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P A R A P 








T O T H E 

II : 


Romans^ and 

To which is Prefix'd, An 



Underftanding of St. Pa ul'j* Epistles, by 
Confulting St. Paul Himfelf. 

The Third Edition. 


Printed for A. Be tte s worth, and C. Hitch, in Pater" 
nofier Row; J. Pemberton, in Fleetjlreet -y and E. Symon, 

in CornhilL M.DCC.XXXIII. 


■A ' 


\ 'i" 


A N 

E S S A 

For the Understanding 

St. PAUUs Epiftles, &c. 

TO go about to explain any of St. Paul's Epiftles, after fo 
great a Train of Expofitors and Commentators, might 
feem an Attempt of Vanity, cenfurable for its NefdlefT- 
nefs, did not the daily and approv'd Examples of pious 
and learned Men juftify it. This may be fome Excufe for me to the 
Publick, if ever thefe following Papers fhould chance to come 
abroad : But to my felf, for whofe Ufe this Work was undertaken, 
I need make no Apology. Though I had been converfant in thefe 
Epiftles, as well as in other Parts of Sacred Scripture, yet I found 
that I underftood them not ; I mean, the doctrinal and difcurfive 
Parts of them: Though the pracftical Diredlions, which are ufually 
dropp'd in the latter Part of each Epiftle, appear'd to me very plain, 
intelligible, and inftrudlive. 

I did not, when I reflecfled on it, very much wonder that this Part 
of Sacred Scripture had Difficulties in it j many Caufes of Obfcurity 
did readily occur to me. The Nature of Epiftolary "Writings, in 
general, difpofes the Writer to pafs by the mentioning of many 
Things, as well known to him to whom his Letter is addrefs'd, 
which are necefiary to be laid open to a Stranger, to make him com- 
prehend what is faid : And it not feldom falls out, that a well penn'd 
Letter, which is very eafy and intelligible to the Receiver, is very 
obfcure to a Stranger, who hardly knows what to make of it. 
The Matters that St. Paul writ about, were certainly Things well 
known to thofe he writ to, and which they had fonje peculiar 

A 2 Concern 

An Essay for the Under (landing. 

Concern in; which made them eafily apprehend his Meaning, and' 
fee the Tendency and Force of his Difcoarfe. Bat we having now 
arthisDiftance no Information of the Occafron of his Writing, little 
or no Knowledge of the Temper and Circumflances thofe he writ to 
were in, but what is to be gather'd"-out of the Epiftles themfelves, 
it is not ftrange that many Things in'them lie conceal'd tons, which, 
no doubt, they who were concern'd jn the Letter, underftood at firft 
ficrht. Add to this^. that ir'i many Places, 'tis raanifeft, he anfwiers 
Letters fent, and Queflions propos'd to him; • which, if we had, 
would much better clear thofe Paflliges that relate to them, than all 
the learned Notes €>f Criticks and Commentators, who in After- 
times fill us with their Conjedlures ; for very often, as to the Matter 
in hand, , they are nothing elfe. 

The Language wherein thefe Epiilles are writ, are another, and 
that no fmall Occafion of their Obfcurity to us now. The Words 
are Greek, a Language dead many Ages fince ; a Language of a very 
witty, volatile People, Seekers after Novelty, and abounding with- 
Variety of Notions and Sed:?, to which they applied the Terms of 
their common Tongue with great Liberty and Variety : And yet this 
makes but one fmall Part of the Ditiiculty in the Language of thefe 
Epiftles; there is a Peculiarity in it, that much more obfcures and 
perplexes the Meaning of thefe Writings, than what can be occa- 
fion'd by the Loofnefs and Variety of the Greek Tongue. The 
Terms are Greeks but the Idiom or Turn of the Phrafes may be truly 
faid to be Hebrew , or Syr lack : The Cuflom and Familiarity of 
which Tongues do fometimes fo far influence the Exprellions in 
thefe Epiftles, that one may obferve the Force of the Hebrew Con- 
jugations, particularly that oiHiphil^ given to GreekVcvhs, in a way 
unknown to the Greciam themfelves. Nor is this all ; the Subject 
treated of in thefe Epiftles is fo wholly new, and the Doftrines con- 
tained in them fo perfedly remote from the Notions that Mankind 
were acquainted with, that mofl of the important Terms in it have 
quite another Signification from what they have in other Difcourfes; 
So that putting all together, we may truly fay, that the New Teita- 
menx is a Bock written in a Language peculiar to it felf. 

To thefe Caufes. of Obfcurity, common to St. P^z^/ with mod of 
the other Penmen of the feveral Books of the New Teftament, we 
may. add thofe that are peculiarly his, and owing to his Stile and 
Temper. He was, as 'tis vifible, a Man of quick Thought, warm 
Temper, mighty well vers'd in the Writings of the Old Teftamenr, 


SL Pa u l'j- E p I s t l e s, erV v 

2rnd full of the Dodrine of the New : All this put together, fuggeilcd 

Matter to him in abundance, on thofe Subjects which came in his' 

way J fo that one may confider him, when he was writing, as befec 

with a Crowd of Thoughts, all driving for Utterance. In this 

Pollure of Mind it wasalmoft impoffible for him to keep that How 

Pace, and obferve minutely that Order and Method of ranging all- 

he faid, from which refuUs an eafy and obvious Perfpicuity. To 

this.Plenty and Vehemence of his", may be imputed thofe many large 

Parenthsfes, which a careful Reader may obferve in his Epiilles.^ 

Upon this Account alfo it is, that he often breaks off. in the middle. 

of an Argument, to let in fome new Thought fuggeiled by his own 

V/ords ; which having purfued and explained, as far as conduced to 

his prefent Purpofe, he realTumes again the Thread of his Difcourfe, . 

and goes on with it, without taking any notice that he returns again 

to what he had been before faying; though fometimes it be fo far 

off, that it may well have fiipt out of his Mind, and requires a very 

attentive Reader to obferve, and fo bring the disjointed Members 

together, as to make up the Connedtion, and fee how the fcatter'd 

Parts of the Difcourfe hang together in a coherent, well-agreeing 

Senfe, that makes it all of a Piece. 

Befides the Diflurbance in perufing St. PWs Epiftles, from the 
Plenty and Vivacity of his Thoughts, which may obfcure his Me- 
thod, and often hide hisSenfe from an unwary, or over-hafty Reader; 
the frequent changing of the Perfonage he fpeaks in, renders the. 
Senfe very uncertain, and is apt to miflead one that has not fome 
Clue to guide him : Sometimes by the Pronoun /, he means himfelf, 
fometimes any Chriflian- fometimes a Jew, and fometimes any 
Man, &c. If fpeaking of himfelf, in the firll Perfon Singular, has 
fo various Meanings, his Ufe of the firft Perfon Plural, is with a far 
greater Latitude; fometimes defigning himfelf alone, fometimes 
thofe with himfelf whom he makes Partners to the Epiftle; fome- 
times with himfelf comprehending the other Apoftles^ or Preachers 
of the Gofpel, or Chriftians : Nay, fometimes he in that way fpeaks 
of the Converted Jews^ other times of the Converted Gentiles^ and 
fometimes of others, in a more or lefs extended Senfe; every one of 
which varies the Meaning of the Place, and makes it to be differently 
underflood. I have forborn to trouble the Reader with Examples 
of them here: If his own Obfervation hath not already furnilhed- 
him with them, the following Paraphrafe and Notes; I fuppofe, wilt. 

fatisfy him in the Point. 


vi j^n Es SAY for the Under jlMding 

In the Current alfo of his Difcourfe, he fometimes drops in the 
Objedions of others, and his Anfwers to them, without any Change 
in the Scheme of his Language, that might give Notice of any other 
fpeaking befides himfelf This requires great Attention to obferve; 
and yet, if it be neglected or over-look'd, will make the Reader 
very much mifhake, and mifunderfland his Meaning, and render the 
Senfe very perplex'd. 

Thefe are intrinfick Difficulties arifing from the Text it felf, 
whereof there might be a great many other named ; as the Uncer- 
tainty, fometimes, who are the Perfons he fpeaks to, or the Opi- 
nions or Pradices which he has in his Eye 3 fometimes in alluding 
to them, fometimes in his Exhortations and Reproofs. But thofe 
above mentioned being the chief, it may fuffice to have opened our 
Eyes a little upon them ; which, well examin'd, may contribute 
tov/ards our Difcovery of the reft. 

To thefe we may fubjoin two external Caufes, that have made no 
fmall Increafe of the Native and Original Diiiiculties that keep us 
from an eafy and aiTur'd Difcovery of St. Paul's Senfe, in many 
Tarts of his Epiillesj and thofe are, 

Firft, The dividing of them into Chapters and Verfes, as we have 
done; whereby they are fo chopp'd and minc'd, and as they are now 
printed, ftand fo broken and divided, that not only the common 
People take the Verfes ufually for di(tin6l Aphorifms, but even Men 
of more advanc'd Knowledge, in reading them, lofe very much of 
the Strength and Force of the Coherence, and the Light that de- 
pends on it. Our Minds are fo weak and narrow, that they have 
need of all the Helps and Affiftances that can be procur'd, to lay 
before them undifturbedly, the Thread and Coherence of any Dif- 
courfe; by which alone they are truly improved, and led into the 
genuine Senfe of the Author. When the Eye is conftantly diihirb'd 
with loofe Sentence?, that by their ftand ing and feparation, appear 
as fo many diftind: Fragments, the Mind will have much ado to 
take in, and carry on in irs Memory, an uniform Difcourfe of depen- 
dent Reafonings; efpecially having from the Cradle been ufed to 
wrong Impreifions concerning them, and confta-ntly accuftom'd to 
hear them quoted as diftind: Sentences, without any Limitation or 
Explication of their precife Meaning from the Place they ftand in, 
and the Relation they bear to what goes before, or follows. Thefe 
IDivifions alfo have given occafion to the reading thefe Epiftles by 
Parcels and in Scraps, which has farther confirm'd the Evil arifing 


4?^. PaulV Epistle ^3 &c\ vii 

from iuch Partitions. And, I doubt nor, but every one will confefs 
it to be a very unlikely Way to come to the UnderRanding of any 
other Letters, to read them Piece-meal, a Bit to day, and anotlier 
Scrap to morrow, and fo on by broken Intervals; eipecially if the 
Paufe and Ceflation fhould be made, as the Chapters the Apoftles 
Epiftles are divided into, to end fometimes in the middle of a Dif- 
courfe, and fometimes in the middle of a Sentence. It cannot there- 
fore but be w^ondred at, that that fhould be permitted to be done to 
Holy Writ, which would vifibly diflurb the Senfe, and hinder the 
Underftanding of any other Book whatfoever. If Tul/y's Epiftles 
were fo printed, and fo ufed, I afk, whether they would not be 
much harder to be underftood, lefs eafy and lefs pleafant to be read, 
by much, than now they are ? 

How plain foever this Abufe is, and what Prejudice foever it does 
■to the Underflanding of the Sacred Scripture ; yet if a Bible was 
printed as it fhould be, and as the feveral Parts of it were v/rit, in 
continued Difcourfes where the Argument is continued, I doubt not 
but the feveral Parties would complain of it, as an Innovacion, and 
a dangerous Change in the publifhing thofe holy Books. And indeed, 
thofe who are for maintaining their Opinions, and the Syflems of 
Parties by Sound of Words, with a Negled: of the true Senie of 
Scripture, would have reafon to make and foment the Outcry : 
• They would moft of them be immediately difarm'd of their greac 
Magazine of Artillery wherewith they defend themfelves, and fall 
upon others. If the Holy Scripture were but laid before the Eyes of 
Chriftians in its due Connedlion and Conliftency, it would not then 
be fo eafy to fnatch out a few Words, as if they were feparate from 
the reft, to ferve a Purpofe, to which they do not at all belong, and 
with which they have nothing to do. But as the Matter now ftands, 
he that has a Mind to it, may at a cheap Rate be a notable Cham- 
pion for the Truth; that i?, for the Dodlrines of the Sedt, that 
Chance or Intereft has caft him into. He need but be furni(hed 
with Verfes of Sacred Scripture, containing Words and ExprefHons 
that are but flexible (as all general, obfcure and doubtful ones are) 
and his Syftem that has appropriated them to the Orthodojry of his 
Church, makes them immediately ftrong and irrefragable Arguments 
for his Opinion. This is the Benefit of loofe Sentences, and Scrip- 
ture crumbled into Verfes, which quickly turn into independent 
Aphorifms. But if the Quotation in the Verfe produc'd, vvere 
confider'd as a Part of a continued, coherent Difcourfc, ?.nd fo its - 
I Senf- . 

viii Jin Essay for the Under flanging 

- Senfe were limited by the Tenor of the Context, rnofl: of thefe for- 
ward and warm Dilputants would be quite flripp'd of thofe, which 
they doubt not now to call Spiritual Weapons; and they would have 
often nothing to fay that would not ihew their Weaknefs, and ma- 
nifeftly fly in their Faces. I crave leave to fet down a Saying of the 
Learned and Judicious Mr. ^i^/it'/^ : '' In interpreting the Scripture, 
" fays he, many do as if a Man fhould fee one have ten Pounds, 
*' v.'hich'he reckon'd by i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. meaning four 
*' was but four Unites, and five five Unites, &c. and that he had in 
" all but ten Pounds : The other that fees him, takes not the Figures 
«' together, as he- doth, but picks here and there; and thereupon 
« reports, that he had five Pounds in one Bag, and fix Pounds in 
*' another Bag, and nine Pounds in another Bag, &c. when as, in 
*' truth, he has but ten Pounds in all. So we pick out a Text, here 
'' and there, to make it ferve our Turn ; whereas if we take it all to- 
" gether, and confider what went before, and what followed after, 
*' we ihould find it meant no fuch Thing." I have heard fober 
Chriftians very much admire why ordinary, illiterate People, who 
were Profefibrs, that lliew'd a Concern for Religion, feem'd much 
more converfant in St. Paul's Epiftles, than in the plainer, and, as 
it feem'd to them, much more intelligible Parts of the New Tefla- 
-inent: They confefied, that tho' they read St. Paul's Epiftles with 
their beft Attention, yet they generally found them too hard to be 
mafter'd; and they labour'd in vain fo far to reach the Apoflle's 
Meaning all along in the Train of w^hat he faid, as to read them 
with that Satisfaftion that arifes from a Feelins; that we underftand 
and fully comprehend the Force and Reafoning of an Author; and 
therefore they could not imagine what thofe faw in them, whofe 
Eyes they thought not much better than their own. But the Cafe 
was plain: Thefe fober, inquificive Readers, had a mind to fee 
nothing in Sz. Paul's Epiftles but juft what he meant; whereas thole 
others of a quicker and gayer Sight, could fee in them what they 
pleafed. Nothing is more acceptable to Fancy than pliant Terms 
and Exprefiions, that are not obllinate; in fuch it can find its 
Account with Delight, and with them be illuminated, Orthodox, 
infallible at pleafure, and in its own way. Bat where the Senie of 
the Author goes vifibly in its own Train, and the Words, receiving 
ii derermin'd Senfe from their Companions and Adjacents, will not 
confent to give Countenance and Colour to what is agreed to be 
iightj aud niuft be fupported at any rate, there Men of eftablilh'd 


^yif. PaUlV EpI STLES, &C. ix 

Orthodoxy do not fo well find their Satisfadlon. And perhaps, 
if it were well examin'd, it would be no very extravagant Paradox 
to fay, that there are fewer that bring their Opinions to the Sacred 
Scripture to be tried by that infallible Rule, than bring the Sacred 
Scripture to their Opinions, to bend it to them, to make it, as they 
can, a Cover and Guard of them. And to this Purpofe, its being 
divided into Verfes, and brought as much as may be into loofe and 
general Aphorifms, makes it moft ufeful and ferviceable. And 
in this lies the other great Cau-fe of Obfcurity and Perplexednefs, 
which has been cafl upon St. Paul's Epiilles from without. 

St. Paiih Epiflles, as they liand tranllafed in our Englijlo Bibles, 
are now, by long and conftant Ufe, become a Part of the Englijh 
Language, and common Phrafeology, efpecially in Matters of Reli- 
gion : This every one ufes familiarly, and thinks he underftands ; 
but it mull: be obferved, that if he has a diflind Meaning when he 
ufes thofe Words and Phrafes, and knows himfelf what he intends 
by them, it is always according to the Senfe of his own Syftem, 
and the Articles or Interpretations of the Society he is engaged in. 
So that all this Knowledge and Underflanding, which he has in the 
Ufe of thefe Paflages of Sacred Scripture, reaches no farther than 
this, that he knows (and that is very well) what he himfelf fays, 
but thereby knows nothing at all what St. Paul faid in them. The 
Apoftle writ not by that Man's Syftem, and fo his Meaning cannot 
be known by it. This being the ordinary way of underftanding 
the Epiftles, and every Sed: being perfectly Orthodox in its own 
Judgment, what a great and invincible Darknefs mufl this cafl upon 
St. Paul\ Meaning to all thofe of that way, in all thofe Places where, 
his Thoughts and Senfe run counter to what any Party has efpoufed 
for Orthodox ; as it mufl unavoidably to all, but one of the different 
Syftems, in all thofe Paffages that any way relate to the Points in 
Controverfy between them. 

This is a Mifchief, which, however frequent and almofl natural, 
reaches fo far, that it would juflly make all thofe who depend upon 
them, wholly diffident of Commentators j and let them fee, how 
little Help was to be expelled from them in relying on them for the 
true Senfe of the Sacred Scripture, did they not take care to help 
to cozen themfelves, by chooling to ufe and pin their Faith on fuch 
Expofitors as explain the Sacred Scripture in favour of thofe Opinions 
that they before-hand have voted Orthodox, and bring to the Sacred 

a. Scrip- 

An Essay for the Under ft anding 

Scripture, not for Trial, but Confirmation. No body can think 
that any Text of St. Paul's, Epiftles has two concrary Meanings; 
and yet fo it muft have to two different Men, who taking two 
Commentators of different Seels, for their refpe<ft:ive Guides intQ - 
the Senfe of any one of the Epifties, fliall build upon their refpedtive 
Expolirions. We need go no farther for a Proof of it, than thq 
Notes of the two celebrated Commentators on the New Teftamenr, 
Dr. Hammond znd Beza^ both Men of Parts and Learning, and 
both thought by their Followers Men mighty in the Sacred Scrip- 
tures. So that here we fee the Hopes of great Benefit and Light, 
from Expofitors and Commentators, is in a great part abated ; and . 
thofe who have moft need of their Help, can receive but little 
from them, and can have very little Affurance of reaching the 
Apoflle's Senfe by what they find in them, whilffc Matters remain 
in the fame State they are in at prefent. For thofe who find they 
need Help, and would borrow Light from Expofitors, either 
confult only thofe who have the good luck to be thought found 
and Orthodox, avoiding thofe of different Sentiments from them- 
felves in the great and approved Points of their Syftems, as dan- 
serous, and not fit to be meddled with j or elfe, with Lidifferency, 
look into the Notes of all Commentators promifcuoully. The 
firfl of thefe take Pains only to confirm themfelves in the Opinion^ 
and Tenets they have already; which, whether it be the way to 
get the true Meaning of what St. Paul deliver'd, is eafy to de- 
termine. The others, with much more Fairnefs to themfelves, 
though with reaping little more Advantage (unlefs they have 
fomething elfe to guide them into the Apoftle's Meaning than the 
Comments themfelves) feek Help on all Hands, and refufe not 
to be taught by any one, who offers to. enlighten them in any of 
the dark Paffages. But here, though they avoid the Mifchief 
which the others fall into, of being confin'd in their Senfe, and 
feeing nothing but that in St. Paul'?, Writings, be it right or wrong; 
yet they run into as great on the other fide, and inftead of being 
confirm'd in the Meaning, that they thought they faw in the T^xt, 
are diftradled with an hundred, fuggefted by thofe they advifed 
with ; and fo, inftead of that one Senfe of the Scripture which they 
carried with them to their Commentators, return from them with 
upne at all. 


This, indeed, feems to make the Cafe defperate ; for if the Com- 
ments and Expofitions of pious and learned Men cannot be de- 
pended on, whither fliall we go for Help ? To which I anfwer, 
I would not be mifraken, as if I thought the Labours of the Learned 
in this Cafe wholly loft, and fruitlefs. There is great Ufe and 
Benefit to be made of them, when we have once got a Rule to know 
which of their Expofitions, in the great Variety there is of them, 
explains the Words and Phrafes according to the Apoftle's Meaning. 
'Till then, 'tis evident, from what is above faid, they ferve for the 
moft part to no other Ufe, but either to make us find our own Senfe, 
and not his, in St. Paul's Words j or elfc to find in them no fettled 
Senfe at all. 

Here it will be afk'd, how fhall we come by this Rule you men- 
tion? Where is that Touchftone to be had, that will {hew us whe- 
ther the Meaning we our felves put, or rake as put by others upon 
St. Paul's Words in his Epiftles, be truly his Meaning or no ? 
I will not fay the Way which I propofe, and have in the following 
Paraphrafe follow'd, will make us infallible in our Interpretations 
of the Apoftle's Text : But this I will own, that till I took this 
Way, St. Paul's Epiftles to me, in the ordinary Way of reading and 
ftudying them, were very obfcure Parts of Scripture, that left me 
almoft every where at a lofsi and I was at a great Uncertainty in 
which of the contrary Senfes, that were to be found in his Com- 
mentators, he was to be taken. Whether what I have done, has 
made it any clearer and more vifible now, I muft. leave others to 
judge. This I beg leave to fay for my felf, that if fome very fobef, 
judicious Chriftians, no Strangers to the Sacred Scriptures, nay, 
learned Divines of the Church of England, had not profefifed, that 
by the Perufal of thefe following Papers, they underftood the Epi- 
ftles much better than they did before, and had not, with repeated 
Inftances, prefted me to publifti them, I ftiould not have confented 
they fliould have gone beyond my own private Ufe, for which they 
were at firft defigned, and where they made me not repent my 

If any one be fo far pleafed with my Endeavours, as to think it 
worth while to be informed what was the Clue I guided my felf by 
through all the dark PafiTages of thefe Epiftles, I fhall minutely tell 
him the Steps by which I was brought into this way, that he may 
judge whether I proceeded rationally, upon right Grounds or no, if 
fo be any thing in fo mean an Example as mine,may be worth his notice. 

a 2 After 

3^ii ^?^ Essay for th Under ft ancUng 

After I had found, by long Experience, that the reading of the 
Text and Comments in the ordinary Way, proved not fo fuccefsful 
as I wifh'd to the End propos'd, I began, to fufpedt, that in reading 
a Chapter as was ufual, and thereupon fometimes confulting Expo- 
fitors upon fome hard Places of it, which at that time mod aifeded 
me, as relating to Points then under Confideration in my own Mind, 
cr in Debate amongfl: otherSj was not a right Method to get into the 
true Senfe of thefe Epiftles. I faw plainly, after 1 began once to 
refled on it,, that if any one now fliould write me a Letter, as long 
as St. Paul's to the Romans^ concerning fuch a Matter as that is, in 
a Stile as foreign, and Expreflions as dubious as his feem to be ; if I 
{hould divide it into fifteen or fixteen Chapters, and read of them one 
to day, and another to morrow, &-c. it was ten to one I fhould never 
come to a full and clear Compreheniion of it. The way to under- 
iland the Mind of him that writ it, every one would agree, was to 
read the whole Letter through, from one End to the other, all at 
once, to fee what was the main Subjed: and Tendency of it j or if 
it had feveral Views and Purpofes in it, not dependent one of anor 
ther, nor in a Subordination to one chief Aim and End, to dif-r 
cover what thofe different Matters were, and where the Author 
concluded one, and began another ; and if there were any Necef- 
fity of dividing the Epiftle into Parts, to make the Boundaries of 

In Profecution of this Thought, I concluded it neceffary, for the 
Underftanding of any one of St. Paul's Epiftles, to read it all 
through at one Sitting, and to obferve, as well as 1 could, the Drift 
and Defign of his writing it. If the firft Reading gave me fome 
Light, the fecond gave me more; and fo I perlifled on reading 
conftantly the whole Epiftle over at once, till I came to have a good 
general View of the Apofrie's main Purpofe in writing the Epiftle, 
the chief Branches of his Difcourfe wherein he profecuted it, the 
Argun^ents he ufed^ and the Difpofition of the whole. 

This, I confefs, is not to be obtained by one or two hafly Read- 
ings; it muft be repeated again and again, with a clofe Attention to 
the. Tenour of the Difcourfe, and a perfedt Negled: of the Divifions 
into Chapters and Verfes. On the contrary, the fafeft Way is to 
fuppofe, that the Epiftle has but one Bufmefs, and one Aim, till by 
a frequent Perufal of it, you are forced to fee there are diilind:, 
independent Matters in it, which will forwardly enough Ihew them- 


St. Paul'j Epistles, &c. xlii 

It requires ib much more Pains, Judgment and Application, to 
find the Coherence of obfcure and abitrufe Writings, and makes thena 
fomuch the more unfit to ferve Prejudice and Pre-occupation when 
found, that it is not to be wondred that St. Paul's Epiilles have with 
many pafled rather for disjointed, loofe pious Difcourfes, full of 
Warmth and Zeal, and Overflows of Light, rather than for calm, 
ftrong, coherent Reafonings, that carried a Thread of Argument 
and Confiftency all through them. 

But this muttering of lazy, or ill difpofed Readers, hindred me 
not from perfifting in the Courfe I had began : I continued to read 
the fame Epiftle over and over, and over again, till I came to dif- 
cover^ as appeared to me, what was the Drift and Aim of it, and 
by what Steps and Arguments St. Paul profecuted his Purpofe. 
Lremembred that St. Paul was miraculouily called to the Minilfry 
of the Gofpel, and declared to be a chofen VelTel ; that he had the 
whole D'odrine of the Gofpel from God by immediate Revelation, 
and was appointed to be the Apoflle of the Gentiles^ for the propa- 
gating of it in the Heathen World. This was enough to perfuade 
me, that he was not a Man of loofe and fhatter'd Parts, uncapable 
to argue, and unfit to convince thofe he had to deal with: God 
knows how to choofe fit Inftruments for the Bufinefs he employs 
them in. A large Stock of Jewijh Learning he had taken in at the 
Feet of Gamaliel ; and for his Inforn^acion in Chriflian Knowledge, 
and the Myfleries and Depths of the Difpenfation of Grace by Jefus 
ChrifV, God himfelf had condefcended to be his Inflruder and 
Teacher. The Light of the Gofpel he had received from the Foun- 
tain and Father of Light himfelf, who, I concluded, had not fur- 
nifhed him in. this extraordinary Manner, if all this plentiful Stock 
of Learning and Illumination had been in danger to have been loft, 
or proved ufelefs, . in a jumbled and confufed Head ; nor have laid 
up fuch a Store of admirable and ufeful Knowledge in a Man, who, 
for want of Method and Order, Clearnels of Conception, or Perti- 
nency in Difcourfe, could not draw it out into Ufe with the greateft 
Advantages of Force and Coherence. That he knew how to pro- 
fecute his Purpofe with Strength of Argument and clofe Reafoning/ 
without incoherent Sallies, or the intermixing of Things foreign. 
to his Bufinefs, was evident to me from feveral Speeches of his 
recorded in the Acls, : And it was hard to think that a Man that . 
could talk with fo much Confiftency and Clearnefs of Convid:ion, 
ihould not be able to write without Confufion, inextricable Obfcu- 

XIV J^n Essay for the Under/landing 

iity, and perpetual Rambling. The Force, Order and Perfplciilty 
of thofe Dilcourfes, could not be denied to be very vifible : How 
then came it that the like was thought much wanting in hij Epiftles? 
And of this there appear'd to me this plain Reafon : The Particula- 
rities of the Hiftory in which thefe Speeches are inferted, fhew 
St. PanPs End in fpeaking ; which being feen, cafts a Light on the 
whole, and {hews the Pertinency of all that he fays. Bat his Epiftles 
not being fo circumftantiated ; there being no concurring Hiftory 
that plainly declares the Difpofition St. Paul was in ; what the 
Adlions, Expectations, or Demands of thofe to whom he writ, 
required him to fpeak to, we are no where told. All this, and a 
great deal more, necelTary to guide us into the true Meaning of the 
Epiftles, is to be had only from the Epiftles themfelves, and to be 
gather'd from thence with ftubborn Attention, and more than com- 
mon Application. 

This being the only fafe Guide (under the Spirit of God, that 
dictated thefe Sacred Writings) that can be rely'd on, I hope I may 
be excufed, if I venture to fay, that the utmoft ought to be done to 
obferve and trace out St. Paul's, Reafonings^ to follow the Thread 
of his Difcourfe in each of his Epiftles; to Ihew how it goes on ftill 
dire<fled with the fame View, and pertinently drawing the feveral 
Incidents towards the fame Point. To underftand him right, his 
Inferences fliould be ftrid:ly obferved ; and it Ihould be carefully 
examined from what they are drawn, and what they tend to. He 
is certainly a coherent, argumentative, pertinent Writer; and Care, 
I think, {hould be taken in expounding of him, to fhew that he 
is fo. But though I fay he has weighty Aims in his Epiftles, which 
he fteadily keeps in his Eye, and drives at in all that he fays ; yet I 
do not fay that he puts his Difcourfes into an artificial Method, or 
leads his Reader into a Diftindion of his Arguments, or gives them 
notice of new Matter by rhetorical, or ftudy'd Tranfitions. He has 
no Ornaments borrow'd from the Greek Eloquence ; no Notions of 
their Philofophy mix'd with his Dodlrine, to fet it off. The inticing 
Words of Man sWifdom^ whereby he means all the ftudied Rules of 
the Grecian Schools, which made them fuch Mafters in the Art of 
Speaking, he, as he fays himfelf, i Cor. II. 4. wholly negle(fted: 
The Reafon whereof he gives in the next Verfe, and in other Places. 
But the Politenefs of Language, Delicacy of Stile, Finenefs of Ex- 
preflion, laboured Periods, artificial Tranfitions, and a very metho- 
dical Ranging of the Parts, with fuch other Imbellilliments as make a 


ij^ PaulV Epistles^ &c. xv 

Difeourfe enter the Mind fmoothl)^, and flrike the Fancy at firfl 
Hearing, have little or no Place in his Stile j yet Coherence of Dif- 
courfe, and a dire(!l Tendency of all the Parts of it, to the Argument 
in hand, are moft eminently to be found in him. This I take to be 
his Characfker, and doubt not but he will be found to be fo upon di- 
ligent Examination. And in this, if it be fo, we have a Clue, if we 
will take the Pains to find it, that will condu6l us with Surety thro' 
thofe feemingly dark Places, and imagined Intricacies, in which 
Chriftians have wander'd fo far one from another, as to find quite 
contrary Senfes. 

Whether a fuperficial Reading, accompanied with the common 
Opinion of his invincible Obfcurity, has kept off fome from feeking 
in him the Coherence of a Difcourfe, tending with clofe, ftrong 
Reafonjng to a Point; or a feemingly more honourable Opinion of 
one that had been wrapp'd up into the Third Heaven, as if from 
a Man fo warm'd and illuminated as he had been, nothing could be 
expected but Flaflies of Light, and Raptures of Zeal, hinder'd others 
to look for a Train of Reafoning, proceeding on regular and cogent 
Argumentation, from a Man rais'd above the ordinary Pitch of Hu- 
manity to an higher and brighter way of Illumination ; or elfe, 
whether others were loth to beat their Heads about the Tenor and 
Coherence in St. Paul's Difcourfes, which, if found out, poffibly 
might hi him at a manifefl and irreconcileable Difference with their 
Syflems; 'tis certain, that whatever hath been the Caufe, this way 
of getting the true Senfe of St. Faiil\ Epiftles, feems not to have 
been much made ufe of, or at leaffc fo thoroughly purfued as I am . 
apt to think it deferves. 

For, granting that he was full ilor'd with the Knowledge of the 
Things he treated of, for he had Light from Heaven, it v/as God 
himfelf furnifhed him, and he could not want ; allowing alfo that 
he had Ability to make uie of the Knowledge had been given him 
for the End for which it was given him, viz. the Information, 
Convidion, and Converfion of others ; and, accordingly,, that he 
knew how to dired: his Difcourfe to the Point in hand, we cannot 
widely miftake the Parts of his Difcourfe employ'd about it, when 
we have any where found out the Point he drives at : Wherever we 
have got a View of his Defign, and the Aim he propofed to himfelf 
in Writing, we may be fure that fuch or luch an Interpretation does 
not give us his genuine Senfe, it being nothing at all to his prefent 
Purpofe. Nay, among various Meanings given a Text^ it fails not 

xvi ^n Es SAY for the Under flanding 

to dlred us to the beft, and very often to ailure us of the true : For 
it is no Prefumption, when one fees a Man arguing for this or that 
Propofition, if he be a fober Man, Maiter of Reafon or common 
Senfe, and takes any care of what he fays, to pronounce, with Con- 
fidence in feveral Cafes, that he could not talk thus or thus. 

I do noc yet fo magnify this Method of ftudying St. Paul's Epiflles, 
as well as other Parts of Sacred Scripture, as to think it will per- 
fectly clear every hard Place, and leave no Doubt unrefol ved. I know 
Expreffions now out of Ufe, Opinions of thofe Times, not heard of 
in our Days, Allufions to Cuftoms loft to us, and various Circum- 
ftances and Particularities of the Parties, which we cannot come 
^ar, &c. muft needs continue feveral Paflages in the dark now to us 
at this diftance, which flione with full Light to thofe they were di- 
reded to. But for all that, the ftudying of Sc. Paul's Epiftles in the 
Way T have propofed, will, I humbly conceive, carry us a great 
length in the right Underftanding of them, and make us rejoice in 
the Light we receive from thofe moft ufeful Parts of Divine Reve- 
lation, by furnifliing us with vifible Grounds that we are not mifta- 
ken, whilft the Confiftency of the Difcourfe, and the Pertinency of 
it to the Defign he is upon, vouches it worthy of our great Apoftle. 
At leaft, I hope, it may be my Excufe, for having endeavoured to 
make St. Paul an Interpreter to me of his own Epiftles. 

To this may be added another Help, which St. Paul himfelf 
affords us, towards the attaining the true Meaning contained in his 
Epiftles. He that reads him with the Attention I propofe, will 
ealily obferve, that as he was full of the Dodrine of the Gofpel, fo 
it lay all clear, and in order, open to his View. When he gave his 
Thoughts Utterance upon any Point, the Matter flow'd like a Tor- 
rent : But, 'tis plain, 'twas a Matter he was perfedly Mafter of j he 
fully poflefs'd the entire Revelation he had receiv'd from God, had 
thoroughly digeftedit; all the Parts were formed together in his 
Mind into one well contradled, harmonious Body : So that he was 
no way at Uncertainty, nor ever in the leaft at a lofs concerning any 
Branch of it. One may fee his Thoughts were all of a Piece in all 
his Epiftles 5 his Notions were at all Times uniform, and conftantly 
the fame, tho' his Expreflions very various: In them he fcems to 
take great Liberty. This, at leaft, is certain, that no one feems lefs 
tied up to a Form of Words. If then having, by the Method before 
propofed, got into the Senfe of the feveral Epiftles, we will but 
compare what he fays, in the Places where he treats of tlie fame 


iJ?. PaulV Epistle s^ &c. xvii 

Stibjed, we can hardly be miflaken in his Senfe, nor doubt what it 
was, that he believed and taught concerning thofe Points of the 
Chriflian Religion. I know it is not unufual to find a Multltade of 
Texts heaped up for the maintaining of an efpoufed Propoiition, 
but in a Senfe often fo remote from their true Meaning, that one 
can hardly avoid thinking that thofe who fo ufed them, either fought 
not, or valued not the Senfe ; and were fatisfied with the Sound, 
where they could but get that to favour them. But a verbal Con- 
cordance leads not always to Texts of the fame Meaning; trufting 
too much thereto will furnilh us but with flight Proofs in many 
Cafes J and any one may obferve how apt that is to jumble together 
PafTages of Scripture not relating to the fame Matter, and thereby to 
diflurb and unfettle the true Meaning of Holy Scripture. I have 
therefore faid, that we fhould compare together Places of Scripture 
treating of the fame Point. Thus, indeed, one Part of the Sacred 
Text could not fail to give light unto another. And fince the Pro- 
vidence of God hath fo order'd it, that St. Paul has writ a great 
Number of Epiflles, v/hich, tho' upon different Occafions, and to 
feveral Purpofes, yet are all confined within the Bufinefs of his 
Apofllefhip, and fo contain nothing but Points of Chrlflian Inflru- 
ftion, amongfl which he feldom fails to drop in, and often to enlarge 
on the great and diftinguilhing Docflrines of our holy Religion; 
which, if quitting our own Infallibility in that Analogy of Faith 
which we have made to our felves, or have implicitly adopted from 
fome other, we would carefully lay together, and diligently com- 
pare and fludy, I am apt to think would give us St. Paul's Syilem 
in a clear and indifputable Senfe, which every one mufl acknowledge 
to be a better Standard to intepret his Meaning by, in anyobfcure 
and doubtful Parts of his Epiftles, if any fuch fliould flill remain, 
than the Syflem, ConfefTion, or Articles of any Church or Spciety 
of Chriflians yet known ; which, however pretended to be founded 
on Scripture, are vifibly the Contrivances of Men, (fallible both in 
their Opinions and Interpretations) and, as is vifible in mofl of them, 
made with partial Views, and adapted to what the Occafions of that 
Time, and the prefent Circumftances they were then in, were 
thought to require for the Support or Juftification of themfelves. 
Their Philofophy alfo has its Part in mifleading Men from the true 
Senfe of the Sacred Scripture. He that fhall attentively read the 
Chriftian Writers after the Age of the Apoftles, will eafily find how 
much the Philofophy they were tinduredwith, influenced them in 

b their 

xviii yln E s SA Y for the Underfianding 

their Underfianding of the Books, of the Old and New Teftamentr 
III the Ages wherein Platomfm prevailed, the Converts to Chriftia- 
nity of that School, on all Occafions, interpreted Holy Writ accord- 
ing to the Notions they had imbib'd from that Philofophy. Arifto- 
ties Dodrine had the fame Effeft in its Turn ; and when it dege- 
nerated into the Peripateticifm of the Schools, that too brought its 
Notions and Didindions into Divinity, and affixed them to the 
lerms of the Sacred Scripture. And we may fee flill how, at this 
Day, every one's Philofophy regulates every one's Interpretation of 
the Word of God. Thofe who are poiTeffed with the Dod;rine of 
Aerial and ^therial Vehicles, have thence borrowed an Interpreta- 
tion of the four firfl Verfes of 2 Cor. V. without having any ground - 
10 think that St. Paul had the leafl Notion of any fuch Vehicles. 
'Tis plain, that the teaching of Men Philofophy, was no Part of the 
Defign of Divine Revelation ; but that the Expreffions of Scripture 
are commonly fuited, in thofe Matters, to the vulgar Apprehenlions 
and Conceptions of the Place and People where they were delivered. 
And as to the Dodlrine therein, diredlly taught by the Apoftles, that 
tends wholly to the fetting up the Kingdom of Jefus Chrift in this 
"World, and the Salvation of Mens Souls; and in this, 'tis plain, 
their Expreffions were conformed to the Ideas and Notions which 
they had received from Revelation, or. were confequent from it. 
We fhall therefore in vain go about to interpret their Words by the 
Notions of our Philofophy, and the Doctrines of Men deliver'd in 
our Schools. This is to explain the Apoftle's Meaning by what they 
never thought of, whilfl they were writing ; which is not the way 
to find their Senfe in what they deliver'd, , but our own, -and to take 
up from their Writings not what they left there for us, but what we 
bring along with us in our felves. He that would underftand 
St. Paul right, muft underftand his Terms in the Senfe he ufes them; 
and not as they are appropriated, by each Man's particular Philo- 
fophy, to Conceptions that never cnter'd the Mind of the Apoftle. 
For Example; he that fhall bring the Philofophy now taught and . 
receiv'd, to the explaining of Spirit, Soul, and Body, mentioned 
I Thejf. V. 23. will, I fear, hardly reach St. Paul's Senfe, or repre- 
fent to himfelf the Notions St. Paul then had in his Mind. That is 
what we fhould aim at. in reading him, or any other Author ; and 
till we, from his Words, paint his very Ideas and Thoughts in our 
Minds., we do not underftand him. 


St Paul'j* Epistles, &c\ xix 

In the Divilions I have made, I have endeavoured, the bed I 
could, to govern my felf by the Diverfuy of Matter. Bur, in a Wri- 
ter like St. Pau/^ it is not fo eafy always to find precifely wliere one 
Siibjed; ends, and another begins. He is full of the Matter hi treats, 
and writes with Warmth; which ufually neglects Method, and thofe 
Partitions and Paufes, which Men educated in the Schools of Rhe- 
toricians ufually obferve. Thofe Arts of Writing St. P/7zJ, as well 
out of Defign as Temper, wholly laid by: The Subjedt he had in 
hand, and the Grounds upon which it flood firm, and by which he 
inforced it, was what alone he minded; and, without folemnly 
winding up one Argument, and intimating any way that he began 
another, let his Thoughts, which were fully polTefs'd of the Matter, 
run in one continued Train, wherein the Parts of his Difcourfe 
were wove one into another. So that it is feldom that the Scheme 
of his Difcourfe makes any Gap ; and therefore, without breaking 
in upon the Connection of his Language, 'tis hardly poiTible to fe- 
parate his Difcourfe, and give a diftin§: .View of his feveral Argu- 
ments in diftindt Sections. 

I am far from pretending Infallibility in the Senfe I have any 
where given in my Paraphrafe or Notes ; that would be to ere(5t my 
felf into an Apoflle, a Prefumption of the higheft Nature in any one 
that cannot confirm what he fays by Miracles. I have, for my own 
Information, fought the true Meaning, as far as my poor Abilities 
would reach : And I have unbiafifedly embraced what, upon a fair 
Enquiry, appear'd fo to me. This I thought my Duty and Intereft, 
in a Matter of fo great Concernment to me. If I muft believe for 
my felf, it is unavoidable that I mufl underfrand for my felf: For if 
I blindly, and with an implicit Faith, take the Pope's Interpretation 
of the Sacred Scripture, without examining, whether it be Chrift's 
Meaning, 'tis the Pope I believe in, and not in Chrift ; 'tis his A^u- 
thority I reft upon; 'tis what he fays I embrace; for what 'tis Chrift 
fays, I neither know, nor concern my felf. 'Tis the fame thing 
when I fet up any other Man in Chrift's Place, and make him the 
authentic Interpreter of Sacred Scripture to my felf. He may pofTi- 
bly underftand the Sacred Scripture as right as any Man, but I fliall 
do well to examine my felf, whether that which I do not know, nay 
which (in the way I take) I can never know, can juftify me in ma- 
king my felf his Difciple, inftead of Jefus Chrift's, who of Right is 
alone, and ought, my only Lord and Mafter ; and it will be no 
I . leis- 

XX ^^^ Essay for the Underflanding, &c. 

lefs Sacrilege in me to fubilitute to my felf any orher in his room; to 
be a Prophet to me, than to be my King or Prieft. 

The fame Reafons that put me upon doing what I have in thefe 
Papers done, will exempt me from all Sufpicion of impoling my 
Interpretation on others. The Reafons that led me into the Meaning 
which prevail'd on my Mind, are fet down with it : As far as they 
carry Light and Convidion to any other Man's Underilanding, fo 
far I hope my Labour may be of fome Ufe to him ; beyond the Evi- 
dence it carries' with it, I advife him not to follow mine, nor any 
Man's Interpretation. We are all Men liable to Errors, and infe(fled 
with them ; but have this fure Way to preferve our felves, every one 
from Danger by them, if, laying afide Sloth, Carelefnefs, Prejudice, 
Party, and a Reverence of Men, we betake our felves in earneft to 
the Study of the Way to Salvation, in thofe holy Writings wherein 
God has reveal'd it from Heaven, and propos'd it to the World; 
feeking our Religion where we are fure it is in Truth to be foun(3;, 
.-comparing fpiritual Things with fpirittial Things. 





E P I S T L E of St. P ^ az. '^"'z- 

'T n TUT? the Tear of 


S T N P S I S. 

TH E Subje(5l and Defign of this Epiftle of St. Paul is much 
the fame with that of his Epiftle to the Romans, but treat- 
ed in fomewhat a different manner. The Bufinefs of it is 
to dehort-and hinder the Galatiam from bringing them- 
felves under the Bondage of the Mofaical Law. 

St. Paul himfelf had planted the Churches of Galatia, and there- 
fore referring (as he does, Ch. i. 8, 9.) to what he had before taught 
them, does not in this Epiftle lay down at large to them the Doctrine 
of theGofpel, as he does in that to the Romans-, who having been 
converted to the Chriftian Faith by others, he did not know how far 
they were inftrud:ed in all thofe Particulars, which, on the occafion 
whereon he writ to them, it might be neceffary for them to under- 
ftand: And therefore, writing to the Romans, he fets before them a large 
and comprehenfive View of the chief Heads of the Chriftian Religion. 
He alfo deals more roundly with his Difciples the Galatians, than, 
we may obferve, he does with the Romans, to whom he, being a 
Stranger, writes not in fo familiar a Stile, nor in his Reproofs and 
Exhortations ufes fo much the Tone of a Mafter, as he does to the 

St. Paul had converted the Galatians to the Faith, and erected fe- 
veral Churches among them in the Year of our Lord 5 1, between 

B which. 


Chap. I. which, and the Year ^y^ wherein this Epiflle was writ, the Difor- 
^^'V'^ ders following were got into thofe Churches. 

Firjij Some Zealots for the yewijh Conftitution, had very nearper- 
fwaded them oat of their Chriftian Liberty, and made them willing 
to fubmit to Circumcifion, and all the ritual Obfervancesof the Jewijb 
Church, as neceflary under the Gofpel : Ch, I. 7. III. 3. IV. 9, 10, 2 1, 
V. I, 2, 6, 9, TO. _ ^ 

Secondly, Their Diilentlons and Difputes in this matter had raifed 
great Animofitiesamongft them, to theDifturbance of their Peace, and 
the fetting them at Strife one with another : Ch.N. 6, 13 — —IS- 

The reforming them in thefe two Points feems to be the main Bu- 
linefs of this Epiflle, wherein he endeavours to eftablifli them in aRe- 
folution to ftand firm in the Freedom of the Gofpel, which exempts 
them from the Bondage of the Mofaical Law; and labours to reduce 
them to a fmcere Love and Ajfedion one to another ; which he con- 
cludes, with ail. .Exhortation to Liberality, and general Beneficence,, 
efpecially to their Teachers ; Ch.VX.b, ip. Thefe being the Matters 
he had in his Mind to write to them about, he feems here as if he had 
done : But upon mentioning, 1;. 1 1. what a long Letter he had writ 
to them with his own Hand, the former Argument concerning Cir- 
cumci'fion, which, filled and warmed his Mind, broke out again into 
wha^ we find,, U.I 2' — 17. of the Vlth Chapter. 

C H A P. L I _ — 5. 



"^HE general View of this Epiftle plainly fliews St. Paurs chief 
Defign in it to be, to keep the Galatiam from hearkening to thofe 
Judaizing Seducers, who had almoft perfwaded them to be Circum- 
cifed. Thefe Perverters of the Gofpel of Chrift, as St. Paul himfelf 
calls them, v, 7. had, as may be gathered from 1;. 8, and 10. and 
from C/6.V. 1 1. and other PafTages of this Epiftle, made the Galatlans 
believe that St. Paul himfelf was for Circumcifion. Till St. P^/^/ him- 
felf had i^x. them right in this matcer, and convinced them of the Fal- 



fhood of this Afperfion, it was in vain for him by other Arguments to Chap. i. 
attempt the re-eftabli{hing thtGaIafta?2s m theChriftian Liberty, and ""^^""^^^^ 
in that Truth which he had preached to them. The removing therefore 
of this Calumny was his' iirfl Endeavour; and to that purpofe this 
Introdudion, different from, what we find in any other of his Epiftles, 
is marvelloufly well adapted. He declares here at the entrance, very 
exprelly and emphatically, that he was not fen t by Men on their Er- 
rands ; nay, that Chrift in fending him did not fo much as convey 
his Apoflolick Power to him by the Miniflry, or Intervention of any 
Man J but that his Commiffion and Inftrudlions were all entirely from 
God, and Chrifl himfelf, by immediate Revelation. This of it felf 
was an Argument fufficient to induce them to believe, i. That what 
he taught them when he firfl preached the Gofpel to them, was the 
Truth, and that they ought to flick firm to that. 2. That he chan- 
ged not his Dodrine, whatever might be reported of him. He was 
Chrifl's chofen Officer, and had no dependance on Men's Opinions, 
nor regard to their Authority, or Favour, in what he preached 3 and 
therefore 'twas not likely he fhould preach one thing at one time, 
and another thing at another. 

Thus this Preface is very proper in this place to introduce what he 
is going to fay concerning himfelf, and adds Force to his Difcourfe, 
and the Account he gives of himfelf in the next Sed:ion. 


'I pAUL an Apofiie T^^UL (an Apoftle not of Men^ to ferve !• 

ther ^by' ^an^'bLt "by jT . ^^^ir Ends, or Carry on their Defigns, nor re- 

jcfus Chrift, and God ceiving his Call, orCommiffion, by the interven- 

the Father ^^ho raifed tion of any Man ^ to whom he miffht be thought 

him from the dead) ■' r n. ^ r ^ ^ ° 

to owe any refpedt, or deference upon that ac- 
count ', but immediately from Jefus Chrift, and 
from God the Father, who raifed him up from 


I * |Ot')t aV aV6f fcVfijf, not of Men, i.e. not fent by Men at their Pleafure, or by their 
Authority ; not inftrufted by Men what to fay or do, as we fee Timothy and Titus were when 
fent by St. Paul : And y»das and Silasy fent by the Church cf ^etufalem. 

^ 'Ov/e /} aV6?<y''3r», nor hy Man^ i. e. His Choice and Separation to his Miniflry and 
Apoftlefhip, was fo wholly an Aft of God, and Chrift, that there was no Intervention of any 
thing done by any Man in the Cafe, as theie was in the Eledion of Matthias, All this we may 
fee cxplain'd ac large, v. 10-— 11, and v, 16, 17. and (3?, II. 6—9. 

B 2 the 


Chap. r. 


2, the Dead) and all the Brethren, that are with 

^^ me, unto the Churches '^ of Galatia: Favour be 
to you, and Peace '^ from God the Father, and 
from our Lord Jefus Chrifl, who gave himfelf for 
our Sins, that he might take us out of this pre- 
fent evil World % according to the Will and good 

- Pleafure of God and our Father, to whom be 

^* Glory for ever and ever. Ameri, 

And all the brethreft 
which are with me, unto 
the Churches of Galatia : 

Grace be to you, and 
peace from God the Fa-r 
ther, and from our Lord 
Jefuj Chrift j 

Who gave hicifelf for 
our Sins, that he might 
deliver us from this pre- 
fent evil world, accord- 
ing to the will of God 
and our Father : 

To whom be glory for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

N r E s. 

2 ^ churches o/ Galatia. This was an evident Seal of his Apoftlefhip to the Gentiles ; fince m 
ao bigger a Country than GaJatiay a fmall Province of the Leller/^^r, he had, in no long flay 
among them, planted fcreral diftinft Churches. 

3 ° Seace, The wifhing. of Peace in the Scripture-Language,, is the wifhing of all manner mi 

4 ' "O'Tseof. ^i\»7VJ i^M-i Ik TO hi^Zr©- eu(ov& Toi'HfS'^ 3T&4* be might take us out of this 
prefent ewl World^ or Age^ fo the Greek Words fignify : Whereby it cannot be thought, that St. 
Paul meant, that ChrilVians were to be immediately removed into the other World. Therefcre 
iVi^ui cuuv muft lignify fomeching clfe than prefent fVorld, in the ordinary Import of thoft Words 
in Englifb. ^Aieoy ^t©-, I Cdu II. 6, 8.. and in other places, plainly fignifics the fewp Nation,, 
under the Mofaical Conftitution ; and it fuics very well with the Apollle's Defign in this Epiftle, 
that it fliould do & here. God has ia this World but one Kingdom and one People. The Nation 
of the ye'O.s were the Kingdom and People of God, whilft the Law ftood. And this Kingdom of 
God under the Mofaical Conftitution was cali'd aiuv bt©-, this Age, or as it is commonly tran- 
llatedj this World, to which aivv £C5r«Vj the prefent fVorld, or Age, here anfwers. But the King- 
dom of God, which was to be under the MefTiah, wherein the Oeconomy and Conftitution x)f the 
ye<ii;i(b Church, and the Nation ic felf, that in oppofition to Chrilt adhered to it, was to be laid 
afide, is in the New Teftament called auuv (AhKWy the World, or Age to come; lb that Chrift's 
taking them out of the prefent Worldy may, without any Violence to the Words, be underftood to 
fignify his fetting them free from the Mofaical Conftitution. This is fuitable to the Defign of. 
thi Epifile, aiid what St. PatJ has declared in many other places. See Col II. 14—17, and 20. 
which agrees to this Place, and Rom. VII. 4, 6. The Law is faid to be covtrary to us. Col. II. 14^ 
and towork Wrach, Rom.lW 15. and St. i'^w/ fpeaks very diminifhingly of the ritual parts of 
it ill many places : But yet, if all this may not be thought fuff.cicnt to ji.liify the applying of the 
Epithet ToiHe?, Evil, to it, that Scruple will be removed, if we take «j':s-<yf auyv, this prefent 
WjyJd, htre, for the yeivifi Conftitution and Nacion together, in which Senfe it may very well, 
be called Evil, though the Apoftle, out of his wonted Tendernefs to his Nation, forbsars to name 
them openly, and ufes a doubtful Exprelfion, which mighc comprehend the Heathca World allo^^ 
though he chisfly poioled ac the j€<wf. 



SECT. II. ^^ 

C H A P. I. 6. II. ai. 


WE have above obferved, that St. Paul's firfl: Endeavour in this 
Epiftle was to fatisfy the Galatians, that the Report fpread 
of him, that he preach'd Circumcifion, was falfe. Till this Ob- 
flrudion, that lay in his way, was removed, it was to no purpofe 
for him to go about to difTuade them from Circumcifion, though 
that be what he principally aims at in this Epiflle. To fliew them, 
that he promoted not Circumcifion, he calls their hearkening to 
thofe who perfuaded them to be circumcifcd, their being removed 
from him ; and thofe that fo perfuaded them, Perverters of the 
Go/pel of Chri ft, v. 6, 7. He farther affures them, that the Gofpel 
which he preached every where was that, and that only, which he 
had received by immediate Revelation from Chrift, and no Contri- 
vance of Man, nor did he vary it to pleafe Men : That would not 
confift with his being a Servant of Chrift, v. 10. And he expreffes fuch 
a firm Adherence to what he had received from Chrift, and had 
preached to them, that he pronounces an Anathema upon himfelf, 
u 8, 9. or any other Man or Angel, that fhould preach any thing elfe 
to them. To make out this to have been all along his Conduct, he 
gives an Account of himfelf for many Years backwards, even from 
the time before his Converfion : Wherein he fhews, that from a zea- 
lous perfecuting Jew, he was made a Chriftian, and an Apoftle by 
immediate Revelation,- and that having no Communication. with the 
Apoflles, or with the Churches oifudea, or any Man for fome years, 
he had nothing to preach, but what he had receiv'd by immediate 
Revelation. Nay, when 14 years after he went up 10 yerujalem^ ic 
was by Revelation J and when he there communicated theGofpel,. 
which he preach'd among the Gentiles^ Peter, James^ 2.nd. jfohn,, ap-- 
proved of it, without adding anything, but admitted him as their 
Fellow-Apoflle. So that in all this he was guided by nothing but 
Divine Revelation, which he inflexibly fluck to, fo far, that he 
openly oppofed St. Peter, for his Judaizing at Antioch. All which. 
Account of himfelf tends clearly to {hew,, that St. Paul made no: the 
leafl Hep towards complying with the Jews in favour of the Lav/,. nor 



Chap. I. did, out of regard to Man, deviate from the Do(ftrine he had re- 

^"*^''*'^^^ ceived by Revelation from God. 

All the parts of this Sedlion, and the Narrative contain'd in it, ma- 
nifeftly concenter in this, as will more fully appear, as we go through 
them, and take a clofer view of them ; which will ihew us that the 
whole is fo fkilfully managed, and the Parts fo gently Hid into, that 
k is a flirong, but not feemingly laboured Juflification of himfelf, 
from the Imputation of Preaching up Circumcifion. 


6. TF Cannot but wonder that you are fo foon *" re- I Marvel that ye are fo 6 
1 moved from me^ (who called you into the LZ.::Z';V'Z 
Covenant of Grace which is in Chrift) unto ano- the grace of chrift, unto 

7. ther fort of Gofpel j which is not owing; to any another gofpcl : 

' , . 1 /- h 1 1 1 • 1 1 1 J Which IS not another ; y 

thing elle ^ but only this, that you are troubled b^^ ^hcre be fome that ' 

by a certain fort of Men, who would overturn trouble you, and would 

the Gofpel of Chrift, by making Circumcifion, p^? '^' ^°^^'^ - 
and the keeping of the Law neceflary ' under the 

NO T E S. 

6 ^ So foon. The firft Place we find Galatia mentioned is ABs XVI. 6. AnA therefore 
St. Paul may be fuppofed to have planted thefe Churches there, in his Journey mentionedj 
^itVi XVI. which was Anno Dooiini 51. He vilitcd them again, after he had been at J^eru- 
{ateniy Ads XVIII. il 2.3. Anno Domini 54. From thence he returned to Ephe/ui, and 
ilaid there about two Years^ during which time this Epiftle wasvvrit ; fo that counting from his 
laft Vifit, this Letter was writ to them within two or chree Years from the time he was laft 
tvith them, and had left them confirmed in the Dodrine he had taught them ; and therefore he 
might with reafon wonder at their forfaking him L foon, and that Gofpel he had converted 
them to. 

E From him that called you. Thefe Words plainly point out himfelf. But then one might 
wonder how St. Panl came to ufe them ; fince it would have founded better to have faid. 
Removed from the Gofpel I preach' d to yoUf to another Gofpel^ than removed from me that preached 
to you^ to another Gofpel. But if it be remembred that St. Paul's Defign here is to vindicate him- 
felf from the Afperlion caft on him, that he preached Circumcifion, nothing could be more fuita- 
ble to that purpofe. than this way of exprefling himfelf. 

