, 22. 
---- rotundus, 22. 
Parastephanocrinus typus, 39. 
Parisocrinus siluricus, 
Pate, W. F., 2, 4, 9, I I. 
Patelliocrinus, 31. 
-- laevis, 32. 
-- ornatus, 31. 
-- pinnulatus, 31. 
I r U 0 S  S j 
Patellod plates. I37. 
Paulocrinus, 22. 
_i biturbinatus, 22. 
Periechocrininae, 44. 
Periechocrinus, 44. 
-- laevis, 46. 
-- minor, 46. 
-- moniliformis, 44, 45. 
-- tennesseensis, 45. 
-- whitci, 44. 
 sp., 45. 
Personal record, 144. 
Petalocrinus, • 26. 
---- inferior, 127. 
--longus, 127, 128. 
-- mirabilis, i26. 
-- visbycensis, 12. 
Phoenicocrinus, 42. 
Phylogenetic modifications, 95, 125. 



INDEX 

Pinnules, doubled, 2o, 42. 
 openings for, 59. 
Pionocrinus, 42. 
Pisoerinus, 7, 89. 
--- baeeula, 7. 
---- benedieti, 77. 
 eampana, 76, 80. 
--- gemmiformis, 74. 
---- globosus, 79, 8o. 
 gorbyi, 78. 
 granulosus, 7. 
 milll.qanae, 78. 
 ollula, 78, 8o. 
--- pilula, 76, 8o. 
 poeillum, 76. 
-- pyriformis, 8o. 
 quinquelobus, 77, 78, 79. 
--- sphericus, 75, 78, 79. 
-- tennesseensis, 75, 79. 
Platycrinidae, 82. 
 genus and species indet., No. 1, 5I. 
No. 2, 51. 
No. 3, 52. 
Platycrinus retiarius, 52. 
-- huntsvillae, 52, 53- 
Primibrachs, unequal-faced, 94- 
Proclivocrinus, lol. 
Progressive characters, 9-1, 93, I25. 
Protaxocrinus, 69. 
-- robustus, 70. 
Pseudocrinus qaudrifasciatus, 1-12. 
Pycnosaccus, 67. 
-- americanus, 67. 
-- dubius, 68. 
 laurelianus, 67. 
-- patei, 67. 
-- welleri, 67. 

Racine dolomite, 8. 
Respiratory pores, 59- 
Resser, C. E., IL 
Rhoflocriniflae, 22. 
 genus and species indet., 24. 
Riks Museum, Stockholm, 8. 
Ringueberg, E. N. S., 7, 9, lO, 88, IOl, lO3. lO4. 
Rochester shale, 7, IO. 
Roemer, C. F., I, I8. 
Rominger, Carl, _'2. 
Rowley, R. R., 75, 79. 

Saccocrinus, 44, 45. 
-- benedicti, 46. 
-- cuspidatus, 46. 
--. speciosus, 45. 
-- umbrosus, 46. 
Safford, J. M., I, 1. 
Sagenocrinidae, 68. 
Sagenocrinoidea, 6-1. 
Sagenocrinus, 68. 
--- americanus, 68. 
 clarki, 68. 
St. Paul, Indiana, 6. 
Schuchert, C., 129. 

Schultze, L., 74, 8I. 
Scyphocrinus, paper on, 23, 57, 59- 
Segments of !. ant. radial, 89, 04, 95. 
Series of Calceocrinidae, 9I. 
Slocom, A. W., 8, 9, I29. 
Species, number of, 8. 
Springer, F., 23, 57, 59. 
Paper on Catillocrinidae, 06. 
Dolatocrinus, 2I, 23, 59- 
Scyphocrinus, 23, 57, 59. 
Unusual Forms, 25, 85. 
Zittel-Eastman Textb., Ol. 
Steganocrinus, 20. 
sculptus, 20. 
Stem, asymmetric location, 89, 06. 
bending of crown on, 88, 99- 
indentation by, I o, I22. 
sessile condition of, 99. 
shifting of, 96. 
Stephanocrinus, I39. 
angulatus, I39. 
gemmiformis, I4O. 
Stribalocystites gorbyi, I42. 
Subanal plate, 89. 
Suborals, 49. 
Supplementary plates, 97. 
Symbathocrinus, 73. 
tennesseensis, 70, 80. 
.çynchirocrhms an.qlicus, II9. 

T-piece, 89. 
Taxocrinidae, 69. 
Taxocrinoidea, 69. 
Tennessee area, L 
Tetracystis fenestratus,  41. 
Text-figures, 9I, 94, I1-'. 
Thalamocrinus, 131. 
cylindricus, I32. 
elongatus, I3. 
globosus, 132. 
ovatus, 13I. 
Thomas, A. 0., 1_,6. 
Thysanocrims, 2. 
Tiaracrinus, 81, 82. 
quaflrifrons, 81. 
soyei, 81. 
Torynocrinus, 98. 
Triacrinus, 74, 89. 
altus, î4. 
flepressus, 74, 80. 
Troost, Gerard, , 11. 
Troostocrinus, 41. 
zone, 4- 
reinwardti, I  I. 
sanctipaulensis, 141. 

Uintacrinus, 137. 
Ulrich, E. O., II, 97, IOO, IOI. 
United States National Museum, 8, II. 
Unusual Forms of Fossil Crinoids, 25, 85. 

Vanderbilt University, 2, II. 
Variation in characters, 124, 123. 



17 2 I NDEX 

Wachsmuth, Charles, 2, 9, II, 2o. 
Wachsmutb and Springer, I5, 16, I8, 21, 37, 40, 8,, 
96, IoI, I29. 
\Valcott, lion. Charles D., II. 
Waldron, Indiana, 6, 9, 64. 
\Valker, Sir Ednmnd, 6, II. 
Wanner, Joh., 33- 
Washburn, C. C., 6, Io. 
Weller, Stuart, 8, 9, I5, 8o, I29. 
WeIler and Davidson, I26. 
Vilson, Herrick E., 7, o, 4o. 

Wilsonicrinus, 
 discoideus, 23. 
Wood, Elvira, 80. 
Wortben, A. H., 2. 

Zittel, K. A. von, 8L 
ZitteI-Eastman, Textb. Pal., Ioi. 
Zophocrinus, 8, 82. 
-- globosus, 83. 
 howardi, 82. 
 pyriformis, 83. 



EXI/'LANATION OF PLATES 
Enlargement, if any, of the drawings is indicated by the sign at the end of the paragraph. 
Unless so noted, the figure is of natural size. Ail the specimens figured, except as otherwise 
stated, are in the author's collection now in tle United States National Museum. 



I74 

SM[TIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 1 
(All figures not otherxvise noted natural size) 
Dimerocrinus planus new species ............................... 
Fro. I. Complete crown of maximum size, with long stem; o heavy arms. 
2, 3. Lateral and posterior views of two other croxvns. 
4- Croxvn with more delicate structure. 
5- Calyx showing anal side. 
6. Basal view of crushed calyx showing IBB. 
7, 7a. Large calyx with abnormal anal side, perhaps of this species; has IBB invisible from 
side viexv: posterior and lateral views. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

PAGE 

FZG. 8. 

Dimerocrinus milliganae (Miller and Gurley) ......................... I3 
Type specimen of "'G,ptaste.r" milliganae, formerly in tbe collection of Mrs. J. M. 
Milligan. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 

FG. 9- 
9a. 
IO. 

Dimerocrinus nodobasis new species ............................. 
Oblique basal view of large crown, shoxving nodes on BB, and minute IBB concealed by 
top columlml. 
Another view of calyx, showlng anal series. 
Basal viexv of smaller specimen. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 

I3 

FIG. I I. 
IIa. 
I2. 

Dimerocrinus inornatus (Hall) ................................ I3 
Large calyx, from l. post. radius, with strongly projecting basals. 
Basal viexv of saine. 
Posterior view of smaller calyx. 
Valdron shale; Hartsville, Indiana. 

FIG. 13. 

3a. 
t3b. 
I4. 

Euflimerocrinus multibrachiatus new species ........................ : 4 
Nearly complete crown, with arms frequently branching, biserial above and below the 
bifurcations; basal and radial series surmounted by spinose cusps; IBB restricted to 
the column-facet. Anterior view. 
Anal side of calyx, somewhat restored. 
The base, with column removed, to show relation of IBB. 
Another complete croxvn, seen from 1. post. radius. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FG. 15, 
16. 
I7, 8. 

Cyphocrinus gorbyi S. A. Millet ............................... 5 
Lateral view of calyx, showing drooping of arm-bases, pinnule openings between them, 
and spiniferous tegmen. 
Dorsal view of another specimen, showing arrangement of plates and distribution of 
arms. 
Ventral viexvs of two specimens shoxving composition of tegmen, position of anus, and 
spiniferous ambulacrals. 
Laurel formation; St. Paul, Indiana. 

genus and species indet ........................... 2 
FIGS. 19,20, 21,22. Fragments of stem of nnkuown crinoid from the Laurel limestone, St. Parti, 
Indiana. 



I'RIX{;ER" .\.MI"I¢I('AN II.IRIAX ('RIN{;II;S I»IA'I'E 1 

14 

6 

11 

16 

3 

7 

lla 

10 

9a 

7a 

20 

13 

12 

13a 

22 

17 

K. M. ('hapman del 



17 6 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIG. I. 

PLATE 2 
(AIl figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Gazacrinus in0rnatus S. A. Miller .... 
Post. view of calyx and rays to level of IBr. X 5/2. 
2. Ant. view of crown with part of arms intact. X 2. 
3- Dorsal view of calyx, showing excavate base with IBB concealed by a columnal; r. ant. 
side above. X 5/2. 
4. Ventral view of cup, sbowing articulating faces of RR at level of IIBr, the strong inter- 
radial processes for support of orals, which are wanting here. X 2. 
5. The tegmen, with oral plates in position resting on the interradial processes, except the 
central part of post. oral, or a part corresponding to it. here broken away. X 2. 
Sa. Basal view of saine, showing IBB at bottom of cavity. X 2. 
6. A detached set of oral plates lacking central part. X 3/2. 
7. Tegmen of another specimen with ail oral plates in place, surmounted by ridges hot present 
in fig. 5; fractured part restored in outline. X 2. 
8, 9- t3asal views of two other specimens. X 3/2. The ventral structures vary in different 
specimens. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

PAGE 
..................... 16 

FIG. IO. 
ioa. 
II. 

I2. 

Gazaerinus magnus new species .......................... 
Very e]ongate central pyramid of tegmen, being the 5 oral plates divided by vertical 
sutures, one of which is seen at the right lower corner. X 2. 
Internal view of saine, showing division of the plates; the outer lighter area corresponds 
to the lower shaded one in fig. II. X 2. 
An isolated plate, one of the 5 orals from a. still larger specimen, showing the sharp 
sutural faces at either-side; the lower shaded area is the surface of attachment to 
interradlal processes, corresponding to the lighter area in fig. Ioa. X 2. 
Another ventral pyramid having only hall as many plications as in fig. IO. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

17 

Gazaerinus depressus new species ........... . ................... 17 
Slecimen with depressed, rounded calyx and heavy arms ; base crushed. X 3/2. 
Detached base, perhaps of this species, somewhat resembling the Tennessee species. 
X 3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Gazacrinus ventricosus (Wachsmuth and Springer) ................... 17 
FIGS. I5, I5a, 153. Posterior, basal and ventral views of the type specimen, the latter having the low, 
radiating pyramid in place, somewhat imperfect in the median part. X 4. 
16, 162. Distal and proximal views of detached ventral pyramid from another specimen. X 2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Gazacrinus ramifer (Roemer) ................................ 18 
Fro. 17. Dorsal vlew of calyx with anal side above, showing the broad basal cavity lodging IBB; 
with pentagonal projecting rira upon basals and less prominent triangles passing to the 
radial series. 
18. A nearly complete crown from I. post. radius, with long and heavy biserial arms. 
19, I9a. Anterlor and posterior views of crown with part of arms, the latter having the ven- 
tral pyramid clearly in view. 
2o, 2oa. A complete crown with the triangular sculpture on basals and radials sharply accen- 
tuated; ant. and r. post. iR views. 
21. Part of crown of similar well marked specimen from Wayne County, Tennessee. 
Beech River formation; all but the last from Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Gazacrinus milliganae (Miller and Gurley) .......................... 18 
FIG. 22. Basal view of type; plates raised into prominent nodes. 
23, 24. A detached ventral pyramid, and a larger specimen, perhaps of this species. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Çounty, Tennessee. 



I'RIN(;I,.'R" ,\MFRI('AN ll URIAN Ç'RIN(IDS |LATE 2 

1 

9 

5a 

11 

7 

10a 

2 

10 

12 

22 

25b 

20 

Ix. 31. Chapman del. 

15 

16a 

25 

19 

24 

1 5a 

21 

18 

16 

15b 

25a 

19a 

17 

25c 

20a 



AMERICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS I77 

PAGE 
Gazacrinu Éellatu new species ............................... 9 
FIGS. 25, 25a, b,c. Posterior, anterior, basal and ventral views of unique specimen, with highly 
sculptured surface, and pentagonal and triangular projections similar to those of 
G. ranifer, tlae latter forming a conspicuous star. In 25c there is a remnant of the 
ventral pyramid, much distorted. 
Linden formation, Lower Devonian; t-Iardin County, Tennessee. 



17 8 SXl tTHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 3 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise indicated) ,.«c 
Lampterocrinus tennesseensis Roemer ............................ 2o 
A typical calyx from posterior side, showing the anal sertes with sharp median ridge 
leading to the tube. 
L. ant. view of another calyx, showing bulging of the anal side af the right, and strong 
ridges passing from basals to radial sertes. 
3,4- Two other specimens differlng in size and contour. 
5, 5a. Complete crown with tubular extensions single from each ray, bearing alternating pin- 
nuliferous side arms; with anal tube preserved; it is free from the matrix, and the 
two views show opposite sides. 
6. Fragment of another specimen showing details of arms, xvith two pinnules from each 
brachial. X 2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Cunty, Tennessee. 

