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Full text of "Bulletin of the united states national museum"

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
ISSUED APRIL 8, 1914. 
I1 



VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS, 

Key to 
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44. 
45. 

the Species and Subspecies of Centurus--Continued. 
Centurus hoffnnni Cabanis ......................................... 
Centurus polygmmmus polygmmmus Cabanis ........................ 
Centurus polygram_mus rontalis (Nelson) ............................ 
Centurus aurifrons (Wagler) ........................................ 
Centurm sntacruzi sntacruzi Bonaparte ........................... 
Centurus sntacruzi grateloupensis (Lesson) .......................... 
Centurus santacruzi pauper lidgway ............................... 
Centurus chrysogenys chrysogenys (Vigors) ........................... 
Centurus chrysogenys fiavinuchus lidgway .......................... 
Centurus hypopolius (Wagler) ....................................... 
Centurus uropygialis uropygialis Baird .............................. 
Centurus uropygialis brewsteri lidgway ............................. 
Centurus radiolatus (Wagler) ....................................... 

46. Centurus striatus (Miiller) ........................................... 
Genus 5. Balanosph)ra lidgway ............................................ 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Balanosphyra ......................... 
47. Balanosphyr formicivora formicivoru (Swainson) ................... 
48. Balanosphyra formicivora aculeata (Mearn.) .................... 
49. Balanosphyr formicivoru bairdi (Ridgway) .......................... 
50. Balanosphyra formicivora angustifrons (Baird) ........................ 
51. Balanosphyra formicivora albeolu (Todd) ............................. 
52. Balanosphyra formicivora striatipectus (lidgway) ................... 
53. Balanosphyra xantholarynx (Reichenbach) ........................... 
Genus 6. Linneopicus Malherbe ............................................ 
54. Linneopicus herminieri (Lesson) ..................................... 
Genus 7. Asyndesmus Coues ............................................... 
55. Asyndesmus lewisi liley. .......................................... 
Genus 8. Tripsurus Sw,'dnson .............................................. 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Tripsurus.: .......................... 
56. Tripsurus pucherani pucherani (Malherbe) .......................... 
57. Tripsurus pucherani perileucus (Todd) .............................. 
58. Tripsurus chrysauchen (Salvin) ..................................... 
Genus 9. Chloronerpes Swainson ........................................... 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Chloronelpes ........ ." ................. 
59. Chloronerpes auricularis Salvin and Godman ......................... 
60. Chloronerpes eruginosus (Malherbe) ................................. 
61. Chlomnerpes rubiginosus yucatanensis (Cabot) ........................ 
62. Chloronerpes rubiginosus uropygialis (Cabanis) ....................... 
63. Chloronerpes chrysochlorus aurosus Nelson .......................... 
64. Chloronerpes callopierus Lawrence .................................. 
65. Chlomnerpes simplex simplex Salvin ............................... 
66. Chloronerpes simplex allophyeus Banjos .............................. 
Genus 10. Celeus Boie ...................................................... 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Celeus. ................................ 
67. Celeus immaculatus Berlepsch ...................................... 
68. Celeus castaneus (Wagler) ........................................... 
69. Celeus loricatus loricatus (Peichenbach) ............................ 
70. Celeus loricatus diversus lidgway ................................... 
Genus 11. Ceophlceus Cabanis ............................................. 
Key to the Subspecies of Ceophlceus lineatus ................................ 
71. Ceophlceus lineatus mesorhynchus (Cabanis and Heine) .............. 
72. Ceophlceus lineatus similis (Lesson) ............................... 
73. Ceophlceus lineatus scapularis (Vigors) .............................. 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

Genus 12. Phlceotomus Cabanls ............................................ 
Key to the Subspecies of Phlceotomus pileatus ............................... 
74. Phlceotomus pileatus pileatus (Linnseus) ............................. 
75. PhIceotomus pileatus floridanus Ridgway ............................. 
76. Phlceotomus pileatus abieticol (Bangs) .............................. 
77. Phlceotomus pileatus picinus Bangs ................................ 
Genus 13. CampephiIus Gray .............................................. 
Key to the Species of Campephilus .......................................... 
78. CampeplfiIus imperialis Gould ....................................... 
79. Campephilus principalis (Linnseus) .................................. 
80. CampephiIus bairdii Cassin .................................... 
Genus 14. Scapaneus Cabanis and tteine ................................... 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Scapaneus .............................. 
81. Scapaneus malherbii (Gray) ......................................... 
82. Scapaneus guatemalensis guatemalensis (Hartlaub) ................... 
83. Scapaneus guatemalensis nelsoni P, idgway ........................... 
84. Scapaneus guatemalensis reus (Reichenbach) ...................... 
Genus 15. Cniparchus Cabanls and Heine ................................... 
85. Cniparchus hmatogaster splendens (tIartt) ........................ 
Genus 16. Xiphidiopicus Bonaparte ........................................ 
Key to the Subspecies of Xiphidiopicus percussus ........................... 
86. Xiphidiopicus percussus percussus (Temminck) ..................... 
87. Xiphidiopicus percussus insulse-pinorum Bangs ...................... 
Genus 17. Yeniliornis Bonaparte ............................................ 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Veniliornis. ........................... 
88. VeniIiornis oleaginus oIeaginus (Lichtenstein) ....................... 
89. Veniliornis oleaginus sanguinolentus (Sclater) ...................... 
90. VeniIiornis kirkii darienensis Ridgway .............................. 
91. Veniliornis kirkii neglectus (Bangs) ................................ 
Genus 18. Dryobates Boie ................................................. 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Dryobatcs ........................ 
92. Dryobates villcsus villosus (Linnaeus) ............................... 

93. Dryobates villosus 
94. Dryobates villosus 
95. Dryobates villosus 
96. Dryobates villosus 
97. Dryobates villosus 
98. Dryobates villosus 
99. Dryobates viIIosus 
100. Dryobates viIlosus 
101. Dryobates villosus 
102. Dryobates villosus 
103. Dryobates villosus 
104. Dryobates villosus 
105. Dryobates villosus 
106. Dryobates villosus 
107. Dryobates viIIosus 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
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113. 

audubonii (Swainson) ............................ 
maynardi Ridgway ............................. 
piger G. 5I. Allen ............................... 
septentrionalis (Nuttall) ......................... 
terrsenovse BatcheIder ............................ 
monticoIa Anthony ............................. 
Ieucothorectis OberhoIser ............... 
orius OberhoIser ............................ 
hyloscopus (Cabanis) ....................... 
harrisii (Audubon) .............................. 
sitkensis Swarth ................................. 
picoideus (Osgood) ..................... 
icastus Oberholser ............................... 
intermedius leIson ......................... 
jardinii (lIalherbe) ............................ 

Dryobates villosus sanctorum (Nelson) ............................... 
Dryobates villosus fumeus Oberholser .............................. 
Dryobates viIlosus extimus Bangs ................................. 
Dryobates pubescens pubescens (Linnaeus) .......................... 
Dryl)bates pubescens medianus (Swainson) ......................... 
Dryobates pubescens nelsoni Oberholser ............................ 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Dryobates--Continued Page. 
114. Dryobates pubescens homorus (Cabanis and Heine) ............... 236 
115. Dryobates pubescens glacialis Grinnell ................ 239 
116. Dryobates pubescens turati (Malherbe) ..................... 239 
117. Dryobates pubescensfiairdnerii (Audubon) ..................... 241 
118. Dryobates nuttallii (Gambel) ..................................... 242 
119. Dryobates scalaris scalaris (Wagler) ................................ 245 
120. Dryobates scalaris ridgwayi Oberholser ............................. 247 
121. Dryobates scalaris percus Oberholser .............................. 248 
122. Dryobates scalaris parvus (Cabot) .................................. 248 
123. Dryobates scalaris leucoptilurus Oberholser ........................ 249 
124. Dryobates scalaris sinaloensis Ridgway ............................. 250 
125. Dryobates scalaris graysoni (Baird) ................................ 250 
126. Dryobates scalaris azelus Oberholser ............................... 251 
127. Dryobates scalaris agnus Oberholser .............................. 252 
128. Dryobates scalaris lucasanus (Xantus) ............................... 252 
129. Dryobates scalaris eremicus Oberholser ............................ 253 
130. Dryobates scalaris cactophilus Oberholser ...................... 254 
131. Dryobates scalaris centmphilus Obcrholser .......................... 256 
132. Dryobatcs scalaris symplectus Oberholser .......................... 257 
133. Dryobates scalaris bairdi (Malherbe) ................................ 258 
134. Dryobates stricklandi (Malherbe) ................................. 259 
135. Dryobates arizone arizone (Hargitt) ............................... 261 
136. Dryobates arizonse fraterculus Ridgway ............................ 263 
Genus 19. Xenopicus Baird ................................................ 264 
137. Xenopicus albolarvatus albolarvatus (Cassin) ........................ 265 
138. Xenopicus albolarvatus gravirostris (Grinnell) ...................... 267 
Genus 20. Phrcnopicus Bonaparte ........................................ 268 
139. Phrenopicus borealis (Vieillot) ................................... 269 
Genus 21. Sphyrapicus Baird .............................................. 272 
Key to the Species and Subspecies(?) of Sphympicus ........................ 273 
140. Sphyrapicus varius varius (Linnmus) ............................... 274 
141. Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis Baird ............................... 279 
142. Sphyrapicus tuber tuber (Gmelin) ................................. 282 
143. Sphyrapicus tuber notkensis (Suckow) ............................ 284 
144. Sphyrapicus thyroideus (Cassin) .................................... 286 
Genus 22. t'icoides Lacpde ............................................. 289 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Picoides ........................... 290 
145. Picoides americanus americanus Brehm ................. 291 
146. t'icoides americanus fasciatus Baird ................................. 295 
147. Picoides americanus dorsalis (Baird) ................................ 297 
148. Picoides arcticus (Swainson) ........................................ 298 
Genus 23. Picumnus Temminck ............................................ 302 
Key to the Subspecies of Picumnus olivaceus. ................................ 303 
149. Picumnus olivaceus panamensis Ridgway ........................... 304 
150. Picumnus olivaceus flavotinctus (Ridgway) ......................... 306 
151. Picumnus olivaceus dimotus (Bangs) ............................... 307 
Genus 24. Nesoctites Hargitt ............................................... 307 
152: Nesoctites micromegas (Sundevall) ................................. 308 
SUPERFAMILY CAPITOIES. HE BAnBETS AND ]ONEY GUIDES ............... 310 
Key to the Families of Capitones. ........................................... 310 
FAIILY CAPITONIDE. THE BABTS ...................................... 311 
Key to the American Genera of Capitonide .................................. 313 
Genus 1. Eubucco Bonaparte .............................................. 314 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI 

Page. 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Eubucco .............................. 315 
1. Eubucco bourcieri salvini (Shelley) ................................... 317 
Genus 2. Capito Viefllot .................................................... 319 
Key to the Species of Capito ................................................. 320 
2. Capito maculicoronatus maculicoronatus Lawrence .................... 323 
3. Capito maculicoronatus pirrensis Nelson ............................... 324 
Genus 3. Dichrorhynchus Carriker .......................................... 324 
4. Dichrorhynchus frantzii (Sclater) ..................................... 325 
SUPERFAMIL:e IAMPmSTIDE S ............................................... 327 
FAMILY IAMPASWIDE. TE TOUCANS .................................... 328 
Key to tlm Genera of Ramphasti&e ......................................... 329 
Genus 1. lamphastos Linnaeus .............................................. 330 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ramphastos ........................... 332 
1. Ramphastos piscivorus piscivorus Linnaeus ............................ 332 
2. Ramphastos piscivorus brevicarinatus (Gould) ......................... 334 
3. lamphastos swainsonii Gould ......................................... 336 
4. lamphastos ambiguus Swainson ...................................... 339 
Genus 2. Pteroglossus Illiger. ............................................... 340 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Pteroglossus ........................... 341 
5. Pteroglossus torquatus torquatus (Gmelin) ............................ 342 
6. Pteroglossus torquatus erythrozonus lidgway ........................ 345 
7. Pteroglossus frantzii Cabanis .......................................... 345 
8. Pteroglossus sanguineus Gould ........................................ 347 
Genus 3. Selenidera Gould .................................................. 348 
9. Selenidera spectabilis Cassin ......................................... 349 
Genus 4. Aulacorhynchus Gould ............................................ 351 
Key to the Species of Aulacorhynchus ....................................... 353 
10. Aulacorhynchus wagleri (Sturm) .................................... 354 
11. Aulacorhynchus prasinus prasinus (Gould) ........................... 355 
12. Aulacorhynchus prasinus virescens Ridgway. ......................... 357 
13. Aulacorhynchus ceruleogularis ceruleogularis (Gould) ................ 357 
14. Aulacorhynchus cmruleogularis cognatus (Nelson) .................... 359 
SUPERPAMILY GALBUI.z. JACAMARS AND I)UFP BIRDS ...................... 359 
Key to the Families of Galbulm ....................................... 359 
FAMILY GALBULID. Tn JACAARS ............ : ........................... 360 
Key to the Genera of Galbulide ............................................. 360 
Genus 1. Jacamerops Oken ................................................. 362 
1. Jacamerops aurea (Miille0 ........................................... 362 
Genus 2. Galbula Brisson .................................................. 365 
2. Galbula melanogenia Sclater ......................................... 366 
Genus 3. Brachygalba Bonaparte ............................................ 369 
3. Brachygalba salmoni Sclater and SaLin ............................... 369 
FAMILY BUCCONIDm. T Pu BIRDS ..................................... 370 
Key to the Genera of Bucconide ........................................... 371 
Genus 1. Notharchus Cabaais and lteine .................................... 373 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Notharchus ............................. 375 
1. otharchus hyperrhynchus dysoni (Sclater) ........................... 376 
2. Notharchus pectoralis (Gray) ........................................ 379 
3. Notharchus rectus subtectus (Sclater) ............. o .................. 379 
Genus 2. Hypnelus Cabanis and Heine ...................................... 380 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of IIypnelus ............................. 382 
4. Hypnelus ruficollis ruficollls (Wagler) ................................. 382 
Genus 3. Ecchauuornis Ridgway ............................................ 384 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV 

Genus 1. Cryptoglaux Richmond ........................................... 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Cryptoghux ........................... 
1. Cryptoglamx tengmalmi richardsoni (Bonaparte) ..................... 
2. Cryptoglaux acadica (Gmelin) ...................................... 
3. Cryptoglaux ridgwayi Alfaro ........................................ 
Genus 2. Scotiaptex Swainson .............................................. 
Key to the Subspecies of Scotiaptex nebulosa ................................ 
4. Scotiaptex nebulosa nebulosa (Forster) .............................. 
Genus 3. Strix Linnaeus ................................................... 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Strix ................................... 
5. Strix varia varia (Barton) ........................................... 
6. Strix varia alleni (Ridgway) ........................................ 
7. Strix varia albogilva Bangs .......................................... 
8. Stnx varia sartorii (Ridgway) ....................................... 
9. Strix fulvescens (Sclater and Salvin) ................................. 
10. Strix occidentalis occidentalis (Xantu) ............................. 
11. Strix occidentalis caurin (Merriam) ................................. 
12. Strix occidentalis huachuce (Swarth) ................................ 
13. Strix occidentalis lucida (Nelson) .................................... 
Genus 4. Aslo Brisson ..................................................... 
Key to the Species of Asio ................................................. 
14. Asio wilsonianus (Lesson) ........................................... 
15. Asio stygius (Wagler) .............................................. 
16. Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan) ..................................... 
17. Asio portoricensis Ridgway .......................................... 
18. Asio galapagoensis (Gould) .......................................... 
Genus 5. lghinoptynx Kaup ............................................... 
19. Rhinoptynx clamator (Vieillot) ..................................... 
Genus 6. Pseudoscops Kaup ............................................... 
20. Pseudoscops gmmmicus (Gosse) ..................................... 
Genus 7. Gymnasio Bonaparte ............................................. 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Gymnsio ............................. 
21. Gymnasio nudipes nudipes (Daudin) ....................... 
22. Gymnasio nudipes newtoni (Lawrence) ............................... 
23. Gymnasio lawrencii (Sclater and Salvin) ........................... 
Genus 8. Otus Pennant .................................................... 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Otus .................................. 

24. Otus 
25. Otus 
26. Otus 
27. Otus 
28. Otus 
29. Otus 
30. Otus 
31. Otus 
32. Otus 
33. Otus 
34. Otus 
35. Otus 
36. Otus 
37. Otus 
38. Otus 
39. Otus 

asio asio (Linnaeus) ............................................ 
usio naevius (Gmelin) .......... : .............................. 
usio mccallii (Cassin) ........................................... 
asio hasbmucki Ridgway (New subspecies) ..................... 
asio aikeni (Brewster) .......................................... 
asio maxwellim (Ridgway) ..................................... 
asio macfarlanei (Brewster) ..................................... 
asio kennicottii (Elliot) ........................................ 
asio brewsteri Ridovay (New subspecies) ....................... 
asio bendirei (Brewster) ........................................ 
asio cineraceus (lidgway) ...................................... 

usio xantusi (Brewster) ........................................ 
trichopsis (Wagler) ............................................. 
pinosus (Nelson and Palmer) ................................... 
vinaceus (Brewster) ............................................ 
cooperi (gidgway) ............................................ 

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XVI TABL OF CONTENTS. 

Key to 
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the Species and Subspecies of Otus--Continued. 
Otus choliba (Vieillot) .............................................. 
Otus gutemale (Sharpe) ............................................ 
Otus hastatus hastatus (Ridgway) .................................... 
Otus hastutus thompsoni (Cole) ...................................... 
Otus cassini (Ridgway) ............................................. 
Otus barbarus (Sclater and Salvin) .................................. 
Otus vermiculatus (Ridgway) ....................................... 
Otus nudipes (Vieillot) .............................................. 

48. Otus flammeolus (Kaup) ............................................ 
Genus 9. Lophostrix Lesson ................................................ 
Key to the Species of Lophostrix ............................................ 
49. Lophostrix stricklandi Sclater and Salvin ............................ 
Genus 10. Bubo Dumil ................................................... 
Key to the Subspecies of Bubo vlrgq_nianus ................................... 
50. Bubo virgimanus virginianus (Gmelin) ............................... 
51. Bubo virganmnus pallescens (Stone) .................................. 
52. Bubo wrginianus occidentalis Stone ................................. 
53. Bubo virgmanus pacificus Cassin .................................... 
54. Bubo virgmlanus elachistus Brewster ............................... 
55. Bubo virg,manus icclus (Oberholser) ................................. 
56. Bubo virginianus lagophonus (Oberholser) ............................ 
57. Bubo wrgqnmnus saturatus lidgway ................................. 
58. Bubo vargm,unus heterocnemis (Oberholser) ......................... 
59. Bubo wrgmmnus algistus (Oberholser) ............................... 
60. Bubo wrgmmnus wapacuthu (Gmelin) ............................... 
61. Bubo wrgm,nus melancerus (Oberholser) ........................... 
62. Bubo wrgmmnus mayensis Nelson .................................. 
63. Bubo wr manus mesembrinus (Oberholser) ......................... 
Genus 11. t'ulsatrix Kaup ............................................. 
64. t'ulsatrix persiicillata perspicillut (Latham) ........................ 
65. t'ulsatrix perspicillata saturat lidgway (lew subspecies) ............ 
Genus 12. Ciccaba Wagler .................................................. 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ciccaba ............................... 
66. Ciccaba nigrolineata nigrolineata Sclater ............................. 
67. Ciccaba virguta virgata (Cassin) ..................................... 
68. Ciccaba virgata squamulata (Bonaparte) ............................. 
69. Ciccaba virgat tumaulipensis (Phillips) .............................. 
Genus 13. lyctea Stephens ................................................ 
70. lyctea nyctea (Linnaeus) .......................................... 
Genus 14. Surnia Dumril ................................................. 
Key to the Subspecies of Surnia ulula ...................................... 
71. Surnia ulula caparoch (Miiller) ..................................... 
Genus 15. Glaucidium Boie ................................................ 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Glaucidium ............................ 
72. Glaucidium jardinii (Bonaparte) ..................................... 

73. Glaucidium gnoma gnoma Wagler ................................... 
74. Glaucidium gnoma hoskinsii Brewster ............................... 
75. Glaucidium gnoma pinicola Nelson ................................. 
76. Glaucidium gnoma ealifornicum (Sclater) ........................... 
77. Glaucidium gnoma grinnelli lidgway ............................... 
78. Glaucidium gnoma swarthi Grinnell ................................. 
79. Glaucidium palmarum Nelson ...................................... 
80. Glaucidium pumilum griseiceps (Sharpe) ............................ 

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TABLE" OF CONTENTS. XVII 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Glaucidium--Continued. Page. 
81. Glaucidium fisheri Nelson and Palmer .............................. 797 
82. Glaucidium brasilianum ridgwayi (Sharpe) .......................... 798 
83. Glaucidium siju siju (D'Orbigny) ................................... 804 
84. Glaucidium siju vittatum Ridgway .................................. 805 
Genus 16. Micropallas Coues ............................................... 806 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Micropallas ............................ 807 
85. Micropallas whitneyi whitneyi (Cooper) .............................. "807 
86. Micropallas whitneyi sanfordi lidgway (New ubspecies) ............ 809 
87. Micropallas whitneyi idoneus lidgway (New subspecies) ............ 810 
88. Micropallas graysoni (lidgway) ..................................... 810 
Genus 17. Speotyto Gloger .................................................. 812 
Key to the Species and Subspecies of Speotyto ................ . .............. 813 
89. Speotyto cuniculari hypogeea (Bonaparte) .......................... 814 
90. Spootyto cunicularia rostrata (Townsend) ............................ 820 
91. Speotyto floridana floridana (Ridgway) ............................... 820 
92. Speotyto floridana dominicensis (Cory) ............................. 823 
93. Speotyto guadeloupensis guadeloupensis (Ridgway) ................ 824 
94. Speotyto guadeloupensis amaura (Lawrence) .......................... 825 
3622---Bul]. 50, pt 6--14--ii 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

3 

Saurognathous (or tegitho-schizognathous) zygodactyle Coracii- 
form birds with the processus angularis mandibulte present, lateral 
halves of the vomer separate, ectepicondyloid process of humerus 
present, manubrial rostrum bifurcate, myological formula A_X, and 
tongue extensile. 
Basipterygoid processes absent; maxillo-palatines small, not 
coalesced; vomer slender, pointed, split (the lateral halves separated); 
manubrial rostrum of sternum bifurcate; no interclavicle; only oue 
carotid artery (the left); cmca absent or rudhnentary; oil-gland 
tufted; femoro-caudal and semitendimsus muscles present; ambiens 
and accessory femoro-caudal nmscles absent; spinal pteryla well- 
defined on neck, forked on lower (not upper) back; sides of breast 
with two distinct pteryle, united at shoulders; primaries 10, the 
tenth (outermost) nmch reduced; rectrices 12, but outer pair greatly 
reduced or rudimentary (concealed by coverts); adult downs absent; 
young nidicolous and gymnopedic. 
The Pici are a numerous but sharply circumscribed group of birds, 
whose nearest relatives are undoubtedly the Capitones (Barbers). 
They differ from all other birds in the structure of the tongue and 
(though to a less extent) the bill, together with related parts, which 
are highly specialized for adaptation to their peculiar mode of obtain- 
ing their food. The bill is a combined hammer and chisel, and serves 
admirably for the puncturing and excavation of trees, both for the 
purpose of reaching insects which are hidden in the wood and pre- 
paring a cavity for nesting purposes. The tongue is a more or less 
extensile barbed lance or spear, with which they are able to explore 
tle burrow of a grub, transfLx it, and draw it within the mouth; and 
its fleshy portion is covered with a viscid secretion which entraps 
insects with which it comes in contact. 
Their young are, as in the case of other Coraciiformes (except 
Nycticoracie and Striges) gymnopmdic, and though nidicolous, are 
able to leave the nest and climb about the tree in which they were 
reared for some time before they are capable of flight. 
According to Mr. Brewster, a "the young of most, if not all, of the 
Woodpeckers regularly moult the wing and tail feathers with the rest 
of the first plumage. No exceptions of this rule occnr among large 
series of the common North American species examined, and it may 
probably be found to hold good among all excepting, perhaps, some 
highly specialized groups. Another peculiar feature in the early 
development of the species most thoroughly investigated, and one 
which is perhaps common to all the members of this family, is the fact 
that a certain portion of the females in first plumage possess to a 
greater or less degree the adornments which in more advanced stages 

a Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 179, footnote. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

Saurognathous (or egitho-schizognathous), zygodactylous Cora- 
ciiformes (Pici) with tongue more or less (usually greatly) extensile, 
cylindrical, but with tip horny and barbed; rectrices twelve, but the 
lateral pair rudimentary or greatly reduced in size. 
Vomer split (the lateral halves separated); basipterygoid processes 
absent; maxillo-palatines small, not coalesced; manubrial process of 
sternum bifurcate; femoro-caudal and semitendenosus muscles present, 
ambiens and accessory femoro-caudal muscles absent; caeca absent 
or rudimentary; left carotid artery, only, present; spinal pteryla 
well-defined on neck, without interscapular fork, but enclosing a 
dorsal apterium; sides of breast with two distinct pteryle, united at 
shoulders; oil-gland tufted; outermost (tenth) primary small, and 
wings otherwise essentially Oscinine. 
In addition to the above-mentioned characters it may be stated 
that the tongue itself is quite small, flat, and short, acute and horny, 
usually armed along the edges with recurved hooks. The horns of 
the hyoid apparatus are generally very long, and curve round tim 
back of the skull, frequently to the base of the bill, playing in a 
sheath, when the tone-me is thrown forward out of the mouth to 
transfix an insect or withdraw it from a cavity which can not be 
otherwise penetrated, a 
There are twelve rectrices, of which the outer is, however, very 
small and rudimentary (lying concealed between the outer and 
adjacent feathers), so that only ten are usually counted. The tail 
is nearly even, or cuneate, never forked, the shafts very rigid in the 
true Woodpeckers (Picinm); soft in Picumuinm. The outer primary 
is generally very short, or spurious, but not wanting. The bill is 
chisel or wedge shaped, with sharp angles and ridges and usually 
straight culmen; sometimes the culmen is a little curved, in which 
case it is smoother or without distinct ridges or grooves. The tarsus 
is scutellate anteriorly, at least in part, the posterior side with much 
smaller, usually more or less polygonal, scales in Subfamily Picinm or 
with a single row of quadrate scutella (in Subfamily Picumninm). 
The toes are paired (two directed forward and two backward, the 
outer, or fourth toe, being permanently reversed), or else there is 
only one posterior toe (the outer), the first toe, or hallux being 
wanting. The claws are compressed, broad (vertically), strongly 
curved, very strong, and acute. 
As implied by the vernacular name of the group, the Woodpeckers 
are preeminently distinguished for their habit of pecking the bark 
and decayed wood of trees, in their search for grubs and other insects, 
and for excavating deep cavities in the trunks or branches of trees 
in which to deposit their eggs. While by no means peculiar to the 

a For further details concerning the structure of the tongue, see Stejneger, Stand- 
ard Natural History, iv, 1885, 424, 425. 



6 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

group, these habits are nevertheless more highly developed and more 
universal in the Woodpeckers than in any other birds. The true 
Woodpeckers (Picine) are all truly scansorial, and in clinging to the 
side of a tree or branch or ascending the same support themselves to 
a great extent by using the rigid tail as a prop. Although to a great 
extent insectivorous the Woodpeckers also feed to a great extent on 
fruits (both large and small), or even grain, especially when in the 
soft or unripe stage. The species of one genus (Sphyrapicus) subsist 
largely on the soft inner bark or cambium and sugary sap of certain 
trees and often do considerable damage, especially to fruit trees. 
All other kinds, however, are decidedly beneficial, through their 
destruction of wood-destroying beetles and their larvm, grasshoppers, 
and other predaceous insects. 
The eggs of Woodpeckers are, like those of other Picarian birds, 
invariably immaculate white, usually with a very glossy or polished 
surface, and are deposited on the chips at the bottom of the excava- 
tion, no attempt at constructing a true nest being made. In very 
thinly wooded or treeless countries the few species of Woodpeckers 
which occur there are, from necessity, more or less terrestrial, ma -king 
their excavations in banks of earth or even depositing their eggs in 
cavities already existing, as the brain-cavity of the skull of a large 
mammal, as a horse or ox. 
Noodpeckers are found in all wooded portions of the world except 
the island of Madagascar and the entire Australian ]eon. a The 
group is nearly equally represented in the two hemispheres, the 
Western claiming about twenty-two genera and two hundred and 
twenty-five species (including subspecies), the Eastern twenty-seven 
genera and a little more than two hundred species and subspecies. 
Three genera are of circumpolar range, with sixty-three American 
(mostly Nearctic) and twenty-nhe Palearctic forms. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. OF PICID2E. 
a. Planta tarsi taxaspidean; rectrices rigid, with strong and elastic shafts, more or less 
contracted or acuminate terminally. (Picina.) 
b. Outer hind toe not longer than outer front toe. 
c. Maxilla without any distinct lateral ridge or groove; tip of bill pointed (not 
chisel-shaped); tarsus nearly as long as longest toe with claw, the toes rela- 
tively more slender and claws weuker. (Colaptea.) 
d. Nostrils more or less covered by small antrorse prefrontal feathers. 
e. Bill little if any longer than head, the gonys not longer (usually shorter) 
than mandibular rami; tail not less than two-thirds as long as wing. 
fi Bill more slender, appreciably decurved terminally, the gonys not 
ascending terminally nor prominent basally; a large black jugular 
patch; basal half, at least, of under side of tail yellow, orange, or red. 
Colaptes (p. 12). 

a Woodpeckers occur, however, in Celebes and Flores, outlying islands of the 
Australian Region, "which are situated so close to the Indo-Malayan islands that it 
is safe to conclude that their woodpeckers are comparatively recent immigrants from 
the latter." (Stejneger, Standard Nat. Hist., iv, 425.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 11 

it. Bill more slender, with supranasal ridge and prenasal groove 
running to tomial edge at one-third, or more, the distance from 
tip of maxilla; under parts conspicuously streaked, the throat 
not yellow; back with white markin G transverse; a white 
supra-auricular stripe; adult males with a red nuchal band or 
a red streak along each side of occiput. 
Dyctiopicus (extralimital).a 
gg. Longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by more than one- 
fourth the length of wing. 
h. Gonys at least twice as long as mandibular rami; under parts white 
or pale brownish (with or without nlarkings); head broadly 
striped with white and black; lateral rectrices white (with or 
without black spots or bars) .............. Drvobates (p. 194). 
hh. Gonys decidedly less than twice as long as mandibular rami; under 
(as well as upper) parts uniform black, the head, foreneck, and 
part of primaries white; adult male with a red nuchal band. 
Xenopicus (p. 264). 
/7". Wing-tip longer (longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by one- 
third, or more, the length of wing); tenth (outermost) primary not 
more than one-fourth as long as ninth; tarsus as long as or longer than 
outer hind toe with claw. 
g. Gonys less than twice (about one and a half times) as long as mandibu- 
lar rami; supranasal ridge higher, running out to edge of maxilla at 
a point about one-third the distance from tip; tarsus not longer 
than outer hind toe with claw; longest primaries exceeding distal 
secondaries by more than one-third lhe length of wing; middle 
rectrices broadly acuminate; tongue distinctly extensile. 
lhrenopicus (p. 268). 
qg. Gonys two and a half to three tinms as long as mandibular rami; supra- 
nasal ridge lower, running out to edge of maxilla at or posterior to 
middle; tarsus longer than outer hind toe wiih claw; longest pri- 
maries exceeding secondaries by not more than one-third the 
length of wing; middle recirices narrowly and more abruptly 
acuminate;, tongue scarcely extensile ...... Sphyrapicus (p. 272). 
cc. Only one (the outer) posterior toe; inner anterior toe nearly as long as the outer 
one; bill extremely depressed. (Picoidex) ............. Picoides (p. 289). 
aa. Planta tarsi holaspidean; rectrices soft, with slender (normal) shaft and broadly 
rounded tip. (Picumninx.)b 
b. Nostril nearer to commissure than to culmen; culmen and commissure nearly 
straight; gonys much longer than mandibular rami; outermost (tenth) primary 
less than half as long as ninth; smaller (wing less than 60 ram.); inner web of 
middle pair of rectrices white or pale yellow. 
c. Culmen longer than outer hind toe (without claw), the bill more slender; no 
whitish nor dusky stripes on side of head ................ licumnus (p. 302). 
cc. Culmen not longer than outer hind toe without claw, the bill thicker and 
more conical; two whitish and two dusky stripes on side of head. 
Vivia (extralimital).c 

a Dyctiopicus Bonaparte, Ateneo Italians, it, 1854, 123. (Type, as fixed by Gray, 
1855, Picus bicolor Gmelin----P. ndxtus Boddaert.)--Dictyopipo (emendation) Cabanis 
and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July 1, 1863, 74. Southern Brazil and Paraguay 
to Chile and Peru; three species. 
b Picumnidae Carus, ttandb. Zool., i, 1868-75, 245. 
c Vivia Hodgson, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, vi, pt. i, 1837, 107. (Type, lz. nipalensis 
HodgsonPicumnus innominatus Burton. )--Pipiscus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., 
iv, heft it, April, 1863, 9. (Type, Picumnus i-nnodnatus Burton.) Indo-Malayan 
Region; two species. (Very close to Picumnus, but I think should be separated. I 
have not seen V. chinensis Hargitt, however.) 



]., BULLETIN 50 UNITED SrArES ATIOITAL MUSEUM. 
. Nostril much nearer to culmen than to commissure; culmen and commissure 
slightly but distinctly decurved; gonys but little longer than mandibular 
rRmi; outermost primary more than half as long as ninth; lRrger (wing 70 
ram.); no white or pale yellow on middle rectrices ...... lesoctites (p. 307). 
Genus COLAITIS Vigors. 
Colaptes V1ools, Trans. Linn. Soc., Lond., xiv, pt. iii, 1825, 457. footnote. (Type, 
by original designation, Cuculus auratus Linnmus.) 
Cucupicus LESSON, Man. d'Orn., ii, 1828, 116. (Type, Cuculus auratus Linnaeus.) 
Craugusa BILLBEIG, Synop. Faunm Scand., i, part 2, 1828, tab. A. (Type, 
Cuculus auratus Linnaeus.) 
Rather large licidm (wing 127-178 ram.) witlout any distinct 
lateral ridge or groove on maxilla, tip of bill pointed (not chisel- 
shaped), tarsus nearly as long as outer hind toe with claw, toes 
relatively slender and claws weak, shafts of remiges and rectrices 
bright yellow, orange, or red, back brown barred with black, under 
parts whitish spotted with black and with a conspicuous jugular 
crescentic patch of black, the adult males witl a broad raalar stripe 
of black or red.  
Bill about as long as head, rather slender, slightly but distinctly 
decurved terminally, rather broad and depressed basally, its tip 
obtusely pointed (not wedge-shaped); culmen forming a distinct 
ridge; gonys not longer (sometimes decidedly shorter) than mandib- 
ular rami, straight or sometimes faintly concave, distinctly ridged, 
its base sometinies slightly prominent; sides of maxilla without any 
distinct ridge or groove. Nostril broadly oval or roundish, rather 
large, concealed by a flattened tuft of small, bristle-like, antrorse 
prefrontal feathers; no distinct rictal, prefrontal, premalar, nor 
mental bristles. Orbits feathered, except a narrow space beneath 
lower eyelid and immediately in front of eye. Wing rather long, 
with longest primaries exceeding secondaries by about one-fourth the 
length of wing; fifth or sixth primaries longest, tle ninth shorter 
than fourth (sometimes shorter than second), the tenth (outermost) 
nxore than one-third as long as ninth. Tail about two-tlirds as long 
as wing, slightly graduated, tle rectrices broad but abruptly acumi- 
nate terminally. Tarsus equal to or longer than outer hind toe with 
claw, but shorter tlan outer front toe with claw; the toes relatively 
rather slender and claws ratller weak. 
Coloration.--Shafts of remiges and of at least basal half of rectrices 
bright yellow, orange, or red; back, wing-coverts, and secondaries 
brownish barred with black; rump white (sometimes spotted with 
black); pileum plain gray, brown, or rufescent; throat plain gray or 

a KpaorSz, a woodpecker. 
b This diagnosis and the generic description which follows is based entirely on the 
Nearctic species, the hal/dozen South American species which are usually referred 
to Colaptes, being almost certainly distinct generically. (See p. 7.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

vinaceous; under parts of body whitish, light pinkish, or pale vinace- 
ous, spotted with black, the chest with a conspicuous crescentic 
patch of black; adult males with a broad malar stripe of black or 
bright red. 
Range.--The whole of North America (except treeless Arctic dis- 
tricts), south to northern Nicaragua; Cuba; island of Grand Cayman, 
south of Cuba. (Five species.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF COLAPTES. 
a. Shafts of remiges and rectrices and under surface of tail (except distal portion) 
yellow; inner webs of remiges with proximal portion (extensively) yellow. 
b. A red nuchal crescent or band; throat and foreneck vinaceous; under surface of 
rectrices narrowly (sometimes only partly) black distally; adult males with 
malar stripe black. 
c. Center of rump immaculate white; pileum brownish gray. (Colaptes aurats.) 
d. Smaller (wing averaging about 150 ram.). (Southeastern United States, 
north to southeastern Virginia?, southwestern Indiana, southeastern Mis- 
souri, etc.) ............................ Colaptes auratus auratus (p. 14). 
dd. Larger (wing averaging 155 ram. or more). 
e. Smaller (wing averaging 156.3 in male, 155 in female). (Eastern United 
States, except "Austroriparian" district, Minnesota, North Dakota, 
etc.) ................................. Colaptes auratus luteus (p. 18). 
ee. Larger (wing averaging more than 163 ram.). (Northern North America, 
east of Rocky Mts., from North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Ontario, 
etc., to Ungava and coast of Bering Sea in Alaska.) 
Colaptes auratus borealis (p. 20). 
cc. Center of rump spotted with black; pileum clear bluish gray. (Colaptes 
ehrysocaulosus. ) 
d. Larger (wing 133-146.5, culmen 32.5-36.5); adult male with black malar 
patch larger and broader. (Cuba.) 
Colaptes chrysooaulosus chrysocaulosus (p. 23). 
dd. Smaller (wing 127-132.5, culmen 29-33); adult male with black malar 
patch smaller and narrower. (Island of Grand Cayman, south ot Cuba.) 
Colaptes chrysocaulosus gundlachi (p. 25). 
bb. No red on nape; throat and foreneck gray; under surtace of rectrices broadly 
black distally; adult male with malar stripe red. (Colaptes chrysoides.) 
c. Smaller (wing averaging less than 144 in male, less than 142 in female; culmen 
averaging less than 36); coloration darker, with pileum less cinnamomeous 
or else the latter darker or more rufescent. 
d. Coloration lighter, more ayish brown above, with pileum less rufescent; 
immaculate white area of rump larger, the center of rump never spotted. 
(Southern Lower California.) ...... Colaptes chrysoides chrysoides (p. 25). 
dd. Coloration darker, less grayish brown above, with pileum more rutescent; 
immaculate white area of rump more restricted, the center of rump 
sometimes spotted. (Northern Pacific coast district of Lower California.) 
Colaptes chrysoides brunnescens (p. 27). 
cc. Larger (wing averaging 148.2 in male, 146.9 in female; culmen averaging 
37.8 in male, 36.6 in female); coloration paler, with pileum more cinna- 
momeous. (Arizona and southeastern California to southern Sonora.) 
Colaptes chrysoides mearnsi (p. 28). 
aa. Shafts of remiges and rectrices and under side of tail (except distal portion) 
orange-red or reddish orange; inner webs of remiges (except distal portion) 
pink or salmon color. 



BIRDS OF ITORTI:I AND IVfIDDLE AMERICA. 

Colaptes auratus SWAINSON, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 314, part; Classif. 
Birds, ii, 1837, 310.---BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 40, part.-- 
NUTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 663. 
BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 118, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 97, part.--MARsH, Zoologist, 1859, 6327 (acciden{al in England).-- 
SCLATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344, part (Eastern North America).-- 
(?)DRESSER, Ibis, 1865, 470 (San Antonio, Texas, 1 spec.).--LAwRENCE, 
Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 1866, 291 (vicinity of New York City).--ALLEN, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 143 (Saline R., n. w. Kansas, winter).--CovEs, 
Check List, 1873, no. 312, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 457, part; Birds North-West, 
1874, 292, part.--Bt, mD, BREWER, and tIDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 575, part, pl. 55, figs. 1, 2.--BREWSTER, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., xi, 1875, 
144 (litchie Co., West Virginia); Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 181 (descr. 
first plumage), Auk, x, 1893, 231-236 (feeding of young).--ScoTT, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, v, 1880, 56 (nesting in natural cavity).--(?)DALGLEISH, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 74 (accidental in England).--HARDY, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, v, 1880, 241 (unusual nesting sites).--I:IDGWAY, Nom. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 378, part.--OGILVY, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 
59 (Navarro Co., Texas, winter; habits).--BmNELL, Auk, ii, 1885, 259 
(notes).--AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 412, part.--LLoYD, Auk, iv, 1887, 191 (Tom Green and Concho 
counties, Texas, winter).--PHiLLIPS, Auk, iv, 1887, 346 (laid 71 eggs in 73 
days!).--COOKE, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 133, part (San Angelo, s. w. 
Texas; Bonham, Texas; etc.).--BECKHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 
665 (San Antonio, Texas, 1 spec., March 2).--ATTWATER, Auk, ix, 1892, 235 
(San Antonio, Texas, winter).----SINGLEY, Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, 1894, 350 
(Lee Co., Texas, winter resident).--BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1895, 129, part.--MILLER (G. S.), Auk, xiv, 1897, 275 (spec. with spotted 
rump).--BuRNS, Wilson Bull., no. 31, 1900, 1-82, part (monogr.); no. 70, 
1910, 55 (a Pennsylvania vernacular name).--BEAL, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. 
Surv., 1911, 52, part (food). 
[Colaptes] auratus BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 113, part; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1854, 126.--GRAY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8822, part.--CouEs, Key N. 
Am. Birds, 1872, 197, part. 
C[olaptes] auratus REICHENEACH, Handb. Scans., Picine, 1854, 412, pl. 666, fig. 
4419-20, part.--Mt, xIMILAN, Journ. fiir Orn., 1858, 420 (New Harmony, 
Indiana, winter).--CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part.-- 
RIDGWAY, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., x, 1874, 378, part (Illinois); Man. N. Am. Birds, 
1887, 295, part. 
[Colaptes aurat-us] var. auratus BAIRD, BREWER, and tIDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 575, part. 
Geopicos auratus MALHERVE, Mm. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 359, part. 
Geopicus auratus MALHERVE, Mort. Picid., ii, 1862, 255, part; iv, pl. 109, figs. 
5, 6, 7. 
Colaptes auratus luteus BANGS, Auk, xv, April, 1898, 177 (Watertown, Massa- 
chusetts; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs).--AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION 
COMMITTEE, Auk, xvi, 1899, 111, part (check list no. 412a).--BLaKE, Auk, xix, 
1902, 199 (Berkshire Co., Massachustetts, Dec., 1 spec.).--Lt, RSEN, LSlson 
Bull., no. 60, 1907, 114 (Lyman Co., South Dakota, com. sum. res.).--HOWELL, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxi, 1908, 121 (n. Louisiana, winter); Auk, xxvii, 
1910, 296 (Midway, Barbourville, etc., Kentucky), 302 (High Cliff, etc., e. 
Tennessee).--EMoDv, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 172 (Hanover Co., Virginia, resi- 
dent).--AMERmA ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 194, 
part. 
[Colaptes auratus luteus] SHERMAN (Althea R.), Wilson Bull., xxii, 1910, 135-171, 
figs., 5 pls. (nesting habits, etc.). 
[Colaptes] luteus SHt, RPE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201, part. 



20 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

COLAPTES AURATUS BOREALIS Ridgway. 
BOR.A. LICER. 
Similar to C. a. auratus and C. a. luteus in coloration, but larger 
than the latter, much larger than the former, a 
Adultmale.--Length (skins), 270-314 (292); wing, 156-170 (162.9); 
tail, 102.5-115 (107); culmen, 34.5-40 (36.4); tarsus, 27-31.5 (29); 
outer anterior toe, 21-24.5 (22.5). b 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 270-310 (287); wing, 156-171 
(162.3); tail, 99-115 (105.5); culmen, 32.5-38.5 (35.6); tarsus, 
27.5-30.5 (28.8); outer anterior toe, 21-23.5 (22.2). c 
Northern North America, east of Rocky Mountains, from Labrador, 
Quebec, northern Ontario, Minnesota, North Dakota, eastern Mon- 
tana, eastern Wyoming, etc., north to the limit of tree growth (north- 
ern Ungava, Mackenzie, etc.), northwestward through Alaska to the 
shores of Bering Sea and to valley of the Kowak River; accidental 
on Pribilof Islands and in Greenland; occasional in winter along or 
near Pacific coast through British Columbia (including Vancouver 
Island) to California, and along Rocky Mountains to Colorado. 
[Picus] auratus (not of Linnaeus) FORSrER, Philos. Trans., lxii, 1772, 383, 387 
(Albany Fort). 
Colaptes auratus REINHARDT, Ibis, 1861, 8 (accidental in Greenland).--BI- 
mo, Ibis, 1862, 3 (Hudson Bay).--DALL and Bxsr, Trans. Chicago 
Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 275 (near Ft. Yukon and Nulato, Alaska).--ALL, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 63 (Ft. lice, North Dakota, and west of lussel- 
shell R.).--Covs, Check List, 1873, no. 312, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 457, 
part; Birds Northwest, 1874, 292, part; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. 
Terr., iv, 1878, 617 (Pembina, louse R., Turtle lt., etc., North Dakota; 
crit.).--NwTo, Ian. Nat. Hist. Greenland, 1875, 97 (Greenland, 1 
spec., 1852).--GISLI (G. B.), in Ludlow's Rep. Recon., 1876, 81 (lis- 
souri R. as far as Ft. Buford).--lcCsv, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Surv. Terr., v. 1879, 82 (Ft. Sisseton, North Dakota, resident).Rwo- 
WAY, Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 378, part.--NLSO, Cruise 'Corwin,' 
1881 (1883), 74 (head of Norton Sound, Kotzebue Sound, and Bering Strait, 
Alaska); Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 160 (Sitka, etc., Alaska; lower 
Anderson 1., 1Vlackenzie).cLo, Cruise 'Corwin,' 1884, 117 (upper 
Kowak 1., Alaska).---STAs, Proc. U. S. Nat. us., vi, 1884, 118 
. (L'Anse Claire, Labrador).--Tu, Proc. U. S. Nat. us., viii, 1885, 242 
(near Apotok I., Hudson Strait; Northwest 1., Ungava); Contr. Nat. Hist. 
Alaska, 1886, 166 (Ft. Yukon).---(?)BLL, Auk, ii, 1885, 383 (San Bernardino 
Co., California, 3 specs.).Ac OrHOLOSrS' Um, Check Lst, 
1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 412, part.--(7)CooP, Auk, iv, 1887, 91 
(West Grove, Yentura Co., California, 1 spec., Nov.).---(7)THos, Auk, 
iv, 1887, 364 (Colorado).--(?)Coo, Bull. Co1. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 
85 (Ft. Lyons, Loveland, and South Platte, Colorado, autumn and winter); 
no. 44, 1898, 162 (Arkansas Yalley, e. Colorado).--Torso, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xiii, 1890, 551 (Manitoba, resident; habits).--PL (W.), Proc. U. S. 
at. Ius., xiii, 1890, 262 (St. Johns, Newfoundland).--CLK (W. E.), 
Auk, vii, 1890, 322 (Ft. Churchill, Hudson Bay).--HAITT, Cat. Birds 

See remarks on p. 15, footnote. 
Twenty-seven specimens. 
Eighteen specimens. 



22 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
(b) With pure yellow shafts, etc., of auratus combined with red 
malar stripe of eafer. 
(c) Similar to C. cafer collaris, but having either the red nuchal 
mark or vinaceous throat, or both, of C. auratus. 
(d) Similar to C. cafer collaris, but having black feathers in the 
red malar stripe. 
(e) Similar to C. auratus luteus or C. et. borealis, but having more 
or less red in the black mMar stripe. 
(f) Similar to C. auratus luteus or C. a. borealis, but with red or 
orange colored feathers mixed with the yellow ones in wing and tail. 
(g) Similar to C. caret collaris, but with yellow feathers mixed 
with the red ones in wing and tail. 
Besides the above styles, every possible combination or mixture 
of the color characters of the two species is represented in other 
individuals. 
As a rule, these hybrid specimens have a paler coloration than 
those of either of the parent forms, a 
Western portion of the Great Plains, from southwestern Saskatch- 
ewan to western Texas, or the area of overlapping of the respective 
ranges of C. auratus boreal:s or C. a. luteus and C. cfer collaris; 
casual, or of irregular occurrence, in British Columbia, Oregon 
(Camp Harney), California b (San Francisco; Stockton; Cosumnes 
River; Calaveras County; Marysville; etc.), Nevada (Washoe Valley; 
West Humboldt Mountains), Arizona (Fort Whipple), eastern 
Kansas (Topeka; Lawrence), Illinois (Warsaw; Mount Carmel); 
New York (Orange County; Fort Hamilton), Louisiana (Plaquemine 
Parish), etc. 
Picus ayresii AvDvos, Birds Am., oct. ed., vii, 1844, 348, pl. 494 (near Ft. 
Union, upper Missouri R.; ty.pe now in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Colaptes ayresi BOSe.TE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 113.--HTT, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 22 (Brit. Columbia; Stockton and San Francisco, Ca]ifornia; 
Pueblo, Colorado). 
[Colaptes] ayresi BONAP.a.RTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126.--SHARPE, Hand- 
list, ii, 1900, 201. 
Picus ayresi D Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., ii, 1844, 194. 
C[olaptes] ayresii RErCnENBCn, Handb. Scans.-Picine, 1854, 413, pl. 666, 
fig. 4421. 
Colaptes ayresii BAIleD, Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Ft. 
Union).--HEEaNN, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, 1852, 270 (rots. near 
Cosumnes R., California, 2 specs.).--GaY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. 
and Picid., 1868, 120. 

a For special discussion of this hybrid series see the following: Baird, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 122-124.--Coues, Birds of the North-West, 1874, 293, 294.-- 
Ridgway and Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 430--432.Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. N. H., i, 1892, 21-44.--Rhoads, Science, xx, 1892, 325-327. 
b Some California specimens are doubtless hybrids of C. auratus borealis and C. 
caret saturatior, whoe respective ranges adjoin in northern British Columbia and 
southern Alaska. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

Geopicus ayresii MALHERBE, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 260. 
Colaptes lybridus BmD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 122 (valleys of upper 
Missouri and Yellowstone rivers); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 98a.-- 
SNow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 3 (Topeka and Lawrence, KanSaS).--BAIRD, 
BREWER, and RmGWV, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 582, pl. 54, fig. 3.-- 
lmGwv, Field and Forest, 1877, 209 (Colorado); Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 
556 (Washoe Valley, Nevada, 1 spec., Jan.); Orn. Illinois, i, 1889, 387.m 
B.Nm, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 130 (Camp Harney, Oregon, 
1 spec.). 
Colaptes "lybridus" Coup.s, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 
618 (upper Missouri, Milk R., and Yellowstone R.). 
Colaples auratus, var. lybridus Rmowv, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 38 
(Nevada). 
Colaptes auratus, r. hybridus RmGwv, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, Apr., 1878, 
68 (Calaveras Co., California; crit.).--B.LIN and RDWAV, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 430 (Marysville, California, Jan., Feb.; crit.). 
Colaptes auralus hybridus Rwv, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 
190; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 378a.--BROW (N. C.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, vii, 1882, 40 (Boerne, Kendall Co., w. Texas). 
Picus hybridus aurato-mexicanus SUSVLL, Consp. Picinarium, 1866, 72. 
Colaptes auralus-mexicanus Coups, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, July, 1881, ]83, 
in text (Ft. Whipple, Arizona, 1 spec., Feb. 20). 
Colaptes auratus-C, mexicanus BEsR, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, Oct., 1881, 
247 (Orange Co. and Ft. Hamilton, New York; Mt. Carmel, Illinois). 
Colaptes auraJus-cafer Bus, Wilson Bull., no. 18, 1898, 4 (Chester Co., Penn- 
sylvania, 1 spec., Oct. 3, 1898). 
(?)Colapes auratus? Rwv, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 557 (West Humboldt 
Mts., Nevada, 1 spec., Oct.). 
Colaptes auratus (not Cuculus auratus Linnmus) ALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
iii, 1872, 139 (Ft. Hays, w. Kansas).--BsSR, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 
1880, 47 (Ft. Hamilton, New York, 1 spec., Oct. 4, 1879). 
(?)Colaptes crysoides Rwv, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, 1875, 19, 38 (West Hum- 
boldt Mts., Nevada).--BSVR, ALLrsON, and Ko, Auk, xxv, 1908, 448 
(Deer Range Plantation, Plaquemine Parish, Louisiana, 1 spec., Dec., 1863). 

COLAPTES CHRYSOCAULOSUS CHRYSOCAULOSUS Gundlach. 
CUBAN FLICKER. 
Similar to C. azratus, but rump thickly spotted with black, gray of 
pileum lighter and clearer, and under parts more heavily spotted. 
Adult male.--Pileum, together with lower and lateral portions of 
hindneck, uniform clear gray (about no. 6), interrupted by a large 
crescentic nuclml patch of bright poppy red; back, scapulars, wing- 
coverts, and secondaries gryish brown (olivaceous broccoli brown 
to nearly isabella color) sharply barred with black, the bars broader 
(but still narrower than the grayish brown interspaces) on secondaries; 
primary coverts and primaries black, the former narrowly edged ter- 
minally with dull wlfitish or pale yellowish, the inner (proxhnal) 
primaries more or less spotted or barred on middle portion of outer 
web with the same or pale grayish brown; shafts of remiges bright 
chrome or deep-chrome yellow; rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
the former thickly marked with mostly cordate spots of black, the 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 25 

COLAPTES CHRYSOCAULOSUS GUNDLACHI (Cory). 
GRAND CAYMAN FLICKER. 
Similar to O. v. vrysocaulosus, but decidedly smaller and black 
malar patch of male averaging smaller and narrower, a 
Adult ma/e.wLength (skins), 225-235 (232) ; wing, 127-132.5; tail, 
75-90.5 (85.2); culmen, 30-33 (31.3); tarsus, 23-25 (23.8); outer 
anterior toe, 20-20.5 (20.2). b 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 240-260 (250); wing, 127-131 
(129.5); tail, 86.5-91.5 (88.1); culmen, 29-32.5 (30.6); tarsus, 24-25 
(24.5); outer anterior toe, 19.5-20.5 (20). c 
Island of Grand Cayman, south of Cuba. 
Colaptes gundlachi CoRv, Auk, iii, Oct., 1886, 498, 502 (Grand Cayman, W. I.; 
coll. C. B. Cory); Birds West Ind., 1889, 175; Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 
12, 104, 129, 143.--HARGIWr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 15.--NICOLL, 
Ibis, 1904, 584 (crit.).--LowE, Ibis, 1909, 341; 1911, 150. 
[ColapSes] gundlachi SHAPE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 

COLAPTES CHRYSOIDES CHRYSOIDES (Malherbe). 
GILDED FLICKER. 
Adult male.--Pileum, together with loral and superciliary regions, 
dull vinaceous-cinnamon or vinaceous-fawn color, passing into 
vinaceous-drab on hindneck; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and sec- 
ondaries deep cru-drab, rather narrowly barred with black (the black 
bars always less than half as wide as the drab interspaces) except on 
secondaries (where much broader); rump white, mostly immaculate, 
but laterally transversely spotted with black; upper tail-coverts 
white, broadly barred with black, sometimes with U- or V-shaped 
markings instead of bars, or with both; tail black, the basal half or 
more of inner web of middle pair of rectrices notched or barred along 
edge with pale brownish gray, the outer web of one or two middle 
pairs narrowly edged basally with dull whitish, the outermost (devel- 
oped) pair with a terminal spot and (usually) several spots along edge 
of distal portion of outer web, of dull whitish or pale brownish, the 
shafts of all the rectrices (except middle pair, which are dull yellowish 
or brownish basally) bright yellow basally (sometimes for nearly 
basal half); primaries dull black with bright cadmium or chrome 
yellow shafts, the outer web usually with more or less distinct spots 
of pale yellowish drab or dull yellowish on proximal or middle portion 
(or both), at least on proximal quills; rictal, suborbital, and auricular 
regions, sides of neck, chin, throat, and foreneck uniform gray 
(nearest no. 7, or between this and smoke gray), passing posteriorly 

a The alleged color-characters mentioned in the original description are not appar- 
ent in the series examined by me. 
b Five specimens. 
c Four specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 31 

243-290 (271); wing, 151-159 (156); tail, 95-108.5 (104.1); culmen, 
33-36 (34) ; tarsus, 26.5-28.5 (27.6) ; outer anterior toe, 19-22 (20.7).a 
]Zoung male.--Similar to the adult male, but coloration duller, 
gray of throat, etc., duller, more brownish, black jugular patch 
smaller and less sharply defined, black spots on under parts less 
sharply defined, less rounded, feathers of pileum indistinctly tipped 

a Seventeen specimens. 

Locality. I Wing. I Tail. 
158.4 

MALES. 
Ten adult males from southeastern Mexico (Vera Cruz, Morelos, 
and Mexico) ................................................. 
Ten adult males from southwestern Mexico (Guerrero, Michoa- 
can, and alisco) ........................................... 
Three adult males ( C. e. eafert) from Durango ................ 
Two adult males ( C. e. cafert) from Chihuahua ............... 
Five adult males ( C. c. collaris) from Arizona (3), New Mexico 
(1) and western Texas (1) ................................... 
Ten adult males ( C. c. collars) from California ................. 
Six adult males ( C. c. collaris) from Oregon .................... 
Two adult males ( C. c. collaris) from northern Lower California.. 
Two adult males ( C. c. cdlaris) from Santa Cruz Island, Cali- 
fornia ....................................................... 
Four adult males ( C. c. collaris) from Utah .................... 
Ten adult males ( C. c. collaris) from Colorado .................. 
One adult male ( C. c. collaris) from Wyoming ................. 
Seven adult males ( C. c. collaris) from Montana ............... 
Ten adult males ( C. c. saturatior) from Washington and British 
Columbia ................................................... 
Six adult males ( C. c. rufipileus) from Guadalupe Island ....... 
FEMALES. 
Seventeen adult females ( C. e. eafer) from southern Mexico ..... 
Five adult females ( C. e. eafer) from northern Mexico .......... 
Seven adult females (C. e. collaris) from Arizona (3), New 
Mexico (3) and western Texas (1) ........................... 
Ten adult females ( C. e. eollaris) from California ............... 
Five adult females ( C. e. eollaris) from Oregon ................. 
One adult female ( C. e. eollars) from Utah .................... 
Two adult females ( C. e. eollars) from Colorado ............... 
Three adult females ( C. e. eollaris) from Wyoming ............. 
Seven adult females ( C. e. eollars) from Montana .............. 
One adult female ( C. e. ee/ars) from South Dakota ........... 
Ten adult females (C. e. saturatior) from Washingtan and 
British Columbia ............................................. 
Seven adult females ( C. e. rufipileus) from Guadalupe Island.. 

156. 
161. 
159. 

168. 6 
165 
165. 5 
161 

157 
165. 5 
166. 4 
167. 5 
165. 6 

169.9 
150 

156 
157.1 

163. 6 
162.1 
163. 9 
160. 5 
167. 2 
163. 5 
161.9 
169. 5 
167. 1 
152. 5 

108.1 

102. 8 
106. ? 
104. 2 

111.1 
113. 2 
116 
105. 7 

102. 5 
112.8 
112 
107 
114. 2 

118. 7 
110 

lO4.1 
101.7 

lO 5 
109.8 
110.7 
109 
113 
108.5 
110.9 
118.5 
117 
110. 4 

Ex- 
posed 
mlmen. 

35. 6 

34. 7 
37. 5 
36. 7 

36. 6 
38 
37. 7 
40.2 

36 
37. 3 
38. 4 
37 
37. 8 

39. 8 
38. 9 

34 
34. 8 

37 
86. 5 
37. 6 
35. 5 
88. 7 
35. 8 
35. 2 
36 

37. 7 
39 

Tarsus 

27. 3 

2L 4 
28 
28.2 

28.8 
29.7 
29.5 
29.2 

29 
29.6 
29.8 
32 
29.6 

30 
27. 3 

27. 6 
27. 9 

28. 8 
27. 4 
30.1 
29 
28. 2 
2& 7 
29.1 
30 

28.7 
28 

Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 

21. 1 

21 
21.7 
22 

21.9 
22. 4 
22. 6 
2Z 5 

24 
22. 5 
22.2 
23.5 
22. 4 

23.9 
22. 2 

20. 7 
21. 6 

22.1 
22. 1 
22.1 
21 
21 
21.8 
21.9 
22..5 

22. 7 
21. 7 

Specimens from the States of Guanajuato, Durango, luevo Leon, and Chihuahua, 
while small like those from the more southern parts of Mexico are decidedly paler 
and grayer in coloration, in this respect being undistinguishable from examples of 
C. c. collaris from the interior districts of the United States. 



32 BIILLETIN 50 IIIWITED STATES NATIONAL MIISEIIM. 
with paler, and red malar stripes less bright, less uniform, and black 
terminal area on under side of tail not sharply defined. 
7'oung feraale.--Similar to the young male, but malar region dull 
grayish brown or brownish gray instead of red. 
Central and southe Mexico, in States of Tsmaulipas (Ciudd 
Victoria, in southern part), Vers Cz ss Vigas; Orizabs; Mirad6r; 
Jalaps; Suspm; Monte Alto; Cofre de Perote), Puebls (base of 
Orizabs; San Martin Texmelucn; Huejotzingo; Totehuscn; San 
Migudl Molino), Mexico (Volcan de Popocstdpetl; Volcan de Ixtacci- 
huatl; Ixtspalspa; TeIco; Xochilco; Calaps; Tscubsys; 
lluipulco, TlaIpm; TemcItepec; near City of Mexico), Hidalgo 
(Rel del Monte), Morelos (Huitzilc; TeIs del Volcan), San Lugs 
Potos (Sierra de San Luls Potosl), uas Cslientes (Sierra de Xeres; 
Sierra de Calllo), Jalisco olcsn de Nieve; Volcan de Cola; Los 
Masos; Tonils; Ls Pisagua; Sierra de Bolafios; Sierra Madre de 
Nayart; Zspotln), Michoscn (Pstzcuaro), Tepic (Sierra de NsyaMt; 
Sierra Msdre), Guerrero (Omilteme; Sierra Madre del Sur), and 
Oaxacs (mountains near Ozoc6topec; Ls Psrada; Tot6npec; 
Tonaia; Villa Alia). 
[P] caf GZL, Syst. Nt., i, pt. i, 1788, 431 (Cape of Good Hope; eor). 
LATHAM, Index Orn., i, 1790, 242. 
Pis caf VZLLOZ, NOUV. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xx, 1818, 102. 
C[olaptes] caf SWZZNEZR, Snd. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 8, in text, p. 
RIDGWAV, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296, part. 
Colaptes caf AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISLS' NION, Check List, 1886, no. 413, 
part.--SToz, Proc. Ac. Nut. Sci. Phila., 1890, 214 (base of Volcun de 
Ozabu, Puebla; Volcan de Ixtaccihuafl und V. de Popocatepetl, 11,00 
12,000 ft.).--BZDRZ, Life ist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 134, p.C- 
, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., x, 1898, 43 (L Vies, Vers uz, 8,000 ft., 
bi). 
Colap caf caf AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 3d ., 
1910, 195. 
P[] lathi WAER, Syst. Av., 1827, c, sp. 85 (new nume for P 
caret Gmelin). 
Colaptes mexnus SwAxso, Philos. Mag., n. s., i, 1827, 0 (Real del Monte, 
idalgo, Mexico; coll. Bullock); Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xx, 315; 
Clsif. Bis, ii, 17, 3.--SCRAPER, OC. Zool. Soc. LoRd., 1856, 307 (Su- 
pare, Veru Cruz); 1858, 305 (Lu Parada, Oa); 1859, 367 (Jalapa, Vers 
Cz); 1864, 177 (ne City of Mexico); Cat. Am. Bs, 1862, 344, pt 
(Meco).BARD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Sv., ix, 1858, 120, part (in sony- 
my).GRAv, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidm, 1868, 121, part (Meco). 
Svcsw, Mere. Boat. Soc. N. ., i, 1869, 562 (alpine reg. Veto Cruz).-- 
BAR, BREWER, und RmwAv, ist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 578, 
(Oaca; Ver Cruz).--FERRAm-PEREZ, Proc. U. S. Nt. Mus., ix, 1886, 
160 (S Martin Texmelucan, nd Totimehuacn, Puebla).hRIWT, 
Cat. Birds Bt. Mus., xii, 1890, 17, part (localiti in Zatec?, San 
Ls Potosi, Jalisco, Tepic, Gueero, Oaxucu, and Veto Cruz), 568 (Siena 
Bolaos, Jalisco).SAv and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 195 
402, pt (Sie Bolafios, Volcan de Cofimu, and Zupoflan Jalisco; 



34 

BULLETIN boy UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Bocas; Cienega de las Vacas; Rio Sestin; Arroyo del Bu4y), and 
northern Lower California (Nachiguero Valley; San Pedro Martir 
Mountains, 7,000-10,000 feet; Santa Ulalia; 45 miles east of San 
Quintin). 
Colaptes collaris Vmots, Zool. $ourn., iv, 1829, 354 (MonCerey, California); Zool. 
Voy. "Blossom," 1839, 24, pl. 9.--GABEL, $ourn. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, 
1847, 56 (New Mexico to California).--lf[CCALL, 1)rec. AC. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1851, 220 (New Mexico).--BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, ll4.--BAIRD, in 
Rep. Stausbury's Exp. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Monterey). 
C[olaptes] collaris REICHENBaCH, Handb. Scansores, Picine, 1854, 414, pl. 667, 
fig. 4421. 
[Colaptes] collaris SHARPE, Hand-list, if, 1900, 201. 
C[olaptes] caret eollaris RIDOWAV, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296, footnote, in text 
(crit.). 
Colaptes cafer eollaris NELSON, Auk, xvii, 1900, 123 (crit.).--AIERICAN ORNI- 
THOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, Auk, xviii, 1.q01,301; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 
195.--GRINNELL, Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 39 (California range).-- 
STONE, ProC. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1904, 581 (Mr. Sanhedrin, Mendocino Co., 
n. California; crit.).--MILLE*t (W. DEW.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxii, 1906, 
165 (Rosario, Rancho Santuario, La Boquilla, Las Bocas, etc., n. w. Durango, 
breeding; crit.).--LARSEN, Wilson Bull., no. 60, 1907, 114 (Lyman Co., South 
Dakota, summer res.).--CAME*tON, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 270 (Custer and Daven- 
port counties, Montana, common, breeding; crit.; mostly "with auratus 
blood").--ANDESON, Prec. Davenport Ac. Sci., xi, 1907, 279 (w. Iowa, 
frequent).--BENT, Auk, xxv, 1908, 26 (s. w. Saskatchewan, common, breeding; 
interbreeding with C. auratus borealis).--SEToN, Auk, xxv, 1908, 453 (Winni- 
peg, 1 spec., Sept. 30, 1904).--PnELE, North Am. Fauna, no. 27, 1908, 388 
(w. Alberta; Ft. Chippewyan, 1 spec.).--LINTON, Condor, x, 1908, 84 (San 
Clemente I., California), 127 (Santa Cruz I., California).--KE,tODE, Prov. 
Mus. Brit. Columbia, 1909, 50 (east of Cascade range).--VIsE,t, Auk, xxvi, 
1909, 148 (w. South Dakota, abundant).--BEAL, Bull. no. 34, U. S. Biol. 
Surv., 1910, 25 (food).--FERX', Auk, xxvii, 1910, 199 (Saskatchewan, com- 
mon).--V,sHEn, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 12 (Harding Co., w. South Dakota, 
mostly west of Little Missouri R., breeding).--BEAL, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. 
Surv., 1911, 59 (food).--ISELY, Auk, xxix, 1912, 36 (Sedgewick Co., Kansas, 
Dec., Feb.).--HoWELL (A. B.), Condor, xiv, 1912, 190 (Todos Santos Islands, 
Lower California; straggler). 
Colaptes mexicanus (not of Swainson, 1827) SWAINSON, Fauna Bor.-Am., if, 1831, 
pp. xxvi, 315, part.---J,aDINE, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., i, 1832, 43, 44, foot- 
note.--NUTTaLL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 
667.--SCLATER, Prec. Zool. See. Lend., 1857, 127 (San Jos4 Valley, Califor- 
nia); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344, part (synonymy only).--BmD, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 120, part; Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 
1859, 6 (Saltillo and Agua Nueva, Coahuila; San Elizario, Texas); Cat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 98, part.--BLaISTON, Ibis, 1862, 3 (int. British 
America).--D,tESSE, Ibis, 1865, 470 (San Antonio, Nueces R., and Piedras 
Negras, Texas, in winter).--GRav, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picide, 1868, 121, 
part (San Francisco).--CoopER, Orn. Calif., 1870, 408.--HOLgEN, PreC. Best. 
Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 207 (Sherman, Wyoming; habits).--CoJES, Check 
List, 1873, no. 314, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 459, part; Birds Northwest, 1874, 
294.--SNow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 3 (Lawrence, e. Kansas, in winter).--BAiRD, 
BREWER, and RIDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, if, 1874, 578, pl. 55, figs. 3,4.-- 
HENSnAW, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., xi, 1874, 79 (Utah).--RIDGWAy, Orn. 40th 
Parallel, 1877, 555 (localities in Nevada and Utah).HAROITT, Cat. Birds 



36 

BULLETIlg 50 UlgITED STATES lgATIOIAL MUSEUlYI. 

COLAPTES CAFER SATURATIOR (Ridgway). 
NORTHWESTERN LICKER. 
Similar to C. c. collaris but larger and darker (darker even than 
C. c. caret), the upper parts browner, the under pars of body more 
strongly vinaceous. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 297-312 (306); wing, 164.5-177.5 
(169.9); tail, 113-124 (118.7); culmen, 37-42.5 (39.8); tarsus, 29-31 
(30); outer anterior toe, 22.5-25 (23.9). a 
Adult female.--Length (s-kins), 285-313 (297); wing, 163.5-171 
(167.1); tail, 110-123.5 (117); cuhnen, 36-40 (37.7); tarsus, 26-30.5 
(28.7); outer anterior toe, 21-24 (22.7). a 
Northwest coast district, from northern California (Humboldt 
Bay, etc.) to southern Alaska (Sitka; Taku River; Kupreanoff, 
Dall, Gravina, Revillagigedo, and Etolin islands). 
Colaptes mexicanus (not of Swainson) NUTTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 667, part.--ScLAW.R, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 236 
(Vancouver I.).--Cooe.R and SucL.v, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, 
pt. ii, 1860, 163 (Washington and Oregon west of Cascade Mts.).--LoRD, 
Proc. Roy. Artil. Inst. Woolw., iv, 1864, 112 (Brit. Columbia).--BRow, 
Ibis, 1868, 419 (Vancouver I.).--DALL and BIswR, Trans. Chicago 
Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 275 (Sitka, Alaska).--CooR, Orn. Calif., 1870, 408, part.-- 
Coves, Check List, 1873, no. 314, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 459, part; Birds 
N. W., 1874, 294, part.--SLw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 425 (Esqui- 
mault, Vancouver I.).--HR(XTT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 17, 
part (Vancouver, San Juan, and Orcas islands, and Esquimault, Brit. Colum- 
bia; Whitby Island, Washington; Albany, Oregon). 
[Colaptes] mexicanus CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 198, part. 
C[olaptes] mexicanus Cou.s, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part. 
Colaptes aaratus mexicanas IIDGWAY, om. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 378b, part. 
Colaptes mexicanus saturatior RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., ii, April 10, 
1884, 90 (Neah Bay, Washington; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Colaptes cafer saturatior AIRcN ORrroLo(sws' UNm, Check List, 1886 
(and 2d ed., 1895), no. 413a; 3d ed., 1910, 195.--NELson, Rep. Nat. Hist. 
Coll. Alaska, 1887, 161 (Sitka).--TowsED (C. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 
1887, 206 ("Redwood region" and Red Bluff, California).--C, Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 139 (Westminster, Brit. Columbia).--FN, 
Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 29 (west of Cascade Mts.).--PALER (T. S.), 
Auk, ix, 1892, 309 (Grays tarbor, Washington).--B.DrE, Life Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 137.--GRnELL (J.), Auk, xv, 1898, 127 (Sitka); Facific 
Coast Avffauna, no. 3, 1902, 39 (California range).--Ko, Auk, xvii, 1900, 
352 (Cape Disappointment, Vashington, resident).--Os(ooD, North Am. 
Fauna, no. 21, 1901, 45 (Cumshewa Inlet and Massett, Queen Charlotte 
Islands).--RATHU, Auk, xix, 1902, 135 (Seattle, Washington, resident). 
ANDESO and GRINNELL, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 9 (Siskiyou Mts., 
n. California; crit.).--BOWLES, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 144 (Tacoma, Washington, 
resident).--EDsoN, Auk, xxv, 1908, 434 (Bellingham, Washington, resi- 
dent).--CLAK, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxxviii, 1910, 60 (Dockton, Wash- 
ington; Union Bay, Vancouver I.).--SWARTH, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 
1911, 70 (Kupreanof, Dall, Gravina, Revillagigedo, and Etolin islands, and 
Taku R., Alaska; crit.; habits); Rep. Birds and Mare. Vanc. I., 1912, 39 
(crit.). 

a Ten specimens. 



38 

BULLETII 507 UIITED STATES IATIONAL MUSEUM. 

outer web of lateral rectrix usually with a few irregular bars of pale 
grayish brown near edge, the outer web of middle rectrices some- 
times narrowly edged, or indistinctly barred along edge, with the 
same; loral, suborbital, and auricular regions, chin, throat, foreneck, 
and sides of neck uniform gray (about no. 6 a or between that and 
smoke gray); malar region bright poppy red, the feathers first black 
then gray beneath surface; a large crescentic or semilunar patch of 
black on chest; rest of under parts dull white medially, shading into 
very pale pinkish gray or ecru drab laterally, each feather with a 
subterminal cordate or roundish spot of black, these markings more 
transverse or bar-like on flanks and under tail-coverts; under wing- 
coverts pale grayish pink, those along margin of wing narrowly and 
irregularly barred with black; inner webs of remiges (except outer- 
most) pale buff-pink or salmon-pink for basal half (approximately) 
the terminal portion dusky, strongly glossed or suffused with orange- 
pink or salmon-pink, except along edges; under side of tail rufous- 
orange broadly tipped with black, the lateral rectrices 4th a small 
terminal spot of dull whitish or pale dull orange and sometimes with 
a few narrow bars of the same alternating with much wider inter- 
spaces of blackish along edge; bill dusky horn color (in dried skins); 
legs and feet dusky grayish or horn color (in dried skins); length 
(skins), 259-329 (276); wing, 153-163 (157.9); tail, 95.5-115 (111.7); 
culmen, 36-40.5 (38.2); tarsus, 28-30 (28.8); outer anterior toe, 
22-24 (22.7). b 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male but red malar stripe 
replaced by a similar area of cinnamon; length (skins), 265-300 
(288); wing, 151-163 (154.7); tail, 104.5-113.5 (110.5); culmen, 
34.5-38.5 (35.6); tarsus, 25-29 (27.7); outer anterior toe, 21-24 
(21.8). c 
Highlands of Clfiapas (San CristSbal) and Guatemala (Cobn to 
Chis6c; Tactic; Cohen; Hacienda ChancS1; Todos Santos; Volcan de 
Santa Maria; Calderas and Pajal Grande, Volcan de Fuego; Barranca 
de los Chocoyas; Lake Atitlan; near Tecpm, 5,000-9,500 feet; 

a Ridgway's "Nomenclature of Colors," plate 2. 
b Sixteen specimens. 
c Eight specimens. 

Locality. 
MALES. 
Nine adult males from G uatemala ............................. 

Seven adult males Lrom Chiapas (San Cristobal) ............... 
FEMALES. 
Seven adult females from Guatemala .......................... 
One adult female from Chlapas (San Crlstbal) ................ 

Ving. 
157 
159.1 
153.5 
163 

110. 8 
112.9 
110. 3 
112 

Ex- 
posed 
ulmex. 
37. 9 
38. 2 
35. 6 
34.5 

Talu 
28.8 
28.9 
27.7 
27. 5 

Outer 
rlor toe. 

22.7 
22.8 

21.7 
22 



BIRDS OF NORTY[ AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 39 

Barranca Honda; E1 Rinc6n, San Marcos; Ciupach6; plains of Que- 
zaltenango; ridge above Totonicapm). Northern Nicaragua (Mata- 
galpa), a 
P[icus] rubicatus WA(LER, Isis, 1829, 516, part (female). 
C[olaptes] rubricatus GRAY, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 446. 
Colaptes rubricatus GRAY, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, pl. 111. 
Geopicus rubricatus MALZERnE, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 265, pl. 110, figs. 1, 2. 
Col[aptes] mexicanoides LAIRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., vii, Feb., 1844, 42 ("Mexico;" 
coll. Lafresnaye). 
Colaptes mexicanoides SCLATER and SALVN, Ibis, 1859, 137 (Coban and Los Cho- 
coyas, Guatemala; crit.).--ScrATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344 (Coban).-- 
GRAY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picide, 1868, 121.--SArvIN and GODMAN, Ibis, 
1892, 327 (Matagalpa, Nicaragua); Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 404 (locali- 
ties in Guatemala; Matagalpa).--DEARnORN, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 
94 (Lake Atiflan and near Tecpam, Guatemala, 5,000-9,500 ft.; descr, nest; 
crit.). 
[Colaptes] mexicanoides GRAY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8831.--SCLATER and 
SAVIN, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101. 
C[olaptes] mexicanoides BAIRD, BREWER, and I:ID(WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 574.--RID(WAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296.--ALEN, Bull. Am. 
Mus. N. H., iv, 1892, 25, 37 (crit.). 
Geopicos mexicanoides MAn.ERiE, Mm. Ac. Metz, xxx, 1849, 359. 
Colaptes collaris (not of Vigors) BONAeARE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 114. 
[Colaptes] collaris BONAeARE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126. 
Picus submexicanus SVNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 72 (new name for C. 
mexicanoides; the latter rejected on grounds of purism). 
Colaptes submexicanus HARrrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 21 (Barranca 
Hondo, Tactic, Coban, and Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala). 
[Colaptes] sub-mexicanus SARIE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 
Genus NESOCELEUS Sclater and Salvin. 
Nesoceleus SCLAER and SALVIa, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101, 155. (Type, by 
original designation, Colaptesfernandine Vigors.) 
Rather large Picidm (wing 144-157 ram.) similar to Colaptes, but 
with nostrils wholly exposed (no trace of antrorse prefrontal plumes), 
no black jugular patch, no white on rump, and with whole of body, 
wings, and tail barred with black and brownish yellow. 
Bill about as long as head, rather slender, very slightly decurved 
terminally, its tip pointed (not at all chisel-shaped), its width at 
posterior end of nostrils decidedly greater than its depth at same 
point; ridge of cuhnen indistinct basally, distinct terminally; an 
indistinct supranasal ridge, running parallel with culmen for about 
basal half of maxilla; gonys about as long as mandibular rami, 
straight or very faintly concave terminally, slightly prominent 
basally, rather distinctly ridged; commissure nearly straight to near 
base, where slightly deflected. Nostril wholly exposed, rather large, 
roundish. Feathers of frontal antiee small, short, and erect (not 

a I have not seen a specimen from Nicaragua, and doubt whether specimens from 
that country are subspecifically identical with those from Guatemala. They should 
be carefully compared. 



40 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
antrorse); no obvious bristly tips to feathers of rictus, malar apex, 
nor chin. Wing moderately long, the longest primaries exceeding 
secondaries by much less than length of exposed culmen; sixth to 
eighth primaries longest, ninth about equal to second, the tenth 
(outermost) a little more than half as long as ninth. Tail more than 
two-thirds as long as wing, the rectrices rather narrow, gradually 
acuminate. Tarsus longer than outer hind toe with claw, but shorter 
than outer front toe with claw, rather slender; toes rather slender 
and claws rather weak. 
Coloration.--Whole body, wings, and tail barred with black and 
brownish yellow or huffy; shafts of remiges and rectrices on under 
side (only) light yellow; pileum and sides of head cinnamon, the 
former narrowly streaked with black; adult male with a broad black 
malar stripe. 
Range.--Island of Cuba; monotypic. 
NESOCELEUS FERNANDIN,E (Vigors). 
FEINANDINA'S FLICI. 
Acquit mae.--Pileum and hindneck light wood brown or cinnamon, 
narrowly streaked with black; loral, orbital, rictal, and auricular 
regions immaculate light wood brown, usually somewhat paler on 
suborbital and rictal regions; rest of upper parts dull black, sharply 
and very regularly barred with pale dull yellow (the bars on dorsum 
and tail sometimes deeper yellow), the bars much narrower on rec- 
trices (where extending entirely across both webs), much broader on 
primaries; malar region black; chin and throat thic -kly streaked with 
black and white or yellowish white, the black streaks broader than 
the whitish ones; rest of under parts light huffy yellowish (dull pale 
maize yellow to nearly ocher yellow), sharply and very regularly 
barred with black, the black bars broadest on chest and flanks; under 
wing-coverts light creamy yellow (naples yellow), more or less barred 
or flecked with blackish, at least along edge of wing; inner webs of 
remiges dusky grayish olive (changing to yellowish in certain lights), 
spotted along edge (except on distal portion of outer primaries) with 
light creamy yellow, their shafts clear naples yellow; under surface 
of tail olive, changing to dull golden yellow, narrowly barred with 
dull yellow (naples or maize yellow), the shafts of rectrices clear 
naples or maize yellow; bill dull black; legs and feet dusky grayish 
or horn color (in dried skins); length (skins), 297-312 (304.5); wing 
146.5-157 (151.6); tail, 112.5-123 (118.5); culmen, 39-42.5 (41.1); 
tarsus, 28-31 (30.3); outer anterior toe, 23-24 (23.6-). a 
AduZtfemale.--Similar to the adult male, but malar region streaked 
with black and white, like chin and throat; length (skins), 307-320 
313); wing, 144-155.5 (148.6) ; tail, 102-126 (113.7) ; culmen, 36.5-40 
(38.4); tarsus, 28.5-31.5 (30); outer anterior toe, 21-24 (22.3). a 

a Five specimens. 



4 

BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

men; sixth and seventh, or sixth, seventh, and eighth, primaries 
longest, ninth shorter than sixth (M. portoricensis) or seventh (M. 
erytrocephalus), the tenth (outernmst) more than one-third as long 
as ninth (M. portoricensis) or less than one-third as long (M. erythro- 
cepalus). Tail slightly more than half as long as wing (in M. eryth- 
rocepalus) to about three-fifths as long (M. portoricensis), the middle 
rectrices strongly acuminate terminally. Tarsus shorter than either 
outer toe with claw, rather slender; outer hind toe about as long as 
outer front toe, or very slightly shorter. 
Coloration.--Adults with plumage of throat and chest hair-like, 
cimson; back, wing-coverts, primaries (secondaries also in M. porto- 
rcensis), and tail black; rump and upper tail-coverts white (second- 
aries and under parts of body, except chest, also white in M. 
erytlrocepalus ) . 
Rage.--United States and southern Canala east of Rocky Moun- 
tains; one species peculiar to Porto Rico and St. Thomas, Greater 
Antilles. (Two species.) 

IEY TO THE SPECIES OF ]ELANERPES. 

a. Secondaries and under parts mostly white; lateral rectrices tipped with white. 
b. Head, neck, and chest uniform crimson; buck uniform glossy blue-black; under 
parts of body immaculate white (sometimes tinged with red on abdomen); 
bmer secondaries without black spots. (United States and southern Canada 
east of Rocky Mountains.) ......... Melanerpes erythrocephalus, adults (p. 42). 
bb. Head, neck, and chest brownish gray or grayish brown streaked or spotted with 
dusky; buck barred or squamated with grayish brown or brownish gray; 
under parts of body dull white streaked laterally with dusky; inner second- 
aries with a large subterminal spot of black. 
lelanerpes erythroeephalus, young (p. 44). 
aa. Secondaries wholly black (inner ones sometimes edged with white on distal por- 
tion); lateral rectrices not tipped with white. 
b. Malar region, chin, throat, nd median portion of remaining under parts crimson. 
(Porto Rico.) ................... Nelanerpes portoricensis, adult mule a (p. 47). 
bb. Malar region, chin, and throat grayish brown; red on under parts of body more 
or less interrupted. 
Nelanerpes portoricensis, adult female and young (p. 47). 

MELANERPES ERYTHROCEPHALUS (Linnaeus). 

Adults (sexes alike b).--Head, neck, and upper chest uniform 
bright crimson, margined posteriorly by a more or less distinct 
(usually more or less concealed) semicircular band of black across 
chest; back and scapulars uniform glossy blue-black, the wing- 

a Some adult females also. 
b After carefully examining a very large number of sexed specimens I have been 
unable to find any average (much less constant) difference of coloration between 
the sexes. 



BIRDS OF NORTH A17D MIDDLE AMERICA. 45 

Sci. Phila., 1859, 105 (Rio Grande, iNew Mexico, 1 spec., uly).--VERRI, 
PreC. Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 145 (Oxford Co., Maine, rare summer resident).-- 
SCLATER, Ct. Am. Birds, 1862, 340 (e. iNorth America).--DREsSER, Ibis, 
1865, 469 (Nueces, Guadalupe, Colorado, Brazos, and Medina rivers, Texas).--- 
MCIwRAIT, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 83 (Hamilton, Ontario).--LAWRENCE, 
Ann. Lyc. iN. Y., viii, 1866, 291 (vicinity of New York City).--GRv, List 
Birds Brit. Mus., Picidm, 1868, ll5.--CooPER, Orn. Calif., 1870, 402.--AEN, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 129 (Leuvenworth and Topeka, lansas), 
139 (Ft. Hays, Kansas), 151 (Denver and Plum Creek, Colorado), 158 (South 
Park, Colorado); Proc. Bost. Soc. iN. H., xvii, 1874, 63 (Missouri R. to Mussel- 
shell R., abundant); Bull. Am. Mus. iN. H., i, 1886, 247 (Massachusetts, rare 
summer resident).--HOLDE, PreC. Bost. Soc. iN. H., xv, 1872, 207 (near Sher- 
man, Wyoming).--TRPE, Proc. Bost. Soc. iN. H., xv, 1872, 233 (Decatur 
and Mahaska counties, Iowa, breeding).--RDGWV, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 
1873, 173 (Salt Lake City, Utah, 1 spec., May), 177, 185 (Colorado); vii, 1875, 
31 (Salt Lake City); Field and Forest, i, 1877, 209 (Colorado); Orn. 40th 
Parallel, 1877, 554 (Salt Lake City; Laramie, Wyoming); Proc. U. S. iNat. 
Mus., iii, 1880, 189; iNom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 375; Bull. iNult. Orn. 
Club, vi, 1881, 120 (unusual migration in s. Illinois in fall of 1879); Orn. 
Illinois, i, 1889, 383.--CouEs, Check List, 1873, no. 309; 2d ed., 1882, no. 
453; Birds lorthwest, 1874, 290 (iNehama R.; Yellowstone R.; Platte R.; 
Ft. Lookout; Bitter Cottonwood and La Bonte creeks, Colorado, etc.); Bull. 
U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 617 (Pembina R., iNorth Dakota, 
to Rocky Mts.).--BAIRD, BREWER, and I:IDGWAY, Hist. iN. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 564, pl. 54, fig. 4; special ed., 1875, plate facing p. 564.--FERrieD, 
Am. iNat., viii, 1874, 437 (Orono, Maine, accidental).--HEssHAw, Rep. Orn. 
Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 90 (South Park and Huerfano R., Colorado); 
Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 398 (South Park, Pueblo, Twin Lakes, 
and E1 Paso County, Colorado).--GEsTRV, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1874, 
109 (habits).--BREwsTER, Ann. Lyc. iN. Y., xi, 1875, 144 (Ritchie Co., West 
Viro4nia).--GRNsEL(G. B.), in Ludlow's Rep. Recon., 1876, 81 (Mon- 
tana).--McCuLEv, Rep. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iii, 1877, 679 
(Red R. Valley, Texas; crit.).--BLEv (H. B.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 
1878, 97 (Vermilion, South Dakota; habits).--MvRe, Birds Florida, 1878, 
229.--MERRIM, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 123 (Lewis Co., iNew York, 
resident; habits); vi, 1881, 232 (Adirondack re, on, breeding).--RATnus 
(F. R.), Rev. List Birds Centr. iNew York, 1879, 25 (resident).--CouEs 
(G. H.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 31 (Breoklyn, New York, summer 
resident).--RonERTS, 8th An. Rep. Geol. and iNat. Hist. Surv. Minn., 
1880,163 (Duluth, I spec., July 11, 1877); in Wilcox's Hist. Becker Co., hIinn., 
1.907, 176 (common).--AGERsnoR, Bull. iNutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 120 (Ver- 
milion, South Dakota; peculiar nesting site).--BRows (N. C.), Proc. Portland 
Soc. iN. H., 1882, (19) (Portland, Maine, rareandirregular).--Onv, Sci. Proc. 
Roy. Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 59 (iNavarro Co., Texas, uncommon in summer).-- 
PCaDIE, Bull. iNutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 57 (near Boston, Massachusetts, 
Sept., Oct., and iNov., 1881).--WLIMS, Bull. iNutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 
63 (Belt Mts., Montana, 1 spec.).--KNOWLTOS, Bull. iNutt. Orn. Club, vii, 
1882, 63 (Orwell, Brandon, Rutland, etc., Vermont, common).---NEHRS, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club., vii, 1882, 171 (Houston, etc., s. e. Texas, breeding).-- 
ALOES and BREWSTER, Bull. iNutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 196 (Colorado 
Springs, Colorado).--DREw, Auk, ii, 1885, 17 (Colorado, breeding from 
plains up to 10,000 ft.).--BEc]HM, Auk, ii, 1885, 143 (Pueblo, Colorado); 



54 

BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

hh. Back narrowly barred with white (the bars averaging less, usually 
much less, than 2 ram. wide); primaries with little if any white 
on basal portion of outer web; under parts darker (deep olive- 
drab or yellowish drab) with yellow of abdomen deeper (saffron 
yellow or orange-yellow); middle rectrices sometimes with white 
on basal portion of inner web; nape orange-red, in adult male 
usually confluent with red crown-patch. (Centurus santacruzi.) 
. Larger (averaging wing more than 131, tail more than 72, culmen 
more than 29 in male, wing more than 129, tail more than 72, 
culmen more than 26, in female). 
j. Under parts averaging darker, white bars on back, etc., narrower, 
and forehead less purely white. (Chiapas and Guatemala 
through Salvador to northern Nicaragua.) 
Centurus santacruzi santacruzi (p. 84). 
jj. Under parts averaging paler, forehead more purely white, and 
white bars on back, etc., broader. (Southern Tamaulipas, 
Puebla, Vera Cruz, and northeastern Oaxaca.) 
Centurus santacruzi grateloupensis (p. 87). 
i. Smaller (averaging wing 123.7, tail 69.2, culmen 27.4 in male, 
wing 119.5, tail 66.9, culmen 25.8 in female); in coloration 
averaging darker than C. s. santacruzi. (Honduras.) 
Centurus santacruzi pauper (p. 88). 
ee. A large superciliary patch of black; outer (as well as inner) web of middle 
rectrices broadly barred with white; lateral rectrices barred to base. 
( Centurus chrysogenys. ) 
f. Nape reddish orange or orange-red. (Sinaloa and Tepic.) 
Centurus chrysogenys chrysogenys (p. 89). 
ft. Nape orange-yellow (in adult male abruptly contrasted with red of 
occiput and crown). (Jalisco, Michoacan, Collins, and Guerrero.) 
Centurus chrysogenys flavinuchus (p. 91). 
cc. tIindneck grayish brown or drab. 
d. Orbital region partly black; lateral rectrices barred only on distal portion; 
rump and upper tail-coverts streaked with black; abdomen white. South- 
ern Mexico, in States of Puebla, Oaxaca, Morelos, and Guerrero.) 
Centurus hypopolius (p. 92). 
dd. Orbital rion without any black; lateral rectrices barred to base; rump 
and upper tail-coverts barred with black; abdomen yellow. (Centurus 
uropygialis. ) 
e. Lrger, with relatively smaller bill; bars on back, etc., averaging broader 
(white ones about 2-2.5 ram. wide), and bars on rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and lateral rectrices averaging broader; adult male averaging: wing 
131.1, tail 81, culmen 30.3, tarsus 22.8, outer anterior toe 19.1; adult 
female, wing 128, tail 73, culmen 26.4, tarsus 26.4, outer anterior toe 18. 
(Southeastern California, northern Lower California, Arizona, and west. 
ern Mexico south to Durango and Jalisco.) 
Centurus uropygialis uropygialis (p. 93). 
ee. Smaller, with relatively larger bill; bars on back, etc., averaging narrower 
(white ones about 1.5-2 ram. wide), black bars on rump and upper tail- 
coverts averaging narrower and more numerous, and bars on tail nRr o 
rower; udult male averaging: wing 127.8, tail 77.9, culmen 29.9, tarsus 
22.6, outer anterior toe 17.7; adult female, wing 123, tall 73.2, culmen 
24.9, tarsus 21, outer anterior toe 16.6. (Cape San Lucas district of 
Lower California.) .............. Centurus uropygialis brewsteri (p. 96). 
bb. Rump and upper tail-coverts black, narrowly barred with white. (Jamaica.) 
Centurus radiolatus (p. 97). 
a. Lower rump and upper tail-coverts red. (Haiti.) ...... Centurus striatus (p. 98). 



BIRDS OF :NORTH AD MIDDLE AMERICA, 55 

CENTURUS CAROLINUS (Linnus). 

RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. 

Adult ale.--Forehead and nasal tufts light red, the latter usually 
paler (sometimes dull whitish) anteriorly; crown, occiput, nape, and 
hindneck bright poppy red, lighter or more scarlet on hindneck; back 
and scapulars regularly and sharply barred vith black and white, 
the white bars usually rather narrower than the black interspaces, the 
wing-coverts similarly barred but the white bars relatively narrower, 
the secondaries also with broad white bars changing to spots on the 
distal quills; primaries and primary coverts black, the former 
blotched with white subbasal]y, the longer quills (except outermost) 
narrowly edged with white distally (except in worn plumage), the 
others tipped or broadly margined at tip with white; upper rump 
barred with black and white, but bars less sharply defined than 
back; lower rump vhite, usually barred, spotted, or broadly streaked 
with black (rarely immaculate or nearly so); upper tail-coverts 
'hite, often immaculate, but (usually) with a narrow shaft-streak 
of black, at least basally; tail black, the inner web of middle pair of 
rectrices white with bars or transverse spots of black (exceedingly 
variable as to number, size, etc.), the outer web usually with a wedge- 
shaped longitudinal streak of white on basal half, at least, the lateral 
rectrices tipped with white and with broad (usually interrupted) bars 
of white on distal portion; loral, superciliary, auricular, suborbital, 
and malar regions pale to very pale buffy grayish, usually more or less 
tinged with pale red (sometimes wholly pale red, like frontal region); 
clfin and upper throat similar but paler dull grayish buffy white (some- 
times pale red or more or less tinged with the same), passing poste- 
riorly into pale yellowish smoke grayish on chest, breast, and sides 
(the yellowish tinge, however, sometimes absent); abdomen pale red 
or reddish pink, this color sometimes tinging, more or less strongly, 
the breast, etc.; flanks and under tail-coverts white, barred or 
streaked with black or with V-shaped markings of the same, the white 
ground color usually tinged, more or less, with dull yellowish; bill 
blackish or slate-blackish, the basal portion of gonys sometimes light 
grayish; iris varying from ferruginous to scarlet; legs and feet 
olivaceous, or grayish olive-green; length (skins), 200-237 (221.9); 
wing, 123.5-139 (131); tail, 72.5-85 (77.7); culmen, 28-33 (29.8); 
tarsus, 20-23 (21.9); outer anterior toe, 16.5-20 (17.9). a 
Adult fena/e.--Similar to the adult male, but whole crown and 
occiput gray (paler anteriorly, the occiput frequently intermkxed, 
more or less, with black), and red of abdomen usually much paler as 
well as more restricted; length (skins), 196-238 (215); wing, 122-133 

a Forty-one specimens. 



BIRDS OF IORTH AND ]VIIDDLE AMERICA. 59 

Proc. Ind. Ac. Sci., 1895, 152 (Wabash, Indiana, abundant resident).-- 
L.WtECE (R. B.), Auk, xiii, 1896, 82 (Flushing, Babylon, and Raynor 
South, Long Island; 3 specs.).--OBEmOLSm, Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta., 
tech. set., i, 1896, 290 (Wayne Co., n. e. Ohio, common resident).--H.DLEY, 
Proc. Ind. Ac. Sci., 1897, 187 (Richmond, Wayne Co., Indiana, resident).-- 
CooK, Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 84 (Greeley, etc., Colorado; very 
rare); no. 56, 1900, 208 (Limon, Colorado, 1 spec., May, 1899).--JoNs, 
Wilson Bull., no. 16, 1897, 61 (Oberlin, Ohio; increasing); no. 22, 1898, 62 
(Lorain Co., Ohio; increasing).--BYm, Proc. Louis. Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 
(1900), i03 (Louisiana, resident).--FiSHR (W. H.), Auk, xx, 1903, 305 
(Hafford Co., Maryland, breeding). 
[Melanerpes] carolinus Si.t,E, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211. 
C[enturus] carolinensis Sw.NsoN, CIassif. Birds, ii, 1837, 310. 
Centurus carolinensis ABBoar, Am. Nat., iv, 1870, 538 (New Jersey).--BcK- 
.M, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 164 (Bayou Sara, Louisiana).--SETo, 
Auk, ii, 1885, 335 (Toronto, Ontario). 
Picus zebra BODD.RT, Tabl. Pl. Enl., 1783, 43 (based on Epeic]e ou Pic rayt de 
la Louisiane Daubenton, P1. Enl., pl. 692). 
Picus carolinas var. '. L.TI.M, Index Orn., i, 1790, 231. 
Picus grisets VIEILLOT, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 62, pl. 116 (Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, etc.).--BONhWEat and VLOT, Enc. 1I6th., iii, 1823, 1308. 
P[icusl erylhrauc]en W.a, Syst. Av., 1827, Picas, sp. 38 (new name for Picas 
carolinus Linnaeus); Isis, 1829, 513. 
Picus querulus (not o[ Wilson) II,YOND, ])roc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 293 
(s. e. Indiana). 

CENTURUS SU'PERCILIARIS SUPERCILIARIS (Temminck). 
SUPERCILIARY WOODPECKER. 
Adult male.--Crown, occiput, nape, and hindneck bright crimson 
or carmhae, rather lighter on the hindneck; back and scapulars 
broadly barred with black and pale huffy yellowish, the bars of the 
latter rather narrower than the black interspaces; rump and upper 
tail-coverts white, barred with black, the black markhgs more spot- 
like, more or less cordate, on rump, usually V- or U-shaped on longer 
upper tail-coverts; tail black, the middle pair of rectrices broadly 
barred with white (white bars sometimes broader than the white 
haterspaces), the lateral rectrices more narrowly barred vith white, 
at least on outer web and terminal portion of inner web; wings black, 
the coverts and secondaries broadly barred with white (the wlfite bars 
sometimes exceeding the black interspaces in width, either on coverts 
or secondaries), the basal portion of primaries spotted or otherwise 
marked with white; forehead and anterior portion of superciliary 
region dull grayish white or brovnish vhite, the latero-frontal or 
post-nasal region red; a large, elongated supra-auricular spot or patch 
of black, extending anteriorly around upper portion of eye to the 
anterior angle of the latter; local and suborbital regions white, passing 
into duller white or very pale grayish huffy on auricular and malar 
regions, the chin and upper throat similar but slightly darker; under 
parts mostly plain light huffy grayish brown to dull brownish buff)-, 



60 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
more or less tinged or suffused with saffron yellowish posteriorly, the 
abdomen (more or less extensively) bright poppy red; flanks broadly 
but irregularly barred with dusky (the bars sometimes more or less 
V-shaped); under tail-coverts similarly, but more distinctly, barred, 
the ground color pfler and more or less tinged with red; under wing- 
coverts white, irregultrly and rtt, her sparsely barred with black, 
sometimes nearly immaculate; inner webs of remiges extensively 
white basally, more or less barred with dusky; bill dull black; legs 
and feet greenish dusky in dried skins (greenish gray or grayish green 
in li[e?); length (skins), 259-300 (278); wing, 142.5-157.5 (147.3); 
tail, 86.5-111 (99.5); culmen, 37.5-42.5 (39.8); tarsus, 25-27 (25.9); 
outer anterior toe, 21.5-24 (22.6). a 
Adltfemale.--Similr to the adult male, but crown pale brownish 
gray, passing gradually into the dull wlfitish of forehead, and the 
bltck supra-auricultr areas connected by a broad band across occiput; 
length (skhls), 245-285 (261); wing, 137-150 (144.5); tail, 85-105 
(98.7); cuhnen, 32.5-39.5 (35.5); tarsus, 23-2 (25.1); outer anterior 
toe, 20-23 (21.7). a 
'oug ale.--Similar to the adult male, but red of frontlet less 
extensive, pler; anterior portion of crown much duller red, the 
remainder of crown and occiput black washed with red; back, scapu- 
lars, chest, and breast tinged with red; posterior under parts less 
distinctly barred. 
'ougfemale.--Similar to the young male, but anterior portion of 
crown pale huffy grayish, thged with red. 
Island of Cuba (Remdios; Fermina; Guam,; El Guam,; Hol- 
quin; Guantnamo tay; Trinidid; Camagugy; Yateras; Santiago 
de Cuba; San Diego de los ]afios; Santa Fg; Tuabgque). 
Picus superciliaris TEMIINCK, P1. Col., 73e livr., 1827, pl. 433 and text (Cuba; 
coll. Mus. Pays-Bas).--Lsso, lian, d'Orn., 1828,112; Trait d'Orn., i, 1831, 
227; Compl. Buffon, ix, 187,324.--Cvv,, Rgne Anita., 2 ed., 1829, 451.-- 
Tm, Journ. ffir Orn., 1857, 153.--SuNDEV,LL, Consp. Av. Picin. 
1866 55. 
P[/cus] supercliaris W, Isis, 1829, 515. 
Colaptes superciliaris Vinous, Zool. Journ., iii, 1828, 445.--W, Wiegmann's 
Archiv ffir Naturg., 1841, 100.--D'Omv, in La Sagm's Hist. Nat. Cuba, 
Aves, 1839, 111, pl. 23 (albino); French ed., p. 146.--Liv, Aves de la 
Isla de Cuba, 1850, 131. 
Zebraloicus superciliaris M, Mm. Acad. ]letz, xxx, 1849, 361; Mort. Picid., 
ii, 1862, 223; iv, 1862, pl. 102, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
[Centurus] superciliaris Borr, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 118; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1854, 126.--GoDC, Journ. ffir Orn., 1861, 334; Repert. Fisico-Nat. 
Cuba, i, 1866, 294.--Scr and S.vIs, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101.-- 
Cov, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 20. 

a Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTIt A/qD MIDDLE AMERICA. 61 

Centurus supercilaris CABANm, Journ. ftir Orn., 1856, 103 (habits; 
,ACH, Journ. fiir Orn., 1874, 152 (habits); Orn. Cubana, ed. 1895, 141.-- 
BReWeR, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. 1., vii, 1860, 307.--SCLATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 
1862, 342.--RmGwAv, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 115 (monogr.).--CoRv, 
Auk, iii, 1886, 379; Birds West Ind., 1889, 174.--CHAPrAN, Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. H., iv, 1892, 301 (near Trinidad, s. Cuba). 
C[enturus] superciliaris RCHN3ACH, Handb. Scansores, Picinm, 1854, 408, 
pl. 662, figs. 4400-4401.--RDWAV, Proc. U. S. Nat. ]Ius., iv, 1881, 98 
(diagnosis). 
C[enturus] superciliaris superciliaris BANs, Proc. Bil. Soc. Wash., xxiii, Dec. 29, 
1910, 173, in text. 
M[elanerpes] superciliaris RIDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 292. 
Melanerpes superciliaris HAR(W% Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 167.--CoRv, 
Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 128.--MNAox, Rev. Fmnf. d'Orn., 
no. 2, 1909, 23 (Guantanamo, e. Cuba). 
[Melanerpes] superciliaris SaARP, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 
C[olaptes] superciliosus GRAy, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 446. 
"Picus subocularis LEss[oN], Descr. d'Ois, rc. dcouv., 1847, p. 205, no. 33, 
le mle" (Malherbe). 

CENTURUS SUPERCILIARIS MURCEUS Bangs. 

ISLE OF PINES WOODPECKER. 
Similar to C. s. superciliaris but decidedly smaller, and under parts 
of body paler and decidedly less yellowish. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 246-264 (255.6); wing, 135.5-143 
(138.4); tail, 92-97 (94.5); culmen, 36-40.5 (38.2); tarsus, 23-25.5 
(24.4); outer anterior toe, 20-21.5 (20.8). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 242-259 (250); wing, 131.5-139.5 
(135.5); tail, 85.5-99 (92.3); culmen, 34-35 (34.5); tarsus, 24-25 
(24.5); outer anterior toe, 19-20.5 (19.8). b 
Isle of Pines, Cuba (Nueva Gerona; Santa F6; San Juan; Jfcaro; 
Almacigos). 
Melanerpes superciliaris (not Picus superciliaris Temminck) BANes and ZAPPEY, 
Am. Nat., xxxix, 1905, 206 (Isle of Pines; crit.). 
Centurus superciliaris murceus BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, Dec. 29, 1910, 
173 (San Juan, Isle of Pines; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

CENTURUS BLAKEI BLAKEI Ridgway. 

BLAE'S WOODPECKER. 

Similar to C. superciliaris but much smaller; black superciliary 
area much smaller; postnasal region (frontal antiee) much paler red; 
rectrices with much less white; red of abdomen lighter and more 
restricted, and color of breast, etc., more grayish (less yellowish). 
Similar also to (. nyeanus but postnasal spots smaller and much 
less deeply red, forehead less purely white, white bars on upper parts 

a Six specimens, b Two specimens. 



62 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES :NATIONAL IVIUSEUM. 
averaging narrower, and posterior under parts more heavily or dis- 
tinctly barred, the adult male with a conspicuous superciliary spot 
of black, the adult female with posterior half of crown mostly black 
(instead of wholly p.Me gray). 
Adult male.--Postnasal region (frontal anti,e) pale dull red; fore- 
head (broadly), loral region, and adjacent parts of orbital region, 
dull white; a conspicuous superciliary area of black, originating 
above anterior extremity of the naked orbital area and extending 
backward as far as middle of auricular region (at least); crown, 
occiput, and hindneck bright poppy red, somewhat lighter or more 
scarlet posteriorly; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts sharply and 
regularly barred (broadly) with black and white, the white bars 
averaging rather narrower than the black ones, the secondaries 
similarly barred but the black interspaces much wider and (except 
on inner secondaries) the white bars also much wider; rump and 
upper t,til-coverts white, rather distantly barred with black, the 
bars on longer upper tail-coverts less regular, sometimes more or less 
13- or V-shaped; primaries black, their outer webs blotched or spotted 
with white on sub-bssal portion, the inner quills tipped or terminally 
margined with white; tail black, the inner web of middle rectrices 
with broad oblique bars or transverse quadrate spots of white, the 
outer web sometimes with spots, or a wedge-shaped streak, of white, 
the outermost pair with several broad white transverse spots, or 
interrupted bars, on distal portion; auricular region very pale buffy 
smoke grayish, fading into dull buffy grayish white on malar region, 
chin, and upper throat, this gradually deepening into pale smoke 
gray on foreneck and chest, this gradually passing into a more yel- 
lowish light smoke grayish on breast, upper abdomen, and sides; 
lower abdomen, superficially, bright red, but beneath surface pale 
dull yellowish and grayish, rather indisth}ctly barred with dusky; 
flanks and under tail-coverts dull white, tinged with pale ocher- 
yellow, broadly barred with black, the black bars more V-shaped on 
under tail-coverts; bill slate-blackish; legs and feet dusky grayish 
(in dried skins); length (skins), 224-256 (245); wing, 129-137 
(133.3); tail, $5.5-91 (88.9); culmen, 31.5-33 (32); tarsus, 22-24 
(22.S) ; outer anterior toe, 18-19.5 (19). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, bt crovn dull buffy 
grayish white (like forehead) anteriorly passing, through pale smoke 
grayish on middle portion, into black posteriorly, the black feathers 
tipped, more or less broadly, with pale smoke gray, this black arc 
confluent laterally with the black superciliary spots; length (skins), 
220-250 (232); wing, 123.5-132 (129.6); tail, 85.5-91 (88.1); cul- 

a Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND ]V[IDDLE A]V[ERICA. 71 

and hindneck bright red (between poppy red and carmine); back, 
scapulars, and upper rump narrowly barred with black and white, 
the white bars decidedly narrower than the black interspaces; lower 
rump and upper tail-coverts immaculate white, the longer of the 
latter sometimes with shaft partly black; tail black, the middle pair 
of rectrices with basal portion variously marked with white (mostly, 
sometimes wholly, concealed), the outermost pair usually narrowly 
margined terminally with white or with outer web narrowly barred 
or indented with the same and with the under surface more or less 
grayish or hoary; wings black, the coverts and secondaries narrowly 
barred with white, the basal portion of primaries spotted or blotched 
with white; sides of head (except anterior portion), including posterior 
portion of superciliary region, sides of neck, throat, and foreneck, 
plain pale buffy grayish, passing into deeper buffy grayish, or pale 
huffy grayish olive, on chest, breast, and sides; abdomen (super- 
ficially) bright poppy red; flanks and under tail-coverts dull white, 
more or less tinged with yellowish (sometimes with red also), barred 
with slate-blackish or dusky, the bars more or less V-shaped, espe- 
cially on tinder tail-coverts; tinder wing-coverts white, barred or 
transversely spotted with black; inner webs of remiges (except ter- 
minal half, approximately, of prhnaries) broadly barred with white; 
bill dull black, more brownish on lower basal portion of mandible; 
legs and feet grayish dusky (bluish gray or greenish gray in life ?); 
length (skins), 176-187 (181); wing, 103.5-110 (107); tail, 5S.5-69 
(63); culmen, 20.5-23 (21.6); tarsus, 17.5-20 (18.5); outer anterior 
toe, 14.5-16 (15.2). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but crown dull smoky 
whitish, like forehead, passing into light buffy gray on occiput, the 
red of hindneck lighter and more orange-red or scarlet; length (skins), 
165-182 (173); wing, 103.5-108 (105.5); tail, 58-66 (62.3); culmen, 
18-20.5 (19.1); tarsus, 17-19 (17.9); outer anterior toe, 14-15.5 
(14.8).a 
Yucatan (Mrida; Tcmx; Xbac; Peto; Chichen-Itza; La Vega; 
luerto Morelos; San Felipe; Rio Lagarto). Bonaca Island, coast of 
I-Ionduras ? b 
Picus aurifrons (not of Wagler) Bos.e.Rw., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1837, 116. 
[Centurus] aurifrons ]ONAIAITE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 119; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1854, 126. 
Centurus vubriventris Sw.ssos, Anim. in Menag., 1838, 354 (no locality men- 
tioned).--GAv, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidee, 1868, 100.--LwR.sc., Ann. 
Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1869, 206 (Mrida, Yucatan; crit.); Ann. N. Y. Ac. Sci., ii, 

a Ten specimens. 
b I have not seen specimens from Bonaca Island. 
the Yucatan bird. 