7 ^ "O «;c i7iv uhKo' I rake to fignify, which is not any thing elfe. The Words themfelves, 
the Context, and the Bufinefs the Apoltle is upon here, do all concur to give thefe Words the 
Scnfe I have taken them in. For, i. If ''o had referred to ivAy^iMoVy it would have been 
more natural to have kept to the Word tn^v., and not have changed it intOctAAo. z. It can 
fcai ce be fuppofed by any one who reads what St. Paul fays, in the following Words of this 
Verfc, and the two adjoining ; and alfo C^<?/>. III. 4. and Ver. z ■ 4, and 7. that St. Paul 
fhould tell them, that what he would keep them from is not another Gofpel. 5. It is fuitablc to 
St. Paul's Dcfign here to tell them, that to their being removed to another Gofpelj no body elfe had 
contributed, but it was wholly owing to thofe Judaizing Seducers, 

' SccAHj XV. I, 5, a J, 24. Hi 0^< 




g But though we or an 
angel from heaven preach 
any other oofpei unco 
you, than that which 
we have preached unto 
you, let him be accurfed. 
9 As wc faid b.fore, fo 
fay I now again, if any 
man preach any other 
gofpcl unto you iha-n that 
ye have received, let him 
be accurfed. 

lO For do I now per- 
fwade men, or God ? or 
do I fcek to pleafe men ? 
for if I yet pleafed men, 
I ftiould not be the fcr- 
vant of Chrift. 

J J But I certify you, bre- 
thren, that the gofpel 
which was preached of 

Cfiap. T. 


Gofpel. But if even I my felf, or an Angel from 8. 
Heaven fhould preach any thing to you for Go- 
fpel, different from the Gofpel I have preach'd 
unto you, let him be Accurfed. I fiy it again 9. 
to you, if any one, under pretence of the Gofpel, 
preach any other thing to you than u^hat you have 
received from me, let him be Accurfed ". For 10. 
can it be doubted of me, after having done and 
fufFer'd fo much for the Gofpel of Chriit, whe- 
ther I do now ' at this time of day make my 
court to Men, or feek the favour ™ of God ? If I 
had hitherto made it my Bufinefs to pleafe Men, 
I fhould not have been the Servant of Chrifl:, nor 
taken up the profelTion of the Gofpel. But I cer- i r» 
tify you, Brethren, that the Gofpel which has been 


9 ^ Accurfed. Tho' we may look upon the Repetition of the Anathema here to be for 
the adding of force to what he fays, yet we may obferve, that by joining himftif with an 
Angel in the foregoing Verfe, he does as good as tell them, that he is not guiky of what de- 
ferves ir, by skilfully infinuating to the Galatiam^ that they might as well fufpcd: an Anael 
might preach to them a Gofpel different from his, i. e. a falfe Gofpel, as that he himfclf 
fliould : and then in this Verfe lays the Anathema wholly and folely upon the Judaizin'-' 
Seducers. ° 

10 ^"'Afit HoiVy and 'in yet, cannot be underflood without a reference to fomcthin" in Sc. 
VauVi paft Life ; what that was, which he had particularly then in his Mind, v\e may fee by 
the account he gives of himfelf in what immediately follows, {vlz-') That before his Converfon 
he was employ'd by Men in their Dcfigns, and made it his bufinefs to pleafe them, as may be 
feen, Acis IX. f, a. But when God called him, he received his Commillion and Infirudions 
from him alone, and fet immediately about ic without confulting any Man whatfoevcr, prcachin<' 
that, and that only, which he had received from Chrift. So that it would be fcnfelefs Folly in 
him, and" no lefs than the forfaking his Mafter Jefus Chrift, if he fliould noiv., as was reported of 
him, mix any thing of Mens with the pure Dottrine of the Gofpel, which he had received im- 
mediately by Revelation from Jefus Chrift, to pleafe the ^eivs, afcer he had fo long preach'd 
only that ; and had, to avoid all appearance or pretence to the contrary, fo carefully fliua'd all 
communication with the Churches, of y«^ff<i ; and had not till a good while afcer, and chat very 
fparingly, converfcd with any, and thofe but a few of the Apoftles chcmfelves, fome of A^hom 
he openly reproved for their Judaizing. Thus the Narrative fubjoined to this Verfe explains the 
voiv and yet in ic, and all tends to the fame purpofe. 

"* n«j&) trandated per/wade, is Ibmetimes ufed for making application to any one to obtain 
his good Will or FriendAiip ; and hence A^s XII. io. Ttio-Avrn BaaVo;' is tranilatcd, having 
mzde Blajlus their Friend : The Senfe here is the fame which in i Thejf. II, 4. he expre/Tes in 
thefc Words, »;/ wV dv^^u-'rsati d^kjKii^i^ dhhd TCtt Gsw, net as fkajin^ Men but God, 

1. everj^ 


Chap. I. 







every where " preached by me, is not fuch as is 
pliant to human Intereft, or can be accommoda- 
ted to the pleafmg of Men. (For I neither recei- 
ved it from Man, nor was I taught it by any one 
as his Scholar) but it is the pure and unmixed im- 
mediate Revelation of Jefus Chriil to me. To 
fatisfy you of this, my Behaviour, whilfl 1 was of 
the Jewifli Religion, is fo well known, that I need 
not tell you, how exceffive violent I was in Per- 
fecuting the Church of God, and dellroyed it all 
I could ; and that being carried on by an ex- 
traordinary Zeal for the Traditions of my Fore- 
fathers, I out-ilripp'd many Students of my own 
Age and Nation, in Judai/m. But when it plea- 
fed God (who feparated ° me from my Mother's 
Womb, and by his efpecial Favour called p me 
to be a Chriftian, and a Preacher of the Gofpel) 
to reveal his Son to me, that I might preach him 
among the Gentiles^ \ thereupon applied not my 
felf to any Man '^ for advice what to do *■ : Nei- 
ther went I up to y^rufalemy to thofe who were 
Apoftlcs before me, to fee whether they approved 
my Doftrine, or to have farther Inftrudtions from 


me, is not after man. 

For I neither received j £ 
it of man, neither was I 
taught it, but by the Re- 
velation of Jefus Chrift. 

For ye have heard of 15 
my converfation in time 
paftj in the Jews religion, 
how that beyond meafure 
I perfecuted the church 
of God, and wafted it ; 

And profited in the 14 
Jews religion, above ma- 
ny my equals in mine 
own nation, being more 
exceedingly zealous of 
the iradicioos of my fa- 

But when it pleafed 1 5 
God who feparated me 
from my mother's womb, 
and called me by his grace, 

To reveal his Son in 16 
me, that I might preach 
him among the Heathen ; 
immediately I conferred 
not with flelh and blood : 

Neither went I up to 1 7 
Jerufalem, to them which 
were Apoftles before me, 
but I went into Arabia, 
and returned again ynto 

11 " To iva,yyo^i,Sriv VTT ifXiit Kvhich has been preached by me : This beino fpoken indefi- 
nircly, mult be underitood lin general every ivhere, and fo ij the Import of the foregoing 

15 " Separated. This may be underftood by ^er. I. <?. 
'P Called. The Hillory of this Call, (cc AHsW. i, &c. 

16 ■' Flefi and Blood is ufcd for Man, fee E^h. VI. 12. 

'■ For advice r This, and what he fays in the following Verfc, is to evidence to the Galai:ans 
t^^e full Aflurancehe had oF rhc Truth and Pcrfcftion of the Gofpel, which he had received from 
Chrifl by imnediatc Revelation ; and how litrle he was difpofed to have any regard to the 
,pkafing of Men in Priaching it ; that he did not fo much as communicate or advifc "with any of 
.the Ajwliles about it, to fee whether they approved of it. 

them : 



J 3 Then afcer three years 
I went up to Jcriifalem ro 
fee Peter, and abode with 
him fifceen days. 

19 But other of the apo- 
l\les faw I none, fave 
James the Lord's brother. 

20 Now the things which 
I write unto you, be- 
hold, before God, I lie not. 

i I Afterwards I came into 
the regions of Syria and 
Cilicia : 

2i And was unknown by 
face unto the Churches of 
Judea, which were in 

Z3 But they had heard 
only, That he which per- 
fccuted us in times paft, 
now preached the faith 
which once he deftroyed. 

2.4 And they glorified God 

them : But I went immediately ^ unto Arabia^ 
and from thence returned again to Damafcus. 
Then after three Years ' I went up to Jeru/aletUy 
to fee Petei'y and abode with him fifteen Days. 
But other of the Apoflles faw I none, but James, 
the Brother of our Lord. Thefe things that I write 
to you, I call God to witnefs, are all true; there 
is no Falfliood in them. Afterwards I came into 
the Regions oi Syria, and Cilicia. But with the 
Churches of Chrift ^ in Judea, I had had no 
Communication, they had not fo much as feen 
my Face ""j only they had heard that I who 
formerly perfecuted the Churches of Chrift, did 
now preach the Gofpel, which I once endea- 
voured to fupprefs and extirpate. And they 
glorified God upon my account. 

N O t E S. 

Chap. r. 




2 1. 

17 ^ Ey^e«f, immediately, tho* placed juft before s and x^Titi'S^^i/tAMJ', I conferred not, yet 
it is plain by the Senfe and Defign of St. Paul here, that it principally relates to, I tvent into 
Arabia ; his Departure into Arabia, prefently upon his Converfion, before he had confulted 
with any body, being made ufe of, to (hew that the Gofpel he had received by immediate 
Revelation from Jefus Chrift, was compleat, and fufficiently inftrufted and enabled him to 
be a Preacher and an Apoftle to the Gentiles, without borrowing any thing from any Man, 
in order thereunto, no not from any of the Apoftles, no one of whom he faw till three Years 

1 8 * Three Tears, i. e. from his Converfion. 

21 "In Chrifi, i. e. Believing in Chrift, fee Rom. XVI. 7. 

^ This which he fo particularly takes notice of, does nothing to the proving that he wa» 
a true Apoftle, but ferves very well to fhew, that in what he preached, he had no Communica-» 
tioa with thofe of his own Nation, nor took any care to pleafe the ^ii/f. 




Chap. IT. 






THen fourteen years afrer I went up again to 
yerufalem, with Barnabas^ and took 'Titus 
alfo with me. And I went up by Revelation, and 
there laid before them the Gofpel which I 
"^ preached to the Gentiles^ but privately to thofe 
who were of Note and Reputation amongft 
them, left the pains that I have already taken y, 
or fhould take in the Gofpel, fhould be in vain ^ 
But tho' I communicated the Gofpel which I 
preach'd to the Gentiles^ to the eminent Men of 


THen fourteen years 
after, I went up 
again to Jerufalem, with 
Barnabas, and took Ti- 
tus with me alfb. 

And I went up by re- 
velation, and communi- 
cated unto them that gof- 
pel which I preach a- 
mong the Gentiles, but 
privately to them which 
were of reputation, left 
by any means I ftiould 
run, or had run in vain. 

But neither Titus, who 

N O J E S, 

z ^ I communicated. The Conference he had in private with the chief of the Church of 
ferufalem, concerning the Gofpel which he preach'd among the Gentiles, feems not to have 
been barely concerning the Dodrine of their being free from the Law of Mofes : That had been 
openly and hotly difputed at Antioch, and was known to be the Bufinefs they came about to 
'/er(4fahm \ but it is probable it was to explain to them the whole Doctrine he had received by 
Revelation, by the Fulnefs and Pcrfedion whereof, (for it is faid, ver. 6. that in that Confe- 
rence they added nothing to it) and by the Miracles he had done in Confirmation of it (fee 
ver. 8.) they might fee and own what he preached to be the Truth, and him to be one of them- 
felves, both by Commiflion and Dodrine, as indeed they did. 'Auto7?, them, fignifi^es thofe ac 
^erufakm : kclt \S'ict.v J^i roh cTox-^o"/, are exegetical, and Ihevv the particular Manner and 
Perfons, and import nempe privatim eminentioribus. 'Twas enough to his pnrpofc to be owned by 
thofe of grcateft Authority, and fo we fee he was by fames, Peter and yokn, ver. 9. and there- 
fore it was fafelt and belt to give an account of the Gofpel he preach'd in private to them, and 
not publickly to the whole Church. 

y Running, St. Paul wks ior taking Pains \vix.\\& Qo^^t\y fee Co/. II. 16. A Metaphor, I fup- 
pofe, taken from the Olympick Games, to exprefs his utmoft Endeavours to prevail in propa- 
gating the Gofpel. 

^ In vain. He feems here to give two Reafons why at lafl, after 14 Years, he communi- 
cated to the Chief of the Apoftles at Jerufalem, the Gofpel that he preach'd to the GentileSy 
when, as he fliews to the Galatians, he had formerly declined all Communication with -he 
convert j^etws, i. He feems to intimate. That he did it by Revelation. t. He gives another 
Reafon, viz. That if he had not communicated, as he Hid, with the kading Men there, and 
fatisfied them of his Dodrine and Million, his Oppofcrs might unfettlc the Churches he had, 
or ftiould plant, by urging, that the Apoftles knew not what it was that he preached, nor 
had ever owned it for the Gofpel, or him for an Apoftle. Of the Rcadincfs of the Judaizing 
Seducers to take any fuch Advantage againft him, he had lately an E.\amplc in the Church of 
. CorintK^ 





Chap. If. 

was wich me, being a 
Greek, was compelled co 
be circumcifcd ; 

4 And that becaufc of 
falfe brethren unawares 
brought in, who came in 
priviiy to fpy out our li- 
berty, which \vc have in 
Chritt Jcfus, that they 
might bring us into bon- 

5 To whom we gave 
place bj'fubjeSionjnonoc 

the Church at ^erufalem^ yet neither ^ T'itus^ 
who was with me, being a Greek, was forced to 
be Circumciled. Nor ^ did I yield any thing 
one Moment by way of Subje<flion " to the Law, 
to thofe falfe Brethren, who by an unwary admit- 
tance were flily crept in to fpy out our Liberty 
from the Law, which we have under the Gofpeij 
that they might bring us into Bondage ^ to the 
Law. But 1 flood my ground againft it, that the 

N t: E s, 

5 ' Ik wctyK9^'v\ is lightly tranflated, fwas not com^elledy a plain Evidence to the Galafiatts 
that the circumcifing of the convert Gentiles was no part of the Gofpel which he laid before ihefe 
Men of Note, as what he preach'd to the Gentiles. For if it had, Titus muft have been circum- 
cifcd ; for no part of his Gofpel was blamed, or altered by them, ver. 6. Of what other ufe 
his mentioning this of T/tus here can be, but to {hew to the Galatians that what he preach'd 
contain'd nothing of circumcifing the convert Gentiles, it is hard to find. If it were to fhew 
that the other ApoflJes, and Church at yerufalem, difpenfed with Circumcifion, and other ritual 
Obfcrvances of the Mofaical Law, that was need'efs ; for that was fufficiently declared by their 
Decree, Aifs XV. which was made and communicated to the Churches before this Epiftle was 
writ, as may be feen, ASls XVI. 4. much lefs was this of Titus of any force to prove that St. 
]?aul was a true ApofHe, if that were what he was here labouring to juftify. But confide ring 
his Aim here to be' the clearing himfelf from a Report that he preach'd up Circuracifion, there 
could be nothing more to his purpofe than this Inftance of Titui, whom, uncircumcifed as 
he was, he took with him to Jerufalem ; uncircumcifed he kept with him there, and un- 
circumcifed he took back with him when he returned. This was a flrong and pertinent 
Inftance toperfuade the G4/<t^/Vtw/, that the Report of his preaching Circumcilioa was a mere 

4 '' kA', Heithtr, in the 3d Verfe, according to Propriety of Speech, ought to have a Nor to 
anfwer it, which is the «</^€, wor, here ; which fo taken, anfwers the Propriety of the Gveek^ 
and very much clears the Senfe ; i^l Tiroi mayKai^iii a /e Tf 5? ui^.v el^a.^' neither was 
Titus compelled, ror did <we yield to them a Moment. 

"^ In \szmTa.yvi, by SubjeHion. The Point thofe falfe Brethren contended for, was. That the . 
Law oiMoj'ei was to be kept, fee AHs XV. 5. St. Paul, who on other Occafions was fo com- 
plaifant, that to the ^eivs he became as a ^<?cy, to thofe under the Law as under the Law, 
(fee I Cor. IX» 19— —z 2.) yet when Subjection to the Law was claimM as due in any cafe, he 
■would not yield the leaft matter ; this I take to be his meaning of a'tTe H^at/zsK 7n -vjztota^h, for 
"whepe compliance was dclired of him upon the account of Expedience, and not of Subjeftion to 
the Law, we do not find him ftifF and inflexible, as may be feen, ASis XXL 18—- a6. which 
was after the writing of this Epiftle. 

^ Bondage, What this Bondage was, fee ABs XV. i, 5, i». 

C 2 



Chap. IT. 


Truth ' of the Gofpel might remain ^ among f°'' an hour; that the 

6. you. But as for thofe ^ who were really Men concinVwitryou.""'^ ^ 

^ of Eminency and Value, what they w^re But of thefe, who ^ 

heretofore it matters not at, all to me : God ac- f^^^^^ '° ^^ jbmewhat, 

, r^- r r TVT 1 • (whatfoever they were, 

cepts not the rerfon of any Man, but communi- ic maketh no matter to. 


5. * The Truth of the Gofpel. By it he means here the Doftrine of Freedom from the Laiv ; and 
& he calls it again, i/er. 14. and chap. III. i. and IV. 19. 

^ flight remain among you. Here he tells the reafon himfelf why he yielded not to thofe 
Judaizing falfe Brethren : It was, that the true Dodrine which he had preach'd to the Gentiles ^ 
of their Freedom from the Law, might ftand firm. A convincing Argument to the CalatianSf 
tliat ha preach'd not Circumcilion, 

4, 5. And that, to<uihom. There appears a manifeft Difficulty in thefe two Verfes, which has- 
been obftrvcd by mod Interpreters, and is by fevcral afcribed to a ReduHdancy, which feme 
place in /i, in the beginning of -ver. 4. and others to o7f m the beginning oi-uer. 5. The rela- 
tion between a'cTe, ver. i. and a'cTi, ver. 5. raethinks, puts an eafy end to the Doubt, by the 
fnewing St, Paul's Senfe to be, that he neither circumcifcd Titus, nor yielded in the leaft to the 
falfc Brethren: he having told the Galatians., that upon his laying before the Men of moU Au- 
thority in the Church at Jerujalem, the Dodrinc which he preach'd, Titus was not circumcifcd ; 
}ic, as a farther Proof of his not preaching Circumcilion, tells them how he carried it towards 
the falfc Brethren, whofe Dcfign it was to bring the convert Gentiles into StibjeHic72 to the Law. 
And, or Moreover (for fo cTi often fignifies) fays he in regard to tie falfe Brethren, &:c. Which 
■way of entrance on the matter would not admit of sVe after it to anfwcr » cTs, ver. 3. which 
was already writ ; but without o'n the Negation muft have been exprelfed by vk, as any one will 
perceive, who attentively reads the Greek Original. And thus -ol{. may be allowed for an He- 
brew Pleonafm, and the reafon of it to be the preventing the former a'cTe to fUnd alone to the 
difiurbance of the Senfe. 

6 8 He that confiders the beginning of this Vcrfe, att^o J^l -t^" J'oKivTccv, with regard to 
the Aia: J'i r-6i "i^csI/J^std^iA^Kf, in the beginning of the 4th Verfe, will eafily be induced by the 
Greek Idiom to conclude, that the Author, by thtfc Beginnings, intimates a plain Diiiindtion of' 
the Matter fcparately treated of, in what follows each of them, (^//^..) what pafled between 
the falfc Brethren and him, contained in ver. 4, and.$, and what paifed between the chief of 

the Brethren and him, contained ver. 6 10. And therefore fome (and I think with reafon) 

introduce this Verfe with thefe Words, Thus we behaved our f elves towards the falfe Brethren : 
But, &:c. 

^ ir^ j^QWvrav ziveu t/, our Tranflation renders, who feemed to he fomewhat, which how- 
ever it may anfwer the Words, yet to an Englifi 'E.zt it carries a diminifhing and ironical Senfe, 
contrary to the meaning of the Apoftle,. who fpeaks here of thofe for whom he had a real 
Eftcem, and were truly of the firll Rank ; for it is plain by what follows, that he means Peter, 
yames and yohn, Befides, 01 (f'oK^vrn being taken in a good Senfe, ver. i, and tranllated 
fhofi of Reputation, the fame Expreffion fhould have been kept to in rendring «.'er. 6. and 5, 
where the fame Term occurs again three times, and may be prefumed in the fame Senfe that ic 
was ac fiill ufed in^ ver. z^ 




me : God acccpteth no 
man's perfon) for they 
•who feemed to be fome- 
<whaty in conference ad- 
ded nothing to me. 
m Butcontrariwife,when 
chcy faw that the Gorpel 
of the uncircumcifion was 
committed unto me, as 
the Gofpel of the cir- 
cumcifion was unto 

cates* the Gofpel to whom he pleafes ', as he 
has done to me by Revelation, without their 
help 5 for in their Conference with me they ad- 
ded nothing to me, they taught me nothing new, , 
nor that Chrift had not taught me before, nor 
had they any. thing, to obie<ft againft what I 
preached to the Gentiles. But on the contrary, . 
^ yatnesy Peter and yohn, who were of Repu- 
tation, and jufily eiteem'd to be Pillars, per- 
ceiving that the Gofpel which was to be preach'd- 
to the Gentiles^ was committed to me, as that 
which was to be preach'd to the Jeivs^ was com- 

NO T E S, 

' Every body fees that there is fomething to be fupplied to make up the Sen fo ; moll Commen- 
tators that I have fccn, add thefe Words, I learned nothing. But then that enervates the 
Reafon that follows: For in Conference they added nothing to me ; giving the fame thing as a 
Reafon for it felf, and making St. Vattl talk thus, I learnt nothing of them^ for they taught me 
nothing. But it is very good reafoning, and fliited to his purpofe, that it was nothing at all to 
him, how much thofc great Men were formerly in Chriirs Favour ; this hindrcd not but thae 
God, who was no Rcfpctler of Pcrlbns, might revtal the Gofpel to him alfo, as 'twas evident 
he had done, and that in its full Perfedion. For thofe great Men, the moft eminent of the 
Apoftles, had nothing to add to it, or except againft it. This was proper to perfuade the Gai4- 
transy that he no where m his Preaching receded from that Doftrine of Freedom from the Law, 
which he had preach'd to them, and was fatisfied it was the Truth, even before he had con- 
ferred with thefe Apoftlcs. The bare fupplying of ot in the beginning of the Vcrfe, takes away 
the neceHlty of any fuch Addition. Examples of the like tlleipfes we have. Mat. XXVII. 9. 
where we read, "im vicov for ot "im ulav ; and yohn XVI. 17. 1-a 7^0"\Tc^i>, for of la, tW" 
(j.A^)n(^y- and {b here taking ^-rc tcov ^OK-ivrccVy to be for hi ^ TcSy ^oyAvruv, all the Difii- 
culty is removed ; and St. Vatd having in the foregoing Verfe ended the Narrative of his Deport- 
ment towards the falfe Brethren, he here begins an Account of what paifcd between him and the- 
chief of the Apoltlcs. 

7 ^ Peter, fames and John, who 'tis manifeft by ver. 9. are the Pet fons here fpoken of, fcera 
of all the Apolilcs to have been moft in EQeem and Favour with their Mailer during his Conver- 
fation with them on Earth. See Mayk V. 37. and IX. 2. and XIV. 35. " But yet that, fays- 
" St. Vnul. is of no moment now to me. The Gofpel which I preach, and which God, who i? 
*' no Refpefter of Perfons, has been pleafed to commie to me by immediate Revelation, ia- noc 
*' the lefs true, nor is there any reafen for me to recede from it in a Tittle ; for thefe Men of the 
firft Rank could find nothing to add, alter, or gainfay in it. This is fuitable to St. Pa:tFs De~ 
fign here, to let the Galatians ^sc that as he in his Carriage had never favour'd CircunicifTon, io 
neither had he any reafon by preaching Circumci(ion to fbrfake the Dodrlne of Liberty iiom the 
Law, which he had preached to them 33 a pare of that Cofpei which he- had received by Reve- 




Cl-.3p. II, 


g. mitted to Pefer-, (For he that had wrought 
powerfully ^ in Peter to his executing the Office 
of an Apoftle to the Jews, had alio wrought 
powerfully in me in my Application and Apoftle- 

g. fliip, to the Gentiles) \ And knowing "' the Fa- 
vour that was beftowed on me, gave me and Bar^ 
nabas the right Hand " of Fellov Ihip, that we 
fliould preach the Gofpel to the Gentiles^ and they 

10. to the Children Qiljrael. All that they propofed 
was, tLat we Hiould remember to make Colled:i- 
ons among the Gentiles, for the Poor Chnflians 
o^Judea; which was a thing that of my felf I was 

1 1, forward to do. But when Peter came lo Jlfitiocb, 
I openly oppofed ° him to his Face. For indeed 


IS) O r E S. 


(For he that wrought 8 
eftsidualiy in Peter to the 
apollleihip of the circum- • 
cilioD, the fame was migh- 
ty in me towards the Gen- 

And when James, Ce- 9 
phas and John, who feem- 
cd to be piliars, perceived 
the grace titat was given 
unto me, they ga\7e to me 
and Barnabas the right 
hands of fe]Iowfl:iip ; that 
we fhould go unto the 
heathen, and they unto 
the circumcifion. 

Only they would that lo 
we fhould remember the 
poor ; the fame which I 
alfo was forward to do. 
But when Peter was ii 

8 ' 'Epi^ynffAi, ivorkmg in, may be underflood here to fignify, both the Operation of the 
Spirit upon the Mind of St. Peter and St. Paul, in fending them, the one to the yeivs, the other 
to the Gentiles ; and alfo the Holy Ghoit btliowtd on them, whereby they were enabled to do 
Miracles for the Confirmation of their Dodrine. In neither of which St. Paul, as he fhews, wai 
inferior, and fo had as authentic a Seal of his Mifllon and Dodrine. 

9 "* KcLt ahd, co^uhtcs yv'oVTii kwwirigi in this Verfe, wkh'ij'ovr a feeing, ver. 7. and makes 
both of them to agree with the Nominative Cafe to the Verb iSuKctv gave, which is no other but 
James, Cephas, and John, and fo juilifits my transferring thofe Names to ver. 7. for the more 
cafy Conftrudion and Underhand ing of the Text, though St. Paul defers the naming of them, 
till he is, as it were againll his Will, forced to it before the end of his Difcourfe. 

" The giving the right Hand was a Symbol amongtt the ^wi, as well as other Nations, of 
Accord, and admitting Men into Fellowfhip. 

II 8 J oppofed him. From this Oppofition to St. Peter, which they fuppofe to be before 
the Council at Jerufakm, fome would have it, that this Epifile to the Galatians was writ be- 
fore that Council ; as if what was done before the Council could not be mentioned in a Let- 
ter writ after the Council. They alfo contend, that this Journey mentioned here by St. Paul, 
was not that wherein he and Barnabas went up to that Council to Jerufalem, but that men- 
tioned AEls XI. 30. but this with as little ground as the former. The firongefi Reafon they 
bring is, that, if this Journey had been to the Council, and this Letter, after that Council, 
St. Paul would not certainly have omitted to have mentioned to the Galatians that Decree. 
To wliich I anfwer, \fl. The mention of it was fupcrfluous, for they had it already, fee A^s 
XVL 4. ^Aly, The mentioning of it wcs impertinent to the defign of St. Paul\ Narrative here. 
For it is plain that his Aim in what he relates here of himfclf, and his paft Adions, is to fhew, 
that having received the Gofpel from Chrill by immediate Revelation, he had all along 
preached thar, and nothing but that, every where ; fo that he could not be fuppofed :o have 
preached CircumcifTon, or by his Carriage to have fhewn any fubjedion to the Law ; all the 
whole Narrative following being to make good what he fays, Chap. I. 11, That the Gofpel 
which he preached was noi accoramodatei to the humouring of Men ; nor did he icek to 



come to Antioch, I with- 
ftood him to the face, be- 
caufehe was to be blamed. 

I a For before that certain 
came from James, he did 
eat with the Gentiles ; 
but when they were come, 
he withdrew, and fe- 
parated himfelf, fearing 
them which were of thff 

j^ And the other Jews 
diflembled likewife with 
him ; inlbmuch that Bar- 
nabas alfo was carried 
away wiih their diflimu- 

I A But when I faw that 
they walked not up- 
rightly, according to the 
truth of the gofpel, I faid 
unto Peter before them 
all, If thou, being a Jew, 
liveft after the manner of 
Gentiles, and not as do 
the Jews, why compelleft 
thou the Gentiles to live 
as do the Jews ? 

I ^ We who are Jews by 
nature, and not finners 
of the Gentiles, 

j6 Knowing that a man 
is not juftih'ed by the 
works of the law, but by 
the faith of Jefus Chrift, 
even we have believed 



he was to be blamed. For he converfed there 
familiarly with the Gentiles, and eat with them 
till (omtjews came thither from Jafties, then he 
withdrew and feparated from the Gentiles, for 
fear of thofe who were of the Circumcifion : And 
the reft of the Jews joined alfo with him in this 
Hypocrify, infomuch that Barnabas himfelf was 
carried away with the Stream, and diifembled as 
they did. But when I faw they conformed not 
their Condud: to the Truth p of the Gofpel, 
I faid unto Peter before them all, If thou, being 
a Jew, takeft the liberty fometimes to live after 
the manner of the Gentiles, not keeping to thofe 
Rules which the Jews obferve, why doft thou 
conftrain the Gentiles to conform themfelves to 
the Rites, and manner of living of the Jews ? We 
who are by " Nature Jews, born under the In- 
ftrudion and Guidance of the Law, God's pe- 
culiar People, and not of the unclean and profli- 
gate Race of the Gentiles, abandoned to Sin and 
Death ; knowing that a Man cannot be jufti- 
iied by the Deeds of the Law, but folely by Faith 
in JefiJs Chrift ; even we have put our felves up- 
on believing on him, and embraced the profeffion 
of the Gofpel for the attainment of Juftification 


-Chap. ir. 

N O r E S. 

pleafe the yenvs (who are the Men here meant) in what he taught. Taking this to be his Aim, 
we Ihall find the whole Account he gives of himfelf, from that nth ver. o^ Chap, I. to the end 
of this 2(L to oe very clear and eafy, and very proper to invalidate the Report of his prcachin^r 
Circumcifion. ^ 

14 P 'AAA«dsi£t 78 IvAy-yzKia, The Truth of the GofpeJ, is put here for that Freedom from the 
haw of Mj)fes, which was a part of the true Doftrine of the Gofpel : For it was in nothing elfe 
but their undue and timorous obferving fome of the Mofaical Rites, that St. Paul here btaracs 
St. Peter, and the other Judaizing Converts at Antioch. In this Senfe he ufes the Word Truth, all 
along through this Epiftle, isChap.ll. ^, 14. and III. I. and V. 7. infiiiing on it, that this 
Do<^trine of Freedom from the Law, was the true Gofpel. 

1 5 '^ ^v(Tu 'I«/«t?o/, yeiis by l^ature. What the ^etvs thought of therafelves in contra- 
difiiadion to the GfB^7«j, fee Rcw. II, 17, 25, 

2 by 







by Faith in .Chrlil:, and not by the Works of the in Jcfus chrift , thst we 
17. La^y: But if we feek to be juftined in Chriil:, f^^^:)^^^^^^Y^^ 

^, ,, ,-^, ,^..,^.' fauh of Chnlt, and not 

even we our lelves alio are round unjultihed bin- by the works of the law: 
iiers \ (for-fuch are all thofe who are under the J^"" ^>' ^^^ ^^°'''^s of the 

T , „ 1 • 1 J • c T-j 'O' T /1-c law Ihall no tieili be julti- 

JLaw, which admits of, no Remillion nor Juitih- ^^.^^ ' 

cation) is Chrift therefore the Minifter of Sin? But if while we feek-i? 
Is the Difpenfation bv him a Difoenfation of Sin, ^° ^^ '^'''1,*^,^*^ ^y thrift, 
and not or Kignteoulnels r Did he come into found (inners, is chere- 
the World, tliat thofe .who believe in him fliould ^or^ chiiit ihe miniiier 
fliU remain Sinners, i.e. .under the Guilt of °^p"; :?°r'^ ^^/f • , 
their 01ns, without the benent or Juitincation r the things which i de- 

^^' By no means. And yet certain it is, if I ^ who ^^royed, i make my feif 
quitted the Law, to put my felf under the Go- ^ '"o^fthrough the law 19 
fpel, put my felf again under the Law, I make am dcaJco che law, thac 
my felf a TranfgrelTor, 1 re-afTume again the 
Guilt of all my Tranfgreffions ; which by the 
Terms of that Covenant of Works, I cannot be 

^9* juftified from. For by the ' tenor of the Law 
it felf, I by Faith in Chrifl: am difcharged \ 


17 *■ sinners. Thofe who are under the Law, having once tranfgrelTeJ, remain alwayi 
Sinners unalterably fo in the Eye of che Law ; which excludes all from JuRificacion. The 
Apottle, in this Place, argues thus ; " We ^JivSy who are by birch God's holy People, and 
" no: as che i^rofligace Gentiles, abandoa'd co all manner of Pollution and Uncleannefs, noc 
" being neverchelefs able to attain Kighceoufnefs by the D-eds of the Law, have believ'd in 
'' Chrill, chat we might be juftidei by Faith in him. Bat if even we who have betaken 
*' our felvcs to Chrilt for Jullificacion, are our felves found to be unjuftified Sinners, liable 
" Hill to Wrath, as alfo under che Law, to which we fubjed our felves ; what delive- 
" ranee have we from Sin by Chrift \ None at all : We are as much concluded under Sin 
*' and Guilt, as if we dii not believe in him. So that by joining him and the Law together 
" for Juftification, we fhuc our felves out from Juftification, which cannot be had under 
" the Law, and make Chrift the Minifter of Sin, and not of Juftification ; which God 
'' forbid." 

18 '" Whether this be a part of what St. Paul faid to Sr. Peter, or whether it be addrelTed 
to the Galatia?iSj St. Paul, by fpeaking in his own Name, plainly declares, that if he fees up 
the Law again, he mud necelfarily be an Offender ; whereby he ftrongly infinuates to the 
Galatiaru, that he was no Promoter of Circumcifion, efpecially when what he fays, Chap. V. 
z 4. is added to it. 

19 "^ By tie Tenor of the Law it felf. See Kom.Wl. ii. Cal. III. 14, 2$. &:IV. il, &'<:. 

^ Being difcharged from the Law, St. Paul expreiles by Dead to the Law ; compare Kom. VL 14. 
with VIL 4. 

2 from 



I might live unto God. 

10 I am crucified with 
ChriA : neverthelcfs I 
live ; yet not I, buc 
Chrift liveth in me : and 
the life which I now live 
in the flefh, I live by the 
faith of the Son of God, 
who loved me, and gave 
himfelf for me. 

a I I do not' fruftrate the 
grace of God : for if righ- 
teoufnefs come by the 
law, then Chrift is dead 
in vain. 


from the Law, that I might be appropriated "* 
to God, and live acceptably to him in his King- 
dom, which he has now fee up under his Son. I, 
a Member of Chrift's Body, am crucified " with 
him : but tho' I am thereby dead to the Law, I 
neverthelcfs live 3 yet not I, but Chrift liveth in 
me, /. e. the Life which I now live in the Flefh, 
is upon no other Principle, nor under any other 
Law, but that of Faith in the Son of God ^, 
who loved me, and gave himfelf for me. And 
in i'o doing I avoid fruflrating the Grace of God; 
I accept of the Grace ^ and Forgivenefs of God, 
as it is offered tiirough Faith in Chrifl in the 
Gofpel : But if I fubjecTt my felf to the Law, as 
ilill in force under the Gofpel, I do in eifedl fru- 
lirate Grace. For if Righteoufnefs be to be had 
by the Law, then Chrifl died to no purpofe, 
there was no need of it ^ 


Chap. ir. 




* Live to Ced. What St. Taul fays here, fcems to imply, that living under the Law, was to 
live not acceptably to God ; a ftrange Doftrine certainly to the yewSy and yet it was true now 
under the Gofpel : For God having put his Kingdom in this World wholly under his Son, whea 
he raifed him from the Dead, all who after that would be his People in his Kingdom, were to 
live by no other Law but the Gofpel, which was now the Law of his Kingdom. And hence we 
fee God caft off the yeivs, becaufe, flicking to their old Conftitucion, they would not have this 
Man reign over them : So that what St. Paul fays here, h in effeft this ; " By believing in 
" Chrift, I am difcharg'd from the Mofaical Law, that I may wholly conform my felf to rhe 
•' Rule of rhe Gofpel, which is now the Law, which muft be owned and obferved by all thofe 
*' who, as God's People, will live acceptably to him." This, I think, is vifibly his meaning, 
though the accufloming himfelf to Antichefcs may pofTibly be the reafon why, after having faid, 
J am dead to the LaWy he exprelTes his putting himfelf under the Gofpel, by living to God. 

zo " Crucifed ivith Chrifi : See this explain'd, Rom.Wl. ^. and VI. 2 14. 

*' i.e. The whole Management of my felf is conformable to the Dodrine of the Gofpel of 
Jaftification in Chrift alone, and not by the Deeds of the Law. This and the former Verfe feems 
to be fpoken in oppoficion to St. Peter's owning a fubjcdion to the Law of Mo/e/, by his Walking, 
mentioned ver 14. 

I T " Grace of Gcd., fee C^ap. I. 6, 7. to which this feems here oppofed. 

* iff vah : Rcai this explained in St, pauFi own Words, chap. V. 3 — 6. 




qhap. iir. 


CHAP. III. I :;. 




BY the Account St. Paul has given of himfelf in the foregoing 
Sedion, the Galatians being furni{h'd with Evidence fufficient 
to clear him in their Minds from the Report of his preaching Circum- 
ciiion, he comes now, the way being thus open'd, dired:Iy to op- 
pofc their being circumcifed, and fubje^ting themfelves to the Law. 
The firft Argument he ufes is, that they received the Holy Ghoii, 
and the Gifts of Miracles, by the Gofpel, and not by the Law. 


OYe foo\i(h Galatians, who hath eaft a Mifl: 
before your Eyes, that you fhould not keep 
to the Truth ^ of the Gofpel ; you to whom the 
Sufferings and Death of Chrift^ upon the Crofs, 
hath been by me fo lively reprefented, as if it had 
been ad:ually*done in your fight? This one thing 
I defire to know of you. Did you receive the mi- 
raculous Gifts of the Spirit, by the Works of the 
Law, or by the Gofpel preach'd to you ? Have 
you fo little Underftanding, that having begun in 
the Reception of the Spiritual Dodlrine of the 
Gofpel, you hope to be advanced to higher Degrees 


I ** obey the Truth, i. c. ftanJ faft in the Liberty of the Gofpel ; Trt4th being ufed in this 
Epifile, as we have already noted. Chap. II. 14. for the Doftr iae of being free from the L,aw ; 
which St.P<7«/ had delivered to them: The reafon whereof he gives Chap. V. 3 J-. 

*^ St. Paul mentiorw nothing to them here but Goriji Crucijiedy as kriowing, that when for- 
merly he had ^;reach'd Chrift criicifieo to them, he had fhewn them, that by Chrill's Death on 
the Crofs, Believers were fee free from the Law, and the Covenant of Works vas remov'd, to 
make way for that of Grace. This we may fiad him inculcating to his cthtr Gentile Converts. 
See Epb.'W. 15, 16. Col. \l. 14, 10. And accordingly he tells ihe Gah.tians, Chap. V. i, 4. 
that if' by Circumcilion they put themfelves under the Law, they were fallen from Grace, and 
Chrill ftiould profit chcru nothing at all: Things which they are fuppofcd to uni'.wAand at his 


OFoolifh Galatians, 
who hath bewitch- 
ed you, that you fhould 
not obey the truth, be- 
fore whofe eyes Jefus 
Chrift hath been evident- 
ly fet forth, crucified a- 
mong you ? 

This only would I 
learn of you. Received ye 
the Spirit by the wprka 
of the law, or by the 
hearing of faith? 

Are ye fb foolifli ? Ha- 

Trriting to them. 



ving begun in the fpirir, 
arc ye now made perfect 
by the flefh ? 

A Have ye fufFered fb 
many things in vain ? if 
it be yet in vain. 

\ He therefore that mini- 
flreth to you the Spirit, 
and worketh miracles a- 
mong you, doth he it by 
the works of the law, or 
by the hearing of faich \ 



of Perfe(ftion, and to be compleated, by the 
Law '^ ? Have you funered fo many things in 
vain ; if at leafl: you will render it in vain, by fal- 
ling off from the Profeffion of the pure and un- 
corrupted Doftrine of the Gofpel, and apoflati- 
zing to Judaifm ? The Gifts of the Holy Ghoft that 
have been conferred upon you, have they not been 
conferred on you as Chriftians, profefling Faith in 
Jefus Chrift, and not as Obfervers of the Law ? 
And hath not he % who hath convey'd thefe 
Gifts to you, and done Miracles amongft you, 
done it as a Preacher and Profeflbr of the Gofpel j 
the JewSj who ftick in the Law of Mofes, being 
not able by Virtue of that to do any fuch thing ? 


€hap. ni. 


I '^ It is a way of fpeaking very fimiiiar to St. Paul, in oppofing the Law to the Golpel, 
to call the Law Flep, and the Gofpel Spirit : The Keafon whereof is very plain to any" one con-. 
verfant in his Epiftles; 

S ' He, The Perfbn meant here by Imfxp^^yt^Vi he that minifireth^ and Clap. T. 6. by 
Kii\ri<Tu(i he that called, is plainly St. P4«/himfelf, though out of raodefty he declines naming 


CHAR III. 6 17, 


HI S next Argument againft Circumcifion and Subjedbion to the 
Law, is, that the Children of Abraham^ entitled to the Inhe- 
ritance and Bleffing promifed to Abraham and his Seed, are fo by 
Faith, and not by being under the Law, which brings a Curfe upoa 
thofe who are under it. 

D z 



Chap. HI. 












But to proceed. As Abraham believed in God, 
and it was accounted to him for Righteoufnefs ; fo 
know ye, that thofe who are of Faith, /. e, who 
rely upon God and his Promifes of Grace, and not 
upon their own Performance?, they are the Chil- 
dren of ^/^r^^^;« who fhall inherit. And this is 
plain in the Scripture i for it being in the Pur- 
pofe of God to juftify the Gentiles by Faith, he 
^2iVt Abraham a Fore -knowledge of the Gofpel in 
thefe Words : ^ In thee all theNatiom of the Earth 
Jhall be blejfed. So that they who are of ^ Faith are 
bleifed ^ with Abraham^ who believed. But as 
many as are of the Works of the Law, are under 
the ^ Curfe: For it is written,. ' Curfed is every one 
who remaineth not in all things which are written 
in the Book of the Law, to do them. But that no Man 
is juftiiied by the Law in the fight of God, is evi- 
dent, /or thejuji Jhall live byFaith^. But the Law 
fays not fo, the Law gives not Life to thofe who 
believe ' j but the Rule of the Law is. He that doth 
them, Jhall live in them \ Chriflhath redeemed us 
from the Curfe of the Law, being made a Curfe 
for us : For it is written, " Curfed is every one that 
hangeth on a Tree, That theBleffing ° promifed 

Even as ABraham be- ^ 
lieved God, and it was 
accounted to him for 

Know ye therefore, 7 
that they which are of 
faith, the fame are the 
children of Abraham. 

And the fcripture fore- 8 
feeing that God would 
juftify the Heathen thro' 
faith, preached before the 
gofpel unto Abraham, fay- 
ing. In thee (hall all na- 
tions be bleffed 

So then they which be 9 
of faith, are blelTed with 
faithful Abraham. 

For as many as are of 10 
the works of the law, are 
under the curfe: for it is 
written, Curfed is every 
one that continueth noc 
in all things which are 
written in the book of 
the law to do them. 

But that no man is ju- it 
ftified by the law in the 
fight of God, it is evi- 
dent : for the juft fhaH 
live by faith. 

And the law it noLofii 
faith : bu:. The man that 
doth them, ftiall live ia 


N o r E s, 

8 *■ Ce„, XII. ^ 

9, 10 s ofFattby and of the Works of the Lav;: Spoken as of two Races of Men, the one as 
the genuine Pollerity oi Abraham, Heirs of the Promife, the other not. 

^ Bleffed, and under the Curfe. Here again there is another Divifion (viz.) into the Bleffed, and 
thofe under the Curfe ; whereby is meant fuch as are in a State of Life, or Acceptance with God> 
or fuch as are expofcd to his Wrath, and to Death. See Dint, XXX. 19. 
' Written Deut. XXVII. 16. 
^ Hab. II. 4. 

12 ' Sec^ffiXIII. 39. 
»" Lev,V\lL t-y. 

13 " Deut. XXI. 23. 

14 ^ Bleffing. That Blefling, ver, 8, 9, 14. JufliScatioa, ver. ir. Righteoufnefs, ver. 11. 
Life, ijer. ir, 12, 21. Inheritance, ver. i8.- being the Children of God, ver. i6. are in cifc»ft all 
the fame on the one fide ; and the Curfe, ver. 15. the dired contrary on the other fide, is fo plain 
in St. Paul's Difcourfe here, that no body who reads it with the kaft Attention will be in any 
douj^t about it. 

X to 



to Abraham might come on the Gentiles through 
Jefus Chrifl ; that we who are Chriftians might, 
believing, receive the Spirit that was promiled p. 
Brethren, this is a known and allowed Rule in 
human Affairs, that a Promife or Compad:, tho' 
it be barely a Man's Covenant, yet if it be once 
ratified, fo it mufl fland ; no body can render it 
void, or make any Alteration in it. Now loAbra- 
}rim aad his Seed were the Promifes made. God 
doth not fay, and to Seeds % as if he fpoke of more 
Seeds than one, that were entitled to the Promife 
upon different Accounts ; but only of one fort of 
Men, who upon one fole Account were that Seed 
oi Abraham which was alone meant andconcerned 
in the Promife: fo that imto thy Seed \ defigned 
Chrift, and his myftical Body ^, /. e. thofe that 
become Members of him by Faith. This therefore 
I fay, that the Law, which was not till 430 Years 
after, cannot difannul the Covenant that was long 
before made and ratified to Chrifl by God, fo as 


P tromifed, St. fauVi Argument to convince the Galatianfy that they ought not to be 
circumcifed, or fubmit to the Law, from their having received the Spirit from him, upoa 
their having received the Gofpel which he preached to them, ver. 2, and 5. Hands thus : The 
Blefling promifed to Abraham, and to his Seed, was wholly upon the account of Faith, ver. 7. 
There were not different Seeds, who (hould inherit the Proinife, the one by the Works of the 
Law, and the other by Faith; for there was but one Seed, which was Chrill, ver. i6. and 
thofe who ihould claim in and under him by Faith. Among thofe there was no diitindtion 
of yew and Gentile. They, and they only, who believ'd, were all one and the fame true Seed 
oi Abraham, and Heirs according to the Promife, wr. 18, 20. And therefore the Promife ma<ie 
to the People of God, of giving them the Spirit under tne Gofpel, was performed only to 
thofe who believed in Chrift : A clear Evidence that ic was not by putting themlelves undar 
the Law, but by Faith in Jefus Chrift, that they were the People of God, and Heirs of the 

16 "J And to Seeds. By Seeds St. Paul here vifibly means the 01 \x, TiTiuf, thofe of Taith^ 
and the It k^ t^ycov v'01/.v, thofe of the Works of the Lav;, fpoken of above, ver. 9, to. as two 
diftinft Seeds, or Defceodants claiming froca Abr^^ham. 

"■ And to thy Seed, f.e Gen. XII. 7. Repealed again in the following Chapters, 

^ Myflical Body, fee iff. 1.7. 

1 3 Chrift hath redeemed 
us from the curfe of the 
Jaw. being made a curfc 
for US: for it is written, 
Curfed is every one that 
hant;eth on a tree : 

14 That the blerting of 
Abraham might come on 
the Gentiles through Jefus 
Chrift ; that we might re- 
ceive the promife of the 
Spirit through faith. 

15 Brethren, I fpeak after 
the manner of men ; tho' 
it be but a man's cove- 
nant, yet if it be con- 
firmed, no man difannul- 
kth or addeth thereto. 

16 Now to Abraham and 
his feed were the promifes 
made. He fai:h not, And 
to feeds, as of many ; but 
as of one. And to thy 
feed, which is Chrift. 

17 And this! fay, that the 
covenant that was con- 
firmed before of God ia 
Chriftj, the law which 






Chap, Iir. 



to Cet afide the Promife. For if the Right to the 
Inheritance be from the Works of the Law, it is 
plain that it is not founded in the Promife to A- 
braham^ as certainly it is : For the Inheritance 
was a Donation and free Gift of God, fettled on 
Abraham and his Seed by Promife. 


was four hundred and 
thirty years after, cannot 
difannul, that it fhould 
make the promife of none 



CHAP. in. 18 25. 


IN Anfwer to this Objecflion, To what then ferveth the Law ? he 
(hews that the Law was not contrary to the Promife : But fincc 
all Men were guilty of Tranfgreflion, ver, 22. the Law was added 
to {hew the Ifraelites the Fruit and inevitable Confequence of their 
Sin, and thereby the Neceflity of betaking themfelves to Chrift ; 
but as foon as Men have received Chrift, they have attained the End 
of the Law, and fo are no longer under it. This is a farther Argu- 
ment againfl Circumcifion. 


For if the inheritance 1 8 
be of the law, it is no 
more of promife : buc 
God gave it ta Abraham 
by promife. 

Wherefore then fervcth 19 
the law? It was added 
becaufe of tranfgrcfUons, 


18. If the Blefling and Inheritance be fettled on A- 

braham and Believers, as a free Gift by Promife,and 

was not to be obtained by the Deeds of the Law, 
JO. to what purpofe then was the Law ? It was added 

becaufe the Ifraelites, the Poflerity of Abraham, 

were Tranfgreflbrs ', as well as other Men, to 

fhew them their Sins, and the Puniiliment and 

Death they incurred by them, till Chrift fhould 


19 • That this is the meaning; of, hecaufe of Trarfgrejfior), the following part of this Section 
fliews, wherein St. Paul argues to this purpofe : The yews were Sinners as well as other Men, 
%ier. ir. The Law denouncing Death to all Sinners, could fave none, vti-. il. but was thereby 
uftfuJ to bring Men to Chriit, that they might be jufiificd by Faith, ver. 14. Sec Cbap. II. 1 5, '6. 



till the feed ftiould come, 
to whom the promife w as 
made ; and it was or- 
dained by angels in the 
hand cf a mediator. 

jQ Now a mediator is not 
a mediator of one, but 
God is one. 

2^ J Is thelaw then againfl: 
the promifes of God ? 
God forbid : for if there 
had been a law given 
which could have given 
life, vtrily righteoufnefs 



come, who was that Seed into whom both Je'Ws and 
Gentiles, ingrafted by believing, become the Peo- 
ple of God, and Children oiAbraham\ that Seed 
to wh ich the Promife was made. And the Law was 
ordained by Angels in the Hand of a Mediator ^, 
whereby it is manifeft, that the Law could not 
difannul the Promife ; becaufe a Mediator is a 
Mediator between two Parties concern'd, biuGod 
is but one "* of thofq concerned in the Promife. 
If then the promifed Inheritance come not to 
the Seed of Abraham by the Law, is the Law 
oppofite, by t-he Curfe it denounces againfl 
Tranfgreflbrs, to the Promifes that God niade of 
the Blefling to Abraham "^ No by no means. For if 
there had been a Law given which could have puc 


Chap, II?. 




^ Mediator^ fee Deut.V. J. Le-v, XXVl. /\6. where it is faid, the Law was made between God 
and the Children of Ifrael by tht B/tr.i^ of Mofef. 

20 '''' But God is one. To underftand this Verfe, we mufl carry in our Minds what St. 
Taul'n here doing, and that from "ver. 17. is manifelt,. that he is proving that the Law could not 
difannul the Promife ; and he does it upon this kfiown Rule, that a Covenant or Promife once 
ratified, cannot be altered or difannulied by any other, but by both the Parties concerned. 
Now, fays he, God is but one of the Parties concerned in the Promife ; the Gentiles and If' 
raelites together made up the other, ver. 14, But Mofes ac the giving of the Law was a Mediator 
only between the ifraelues and God, and therefore could not tranlaft any thing to the difan- 
nulling the Promife which Was between God and the Ifraelites and Gentiles together, becaufe 
God was but one of the Parties to that Covenant ; the other, which was the Gentiles as well as 
Ifraelites^ Mofes appeared or tranfaded not for. And fo what was done at Mount Sin.'ii, by the 
Mediation of Mofes^ could not afttCt a Covenant made between Parties, whereof one only was 
there- How nccellary it was for Sr. Vaul to add this, we fhall fee, if v/e conliJer, that with- 
out it, his Argument of 430 Years diftance would hav€ been deficient and hardly conclufive. 
For if both the Parties concerned in the Promife had tranfaaed by Mofes the Mediator (as thev 
might, if none but the Nation of the Ifraehtes- had been concerned in the Promife made by God 
10 Abraham) they might by mutual confcnt have altered or fee afide the former Promife, as 
well four hundred Years as four Days after. That which hindred it was, that aC Mofes'^ Media- 
tion at Mount Sinai, God, who was but one of the Parties to the Promife, was prefcnt ; buc 
the other Party, Abraham's Seed, confifting of Ifraelites and Gentiles together, was not there-; 
Mo/es tranfaded for the Nation of the Ifraelites alone : The other Nations were not concern'd 
in the Covenant made at Mount Sinai, as they were in the Promife made to Abraham and his 
SecJ, which therefoie could no: be difannulied without their Confent ; for that both the Promife 
to Abraham and his Seed, and the Covenant with l/rael at Mount Sitiaiy was, is in k 
feif evident* 

5 -^- 



US in a State of Life ""^ certainly Righteoufnefs 
2 2. fliould have been by Law ^. But we find the quite 
contrary by the Scripture, which makes no di- 
ftln(ftion betwixt Jeiv and Gentile in this refpedt, 
but has (liut up together all Mankind % yews -dnd 
Gentiles^ under Sin "" and Guilt, that the Blefling 
which was promiled to that which is Abrahams 
true and intended Seed by Faith ^ in Chrift, might 
be given to thofe who believe. But before Chriil 
and the Dodlrine of Juftification by Faith "" in him 
came, we Tfiy^werefliut up as a company of Pri- 
foners, together, under the Cuftody and inflexible 
Rigor of the Law,unto the coming of'theMeffiah, 
when the Dod:rine of Juftification by Faith ^ in 
24. him fliould be revealed. So that the Law by its Se- 
verity ferved as a School-mafter to bring us to 
^•S- Chrift, that we might be juftified by Faith. But 
Chrift being come, and with him the Dodtrine of 
Juftification by Faith, we are fet free from this 
Scliool-mafter J there is no longer any need of him. 



ftiould have been by the 


But the fcripturc hath i2. 
concluded all -iindcr iiii, 
that the promife by faith 
of Jefus Chriil might be 
given to them that be- 

But before faith came, 2. J 
we were kept under the 
law, fliut Up unto the 
faith which fhould after- 
wards be revealed. 

Wherefore the law 14 
■was our fchool-mafter to 
bring us unto Chrift, that 
wc might be juftified by 

But after that faich is ^5 
come, we are no longer 
under a fchool-mafter. 


2 I ^ ^uoTToiTis-Aij Put into a State of Life. The Greek Word figniHcs to make alive. St. faul 
conliders all Men here as in a mortal State; and to be put out of that mortal State into a State of 
Life, he calls being made aliue. This he fays the Law could not do, becaufe it could not confer 

^ c//. i/'ofJL^, by Laiv, i.e. by Works or Obedience to that Law, which tended towards Righ- 
teoufnefs as well as the Promife, but was not able to reach or confer it ; fee Rom. VIIL 3. i.e. 
Frail Men were not able to attain Rightcoufntfs by any exaft Conformity of their Actions to the 
I,aw ot Righteoufnefs. 

ii ^ Td 'TTcivTo., all, is ufed here for aU Mev. The Apofile, Rem. IN. p, and 19. cxpreifes 
the lame thing by 'ttu.vtcli;^ all Men ; and '^reii iV^a uoi. all the World. But fpeaking in the 
Text here of the ^eus in paiticular, he fays, We ; meaning thofe of his own Nation, as is evi- 
dent from ver. ii^, 25. 

* Vnder Sin, i. c. rank them ail together, as one guilty Race of Sinners. See this proved 
Rom. III. 9 I. 1 8, ^'c. To the fame purpofe of putting both ^cnvs and Gentiles into one State, 
wC. P^«/ ufcs <xvv<iK\ii<ri'7rd.vTe!.i., hath p^ut them up aU together, Rom. XL zi. 

'' The thing promifed in this Chapter, fometimes called D.'cjflngj ver. 9, 14. fometimes Inhe- 
ritance, vcr. I'S. fonied.iies y;//?/y?l-.T//o», vcr. 11,2.4. fometimes Righteoufnefs ^ vor. ii, and 
icir.etimes L?/e, vcr. 11, zi. 

"" z^ By taiib, fee -ver. 14. 

** yuJ}'^rat:oH by T-aith^ fee vcr, Z4. 



J, Chap. iir. 

SECT. vr. -^ 

CHAP. III. a6 39; 


AS a farther Argument to difTuade them from Circumcifion, he 
tells the Galatians, that by Faith in Chrift, all, whether jews 
or Gentiles, are made the Children of God, and fo they flood in no 
need of Circumcifion. 


5 For ye are all the chil- Por ye are * all the Children of God by Faith 26. 

chTiftjefus.'*^^ ^'"^'" in Chrifl Jefus. For as many of you as have 27. 

For as many of you as been baptized into Chrifl, have put on Chrifl ^ 

have been baptized into fhere is no Diflin<aion of Jew or Gentile-, of 28. 

i8^ Thcre^^s 'neither Jew Bond or Free J of Male or Female. For ye are 29. 

nor Greek, there is nei- all One Body, making Up One Perfon in Chrifl 

ther bond nor free, there jg^^g . p^^^ -f ^^^ ^jj ^^^ -^^ q]^^'^^ jgf^jS s ye 
IS neither male nor le--' cy ^ r /tt j jtt' 

maiei for ye are all one are the true ones, oeed 01 Abrabam^ and rleirs 
in Chrift Jefus. according to the Pfomife. 

jp And if ye be Chrill s. 


then are ye Abraham's 
feed, and heirs according 
to the promifc. 