Fins. 7, 8. 

Lampterocrinus sculptus new species ............................. 2I 
Two calices with more elaborate sculpturing and wider expanding contour--f fore saine 
locality, and perhaps a variety of the preceding. 

Lampterocrinus roemeri new species ............................. 2i 
Fro. 9- Caracteristic specimen, with bases of tubular extensions attached, and part of the pen- 
tagonal stem. 
Io. Cmplete crown, with anal tube: radial extensions and side-arms well preserved. 
II, 12, 13. Three calices showing uniform character of the simplified ridges. 
14. Ventral view, showing base of anal tube. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

genus and species indet ......................... 21 
Fragment with six-sided stem, sharply angular, and only part of basals. )< 2. 
Transverse view showing the large lumen, and angles of the hexagonal stem. )< 2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Cunty, Teunessee. 



.";,I'RIX(;FI,I" \.XII':RI(A. .";,11 I'RIAX (RIN()II).',:, I'l.«Tl.: , 

11 

9 

14 

4 

7 

K. M. ('hapman del. 

15a 

5 

15 

2 

.2 



I80 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIG. I. 

PLATE 4 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Paragazacrinus rotundus new species ............................. 22 
Complete calyx, with tegmen surmounted by a central spine and divided by interambulacral 
and secondary ridges. ( 5/3- 
Dorsal view of calyx showing the 5 IBB at bottom of indented pit ; RR separated all around 
by BB and iBr. 
Another specimen, wlth smaller basal cavity. 
Ventral view of saine with 5 large tegmlnal plates in place, but central spine lacking; 
shows openings for 
Isolated pyramid with central spine attached. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Paulocrinus biturbinatus new genus and species ........................ 
Fins.5, Sa. Post. and r. post. views of complete calyx with tegmen passing into a large anal tube; 
ail plates strong|y nodose or rugose; r. post. ray bas only I IBr. 
5b. Basal view of saine, showing irregular form of IBB, 2 large and 3 small, and 5 EB and 
2 RR connecting with them. 
5c. Diagram shoxving arrangement of basal plates. 
Laure[ limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Fic. 6, 6a.. 

Wilsonicrinus discoideus new genus and species ........................ 23 
Dorsal and ventral views of the only specimen--a broad disk slightly convex below and 
passing into a strong anal tube above; 4 IBB: fixed pinnules from cuneate secundi- 
brachs incorporated in calyx wall, leading to interradial pinnule openings at rnargin, 
conspicuous on ventral side. between the Io arm-openings. (3/z. 

Fins. 7, 7a. 

Emperocrinus indianensis Miller and Gurley ......................... 
A typical specimen, of simpler structure than the preceding, and having 5 IBB; inter- 
radial pinnule openings shoxvn; dorsal alld ventral views. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

FIcs. 8, 8a. 

Rhodocrinidae, genus and species indet ............................ z4 
Fragment of large stem standing at angle xvith calyx covering 4 large IBB as seen from 
the interior ; RR separated ail around; traces of injury by boring parasites. Outer and 
inner views. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

FIG. 9. 
oa. 

Macrostyl0crinus fasciatus Hall ............................... 
Posterior view of highly elevated calyx, with anal series leadlng to opening at extreme 
margin of tegmen. X 2. 
Basal view of saine. >(3/2. 
The tegmen, with ambulacra fully exposed flanked by numerous small plates; a small anal 
opening at extreme edge o tegmen. >(3/4. 
V;aldron shale; Hartsville, Indiana. 

I2, I 3. 

Macrostylocrinus granulosus Hall .............................. 6 
Post. view of calyx from Madison, Indiana, with anal series leading to opening; surface 
granulose. >( 2. 
The tegmen, with anal opening covered by py'ramid of small plates; a large posterior 
oral: and ambulacra radiating to arm-openings with numerous small plates between 
of uncertain arrangement. X . 
Ila, lb, llc. R. ant., post., and ventral views of small specimen from Newsom, Tennessee, 
with tegmen well preserved..b( 2. 
Specimens from Newsom and Decatur County, Tennessee, perhaps of this spedes. 
X 3/z. 
Waldron shale; Indiana and Tennessee. 



I'RIN«;ER" .\.'Xll'[l,tltAN ll+l'l,tl \N ('RIN{;II;S I"i ATE  

5 

7 

6 

4 

2 

23 

15 

2O 

21 

18 

25a 

17 

22 

3a 

3 

14 

24 

llc 

lla 

13 

I 

5b 

w 5c 

Da 

Ga 

llb 

lOa 

11 

9b 

9 

ha 

l. l.l. ('halnn:tn {Ici. 



AMERICAN SILUR1AN CRINOIDS 

PAGE 
Macrostylocrinus laevis new species ............................. -06 
FIGS. I4, I5. Dorsal oblique views of two crowns, with strong biserial arms; calyx more or less 
crushed. 
16, I7, I8, I9. Lateral views of 4 calices, showing various contours; surface in ail srnooth; 
I6 and I7 flattened. 
t3eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Macrostylocrinus meeki (Lyon) ......................... 
FIGS.2o,-oi,22. Post., ant. and basal views of three specimens lacking the striate ornarnent; show 
the broadly rotmded calyx, sharp ridges following the radial series, and the wide IBr; 
in 22 post. is at the right. 
23. A variant perhaps of different species, showing small size of arms. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

6 

FG. 24. 

Macrostylocrinus ornatus Hall .............................. 27 
The type species; a cornplete crown and stem with terminal root; biserial arrns and pin- 
nules; frorn the Rochester shale at Lockport, New York. collected by Frederick Braun. 

FGs.25,25a. 

(?) Macr0stylocrinus pustulosus new ............................ 26 
Pot. and dorsal views of the only specirnen, having anal side like .'llacrostvlocrimts. 
but radial facets more like the Platycrinidae. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



I82 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIG. I. 

PLATE S 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
Melocrinus tennesseensis new species ............................ 27 
Crown with part of arms and long stem; the two main rami hot fused; calyx plates 
displaced. 
t3eech River formation: Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Melocrinus (?) spectabilis Angelin ............................. 27 
A very complete specimenwith arms and stem from the Wenlockian at Dudley, England-- 
for comparison with the Tennessee form. Nc.te the numerous ]]3r plates. 
Dorsal view of another specimen from the same locality. 

]VIelocrinus onondaga new species .............................. 28 
FIG. 4. . very small specimen from the Onondaga at Sylvania, Ohio. . 2. 

F6s. 5, 6. 

Melocrinus oblongus Wachsmuth and Springer ........................ 28 
Lateral views of two calices. 
Loulsville limestone; Jefferson County, Kentucky. 

Cytocrinus laevis Roemer .......... : ............ 
FI6S.7, 7a. Lateral and ventral views of calyx. 
8. Post. view of smaller specimen, showlng protuberant anal opening in tegrnen. 
Beêch River formation: Decatur Cunty, Tennessee. 

28 

FIG$. 9, IO. 

Mariacrinus carleyi (Hall) .............................. 
Posterior and r. post. views of calyx. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

29 

IIGS. I I, I la. 

Mariacrinus aureatus S. A. Miller .... 
Lateral and dorsal views of caboE. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

ITIGS. I2, I2t7. 

(?) Mariacrinus rotundus new species ............................ 29 
L. post. and dorsal views of calyx. 
Decatur limestone; above Clifton on Tennessee River, Perry County, Tennessee. 

Mariacrinus sp ....................................... 29 
Fro. I3. A well marked specimen with arms and stem, from the Wenlockian af Dudley, England. 



I'RIN;FR" AMFRI('AN II.I_'RIAN {_'l,lNHIk'q [I.ATF 5 

2 

8 

12 

11 

9 

13 

.( 

10 

12a 

lla 

5 
K. M. Chapman del. 
3 

7 

8 

7a 

6 



I84 SMITIISONIAN I NSTITUTION 

FI6s. I, 2. 
3- 
4- 

PLATE 6 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
Allocrinus typus Wachsmuth and Springer ........................ 3o 
Two crowns, showing characteristic heavy rms, with calyx expanding upwards. 
Crown somewhat displaced, with complete stem. 
A smaller specimen. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FIGS. 5, 6. 

Allocrinus ponderosus new species .............................. 
Two crowns, showing ihe heavy arms, medially swollen, and very narrov calyx. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

3 ° 

Allocrinus londactylus new specics ............................ 
Fro. 7. Complete crown with stem, showing extreme lengti of arms, and wide, nodose calyx 
8. Another specimen showing distribntion of pinnules. 
9, 9a. Lateral and dorsal views of calyx. 
Io. Var. nmgnlradialis. Crown wiih nearly complete arms, and extremcly large radials. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

3 ° 

Allocrinus benedicti S. A. Miller .............................. 31 
Fins. i, i2. Two crowns with more rounded calyx plates, from Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Patelli0crinus ornatus new species ....................... 31 
Lateral and basal views of calyx. 
Opposite lateral views of crown free from matrix, with tubercular surface, and IO 
heavy, biseriM arms. X 3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, lndiana. 

Patelliocrinus rugosus new species .............................. 3 2 
Two calices seen from I. ant. and r. post., with very large radials and rugose surface. 
Basal view of another specimen. X 2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

FIGS. Ig, 2o. 

Patelliocrinus laevis new species ............................... 32 
Lateral views of two specimens with smooth surface; IIBr in contact ail around. 
3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

F/G. 21. 
21o. 
2Ib. 

genus and species indet ........................... 32 
Complete crovn, with io heavy biserial arms, 3 small BI3, very large RR, followed by 
one IBr almost filling face of R; one small iBr. 
Opposite, probably post., view of lower part with arms broken away, showing large iBr. 
The saine part seen from a different angle. X 2. 
Beech River formation ; Decatnr County, Tennessee. 



PRrNGFR" ,\'MKRI('AN I[I'RI.\N ('RINtHIL r.ATE ( 

5 

14 

11 

12 

9 

2 

16 

N. 31. ('l]al)lnan ,]cl. 

21b 

21 

IS 

2la 

2o 

17 



i,C,6 SMITIlSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIGS. I, 2. 

PLATE 7 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Laurelocrinus paulensis new species ........................... 
Maximum caliccs to upper IlBr, elongate with broad base, sides rising nearly straight; 
first IBr about square; iBr elongate, 8- or 9-sided, followed by a second one much 
narrower : RR large, extending into basal cavity. 
3- Franent xvith iBr. 
4, 5,6. Bases of similar specimens with 3 unequal BB limited to shallow cavity, occupied 
largely bv column-facet with very large lumen. 
7, 8. Variety with first IBr elongate and iBr acuminate, hot followed by a second. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

PAGE 
33 

Laurelocrinus wilsoni new species ............................ 
Fins.9, o, II. Much smaller form than last, with first IBr hexagonal, iBr 5-sided followed by one 
or txvo others; 3 calices. X 3/2. 
I2. Base of similar specimen, little depressed, with small column-facet and lumen. X 3/2. 
I3. Specimen showing general contour of calyx to higher level, upper plates displaced. X 3/2- 
i3a. Base of saine, showing striate surface; one large basal bisected, making 4 BB. X 3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

33 

Laurelocrinus gibbosus new species .............................. 33 
FIG. 14. Very small calyx, with extremely large RR and iBr, and small quadrangular IBr; all 
strongly gibbous. ) 5/4- 
I4a. Base of saine, very convex, with small column-facet and lumen. ) 3/2. 
5, 6. Base of another specimen, and isolated R and IBr of another. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indlana. 

F1G. 17. 

17a. 
Iîb. 

Laurelocrinus spi.noradialis new specics ............................ 34 
Lateral view of calyx, with sharp spmes projecting downward from RR; first IBr quad- 
rangular; iBr two in succession, very elongate, 8- or 9-sideà, and a similar iIIBr. 
X 3/2. 
Opposite view of lower part of saine. X 3/2. 
Base of saine. X 3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

FiGs. IS, 18a. 

Clonocrinus occidentalis new species .............................. 34 
Lateral and dorsal views of calyx, shoving deeply sunken basal cavity, with 4 small 
BB at bottom. 
Decatur limestone; near Perryville, Tennessee. 

FIGS. I9.20. 

Eucalyptocrinus crassus Hall .............................. 39 
Lateral and ventral views slmwing the ventral pyramid, for comparison with Gaaa- 
crinus on plate _. (See also N. A. Crin. Cam., pl. 83, figs. I2. 3, 4-) 
Waldron shale; Hartsville, Indiana. 

FIG. 2I. 
2Ia. 
2b. 

Carpocrinus sculptus new species ............................. 
Anterior view of the only specimen, showing the highly sculptured surface, and a few 
quadrangular ossicles of the arms.  2. 
Posterior view, showing full series of anal plates leading fo the opening; sculpture 
eroded on this side by weathering. X 2. 
Ventral view of same, showing the oral plates, ambulacra, and anal opening through tegmen. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Ip_diana. 



%I'RINfiFIq" ,\.'II-'.RI(AN 11 L'RI\N (_'RINO]DS II.,ATE " 

] 7:L 

21 

24a 

24 

l0 

14 

5 

13a 

18 

19 

28a 
30 

24b 

14a 

26 

15 

22a 

16 

3 

11 

17b 12 

1Sa 

2O 

28 30a 

23 

29 

8 

2 

17 

2la 

27 

25 

K. M. I'hapman ciel. 



AMERICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS I8 7 

PAGE 
Carpocrinus simplex (Phillips) ................................ 42 
FIGS. 22, 22a. Complote crown, with stem, of specimen from Gotland, with pinnules well developed, 
two to each brachial, as shown in fig. œee2a, enlarged. X 2. 
23. Another specimen from Gotland, showing the tegmen with ambulacra exposed. 
,Venlockian ; Gotland, Sweden. 

FIG. 23,. 
24a. 
24b. 