These should be different from 



BIRDS OF NORTII AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 73 

CENTURUS SUBELEGANS WAGLERI (Salvin and Godman). 

WAGL-R'S WOODPECKER. 

Similar to C. s. subelegans a but red of pileum more extensive, 
never(?) interrupted on occiput, and white bars on back, etc., aver- 
aging slightly broader. 
Adult ma/e.--Forehead and anterior portion of superciliary region 
dull brownish white, the latero-frontal antim more or less strongly 
tinged with yellow; crown and occiput bright poppy red, changing 
gradually to more orange-red on hindneck; back, scapulars, and 
upper rump rather broadly barred with black and white or yellowish 
white, the black bars slightly wider than the white ones; lower rump 
and upper tail-coverts white, usually immaculate, rarely with a few 
irregular narrow bars of blackish; tail black, the inner web of middle 
rectrices very broadly barred or transversely potted with white, the 
outer web with transverse spots or a longitudinal streak of white; 
wing-coverts and secondaries black, broadly barred with white, the 
distal secondaries with the bars shortened into spots along the edge; 
primaries black (the outer and longer ones fading into dull slaty 
beyond their sinuated portion), spotted or otherwise marked basally 
with white, and narrowly tipped or terminally margined with the 
same; primary coverts and alulm black, the outermost feathers of the 
latter edged or indented with wlfite; sides of head (including broad 
superciliary stripe), sides and fore part of neck and lower throat 
light buffy grayish, gradually fading into paler (but not approaching 
white) on suborbital and malar regions, chin, and upper throat, 
gradually deepening into light buffy olive-grayish on chest, breast, 
sides, and upper abdomen; lower abdomen (superficially) bright 
poppy red; flanks and under tail-coverts dull yellowish white or very 
pale dingy yellowish broadly barred with black, the bars more or less 
V-shaped, at least on longer under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts 
white, irregularly barred with blac-kish; inner webs of remiges very 
broadly barred or transversely spotted with wlfite, the terminal half 
or more of primaries uniform dark slate color; bill dull black, paler on 
under side of mandible, at least basally; legs and feet grayish dusky 
(greenish gray or bluish gray in life ?); length (skins), 153-185 (167); 
wing, 105.5-119.5 (111.5); tail, 47.5-58 (52.8); culmen, 21.5-25.5 
(23.7); tarsus, 18-20 (18.9); outer anterior toe, 15.5-18.5 (16.9). b 
Adult female.---Similar to the adult male, but crown and occiput 
light, buffy gray or hair brown, and red of hindneck paler and duller 
(usually more orange red); length (skins), 147-175 (151); wing, 

a See page 52. b Twenty specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

P[icus] tricolor (not of Gmelin) WAGLER, Isis, 1829, 512 ("Mexico," i. e., Carta- 
gena, Colombia; see Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn., 1862, 327). 
Centurus tricolor CABANIS, Journ. f iir Orn., 1862, 327, part (Cartagena, Colombia; 
crit.).--ScLATER and SALVlN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 367 (Panama; 
crit.).--SALvlN, PCOc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 157 (Santa F6 de Veragua and 
Cordillera de TolS, w. Panama); 1870, 213 (Calovevora, Castillo, and Chitra, 
w. Panama).--CHERRI, Expl. Zool. Merid. Costa Rica, 1893, 47 (Palmr, 
Legarto, and Boruca, s. w. Costa Rica).--BANS, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 287, in 
text (Rio Grande de T6rraba, s. w. Costa Rica). 
[Cen$urus] $ricolor SCLATR and SALVlN, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100, part 
(Panama). 
C[enturus] tricolor RID(WAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 97, part (Veragua, 
w. Panama). 
Melanerpes tricolor HARrrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1891, 174, part (Veragua, 
Panama, and Paraiso Station, Panama; "Central America"). 
[Centurus carolinus] var. $ricolor BAIRD, BREWER, and RID(WAY, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 554, part ("Central America"). 
Centurus subelegans (not of Bonaparte) SCLTER, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 143 
(David, Chiriqui, w. Panama). 
Centurus rubriventris (not of Swainson) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., vii, 1862, 
299 (Lion Hill, Panama). 
(?)Centurus rubricapillus a CABANm, Journ. fiir Orn., x, Sept. 1862, 328, in 
text (Baranquilla, Colombia; coll. tteine Mus). 
Melanerpes wagleri SALWN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i_i, sig. 52, 
Jan., 1895, 416 (Lion ttill Station, Panama Railway; coll. Salvin and God- 
man).--BNS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 18 (Lion Hill; crit.); 
iii, 1902, 33 (Boquete, w. Panama, 4,000 ft.); Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xix, 
1907, 107 (Pozo Azul de Pirris, s. w. Costa Rica); Auk, xxiv, 1907, 292 
(Boruca, Paso Real, and Pozo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica). 
[Melanerpes] wagleri SmRe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (Panama). 
Melanerpes wagleri wagleri THYR and Bs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xlvi, 
1906, 216 (Sabana de Panama).--CARRKR, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 
587 (Costa Rica). 
Melanerpes subelegans wagleri RICHMOND, lroc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, Aug. 12, 
1896, 668 (Chiriqui; Panama; coast of Colombia). 
Centurus wagleri SLVaDOR and Fswa, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xiv, 
1899, no. 339, 8 (Punta de Sabana, Panama). 
CENTURUS SEDUCTUS (Bangs). 
SAN MIGUL WOODPEC]ER. 
Similar to C. subelegans qzagleri, but smaller, except bill, which is 
relatively larger and stouter; white bars or spots on inner webs of 
remiges narrowe.r; postnasal feathers tinted with pale red instead 
of yellowish, and general color of under parts more ochraceous or 
vinaceous, sometimes tinged with red. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 161-179 (168); wing, 103-106 (104.2); 
tail, 46-53 (49.1); culmen, 22-26.5 (25); tarsus, 18.5-19.5 (19.1); 
outer anterior toe, 17-18 (17.5). 5 

a It is important that the types be carefully examined, for the name has priority over 
both Melanerpes wagleri and C. s. sanct-martx. 
b Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 77 

yellowish white broadly barred with black, the bars more or less 
V-shaped on under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts white, rather 
narrowly barred with blackish; inner webs of remiges dull slate color 
or dusky, the greater part of secondaries and proximal portion of 
primaries with broad transverse spots of white; bill slate-black; 
feet dusky (olive-greenish in life); length (skins), 176-198 (186); 
wing, 116.5-125 (120); tail, 53-61.5 (57); culmen, 24-28 (26.3); 
tarsus, 20-21 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 17-19.5 (18.3). a 
Adult female.---Similar to the adult male, but pileum without any 
red, the anterior portion of crown dull white, like forehead, passing 
into light smoke gray or drab gray on occiput, and nape usually 
lighter yellow (chrome yellow, more rarely cadmium yellow); length 
(skins), 170-190 (179); wing, 112-125.5 (117.8); tail, 50-60.5 (54.9); 
culmen, 22-26 (23.7); tarsus, 19-21 (19.6); outer anterior toe, 
16.5-19 (17.6). b 
Young na/e.--Similar to the adult male, but nape paler and duller 
yellow, prefrontal region dull pale yellow or dull whitish, bars on 
back, etc., less sharply defined, general color of undcr parts duller, 
chest (usually, at least) more or less streaked or flecked with dusky, 
and yellow of abdomen duller and more restricted. 
Costa Rica (San Jos; Cartago; Grcia; San Mateo; San Pedro; 
Santo Domingo de San Mateo; Pigres; La Palma de Nicoya; Punta 
Arenas; Ten6rio; Bols6n; Cerro Santa Maria; Volcan de Miravalles; 
Bebedero; Alajuela; Escazd; Orosi; Carrillo; Gufipiles; Guayabl; 
Guayabo; Bonilla; Juan Vifias) and Nicaragua (Grenada; Le6n; 
Tres Granadas; Ometepe; Sucuy; San Juan del Sur; San Ger6nimo; 
Volcan de Chinandega; Virgen). 
Centurus hoffmannii CABANm, 3ourn. ftir Orn., x, Sept., 1862, 322 (Costa Rica; 
coll. Berlin Mus.?).--GRAY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidm, 1868, 100. 
Centurus hoffmanni LwR.Nc., Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1868, 131 (San 5os and 
Grecia, Costa Rica).--Fawzts, 5ourn. ftir Orn., 1869, 364 (Costa Rica).-- 
BovcD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 49 (San Jos, Cartago, and Punta 
Arenas, Costa Rica).--Z..D6, Cat. Ayes de Costa Rica, 1882, 23; Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 124 (San os; Cartago; Alajuela).--CF.PF., 

a Thirteen specimens, b Eighteen specimens. 

Locality. 

IALES. 
Ten adult males from Costa Rlc ............................. 
Three adult male from Nicargu ............................ 
FEIALES. 
Ten adult emalcs from Costa Rica ............................ 
Eight adult cmales from Nicaragua .......................... 

Wing. 

120. 2 
119. 2 
119 
116.3 

Tail. 

56. 2 
59. 7 

55.4 
54.3 

posed 
culmen. 

26.1 
26.7 

23. 8 
23.6 

Tarsus, 

20. 4 
20. 5 

19.6 
19.6 

Our 
ant 
rior e. 

18.3 
18. 3 

17. 3 
17. 9 



BIRDS OF NORT]!t AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 85 

distinct and (except on proximal secondaries) mostly interrupted 
bars of white, the primaries sometimes with a few small spots or 
irregular markings of white on sub-basal portion of outer web, the 
proximal quills usually margined terminally with wldte; tail black, 
the inner web of middle rectrices sometimes with a greater or less 
number of rather narrow bars or irregular markings of white (which 
do not extend to the shaft), the outer pair with a few narrow bars of 
white on terminal portion, mostly on outer web; auricular region, 
sides of neck, and foreneck plain yellowish smoke gray or drab-gray, 
fading into paler on upper throat, chin, and malar region, deepening 
posteriorly into deeper yellowish drab-gray or yellowish broccoli 
brown on chest, breast, and sides, this passing into saffron yellow 
or indian yellow on abdomen; flanks and under tail-coverts dull 
white, more or less tinged with yellowish, rather broadly ban'ed 
with blackish, the bars on under tail-coverts more or less V-shaped; 
under wing-coverts broadly barred with white and slate-black, the 
bars of nearly equal width, but the blackish ones averaging rather 
broader than the white ones; inner webs of remiges blackish slate or 
dusky, the proximal portion with large transverse spots of white 
along edge; bill slate-black; iris orange to crimson; legs and feet 
olive-greenish in life; length (skins), 210-236 (225); wing, 124.5-142 
(131.8); tail, 69-79 (72.5); culmen, 29-31.5 (30.1); tarsus, 21-23.5 
(22.3); outer anterior toe, 18.5-21 (19.6). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but whole crown dull 
white or very pale yellowish mouse gray, like forehead, deepefing 
into mouse gray on occiput; length (skins), 212-220 (216); wing, 
122.5-141.5 (130.2) ; tail, 68-81 (72.3) ; cu]men, 26-30 (27.S) ; tarsus, 
21-23 (21.8); outer anterior toe, 17-20 (18.8). b 

a Twelve specimens, b Ten specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 

Seven adult males ( C. s. santacruzi) from Gnatemala .......... 
Five adult males ( C. s. santacruzi) from Chiapas (Huehuetn) .. 
Twelve adult males ( C. s. grateloupenis) from Vera Cruz ..... 
Ten adult males ( C. s. pauper) from Honduras ............... 
One adult male (C. s. santacruzi) from northern Nicaragua 
($alapa) ..................................................... 
FEMALES. 
Nine adult females (C. s. santacruzi) from Guatemal ......... 
One adult female ( C. . satacruzi) from Chtapas (Ituehuetan).. 
Seven adult females ( C. . 9rateloupensis) from Vera Cruz ..... 
Ten adult females ( C. s. pauper) from Honduras .............. 

Ving. 

132. 4 
130 
132.9 
123.7 

136. 5 

132. 2 
122.5 
129.1 
119.5 

72. 6 
71.9 
78.2 
69.2 

78. 5 

72. 8 
68. 5 
75.9 
66. 9 

posed 
ulmen 

30.1 
30. 4 
29. 8 
27. 4 

27.9 
27 
26.9 
25.8 

Tarsus 

22.2 
22. 4 
23.4 
21.2 

22 

21.9 
21.5 
21.8 
20.9 

Outer 
ante- 
riot toe. 

19.8 
19.4 
lS. 7 

2O 

18.8 
19 
18.9 
18.1 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 89 

(?)Centurus santa-cruzi pauper DEArBOrN, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 93, 
part (Belize, Brit. Honduras; crit.). 
Centurus santacruzi paupera LANTZ, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 
220 (Chaloma, Honduras). 
Melanerpes santacruzi pauper Bas, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.. xxxix, 1903, 146 
(Ceiba, Honduras). 

CENTURUS CHRYSOGENYS CHRYSOGENYS (Vigors). 

GOLDEN-CHEEKED WOODPECKER. 

Adult male.--Forehead (narrowly) pale buffy brown or pale wood 
brown; crown and occiput bright red (between poppy red and 
carmine); hindneck bright chrome or cadmium, passing into a more 
orange-red hue on nape, the latter into orange or orange-yellow on 
lower portion or along posterior edge; a lae superciliary patch of 
black, this sometimes entirely encircling the bare orbital space, but 
much broader above and behind; prefrontal region rather dull cad- 
mium yellow or orange, or sometimes nearly concolor with forehead; 
back, scapulars, and upper rump barred with black and white, the 
two colors about equal in width; lower rump and upper tail-coverts 
white, barred with black; wing black, the coverts more narrowly, 
the secondaries more broadly barred with white, the primaries ex- 
tensively blotched with white sub-basally and tipped or terminally 
margined with the same; tail black, the middle pair of rectrices 
broadly barred with white, the outer pair more narrowly barred, 
the terminal half (more or less) of the next similarly barred, the 
other rectrices with inner webs usually barred or spotted along the 
edge with white; malar and auricular regions (sometimes chin also) 
cadmium or chrome yellow (more or less deep); throat, foreneck, 
sides of neck, chest, breast, and sides plain deep drab-gray or hair 
brown; abdomen (superficially) saffron yellow (more or less deep); 
flanks and under tail-coverts dull white barred with black, the bars 
more or less V-shaped; under wing-coverts white, rather narrowly 
barred with black; inner webs of primaries extensively blotched 
with white sub-basally, the inner webs of secondaries broadly barred 
or transversely spotted with wlfite; bill dull black, more brownish 
on lower basal portion of mandible; legs and feet grayish dusky 
(greenish gray or olive in life ?); length (s -Idns), 204-223 (210); wing, 
118-124.5 (121.3); tail, 71.5-77 (74.1); culmen, 25-28 (26.6); tarsus, 
20.5-23 (21.6); outer anterior toe, 17.5-19.5 (18.9). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but crown and occiput 
browxish gray (more brownish or buffy anteriorly), the occiput some- 
times intermixed with black, rarely nearly uniform black, the nape 
varying from orange to orange-red; length (skins), 194-211 (202) ; 4ng 

a Ten specimens (seven from Sinaloa, three from Tepic). 



90 BULLETII 50 UIITED STATES IATIOlqAL MUSEUM. 
114-123.5 (119.4); tail, 67-77.5 (72.8); culmen, 23.5-25.5 (24.7); 
tarsus, 20-21.5 (20.7); outer anterior toe, 17-19 (18.1). a 
Young male.--Similar to the adult male, but texture of plumage 
more lax, abdomen but faintly) if at all, tiuged with yellow, and red 
of crown usually duller. 
Young female.--Similar to the young male, but without red on 
crown. 
Western Mexico, i1 States of Sinaloa (Mazatlfin; Quimiches; 
Rosario; Quotla; Escuinapa; Los lieles, 3,000-3,500 feet; Rio Juana 
Gomez, 50 feet) and Sonora (southern portion) and Territory of 
Tel)it (San Blas; Santiago). 
Zebrapicus elegans (not Picas elegans Miiller, 1776, nor Swainson, 1827)  
EaE, Mort. Picid., if, 1862, 225, part, pl. 102, fig. 6 (female). 
Picas elegans Fsc, Abh. Nat. vet. Brem., 1871, 356 (Mazatlan, Sinalou). 
Centurus elegans L.waNc, Mere. Bost. Soc. N. tI., if, 1874, 294 (Mazatlan; 
Tepic; Sonora; habits; descr, nest and eggs).--RDw., Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., iv, 1881, 114, part (Mazatlan; monogr.).---MLLa (W. de W.), Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H., xxi, I905, 352 (Escuinupa, etc., s. Sinaloa; crit.).--B.v 
(H. 12.), Auk, xxiii, 1906, 388 (San Blus, Tepic). 
.l[elanerpes] elegans RIDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 292, part. 
:]lelanerpes elegans II.aTT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 184, part (Sonora; 
Mazatlan; San Blas, Tepic). 
[Melanerpes] elegans Smae, ]and-list, if, 1900, 212. 
Picas chrysogenys Vmoas, Zool Beechcy's Voy., 1839, 24 (no locality given, 
but without doubt Mazatlan, Sinaloa, or San Bias or Tepic, Teplc b). 
Centurus chrysogenys chrysogcys RDw., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 
24, 191I, 32, footnote. 

a Ten specimens (nine from Sinalou, one from Tepic). 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Ten adult males (C. c. chrysogrnys) from Sinaloa (9) and 
Tepic (1) .................................................... 
Eight adult males kom Guerrero ( C. c. flavinuchus) ........... 
Six adult males from Colima ( C. c. )'tavinuchus) ............... 
One adult male from Michoacan ( C. c. )'tavinuchus) ............ 
One adult male from Jalisco ( C. c. )'tavinuchus) ................. 
FEMALES. 
Ten adult females (C. c. chrysogrnys) from Sinaloa (7) and 
Tepic (3) .................................................... 
Four adult Iemales from Guerrero ( C. c. flavnuchus) ........... 
Six adult Iemales from Colima ( C. c. )'tavinuchus) .............. 
Three adult females from ]Ilchoacan (C. c. )'tavinuchus) ........ 

121.3 74.1 
125.3 71.7 
120. 7 67. 2 
122 68 
126. 5 68 
119. 4 72.8 
121.6 70. 2 
120.5 68.4 
120 66. 6 

26. 6 
27.6 
27.6 
27. 5 
28 

24. 7 
26. 4 
24.5 
26.8 

I Outer 
Tarsus. ante 
rior toe. 

21.6 18.g 
21.4 19.8 
21.6 19.2 
21 19 
20.7 18.1 
20.8 18.2 
20.1 17.9 
20.7 19 

b The only ]Iexican localities visited by the naturalists of the "Blossom" are 
Acapulco, Guerrero; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; and San Blas and Tepic, in the Territory 
of Tepic. The bird found at Acapulco is C. c.flavinuchus, hence the type locality oi 
C. c. chryogenys must be either Mazatlan or one of the two Tepic localities. 



BULLETIN 50) UNITED STATES ATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CENTURUS HYPOPOLIUS (Wagler). 
GRA'-BREASTED WOODIECK:ER. 
Adult male.--Forehead varying from dull white, more or less tinged 
with pale smoke-gray, to pale drab or drab-gray; anterior and middle 
portions of crown bright poppy red, this sometimes restricted to a cen- 
tral spot; a rather ill-defined orbital ring of bluish black, broader 
above eye, this sometimes inclosing a narrowline of white on lower eve- 
lid and posterior portion of upper eyelid; lateral and posterior parts 
of crown, occiput, hindneck, and sides of neck plain drab to deep 
purplish drab or deep grayish hair brown, the auricular re,on similar 
but rather paler, the lower portion more or less distinctly tinged with 
red; chin, throat, chest, breast, abdomen, and sides plain drab-gray 
(more or less deep); flanks, thighs, lower abdomen, anal region, and 
under tail-coverts white (sometimes tinged vith pale yellowish ante- 
riorly) broken by broad V-shaped bars or marks of slate-blac-kish; 
back and scapulars barred vith black and whitish, the bars of the 
latter rather narrower than the black ones and more or less tinged 
with dull yellowish or pale drab; wing-coverts and secondaries black, 
barred with white, the white bars broader on greater ving-coverts and 
secondaries, especially that on tips of the latter; primaries black, 
spotted or blotched subbasally (except on the four outermost) and 
narrowly tipped with white; rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
broken by more or less distinct mesial or central streaks or spots 
(usually cuneate or sagittate) of black; tail black, the middle pair of 
rectrices with basal half, or more, mostly white, transversely spotted 
or otherwise variegated with black, the two lateral pairs margined 
terminally and serrated along edge of outer web with white; bill 
dusk)', the maxilla more blackish, the mandible more horn colored; 
iris brown; legs and feet dusky grayish (bluish gray in life ?); length 
(skins), 199-214 (207); wing, 116.5-131 (124.1); tail, 74-83.5 (80); 
culmen, 23-26 (24.2); tarsus, 18-22 (20.5) ; outer anterior toe, 15-17.5 
(16.6). a 
Adult female.--Sinilar to the adult male, but without any red on 
crown; length (skins), 203-209 (206); wing, 118.5-125.5 (122.8); 
tail, 80-86.5 (83.4); culmen, 23-25.5 (24); tarsus, 18.5-20.5 (19.4); 
outer anterior toe, 14.5-16.5 (15.3). b 
Southern Mexico, in States of Puebla (Tehuacfin; Tecuapn; Hue- 
huetn; Chapulco; Izucfir de Matamoras; Chietla; San Migul 
Molino; San BartSlo; Epatln), Mexico (Valley of Mexico), Morelos 
(Cuernavaca), Guerrero (Sierra Madre del Sur), and Oaxaca (Oaxaca 
City; Cuicatln). 
a Seven specimens, b Four specimens. 



102 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

dd. Frontal band narrower, yellow or yellowish white; adult female with black 
band across crown much narrower; smaller (wing averaging 135.7 in male, 
134.8 in female). (Southern Lower California.) 
Balanoslhyra formicivora angustifrons (p. 108). 
bb. Adult male with crown and occiput glossy black, only the nape red; adult 
female without any red. (Central Colombia.) 
Balanoslhyra flavigula (extralimital).a 
Auricular and orbital regions white; chin and whole throat light yellow; chest 
white, streaked with black. (Mexico?)...Balanoslhyra xantholaynx (p. 111). 

BALANOSPHYRA FORMICIVORA FORMICIVORA (Swainson). 

ANT-EATING WOODIECER. 

Adult mle.--Nasal tufts, anterior portion of malar region, chin, 
and upper throat, black; forehead and rather narrow band across 
anterior portion of lores to middle or posterior portion of malar 
region white, passing into pale sulphur or primrose yellow or yellowish 
white on lower throat and foreneck; crown, occiput, and nape, bright 
poppy red; orbital and auricular regions, sides of neck, upper chest, 
lower hindneck, back and scapulars, plain glossy greenish blue-black; 
wings black or brownish black, the coverts margbed with glossy 
greenish blue-black, the primaries (except three or four outermost) 
with a basal patch of white, occupying both webs (but interrupted 
by the black shaft), this white area broader on inner quills; rump 
and upper tail-coverts immaculate white; tail entirely black; lower 
chest and sides of upper breast glossy greenish blue-black, more or 
less broadly streaked with white (the upper ches also sometimes 
more or less streaked, at least on median portion), the remaining 
under parts white, the lower breast (except medially), sides, aad 
flanks streaked with black, the under tail-coverts with narrow shaft- 
streaks of the same; bill black; iris variable in color (pinkish, white, 
bluish, brownish, or yellowish) ; legs and feet dusky grayish (greenish 
gray in life?); length (skins), 191-235 (213); wing, 131.5-151 (141.1); 
tail, 69-83.5 (76.6) ; culmen, 23-28.5 (26.9) ; tarsus, 20-23.5 (22.4) ; 
outer anterior toe, 15.5-19 (17.4). b 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male, but crown glossy greenish 
bhm-black, the anterior margin of the transverse occipito-nuchal area 
much posterior to posterior angle of eye (about middle of auricular 
region) ; length (skins), 190-233 (206) ; wing, 130.5-148 (136.3) ; tail, 

a Melampicos flavigula Malherbe, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., Nov., 1849, 542 (Colom- 
bia).--Melampicusflavigula Malherbe, Mon. licid., ii, 1862, 202; iv, 1862, pl. 99, figs. 
5, 6.--M[elanerpes] flavigula Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Picime, 1854, 384, pl. 
643, figs. 4297-4299.--Melanerpesflavigula Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855, 161; 
Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 154.--Melanerpesformicivorus, vat. flav/gu/a 
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 561.--Melanerpes flavigu- 
laris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 307.--[ Melanerpes] flavigulrs Sclater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100; Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210.--Balanospyra 
flavigula Ridgway, lroc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 35. 
b Forty-one specimens. 



BIRDS 0F :NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 103 

68-82.5 (75.6); culmen, 22-27.5 (25.1); tarsus, 19.5-23 (21); outer 
anterior toe, 15.5-18 (16.9). a 
Young male.--Similar to the adult male, but black of nasal tufts, 
chin, etc., duller (more sooty), that of the chest (lull (not glossy), 
streaks on breast, etc., less sharply defined, lower throat with less 
pronounced yellow tinge, and texture of plumage softer. 
Eastern and southern Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas (Victoria; 
Sierra Madre above Victoria; Yerba Buena; Galindo; Guiaves; 
Realito), Nuevo LeSn (Boquillo; Boque Negro; Cerro de la Silla; 
Montefiy), San Luis Potosi (Sierra de San Luis Potosi), GuanajuSto, 
Puebla (Tochimulco; Chachapa; Rio Frio, Ixtaccihu'tl), Vera Cruz 
(Orizaba; Jalapa; CSrdova; 1)otrero and San Lorenzo, near CSrdova; 
MiradSr; Huatusco, near MiradSr; Coatepec; Las Vigas; Misantla; 
San BartSlo; Zentla; Chachapa), Mexico (Temisc'dtepec; near City 
of Mexico; Chimalapa; Mexicalcingo), tIidalgo (Real del hIonte; El 
Chico), Morelos (Ttela del Volcan), Zacatecas (Sierra de Valparaiso; 
Sierra de Jerez), Jalisco (Tonila; Zapotlm; Sierra de Bolafios; Mesa 
la Cienega; Jacal;t; La Pisagua; San Sebasti/tn; Volcal de Nieve; La 
Laja, 9,000 feet), Sinaloa (Plomosas), Tepic (Sierra Madre), Michoa- 
can (Patzcuaro; Nahuatzin), Guerrero (Omilteme; mountains near 

a Forty-four specimens. 

Outer 
Locality. ante- 
rior toe. 

MALES. 
One adult male from southern Sinaloa (Plomosas) 
Seven adult males from Saliseo. 
One adult male from Michoacan 
Three adult males from Guerrero. 
Nine adult males from Vera Cruz 
Seven adult males from Tamaulipas ............... 
Six adult males from Nuevo Leon 
Three adult males from Kerr County (2) and Chisos Mountains 
(1), Texas .... 
Three adult males from Chiapas ............................... 
Four adult males from Guatemala ........... 
FEMALES. 
Three adult females from Zacatecas .... 
Four adult females from :lallsco ................................ 
Three adult females from Michoacan ........................... 
One adult female from Morelos... 
One adult female from Hidalgo ................ 
Seven adult females from Vera Cruz. 
Eight adult females from Tamaulipas... 
Six adult females from Nuevo Leon. 
Two adult Iemales from Kerr County and Chisos Motmtains, 
live adult Iemales from Chiapas ............................. 
Six adult females from Guatemala. 

25 
24 
24. 3 
22 
24 
25.6 
25.8 
25. 9 
27.2 
25 
24. 8 

17 
17.1 
17.5 
16.5 
18.3 
17.1 
16. 7 

17.2 
18.2 
18 

20 15.5 
20.6 16.4 
21. 2 16.7 
20. 5 17 
21 17.5 
21.1 17.6 
20.9 16.6 
20.5 16.2 
21.2 17 
21. 6 17.6 
21.5 17.3 



118 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES IATIONAL MUSEUM. 

more extensively and completely naked, tail relatively shorter (less 
than half as long as wing), except in T. flavifrons, a sides, flanks, 
under tail-coverts, and inner web of remiges conspicuously banded 
with black or dusky and white, and plumage of throat and chest 
not hairqike. 
Bill about as long as head, moderately stout to rather slender, its 
width at middle of nostrils slightly greater than its depth at same 
point; cuhnen straight terminally, more or less convex subbasally 
or in middle portion, distinctly but not sharply ridged; gonys less 
than twice (about one and a half times) as long as mandibular rami, 
not distinctly ridged, except (sometimes) terminafly; tip of bill 
narrowly chisel-shaped; supranasal ridge distinct for about basal 
half of maxilla. Nostril rather small, longitudinally oval or ovate, 
situated about midway between culmen and tomium, more or less 
covered by small antrorse, bristly-tipped, prefrontal feathers. Malar 
apex with antrorse bristle-like feathers minute, the feathe of chin 
without obvious bristly tips or else these very minute. Orbital region 
extensively and completely naked. Wing rather long, with longest 
prhnaries exceeding secondaries by more than length of culmen, the 
seventh and eighth, or sixth, seventh, and eighth, primaries longest, 
the ninth shorter than sLxth (somethnes slightly shorter than fifth), 
the tenth (outermost) about one-fourth as long as ninth. Tail less 
than half as long as wing (except in T.flavifrons, in which it is slightly 
more than half as long), the rectrices very rigid, the middle ones 
short-acuminate (less so in T.flavifrons). Tarsus shorter than outer 
hind toe with claw, rather stout; outer hind toe (without claw) 
slightly but distinctly shorter than outer front toe (without claw). 
Coloration.--Plumage compact, that of back (that of chest and 
breast also in T. abrifrons and T. cruentatus) imbricated, that of 
abdomen coarse and hair-like; above mostly black or blue-black, 
the rump and upper tail-coverts white, the back sometimes with 
white bars or streaked along median line with the same; abdomen 
blight red; sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts conspicuously barred 
or banded with black and pale yellowish or whitish; adult males with 
red on crown (sometimes whole pileum and nape red), sometimes 
with yellow on forehead or nape (or both). 
Range.--Southeastern Mexico to southern Brazil, Paraguay, 
Bolivia, and Peru. (Seven species.) 

a In T. flavifrons the tail is but little more than half (decidedly less than three- 
fifths) as long as wing, about the same as in Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 
b I have not seen T. hargitti Dubois ([Melanerpes] hargitti Dubois, Synop. Av., i, 
1899, 68, pl. 2, fig. 2, of unknown locality), which, however, is said to be very 
similar to T. cruentatus. 



BItlDS OF lgOtlTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. ][23 

Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 415, part (Orizaba, Santecomapam, and 
Uvero, Vera Cruz; Brit. Honduras; Coban, Choctum, Chisec, and Yzabal, 
Guatemala; Omoa, San Pedro, and Truxillo, Honduras). 
M[elanerpes] pucherani :IDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291, part. 
[Melanerpes] puclerani SHARPE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210, part. 
Picus gerini (not P. gerinii Temminck?) SUNVEV,LL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 
55, part (Guatemala). 
?Centurus gerinii GmtY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 101 (Ifon- 
duras?). 
7[Centurus] gerinii Ga,Y, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 197, no. 8765. 
Melanerpes pucherani perileucus TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., .xxiii, Dec. 6, 
1910, 153 (near Manatee, Brit. Honduras; coll. Carnegie Mus.). 

TRIPSURUS CHRYSAUCHEN (Salvin). 

GOLDEN-NAPED WOODPECKER. 

Adqdt male.--Forehead and hindneck bright yellow (chrome or pale 
chrome, the forehead sometimes cadmium yellow) ; crown and occiput 
bright poppy red or scarlet-vermilion; back, scapulars, and wing- 
coverts deep black, faintly glossed with bluish, the median line of 
back broadly streaked with white; rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
the former sometimes barred with black on upper lateral portion; 
tail brownish black; remiges and primary coverts brownish black, the 
inner secondaries usually margined terminally and more or less 
spotted on edges with white; supra- and post-ocular regions, auricular 
region, and sides of neck uniform deep, slightly glossy, black, the 
postocular region usually with a more or less distinct elongated patch 
or streak of white; malar region, chin, and throat plain light yellowish 
gray, the suborbital region more whitish; foreneck, chest, breast, and 
sides of upper abdomen deeper yellowish gray, strongly washed or 
tinged with wax yellow or saffron yellow; lower abdomen and median 
portion of upper abdomen bright scarlet-vermilion or scarlet; sides, 
flanks, and under tail-coverts broadly and irregularly barred with 
black and whitish; under wing-coverts similarly nmrked, but black 
predominating along edge of wing; inner webs of remiges with large 
quadrate spots of white (in transverse series), except on distal portion 
of outer and longer primaries; bill blackish, paler on lower basal 
portion of mandible; le and feet dusky (in dried skins); length 
(skins), 162-181 (174); wing, 108-116 (112.2); tail, 51-60.5 (55); 
culmen, 23.5-27.5 (25.7); tarsus, 19-20.5 (19.5); outer anterior toe, 
16.5-19 (17.8). a 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
head, the duller yellow of pileum interrupted by a more or less 
broad, crescentic band of black across crown; length (skins), 152-186 

a Fifteen specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 125 

webs of remiges broadly edged or spotted with vinaceous-cinnamon 
or yellow, the sides of head or the throat sometimes bright yellow. 
Bill shorter than head, rather broad and depressed basally (de- 
cidedly broader than deep at anterior end of nostrils), regularly 
wedge-shaped in vertical profile; culmen straight or, sometimes, very 
faintly convex, distinctly (usually sharply) ridged; gonys slightly to 
decidedly longer than nmndibular rami, faintly concave anteriorly, 
faintly convex and slightly prominent basally; supranasal ridge ve T 
distinct, extending for basal half or more of maxilla, much nearer 
to culmen than to tomium (except anteriorly). Nostril rather small, 
longitudinally oval or elliptical, situated rather nearer to tomium 
than to culmen, at least partly covered by small bristle-like antrorse 
prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex small, bristle-like, 
antrorse, or semiantrorse, those of chin with small bristle-like, semi- 
antrorse tips. Orbital region naked, including margin of eyelids 
except posterior portion of the lower, which sometimes has a few 
minute feathers. Wing rather long and pointed, the longest pri- 
maries exceeding secondaries by about one-fotrth the length of 
wing; sixth and seventh or sixth, seventh, and eighth prinlaries 
longest, the ninth equal to or longer than third, the tenth (outer- 
most) one-third to one-half as long as ninth. Tail slightly to de- 
cidedly more than half as long as wing, the middle rectrices grad- 
ually acuminate. Tarsus decidedly longer than either outer toe 
without claw, the outer hind toe decidedly shorter than the outer 
front toe; tarsi and toes rather slender, but claws large and strongly 
cu'ved. 
Coloration.--Upper parts mostly plain olive-green or oil-green; 
under parts conspicuously barred with olive, or dusky, and yellowish; 
inner webs of remiges broadly edged, or banded, with vinaceous- 
cinnamon or more narrowly edged with yellow; sides of head or 
throat sometimes bright yellow; adult males with more or less of 
the pileum and a broad malar stripe (sometimes throat also) bright 
red, adult females with red only on nape or part of pileum or with 
none at all. 
Range.--Middle Mexico to southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and 
Peru. (About twenty species and subspecies.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF CHLORONERPES. 

a. Under wing-coverts and edges of inner webs of remiges light yellow; remiges not 
barred, and with yellow shafts. 
b. Chin and throat whitish, streaked or barred with blackish or grayish; adults 
with only part, or none, of pileum crimson; adult females with malar region 
whitish streaked with grayish or dusky. 
c. Pileum and nape uniform slate-gray (without red in either sex). (South- 
western Mexico) ........................ Chloronerles auricularis (p. 128) 
co. Pileum crimson laterally (at least posteriorly); nape wholly crimson. 



130 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL IVIUSEUI. 
ually on more posterior under parts to pale citron yellow, broadly 
and rather regularly barred with olive, the under tail-coverts, bow- 
ever, with the yellowish bars much narrower than the olive inter- 
spaces; bill grayish black; iris brown; a feet dusky grayish (bluish 
ash in life) ; a length (skins), 221-261 (240) ; wing, 130.5-137 (133.6); 
tail, 81.5-90 (86.3); culmen, 25-29 (26.6); tarsus, 23-25 (23.7); 
outer anterior toe, 20-21 (20.4). 5 
Young male.---Similar to the adult male, but under parts of body 
much less distinctly barred (sometimes whole abdomen and flanks 
nearly immaculate) and much duller yellowish; chest and foreneck 
regularly barred, but the bars less strongly contrasted; and red of 
nape extending forward, along sides of crown and forehead, to base 
of bill. 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but malar region pale 
gray or grayish white, narrowly streaked with blackish, and red of 
nape not extending laterally to eye; length (skins), 217-250 (226); 
wing, 127.5-135.5 (130.9) ; tail, 78-89 (85.5) ; culmen, 23-25.5 (24.2) ; 
tarsus, 22-23.5 (22.6); outer anterior toe, 18-19.5 (18.7). 5 
Eastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (CSrdova; Jalapa; Orizaba; 
MiradSr; Cotepec; Papantla), Puebla (Metlaltoyuca), San Luis 
Potosi (Jilitla), Nueva LeSn (Cerro de la Silla; Boquillo), and 
Tamaulipas (VictSria; Sierra Madre, above VictSria; Tampico; Alta 
Mira; Rio PilSn; Rampahuila; Rio Santa; Rio de la Cruz; Santa 
Leonora; Guiaves; Galindo; Potrero; Rio Martinez). 
(?)Picus poliocephalus LICttTENSTEIN, Preis-Verz. Mex. VSg., 1830, 1 (Mexico); 
:lourn. fiir Orn., 1863, 55 (reprint). 
C[hloronerpes] rubiginosus (not of Swainson) GRAY, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 443. 
Chloronerpes rubiginosus GRAY, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, pl. 110. 
C[hloronerpes] xruginosus GRAY, Gem Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. 22 (ex Lichten- 
stein manuscript); nomen nudum! 
Clloronerpes xruginosus GRAY, List Picide Brit. Mus., 1868, 104 (Cordova, Vera 
Cruz).--SCLATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 339 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz).--SuM- 
cmsT, La Naturaleza, v, 1882, 240, part (Orizaba, Vera Cruz).--HAnITT, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 81 (Tampico, and Sierra Madre above 
Victoria, Tamaulipas; Cordova, :Ialapa, Orizaba, and Coatepec, Vera Cruz; 
Atoyac, Mexico).--SAw and (ODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 
406.--RmHOD, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, 1896, 629 (Alta Mira, Tamau- 
lipas).--PHXXrs, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 75 (Rampahuila, Rio Santa, Rio de la 
Cruz, Rio ][artinez, Santa Leonora, Guiaves, Galindo, and Potrero, Tamauli- 
pas). 
[Clloronerpes] aeruginosus LICHTENSTEIN, Nora. Mus. Berol., 1854, 76. 
[Chloronerpes] eruginosus BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 124 (Consp. 
Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 9).--GarY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8775.--ScL- 
TER and Sw, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100.SL., Hand-list, ii, 
1900, 205. 
C[hloronerpes] aeruginosus CAAS and HEN, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 161 
(alapa). 

a According to Sumichrast. b Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND ]ViIDDLE AIViERICA. 133 

(Le6n; Matagalpa; Chinandega; San Ger6nimo, Chinandega; Volcan 
de Chinandega; Rio Grande; Rio Coco; San Carlos; San Rafal del 
Norte). 
Picus yucatanensis C.Bow, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. It., i, May, 1844, 164 (Yucatan; 
coll. Dr. S. Cabot, jr.); Journ. Bost. Soc. N. II., v, pt. i, 1845, 92 (road from 
Chemax to Yalahao, Yucatan). 
Chloronerpes yucatanensis SC-WER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 60 (Honduras; 
crit.); Cut. Am. Birds, 1862, 339 (Coban, Guatemala).--Sc-wER and S-v, 
Ibis, 1859, 136 (Duefias, Guatemala; Yueatan).--Moog, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1859, 60 (Honduras; erit.).--SALvIq and SCLAWE, Ibis, 1860, 144 
(Coban; erit.).--GPY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Pieid., 1868, 104, 
part (Mexieo).--S.v% Cut. Strickland Coll., 1882, 396 (Guatemala).-- 
Bouc.gD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., lS8a, 452 (Tizimin, Yueatan).--HAgor, 
Cut. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 84, part (Teapa, Tabasco; Pete, Yucatan; 
Orange Walk and Southern Pine Ridge, Brit. Honduras; Duefias, Coban, 
Chisee, Tactic, Barmnca Honda, Savana Grande, and Volean de Agua, 
Guatemala).--RIcoD, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 518 (Sun Carlos, 
Niearagua).--Sv and GOD., Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, if, 1895, 407, 
part (Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz; Teapa, Tabasco; Chimalapa, Tapana, and 
Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Gineta Mts., Chiapas; Tizimin, Izamal, and Peto, 
Yucatan; Orange Walk, British Honduras; San Gerdnimo, Toliman, Retal- 
huleu, etc., Guatemala; La Libertad and Volan de San Miguel, Salvador; 
Ledn, Chinandega, Matagalpa, San Rafael dcl Norte, etc., Nicaragua). 
C[hloronerpes] yucatanensis CABANm and HEN, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 161, 
part (Mexico). 
[Chloronerpes] yucatanensis GPY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 198, no. 8777, part.--ScLATER 
and S-LVIN, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100, part.--SnP, Hand-list, if, 1900, 
205, part. 
Picus yucatanensis SUDVL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 70, part (Mexico).-- 
GIE]EL, Thes. Orn., iii, 1876, 186. 
P[icus] yucatacensis GPv, Gem Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. 21. 
[Chloronerpes] canipileus GPY, Hand-list, if, 1870, 198, no. 8776, part. 
Chrysopicus rubiginosus (not ticus rubiginosus Swainson) 5I.LE, Mort. 
Picid., if, 1862, 174, part. 
(?)Chloronerpes eruginosus (not of Malherbe?) SCLTE, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1859, 388 (Teotalcingo, Oaxaca). 
Chloronerpes eruginosus (not of IvIalherbe) L.wc, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
no. 4, 1876, 35 (Tapana and Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Gineta Mts., Chiapas).-- 
BOUCARD, Liste Ois. rcol. Guat., 1878, 27 (Guatemala). 
CHLORONERPES RUBIGINOSUS UROPYGIALIS (Cabanis). 
COSTA RICAN WOODPEC]R. 
Similar to C. r. yucatanensis, but more richly colored; the foreneck 
and chest washed with golden brown and with yellow bars averaging 
narrower, color of upper parts averaging more golden brownish 
(less greenish), and rump frequently less distinctly barred (often 
uniform or nearly so);  wing, tail, and bill averaging shorter. 

a Occasional specimens, both from Panama and Costa Rica, have the rump quite 
as plain colored as C. r. rubiginosus. One adult male from Sarchi, Costa Rica (no. 
101920) has the crimson malar patches united posteriorly by a broad band across 
the lower throat, the foreneck washed with crimson, and touches of the same color 
over whole back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts. 



136 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL 1V[USEUlYL 
laterally with pale huffy yellowish, the latter with more or less dis- 
tinct (sometimes large) mesial streaksor central spots of pale yelIow- 
ish or huffy; tail olive passing into dusky terminally, the two 
outer developed rectrices on each side sometimes with a median streak 
of pale cinnamon-rufous, the under surface of lateral rectrices dull 
light olive-grayish; a broad subloral and suborbital stripe of dull 
olive-whitish, originating immediately behind nostril, on lower- 
anterior portion of lora] region, this stripe passing into into grayish 
olive on auricular region; a broad ma]ar stripe, chin and throat dull 
yellowish, or brownish, white, irregularly streaked, spotted, or flecked 
with olive; chest and lower foreneck olive, broken by guttate streaks 
(anteriorly) and spots (posteriorly) of pale dull buffy yellowish; rest 
of under parts pale dull yellowish (nearly straw yellow) barred with 
dusky olive, the under tail-coverts sometimes more buffy and partly 
immaculate; bill, in dried sns, dusky horn color, paler (sometimes 
dull whitish) on basal half of mandible; feet dull grayish brown (in 
dried sns); length (sns), 167-175 (171); wing, 106-108.5 (107); 
tail, 56.5-59 (58); culmen, 21; tarsus, 17-18 (17.3); outer anterior 
toe, 15-16.5 (15.7). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but pileum dull slaty 
olive, only the lower occiput and hindneck being red; the malar 
region similar but rather lighter grayish olive; length (skins), 
165-169.5 (167); wing, 106-108.5 (107.5); tail, 55.5-58 (56.7); 
exposed culmen, 20-21.5 (20.7); tarsus, 17-18.5 (17.7); outer ante- 
rior toe, 15-16 (15.5)) 
Panam (Lion tIill; Vergua; Cana; Cerro Brujo). 
Chloronerpes callopterus LAWIENCE, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y., vii, 1862, 476 
(Lion Hill, Panama; coll. G. N. Lawrence).--GRA', List Birds Brit. Mus., 
Capit. and Picid., 1868, 106.--SAlvia, Ibis, 1874, 317 (Veragua; crit.).-- 
HARGTT, Cat. Birds Brit. lus., xviii, 1890, 80 (Veragua).--SAvI and (OD- 
MAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 409, pl. 59, fig. 1 (Veragua; Lion Hill). 
[Chloronerpes] callopterus GY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 199, no. 8785.--SAP, 
Hand-list, ii, 1900, 205. 
C[raugasus] callopterus CABASIS and HsIS, lIus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 159. 
Chrysopicus callopterus CAsss, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 326. 
Picus callopterus SUDSVAL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 12. 
CHLORONERPES SIMPLEX SIMPLEX Salvin. 
UGABA WOODP1.CKER. 
Similar to C. callopterus but with suborbital and subauricular 
regions, chin, and throat light brown, concolor, or nearly so, with 
adjacent parts of head. 
Adult male.--Pileum (including superciliary re, on), hindneck, 
malar region, and more or less of suborbital region, bright, rather 
dark, poppy red, the feathers dusky grayish or dull slate color 
beneath surface; upper parts mostly plain yellowish olive-green, or 

Three specimens from Panama. b Three specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 137 

between olive-green and rav umber, the outer webs of distal 
primaries more or less distinctly spotted with dull cinnamon-rufous, 
the inner webs of proximal secondaries (except fast two) showing 
more or less of the same along margin, the upper tail-coverts 
sometimes tipped or terminally margined with wax yellowish; tail 
dull black terminally, passing into dull olive-greenish basally; 
auricular region, chin, and throat plain olive or brown (between 
broccoli brown and raw-umber); foreneek and chest greenish olive 
to ochreous olive, the latter more or less conspicuously spotted 
with pale buffy yellowish, the breast similar but with the yellowish 
spots more transverse (bar-like); rest of under parts rather broadly 
barred with deep or dark olive on a yellowish buff or pale buff- 
yellowish ground, the darker bars narrower, and yellowish interspaces 
correspondingly wider, on under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts 
vinaceous-cinnamon or light cinnamon-rufous, the carpo-metacarpal 
region more or less spotted or barred with dusky; inner webs of 
remiges light cinnamon-rufous, tipped with dusky (extensively so 
on outermost and longer primaries), with transverse spots or broad 
bars of dusky on inner half (approximately), these concealed in the 
closed wing; under surface of tail fight glaucous-olive; bill dull black, 
the mandible with basal half or more pale horn color or whitish; 
legs and feet dusky (olive-green in life); length (skins), 172-182 
(177); wing, 108-118.5 (113); tail, 58.5-66.5 (61.9); culmen, 19-21.5 
(20); tarsus, 17-19 (17.7); outer anterior toe, 15-16.5 (15.8). a 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male, but only the nape and 
hindneek bright red, the pileum dull olive, and malar region lighter, 
more yellowish, olive; loral, superciliary, and suborbital region tinged 
with dark red; length (skins), 170-185 (178); wing, 112-116 (113); 
tail, 57.5-65.5 (62.4); culmen, 19.5-21.5 (20.7); tarsus, 17-18.5 (17.8); 
outer anterior toe, 15-16.5 (15.8). b 
Young female.--Similar to the adult female, but general color of 
under parts more buffy, the chest broadly barred with buff, and 
foreneck spotted with the same. 
Western Panam/t (Bugaba, Chiriqui), through Costa Rica (Tala- 
manca; Rio Sicsola; Guayabo; Carrillo; E1 Hog/tr; Cachi; Bonilla; 

a Nine specimens, b Five specimens. 

Locality. 

fALES. 
Seven adult males from Costa Rica ............................ 
Two adult males from Nicaragua .............................. 
One adult male (type of C. s. allophyeus) from Honduras ...... 
FEMALES. 
Five adult females from Costa Rlca ............................ 

Ning. 

Tail. 

112.3 61. 
115.5 62.1 
112 61. 

113 

62.  

Exo 
posed 
culmen 

20.1 
19.8 
18 

20.7 

17.6 
17.8 
17 

17.8 

Outer 
Rnte- 
rior toe. 

15.9 
15.5 
15. 5 

15.8 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 143 

[Celeus] castaneus LICHTENSTEIN, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 77.--GRAY, Hand- 
list, ii, 1870, 194, no. 8716.--ScLATER and SALWN, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 
101.--SHARPE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 227. 
Celeus castaneus SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 359 (Potrerillos, Honduras); 
1859, 60, 388 (Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 336 (Hondu- 
ras; "Central America").--MooE, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 60 (Omoa, 
Honduras; habits).--ScLATER and SA.ws, Ibis, ]859, 137 (Atlantic slope 
Honduras); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 837 (Julian and San Pedro, Hon- 
duras).--TAYLOR, Ibis, 1860, 119 (Potrerillos, tIonduras).--GRAr, List Birds 
Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picide, 1868, 88.--LAWRENCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 
1867, 183 (Greytown, Nicaragua); ix, 1868, 130 (Turrialba and Angostura, 
Costa Rica).--FANTZUS, Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 364 (Costa Rica).--Sum- 
CHRAST, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 560 (tierra caliente Vera Cruz); La 
Naturaleza, v, 1882, 240 (Omealca and Uvero, Vera Cruz).--SALvIN, Ibis, 
1872, 320 (Chontales, Nicaragua).--ZELED6S, Cat. Ayes de Costa Rica, 1882, 
23; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111; Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 
1887, 123 (Turrialba and Pacuare, Costa Rica).--BoucARD, Liste Ois. rcol. 
Guat., 1878, 27; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 452 (Tizimin, Yucatan; hab- 
its).--HARGITT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.,'xviii, 1890, 433 (Atoyac and Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz; Tizimin, Yucatan; Orange Walk, Brit. Honduras; Teleman and 
Choctum, Guatemala; etc.).--I-ICHIOND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 
518 (Greytown, Nicaragua).--SALvs and GODIAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Avos, 
ii, 1895, 441 (Chimalapa, Oaxaca; La Libertad, Salvador; etc.).--LANTZ, 
Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220 (Chaloma, Honduras).--DEAR- 
BORN, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 91 (Los Amates, Guatemala; crit.).-- 
CARRKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 591 (Costa RicK; habits). 
M[eiglyptes] castaneus RECHESBACH, Handb. Scansoros, Picine, 1854, 405, pl. 659, 
fig. 4372 (adult female). 
Celeopicus castaneus MALHERBE, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 25; iii, 1862, pl. 50, figs. 1, 2. 
Picus badioides LESSOS, Cent. Zool., livr. ii, Sept., 1830, 56, pl. 14 (Mexico 
=female). 
C[eleus] badioides BoxE, Isis, 1831, 542.--GRAY, Gem Birds, ii, 1846, 440. 
[Celeus] badioides BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 130; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1854, 123) Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 8). 
Celeus badioides SCLTER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 229 (Cuesalapa and Sante- 
comapam, Vera Cruz). 
Celeopicos badioides IA.HERBE, Mm. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 334. 
CELEUS LORICATUS LORICATUS (Reichenbach). 
FRASER'S WOODPECKER. 
Adult male.--Above deep cinnamon-rufous, or rufous-chestnut, the 
feathers of forehead, or (usually) forehead and crown, black or dusky 
centrally (forming a broadly streaked or squamate effect), the back 
(upper part, at least), scapulars, and wings with a greater or less number 
of more or less distinct narrow black bars; rump and upper tail-coverts 
paler (light cinnamon to cinnamon-buff), more or less heavily marked 
with cordate spots or V-shaped broad bars of black, the upper tail- 
coverts sometimes immaculate superficially; tail broadly and sharply 
barred with cinnamon-rufous or cinnamon-buff and black, the elon- 



144 BULLETIN 50 IYNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

gated terminal portion of middle rectrices uniform black; terminal 
portion of longer primaries mostly uniform blackish; under surface 
of wings light cinnamon-rufous, the distal portion of remiges broadly 
barred with dusk-y, the proximal portion also similarly barred, but 
the dusky bars shorter and narrower, quite concealed in the closed 
wing; loral, suborbital, and auricular regions plain cinnamon-rufous; 
malar region, chin, and upper and middle portions of throat bright 
red (deep poppy red to nearly crimson), the throat usually more or 
less spotted, transversely, with black, the feathers grayish basally; 
lower throat and upper chest light cinnamon-rufous, the throat 
sometimes immaculate, but sometimes spotted with black, like chest; 
rest of under parts still paler and more huffy (pale cinnamon to pale 
cinnaman-buff), the lower chest and breast heavily marked with broad 
U- or V-shaped markings of black, the remaining portions similarly 
but less heavily mtrked, the markings more lunulate or transverse, 
smaller (sometimes nearly wmting) on middle of bdomen; bill light 
horn color to dull whitish in dried skins, in life the mxilla horn 
color, the mandible dull greenish or olivaceous white; iris reddish 
browal to carmine; feet horn color to bluish; length (skins), 184-199 
(193); wing, 116-120 (119); tail, 61-67.5 (64.8); culmen, 21-22.5 
(21.8); tarsus, 19.5-20.5 (20); middle toe, 18.5-19.5 (18.9). a 
Adult female.=--Similar to the adult male, but red of malar region, 
chin, and throat repbmed by uniform light cinnamon-rufous; length 
(skins), 194-197 (195); wing, 118-123 (120.2); tail, 64-69 (65.7); cul- 
men, 20-22.5 (21.5); tarsus, 19-20 (19.5); middle toe, 18-19 (18.5). b 

Five specimens, b Four specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
ne adult male from Colombia (Rio Atrato: Type of Celeus 
mentals Cassin) ............................................. 
l'hree adult males from eastern Panama ....................... 
Five adult males from Costa Rica (C. 1. diverus) .............. 
FEMALES. 
Dne adult female from Colombia (Turbo) ...................... 
l'bree adult females from eastern Panama ................... 
Four adult females from Costa Rica ........................... 

Wing. Tall. 

116 61 
119. 7 65. 7 
123. 9 6& 4 

121. 5 ........ 
119.8 65.7 
124. 2 6& 2 

posed 
ulmen. 

22.5 
21. 6 
21. 5 

20 
22.2 
2& 2 

Outer 
Tarsus. ante- 
rior to, 
20.5 l& 
19. 9 19 
20. 5 19. 
19. 5 18 
19.5 18.] 
20.5 

Although I have not seen specimens of this species from either Ecuador or Peru, 
I very much doubt whether they are subspecifically the same, for the reason that 
the Costa Rican specimens are clearly different from those of Panama and northern 
Colombia. It will doubtless prove necessary to distinguish the form from Colombia 
and Panama as Celets loricatus menalis (Cassin). 



148 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL 

bb. Smaller (wing averaging less than 170 mm.; culmen averaging less than 34 
mm.): white suborbital and subauricular stripe indistinct (often obsolete); 
throat with less white. (Western and southwestern Mexico.) 
Ceophleus lineatas scapularis (p. 152). 

CEOPHL{EUS LINEATUS MESORHYNCHUS (Cabanis and Heine). 
PANAMA PILEATED WOODPECKER. 
Similar to C. 1. lineatus a but decidedly smaller; under parts of 
body much darker brownish buffy with the blackish bars much less 
regular, often in form of spots rather than barn; throag usually 
much more broadly streaked with blackish, black areas more sooty 
(especially remiges), and under side of wing more decidedly yellowish 
(usually distinctly buff-yellow instead of yellowish white). 
Ad,dt male.--Pileum and nape (including conspicuous ocdpital 
crest) bright poppy red; rest of upper parts plain black, becoming 
more sooty, or dark grayish brown, on primaries and distal sec- 
ondaries, the longer primaries indistinctly tipped with paler (except in 
worn plumage) ; outermost scapulars with outer web and tip of inner 
web white, forming a broad white stripe along each side of back; 
a broad stripe of white along side of neck, contracted in width at 
upper end and thence continued, as a narrow stripe, beneath 
auricular and orbital regions to nostrils, the post-nasal and loral 
portions, however, dull yellowish (buff to nearly tawny) instead of 
white; auricular and suborbital regions and posterior portion of 
loral region plain bromish slate or slate-gray; malar re,on crimson; 
chin and throat streaked with white and blackish in variable rela- 
tive proportion, but usually in approximately equal amount; fore- 
neck, chest, and upper breast plain sooty black or very dark sooty 
brown, usually with a fairly definite posterior margin but some- 
times merging insensibly into the paler coloration of more posterior 
parts; ground color of remaining under parts pale brownish buff to 
clay color, more or less distinctly barred or spotted with sooty black 
or dusky; under wing-coverts and basal half (approximately) of 
inner webs of remiges immaculate buff-yellow (fading into paler, or 
yellowish white, in old feathers or very old skins); bill dark horn 
color or dusky, the mandible paler basally; iris light yellow to white; 
legs and feet dark horn color or dusky (in dried skins), light bluish 
gray in life; length (skins), 281-328 (312); wing, 175-189.5 (182.9); 
tail, 108-122 (114.3); culmen, 36.5-40 (37.9); tarsus, 27-30 (28.2); 
outer anterior toe, 22-27.5 (24.8).  
Adult.female.--Similar to the adult male but forehead and anterior 
portion of crown black, and malar region blackish slate or slate- 
black; length (skins), 300-321 (312); wing, 176.5-188 (182.1); tail, 

a See p. 147. b Thirteen specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 155 

wing-coverts, and proximal portion of inner webs of remiges immacu- 
late white or very pale yellow; adult male with entire pileum (includ- 
ing the conspicuous, pointed, occipital crest) and a broad malar 
stripe bright red, the adult female with only the crest red, the fore- 
head, crown, and malar region being grayish brown or olive. 
Range.--North America. (Monotypic ?) a 

KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF PHL(EOTOMUS PILEATUS. 

a. Smaller (wing averaging less than 230, culmen averaging less than 50). 
b. Smaller (wing averaging 226.1 in male, 220.8 in female; culmen averaging 46.5 
in male, 43.8 in female); coloration blacker or less slaty. (Middle and south- 
ern Florida.) ...................... Phlceotomus laileatus fioridanus (p. 159). 
bb. Larger (wing averaging 228.4 in male, 221.6 in female; culmen averaging 49.7 
in male, 44.9 in female); coloration more slaty blackish. (Southeastern 
United States, including northern Florida, north to Maryland, southern 
Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, etc.) 
Phlceotomns ileatus ileatus (p. 155). 
an. Larger (wing averaging more than 230, culmen averaging more than 50). 
b. Larger (wing averaging 243.3 in male, 236.7 in female; culmen averaging 58 in 
re_ale, 52 in female; coloration more slaty (more so than in P. p. pileatus); 
whitish tips to longer primaries always well-developed. (Northern United 
States, east of Rocky Mountains, north to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
Kewatin, Mackenzie, etc ............ Phlceotomus laileatus abieticola (p. 160). 
bb. Smaller (wing averaging 237 in male, 228.1 in female; culmen averaging 54.4 
in male, 48.7 in female); coloration blacker or more sooty; whitish tips to 
longer primaries usually much reduced in size, sometimes obsolete. (North- 
west coast district, from British Columbia to northern California, east to 
Idaho and fiorthwestern Montana, and south to southern Sierra Nevada.) 
Phlceotomus laileatus laicinus (p. 162). 

PHLqEOTOMUS PILEATUS PILEATUS (Linnaeus). 

PILEATED WOODPEC]ER. 

Adult male.--Pileum, including conspicuous occipital crest, bright 
poppy red, somewhat darker (approaching crimson) on forehead; a 
rather nalwow postocular stripe of yellowish white, and beneath 
this a bcoa(l auricular stripe of slate color or brownish slate, involving 
also suborbital re,on (narrowly) and posterior portion of loral 
region; upper portion of nasal tufts grayish with terminal portion 
of bristle-like feathers blackish, this connected with the slate color 
of orbital re, on by a narrow line of dusky; lower portion of nasal 
tufts dull pale yellowish; a sharply defed stripe along lower por- 
tion of lores dull yellow (buff-yellow, maize yellow or naples yellow), 
passing gradually into yellowish white or pale primrose yellow 
posteriorly, where forming a broad band beneath the slaty auricu- 

a A South American (Argentine) species, lhloeotomus schulziCabanis (Campephilus 
schulzi Sclater and Hudson, Campephilus pileatus var. schulzi Frenzel, Dryotomus 
schulzi Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 517) has been referred to this genus. 
I have not seen a specimen, but on geographical grounds alone strongly doubt that 
it is congeneric with t ). pileatus. 



156 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

lar area, thence extending downward along side of neck to axillars 
and under wing-coverts, which, together with basal half (approxi- 
mately) of inner webs of remiges, are yellowish white or primrose 
yellow; malar region crimson for greater part, the posterior portion 
dark slate color or blackish slate; chin and throat white or yellowish 
white, sometimes more or less streaked or suffused posteriorly or 
medially with grayish; rest of plumage plain sooty slate-black or 
blackish slate, a the under parts slightly but not distinctly lighter; 
feathers of sides and flanks margined terminally with whitish; basal 
portion of outer webs of remiges white or yellowish wldte, that on 
secondaries usually concealed by greater coverts, that on primaries 
showing as a small but distinct area beyond tip of primary coverts; 
maxilla slate color or slate-gray, darker terminally; mandible bluish 
white basally, shading through pale grayish blue or bluish gray 
into slate color or slate-gray at tip; iris cream yellow, naples yellow, 
or buff-yellow; naked orbital skin grayish olive; legs and feet with 
scutella black, the interspaces pale gray or whitish; length (skins), 
391-437 (410); wing, 220-235 (228.4) ; tail, 144-161 (152.9) ; culmen, 
46-52.5 (49.7); tarsus, 33-35 (34.1); outer anterior toe, 26-28.5 
(27.3).  
Adultfemale.Similar to the adult male, but forehead and anterior 
half (more or less) of crown grayish brown or olive and malar region 
slate color; length (skins), 365-410 (390); wing, 214-233 (221.6); 
tail, 140-158.5 (149.4); culmen, 41.5-49 (44.9); tarsus, 31-34.5 
(32.5); outer auterior toe, 24-27.5 (25.5).  

a The color is more slaty in more recently killed specimens or those in fresh plum- 
age, more sooty or brownish in older plumage or older skins. 
b Eighteen specimens. 
c Twenty-two specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Ten a.dult males (P. p. fforidaus) Irom central and southern 
Florida ...................................................... 
Two adnit males from northern Florida ...................... 
One adult male from ldississippi ............................... 
Three adult males from Tennessee ............................. 
One adult male from Arkansas ................................ 
Five adult males from Texas .................................. 
Two adult males from southern Illinois ...... : ................. 
One adult male (intermediate between P. p. pileatus and P. T. 
abieticola) from West Virginia ................................ 
Two adult males from axyland (1) and District of Colum- 
bia (1) ....................................................... 
One adult male (intermediate) from southeastern Pennsyl- 
vania (Carlisle) .............................................. 
Four adult males (P. p. abieticola) from western Pennsyivania.. 
Four adult males (P. . abieticola) from Wisconsin (1), Min- 
nesota (2), and Manitoba (1) ................................. 

Wing. 

226. 1 
22Z 5 
224 
226 
227 
226. 8 
233 

235 

22K 5 

238 
242 

244 

150. 7 46. 5 33. 6 
153. 5 47. 5 33. 5 
152 49. 5 35 
155, 7 49. 3 3& 8 
149 50 ........ 
148. 4 50 34. 6 
159 5{ 7 ] 3& 5 
159 55 ] 36 
151.7 50.7 t 34.2 
162 52. 5 I 34, 5 
161. 7 57. 7 I 34. 1 
164 I 58. 1 ] 34. 9 

Outer 
inte- 
rior toe. 

26.9 
.7 
26 
27. 5 
27. 9 
27,2 

2& 5 

26 
27.5 



BIRDS OF NORTH AID DIIDDLE A]VIERICA. 159 

Dryopicus pilea$us BONAPARTE, Notes Orn. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 85.---MALHERBE, 
Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 34, part; iii, pl. 11, figs. 5, 6. 
.D[riopicus] pileatus BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 
C[ampephilus] pileatus REmHENBACH, Handb. Scansores, Picine, 1854, 391, pl. 
647, figs. 4317, 4318. 
Hylatomus pileatus BAR), Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 107, part; Cat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 90, part.--DRESSER, Ibis, 1865, 469 (Colorado and 
Brazos rivers, Texas).---MAVNnRD, Birds E. N. Am., 1879, 234, part. 
[ltylotomus] pileatus CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, part. 
ltylotomus pileatus CovEs, Check List, 1873, no. 294, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 432, 
part; Birds North West, 1874, 278, part.--Bm), BREWSR, and RmGWV, 
gist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 551, part.---MaPL, (J. C.), Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., i, 1878, 151 (Santa Maria, s. Texas).--RIDGWnV, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. 
iii, 1880, 189, part; Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 371, part.--OGILnV, Sci. 
Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 58 (Navarro Co., Texas).--NSRLING, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 170 (s. c. Texas; habits; descr, nest and eggs). 
ttylotomus] pileatus Coc.s, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1882, 480, part. 
t)[hloeotomus] pilcatus CABnNXS and HEXNS, Mus. Hein., iv, heft ii, 1863, 102 
("Nord-Amerika "). 
[Phloeotomus] pileatus HENS and RsmSNOW, Nora. lIus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 216 
(Georgia). 
Phlceotomus pileatus AMEalCAN ORNITtlOLOGISTS' [NION COMMITTEE, Auk, xxv, 
1908, 374, part.--WhE, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 91 (habits; descr, nest 
and eggs).---(?)HOWELL, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 301 (Walden Ridge and Cross Mt., 
e. Tennessee).--BEAL, Bull. 37, . S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 33 (food). 
Phlceotomus pileatus pileatus AERICA ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 3d 
ed., 1910, 192, part.--RIDGWV, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 1.11, 33 (geog. 
range). 
C[eophloeus] pileatus CABNS, Journ. fOr Orn., 1862, 176. 
Ceophloeus pileatus SWESNSER, Auk, ii, 1885, 52. 
Ceophlceus pileaus ASRICN ORNTnO,OISWS' NmN, Check List, 1886 (and 
2d ed., 1895), no. 405, part.--Rmwv, Orn. Illinois, i, 1889, 382, part 
(s. Illinois).--HsRouc,r, Auk, vi, 1889, 238 (centr. and w. Texas).-- 
SNG,SY, Rep. Geol. Surv. Tex., 1894, 350 (Lee Co., Texas).--BEN)ms, 
Life gist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 102, part.--BEvER, Proc. Louisiana Soc. 
Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 102 (Louisiana).--SwocKARD, Auk, xxi, 1904, 463- 
466 (breeding habits in Mississippi). 
C[eophloeus] pleatus R)w.v, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 
Ceophlceus pileatus abieticola (not of Bangs) FERRY, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 432 (Cairo, 
Illinois, Aug.). 
Phloeotomus pileatus abieticola Woo)Rvv, Auk, xxv, 1908, 200 (Shannon Co., 
Missouri, breeding).--PrLP, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 318 (Lake Ellis, e. North 
Carolina).--B.DWIN, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 491 (Franklin Co., Missouri, July). 

IHLCEOTOMUS IILEATUS FLORIDANUS Ridgway. 

FLORIDA PILEATED WOODPECKER. 

Similar to P. P. pileatus, but decidedly blacker (that is, the general 
black color less slaty or sooty), and average size less, with bill usually 
relatively shorter and broader. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 393-430 (412); wing, 222-235 (226.1); 
tail, 142.5-156.5 (150.7); culmen, 45-49 (46.5); tarsus, 32-35 (33.6); 
outer anterior toe, 26-28 (26.9). a 

a Ten specimens. 



160 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Adult female.--Length (skins), 403-415 (409); wing, 210-222 
(220.8); tail, 136-151.5 (145.5); culmen, 41.5-45.5 443.8); tarsus, 
31-34.5 (32.7); outer anterior toe, 23-27 (25.3). a 
Central and southern Florida (St. Johns River?; Blue Cypress 
Lake; Shell Hammock; Orange Hammock; Fort Gardner; Lake 
Arbuckle; For Thompson; For Bassinger; For Myers; Lake 
Harney; Lake Trafford; Punta Rassa; Kissimmee; Tarpon Springs; 
Avon Park; Miami River; Osceola County; Polk County; Hernando 
County; Orange County). 
Picus pileatus (not of Linneeus) AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 74, part; v, 1839, 
533, part; Synopsis, 1839, 176, part; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 226, part. 
ttylatomus pileatus B.mD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 107, part (St. Johns 
R., Florida); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 90, part.--TYLOR, Ibis, 1862, 128 
(Florida).--MYNRD, Birds E. N. Am., 1879, 234, part (Florida). 
[Hylotomus] pileatus COUES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, part (Florida). 
Hylotomus pileatus ALEN, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, 1871, 302 (e. Florida; 
crit.).---CouEs, Check List, 1873, no. 294, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 432, part; 
Birds North West, 1874, 278, part.--BmD, Bw, and RmowY, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 550, part (Florida).--RDowY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
iii, 1880, 189, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 371, part. 
H[ylotomus] pileatus Coups, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 480, part. 
Ceophlwus pileatus AYEBCN OBNTOOOSTS' Um, Check List, 1886 (and 2d 
ed., 1895), no. 405, part.--Scor, Auk, vi, 1889, 251 (Tarpon Springs and Punta 
Rossa, Florida).--MoLER, Auk, vii, 1890, 339 (Orange Co., Florida; 
habits).--BNDn, Life tist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 102, part, pl. 1, fig. 5 
(Florida). 
C[eophlants] pileatus IIDOWAY, ian. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 
Ceophloeus pileatus pileatus Bos, Auk, xv, April, 1898, 176, in text (Ft. Myers, 
Florida). 
Dryotomus pileatus tnorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 515, part (ter- 
nado Co. and Tarpon Springs, Florida). 
[Dryotomus] pileatus SE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 
Phlceotomus pileatus AECnN ONrroooms' UNmN CorrrE, Auk, xxv, 
1908, 374, part. 
Phlceotomus pileatus pileatus AEcn ORNrroooSTS' UNON, Check List, 
3d ed., 1910, 192, part. 
Phlozotomus pileatusfloridanus IIDOWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 33 (Prevatt's Camp, 24 miles s. w. of Kissimmee, Florida; coll. U. S. 
Nat. Mus.). 

PHL(EOTOMUS PILEATUS ABITICOLA (Bangs). 

IO:RT:H:RI PIL.T.D WOODP:EC:R. 

Similar to P. 19. pileatus, but much ]arger, bill relatively longer, and 
general coloration lighter (more slaty). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 402-452 (429); wing, 237-253 (243.3); 
tail, 151-174 (161.8); culmen, 55.5-60 (58); tarsus, 33-36 (34.7); 
outer anterior toe, 24-28 (27.2). b 

a Ten specimens, b Eleven specimens. 



164 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 1904, 581 (Mt. Sanhedrin, Mendocino Co., California; meas- 
urements; crit.).--BowLEs, Auk, xxiii, ]906, 144 (Tacoma, Washington, 
breeding). 
Phlozotomus pileatus abieticola AMERtCAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITT]], 
Auk, xxv, July, 1908, 374, part; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 192, part.--KEL- 
LOG(, Condor, xiii. 1911, 119 (Trinity Co., California).--GRIN.LL (J.), 
Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 8, 1912, 15.--SAUNDERS, Condor, xiv, 1912, 26 
(Powell Co., s. w. Montana).--SwARTH, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., x, 1912, 
38 (Parksville, Errington, French Creek, Little Qualicum R., Alberni, and 
Central Lake, Vancouver I.; crit.).---JWTT, Condor, xiv, 1912, 192 (Saw- 
tooth Mrs., Idaho). 
[Dryotomus] abieticola SHAReE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 
Phlozotomus pileat,s picinus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Soc., iv, April 2, 1910, 
79 (Sumas, British Columbia; coll. Mus. Comp. ZOO1.).--IIDGWhY, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 1911, 34 (geog. range). 

Genus CAMItE IHILUS 

Campephilus GRAY, List Gen. Birds, 1840, 54. (Type, by original designation 
Picus principalis Linnaeus.) 
Campophilus (emendation) CANm and HN, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July 
1863, 100. 
Megapicos (not of Malherbe, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Moselle, 5" cahier, 1848-]849, 
17) MALHR, Mm. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 3]7. (Type, Picus imperialis 
Gould?) a 
Megapicus (emendation) BONAeART, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. 
Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 7). 
Very large Picidm  (wing 230-320 ram.) with outer hind toe much 
longer than outer front toe, bill longer than head, with gonys nearly 
four times as long as mandibular r.ami, head with a very conspicuous 
occipito-nuchal, more or less recurred, crest (bright red in males, 
glossy black and more strongly recurred in females), the general 
color uniform glossy blue-black relieved by white secondaries and 
under wing-coverts, and a white stripe along each side of inter- 
scapular area (a white stripe down side of neck in two species), the 
bill ivory white or yellowish. 
Bill longer than head, broadly chisel-shaped at tip, much broader 
than deep a anterior end of nostrils, abruptly contracted terminally 
in vertical profile; culmen very strongly ridged, straight or very 
faintly convex; gonys strongly ridged, nearly four times as long as 
mandibular rami, straight terminally, very faintly convex basally; 
supranasal ridge and prenasal groove very distinct, parallel with 
culmen, running to (or near to) edge of maxilla at a poin abou 

a The species mentioned are, in the sequence given: 1. M. imperialis (Gould); 2. 
M. principalis (Linnaeus); 3. M. malherbii (Gray); 4. M. albirostris (Vieillot)=Picus 
melanoleucus Gmelin, and 5. M. validus (Temminck)-Chrysocoloptes validus. Of 
these only os. I and 2 belong to Campephilus, nos. 3 and 4 belonging to the genus 
Scapaneus. 
b This genus contains much the laest of known woodpeckers. 



166 BULLETII 50t UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CAMPEPHILUS IMPERIALIS (Gould). 

IMPERIAL WOODPECrER. 

Adult male.--General color glossy blue-black, the tail and primaries 
(except terminal portion of five or six innermost) dull black or 
brownish black; outer margin of interscapular region white, forming 
a conspicuous V-shaped mark; secondaries (except basal portion, 
mostly concealed), terminal portion (extensively) of primaries (ex- 
cept five outer ones), under wing-coverts, and axillars, wlfite; crest, 
except on crown, bright red (poppy red to scarlet-vermilion), this 
red color extending forward laterally to above posterior angle or 
even middle of eye; bill pale grayish yellow or dull ivory white; iris 
bright yellow; legs and feet dusky grayish horn color in dried skins 
(more bluish gray in life?); length (skins), 535-580 (563); wing, 
303-320 (310.9); tail, 184-202 (194.5); culmen, 79-85.5 (82.9); tarsus, 
48-51 (49.2); outer anterior toe, 36-37.5 (36.9). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but crest wholly glossy 
blue-black and much more strongly recurved; length (skins), 560-570 
(564); wing, 292-320 (307.4); tail, 183-210.5 (194.6); culmen, 72.5-- 
81.5 (77.8); tarsus, 45.5-50.5 (47.7); outer anterior toe, 36-37.5 
(36.7).a 
Northwestern Me.co, in States of Sonora (Rio Bavispe; Sierra 
lIadre; 50 miles south of Arizona boundary), Chihufihua (Pacheco; 
Colonia Garcia; Mound Valley; Babicora; Rancheria de los Apaches; 
Chuhuichupa; 50 miles west of Terrazas), Durango (El Salto; Los 
Coyotes; Ciudd Durango), Zacatecas, Jalisco (near Bolafios; Sierra 
de Valparaiso; Sierra de Juanacatln), and Michoacn (Nahuatzin; 
Patzcuaro). 
Picus imperialis GOULD, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lond., ii, 1832, 140 ("California," i. e., 
near Bolafios, Jalisco, Mexico; b coll. J. Gould).--LssoN, Compl. Buffon, 
ix, 1837, 317.--AuDuboN, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 313; Synopsis, 1839, 175; Birds 
Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 212.--NUTT,LL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 667.--SuNDV,LL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 4. 
C[ampephilus] imperialis GravY, Gem Birds, ii, 1845, 436.--1icNc, andb. 
Scansores, Picine, 1854, 390, pl. 646, fig. 4314.--B,mD, Bw, and 
w,Y, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 495, in text, 496.--RD6w,Y, ]Ian. 1. 
Am. Birds, 1887, 281. 

a Ten specimens. 
b The types were supposed to have come "from that little explored district of Cali- 
fornia which borders the territory of Mexico;" but according to Salvin and Godman 
(Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 445) they were probably collected by "the mining 
engineer Floresi, who formed a considerable collection of humming-birds, and also 
preserved skins of a few other species, all of which passed into Gould's possession," 
in the neighborhood of Bolafios, in the Sierra Madre of Jalisco, where the species is 
known to occur, and where Floresi was for a time stationed. 



BIRDS OF :NORTH A:ND MIDDLE AMERICA. 167 

Campephilus imperialis BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xxvii, 82 
(Mexico); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 73.--GRAY, List Birds Brit. Mus., 
Capit. and Picid., 1868, 53.--RID(WAY, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 236; 
Auk, iv, 1887, 161 (n. Sonora, 50 m. from Arizona boundary).--ALLEN, Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 35 (Chuhuichupa and Rancheria de los Apaches, n. 
w. Chihuahua; Bavispe R., n. e. Sonora).--NELsoN, Auk, xv, 1898, 217, pl. 3 
(near Patzcuaro, Michoacan; Jalisco; Zacatecas; Durango; biography).-- 
SITH (A. P.), Condor, x, 1908, 91 (w.-centr. Chihuahua, 50 m. w. of Ter- 
razes). 
[Campephilus] imperfalis GRAY, Hand-list, if, 1870, 187, no. 8621.--ScLAR and 
SALvIN, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 98. 
C[ampophilus] imperialis CABANIS and HEINE, MUS. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 101. 
Campophilus imperialis HARGIT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 465 (Ciudad 
Durango, Durango).--SALvIN and Go)AN, Biol. Centr.-hm., hves, if, 1895, 
444 (Sierra Madre, Sonora; Ciudad Durango; Sierra de Yalparaiso and Sierra 
de Juanacatlan, Jalisco). 
[Campophilus] imperialis ItENE and RECHENOW, Nora. Mus. ]ein. Orn., 1890, 
216.--SHARrE, Hand-list, if, 1900, 228. 
[Dryocopus] imperialis BOArARTE, Consp. hr., i, 1850, 132. 
Dryotomus irnperialis CAssIN, Illustr. Birds Calif., Tex., etc., 1855, 285, pl. 49. 
[Megapicus] iperialis BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, if, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 7). 
Megapicus imperialis MALHERBE, Mort. Picid., i, 1861, 2; iii, 1862, pl. 1, figs. 1, 
2, 3. 

CAMPEPHILUS PRINCIPALIS (Linnaeus). 

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER. 

Similar to C. imperialis but much smaller and with nasal tufts and 
a stripe from suborbital region down side of neck white. 
Adult ra/e.--General color glossy blue-black, the primaries and 
tail duller black, or vith bluish gloss less distinct; nasal plumes, 
anterior portion of lores, stripe on sides of head and neck (commencing 
usually beneath middle of eye and much narrower on this anterior 
portion) white, these stripes continued posteriorly along each edge of 
interscapular region; secondaries (except basal portion), terminal 
portion of primaries (extensively), except five or six outermost, and 
under wing-coverts, white; sometimes a few feathers on flanks and 
anal region tipped with white; occipital crest bright red; bill ivory 
white in life, deepening in very old skins to brownish yellow or 
ochraceous-buff; iris clear lemon yellow; legs and feet (in life) light 
gray, the larger scutella paler and somewhat yellowish gray, the 
daws horn gray or pale horn color; length (skins), 420-493 (454); 
wing, 240-263 (255.8); tail, 147-160.5 (154.4); culmen, 63-72.5 
(68.2); tarsus, 42.5-46 (44.2); outer anterior toe, 30-34 (32.1).a 
Adult female.--Similar in coloration to the adult male, but crest 
wholly glossy blue-black; length (skins), 452-488 (471); wing, 240- 

Fifteen specimens. 



BIRDS OF IORT] AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 169 

Campephilus principalis GRAY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picide, 1868, 53.--WooD- 
OVSE, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Exp. Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 90 (Arkansas R.; 
e. Texas).--BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 81; Cat. N. Am. 
Bird.s, 1859, no. 72.--TAYLOR, Ibis, 1862, 128 (FIorida).--DRESSER, Ibis, 
1865, 468 (Brazos and Trinity rivers, Texas).--ALLEN, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., ii, 1871, 301 (Volusia, Enterprise, and Hawkinsville, e. FIorida).-- 
Cov.s, Check List, 1873, no. 293; 2d ed., 1882, no. 431.--BAIRD, BREWER, 
and RID(WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 496, pl. 49, figs. 1, 2.--MERRIM, 
Am. Nat., viii, 1874, 88 (St. John and Ocklawaha rivers, e. Florida).--Rm(- 
wAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 188; Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 359; 
Orn. Illinois, i, 1889, 374 (White Co., Illinois, formerly).--IIAY, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 92 (near Vicksburg and Jackson, Mississippi).--N.HR- 
LIN(, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 170 (IIarris and Montgomery Coun- 
ties, Texas).--BAILEY (H. B.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 40 (Alta- 
maha Swamp, Georgia; descr, nest and eggs).--AMECAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' 
UNIOn. Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 392; 3d ed., 1910, 185.- 
BUTLER, Bull. Brookville Soc. N. H., no. 2, 1886, 25 (Franklin Co., Indiana, 
up to about 1826); Birds Indiana, 1897, 829.--CooKE, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 
1888, 127 (Kansas City and Fayette, Missouri; Newport, n. e. Arkansas; 
Caddo, Oklahoma).--Scor, Auk, v, 1888, 186 (Tarpon Springs, Florida; 
descr, nest); vi, 1889, 251 (Punta Rassa, Florida); ix, 1892, 212, 218 (Caloo- 
sahatchie R., F1orida).--PNDAR, Auk, vi, 1889, 313 (Fulton Co., Kentucky, 
about 1884).--HAsROUC, Auk, viii, 1891, 174-186, with map (geog. 
mnge).--BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 42.--BEYER, Auk, 
xvii, 1900, 97-99 (Franklin Parish, Louisiana; habits, etc.); Proc. Louisiana 
Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 102 (Louisiana, mre).--W.YNE, Auk, xxii, 
1905, 414 (Jefferson Co., Florida; descr, spec. with white-tipped primaries); 
Birds South Car., 1910, 87 (near Beldoc, Barnwell Co., as late as 1898; prob- 
ably still existing in swamps of Pedee, Santee, and Savannah rivers).--IIoYT, 
Warbler, ser. 2, i, 1905, 52-55, pl. (3) (Lake Co., Florida; breeding habits, 
etc.).--BEYR, ALLISON, and Ko,mN, Auk, xxv, 1908, 445 (n. Louisiana, 
common).--BEAL, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 62 (food). 
[Campephilus] principalis GPY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8620.--COVES, Key 
N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192. 
C[ampophilus] principal, s ChmNIS and HEN, MUS. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 100. 
[Campophilus] principalis H.INE and RCH.NOW, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
216.--SHAa, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 228. 
Campophilus principalis HARGIr, Cat. Birds Brit. Ius., xviii, 1890, 463 (DeSoto 
Co., Argo, and Tarpon Springs, Florida), 572 (descr. female nestling). 
[Campephilus principalis] vat. principalis BAreD, BRw.R, and Rm(w.Y, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 496. 
Megapicos principalis MALHER, Mm. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 318. 
[Megapicus] principalis BONA'ATE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 7). 
Megapicus principalis MALH.aE, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 4; iii, 1862, pl. 1, figs. 4, 5. 

CAMPEPHILUS BAIRDII Cassin. 

CUBAN IVOI:tY-BILLED WOODPW.CKEI:t. 

Similar to C. princit)alis , but slightly smaller, the bill decidedly 
so; nasal tufts much smaller, and white stripe on side of head con- 
tinued nearly to the rictus. 



BIRDS OF IORTtt AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 171 

Bill about as long as head, stout, regularly wedge-shaped in 
vertical profile, not depressed, its width at anterior end of nostrils 
but slightly if at all exceeding its depth at same point; culmen 
straight or but very slightly convex in middle portion, very strongly 
ridged; gonys less than three tinms as long as mandibular rami, 
straight, ascending terminally, slightly prominent and convex 
basally, distinctly but not sharply ridged; supranasal ridge very 
distinct, running out to (or toward) tomium at a point anterior to 
one-third the distance from tip of maxilla to base. Nostril longi- 
tudinally oval or ovate, situated much nearer to tomium than to 
culmen, partly covered by the small antrorse prefrontal feathers, 
these forming a small but distinct tuft, except in S. guatemalensis, 
in which the feathering surrounding base of bill is shorter, coarser, 
and more erect; feathers of malar apex and chin (especially tlm 
former) antrorse, but without distinct, if any, bristle-like tips. Orbits 
completely and extensively naked; feathers of occiput developed into 
a conspicuous obtusely pointed, but not recurred, crest. Wing 
moderately long, the longer primaries exceeding secondaries by a 
little more than one-fifth the length of wing; sixth and seventh, or 
fifth, sixth, and seventh, primaries longest, the ninth equal to second 
or third, the tenth (outermost) decidedly more than half to nearly 
two-thirds as long as tenth, at least one-seventh as wide as long, 
distinctly incurved. Tail a little more than half to about three- 
fifths as long as wing. Tarsus slightly tlough decidedly longer than 
outer hind toe without claw, stout, the planta tarsi covered with 
small hexagonal scutella (less distinct on inner side); outer lfind toe 
exceeding outer front toe by more than half the length of its terminal 
phalanx; claws exceedingly large and strongly curved, that of the 
inner hind toe conspicuously smaller than the rest. 
Coloration.--Upper parts and chest (whole under parts in S. 
leucopogon) black, the interscapular region with a white stripe along 
each side (continuous with a white stripe along side of neck) or (in 
S. leucopogon) interscapulars immaculate buff; under parts posterior 
to chest (except in S. leucopogon) barred with black and buff, pale 
tawny, or white; inner webs of remiges with proximal portion im- 
maculate white or yellow, or (in S. leucopogon) with proximal por- 
tion of primaries (only) cinnamon-tawny; greater part (sometimes 
whole) of head red in adult males, partly black in females. 
Range.--Southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia, 
and Peru. (Several species. ) 

a I have not had the opportunity of examining in this connection "Campephilus" 
rubricollis (Boddaert) or C. trachelopyrus (Malherbe); but C. guayaquilensis and 
C. melanoleucus I would refer to Scapaneus. 



178 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL IIUSEUII. 

SCAPANEUS GUATEMALENSIS NELSONI Ridgway. 

NELSON'S IVORY-BILL. 
Similar to S. g. guatemalenss but black of upper parts, neck, and 
chest less sooty (that of foreneck glossy, slightly bluish), that of chest 
more extended; back-stripes whiter (less yellowish); lighter bars on 
under parts of body paler and narrower; yellow on under side of 
wings paler; and average measurements decidedly smaller. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 290-330 (304); wing, 165.5-187 
(176.6); tail, 95-105.5 (98); culmen, 43-50 (45.1); tarsus, 31-33.5 
(32.3); outer anterior toe, 19.5-25 (23.6). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 281-350 (307); wing, 174-189 
(180.7); tail, 94.5-113 (103.8); culmen, 40.5-49 (44); tarsus, 30-33.5 
(31.9); outer anterior toe, 20-24 (22.3). a 
Southwestern Mexico, in States of Sinaloa (Mazatlfin; Presidio de 
Mazatln; Escuinapa; Brazil; Mt. Juan Lisiarraga, 5,500 ft.; Las 
Cabras I.), Jalisco (Tonila; Bahia de Banderas), Colima (Rio de la 
Armeria; Manzanillo; Santiago; Cualata; Jacolapa), Iichoacn (La 
Salada; Volcan de Jorulla), and Guerrero (Acapulco; Dos Arroyos; 
E1 Zopilote; E1 RincSn; Tecpn; Papayo; La Saluda; Omilteme), 
and Territory of Tepic (San Blas; Tepic). 
Campephilus guatemalensis (not Picus guatemalensis Itartlaub) LAWR.NC,, ]Iem. 
Bost. Soc. N. It., ii, 1874, 293 (Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Rio de la Armeria, 
Colima). 
Campophilus guatemalensis ItARGITT, Cat. Birds Brit. lIus., xvi, 1890, 473, part 
(Mazatlan and Presidio near lIazatlan, Sinaloa; Tepic; Tonila, Jalio; 
Santiago, Cualata, and :acolapa, Colima).--SLviN and GOD.AN, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 446, part (IocaHties in Sinaloa, Tepic, Jalisco, 
and Colima; Dos Arroyos, Guerrero). 
C[ampephilus] guaemalensis RIDGWhV, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 281, part. 
Campephilus guatemalenss guatemalensis Mu,L, (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. It., xxi, Nov. 24, 1905, 352 (Escuinapa, Brazil, Las Cabras Islands, and 
Mt. Juan Lisiarmga, s. Sinaloa). 
Scapaneus guatemalenss nelsoni RIDWAV, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 244 
1911, 34 (El RincSn, Guerrero; coll. U. S. Nat Mus.). 

SCAPANEUS GUATEMALENSIS REGIUS (Reichenbach). 

VERA CRUZ IVORY-BILL 

Similar to S. g. nelsoni but much larger (even than S. g. guatema- 
lenis), and black of foreneck, chest, etc., rather less intense. 
Adult male.Length (skins), 325-367 (353); wing, 183.5-205 
(194.6); tail, 93.5-117.5 (106.6); culmen, 48-56.5 (51.8); tarsus, 
33.5-38 (36); outer anterior toe, 25-30 (26.7). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 318-384 (348); wing, 187-209 
(197.4) ; tail, 105-123.5 (113.9); culmen, 43-53 (49); tarsus, 34.5-37 
(35.4); outer anterior toe, 23.5-27 (25.6). b 

a Ten specimens, b Nine specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 179 

Central-eastern Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas (Tampico; Tamesi, 
near Tampico; Alta Mira; Victoria; Cation de Caballeros; Santa Leo- 
nora; Rio de la Cruz), San Luis Potosi (Valls), and Vera Cruz (Mira- 
dSr; Orizaba; CSrdova; Jalapa; Santa Ana near Jalapa; Colipa; Pa- 
pantla; Uvero; Santecomapfim; Pasa Nueva; Buena Vista; Puebla 
Vieja; Paso de Milpa; Misantla; Medellin; Laguna Verde; Llano 
Verde; San Juan Martin). Mexico (near City of Mexico) ? 
Dryocopus erythrops (not Picus erythrops Valenciennes) SCLATER, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1856, 306 (Cordova, Vera Cruz). 
(?)Campephilus guatemalensis SCLATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 331 (s. Mexico). 
Campephilus guatemalensis SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 177 (near 
City of Mexico).--FmRRi-Pmz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 158 
(Santa Ana and Paso de Milpa, Vera Cruz).--PIcttMOND, Proc. U. S.Nat. 
Mus., xviii, 1896, 629 (Alta Mira, Tamaulipas). 
[Campephilus] guatemalensis GahY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8630, part.-- 
SCTR and SALVIN, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 98, part. 
(?)C[ampephilus] guatemalensis GRAY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 
1868, 57, part (Mexico). 
C[ampephilus] guatemalensis RIDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 281, part. 
Campephilus guatemalensis gatemalensis PHILLIPS, Auk, xxviii, Jan. 1911, 76 
(Santa Leonora and Rio de la Cruz, Tamaulipas). 
Campophilus guatemalensis HRITT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1890, 473, part 
(Tampico and Tamesi near Tampico, s." Tamaulipas; Misantla, Laguna 
Verde, Santa Ana near Jalapa, Jalapa, and Colipa, Vera Cruz).--ShLVlN and 
GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 446, part (Papantla, San Juan 
Martin, Laguna Verde, Orizaba, Uvero, Cordova, Santecomapam, Llano 
Verde, and Playa Vicente, etc., Vera Cruz; localities in Tamaulipas). 
[Campophilus] guatemalensis SIIARFE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 229, part. 
1)ryocopus guatemalensis SCLATR, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 220 (Santecoma- 
pare, Vera Cruz; crit.).--(?)SCLATEa and SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, 135, part 
(s. Mexico).--SMCHaAs% Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 560 (Tierra 
Caliente, Veto Cruz). 
Megapicus guatemalensis IIALHERBE, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 19, part (Papantla, 
Vera Cruz). 
(?)S[capaneus] guatemalensis CBASlS and HEINE, MUS. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 
92, part (Mexico). 
[Scapaneus] guatemalensis HNS and REICHNOW, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
215, part (Mexico). 
[Dryotomus] odoardus BOSPRT, Notes Ore. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 85, footnote, 
in text (Mexico). 
Dryotomus odoardus BOSAPRT, Notes Orn. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 86, footnote, 
in text (Mexico). 
[Dryocopus] regius LICHTENSTEIN, Nora. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75 (Mexico; 
nomen nudum!). 
C[ampephilus] regius IEICHENBACH, Handb., Scansores, Picine, 1854, 393, 
pl. 694, figs. 4331, 4332 (Papantla, Vera Cruz; coll. Berlin Mus.). 
[Driopicus] regius BOAPARTZ, Ateneo Italians, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 
capaneus guatemalensis regius RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Vash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 34 (geog. range). 



180 BULLETIN 50 UlqlTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus CNIlAlCHUS Cabanis and Heine. 
(?)_[egapico8 a MALHERBE, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Moselle, 5e cahier, 1848-1849, 
17. (Type, by original designation, M. grayi Malherbe---Picus polle 
Bonaparte.) 
Cniparchus b CAANm and HEIsE, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July II, 1863, 98. 
(Type, Picus hematogaster Tschudi.) 
Large Picidm (wing about 173 -193 ram.) resembling Scapaneus but 
differing in relatively longer and more slender bill, much shorter 
(rounded and "bushy" instead of pointed) crest, shorter and more 
rounded wing (longest primaries exceeding secondaries by less than 
one-fifth the length of wing), with relatively larger and broader tenth 
primary, relatively longer tarsus, and banded inner webs of remiges. 
Bill longer than head, rather slender, regularly wedge-shaped in 
vertical profile, decidedly broader than deep at anterior end of nos- 
trils; culmen staight for most of its length but very faintly convex 
toward base, sharply ridged; gonys a little more than twice as long 
as mandibular rami, distinctly ridged, straight for greater part but 
slightly convex basally; supranasal ridge very distinct, running out 
to edge of maxilla at a little less than one-third the distance from tip 
to base of tomium. Nostril large, longitudinally elliptical-oval, 
much nearer to tomium than to culmen, at least partially covered 
by sma|l antrorse prefrontal feathers. Malar apex and chin with 
feathers not distinctly antrorse. Orbital region extensively and com- 
pletely naked. Wing rather short, much rounded, the longest pri- 
maries exceeding secondaries by less than one-fifth the length of 
wing; fifth, sixth, and seventh primaries longest, ninth shorter than 
fourth, tenth (outermost) nearly two-thirds as long as ninth, strongly 
bowed or incurved, very broad (greatest width equal to one-sixth or 
more the length). Tail nearly two-thirds as long as wing. Tarsus 
much longer than outer hind toe without claw.  
Coloration.--Inner webs of remiges blacldsh broadly banded or 
transversely spotted with white or buffy; rump red or huffy; a white 
or huffy stripe from nostrils across lores and beneath orbital and 
auricular regions to side of neck; pileum red; rest of plumage black, 
the under parts of body dark red in C. hxmatogaster and C. 1. splen- 
dens, barred with black and tawny in C. pollens; bill black. (6 . 
hematogaster and its subspecies have the rump red, and no white on 
back; C. pollens has the lower back and rump pale buff, lower rump 

a The interrogation mark here has reference to the question of whether Picus pollens 
and P. hxmatogaster are really congeneric. (See remarks under footnote c.) 
b "Von ,b, ttolzwurm und /pZw, herrschen." (Cabanis and Heine.) 
c The generic description (except as to color characters) is taken entirely from the 
type of the genus C. hematogaster (Tschudi), the only skin available at the present 
time of C. pollens (Bonaparte), a species which is doubtfully congeneric but which 
agrees fairly well in structurul and color characters, being so young that I cannot 
be sure as to relative proportions of the bill, etc. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 183 

tance from tip to base of tomium. Nostril small, narrowly elliptical, 
situated about midway between culmen and tomium, covered by 
small, hair-like, antrorse prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex 
antrorse, with bristly tips, those of chin with distinct though very slen- 
der antrorse or semiantrorse bristle-like tips. Orbital region naked 
for a narrow space around eye, the margin of eyelids unfeathered. 
Wing moderate, rounded, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries 
by less than one-fifth the length of wing; fifth, sixth, and seventh pri- 
maries longest, the ninth shorter than second, the tenth (outermost) 
about half as long as ninth. Tail about three-fourths as long as wing, 
the rectrices relatively very broad, the middle ones short-acuminate 
at tip. Tarsus shorter than either outer toe with claw; outer hind 
toe decidedly longer than outer front toe. 
Coloration.--Above mostly plain grayish green, the tail gray obso- 
letely barred with darker, the primaries blac -kish spotted with grayish 
green and dull whitish; under parts yellov, streaked anteriorly and 
laterally, barred posteriorly, with blackish; sides of head white, 
except an auricular stripe of blac-kish or grayish; a narrow black 
stripe on throat, confluent with a red jugular patch; adult male 
with pileum and hindneck bright red, adult female with crown black 
streaked with white. 
Rage.--Island of Cuba (including Isle of Pines). (Monotypic.) 
KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF XIPHIDIOPICUS PEICUSSUS. 
a. Larger (male averaging: Wing 120.4, tail 87.9, culmen 25.7, tarsus 23.4; female, 
wing 118.3, tail 91.4, culmen 21.8, tarsus 23); coloration darker, the under parts 
more distinctly streaked, the streaks more blackish; red of foreneck more ex- 
tended; auricular stripe darker gray and broader. (Cuba.) 
Xiphidiopicus percussus percussus (p. 183). 
aa. Smaller (male averaging: Wing 108.8, tail 78.3, culmen 25.3, tarsus 21.9; female, 
wing 107.6, tail 81.8, culmen 21.8, tarsus 20.6); coloration paler, the und<r parts 
leas distinctly streaked, the streaks more grayish; red of foreneck more restricted; 
auricular stripe narrower, more grayish. (Isle of Pines.) 
Xiphidiopicus percussus insule-pinorum (p. 185). 
XIPHIDIOPICUS PERCUSSUS PERCUSSUS (Temminck). 
CUBAI" GIEEI" WOODPEC:EI. 
Adult male.--Pileum (except anterior part of forehead) and hind- 
neck bright poppy red, slightly darker on forehead and crown, where 
more or less broken by exposure of the dusky basal portion of the 
feathers, the forehead sometimes with a few small streaks or elongated 
spots of white; back, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, wing- 
coverts, and secondaries plain bright grayish yellowish green (nearly 
oil green), lighter and more yellowish on rump, paler and grayer on 
upper tail-coverts, a the secondaries rather broadly and regularly, but 

a The lower rump is sometimes more or less distinctly barred with dusky or blackish, 
and the upper tail-coverts usually have alternate black and white shaft-streaks. 



184 BULLETIN 50 UIITED STATES IATIOIAL MUSEUM. 
rather indistinctly, barred with blackish; tail slate-gray, rather 
broadly but indistinctly barred with darker, the shafts of rectrices 
black; primaries dull black or slate-black, broadly barred or spotted 
with light yellowish olive-green, these markings paler and more gray- 
ish on distal quills; nasal tufts and anterior portion of forehead, 
broad superciliary stripe, loral, suborbital and malar regions, sides 
of chin and throat, and sides of neck white (tinged with greenish yel- 
low in fresh plumage), the first two sometimes tinged with pale brown- 
ish, sometimes with bristly tips or terminal margins blackish; auricu- 
lar region grayish dusky, with narrow shaft-streaks of white, this 
dusky grayish auricular stripe, continued, more narrowly, down side 
of neck; median portion of chin and most of throat black; extreme 
lower throat, foreneck, and upper chest bright poppy red, this forming 
a somewhat triangular patch, widened and convex posteriorly; rest of 
under parts citron or sulphur yellow, deepening into canary yellow 
on abdomen, the lower chest and breast streaked with grayish dusky 
or blackish, the sides more broadly streaked and barred, the flanks 
still more broadly barred with the same; under tail-coverts marked 
with broad V-shaped bars of blackish; under wing-coverts yellowish 
white or very pale yellow, more or less heavily barred or spotted with 
blackish; inner webs of remiges dusky, broadly barred with yellowish 
white, except on distal portion of outer primaries (extensively) and 
terminal portion of secondaries.; under surface of tail pale yellowish 
gray, more or less distinctly barred with blackish; bill, blackish, the 
mandible more grayish (bluish gray in life), at least basally; feet 
grayish (yellowish gray or olive-greenish in life ?); length (skins), 
215-240 (231); wing, 113-130.5 (120.4); tail, 82-90.5 (87.9); culmen 
24-28 (25.7); tarsus, 22-25.5 (23.4); outer anterior toe, 18-21.5 
(19.3). a 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male, but forehead and crown 
black, sharply streaked with white; length (skins), 205-224 (219); 
wing, 110-125.5 (118.3); tail, 85-97.5 (91.4); culmen, 20-23 (21.8); 
tarsus, 22-24 (23); outer anterior toe, 17-20 (18.2). a 
Island of Cuba (Guam,; E1 Guam,; Monte Verde; Guantnamo; 
Baracoa; I-Iolquin; Camaguy; near Cardenas; near Trinidad; 
Figuabas). 
Picus percussus TEINCK, P1. Col., 66e livr., (vol. iv), June, 1826, pls. 390, 424, 
and text (Cuba; cell. Leyden Mus.).--VmoRs, Zool. Journ., iii, 1827, 
444.--D'ORmNY, in La Sagra's Hist. Fis., etc., Cuba, Ayes, 1839, 109, 
French ed., 143.--DENNY, I)roc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1847, 39.--LrsY, 
Aves de la lsla de Cuba, Suppl., 1850, 131.--TIN*NN, Journ. ftir Orn., 
1857, 153.--SvNDEV*, Consp. Av. Yicin., 1866, 48. 
D[endrobates] percussus Gm,,v, Gem Birds, ii, 1845, 437. 
Cldoropicus percussus ]{,z, .Mm. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 352. 

a Ten specimens. 



186 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Capnopicus BONAPAITE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 
1854, 10). (Type, Picus fuvaigat-us Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny.) 
Callipicus BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. Velucr. Zyd., 
1854, 10). (Type, Picus callonots Waterhouse.) 
Campias CAB.Sm and HEINE, 'tlS. Hein., iv, heft 2, Sept., 1863, 145. (Type, 
Picus tephrodops WaglerP. passerinus Linnaeus.) 
Phaionerpes RECHSB.CH, ttandb. Scansores, Picine, 1854, 356. (Type, Picu8 
.fumigatus Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny.) 
Phaeonerpes (emendation) CAB.Sm and HEINE, Ius. tIein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 
139. 
"Crypturonerpes RCH[B.CH] 1854." (Gray, ttand-list, ii, 1870, 200.) 
Erytheronerpes REICHESB.Cr, IIandb. Scansores, Picine, 1854, 356. (Type, 
Picus saguineus Lichtenstein.) 
Eryt?tronerpes (emendation) C.B.Ss and HIsE, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 142. 
Small Picide (wing ubout 80-105 ram.) with outer hind toe longer 
than outer front toe, tail less than two-thirds as long as wing, inner 
hind toe rehtively very small (the toe and claw together less than 
half as long as outer toe), back plain olive, olive-russet, orange- 
russet, or red, no white spots on outer webs of primaries, and under 
parts plain olive-brown or olive, or barred with olive or dusky and 
whitish, or else plain whitish and upper parts red. 
Bill shorter than head, rather stout, about as wide as deep at 
anterior end of nostril, rather ubruptly contracted in width ter- 
minally, the tip distinctly chisel-shaped; culmen straight or very 
"faintly convex, sha.rply ridged; gonys decidedly less than twice as 
long as mandibular rumi, nearly straight, or very faintly concave 
terminally and convex basally, more or less distinctly ridged; supra- 
nasal ridge and prenasal groove very distinct, parallel with but far 
removed from culmen, running out to edge of maxilla at a point 
near or slightly anterior to middle of tomium. Nostril small and 
narrow, longitudinal, sometimes pointed anteriorly, covered by a 
distinct prefrontal antrorse tuft of small hair-like, bristle-tipped, 
feuthers. Feathers of malar apex and chin antrorse, bristle-tipped. 
Orbits mostly feathered. Wing moderate or rather short, the longest 
primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than one-fourth 
(usually less thun one-fifth) the length of wing; seventh und eighth, 
sixth and seventh, or fifth, sixth, and seventh primaries longest, 
the ninth shorter than fourth, the tenth (outermost) a little more 
than one-fourth to nearly one-half as long as ninth. Tail less than 
two-thirds (sometimes only half) as long as wing, the middle rectrices 
gradually and only moderately narrowed, and more or less strongly 
decurved, terminally. Tarsus nearly to quite as long as outer front 
toe with claw, decidedly shorter than culmen; outer hind toe de- 
cidedly longer than outer front toe; inner hind toe relatively very 
small, the digit and claw combined less than half as long as outer 
hind toe. 



BIR.DS OF IORTt AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 195 

anterior end of nostrils about equal to its depth at same point; 
culmen straight or very faintly convex, sharply ridged; gonys twice 
as long as mandibular rami, or slightly more, more or less distinctly 
ridged, straight or very nearly so; supranasal ridge and prenasal 
groove very distinct, parallel with culmen, running out to (or toward) 
edge of maxilla at a point less than one-third to a little more 
than one-third the distance from tip to base of tomium. Nostril 
small, .longitudinally elliptical or linear (sometimes more pointed 
anteriorly), situated nearer to tomium than to culmen, completely 
covered by a conspicuous antrorse tuft of hair-like, bristly-tipped 
prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex and chin antrorse, 
bristle-tipped, the latter covering base of gonys. Orbital region 
partly naked, the margin of lower eyelid and posterior portion of 
upper eyelid clothed with minute feathers. Wing rather long, the 
longest primaries exceeding secondaries by more than one-fourth 
(but less than one-third) th length of wing; sixth and seventh, 
sixth, seventh and eighth, or seventh and eighth primaries longest, 
the ninth much shorter than fifth (sometimes a little shorter than 
fourth), the tenth (outermost) about one-third as long as ninth. 
Tail nearly two-thirds as long as wing, the rectrices broad, the middle 
ones more or less strongly decurved terminally and with tip gradually 
short-acunfinate. Tarsus longer than outer hind toe with claw 
(except in D. scalaris, D. nuttallii, D. stricl'landi, and D. arizona), 
feathered in front for at least upper third; outer hind toe nmch 
longer than outer front toe. 
Coloration.--(1) General color of upper parts black, the scapulars 
or lower back, spots on primaries (sometimes secondaries and wing- 
coverts also), auricular and orbital regions white; posterior under 
parts red or tinged with red; adult males with pileum or a nuchal 
band red. (D. major, D. medius, D. minor, D. leucotus, and other 
Palearctic species.) 
(2) Above black with a white stripe down back, the primaries 
(sometimes also secondaries and wing-coverts) spotted with white; 
auricular region black, with a white stripe above and below; posterior 
under parts white or light brownish, like anterior portions; adult 
males with a red nuchal band. (D. q)illosus and D. pubescens groups.) 
(3) Similar to section 2 but the black replaced by brown (one 
species without white on back) and under parts spotted with black. 
(D. striclandi and D. arizona. ) 
(4) Similar to section 2 but back barred with white and black, 
lateral and posterior under parts spotted with black, the adult males 
with occiput as well as nape red, the crown streaked or speckled with 
white. (D. scalaris and D. nuttallii groups.) 