26 ' Allf i. e. both ^ivi and Gentiles. 

X-] ^ Put on Chrift. This, which, at firft Sight, may feem a very bold Metaphor, if we con- 
fider what St. Paul has faid, v. i6. and t6. is admirably adapted to exprefs his Thoughts in few 
Words, and has a great Grace in it. He fays, -u. i6. that the Seed to which the Proniife was 
made, <was but ove^ md that one ivas Chrift. And v.z6, he declares, that hy Faith in Chrift 
they all become the Sons oj God. To lead them into an eafy Conception how this is done, he here 
tells them, that by taking on them the Profeflion of the Gofpel, they have ^ as it were, futon 
Chrift ; fo that to God, now looking on them, there appears nothing but Chrift. They are, 
as it were, cover'd all over with him, as a Man is with the Clothes he hath put on. And 
hence he fays, in the next Verfe, that they are all one in Chrift ye fus^ as if there were but chat 
one Perfon. 

29 5 The Clermont Copy reads « 5 CyLUi Hi sre l» Xe/r« Iho-«* And if ye are one in Chrift 
yefusy more fuitable, as it feems, to the Apoftle's Argument. For <v. i8. he fays, T^ey are all 
one in Chrift yefus , from whence the Inference in the following Words of the Clermont Copy b 
natural : And if p be one in Chrift ^e/us, then are ye AbraharaV Seed^ and Heirs according to Pro-- 


Chap. IV. 


S E C T. vir. 


C O N T E N t S. 

IN the firft Part of this Sedion, he farther fliews, that the Law was 
not againfl thePromife, in that the Child is not difinherited by be- 
ing under Tutors. But the chief Delign of this Section is to {lie w, 
that though both Jews and GefJtiles were intended to be the Chil- 
dren of God, and Heirs of the Promife by Faith in Chrift, yet they 
both of them were left in Bondage, the Jews to the Law, u 3. and 
ihe Ge?itiles to falfe Gods, -u. 8. till Chrift, in due Time, came to 
redeem them both ; and therefore it was Folly in the Galatia?is, beings 
redeem'd from one Bondage, to go backwards, and put themfelves 
again in a State of Bondage, though under a new Mailer. 




Now I fay that the Heir, as long as- he is a 
Child, differ^th nothing from a Bond- 
man ^ tho' he be Lord of all; but is under Tutors 
and Guardians, until the Time prefix'd by his 
Father. So we ' Jews, whilft we were Children, 
were in Bondage under the Law ^. But when the 
Time appointed for the Coming of the Meffias was 
accompliflied, God fent forth his Son made of a 



Now I fay, that the 
heir as Jong as he 
is a child J diffcreth no- 
thing from a fervant, tho* 
he be lord of all ; 

But is under tutors and 
governors, until the time 
appointed of the Father. 

Even fo we, when we 
were children, were in 
bondage under the ele- 
ments of the world : 

But when the fuinefs 

I ^ Bctidmart^ fo K\©- fignifies ; and unkfs it be fo tranflatcd, -:;. i, 7, 8. Bondage, v: 5, 7. 
will fcarce be underftood by an £;;^/{^ Reader ; but St. VauW Senfe will be loft to one, who by 
Servant.^ underfiandsnot one in a State o{ Bondage. 

3 ' We. 'Tis plain St. Vaul fpcaks here in the Name of the yews^ f-r Jewifli Church, which 
though God's peculiar People, yet was -to pafs its Nonage (fo St. Paul calls it) under the Re- 
llraint and Tutcrage of the Law, and not to receive the Polfcflion of the proinifed Inheritance 
till Chrift came. 

■^ TheLa'ii3\\Q calls here ro/;yH6£ to ;c:<r//'=^, T-kntents, or Rudiments of the iVorld; beeaufe 
the Obfervances and Difcipline olf the Law, which had Rcftraint and Bondage enough in it, led 
them not beyond the Things of this World, into the PoffelTion or Tafte of their fpiritual and 
heavenly Inheritance, 




of the Time was come, 
God feat forth his Son 
made of a woman, made 
under the law, 

5 To redeem them that 
■were under the law, that 
we might receive the a- 
doption of fbns. 

6 And becaufe ye are 
Tons, God hath fenc forth 
the Spirit of his Son into 
your hearts, crying, Ab- 
ba, Father. 

7 Wherefore thou art no 
more a fervant, but a 
fon ; and if a fbn, then 
an heir of God through 

3 Howbeit, then when 
ye knew not God, ye did 
fervice unto them, which 
by nature are no gods. 

9 But now after that ye 
have known God, or ra- 


Woman, and fubjefled to the Lawj That he 
might redeem thole who were under the Law, and 
fet them free from it, that we who believe might 
be put out of the State of Bondmen into that of 
Sons. Into which State of Sons, it is evident 
that yonGalatiafiSy who were heretofore G^/z///^^, 
are puts for as much as God hath fent forth his 
Spirit ' into your Hearts, which enables you to 
cry Abba^ Father ^ fo that thou art no longer a 
Bondman but a Son: And if a Son, then an Heir 
"* of God, or of the Promife of God through 
Chrift. But then, i.e. before ye were made the 
Sons of God by Faith in Chrift, now under the 
Gofpel, ye, not knowing God, were in Bondage 
to thofe who were in Truth no Gods. But now 
that ye know God, yea rather, that ye are 
known " and taken into favour by him, how 

N o t: E ^. 


Chap IV. 

6 ' The fame Argument of proving their Sonftiip from their having the Spirity St. Paul u(ss to 

the RomanSy Rom. VIII. i6. And he that will read z Cor. IV. i 7 V. 6. and Eph.l. 1 1 14. 

will find, that the Spirit is look'd on as the Seal and Aflurance of the Inheritance of Life to 
thofe who have received the Adoption of SorSy as St. Paul fpeaks here, v. 5. The Force of the 
Argument fecms to lie in this, that as he that has the Spirit of a Man in him, has an Evidence thac 
he is the Son of a Man, fo he that hath the Spirit of God, has thereby an Alfurance that he is 
the Son of God. Conformable hereunto, the Opinion of the y^Wi was, that the Spirit of God 
was given to none but themfclves, they alone being the People, or Children of God ; for God 
calls the People of 7/V^e/ his Son, Exod. IV. ai, zj. And hence we fee, that when, to the 
Aftonifhment of the ye<wSy the Spirit was given to the GentileSy the ^eivs no longer doubted chat 

the Inheritance of eternal Life was alfb conferred on the Gentiki. Compare Aks X. 44 48. 

w'MhABsW. 15 18. • _ 

7 ■" St. Paul, from th& Galatians having received the Spirit, (as appears, Ch III. i.) argues, 
that- they are the Sons of Cod without the Law, and confequently Heirs of the Promife wichouc 
the Law : For, fays he, v. r 6. the yews themfelves were fain to be redcem'd from the Bon- 
dage of the Law by Jefus Chrift, that as Sons they might attain to the Inheritance. But you 
Calatians, fays he, have, by the Spirit that is given you by the Miniftry of the Gofpel, an Evi- 
dence that God is your Father ; and, being Sons, are free from the Bondage of the Law, and 
Heirs without it. The fame fort of reafoning St. P<?«/ ufes to the ilow<T»/, Ch. VIII. 14 17. 

9 " Kno<ivn. It has been before obferved how apt St. Paul is to repeat his Words, thouoh 
fomething varied in their Signification. We have here another Inftance of it ; having faid. Ye 
have known God, he fubjoins, or rather are knoavn of hiniy in the Hebreiv Latitude of the Word 
known, in which Language it fometimes lignifies knoiuing with Choice aad Approbation. Sec 
AmoslW. i. 1 Cor. VIII. 3. 

E 2 can 



Chap. IV. 


ther are known of God, 
how turn ye again to the 
weak and beggarly ele- 
ments, whereunto ye de- 
fire again to be in bon- 
dage ? 

Ye obferve days, and lo 
months, and times, and 

I am afraid of you, left it 
I have beftowed upon you 
labour in vain. 

can it be that you, who have been put out of a 
State of Bondage into theFreedom of Sons, fhould 
go backwards, and be willing to put your felves 
under the ° weak and beggarly Elements ^ of the 

30. World, into a. State of Bondage again? Ye ob- 
ferve Days, and Months, and Times, and Years, 
in Compliance with the Mofaical Inflitution. 

31, I begin to be afraid of you, and to be in doubt, 
whether all the Pains I have taken about you, to 
fet you at Liberty in the Freedom of the Gofpel, 
will not prove loft Labour. 


** The Law is here called vjeaky becaufe it was not able to deliver a Man from Bondage and 

Death, into the glorious Liberty of the Sons of God, Rom. Vlll. i 5. And it is called ^f^- 

garh, becaufe it kept Men in the poor Eftate of Pupils, from the full Pofftfllon and Enjoyment of 
the Inheritance, v. 1 — 3. 

P The Apoftle makes it Matter of Aftonifbment, how they, who had been in Bondage to falfe 
Gods, having been once fet free, could endure the Thoughts of parting with their Liberty, and 
of returning into any fort of Bondage again, even under the mean and beggarly Rudiments of the. 
Mofaical InlUtution, which was not able to make them Sons, and inftal them in the Inheritance. 
For St. Paul, v. 7. exprefiy oppofes Bondage to Sonftiip ; fo chat all who are not in the State of 
Sons, are in the State of Bondage. HctA/c, again, cannot here refer to g-oiy^iHu, Elements,, 
which the Galatians had never been under hitherto ; but to Bondage; which he tells them, v, 8. 
they had been in to falfe Gods. 


CHAP. IV. I a 10. 


HE prefTes them with the Remembrance of the great Kindneii 
they had for him when he was amongft them ; and afTures 
them, that they have no reafon to be alienated from him, though 
that be it which the Judaizing Seducers aim at. 




Chap. IV. 

11 Brethren, I befeech 
you, be as I am; for I 
am as ye are : ye have 
not injured me at all. 

IJ Ye know how, through 
infirmity of the flefh, I 
preached the Gofpvl unto 
you at the firlh 

14 And my temptation, 
which was in my flefh, 
ye defpifed not, nor re- 
jeded i but received me 
as an angel of God, even 
as Chrift Jefuj. 

15 Where is then the blef- 
fednefs you fpakeof ? for 
I bear you record, that if 
it had been poflible, ye 
would have plucked out 
your own eyes, and have 
given chem to me. 

16 Am I therefore become 
your enemy, becaufe I 
tell you the truth? 

17 They zealoufly afted 
you, but not well ; yea, 
they would exclude us, 
that you might affeft them. 

1 8 But it is good to be zea- 
loufiy affedted always in 
a good thing, and not 
only when I am prefent 
with you. 

I befeech you, Brethren, let you and I be as 12. 
if we were all one. Think your felves to be 
very me ; as I in my own Mind put no Difference 
at all between you and my felf j you have done 
me no manner of Injury : On the contrary, ye 13. 
know, that through Infirmity of the Flefli, 1 here- 
tofore preach'd the Gofpel to you, and yet ye 14. 
defpifed me not for the Trial I underwent in the 
Fiefh % you treated me not with Contempt and 
Scorn; but you received me as an Angel of God, 
yea, as Jefus Chrift himfelf. What Benedi- 15. 
(flions ■■ did you then pour out upon me ? For I 
bear you Witnefs, had it been pradicable, you 
would have pulled out your very Eyes, and gi- 
ven them me. But is it fo that I am become 16. 
your Enemy '"in continuing to tell you iheTruth.? 
They who would make you of that Mind, fliew 17. 
a Warmth of Affediontoyou : But it is not well; 
for their Bufmefs is to exclude me, that they may 
get into your Affe(flion. It is good to be well 18. 
and warmly affeded towards a good Man ^ at all 
times, and not barely when I am prefent with you. 


N O "T E S. 

14 '^ What x\i\%Weakne[s and Trial in tie Flefi was, fince it has not pleafed the Apoftle to 
mention it, is impofTible for us to know : But may be remarked here as an Inftance, once for all, 
of that unavci.iable Obfciuity of fome Paflages in epiftolary Writings, without any Fault in the 
Author. For fome Things, neccjTary to the underftanding of what is writ, are ufually, of courfe, 
and juhly omitted, becaufe already known to him the Letter is writ to ; and it would be fome- 
limes ungraceful, oftentimes fuperfluous, particularly to mention them. 

i 5 "■ The Context makes this Senfc of the Words ^0 necellary and vifible, that 'tis to be won^ 
dcr'd how any one could over-look it. 

16 ^ToM' Enemy. See Ch. I. 6. 

i8 f That by x-dihr}, he here means a Perfon, and himfelf, the Scope of the Context evinces. 
In the lix preceding Rr/^j-, he fpeaks only of himfelf, and the Change of their Affeclion to him 
fince he left them. There is no other Thing mentioned, as peculiarly defcrving their Aftcdion, 
to which the Rule given in this Verfe could refer. He had faid, v. 17. ^nK-^atv, they affeci 
you; and ivA aurii (^hAbts, that you might affeB them , this is only' of Perfons, and therefore 
^nAscd-a^ iv x*Aw, which immediately follows, iiuy belt be underflood of a Perfon, clfc the fol- 
k)wing Part of the rer/e, though joined by the Copalativc /jj, ^ind^ will make bi;t a dif jointed 
2 Scufe 


Chap. IV. 



My little children, ofig 
whom I travail in birth 
again until Chrift be 
formed in you : 

I defire to be prefentzo 
with you now, and to 
change my voice, for I 
Aand in doubt of you. 

My little Children, for whom I have again the 
Pains of a Woman in Child-birth till Chrift be 
formed in you ", /. e. till the true Doftrine of 
Chriftianity be fettled in your Minds. But I 
would willingly be this very Moment with you, 
and change "^ my Difcourfe as 1 iliould find Oc- 
cafion. For I am at a Stand about you, and 
knov/ not what to think of you. 

N O t E S. 

Senfe with the preceding. But there can be nothing plainer, nor more coherent than this, 
which ftems to be Sc.P««/'s Senfe here. Ton tuere lety affeBionate to me nvlen I ivas ivith 
yon. You are fince ejlranged from me ; it is the Artijie of the Seducers that have cooled you to 
we. But if I am the good Man you took me to be, you ivill do iiell to contitute the Warmth of your 
AffeBion to me, tuhen I am abfent ; and not to be ivell affeBed toavards me, or.Jy ivhen J am frefent 
among you. Though this be his Meaning, yet the Way he has taken to exprefs it, is much 
more elegant, modefl and graceful. Let any one read the Original, and fee whether it be not fo. 

19 " if this J'^jye be taken for an entire Sentence by it felf, it will be a Parenthefis, and 
that not the mod neceflary or congruous that is to be found in St. Pauls Epiftles^ or 3, but, muft 
be left out, as we fee it is in our Tranflation. But if TZKUct (xS, my little Children^ be join'd on 
by Appofition to J/y.^tf, you, the laft Word of the foregoing Verfe, and fo the two Vcrfes 18 and 
1 9. be read as one Sentence, the 10th ver. with 5, but, in it, follows very naturally. But as we 
now read in our Englifi Bible, jj, but, is forced to be left our, and the ioth ver. ftands alone by 

-it felf, without any Conneftion with what goes before, or follows. 

20 ^'Akka^cu occviU'y to change the Voice, feems to fignify the fpeaking higher or lower; 
changing the Tone of the Voice fuitably to the Matter one delivers, v. g. whether it be 
Advice, or Commendation, or Reproof. Qr-c. for each of thefe have their dillind Voices. 
St. P/z«/ wifties himfelf with them, that he might accommodate himfelf to their prefent G>n- 
dicion and Circumltanccs, which he confefles himfelf to be ignorant of, and in doubt about. 


CHAP. IV. a I. V. I. 


HE exhorts them to ftand faft in the Liberty with which Chrift 
hath made them free, fliewing thofe who are fo zealous for 
the Law, that if they mind what they read in the Law, they will 

2 there 



there find, that the Children of the Promife, or of the Neiij Jerufa- Chap. iv. 
lem^ were to be free; but the Children after the Flefh, of the earth- ^*^^^^*^^ 
ly Jeriifalem, were to be in Bondage^ and to be cafl out, and not to 
have the Inheritance. 









Tell me, ye that define 
CO be under the law, do 
ye not hear the law ? 

For it is written, that 
Abraham had two Sons ; 
the one by a bond-maid, 
the other by a free-wo- 

But he who was of 
the bond- woman , was 
born afcer the flefh ; but 
he of the free- worn an 
was by promife. 

Which things are an 
allegory; for thcfe are 
the two covenants ; the 
one from the mount bi- 
nai, whirh gcnjreth to 
bondage, which is Agar. 

For this Agar is mount 
Sinai in Arabia, and 
anfwereth to Jerufalem 
which now if, and is in 
bondage with htr chil- 

But Jerufalem, which 
is above, is free, which 
is the mother of us all. 

For it is written, Re- 
joice thou barren that 
beareft not ; break forth 
and cry thou that tra- 
vailed not : for the de- 
folate hath many more 
children than file which 
hath an husband. 

Now we brethren, as 
Ifaac was, are the chil- 
dren of promife. 


Tell me, you that would fo fain be under the 
Law, do you not acquaint your felves with what 
is in the Law, either by reading it % or having 
it read in your Aflemblies ? For it is there writ- 
ten \ Abraham had two Sons ; one by a Bond- 
Maid, the other by a Free- Woman : but he that 
was of the Bond- Woman, was born accordin^r 
to theFlellv in the ordinary Courfe of Nature^j 
but he that was of the Free- Woman, Abraham 
had, by Virtue of the Promife, after he and his 
Wife were part the Hopes of another Child. 
Thefe Things have an allegorical Meaning; for 
the two Women are the two Covenants ; the one 
of them delivered from Mount .S/W/, and is re- 
prefented by^^^r, who produces her liTue into 
Bondage ; (For Agar is Mount Sinai in Arabia) 
and anfwers to Jerufalem that now is, and is in 
Bondage with her Childran. But the heavenly 
Jerufalem, which is above, and anfwers to Sarah, 
the Mother of the promifed Seed, is free, the 
Mother of us all, both Jews and Gentiles, who 
believe. For it was of her that it is written % 
Rejoice thou barren that barefl not; break ouf'tnto 
loud Acclamations of Joy, thou that haft not the 
Tra'-oails of Child-birth-, for more are the Children 
of the deflate than of her that hath an Husband. 
And 'tis we, my Brethren, who, as Ifaac v/as, 


21 "The Vulgar has, after feme Cveik Manisfcripts, KeaA. 

22 y Written there, (viz.) Qen. XVI. iS. rnd XXL i. The Term i/rw, in the fcre^biii^- 
Fer/f, comprehends the five Books of jv/o/e/, *; ^ 







27 * Wrmen, (viz) ifai, LIV. i. 





CKsp. IV. 

are the Children of Promife. But as then 7/7;- 
maely who was born in the ordinary Courfe of 
Nature •'', perfecuted IJaac, who was born by an 
extraordinary Power from Heaven, working mi- 
raculoufly; fo- is it now. But what faith the 
Scripture ^ ? Caft out the Bond-Woman and her 
Son 5 Jor the Son of the Bond-Woman fi all not fi are 
the Inheritance 'with the Son of the Free-Woman. 
So then, Brethren, we, who believe in Chrift, 
are not the Children of the Bond- Woman, but 
of the Free \ Stand faft therefore in the Liber- 
"Yer. I. ty wherewith Chrift hath made you free, and do 
not put on again a Yoke of Bondage, by putting 
your felves under the Law. 

N O "f E S. 




But as then he that was ^9 
born after the fieih, per- 
ftcutcd him that was bora 
after the Spirit, even fo 
it is now. 

NeverthelcfsjWhat faith 50 
the fcripcure ? Caft out 
the bond- woman and her 
fbn , for the fon of the 
bond- worn an fhall not be 
heir with the Ion of the 

So then, brethren, we 5^ 
are not children of the 
bond- woman, but of the 

Stand faft therefore in 1 
the liberty wherewith 
Chrift hath made us free, 
and be not intangled a- 
gain with the yoke of 

29 ^ 'O xj* od^KdL y<iV\'A^ii Born after the FJefb ; and rov x^ TViviJt.cty Bom after the Spirit. 
Thefe ExprefTions have, in their Original Brevity, with regard to the whole View whereia 
St. Paul ufes them, an admirable Beauty and Force, which cannot be retained in a Paraphrafe. 

30 ^ Scripture^ (viz.) Gen. XX. 10. 

31'^ The Apoftle, by this allegorical Hiftory, Ihews the GaJatianSj that they who are Sons 'of 
'jj*rtr, i. e. under the Law given at Mount Sinaiy are in Bondage, and intended to be caft out, 
the Inheritance being defigned for thofe only, who are the free born Sons of God under the fpi- 
litual Covenant of the Gofpel. And thereupon he exhorts them, in the following Words, to 
pieferve therafelves in that State of Freedoui. 

O Jtli C4 1 • JL« 

CHAP. V. a 15. 


IT is evident, from Fer. ii. that, the better to prevail with the 
Galatians to be circumcifed, it had been reported, that St. Paul 
himfelf preached up Circumcifion. St, Paul, without taking exprefs 



Notice of this Calumny, ChA. 6. and II. 21. gives an Account of Chap, v, 
his paft Life in a large Train of Particulars, which all concur to ^^^V>^, 
make fuch a Character of him, as renders it very incredible, that he 
fhould ever declare for the Circumcifion of the Gentile Converts, or 
for their Submiirion to the Law. Having thus prepared the Minds 
of the Galatians, to give him a fair Hearing, as a fair Man, ^yiA^a^tx? 
iv >^A^, he goes on to argue againft their fubjediing themfelves to 
the Law. And having eflabliflied their Freedom from the Law bv 
many flrong Arguments, he comes here at lafl openly to take Notice 
of the Report which had been raifed of hiai, that he preach'd Cir- 
cumcifion, and diredly confutes it. ' xpoO Mh lahnij v;oii ?fifi3 .yei 

1. By pofitively denouncing to them nimfelf, very folemnly, that 
they who fuffer'd themfelves to be circumcifed, put themfelves into 
a perfed: legal State, out of the Covenant of Grace, and could re- 
ceive no Benefit by Jefus Chrift, ver. 2—4. 

2. By afTuring them, that he, andithofe that followed him, expected 
Juftification only by Faith, v. 5 — 6. ' • 

3. By telling them, that he had put them in the right Way, and 
that this new JPerfwafion came not from him that converted them to 
Chriftianity, v. 7 — 8. 

4. By infinuating to them, that they fhould agree to pafs Judg- h 
ment on him that troubled them with this Dodlrine, v. 9 — 10. 

5. By his being perfecuted, for oppofing the Circumcifion of the 
Chriflians. For this was the great Offence which fluck with the 
Jews, even after their Coriverfion, v. i i. 

6. By wifhing thofe cut off that trouble, them with this Docflrine, 
1;. 12. ,.7 ;,o . . ^ , r. :.,-:, 

This will, I doubt not, by whoever vv?eighs it, be found a very 
fkilful Management of the argumentative Part of this Epiflle, which 
ends here : For though he begins with fapping the Foundation, on 
which the Judaizing Seducers feem'd to have laid their main 
Strefs, (viz.J the Report of his preaching Circumcifion, yet he re- 
ferves the dire<ft and open Confutation of it to the End, and fo leaves 
it with them, that it may have the more forcible and lafling Impref- 
iion on their Minds. 



Chap. V. 






TAKE Notice that I Paul \^ who am falfly 
reported to preach up Circumcifion in o- 
iher Places, fay unto you, that if you are cir- 
cumcifed, Chrift fhall be of no Advantage to you. 
For I repeat here again what I have always preach'd, 
and folemnly teftify to every one who yields to 
be circumcifed, in Compliance with thofe who 
fay, that now under the Gofpel he cannot be fa- 
ved without it % that he is under an Obligation 
to the whole Law, and bound to obferve and 
perform every Tittle of it. Chrift is of no Ufe 
to you, who feek Juftification by the Law; Who- 
foever do fo, be ye what you will, ye are fallen 
from the Covenant of Grace. But I *, and thofe 
who with me are true Chriftians, we who follow 
the Truth of the Gofpel ^ and the Do(ftrine of 
the Spirit of God, have no other Hope of Jufti- 
fication but by Faith in Chrift. For in the State 
of the Gofpel under Jefus the Meffiah, 'tis nei- 
ther Circumcifion nor Uncircumcifion that is 
of any Moment ; all that is available, is Faith 
alone, working by Love ^ When you firft en- 
tered into the ProfefTion of the Gofpel, you were 
in a good Way, and went on well : who has 


* VlS^a^syaUew^O-i Behold I Paul, I the fame P<r»/, who am reported to preach Crrcum- 
^jlfion, fjietgTv^ficu rrdhtv 'rrdWTi i*V^e«Viy, v. ?. JVitne/s agaiv, continue my Teflimony, ia e<u8' 
ry Ma»y to you and ajl Men. This, fo cmphatical way of fpeaking, noay very well be underftood 
tbhave Regard to what he takes Notice, v. ii. to be caft upon him, (viz.) hh preaching Cu- 
cumcifion, and is a very figniiicant Vindication of himfel^. 

5 ^ Cannot be faved. This w?s the Ground upon which the 5«wtv and yuJaizixg Chriftians 
urged Circumcifion. Sec ^4^/ XV. i. 

5 ^ We. 'Tis evident, from the Context, that St. Paul here mearls himfelf ; But We is a more 
graceful way of fpeaking than /, though he be vindicating himfelf alone from the Imputation of 
fettingup Circumcifion. 

s spirit. The Law and the Gofpel oppofcd under the Titles of F/^^ and J^fr/r/'/, we may fee, 
Ch.Wl. 3. of this EpifUe. The fame Oppofition it ftands in here to //&* L^w, in the foregoing 
Terfey points out t e fame Signification. 

6 ^ which ivorketb by Love. This is added, to exprefs the Animoficies which were amongft 
iheiQj probably raifed by this Qucflion about Circumcifion, See v, 15 jj>. 

^^ : put 


Behold, I Paul fay un- 
to you, that if ye be cir- 
cumcifed, Chrilt fhall pro- 
fit you nothing. 

For I teftify again to 
every man that is cir- 
cumcifed, that he is a 
debtor to do the whole 

Chrift is become of no 
efftft unto you, whofo- 
ever of you are jultified 
by the law; ye are fallen 
from grace. 

For we, through the 
Spirit, wait for the hope 
of righteoufnefs by faith. 

For in Jefus Chrift, 
iieicher circumcifion a- 
vaileth any thing, nor 
uncircumcifion, but faith 
which worketh by love. 

Ye did run well, who 
did hinder you, thac 



ye fllould not obey the 
truth I 

8 This perAvaflon co- 
meth not of him that 
calleth you. 

9 A little leaven leaven- 
eth the whole iump. 

jQ I hare confidence in 
you through theLorJ, 
that you will be none 
otherwife minded ; but 
he ihat trcublcth you, 
fhall bear his •udgment, 
whofocver he be. 

I J And I, brethren, if I 
yet preach circumcifion, 
why do I yet fufter per- 
fecution ^ then is the 

put a Sto-p to you, and hindered you, that you 
keep no lohger to the Truth of the Chriftian 
Dodrine ? This Perfwafion, that it is necelTfiry 
for you to be circumcifed, cometh not from 
him ', by whofe preaching you were called to 
the Profeflion of the Gofpel. Remember that a 
little Leaven leaveneth the whole Lump j the 
Influence of one Man ^ entertain'd among you, 
may miflead you all. I have Confidence in 
you, that, by the Help of the Lord, you will be 
all of this fame Mind ^ with me; and confequent- 
ly he that troubles you fhall fall under the Cen- 
fure he deferves for it ", whoever he be. But as 
for me. Brethren, if I at lafl am become a Preacher 
of Circumcifion, why am I yet perfecuted " ? If 
it be fo that the Gentile Converts are to be cir- 
cumcifed, and fo the Law, the great 


8 ' This Exprcfllon, of }Am thai called, or calleth yoUy he ufed before, Ch. I. 6. and in both 
^Places means himfelfi and here declares, that this 'pr&to-fxovri (whether taken for Perfwajion or 
for SubjeBion, as it may be in St, Pauls Stile, confidering rrei^i^y in the End of the foregoing 
Verje) came not fi'cm him; for he called them to Liberty from the Law, and not Subjedion to 
it. See V. i 3. Tou nvere going on ivell in the Liberty of the GofpeJ^ ivho jlopp'd you ? I, you may be 
fttre, had no Hand in tt ; /, you knoiv, called you to Liberty , and not to SuhjeHion to the Law ; and 
therefore y OH can by no means fuppofe that I fiould preach up Circumcifion. Thus St. Paul argues here. 

9 ^ By this and the next Verfe, it looks as if all this Diforder arofc from one Man. 

I o ' Will not be othernvife minded.^ will beware of this Leaven, fo as not to be put into a Fer- 
ment, nor lliaken in your Liberty, which you ought to ftand faft in ; and to fecure it, I doubt not, 
(fuch Confidence I have in you) will, with one Accord, caii out him that troubles yen. For, 
as for me, you may be fure I am not for Circumcilicn, in that the jfczvs continue to perfecute me. 
This is evidently his Meaning, though not Ipoken out, but managed warily, with a VQry skilful 
and moving Infinuation : For, as he fays himfelf, Ch, IV. 10. he knew not at that Diftance 
what Temper they were in. 

'" Kety.rf, Judgment., feems here to mean Expuliion by a Church-cenfure : See*. 12.. We 
{hall be the more inclined to this, if we confider, that the Apofile ufes fhe fame Argument of (t 
little Leaven leaveneth the vjhole Lumpy i Cor. V. 6. where he would perfwadc the Corinthians 
to purge out the Fornicator 

I I " Pcrfecution. The Perfecution St. Paul was dill under, was a convlr :ing Argument, that 
he was not for Circumcifion and Subjedion to the Law ; for it was from the Je'^.s, upon that 
Account, that at this Time rofc all the Perfecution which the Chrillians fuHcred, as may be feen 
through all the Hillory of the Acts. Nor are there wanting clear Footficps of it in feveral Places 
©f thisEpifile. befides this here, as C^. III. 4. and VL la. 

F 2 Offence 







Offence of the Gofpel % in relying folely on a 
crucified Saviour for Salvation, is removed. 
But I am of another Mind, and wifh that they 
may be cut off who trouble you about this Mat- 
ter, and they .fhall be cut off. For, Brethren, 
ye have been call'd by me unto Liberty. 


* Oftence of cht: Crofs. See Ch. VI. li 14, 

offence of the crofs cea- 

I would they were c-T£ 
ven cue off which trouble 

For, brethren, ye htve 15 
been called unto liberty. 



C H A P. V. 13 26. 


FROM the mention of Liberty, which he tells them they arc- 
called to under the Gofpe], he takes a Rife to caution them in 
the ufe of it, and fo exhorts them to a fpiritual, or true Chriftian 
Life, fliewing the Difference and Contrariety between that and a 
carnal Life, or a Life after the Flefli. 


Gnly ufe not liberty for 
an occafion to the flefli, 
but by love fcrve one 

For all the law is ful- j^ 
filled in one word, even 


Though the Gofpel to which ye are called, be a 
State of Liberty from the Bondage of the Law, yet 
pray take great Care you do not miftake that Li- 
berty, nor think it affords you an Opportunity, in 
the Abufe of it, to fatisfy the Lufl of theFlelli, but 
lerve ^ one another in Love. For the whole Law 


13 P Aa\dL'5T;i Ser've, has a greater Force in the Gr^e^, than our E?7glify Word Serve doesj 
in the common Acceptation of ir, exprefs ; for it (iguifies the oppofite to eXci^seict, Freedomi 
And fo the ApoPtle elegantly informs them, that though by the Gofpel they are called to a State 
o'" Liberty from the Law, yet they were ftill as much bound and fubjedcd to their Brethren in all 
the Offices and Duties of Love and good. Wil!> as if, in that rcfpeft, they were their Valfals and 




in this i Thou (halt love 
thy neighbour as thy fclf. 
J t But if ye bice and de- 
vour one another, take 
heed that ye be not con- 
fumed one of another. 

16 This I fay then. Walk 
in the Spirit, and ye fhall 
not fulfil the luft of the 

1 7 For the flefti lufleth a- 
gainft the Spirit, and the 
Spirit againlt the fiefh ; 
and thefe are contrary 
the one to the other : fo 
that ye cannot do the 
things chat ye would. 

18 BiK if ye be led by the 

concerning our Duty toothers, isfulfilTd in obler- 
ving this one Precept % T^houJIjalt love thy Neigh- 
bour as tijyfelf. But if you bite and tear one ano- 
ther, take heed that you be not deftroy'd and con- 
fumed by one another. This I fay to you, conduct 
your felves by the Light that is in your Minds ■", 
and do not give your felves up to the Lufts of the 
Fleifhj to obey them in what they put you upon. 
For the Inclinations and Deiires of the Flefh arc 
contrary to thofe of the Spirit -, and the Did:ates 
and Inclinations of the Spirit, are contrary to thofe 
of the Flefh : fo that under thefe contrary Impulfes 
you do not do the Things that you purpofe to your 
felves ^. But if you give your felves up to the Con- 





14 1 let;. XIX. 18. 

16 •■ That which he here and in the next Verfe calls Sphity he calls, Rom.Vll.iz. He 
inward Mat2 ; ver.AJ. the Laiv of the Mind ; ver. 15. the Mind. 

\-j ^ Do not : So it is in the Greek ;, and ours is the only Tranllation that I know which ren- 
ders it canvot. 

165 17. There can be nothing plainer, than that the State St. Paul defcribes here in thefe two 
Verfci, he points out more at large, Rom. VII. 17, ^c, fpeaking there in the Perfon of a 'few. 
This is evident, that St. Paul fuppofes two Principles in every Man, which draw him different 
waysi the one he calls Tlejb^ the other Spirit. Thefe, though there be other Appellations given 
them, are the moft common and ufual Names given them in the New Tcftament. By Fief) is 
meant all thofe vicious and irregular Appetites, Inclinations and Habitudes, whereby a Man is 
tuiif d from his Obedience to that eternal Law of Right, the Obfervance whereof God always 
requires, and is plcafed %vith : This is very properly called F/e/S, this bodily State being the 
Source from which all our Deviations from the itraic Rule of Redirude, do for the molt part take 
their rife, or elfc do ultimately terminate in. On the other lidc, Spirit is the part of a Man 
which is endowed with Light from God, to know and fee what is righteous, juft and good ; and 
which being confulced and hearken'd to, is always ready to dircfl and prompt us to that which 
is good. The Flefo then, in the Gofpei-Languagc, is that Principle which inclines and carries 
Men to III , the Spirit that Principle which dictates what is right, and inclines to good. But 
becaufe, by prevailing Cullo.n and contrary Habits, this Principle was very much weak- 

ned, and almod extinift in the Gentiles, fee Eph. IV. 17 11. he cxhoits them to be 

teneaved :n the Spirit of their Minds^ ver. i?. and to put off the Cld Man^ i.e. fleftily cor- 
rupt Habits, and to put on the lisiju Majj^ which he tells them, ver. i:^. is created :n 
Righteoufnefs a7td true Holincfs. This is alfo called rencwirig of the Mind, Rom, XII. 2. re- 
ne<ivivg of the hfjuard hUrij i Cor, IV. i6t which is done by the AlUftance of the Spirit of God, 
■Bph, III. 16. 

t du<ftl 







dud of the Gofpel ' by Faith in Chrift, ye are not 

under the Law ^. Now the Works of the Fleai 

as is manifefl are thefe, Adultery^ '/Fornication, 

Uncleannefs, Lafcivioufnefsj -Idolatryj Witch^ 

craft ""■, Enmities, Qu ;rrels, Emulations, Animor 

fitieSj^trife, Seditions, Seds, Envyings,^ Murders^ 

Drunkcnnefs, Revellines V and itjctilike^ coiir 

cerning which I forewarn you npw. ^s neretofore 

I have done, that they who do fucii TKings Aall 

not inherit the Kingdom of God,. Btit on. the 

other iide, the Fruit of ^He Spirit is Love, Joy, 

Peace, Long-fuffering, ^ ' :i;aefs of Difpoiirion, 

Beneficence, Faithful neir, A,. „--k-iefssTemipera!nce: 

Againll thefe and the like ther-e is -no t^^^.., Now 

they who belong ^^ to Chrifl:, and ure his Jj^em* 

N t: E S, 


Spirit, ye are not under 

tne law. 

Now the wo-.ks of the ^9 

^t(\i are iranif-'t, which 

■ate thefe, a Jukcry, forni- 

«4tk)n, uncle:^Qne^, lafci- 


Woia:ry, witchcraft, lO 
hatreds variance, en-, ila- 
cions) wwh, ftrife, icJi- 

'.tibnS} kfcrteiie*, 

Envyiti?,?, murders, 21 
drutildeiinof;. rcvel]ings, 
and ftick like : of the 

^which 4 kfM you before, 
'66 I have «!fo rold jou in 
time paftythtft chty whith 
-do ft'eh thiifgs-, ftvili'not 
inherit -the '.kJngdtwri'cif 

'^6d, •■'• -■'-' ■' ; '■' '■'■■- 

But the fruit of ihe^* 
Spirit is love, joy, otace, 
long-fuffering, gentlenefs, 
goodnefs, faith, 

1 8 ^ The Reafon of this AfTercion we may find, Rom. VIIL )^. v .. I'.caufe, th^y who are 
hd by the Spirit of God^ are the Sons of God; and fo Heirs, and frfc^ tlfc^K^oUt the Law, as he arguei 
here. Chap. III. and IV. * 

V This is plainly the Senfe of the Apoflle, who teaches all alohg jn the fbrrti6r Part of this 
Epiftlc, and alfo that to the Remans, that thofe that put chemfe.vti n i. r chc Gofpel, are noc 
under the Law. The Queflion then that remains, is only about th^. i^hr^fe, led by the Spirits 
And as to that, it is eafy ro obferve how natural it is for St. P.tul, havi 1:^ in chc forq^ciing Verfes 
more than once mentioned the Spirit, to continue the fame Word, tho' fomcwhat varied in the 
Senfe. In St. Panics Fhrafcoloqy, as the Irregularities of Appetite, and the Diftatcs of right 
Reafon, are oppofcd under the Titles of F'efi and Sjirit, as we have feen ; fo the Covenant of 
Works, and the Covenant of Crace, Law and Gofpel, are oppofed under the Titles of Flefi and 
Spirit. 2 Cor. III. 6, 8. he calls the Gofpel S;:irit ; and Rom. VII. 5. /"« the Fle/i>, (ignifics in 
the legal State. But we need go no farther than Chap. III. 3, of this very Epiltle, to fee the 
Law and the Gofpel oppofed by St. Paul under the Titles of Flejb and Spirit. The reafon of thus 
ufing the Word Spirit is very apparent in the Dodrine of the New Teltamenr, which teaches, thac 
thole who receive Chrifl by Fairh, with him receive his Spirit, and its Aflidance againft the Flefll, 
fee jRo»2. VIII. 9— — ri. Accordingly, for the attaining of Salvation, St, Paul joins together 
Belief of the Truth and Sandification of the Spirit, i Thejf. II. 15. And fo Spirit here may be 
taken for the Spirit of their Minds, but renewed and ftrengthned by the Spirit of God ; fee Bph. 
III. 16. and IV. 23. 

2,0 " ^^if/y-ajtsjit fignifies J^rVfkr^/f, ox Poifoning. 

21 ^ Kufj.01, ReveltingSy were, amongd the Greeks, difbrderly Spending of the Night In 
Fcafting, with a licentioi'S indulging to Wine, good Cheat, Mufick, Dancing, &c. 

24 ^ Ol <r« Xf/rK, tl'ofe who are ofChriJi, arc the fame wich thofe ivho are led by the Spirit, 
vcr. 18. and are oppofed to thofe who live after the F.'efi, Rom. VIII. j 5, whe!*e it is faid, con- 
formably to what we find here, they through the Spirit mortify the Deeds of the Body, 

I bers, 



Chap. Vr- 

15 Meeknefs, temperance: 

against fuch there is no 

i,A And they that arc 

Chriil's, have crucified 

the flefli, with the atfe- 

dions and lufts. 
15 If we live in the Spirit, 

let us alfo walk in the 

z6 Let us not be defirous 

of vain-glory, provoking 

one another, envying one 


bers, have "" crucified the Flefli, with the Affe- 
ctions and Lufts thereof. If our Life then (our 
Flefli having been crucified) be as we profefs by 
the Spirit, whereby we are alive from that State 
of Sin we were dead in before, let us regulate our 
Lives and Anions by the Light and Didates of the 
Spirit. Let us not be led by an itch of Vain-glory to 
provoke one another, or to envy one another % 


' Criicijied the Fle/b. That Principle in us, from whence fpring vicious Inclinations and Adions, 
is, as we have obferved above, called fon>etimes the F/ip/J, fometiraes the Old Man. The fubJuinp 
and mortifying of this evil Principle, fo that the Force and Power wher ewich it ufed to rule in us 
is extinguifticd, the Apoftle, by a very engaging Accommodation to the Death of our Saviour, calls 
crucifying the Old Man, Rom. VI. 6. crucifying the Flefi here ; putting off the Body of the Sins of the 
Fk/by Col. II. It. putting off the Old Matty Eph. IV. 2- Col. III. 8, 9. It is alfo called, Mortifying 
the Members fwhicb are on the Earthy Col. IIL 5. Mortifying the Deeds of the Body, Rom. VIII, rj. 

26 ^ Whether the rain-glory and £»t>y/»^ here were about their fpiritual Gifts, a Fault which 
the Corinthians were guilty of, as we may fee ac large, i Cor. XII. 13, 14. or upon any other 
occalion, and fo contained in »«•. 15. of this Chapter, I ftiall not curioufly examine ; Either way, 
the Senfe of the Words will be much the fame i aad tccordingly this Verfe muft end the <;th, or 
begin the 6th Chapter, 


CHAP. VI. 1 




E here exhorts the Stronger to Gentlenefs and Meeknefs.. to- 
wards the Weak. 


iTT^Rethrcn, if a man 
|j be overtaken in a 
fault, ye which are fpi- 


BRethren, if a Man by Frailty or Surprize, fall 
into a Fault, do you who are eminent in the 
Church for Knowledge, PradticCj and ^Gifts'', 


t * Usivyt^TtKOh spiritual^ in 1 Cot, III, i. and XII. I, taken togecherj ha> this Senfe. ^ 





Chap. VI. 






rhual, reftore fuch an one 
in the fpirit of meeknefs; 
confidering chy felf, left 
thou alfo be tempted. 

Bear ye one anothers 
burdens, and fo fuifi! the 
law of ChriR. 

For if a man think 
himfelf to be fomcthing, 
when he is nothing, he 
deceivech himfelf. 

But Itt every man 
prove his own work, and 
then (hall he have rejoi- 
cing in himfelf aloncj and 
not in another. 

For every man (hall 
bear his own burden. 

raife him up again, and fet him right, with Gen- 
tlenefs and Meeknefs, confidering that you your 
felves are not out of the reach of Temptations. 
Bear with one anothers Infirmities, and help to 
fupport each other under your Burdens', and fo 
fulfil the Law of Chrifl ^ ' For if any one be con- 
ceited of himfelf, as if he were fomething, aMan 
of Weight, fit to prefcribe to others, when in- 
deed he is not, he deceiveth himfelf. But let 
him take care that what he himfelf doth be right, 
and fuch as will bear the teft, and then he will 
have matter of glorying = in himfelf, and not in 
another. For every one fliall be accountable 
only for his own Adtions. 


I *- Sec a parallel Exhortation, i Thejf. V. 14. which will give light to this; as alfo Rom. 

XV. I. 

•* See Tohn XIII. ?4, 35. and XIV. 2,. There were fome among them very zealous for the 
Obfervation of the Law of Mo/es ; St. Paul here puts them m mind of a Law, which they were 
under and were obliged to obferve, viz. the Laiv of Chrijl. And he ftiews them how to do it, 
{viz.) by helping to bear one anothers Burdens, and not increafing their Burdens by the Obfer- 
vances of the Levitical Law. Though the Gofpel contain the Law of the Kingdom of Chrift, 
yet I do not remember that St. Paul any where calls it the Law ofClrifly but in this Place, where 
he mentions it in oppoiition to thofc who thought » Law fo neceltary, that they would retain 
that oi Mofes under the Gofpel. _ ^ 

4 ' K*u%n//it, I think fhould have been tranflated here CJoryitig, as Kstyx^KrovTcti is, -ver. rj. 
the Apoftle in both Places meaning the fame Thing, {viz.) Glorying in another, in having 
brought him to Circumcidon, and o'ther ritual Obfervances of the Mofaidl Law. For thus St. 
pW feems to me to difcourfe in this Seftion : " Brethren, there be fome among you that would 
*' bring others under the ritual Obfervances of the Mofaical Law, a Yoke which was too heavy 
*' for us, and our Fathers to bear. They would do much better to eafe the Burdens of the 
*' Weak ; this is fuitable to the Law of Chrift, which they are under, and is the Law which 
*' they ought ftriftly to obey. If they think, becaufe of their fpiritual Gifts, that they have 
«* Power t^o prefcribe in fuch Matters, I tell them, that they have not, but do deceive them- 
** felves. Let them rather take care of their own particular Aftions, that they be right, and 
" fuch as they ought to be. This will give them matter of glorying in themfelves, and not 
*• vainly in others, as they do when they prevail with them to be circumcifed : For every Man 
*• {hall be anfwerable for his own Adions." Let the Reader judge whether this does not feem 
to be St. Paufs View here, and fuit with his way of Writing ? 

"E^eiv KAvy^i^y-a., is a Phrafe whereby St. Paul fignifies to have matter of Glorying ; and to 
ihat Senfe it is'render'd, Rom. IV. i. 



CHAP. VI. 6 lo. 


ST. PW having laid fome reflraint upon the Authority and For- 
wardnefs of the Teachers, and leading Men amongft them, who 
were, as it feems, more ready to impofe on the Galatians, what they 
fliould not, than to help them forward in the Pradlice of Gofpel-Obe- 
dience; he here takes care of them in refpedt of their Maintenance, 
and exhorts the Galatiaiis to Liberality towards them j and in general, 
towards all Men, efpecially Chriftians. 

Chap. vr. 


Let him that is taught the Dodtrine of the 
Gofpel, freely communicate the good things of 
this World to him that teaches him : Be not decei- 
ved, God will not be mocked : For as a Man fow- 
eth \ fo alfo fhall he reap. He that lays out the 
flock of good Things he has, only for the fatisfacli- 
on of his own bodily Neceffities, Conveniences or 
Pleafures, fhall at the Harveft find the Fruit and 
Produ(ft of fuch Hufbandry to be Corruption and 
perifhing ^. But he that lays out his worldly Sub- 
rtance according to the Rules didated by the Spi- 
rit of God in the Gofpel, fhall of the Spirit reap 
Life everlafting. In doing thus what is good and 
right, let us not wax weary ; for in due feafon, 
when the time of Harveft comes, we fhall reap, if 
we continue on to do Good, and flag not. There- 
fore, as we have Opportunities, let us do Good unto 
all Men, efpecially to thofe who profefs Faith in 
Jefus Chrift, /. e. the Chriftian Religion. 


7 f Soivetl ; a Metaphor mcd by St. Paul for Mens laying out their worldly Goods. See 
a Cor IX. 6. G»c. 

«.«o..VUl..i.andn,u. SECT. 


6 Let him that is taught 
in the word, communi- 
cate unto hiiii that teach- 
eth, in all good things. 

7 Be not deccircd ; God 
is not mocked : for what- 
foevcr a man fowech, that 
fhall he alfb reap. 

S For he that foweth to . 
his flLfti, fhall of the flifti 

^ '^ reap corruption : but he 
that foweth to the Spirit, 
(hall of the Spirit reap 
life everlafting. 
9 And let us not be weary 
in well-doing: for in due 
feafon we (hall reap, if 
wc faint nor. 

JO As we have therefore 
opportunity, let us do 
good unto all men, efpe- 
cially unto rhem who are 
01 the houihold of faith. 





Chap. VI; 






CHAP. VI. II — 18. 


ONE may fee what lay upon St. Pauf^ Mind, in writing to the 
GnlafianSy by what he inculcates to them here, even after he 
had finiflied his Letter. The like we have in the laft Chapter to the 
Romans. He here winds up all with Admonitions to the Galatians, 
of a different End and Aim they had to get the Galatians circum- 
cifed, from what he had in preaching the Gofpel. 



You fee how long a Letter I have writ to you 
with my own Hand *". They who are willing to 
carry fo fairly in the ritual part of the Law, and 
to make oftentation of their Compliance therein, 
conftrain you to be circumcifed,only to avoid Per- 
fecution, for owning their Dependance for Salva- 
tion folely on a crucified Meffiah ', and not on the 
Obfervances of the Law. For even they themfelves 
who are circumcifed do not keep the Law^ but 
they will have you to be circumcifed, that this 
Mark in your Flefh may afford them matter of 
glory ing,^ and of recommending themfelves to the 
good Opinion of they £'Wi''. But as for me, what- 
ever may be faid of me', God forbid that I fhould 
glory in anything, but in having Jefus Chrifl who, 


11 * St, Paul mentions the Writing tuith his oivn Handy as an Argument of his great Cbnce-n 
:for them in the Cafe : For it was not iifual for him to write his Epidks with his own Han-I, 
but to dii^ate thtm to ethers who writ them from his iMouth. See Rom. XVI. zr. 1 Cor. 


II '^' Ivihe rUp., I e. in the ritual Obfervances of the Law, which, Heb. IX. 10. arc called, 

1^ ^ Sec Chup V. II, 
14 ^ Sec CkaP. V. 11, 


Yc fee how large a let- ti 
ter I have written unto 
you with mine own hand. 

As many as defire to ra 
make a fair Ihew in the 
flefh, they conftrain you 
to be circumcifed ; only 
left they ftiould fuffer per- 
fccution for che crofs of 

For neither they them- i j: 
fclves who are circumcifed 
keep the law ; but defire 
to Have you circumcifed, 
that they may glory in 
your flcfti. 

But God forbid that 1 14; 




Chap. Vr. 

fhould glory fave in the 
cro(s of our Lord Jefus 
Chrift, by whom the 
world is crucified unco 
me, and I unco the 

15 For in Chrift Jcfus 
neither circumcifion a- 
vailcch any thing, nor 
uncircumcifion, but a 
new creature. 

16 And as many as walk 
according to this rule, 
peace be on them, and 
mercy, and upon the If- 

17 From henceforth let 
no man trouble me ; for 
I bear in my body the 
marks of the Lord jefus. 

18 Brethren, the grace of 
our Lord Jefus Chrill be 
with your fpirit, Amen. 
^ Unto the Galatians, 
.written from Rome, 

was crucified, for my fole Lord and Mafter, 
whom I am to obey and depend on ; which I fo 
entirely do, without regard to any thing elfe, 
that 1 am wholly dead to the World, and the 
World dead to me, and it has no more influence 
on me than if it were not. For as to the obtain- i^* 
ing a fhare in the Kingdom of Jefus Chrift, and 
the Privileges and Advantages of it, neither Cir- 
cumcifion nor Uncircumcifion, fuch outward 
Differences in the Flefh, avail any thing, but the 
New Creation, wherein by a thorough Change, 
a Man is difpofed to Righteoufnefs and true Ho- 
linefs in good Works "'. And on all thofe who 16. 
walk by this Rule, viz. that it is the New Crea- 
tion alone, and not Circumcifion, that availeth 
under the Gofpel, Peace and Mercy fhall be on 
them, they being that Ifrael which are truly the 
People of God ". From henceforth let no Man 17, 
give me trouble by Queftions, or Doubt, whe- 
ther I preach Circumcifion or no. *Tis true, I 
am circumcifed : But yet the Marks I now bear 
in my Body, are the Marks of Jefus Chrift, thac 
I am his : The Marks of the Stripes which I 
have received from the Jews^ and which I ftill 
bear in my Body for preaching Jefus Chrift, are 
an Evidence that I am not for Circumcifion. 
Brethren, the Favour of our Lord Jefus Chriji i3, 
be with your Spirit ^ Amen. 

N or E s. 

1$ " See jRp)^. IT. 10. and IV. x^. 

16 " St. Paul having in the foregoing Verfe aflerted, that it is the New Creation alone thac 
puts Men into the Kingdom of Chrift, and into the PofTefllon of the Privileges thereof, this Verfc 
may be underftood alio as alTertory, rather than as a Prayer, unlefs there were a Verb thac ex- 
prelTed it ; efpecially confidering that he writes this EpilUe to encourage them to refufe Circum- 
cifion. To which end the afTuring them, that thofe who do fo ihall have Peace and Mercy from 
God, is of more force than to tell them, that he prays that they may have Peace and Mercy. And 
for the fame reafbn I underftand the Jfrael of Cod to be the fame with thofe who nvaik by this Kule^ 
though joih'd with them by the Copulative K<t/, And ; no very unufual way of fpeaking. 

G 2 



An. Ch. 5 7. 

Neronis 5 , 


O N T H E 


T O T H E 



SAint Paul's firft coming to Corinth was ^hno Chri/li ^2. where 
he firft applied himfelf to the Synagogue, ABs XVIll. 4. But 
finding them obftinate in their Oppofition to the Gofpel, he 
turn'd to the Gentiles, ver. 6. out of whom this Church at 
Corinth feems chiefly to be gathered, as appears, ASts XVIII. and 
I Cor. XIL 2. 

His ftay here was about two Years, as appears from A£fs XVIII. 
II, 18. compared: In which time it maybe concluded he made 
many Converts, for he was not idle there, nor did he ufe to ftay 
long in a Place where he was not encouraged by the Succefs of his 
Miniftry. Befides what his fo long Abode in this one City, and his 
indefatigable Labour every where, might induce one to prefume of 
the number of Converts he made in that City, the Scripture it felf, 
A^s XVIII. 10. gives fufiicient evidence of a numerous Church ga- 
thered there, 

Corinth it felf was a rich Merchant-Town, the Inhabitants Greeks^ 
a People of quick Parts, and inquifitive, i Cor. 1. 22. but naturally 
vain and conceited of themfelves. 

Thefe Things confidered, may help us in fome meafure the better 
ko underftand St. P^«/'sEpiftles to this Church, which feems to be in 
greater Diforder than any other of the Churches which he writ to. 


This Epiftle was writ to the Corinthians Anno Chrifli 57. be- 
tween two and three Years after St. P^^// had left them. In this 
Interval there was got in amongft them a new Infl:rud:or, a Jcio 
by Nation, who had raifed a Fadion againft St. Paul. With this 
party, whereof he was the Leader, this falfe Apoftle had gain'd 
great Authority j fo that they admired, and gloried in him, with an 
apparent Difefteem and diminifhing of St. Paul. 

Why I fuppole the Oppofition to be made to St. Paul in this 
Church by one Party under one Leader, I {hall give the Reafons 
that make it probable to me, as they come in my way, going 
through thefe two Epiftles j which I fliall leave to the Reader to 
judge, without pofitively determining on either fide : And there- 
fore (liall, as it happens, fpeak of thefe Oppofers of St. Paul feme- 
times in the Angular, and fometimes in the plural Number. 

This at leaft is evident, that the main Defign of St. Paul in this 
Epiftle, is to fupport his own Authority, Dignity, and Credit, with 
that part of the Church, which fluck to him ; to vindicate him- 
felf from the Afperfions and Calumnies of the oppofite Parry j to. 
leiTen the Credit of the chief and leading Men in it, by intimating 
their Mifcarriages, and fhewing their no Caufe of glorying, or be- 
ing gloried in ; that fo withdrawing their Party from the Admi- 
ration and Efteem of thofe their Leaders, he might break the Fa-» 
<5tion ; and putting an end to the Diviiion, might re-unite them with, 
the uncorrupted part of the Church, that they might all unani- 
moufly fubmit to the Authority of hii Divine Million, and with one 
Accord receive and keep the Dod-rine and Diredtions he had deli- 
vered to them. 

This is the whole Subjed from Ch. I. 10. to the end of Ch. VL 
In the remaining part of this Epiftle he anfwers fome Queftions 
they had propofed to him ; and refolves fome Doubts,, not without 
a mixture, on all Occafions, of Refledions on his Oppofers, and of- 
othcr things that might tend to the breaking of their Fadion, 




Chap. I. 


C H A P. I. Ver. i 


1. TTJyil/L an Apoftle of Jefus Chrift', called to 
f^ be fo by the Will of God % and SoJibe?ies 
^ our Brother in the Chriftian Faith ; to the 

2. Church of God which is at Cori?jth, to them 
that are feparated from the reft of the World by 
Faith in Chriji Jefus % called to be Saints, with 
all that are every where called by the name of 

3. J^f^^ Chriji '^, their Lord % and ours ; Favour 

4. and Peace be unto you from God our Father, 
and from the Lord Jefus Chrift, I thank God 

r, always on your behalf, for the Favour of God 
which is beftowed on you through yefus Chriji ; 
fo that by him you are inriched with all Know- 
ledge and Utterance, and all extraordinary 

N "T E S. 


PAUL, called to be ati 
apoftle of JcfusChrift, 
throui^h the will of God, 
and Soithenes our bi-ochcr. 

Unco the church of God 
which ij at Corinth, to 
them chat are fandiScd iu 
Chri(t Jcfus, called to be 
faints, wiih all that in 
every place call upon the 
name of JlTus Chrilt our 
Lordjboth theirs and ours. 

Grace be unto you, and 
peace from God our Fa- 
ther, and from the Lord 
Jefus Chrift. 

I thank my God always 
on your behalf, for the 
grace of God, which is 
given you by Jefus Chrift; 

That in every thing ye 
are enriched by him in 
all utterance, and in all 
knowledge : 

T * St. Vanl in mod of his Epiftlcs mentions his being called to he an Apojlle by tie Will of 
■Gody which way of fpeaking being peculiar to him, we may fuppofe him therein to intimate his 
extraordinary and miraculous Call, A3s IX. and his receiving the Gofpel by immediate Reve- 
lation, Cal.l, 11,11. for he doubted not of the Will and Providence of God governing all 

^ Ati J XVIII. 17. , 

z '^ 'YiytA<TfJt.'iVoii iv X^t^S Irt(j-«, SanBlfcd in Chrifi yefus^ does not /Tgnify here, whofe 
Lives are pure and holy, for there were many amongft thofe he writ to, who were quite other- 
urife ; but fanBifed iTgnifies fcparatc from the common State of Mankind, to be the People of 
God, and to ferve him. The heathen World had revolted from the true God, to the Service of 

Idols and falfe Gods, Rom. I. 18 25. The yeivs being feparated from this corrupted Mafs, 

to be the peculiar People of God, were called holy^ Exod. XIX. 5, 6. Numb. XV. 40. They 
being caft off, the Profclfors of Chriftianity were feparated to be the People of God, . id fo be- 
came holy, I Vet. II. y, 10. 