(?) Desmidocrinus laurelianus new species ........................ 
Crown with part of stem, r. ant. view; has 4 nniserial arms to the fa). 
Posterior view of calyx, showing anal series. X 3/2. 
I3ase of saine. X 3/2. 
Lanrel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

43 

FIG. 25. 

(?) Desmidocrinus dubius new species ............................ 43 
Crown with uniserial arms, bifurcating once or twice; post. view. 
Same horizon and locality as last. 

Cylicocrinus canaliculatus S. A. Miller ............................ 43 
FGS.26, 27. Posterior and anterior views of calyx. 
28, 28a. Lateral and basal views of calyx with 3 equal basal plates projecting in a wide rim. 
29. I3asal view of small specimen with unequal basals and narrower rim. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

FG. 30. 
3oa. 

Cylicocrinus spinosus new species .............................. 44 
I3asal hexagon, with strong spinose projections on BI3; dorsal view showing small cavity 
occupied by a columnai. X 3/2. 
Interior view of saine, showiug sutures connecting with lumen. X 3/2. 
Same horizon and locality as last. 



I88 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIG. I. 
2. 

PLATE 8 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
Eucalyptocrinus elrodi S. A. Millcr .............................. 36 
Dorsal view of unusually large calyx, with profuse tuhercular ornamentation. 
Latera] view of another specimen with nmch fcwer tubercles. 
Waldron sha!e: Newsom, Tennessee. 

Fw,. 3. 

Eucalyptocrinus magnus Worthen ...................... 
One of the largest known specimens belonging to this genus. 
Saine horizon and locality. 

36 

Eucalyptocrinus lindahli x,\rachsmuth and Springer ...................... 36 
Fro. 4. Cmplete crown of typical specimen, showing the heavy, rounded arms, and partitions sunken 
iu a deep groove. 
5. A smaller specimen, probably of this species. 
Beech River formation: Dccatur Çounty, Tennessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus milliganae Miller and Gurley ........................ 37 
A complete crown of maximum size, with stem; partitions widely projecting in upper 
part, and arms rapidly tapering upward. 
Two similar crowns showing varivtion in shape and condition of partitions. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus ventricosus Wachsmuth and Springer .................... 37 
Fins.9, Io, II. Dorsal and two lateral views of typical specimens. 
i2. Perfect crown, with nearly complote stem attached. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Fro. I3. 

Eucalyptocrinus sp ..................................... 38 
Part o crown with broadly rounded calyx of very tumid plates 
]3eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



I'RIN«;ER" .\MI:IICAN 11 IRIAX 

9 

2 

1'1 AFE 8 

4 

13 

7 6 8 

K. M. Chapman del. 



4 



19 0 SMITIISONIAN INSI'ITUTION 

FIG. I. 

lTIG- 5- 
6. 
6a. 

PLATE 9 
(Figures natural size uuless otherwise stated) 
Encalyptocrinus pernodosus new species ........ . ................. 
Complcte crown witb part of stem attacbed, witb extremely nodose plates, and heavy 
arms betwecn the partitions. Nat. si/e. 
œe, 2a. Lateral and dorsal views of a bighly typical calyx, showing the very large radial plates; 
basals concealed in cavity. 
3, 3a. Similar views of a cal.vx witb plates less prominently projecting. 
4- A srnaller calyx with low convex plates. 
Decatur lirnestone; quarries above Perryville, Teunessee. 

Eucalyptocrinus sculptilis uev species ....................... 
Complete crown witb stern, shovilg its peculiar bandç. Nat. size. 
Calyx of another specimen with very sharp sculpture. 
13asal view of saine, showing 4 1313 at bottom of deep cavity. X e. 
Decatur lirnestone; near Perryville, Tennessee. 

PAGE 
38 

38 

Eucalyptocrinus sp ..................................... 39 

Fms.7.7a. Lateral and basal views of perfectly smooth specimeu, with narrow base. 

13. 

Fic. 14. 
I4a. 
15. 
16. 

Decatur limestone; uear Perryvil!e, Tennessee. 

Callicrinus beachleri \Vachsmuth and Springer ........................ 4o 
Lateral views of three calices showiug the short partitions, base of smooth anal 
tube, and deep sculpturing of calyx plates. 
Dorsal views of two specimens showing the 4 very small BB at bottom of cavity, large 
RR occupyiug about the entire base projecting in the middle, with sharp ridges fol- 
lowing tbe radial series. 
A detached base, showing the 4 ]B at bottom of cavity, and ornamentation of RR. X 2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Callicrinus sp ........................................ 4o 
One of tbe 4 fan-shaped summit plates surmounting tbe tube. 
Opposite side of saine, with some matrix attached, sbowing that it is hot Pctalocrinus. 
A similar smaller plate. 
Au elongate, qtmdrant-shaped plate of saine position. 
Laurel limcstoue; St. Paul, Indiana. 



I'RIN{;I-R" .'\'II'RI(.'N II I'RI'N (._'RINf;II;S I'LATE 9 

16 

14a 

7 

k 

6 

1 

]0 

7a 

9 

]1 

]2 



I9 2 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIG. I. 
3,4- 

PLATE 10 
(Figures natural size unless otherxvise stated) 
Perieeh0erinus tennesseensis (Hall) ............................. 
Lateral viev of calyx of typical specimen vith smooth surface; 3 and 4 arms to the ray. 
Posterior viev of similar specimen. 
Lateral and ventral vievs of smaller specimens, shoxving the numerous small plates of 
tegmen. 
eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. except fig. 4, vhich is from 
the Louisville limestone, Jefferson County, Kentucky. 

PAGE 
45 

Periechocrinus sp ..................................... 45 
A large specimen with long arms and sharp ridges following the radial series; calyx partly 
broken away. 
Opposite view of saine with more of calyx shown. 
]eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Saccocrinus benedicti S. A. Miller .............................. 46 
FIGS. 6, 7, 8, 9. Four specimens with low convex plates; r. post., 1. post. iR, 1. ant. R, and post. views 
of calyx; ail vith Io arms. 
Io, rr, re. Three calices witb nodose plates; r. ant., I. ant., and basal views. 
13. Tegmen of specimen xvith strong stellate outline. 
I4. Specimen with sharp stellate ornament, perhaps of a different species. 
Laurel limestene; St. Paul, Indiana. 

FrG. 15. 

Saccocrinus cuspidatus new species ............................. 
Calyx of ver 3, large specimen with plates svrmounted by sharp cusps. 
Louisville limestone; Jefferson County, Kentucky. 

46 

Aorocrinus nodosus lew species ................................ 47 
FIGS.6. I6a. I6b. Postcrior, dorsal and ventral vicws of calyx, xvith strongly nodosc plates, show- 
ing anal scrics lcading fo opcning in tcgmcn. 
Dccatur limcstonc; bcloxv Grandvicxv, Pcrry County, Tcnncsscc. 

FIGS. I7, I7a. 

A0rocrinus clarkensis new species .............................. 47 
Posterior and dorsal views of calyx, with strongly gibbous plates, j small ]3]3, and 
very large RR. 
Hamilton, Middle Devonian; Clark Cotmty, Indiana. 



I'RINGER" \MERICAN II.L'RIAN Ç'RIN(}II)S PLATE 10 

10 

14 

3 

6 

13 

7 11 

12 

15 

K. M. ('h:tlnn:tn del. 

4 

16 

2 

16b 

"5 

16a 9 8 

5a 

17a 



19 4 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 11 
¢ Figures natural size unless otberwise stated) paGE 
Coccocrinus rosaceus Roemer ................................ 49, 51 
Flcs. I, Ia, lb. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of calyx, baving the tegmen covered by 5 abutting 
orals, with narrow grooves for ambulacra, eacb underlaid by an interradial " suboral " 
plate. 
_2. Oblique view of another specimen with largcr orals and more open grooves tban tbe pre- 
ceding. (See \Vachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., pl. 3, fig- 14.) 
Middle Devonian; Eifel, Germany. 

Culicocrinus nodosus Job. Miller ............... 
Lateral view of calyx from 1. post. radius, showing long narrow iBr. 
The tegmen entirely filled by orals closely interlocked, without marginal grooves, or iAmb. 
After Mflller. 
Lowcr Devonian: Grauwacke, Coblentz, Germany. 

51 

4b. 

Culicocrinus spinosus nev species .......................... 51 
Anterior lateral view of calyx showing iBr plates between the arm-bases. 
Posterior view of same enlarged, showing anal opening with remnants of small plates cov- 
ering it. , 2. 
Basal view of saine. 
Ventral view enlargcd, showing 5 large orals abutting without radial grooves between: 
they follow the iBr in succession, and eacb is surmounted by a prominent spiniferous 
node. X 2. 
P, eech River formation: Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Myrtillocrinus americanus Hall ....... 
Lateral view of.type. After Hall. 
Tegmen. composed entirely of 5 large abutting orals. For comparison of tegmen with 
preceding. 
ç)nondaga, Midd!e Devonian ; Livingston County, New York. 

49 

Fins. 6, 7. 
8. 
9. 
IO. 

Lyonicrinus bacca (Roemer) ................................ 5I 
R. ant. and ant. views of calyx, showing two IBr, witb interambulacrals rising between 
them. X 3/2. 
Dorsal view of calyx, with small column lacet ; small basal in 1. post. position. X 3/2. 
Dorsal view of another specimen, with base exceptionally divided into 5 plates. X 3/2. 
Ventral view of specimen with temen partly covered by 4 large interambulacral plates 
hot in contact, but separated by open ambulacral furrows leading from the afin- 
bases, and hy a large open space in the middle, beyond which at the posterior side 
are two smaller interambulacral plates flanking the anal series leading to an opening 
through the tegmen. X 3/2 
I. Similar view of a specimen with some side pieces of ambulacra remaining. X 3/2. 
2, 3, I4, 5, 6, I7, 8. A series of similar tegminal views showing the same structures in 
various positions. X 3/2. 
9,_2o- Lateral views from posterior side, showing succession of anal plates flanked by the 
two posterior interambulacra!s. X 3/2. 
_'I. 2io. L. post. and opposite views of specimen witb bases of arms and displaced remnants of 
tegmen plates ; position of small hasal at left posterior plainly shown. X 3/2. 
2_2. Oblique view of calyx with uniserial arms attached, two to the ray; r. post. side up. 
)< 312. 
23. Part of a set of arms showing nearly their full length, with the pinnules, probabl.v tvo 
to each brachial. X 3/2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Colmty, Tennessee. 

FGs.24,24a, 24b. 

Platycrinidae gen. and sp. indet. No. I ............................. 51 
Dorsal cup only, with massive plates and large BB ; 3 views. )< 2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Cunty, Tennessee. 



.,I'RIN;FR" .\MERI(AN IIA'RIAN ("RINOI[S ILATE ll 

4b 

4 

12 

13 

6 

la 

14 

2 

15 

4a 

22 

28 

K. M. Chapman ciel. 

17 

27 

24 

9 

7 

25 

$2 

24a 

8 

3a 

6 

24b 

18 

2la 

23 

20 

29 

31 



AMERICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS I95 

F'.G. 25. 

PAGE 
Platycrinidae gen. and sp. indet. No.  ............................. Sx 
Calyx, vith large interambulacral plates in position. >( 3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Platycrinidae gen. and sp. indet. No. 3 ................. 
Fins.26, 27, 28, 29. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of small species from St. Paul, Indiana. 

3 2 . 

Hapalocrinus gracilis new species .............................. 52 
Complete crown, with heavy cuneate arms and strong pinnules. X 2. 
Another specimen with part of arms and stem, showing high interambulacral tegmen 
plates. X 3. 
Small specimen with arms intact. X 3/2. 
Beech River" formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



19 6 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIGS. I. 2, 3, 4. 

FIG. 5. 

PLATE 12 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
ttapalocrinus cirrifer new species ............................... 
Four specimens with long and narrow arms, profuse pinuules, and long cirri. In 
fig. 4 the arms are extremely slender; the structure of the calyx is obscure, there 
being an abnormally enlarged anal opening. Figs. I, 2, 4, X 3/2; fig. 3, natural size. 

Hapalocrinus pinnulatus new species ............................. 
Crown with strong arms and pinnules, but much smaller and more conical calyx than the 
preceding. X 2. 

PAGE 
52 

ttapalocrinus tuberculatus nexv species ............................ 53 
Crown witb arms and pinnules similar to tbe preceding, but calyx rotund and with tubercu- 
lar surface. X2. 

FIG. 7- 

Hapalocrinus tennesseensis new species ............................ 53 
Crown much displaced, with uniserial arms, quadrangular brachials, long stem and cirri. 
X 3/2l 
Figs. -7. Beecb River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FG. 8. 

Hapalocrinus devonicus new species .............................. 53 
Crown with uniserial arms, 3 in some rays, quadrangular brachials, very strong stem and 
cirri, and tubercular surface. 
Helderl;ergian; Keyser, West Virgiu!a. 

Brahmacrinus elongatus new spccics ............................. 53 
FGS.9, Io. Two calices showing brachial series of first two orders incorporated in calyx by 
secundibracbs in two ranges, and extremely large 13P,. X 2. 
II, 2. Two detacbed bases: from side view. X 2. 
I3, I4, I5. Three bases from dorsal side, sbowing 3 equal basals, sharply excavate cavity, and 
minute axial opening. X 2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

lyctocrinus magnitubus nev genus aud species ........................ 54 
FIGS. I6, 6a. Complete crown with spiniferous anal tube rising above the branching, biserial arms; 
views from opposite sides; fig. I6 from post. interradius, the plate being somewhat 
larger than in other areas. 
I7. A similar specimen, from r. post. radius. 
8, I8a. Opposite views of a larger crowu, showing part of tube at the top. 
9- A smaller specimen, with base of tube exposed. 
2o. Dorsal view of detached calyx, sbox-ing broad, shallow basal cavity, with 5 11313 at 
bottom. 
2L Another detached base seen from the interior, with infrabasal cone plainly shown. 
13eech River formation; Decatur Coumy, Tennessee. 