196 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Range.--Ialmarctic and Nearctic Regions; south in America to 
lanami. (More than fifty species and subspecies, a) 
KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF DRYOBATES. 
a. Back with a broad longitudinal median str.ipe of white, or at least without regular 
bars; black auricular patch confluent posteriorly with black of hindneck. 
b. Larger (wing more than 108, or else underparts smoky brown; exposed culmen 
21 or more). (Dryobates illosus.) 
c. Middle wing-coverts heavily spotted with white; greater coverts with a large 
subbasal (concealed) spot of white; all the secondaries, spotted (in trans- 
verse series) with white. (Eastern and northern forms.) 
d. Larger (averaging: wing more than 130, tail more than 83, exposed culmen 
more than 31 mm.). (Northern North America east of Rocky Mts., 
chiefly north of United States.) 
Dryobates villosus septentrionalis (p. 210). 
dd. Smaller (averaging: wing less than 121, tail less than 75, exposed culmen 
less than 30 ram.). 
e. Larger (averaging: Male, wing 120.4, tail 71.4, exposed culmen 29.2; 
female, wing 119.9, tail 74.2, exposed culmen 27.3); under parts more 
purely white, and white markings of upper parts averaging rather larger. 
(Middle districts of eastern North America, from more southern British 
Provinces to northern border of Lower Austral Zone.) 
Dryobates villosus villosus (p. 201). 
ee. Smaller (wing averaging less than 114). 
f. Wing longer (averaging 113.8 in male, 112.2 in female); loral region 
largely black; adult male with red nuchal patch narrower, usually 
interrupted medially by a black stripe from occiput to hindneck. 
(Lower Austral Zone of eastern United States.) 
Dryobates villosus audubonii (p. 206). 
ft. Wing shorter (averaging less than 108 in male, less than 105 in female); 
Ioral region wholly or mostly white; adult male with red nuchal 
patch broader, not interrupted medially. 
g. Sides of breast heavily streaked with black; lateral rectrices without 
black spots on inner web. (Islands of New Providence and Andros, 
Bahamas.) .................. Dryobates villosus maynardi (p. 208). 
gg. Sides of breast with few if any black streaks; lateral rectrices usually 
with one or more black spots on inner web. (Islands of Abaco, 
Little Abaco, and Great Bahama, Bahama.) 
Dryobates villosus piger (p. 209). 
cc. Middle wing-coverts wholly black, or with much fewer or smaller white 
spots; greater coverts without any sub-basal (concealed) white spot, often 
wholly black; inner secondaries without white spots, those on distal sec- 
ondaries and primaries reduced in size. (Western and Middle American 
forms, except one.) 
d. Underparts essentially white. 
e. Underparts pure white. 
fi White of back more restricted, more or less broken by black streaking 
or spotting; lateral rectrices frequently with one or more black 
spots on distal portion; flanks often spotted or broadly streaked with 
blackish. (Slightly smaller than D. . monticola.) (Newfoundland.) 
Dryobates villosus terrmnovm (p. 211). 

a Most of the Old World species generally referred to this genus have not been 
examined in the preparation of the above generic description, which is based on all 
the American species and D. major, D. leucotus, D. medius, and D. ninor only oI 
the Old World forms. 



BIIDS OF :NOltT] A:ND iV[IDDLE AiV[ERICA.. 197 

ft. White of back more extended, unbroken lateral rectrices never with 
black spots, and flanks never distinctly (if at all) spotted or streaked. 
g. Larger (wing averaging 133.3 in male, 131.1 in female). (Rocky Mt. 
district, from tritish Columbia to northern New lIexico.) 
Drobates villosus monticola (p. 212). 
gg. Smaller (wing averaging 126.3 in male, 123.6 in female). (Extreme 
western Texas, New lIexico and Arizona, except extreme southern 
portion, and southern Utah.) 
Dryobates villosus leucothorectis (p. 214). 
ee. Underparts not pure white. 
fi Larger (wing averaging 129.1 in male, 126.3 in female). (Sierra Nevada 
district of California, Oregon, Washington, and Nevada.) 
Dryobates villosus orius (p. 215). 
ft. Smaller (wing averaging 122.6 in male, 120.1 in female). (Northern 
Lower California, southern California, and coast district of middle 
California, north to Mendocino Co.) 
Dryobates villosus hyloscopus (p. 217). 
rid. Underparts not white (pale brownish gray to deep smoky brown). 
e. Underparts drab-grayish or bully grayish. 
fi Larger (wing averaging ]24 or more, tail 77 or more); under parts deeper 
smoke-gray or drab gray. 
g. Pale grayish or whitish ef back not usually broken into spots or 
irregular bars; flanks not heavily, if at all spotted with black; 
lateral rectrices without black bars or spots. 
/. Under parts darker and grayer or more smoky; white of back more 
strongly tinged with gray; wing-coverts less often spotted; nasal 
tufts tsually dull whitish or grayish. (Northwest coast district, 
from Humboldt Co., California, to tritish Columbia.) 
Dryobates villosus harrisi (p. 218). 
/h. Under pas paler (often nearly white) and more bufiy; white of 
back less tinged with gray (often not at all); wing-coverts more 
often spotted; nasal tufts usually strongly buffy or tawny. 
(Southeastern coast of Alaska, including Alexander Archipelago.) 
Dryobates villosus sitkensis (p. 220). 
gg. Pale grayish or whitish of back broken into spots or irregular bars; 
flanks heavily spotted with black; lateral rectrices usually broadly 
barred or spotted with black. (Queen Charlotte Ielands, tritih 
Columbia.) ................ Dryobates villosus picoideus (p. 220), 
ft. Smaller (wing averaging less than 124, tail less than 75); underparts 
paler smoke-gray, drab-gray, or buffy gray. 
g. Larger (wing averaging ]23.5 in male, ]23.3 in female); underparts 
slightly paler. (Southwestern New lIexico, southern Arizona, and 
southward to Durango, Zacatecas, and Coahuila.) 
Dryobates villosus icastus (p. 221). 
gg. Smaller (wing averaging 120.7 in male, ]]8.2 in female); underparts 
slightly darker. (Middle-eastern portion of lIexican plateau, in 
States of San Luls PotosI and southern Tamaulipas.) 
Dryobates villosus intermedius (p. 222). 
ee. Underparts decidedly brownish. 
f. Larger (averaging: wing 117.7 in male, 114.6 in female, tail 71.5 in male, 
69.5 in female); underparts more grayish brown. (Highlands of 
southern lIexico, in States of Yera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, lIorelos, 
Oaxaca, Guerrero, l=ichoacn, and Salisco.) 
Dryobates villosus jardinii (p. 223). 



198 BULLETI 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL 

ft. Smaller (averaging: wing less than 110 in male, less than 106 in female, 
tail less than 64 in male, less than 61 in female); underparts les 
grayish brown. 
g. Underparts darker brown. 
h. Lrger (wing averaging 109.4 in male, 104.6 in female, tail 63.9 in 
mle, 60.9 in female). (Guatemala and State of Chiapas, south- 
ern Mexico.) ............. Dry,bates villosus sancterum (p. 225). 
h. Smaller (wing averaging 102.8 in male, 102.1 in female, tail 58.6 
in male, 58.4 in female). (Highlands of Costa lica and weern 
lanamS.) ................. Dryobates villosus extimus (p. 226). 
gg. Underparts paler brown (size of 1). v. sanctorum). (tiighlands of 
northern Nicaragua.) ........ Dryobates villosus fumeus (p. 6). 
bb. Smaller (wing less--usually much less---thn 106, the underparts pure white 
to dull white); exposed culmen not more, usually much less, than 18 ram. 
( Dryobates pubescens.) 
c. Middle wing-coverts heavily spotted with white; greater coverts with a large 
sub-basal (concealed) spot of white; all the secondaries spotted (in transverse 
series) with white. (Eastern and northern forms.) 
d. Smaller (averaging: wing 88.6 in male, 88.7 in female, tail 50.5 in male, 
51.6 in female); underparts dull white. (Lower Austral Zone of Eastern 
United States.) ................ Dryobates lubescens pubescens (p. 228). 
dd. Larger (averaging: wing more than 94, tail more than 55); underparts pure 
white. 
e. Smaller (averaging: wing 94.1 in male, 94.7 in female, tail 55.8 in male, 
56.4 in female). (Middle districts of eastern North America, in l_'pper 
Austral and Transition life-zones; Kodiak Island, Alaska?) 
Dryobates pubescens medianus (p. 233). 
ee. Larger (averaging: wing 99.1 in male, 98.8 in female, tail 63.1 in male, 
63.3 in female). (Northern lorth America, east of Rocky Mrs., north 
to Mackenzie and Yukon, west to west coast of Alaska; south in winter 
to extreme northern United States.) 
Dryobates pubescens nelsoni (p. 235). 
cc. Middle wing-coverts wholly black or with much fewer or smaller white spots; 
greater coverts without any_ sub-basal (concealed) white spot, often wholly 
black; inner secondaries without transverse white spots, and spots on other 
remiges reduced in size. (Western forms.) 
d. Under parts pure white; larger (wing averaging 99.3 in male, 100.9 in female, 
tail 62.3 in male, 63.9 in female). (Rocky Mountain district, from British 
Columbia to New Mexico and Arizona; during migration, west to eastern 
California, etc., east to eastern Montana, western Nebraska, etc.) 
Dryobates pubescens homorns (p. 236). 
dd. Under parts not pure white; smaller (wing averaging less than 98, tail less 
than 62). 
e. Larger (averaging wing 96 in male, 97.2 in female); inner secondaries with 
rounded spots of white; middle wing-coverts spotted with white; under 
parts grayish white. (Coast district of southern Alaska, from Kenai 
leninsula to Taku liver.) ..... Dryobates pubescens glacialis (p. 239). 
ee. Smaller (averaging wing less han 96 in male, less than 93 in female); 
inner secondaries and middle coverts usually without white spots; 
under parts brownish white to light brownish gray or drab. 
f. Under parts light brownish gray or drab; slightly laxger (averang wing 
95.1 in male, 92.8 in female). (Northwest coast district, from outhern 
British Columbia to northern California.) 
Dryobates Imbescens gairdnerii (p. 241). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 201 

d. Larger (averaging: wing 117.3 in male, 113.2 in female; exposed culmen 
27.2 in male, 24.1 in female); under parts averaging less heavily spotted 
and white spots on outer webs of primaries larger. (Southern Arizona and 
southwestern New Mexico southward through Sonora and Chihuahua to 
Durango.) .......................... Dryobates arizonm arizonm (p. 261). 
dd. Smaller (averaging: wing 108.9 in male, 108 in female; exposed culmen 
23.6 in male, 20.8 in female); under parts averaging more heavily spotted 
and white spots on outer webs of primaries smaller, sometimes obsolete. 
(Southwestern Mexico, in States of Sinaloa, Jalio, Colima, and Zaca- 
tecas and Territory of Tepic.) .... Dryobates atizone fraterculus (p. 263). 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS VILLOSUS (Linnmus). 

HAIRY WOODPECKER. 

Adult male.--Pileum uniform glossy blue-black; a nuchal band of 
bright poppy red or scarlet, usually interrupted in middle portion 
by an extension of the black of pileum; rest of upper parts black, 
the median portion of back (broadly) white, the wings (including 
middle coverts) spotted with white, the spots on greater coverts and 
remiges arranged in regular transverse series; two lateral rectriccs, on 
each side (including outermost rudimentary rectrix), entirely white, 
the third white except basal portion of inner web, the fourth with 
greater part of outer web and distal portion of inner web wlfite ; nasal 
tufts dull white to dull brownish yellow, the bristly shafts blackish; 
a broad white supra-auricular stripe, narrower anteriorly, where 
extending over eye (sometimes confluent with whitish of nasal tufts); 
a broad white suborbital-subauricular stripe, anteriorly confluent 
with whitish or dull yellowish of nasal tufts, posteriorly extending 
to sides of neck; between these two white stripes a broad black stripe 
involving whole of auricular region and part of suborbital region, 
posteriorly confluent with black of hindneck; a black malar stripe 
(usually more or less broken anteriorly by admixture of white), con- 
tinued and gradually widening, posteriorly, where confluent with a lat- 
eral extension of the black of hindneck, and also sending off a short 
branch along side of chest; underparts immaculate white; bill deep 
grayish horn color, the mandible slightly paler; iris reddish brown 
(claret brown to burnt umber) ; legs and feet dull grayish blue, bluish 
gray or grayish olive; length (sns), 184-228 (220); wing, 114.5-124 
(120.4); tail, 65-77 (71.4); exposed culmen, 27-33 (29.2); tarsus, 
21-23 (21.9); outer anterior toe, 13-15.5 (14.4). b 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male but without any red on 
head; length (skins), 185-231 (206); wing, 115-128 (119.9); tail, 

a The terminal portion of these white rectrices usually stained, more or less deeply, 
with brown or tawny (from contact with decayed wood?). 
b Twenty-five specimens, from New York, t)ennsylvania, Maryland, District of 
Columbia, northern Virginia, and eastern Tennessee. 



68.5-83 (74.2); exposed culmen, 25-30 
outer anterior toe, 13-15 (14). a 

NATIOI'AL MUSEUM. 
(27.3); tarsus, 20-23 (21.1); 

a Twenty-four specimens, from Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
District of Columbia, northern Virginia, eastern Tennessee, and northern Illinois. 
Outer 
Locality. ante- 

MALES. 
Eleven adult males from Yukon, Mackenzie, etc. (D. v. 
tentrionalis ). 
Two adult males from Maine, June (D. v. septentrionalis.) ..... 
Four adult males from New Brunswick, October, 
( D. v. villosusf) 
One adult male from Nova Scotia, October (D. v. villosus.) .... 
One adult male from Ontario, November (D. v. stptentrionalis). 
Two adult males from North Dakota, November (D. v. villo,rus). 
Six adult males from New York, March, July, August (D. v. 
villosus) 
Three adult males from mountains of Pennsylvania, June, 
July (D. v. villosus). 
Seven adult males from lowlands of Pennsylvania, March, 
May, December (D. v. villosus) .............................. 
Five adult males from Maryland and District Columbia, April, 
June, September, October (D. v. vllosus) 
One adult male from northern Virginia, August (D. v. villosus). 
One adult male from southeastern Virginia (Dismal Swamp), 
June (D. v. auduboniif) 
One adult naale from southwestern Indiana, April 30 (D. v. 
audubonii.).. 
One adult male from southeastern Illinois, spring (D. v. au- 
dubonii.) .................................................... 
One adult male from eastern-central North Carolina, May 
(D. v. villosus) ............................................... 
One adult male from northwestern South Carol;ma, June 
( D. v. villosus.$) .............................................. 
Oneadult male from eastern Tennessee, August (D. v. villosus.). 
One adult male from southeastern Missouri, May (D. v. au- 
dubonil) ..................................................... 
One adult male from Louisiana, January (D. v. audbonii) .... 
One adult male from Mississippi, May (D. v. audubonii) ....... 
One adult male from southeastern Georgia, April (D. v. au- 
dubonii) ..................................................... 
Ten adult males lrom Florida, January, March, April, May, 
November (D. v. audubonii) ................................. 
FEMALES. 
Eleven adult females from Yukon, Mackenzie, etc. (D. 
septentrionalis) ............................................... 
One adult female from North Dakota, November (D. v. sep- 
tentrionalis.e) ................................................. 
Three adult females from New Brunswick, August, October, 
November (D. v. villosus. ) ................................... 
Four adult females from Ontario, January, April, June, De- 
cember (D. v. vil/osus.f) ...................................... 
Seven adult females from New York, May-December (D. v. 
villsus) ..................................................... 
Six adult females from Pennsylvania, May-November (D. v. 
illosu8) ..................................................... 

20.5 
21.5 
.'20.6 
22.5 
21.5 
20. 7 
21.5 
21 
21.1 

15.3 
15 
14.2 
14 
16 
14.5 
14.5 
14.5 
14.6 
14.5 
14 
13 
14 
13.5 
13 
14 
14 
13 
14.5 
13.5 
13 
13.7 

14.3 
14 
13.8 
14.5 
13.7 
13.8 



BIRDS OF IffORTI AlffD ]V[IDDLE AMERICA. 919 

Humid Pacific coast district, from Humboldt and Siskiyou coun- 
ties, northern California, through western Oregon and Washin.ton, 
to British Columbia; occasional in winter as far southward as 
lIonterey County. 
Picus larris4i AUDUBON, Birds Am., folio ed., iv, 1838, pl. 417, figs. 8, 9.-- 
TOWNSEND, Narrative, 1839, 347. 
Picus larrisi AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 191 (near Fort Vancouver, Wash- 
ington; type now in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); Synopsis, 1839, 178; Birds Am., 
oct. ed., iv, 1842, 242, pl. 261.--NVWWALL, lIan. Orn.'U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 687.---BA*ID, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 87, part 
("dark bellied variety"; Whitby Island, Steilacoom, Spokane R., Vancou- 
ver, and Shoalwater Bay, Washington; Columbia R., Fort Dalles, and St. 
tIelens, Oregon); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 75, part.--NEwBEIIY, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 89 (n. California; Oregon).--HEEINN, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, no. 1, 1859, 57, part (n. California).-- 
COOPEI and SUCKLEr, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860,159, part (w. 
Washington and Oregon).--MArEIBE, lIon. Picid., i, 1861, 73; iii, 1861, pl. 
20, figs. 1, 2.--SuNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 17.--BIOWN, Ibis, 1868, 
419 (Vancouver I.).--GIAY, List Birds Brit. lfus., Ficidee, 1868, 47.--CooPEa, 
Orn. Calif., 1870, 375, part (coast near Columbia R.). 
P[icus] harrisii GnAY, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435.---REICHENBACH, Handb. Scan- 
sores, Picinee, 1854, 364, pl. 632, figs. 4208, 4209. 
P[icus] larris BONAAIWE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 138. 
[Picas] harrisii L*CHWENSEIN, Nora. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75.--GIAY, Hand-list, ii, 
1870, 184, no. 8593. 
[Trichopic,s] harrisii BOAAaWE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8).--GOODE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 346 (index). 
Pcus (Trichopicus) h,rrisii BAIleD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxvii, 
part. 
[Picus )llosus.] Var. harrisii CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, Oct., 1872, 194, part. 
Picus illosus, var. harrisii RDOWAY, Am. :lourn. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456, l:rt. 
Picus illosus . . . var. harrisi CovEs, Check List, 1873, no.I.298a, part. 
Picas illosus, var. harrisi BAIRD, BREWER, and RIDOWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 507, part. 
Picas illosus harrisi R, DowxY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mts., iii, 1880, 6, in text, 188, 
part; Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 360b, part.--CoVEs, Check List, 2d ed., 
1882, no. 439, part. 
P[icus] ,[illosus] harrisi CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 
D[ryobates] harrisi CABANIS and HEINE, !%IUS. Iein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 68. 
Dryobates illosus harrisii R,DOWY, Froc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 
1885, 355, part; Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 596, exclusively.-- 
AEI*CN OINT,OOOSWS' UNmN, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), 
no. 393c, part.--R,oADs, Froc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 42 (Brit. 
Columbia; crit.).--BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 52.--OBEI- 
,OSEI, Proc. U. S. Nat. lIus., xl, 1911, 597, 615, part (monogr.). 
D[ryobates] illosus larrisii IIDOWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 
Dryobates illosus larrisi ANW,ONY, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington Co., 
Oregon).--CPN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. ]I., iii, 1890, 137, part (Kalama, 
Washington; Vancouver I., Westminster, and hit. Lehman, Brit. 
Columbia; variations of plumages.)--ANDERSON and GI*NNE, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 7 (Sisldyou Mts., n. California; crit.).--JENKINS, 
Auk, xxiii, 1906, 168 (crit.).---AlUERICAN ORNITSOLOOSTS' UNON, Check 
List, 3d ed., 1910, 186.--Sw,IT,, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., x, 1912, 33 (crit.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 221 

black, the sides sometimes streaked and flanks barred or transversely 
spotted with black. 
Adult female.a---Length (skins), 205-220 (215); wing, 121-127 
(124).; tail, 76-81 (79.2); exposed culmen, 25.5-27.5 (26.4); tarsus, 
22-24 (22.6); outer anterior toe, 14.5-15.5 114.8). 5 
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 
Dryobates picoideus OsGoo), North Am. Fauna, no. 21, Sept., 1901, 44 (cum- 
shewa Inlet, Queen Charlotte I., Brit. Columbia; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).-- 
JENKINS, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 169 (crit.).--KERo)s, Prov. Mus. Brit. Col., 
1909, 49. 
Dryobales villosus picoideus AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, 
Auk, xix, 1902, 319; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 186.--OBERHOLSE, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, 1911, 597, 616, part (monogr.). 
Dryobates villosus harrisi (not _Picus harrisi Audubon) SWARTH, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., vii, 1911, 66, part (Queen Charlotte Islands; crit.). 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS ICASTUS Oberholser. 

c HIHU2HUA WOODPECKER. 

Similar to D. v. hyloscopus, but smaller and with under parts 
always dull white or (usually) very pale drab-grayish. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 185-213 (204); wing, 117-128 
(123.5); tail, 67.5-76 (71.6); exposed culmcn, 25.5-30.5 (28.1); 
tarsus, 20-21.5 (20.8); outer anterior toe, 12.5-15 (13.6). c 
Adult females.--Length (skins), 187-209 (198); wing, 119-128.5 
(123.3); tail, 70-82.5 (74.6); exposed cuhnen, 23-28 (25.5); tarsus, 
18-22 (20.2); outer anterior toe, 12.5-14 (13.4). a 

a Adult males not seen. c Seventeen specimens. 
b Five specimens, d Twelve specimens. 
Locality. 

MALES. 
Two adult males from southern Arizona (H uachuca Mohntains). 
One adult male from northern Sonora ......................... 
Six adult males from Chihuahua ............................... 
Three adult males from Durango .............................. 
Three adult males from Zacatecas ............................. 
Two adult males from Coahuila ............................... 
FEMALES. 
One adult female from southwestern New Mexico (Bear 
Spring Mountains) .......................................... 
Six adult females from Chihuahua ............................. 
Two adult females from Durango .............................. 
One adult female from northwest.ern alisco (Bolafios) ......... 
One adlt female from Coahuila ............................... 

Ving. 
121.7 
124 
126.1 
123. 5 
122. 7 
118. 5 
123.5 
124. 8 
121 
125. 5 
H9 

Taft 
71. 
72. 
73 
70 
71. 
69. 
75 
75. 
73. 
78 
70 

Ex- 
posed 
ulmen 
28. 7 
27 
29 
29. 2 
26.7 
26. 2 
27.5 
25. 9 
24.5 
25 

Tarsus 
21 
20.8 
20. 7 
20.1 
20.5 
20 
20.1 
20. 3 
18 

Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 

14.5 
12.5 
14.2 
13. 5 
13 
13. 2 

14 
12.6 
12.8 
14 
13.5 



2 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Southwestern New Mexico (mimas Peak; San Luis Mountains; 
Bear Spring Mountains) and southern Arizona (Santa Catalina 
Mountains; Huachuca Mountains; Pima County; Pinfil County)and 
southward over northwestern Mexico, in States of Chihuahua (Mound 
Valley; Casa Colorado; Temasochi; Rio de Igl6sias; Rio de Emeri- 
bano; Rio de Urique; Reffigio; Sierra Madre; Sierra de San Luis; 
30 miles west of Mi;mca; Colonia Garcia; Pacheco; Rancheria de 
los Apaches; Pifios Altos; Bustillos), eastern Sonora (El Puerto), 
Durango (El Sflto; Arroyo del B u6y), northeastern Jlisco (Bola- 
fios), Ztcatecas (Plateado; Sierra de Valparaiso) and Coahuila 
(Carneros; Sicrrt de Gmdalupe). 
Picus illosus harrisi (not Picus harrisi Audubon) BEwswEn, Bull. Nutt. Ora. 
Club, viii, 1883, 22 (Chiricahua Mrs., s. e. Arizona).--Scorr, Auk, ii, 1885, 
174, in text, 356 (Santa Catalina hits., s. Arizona). 
Dryobates illosus harrisii Scour, Auk, iii, 1886, 425 (Sant Catulina and Final Mrs.). 
[Dendrocopusillosus.] Subsp. ft. Dendrocopvs ]arrisi IIAnrrr, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 234, part (localities in Chihuahua; Ciudad Durango, 
Durango; Sierra de Nayarit,a Sierra ]Iadre de Colima,a and Sierra de Valpa- 
raiso, a Jalisco?a). 
Dedrocopus harrisi lww, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 570 (Sierra de 
Bolafios, Jalisco).--SLvs and (ODAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 
431, part (Casa Colorado, Pifios Allos, Temochi, Rio de Iglesias, Rio de 
Emeribano, Rio de Urique, and Refugio, Chihuahua; Ciudad Durango; 
Sierra Bolafios, Jalisco; Valparaiso, Zacatecas; Sierra de Nayarit, Tepic?a). 
Dryobates illosus ]yloscopus (not 1)ryobates ]yloscopus Cabanis and tteine) 
RuoDs, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 116 (Santa Catalina hits., 8,000 It.).-- 
ALLEN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 35 (El Puerto and Rancho de los 
Apaches, Chihuahua).--Swwn, Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 4, 1904, 10 
(Huachuca Mts., chiefly above 7,000 ft.; crit.).--hiLL (W. Dew.), Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. tI., xxii, 1906, 166 (Arroyo del Buey, n. w. Durango, hlay 28; 
crit.). 
Dryobates villosus icastts OEOLSE, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, June 3, 
1911, 597,612, (El Salto, Durango; coll. U. S. Nat. ][us.). 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS INTERMEDIUS Nelson. 

ITERMEDIATI' WOODPECKER. 

Similar to D. v. icastus, but color of under parts decidedly darker 
(light buffy drab-gray instead of dirty white or very pale drab- 
grayish). 
Adult zn,le.---Length (skins), 202-219 (211); wing, 119-122.5 
(120.7) ; tail, 70.5-74 (71.8) ; exposed culmen, 28-28.5 (28.3) ; tarsus, 
20-21.5 (20.8); outer anterior toe, 13.5-14 (13.7).  

a Specimens from these localities not seen by me. 
b Three specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 9 

ing anteriorly, beneath eye, to lores, where confluent with the duller 
white of nasal tufts, its posterior end involving sides of neck, includ- 
ing post-auricular region, except upper portion; malar region grayish, 
intermixed with black, anteriorly (sometimes wholly black except 
extreme anterior portion), posteriorly continued as a gradually 
widening "solid" black stripe which curves upward behind the vhite 
cervical area and connects with the black of back; under parts plain 
palo brownish gray or dull grayish white, more whitish on chin and 
throat, the under tail-coverts usually barred or flecked with black; 
under wing-coverts mostly immaculate dull white, but with a black 
patch on carpo-metacarpal region; inner webs of remiges dull slaty 
with large semiquatrate spots of white, except on distal portion of 
longer primaries; bill dark horn grayish, paler on mandible; iris 
brown or reddish brown; legs and feet dusky (olive-grayish in life); 
length (s-kins), 139-155 (145.7); wing, 86-91 (88.6); tail, 48-53 
(50.5); exposed culmen, 15-16.5 (15.7); tarsus, 15-16.5 (15.9); outer 
anterior toe, 9.5-11 (10.5). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
head, the red nuchal band replaced by a white one, this usually 
divided by a median black area; length (skins), 139-153 (144); wing, 
86.5-91 (88.7); tail, 48-54.5 (51.6); exposed culmen, 14-16.5 (15.2); 
tarsus, 14.5-16 (15.3); outer anterior toe, 9.5-11 (10.1). b 

e Fourteen specimens (ten from Florida, four from southern Georgia). 
b Thirteen specimens (ten from Florida, three from southern Geora). 
The extreme difficulty of satisfactorily separating this species into two or more 
subspecies and defining their respective ranges with even approximate accuracy is 
quite as great as in the case of D. illosus (see p. 203), the two cases being exactly 
parallel, as the following measurements will.show: 

Locafity. 

MALES. 
Nine adult males from interior of Alaska (/9. p. zelsoni) ....... 
Three adult males from KenM Peninsula, etc., Alaska (/9. p. 
glacialis) ..................................................... 
Two adult males from Kadiak Island, Alaska (D. p. nedianus?? 
Four adult males from Mackenzie (D. p. nelsoni) ............. 
Two adult males from Athabasca, Jun (D. p. zelsoni) ......... 
One adult male from Saskatchewan, May 31 (D. p. nelsoni) .... 
One adult male from Minnesota, May 23 (D. p. nedianus) ..... 
Four adult males frown Newfoundland (D. p. edianu,') ...... 
Two adult males from Maine, April (D. p. nedianus) .......... 
One adult male from New Hampshire, June (D. p. nedianus).. 
Six adult males from Massachusetts, March-June (D. p. 
nedianu,) ................................................... 
One adult male from New York, April, August (D. p. nedianus) 
Three adult males from Pennsylvania, March, April, July 
(D. p. rnediaus) ............................................ 
One adult male from northeastern Illinois, June (D. p. nedianus) 

Wing. 

99.2 

96 
94.7 
98.8 
98.7 
96.5 
92 
95. 4 
94.2 
93.5 
95.2 
93 
93 
95 

Tail. 
62.  
58.7 
65. 7 
62.  

Ex- 
posed 
culmen 
16.6 
16.3 
16.5 
17 
17.5 
17.5 
17 
59.9 15.9 
57.5 16.7 
58 16 
56.3 16.5 
52.5 16.5 
54.3 16.5 
56 17 

Tarsus. 

16.2 

16.8 
15.7 
16.1 
15.5 
15. 5 
16 
16 
16.2 
16 
15.7 
16.5 
16.3 
16. 5 

Outer 
ante- 
riot toe. 

10. 6 

10. 5 
10. 5 
10.2 
10 
10.5 
10.5 
10.3 
10.5 
11 

10.3 
11 

10.8 
11 



BIRDS 017 NOITH AND 1VIDDLE AMEIICA. 33 

DRYOBATES PUBESCENS MEDIANUS (Swainson). 
rowdy 
Similar to D. p. pubescens, but larger, and the whitish of under 
parts, etc., slightly paler (more nearly white). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 145-61 (153); wing, 1-6.5 (4.1); 
tail, 51-66.5 (55.8); exposed culmen, 15-17.5 (16.4); tarsus, 15-16.5 
(16); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.5). a 
Ad[ .fea[e.Length (skins), 145-161 (153); wing, 1.5-fl7 
(4.7) ; tail, 50.5-61.5 (56.4) ; exposed culmen, 14.5-17.5 (15.4) ; 
tarsus, 15-16.5 (15.4) ; outer anterior toe, .5-11 (10.4). b 
Upper Austral Zone and part of Transition Zone of eastern North 
America, from southeastern Virginia (Dismal Swamp), highlands of 
North and South Carolina, northern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, 
southern Illinois and Indiana, eastern Kansas, etc., northward to 
about northern border of United States and maritime provinces of 
Canada to Newfoundland; grading into D. p. nelsoni northward, into 
D. . pubescens southward; westward to eastern portion of Great 
Plains, occasionally to base of Rocky Mountains (Denver, Colorado, 
May); Kodiak Island, Alaska (resident).  
Picus pubescens (not of Linnmus) WLso, Am. Orn., i, 1807, 153, part, pl. 9, 
fig. 4.--VLow, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 65, part, pl. 121; Nouv. Dict. 
d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 82, part.--ST.PHNS, Shaw's Gen. ZoI., Lx, 1815, 
170, part.--BONAPATS, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 1826, 46, part; Synopsis 
Birds U. S., 1828, 46, part; Obs. Wilson's Am. Orn., 1826, [240], part; Geog. 
and Comp. List, 1838, 39, part.--Lsso, Trait d'Orn., 1831, 228, part,-- 
NUTTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., i, 1832, 576, part.--AvDvON, Orn. 
Biog., ii, 1834, 81, part, pl. 112; v, 1839, 539, part; Synopsis, 1839, 180, part; 
Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 249, part, pl. 263.--WooHouss, in l=tep. Sit- 
greaves' Expl. Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 89, part (Indian Territory; Texas).-- 
BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 89, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, 
no. 76, part.--MALHRB., Mort. Picid., i, 1861, 119, part; iii, 1861, pl.29, figs. 
8, 9.---SCLXTSR, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 334, part (eastern North America). 
SUNDVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 17, part.--ALLN, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., iii, 1872, 129 (Topeka and Leavenworth, e. Kansas, May; crit.).-- 
Covs, Check List, 1873, no. 299, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 440, part.--BAmD, 
BREWER, and RIP,WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 509, part.--MRNS, 

a Thirteen specimens, from Massachusetts (6), New York (2), Pennsylvania (3), Wis- 
consin (1), and Iowa (1). 
b Eighteen specimens, from Massachusetts (9), New York (4), and Pennsylvania (5). 
In the series from Massachusetts are several specimens which closely approach D. p. 
nelsoni in dimensions. 
 I am not able to detect the minutest difference, in any respect, between Kadiak 
examples of this species and specimens of true 1). p. medianus from the northeastern 
United States, and therefore, notwithstanding the puzzle of geoaphic distribution 
involved in the case, I do not know what else to do with these Kadiak birds than to 
refer them (provisionally, at least) to 1). p. medianus. 
An adult male from Saturna Island, British Columbia, taken Feb. 3, 1894, in the 
Ban collection (no. 4508), is exactly like Kadiak specimens, and may be a migrant 
from there. 



BIRDS OF WORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 239 

DRYOBATES PUBESCENS GLACIALIS Grinnell. 
VALDEZ DOWNY WOODPECKER. 
Intermediate in size between D. p. ndsoni and D. p. medianus, but 
differing from both in absence of white sub-basal spots on greater 
wing-coverts, reduction of size, or number, of white spots on mi(idle 
coverts, and more spot-like or rounded form of white markings on inner 
secondaries; under parts less purely white (more grayish) ? 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 152-162 (157); wing, 94-99 (96); 
tail, 57-60 (58.7); exposed culmen, 16-17 (16.3); tarsus, 16.5-17 
(16.8); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.5). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 155-162 (158); wing, 96-99 (97.2); 
tail, 59-63.5 (61.2); exposed cuhnen, 16-17 (16.5); tarsus, 16-17 
(16.5); outer anterior toe, 10.5-11 (10.7). a 
Kenai Peninsula (Homer; Moose Camp), shores and islands of 
Prince William Sound (Valdez Harrows; :Naked :Island) and east- 
ward along coast of Alaska to Taku River; northcrn British Columbia 
(Fort Babine) . 
Picus pubescens (not of Linnaeus) FINSCH, Abh. Iat. Brem., iii, 1872, 60 (Alexan- 
drovsk, Alaska).--Cou.s, Check List, 1873, no. 299, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 
440, part.--BAIRD, BR.W.R, and RIDGWAr, tlist. N. Am. Birds, if, 1874, 509, 
part.--RmGwAr, Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361, part.--IIARTLAUB, Journ. 
fiir Orn., 1883, 275 (Chilcat R., Alaska). 
[P/cus] pubescens Cou.s, Key N. Am. Birds, .].872, 194, part. 
P[/cus] pubescens Cou.s, Key I. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 
Dryobates pubcscens AIERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 1886, no. 
394, part.--(?)NnLSON, Rep. Nat. IIist. Coil. Alaska, 1887, 156, part (Sitka?). 
D[ryobates] pubescens IIDGWAV, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 
Dryobates pubescens nelsoni (not of Oberholser) CHAP.'AN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., 
xvl, 1902, 239 (IIomer, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, Sept.); xx, 1904, 402 
(Moose Camp, Kenai Peninsula, Sept.; crit.). 
Dryobates pubescens glacialis CRINNELL (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, no. ]2, 
March 5, 1910, 390 (Valdez Narrows, Prince William Sound, Alaska, Sept.; 
coll. Mns. Vert. Zool. Univ. Calif.).--SwARTH, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 
1911, 68 (Taku R., Alaska; crit.; habits). 
DRYOBATES PUBESCENS TURATI (Malherbe). 
WILLOW WOODPECKER. 
Similar in pattern of coloration to D. p. omorus, but decidedly 
smaller and with white of under parts much duller. 
Adult male.--Length (sns), 145-163 (154); wing, 88.5-97 (92.6); 
tail, 53.5-60.5 (55); exposed cuhnen, 15-17 (16.3); tarsus, 15-17 
(16.1); outer anterior toe, 9-11.5 (10.5). c 

a Three specimens. 
bA breeding bird from Fort Babine, in the interior of northern British Columbia, 
is very near this form in its characters, but has indications of white subbasal spots on the 
greater wing-cover.ts. Its measurements are essentially the same (wing, 94; exposed 
culmen, 16; tarsus, 16.5; outer anterior toe, 10). 
 Ten specimens. 



240 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL IIUSEUM. 

Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 141-163 (152); wing, 88-95 (92.2); 
tail, 51-60.5 (55.8); exposed culmen, 14.5-17 (15.5); tarsus, 16-17 
(16.2); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.5). a 
Upper Austral and Transition zones of California, except on north- 
west coast and southeastern desert mountains. 

Picus merdionalis (not of Swainson) NvrALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., 2d ed., 
i, 1840, 690 (California).--G.EL, $ourn. Ac. Nat. Sci. 1)hila., i, 1847, 55 
(California).--(?)IIEERmNN, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. vi, no. 2, 1859, 
57 (mrs. of n. California). 
Picus gairderi (not of Audubon) BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 91, part 
(Pctaluma, Sacramento, and San Francisco, California).--X.NTvS, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 190 (Ft. Tej6n, California).--CooPm, Orn. Calif., 1870, 
377 (chiefly).--BD, BREWER, and RDCw., Hist. N. Am. Birds, iii,1874, 
521 (Santa Cruz I., California, breeding; measurements of eggs). 
t)icus (Trichopicus) gairdneri B.mD, Rep. Pacific R. 1. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxvii, 
part. 
[Picus pubesccns.] Var. gairdneri CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 
Picus pubescens, var. gairdneri BAIRD, BREWEa, and IIDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 512, part. 
t)icus pubescens gairdneri (not of Ridgway, 1875) IIDGWAI', Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
iii, 1880, 188, part; Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361a, part.--CovEs, Check 
List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 441, part. 
P[icus] p[ubescens] gairdneri CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 
Dryobates pubescens gairdnerii A]IERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 
1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 394a, part.--TowNSEND (C. It.), Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 205 (Baird, Shasta Co., California, breeding).--EEso, 
Bull. Calif. Ac. Sci., ii, 1887, 426 (Poway Valley, San Diego Co., California, 
breeding).--FsER, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 47 (Tehachapi Pass, 
Grapevine Mts., and Panamint Mts., California, breeding).--BENDn, Life 
tIist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 58, part.--GaNNEI ($.), Pub. 2, Pasadena 
Ac. Sci., 1898, 25 (Los Angeles Co., California).--VAN DENVR, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., xxxviii, 1899, 162 (Santa Clara Co., California., breeding). 
D[ryobates] pubescens gairdnerii RDow.Y, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 
Dryobates pubescens gairdneri EERSON, Auk, iii, 1886, 94 (Ventura Co., California, 
resident).--M.I.RD, Condor, iii, 1901, 122 (San Benito Co., California, 
resident). 
Picus pubescens, [. gairdneri PDOWY and BEDNO, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i. 
March 2, 1879, 428 (Marysville, Murphys, and Big Trees, California). 
[Picus pubescens] b. gairdneri CovEs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 
[Dendrocopus pubescens.] Subsp. er. Dendrocopus gairdneri tI.aOTT, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 241, part (Monterey, Los Alamos, San Bernardino, 
Visalia, and Walker Basin, California). 
t)icus gardineri SCI2TER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 127 (San $osd Valley, 
California). 
Picus turati MA/HERBE, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 125, iii, 1861, pl. 29, figs. 5, 6, 7 (near 
Monterey, California; coll. Malherbe).---C.ssN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1863, 202 (crit.). 
[Picus] turati GRY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 185, no. 8597. 
P[icus] turati SVNDEV.L, Consp. Av. Picn., 1866, 1S (crit.). 
D[ryobates] turatii C.mNm and HEINE, MUS. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 65 (Monterey, 
California). 

a Ten specimens. 



BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL 

P[icus] gairdnerii REICHENB,CH, Handb. Scansores, Picine, 1854, 375. 
[Picus] gairdneri GRAY, EIand-list, ii, 1870, 184, no. 8591. 
Dryobtes pubescens gairdnerii lIDGW,Y, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, 
Sept. 2, 1885, 355; Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 596.--AJElms ORm- 
THOLO(ISTS' UIO, Check List (and 2d ed., 1895), 1886, no. 394a, part.-- 
BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 58, part. 
D[ryobtes] pubescens gairdnerii lID(w,Y, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 
[Trichopicus] gairdneri BOlVAP,RTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 
Picus (Trichopicus) gairdneri B,IRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxvii, 
part. 
D[ryobates] gairdneri CABamS and IIEE, hlus. ttein., iv, heft 2,1863, 64 (Oregon; 
Washington). 
[Picus pubescens.] Var. gairdneri CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 
licus pubescens, vat. gairdneri IIDGWAY, Am. Journ. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456.-- 
BAIRD, BREWER, and RD(W.Y, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 512, part. 
licus pubescens gairdneri (not of Ridgway, 1875) RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
iii, 1880, 188, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361a, part.--CovEs, Check 
List., 2d ed., 1882, no. 441, part. 
P[icus] p[ubescens] gairdneri CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 
Dryobates pubescens gairdneri AT,OY, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington Co., 
Oregon).--C,AJA, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 138 (Westminster, 
hit. Lehman, Kalama, and Vancouver I., Brit. Columbia; crit.).--MEL, 
North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 114 (Sisson, n. California).--FIs,Ea (W. K.), 
Condor, iv, 1902, 69 (diagnosis).--ADEaSO and GaiE,.,., Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phfla., 1903, 7 (Siskiyou hits., n. California; crit.).--AEcA Oa.-I- 
r,OLO(ISrS' UION, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 187.--Swlr,L Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., x, 1912, 34 (crit.). 
[Picus pubescens] b. ga{rdneri CovEs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 
[Dendrocopus pubescens.] Subsp. a. Dendrocopus gairdneri IIlr, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 241, part (Brit. Columbia; Vancouver I.; Wall 
Walla, Columbia R., Albany, Umatilla Agency, and Dalles, Oregon). 
[Dndrocopu] gairdneri Sit,arE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 
P[icu] gardneri GIAV, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435. 
Dryobates pubescensfitmidu MAYNARD, Ornith. and Ool., xiv, no. 4, April, 1889, 
58 (s. Vncouver I., Brit. Columbia; coll. F. B. Webster). 
(?)Picus meridionalis (not of Swainson) tIEEIN, Rcp. Pacific R. It. Surv., x, 
pt. iv, no. 2, 1859, 57 (mts. of n. California). 

DRYOBATES NUTTALLII (Gambel). 
IUTTALL'S WOODPECKER. 
Adult male {n autumn and winter.--Forehead and greater part of 
crown black, more or less conspicuously streaked (except sometimes 
on forehead) with white, the streaks of narrowly guttate or cuneate 
form; extreme posterior portion of crown, occiput, nape, nd upper 
hindneck bright red (poppy red to scarlet vermilion), this color 
separated, on each feather, from  dusky basal area by  snmll V- 
shaped or sattate spot of whitish; lower hindneck, upper back, 
lesser wing-coverts, upper tail-coverts, nd four middle rectrices uni- 
form black; rest of back, together with scapulars nd rump, broadly 
burred with black and white, the bars of the two colors pproximately 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND IIIDDLE AMERICA. 243 

equal in width; middle and greater wing-coverts black, the former 
with a single subterminal roundish or subcordate spot of white, the 
latter with two roundish white spots on outer web; remiges black, 
broadly barred with white, their inner webs with larger roundish or 
subquadrate spots of the same; outermost normal (i. e., second) rec- 
trix white, with one complete subterminal bar of black and a second 
incomplete or interrupted bar, the basal portion of inner web usually 
with more or less of black; next rectrix similar but with more black 
at base and with second subterminal interrupted bar reduced to a 
pair of small, widely sparated spots, or even obsolete; third (i. e. 
fourth) rectrix with more than basal half black and without second 
(sometimes without any) subterminal black spot or bar; nasal tufts 
and anterior portion of loral or latero-frontal region dull whitish or 
light yellowish, the former dusky terminally; posterior portion of 
loral re, on, narrow rictal stipe (extending posteriorly beneath orbital 
and auricular regions), a broader supra-auricular stripe (extending 
anteriorly to at least middle of orbital region and posteriorly con- 
tinued, more broadly, along sides of neck), together with under parts, 
white, the under parts of body usually tinged, more or less strongly, 
with pale brownish huffy; auricular region and broad malar stripe 
(the latter continued posteriorly over lower sides of neck, where 
much expanded), black; sides and flanks spotted with black, the 
markings more longitudinal on sides of breast, more transverse on 
flanks; under tail-coverts barred or transversely spotted with black; 
bill horn color (more or less dark) usually darker toward culmen; 
iris brown; legs and feet grayish olive or greenish gray in dried skins. 
Adult male in spring and summer.--Similar to the autumnal and 
winter plumage, but white streaks on forehead and crown much 
reduced in size, sometimes obsolete, and red nuchal area more 
resticted, through wearing off of red tips of feathers of anterior 
portion. 
Adult female in autumn and winter.--Sinlar to the adult male of 
corresponding season, but without any red on occiput or nape, which 
are black, with guttate or elliptical streaks of white, like forehead 
and crown. 
Adult female in spring and summer.---Similar to the fall and winter 
plumage, but pileum and hindneck uniform black or else (in earlier 
spring), with very small or scattered white streaks. 
Young ma/e.--Essentially like adult males, but occiput, nape, and 
hindneck uniform black, the whole crown red, spotted or speckled 
ith white, "pattern" of upper parts less sharply defined, and mark- 
ings on lateral under parts less distinct. 
Yougfemale.--Simflar to the young male, but red of crown more 
restricted, and forehead streaked with white. 



BIRDS OF NORT]I AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 245 

2, 1889, 286 (San Rafael and Ensenada, Lower California, up to 3,500 
ft.).a--FIsHEa (A. K.), North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 47 (Cajon la, San 
Bernardino Mts., Old Ft. Tejon, Walker Basin, etc.).--BENDIR, Life Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 65.--MAILLIARD, Auk, xv, 1898, 196 (San GerSnimo, 
Matin Co., California and 30 m. northward).--VAN DsuG, lroc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., xxxviii, 1899,162 (Mt. Hamilton, Santa Clara Co., breeding). 
D[ryobates] nuttallii RDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 285. 
Dendrocopus nuttalli HAIT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xx4ii, 1890, 244 (Ashland, 
Oregon; localities in California). 
[Dendrocopus] nuttalli SHPE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215. 
t)icus scalaris (not of Wagler) GasEL, $ourn. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, 1847, 55, 
pl. 9, figs. 2, 3 (California). 
t)icus wilsonii MHESE, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., Nov., 1849, 529 (Monterey, 
California; coll. A. Malherbe?;----adult male). 
t)[icus] wilsoni BON,PaTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 138. 
t)[icus] wilsonii REmHENSCH, Handb. Scansores, Picine, 1854, 375. 
[Trichopicus] wilsoni BOnaPaRTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod.,1854, 8). 

DRYOBATES SCALARIS SCALARIS (Wagler). 

OIIZABA WOODPECEI. 

Adult male.--Pileum, superficially, bright red (poppy red or ver- 
milion), the feathers dark grayish sooty basally, and with a white 
spot in middle portion, the red tips gradually increasing in length 
toward the nape, so that the white spots are concealed posteriorly, 
but exposed on the crown, where also the basal dusky shows, more or 
less; forehead with very little, if any, red, passing into brownish 
(more or less dark) anteriorly; hindneck, back, scapulars, and rump 
broadly, sharply, and regularly barred with black and white, the black 
bars narrower than the white, and less distinct on rump; shorter upper 
tail-coverts black, usually with a white subapical spot or bar; longer 
upper tail-coverts and four middle rectrices uniform black; lateral 
(developed) pair of rectrices dull or brownish white, crossed by about 
six broad bars of black, those on basal portion of outer web usually 
rduced to spots next to shaft; next (third) pair similar, but with 
about basal half of inner web uniform black; fourth pair black, with 
broad white spots, or broadly and irregularly edged with white, on 
about terminal half of outer web, the inner web sometimes with one to 
three white spots on terminal portion; wings black, the middle coverts 
with a central or subapical, usually cordate, spot of white, the lesser 
coverts (at least the posterior ones) with a smaller and more rounded 
white central spot, the greater coverts crossed by two transverse 
series, or bands, of wtfite spots, the secondaries with six similar white 
bands, the first (subbasal one) concealed by greater coverts, the pri- 
maries similarly marked; nasal tufts dull brownish wtfite to pale 
brown; a broad supraauricular stripe of brownish white or pale dull 
brownish huffy; a broad subauricular stripe of the same color, extend- 

a According to Anthony (ZOO, iv, 1893, 236) this may be D. scalar,is dremics. 



BIRDS OF 17ORTtt AND 1VflDDLE AMERICA. 247 

Rio), southern Tamaulipas (Aldama; Tampico; Alta Mira), and 
southern San Luis Potosi (Vallds). 
P[icus] scalaris WAGLER, Isis, 1829, 511 (Mexico a).RAy, Gem Birds, ii, 1845, 
435.--BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 138.--REICHENBACH, I/andb. Scan- 
sores, Picinm, 1854, 377, pl. 639, figs. 4264-4266. 
[Picus] scalaris LIcttTENSTEIN, Nora. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75.--GRAY, Hand-list' 
ii, 1870, 185, no. 8605.--SCLATER and SALVIN, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 
Picus scalaris SCITER, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1856, 307, part (Mexico; crit.); 
Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 333, part (Orizaba, Vera Cruz).--MALERBE, Men. Picid. 
i, 1861, 116; iii, 1861, pl. 27, figs. 1--6.--SUNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 
18 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz).RAY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 
48 (Mexico).--BAIRD, BREWER, and RIDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
515, part. 
D[ryobates] scalaris RIP,WAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 284, part (Vera Cruz). 
Dryobates scalaris scalaris AERICAN ORNITttOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 3d ed., 
1910, 188.--OsEROLSER, Prec. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 140, 141 (monogr.). 
[Picus scalaris] var. scalaris BAIRD, BREWER, and RIP,WAY, ttist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 501, 517, part. 
[Dyctiopicus] scalaris BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 
Picus (Dyctiopicus) scalaris BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxviii, 
part. 
D[iclyopipo] scalaris CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. ttein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 74 (Jalapa). 
[Dictyopipo] scalaris IIEINE and REICttENOW, Nora. Mus. ttein. Orn., 1890, 215 
(Jalapa). 
Dendrocopus scalaris HARGrrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part (Aldama 
and Tampico, Tamaulipas; Jalapa, Cordova, Orizaba, and San Andres, Vera 
Cruz).--SALVIN and GOD,AN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 435, part 
(Tampico and Aldama, s. Tamaulipas; Jalapa, Coatcpec, Cordova, I/uatusco 
near Cordova, Odzaba, and Plan del Rio, Vera Cruz).b 
[Dendrocopus] scalaris SHnPE, ttand-list, ii, 1900, 215, part. 
Picus gracilis LESSON, Iev. Zool., 1840, 41 (Mexico). 
Picus orizabx CSSIN, Prec. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 196 (Orizaba, Vera Cruz; 
coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). 
DRYOBATES SCALARIS RIDGWAYI Oberholser. 
TLALCOTALP.M WOODPECKER. 
Similar to D. s. scalaris, but decidedly smaller; similar in size to 
D. s. parvus, but lateral under parts streaked instead of spotted (or, 
if spotted, the spots narrow and much smaller), malar region paler 
(with less blackish intermixture) anteriorly, and black bars on back, 
etc., relatively narrower. 
Adult m, ale.--Length (skins), 140-154 (147); wing, 88-92.5 (90.7); 
tail, 45-50.5 (47.7) ; exposed culmen, 18.5-20.5 (19.1) ; tarsus, 16-17.5 
(16.6); outer anterior toe, 11.5-12 (11.7).  

a The precise locality not stated, but the description indicates the form from central 
and northern Vera Cruz. 
b The localities Sola and Juchatengo (Oaxaca) and Amula (Guerrero), mentioned in 
the "Bioloa," I am unable to properly allocate, not a single specimen from either of 
the States of Oaxaca or Guerrero being contained in the series of more than 550 exam- 
ples of this species examined in this connection. 
e Four specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 49 

Yucatan (Sisfil; Mrida; Temfix; Clfichen-Itza; La Vega; west of 
Tunkas; Progreso; San Felipe; Tekanto; Ticdl; Tizimln; Chable; 
Pocdl; Cozuml Island). 
Picus parvus C,BOT, Journ. Ac. Nat. $ci. Phila., v, 1845, 90 (Ticfil, Yucatan; 
coll. S. Cabot, jr.). 
P[icas] parvus GR,Y, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. 21. 
D[ryobaes] scalaris parvus RDow,Y, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 284. 
Dryobates scalaris parvus STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 206 (Tunkas 
and Tekanto, Yucatan).--CH,Pi,N, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., viii, 1896, 285 
(Chichen-Itza, Yucatan).--OBEHOLSR, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911,140, 
145 (monogr.). 
Picus scalaris (not of Wagler) SCL,TR and S,LwN, Ibis, 1859, 136 (Ticul, Yuca- 
tan).--L,WRENCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1869, 205 (M6rida, Yucatan).-- 
BIRD, BReWeR, and RIDOW,Y, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 515, part 
(Yucatan).--Bouc,RD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 452 (Yucatan).-- 
S,wN, Ibis, 1885, 191 (Cozumel I.; habits); 1889, 368 (Cozumel I.; crit.). 
[Picus] scalaris SC,TR and S,wN, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 
Dendrocopus scalaris H,RCXWT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part (M6rida, 
Tizimin, Chable, and Cozumel Island, Yucatan).--S,VN and GODMAN, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., ii, 1895, 435, part (Pocul, etc., Yucatan). 
[Dendrocopus] scalaris SHhR1), Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215, part (Yucatan). 
Picas vagatus C,ssN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 196 (Mexico?; coll. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila.); Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, pl. 52, fig. 1.---SUNDE- 
V,L, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 19.--GR,Y, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and 
Picid., 1868, 49. 
[Picas] vagatus GR,Y, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8610. 

DRYOBATES SCALARIS LEUCOIYrILURUS Oberholser. 

IaECr'S WOODIaECKER. 

Similar to D. s. parvus, but still smaller; lateral rectrices less regu- 
larly and less extensively barred (the inner web more extensively 
black basally, the outer with proximal portion more narrowly or not 
at all barred); back, etc., rather less broadly barred, and red of head 
in adult male slightly deeper (less scarlet). 
Aduh male.--Length (s-ldns), 137-149 (143); wing, 85-88.5 (86.8); 
tail, 43-48.5 (45.8); exposed culmen, 18-19 (18.5); tarsus, 16.5; 
outer anterior toe, 11.5-12 (11.7). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skin), 133.5; wing, 84; tail, 44; exposed 
culmen, 16.5; tarsus, 15; outer anterior toe, 11.5.  
British Honduras (pine ridge near Manatee Lagoon; Ycacos 
Lagoon). 

Dryobates scalaris leucoptilurus OBERIOLSER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 
1911, 141, 146 (Pine Ridge, near Manatee Lagoon, British Honduras; coll. 
Carnegie Mus.). 

a Two specimens, b One specimen. 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

DRYOBATES SCALARIS AGNUS Oberholser. 
CAMOA WOODPECKER. 
Similar to D. s. snaloenss, but decidedly larger. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 165-170 (167.5); wing, 100-101.5 
(100.8); tail, 58-59.5 (58.8); exposed culmen, 20-23 (21.5); tarsus, 
17; outer anterior toe, 13. a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 160-161.5 (161); wing, 95-98.5 
(96.8) ; tail, 56.5-60.5 (58.5) ; exposed culmen, 19.5-20 (19.8) ; tarsus, 
16-16.5 (16.3); outer anterior toe, 12. b 
Southern Sonora (Camoa; Batamotfl). 
Dryobates scalars agns OBERttOLSER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 1911, 
140, 150 (Camoa, Rio Mayo, Sinaloa, w. Mexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
DRYOBATES SCALARIS LUCASANUS (Xantus). 
SAN Y.UCAS WOODIECKER. 
Similar to D. s. agnus, but decidedly larger (especially bill and feet), 
black bars on back, etc., broader (usually nmch broader) than white 
ones, white bars on wings usually decidedly narrower, and black 
marldngs on lateral under parts usually shorter and broader (spots 
rather than streaks). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 174-191 (184); wing, 100-105 (102); 
tail, 60.5-66 (63); exposed culmen, 23.5-25 (24.5); tarsus, 18.5-19.5 
(19.1); outer anterior toe, 13-14.5 (14). b 
Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 168-182 (175); wing, 95-102 (99.2); 
tail, 57-69 (63.8); exposed culmen, 19-22 (20.5); tarsus, 17-18 
(17.7); outer anterior toe, 12.5-13 (12.8). 5 
Cape San Lucas district of Lower California (Cape San Lucas; San 
Josd del Cabo; La Laguna; La Paz; San Igncio; Rosarito; Santo 
Domingo; Miraflores; Todos Santos; Pescadero, 10 miles south of 
Todos Santos; Santa Anita; E1 Cajoncito; San Francisco Moun- 
tains; Victoria Mountains; Santa Margarita Island). 
Picus lucasanus XANTUS, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., Nov., 1859, 298 (Cape San 
Lucas, Lower California; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).--BR), Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1859, 302 (Cape San Lucas; crit.).--MLHn, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 
166.---ScL,Tn, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 333.--CAss, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1863, 195.--GRY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 50.-- 
ELLmT, IIlustr. New and Unfig. Birds N. Am., i, 1869, 7. 
P[icus] lucasanus SUNDVLL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 20. 
[Picus] lucasanus GRY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8612. 
D[iciyopipo] lucasana C..xs and HxN, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 75. 
Picus scalaris var. lucasanus BAIRD, in CooPn, Orn. Calif., 1870, 381 (crit.).-- 
Bn), BRWn, and IID(WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 519. 
[Picus scalars] vat. lucasanus BAIRD, BREWER, and IID(WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 501, 517. 
Picus scalaris.., vat. lucasanus Coups, Check List, 1873, no. 297b. 

Two specimens, b Ten specimens. 



354 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Dendrocopus scalari lucasanus TnAYEI and BANGS, Condor, ix, 1907, 136 (Santa 
Ann and San Andres, Lower California). 
(?)Dryobates nuttallii (not Picus nuttallii GambelT) BRYANT (W. E.), Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d set., 1889, 286 (San Rafael and Ensenada, Lower Cali- 
fornia; see Anthony, ZoO, iv, 1893, 236). 
Dryobatcs scalaris eremicus OBERnOLSER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, :Iune 30, 1911, 
141, 151 (San Fernando, n. w. Lower California; coll. U. S. Nat. MUS.).-- 
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, Auk, xxix, 1912, 383. 

DRYOBATES SCALARIS CACTOPHILUS Oberholser. 

CACTUS WOODPECKER. 

Similar to D. s. sgmplectus, but slightly larger, and with black bars 
on back., etc., decidedly broader. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 156-181 (170) ; wing, 99-107.5 (104) ; 
tail, 56.5-68 (60.8); exposed culmen, 21-27 (22.7); tarsus, 16.5-19.5 
(18.1); outer anterior toe, 12-14 (12.9). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 148-175 (162); wing, 97-106 
(101.5); tail, 56-65 (62.4); exposed cuhnen, 17.5-22 (19.8); tarsus, 
16-18.5 (17.1); outer anterior toe, 11.5-13 (12.2). b 
Lower and Upper Austral zones from extreme western Texas (Fort 
Hancock; Fort Davis; Davis Mountains; E1 Paso; Chisos Mountains; 
20 nfiles southwest of Toyahvale) through New Mexico and Arizona 
to southern Californi (Hesperia, Needles, and Cushenbury Springs, 
San Berardino County; San Gorg6nio Pass, Riverside County; 
Whitewater, Walters, Vallecito, Yuma, and Mount Spring, San 
Diego County) and northern Lower California (Colony, etc., lower 
Colorado River; delta of Colorado River; Salton River; Gardners 
Laguna; C6copah Major Mountains); north to southern Nevada (east 

a Thirty-five specimens, b Thirty-six specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Ten adult males from New Mexico ............................ 
Ten adult males from Arizona ................................ 
Two adult raales from northern Lower California .............. 
Four dult males from northern and middle Sonora ........... 
Five adult males from Chihuahua ............................. 
Four adult males from northern Durango ...................... 
FEMALES. 
Eight dult females from New Mexico ......................... 
Ten adult females from Arizona ............................... 
Five dult females from southeastern California (1) and north- 
ern Lower Calilornia (4) ..................................... 
even adult females from northern and middle Sonora ......... 
Three adult females from Chihuahua .......................... 
Three adult females from northern Durango ................... 

Wing. 

104.2 
105 
105. 5 
100.2 
104. 2 
103. 5 

102. 1 
100. 8 

100.7 
100.1 
104 
104 

Tail. 

60.5 
61. 9 
63 
59.9 
61.1 
58.1 

61.4 
59. 6 

,59.8 
6O 
69.5 
62. 5 

posed 
culmen. 

22.1 
23.1 
24.5 
22.2 
22.1 
23.5 

20.4 
19. 3 

20.5 
19.3 
20 
19.8 

17.6 
18,9 
19.2 
16.9 
17.8 
18. 5 

16. 9 
17.2 

17.5 
16. 7 
17.2 
17.5 

Our 
ante- 
rior toe. 

12.7 
13. 
13. 
12. 
12.{ 
13.1 

12. i 
12. ] 

122 
12A 
1Lt 
12 



256 BULLETIN 50 JNITED STATES NATIONAL MJSEUM. 

belt).--FisHR (A. K.), North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 47 (Hesperia, e. of 
Cajon Pass, s. e. California; e. base Charleston Mrs., and Vegas Wash., s. 
Nevada; near mouth of Santa Clara R., s. Utah; junction of Bear Creek and 
Virgin R. Arizona).--BENDm, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 63, part.-- 
MILLER (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxii, 1900, 344 (Matalotes, etc., 
n. w. Durango; crit.).--HuNN, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 421 (Silver City, New 
Mexico, resident).--GRINNELL (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, 1908, 61 (bae 
of San Bernardino Mrs., at Cushenbury Springs, s. California, Aug.). 
HOLLISTER, Auk, xxv, 1908, 458 (Needles, s. e. California, common). 
Dryobates scalar.is bard STEnNS, Auk, vii, 1890, 297 (Colorado Desert). 
Dryobates scalaris lucasanus (not Picus lucasanus Xantus) AERICAN ORNITHOLO- 
giSTS' UNION, Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 396a, part; 3d ed., 1910, 188, 
part. MIIL]R (G. S.), Auk, xi, 1894, 178 (]]naitewater, San Diego Co,, 
California).--BENDIaE, Life :Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 65, part.---SWON, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1905, 681 (Colony and Cocopah Major Mts., Colo- 
rado delta, Lower California). 
Dryobates lucasanus GINN (J.), Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 37 (near 
Whitewater, Colorado Desert, breeding). 
Dryabates scalaris caclophibs OHos, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, une 30, 
1911, 140, 152 (TucsOn, Arizona; coll. U. S. :Nat. Mus.).--AMICN O- 
THOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, Auk, xxix, 1912, 383. 

DRYOBATES SCALARIS CENTROPHILUS Oberholser. 
SALISCO WOODPECKER. 
Similar to D. s. cactoph.ils, but slightly smaller, black bars on 
back, etc., averaging decidedly broader, the white bars narrower 
and (usually) less purely white, and under parts slightly darker; 
decidedly smaller than D. s. bairdi, with under parts slightly paler, 
and black bars of back, etc., averaging slightly narrower. 
Adult nale.--Length (skins), 152-185 (168); wing, 100-104.5 
(102.6); tail, 56-63.5 (58); exposed culmen, 19.5-23 (21.1); tarsus, 
16.5-17.5 (17); outer anterior toe, 11.5-13 (12.2). a 
Adult female.--Length (s-kins), 142-171 (153); wing, 97-103.5 
(99.6); tail, 54-62.5 (56.9); exposed cuhnen, 16.5-18.5 (17.5); tar- 
sus, 16-17 (16.4); outer anterior toe, 10.5-12 (11.4). 5 
Westera Mexico, from southerr Durango (Ciudd Durango) through 
Zacatecas (San Juan Capistrano) and Jalisco (Atemajc; Ocotln; 
Ameca; Zapotln; Beltrn; Zacoalco; Arroyo de Gaviln; La 1)isgua; 
Las Canoas; Guadalajara; VoIcan de Colima; Bolafios; Mineral de 
San Sebastian near Mascota), to Michoacn (Patambn; Uruapfm) 
and Territory of Tepic (Arroyo de Gaviln, near Amatlm). 
Picus scalaris (not of Wagler) :HARGITT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, 
part (Santa Aria, Guadalajara, Zapotlan, Beltran, Zacoalco, and Huayimic, 
6,000 ft., Jalisco).--SALvIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 
435, part (Volcan de Colima, Bolafios, Mineral de San Sebastian near Mascota, 
etc., Jalisco). 
Dryobates scalm'is centrophilus OSEOLSE, Proc. U. S. :Nat. Mus., xli, Iune 30, 
1911, 140, 157 (Ameca, Ialisco, west-central Mexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

a Five specimens, b Seven specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 259 

Pachuca), Guanajuato (Silao), and Coahuila (La Ventura; Carneros; 
Jar/d); Mexico (Valley of Mexico; Tetelco, Tlalp/tm; Tetelco, 
Xochimi]co) ? 
Picus bairdi MAL.aB., Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 118 (Mexico;a ex Sclater, manu- 
script); iii, 1861, pl. 27, figs. 7, 8.--ScaTs.a, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 333, part 
(n. Mexico); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 117 (near City of Mexico).-- 
CASSIN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. lhila., 1863, 196, part (northern Mexico).-- 
GravY, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and licid., 1868, 48 (north Mexico). 
(?)P[icus] bairdii SUNDEVALL, Consp. AV. Picin., 1866, 19 (n. Mexico). 
[Picus] bairdi GPY, IIand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8609. 
(?)D[ictyopipo] bairdi CABANm and tIEINE, MUS. IIein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 76 (n. 
Mexico). 
D[ryobates] scalaris bairdi RIDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 285, part. 
Picus scalaris (not of Wagler) LAWnENC, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 34 
(Puente Colorado, Puebla).--(?)IInaEm, La Namraleza, (2) i, 1891, 179 
322 (Valley of Mexico). 
Dendrocopus scalaris IIhaGWW, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part 
(Atlixco, Pinal, and San Miguel Molino, Puebla; Tetelco de Tlalpam, and 
Tetelco de Xochimilco, Mexico?).--SLvN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Ayes, ii, 1895, 435, part (Guanajuato; plains of San Luis PotosI; Moctezuma, 
San Ltis Potosi; Pucnte Colorado, luebla; Valley of Mexico, Tetelco, and 
Chimalpa, Mexico). 
Dryobates scalaris bairdi JOUY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1894, 785 (Ahualulco, 
San Luis I)otosI).--OBEaHOLSER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 140, 158 
(monogr.). 
DRYOBATES STRICKLANDI (Malherbe). 
sc.nv's woov.cm. 
Adul male.--Crown (lark sooty brown, seal brown, or very dark 
sepia, fading into paler sooty brown on forehead and nasal plumes; 
occiput and upper nape bright poppy or vermilion red; upper parts 
dark sooty brown or seal brown, the median portion of back and 
vhole rump, broadly barred or transversely spotted with white, the 
outer vebs of prhnaries (except outermost) with quadrate spots of 
white, these becoming smaller and less numerous on inner (proximal) 
quills; upper tail-coverts and tail blackish brown or brownish black, 
the two lateral rectrices (on each side) mostly white, with several, 
usually broad, bars of black on distal portion, the third with more 
or less of white on distal portion, mostly on outer web; a broad 
supra-auricular streak of white and a broad suborbital and sub- 
auricular stripe of the same, originating at rictus and extending to 
side of neck, where involving the greater part of that area; auricular 
re,on very dark sooty brown, the malar region similar, forming a 
conspicuous, usually broad and uninterrupted, stripe of that color; 
under parts dull white, heavily streaked, spotted, and barred with 
very dark sooty brown, the mar-kings mostly longitudinal on foreneck 

a Type locality fixed by Oberholser (Proc. U. S.- Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 159) as 
State of Hidalgo, south-central Mexico. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND ]V[IDDLE AMERICA. 261 

DRYOBATES ARIZON ARIZONE (Hargitt). 
ARIZONA WOODPECKER. 
Similar to D. stricklandi, but without any white on back or rump; 
brown of back, etc., lighter, and marl-rings on foreneck, chest, and 
breast in form of large rounded or subcordate spots instead of streaks. 
Adult raale in auturan and winter.--Piletun and hindneck deep sooty 
brown (warm sepia to dark sepia), becoming paler (more smoky 
brown) on forehead and nasal tufts, interrupted by a nuchal crescent 
of bright red (poppy red to scarlet vermilion) ; auricular re,on simi- 
lar, sometimes rather lighter and grayer brown; back, scapulars, 
4ug-coverts, rump, and general color of remiges plain grayish brown 
(deep broccoli brown or drab), the last (except two outermost) 
marked on outer webs with rather small quadrate or triangular spots 
of white, except on terminal portion, the distal secondaries similarly 
marked, but with smaller spots; upper tail-coverts and tail similar 
to or darker than pileun in color, the former sometines having a 
few feathers narrowly tipped with white, the two outer pairs of 
normal rectrices broadly barred with white on terminal portion 
(about five white bars, including terminal one, on outer 'cb, fewer 
on inner web, these white bars sometimes broader than the dusky 
interspaces); inner webs of remiges (except terminal third or more 
of longer primaries) spotted or broadly barred with white; a narrow 
postocular stripe and broader rictal stripe, extending posieriorly 
beneath orbital and attricular regions, white, both confluent pos- 
teriorly with a large white area on side of neck; a broad, usually 
more or less broken or interrupted malar stripe of dark sooty brown 
or sepia (the anterior portion usually barred or spotted with whitish), 
continued posteriorly to lower portion of sides of neck, where much 
broader than anteriorly; under parts dull white, spotted, except on 
chin and at least upper part of throat, with dark sooty brown, the 
spots largest and usually roundish or sub-cordate, but sometimes 
guttate on chest or breast, the flanks and under tail-coverts broadly 
barred ith dark sooty brown or dusky; bill horn color, darker toward 
culmen; legs and feet grayish olive or greenish gray (in dried s -kins). 
Adult male in si)ring and suramer.--Similar to the autumn and 
winter plumage, but brown of upper parts paler, inclining more or 
less toward isabella color, and red nuchal crescent more scarlet. 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
nape. 
Young male.--Essentially like the autumnal or winter adult male, 
but red of head on crown and occiput instead of on nape, only the 
tips of the feathers being red, forming a large patch, more or less 
broken, at least anteriorly; spots on breast, etc., smaller, nearly longi- 
tudinal, the ground color of under parts more grayish white. 



BIRDS O17 NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 265 

XENOPICUS ALBOLARVATUS ALBOLARVATUS (Cassin). 

WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER. 

Adult mae.--Head, all round (except posterior occiput and upper 
nape, and a postocular streak), together with foreneck, plain white, 
the nasal tufts more or less tinged with brownish; an occipito-nuchal 
band of bright poppy red; rest of plumage uniform, slightly glossy, 
black, duller black on wings, the primaries extensively white o 
proximal half (more or less) of both webs, this white extending nmch 
farther on outer than on inner web; bill slate-blackish; iris brownish 
red or dull carmine; legs and feet grayish olive or olive-grayish (in 
life) ; length (skins), 205-236 (216) ; wing, 124-131 (127.9) ; tail, 
74-85 (80.9); culmen, 27-30.5 (28.1) ; depth of bill at base, 7-8 (7.6) ; 
tarsus, 21-23 (21.9); outer anterior toe, 13.5-15 (14.2). a 
Adult female.---Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
occiput or nape; length (skins), 190-215 (208); wing, 124-130.5 
(126.9); tail, 75.5-90 (82.3) ; culmen, 24--27 (25.3) ; depth of bill at 
base, 6.5-8 (7.1); tarsus, 20-23 (21.2); outer anterior toe, 13.5-14.5 
(13.9).a 
Young male.---Similar to the adult male, but the black much duller, 
especially on underparts, where, as well as o hindneck, the feathers 
are sometimes indistinctly and narrowly margined at tip with 
grayish, the hindneck sometines indistinctly spotted with whitish, 

a Fourteen specimens. 

i Ex- Depth 
Locality. [ Wing. Tail. posed of bill 
culmen, at base. 

MALES. 
'ive adult mles from Oregon ......................... 
ix adult males from northern California ............. 
'hree adult ]hales from western Nevada .............. 
ne adult male (2. a. gravirostri) from Wilsons Peak, 
San Gabriel Mountains .............................. 
ve adult males (X. a. gravirostr) from San Ber- 
nardino Mountains .................................. 
'our adult males (X. a. gravirostris) from San Jacinto 
Mountains .......................................... 
FEMALES. 
'he adult female from Washington .................... 
'wo adult females from Oregon ....................... 
'en adult females from northern California ............ 
'he adult female from western Nevada ................ 
,he adult female (X. a. gravirostri) from Cuymaca 
Mountain, San Diego County ........................ 
even adult females (X. a. grarostris) lrom San Ber- 
nardino Mountains .................................. 
'wo adult females (X. a. gravrostris) from San iIacinto 
Mountains .......................................... 

129. 7 82. 7 28. 7 7. 8 
127. 5 79. 4 28 7. 4 
125.5 79.3 27.5 7.7 
122 ........ 29. 5 8 
12 4 80. 8 29. 5  5 
127. 1 80. 8 30. 1  1 

130 
129 
126. 3 
126 

129. 5 

90 26.5 {.5 
84.5 25.7 7.5 
81.3 25.3 7.2 
81 24. 5 6. 5 

86.5 28 8 

79.5 27.1 7.9 

127 80. 2 2 2 8. 2 

ITarsus. 

22 
21. 9 
21. 8 
23.6 
22.  
22. 2 

21 
22. 2 
2O. 8 
21 

21.7 

21. 7 

Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 

14. 
14 
14 
14 
14. 2 
14. 5 

14 
14.2 
13.  
14 

14 

14 



268 BULLETII 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus PHRENOPICUS Bonaparte. 

Phrenopicus ]ONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, if, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 
1854, 8). (Type, as fixed by Gray, 1855, Pious borealis Vieillot.) 
Pyroupicus IIALERBE, on. t'icid., Introduction, 1861, p. liii. (Type, P/cus 
borealis Vieillot.) 
Threnopipo ('ABANIS and ttINE, IIus. l:[ein., iv, heft 2, June 20, 1863, 70. 
(Type, Picas borealis Vieillot.) 
Similar to Dryobates, but differing in relatively much longer and 
more pointed wing (longest primaries exceeding secondaries by more 
than one-third the length of wing, the ninth primary nearly as long 
as fifth), much smaller tenth (outermost) primary (only one-fourth, 
instead of one-tlfird, as long as ninth), and relatively much smaller 
bill (culmen shorter than outer hind toe with claw but prefrontal 
plumes covering less than basal third of maxilla), the adult male 
with a longitudinal streak of red on each side of occiput. 
Bill shortcr than head, rather compressed for anterior half, dis- 
tinctly but narrowly chiscl-shaped at tip, its width at anterior end 
of nostrils about equal to its depth at same point; culmen straight 
or very faintly convex, sharl)ly ridged; gonys less than twice as 
long as mandibular rami, straight, distinctly ridged; supranasal ridge 
and prenasal groove very distinct, unning out to edge of maxilla 
about one-third the distance from tip to base of tomium. Nostril 
longitudinally elliptical, nearer to tomium than to culmen, com- 
pletely covered by the conspicuous antrorse tuft of hair-like, bristle- 
pointed, prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex and clfin 
antrorse, with slender bristle-like tips. Orbital region mostly feath- 
ered, including margin of eyelids. Wing long and pointed, the 
longest primaries exceeding secondaries by more than one-tlfird 
the length of wing; sixth, seventh, and eighth primaries longest, 
the ninth nearly as long as fifth, the tenth (outermost) one-fourth 
as long as ninth or slightly less. Tail nearly two-thirds as long as 
wing, the rectrices relatively rather narrow, the middle pair strongly 
decurved and gradually contracted terminally. Tarsus about as 
long as culmen, about as long as outer hind toe with claw, the latter 
decidedly longer than the outer front toe and claw. 
Coloration.--Above black, the back and wings barred and spotted 
with white; outer rectrices white spotted or barred with black; 
auricular and suborbital regions and under parts white, the latter 
spotted and streaked with black laterally; a black malar stripe; 
adult male with a narrow concealed streak of red along each side 
of occiput. 
Range.--Southeastern United States. (Monotypic.) 



BIRDS OF IORTI:t AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 269 

PHRENOPICUS BOREALIS (Vieillot). 

RED COC.ADED WOODPECKER. 

Adult male.--Pileum, hindneck, loral and rictal regions, and broad 
malar stripe, extending posteriorly to sides of neck, where wider than 
anteriorly, glossy blue-black; nasal tufts dull whitish; suborbital and 
auricular regions white, forming a large patch or area which extends 
posteriorly onto sides of neck and anteriorly sends a narrow branch 
to above middle of eye; a streak of bright red (poppy red or scarlet- 
vermilion), mostly concealed, along each edge of occiput, immediately 
above the white auricular area; extreme upper back sooty black, 
tually with concealed spots or streaks of whitish; rest of back, 
together with scapulars, broadly barred with sooty black and white, 
the two colors approximately equal in extent; upper rump also 
barred with black and white, but less regularly or distinctly; lower 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and four middle rectrices black; two outer 
normal rectrices white (usually more or less stained), with basal 
portion of inner web black, the white portion of inner web with three 
broad bars or transverse spots of dull black, the distal of which reap- 
pears on outer web; third normal rectrix with whole, or nearly all, 
of inner web black, also the basal half, approximately, of outer web, 
the line of demarkation longitudinally oblique; a wings sooty black, 
the middle and posterior lesser coverts variously spotted with white, 
the greater covcrts with two transverse rows of white spots, the 
secondaries crossed by. four (exposed) narrow bands or broad bars 
of white; outer webs of primaries (except two outermost) with sub- 
quadrate spots of white; inner webs of remiges (except terminal 
half, more or less, of longer primaries) with large spots of white; 
underparts white, the sides of chest longitudinally spotted or broadly 
streaked with deep black, the sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts 
with smaller spots and streaks of dusky; bill, blackish; iris, brown; 
legs and feet dusky greenish olive in dried skins. 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but without any red 
streak on sides of occiput. 
Young male.--Essentially like adult female, but a large spot of 
bright red or orange-red in center of crown, forehead narrowly streaked 
with white, general "pattern" of coloration less sharply defined, 
and underparts duller white, with markin dusky or dark sooty 
brown or brownish black instead of deep black. 
Young female.--Similar to young male, but without any red on 
crown. 

a Usua!ly there is a more or less distinct dusky spot near tip of outer web, and 
often the terminal portion of outer web of the fourth normal rectrix has more or less 
of white edging or spotting. 



BIRDS OF NORTIt AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 275 

Adult male in autumn and winter.--Similar to the spring and 
summer plumage, but the lighter-colored markings of back and 
scapulars and color of nape light yellowish olive or light huffy yel- 
lowish brown instead of wlfite, yellow of under parts deeper, and 
sides light brownish instead of whitish; bill more brownish. 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but chin and throat 
white instead of red, and [requently with red of pileum reduced in 
extent, often altogether wanting, the whole forehead, crown, an(l 
occiput sometimes uniform glossy black, sometimes with small 
whitish streaks or sagittate spots. (Seasonal variations same as in 
adult male.) 
Young (sexes alilce).--Wings and tail as in autumnal adults, but 
otherwise very different; pileum sooty brown or sepia, each feather 
with a more or less distinct small terminal or subterminal spot of 
paler; auricular region and malar stripe brownish (instead of black), 
the former with narrow shaft-streaks of dull whitish; chin and upper 
throat dull white or pale buffy brownish; lower throat, foreneck, 
and chest pale brown, broken by crescentic bars or lunules of 
dusky; otherwise as in autumnal adults but sides and flanks more 
brownish. (The red of the adult ph.mage appears in scattered 
feathers on forehead and crown before .any black feathers are ac- 
quired on chest or malar region, and also on the throat in the case 
of young males.) 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 189-206 (198); wing, 120-130 
(124.1); tail, 67-76 (72.5); culmen, 21.5-25.5 (23.4); tarsus, 19-22 
(20.3) ; outer anterior toe, 14-16 (14.7). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 182-206 (192); wing, 121-128 
(124.3); tail, 68-75 (71.7); culmen, 22-24 (22.7); tarsus, 18.5-20 
( 19.4).; outer anterior toe, 13.5-15.5 ( 14.4).a 
Eastern North America, breeding from northern portion of Caro- 
linian life-zone in northern Missouri, northern Indiana, northern 
Ohio, Massachusetts (mountains of Berkshire County), etc., north t o 
Mackenzie (Fort Providence; Fort Simpson; Fort Smith; Fort Rae; 
Fort Resolution; Fort Liard; Nehawney Mountains, 100 nfiles north- 
west of Fort Simpson; Big Island, Great Slave Lake), central Kee- 
watin, central Quebec, and Cape Breton Island, west to Alberta 
(Fort McHcnry, Athabasca River), and southward on Allegheny 
Mountains to North Carolina; wintering from Pennsylvania, Ohio 
Valley, etc., southward (occasionally farther northward); migrating 
southward over greater part of Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas 
(Sierra Madre, near Victoria), San Luis Potosi (Soledfid), Nuevo 
LeSn (Rodriguez; Monterey; Cerro de la Silla), Coahuila (Sierra de 
Guadalupe), Guanajuato, Hidalgo (Refil de] Monte; El Chico), 

a Ten specimens. 



282 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

SPHYRAPICUS RUBER RUBER (Gmelin). 
ED-BEASTED SAPSUCrE. 
Adult ale in spring and summer.--Head, neck, and chest, bright 
red (nearest poppy red) superficially, (the feathers dusky grayish 
beneath surface); nasal tufts and anterior and lower portion of loral 
region (lull yellowish white or pale dull buffy, the posterior portion of 
loral region (next to eye) black, this sometimes continued, narrowly, 
along edge of forehead; red of suborbital region lighter than that 
of malar region, th latter blackish at anterior end; rest of under 
parts very pale straw yellow or yellowish white, the breast more 
or less washed or overlaid with bright red, the sides, flanks, and 
under tail-coverts less yellowish white, broken by mostly V-shaped 
or hastate markings of dusky grayish; general color of upper parts 
(except head and neck) black, broken by a double series (converging 
posteriorly) of white spots down middle of back, a longitudinal 
white patch on wing-coverts (involving most of middle coverts 
and outer webs of distal greater coverts) and white spots on outer 
web of primaries and at tip of proximal secondaries, the inner web 
and tip of upper tail-coverts also white, and inner web of middle 
pair of rectrices with oblique, quadrate spots of white; bill brownish 
black or blackish brown; iris brown; legs and feet grayish; length 
(skins), 176-208 (194); wing, 118-127.5 (123.1); tail, 71.5-77 (74.6); 
culmen, 23-25.5 (24.2); tarsus, 20-22 (20.7); outer anterior toe, 
14-16 (15.2). a 
Adult male in autumn ad winter.--Similar to the adult male in 
spring and summer, but the red duller, more vinous (sometimes 
approaching lake red or light bmt carmine), under parts of body 
more decidedly yellowish, spots on back brownish white or pale 
brofish, and bill horn brofish instead of nearly black. 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male and not always distin- 
guishable, but usually (?) with the breast less strongly washed with 
red; length (skins), 186-206 (195); wing, 120-125.5 (122.8); tail, 
71-79 (75.1) ; culmen, 22-25 (23.8) ; tarsus, 19-21 (20.1) ; outer ante- 
rior toe, 14.5-15.5 (15).  
Young (both sexes).--Wings, tail, and back essentially as in adults; 
pileum, nape, auricular region, and malar region sooty blackish or 
dark grayish sooty, the forehead and crown usually tinged, more or 
less strongly, with dull red, sometimes decidedly dull red (malar 
region also sometimes dull reddish); suborbital stripe white (some- 
times tinged with red) ; chin, throat, and chest dull grayish (the fit 
two sometimes partly intermixed with dull whitish), usually more 
or less distinctly barred with darker but sometimes immaculate, 
often tinged (in part at least) with reddish; sides grayish, usually 

a Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 285 

islands; Chilkat River; Chickamin River); occasional southward in 
winter as far as Monterey, California. 
Picus tuber notlcensis Sucgow, Anfangsgr. Naturg. Th., ii, i, 1800, 535 (Nootka 
Sound, Brit. Columbia; based on "Cook's last roy., ii, 297."). 
Sphyrapicus tuber notkensis RICHMOND, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, April 25, 
1902, 89 (crit. nomencl.).--AERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION COITTE, 
Auk, xix, 1902, 319; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 191.--BOWLES, Auk, xxiii, 
1906, 144 (Puyallup Valley, Washington, resident).--EDsoN, Auk, xxv, 1908, 
434 (Bellingham Bay, Washington, resident).--KRODE, Prov. Mus. Brit. 
Col., 1909, 49 (Vancouver I.; Chilliwack). 
Sphyrapicus tuber nootlcensis BOWLES, Condor, x, 1908, 130 (Puyallup Valley, 
Washington). 
Picusflaviventris VIILLOT, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 67 (Nootka Sound); Nouv. 
Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 95 (Nootka Sound).--STEPtENS, Shaw's Gen. 
Zool., ix, 1815, 161. 
P[icus]flaviventris BONNATERRE and VIEILLOT, Enc. M6th., iii, 1823, 1320. 
Sphyrapicus tuber flaviventris OS(]OOD, North Am. Fauna, no. 21, Sept., 1901, 
45 (Queen Charlotte islands, Vancouver I., etc.; crit. nomencl.).--RATH- 
BUN, Auk, xix, 1902, 135 (Seattle, Washington, breeding). 
Picus tuber (not of Gmelin) AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 179, part, pl. 416, 
figs. 9, 10; Synopsis, 1839, 181, part; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 261 part, 
pl. 266.--MALHERBE, Mort. Picid., i, 1861, 132, part; iii, 1861, pl. 31, figs. 
1, 2.--SUNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 32, part (Nootka Sound). 
Melanerpes tuber BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 39, part. 
[Melanerpes] tuber BON.'PARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115, part. 
[Pilumnus] tuber BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. Zy- 
god., 1854, 8), part. 
Sphyrapicus tuber BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xxviii, 104, 
part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 87, part.--COUES, Check List, 1873, no. 
303, part.--AERICAN ORNITHOLO(]ISTS' UNION, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 403, part.--ANTHONY, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington Co., Oregon, 
resident).--lELSON, Rep. Nat.'Hist. Coll., Alaska, 1887, 160 (Chilcat R.).-- 
BENDIRE, Auk, v, 1888, 229, part (geog. range; habits, etc.); Life Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 92, part.--CaPAN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 
139 (coast Brit. Columbia).--FANNN, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 28 
(e. and w. side of Cascade range).--DAwsoN, Auk, xiv, 1897, 175 (Okanogan 
Co., Washington, 1 spec.).--BIsHOP, North Am. Fauna, no. 19, 1900, 78 
(Skagway, Alaska). 
[Sphyrapicus] ruber COVES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 195, part. 
S[phyrapicus] tuber RID(WAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 
Sphyropicus tuber SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 236 (Vancouver I.).-- 
BROWN, Ibis, 1868, 419 (Vancouver I.).--CooPER, Orn. Cal., 1870, 392, 
part.--HARTLAUB, Journ. Iiir Orn., 1883, 275 (Chilkat R., Alaska).--HAm 
GTT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 194, part ("Behring Straits"; Ft. 
Rupert and Vancouver I., Brit. Columbia). 
[Sphyropicus] tuber SHARPE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212, part. 
Sphyropicus varius var. tuber RD(WAY, Am. Journ. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456, 
footnote, part; v, Jan., 1873, 40, footnote, part.--BAIR), BREWER, and 
RD(WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 544, part. 
Sphyrapicus varius tuber RID(]WAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189, part; 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 369b, part.--COuES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, 
no. 448.--GRINNLL (J.), Condor, iii, 1901, 12 (crit.; range); Pacific Coast 
Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 38 (range).--ANDERsoN and GRNNELL, Proc. Ac. 



286 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 8 (Siskiyou Mts., n. California; crit.).--SwAar, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 1911, 69 (Kupreanof, Kuiu, Prince of Wales, 
Etolin, and Wrangell islands and Chickamin R., Alaska; crit.); x, 1912, 34 
(descr. nest; crit. nomencl.).a 
Sphyropicus varius tuber Coves, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 448, par 
S[phyropicus] v[arius] tuber Coves, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 486, part. 
[Sphyrapicus varius] c. ruber Coves, Birds Northwest, 1874, 286, part (synonymy). 
Sphyrapicus tuber tuber GRINN,, (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, 1909, 218 
(Admiralty Is., Alaska; crit.). 

SPHYRAPICUS THYROIDEUS (Cassin). 

WILLIAMSON'S WOODPECKER. 

Adult male.--Greater par of head and neck, back, scapulars, 
chest, and sides of breast uniform glossy greenish blue-black; a white 
postocular or supra-auricular streak, extending to sides of nape, 
where considerably expanded; a white suborbital and subauricular 
stripe originatin on and involving nasal tufts and extending to 
beneath end of auricular region; a median stripe of bright poppy 
red on lower chin and upper throat; abdomen and median portion 
of breast bright sulphur or canary yellow (sometimes nearly lemon 
yellow); sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts white, broadly striped 
and spotted with black, the markings more or less V-shaped on flanks 
and under tail-coverts; lower rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
the lateral portions of the former and outer webs of latter largely 
black; tail black; wings black, the middle coverts and outer webs 
of greater coverts (except inner or proximal ones) white, forming a 
very conspicuous large longitudinal patch on wing, the second, or 
third, to fifth primaries (counting from outermost) usually with a 
greater or less number of small white spots on outer web; bill black 
in summer, purplish slaty brown in winter; iris deep reddish brom; 
legs and feet grayish olive in life; length (skins), 190-20 (208); 
wing, 131.5-139 (136.8); tail, 70.5-88.5 (83.2); culmen, 23-28 (25.6); 
tarsus, 20.5-22.5 (21.5); outer anterior toe, 14-15 (14.5). b 
]'oung ma/e.--Similar in pattern of coloration to the adult male, 
but the black everywhere much duller (that on back often broken 
by more or less concealed white spotting or strea -Idng), throat-stripe 
white instead of red, yellow of abdomen and breast paler, and sides 
and flanks barred, rather than striped or spotted, with dusky. 
Adult female.--Very different from either adult or young male. 
Pileum and hindneck deep drab, the occiput and nape more or less 
streaked (sometimes also narrowly barred) with black; back and 
scapulars broadly barred with black and pale drab or, (in worn 

a Mr. Swarth seems to have made out a good case in favor of restriction of the name 
tuber to the northern form instead of the southern one. Unfortunately it is now 
too late for me to reopen the question. 
b Twenty specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 291 

bb. Rump (sometimes upper tail-coverts also) barred or spotted with white; back 
mostly white, this with usually a longitudinal instead of transverse disposi- 
tion; sides and flanks less heavily barred; forehead with whitish prevailing, 
or at least conspicuously spotted with white; white supra-auricular streak 
distinct, usually conspicuous. 
c. Smaller (wing averaging 116.8 in adult male, 113 in adult female); white of 
back more or less broken by black bars; white spots on inner web of inner- 
most secondaries smaller. (Hudsonian zone of Alaska and Mackenzie and 
southward over Hudsonian highlands of British Columbia and western 
Alberta.) ......................... Picoides americanus fasciatus (p. 295). 
cc. Larger (wing averaging 123.3 in adult male, 121.5 in adult female); white of 
back continuous, not broken (or very rarely and to slight extent) by black 
bars; white spots on inner web of innermost secondaries larger. (High 
coniferous forests of Rocky Mountains, from southern Idaho and Montana 
to New Mexico and Arizona.) ...... Picoides amcricanus dorsalis (p. 297). 
aa. Back wholly black. (Northern New England, northern New York, northern 
Michigan, and northern Minnesota to southern Ungava, central Keewafin, south- 
ern Mackenzic, central Yukon, and southern Alaska, west, through higher 
mountains of western South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada, to (he 
Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges.) ..... : ......... Picoides arcticus (I)- 298). 

PICOIDES AMERICANUS AMERICANUS Brehm. 

THIEE-TOED WOODPECKEI. 

Adult a/e.--Crown yellow (light wax yellow or dull light gamboge 
to saffron); forehead black, more or less spotted with dull white, 
especially on posterior portion (next to yellow of crown); rest of 
pi]eum, together with loral, orbital, and auricular regions and hind- 
neck, unifon glossy blue-black., sometimes with an indication of a 
nan)w postocular or supra-auricular streak of white, often with 
whitish spots or streaks on occiput (next to yellow of crown); rest 
of upper parts dull black or sooty black, the lower hindneck with 
more or less of white (sometimes forming a rather distinct but boken 
collar), back and upper rump barred or transversely spotted, along 
median portion, with white, the outer webs of remiges also spotted 
with white, except proximal secondaries, the innermost of which 
have white spots along edge of inner web; two lateral normal rec- 
trices, on each side, with distal half or more white, the third exten- 
sively white terminally, this white more or less stained with brownish, 
especially on distal portion; nasal tufts light grayish brown, finely 
streaked with black, this sometimes predominating on lower or ter- 
minal portion; a more or less distinct rictal streak or narrow stripe 
of white, passing beneath orbital and auricular regions; beneath this 
a mo or less broad malar stripe of glossy black or blue-black, usually 
more or less broken by white tips to the feathers; under parts white, 
the sides and flanks broadly barred with black, the anterior portion 
of sides (sides of breast) with bars more irregular, sometimes broken 
into spots and streaks; bill grayish horn color, the mandible paler 
(pale yellowish gray); feet dark grayish horn color (in dried skins); 



294 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL V[USEUIV[. 

in winter).--RALP and BArite, Trans. Oneida IIist. Soc., iii, 1886, 123 (Her- 
kimer and Hamilton counties, New York, rare resident).--CmBouR-, 
Auk, iv, 1887, 104 (White Mts., New Hampshire, 3960 ft.).--ToPsoN, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 550 (n. e. Manitoba).--HRGIr, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 279 (Big Moose Lake, Moose R., Hamilton Co., and Her- 
kimer Co., New York; etc.).--CooK, Bull. 54, Mich. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
1893, 88 (n. peninsula and Gogebic district, Michigan, visitant).--BENm, 
Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 77.--MoRRELL, Auk, xvi, 1899, 251 (Nova 
Scotia, March).--(?)RoBmNs, Auk, xvii, 1900, 173 (Beverly, Massachu- 
setts, Jan. 21, 1899 a).--NoRTON, Proc. Portland Soc. N. H., ii, 1901, 153 
(Northwest R., Labrador; descr, young).--FEMN% Auk, xviii, 1901, 39 
(Parry Sound and Muskoka, n. Ontario, winter); xix, 1902, 79 (Toronto, 
Ontario, Nov. 16, 1901).--PR, North Am. Fauna, no. 22, 1902, 112 
(Severn R., Ft. Churchill, etc., I(eewatin).--TowNsND and ALLEN, I'OC. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xxxiii, 1907, 377 (Labmdor).RoERWS, in Wilcox's Hist. 
Becker Co., Minn., 1907, 176 (Lke Itasca, breeding in 1902).--Ns, Vertebr. 
Ontario, 1908, Birds, p. 50 (resident in northern, rare winter visitant in 
souther,b Ontario).--(?) Sww, Condor, xiii, 1911, 211 (Admiralty Islands, 
s. Alaska, resident). 
[Picoidcs] americanus GR.Y, IIand-list, ii, 1870, 181, no. 8537.--CoEs, Key 
N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part.--SR, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 217, part. 
P[icoides] americanus BREWSTER, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 122 (unusual 
influx into e. Massachusetts, winter of 1860-61).--Cos, Key N. Am. Birds, 
2d ed., 1884, 485, part.--RIw.', Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 287, part. 
Apternus americanus SWAINSON, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 306. 
Picus americanus SUNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 15. 
Picoides tridactylus, var. americanus B.IR, BREWER, and RIDW.Y, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 532, part. 
Picoides americanus . . . u. americanus COVES, Birds Northwest, 1874, 284. 
Picoides americanus americanus BAs, Auk, xvii, April, 1900, 132, part (crit.).-- 
ARmN ORrroLomws' UNIon, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 194.-- 
(?)SwaRTh, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 1911, 69 (Freshwater Bay, Chicha- 
goff Island, Alaska; crit.).--SuNERS, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 37 (Bear Canyon, 
Gallatin Co., Montana); Condor, xiv, 1912, 26 (Pipestone Creek, Jefferson 
Co., Montana, Oct. 6, 1909). 
Picoides tridactylus americanus RII)WAy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, March 27, 
1880, 6,189; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 368. MRRLM, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, vi, 1881, 232 (Adirondack region, New York, resident); Auk, i, 1884, 
295 (Point de Monts, Quebec). 
[Tridactylia] americana IIi and RIcrtNOW, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
213 (Canada; Labrador). 
Picus arcticus (not of Swainson) DKx', Zool. New York, 1844, 190, pl. 17, 
fig. 36. 
[Picoides amercanus.] Var. fasciatus BAIRD, in Cooper's Orn. Calif., 1870, 385, 
part. 
Picoides americanusfasciatus (not of Chapman, 1902) PREE, North Am. Faun, 
no. 27, 1908, 382, part (Ft. Anderson, Mackenzie; some specimens from Ft. 
Simpson; crit., etc.).--AEmN ORNrrooms' Uio, Check List, 3d 
ed., 1910, 190, part. 

a The vernacular name "Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker" being coupled with 
the technical name Picoides americanus, it is uncertain whether this species or P. 
arcticus is meant. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND 1VIIDDLE A1VIERICA. '297 

(?)Picoides americanusfumipectus GRINNELL (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, no. 2, 
Feb. 18, 1909, 217 (Hoonah, Chichagoff I., Alaska; coll. Mus. Vertebr. Zool. 
Univ. Calif.). 
(?)Picoides americanus dorsalis (not Picoides dorsalis Baird?)NELSON, Rep. Nat. 
Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 160 (Ft. Kenai; Kodiak).--MEaaA, North Am. 
Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 97 (Salmon R. Mts., Idaho).--FANNN, Check List Birds 
Brit. Col., 1891, 28 (rots. e. of Cascade Range, n. to Cassiar).--KERMODE, 
Prov. Mus. Victoria, 1909, 49 (e. of Cascade Range, Brit. Columbia). 

PICOIDES AMERICANUS DORSALIS (Baird). 
ALPINE THREE-TOED WOODPECR. 
Similar to white-backed examples of P. a. fasciatus, but larger; 
white markings on back usually all lontudinal (very rarely with 
any transverse bars of black), white supra-auricular streak usually 
broader, forehead usually with more black and less whitish spotting, 
white spots or bars on inner web of innermost secondaries larger, 
and sides and flanks usually less heavily barred with black. 
Adult nale.--Length (skins), 190-210 (201); wing, 120.5-128 
(123.3); tail, 71-77.5 (75.2) ; cuhnen, 26-30.5 (28.9) ; tarsus, 20-22.5 
(20.9); outer anterior toe, 10-12 (10.8). a 
Adult female.--Length (s-14ns), 191-212 (198); wing, 118-129 
(121.5) ; tail, 70-81.5 (76.1) ; culmen, 25-28 (26.5) ; tamus, 19.5-21.5 
(20.6); outer anterior toe, 10-11.5 (10.6). a 
Boreal forests of Rocky Mountain district, from northern Montana 
(aola; east side Bitterroot Mountains; Gallatin Basin; Belt Moun- 
tains) and Wyoming (Lake Fork; Lower Geyser Basin; Laramie 
Peak; Fort Bridget), southward through higher mountains of Colorado 
to New Mexico (Pecos Baldy; Upper Pecos River; Zufii Mountains; 
Jamez Mountains; Mazano Mountains; Santa Fe Mountains; Twin- 
ing; Copperton; La Jara Lake; Cantonment Burgwyn; Rio Grande) 
and Arizona (San Francisco Mountain; White Mountains; Bakers 
Butte; Willow Springs; Kaibab Plateau). 
Picoides dorsalis BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 100 (Laramie Peak, 
Wyoming; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); ed. 1860 (Birtts N. Am.), 100, atlas, pl. 85, 
fig. 1; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 84.--MALSERBE, Mort. Picid., i, 1861, 
179.--CAssN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 203.--GRAY, List Birds Brit. 
Mus., Picidee, 1868, 31. MERaAM, Sixth An. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. 
for 1872 (1873), 694 (Lower Geyser Basin, Wyoming).--IIAaTT, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 278 (Ft. Bridger, Wyoming; Santa Fe Mts. and Rio 
Grande, New Mexico); Ibis, 1891, 467, in text (crit.). 
[Picoides] dorsal.is GRxv, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 181, no. 8538.--SnAaPE, Hand-list, 
ii, 1900, 217. 
T[ridactylia] dorsalis CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. ein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 26. 
Picus dorsalis SUN)EVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 14. 
[Picoides americanus.] Var. dorsalis BAIR), in Cooper's Orn. Calif., 1870, 386, 387 
(crit.).CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194. 

a Ten specimens. 



304 BULLETIN 50 UIITED STATES IATIOlqAL MUSEUM. 

bb. Crown streaked with yellowish orange or orange-yellow.a 
c. Back, etc., much more yellowish olive; under parts more buffy; smaller 
(wing avera#ng 51.4, tail 24.6, culmen 11.1, outer anterior toe 9.5). (Eastern 
Panama.) ....................... Picumnus olivaceus lanamensis (p. 304). 
cc. Back, etc., much less yellowish olive; under parts less buffy; larger (wing 
avera#ng 53.1, tail 27.7, culmen 11, outer anterior toe 10.7). (Western 
Panama and southwestern Costa Rica.) 
Pieumnus olivaeeus flavofinctus (p. 306). 
aa. Crown without red, orange, or orange-yellow streaks (minutely dotted wth white 
instead). 
b. Ground color of pilem deep black. 
c. Back, etc., more buffy olive. 
Picunmus olivaceus olivaceus, adult female (extralimital). 
cc. Back, etc., more greenish olive. (Western Colombia.) 
Picumnus olivaceus granadensis, adroit female (extralimital).b 
bb. Ground color of pileum sooty, sooty black, or dull black. 
c. Ground-color of pileum sooty black or dull black; general coloration darker 
and less buffy; wing and tail longer (wing 52-54, tail 26-30). 
d. Back, etc., clearer or more greenish olive; chest less yellowish or buffy; 
white dots on pileum larger. 
Picumnus olivaceus dimotus, adult female (p. 307). 
dd. Back, etc., moro huffy olive; chest more buffy; white dots on pileum 
smaller, those on crown less numerous. 
Picumnus olivaceus flavotinctus, adult female (p. 306). 
ec. Ground color of pileum dark sooty brown; general coloration paler and more 
buffy; wing and tail shorter (wing 50.5, tail 24). 
Picumnus olivaceus panamensis, adult fenmle (p. 305). 
PICUMNUS OLIVACEUS PANAMENSIS Ridgway. 
Similar to P. o. grandensis, b but smaller; coloration decidedly 
more yellowish oIive, pileum much duller black, and feathers of malar 
region and chin more narrowly marned with black or with these 
markings obsolete. 
Adult male.Pileum duI1 black, the crown with short, narrow 
streaks of orpiment orange, the occiput with smalI circular spots or 
dots of white; back, scapulars, and rump pIain yellowish olive, the 
wing-coverts similar, but darker and margined or edged with color 
of back or slightIy paler; remiges dusky grayish brown, the secondaries 
broadly (but not sharply) edged with dulI Iight buffy olive-yellowish 
(nearly pale wax yellow), the median portion of proximaI secondaries 
(broadly) light grayish brown or hair brown, the primaries narrowly 

a I have not seen the adult male of P. o. granadensis, which belongs to this section. 
b Picumnus granadensis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., x, March, 1847, 78 (Cali, w. 
Ecuador; coll. De Lattre; type now in coll." Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci.); hlalherbe, 
Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, pl. 118, fig. 3; Sundevall, Consp. Picin., 1866, 104. [Picumnus 
olivaceus.] Subsp. er. Picumnus granadensis Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvm, 
1890, 549, part (excl. specimens from Panama, Chiriqui, and Ecuador).--Picunnus 
olivaceus granadensis Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 34 (geog. 
range). 
I have seen only the female of this form. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 07 

Picumorus olivaceus CHERRIE, Expl. Zool. Merid. Costa lica, 1893, 46 (Palm,r, 
Boruca, T6rraba, and Buenos Aires, s. w. Costa Rica). 
|Picumnus olivaceus.] Subsp. a. Picumnus granadensis (not P. granadensis Lafres- 
naye) ]ARGITT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 540, part (in synonymy). 
Picumnus granadensis (not of Lafresnaye) B.NGS, Auk, xviii, 1901, 361 (Divala, 
w. Panama). 

PICUMNUS OLIVACEUS DIMOTUS (Bangs). 
HONDURAS PICULET. 
Similar to P. o. olivaceus,  but slightly smaller (especially the 
bill), color of back, etc., darker and less buffy olive, and chest darker 
and less buffy olive. Similar also to P. o. flavotinctus, but larger 
(especially the bill), throat more whitish (less buffy), and adult male 
with streaks on crown orange-red (scarlet), as in P. o. olivaceus, 
instead of yellowish orange or orange-yellow. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 92-94.5 (93.5); wing, 53-54 (53.3); 
tail, 27.5-29 (28); culmen, 12-12.5 (12.3); tarsus, 12-13 (12.5); 
outer anterior toe, 11-11.5 (11.2).  
Adultfemale.--Length (skin), 93; wing, 54; tail, 27.5 ; culmcn, 11 ; 
tarsus, 12.5; outer anterior toe, 10.5.  
Caribbean slope of Nicaragua (San Carlos) and Honduras (Ciba; 
San Pedro Sula; Julian). 
Picumnus olivaceus (not of Lafresnaye) SCLATER and SALVIN, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, 837, 839 (Julian and San Pedro, Honduras).--H,TT, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 548, part (Julian and San Pedro, IIonduras).-- 
IICIMOND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 519 (San Carlos, e. Nicaragua; 
crit.).-S.LVN and GODM.N, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 452 (Julian 
and San Pedro, Honduras). 
Picumnus dimotus B.Gs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, July, 1903, 146 (Ceiba, 
Honduras; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs). 
Ptcumnus olivaceus dimotus I:IDGWAY, Proc. Biol. ,oc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 34 (geog. range). 

Genus 1NIESOCTITIES Haryitt. 
Nesoctites d II,ITT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 552. (Type, Picuntnus 
microraegs Sundevall.) 
Large Picumninm (wing 68-7"5 ram.) with nostril much nearer to 
culmen than to tomium, gonys but little longer than mandibular 
rami, outermost primary more than half as long as ninth, no stripes 
on side of head, and without black, white, or pale yellow on rectrices. 
Bill shorter than head, much compressed anteriorly, subcuneate 
in lateral profile, pointed at tip, its width at anterior end of nostrils 

See p. 303. 
Three specimens. 
One specimen. 
IVaog, island; rirg, a colonist, inhabitant. 

(Richmond.) 



312 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL IIUSEUM. 

The Capitonidm are forest birds, livhg mostly among the tree tops, 
where they feed on fruits, berries, and insects and, some species at 
least, nest in holes in trees and lay pure white eggs. Some kinds are 
said to run up and down trunks of trees, though in a different manner 
from the Woodpeckers. 
As a rule, they are birds of beautiful, or at least gaudy, plumage, 
the coloration consisting of strongly (but not always harmoniously) 
contrasting areas of several of the spectrum hues (blue, green, 
yellow, orange, and red), usually with more or less of black. Often 
the two sexes, while equally bright or showy in coloration, are yet so 
different in their colors as to have often been described as distinct 
species. 
Unlike the Toucans, the Barbets are not confhmd to the American 
Tropics. In fact, they are poorly represented there, being far more 
numerous in tropical Asia and Africa. In America only four 
genera, with about eighteen species, are knovn to occur, about seven 
thnes as many genera and nearly seven times as many species being 
found in the Eastern Hemisphere. a 
"They arc birds nmstly of a bright green plumage, some of them 
variegated, especially on the head, with scarlet, violet, blue, or yel- 
low, though others are plainly colored. All of them seem to live 
chiefly on fruit, but insects occasionally form part of their food, and 
in captivity they become carnivorous. They breed in holes of trees, 
laying white eg, and most, if not all, of them utter a clear ringing 
note so loud as to attract general attention." (NEWTON, Dictionary 
of Birds, Part I, p. 28.) 
"Although the limits of this family appear to be well defined, the 
characters used for the separation of genera are by no means easy to 
distinguish, and in any case they are difficult to formulate. The 
Capitonid appear to me to constitutea family 6f Picarian birds in 
which no single character for the separation of genera can be con- 
sidered to be absolute, and even style of coloration is of no avail as 
a generic character. As a rule, the plumage is gaudy and the con- 
trasts strikig; but there are some genera, such as CalorIampIus and 
Ggmnobucco, which it would be difficult to match for dullness of 
coloration. Scarcely one of the genera admitted here is so well 
defined that it does not form a link toward some other genus, and 
Pogonorlynclus and its allies may well be considered as subgenera 

aIn Sharpe's "Hand-list of the Genera and Species of Bixds," it, 1900, 177-187, 
nineteen genera and one hundred and twenty-two species of Capitonide are listed as 
peculiar to the Old World. Of these, eleven genera and eighty-two species are found 
in Africa only, while eight genera and forty species occur only in southern Asia and 
the Indo-Malayan region. 



BIRDS OF IWORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 313 

belonging to one leading type, of which the toothed bill is the most 
prominent feature. The same may be said of Barbatula and Smi- 
lorIis, and Megalema and Cyanops." (SHELLEY, ('at. Birds Brit. 
Mus., Vol. XL-, p. 13.) 
The authors of a beautiful monograph of the family, Messrs. 
C. I-I. T. and G. F. L. Marshall, have divided the Capitonidm into 
three subfamilies, Pogonorhynchine, Megalemine, and Capitonine, 
but later writers ignore these subdivisions. 