^ ^^irtKttxiiJLivot cvofjLA Xf/s-«, that are called Chripians ; thefc Gr^f^ Words being a Periphraliis 
for Chriftians, as is plain from the Defign of this Vcrfe. But he that is not fatisficd with that, 
jnay fee more Proofs of ir in Dr. Hammond upon the Place. 

* What the Apoftle means by Lord^ when he attributes it to Chrift, fee Cbap, VIIL 6. 

I Gifts; 



5 Even as the reftimony 
of Chrift was confirmed 
in you. 

7 So that ye come behind 
in no gift ; waiting for 
the coming of our Lord 
Jtfus Chrifl : 

8 Who fhall alfo confirm 
you unto the end, that ye 
may be blamelefs in the 
day of our Lord Jefus 

9 God it faithful, by 
whom ye were called un- 
to the fellowftiip of his 
Son Jcfus Chrift our Lord, 

Gifts ; as at firft by thofe miraculous Gifts the 
Gofpel of Cbrifl was confirmed among you : So 
that in no fpiritual Gift are you fliort or defi- 
cient ^, waiting for the coming of our Lord 
ye/us Chrijl ; who alfo fhall confirm you unto 
the end, that in the Day of the Lord Jefus 
Chriji there may be no Charge againfl: you. 
For God, who has called you unto the Fellow- 
fhip of his Son Jefus Chriji our Lord, may be 
relied on for what is to be done on his fide. 




7 ^ Vid. zCor. XII. I2, ij. 


CHAP. I. lo. VI. Qo, 


THerc were great Dlforders in the Church of Corinth, caufed 
chiefly by a Fadion raifed there againft St. Paul : The Par- 
tifans of the Fadion mightily cried up and gloried in their Lead- 
ers, who did all they could to difparage St. Pau/y and lefifen him 
in the Efteem of the Corinthians. St. Paul makes it his bufinefs in 
this Sedtion to take off^ the Corinthians from fiding with and glory- 
ing in this pretended ApoRle, whofe Followers and Scholars they 
profefied themfelves to be ; and to reduce them into one Body, as 
the Scholars of Chrifl united in a Belief of the Gofpel, which he 
had preached to them, and in an Obedience to it, without any fuch 
diftindlion of Marters or Leaders, from whom they denominated 
themfelves. He alfo here and there intermixes a Juflification of 
himfelf againft the Afperfions which were caft upon him by his 
Oppofers. How much St. Paid vvas fet againft their Leaders, may 

be ieen, 2 Cor. XI. 13 15-. 




thap. L The Arguments ufed by St. Paul to break the oppofite Fadlion, 
^^"^^ and put an end to all Divifions amongfl: them, being various, we 
fliall take notice of them under their leveral Heads, as they come 
^ in the order of his Difcourfe. ' -ft-if^ i;. 

S E C T. II. N. 1. 

C H A P. L lo 16. 


SAint PauPs firfl Argument is, That in Chriftianity, they all had 
but one Mafter, I'lz. Chrifi-y and therefore were not to fall into 
Parties denominated from diflin<ft Teachers, as they did in their 
Schools of Philofophy. 


20. Now I befeech you. Brethren, by the 
Name ^ of our Lord yefus Cbrifi., that ye hold 
the fame Docflrine, and that there be no Divi- 
fions amongfl you ; but that ye be framed toge- 
ther into one intire Body, with one Mind, and 

11. one Affection. For I underfland, my Bre- 
thren ^, by fome of the Houfe of Chloe^ that 
there are Quarrels and Dilfenfions amongfl you : 



Now I befeech you, jp 
brethren, by the name of 
our Lord Jcfus Chrift5thaC 
ye all fpcak the lame 
thing, and that there be 
no divifions amon" you ; 
but that yc be perfeftly 
joined together in the 
fame mind, and in the 
fame judgment. 

For it hath been cJe- il 
clared unto me of you, 
my brethren, by them 
which are of the houfe of 
Chloe, that there are con- 
tentions among you. 

10 5 Of whom the whole Family in Heaven and Earth, is, and ought to be named. If any 
ene has thoupnc St, Paul a loofc Writer, it is only becaufe he was a loofe Reader. He that takes 
notice of St PauU Dtlign, fliall find that there is not a Word, fcarce, or Exprelfion that he makes 
ufe of, but vviih relation and tendency to his prefcnt main l^urpofe ; as here intending to abolifh 
the Names of Leaders they diftioguiiti'd thcmielves by, he bcfecches them by the Kame of Chi ill, 
a Form that I do not remember hj elfewhere iifes. 

1 1 ^ Brethren., a Name of Union and Fricndfliip ufed here twice together by St, P/w</, in the 
entrance of his Perfuafion to them, to put an end to their Divifions, 




'xt Now this I fay, that 
every one of you faith, I 
am of Paul, and I of A- 
pollos, and I of Cephas, 
and I of Chrift. 

>S Is Chrift divided ? was 
Paul crucified for yoa ? 
or were ye baptized m 
the name of Paul ? 

14 I thank God that I 
baptized none of you, but 
Crifpus and Gaius : 

X 5 Left any fhould fay that 
I had baptized in mine 
own name. 

16 And I baptized alfb the 
houfhold of Stephanas : 
befidcs, I know not whe- 
ther I baptized any other. 



So that ye are all fallen into Parties, ranking 
your felves under different Leaders, or Ma- 
ilers ; one faying, I am of Paidy another, I of 
ApolloSy I of Cephas, I of Chrifi. Is Chrift, who 
is our only Head and Mafter, divided? Was 
Paul crucified for you ? Or were you baptized 
into ' the Name of Paul? I thank God that 
I baptized none of you, but Crifpus and Gaius ; 
left any one fliould fay I had baptized into my 
own Name. I baptized alfo the Houfliold of 
Stepha?ias : Farther, 1 know not whether t bap- 
tized any other. 



Chap. r. 

1 ) 'F./f properly fignifies into .• So the French tranflate it here. The Phrafe'3*TT/c3-ecrt/ «<•, 
to be ha^tiz.ed into any one's Namey or into any one, is folemnly by that Ceremony to enter himfelf 
a Difciple of him into whofe Name he is baptized, with Profclfion to receive his Doctrine and 
Rules, and fubmit to his Authority : A very good Argument here why they fhould be called by 
no one's Name but Cbriji'j. 




SECT. 11. N. 2. 

CHAP. I. 17 51. 


TH E next Argument of St. Paul to flop their Followers from 
glorying in thefe falfe Apoftles, is, that neither any Advan- 
tage of Extraction, nor Skill in the Learning of the Jews, nor in 
the Philofophy and Eloquence of the Greeks, was that for which 
God chofe Men to be Preachers of the Gofpel. Thofe whom he 
made choice of for overturning the Mighty and the Learned, were 
mean, plain, illiterate Men. 





Chap. T. 

J 7' For Cbri/l fent me not to baptize, but to preach 
the Gofpel ; not with learned and eloquent Ha- 
rangues, left thereby the Virtue and Efficacy 
of Chriji's Sufferings and Death fhould be over- 
looked and negle<fted, if the Strefs of our Per- 
fualion fhould be laid on the Learning and 

^°' Quaintnefs of our Preaching. For the plain 
infifting on the Death of a crucified Saviour, is, 
by thofe who perifh, received as a fooliih, con- 
temptible thing J though to us, who are faved, 
it be the Power of God, conformable to what 

19. is prophelied by Ifaiah : I will deftroy the Wif- 
dom of the Wife, and I will bring to nothing 

20. the Underftanding of the Prudent. Where is 
the Philofopher fkill'd in the Wifdom of the 
Greeks? Where the Scribe ^ ftudied in the 
Learning of the Jews ? Where the ProfelTor of 
human Arts and Sciences ? Hath not God ren- 
der'd all the Learning and Wifdom of this 
World foolifli and ufelefs, for the Difcovery 

21. of the Truths of the Gofpel ? For fince the 
World by their natural Parts and Improvements 
in what with them palled for Wifdom, acknow- 
ledg'd not the one only true God, though he 
had manifefted himfelf to them in the wife Con- 
trivance and admirable Frame of the vifible 
Works of the Creation, it pleafed God by the 
plain, and (as the World efteems it) foolifh 
Dodtrine of the Gofpel, to fave thofe who 


For Chrift fent me not 17- 
to baptize, but to preach 
the gofpel ; not with wif- 
dom of wordSf left the 
crofs of Chrift fhould be 
made cf none effcd. 

For the preaching ofl8- 
the crofs is to them that 
perifh, foolifhnefs : but 
unto us which are faved, 
it is the power of God. 

For it is written, I will ij)k 
deftroy the wifdom of the 
wife, and will bring to 
nothing the undtrftand- 
ing o: the prudent. 

Where is the wife ? ^-o 
where is the fcribe ? 
where is the difputer of 
this world ? hat!i nor God 
made foolifh the wifdotn 
of this world ? 

For afcer that, in the i I- 
wifdom of God, the 
world by wifdom knew 
not God, it pleafed God 
by the fooliilinefs of 
preaching to fave them 
chat believe. 

and Rites, which was the Study of their Doftors and Rabbies. It is likely the falfe Apoftlc, fo 
much concerned in thefc two Epiftlcs to the Corinthians^ who was a ^ew^ pretended 10 foine- 
thing of this kind, and magnified himfelf "thereupon ; othcrwifc it is not probable that Saint 
p.iul fhould name to the Coririthians a fort of Men not much known or valued amongft rhc 
Creeks. This therefore may be fuppofed to be faid to take oflf their glorying in their falfc 






Jj^i For the Jews require a 
fign, and the Greeks feek 
afcer wifdom : 

4 J But we preach Chrift 
crucified, unto the Jews 
a ftumbling-block,and un- 
to the Greeks foolifhnefs; 

lA But unto them which 
ar€ called, both Jews and 
Greeks, Chiift, the power 
of God, and the wifdom 
of God. 

i 5 Becaufe the fooliftinefs 
of God is wifer than men ; 
and the weaknefs of God 
ii Wronger than men. 

2,g For ye fee your calling, 
brethren, how that not 
many wife men after the 
flefh, not many mighty, 
not many noble are called. 

•»7 But God hath chofen 
the foolifli things of the 
world, to confound the 
wife ; and God hath cho- 
fen the weak things of the 
world, to confound the 
things which are mighty ; 

Chap. I. 


receive and believe it. Since ^ both the y^i^;^ 22. 
demand extraordinary Signs and Miracles, and 
the Greeks feek Wifdom j but I have nothing 23. 
elfe to preach to them but Chrifl crucified, a 
Doctrine oflFenfive to the Hopes and Exped:a- 
tions of the Jews, and foolilli to the acute Men 
of Learning, the Greeks ; but yet it is to thefe, 24. 
both yews and Greeks (w^hen they are con- 
verted) Chrijl., the Power of God, and Chriji., 
the Wifdom of God : Becaufe that which feems 25. 
Foolhhnefs in thofe who came from God, fur- 
pafTes the Wifdom of Man ; and that which 
feems Weaknefs in thofe fent by God, furpaifes 
the Power of Men. For, refledt upon your 26. 
felves. Brethren, and you may obferve, that 
there are not many of the wife and learned 
Men, not many Men of Power or of Birth 
among you, that are called. But God hath 2^* 
chofen the foolifli Men in the account of the 
World, to confound the wife ; and God hath 
chofen the weak Men of the World to confound 


11 ^ 'ETrtcTjj x.«t/, Ji»ce loth. Thefe Words ufcd here by St. Paul, are not certainly idle and 
iiilignificant, and therefore I fee not how they can be omitted in the Tranflacion. 

'ETTtiJ^ii is a Word ofReafoning, and, if minded, will lead us into one of St. P^m^/'s Reafonings 
here, which the Negled of this Word makes the Reader overlook. St. i'rt«/, in iier. ir. argues 
thus in general: " Since the World, by their natural Parts and Improvements, did not attain ?o 
*' a right and faving Knowledge of God, God by the preaching of the Gofpel, which feems Foo- 
" liftinefs to them, was pleafed to communicate that Knowledge to thofe who believed." 

In the three following Verfes he repeats the fame Reafoning, a little more exprefiy applied 
to the People he had here in his view, 'Jz. Jeixa and Greeks ; and his Senfe feems to be this : 
*' Since the ^envs., to make any Dcdrine go down with them, require extraordinary Signs of 
" the Tower of God to accompany ir, and nothing will plcafe the nice Palates of the learned 
*' Greeks but Wifdom^ and though our preaching of a crucified Mejfiah be a Scandal to the feivs^ 
" and Fooliflinefs to the Greeks, yet we have what they both feck ; for both ^ew and Gentile^ 
" when they are called, find the Adejjiahj whom we preach, to be the Power of Go<1, and the 
" Wi/dom of God." 

H 2 


And bafe things of the iS 
world, and things which 
are defpifed, hath God 
choTen ; yea, and things 
which are nor, to bring to 
nought things chat are : 

That no flefh fhould ip 
glory in his prefence. 

But of him are ye in 30 
Chrift Jefus, who of God 
is made unto us vvifdom, 
and righteoufnefs, and' 
fanftification, and re- 
demption ; 

That, according as it is 5 i 
written, He that glorietb^ 
let him glory in the Lopd, 


Chap. L 


28. the mighty: The mean Men of the World, 
and contemptible, has God chofen, and thofe 
that are of 'no account, are nothing"', to dif- 

29. place thofe that are: That fo there might be 
no room or pretence for any one to glory in 

30. his Prefence. Natural human Abilities, Parts 
or Wifdom, could never have reach'd this v^ay 
to Happinefs : 'Tis to his Wifdom alone that 
ye owe the Contrivance of it : To his reveal- 
ing of it that ye owe the Knowledge of it j and 
'tis from him alone that you are in Chrifi Jefus^ 
whom God has made to us Chrifiians Wifdom, 
and Righteoufnefs, and Sandification, and Re- 
demption, which is all the Dignity and Pre- 
eminence, all that is of any value, amongft us 

31. Chriftians : That as it is written. He that glori- 
eth, fhould glory only in the Lord. 

N 0.1' E S. 

2$, 17, 18. He that will read the Context, cannot doubt buc that St. P^«/, by whiit he er- 
prefTes in thcfe Verfes in the -Neuter Gender, means Pcrfons ; the whole Argument of the Place 
being about Perfons, and their glorying, and not about Things. 

iSJ ™ Ta [jcri ovict. Things that are not, I think, may well be underftood of the Gentiles^ 
who were not the People of God, and were counted as nothing by the Jews ; and we are pointed 
to this Meaning by the Words KctTeti^jJvn &* KATA^y»aifi By the fool' p and iveakThings, i. e. by 
fimple, illiterate and mean Men, God would make afiamd .he learned Philofophers and great 
Men of the Nations : But by the /xh ovrcty the Things that are nor, he would abolifh the Things 
that are, as in effeft he did aboli(h the fewifi Church by the Chnnian, taking in the Gentiles to 
be his People, in the place of the rejeftei yeivs, who till then wtn his People. This St. PauI 
mentions here not by chance, buc purfuanc to his maiii dcfign, to ftay their glorying in their falfe 
Apoltle, who was a yeiv; by {hewing that whatever that Head of the Faflioa might claim under 
that Pretence, as it is plain he did ftand upon it (fee t Cor. XT. zi, n.) he had not any the lead 
Title to any Efteem or Refpeft upon that account, fincc- tiie fewifi Nation was laid aiide, and God 
had chofen the Gentiles to take their place, and to be his Church and People inftead of them, 
Vtd. Note on Chap. \\. ver. 6. there one may fee, who are the AATct^yi^ivoii theabolifeed, whom 
God fays here, KATUfynffHj he will aboUfr, 



Chap. ir. 

SECT. II. N. 3. ^-^ 

CHAP. 11. I 5. 


FArther, to keep them from glorying in their Leaders, he tells 
them, that as the Preachers of the Gofpel of God's choofing 
were mean and illiterate Men, fo the Gofpel was not to be propa- 
gated, nor Men to be eftablifhed in the Faith by human Learning 
and Eloquence, but by the Evidence it had from the Revelation- 
contained in the Old Teftament, and from the Power of God ac- 
companying and confirming it with Miracles. 


'A^'^clttyo'C're A ^ ° J'/r^'"; ,^^'" ^ came and ,.. 

noc with excellency of Xjl pre^cn d the Golpcl to you, I did not 

fpeech, or of endeavour to fet it ofF with any Ornaments of 

tL^yTclT '"'" '" Rhetoric, or the mixture of human Learn- 

, For I determined not to ing or Philofophy, but plainly declared it ta 

. you as a Dodlrine coming from God, revealed 

and attefled " by him. For 1 refolved to own 24- 

N o r E S. 

1 " To fXA^Tv^m TO 0««, The rejlimovy of God, i. e. what God hath revealed and teftjfies in 
the Old Teftament. The Apoltle here declares to the Corinthians, that when he brought the 
Gofpel to them, he made no ufe of any human Science, Improvement, or Skill ; no Infinuations 
of Eloquence, no philofophical Speculations, or Ornaments of human Learning appear'd in any 
thing he faid to perfuade them : All his Arguments were, as he tells them, wr. a. from the Reve- 
lation of the Spirit of God in the Prediftions of the Old Teflamenr, and the Miracles which he, 
Ptiul, did among them, that their Faith might be built wholly upon the Spirit of God, and not 
upon the Abilities and Wifdom of Man. Tho'^7v'e.tov n ©jb, tJ:e TejUmcvy of God, agrees 
very well with fo much of St. PauVi meaning as relates to his fcunding his hcachint; on the 
Teflimony of God, yet chofe Copies which read [M'j<ri]tnv, Mjjiery, for [j.:i{l-jexov, Telimony, feem 
more ptrfcdly to correfpond with St. Paul's Senfe in the whole Latitude of ic. For tho' he owns 
the Dextrine of the Gofpel didated by the Spirit of God, to be contained in the Scriptures of the 
Old Teflament, and builds upon Revelation ; yet he every where teaches, that it remained a 
Secret there, not underftood till rhey were led into the hidden Evangelical Meaning of thofe 
PafiTages by the coming of jfefus Chrifl, and by the Asnitancc of the Spirit in the Times of the 
Mefftab, and then publiihed to the World by the Preachers of the Gofpel: And therefore he calls 
it, efpccially that part of it which relates to the Gentiles^ almoft every where, ftvr»jfc<«', Myfiery, 
See particuIarJ^-, %yh zf, i6. 

2 or- 

Chap. IT. 





know any thing among 
you, fave Jefus Chrift, 
and him crucified. 

And I was with you in 
weaknefs, and in fear, 
and in much trembling. 

And my fpeech, and 
my preaching was not 
with enticing words gf 
man's wifdom, but in de- 
monftracion of the Spirit, 
and of power : 

That your faith fliould 
not fund in the wifdom 
of men, but in the pjwer 
of God. 

or fliow no other Knowledge among you, but 
the Knowledge ° or Dodrine of Jefus Chriji^ 
and of him crucified. All my Carriage among 
you had nothing in it but the appearance of 
Weaknefs, and Humility, and fear of offending 
you p. Neither did I in my Difcourfes, or 
Preaching, make ufe of any human Art of 
Perfualion to inveagle you. But the Do(ftrine of 
the Gofpel which I propofed, I confirmed, and 
inforced by what the Spirit '^ had revealed and 
demonflrated of it in the Old Teflament, and 
by the Power of God accompanying it with mi- 
raculous Operations; that your Faith might have 
its Foundation not in the Wifdom and Endow- 
ments of Men, but in the Power of God ^ 


z ^ St. Paul, who was himfelf a learned Man, efpecially in the yeivifi Knowledge, having 
in the foregoing Chapter told them, that neither the Jeavifi Learning, nor Grecian Sciences, oive 
a Man any advantage, as a Minifter of the Gofpel ; he here reminds them, that he made no ihew 
or ufe of either when he planted the Gofpel amongft them : Intimating thereby, that thofe were 
not Things for which their Teachers were to be valued or followed. 

3 P St. Paul, by thus fctting forth his own modeft and humble Behaviour amongft them, 
rtflefts on the contrary Carriage of their falfe Apoftle, which he defcribes in Words at length, 
ZCor. XI. 10. 

4 '^ There were two Sorts of Arguments wherewith the Apoftle confirmed the Gofpel ; The 
one was the Revelations made concerning our Saviour by Types and Figures, and Prophecies of 
him under the Law: The other. Miracles and miraculous Gifts accompanying the firft Preachers 
of the Gofpel, in the publifhing and propagating of it. The latter of thefe St. Paul here calls 
J>o<wer ; the former in this Chapter he terms Spirit : So ver. 12, 14. Things of the Spirit of Gody 
and fpifitual tilings, are Things which arc revealed by the Spirit of God, and not difcoverable 
by our natural Faculties. 

S ' Their Faith being built wholly on Divine Revelation and Miracles, whereby all human 
Abilities were ihut out, there could be no realbn for any of them to boaft themfelves of their 
Teachers, or value themfelves upon their being the Followers of this or that Preacher ; which 
St, P<i«/ hereby obviates. 

S E C T« 

SECT. II. N. 4. 

CHAP. 11. 6 16. 



Chap. ir. 

THE next Argument the Apoftle ufes, to fliew them that they 
had no reafon to glory in their Teachers, is, that the Know- 
ledge of the Gofpel was not attainable by our natural Parts, however 
they were improved by Arts and Philofophy, but was wholly owing 
to Revelation. 



6 Howbek we fpeak wif- Howbeit that which we preach is Wifdom, ^« 

dom among them that are ^^ j^^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ j^^ 

pertfcCt : yet not the wif- 11 -n oi- ^r -n- -n, ^ • • 

dora of this world; nor of thoroughly inltrucled in the C;6r////^>^ Religion, 
and take it upon its true Principles ^ : but 
not the Wifdom of this World % nor of 

N O 'T E S, 

6 ^ PerfeS^ here is the fame with Spiritual, ver. 15. one that is Co perfef^ly v/ell apprized^F 
the Divine Nature and Original of tht Chrijitan Religion, that he fees and acknowledges it to be 
all a pure Revelation from God, and not in the iealt the Produft of human Difcovery, Parts, or 
Learning ; and fo deriving it whoi y from what God hath taught by his Spirit in the facred 
Scriptures, allows not the Iealt part of it to be afcribed to the Skill or Abilities of Men, as 
Authors of ir, but received as a Duttrine coming from God alone. And x.)vMperfe-l is oppofed to 
carnal.^ Omd III. i, 5. i.e. fuch Babes in Chnltianicy, fuch weak and miftakcn Chriuians, that 
ihty thought the Gofpel was t.j be nanaged as human Arts and Sciences amongft Men of the 
World, anJ thofe were better initrud«;d, and were more in the right, who followed this Mafler 
or Teacher rather than another ; and 10 glorying in being the Scholars, one of Paul, and another 
of ApoHos. fell into Divihons and Parties about it, and vaunted one over another: Whereas, in 
the School of C^«y?, all was to be built on the Authority of God alone, and the Revelation of 
his Spirit in the facred Scriptures. 

^ W' cf this World, i.e. the Knowledge, Arts and Sciences attainable by Man's natural 
Parrs and Faculties ; fuch as Man's Wit could find out, cultivate and improve : Or of the Princei 
of this World, i, e. fuch Dodrines, Arts and Sciences, as the Princes of the World approve, encou- 
rage, and endeavour to propagate, 



Chap. II. 


the Princes ^' or Great Men of this the princes of this world. 

World -, who will quickly be brought ^^at come to nought. 
_ 1 T-. ^ /- / 1 TTT-rj But we fpeak the wif- t 

7- to nought ''. But we fpeak the Wildom 


"^ Tno' by a^yji'Tif T» AtccvQ- r^r)^^ may here be underflooi the Princes or Great Mea 
of this Worlds in the ordinary Senfe of thefe Words ; yet he that well conhders -ver. z8. of the 
foregoing Chapter, and ver. 8. of this Chapter, may find reafon to think that the Apoftle , 
here principally defigns the Rulers and Great Men of the '/eiv^fi Nation. If i: be obieded, 
that there is little ground to think that St. Paul by the Wifdom he difowns, ihould mean that 
of his own Nation, which the Greeks of CorintJ} (whom he was writing to) had little Ac- 
quaintance with, and had very little Efleem for ; I reply, that to underitand this right, and 
the Pertmency of it, we muft remember, that the great Defign of St. Paul in writing to the 
Corinthians^ was to take them off from the Refped and Eiteera that many of them had for a 
falfe ApoHle that was got in among them, and had there raifed a Fa^ion againft St. Paul. 
This pretended Apoltle, 'tis plain from t Ccr. XI. iz. was a yea? ; and, as it feems, z Cor, V. 
i6, ly. valued himfeif upon that account, and polfibly boafted himfelf to be a Man of Note, 
either by Birth, or Alliance, or Place, or Learning, among that People, who counted themfelves 
the holy and illuminated People of God, and therefore to have a right to fway among thefe 
new Heathen Converts. To obviate this Claim of his to any Authority, St. Paul here tells 
the Corinthians, that the Wifdom and Learning of the Jewifi Nation led them not into the 
Knowledge of the Wiflom of God, i.e. the Gofpel revealed in the Old Teftament, evideac 
in this, that it was their Rulers and Rabbles, who ftittty adhering to the Notions and Prejudices 
of their Nation, had crucified ^efus the Lord of Glory, and were now themfelves, with their 
State and Religion, upon the point to be fwept away and aboliihed. 'Tis to the fame purpofe 

that 2 Cor. IV. l6 19. he tells the CorinthianSy that he kno-ws no Man after the Flefi^ \. c. 

that he acknowledges no Dignity of Birch, or Defcent, or outward national Privileges. The 
old Things of the ye'xifb Confticution are paft and gone ; whoever is in Chrijl, and encred into 
his Kingdom, is in a new Creation, wherein all Things arc new, all Things are from God ; no 
Right, no Claim or Preference derived to any one from any former I nllicution, but every one's 
Dignity con[iits folely in this, that God had reconciled him to himfclf, not imputing htj former 
Tr^fpalfcs to him. 

^ 'A/«yV aV©-, which we tranflate ft&// »«jr/</, feems^to me to (ignify commonly, ifnotcon- 
flantly, in the New Teiiamcnt, that State which, during the Mofaical Conrticucion, Men, either 
jfeus or Gentiles^ were in, as contra-diliinguifhed to the Evangelical State or Conltitution, 
which is commonly called A/fcV u.iKKeov, or k^y^Qixii>@-y The World to come. 

" Tfov K^^ifj.ivcji', Who are brought to nought, i. e. who are vanifhing. If the Wifdom 
of this World arid of tie Princes of this World, be to be underltood of the Wifdom and Learning 
of the World in general, as contra-dirtinguiQied to the Doctrine of the Gofpel, then the Words 
are added, to iliew what Folly it is for them to glory as they do in their Teachers, when all 
that worldly WifJom and Learning, and the Great Men, the Supporters of it, would cjuickly be 
gone , v/hereas all true and Isfiing Glory came only from ^fus Ch^i/i, the Lord of Glory. if thefe Words are to be uuderllood of the ^e-zvs, as feems moft conlbnant borh to the main 
Delign of the Epiltle, and to St. Pauls ExpieiHons here ; then his telling them that the Princes 
of the Jewifh Nation are brought to nought, is to take them off from glorying in their Judaizing 
falfe Apui'lle, fince the Authority of the Rulers of that Nation, in Matters of Religion, was now 
at an end, and they, wirh all their Pretences, and their very Confiicution it fclf, were upon the 
point cf oeing aboliilicd and fwept away, for having rtjci^ed and crucified the Lord of Glory. 



Chap. ir. 


dom of God in a myftery, of God % contained in the myfterlous and 
even the hidden wifdom ^^ obfcure Prophecics of the Old Teftament% 

which God ordained be- , . , , . ^1 . 11 1 1 • 1 1 » 

which has been therein concealed and hid : tho 
it be what God predetermined in his own Pur- 
pofe before the Jewijh Conftitution ^ to the 


7 * VTifdom of God is ufed here for the Doftrine of the Gofpel coming immediately from God 
by the Revelation of his Spirit, and in this Chapter is fet in oppofition to all Knovi^ledge, Difco- 
veries and Improvements whatfoever, attainable by human Indultry, Parts, and Study ; all which 
he calls the Wifdom of the World, and Mans Wifdom -, thus ditlinguifhing the Knowledge of the 
Gofpel which was derived wholly from Revelation, and could be had no other way, from all 
other Knowledge whatfoever. 

* What the Spirit of God had revealed of the Gofpel during the Times of the Law, was fo 
little underftood by the J^ewx, in whofe facred Writings it was contained, that it might well be 
called the Wifdom of Cod in a Myfiery, i. e. declared in obfcure Prophecies, and myfterious Ex- 
preilions and Types. Tho' this be undoubtedly fo, as appears by what the S'ews both thought 
and did when jfefus the Mefftahy exadly anfwering what was foretold of him, came ?mongft 
them ; yet by the Wifdom of God in Myfleyy <wherein it luas hid, though pmfofed by God before the 
fetling of tfje Jewifh Oeconomy, St. VauX leems more particularly to mean what the Gentiles, and 
»confequently the Corinibiam, were more peculiarly concerned in, iyix.^ God's Purpofe of calling 
thc<ieTitiIes to be his People under the Meffiah, which tho* revealed in the Old Teftament, yec 
was not in the lead underftood till the Times of the Gofpel, and the Preaching of St. Paul the 
Apoftle of the Gentiles, which therefore he fo frequently calls a Myfiery. The reading and com- 
paring Kom. XVI. Z5, z6. Eph. III. 3 9. chap. VI. 19, lo. Coll. z6, 27. G^ H. i 8- 

'fiPlV. 3,4. will give light to this. To which give me leave to obferve upon the Ufe of the 
Word Wifd»m here, that Sc. Paul fpeaking of God's calling the Gentiles, cannot in mentioning ic 
forbear Expreflions of his Admiration of the great and incomprehenfible Wifdom of God therein. 
SeeEpfe. III. S, 10. Row. XI. 33. 

^ ne« Tm cltuvm, (ignifies properly, before the Ages \ and I think it may be doubted whe- 
ther thefe Words, before the World, do exadly render the Senfe of the Place. That eiiav or 
dibivii, Ihould not be tranflated the World, as in many Places they are, I ftiall give one con- 
vincing Inftance among many that might be brought, viz. Eph, III. p. compared with Col. I. i6. 
The Words in Colofjtans are, to (JLvrktiw rh ei'tsoy.iK^vy.iAvov d'Tr' dtuvuv ', thus render'd in the 
"Englifi Tranliation, nvhich hath been hidden from Ages ; but in Eph. III. 9. a parallel Place, the 
fame Words, '/a {xv^iel-ii n 'imyA^vfxiJ.iv^i ^ tZv dif'jvcov, are tranflated, the Myfiery which 
from the beginning of the World hath been hid : Whereas it is plain, from Col. I. 26. ^' tmv 
tLiccvKv, does not fignify the Epoch or Commencement of the Concealment, but thofe from whom 
it was concealed. * lis plain, the Apoftle in the Verfe immediately preceding, and that following 
this which we have before us, fpeaks of the yeivs ; and therefore cTfiJ rav eituvuv here, may be 
well underftood to mean, before the Ages of the yeivs ; and Co dir' dicovm, from the Ages of ike 
Jeii'S, in the other two mentioned Texts. Why oLiam in thele, and other Places, as Uike I. 70. 
and A?jIII. 21. and elfewhere, fliould be appropriated to the Ages of the ^<ws, may be owing 
to their counting by Ages or Jubilees : rid. Dr. Burthogge in his Judicious Treatife, Chriflianity 
aretealed Myjler^j c.l. ^,lj* 

I Glory 



Glory of us % who underftand, receive, and 
8, preach it. Which none of the Rulers amongft 
the Jews underftood : For if they had, they 
would not have crucified the Lord Chrift, who 
has in his Hands the difpofing of all true Glory. 
b. But they knew it not ,; as it is written, Eye 
hath not feen, nor Ear heard, nor have the 
Things that God hath prepared for them that 
love him, enter'd into the Heart or Thoughts 

'jQ^ of Man. But thefe Things which are not dif- 
coverable by Man's natural Faculties and Pow- 
ers, God hath revealed to us by his Spirit, 
which fearcheth out all Things, even the' deep 
Counfels of God, which are beyond the reach 

1 1, of our Abilities to difcover. For as no Man 
knoweth what is in the Mind of another Man, 
but only the Spirit of the Man himfelf that is 
in him j fo much lefs doth any Man know 
or can difcover the Thoughts and Counfels 

J2., of God, but only the Spirit of God. But 
we '^ have received not the Spirit of the 


fore the world unto our 

Which non€ of th<j 8 
princes of this world 
knew ; for had they 
known ic, they would 
not have crucified the 
Lord of glory. 

But as it is written, 9 
Eye hath not feen, nor 
ear heard, neither have 
encred into the heart of 
man, the things which 
God hath prepared for 
them that love him. 

But God hath revealed lO 
them unto us by his Spi- 
rit : for the Spirit fearch- 
eth all things j yea, the 
deep things of God. 

For what man knoweth 1 1 
the things of a man, fave 
the fpirit of man which is 
in him? even fo the things 
of Go-l knoweth no man,- 
but the Spirit of God. 

Now we have recei- 12 
ved not the fpiiit of the- 


= St. Paul oppofes here the true Glory of a Chrijlian to the glorying which was amongft the 
Corinthians t in the Eloquence, Learning, or any other Quality of thtir fadious Leaders ; for Sr, 
Taulf in all his Expreirions, has an eye on his main Purpofe : As if he fliouid have faid ; " Why- 
" do you make Divifions, by glorying as you do, in your diftinft Teachers ? The Glory that 
*' God has ordained us Chriflian Teachers and ProfeflTors to, is to be Expounders, Preachers, and' 
*' Believers of thofe revealed Truths and Purpofcs of God, which though contained in the facred- 
" Scriptures of the Old Teiiament, were not underftood in former Ages. This is all the Glory 
** that belongs to us the Difciples of C^ri^, who is the Lord of<T//Puwer and Glory, and herein 
" has given us what far excels all that either ^eivs or Gentiles had any Expedation of from whac- 
" they gloried in ; vid. ver. 9." Thus St. Paul takes away all matter of glorying from the falfe 
Apoftle, and his fadious Followers among the Corinthians. The Excellency of the Gofpel-Mini-: 
firation fee alfo, z Cor. IIL 6— —11. 

12 '^ We^ the true Apoftles, or rather / ; for tho' he fpeaks in the Plural Number to avoid- 
Oftentation, as it might be interpreted, yet he is here juftifying himfelf, and fbewing the 
Corinthians^ that none of them had reafon to forfake and flight him, »to follow and cry up their 
falfe Apoftle. And that he fpeaks of himfelf, is plain from the next Verfe, where he faith, We 
/peak not in the fVords ivhich Mans Wifdom teacheth ; the fame which he fays of himfelf, Ch. I. 17, 
Iivas fent to preachy not with Wijdom ofmrdu And Ch. II, i. I came toyou^ not with Excellency 
»f Speech f or ofyVifdom, 





world, but the •Spirit 
which is of God ; that 
we might know the things 
that are freely given to 
us of Goi. 

Ij Which things alfo we 
fpeak, not in the words 
which mun's wif:ora 
teachcth, but which the 
Ho'y Ghoft tcachech; 
comparing fpiricual things 
with fpiricual. 

I^ But the natural man 
receivech not thi things 
of the Spirit of God ; for 
they are foolifhnefs unto 
him: neither can he know 
them, becaufe they are 
fpiritually difcerned. 

J J But he that is fpiricual, 
judgeth all things; yec 

Chap. ir. 


World % but the Spirit which is of God, that 
we might know what Things are in the Pur- 
pofe of God, out of his free Bounty to beftow 
upon us: Which Things we not only know, 13. 
but declare alfo j not in the Language and 
Learning taught by human Eloquence and Phi- 
lofophy, but in the Language and Expreflions 
which the Holy Ghoft teacheth in the Reve- 
latians contained in the Holy Scriptures, com- 
paring one part of Revelation ^ with another. 
But a Man s who hath no other Help but his 14, 
own natural Faculties, how much foever im- 
proved by human Arts and Sciences, cannot 
receive the Truths of the Gofpel, which arc 
made known by another Principle only, njiz, 
the Spirit of God revealing them, and there- 
fore feem foolilh and abfurd to fuch a Man; 
nor can he by the bare Ufe of his natural 
Faculties, and the Principles of human Rea- 
fon, ever come to the Knowledge of them, 
becaufe it is by the ftudying of Divine Reve- 
lation alone that we can attain the Knowledge 
of them. But he that lays his Foundation in it;. 
Divine Revelation ^, can judge what is, and what 


^ As He puts Princes of the World, iw. 6, and 8. for the Rulers of the ^te-u;/, fo here he 
^ui^ Spirit of the World for the Notions of the j^e-u;/, that worldly Spirit wherewith they inter-= 
preted the Old Teftament, and the Prophecies of the Mejfiah and his Kingdom ; which Spirit, in 
Contra-diftinflion to the Spirit of God, which the Ktman Coaverts had received, he calls the 
Spirit of Bondage, Rom. VIII. 15. 

I J ^ *Tts plain the fpiritual Things he here fpeaks of, are the unfcarchable Counfels of God, 
revealed by the Spirit of God ; which therefore he czWs fpiritual Things. 

14, fj. ^ "^uyj/Jiy the ammal Many znd TTvrjrxATDclfy the fpiritual Man, arc oppofed by 
St. Paul in i-er. 14, i^. the one lignifying a Man that has no higher Principles to build on than 
thofe of natural Reafon , the other, a Man that founds his Faith and Religion on Divine Reve- 
lation. This is what appears to be mean: by natural, or rather animal Man, and Spiritual^ as 
they (land oppol^d in thefc two Verfes. 

I Z 



Chap. IIL 



he himfelf is judged of no" 

For who hath known ^^. 
the mind of the Lord, 
that he may iivftruft him ? 
but we have the mind of 


is not the Dodrine of the Gofpel and of Salva- 
tion J he can judge who is, and who is not a 
good Minifter and Preacher of the Word of God: 
But others, who are bare Animal Men, that go 
not beyond the Difcoveries made by the natural 
Faculties of human Underftanding, without the 
Help and Study of Revelation, cannot judge of 
fuch an one, whether he preacheth right and 
16 Well, or not. For who, by the bare Ufe of his 
natural Parts, can come to know the Mind of the 
Lord in the Defign of the Gofpel, fo as to be able 
to inflrud him ^ [the fpiritual Man] in it. But 
I, who renouncing all human Learning and 
Knowledge ;n the cafe, take all that I preach 

from Divine Revelation alone, I am fure that 

therein I have the Mind of Chrift ; and there- 
fore there is no reafon why any of you fhould 
prefer other Teachers to me,, glory in them who 
oppofe and vilify me, and count it. an Honour 
to go for their Scholars, and be of their Party. 


i6 ^ ^AvjoVy him, refers here to fpiritual Man in the former Verfe, and not to Lord in this. 
For St. Paul is (hewing here, not that a natural Man and a mere Philofopher cannot inftruft 
Chrift, this no body pretending to be a Chriltian could own ; but that a Man by his bare na- 
tural Parts, not knowing the Mind of the Lord, could not inftrud, could not judge, could not 
correft a Preacher of the Gofpel who built upon Revelation, as he did, and therefore 'twas fure 
he had the Mind of Chrift. 

SEC T. II. N. $. 

- CHAP. III. I.— IV. ao. 


TH E next Matter of boafting which the Fadlion made ufe of 
to give the Pre-eminence and Preference to their Leader 
above St. Paul, feems to have been this, that their new Teacher 
had led them farther, and given them a deeper Inlight into the 
Myfteries of the Gofpel than St. Paul had done. To take away their 
:i 2 glorying^ 


glorying on this account, St. Paul tells them, that they were carnal, chap. in. 
and not capable of thofe more advanced Truths, or any thing be- ^*''*^^''^ 
yond the firft Principles of Chriftianity which he had taught them ; 
and tho' another had come and watered what he had planted, yet 
neitlier Planter, nor Waterer, could afTume to himfelf any Glory 
from thence, becaufe it was God alone that gave the Increafe. But 
whatever new Doctrines they might pretend to receive from their 
magnified new Apoftle, yet no Man could lay any other Foundation 
in a Chriftian Church, but what he, St. Paul, had laid, viz. that ' 
Jefus is the Cbrifi ; and therefore there was no reafon to glory in 
their Teachers, becaufe upon this Foundation they poflibly might 
build falfe or unfound DoArines, for which they fhould receive no 
Thanks from God, tho' continuing in the Faith, they might be 
faved. Some of the particular Hay and Stubble which this Leader 
brought into the Church slz Corintby he feems particularly to point 
at. Chap. III. 1 6, 17. viz, their defiling the Church by retaining, 
and, as it maybe fuppofed,. patronizing the Fornicator, who fhould 
have been turned out, Cb. V. 7—13. He further adds, that thefe 
extolled Heads of their Party were at befl but Men^ and none of the 
Church ought to glory in Men : For even P^«/, and Apollos, and 
Peter, and all the other Preachers of the Gofpel, were for the Ufe 
and Benefit, and Glory of the Church, as the Church was for the 
Glory of Chrifl. 

Moreover, he file ws them, that they ought not to be puffed up 
upon the account of rhefe their new Teachers, to the undervaluing 
of him, tho' it fliould be true, that they had learned more from 
them, than from himfelf; for thefe Reafcns : 

1. Becaufe all the Preachers of the Gofpel are but Stewards of 
the Myfteries of God ; and whether they have been faithful in their 
Stewaidfliip cannot be now known j and therefore they ought not 
tobefomeof them magnified and extolled, and others depreiTed 
and bit med by their Hearers here, till Chriji their Lord came, and 
then h^, knowing how they have behaved themfelves in their Mi- 
nifcry, will give them their due Praifes. Befides, thefe Stewards 
have rr thing but what they have received, and therefore no Glory 
belongs to tliem for it. 

2. Becaufe if thefe Leaders were (as was pretended) Apoflles, 
Glory, and Honour, and outward Affluence here, was not their 
F>)rtion, the Apoflles being deflined to Want, Contempt, and Per- 

3, They 



Chap. III. ^. They ought not to be honour'd, foUow'd, and gloried iti as 
""^"^^^''^^ Apoflles, becaufe they had not the Power of Miracles 3 which he 
intended fhortly to come and (hew they had not. 


AND I, Brethren, found you fo given up A ^ ^,/\oj''"J"^]j '^' 
to Pride and Vain-Glory, in AfFediation ^t^you^as untofpirS, 
of Learning and Philofophical Knowledge ', but as unto carnal, evea 
that I could not fpeak to -you as Spiritual, as unto babes in Chrift. 
i. e. as to Men not wholly depending on Phi- 
lofophy, and the Difcoveries of natural Reafon, 
as to Men who had refigned themfelves up in 
Matters of Religion to Revelation, and the 
Knowledge which comes only from the Spirit 
of God ; but as to Carnal \ even as to Babes 
who yet retained a great many childifli and 
v/rong Notions about it: This hindered me that 
I could net go fo far as I defired in the Myfteries 
of the Chrifiian Religion, but was fain to con- 
t:ent my felf with inftrudting you in the firft Prin- 

N O T E S. 

T ' Vid. CJE-rfp.!. 2a. &III. l8. 

^ Here ^I'SuuAT/y.of, Spiritual^ is oppofcd to (rat?x,/;t5f, Carnal^ as C&^^. If. 14. it is to '^''y- 
•y/jtif N^turaly or rather Animal; fo that here wc have three Sorts of Men : i. Carnal^ \. e. 
I'uch as are fway'd by flclhly Palfions and Intcrefts ; z. Animaly i. c. fuch as feck WifJom, or 
a Way to Happinefs only by the Strength and Guidance of their own natural Parts, wichout any 
fupernatural Light coming from the Spirit of God, i. e. by Reafon without Revelation, by Phi- 
iofophy without Sciipture; i. Spiritual, i.e. fuch as fee k their Diredion to Happinefs, not in 
the Didaccs of natural Reafon and Philofophy, but. in the Revelations of the Spirit of God in the 
Holy Scriptures. 

' Here aa^JciKUy carnal^ is oppofed to TViufMHTuiti /pirittialy in the fame Senfe that -^v^^Klft 
natitralor mimal^ is oppoftd to TnuixctTiKsi, fpirituali Chap. II. 14. as appears by the £xpH- 
cation which S . P.z/// huiifi;lf gives here to (Tci^KiKof, cardial: For he makes the Cat-nal to be 
all one wiih Babes h Chriji, vtr. i. i.e. fuch as had not their IJnderdandings yet fully opened 
ro the true Grounds of the Chriftian Pvcligion, but retained a great many childilli Thoughts about 
it, ,as appeared by their Divifions, one for the Dodrinc of his Maftcr P.J«/, another for that of 
his Matter ApoUos ; which if they had been fpiritualy i. c. had looked upon the Doctrine of the 
Gofpel to have come folely from the Spirit of God, and to be had only from Revelation, they 
could not have done; for then all human Mixtures of any thing, derived either from ?aul or 
ApoUos, or any other Man, had been wholly excluded. But chVy in thefe DiviHons profelfed to 
.hold their Rcligi'>nj one from one Man, and another frum another , and were thereupon di- 
A'lded into Parties. This he tells them was to be carnal, and ■■^cnrttre.v \^ a;'^f4)T3f, to be led 
by Principles purely human, i.e. to found their Religion upon Mens natural parts and Difcove- 
ries ; wlicrcas the Gofpel was wholly built upon Divine Rcvclationj and nothing dfc, and.fronj 
.thence alone thofc who were TrnvfAXJiyJi took it, 

2 ciples 




Chap. III. 

'^ I have fed you with 
milk, and not ^vith meat: 
for hitherto ye were not 
able to bear ir, neither 
yec now are ye able. 

'5 For ye arc yet carnal : 
for whereas there is a- 
mong you envying, and 
ftrife, and divifions, are 
ye not carnal, and walk 
as men ? 

'4 For while one faith, I 
am of Paul, and another, 

ciples " and more obvious and eafy Dotftrlnes 
of it. I could not apply my fclf to you, as to 
fpiritual Men", that could compare fpiritual 
"Things with fpiritual, one part of Scripture with 
another, and thereby underftand the Truths re- 
vealed by the Spirit of God, difcerning true from 
falfe Doa:rines, good and ufeful from evil ° and" 
vain Opinions. A further Difcovery of the 
Truths and Myfteries of Chriftianity, depend- 
ing wholly on Revelation, you were not able 
to bear then, nor are you yet able to bear ; 
becaufe you are carnal, full of Envyings, and 
Strife, and Factions, upon the account of your' 
Knowledge, and the Orthodoxy of your par-- 
ticular Parties p. For whilft you fay, one, I 
am of Paul',, and another, lam oi ApoUos '^^%' 
are ye not carnal, and manage your felves in' 
the Conduct both of your Minds and Adlions,^ 
according to barely human Principles, . and do 

N t E S. 

« That this is the meaning of the Apoftle's Metaphor olMilk aftd Babes, may be fecn Heh. V, 
II— —14. 

z " Vid. Chap. IX. 13; 

*» ViA.Heb.V. 14. .... 

3 P Kctr' ttVdf (WTop. Speaking according to Man, (ignifies fpeaking according to the PnncV 
pks of natural Rcafon, in Contra-diftinaion to Revelation, vU. i Cor. IX. 8. Gal. I. li. and fo- 
ivaJking according to Man maik here he nnderCtooi. 

4 1 From this 4th Verfc, compared with Chap. IV. 6. it may be no improbable Conjeftiire that 
the Divifion in this Church was only into two oppofite Partits ; whereof the one adhered to Sr. 
Paul, the other ftood up for their Head, a falfe ApolUe, who oppoCd St. Paul: For the Apollos 
whom St. P/r«/ mentions here, was one (as he tells us, ver. 6.) who came in and water'd what 
he had planted, i. e. when St. Paul had planted a Church at Corinth, this Apollos got into it, and 
pretended to inftruft them farther, and boafted in his Performances amongU them, which St. Paul 
takes notice of again, 2. Cor. X. 15, 16. Now the Apollos that he here fpeaks of, he himfelf tells 
us, CJb«/>. IV. 6.^ was another Man under that borrowed Name. 'Tis true, St. P<?h/ in his 
Epifiles to the Corinthians , generally fpeaks of thefe his Oppofers tn the Plural Number ; but it is 
to be remembred, that he fpeaks fo of himfelf too, which as it was the lefs invidious way \r\ 
regard of himfelf, {o it was the fofter way towards his Oppofer, the' he feeou to intimate plainly,-- 
that it was one Leader that was fct up againft him. 




Chap. III. 



not as fpiritual Men acknowledge all that In- 
formation, and all thofe Gifts wherewith the 
Minifters of Jefus Chrift are furniflied for the 
Propagation of the Gofpel, to come wholly from 
the Spirit of God ? What then are any of the 
Preachers of the Gofpel, that you fliould glory 
in them, and divide into Parties under their 
Names ? Who, for Example, is Paul, or who 
ApoUosf What are they elfe but bare Mini- 
fters, by whofe Miniftry, according to thofe fe- 
vcral Abilities and Gifts which God has be- 
flowed upon each of them, ye have received the 
Gofpel ? They are only Servants, employ 'd to 
bring unto you a Religion derived intirely from 
Divine 'Revelation, wherein human Abilities, 
or Wifdom, had nothing to do. The Preachers 
of it are onJy Inilruments by whom this Do- 
<5trine is conveyed to you j which, whether you 
look on it in its Original, it is not a Thing of 
human Invention or Difcovery ; or whether 
you look upon the Gifts of the Teachers who 
inflrud: you in it, all is entirely from God 
alone, and affords you not the leaft ground to 
attribute any thing to your Teachers. For 
Example, I planted it amongft you, and Apol- 
los watered it, but nothing can from thence be 
afcribed to either of us ; there is no reafon for 
your calling your felves, fome oi Paul, and others 
of Apollos : For neither the Planter nor the 
Waterer have any Power to make it take Root 
and grow in your Hearts j they are as nothing 
in that refped, the Growth and Succefs is ow- 
ing to God alone. The Planter and the Wa- 
terer on this account are all one, neither of 
them to be magnified or preferred before the 
other ; they are but Inftruments concurring to 
the lame end, and therefore ought not to be 



I am of Apollos, are ye 
not carnal \ 

Who then is Paul, and 
who is Apollos, but mini- 
fters by whom ye belie- 
ved, even as the Lord 
gave to every man? 

I have planted, Apol- (|| 
los watered ; but God 
gave the increafe. 

So then, neither is he 7 
that planteth any thing, 
neirher he that watereth ; 
but God that givcch the 

Now he that planteth, 8 
and he that watereth, are 
one : and every man fliall 
receive his own reward. 




according to his own la- 

p For we are labourers 
together with God : ye 
are God's husbandry, ye 
are God's buildinij. 

10 According to the grace 
of God which is given un- 
to me, as a wife mafter- 
builder I have laid the 
foundation, and another 
buildeth thereon. But let 
'every man take heed how 
he buildeth thereupon. 

11 For other foundation 
can no man lay, than that 
is laid, which is Jefus 

ft Now if any man build 
upon thisfoundation,gold, 
filver, precious ftones, 
wood, hay, ftubble ; 


Chip. irr. 

diftlngiiifhed, and fet in oppofition one to ano- 
ther, or cried up as more deferving one than 
another. We, the Preachers of the Gofpel, are 
but Labourers employ 'd by God about that 
which is his Work, and from him fhall receive 
Reward hereafter, every one according to his 
own Labour J and not from Men here, who 
are liable to make a wrong Eftimate of the 
Labours of their Teachers, preferring thofe 
who do not labour together with God, who do 
not carry on the Defign or Work of God in the 
Gofpel, or perhaps do not carry it on equally 
with others who are undervalued by them. 
Ye who are the Church of God are God's Build- 
ing } in which I, according to the Skill and 
Knowledge which God of his free Bounty has 
been pleafed to give me, and therefore ought 
not to be to me or any other, matter of glory- 
ing, as a ikilful Architect, have laid a fure 
Foundation, which is Jefus the Meffiah, the 
fole and only Foundation of Chriftianity, be- 
iides which no Man can lay any other. But 
tho' no Man who pretends to be a Preacher of 
the Gofpel can build upon any other Founda- 
tion, yet you ought not to cry up your new 
Inftrudtor % (who has come and built upon 
the Foundation that I laid) for the Dodtrines 
he builds thereon, as if there were no other 
Minifler of the Gofpel but he : For 'tis pofTible 
a Man may build upon that true Foundation, 
Wood, Hay, and Stubble, Things that will not 
bear the Teft, when the Trial by Fire at the 





ti * Cfc«f.IV. 15. in this he reflets on the falfe Apoftle, i Ccr. X, ij, i$« 




Chap. Iir. 



Ij. laft day ^ fhall come. At that day every Man's 
Work fhall be tried, and difcover'd of what 
fort it is : If what he hath taught be found and 

14. good, and will ftand the Trial, as Silver and 
Gold, and precious Stones, abide in the Fire, 
he fhall be rewarded for his Labour in the 

I r. Gofpel : But if he hath introduced falfe or un- 
found Do(3:rines into Chriftianity, he fhall be 
like a Man, whofe Building being of Wood, 
Hay and Stubble, is confumed by the Fire ; all 
his Pains in Building is lofl, and his Works 
confumed and gone, tho' he himfelf fhould 

J 6. efcape and be faved. I told you, that ye are 
God's Building ^ j yea, more than, that, ye are 
the Temple of God, in which his Spirit dwel- 

17. leth. If any Man by corrupt Dodrine or Dif- 
cipline defileth " the Temple of God, he fhall 
not be faved with Lofs, as by Fire, but hinx 
will God deftroy ; for the Temple of God is 

}&, holy, which Temple ye are. Let no Man de- 
ceive himfelf by his Succefs in carrying his 
PoincT : If any one feemeth to himfelf or 

NOTE ^. 

1'? '"When the Day of Trial and Recompenfc ihall be, CeQCbap-AV. $. where he fpeaks of 
the fame Thing. 
j6 ' Vid. T'er. 9. 

17 ^ It is not incongruous to think, that by any Man here, Sr. Pa:4 dedgns one particular 
Man, viz. the faJfe Apoftle, who, 'tis probable, by the Strength of his Party and 
retaining the Fornicator mentioned C&4p. V. in the Church, had defiled it ; which may be the 
Reafon why St. Paul fo often mentions Fornication in this EpiiUe, and that i-n fdme Place* with 

particular Emphafis, is Chafy. V. 9. & VI. 15 10. Moft of the Diforders in this Church we 

may look on as owing to this falfe Apoille, which is the Reafon why St. Paul fets himfelf Co 
much againft him in both thcfc Epiflles, and makes almoft the whole bufinefs of them to draw 
the Corinthians off from this Leader; judging, as 'tis like, that this Church could not be reforn*- 
ed as long as that Pcrfbn was in Credit, and had a Party among them. 

18 " What it was vvhcrcin the Craftinefs of the Perfon mentioned had appcar'd, it was not 
necelTary for St. Pauly writing to the CorinthianSy who knew the matter of Fad:, to particularize 
to us, therefofe it is left to guefs „. and pollibly we fhall not be much out, if we take ic to be the 
keeping the Forni;;ator from Cenfi^e,^ £0 much inlifted on by St. Pattl^ Chap. V, 

1 - others 

Every man's work fliall 1} 
be made manifeft : for 
the day (hall declare it, 
becaufe it (hall be reveal- 
ed by fire ; and the fire 
fhall try every man's 
work, of what fort it is. 

If any man's work a- ^4 
bide which he hath builc 
thereupon, he fhall re- 
ceive a reward. 

If any man's work fhall If; 
be burnt, he fhall fuffcr 
lofs: but he himfelf (hall 
be faved ; yet fo, as by 

Know ye not that ye i^ 
are the temple of God, 
and that the Spirit of 
God dwelleth in you ? 

If any man defile the ^ 7; 
temple of God, him fhall 
God deflroy : for the 
temple of God is holy, 
which temple ye are. 

Let no mm deceive li.- 
himfelf: if any man a- 
mong you feemech to be 




wife in this world, let 
him become a fool, thac 
Jie may be wife. 

ip Per ths wifdom of this 
world is foolifhnefs with 
God : for ic is written, 
He taketh the wife in 
their own craftinefs. 

JO And again, The Lord 
knoweth the thoughts of 
the wife, that they are 

M Therefore let no man 
glory in men : for all 
things are yours : 

21 Whether Paul, or A- 
poUos, or Cephas, or the 
world, or life, or death, 
or things prefent, or 
things to come ; all are 
yours : 

23 And ye are Chrifi's ; 
and Chrid is Cod's. 

1 let a man fo accoimt 
of us, as of the minifters 


Chap, nii 

others wife '^, in worldly Wifdom, fo as to 
pride himfelf in his Parts and Dexterity, in 
compafling his Ends, let him renounce all his 
natural and acquired Parts, all his Knowledge 
and Ability, that he may become truly wife in 
embracing and owning no other Knowledge 
but the Simplicity of the Gofpel. For all other 
Wifdom, all the Wifdom of the World, is Foo- 
liflinefs with God : For it is written, He ta- 
keth the Wife in their own Craftinefs. And 
again, the Lord knoweth the Thoughts of the 
Wife, that they are vain. Therefore let none 
of you glory in any of your Teachers, for they 
are but Men. For all your Teachers, whe- 
ther Paul^ or Apollos, or Peter, even the Apo- 
flles themfelves, nay, all the World, and even 
the World to come, all Things are yours, for 
your fake and ufe ; as you are Chrifl's Subjedls, 
of his Kingdom, for his Glory, and Chrift and 
his Kingdom for the Glory of God. Therefore 
if all your Teachers, and fo many other greater 
Things are for you, and for your fakes, you 
can have no reafon to make it a Glory to you, 
that you belong to this or that particular Teach- 
er amongft you j your true Glory is, that you 
are Chrifl's, and Chriil and all his are God's, 
and not that you are this or that Man's Scholar 
or Follower. 