.,I'RIN«;ER" .\MI"RICAN .'<II.L'RIAN ('RINOIDS 

14 

2 

11 

13 

12 

15 

I'LATE ]2 

: I 

16 

18 

20 

18a 

17 

16a 

K. M. Chapman del. 



19 8 SlXlITIISONIAN 1NSTITUTION 

PLATE 13 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
Marsipocrinus rosaeformis (Troost) ............................. 57 
FIGS. I, la, lb, Ic. A typical hemispheric calyx, with surface characters finely preserved: I. Lateral 
view, showing the great prominence of the arched tegmen over the fiat dorsal cup; 
radial facets directed below the horizontal, ilqr heptagonal, their distal margin pro- 
jecting, with a strong lip, and corrugated, la. Dorsal side, with extremely sharp 
sculpturing in form of wrinkles radiating upon tbe plates and meeting in slightly 
raised ridgcs runuing from the angles, dividiug the surface into triangles; very small 
axillary I[r, the much larger IIBr resting on distal face of RR; low rira around 
the lumen. b. Detail of these structures enlarged, showing more fully the succession 
of brachials ieading to the biserial arm. )< 2. Ic. The tegmen, showing complete dis- 
tribution of orals and othcr plates strongly nodose; JAmb connecting with the arched 
iBr and bearing numerous small and distinct tubercles; ambulacra defined but hot 
conspicuous. 
2,2a, 2b, 2c. Similar views of a specimen with concavo-convex calyx; radial facets pointing 
strongly downward ; surface ornament of much smaller wrinkles. 2b is enlarged. )< 2. 
3,3a, 3b, 3c. A smailer specimen with more grauular ornamentation; similar views. 3b 
enlarged. X 2. 
4, 4a,4b. Similar and larger specimen with highly sculptured tegmen and base finely granular. 
5,5a. A specimen of this type with more convex base thau the preced,.'ug; iBr extremely 
prominent. 
6, 6a,6b. Specimen with tegmen strongly nodose. 
7, 7a. Specimen with tegmen plates more angular than uodose. 
8. Sa. A very mature specimen, with faint granuiose-striate markings on dorsal ctlp, and teg- 
men plates profusely covered with small nodes; ambulacra inconspicuous. 
]3eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



I'RINGI:R" AMI-H¢ICAN ,11.[ RIAN ('RINIIS 

2fl 

lfl 

_- .....y. -- .: - 
-.. _..'" .. .;-.. -- 

- 21» 

5 

2 

6a 

3a 3c 

7a 

Ix. 31. ('hapman del. 

15 

lC 

20 

3b 

6b 

7 



200 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIGS. I, Ia, Ib. 
2, 2a, 2b. 

PLATE 14 
(Figures natural size nnless otherwise noted) PAGE 
17Iarsipocrinus tennesseensis (Roemer) ............................ 57 
(See also pl. 5, figs. 9, 9a) 
Typical specimen with biconvex calyx, radial facets directed upward, granular sur- 
face on cup, tegmen plates rounded or angular ; ambulacra well defined. 
Similar specimeu with tegmen plates partly nodose. Original of W. and Spr. N. A. 
Crin. Cam., lxx, 6. 
3. Lateral view, for profile, of strongly convex calyx. 
1- Tegmen with nodose plates, intermediate from preceding species. 
5, Sa. Large specimen with massive convex tegmen plates and prominent ambulacra. 
6,6a. Profile and tegminal view of maximum specimen with angular plates. 
]3eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Marsipocrinus striatus "vVachsmuth and Springer ....................... 58 
FI6S.7, 7a, 7b, 7c. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of specimen with biconvex calyx, striate orna- 
ment on dorsal cup, tegmen plates low convex and smooth, ambulacra very distinct; 
7c, detail of surface of cup enlarged. )< 2. 
8, Sa, 8b. Similar views of specimen with stronger striae. 
9,9a. Lateral and ventral views of vell marked specimen; 9b, oblique view of cup, showing 
very fine striation, enlarged )< 2. 
o, roct. Lateral and dorsal view, enlarged X 2, of specimen with coarser striae. 
, a. Abnormal specimen, with 2 rays malformed. 
re, r3. Two fragments showing detail of striation on dorsal cup, enlarged )< 2. 
]3eech River formation; Decatur County. Tennessee. 



.,PRIN;ER" AF, II-'.RI('AN II.I_'RIAN (,'RIN(-II). 

PLATE 14 

6 

10a 

8 

-d 

I0 

6a 

11 

2b 

lb 

7b 

9 

13 

9b 

K. M. çhapman del. 



202 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 15 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
Marsipocrinus inflatus (Troost) ............................... 58 
FIGS. 1, la. lb. Lateral, dorsal and veutral views of characteristic calyx, with rather smooth teg- 
men, high conical and laterally constricted; dorsal surface elaborately sculptured; 
basal pentagon very large, slightly concave, and notched at the interbasal sutures; iBr 
hot projecting, but bent over into the tegmen. 
2, 2a. 2b. Similar views of specimen with tegmen plates tubercular and better defined. 
3- Specimen with typical contour; tegmen profusely covered with sma]I tnbercles. 
4, 4a, 5, Sa, 5b, 6, 6a. A series of dorsal cups, showing large site of basal pentagon. 
7, 7a. A similar specimen, original of Wachsmuth and Springer, N. A. Crin. Cam., pl. 75, 
fig. 17. 
8. Detail of tegmen of broken specimen, enIarged, showing course of ambuIacra leading to 
the interbrachial pinnules. Reproduced from paper on Scyphocrinus, 1917, pl. 9, fig- 6, 
as ]ll. striatus? X 2. 
From limestone beds top of P, eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FIG 9- 

Marsipocrinus rosaeformis (Trost) ............................ 57, 59 
Ventral side of an imbedded specimen, with bases of arms perfectly preserved, and pin- 
nules springing both from the arms and interbrachial margins as continuations of 
tegminal ambuIacra. Posterior is at upper right. 
Detail from posterior margin of saine, enlarged X 3, showing course of ambulacra lead- 
ing to inteÆbÆachial pinnules. From Scyphocrhius, 1917, pl. 9. figs. Sa, b; Dolatocrinus, 
1921 , pl. 2, figs. 5, 6, as ]ll. tennesseensis. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



?RINiiF-R" \MI:.RItAN 11 ('RIAN ('RINI)II)S 

la 

2 

I'I.ATI': 15 

lb 

2b 

4 

6 

5 

7 

5b 

9a 

K..'kl. ('l'uq,man dt l. 



204 

SM ITH.qON IAN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 16 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Masipocin.s vene.ili (Troost) ............................... 
Fins. l, la, lb. Typical specimen with striate vrinkles, vith shallow depression almost full width 
of pentagon, bordered by sharp rira: lateral, dorsal and ventral views. 
Ic. Oblique view of calyx, enlarged, showing surface ornament in greater detail. X 2. 
2,2a. Lateral and dorsal views of specimen with striate ornamentation 
2b. Tegmen of saine enlarged, with relatively few and large plates. 
3. Crown of small specimen with strong rugose ornamentation, and broad, shallow, de- 
pressed base; form and proportions of arms well shown. 
3a. More direct view of calyx of saine, enlarged, showing sculpturing in greater detail. X 2. 
4. Larger specimen with arms and 'pinnules. 
5.5a. Specimen with striate wrinkles, bases of arms coalesced, interradial spaces depressed, 
produclng stellate outline; basal depresslon narrow. Dorsal and ventral views. 
6. Similar specimen with arms partly preserved; basal depression narrow. 

Marsipocrinus excavatus new species ............................. 6o 
Flcs.7, 7a,7b. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of the only specimen; base abruptly depressed. 

llc. 8. 

Marsipocrinus concavus new species ............................. 6o 
Dorsal cup only; small base at bottom of a broad and deep concavity into which the 
radials extend far down to narrow faces; strongly wrinkled ornament. By oversight 
posed with small B at upper right. X 2. 
All Beech River formation. Decatttr Çounty, Tennessee. 



• ; , -. :,..- 

lb 

4 

[»LATE In 

2a 

r) 

5 

7 
K. M. Chapman del. 

7 

7h 



6 



o6 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIGS. I, I1, lb. 

PLATE 17 
(Figures natural size unless othervise stated) 
Marsipoefinus stellatus (Troost) ............................... 
Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of specimen with dorsal surface perfectly smooth; 
numerous large plates in tegmen shown, but ambulacra much eroded; basal depres- 
sion around lacet small. 
2, 2a, 2b. Similar views of specimen with prominent ambulacra well defined; 2a and 2b en- 
larged X 2. 
3, 3a. Lateral and ventral views of specimen with ambulacra still better defined; 3a enlarged 
X2. 
4, 5, 6, 7. Specimens with arms and stem more or less completely preserved. 
8, 9, m. Tegmens in different conditions of preservation; fig. o may not belong here, dorsal 
side not being exposed. X 2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

PAGE 
6o 

Marsipocrinus turbinatus new species ............................. 62 
Fms.I, 2, 3. Fragmentary bases from St. Paul, Indiana. 
4- Lateral view of basals, showing extremely turbinate form. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 



PRINGF.R" .\MERICAN .,II.I'RIXN {,-'RINII.% ]I.ATE 17 

la 

lb 

10 

11 

K. M'. ('hapma» del. 

2a 

14 

2 

12 

13 

».,,. . 

2b 



20 SMITHSONIAç * INSTITUTION 

PLATE 18 
(Figures natural size unless othervise noted) 
Marsiporinus striatissimus new species ........................ 
Fins. , Ia. Dorsal and ventral vievs of a typical specimen, large and with very thin plates, more or 
less displaced by pressure ; dorsal surface marked by extremely fine striae, and tegmen 
by numerous small tubercles. 
2. Dorsal side of similar specimen hot distorted, and with striae more distinct. 
3- Specimen with arms and part of stem; striae indistinct. 
4,5- Tvo detached basal pentagons (as usually round) seen from the inner side, showing 
varying form of lumen. 
6, 6a, 6b. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of a vell preserved dorsal cup of stronger con- 
struction than the preceding, and vith striate marking remarkably distinct. 
7,7a. Lateral and ventral views of a very robust specimen having the surface covered with 
small tubercles. Not of this species, but probably a variant of M. tennesseensis. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



.|'RINGER" .\MERI('AN .IIURI.kN Ç'RINIDS ILATE lb 

4 

la.. 

2 

6b 

K. M. ('hapman del. 



210 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FI6S. I. Ia, Ib. 

PLATE 19 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Marsip0cfinus magnificus (Troost) .............................. 
Lateral, dorsal and ventral viexvs of type in Troost collection, U. S. National Mu- 
seum; dorsal cup highly sculptured with coarse rugae and prominent ridges; tegmen 
plates large and nodose; 4 arms to the ray. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

pAGE 
61 

Marsip0crinus coelats (Phillips) .............................. 02 
Fro. 2. Dorsal view of large specimen with outstretched arms, 4 to the ray. 
3, 3a. Specimen with arms nearly complete, and part of stem. 
4- Small specimen showing contour of calyx, and typical surface ornament; latcral view. 
5. Lateral viexv of similar specimen with part of arms attached. 
6. A very young specimen, xvith intense surface marking: gastropod seated over anus. 
6a. Basal view of saine enlarged, showing sharp vril:kles vertical to the sutures. >(2. 
7. A cluster of 9 stems springing from a common base on rock or coral, 4 xvith crown at- 
tached; reduced to 1/3. 
Wenlockian, Silurian; Dudley, England. 



.,I'RIN«;I:R" .\MI"_RIC.\N .":,II.I/RIAN ('RIN«IIIS II.ATE 19 

6 

t;a 

7 

lh 

4 

K. M. Chapman del. 



212 SMITHSONIetN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 20 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) Ac. 
Lecanocrinus pusillus Hall .................................. 65 
Flcs. , la. Postêrior and basal views of calyx, showing radianal in oblique position, and projecting 
anal. X 2. 
2. Dorsal view of spêcimen with abnormal base. >(. 
3- Ventral view showing distal faces of RR, and great thickness of plates. >(2. 
4- Specimen with very acuminate anal, with part of rays in place. >(2. 
5- Complete crown with part Gf stem. CelI. New York State Museum. 
Waldron shale; \Valdron, Indiana. 

FIGS.6, 6a, 6b. 
rapid taper of infolding arms. ;K 2. 
7- Another complete crown. M 2. 
8, 9. Dorsal views of two specimens, showing IBB, lB, B, and RA plates. >(2. 
IO, II. Posterior views of two smaller specimens with smaller RA than usual. >( 2. 
IZ Distal face of RR, showing comparative thinness of calyx wall. >(z. 
Beech Rver formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Lecanocrinus pisiformis (Roemer) .............................. 65 
Anterior, posterior and distal views of complete crown, showing oblique RA, and 

Lecanoerinus elongatus new species ............................. 65 
Anterior view of complete crown. >(2. 
Posterior view of another specimen. ) 2. 
Laurêl limestone; St. Pattl, Indiana. 

Lecanocrinus meniscus Springer ............................... 65 
FIGS. 15, ISa, ISb. Anterior, posterior and basal views of thê type an| only specimen. >(2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tenncssee. 

Anisocrinus greenei (Miller and Gurley) ........................... 66 
A much distorted specimcn. Saine horizon and locality as last. 
The type, from Jeffêrson Cunty, Kentucky. 

Anisocrinus oswegoensis (Miller and Gurley) ......................... 66 
FiG. I8. The type, from Oswego, Illinols. 

Anisocrinus angelini Wachsmuth and Springer ........................ 66 
FIG. 19. The type, from Gotland, Sweden. 

Asaphocrinus bassleri Sprlnger ................................ 66 
Fms.2o, 2oa. Complete crown. Anterior and posterior views of principal type, showing arrange- 
ment of arms, anal plates, and massive tube with plates flankiug it 
21. Oblique view of specimen showing the base. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Co,.mty, Tennessee. 