KEY TO THE AMERICAN GENERA OF CAPITONID.. 

a. Tomia smooth, without distinct, if any, subterminal notch or dcnticulation; tip of 
mandible simple (normal); bill more slender, its width at base less than lenh 
of maxilla from nostril;, mesorhinium broadly rounded or flattened; tail very little 
more (often less) than two-thirds as long as wing, the outermost pair of rectriccs 
two-thirds to more than three-fourths as long as middle pair; adult males without 
a nuchal tuft; sexes distinctly different in coloration. 
b. Bill more slender; nostrils narrower, separated by a much narrower mesorhinium; 
tail more than two-thirds as long as wing, the outer pair of rectrices much less 
than three-fourths as long as middle pair; outermost (tenth) primary about 
half as long as ninth, relatively broad; back, etc., plain green; sexes with col- 
oration of head and neck very different .................... Eubucco (p. 314). 
bb. Bill stouter; nostrils circular, separated by a much broader mesorhinium; tail 
less than two-thirds as long as wing, the outer pair of rectrices nearly to more 
than three-fourths as long as middle pair; outermost (tenth) primary much less 
than hail as long as ninth, relatively very narrow; back, etc., black, streaked, 
etc., with yellow or orange (or both), or plain glossy blue-black; sexes with 
coloration of head not essentially different (except, sometimes, throat). 
Capito (p. 319). 
aa. Maxillary tomium conspicuously notched and toothed subterminally; tip of 
mandible bifurcate; bill stouter, its width at base greater than length of maxilla 
from nostril; mesorhinium narrowly ridged; tail much more than two-thirds as 
long as wing, the outer pair of rectrices less than two-thirds as long as middle 
pair; adult males with a nuchal tuft of elongated, glossy black feathers, the sexes 
otherwise alike in coloration. 
b. Lateral base of maxilla more swollen; mesorhinittm less distinctly ridged; middle 
toe, without claw, much more than two-thirds as long as tarsus; outermost 
rectrices slightly more than half as long as middle pair; coloration much more 
varied, the chest bright red, pileum glossy black with a white spot on each 
side of occiput ................................... Semnornis (extralimital).a 
bb. Lateral base of maxilla less swollen; mesorhinium more distinctly ridged; mid- 
dle toe, without claw, not more than two-thirds as long as tarsus; outermost 
rectrices nearly two-thirds as long as middle pair; coloration plain, without 
red, glossy black (except nuchal tuft of adult male), or white. 
Dicrorhynchus (p. 324L 

a Tetragonops (not of Gerstcker, February or March, 1855) Jardine, Edinburgh 
Philos. Journ., n. s., ii, no. 2, October, 1855, 404 (type, T. vamphastinus Jardine).-- 
Pan (not of Oken, 1816) Richmond, Auk, xvi, January, 1899, 77 (to replace Tetra- 
gonops Jardine, preoccupied).--Semnorn/s lichmond, Auk, xvii, April, 1900,179 (to 
replace Pan Richmond, preoccupied). 
A monotypic genus the single known species of which is confined to eastern 
Ecuador. 



314 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL ]VIUSEUM. 

Genus EUBUCCO Bonaparte. 

Eubucco BONAPARTE, ('onsp. Av., i, 1850, 142. (Type, Capito richardsoni Gray.) 
Abelterusa HEINE, in IIeine and 1Reichenow, lom. Mus. ]ein. Orn., 1890, 227. 
(New name to replace Eubucco Bonaparte on grounds of purism.) 
Rather small Capitonidm (length about 130-160 ram.) with rather 
slender, compressed bill, relatively narrow mesorhinium, oval to 
nearly linear nostrils, tail less than two-tlfirds as long as wing, outer- 
most (tenth) primary broad and about half as long as ninth, back, etc., 
plain green or olive-green, the sexes with coloration of head and neck 
radically different. 
Bill about as long as head, rather slender (its depth at nostril equal to 
not more than half the length of exposed culmen), very much broader 
than deep at base (width at base at least one and a half times as great 
as depth at same point), compressed anteriorly; culmen rounded (or 
at least not distinctly ridged), nearly straight for basal half or more, 
gently convex terminally, the tip of maxilla pointed and more or less 
strongly decurved, but not uncinate; gonys about as long as man- 
dibular rami or slightly longer, nearly straight, ascending terminally, 
not ridged; lateral base of maxilla more or less tumid or turgid, espe- 
cially the upper-posterior margin; tomia perfectly smooth, the max- 
illary tomium rather strongly though gradually deflected basally. 
lostril small, more or less narrow, partly concealed by, or at least in 
contact with (posteriorly) feathering of frontal antim, from which 
spring several rather long but very slender antrorse bristles, the chin 
and rictal region with similar but rather smaller bristles. Orbital 
region partly naked. Wing rather short, very concave beneath, much 
rounded; longest primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than 
length of exposed culmen, the skxth and seventh or fifth, skxth, and 
seventh primaries longest, eighth shorter than fourth (sometimes 
shorter than second), ninth much shorter than fu-st, the tenth (outer- 
most) about half as long as ninth, normally broad. Tail more than 
two-thh-ds as long as wing, the outermost pair of rectrices more than 
half to slightly more than tvo-thirds as long as middle pair. Tarsus 
slightly shorter to longer than culmen (from base), decidedly longer 
than longest toe with claw. 
Coloration.--Above (except sometimes head and neck) plain green 
(varying from bluish green to olive-green), under parts with more or 
less of yellow, the flanks striped with green or greenish dusky; adult 
males with at least pileum red and a bluish band across hindneck; 
adult females without red on head. 
Range.--Costa Rica to Bolivia and eastern Peru. (About eight 
species and subspecies.) 

a 'Alk2r*pog, silly, stupid. (Richmond.) 



BIRDS OF IORT]t AID MIDDLE AMEI',ICA. 323 

d. Smaller (wing 76.5-81, tail 47.5-49, exposed culmen 20.5-22, tarsus 20-22). 
Capito v, aculicoronatas pirrensis, adult female (p. 324). 
dd. Larger (wing 79-86, tail 45-52, exposed culmen 22-24, tarsus 21.5-23). 
Caito maculicoronatas rubrilateralis, adult female (extralimital). 
bb. Back, scapulars, wing-coverts, etc., conspicuously maro4ned with white; 
forehead red. (Western Ecuador.) 
Capito squamatas, adult [female?] (extrulimital).a 
CAPITO MACULICORONATUS MACULICORONATUS Lawrence. 
SPOTTED-CROWNED BAIBE T. 
Adult nale.--Above mostly plain glossy blue-black, the wings and 
tail black but wing-coverts margined with glossy blue-black; median 
portion of pileum (broadly) brownish black, each feather (except on 
forehead) tipped with a large spot of pale brown or dull brownish white; 
underparts, including malar region, mostlydullwhite, thebreast crossed 
by a broad band of saffron yellow or indian yellow, the sides and flanks 
marked with large spots (mostly ovate or guttate) of blue-black, the 
outer portion of flanks also streaked with bright yellowish orange; 
outer side of thighs mostly deep blue-black; bill grayish horn color on 
basal half or more, blackish terminally; iris dark (brown?);b legs and 
feet dusky grayish (bluish or greenish in life?); length (skins), 148- 
172 (158) ; wing, 78.5-84 (80.7) ; tail, 47.5-51 (49.5) ; exposed culmen, 
21-23.5 (22.1); tarsus, 21-23 (21.9); outer anterior toe, 16.5-18 
(17.4) .c 
Adult female.--Upper parts exactly as in the adult nmlc, but 
aaterior under parts, as far back as middle of breast wholly uniform, 
slightly glossy, blue-black, and orange-color on flanks more exten- 
sive, forming a conspicuous patch; bill, etc., as in adult male; length 
(skins), 145-157 (152); wing, 76-81.5 (78,6); tail, 46-49 (47.5), 
exposed culmen, 20.5-23 (21.9); tarsus, 20-22.5 (21.6); outer an- 
terior toe, 16.5-17.5 (17.2). c 
Panama, from Canal Zone westward (Lion Hill; near 1)anami; 
Coln; Santiago de Veragua). 
Capito maculi-coronatus LAWRENCE, Ann. Lyc. lat. Hist. N. Y., vii, 1862, 300 
(Lion Hill?, 1)anama; coll. G. N. Lawrence). 
[Capitol maculi-coronatus SCLATER and SALvia, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 110. 
Capilo maculicoronatus SCITER, Ibis, 1862, 1, pl. 1.--Go, Mus. lays-Bas, i, 
Buccones, 1863, 57.--SCLATER and SALVL'% lroc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 366 
(Panama).----SAvL,% lroc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 157 (Santiago de Veraoa, 
Panama). ]LRSALL, MOrt. Capitonidse, 1871, 153, pl. 61.--SELLEY, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xix, 1891, 109, part (Veragua, lanama, and Lion H_ill, 
lanama).--SAvI and GoD,N, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1896, 548, 
part (Santiago de Yeragua; Lion ESll; 1)anama).--BAs, 1)roc. New Engl. 
Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 18 (Loma del Leon=Lion Hill, lanama). 
[Capitol maculicoronatus GY, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 178, no. 8494. 

 Capito squamatus Salvin, Ibis, set. 3, vi, Oct., 1876, 494, pl. 14 (Sant Rit, w. 
Ecuador; coll. Salvin and Godman); Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xix, 1891, 110. 
t Salmon, in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 537. 
 Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 325 

distinctly ridged, the mesorhinium strongly carinate; gonys about as 
long as mandibular rami, distinctly convex, prominent basally, 
strongly ascending terminally, broadly rounded (distinctly ridged or 
carinate basally in adult males); lateral base of maxilla strongly 
tumid or turgid, with nearly vertical or truncate basal outline; 
maxillary tomium strongly incised or notched terminally, toothed 
subterminally; mandibular tomitm rather shallowly incised termi- 
nally, the tip of the maxilla produced laterally into a prominent vertical 
tooth on each side, the two prongs inclosing the uncinate tip of the 
maxilla. Nostril small, narrowly oval or elliptical, sittated in a 
narrow groove which widens anteriorly. Latero-frontal antie with 
several elongated, slender, antrorse bristles; the rictus, malar apex, 
and chin with similar bristles. Orbital region partly naked. Wing 
short and rounded, very concave beneath, the longest primaries 
exceeding secondaries by much less than length of culmen; fifth, 
sixth, and seventh, or fourth to seventh, primaries longest, the eighth 
shorter than third, ninth decidedly shorter than secondaries, the tenth 
(outermost) a little more than half as long as ninth. Tail nearly to 
quite three-fourths as long as wing, the lateral pair of rectrices about 
two-thirds as long as middle pair. Tarsus more than twice as long 
as distance from nostril to tip of maxilla, much longer than longest 
toe with claw. 
Coloration.--Head, throat, and chest plain bright olive-tawny, the 
capistrum dusky; above plain olive; under parts of body olive suf- 
fused with light yellow, the sides of breast with a patch of light gTay; 
adult male with a nuchal tuft of elongated, narrow, glossy black 
feathers. 
Range.--tIighlands of Costa Rica and western Panama. (Mono- 
typic.) 
DICROR.HYNCIIUS FRANTZII (Sclater). 
Adult ma/e.--Forehead and crown bright golden yellowish brown 
or tawny-orange; rest of pileum deep bright yellowish or brownish 
olive, passing through brownish olive into dull olive-green on rump 
and upper tail-coverts; tail dull olive; a conspicuous nuchal tuft of 
elongated, flattened, glossy black feathers; anterior portion of 
forehead (narrowly), lores, anterior portion of malar region, and 
chin dull blackish or dusky; auricular and malar regions (except 
anterior part of the latter), throat, and chest plain ochraceous-olive 
or olive-ochraceous; a patch of light bluish gray on each side of 
breast, margined anteriorly by  more or less distinct bar of dusky; 
median portion of breast (broadly) light olive, the feathers tipped 
with golden ochraceous or dull saffron yellow; the abdomen similar 
but more yellowish; rest of under parts light yellowish olive, suffused 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND ]VIIDDLE A]VIER1CA. 27 

[Tetragonops]frantzii SCLATER and SA,vI-, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873,110. 
Panfrantzii RICHMOND, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 77, in text. 
Semnornisfrantzii RICHMOND, Auk, xvii, April, 1900, 179, in text.--FERRV, Pub. 
146, Field lIus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser, i, no. 6, 1910, 265 (Coliblanco, Costa 
Rica, habits). 
Dicrorlynhus frantzii CARRIKE, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 571 (Burgos de 
Irazfi, Carrillo, La Estrella de Cartugo, Azahar de Cartago, Cariblanco de 
Sarapiqui, La Hondura, etc., Costa Rica; habits). 

Superfamily RAMPHASTIDES. 
THE TOUCANS. 
Rlmpast CABANIS, Viegmann's Archly ffir Naturg., 1847, pt. i, 348 
(includes Capitones). 
:Rampastid FUERIER, Unters. Syst. Nat. VSg., ii, 1888, 1391. 
-RImmpIastides SttARPE, Rev. Classif. Birds, 1891, 83; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 189. 
Desmognathous, scansorial (zygodactyle) Coraciiformes, related to 
the Capitones but differing in absence or great reduction of after- 
shaft, desmognathous (instead of ethognathous or schizognathous) 
palate, truncate vomer, highly specialized bill, the last very large 
(always longer than head, sometimes nearly as large as body), with 
distinctly decurved culmen, more or" less strongly uncinate maxilla, 
and peculiarly light construction, and with caudal muscles and 
terminal caudal vertebrm peculiar, a 
The Ramphas6des constitute a well-circumscribed oToup of 
zydactylous Coraciiform, or, more properly speaking, Picine, 
birds, very closely related structurally to the Capitones (Barbets), 
but differing from the latter in the several anatomical characters 
pointed out above, and externally in the great development of the 
beak, which in some members of the typical genus, Ramplastos, 
exceeds the body in length and almost equals it in bulk. In this 
extraordinary development of the beak the Ramphastides resemble 
somewhat the anisodactylous Bucerotes (Hornbills), of the Old 
World tropics, but the beak is never surmounted by a casque 
or accessory structure, such as birds of the latter family almost 
invariably present. Although apparently so unwieldy, the toucan's 
beak is exceedingly light, the whole interior consisting of a network 
of bony fibers so arranged as to produce the maximum of strength 

a In examining the caudal vertebrae, it will be found that the six basal ones are 
articulated by ball-and-socket joints and connected with the last ones, which are 
anchylosed, by a synovial joint, and can be bent dorsad till their superior spines 
touch the sacrum, while the broad and large transverse processes almost wholly 
prevent lateral motion. The muscles, therefore, which in other birds turn the tail 
sdeways, in the toucans become assistants to the true elevators of the tail; for when 
the latter havebent it upward sufficiently, the former become dorsad of the center of 
motion, causing the jerk of the tail [a motion of that member exceedingly character- 
istic of the toucans] by suddenly combining with the elevator muscles. (Stejneger, 
Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 415, 416.) 



328 BULLETII 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUIV[. 
with the minimum of weight, a The tongue is also peculiar, consist- 
ing of a "long, narrow, thin lamina, flattened horizontally and 
supported by the anterior process of tim hyoid bone, which forms a 
ridge beneath it. It measures nearly six inches in length in the 
large species [of Ramp]astos]. At about four inches from its 
extremity it is obliquely notched on both sides, and these notches 
become deeper and deeper toward the apex, giving it a strongly 
bristled appearance." (Sclatcr, Cat. Birds Brit. fus., vol. xix, p. 122.) 
Family RAMPHASTID,:E. 
THE TOUCANS. 
=[Zygodactyli] Pteroglossi VIEILLOT, Analyse, 1816, 26. 
=Ramphastide BONAPARTE, Sagoio distr. An. Yert., 1831, 41; Prodr. Syst. Orn., 
1840, 16; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 92.--ScLTER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 324.-- 
LLLZEBOR(, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 16.--STEJNE(ER, Stand. Nat. 
Hist., iv, 1885, 412,414, in text. 
=RhaTphastide INzscH, Syst. Pterylog., 1840, 135.--SCLATER and SLVm, 
Nora. Av. leotr., 1873, pp. 108.--FVERBRN(ER, Unters. liorph. Syst. 
VSg., ii, 1888, 1391.--SALvN and Go)N, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1896, 
551.--SHARPE, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 189. 
-----Ramphastine BONAPARTE, Prodr. Syst. Orn., 1840, 17; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 92. 
-Rhamphastine CABNm, in Wiegmann's Archiv fiir Naturg., 1847, i, 348.-- 
SVN)EVLL, Met. lat. Av. Disp. Tent., ii, 1873, 75 (English translation, 
]889, 148). 
The characters of the family Ramphastide are the same as those of 
the superfamily Ramphastides (as given on pp. 2, 327), the latter con- 
raining only this one family. 
The Ramphastidm are peculiar to the continental portion of tropical 
America, ranging from southe Mexico to northern Argentina, their 
southward distribution along the Pacific coast district being limited 
by the Gulf of Guayaquil, in Ecuador. Of the five genera and sixty 
species recognized in Sharpe's Hand-list of the Genera and Species 
of Birds (vol. ii, 1900, pp. 189-193), four of the former but only ten 
of the latter occur from Panama northward, the family being most 
numerously represented in the valley of the Amazon and contiguous 
regions of the Guianas, Venezuela, and Colombia. 
The Toucans are forest birds of arboreal habits and feed chiefly on 
fruits, though in captivity, at least, they are completely omnivorous; 
and it is said that in the wild state they destroy the eggs and young 
of other birds, after the well-known habit of members of the Corvide. 
Little is known of their nesting habits, but so far as these have been 

a This structure is elaborately described and illustrated by Sir Richard Owen in 
the "Introduction" to Gould's "Monograph of the Ramphastide." See also tej- 
neger in "Standard Natural History," Birds, pp. 414-415. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND ]VIIDDLE AIVIERICA. 331 

strongly concave terminally, the tip of mandible more or less strongly 
decurved; mandibular rami contracted and truncate basally; base 
of maxilla truncate or subtruncate, raised abruptly above the level 
of the head. Nostrils transversely oval, opening posteriorly in pos- 
terior rim of maxilla, quite concealed by the frontal feathers. Orbital 
region naked, the interramal space also naked anteriorly, sparsely 
feathered posteriorly. Wing rather large but primaries relatively 
short, the longest extending only slightly beyond secondaries; fourth, 
fifth, and sLxth, or fifth, sLxth, and seventh primaries longest, the 
eighth usually shorter than secondaries (rarely slightly longer than 
second primary), the ninth much shorter than secondaries, the tenth 
(outermost) about two-thirds as long as ninth; ninth and tenth (two 
outermost) primaries conspicuously attenuated terminally, the con- 
tracted terminal portion rounded at tip, sometimes subspatulate. 
Tail a little more than two-thirds to more than five-sixths as long as 
wing, truncate or slightly rounded, the rectrices gradually widening 
terminally, with tip broadly rounded or subtruncate. Tarsus less 
than one-fourth to more than one-fourth as long as wing, longer than 
longest toe with claw. 
Coloration.wGeneral color uniform black; auricular and malar 
regions, throat, and foreneck immaculate white, yellow, or orange, 
succeeded by a jugular band of red (this sometimes extending over 
whole chest, breast, and sides); under tail-coverts bright red, the 
upper coverts red, orange, yellow, or white; bill brilliantly colored in 
life, also the bare skin of orbital region and chin. (Sexes alike in 
coloration.) 
Range.--The whole of continental tropical America (except south- 
western Mexico); north to southeastern lIexico, south to eastern 
Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, and southeastern Brazil. (Four- 
teen species.) 
There are considerable and marked variations iu details of external 
structure among the species of this genus, but these variations do not 
serve to divide the genus into well-defined groups of species. Thus, 
in R. dicolorus and R. ariel, relatively small-billed species, the sides 
of the maxilla are distinctly concave or hollowed out along each side 
of the culmen, all the other species examined having the same portion 
inflated to the level of the general surface. In a specimen of what 
appears to be a young R. inca (from Yungas, Bolivia), however, this 
same concavity along the upper portion of the sides of the maxilla is 
very evident, the adult having no trace of it. Taking the larger-billed 
species, R. erythrorhynchus and R. nca have the culmen broadly 
rounded throughout its length, except for the decurved terminal por- 
tion; in R. toco, R. carinatus, and R. brevicarinatus the culmen is 
compressed and carinate, while in R. swainsonii it is indistinctly 



332 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ridged, or intermediate between the extremes as shown in R. erflro- 
ryncus and R. nca on the one hand and R. toco, etc., on the other. 
In R. toco the mandibular rami are relatively much shorter and the 
interramal space therefore shorter and more broadly triangular than 
in other species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF RAMPHASTOS. 

a. Terminal portion of maxilla and mandible red, the maxilla with a broad lateral 
area of yellow or orange. (Ramphastos piscivorus.) 
b. Breast without a distinct (if any) band of red; averaging larger, especially the 
bill (culmen averaging 150.3 in male, 131.4 in female). (Southeastern Mexico 
to Guatemala and British Honduras.) 
Ramphastos piscivorus piscivorus (p. 332). 
bb. Breast with a distinct red band bordering yellow of foreneck; averaging smaller 
(culmen averaging 136.1 in male, 120.4 in female). (Honduras to Colombia 
and Yenezuela) .............. Ramphastos piscivorus brevicarinatus (p. 334). 
aa. Terminal portion of maxilla yellow, of mandible black; maxilla with lower lateral 
portion black or horn color or dull reddish margined above by black. 
b. Mandible and latero-basal portion of maxilla light horn color distinctly tinged 
with reddish or pinkish. (Southern Honduras to Venezuela and Ecuador.) 
Ramphastos swainsonii (p. 336). 
bb. Mandible and latero-basal portion of maxilla black, dark grayish horn color, or 
dark grayish olive. (Eastern Panama to Ecuador.) 
Ramphastos ambiguus (p. 339). 

RAMPHASTOS PISCIVORUS PISCIVORUS Linnaeus. 

EL-BILLED TOUCAN. 

Adults (sexes alke).--P'deum and hindneck black, the latter 
strongly washed with maroon; upper tail coverts white; rest of upper 
parts slightly glossy greenish black; malar and auricular reons, 
throat, and foreneck bright lemon or pure gamboge yellow, the 
strongly convex posterior margin sometimes with a few touches of 
red; under tail-coverts bright poppy red or carmine; rest of under 
parts, including raider side of wing, miform black; bill red and orange 
terminally, yellowish along culmen and in an ovate-cuneate space on 
lower side of proximal half of maxilla, elsewhere olive-dusky, in dried 
skins; a le and feet dusky (in dried skins), a 
Young.---Similar to adults but coloration of bill much duller, with 
differently colored areas not sharply defined. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 472-560 (527); wing, 187-220 (208.6); 
tail, 147.5-178 (164.8); culmen, 133.5-159 (150.3); tarsus, 47-51 
(49); outer anterior toe, 33-40 (36.4). b 

a The colors of the bill, feet, etc., in living and freshly killed specimens are much 
more bright, but I have no notes as to fresh colors in this subspecies. See, however, 
under R. p. brevicarinatus. 
b Ten specimens. 



334 BULLETI 50 IJITED STATES ATIOAL MUSEUM. 

Cruz).--MooRE, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1859, 59 (Honduras; habits).-- 
CASSlN, Prec. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 102 (Jalapa, Mirador, Potrero, and 
Cordova, Mex.; Vera Paz and Coban, Guatemala; Belize, Honduras; crit.).-- 
BOUCARn, Liste Ois. r6col. Guat., 1878, 24 (Guatemala).--FEmli-P,lEZ, 
Prec. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 163 (Santa Ana, Vera Cruz). 
R[amphastos] carinatus WAGLEI% Syst. Av., 1827, sp. 7; Isis, 1829, 506 (Mexico).-- 
TSCHUDI, Fauna Peruana, Ayes, 1845-46, 261. 
Rhamphastos carinatus ScLAw,, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1859, 388 (Plays Vicente, 
Vera Cruz); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xix, 1891, 125 (localities in Vera Cruz; 
Teapa, Tabasco; Meco I., Yucatan; n. Yucatan; Orange Walk and Belize, 
Brit. Honduras; Choctum, sources of Rio de 1 Pasion, Lanquin, Cajabon, and 
Rio Dulce, Guatemala; San Pedro, Honduras).--SClAWER and SAIVlN, Prec. 
Zool. Soc. Lend., 1859, 135 (Rio Dulce, Guatemala; notes).--SclXWEl% Prec. 
Zool. Soc. Lend., 1859, 368 (JaIapa, Vera Cruz).--SvMicmsw, Mere. Best. 
Soc. N. tI., i, 1869, 560 (Veto Cruz).--BovcAID, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1883, 
455 (Yucatan; habits).--SALvlN, Ibis, 1889, 373 (Meco I., Yucatan).--SklVlN 
and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1896, 552 (Misantla, Colipa, Hacienda 
de los Atlixcos, tIaciend Tortugu, Vega del Casaxtero, San Lorenzo, Alva- 
fade, Cordova, Cosamaloapam, Uvero, Atoyac, and Playa Vicente, Vera 
Cruz; Teapa, Tabasco; Meco I.; Orange Walk and Belize, Brit. Honduras; 
Choctum, sources of Rio de l Pasion, Lanquin, Yzabal, and Rio Dulce, 
Guatemala; San Pedro, IIonduras).--DEABOm% Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 
1907, 90 (Los Amates, Yzabal, Guatemala). 
[Rhamphastos] carinatus ScIwEI and SXLVlN, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 108, part 
(Mcxico, etc.). 
[Burhynchus] carinatus HEINE fl,nd I:EICHENOW, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
228 (Jalapa). 
Ramphastos tucanus (not of Linnaeus) Sinew, Gem Zool., viii, pt. 2, 1811, 362. 
R[amphastos] callorhinchus WAGr,Eg, Syst. Av., 1827, sp. 6 (new name for R. 
pisdvorus Linnaeus). 
Ramphastos sulfuratus LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., livr. 3, July, 1830, 173 (Mexico; 
coll. Paris Mus.).--Pvcn,,anN, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1853, 72 (crit.). 
Rhamphastos sulfuratus H.',ITL.UB, ffourn, ffir Orn., 1855, 422 (crit.). 
Ramphastos poecilorhynchus LICHTENSTEIN, Preis-Verz. SSug., VSg., 1830, 1 
(Mexico; coll. Berlin Mus.); :Iourn. ffir Orn., Jan., 1863, 54 (reprint). 
(?) Rhamphastus ariel (not _Ramphastos ariel Vigors) IANT, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. 
for 1896-97 (1899), 220 (Santo Tomas, Guatemala). 
(7) Rhamphastos brevicarinatus (not of Gould ?) BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
xxxix, 1903, 145 (Ceiba, Honduras). 
RAMPHASTOS PISCIVORUS BREVICARINATUS (Gould). 
SHORT-ELED T OUCAI'. 
Similar to R. 1. liscivorus but bill avera.ghg decidedly shorter, 
its red terminal portion less extensive,  and deeper yellow of throat 
and foreneck margined posteriorly by a conspicuous, rather broad, 
curved bar of bright carmine or poppy red. 

a Fresh colors of five specimens (two of them cage birds of unknown locality) were 
as follows: Upper area of maxilla: (1) Parrot green fading into apple green below, the 
basal tomial portion and a streak parallel with anterior half of the orange lateral space 
light blue; (2) nile green; (3) eulphur yellow; (4) light yellowish green on culmen, 
more bluish ga'een below; (5) een, passing into blue anteriorly. Lateral area: (1) 
Orange; (2) light red (orange-red); (3, 4, and 5) fine orange-yellow. General color of 
mandible: (1) Parrot green, edged above and below with bright "crab" or azure blue 



BIRDS OF IORTH AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 345 

Pteroglossus ambiguus LESSON, Trait d'Orn., 1831, 178 (no locality mentioned). 
lteroglossus regalia GOULD, lroc. Zool. Soc. Load., 1834, 75 (Mexico; coll. Zool. 
Soc. Load.); Mon. Ramphast., ed. 1, 1834, pl. 14 and text.--BoNAPAnTE, 
Consp. Av., i, 1850, 94. 
Ramphastos discolor MiLLER, Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, 83 (new name for R. 
quatus Gmelin). 
Pteroglossus erythropygius (not of Gould) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 1867, 
178 (David, Chiriqui, w. Ianm).--SALvIN, lmc. Zool. Soc. Load., 1867, 
157 (David). 

PTEROGLOSSUS TORQUATUS ERYTHROZOIIUS Ridgway. 
Similar to P. t. torquafus but much smaller, and color of thighs and 
under tail-coverts paler (dull cinnamon-rufous instead of chestnuO. 
Adult na/e.--Length (skins), 333-393 (363); wing, 126.5-135.5 
(132.3); tail, 121.5-147 (136); culmen, 75-88.5 (81.8); tarsus, 32-33 
(32.7); outer anterior toe, 27-28 (27.3). a 
Adult female.--Length (skin), 308; wing, 120.5; tail, l lS; culmen, 
75.5; tarsus, 30.5; outer anterior toe, 25.5P 
Yucatan (San Felipe; Rio Lagartos; Temfix; Chicheu-Itza; Iza- 
lm) and Campeche (Apazote). 
Pteroglossus torquatus (not Ramphastos torquatus Gmelin) BOUCARD, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Load., 1883, 455 (Yucatan; habits).--ScLAwER, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xix, 1891, 141, part (Izalam, Yucatan).--SALvls and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.- 
Am., Ayes, ii, 1896, 555, part (Izalam).---CoLE, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1, 
1906, 130 (Chichen-Itza, Yucatan). 
Pteroglossus torquatus erythrozonus RIDOWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxv, May 
4, 1912, 88 (Temax, Yucatan; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

PTEROGLOSSUS FRANTZII Cabanis. 

F11AIZIUS' ARAQA11I. 
Adult (sexes alike).--Head and neck, all round, plain glossy black, 
becoming more sooty on chia and upper throat; back and scapulars 
glossy dark greenish olive, separated from the black of hindneck by 

a Three specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
[wo adult males from Yucatan ................................ 
adult male from Cnpeche (Apuzote) ..................... 

b One s)ecimen. 
Wing. Tail. Cul- 
130.7 130.5 81.7 
135.5 147 82 

Tarsus. 

33 
32 

Outer 
anteric 
toe. 

27. 

Three specimens from Yucatan with sex undetermined measure as follows: Wing, 
135.5-140; tail, 134.5-149; culmen, 75.5-89.5; tarsus, 31-32; outer anterior toe, 
26.5-27.5. There is the same great amount of individual variation in this form as in 
1 . t. torquatus, but as a rule the under parts are more extensively suffused with red 
and there is usually less of black, this being sometimes practically wanting from the 
abdominal band as well as from the breast. 



348 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

maxilla and mandible with a basal embossed lamina of whitish, this 
including lower edge of the mandibular rami; bare orbital space 
dusky (in dried skins); iris yellow; legs and feet buffy olive (in dried 
skins), greenish in life. 
Adult male.---Length (skin), 430-470 (450) ; wing, 151-155.5 (153.6); 
tail, 155.5-166.5 (162.9); culmen, (chord), 101.5-118 (108.4); tarsus, 
33-34 (33.7) ; outer anterior toe, 28-32.5 (29.7). a 
Adult female ?--Length (skin), 450; wing, 142-152 (147) ; tail, 153- 
154.5 (153.7); culmen, 95-104 (99.5); tarsus, 33.5; outer anterior 
toe, 29. b 
Northwestern Colombia, near Isthmus of Panama (Rio Truando); 
western Colombia (Naranjito, Rio Dagua); northwestern Ecuador 
(Paramba). 
A specimen from northwestern Ecuador (Paramba) is precisely like 
those from the Rio Truando in coloration, and essentially the same in 
measurements. 
.Pteroglossus erythropygius (not of Gould, 1843) Govr), Mon. Ramphastidm, 2d ed., 
1854, pl. 21 (upper fig.).--CAssxN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 136 (Rio 
Truando, Colombia). 
Pteroglossus sanguineus Gour), Mon. Ramphastidm, 2d ed., 1854, in text to ph 21 
(locality unknown; coll. :l. Gould).--CAssxN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phih., 
1867, ]09 (Rio Truando, Colombia; crit.).--SCLATER, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
y_ix, ]89], 143 (n. Colombia).--SALWN and GO)AN, Biol. Contr.-Am., Aves, 
ii, 1896, 557 (Rio Truando). 

Genus SELENIDERA Gould. 
elenidera GouLd), Icon. Av., pt. 1, 1837, text to pl. 7. (Type, Pteroglossus 
gouldii Gould.) 
Piperivorus BONaPaRTE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 119 (Consp. Vol. Zygod., 
1854, 4). (Type, Ramphastospipervorus Linnmus.) 
Ramphastoides CASSIN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 117. (Type, ,elenidera 
spectabilis Cassin.) 
Medium-sized to rather small Ramphastidm (length about 275-395 
ram.) with the graduated tail not longer (usually shorter) than wing, 
auricular feathers elongated and yellow, no red on rump or upper tail- 
coverts (the under tail-coverts, however, red or partly so), throat, 
chest, and breast uniform black in males, chestnut-tawny or gray in 
females, the adult male usually with a yellow or orange flank-patch 
of elongated feathers. 
Bill less than half to three-fourths as long as wing, deeper than wide 
at base, the culmen arched (more or less) from base, broadly rounded 
basal]y, narrowly rounded terminally, where strongly .decurved, the 
tip of maxilla strongly uncinate; sides of bill smooth, without indi- 
cation of ridge or groove or lateral compression or concavity of maxilla; 
gonys as long as mandibular rami to twice as long, narrowly rounded, 

a Four specimens, b Two specimens. 



350 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES IATIOIAL MUSEUM. 

green; tail bluish slate color, the rectrices with black shafts and 
distinctly edged basally with olive-green (the lateral rectrices in- 
clining to olive-green on outer web), the under surface of ttJil dull 
black or slate-black; a conspicuous patch of orange-yellow on flanks; 
thighs chestnut; shorter under tail-coverts bright poppy red, the 
longer ones chestnut; under wing-coverts pale dull yellow (primrose 
or straw yellow), the remiges edged (not sharply) with the same, 
except terminally; upper half of maxilla dull greenish-yellow, the 
lower half passing from light olive sub-basally into nearly black 
terminally, the basal embossed lamina black; mandible blackish 
passing into light olive basally; bare orbital space dusky (in dried 
skins); legs and feet dusky (in dried skins); length (skins), 350-392 
(370); wing, 127.5-140.5 (134); tail, 115-133 (124.2); culmen, 88.5- 
104.5 (94.9); tarsus, 33-36.5 (34.9); outer anterior toe, 27-30 (28.2). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but pileum and hind- 
neck bright to dark chestnut and auricular region black instead of 
yellow, the feathers not elongated; upper half (approximately) of 
maxilla apple green, paler and more glaucous terminally, tinged with 
yellow basally; the lower portion clear olive basally passing into 
black terminally; mandible clear olive basally passing into black 
terminally; both maxilla and mandible with a basal embossed, more 
or less distinctly sulcate, lamina of black; bare orbital space turquoise 
blue above eye, emerald green in front of eye, orange-yellow below 
eye (passing into greenish toward eyelid), the postocular portion 
bright greenish yellow; iris brownish red; legs and feet plumbeous- 
blue, the soles pale yellowish; b length (skins), 335-383 (359); wing, 
132-140.5 (136.2); tail, 111-129 (122.5); culmen, 81.5-89.5 (85.5); 
tarsus, 33.5-37 (34.8); outer anterior toe, 26-30 (27.9). c 

a Seven specimens. 
b Fresh colors of specimens shot by the author in Costa Rica. Fresh colors of the 
unfeathered parts of the adult male probably do not differ materially, though dried 
skins indicate that the adult male probably has the upper half of the mandible 
decidedly more yellowish. 
c Eleven specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Six adult males from Costa lica ............................... 
One adult male from Panama .................................. 
FEMALES. 
Seven adult females from Costa Rica ........................... 
Two 8dIt females from Panama ............................... 
Two adult females from northern Colombia (Truando Falls)... 

Wing. 

135 
128 

136. 
138 
134. 

Tail. Cul- Tarsus. 

125.7 94.9 35.2 
115 95 33 

123.1 85.8 34. 7 
125 86. 5 35.7 
117.7 I 8 5 34 

Outer 
ntoric 
tOe. 



352 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL 

like basal margin (white or yellowish). Nostrils opening vertically, 
rounded, rather small, partly covered by latero-frontal feathers, 
widely separated by the broad, more or less arched, mesorhinium, 
sometimes preceded by a short prenasal groove, and margined 
beneath, or exteriorly, by a short subnasal ridge. Loral region, and 
more or less of orbital region naked. Wing moderate or rather 
short, the longest primaries slightly but distinctly exceeding longest 
secondaries; fourth, fifth and sixth, or fourth and fifth primaries 
longest, eighth slightly longer to slightly shorter than secondaries, 
ninth a little more than two-thirds as long as longest, tenth (outer- 
most) slightly to decidedly more than half as long as ninth. Tail 
shorter than wing, graduated, the middle pair of rcctrices longest,. 
the outer pair slightly more than half as long; the rectrices tapering 
terminally, with tip narrowly rounded. Tarsus decidedly longer 
than middle toe with claw. 
Coloration.--Gcneral color uniform green, the pileum and hindneck 
more olivaceous, the chin and throat white, grayish, or blue; under 
tail-coverts and broad tips to rectrices cinnamon-rufous or chestnut. 
(Sexes alike.) 
Range.--southern Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, and British Guiana. 
(Fifteen species.) 
The above description of generic characters is taken from two 
of the three Central American species and two Colombian species, 
A. albivttus (Boissoneau) and A. lsematopygius Gould, that may 
be considered as truly congeneric. The type of the genus A. sulcatus 
(Swainson), I have not seen, but judging from the specific name I 
suspect that it may be related to one or another of the South American 
species which I have, for the present at least, excluded as being prob- 
ably not congeneric with the Central American species. Unfortu- 
nately I have been able to examine only seven of the fifteen recognized 
species, and, therefore, am not able to decide at the present time 
whether the genus, as generally understood, should be subdivided 
or not. Certainly three extralimital species which I have been able 
to examine are very different in the structure of the bill, not only 
from the Central American species and A. albivttus but, to a greater 
or less extent, from one another. The one coming nearest to the 
latter is A. derbianus Gould, from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia; but 
his differs decidedly in having the nostrils situated much lower 
(about one-fourth the distance from the upper surface of the mes- 
orhinium to the maxillary tomium) and preceded by a very distinct 
prenasal sulcus which extends for more than the basal hag of the 
maxilla, the culmen being very broad and fiat, with distinct lateral 
edges from which the sides of the maxilla drop vertically to the 



354 BULLETIN 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
AULACORHYNCHUS WAGLERI (Sturm). 
wAG,.v.t's TOVCAmT. 
Much like A. prasinus, but color of pileum much lighter and more 
yellowish, becoming conspicuously paler on forehead; white of throat 
more restricted and passing into pale grayish blue posteriorly; maxilla 
with black tomial stripe much narrower anteriorly, and basally 
confluent with the black on base of culmen, and embossed basal 
lamina much wider, very strongly sulcate. 
Adults (sexes alike).--Pileum and hindneck light yellowish, or 
ochreous, olive-green, passing into pale dull yellowish or dull yellowish 
white on forehead and into yellowish grass green on rest of upper 
parts, the terminal portion of inner second-ies more bluish green, the 
rectrices passing into dull blue distally and broadly tipped with chest- 
nut; outer webs of primaries dull black or bluish dusky distally; auricu- 
larregionlightyellowisholive-green; anterior portion of malar region, 
chin, and upper throat dull white, passing into pale grayish blue on 
lower throat, this into light green on under parts of body, which are 
more or less tinged with blue or bluish green medially, the sides decid- 
edly more yellowish green; under tail-coverts light chestnut or deep 
cinnamon-rufous; under wing-coverts pale dull yellow, the inner 
webs of remiges (except distally) passing on edge into dull primrose or 
pale straw yellow; mandible black (the extreme tip usually more 
brownish), with a basal V- or (J-shaped embossed, sometimes sulcate, 
lamina of dull yellow or yellowish white; maxilla, below nostrils, with 
a very broad basal, embossed, strongly longitudinally sulcate lamina 
of pale brownish yellow, the basal portion otherwise black, the 
black extending anteriorly for a greater or less distance over culmen 
(usually covering less than basal third, and, rather narrowly, along 
tomium nearly to tip, the rest of maxilla greenish yellow; iris browa?; 
bare orbital space dusky brownish (in dried skins); legs and feet 
grayish or olivaceous dusky (in dried skins). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 350-387 (367); wing, 123.5-132.5 
(128.5); tail, 113-128 (120.4); culmen, 73-80.5 (76.4); tarsus, 33.5- 
35.5 (34.1); outer anterior toe, 25-27 (26.1). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 342-357 (351); wing, 122-136 
(129.1); tail, 115.5-126 (119.5); culmen, 61.5-76 (68.3); tarsus, 
32-35 (33.2); outer aaterior toe, 26-28 (26.7). b 
Southwestern B'Iexico, in States of Guerrero (Amula; Omilteme) 
and western Oaxaca (Sachtepec; Pluma). 
Pteroglossus pavoninus (not of Wagler, 1829) GoreD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1835, 
158 (Mexico); Mon. Rumphast., ed. 1, 1834, pl. 30. 
Aulacorhamphus pavoninus Sv and GoD, Ibis, April, 1889, 240 (Amula, 
Guerrero, and Sucatepec, Oaxaca; crit.). 

a Seven specimens, b Five specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 359 

AULACORHYNCHUS CERULEOGULARIS COGNATUS (Nelson). 
GOLDMAN'S BLUE-THROATED TOUCANET. 
Similar to A. c. cterleogdaris but prenasal spot on maxilla deep 
black, instead of chestnut; pileum and tfindneck averaging less oliva- 
ceous, and size averaging less, except feet. 
Adult nale.--Length (skins), 290-308 (300); wing, 118-121.5 
(119.3); tail, 93-104 (98); cu]men, 62.5-64.5 (63.5); tarsus, 34-36 
(34.9); outer anterior toe, 23-25.5 (24.6). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skin), 290; wing, 121.5; taft, 99.5; ctflmen, 
53.5; tarsus, 31.5; outer anterior toe, 24.5. 5 
Southeastern Panama (Mr. Pirri, 5,000-5,200 ft., near head of Rio 
Lim6n). 
Alacorhamphus cruleigularis cognatus NELSON, Smithson. Misc. Coll., vol. 60, 
no. 3, (pub. 2143) Sept. 27, 1912, 4 (Mt. Pirri, head of Rio Limon, 5,000 ft. e. 
Panama; coll. U. S. Nat. ][us.). 
Superfnily GALBUL. 
JACAMARS AND PUFF-BIRDS. 
Syndactyli ILLIGER, Prodromus Orn., 18]1,207. (Includes Galbula only.) 
=Galbdae FUERBRINGER, Unters. Morph. Syst. VSg., ii, 1888. 1567. 
Galbl. SAPE, Rev. Classif. Birds, 1891, 84; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 194. 
(Excludes Bucconide.) 
----Galbulidae CADOW. in Bronn's Thier-Reich, VSg., ii, 1893, 265, 301; Classif. 
Vertebr., 1898, 37. 
=Passerine ,cansores SEEBOH, Classif. Birds, 1890, 6. 
Buccones SAaPF, Rev. Classif. Birds, 1891, 84; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 196. 
Excludes Galbulid.) 
Small to moderately large desmognathous scansorial (zygodactyle) 
Coraciiformes with two carotid arteries, nude oil-gland, non-oscinine 
or suboscinine wing-coverts, temporal fossse only moderately deep, 
and ectepicondyloid process of humerus absent. 
Temporal fossse only moderately deep; thoracic hsemapophyses 
with ventral lateral expansions; furcula t J-shaped, with hypoclei- 
deum; humero-coracoid fossa weak; ectepicondyloid process of hu- 
merus absent; two carotid arteries; cseca present; oft-gland nude; 
wing-coverts nonoscinine or suboscinine (no proximally overlapping 
middle coverts), and aftershaft absent or greatly reduced; basiptery- 
goid processes absent; myological formula AX or AXY; spinal pteryla 
well-defined on neck, forked on lower (not on upper) back; adult 
downs absent; tongue long, tapering, and membraneous. 
KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF GALBULzE. 
a. Vomer absent; planta tarsi smooth (nonscutellate); pectoral pteryla with a nar- 
row lateral (clavicular) and an inner (postero-gular) branch; a[tershaft present 
(bts-smsll); tip of maxilla not decurved, or else (acamerops) gonys cari- 
nate and plumage o upper parts brilliantly metallic; gonys ridged (carinate); 
wing-coverts sub-oscinine; lateral rectrices rudimentary or sixth pair absent; 
plumage more or less metallic ............................ albulide (p. 360). 
aa. Vomer present; planta tarsi scutellate; pectoral pterylawithout lateral (clavicular) 
or inner (postero-gular) branches; aftershaft t; tip of maxilla decurved 
(often uncinate); gonys rounded; wing-coverts non-oscinine (picarian); lateral 
rtrices well-developed; plumage not at all metallic ...... Bucconide (p. 370). 

a Five specimens, b One specimen. 



366 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL :MUSEUM. 

arched, not deflected basally, the tomia smooth. Nostril longitudinal, 
overhung by a broad, convex operculum, overlaid by several long 
and stout antrorse bristles, the rictus, malar apex, and chin with 
similar but smaller bristles. V'ing moderate, much rounde(1, the 
longest primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than length of 
tarsus; sixth and seventh primaries longest, the fifth and eighth 
slightly shorter, the ninth about equal to fourth, the tenth (outer- 
most.) half as long as ninth or a little longer. Tail decidedly longer 
than wing, graduated, the lateral (developed) rectrices a little more 
than half to two-thirds as long as middle pair; rectrices relatively 
rather narrow, the middle ones tapering terminally but not attenuate 
nor pointed, the tip more or less broadly rounded. Tarsus as long as 
or longer than outer anterior toe without claw, feathered for less than 
upper half. 
Coloraton.--Above brilliantly metallic green, golden, or purplish 
bronze, the head sometimes bluish;, chest (somethnes throat or 
breast also) similar in color to back; under parts of body (posterior to 
chest) usually rufous-tawny, the latertfl rectrices also tawny (at least 
in part) ; adult nmles usually with a triangular throat-patch of white, 
this buff or tawny in adult females. 
Rage.--Southeastern Mexico to eastern Peru, Bolivia, southern 
Brazil, Cayenne, Trinidad, and Tobago. (About nine species.) 

GALBULA MELANOGENIA $clater. 

BLACK-CHINNED JACAMAR. 

Adult ale.--Above bright metallic golden green, usually more 
decidedly golden on back and rump, the pileum usually slightly 
darker; four middle rectrices pm'er (less golden) green, the inner 
web of second pair duller green; auricular region and greater part o 
malar region rather dark metallic green, passing into dark sooty or 
blackish on suborbital and loral regions, anterior portion of malar 
region, and chin, the latter usually more or less intermixed medially 
with pale brown or whitish, sometimes in form of streaks; throat 
pure white, forming a conspicuous, more or less triangular, patch; 
chest bright metallic green, similar to but usually less golden than 
color of back, etc. ; rest of under parts, together with four lateral 
rectrices (on each side) plain rufous-tawny, the later (especially the 
third and fourth, from outside) with basal portion of outer web 
metallic green; bill black; iris brown; bare orbital space yellow; 
legs and feet brownish in dried skins, yellow or greenish yellow in 
life; length (skins), 204-256 (232); wing, 80.5-90.5 (84.5); tail, 
97-111.5 (I02.2) ; exposed culmen, 40-57 (5I .1) ; tarsus, 12-14 (I3.1); 
outer anterior toe, 10.5-12 (ll.I). a 

a Forty-six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 381 

Medium-sized Bucconidm (length about 187-205 ram.) with bill as 
long as or longer than head and much co.mpressed, tarsus as long as 
outer anterior toe without claw, tip of naxilla distinctly bifid or cleft, 
bristles round bae of bill very strong, tail nearl hs long as wing, 
longest primaries decidedly longer than longest secondaries, upper 
parts grayish brovn, indistinctly blotched with dull whitish, tail 
plain grayish brown, and under parts buffy with a pectoral band 
(sometimes a jugular band also) of blackish, the thro,t sometimes 
dull tawny. 
Bill as long as or longer than head, distinctly compressed (its depth 
at nostrils decidedly greater than its width at same point); exposed 
culmen decidedly shorter than combined length of tarsus and outer 
anterior toe, without claw, straight for more than basal half, then 
first gradually then rather strongly decurved terminally, rounded or 
indistinctly ridged; tip of maxilla conspicuously bifid, or incised 
medially; gonys nearly to quite twice as long as mandibular rami, 
gently but distinctly convex, ascending terminally, rather prominent 
b,sally, rounded; maxillary tomium nearly straight, sometincs 
with basal third (more or less) slightly deflected. Nostril snmll, 
roundish, opening postero-latcrally, in anterior end of the very short 
and broad nasal fossa, covered by antrorse prefrontal bristles, these 
extending over less than basal half of maxilla, slender, but exceedingly 
rind. Rictal bristles very strong, extremely rigid; malar apex with 
much smaller antrorse bristles, the feathers of chin with long, slender, 
recurred bristly points. Wing moderate, the longest primaries 
exceeding distal secondaries by about length of tarsus; seventh and 
eighth, or fifth, sixth, and seventh, primaries longest, the ninth 
shorter than fifth (sometimes shorter than fourth), the tenth (outer- 
most) slightly less to slightly more than half as long as the longest. 
Taft nearly as long as wing (seven-eighths as long, or more), strongly 
rounded, the lateral rectrices about four-fifths as long as middle pair, 
the rectrices rather narrow, with tip rounded. Tarsus equal to or 
slightly longer than outer anterior toe without claw. 
Plumage and coloration.--Plumage soft, that of under parts blended, 
that of upper parts with feathers distinctly outlined but with margins 
more or less broken (the webs semidecomposed); orbital region 
feathered. Above grayish brown, blotched with dull whitish, the 
tail plain; under parts buffy with a pectoral band (sometimes a jugu- 
lar band also) of blackish, the throat white or dull tawny. 
Range.--Eastern Panamh to Colombi and Venezuela. (Two 
species.) 



382 BULLETIlg 50 U/gITED STATES /gATIO/gAL MUSEUM. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF HYPNELUS. 
a. Under parts with two broad dark bands, one across foreneck, the other across upper 
breast; throat buff or huffy white. (Venezuel% including lIargarita Island.) 
I-Iypnelus bicinctus (extmlimital).a 
aa. Under parts with only one broad dark band, a black one across upper breast; 
throat cinnamon or russet to nearly chestnut, bordered posteriorly by a band of 
buffy white across chest. (Hypnelus ruficollis.) 
b. Paler; under parts of body cream-buff to nearly buffy white; throat cinnamon 
to cinnamon-buff, followed by a much broader jugular band of buffy white; 
black pectoral band narrower; pale spots on scapulars, etc., much larger. 
(Northern Colombia.) ................... Hypnelus ruficollis ruticollis (p. 382). 
bb. Darker; under parts of body deep buff; throat (much more extensively) 
chestnut-cinnamon, followed by a very narrow band of buffy white; black 
pectoral band broader; pale spots on scapulars, etc., much smaller. (Vene- 
zuela.) ........................ Hypnelus ruficollis coloratus (extralimital).b 
HYPNELUS RUFICOLLIS RUFICOLLIS (Wagler). 
RUSSET-THROATED PUFF-BIRD. 
Adults (sexes alilce).--Pileum, hindneck, and upper back deep 
broccoli brown, some of the feathers  ith indistinctly paler tips, the 
anterior portion of the forehead suffused with cinnamon or cinnamon- 
buff; a whitish or pale buffy collar across hindneck; lower back, 
scapulars, and wing-coverts deep broccoli brom, each feather with a 
large te.rminal guttate or ovate area of very pale bro,smish gray; rump 
and upper taft-coverts deep broccoli broom, the feathers rather broadly 
tipped with buff; remigcs and rectrices grayish brown (nearly hair 
brown) narrowly margined with dull whitish, the inner secondaries 
paler and more grayish, at least terminally; lores dull white or buff)', 
passing into more decided buff or cinnamon-buff on anterior portion 
of forehead; suborbital and auricular reons dull white; a broad 
malar stripe and sides of neck deep broccoli brown (the former 
darker); anterior portion of malar region and whole of throat cin- 
namon, deeper or more saturated (nearly russet) centrally, fading 
into cinnamon-buff anteriorly and posteriorly, the upper chest clear 
buffy white, succeeded by a rather broad band of black across lower 
chest or upper breast; rest of under parts light buff, cream-buff, or 

a Tamatia bicincta Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1836, 80 ("Cayenne?").--B[ucco] 
bicinctus Gray, Gen. Birds, i, Dec., 1846, 74.--Bucco bicinches Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1855, 196; Mon. Jacamars and Puff-birds, 1882, 91, pl. 30; Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xix, 1891, 188.--[Capitol bicincta Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 146.--[Clau- 
nornis] bicincta Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 128 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 
1854, 13).--H[ypnelus] bicinctus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. tlein., iv, heft 1, 1863, 143 
(Puerto Cabello, Venezuela).--Tamat-ia bitorquata Swainson, Anita. in Menag., Jan. 1, 
1838, 327 ("Trinidad "). 
A specimen of this species from Margarita Island, Venezuela, is so much paler than 
one from Valencia, on the mainland, that subspecific difference is strongly indicated. 
b New subspecies. (Type from Encontrados, Venezuela; coll. Field lIus. Nat. 
]ist.) 



384 BULLETI17 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus ECCHAUNORNIS 1Ridgway. 
Ecchaunornis a RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxv, May 4, 1912, 97. (Type, 
Bucco radiatus Sclater.) 
Medium-sized Bucconidm (length about 190-215 ram.) with the 
compressed bill about as long as head or slightly shorter, the culmen 
straight to near tip where abruptly decurved, gonys distinctly convex 
and strongly ascending terminally, the tip of maxilla not distinctly 
if at all bifid; longest primaries only slightly exceeding secondaries, 
the upper parts, including taft, rufescent brown or rufous-tawny 
barred with black (or the tail narrowly barred with whitish), a collar 
across hindneck and the under parts buffy, the latter narrowly barred, 
more or less, with black; bill reddish or horn color. 
Bill about as long as head or slightly shorter (culmen from base 
much lcss than half as long as wing), compressed, its depth at anterior 
end of nostrils equal to one and one-fourth to one and one-third times 
its width at same point; exposed culmen about one-third as long as 
wing, straight for most of its length, decurved terminally, indistinctly 
ridged; tip of maxftla slightly and obtusely uncinate, not bifid or 
incised (in E. chacuru the unguis more produced and pointed); 
gonys much longer than mandibular rami, distinctly convex, strongly 
ascending terminally, narrowly rotmded or indistinctly ridged ter- 
minally, broadly rotmded or slightly flattened basally; maxillary 
tomium nearly straight, sometimes faintly convex. :Nostril small, 
oval, obliquely vertical, opening laterally, in anterior end of nasal 
fossa, partly concealed by the antrorse, decurved, very rigid pre- 
frontal bristles. Wing short and rounded, the longest primaries very 
slightly exceeding longest secondaries; fifth, sLxth, and seventh 
primaries longest, the ninth about equal to third (E...lvidvs, E. 
radiatus) or equal to fourth (E. chacuru), the tenth (outermost) 
nearly to quite half as long as the longest. Tail about six-sevenths 
as long as wing, strongly rounded (lateral rectrices about six-sevenths 
as long as middle pair), the rectrices narrow, rounded at tip. Tarsus 
about as long as middle toe, without claw. 
Plumage and coloration.--Feathers of upper surface broad, dis- 
tinctly outlined, those of mder parts more blended; tail-coverts 
relatively very short, the upper covering slightly more than basal 
third of tail. Above, includhg tail, warm brown or rufous-tawny, 
barred or spotted with black (or the tail narrowly barred with pale 
brown or whitish), the hinchmck crossed by a broad collar of buffy; 
under parts buffy (more or less deep) more or less barred with black- 
ish; bill reddish, horn color, or grayish. 
Range.--Panam to western EcuadSr, Bolivia, and Paraguay. 
(Three species.) 

a Ex,ao,&, I puff up; pvtg, a bird. 



386 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

wing-coverts and inner webs of remiges (except terminal portion of 
outer and longer primaries) ochraceous-buff; maxilla horn color, the 
mandible paler, except terminally; iris yellow; a legs and feet horn 
color (in dried skins). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 202-207 (205); wing, 88-93.5 (91.2); 
tail, 73.5-77 (75.7); exposed culmen, 29.5-34 (31); tarsus, 17.5-20 
(18.8); outer anterior toe, 17-19 (18) b. 
Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 204-219 (209); wing, 89.5-94 (92.2); 
tail, 77.5-79.5 (78.6) ; exposed culmen, 30.5-34.5 (32.9); tarsus, 
19.5-20.5 (19.7); outer anterior toe, 17.5-19 (18.3) e. 
Specimens from GuayaquiI are identicaI with those from Panama in coloration; 
but the two from Honda, Tolima, are both paler, one of them conspicuousIy so, and 
should probably be referred to E. radiatus radiatus. It wilI be observed that these are 
also decidedly smaller than the others. I have not been able to examine a specimen 
of undoubted E. radiatus radiatus, however. 
Panama (Veragua; Cana, Dari6n; Lion Hill; Cascajl, Cocl6)and 
southward through northern and western Colombia (Rem6dios and 
Nichi, Antioquia; near Honda, Tolima) to western EcuadSr (Guaya- 
quil; Chimbo). 

Bucco radiatus (not of Sclater, 1853) SCLATER, Mort. Jacam. and Puff-Birds, 1882, 
109, part, pl. 36, front (Iarger) fig. ; Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xix, 1891, 192, part 
(Veragua).--SCLTER and SAWN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 536 (Remedios 
and Nichi, Antioquia, CoIombia).--BsRLm'SCH and TCZNOWSK, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 572 (Chimbo, n. w. Ecuador; crit.). 
[Bucco] radiatus SCLEa and SLvt, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 106, part. 
Bucco.fdvidus SLwN and GOD, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, sig. 65, March, 
1896, 514 (Vemm, Panama; coll. Salvia and Godman). 
[Bucco].fulvidus SAm,., Hand-fist, ii, 1900, 198. 
Ecchaunornis radiatus fulvidus RD(}WA, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxv, May 4, 
1912, 97, in text. 

a Heyde and Lux, manuscript. 
b Three specimens from Panama. 
c Six specimens from Panama. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Three adult males from eastern Panama ....................... 
One adult male from Colombia (near Honda, Tolima) ......... 
FEMALES. 
Six adult females from Panama ................................ 
One adult female from Colombia (near Honda, Tolima) ....... 
SEX NOT DETERMINED. 
Two adults from western Ecuador (Guayaquil) ................ 

91.2 
86 
92. 2 
83.5 
92.7 

?aft. posed 
culmen. 
75.  28 
76 28 
78. 32.9 
66.,  29.5 
79.  33 

Tarsn 
18.8 
17 
19.7 
17.5 
18.7 

Outar 
anterio 
toe. 

18 
19 

18.3 
16.5 

19 



388 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL VIUSEUVI. 

KEY TO THE CENTRAL AMERICAN SUBSPECIES OF MALACOPTILA PANAMENS[S. 
a. Pileum and hindneck rufescent brown, the remaining upper parts more decidedly 
rufescent; chest ochraceousobuff to tawny. (Agult mal.) 
5. Breastand sides conspicuously striped; chest tawny-ochraceous to tawny. (East- 
ern Panama to western Costa Rica.) 
Malacoptila panamensis panamensis, adult male (p. 388). 
bb. Breast and sides indistinctly striped; chest ochraceous-buff. (Eastern Costa 
Rica to extreme southern Mexico.) 
Malacotila anamensis inornata, adult male (p. 391). 
aa. Pileum and hindneck grayish brown to nearly oTay, the remaining upper parts 
more decidedly brown; chest buff to nearly white. (Adult females.) 
b. Breast and sides more distinctly striped; buff of chest deeper. 
Malacotfla anamensis panamensis, adult female (p. 389). 
bb. Breast and sides less distinctly striped; buff of chest paler. 
Malaco9tila 9anamensis inornata, adult female (p. 391). 
MALACOPTILA PANAMENSIS PANAMENSIS Lafzesnaye. 

PANAMa. MALACOPTILA. 

Ad;lt ma/e.wAbove mummy brown or prouts brown to chestnut- 
brown, passing into russet or chestnut on upper tail-coverts, the 
feathers of back, scapulars, and wing-coverts with a termhal spot of 
pale tawny or brownish huffy, the pileum usually similarly but. less 
distinctly spotted, but. the spots changing on forehead into narrow 
streaks; secondaries darker brown than wing-coverts, narrowly 
edged distally with rusty brown; primaries dusky, the larger quills 
with median portion of outer web light rusty brown or dull light 
tawny; tail chestnut-brown or chestnut; orbital region (especiay 
the superciliary portion) tawny, passing into paler on lores, which 
together with anterior portion of forehead are sometimes slightly 
intermixed with white; auricular region brown (passing into tawny on 
upper portion), narrowly and rather indistinctly streaked with 
tawny; subauricular (postmalar) region darker brown, with broader 
and very distinct streaks of tawny; pendent mustache-like tufts on 
anterior portion of malar region white, sometimes tinged or inter- 
mixed with tawny; chin md sides of throat brown, the feathers with 
whitish shMt-streaks; median portion of throat and upper chest, 
plain tawny or tawny-buff; rest of under parts mostly pale buff or 
buffy whitish, the feathers of breast and sides broadly edged with 
brown and dusky, forming conspicuous broad streaks, which become 
indistinct or obsolete on flanks; under tail-coverts buff or brownish 
buff; under wing-coverts tawny-ochraceous; inner webs of remiges 
broadly edged for proximal half with ochraceous-buff; maxilla dark 
horn color to nearly black, sometimes paler on basal portion of culmen; 
mandible pale dull yellowish (grayish in life ?) dusky at tip; iris red- 
dish brown to chestnut-red; legs and feet dusky rayish in life?); 
length (skins), 170-190 (177); wing, 81.5-91 (86.7); taft, 67-81 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 398 

curved terminally, indistinctly ridged; gonys about twice as long as 
mandibular rami, straight or faintly convex basal]y, more or less con- 
cavo terminally, indistinctly ridged or narrowly rounded terminally, 
broadly rounded basally; commissuro moro or less strongly arched 
though nearly straight basally, tho tomia smooth. Nostril small, 
ovoid, obliquely vertical, in anterior end of nasal fossa. Feathers all 
around base of bill long, bristle-like, antrorse, those at base of maxilla 
decurved, those of chin recurred. Wing moderate, the longest pri- 
maries more or less distinctly longer than longest secondaries; fifth 
to seventh (usually tho sixth, rarely the seventh) primary longest, 
tho ninth not longer than third, sometimes shorter than second, the 
tenth (outermost) more than half as long as ninth. Tail six-sevenths 
to quite as long as wing, rounded (lateral rectrices about five-sixths 
to sLx-sevenths as long as middle pair), the rectrices rather broad and 
firm, broadly rounded at tip. Tarsus longer than outer anterior too 
without claw. 
Coloration and plumage.--Plain slate color or slate-gray deepening 
into black on primaries, tail and head (sometbnes on back, scapulars, 
and wing-coverts also), sometimes with white on lesser wing-coverts 
or under wing-coverts, sometimes with forehead and chin white or 
fulvous; in one species the wing-coverts light gray; bill red, orange, 
or yellow. 
Range.--Nicaragua to eastern Ecuador, Bolivia, southeastern 
Brazil, and Cayenne. (Twelve or more species.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MONASA. a 

a. No white on wings; back date cdor. 
b. Fore part of head partly white (adults) or rusty (young). 
c. Forehead, lores, and chin white or rusty. 
d. Malar apex black. 
e. Larger (wing 133-149.5, averaging 139.8 in male, 144.3 in female; exposed 
culmen 35--45, averaging 37.1 in male, 38.5 in female); lower throat, 
crown, and occiput black; white "capistrum" larger. (Eastern Costa 
Rica and eastern Nicaragua) ................ Monasa grandior (p. 395). 
ee. Smaller (wing, 121.5-132.5, averaging 127.6; exposed culmen, 31.5-33.5, 
averaging 32.5); lower throat, crown, and occiput slate color or date- 
gray. (Lower Amazon Valley) ........ Monasa rikeri (extralimital).b 
dd. Malar apex white. 
e. Whole head and neck (except white capistrum) black; remiges (except 
inner secondaries) deep black, contrasting strongly with date-gray of 
wing-coverts. (Eastern Panama) ............ Monasa fidelis (p. 397). 

a For the present I do not attempt to discriminate between species and subspecies 
in this genus, a very much larger amount of material being required for the proper 
understanding of all the forms and their relationships. 
bMonasa morpheus (not Bucco morphoeus Hahn and Kiister) Allen, Bull. Essex 
Inst., viii, 1876, 80 (Santarem, Lower Amazon); Riker and Chapman, Auk, viii, 1891, 
158 (Santarem).--Monasa rikeri Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxv, May 4, 1912, 
88(Diamantina, Lower Amazon; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 397 

MONASA FIDELIS Nelson. 

GOLDMAN'S NUN BIRD. 
Similar to M. morphveus and M. peruana in having the malar apex 
as well as forehead and chin white or pa.lo rusty, but differing in 
having the whole head (otherwise), neck, and upper chest black, 
rather abruptly defined against the bluish slate color of back and 
bluish slate-gray of breast. 
Adult nale.--Frontal area (including forehead, antrorse supranasal 
plumes, and greater part of lores), anterior portion of malar region, 
chin, and upper throat dull white, slightly tinged with rusty brown; 
rest of head, together with neck, all round, uniform black, passing 
into slate-black on upper chest; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts uniform bluish slate color; romiges black, 
faintly glossed with greenish blue, the distal secondaries narrowly 
edged with slate color, the innermost secondaries mostly slate color 
laterally; tail slightly glossy bluish black; under parts of body plain 
blui slate-gray, very slightly paler posteriorl:, the under tail- 
coverts, however, rather darker; under wing-coverts clear slate 
gray, slightly lighter than under parts; bill bright red; legs and feet 
dusky (in dried skins); length (skin), 258; wing, 136.5; tail, 115; 
exposed culmen, 38.5; tarsus, 20; outer anterior toe, 19. a 
Eastern Panama (Cerro Azfil, Canal Zone). 
Monasa fidelis N.LSON, Smithson. Misc. Coll., vol. 56, no. 37, Feb. 16, 1912, 1 
(Cerro Azul, Panama, 800 ft. alt. ; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

MONASA PALLESCENS Cassin. 

PALE-WINGED NUN BIRD. 

Adults (sexes alike).--A frontal area, involving anterior portion of 
forehead, antrorse supranasal plumes, and greater part of lores, cin- 
namon or cirmamomeous white; rest of head, including chin and 
throat, black, passing into slate-black on neck (all round); back, 
scapulars, and rump uniform slate-gray; ving-coverts much paler 
gray (about no. 6 or no. 7) paling into about no. 10 gray on anterior 
portion of lesser covert area; alula, primary coverts, and remiges 
black or slate-black, the innermost (proximal) secondaries mostly 
slate-gray; upper tail-coverts blackish slate or slate-black; tail uni- 
form bluish black; under parts light gray, nearly like wing-coverts, 
usually slightly darker anteriorly, where sometimes rather abruptly 
defined against the blackish slate or slate-black of foreneck; bill 
orange-red in life, fading into dull pale red or reddish white in dried 
skins; legs and feet grayish brown (in dried skins). 

One specimen (the type). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 399 

272-275 (273.5); wing, 131.5-132 (131.7); exposed culmen, 35-36.5 
(35.7); tarsus, 22-22.5 (22.2); outer anterior toe, 17.5-18 (17.7). a 
Southeastern Panama (Marraganti). 
Monasa pallescens minor NELSON, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxvi, March 22, 1913, 
67 (Marraganti, eastern Panama; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
MONASA SIMILIS Nelson. 
CERRO AZL NUN BIRD. 
Similar to M. pallescens in restriction of the white or pale rusty 
frontal area to anterior portion of forehead, lores, and supranasal 
plumes (the head otherwise entirely black), but color of back, scapu- 
lars, rump, wing-coverts, and under parts of body much darker (the 
back dark slate instead of slate-gray, the wing-coverts uniform slate- 
gray instead of light gray posteriorly, becoming still paler--no. 8 or 
no. 9 gray--anteriorly). 
Adult female.--A frontal area, involving anterior portion of fore- 
head, supranasal plumes, and greater part of lores, dull white or pale 
rusty brownish; rest of head, together with neck, all round, uniform 
black, passing into slate-black on upper chest; back, scapulars, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts plain slate color, the first darker anteriorly; 
wing-coverts uniform deep bluish slate-gray; remiges black, faintly 
glossed with greenish, the proxinml secondaries narrowly edged with 
slate color, increasing in extent to the innermost, which are mostly 
slate color; taft slightly glossy bluish black; under parts of body 
(posterior to chest) plain slate-gray, very slightly darker anteriorly, 
where rather abruptly defined against the slate-black of chest, the 
under tail-coverts darker; under wing-coverts clear slate-gray, paler 
than under parts; bill bright red; legs and feet dusky (in dried skin) ; 
length (skin), 281; wing, 140; tail, 127; exposed culmen, 40; tarsus, 
20; outer anterior toe, 19. b 
Eastern Panam' (Cerro Azfil, Canal Zone). 
(?)Monasa pallescens (not of Cassin?) SALVADOII and FESTA, Boll. Mus. ZooI., 
etc., Torino, xiv, 1899, no. 339, p. 8 (Punta de Sabana, Panama). 
Monasa similis NELSON, Smithson. Misc. Coll., vol. 56, no. 37, Feb. 16, 1912, 1 
(Cerro Azul, Panam,,f, 800 ft. alt.; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Genus NONNULA Sclater. 
Nonnula SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, 124. (Type, Bucco rubecula 
Spix.) 
Microtrogon c BERTONI, Av Nuevas del Paraguay, 1901, 41. (Type, M. ful- 
vescens Bertoni----Bucco rubecula Spix.) 
Very small Bucconidm (length about 125-145 ram.) with the rather 
slender, slightly decurved, slightly compressed bill equal to or slightly 

a Two specimens. 
b One specimen (the type). 
c MKpS-, small; -t- Trogon (rp&]'w, I gnaw, I eat). 

(Bertoni.) 



404 BULLETIN 4) UITED STATES ATIOAL MUSEUM. 

=Halcyones FUERBRINGER, Unters. Morph. Syst. V6g., ii, 1888, 1567.--SHARPE, 
Rev. Classif. Birds, 1891, 80; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 48. 
.Alcedines BEDDARD, Struct. and Classif. Birds, 1898, 197. 
Synpelmous anisodactyle Coraciiformes with myological formula 
AX, basipterygoid processes, vomer, cmca, and aftershaft absent, two 
carotid arteries, and without spinal apterium. 
Palate desmognathous; nares holorhinal, impervious; cervical 
vertebr 14-15; complete ribs, 3-4 pairs; metasternum 4-notched; 
spins externa sterni present, spins interns.absent; furcula [J-shaped; 
syrinx tracheo-bronchial; flexor tendons of type V or Vb, the halhLx 
connected with the flexor pelorans digitorum; intestinal convolu- 
tions of type VI; tensor patagii brevis muscle present, biceps slip 
absent; expansor secundariorum and accessory semitendinosus mus- 
cles either present or absent; feet anisodactyle, synpelmous, the outer 
(fourth) toe united to middle (tlfird) toe for more than its basal half, 
the inner (second) toe united to the middle toe by its basal third, but 
inner toe somethnes wanting; soles of toes flattened; spinal pteryla 
well-defined on neck, not forked on upper back; ventral pteryla not 
only divided centrally, but also on each side of breast; oil-gland 
tufted; secondaries 11-14; primaries 11; rectrices usually 12 (10 in 
one genus only). 
The Kingfishers are u well-marked group of Picarian birds, 
characterized by their long, compressed, and acute beak, small feet 
with soles much flattened and the fourth (outer) toe united to the 
third (middle) for more than half its length, and the second (inner) 
united to the third for its basal third. They differ from the Todies 
(Todidm) in the absence of cmca, and from the Motmots (Momotide) 
in the absence of aftershafts to the feathers, besides in other respects. 
Among Old World families they are most nearly related to the tIorn- 
bills (Bucerotidm) and tIoopoes (Upupidm), especially the former, 
with which the Kingfishers agree closely in the shape of the syndac- 
tylous foot, in having the oil-gland tufted, in lacking aftershafts to 
the contour feathers, and in the absence of colic crees--characters 
shared also by the Hoopoes except the first, the feet of the Upupide 
being almost typically Passerine in structure. 
The Kingfishers, as their name implies, feed chiefly on small fishes, 
though some of the species, particularly those belonging to the sub- 
family Daceloninm, are forest birds and subsist on reptiles and other 
forms of animal life. They nest in holes which they dig in banks, 
some of the forest-inhabiting species laying in cavities in trees. Their 
eggs are invariably pure white. 
The family is very numerously represented in the eastern hemi- 
sphere, especially in the Malay Archipelago, and thence to New 
Guinea, where u great variety of generic types are found, many of 
them among the most beautiful of birds. As stated above, the group 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 405 

is poorly represented in America, where occur only two genera with 
about eleven species and subspecies. 

Family ALCEDINID,E. 

THE TRUE rINGIISHERS. 
Ispidae MERRE, Abhandl. Berlin Acad., 1812-13 (1816), p. 245. 
>Halcyonide YmoRs, Zool. Journ., ii, Oct., 1825, 394 (includes Galbula, Capito?, 
and Monasa?). 
<Alcedininae BONATE, Saggio distr. An. Vert., 1831, 41 (genus Alcedo only). 
=Alcedininae BONeATE, Prodr. Syst. Orn., 1840, 7; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 158.-- 
CAsIs and HEINE, MU8. Hein., ii, 1860, 143.--SUNDEVALL, lIet. Nat. Av. 
Disp. Tent., ii, 1873, 95 (English translation, 1889, 175). 
=Alcedide uP, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1849, 119. 
<Alcediniahe FUEBINOER, Unters. lIorph. Syst. VSg., ii, 1888, 1372, 1584, 1590 
(excludes Halcyoninm as family Halcyonide!). 
=Alcedinidae CBNIS, Wiegmann's Archiv fiir Naturg., 1847, pt. i, 344.--BoNa- 
PARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 153.--CABANIS and HEINE, [US., Heiue, ii, 1860, 
143.--GRY, Hand-List, i, 1869, 89.--STEJNEGER, Stand. Nat. IIist., iv, 1885, 
395, 401, in text.--SHAnPE, ttand-List, ii, 1900, 48. 
The characters of the Family Alcedinidm are the same as those of 
the superfamily tIalcyones (see p. 403), the opinion that only one 
family is comprised within the latter being so nearly universal that, 
so far as I am aware, Fuerbringer is the only exception. 
The anatomy of the different generic types of the group has not 
been sufficiently studied to justify more than a provisional subdi- 
vision; but authors are pretty well agreed that two subfamilies are 
easily recognized from external characters alone, these being charac- 
terized as follows by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe, in volume xviii of the 
"Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum," p. 93: 
a. Bill long and slender, compressed, and perceptibly keeled; habits mainly pis- 
civorous ........................................................ Alcedinine. 
b. Bill more or less depressed; culmen rounded or flattened, sometimes even 
grooved; habits mainly insectivorous or reptilivorous .......... Dacelonine.a 
0n]y the Subfamily Alcedininm is represented in America, by 
two genera. The following characters are drawn up from tile 
American types and more nearly related Old World forms. 

a=Alcedininae Bonaparte, Saggio distr. An. Vert., 1831, 41 (genera Halcyon, Dacelo, 
Mdidora, Choucalcyon, Tanysiptera, Syma, and Ceyx).-Daceloninae Bonaparte, 
Pr0dr. Syst. Orn., 1840, 7; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 153; Gray, Hand-list, i, 1869, 89; 
Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reich, VSg., ii, 1893, 231; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xvii, 1892, 173; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 52.=Halcyoninae Cabanis, Wiegmann's Archiv 
ffir Naturg., i, 1847, 344; Cabanis and Heine, Mus. He[n., ii, 1860, 151.---=Halcyonidae 
Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. VSg., ii, 1888, 1567. 
The Halcyonine are confined to the Eastern Hemisphere, where they extend from 
Attica to Australia and Polynesia, being most numerously represented and most 
diversified in form in the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan Subregions. According 
t0 Sharpe's "Hand-list" (ii, 1900, 52-63)the subfamily comprises 15 genera and 149 
pecies, the Alcedininm containing only 5 genera and 51 species. 



406 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Head large, completely feathered, more or less crested, though 
sometimes only the feathers of the occiput and nape are slightly 
elongated; feathering of the anterior portion (all round) short and 
dense; no trace of antrorse bristles anywhere about base of bill. 
Bill long, strbng, straight, much deeper than wide at base, sub- 
pyramidal in cross-section, usually longer than head; culmen not 
sharply if at all ridged, sometimes flattened basally, where, for a 
greater or less distance, constricted laterally by a distinct, though 
broad and shallow, lateral groove; gonys more or less convex, 
ascending terminally, rather prominent basally through contraction 
of the mandibular rami, the latter not more (usually less) than half 
as long as gonys; commissure straight for most of its length, but 
basally strongly sinuated from convexity of basal portion of maxil- 
lary tomium. Nostril narrow (slit-like), lontudinal or somewhat 
oblique, overhung by a more or less broad opcrculum. ing mod- 
erate to rather short, with longest primaries always longer than 
longest secondaries; secondaries 12-15; primaries 11, but the 
eleventh (outermost) minute or rudimentarv; tip of wing rather 
pointed, the seventh to ninth primaries longest, the tenth (apparent 
outermost) longer than fourth. Rectrices 1, the tail one-half to 
two-thirds as long as wing, slightly rounded. Feet relatively very 
small, the tarsus not longer (usually shorter) than inner anterior toe 
with claw, scutellate (sometimes in two irregular rows) in front, 
granulated behind; lower portion of tibia naked, sometimes for 
length of tarsus; hallux much shorter than inner toe, connected 
with inner anterior (second) toe, so as to form with it and the others 
a broad flattened sole, the surface of which is conspicuously granu- 
lated, the mh|dle toe ufited to the outer for the whole of its first 
two phalanges, or more, to the inner for whole of the first pha- 
larLx; outer toe nearly as long as middle toe, the inner (without 
claw) reaching only to second articulation of middle toe; claws mod- 
erately large, rather sharp, the middle one somewhat expanded, 
but not pectinated, on .inner edge; all the toes with the usual 
number of phalanges (2, 3, 4, 5). 
In coloration none of the species have bright spectrum hues, 
so common in the subfamily Dacelonine, though some have the 
upper parts of a rather dull metallic bronze-green. In all the Ameri- 
can forms the sexes are more or less different in coloration. 

KEY TO THE AMERICAN (AND RELATED OLD WORLD) GENERA OF ALCEDINIDE. 
a. Tail only half as long as wing; tarsus shorter than inner toe without claw; malar 
apex much nearer to eye than to nostril ; coloration white and black. 
Ceryle (extralimital). a 

a Ceryle Bole, Isis, 1828, 316. (Type, Alcedo rudis Linnaeus.) 
Africa to southern China. (Two species.) 



BIRDS OF IORTH AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 409 

aa. Smaller (wing 145-169. 5); breast and abdomen white. (Streptoceryle alcyon.) 
b. Smaller (wing averaging 156.3 in male, 158.6 in female; tail 87.7 in male, 88.7 in 
female; exposed culmen 54.5 in male, 58.7 in female); wing-tip averaging 
relatively shorter. (Eastern North America, from Mackenzie to West Indies 
and Panama) ........................ Streltoceryle alcyon alcyon (p. 415). 
bb. Larger (wing averaging 163.1 in male, 165.5 in female; tail 92.1 in male, 93.3 
in female; exposed culmen 58.7 in male, 59.6 in female); wing-tip averaging 
relatively longer. (Western North America, from northern Alaska and Yukon 
Territory to western Mexico) ......... Streltoceryle alcyon caurina (p. 420). 

STREPTOCERYLE TORQUATA TORQUATA (Linnaeus). 
RINGED KINGFISHER. 

Adult male.--Above bluish plumbeous, interrupted by a white 
collar across hindneck, the feathers usually with more or less distinct 
shaft streaks of black, especially those of the crest; secondaries nar- 
rowly tipped with white and (together with some of the coverts) 
with more or less concealed irregular white spotting; primaries dull 
black or slate-black, narrowly tipped with white (except outer 
quills), and often with spots of white on outer web, at least on inner 
quills; middle rectrices bluish plumbeous with a median narrow 
stripe of black, tipped with white and marked with larger or smaller 
transverse spots or irregular bars of white, which, however, rarely 
reach the edge of the webs; remaining rectrices black edged with 
bluish plumbeous (this nearly if not quite absent from the outer- 
most), spotted with white along inner portion of outer web, the inner 
web crossed by much larger transverse spots or broad bars of white, 
wlfich frequently become confluent along the edge, especially on 
proximal portion of the rectrices; a supraloral spot, spot on lower 
eyelid, chin, throat, sides of neck, anal region, under tail-coverts, 
axillars, under wing-coverts, and greater part of inner webs of remiges, 
white, the longer under taft-coverts and axillars sometimes more or 
less spotted or irregularly streaked with bluish plumbeous; sides of 
foreneck (immediately beneath the white subauricular area) bluish 
plumbeous; median portion of foreneck, chest, breast, abdomen, 
sides, and flanks, plain deep cinnamon-rufous, the feathers paler 
beneath surface; bill blackish paler basally, especially on mandible 
(oTeenish white h life)a; iris brown; a legs and feet dusky brown 
(olive-green in life); a length (skins), 360-424 (381); wing, 185-211 

Footnote--Continued. 
a. Ceryle stellata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 123.--Alcedo stellaris Kitt- 
litz, Denkw. Reis. Russ. Am., i, 1858, 120, in text. 
This form closely resembles S. t. stictipennis in coloration of the upper parts, some 
specimens of the two being precisely similar in this respect; but apparently always 
has under wing-coverts more or less spotted or streaked and the female has them 
largely white instead of wholly uniform light cinnamon-rufous; the posterior under 
parts are much more heavily barred or spotted, and the bill much smaller. 
aF. Sumichrast, manuscript. 



412 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

e. Peru; descr, eggs); 1867, 280 (Bluefields R., Nicaragua), 581 (Tocantins 
and Mexiana I., Brazil), 978 (Pebas, e. Peru); 1870, 837 (Honduras); 1873, 
292 (Rio Ucayali and Huallaga Valley, e. Peru; habits; descr, nest and eggs); 
1879, 534 (Nichi, Antioquia, Colombia), 632 (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Chi- 
quitos, Bolivia).--LoTvD, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 106.--LAWRENCE, AI. 
Lyc. 1. Y., vii, 1862, 290 (Lion Hill, Panama); ix, 1868, 117 (Costa Rica); 
Mere. Bost. Soc. 1. H., ii, 1874, 289 (Mazaflan, Sinaloa; habits); Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 30 (Chihuitan and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca).--SrARp., 
Mon. Alced., 1870, 73, pl. 22; Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 131 (Nuevo 
Leon; Tampico, Tamaulipas; Real del Monte, Hidalgo; etc.).--Frrzus, 
Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 311 (Agua Calicnte, Orosi, and lavarro, Costa Rica).-- 
WYATT, Ibis, 1871, 373 (Lake Paturia and Rio Magdalena, Colombia).--LEE, 
Ibis, 1873, 133 (Entre Rios, Argentina).--BEmEPSC, Journ. ffir Orn., 1873, 
269 (Santa Catarina, s. Brazil; synonymy, crit., etc.); 1884, 318 (Lake 
Paturia, Colombia); 1887, 22 (Lambare, Paraguay), 121 (Paraguay); Ibis, 
1884, 435 (Rio Apure, Venezuela; crit.); 1885, 118 (Babahoyo, w. Ecuador); 
1qovit. Zool., xv, 1908, 275 (Cayenne).--ALLEl% Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 
80 (Santarem, Brazil); Bull. Am. Mus. 1q. H., v, 1893, 125 (Chapada, Matto- 
grosso, Brazil); xiii, 1900, 136 (Bonda, Santa Marta, Colombia).--TAczA- 
lOWSKI, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 328; Orn. du P6rou, iii, 1886, 100.-- 
SALVlN and GODMAN, Ibis, 1880, 174 (Rio Manzanares, Santa Marta, Colom- 
bia); Biol. Centr.-Am., ii, 1895, 474 (Rio Grande, 1quevo Leon; Jalapa, Paso 
de la Milpa, Vega de Alatorre, Santa Ana, and Rio Rancho 1quevo, Vera 
Cruz; San Blas, Tepic; Tonala, Chiapas; Teapa, Tabasco; Belize R. and 
Cayo, Brit. Honduras; Rio Dulce, Lanquin, Choctum, Huamuchal, San 
Jos6, and Peten, Guatemala; Omoa, San Pedro, etc., Honduras; 
tombo, etc., Nicaragua; 1qavarro, etc., Costa Rica; Chepo, etc., Panama; 
South America, except Patagonia and Pacific coast of Chile and Peru).-- 
NuTTIIG, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 399 (La Palma de iNicoya, Costa 
Rica); vi, 1883, 375, 387, 394 (San Juan del Sur, Sucuy, and Omotepe, 
lqicaragua).--SALvlN, Ibis, 1883, 426 (Rio Rimac, Peru); 1886, 60 (Cama- 
cusa, Merume Mts., and Atapurau R., Brit. Guiana).--BAmows, Auk, i, 
1884, 26 (Concepci6n, Uruguay).--RIDWAY, Proc. U. S. 1Nat. Mus., vii, 
1884, 177 (Sabanilla, Colombia); x, 1887, 591 (Rio Segovia, s. Honduras).-- 
BEILEPSCH and IHEIIN6, Zeitschr. Orn., 1885, 160 (Taquara, etc., Rio Grande 
do Sul, s. Brazil).--ZELEDSN, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 109 (Costa 
Rica); Anal. Mus. lqac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 119 (Liberia and Jim6nez, Costa 
Rica; Panama).--FEmAli-PEmZ, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 160 (Paso 
de la Milpa, Vera Cruz).--WrTrION, Ibis, 1888, 468 (Lomas de Zamora, 
Argentina).--ScLATEl and HuDsoN, Argentine Orn., ii, 1889, 26.--FaEZEL, 
Journ. fiir Orn., 1891, 117 (Cordoba, Argentina).--RiKEl and CH_PtAI, 
Auk, viii, 1891, 158 (Santarem, Brazil).--KEl, Ibis, 1892, 138 (Lower Pilco- 
mayo, Argentina; habits); 1901, 228 (Villa Concepci6n, Pamguay).-- 
HOLLAND, Ibis, 1892, 202 (Estancia Espartilla, Argentina).--BElEPSC and 
STOLZMANN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, 399 (Lima and Rio Rimac, Peru); 
Ornis, 1906, 122 (Rio Cadena, Cuzco, Peru).--RicolD, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xvi, 1893, 510 (Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Rio Escondido, 1Nicaragua; 
habits); xviii, 1895, 629 (Alta Mira, Tamaulipas).--CAPAN, Bull. Am. 
Mus. 1q. H., vi, 1894, 62 (Trinidad).--STolE, Auk, xi, 1894, 177 (Laredo, 
Texas, 1 spec., June 2, 1888).--APLIl% Ibis, 1894, 190 (Santa Elena, Uruguay; 
habits).--BENDmE, Life Hist. 1q. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 40.--AEmCA OaI- 
TrOLOGISS' UNION COtITTEE, Auk, xii, 1895, 164; Check List, 2d ed., 
1895, no. 390.1; 3rd ed., 1910, 184.--KoENISWALD, Journ. fiir Orn., 1896, 
376 (Sat Paulo, s. Brazil).--Sa_lVADOli, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xii, 



414 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

STREPTOCERYLE TORQUATA STICTIPENNIS (Lawrence). 

ANTIIIEAI RIIGED rlNGFISHER. 

Similar to S. t. torquata but with outer webs of secondaries con- 
spicuously spotted with white (the whole upper parts sometimes 
similarly marked).  
Adult male.--Length (skin, 392; b wing, 193.5-201 (197.4); tail, 
121.5-125 (123.1); exposed culmen, 79.5-81 (80.5); tarsus, 13.5-15 
(14.5); middle toe, 19-20.5 (20). e 
Adult female.--Wing, 200-202.5 (201.2); tail, 120-123.5 (121.7); 
exposed culmen, 83-86 (84.5); tarsus, 14-16 (15); middle too, 
22-22.5 (22.2). a 
Lesser Antilles (islands of Guadeloupe and Dominica; Martinique ?). 
(?)Alcedo torquata (not of Linnus) VIEILLOT, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xix, 1818, 
399, part ("Antilles").--SCnLEGS, IIUS. Pays-Bas, iii, no. 17, 1863, 4, par 
(" IIaiti "). 
Ceryle torquaa LAWRENCE, Prec. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 459, 487 (Guadeloupe, 
Lesser Antilles). 
[Ceryle] torquaa CoRY, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 19 (Guadeloupe). 
Ceryle sictipennis LAWRESC, PreC. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 39, Nov. 3, 1885, 
623 (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles; coll. G. N. Lawrence).--CoRv, Auk, iii, 
1886, 367 (Guadeloupe); iv, 1887, 96 (Martiuique); Birds West Ind., 1889, 
162 (Guadeloupe). 

a There is much individual variation in the extent of the barring or spotting on 
the upper parts, some specimens being as conspicuonsly marked as extreme examples 
of S. t. stellata while others can be distinguished from S. t. torquata only by the white 
bars or spots on outer webs of the secondaries. One specimen (No. 28692, coll. Mus. 
Comp. Zool.), said to be from Martinique (it was first labeled as from St. Christopher!) 
lacks even the white markings on outer webs of the secondaries, and is, so far as I can 
see, in every way indistinguishable from typical S. t. torquata. Possibly it is not 
from either of the islands named, bnt from some part of the continent. As in the case 
of S. t. stellata, the cinnamon-rufous of the under parts appears to be darker, more 
castaneous, in M. t. stictipennis than in S. t. torquata. 
b One specimen. 
c Four specimens. 
a Two specimens. 

Locality. 
IIALES. 
Three adult males from Guadeloupe ........................... 
One adult male from Dominica ................................ 
One adult male of M. t. tellata ................................ 
Forty-three adult males of ze. t. toruata ....................... 
FEMALES. 
One adult female from Guadeloupe ............................ 
One adult female said to be from Martinique ................. 
One adult female of M. t. tdlata ............................. 
Thirty-six adult females of L t. toruata ..................... 

Ving. 

197.3 
197.5 
197 
196. 2 

202. 5 
2OO 
189. 5 
197. 6 

Tail. 

129. 2 
123 
118. 5 
121.1 

123.5 
120 
114.5 
121.3 

Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 

80. 3 
81 
71 
84. 3 

86 
83 
60 
82. 7 

Tarsus. Middle 
too. 
14.3 19.8 
15 20.5 
15.4 21.3 
14 22.  
16 22 
15. 4 21.  



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 415 

Ceryle torquata stctipennis CoRY, Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 11, 103, 133 (Guade- 
loupe). 
[Ceryle torquata] Subsp. 8- Ceryle stictipennis SHRPE, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 
1892, 124. 

STREPTOCERYLE ALCYON ALCYON (Linnaeus). 

BELTED KINGFISHER. 

Adult male.--Above, including sides of head, clear bluish gray 
(nearly plumbeous), interrupted by a white collar across hindneck; 
feathers of pileum (especially those of crest) with a median streak 
(more or less broad) of black, those of back, wings, etc., with very 
slender black shaft-streaks; wing-coverts and secondaries usually 
with a few minute irregular white markings, the latter with portion 
of outer web next to shaft and most of inner web black; alula, pri- 
mary covert.s, and primaries slate-black, tim first edged with bluish 
gray, the second minutely tipped with wlfite, the primaries with basal 
half, more or less, spotted with white, the inner ones, together with 
the distal secondaries, rather narrowly {ipped with white; middle 
pair of rectrices bluish gray with a median streak of black (this some- 
times confined to shaft), the latter usually margined on each side by 
a greater or less number of small wlfite spots; remaining rectrices 
slate-black or blackish slate, the outer web (except of lateral pair) 
broadly edged with bluish gray, the inner black portion spotted with 
wlfite, the inner webs barred with white; outermost rectrix similar 
but without distinct if any bluish gray edging, the white spots reach- 
ing to outer margin; a conspicuous supraloral spot of wlfite, and 
another but smaller wlfite spot immediately beneath eye; posterior 
portion of malar region, sides of neck, chin, throat, and foreneck 
immaculate white, the anterior portion of the malar region deep 
bluish gray or broadly streaked with the same; a broad band of 
bluish gray across chest; rest of tamer parts white, the sides and 
flanks mostly bluish gray (usually internfixed or flecked with white); 
axillars, under wing-coverts, and greater part of basal half (more or 
less) of inner webs of primaries, immaculate white; inner webs of 
secondaries wlfite basally, this sometimes broken into spots on distal 
portion; bill black, sometimes paler (grayish) basally, especially on 
mandible; iris dark brom; legs and feet livid slate color (in life); 
length (skins), 276-310 (295); wing, 145-161 (156.3); tail 82-93.5 
(87.7); exposed culmen, 53-61.5 (54.5); tarsus, 11-12 (11.9); middle 
toe, 14.5-17 (15.6). a 
Adult female.-Similar to the adult male but with a band (some- 
times incomplete or interrupted) across lower breast, together with 
side, flanks, and axillars, cinnamon-rufous, the innermost under wing- 
coverts sometimes tinged or suffused with the same; length (s-kins), 

a Nineteen specimens. 



416 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

270-320 (312); wing, 150-165 (158.6); tail, 81-96 (88.7); exposed 
culmcn, 54.5-63 (58.7); tarsus, 10-12 (11); middle toe, 14.5-16 
(15.6). a 
Young male.---Similar to the adult male, but jugular band more or 
less tinged or internfixed with cinnamon or cinnamon-brown. 
]%ungfemale.--Similar to the adult female but jugular band largely 
(often mostly) cinnamon-rufous, or much intermgxed with that color, 
instead of mostly or wholly bluish gray. 
Eastern North America; nortl to Mackenzie (Slave River; Great 
Slave Lake; Mackenzie and AJldcrson Rivers to Arctic Ocean), Kee- 
watin (Ft. Churchill), northern Quebec, Labrador (Northwest, Little 
Natashquan and l,fingan Rivers), Newfoundland, etc.; west to base 
of Rocky Mts. and (during migration) to Ft. Clarke (western Texas); 
breeding southward to Gulf coast and southern Florida; in winter 
southward throughout West Indies, to Bermuda, and through eastern 
Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas, Vera Cruz (Jalapa; Orizaba), 
Oaxaca (Santa Efiggnia) and Yucatan (Progreso; Shkolak; Cozumgl 
Island), and through Guatemala (Golfo Dulce; San GerSnimo; 
Duefias; San Jos6; HuamuchS1; Santa Ana Mixtfin; Lake Atitlfn), 

a Twenty-eight specimens. 
Locality. 

Middle 
toe. 

MALES. 
One adult male from Mackenzie (Slave R.) .................. 
One adult male from Pennsylvania ..... 
One adult male from District of Columbia ........ 
One adult male from North Carolina.. 
Two adult males from Florida ......................... 
One adult male from Minnesota ............................ 
One adult male from e. Nebraska. 
One adult male from Ft. Clark, Texas ...................... 
One adult male from Vera Cruz ............................. 
One adult male from Salvador ......... 
One adult male from St. Thomas, Greater Antilles 
One adult male from Grenada. 
One adult male from St. Andrews .................... 
One adult male from Barbuda ...................... ... 
One adult male from St. Christopher .......................... 
One adult male from Guadeloupe .............................. 
One adult male from Santa Lucia ............................. 
One adult male from n. w. Alaska (Kowak R.) (8. a. caurina).. 
Two adult males from coast of s. Alaska (8. a. caurina) ........ 
One adult male from coast British Columbia (8. a. caurina) .... 
Four adult males from California (8. a. caurina) .............. 
One adult male from Nevada (8. a. caurina) .................. 
One adult male from Montana (8. a. caurina) .................. 
One adult male from Colorado (. a. caurina) .................. 
One adult male from Sonora (8. a. caurina) .................... 
Two adult males from Chihuahua (8. a. caurina) .............. 

154. 5 
154 
159 
159. 5 
156. 7 
154. 7 
157 
161 
145 
161 
164 
164. 
166. 
162. 
164 
160 
164. 
163 
162 

15 
15.5 
16 
16 
14.7 
I5 
15.5 
15 
15 
16.5 
14.7 
15.7 
16 
16 
16 
16 
17 
16 
15 
15 
16 
15.5 
15.5 
16.5 
15 
15.5 



BIRDS OF IORTH AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 419 

46 (Anguilla I.), 48 (St. Christopher; Guadeloupe), 294 (Cuba; New Provi- 
dence, Bahamas), 295, 296,298 (Berry Islands, Biminis, and Abaco, Bahamas); 
ix, 1892, 49 (Maragauna I., Bahamas); Birds West Ind., 1889, 163; Cat. West 
Ind. Birds, 1892, 103.--RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 190, part; 
Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 382, part; Orn. Illinois, i, 1889, 390; Auk, 
viii, 1891, 339 (Green Cay, Bahamas, April).--GRIsDALE, Ibis, 1882, 490 
(Montserrat).--TRiSTRAM, Ibis, 1884, 168 (Santo D0mingo).--REtD, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 25, 1884, 210 (Bermuda, Sept.-ApriI).--NUTTNG, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. .Ius., vi, 1884, 375, 394 (San Juan del Sur and Omotepe, Nica- 
ragUa).--HAYWARD, Auk, ii, 1885, 311 (eats coleoptera!).--TURNER, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 242 (Northwest R., Labrador; Moose Factory).-- 
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 1886, no. 390, part; 2d ed., 
1895, no. 390, part; 3rd ed., 1910, 183, part.--STAHL, Ornis., iii, 1887, 452 
(Porto Rico).--WELLS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1887, 620 (Grenada; chiefly 
mioant, some resident).--FELDEN, Ibis, 1889, 487 (Barbados; habits).-- 
SCOTT, Auk, vi, 1889, 250 (Tarpon Springs, Florida, breeding); ix, 1892, 274 
(Jamaica, Dec.-March).--CLARKE (W. E.), Auk, vii, 1890, 322 (Ft. Churchill, 
Keewatin).--NORTHROP, Auk, viii, 1891, 75 (Andros I., Bahamas).--MAc- 
FARLaNE, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 437 (Anderson R., Mackenzie).-- 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iv, 1892, 300 (Cuba); vi, 1894, 62 (Trini- 
dad).--VERRrLL (G. E.), Trans. Conn. Ac. Sci., viii, 1892, 329 (D0minica).-- 
BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 34, part, pl. 1, fig. 3 (egg).-- 
SAVN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 472, part (Orizaba, 
Jalapa, etc., Vera Cruz; Sta. Efigenia, Oaxaca; Progreso, Shkohk, etc., 
Yucatan; Belize, Brit. Honduras; San GerSnimo, Duefias, San Jose, ]ua- 
muchal, and Santa Ana Mixtan, Guatemala; Omoa, etc., Honduras; Chon- 
tales, etc., Nicaragua; Rio Frio, etc., Costa lica; Panama; Santa Marta, 
Colombia; Antillcs).--CHERRIE, Contr. Orn. San Dora., 1896, 20 (Santo 
Domingo).---CHRtSTY, Ibis, 1897, 332 (Rio Yuna, Santo Domingo).--BON- 
HOTE, Ibis, 1899, 514 (New Providence I., Bahamas); 1903, 293 (New Provi- 
dence and Andros islands, Dec., Jan.; habits).--BAEY (Florence M.), 
Handb. Birds W. U. S., 1902, 198, part, fig. 260.--NcoLL, Ibis, 1904, 572 
(Montserrat).--REY, Smithsen. Misc. Coll., vol. 47, 1904, 286 (Barbuda, 
Aug., Nov.; Antigua, Oct.).--]:[ARTERT and GRANT, Novit. Zool., xii, 1905, 
114 (Flores I., Azores).--BANGS and ZAPPEY, Am. Nat., xxxix, 1905, 201 
(Isle of Pines, winter resident).--PREBLE, North Am. Fauna, no. 27, 1908, 
378 (Mackenzie and Anderson rivers to Arctic Ocean).--LowE, Ibis, 1909, 
317 (Los Testigos Islands, near Trinidad, Jan.), 339 (Swan I., Caribbean Sea); 
1911, 149 (Grand Cayman).--TowNSEND and BENT, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 14 
(Little Natashquan and Mingan rivers, Labrador, June).--CARRIKER, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 491 (Costa Rica, winter resident).--WoRTHNGTON, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 453 (Great Inagua, Acklin, and Watling 
islands, Bahamas). 
[Ceryle] alcyon BOIE, Isis, 1828, 316.--BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 160.-- 
GUNDLACH, Journ. ftir Orn., 1861, 334 (Cuba).--GRAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 97, 
no. 1187.--CoEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 188, part.--SCLATER and SALWN, 
Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 103, purt.--CoRY, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 19.-- 
SHARPE, ]and-list, ii, 1900, 50, part. 
Ceryle alcyon alcyon GRINNELL (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, no. 12, March 5, 
1910, 388, 389. 
Ispida alcyon SWAINSON, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 336. 
M[egaceryle] alcyon RECHENBACH, Handb., Alced., 1851, 25, pl. 412, figs. 3108, 
3109. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 423 

c. Smaller (wing averaging less than 78, tail averaging less than 56, culmen aver- 
agiug less than 44); bill more slender; white spotting or barring of secondaries 
less distinct, sometimes nearly obsolete; adult male with foreneck chestnut- 
rufous, like chest; adult female with anterior under parts strongly suffused 
with buff. (Guianas; lower Amazon Valley?) 
Chloroceryle americana americana (extmlimital).a 
cc. Larger (wing averaging more than 81, tail averaging more than 56, culmen 
averaging more than 46); bill stouter; white spotting or barring of secondaries 
more distinct; adult male with foreneck white like throat; adult female 
with anterior under parts less strongly buffy. 
d. Smaller (averaging: Wing 81.3 in male, 83.2 in female; tail 56.6 in male, 
57.7 in female; culmen 46.8 in male, 47.1 in female); coloration darker, 
with white spotting on secondaries, etc., less conspicuous, adult male with 
foreneck less extensively white and blackish submalar streak heavier. 
(Eastern Panama to State of Chiapas, southern Mexico.) 
Chloroceryle americana isthmica (p. 428). 
dd. Larger (averaging: Wing 83.6 in male, 86 in female; tail 58.1 in male, 
59.9 in female; culmen 47.4 in male, 46.1 in female); coloration lighter 
(through greater extent of white markings on upper parts and (in females) 
greater purity of white on under parts); adult male with foreneck more 
extensively white and blackish submalar streak narrower, sometimes 
obsolete. (Mexico in general, except State of Chiapas, and adjacent 
border of United States.) 
Chloroceryle americana septentrionalis (p. 431). 
Sides and flanks uniform orange-chestnut; males with chest, also, uniform orange- 
chenut, females with a band across chest of greenish black or bronzy black 
(sometimes barred with white). 
b. I_arger (wing 95-105.5, tail 61.5-73, exposed culmen 48-56); abdomen, lower 
breast, and under tail-coverts orange-chestnut like rest of under parts. (East- 
ern Nicaragua to Brazil) ......................... Chloroceryle inda (p. 434). 

a [Alcedo] americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 451 (based on Martin-pecheur 
du Brsil Brisson, Orn., iv, 510; Martin-pcheur vert et blanc de Cayenne Daubenton, Pl. 
Enl., pl. 591; etc.).--Ceryle americana Boie, Isis, 1828, 316; Sharpe, Mon. Alced., 
1870, 89, part, pl. 26; Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 131, part.--Cery/e americana 
americana American Ornitholosts' Union Committee, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 
184.--C[hloroceryle] americana Reichenbach, Handb., Alced., 1851, 27, pl. 413, figs. 
3112, 3113.--(?) [Alcedo] brasiliensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 450 (based on 
Ispida brasiliensis Brisson, iv, p. 510; Gip-gip Buffon, ete.).--C[hloroceryle] chalcites 
Reichenbach, Handb., Alced., 1851, 28, pl. 415, figs. 3120, 3121 (Guiana). 
For the present I restrict this, the original form, to the Guiana's, though its range 
may really include the lower Amazon Valley, possibly Trinidad and Tobago also; but 
the material available is not sufficient to enable me to work out the South American 
forms satisfactorily. So far as it goes the material examined strongly indicates the 
existence of several unrecognized forms, each at least quite as strongly marked as C. 
a. cabanisi of Peru, at least one of which is already provided with a name. This is the 
large form of southern Brazil, Paraguay, etc., which may be called Chloroceryle 
americana viridis (Alcedo viridis Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xix, 1818, 413, based 
on Martin.pescador verde oscuro Azara, Apunt. Parag., iii, 389). The birds from 
Venezuela and Colombia are recognizably different from the Guiana form and also from 
that occurring in Panama and northward (C. a. isthmica); and doubtless other definite 
geographic areas will be found to have peculiar forms. 



BIRDS OF IORTH AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 425 

the chest, uniting the two lateral areas; length (skins), 265-303 (282) ; 
wing, 126-146 (136.1); tail, 74.5-85.5 (80); exposed cuhnen, 65-77.5 
(69.7); tarsus, 11-14 (12.6); middle toe, 15.5-19 (17.3) a 
Young male.--Similar to the adult male but white of chest more or 
less suffused with pale brownish huffy, dark metallic greenish areas 
on sides of chest broken by streaks of brownish huffy, and wing- 
coverts more or less speckled with white. 
Southern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Jalapa; MiradSr; Mi- 
santla; La Antigua; Vega de Casadero; Santa Ana; Plan del Rio; 
Catemaco; Tlalcotalpm), Puebht (Puente Naciontl), Sinaloa (Ma- 
zatln; Escuinapa), Colima (Rio Tupila), Oaxaca (Santa Efignia), 
Tabasco (Teapa), Yucatan, and Chiapas (Huehuetfin) and Territory 
of Tepic (San Blas), and southward through Guatemala (San Ge- 
rSnimo; Vera Paz; San Jos; Huamuchal; Naranjo; Rio Chocan; 
Los _h_mates, Yzabl), British Honduras (Cayo; Manatee DistFict), 
Honduras (Lago de Yojoa; Omoa; Ciba), Nicaragua (Omotepe; 
Rio Escondido), and Costa Rica (Agua Calientc; Orosi; Navarro de 
Cartago; Jimnez; Pacuare; Sipfirio, Talamanca; La Junta; Bebedero; 

Twenty-seven specimens. 

Locality. Middle 
toe. 

MALES. 
Four adult males from Very Cruz ................ 
One adult male from Sinaloa ............. 
One adult male from Colima. 
One adult male from Chapas .......... 
One adult male from Brit. Honduras .... 
Oe adult male from Nicaragua ...... 
Three adult males from Costa Rica.. 
Five adult males from Panama. 
Three adult males from Colombia ............................. 
One adult male from British Guiana ........................... 
Four adult males from s. e. Brazil .............................. 
Two adult males from Uruguay .............................. 
One adult male from Paraguay .............................. 
Two adult males from e. Peru ....... 
FEMALES. 
Two adult females from Vera Cruz .............................. 
One adult female from Oaxaca ................................. 
One adult female from Guatemala .............................. 
One adult female from Brit. ttonduras .......................... 
One adult female from honduras ............................... 
One adult female from Nicaragua ............................... 
Five adult females from Costa I4ica ............................. 
Three adult females from Panama .............................. 
Four adult females from Colombia .............................. 
Twoadult females from Brit. Guiana ........................... 
Six adult females from Brazil ................................... 

141.5 
141 
143 
140. 5 
136.5 
139.5 
138. 6 
134.8 
136.4 
132 
130. 7 

13. 7 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 
12 
14 
13.2 
12. 7 
12.4 
11.5 
11.8 

17.6 
18.5 
18 
17 
18 
19 
17.3 
17.2 
16.3 
16.5 
15.9 
16 
18 
16 

18. 2 
18 
19 
17.5 
17 
17.5 
18.4 
17.7 
17.1 
16 
15.8 



426 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL IV[USEUIV[. 