As for me, I pretend not to fet up a School 
amongft you, and as a Mafler to have my 
Scholars denominated from me ; no, let no 
Man have higher Thoughts of mc than as a 







N r E s. 

* That by arojof here, the Apoftle means a cunning Man in bufincfsi is plain from his Quota- 
tion in the next Verfe, where the Wife fpoken of are the Crafty, :l ..'.lo 

K 2 Minifter 


Chap. IV. 



Minlfter of Chrifl:, employ'd as his Steward to 
difpenfe the Truths and Dodrines of the Go- 
fpel, which are the Myfteries which God 
wrapped up in Types and obfcure Predidions, 
where they have lain hid, till by us, hisApoftles, 

2. he now reveals them. Now that which is 
principally required and regarded in a Stew- 
ard, is, that he be faithful in difpenfing what 

3. is committed to his Charge. But as for mc, I 
value it nor, if I am cenfured by fome of you, 
or by any Man, as not being a faithful Stew- 
ard : Nay, as to this, I pafs no Judgment on 

4. my felf For tho' I can truly fay that I know 
nothing by my felf, yet am 1 not hereby julli- 
iied to you : But the Lord, whofe Steward I am, 
at the lafl Day will pronounce Sentence on my 
Behaviour in my Stewardlhiip, and then you 

5^ will know what to think of me. Then judge 
liot either me or others before the time, until 
the Lord come, who will bring to light the 
dark and fecret Counfels of Mens Hearts, in 
preaching the Gofpel 3 and then {hall every 
one have that Praife, that Eftimate fet upon 
him by God himfelf, which he truly deferves. 
But Praife ought not to be given them before 
the time by their Hearers, who are ignorant, 

^' fallible Men. On this Occafion I have named 
jt^pollos and my felf'', as the magnified and 
oppofed Heads of diftindl Factions amongft 
you 3 not that we are fo, but out of refped: to 
you, that I might offend no body by naming 
them J and that you may learn by us, of whom 
1 have written % that we are but Planters, 


of Chrift, and ftewards of 
the myfteries of God, 

Moreover, ic is requi- % 
red in ftewards, thac a 
man be found faithful. 

But wich me it is a I 
very fmall thing that I 
Ihould be judged of you, 
or of man's judgment : 
yea, I judge act mine 
own felf. 

For I know nothing by 4. 
my felf, yet am I not 
hereby juftified : but he 
chat judgeth me is the 

Therefore judge no- 5 
thing before the time, 
until the Lord come, who 
both will bring to light 
the hidden things of dark- 
nefs, and will make ma- 
nifeft the counfels of the 
hearts : and then ihall 
every man have praife of 

And thefe things, bre- 
thren, I have in a figure 
transferred to my felf, 
and to Apollo:, for your 
fakes: that ye might leara 
in us, not to think of men 

N o r E s. 

6 y Vid. chap. III. 4. 

* yid.cia^.nh 6 — 

■9. ChapAV, I, 




above that which is writ- 
ten, that no one of you 
be puffed up for one a- 
gainft another. 

Waterer?, and Stewards, not :o tliink of the 
Minifters of thc' Gofpel above what I have 
written to you of them, that you be not puffed 
up, each Party in the vain Glory of their one 
extolled Leader, to the crying down and 
Contempt of any other who is well efteemed 
of by others. For what maketh one to differ 7. 
from another ? or what Gifts of the Spirit, 
what Knowledge of the Gofpel has any Leader 
amongft you, which he received not, as intruded 
to him of God, and not acquired by his own 
Abilities? And if he received it as a Steward, 8. 
why does he glory in that which is not his 
own? However, you are mightily fatisfied 
with your prefent State, you now are full, you 
now are rich, , and abound in every thing you 
defire ; you . have not need of me, but^ have 
reigned like Princes without me; and I wifh 
truly you did reign, that I might come and 
fnare in the Protection and Profperity you en- 
f.. For I think that God joy now you are in your Kingdom. For I be- q 
m^f:t*,"'^t%. i"g ™^de an Apoftle laft of all, ic feems to me ^' 
as it r were brought laft =" upon the Stage, 
to be in my Sufferings and Death a Spectacle 
to the World, and to Angels, and to Men. I 10, 
am a Fool for Chrift's fake, but you manage 
your Chriftian Concerns with Wifdom. I am 
weak, and in a fuffering Condition^ 3 you 
are ftrong and flouriftiing. You are honou- 
rable ; but I am defpifed. Even to this pre- il. 
fent Hour I both hunger and thirfb, and 
want Clothes, and am buffeted, wandcr- 

j For who maketh thee 
to differ from another ? 
and what haft thou that 
thou didft not receive ? 
now if thou didft receive 
it, why doft thou glory, 
25 if thou hadft not recei- 
ved it ? 

g Now ye are fu'.!, now 
ye are rich, ye have reii^n- 
€d a& kings without us : 
and I would to God ye 
did reign, that we aifo 
might reign with you. 

pointed to death: For we 
are made a fpei^acle unto 
the world, and to angels, 
and to men. 

J Q We are fools for Chrift's 
fake, but ye are wife in 
Chrift : we are weak, but 
ye are ftrong : ye are ho- 
nourable, but we are de- 

1 1 Even unto this prefent 
hour w-e both hunger ,and 
thirft, and are naked, and 
are buffeted, and have no 
certain dwelling-place ; . 


9 ^ The Apoftle feems here to allude to the Cufiom of bringing thofe laft upon the Theatfe, 
•who were to be deftroy'd by wild Beafts, 

10 ^ So he ufes the Word Weaknefi often, iii his Epiftles to the Cormhinns. applied to him- 
felf. F/rf. iCor.XII. 10, f- - 

in J 



Chap. IV, 








ing without Houfe or Home, and maintain my 
felf with the Labour of my Hands. Being re- 
viled, I blefs ; being perfecuted, I fufFer pa- 
tiently; being defamed, 1 intreat : I am made 
as the Filth of the World, and the Off-fcouring 
of all Things unto this day. I write not thefe 
Things to fhame you ; but as a Father, to warn 
ye, my Children, that ye be not the devoted, 
zealous Partizans and Followers of fuch whofe 
Carriage is not like this j under whom, how- 
ever ycu may flatter your felves, in trutli, you 
do not reign 3 but on the contrary, are domi- 
neer'd over, and fleeced by them^ I warn 
you, I fay, as your Father : For how many 
Teachers foever you may have, you can have 
but one Father; it was I that begot you in 
Chrift, /. e. I converted you to Chrifl:ianity : 
Wherefore, I befeech you, be ye Followers of 
me '^. To this purpofe I have fent my beloved 
Son I'imothy to you, who may be relied upon ; 
he fhall put you in mind, and inform you, 
how I behave my felf every where in the Mi- 
nifl:ry of the Gofpel ^ Some indeed are puffed 
up, and make their Boafts, as if I would not 

N O 1^ E S, 

And labour, working II 
with our own hands: be- 
ing reviled, we blefs : be- 
ing perfecuted, we fufFer 
it : 

Being defamed, we in- 1 5 
treat : we are made as the 
filch of the world, and are 
the oft-fcouring of all 
things unto this day. 

1 write not thefe things! 4 
to fhame you, but as my 
beloved fons I warn you. 

For though you have 1 5 
ten thoufand inftrudors 
in Chriit, yet have ye noc 
many fathers : for ia 
Chrili Jefus I have begot- 
ten you through the go- 

Wherefore, I befeech 1 6 
you, be ye followers of 

For this caufe haveliy 
fent unto you Timotheus, 
who is my beloved Ion, 
and faithful in the Lord, 
who fliall Wing, you into 
remembrance of my ways 
which be in Chrift, as I 
teach every Whei'C in €- 
very church. 

Now fome are puffed 18 
up, as though I would not 
come to you. 

14 ^ Vid. z Cor. XI. zc. St. Vaitl here, from >uer. 8, to 17. by giving an account of his own 
Carriage, gently rebukes them for following Men of a different Charafter, and exhorts them 
to be Followers of himfelf. 

16 '^ This he preffes again. Chap.^A. i. and 'tis not likely he would have propofed himfelf 
over and over again to them, to be followed by them, had the Queftion and Conceft amongft 
them been only whofe Name they fhould have borne, his or their new Teacher's. His pro- 
po"fing himfelf therefore thus to be followed, muft be underftood in dired Oppofirion to the falfe 
Apollle, who milled them, and was not to be fuffcred to have any Credit or Followers amongil 

17 ^ This he does to fticw that what he taught them, and prelted them to, was not in al'ique 
againft his Oppofer, but to convince them, that all he did at Corinth was the very fame, and no 
other than what he did every where, as a faithful Steward aad Minifter of the Gofpel. 





Chap. IV. 

jQ But I will come to you 
fliortly, if the Lord will, 
and will know, not the 
fpeech of them which arc 
puffed up, but the power. 

20 For the kingdom of 
God is not in word, but 
in power. 

come to you. But I intend, God willing, to 
come (hortly, and then will make Trial, not of 
the Rhetorick or Talking of thofe Boafters, 
but of what miraculous Power of the Holy 
Ghoil is in them. For the Dodrine and Pre- 
valency of the Gofpel, the Propagation and 
Support of Chrift's Kingdom,, by the Converfion 
and Eftablifliment of Believers, does not con- 
fift in Talking, nor in the Fluency of a glib 
Tongue and a fine Difcourfe, but in the mira- 
culous Operations of the Holy Ghoft. 



SECT. IL N. 6. 

CHAP. IV. II. VI. 2.0. 


ANother means which St. Paul makes ufe of to bring off the- 
Corinthians from their falie Apoftle, and to flop their Vene- 
ration of him, and their glorying in him, is by reprefenting ta- 
them the Fault and Diforder which was committed in that Church,. 
by not judging and expelling the Fornicator ; which Negledt, as 
may be guefs'd, was owing to that Fad:ion : 

1. Becaufe it is natural for a Fadrion to fupport and proted: an. 
Offender that is of their fide.. 

2. From the great Fear St. Paid was in, whether they would 
cbey him in cenfuring the Offender, as appears by the fecond 
Epillle ; which he could not fear, but from the oppofite Faction r: 
they who had preferv'd their Refpe<5t to him, being fure to follow 
his Orders. 

3. From what he fays. Chap. IV. 16. after he had told them, "jer, 6^ 
of that Chapter, that they fhould not be puffed up for any other 
againfl him, for fo the whole Scope of his Difcourfe here imports j 
he befeeches them to be his Followers, /", e» leaving their other 



Chap. IV. Guides to follow him in punilhing the Offender. For that we may 
conclude, from his immediately infifting o;i it fo earneftly, he had 
in his v\qw, wlien he befceches them to be Follov/ers of him ; and, 
confequently, that they might join with him, and take him for their 
Leader, Chtip. V. ^, 4. he makes himfelf by his Spirit, as his Proxy^ 
the Prefident of their AfTembly, to be convened for the punifliing 
that Criminal. • '' • 

4. It may further be fufpeded, from what St. PW fays, Ch.Yl. i, 
that the oppofite Party, to flop the Church-Cenfure, pretended thac 
this was a Matter to be jndg'd by the Civil Magifhrate: Nay, 
poHibly from what is faid, 'vc'r. 6. of that Chapter, it may be ga- 
thered, that they had got it broUght before the Heathen Judge ; or 
at leafl, from ver. 12. that they pleaded, that what he had done was 
lawful, and might be juftihed before the Magiftrate : For the 
Judging fpoken o^^ Ch. VI. mufi: be underftood to relate to the farne 
Matter it does Ch.Y . it being a Continuation of the fame Difcourfe 
and Argument ; as is ealy to be obferved by any one who will read 
it without regarding the Divi/ions into Chapters and Verfes, whereby 
ordinary People (not to fay others) are often diflurbed in reading 
the Holy Scripture, and hindered from obferving the true Senfe and 
Coherence of it. The whole Vlth Chapter is fpent in profecuting 
the Bufinefs of the Fornicator, began in the Vth. That this is fo, is 
evident from the latter end, as well as beginning of the Vlth Chapter, 
And therefore what St. Faiil fays of lawful^ Chap. VI. 12. may, 
without any Violence, be fuppofed to be faid in anfwer to fome, 
who might have alledg'd in favour of the Fornicator, that what he 
had done vjas laivfuij and might be juftified by the Laws of the 
Country, which he was under y why elfe iliould St. Paul fubjoin fo 
many Arguments (wherewith he concludes this Vlth Chapter, and 
this Subjedl) to prove the Fornication in queftion to be by the Law 
of th^ Gofpel a great Sin^ and confequently fit for a Chriftian Church, 
to cenfure in one of its Members, however it might pafs.for lawful 
in the Efleem, and by the Laws of Ge??tilesf 

There is one Obje^ftion, which, at firft fight, feems to be a flrong 
Argument againft this Suppofition, that the Fornication herefpo- 
ken of, was held lawful by the Gentiles of Corinthy and that pofli- 
bly this very Cafe had been brought before the Magiftrate there, 
and not condemned. The Objedion feems to lie in thefe Words ; 
Chap.Y. I. There is Fornication heard of afno7tg/i you^ andfuchFornica' 
.jion as is not heard of amon^fl the Gentiles, that one fiould have his 



Father's Wife. But yet I conceive the Words, duly confider'd, have chap, TV. 
nothing in them contrary to my Suppofition. ^^•Y^-' 

To clear this, I take liberty to fay, it cannot be thought that this 
Man had his Father's Wife, whilft by the Laws of the Place flie 
actually was his Father's Wife ; for then it had been //o«;^&i5t and 
Adultery, and fo the Apoftle would have called it, which was a 
Crime in Greece-, nor could it be tolerated in any Civil Society, that 
one Man fhould have the Ufe of a Woman, whilft {he was another 
Man's Wife, i. e, another Man's Right and Poffeffion. 

The Cafe therefore here feems to be this : The Woman had 
parted from her Hufband ; which it is plain, from Ch. VII. 10, 11, 
13. at Corinth Women could do : For if by the Law of that Country 
a Woman could not divorce her felf from her Hufband, tlie Apoflle 
had there in vain bid her not leave her Hufband. 

But however known and allowed a Pradiice it might be amongft: 
x\\Q Corinthians, for a Woman to part from her Hufband, yet this 
was the firft time it w^as ever known that her Huiband's own Son 
(hould marry her. This is that which the Apoftle takes notice of 
in thefe Words, S>uch a Fornication as is not named amongfi the Gen- 
tiles. Such a Fornication this was, fo little known in Practice 
amongft; them, that it was not fo much as heard named, or fpoken 
of by any of them. : But whether they held it unlawful that a Wo- 
man, fo feparated,, fhould marry her Hufband's Son, when fhe 
was looked upon to be at liberty from her former Hufband, and 
free to marry whom flie pleafed, that the Apoftle fays not. This 
indeed he declares, that by the Law of Chrifl a Woman's leaving 
her Hufband, and marrying another, is unlawful, C/?. VII. 11. and 
this Woman's marrying her Hufband's Son, he declares, Ch. V. i. 
(the Place before us) to be Fornication ; a peculiar fort of Forni- 
cation, whatever the Corinthians or their Law might determine in 
ihe Cafe : And therefore a Chriftian Church might and ought to 
have cenfured it \vithin themfelves, it being an Offence againft the 
Rule of the Gofpel ; which is the Law of their Society : And they 
might and ihould have expelled this Fornicator out of their So- 
ciety, for not fubmitting to the Laws of it ; notwithftanding that 
the Civil Laws of the Country, and the Judgment of the Heathen 
Magiftrate, might acquit him. Suitably hereunto, it is very remark- 
able, that the Arguments that St. Faul ufes, in the clofe of this 

Dilcourfe, Ch. VI. 13 20. to prove Fornication unlawful, are all 

drawn folely from the Chriftian Inftitution, 'u^r. 9. That our Bo- 

L dies 


Chap IV. dies are made for the Lord, 'uer. 13. That our Bodies are Members of 
VV^*^ Chrift, 'ver. 15. That our Bodies are the Temples of the Holy Ghoft, 
*ver. 19. That we are not our own, but bought with a Price, ver. 20. 
All which Arguments concern Chriilians only ; and there is not in 
all this Difcourfe againfl Fornication, one Word to declare it to be 
unlawful by the Law of Nature to Mankind in general : That was 
altogether needlefs, and befides the Apoftle's Purpofe here, where 
he was teaching and exhorting Chriflians what they were to do as 
Chriftians, within their own Society, by the Law of Chrift, which 
was to be their Rule, and was fufficient to oblige them ; whatever 
other Laws the reft of Mankind obferved, or were under, thofe he 
profefles, Chap.Y. 12, 19. not to meddle with, nor to judge: For 
having no Authority amongft them, he leaves them to the Judg- 
ment of God, under whofe Government they are. 

Thefe Confiderations aiford ground to conjecfture, that the Fa- 
6:ion which oppofed St. Paul^ had hinder'd the Church of Corinth 
from cenfuring the Fornicator ; and that St. Paul^ fhewing them 
their Mifcarriage herein, aims thereby to lefTen the Credit of their 
Leader, by whofe Influence they were drawn into it : For as foon 
as they had unanimoufly (hewn their Obedience to St. Faul in this 
Matter, we fee his Severity ceafes, and he is all Softnefs and Gtw- 

tlenefs to the Offender, 2 Cor. II. 5 8 and he tells them, in ex- 

prefs Words, 'ver. 9. that his end in writing to them of it, was to 
try their Obedience. To which let me add, that this Suppofition, 
though it had not all the Evidence for it which it has, yet being 
fuited to St. Paul\ principal Defign in this Epiftle, and helping us 
the better to underftand thefe two Chapters, may deferve to be 




Chap. V.' 



WHat willye? fliall 
I come unto you 
■with a rod, or in love, and 
in the fpiric of meeknefs ? 
I It is reported common- 
ly that there is fornica- 
tion among you, and fuch 
fornication as is not fo 
much as named amongft 
the Gentiles, that one 
fhould have his father's 
2, And ye are puffed up, 
and have not rather mour- 
ned, that he that hath 
done this deed, might be 
taken away from among 

'3 For I verily,as abfent in 
body, but prefent in fpi- 
rir, have judged already, 
as though I were prefent, 
concerning him that hath 
lb done this deed ; 

^ In the name of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift, when 
•ye are gathered together, 
and my fpirit, with the 
power of our Lord Jefus 

\g To deliver fuch an one 

IPurpofed to come unto you : But what 
would you have me do ? Shall I come to 
you with a Rod, to chaflife you? or with Kind- 
iiefs, and a peaceable Difpofition of mind ^ ? 
In fliort, it is commonly reported, that there 
is Fornication ^ among you, and fuch Forni- 
cation as is not known ^ ordinarily among the 
Heathen, that one fliould have his Father's 
Wife ; and yet ye remain puffed up, though it 
would better have become you to have been de- 
jected for this fcandalous Fad: amongft you, 
and, in a mournful Scnfe of it, to have remo- 
ved the Offender out of the Church. For I 
truly, though abfent in Body, yet as prefent 
in Spirit, have thus already judg'd, as if I were 
perfonally with you, him that committed 
this Fad:. When in the Name of the Lord 
Jefus ye are affembled, and my Spirit, /. e. my 
Vote, as if I were prefent, making one by the 
Power of our Lord Jefus Chrift, deliver the 
Offender up to Satan, that being put thus into 


II *^ Ke that fhall carefully read z Cor I. zo. ■ ■ II. Ti. will caflly perceive that this lafl 
Verfe here of this IVth Chapter is an Introduftion to the fevere Aft of Difcipline which St. Paul 
was going to exercife amongft them, tho' abfent, as if he had been prefent; and therefore this 
Verfe ought not to have been feparatcd from the following Chapter, as if ic belong'd not to thac 

I s vid. Ch. IV. 8, 10. The Writers of the New Teftament feem to ufe the Greek Word 
m^v&ia,, which we tranllate Fornication, in the fame Senfe that the Hebrews ufed nOt, which 
we alfo tranflate Fornication ; tho' it be certain both thefe Words, in facred Scripture, have a 
larger Senfe than the Word Fornication has in our Language : For HOI, amongft the Hebrews^ 
fignified, Turpitudinemy or Rem trnpem, Unclcannefs, or any flagitious fcandalous Crime ; buc 
more efpecially the Uncleannefs of unlawRil Copulation and Idolatry, and not prccifely Fornica- 
tion in our Senfe of the Word, i. e. the unlawful Mixture of an unmarried Couple. 

^ Sot known. That the marrying of a Son-in-law and a Mother-in-law, was not prohibited 
by the Laws of the Roman Empire, may be fcen m Tully ; but yet it was look'd on as fo fcan- 
dalous and infamous, that it aever had any Countenance from Pradice. His Words in his Ora- 
tion ^ro Cluentio, $ 4. are fn agreeable to the prefent Cafe, that it may not be amifi to fet them 
down : Kttbit genero focrus nullis anfficiiif nttlhs auftoribHS, O fcehs incredihile^ & prater hatic 
unam in omai vita inanditumJ 

L 2 the 







Chap. V. 



the Hands and Power of the Devil, his Body 
may be affli(5led and brought down, that his 
Soul may be faved when our Lord Jelus comes 
to judge the World. Your glorying ', as you 
do in a Leader, who drew you into this fcan- 
dalous Indulgence ^ in this Cafe, is a Fault in 
you J ye that are knowing, know you not 
that a little Leaven leaveneth the whole ^ Lump? 
Therefore laying by that Deference and Vene- 
ration ye had for thofe Leaders you gloried in, 
turn out from among you that Fornicator, 
that the Church may receive no taint from 
himi that you maybe a pure new Lump, or 
Society, free from fuch a dangerous Mixture, 
which may corrupt you. For Chrifl, our 
PaiTover, is llain for us j therefore let us, in com- 
memoration of his Death, and our Deliverance 

g, by him, be a holy People to him "'. I wrote 
to you before, that you fliould not keep Com- 

jQ, pany with Fornicators. You are not to un- 
derfland by it, as if I meant, that you are 
to avoid all unconverted Heathens, that are 
Fornicators, or Covetous, or Rapacious, or 
Idolaters j for then you mufl go out of the 
World. But that which I now write unto 
you, is, that you fhould not keep company, 
no, nor eat with a Chriftian by Profellion, 
who is lafcivious, covetous, idolatrous, a Rai- 






unto Satan for the deflru- 
(ftion of the flefh, that the 
fpiric may be faved in the 
day of the Lord Jefus. 

Your glorying is not 
good : know ye not that 
a little leaven leaveneth 
the whole lump ? 

Purge out therefore the 
old leaven, that ye may be 
a new lump, as ye are un- 
leavened : for even Chrift 
our paflbver is facriliced 
for us. 

Therefore let us keep 8 
the feaft,not with old lea- 
ven, neither with the lea- 
ven of malice and wicked- 
nefs; but wi;h the unlea- 
vened bread of lincerity 
and truth. 

I wrote unto you in an 9 
epiflle, not to company, 
with fornicators. 

Yet not aho^^ether with ro 
the fornicators of this 
world, or with the cove- 
tous, or extortioners, or 
with i Joiatcrs ; for then 
muft ye needs go out of 
the world. 

But now I have written i i 
unto you, not to keep 
company, if any man thac 
is called a brother be a 
fornicator, or covetous, 
or an idolater, or a railer, 
or a drunkard, or an ex- 
tortioner ; with fuch aa 
one, no not to eat. 

6 ' Glorying is all along in the beginning of this Epiftle fpoken of the Preference they gave 
to their new Leader, in oppolicion to St. Paul. 

^ If their Leader had not been guilty of this Mifcarriage, ft had been out of St. PauFs way 
here to have reproved them for their glorying in him. But St. Paul is a clofe Writer, and ufes 
not to mention Things, where thty are impertinent to his Subjeft. 

* What reafon he had to fay this, vid. z Cor. XIL z i . Grex Mus in agrisy unius fcabie 

ladify &> porrigine porci. 

7 Sp 8. ■" In thele two Verfes he alludes to the yews cleanfing their Houfes at the Feafl of the 

PalTovcr from all Leaven, the Symbol of Corruption and Wickednei}. 





Chap VI^ 

ii For what have I to do 
to judge them alfo that 
are without ? do not ye 
jxidge them that are with- 
in ? 

15 But them that are with- 
out, God judgeth. There- 
fore put a^vayfrom among 
your felves that wicked 
1 Dare any of you, ha- 
ving a matter againlt an- 
other, go to law before 
the unjuft, and not be- 
fore the faints ? 
2, Do ye not know that 
the faints (hall judge the 
world ? and if the world 
fhall be judged by you, 
are ye unworthy to judge 
the fmalleft matters i 
'5 Know ye not that we 
fliall judge angels ? how 
much more things that 
pertain to this life ? 
4 If then ye have judg- 
ments of things pertain- 
ing to this life, fet them 
to judge who are lead 

I sfteemed in the church. 

I '5 I fpeak to your fhame. 
Is it fo, that there is not 
a wife man amongft you ? 
no not one that fhall be 
able to Judge between his 
brethren I 

kr, Drunkard, or rapacious. For what have 
I to do to judge thofe who are out of the 
Church ? Have ye not a Power to judge thofe 
who are Members of your Church ? But as for 
thofe who are out of the Church, leave them 
to God; to judge them belongs to him: There- 
fore do ye what is your part ; remove that 
wicked one, the Fornicator, out of the Church. 
Dare any of you, having a Controverfy with 
another, bring it before an Heathen Judge 
to be tried, and not let it be decided by Chri- 
flians " ? Know ye not that Chriflians (liall 
judge the World ; and if the World fliall be 
judg'd by you, are ye unworthy to judge or- 
dinary fmall Matters ? Know ye not that we 
Chriftians have Power over evil Spirits ? How 
much more over the little Things relating to 
this animal Life .^ If then ye have at any 
time Controverlies amongft you concerning 
Things pertaining to this Life, let the Parties 
contending choofe Arbitrators " in the Church, 
/. e. out of Church-Miembers. Is there not 
among you, I fpeak it to your Shame, who 
ftand fo much upon your Wifdom, one ^ wife 
Man, whom ye can think able enough to refer 

N O "T E S. 

1 " "Ayici, Saints, is put for Chriftiansi acf'iKoi, Unjuft, for Heathens. 

4 ° 'E^8^sin//4i'Kf, yudices mn Autkenticos. Among the yeivs there was concejfus trlmnvi- 
ralis authenticus, who had Authority, and could hear and deterrxiine Caufes ex Officio. There was 
another concejfus triumvira/is^ which were chofen by the Parties ; thefe, tho' they were not atp- 
ileniick, yet could judge and determine the Caufts referred to them ; thefc were thofe whom 
St. Paul calls here i^nd-n'^ixivniy yudices non Authenticoi^ i. e. Referrees chofen by the Parties ; 
See de Dteu. That St. Paul does not mean by s^aOii/o/y-icaf, thofe ivho are leaji ejieemed^ as our 
Bnghp Tranflation reads it, is plain from the next Verfe. 

5 ^ 2c(?df, ivife Man. If St. Paul ufes this Word in the Senfe of the Synagogue, it fignifies 
one ordained, or a Rabbi, and. fo capacitated to be a Judge; for fueh were called wife Men : 
If in the Senfe of the Greek Schools, then it fignifies a Man of Learning, Study and Parts ; if ic 
be taken ia the latter Senfe, ic may feem to be with fome Reflet^ioa on their pretending to 










^hDp. vr. 






your Controverfies to ? But one Chriftlan go- 
eth to Law with another, and that before the 
Unbelievers, in the Heathen Courts of Juftice : 
Nay, verily, it is a Failure and Defed in you, 
that you fo far conteft Matters of Right one 
with another, as to bring them to Trial or Judg- 
ment : Why do ye not rather fu^er Lofs and 
Wrong? But it is plain, by the Man's having 
his Father's Wife, that ye are guilty of doing 
Wrong '^ one to another, and ftick not to do 
Injuflice, even to your Chriflian Brethren. 
Know ye not that the Tranfgreffors of the 
Law of Chrift fliall not inherit the Kingdom of 
God ? Deceive not your felves j neither Forni- 
cators, nor Idolaters, nor Adulterers, nor Effe- 
minate, nor Abufers of themfelves with Man- 
kind, nor Thieves, nor Covetous, nor Drun- 
kards, nor Revilers, nor Extortioners, fhall in- 
herit the Kingdom of God. And fuch were 
fome of you j but your paft Sins are waflied 
away and forgiven you, upon your receiving 
of the Gofpel by Baptifm : But ye are fanftified % 
i. e. ye are Members of Chrifl's Church, 
which confifts of Saints, and have made fome 


But brother goeth to 6 
law wich broLheijand that 
before the unbelievers. 

Now therefore there is T, 
utterly a fault among you, 
becaufe ye go to law onfi 
with another: why do ye 
not rather take wrong J 
why do ye not rather fuf- 
fer your felves to be de- 
frauded \ 

Nay, you do wrong t 
and defraud, and that 
your brethren. 

Know ye not that the .9 
unrighteous fliall not in- 
herit the kingdom of God? 
be not deceived : neither 
fornicators, nor idola- 
ters, nor adulterers, nor 
effeminate, nor abufers 
of themfelves with man- 

Njr thieves, nor cove- ^^ 
tous, nor drunkards, nor 
revilers, nor extortioners, 
(hall inherit the kingdom 
of God. 

And fuch were fome of It 
you : but ye are waftied, 
but ye are fanclified, but 
ye are jurtified in the 
name of the Lord Jefus, 


8 "5 That the Wrong here fpoken of, was the Fornicator's taking and keeping his Father's 
Wife, the Words of Sc.P<r«/, 2. Cor. VII. 11. inftancing this very Wrong, are a fufficient Evi- 
dence. And it is not wholly improbable there had been fome Hearing of this Matter before 
a.Heathen Judge, or at leaft talked of; which, if fuppofed, will give a great light to this whole 
Paffage, and fevcral others in thefe Chapters. For thus vilibly runs St. P^«/'s Argument, Chap. V. 
li, 13. Chap.Vl. I, i, ?, &c. coherent and eafy to be underftood, if it (lood together, as ic 
fliould, and were not chopp'd in pieces, by a diviiion into two Chapters. Ye have a Power to 
judge thofe who are of your Church, therefore put away from among you that Fornicator : 
You do ill to let it come before a Heathen Magiftrate. Arc you, who arc to judge the World 
and Angelsj not worthy to judge fuch a Matter as this ? 

II ' '^yia.'Srr\Ti^ fanHijieHj i.e. have Remillion of your Sins ; {o finBifiid C\gn\Rtiy Heb. X. 
10, & 18. compared. He that would perfectly comprehend, and be fa:isfisd ia the meaning of 
this Place, kc him read /fe^. IX. io. parcicularly IX. ij—ij. 



Chap. Vr. 


and by the Spirit of our Advances in the Reformation of your Lives ^ 

^'^' by the Do^rine of Chrift, confirmed to you by 

the extraordinary Operations of the Holy Ghoft 

,„,o"„:fr.="u .h:;'^! f^^l f"PP°«"S Pomicatioa were in it felf aj I2. 

are not expedient : all lawful as eating promifcuoully all forts of Meat 
things are lawful for me, that are made for the Belly, on Duroofe to hf- 

but I will not be brouPht ^ ^T u . r x' • i i ^. i 

under the gower of any. ^aten ; yet I would not fo far indulge either Cu- 
ftom or my Appetite, as to bring my Body 
thereby into any difadvantageous State of Sub- 
jection : As in Eating and Drinking, though 
Meat be made purpofely for the Belly, and the 
Belly for Meat ; yet becaufe it may not be ex- 
pedient " for me, I will not, in fo evidently a - 
lawful thing as that, go to the utmofl Bounds 

N O "T E S. 

*" ^E/iKcttfo^uTii ye are heconre jujf, i. e. are reform'd in your Lives. Se€ it fo ufed Rev^ 

li * St. Paul having, upon occadon of Injuftice amongft them, particularly in the Matter of 
the Fornicator, warned them againft that and other Sins that exclude Men from Salvation he 
here re-alTumes his former Argument about Fornication , and by hjs reafoning here, it looks as 
if fome among them had pleaded that Fornication was lawful. To which he anfwers that 
granting it to be fo, yet the Lawfulnefs of all wholefoaiv Food rtach'd no: the Cafe of Fornica- 
tion ; and (hews, by feveral Inltances (as particularly the degrading the Body, and making what 
in a Chrilllan is the Mcm.ber of Chrilt, the Member of an Harlot) that Fornication, upon fe- 
veral Accounts, might be fo unfuitabk to the Srate of a Chrillian Man, that a Chriftian Society 
might have reafon to animadvert upon a Fornicator, though Fornication might pafs for an in- 
ditfercnt Action in another Man. 

" Expedient, and brought under Peaver, in this Verfe feems to refer to the two Parts of the 
following Verfe ; the firlt of them to Hating, in the firll part of the 1 3 th Verfe, and the latter 
of theni to Fornication, in the latter pare oi the 1 3th Verfe. To make this the more intelli- 
gible, it may be fit to remark, that St. Paul here feems to obviate fuch a fort of Ruafonino as 
this, in behalf of the Fornicator. " All forts of Meats are lawful to Chriliians who are'' fee 
*• free from the Law of Mo/es, and why are they not fo in regard of Women who are at their 
" own Difpofals \ To which St. Paul replies : Though my Belly was made only for eating, and 
" all forts of Meat were made to be eaten, and fo are lawful for me ; yet I will abitain" from 
" what is lawful, if it be not convenient for me, though my Be:Iy will be certain to receive no 
*' prejudice by it, which will affed it in the other World, Imce God will there put an end to 
" the Belly, and all ufe of Food. But as to the Body of a Chridian, the Cafe is quite other- 
" wife i that was not made for the Enjoyment of Women, but for a much nobler End, to be 
" a Memoer of ChriR's Body, and fo fhail laft for ever, and not be deftroy'd as the Belly fliall 

be. Therefore fuppofing Fornication to be lawful in it felf, 1 will not fo debafe and fubjedf - 

my Body, and do it that prejudice, as to take that which is a Member of Chrift, and make- 
*' it the Member of an Harlot ; this ough: to be had in dcccflation by all Chriftians." The 




Meats for the belly, and ^ \ 
tne bL-lly for meacs : but 
God fnaii deftroy bo:h it them. Now the bo- 
dy is noc for fornication, 
buc for the Lord ; and 
the Lord for the body. 

13. of my Liberty, though there be no danger that 
I fliould thereby bring any lafting Damage up- 
on my Belly, lince God will Ipeedily put an 
end both to Belly and Food. But the cafe of 
the Body, in reference to Women, is far diffe- 
rent from that of the Belly, in reference to Meats. 
For the Body is not made to be join'd to a 
Woman "^'^ much lefs to be join'd to an Har- 
lot in Fornication ; as the Belly is made for 
Meat, and then to be put an end to when that 
Ufe ceafes. But the Body is for a much nobler 
Purpofe, and fliall fubfift when the Belly and 
Food fliall be deftroy'd. The Body is for our 
Lord Chrilt, to be a Member of him .; as our 
Lord Chrift has taken a Body '^j that he 
might partake of our Nature, and be our 
14. Head. So that as God has already raifed him 
up, and given him all Power, io he will raife 
us up likewife, who are his Members, to > the 
partaking in the Nature of his glorious Body, 


N o r E s. 

Context is (b plain in the Cafe, that Interpreters allow St. Paul to difcourfe here upon a Suppo- 
Iition of the Lawfulncfs of Fornication. Nor will it appear at all firange that he does fo, if we 
confidcr the Argument he is upon. He is here convincing the Corinthians, that though Fornica- 
tion were to them an indifferent Thing, and were not condemned in their Country more than 
eating any fort of Meat, yet there might be Realbns why a Chrillian Society might punifh it in 
their own Members by Church-Cenfures, and Expulfion of the Guilty. Conformably hereunto 
we fee, in what follows here, that all the Arguments ufed by St. Paul againlt Fornication, are 
brought from the Incongruity it hath with the State of a Chrillian as a Chrillian ; but nothing is 
laid againft it as a Fault in a Man as a Man, no Plea ufed that it is a Sin in all Men by the Law 
of Nature. A Chrillian Society, without cntring into that Enquiry, or going fo far as that, had 
reafon to condemn and cenfure ir, as not comporting with the Dignity and Principles of that Re- 
ligion which was the Foundation of their Society. 

1 ? ^' Woman. I have put in this to make the Apoftle's Senfe underftood the eafier ; for he 
arguing here as he does, upon the Suppolicion that Fornication is in it fwlf lawful, Fornication in 
thefe Words muft mean the fuppofed lawful Enjoyment of a Woman, othervvifeit will no: anfwer 
the foregoing Inftance of the Belly and Eating. 

^ And the Lord for the Body, fee UeL II. 5-^—18. 

14 J' A/(« T«f S'vvdi/Acoi duTiSi To his Paver. The Context and Defign of Sc. Paul here, 
itroogly incline one to take J'jd here to fignify as ic does i Pet, I. 5. to^ and not by. St. P/iut 


And God hath both 14 
raifed up the Lord, and 
will alfo raife up us by 
his own power. 




Chap, vr: 

15 Know ye notjthat your 
bodies are the members 
of Chrill I Ihall I then 
take the members of 
Chrifr, and make them 
the members of an har- 
lot ? God forbid. 

16 What, know yc not 
that he which is joined to 
an harlot, is one body? 
for two (faith he) fliall 
be one flefli. 

17 But he that is joined 
unto the Lord, is one fpi- 

jg Flee fornication. Every 
fin that a man doth, is 
\ without the body: but 
he that committeth forni- 
cation, Iinneth againft 
his own body. 

and the Power he is vefted with in it. Know ^5- 
ye not, you who are fo knowing, that our Bo- 
dies are the Members of Chrifl .^ will you then 
take the Members of Chrift, and make them 
the Members of an Harlot? What! know ye i^* 
not that he who is join'd to an Harlot, is one 
Body with her ? for two, faith God, fliall be 
united into one Flefli. But he who is join'd to 17. 
the Lord, is one with him, by that one Spirit 
that unites the Members to the Head ; which is 
a nearer and fl:ridter Union, whereby what in 
Dignity is done to the one, equally affedls the 
other. Flee Fornication : All other Sins that iS« 
a Man commits, dcbafe only the Soul, but are 
in that refped: as if they were done out of the 
Body, the Body is not debafed, fuffers no lofs of 
its Dignity by them ; but he who committeth 
Fornication, iinneth againfl; the end for which 
his Body was made, degrading his Body from 
the Dignity and Honour it was deligned to, 
making that the Member of an Harlot, which 

N O "T E S. 

is here making out to the Corinthian Converts, that they have a Power to judge. He tells them 
that they {hall judge the World, ver. z. And that they (hall judge Angels, much more thea 
Things of this Life, ver. 3. And for their not judging he blames them, and tells them it is a 
leflening to them, not to exercife this Power, ler. 7. And for it he gives a Reafon in this 
Vcrfe, viz. That Chrirt is raifed up into the Power of God, and fo fhall they be. Unlefs it be 
taken in this Senfe, this Verfe feems to lUnd alone here : For what Connexion has the mentioa 
of the Refurredion, in the ordinary Senfe of this Verfe, with what the Apoftle is faying here, 
but raifing us up with Bodies to be Members of his glorious Body, and to partake in his Tower 
in judging the World ? This adds a great Honour and Dignity to our Bodies, and is a Reafba 
why we Ihould not debafe them into the Members of an Harlot. Thefe Words alfo give a Rea- 
fon of his faying, he ivould not be b^ou?ht under the Power of any Thing, ver. 1 3. {viz. ) ** Shall 1, 
" whofe Body is a Member of Ch-rl and fhall be raifed to the Power he has now in Heaven, 
" fuffer my Body to be a Member, and under the Power of an Harlot \ That I will never do, 
" let Fornication in it felf be never fo lawful." If this be not the meaning of St. Paul here, 
I defire to know to what purpofe it is that he fo exprefly declares that the Belly and Meat 
ftiall be deliroyed, and does fo raanifeitly put aa Oppoficioa becween the Body and the Belly, 
ver. I J. 

M was 



19. was made to be a Member of Chrift. What, 
know ye not ^ that your Body is the Temple 
of the Holy Ghoil: that is in you ; which Body 
you have from God, and fo it is not your own 

20. to beflow on- Harlots. Befides, ye are bought 
with a Price, "uiz. the precious Blood of Chrift, 
and therefore are not at your own Difpofal ; 
but are bound to glorify God with both Body 
and Soul : For both Body and Soul are from 
him,, and are God's. 

What,knowyenotthat 19 
your body is the temple 
of the Holy Ghoft which 
is ill you, which ye have 
of God, and ye are not 
your own ? 

For ye are bought with zo 
a price : therefore glo- 
rify God in your body, 
and in your .(pirit, which 
are God's. 


19 ^ This Quefiion, Know ye not? is repeated fix times in this one Chapter ; which may feem 
to carry with it a jud Reproach to the Corinthians , who had got a new and better Inliruitor 
than himfelf, in whom they fo much gloried, and may not unfitly be thought to fet on his Irony, 
Cf:^p. IV. lo. where he tells them they are ivife. 

SECT. in. 

CHAP. Vil. I 40. 


- I^HE chief Bufinefs of the foregoing Chapters we have fcQU. 
J[ to be the leflening the falfe ApolUe's Credit, and the extin- 
guifhing that Faction. What follows, is in anfwer to fome Que- 
ilions they had propofed to St. Paul. This Se(ftion contains conjugal 
Matters, wherein he diffuades from Marriage thofe who have the 
Gift of Continence. But Marriage being appointed as a Remedy 
againfl Fornication, thofe who cannot forbear fhould marry, and 
render to each other due Benevolence. Next he teaches that Con- 
verts ought not to forfike their unconverted Mates, infomuch as 
Chriftianity changes nothing in Mens civil Eftate, but leaves them 
under the fame Obligations they were tied by before. And lafl of 
all he gives Dired:ions about marrying, or not marrying their 





OW concerning the 
_ things whereof ye 
\vro:c unto me : it is good 
for a man not to touch a 

Z Kcvcvthelefs, to avoid 
fornicacion, let every man 
have his own wife, and 
let every woman have 
her own husband. 

3 Let the husband render 
unto the wife due btne- 
volcnce : and likevvilc 
alfo the wife unto the 

^ The wife hath not pow- 
er of her own body, but 
the husband : and like- 
wife aifo the husband hath 
not power of hi;? own bo- 
dy, but the wife. 

Defraud you not one 
the other, except it be 
with confent for a time, 
that ye may give your 
felves to falling and pray- 
er ; and come together 
again, that Satan teaipc 
you not for your inconti- 



Concerning thofe Things that ye have written 
to me about, I anfwer, it is moil conve- 
nient not to have to do with a Woman. But 
becaufe every one cannot forbear, therefore 
they that cannot contain ihoiild, both Men and 
Women, each have their own peculiar Huf- 
bandand Wife, to avoid Fornication. And thofe 
that are married, for the fame Reafon are to 
regulate themfelves by the Difpolition and Exi- 
gency of their refpe^tive Mates ; and therefore 
let the Hufband render to the Wife that Bene- 
volence ^ which is her due, and fo likewife 
the Wife to the Hufband, vice verfa. For 
the Wife has not Power or Dominion over her 
own Body, to refufe the Hufband when he de- 
fires ; but this Power and Right to her Body is 
in the Hulband : And on the other fide, the 
Hufband has not the Power and Dominion 
over his own Body, to refufe his Wife when 
fhe fhews an Inclination ; but this Power and 
Right to his Body, when fhe has occafion, is 
in the Wife ^ Do not in this matter be want- 
ing one to another, unlefs it be by mutual 
Confent for a fliort time, that you may wholly 
attend to Ads of Devotion, when ye fafl upon 
fome folemn Occafion j and when this time of 
folemn Devotion is over, return to your former 
Freedom and Conjugal Society, left the Devil 
taking advantage of your Inability to contain. 




5 ^ "Ewdfci) Benevolence^ fignifies here that Complaifance and Compliance which every mar- 
ried Couple ought to have for each other, when either of chem fliews an Inclination to Con- 
)'Jgal Enjoyments. 

4 ^ The Wonnn (who in all other Rights is inferior) has here the fame Power given her 
over the Man's Body, that the Man has over hers : The Reafon whereof is plain ; becaufe if 
ilie had not htr Man, whenihe had need of him, as well a? the Man his Woman, when he had 
need ef her. Marriage wtuld be uo Remedy againll Fornrcation. 

M 2 










fhould tempt you to a Violation of the Mar- 
riage-Bed. As to marrying in general, I wiili 
that you were all unmarried, as I am > but this 
I fay unto you by way of Advice, not of Com- 
mand. Every one has from God his own pro- 
per Gift, fome one way, and fome another, 
whereby he muft govern himfelf. To the Un- 
married and Widows, I fay it, as my Opi- 
nion, that it is beft for them to remain unmar- 
ried, as I am. But if they have not the Gift of 
Continency, let them marry ; for the Inconve- 
niencies of Marriage are to be preferr'd to 
Flames of Luft. But to the Married, I fay not 
by way of Counfel from my felf, but of Com- 
mand from the Lord, that a Woman fhould 
not leave her Hufband : But if Ihe has fepara- 
ted her felf from him, let her return and be re- 
conciled to him again, or at leaft let her re- 
main unmarried : And let not the Hufband 
put away his Wife. But as to others, 'tis my 
Advice, not a Commandment from the Lord, 
That if a Chriftian Man hath an Heathen Wife 
that is content to live with him, let him not 
break company with her % and diffolve the 
Marriage: And if a Chriflian Woman hath an 
Heathen Hufband that is content to live with 
her, let her not break company with him % 
and diffolve the Marriage. You need have no 
Scruple concerning this Matter, for the Hea- 
then Hufband or Wife, in refpect of Conjugal 
Duty, can be no more refufed, than if they 

N O 7' E S, 

IZ 8c 15. * 'A^iiTu, the Creek Word in the Original, (ignifying put a<wayj being direftcd 
here in thefe two Verfcs both to the Man and the Woman, feems to intimate the fame Power 
and fame. A^ of DifmiiTing ia boih j and therefore ought in both Places to be cianilated 


But I fpeak this by per- ^ 
milfion, and not of com- 

For I would that all 7 
men were even as I my 
felf : but every man hath 
his proper gift of God, 
one after this manner,and 
another after that. 

I fay therefore to the ^ 
unmarried and widows, 
it is good for them if they 
abide even as I. 

But if they cannot con- 9 
tain, let them marry : for 
it is better to marry than 
to burn.. 

And unto the married lo 
I command, yet not I, but 
the Lord, Let not the wife 
depart.from her husband : 

But and if (he depart,n_ 
let her remain unmar- 
ried, or be reconciled to 
her husband : and let not 
the husband put away 
his wife. 

But to the reft fpeak T, ti. 
not the Lord, If any bro- 
ther hath a wife that be- 
lieveth not, and ftie be 
plcafed CO dwell with him, 
let him not put her away. 

And the woman which i J. 
hath an husband that be- 
lievcth not, and if he be 
pleafed to dwell with her, 
let her not leave him. 

For the unbelieving i^ 
husband is faniftified by 
the wifcj and the unbeJie- 




Chap. VIT. 

ving wife is fanclined by 
the' husband : elfe 'were 
your children unclean ; 
but now arc chey holy. 

[^ But if the unbelieving 
depart, let him depart. 
A' brother or a fifter is 
not under bondage in fuch 
cafes : but God hath cal- 
led us to peace. 


were Chriftian : For in this Cafe the unbeliev- 
ing Huiband is fancftified '', or made a Chri- 
flian, as to his Iflue, in his Wife, and tlie Wife 
fandtified in her Huiband. If it were not iOy 
the Children of fuch Parents would be un- 
ckan ^ /. e. in the Stare of Heathens ; but now 
are they holy ^ /. e. born Members of the 
Chriftian Church. But if the unbelieving Par- 
ty will feparate, let them feparate. A Chri- 
ftian Man or Woman is not inflaved in fuch a 
Cafe ; only it is to be remembred, that it is in- 
cumbent on us, whom God in the Gofpel has 
called to be Chriftians, to live peaceably with 
all Men, as much as in us lieth 3 and therefore 
the Chriftian Huft)and or Wife is not to make 
a Breach in the Family, by leaving the unbe- 
lieving Party, who is content to ftay. For 
what knoweil thou, O Woman, but thou may'ft 
be the means of converting, and fo faving thy 
unbelieving Huft>and, if thou continueft peaces 
ably as a loving Wife with him ? Or what know- 
eft thou, O Man, but after the fame manner* 
thou may'ft fave thy Wife ? On this Occafion 
let me give you this general Rule; whatever 
Condition God has allotted to any of you, let 
him continue and go an contentedly in the 
fame ^ State wherein he was called, not look- 

N o r E s. 

14 ** 'i\yi(/Tet!j firjHifed^ ayta, holy, & eLKeid-ct^Taty tmclemt, are ufed here by the Apofi-e 
in the feivip Stnfe. The ^<ws called ail chat were Jeus, holy, and all others ch(y called ««» 
cUan^ Thus proles genit a extra fanBitateniy was a Child begot by Parent, whilft they were yet 
Heathens; Genita intra fanBitatem, was a Child begot by Parents aftC' they were Profelytes. 
This way of fpeaking St. P<i«/ transfers from ihQ Jewifi into the Chriftian Church, calling all 
that are of the Chrihian Church SaimSy or holy i by which Rtafon all that were out of it weig 
unclean. See t^ete. Chap. I. 2. 

17 * fc'j fignifieshere not the manner of his Calling, but the State and Condition of Life 
he was in when called i and therefore hu niuft lignify the fa;i-.e Uo, as the next y«rie 
fhewi. . 


l6 For what knowefi thou, 
O wife-, whether thou 
(halt fave thy husband ? 
or hew k no weft thou, O 
man, whether thou ftialc 
fave thy wife \ 

But as God hath difiri- 
buted to every man, as 
the Lord hath called eve- 
ry one, fo let him walk : 
and fo ordain I in all 


1 6. 


Chap VII. 







ing on himfelf as fet free from It by his Coii- 
verfion to Chriilianity. And this is no more 
than what I order in all the Churches. For 
example, was any one converted to Chrillia- 
nity, being oircumcifed? let him not become 
uncircumcifed : Was any one called, being im- 
circumcifed ? let him not be circnmcifed. Cir- 
cumcifion or Uncircumcilion are nothing in the 
Sight of God; but that which he has a Regard 
to, is an Obedience to his Commands. Cliri- 
liianity gives not any one any new Privilege to 
change the State, or put off *' the Obliga- 
tions of Civil Life, which he was in before. 
Wert thou called, being a Slave ? think thy felf 
not the lefs a Chriftian for being a Slave ; but 
yet prefer Freedom to Slavery, if thou can'll 
obtain it. For he that is converted to Chri- 
ftianity, being a Bond- man, is Chrift's Freed- 
man ^ : And he that is converted, being a 
Free-man, is Chrifl's Bond-man, under his Com- 

T E X r. 

Is any man called being 18 
circamcifed ; let him r,oc 
become uncircumcifed: is 
any called i;i uiicircumci- 
fian ? lee him no: become 

Circiimciiion is nothing, 19 
and unciicumcilion is no- 
thing; but the keeping of 
the coinmandments of 

Let every man abide in 10 
the fame calling wherein 
he was called. 

Art thou called being a - 1 
fk.rvant ^ care not for it ; 
but if thou may'ti be 
made free, ufe it rather. 

For he that is called in it 
the Lord, being a fer- 
vanr, is the Lord's free- 
man : likewife alfo he 
that is called being free, 
is Chiid's fervant. 


2-0 ^ MiiiTc-:, Let him abide. *Tis plain, from what immediately follows, that this is not an 
abfolute Command ; but only (Tgnifies, chat a Man lllould not chiak himfelf difcharg'd by the 
Privilege of his Chriitian State, and the Fraiichifts of the Kingdom of Chrift, which he was en- 
tered ;nco, from any Tics or Obligations he was in as a iMember of the Civil Society. And 
iherefoie, for the ftctiing a true Notion thereof in the Mina of the Reader, it has been thought 
convenient to give that which is the Apofue's Senfe to Ver. 17, zc, Sz Z4. of this Chapter, in 
Words fomevvhac different from the ApoiUe's. 1 he thinkirg themfclves freed by Chrillianity 
from the Ticsof Civil Society and Government, was a Fauil, it fcems, that thofe Chriftians were 
very apt to run into. For St. Paul, fcr the preventing their Thoughts of any Change of any 
thing of their Civil State iipon embracing Chnftianity, thinks it ncceffary to warn them 
sgainlt it three Times in the Compafs of ftvcn VeiTes, and that in the Form of a dire«51: Command 
not to change'their Condition or State of Life : Whereby he intends that they {ho-dd not change 
upon a Prcfumption that Chriflianity gave them s new or peculiar Liberty fj to do. For, not- 
■withilandiiTg the Apoiile's pohrivciy bidding them remain in the fame Condi:ion in which they 
were at their Convcrlion ; yet i: is certain it was lawful for them, as well as the others, to change, 
where it was lawful for them to change without being Chriftians. 

zi 5 'A-r5Adi,&?()i©-, in T attn Utcttus, fignifics not iimply n Fne man ] but one, who having 
been a Slave, has had his Freedom given him by his Malttr. 






Yc are bought wirh a 
price ; be not yc the Icr- 
vants of men. 

Brethren, let every 
man wherein he is called, 
therein abide vvich God, 

2,* Now concerning vir- 
gins, I have no com- 
niandnienc of the Lord : 
yer I oive my judgment 
as one that hath obtained 
mercy of the Lord, to be 

i6 I fuppofe therefore, 
that this is good for the 
prefi.nt diltrcfs : I fay, 
that u is good for a man 
fo to be. 

Z7 Art thou bound unto 
a wife ? feck, not to be 
Icofcd : Art thou Icofed 
from a wife? ftek not a 

Z'S Butjand if thou marry, 
thou hall not [inntd, and 
if a virgin marrvjlhe hath 

I . not linned : ntvachekfi. 



. Chap. vir. 



mand and Dominion. Ye arc bought wich a 
Price ^, and fo belong to Chrift ; be nor, if 
you can avoid it, Slaves to any body. In what- 
foever State a Man is called, in the fame he is 
to remain, notwithilanding any Privileges of 
the Gofpel, which gives him no Difpenfation 
or Exemption from any Obligation he was in 
before to the Laws of his Country. Nov/ con- 
cerning Virgins '\ I have no exprefs Com- 
mand from Chrifi to give you j but I tell you 
my Opinion, as one whom the Lord has been 
gracioully pleafed to make credible '% and fo 
you may truO; and rely on in this Matter. I tell 26 
you therefore, that I judge a lingle Life to be 
convenient, becaufe of the prefent Streights of 
the Churcii ; and that it is beft for a Man to 
be unmarried. Art thou in the Bonds of Vv^ed- 
lock ? feek not to be loofed : Art rhou loofed 
from a Wife ? feek not a Wife. Biu if th;ou 
marrieft, thou finnefl: not; or if a Virgin mar- 
ry, {he fins not: But thofe that are married, 
fhall have worldly Troubles : But I fpare you, 
by not reprefenting to you, how little Enjoy- 


N O "T E S. 

_; " Slaves were bought and fold in the Market, as Cattle arc ; and fo by the Price paid, 
there was a Propriety acquired in them. This therefore here, is a Reafon for what he advifed, 
ver.ii. that they fliould not be Slaves to Men, becaufe Chrilt had paid a -Price for them, and 
they belonged to him The Slavery he fpeaks of, is Civil Slavery ; which he makes ufe of her«; 
to convince the Corir.thiam, that the Civil Tics of Marriage were not dillblved by a Man's be- 
coming a Chriliian, lii.ce Slavery it feif was not: And in general, in the next Verf; he tells then:, 
that nothing in any Man's Civil Eltare or Rights, is altered by hii btcon^iing a ChriiiiaM. 

2<; ' By Vngi'nj, 'tis plai.i S:. P.?«/ here mtan: thofe of both Sjxcs, who are in a celibate State. 
Til probable he had formerly dilluaded thtm from Marriage m the prefent State of the Church.- 
Thii, irfLtms, thuy were uncafy under, -vei: iS, Of 55. and therefore fint fume Quetlions to 
St. Paul about it i and particularly, V/hat then Ihould Men do v/ich their .D4ughters ? Upon 

^^ hich Occalion, ver. 25 57'. he gives Dirtiftions to the Urunarried about their marrying or 

0: niairying • and, in the ciofe, ter. 58. anf.vcrsto the Parents about marrying their Daugh- and then, tc-r. Jp, &= 40. he fpeaks of Widows. 

" in this Senfc he iifes TnTo^ ai^ia-jQ-^ & yrirk hhyoi z Tim.IL 2. 

I ment 



3 I. 





ment Chriftians are like to have from a mar- 
ried Life in the prefent State of Things ; and fo 
I leave you the liberty of marrying. But give 
me leave to tell you, that the time for enjoy- 
ing Hufbands and Wives, is but fhort ' : But 
be that as it will, this is certain, that thofe 
who have Wives, {hould be as if they had them 
not, and not fet their Hearts upon them : And 
they that weep, as if they wept not ; and they 
that rejoice, as if they rejoiced not j and they 
that buy, as if they pofTeiled not : All thefe 
Things (hould be done with Refignation, and 
a Chriftian IndifFerency. And thofe who ufe 
this World, fliould ufe it without an Over- 
reliili of it '% without giving themfelves up 
to the Enjoyment of it ; for the Scene of 
Things is always changing in this World, and 
nothing can be relied on in it ". All the Rea- 
fon why I diiluade you from Marriage, is, that 
I would have you free from anxious Cares : 
He that is unmarried, has time and liberty to 
mind Things of Religion, how he may pleafe 
ihe Lord : But he that is married, is taken up 
with the Cares of the World, how he may 
pleafe his Wife. The like Difference there is 
between a married Woman and a Maid : She 
that is unmarried, has Opportunity to mind 
the Things of Religion, that (he may be holy 
in Mind and Body ; but the married Woman is 
taken up with the Cares of the World, how to 


1.9 ^ Said pofTibly out of a prophetical Foicfight of the approaching Pcrfccution under X(?rfl. 

31 "' \LATctyjdixzvQi Aot% nox. YiaiG {\°n\^y abufingi in our E;»f/^ Senfe of the Word, but 
iy.tently ufing. 