FIG. 22. 

(?) Asaphocrinus minor new species. 
Small specimen, with base lacking, perhaps of this genus. >(3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 
Ail figures on this plate, excêpt 13, I4 and 22, are taken from the author's work on 
the Crinoidea Flexibiha, 1920. 



I'RINGER" :\MI:.RItAN II URI.\N ('RINf}II}.q PLATE 20 

10 

3 

Ga 

11 

la 

14 

8 

5 

12 

9 

13 

4 

6b 

15a 

19 

16 

18 

15 

17 

22 

15 

20 
K. M. Chapman del. 

20a 



SMITHSONIAN iNSTITUTION 

]TIG. I. 
It/. 
2. 

PLATE 21 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise noted) WGE 
Pycnosaceus patei Springer ................................. 67 
Complete crown with part of stem; r. ant. view. 
Posterior view of saine, showing anal and radianal plates. RA in oblique position. 
An interradius, filled by an integument of smal] plates. X z 
Another crown, showing arms more fully, and the interradial integument. 
The integument enlarged. X2. 
3, 3a. Anterior and dorsal views of specimen with very sharp ridges. 
4- Very large crown, with distal ends of arms ctrving down into the interradial spaces. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Pycnosaccus xvelleri Springer ............................... 67 
FIG. 5- Flattened crown with long stem; anterior view; bas 3 and 4 IBr. 
Sa, 5b. L. post. view of crown of saine, and restoration in outline of natural contour. 
6. Crown with part of stem, ant. view. 
6a, 6b. Posterior and basal views of saine. 
7. Larger crown, flattened, with stem; a small calyx and long arms, 2 and 3 IBB. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County. Tennessee. 

FIGS. 8, 8a. 

Pycnosaccus laurelianus new species ............................. 67 
Anterior and posterior views of complete crown. )< 2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

(?)Pycnosaccus dubius Springer .............................. 68 
Crown xvith plates displaced, and complete stem tapering to very long and slender 
columnals. 
Probable arrangement of calyx plates. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Clitlochirus anaericanus Springer ............................... 69 
FGS. Io, oa. Anterior and posterior views of crown, showing small RA at foot of r. post. ray. 
I I. Another specimen with long stem; r. post. viexv, showing saine small RA. 
Clinton group; Dayton, Ohio. 
Ail figures on this plate, except 8 and Sa. are taken from the author's work on the 
Crinoidea Flexibilia, 92o. 



.'IqIN;I.R" +\MI,RICAN .II.I'RIAN (.'RINII. '»I+ATE 21 

< 

l 

2 

Il) 

7 

K. M. ('bal)man del. 

8 

](1 

lOa 

6b 

Sa 



216 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FI6. i. 

PLATE 22 
(Figures natural size unless otherxvise stated) 
ttormocrinus tennesseensis (Worthen) ............................ 
Complete crown, with tapering stem formed of bead-like columnals, preserved for full 
length down to fine distal end. 
2. Crown of small specimen, showing full contour with infolding arms. 
za. Dorsal view of saine enlarged, showing base and arrangement of plates ; no RA. X 2. 
2b. Ventral view of saine. X2. 
3. 3a. L. ant. and r. post. views of another complete crown. 
3b. L. ant..view of saine enlarged, showing full details of arms with slender distal ends 
curving down into the interradial svaces. X 2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

PAGE 
66 

Sagenocrinus clarki Springer ................................. 
The type. Flattened croxvn with stem as it lies in the rock; calyx plates much displaced. 
Restoration from accurate measurements showing exact relation of plates; RA touching 
IBB. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

68 

Fiç. 5- 

Sagenocrinus americanus Springer .............................. 
Posterior view of type; RA hot touching IBB. 
Waldron shale; Waldron, Indiana. 

68 

FIGs. 6, 7. 

Protaxocrinus robustus Springer ............................... 70 
Anterior and posterior viexvs of types, showing small plates in interradial areas RA in 
primitive position at base of r. post. ray. and large anal tube following. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

IO. 

Gnorimocrinus ¢irrifer Springer ................................ 7o 
Complete crown, flattened, with long stem showing whorls of cirri; anterior view. 
Anterior view of another perfect crown, showing large anal tube, with RA in oblique posi- 
tion at its base. 
Dorsal view of smaller çpecimen, showing IBB and related plates. X 2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FIGS. II, IIa. 

Gnorimocrinus varians Springer ............................... 7o 
Two views of specimen with strong anal tube. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Ichthyocrinus subangularis Hall ............................... 69 
R. post. interradial view of crown, showing RA in primitive position at base of r. post. ray. 
Oblique viexv of another specimen, showing base with IBB, and small size of RA com- 
pared xvith RR in other rays. 
Waldron shale; Waldron, Indiana. 
Ail figures on this plate are taken from the author's work on the Crinoidea Flexi- 
bilia, 92o. 



PRIN;ER" .\MI:RICAN 11URI.,N (._'RINOII)S PI-.TE OE2 

3b 

2 

3 

• ! 

2a 

4a 

9 

12, 

K. M. Chapman del. 

11 

lla 

2b 

5 

7 

8 

10 



218 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIG. 

4..lll-a • 
4b. 4c. 
6. 6a. 
7, 7a. 
8. 

PLATE 23 
(AIl figures double size unless otherwise stated) ,AOE 
Pis0crinus gemmiformis S. A. Millet ............................. 74 
L A characteristic specimen, with short arms complote; 1. post. view. 
2, 3- Ca.lyx of mature spccimens, radianal aud ant. views. Note the wide facets, low rectan- 
gular processes, convex base with small indented cavity for column lacet. 
Basal and ventral views of similar specimen. 
Details of radial lacet of saine, seen from side and above. X 8. 
Radianal and ventral views of average specimen. 
Similar views of smaller specimen. 
Basal and ventral views of minimum specimen. 
Ventral view of small pecimen, with oral plates and first arm brachials in place; photo- 
graph unretouched. 
Sa. The saine further enlarged, with structures brought out plainer by the artist. X 4. 
Ail from Laurel formation; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Pis0crinus baccula S. A. Miller ............................... 75 
Fro. 9- Mature specimen with arms complete, ant. view. 
Io, Ioa. L. ant. and basal views of maturc calyx. 
r, Ira, ttb. Radianal, basal and ventral views of large specimen. 
rte, IId. Details of radial lacet and processes of saine, seen from side and above. X 8. Note 
smaller facets, large lance-head processes, broad, concave base and cavity. 
I2, I2a, I3. Ant. and ventral vlews of similar mamre specimens. 
t4, t4a. I4b. Post., basal and ventral views of smaller specimen. 
5- r5a, I5b. L. ant., basal and ventral views of minimum specimen. 
Laurel formation; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Pis0crinus quinquelobus Bather ................................ 77 
Fttï. I6. A typical specimen, with complete arms, and long stem: 1. post. view. 
r7, tS, rg- L. ant., r. ant. and r. post. views of a series of nearly complete crowns, showing the 
general character of arms, facets and prccesses. 
2o. One of the types of P. nlliganae M. and G., r. post. view. 
I, 2, a, 22b. L. post., 1. ant., dorsal and ventral views of calyx of mature specimens. 
c, 22d. Details of radial facets and processes. X 4. Note the re!atively small facets, large 
processes, truncate base, minute basals hiddcn in deeply indented cavity--all with the 
strongly lobate form. 
3- Ant. view of mature specimen with unu»uaIly wide facets. 
24. 24a, 24b. R. ant., dorsal and ventral views of mature specimens. 
zS- Dorsal view of smaller specimen. 
z6, 26a. R. post. and ventral views of very small specimen. 
27, 8. Post. and ventral views of large specimen from Jack's ]3ranch, l»erry County, Ten- 
nessee, probably Lobelville formation. 
29- A calyx vertically fractured, showing in section the size of the minute basals. 
All except Nos. 27, 28 from Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FIGS. 37, 38. 
39, 39a. 

Pisocrinus sphericus Rowley ............................ 79 
3o. Complete crown, with very short arms. Decatur County. 
3, 31a, 3tb. Ant., dorsal, and ventral views of mature calyx from Rise Mill. 
3z, 33. L. post. and ventral views of similar specimens, from Rise Mill. 
34,34a. Similar specimen. R. ant. and ventral views, from Rise Mill. 
35,35a. Radianal and dorsal views of specimen from Flatwoods. 
36. Smaller specimen, but with perfectly round calyx. Flatwoods. 
Top of ]3eech River; Rise Mill, Perry County; also Dccatur and Wayne counties, 
Tennessee. 
Pisocrinus grantfl0sus Rowley ................................ 75 
Ant. and ventral vlews of large calyx, with tubercular surface. 
R. post. and basal views of smaller specimen. Note the good-sized basals combined 
with the rounded form and other characters like the preceding species. 
Ila red shales, Dixon, below Beecb River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



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AMERIÇAN SILURIAN ÇRINOIDS 2I 9 

PAGE 
Pisocrinus gorbyi S. A. Millet ................................ 78 
FIGS.4O, 4oa. Lobed and tubercular specimen, ant. aud ventral views. 
4I, 4Ia, 42. R. ant., ventral and basal views of similar specimens. 
Lobelville formation, above Beech River, Flatwoods, Tennessee. 
43,44, 45. Ventral views of non-tubercular specimens from Rise Mill, Perry County, Ten- 
nessee. 
Pisocrinus ......................................... 72 

FIG. 46. Generic diagram. 



220 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 24 
(Ail figures double size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
Pisocrinus tennesseensis (Roemer) .............................. 79 
Fics. I, Ia, Ib. Calyx of characteristic and very mature specimens; ant. and ventral views. 
2, 2a. R. ant. and ventral views of similar specimen. 
2b,2c. Details of radial facet and processes of same. ( 4- 
3,3a- Radianal and ventral views of smaller specimen. Note the very wide facets and dove- 
tailed processes in ail these; with basals limited to the columu lacet. 
4,4a. L. post. and ventral views of smaller specimen, from Martin's Mill, Wayne County, 
Tennessee. 
5- Post. view of very mature specimen with unusual raised border of radials. 
Beech River formation; all except No. 4 from Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FtGS. 6, 7, 8. 

Pisocrinus carnpana S. A. MiIler ............................... 76 
A series of crowns with very long arms, round calyx and higb base, in contrast fo 
P. quinquelobus. Fig. 8 sbows ventral side of arms, with sockets of side-pieces of 
amhulacra. 
9- A set of long arms, with ventral furrow and traces of side-pieces, detached jnst above 
tbe catyx at the sutures, showing some of the brachial articulations. 
9a. Transverse view of proximal articular face of the arms, further enlarged; section of 
anal tube plainly seen in the middle. >( 4. 
m. Dorsal view of calyx from Rise Mill, Perry County, Tennessee, showing large base wlth 
abruptly indented colnmn lacet. 
II, Ira. R. ant. and ventral views of an average calyx with wide facets and nearly rectangular 
processes, tending fo expand slightly inward; saine locality as last. 
Iib. IIc. Details of radial facets and processes of saine, seen from side and above. >( 6. 
I2. Ia. i2b. Ant., dorsal and ventral views of more elongate specimen; saine locality. 
I3, I4. L. ant. and ventral views of two otber svecimens from saine locality. 
I5. R. ant. view of similar specimen from Martin's 3Ii11, Wayne Cotmty, Tennessee. 
6. I6a, I7. L. ant., ventral and ant. views of somewhat more globose specimens from Flat- 
xvoods, Tennessee. 
A much larger specimen, radianal view, from Sinking Creek, Wayne County, Tennessee. 
Elongate specimen from Decatur County, Tennessee, act. vîew. 
Complete crown of elongate specimen, with very long arms and part of stem; 1. ant. view. 
2Ia. Extremely elongate form, r. ant. and ventral views; both the last frorn Decatur 
County, Tennessee. 
22. 2a. _23. Specimens from the typical area af Anderson, Marion Co., Indiana, about the 
usual size; r. ant. dorsal and post. views. 
24,5,26. Three abnormal specimens from the type locality at Wabash, Indiana; small RR 
connecting with ]3B; 1. ant., r. post. and 1. ant. views. 
27. The type specimen from Wabasb. Indiana, formerly in the collection of A. C. Benedict; 
larger than average from typical area. 
Ail from Beecb R,.'ver formation, except Nos. 2oe fo 27, which are from the 
Niagaran of Northern Indiana. 

20. 
21, 

Pisocrinus benedicti S. A. Millet ...........  ................... 77 
Fics.8,9. Low and elongate forms from Anderson, Indiana, with angular processes; r. post. 
and ant. views. 
3o, 3oa. Large specimen from St. Paul, Indiana; radianal and ventral views. 
3I. Low specimen frorn Decatur Cotmty, Tennessee. 
32. 32a.32b. Large oblate form from Perry County, Tennessee; radianal, dorsal and ventral 
views. 
33- Similar form with long arms, incomplete, from saine locality. 
34, 34a. SmaIler low, rounded forrn from Decatur County, 1. ant. and dorsal views. 
35, 36. L. ant. and ventral views of similar specimens from FIatwoods, Wayne County, 
Tennessee. 
Laurel and Racine formations, Indiana; ]3rownsport, Tennessee. 



.I'RIN(;FR" .\MI:.RI('AX II.{'RIAN ('RIN(IILq 

| 'LATE 24 

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22a 24 16 

37 

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K. M, ('halmau del. 



\MERICAN SILURIAN CRINOII)S 22I 

I:m. 37. 

FIG. 38. 

PAGE 
Pisocrinus pyriforms Rngucbcrg ..................... 8o 
Thc t.vpc, formcrly in lhc collection of I)r. Rngucbcrg; I. nt. vcw. Inscrtcd for com- 
parison with P. campana. 
Clinton formation; Lockport, New York. 

Pisocrinus globosus Ringueberg .............................. 80 
The type. Ant. view, for comparison with P. bencdicti. 
Saine horizon and locality. 

I8 



222 SMITtlSONI \N INSTITUTION 

FIG. 