E1Pozo del Rio Grande; E1 Pozo de Tgrraba) to Panama (Lion Hill; 
Frijole; Paraiso; San Pablo; Rio Gatfin; Divala, Chiriqui; Castfllo, San- 
tiago, Calovgvora, and Chitra, Veragua) ; nearly the whole of South 
America, south to Uruguay (ConcepciSn; Santa Ana Sa6ce; Santa 
Elena Safice; Rio Monz6n); Paraguay (Larnbarg; Villa Concepci6n; 
Tayra), Argenthm (Cdrdova; Santa Ana; lower Rio Pilcomayo; 
Barracas al Sud; Tucuman), Bolivia (Chiquitos; lower Rio Beni; 
San Luis), and Peru (Pebas; Rio Ucayali; Huallaga Valley; Santa 
Cruz; Sarayacu; Amable Maria; La Mercd; Rio Cadena, Cuzco). 
[Alcedo] avmzona LATHA, Index Orn., i, 1790, 257 (Cayenne; based on Ama- 
zonian Kingfisher Latham, Suppl. Synopsis Birds, 1787, 116). 
Alcedo amzona VrLOT, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xix, 1818, 399 (Guiana).-- 
BONNATERRE and V*ErLOT, Enc. M4th., i, 1823, 292.--HARW,AVS, Index 
Azara's Apunt., 1847, 26.--TscuD,, Wiegmann's Archly fOr Naturg., 1844, 
39; Faun Peruan,% Ayes, 1844-46, 253.--CN,s, in Schomburgk's leis. 
Brit. Guiana, iii, 1848, 704.--Sc,,aE, Mus. Pays-Bas, iii, no. 17, 1863, 5; 
no. 39 (Rev. Crit.), 1874, 2. 
tl[lcedo] amazona LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Doul)l., 1823, 12 (Brazil).--I[AXIMILIAN, 
Beitr. Nuturg. Bras., iv, 1832, 12. 
[Ceryle] amazona Born, Isis, 1828, 316. 
C[eryle] amazona GR.Y, Gen. Birds, i, 1847, 82. 
Ceryle amazona Gaxv, List Fissirostr. Birds Brit. Mus., 1848, 61.--CAssis, Cat. 
Halcyon. Mus. Philu. Acad., 1852, 3 (Puente Nacional, Mexico; Surinam; 
Brazil; lio de la Plata); Proc. Ac. Nut. Sci. Phila., 1860, 133 (lio Nercua, 
n. Colombia).--MooR, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 53 (Omoa, Hondm'as).-- 
PELZELN, Sitz. Ak. Wien, 1856, 515; Orn. Bras., i. Abth., 1868, 23.--Sc,,aWEa 
and SAWN, Ibis, 1859, 131 (Guatemala; Lake Yojoa, Honduras); Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 978 (Pebas, Peru); 1869, 252 (Venezuela); 1870, 781 
(Merid, Venezuela); 1873, 292 (Nuuta, lio Ucayali, Santa Cruz, and 
Huallag Valley, e. Peru; whole Amazon Valley; habihs; descr, nest and 
eggs); 1875, 237 (San Cristobal, Venezuela); 1879, 534 (Nichi, Colombia), 
632 (Chiquitos, Boliviu).--LAwRc, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., vii, 1862, 290 (Lion 
Hill, Panama); ix, 1868, 118 (Costa Ricu); Mere. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 
1874, 290 (Mazatlun, Sinaloa; lio Tupila, Colima); Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., no. 4, 1876, 30 (Chihuitan and Santa Efigenia, Ouxaca).--Lo- 
WAleD, Ois. Trinid,ud, 1866, lll.--SAwN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, 152 (Santiago de Veraguu, Panama); 1870, 201 (Calovevora and 
Chitra, Veragua, Panama); Ibis, 1886, 60 (Burticu Grove, Cumacusa, 
and Merum6 Mts., Brit. Guiana).---FRxNwzius, Journ. fOr Orn., 1869, 
311 (Costa lica).--SnAllE, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 129 (San 
Blus, Tepic; Teupa, Tabasco; La Antigua, Vega de Casadero, Santa Ana, 
and Plan del Rio, Vera Cruz; Cayo, Brit. Honduras; San Geronimo and Veto 
Paz, Guatemala; Honduras; Paraiso, Lion Hill, and Veragua, Panama; 
etc.).--FiNscn, Abh. Nat. Vet. Brem., 1870, 328 (Mazatlan).--R_ma}tDT, 
Ved. Med. Nut. FSrh., 1870, 124 (Brazil).--L, Ibis, 1873, 133 (lio Gato, 
Argentina).BmLElSC, Journ. fOr Orn., 1873, 270 (santa Catarina, s. e. 
Brazil; synonymy; geog. range; egc.); 1887, 22 (Lambar6, Paraguay), 121 
(Paraguay); 1889, 308 (Sarayacu, n. e. Peru); ovit. Zool., xv, 1908, 275 
(Cayenne).--TACZANOWSKi, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 547 (Amable 
MarLu, Peru; crit.); Orn. du P6rou, iii, 1886, 102.--ALLEN, Bull. Essex 
Inst., viii, 1876, 80 (Santarem, Brazil); Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., ii, 1889, 101 
(lower lio Beni, Bolivia); v, 1893, 125 (Chapada, Mattogrosso, s. w. Brazil); 



428 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

WYATT, Ibis, 1871, 373 (Rio de Oro, La Cruz, and Lago de Paturia, Colombia, 
up to 4,000 ft.). 
Alcedo rubescens VIErLLOT, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xix, 1818, 408 (Paraguay; 
based on Martin-pescador oscuro dorado Azara, Apunt.).--BONNXTEE and 
VIErLLO, Eric. M6th., i, 1823, 395. 
Alcedo veslita DuroN% Dict. Sci. Nat., xxix, 1823, 272 (Brazil; coll. Mus. 
Paris?).--LssoN, Trait6 d'Orn., 1831, 292.--PucHN, Rev. et Mag. de 
Zool., 1853, 386 (crit.).--]:[ARTLAUB, Journ. fiir Orn., 1855, 423. 
Ch[loroceryle] leucostriala REICH.NBXCH, Handb., Alced., 1851, 27, pl. 414, figs. 
3116, 3117 (Guiana; coll. Dresden Mus.). 
Chloroceryle lecostriata BUMEIS, Syst. Ueb. Th. Bras., ii, 1856, 406, footnote. 
CHLOROCERYLE AMERICANA ISTHMICA (Goldman). 

ISTHMIAN GREEN KINGFISHER. 

Similar to C. a. amer{cana  but larger, bill nmch stouter; blackish 
submalar stripe narrower (often indistinct or interrupted); breast 
less heavily spotted with greenish black, and general color of upper 
parts decidedly less bluish green; adult male with foreneck white, 
like throat (instead of chestnut-rufous, like chest). 
Adult male.--Above, including sides of head (except malar region), 
dark metallic bronze-green, darker and duller (more sooty) on pileum, 
especially the forehead, interrupted by a white collar across hindneck, 
the scapulam and interscapulars extensively white basally (the white 
concealed), the feathers of rump with concealed white spots; fore- 
head sometimes (but rarely) more or less freced with whitish; wing- 
coverts usually immaculate, but sometimes with a few minute spots 
or streaks of white; secondaries with a subbasal narrow band of white, 
continuous across both webs, this white increasing in extent on inner 
secondaries where it involves approximately the whole basal half; about 
midway between this band and tip of secondaries another band, com- 
posed of small white spots confined to outer portion of outer web, 
this followed by another one (sometimes very hdisthmt or obsolete) of 
nmch smaller white spots, while usually each secondary has a minute 
white terminal spot or edghg; inner primaries usually with a single 
small white spot on outer web anterior to middle portion; middle pair 
of rectrices mostly blackish, glossed with bluish or bluish green, 
usually spotted on inner web (sometimes ou basal portion of outer web 
also) with white, sometimes wholly blackish; next pair blackish, the 
concealed base white and inner web with roundish or oval white spots; 
four outer rectrices (on each side) immaculate white for basal half or 
more, the terminal portion blackish broken by white spots or bars 
on inner web; anterior portion of malar re,on greenish black, the 
remainder white (sometimes spotted with greenish black anteriorly or 
along lower portion), forming a conspicuous stripe which posteriorly 
involves the side of neck; a greenish black narrow, sometimes broken 

a See p. 423. 



BIRDS OF IORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 429 

or interrupted, submalar streak; chin, throat, and median portion of 
upper foreneck immaculate white; sides of upper foreneck, chest, 
and lateral portion of upper breast deep chestnut-rufous or rufous- 
chestnut; rest of under parts white, the sides and flanks heavily 
spotted with greenish black, this heavy spotting sometimes extending 
across lower breast; under taft-coverts with larger or smaller roundish, 
subcordate, or transverse spots of greenish black; axftlars and under 
wing-coverts white, the former spotted with dusky the latter with a 
large V-shaped area of the same; inner web of remiges with large 
spots of wlfite; bill black, usually paler at tip and on basal portion 
of gonys; iris dark brown; legs and feet dusky (in dried skins); 
length (skins), 176-205 (189) ; wing, 79-83 (81.3) ; tail, 53.5-59 (56.6) ; 
exposed culmen, 43.5-50 (46.8); tarsus, 8-9.5 (9); middle toe, 11-12.5 
(11.7). a 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male but without any chestnut- 
rufous or rufous-chestnut, the upper chest immaculate buffy white or 
pale buff .(like foreneck, throat, and chin), the lower chest crossed by 
a broad band heavily spotted with greenish black, the lower breast 
also with a similar, but usually less distinct, band; white of under 
parts more or less tinged with buff, especially the chin, throat, and 
upper chest, which are sometimes wholly light buff; length (skins), 
177-204 (189); wing, 79-86 (83.2); taft, 55-60.5 (57.7); exposed cul- 
men, 40-50 (47.1); tarsus, 9-10 (9.5); middle toe, 12-13 (12.4). b 
Young male.--Simftar to the adult female, but chest more or less 
suffused or intermixed with chestnut-rufous or cinnamon-rufous. 
Youngfemale.--Simflar to the adult female but markings on chest 
in form of broad streaks rather than transverse spots. 
Panama (Lion Hill; Chepo; Paraiso; Rio Lara; Rio Indio; Rio 
Trinidad; Rio Carlo Quebrada; Puerto Bello; Gatfin; Cerro Azfil; 
Sabana de Panama; David and Divala, Chiriqui; Calovvora and 
Calobre, Veragua), and northward through Costa Rica (San Jos(; 
San Carlos; Cartago; Naranjo de Cartago; La Palma de Nicoya; 
Volcan de Miravalles; Rio Frio; Jimnez; Bonilla; Talamanca), 
Nicaraoa (Bluefields; Chontales; San Juan del Sur; Sucuya; Los 
Sbalos; Omotepe; Momotombo; Matagalpa; Rio Escondido), Hon- 
duras (Lake Yojoa; San Pedro; Truxillo; Rio Seg6via; Yaruca), 
British Honduras (Belize; Cayo; Old River), Salvad6r (La Liber- 
tad), and Guatemala (Rio Dttlce; Toliman; Duefias; Rio Guaca- 
late; San Ger6nimo; Huamuchal; Cajab6n; Palin; Los Amates, 
Yzabal; Lake Atitlan) to Chiapas (San Benito). 

a Twenty-two specimens. 
b Twenty-three specimens. (For average measurements of specimens from different 
countries in Central and South America see under C. a. septentrionalis, on p. 431.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 437 

[Alcedol bicolor GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 451 (based on Mrtin-pcheur 
verd et roux de Cayenne Daubenton, P1. Enl., pl. 592).--LATHA, Index Orn., 
i, 1790, 258. 
Alcedo bicolor TEMMCK, Cat. Syst., 1807, 69.--VIEILLOT, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. 
Nat., xix, 1818, 414 (Cayenne).--BoNNATERRE and VIEILLOT, Enc. Mdth., 
i, 1823, 290.--LEssoN, Traitd d'Orn., 1831, 242. 
A[lcedo] bicolor MAXiMiLiAN, Beitrag. Naturg. Bras., iv, 1832, 23.--CAANm, in 
Schomburgk's Peis. Brit. Guiana, iii, 1848, 704. 
Ceryle bicolor YuP, Verh. naturhist. Vereins Hessen, ii, 1848, 68 (Faro. Eisv., 
1848, 8).--PELzELN, Sitz. Ak. Wien, 1856, 515; Orn. Bras., i. abth., 1868, 23. 
[Ceryle] bicolor BOXE, Isis, 1828, 316.--]ONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 160.-- 
PELZEL, Orn. Bras., iv. abth., 1871, 404. 
C[hloroceryle] bicolor RECHENACH, tandb., Alced., 1851, 28, pl. 414, figs. 3118, 
3119. 
Chloroceryle bicolor ]URMEISTER, Syst. Ueb. Th. Bras., ii, 1856, 406. 
[Amazonis] bicolor BONAPAaE, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 320 (Consp. Volucr. 
Anisod., 1854, 10). 
(?)[Alcedo] maculata GMELN, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 451 (based on Ispida bra- 
siliensis naevia Brisson, Orn., iv, p. 524, no. 25, etc).--LATHAI, Index Orn., 
i, 1790, 258.BONNATERRE and VELLOT, Enc. Mdh., i, 1823, 293. 
CHLOROCERYLE /ENEA /ENEA (Pallas). 
LEAST GREEN KINGFISHER. 
Adult male.--Above, including sides of head, dark metallic green, 
darker and less glossy on pileum, the scapulars (especially the pos- 
terior ones) with concealed portion extensively white; outer wcbs of 
secondaries with distinct (though small) spots of buff or buffy white; 
primaries dull black or slate-black; tail dark metallic green, bluish 
green, or greenish blue-black, the inner webs of rectrices (except 
middle and outer pairs) with a greater or less number of white spots, 
the three outer rectrices wholly white basally, the fourth partly so; 
an elongated supraloral spot of ochraceous-buff; an indistinct whitish 
mark beneath lower eyelid; malar region and sides of neck clear 
orange-tawny, fading on chin and throat into orange-buff, deepening 
on lower foreneck, chest, sides of breast, sides, and flanks itto bright, 
deep, orange-rufous or rufous-chestnut; median portion of breast, 
abdomen, anal region, and under wing-coverts immaculate white; 
axillars and under wing-coverts clear ochraceous-buff or orange- 
buff; inner webs of secondaries mostly white or pale buff; bill black, 
the basal portion of gonys light colored (pinkish or flesh colored in 
life); iris dark brown; legs and feet dusky (in dried sldas); length 
(skins), 120-145 (132); wing, 54.5-59 (57); tail, 31.5-36.5 (35.1); 
culmen, 26-36 (31); tarsus, 6.5-8 (7.2); irmer anterior toe, 7.5-9.5 
(8.1). a 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male but orange-tawny of 
foreneck separated from the deep oraage-rufous or rufous-chestnut 

a Twenty-two specimens. 



438 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL hIUSEUM. 

of upper breast, etc., by a broad band of greenish black, the feathers 
of which are more or less distinctly marghed a tip with white, some 
of them with h'reguhr concealed wMte spots; length (skins), 120-141 
(131); whig, 55.5-60 (59.3); tail, 34-38.5 (36); culmen, 27.5-34 
(31.2); tarsus, 7-8 (7.6); inner anterior toe, 8-9.5 (8.5). a 
:Young nale.--Similar to the adult male but color of under parts 
paler and much duller, the chin, throat, foreneck, malar re,on, and 
sides of neck light orange-buff (paler on chin), the chest, upper breast, 
sides, and flanks rufous-tawny, hdistinctly streaked on chest with 
blackish; secondaries usmdly with distbct (often conspicuous) 
whitish spots. 
Youngfemale.--SimYflar to the adult female but coloration of under 
parts paler md duller (as in young male) and jugular band narrower 
and more broken medially. 
Vestera Costa Rica (Bebedero; Bols6n; Punta Arenas; La Palma 
de Nicoy; Talamanca), Panam (Divala; Lion ttill; Gatfin; 
Darien; Rio Indio; Puerto Cbello; Obispo), and southward through 
Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, and Amazon Valley to eastern 
Peru (Pebs; Chayavetas) and southern Brazil (Chapada, Matto 
Grosso; Iguap, So Paulo; Bahia; Pernambuco; etc.). 

a Eighteen specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
One adult male from Bolivia (lower Rio Beni) ................ 
Two adult males from Brazil ................................. 
Five adult males from Surinam ............................... 
One adult male from Venezuela .............................. 
Two adult males from Trinidad .............................. 
One adult male from eastern Panama (Darien) ............... 
8even adult males from Panama .............................. 
Three adult males from Costa Rica ............................ 
One adult male from Guatemala ( C. . slictoplera) ............. 
One adult male from Chipas ( C. . slictoptera) ................ 
Two adult males from Campeche and Yucatan ( C. . sticloptera) 
One adult male from Cozumel Island ( C. . stctoptera) ........ 
Two adult males from Vera Cruz ( C. . stictoptera) ............ 
FEMALES. 
One adult female from Brazil (Chapada Matto Gresso) ........ 
Four adult females from Cayenne (2) and Surinam (2) ......... 
Ten adult females from Panama (Canal Zone) ................. 
Three adult females from Costa Rica .......................... 
One adult female from Nicaragua ( C. . stictoptera) ............ 
One adult female from Guatemala ( C. . stictoptera) ........... 
One adult female from Veto Cruz ( C. . stictoptera) ............ 

Wing. 

58 
56.5 
56 
57 
58 
57.5 
56.8 
57.8 
58 
58.5 
58.5 
59 
57.7 

58 
56.6 
57.2 
58.5 
60 
60 
60 

34 
35.5 
34.6 
35 
35.7 
35 
35.3 
35.3 
39.5 
37.5 
36.5 
38 
37 

36 
35.5 
36.2 
35.5 
34 
36.5 
39 

ClLlrneE 
31.5 
30.5 
28.1 
29.5 
30.5 
30.5 
32.5 
33.5 
34 
32 
31 
31.5 
33.5 

29 
29.6 
31.9 
32 
30 
31.5 
34.5 

I 
7.2 
6.9 
7 
7 
7.3 
7.7 
8 
7.5 
7.5 
7 
7.2 

7.6 
7.7 
7.5 
7.5 
8 

Iiddle 
toe. 
&5 
&5 
&8 
&5 

&2 
8.9 
9 
9.5 



tIRDS OF ORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 439 

Alcedo (aenea) PALLAS, in Vroeg's Cat. Ois., Adumbr., 1764, 1, no. 54 (Surinam). 
Ceryle aenea BERLEPSCH, Novit. Zool., xv, Nov., 1908, 275 (Cayenne). 
Ceryle xnea xnea CARRIK.R, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 493 (Costa Rica; crit.; 
habits). 
[_ilcedo] superciliosa LINNmus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 179 (Cayenne; based on 
Little Green and Orange-coloured Kingfisher, Ispida minor viride aurantioque 
Edwards, Gleanings, i, 73, pl. 245).--GI.LIN, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 
450.--LATHAM, Index Orn., i, 1790, 259. 
Alc2do superciliosa BODDAERT, Tabl. P1. Enl., 1783, 47.--TEMIINEK, Cat. Syst., 
1807, 70.--VIEILLOT, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Hat., xix, 1818, 414.--BoNNATERE 
and VIEILLO, Enc. M6th., i, 1823, 287.--LEssoN, Trait6 d'Orn., 1831, 244.-- 
CAANIS, in Schombuk's Rels. Brit. Guiana, iii, 1848, 704.--ScL, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, iii, no. 17, 1863, 6; no. 39 (Rev. Crit.), 1874, 2. 
C[eryle] superciliosa GAr, Gen. Birds, i, 1847, 82. 
Ceryle superciliosa GAr, List Fissirostr. Birds Brit. Mus., 1848, 62.--CAssIs, 
Cat. Alced. Mus. Phila. Acad., 1852, 3 (Surinam; Cayenne); Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1860, 134 (Turbo, Colombia).--PzN, Sitz. Ak. Wien, 1851, 
515; Orn. Bras., i. Abth., 1868, 24.--LAwrENCe., Ann. Lyc. N. Y., vii, 1862, 
290 (Lion Hill, Panama); ix, 1868, 118 (Costa Rica).--ScLATER and SALVIN, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 363 (Lion Hill, Panama); 1867, 581 (Mexiana 
I., Brazil), 751 (Rio IIuallaga, e. Peru); 1873, 293 (Chayavetas, e. Peru).-- 
LOTAUD, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, ll4.--FANTZIUS, Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 311 
(Costa Rica).--SnAP, Mon. Alced., i, 1868-71, 93, pl. 28; Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xvii, 1892, 138 (Panama; Trinidad; Demerara R., Camacusa, and Bar- 
tica Grove, Brit. Guiana; Maroni R., Surinam; Cayenne; Mexiana I.; 
Pebas and Chayavetas, e. Peru; Bahia and Pernambuco, e. Brazil).--ALL, 
Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 80 (Santarem, lower Amazon); Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. H., ii, 1889, 101 (lower Rio Beni, Bolivia); v, 1893, 125 (Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, s. w. Brazil).--NWWIO, Proc. U. S. Hat. Mus., v, 1882, 400 (La 
Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica).--TAczAOWSXI, Orn. du Prou, iii, 1886, 
106.--SALv, Ibis, 1886, 60 (Bartica Grove and Camacusa, Brit. Guiana).-- 
ZLED6N, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 119 (Costa Rica).--B- 
LPSC, Zeitschr. Orn., 1887, 185 (Bogota, Colombia).--Rix and ChAPMAn, 
Auk, viii, 1891, 158 (Santarem).---CnAMA, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., vi, 1894, 
62 (Trinidad).--SAvi and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 478, 
part (Lion Viill, Panama; Turbo, Colombia; La Palma de Nicoya, Costa 
Rica; Guiana'; Amazonia; Brazil).--BAos, Proc. Hew Engl. Zool. Club, 
ii, 1900, 17 (Lion Hill, Panama; crit.).--BRLEPSC and ttAET, Novit. 
Zool., ix, 1902, 104 (Altaacia, etc., Venezuela).--InEio, Rev. Mus. 
Paulista, vi, 1904, 358 (Iguap, Sao Paulo, s. Brazil; crit.).--HAoEMAN, 
Zool. Jahrb., 1907, 35 (Mexana I.).--BEB, Zoologica, i, 1909, 84 (Rio San 
Juan, Rio Guarapiche, and Carlo Guanoco, n. e. Venezuela). 
[Ceryle] superciliosa BOnAPArte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 160.--GRAr, Hand-list, i, 
1869, 98, no. 1193, part.--PELZLN, Orn. Bras., iv. Abth., 1871, 404.--SCLATER 
and SALV, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 103, part.--SP, Hand-list, ii, 
1900, 50. 
Ceryle superciliosa superciliosa HELLMAYR, ovit. ZOOI., xiil, 1906, 41 (Seelet, 
Caroni Swamp, and Chaguaramas, Trinidad; crit.); "xiv, 1907, 84 (Tell6, 
Brazil; crit.), 402 (Humaytha, Rio lIadeira, Brazil; crit.). 
C[hloroceryle] superciliosa RICAC, Handb., Alced., 1851, 28, pl. 415, t. 
3122--3124.--CAAIS and HIN, Mus. Hein., ii, 1860, 146 (Guiana). 
Chloroceryle superciliosa BUIMEISTER, Syst. Ueb. Th. Bras., ii, 1856, 308. 
CAANIS, Journ. ftir Orn., 1861, 256 (Costa Rica).--ScLAT, Cat. Am. Birds 
1862, 265 (Trinidad; Cayenne).--Toa, Ibis, 1864, 88 (Caroni R., Trinidad), 



442 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL ]VIUSEUM. 

The Todies are very small Kingfisher-like birds with a long, flat- 
tened, instead of compressed, bill, minutely serrated along the edges, 
and a peculiar coloration--bright grass-green above, whitish beneath, 
wit.h a bright red throat. In habits they are flycatchers, snapping 
up insects on the wing, then returning to the perch and sitting 
quietly, with head drawn in, the beak pointing upward, patiently 
awaiting the near approach of another victim. In their nesting 
habits, however, they resemble the Kinshers and Motmots, depos- 
iting their pure white eggs in holes which they dig in banks of ravines 
or ditches. 
They are peculiar to the Greater Antilles, one species being found 
in Cuba, two in tIaiti, one in Jamaica, one in Porto Rico, and another 
of unknowa habitat. They are general favorites with the natives on 
account of their excessive tameness and pretty plumage, the Jamai- 
can species being knoq to the inhabitants as "Robin Redbreast." 

Genus TODUS IBrisson. 

Todus BassoN, Orn., iv, 1760, 518. (Type, Alcedo todes Linneeus.) 

In addition to the characters already given under the heading of 
Family Todid,-e the following may be mentioned: 
Very small Anisodactyle Coraciiformes (length about 87-110 ram.) 
with the much flattened bill nearly half as long as wing, color of 
upper parts bright green, and throat bright red. 
Bill as long as or longer than head (nearly half as long as wing), 
straight, much depressed (its width at nostrils half as much again 
as depth at same point), in vertical profile gradually tapering term- 
inally, with tip more or less broadly rounded; culmen distinctly 
ridged, straight for basal half or more, slightly decurved terminally, 
the tip of maxilla slightly decurved but not uncinate; gonys nearly 
to quite twice as long as mandibular rami, nearly straight, very 
broadly rounded; tomia (especially that of mandible) minutely ser- 
rate; maxillary tomium without trace of subterminal notch, not 
deflected basally. Nostril ather large, broadly longitudinally oval, 
in anterior end of the rather large nasal fossa. Latero-frontal and 
rictal regions with long and strong antrorse or divaricate bristles, 
these with distinct lateral barbules in some species, the chin with simi- 
lar but much smaller bristles; head completely feathered. Wing 
rather short, much rounded, with fifth to eighth (usually seventh 
and eighth) primaries longest, ninth shorter than fifth (sometimes 
shorter than fourth), the tenth (outermost) nearly to more than 
three-fourths as long as longest. Tail two-thirds to nearly three- 
fourths as long as wing, slightly rounded, the ectrices rather narrow, 
with broadly rounded tip. Tarsus nearly as long to decidedly longer 
than length of bill from nostril, decidedly longer than middle toe with 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 443 

claw, very slender, the acrotarsium "booted" (nonscutellate); 
toes very slender, much compressed, the middle and outer of nearly 
equal length (the outer slightly shorter) and united as far as penul- 
timate articulation of outer toe; inner toe much shorter, united to 
middle toe as far as its penultimate articulation; halhLx about as 
long as inner toe; claws rather large, strongly curved, acute. 
Coloration.--Above uniform bright green; throat bright red (the 
feathers narrowly tipped or margined with paler), the remaining 
under parts whitish or pale yellowish medially, suffused with pink 
or red, or deeper yellow, laterally. Sexes alike. Young without red 
on throat and with chest striped with dusky gray. 
Range.--Greater Antilles (Cuba, ttaiti, Jamaica, and Porto Rico). 
(Six species.) 
KE r O THE SPECIES OF TODUS. 

a. Flanks with more or less of red. 
b. Subauricular area blue; forehead and lores yellowish. (Cuba, including Isle 
of Pines.) ....................................... Todus multicolor (p. 443). 
bb. Subauricular area gray; forehead and lores not yellowish. 
c. Lores and malar streak light red or pinkish; edge of wing pink; upper parts 
bluish green; under wing-coverts ochraceous-buff; under parts of body 
strongly suffused with red. (Jamaica?) ...... Todus Imlcherrimus (p. 445). 
cc. Lores green, like forehead and rest of upper parts; malar streak white; edge 
of wing pale yellow or yellowish white, under wing-coverts light yellow; 
under parts of body not strongly, if at all, suffused with red (except on 
flanks). 
d. Abdomen white; chest white medially; bill very narrow (width at nostrils 
not exceeding 5, averaging less than 4.5, ram.); tarsus longer, averaging 
more than 14 mm. (Haiti.) ............... Todus angustiostris (p. 445). 
dd. Abdomen more or less strongly yellowish; chest grayish or greenish, some- 
times streaked or suffused with red; bill broader (width at nostril exceed- 
ing 5 ram.); tarsus shorter, averaging less than 14 mm. 
e. Chest grayish or dull yellowish, usually more or less streaked or suffused 
with pink; abdomen yellowish white to creamy yellow; larger (wing 
47-53, averaging more than 49; culmen 18-22, averaging more than 19). 
(Haiti.) ................................... Todus subulatus (p. 447). 
ee. Chest more or less strongly washed with green, never streaked or suffused 
with pink; abdomen deep sulphur yellow; smaller (wing 44.5-48.5, 
averaging less than 47; culmen 16.5-20, averaging much less than 19). 
(Jamaica.) ................................... Todus todus (p. 448). 
aa. Flanks wholly yellow. (Porto Rico.) ................. Todus mexicanus (p. 449). 

TODUS MULTICOLOR Gould. 

CUBAN TODY. 

Adults (sexes alilce).--Above plain clear green (nearly grass green 
or parrot green), very slightly darker and duller on pileum, much 
brighter on superciliary, auricular, and suborbital regions; lores 
and anterior portion of forehead yellow (ctron to nearly saffro 
yellow); subauricular region light blue (dull turquoise to nearly 



444 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

cmrulean blue); malar stripe, chin, and lower forcneck white; throat 
soft geranium red, the feathers narrowly tipped with silvery white; 
under parts of body mostly white, the chest usually faintly shaded 
with pale pmlish g,'ay, the sides of breast strongly shaded with 
darker bluish gray (sometimes uniform bluish gray or grayish blue); 
flanks soft geranium pink, this color sometimes tinging enth'e sides; 
under tail-coverts bright stLlphur yellow; axillars and under wing- 
coverts lighter sulphur yellow, the edge of wing white; maxilla light 
horn brown to nearly black; mandible pale brown or brownish white 
(pink or yellow in life ?); legs and feet brownish (in dried skins). 
Adult male.---Length (skins), 87-98 (93); wing, 42-46 (43.9); 
tail, 27-32 (29.7); exposed culmen, 16-19 (17.3); tarsus, 12.5-14.5 
(13.5); middle toe, 8-9 (8.4). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 87-96 (92); wing, 41-45 (42.8); 
tail, 26-29.5 (28.4); exposed culmcn, 16-18.5 (17.5); tarsus, 12.5-14 
03.3); middle toe, 7.5-9 (8.3).  
Island of Cuba (San Diego de los Bafios, Trinidad, E1 Guam,, San 
CristSbal, Cabafias, Batabano, aml near Palficios, westen Cuba; E1 
Cobre, Guamfi, San Luis, Monte Verde, Figuabas, Santiago, and 
Guantfmamo, eastern Cuba; Nucvo Gerona, Calle Bonita, and 
Santa F, Isle of Pines). 
(?) Todus r/d/s (not of Linmens) VELLOW, NOUV. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xxxiv, 1819, 
184, part. 
Todus mulicolor GOULD, Icones Avium, 1837, pl. 2.--D'ORBNY, in La Sagra's 
Hist. Nat. Cuba, Ois., 1839, 132, pl. 22.---GRAY, List Fissirostral Birds Brit. 
Mus., 1848, 36.--BoA'AaT, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 182.---G_DL.c, $ourn. 
fiir Orn., 1856, 101 (habits); 1859, 347; 1861, 414 (dcscr. nest and eggs); 1862, 
189; 1871, 288, 293; 1874, 146 (habits); Iepert. Fislco-Nat. Cuba., i, 1866, 
293; Orn. Cubana, ed. 1895, 135.--Bw, Iroc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 
1860, 307.--ScLnCL, MtL. lays-Bas, iii, no. 19, 1863, 8, part (Cuba).-- 
SnAa, Ibis, 1874, 353 (monogr.); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 335 
(San CristSbal, Cuba).--CoaY, Auk., ili, 1886, 372 (descr.; synonymy); 
Birds West Ind., 1889, 167; Cat. West Ind. ]3irds, 1392, 12, 103, 128 (Cuba; 

Twenty-four specimens, b Eighteen specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Nine adult m. les from western Cuba ............................ 
SLx dult tomes from eastern Cuba .............................. 
Nine adult males from Isle of Pines ............................. 
FEMALE. 
Ten adult females from wester Cub .......................... 
SLx adult femMes from eastern Cub ........................... 
Two sdult females from Ile of Pines ............................ 

Wing. 

44.2 
42.6 
44.5 

43. I 
42.2 
43.2 

Tail. 

29.1 
28. 7 
31 

28.5 
28.2 
28 

Ex- 
posed 
eulmen. 

17.6 
17.2 
17.2 

17. 7 
17.3 
16.7 

13.6 
13.2 
13.7 

13.2 
13.2 
14 

Middle 
toe. 

8. 
8.2 
8.4 

8.4 
8.2 
8.2 

I am not able to detect any color differences in the three series. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 445 

Isle of Pines).--CH.,mN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. It., iv, 1892, 300 (near Trini- 
dad, Cuba; habits).--BArGS and Z.''Ev, Am. Nat., xxxix, 1905, 201 (Isle 
of Pines).--MErG.ux, Rev. Fran. d'Orn., no. 2, 1909, 23 (Figuabas, e. 
Cuba). 
[Todus] multicolor GUNDL.CH, $ourn. fiir Orn., 1861, 334.--GRAY, Hand-list, i, 
1869, 79, no. 927.--ScLAWER and S.Lvxr, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 103.--ConY, 
List Birds West Ind., 1885, 19. 
Todus portoricensis LEssors, Ann. Sci. Nat., xi, 1838, 167 (Porto Rico; error); 
Compl. Buffon, 1847, 263.--L.FaESrYE, Rev. Zool., 1847, 332.--LEMBEVE, 
Aves de lu Isla de Cuba, 1850, 131.--BawEa, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 
1860, 307. 
T[odus] portoricensis GRAY, Gen. Birds, i, 1847, 63. 
TODUS IULCHERRIMUS harpe. 
SHARPE'S TODY. 
Adulto--Above bluish green, rather tinged with olive on the lower 
back, the wing-coverts showing a very strongly pronounced blue 
shade; quills blackish, bordered narrowly with light green, shading 
off into bluish toward the tips of the secondaries; tail dull greenish, 
with narrow margins of bluish green; forehead lighter and rather 
more olive-green than the back, and tinged with orange near the base 
of the beak; lores tinged with orange; sides of the face yellowish 
green; sides of neck dull rufous; chin white; throat bright carmine, 
with silver-white margins to most of the feathers; rest of under sur- 
face with a slight crimson bl.ush, varied on the breast with white oval 
spots to the feathers, producing an ocellated appearance, the crim- 
son color brightest on the flanks, shading off into ochraceous buff on 
the sides of the vent; on each side of the upper breast a patch of 
greenish; under wing-coverts ochraceous buff, the outermost smaller 
coverts washed with pale carmine; upper mandible blackish, lower 
one yellowish; feet black. Total length 3.5 inches, culmen 0.85, 
wing 1.9, tail 1.4, tarsus 0.65. 
"Hab.--[Jamaica.]" a 
I have not seen a specimen corresponding to the above description. 
If not really a distinct species, the type may possibly represent an 
extreme variation of the very variable T. subulat.us. 
Todus pulclzerrimus Snar, Ibis, 3rd ser., iv, Oct., 1874, 353, pl. 13, fig. 3 
(Jumaica?; coll. Brit. Mus.); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 336.--CoaY, 
Auk, iii, 1886, 371 (descr.; synonymy); Birds West Ind., 1889, 166; Cat. 
West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 103, 130, 142.--ScoTT, Auk, ix, 1892, 275. 
[Todus] pulcherrimus CoRY, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 19. 
TODUS ANGUSTIROSTRIS Lafesnaye. 
NARROW-BILLED TODY. 
Ad.uls (sexes allce).---Above plain parrot ga-een, very slightly darker 
on crown, decidedly brighter (approaching emerald green) on orbital 

a Sharloe ' Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 336. 



448 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL 1VIUSEU1V[. 

AT, lroc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xi, 1866, 91 (Santo Domingo; crit.).--CoRy, 
Bull. ]Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 154 (Haiti; habits; notes). 
T[odus] dominicensis CABAIS and Hrx, lIus. tein., ii, 1859, 49 (Haiti). 
[ Todts] dominicensis SCLATa and SLvI, ]Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 103. 
Todus multicolor (not of Gould) SCLOrL, IIus. lays-Bas, iii, no. 19, 1863, 8, 
part (taiti). 
TODUS TODUS (Linnaeus). 

JAMAICAI" 

Adults (sexes alilce).--Above plain light grass green or parrot 
green, the sides of head somewhat lighter (approaching paris green); 
narrow malar stripe and chin white; throat soft geranium red, the 
feathers narrowly tipped with silvery whitish; rest of under parts 
dull white or ayish white, suffused with sulphur yellow, especially 
posteriorly, the under tail-coverts bright sulphur yellow, the breast 
(at least laterally) tinged with grayish green; flanks streaked or 
dashed with bright geranium pink; axillars and under wing-coverts 
bright sulphur yellow, the edge of wing yellowish white; maxilla 
brown, mandible brownish white (yellow in life ?); legs and feet 
dusky brownish (in dried skins). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 99-107 (103); wing, 45-48.5 (46.9); 
tail, 32.5-36.5 (34.5); exposed culmen, 17-20 (18.1); tarsus, 13-14.5 
(13.9); middle toe, 8-9 (8.4). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 93-106 (101); wing, 44.5-48.5 
(45.9); tail, 32.5-35 (33.7); exposed culmen, 16.5-18 (17.3); tarsus, 
13.5-14.5 (14.1); middle toe, 8-9 (8.2). a 
Island o[ Jamaica (Kingston; Moneague; St. Andrews; ]ietcalf 
Parish; Port Antonio; Port Alexander; Priestmans River). 
[Alcedo] todus Lx.vs, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 116 (based on Rubecu/a 
iridis elegantissima Edwards, Av. p. 121, pl. 121, fig. 1; Sloan, Jam. ii, 
306, pl. 263, fig. 1; etc.). 
Todus todus Szo.a, Stand. ]Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 399.R5v, Auk, xxi, 
1904, 486. 
[Todus] viridis LxN.us, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 178.--G,, Syst. ]Nat., i, 
1788, 443.--LT, Index Orn., i, 1790, 265.--Gahv, ]and-list, i, 1869, 99, 
no. 925.--ScLATa and SLw, Nom. Av. leotr., 1873, 103.--Coav, List 
Birds West Ind., 1885, 19. 
Todus iridis TxcK, Cat. Syst., 1807, 71.--VxLLO% ]NOUV. Dict. d'Hist. 
Nat., xxxiv, 1819, 184, part.--Lsso, Trait d'Orn., 1831, 250; Ann. Sci. 
]Nat., ix, 1838, 166.--SwISO, Zool. Illustr., 2d ser., 1833, pl. 66; 
Flycatchers, 1838, 173, vignette.--L,asv., Mag. de Zool., 3  an., 1833, 
el. ii, not. xi, pl. 11; Rev. Zool., x, 1847, 332.--GossE, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 
72; Illustr. Birds Jamaica, 1849, pl. 14.--Dsv, lroc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1847, 38.--GaAv, List Fissirostr. Birds Brit. Mus., 1848, 351.--Bo,RE, 
Consp. Av., i, 1850, 182.--ScLa, lroc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, 77; Cat. 
Am. Birds, 1862, 263; Revised List Birds Jam., 1910, 12.--ALBaCT, 
Journ. fiir Orn., 1862, 199.--SuD.VLL, Av. Met. Nat. Disp. Tent., 1872, 
61.--Mu., Ibis, 1872, 390 (anatomy).--S, Ibis, 1874, 349 (monogr.); 

a Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF O1RTH AlqD MIDDLE AMERICA. 451 

distinctly serrate for a greater or less extent of their middle portion, 
sometimes for whole length, except basally; tip of maxilla distinctly 
decurved, but maxillary tomium without notch; gonys much less 
than twice as long as mandibular rami. Nostril exposed, large, 
obliquely broadly oval, in anterior end of nasal fossa, or (in genus 
Electron) relatively much smaller and nearly circular. No post- 
nasal bristles but rictal bristles distinct, those of the malar apex 
strongly developed, the chin also, sometimes, with recurved bristles; 
head completely feathered, the feathers of the auricular region 
(sometimes also those of superciliary region and middle line of 
throat elongated; usually a small tuft of elongated black feathers 
in middle of foreneck or upper chest. Wing short, much rounded, 
the fifth, sixth, and seventh, or sixth and seventh, primaries longest, 
ninth shorter than fourth (often shorter than second), the tenth 
(outermost) a a little less to decidedly nmre than two-thia'ds as long 
as ninth. Taft variable as to relative length (a little shorter than 
wing to nearly twice as long), excessively graduated, the middle paic 
of rectrices much longer than the next, and often with the webs 
interrupted or denuded subterminally, producing a spatulate or 
racquet-shaped tip, all the rectrices with tip broadly rounded; 
rectrices usually 10 (12 in Momotus only). Tarsus nearly as long 
as middle toe with claw to decidedly longer, shorter than culmen, 
distinctly and regularly scutellate anteriorly, the plantar scutella 
variable (one to three rows, or irregular) ; outer toe nearly as long as 
middle toe, united to the latter as fa" as its penultimate articulation; 
immr toe much shorter, reaching (without claw) qnly to penultimate 
articulation of middle toe, united to the latter for entire length of its 
first phalanx; hallux decidedly shorter than inner toe; soles of toes 
broad and flattened, the surface distinctly granulated; claws mod- 
erate in size and curvature, the middle one with inner edge expanded 
but not pectinated. Coloration mostly green above, often with 
blue on pileum, but oftener with the latter rufescent; auricular tufts 
and tuft on lower foreneck b!.ack or blue and black. 
The Motmots are most nearly related to the Todies (Family 
Todide), from which they differ externally in their much greater 
size, relatively longer and excessively graduated tail, distinctly 
curved bill, relatively much shorter and distinctly scutellate tarsus, 
and very different coloration, the prevailing colors being plain olive- 
green, or olive-green" and rusty, varied, usually, with blue and black 
markings on the head or chest, or both, the under parts never party 
red nor white, as in the Todies. 
They are forest birds of solitary habits, seldom more than a pair 
being found together. Iuch of their time is spent perching stupidly 

a Although the Momotidee are said to possess 11 primaries, I have not been able to 
find more than 10 in any of the 7 genera. 



BIRDS OF IORT= AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 455 

d. Paler, with anterior under parts much less distinctly olivaceous, usually with 
little if any olivaceons tinge. (Santa Marta district of Colombia to Bogota a 
and eastward to Orinoco Valley, Venezuela.) 
Momotus subrufescens subrufescens (extralimital).b 
dd. Darker, with anterior under parts much more distinctly olivaceous. 
e. Paler; back, etc., clear olive-green, abdomen, etc., clear brownish tawny 
(between dresden brown and antique brown, the anterior under parts 
strongly glossed with olive-green. (Eastern Panama to south-central 
Colombia. c) ................... Momotus subrufescens conexus (p. 461). 
ee. Darker; back, etc., dark citrine, abdomen, etc., brussels brown or dull 
sudan brown, the anterior under parts very slightly glossed with olive- 
green. (Southeastern Panama.) 
Momotus subrufescens reconditus (p. 463). 
aa. Pileum cinnamon-rnfons or chestnut. 
b. Pileum ciunamon-rnfous; black suborbital area bordered beneath by a blue 
patch or broad streak; lores mixed black and brownish. (Momotus mexcanus.) 
c. Averaging smaller and paler (wing averaging 117 in male, 112 in female; tail 
141.5 in male, 154.8 in female; culmen 35.9 in male, 37 in female). (Middle 
Mexico, from Sinaloa, Tepic, and Colima to Mexico and Puebla.) 
Momotus mexicanus mexicanus (p. 463). 
cc. Averaging larger and darker (wing averaging 122.2 in male, 123.2 in female; 
til averaging 170.8 in male, 176 in female; culmen 42 in male, 41.3 in 
female). (Southwestern Mexico, in States of Guerrero, southern Michoacan, 
Oaxaca, and Chiapas.) .............. Momotus mexicanus saturatus (p. 465). 
bb. Pileum chestnut; black suborbital area bordered beneath by a streak of greenish 
white; lores uniform black. (Guatemala)...Momotus castaneicels (p. 466). 

MOMOTUS C(ERULICEPS (Gould). 

BLUE-CROWNED MOTMOT. 

Somewhat like 21./. lessonii but crown without any black area (the 
whole pileum turquoise blue exteriorly, duller, more greenish, blue 
centrally, light verdigris green anteriorly). 
Adults (sexes alilce).--Pileum dull greenish blue or bluish green, 
passing into light greenish (light verdigris to chromium or bice green) 
on forehead and into bright turquoise blue laterally and posteriorly; 
lores, extreme anterior portion of forehead, orbital region, and auricu- 
lar region black, this continued from superciliary region backward 
beneath lateral and posterior margins of the blue pileum, the auricular 

a Another species, with posterior under parts more greenish than anterior portions 
(instead of the reverse) is the commoner one in Bogota collections. 
b Momotus subrufescens Sclater, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., v, Nov., 1853, 489 (Santa 
Marta, Colombia; coll. Brit. Mus.); Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 321, 
part, ph 10, fig. 1 (Santa Marta, Colombia; San Esteban and Puerto Cabello, Vene- 
zuela7); Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 459, part (Colombia).-- 
(?)P[rionites] subrufescens Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 114 (Cartagena).-- 
(7)Prionites parvirostris Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xxxviii, 1854, 659 (Cartagena, 
Colombia).--(?)Momotus parvirostris Sclater, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1857, 260.-- 
(?)Momotus swainsoni (not of Sclater) Sclater and Salvin, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lend., 
1868, 628 (San Esteban, Venezuela). 
e I am quite unable to distinguish two specimens from Ambalema and Rio Guile, 
Honda, respectively, from Panama examples. 



456 BULLETIN , UI,ITE STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
region margined, more or less distinctly, both above and below, by a 
narrow, sometimes interrupted, streak of turquoise blue or light 
greenish blue; rest of upper parts plain grayish bice green oi dull oil 
green, passing into more decided green (bice or chromium green) on 
wing-coverts, secondaries, and tail, the middle rectrices becoming 
more bluish green or greenish blue distally and broadly tipped with 
dull black; alul,u and primary coverts dull bluish green, the outer 
webs of primaries (except innermost) clearer bluish green or greenish 
blue; shafts of renfiges and rectrices black; under parts plain light 
grayish green (nearly chromium) paler and brighter on chin and 
throat, sometines slightly tinged with olive-green on chest; lower 
foreneck with a median tuft of elongated black feathers, edged basally 
with light bluish green; under wing-coverts light buff, tinged with 
green, passing into dull green on edge of wing; inner webs of remiges 
passing into dull grayish buffy on edge, except distally; bill, leG, 
and feet black. 
Adult rnale.--Length (skins), 398-420 (406); wing, 137.5-146 
(142.5) ; tail, 219-232 (226.5) ; exposed culmen, 44-47 (45.8) ; tarsus, 
29-30.5 (29.8); middle toe, 19-20.5 (19.7). a 
Adlt female.--Length (skins), 382-421 (397) ; wing, 136.5-144.5 
(141.1) ; tail, 203-230 (220.3) ; exposed culmen, 39-45.5 (42.7) ; tar- 
sus, 27.5-29.5 (28.4); middle toe, 18-20.5 (19.3). b 
Northeastelal Mexico, in States of Nuevo Le6n (Boquillo; Linares; 
Rio de Ramos; Villa Grande; Hacienda de la Cruz; Rio Camarcho), 
Tamaulipas (Tampico; Alia Mira; Victoria; Sierra Madre near Vic- 
toria; Forl6n; Xicotencal; Caballeros; Rio Martinez; Rio de la 
Cruz), VeraCruz (Rivera; Jalapa; C6rdova; Misantl; Colipa; Cui- 
chapa; Plan del Rio; Rio San Juan ]Xfartin; Cuesta de Misanfla; 
Santa Ana; Hacienda Tortugas), Puebla (Rinconada), and San Luis 
Potosi (Valls) ; Mexico (near City of Mexico) ? 
Prionites cveruliceps GOULD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1836, 18 (Tamaulipas, Mexico; 
coll. Zool. Soc. Lond.). 
P[rionites] caeruliceps CABAItS and ttEtlE, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 113 (alapa, Veru 
Cruz). 
[Prionites] caeruliceps HEIIE and REICh, ElbOW, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 156 
(alapa). 
Momotus cteruliceps LEssol% Actes Soc. Lina. Bordeaux, xii, 1842, 190; Desc. 
Mam. et Ois., 1847, 266.--GRAY, List Fissirostr. Birds Brit. Mus., 1848, 39. 
BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. 1. Surv., 1858, 161 (Boquillo, Nuevo Leon); ed. 
1860 ("Birds of North America"), 161, pl. 46; lep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. 
Surv., i_i, pt. 2, 1859, 7 (Boquillo); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 119.-- 
FERRAm-PEREZ, Proc. lJ. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 160 (alapa). 
M[omotus] ceruliceps GRY, Gem Birds, ii, 1847, 68. 
[Momotus] cteruliceps GRAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 80, no. 936. 

a Five specimens, b Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 457 

Momotus ceruleiceps SCLATER, Prec. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1857, 201 (Jalapa), 253 
(monogr.); 1859, 367 (Jalapa); 1864, 176 (near City of Mexico); Cat. Am. 
Birds, 1862, 262 (Mexico).--CouEs, Check List, 1873, no. 285.--lID(WAY, 
Prec. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 190, 229; Nora. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 381.-- 
SHARPE, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 327 (Villa Grande, Hacienda de la 
Cruz, and Rio Camarcho, Nuevo Leon; Sierra Madre, near Victoria, Xico- 
tencal, and Tampico, Tamaulipas; Misantla, Colipa, Plan del lio, Jalapa, 
Cuichapa, and Cordova, Vera Cruz).--SALVlN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Aves, it, 1895, 458 (Villa Grande, etc., Nuevo Leon; Valles, San Luis Potosi; 
Cuesta de Misantla, Santa Ann, Hacienda Tortuoas, lio San Juan Martin, 
etc., Vera Cruz).--LANTZ, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220 
(linconada, Puebla).--PHILLIPS, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 76 (Caballeros, lio Mar- 
tinez, and lio de la Cruz, Tamaulipas). 
[Momotus] cvruleiceps CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 187.--SCLATER and SALVlN, 
Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 102.--SHARPE, Hand-list, it, 1900, 77. 
M[omotus] ceruleiceps II)GwAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 278. 
P[rionites] caeruleiceps BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 165; Ateneo Italiano, 
it, 1854, 317 (Consp. Volucr. Anisod., 1854, 8). 
Me,horus coeruleiceps SCHLEGEL, Mus. Pays-Bas, iii, no. 19, 1863, 4. 
Prionites caeruleocephalus JADINE and SELBY, Illustr. Orn., iv, 1839, pl. 42. 
Momotus subhutu LEssoN, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, xii, no. 41, Sept. 15. 1842, 
190 (Mexico); Descr. Mare. et Ois., 1847, 265 (Mexico). 

MOMOTUS LISSONH LISSONH Lesson. 

LESSON'S MOTMOT. 

Adults (sexes alike).--Loral, orbital, and auricular regions, extreme 
anterior portion of forehead, upper margin of malar region, and patch 
on crown, black; forehead and sides of crown bright light greenish 
blue (nile blue to turquoise), this passing posteriorly around posterior 
margin of the black crown-patch where maromed posteriorly by a 
crescentic band of rich violet-blue (smalt), this again margined pos- 
teriorly by a crescentic band of black, confluent with the black of super- 
ciliary region and lores; black of auricular region margined above by 
a narrow line of bright turquoise or nile blue; hindneck clear olive- 
green (or somewhat greener) to tawny olive-green, passing into purer 
green (nearly parrot green) or olive-green on back, scapulars, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts; wings more decidedly green, passing into 
greenish blue on primaries, p4mary-coverts, and alula; tail green or 
bluish green, becoming more bluish distally, the terminal spatules of 
middle rectrices blue (dull cobalt or cerulean), rather broadly tipped 
with dull black; chin, throat, and lower portion of malar region dull 
light bluish green (nearly verdigris), the last with touches of bright 
turquoise or nile blue along lower edge of the black suborbital area; 
foreneck and chest varying (individually) from olivaceous-tawny to 
light olive-green, the remaining under parts similar but gradually 
becoming lighter and more greenish posteriorly; a conspicuous tuft 
of narrow black feathers, edged toward base with light greenish blue, 
in center of foreneck; bill black, sometimes paler on base of mandible; 
iris red; legs and feet dusky (in dried skins). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

Pos; Volcn de Irazd; Cartago; Navarro de Cartago; Guayabo; 
Santa Maria de Dota; Boruca; Buenos Aires) to western Panama 
(Cordillera de To14; Chitra; Divala; David; Mina de Chorcha; 
Bugaba; Volcan de Chiriqui; Boquete, 2,500-4,500 ft.). 
Momotus lessonii LEssoN, Rev. Zool., v, June, 1842, 174 (Realejo, Nicaragua; 
coll. Paris Mus.?); Sept. 15, 1842, 191 (Realejo); Descr. Mare. et Ois., 1847, 
266.--Ds MuRs, Icon. Orn., livr. 11, Jan., 1848, pl. 62 (Realejo; type in 
coll. Mus. Paris). 
M[omotus] lessonii GravY, Gen. Birds, i, 1847, 68.--RD(W,Y, Man. N. Am. 
Birds, 1887, 278, part. 
Momotus lessoni SCL,T, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 139 (Chiriqui, Panama); 
1853, 253 (Monogr.); 1859, 54 (Omoa, Honduras); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 
262, part (Guatemala; Nicaragua).--SCLAT and S.vN, Ibis, 1859, 131 
(Guatemala; habits); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 837 (Hondums).-- 
Moo, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 54 (Omoa, Honduras).--S,LvN, 
Ibis, 1860, 100 (Duefias, Guatemala); 1872, 321 (Chontales, Nicaragua); 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 150 (Cordillera de Tol and David, Panama; 
crit.); 1870, 201 (Chitra, Mina de Chorcha, Bugaba, and Volcan de Chiriqui, 
Panama).--SCHLEGEL, MUS. Pays-Bas, iii, no. 19, 1863, 4, part (Guatemala) 
L,wsNCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 1867, 177 (David, Panama); ix, 1868, 117 
(San Jos, San Carlos, Dota and Grecia, Costa Rica) 
Orn., 1869, 311 (Costa Rica).--BovcD, Liste Ois. rcol. Guat., 1878, 26 
(Guatemala); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 48 (San Jos, Costa Rica; habits).-- 
NuTTrs(b Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 399 (La Palma de Nicoya, Costa 
Rica; habits); vi, 1883, 387 (Sucuy, Nicamgua).--ZELSDSN, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., v, 1885, 109 (Costa Rica); Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 
119 (San Jos, Alajuela, Santa Aria, Las Trojas, Cartago, and Navarro de 
Cartago, Costa Rica).--RxD(WY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 501 (Volcan 
de Irazd, Costa Rica); x, 1887, 582, 591 (Truxillo and Rio Segovia, Hon- 
duras).--CHsmxs, Auk, ix, 1892, 322 (San Jos, Costa Rica; habits; food; 
descr, nest and eggs); Expl. Zool. Merid. Costa Rica, 1893, 47 (Boruca and 
Buenos Aires, Costa Rica).--SHAPS, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 324, 
part (localities n. to Guatemala).---ALLsN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 
127, in text (crit.).--RmHOND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvl, 1893, 510 (Rio 
Escondido, Nicaragua).--SLVN and GODN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 
1895, 456, part (Cayo and San Felipe, Brit. Honduras; Pie de la Cuesta, 
Retalhuleu, Toliman, Savana Grande, Alotenango, Duefias, San Geronimo, 
Coban, Lanquin, Choctum, Chisec, etc., Guatemala; San Miguel, Salvador; 
San Pedro, etc., Honduras; Chinandega, etc., Nicaragua; San Carlos, etc., 
Costa Rica; David, etc., Panama).UNDsRWOOD, Ibis, 1896, 443 (Volcan de 
Miravalles, Costa Rica).--BN(s, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, 1902, 
25 (Boquete, Panama, 2,500-4,500 it.); Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, 1903, 
143 (Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras).--DsBON, Pub. 125, Field Mus. 
N. H., 1907, 89 (Los Amates, Mazatenango, and Patulul, Guatemala).-- 
FsY, Pub. 146, Field Mus. N. H., 1910, 262 (Guayabo, Costa Rica). 
[Momotus] lessoni Gravy, Hand-list, i, 1869, 80, no. 937.--SCL.TSR and SLVN, 
Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 102, part.--SHPS, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 77, part. 
Mamotus lessoni lessoni CXKS, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vl, 1910, 497 (Costa Rica; 
crit.). 
[Prionites] lessoni BoNeR., Consp. Av., i, 1850, 165 (Reale]o).--HN and 
RxcNow, Nom. hlus. Y[ein. Orn., 1890, 156 (Guatemala). 
P[rionites] lessoni CAnNxs and tt.x., Mus. Y[ein., ii, 1859, 113 (Guatemala). 



464 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

blue; under wing-coverts pinkish buff, passing into pale greenish on 
edge of wing; inner webs of remiges broadly edged with deeper pink- 
ish buff, except distally; bill black, the mandible sometimes paler 
basally; iris red; legs and feet dusky (grayish in life). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 285-337 (291); wing, 109-I23 (117); 
tail, 147-181 (166.5); exposed culmen, 36.5-41 (38.2); tarsus, 25-27 
(26.3); middle toe, 17-19.5 (17.7). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 286--323 (306); wing, 106-116 (112); 
tail, 139-163 (154.8); exposed culmen, 30-40 (37); taus, 24.5-27 
(25.3); middle toe, 17-18 (17.4). b 
Middle Mexico, in States of Sinaloa (Mazatln; Presidio de Mazat- 
ln; Las Flores; Plomosas; Rosario; Escuinapa; Chalpa; Las 
Palmas; Sierra de Armigas, 3,500 ft.; Los Pieles, 3,500 ft.; Rio 
Juana Gomez), Durango (Chaca]/), Zacatecas, Jalisco (Etzatlin; 
Bolafios; San Marcos; Tuxpn; Beltrn; Tonila), Colima (Plains 
of Colima; Colima; Manzanillo Bay; Haciendo San Antonio), 
Michoacn (Ahuacana)?, Mexico (TemiscMtepec; near City of 
Mexico), Puebla (Chietla; Tochimilco; Atlixco), and western Vera 
Cruz (Orizaba), and Territory of Tepic (Tepic; Tuxpn; San Blas; 
Santiago; Compostela; Sierra de Nayat). 

a Sixteen specimens, b Thirteen specimens. 

MALES, 
One adult male from Puebla ...................... 
One adult male from Durango .... 
One adult male from Jalisco .. 
Four adult males from Tepic ............................... 
Five adult males from Shaaloa .... 
Five adult males from Colima... 
One adult male from hlichoacan ( M. m. satumus) 
Two adult males from Guerrero ( M. m. saturatus) .......... 
Ten adult males from Oaxaca ( M. m. saturatus) 
One adult male from Chiapas (M. m. saturatus) 
Three adult males from Guatemala ( M. castaneiceps) 
FEIALES. 
One adult female from Puebla .... 
One adult female from Jalisco ......... 
Three adult females from Tepic .. 
Six adult females from Sinaloa ......... 
Three adult females from Colima. 
One adult female from Guerrero (El Rincon) 
One adult female from Guerrero (El Limon) ( M. m. saturatus). 
Four adult females from OaxaCa ( S.c.m. saturatus) ........ 
Two adult females from Chiapas ( hi. m. saturatus) 

17.5 
17.5 
19.5 
18 
17.7 
18.5 
19.5 
18.7 
19.7 
18 
19.8 

16.5 
17 
17.3 
17.5 
17.3 
18 
19.5 
18." 
18. 



BIRDS OF IORTH AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 467 

Guatemala (Plains of Zacapa; E1 Rancho, Zacapa; Rio Montgua; 
"Valley of Rio Montagua from Guastatoya and Magdalena to 
Gualn"). 
Momotus castaneiceps GOJLD, I)roc. Zool. Soc. Lond., xxii, 1854, 154 (Gualemal,; 
coll. J. Gould).--ScL,TEa, lroc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 254 (monogr.).-- 
SALVXN, Ibis, 1861, 354 (Plain of Zacapa, Guatemala; crit.).--SHARFE, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 329 (Rio Montagua, Guatemala).--SvN and 
GoDs, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, 1895, 461 (Valley of Rio Montagua from 
Guasmtoyu and Magdalena to Gualan).--D,RBons, Pub. 125, Field Mus. 
l. H., 1907, 89 (El Rancho, Zac,pa, Guatemala). 
[Momotus] castaneiceps GY, H,nd-list, i, 1869, 80, no. 940.--ScIT and SAvs, 
Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 102.---SHam's, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 77. 
C[rybelus] castaneiceps CBNm and Hs, Mds. Hein., ii, 1859, 112, footnote. 
Genus UIOSIATHA Salvadori. 

Urospatha S/[LV/kDORI, Atti Roy. Accad. Sci. T,,rino, iv, Dec., 1868, 179. (Type, 
Prionites martii Spix.) 
Large Momotidm (length about 420-525 ram.) resembling Momotas 
but with ordy ten rcctrices (these relatively narrower) and more 
coarsely serrate tomia, the serrations extending nearer to tip of bill. 
Bill about s long as head, distinctly decurvcd ternfinalJy, much 
deeper than wide at nostrils; culmen distinctly decurved from base 
(more strongly so terminally), narrowly rounded or very hdistinctly 
ridged; gonys less than twice as long as mandibular rand, broadly 
rounded, slightly convex and promiuent basa]ly, faintly concave ter- 
minally, the tip of mandible slightly decurvcd; serrations of tomia 
large and very prominent (except basally), extending to very near 
tip of bill. Nostril completely exposed, large, obliquely broadly 
oval, in anterior end of nasal fossa. No prefrontal (postnasal) 
antrorse bristles; rictal bristles obvious but small and weak, those 
of malar apex larger, but not strong, the feathers of chin with small, 
very slender, recurred bristly tips. ]-Iead completely feathered, the 
auricular feathers elongated, rather stiff, producing a conspicuous 
tuft on each side of head ; middle of foreneck, or upper chest, with a 
narrow tuft of elongated feathers. Wing rather short, the longest 
primaries exceeding longest secondaries by less than half the length 
of exposed culmen; sixth and seventh primaries longest, the eighth 
about equal to fourth, the ninth about equal to or slightly shorter 
than second, the tenth (outermost) nearly three-fourths as long as 
ninth. Tail more than half as long again as wing, excessively gradu- 
ated, the middle pair of rectrices much more than half as long again 
as next pair, their webs usually denuded subterminally, the tip 
racquet-shaped; rectrices ten, the outer pair nearly three-fourths as 
long as the next pair. Tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe with 
claw, nearly as long as distance from nostril to tip of maxilla, stout. 



468 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIOIAL MUSEUM. 

Coloration.--IIead, neck, and most of under parts plain tawny, the 
auricular tufts (together with orbital, malar, and loral regions) and 
jugular tuft black; remaining upper parts green, passing into blue on 
primaries; tail and posterior under parts bluish green. 
Range.--Nicarague to Amazon Valley. (Monotypic.) 
KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF UROSPATHA ]IARTII. 
a. Smaller (wing less than 145, tail less than 250); coloration darker, the pileum chest- 
nut, the under parts deep cinnamon-rufous. (Upper Amazon Valley.) 
Urospatha matii martii (extmlimital).a 
aa. Larger (wing averaging much more than 145, tail averaging more than 260, culmen 
averaging more than 43); coloration lighter, the pileum cinnamon-rufous to 
rufous-tawny, the under parts tawny-ochmceous anteriorly deepening into 
ochraceous-rufous or clear cinnamon-rufous posteriorly. (Northern Ecuador to 
eastern Nicaragua.) ....................... Urospatha martii semirufa (p. 468). 

UROSPATHA MARTII SEMIRUFA (Sclater). 

GREATER RUFOUS MOTMOT. 

Adults (sexes alilce).--Pileum and hindneck plain bright cinnamon- 
rufous, beconfing slightly deeper on lower lfindneck, where very 
sharply defined against the uniform bright olivaceous parrot green 
of back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts; wing-coverts and 
scc,.)udaries purer (less olivaceous) parrot green or grass green; alula 
and primary coverts bluish green; outer webs of primaries clear 
greenish blue, the five or six outer-most quills broadly edged (at least 
in part) with deep violet-blue (hyacinth); tail bluish green basally 
passing into greenish blue distally, the middle rectrices tipped with 
dull black; 1oral, orbital, and auricular regions black; malar region, 
chin, thrott, and foreneck bright or clear tawny-ochraceous, deepen- 
ing gradually into deep rufous-tawny or cinnamon-rufous on abdo- 
men and sides; flanks, anal region, thighs, and under tail-coverts 
plain verdigris green, glaucous-green, or deep oil green; a small tuft 
of elongated black feathers in center of lower foreneck, the basal por- 
tion of these feathers similar in color to the general color of surround- 
ing parts; under wing-coverts dull verdigris green; inner webs of 
remiges slate color or blackish slate; under surface of rectrices dull 
black or slate-black; shafts of remiges and rectrices glossy black; 
bill black; legs and feet blackish (in dried skins). 

a Prionites martii Spix, Avium Species Novm (Av. Bras.), i, "1824" (-1825-18267), 
64, pl. 60 (near Par, Brazil; coll. Munich Mus.?).--M[omotus] martii Gray, Gen. 
Birds, i, 1847, 68.C[rybelus] marti Cabanis and Heine, Mus. lein., ii, Nov., 1859, 
112, part (Peru; Amazon Valley).--Urospatha martii (not of Salvadori, 1868) Tac- 
zanowski, Orn. du Prou, iii, 1886, 111 (Monterico, centr. Peru); Sharpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xvi, 1892, 314, part (Sarayacu, e. Ecuador; Chyavetas, e. Peru; Apollo, 
Bolivia).--Urospatha martii martii Hellmayr, Novit. Zool., xiv, no. 2, Nov., 1907, 
403 (Borba, Rio Madeira, Brazil; crit.).Baryphthengus martii Berlepsch, Journ. 
ftir Orn., 1889, 308 (Yurimaguas, n. e. Peru; crit.).--[Crypticus] martii Bonaparte, 
Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 317 (Consp. Volucr. Anisod., 1854, 7). 



BIRDS OF NORTI-I AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 469 

Young.--Sinfilar to adults but green of upper parts darker and 
duller, posterior under parts olive-green instead of bluish green, and 
black tuft on center of foreneck smaller. 
Adult male.--Length (sns), 420-525 (454); wing, 140.5-159 
(151.8) ; tail, 241-321 (278.1) ; exposed culmen, 42.5-53 (47.1) ; tar- 
sus, 28-34 (31.4); middle toe, 19.5-24 (22)y 
Adult female.---Length (skins), 435-512 (459); wing, 145-157.5 
(150.8); tail, 258-311 (276.3); exposed culmen, 43-51.5 (46.5); tar- 
sus, 30-33 (31.7); middle toe, 21-23.5 (22.1). b 
Eastern Nicaragua (La Libertd, Chontales; Rio Escondido) and. 
southward through Caribbean slope of Costa Rica (San Carlos; La 
Vijagua; Barranca; Cuabre; Gucimo; Gupilcs; Carrillo; E1 
Hog,r; Guayabo; Volcn de Turrialba; Naranjo de Cartago; 
Angostura; Jimnez; Rio Sicsola; Pacuare; Talamanca), Panama 
(Santa Fe and Santiago, Veragua; Calobre; Lion tIill; Cerro Azfil), 
md Colombia ("Bogota"; Santa Marta; Rcmgdios and Nichi, 
Antioquia; Rio Nercua; Honda) to northwestern Ecuador c (Chimbo ; 
Cachavi; Paramba; Foreste del Rio Peripa). 
Momotus martii (not Prionites martii Spix) CASSN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, 136 (Rio Nercua, Colombia).--(?)ScATEa, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 262, 
excl. syn. part (Ecuador).--LAwaENCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., vii, 1862, 290 
(Lion Hill, Panama); ix, 1868, 117 (Pacuare, Costa Rica).--ScTEa and 
Sws, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 363 (Lion Hill).--Svs, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, 151 (Santa Fe and Santiago de Veragua, Panama); 1870, 
201 (Calobre, Panama); Ibis, 1872, 320 (Chontales, Nicarugla).--FasTZCS, 
Journ. ftir Orn., 1869, 311 (Costa Rica).--BEaEPSC and TAczsows, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 571 (Chimbo, w. Ecuador; crit.). 
[Momotus] martii Gv, Hand-list, i, 1869, 80, no. 939, part (w. Ecuador; Colombia). 
[Crypticus] martii BONPaTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 165, part (Colombia). 

a Twenty-one specimens. 
b Thirteen specimens. 
Locality. 

MALES. 
Nine adult males from Costa Rica ............................. 
Nine adult males from Panama ................................ 
Three adult males from central Colombia (Eonda) ............. 
One adult male from peru ( U. . rtii) ...................... 
One adult (male?) from Amazon Valley, Brazil (U. . rtii).. 
FEMALES. 
Ten adult females from Costa Rica ............................ 
Three adult females lrom Panama ............................. 

Wing. 
154.8 
149.6 
149.2 
142.7 
143.5 
152.3 
145.7 

l'ail posed 
i, culmen 
292.. 48.7 
267. . 46.6 
264.  43 
240 40 
240 42 
281.  47.1 
263.,'. 44.2 

Tarsus 
3.4 
31 
29.5 
29.5 
30.5 
31.7 
31.8 

Middle 
toe. 

22.2 
22 
21.7 
2O 
2O 

22.2 
21.7 

Besides averaging larger, specimens from Costa lica and Nicaragua are somewhat 
lighter colored than many Panama examples, which, together with Colombian ones, 
vary in the direction of U. m. martii; still, even Colombian examples resemble the 
latter less than they do the Costa Rican series. 
e I have not seen an Ecuadorean example of this species. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 471 

Bill about as long as head, strongly decurved, very broad and de- 
pressed (width at nostrils nearly equal to half the distance from 
nostril to tip of maxilla); culmen conspicuously carinate, the sides 
of maxilla immediately below the flattened ridge deeply hollowed out 
or concave; gonys less than twice as long as mandibular rami, very 
broadly roumled, but with faint indication of a narrow median 
ridge; tomia very finely serrate, the serrations obsolete only at 
extreme ends of tomia. Nostril rather small, roundish, in anterior 
end of nasal fossa, partly concealed by latero-frontal feathering. No 
prefrontal (postnasal) bristles; rictal bristles obvious, but rather 
weak, those of malar apex larger and stronger, the feathers of 
chin with very nfinute bristly recurred points, ttead completely 
feathered, the auriculw feathers elongated, rather stiff, forming a 
conspicuous tuft; a tuft of elongated feathers on middle of lower 
foreneck. Wing rather short and rounded, the longest primaries 
exceeding longest secondaries by not more than length of tarsus; 
fifth, sixth, and seventh primaries longest, the eighth longer than 
fourth, the lfinth equal to second or third, the tenth (outermost) 
decidedly less to slightly more than two-tldrds as long as ninth. Taft 
about one-third longer than wing, excessively graduated, the middle 
pair of rectrices nearly one-third longer than next pair, with webs 
contracted subterminally or else (usually) completely demded for 
a distance equal to or greater than length of the racquet-shaped tip; 
rectrices 10, the outer pair nearly to quite two-tldrds as long as next 
pair. Tarsus shorter than middle toe with claw. 
Coloration.--General color plain green, more bluish on tail and pri- 
maries; auricular tuft (together with orbital and loral regions) and 
tuft on lower foreneck black; head, neck, and chest otherwise plain 
tawny, or else superciliary region blue. 
Rage.--Southern Mexico (State of Yera Cruz)to upper Amazon 
Valley. (Two species.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF ELECTRON. 

a. Pileum and hindneck dull cinnamon-rufous or russet-tawny, the foreneck, chest, 
and breast similar but rather lighter. (Electron platyrhynchus.) 
b. Color of pileum, etc., darker, more castaneous; chin indistinctly dull greenish. 
(Upper Amazon Valley, in Brazil. Peru, and Ecuador.) 
:Electron llatyrhynchus llatyrhynchus (extralimital).a 

a [Momotus] platyrhynchus Leadbeater, Trans. Linn. Soc., xvi, pt. i, 1829, 92 
(Brazil; type now in Liverpool Mus.).--Momotus latyrhynchus Jardine and Selby, 
I]lustr. Orn., iii, 1831, pl. 106 [bis].--C[rypticus] platyrhynchus Swainson, Classif. 
Birds, ii, 1837, 338.--Prionirhynchus playrynchus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 
256 (e. Peru; Bolivia); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 315, part.--Prionornis 
platyrhynchus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, ii, sig. 58 *, July, 1895, 
467, part.Crypticus marii (not lrionites martii Spix) Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1837 (1838), 119; Nuov. Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bologna), ii, 1838, 411 (excl. syn. 
Prionites marii Spix). 



472 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

bb. Color of pilenm, etc., lighter and dnller, less castaneous; chin distinctly and 
extensively greenish blne or blnish green. 
c. Back, etc., more olivaceons green (deep hellebore green to deep forest green), 
posterior under parts light olivaceons green (American green to pistachio 
green). (Costa lica to Canal Zone). . Electron platyrhynchns minor (p. 472). 
cc. Back, etc., pnrer green (deep Hay's green), posterior under parts light bluish 
green (Niagara green). (Eastern Panama; Colombia?) 
Electron platyrhynchus suboles (p. 474). 
aa. Pilenm and hindneck green;'a bright blne superciliary patch; foreneck, chest, 
and breast green or olive. (Electron carinatus.) 
b. Upper parts more olivaceous green; under parts more or less suffused (some- 
times strongly) with tawny. (Sontheastern Mexico to Hondnras.) 
Electron carinatas carinatus (p. 474). 
bb. Upper parts gross green; under parts slightly olivaceons green, withont tawny 
snffusion. (Northwestern Costa l=tica)..Electron carinatus viridis (p. 476). 

ELECTRON PLATYRHYNCHUS MINOR (Hartert). 

I-SS-R RROAD-BIIIED MOTMOT. 

Similar to E. p. platyrhync'us, a but color of head, neck, and chest 
lighter (less castaneous), chin more distinctly and more extensively 
bluish, and size averaging smaller. 
Adults (sexes al-i]ce).--Pileum, hindneck, sides of neck, and subauricu- 
lar and malar reons, plain dull cinnamon-rufous, passing graduallyinto 
a very slightly paler but similar color on throat, foreneck, and chest; 
chin and upper throat dull verdigris green; loral, orbital, and auric- 
ular regions uniform black; a tuft of large, elongated, rather broad 
black feathers on center of foreneck; back, scapulars, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts plain olivaceous parrot green, the wing coverts and 
secondaries purer (less olivaceous) green, the outer primaries, 
together with primary coverts and alula more bluish green; tail 
bluish green proxilnal]y, passing into greenish blue distal]y, the middle 
rectrices broadly tipped with dull black; shafts of remiges and rectrices 
glossy black; under surface of tail dark slate or blackish slate; breast, 
abdomen, sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts lflain dull bluish green 
(nearly verdigris), usually tinged, more or less, especially on upper 
breast, with oil green; bill black, paler at tip; legs and feet blackish 
(in dried skins). 
Adult vaale.--Length (skins), 292-325 (309) ; wing, 110-118 (112.8); 
tail, 155-192 (171); exposed culmen, 35-40 (38.1); tarsus, 17-18.5 
(17.8); middle toe, 13-15.5 (15.1). b 

a See p. 471. b Fourteen specimens. 



474 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Prionornis platyrhynchus minor FERRY, Pub. 146, Field llus. N. It., 1910, 263 
(Guayabo, Costa Rica). 
1)rionornis minor BANGS, Proc Biol. Soc. Wash., xxii, 1909, 32, in text (La Vija- 
gua, Costa Rica).--CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 495 (Costa Rica; 
habits). 
[Prionornis] minor SRARPE, [tand-lisl, it, 1900, 76. 

ELECTRON PLATYRHYNCHUS SUBOLES Nelson. 
DAII]N MOTMOT. 

Similar in extensively bluish chin to E. p. minor, but color of back, 
etc., much purer green (deep Hay's green), upper surface of tail and 
outer webs of primaries greenish blue (between motmot blue and china 
blue), posterior underparts light greenish blue or bluish green (niagara 
green), color of pileum and lndneck lighter (dull russet-tawny), and 
bill relatively longer and narrower. 
Adult male.--Length (skin), 322; wing, 117; tail, 1S8; exposed 
cuhnen, 42 (40.5); tarsus, 18; nddle toe, 13.5. a 
Eastern Panam5 (Cana, Darign); Colombi (Rio Atrato; Rio 
Nercut; Rem4dios, Antioquia) ? 
(?)Prionirlyncls platyrlynclus (not Momotus platyrhynclus Leadbeater) SCLR 
and Svxs, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 534 (Remedios, Antioquia, Colom- 
bia).--SHRPE, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 315, part (Remedios, 
Colombia). 
(?)Prionornis platyrhynchus SvIs and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, it, 
1895, 467, part (Rio Nercua, Colombia). 
Electron platyrlynclus suboles NELSON, Smithson. Misc. Coll., vol. 60, no. 3, Sept. 
27, 1912, 5 (Cana, Darien, Panama, 2,000 ft.; coll. U. S. Nat. lIus.). 

ELECTRON CARINATUS CARINATUS (Du Bus). 
KEEL-BILLED MOTMOT. 

Adults (sexes alilce).--Forehead (more or less extensively) dull 
cinnamon-rufous to cinnamon; superciliary region bright turquoise 
or cmrulean blue, fight greenish blue, or (more rarely) cobalt or 
ultramarine blue; rest of pileum, deep olive-green or olivaceous 
parrot green, passing into fighter and brighter olive-'een or oliva- 
ceous parrot green on hhdneck, back, scapulars, rump, and upper 
tail coverts, the wing coverts and secondaries similar but usually 
purer (less olivaceous) green, the outer webs of primaries duller and 
more bluish green; tail olivaceous parrot green (sometimes inclining 
to bluish green), the terminal spatules of middle rectrices bluish 
green or greenish blue, broadly tipped with dull black; loral, orbital, 
and auricular regions uniform black; chin and upper throat dull ver- 
digris green; rest of underparts plain olivaceous cinnamon or light 
olive-green, more or less tinged or washed with cinnamon, the center 

a One specimen. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 475 

of foreneck with a large tuft of elongated, rather broad, black feathe; 
underwing coverts ochraceous-buff; inner webs of remiges slaty, 
fidistinctly edged with grayish huffy; bill black, paler at tip; legs 
and feet dusky (in dried s "kins). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 304-332 (320) ; wing, 111.5-120.5 
(114.5) ; taft, 164-182 (171.9) ; exposed eulmen, 35.5-40 (37.2) ; tar- 
sus, 17-18.5 (17.4); middle toe, 13.5-15 (14.3). a 
Adltfemale.--Length (skJs), 317-346 (331); wing, 112-119 (115); 
tail, 169.5-189 (179.2) ; exposed culmen, 37.5-38 (37.8) ; tarsus, 18.5; 
middle toe, 14.5. b 
Southeastern Me,co, in States of Vera Cruz (Tolosa; Uvero) and 
Tabasco (Teapa), southward through Guatemala (Chixoy Valley, 
near Santa Ana), British Honduras (Belize), and Honduras (Lake 
Yojoa; between Lake Yojoa and Taulevi; San Pedro Montafia; Santa 
Ana; Cdiba; Rio SegSvia) to northera Nicaragua (Chontales). 

Prionites carinatus Dv Bvs, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., xiv, pt. 2, 1847, 108 (Guae- 
n]ala; coll. Brussels Mus. Nat. Hist.). 
[Crypticus] carinatus Boheha, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 165. 
Prioniryncus carinatus Scr,ha, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 257, pl. 128 
(n]onogr.; Guaten]ala); 1858, 357 (near Lake Yo]oa, Honduras; crit.); Cat. 
An]. Birds, 1862, 263 (Lake Yojoa).--Scr,hw and Shr,v, Ibis, 1859, 132 
(Luke Yojoa).--ThYoa, Ibis, 1860, 117 (between Taulevi and Lake Yojoa, 
Hondums).--(?)SAw, Ibis, 1872, 321 (Chontales, Nicaragua; crit.).--Botr- 
ChnD, Liste Ois. rcol. Guat., 1878, 26 (Guatenla).--l=tDaWhV, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 591 (Rio Segovia, Honduras).---Shm, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xvii, 1892, 316 (Belize, Brit. Honduras, etc.). 
[Prioniryncus] carinatus SCr,E and Sr,w, Non]. Av. Neotr., 1873, 102. 
[Momotus] carinatus Gnhv, Hand-list, i, 1869, 81, no. 946. 
Primornis carinatus Shr,ws and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-An]., Ayes, ii, sig. 58 ", 
July, 1895, 468, part (Belize; Chixoy Valley, near Santa Ana, Gtmten]ala; 
Lake Yojoa; Rio Segovia; Chontales).--Bhsas, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
xxxix, 1903, 143 (Ceiba, Honduras). 
[Prionorns] carinatus Sm, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 76. 

a Nine specin]ens. 
b Three specin]ens. 
Locality. Wing. Taft. 

MALES. 
Two adult males from Vera Cruz .............................. 
One adult male from Tabasco ................................. 
Six adult male from Honduras ................................ 
One adult male irom Costa Rica (E. c. virid) ................. 
FEMALES. 
One adult female from Vera Cruz ............................. 
Three adult iemale irom Hondura ........................... 

113.5 
115 
114.7 
116 

114 
115.5 

164.5 
174.8 
180 

179.2 

posed 
ulmen.] 

39.7 
39 
37.7 
37 

37.5 
38 

Tarsus. Middl, 
toe. 
17.2 14. 
17.5 15 
17.4 14 
17 14 
18.5 14. 



BIRDS OF lqORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 479 

Adult female.--Length (skins), 330-369 (355); 4ng, 105-116.5 
(112.7); tail, 179-210 (194.6); exposed culmen, 38.5-42 (39.7); tar- 
sus, 20.5-24 (22.3); middle toe, 16-17.5 (16.7). a 
Yucatan (Mrida; Tekanto; Temx; Tunkas; Ticdl; Peto; 
Buctzotz; Chichen-Itza; San Felipe; Cozumel Island; Meco Island), 
Campeche (Campeche; Bay of Campeche), and Tabasco (Monte- 
cristo; Teapa). 
P[yronites] superciliosus SAN)BAC, Athenmum, no. 517, Sept. 23, 1837, 698 
(Mexico; coll. Mus. Roy. Inst. Liverpool). 
P[rionites] supercilios SAN)BAC, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1837 (pub. 1838), 99. 
Prionites (Crypticus) superciliaris JR)INE and SELY, Illustr. Ore., iv, 1838, pl. 
18. 
Crypticus superciliaris LESSON, Descr. Mum. et Ois. (Compl. Buffon), 1847, 267. 
C[u/pticus] superciliaris BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 165, part. 
M[omotus] superciliaris GRAY, Gem Birds, i, 1847, 68. 
Momotus superciliaris GRAY, List Fissir. Birds Brit. Mus., 1848, 40.--SCLEGEL, 
MUS. Pays-Bus, Momoti, 1863, 7 (Bay of Campeche).--NsuaoaN, Joum. fiir 
Orn., 1881, 66 (Yucatan; descr, eggs). 
[Momotus] superciliaris GRAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 80, no. 944, part. 
Eumomota superciliaris SCLATER, Proc. Zool. S. Load., 1857, 257, part 
(monogr.).--ScATER and ShLwN, Ibis, 1859, 132 (Atlantic co,st of Yucatan 
to Bay of Campeche).--LAwRsNcs, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1869, 204 (Merida, 
Yucatan).--BovchR), Proc. Zool. Soc. Load., 1883, 453 (Yucatan; habits).-- 
SALWN, Ibis, 1889, 371 (Meco I., Yucatan; crit.).--STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1890, 206 (Tekanto, Tunkas, and Ticul, Yucatan).--SARes, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1892, 317, part (Bay of Campeehe; Meco I., Pcto, 
Buctzotz, Merida, and Temax, Yucatan).--S^Lws and Go)MhS, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Ayes, i_i, 1895, 464, part (Bay of Campeche; localities in Yuca- 
tan).--CuhMhN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., viii, 1896, 285 (Chichen-Itza, Yuca- 
tan).--COLs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1, 1906, 126 (Chichen-Itza; habits, etc.). 

a Eleven specimens. 

Locality. [ lng.[ Tad. Iposed Tarsus.[ 
W . Ex- M.iddle 
MALES. 
TwoadultmalesfromOaxaca(E.s. bipartita) ................. I 1t4.21 219] 39.5 I 21.2 I 16.7 

Two adult males from E. Tabasco (E. s. superdlosa) .......... 
Two adult males from Campeche (E. s. superciliosa) ........... 
Eight adult males from Yucatan (E. s. superdliosa) ............ 
Four adult males from Chiapas (E. s. bipartita) ................ 
Three adult males from Guatemala (E. s. bipartita) ............ 
Three adult males from Honduras (E. s. bipartita) ............. 
Fiveadult males from Nicaragua ( E. s. australia) .............. 
Ten adult males from Costa Rica (E. s. australia) .............. 
FEMALES. 
One adult female from Vera Cruz (E. . bpart) .............. 
Seven adult females from Yucatan ( . s. sperdlioa) .........  
Four adult males from Campeche (E. . upercio9) .......... 
Two adult females from Chiapas (E. . bpar9) ............... 
Two adult females from Guatemala (E. . bipartite) ............ 
Twoadult females from Honduras (E. . bipgrit9) ............. 
Twoadult females from Nicaragua (E. . 9rMs) ............ 

108.7 195.2 
108.5 211.5 
114.2 207.5 
109.6 199.4 
108.3 206.5 
107.8 197.2 
111.5 194.8 
110.9 194.6 
115 ....... 
114.5 203.5 
109. 6 194.6 
109 174. 7 
109. 7 206. 7 
115.5 179. 5 
113.7 200. 7 

40.7 20.2 14.7 
40.7 22 16.5 
40.4 20.7 17.6 
40.9 20.6 16.4 
38. S 19, 8 15.5 
38.8 20.2 15.5 
39. 9 21.5 16 
40. 3 20.6 16.4 
37.8 .... -. .......... 
40.1 22.2 16.5 
39. 7 22.4 17 
37.5 19.5 15.5 
39. 2 20.5 15.7 
38 18.5 14. 5 
39.2 21 16..5 



482 BULLETIN 50, UIITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Spathophorus superciliars (not Prionites superciliosus Sandbach) CABANIS, JOUle. 
fiir Orn., ]861, 255 (Costa Rica). 
Eumomota superciliaris LAWUNC., Ann. Lyc. M. Y., ix, 1868, 117 (Costa Rica).-- 
lvuAwzcs, Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 311 (Costa Rica).--ScLAwR, Ibis, 1873, 
373 (Chontalcs, Micaragua).--BOUCARD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 49 
(Barranca de Puntu Arenas, Costa Rica).--NuTTNG, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
v, 1882, 399 (La Palma de Nicoyu, Costa Rica; habits); 4, 1883, 38 (Sucuya, 
Micaragua; habits).--ZI,DSN, Proc. U. S. Mat. Mus., viii, 1885, 109 (Costa 
Rica); Anal. Mus. Mac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 119 (Costa Iica).--Swo, Proc. 
Ac. Mat. Sci. Phila., ]890, 206 (('hinandega, ]Nicaragua).--Sui,, Ct. 
Birds Brit. h[us., xvi, 1892, 317, part (Chontales and Chinandegu, Micaragua; 
Bebedcro, Costa Rica; La Libertad and San MSguel, Salvador?).---S.Lv 
and (ODIAN, Bi, d. Centr.-Am., Ayes, it, 1895, 464, part (Nicaraguan and 
Cost Rican localities and references).--UNDRWOOD, Ibis, ]896, 443 (Bagces 
and Bebcdero, Costa Rica). 
[Eumomota] superciliars SCLAWR .nd Sw, Morn. Av. ]Neotr., 1873, 103, 
part.--Sm,, tIand-list, it, ]900, 76, part. 
Eumomota supercliris astralis BANGS, lroc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xix, July 30, 
906, ]04 (Bebcdero, n. w. Costa Rica; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs).--CuuR. 
Ann. Carnegie bias., i, ]910, 496 (.Bebedero, Bols6n, and MSravalles, n. w. 
Cost Rica). 
Genus ASPATHA Sharpe. 
Aspathaa SP, Ct,. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1S92, 331. (Type, Prionites 
gdaris Lafresnaye.) 
Small Momotidm (length about 260 ram.) with bill shorter than 
head, moderately dfl)rcssed (its width at nostrils about equal to 
or very slightly grctcr than its depth at same point), culmen not 
distinctly ridged (except basal]y), tarsus decidedly longer than dis- 
tance from nostril to tip of maxilla, tail (of ten rectrices) much less 
than one-third longer than wing, the middle rectrices always with 
webs continuous (uninterrupted). 
Bill shorter than head, about as wide as deep at nostrils (or very 
slightly wider), broad and very slightly tapering to near tip in ver- 
tical profile, distinctly decurved at tip; cuhnen (from extreme base) 
about one-third as long as wing, slightly convex throughout, strongly 
decurved at tip, rather distinctly ridged for basal hal, very indis- 
tinctly if at all ridged terminally; gonys about one and a hal times as 
long as mandibular ram, broadly rounded, without trace of median 
ridge; serrations of tomi, distict only on middle tlfird 
mat.c.ly). Nostril moderate, oval, obliquely vertical, in anterior end 
of nasal fossa. No prefrontal (postnasal) bristles; rictal bristles 
moderately developed, those of malar apex larger and stronger, and 
feathers of chin with long, recurred, bristly tips. Head completely 
feathered, the auricular feathers elongated and somewhat stiffened, 
producing a conspicuous tuft; a small tuft of elongated feathers in 
middle of lower forcneck. Wing rather short and rounded, the 
longest primaries exceedig longest secondaries by about length of 
hallux without claw; fifth, sixth, ,nnd seventh primaries longest, the 

a ',4, thout; :dS, a blade. (Richmond.) 



BIRDS OF ORT}[ AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 491 

exceedingly difficult to disthguish from their immediate surround- 
ings of stony or sandy ground, dry leaves or grass, or branches of 
trees. None of the species are know11 to build a nest, the eggs (also, 
as a rule, protectively colored) being deposited on the ground, or 
other plain surface. 
They are chiefly insectivorous, though some of the larger species 
are lowa to swallow, enth'e, small birds. Many of the species are 
noted for peculiar cries, the whip-poor-will and chuck-will's-widow 
of the United States being well-known examples. The name "goat- 
sucker" is derived from au old-time superstition (perhaps not yet 
altogether obsolete) that the comnon European species subsisted 
by mflki,g goats--a notion which doubtless arose from seeing the 
birds flyhg close about the goats at night, or during the twilight, 
but ia reality capturing the flies and other insects which infested the 
anhmls. 
The family is found hearty throughout warmer portions of the 
world, and is very numerous in species, about fifty, referable to four- 
teen genera, occurring in America. 

KEY TO TIE GENER/k OF C/kPRIMULGID,. 
a. Palate schizognathous; rictal bristles very large and conspicuous (twice as long 
as bill or longer); inframandibular re,on sparsely feathered ;a lower cervical 
pteryla without any inner branch or tooth; a maxilla without any lateral channel. 
( Caprimulgine. ) 
b. Wing normal in both sexes (not more than two primaries equal in lenh). 
c. Bill very strong, very broad basally, its width at frontal feathering greater than 
its length from same point, the expanded basal portion with lateral outlines 
distinctly convex; nasal tubes semi-erect, stalk-like, the small nostril in 
the extremity and opening upward; legs and feet relatively large and stout. 
Sil)honorhis (p. 495). 
cc. Bill weak, not very broad basally, its width at frontal feathering much less 
than its length from same point, the slightly or moderately widened basal 
portion with lateral outlines not distinctly if at all convex; nasal tubes 
shorter, less erect, the larger nostrils opening laterally or anteriorly; legs 
and feet relatively small and weak. 
d. Feathers of chest not specially developed, bnt uniform in length, etc., with 
those of breast. 
e. Tarsus with at least upper third feathered (except behind). 
fl Tail with some of the rectrices more or less conspicuously elongated. 
g. Tail excessively simply forked, the lateral rectrices several times 
longer than middle pair, the latter shortest. 
Macrol)salis (extralimital). b 

a These characters have been verified only for the genera Antrostornus, Caprimul- 
gus, Nyctidromus, and Phal2enoptilus, and require confirmation for the other genera. 
(See Hubert Lyman Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1895, 553-557.) 
b Macropsalis SCLTEa, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 143. (Type, Caprimulgus 
forcipatus N itzsch = ltydropsalis creagra Bonaparte.) 
Colombia to Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, ad southern Brazil. (Four species.) 



499 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIOIqAL MUSEUM. 

gg. Tail double-forked or double-emarginate, the middle rectrices 
much longer than second, third, and fourth pairs, sometimes 
nearly as long as outer pair .......... Hydropsalis (extralimital).a 
ft. Tail without any elongated rectrices. 
g. Longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by decidedly more 
than half the length of wing; remiges and rectrices relatively nar- 
rower, the former straight terminally; tenth (outermost) primary 
nearly equal to eighth, sometimes longer. 
Caprimulgus (extralimital).b 
.g. Longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by decidedly less 
1ban half the lengfll of ing; remiges and rectrices relatively 
broader, the former more or less bowed or incurred terminally; 
tenth (outermost) primary much shorter than eighth, or else 
(Antiurus) equal to or longer than ninth. 
h. Tenth (ontermost) primary equal to or longer than ninth; sides of 
head black margiued above by a buff superciliary stripe. 
Antiurus (extralimital).c 
hh. Temh (outermost) primary decidedly shorter than ninth, usually 
shorter than eighth; sides of head not black, and without a 
bnff superciliary stripe. 
i. Tail truucate or emarginate. 
j. Tail distiucly emarginate, in the male nearly as long as 
ing; sexes conspicuously different iu coloration, the 
male with lateral rectrices mostly (sometimes wholly) 
white ................................... Stenolsis (p. 497). 

a Hydropsalis Wagler, Isis, 1832, 1222. (Type, Caprimulgus furcifer Vieillot or 
C. manurus Vieillot----H. furcifer or?)---Hydropsalia (emendation) Gray, List Gem 
Birds, 1840, 8.--Hydropsallis (emendation?) Reichenbach, Av. Sys. Nat., 1850, pl. 
xc.--Psalurus Swainson, Classif. Birds, it, 1837, 338. (Type, Caprimulgus torqutus 
Gmelin.)--Diplopsalis Sblater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 141. (Type, Hydropslis 
climcocercus Tschudi.)--(?)Tetroura Lesson, L'Echo du Monde Savant. 10  ann., no. 
5, July 16, viii, 1843, col. 109. (Type, Caprimulgus enicurus Vieillotunidentified 
species. )-- Tetrura (emendation) Lesson, L'Echo du Monde Savant, 11 e aan., no. 39, 
May, 1844, 925; Compl. Buff., xx, 1847, 259. 
British Guiana to upper Amazon Valley, Bolivia, northern Argentina, Paraguay, 
and BmziI. (Four species, of which only H. torquata and H. schomburgkl have been 
examined in this connection.) 
b Caprimulgus Linnmus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 193. (Type, as fixed by Gray, 
1840, C. europxus Linnmus.)--Nyctichelidon Rennie, in hIontague's Ora. Dict., 1831, 
335. (Type, CapHmulgus europxus Linnaus.)--Phalxnivora Blyth, Amlyst, v, no. 
xvii, Oct., 1836, 79; in White's Nat. Hist. SeIborne, 1836, 49, 72, footnote. (New 
name for Caprimulgus Linnmus.) 
Eastern Hemisphere. (Many species?) 
In Sharpe's Hand-list of the Gouera and Species of Birds (it, 1900, 85-88), forty- 
eight Old World species are referred to the genus Caprimulgus. How many of these 
are really congeneric with C. europus, or whether some of them may not be referable 
to the American genus Antrostomus, has nothing to do with the question of whether 
the two genera are distinct or not. The characters given above are taken entirely 
from C. europxus and C. ruficollis, both of hich are unquestionably different in 
several structural characters from any American species of the family. 
c Antiurus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxv, May 4, 1912, 98. (Type, Ste- 
nopsis mculicaudus Lawrence.) (Ar,o, different; o5, tail.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 495 
! 

Genus SIPHONORHIS Sclater. 

Siphonorhis SCLATER, large. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, 77. (Type, Caprimulgs 
americanus Linnmus.) 
Medium-sized Caprimulginm (length about 225 ram.) with the very 
strong bill broader than long at frontal feathering, the expanded 
portion distinctly convex in vertical profile; nostrils roundish, in the 
apex of a stalklike tube; tenth (outermost) primary much shorter 
than sixth; tail nearly as long as wing, strongly rounded, the rectrices 
relatively rather narrow and only slightly if at all increasing in width 
terminally; primaries spotted with dull tawny-buff, without white 
pateh. 
Bill very broad and strong basally, its width at frontal feathering 
greater than its length from same point, the expanded portion with 
distinctly convex outlines, the short tip abruptly and greatly con- 
tracted, in vertical profile; culmen very strongly decurved, distinctly 
ridged (except terminally). Nostril circular, in end of a distinct, 
obliquely vertical, stalklike tube. Rictal bristles long (about twice 
as long as bill), but not very strong. Wing moderate, rounded, the 
eighth primary longest, seventh and ninth slightly shorter and equal, 
the tenth (outermost) slightly longer than fifth. Tail nearly as long 
as wing (more than six-sevenths as long), distinctly rounded (the 
lateral rectrices about six-sevenths as long as middlo pair), the 
rectrices relatively rather narrow, neither narrowing nor xvidening 
terminally. Tarsus slightly longer than middle toe with claw, 
nearly one-fifth as long as wing, stout, entirely naked (except extreme 
upper portion in front); outer toe, without claw, reaching to about 
middle of penultimate phalanx of middle toe, very slightly longer 
than inner toe; hallux, with claw, slightly longer than basal phalanx 
of middle toe; claws all unusually short and thick. 
Plumage ad coloration.--Feathers of pileum rather narrow ter- 
minally, especially on center of crown, those on sides of occiput not 
elongated; feathers of chest normal (not developed into an erectile 
flap or apron). Primaries spotted with dull tawny-buff or clay color, 
but without white patch; rectrices (except middle pair) tipped with 
white; a white band across lower throat. 
Range.--Island of Jamaica. (Monotypic.) 

SIPHONORHIS AMERICANA (Linnmus). 

JAMAICAN GOATSUCKER. 

Adult male.--Pileum mixed brown and pale brownish gray, finely 
vermiculated with darker, and streaked with black, the streaks broader 
on median portion; hindneck similar but more narrowly streaked, the 
lower portion dull taxvny, forming an indistinct collar; back, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts light brown, vermiculated or freckled with 



BIRDS OF 17ORTH AlqD MIDDLE AMERICA. 499 

aa. Lateral rectrices without any white; primaries crossed by a median oblique, 
interrupted, band of ochraceous-buff. (Adult females.) a 

STENOPSIS CAYENNENSIS INSULARIS Richmond. 

ISLAND STW.NOPSIS. 

Very much paler than S. c. cayennensis, ' with much less of dark 
coloring on under parts. 
Adqlt nale.--Pileum pale gray, suffused with pale buffy brown 
(especially on center of crown), minutely vcrmiculaicd with deeper 
grayish brown, and sharply streaked, exccl)t on lateral portions, with 
black, these streaks solnetimcs edged or margined with ochraceous- 
buff; a broad, unbroken, very consl)icuous collar of ochraceous-buff 
across hindneck; back and rump pale gray, suffused with pale buffy 
brown indistinctly vcrmiculatcd with darker and with a few narr)w 
irregular streaks of blackish, the upper tail-coverts shnilar 1)ut paler 
and clearer gray, with more distinct vermiculations, the mcsial black 
streaks with more of a tendency to form a chain of connected irregular 
spots; scapulars, in part, similar in coloration to back, but many of 
the feathers with outer web mostly plain buff and with a large sub- 
terminal, irregularly hastate spot or broad streak of black; wing- 
coverts, in part, colored like back and scapulars but nmst of them with 
a large ovoid spot of buff, or octu'accous-buff, on distal portion of 
outer web; inner secondaries ("retrials") pale brownish gray and 
buffy, irregularly vermiculated with darker and with an h'rcgular 
mesial streak of black; remaining secondaries dark sooty grayish 
brown, rather broadly tipped with ochraceous-buff passing into white 
terminally (the tips sometimes wholly white cn distal secondaries), 
their outer webs edged, in part, with pale huffy brown or dull octu-a- 
ceous-buff, or sometimes with two transverse series of broken huffy 
spots on edge of outer web, their inner webs vith a very large trans- 
verse spot of white entirely across middle portion; primaries dull 
grayish black passing into hoary gray distally, the four outernmst 
entirely crossed, obliquely, by a broad band of white, this on middle 

a I am unable to give characters by which females of the several forms may be 
distin-tished, the series of specimens being rather meager. Two females from 
RoraSma, British Guiana, are much darker than one from Aunai, in the same country, 
have the whole of the under parts, posterior to the chest, heavily ban'ed, including 
the under tail-coverts, and the ochraceous-buff or tawny-ochraceous band across 
middle of primaries nearly obsolete, the outer webs of the primaries being mostly 
plain dusky (entirely soin one specimen); but one specimen from an unknown locality 
in British Guiana (possibly from Roraima, however) is precisely similar. Females of 
S. c. insularis (including those from the coast of Venezuela) and of S. c. albicauda, 
also one from Barranquilla, Colombia, are lighter and more huffy in their general 
tone of coloration, and, besides having a well-defined band of ochraceous-buff across 
primaries, have the outer webs of the primaries, especially the proximal ones, con- 
spicuously spotted with the same. 
b See p. 498. 



BIRDS OF IORTH AIqD MIDDLE AMERICA. 503 

Genus ANT1ROSTOMUS Bonaparte. 
Antrostomus BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 8.a (Type, as fixed by 
Gray, 1840, Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin.) 
Medium sized to rather large Caprimulginm (length about 230-380 
ram.) with tarsus slightly shorter to slightly longer than middle toe 
without claw, the upper tvo-thb'ds to three-fourths feathered (except 
behind); longest prhnaries exceeding distal secondaries by not more 
than lmlf the length of wing, the tenth (outermost) much shorter 
than eighth; tail two-t.hb-du to three-fourths as long as wing, more or 
less distinctly rounded; culmen not arched, the mesorhbium not 
depressed; nostrils not distbctly tubular (or the tube very short), 
in anterior end of nasal fossm; primaries spotted with ochraceous- 
buff or tav-ny, without vhite spot on either web. 
Bill moderately broad basally, its length from frontal featherhg 
equal to not more than one and a half tfines its width at same point; 
culnen not arched but gradually decurved from base, the meso- 
rhinium not depressed. Nostril not distfictly tubular (or else the 
tube very short), h anterior end of nasal fosse, openiug antero- 
laterally. Rictal bristles conspicuous, reaching to or beyond tip of 
bill. Wing moderate, the longest prinmries exceeding distal secon- 
daries by not more (usually less) than half the length of wing; eighth 
and ninth primaries usually equal and longest (ninth longest in A. 
carolinensis only), the tenth (outermost) much shorter than eighth 
(equal to or slightly shorter than seventh, except in A. carol4nesis, 
in which the difference between tenth and eighth is much less than 
between tenth and seventh); seventh, eighth, and ninth primaries 
with outer web distinctly sinuated, except in A. caroliensis (in which 
only the eighth and nfith are sfimated). Tail two-thfi'ds to titter- 
fourths as long as wing, distfictly to rather strongly rounded, the 
rectrices rather broad and appreciably widening distally (except fi 
A. goldmani and A. ridglvayi). Tarsus slightly shorter to slightly 
longer than middle toe without claw, feathered for about upper two- 
thirds to three-fourths, except behind; hallux, with claw, slightly to 
much longer than basal phalanx of middle toe. 
Plumage and colorat4on.--No special development of plumage of head 
nor chest. Primaries spotted (usually on both webs) with ochraceous- 
buff or tawny, but without any white spot on either web; tail with 
white (males) or buff (females) on distal portion of tlu'ee outer pairs 
of rectrices, at least on inner web; pileum streaked or longitudfially 
blotched with black, at least medially; a band of white or huffy across 
lower throat (except in A. saturatus). 
Ra.nge.Ea.tern temperate North America to Mexico and south- 
ward to Peru, Brazil, and the Guianas. (About fourteen species.) 

a See Stone, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 196, and Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxiv, 1908, 32. 



BIRDS OF /ORTH AND [IDDLE AMERICA. 507 

lations coarser o scapulars, wing-coverts, and niddle rectrices); 
pileum broadly streaked vith black, the streaks much broader along 
median line, obsolete or nearly so on extreme lateral portions; scapu- 
lars with irregular large spots or blotches of black, these usually 
irreolarl T margined, ia part at least., by buff (more or less deep); 
middle rectrices with a median series of very irregular broken spots 
of black, which often show a tendency toward forrabg broken bars 
which become less distinct, or obsolete, toward, edge of each web; 
three outer rectrices (on each side) with ternlinal half or more of ironer 
web white, this encroaching more or less on inner portion of outer 
web, the remainder of these rectrices coarsely and irregularly barred. 
with black and. dull tawny-ochraceous, the latter largely predomi- 
nating on terminal half (more or less) of outer web, especially o the 
second and third, and. somcthnes nearly miform--the tawny- 
ochraceous extending across tip of imer web and even tinging, more 
or less strongly, the white along inner edge; wing-coverts with large, 
irregular spots or blotches of black and with a transverse series of 
large buff spots across middle portion; prhnaies and primary 
coverts dull black, coarsely and. irregularly spotted with ta]ly or 
tawny-ochraceous, the spots much less distinct and more brokca on 
inner webs, which are largely uniforn dusky basally; loral, orbital, 
auricular, and nmlar reons, chin, and upper throat dull ochraccous 
or clay color, narrowly barred with dusky; lower hroat deep buff 
to buffy white, forming a conspicuous transverse band, the anterior 
portion rather broadly barred with black; chest and breast brown 
(varying fronl grayish brown to tawny-brown), finely vermiculated or 
stippled with dusky (the upper chest or lower foreneck more closely 
barred), the center of the breast with several h'regular large spots or 
blotches of buff or buffy white; abdomen and flaks dull buff to dull 
ochraceous-buff, irregularly barred with dusky and. with occasional 
more or less disthict triangular spots of the general ground color; 
under tail-coverts clearer buff or ochraceous-buff, irregularly, and 
very variably, barred (more or less) with dusky; bill brown, darker 
terminally; iris dark brown; feet brownish; length (skhs), 280-320 
(300) ; whig, 206.5-225 (213.9) ; tail, 138.5-151 (144.1) ; exposed 
cuhnen, 9-14.5 (12.5); tarsus, 17.5-19 (18.4); middle toe, 17-19 
(18.4) .a 
Adult femle.--Sbnilar to the adult male but without the white 
areas on hmer webs of laterai rectrices, which are irregularly nmrbled 
or mottled with black on a light tawny-ochraccous or tawny-buff 
ground, both webs of the three outer rectrices (o each side) being 
more or less broadly tipped with nearly hnmaculate light tawny- 
ochraceous or tawny-buff; length (skins), 260-300 (282); wing, 

a Twelve specimens. 



516 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

or light oehraeeous, the interscapular region, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts more or less distinctly streaked with black; middle pair of 
rcctrices brownish gray, freced or'coarsely vermiculated with dusky 
and crossed by about seven to nine broken irregular bars of blackish, 
the next pair similar but darker; three outer pairs of rectrices exten- 
sively 'hite, on both webs, distally, a this decreasing in extent from 
the third to the outermost, on which the white on outer web is much 
less in extent than on inner web; remaining (proximal) portion of 
these three outer rectrices brownish black, more or less broken by 
incomplete and irregular bars of brownish buff or light tawny-ochra- 
ccous; general color of wing-coverts light brown or grayish brown, 
freely vermiculated and stippled with dusky, and much broken by 
irregular mottlings or spotting of light brownish buff, ochraceous-buff, 
or dull light tawny-ochraceous, the black often in form of irregular 
shaft-streaks; primaries and primary coverts brownish black, con- 
spicuously spotted on outer webs with ochraceous-buff to tawny- 
ochraceous or clay color, their inner webs with bars of the same color, 
these not extending to shaft, and becoming paler toward edge of the 
web; terminal portion of prhnarics (especially on inner webs) con- 
fusedly nmttled with grayish brown and dusky; loral and auricular 
regions narrowly barred with pale tawny or dull ochraceous-buff 
and dusky; nmlar region, chin, and throat, brownish black, more or 
less distinctly barred (narrowly) with light tawny-brownish, the 
first usually more or less flecked with white on anterior portion; 
lower throat crossed by a band of 'hite, this often suffused with 
light ochraceous-buff, especially on median portion; chest and breast 
with plumage brownish black beneath surface (fading into gray ba- 
sally), the exposed surface vermiculated with pale grayish brown and 
dusky and spotted, especially on chest and sides of breast, with pale 
bromish buff or pale clay color, the abdomen similarly marked but 
general color paler, the darker markings more in the form of irregular 
narrow transverse bars; under tail-coverts light buff to pale clay 
color, usually with a greater or less number of irregular bars (often 
V-shaped) of dusky; bill broom, darker terminally; iris dark brown; 
feet brownish; length (skins), 220-250 (233); ing, 149-168.5 (152.4); 
tail, 113.5-128 (123); exposed culmen, 10.5-14 (13.3); tarsus, 15.5- 
18 (16.5); middle toe, 15.5-18 (16.6).  
Adultfemale.--Simflar to the adult male but without white on lateral 
rectrices, the three outer pairs of which are broadly tipped with buffy 
or pale clay color, and general coloration averaging browner (more 

a On the third and fourth rectrices the white occupies the distal half, approximately, 
or slightly less. On the under surface of the rectrices these white areas are usually 
more or less strongly buffy. 
b Fifteen specimens. 



524 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUlYL 

occiput, and all marghmd laterally with tawny or light russet ;. sides 
of pileum with a few narrow streaks of black, the hindneck with 
broader streaks; back coarsely vermiculated with light russet-brown 
and dusky and with rather broad, irregular, streaks of black, the 
rump and upper tail-coverts similar but with the general color rather 
lighter and more grayish; scapulars with middle portion light buff with 
a few coarse and irregular bars and finer vermiculations of grayish 
dusky, the tip irregularly spotted with black and buff, and with a 
very large, irregular, subterminal spot or blotch of black; wing- 
coverts irregularly marbled, barred and vermiculated with dull 
ochraceous-buff or chmamon-buff and dusky, and with irregular cen- 
tral mesial or subterminal markings of black, some of the middle 
coverts with a terminal spot of ochraceous-buff; inner secondaries 
("tertials") vermiculated and marbled with deep brownish gray and 
pale chmamon-buff, and with irregular mesial streaks of black; 
remaining secondaries dark sooty brown with broken spots or mot_ 
tlings of dull ochraceous-buff, disposed in transverse series; primaries 
darker sooty browl or dull brownish black, their outer webs with 
large spots of dull ochraceous-buff, their terminal portion (especially 
of inner quills) more grayish dusky mottled and vermiculated with 
pale grayish buffy; prinary coverts dull brownish black, their outer 
webs spotted, their inner webs narrowly and irregularly barred, with 
dull ochraceous-buff; four middle rectrices light grayish brown 
slightly intermixed with dull grayish buffy, irregularly vermiculated 
and marbled with dusky, and with indistict, broken, transverse 
bands of dull black, these more distinct on distal portion; three outer 
rectrices (on each side) dull brownish black, irregularly barred and 
spotted with light ochraceous-buff (especially on proximal portion) 
and tipped with ochraceous-buff, these buffy tips about 8-10 ram. in 
width; loral, orbital, and auricular regions dull tawny-ochraceous, 
narrowly and indistinctly barred with dusky; malar region (except 
anterior portion), chin, and upper throat dull brownish black, narrowly 
barred with light buffy brown or cinnamon, tho anterior portion of 
malar region ochraceous-buff, broken by a few narrow bars of brownish 
black and terminal spots of buffy white; a rather broad band of 
ochraceous-buff across lower throat or upper foreneck, extending 
laterally to the sides of neck (behind auriculars), some of the feathers 
with a small, broadly triangular, terminal spot of black; chest dull 
brownish black transversely spotted with pale dull buff and deeper 
cinnamon-buff, the buffy spots broken by irregular small lines and 
spots of blackish; breast similar but with a few large irregular broken 
spots of dull buffy white; res of under parts dull buff, the sides, 
flanks, and abdomen rather coarsely and irregularly barred with 
brownish black, some of the feathers with a distinc terminal spot of 
pale buff or dull buffy vhite; under tail-coverts with a few irregular 



526 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

usually suffused with buff, especially toward edge; remaining sec- 
ondaries dark sooty brown with about four transverse series (beyond 
tips of greater coverts) of ochraceous-buff spots, more or less broken 
by a few small irregular dusky markings, and narrowly tipped with 
huffy whitish; primaries dull brownish black, spotted on outer webs 
with ochraceous-buff (these spots on inner or proximal primaries 
broken by small irregular spots of blackish), their terminal portion, 
especially on inner webs, mostly grayish dusky broken by rather 
sparse irregular vermiculations of light brownish huffy; middle pair 
of rcctrices mottled or coarsely vermiculated dusky and pale dull 
ochraceous-buff, and with much heavier marblings of brownish black 
having a tendency toward forming very irregular transverse bands; 
next pair similar but with relatively more blackish and with 
transverse tendency of the markings more pronounced; flfird pair 
still darker, passing into uniform sooty blac -kish distally and narrowly 
tipped with dull white; fourth and fifth pairs similar but with the 
white tips successively much broader, that on the outermost rectrix 
about 20 ram. wide along shaft, the aterior outline of these white 
terminal areas strongly oblique, touching edge of outer web far 
anterior to the point where it crosses the shaft; auricular region 
deep brown (prouts brown) indistinctly barred wifl dusk-y; chin 
tawny-buff or dull ochraccous-buff, sparsely barred with black; malar 
region and throat brownish black, broken by a few bars and trans- 
verse spots of ochraceous-buff, the feathers of lower portion tipped 
wifl pale buff or buffy white, these tips beconfing much broader on 
extreme lower throat where forming a conspicuous transverse 
band or collar; chest sooty black, coarsely but rather sparsely ver- 
miculated with huffy; rest of underparts similar but with large, 
irregularly roundish, subcordate, or subtriangular spots of dull white, 
especially on breast, abdomen, and flanks; under taft-coverts buff, 
with rather narrow and distinct regular bars of dusky; under wing- 
coverts sooty blacldsh, transversely spotted with dull tawny or 
tawny-ochraceous, especially toward edge of wing; inner webs of 
primaries nearly uniform dark grayish sooty brown, but this slightly 
broken by a few small irregular spots or bars of dull tawny-ochraceous; 
bill brownish, blackish at tip; iris dark brovn; legs and feet light 
brownish, the toes darker; length (skins), 244-256 (250); wing, 
166.5-178. 5 (172.6); tail, 124-139 (130.5); exposed culmen, 13.5- 
15.5 (14.4); tarsus, 15-16 (15.7); middle toe, 15-16 (15.6). a 
Adult female.--Sinfilar to the adult male but terminal areas o 
lateral rectrices much narrower and dull buff or pale clay color 
instead of white; length (skins), 237-248 (243); wing, 164-172.5 
(169.3); tail, 116.5-128.5 (123.5); exposed culmen, 13.5-15 (14.2); 
tarsus, 15-16.5 (15.9); middle toe, 14.5-16 (16.8)) 

a Seven specimens, b Six specimens. 