" All fjoni the beginning of i^er, 28, to the end of this 'oer, 31, I think niay be Icokcd on as 
a Parcnthdis. 


fuch fhall have trouble ia 
the flefhi but I fpare 

But this I fay, bre-2,9 
thrcn, the time is fhort : 
Ic reinaineth. that both 
they chat have wives, 
be as though they had 
none ; 

And they that weepj?*^ 
as though they wepc 
not; and they that re- 
joice, as though they re- 
joiced not ; and they 
that buy, as though they 
polTelled not ; 

And they that ufe this 51 
world, as not abuling it : 
for the fafhion of this 
world palTech away. 

But I would have you ji 
without carefulncfs. He 
that is unmarried, careth 
for the things that belong 
to the Lord, how he may 
pleafe the Lord : 

But he that is married,? J 
careth for the things that 
arc of the world, how he 
may pleafe his wife. 

There is difference alfo 54 
between a wife and a vir- 
gin : the unmarried wo- 
man careth for the things 
of the Lord, that (he may 
be holy, both in body and 
in fpirit : but fhe that is 
married, careth for the 
things of the world, how 
flie may pleafe her huf- 



l'3< An J this I fpeak for 
'■ ' your own profir, nocchac 
j J may caft a fnare upon 
you, but for t/iat which is 
comely, and that you may 
attend upon the Lord 
without diltraftion. 

36 But if any man think 
that he behavech himfclf 
uncomely toward his vir- 
gin, if fhe pafs the flower 
of her age, and need fo 
require, let him do what 
he will, he finnech not : 
let them marry. 

37 Neverthclefi, he that 
flandjeth {Icdfaft in his 
heart, having no necefll- 
ty, but ha:h power over 
liis own will, and hachfb 
<i«c['eed in his heart, chat 


pleafe her Hnfband. This I fay to you for. 
your particular Advantage, not to lay any Con- 
llraint upon you °, but to put you in a way 
wherein you may mofl fuitabiy, and as bed 
becomes Chriftianity, apply your felves to the 
Study and Duties of the Gofpel, without Di- 
ftra(5lion. But if any one thinks that he car- 
ries not himfeif as becomes him to his Virgin, 
if he lees her pafs the Flower of her Age un- 
married, and need fo requires, let him do as 
he thinks fit; he lins not, if he marry her. Buc 
whoever is fettled in a firm Refolution of 
Mind, and finds himfeif under noNeceffity of 
marrying, and isMafterof his own Will, or is at 
his own Difpofal, and has [o determined in his 
Thoughts, that he will keep his Virginity p, he 



>5 ^^ Bf.«/C^' which we tranllate a 5«<iye, CigmR^s n Cord ; which poflibly the Apoftle migh c, 
according to the Language of the Hebrew School, ufe here for Binding ; and then his Difcourfc 
runs thus : Though I have declared ic my Opinion, that it is beft for a Virgin to remain unmar- 
ried, yet I bind it not ; i.e. I do not declare ic to be unlawful to marry. 

?7 P ndf^ivov feems ufed here for the Virgin-3:ace, and noc the Perfon of a Virgin ; 
whether there be Examples of the lilce Ufe of ic, I know noc, and therefore I propofe it as my 
Conjefture, upon thefe Grounds, i. Bicaafc the Refolution of Mind here fpoken of, mud be 
in the Perfon to be married, and not in the Facher that his the Power o\rer the Perfon con- 
cerned ; for how will the Firmacfs of Mind of the Farhsr hinder Fornication in th€ Child, who 
has noc that Firmnefs ? z. The Necelficy of Marriage can only be judg'd of by the Perfons 
themfelves. A Father cannot feel tho Child's Flames which mike the need of Marriage : The 
Perfons themfelves oily know whether they burn, or have the Gift of Continence. 5 'E|«- 
fficty ^X'-' '^ ^^ ''^''* ■^■i^'i."*''"®'} ^*^^-' *^^ Power over his ozvn fVill, muft either fignify, can 
govern bis o<wti Dejires, is Mafier of his own JVilh But this cannot be meant here, becaufe it is 
fuificiently exprelfed before by kS'^ctiQ- rii' KtfJ'iA, fiedfajl in He.xrt ; and afterwards too by 
tinejevsv iv Tn KAfJ^ia., decreed in Heart : Or mud fignify, has the Difpofal $f himfeif, i.e. ij 
free from the Father's Power of difpofing their Children in Marriage; for I think the Words 
fhould be tranflaced, bath a Power concerning bis own Willi i. e. concerning what he willeth : 
For if by it St. Paul meant a Power over his own Will, o;ie might think he would have ex- 
preiled that Thought, as he does Chap. IX. li. and Kom. IX. zi. without -rkA] or by the Prepo- 
iition STTi, as ic is, L«'<e IX. i. 4. Becaufe, if keep his Virgin^ had here figni'ied keep his 
Children from marrying, the ExprelHan had been mare natural to have ufed the Word Tix,/it, 
which (ignifies both Sexes, than Titf-S^ii©-, which belongs only to the Female. If therefore 
'ff<t°-'}iv& be taken abftraiUy for Virginity, the precedent Verfe muft be underftood thus: But if 
any one think it afiame to paft the Flower of his Age unmarried, and he ^nds it neceffary to marry ^ 

N let 










choofes the better '' fide. So then, he that mar- 
rierh, doth well ; but he that marrieth "■ not, 
coth better. It is unlawful for a Woman to 
leave her Hufband as long as he lives; but when 
he is dead, (he is at liberty to marry, or not 
marry, as ihe pleafes, and to whom fne pleafes; 
which Virgins cannot do, being under the Dif- 
pofal of their Parents; only flie muft take care 
to marry as a Chriftian, fearing God. But, in 
my Opinion, fhe is happier if fhe remain a Wi- 
dow ; and permit me to fay, that whatever any 
among you may think or fay of me, I have the 
Spirit of God, fo that I may be relied on in this 
my Advice, that I do not miflead you. 


he will keep his vir^i::, 
doth well. 

So then, he that giveth 3^ 
her in marriage, doth 
well: but he that giveth 
her not in marriage, doth 

The wife is bound by 19 
the lavv,as loni^ as her huf- 
band liveth : but if her 
husband be dead, flie is at 
liberty to be married to 
whom fhe will ; only in 
the Lord. 

But {he is happier if fhe 4*^ 
fo abide, after niy judg- 
ment : and I think alfo 
that I have the Spirit of 

let him do as he pleafes^ he fim not; Jet fuch many. I confefs it is hard to bring thcfe two Verfes 
to the fame Senfc, and both of them to the Dtfign of the Apollle here,, without taking ths 
Words in one or both of them very figuratively. St. l>aul here feenis to obviate an Objedion 
that might be made againft his Diflualion from Marriage viz. that it might be an Indecency one 
fhould be guilty of, if one fhould live unmarried pafl one's Prime, and afterwards be forced to 
marry. To which he anfwers, that no body fhould abfiain upon the account of being a Chri- 
f^ian ; but thofe who are of fieady Refolutions, are at their own Difpofal, and have fully deter-; 
niin'd it in their own Minds. 

^ KaKcci here, as in ver, i, 8, and 26. fiqnifies not fimply good, but preferable. 

38 ^ nrt'f-9^»c®- being taken in the Senfe it is nccelJary in this Verfe ta 
follow the Copies which read Q/et/zj^w, marryivg, for \KyA^it,t<)Vi giving in Marriage, 





CHAP. Vlir. I — .13. 


THIS Sedion is concerning the eating Things off^jred to Idols ; 
wherein one may guefs, by St. Paul's Anfwer, that they had 
writ to him, that they knew their Chriflian Liberty herein, that 
they knew that an Idol was nothing, and therefore that they did 
well to (hew their Knowledge of the Nullity of the Heathen Gods, 
and their Difregard of them, by eating promifcuouily, and without 
Scruple, Triings offered to them. Upon which the Deiign of the 
Apoftle here fecms to be, to take down their Opinion of their 
Knowledge, by iliewing them, that notwithftanding all the Know- 
ledge they prefumed on, and were puffed up with, yet the eating 
of thofe bacrifices did not recommend them to God ; vid. ver. 8. 
and that they might fin, in their want of Charity, by offending their 
weak Brother. This feems plainly, from "j^r. i — ->. & 11, 12. to 
be the Defign of the Apoflle's Anfwer here, and not to refolve the 
Cale of eating Things offered to Idols in its full Latitude ; for then 
he would have profecuted it mor^ at large here, and not have de- 
ferred the doing of it to Cbap.X. where, under another Head, he 
treats of it more particularly. 



I W, as touching 
things offered unto 
idois, we know that 
we all have knowledge. 
Knowledge puffech up, 
but charity eaifteth. 


AS for Things offered up unto Idols, it muft 
not be queilioned but that every one of 
you, who ftand fo much upon your Knowledge, 
know that the imaginary Gods, to whom the 
Gentiles facrifice, are not in reality Gods, but 
meer Fictions : But with this pray remember, 
that fuch a Knowledge, or Opinion of their 
Knowledge, fwells Men with Pride and Va- 
nity j but Charity it is that improves and 
N 2 advances 





2, advances Men in Chriflianity ^ But if any 
one be conceited of his own Knowledge, as if 
Chriftianity were a Science for Speculation and 
Difpute, he knows nothing yet of Chriflianity 

3. as he ought to know it. But if any one love 
God, and confequently his Neighbour for God's 
fake, fuch an one is made to know ', or has 

^. got true Knowledge from God himfelf. To 
the Queftion then, of eating Things offered to 
Idols : I know, as well as you, that an Idol, 
7. e. that the fiditious Gods, whofe Images are 
in the Heathen Temples, are no real Beings in 
the World j and there is, in truth, no other but 

5. one God. For tho' there be many imaginary 
nominal Gods, both in Heaven and Earth \ 
as are indeed all their many Gods, and many 

6. Lords, which are merely titular ; yet to us 
Chriftians, there is but one God, the Father 
and Author of all Things, to whom alone we 
addrefs all our Worlliip and Service j and but 
one Lord, viz. Jefus Chrift^ by whom all 
Things come from God to us, and by whom we 

N O "T E :^. 

1 '" To continue the Thread of the ApolUe's Difcourfe, the 7ch Ver(e muA be read as jom'd 
on to the ifl, and all between looked on as a Parenthefis. 

3 ' "'Eyveo^a.!, is made to knoiv, or is taught. The Apoftle, tho' wriring in Greek, yet often 
ufes the Gre?/^ Verbs according to x.\\z Hebrew Conju'^acio i?. So Cfiip. XIII. 12. innyvco(Toyi.*i^ 
which, according to the Greek Propriety, liL^nifiLi J/^// he knoiun^ is ufed for I fiall be made to 
knoiu ; and fo Gal. IV. 9, yvu(T^''i.vTi<; is put to fignify being taught. 

5 V In Heaven and 'Earth. The Heathens hac< fupremc Sovereign Gods, whom they fuppofed 
eternal, remaining always in the Heavens ; thefe were called d-«c/, Gods. They had befides 
another Order of inferior Gods, Gods u^on Earth; who, by the Will and Diredion of the hea- 
venly Gods, governed terreftrial Things, and were the Mediators between the SupieLne heavenly 
Gods and Men, without whom there could be no Communication between them. Thcfe were 
called in Scriprure Bd!^//'w, i.e. Lords; and by the Grre^j A^iy.^m. To this th'- Apoftle al- 
ludes here, faying, Though there be, in the Opinion of the Heathens, Gods manv.. i e many 
celeliial Sovereign Gods in Heaven ; and Lords rtmny, i. e. many Baalim, or Lords Agents, 
and Prefidents over earthly Things ; yet to us Chriftians there is but one Sovereign God, the 
Father, of whom are all Things, and to whom, as Supreme, we are to direft all our Services ; 
and but one Lord- Agent, Jefus Chrift, by whom are all Things that, come from the Father to us, 
and through whom aloae we find Ac eels unto him, Mede Difc, on iPet, II. ii 


And if any man think S 
that he knoweth any 
thing, he knoweth no- 
thing yet as he ought to 

But if any man love S 
God, the fame is known 
of hfm. 

As concerning there- 4 
fore the eating of thole 
things that are offered ia 
facrifice unto idols, we 
know that an idol is no- 
thing in the world, a-nd 
that there is none other 
God but one. 

For though there be 1. 
that are called gods, whe- 
ther in heaven or in earth, 
(as there be gods many, 
and lords many) 

But to us there is but ^ 
one God, the Father, of 
whom are all things, and 
we in him; and one Lord 
Jefus Chrift, by whom are 
all things,and we by hino. 




7 Howbeit there is not in 
every man that know- 
kdge : for fome with con- 
jfcience of the!idol unto 
this hour, eat it as »thin^ 
offered unto an idol; and 
their confcience being 
weak, is defiled. 

I Bot meat commendcth 
us not to God : for neither 
if we eat, are we the 
better ; neither if we eat 
sot, are we the worfe. 

•f But take heed, left by 
any means this liberty of 
yours become a ftumbling- 
block to them that are 

1^ For if any man fee thee 
which haft knowledge, 
fit at meat in the idols 
temple, (hall not the con- 
fcience of hinj which is 
weak, be emboldned to 
eat thofe things which 
are offered to idols : 

have Accefs to the Father. For, notwithftand- 
ing all the great Pretences to Knowledge that 
are amongft you, every one doth not know 
that the Gods of the Heathens are but Imagi- 
nations of the Fancy, mere nothing. Some, to 
this Day, confcious to themfelves that they 
think thofe Idols to be real Deities, eat Things 
facrificed to them, as facriiiced to real Deities 5 
whereby doing that, which they in their Con- 
fciences, not yet fufficiently enlightned, think 
to be unlawful, they are guilty of Sin. Food, of 
what kind foever, makes not God regard us "^ : 
For neither if in Knowledge and full Perfua- 
fion,. that an Idol is nothing, we eat Things of- 
fered to Idols, do we thereby add any Things 
to Chriflianity J or, if not being fo well in- 
formed, we are fcrupulous and forbear, are 
we the worfe Chriflians, or are lelTened by 
it ". But this you knowing Men ought to 
take efpecial Care of, that the Power or Free- 
dom you have to eat, be not made fuch an Uie 
of, as to become a Stumbling-block to weaker 
Chriftians, who are not convinced of that Li- 
berty. For if fuch an one fhall fee thee, who 
haft this Knowledge of thy Liberty, to fit 
feafting in an Idol-Temple, fhall not his weak 
Confcience, not thoroughly inftru(5led in the 
Matter of Idols, be drawn in by thy Example 
to eat what is ofiered to Idols, tho' he m his 



N' T E s: 

8 " 8 TA^Wi]fi; fets us not before God, i. e. to be taken notice of Ky Kim. 

* It cannot be fuppofed that St. Paul, in anfwer to a Letter of the Corinthians, (hould tell 
them, that it they eat Things offer'd to Idols, they were not the better ; or if they eat nor, were 
not the worfe, unlefs they had exprefled fome Opinion of Good in Eating, 




Chap". IX. 




Confcience doubt of its Lawfulnefs ? And thus 
thy \yeak Brbthei*, for whom Chrift died, is 
deftroy'd by thy Knowledge,' wherewith thou 
jullifiefl: thy Eating. But when you fin thus 
agairtl¥ your Brethren, and woun^d their weak 
Gonfciences, you fin againft Chrift. Wherefore 
if Meat make my Brother offend, I will never 
more eat Flefh, to avoid making my Brother 


And thTOUgh thy know- i i 

lecgefhall the weak bro- 
ther perilTi, for whom 
Chrift died ? 

But when ye fin to a- li 
gainit the brethren, and 
wound theii weak confci- 
ence, ye- fin againlt Chrift. 

Wherefore if meat 1 5 
make my brother to of- 
fend, T will eat no flefti 
while the world ftandeth, 
kit I make my brother to 

S E C T. V. 

CHAP. IX. I 27. 


S T. Paul had preached the Gofpel at Corinth about two Years, 
in all which time he had taken nothing of them, 2 Cor. XL 

y 9. This, by fome of the oppofite FaSrion, and particularly, 

as we may fuppofe, by their Leader, was made ufe of to call in que- 
ilion his Apofllefliip, 2 Cor. XI. 5, 6. For why, if he were an Apo- 
ftle, lliould he not ufe the Power of an Apoftle, to demand Main- 
tenance where he preached ? In this Sedlion St. Paul vindicates his 
Apofllefhip ; and, in anfwer to thefe Enquirers, gives the Reafoa 
why, tho' he Had a kight to Maintenance, yet he preached gratis 
to the Corinfhia?2s. My Anfwer, fays he, to thefe Iftquiiicors, is. 
That tho', as being an Apoftle, I know that I have a Right to Main- 
tenance, as well as Peter, or any other of the Apoftles, who all 
have a Right, as is evident from Reafon and from Scripture 5 yet 
I neither have, nor {hall make ufe of my Privilege amongft you, 
for fear that if it cod: you any thing, that fliould hinder the Effwd: 
of my Preaching : I would negled nothing that might promote the 
Gofpel. For I do not content my felf with doing barely what is 
.iiiy Dutyj for by my extraordinary Call and Commiflion, it is now 
2 incum- 



incumbent on me to preach the Gofpel ; but I endeavour to excel In Chap. ix. 
my Miniflry, and not to execute my CommiiTioa overtly, and juil •''V"^*^ 
dnough to ferve the Turn: For if thofe, who in the jlgoni'ltick 
Games aiming at Vidlory, to obtain only a corruptible Crown; de- 
ny themfelves in eating and drinking, and other Pleafures, how 
much more does the eternal Crown of Glory deferye that v/e fliould 
do our utmoft to obtain it ? to be as careful in not indul^ino; our 
Bodies, in denying our Pleafures, in doing every Thing we could 
in order to get it, as if there were but one that fliould have it ? 
Wonder not therefore if I, having this. in view, .negled: rny Body, 
and thofe outward Conveniencies that .1, .as .^n Apoftle, fent to 
preach the Gofpel, might claim, and make ufeof : Wonder not 
that I prefer the propagating of the Gofpel, and making of Con- 
verts, to all Care and Regard of my felf. This feems the Defign of 
the Apoftle, and will give light to the following, pifcourfej which 
we fhall now take in the Order St. Paul writ it. 


AM I not an apoAle ? 
am 1 not free ? 
have I not feen Jefi'S 
Chrilt our Lord ? are not 
you my work in thel,ord? 

^ If I be not an apoftle 
unto others, yet doubtlers 
I am to you : for the fcal 
of mine apoftlcfhip are 
ye in the Lord. 

3 Mine anfwer to them 
that do examine me, is 

4 Have we not power to 
eat and to drink ? 

5 Have we net power to 
lead about a fiftcr, a wife. 


AM I not an Apoftle? And am I not at 
liberty % as much as any other of the 
Apoftles, to make ufe of the Privilege due to 
that Ofhce? Have,I not had the Favour to fee 
Jefus Chrift, our Lord, after an extraordinary 
manner? And are not you your ielves, whom 
I have converted, an Evidence of the Succefs 
of my Employment in the Gofpel ? If others 
fliould queftion my being an Apoftle, you at 
leaft cannot doubt of it -, your Converfion to 
Chriftianity is, as it were, a Seal fet to it, to 
make good the Truth of my Apoftlefhip. This 
then 13 my Anfwer to thofe who fet up an In- 
quifition upo;i me : Have not I a Right to 
Meat and Drink where I preach ? Have not I 
and Barnabas a Power to take along with us, 
in our Travelling, to propagate the Gofpelj a 

N t E S. 

I * It was a Law amongft the ^eivS) not to receive Alms fronj the GetTtikf, 






Chap. IX. 



Chriillan Woman '', to provide our Conve- 
niencies, and be ferviceable to us, as well as 
Peterj and the Brethren of the Lord, and the 
6, reft of the Apoftles ? Or is it I only and Bar- 
nabas^ who are excluded from the Privilege of 
being maintained without Working? Who 
goes to the War any where, and ferves as a Sol- 
dier at his own Charges } Who plantech a 
Vineyard, and eateth not of the Fruit thereof? 
Who feedeth a Flock, and eateth nor of the 
Milk ? This is allowed to be Reafon, that 
tiiofe who are fo employed, fhould be main« 
tained by their Employments ; and fo likewife 
a Preacher of the Gofpel. But I fay not this 
barely upon tl:ie Principles of human Reafon, 
Revelation teaches the fame Thing in the Law 
of MoJ'es: Where it is faid. Thou {halt not 
muzzle the Mouth of the Ox that treadeth 
out the Corn. Doth God take care to provide 
fo particularly for Oxen by a Law ? No, cer- 
tainly ; it is laid particularly for our Sakes, and 
not for Oxen, that he who fows, may fow in 
hope of enjoying the Fruits of his Labour at 
Harveft, and may then threfh out and eat the 

U' Corn he hoped for. If we have fowed to you 
fpiritual Things, in preaching the Gofpel to 
you, is it unreafonable that we fliould expecft 
a little Meat and Drink from you, a little fhare 

12. of your carnal Things ? If any partake of this 



as well i^ other apoftles, 
and as the brethren of the 
Lord, and Cephas? 

Or I onjy ar. 1 Barna- 6 
bas, have not wc power 
to forbear workirig \ 

Who gotth a warfare 7, 
any time at his own. char- 
ges ? wfio planteth a 
vineyard, and eateth not 
of the fruit thereof I or 
who feedeth a flock, and 
eateth not of the milk bi 
the riock ? 

Say I thefe things as 8 
a man I or faith not the 
law the fame alfo ? 

For it li written in the 9 
law of MDfcs, Thou Ihalt 
not muzzle the mouth of 
the ox chat treadeth ouc 
the corn. Doth God take 
care for oxen ? 

Or faith he it akoge- *^ 
ther for our fakes ? For 
our fakes, no doubt, this 
is written : that he thst 
ploweth, fliould plow ia 
hope ; and that he thac 
threflieth in hope, ftiould 
be partaker of his hope. 

If we have fown unto 1 1' 
you fpiritual things, is it 
a great thing if we fhall 
reap your carnal things? 

If orhers be partakers li 
of this power over you, 
are not we rather? Nc- 
verfhelefs, wc have not 
ufed this power ; butfuf- 
fer all things, left we 


S •* There were not in thofe Parts, asamingns, Inns, where Travellers might have their 
Conveniencies ; and Strangers could not be accommodated with Neceflaries, unlcfs they had 
fome body with them, to take that care, and provide for them. They who would make it their 
bulmefs co preach, and ncglgd this, muil needs fuffcr great Hardfti'ps. 





Chap. IX, 

fhould hinder the gofpcl 
of Chrilt. 

[ J Do yc not know, that 
they which minifter about 
holy things, live of the 
things of the temple? and 
they which wait at the 
altar, are partakers wich 
the altar ? 

J . Even fo hath the Lord 
ordained, that ihey which 
preach the gofpei, Ihould 
live of the gofpcl. 

15 But I have ufed none 
of thefe things. Neither 
have 1 wrictcn thtfe 
things, that it fliould be 
lb done unto me: for it 
were better for me to die, 
than that any man fliould 
make my glorying void. 

16 For though 1 preach 
the gofpei, 1 have nothing 

j to glory of: for nectfllty 
is laid upon me; yea, wo 
is unto mc, if I preach 
not the gofpei. 

1 7 For if I do this thing 
willingly, I have a re- 
ward : but if againft my 
will, a difpcnfation of 
the gofpei is committed 
unto me. 

1 8 What is my reward 
then ? verily that when I 
preach the gofpei, I may 

' make the gofpcl of Chrilt 
without charge, that I 
abufc not my power in 
the gcfpc!. 

Power over you % why not we much rather ? 
But I made no ufe of it, but bear with any 
thing, that I may avoid all hindrance to the 
Progrefs of the GofpeL Do ye not know, that 13. 
they who in the Temple ferve about holy 
Things, live upon thofe holy Things? And they 
who wait at the Altar, are Partakers with the 
Altar ? So has the Lord ordained, that they 14- 
who preach the Gofpei, fhould live of the Go- 
fpei. But though, as an ApoHle and Preacher 15. 
of the Gofpei, I have, as you fee, a Right to 
Maintenance, yet I have not taken it, neither 
have I written this to demand it ; for I had 
rather perifh for Want, than be deprived of 
what I glory in, viz. preaching the Gofpei 
freely. For if I preach the Gofpei, I do bare- 16. 
ly my Duty ; but have nothing to glory in, for 
1 am under an Obligation and Command to 
preach '^ : And wo be to me, if I preach not 1 7, 
the Gofpei ; which if I do willingly, I fliall 
have a Reward} if unwillingly, the Difpcnfa- 
tion is neverthelefs intrufted to me, and yc 
ought to hear me as an Apoflle. How there- i S, 
fore do I make it turn to account to my felf ? 
Even thus : If I preach the Gofpei of Chrift 
of free Coft, fo that I exadl not the Mainte- 
nance I have a Right to by the Gofpei. 

N r E S. 

5 1 "^ For 7nV i^'scrieti, 1 fliould incline to read 7iif sVj^tf , if there be, as Vojfut fays, airy 
MSS to authorize it , and then the Words will run thus, // miy partake of your Subjlance. This 
btttcr f.iirs the foregoing Words, and needs not the Addition of the Word tbisy to be inferted in 
the Tranflarion ; which, wich DiiHcuUy enough, makes it refer to a Power which he was noc 
here fpcaking of, but ftanJs eight Verfcs orf. Belides, in thefe Words St. Paul fccms to glance 
at what they fuffered from the falfc ApolUe, who did not only pretend to Power of Mainte- 
nance, but did aftually devour them : V:({. i Cor. X'l. iC 

\i ^ r.d. AasXXII. 1= II. 

O For 



Chap. IX. 










For being under no Obligation to any Man, I 
yet fubje(5l my felf to every one, to the end that 
I may make the more Converts to Chrift. 
To ih^yews, and thofe under the Law o^ Mofes, 
I became as a Jew, and one under that Law, 
that I might gain the Jews, and thofe under 
the Law: To thofe without the Law of Mo/eSy 
I applied my felf as one not under chat Law, 
(not indeed as if I were under no Law to God, . 
but as obeying and following the Law of 
Chrift) that I might g^in thofe who were 
without the Lav/. To the Weak I became as 
weak, that I might gain the Weak. I became 
all Things to all Men, that I might leave no 
lawful Thing untried, whereby I might fave 
People of all forts. And this I do for the Go- 
fpel's fake, that I my felf may fhare in the Be- 
nefits of the Gofpel. Know ye not, that they 
who run a Race, run not lazily, but with their 
utmofl Force ? they all endeavour to be firft, 
becaufe there is but one that gets the Prize: It 
is nor enough for you to run, but fo to run 
that ye may obtain ; which they cannot do, 
who running only becaufe they are bid, do not 
run with all their might. They who propofe 
to themfelves the getting the Garland in your 
Games, readily fubmit themfelves to fevere 
Rules of Exercife and Abflinence -, and yet 
theirs is but a. fading tranfitory Crown j that 
which we propofe to our felves is everlafting, 
and therefore deferves that we fhould endure 
greater Hardfhips for it. I therefore fo run, as 
not to leave it to Uncertainty : I do what I do, 
not as one who fences for Exercife or Olienta- 
tionj but I really and in earneft keep under 
my Body, and entirely inflave it to the Service 
of the Gofpel, without allowing any thing to 


For though I be free rp 
from all men, yec have I 
made my felf fervan: ursco 
all, that I mighc gain the 

And unto the JcvvSj I JO 
became, as a Jew, chat I 
mighc gain the Jewi; to 
them that are under the 
hw, as under the law, 
that I might gain them 
that are under the law ; 

To them that are vvith- i i 
out law, as without law, 
(being not without law 
to God, but under the 
law to Chrift) that I 
might gain them, that are 
wichout law. 

To the weak became I ai 
as weak, that I might 
gain the v/eak : I am 
made all things to all men, 
that I might by all means 
fave fome. 

And this I do for the i J 
gofpel's fake, that I might 
be partaker thereof with 

Know ye not,that they ia 
which run in a race, run 
all, but one recciveth the 
prize ? fo run, that ye may 

And every man that 25 
ftriveth for the maftery, 
is temperate in all things: 
now, they do it to ob- 
tain a corruptible crown, 
but we an incorruptible. 

I therefore fo run, not zd 
as uncertainly ; fb fight I, 
not as one that beateth 
the air : 

But I keep under my 27 
body, and bring it into 
fubjeciion : lelt chat by 



any means when I have thc Etigencics of this minimal Life, which may 
preached to others, I my ^^ ^j^^ ^^.^^y hindrance to the Propagation of the 

Golpei, leit that I, who preach to bring others 
into the Kingdom of Heaven, fliould be difap- 
proved of, and rejefted my felf. 

S E C T, VI. N. I. 

CHAP. X. I— la. 


IT feems, by what he here fays, as if the Corinthians had told 
St. Pau\ that the Temptations and Gonftraints they were under, 
of going to their Heathen Neighbours Feafts upon their Sacrifices, 
were fo many and fo great, that there was no avoiding it: And 
therefore they thought they might go to them without any Offence 
to God, or Danger to themfelves j fmce they were the Peopk of 
God, purged from Sin by Baptifm, and fenced againft it, by parta- 
king of the Body and Blood of Chrift in the Lord's Supper. To 
which St. Paul anfwers, that notwithftanding their Baptifm, and 
partaking of that fpiritual Meat and Drink, yet they, as well as the 
Jews of old did, might fin, and draw on themfelves Deftru(3;ion 
from the Hand of God ; that eating of Things that were known and 
owned to be offered to Idols, was partaking in the idolatrous Wor- 
fhip ; and therefore they were to prefer even the Danger of Perfe- 
cution before fuch a Compliance* for God would find a way for 
them to efcape. 

O 2 



Chap. X. 




I Would not have you ignorant, Brethren, 
that all our Fathers, the whole Congrega- 
tion of the Children of Ifrncl^ at their coming; 
out of Egypt, were all. to a Man under the 
Cloud, and all paffed through the Sea: And 
were all by this Baptifm^ in the Cloud, and 
paffing through the Water, initiated into the 
Mofaical Inftitution and Government, by. thefe. 
two Miracles, of the Cloud and the Sea. Andi 
they all eat the fame Meat, which had a typi- 
cal and fpiritual Signification* And they all 
drank the fame fpiritual typical Drink, which 
came out of the Rock, and followed them j 
which Rock typified Chrift : All which were 
typical Reprefentations of Chrift, as well as 
the Bread and Wine, which we eat and drink 
in the Lard's Supper, are typical Reprefenta- 
tions of him. But yet tho' every one of the 
Children of IJrael that came out of Egypt were 
thus folemnly feparated from the reft of the 
profane idolatrous World, and were made God's 
peculiar Peopkj fandtified and haly, every 
one of them to himfelf, and Members of 
his Church : Nay, tho' they did all ^ partake 
of the fame Meat, and the fame Drink which , 

Moreover, brethren,, ^ 
I would not that 
ye Ihould be ignorant, 
how chat all our fathers 
were under the cloud, 
and all paflid through the 
fca ; 

And were all baptized a 
unto Mofes in tKe cloud,, 
and in the fea; 

And did eat all the J 

fame fpiritual. meat ; 

And did drink all the 4 
fame fpiritual drink : (for 
they drank of that fpiri- 
tual Rock that followed, 
them ; and that Rock 
was Chrift.) 

But with many of them- ^ 
God was not well pica- 
fed ; for they were over- 
thrown in th€ valdernefs. 


1 * TKe ApofxJe calls it Baptifm, which is the initiating Ceremony into both the yeivi^ and 
Chriftian Church : And the Cloud and Sea both being nothing but \Vacer> are well fuiced to- 
that typical Reprefcntation ; and that the Children of IJrael were wafhcd with Rain from the 
Cfoud, may be collefted from PfaJ. LXVIII. 9. 

5 '^ It may be obferved here, that St. ?«?«/ fpeaking of the ifraeVtet^ ufes the Word Tet'cr-;-, 
4//, five times in the four foregoing Verfcs; beiides that, he carefully fays, tI eivrb C§ioy.A, the 

mm, duu cdiing iiiv L.vra » supper, as 11 tnac werc-cnougn co Kctp cnem rignt 111 tnc 'ij^iii. ui 
Cod ; that tho' the Ifraelites^ all to a Man, cat the very fame fpiritual Food, and all to a Man 
drank the very fame fpiritual Drink, yet they were not all to a Man prefcrv'd, but many of them, 
fcr all that, finned and Eell under the avenging Hand of God in the Wildernefj 

I; did 





Chap. X. 

6 Now thefe things were 
our examples, to the in- 
tent we fhouid not luft 
after evil things, as thty kiiitd. 

, Ni-ithtr be ye idola- 
ters, as were feme of 
them ; as it is written, 
The people fat doivn to 
tat and drink, and rofc 
up to play. 

8 Neither let us commit 
fornication, as fome of 
them committed ; and fell 
in one day three and 
twenty thcufand. 

9 Neither Jet us tempt 
Chrid, as feme of ihcm 
aifo tempted, and were 
dcflfoyed of ferptnts. 

10 Neither rr.urmur yc, as 
{cme of them alfb mur- 
mured, and were deftroy- 
ed of the dcftroycr. 

LI Now all tittfe things 
happened unto them for 
enfamples : and they are 
written for our admoni- 
tioHjUpon whotrtthe ends 
of the world are come. 

did typically reprefent Chriit, yet they were 
not thereby^ privileged from Sin, but great 
Numbers of them provoked God, and were 
deftroy'd in the Wiidernefs, for their Difobe- 
dience. Now thefe Things were fet as Patterns 
to us, that we, warned by thefe Examples, 
Ihould not fet our Minds a-Ionging, as they did, 
after Meats ^ that would be fafer let alone! 
Neither be ye Idolaters, as were fame of them;, 
as it is written. The People fat down to eat 
and to drink, and role up to play \ Nei- 
ther let us commit Fornication, as fome of 
them committed, and fell in one Day three and 
twenty Thoufand. Neither let us provoke 
Chrift, as fome of them provoked, and were 
deftroyed of Serpents. Neither murmur ye, 
as fome of them murmured, and were deflroy- 
ed of the Deflroyer \ Now all thefe Things "^ 
happened to tlie Jews for Examples, and 
are writtea for our ' Admonition, upon whom , 

N O r E S; 

6 s Ka;t«i', e^il Things. The Fault of the J/raeJites, which this Place refers to, leems to be 
their longing for Flcfh Kumb. XI. which colt many of them their Lives : And that which h& 
warns the Corinthiatis of here, is their great Propenfion to the Pagan Sacrifice- Feafts. 

7 ^.P'^yt J- e. Dance : Feading and Dancing ufually acompanicd the Heathen Sacrifices. 

10 ' 'OAoO-j'st^TaV, Defircyer, was an Angel that had the Power to defiroy, mentioned 
Exod. XII. 13. Heb XI. 18. 

11 '^ It is to be obfcived, that all thefe Infiances, mentioned by the Apoftlc, of Defiruftion, 
which came upon the //r<if///f/, who were in Covenant with God, and Partakers in thofc typical 
Sacraments above mentioned, were cccafioned by their luxurious Appetites about Meat and 
Drink, by Fornication, and by Idolatry i Sins which the Corir.thians were inclined to, and 
which he here warns them againft. 

* So I think vcj T4A.n 7c!!v dikvuv fhouid be rendred, and not, contrary to Grammar, the Er.cti 
of the World ; becaufe it is certain that TiAii and avvTzK^.tt r"^ ctiuy©-, or ruv climuv, cannot 
fignrfy every where, as we render it, the Evd of the World^ which denotes but one certain Period 
ef Time, for the W rid can have but one End ; whereas thofe Words (ignify, in diSerent Places, 
different Periods of Time, as will be manifelt to anyone who will compare thefe Texts where thev 
cccur, viz.. Mat. XIII. ?9, 40. &: XXIV. ^ & XXVIII. io. i Cor. X. 1 1. Heb.W. i6. It tnay 
be worth while therefore to conflner whether uicov hath not ordinarily a more natural Significa- 
tion in the New Teftament, by Handing for a condderable length of time, pafling under foir.a 
one remarkable Difpenfacion. 












the Ends of the Ages are com-e. ^Wherefore, 
taught by thefe Examples, let him that thinks 
himfelf fafe, by being in the Church, and par- 
taking of the Chriflian Sacraments, take heed 
left he f^ill into Sin, and fo Deftrudion from 
God overtake him. Hitherto the Tempta- 
tions you have met with, have been but light 
and ordinary: If you fhould come to be pref- 
fed harder, God, who is faithful, and never 
forfakes thofe who forfake not him, will not 
fuffer vou to be tempted above your Strength ; 
but will either enable you to bear the Perfe- 
cution, or open you a Way out of it. There- 
fore, my Beloved, take care to keep off from 
Idolatry ; and be not drawn to any Approaches 
near it, by any Temptation or Perfecution what- 
foever. You are fatisfied that you want not 
Knowledge. "' And therefore, as to know- 
ing Men, I appeal to you ; and make you 
Judges of what I am going to fay in the Cafe. 
They who drink of the Cup of Bleffing ", 
which we blefs in the Lord's Supper, do they 
not thereby partake of the Benefits purchafed 
by Chrift's Blood fhed for them upon the 
Crofs, which they here fymbolically drink ? 
And they who eat of the Bread broken ° there, 
do they not partake in the Sacrifice of the 
Body of Chrift, and profefs to be Members of 
him ? For by eating of that Bread we, though 
many in Number, are all united, and make but 
One Body j as many Grains of Corn are united 

N O f E S, 

Wntrcfoie Jet him that '- 
thtnkcrh he fiandechjCake 
heed left he faH. 

There hath no tempta- 1 j 
t'on taken you, but fuch 
as is common to nisn ; 
but God is faithful, who 
will not fuffr you to b2 
tcmp'ed above that ye 
are able ; bur will with 
the temptation alfo make 
a way to efcape, that ye 
m-ay be able to bear it. 

Wherefore, my dearly 14 
beloved, flee frorn idola- 

I fpeak as to wife men : i $ 
judge ye what I fay. 

The cup of bleffing 16 
which wc blefs, is it not 
the communion of the 
blood of Chrift? The 
bread which wc break, is 
it not the communion of 
the bodyofChrift? 

For wc being many, 17 
are one bread, and one 
body: for wc are all par- 
takers of chat one bread. 

i^ '" ViA.Chap.Vm. I. 

16 " Cuf of BleJJingy was a Name given by the y<<wj to a Cup of Wine, which they folemnly 
drank in the Palfover, with Thank%iving. 

'^ This was alfo taken from the Cullom of the '/cws in the Pafl':>ver, to break a Cake of Un- 
Icavcocd Bread. 



'1 ' T^ \^ T^ 

1 jz2\ 1. 

1 8 Behold Ifracl after the 
flefh : arc not they which 
eat of the facrifices, par- 
takers of the altar ? 

ip. What fay I then ! that 
the luol is any thing, or 
that which is cfflred in 
faciificc to idols, is any 

20; But I fay, that the 
things which the Gentiles 
I facrifice, they facrifice to 
I devils, and not to God : 
and I would not that ye 
fliould have fellowfhip 
with devils. 

^l Ye cannot drink the 
cup of the Lord, and the 
cup of devils : ye cannot 
be partakers of the Lord's 
table, and of the table of 


into one Loaf. See how it is among the Jeit's, i8, 
who are outwarJly, according to the Fled), by 
Circumcifion the People of God: Among them, 
ihey who eac of the Sacrifice, are Partakers of 
God's Table the Akar, have Fellowlhip with 
him, and Hiare in the Benefit of the Sacrifice, 
as if it were offered for them. Do not miftake ^9' 
me, as if I hereby faid, that the Idols of the 
Gentiles are Gods in reality; or that the Things 
oiFered to them change their Nature, and are 
any thing really different from what they v/ere 
before, ib as to affe<5l us in our Ufe of them p : 
No, but this I fay, that the Things which the 20. 
Gefitiles facrifice, they facrifice to Devils, and ' 
not to God ; and I would not that you fliould 
have Fellowfhip, and be in League with De- 
vils, as they who by eating of the Things of- 
fered to them, enter into Covenant, Alliance 
and Friendfhip with them. You cannot eat 2i. 
and drink with God as Friends at his Table in 
the Eucharift, and entertain Familiarity and . 
Friendfhip with Devils, by eating with them, - 
and partaking of the Sacrifices offered to 
them '* : You cannot be Chriftians and Ido- 
laters too ; nor if you fliould endeavour to join 
thefe inconfiflent Rites, will it avail you any 
thing. For your partaking in the Sacraments 
of the Chriflian Church, will no more exempt 
you from the Anger of God, and Punilhment- 


19 P This is evident from what he fays, ver. i<i,i7- that Things offered to Idols may be 
eaten as well as any other Meat, Co it be without partaking in the Sacrifice, and withovu 

n *> 'Tis plain, by what the Apoftle fays, that the Thing he fpeaks againfi here, is theif 
affifiing at the Heathen Sacrifices, or at leait at the Feafts in their Temples, upon the Sacrifice, 
which was. a fbederal Rice. 





due to your Idolatry, than the eating of the 
fpirituaf Food, and drinking of the fpiritual 
Rock, kept the baptized IJraelifes, who offend- 
ed God by their Idolatry, or other Sins, from 
22. being deftroy'd in the Wildernefs. Dare you J;^„- .P^t^wr' 
then, being efpoufed to Chrilt, provoke the f^ro^oer than he ? 
Lord to Jeaiouiy by Idolatry, which is fpiritual 
Whoredom? Are you flronger than he, and 
able to refift him, when he let? loofe his Fury 
againfl you ? 

SECT. VI. N. 2. 

CHAP. X. aj. XI. I. 


WE have here another of his Arguments againft Things offered 
to Idols i wherein he fliews the Danger flight be in it, from 
the Scandal it might give, fuppofing it a Thing lawful in it felf. 
'He had formerly treated of this Subject, Chap. VIII. fo far as to let 
them fee, that there was no Good nor Virtue in eating Things offer- 
ed to Idols, notwithftanding they knew that Idols were nothing, and 
they might think that their free eating without Scruple, fhew'd that 
they knew their Freedom in the Gofpel, that they knew that Idols 
were in reality nothing, and therefore they flighted and difregarded 
them and their Worlhip, as nothing ; but that there might be Evil 
in Eating, by the Offence it might give to weak Chriftians, who 
had not that Knowledge: He here takes up the Argument of Scandal 
again, and extends it to y^ws and Gentiles, vid. vcr. 32. and fliews, 
that it is not enough to juftify them in any Adion, that the Thing 
they do is in it felf lawful, unlefs we feek in it the Glory of God, 
and the Good of others. 




Chap. X. 

I J All things are lawful 
for me, but all things are 
not expedient: all things 
afe lawful for me, but all 
things edify not. 


Let no man feek his 

own : but every man ano- 
ther's wealth. 

^5 Whatfoever is fold in 
the fliambles, that ear, 
asking no qucftion for 
confcience fake. 

.6 For the earth is the 
Lord's, and the fulnefs 

: 7 If any of them that be- 
lieve not, bid you to a 
feaft, and ye be difpofed 
to go , whatloever is fet 
before you, eat, asking 
no quellion for confcience 

i8 But if any man fay unto 

' you, This is offered in fa- 
crifice unto idols, eat nor, 
for his fake that fhewed 
it, and for confcience fake. 
For the earth is the Lord's, 
and the fulnefs thereof. 

ij Confcience, I fay, not 
thine own, but of the o- 
thers .' for why is my li- 
berty judged of another 
man's confcience? 

;o For, if I by grace be a 
partaker, why am I evil 
fpoken of for that for 
which I give thanks ? 

; I Whether therefore ye 
eat or drink, or whatfo- 
ever ye do, do all to the 
glory of God. 

Farther, fuppofing it lawful to eat Things 23. 
offered to Idols ; yet all Things that are lawful, 
are not expedient: Things that in themfelves 
are lawful for me, may not tend to the Edifica- 
tion of others, and fo may be fit to be forborn. 
No one mufl feek barely his own private, parti- 24, 
cular Interefl alone j but let every one feek the 
Good of others alfo. Eat whatever is fold in the 25. 
Shambles, without any Enquiry or Scruple, 
whether it had been offered to any Idol or no ? 
For the Earth, and all therein, are the good 26. 
Creatures of the true God, given by him to Men 
for their Ufe. If an Heathen invite you to an 27, 
Entertainment, and you go, eat whatever is fet 
before you, without making any Queflion or 
Scruple about it, whether it had been offered in 
Sacrifice, or no? But if any one fay to you, z^ 
this was offered in Sacrifice to an Idol, eat it not, 
for his fake that mentioned it, and for Con- 
fcience-fake '. Confcience, I fay, not thine 29, 
own (for thou knowefl thy Liberty, and that an 
Idol is nothing) but the Confcience of the other: 
For why fhould I ufe my Liberty, fo that ano- 
ther Man Ihould in Confcience think I offended? 
And if I, with Thankfgiving, partake of what 30, 
is lawful for me to eat, why do I order the 
Matter fo, that I am ill fpoken of for that 
which I blefsGodfor? Whether therefore ye 31. 
eat or drink, or whatever you do, let your 
Care and Aim be the Glory of God. Give no 


i8 ^ The Repetition of thefe Words, T^e Earth is the Lorfs, and the Fulnefs thereof j does fb 
maniftfiiy diflurb the Scnfe, that che ^^r/.u, Arabic^ Vulgar and Frewc^ Tranflations, have omitted 
theoa, and are juftiried in it by the Alexandrian^ and fome other Qreek Copies. 

P Offence 



Chap. X. 




Give none offence, nei- >f ^ 
ther to the Jews, nor to 
the Gentiles, nor to the 
church of God : 

Offence to the jfewsy by giving them occafion 
to think that Chriftians are permitted to worfllip 
Heathen Idols; nor to the G^;^///^^,. by giving 
them occalion to think that you allow their Ido- 
latry, by partaking of their Sacrifices;- nor to 
weak Members of the Ghurch of God, by draw- 
ing them by your Example to eat of Things 
offered to Idols, of the Lawfulnefs whereof they 
are not fully fatisfied : As I my felf do, who 
abridge my felf of many Conveniencies of Life, 
to comply with the different Judgments of Men, 
and gain the good Opinion of others, that I may 
be inlVumemal to the Salvation of as many as is 

Imitate herein my Example, as I do that of 
our Lord Chrift, who neglected himfelf for the 
Salyation of others 'o. 


i;f- Till. Rom. XV. ?. This Verfe feems to belong to the precedent, wherein he had pro- 
pofed hiiiifeif as an Example ; and therefore this Verfe fhould not be cut off from the former. 
Chapter. In what St Paul fays in this and the preceding Vcrf.', taken together, wc may fupr 
pofe he makes feme Rtflei'^ion on the falfe Apoftle, whom many of the Corinthians followed as 
ihcir Leader. At leaft it is for St. Panli Juriification, that he propofes himfelf to be followed no 
farther than as he fought the Good ofochers> and not his own, and had Chrift for his Pattern,, 
^14. Chap. IV. i6. 

Evenaslpleafcallmcn 55: 
in all things, not feeking : 
mine own piofit, but the 
profit of many, that they., 
may be faved._ 

Be ye followers of Tie, j, 
e\'en as I alfo am o£, 



Chap. xr. 

SECT. VII. "^^ 

CHAP. XI. a 16. 


ST. Paul commends them for obferving the Orders he had left 
with them, and ufes Arguments to juftify the Rule he had given 
them, that Women fhould not pray or prophefy in their AiTembiies 
uncovered; which it feems there was fome Contention about, and 
they had writ to him to be refolved in it. 


2^owrpraifeyou,bre- "TT Commend you, Brethren, for remembring z, 

irembefme'in all rhTngV, X ^J^ ^J Orders, and for retaining thofe Rules 

and keep the orciinances,as I delivered to you, when I was with you. 

ideiivercdthemtoyou. g^j^ foj. yQ^j. better underftandinc; what con- 3' 

9 But I wouL^ have you vxr , • a n- t i • 

know, that the head of cems Women ' m.your Anembhes, you are 



5 * This about Women feeming as difficult a PalTage as moft in St. Paul's Epiftles, I crave 
leave to premife fome few Coniidt rations, vhich I hope may conduce to the clearing of it. 

(i.) It is to be obferved, thac it was the Cuftom for Women who appeared in publick, to be 
vai'ed, ^er. i;— — — 16. Therefore it could be no Qneftion at ai!, whether they ought to 
be vailed when they alfifted at the Prayers and Praifes in the publick Aflcmblies; or if that were 
the Thing intended by the Apofilc, it had been much eafier, Ihortcr and plainer, for him to have 
faid, that Women ftiould be covered in the AJLTemblies. 

(i.) It is plain that this covering the Head in Women, is retrained to fome particular Aftions 
which they performed in the Aflembly, exprefled ty the Words, Praying and Prophefyi/jgy ver.4, 
and ^. which, whatever they fignify, muft have the fame Meaning, when applied to the Wq; 
men, in the <ch Vcrfe, that they have when applied to the Men, in the ^r.h. Vcrfe. 

It will poflibly be objcdcd, If Women were to be vai'.cd in the Airemblies, let thofe Aftioni 
be what they wi!!, the Women joinii^g in them were fiill to be vailed. 

Arfii-. This woiud be plainly fo, if their Interpretation were to be followed, who are of opi- 
nion, thac by Praying and PrcpLe/yirig here, was meant to be prefent in the AiTembly, and join- 
ing with the Congregaticn in the Prayers that were made, or Hymns that were fung , or ia 
hearing the Reading and Expofi:ion of the Holy Scriptures there. But againft this, that the 
hearing of Preaching or Prophefying was never called Preaching or Prople/yirg., is fo unanfwcr- 
able an Objcdion, that I think, there can be no Reply to it. 

The Cafe, in lliort, feems to be this : The Men prayed and prophefied in the Aflemblici, and 
did it with their Heads uncovered : The Women alfo fometimes prayed and prophelied too ia 
the A'Temblics i which when they did, they thought, during their performing that A^.ion, they , 

P i were 


Chap. XI. 


to take notice, that Chrifl is the Head to which every man is chrlft; and 
every Man is fubjeded; and the Man is the theheadofch. woman,« 


N 0^ E S, 

were excufed from being vailed, and might be bare-headed, or at leaft open-faced, as well as the 
Men. This was that which the ApoftJe reftrains in them ; and dirtfts, chat tho' they pray'd or 
propheficd, they were ftill to remain vailed, 

(5.) The next Thing to be coniid^red, is, what is here to be underftood by Praying and fro^ 
fhefying. And that feems to me to be the performing of fome particular publick Aiftion in the 
Alfcmbiy by fome one Perfon, which was for that time peculiar to that Perfon, and whilft it lafted 
the reft of the Aflfembly (iltjuly afTiikd. For it cannot be fuppofed, that when the Apoftle fays,. 
a Man praying or prophefying, that he means an Adion pcrfoimed in common by the whole 
Congregation ; or if he did, what Pretence could that give the Woman to be unvailed more du- 
ring the Performance of fuch an Adion, than at any other Time? A Woman muft be vailed in 
the Aftmbly ; what Pretence then or Claim could it give her to be unvailed, that flae join'd 
with the relt of the Aifembly, in the Prayer that fome one Perfon made? Such a Praying as this 
could give no mofe ground for her being unvailed, than her being in the Aifembly could be 
thought a Rcalbn for her being unvail'd. The fame may be faid of Prophefying, when under- 
ftood CO fignify a Woman's joming with the Congregation in finging the Pr aifes of God. But if 
the Woman prayed as the Mouth of the AlTembly, QPc. then it was like fhe might think flie 
migh: have the Privilege to be unvailed.' 

Praying and Prophefying., as has been fhewn, fignify ing here the doing fome peculiar Action in 
the Aifembly, whilll the reft of the Congregation only aflifted ; let us, in the next Place, examine 
what that Action was. As to Prophefying., the Apoftle in exprefs Words tells us, Ch.lV. 5, & 12. 
that it was fpeaking in the Aifembly. The fame is evident as to Pvaymg; that the Apoftle means 
by it praying publickly wuh an audible Voice in the Congregation, -aid. Ch. XIV. 14— ——9. 
(4.J It is to be obfcrvcd, chat whether any one pray'd or prophefied, they did it alone, the 

reft remaining filent, Ch. XIV. 27 53. So that even in thefc extraordinary Praifes, which 

any one fung to God by the immediate Motion and Impulfe of the Holy Ghoft, which was one of 
the Adions called Prophefying, they fung alone. And indeed hov/ could it be othervvife ? For 
who could join with the Pcrlbn fo prophefying, in Things dictated to him alone by the Holy 
Ghoft, which the others could not know, till the Perfon prophefying uttered them ? 

(%) Prophefying, as St. P/ra/ tells, Chap. XIV. 3. was fpeaking unto others to Edification, 
Exhortation and Comfort : But every Speaking to others to any of chefe Ends, was not Prophe- 
fying, but only chc-n when fuch Speaking was a fpiritual Gift, performed by the immediate and 
extraordinary Motion of the Holy Ghoft, vid.Ch.W^. 1.11,24,30. For example, finging 
Praifes to God was called Prophefying; but we fee when Saul prophelled, the Spirit of God fell 
upon him, and he was turn'd into another Man, i Sam X. 6. Nor do I chink any Place in the 
New Teftamcnt can be produced, wherein Prophefying fignifics bare reading of the Scripture, or 
any other Aftion performed without a fupernatural Impulfe and AfTiftance of the Spirit of God.. 
This we arc fure, that the Prophefying which St. Paul here fpeaksof, is one of the extraordinary 
Gifts given by the Spirit of God, vid Ch. XII. 10. Now that the Spirit of God, and the Gift of 
Prophefy ftiould be poured out upon Women as well as Men, in the time of the Gofpcl, is plain, 
from ^<?'/; XI. 17, and then where could be a fitter Place for them to utter their Prophecies in, 
than the Aifemblics \ 

It is not unlikely, what one of the moft learned and fagacious of our Interpreters of Scripture 
Mr, Mede, fuggcfti upon this Place, wz. That Chriftian Women might, out of a Vanity incident to chat Sex, 
iitj^-. \(). prouofe to themfelvcs, and afftft an Imitation of the Priefts and ProphetclFes of the C(/itiks, who 

I. had. 



the man ; and the head oP Head to which every Woman is fubjededt 
Chrift, IS God. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ Superior to Chrill him- 


had their Faces uncovered when they uttered their Oracles, or officiated in their Sacrifices : But 
] cannot but wonder that chat very acute Writer fliould not fee that the bare being in the Alitm- 
bly could not give a Chriftian Woman any pretence to that Freedom. None of the Bacchai or 
Pytbiai quitted their ordinary modeft Guife, but when fhe was, asjthe Poets exprtfs it, rapta or 
plena Deo, pofl'efs'd and hurry'd by the Spirit fhe ferved. And lb, poflibly, a Chridian Woman, 
when {he found the Spiiit of God poured out upon her, as yoe/ exprcifes ir, exciting her to pray- 
er fing Praifcs to God, or difcover any Truth immediately revealed to her, might think it con- 
venient for her better uttering of it to be uncovered, or at leaft to be no more retrained in her 
liberty of ftiewing her ftlf, than the Female Priefts of the Heathens were when they delivered 
their Oracles: But yet even in thcle Actions the Apoftle forbids the Women to unvail themfelves. 
St. PatiPi forbidding Women to fpeak in the AlFcmblics, will probably feem a iirong Ari^umcnt 
againft this ; but when weU conlidered, will perhaps prove none. There be two Places wherein 
the Apoftle forbids Women to fpeak in the Church, i Cor. XIV. 34, 35. & i Tim. II. 1 1,12. He 
that fhall attentively read and compare chefe together, may obfcrve that the Silence injoin'd the 
Woman, is for a Mark of their Subjeftion to the Male Scx: And therefore what in the one is 
expreffed by keeping Si Ufice, and not /peaking, but being under Obedience, in the other is called, 
being in Silence with all SubjeHicn, not teaching nor ufurping Authority over the Man. The Womeu 
in the Churches were not to allume the Perfonage of Doctors, or fpeak there as Teachers ; this 
carried with it the Appearance of Superiority, and was forbidden. Nay, they were not fo much 
as to ask Qiicftions there, or to enter into any fort of Conference. This llieus a kind of Equa- 
lity, and was alfo forbidden : But yet, tho' they were not to fpeak in the Church in their own 
Names, or as if they wercraifed by the Franchifcs of Chriftianity, to fuch an Equality with the 
Men, that where Knowledge or Prefumpcion of their own Abilities emboldened them to it, they 
might take upon them to be Teachers and Initruflers of the Congregation, or might at leaft enter 
into Queftionings and Debates there ; this would have had too great an Air of ftanding upon even 
Ground with the Men, and would not have well comported with the Subojdination of the Sex: 
But yet this Subordination which Gcd, for Order's fake, had infticuted in the World, hinder'd 
not, but that by the fupernatural Gifts of the Spirit, he might make ufe of the weaker Sex, to any 
extraordinary Funftion, whenever he thought fit, as well as he did of the Men. But yet, when 
they thus either pray'd or prophefied by the Motion and Impulfe of the Holy Ghoft, Care was 
taken that whilll they were obeying God, who was pleas'd by his Spirit to fet them a fpeaking, 
the Subjeftion of their Sex fhould not be forgotten, but owned and preferved by iheir being co- 
vered. The Chrifiian Religion was not to give Offence, by any Appearance or Sufpicion that k 
took away the Subordination of the Sexes, and fet the Women at, liberty from their natural Sub- 
jccfion to the Man. And therefore we fee, that in both thefe Cafes, the Aim was to maintain 
and fecure the confefTed Superiority and Dominion of the Man, and not permit it to be invaded 
fo much as in appearance. Hence the Arguments in the one Cafe for Covering, and in the orhej 
for Silence, are all drawn from the natural Superiority of the Man, and the Subjection of the 
Woman. In the one, the Woman, without an extraordinary Call, was to keep filent, as a Mark 
of her Subjedion ; in the other, where fhe was to fpeak by an extraordinary Call and Commiifion 
from God, fhe was yet to continue the Pi-ofcflion of her Subjeflion in keeping her felf covered. 
Here, by the way, it is to be.obferved, that there was extraordinary Praying to God by the 
Impulfe of the 'Spirit, as well as fpeaking unco Men for their Edification, Exhortation and Com- 
fort : Vid. Chap. XIV. 15. Rom. VIII. i6. Jude zo. Thefe Things being preraifed, let us follow 
the Thread of St. Vaul\ Difccurfc, 




felf, Is God. Every Man that prayeth or pro- 
phefieth, z. e. by the Gift of the Spirit of God^ 
fpeaketh in the Church for the edifying, exhort- 
ing, and comforting of the Congregation, having 
his Head covered, diflionoureth Chrift his Head, 
by appearing in a Garb not becoming the Au- 
thority and Dominion which God, thro' Chrifl, 
has given him over all the Things of this World ; 
the covering of the Head being a Mark of Sub- 
jedion. But, on the contrary, a Woman pray- 
ing or prophefying in the Church with her Head 
uncovered, diilionoureth the Man, who is her 
Head, by appearing in a Garb that difowns her 
Subjedion to him: For to appear bare-headed 
in publick, is all one as to have her Hair cut 
off i which is the Garb and Drefs of the other 
Sex, and not of a Woman. If therefore it be 
unfuitable to the Female Sex, to have their Hair 
Hiorn or fliaved off, let her for the fame Reafon 
be covered. A Man indeed ought not to be 
vailed, becaufe he is the Image and Reprefen- 
tative of God in his Dominion over the reft of 
the World, which is one part of the Glory of 
God: But the Woman, who was made out of 
the Man, made for him, and in Subjccftion to 
liim, is matter of Glory to the Man. But the 
Man not being made out of the Woman, nor for 
her, but the Woman made out of, and for the 
Man, Hie ought for this Reafon to have a Vail 
on her head, in token of her SubJc(ftion, be- 
II. caufe of the Ani^cls ". Nevcrthelei's, the Sexes 





have not a Being one Vv'ithout the other 

N r E S. 