Fç. 7. 
8. 
9- 

PLATE 25 
(Ail figures twice natural size unless otherwise stated) I, AC 
(Foreign species introduced for cornparison) 
Pisocrinus pilula DeKoninck ................................. 8o 
I. Complete crown with stem, showing the extremcly long arms. After Bather. Gotland. 
2, 2a; 2b. Conical specirnen from Gotland; radianal, basal and ventral views. 
3.3a, 3b. A maximum high specimen from Dudley, England; ant., basal and ventral views. 
4,4a,4b. A smaller, more globose specimen frorn Dudley; I. ant., I. post. and ventral views; 
processes tending to lance-head forrn. 
5, Sa, 5b. A more depressed form from Dudley; r. post., basal and ventral views. 
6. A typical form with alrnost complete stem; first brachials in place enclosing the orals; 
ant. view. Dudley. 
6a. Ventral view of saine showing the 5 orals, slightly fractured at the center. X 8. 
6.r. Ventral view of an average specimen from Gotland. After Bather. 
Wenlockian, Silurian; Gotland and England. 

IO. 

Pisocrinus ollula Angelin .................................. 8o 
L. ant. view of specimen from Gotland. After Bather. 
Specimen from Gotland, showing BB limited to column lacet. After Bather. 
Ventral view of specimen showing vide facets, and processes widening inward. Gotland. 
After Bather from Angelin. 
Basal viev of another specimen from Gotland, with extremely small BB at bottom of 
deep cavity and tendency to pentagonal outlie; for cornparison with 19. quinqcl6bus. 

Pisocrinus pocillum Angelin ............. - .................... 8o 
FIGS.L Ha. The type, from Gotland. post. and 1. ant. views. After Bather frorn Angelin. 

FIGS. I2, I2a. 

Pisocrinus sp ........................................ 8o 
Abnormal specimen from Dudley, with processes bordered by a raised rira, and of a 
very different shape from those of other forms; lateral and ventral views. 

Pisocrinus sp ........................................ 8o 
Fcs.3. 3a. A very small specimen from Gotland, having the form and structure of /9. ge»n- 
mi[ormls. 
3b, 3c. Details of radial facets and processes of saine. ( 8. 
4. A larger specimen of similar form from Dudley, England. 
All from the "Venlockian formation, $ilurian. 
AIl the specimens except those of figs. , 7, 8, 9, , are in the author's collection, 
U. $. National lluseum. 

* Triacrinus altus (Miller) .................................. 74 
FIGS.5, Sa,5b. Characteristic specimen from the Middle Devonian, Eifel, Germany; r. post., 
dorsal and ventral views. Note the 3 BB, and facets and processes like P. tennes- 
seeilS[S. 

Triacrinus depressus (3Iiiller) ................................ 74 
Fms. i6, 6a, 6b. L. ant. dorsal and ventral views of a typical specimen with 3 BB. Note the 
wholly different form of processes. 
7, 7a, 7b. Ant., dorsal and ventral viexvs of specimen with 4 BB. 
8, 8a, 8b. Similar views of specimen with 5 BB. 
lliddle Dcvonian; Eifel, Germany. 



15b 

15 

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K. M. Chapman del. 



AMERICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS 223 

FTGS. I0, 20. 
2T. 
210. 
22. 

23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 

Fro. 27. 

27a. 
27b. 
27c. 

FIc. 28. 
29. 
29a. 

PAGE 
Zophocrinus howardi S. A. lXliller .............................. 82 
Posterior and anterior views of two specimens with the marginal ring of brachials and 
orals in place. X 4. 
Ventral view of another specimen in which the spade-shaped oral plates are very dis- 
tinct, but somewhat frayed and displaced by pressure. X 4- 
The saine tegmen further enlarged, showing fossae on articulating face of some brachials. 
Complete view of tegmen, composed from two other s9ecimens. Shows the 4 radii, and 
division of tegmen into 5 oral plates interlocking at the center, and extending to the 
periphery, with marginal plates between in 5 groups of 3 each. ( 6. 
Base of another specimen, showing 3 unequal plates. 
Calyx of a maximum specimen. 
Specimen from Greenburg, Indiana. 
Specimen from Flatwoods, Tennessee. 
Laurel formation, Niagaran ; ail from St. Paul, Indiana, except Nos. -05 and _°6. 

Tiaracrinus quadrifrons Schultze ............................... 8I 
Post. view of type, with the numerous marginal brachials bordering the tegmen in place. 
showing the saine essential structures as Zophocrinus, but with a minute base. 
Basal view of saine, showing the 4 unequal radii, and 3 milmte 
The saine view, further enlarged. ( 6. 
The tegmen. Five interlocking oral plates meeting in the center, with narrower exten- 
sions to the outer margin, and some smaller plates insetted at the exterior angles; the 
posterior oral wedged in between the other 4- Sur.rounding these is the border of 
narrow marginal brachials in 5 groups of II or 12 each, instead of 3 as in Zopho- 
crilms, separated by the extensions from the oral plates. ( 4. 
Middle Devonian; Eifel, Germany. 

Haplocrinus mespiliformis çGoldfuss) .................... 5o, 8I 
Ventral view of specimen showing the interlocking orals and radial grooves or the 
reception of the arms, as usually seen. ( 5. 
A specimen with arms preserved to 3 brachials fitting closely in the grooves between the 
orals. >( 5- 
Ventral view of saine, showing the open grooves in 2 radii. (5- Figured here for 
comparison. 
Middle Devonlan; Eifel, Germany. 



224. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FlCS. Ia-f. 

PLATE 26 
(Figures natural size lmless otherwise stated) 
Mysticocrinus wilsoni Springer ................................ 84 
Seven enlarged photographic views of the type specimen, with the very short arms pre- 
served in 3 rays folding closely over the teffmen, showing the acumlnate anal plate 
and the arrow-head processes between the arm-bases: I, left anterior; Ia, left pos- 
terior: 1b. posterior; Ic. right posterior, showing the radianal: 
dorsal, showing the 3 ]3]3 ; If, ventral, showing infolding of the arms. Ail X 4 
Diagram showing distribution of all the plates; missing brachials indicated by diagonal 
hachure. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Thalamocfinus ovatus Miller and Gurley ........................... I3I 
FGs.2,2a,2b. Postcrior, dorral and ventral views of large specimen; large IBB, RA in oblique 
position, anal x in liue with RR, small colnmn-facet, and ventral cavity. 
3, 3a, 4. Ant. iR and ventral views of similar specimen, and ant. R view of another more elongate. 
5. Specimen with long arms and extremely slender elongate brachials, displaced. 
Beech River formalion: Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Thalamocrinus cylindricus Miller and Gurley ......................... I32 
Fiç. 6. Post. view of unusually large specimen. 
7,7a, 7b. R. post., basal and ventral views of a typical specimen, with RR, anal and radianal 
plates in place. 
8, Sa. R. post. and ventral views of short specimen. 
9- The type; extremely elongate calyx, lacking the RR anal plates. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Cunty, Tennessee. 

Thalamocrinus globosus new species ............................ I32 
FIçs. o, Ioa, 1oh. R. post., dorsal and ventral views of the only specimen. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Çounty, Tennessee. 

FIG. I I. 

Thalamocrinus elo.gatus new species ............................. I32 
Extremely large and elongate Devonian derivitive, lacking the RR and anal olates; r. post. 
view: differs from all the others in the wide stem, covering the entire base. 
Linden beds, Helderbergian; near Çamden. Benton County, Tennessee. 

IG. I2. 
I3. 

Petalocrinus mirabalis Weller ................................ I26 
A set of separate afin-fans as usually round, artificially mounted; seen from the ventral 
side, showing I4 fo I6 grooves. 
Similar set of arm-fans from dorsal side, showing complete fusion of arms in each radius 
into a rigld plate. 
A complete crown with ca!yx and arms in place, seen from the dorsal side, but the fused 
radii are broken away, exposing the inner floor of the ventral side, with the grooves 
indicated by ridges, in which covering plates are shown in some places. Coll. Univer- 
sity of Iowa. X 2. 
Hdpkinton stage of Niagaran : Joues County, Iowa. 

Petalocfinus inferior ]3ather ................................. i27 
FIç. t5- A nearly complete arm-fan, from ventral side, showing 28 grooves symmetrically divided 
in halves; angle of fan 7o °. X 3/2. 
lSa. Dorsal side of saine, fused to a rigid plate. ) 3/2. 
x6. Another afin-fart with 3o grooves and angle of 65°; small part mlssing af proximal end. 
Laurel formation: St. Paul, Indiana. 



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AMERICAN SILURI,\N CRINOIDS 22. 

FIG. 

17. 

FG. 8. 
19. 
20. 

FIG. 2I. 

PAGE 
Crotalocrinus cora (Hall) ................................ 12ç 
Cast from an external mould showing surface markings, 3 ranges of calyx plates, and 
hrachials within the radial lacet. 
Racine dolomite; Chicago, Illinois. 

Cr0tal0crinus rug0sus {J. S. Miller) ........................... 128, t29 
Calyx of a small specimen from Dudley, Engand: from anal side, showing characteristic 
sculpture. 
Dctail of specimen from Gotland, showing arrangement of lower brachials at dorsal side. 
M2. 
Dëtail of x'entral side, showing covering plates of ambulacra, and the mode of connection 
of arm-l»ranches by mall lateral processes with larger spaces between, forming a 
net-xvork admitting flexibility of the leaf-like radii. )< 3- (Figures after Wachsmuth 
and Springcr.) 
Wenlockian: England and Sxveden. 

Cr0tal0crinus pulchcr (Hisinger) ............................ 18, 3o 
A nearly complete crown, with calyx injured by erosion, showing the radii in form of 
reticulate !eaves which overlap each other. For comparison with the analogous rigid 
structures of Pctalocrinus. 
Wenlockian; Gotland, Sweden. 



226 SMITtlS)NI-\N INSTITUTION 

FIG. I. 

FIG. 6. 

FIG. I0. 
Ioa. b. 

FIG. I I. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
I6. 

PLATE 27 
(MI figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PaGE 
86 
Myelodactylus ammonis Batl:er ......................... ". ..... 
A close coil. with stem t,pering to a point: cuneate interlocking columlmls, with a cirrus 
from the broad end of each, converging to center completely enveloping the crown. 
". 3/2. 
la. The saine seen from outer curve, showing the rapid taper of stem to narrow distal end: 
longitudinal sutures hot visible. >( 3/2. 
2. A similar specimen natnral size, with hour-glass hapcd columnals bearing a cirrus at each 
end, and lenticular, non-cirriferous ossicles interposed. 
2a. The saine from outcr curve tapering to a point" hmgitudiual sutures strongly developed. 
× 3/2. 
3- Similar specimen with alternate cuneate columnals. >4 3/2. 
3a. The tapering distal end. >( 3/2. 
3b. Form of the cuneate cohum, als in outline. 
4- A small specimen of similar type to last. )< 3/2. 
5. Fractured specimen having paired cirri on alternate columnals. >( 3/2. 
Sa. lnner view of fragment showin form and arrangement of columnals for the paired cirri, 
with lenticular ossicles interposed. >( 3/2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Cunty, Tennessee. 
Myelodactylus convolutus Hall ............................... 86 
Specimen from St. Panl, Indiana, with close coil and beginning of broad curve of stem; 
cirri hot preserved, were paired at each end of successive columnals, as shown by the 
facets. 
7. Specimen from the typical loc31ity, I ockport, New Vork, shopping the cirri in place, one 
to each successive coh:ronal. 
8. Fragment from imper side of curvc, sl:owing form and arrangement of paired cirri at 
each end of successive columnals. 
Laurel and Rochcter formations. 
l'¢Iyelotlactylus brevis Springer .............................. 86 
A nearly complote coil tapering to distal end, with paired cirri as in preceding species. 
)< 3/2. 
Distal end of saine, seen from outer curve. >( 3/2. 
13eech River formation; Decatur County. Tennessee. 
Myelodactylus fletcheri  Salter) ............................... 86 
Specimen in author's collection with the crown in place, which is detachable for inspection 
at ail sides, showing that it bas only 4 radii. X 2. 
Posterior and anterior views of crown; anal tube in a resting upon left shoulder of 
r. post. Rs, indicating its Heterocrilfid affinities. X 6. 
Wenlockian: Dudley, England. 
Myelodactyl:s extensus Springer ............................ 87 
Large specimen with stem extended about 8 cm. beyond the close coil, nearly straight, hot 
terminating in a point; cirri on alterlmting cuneate columnals. 
Specimen with about 5 cm. of stem be.vond deviation from close coil. and proxinnal reverse 
curve in vicw; bas paired cirri on hour-glass-shapcd cohlmnals. 
Another specimen with stem extension of about 6.5 cnn., tapering near the end, and per- 
haps terminating in small roots: colnmnals as in prcceding spccimen. 
Large speciroen xvith unusually small c'ose coil. aud loose coil partially restored, extended 
for about 12 cm. hot yet terminated ; cirri paired on hour-glass columnals. 
Smaller spccimen with much of extended stem broken off: crown is seen following re- 
versed curve, caly, x indistinct : cirri alternating on cuneate columnals. X 3/2. 
Large specimen with incomplete stem extension about 7 cm. ; polished section obtained by 
grindin dowu to the axial canal, showing thc proximal coil. neck. and crown in out- 
line, with scattered cirri in some places; probably bas less than 5 rays. 
7- Specimen with only the close coil remaining, having the cirri complete converging in the 
center. 
I8. Specimen from the Wenlockian at Dudley, England. with paired cirri in place at the close 
coil, and stem extended far bevond tl:at regon hot yet diminlshing distalwards. 
All except fig. I8 from Beech River formation. Decatur County, Tennessee. 



.':'PRIN(;I-R " .\MI".RI('AN .,II.('RIAN 

l'LA.TE 27 

l()a 

I()I) 

K. M. ('hapman del. 



AMÈRICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS 227 

FIG. 19 . 