30 BULLETII 50 UIITED STATES NATIOIAL MUSEUM. 

versely spotted with black; midd|e and greater coverts paler (russet- 
buff or buffy russet), vermiculated with dusky and with irregular 
spots, variable in size, of black, some of the middle coverts with an 
irregular terminal spot of buffy, some of the greater coverts with a 
large terminal spot of ochraceous-buff; inner secondaries (" tertials ") 
buffy or pale russet-buff, vermiculated with dusky, irregularly streaked 
mesially with black, and with a terminal spot of buffy white to light 
ochraceous-buff; other secondaries dark grayish brown, marbled dis- 
tally with light russet and with irregular marbthgs of the same, dis- 
1)osed in about three transverse series, on remaining portion; prima- 
ries browafish black fading into dusky grayish brown terminally, their 
outer webs with large irregular spots of tawny, the more grayish 
exposed terminal portion of inner webs with narrow irregular mar- 
blings of (hiller tawny or light russet; primary coverts dark grayish 
brown or sooty, spotted with light russet or dull tawny; middle pair 
of rcctrices light grayish brown irregularly vermiculated or freely 
marbled with dusky and with a median series of alternating very 
irregular blotches of black and pale russet or cinnamon-buff; next 
pair mostly dull blackish, with large, irregular, much broken spots 
of pale russet and cbmamon-buff, these disposed as indications of 
transverse bauds; third pair still darker, through greater predom- 
inance of the dull blac "kish color and restriction of the pale russet 
markings, and with an irregular terminat spot of cinnamon-buff; 
fourth and fifth pairs similar but vith the pale russet or russet-buff 
spots better defined (less broken), especially on outer web, and broadly 
tipped (for about 10-12 ram.) with plain ochraceous-buff; loral and 
suborbital regions bright russet or light chestnut, indistinctly flecked 
with dusky, the auricular region similar but rather lighter (especially 
on termhal and lower portions) and very indistinctly streaked; a 
large patch of sooty black covering posterior half of malar re,on (this 
slightly broken by a few sma.ll flecks of light russet), the anterior por- 
tion of the malar region mostly buff or pale ochraceous-buff; chin 
and throat rather broadly and sharply barred with black and tawny- 
ochraceous; across the foreneck a band of buff immediately succeeded 
by a broader one of ochraceous-buff or light tawny-ochraceous, the 
feathers more or less broadly tipped with black; chest ochraceous- 
buff or light taway-ochraceous, narrowly barred with black, the 
feathers of lower portion with a v.ery large terminal spot of paler 
ochraceous-buff to buffy-white margined with black; breast rather 
broadly barred with black and tawny or tawny-ochraceous; sides, 
flanks, and abdomen buff irregularly barred with blackish and nearly 
covered (superficially) by very large spots of pale buff; under tail- 
coverts buff with a few narrow irregular bars of dusky grayish; under 
wing-coverts dull ochraceous-buff or clay color, those toward edge of 
wing broadly barred with dusky; inner webs of primaries dusky, 
with irregular, mostly broken, narrow bars of pale russet, except on 



BIRDS OF ffORT/=[ AffD MIDDLE AMERICA. 531 

terminal and basal portions; bill dusky browab darker terminally; 
feet dusky brownish (in dried skins); length (skin), 240; wing, 167; 
tail, 122.5; exposed culmen, 15.5; tarsus, 15; middle toe, 16.  
British :Honduras (Toledo District.) 
Antrostomus badius B,rGs, lroc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxi, Feb. 29, 1908, 44 (Toledo 
District, British Honduras; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs). 
ANTROSTOMUS RIDGWAYI Nelson. 
GUERRERO WHIPPOORWILL. 
Adult zaale.--Gencral color of upper parts brownish gray, inter- 
rupted by a conspicuous collar of deep buff or ochraceous-buff across 
lower lindneck; pflcum minutely and indistinctly vermiculated with 
darker, and with mesial streaks of black, these very narrow (mere 
shaft-lines) on lateral portions but broader along median line, espec- 
ially on crown; back, scapulars, and rump brownish gray, rather 
coamely vermiculated and f'cckled with pale dull huffy and with 
distinct narrow black mesial streaks, the scapulars, however, with 
more conspicuous black markh:gs, some of" them edged externally 
by a curved bar of clear light buff, outside of which is an aren of 
pale grayish and buffy vermiculted or zigzagged with dusky; 
wing-coverts brov:ish-gray and pale buffy, vermiculated with dusky 
and with mesial streaks of black, many of the coverts (chiefly those 
near bend of wing) with a transverse terminal spot, of light buff and a 
subterminal spot or bar of black; inner secondaries ("tertials") 
mot.tied and vermiculated with deep browa:ish gray or dusky and 
pale grayish buffy, and vith h'regular mesial streaks of blackish; 
remaining secondaries dusky with broken spots of buff or ochraceous- 
buff in transverse series; primuries dull slate-blackish spotted with 
deep buff or ochraceous-buff, theh" terminal portion pale buffy 
ayish vermiculated and clouded with grayish dusky; upper taft- 
coverts brownish gray and pale grayish buffy vermiculated and 
mottled with dusky and with an irregular mesial streak or ragged 
area of black; middle paia- of rectrices pale broxmish ga'ay and OTayish 
huffy, vermiculated, freckled, and zigzagged with dusky, and crossed 
by broad V-shaped bands of deeper grayish brown: blotched with 
dull black; next tvo pah's similar but the darker bars nearly solid 
dull black, especially the thh'd, wlfich is tipped with buffy; fourth 
and fifth (two outermost) rcctrices with the blackish bars relatively 
broader and with the terminal 35 ram. of inner web wlfite mrgined 
terminally with pale bro:ish buff, the fourth rectrix with the white 
encroaching over more than inner half of outer -eb, but of very 
broken or irregular outline; auricular region deep sooty brown, 
minutely and indistinctly vermiculated or narrowly barred vith 
dusky, the malar region similar, but on the anterior and lower por- 
tions transversely spotted or broadly barred with white; chin and 

a One specimen (the type). 



532 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

throat deep brownish gray or grayish brown, narrowly and rather 
indistinctly barred with paler; extreme lower throat buffy white, 
some of the feathers narrowly tipped with black, immediately suc- 
ceeded by a rather broad band of buff across foreneck; chest sooty 
black, but exposed portion of feathers mostly pale grayish and buffy 
vermiculated and mesially streaked with dusky, the feathers of 
lower portion with terminal transverse spots of dull buffy whitish; 
rest of under parts light buff, rather broadly barred with dusky, the 
under tail-coverts with the dusky bars more distant and broader; 
under wing-coverts rather dull pinkish buff, barred along edge of wing 
with dusky; inner webs of primaries dusky, with large transverse 
spots of ochraceous-buff or deep pinkish buff; bill brown, darker ter- 
minally; b-is dark brown; legs and feet deep brown, paler on upper 
portion of tarsi; length (skin), 210; wing, 161; tail, 115.5; exposed 
culmen, 15.5; tarsus, 17; middle toe, 18. a 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male, but three outer rectrices 
(on each side) tipped, on both webs, with dull buff or pale ochraceous- 
buff, freckled, in part, with dusky, this huffy terminal area not 
more than about l0 mm. wide; length (skins), 232; wing, 155; tail, 
116; exposed culmcn, 14.5; tarsus, 15; middle toe, 16.5. b 
Southwestern Mexico, in States of Guerrero (Tlalkisala), and 
Sinaloa (Los Picles). 
Antrostomus ridgwayi N,so, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 50 (Tlalkisala, Guerrero, 
s. w. ]Iexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).--Mx... (W. DEW.), Bull. Am. lius. 
N. H., xxi, 1905, 353 (Los Pielas, s. Sinaloa). 
[Caprimulgus] ridgwayi Sme., Hand-list, it, 1900, 84. 

ANTROSTOMUS GOLDMANI Nelson. 

GOLDMAN'S WHIPPOORWILL. 

Similar to A. ridgu'ay$ but decidedly larger and much paler. 
Adult female.--General color of upper parts pale brownish gray, 
minutely vermiculated and stippled with darker, interrupted by a 
collar of buff across hindneck; pileum ecru-drab, narrowly streaked 
with black, these streaks mere shaft-lines except those on median 
po tion of crown, occiput, and nape, which arc broader, some of them 
with irreoalar edges; sides of nape or upper hindneck grayish white, 
sparsely vermiculated with dusky and with rather broad, sharply 
defined, lanceolate streaks of black; lower hindneck buff, forming 
 conspicuous collar, apparently confluent laterally with a broad 
buff band across upper chest; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
light brownish gray or grayish brown, narrowly streaked with black, 

a One specimen. 
b One specimen (the type). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND 1V[IDDLE A1V[ERICA. 533 

and vermiculated with dusky grayish, the streaks broader on upper 
tail-coverts; middle pair of rectrices mixed pale grayish brown and 
brownish gray, confusedly vermiculated with dusky and with occa- 
sional very irregularly zigzag more pronounced transverse markings 
of the same; next pair similar but with the darker mar "lgngs heavier; 
third pair with darker markings still heavier, disposed as large, irreg- 
ular median blotches alternating with transverse areas of pinkish 
buff, these nearly unbroken proximally but distally suffused with 
light brownish gray broken by irregular markings of dusky, the tip 
(for about 8 ram.)cream-buff minutely dashed or freckled with dusky 
except on terminal margin, which is pale buff or buffy whitish; fourth 
pair with black areas relatively broader and together with the paler 
(mostly chinamen-buff or deep cream-buff) interspaces, forming dis- 
tinct transverse bands, much broken, however, along edges and on 
distal portion, the tip (for about 10 ram.) pale pin "kish buff or cream- 
buff; fifth (outermost) pair similar to fourth, but buffy tip slightly 
narrower; loral region light buffy brownish, narrowly and indistinctly 
barred with dusky, the orbital, auricular, and posterior nmlar regions 
similar but darker; anterior portion of malar region spotted with 
dull white; chin and throat pale grayish brown or buffy gray, very 
narrowly and indistinctly barred with dusky anteriorly, more distinctly 
ba.red posteriorly; lower throat or upper foreneck crossed by a rather 
broad bar of pale buff, the feathers of upper portion rather broadly 
barred with brownish black; immediately below this a rather broader 
band of ochraceous-buff, sparsely barred with brownish black, con- 
fluent or nearly so, laterally with the collar across lower hindneck; 
chest and breast pale grayish brown and dull buffy whitish, vermicu- 
lated with darker grayish brown and with shaft streaks of brownish 
black; abdomen, sides, and flanks pale buff irregularly barred with 
dusky, the under tail-coverts similar but with the dusk)- bars more 
sparse, mostly on distal portions of the longer coverts; under wing- 
coverts light ochraceous-buff, more or less spotted (transversely) 
with dusky, especially toward edge of wing; inner webs of pimaries 
dusky with large transverse spots or bands of ochraccous-buff, 
interrupted along shafts and on distal portion broken by brownish 
gray mottlings; bill deep brownish, darker terminally; legs and 
feet deep browish (in dried skin); length (skin), 248; wing, 162; 
tail, 121; exposed culmen, 14; tarsus, 17; middle toe, 18.5. a 
Western Mexico, in State of Sinaloa (near Mazatlin). 
Antrostomus goldmani IELSO, Prec. Biol. Soc. Wash., xiii, May 29, 1899, 26 
(near Mazatlan, Sinaloa, w. Mexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
[Caprimulgus] goldmani SaPE, Hand-list, it, 1900, 84. 

a One specimen (the type.) 



534 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ANTROSTOMUS SATURATUS Salvin. 

DUSKY WHIPPOORWILL. 

Adult raale.--General color sooty black, but this much brolen by 
rather small spots (mostly transverse) of cinnamon-rufous, the pfleum, 
however, with several broad, irregularly serrated stripes of uniform 
hlack, and, sometimes, with an admixture of whitish, barred with 
black, on lateral portion, the scapulars with the black disposed in 
the form of large, irregular spots or blotches, these sometimes more 
strongly relieved by adjoining mottlings of pale rusty buff; outer 
webs of primaries with rather small but distinct spots of cinnamon- 
rufous; four middle rectrices sooty black with about ten broad 
A-shaped bars of cinnamon-rufous, averaging decidedly narrower 
than the black interspaces (except on middle pair)and themselves 
more or less broken by irregular snall blotches of black; three outer- 
most rectrices (on each side) broadly tipped with white, the cinnamon- 
rufous bars much narrower, less broken, more directly transverse, and 
becoming obsolete on distal portion, the white tips about 20-25 ram. 
wide (measured along shaft) on the third and fourth (from middle) but 
narrower on the fifth (outermost), on which the white is of less extent 
on the outer web than on the inner; sides of head and neck and 
general color of under parts sooty black, each feather with a terminal 
pair of small chmamon-rufous roundish or transversely oval spots, 
these larger, and in form of V-shaped bars, on lower throat, but not 
forming a distinct patch or band; middle of breast with several larger 
spots of dull buffy whitish, the posterior under parts with broad bars 
of dull ochraceous-buff (broadest on raider tail-coverts), the ft..mks, 
or posterior sides, and abdomen crossed by a broken band of large 
spots of buff or buffy whitish; under wing-coverts sooty black, 
indistinctly spotted on outer margin of wing with dark rusty; inner 
webs of primaries uniform dark sooty slate color; bill dull black; 
iris dark brown; feet dusky, the tarsi becoming paler (dull flesh color 
in life) on upper and posterior portions; length (s'kins), 212-230 
(221); wing, 153-158.5 (155.6); tail, 115-122 (117.7); exposed cul- 
men, 12.5-13.5 (13); tarsus, 14-16 (15.2); middle toe, 15-15.5 (15.2). a 
.Adult female.---Similar to the adult male but tlm general "tone" 
of coloration rather lighter, owhg to the somewhat greater relative 
size of the cinnamon-rufous markings and their lighter color, espe- 
cially on upper parts, and with the three outer rectrices (on each side) 
more narrowly tipped with light ochraceous-buff, instead of white; 
length (skins), 220-230 (224); wing, 153-159 (156); tail, 117-120.5 
(119.2); exposed culmen, 11-12.5 (11.8); tarsus, 15.5-16.5 (16); 
middle toe, 15.5-16 (15.8). b 

a Four specimens, b Three specimens. 



53G BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL IV[USEUM. 
twice as long as bill. Wing rather long, the distance from tip of 
longest primary coverts to tip of longest primaries more than ha}[ the 
length of wing; eighth primary longest, the ninth and seventh, suc- 
cessively, slightly (but decidedly) shorter, the tenth much shorter 
than seventh; sixth to ninth primaries, inclusive, with outer webs 
distinctly sinuated. Tail more than si:-sevenths as long as wing, 
much rounded, the outer rectrices about four-fifths as long as middle 
pair, the rectrices relatively rather narrow, not widening terminally. 
Tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe without claw (but shorter 
than middle toe with claw), more than one-seventh as long as wing, 
naked, only the extreme upper portion in front being feathered; outer 
toe without claw reaching to about middle of second phalanx of middle 
toe, very slightly shorter than inner toe; hal]tL% with claw, about as 
long as basal phalanx of middle toe. 
Plumage anal coloration.--Plumage of pileum blended, without spe- 
cially developed feathers on sides of occiput; feathers of chest normal 
(not forming a distinct flap or apron). Primaries unspotted (except, 
in some females, on basal portion), but with a broad white band 
crossing the four or five outer quills; inner webs of three outer rec- 
trices (on each side) mostly white in males, the terminal portion of 
inner web of third and fourth rectrices white in females. 
Range.hlexico (and extreme southern Texas) to southern Brazil, 
etc. (Monotypic, but the single species comprising five or six more 
or less strongly characterized geographic subspecies.) 
KEY,TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF NYCTIDROMUS. a 
a. Smaller (wing averaging less than 162 in males, less than 160 in females). 
5. Darker and smaller; wing averaging 155.2 in male, 153.1 in female; tail averaging 
144 in male, 136.3 in female. (Amazon Valley to Guianas and Panama and 
northward to Chiapas and British Honduras.) 
Nyctidromus albicollis albicollis (p. 537). 
55. Paler and larger; wing averaging 161.3 in male, 159.4 in female; tail averaging 
153.1 in male, 144.8 in female. (Pacific slope of Mexico, from 0axaca to 
Sinaloa) ......................... Nyctidromus albicollis nelsoni (p. 544). 
aa. Larger (wing averaging more than 167 in males, more than 162 in females). 
b. Wing averaging less than 172 in male, less than 163 in females; tail averaging less 
than 164 in males, less than 145 in females. 

a This "key" is restricted to the forms occurring from Panama northward, the 
available South American material being too scant to permit of satisfactory treatment, 
except in the case of the extreme southern form, .N.a. derbyanus. This occurs from 
Bahia to extreme southern Brazil, southern Bolivia, etc., and is a very strongly char- 
acterized form, nearly as large as the larger Mexican subspecies, but very different in 
coloration. [Nyctidromus derbyanus Gould, Icones Avium, if, 1838, pl. 12 (South Am.; 
coll. Derby Mus).--N[yctidrornus] albicollis derbyanus Hartert, Kat. Vogelsmml. 
Mus. Senckenb., 1891, 120; Tierreich, Podarg., Caprim., lIacropt., 1897, 32.--Nycti- 
dromus albicollis derbyanus Allen, Bull. Am. Ivlus. N. Y[., v, 1893, 124 (Chapuda, 
Ivlattog.rosso, s. w. Brazil; crit.); ttellmayr, Novit. Zool., xv, 1908, 79 (Goyaz, Rio 
Thesoums, and Rio Amgua, s. Brazil; crit.).] 



538 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL IIUSEUII. 

black, but this much broken by roundish or subtriangular spots of 
buff (mostly terminal) and small areas of light buffy brown vermic- 
ulated with dusky; proximal secondaries (tertials) pale grayish 
brown or buffy brown, vcrmiculatcd with dusky grayish and with 
an irregular or ragged mesial streak (more or less broad) of dusky 
or dull blackish; remaining secondaries brownish black, crossed (be- 
yond tips of greater coverts) by four transverse rows of dull ochra- 
ceous-buff spots, these usually broken by dusky mottlings; primary 
coverts uniform brownish black; primaries brownish black, the five 
outermost crossed obliquely about the middle by a broad band of 
white interrupted only by the black shaft, a the others (proximal 
primaries) more or less variegated with irregular spots or marblings 
of dull tawny-ochraceous, though these mar-lchgs are sometimes 
nearly obsolete; loral, orbital, and auricular regions bright tawny- 
brown or russet (the last more buffy posteriorly), narrowly barred 
or vermiculated, more or less, with dusky; malar region similar, or 
sometimes with ground color grayish buffy; chin and pper throat 
barred with buff and brownish black, the middle throat (medially) 
mostly (somethnes uniformly) brownish black; sides of middle 
throat and anterior portion of lower throat white, this passing into 
buff on posterior portion of lower throat; superficial color of chest 
light tawny brown or buffy brown, minutely vermiculated with 
dusky and narrowly barred with brownish black, some of the feathers 
(especially on lower chest) broadly tipped with buff; rest of under 
parts dull buff or pinkish buff, rather narrowly and regularly barred 
with brownish black, the bars less distinct on abdomen, and more 
distant as well as more or less V-shaped on under tail-coverts; bill 
brown, darker terminally; iris dark brown; tarsi light brown, toes 
darker; length (skins), 230-290 (257); wing, 147.5-172 (155.2); 
tail, 137.5-163 (144); exposed culmen, 11.5-14 (12.4); tarsus, 23-27.5 
(24.5); middle toe, 16.5-21 (19.7). 5 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male, but white of tail restricted 
to a terminal area less than 25 mm. in length (sometimes wholly 
wanting) on third rectrix, and to a terminal area usually less than 40 
mm. long but occasionally much longer on inner web, only, of fourth 
rectrix, the remaining portion of these and greater part of the outer- 
most rectrix conspicuously spotted or barred with ochraceous-buff; 
band across middle of primaries narrower, mostly (often wholly) 
ochraceous-buff; primary coverts as well as basal portion of outer 
primaries frequently more or less spotted with ochraceous-buff, and 
white throat-band less distinct; length (skins), 222-275 (244); 

a Sometimes this band is continued over the sixth primary (counting from outside) 
but reduced in width and mostly mottled or marbled grayish instead of white. 
b Twenty-eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND ]VIIDDLE A]VIERICA. 539 

wing, 141-170 (153.1); tail, 112.5-154 (136.3); exposed culmen, 
10.5-14 (12); tarsus, 22-25.5 (23.7); middle toe, 17.5-21.5 (19.4). a 
Young female (nestling).--General color of upper parts pale brown- 
ish gray, very minutely vermiculated or stippled with darker; pileum 
and scapulars with scattered roundish and subtriangular small spots 
of black; interscapular region clouded or blotched with black; under 
parts light grayish buff, narrowly barred with dusky on chest, more 
broadly barred with the same on throat, breast, and sides, the abdo- 
men and under tail-coverts immaculate; thighs uniform light fawn 
color; remiges and rectrices (not fully grown) apparently as in adult 
female. 
]Zoung female (full grown).--Primaries and rectrices as in adult 
female; pfleum spotted, instead of streaked, with black, the spots 
mostly of broadly triangular form; back also heavily spotted, or 
blotched, instead of streaked, with black; scapulars without buff 
margins; barring of under parts much less sharply defined, less dark 
in color; throat band light dull buff, barred with blackish. 
Tawny phase. 
Similar (in all stages) in pattern of coloration to the gray-brown 
phase, but general coloration of upper parts much more tawny or 
ochraceous, the general color of the pfleum varying from fawn color 
to mars brown or russet. 

a Twenty-eight specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Four adult males from s. Texas ( h r. a. mer'filli) .................. 
Nine adult maes from s. w. Mexico (N. a. nelsoni) ............... 
Five adult males from Tres Marias Islands (N. a. insularis) ...... 
Two adult males from Vera Cruz (N. a. sumichrasti) ............. 
One adult male from Frontera, Tabasco ( N. a. sumichrasti) ...... 
One adult male from Montecristo, Tabasco ( N. a. yucatanensis). 
Two adult males from Campeche (N. a. yucatanensis) .......... 
even adult males from Yucatan ( N. a. yucatanensis ) ........... 
Two adult males from British Honduras ( N. a. yucatanensis).. 
Two adult males from Chiapas (27. a. albicollis) ................. 
One adult male from s. Honduras (N. a. albicollis) ............... 
Eight adult males from Nicaragua (N. a. albicollis) .............. 
Ten adult males from Costa Rica (27. a. albicollis) ............... 
Fiveadult males from Canal Zone, Panama ( N. a. albicollis) ..... 
Oneadult male from San Miguel Island, Panama ( N. a. albcollis) 
Seven adult males from Santa Marta, Colombia (N. a. albicollis). 
One adult male from Rio Cauca, w. Colombia ( N. a. albicollis)... 
Tenadult males from Venezuela ( N. a. albicollis ) ................ 
Oe adult male from n. w. Ecuador (27. a. albicollis) ............. 
Two adult males from Diamantina, Lower Amazon (27. a. 
albicollis) .................................................... 
Eight adult males from Chapada, s. w. Brazil (27. a. derbyanus).. 
Two adult males from s. Bolivia ( 27. a. derbvanus) ............... 

182.1 
161.3 
173 
170.2 
172.5 
164.5 
165 
169.9 
165 
153 
155.5 
158.9 
159.3 
150 
155 
152.2 
150.5 
147.3 
145.5 

151.7 
168.6 
174 

Tail. 

176.6 
153.1 
164.9 
160.7 
169.5 
164 
162. 7 
155.2 
152.5 
138 
147.5 
148.1 
150 
145.8 
154 
148.5 
141 
144.7 
136 

146 
169.8 
175 

Ex- 
posed 
ulmen. 

11.9 
12.6 
12.7 
13.7 
13 
14 
12.5 
13.5 
13.2 
13 
ll.fi 
13 
13.1 
11.8 
12.5 
12 
10.7 
12.5 

11 
11.9 
11.2 

Tarsus. 

27.7 
24.7 
25.1 
27.5 
25 
25 
26.5 
24.5 
24 
24.4 
25.1 
23.2 
22.5 
22.9 
22 
21.9 
20.5 

21.7 
25.5 
26 

Middle 
te. 

22 
21.1 
19.9 
21.7 
20.5 
20.5 
21.8 
19.7 
20 
19.9 
19.8 
19.1 
18 
19.1 
19 
18.5 
18 

18.7 
20.3 
21.7 



540 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.. 

Northern South America, Central America, and extreme southern 
Mexico, from State of Chiapas (Huehuetn; Palenque) southward 
through Guatemala (Choctfim; Cobn; Chisc; Cajab6n; pine ridge 
of Poctfin; Telemn; San Ger6nimo; Duefias; Retalhuleu; Los 
Amates, Ysabl; Patulfil, SolelY; Gualn; Lake Amatitln; San 
Jos; Naranjo; Santo Tomas), British Honduras (Toledo District), 
IIonduras (Tigre Island; San Pedro; Ciba; Rio Seg6via), Nica- 
ragua (Los Shbalos; Sucuy; Ometepe; Greytown; San Juan del 
Sur; Rio Escondido; Momotombo), Costa Rica (San Jos; Angos- 
tura; Cartage; Naranjo de Cartage; Volcn de Irazfi; Monr6via; 
Turrialba; Or6si; Guayabo; Bonflla; Pacuare; Chirrip6; Rio Frio; 
Monte Redondo; Miravalles; Bebedero; La Palma de Ncoya; 
Pigres; San Lucas; Alajuela; Las Trojas; Pozo Azfil de Pirris; 
Boruca; Trraba; Buenos Aires; Santa Maria, Las Vueltas, and 
Col)y , Dota), Panamh (Bugaba; Mina de Chorcha; Chitra; Calovvora; 

Footnote--Continued. 

Localily. 

Ex- Middle 
Wing. Tail. posed Tarsus. 
culmen, toe. 

FEMALES. 
Five adult females from s. Texas ( N. a. merrill) ................. 170. 5 
Two adult females from Tamaulipas (1. a. merrlli) ............. 168.2 
One adult female from Mirador, Vera Cruz, Feb. ( N. a. merrflli). 166 
One adult female from Mirador, Vera Cruz (17. a.sumchrastff).. 161 
One adult female from Puebla, Feb. (1. a. merrfllf) ............. 175.5 
Six adult females from Sinaloa, Tepic, alisco, and Colima 
( 3V. a. nelsoni ) ............................................... 160.7 
Six adult females from Tres Marias Islands (N. a. insularis) ...... 168.9 
Three adult females from Vera Cruz (2) and Puebla (1) (N. a. 
sumichrasti) ................................................. 161.8 
Three adult females from Oaxaca (N. a. nelsoni) ................ 161.7 
One adult female from Guerrero (N. a. nelsoni) .................. 145 
Three adult females from Yucatan ( N. a. yucatanensis) .......... 163.5 
Three adult females from/3ritish Honduras (N. a. yucatanensis?) 161.8 
Two adult females from British Honduras ( N. a. albicollis?) ..... 147.5 
Five adult females from Chiapas (3) and Guatemala (2) (N. a. 
albicollis) .................................................... 159.5 
One adult female from s. Honduras (N. a. albicollis) ............. 148 
Two adult females from Nicaragua ( 3V. a. albicollis) .............. 165 
Ten adult females from Costa R ica ( N. a. albicollis ) .............. 153.3 
Five adult females from Canal Zone, Panama (N. a. albicollis)... 145.6 
Three adult females from San Miguel Island, Panama (N. a. 
albicollis) .................................................... 152.2 
Two adult females from Santa Marta, Colombia (N. a. albicollis). 144.7 
One adult female from/3ogota, Colombia ( N. a. albicollis?) ....... 155.5 
Three adult females from Venezuela (N. a. albicollis) ............ 143.8 
One adult female from Trinidad ( N. a. albicollis) ................ 140 
Oneadultfemalefrom/3ahia, Brazfl(1g.a.derbyanus) ........... 165 
Four adult females from Chapada, s. w./3razfl ( N. a. derbyanus). 163.9 
Three adult females from s./3 olivia ( N. a. derbyanus) ............ 167.8 

150.4 12.3 25.9 21 
152 13.2 25.2 20.5 
151 12 25 20.5 
135 12.5 26.5 20 
156 12.5 25 21.5 

146.4 12.3 24.5 19.9 
154.9 12.6 24.3 19.7 

146.3 11.2 24.2 19.5 
148.8 11.7 24.7 19.7 
123 12 24 20 
140.5 12.7 25 22 
143.2 12.7 24.5 20.3 
133.2 12.7 24.7 20.5 

142.4 12.2 24.5 20 
112.5 12 23.5 19 
147.5 11.5 23.5 20.2 
134.9 12.1 23.9 19.1 
132 12 22.9 18.8 

141 
130.2 
137 
133.2 
132 
148 
152.2 
157.3 

11.2 23.5 19.7 
II 2.5 19.5 
10.5 21.5 18 
10.2 21.5 18,5 
11 21 17.5 
11 24.5 20.5 
LI.8 25 19.4 
10.7 25.2 20. 



BIRDS OF lqORTH AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 541 

Boquete; San lIigu61 Island; Lion IIill; Gatdn; Tabernilla; Puerto 
Bello; Frijole), Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, and the Guianas to 
northern Brazil (Rio Capita; Teff6; Itaituba; Counan:; Amap; 
Rio Juru; Par;; Diamantina).a 
[Caprimulgus] albicollis GMErI, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1789, 1030 (Cayenne; based 
on White-throatedGoatsuclcerLatham, Synopsis, H, pt. ii, 596; etc.).--LATAt, 
Index Orn., ii, 1790, 585. 
C[aprimulgus] albicollis VIEILLOT, Enc. M6th., ii, 1823, 536.--CABANIS, in Schom- 
burgk's Reis. Brit. Gniana, iii, 148, 710.--LOTAUD, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 72. 
[Antrostomus] albicollis BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 61. 
Nyctidromus albicollis BURIIEISTER, Syst. Ueb. Th. Bros., ii, 1856, 389, part.-- 
CABANIS, Jonrn. fiir Orn., 1862, 166 (Costa Rica; crit.).--ScrWEa, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 124 (fig. of bones of foot), 144, part (monogr.); Jonrn. 
fiir On., 1867, 276 (translation).--LAwEscn, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1868, 
120 (San Jos6 and Angostnra, Costa Rica).--ScrwEa and SALVIa, Pr0c. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1869, 252 (Martmria, Venezuela); 1870, 782 (s. of Merida, Vene- 
zuela); 1875, 237 (San Cristobal, Venezuela); 1879, 532 (Concordia, Remc- 
dios, and Mcdellin, Colombia).--FAsWZlVS, Jonrn. fiir Orn., 1869, 314 
(Costa lica).--WYhww, Ibis, 1871, 375 (Lake Ptnria, Colombia).--LAvAaD, 
Ibis, 1873, 389 (Pare, Brazil).--BovcARD, Liste Ois. r6col. Guat., 1878, 44 
(Guatemala); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 67 (Cartago, Costa Rica).--SAL- 
VIa and GODMAN, Ibis, 1880, 174 (Arihueca, Santa Marta, Colombia; habits); 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1894, 393, part (pine ridge of Poctnn, Chisec, 
Choctnn, Coban, Cajabon, Teleman, San Geronimo, Duefias, and Retal- 
huleu, Gnatemala; San Pedro and Rio Segovia, Hondnras; La Libertad and 
Volcan de San Miguel, Salvador; Chinandega, Momotombo, Sucuya, Omo- 
tepe, and San Jnan del Sur, Nicaragna; San Jose, Angostnra, Irazu, La Palma 
de Nicoya, Orosi, Turrialba, Monrovia, Pacuare, Chirripo, Las Trojas, 
Azul, Alajuela, and Namn]o de Cartago, Costa Rica; Bngaba, Mina de 
Chorcha, Chitra, Calovevora, etc., Panama; Turbo, Colombia; etc.).--Nvw- 
WlSO, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 398 (La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica; 
habits); vi, 1883, 386, 394, 406 (Sncnya, Id. of Ometepe, and Los Sabalos, 
Nicagua).--BERLE'SC, Journ. fiir Orn., 1884, 314 (Bncaramanga, Colom- 
bia).--SAvi, Ibis, 1885, 439 (Bartica Grove, British Guiana).--ZELED6N, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 120 (Las Trojas, Pozo Aznl de Pirris, 
Alajuela, Angostura, and Naran]o de Cartago, Costa Rica).---Cnin, Expl. 
Zool. Merid. Costa Rica, 1893, 46 (Boruca, Terraba, and Buenos Aires, Costa 
Rica).--RicosD, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 515 (Greytown, Nic,.- 
ragua; habits; notes).CmAs, Bull. Am. Mus. N. 1., vi, 1894, 60 {Trini- 
dad; habits; notos).--UNDERWOOD, Ibis, 1896, 442 (Volcan de Miravalles 
and Bebedero, Costa Rica).--PEis, Auk, xiv, 1897, 366 (Cumanacoa, Vene- 
zuela).--BAsos, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xii, 1898, 135 (Santa Marta, Colom- 
bLa); Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 17 (Lion lill, Panama; crit.); 
iii, 1902, 26 (Boquete, Panama); Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, 1903, 1.4 
(Ceiba, Ionduras).--Swosn, Proc. &c. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, 305 (Honda, 
centr. Colombia).--ALrn, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xiii, 1900, 137 (Bonda, 
etc., Santa Marta, Colombia).--Bnnesc and HARTERT, Novit. Zool., ix, 
1902, 90 (Altagracia, Caicara, Ciudad Bolivar, Snapure, La Union, and La 

a Insufficiency of material from South American localities prevents decision as to 
whether the species as occurring in the region from the Amazon northward should be 
snbdivided into subspecies or not. The material examined, however, shows very 
little, if any, difference from the Central American series. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AlYIERICA. 543 

Caprimulgus laticaudatus DRAPIEZ, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat., vi, 1824, 169 (see Cas- 
sin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1851, 182). 
N[yctidromus] albicollis (typicus) HARTERT, Tierreich, Podarg., Caprim., 
]lacropt., 1897, 32, part. 
Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli (not of Sennett) LATZ, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 
1896-97 (1899), 220 (Naranjo and Santo Tomas, Guatemala). 
(?)Nyctidromus albicollis gilvus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, March 
31, 1902, 82 (Santa Marta, Colombia; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs).--ALLEN, 
Bull, Am. ]Ius. N. II., xvi, 1905, 281 (Bonda and Don Diego, Santa Marta; 
descr, eg). 
NYCTIDROMUS ALBICOLLIS YUCATANENSIS Nelson. 
YUCATAN CUII.JO. 
Similar to N. a. albicollis but larger and paler; similar also to N. . 
merrilli but smaller and darker. (The grayish phase seems to largely 
predominate in this form, only one specimen among the seventeen 
examined being in the rufescent plumage.) 
Adult male.--Lengt, h (skins), 263-300 (283); wing, 163.5-175.5 
(167.9) ; tail, 141-165 (156.7) ; exposed culmen, 12-14 (13.2) ; tarsus, 
24-28 (25.9); middle toe, 19-23.5 (21.2). a 
Adult female.---Length (skins), 251-263 (256); wing, 157.5-170 
(162.7); tail, 132-154 (141.8); exposed culmen, 12-13.5 (12.7); tar- 
sus, 23.5-26.5 (24.7); middle toe, 20-22 (21). b 
Eastern Tabasco (Montecristo), Campeche (Apazote), Yucatan 
('Irida; Tunkas; Chichen-Itza; Xbac; Shkolak; Ticfil; Temx; 
Peto; Buctzotz; Mugeres Island; Cozuml Island), and British 
Honduras (forest near Manatee Lagoon, March, August; Toledo 
District, January; Orange Walk ?; Belize). 
Yyctidromus albicollis (not Caprimulgus albicollis Gmelin) LAWREnCe, Ann. Lyc. 
N. Y., ix, 1869, 204 (Merida, Yucatan).--BoucAD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, 45 (Yucatan).--SALvN, Ibis, 1889, 368 (Mugeres and Cozumel islands, 
JUCatan).--STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 206 (Tunkas, Shkolak, 
and Ticul, Yucatan).--IIAawEaT, Cat. Birds Brit. Ius., xvi, 1892, 587, 
part.--SALwN and (ODIAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1894, 393, part (Peto, 
Buctzotz, Temax, Tunkas, Shkolak, Ticul, Merida, ]Iugeres I., and Cozumel 
I., Yucatan; Orange Walk and Belize, Brit. Honduras?). 
hryctidromus albicolls merrilli (not of Sennett) CHXPAN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. II., 
viii, 1896, 285 (Chichen-Itza, Yucatan; habits; notes). 
hryctidromus albicollis yucatanensis NELSON, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xiv, Septem- 
ber 25, 1901, 171 (Tunkas, Yucatan; coll. U. S. Nat. MUS.).--CoLE, Bull. 
Mus. Comp., Zool., l, 1906, 12 (Chichen-Itza). 
NYCTIDROMUS ALBICOLLIS SUMICHRASTI lidgway. 
SUIICHRAST'S CUII.JO. 
Similar in coloration to N. a. albicollis but mucl larger; interme- 
diate in size between N. a. merrilli and N. a. nelsoni but much darker 
than either; larger and decidedly darker than N. a. yuctanensis. 

a Twelve specimens, b Six specimens. 



548 BULLETIN 507 UI#ITED STATES I#ATI01#AL MUSEUM. 
PHALENOPTILUS NUTTALLII NUTTALLII (Audubon). 
IOORWILL. 
Adult male.--General color of upper parts pale brownish gray or 
grayish brown, palest on sides of pileum, scapular re,on, and upper 
tail-coverts, the lighter areas in fresh or unworn plumage sometimes 
pale silvery gray, with a soft downy or velvety surface, most of the 
feathers minutely stippled with darker; pileum (which is usually 
more brownish, sometimes quite dusky, centrally) with very narrow 
bars (usually more or less brace shaped) of black, these sometimes 
widening into spots on center of crowu; back and rump also usually 
with more or less distinct narrow (usuflly brace shaped) bars of 
black or dusky; scapulars with a single narrow, sharply defined 
black bar enlarged in nfiddle into a usually more or less cuneate, 
hastate, or diamond-shaped spot; wing-coverts and inner secondaries 
dso each with one or more narrow bars and a more or less distinct 
shaft streak of black; other secondaries irregularly banded with 
light ochraceous-buff and marbled pale buffy gray and blackish, the 
bands becoming less distinct (more confused) on distal portion; pri- 
mary coverts ochraceous-buff crossed by three bands of black, these 
connected along inside of shaft; primaries ochraceous-buff banded 
with b] ack, their terminal portion finely marbled or vermiculated gray- 
ish, usually with irregular bars of blackish; upper tail-coverts some- 
times nearly inmaculate, but usually with a few more or less distinct 
narrow bars of black, sometimes more or less distinctly banded with 
darker and lighter shades of grayish; middle pair of rectrices pale 
silvery gray to buffy gray or pale grayish brown, minutely stippled 
with darker and with a greater or less number of more or less distinct 
narrow zigzag transverse lines of blackish; second pair banded with 
dull black and a mixture of pale bromish gray and ochraceous-buff, 
the bands sometimes distinct and fairly regular, oftener indistinct, 
irregular, or broken, sometimes replaced by a confused combination 
of mottlings, marblings, and zigzag markings, the grayish areas always 
broken by blackish or dusky marblings; third pair similar but rather 
darker (sometimes uniform brownish black subterminally) and 
broadly tipped (for about 8-11 ram.) with white; fourth and fifth 
pairs similar but with the uniform blac-kish subterminal area or 
subterminal band, as well as the white tip broader (the latter about 
13-20 ram.); loral, orbital, and auricular regions nearly uniform 
sooty or sepi brown; ma]ar region and chin lighter sepia or grayish 
brown, minutely freckled with darker, the former usually intermixed 
with white on anterior portion, this sometimes orming a distinct 
rictal spot or streak; throat immaculate silky white, this extending 
farther backward laterally than on middle portion; extreme lower 
throat and upper chest mostly uniform very dark sooty brown or 



BIRDS OF lqORTtt AlqD MIDDLE AMERICA. 549 

sooty black, the lower chest wifl tips of feathers pale colored, some- 
times pale grayish minutely stippled with darker, sometimes barred 
with black and pale grayish or white, sometimes a large wlfitish 
spot, of variable form; breast and sides (lull wlfite or huffy xvhite 
narrowly barred with dusky brown or black, the barring more close 
anteriorly, more distant posteriorly; rest of underparts cream buff 
to huffy wlfite, the flanks sometimes with rather distant and rather 
broad bars of dusky; under wing-coverts buff (more or less deep) 
usually immaculate but sometimes with a few dusky spots or bars 
near edge of wing; inner webs of primaries ochraceous-buff (except 
terminally) with six or seven large curved transverse spots of dusky, 
of which the distal ones do not cross to edge of the web; bill black; 
iris brown; naked eyelids dull ochraceous or ochraceous-brown (in 
life); le and feet brownish, the former sometimes more lilaceous 
(in life); length (sns), 162-209 (187); wing, 125.5-151 (142.5); 
tail, 77.5-91.5 (85.5); exposed culmen, 10.5-15 (12.1); tarsus, 16-18 
(17.5); nfiddle toe, 16-18.5 (17.4). a 
Adultfe'male.--Sinfilar to the adult male and often not distinoish- 
able, but usually (?) with wlfite tip to lateral rectrices slightly narrower; 
length (sns), 171-205 (189); wing, 132-152.5 (142.6); tail, 80-95.5 
(87.3); exposed culmen, 10-13.5 (12.1) ; tarsus, 17-19 (17.6) ; middle 
toe, 15.5-19 (17.4). 5 
Young.--Not essentially different from adults, but marngs in 
general less sharply defined, especidly on underparts, and throat 
patch buff instead of wlfite. 
Downy young.--Downy covering vinaceous-buff, paler on under- 
parts; feathers appearing on upper parts dull huffy white minutely 
stippled and vermiculated with grayish and with small spots and 
nrrow bars of black; those on middle underparts dull wlfite barred, 
more or less distinctly, with grayish or dusky. 

a Forty specimens, b Thirty-two specimens. 

Locality. 

ALEt. 
Nine adult males from Texas (6) and New Mexico (3) ........... 
Five adult males from Colorado (2) Wyoming (2), and Mon- 
tan (1) ..................................................... 
Ten adult mal from Arona .................................. 
Fiveult mal from Lower Coa ......................... 
Teeadults malesfrom s. e. Caoa ......................... 
St mal from Nevad (3) and Utah (3) .................. 
0neult male from Sonora (My) ............................. 
One adult male from Coahufla (My 21) ......................... 
Noult mal from n. w. Caomia (P. n. califous) ....... 

139. 4 

147. 4 
142.1 
138.6 
142.5 
146 
142.5 
146. 8 

culmen. 

83.4 13.1 
87.6 11.3 
85.5 12.2 
86.5 11.9 
85 11 
86 II. 7 
89 12 
82 12.5 
87. 3 12 

Tarsus. 

17.2 

17.8 
17. 9 
17.4 
16.8 
17.7 
16 
18.5 
17.2 

Middle 
toe. 

17.3 

17.8 
17.6 
17.2 
16.5 
17.5 
16 
18.5 
17.4 



550 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES /ffATIO/ff_AL IIUSEUI[. 
Western United States, breeding in Transition and Upper Sonoran 
zones; north to southeastern British Columbia ("from Kam]oops 
to the Okanogan"), Idaho (Blackfoot), Montana (Valley, Custer, 
Gallatin, and Fergus counties), and northwestern North Dakota; 
east to southeastern South Dakot% eastern Nebraska, western Iowa 
(Gritmell), eastern Kansas (Shawnee, Riley, and Lyon Counties), 
and western and central Texas (Pecos, Bexar, Navarro, Tom Green, 
Concho, Mason, Eastland, and Brewster Counties; Medina River; 
Devils River; Red River); west to eastern base of Cascade and 
Sierra Nevada hfi)untains; south through Lower Cdiforfia (except 
San Pedro Martir M,)untains, and northwest coast district?) to 
Sierra de la Laguna (June), and through Sonora (Frovidencia Mines, 
May), and Chihufihua (San Diego), to northern Coahuila (Sabinas, 
May 21; Saltillo, May 6) and Guanajuato, central Mexico. 
('aprimulgus tultallii AuDtmOr, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 335 (nomen nudum); Birds 
Am., oct. ed., vii, 1844, 350, pl. 495 (east bank of Missouri R., between Ft. 
Union and Ft. Pierre).--WooDnovs, Rep. Sitgreaves's expl. Zuni and Col. 
R., 1853, 63 (Arizona).--Korm-WARAusr, Journ. far Orn., 1868, 379 
(nesting; descr, eggs). 
[Caprimulgus] nuttallii GRAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 59, no. 662. 
Antrostomus nuttallii CAsstr, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1851, 183; Journ. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. lhila., if, pt. if, Jan. 1852, 123.--BawEa, ll. Am. Oolcgy, 1857, 
86.(7)NwBEaav, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., vi, pt. iv, no. 2, 1857, 77, 
part (California; Oregon; habits).--KENrEav, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
x, no. 3, 1859, 23 (Colorado R.).--A;, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 129 
(Topeka, Kansas, common), 179 (e. Kansas; Colorado, up to 8,000 ft.; 
Utah).---H;sxw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 129 (Apache, 
Camp Grant, etc., Arizona; descr, young). 
Antrosomus nuttalli Csstr, Cat. Caprim. Mus. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phfla., 1852, 13; 
Illustr. Birds Calif., Texas, etc., 1855, 237.--BmD, in Stansbury's Rep. 
Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 327, part (Ft. Union); Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 149, part; Cat. N. Ara. Birds, 1859, no. 113, part; Rep. U.S. 
and Mex. Bound. Surv., i_i, pt. 2, 1859, 6 (Rio Mimbres, New Mexico; 
habits).ttasr, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, no. 2, 1859, 

Footnote--Continued. 

Locality. 

FEMALES. 
Eight adult females from Texas (7) and New Mexico (1) ......... 
Three adult females from Colorado, Montana, and Idaho ........ 
Nine adult females from Arizona ............................... 
One adult female from s. Lower California (June) ............... 
Oneadult female from n. Lower California (May 28) ............. 
Two adult females from s. e. California .......................... 
Five adult females from Nevada (3) and Utah (2) ............... 
One adult female from Coahufla (May) .......................... 
Oneadult female from Sonora (May) ........................... 
Eleven adult females from n. w. California (P. n. californicus) ..... 
One adult female from w. coast Lower Cali/ornia (May) ......... 

Wing. 

139. 6 
145.5 
143.2 
142 
142. 5 
144. 7 
145.1 
137 
150 
141.1 
34 

Tail. 

83.2 
84. 7 
86.1 
95. 5 
83. 5 
91 
85.4 
84 
88 
84.6 
80 

posed 
culmen. 

12. 6 
11.8 
12.2 
10 
11.5 
12. 2 
12.4 
12 
12 
11.5 
10. 5 

18.1 
17.5 
17.4 
16.5 
17.5 
17  
17.4! 
18 
17.5 
17 
17.5 

Middle 
toe. 

17.8 
17.8 
17.1 
17.5 
17.5 
17 
17.8 
18 
17 
17.1 
17 



554 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIOlqAL MUSEUI. 

latero-occipital feathers elongated, forming conspicuous, erectile, 
pointed "ear-tufts;" lateral margin of pileum forming a sharp pro- 
jcctig ridge from base of bill to base of ear-tufts; rictal bristles 
extremely long, strongly incurred terminally. 
Bill small and relatively very narrow, feathered on top as far as 
middle of nostrils. :Nostril broadliy oval, tubular, opening laterally. 
Wing rather long and pointed, the longest primaries exceeding distal 
secondaries by more than one-third the length of wing; eightl and 
ninth primaries longest, the seventh slightly but decidedly shorter, 
the tenth (outermost) equal to sixth. Tail four-fifths as long as wing, 
slightly rounded, the rectrices appreciably widening distally, with 
broadly rounded tip. Tarsus very slightly longer than middle toe 
without claw, naked, cxccpt extreme upper portion in front. 
Plmage and coloratiot.--I)rcfrontal feathers erect, those on mes- 
orhiaium with small brs{ly tips; rictal bristles cxtremelylong, strongly 
icurved termiaally; feathers of pilcum extremely broad, broadly 
rounded at tip; feathers forming upper margin of loral and super- 
ciliary regions directed upward and outward forming a conspicuous, 
shap, projecting ridge along each side of pileum, from base of bill to 
base of the conspicuous, erectile, pointed "ear-tufts" formed by the 
elongated latero-occipital feathers, the outermost of which have 
slender projecting bristles; feathers of the chest elongated, forming a 
conspicuous erectile lappet or "apron," the posterior edge of which 
is abruptly defined against the much shorter and differently colored 
plumage of the breast; plumage in general very soft, velvety. Gen- 
eral color chestnut, this much broken above by grayish mottling, the 
scapulars with large spots of much darker chestnut shading into black- 
ish and narrowly margined with buffy; pilcum not streaked; a white 
band across lower throat; rectrices (except middle pair) tipped th 
whitish; primaries banded or spotted with cinnamon-buff and dusky. 
In wing-formula, relative length of ving and tail, shape and "pat- 
tern" of the latter, and naked tarsi, this remarkable form resembles 
PI,alxnoptilus, from which, however, it differs greatly in possessing 
very conspicuous pointed ear-tufts, narrower bill, longer and more 
slender rictal bristles, conspicuous, erectile jugular "flap," relatively 
shorter tarsus and much longer hallux, and very different style 
of coloration.  
Range.--Mexico. (Monotypic.) 

OTOPHANES MCLEODII Brewster. 

EED 
Adult male.--Top of the head sandy brown, minutely mottled with 
buff and shaded with darker brown; hindneck banded with buff and 

a Otopanes is in reality very much more closely allied to Nyctagrets, the few differ- 
ences between these two genera being mentioned under the latter on p. 556. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND lg_IDDLE A3&F_,RICA. 555 

deep brown; back and rump similar to the crown; scapulars with very 
large blackish-brown velvety spots, encircled by a buff line; upper 
wing-coverts with rounded cream-white spots; primaries deep brown, 
banded wifl pale rufous; secondaries similar, but mottled on the outer 
webs; innermost secondaries like the scapulars; innermost pair of 
rectrices colored like the back and rump, the other pairs deep brown, 
indistinctly barred with rufous near the base, tipped with white; lower 
parts paler than the upper surface; a band of silky white across the 
throat; feathers of the abdomen with a white tip and a dark brown 
line before the white tip; "iris brown." Total length about 8.5 inches 
[=204.5 ram.l, wing 5.2 [132.1 ram.l, tail 4 [101.6 mm.], tarsus 0.6 
[15.24 mm.] a 
Adult female.--Prevailing color of pileum anteriorly and laterally 
finely mottled buffy grayish, paler along the lateral margin; median 
portion of crown and occiput chiefly chestnut, finely mottled or sprin- 
kled with dusky, the underlying portion of the feathers the same 
color as sides of crown; back finely mottled or vermiculated dark rusty 
or chestnut and dull buffy, the former prevailing; scapulars finely 
mottled dull grayish buffy (like sides of crown), the innermost row 
of feathers marked with sharply defined spots of black or mixed 
black and chestnut, each spot surrounded by a narrow ring (more 
or less distinct) of dull light buffy; exterior scapulars with outer 
webs mostly chestnut mottled with dusky, the longer scapulars 
similarly mm'ked, but with the chestnut patch extending over greater 
portion of both webs; general color of wing-coverts dull chestnut, finel: 
mottled witl dusky, but the general color relieved by a cluster of 
buffy spots on central portion of wing-covert area; secondaries 
coarsdy banded witl dusky and pale chestnut or chestnut-buffy, 
the folzner prevailing basally, the latter more broken up terminally 
into a confused mottling of pale chestnut or dull buffy and grayish 
dusky, the feathers mmgined at tips with buffy; primary coverts 
dusky, with lm-ge spots of tawny-ochraceous on outer webs; primaries 
banded with dusky and tawny-ochraceous, the latter wider on outer 
webs, where dusky bands are more broken, but narrower and deeper 
in color on inner webs, where dusky bands are very distinct and 
mostly "solid" dusky; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts (the 
longer of the l/tter wanting however), finely mottled grayish buffy, 
chestnut, and dusky, the prevailing color being a dull buffy brownish; 
tail finely mottled pale chestnut, buffy, and grayish dusky, crossed 
by about ten indistinct lighter and darker bin-s, the four outer rectrices 
(on each side) tipped with dull white (becoming buffy ol fourth and 
outer web of first), this white tip broadest on second rectrix (from 
outside), on which it measures about 12 mm. wide; sides of head nearly 
uniform dull tawny-ochraceous, this deepest on lores, superciliary 

a Itartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1892, 581. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 557 

Bill small and relatively very narrow, feathered Oll top as far as 
nostrils, or slightly farther. Nostril (apparently) narrowly oval, 
semitubular, opening laterally. Wing rather long and pointed, the 
longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by one-third the length 
of wing; seventh and eighth primaries longest, the ninth very slightly 
shorter, the tenth (outermost) slightly shorter than sLxth. Tail 
seven-eighths as long as wing, or slightly more, slightly rounded, tlm 
rectrices widening distally, with broadly rounded or obliquely sub- 
truncate tip. Tarsus as long as middle toe with claw. 
Plumage and coloration.--Prefrontal feathers ercct, those o1 mcso- 
rhinium short and without bristly tips; rictal bristles extremely long 
but very slender and but slightly if at all incurred terminally; 
feathers of pilcum rather narrow, narrowly rounded at tip; feathers 
of loral and superciliary regions not erect, not forming a projecting 
ridge along sides of pilcum; latero-occipital feathers somewhat elon- 
gated but not pointed, without bristly tips, and not forming distinct 
"ear-tufts"; feathers of chest elongated, formbg a conspicuous 
erectile lappet or "apron," the posterior edge of wtrich is abruptly 
defined against the much shorter and differently colored plumage of 
the breast; plumage in general very soft, with velvety surface. Gen- 
era] color chestnut-brown, much broken by dusky mottlings, vcr- 
raieulations, and streaks, the scapulars with conspicuous angular or 
cuneate spots of black; pileum streaked with black; a white band 
across lower throat; rectrices (except middle pair) tipped with white; 
primaries banded or spotted with cinnamon-buff and dusky. 
Rangc.--Southeastcrn Mexico (Yucatan and Campeche). (Mono- 
typic.) 

NYCTAGREUS YUCATANICUS (Hartert). 

YUCATAI" POORWILL. 

Adult male (brown pltase)? a--General color of upper parts rather 
deep ayish brown (nearest sepia or bistre), the lateral portions of 
pileum (broadly), more decidedly oTayish, nearly everywhere minutely 
vermiculated with dusky and with more or less distinct mesial streaks 
of black, these broader and sublanceolate on median portion of pilcum, 
and on scapulars (especially the more posterior ones) still broader, 

a The specimen from which the description is taken is not sexed, but I assume that 
it is a male from the difference in pattern of the white tip to the two outer rectrices 
from that of a female, this difference corresponding with the sexual difference in 
Phalenoptilus, a closely related form. The difference in general coloration, assumed 
to represent a "grayish phase" and a "rufescent phase," respectively, may be in 
reality merely a sexual difference. 
[Since the above was put in type an adult male, collected by G. F. Gaumer, at 
Xbac, Yucatan, has been examined. This is in the grayish brown plumage described 
above, thus confirming the suested sexual difference in coloration.] 



560 BULLETIN 50 UNITF, D STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
deles, having examined the same material. The two cases are pre- 
cisely alike, it being merely a question of whether geographic variations 
be ignored altogether or extreme subdivision made, no middle course 
being satisfactory. 
Mr. Oberholscr has kindly allowed me the use of his measurements 
and notes. 
KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF CHORDEILES. 
a. Outermost (tenth) primary not shorter than ninth, usually longer; white patch 
on primaries occupying five outer quills and anterior to tip of fourth quill (sev- 
enth from outside); secondaries, primary coverts, and basal portion of primaries 
not distin(.tly if at all spotted (usually plain dusky); lighter bars on under 
wing-coverts white, or, if huffy, narrower than the dusky interspaces. (Clwrddles 
virginianus. ) 
b. Larger (wing averaging more than 193 ram., tail averaging 108 ram. or morn). 
c. Darker, the upper parts with blackish predominating; under parts with dusky 
bars broader. (Eastern and northern North America, breeding north of 
Lower Austral Zone; South America, etc., in winter.) 
Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (p. 562). 
cc. Paler, the upper parts with lighter markings predominating, or at least equal- 
ing darker ones in extent; under parts with dusky bars narrower. 
d. Larger (wing averaging 200 ram. in male, more than 193 in female; tail aver- 
aging more than 112 in both sexes). 
e. Darker and less huffy. (Western United States, east, from Nevada and 
Utah northward, to Rocky hits., northward to southeastern British Co- 
lumbia and southern Alberta; southward to Nicaragua in migration.) 
Chordeiles virginianus hesl)eris (p. 567). 
ee. Paler and more huffy. (Southern portion of Great Plains and adjacent 
part of Rocky hits., from central and northwestern Texas and north- 
eastern New Mexico to eastern Utah, Wyoming, and Nebraska; casual 
in hIinnesota and Illinois.) 
Chordeiles virgiianus howelli (p. 570). 
dd. Smaller (wing averaging less than 200 ram. in male, less than 190 in female; 
tail averaging less than 112 in both sexes). 
e. Paler and grayer, with upper parts more finely variegated. (Northern 
portion of Great Plains, from northwestern Iowa, Nebraska, etc., to 
western Minnesota, North Dakota, and eastern hIontana.) 
Chordeiles virginianus sennetti (p. 568.). 
ee. Darker and much more huffy or ochraceous, with upper parts more coarsely 
variegated; secondaries, primary coverts, and basal portion of prima- 
. ries frequently indistinctly spotted. (Southwestern United States, in 
west-central Texas, New hlexico, Arizona, and southwestern Colorado 
and contiguous parts of northern Mexico.) 
Chordeiles virginianus henryi (p. 572). 
bb. Smaller (wing averaging less than 185 ram., tail averaging not more than 105, 
usually considerably less). 
c. Laer (wing averaging 180 mm. or more, tail averaging more than 101 ram.). 
d. Pale, like C. v. sennett. (Southern Texas and northern Tamaulipas; south- 
ward, in migation, to Costa Rica.) 
Chordeiles virginianus aserriensis (p. 573). 
dd. Dark, like C. v. virginianus. (Gulf States, from Florida to eastern Texas, 
northward to eastern North Carolina, southwestern Kentucky, and south- 
eastern Illinois.) .............. Chordeiles virginianus chalmani (p. 574). 
cc. Smaller (wing averaging less than 175 ram., tail averaging less than 98 ram.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 563 

legs and feet dusky; length (in flesh), 235-248 (242)a; wing, 184-208 
(198); tail, 106-118 (110.9); exposed cu]men, 6.10-7.5 (6.5); tarsus, 
13.5-15.2 (14.4); middle toe, 13-15.5 (14.9). b 
Adult female.--Similar to the adult male but without the white 
subterminal band on tail, white on primaries more restricted, lighter 
spotting, etc., of upper parts usually more conspicuous (giving a 
lighter colored cast to the general color of upper parts, under parts 
more strongly tinged with buffy, and white throat-patch usually 
more or less suffused with (sometimes entirely replaced by) buff; 
length (in flesh), 229-254 (241.5); c wing, 187.5-203 (196.5); tail, 
105-118.5 (112); exposed culmen, 6.2-7.2 (6.7); tarsus, 13.8-15.5 
(14.8); middle toe, 14-16.5 (15.5)fl 
]'oung.--Much like the adult female but without a well-defined 
(if any) white throat-patch, the chin and throat being buffy barred 
or transversely spotted with dusky--usually, however, with more or 
less of an indication of the throat patch of adults in the form of a 
less heavily spotted or barred (sometimes immactflate) huffy dr 
whitish A-shaped area across middle of throat; general cst of upper 
parts decidedly paler, on account of more numerous and smaller pale 
markings, the wing-coverts especially having pale grayish or buffy 
grayish largely predominating, and barring of under parts less sharply 
defined. 
Eastern and northern North America; breeding in the Upper 
Austral, Transition, Canadian, and southern portion of Hudsonian 
zones, north to southern Iaine (Bath; Iount Desert Island; Calais; 
Somerset County; Islemd Falls), Nova Scotia (Barrington; Halifax; 
Sydney; Digby; Newport), western Newfoundland (Bay of Islands), 
southern Labrador (Natashquan), Quebec (Anticosti Island; Point 
de Monts; Natashquan River; Grand Falls; Lake Mistissini; Fau- 
rie]; Grosse Ile; Magdalen Islands), northern Ontario (Moose Factory; 
Brunswick House), and through Keewatin (Fort Churchill; Norway 
House; Robinson Portage; Oxford Lake; Knee Lake), Saskatche- 
wan (Prince Albert; Quill Lake; Maple Creek), and Athabasca 
(Clearwater River) to .Iackenzie (Fort Resolutioo; Fort Simpson; 
Fort Providence; Fort Wrigley; western part of Bear Lake; Iacken- 
zie River below Fort Good Hope), and Yukon (La Pierre House; 
mouth of Tatchun River; White Horse Rapids; Caribou Crossing); 
west to edge of Great Plains, in Minnesota (Fort Snelling; Walker; 
St. Cloud; Waseka), southeastern South Dakota, eastern Nebraska 
(Omaha; Lincoln; Beatrice), easgern Kansas (Emporia; near Law- 
rence), etc., and through southern Manitoba (Carberry) and Alberta 
(Fort Chippewyan; Fort Smith." Banff; At.habasca Lake; Slave River, 

a Six specimens. 
b Twelve specimens. 

]ine specimens. 
Ten specimens. 



564 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUI. 

below Peace River) to British Columbia (Lake Teslin; Telegraph 
Creek; Coast Range; Lund, on Malaspina Inlet; Comox, Errington, and 
Victoria, Vancouver Island; Sumas; Osoyos Lake; Sproats Landing), 
and northwestern Washington (Simiahmoo; Sinyakwateen Depot); 
southward to northern Arkansas (Pettigrew; Mammoth Spring), south- 
ern Missouri (Jasper County; Stone County; St. Louis County), south- 
central Illinois (Odin), central and southeastern Tennessee (Nash- 
ville; Chattanooga), north-central Geora (Ellinjay; Young IIarris), 
southwestern North Carolina (Asheville; Weaversville), and southern 
Virnia (Wythesville; Lynchburg; Newport News; Cape Charles; 
Cobbs Island); miating southward through Gulf States and lower 
Mississippi Valley, east&rn Colorado (Gunnison), Texas, and eastern 
Mexico to Bermudas, Cuba, Isle of Pines (Santa Fe, May 10), Jamaica 
(Spanishtown, Sept.), St. Bartholomew, Barbados, Costa Rica (Rio 
Sicsola, Sept. 24; Miravalles, May 25) Panamg (Calovvora Verfigua), 
and South America, where wintering from Colombia (Bogota; Antio- 
quia) and Venezuela (Orinoco Valley) southward to southern Brazil 
(Matto Grosso; Sao Paulo; Rio de Janeiro), Argentina (Tucumfin; 
CSrdova; Gran Chaco; Barracas al Sud ; Ysca Yacus, Santiago) and 
Paraguay (Lambar); accidental northward to Melville Island, 
Arctic Ocean. 
[Caprimulgus] virginianus G, Syst. lat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 1028 (Virgiaia; based 
on Caprimulgus virginianus Brisson, Orn., ii, 477; Caprimulgus minor ameri- 
canus Catesby, lat. Hist. Carolina, iii, App., pl. 16; Long-winged Goatsud'er 
Pennant, Arctic Zool., ii, 436, lol. 18; Virginia Goatsucker Latham, Synopsis 
Birds, ii, 595; etc. See especially Stejneger, Auk, ii, 1885, 178-180).-- 
L.(T, Index Orm, ii, 1790, 585. 
Caprimulgus virginianus TEINCK, Cat. Syst., 1807, 136.--STEPttENS, Shaw's 
Gem Zool., x, 1817, 153.--BONAPAITE, Ann. Lyc. 1I. Y., i_i, pt. 1, 126, 62'. 
Obs. Vilson's Am. Orn., 1826, [241]; Synopsis Birds U. S., 1828, 
, lIan. Orn. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 1832, 619; Water Birds, 1834, 
609 (Great Bear Lake, Mackenzie).---AuDubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 273, 
pl. 147; v, 1839, 406.--KoENIG-WARTHAUSEN, ourn. fiir Orn., 1868, 373. 
C[aprimulgus] virginianus MAx, Joura. ffir Ora., 1858, 97, part (Pennsyl- 
vania). 
Caprirnulgus (Chordeiles) virginianus Swso, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 337. 
Chordeiles virginianus SwAsoN, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 496.Bo_ewE, 
Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 8.--AuDu]oN, Synopsis, 1839, 32; Birds Am., 
oct. ed., i, 1840, 159, pl. 43.--Nvr., lIan. Orn. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 748.AIDINE, Contr. Ora., 1848, 81 (Bermudas, numer- 
ous in Oct.).--HvDs, Jardine's Contr. Orn., .1850, 7 (Bermudas, April, 
Oct.).--CssI, Prec. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1851, 186 (Philadelphia and 
Chester Co., Pennsylvania; Mexico; Nicaragua; Bogota, Colombia); Cat. 
Caprim. Mus. Ac. lat. Sci. Phila., 1851, 8; Illustr. Birds Calif., Tex., 
etc., 1855, 238.--BwE, ]orth Am. OSlogy, i, 1857, 87, pl. 5, figs. 59, 60, 
61 (eggs).--W,,s, Ann. Rep. Smithson. Inst. for 1858 (1859), 287 (Bermu- 
das).--M.'RTENS, Journ. fiir Ora., 1859, 216 (Bermudas).---Sc.'TER, Cat. 
Am. Bir.ds, ]862, 279 (1. America); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 133, part 
(monogr.).Su)v,, Oefv. K. Vet.-Ak. FSrh., 1869, 600 (St. Bartholo- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AME1LICAo 569 

parts also lighter, the markings on anterior porticu more grayish, the 
bars on posterior portions narrower, sometimes interrupted. 
Adult male.--Length (before slmbg), 213-248 (232) ; a wing, 
186-213 (198.3); tail, .101.5-112.5 (109.1); exposed cuhnen, 6-7.2 
(6.9); tarsus, 13.5-15.8 (14.6); middle toe, 13.9-16 (15.3). b 
Adult female.--Wing, 175-201 (189.5); taft, 102.5-115 (10S); 
exposed culmen, 6-7.5 (6.5); tarsus, 13.8-15.3 (14.7); middle toe, 
14-16 (14.9.) 5 
Northern portion of Great Plains district, breeding from Nebraska 
(Thomas County; Antelope County) and northwestern Iowa (Sioux 
City; Dickinson County) northward through South Dakota (IIuron; 
near Rosebud; Missouri River 40 miles above Fort Pierre; Fort 
Sisseton), North Dakota (Fort Union; Pembhm; 50 miles west of 
Pembina Mountains; Fort Rice; Linton; Big Muddy Creek; Towner 
County; Devils Lake Indian Reservation; Pierce County; Rolette 
County; Nelson County; Souris River; Fort Berthold; etc.), west- 
err Minnesota (Lac qui Parle County; Grant Couuty; Kimbrae), 
northeastern Wyoming (Uva), eastern Montana (Fort Keogh; Dar- 
nail's Ranch, Dawson County; Strater, Valley County), Assiniboia, 
and western Manitoba to southeastern Saskatchewan (Fort Carleton; 
Fort Pitt; Grand Rapids; Quill Lake; Prince Albert); casual in 
central Iowa (Dickinson County, June; 4 mftes southeast of Boone, 
Oct. 27) ; migrating southward through Kansas (Burlington, October; 
near Lawrence, September), and eastern Colorado (Barr, Aug. 8), 
but not traced beyond. 
Chordeiles popetue (not Caprimulgus popetue Vieillot) BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 151, part (40 miles above Fort lierre, South Dakota; Black 
Hills?). 
Chordiles virginianus Cocs, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 
613 (localities in North Dakota and eastern Montana; habits).--McCnEssEv, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v, 1879, 81 (Ft. Sisseton, South 
Dakota). 
[Chordiles popetue] sennetti Cocs, Auk, v, Jan., 1888, 37 (50 miles west of Pem- 
bina, North Dakota; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Chordeiles virginianus sennetti CnXMEERXN, Syst. Index Canad. Birds, 1888, 
App. A., p. 14.--CHAIRMAN, Auk, v, 1889, 396.--AMERXCN ORNITIfOLOGISTS ' 
UNmN COMMITTEE, Suppl. to Check List, 1889, 18; Auk, xiv, 1897, 121 
(Cneck List no. 420c); Cneck List, 3rd ed., 1910, 199.--ToMISON, lroc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 554 (Manitoba; habits).--Bsnoe, Auk, xiii, 
1896, 135 (Towner and Rolette counties, North Dakota; crit.).--Lhso, Auk, 
xv, 1898, 54 (Madison, Lac qui Parle Co., w. Minnesota, 2 specs., Aug.).-- 
BRTSCn, Auk, xvi, 1899, 86 (Boone Co., Iowa, 2 specs.; no date given). 
CoEEcX, Ottawa Nat., 1900, 28 (s. Saskatchewan, summer resident). 
ANDERSON, lroc. Davenp. Ac. Sci., xi, 1907, 281 (Boone, Iowa, 1 spec.). 
BENT, Auk, xxv, 1908, 27 (s. w. Saskatchewan).--WEwMonE, Condor, xi, 
1909, 159 (near Lawrence, Kansas, Sept.). 

a Four specimens, b Ten specimens. 



578 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

more or less, by dusky marbling and crossed by several irregular 
oblique bars (in "herring-bone" pattern) of uniform dusky; other 
rectrices dark sooty brown or sooty blackish crossed near end by an 
interrupted white subterminal band, preceding which are large, irreg- 
ular, broken spo{s of pale grayish huffy; malar, suborbital, and auric- 
ular regions sooty blackish, the first and second spotted with pale buffy 
or dull huffy whitish, the last streaked, more or less, with the same 
or with cimmmon-buff; chin, upper throat, and snbauricular region 
immaculate white, forming a very conspicuous A-shaped patch; 
lower throat and upper chest dusky grayish brown with large spots 
of buff; lower chest vermiculated with dusky and pale huffy grayish 
or dull grayish white, the lt with a tendency to form irregular indis- 
tinct spots; rest of under parts pale to deep buff barred with dusky 
({,he bars much narrower than {,he interspaces), the under tail-coverts 
deeper buff, with the bars much farther apart; axillars and under 
wing-coverts deep buff, barred with dusky; under surface of primaries 
dusky grayish brown or dull brownish slate, the four outermost 
crossed, at about middle, by a broad band of wlfite; under surface 
of tail showing broad, more or less broken, bars or transverse spots of 
pale buff or huffy white anterior to the white subterminal band; bill 
dusky; iris blacldsh brown; leo and feet brownish; len.h (sns), 
199-221 (209); a wing, 161.3-176 (169.4); tail, 92.5-102.5 (99.1); 
exposed culmen, 5-6.2 (5.7); tarsus, 12.5-13.8 (13.3); middle toe, 
14-14.7 (14.4). b 
Adult female.Similar to the adult male but lacldng the white 
subterminal band on tail as well as the white patch on outer webs of 
primaries, the latter with proximal portion marked with large spots 
of pinkish cirmamon or vinaceous-cinnamon, and wlfite throat-mark 
more restricted as well as more or less suffused with (sometimes 
wholly replaced by) pinkish cinnamon or deep pinkish buff; length 
(skins), 198-216 (206);  wing, 158.5-168 (162.1); tail, 90-98.5 (94.4); 
exposed culmen, 5-6.5 (5.8); tarsus, 12-14 (13.1); middle toe 13-15.3 
(14.1). b 

a Six specimens, b Seven specimens, c Five specimens. 

Locality. 

MALES. 
Two adult males from Panama and Costa Rica .................. 
Two adult males from Guatemala and Chiapas .................. 
Seven adult males from Yucatan ............................... 
FEMALES. 
Two adult females from Chiapas and Jalisco .................... 
One adult female from Campeche ............................... 
Seven adult females from Yucatan .............................. 

167. 8 
178.5 
169.4 
168. 8 
163.5 
162. 1 

Tail. 

99 
104.3 
99.1 

100 
91.5 
94. 4 

posed 
mlmen. 

6.5 
5.6 
5.7 

6 
5.8 
5.8 

Tarsus. 

13.8 
13.3 
13. 3 

12.9 
14 
13.1 

Middle 
to. 

14. 8 
15.3 
14.4 

13.1 
15 
14.1 



584 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Very large Caprimulgi with toes normal (the outer toe consisting of 
five phalanges, the hallux of three phalanges), tarsus much shorter 
than hallux, outer toe as long as middle toe, middle claw not pecti- 
hated, metasternum deeply 4-notched, powder-down patches present 
on breast and sides of body, and maxillary tomium with a prominent 
"tooth" or angular projection at commencement of the strongly 
convex and very prominent rictal portion. 
The Nyctibiid,'e differ from the Caprimulgidm in many of their 
habits, among which may be mentioned their position while perching, 
which is upright, the bill pointing upward, in which respect they 
aee with the Podargidm. So far as known, all Caprimulgide lie 
fiat to the perch (or gn'ound) in , horizontal position, when at rest. 
This family is confined to the tropical parts of America, and 
includes a single genus, Nyctibius Vicillot. 

Genus NYCTIBIUS Vieillot. 

Nyctibiusa VIEILLOT, Analyse, 1816, 38; Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xvi, 1817, 6. 
(Type, Grand Engoulevent de Cayenne Duffon = Caprimulgus grandis Gmelin.) 
Nlctibius (emendation?) D'Oanmsv and LAFRESNAYE, Mag. de Zool., 1839 (Syn- 
opsis Avium, p. 67). 
Nyctornis b (not Ngcliornis Swainson, 1831) NITZSCH, Obs. Av. Art. Carot. Comm., 
1829, 15. (Type, Caprimulgus grandis Gmelin.) 
(?) Ibijus RAXSESQUE, Analyse de la Nature, 1815, 69 (nomen nudum). 
In addition to the characters given above under the heading of 
Family Nyctibiidm the following are diagnostic of the genus Nycti- 
bius: 
Bill relatively very small, broadly angular and much depressed 
basally, narrow, compressed, and strongly decurved terminally, the 
basal half (more or less) hidden by the dense, antrorse, laterally closely 
appresscd loral feathering; culmen rounded, strongly defined laterally 
by a broad sulcus running from nasal fossm to behind base of uncinate 
tip of maxilla; nostril narrowly ovate (the posterior end narrower 
and more or less acute), longitudinal, opening against lateral base of 
the rhinotheca, the mcmbraneous integument of the nasal fossa not 
inflated; maxillary tomium nearly straight from base of maxillary 
nnguis to a conspicuous angular or knot-like prominence or tooth, 
thence strongly deflected and more or less convex to the rictus beneath 
posterior angle, or at least posterior to middle, of eye; mandible 
abruptly and strongly decurved subterminally, the tip slightly 
recurred, or straight and inclined domward at a less angle than 
trend of the subterminal portion; gonys exceedingly short (scarcely 
longer than nostril), straight, flattened or very broadly and slightly 

a vorflto, noctu victum qumrens. (Vieillot.) 
b N55 (vvr6,-), night; lp,g, bird. (Richmond.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 585 

rounded. No rictal bristles, but longer antrorse loral feathers with 
slender bristly points. Wing very long, the longest prinaries exceed- 
ing distal secondaries by much more than one-third to nearly half the 
length of wing; seventh, eightl b and ninth primaries longest, the 
tenth (outermost) longer than fiftll (sometimes longer than sixth); 
fifth or sixth to ninth primaries, inclusive, with outer web strongly 
sinuated anterior to middle portion (the sinuation of the nbth con- 
cealed by primary coverts). Tail two-thirds to nearly as long as 
wing, more or less rounded, sometimes with tip subcuueate (the 
middle rectrices considerably longer tlmn next pair); rcctrices ten. 
Tarsus excessively short and thick (shorter than hallux without claw, 
its transverse diameter equal to more tlmn half its length), nonscutel- 
late, the acrotarsium, however, with fint indications of irregularly 
subquadrate or lozenge-shaped (sometimes longitudiual) small scutella, 
the extreme upper portion (both before and behind) clothed with 
smallshort feathers; toes relatively short and very stout, witl tle normal 
number of phalanges (3, 3, 4, 5, instead of 2, 3, 4, 4, as ia the Capri- 
mulgidm); outer toe (of 5 phalanges much longer than inner toe, its 
claw reaching to beyond base of middle claw; hallux of 3 phalanges 
nearly as long as inner toe, much longer than tarsus; all the anterior 
toes united or coalesced for length of basal phalanx, the two lateral 
ones (especially the inner), together with the hallux, greatly expanded 
basally, forming a very broad flat sole (tylarus); claws rather short 
but strongly curved, that of the middle toe with inner edge neither 
produced nor pectinated. 
Plumage and coloration.--Plumage in general rather harsher or 
coarser, the primaries and rectrices harder or more rigid, than in the 
Caprimuldm; loral feathers large, dense, semierect (antrorse 
anteriorly), closely appressed laterally, covering whole of the basal 
(expanded) portion of the maxilla, the anterior oues with slender 
bristly tips, these sometimes reaching to or beyond tip of bill; no 
rictal bristles; interramal space completely feathered; plumage of 
occiput, nape, and hind-neck ve T long and full. Coloration mottled 
brown, buffy, and grayish, more or less streaked or spotted witl 
blackish; primaries and rectrices more or less distinctly barred or 
banded (or spotted in transverse series), but neither with any white 
area. 
Range.--Southern Mexico to Peru, Paraguay, southern Brazil, and 
Cayenne; also Jamaica. (Seven species.)  

a 0 the recognized species I have not seen N. longicaudats, N. leucopterus, nor 
N. bracteatus, the above generic description being based on _N. grandis, .lY. vthereus, 
h r. gr/seus, and _N. maculosus. 



58 BULLETIlg 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL ]V[USEUI. 

KEY '0 'rE SPECIES Alan SUBSPECIES OF NYCTIBIUS. 

No white spots or large whitish area on innermost (proximal) middle wing-coverts; 
under wing-coverts spotted or barred with white. 
b. Lesser wing-coverts not uniform black or dark sooty brown; pileum streaked 
and barred or vermiculated with dusky on a white or pale buffy (sometimes 
partly rufous) ground; general coloration paler, with whitish predominating; 
largest species (wing 365-391 ram.). (Panama to southern Brazil.) 
:Nyctibius grand.is (p. 587). 
bb. Lesser wing-coverts uniform dark sooty brown or black; pileum broadly striped 
or spotted with sooty black or dark sooty brown; general color much darker, 
with little whitish; smaller (wing 215-365). 
c. Blackish lesser covert area immediately succeeded by a band of whitish, buffy, 
or ochraceous (most distinct toward bend of wing). 
d. Larger (wing 350-365 ram.); general color browner or grayer. (Brazil.) 
:Nyctibius ethereus (extralimital).a 
dd. Smaller (wing 280-305); general coloration more rufescent. (Guianas to 
eastern Ecuador and Peru.) .... :Nyctibius longicaudatus (extralimital).b 
I have not seen a specimen of this species. 
cc. Blackish lesser covert area not succeeded by a band of whitish, buffy, or 
ochraceous. ( Nyclibius griseus. ) 
d. Paler, the under tail-coverts less heavily mottled and inner webs of prima- 
ries more distinctly spotted; under parts less uniform. 
e. Larger (wing averaging 290 or more, tail averag4_ng more than 210). 
f. Smaller (wing averaging 290, tail averaging less than 215.) 
g. Paler; tail averaging 213.1. (Jamaica.) 
lqyctibius griseus jamaicensis (p. 589). 
gg. Darker; tail averaging 211.2. (Cost Rica.) 
:Nyctibius griseus costaricensis (p. 593). 
ft. Larger (wing averaging 306.5, tail averaging 220.2). (Vera Cruz and 
Puebla, Mexico, to Guatemala.) 
:Nyctibius griseus mexicanus (p. 592). 
ee. Smaller (wing averaging 275 or less, tail averaging less than 203. 
f. Wing averaging 275.3, tail 202.8. (Panama to central Colombia.) 
lqyctibius griseus lm.namensis (p. 593). 
ft. Wing averaging 246.2, tail 179.4. (Trinidad to Guianus and lower 
Amazon Valley.) .......... :Nyctibius griseus griseus (extralimital.)c 

a Caprimulgus athereus Maximilian, Reise Bras., i, 1820, 236 (:Rio Macur6, Prov. 
Bahia, Brazil; type now in coll. Am. Mus. N. ].).--N[yctibus] athereus Gray, Gen. 
Birds, i, 1846, 46.--Nyctibius athereus Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, 1851, 184; 
:Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1892, 627. 
b Caprimulgus logicaudatus Spix, Av. Bras., ii, 1825,1, pl. 1 (Rio Japurfi, Brazil).-- 
Nyctibius lo'ngicaudatus Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool., 1837, classe ii, not. 83, p. 25 
(monogr.); }tartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1892, 626. 
c [Caprimulgus] griseus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1789, 1029 (Cayenne; based 
on Engouleent gris Buffon, }tist. Nat. Ois., vi, 548; Grey Goatsuclcer Latham, Synop. 
Birds, ii, pt. 2, 592).--Nyctibius griseus Bcflepsch, Novit. Zool., xv, Nov., 1908, 270 
(Cayenne; crit.).--Nyctibius griseus griseus ellmayr, lovit. Zool., xiii, Feb., 1906, 
37 (Chaguanas and Savan Grande, Trinidad; crit.).--Nyctibius jamaicensis (not 
Caprimulgus jamaicensis Gmelin) tiartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1892, 625, 
part.--(?)Nyctibius pectoralis Gould, Icones Avium, pt. ii, Aug., 1838, pl. 18 and text 
(northern parts of Brazil). 



588 BULLETIN 50) UNITED STATES qATIOIAL 1V[USEU1V[. 

tinct dusky shaft-streaks; back and scapulars with the barfing 
coarser and more irregular, the latter sometimes with a few very 
irregular blotches of brownish black; lesser wing-coverts rather 
broadly but irregularly barred with blackish and russet, in. varying 
relative proportion, sometimes uniform dusky on the anterior por- 
tion; remiges (except proximal secondaries) dull brownish black to 
dull brownish slate-blackish, crossed by narrow broken bands of 
light grayish, these assuming the form of distinct spots on outer webs 
of primaries, the corresponding markings on inner webs broken by 
dusky marbling, the terminal portion of the primaries with uniform 
light silvery gray interspaces separating broad transverse areas of 
the same, broken by marblings of blackish and often encircled by a 
broken narrow area of the same; rectrices irregularly marbled wih 
pale gray, grash white, and dusky (the first two predominating), 
sometimes suffused or internfixed with buffy or pale rusty, the heavier 
dusky markings disposed in the form of more or less distinct trans- 
verse, much broken, bands; chin and throat with sparse, irregular, 
sometimes indistinct, narrow broken bars of dusky; chest more 
broadly and regularly barred, or coarsely vernficulated with dusky, 
the breast similarly marked but with a greater or less number of 
irregular black spots or blotches, of variable size; remaining under 
parts irregularly and rather sparsely marked with zigzag bars and 
marblings of dusky, the under tail-coverts sometimes nearly immacu- 
late; under wing-coverts slate color, more or less broadly barred or 
transversely spotted with grayish white, sometimes suffused 4th 
buffy or pale rusty; bill and feet brownish (in dried skins). 
Adult male.--Length-(skin), about 500; wing, 368; tail, 260; 
exposed culmen, 33; tarsus, 15.5; middle toe, 30. a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skin), 500; wing, 365; tail, 257; exposed 
culmen, 35.5; tarsus, 16; middle toe, 30. 5 
Panam (Lion t/ill; Punta de Sabana) and southward through 
Colombia (lower Rio Magdalena), Venezuela (San CristSbal), the 
Guianas, eastern EcuadSr (Sarayacu), and Peru (upper Rio Ucayali) 
to southern Brazil (So Paulo, Cantogallo, and Novo Friborgo, So 
Paulo; ParS; Rio Belmonte; Amal)5; Obidos; Tcff). 

a One specimen from Pare, Brazil. 
b One specimen from lower Rio Magdalena, Colombia. 

Locality. 
SEX NOT DITEIMINED. 
Two adults (sex not determined) from British Guiana ......... 

One adult (sex not determined) from Panama ................. 

Ning. 
366. 5 
391 

Tail. 
29,' 

Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 
31.7 

Tarsus 
16. 7 
16 

Midd] 
toe. 



596 BULLETII 50, UIITED STATES IATIOIAL ]V[USEUXV[. 

becomes a strong single band, which forks behind so as to more or 
less surround the oil gland. The humeral tracts are strong and 
usually broad and the parapterum is very evident. There are two 
complete rows of primary coverts, and on the forearm there are seven 
or eight rows of feathers, of which the lower three or four are true 
secondary coverts. The femoral tract is very strong and evident, 
running obliquely across the upper end of the tibia from the knee, 
along on the posterior edge of the femur. The tibia and tarsus are 
usually very completely covered with feathers, and often the toes 
also. At the base of the gonys the infra-mandibular region is very 
thickly feathered, but this dense patch divides abruptly and either 
passes up on each side and runs along the ear-conch, as in those owls 
in which this conch is fully developed, or, as in other species, disap- 
pears on the rami of the lower jaw. The rest of the chin and throat 
are very sparsely feathered in most owls, but in others it is fully cov- 
ered. The lower cervical tract is narrow and is divided on the neck 
so as to pass down on either side to form the strong sternals. It is 
also connected with the humerals, and especially with the triple row 
of small feathers on the lower edge of the patagium, while all of the 
upper outer corner of the breast is usually more or less feathered. 
From the lower end of the sternal tract there runs a strong hook over 
to the hypopterum, which is itself very evident. There are two rows 
of primary and three or four of secondary under coverts. The ventral 
tracts commence on the breast, usually near the furcula, and seem 
to be fused with the sternals at first, but soon separate from them and 
run down on either side almost to the anus, becoming very narrow 
on the belly. Strix [i. e. Tyro] shows a very peculiar modification of 
this typical form, in the fusion again of the sternal and ventral tracts 
at the posterior end of the former. The post-anal tract, comprising 
the under-tail coverts, is strong and very conspicuous in the larger 
species. All of the specimens of Striges examined agreed in the 
following details: 
"Aftershafts wanting. True down wanting. Oil gland not tufted. 
Primaries 11, the eleventh very small. Rcctrices 12 (except Micro- 
pallas). Alula feathers 4. Wing aquincubital." 
It is now definitely settled and pretty generally admitted that the 
owls are much less inthnately related to the tue Bh-ds of Prey 
(Accipitres) than to the Coraciiformes, among which their nearest rela- 
tives, apparently, are the Nycticoracim, especially the suborder 
Steatornithes (represented only by the Guacharo or Oil Bird, Stea- 
tornis caripesis), though, in reality, the gap between these and the 
Striges is a very considerable one. Nevertheless, the resemblance 
to the Accipitres is mainly one of adaptation, both groups being emi- 
nently "raptorial" in their nature, and therefore provided dth a 
strongly hooked bill and relatively long, strongly curved, and sharp 



BIRDS OF lsIORTI=[ AlgD MIDDLE AMERICA. 597 

claws. Even h the character of the bill and feet, hovever, the 
resemblance is largely a superficial one, and when a close examination 
is made many constant differences become obvious in the structural 
details of the bill and feet in the two groups. Thus in the Striges the 
maxillar tomiura is never notched, toothed, nor lobed; the "cere" is 
of very different character, consisting, in reality, of the usual nmm- 
brmm covering the unperforated part of the nasal fossm, continued 
across the mesorinal portion of the cuhnen, the so-called cere being 
thus wholly post- and supra-nasal, usually with the lateral (post- or 
circum-nasal) portion more or less inflated. It is fit the structure of 
the feet, however, that the greatest difference is observable. 
"The structureof the feet and more particularly the toes of owls is 
very peculiar. When perching, the arrangement of the toes is zygo- 
dactyl; that is, two in front and two behind,  but when an owl pounces 
upon its prey, the four toes point to the four quarters of a circle. 
Again, when the bird alights upon the ground, the arrangement is 
still different, being nore like that of a typically avian foot--three 
toes in front and one behind. This facile adjustment to different 
conditions makes the foot of great efficiency in all its functions."  
A single member of the Accipitres, the genus Pandion, "shares the 
digital elasticity of the owls," and also, alone in that order, possesses 
the bony tarsal ring or loop, a character evidently correlated with the 
digital manipulation. 
The following special papers pertaining to the structure and classi- 
fication of owls are commended to those who desire further informa- 
tion on the subject: 
COLLTT, Rouaw.--Craniets og Oreaabningernes Bygning hos de nordeuropaeiske 
Arter af Familien Strigidm. 
An English translation edited and annotated by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt was pub- 
lished in the Journal of Morphology, xvii, 1900, 119-176, pls. 15-20-t-7 text cuts, 
under the title "Professor Collett on the Morpholoo3 of the Cranium and the 
Auricular Openings of the North-European species of the Family Strigidee," the 
illustrations from the original paper. 
CLARK, HUBERT Lvs.--The Pterylography of certain American Goatsuckers and 
Owls. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, no. 1018, 1895, 551-572; 11 cuts in text. (Owls 
treated on pp. 559-566, a key to the genera, based on pterylographical characters 
alone, being given on p. 560.) 
P7ca.r, W. P.--A Contribution toward our Knowledge of the Morphology of the 
Owls. Trans. Linn. Soc., 2d ser., Zool., vii, 1898, 223-275, pls. 24-29. 
P7crr, W. P.--On the Pterylography of Photodilus. The Ibis, Jan., 1903, 36-48, 
pl. 2; 6 cuts in text. (Includes a "Revised Key to the Subfamilies and Genera 
of the Family Asionidee," on pp. 47, 48.) 
B, C. Wn.L.--Owls of the Nearctic Region. Reprinted from the Eleventh 
Annual Report of the New York Zoological Society. Pp. 38, 1 full-page (frontis- 
piece) and 15 text cuts, all reproduced from photographs. (1907.) 

a This is not strictly correct, for when perching the outer toe usually stands nearly 
at right angles with the middle toe and hallux, though often inclined more back- 
ward than forward. 
b Beebe: Owls of the Neaxctic Region, p. 11 



BIRDS OF ORTH ADD MIDDLE AMERICA. 599 

Sternum without manubrium, the metasternum entire or else with 
but one notch on each side; clavicles united, forming a furculum, 
and solidly joined to the keel of the sternum; tarso-metatarsus with- 
out a bony ring or arch over the extensor tendon of tle toes; third 
(middle) toe with second phalanx decidedly longer thau tlm basal 
phalanx; skull relatively long and narrow, with palatines nearly 
parallel to each other, approximately tim same width throughout, 
almost concealhg the maxillo-palatines, which are broader from 
above downward than from side to side; prefrontal process of eth- 
mold consisting of rounded bones of some width; hterorbital regiot 
not forming a tbh plate anteriorly, but of considerable thickness. 
The pterylography is thus described by Mr. Hubert Lyman Clark: 
"The head is more uniformly feathered above b and shows 
signs of longitudhml rows, but the iufra-maudibular region is scarcely 
feathered at all, except for the very narrow lower cervical tract, 
which begins at the base of the gonys and extends nearly to the furcuh 
before forkhg widely. It is, however, slightly divided for some dis- 
tance before it actually forks, so that the upper part of ea('h branch 
is abruptly wider than the lower, allhoug] there is no true immr 
branch given off. The upper cervical tract is very narrow, while the 
humera]s are narrower than in any other genus, ad the parapterum 
is weak. The femorls are strong, but very diffuse, and are scattered 
over most of the femur. The feet are not feathered quite to t]e toes, 
but the latter are very hairy, the sternal tract is fused with the ven- 
tral, not only at its origin near the furcula, but also at the other 
of the breast, so that the tracts are really one; very broad on the 
sternum, and containhg a longitudhml apterium, and becoming 
abruptly narrow on the belly. The hypopterum is very strongly 
marked, and the hook connecting it with the sternal tract is com- 
posed of larger feathers, and they are much more numerous tha in the 
other owls. Indeed, the whole breast is much more thickly feathered 
than in Asio. A_mther remarkable peculiarity is the fornmh for 
the comparative lengths of the rectrices. In all the other owls the 
middle pair o tail feathers is the longest and the external pair short- 
est, so that the formula is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. In Strix [i. e., Tyrol, how- 
ever, this is exactly reversed, the outer pair being the longest and 
the formula reading 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. There are fifteen secondaries 
and the primaries rank as follows: 9, 8, 10, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 11." 
This family icludes a single genus.  Podilus Isidore-Geoffroy 
was formerly included, on account of its superficial resemblance to 
Tyro, but has since been found to more nearly agree structurally with 

Prec. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1895, 565. 
As compared with that of Asio wilsonianus and other Bubonidm. 
The fossil (extinct) genus Badiostes Ameghino is placed in this family by Dr. 
Sharpe (Hand-list, i, 1899, 302). 



BIRDS OF IORTI-I AID MIDDLE AMERICA. 601 

heart-shaped, a Ear-opening relatively small, subquadrate, with a 
rather small anterior subquadrate operculum. Wing very long, the 
longest primaes exceeding distal secondaries by more than one- 
third the total length of wing; tenth (apparent outermost) or ninth 
primary longest, neither with inner web sinuated or emainated. 
Tailless than half as long as wing, more or less distinctly emaginated. 
Tarsus very long (nem-ly to quite twice as long as middle toe without 
claw), densely clothed with short, soft feathers, those on the posterior 
side reversed (inclined upward) ; toe scantily bristled; inner toe as long 
as middle toe, the outer much shorter; claws very long and sharp, 
that of middle toe with its inner edge produced and pectinated. 
Coloration.--Plumage with either white, buff, or tawny prevailing, 
this usually more or less freckled or otherwise variegated (at least on 
the upper parts) with brown or dusky. 
Range.--Nearly cosmopolitan, but wanting in colder regions, New 
Zealand, Polynesia, and Madagascar. (Nearly 30 forms recognized, 
of which about one-third are American.) 
The Ame4can barn owls comprise two very distinct groups; one 
mainly continental (occurring off the continent only on the Bahamas, 
Cuba, the Caymans, and Jamaica), and characterized by large size 
(wing 312-360 ram.), the other exclusively insular, and distinguished 
by small size (wing 226-254 mm.), together with peculiarities of col- 
oration. There can be no question as to the specific distinctness of 
the two g'oups, the former of which includes a single species divided 
into a number of geographic forms (connected, in geogn'aphic sequence, 
by intermediate specimens), while the latter as certainly represent 
four species, one each peculiar to IIaiti, the Lesser Antilles, Curacao, 
and the Galapagos Archipelago. All, in my opinion, are specifically 
distinct from the European T. albus, for not only are the distinctie 
characters of coloration, dimensions, etc., sufficiently marked but 
their geographic isolation prevents the possibihty of intergradation. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES O1 TYTO. 
a. Larger (wing 312-360 ram.). (TMo perlata.) 
b. Secondaries always conspicuously lighter in color than rest of wing, often white, 
sometimes immaculate; under parts never wholly ochraceous or huffy; facial 
border white to ochraceous-buff. (Cuba, Isle of Pines, Grand Cayman, Cayman 
Bmc, and 5amaica.) ............................. Tyro lerlata furcata (p. 602). 
bb. Secondaries never (?) conspicuously lighter in color than rest of wing, rarely 
at all paler, never white; under parts frequently ochraceous or buff (except 
in T. p. lucayana?); facial border ochraceous-buff to dark brown, rarely 
whitish. 
c. Paler, the under parts usually white; upper parts usually with much ochra- 
ceous or buff, this sometimes predominating. 

a The peculiar physiognomy of the barn owl is responsible for the common name 
"Monkey-faced Owl" very generally applied to T. pratincola in the United States. 



G08 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

1888); xviii, 1901, 136 (Worcester, Massachusetts, May 23, 1891); Bull. Ius. 
Comp. Zool., xli, 1902, 92 (Cape San Lucas district, Lower California).-- 
PARK, Auk, vii, 1890, 400 (near Troy, New York, Nov. 19, 1889); viii, 1891, 
114 (near Troy, New York, Dec. 3, 1890).--BERfiTOLD, Auk, vii, 1890, 400 
(Buffalo, New York, July 5, 1890).--JOHNSON, Auk, viii, 1891, 114 (Park- 
ville, Long Island, Sept. 10, 1890).--BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, (i), 
]892, 325, pl. 12, fig. 1 (egg); Auk, xii. 1895, 180 (Washlnon, D. C., breed- 
ing in winter!).--FmER (A. ]{.), Iawks and Owls of U. S., 1893,132, pl. 19; 
Science, iii, 1896, 625 (food).--SAc, E, Auk, x, 1893, 207 (Leesville, Connec- 
ticut, June ] 1, 1891).--TYLER, Auk, xi, 1894, 253 (Lyndon, Vermont, June4, 
1894).--ANTIMONY, Auk, xii, 1895, ].38"(San Fernando, Lower California, 
breeding).--ULREY and WALLACE, Proc. Ind. Ac. Sci., 1895, 151 (North Man- 
chester, Wabash Co., Indiana).--TuwwLE, Auk, xii, 1895, 191 (Erie Co., 
Ohio).--SAvAGE, Auk, xii, 1895, 393 (near Buffalo, New York, July 18, 
] 895).--CooKE, Birds Col., 1897, 77 (Denver, Colorado, 1 spec.); Bull. 44, Col. 
Agric. Exp. Sta., 1898, 160 (near Pueblo, Colorado, 3 specs.); Bull. 56, 1900, 
205 (Wet Mountain Valley; Rocky Ford, June).--REED (J. H.), Auk, xiv, 1897, 
374-383 (habits, etc., in e. Pennsylvania).--WoRTIINGTON, Auk, xvi, 1899, 
85 (Gardiners I., New York, Sept. 30,1898; East Marion, Long Island, October 
12, 1898).--PURDV, Auk, xvi, 1899, 77 (near Northville, Iichigan, last of Oct., 
1898).--BRtISLN, Auk, xvii, 1900, 70 (Gardincrs I., Long Island, March, 
1899).--BA, Auk, xvii, 1900, 177 (near Utica, New York, Sept., 1898).- 
FLEMING, Auk, xvii, 1900, 177 (Toronto, Ontario, Sept. 7, 1899).--HOWE, Auk, 
xix, 1902, 79 (Long Point, Ontario, Nov., 1899).--WLLAS (R. W.), Auk, xix, 
1902, 198 (nesting at Tfllabassee, Florida, in Dec.).--BL.JN, Auk, xix, 1902, 
210 (lower Detroit R. and Port Mouillee, Michigan).--ttENNiNER, Auk, xx, 
1903, 67 (Tiffin, Ohio, fall of 1901); Wilson Bull., no. 55, 1906, 52 (Seneca 
Co., Ohio, 4 records); n. s., xiv, 1907, 32 (Seneca Co., Ohio, six records).-- 
BRTS, Auk, xx, 1903, 212 (Islip, Long Island, Apr. 23, ]902).--SwLES, 
Auk, xxiii, 1906, 100 (Wayne Co., Michigan, Oct. 1895).---JoNEs, Wilson 
Bull., no. 57, 1906, 115 (Cleveland, Ohio, rare).--CoLE, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., l, 1906, 125 (Chichen Itza, Yucatan).--HUN, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 420 
(Silver City, New Mexico, 1 spec.).--]=IOLES, Wilson Bull., no. 58, 1907, 
23 (Summit, New Jersey, rare summer resident).--TuAvER and BANS, Con- 
dor, ix, 1907, 137 (Rosario and San Andres, Lower California).--TAEe, 
Auk, xxiv, 1907, 214 (Westn, Massachusetts, Nov. 14, 1906).WAvNE, Auk, 
xxv, 1908, 21-25 (breeding season, etc., in South Carolina).--LNTON, Condor, 
x, 1898, 127 (Santa Cn, z I., California, IOv.).--SMT (H. G.), Auk, xxv, 
1908, 185 (Denver, Colorado, Mar. 12, 1907; Iolly, Prowers Co., Colorado, 
May 24, 1907).--LEIBELSPERGER, Auk, xxv, 1908, 232 (Berks Co., Pennsyl- 
vania, breeding).---ALLEN (G. M.), Auk, xxv, 1908, 234 (Dedham, Massa- 
chusetts, Aug. 17, 1907).--PEARSON, Auk, xxv, 1908, 316 (breeding season 
in South Carolina).--BALES, Wilson Bull., xxi, 1909, 33 (Pickaway Co., Ohio, 
breeding; list of specimens, with dates, etc.).--IsELV, Auk, xxix, 1912, 31 
(Sedovick Co., Kansas, breeding). 
[Strix] pratincola BONAIARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 55.--GRimY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 
52, no. 565.--RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 164, in text (Chietla 
and Puebla, Puebla; crit. ; measurements).--SARlE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 300. 
[Strixflammea]var.pratincola ]IDGWAY. Bull. Essex Inst., v, Dec., 1873, 200,in text. 
?[trix] flammea . . . var pratincola RDWAV, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., x, 1874, 378 
(Illinois). 
Strix flammea, vat. pratincola RmwAv, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 13.--LAWRENCE, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., it, 1874, 
298 (Tres Marias Islands; Colima and 1io de la Armeria, Colima); Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 38 (Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca).--Jouv, Field and 
Forest, it, 1877, 178 (District of Columbia, breeding).MERRILL, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 151 (Ft. Brown, Texas, resident). 



616 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TYTO PUNCTATISSIMA (Gray). 
.,Pos B ow.. 
Apparently a most nearly resembling T. isularis but still more 
deeply colored and with under parts irregtdarly barred, imtead of 
spotted, with dusky. 
"Adult (type).--Above duff brown, with a few scattered spots of 
dusky white, and nute flec of the same on the dorsal feathers; 
sides of neck light goldea buff, instinctly marked with tramverse 
lines of brown, becoming gradually obscm'e and disappeang on the 
hind neck; the wing-coverts more or less whed externally with 
deep goldea buff, many of the white spots ao tinged with the same 
color, the buff predonating along the edge of the ng and at the 
be of the primary-coverts; quil du brown like the back, sghtly 
varied with nute flecks of white, and reticulated with goldea 
buff on the outer webs, much more distinct on the pma, where 
it for four irregularly defined bands; the secondaries th a - 
tinct white ternal spot; the inner hng of ng ashy browa, the 
base of the fthers buffy white, the inner webs with two or t 
indistiact bands of whitish; tM1 goldea buff, barred acro ith fo 
bands of dark brom, the interspaces verculated th the same 
color, especially toward the tips of the feathers, which are them 
almost entirely brown, with a white teraal spot; genera.1 color of 
face aous rufous, incling to black round the eye; the chee 
silvery white, washed with rous; facial ruff rich goldea b, white 
at be of feathers, which are coarsely verculated th brown, 
sometimes in a horseshoe pattern; crown of head deep golden b, 
verculated with broish; under surface of body rich golden buff, 
trsversely veculated with browsh bars, irregular in shape and 
more distinct oa the abdomen, the under wing- and tail-cover 
colored ke the breast, but fle latter rather paler; bill yellosh, 
ho-colored at base; feet blacsh. Total lenh 13 inches [330.2 
ram.], culmen 1.7 [4.32 ram.], wing 9.2 [233.7 mm],t ail 4.6 [116.8 ram.], 
tarsus 2.3 [58.4 ram.]." b 

a I have not been able to examine a specimen of this form. 
b Sharpe's description in Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., ii, 1875, 297, 298. 
The following measurements (converted from inches and tenths in the originals to 
millimeters) are given, respectively, by Gray, Sharpe, and Salvin; it should be 
remarked that the first two are from the same specimen, the last probably being fr,m 
one oi the specimens collected later by Dr. Habel: 

Gray, in Gould's Zool. Voy. "Beagle," from type 
specimen ............................................ 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., fi, from type specimen.. 
S,lvin, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., ix, 494 (from Habel 
specimen?) .......................................... 

ing. 
234. 9 
233. 7 
228. 6 

107. 9 
116. 8 
104.1 

ulmm 
(prob- 
ably 
inelud, 
ing 
cere). 
43. 2 

64. 8 ... 
61 ....... 

Total 
length. 

342. 9 
880. 2 

304. 8 



636 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL ]VIUSEUM. 

of feathers) of grayish white, the uniformly sooty median portions 
of the feathers producing an effect of irregular dusky stripes, most 
conspicuous on back and scapulars; the more anterior parts with 
edges of feather more regularly barred, the mottling more profuse 
on rump and upper taft-coverts, producing a more grayish appear- 
ance; outer webs of wing-coverts variegated by whitish mottlings; 
alule and primary coverts with very indistinct bands of paler brown; 
secondaries crossed by about nine bands (one terminal, three con- 
cealed by greater coverts) of pale grayish brown, .fading into paler 
(sometimes whitish) on edges of outer webs; primaries crossed by 
nine transverse series of quadrate spots of mottled pale brownish 
gray, on outer webs, those beyond the emarginations indistinct, 
except the terminal crescentic bar; proximal secondaries and middle 
rectrices with coarse mottling or marbling of dusky bro or sooty 
aml grayish white, the markings usually vith more or less of a tend- 
ency to form irregular, broken bars; rest of tail dusky crossed by 
about 1fine paler bands, these merely marked off by a narrow line or 
edging of whitish or pale brownish gray inclosing a grayish brown, 
sometinms slightly mottled, space, though toward base of the rectrices 
the mottling is more confused and the bands coffused or broken up; 
groined color of under parts grayish white, each feather of neck, chest, 
breast, and abdomen with a broad, irreoaflarly serrated, median stripe 
of dusky brown or sooty; sides, flanks, anal region, and under tail- 
coverts narrowly banded or barred with sooty brown and grayish 
white, the legs with narrower, more irregular bars; "eyebrows" (su- 
perciliary region), lores, and chin grayish white, with a dusky space 
immediately in front of eye; face grayish white with distinct concen- 
tric semicircular bars of dusky brown; facial circle dark brown pass- 
ing into white on foreneck, where interrupted by a spot of brownish 
black on throat; bill light dull yellow; iris lemon yellow. 
Downy youg.Buffy white, the down on hindneck, back, scapu- 
lars, and wings dark sooty brown basally, the tips pale dull buff or 
pale brownish buffy. 
Adult male.--Length (s-kins), 575-625 (606); wing, 410-447 (433); 
tail, 300-323 (313.6); culmen, from cere, 23-26.5 (24.). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 610-670 (636); wing, 430-465 
(446); tail, 310-347 (323.3); culmen, from cere, 24.5-28.5 (26.1). b 
Northern North America; breeding in ttudsonian and Upper 
Canadian zones, from tree limit in Alaska and northwestern 1Vfacken- 

a Five specimens. 
b Seven specimens. 
According to Ernest E. Thompson (Ernest Thompson Seton) a fully grown young 
male specimen of this species weighed 26 ounces and had 480 square inches of wing 
surface, or 18x% square inches to each ounce of weight--nearly twice that of Cathartes 
aura. The tail surface was 100 square inches. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 541.) 