•Every man praying or ^ 
prophefying, having hra 
head covered, diftionour:; 
•«th his head. 

But z-vtfj woman that S 
prayeth, or prophefieth 
with her head uncovered, 
diflionoureth her head : 
for that is even all one as 
if (he were ihaven. 

For if the woman be not <S 
covered, let her alfo be 
fliorn : but if it be a fhame 
for a woman to be ftiorn 
or lliaveii, let her be co- 

For a man indeed ought 7 
not to cover his hcad,fcr- 
afiiiuch as he is the image 
and glory of God : but 
the woman is the glory 
of the man. 

For the man is not of 8 
the woman, bi:t the wo- 
man of the man. 

Neither was the man 9 
created for the woman, 
but the woman for the 

For this caufe ouoh^io 
the woman to have pow- 
er on htr head, becaufe 
cf the angels. 

Nevcrthckfi, neither is 1 1 
the man without the wo- 

io ^ Whai the Meaning of chefc Words is, T confcG I Jo not underfland. 




man, neither the woman 
without the man, in the 
ij For as the woman Is of 
the man, even Co is the 
man alfo by the woman ; 
but all things of God. 

. Ju^ge in your felves : 
is it comely that a woman 
pray unto God uncover- 
ed ? 
j^ Eoth not ev€n nature 
it felf teach you, that if a 
man have longhair, ic is 
a.fhame unto him ' 


But if a woman have 

ioiig hair, it ir z g'oi y to 
her": fc. rx. hair is given 
her tor a c:;-, trino. 

J 5 But if »ny man Teem to 
be contentious, we have 
no fuch culiom, neither 
the churches of God. 

ther the Man without the Woman, or the Wa- 
man without the Man j the Lord fo ordering it. 
For as the firft Woman was made out of the 12. 
Man, fo the Race of Men ever fince is continued 
and propagated by the Female Sex : But they, 
and all other Things, had their Being and Ori- 
ginal from God. Be you your felves Judges, 13. 
whether it be decent -for a Woman to make a 
Prayer to God in the Church uncovered. Does 14^. 
not even Nature, that has made, and would 
have the Diflindlion of Sexes preferved, teach 
you, that if a Man wear his Hair long, and 
dreffed up after the manner of Women, it is mif- 
becom'Pg and difllonourable to him? But to a 15. 
Wumarj, if fhe be curious about her ffiir, in 
having it long, and dreffing her felf with if, it 
is a Grace and Commendation, fmce her Hair 
is given her for a Covering. But if any Ihew 16, 
himfelf to be a Lover of Contention "", we the 
Apoftles have no fuch Cuftom, nor any of the. 
Churches of God. 

N O T E s: 

x6 * why may not this ar^ ove be underftood of the falfe Appftlc here glanced at I. 



Cahp XT. 

SECT. vm. 

CHAR XL 17 34. 


N E may obferve, from feveral PafTages In this Epiftle, that 
feveral Judnknl Gufloms were crept into the Corijithian 
Church. This Church being of Sc. Paurs own planting, who fpent 
two Years at Corinth m forming it; it is evident thefeAbufes had 
their Rife from fome other Teacher, who came to them after his 
leaving them, which was about five Years before his writing this 
Epiftle. Theie Diforders therefore may with reafon be afcribed to 
the Head of the Faction that oppofed St. Paidj who, as has been re- 
marked., was a y^ic', 2Lni\^rohdh\y judaized. And that 'tis like was 
the Foundation of the great Oppoiition between him and St. Paul^ 
and the Reafon why St. Paul labours fo earnellly to deftroy his Cre- 
dit amongfl the Corinthia?is ; this fort of Men being very bufy, very 
troublefome, and very dangerous to the Gofpel, as may be feen in 
other of St. Paul's Epiflles, particularly that to the Galatians. 

The celebrating the PalTover amongft the Jews, was plainly the 
eating of a Meat diftinguilhed from other ordinary Meals by feveral 
peculiar Ceremonies. Two of thefe Ceremonies were, eating of Bread 
folemnly broken, and drinking a Cup of Wine, called the Cup of 
Bleffing. Thefe two our Saviour transferr'd into the Chriftian Church, 
to be ufed in their AlTemblies for a Commemoration of his Death and 
Sufferings. In celebrating this Inll;itutIon of our Saviour, the Ju- 
daixbig CorinthiaJis followed the Jeivijlo Cullom of eating their 
Pafibver : They eat the Lord's Supper as a part of their Meat, bring- 
ing their Proviiions into the Aflembly; where they eat, divided into 
diftind. Companies, fome feafting to Exxefs, whilft others, ill pro- 
vided, were in want. This eating thus in the publick Allemblv, 
and mixing the Lord's Supper with their ordinary Meal, as a part 
of it, with other Diforders and Lidecencies accompanying it, is the 
Matter of this Sedtion. Thefe Innovations he tells them here, he 
as much blames, as in the Beginning of this Chapter he commends 
them, for keeping to his DIredions in fome other Things. 




Chap, xr; 


[OW in this that I 
_ declare unto you, 
1 praifc you not, that ye 
come together not for the 
better, but for the worfe. 
ig For firft of all, when 
jc come together in the 
church, I hear that there 
be divifions among you • 
and I partly believe it. 

19 For there muft be alfb 
hcrcfies among you, that 
they which are approved, 
may be made manifelt a- 
mong you. 

20 When ye come toge- 
ther therefore into one 
place, this is not to eat 
the Lord's fupper. 

2 1 For in eating every one 
taketh before other, his 
own fupper : and one is 
hungry, and another is 

•j J Whatjhave ye not hou- 
' fcs Co eat and to drink in ? 

THO' what I faid to you, concerning Wo- 
mens Behaviour in the Church, was not 
without Commendation of you; yet this that I 
am now going to fpeak to you of, is without 
praifing you, becaufe you fo order your Meet- 
ings in your AfTemblies, that they are not to 
your Advantage, but Harm. For firft I hear, 
that when you come together in the Church, 
you fall into Parties, and I partly believe it : 
Becaufe there muft be Divifions and Factions 
amongft you, that thofe who ftand firm upon 
Trial, may be made manifeft amongft you. 
You come together, it's true, in one Place, and 
there you eat; but yet this makes it not to be 
the eating of the Lord's Supper. For in eating 
you eat not together, but every one takes his 
own Supper, one before another ''. Have ye 
not Ploufes to eat and drink in at home, for fa- 
tisfying your Hunger and Thirft ? Or have yc 







N O r E S. 

21 * To unJerAand this, we muftobferve, 

(i.) That they had fometimcs Meetings on purpofe only for eatiiig the Lord's Supper, 

Iff.??. / 

(1.) That to thofe Meetings they brought their own Supper, "oer. i\* 

(3.) That tho' everyone's Supper were brought into the common AfTembly, yet it was not to 
eat in common, but every one fell to his own Sapper apart, as foon as he and his Supper were 
there ready for one another, without ftaying for the reft of the Company, or communicating with 
them in eating, ver. 11, j?. 

In this St. Paul blames thr£e Things efpecially ; 

1/. That they eat their common Food in the AlTembly, which was to be eaten at home m 
their Houfes, ver. zi^ 34. 

zd^.y. That tho' they eat in the common Meeting-place, yet they eat feparately every one his 
own Supper apart. So that the Plenty and Excefs of fome, ftiamed the Want and Penury of 
others, ler. ii. Hereby alfo the Divifions amongll them were kept up, ver.^ 18. they being as 
fo many fcparatcd and divided Societies ; not as one united Body of Chriftians commemoratino; 
their common Head, as they fiiould have been in celebrating the Lord's Supper, Chap. X. 

i<5, t7. f , . ■• 

r^dly. That they mixed the Lord's Supper with their own, eating it as a part of their ordinary 
Meal ; where they made not that Difcriminacion between it and their common Food, as they, 
fhould have done, ver. 19, 



Chap. XI. 






a Contempt for the Church of God, and take a 
pleafure to put thofe out of Countenance, who 
have not wherewithal to feaft there as you do ? 
What is it I faid to you, that I praife you ^ for 
retaining what I delivered to you? In this 
Occafion indeed I praife you not for it. For 
what I received concerning this Inftitution 
from the Lord himfelf, that I delivered unto 
you when I was with youj and it was this, 
'viz. That the Lord Jefus, in the Night where- 
in he was betray'd, took Bread : And having 
given Thanks brake it, and faid, Take, ear, 
this is my Body, which is broken for you j this 
do in remembrance of me. So likewife he 
took the Cup alfo, when he had fupped, fay- 
ing, This Cup is the New Teftament in my 
Blood: This do ye, as often as ye do it, in re- 
membrance of me. So that the eating of this 
Bread, and the drinking of this Cup of the 
Lord's Supper, is not to fatisfy Hunger and 
Thirft, but to fliew forth the Lord's Death 
till he comes. Infomuch, that he who eats 
this Bread, and drinks this Cup of the Lord, 
in an unworthy manner % not fuitable to 
that End, fhall be guilty of a Mifufe of the 

Or defpife ye the church 
of God, and ftiame them 
that have not ? what (liall 
I fay to you ? ftiall 1 praife 
you in this? I praife you 

For I have received ofij 
the Lord, that which alfo 
I delivered unto you, that 
the Lord Jefus, the fame * 
nighc in which he was be- 
trayed, took bread : 

And when he had gi- 2.4 
vea thanks, he brake it, 
and faid. Take, cat; this 
is my body, which is bro- 
ken for you : this do in 
remembrance of me. 

After the fame manner i{ 
alfo he tookthe cup,whca 
he had fupped, faying. 
This cup is the new terta" 
ment iw my blood : this 
do ycj as oft as ye drink 
it, in remembrance of me. 

For as often as ye eat ifi, 
this bread, and drink this 
cup,ye do flicw the Lord's 
death till he come. 

Wherefore, whofoever 17 
fliall cat this bread, and 
drink this cup of the Lord 
unworthily, fliall be guil- 
ty of the body and blood 
of the Lord. 


22 y He here plainly refers to what he had faid to them, njer. 2. where he praifed them for 
remembring him in all Things, and for retaining rdi <!p^J'haiii Kdd-xf Tct^iJ^MKcty what he 
had delivered to them. This Commendation he here reciads ; for in this Matter of eating the 
Lord's Supper, they did not retain Tret^iJ^coKif tier. zj. what he had delivered to them, which 
therefore in the immediately following Words he repeats to thtm again. 

27 ^ 'A."cJ^<&f, tinnvcrthily. Our Saviour, in the Inftitution of the Lord's Supper, tells the Apo- 
ftles, that the Bread and the Cup were facramcnrally his Body and Blood, and that they were to 
be eaten and drank in remembrance of him ; which, as St. Paul interprets it, ver. i6. was to ftievv 
forth his Death till he came. Whoever therefore eat and drank them, fb as not folcmnly to 
flievv forth his^Death, followed not Chrift's Infliturion, but ufcd them tmivorthily, i. e. not to the 
End to which they were inftituted. This makes S:. Paul tell them, ver. zo. that their coming 
together to eat itasthcydii, viz.. the Sacramental Bread and Wine promifcuoiiliy with their 
other Food, as a part of their Meal; and that tho' in the fame Place, yet not all together atone 
Time, and in one Company, was not the eating of the Lord's Supper, 

2 Body 


Chap. XT. 


j8 But let a man examine Body and Blood of the Lord ^ By this In- 28. 
himfeif and fo let him jti^ution therefore of Chrjft, let a Man exa- 

:eat of that bread, and . ^ ' r \r u ^ ^' '-, " , 

drink of that cup. Hiine himlelt 'j and accordmg to that', let 


^ ''Evox©' '^^eth ftall be liable to the Puniftiment due to one who makes a wrong Ufe of the 
Sacramencal Body and Blood of Chrilt in the Lord'^ Supper. What khit Puniftiment was, vrd. 
ver. JO. • , .. ; 

z8 ''St. Pauly as we have obferved, tells thz Corinthians^ ver. io. that to eat it after the man- 
ner they did, was not to eat the Lord's Supper. He celisthem a'lfo, ver. 29. that to cat it with- 
out a due, dired and immediate Regard had to the Lord's Body (for fo he calls the Sacramental 
Bread and Wine, as our Saviour did in the Infticution) by feparating the Bread and Wine from 
the common Ufc of Eating and Drinking for Hunger and Thirft, was to eat unworthily. To 
remedy their Diforders .herein, he fets before them Chrift's own Inftitution of this Sacrament ; that 
in it they might fee the Manner and End of its Inititution, and by that everyone might examine his 
own Comportment herein, whether ic were conformable to that InUitucion, and fuitej to that 
End. In the Account he gives of Chrift's Inflitucion, we may obferve thac he particularly re- 
marks to them, that this Eating and Drinking -was no pait of common Eating and Drinking for 
Hunger and Thirft; but was inftituted in a very folemn manner, after they had fupped, and for 
another End, viz.. to reprcfent Chrift's Body and Blood, and to be eaten and drank in remem- 
brance of him : Or, as St. Vaul expounds it, to fhew forth his Death. Another Thing which 
they might obferve in the Inftitution, was, that this was done by all who were prefent, united 
together in one Company at the fame time. All which put together, fliews us what the Exami- 
jiation here propofcd, is. For the Defign of the Apoftle here being to reform what he found fault 
with, in their celebrating tTie Lord's Supper, 'tis by chat alone we rauft underftand the Directions 
he gives them about it, if we will fuppofe he talked pertinently to this captious and touchy People, 
whom he was very defirous to reduce from the Irregularities they were run into in this Matter, 
as well at feveral others. And if the Account of Chrift's Inftitution be not for their examining 
■ their Carriage by it, and adjufting it to it, to what Purpofe is it here \ The Examination there- 
I '*fore propos'd, was no other but an Examination of their manner of eating the Lord's Supper by 
Chrift's Inftitution, to fee how their Behaviour herein comported with the Inftitution, and the 
End for which it was inftituted. Which farther appears to be fo, by the Punilhment annexed to 
their Mifcarriages herein ; which was, Infirmities, Sicknefs, and temporal Death, with which 
God chaftened them, that they might not be condemned with the unbelieving World, ver. 30, 5a, 
For if the Unworthinefs here fpoke of were either Unbelief, or any of thofe Sins which are 
ufually made the matter of Examination, 'tis to be prefumed the Apoftle would not wholly have 
pafTed them over in Silence : This at Icaft is certain, that the Punilhment of chefe Sins is infinitely 
greater than that which God here inflids on unworthy Receivers, whether they who are guilty of 
them received the Sacrament or no. 

*^ Y^tti ^Tui' Thefe Words, as to the Letter, are rightly tranflated and fo. But that Tran- 
slation, T imagine, leaves generally a wrong Senfe of the Place in the Mind of an EngUp Rea- 
der : For in ordinary fpeaking thefe Words, Let a Man examine, and fo let him eat, are under- 
ftood to import the fame with thefe. Let a Man examine, and then let him eat; as if they fig- 
nified no more, but that Examination ftiould precede, and Eating follow ; which I take to be 
quite ditferent from the meaning of the Apoftle here, whofe Senfe the whole Defign of the Con- 
text fhcws to be this : I here fet before you the Infiitution of Chrifl, by that let a Man examine his 
Carriage, kaI iiTcoi, and according to that let him eat: let him conform the manner of his eating to 





Chap. XT. 

him eat of this Bread, and drink of this Cup. 
29« For he who eats and drinks after an unworthy- 
manner, without a due Refpeift had to the 
Lord's Body, in a difcriminating ^ and purely 
facramental Ufe of the Bread and Wine that 
reprefent it, draws PuniHiment ^ on himfelf 

30. by fo doing. And hence ic is that many among 
you are weak and lick, and a good Number 

31. are gone to their Graves. But if we would 
difcrimmate ^ our felves, /. e. by our difcri- 
minating Ufe of the Lord's Supper, we fhould 

32. not be judged, /. e. ^ punifhed by God. But 
being punifhed by the Lord, we are corredl- 
ed ^, that we may not be condemned here- 
after with the unbelieving World. Wherefore 

For he that eateth-and t^.. 
drinkcch un worthily, eat- 
eth and dnnketh damna- 
tion to hiinfelfj not dis- 
cerning the Lord's body. 

For this caufe many are j<j-: 
weak and lickly among 
you, and inany fleep. 

For if we would judge jt 
our felves, we (hould not 
be judged. 

But when we are judg- ji 
ed, we are chaftened of 
the Lord, that we ftiould 
not be condemned with 
the world. 

N O "T E S. 

^ 19 Mw J^icDie'iyuvy not di/cyimhathg, not putting a Difference between the Sacramentafl 
Bread and Wine (which St. Pauly with our Saviour, calls Chrift's Body) and other Bread and 
Wine, in the folemn and feparate Ufe of them. The Corinthians, as has been remark'd, eat the 
Lord's Supper in, and wich their own ordinary Suppur, whereby it came not to be fufficiently 
diftinguifhed (as became a religious and Chrillian Obfervance fo folcmnly inftituted) from com- 
mon Eating for bodily Rtfrefhmtnr, nor ixom x\\i^ ^ewifi Pafchal Supper, and the Bread broken, 
and the Cup of BlefTing ufcd in that ; nor did it in this way of eating it, in feparate Com- 
panies, as it were in private Families, fhew forth the Lord's Death, as it was dcfigned to do by 
the Concurrence and Communion of the whole Aflembly of Chriftians, jointly united in the par- 
taking of Bread and Wine in a way peculiar to them, with reference folely to Jefus Chrift. This 
was that, as appears by this Place, whxh St. Paitli as we have already explained, calls eating 

'^ Dartmatiotii by which our Tranflation renders K^ifjLet, is vulgarly taken for eternal Damna- 
tion in the other World ; ^whereas K§iy.A here fignifies Punifhment of ajiother Nature, as appears 
by ver. 30, J i. 

^ 5 1 Acf.K^ivtriv does no where, that I know, fignify to judge, as it is here tranflated, but always 
fignifies to difihguifi or difcrimiimte; and in this Place has the fame Signification, and means the 
fame Th:nj,, that it does -ver. '.9. He is little verfed in St. P(T«/'s Writings, who has not obferved 
how apt he is to repeat ihc fame Word he had ufed before to the fame Purpofe, tho' in a different, 
and (bmetimes a pretty hard Conftruftion ; as here he applies S'ia.K°'iVkriV to the Pirfbns difcrimi- 
nating, as in the 19th Verfe to the Thing to be difcriminated, tho' in both Places it be put to 
denote the fame Action. 

^ E;tf/i'o/>te-0- ct here fignifies the fame that K^ifxa. does, ver. 2.9. 

32. ^ ncc/<r6i/o/x£'^<t properly fignifies to becorrcfted, as Scholars are by their MaficT fcr their 




Chap. xir. 

IJ. Wherefore, my bre- 
thren, when yc come to- 
other, to eat, tarry one 
for another. 

54 And if any man hun- 
ger, let him eat at home ; 
that ye come not toge- 
ther unto condemnation. 
And the reft will I fee in 
Older when I come. 

my Brethren, when you have a Meeting for 
celebrating the Lord's Supper, ftay for one 
another, that you may eat it all together, as 
Partakers all in common of the Lord's Table, 
without DiviHon or Diftindlion. But if any 
one be hungry, let him eat at home to fatisfy 
his Hunger, that fo the Diforder in thefe 
Meetings may not draw on you the Puniftiment 
above-mentioned. What elfe remains to be 
rectified in this Matter, . I will fet in order when 
I come. 




CHAP. XII. I XlV-4o« 

C O. N ^ E N l* S, 

' I ^H E Corinthians feem to have enquired of St. Pauly what Or- 
I der of Precedency and Preference Men were to have in their 
All^mblies, in regard of their fpiritual Gifts ? Nay, if we may 
guefs by his Anfwer, the Queflion they feem more particularly to 
have propos'd, was, whether thofe who had the Gift of Tongues, 
ought not to take place, and fpeak firft, and be firft heard in their 
Meetings ? Concerning this there feems to have been lome Strife, 
Maligning and Diforder amongil them, as may be colle<fled from 

C/f?.XlL 21 25. andXin.45. and XIV. 40. 

To this St. Paul anfwers, in thefe three Chapters, as foUoweth. 
I. That they had all been Heathen Idolaters, and fo being Deniers 
of Chrift, were in that State none of them Spiritual: But that now 
being Chriftians, and owning Jefus to be the Lord, (which could 
not be done without the Spirit of God) they were all irvcVfji^liKo}, 
Spiritual j and fo there was no reafon for one to undervalue another^ 
as if he were not Spiritual as well as himfelf, Ch» XII. i— ^3. 

2. Tha? 


'CHsp.xn. 2. That tho* there be Diverfity of Gifts, yet they are all by the 
V^^^-w jfT^j-j^g Spirit, from the fame Lord, and the fame God, working them 
all in every one, according to his good Pleafure. So that in this 
Refpedl ahb there is no Difierence or Precedency ; no occafion for 
any one's being puffed up, or affefting Priority, ^upon account of 
his Gifts, C/7^/>. XII. 4 ii. 

3. That the Diverfity of Gifts is for the Ufe and Benefit of the 
\\-l Church, which is Chrift's Body; wherein the Members (as in the 

natural Body) of meaner Functions are as'much Parts, and as ne- 
cefTary in their Ufe to the good of the whole, and therefore to be 
honour'd as much as any other. The Union they have as Members 
in the fame Body, makes them all equally fhare in one another's 
Good and Evil ; gives them a mutual Efteem and Concern one for 
another, and leaves no room for Contefls or Divifions amongfl 
them about their Gifts, or the Honour and Place due to them upon 
that Account, Cbap.Xll. 12— ^-41. 

4. That tho' Gifts have their Excellency and Ufe, and thofe who 
have them may be zealous in the Ufe of them ; yet the true and fure 
Way for a Man to get an Excellency and Preference above others, 
is the enlarging himfelf in Charity, and excelling in that ; without 
which a Chriflian, with all his fpiritual Gifts, is nothing. 

5. In the Comparifon of Spiritual Gifts, he gives thofe the Pre- 
cedency which edify mofl, and in particular prefers Prophefying to 
Tongues, C/^/>.XIV, i--— 40. 


SECT. IX. N. I. 

CHAP. XII. I 3. 




row concerning fpi- 

ciial gifts, Lre- 

thrcn, I would not have 
you ignorant. 
z Ye know that ye were 
Gentiles, carried away 
unto thefe dumb idols, 
even as ye were led. 

J Wherefore I give you 
to underftand, that no 
man fpeaking by the Spi- 
rit of God, calleth Jefus 
accurfed ; and that no 
man can fay that Jefus is 
the Lord, but by the Holy 

AS to fpiritual Men, or Men affifted and 
aded by the Spirit ', I £hall inform you, 
for I would not have you be ignorant. You 
your felves know that you were Heathens, en- 
gaged in the Worlliip of Stocks and Scones, 
dumb, fenfelefs Idols, by thofe who were then 
your Leaders. Whereupon let me tell you, that 
no one who oppofes Jefus Chrift, or his Religion, 
has the Spirit of God ^. And whoever is brought 
to own Jefus to be the Meffiah, the Lord ', does 
it by the Holy Ghofl. And therefore upon ac- 
count of having the Spirit, you can none of you 
lay any claim to Superiority ; or have any pre- 
tence to flight any of your Brethren, as not har- 
ving the Spirit of God as well as you. For all 
that own our Lord Jefus Chrift, and believe in 
him, do it by the Spirit of God, /. e. can do it 
upon no other Ground, but Revelation coming 
from the Spirit of God. 


I * Uviup.eiTiKwt'i spiritual. We are warranted by a like Ufe of the Word in feveral Places 
of S:.P.?«/'s Epiftles, as Ch.U. 1$. and XlV. J7. of this Epiftle, and Gul. VI. i. to take it here 
in the Mafculine Gender, {landing for Ptrfons, and not Gifts, And the Context obliges us to un- 
derftand it fo: For if wc will have it ftand for Gifts, and not Perfbns, the Scnfe and Coherence 
of thefe three firft \'crfes will be very hard to be made out. Btfides, there is Evidence enough, 
in feveral Parts of it, that the Subjeft of St. P<r;//'s Difcourfe here is TruivixciTiKoi, Perlbns endowed 
with fpiritual Gifts, contending for Precedency in confideration of their Gifts. See -ver. i 3, Sec, 
of this Chapter : And to what purpofe elfe, fays he, Chap. XIV. $. Greater is he that prophcfieth, 
than he that fpcakcth wi'.h Tongues ? 

3 ^ This is fpokcn againft the yeivs, who pretended to the Holy Ghoft, and yet fpoke againft 
Jefus Chrift; and denied that the Holy Ghoft was ever given to the Gentiles, v'ld. AHsX. 45. 
Whether their Judaizing falfe Apoftle were at all glanced at in this, may be conlidered. 

^ Urd. What is meant by Lord, fee NotCy Chap. VIII. 6, 




SECT. IX N. 2. 

CHAP. XII. 4- 

1 1. 



A Nother Confideration which St. Paul offers againfb any Con- 
fj^ tention for Superiority, or Pretence to Precedency, upon ac- 
count of any fpiritual Gift, is, that thofe diftindt Gifts are all of one 
and the fame Spirit, by the fame Lord, wrought in every one by 
God alone, and all for the Profit of the Church. 


E not miftaken by the Diveriity of Gifts ; 

for tho' there be Diveriity of Gifts a- 

mongft Chriftians, yet there is no Diverfity of 
Spirits, they all come from one and the fame 
Spirit. Tho' there be Diverfities of Offices in 
the Church, yet all the Officers ■" have but 
one Lord. And tho' there be various Influxes 
whereby Chriftians are enabled to do extraor- 
dinary Things ", yet it is the fame God that 
works ° all thefe extraordinary Gifts in every 
one that has them. But the Way or Gift 
wherein every one, who has the Spirit, is to 
£hew it, is given him not for his private Ad- 
vantage or Honour p, but for the Good and 


,5 "' Thefe different Offices are reckon'd up, ver. z8, 8cc. 

6 •■' What thefe ecsf^n^aTct were, fee ver, 8— — ii. 

** They were very properly called kvi^ynyi.ATA—'^ln-WorkingSy becaufe they were above all 
humane Power: Men of themfelves could do nothing of them at all, but it was God, as the 
Apoftlc tells us here, who in thefe extraordinary Gifts of the Holy Ghoft, did all that was done; 
it was the Effeft of his immediate Operation, as St. Paul alfures us in that parallel Place, Phil.ll. 
I J. In which Chapter, ver. 5, and 14. we find that the Philippians ftood a little in need of the 
fame Advice which St. Paul fo at large prcflcs here upoa the C«rinthians, 

7 P Vid. Rom. XII. 3 8. 


NOW there are diver- 
fities of gifts, buc 
the fame Spirit. 

And there are differen- j 
ces of adniiniftrations,but 
the fame Lord, 

And there are diverfi- (J 
ties of operations, but it 
is the fame God, which 
worketh all in all. 

But the manifeftation 7 
of the Spirit is given to 
every man to profit vvichaK 







8 For to one is given by 
the Spirit, the word 6f 
wifdom ; to another the 
word of knowledge by 
the iame Spirit ; 

^ To another faith by 
Khe fame Spirit ; to ano- 
ther the gifts of healing 
by the fame Spirit ; 

JO To another the work- 
ing of miracles ; to ano- 
ther prophefyi to ano- 
ther difcerning of fpirits; 
to another divers kinds of 
tongues; to another the 
•interpretation of tongues. 


Advantages of the Church. For inflance, to one 
is given by the Spirit, the Word of Wifdom % 
or the Revelation of the Gofpel of Jefus Chrifl, 
in the full Latitude of it, fuch as was given to 
the Apoftles ; to another by the fame Spirit, the 
Knowledge *■ of the true Senfe and true Meaning 
of the Holy Scriptures of the Old Teftament, 
for the Explaining and Confirmation of the 
Gofpel : To another by the fame Spirit, is given 
an undoubting Perfuafion ^ and ftedfafl: Confi- 
dence of performing what he is going about ; 
to another the Gift of curing Difeafes, by the 
fame Spirit: To another the working of Mira- 
cles ; to another Prophefy ' ; to another the dif- 
cerning by what Spirit Men did any extraordi- 
nary Operation; to another Diverfity of Lan- 
guages J to another the Interpretation of Lan- 
guages. All which Gifts are wrought in Belie- 
vers by one and the fame Spirit, diftributing to 
every one in particular as he thinks fit, 

N O 7' E S. 

8 "^ 2o?iA : The Doftrine of the Gofpel is more than once, in the Beginning of this Epifile, 
called the Wifdom of God. 

"■ Tvuffii is ufed by St. Paul for fuch a Knowledge of the Law and the Prophets. 

9 ^ In this Senfe tWh, FaHhy is fometimes taken in the New Teftament ; particularly Chap, 
XIII. z. It is difficult, I confefs, to define the precife Meaning of each Word which the Apoftle 
ufcs in the 8th, yth, and icth Verfes here. But if the Order which St. Paul obferves, in enu- 
merating by ift, ad, 3d, the three firft Officers fet down, iier. i8. viz. F/V/, Apojiles ; Second^ 
Prophets; Thirdly y Teachers ^ have any relation, or may give any light to thefe three Gifts which 
are fct down in the firft Place, here, viz. Wifdom, Knowledgey and Faitby we may then properly 
underftand by cro/piAy Wifdom, the whole Doftrine of the Gofpel, as communicated to the Apoftles: 
By yvu<ni, Knowledge, the Gift of Underftanding the myftical Senfe of the Law and the Pro- 
phets ; and by TTiV/f, Faith, the Alfurance and Confidence in delivering and confirming the Do- 
Arine of the Gofpel, which became i^t^ a7 Koiwa, Dolors or Teachers. This at leaft, I think, 
may be prefumed, that fince 7oy)'im, and yvum have Khy©" joined to them, and it is faid the 
Word jof Wifdom, d^ai the Word of Knowledge, Wifdom and Knowledge here fignify fuch Gifts of 
the Mind as are to be employed in Preaching. 

10 • Prophefy comprehends thefe three Things; Prediftion, Singing by the Diftate of the 
Spirit, and underftanding and explaining the myfterious hidden Senfe of Scripture by an imme- 
Haate Illumination and Motion of the Spirit, as we have already (hewn : And that the Prophe- 
lying here fpoken of, was by immediate Revelation, vid. Chap. XIV. 29— —5 1. 


But all thefe worketh 
that one and the felf-fame 
Spirit, dividing to every 
aian feverally as he wilL 




Chap. XII. 




SECT. IX. iV 3. 




FROM the neceflarily different Fundions ia the Body, and the 
flridt Union, neverthelefs, of the Members adapted to thofe 
different Functions, in a mutual Sympathy and Concern one for 
another, St. Paul here farther fhews, that there ought not to be any 
Strife or Divifion amongft them about Precedency and Preference^ 
upon account of their diflind: Gifts. 


FO R as the body is 12 
one, and hath many 
members, and all the 
members of that one bo- 
dy, being many, arc one 
body ; fo alfo is Chrill. 

For by one Spirit are i ? 
we all baptized into one 
body, whether we be Jews 
or Gentiles, whether we 
be bond or free, and 
have been all made to- 
drink into one Spirit. 


O R as the Body being but one, hath ma- 

ny Members, and all the Members of 

the Body, tho' many, yet make but one Body ; 
fo is Chrift, in refped: of his myftical Body the 
Church. For by one Spirit we are all bapti- 
zed into one Church, and are thereby made 
one Body, without any Pre-eminence to the 
jfew "" above the Gentile ; to the Free above 
the Bond-man : And the Blood of Chrift, which 
we all partake of in the Lord's Supper, makes 
us all have one Life, one Spirit j as the fame 
Blood, diffufed through the whole Body, com- 
municates the fame Life and Spirit to all the 
Members. For the Body is not one fole Mem- 
ber, but confifts of many Members, all vital- 
ly united in one common Sympathy and Ufe- 


13^ The naming of the yeivs here with Gentiles, and fettlng both on the fame Level irhen 
converted to Chriftianicy, may probably be done htrc by St. Paul with reference to the falfe 
Apoftle, who wisayezv, and fcems to have claimed foau- Pre eminence as due to him upon that 
Account : Whereas, among the Members of Chrift, w'lich all make but one Body, there is no 
Superiority or other DiQinctioa, but as by rhc fcvcral Gifts bellowed on them by God, they 
contribute more or lefs 10 the Edification of the Chuich, 

I . -- . - fulnefs. 

For the body is not one 14 
member, but many. 



15 If the foot fliall fay, 
Becaufe I am not the 
hand, I am not of the 
botly ; is it therefore not 
of the body? 

1 6 And if the earlhall fay, 
Becaufe I am not the eye, 
I am not of the body ; is 
it therefore not of the 
body ? 

17 Ifthe whole body were 
an eye, where were the 
hearing ? If the whole 
were hearing,uhere were 
the fmelling ? 

i8 But now hath God fet 
the members, every one 
of thera in the body, as it 
hath pleafed him. 
IQ And if they were all 
one member, where were 
the body? 
2Q But now are they ma- 
ny members, yet but one 
11 And the eye cannot fay 
unto the hand, I have no 
need of thee : nor again, 
the head to the feet, I 
have no need of yoii. 
jz, Nay, much more thofe 
members of the body 
which feem to be more 
feeble are necelTary. 
23 And thofe members of 
the body, which we think 
to be lefs honourable, up- 
on thefe we bcftow more 
abundant honour,and our 
uncomely parts have more 
abundant comelinefs. 
14 For our comely parts 
have no need : but God 
hath tempered the body 
together, having given 
more abundant honour to 
that part which lacked : 
- 5 That there fliould be no 
fchifm in the body ; but 
that the members lliould 








fulnefs. If any one have not that Fundlon or 
Dignity in the Church which he defines, he 
muft not therefore declare that he is not of the 
Church ; he does not thereby ceafe to be a 
Member of the Church. There is as much 
need of feveral and diflind Gifts and Fun- 
aions in the Church, as there is of different 
Senfes and Members in the Body; and the 
meanefl; and leaft honourable would be miffed 
if it were wanting, and the whole Body would 
fuffer by it. Accordingly, God hath fitted fe- 
veral Perfons, as it were fo many diflind Mem- 
bers, to feveral Offices and Fundions in the 
Church, by proper and peculiar Gifts and Abi- 
lities, which he has beftowed on them accord- 
ing to his good Pleafure. But if all were but 
one Member, what would become of the Body ? 
There would be no fuch Thing as a human 
Body ; no more could the Church be edified, 
and framed into a growing, lafting Society, 
if the Gifts of the Spirit were all reduced to 
one. But now, by the various Gifts of the 
Spirit beflowed on its feveral Members, it is 
as a well organized Body, wherein the mofl 
eminent Member cannot defpife the meanefl. 
The Eye cannot fay to the Hand, I have no 
need of thee ; nor the Head to the Feet, I have 
no need of you. It is fo far from being fo, that 
the Parts of the Body that feem in themfelves 
weak, are neverthelefs of abfolute Neceffity. 
And thofe Parts which are thought leafl ho- 
nourable, we take care always to cover with 
the more Refpedt ; and our leafl graceful Parts 
have thereby a more fludied and adventitious 
Comelinefs. For our comely Parts have no 
need of any borrowed Helps or Ornaments. 
But God hath fo contrived the Symmetry of 25. 
K 2 the 







Chap. XII. 



the Body, that he hath added Honour to thofe 
Parts that might feem naturally to want it j 

26, that there might be no Difunion, no Schifm in 
the Body, but that the Members fhould all have 
the fame Care and Concern one for another, and 
all equally partake and fhare in the Harm or 
Honour that is done to any one of them in par- 

tj. ticular. Now in like manner you are, by your 
particular Gifts, each of you in his peculiar Sta- 
tion and Aptitude, Members of the Body of 

28. Chrift, which is the Church j wherein God hath 
fet firft fome Apoftles, fecondly Prophets, thirdly 
Teachers, next Workers of Miracles, then thofe 
who have the Gift of Healing, Helpers '^, Go- 
vernors '', and fuch as are able to fpeak Diver- 

29. iity of Tongues. Are all Apoftles ? are all Pro- 
phets ? are all Teachers? are all Workers of 

30. Miracles ? Have all the Gift of Healing ? do 
all fpeak Diverfity of Tongues ? are all Inter- 

3 1. preters of Tongues ? But ye conteft one with 
another, whofe particular Gift is beft, and moft, 
preferable ^ ; but I will {hew you a more excel- 
lent way, viz. Mutual Good-will, Affection,, 
and Charity. 

N'O f E S. 


have the fame care one 
for another. 

And whether one mem- Z6 ^ 
ber fuffer, ali the mem- 
bers fuffer with it ; or 
one member be honoured, 
all the members rejoice 
with k. 

Now ye are the body j^j ^ 
of Chrift, and members 
in particular. 

And God hath fet fbme i8 
in the church, firft apo- 
ftles, fecondarily prophets, 
thirdly teachers, after 
that miracles, then gifts 
of healings, helps, go- 
vernments, divcrfities of 

Are all apoftles? are 29. 
all prophets ? are all tea- 
chers ? are all workers of 
miracles ? 

Have alJ the gifts of 50 • 
healing? do all fpeak 
with tongues ? do all in- 
terpret ? 

But covet carneftly the 3 i^ 
beft gifts : And yet ftew I 
unto you a more excel- 
lent way. 


i8 * 'AcT/X)i4e<?j HeJpJy Dr. Lightfoot takes to be thofe who accompanied the Apoftles, were 
fent up and down by them in the Service of the Gofpel, and baptized thofe that were converted 
by them. 

' l^vCi^yn<rtif, to be the fame with difcerning of Spirits, <oer> 10. 

31 y That this is the Apoftle's Meaning here, is plain, in that there was an Emulation 
amongft them, and a S:rife for Precedency, on account of the feveral Gifts they had, (as we have 
already obferved from feveral Paflages in thi» SeAion) which made them in their Aflemblies 
defire to be heard firft. This was the Fault the Apoftle was here correfting ; and 'tis not like- 
ly he ftiould exhort ihera all promifcuoufly to feek the principal and moft eminent Gifts at the 
End of a Difcourfe,^ wherein he had been demonftrating to them by the Example of the hu- 
mane Body, that there ought to be Diverfities of Gifts and Funftions in the Church, but that 
there ought to be no SchiCn, Emulation, or Conteft amongft them, upon the Account of the 
£zcrciif; of thofe Gifw. That they were all ufeful iq their Places, aad no Meaaber was at all 

■ ' to- 

SECT. IX. N./^. 

CHAP. XIII. I 13. 


ST. Paul having told the Corinthians, in the 1 aft Words of the 
precedent Chapter, that he would fhew them a more excellent 
Way than the emulous producing of their Gifts in the AlTembly ; 
he in this Chapter telJs them, that this more excellent Way is Cha- 
rity, which he at large explains, and fhews the Excellency of. 




t nr^Hough I fpeak with 
X. the tongues of men 
and of angels, and have 
noc charity, I am become 
as founding brafs, or a 
tinkling cymbal. 

5 And though I have the 
gift of prophefy, and un- 
dcrAand all Qiyfterie9,aod 


IF I fpeak all the Languages of Men and An- 
'' gels % and yet have not Charity to make 
ufe of them entirely for the Good and Benefit 
of others, I am no better than a founding Brafs, 
or noify Cymbal % which filts the Ears of 
others, without any Advantage to it felf by 
the Sound it makes. And if I have the Gift of 
Prophefy, and fee in the Law and the Pro- 



N O T E S.> 

to be the lefs honoured or valatdfor the Gift he had, though it were not one of the firft Rank.'"^ 
And in this Senfe the Word ^nhvp is taken in the next Chapter, ver. 4. where St. Paul purfuing 
the fame Argument, exhorts them to mutual Charity, Good-will and Affedion, which he alTures 
them is preferable to any Gifts whatlbcver. Befides, to what purpofe fhould he exhort them to 
fovet earnejlly the beji Gifts, when the obtaining of this br that Gift did noc at all lie in their 
Defires or Endeavours ? the Apoitle having juft before told them, wr. n. that the Spirit divides 
thafe Gifts to every Man fever ahy, as he will; and thofe he writ to, had their Allotment already. 
He might as reafonably, according ro his own Doftrine, in this' very Chapter, bid the Foot 
covet to be the Hand, or the Ear to be the Eye. Let it be remembred therefore, to redify 
this, that St. Paul fays, ver. 17. of this Chapter, Jfthe whole Body were the Bye, where were the 
Jiearing? &c. St, Paul does not ufe to crofs his own Defign, nor contradict his own Rea- 

I * Tbngues of AngeJs are mentioned here according to the Conception of the ^ews. 

* A Cymbal confiltcd of two large hollowed Plates of Brafs, with broad Brims, which were 
flruck one againft another, to fill up the Symphony in great Conforts of Mulick ; they made a 
great deep Sound, but had fcarce any Variety of muncal Notes. 








phets all the Myfterles ^ contained In them, 
and comprehend all the Knowledge they teach; 
and if I have Faith to the highefl Degree, and 
Power of Miracles, fo as to be able to remove 
Mountains % and have not Charity, I am no- 
thing; lam of no Value: And if I beftow all 
I have In Relief of the Poor, and give my felf 
to be burnt, and have not Charity, it profits 
me nothing. Charity is long-fuftering, is gen- 
tle and benign, without Emulation, Infolence, 
or being puffed up ; is not ambitious, nor at all 
felf-interelled ; Is not fharp upon others Fail- 
ings, or inclined to ill Interpretations : Cha- 
rity rejoices with others when they do well ; and 
when any thing is amifs, Is troubled, and co- 
vers their Failings : Charity believes well, 
hopes well of every one, and patiently bears 
with every thing "^ : Charity will never ceafe, 
as a Thing out of ufe ; but the Gifts of Pro- 
phefy, and Tongues, and the Knowledge where- 
by Men look Into, and explain the Meaning of 
the Scriptures, the Time will be when they will 
be laid afide, as no longer of any Ufe : For the 
Knowledge we have now in this State, and the 
Explication we give of Scripture, is fhort, par- 


all knowledge; and tho* 
I have all faith, fb chat I 
couLi remove mountains, 
and have no charity, I am 

And though I beftow 
all my goods to feed the 
poor, and though I give 
my boJy to be burned, 
and have not charity, ic 
pronrech me nothing. 

Chariry fuftercch long, 
and is kind; chariry envi- 
eth not; charity vaunteth 
not ic felij is not puffed, 

Doth not behave it felf 
unfeemly, fecketh not her 
own, is not eafily provo- 
ked, thinkcth no evil, 

Rcjoiceth not in ini- 
quicy, but rcjoiceth in 
the truth : 

Bearcth all things, be- 
lieveth all things, hopeth 
all things, endureth all 

Charity never faileth : 
but whether there be pro- 
phcfies, they fhall fail ; 
whether there be tongues, 
they fhall ceafc ; v\htther 
there be knowledge, it 
ftiall vanifh away. 

For we know in part, 
and we prophefy ia part. 

z ^ Any Predidions relating to our Saviour, or his Doftrine, or the Times of the Gofpel, con- 
tained in the Old f cltamenr, in Types, or figurative and obfcure Expreliions, not underflood 
before his comiiij^, and being revealed to the World, St. Paul calls Myfiery, as may be fcen all 
through his Writings. So that Myfievy and Km'U.'Iedge are Terms here ufed by St. Paul to fignify 
Truths concerning Chriil to come, contained in the Old Teftament ; and Prophefy, the under- 
ftanding of the Typu and Prophelies containing thofe Tru:hs, fo as to be able to explain them to 

' To remote Mountains, is to do what is next to impoflib!e. 

7 * May we not fuppofe, that in this Defcription of Charity, St. Paul intimates, and tacitly 
repiovcs their contrary Carriage, in their Emulation and Contefts about the Dignity and Preferciice 
of their fpiritual Gifts? 




Chap xiir. 

10 But when that which 
is perfecft is come, then 
that which is in pare 
fhall be done away. 

yj When I was a chiUI, I 
fpake as a child, 1 under- 
{iood as a child, I thought 
as a child : but when I 
became a man_, I put a- 
way childifli things. 

1,2, For now we fee thro* 
a glafs darkly ; but then 
face to face : now I know 
in part ; but then flial! I 
know even as alfo I am 

J , And now abideth faith, 
hope, cTiaricyjihefe three ; 
but the greateft of thefe 
is charity. 

tial and defe(flive. But v/heii hereafter vv'e 
fliall be got into the State of Acconipliiliment 
and Perfe6lIon, wherein we are to remain in" the 
other World, there will no longer be any need 
of thefe imperfedter Ways of Information, 
whereby we arrive at but a partial Knowledge 
here. Thus when I was in the imperfed: State 
of Childhood, I talk'd, I underftood, I reafoned 
after the imperfed: manner of a Child ; but 
when I came to the State and Perfedlion of Man- 
hood, I laid afide thofe childifli Ways. Now 
we fee but by Reflection, the dim, and as it 
were enigmatical, Reprefentation of Things ; 
but then we fliall fee Things diredly, and as 
they are in themfelves, as a Man fees another 
when they are face to face. Now I have but 
a fuperficial, partial Knowledge of Things, but 
then I fliall have an intuitive, comprehenfive 
Knowledge of them ; as I my felf am known, 
and lie open to the View of fuperior Seraphick 
Beings, not by the obfcure and imperfect Way 
of Dedu(ftions and Reafoning. But then even in 
that State, Faith, Hope, and Charity will re- 
main: But the greateft of the three is Charity, 







CHap XIV. 

SECT. IX. N.t^. 

C H A P. XIV. I 40. 


ST. Paul in this Chapter concludes his Anfwer to the Corin* 
thiafiSy concerning fpiritual Men and their Gifts ; and having 
told them that thofe were mofl preferable that tended moil to Edi- 
fication, and particularly fhewn that Prophefy was to be preferred 
to Tongues, he gives them Dire(aions for the decent, orderly and 
.profitable Exercife of their Gifts in their Aflemblies. 


I, TT E T your Endeavours, let your Purfuic TTOilow after charity, j 

JL, therefore be after Charity; not that you t:lS/?£:"i 

Ihould negledt the Ufe of your fpiritual Gifts % may prophefy. 
efpecially the Gift of Prophefy: For he that 

N T E S. 

I * ZmAbts t« TViviietrmi.. That (^\)K^v does not fignify to covet or deprey nor can be un- 
derftood to be fo ufed by St. Paul in this Sedion, I have already fliewn, Chap. XII. 3 i. That ic 
has here the Senfe that I have giyen it, is plain from the fame Dircdion concerning fpirituai 
Gifts, repeated ver. 319. in thefe Words, ^i)KXri ri '7r§o(piiT<ii&iv Kj to hctKbiv yKuff<yAii ^xn 
auKviTi ; the ivleaning in both Places being evidently this : That they (hould not negleft the 
Ufe of their fpiritual Gifts ; efpecially they fhould, in the firft Place, cultivate and exercife the 
Gift of Prophefying, but yet fhould not wholly lay afide the fpeaking with Variety of Tongues 
in their Aflemblies. It will, perhaps, be wondred why St. Paul fhould employ the Word ^r)h!dV 
in (b unufual a Senfe ; but that will eafily be accounted for, if what I have remarked. Chap. XIV. 
15. concerning ScPa^rs Cuftom of repeating Words, be remcmbred. But befides what is fa- 
miliar in St. Paul's way of Writing, we may £nd a particular Reafbn for his repeating the Word 
^»iA.b|/ here, tho' in a fomewhat unufual Signification. He having by way of Reproof told then;, 
that they did ^h\ki> ta yojU-tjyjLTA to. p^felTo,''*, had an Emulation, or made a flir abouc 
TKhofe Gifts were beft, and were therefore to take place in their Aflfemblies, to prevent their 
thinking that ^Y\Kiv might have too harfh a Meaning, (for he is in all this Epiftlc very tender of 
offending them, and therefore fweetens all his Rcproofj as much at pofTible) he here takes it up 
again, and ufes ic more than once in a way that approves and advif-is that they fhould ^wKhv 
•srviv fXATHiei ', whereby yet he means no more, but that they fhould not negleft their fpiritual 
Gifts : He would have them ufe them in their AlTcmblies, but yet in fuch Method and Order 03 
}ie direfts. 





t For he that fpeakcth iti 
an unknown tongue , 
fpeaketh not unto men, 
but unto God : for no 
man itndcrftandeth him : 
howbtit in the fpirit he 
fpeakcth mydeiies. 

5 But he chat prophe- 
fieth, fpeaktth un.o men 
to edification, and ex- 
hortation, and comfort. 

4 He that fpeaketh in an 
unknown tongue, edifieth 
himfclf: but he that 
prophelkth, edifieth the 

$ I would that ye all fpake 
with tongues, but rather 
that ye prophefied : for 
greater is he that prophe- 
liahjthan he that fpeaketh 



fpeaks in an unknown Tongue ^, fpeaks to 
God alone, but not to Men, for no body un- 
derftands him ; the Things he utters by the 
Spirit in an unknown Tongue, are Myfteries, 
Things not underftood by thofe who hear them. 
But he that prophefieth ^^ fpeaks to Men ; 
who are exhorted and comforted thereby, and 
help'd forwards in Religion and Piety. He that 
fpeaks in an unknown Tongue ^, edifies him- 
felf alone; but he that prophefieth, edifieth the 
Church. I wifh that ye had all the Gift of 
Tongues, but rather that ye all prophefied; for 
greater is he that prophefieth, than he that 
fpeaks with Tongues, unlefs he interprets what 

N O T' E S. 

2 ^ He who attentively reads this Seftion, about fpiritual Men and their Gifts, may find rea- 
fon to imagine that it was thofe who had the Gift of Tongues, who caufed the Diforder in the 
Church at Corinth, by their Forwardnefs to (peak, and ftriving to be heard firft ; and fb taking 
up too much of the Time in their Aflemblics, in fpeaking in unknown Tongues. For the reme- 
dying this Diforder, and better regulating of this Matter amongft other Things, they had recourfc 
to S:.Paul. He will not eafily avoid thinking fo, who confiders, 

ifi. That the firft Gift which St. Paul compares with Charity, Chap. XIII. and extremely im- 
dervalues, in comparifbn of that Divine Virtue, is the Gift of Tongues : As if that were the 
Gift they mod aflfcfted to ftiew, and moft valued themfelvcs upon ; as indeed it was in it felf 
moft fitted for OHentation in their Aflemblies, of any other, if any one were inclined that way : 
And that the Corinthinns in their prefent State were not exempt from Emulation, Vanity and 
Oftentation, is very evident. 

^dly. Thar, Chap. XIV. when St. Vanl compares their fpiritual Gifts one with another, the firft, 
nay, and only one, that he debafes and depreciates ia comparifbn of others, is the Gift of 
Tongues, which he difcourfcs of for above 10 Verfes together; in a way fit to abate a too high 
Efteem, and a too exceifive Ufe of it in their Aflemblies ; which we cannot fuppofe he would 
have done, had they not been guilty of fome fuch Mifcarriages in the cafe, whereof the i4tK 
Verfe is not without an Intimation. 

idly. When he comes to give Dircdions about the Exercife of their Gifts in their Meeting!, 
this of Tongues is the only one that he reftrains and limits, vcr. 17, 18. 

3 5 What is meant by I'lopheTying, fee Chap. XII. 10. 

<^ '' By y\co<Ti7i]y unkvomn Tovgue, Dr. LJghtfoot in this Chapter underftands the Hebrew 
Tongue ; which, as he obferves, was ufed in the Synagogue in reading the facred Scripture, 
in Praying, and in Preaching. If that be the Meaning of Tovgtie here, it fuits well the Apoftle's 
Dcfign, which was to take them off from their ^ev;ip falfe Apoftle, who probably might have 
encouraged and promoteii this fpeaking of Hebrew in their AHemblies. 









2 1. 

he delivers in an unknown Tongue, that the 
Church may be edifted by it. For example, 
fliould I apply my felf to you in a Tongue you 
knew nor, vvhat good (hould I do you, unlefs 
I interpreted to you what I faid, that yau 
might underftand the Revelation, or Know- 
ledge, or Prophefy, or Dodtrine ' contained 
in it? Even inanimate Inftruments of Sound, 
as Pipe, or Harp, are not made ufe of to make 
an infignificant Noife; but d}ilin(5t Notes, ex* 
preffing Mirth, or Mourning, or the like, are 
play'd upon them ; whereby the Tune and 
Compofure is underftood. And if the Trum- 
pet found not fome Point of War that is un- 
derftood, the Soldier is not thereby inftrudled 
what to do. So likewife ye, unlefs with the 
Tongue which you ufe, you utter Words of a 
clear and known Signification to your Hearers, 
you talk to the Wind, for your Auditors under- 
iland nothing that you fay. There is a great 
number of fignificant Languages in the World, 
I know not how many, every Nation has its 
own ; if then I underftand not another's Lan- 
guage, and the Force of his Words, I am to 
him, when he fpeaks, a Barbarian, and what- 


with tongues, except he 
interpret, that the church 
may receive edifying. 

No\v,brethren,ifIcome 5 
unto you fpeaking with 
tongues, what fliall I pro- 
fit you,except I llialj fpeak 
to you either by revela- 
tion, or by knowledge, 
or by prophefy ing, or by 
dodjine ? 

And even things with- 7 
out Jife giving found, 
whether pipe or harp, ex- 
cept they give a diilin- 
ftion in the founds, how 
ftiall it be known whac 
is piped or harped ? 

For if the trumpet give 8 
an uncertain found, who 
ftiall prepare himfelf to 
the battel ? 

So likewife you, except 9 
ye utter by the tongue 
words eafy to be' under- 
ftood, how {hall it be 
known what is fpoken ? 
for ye (hall fpeak into the 

There are, it may be, 10 
fo many kinds of voices 
in the world, and none 
of them is without ligni- 

Therefore ifl know not 11 
the tEeaning of the voice, 

6 ' 'Tis not ro be doubted but thefe four diftinft Terms ufed here by the Apoftle, had each 
his didind Signiiication in his Mind and Intcntioni whether what may be colkded from theft 
Mpiftles, may fufflciently warrant us to underftand them in the follovvmg Significations, I leave 
to the Judgment of others. Jji. 'ATOKciKv-^'Ki Revelation, fomething revealed by God imme- 
diately to the Pcrf n, vid. ver. 50. idly. yvS>7i<;., Kwivkdgz ; the underflanding the myOicai 
and evangelical Senfc of Palfagcs in the Old Teltamenr, relating to our Saviour and the Gofjjel, 
^dlj. T^9pv)THrf, Prophefy^ an infpired Hymn, vid. ver. 26. ^tkly. AiJ'ct.ityi, Docirine ; any 
Truth of the G-jfpt! concerning Faith or Manners. But whether this, or any other precile 
Meaning of thefe Words can be certainly made out now, it is perhaps of no groat Ncccil'ity to be 
over-curious ; it being enough, for the underftanding the Scnfe and Argument of the Apoftle here, 
10 know that thefe Terms Itand for fome intelligible Difcourfe tending to the Edification of the 
Church, though of what kind each of them was in particular, we certainly know not. 




I {hall be unto him that 
fpeaketh, a barbarian ; 
and he chat fpeakethjAiall 
be a barbarian unto ms, 

11 Even fo ye, forafir.uch 
as yc are zealous of fpiri- 
tual giffs, feck that ye 
may excel to the edifying 
of the church. 

J , Wherefore let him that 
fpeaketh in an unknown 
tongue, pray that he may 

lA For if I pray in an un- 
known tongue, my fpiric 
prayeth, but my under- 
iianding is unfruitful. 

I ^ What is it then ? I will 
pray with the Spirit, and 
I will pray with the un- 
der(\andtng alfo : I will 



ever he fays, is all gibberidi to me : And Co is it 
with you i ye are Barbarians to one another, 
as far as ye fpeak to one another in unknown 
Tongues. But fince there is Emulation amongft l2o 
you concerning fpiritual Gifts, feek to abound 
in the Exercife of thofe which tend moft to the 
Edification of the Church. Wherefore let him 13. 
that fpeaks an unknown Tongue, pray that he 
may interpret what he fays. For if I pray in 14. 
the Congregation in an unknown TongOe, 
my Spirit, it is true, accompanies my Words 
which I underftand, and fo my Spirit prays ^ ; 
but my Meaning is unprofitable to others, who 
underftand not my Words. What then is to i^c 
be done in the Cafe .? Why, I will, when mo- 
ved to it by the Spirit, pray in an unknown 
Tongue, but fo that my Meaning ^ may be 
underflood by others j i. e. I will not do it, but 
when there is fome body by to interpret " i 


14 *^ fliia rt evident from vef, 4. where it is faid. Hi that fpeaketh <wUh a Tongue^ edifes 

15'! will not pretend to juftify this Interpretation of tu yoi, by the exad Rules of the 
Creek Idiom ; but the Senfe of the Place will, I think, bear me out in it. And. as there is 
occafion often to remark, he muft be lictle verfed in the Writings of St. Panlj who does not oli- 
ferve, that when he has ufed a Term, he is apt to repeat it again in the fame Difcourfe in a 
Way peculiar to himfelf, and fomewhat varied from its ordinary Signification ; fo having here 
in the foregoing Verfe ufed vh( for the Sentiment of his own Mind, which was unprofitable 
to others when he pray'd in a Tongue unknown to them, and oppofed it to TcsC^et, which he 
ufed there for his own Senfe, accompanying his own Words, intelligible to himfelf, when by 
the Impulfe of the Spirit he pray'd in a foreign Tongue, he here in this Verfe continues to uie 
Praying, ru 'xviviJ-ctri, and t« for, in the fame Oppofition ; the one for praying in a firange 
Tongue, %vhich alone his own Mind underflood and accompanied ; the other for praying (b, 
as that the Meaning of his Mind in thofe Words he uttered, was made known to others, 
(b that they were alfo benefited. This Ufe of rrvzvyLctTi is farther confirmed in the next Verfe; 
and what he means by vn here, he exprefles by d'ltt ^•aJf, ver. 19. and there explains the mean- 
ing of it. 