17IG. 20. 

FIG. 2 I. 

PAGE 
Myelodactylus brachiatus Hall .............................. 8y 
Complete stem with crowll preserved, with long, slender proximal neck following the 
reverse curve outside of principal coi1; bas branching cirri, limited to distal end. 
X 3/2. 
Rochester shale; Lockport, New York. 

Myelodactylus keyserensis Springer ............................. 87 
Nearly complote specimen, with crown fulIy exposed by removal of cirri; seen from 
anterior radius, with ulbranched posterior radius to the left; cirrl paired on succes- 
sive columnals. 
2oa. Calyx and lower part of arms, from left anter'ior radius. X 2. 
Helderbergian, Keyser formation; Keyser, West Virginia. 

-'24. 

Myelodactylus schucherti Springer .............................. 87 
The type, with both distal and proximal portions broken off, leaving one coil of the 
crescentic region, followed by the reverse curve and very robust proximal neck 
which has alternate lenticular ossicles; cirri in crescentic region paired on successive 
columnals. 
Helderbergian, Linden formation; ]3enton County, Tennessee. 

Myelodactylus nodosarius (Hall) ............................... 87 
One of Hall's types, showing great size of the ponderous cirri compared with smalIer 
stem, and bulbous terminal at distal end. Coll. New York State ]Iuseum, Albany. 
Distal end of stem, showing buIb, cirri, and re|ative size of small first cirrals. ame 
collection. 
Inner side of saine structures in another specimen. Coll. Yale University Museum. 
Helderbergian, New Scotland formation; Schoharie County, New York. 
Ail the figures on this plate are taken from the author's work on " Unusual Forms 
of Crinoids," Proc. U. S. National Museum, vol. 67, x926, plates x to 6. 



22 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

PLATE 28 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Cremacrinus ulrichi new specics ............................... Io5 
Complete crown of maximum specimcn, with nearly entire stem, in a partially crect 
position: anterior view, the arms somewhat displaced; r. ant. arm smallcr than ant., 
the two rami of the latter occupying at lcast four fifths of the space on the exposed 
side. 
Another crown, ant. view, showing the dwarfcd r. ant. ramus rathcr better than the 
preceding. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Couuty, Tennessee. 

Cremacrinus tubuliferus new species ............................. IO6 
Complete crown seen from lhe median arm transversely flattened, but free on both sides; 
showing quadrangular inferradial. 
L. post. view of saine, enlarged, showing median arm with 2 brachials beyond IBr: the 
large curved anal tube free from the arms lying to the left of stem; 1. 'post. arm divid- 
ing into 2 symmetrical rami each with 8 bifurcations, and 9 long ramules. X 2. 
3b. Anterior view of saine, showing ant. arm with about 6 visible branches to each ramus; 
r. ant. arm dwarfed to about one fourth the size of ant., with 3 short remnants of 
ramules on one sidc. X . 
4. Median view of another complete crown free on both sides. 
4a. L. post. view of saine, shoxving arm with 8 and 9 long ramules to each ramus, and other 
features similar to 3a. X . 
4b. Ant. view of saine, showing by the diminutive branches iying against the tube all that is 
left of the dwarfed r. ant. arm--less than one fourth the size of ant. X . 
5- Complete crown in rccumbent position upon long stem, with tube bent like a bow; from 
ant. side, showlng the two unequal arms. X 3/2. 
Sa. Anterior view of calyx, showing segments of 1. ant. R. X 3/- 
6. Another crown similar to last, with peculiar hypertrophy of ramus of aut. arm. X . 
Beech River formation; Decatur Couuty, Tennessee. 

Fxç. 8. 

Fç. 9. 

I0. 

II. 
I2. 
I3. 

Cremacrinus decatur new species ............................... IO7 
Anterior view of the only specimcn, a nearly complete crown, showing the very stout 
median arm, and diminished r. ant. arm..' 3/ 
Decatur limestone; near Rise Mill, Perry County, Tennessee. 

Cremacrinus simplex new species ............................... o7 
The only specimen; 1. post. view of crown, showing the ray dividing symmetrically, with 
further bifurcations giving 6 branches in all, more or less dichotomous; stem at right 
of anal tube. >( z. 
Anterior view, showing tvo arms. ant. somewhat dxvarfed. >( z. 
]3eech River formation; Decatur Cotmty, Tennessee. 

Cremacrinus articulosus (t3illings) ............................. xo8 
L. post. view of crown, showing the long medJan arm in profile, bifurcating near the end ;- 
the two rami of 1. post. arm with their 7 or 8 zig-zag articulations, bearing long 
ramules. 
A complete crown in closed position on stem; ant. view showing long median arm in 
profile, the 2 rami of ant. arm fully developed about as long as median arm, and 
r. ant. arm reduced to less than hall its size. 
A smaller crown, for comparison of arms and position of stem. 
t3asal view of another calyx, showing hinge, .-and the  connected segments of 1. ant. R. 
Large specimen from ,Voodford Couuty, Kentucky, anterior viexv. 
Trenton group, Ordovician ; all exccpt 3 from Kirkfield, Ontario. 



I'RIN«;ER" .-\MERICAN .'d, ll['Rl.\N {._'RIN«IIS [»LA'I'E 28 

3a 

9 

17 

21 

14 

12 

18 

3b 

10 

18a 

8 

16 

K. M. 'hapma. dd. 



AMERICAN SII.URI.\N CRINOIDS 

229 

15. 

FIG. 16. 
I6a. 

FIG. 2I. 

PAGE 
Cremacrinus kentuckiensis (MiIler and Gurley) ........................ lO9 
L. ant. view of crown, showing long median arm bifurcating on I4th brachial 
Posterior view of samc, turned to bring stem to middle, which is the plane of bilateral 
symlnetry ; tube projecthlg at distal end. 
Post. viev of another crown, showing anal tube ill rniddle with stem to the rlght; one 
ramus of dimilfished r. ant. arrn seen at right, to be compared with ramus of l. post. 
arm at left. 
Trenton group, Ordovician; iX[ercer County, Kentucky. 

Cremacrinus punctatus Ulrich ................................ IIO 
The type specimen; I. post. view of crown. 
Ant. view of saine; Iower part of r. ant. arm broken away but sotte distal branches 
remaining. 
17. R. post. view of a typical specimen with the hinged base closed, showing anal plates and 
eccentric position of stem to right of thena; 4th (r. ant.) arna in 'place; superradials 
and inferradials of r. post. and r. ant. arms, with edges of the former deeply indented 
by pressure of stem; also the 4 tmfused basals. < 2. 
I8. Ant. view of similar specirnen with the 4th arm (r. ant.) in view alongside of ant. arm. 
Sa. R. post. view of saine. < 3/. 
9- Similar ,¢iew of better preserved specimen, showing mre fully the two lateral arms with 
their bifurcations, and the median arm in profile at the right. < . 
2o. Calyx of another specimen seen from the hinge, with its widely gapin fissure lodging 
numerous "supplementary" plates, and its denticulate margin; also the 4 unfused 
basals, and the elongate inferradial. 
2oa. The saine enlarged, showing the hinge in greater detail. < 2. 
Black River (Decorah), Ordovician; Minneapolis, Minn. 

Calceocrinus bassleri new spccics ............................... II7 
A complete crown ha partially erect position, with nearly entire stem attached; mcdian 
and adjoining arms shown to full length, with large ramules continuous with the 
outer ]3etabrachs forrning the most conspicuous part, whitc the main element of the 
axil-arms is ,¢isible in some places; hinge between radials and basals well shown. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 



230 

SMITIIS{)NI \N INSTITUTION 

PLATE 29 
{ MI figures natnral size unless otherwise stated) 
Eucheirocrinus chrysalis (Hall) .............................. 
Fins. I, 1a. t,. I«. Ant.. 1. ant., post. and basal vicws of the type specimen, showing the singlc latcral 
arm, narrow tapering inferradial, and large size of median arm. 
2. Basal view of calyx of another specime, reversed: to show tbe 4 unfnsed basal plates. 
V 3/2. 
3- Complete crown, showing arms to full lcngth, recumbent on stem. Type of Proclh, ocrinus 
radiculus Ring. 
Rochester shale; Lockport, New York. 

Fms.4,4a,4b. 

Eucheirocrinus indianensis (S. A. Millcr) .... 
I. ,t. -*. , hasal views of type. X . 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul. Indiana. 

Fro. 5- 

51"/. 

Eucheirocrinus minor new species ................... 112 
Complete crown, recumhent, with stem to about its full length: 1. post. view, showing 
great length of brachials in medlan arm, and dichotomous branching of lateral arm. 
×5/3- 
Lower part of saine from anterior side. showing base of arms. X 5/3- 
L. ant. view of calyx, showin connection of segments. X 5/3. 
Beech River formation; Decatur Cotmty, Tennessee. 

Eucheirocrinus anglicus new species ..................... II2, I13 
Complete crown from 1. post. side, showing ponderous character of arms, and part of 
branchings of median arm. )< e. 
Shaded diagram from 1. ant. view, showing calyx and complete bifurcation of median 
arm. X 3/. See also text-fig. 3c. 
\Venlockian. Silurian: Dudley. England. 

Fins. 7, 7a, 7b. 

8,8a,8b. 
9- 
lO. 
lI. 

Calceocrinus foerstei new species ............................... 
I_. post., 1. ant., and post. views of crown, the two segments of I. ant. R. connected, 
inferradial ciongate quadrilateral; I. ant. arm complete, unbranchcd: main branch of 
axil-arms entirely concealed by large ramues from outer Betabrachs; anal plates 
much foreshortened owing to curvatnre; 7b shows several plates of anal tube pro- 
jecting beyond arms. 
Similar views of smaller specimen, also showing anal tube. 
Complete crown with stem. in partially erect position: tnbe projecting. 
A distorted crown, probably of this species. 
Set of arms of unusual size, with 7 axil-arms, 9robably of this species; to be compared 
with C. tena.r Bather. of Gotland. 
Eucalyptocrinus zone, Beech River formation ; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

FIGs. 12,12a, I2b. 

12c. 
I3. 

I 
14. 

Caleeocrinus bassleri new species ............................... 
L. post., 1. znt. and post. views of crown, showing the two triangular segments of 
1. ant. R. separated by the large RR meeting between them; 1. ant. arm simple; main 
branch of axil-anns partly exposed at inner side of large ramule; anal tube projecting 
beyond the arms. 
The hinge, showing structures when base is closed upon radials. 
A large crown with calyx plates slightly displaced, giving 1. post. view of arms xvith 
1. ant. exposure of calyx end large median arm; main branch of axil-arms well 
exposed at inner side of large ramules, showing two more bifurcations. 
Another view of hinge. 
L. post. view of still larger crown with part of stem, slnowing very short columnals; 
main branch of axil-arms nodose and further bifurcating. In this s'pecimen the two 
segments of 1. ant. R. ahnost connect hv their points. (See also pl...98, fig. eL) 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 



I'RIN;ER" .\MFRICAN II t'RIAN CRINHDS 

14 

7a 

10 

23a 

12b 
8 8b 

21 

PLATE 29 

19 

6 6a 

15 

5b 

2O 

12 

13 

24a 23b 

K. M. Chapman del. 

I9 



AMERICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS 23I 

FIG. 

PAGE 
Calceocrinus bifurcatus new species .............................. I7 
15. Crown in completely recumbent position, closed over the stem; main branch of axil- 
arms folded under, and only the large outer ramu]e visible. 
1Sa. L. ant. view of saine, showing rather s]ender median arm, bifurcating on 4th brachial, 
and 2 or 3 rimes beyond to at least 8 finials ; segments of 1. ant. R separated. 
I5b. Post. viexv, showing relation of stem to anal plates, with deep indentation; tube projecting. 
Coccocrinus zone of Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Fro. I6. 

Calceocrinus stigmatus Hall ..... 
L. ant. view of type. After Hall. Ara. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
\Valdron shale, Niagaran; \Valdron, Indiana. 

.......... 118 

FIG. I7. 
I7b. 
FIc.. I8. 

Calceocrinus typus Ringneberg ................................ 118 
Ringueberg's type specimen; ant. view showing large median arm in profile, and the axil- 
arm system well developed. 
Base of same. 
Calceocrinus Hall .................................... 118 

The original figure. After Hall. 

FIG. 19 . 

Calceocrinus halli Ringueberg 
Ringueberg's type; consolidated left basal. 
Rochester shale; Lockpcrt, New York. 

........ 119 

FIG. 20. 

Calceocrinus nitidus ]3ather ............................... 119 
Cmplete crown recumbent on stem, 1. post. view; showing extreme length of median 
arm; main branch of axil-arms hidden by outer ramules; only one primibrach in 
lateral arms. 
Wenlockian, Silurian; Dudley, England. 

FIG. 21. 

Calceocrinus pugil Bather .................................. 12o 
Crown with short median arm, . post. view; main branches of axil-arms unusua!ly de- 
veloped, larger than the outer ramules; xillaries strongly nodose. 
Wenlockan, Silurian; Gotland, Sweden. 

FIG. 22. 

Halysiocrinus keyserensis new species ..................... 121 
Ant. view of crown, showing median arm in profile, and axil-arms with main branches 
visible at inner side. 
Helderbergian, Lower Devonin; Keyser, \Ves.t Virginia. 

Halysiocrinus marylandensis (Ohern) ........................... 122 
FIGS.23, 23a. 23b. L. post., 1. ant. and post. views of crown; showing large median arm. segments 
of R separated, inferradials of vanished arms meeting under anal x, main branches 
of axil-arms more or less visible. Coll. Geol. Surv. Maryland. 
Oriskany sandstone, Lower Devonian; Cumberland, Md. 

171GS. 24, e4a. 

25. 