640 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
(?) JBulaca I:[ODGSON, Asiat. Research., xix, 1836, 169. (Type, B. newarensis 
Hodgson.) 
(7) Nyctimene a MotRm, in N. Wood's Naturalist, i.i, no. 9, June, 1837, 123. (Types, 
N. flammula Morris-Strix aluco Linnaeus7 and N. stridula Morris=7) 
(7)Myrtha BONAPARTE, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., vi (2), 1854, 541. (Type, Strix 
sinensis Latham.) 
Large or medium-sized Bubonidm (wing, i American species, about 
305-380 mm.) without ear-tufts, the external ear-openings very large, 
reniform, conspicuously asymmetrical, and furnished with a large 
anterior operculum or dermal flap; symmetrical cranium; relatively 
large eyes (the iris always dark brown), and incompletely feathered 
toes. 
Bill moderately stout; top of cere much shorter than chord of 
culmen, nearly straight or faintly arched. Nostril oval or broally 
elliptical, moderately large, obliquely vertical, opening in anterior 
edge of cere, the latter somewhat iaflated laterally. External ear- 
opening occupying middle half or more of postocular region of head, 
the car-orifice opening below a median transverse ligamentous 
"bridge," the anterior margin produced into a cry large operculum 
or dermal flap, the opposite ears conspicuously asymmetrical in all 
their part.s, and the right ear distinctly larger than the left. Wing 
rather large, with longest primaries decidedly longer than distal sec- 
ondaries; sixth and seventh, or sixth, seventh, and eighth,  primaries 
longest, the tenth (apparent outermost) not longer than th sec- 
ond,  sometimes shorter tha. the first;  five outer primaries with 
inner webs sinuated. Tail less to more than two-thirds as long s 
wing, slightly to distinctly rounded. Tarsus decidedly longer than 
middle toe with claw, completely clothed with dense, soft feathers, 
the upper side of toes (except terminal phalan:() usually also feathered 
but sometimes raked except on outer side of basal phalanx of middle 
toe. Head relatively large, without trace of ear-tufts. 
Cooration (of American species ) .--Above brown, barred or spotted 
with huffy or whitish; face dull grayish or dingy whitish, usually 
with arrow concentric lines of darker; primaries spotted with pale 
brown and whitish and tail crossed by about 6-8 narrow bands of the 
same; under parts whitish (huffy or ochraceous benea:h surface), 
barred (ateriorly) and striped (posteriorly), or spotted only, with 
brown; iris blackish browr or bromish black; bill yellowish. 
Range.--Palmarctic and Nearctic Regions; in America, south to 
highlands of Guatemala. (Numerous species.) e 

NS (,r5g), night; /tvw, I remain, abide. (Richmond.) 
Fourth and fifth, or third, fourth, and fifth, from outside. 
Ninth from outside. 
Tenth from outside. 
In Sharpe's "Hand-list" (i, 1899, 293-294) thirty-one species are given under 
"Syrnium" (Str/x); but some of these are undoubtedly not congeneric. 



BIRDS OF IORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 645 

Adult female.--Length (skins), 445-500 (478); wing, 330-360 
(347.1); tail, 215-245 (232.3); cuhnen, from cere, 25-28 (24.1). a 
Humid division of Lower Austral Zone of eastern United States; 
north to South Carolina on the Atlantic coast, to Arkansas (Wilmot; 
Delight; Van Buren; Stuttgart) and northeastern Texas (Cook 
County) in the interior; b west to eastern Texas (Shelby, Hardin, 
Montgomery, Harris, Galveston, and Fort Bend counties). 
Ulula nebulosa (not Strix nebulosa Forster) WalL,S, Rep. Geol. Miss., 1854, 320 
(Mississippi). 
(?)[Ulula] nebulosa HEINE and Ren'neNow, Nom. Mus. ]Iein. Orn., ]890, 252 
(Georgia; South Carolina). 
Syrnium nebulosum TaYLOr, Ibis, 1862, 128 (Florida).--MYND, Iirds E. N. 
Am., 1881, 256, part (Florida specimens).--A,,EN, Bt:ll. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
ii, 1871, 340 (e. Florida).--CovEs, Check List, 1873, no. 323, part.--NEna- 
]rNG, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 172 (Montgomery, Galveston, and 
Fort Bend counties, Texas). 
[8yrnium] nebulosum CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 204, part. 
Striz nebulosa alleni RIDGW,Y, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, sig. 1, March 27, 1880, 8 
(Clearwater, s. w. Florida; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.), 191; Nora. N. Am. Birds, 
1881, no. 397a.--REICnENOW and SCmLOW, Journ. fiir Orn., 1881, 79 (reprint 
of original descr.).--ScoTT, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 18 (Tanasofenskee 
Lake, Florida).--CovEs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 477. 
8[trix] n[ebulosa] alleni CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 510. 
Syrnium nebulosum alleni RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 1885, 
355; Auk, viii, 1891, 240 (near Charleston, South Caroliua).--AmcnN 
ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, ]886 (and 2d ed., ]895), no. 368a.-- 
RAGSDALE, Auk, iii, 1886, 281 (Cook Co., n. e. Texas).--CIIAPAN, Auk, v, 
1888, 271 (Gainesville, Florida).--AL,EN, Auk, v, 1888, 324 (Mandeville, 
Louisiana).BENmE, Life tIist. N. Am. Birds, (i), 1892, 339, part.coww, 
Auk, vi, 1899, 248 (Tarpon Sprin, Sanibel I., and Marco, w. Florida).-- 
Coos, Auk, ix, 1892, 205 (Bayou Teche, Louisiana).--WnYNE, Auk, xii, 
1895, 364 (Aucilla R., n. w. Florida).--BEYE, Proc. La. Soc. Nat. for 1897-'99 
(1900), 100 (LouIsiana).--BEYE1L ALLSON, and I{OPIIAN, llk, XXV, 1908, 
443 (Louisiana). 
S[yrnium] ebulosum alleni RIDOWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 259. 
Srnium arium alleni PREBLE, North Am. Fauna, no. 22, Oct., 1902, 109.-- 
AtEmCAN OaNITIOLOISTS' UNION COtMIarEE, Auk, xx, 1903, 340.-- 
WLIArS (R. W.), Auk, xxi, 1904, 455 (Leon Co., Florida).--Kov_taN, Auk, 
xxii, 1905, 141 (Jefferson Parish, Louisiana).---IIowELL (A. ]I.), Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., xxi, 1908, 120 (Lecompt.e and Eldorado, n. Louisiana); Bull. 38, 
U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 42 (Wilmot, Delight, Van Buren, Stuttgart, etc., 
Arkansas). 
StrlxvariaalleniAc.N ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 3rd ed., 1910, 170. 
Stryx varia alleni Fisa (W. C.), Wilson Bull., xxii, 1910, 45 (La.ke Wimlico, 
n. w. Florida). 
Syrnium alleni GURNEY, Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894, 40. 
[Syrnium] alleni SP,, Hand-list, i, 1899, 293. 
8yrnium varium (not Strix varius Barton) ALLISON, Auk, xxi, 1904, 477 (West 
Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana).---STocKD, Auk, xxi, 1905, ]53 (Missis- 
sippi; nesting habits, etc.). 

a Seven specimens. 
b Owing to luck of material from intermediate territory, it is not possible t present 
to state with greater precision the northern limits to the range of this form. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERIC& 649 

on outer webs of exterior scapulars and distal larger wing-coverts; 
secondaries crossed by sLx or seven bands of lighter brown, more or 
less mottled with darker and (some of them at least) passing into 
white toward edge or along posterior margin; outer webs of primaries 
with transverse, quadrate spots of lighter brown, those on distal por- 
tion of longer quills partly wlfite; tail crossed by narrow bands of 
lighter brown (these becoming less distinct or more broken on basal 
portion), these light-brown bands more or less intermixed with wlfite, 
especially toward edge and on distal portion of tail; "eyebrow" 
(superciliary region) and lores grayish white, the former with wlfite, 
the latter with black, shafts; postocular and auricular regions pale 
brown, concentrically baTed, more or less distinctly, with darker 
brown; feathers immediately in front of and above eye uniform dark 
sooty brown; facial rim or border mostly uniform (lark brown, fol- 
lowed immediately, in middle portion, by a narrow area of small 
brown and white spots; middle of throat pale brown barred or striped 
with dark brown, the lower portion immaculate dull white; rest of 
under parts mixed buff and wlfite, the latter in form of large, more or 
less rounded spots on opposite webs of the feather, and broadly 
barred with brown, the brown bars connected by a more or less broad 
median space on each feather, those on under tail-coverts, however, 
separated, or else connected by a very narrow shaft-streak; legs pale 
buff, more or less thic -kly spotted or mottled with brown. 
Youg.--Remiges and rcctrices as in adults; rest of plumage pale 
brownish buff, broadly barred with light brown (except on head and 
legs), the bars widest and most distinct on scapulars, which are 
tipped with wlfite; head (except orbital region and lores) pale brown- 
ish buff, the feathers dark brown basally; legs immaculate pale buff 
or dull buffy wlfite. 
Adultmale.--Length (skins), 425-450 (442) ; wing, 310-326 (320.5) ; 
tail, 210-220 (215.8); culmen, from cere, 21-22 (21.3). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skdn), 470; wing, 328; tail, 225; culmen, 
from cere, 22.5. b 

Six specimens. 

b One specimen (from near Padena). 

Locality. 
]IALES. 
Six adult males of S. o. occidentalis .............................................. 

One adult male of 8. o. cauria ............................ 
Two adult males of 8. o. huachuce ............... 
FEMALES. 
One adult female of . o. occidentalis ............................................ 
Four adult females orE. o. cauria .............................................. 
One adult female of . o. huachuc .............................................. 
Two adult females of . o. lucida .......................................... 

Culmen 
from 
ceres. 

21.3 
23.5 
20. 7 

22.5 
22.9 
19.5 
22.7 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 651 

ward through vestern Washington (hit. Vernon, Skagit Valley; 
Seattle; Tacoma) and western Oregon to northern coast district of 
California (Eureka, IIumboldt County; Mount Tamalpais and Point 
Reyes, Marin County), and along the Sierra Nevada to Calaveras 
County (Big Trees). 
Strix occidentalis (not yrnium occidentale Xantus) BELDINO, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., v, 1883, 550, in text (Big Trees, Calaveras Co., California; notes).-- 
COups, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 478, part. 
S[trix] occidentalis Couv.s, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 510, part. 
Sgrnium occidentale BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, (i), 1892, 343, part.-- 
IOADS, Auk, x, ]893, 17 (near Tacoma, Washington; crit.); Proc. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 91 (Tacoma).--BaooKs, Auk, xvii, 1900, 105 (lower 
Fraser Valley, Brit. Columbia). 
8yrnium occidentale caurinum MERRIAM, Auk, xv, Jan., ]89, 39, 40 (Mt. Vernon, 
Skagit Vallcy, Washington; coll. U. S. Nat. MUS.).--AIIERICAN ORNITHOL- 
OOISTS' UNION COIIITTEE. Auk, xvi, 1899, 109.--Bowes, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 
143 (Tacoma, Washington, Oct. 19, 1898). 
Syrnium occidentalis caurinum KRroD, Provincial Mus., Victoria, 1909, 46 
(Chilliwack, Brit. Columbia). 
Strix occidentalis caurina AIERCAN ORNITttOLOOISTS' UNION COIIIIITTEE, uk, 
xxv, July, 1908, 371; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 170.--GRINN.LL, (J.), Condor, 
xi, 1909, 138 (Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., California, May; crit.); Pacific 
Coast Avifauna, no. 8, 1912, 13.--BowL,s, Condor, xii, 1910, 110 (Tacoma, 
Washington, breeding).--.CLAv, Condor, xiii, 1911, 75 (near Eureka, n. Cali- 
fornia; notes).--R,us (S. F.), Auk, xxv.iii, 1911, 493 (Seattle, Washing- 
ton, Oct. 27, 1907). 
Strix occidentalis caurinum BaooKs, Auk, xxvi, $uly, 1909, 313 (Chilliwack, Brit- 
Columbia, Jan.). 
Strix occidentalis caurinus SwhnTg, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, n..1, May 
1910, 8 (Mt. Tamalpais). 
Strix occizlentale caurinum CLARK (A. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxxviii, 191, 
59 (Union Bay, Vancouver I.). 
[Syrnium] caurinum SmaeE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 293. 

STRIX OCCIDENTALIS HUACHUC/E Swarth. 

RIZON SPOTT]D OWL. 

Similar to S. o. occidentalis but white spots on upper parts larger, 
those on lower hindneck distinctly transverse, or in form of broad 
transverse ba; brown markings on under parts narrover, on chest 
forming distinct and regular bars, and rather lighter in tone; legs 
and feet paler buff (sometimes nearly white), less heavily mottled 
with paler brown. 
Adult nale.--Length (sns), 405-410 (407.5); wing, 312-321 
(316.5); tail, 195-215 (205); culmen, from cere, 20.5-21 (20.7). a 
Adultfemale.--Wing, 317; taft, 225; cuhnen, from cere, 19.5. a 
Mountains of Arizona (Huachuca and Santa Catalina ranges; Fort 
Whipple; Santa Clara Valley; near Tucson) and eastward through 

a Two specimens, b One specimen. 



BIRDS OF NOITlCI AND MIDDLE AMEIICA. 659 

intermixed with a few irregular spots or blotches of deep buff or light 
ochraceous ; outer webs of secondaries and proximal primaries crossed 
by indistinct (sometimes obsolete) bands of lighter sooty brown, more 
or less mottled, those of distal primaries xvith distinct large spots of 
deep buff or ochraceous, more or less mottled with darker, these 
indistinct on distal half or more, obsolete terminally, sometimes 
anting altogether on one or two outermost primaries; tail crossed 
by a variable number (about four to seven) narrow, interrupted bands 
of pale buff to ochraceous, these usually mottled centrally with dark 
sooty brown, sometimes forming a nearly uniform dusky bar between 
two narrower buff or ochraceous ones; ear-tufts uniform sooty 
black for greater lart; orbital region, superciliary region, and lores 
sooty black, the latter more or less intermixed beneath surface 
(basally) with pale dull grayish buffy; blackish orbital space bor- 
dered posteriorly and below by a semicircular band (broadest below) 
of dull grayish buffy to buffy grayish white (the two of opposite sides 
connected on chin), this bordered posteriorly by a semicircular band 
of uniform sooty black; facial riln sooty black or dark sooty brown, 
speckled with buff; across middle of throat a band of sooty black or 
dark sooty brown (confluent with the uniform blackish band on ter- 
minal portion of auricular region) spotted, barred, or streaked xvith 
buffy; chest dull buffy white to pale buff, with large lontudinal 
spots of uniform dark sooty brown; rest of under parts more strongly 
buff (sometimes deep ochraceous-buff), with more or less of white on 
distal portion of feathers of sides and flank, and with irregular broad 
stripes of dark sooty brown, these (except sometimes on breast) 
throwing off two or more lateral bars of the same color, thus produc- 
ing a more or less distinct "herring-bone" pattern; long tibial plumes 
streaked mesially with dark sooty brovn; legs buff or ochraceous- 
buff, sometimes immaculate, sometimes more or less mottled or 
flecked with dusky; under tail-coverts streaked mesially with dark 
sooty brown, sometimes also barred (more or less broadly) with the 
same; under wing-coverts irregularly spotted or blotched with dark 
sooty brown and buff or ochraceous, the former mostly on outer por- 
tion, where sometimes greatly predominating; under primary coverts 
uniform dark grayish brown with a large basal area of buff or buffy 
white; under surface of primaries dark grayish brown distally, paler 
proximally, where broken by large irregular spots or blotches of buffy; 
bill dark horn color with paler tip, or wholly blackish; naked toes horn 
color or dusky (in dried skins). 



662 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUlYI. 

blackish brown, about equal in width to the ochraceous or burly 
interspaces on middle rectrices but becoming narrower on outer ones, 
the ochraceous or buffy interspace on the former enclosing central 
transverse spots of dusky, the terminal ochraceous or buffy band 
broadest on all the rectrices; "Eyebrows" (superciliary region), lores, 
chin, and throat dull white, the loral bristles with black shafts; face 
dingy ochraceous-white or dull buffy white exteriorly, the eyes 
broadly encircled with black; facial rim minutely speckled with pale 
ochraceous or buffy and blackish, except inmaediately behind ear, 
where uniform blackish; under wing-coverts immaculate pale buff to 
white, tile terminal half of under primary coverts plain blackish 
brom (fornfing a conspicuous spot); under surface of primaries for 
greater part immaculate buffy white, but terminal portion, and, pre- 
ceding this, one or two eel T broad bands, dusky; bill blackish; iris 
bright lemon yellow. 
]Zoung.--Above dark sooty brown, the feathers broadly tipped 
with ochraceous-buff; face uniform brownish black; under parts 
wholly plain pale dull ocllraceous or buffy, tinged anteriorly with 
smoky grayish. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 325-400 (357); wing, 298-330 (312.9); 
tail, 136.5-161.5 (148.3); culmen, from cere, 15.5-20 (17.2). a 
Adutfemale.--Length (s -kins), 340-392 (371); wing, 300-326 (312); 
tail, 142-158.5 (152); culmen, from cere, 16.5-19.5 (17.7). b 

a Twenty-three specimens, b Sixteen specimens. 

Locality. 
MALES. 
Three adult males from western Europe ............................ 
Four adult males from eastern Asia ..................................... 
Five adult males from easte, rn United States .................................... 
Two adult males from western United States ................................. 
Four adult males from Alaska .................................................. 
Five adult males from southern South America ................................. 
One adult male from Porto Rico (A. portoricensis) .............................. 
Three adult males from Galapagos Islands (A. galapagoensis) ................... 

Wing. 
3O4 
311 
310.8 
3O7 
312.5 
314.6 
282.7 

FEMALES. 
Three adtflt females from western Europe ...................................... I 3{)8. 7 
Seven adult females from eastern North Amerk ............................... I 3{)8 
Three adtflt females from Alaska ............................................... I 313. 3 
One adult female from Clarion Island, off w. Mexk ............................ I 324 
Two adult females from southern South America ............................... [ 323. 5 
One adult female from Galapagos Islands (A. galapagoensis) ................... I 288 

rail. 
144. 
147. { 
151.4 
149.  
146. " 
148. { 
131 
136.  

149.2 
148.6 
151.8 
150 
155.5 
142.5 

Culmu, 
from 
eere. 

16.5 
16.9 
17.1 
16.2 
17 
18.5 
17.2 
19 

17.5 
17.6 
17.2 
17.5 
19 
20.5 

With a fairly good series of specimens (though insufficient in number of European 
examples), I am not able to make out any constant differences between American 
and Old World birds of this species. It is possible, however, that a larger series might 
produce a different impression. 



BIIDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AIVEIICA. 667 

[Asio accipitrinus.] [L Asio cassni SItARPE, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., ii, 1875, 238 
(numerous North and South American localities cited). 
Brachyotus palustris, 8. casini RIDOWY, Orn. Fortieth Paralle!, 1877, 571 (San 
Francisco, California, Feb.). 
Asio accipitrinus cassini Scr,ow, Sitz.-Ber. blaturf. Freunde Berlin, 1897, no. 5, 
70 (Mas-a-tieTa, Chile); Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. iv, heft 3, 1898, 698 (e. Tierra 
del Fuego), 743 (Juan Fernandez; important references). 
Nyctalops accipitrinus cassini DnnN, Orn. Argentina, July 16, 1910, 417 (centr. 
Patagonia). 
Asia accipitrinus mcilhennyi STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899 (separates 
issued Dec. 29, 1899), 478 (Point Barrow, Alaska; coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.); 
1900, 28 (Point Barrow).A,N, Auk, xviii, 1901, 174 (reprint of original 
descr.). 
Asio accipitrinus pallidus ShaUDNY and LOUDON, Orn. Monatsb., 1906, ]51 
(central Asia).---ScmLow, Journ. fiir Orn., 1908, 108. 
Surniafunerea (not Strixfunerea Linnmus)CookE, Auk, ii, 1885, 31 (Corinth, 
Mississippi). 
Surnia ulula caparoch (not Strix caparoch Miiller) SHLIFELDT, Auk, vii, 1890, 9l 
(District Columbia). 
Brachyotus gmelinii M^, GSteb. och Bohusl. Fauna, ]877, 75. 

ASIO PORTORICENSIS Ridgway. 
PORTO RICAN SHORT-EARED OWL. 
Similar to A. flammeus but decidedly smaller, with larger bill and 
feet; back, scapulars, and rump with dark brown oTeatly predomi- 
nating (almost uniform), and ochraceous or light tawny spaces on 
distal primaries much smaller, little, if any, exceeding the brown 
interspaces in extent. 
Adults (sexes alike).Above dusky brown (bister), this nearly 
uniform on dorsal region, the scapulars, however, with narrow edg- 
ings of dull light brownish buffy; rump and upper tail-coverts paler 
brown or fawn color, the feathers with subterminal crescentic bars 
of dark brown; hindneck broadly streaked with buffy, the brown 
forming broad (partly guttate) stripes, the pileum narrowly streaked 
with the same; tail sharply banded with ochraceous-buff and plain 
dark brown, the brown bands narrow on outermost rectrices (one-half, 
or less, as wide as the buff interspaces) growing gradually broader 
toward the middle pair on which the buff is sometimes reduced to 
spots, usually with a small central blotch of brown; wings with dark 
brown predominating, but this much broken by large roundish and 
transversely oval spots of buff or cinnamon-buff on wing-coverts, 
and by more quadrate spots (running in transverse series) on remiges, 
those on proximal portion of distal primaries little, if any larger than 
the brown nterspaces; orbital region uniform sooty black or dark 
sooty brown, this narrower in front of eye; "eyebrows" and lores 
dull light brownish buff, or dull buffy whitish, the latter with bristly 
tips blackish; a crescentic band of dull buff extending across posterior 
portion of auricular region, from base of ear-tufts to throat, where 



676 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES I'ATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus GYMNASIO Bonaparte. 
Gymntso ]3ON.PARTE, Rev. et Mug. Zool., vi (2), 1854, 543. (Type, Slrx nudipes 
Daudin.) 
Gymnasia (emendation) GIAY, Hand-list, i, 18{;9, pp. vi, 47. 
Gymnoglaux CABAIS, Jour. fiir Orn., 1855, 466. (Type, Noclua nudipes Lembeye 
(not Strlx nudipes Daudin)=Gymnoglaux lwrencii Sclater and Salvin.) 
Small Bubonidm (wing about 160-170 into.) resembling Otus in 
general appcar.nce but differing in absence of ear-tufts, in having 
at least the h)wcr half (usually much the greater part) of the tarsus 
naked, and relatively shorter tenth primary. 
Bill moderate; top of cere nearly straight, shorter than chord of 
cuhncn. Nostril small, nearly circular, i upper anterior edge of 
hc laterally idtated core, and ilclosing a distinct internal, nearly 
('('ntral cartilagbmus tubercle or shelf. Wiag rather large, with 
h)ngcst prinmrics exceeding distal secondaries by one-fourth the total 
length of wing, or a little more; rifth, sixth, and scvenih  primaries 
longest, the tenth (apparent outermost)nmch shorter than second- 
a.rics, the ninth shorter than third;  four or rive outer primaries 
with immr webs sinuated. Tail more than half as long as wing, 
truncate to slightly rounded. Tarsus about one-fourth as long as 
wing, about one and  half to one and two-thirds times as long as 
middle toe without claw, at least the lower half (sometimes nearly 
the entire length), as well as toes, naked. 
Colortion.--Brown or rufescent above, usually more or less ver- 
miculated with darker, sometimes with white spots on wing-coverts, 
scapulars, etc.; tail sometimes barred, sometimes uuicolored; outer 
webs of primaries spotted with whitish or brownish buffy; under 
parts white or buffy, more or less streaked with blackish and barred 
or vermiculated with blackish, bro, or rufous. 
Rage.--Greater Antilles (islands of Cuba, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, 
and St. CroLx). (Two species.) 
KEY "1"O THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF GYMNASIO. 
a. Upper third, or more, of tarsus densely feathered; back and wing-coverts without 
distinct white spots; under parts more or less (sometimes profusely)hatred or 
vermiculuted; dichromatic. (Gymnasio nudipes. ) 
b. Darker and more rufescent brown above; under parts more profusely and more 
headly vermiculated and streaked. (Porto P, ico.) 
Gymnasio nudipes nudipes (p. 677). 
bb. Paler and more grayish brown above; under parts more sparsely and less heavily 
vermiculated and streaked. (St. Croix; St. Thomas; St. Johns.) 
(ymnasio nudiles newtoni (p. 679). 
an. Upper third of tarsus (except extreme upper portion in front) wholly naked, like 
lower part; back and wings with conspicuous white spots; under parts without 
bars or vermiculations, but more or less broadly streaked; not dichromatic (no 
rufous phase). (Cuba; Isle of Pines.) ............ Gymnasio lawrencii (p. 679). 

a Fourth, fifth, and sixth from outside also, not counting rudimentm T eleventh 
primary. 
b Eighth from outside, not counting concealed rudumentary eleventh primary. 



680. BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

or ochraceous, usually with a blackish margin; under parts mostly 
whitish, vermiculated, barred, or otherwise variegated with brown, 
gray, or rufous, often with black streaks and bars. May of the 
species "dichromatic," that is, having two very distinct phases of 
plumage, wholly independent of age, sex, or season--a grayish or 
brownish, conspicuously variegated plumage (which may be regarded 
as the normal one) and a more uniform bright rufescent one. 
Range.--Nearly cosmopolitan, but wanting in Australia, New 
Guinea, New Zealand, Polynesia, West Indies (?), and colder regions. 
(About eighty species and subspecies, of which about twenty-five are 
American and only one European.) 
Among the many species generally referred to this genus which 
have been examined in the present connection are variations in exter- 
nal characters which strongly fildicate the necessity of dividing the 
group into two or more genera; but in the absence of many species, 
some of which are types of generic names (among them the typ9 of 
Otus it.self) any attempt at subdivision under the circumstances 
would necessarily be premature and futile. Thus, among the 
species examined, 0. scops (Limueus) is the only one in which the 
eighth and nith primaries are longest, the tenth (apparent outer- 
most) equal to or longer than the sixth, and only two outer primaries 
sinuated ou the inner web. Superficially, this species muchresembles 
O. flammeolus', especially in its slnall size and completely naked toes, 
but the latter has the seventh and eighth primaries longest, the tenth 
(apparent outermost) not longer than the fifth, four outer primaries 
sinuated on inner web, and the ear-tufts very short and hlconspicuous, 
instead of the reverse. The wings are relatively much longer in 
O. scops, extending, when closed, beyond the tip of the tail, and the 
primaries a.re relatively narrower and straighter distally. Again, hi 
O. nudipes the tarsi are na.ked for almost as great a.n extent as in the 
genus Gymnasio, to the species of which genus there s indeed a 
closer general resemblanc than to the other American species of 
Otus, except i the possession of distinct ear-tufts, which are wanting 
hi Gymnasio. 
I a "Review of the American Species of the Genus Scops, Sa- 
vigny,"a the writer has remarked the extreme difficulty of attablblg 
a correct understading of the specific and subspecific limits of the 
members of this genus. This is owing to the circumstance that not 
only is the individual variation in any form very considerable, but 
the matter is further complicated by the condition of dichromatism 
which affects the majority of the species, the two phases of one form 
(occurring i birds from the same locality, a.nd quite iadependent of 
sex, age, or season) being far nmre different from each other than are 
corresponding phases of distinct species. In the mahb geographic 

a 1)roc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 85-117. 



BIRDS OF :NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 683 

vriations are more or less marked and constant; but occasionally 
specinmns occur in a given area which are with diffficulty, if at all, 
distinguishable from the form inhabiting another--sometimes dis- 
tant--geographic area. When to these perplexities are added the 
difficulty of conveying by means of description , clear idea of the 
coloration of any particular form on account of the confused pattern 
of coloration, which consists largely of flue vermiculations, zigzag 
lines "herring-bones," etc., the matter of satisfactorily describing 
the differential characters of allied forms becomes peculia.rly difficult. 
Indeed, few groups of birds present greater perplexities to the sys- 
tematist than the present one, chiefly on account of the di/tlculty of 
bringing together sufficient material to satisfactorily illustrate the 
extent of geoTaphic and individual variations. Some species are 
very uniform in their color characters throughout a vast extent 
of territory; for example, O. choliba, which from Paraguay and 
southern Brazil to Costa Rica seems to be everywhere practi- 
cally the same. O the other hand, other species, like 0. asio. 
change remarkably in coloration within relatively short distances, 
their organization being so sensitive to conditions of environment 
that often relatively small contiguous areas of only slightly dif- 
ferent physical character are characterized by recognizably differ- 
ent forms. When a study of these owls is attempted with scant 
material, that is, specimens from widely scattered localities and few, 
often only one, from each, the impression is received of excessive 
individual variation of one widely distributed form. This has espe- 
cially been the case with the bare-toed group, containhgforms related, 
more or less closely, to O. cltoliba: and some thirty-five years ago, 
when the writer prepared his "Review of the American Species of 
the Genus Seeps, Savigny,' ' this view was adopted, even 0. cassini 
being referred to 0. choliba as a subspecies. Although material for 
the study of this group has not increased very greatly even after the 
lapse of so many years, there has nevertheless been added to collections 
enough specimens to show clearly that the view formerly held (and, 
to a certain extent, held as late as 1897 by the authors of the Biologia 
Contrail-Americana, Aves, (iii, pp. 15, 21, 22), is incorrect, and that 
not only are the variations noted to a great extent geographi.al btt 
that often two so-called "styles of plumage" found among specimens 
from the same country (sometimes even from the same locality) in 
reality represent distinct species. Thus, in the vast extent of South 
America inhabited by 0. choliba are a number of other forms, several 
of which are undoubtedly specifically distinct, and in Costa Rica and 
Panam that species is associated with O. vermicultus; and in the 
State of Vera Cruz the large and relatively light colored 0. guatemale 

a Prec. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 85-117. 



688 BULLETIN 50 UNITED TATES IATIOIAL MUSEUM. 

dusky, the feathers of loral re,on not distinctly (if at all) barred but 
vith conspicuously blk shafts and bristly tips; fial rim or border 
mostly black, especially from behind ears to sides of throat; chin dull 
vhitc; throat dull white, more or less tinged or suffused with pale cin- 
namon-buff to light cinnamon, narrowly barred and mesially streaked 
vith black; a small area of immaculate dull white in center of fole- 
neck; mc(lian line of abdomen, together with anal region, immaculate 
buffy white; rest of under parts vhite (sometimes faintly tinged with 
pale buff), broken by a rather dense narrow irregular barring of black 
and broad mcsial streaks of the same, these connected or confluent 
with the bars, and on sides of breast eflarged into conspicuous spots, 
which arc often edged with light rusty or cinnamon; frequently, on 
sides and flanks, pairs of the black bars enclose a space of pale brown, 
or the bars themselves arc more or less brownish; le light cinnamon- 
buff, fading into dull whitish on lower and posterior portions of tarsi, 
the thighs nearly immaculate but the t arsi heavily barred with deep to 
dark brown, at least on upper portion; longer under tail-coverts with 
distal portion barred or spotted with black and light brown; under 
wing-coverts light buff, irregularly spotted and barred with brown 
and dusky on outer portion, especially on under side of carpo-mcta- 
carpal region; under primary coverts plain dark grayish brown or 
brownish gray with basal portion, abruptly, pale buff; under surface 
of outedmost primaries dusky grayish brown or brownish gray, the 
inner primaries and secondaries with broad transverse spots of the 
same alternating with others of pale yellowish buff; bill pale grayish 
green or pMc dull greenish blue in ]ire; iris bright lemon yellow, the 
eyelids jet black; toes and basal portion of claws yellowish oTay (in 
life), the terminal portion of claws dusky. 
Youg.--Rcmiges and rectrices as in adults; upper parts deep 
grayish brown, indistinctly and rather broadly barred with dusky, 
many of the feathers tipped with dull white; under parts dull white 
broadly barred with grayish dusky; no streaks on upper or under 
parts. 
Rtfescent phase. 
Adults (sexes alike).--Gcncral pattern of coloration much as in 
the gray phase, but. the gray or brown everywhere replaced by bright 
cinnamon-rufous or chestnut-rufous (Kaiser brown), the upper pats 
without vermiculations and the blackish streaks narrower and linear; 
face plain light cinnamon-rufous, the superciliary and loral regions 
whitish; under parts with pattern less intricate, the blackish or 
dusky bars of the gray phase replaced by transverse spots of cinna- 
mon-rufous. 
Youg.--Similar to the young of the oTay phase, but the ayish 
or grayish brown marengo-s more or less distinctly rufescent. 



698 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Adult female.--Length (skins), 235-265 (250); wing, 179-193 
(186.3) ; tail, 87.5-100 (93.4) ; culmen, from cere, 15.5-17.5 (16.3). a 
Western [ontana (Hellgale) westward through Idaho (Nez Perces 
Indian Reservation) to eastern Oregon (Camp ttarney; John Day 
River; hlalheur County), northeastern California (Fort Crook; Baird, 
Shasta County ?), eastern Washington (Walla Walla; North Yakima; 
Rock Creek) and southern British Columbia east of Cascade Moun- 
tains (Okanogan; Penticton). 
,%ops asio (not Strix asio Linneeus) ID6W.Y, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 49, part (Hellgate, Montana). 
Stops asio kennlcotti (not 8cops kennicottii Elliott) ALLEN, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vi, 1881, 128 (Walla Walla, e. Washington).--BENDn, Bull. utt. Orn. 
('lub. vi, 1881, 185 (Walla Wal]a, e. Washington; descr, eggs).--Bawswa, 
Bull. Ntt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 28-31, part (Walla Walla; ttellgate, lIon- 
tana; descr, supposed gray phase; crit.), 
M[egascops] asio lzennicottii RDawAY, ][an. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 262, part (ttell- 
gate, Montana). 
(?) Megascops asio kennicottii? TOWNSEND (C. -t.), laroc. . S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 
203 (Baird and Ft. Crook, n. e. California). 
Otus aslo kennicotti Bnoozs, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 61 (Okanogan, Brit. Columbia; 
(Tit.). 
Megascops asio macfarlanei BaEwsa% Auk, viii, April (separates pub. Feb. 17), 
1891, 140 (Walla Walla, e. Washington; coll. W. Brewster).--BENDraE, Life 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, (i), 1892, 371.--H.saovcK, Auk, x, 1893, 251, 259 (Nez 
Perces Indian Reservation, Idaho; geog. range).--Aac. OagITOLO- 
C, ISWS' UNION COTT, Auk, xi, 1894, 47; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 
373h.--SsoD6mss, Auk, xxi, 1904, 228 (Walla Walla Co., Washington).-- 
KERMODE, Provincial Mus. Victoria, 1909, 46 (Brit. Columbia east of Cascade 
range). 
M[egascops] asio mac.farlanei ]IDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 592. 
Otus a[sio] acfarlanei STONE, Auk, :XX, July, 1903, 275.--Pc, Condor, xiii, 
1911, 66 (Malheur Co., e. Oregon, breeding). 
Otus asio macfarlanei Aac.N OaNWOLO6mWS' UNION COWT, Auk, xxv, 
1908, 372; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 174. 
,?cops vtac.farlanei GvaNY, Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894, 38. 
[Stops] afarlanei S,neE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 289 (excl. syn. saturatus Brewster). 

OTUS ASIO KENNICOTTII (Elliot). 

ENNICOTT'S SCREECH OWL. 

Large, like O. a. tmcfarhtei, but coloration much darker and 
browner, the general tone of upper parts inclining, more or less 
strongly, to tawny-brown, with lighter markings brownish buff or 
pale cinnamon, the under parts more or less strongly suffused with 
pale cinnamon, the legs (especially thighs) light tawny; gray phase 
(which is relatively rare ) similar to O. a. bendirei and O. a. mac- 
farlanei but very much darker (the general color of upper parts 

a Six specimens. 
b The gray phase is represented by only 1 among the 21 adults e.xamined. 



706 BULLETIn7 50, U7ITED STATES TATIOAL 1V[USEUM. 

coverts usually having indistinct transverse mottlings or vermicula- 
tions of grayish brown or dusky; outer webs of exterior scapulars 
pale buff to huffy white, margined with black terminally, pattern of 
larger wing-coverts, remiges, and rectrices as in the gray phase, but 
the color of both darker and lighter markings more rufescent or cin- 
namomeous; face light cinnamon-rufous, sometimes intermixed with 
huffy white; chin immaculate dull white or huffy white; throat pale 
cinnamon-rufous streaked with dusky; rest of under parts white (the 
plumage suffused with light cinnamon-buff beneath surface), with 
conspicuous mesial streaks of black, these broadest (spot-like) on 
breast, and here and there throwing off on each side narrow bars of 
black, often in pairs, enclosing between them a space of light 
cinnamon-rufous; thighs plain light cinnamon-rufous, passing into 
pale cinnamon-buff on legs. 
]'oug.--Remiges and rectrices (if developed) as in adults; rest of 
upper parts as in adults but black streaks indistinct (obsolete in some 
places); under parts pale cinnamon-buff deepening into light cinna- 
mon-rufous on chest and throat, the breast, sides, and flanks with 
narrow and indistinct bars of dusky. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 150-193 (175); wing, 139.5-151.5 
(143.2); tail, 64-75.5 (69.7); culmen, from cere, 10.5-13.5 (12.1). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 164-199 (189); wing, 141-151 
(145.7); taft, 68.5-75.5 (71.5); culmen, from cero, 11.5-13 (12.2)) 
Southern Arizona (Huachuca Mountains; west side San Luis 
Mountains; San Pedro slope of Sierru de Catalina; Fort Lowell), 
and southward through Mexico, in States of Chihuhuu (El Carmen), 
Durango (Rio Sestin), Jalisco (Los Masos, 5,800 feet; La Pisgua), 
Michoacn (Patzcuaro), Guerrero (Omilteme, 8,000 feet), Mexico 
(Chimalpa; Ajusco), Puebla (Zentla), and Oaxaca (Lu Parada), and 
Territory of Tepic (Sierra Madre) to highlands of Guatemalu (Cob.n; 
Duefias; Volcn de Fuego above Calderas; San Bernardino in Men- 

a Fourteen specimens, b Nine specimens. 
Locality. 

MALES. 
SiX adult males from Arizona ................................................... 
Six adult males from lexico (chiefly from Durango and alisco) ................ 
One adult male from Guatemala (Toyabaj, Quich) ............................ 
FEMALES. 
Five adult females from Arizona ................................................ 
Three adult females from Mexico ............................................... 
One adult female from Guatemala (Villa Nueva) ............................... 

144.1 
141.3 
146 

144 
148.2 
147 

69.8 
69.4 
68 

71. 
72. 
70 

Culmell 

11.8 
12.3 
13 

12.2 
12 
12.5 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

Adult female.--Ground color of upper parts pale broccoli brown 
or drab, grayer on wing-coverts and scapulars, everywhere finely 
vermiculated with dusky, all the feathers (except on rump) with 
distinct though narrow mesial streaks of blackish, these broader 
and tending to "herring-bone" pattern on pileum, where the ground 
color is more strongly tinged with brown; inner webs of ear-tufts 
grayish white (more buffy toward base), transversely mottled with 
dusky; outer webs of exterior scapulars mostly pale buff, forming 
a large, irregular patch on each feather, the lowermost (outermost) 
middle wing-coverts similarly but less conspicuously marked; see- 
ondaries dull grayish brown banded with pale broccoli brown and 
finely mottled along edges with pale brown and dusky; primaries 
marked with distinct quadrate spots of pale buffy brown, becoming 
paler (light brownish buff) on proximal portion of quills, many of 
these lighter colored spots enclosing a dusky bar; and the darker 
ones mottled with pale grayish brown; tail similar in coloration to 
secondaries but the paler bands narrower; face grayish white, finely 
and rather faintly barred with grayish brown; a broad but somewhat 
broken band of brownish black across sides of head, from in,medi- 
ately beneath and behind ear-tufts to sides of throat, this black band 
extensively suffused externally with pale buffy; across middle of 
throat a series of narrow "herring-bone" streaks of black, connect- 
ing lower extremities of the black facial rim, and immediately 
beneath this a small area of immaculate brownish white; ground 
color of under parts white (the feathers pale buffy beneath surface), 
everywhere, except on median line of abdomen, anal region, and 
under tail-coverts, narrowly and rather densely barred with irregular 
zigzag lines of dusky, upper breast with several lontudinal spots 
of black, each with an external suffusion of bright brown, the upper- 
most of these spots narrower (streak-like), the lower decidedly 
broader; feathers of lower breast (except median portion), sides, 
flanks, and sides of abdomen with narrow but very distinct median 
streaks, which occasionally, through coalescence with the fainter 
transverse lines, tend somewhat to a "herring-bone" pattern; median 
line of lower breast and abdomen and anal region immaculate white 
(the feathers pale buffy beneath surface); under tail-coverts white, 
faintly and rather distantly irregularly barred with grayish brown; 
upper portion of thighs pale buff, faintly and sparsely barred with 
light brown; tarsi and lower portion of thighs brownish white, trans- 
versely mottled with grayish brown, chiefly on outer side; under 
wing-coverts pale buff, the edge of wing, however, white; bill dusky, 
the terminal portion pale dull yellowish; length (skin), 205; wing, 
151; tail, 76; culmen, from cere, 14. a 

a One specimen (the type); adult male not seen. 



710 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Northwestern Mexico, in State of Chihuahua (Durasno). 
Megascops vinaceus BaWSTa, Auk, v, Jan., 1888, 88 (Durasno, Chihuahua; 
coll. W. Brewster); viii, 1891, pl. 3, lower fig.--HAsBaOVC, Auk, x, 1893, 
251, 264. 
Scops vinaceus GUINEY, Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894, 38.--Svrs and (ODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Ayes, iii, 1897, 19. 
[Scops] vinacea SHrtps, Hand-list, i, 1899, 289. 

OTUS CO01ERI (Ridgwy). 

COOPER'S SCREEC OWL. a 

Very similar in coloration to the grayish phase of O. choliba, but 
toes very distinctly bristled; under parts much more densely ver- 
miculated, legs much more rufescent and more distinctly barred, 
white variegation on outermost scapulars much less conspicuous, and 
lighter bands on remiges and rectrices narrower and more numerous; 
tail relatively much shorter, legs longer, and toes and claws larger. 
Adults (sexes alike).--Above light grayish brown or pale drab- 
brown, minutely vermiculated with dusky, the feathers of pileum 
and back having mesial, chain-like, streaks of blackish; outer webs 
of exterior scapulars inconspicuously variegated with white irregular 
spotting; outer webs of primaries with quadrate spots of pale fulvous 
margined with blackish, there being about ten of these spots on longest 
quill; tail crossed by about ten to twelve narrow bands of pale ful- 
vous likewise margined on each side by a dusky line; face brownish 
white, freely but distinctly barred with dusky brown, the "eyebrow" 
(superciliary region) lighter and more coarsely mottled; face bor- 
dered laterally or posteriorly by a distinct narrow band of dusky 
spots; under parts white, densely penciled with blacldsh and grayish 
brown zigzag lines, imparting a light brownish appearance to the 
general surface; legs light rusty brown thickly barred with deeper 
brown; "iris lemon yellow; cere, bill, and feet yellowish green." b 
lZoung.--General color above light grayish brown broken by very 
minute and rather indistinct transverse vermiculations of dusky and 
larger but still inconspicuous transverse markings of white, these 
larger and more obvious on outer webs of middle wing-coverts; under 
parts dull whitish crossed everywhere with transverse vermiculations 
or irregular narrow pencillings of dusky, strongly suffused with pale 
brownish on chest, where the vermiculations are minute and confused; 
flanks and under tail-coverts with bars broad and distinct, the inter- 
spaces nearly pure white and wider than the mottled-brownish bars; 
remiges and rectrices (if developed) as in adults; bill pale horn color, 
yellowish at tip; iris yellow; claws pale horn color, darker terminally. 

a Named for Sefior Juan Cooper, of Cartago, Costa Rica, well known as a collector 
of Costa Rican birds, and collector of the type-specimen of the present species. 
b Juan Cooper, on label. 



t12 BULLETII 50 UNITED STATES IATIONAL MUSEUM. 

brown, the ground color deepetfing into pale to light brown beneath 
and in front of eyes and into deep brown or chestnut-brown imme- 
diately above eyes; facial circle or rim (very distinct) nearly uniform 
brownish black; under parts dull white (the feathers buffy beneath 
surface), marked with conspicuous mesial streaks of black and nar- 
row irregular bars of black or dusky brown, producing a very regular 
"herring-bone" pattern over the whole of the lower surface, except 
anal re,on and median portion of lower abdomen, which are immacu- 
late pale buff or buffy white; legs pale brownish buff to dull buffy 
whitish, barred, more or less heavily, with brown; bill pale dull yel- 
lowish (iu dried skins), the latcro-basal portion grayish or horn color, 
pea greenish in life; iris light yellow; toes brow-aish (in dried s-kins). 
Young.--llemiges and rectrices (if developed) as in adults; upper 
parts mLxed dull white and dull buff or clay-color narrowly and regu- 
larly barred with dusky, the under parts similar but the bars fighter 
or more brownish; a black facial (post-auricular) border, as in adults. 

Rtfous phase. 
Adult fc-rnale.----Above bright russet or cinnamon-rufous, with 
narrow mesial streaks of black, these broadest on crow]l, obsolete on 
hindneck and rump; lower hindmck and upper back indistinctly 
spotted with pale buff, each feather having two or three pairs of 
roundish or, sometimes, transverse spots; occiput or upper nape 
with large, partly concealed, blotches of pale buff, forming an incon- 
spicuous interrupted band; outer webs of exterior scapulars mostly 
white, tipped or terminally margined with black; outer webs of outer- 
most middle and greater wing-coverts also with a large subterminal 
spot of white; outer webs of primaries broadly banded with cinna- 
mon and dull ochraceous-buff, the spots of the former color becoming 
dusky next to shaft, and the paler ones inclining to white exteriorly 
on proximal half of the second to sixth quills (counting from outside), 
inclusive; tail banded with cilmamon-brow]l and light rusty cinna- 
mon, the bands of the former color decidedly the broader (especially 
on middle rectrices) and margined, as well as more or less mottled, 
with dusky; face buffy whitish strongly tinged with rusty, especially 
around eyes, the auricular region tcrmhmted by a broad bar (facial 

a Described from no. 44818, coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., from Bahia, Brazil, this 
being the only example I have seen of the extreme rufous phase, which is very excep- 
tional in South America and does not occur at all in the considerable series of speci- 
mens examined from Panama and Costa. 1Rica. 
The rufous phase of O. choliba is much paler than that of either O. i,ermiculatus or 
O. guatemala, has the face whitish, instead of rufous, and bordered posteriorly by a 
conspicuous postauricular bar of black, and the markings on the under parts are very 
different, having a distinct and regular "herring-bone" pattern, as in the grayish 
brown phase. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 713 

rim) of brownish black; under parts white, each feather, except on 
throat, anal region, and under tail-coverts, vith a distinct narrow 
mesial streak of black, confluent -ith narrow and irregular bars of 
dark rusty brown, both the lontudinal and transverse markings 
suffused here and there with cinnamon-rufous; throat narrowly 
barred with russet, the chest and sides broadly barred with the same, 
the russet bars having narrow dusky margins; under tail-coverts 
with rather distant narrow bars of rusty brown; legs pale buffy, 
narrowly barred in front and on outside with rusty brown or russet; 
under wing-coverts pale buff, the outermost (near edge of wing) 
irregularly barred with rusty and dusky. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 206-242 (227); wing, 162-182 (170.9); 
tail, 78-94.5 (88.3); culmcn, from cere, 12.5-15 (14.1). a 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 200-250 (228); wing, 162-183 
(172.1); tail, 86-96 (91.2); culmen, from cere, 13.5-15.5 (14.6). b 
Costa Rice (San Josi; La Palmu de San JosO; Escazfi; San Juan; 
Reytes; Volcfin de Irazd; La Estrella de Cartage), Panam (Boque- 
rSn and Divala, Chi-iqui; Chitra, Verfigua; Nat,, CoclO; Lion Hill, 
Canal Zone; San Miguil Island, Bay of Panama), and southward over 
greater part of South America, east of Andes, as far as Peru (Garita 
del Sol; Rio Cadena, Cuzco; Santa Ann; upper Rio Ucayali; Cashi- 
boya; Chamicuros; Sarayacu; Yurimaguas), Bolivia (Province of 
Chiquitos; hIoxos; Caiza), Argentina (Ocampo; CSrdova; Tucu- 
mn; Chaco; Pacheco; Entre Rios; Rio Paraguhy; lower Rio Pilco- 
mayo; Tapia), Paragufiy (Sapucfiy), and Urugufiy (ConcepciSn). 

a Fourteen specimens. 

b Ten specimens. 

Locality. 
MALES. 
Six adult males from Panama (mainland) ...................................... 

Five adult males from San Miguel Island, Bay of Panama ...................... 
Three adult males from Costa Rice ............................................. 
FEMALES. 
Two adult females from Paraguay .............................................. 
One udult female from southeastern Brazil ...................................... 
One adult female from Venezuela (Valid) ....................................... 
One adult female (?) [male ?] from Margurita Island, Venezuela ................. 
Three adult females from San iguel Island, Bay of Panama ................... 
Two adult females from Costa Rica ............................................. 

Ving. 
166.2 
172.9 
172.5 
165.7 
165 
173 
161 
180.8 
174.2 

Ttil. 
84.  
cO. 
90. 
89 
93. 
86 
95. 
88. '; 

Culmen 
from 

14 
14.5 
13.8 

14 
14 
15 
14.5 
15.2 
14.5 

So far as I am able to see, there is no difference in coloration between specimens 
from Costa Rice and Panama on the one hand and those from Brazil, Paraguay, etc., 
on the other, and the species seems to be remarkably uniform throughout this vast 
extent of territory. 



716 BI'LLETII 50, UNITED STATES IATIOIAL 1V[USEUM. 

rusty or chestnut instead of blackish. Also somewhat rembling 
O. hastatus, but coloration darker and penciling of lower parts denser 
and more irregular. Differing from O. vermiculatus in having the 
tarsi feathered to base of the toes, in coarser vermiculation of upper 
parts, and other characters. 

Brown phase. 

Adults (sexes alie).--Ground color of upper parts light grayish 
brown to light mummy brown, everywhere coarsely vermiculated 
with black or dusky and with irregular spots of black, these ome- 
times, in places, assuming the form of streaks, the spots most numer- 
ous on crown, where often the black predominates; outer webs of 
exterior scapulars white passing into buff basally and tipped with 
black or with black and brown vernficulations; outer webs of outer- 
most middle and greater wing-coverts with a large sub terminal spot 
of white or buffy white; outer webs of alulm with large white spots, 
these passing into cinnamon-buff or light cinnamon on inner portion 
(next to shaft) ; secondaries, promal primaries, and primary coverts 
crossed by bands of cinnamon, more or less mottled or freckled, in 
middle, with dusky, the distal primaries with the spots forming these 
bands larger, white on outer portion, and mostly immaculate; tail 
dusky grayish brow crossed by narrow bands of dull or brownish 
cinnamon, both these bands and the dusky hterspaces ia part broken 
by mottling; face dull brownish white to cinnamon or light mars 
brown, more or less distinctly barred with dusky, the "eyebrows" 
(superciliary region) usually somewhat lighter in color, rarely 
approaching whitish; facial circle usually well defmed only on lower 
(subauricular or post malar) portion, mostly sooty black; ground color 
of under parts dull white, with irregular or zigzag transverse bars 
of dark brown suffused with lighter brown, and irregular mial 
streaks of black, the barring denser anteriorly; legs light to pale 
tawny-brown or russet, thickly barred with deep to dark brown; under 
tail-coverts white, irregularly barred with deeper and paler brown 
(the bars often double, especially on longer coverts); under wing- 
coverts pale cinnamon-buff, those toward edge of wing deeper 
brownish huffy and thickly mottled with dark brown; under pri- 
mary coverts pale brownish buff basally, with a large terminal sub- 
cuneate area of dusky grayish brown or brownish gray; under surface 
of distal primaries with inner webs dusky brownish, grayish brown, 
or brownish gray, with indistinct transverse spots or short bands of 
paler, the inner primaries and secondaries with these markings more 
distinct and on proximal portion much paler and more buffy (pale 
brownish buffy); bill pale dull yellowish (in dried skins) becoming 
grayish or horn color latero-basally; toes light brownish (in dried 
skins). 



BIRDS OF 1WORTH A1WD MIDDLE AMERICA. 719 

hastate spots; under parts much more delicately and less regularly 
barred, and with little, if any, ochraceous or buff on underlying por- 
tion of plumage; feet relatively smaller. (Not dichromatic ?) 
Adults (sexes alilce).--General color of upper parts light grayish 
brown, this much broken by coarse mottling of paler (nearly brownish 
white on forehead and sides of crown) and very distinctly marked, 
especially on pileum, hindneck, and back, with irregular spots of 
blackish, these sometimes approaching a rhomboid or hastate form; 
outermost middle and greater wing-coverts with outer webs mostly 
white; primary coverts banded with dusky and pale brownish buffy 
(about four bands of each color); outer webs of primaries spotted 
with buffy whitish, changing to pale buffy brown on proximal quills; 
tail banded with grayish dusky and grayish buffy; face dull grayish 
white, narrowly and rather indistinctly barred with grayish brown, 
the outer edge tinged with pale brown and, laterally, bordered with 
an indistinct or broken bar of brownish black across side of head; 
under parts dull white, narrowly and very irregularly barred or ver- 
miculated with dusky brown, two bars or lines of the latter color often 
inclosing a broader one of pale brown, especially on flanks, most of 
the feathers also with irregular mesial streaks of brownish black, 
broadest and most conspicuous on chest; legs dull whitish, barred 
with dusky brown. 
Adult male.--Length (skin), 197.5; wing, 151.5-154 (153); tail, 
79.5; culmen, from cere, 11.5-12 (11.8). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skin), 213.5; wing, 157; tail, 81; culmen, 
from cere, 13. b 
Western Mexico, in States of Sinaloa iazatln) and Jalisco (Mine- 
ral de San Sebastian) and Territory of Tepic. 
[Scops brasilianus] . guatemale (not Scops guatemale Sharpe) RLoaw.Y, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 99-102, part (spec. from Mazutlan, Sinaloa, described 
on p. 101). 
Megascops hastatus RLoaw.Y, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, gig. 17, Aug. 1, 1887, 268 
(type labeled "La Paz, Lower California, "but almost certainly from Mazatlan, 
Sinaloa; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 592; 2d ed., 1896, 
593, 614.--H.snaovcK, Auk, x, 1893, 251, 263. 
Scops ]tastatus GURNEV, Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894.38.--ShLvnr and GOD.N, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Ayes, iii, 1897, 23 (Mazutla,n; Tepic; Mineral de San Sebastian, 
Jalisco). 
[Scops] hastata SHPE, Hand-list, i, 1899. 283. 
OTUS HASTATUS THOMPSONI (Cole). 
YUCATAI" SCREECH OWL. 
Very similar to O. h. tastatus, but averaging slightly more buffy 
brownish above and less densely barred or vermiculated beneath; 
slightly larger. 

Three specimens; two of them not sexed, but almost certainly males. 
One specimen. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND VIIDDLE AVIERICA. 723 

OTUS BARBARUS (Sclater and Salvin). 
BEARDED SCREECr OWL. 
Somewhat like O. trichopsis in coloration (and about the same size, 
though with much smaller feet), but toes and lower end of tarsus 
entirely naked; brown phase with general color of upper parts much 
browner. 
Brown phase. 

Adults (sexes alike).--General color of upper parts deep brown 
(light vandyke brown to light seal brown), but this broken by rather 
coarse spotting of dull white to light brown, and admixture of black, 
the latter in form of mesial streaks confluent with lateral transverse 
spots or bars, these broader on pileum and hindneck, where predom- 
inating over the lighter mar-kings; an interrupted band of white spots 
across upper part of nape and another across lower hindneck; outer- 
most scapulars with outer webs mostly white, this broadly margincd 
terminally and along inner edge with black; more distal middle and 
greater wing-coverts with a very large terminal spot of white on outer 
web; secondaries crossed by transverse series of lighter brown bars 
or transverse spots, the promal primaries similarly marked, the 
distal primaries with much larger spots of pale brownish buff to dull 
white; tail dark grayish brown, crossed by an indefinite number of 
interrupted series of narrow transverse spots of light brown, these 
not reaching shaft on either web; ear-tufts transversely spotted with 
black (the black spots connected, broadly, along median line of the 
feat.hem), the inner webs spotted with white (sometimes mostly 
white) ; "eyebrows" (superciliary region) and lores dull white to pale 
brown, the feathers with black shafts, those of the former also margined 
with blac-kish; suborbital and auricular regions dull white to pale 
brown, broadly and rather distantly barred with blac-ldsh brown; 
prevailing color of under parts white, but this broken by broad black 
mesial streaks and black bars, the white forming large rounded spots 
on anterior parts, more transversely elongated spots posteriorly, the 
black bars on sides f flanks in pairs, inclosing between each pair a 
broader bar of pale brown; thighs tawny-brown to bright tawny, 
fading into brownish buff to white on lower part of tarsus, the thighs 
sometimes faintly spotted or mottled with brownish; under tail- 
coverts dull white to pale brownish buff, the longer ones with an 
irregular subtermina.1 spot of pale brown margined posteriorly and 
divided medially by a line of black; anal region and center of abdomen 
immaculate dull white to pale brownish buff; under wing-coverts 
pale brownish buff (sometimes approaching dull white), sparsely 
mottled near edge of wing with dusky; inner webs of primaries for 
greater part plain grayish brown; bill horn color (in dried skins) with 
yellowish tomia; toes and naked lower end of tarsi light brownish (in 
dried skins). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE hMERICA. 727 

OTUS NUDIPES (Vieillot). 

BARE-LEGGED SCREECH OWL. 

Lower third or more of tarsus, as well as toes, completely naked; 
size large (wing 177-190.5 ram.). 
Adults (sexes alike).--General color of upper parts brown (cinna- 
mon-brown to almost tawny, the color lighter and inclining more to 
tawny on pfleum and hindneck), conspicuously vermicuhtted, mot- 
tled, and spotted with black, the spots on pflemn often fused and 
forming irregular broad streaks; outer webs of outermost scapulars 
white, mottled at tip with black and light brown, often edged along 
inner margh vith a black streak; distal middle and greater wing- 
coverts with large subterminal irregular spots of white or pale buffy; 
secondaries and proximal prinmries with transverse series of light 
cinnamon transverse spots, these, as well as the darker interspaces 
mottled or irregularly vermiculatcd with dusky; distal primaries 
with larger and mostly imnmculato spots of paler cinnamomeous, the 
dk interspaces also mostly imnaculate; tail with transverse series 
of narrow, irregular, mottled bands of chinamen-brown, these some- 
times scarcely if at all intcrrupted; ear-tufts similar in coloration to 
pileum, but inner webs sometimes with light chmamomeous predom- 
inating; "eyebrow" usually ta,any or cinnamon (more or less dcep)-- 
rarely whitish--the feathers margined terminally with black md with 
black shafts; lores cinnamon or tamy, with black shafts; suborbital 
and auricular regions cinnamon to deep tawny or russet, ratlmr 
broadly barred with blackish, the bars becoming broader posteriorly; 
no well-defined "facial rim" or border; malar region, chin, and throat 
cinnamon, tawny, or russet, sometimes immaculate, but usually with 
blackish shaft-streaks; rest of under parts mixed light brown to 
tawny and buffy white (the latter predominating posteriorly, the 
former prevailing anteriorly), the brown or tawny irregularly barred 
with black (the feathers with black shaft-streaks also, these usually 
largest, sometimes spot-like, on breast), the whitish mostly hnmacu- 
late and in form of rounded or transverse spots; feathering of thighs 
and upper half of tarsi varying from clear, nearly immaculate, tamy 
or tawny-ochraceous to light buffy brown heavily barred or trans- 
versely clouded with darker brown; under tail-coverts white or buffy 
white with an irregular subterminal bar of tamy or light brown, 
usually edged with a black line; under wing-coverts dull buffy, 
usually mostly immaculate but often more or less clouded or mottled 
with brown, those toward edge of wing mottled or spotted with dark 
brown; under surface of inner webs of primaries for the greater part 
plain deep grayish brown, but the basal portion (especially on inner 
primaries) with larger but not very strongly contrasted transverse 
spots of pale dull buffy; bill light yellowish, darker on lateral basal 



734 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Paler phase. 

Adults (sexes alike).wGeneral color of upper parts snuff brown to 
cinnamon-brown, darker anteriorly, paler posteriorly, the whole 
surface (except, sometimes, the pileum) freckled or vermiculated 
with darker; anterior portion of forehead, long ear-tufts, and a super- 
ciliary stripe connecting the two, white or buffy white, the outer webs 
of ear-tuft feathers more or less freckled with brown or dusky; 
exterior scapulars with irregular, usually large, blotches of white or 
buffy white on outer webs, and distal middle and greater wing- 
coverts with large terminal spots of the same, at least on outer web; 
outer webs of rectrices and proximal secondaries without distinct 
(if any) band, but distal secondaries with more or less distinct bands 
of dull brownish buff, light tawny-ochraceons, or cinnamon-buff; 
outer webs of primaries with large transverse spots (touching shafts) 
of dull buff or cinnamon-buff, these becoming paler buffy distally; 
inner webs of rectrices with distinct bands of dull buff or cinnamon- 
buff, these becoming narrower and less distinct toward tip of tail; 
bristly loral feathers dull white (sometimes tinged or suffused with 
rusty) with conspicuously black shafts; feathers immediately sur- 
rounding eye black; suborbital region and anterior portion of auric- 
ular reo deep tawny or rufescent tawny, the lateral half or more 
of the latter brownish black or dusky or else much darker rusty 
brown than anterior portion; under parts a mixture of white (passing 
into buffy posteriorly) and pale buffy brown, nearly everywhere 
irregularly vermiculated with dusky, the pencilings finer and 
denser anteriorly, coarser and farther apar posteriorly, the anal re.on 
and under tail-coverts immaculate light huffy or else the latter with 
only a few irregular bars of brown or dusky; under wing-coverts deep 
buff or ochraceous-buff, more or less barred or otherwise marked 
with dark brown or dusky toward edge of wing; under surface of 
remiges grayish brown crossed by very distinct bands of deep buff, 
these becoming indistinct distally; bill dull light yellowish with tomial 
half (approximately) of both maxilla and mandible horn color or 
dusky; iris yellow; naked toes pale brownish (in dried skins). 

Dark phase.a 

Adults(sexes aliIce).--More or less conspicuously darker than the light 
phase, the general color of upper parts varying from vandyke brown to 
sooty brown, passing into uniform dark sooty brown or sooty black on 
hindneck and pileum; face mostly sooty black, there being only a 
relatively small space of rusty brown on suborbital re,on alone; 

a Possibly a subspecies, peculiar to the Atlantic coast district, from Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, to eastern Costa Rica, since all specimens seen by me are from that geographic 
area, while the lighter colored ones are mainly, ff not entirely, from the Pacific side 
(Chiapas, Mexico, to Panama). 



740 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

or blotches of whitish; secondaries more minutely mottled (producing 
a more grayish effect), and crossed by about five to eight bands of 
mottled dusky; primary coverts darker, crossed by three or four 
bands of blac'kish; primaries with ground color more ochraceous or 
buffy, finely mottled or vermiculated, and crossed by six to nine 
transverse series of quadrate spots of dusky; ground color of tail 
light tawny or ochraceous, transversely mottled with dusky, more 
whitish terminally, and crossed by six or seven bands of mottled 
dusky, these about equal in width to the paler interspaces and 
bands broken or sometimes even quite obliterated on middle rectrices, 
where the darker mar'kings have an oblique or, sometimes, even 
longitudinal tendency; ear-tufts with outer webs black, their inner 
webs mostly ochraceous; "eyebrows" (superciliary region) dull 
whitish, the feathers with blacsh shafts; face dingy ochraceous or 
(lull tawny, passing into dull whitish around eyes; a crescentic 
mark of black bordering upper eyelid and confluent with black of 
ear-tufts; facial circle black, except across throat; a conspicuous, 
crescentic area of immaculate white across foreneck, the feathers 
white to extreme base; rest of under parts with white predominating, 
but tawny or ochraceous prevalent on sides of breast and showing as 
the base color wherever the feathers are disarranged; sides of chest, 
breast, and abdomen, sides, and flanks, with numerous sharply defined 
transverse bars of brownish black, these narrower and less sharply 
defined anteriorly, the center of upper breast immaculate white; a 
series of large spots or blotches of black on chest, below the white 
collar; under tail-coverts with bars farther apart than on other under 
parts; legs and toes dull tawny to pale buff, usually immaculate, or 
nearly so, more rarely flecked or spotted with dusky; bill dull slate- 
black or blackish slate; iris bright lemon-chrome yellow; bare por- 
tion of toes light brownish gray or ashy (in life); claws horn color, 
passing into black terminally. 
]Zoung.--Remiges and rectrices as in adults; downy plumage of 
head, neck, and body ochraceous or buff, relieved by detached, rather 
distant, bars of black. 
Adult male.--Wing, 320-355 (343.3) ; tail, 190-210 (199.4) ; culmen, 
(from cere), 26-30 (28.6). a 
Adultfemale.--Wing, 352-380 (366.3) tail; 200-225 (218); culmen 
(from cere), 29-32.5 (30.6).b 

a Seven specimens. 
b Six specimens. 
The description given above applies to specimens of average coloration which, per- 
haps, constitute a majority. As vIr. Oberholser remarks (Proc. U. S. lat. Mus., 
xxvii, 1904, 189), there are, however, two other phasesof B. v. virginianus---one in wlch 
the coloration is light, and the place of the rufous or tawny hues is taken byochraceous; 
the other in which grayish and blackish colors predominate, all three phases being 
connected by intermediates. The last seems to be most prevalent in the New Eng- 
land States, and possibly indicates vergence toward B. v. heterocnemis. 



744 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL iVIUSEUM. 

Central United States, from Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, 
and Kansas to Nevada, southeastern Oregon, Wyoming, and Mon- 
tana, north to central Alberta; northwestern Iowa in winter. 

Bubo virginiana (not Strix virginiana Gmelin)CASSXN, Illustr. Birds Calif., 
Tex., etc., 1854, 177, part; in Baird, 1%ep. Pacific 1%. 1%. Surv., ix, 1858, 49, 
part (Ft. Union; Medicine Bow Creek, Wyoming).--BA*RD, Cat. i. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 48, part.--COOPER, Orn. Calif., 1870, 418, part. 
[Bubo] virginianus GRAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 43, no. 442, part.--CouEs, Key 1. 
Am. Birds, 1872, 202, part. 
[Bubo virginianzts.] Var. arcticus (not Bubo arcticus Swainson) CovEs, Key 1. 
Am. Birds, 1872, 202, in text, part. 
Bubo virginianus . . . vat. arcticus CouEs, Check List, 1873, no. 317a, part.-- 
1%IDGWAY, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 185 (Colorado). 
[Bubo virginianus] c. arcticus CovEs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 301, part (in syn- 
onymy). 
Bubo virginianus, var. arcticus 1%IDOWAY, in Baird, Brewer, and 1%idgwuy, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 60, 64, part.--HENSHAW, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., xi, 1874, 
9 (Utah). 
Bubo virginianus arcticus 1%IDOWAY, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, San., 1875, 13 (Carson, 
Nevada).--CouEs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 463, putt. 
B[ubo] v[irgnianus] arcticus CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 504, part. 
Bubo virginianus, . subarcticus (not Bubo subarcticus Hoy) 1%IDQWAY, Field and 
Forest, ii, Sune, 1877, 209 (Colorado). 
[Bubo virginianus] . subarcticus RIDQWAY, Orn. Fortieth Parallel, 1877, 572 
(Carson, Nevada, breeding; City of 1%ocks, s. Idaho). 
Bubo virginianus subarcticus RIDOWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 191, part; 
Nom. Iq. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 405a, part.--AMEICAN ONITHOLOISTS' 
UN*ON, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 375a, part.--BEcxM, Auk, 
ii, 1885, 143 (Pueblo, Colorado).--43oss, Auk, iii, 1886, 114 (Rawlins Co., 
Kansas, Oct. 29, 1885).--BENDIRE, Life Hist. Iq. Am. Birds, (i), 1892, 383, 
part.--CooE, Birds Col., 1897, 79 (resident). 
B[ubo] irginianus subarcticus 1%IDOWAY, Man. i. Am. Birds, 1887, 263, part. 
Bubo virginianus occidentalis STONE, Auk, xiii, April, 1896, 155 (Mitchell Co., 
Iowa, winter spec.; coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.).--AMERmAN ORNITHOLOmTS' 
UN*ON COMMITTEE, Auk, xiv, 1897, 132 (crit.; not admitted to Check List). 
B[ubo] virginianus occdentalis STONE, Auk, xiii, 1896, 156 (diagnosis). 
Asio magellanicus occidentalis OBERHOLSER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvii, San. 22, 
1904, 191 (monogr.). 
Bubo virginianus pallescens (not of Stone) COOKE, Bull. 44, Col. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
1898, 161 (Colorado).--AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, Auk, 
xviii, 1901, 300, part; Check List, 3rd ed., 1910, 175, part.--LARsEN, Wilson 
Bull., no. 60, 1907, 114 (Lyman Co., South Dakota).--CAMERON, Auk, xxiv, 
1907, 268 (Custer Co., hIontana, resident; habits).--RoczWELL, Condor, x, 
1908, 14-17 (Colorado; nesting habits, etc.).--VISHER, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 148 
(Behrens, w. South Dakota); xxviii, 1911, 11 (Harding Co., South Dakota, 
resident).--STANSILL, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 394 (centr. Alberta).--WAREN 
(E. 1%.), Auk, xxvii, 1910, 146 (Chzffee Co., Colorado); Condor, xiii, 1911, 
153, fig. 42 (Delta Co., Colorado; habits, etc.).--BROOS and Coss, Auk, 
xxviii, 1911, 468 (near Birch Lake, s. Alberta, Oct., NOV.).--SAUNDERS, 
Condor, xiv, 1912, 26 (Powell Co., Montana). 
[Bubo] pallescens SHARPE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 282, part. 
Asio [irginianus] pallescens SoN., Auk, xx, Iuly, 1903, 275, part. 



746 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

BUBO VIRGINIANUS ELACHISTUS Brewster. 

DWARF 'ORNED OWL. 

Similar in coloration to B. v. pacificus but much smaller. 
Adult male.--Wing, 305-325 (315.6) ; tail, 175-206 (190.3) ; culmen 
(from cere), 21-26 (24.8). a 
Adultfemale.--Wing, 330; tail, 211; culmen (from cere), 27.5. b 
SouthernLower California (Sierra de la Laguna; Victoria Mountains; 
Rosirio; La Paz; San Jos6 del Rancho ; Santa Anita; Caduana). 
Bubo virginianus (not Strix virginiana Gmelin) BAreD, Prec. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
xi, 1859, 302 (Cape San Lucas, Lower California); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, 
no. 48, part.--CooPEl% Orn. Calif., 1870, 418, part (Cape San Lucas).-- 
SHAIP., Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., ii, 1875, 19, part. 
[Bubo] virginianus GAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 43, no. 442, part.--Coess, Key N. 
Am. Birds, 1872, 202, part. 
[Bubo virginianus] var. arcKcus (not Bubo arcKcus Swainson) Couss, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 202, part. 
Bubo virginianus, var. arcticus IDCWAY, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 60, 64, part ("Lower California," i. e. Cape San 
Lucas). 
Bubo virginianus . . . vat. arcKcus Couss, Check List, 1873, no. 317a, part. 
[Bubo virginianus] c. arcKcus: Couss, Birds Northwest, 1874, 301, part (in syn- 
onymy). 
Bubo virginianus arcKcus Coup.s, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 463, part. 
Bubo virginianus ,ubarctcus (not Bubo subarcticus Hey) IDCWAY, Prec. U. S. 
Nat. IvIus., iii, 1880, 191, part; Nora. N. Am. Birds 1881, no. 405a, part; vi, 
1883, 349 (Victoria Ivlts., s. Lower California, part).--BsLDIUO, Prec. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 543 (Cape San Lucas district); vi, 1883, 349 (Victoria 
Mts.).--AsRicA OIIWHOLOOlSWS' Um, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 375a, part.--BRvAlr, Prec. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 2, ii, 1889, 284, part 
(Cape district; Victoria Mts.). 
B[ubo] irginianus subarctic RIDOWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887 (and 2d ed., 
1896), 263, part. 
Bubo virginianus elachistus BRswsws, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xli, no. 1, Sept., 
1902, 96 (Sierra de la Laguna, s. Lower California; coll. W. Brewster).-- 
AEIIcA OIUlWOLOClSTS' Uulo COmTTEE, Auk, xx, 1903, 341; Check 
List, 3rd ed., 1910, 175. 
Asio magellanicus elachistus OBERHOLflER, Prec. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvii, Jan. 22, 
1904, 184 (monogr.). 
Bubo magellanicus elachistus THAYER and BANGS, Condor, ix, Sept., 1907, 137 
(Rosario, Lower California; crit.). 

BUBO VIRGINIANUS ICELUS (Oberholser). 

COAST HORNED OWL. 

Similar to B. v. aeificus but much darker, especially the upper 
parts; similar also to B. v. saturatus but decidedly smaller and color- 
ation decidedly lighter. 

a Five specimens, b One specimen. 



748 BULLETII 50, UNITED STATES IATIOIAL MUSEUM. 

Birds, 1859, no. 48, part.--DAL, and BANNISTER, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 
pt. II, 1869, 272, part (Fort Yukon and Nulato, Alaska). 
[Bubo]virginianus GRAY, Hand-list i, 1869, 43, no. 442, part.--CovEs, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 202, part. 
[Bubo virginianus.] Var. pacificus (not Bubo vrginianus pacificus Cassin) CovEs, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 202, in text, part. 
Bubo virginianus . . . vat. pacificus CovEs, Check List, 1873, no. 317 b, part. 
[Bubo virginianus] b. pacificus CovEs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 301, part (in 
synonymy). 
Bubo irginianus, var. pacificus RIDQWAY, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
1. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 61, 65, part. 
Bubo )irginianus pacific'us COUES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 464, part. 
B[ubo] v[irginianus] pacific'us COUES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 504, part. 
B[ubo] virginianus saturatus RD(w,Y, Orn. Fortieth Parallel, 1877, 572, footnote; 
part; Man. 1. Am. Birds, 1887, 263, part. 
Bubo virginianus saturatus RD(WA', Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 191, part, 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 405c, part.---BREwSTER, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vii, 1882, 229 (Walla Walla, Washington; crit.).--AERIC.N ORNrroLo- 
(mTS' UNION, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 375c, part.--BENDIaE, 
Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, (i), 1892, 387, part.--SToNE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1897, 236, part.wMERRI.L (J. C.), Auk, xiv, 1897, 357 (Ft. Sherman 
n. w. Idaho).--CAP.N, Bull. Am. Mus. 1. H., xx, 1904, 402 (Sheep Creek 
and Caribou Camp, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska).--KRODE, Provincial 
Mus. Victoria, 1907, 47, part (Okanogan, Brit. Columbia).--OsoooD, North 
Am. Fauna, no. 30, 1909, 89 (Plateau lIt., etc., Yukon Terr.). 
Bubo saturatus GuRNn', Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894, 39, part. 
[Bubo] saturatus SHARPE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 282, part. 
Asio v[irginianus] saturatus STONE, Auk, xx, July, 1903, 275, part. 
Bubo virginianus subarcicus (not Bubo subarcticus Hoy) TURNER, Contr. Nat. 
Hist. Alaska, 1.886, 162, part (Nulato, etc., upper Yukon R.).--NSON, Rep. 
Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 152, part (Fort Yukon, etc.; habits).--CHxPXN, 
Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 136 (Ashcroft, Brit. Columbia). 
Asio magellanicus lagophonus OBERnOSER, Proc. U. S. Eat. Mus., xxvii, Jan. 22, 
1904, 185 (Fort Walla Walla, Washington; coll. U. S. Eat. Mus.). 
tubo virginianus lagophonus SNOD(aASS, Auk, xxi, 1904, 228 (Douglas Co., 
Washington).---GRrNE (J.), Condor, xi, 1909, 205 (Forty-mile, Yukon 
Terr.; crit.); Condor, xii, 1910, 42 (Kenai, Alaska, Aug.); Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., v, 1910, 387 (Hawkins I., Prince William Sound, Alaska).--SMrr 
(H. G.), Condor, xii, 1910, 133 (Jefferson CO., Colorado, Oct., 1909). 

BUBO VIIGINIANUS SATURATUS Ridgway. 

DUSKY HORNED OWL 

Similar to 13. v. lagophonus but darker, especially the upper parts, 
the face and plumage in general with less pronounced tawny or ochra- 
ceous admixture, and feet much darker and more heavily mottled. 
Adult ma/e.--Wing, 345-358 (348.3); tail, 205-222 (212.3); culmen 
(from cere), 28.5-29 (28.9). a 
Adultfemale.--Wing, 360-383 (374.7); taft, 215-242 (227.2); cul- 
men (from cere), 28-31 (30). b 

a Four specimens, b Six specimens. 



750 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

BUBO VIRGINIANUS HETEROCNEMIS (Oberholser). 

LABRADOR HORNED OWL. 

Similar to B. v. saturatus but bill larger, posterior under parts 
lighter, feet paler and less heavily mottled, and upper parts usually 
with less tawny or ochraceous admixture. 
Adult male.--Wing, 350-365 (357.5) ; tail, 220-230 (225) ; culmen 
(from cere), 30. a 
Adultfemale.--Wing, 370-390 (380) ; tail, 225-250 (239) ; culmen 
(from cere), 28-32 (30.1). b 
Coast of Labrador (Rigolet; Okkak; Makkokvik; Hopedale; Turn- 
avik Island; Lance au Loup; Fort Naskopee; Sandwich Bay) and 
Ungava (Fort Chimo; near Forks) ; Newfoundland; Ontario (Muskoka; 
Parry Sound; Toronto) in winter. 

Bubo virginianus (not Strix virginiana Gmelin) COUES, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1861, 217 (Rigolet, Labrador). 
[Bubo] virginianus GRAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 43, no. 442, part.--CouEs, Key N. 
Am. Birds, 1872, 202, part. 
[Bubo virginianus.] Var. pacificus (not Bubo virginianus pacificus Cassin) CouEs, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 202, in text, part. 
Bubo virginianus . . . var. pacificus COUES, Check List, 1873, no. 317b, part. 
Bubo virginianus, var. pacificus IIDGWAY, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 61, 65, part (Fort Nascopee, Labrador). 
Bubo virginianus pacificus COUES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 464, part. 
B[ubo] v[irginianus] pacificus COUES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 504, part. 
[Bubo virginianus] b. pacific'us COUES, Birds Northwest, 1874, 301, part (in syn- 
onymy). 
B[ubo] virginlanus saturatus IIDGWAY, Orn. Fortieth Parallel, 1877, 572, footnote, 
part; .Ian. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 263, part. 
Bubo virginlanus saturatus RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. lIus., iii, 1880, 191, part; 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 405c, part.--TuRNER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
viii, 1885, 243 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, resident).--AMERICAN ORNrrHOLOGISTS' 
UNION, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 375c, part.--RAINE, Auk, 
xiii, 1896, 257 (Sandwich Bay, Labrador, breeding; descr, eggs).--FLsMnG, 
Auk, xviii, 1901, 38 (Parry Sound and Muskoka, n. w. Ontario, in winter); 
xxiv, 1907, 75 (Toronto, Ontario, in winter). 
Asio v[irginianus] saturatus SrON., Auk, xx, 1903, 275, part. 
Asio magellanicus heterocnemis OBEROLSER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvii, Jan. 
22, 1904, 187 (Lance au Loup, Labrador; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs).-- 
HANTZSCH, Journ. filr Orn., 1908, 377 (n. e. Labrador). 
Bubo virginlanus eterocnemis AMERICAN ORN'ITHoLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, 
Auk, xxv, July, 1908, 347; Check List, 3rd ed., 1910, 176.--FLEMr, Auk, 
xxv, 1908, 487, in text (Toronto, Ontario, common in winter of 1907-'08). 

BUBO VIRGINIANUS ALGISTUS (Oberholser). 

SAXT "mLS OVS OWL. 
Similar in size to B. v. lagophonus but much paler throughout, the 
under parts less heavily barred, the feet less heavily mottled. 

a Two specimens, b Seven specimens. 



752 BULLETIN 50 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Strix wapacuthu VIEILLOT, NOUV. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., vii, 1817, 35. 
-hTyctea wapacuthu STEPENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xiii, pt. ii, 1826, 63. 
Asio magellanicus wapacuthu OEROLSER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvii, Jan. 22, 
1904, 191 (monogr.). 
Strix (Bubo)'arctica (not Bubo arcticus Forster, 1817) SWANSON, Fauna Bor.-Am., 
ii, 1831, 86 (Carlton House, Saskatchewan). 
Bubo arcticus SWANSON, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pl. 30.--SwANSON and 
ARDSON, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831, 132.--BLAKSTON, Ibis, 1861, 320 
(Forks of the Saskatchewan).--GvRNEv, Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894, 38. 
[Bubo] arcticus HEINE and REmENOW, Nora. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 250 ("Lab- 
rador").--SARPE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 282. 
.Bubo virginianus arcticus CAssm, Illustr. Birds Calif., Tex., etc., 1854, 50, part; 
in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 50, part.--RuGwhY, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 191; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 405b.--CovEs, Check 
List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 463, part.--AERCAN ORNrrOLOGmTS' UNON, Check 
List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 375b.--SETON, Auk, iii, 1886, 155 (Duck 
Mt. and Touchwood Hills, Manitoba, fall); xxv, 1908, 71 (Ft. Resolution and 
Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie), 453 (Winnipeg, Manitoba, 2 specs., nodate).-- 
ToPsoN, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 545 (Duck Mt. and Touchwood 
Hills, Manitoba, faI1).--BENDIRE, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, (i), 1892, 386. 
COOKE, Birds Col., 1897, 80 (winter visitant).--SToNE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila, 1897, 236.--(?)BIaTWELL, Auk, xviii, 1901, 113 (Bernalillo, New 
Mexico, Nov. 18, 1900).B.NT, Auk, xxv, 1908, 25 (s. w. Saskatchewan, 
breeding).--FLEIN, Auk, xxv, 1908, 487 (Toronto, Ontario, numerous in 
winter of 1907-'08). 
B[ubo] v[irginianus] arcticus CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 504, part. 
B[ubo] virginianus arcticus STONE, Auk, xiii, 1896, 156 (diagnosis). 
[Bubo virginianus.] Var. arcticus CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 202, in text, 
part.--NELSON, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 117 (Cook Co., n. e. Illinois, 
Dec., 1874). 
Bubo virginianus . . . var. arcticus CovEs, Check List, 1873, no. 317a, part. 
[Bubo virginianus] b. arcticus RmGwAY, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., x, Jan., 1874, 379, in 
text (Pekin, Illinois). 
[Bubo virginianus] c. arcticus CovEs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 301, part (in syn- 
onymy). 
Bubo virginianus, var. arcticus ]:IDGWAY, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 64, part. 
Bubo subarcticus Hov, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vi, 1852, 211 (near Racine, Wis- 
consin; coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.).CAssN, Illustr. Birds Calif., Tex., etc., 
1854, 117. 
B[ubo] virginianus subarcticus RDGWAY, Bull. Ills. State Labr. N. H., no. 4, 1881, 
187 (Illinois). 
Bubo virginianus subarcticus AERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION CoMMrrrEE, 
Auk, xiv, 1897, 134; xxv, 1908, 372; Check List, 3rd ed., 1910, 175.--MER- 
RiLL (J. C.), Auk, xiv, 1897, 353 (Ft. Sherman, Idaho).--RicoN), Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, 1902, 86 (crit. nomencl.; Bubo arcticus Swainson pre- 
OCcupied).--FLENG, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 75 (Toronto, Ontario, 4 records).-- 
FERRY, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 199 (Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, June).-- 
(?)GRNNELL, Condor, xii, 1910, 42 (Russian Mission, lower Yukon. Dec. 20; 
Yakutat Bay, Alaska, May 15; crit.). 
Asio v[irginianus] ubarcticus STONE, Auk, xx, July, 1903, 275. 



BIRDS OF lqOttTl[ AlqD MIDDLE AMERICA. 759 

Syrnium perspicillatum SCLATEa and SALVlN, Ibis, 1859, 222 (Escuintla and 
Antigua, Guatemala; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 280 (Bluefields I., Nica- 
ragua).--LAWRENCE, Ann. Lyc. l. Y., ix, 1868, 132 (Las Anonas, Costa 
Rica).--FRANTZlUS, :Iourn. Ii]r Orn., 1869, 366 (Costa Rica).---SnARPE, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., ii, 1875, 277, part (Chitra, Panama; Guatemala; Tehuan- 
tepec).--RIcHOND, Proc. U. S. lat. ]Ius., xvi, 1893, 520 (Rio Escondido, 
licaragua). 
Pulsatrix perspicillatus STONE, Proc. Ac. lat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 126, part (Nica- 
ragua; Jalapa, Yera Cruz).--BANss, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 294 (Pozo del Rio 
Gmnde, Costa Rica).--CAamKEa, Ann. Carnegie ]Ius., vi, 1910, 474 (Pigres, 
San $oaquin de Dota, Cerro Santa ]Ia6a, Bolson, Guunucaste, Guacimo, Rio 
Sicsola, Bebedero, and E1 Pozo de Termb% Costa Rica). 
Ciccaba perspicillata (not Strix perspicillata Latham) SAVlN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Ayes, iii, 1897, 28 (Atoyac, Santecomapam, Omealca, and Uvero, 
Vera Cruz; Tehuantepec and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca; Cayo, Brit. Iton- 
duras; Choctum and Escuintla, Guatemala; La Libertad, Salvador; Sucuya, 
Bluefields, Chinandega, ]gomotombo, and San Emilit, Nicaragua; licoya, 
La Palma de licoya, Bebedero, Las Anonas, and Angostura, Costa Rica; 
Chitra, Castillo, Culobre, and Bugaba, Panama). 
[Pulsatrix] perspicillata SHAPE, Itand-list, i, 1899, 284, part. 
Pulsatrix perspicilatl BANss, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, 1902, 25 (Bogaba, 
Panama). 
Ciccaba torquata (not Strix torquata Daudin) ScTE, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1857, 227 (Santecomapam, Vera Cruz).--FRANTZI[S, ourn. ffir Orn., 1869, 
366 (Costa Rica). 
Pulsatrix torquata vs, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 216 (Chitra, Castillo, and 
Bugaba, Panama).--(?) ScEa and Sv, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
539 (Cauca, w. Colombi).--L.wENcE, Bnll. U. S. Nut. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 
38 (Sant Efigenia, Oaxaca).--NUTWo, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 403 
(La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica); vi, 1883, 388 (Sucuya, Nicaragua).-- 
ZE'EDSN, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 125 (Angostur% Costa Rica).-- 
LnNTZ, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 219 (luerto Ba.rrios, 
Guatemala). 
[Pulsatrix] torquata SC'nTE and Sn,w, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 117, part. 

Genus CICCA]BA Wagler'. 
Ciccaba WAC..E, ISIS, 1832, 1222. (Type, Strix huhula Daudin.) 
Macabra BONRWE, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., vi (2), 1854, 541. (Type, as fixed 
by Gray, Striz hylophila Temminck.) 
Nyctimene a ]=IEIE, in Heine .nd Reichenow, lom. Mus. ttein. Orn., 1890, 252. 
(New name for Macabra Bonaparte, on grounds of purism.) 
Medium-sized Bubonidm (wing gbout 210-293 ram.), without ear- 
tufts, with ear-conch relatively small, nonoperculate, and sym- 
metrical, and toes entirely naked. (Somewhat resembling Pulsatrix 
but of much lighter bhfld, especially the bill and feet, and toes naked.) 
Bill relatively rather small; top of cere much shorter than chord 
of culmen, rather narrow, nearly straight or very faintly convex. 
Nostril rather large, oval, obliquely vertical, in upper-anterior edge 
of cere. Wing rather long and pointed, the longest primaries exceed- 
ing distal secondaries by gbout one-third the total length of wing; 

night;/, the moon. (Richmond). 



760 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

sixth and seventh, sixth, seventh, and eighth, or fifth, sixth, and 
seventh a primaries longest, the tenth (apparent outermost) a little 
shorter than second; b five outer primaries with inner webs sinuated 
(the sinuation sometimes very indistinct on fifth). Taft much more 
than half as long as wing, slightly rounded. Tarsus longer than 
middle toe with claw, densely clothed with rather short feathers; toes. 
naked, except basal portion of middle one. 
Coloraton.--I. Sooty brown or dusky above, vermiculated with 
dull buffy or buffy grayish, or transversely spotted with tawny; 
beneath buffy or tawny, striped or spotted with dusky (sometimes 
vermiculatcd anteriorly). 11. Plain sooty black above, with white 
bars on hhdneck and tail; beneath white broadly barred with black. 
Range.--Continental tropical America. (About ten species.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF CICCABA. 

a. Under parts regularly barred with black and white; upper parts plain sooty black, 
interrupted by a nuchal collar of barred black and white. (Ciccaba ngroltneata.) 
b. Black bars on under parts narrower; upper parts without white bars, except on 
hindneck, and, sometimes, on wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts. (Southern 
Mexico to western Ecuador.) ....... Ciccaba nigrolineata nigolineata (p. 763). 
bb. Black bars on under parts broader; upper parts with white bars on back, scap- 
ulars, etc. (Central Colombia.) 
Ciccaba nigrolineata sl?ilonota (extralimital). c 
aa. Under parts huffy white to huffy cinnamon, striped with brownish black or dark 
brown; upper parts grayish brown to dark sooty brown, more or less mottled, 
barred, or spotted with paler. (Ciccaba virgata.) 
b. Darker, the ground color of under parts more or less strongly buffy to buffy 
cinnamon, the sides of breast (sometimes whole breast) mottled or barred with 
dusky and buffy brownish or dull buffy. (Southeastern Mexico to Yenezuela 
and western Colombia.) ...................... Ciccaba vigata virgata (p. 763). 
bb. Paler, the ground color of under parts dull white or buffy white, with little if 
any darker mottling on sides of breast. 
c. Upper parts spotted with white or whitish. (Western Mexico.) 
Ciccaba vigata squamulata (p. 766). 
ec. Upper parts barred with pale buffy brown or brownish buff. (Northeastern 
Mexico.) .......................... Ciccaba vigata tamaulilensis (p. 767). 

CICCABA NIGROLINEATA NIGROLINEATA Sclater. 

BLACK-AND-WHITE OWL. 

Adults (sexes alike).--Pfleum and nape uniform black or sooty black; 
hindneck broadly barred with black and white, the black bars rather 
broader than the white ones, bothvery sharply defined; rest of upper 
parts dark sooty brown to sooty black, d the upper taft-coverts usually 

a Fourth and fifth, third, fourth, and fifth, or fourth, fifth, and sixth from outside. 
b Ninth from outside. 
c [Syrnium igrolneatum.] Subsp. a. Syrnium spilonotum Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., ii, 1875, 277 (Bogota, Colombia; coll. Brit. ]us.; ex [Syrnium] spilonotum 
Gray, Hand-list, i, 1869, 49, =nomen nudum). 
 The color darker (more nearly black) in fresh plumage, more sooty in older plumage. 



762 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES IATIOIAL MUSEUM. 

Southern Iexico, in States of Vcra Cruz (Jalapa), Oaxaca (Tehufin- 
tepecCity; Tapana; Santa Efignia; Cacoprieto), and Chiapas (Soco- 
nusco; Huehuetin), and southward through Guatemala (Mazate- 
nango; CajabSn), British Honduras (Cayo), Honduras (Santa Ann), 
Nicaragua (Vizagua; Chontales; Mombacho), Costa Rica (San Josg; 
E1 Hoghr), lanam (Volcin de Chiriqul; Boquete de Chitra; Divala; 
Bugaba; near Gatfin), and Colombia (Rio Atrato; Bogotfi; Rio 
Frio, Cauca; La Maria, Dagua Valley) to western EcuadSr (Foreste 
del Rio l%ripa; Bulfim). a 

Ciccaba nigrolineata SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 131 (s. Mexico; coll. 
lorwich Mus.); Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., iv, pt. vi, 1859, 268, pl. 63.--SALw, 
Ibis, 1866, 195 (Mazatenango, Guatemala); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 216 
(Boquete do Chitra, Panama; crit.).--LAwaENCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1868, 
132 (San Jos, Costa Rica); Bull. U. S. Nat. lIus., no. 4, 1876, 37 (Tehuantepec 
City, Oaxaca).--FRANTZIUS, Joum. ftir Orn., 1869, 366 (Costa Rica). 
FEaaAR-PEaEZ, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 164 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz).-- 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, iii, 1897, 27 (Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz; Tapana, Santa Efigenia, Cacoprieto, and Tehuantepec, Oaxaca; 
lIazatenango and Cajabon, Guatemala; Cayo, Brt. Honduras; Mombacho, 
Nicaragua; San Jos, Costa lica; Boquete de Chitra, Panama; Colombia). 
SALVADOR! and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zoo1., etc., Torino, xv, 1900, 33 (Foreste 
del Rio Peripa, w. Ecuador; crit.).--HAnTEaT, Novit. Zool., ix, 1902, 605 
(Bulum, n. w. Ecuador). 
[Ciccab] nigrolieta SHARPE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 295. 
[Ciccab] nigro-lineata SCLATEn and SALVN, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 117. 
Cacciba nigrolineata STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 126 (Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz). 
[Syrnium] nigrolineatum GaAY, Hand-list, i, 1869, 49, no. 525. 
Syrnium nigrolineatum SAaeE, Cat. Birds Brit. lIus., ii, 1875, 276 (Veragua, Pan- 
ama).--ZEEDSN, Anal. lIus. Nac. C. R., i, 1887, 125 (Cost Rica).--BANS, 
Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, 1902, 26 (Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama). 
Syrnium nigrolineatum nigrolineatum BANS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, May 4, 
1910, 72 (La Maria, Dagua Valley, w. Colombia; crit.). 
Strix nigrolineata ZELED6N, Proc. U. S. Nat. lIus., viii, 1885, 111 (Costa Rica).-- 
CAamEn, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 477 (El Hogar, Costa Rica). 

:Footnote--Continued. 

Locality. 

SE UNKNOWN. 
One adult from central Colombia (Bogota) ...................................... 
One adult from eastern Panama (Canal Zone) .................................. 
Two adults from Costa Rica .................................................... 
One adult lrom Chiapas ........................................................ 

Wing. 
260 
271 
273.5 
278 

Tail. 
150.5 
164.5 
167 

from 
cere. 

21.5 
22 
20.5 
21.5 

The series examined is remarkably uniform as to coloration, and I am unable to 
detect any differences according to locality. 
a I have not seen specimens from Ecuador. 



768 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES lqATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Haemeria a ZANDER, Naturg. VSg. Mecklenburgs, Heft 2, 1838, 123, 128. (Type, 
Strix nivea Thunberg=S. nyctea Linnzeus.) 
Leuchybris b SUNDEVALL, Met. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., 1373, 105. (Type, Strix 
nyctea Linnaeus.) 
Very large, strongly built Bubonidm (wing about 394-465 ram.) 
with minute or rudimentary ear-tufts; c external ear-openin small, 
simple, nonoperculate, symmetrical; very long, hair-like feathers on 
lores and feet, nearly concealing bill and claws, and coloration white, 
more or less barred or transversely spotted with dusky. 
Bill stout, nearly lfidden by the long and dense antrorse bristle-like 
loral feathers; cere much shorter than chord of culmen. Nostril 
rather large, broadly oval or nearly circular, d opening in anterior 
edge of cere. External ear-openings relatively small (their greatest 
vertical length less than diameter of eye), nearly oval, without free 
dermal margin or median transverse ligamcntous bridge. Wing large, 
with longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by less than one- 
third the total length of wing; seventh and eighth, or seventh, eighth, 
and ninth c primaries longest, the tenth (apparent outermost) about 
equal to sixth; ] five outer primaries with inner webs deeply emargi- 
nated (less distinctly on fifth). Tail more than half as long as wing, 
distinctly rounded, the longer under tail-coverts extending to its tip. 
Tarsus longer than middle toe without claw, very densely covered, 
all round, with long, soft, hair-like feathers, the toes similarly 
clothed, the long hair-like feathers nearly (sometimes quie) con- 
cealing the claws. Ear-tufts minute or rudimentary. Physiog- 
nomy peculiar, through wide separation of the eyes and their narrow- 
ness vertically, and but slightly flattened face. 
Coloration.Adults pure white, more or less barred or transversely 
spotted with dusky (some adult males almost immaculate); young 
plain sooty. 
Range.--Arctic and subarctic circumpolar districts, nfigrating 
southward during severe winters. (Monotypic.) 

NYCTEA NYCTEA (Linnmus.) 

SNOWY OWL. 

Addt male.P]umage pure white, sometimes nearly immaculate 
but usually broken, more or less, with transverse spots or bars of clear 

a Az/p5', bloody, murderous. (Richmond.) 
b "xlvZo-, albus, et 5[pf, nomen Bubonls antiquum." (Sundevall.) 
c These, however, are so small as to be discernible only on close examination. 
d In dried skins sometimes appearing oval or broadly elliptical and obliquely 
vertical through shrinkage of the adjacent membrane. 
e Third and fourth, or second, third, and fourth, from outside, not counting the 
rudimentary eleventh (first) primary. 
! Fifth from outside. 



BIIDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 771 

for 1897-99 (1900), 101 (Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1 spec., no date; Bayou des 
Allemands, 1 spec., winter 1878--79).--GRINNELL (J.), Pacific Coast Avffauna, 
no. 3, 1902, 35 (California range).--RAwHntN (S. F.), Auk, xix, 1902, 134 
(Seattle, Vashington, flight, Nov. and Dec., 1896).--DEANE, Auk, xix, 1902, 
271-283 (unusual abundance in New England and Canada during winter of 
1901-'2); xxiii, 1906, 283-298 (unusual abundance in winter of 1905-6; 
records).--BUTLER, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 271 (Indiana records).--BEYER, ALL- 
SON, and KOPMAN, Auk, xxv, 1908, 443 (Baton Rouge and Bayou des 
Allemands, Louisiana, winter 1878--79).--KERiODE, Provincial Mus. Vic- 
toria, 1909, 47 (s. in winter to mouth of Fraser R., Chilliwack, and Okanogan, 
occasionally to Vancouver I. ; resident in n. Brit. CoIumbia).--$EWETT, Auk, 
xxvii, 1910, 340 (Sheridan, Dougal Co., Oregon, 1 spec., Nov. 30, 1909).-- 
WAE, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 454 (near Vinnsboro, Fairfield Co., South Caro- 
lina, Nov. 28, 1908). 
N[yctea] nyctea RDGWA, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 264. 
[Nyctea] nyctea SHARPE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 284. 
Ulula nyctea GIEBEL, V/g., 1860, 279. 
Strix (Surnia) nyctea RADDE, Reisen, 1863, 124. 
Bubo nyctea SEEBOHI, Ibis, 1882, 373 (Archangel, Russia). 
Strix nivea THUNBERG, 1. Vet. Acad. Nya Handl., xix, 1798, 184 (Lappmark).-- 
DAUDIN, Trait6 d'Orn., ii, 1800, 190. 
Noctua nivea BRaHe, Isis, 1834, 246. 
N[yctea] nivea GRA, Gen. Birds, i, 1844, 34. 
Nyctea nivea GRA, Gen. Birds, i, 1844, pl. 12, fig. 2.--REINHARDT, 'OUrn. fiir 
0rn., 1854, 438 (Greenland); Ibis, 1861, 5 (Greenland).--CASSI, Illustr. 
Birds Calif., Tex., etc., 1854, 190; in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 
1858, 63.--STRICKLAND, Orn. Sy., i, 1855, 194.--BAIRD, Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 61.--CovEs and PRETOS, An. Rep. Smithson. Inst. for 1861 
(1862), 402 (District Columbia in winter).--BoAR)A, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., ix, 1862, 123 (Calais, Maine, probably breeding).--DRESSER, Ibis, 
1865, 330 (San Antonio, Texas).--LAWRENCE, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 1866, 
281 (vicinity of New York City).--CovEs, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xii, 1868, 
120 (South Carolina); Check List, 1873, no. 325.--GOULD, Birds Great Brit., 
i, 1863, pl. 34, and text.--BRow, Ibis, 1868, 419 (Vancouver I.).--DALL 
and BANNISTER, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 273 (Alaska).--CoOPER, 
0rn. Calif., 1870, 447 (no California record to date).--Sow, Birds Kansas, 
1873, 2 (rare in winter).--ALLEN, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1881, 128 (Ft. 
Walla Walla, Vashington, Dec. 1).--DEAE, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 100 (lae 
flight in n. e. Illinois, Nov. 14-Dec. 9, 1905). 
[Nycea] nivea BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 36.--GRAy, Hand-list, i, 1869, 39, 
no. 377.--CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 205. 
Nyaea scandiaca, var. nivea IID(WAY, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 61, footnote. 
Haemeria nivea ZANDER, Naturg. VSg. Mecklenb(rgs, heft 2, 1838, 119. 
Leucybris nivea SVDEVALL, Met. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., 1872, 105. 
Str[ix] candida LATHA, Index Orn., Suppl., 1801, p. xiv (based on La Chouette 
blanche Levaillant, Sis. d'A_fr., etc., 172, pl. 45; Strix nivea Daudin, ii, 190; 
Ermine Owl Latham, Gen. Syn. Sup., ii, 60, no. 7). 
Nyctia candida SWANSO, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 217. 
Nyctea candida BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 6. 
Strix erminea SHAW, Gen. Zool., vii, pt. i, 1809, 251 (based on Strix candda Latham; 
La Chouette blanche Levaillant, Sis., pl. 45; Ermine Owl Latham, Suppl., 2). 
Nyaea erminea STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xiii, pt. iii, 1826, 63. 
Nyctea nivea europaea Bt]], Verz. Samml. C. L. Brehm, 1866, 2. 



BIRDS OF lgORTI-I AIgD MIDDLE AMERICA. 775 

these black stripes white predominates the brown forming irregular 
terminal or median transverse spots, or, on lower portion of hindneck, 
more linear spots or streaks; back plain brown; posterior scapulars 
variegated with partially concealed large transverse spots of white, 
the outermost ones with greater part of outer web white, broken by 
blackish brown bars or bands, the confluence of these white blotches 
producing a conspicuous elongated patch of white immediately above 
wing; rump with sparse, irregular, but usually transverse, spots of 
white, the upper taft-coverts with broader and more regular bars of 
the same, these about equal to the brown ones in width; outermost 
middle and greater wing-coverts with an ovoid spot of white on outer 
webs; secondaries crossed by about three transverse series of longi- 
tudinally ovoid spots of white (on edges) and very narrowly tipped 
with white; outermost primary coverts with one or two transverse 
series of white spots; primaries with about seven transverse series of 
white spots, these most developed on proximal portion of five outer 
quills, becoming indistinct or obsolete on proximal quills, all the 
primaries rear, ned at tips with white; tail crossed by seven or eight 
very narrow bands or bars of white (the last one terminal), these 
bands becoming less distinct (sometimes obsolete) on lateral rectrices; 
"eyebrow" (superciliary region), lores, and face grayish white, the 
grayish appearance caused by black shafts to the feathers, the grayish 
white of face continued across lower part of throat, separating a large 
gular space of dark brown from an indistinct brown collar across 
upper chest, this collar confluent with the lower end of the auricular 
and cervical black bands, the space between which is white; ground 
color of under parts white, everywhere barred with chestnut-brown 
or burnt-umber, the bars sharply defined, averaging rather more than 
half as wide as the white interspaces, except on upper chest, where 
the white is so much in excess as to form a broken patch, below 
which the brown bars are broader, and somewhat coalesced; on 
legs and toes the bars narrower, more sparse, and less regular; under 
wing-coverts barred like sides, etc.; under surface of remiges dark 
slaty brown, with transverse, irregularly elliptical spots of white on 
inner webs (except distal portion), there being about seven of these 
on longest quill; bill yellowish; iris lemon yellow. 
Young.--Upper parts dark sooty brown or sepia, the feathers of 
pileum and hindneck tipped with dull grayish buff, which forms the 
predominating color; scapulars and interscapulars indistinctly tipped 
with dull grayish buff; loral and auricular regions plain brownish 
black, the rest of "face" dull whitish; under parts dull whitish, 
deeply shaded across chest with dark sooty brownish, the other por- 
tions being broadly but rather indistinctly barred with brown, these 
markings narrower and more confused anteriorly and on legs. 



780 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

rical, reflarly obliquely oval, nmch shorter than diameter of eye, 
without marnal flap or transverse ligament. Wing moderate, with 
longest primaries decidedly exceeding longest secondaries; sixth, 
seventh, and eighth, seventh and eighth, or shxth and seventh  pri- 
maries longest, the tenth (apparent outelznost) not longer (usually 
shorter) than distal secondaries; four outer primaries with inner webs 
emarnated or sinuated. Tail a little less than two-thirds to slightly 
more than three-fourths as long as wing, moderately or slightly 
rounded or (sometimes, at least, in G. si]u) slightly double-rounded; 
rectrices twelve. Legs and feet very strong, the tarsus about as 
long as middle toe without claw, densely clothed, all round, with soft 
hairlike feathers, the upper surface of toes bristled (feathered basally 
in G. tasserinzm). 
Coloration (of American and European species).--Above brown or 
rufous (sometimes more or less barred or spotted), interrupted by a 
more or less distinct collar across lower hindneck of whitish or rusty 
usually with more or less distinct indications of an interrupted black- 
ish one immediately below; tail barred (the bars sometimes obsolete 
in rufous phases); under parts white, usually immaculate medially 
but laterally striped, spotted or otherwise marked with brown, 
rufous, or blackish. 
Range.--Europe (one species), Africa, southern Asia, South and 
Central America, Mexico, and western United States north to 
British Columbia; one species in Cuba. (About 30 species, including 
subspecies.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF GLAUCIDIUM. 

a. Nostrils opening near center of cere; sides and flanks longitudinally striped. 
( Glaucidium. ) 
b. Pileum spotted or dotted in adults. 
c. Back more or less spotted or barred, at least beneath surface; sides of breast 
more or less spotted or barred; tail with five to eight white or cinnamon- 
rufous bands. 
d. Fourth and fifth primaries (counting from outside) longest; tips of outer 
primaries broad; tail with only five white bands or less (in rufous phase 
both tail and remiges broadly banded with cinnamon-rufous); general 
coloration much darker, with spots on pileum larger, and those on scap- 
ulars more transverse. (Costa Rica to Venezuela and Peru.) 
Glaucidium jardinii (p. 782). 
dd. Fourth primary longest, the third usually longer than fifth; tips of outer prio 
maries narrow; tail with six to eight white or whitish bands; general 
coloration much lighter, with spots on pileum smaller and those on 
scapulars less transverse. 
e. Stripes on under parts dark brown or blackish, relatively narrower; larger, 
with relatively longer tail (tail not less than 57 ram.); feathering of tar- 
sus longer, extending more over base of toes. (Glaucdum gnoa.) 

a Third, fourth, and fifth, third and fourth, or fourth and fifth from outside, not 
counting the rudimentary eleventh (first) primary. 



BIRDS OF IIORT] AlqD MIDDL] AMERICA. 781 

f. Color of back, etc., decidedly grayish brown (grayish hair brown to bister 
or grayish snuff brown). 
g/. Smaller (wing averaging less than 88 in male, less than 94 in female). 
h. Tail longer (averaging 63 in male, 61.5 in female); brown throat- 
band less distinct (?). (Southern Lower California.) 
Glaucidium gnoma hoskinsii (p. 788). 
hh. Tail shorter (averaging 59.2 in male, 59.4 in female); brown throat- 
band more distinct (?). (Northern and central Mexico.) 
Glaucidium gnoma gnoma (p. 785). 
gg. Larger (wing averaging 90 or more in males, more than 95 in females). 
h. Color of upper parts grayer (back, etc., grayish hair brown); laer 
(wing averaging 95.4 in male, 10]..2 in female). (Rocky Moun- 
tains of United States, from Arizona and New Mexico to Montana.) 
Glaucidium gnoma pinicola (p. 789). 
h. Color of upper parts browner (back, etc., broccoli brown to light 
bister or grayish snuff brown); smaller (wing averaging 93.6 in 
male, 95.7 in female). (California, except northern coast dis- 
trict, and northward to interior of British Columbia.) 
Glaucidium gnoma californicum (p. 790). 
ff. Color of back, etc., decidedly brown to deep brown or rufescent brown. 
g. Color of upper parts lighter and more rufescent brown (back, etc., 
snuff brown to verona brown). 
h. Smaller (wing averaging 87.4 in male, 93.7 in female). (Mexico.) 
Glaucidium gnoma gnoma, rufescent phase (p. 786). 
h. Larger (wing averaging 93 in male, 95.6 in female). (Coast district, 
from San Francisco Bay to southern British Columbia.) 
Glaucidium gnoma grinnelli (p. 791). 
gg. Color of upper parts darker and more sooty brown (back, etc., dark 
bister to warm sepia). (Wing averaging 90 in male, 93.7 in female.) 
(Vancouver Island, British Columbia.) 
Glaucidium gnoma swarthi (p. 793). 
ee. Stripes on under parts light brown, relatively broader; smaller, with 
relatively shorter tail (tail 54 in male, 55 in female); feathering of tarsus 
shorter, ending abruptly above base of toes. (Southwestera Mexico, 
in State of Guerrero and Territory of Tepic.) 
Glaucidium palmarum (p. 793). 
cc. Back neither spotted nor barred (uniform brown); sides of breast plain brown; 
tail with only four transverse series of white spots. (Glaucidiura purailum.) 
d. General coloration more rufescent, especially stripes on under parts. (South- 
era Brazil to British Guiana.) r'  
Glaucidium laumilum pumilum (extralimital).a 
dd. General color less rufescent. (Panama to Guatemala.) 
Glaucidium lmmilum griseicel)s (p. 795). 

a 8trix puraila Lichtenstein, Verz. Saiigeth. VSg. K. Univ. Berlin, 1818, 28 (Brazil; 
no descr., but cites "Cabur Azara Chouette LeVaill[ant]"); Temminck, Planch. 
Col., ii, livr. 7, Feb., 1821, pl. 39 and text (Paraguay; Brazil).--"L" ie. S[trix] pumila 
Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 60 (Bahia and So Paulo, Brazil; description; coll. 
Bedin ius.).--Noctua pumila Stephens, Shaw's Gem Zool., xiii, pt. 2, 1826, 68.-- 
A[thene] purnila Gray, Gem Birds, i, 1845, 35.--Gl[aucidium] pumilura Kaup, Jar- 
dine's Contr. Ors., 1852, 103 (monogr.).--Glaucidium pumilum Kaup, Trans. Zool. 
S0c. Lond., iv, 1859, 202 (monogr.; habits); Burmeister, Syst. Ueb. Th. Bras., ii, 
1856, 144; Ridgway, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvi, 1873, 97, part (monogr.); Ibis, 
1876, 16, part (crit.); Sharpe, Ibis, 1875, 40, 56, pl. 2, fig. 1 (monogr.); Cat. Birds 
Brit. ]Ius., ii, 1875, 198; Salvin, Ibis, 1886, 72 (Camacusa, Brit. Guiana); Allen, Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H., ii, 1889, 266 (as to type of Strix ninutissima Maximilian).--G[/auc/- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 783 

or most saturated on back; pfleum and hLldneck with numerous 
small romxded or guttate spots of dull white to pale rusty; across the 
lower hindneck a broken collar of mLxed black and white, this mar- 
glued posteriorly by more or less of buffy to pale tawny or cinnamon- 
rufous; back nearly if not quite immaculate on surface, but with 
concealed small spots or bars of buffy or pale tawdry-buff, the rump 
similarly marked but with spots or bars more exposed; upper tail- 
coverts with transverse spots or bars of white, mostly concealed; tail 
brownish black or blackish brown, crossed by sLx to seven narrow 
bands of white, these falling far short of shafts on both webs; outer 
webs of scapulars more or less barred or transversely spotted with 
dull white to pale tawny; wing-coverts more or less spotted or barred 
(irregularly) with dull whitish, buffy, or pale tawny; secondaries 
crossed by four or five transverse series of dull brownish buffy or 
dullpale tawny spots (on edges), those on proximal secondaries becom- 
ing more brownish and much less district bwardly, those ou distal 
secondaries more sharply defined md com'ined to edge; primaries 
dusky brown with more or less distinct spots of lighter brown on outer 
webs, those on distal portion of longer primaries much more distinct 
and paler (dull white to buffy) ; "eyebrow" (superciliary region) and 
lores dull white, the shafts of the bristly loral feathers blackish; 
auricular md suborbital regions barred with dusky brow and pale 
fulvous or dull buffy; malar region and chin immaculate white; across 
middle of throat a conspicuous broad band varying b color from 
uniform blackish brown to lighter brown and buffy or pale tawny (the 
latter mostly on tips of feathers), this dark bald extending laterally, on 
each side, to sides of neck; a conspicuous white patch covering upper 
chest and median portion of foreneck, usually confluent posteriorly 
with a white (usually immaculate) median stripe on breast and abdo- 
men; sides of breast, sides, and flanks brown (mummy brown, argus 
brown, natal brown, or roods brown),  broken by transverse spots or 
irregular bars of dull whitish or buffy to pale rusty, sometimes with 
blackish transverse spots or bars also, especially on flaks, the inner 
portion of these browish lateral areas (next to the white median area) 
broadly streaked with black; legs dull brownish white to pale rusty 
brown, heavily mottled with brown; under tail-coverts white, the 
longer ones with blac -kish mesial strea ks on distal portion; under wing- 
coverts buffy white, those near edge of whig streaked with dusky 
brown, the streaks sometimes coalesced and forming a stripe running 
parallel with the edge; under surface of remiges grayish brown trans- 
versely spotted with white, except on distal portion of longer and 
outermost primaries; bill pale dull yellowish; iris bright lemon yel- 
low; naked portion of toes dull yellowish gray (La dried skins). 

a Of "Color Standards and Color omeaclature" (1912). 