Halysiocrinus carinatus new species ...................... 122 
L. ant. and post. views of crown; showing small size of keeled median arm, and 
sharp]y angular anal tube deeply indented in lower part by pressure of stem. AIpena, 
Michigan. 
Çalyx of another specimen; 1. ant. view shoxving hinge, and separated segments New 
Buffalo, Iowa. 
Another specimen probably of this species from near Louisville; 1. ant. viexv. Clark 
County, Indiana. 
Hamilton group. Middle Devonian; iXIichigan, Iowa and Indiana, 



232 SMITIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

3, 3a. 

PLATE 30 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
I-Ialysiocrinus dactyhts (Hall) ................................ 23 
The type specimen, anterior view. lIus. Comp. Zoo]., Harvard. 
Ant. view of free crown in author's collection, with main ramus of axil-arms branching 
from nodose axil]aries 2 and 3 times at interva]s of 3 and 4 brachials; ant. R. extend- 
ing far around towards anal tube. 
L. ant. view of saine, showing median arm branching twice, proportions of lateral radials 
and separated segmeuts of I. ant. R. 
Post. view of saine; hinged base closed against RR; inferradials of vanished arms inter- 
Dosed between large RR, and meeting below anal x, forming part of base of tube. 
A very young specimen probab]y of this species; crown with complete stem, 2 opposite 
views, enlarged; shows calyx higher than wide, narrowing downwards; I. post. view 
shows only one axil-arm and anal tube, nd ant. view shows 2 arms and tube. X 2. 
Upper ]3tlr]igton ]imestone; ]3ur]ington, ]owa. 

FIGS. 4, 5- 

tIalysiocrinus perp]exus (Shumard) ............................. 
L. ant. views of calyx, showing the hinge between radials and basals in position as they 
would be when fully extended; composed from weathered specimens with the two 
elements separate: markings of muscnlar attachment seen in the fissure, and different 
tbercular ornament upon the surface. 
6. Another specimen similarly composed, seen from the interior, showing the saine structures 
from the opposite side; marks of muscular attachmcnt at inner surface of RR and 
BB: edges of opposing plates rounded; articular faces of median and lateral arms 
are shown, and the cavity which lodged the viscera. 
7. Post. view of specimen with P-,B partly closed, their edges rounded, and showing arrange- 
ment of RR from the interior. 
8, 9, o. A series of radials to show the change in form with age from elongate with nearly 
paraIIel sides to relatively short and widely spreading dowmvards. 
I, 2, I3- A series of bases seen from the interior. 
Nev Providence shale, basal hlississippian; Bmton-mould Knob, Kentucky. 

Fro. 14. 

6a. 

17. 

21. 

Halysiocrinus no¢losus (Hall) ................................ 24 
Post. view of calyx, with basals closed against the lateral radials which have extended 
round to the anal series; inferradials of vanished arms now meeting between them 
and below anal x, and indented by stem. 
Crown with tbe hinged basals widely opened untll the stem is almost in line with the 
median arm: bifurcations of main branch of axil-arms well shown. 
L. aut. view of crowu, giving direct view of bifurcations of median arm to about Io finials. 
Post. view of saine, with hinged basals tightly closed against radials, inferradials of 
vanished arms meeting bclow anals and indented by stem: anal plates but little visi- 
ble at base, but tube projects at distal end. 
A typical complete crown in " humped" position recumbent upon the stem, with semi- 
elIiptical outline; median arm bifurcates on 6th brachial, and axil-arms at interals 
of 3 and 4. 
A larger specimen in similar position, with stem underneath; showing the complete 
branching of the median arm on 7th brachial to a total of o finials. 
A large crovn closely recumbent upon the stem, with arms partly overlapping it. Main 
branch of axil-arms well exposed in the last rive pecimens. 
Ant. and I. post. views of two young spe¢imens with elongate calyx, only 3 axil-arms, 
and median arm branching once and twice. 
Keokuk shale, Mississippian; Indian Creek, Indiana. 



I'RIN«H.:R" .\MI;RICAN II.I'RIAN 

PLATE 30 

2 

2a ".. )"% 2b 15 

3 \ 3a 

16 

6 

17 

9 

21 

14 

18 

16a 

K. M. ('hapman dd. 



234 

SMITIISONI-\N INSTITUTION 

PLATE 31 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Amçheristcrinus typus Hall ..................... 
Complete crown with very delicate arms, sharply angular calyx and long stem. 
13eech tiver formation; Decatur County, Temaessee. 

PAGE 

FIG. 2. 

Cyathocrintm decatur new species ............ 
Crown with long arms and stem, and smooth, elongate calyx. 
13eech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

I34 

Cyathocrinus wilsoni new species ............... 
Crown with very long brachials and conical calyx : r. ant. iR vlew. OE 3/-"- 
Posterior side of calyx, showiug anal plate. X 3/2. 
Laurel lirnestone: St. Paul, Indiana. 

.... I34 

Cyathocrinus cf. striolatus Angelin ............................ I34 
Fas.4, 5. Post. and r. ant. views of two calices, with ridges passing from 1313 to adjoining plates. 
6, 6a. Post. and dorsal vievs of similar specimen with one I13 smaller than the rest. X 3/2. 
6b. R. ant. view of saine, sbowing small IB. >(5/2. 
7. L. ant. view of specimen having 6 I1313. X 3/2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Parisocrinus siluricus nev species ... 
Crown vith arms in place, and pzrt of stem : ant. view. >( 3/2. 
L. post. view of saine, with massive anal tube. >( j/e. 
Laurel limestone: St. Paul, Indiana. 

Fta. 9- 

Botryocrinus tenuidactylus new species ....................... I37 
A set of arms with calyx wanting, having strong ramules bearing slender pinnules. 
13eech River formation: Decatur Cotmty. Tennessee. 

FIG. I0. 

Botryocrinus polyxo 
Calyx showing form and position of R A. 
,Valdron shale; Hartsville, Indiana. 

(Hall) ......... 

............ 

(?)Lecythiocrinus problematieus new species ......................... I33 
FIGS. i I, I Ia, I Ib. Post.. dorsal and ventral views of the only specimen, with anal opening below 
level of RR, which close above it;  small, unequal I1313; very large RR, and tegrnen 
apparently comlosed of a few large plates. )< 3- 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Parastephanocrinus intermedius new genus and species .................... 139 
Fi«s. i2. I2a. I2b. Post., dorsal and ventral views of unique specimen, showing anal opening in line 
with RR directly over post. B; 5 I13B at bottom of deep cavity; forked RR with sinus 
for food-grooves passing in to central cavity; tegmen hot preser ed. >( 2. 
I2c. Detail of RR and food grooves. >(4. 
Louisville limestone; near Bob, Decatur County, Tcnnessee. 



.' I'RI N(;FR " 

.' 3IERItAN 

11 

15 

K. AI. Chapman del. 

11 URIAN 
- • 

7 

6 

llb 

lla 

8 

15a 

18 

17 

14 

Ga 

10 

12b 

12a 

16 

@ 
19a 

19 

13 

I 'I.ATE 31 

2 

12c 

a 



AMERICAN SILURIAN CRINOIDS 235 

FIG. I3. 
I5. 
Sa. 
6. 

PAGE 
Stephanocrinus angulatus Conrad ........................ 139 
Post. iR view of specimen with abaut the usual elongate form, showing sculptured sur- 
face and vertical ridgcs. X 2. 
Specimen showing the extreme of clongation the species sometimes assumes; 1. ant. iR 
view. X 2. 
Lateral view of specimen with cluster of biscrial arms in place. X 2. 
The saine radius from a slightly different angle, enlarged. X 4. 
Tegminal view of specimen shcwing orals and ambulacral grooves; anus seen covered 
hy pyramid of snmll plates. )< 2. 
Rochester shale; Lockport, New York. 

Stephanocrinus gemmiformis Hall .......................... 
FIG. 7. Lateral view of calyx, lov and rotund, without ornament, showing fork of RR. X 2. 
8. Tegmen of another specimen, showing orals, ambulacra and anal opening. X 2. 
19, ga. Lateral and ventral views of similar specimen from Flatwoods, Tennessee. 
\Valdron shale; Newsom, Tennessee, except 19, which may be from Beech River 
formation. 

14o 



236 SM1TIISONIAN INSTITUTION 

FIGS. I, 

17IG. 2. 

FIG. 3- 

PLATE 32 
(Figures natural size unless otherwise stated) PAGE 
Gissocrinus lyoni new species ............................... 135 
Near]y complete crown, showing arms, anal stries, and 3 IBB; posterior and dorsal 
views. 
Loulsville limestone; Jefferson County, Kentucky. 

Gissocrinus delicatus new species ............................... 136 
Crown with extremely slender arms, and anal stries passhag into a tube. 
]3eecb River formation ; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Gissocrinus magnibrachiatus nev species ........................... 
Crown witb parts of arms and stem; calyx small witb plates displaced; shows dorsal 
aspect of the huge brachials, with the sma]l connecting or "patelloid" articulating 
plates between tbem, usually two in succession. 
Fragment containing a few of the large brachials--one axi]lary with double articulation 
at distal end. 
Dorsal side of a better preserved set of arms, showing 2 and 3 "patelloid" plates, and 
several axillary brachia]s with double articulation. 
Another partial set of arms, exposing botb dorsal and vetral sides, the latter witb tbe 
food-grooves completely covered. X 2. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Gissocrinus approximatus new species ............................. 37 
Fragments of isolated axillary brachials somewhat similar to tbe preceding, but appar- 
ently lacking tbe "patelloid" plates; food groove open and covered. X 3/2. 
Aother axillary brachial, almost complete, extreme]y elongate ; natural size. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

(3issocrinus quadratus new species .............................. 
An axillary plate and two fol]owing it, smal]er and with rectangular brachials» also with- 
out "pate]loid " plates ; food-grooves open. X 3/2. 
Part of an arm, witb food-groove covered. X 3/2. 
Horizon and locality, saine as last. 



I'RIN(;FR" .\MI".RI(AN II.['RI'N I._'RIN(»II»S 

1 

8 

| I.ATF  ) 

la 

2 

9 

7 

10 

K. M, f'haprnan del. 

'\ 
11 

5 

4 



238 SMITHSONIAN ] N.qTITUTION 

PLATE 33 
(Ail figures natural size unless otherwise stated) 
Troostocrinus reinwardti (Troost) ............................. I4t 
Fins. i, 2. R. ant. and post. viexvs of average specimens. 
3. R. post. view of similar specimen with part of stem. 
4, 5, 6. Lateral views of 3 small specimens. 
7. Ant. view of maximum specimen. 
8. Specimen with the brachioles in place. X 2. 
Troostocrimls zone of Beech River formation; Decatur and adjoining counties, 
Tennessee. 

Troostocrinus sanctipaulensis Foerste ............. 
Fig. 9- ]mperfect specimen from the Laurel, St. Paul, Indiana. 

....... I4I 

FIG. IO. 

II. 
12. 
I3. 

14. 

Tetracystis fenestratus Schuchert ............................ 
Post. view, showing pectinirhomb and one food-groove complete to base; also doubled 
hydropore. 
R. ant. view with rhomb, showing large size of stem. 
L. post. view, showing lower rhomb and one food groove. 
R. post. view, showing anus and 1. p. food-groove, with some of the lower brachioles in 
place. 
Ventral aspect, showing the 4 food-grooves, and singte hydropore. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

Stribalocystites gorbyi S. A. Miller ............................. I42 
FIGS. I5, I6. L. post. and ventral views of typical specimen. >( 2. 
I7. Specimen with folds strongly elevated and pores protruding with raised margins; post. 
view. >( 2. 
i8. Specimen with pores prominent, but folds ill defined. X 2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, hadiana. 

FIG. I9. 
20. 
2I. 
22. 

Lysocystites sculptus (S. A. Miller) ............................ 142 
R. post. view of large elongate specimen showing striation and tubular folds, the latter 
broken in several places. 
Ventral view of similar specimen, showing anal opening, and small area for tegmen. 
Small. rotund specimen, showing surface structure and proportions of the 3 ranges of 
plates; r. ant. view. >(2. 
Ventral view of still smaller specimen showing anus, and tegmen covered by a few small 
plates. >( 2. 
Laurel limestone; St. Paul, Indiana. 

Caryocrinus bulbulus lXliller and Gurley. ..................... 
FIGS.23, 24,25. R. post., basal and ventral views of typical smooth specimen. 
26,27. L. post. and I. ant. views of specimens with median protuberance on 1313, and protrud- 
ing pores. 
Beech River formation; Decatur County, Tennessee. 

. I43 

FIe,. 28. 

Caryocrinus persculptus new species ........................... I43 
R. ant. view of specimen with pores coalesced into rugose ridges. 
\Valdron formation" Newsom, Tennessee. 



.":,I'RiN<+ER" \'MI"RI('AN IIA_'RIAN ÇRINOIDq 

2 

14 

10 

13 

.X 

17 

.] 

15 

32 

3O 

35 

22 

K. M. Chapman del. 

12 

20 

23 

34 31 

24 

,#r-- '" 

29 

PLATE 33 

7 

26 

36 



AMER[CAN SIkURIAN CRINOIDS 239 

PGE 
Cary0crinus milliganae Millet and Gurlcy .......................... 143 
-9- The type, formcrly in the collection of Mrs. J. M. Milligan ; post. view ; of the pear-shaped 
contour as is most frequent; shows thc stereom folds with pores running in lines to 
angles of plates. 
3o, 3L 32, 33- Lateral and ventral ies of specimcns of varying coq,tour, with sharper fold, 
and pores outlined bv raised margins. 
34. Specimen with coarser folds, lOSt. iew. 
35, 36. Ant. and 1. post. views of two maximum elongate specimens, with folds and pores well 
defined. 
Beech River formatiot; Decatur County, Temessee. 

37. 

Caryocrinus ornatus Say ................................... 4 
L. mt. x'iew, showing biserial, pimm[ate arms, with pores sharply defined. 
Rochestcr shale; Lockport, New York. 



........ ., ,, ,. ,, .,, III III III/lit/Il II/11 I1 111 IIIIII II1| III Il 
3 9088 00579 6651