784 BULLETI 50 UIITED STATES ]NATIO]NAL MUSEUM. 

Rufous phase. 

Adults (sezes alike).--Above deep cinnamon-rufous or hazel, 
darkest on back and scapulars; pileum and hindneck spotted with 
lighter cinnamon-rufous; lower hindneck crossed by a collar of black 
(more or less interrupted in middle portion), immediately below which 
the color is lighter cinnamon-rufous or rufous-tawny; back, rump, 
scapulars, and wing-coverts indistinctly barred or transversely spotted 
with lighter cinamon-rufous, but sometimes nearly immaculate, 
especially the scapulars; tail banded with light cinnamon-rufous and 
dusky, the bands varying in relative width, the paler ones sometimes 
continuous but sometimes interrupted at shafts of rectrices; whole 
face light cinnamon-rufous, rarely approaching dull rusty white on 
"eyebrow" and lores; chin and malar region white (usually tinged, 
more or less, with rusty) ; baud across throat deep cinnamon-rufous, 
usually more or less intermixed with black lateral]y; upper chest, 
median foreneck, and median line (sometimes very narrow) of breast 
and abdomen white; sides of breast, and sides, uniform cinnamon- 
rufous, the flanks similar but broken into more or less distinct stripes 
of cinnamon-rufous and white or huffy white, the latter, however, 
sometimes indistinct; thighs, tarsi, and unde tail-coverts tawny- 
ochraceous, the last indistinctly edged with whitish; under wing- 
coverts and spots on inner webs of remiges ochraceous-buffy: bill, 
etc., as in brown phase. 
Young.--Essentially like adults, but. pileum, hindneck, and back 
unspotted. 
Adult ma/e.--Length (skin), 150;  wing, 89-95.5 (92.1); tail, 
49.5-63.5 (56.5); culmen (from cere), 11.5-12.2 (11.8).  

a One specimen. 
b Two specimens; one (the smaller) from Sonh, Panama; the other from mountains 
south of Cartago, Costa Rica. 
Eight specimens of undetermined sex measure as follows: Length (skins), 145-165 
(153.1); wing, 95-104.5 (99.1); tail, 53-64.5 (58.6); culmen (from cere), 10.5-11.5 
(10.9). 

Locality. 

flex 
Three adults from Costa Rica .................................................. 
Three adults from Colombia ................................................... 
One adult said to .e from Guiana .............................................. 
One adult labeled "Brazil?" ................................................. 

Wing. 

96 
102. 2 
97. 5 
100. 5 

Tail. 

53.3 
65. 2 
56.5 
57 

Yulme 
fro m 

The very considerable variation in pattern and colors in the series examined indi- 
cates the possibility of geographic differentiation, but the number of specimens is 
much too small to warrant any conclusion in the matter. 



790 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
G[laucidium] gnoma CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 514, part.--RH)GWY, 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 266, part. 
[Glaucidium] gnoma SHARPE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 298, part. 
Glaucidium gnoma gnoma AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, Check List, 3rd 
ed., 1910, 178, part.--SAvN)ERS, Condor, xiv, 1912, 26 (Silver Bow Co., s. w. 
Montana). 
[Glauc'dium] passerinum, vat. californicum (not Glauvdium californicum Sclater) 
CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 206, part. 
Glaucidium passerinum, var. caHfornicum II)GWAY, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvi, 
1873, 317, part (monogr.); in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, iii, 1874, 81, part.--HESmW, lep. Ore. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 136 
(Apache, Gila 1., etc., Arizona). 
Glaucidium passerinum . . . var. ealifornicum? IIDGWAY, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 
1873, 185 (Colorado). 
Glaucidium passerinum . . . var. californicum COVES, Check List, 1873, no. 329, 
part.--HENSHAW, Zool. Exp. W. of 100th Merid., 1875, 407 (near Camp 
Apache, White hits., and Gila 1., Arizona; habits). 
[Glaucidium passerinum] b. callfornicum CovEs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 317, 
footnote, part. 
(laucidium gnoma pinicola NELSON, Prec. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, June 24, 1910, 
103 (Alma, New hlcxico; coll. U. S. Nat. MUS.).--AERICAN ORITHO,O- 
GISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, Auk, xxx, 1912, 382. 
G[laucidium] gnoma pinicola (RINNELL (J.), Auk, xxx, 1913, 224 (measurements). 
GLAUCIDIUM GNOMA CALIFORNICUM (Sclater). 
CALIFORNIA PYGMY OWL. 
Similar to G. g. Idncola but decidedly browner, the general color of 
the upper parts deep broccoli brown to fight bister or grayish snuff 
brown. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 154-175 (165); wing, 89.5-97 (93.6); 
tail, 61-68.5 (65.9); culmen (from cere), I0-1I (10.9). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 156-184 (169) ; wing, 92.5-102 (95.3); 
tail, 63.5-72.5 (67.2); culmen (from cere), 10.5-12 (11.2). 5 
California (except humid coast district from ]Ionterey northward), 
in mountains, from San Diego, Riverside, and San Bernardino coun- 
ties northward along coast mountains to Los Angeles County and 
through Sierra Nevada to ]{ount Shasta; thence northward along 
Cascade Range and foothills and mountains of middle and eastern 
Oregon and Washington to southern British Columbia (Mount Leh- 
man; Vernon; Okanogan, Feb. 12; Chilliwack; Sumas, Feb. 16; 
Willow River, Caribou District) and northwestern Idaho (Nez Perces 
Rcscrvation; Fort Sherman). 
(?)Athene infuscata (not Strix infuscata Temminck) HEERIANN, JOtlrn. Ac. Nat. 
Sci., Phila., ii, 1853, 260 (Calaveras iver, Cali/ornia).--NEWERRY, Rep. 
Pacific R. P. Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 77 (Cascade Mrs.). 
Glaucidium californicu SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 4 (California; 
based on G. infuscatu Cassin; type in coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.).--BEN)RE, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 132 (Camp Harney, Oregon; see Proc. Bo,t. 
Soc. N. H., xviii, 1S75, 162). 

Seven specimens, b Twelve specimens. 



792 BULLETIII 50, UIII'YED STATES IATIOIIAL MUSEUM. 

Adult female.--Length (skins), 158-186 (168); wing, 88.5-100.5 
(94.9); tail, 62-72.5 (66.6); culmen (from cere), 10.5-11.5 (10.9). a 
Humid coast district of California (from Ionterey County north- 
ward), Oregon, Washington, and coast mainland of southern British 
Columbia (Port Moody; New Westminster; Sumas; Okanogan, Febru- 
ary; Chilliwack, Nov. 30; Moun Lehman; extreme southern end of 
Vancouver Island ?); east to wes base of Iount Shasta and Lake 
County, California, and (casually ?) to Spokane, eastern Washington. 

Strlx passerinoides (not of Temminck) TOWNSEND (3. ].), ollrn..c. Nat. Sci. 
lhila., viii, 1839, 152.--AVDVBON, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 271, pl. 432, fi. 
4, 5.--NvwT.LL, lIan. Orn. ]U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 148 
(Ft. Vancouver, Washington; habits). 
Surnia passerlnoides AVDVBON, Synopsis, 1839, 23; Birds Am., oct. ed., i, 1840 
117, pl. 30. 
(?)Glaucidum infuscatum (not Strix infuscata Temminck) C.SSN, Illustr. Bird 
Calif., Texas, etc., 1854, 189, part (Oregon). 
Glaucidium cafornicum ScE, lroc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 126 (not of p. 4 ! ; 
San Jos Valley, California; crit.).--CooeEa, Orn. Calif., 1870, 444, part.-- 
ALEN (C. A.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 193 (Nicasio, ]Iarin Co., 
CalifornL.; habits).--CooeE (W. A.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 86 
(Santa Cruz, California; breeding habits; descr, nest and eg). 
[Glucidium] cliforicmn SmneE, Iand-list, i, ]899, 298, part. 
[Glaucidium] passerinun vat. californicum COVES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 206, 
part. 
Glaucidium passerinum . . . var. californicum CovEs, Check List, 1874, no. 329, 
part. 
[Glucidium passerinum] b. californicum CovEs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 317, foot- 
note, part. 
Glaucidium passerinum var. californicun RDoWY, lroc. Bost. Soc. N. It., xvi, 
May, 1873, 94, part (descr. of adult male; monogr.); ia Baird, Brewer, and 
Ridgway, ttist. N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 81, part (descr. adult male). 
Glucidium passerinum californicun BnEwsEn, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 5an., 
1879, 42 (Nicasio, California; descr, autumnal plumage of young). 
Glaucidium gnoma californicum BENDnE, Auk, v, Oct., 1888, 366 (coast, from San 
Francisco Bay to British Columbia).--AEm..' OaNOOOSTS' 
Suppl. to Check List, 1889, 9; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 379a; 3d ed., 
]910, 178.--Cme.N, Bull. Am. lIus. N. It., iii, 1890, 136 (Mt. Lehman, 
etc., s. w. Brit. Columbia).--L.wENcE (R. H.), Auk, xil, 1892, 44 (East 
ttumptulips, Washington).--BENDE, Life ttist. N. Am. Birds, (i), 1892, 
407.--Ro.Ds, lroc. Ac. Nat. Sci., hila., 1893, 42 (Brit. Columbia west of 
Cascade IIts.).--RDow.v, lIan. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 593.--Boos, 
Auk, xvii, 1900, 106 (Brit. Columbia).--JoNsos (A. W.), Condor, iv, 1902, 
18 (Hasting's lanch, Lake County, California).---GNE (J.)., Pacific 
Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 36 (California range).--R.vs (S. F.), Auk, 
xLx, 1902, 134 (Seattle, WaShinon).--SToNE, lroc. Ac. Nat. Sci. lhila., 
1904, 581 (Mt. Sanhedrin, lIendocino Co., California).--lEoDE, lrovinc. 
]Ius. Victoria, 1909, 47, part (s. part of mainland coast, Brit. Columbia). 
G[laucidium] gnoma californicum NELSON, lroc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, 1910, 
104 (measurements).---GnNNE ($.), Auk, xxx, 1913, 224 (measurements). 

a Twelve spcimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 793 

Glaucidium gnoma (not of Wagler) CASSIN, in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 62, part (Ft. Steilacoom and Shoalwater Bay, Washington).-- 
BAIRD, Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 60, part.--CooPER and SUCKLEY, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, book ii, pt. ifi, 1860, 158 (Puget Sound and Ft. 
Steilacoom, Wahington).--LoRD, Intellect. Observer, 1865, 409 (Brit. Colum- 
bia; habits).--ANwHoNv, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington Co., Oregon).-- 
TOWNSEND (C. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1887, 204 (Humboldt Bay, 
California; west base Mt. Shasta). 

GLAUCIDIUM GNOMA SWARTHI Grinnell. 

VANCOUVER PYGMY OWL. 

Similar to G. g. californicum but coloration decidedly darker and 
more sooty, the general color of upper parts dark bister or deep warm- 
sepia brown; throat-band and color of sides of breast decidedly less 
rufescent brown; tail drker. 
Adult nale.--Length (skins), 149-166 (158); wing, 86.5-95.5 (90); 
tail, 60-66 (62); culmen (from cere), 10.5-11.5 (ll). a 
Adult fenale.--Length (skins), 170-180 (176); wing, 92.5-96 
(94.5); tail, 65-66 (65.3); culmen (from cere), 11-11.5 (11.3). b 
Vancouver Island, British Columbia (Errington; Parkville; head of 
Central Lake; Victoria ?). 
Glaucidium gnoma (not of Wagler) BROWN, Ibis, 1868, 419 (Vancouver Is.) 
Glaucidium gnoma californicum (not Glaucidium californicum Sclater) IERMODE, 
Provincial iius. Victoria, 1909, 47, part (Vancouver IS.).--SWAnTH, Univ. 
Calif. Pub. Zool., x, 1912, 31 (Errinton; Parkvflle; head of Central Lake; 
crit.). 
Glaucidium gnoma swarth GRINNSLL ($.), Auk, xxx, April, 1913, 224 (Errington, 
Vancouver Island, Brit. Columbia; coll. Calif. Mus. Vert. Zool.). 

GLAUCIDIUM IALMARUM Nelson. 

PALM PYGMY OWL 

Somewhat similar to the rufescent phase of G. gnoma gnoma, but 
stripes on under parts broader and light cinnamon-brown or sayal 
brown (none of them approaching blackish) ; white or pale cinnamon- 
huffy spots on pileum smaller (those on forehead roundish instead 
of longitudinally guttate), and feathering on lower part of tarsus 
shorter and thinner; wings and tail shorter (especially the latter). 
Adult nale.--Pileum and hindueck drab, thickly sprinkled with 
small dots of dull white, those on forehead circular, not at all inclining 
to longitudinal or guttate form; lower hindneck crossed by an indis- 
tinct collar of pale cinnamon-huffy, intermixed with dull white in 
middle portion, and laterally immediately preceded by a blackish 

a Five specimens. 
b Three specimens. 
e Specimens from Victori are scarcely distinguishable from mainland examples, 
and the birds from the extreme southern end of the island may be more properly 
referable to G. g. grinnelli. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 795 

in front of nostril; toes light yellowish brown (h dried skins) ; length 
(skin), 143.5; wing, 84.5; tail, 54; culmen (from cere), 9.5. a 
Adultfemale.--Similar to the adult male but pilcun and hhdneck 
browner, the spots larger and pale cinnamon-buffy instead of white; 
wings more distinctly spotted, and legs decidedly cinnamon-brown- 
ish; length (skin), 147.5; wing, 85; tail, 55; culmen (from cere), 
9.5. 5 
Southwestern h[exico, in Territory of Tepic (Arroyo de Juan 
Sanchez) and State of Guerrero (El Naranjo). 
Glaucidium palmarum N.soN, Auk, xviii, Jan., 1901, 46 (Arroyo de Iuan San- 
chez, Tepic; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
GLAUCIDIUM PUMILUM GRISEICEPS (Sharpe). 

GRAY-HEADED PYGMY OWL. 

Similar to G. p. purailura c but coloration darker and less rufcscent, 
especially the stripes on under parts. 
Adults (sexes alilce).--Pileum and lfindncck hair brown to bister, 
with numerous small dots of white to light cinnamon-buff; across 
lower hindneck a broken collar of large, irregular, white spots (partly 
concealed) intermixed with black, the latter mostly on lateral por- 
tions; back, rump, scapulars, and wing-coverts plain bister to van- 
dyke brown or nearly bm'nt umber, the outermost middle and greater 
ving-coverts with a few spots of white to pale dull brownish buff, 
the outer webs of exterior scapulars usually with concealed rounded 
spots oi the same; remiges dark grayish brown (nearest clove brown 
or fuscous), the proximal secondaries lighter and browner (more like 
color of back); outer webs of secondaries more or less distinctly 
spotted along edge with pale cinnamon or cinnamon-buff, the spots 
arranged in transverse series, sometimes forming distinct bands; 
distal portion (except terminally) of third and fourth primaries (from 
outside) with two or three spots of pale cinnamon or cinnamon-buff 
on outer web, the fifth sometimes with one spot of the same, the 
remaining portion usually plain dusky but sometimes showing very 
faint spots of paler fuscous; tail dark grayish brown (dusky drab to 
blackish brown) with larger or smaller rounded spots of white, these 
most distinct on middle pair of rectrices, wanting on from two to four 
outer pairs, the terminal ones confined to inner web; inner webs of all 
the rectrices with large transverse ovoid spots of white, reaching half 
way, or more, from edge to shaft; "eyebrow" and posterior portion of 
lores dull white, the longer bristly feathers of the lores mostly black, 
or at least with black shafts; suborbital and auricular regions barred or 

One specimen, from E1 Naranjo, Guerrero. 
One specimen (the type) from Arroyo de Juan Sanchez, Tepfi'. 
See page 781. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 797 

GLAUCIDIUM FISHERI Nelson and Palmer. 

ISHER'S IYGMY OWL. 

Most nearly resembling the rufescent phase of G. gnoma gnoma 
but darker, with color of pileum and hindneck grayish brown or 
brownish gray in strong contrast with the warn sepia or deep 
prouts, brown of back; forehead streaked with pale buff, the rest 
of pileum, together with hindneck immaculate superficially; collar 
across lower lfindneck more spotted with black and white, and 
without rusty or cinnamomeous suffusion posteriorly; sides of breast 
darker brown, and stripes on under parts broader. 
Adult female.--Pileum deep hair brown, the himlneck and sides of 
neck more grayish; forehead with guttate stretks of pale buff, the 
crown with concealed, minute, short shaft-streaks of the same, the 
sides of neck with concealed transverse spots of buffy wlfite; across 
lower hindneck a collar of rather large buffy white to pale buff spots, 
slightly intermixed with bltck, especially ltterally; back, scapulars, 
wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts deep prouts brown or 
warm-sepia brown, the first immtculate; outermost scapulars with 
rather large roundish spots of pale cinnamon-buff; wing-coverts with 
a few very small lontudinal spots of cinnamon, the outermost greater 
coverts with a lontudinally ovate spot of cinnamon-buff on edge f 
terminal portion of outer web; remiges deep grayish brown (dark 
hair brown), the secondaries crossed by about five transverse series 
of semirounded spots of dull ochraceous-buff or clay color, these along 
edge of outer webs; primaries wih very indistinct (hardly discernible) 
faint bands of very slightly paler brown, these replaced, however, 
on distal portion of third and fourth quills (from outside) by dis- 
tinct spots of light cinnamon-buff--three on third quill, one on the 
fourth; upper tail-coverts with small, irr%olar, transverse spots 
(largely concealed) of pale cinnamon-buff; tail dark clove brown or 
fuscous, crossed by about seven (the last terminal) narrow, inter- 
rupted bands of buffy white suffused with pale cinnamon or cinnamon- 
buff, these very much broader on inner web and not reaching nearly 
to shaft on either web; "eyebrow" and posterior part of lores (nar- 
rowly) dull grayish white, the rest of lores black superficially (the 
concealed bases of feathers being dull grayish white); suborbital and 
auricular regions dusky brown with very narrow shaft-streaks of 
whitish, the terminal part of auricular region with broader streaks of 
cinnamon-buff; malar and subauricular regions and chin immaculate 
dull white; across throat a rather broad band of brown, becoming 
more rufescent or russet laterally (beneath white subauricu]ar area) ; 
lower throat and center of chest immaculate -lfite; sides of chest 
brown with indistinct (mostly concealed) roundish, guttate, or rhom- 
boid spots of cinnamon or pale cinnamon-brown, the outer portion of 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA, 799 

Grayish brown phase with white tail-bands. 
Adults (sexes alike)).--General color of upper parts deep hair brown 
or broccoli brown to nearly snuff brown, the pileum and hindneck 
usually concolor with back, etc., but sometimes slightly more grayish 
brown; pileum and hindneck narrowly streaked with dull white to 
pale brownish buff, the streaks usually linear but sometimes inclining 
to narrowly guttate form; across lower hindneck a broken collar of 
white or pale buffy, some of the feathers tipped with black, especially 
lateral]y, where the black sometimes forms a more or less distinct trans- 
verse patch; scapulars with large roundish spots of white, mostly on 
outer webs, the back and rump (sometimes upper tail-coverts also) 
usually with much smaller, mostly concealed, whitish spots; large 
wing-coverts more or less spotted with white; remiges dark grayish 
brown, crossed by narrow bands of lighter brown, these often becom- 
ing white on edges of secondaries and on distal portion of longer pri- 
maries; tail deep brown or grayish brown to blackish brown, crossed 
by about six narrow interrupted bands of white, or transverse white 
spots (these not touching shaft on either web) usually narrowly tipped 
or terminally margined with whitish, the brovn interspaces moro or 

Footnota--Continued. 

Locality. I. 
Texas .......................................................................... 
Arizona ............................................................... 
Mexico (except Yucatan and Campeche) .............................. 11 
Yucatan and Campeche ............................................... ,  
Guatemala ........................................................... 
Salvador ............................................................. 6 
Honduras ............................................................. 1 
Nicaragua ............................................................. 1 
Costa Rica ............................................................ 9 
Panama ...................................................................... 
Colombia ............................................................. 9 
Venezuela ............................................................. : 3 
Trinidad .............................................................. I 3 
Brazil ................................................................. 4 
Peru .................................................................. 3 
53 

II. I--II]-- 
36  ..... 
17 
1 1 
114 - 

Total. 

36 
6 
126 
34 
4 
9 
3 
2 
25 
1 
14 
10 
12 
17 
5 
3'4 

It is not possible to draw a sharp line between plumages I and II or between II 
and III, many specimens being intermediate, and these have had to be arbitrarily 
placed. In the former instance all specimens having white predominating in the 
tail-bands have been referred to group I, while in the latter all those showing little 
cctrast in color between the back and the tail have been referred to group III. 
Quite evidently the relative proportion of the rufescent to the other plumage must 
vary according to the particular series obtained in any one country, though it seems 
significant that all of the considerable number of Texas examples represent one style 
d plumage only. 



800 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
less distinctly darker next to the white bands or spots, which, together 
with the brown interspaces, are sometimes more or less suffused with 
pale rusty; "eyebrow" (superciliary re,on), lores, malar and sub- 
auricular reons, and chin white, the loral feathers with the strong 
bristly shafts black; suborbital and auricular regions dull white or 
brownish white streaked with dusky brown; across middle of throat 
a band of grayish white, sometimes broken or interrupted in middle 
portion, the lateral portion, next to white subauricular area, margined 
posteriorly with blackish; foreneck and median portion of chest, breast, 
and abdomen immaculate white; sides of breast brown or grayish 
brown, usually with more or less distinct, partly concealed, spots of 
white or pale brownish buffy; sides and flanks white broadly streaked 
with brom or grayish brown; legs dull white to pale brownish buffy, 
usually more or less mottled with brown; under tail-coverts white, 
the longer ones with narrow mesial streaks of brown on distal portion, 
these streaks sometimes expanded into a spot terminally; under wing- 
coverts huffy whie or very pale dull buff (along edge of wing more 
decidedly white), with a series of broad lontudinal streaks of gray- 
ish brown running parallel with edge of ving; under primary coverts 
with terminal half (approximately) abruptly dark grayish brown or 
dusky; inner webs of remiges banded with dusky and buffy white, 
the paler bands becoming grayish and less distinct on distal portion 
of longer and outer primaries; bill and cere yellowish (dull light 
greenish yellow or grayish yellow in life) ; iris lemon yellow; toes dull 
greenish yellow or grayish yellow. 
Grayish brown phase zith rufous tail-bands. 
Similar to the above, but pale bands on taft cinnamon-rufous (more 
or less deep) instead of white, the rufescent bands often broader than 
the brown or dusky interspaces and frequently continuous (not inter- 
rupted at shafts) ; upper tail-coverts usua.lly suffused with cinnamon- 
rufous, sometimes wholly of that color. 
Rufescent p.hase. 
Adults (sexes alike).--Above cinnamon-rufous (more or less deep), 
varying to ochraceous-cinnamon  and reddish russet, b the color more 
uniform than in the brown phases; tail sometimes quite uniform 
cinnamon-rufous, no trace of bands being visible, though usually 
these are more or less indicated, often distinct and sharply defined; 
streaks on pileum and hindneck pale cinnamon-rufous, instead of 
white, and usually much less distinct than in brown phases; markin 

a This lighter extreme represented by a specimen from Santa ]Iaria, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico. 
b This dark extreme represented by two examples from Honduras. 



804 BULLETII 50) UIITED STATES ATIOAL MUSEUM. 

GLAUCIDIUM SIU sU U (D'Orbigny). 

Grayish brozn phase. 

Adults (sexes alike).--General color of upper parts grayish brown 
(hair brown to sepia), interrupted by a conspicuous collar of light cin- 
namon across lower hindneck, the feathers of this collar white basally 
and tipped with brown; on each side of nape, bordering anterior edge 
of the cinnamomeous collar, a more or less distinct transverse spot or 
blotch of black; pileum and nape thickly dotted with pale dull buff 
or buffy white, the small spots varying from nearly circular to guttate 
in form; back, scapulars, and rump rather broadly and distantly 
barred with pale cinnamon and white, the bars largest on scapulars, 
smaller and mostly concealed on interscapulars and rump; wing- 
coverts sparsely flecked with small spots of pale cinnamon, the outer 
webs of distal middle and greater coverts with large terminal spots 
of white; secondaries narrowly banded (more or less distinctly) with 
lighter brown, the bands passing into white on edges of the feathers; 
primaries less distinctly banded with lighter brown, the longer quills 
vith two or three white spots on edge near point of emaroination; tail 
crossed by about six narrow bands, these white (or mostly white) on 
middle rectrices, light cinnamon-brown passing into white on edges 
of both webs on other rectrices; "eyebrow" (superciliary region), 
lores, orbital region, and auricular region dull white, the last rather 
broadly barred with brom, the loral feathers with conspicuous black 
bristly shafts; malar region, subauricular region, and chin immaculate 
white; a band of pale cinnamon, sometimes barred (more or less) with 
brown, across middle of throat; foreneck, and median line of chest, 
breast, and abdomen immaculate white; sides of chest light to pale 
cinnamon broadly barred with brown; sides of breast, sides, and 
flanks white, usually more or less suffused with pale cinnamon-buff, 
spotted transversely or irregularly with light cinnamon and brom; 
thighs light to pale cinnamon, usually immaculate, or nearly so; 
tarsi dull white, usually more or less flecked with brom; under tail- 
coverts white, the longer ones usually with a small subterminal 
mesial streak of brown ; under wing-coverts white or buffy white, with 
a more or less distinct longitudinal series of dusky brown streaks run- 
ning parallel with edge of wing; inner webs of remiges mostly white 
proximally, plain grayish brown distally, the white increasing in 
extent from the outermost primaries inwardly; bill pale dull grayish 
yellow, sometimes darker basally; iris lemon yellow; toes dull yel- 
lowish (pale yellowish brown in dried skins). 
Young.--Similar to adults, but pileum and nape mostly plain 
grayish brown (only the forehead marked with a few paler dots or 
streaks), and texture of plumage softer. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AIqD MIDDLE AMERICA. 805 

Rufescent phase. 

Similar to the grayish brown phase but the general color of upper 
parts much browner (natal brown to deep dull verona brown), and 
more uniform, the back and inner scapulars often plain brown or 
with the transverse spots or bars mostly concealed, the markings on 
pileum and nape much less distinct, pale cinnamon, usually more 
streak-like, the throat-collar, sides of breast, and spots on sides, etc., 
more rufescent (sometimes clear sayal brown). 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 142-168 (151) ; wing, 87-92.5 (91.4) ; 
tail, 54-60 (56.4); culmen (from cere), 10-12 (10.9). a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 158-184 (172); wing, 97-104 (99.6); 
tail, 59.5-67 (63.4); culmen (from cere), 11.5-13 (12.1). a 
Island of Cuba (Baracoa; Cabaas ; E1 GuamA; G-uam5 ; Maril; 
Guantnamo Bay; ConsolaciSn del Sur; Fermina; Remdios). 
Noctua siju D'ORBIGNY, in La Sagra's Itist. Nat. Cuba, Aves, 1839, 41, pl. 3 
(Cuba); French ed., p. 33. 
Noctua seju D'ORBIGNY, in La Sagra's Itist. Nat. Cuba, Aves, 1839, pl. 3. 
A[thene] siju GRAY, Gen. Birds, i, 1845, 35. 
Athene siju CASSIN, Cat. Strig. Mus. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1849, 13. 
[Athene] siju GRnV, It,-md-list, i, 1869, 42, no. 431. 
[Nyctale] siju BONAPAITE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 54. 
2Vyctale siju STRICKLAND, Orn. Syn., i, 1855, 177. 
Glaucidium siju CARnNIS, Journ. fiir Orn., 1855, 465.--LnwRECE, Ann. Lyc. 
N. It., vii, 1860, 259 (synonymy; descr.; crit.).--ALBRECHT, $ourn. fiir Orn., 
1861, 202.--GvDLACH, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861, 324; 1871, 268 (crit.), 375 (hab- 
its); Repert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 1865, 226.--WRmnT, Am. Nat., ii, 1868, 
420.--RIDGWAY, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. It., xvi, 1873, 105(monogr.; Remedios 
and Nueva Sofia, Cuba); Ibis, 1876, 17 (crit.).--S,.R, Ibis, 1875, 59 
(monogr.); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., ii, 1875, 193.--CoRv, Auk, iii, 1886, 470 
(synonymy; descr.); Birds West Ind., 1889, 193; Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 
10, 100, 128.An, Bull. Am. lus. N. It., iv, 1892, 296 (near Trini- 
dad, s. Cuba; tmbits; crit.). ]IENEGAUX, Rev. Fran. d'Orn., no. 2, 1909, 
23 (Figuabas, e. Cuba). 
[Glaucidium] siju SCLaTER and SA,,VIN, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, llT.--CoRv, List 
Birds West Ind., 1885, 21.--S,nReE, Itand-list, i, 1899, 298. 
G[laueidium] siju CAbANas, Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 207 (descr. ; syn.).--RIDGWAY, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. It., xvi, 1873, 94 (descr.); Ibis, 1876, 12 (diagnosis). 
Glaucidium havanense Knee, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1852, 104 (Cuba; ex Strix 
havanensis Lichtenstein, manuscript; coll. Berlin Mus.). 
Scops asio (not Strix asio Linnaeus) GUNDLACH, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861, 403 (Cuba). 
GLAUCIDIUM SIU VITTATUM Ridgway.b 

ISLE OF PINES PYGMY OWL. 

Similar to G. s. s/]u but larger; general color of upper parts 
decidedly grayer and much more generally and conspicuously barred, 

a Seven specimens. 
bNew subspecies. (Type no. 172762, coll. U. S. Nat. Mus., Nueva Gerona, Isle 
of Pines, June 30, 1900; Palmer and Riley.) 



806 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the interscapular region, as well as scapulars, sometimes crossed with 
broad and regular bars of dull brownish white, and spots on under 
parts relatively larger, darker, and less rufescent or cinnamomeous. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 171; wing, 94.5; tail, 61.5; culmen 
(from cere), 11.5. a 
Adultfemale.--Length (skins), 182-189 (185); ving, 101.5-109.5 
(105); tail, 68.5-73 (70.5); culmen (from cere), 12-12.5 (12.2). b 
Isle of Pines, Cuba (hTueva Gerona). 
Glaucidium siju (not Noctua siju D'Orbigny) B^N(s and Z^PPE]', Am. Nat., 
xxxix, 1905, 202 (Isle of Pines, Cuba). 

Genus MICI:/OPALLAS Coues. 
Micrathene (not Micrathena Sundevall, 1833) Coup.s, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
xviii, 1866, 51. (Type, by original desionation, Athene whitneyi Cooper.) 
Micropallas Coup, s, Auk, vi, Jan., 1889, 71, in text. (New name to replace JIicra- 
thene Coues, lvrecccupied.) 
Yery small, c lightly built, Bubonidre (wing 101.6-112), with the 
small circular nostril opening near center of the inflated (semibulbous) 
cere, head without ear-tufts, tail less than half as long as wing and 
composed of only ten rectrices, and with the tarsus scantily haired or 
bristled (not feathered). 
Bill relatively small and weak, rather compressed; top of cere less 
than half as long as chord of cuhnen, very broad, arched anteriorly. 
Nostril very small, circular, opening near center of the inflated (semi- 
bulbous) cere. External ear-openings small, ovate, or pyriform, 
simple, symmetrical. Wing rather long, with longest primaries 
exceeding distal secondaries by nearly one-third the total length of 
wing; seventh and eighth, or sixth, seventh, and eighth, a primaries 
longest, the tenth (apparent outermost) slightly shorter than second;  
four outer primaries with inner webs sinuated (but sinuation very dis- 
tinct only on two outermost); secondaries thirteen. Tail short (less 
tha.n half as long as wing), truncate or very slightly rounded, consist- 
ing of only ten rectrices. Tarsus about as long as middle toe with 
claw, scantily covered (all round) with short hairs or bristles (clothed 
with short feathers on extreme upper portion), the toes sparsely 
bristled. 
Coloration.--Above grayish or brownish, finely mottled with darker, 
and indistinctly speckled with pale rusty; an interrupted whitish 
collar across hindneck; outer webs of outermost scapulars white; 
wings spotted with whitish and pale rusty; tail brownish, crossed by 
5-6 narrow, usually interrupted, bands of pale browxish or rusty; 

One specimen. 
Three specimens. 
The smallest of known Striges. 
Third and fourth, or third, fourth, and fifth, from outside. 
Ninth from outside. 



BIRDS OF NORT]t AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

807 

eyebrows, lores, and "cravat" under chin white; lower parts white, 
marked with ragged, rather longitudinal, blotches of pale brownish 
or rusty, finely mottled with darker. 
Range.--Desert region of southwestern United States and north- 
western and central Mexico; Socorro Island, Revillagigedo group, off 
western Mexico. (Two species.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF MICROPALL.kS. 
a. General color of upper parts brownish gray or grayish brown; lighter bands on 
tail narrower, much paler buffy (white on inner webs); under parts with much 
more of white. (Micropallas whitneyi.) 
b. Upper parts browner; under parts conspicuously blotched with cinnamon. 
(Southeastern California to southwestern New Mexico and Sonora.) 
Micropallas whitneyi whitneyi (p. 807). 
bb. Upper parts grayer; under parts not conspicuously (often not at all) blotched 
with cinnamon. 
c. Paler, especially the markings on under parts, which have relatively less of 
white; wing shor, ter (averaging 105.5 in male). (Southern Lower California.) 
Micropallas whitneyi sanfordi (p. 809). 
cc. Darker, especially the markings on under parts, which have relatively more 
of white; wing longer (averaging 109.5 in male). (Lower Rio Grande 
Valley; south to east-central Mexico?) 
Micropallas whitneyi idoneus (p. 810). 
aa. General color of upper parts olive-brown; lighter band on tail broader, deep cin- 
namon-buff; under parts with much less of white. (Socorro Island, western 
Mexico.) ......................................... Micropallas graysoni (p. 810) 
MICROPALLAS WHITNEYI WHITNEYI (CooperS. 
ELF OWL. 
Grayer phase. 
Adults (sexes alike).--General color of upper parts brownish gray 
to grayish brown, the pileum, hindneck, back, scapulars, rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and lesser wing-coverts with more or less distinct small 
irregular spots of buff or pale tawny, these larger and deeper pale 
tawny or cinnamon-buff on forehead; an interrupted narrow collar 
of white across lower hindneck; outer webs of scapulars mostly 
white, margined terminally with blackish; middle and greater wing- 
coverts with a large, semi-ovoid spot of white on terminal or subter- 
minal portion of outer web; secondaries crossed by about five series 
of semicircular spots of pale cinnamon-buff, these passing into white 
on outer edge; primary coverts with three series of dull cinnamon- 
buff spots; outer webs of primaries with about six conspicuous spots 
of cinnamon-buff (those on distal primaries more or less extensively 
white exteriorly), these not touching shafts; tail crossed by about 
four or five narrow, interrupted broads of pale brownish buffy or buffy 
and white, these not reaching shaft on either web; "eyebrow" (super- 
ciliary region) white, the feathers narrowly tipped with black; "face" 
(]oral, suborbital, and auricular regions) cinnamon to cinnamon- 
buff, the last sometimes partly dull rusty whitish; a white malar or 



810 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
Adult ma/e.--Length (skins), 124-142 (133) ; whig, 99-109.5 (105.5) ; 
taft, 47.5-53 (50); culmen, from cere, 8-9 (8.5). a 
Adult /'emale.---Length (skins), 115-139 (129); wing, 102-109.2 
(104.9); tail, 45.5-52.5 (49.2); culmen, from cere, 8-9.5 (8.7). a 
Southern Lower California (Miraflores; Victoria Mountains). 
Micrathene whitneyi (not Athene whitneyi Cooper) BELDINO, Froc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
v, 1883, 549 (Miraflores, s. Lower California; notes).--ARxc,N ONrrHOLO- 
OXSTS' UNION, Check List, 1886, no. 381, part. 
M[icrathene] whitneyi CovEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 576, part.--RIDG- 
W,Y, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 267, part. 
Micropallas whitneyi AIERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, Suppl. to 
Check List, 1889, 21, part; Check List, abridged ed., 1889, and 2d ed., 1895, 
no. 381, part; 3d ed., 1910, 178, part.--BaYt,T (W. E.), Proc. Calif. Ac. 
Sci., ser. 2, ii, 1889, 285 (Victoria Mts. and Miraflores, s. Lower California).-- 
BREWSTER, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xli, pt. i, 1902, 99 (Miraflores, Lower 
California; crit.). 
MICROPALLAS WHITNEYI IDONEUS Ridgway.b 
TEXAN ELF OWL. 
Similar to M. v. safordi in grayness of upper parts and absence 
of distinct cinnamoneous blotches on under parts, but under parts 
with more white and with markings darker. 
Adult male.---Length (skins), 136--139 (137.5); wing, 108.5-110.5 
(109.5); tail, 49.5-50 (49.7); culmen, from cere, 8.5-9 (8.7).  
Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas (Hidalgo, Hidalgo County; 
Brownsville, Cameron County); south to Puebla (San Salvad6r el 
Verde; Tehuacfin), Valley of Mexico, and Guanajuato, east-central 
Mexico ?  
(?) Mcrathene whhneyi (not Athene whitneyi Cooper?) FERRR-PERZ, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 165 (San Salvador el Verde, Puebla; Guanajuato). 
Micropallas whitneyi SENNETT, Auk, vi, 1889, 276 (Hidalgo, Texas, April 5, 
1889).--SnLvI and GODdamN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, iii, 1897, 37, part 
(Guanajuato; Valley of Mexico; San Salvador el Verde, Puebla). 
MICROPALLAS GRAYSONI (Ridgway). 
SOCORRO ELF OWL. 
Similar to M. whitneyi, but coloration much browner (the plumage 
without any gray admixture), "eyebrows" and lores cinnamon-buff 
(instead of white), subauricular or post-malar patch buffy (instead 

a Five specimens. 
b New subspecies. (Type, no. 80966, adult male, coll. American Museum, five 
miles from Hidalgo, Texas, April 5, 1889; F. B. Armstrong.) 
c Two specimens. 
d Specimens, representing each of the above-mentioned Mexican localities, may 
be referable to this form. One from Puebla is somewhat darker, however, than the 
two Texan examples; but without a larger series of specimens the status of Mexican 
birds can not be determined. (Measurements are given on p. 808.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 811 

of white) and without black posterior border, lighter tail-bands much 
broader, and pale bands on inner webs of remiges indistinct. 
Adults (sexes alilce).--Above light bister or deep snuff brown, the 
forehead and crown with rather large (mostly roundish, guttate, or 
cordate) spots of ochraceous-tawny; a distinct but broken collar of 
white across lower hbdneck; back, scapulars, whig-coverts, and 
rump irregularly spotted with light ochraceous-tawny, these markings 
less distinct on back aud rump; outernost scapulars largely white, 
this mostly in form of large <-shaped markings; middle and greater 
wing-coverts with a large terminal spot of buffy white, mostly on 
outer web, these white spots preceded by a dusky bar; remiges crossed 
by transverse series of large cbmamon-buff spots, these largest and 
most distinct on primaries; tail crossed by about six interrupted 
bands of cinnamon-buff or light cinnamon; "eyebrow" and lores 
cinnamon-buff, the suborbital and auricular regions similar but deeper 
in color (more tawny) ; a post-malar or subauricular bar of pale buff, 
this bordered posteriorly by a space of clear tawny (without black), 
which extends entirely across throat; rest of under parts mostly 
light cinnamon-brovn (or sayal brown), irregularly barred with 
dusky, but the general brown color broken by an irregular admixture 
of dull white, which is most evident on center of breast and upper 
abdomen; under tail-coverts dull buffy white with mesial sagittate 
or cuneate streak of dusky or brown and dusky; under wing-coverts 
pale huffy suffused with cinnamon-buff and tawny, especially toward 
edge of wing, where streaked and spotted with dusky; inner webs of 
remiges grayish brown, the inner webs of secondaries with distinct 
transverse spots of dull white, the primaries vith indistinct trans- 
verse spots of paler grayish brown (except on distal portion of longer 
and outermost quills); bill horn color (in dried skins), with yellowish 
tomia. 
Adult raa/e.--Length (skin), 132; ving, 106.5; taft, 51.5; culmen, 
from cere, 8.5. a 
Adult female.--Length (skiDs), 137-138 (137.5); wing, 102-104 
(103); taft, 44.5-49 (46.7); culmen, from cere, 8.5-9 (8.7). 
Micrathene vhitneyi (not Athene vhitneyi Cooper) Gnvso, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. 
xiv, 1871, 300 (Socorro Island).--Lwnc, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. Y., ii, 1874 
297 (Socorro I.; habits).--RDWV, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 87, part (Socorro I.). 
[Micrathene] vhitneyi Coups, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 207, part (Socorro I.).-- 
SCLATER and Sw, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 117, part (Socorro I.). 
Micrathene graysoni RIDGWAY, Auk, iii, July, 1886, 333 (Socorro Island, Revil- 
lagigedo group, w. Mexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
ix, 1886, 166 (full descr.; synonymy).--AoY, Auk, xv, 1898, 317 
(Socorro I.). 

a One specimen, b Two specimen. 



S12 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES IATIONAL ]YIUSEU]Y[. 
M[icrathene] graysoni RIDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 267. , 
M[icropallas] graysoni RID(IWAy, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 267. 
Micropallas graysoni SA,vI and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayes, iii, 1897, 38 
(Socorro I.). 
[Micropallas] socorroensis [lapsus] SHR', Hand-list, i, 1899, 299 (Socorro I.; 
nomen nudum). 
Genus SPIEOTYTO Gloater'. 
Speotyto GLoog, Hand-und Hilfsbuch der Naturg., 1842, 226. (Type, Str/z 
cunicularia Molina.) 
Pholeoptynx KJ, Isls, 1848, 769. (Type, Strix cunicularia Molina.) 
Small terrestrial Bubonidm (wing about 147-190 ram.) with nostril 
near center of the semibnlbous cere; relatively small head, without 
car-tufts; small, simple, nonoperculate, symmetrical external ear- 
openings, and long legs (the tarsus twice as long as middle toe without 
claw). 
Bill rather stout; top of cere less than half as long as chord of cul- 
men, broad, depressed below Ihe swollen nasal bulbs. Nostril small, 
circular, near center of the much swollen or semibulbous cere. 
External ear-openings small, simple, nem'ly oval, nonoperculate, sym- 
metrical. Wing rather large, with longest primaries exceeding distal 
secondaries by nearly one-fourth the total length of wing; eighth and 
ninth, or seventh, eighth and ninth,  primaries longest, the tenth 
(apparent outermost) equal to or slightly longer than sixth;  three 
outer primaries with inner webs sinuated (though sometimes only 
the outermost very distinctly so). Tail less than half as long as wing, 
truncate or very slightly rounded, composed of twelve (rarely 
thirteen ) rectrices. Tarsus twice as long as middle toe without 
claw, naked behind, clothed in front with short, hair-like feathers 
(sometimes changing to bristles on lower portion), the upper side of 
toes (except terminal phalanx) scantily bristled; outer toe decidedly 
shorter than inner toe. 
Coloration.--Adults brown above, spotted, barred, or otherwise 
variegated with dull white or buffy; under parts, white or buffy 
broadly barred or transversely spotted with brown; superciliary 
region, chin and jugular area white; a gular collar of mixed brown 
and buffy. Young plain brown above, except wings and tail, which 
are marked as in adults; upper tail-coverts, large space on wing- 
covert area, and under parts of body plain buffy, the upper throat 
and a jugular area plain white. 
Range.--Treeless districts of North, Middle, and South America; 
north to British Columbia (interior) and Manitoba, east to the Great 

Second and third or second, third and fourth, from outside. 
Fifth from outside. 
According to Hubert Lyman Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1895, 562. 



BIDS OF OH AND MIDDL AMRICAo 

Plains; also in southern Florida, Bahamas, Haiti, Antigua, Nevis, 
Guadeloupe, and Margarita Island. (About eight forms, represent- 
ing three species.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF SPEOTYTO. 

a. Coloration lighter, the ground color of upper parts wood brown to warm sepia, with 
lighter spots averaging larger, more numerous, and pale buffy or whitish; a more 
or less conspicuous superciliary stripe of whitish; ground color of under parts less 
deeply buffy; lighter spots on outer webs of primaries larger; second, or second 
and third, primaries usually longest. 
b. Under wing coverts wholly immaculate buff or (rarely) with a few narrow streaks 
of brown on central or inner portion of the wing-lining area; ground color of 
under parts more pronouncedly buffy, that of upper parts more buffy brown 
with lighter spots more buffy. (Speotyto cunicularia.) 
c. Larger (wing averaging more than 179); under wing-coverts sometimes with 
a few brown streaks; buffy spots on upper parts relatively larger. (Southern 
South America.) .......... Speotyto cunicularia cunicularia (extralimital).a 
cc. Smaller (wing averaging less than 173); under wing-coverts always (?) wholly 
immaculate; buffy spots on upper parts relatively smaller, or (in S. c. 
brachyptera) wing less than 155. 
d. Wing averaging more than 164, tail averaging more than 70, tarsus averaging 
43 or more; coloration darker, with lighter spots on upper parts smaller. 
e. Wing and tail longer, bill and feet smaller (wing averaging more than 170, 
tail averaging not less than 79, culmen, from cere, averaging not more 
than 14, tarsus averaging not more than 45, middle toe averaging not 
more than 20); coloration lighter, the under parts less buffy. (Southern 
British Columbia to Panama, east to eastern edge of Great Plains.) 
Speotyto cunicularia hypogea (p. 814). 
ee. Wing and tail shorter, bill and feet larger (averaging, wing, less than 165, 
tail less than 77, culmen, from cere, 16 or more, tarsus more than 45, 
middle toe more than 20); coloration darker, the under parts more 
strongly buffy. (Clarion Island, off western Mexico.) 
Speotyto cunicularia rostrata (p. 820). 

a Strix cunicularia Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, 263, in text, 343 (Chile).m 
[Strix] cunicularia Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 292.--Noctua cunicularia Dar- 
win, Journ. Nat. 'Beagle,' 1841, 145; D'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Mrid., Ois., 1833-44, 
128; Burmeister, Syst. Ueb. Th. Bras., ii, 1856, 440; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Striges, 
1862, 30.--Otus cunicularia Cuvier, lgne Anim., 1829, 341.mSurnia cuniculara 
Bonaparte, Oss. Cuv. Rgne Anim., 1830, 50.--[Nyctipetes] cunicularia Swainson, 
Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 218.---Athene cunicularia Darwin, Zool. Voy. 'Beagle,' Birds 
1841, 31; Kaup, Truns. Zool. Soc. Lond., iv, 1859, 211 (Sao Paulo, Brazil; monogr.).-- 
[Pholeoptynx] cunicularia Sclater and Salvin, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, 117, part.--Speo- 
tytocunicularia Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., ii, 1875, 142, part.--Speotyto cunicularia, 
var. cunicularia lidgway, in Baird, Brewer, and lidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, iii, 
1874, 90.---(?)Strix grallaria Temminck, Planches Col., ii, livr. 25, Aug., 1822, pl. 
146 and text (Brazil; coll. Leyden Mus.); Spix, Av. Bras., i, 1825, 21.--(?) Noctua 
grallaria Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xiii, pt. 2, 1826, 67.--Noctua urucurea Lesson, 
Trait d'Orn., livr. 2, May, 1830, 103 (Paraguay, etc.; based on Urucuru Azara, Apunt. 
Parag., ii, 211). 
There are other forms in other parts of South America, but these need not be men- 
tioned separately here. 



8.4 BULLETIN 507 UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

dd. Wing averaging 147, tail 63.5, tarsus 40.7; coloration averaging lighter, 
with lighter spots on upper parts larger. (Margarita Island, Venezuela.) 
Speotyto cuniculafia brachyptera (extralimital).a 
bb. Under wing-coverts spotted with brown, at least toward edge of wing; ground 
color of under parts with less of buffy (predominantly dull white), that of 
upper parts less buffy brown, with. lighter spots less buffy (dull white). 
( S peotyto floridana. ) b 
c. Larger (wing averaging about 164, tail about 76, tarsus more than 43); under 
parts less extensively barred, and with less of white spotting or barring on 
chest. (Florida and Bahama Islands.) 
Speotyto floridana floridana (p. 820). 
cc. Smaller (wing averaging about 157, tail about 73, tarsus less than 42); under 
parts more extensively barred, and with more white spotting or barring on 
chest. (Haiti.) ................. Sleotyto floidana dominicensis (p. 823). 
aa. Coloration darker, the ground color of upper parts either darker or more reddish 
brown (light to very dark vandyke), with white spots averaging smaller, less 
numerous, and more buffy or cinnamomeous; no whitish superciliary stripe; 
lighter spots on outer webs of primaries smaller; under parts more deeply 
buffy; third and fourth primaries longest. (Speotyto guadeloupensis.) 
b. Much lighter brown above (light vandyke), the bars on under parts also lighter 
in color; larger (wing averaging 160, tail 79.5, culmen, from cere, 15.2, tarsus 
44.2, middle toe 21.5). (Island of Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles.) 
Sleotyto guadeloulensis guadeloulensis (p. 824). 
bb. Much darker brown above (very dark vandyke), the bars on under parts also 
darker; smaller (wing averaging 150, tail 73, culmen, from cere, 14.5, tarsus 
37.3, middle toe 20.8). (Islands of Antigua and Nevis, Lesser Antilles.) 
Sleotyto guadeloulensis amaum (p. 825). 
SPEOTYTO CUNICULARIA HYPOGEA (Bonaparte). ] 
! 
BURROWIIG OW., 

Similar to S. c. cunicularia, c but averaging decidedly smaller, and 
huffy spots on upper parts relatively smaller. 
Adults (sexes aliIce).--Above brown (huffy wood brown to deep 
bister or warm sepia), spotted, more or less profusely, with pale 
brownish buff to dull huffy white, the spots largest on back, scapulm, 
and wing-coverts, where often of roundish or transversely ovate form, 
and on hindneck, where mostly longitudinal,  smaller on pileum, 

a Speotyto brachyptera Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, no. 1093, Aug. 12, 
1896, 663 (Margarita I., Venezuela; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
b Considering all the facts in the case, I think it best to consider S. floridana and 
S. guadeloupensis as specifically distinct from S. cunicularia. Undoubtedly the 
Florida-Bahama form is much more closely related to the Haitian one (S. f. domin- 
icensis) than to any other, and no doubt the Florida bird reached the peninsula via the 
Bahama islands, and not from western United States or Mexico. The birds from 
the Lesser Antilles (S. guadeloupensis and S. g. amaura) are very different from both 
S. floridana and S. cunicularia, and should, in my opinion, be regarded as a distinct 
species. 
c See p. 813. 
d The form, as well as the size of the spots, varies greatly in different specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 815 

where often intermixed with streaks of the same color; secondaries 
with the spots arranged in four or five transverse series, the outer 
webs of primaries with similar spots, which become larger on longer 
quills; tail crossed by five or sLx narrow, interrupted bands of pale 
dull huffy, usually suffused with deeper buff or cinnamon-buff, and 
narrowly tipped with pale buff or huffy white; a more or less distinct, 
sometimes rather broad, superciliary stripe of dull brownish white or 
pale brownish buff, the lores and suborbital region the same color but 
usually stained or suffused with pale brown, the former with shafts of 
the feathers black; auricular region brown (more or less dark), indis- 
tinctly streaked with paler or with dull brownish buffy; chin, malar 
region, and subauricular region immaculate dull white or huffy white, 
this white area extending upward at posterior end behind lower half, 
or more, of auricular region; throat buff, barred, more or less, with 
dark brown, the bars usually most developed (sometimes coalesced) 
on posterior portion, forming a more or less distinct transverse band, 
vhich on each side is continued upward behind the post-auricular 
whitish area; foreneck and upper median portion of chest immaculate 
huffy white; rest of under parts pale buff and dull huffy white, deeper 
buff, and immaculate, on femoral plumes and thighs (the feathering 
of tarsi, the anal region, median portion of lower abdomen, and the 
under tail-coverts likewise immaculate), elsewhere broadly barred 
with brown, the brown predominating on chest or upper breast 
(especially laterally), where the buff is often in form of relatively 
small, roundish, or sometimes even longitudinal, spots; a axillars 
and under whig-coverts immaculate clear buff, the under primary 
coverts broadly and abruptly tipped with dusky; inner webs of 
remiges immaculate buff proximally, banded with buff and grayish 
brown distally; bill dull light grayish or yellowish; iris clear lemon 
yellow; toes and naked part of tarsi dull grayish or honl color (in 
dried skins). 
Young.--Remiges and rectrices (if developed) as b adults; pileum, 
lfindneck, and back mostly plain light grayish brown to huffy brown; 
wing-coverts mostly light buff; under parts and upper tail-coverts 
immaculate buff, the sides of chest (sometimes whole upper chest) 
shaded with brown; band across throat uniform brown. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 200-245 (224); wing, 164.5-178 
(172.3) ; tail, 74.5-86 (81.6) ; culmen, from cere, 13-15 (14.2); tarsus, 
41.5-48.5 (45.3); middle toe, 19-22 (20.3). b 

a There is as much individual variation in the coloration of the under parts as in 
that of the upper surface; sometimes all the bands are deep brow, but not infre- 
quently they are more rufescent, especially on the sides and flanks. 
b Twenty-six specimens. 



816 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIOIAL MUSEUM. 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 205-250 (223); wing, 162.5-181 
(170.3); tail, 71.5-85.5 (79); culmen, from cere, 13-15 (13.9); tarsus, 
40-46.5 (43); middle toe, 18-20.5 (19.5). a 

a Thirty-three specimens. 
Locality. Middle 
toe. 

MALES. 
Five adult males from Argentina, etc. (3. c. cunicularia) ....... 
One adult male from Guatemala. 
One adult male from State of Mexico .......................... 
One adult male from southern Tamaulipas ...... 
One adult male from Jalisco 
One adult male from Colhna ............ 
Two adult males from southern Lower California.. 
Eight adult males from California ..... 
One adult male from Guadainpe Island, Lower California... 
Three adult males from Arizona (2) and New Jexico (I) ....... 
Six adult males from Texas .................................... 
One adult male from Wyoming... 
Ten adult males from Clarion Island (3. c. rostrata) ............ 
One adult male from Margarita Island, Venezuela (3. c. bra- 
chyptera) 
FEMALES. 
Five adult females from Argentina, etc. (3. e. eunfclaria).. 
One adult female from western Panama (Ch/riqui) ..... 
Two adult females from Guatemala. 
One adult female from Yucatan ........ 
One adult female from Vera Cruz .................. 
Three adult females from Michoacan .... 
One adult female from Jalisco .......... 
Two adult females from Sinaloa ................... 
One adult female from Colima ......... 
One adult female from Guadalupe Island ..................... 
One adult female from Santa Margarita Island ................ 
One adult female from Ceralos (=Cerros?) Island ............. 
One adult female from Cape San Lucas ...... 
One adult female from San Clemente Island ................... 
Two adult females from San Benito Island .................... 
Two adult females from New Mexico ........ 
Six adult females from Texas ............. 
One adult female from Colorado .... 
One adult female from Montana.. 
One adult female from Nevada... 
Two adult females from Nebraska ............ 
Two adult females from Clarion Island (3. c. ro.trata) .... 
One adult female from Margarita Island, Venezuela (3. c. bra- 
chyptera) .... 

43 
44.5 
44.7 
43 
40. 6 
43 
46.5 
44 
42 
45.2 
41.6 

21.7 
19.5 
21 
21.5 
21 
19.5 
19.7 
21 
20.$ 
19.5 
19,9 
19 
21,4 

19 

21.7 
20.5 
19.5 
19 
18.5 
19 
18 
19 
19.5 
19 
2O 
20.5 
19 
19.5 
19 
19.2 
19.7 
20.5 
19.5 
2O 
2O 
20.7 

18 

I am not able, from the material examined, to make out any variations in the series 
from the continent of North America (western United States to Panama) except 
those which seem to be purely of an individual character. 



BIRDS OF IORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 823 

8peotyto floridana PALMER (W.), Auk, xiii, 1896, 99, pl. 2 (Kissimmee prairies, 
Florida; habits; crit.; etc.). 
[Speotyto]floridana SHARPE, Hand-list, i, 1899, 297. 
Pholeoptynxfloridana GURNEV, Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894, 41. 
8peotyto cuniculara dominicensis (not of Cory) NORTHRUP, Auk, viii, 1891, 75 
(.Andros I., Bahamas). 
8peotyto cunicularia bahamensls CoRv, Auk, viii, Oct., 1891, 351 (Inagua, Baha- 
mas; coll. C. B. Cory). 
8peotyto bahamensis MAYNARD, App. to Cat. Birds West Ind., Nov. 29, 1899, 33 
(New Providence, Bahamas; coll. C. $. Maynard). 
Pholeoptynx bahamensis (]RNEY, Cat. Birds of Prey, 1894, 41. 
Speotyto cunicdara cavicola BANOS, Auk, xvii, July, 1900, 287 (Nassau, New 
Providence, Bahamas; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs).--BoNHOTE, Ibis, 1903, 295 
(New Providence).--RiEv, Auk, xxii, 1905, 354 (New Providence; crit.). 
SPEOTYTO FLORIDANA DOMINICENSIS (Cory). 

HAITIAN BURROWING OWL. 
Similar to S.f..floridana but whig, tail, and tarsus averaging decid- 
edly shorter, and under parts more extensively and narrowly barred, 
the chest with less of brown and more white spotting or barring. 
Adult male.--Length (skins), 200-230 (211); wing, 153-161.5 
(157.2) ; tail, 72-76 (73.9) ; culmen, from base, 14.5-15.5 (15.2) ; 
tarsus, 38-45.5 (42); middle toe, 19-21.5 (20.5). = 
Adult female.--Length (skins), 185-210 (202); wing, 145-165.5 
(157) ; tail, 64.5-76.5 (70.3) ; culmen, from cere, 14-15.5 (14.8) ; 
tarsus, 38.5-45 (41.2); middle toe, 18.5-21.5 (20.4). a 
Island of Haiti, Greater Antilles (Le Coup, Port au Prince, and 
near Lake Gautier, Haiti; Honduras, near Azua, and between La 
Yoga and Santo Domingo City, Santo Domingo). 
Strix cunicularia (not of Molina) VEL.OT, Ois. Am. Sept., i, 1807, 48 (St. Domingo; 
descr; crit.). 
(?)Strixfusca VIEILLoT, b Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., vii, 1817, 22 ("Saint Do- 
mingue et Porto Rico"). 
A[tene] dominicensis (not 8tr/x dominicensis Gmelin nor S. domingensis Miiller) 
GaAv, Gem Birds, i, 1845, 35. 
[Athene] dominicensis BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 38. 
Athene dominicensis STUCLaND, Orn. Syn., i, 1855, 161.--SALLY, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1857, 231 (Santa Domingo; habits). 
Strix dominicensis BRYANT, Proc. Bost. Soc., N. H., xi, 1866, 90 (Santo Domingo). 
Speotyto cunicularia dominicensis Coav, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 154 
(Haiti) ;" Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 10, 100, 131, 140 (crit.).---CHERUE, 
Contr. Orn. San Dora., 1896, 22. 
[Speotyto] cunicularia dominicensis CoaY, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 21, part 
(Santo Domingo). 
8peotyto dominicensis Coav, Auk, iii, 1886, 471 (synonymy; descr.); Birds West 
Ind., 1889, 194.--VRa. (A. E. and A. H.), Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1909, 
359 (near Azua and between La Vega and Santiago, Santo Domingo). 

a Six specimens. 
b Described as having feathered toes; otherwise the description answers fairly well 
for Speotyto. 



848 IIDEX. 

Page. 
grammicus, Pseudoscops .............. 654, 674, 675 
Scops ........................... 675 
granadonsis, Capito .......................... 316 
Eubucco richardsoni ..... , ..... 316 
licumnus ................ 304, 306, 307 
olivaceus .......... 304,305 
subsp, a.. 304,307 
grandior, Monacha .......................... 396 
Monasa ...................... 393, 395, 396 
Grand Cayman Flickor ...................... 25 
Crapaud-volant do Cayenno .......... 589 
Duc do Virginie .................... 741,742 
Engoulovent do Cayenno ............. 584 
Goatsucker ........................... 589 
Ibijau ................................ 589 
Jcamar .............................. 365 
Potoo ................................ 587 
grandis, Alcedo ............................ 362, 364 
Caprimulgus ...................... 584,589 
Galbula ............................. 364 
:lacamerops ......................... 364 
Lamproptfla ....................... 365 
Nyctibius ................ 585,586,557,589 
grateloupensis, Centurus .................... 87 
santucruzi. 54, 68, 78, 85, 87 
Picus ......................... 87 
gravirostris, Xenopicus ...................... 267 
ulbolarvatus ....... 265,267 
Gray-breasted Woodpecker .................. 92 
-headed Pygmy Owl ................... 795 
grayi, Megapicos ............................ 180 
graysoni, Dendrocopus scalaris Subsp. i ..... 251 
Dryobates scalaris ........... 199,250,251 
Micrathene ...................... 811,812 
Micropallas .............. 807,808, 810, 812 
Picus scalaris var ................ 250,251 
Great Gray Owl ............................. 639 
Horned Owl .......................... 739 
:lacamar .............................. 362 
White Owl ............................ 772 
Greater Rufous Motmot ..................... 468 
Green and lufoUs Kingfisher ................ 434 
Green-breasted turquoise-browed Mot:mot .... 480 
Grey Goatsucker ............................ 586 
grinnelli, Glaucidium gnoma .......... 781, 791,793 
Grinnell's Woodpecker ...................... 267 
gris, Engoulevent ........................... 586 
griseata, Lophostrix ......................... 733 
Strix ............................... 733 
griseatum, Syrnium ......................... 733 
gr/seiceps, Glaucidium ...................... 796 
pumilum .......... 781,795 
griseus, Caprimulgus ....................... 586,587 
Nyctibius ......................... 586,586 
grLseus ............... 586,587,591 
Picus ................................ 59 
duacharo .................................... 596 
guacu, Alcedo ............................... 420 
Guadalupo Flicker .......................... 7 
guadalupensis, Speotyto ..................... 825 
Guadeloupe Burrowing Owl ................. 824 
Woodpecker .................... 113 
guadeloupensis, Pholeoptynx ................ 825 
Speotyto ................. 814 825 
cunicularia ........ 825 
b ...... 825 
var.. 824,825 

lage. 
guadeloupensis, Speotyto guadeloupeusis .... 814 
824, 825 
guatemalm Aluco pratincola ................ 611 
pratincolus ............... 611 
Megascops brasilianus ........... 718 
Otus .. 683,686,687,712,715,717,718,724 
$cops ................. 718 719, 720, 726 
brasilianus # ......... 718,719,726 
Subsp.  .... 718,726 
Strix ............................ 611 
flammea var ............... 611 
americana f .... 611 
pratineola ................ 610,611 
var ............... 610 
Tyto alba ....................... 611 
perlata .................. 602,610 
Guatemalan Barred Ovl .................... 47 
Flicker ......................... 37 
Ivory-billed Woodpecker ....... 
Screech OwL ................... 715 
guatemaleusis, Campephilus ....... 176,177,178,179 
gatemulenis. 1, 179 
Campophflus ........... 177,178,179 
:Dryocopus ................. 177,179 
Dryotomus ................... 177 
Megapicus .................. 177,179 
Phloeoceastes ................ 177 
1)icus ................... 176,177,178 
Scapaneus ..... 171,172175,177,179 
guatemalensis ..... 172, 
17, 175 
guatimalensis, Dryocopus .................... 177 
Picus ......................... 177 
Scapaneus .................... 177 
Guayane, Barbu de ......................... 320 
guayaquileusis, Campephilus ................ 171 
Guerrero Whippoorwill ...................... 
Guiana Goatsucker .......................... 542 
Guiane, Crepaud-volant on Tette-chevre de la 61 
G u iane, Crepaud-volant ou Tette-chevre roux 
do la ....................................... 542 
guianensis, Antrostomus ..................... 
Caprimulgus ................... 542,545 
Nyctidromus .................. 542,545 
Guides, ]:foney .............................. 310 
Guirea, querea ............................... 591 
gularis, Aspatha ........................... 483,484 
Capito ............................... 383 
Chloronerpes ........................ 127 
Itylomanes .......................... 484 
Momotus ............................ 484 
Prionites .......................... 482,484 
Tamatia ............................. 383 
gundlachi, Chordeiles ........................ 577 
Colaptes .......................... 25 
chrysocaulosus ........... 13,25 
gundlachii, Chordeiles ....................... 577 
guttatus, Alcedo ............................. 407 
guttifer, 1)icumnus .......................... 303 
Guyane, Engoulevent acutipenne de la ...... 561 
guyanensis, Caprimulgus .................... 542 
Nyctidromus .................... 542 
Gymnasia ................................... 676 
Gymuasio ............................. 621, 676,682 
lawrencei .......................... 680 
exsul .................... 680 
]awrenceii ......................... 680 



850 x. 

Page. 
buacbucm, StrL occidentalis ...... 641,649, 651,652 
hudsoniu, Strix ............................. 778 
8urnia ............................ 778 
ulula ...................... 778 
vat .................. 778 
hudsonfa b ...... 778 
h(dsonica, Surnia ulula var ................. 778 
Ytuhua ...................................... 736 
huhula, Ciccaba ............................. 766 
Strix ............................. 759, 766 
llybrid Flicker .............................. 21 
hybridus, Colaptes .......................... 
auratus .................. 23 
vr .............. 
H ybris ...................................... 600 
nigrescens noctividus ................ 615 
tI ydropsalia ................................. 492 
Hydropsalis ................................. 492 
climacocercus .................. 492 
creagra ......................... 491 
furcifer ......................... 492 
schomburgki ................... 492 
torquatus ...................... 492 
Hydropsallis ................................ 492 
Hylatoma ................................... 153 
Hylatomus .................................. 153 
pfleatus ............... 159,160,161,163 
hylobates, Dryobates villosus ............... 225 
Hylomanes ............................... 453,484 
gularis .......................... 484 
momotula ............. 4, 485, 486, 487 
momotula .......... 485, 487 
obscurus ....... 485, 486, 487 
momotulus ...................... 487 
hylophfla, StrLx ............................. 759 
hyloscopus, Dendrocopus .................. 216, 218 
Dryobutes ............ 213,216, 218, 222 
vfllosns ........... 197,213, 
215, 216, 217, 218, 221,222 
Picns ........................... 218 
Hylotomus .................................. 153 
pfleatuS ............... 159,160,161,163 
scapularis ....................... 152 
hyperrhynchus, Bucco ...................... 375 
dysoni ............... 375 
Notharchus ................. 375 
hyperrhynchus. 375 
Tamatia .................. 373, 375 
Hypnelus ............................. 372,880,382 
bicinctus ......................... 882 
ruficollis .......................... 383 
coloratus ................ 882 
ruficollis ................. 
hypochondtiacus, Todus .................... 449 
hypogma, Athene ........................... 818 
Pholeoptynx ...................... 818 
Speotyto .......................... 820 
cunicularia. 813,814,818,819,820 
r ............ 819 
var .......... 818 
var. hypogma 
 .......... 819 
Spheotyto ........................ 820 
cunicularia var ......... 818 
Sumia ............................ 818 

hypoglaueus, Pteroglossus ................... 329 
hypoleueus, Capito .......................... 322 
hypopolius, Centurus ............... 49, 54, 92, 93, 95 
Melanerpes ...................... 93 
Picus ........................... 93,95 
Zebrapicus ...................... 93 
hypugea, Athene ........................... 818 
Strix .............................. 818 
Ibijau ....................................... 583 
Grand ...........  ................... 589 
l'bijus ....................................... 584 
icastUS Dryobates villosus ............ 197,221,222 
icelus, Asio magellanicus .................. 747, 749 
Bubo virginianus ........... 73, 76, 747, 749 
Ichthyonomus ............................... 407 
idahoensis, Megascops ....................... 732 
flammeola ........... 730, 732 
flammeolus ............ 732 
Otus flammeola .................. 732 
flammeolus ................. 732 
8cops ............................ 732 
idoneus, Micropallas whitney! .......... 807,808, 210 
Immaculate Woodpecker .................... 11 
immaculatus, Celeus ....................... 140,11 
Imperial Woodpecker ....................... 16 
Imperialis, Campephilus ............... 165,16,167 
Campophilus ..................... 167 
Dryocopus ....................... 167 
Dryotomus ....................... 167 
Megapicos ........................ 164 
Megapicus ........................ 167 
Picus .......................... 164,166 
inca, Ramphastos ......................... 31,332 
iada, Alcedo ................................. 436 
t:eryle ................................. 436 
Chloroceryle ..................... 423,434, 436 
Indicator .................................... 310 
Indicatores .................................. 310 
Indicatoridm ................................ 310 
/ndicatorinm ................................ 310 
lndicus, Picus varius ...................... 121,122 
inferior, Chordefles acutipennis ........ 561, 50.581 
infuscata, Athene ...................... 782.790,802 
Noctua ............................ 782 
Phalmnopsis ...................... 782 
Strix .................... 782, 790. 792, 802 
infuscatum, Glaucidium ....... 782, 787,790, 792, 802 
infuscatum vat .... 782 
tnnominatns, Picum.nns ..................... 11 
tnornata, Malacoptfla ...................... 390,391 
panamensis .... 388,389,390 
Monasa .......................... 390,391 
inscriptus, Pteroglossus ...................... 340 
Insessores ................................... 402 
insulm-pinorum, Xiphidiopicus percussus..183,165 
insularis, Nyctidromus ........................ 46 
albicollis ............ 537 
539, 540, 5, 546 
Picns .............................. 209 
principalis.., varietas s.stirps 170 
villosus ...................... 209 
Stenopsis .......................... 502 
cayennensis ... 498,499,501502 
Strix .............................. 614 



852 INDEX. 

:Page. 
kirki, Erythronerpes. ....................... 187 
kirkii, Chlomnerpes .......................... 187 
Chrysop tilns .......................... 187 
Mesopicus. ........................... 187 
Pious. ................................ 187 
(Chloropicus). ................... 187 
Veniliornis. ........................... 187 
kirkii ...................... 187 
kirtlandi, Nyetale ........................... 627 
kirtlandii, Nyctale ........................ 627,633 
koenigswaldianum, Syrnium ................ 755 
korejewi, Surnia ulula ...................... 774 
krugil, Gymnoglaux ........................ 678 
labeculatus, Chordeiles ...................... 561 
Labrador/Iorned Owl ....................... 750 
labradorius, Picoides ........................ 295 
americanus. ............ 295 
lactea, Strix ................................. 736 
lagophonus, Asio magellanicus ............... 748 
Bubo virginianus ...... 739, 747,748, 750 
Lampropicus. ............................... 124 
Lampropt ila ................................. 362 
gmndis. ........................ 865 
isidori. ......................... 365 
Lamprotila .................................. 362 
platyrhyncha .................. 362,365 
lanceolatus, Bucco. .......................... 373 
langsbergii, Glaucidium ..................... 785 
langsdorfli, Selenidera ....................... 34 9 
lansbergii, Glaucidium ...................... 785 
Iapponica, $cotiaplcx cinerea .............. 635,639 
nebulosa ............ 635,639 
Stri ........................... 635, 639 
cinerea ...................... 635 
nebulosa .................... 635 
Ulula ............................. 635 
cinerea ...................... 639 
lapponieum, Scotiaptex cinerea .............. 635 
cinereum ............ 639 
S.'nium ..................... 635, 639 
cinereum var .......... 635 
lapponicus, Asio ............................ 635 
Larger Red-crested Woodpecker ............. 158 
Largest White-billed Woodpecker ........... 168 
larvata, Stri ................................ 758 
larvatus, Picus .............................. 98 
Las Vigas Screech OwL ..................... 706 
lathami, Picus. .............................. 32 
Stri ............................... 619 
laticaudatus, Caprimulgus. .................. 543 
lawrencei, Gymnasio ........................ 680 
Picumnus ........................ 309 
lawrenceii, Gymnasio ........................ 680 
lawrencii, Gymnasio ................... 676, 679, 680 
Gymnoglaux .................... 676, 680 
Picumus ......................... 309 
Scops. ............................ 680 
Least Green Kingfisher. ..................... 437 
le contei, Picoides ........................... 232 
lecontei, Picus. .............................. 232 
Tridactylia ......................... 
lecontil, Pict, s ............................... 194 
leei, Centurus ............................... 70 
dubius. ..................... 51,69,70 

Pa. 
leei, Melanerpes ............................. 70 
Lee's Woodpecker ........................... 
Lempijius ................................... 631 
leopetes, Caprimulgus ....................... 498 
Stenopsis cayennensis .............. 
leotaudi, Coleus elegans. ..................... 140 
Lesser Broad-billed lIotmot. ................ 
Cozume Woodpecker ................. 72 
lessoni, Momotus ...................... 459, 460, 461 
lessoni. ..................... 459 
Prionites ............................ 459 
lessonii, Momolus ............. 45a 455, 459, 460 461 
lessonfi .......... 454, 457, 458, 460 
Picus ................................ 177 
Lesson's Motmot. ........................... 457 
Woodpecker. ....................... 67 
Leuchybris ................................ 768 
nivea. ........................... 771 
leucocrissus, Bucco .......................... 378 
leucogastra, Galbula ......................... 365 
leucomclanu% Picus. ........................ 205 
leucomolas, Dryobates ....................... 210 
villosus ..... 210, 211,212 213 
Pious ...................... 205, 210, 212 
villosus .................... 210 
Leuconerpes ................................. 
albolarvatus .............. 264,266,267 
Leuconotopicus. ............................. 194 
]euconotos, Picus. ........................... 194 
leucopogon, Scapaneus ...................... 171 
leucops, Bucco .............................. 394 
Capito .............................. 394 
Lypornix ........................... 394 
Monasa ............................. 394 
Tamatia ............................ 39 
leucopsis, Brachyotus ....................... 666 
leucopterus, Caprimulus .................... 87 
Chordeiles ...................... 587 
Nyctibius. .................... 585, 
leucopterylus, Campephilus lineatus van .... 152 
leucoptilurus, Dryobates scalaris. .......... 
leucopygus, Caprimulgus .................... 494 
Nyctiprogne .................... 494 
leucorhamphus, Campephilus ................ 152 
Dryocopus. ................. 152 
leucostriata, CbJoroceryle .................... 428 
]eucothorectis, Dryobates villosus.. 197, 214, 215, 217 
]eucotis, Bueco .............................. 385 
Galbalcyrhynchus .................. 361 
Galbula ............................ 361 
lieus. .............................. 271 
Strix ............................... 631 
Tamati ............................ 385 
leucotus, Dryobates ....................... 195,196 
leucurus, Dryobates ......................... 237 
pubescens .............. 237 
Picus. ............................. 237 
Trichopicus. ....................... 
lewisi, Asyndesmus ................... 113, II 117 
Melanerpes ........................... 117 
Lewis's Woodpecker ........................ 11 
l'hermi.uieri, Melanerpes ..................... 113 
Lichtenstein's Woodpecker .................. 19 
lineata, (iccaba virgata. ..................... 765 
trix ................................ 766 
linear-urn, Syrnlum ........................ 765,766 



854 II/DEXo 

Pago. 
major, Picu$ villosus ....................... 211 
a ....................... 211 
xr .................... 211 
Trichopicu$ villosus .................. 211 
ma]ores, Picus villosus a. villosus a.' ......... 211 
b. harrisii a .......... 213 
Malacolaphus ................................ 138 
Malacolophus ................................ 138 
Malacoptila ................................ 372 387 
castanea ........................ 373 
costaricensis ................... 390,392 
frontaHs ......................... 402 
fuHginosa ....................... 392 
inornta ...................... 390 391 
panamensis ............... 388,390,392 
a. var. costarieensis. 390, 
392 
b. var. typica ....... 390 
costarieensis ........ 390 
inornata ...... 388,389 399 
panamensts ....... 388,390 
ruficapilla ....................... 401 
vera-pacis ...................... 391 
Mlacoptfla, Northern ....................... 399 
Panam ........................ 388 
Malacoptilinm ............................... 372 
malherbei, Campophi]us ..................... 174 
Picus ............................ 174 
SCalneus ....................... 174 
Malherbe's Woodpecker ..................... 179. 
malherbi, Campephilus ...................... 174 
Dryotomus ........................ 174 
malherbii, Campephilus ................... 173,174 
Campophilus ..................... 174 
Dryocopus ....................... 174 
Megapicos ...................... 164,174 
Scapaneus ........................ 172 
Malherbipicus ............................... 7 
manadensis, Scops ........................... 681 
manurus, Caprimulgus ...................... 492 
marmoratus, Megascops ................... 718 
Marragant/Nun Bird ........................ 398 
marti, Crybelus ........................... 468, 470 
murtii, Baryphthengus .................... 468 470 
Crypticus ...................... 468, 469, 471 
Momotus ........................... 468, 469 
Prionites ............... 465, 467, 4681469, 471 
Urospatha ......................... 468, 470 
martii ................... 468, 469 
Mar tin-pecheur .............................. 436 
de lu Louisiana .............. 420 
du ]3rsil .................... 423 
verd et roux de Cayenne.. 436, 437 
Martia-pescador celeste ...................... 413 
oscuro ............... 413 
oscuro dorado .............. 428 
verde oscuro ............... 423 
fartin-pescheur hupd du Mexique ........... 411 
martime, Picus .............................. 206 
Trichopicus ........................ 206 
martini, Picus ............................. 205, 206 
mart/us, Picus ............................... 9 
maxima, Alcedo ............................. 407 
Streptoceryle ....................... 408 
maxwelle, Megascops asio ................... 697 
Stops asio ........................ 697 

Page. 
maxwelllee, Megascops asio ............. : .... 697 
Otus asio .............. 685, 695, 696, 697 
Scops ............................ 697 
usio ....................... 697 
 ...................... 697 
mayensis, Asio magellanicus ................. 754 
Bubo magellanicus ................ 754 
virginianus ............ 739, 753, 754 
mnalensis, Capito ......................... 316 
maynardi, Dendrocopus ................... 208, 209 
Dryobates ........................ 209 
maynardi .............. 209 
villosus .......... 196, 208, 209 
Maynard's Woodpecker ..................... 208 
Maynas, Barbu des ......................... 316 
Mazatlan Screech Owl ....................... 718 
Woodpecker ....................... 250 
m'calli, Soops ............................... 702 
m'callii, Scops ............................. 693, 707 
mccallii, Megscops sio ........... 693,694,696,707 
Otus asio ............. 684 686, 893, 694, 704 
Scops ....... 689,693,694,696,702,704,707 
mcilhenyi, Asio accipitrinus ................ 667 
mcleodi, O tophanes ......................... 556 
mcleodii, Otophanes ................... 553, 54, 556 
mearnsi, ColapteS chrysoides ........... 13,26,28,29 
Mearns's Gilded Flicker ..................... 28 
Woodpecker ....................... 105 
media, Picus villosus vat .................... 206 
medianus, Dryobates pubescens ............. 19, 
229, 230, 231,232, 233, 234, 5, 6, 9 
Picus ............................ 232, 234 
(Dendrocopus) .............. 234 
Trichopicus ...................... 234 
medii, Picus villosus a. villosus b'. ........... 206 
b. harrisii b' ..... 215, 216, 218 
medius, Dryobates ......................... 195,196 
Picus ............................. 194206 
varius ......................... 57 
villosus ....................... 206 
b ..................... 206 
var ................... 206 
(Trichopicus) villosus var ..... 206 
Trichopicus villosus ................. 206 
Megacephlus ........... " .................... 34 
bitorquatus ................... 3?4 
Megaceryle .................................. ff/ 
alcyon ..................... 419, 420 421 
caesia ............................ 413 
domingensis ..................... 420 
stellata .......................... 408 
torquata ......................... 413 
Megalema ................................... 313 
Megaleminm .............................. 311,313 
Megalaimu capistratus ....................... 315 
Megalaimide ................................ 311 
Megapicos ................................. 164,180 
albirostris ........................ 164 
grayi ............................. 18o 
impcriis ........................ 164 
lineatus .......................... 1t7 
malherbii ....................... 164,174 
principalis ...................... 164,160 
validus ........................... 164 
Megapicus ................................... 164 
guatemalensis .................. 177,179 



856 

Page. 
Melanerpes subelegans neglect-as ............ 52 
wagleri ............... 53, 75 
superciliaris ..................... 61 
thyroideus ...................... 288 
torquat-as ..................... 116,117 
tricolor .......................... 52, 75 
uropygialis ................... 95, 96, 97 
wagleri .......................... 52, 75 
sunctm-marta ........... 52, 53 
wagleri .................. 75 
wflliamsoni ...................... 289 
xantholarynx .................... 112 
melanogenia, Galbuls ..................... 36{), 368 
melanoleucos, Bucco ........................ 376 
melanoleucus, Campephilus .................. 171 
Picus ....................... 164,170 
Tamatia .................... 37t,376 
melanonota, Athene ......................... 755 
Ciccaba ........................ 755 
Noctua ......................... 755 
PulsatrLx ...................... 755 
melanonotum, Syrnium ..................... 755 
Melanopicos ................................. 41 
rnelanopogon, Melarnpicus .................. 105 
Meinerpes ..... 104,105,107,108,111 
formicivorus ....... 107 
Subsp.a.. 105, 
107,108 
Picns ................ 104,105,108,111 
melanopsiS, Otus ............................ 661 
melanots, Athene ........................... 758 
Noctua ......................... 755, 758 
Pulsatrix pulsatrix ................ 755 
rnelnotis, Capito .......................... 316, 385 
Tamatia .......................... 
Melidors .................................... 405 
Melignomon ................................. 
Melignothes ................................. 310 
mentalis, Celeus ....................... 144,145,146 
loricatus .................... 14 
licus .............................. 145 
meridensis, Chloronerpes rubiginosus ...... 126.132 
meridionalis, Dendrocopus .................. 232 
Dryobstes pubescens .......... 232 
Picus ................... 232, 240, 242 
(Dendrocopus) .......... 232 
Trichopicus ................... 232 
Meropes ................................... 402, 403 
Meropicus ................................... 117 
merrilli, Nyctidromus ....................... 547 
albicollis ............. 537, 
539,540, 543, 544,545,546.547 
Merrill's Cuidjo .............................. 546 
mesembrinus, Asio magellanicus ............. 754 
Bubo virginianus ........... 739.754 
Mesomorpha ................................ 736 
Mesopicos cecilii ........................... 188,193 
Mesopicus caboti ............................ 191 
cecilii ............................ 188 
fumigat-tls ........................ 187 
kirkii ............................ 187 
oIeaginus ......................... 190 
sanguinolentus ................... 191 
mesorhynchus, Ceophloeus .................. 149 
linetttus ......... 147 
148,150 151 

Page. 
mesorhynchus, Dryocopus .................. 149 
Mexican Barred Owl ....................... 646 
Eared Owl ......................... 672 
Motmot ............................ 
Red-shafted Flicker ................ 
Spotted Owl ....................... 652 
mexicana, Strix ........................... 672, 673 
asio ......................... 672 
mexicanoides, Colaptes ................ 14, 35, 3?, 39 
Geopicos ..................... 
mexicanus, Asio ............................. 673 
Bubo ............................ 673 
Colaptes ............. 32,33,34,35,36,37 
auratus ............. 23,35,36 
+ ............ 23 
vat .......... 35 
Crybelus ........................ 465 
Geopicus ........................ 33,35 
Momotus ............. 453,455,465,466 
mexicanus ....... 455,463,465 
Nyctibius griseus ...... 586,591.592,593 
j amaicensis ........... 593 
Otus .......................... 670,673 
Picus ........................... 33,35 
(Colaptes) ................. 35 
Prionites ........................ 465 
Rhinoptymx ..................... 673 
Strix ............................ 672 
Todus ......................... 443, 449 
Mexique, Martin-pescheur hupd de ........... 411 
Michoac/tn Woodpecker ...................... 251 
Micrathene .................................. 806 
graysoni ....................... 811,812 
whitneyi .................. 809,810,811 
microcephalus, Otus ......................... 666 
Microcolaptes ................................ 302 
Microglaux .................................. 779 
micromegas, Nesoctites .................... 308,309 
Picum.nus .................... 307,309 
micromeris, Chordeiles acutipennis .... 561,577, 580 
Micromonacha. .............................. 373 
Micropallas .................... 595, 596, 622, 806, 807 
graysoni ............... 807 808, 810, 812 
socorroensis ..................... 812 
whitneyi .................. 807, 809, 810 
idoneus .......... 807, S08,10 
sanfordi ..... 807, 808, 809, 810 
whitneyi ............ 807,809 
microphthalmos, StrLx ....................... 635 
Micropogon .................................. 319 
amazonicus ...................... 321 
auricollis ........................ 321 
aurifrons ........................ 321 
aurovirens ...................... 322 
bourcieri ........................ 315 
flavicolle ........................ 321 
glaucogularis .................... 316 
hartlaubi ........................ 316 
hartlaubii ....................... 315 
peruvianus ...................... 
Microptynx ................................. 779 
Microrhynchos ............................... 559 
Microrhynchus .............................. 59 
Microscops .................................. 622 
Microtrogon ................................. 399 



IDEX. 857 

Page. 
tlrotrogon Iulvescens ...................... 399 
midas, Aslo .................................. 654 
Otus ................................. 671 
minor, Caprimulgus ....................... 518,577 
Chordediles ........................ 575,576 
popetue .................. 574 
Chordeiles ...................... 574,575,576 
popetue ................. 574,577 
var ............. 574, 577 
virginianus ...... 561,575, 576, 577 
Dryobates .......................... 195,196 
Electron platyrhynchus .............. 472 
Monasa ............................. 394,398 
pallescens .................... 399 
Noctua ............................. 664,666 
aurita ........................ 689 
Nyctule .............................. 6 
Picus .............................. 194, 207 
(Trichopicus) vfllosus var ...... 207 
vfllosus ........................ 207 
c ....................... 207 
var .................... 207 
Prionirhynchus pltyrhynchus ....... 473 
Prionornis ........................... 474 
platyrhynchus ............ 474 
Trichopicus villosus .................. 207 
mtnores, Picus vfllosus a. villosus c  ......... 207 
minuta, Pipra ............................... 302 
minutissima, Athene ........................ 782 
Noctua ........................ 782 
Strix ........................ 781,782 
minutus, Picumnus ......................... 303 
nliXttlS, l)icus ................................ 11 
Momot ...................................... 453 
momota, Ramphustos ..................... 453,460 
Momoti (Superfm.) ............... 402,403,441,450 
Momotidm ................................. 404, 
441, 450, 451,452, 453, 467, 470, 476, 482, 484 
Momotinm ................................... 45O 
momotula, Itylomunes ............ 484, 485, 486, 487 
momotula ......... 485,487 
Momotus ......................... 487 
momotulus, Itylomanes ..................... 487 
Momotus ...................... 451,452,453,454,467 
brasiliensis ........................ 461 
ceruleiceps ........................ 457 
cmruliceps ......................... 456 
carinatus .......................... 475 
castaneiceps ............. 455,464,466,467 
cmrulciceps ........................ 457 
cce.ruliceps ....................... 454,455 
conexus ........................... 463 
reconditus ................ 463 
gularis ............................. 484 
lessoni ....................... 459, 460, 461 
goldmuni ................... 461 
lessoni ..................... 459 
Iessonii .............. 454, 455, 459, 460, 461 
exiguus .............. 454, 458, 460 
goldmani ............ 454,458,460 
lessonii .......... 454, 457, 458, 460 
martii ........................... 468, 469 
mexicanus ............... 453, 455, 465, 466 
mexicanus ....... 455, 463,465 
saturatus ..... 455, 464, 465, 466 
momotula ......................... 487 

Page. 
Momotus parvirostris ....................... 455 
platyrhynchus .......... 470,471,473,474 
psalurus ........................... 460 
saturatus .......................... 466 
semirufus .......................... 470 
subhutu ............................ 457 
subrufescens ............. 454, 455, 460, 463 
conexus ........ 455, 461,462 
reconditus ...... 455, 462, 463 
subrtfescens ........... 455 
461, 462 463 
supercfliaris ....................... 479 
swainsoni .......................... 455 
yucatanensis ....................... 480 
momotus, Prionites ......................... 460 
Monca ...................................... 392 
Monacha .................................... 392 
flavirostris ......................... 395 
grandior ........................... 396 
morpheus .......................... 394 
nigra ............................... 395 
nigrifrons .......................... 395 
pllescens ........................ 394, 398 
peruana ............................ 394 
Mondon .................................... 392 
Monasa ............................ 373, 392, 393, 405 
atra ................................. 395 
axfllaris ................. .. ........... 395 
fidelis .............................. 393,397 
flavirostris ........................... 395 
grandior ....................... 393, 395, 396 
inornata ........................... 390,391 
leucops .............................. 394 
minor ............................. 394,398 
morphmus ........................... 394 
morpheus ............................ 393 
morpheus ......................... 394,397 
peruana .................. 394 
nigra ................................ 395 
nigrifrons ............................ 395 
pullescens .................. 394, 397, 398, 399 
minor ..................... 399 
panamensis .......................... 390 
personata .......................... 392, 394 
peruana ....................... 394, 396, 397 
rikeri ................................ 393 
ruficapilla ........................... 401 
sclateri .............................. 394 
similis ......................... 394, 398,399 
tranquflla ......................... 392, 395 
Monasa, Costa Rican ........................ 395 
Monassa ..................................... 392 
Monasta ..................................... 392 
atra ................................ 395 
liavirostris .......................... 395 
morphea ............................ 394 
nigrifrons ........................... 395 
pallescens ........................... 398 
peruana ............................ 394 
Monastes .................................... 392 
Monodon .................................... 392 
montanus, Dryobates villosus ............... 214 
Picus ............................. 214 
monticola, Dendrocopus ..................... 214 
Dryobates villosus ...... 197, 212, 214,215 
morpheus, Monasa .......................... 394 



Page. 
mrphea, Monasta ........................... 394 
morpheus, Monacha ......................... 394 
Monasa ........................... 393 
morphceus, Bucco ......................... 393, 394 
MonaSa .......................... 394 
Motmot, ]Hue-crowned ...................... 455 
-throated ..................... 482 
Chestnut-bellied .................... 463 
-headed .................. 466 
Coast ............................... 465 
Costa Iican Keel-billed ............ 476 
Dnrin ............................. 474 
Goldman's ......................... 460 
Greater Rufous ..................... 468 
Green-breasted turquoise-browed... 480 
Keel-billed ......................... 474 
Lesser Broad-billed ................. 472 
Lesson's ............................ 457 
Mexican ............................ 463 
ranami Tody ...................... 487 
Small-billed ........................ 481 
Southern T m'quoise-bowed ........ 481 
Tody ............................... 485 
Turquoise-browed .................. 475 
Yucatan ........................... 480 
Motmots ....................... 404,442,450,451,452 
Mottled Owl ................................. 691 
Motmtahl Owl ............................... 591 
multicolor, Todus ................. 443,444,446,448 
murceus, Centurus superciliaris .............. 50, 61 
Mycropogon ............................... 319, 321 
aureus .......................... 321 
nsevius ......................... 320 
Myrtha ...................................... 640 
nacunda, Caprimulgus ....................... 494 
naeurutu, 8trix .............................. 739 
nmvia, Asio ................................. 691 
]phialtes ............................ 691 
Ispida brasiliensis .................... 437 
Scops ................................ 691 
Strix ........................... 69, 691,699 
Surnia ............................... 691 
nevius, Asio ................................ 691 
Bucco ............................... 320 
Capito .............................. 320 
Caprimulgus brasiliensis major ...... 589 
Mycropogon ........................ 320 
Otus ................................ 691 
asio ..... C0S4.686.69.890.693,694,701 
nana, StrLx .................................. 779 
Nanacurutu tachet4 ......................... 673 
Nannochordeiles ............................. 
napensis, Bucco ............................. 378 
macrorhynchus ............. 378 
Notharchus ........................ 378 
Narrow-billed Tody ......................... 445 
-fronted Woodpecker ................. 105 
nataliae, Centurus ........................... 289 
Picus ............................... 289 
nattereri, Caprimulgus ........................ 494 
Selenidera ......................... 349 
nebulosa, Scotiaptex ....................... 635, 637 
nebulosa ............. 635,637 
StrLx .... 634.637,643,645,646, 647.648.650 
nebulosa ..................... 637 

Parle. 
nebulosa, Ullua .............................. 643 
U lula ............................ 644, 645 
nebulosum, Surnium ........................ 644 
Syrnium ............. 643,644, 645,646, 
647, 648, 649.650 
nebulosum a ........... 644 
vr ....... 644 
noglectns, Ceturus subelegans .............. 2, 74 
Melanerpes subelegans ............ 
Veniliornis ........................ 194 
kirkii ................ 188, 
nelsoni, Antrostomus .................. 506, 527,529 
Dendroeopus ........................ 236 
Dryobates pubescens ............. 19. 229, 
230, 233,235, 236, 239 
Nyctidromus albicollis ........... 536,539, 
540, 543.544, 545, 546 
Scapaneus guatemalensis ...... 172,175,178 
Nelson's Cuijo .............................. 
Ivory-Bill .......................... 178 
Whippoorwill ...................... 527 
Nesoceleus ................................... 7.39 
fernandinm ....................... 40.41 
Nesoctites .................. , ............... 12.307 
micromegas ..................... 30,309 
newarensis Bulaca .......................... 640 
Newfoundland Woodpecker ................. 211 
newtoni, Gyranasio nudipes ........... 676,677.879 
Gym -oglatLx ...... = ................ 679 
Newton's Bare-legged Owl ................... 679 
Nictibius .................................... 584 
niger Bucco ........................... 319, 320,321 
Capito .............................. 320,321 
Cuculus ............................. 392,395 
Nighthawk .................................. 552 
Aserri ............................ 
Bahama ......................... 
Cuban ........................... 
Florida .......................... 
Howell's ......................... 
Pacific ........................... 567 
San Lucas ....................... 560 
Sennett's ........................ 56 
Texas ............................ 561 
Western ......................... 572 
nigra, Monacba .............................. 395 
Monasa ............................... 395 
nigrescens, Aluco ............................ 615 
flammea .................. 615 
Asio magellanicus ................ 738 
Bubo ............................. 738 
virginianus ................. 
Caprimulgus ..................... 493 
Strix ............................. 615 
flammea .................... 615 
var .............. 614,615 
Tyto alba ........................ 615 
insularis .................. 602.,615 
nigrifrons, Bucco ............................ 
Monacha ......................... 395 
Monasa ........................... 395 
Monasta .......................... 95 
nigrirostris, Pteroglossus ..................... 320 
nigrolineata, Cacciba ......................... 762 
Cicba ...................... 760,762 
nigrolineata ............ 6 
Strix ........................... 762 



INDEX. 861 

Page. 
Nyctimene ................................ 640, 759 
flammula ......................... 640 
stridula .......................... 640 
virgata ........................... 766 
Nyctiornis ................................... 584 
lq yctipetes .................................. 779 
cunicularia ....................... 813 
Nyctiphrynus ............................. 493,504 
lqyctipolus .................................. 493 
Nyctiprogne ................................. 494 
leucopygus ...................... 494 
Nyctornis ................................... 584 
nyeanus, Centurus ..................... 50,61 63, 64 
nyeanus .................. 65 
superciliaris .............. 65 
Melanerpes ......................... 64,65 
Nye's Woodpecker .......................... 63 
Nystactes .................................... 372 
lqystalus .................................... 372 
chacuru ............................ 385 
radiatus ............................ 385 
Nystastes .................................... 319 
chacm'u ............................ 385 
O. 
Oaxca Horned Owl ........................ 753 
Whippoorwill ....................... 523 
Woodpecker ......................... 78 
oaxace, Antrostoraus ............. 505, 521,523, 525 
obscure, Speotyto cunicularia ................ 820 
obscurus, Hyloraanes raomotula ....... 485, 486, 487 
Picus .............................. 47 
occideutale, StrLx ............................ 650 
Syrnium .................. 650, 651,652 
occidentalis, Asio raagellanicus .............. 744 
Bubo virginianus. 738, 742, 743, 744,751 
Picus lineatus vat .............. 149 
varius .................... 281 
Strix ................ 641,650, 651, 652 
occideutalis ............... 641, 
648, 649, 650, 651,652 
Syrnium ....................... 652 
ocellatus, Caprimulgus .................... 493, 504 
OcotAl Woodpecker ......................... 226 
odordus, Dryotomus ....................... 179 
odonpteron, Antrostomus ................... 498 
Caprimulgus .................... 498 
Oil Bird ..................................... 596 
oleugineus, Chloronerpes ................... 190,191 
(Phaionerpes) ...... 189 
Dendmbates ..................... 190 
Phaeonerpes ..................... 190 
Picus ............................ 190 
Oleaginous Woodpecker ..................... 188 
oleuginus, Capnopicus ....................... 189 
Chloronerpes ...................... 190 
Dendrobates .................... 190,191 
Eleopicus ......................... 190 
esopicus ........................ 190 
Picus ........................... 189,191 
Veniliornis ...................... 187,190 
oleaginu$ ........ 187,188,190 
olivaceus, Picumus .................. 303, 306, 307 
olivaceus ..... 303, 304, 305, 307 
olivinus, Picus .............................. 185 
oranvert, Barbu ............................. 822 

:Page. 
ordi, Bucco .................................. 376 
lqothurchus ............................ 376 
Tarautia ............................... 376 
ordii, Bucco ................................. 376 
lqotharchus ........................... 376 
orececus, Dendrocopus ....................... 238 
Dryobates pubescens ............... 238 
orius, Dryobates villosus .............. 197,215, 216 
Orizaba Woodpecker ........................ 245 
orizabe, Picus ............................... 247 
orn3tus, Antrostomus ....................... 512 
Caprimulgus ........................ 513 
Centurus ........................... 84 
Picus ............................... 84 
oscuro, Martin-pescdor celeste .............. 413 
verde ............... 423 
otiosus, Antrostomus rufus ............ 505,511,513 
Otophanes ........................ 493, 504,553,554 
raclcodi .......................... 556 
racleodii ................... 553, 554,556 
Otus .......................... 621,652,681,682,684 
agrarius ................................ 666 
araericana ............................. 656 
araericanus .......................... 656, 672 
asio ...................... 683,684,686,691,765 
aikeni ............... 685,695 696, 702, 703 
asio .......... 684,687,690,691,693,604,717 
bendirei ............. 685,697,698,700,701 
brewsteri ........................ 685,700 
cineraceus ....... 685, 695, 702, 703, 704,708 
floridanus ......................... 690 
gilmani .......................... 702, 703 
hasbroucki .................. 684,686,694 
kennicotti ......................... 700 
kennicottii .............. 685,696,698,700 
raacfarlanei .............. 685, 696, 697, 698 
raaxwellim .............. 685,695,696,697 
raccallii ............. 684, 686, 693, 694, 704 
nmvius ...... 684, 686, 689, 690, 693, 694,701 
xantusi .......................... 685, 703 
bakkaracena ........................... 681 
barbarus ................. 685, 686, 704, 720, 723 
bengalensis ............................ 736 
brachiotus ........................... 664, 665 
brachyotos ............................. 665 
brachyotus .......................... 664,665 
araericanus ................. 666 
fl cassini .................... 666 
(Brchyotus) brachyotus ............ 665, 668 
galapagoensis .......... 653, 669 
brasiliensis .... . ........................ 715 
breviuuris ............................. 666 
capensis ............................... 653 
cassini ........... 683,684,686,687,717,718,720 
cassinii ................................ 666 
choliba.. 683, 686, 687, 710, 711, 712, 714, 715 718 
choliba ......................... 714 
thorapsoni ...................... 720 
clamator ............................... 673 
commtmis var ......................... 661 
cooperi ...................... 685,708,710,711 
crssircstris ............................ 742 
ctmicularia ............................ 813 
flarameola ............................. 732 
idahoensis .................. 732 
flararaeolus .................. 682, 686, 728, 732 
flammeolus ................ 732 



874 ITDEX. 

Page. 
Steatornis caripensis ......................... 596 
Steatoraithes ...................... 488, 489, 583, 596 
Steatothidm ............................ 488,489 
Steatornithinm ........................ 488,489,583 
Steerii, Capito ............................... 316 
Eubucco ............................. 316 
stellaris, Alcedo ............................. 409 
stellata, Alcedo .............................. 408 
Ceryle .............................. 408 
torquata Subsp. a ........... 408 
Megaceryle .......................... 408 
8treptoceryle ....................... 408 
torquata ............ 408,414 
Stenopsis .................................. 492,49? 
albicauda .......................... 502 
cayanensis ......................... 498 
cayennensis .................. 498,501,502 
albicauda .... 498,499,501,502 
cayennensis ...... 498,499, 502 
insularis ..... 498,499,501,502 
leopetes ................ 501 
insularis ............................ 502 
maculicaudus ...................... 492 
ruficervix .......................... 493 
tobagensis .......................... 498 
8tenopsis, Island ............................ 499 
White-tailed ..................... 602 
Stenopterus, Caprimulgus ................... 561 
Chordeiles ...................... 561 
Stephens' Whippoorwill ..................... 520 
stictica, Tyto perlata ........................ 610 
.tictipen his, Ceryle .......................... 414 
torquata ................. 415 
Subsp. . ................ 415 
Streptoceryle torquata ... 408,409,414 
-tictoptera, Ceryle ........................ 440, 441 
amea ..................... 441 
superciliosa ............. 440, 441 
Subsp.  ..... 441 
Chloroceryle mnea ........ 424,438,448 
Streak-crowned Pygmy Owl ................ 790 
/treaked-chested Woodpecker ............... 110 
Streptoceryle .............................. 407,408 
alcyon ....................... 409, 420 
alcyon ........... 409, 415,420 
caurina ....... 409,416,417,42{) 
maxima ....................... 408 
sharpei ........................ 408 
s tellata ........................ 408 
torquata ..................... 408, 413 
Stellata ............. 405, 414 
stictipennis .... 408,409,414 
torquata ....... 408, 4{)9, 414 
striatipectus, Balanosphyra formicivora. 101,110,111 
]elanerpes ..................... 111 
Iormicivorus ..... 105,111 
vat.. 105,111 
striatus, Bubo ............................... 691 
Centurus .................... 40 54, 98,100 
Chloronerpes ....................... 100 
Melanerpes ......................... 100 
Picas ............................... 99 
Picus .............................. 99,100 
Zebrapicus ......................... 100 
stricldandi, Dendrocopus .................... 260 
Dryobates ..... 195,200,259,20261,262 

lage. 
stricklandi, Lophostrix ................ 733,735, 736 
crstatus ............. 733 
Phrenopicus ..................... 260 
Picus .......................... 260,262 
(Leuconotopicus) ......... 260 
Scops ............................ 736 
Threnopipo ..................... 260 
Strickland's Owl ............................ 733 
Woodpecker .................... 259 
Stridula ..................................... 600 
stridula, Nyctimene ......................... 640 
Strix ............................... 639 
Striges (Suborder)... 3,594,595,596,597,598,600,617 
Strigidm ............................... 594, 598, 617 
(Nyctiharpges) .................... 594 
Strigiformes ................................. 594 
strigilatus, Bucco ................... -. ........ 385 
Strigina ..................................... 598 
triginm ................................... 598,617 
Strigoidee ................................... 594 
Strigomorphae .............................. 594 
Striped Horned Owl ......................... 671 
StrL .............. 596,599,660,618,620,639,640,641 
acadica .......................... 622, 6,630 
acadiensis .............................. 632 
accipitrina ................... 666,668,670,774 
alba ................................... 600 
albifrons ............................... 632 
alueo ............................ 639, 640, 644 
american ....................... 609, 656, 672 
arctiea ................................. 664 
areticus, capite levi, corpore toto niveo. 772 
asio ................................ 658, 680, 
681,689, 691,696, 697, 698, 699, 701 805 
mexicana .......................... 672 
atricapilla ............................. 722 
bargei ................................. 612 
brachiotus ............................. 664 
brachyota ............................. 664 
brachyotos ............................. 664 
brachyotus ...................... 653, 664, 668 
brachyura ............................. 666 
brasiliana .................... 714,718,726,782 
bubo .................................. 736 
californica ............................. 820 
candida .............................. 600,771 
caparoch ............................. 667, 777 
capite aurito, corpore albido ........... 772 
caspia ................................. 666 
choliba .............................. 701,714 
cinezea ........................... 634, 635, 637 
lapponica ...................... 635 
crassirostris ............................ 742 
cristata ................................ 733 
cubm .................................. 604 
cunicularia .............. 12, 813 817, 823, 824 
dalhousei .............................. 633 
dasypus ............................... 623 
domingensis,. ......................... 823 
dominicensis ......................... 613,823 
elata ................................... 788 
erminca .............................. 767,771 
fasciata ................................ 765 
ferox'. .................................. 282 
ferrnginea ............................ 782,803 
flammea ..... 600 604,607, 611 613, 615 617,663 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO. 501 PART 6, PL. III 

I. BALANOSPHYRA t'ormlcivora. 

2. LINNEOPICUS hermlnlerl. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

134001 

BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. III 

i 

I. BALANOSPHYRA f'ormlcivora. 

2. LINNEOPICUS herminieri. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. IV 
I. ASVNDESMUS lewisi. 

2. TRIPSURUS pucherani. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. Vl 

I. CEOPHLQUS lineatus. 



BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. Vl| 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

I. PHL(]OTOMUS pileatus. 

2. XIPHIDIOPICUS percussus. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50 PART 6,, PL. Vlll 

I. CAMPEPHILUS principal;s. 

2. PHRENOPICUS borealis. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN IO. 50 PART 6v PL. X 

I, CNIPARCHUS hamatogaster. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO..50, PART 6, PL. Xl 

I. SPHVRAPICUS varius. 

2. PICOIDES arcticus. 
3. NESOCTITES micromegas. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. Xlll 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50t PART 6, PL. XV 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. XVI 



U. S. NATIONAl, MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. XVII 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 501 PART 6 PL. XVlll 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50 PART 6, PL. XIX 

"1- 
"1- 
0 
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U. S, NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO, 50 PART 6 PL. XX 

Z 
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U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50 PART 6t PL. XXI 

z 
z 
z 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50j PART 6 PL. XXIV 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 501 PART 6, PL. XXV 
k ASPATHA 

.._LL--.>< :----...x__...  //// 
2. NVCTIDROMUS albicollis. 



U. $. NATIONAL MU,SEUM BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6 PL. XXVl 

I. ANTROSTOMUS carolinensls. 

2. ANTROSTOMUS vociferus. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO. 50j PART 6 PL. XXVII 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
BULLETIN NO. 50 PART 6 PL. XXVIII 

I. PHAL-ENOPTILUS nu|lalli. 



BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6. PL. XXIX 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

I. NYC TAGRtcUS yucalanesis- 

2. cHO RDtcILES virginianuS" 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO. 501 PART 6 PL. XXX 

I. NYCTIBIUS grandis. 

2. GLAUCIDIUM ca|ifornCum. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO. 501 PART 6, PL. XXXl 

2. CRVPTOGLAUX acadica. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BULLETIN NO. ,50, PART 6, PL. XXXll 

|. AS|O w;|son;anus. 

/3 

2. /SIO Brachyotus) Flammeus. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. XXXIII 



U. $. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. XXXIV 

I. STRIX varla. 

:. SCOTIAPTEX nebulosa. 



U. ,S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN NO. 50 FART 6, PL. XXXV 

I BUBO v,rgm,anus 

2. OTUS asio. 

3, MICROPALLAS whltneyl. 



BULLETIN NO. 50, PART 6, PL. XXXV 

2. SURNIA caparoch. 



Sh'IITItSONIAN" INSTITIITION. 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

BULI  ETIN 

OF THE 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
o. 60. 

THE BIRDS 
0 
NORTH AND MII DLE AMERICA. 
I::OBERT I:IDGWAY 
CURATOR, DIVISION OF 

I)ART VI. 

WASHINGTON: 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1914. 



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