"* For fo he orders in the Ufe of an unknown Tongue, ver, 17, 

S 2 





And fo I will do alfo in Singing " ; I will fing 
by the Spirit in an unknown Tongue, but I 
will take care that the Meaning of what I 
fing Ihall be underftood by the Afliftants. And 

l6. thus ye fhould all do in all like Cafes. For if 
thou, by the Impulfe of the Spirit, giveft Thanks 
to God in an unknown Tongue, which all un- 
derftand not j how {hall the Hearer, who in this 
Refpecft is unlearned, and being ignorant in 
that Tongue, knows not what thou fayeft, 
how fhall he fay Amen ? How ihall he join 
in the Thanks which he underflands not ? 
Thou indeed giveft Thanks well, but the other 
is not at all edified by it. I thank God, I fpeak 
with Tongues more than you all ; but I had 
rather fpeak in the Church five Words that are 
underftoodj that I might inftrudt others alfo, 
than in an unknown Tongue ten thoufand, 
that others underftand not. My Brethren, be 
not in Underftanding Children, who are apt 
to be taken with the Novelty or Strangenefs 
of Things : In Temper and Difpofition be as 
Children, void of Malice ** ; but in Matters of 
Underftanding be ye perfedt Men, and ufe your 

21. Underftandings p. Be not fo zealous for the 
Ufe of unknown Tongues in the Church, they 
are not fo proper there : It is written in the 

1 8. 



fing with the fpiric, and 
I will (ing with the un- 
derlianding alfo. 

Elfe when thou (halt i5 
bids with the fpirir, how 
fhali he chac occupieth che 
room of the unlearned, 
fay Amen at thy giving 
of thanks, feeing he un- 
derltandech not what 
thou fay e It ? 

For thou verily giveft 17 
thanks well, but the other 
is not edified. 

I thank my God, 1 18 
Ipeak with tongues more 
than you all : 

Yet in the Church 1 19 
had rather ipeak five 
words with my under- 
ftanding, that by my voice 
I might teach others alio, 
than ten thoufand words 
in an unknown tongue. 

Brethren, be not chil- iO 
drcn in underftanding: 
howbeit, in malice be ye 
children, but in under- 
ftanding be men. 

In the law it is writ- zi 
ten, With men of other 
tongues, and other lips, 

N O t E S. 

" Here it may be obferved, that as in their public Prayer one pray'd, and the others held their 
Peace, fb it was in their Singing ; at kaft in that Singing which was of extempory Hymns, by 
the Impulfe of the Spirit. 

lo ^ By KAKiUy Malice^ I think is here to be underftood all forts of ill Temper of Mind, con- 
trary lotheGentlenefs and Innocence of Childhood ; and in particular jheir Emulation and Strife 
about the Excrcife of their Gifts in their Aflemblicj, 

» Vid. .Rm.XVI. 19. £/>/&. IV. 13—15. 






will I fpeak unto this pto- 
pie : and yet for all that 
will they not hear me, 
faith the Lord. 

\Vhertfoie tongues are 
for a fign, not to ihcm 
rhat believe, but tothtm 
that believe not : but pro- 
phefying ferveth not for 
them that believe not, but 
for them which believe. 

If therefore the whole 
church be come together 
into one place, and all 
fpeak with tongues, and 
there come in thofe that 
are unlearned, or unbc« 
lievers, will they not fay 
that ye are mad ? 
24 But if all prophefy,and 
there come in one that 
believeth not, or one un- 
learned, he is convinced 
of all, he is judged of all : 

And thus are the fecrets 
of his heart made mani- 
fefl; and fo falling down 
on his face he will worftiip 
God, and report that God 
is in you of a truth. 
16 How is it then, bre- 
thren? when ye come to- 
gether, every one of you 
hath a pfalm, hath a do- 


Law % With Men of other Tongues, and 
other Lips, will I fpeak unco this People j and 
yet for all that will they not hear me, faith the 
Lord. So that you fee the fpeaking of fhrange ,22. 
Tongues miraculoufly, is not for thofe who are 
already converted, but for a Sign to thofe who 
are Unbelievers : But Prophefy is for Belie- 
vers, and not for Unbelievers ; and therefore 
fitter for your AlTemblies. If therefore, when 23, 
the Church is all come together, you fhould 
all fpeak in unknown Tongues, and Men un- 
learned, or Unbelievers, fhould come in, would 
they not fay that you are mad ? But if ye all 24. 
prophefy, and an Unbeliever or ignorant Man 
come in, the Difcourfes he hears from you reach- 
ing his Confcience, and the fecret Thoughts 
of his Heart, he is convinced, and wrought 
upon J and fo falling down worfhips God, and 25. 
declares that God is certainly amongfl you. 
What then is to be done. Brethren ? When ye 26. 
come together, every one is ready % one 
with a Pfalm, another with a Dodlrine, ano- 
ther with a ftrange Tongue, another with a 
Revelation, another with Interpretation. Let 

N t: E s. 

11 ^ The Bo:;k3 of Sacred Scripture, delivered to the jfev^s by Divine Revelation, under the 
Law, before the Time of the Gofpel, which we now call the Old Teftament, are in the Writinj^j 
of the New Teftament called fometimes tlehaiv, the Prophets, and the Pfalms, as Z,;*;^^ XXIV. 44. 
Tomctimts the Lain atid the Propleijf zs Affs XyilV. 14. And fometimes they are ail compre- 
hended under this one Name, the Law, as here; for the PalTage cited is in Ifaiah. 

z6 "■ 'Tis plain, by this whole Difcourfe of the Apoftle's, that there were Contentions and 
Emulations amongft them for Precedency of their Gifts ; and therefore I think '.KO-^oi S;^h, may 
be render'd, every one is ready, as impatient to be firlt heard. If there were no fuch Diforder 
amongft them, there would have been no need for the Regulations given in the End of this 
Verfe, and the ftvcn Verfes following ; efpecially ver. 31, 32. where he tells them, they all may 
prophefy one by one, and that the Motions of the Spirit were not fo ungovernable, as not to 
leave a Man Mafter of himfelf. He muft no: think himfelf under a Neceftity of fpeaking, as 
ibon as he found any Impulfc of the Spirit upon his Mind. 











fame Meeting, 
and difcufs it. 
the Meaning of 

all Things be done to Edification, even though 
^ any one fpeak in an unknown Tongue, which 
is a Gift that feems lead intended for Edifica- 
tion ' ; let but two or three at moft, at any one 
Meeting, fpeak in an unknown Tongue, and 
that feparately one after another ; and let there 
be but one Interpreter ". But if there be no 
body prefent that can interpret, let not any one 
ufe his Gift of Tongues in the Congregation, 
but let him filently within himfelf fpeak to him- 
felf, and to God. Of thofe who have the Gift 
of Prophefy, let but two or three fpeak at the 

and let the others examine 

But if, during their Debate, 

it be revealed to one that fits 
by, let him that was difcourfing of it before 
give off. For ye may all prophefy one after 
another, that all may in their Turns be 
Hearers, and receive Exhortation and Inflru- 
dion. For the Gifts of the Holy Ghoft are 
not like the Pofi^eflion of the Heathen Priefts, 
who are not Mailers of the Spirit that pof- 
feffes them : But Chriftians, however filled 


17 ^ St. Paul has faid in this Chapter as much as conveniently could be faid to reflrain iheJf 
fpeaking in unknown Tongues in their AiTemblies ; which feems to be that wherein the Vanity 
and orientation of the Corinthians was moft forward to fhew it felf. It is not, fays he, a Gift 
intended for the Edification of Believers ; however, fince you will be exercidng it in your Meet- 
ings, let it always be fo ordered, that it may be for Edification. Eits I have render'd ahho ^ 
So I think it is fon-ictimes ufed, but no where, as I remember, fimply for ;/, as in our Tranfla- 
tion ; nor v.'ill the Senfe here bear whether^ which is the common Signification of sire. And 
therefore I take the Apoftlc's Senfe to be this : You muft do nothing but to Edification, tho* y»u 
fpeak in an unknown Tongue \ even an unknown Tongue mud be made ufe of, in your AITem' 
blies, only to Edification. 

* Vid. Ver. i, and 4. 

" The Rule of the Synagogue was. In the Law let one read, and one interpret ; In the Pro- 
jphets let one read, and two interpret : In I.fiher ten may read, and ten interpret. *Tis not im- 
probable that foni6 fuch Difordcr had been introduced into the Church olC^rinib by their Judai- 
•iing falfe Apoftle, which Sf. ^wl would here put an End to. 

2 with 


(ferine, hath a tongue, hath 
a revelation, hath an inter- 
pretation. Let all things 
b;; done to edifying. 

If any man fpeak in an -7 
unknown tongue, let ic 
ba by two, or at the 
moft by three, and that 
by courfe ; and let one 

But if there be no in- 18 
terpreter, let him keep 
lilence in the church ; 
and let him fpeak to him- 
lelf, and to God. 

Let the prophets fpeak 29 
two or three, and let the 
other judge. 

If any thing be reveal- jo 
ed to another that fitteth 
by, let the firfl hold his 

For ye may all prophe- 31 
fy one by one, that all 
may learn, and all may 
be comforted. 

And the fpirits of the 34 
prophets are fubjeft to 
the prophet*. 



j.j For God is not the au- 
thor of confufion, but of 
peace, as in all churches 
of the faint). 

XA Let your women keep 
filence in the churches : 
for it is not permitted 
unto them to fpeak ; but 
they are commanded to 
be under obedience, as 
alfo faith the law. 
,-, And if they will learn 
^ Uny thing, let them ask 
their husbands at home : 
for ic is a ftiame for wo- 
men to fpeak in the 

:{i What ? came rhe word 
of God out from you ?- or 
came it unto you only ? 

j7 If any man think him- 
felf to be a prophet, or 
fpiritual, let hini_ackcow- 




with the Holy Ghoft, are Mafters of their 
own Adions; can fpeak or hold their Peace as 
they fee occafion, and are not hurried away 
by any Compulfion. Ic is therefore no reafon 33. 
for you to fpeak more than one at once, or to 
interrupt one another, becaufe you find your 
felves infpired and moved by the Spirit of 
God; for God is not the Author of Confu- 
Hon and Diforder, but of Q^iecnefs and Peace: 
And this is what is obferved in all the Churches 
of God. As to your Women, let them keep 
Silence in your Affemblies ; for it is not per- 
mitted them to difcourfe there, or pretend to 
teach; that does no way fuit their State of 
Subjedtion appointed them in the Law. But 
if they have a mind to have any thing explain- 
ed to them that pafTes in the Church, let them 
for their Information aik their Hufbands at 
home ; for it is a Shame for Women to dif- 
courfe and debate with Men publickly in the 
Congregation ''. What, do you pretend to 
give Laws to the Church of God, or to a 
Right to do what you pleafe amongft your 
felves, as if the Gofpel began ^t Con?2th, and 
ifTuing from you, was communicated to the 
reft of the World, or as if it were communi- 
cated to you alone of all the World? If any 37; 
Man amongft you think that he hath the Gift 
of Prophefy, and would pafs for a Man know- 





,4, -^S - Why I apply this Prohibition of fpeaking only to Rcaroning and purely voluntary' 
Il.fcourfc, tut fuppofe a Liberty left Women to fpeak, where they had an .mmed.ate Impulfe an. 
RcX on from the Spirit of God, i^id. Chap. XI. 3. In the Synago.^ue it was ufual for any 
Man Xt Im.ZXIo demand of the Teach^ a farther Explication of what he had fatd y. 
but this was aot permitted to the Women, 







ledge chat the things that 
I write unto you, are the 
commandments of the 

But if any man be ig- jt 
norant, let him be igno- 

Wherefore, brethren, ? 9 
covet to prophefy, and 
forbid not to fpeak with 

Let all things be done 4* 
decently, and m order^ 

ing III the revealed Will of God >", let hlin 
ackiivrvvledge that thefe Rules which I have 
here given, are the Commandments of the 
Lord. But if any Man ^ be ignorant that they 
are fo^ I have no more to fay to him ; I leave 
him to his Ignorance. To conclude, Brethren, 
let Prophefy have the Preference in the Exercile 
of it ^ ; but yet forbid not the fpeaking unknown 
Tongues. But whether a Man prophefies, or 
fpeaks with Tongues, whatever fpiricual Gift 
he exercifes in your AfTemblies, let it be done 
without any Indecorum or Diforder. 

N O t E S. 

37 * Ylv iupntr I JiUy a fp'iritual Man, in the Senfe of St. P4«/, is one who founds his Know- 
ledge in what is revealed by the Spirit of God, and not in the bare Difcoverics of his natural 
Reafon and Parts ; ijid. Chap. XI. 15. 

58 y By the any Man mention 'd in this, and the foregoing Verfe, St. Paul feems to intimate 
the falfe Apoftle, who pretended to give Laws amongft them ; and, as we have obferved, may 
well be fuppofed to be the Author of thefe Difordcrs, whom therefore St. Paul rtflcds on, and 
prelTes in thefe three Verfes. 

39 ^ Z«>v5i', in this whole Difcourfe of St. Paul, taken to refer to the Exercife, and not to 
the obtaining the Gifts to which it is join'd, will dired us right in underftanding St. Paulj and 
make his meaning very eafy and incelligible. 

S E C T. X. 

CHAP. XV. I 58. 


\ Fter St. Paul (who had taught them another Dodlrine) had 
^£^ left Corinth, fome among them denied the Refurred:ion of 
the Dead. This he confutes by Chrift's Refurredion, which the 
Number of Witnefles yet remaining, that had feen him, put pad 
Queftion ; befides the conftant inculcaung of it by all the Apoftles 




every where. From the Refurrcaion of Chrift thus eflabllllied, heChap. xv. 
infers the Refurredlion of the Dead j fhevvs the Order they fhall rife ^^^""^"^ 
in, and what fort of Bodies they fhall have. 



Oreover, brethren, 
declare unto you 
the gofpel which I prca- 

. ched unco you, which alfb 
you have received, and 
wherein ye ftand ; 

i By which alfo ye are 
faved, if ye keep in me- 
mory what I preached 
unto you, unlefi ye have 
believed in vain. 

J For I delivered unto 
you firft of ail, rhar which 
I alfo received, how that 
Chrilt died for our fins,ac- 
cordini^ .~o chefcriptures: 

A And that he was buri- 
ed, and that he rofe a- 
gain the thi'd day,accord- 
ing to the fcriprures : 

e And that he was feen of 
Cephas,thenof the twelve. 

6 After that, he was feen 
ofabove five hundred bre- 
thren at once : of whom 
the greater part remain 
unto this prefent, but 
Ibme are fallen aQcep : 

7 After that, he was feen 
of James ; then of all the 

8 And laftof all, he was 
feen of me alfo, ascfone 
born out of due time. 

9 Forlam theleaft of the 
apoftles, that am not meet 
to be called an apoftle, 
becaufe I perfecuted the 
church of God, 

o But by the grace of God , 


IN what I am now going to fay to you, Bre- i. 
thren, I make known to you no other Go- 
fpel than what I formerly preached to you ; 
and you received, and have hitherto profefTed, 
and by which alone you are to be faved. This 2, 
you will find to be fo, if you retain in your 
Memories what it was that I preached to you i 
which you certainly do, unlefs you have taken, 
up the Chriftian Name and Profeflion to no 
purpofe. For I delivered to you, and particu- 3. 
larly infifted on this, which I had received, viz. 
that Chrift died for our Sins, according to the 
Scriptures ; and that he was buried, and that 4. 
he was raifed again the third Day, according 
to the Scriptures -, and that he was feen by 5* 
Peter ^ afterwards by the twelve Apoftles ; and 6. 
after that, by above five hundred Chriftians at 
once, of whom the greateft part remain alive 
to this Day, but fome of them are deceafed : 
Afterwards he was feen by James ; and after j^ 
that by all the Apoftles. Laft of all, he was g, 
feen by me alfo, as by one born before my time '. 
For I am the leaft of the Apoftles, not worthy 9. 
the Name of an Apoftle, becaufe I perfecuted 
the Church of God. But by the free Bounty 10. 
of God, I am what it hath pleafed him to make 
me : And this Favour which he hath beftowed 

N O r E S. 

8 ' An abortive Birth that comes before its time, which is the Name St. Paul gives himfelf 
here, is ufually fudden and at unawares ; and is alfo weak and feeble, fcarce deferving to be 
called or counted a Man. The former Part agrees to St. PauFs being made a Chriftian and aa 
Apoftle, iho' it be in regard of the latter that in che following Verfe St. Paf*J calls himfelf 

T , on 


Chap. XV. 










on me, hath not been altogether fruitlefs, for I 
have labour'd in preaching of the Gofpel more 
than all the other Apoftles ''j which yet I do not 
afcribe to any thing of my felf, but to the Fa- 
vour of God which accompanied me. But whe- 
ther I, or the other Apoilles preached, this was 
that which we preached, and this was the Faith 
ye were baptized into, viz. that Chrifl died, 
and rofe again the third Day. If therefore this 
be fo, if this be that which has been preached 
to you, viz. that Chrifl has been railed from 
the Dead ; how comes it that fome " amongft 
you fay, as they do, that there is no Refurre(Sion 
of the Dead ? And if there be no Refurre<5bion 
of the Dead, then even Chrifl himfelf is not 
rifen : And if Chrifl be not rifen, our Preaching 
is idle Talji, and your believing it is to no pur- 
ppfe. And vye, who pretend to be WitnefTes^ 
for God and his Truth, fhall be found Liars, 
bearing Witnefs againfl God and his Truth, 
affirming that he raifed Chrifl, whom in truth 
he did not raife, if it be fo that the Dead are 
not raifed. For if the Dead fhall not be raifed, 
neither is Chrifl raifed : And if Chrifl be not 
rifen, your, FaithtisiXQ no purpofe; your Sins are 




lam what I am : and his 
grace which was befto wed 
upon me, was not in vain : 
but I laboured more abun- 
dantly than they all ; yet 
not I, but the grace 06 
God which was with ms. 

Therefore whether it IP 
were I or they, fo we 
preach, and fo ye belie- 

Now ifChrift be prea- iv 
ched that he rofe from the 
dead,how fay fome among 
you, that there is no re-, 
furredion of the dead I 

But if there be no re.- 1 5^ 

furreftion of the deady 
then is Chrilt not rifen. 

And if Chrift be not i^ 
rifen, then is our preach- 
ing vain, and your fjiith 
is alfo vain. 

Yea, and we are found if 
falfe witnefles of God i 
becaufe we have teftified 
of God, that he raifed up 
Chrift : whom he raifed- 
not up, if fo be that the 
dead rife not. 

For if the dead rife not, 16, 
then is not Chrift raifed : 

And if Chrift be not 
raifed, your faith is vain ; ip 
ye are yet in your (ins, 

10 ^ St. Paul drops. ia this Commendation of himfelf to keep-up-his Credit in the- Church of 
Or^pthy where there was a Faftion labouring to difcr^dic hiijj, 

11*= This may well be underftood of the Head of the conrrary Faftion, and ibme of his Scho- 
lars. iy?j Becaufe St, Paul introduces this Confutation by alferting his Milfion, which thefe his 
Oppofers would bring in queftion. 2^/y, Becaufe he is fo careful to let the Corinthians fee he 
maintains not the Doftrine of the Refurreftion, in oppofition to thefe their new Leaders; it bein^ 
the DoArine he had preached to them at their firft Converfion, before any fuch falle Apoftle ap- 
pear'd among them, and milled them about the Refurredion. Theic falfe Apoftle was a yew, 
ahd in all appearance ;udai;zedi may he not alfb be fufpedted of Sadducifm ? For 'tis plain he, 
with all his might, oppofed St. Paul; which muft be from fome main Difference iii Opinion ac 
th«. buttom^ fox there are,no Footfteps of any peribaal Provocation. 




ig Then they alfb which 
are fallen aileep in Chrilt, 
arc periflied. 

jn If in this life only we 
have hope in Chrift, we 
are of all men nx)ft mife- 

20 But now is Chrift rifen 
from the dead, and be- 
come the firft-fruits of 
them that ftcpt. 

2,1 For fince by man came 
death, by man came alfo 
the refurreCtion of the 

zx For as in Adam all die, 
even Co in Chrift (hall all 
be made alive. 

J, But every man in his 
own order : Chrift the 
firft-fruits,afterward they 
that are Chrift's, at his 

J , Then Cometh the end, 
when he {hall have deli- 
vered up the kingdom to 
God, even the Father ; 
when he fhall have put 
6own all nile, and all au- 
thority and power. 

X e For he muft reign till 
he hath put all enemies 
under his feec. 

2^ The laft enemy that 
fhall be deftroyed, is 

J 7 Fbr her hath put all 
things under his feec. But 



Chap. XV. 

not forgiven, but you are ftill liable to the Pu- 
nifhment due to them. And they alfo who died i5. 
in the Belief of the Gofpel, are periflied and loft. 
If the Advantages we expedt from Chrift arfe 19* 
confined to this Life, and we have no hope of 
any Benefit from him in another Life hereafter, 
we Chriftians are the mofl miferable of all Men. 
But in truth Chrift is adtuaHy rifen from the 20. 
Dead, and is become the Firft-Fruits '^ of thofe 
who were dead. For fince by Man came Death, 21. 
by Man came alfo the Refurredtion of the Dead, 
or Reftoration to Life. For as the Death that 22. 
all Men fufi^er is owing to Adam, fo the Life 
that all {hall be reftored to again is procured 
them by Chrift. But they fliall return to Life 23. 
again; not all at once, but in their proper 
Order : Chrift, the Firft-Fruits, is already rifen ; 
next after him fhall rife thofe who are his 
People, his Church j and this fhall be at his 
fecond Coming. After that ftiall be the Day of 24, 
Judgment, which fhall bring to a Conclufion, 
and finifli the whole Difpenfation to the Race 
and Pofterity of Adam in this World; when 
Chrift fhall have delivered up the Kingdom to 
God and the Father, which he fhall not do till 
he hath deftroy'd all Empire, Power and Au- 
thorityj that ftiall be in the World befides. For 25. 
he muft reign till he has totally fubdued and 
brought all his Enemies into Subjection to his 
Kingdom. The laft Enemy that ftiall be de- 26. 
ftroyed, is Death. For God hath fubjedled all 27. 
Things to Chrift j but when it is faid all Things 


20 ^ The Firft-frmts vni afmall Part, wfiich ^a» fiffttal^en aitd offered to Gbd, andfafifti- 
■fied the whole Mafj which wai to follow. 

T 2 




CMp. XV. 

are fubjeded, It is plain that he is to be except- 

28. ed, who did fubjeA all Things to him. But 
when all Things ihall be actually reduced under 
Subje(flion to him, then even the Son himfelf, 
i. e. Chrift and his whole Kingdom, he and all 
his Subjeds and Members, lliall be fubjedled to 
him that gave him this Kingdom and univerfal 
Dominion, that God may immediately govern 

29. and influence all. Elfe ' what (hall they do who 
are baptized for the Dead*^? and why do we 

S^' venture our Lives continually? As to my felf, 
I am expofed, vilified, treated fo that I die 

3 1- daily : And for this I call to witnefs your glo- 
rying againft me, in which I really glory, as 
coming on me for our Lord Jefus Chrifl's fake. 

32. And particularly, to what purpofe did I fufFer 
my felf to be expofed to wild Beafts at EphefuSy 
if the Dead rife not ? If there be no Refurre- 
<Sion, 'tis wifer a great deal to preferve our 
felves as long as we can in a free Enjoyment of 
all the Pleasures of this Life j for when Death 
comes, as it fhortly will, there is an End of us 

33* for ever. Take heed that ye be not mifled 
by fuch Difcourfes; for evil Communication is 

34* apt to corrupt even good Minds. Awake from 
fuch Dreams, as 'tis fit you fhould, and give not 

when he fairh all things 
are put under him, ic i$^ 
manifeft that he is ex- 
cepted which did put all 
things under him. 

And when all things^* 
(hall be fubdued unto him, 
then ftiall the Son alS) 
himfelf be fubjetl unto 
hira that put all things 
under him., that God may' * 
be all in all. 

Elfe what ftiall they '?• 
do which are baptized 
for the dead, if the dead 
rife not at all \ why are 
they then baptized for 
the dead \ 

And why ftand we in V> 
jeopardy every hour? 

I proteft by your re- S^' 
joicing. which I have ia 
Chrift Jefus our Lord, I 

die daily. 

If after the manner of jt 

men I have fought with 

beafts at Ephefus, what. 

advantageth ic me, if the 

dead rife not? let us eac 

and drink, for to morrow 

we die. 

Be not deceived : EvH 3 } 

communications corrupt 

good manners. 
Awake to righteoufnefs, 3^1 

aadIianoc;forfbmeiiave- . 


19 • E^ here relates to vet. lo.- where it is faid, Chrijl is rifen. St. Paul having in that 
Verfe mentioned Chrift being the Firft-Fruits from ^he Dead, takes occafion from thence, now 
that he is upon the Refurrtftion, to inform the r.oritJthiaM of feveral Particularities relating 
to the Refurreftion, which might enlighten theai about it, and could not be known but by 
Revelation. Having made this Excurfion in t.Se eight preceding Verfes, he here in the 19th 
rc-aflumes the Thread of his Difcourft, and goes on ^/i^h his Arguments for believing the Re- 

^ What this Baptizing for the Dead was» I confefs I know not ; but it (eems, by the folbw-; 
ang Verfes, co be fomeching whtfda they expofed themfelvea co the Danger of Death. 




Chap XV. 

not the knowledge of 
God : I fpeak this to your 

But fome man will fay, 
'How are the dead raifed 
up \ and with what body 
do they come ? 

, Thou fool, that which 
^ thou foweft is not quick- 
ned except it die. 

-_ And that which thou 
foweft, thou foweft not 
that body that ftiall be, 
but bare grain ; it may 
chance of wheat, or of 
lome other grain. 
g But God giveth it a 

^ body as it hath pleafed 
him, and to every feed 
his own body. 

.« All fle(h is not the fame 
flefh : but there is one 
kindoffiefliofmen, ano- 

your felves up finfully to the Enjoyments of this 
Life J for there are fome ^ atheiftical People 
among you: This I fay, to make you afhamed. 
But poffibly it will be afked, How comes it to ZS' 
pafs that dead Men are raifed ? and with what 
kind of Bodies do they come ^ ? Shall they have 
at the Refurred:ion fuch Bodies as they have 
now ? Thou Fool, does not daily Experience 3^* 
teach thee, that the Seed which thou foweft 
corrupts and dies, before it fprings up and lives 
again. That which thou foweft is the bare 37* 
Grain of Wheat or Barley, or the like ; but the 
Body which it has when it rifes up, is different 
from the Seed that is fown. For it is not the 38. 
Seed that fifes up' ^gain, but a quite different 
Body, fuch as God has thought fit to give it, 
viz, a Plant of a particular Shape and Size> 
which God has appointed to each fort of Seed. 
And fo likewife it is in Animals, there are diffe- 39. 
rent kinds of Flefti '5 for the Flefti of Men is of 

N O t E S. 

34 B MJiy not this probably be faid to make them afhami'd of their Leader, whom they were 
to forward to glory in ? For 'tis not unlikely, that their queftioning and denying the Refur- 
reftion, came from their new ApoIUe, who raifed fuch Oppofiticn againft St. Paul. 

35 ** If we will allow St. Paul to know what he fays, it is plain, from what he anfwers; 
that he under Aands thefe Words to contain two Queftions. iji. How comes it to pafs that dead 
Men are raifed to Life again ? would ic not be better they fhould live oh ? Why do they die to 
live again i idly. With what Bodies (hall they return to Life ? To both thefe he diftindly an- 
fwers, viz. That thofe who are raifed to an heavenly State, fliall have" other Bodies : And next, 
that it is fit that Men fhould die. Death being no improper way to the attaining other Bodies. 
This he (hews there is fo plain and common an Inftance of, in the fowing of all Seeds, that he 
thinks it a foolifh Thing to make a Difficulty of it ; and then proceeds to declare that as they ihall* 
have others, fb they ftiall have better Bodies than they had before, viz, fpiritual and incor- 

59 ' Th6 Scope of the Place makes it evident, that by Vlejb St. Pii^/ here means Bodies, viz. 
That God has given to the feveral Sort» of Animals Bodies, in Shape, Texture and Organization^ 
very different one from another, as he has thought good ; and fb he can give to Men, at the Re- 
furreftioD, Bodies of very different Conf^ituiiouj and (^ualitiej from thofe they had before. 



Chap. XV. 


one kind; the FLefla of Cattle is of another iher fleOi of beafts, sne- 

kind ; that of Fifli is different from them both s J'bil'^'^"'"''^ '"°'^" 

and the Flefli of Birds is of a peculiar Sort, There are aifoceieftial 40 

40. different from them all. To look yet farther f^^^fap^"",'^ th°e'^'7J,^^^^^ 
into the Difference of Bodies, there be both thTceie(Hai is^one7^atfd 
heavenly and earthly Bodies; but the Beauty the glory of the terreftmi 
and Excellency of the heavenly Bodies is of "^ Xerfi. o„e ,lory of 4. 
one kind, and that of earthly Bodies ot ano- the run,and another glory 

41. then The Sun, Moon and Stars, have each of of the moon, and another 
them their particular Beauty and Brightnels ; t/,t %,f:Z-f!Z 
and one Star differs from another in Glory, another ftar in glory. 

AZ, And fo ihall the Kefurrediion of the Dead '^ be.; ^.So ^ifo 's the refurre- ^t 

rpi flion of the dead. It is 

M T E S.. 

fbvvn in corrtvption, it is 
raifed in incorruprion : 

4-2, ^ The RefurreHion of the Dead here fpoken of, is not the Refurreftion of all Mankind la 
common, but only the Refurreiftion of' the Juft. This will be evident to any one, who obftrves 
that Si. Baul having, ve*. ai. declared that all Men fhall be made alive again, tell* the G>rz»- 
thmnSy ver. 23. that it fliall not be all at once, but at feveral Didanccs of Time. Firft of all 
Chrift rofe, a^fterwards next in order to him the Saint? fhould all be raiftd ; which Relurreftion 
of the Juii isjbat which, he treats, and gi«es an Account of to the End of this Difcourfe and 
Chapter, and fo never comes to the Refurreition of the Wicked, which was to be the third and 
laft in order : So that from the zsd Verfe to the End of this Chapter, all that he fays of the Re- 
furreftion, is a Defciiption only of the Refurreftion of the Juft, tho' he calls it here by the gene- 
ral Name of the Refurreftion of the Dead. That this is fo, there is fo much Evidence, that there 
is fcarce a Verfe, from the 41(1 to the End, that does not evince it.- 

ij?. What in this Refurre<fUon is raifed, Sz.^aul affures us, ver. 43. is raifed in Glory.; but 
the Wicked are not raifed in Glory. 

idly. He fay^'z:;^ (fpeaking in the Name of all that fliall be then raifed) fliall bear the Image 
of the heavenly Adam, ver. 49. which cannot belong to the Wicked. fVe ftiall all be chang'd, 
that by putting on Incorruptibility and Immortality, Death may be (wallowed up of Vidbry^ 
which God giveth us through our Lord Jefus Chrift, ver. $i, 5^* 5?3 54> 57. which cannot like- 
wife belong to the Damned. And therefore v;e and,«J muft be underftood to be fpoken in the 
Name pf the Dead that are Chrifl's, who are to be raifed by themfelves before the.reft of Man- 

idiy. He fuys, ver. 51. that when the Dead are raifed, they whoare alive fliall be chai^'d in 
the twinkling of an Eye. Now that thefe Dead arc only the Dead in Chrift, which fhall rife firft, 
and fhall be caught up in the Clouds to meet the Lord in the Air^ 13 plain from i Theff^lV, 

'^j 17. . ... 

^thfyy He leaches, ver. ^54, that. Uy this Corruptible's putting on Incorniption, is brought' to 
pals the Saying, that Death ij fwallowed upjof Viftory, But, I think, no body will fay that 
the Wicked have Viftory over Death ; yet that, according to the Apoftle here, belongs to all 
thofe whofe corruptible Bodies have.put on Incorruption, which therefore muft be only.thofe 
that rife the fccond in order. From whence it is clear, that their Refurredion alone is that 

!ivhich is here mentioned and defcribed. 





} It is fawn ia diiho- That which IS fown in this World \ and 43f; 
nour,_ it is laifed m g!o- comes to die, is a Doof, Weak, contemptible, 

ry: it is Town m weak- , «. ^ r '^ • •/• j • :^ 

nWiHsraifcd in power: Corruptible Thing ; when It IS raifed again, ic 
fhall be powerful, glorious, and incorruptible. 


ithly, A farther Proof whereof isver. ^6t, $7. in chat their Sins being fakert away, tHe Sting, 
whereby Death kills is taken away. And hence St. P/tut fays, God has given us the Viftoryi 
whichis the fame us or we who fliould bear the Image of the hzzvinly Aa'am. ver. 49. and' 
the fame ive, who fhould all be changed,, ifer. 5 i,.5i. All which Places can therefore belong tO' 
none but thofe who are Chf ift's, who fliall be raifed by themfelves, che ficond in Order, before 
the reft of the Dead. 

•Tis very remarkable^ what Sr,Ptf«/ (ays in this ^ i ft Verfe, ^}h ffjaU not z\\ Jleep\ burivfC fi'^alt 
all be changed in tfje tivinkling of an-Eye. The Reafon he gives for it, ver. 5 3. is,> bcc^ufe this 
corruptible Thing muft put on Incorruption, and this mortal Thing muft put on Liunortalicy. 
How? Why, by putting off Flefh and Blood byaninfiantaneous Change, becaufe, as he tells 
us, ver, 50. Flefh and' Blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God ; and therefore, to fit Believers 
for that Kingdom, thofe who are alive at Chrift's coming, ftiall be changed in the twinkling of 
an Eye, and thofe that are in their Graves, fhall be changed likewife at the Inftant of their 
being raifed, and fo all the whole Colledion of Saints, ail the Members of Chrift's Body, fhall 
be put into a State of Incorruptibility, ver- 5^. in a new" fort of Bodies. Taking the Refur-" 
redion here fpokcn of, to be tha Reiurre<^ion of all the^ Dead promifcuoufly, St.Pauls Reafoning.. 
in this Place can hardly be linderftood : But, upon a Suppolition that he here defcribes the Re- 
furredion of the Juft only, that Refurredion which, as he fays, ver. 13. is to be the next after 
Chrift's, and feparate from the reft, there is nothing can be-more plain, natural and eafy, than 
St. P4«i's Reafoning ; and it ftands thus: Men alive are Flefli and Blood, the Dead in the 
Graves are but the Remains of corrupted Fi^fh and Blood, bat Flefh and Blood cannot inherit 
the Kingdom, of- God, neither Corruption itvWerit Ihcoiruption, ?. e Immortality; therefore to'"'' 
make all thofe wha are Chrift's. capable to enter- into his eternal Kingdom of Life, as well thofe 
of them who are alive, as thofe of chem who are raifed from the Dead, fhall in the twinkling of' 
an Eye be all changed, and their Corruptible fball put on Incorruption, and their Mortal ihall 
put on Immortality : And thus God gives them the Vi(ftory over Death, through their Lord 
Jefus Chrift. This is, ia ftwrt, St. P.tWs Arguing here, and the Account' he gives of ' the- Rfe- 
furredion of the Hleflfed. But Jiowtke Wicked, who are afterwards to be reftored to Life, vvere 
to be raifed, and what was to become of them, he here fays nothing, as not being to iiis prefent" 
Purpofe, which was to affure the Ccr/»/ili;>»i, by the Refurreftion of Chrift, of a happy Refur- 
reftion to Believers, and thereby to" encourage them to continue ftedfaft in the Faith which had 
fuch a Reward. That this wai his Defign, may be feen by the Beginning of his Difcourfe,. 
ver, 12. 2 .1. and by theConcliifion, ver. 58. in thefc Words : fVbetefore, my beloved Bre- 

ilreny beyejledfafi, unmoveable, always aboufidtng* in the Wdrk of the Lord •, f of a f much as ye know'' 
that your Laiour is not in vain in the Lord. Which Words ihew that what he had been fpeaking 
of in the immediately preceding Verfes, viz. their being changed, and the "putting on of Incor- 
ruption and Immortality, and. thbir having thereby the Viftory through Jefus Chrift, was what 
belong'd folely to the Saints, as a Reward to thole who remained ftedfaft, and abounded in the' 
Work of the Lord. 

The like Ufe of the Jike, though" fhorterDifeourfe of the Rtfurreftion, wherein he defcribes 
only that of the Blefled, he makes to the Thejfaloniansy i Thefl", IV. IJ— — I?, which he con- 
cludes thus : fVherefore comfort one another with the/e Words, 



Cliap XV'. 






The Body we have here ', furpaiTes not the ani- 
mal Nature; at the Refurrection It fliall be 
ipiritual. There are both animal " and fpi- 
ritual " Bodies. And (o it is written. The 
firft Man Adarn was made a living Soul, /. e. 
made of an animal Conftitution, e^idowed with 
an animal Life ; the fecond Adam was made 
of a fpiritual Conflitution, with a Power to 
give Life to others. Howheit, the fpiritual was 
not firfl, but the animal ; and afterwards the 
fpiritual. The firfl Man was of the Earth, 
made up of Duft or earthy Particles; the fe- 
cond Man is the Lord from Heaven. Thofe 
who have no higher an Extraction than bare- 
ly from the earthy Man, they, like him, have 
barely an animal Life and Conftitution. But 

Ic -is fown a natural 44 
body, it is raifed a fpiri- 
tual body. There i5 a 
natural body, and there 
is a fpiritual body. 

And fb it is written, 4$ 
The firft man Adam was 
made a living foul, the 
iaft Adam was made a 
(juickning fpirit. 

Howbeit, that was not 46 
firft which is fpir«tual,- 
but that which is natu- 
ral i and afterward chat 
which is fpiritual. 

The fird man is of the 47 
earth, earthy ; the fecond 
man is the Lord from 

As is the earthy, fuch48 
are they alfo that are 
earthy : and as is the 


Nor is it in this Place alone that St. Paul calls the Refurredion of the Juft by the general 
Name of the Refurredion of the Dead. He does the fame, Phil. HI. 11. where he fpeaks of his 
Sufferings, and of his Endeavours, if by any means he might attain unto the Refurredion of the 
Dead ; whereby he cannot mean the Refurredion of the Dead in general, which, fince he has 
declared in this very Chapter, r^er. it. all Men, both good and bad, fliall as certainly partake of, 
^s that they (hall die, there needs no Endeavours to attain to it. Our Saviour likewife fpeaks 
of the Refurredion of ihe Judjn the fame general Terms of the Refurredion, Matt.XXU. 30. 
and the RefurreH ion from the Dead, Luke XX. J$. by which is meant only the Refurredion of the 
Juft, as is plain from the Context. 

43 ' The time that Man is in this World afHxed to this Earth, is his being fown, and not 
"vvhen being dead he is put in the Grave, as is evident from St. Paul's own Words : For dead 
Things, are not fcwo i Seeds are fown being alive, and die not" till after they are fown. Bc- 
fiJes, he that will attentively conGder what follows, will find reafon from St. Paul's arguing to 
underftand him fb. 

44 "' §«//ct -^vxi^^''* which in our Bibles is tranflated natural Body, (hould, I think, more 
fuitably to the Propriety of the Creek, and more conformably to the Apoitle's meaning, be tranfla- 
ted animal Body : For that which St. Paul is doing here, is to (hew, that as we have animal 
Bodies now (which we derived from Adam) endowed with an animal Life, which, unlefs fup- 
ported with a conftanc Supply of Food and Air, will fail and perifli, and at Iaft, do what we 
can, will dilfolvcand come to an End, fo at the Refurredion we fhall have from Chrift, the Cq- 
cond Adam, fpiritual Bodies, which fhall have an elTential and natural infeparable Life in them, 
which fhall continue and fubfift perpetually of it fclf, without the Help of Meat and Drink, ox 
Air, or any fuch foreign Support, without Decay, or any tendency to a DiflbUition ; of which 
Dur Saviour fpeaking, Luke XX. 35. fays. They <who fball he accounted worthy to obtain that Worlds 
apd the KefurreHion from the Deadj cannH die any more, fer they are equal to theAngeh, i. e. of aa 
anpclical Nature and Conllitution, 

n r;W. Phil. III. 41. 




heavenly, fuch are they 
alfo that are heavenly. 


thofe who are regenerate, and born of the hea- 
venly Seed, are as he that is heavenly, fpiritual. 

Chap XV. 


the image of the earthy, 
wc fball alfo bear the i 
mage of che heavenly. 

And as we have borne and immortal. And as in the animal, corrup- 4^. 
tible mortal State we were born in, we have 
been like him that was earthy; fo alfo fliall we, 
who at the Refurre(5lion partake of a fpiritual 
Life from Chrift, be made like him, the Lord 
from Heaven, heavenly, /. e. live as the Spirits 
in Heaven do, without the need of Food or 
Nourifhment to fupport it, and without Lifir- 
mities, Decay and Death, enjoying a fixed, lia- 
ble, unfleeting Life. This I fay to you, Bre- ^o. 
thren, to fatisfy thofe that a{k with what Bodies 
the Dead (hall come, that we fhall not at the 
Refurredlion have fuch Bodies as we have now: 
For Flefli and Blood cannot enter into the 
Kingdom which the Saints (hall inherit in 
Heaven J nor are fuch fleeting, corruptible 
Things as our prefent Bodies are, fitted to that 
State of immutable Incorruptibility. To which 
let me add, what has not been hitherto difco- 
vered, viz, that we (hall not all die, but we 
fhall all be changed in a Moment, in the 
Twinkling of an Eye, at the Sounding of the 
laft Trumpet; for the Trumpet {hall found, 
and the Dead fhall rife ; and as many of us 
Believers as are then alive, fhall be changed. 
For this corruptible Frame and Conflitution 53. 
of ours mufl put on Incorruption, and from 



5 ? ° T& ?9rff TsK, cerruptihie, and to d-vnroVy mortal, have not here tra^tf, DoJyj for their 
SaKft^ntive, as fome imagine, but are put in the Neuter Gender abfolute, and Hand to^repre- 
fcnt ViK^ot, dead, as appears by the immediately preceding Verfe ; and alfo i/er. 41. ktw )y 
dvdi-et7t< Tuv viK^Zv o-TTHfSTrt/ \v ?>9ofa. ^0 IS tie RefurreHion of the Dead ; tt tt fown in Cor- 
ruption, i.e. mortal, corruptible Men, are fown, being cotruptiblc and weak. Nor can it be 
thought firange or ftrained, that I interpret (p^A^rh and ^v^nhv as Adjeftives of the Neuter 
Gender, to fignify Perfons, wheft ifl this very Difcourfe the Apoftlc ufes two Adjcaives m the 

50 Now this I fay, bre- 
thren, that flefh and blood 
cannot inherit the king- 
dom of God ; neither doth 
corruption inherit incor- 

5 1 Behold, I fhew you a 
myftery ; we fhall not all 
fleep, but we fhall all be 

^i In a moment, in the 
twinkling of an eye, at 
the laft trump (for the 
trumpet fhall found) and 
the dead fhall be raifed 
incorruptible, and we fhall 
be changed. 

, J For this corruptible muft 
put on incorruption, and 





Chap. XV. 

this niortal muft put on itu- 

So when this corrupri- 5 
ble fhall have put on in- 
corruption, and this mor- 
tal fhall have put on im- 
mortality, then fhall be 
brought to pafs the faying 
that is written, Death is 
fwallowed up in victory. 

O death, where is thy < 
fting ? O grave, where is 
thy vi(flory i 

The fiing of death is ^( 
dn ; and the ftrength of 
Cm is the law. 

But thanks be to God, c 
which giveth us the yifto- 
ry, through our Lord Jefus 

54. mortal become Immortal. And when we are 
got iritt) that State of Incorruptibility and Im- 
tnortalityj then {hall be fulfilled what was fore- 
told in thefe Words, Death is fwallowed up of 
'ViBiovy p ; /. e. Death is perfectly fubdued and 
t.Vterminated by a compleat Victory over it, fo 

55. that there fliall be no Death any more. Where, 
O Death, is now that Power whereby thou 
depriveft Men of Life ? What is become of the 
Dominion of the Grave, whereby they were 

56. detained PriforterS there '' ?. That which gives 
Death the Power over Men is Sin ; and 'tis the 

57.. Law by which Sin has this Power. But Thanks 
be to God, wha gives us Deliverance and V^i- 
tlory over Death, the Puni{hment of Sin by 
'the Law, through our Lord Jefus Chrift, who 
lias delivered us from the Rigor of the Law. 

N O t E S. 

Neuter Gender, to (ignify the Perfons of Adam &ad Chriji, in fuch a way, as it is impofTibk tr> 
undcrRand them other wife. The Words, no farther off than -ver. 46. are thefe 2 'AAA.* k wfaf- 
lov 70 'Ufiv [,TtKlv' AKKfl 70 ■4'iv^iKov, WeiTO. TO TrvivfJiciTiKoi'. The like way of fpeaking 
we have Alat.I. 10. indLukel. 35- in both which the Perfon of our Saviour is exprefs'd by 
Adjectives of the Neuter Gender. To any of all which Places I do not think any one will add 
the Subfiantive au/xAt Body, to make out the Senfe. That then which is meant here being thiB, 
that this W(3»"W/ Jtf<iw fhall put on Immortality, and this corruptible M/tn Incorruptibility, anyone 
will eafily find another Nominative Cafe to (rrrtifirctt, is /own, and not ffaiyict, Body, when he 
confiders the Senfe of the Place ; wherein the Apoftle's Purpofe is to fpeak of j'«<, mortal Men, 
beirig dead, and raifed again to Life, and made immortal. Thofc with whom Grammatical 
QjnlTrudion, and the Nominative Cafe weighs fo much, may be plcas'd co read chts Paifage in 

Lhquelant dukes animas, attt Agra tralebant 

Corpora, Aneid. 1. 3. ver. 140. 
where by finding the Nominative Cafe to the two Verbs in it, he may come to difcover that 
Perfonality, as contra-diflinguifhed to both Body and Soul, may be the Nominative Cafe to 

54 P N7*3f, ViHwy, often Signifies End and Deftruflion. See Vojftus de LXX interpret. 
tap. 2.4. 

55 ^ This has fomething the Air of a Song of Triumph, which St. Paul breaks ou: into upon 
a View of the Saiats yit^ry over Death, ia. a. State wherein Dtafh is never to have place any 






58 Therefore, my beloved 
brethren, be ye ftedfaft, 
urtmoveable, always a- 
boundir>;^ in the work of 
the Lord, forafmuch as ye 
know thar you-r labour is 
not ia vain ia chc Lord. 


Wherefore, my beloved Brethren, continue 
ftedfaft and unmovcable in the Chriftlan Faith, 
always abounding in your Obedience to the 
Precepts of Chrift, and in thofe Duties which 
are required of us by our Lord and Saviour ; 
knowing that your Labour will not be loft, 
whatfoever you {hall do or fuffer for him, will 
be abundantly rewarded by eternal Life, 


CHAP. XVJ. I 4. 


HE gives Directions concerning their Contribution to the poor 
Chriftians 2iZ jferu/alem. 


I "VTOW concerning the 
^^ coUediorn for the 
faints, as I have given or- 
der to the churches of Ga- 
latia, even fo do ye. 

% Upon the fird d«y of 
the week, let every one 
of you lay by him in (lore, 
n God hath profpered him, 
that there be no gatherings 
when I come. 


AS to the Collecflion jfor the Converts to 
Chriftianity, who are at Jerufalem^ I 
would have you do as I have directed the 
Churches of Galatia. Let every one of you, 
according as he thrives in his Calling, lay alide 
fome part of his Gain by it felf 3 which the 
.firft Day of the Week let him put into the com- 
mon Treafury '^ of the Church, that there 
may be no need of any Gatherir\g whep I come. 


i I" Qtf^Av^i^m feems ufed here in the Scnfe I have given it. For 'tis certain, that the Apo- 
ftlcdireds that they (hould ^very Lord's Day brJn^ to-the Congregation what thcir-Charity had 
laid afide the foregoing Week, as their Gain came in, that there it might be put iflto fpme p^- 
lick Box appointed for that Purpofc, or Officers Hands. For if lhe,y only laid ic afide ac home, 
there would neverthclefs be ncod of a Colkdion when he came. 



U 2 





3. And when I come, thofe whom you fliall ap- 
prove of", will I fend with Letters to Jerufa- 

4. lem^ to carry thither your Benevolence : Which, 
if it deferves that I alfo fhould go, they fhall 
go along with me. 


And when I come, 
whomfoever you lliall ap- 
prove by your letters, 
them will I fend to bring, 
your liberality unto Jeru- 

And if it be meet tha^ 
I go alfo, they fhall ^o 
with me. ' 

J *" AoH///cfV>}T«, J^i c-rv^oKav TKTBf ■Triy.-l-a, this Pointing that makes /•/ cmToKm belong to 
Tiy.lec), and not to S'zKiudffm'iy the Apoftle's Senfe juftifies : He telling them here, that finding 
their Colkflion ready when he came, he v^ould write by thofe they fhould think fit to fend it by, 
or go himfelf with them, if their Prefent were worthy of it. There needed no Approbation of their 
Mclfengers to him by their Letters, when he v/as prefent : And if the Corinthians by their Letters 
approved of them to the Saints at ^erufalem, how could St. Paul fay he would fend them ? 





CHAP. XVI. 5 la. 


E gives them an Account of his own, TimofhfSy and Apolloi% 
Intention of coming to them. 



I Will come unto you, when I have been in 
Macedonia, for I intend to take that in my 
way: And perhaps I fhall make fome flay, nay 
winter with you, that you may bring me go- 
ing on my way, whitherfoever I go. For I 
do not intend jufl to call in upon you, as I 
pafs by ; but I hope to fpend fome time with 
you, if the Lord permit. But I fhall flay at 
Epbefus till Pentecofl, i. e. Whitjontide. For 
now I have a very fair and promifmg Opportu- 
nity given me of propagating the Gofpel, tho' 



Now I will come ^ 
unto you, when I 
Ihall pafs through Mace- 
donia : (for I do pafs 
' through Macedonia) 

And it may be that I £ 
will abide, yea, and win- 
ter with you, that ye may 
bring me on my journey, 
whitherfoever I go. 

For I will not fee you 7 
now by the way, but I 
truft to tarry a while with 
you, if the Lord permit. 

But I will tarry at £phe- 8 
fas until Pentccoll. 

For a great door and ef p 
fci^ual is opened unco me. 



there be many Oppofers. If Timothy come to 
you, pray take care that he be eafy, and with- 
out Fear amongft you; for he promotes the 
Work of the Lord in preaching the Gofpel, 
even as I do. Let no body therefore defpife 
him, but treat him kindly, and bring him go- 
ing, that he may come unto me ; for I exped: 
him with the Brethren. As to Brother ' Apol- 
losy I have earneftiy endeavour'd to prevail 
with him to come to you with the Brethren " ; 
but he has no mind to it at all at prefent : He 
will come however, when there fhall be a fit- 

and there are many adver- 

JO Now if Timotheus 

come, fee rhac he may be 

with you wirhout fear : 

for he workerh the work 

of the Lord, as I alfb do. 
II Let no man therefore 

defpife him : but conduft 

him forth in peace, that 

he may come unto me : 

for I look for him with 

the brethren, 
li As touching our bro- 
ther ApoUos, I greatly de- 

lired him to come unto 

you with the brethren : 

but his will was not at all 

to come at this time ; but 

he will come when he 

{ball have convenient time. 

iV O T E S. 

II * There be few, perhaps, who need to be told it, yet it may be convenient here, once 
for all. to remark, that in the ApolUe's Time Brother was the ordinary Compellation that Chri- 
stians ufed to one another. 

*■ The Bretlren here raentionedj feem to he~ Stephanas, and thofe others who with him came 
with a Meflage or Letter to St. Paul from the Church of Corinth, by whom he returned this 
Epiftle in anfwer. 





CHAP. XVI. 13 24. 

CO N r E N "T S. 

THE Conclufion, wherein St. Paul, according to his Cuflom, 
leaves feme, which he thinks moil necefTary, Exhorta- 
tions, and fends particular Greetings. 


VV in the faith, quit 
you like men, be ftrong. 
t^ Lee all your things be 
dons with charity. 


BE upon your Guard, ftand firm in the 
Faith, behave your felves like Men, with 
Courage and Refolution. And whatever is 
done amongft you, either in your publick 















AiTemblics, or elfewl^ere, let it all be done with 
AfFedlion and Good-will one to another ^'. 
You know the Houfc of StephanaSy that they 
were the hrft Convens of Achaia^ and have all 
along made it their bufinefs to minifter to the 
Saints : To fuch I befeech you to fubmir your 
fclves i let fuch as with us labour to promote 
theGofpel, be your Leaders. I am glad that 
Stephanas^ Fcrtunatus^ and AchaicuSy came to 
me ; becaufe they have fupplied what was defi- 
cient on your fide. For, by the Account they 
have given me of you, they have quieted my 
Mind, and yours too *" : Therefore have a Re- 
gard to fuch Men as thefe. The Churches of 
.^yia falute you ; and fo do Aquila and Prifcillay 
with much Chriftian Affection j with the 
Church that is in their Houfe. All the Bre- 
thren here falute you : Salute one another with 
an holy Kifs. That which foUoweth, is the 
Salutation of me Paul^ with my own Hand. 
If any one be an Enemy to the Lord Jefus 
Chrift, and his Gofpel, let him be accurfed, 
or devoted to Deftrudion : The Lord cometh 
to execute Vengeance on him ^, The Favour 
of the Lord Jefus Cbrift be with you. My 
Love be with you all, for Chrift Jefui fake. 


I befeech you, brethren, I J 
(yc know ihe hjufc of 
Sctfihanas, that ic is the 
fird-fruits of Achaia, and 
that they have addiftcd 
theinfelves to the rainiHf jr 
of the fainti.) 

That ye fubmit your 16 
felves unto fuch, and to 
tvtry one that hclpeth 
with us ajid laboureth, 

I am g!ad of the comine *7 
of Stephanas, and Fortu- 
nacus, and Achaicus : for 
that which was lacking oa 
your part they have fup- 

For they have refrefhed 18 
my fpirit and yours: thew- 
fore acknowledge ye them 
that are fuch. 

The churches of Afia 19 
falute you. Aquila and 
Prifcifla falute you much 
in the Lord, with the 
church that is in their 

All the brethren greet to 
you. Greet you one ano- 
ther with an holy kifs. 

The falutation cf me H 
Paul with mine own hand. 

If any man love not the Ji 
Lord Jefus Chrift, let him 
lie Anathema, Maranatha. 

The grace of our Lord 1 J 
Jefus Chi iA be with you. 

My love be with you all ^4 
in ChriO Jefus. Amen. 

14 " 
flic had 

His main Defign being to put an end to the Fadion and Divifion which the falfe Apo- 
made amongft them, 'cb no wonder that wc find Unity and Charity fo much, and (b 
often prciicd, in th s and the fecond EpiUlc, 

18^ Viz.. By removing thcfe Sufpicions and Fears that v,cre on both (Ides, 
13 '' This'being fo different a Sentence from any of thofc writ with St. PauVz own Hands, ia 
any of hisoc-her EpUtlcs, may it not witii PiobabiJity dc underflood to mean the falfe ApolUe, to 
whom St. Paul imputes all the Difordtrs in this Chureh, and-©f whom he fpcaks no: much lefs 

fcVcrely, 2. Cor. XI. 1 5- 








Second EPISTLE of St P^t7L 

T O T H E 



SAint Paul having writ his firft Epiftle to the Corinthia?is, to try, 
as h€ ^ys himfelf, Chap. II. 9. what Power he had ftill witiv 
that Church, wherein there was a great Fadion againft him, 
which he was attempting to break, was in pain till he found 
what Succefs it had, Chap. II. 12, 13. and VII. 5. But when he had 
by Titus received an Account of their Repentance, upon his former 
Letter; of their SubmifTion to his Orders, and of their good Difpo- 
iition of Mind towards him ; he takes Courage, fpeaks of himfelf 
more freely, and juftifies himfelf more boidly, as may be i^tWy 
Chap.l, 12. 6? II. 14. e?VI. 10. GfX. 1. ^XIII. 10. x\nd as to his 
Oppofers, he deals more roundly and fharply with them, than h$ 
'had done in his former Epiflle, as appears from Chap. II. 17. & IV. 
z^^. &V. 12. ^VI. ii-,-.^i6. &XL II. ^XII. 15. 

The Obfervation of thefe Particulars, rmay poflibly be of ufe to 
give us fome light, for the better underftanding of this fecond Epi- 
5.1e ; efpecially if we add, that the main Bufinefs of this, as of his 
former Epiftle, is to take off the People from the new Leader they 
had got, who was St. PWs Oppofer 5 and wholly to put an end 
to the Fadtion and Diforder which that falfe Apoftle had caufed 
in the Church ^of Cori?ith, He alfo, in this Epiftle, ftiis them 




Chap. I. up again to a liberal Contribution to the poor Saints at Jeru^ 
'^^''^^ Jalej7i. 

This Epiftle was writ in the fame Year, not long after the 


C H A P. I. I, a. 

PAUL an Apt)ftle of Jefus Chrift, by the 
Will of God, and timothy our Brother % 
to the Church of God which is in Corinth, with 
all the Chriftians that are in all Achaia ^ ; Fa- 
vour and Peace be to you from God our Father, 
and from the Lord Jefus Chrift. 

N O t E S. 

PAUL, an apoftle af 
Jefus Chrift by the 
will of God, and Timothy 
our brother, unto the 
church of God which is 
at Corinth, with ail the 
faints which are in all 
Achaia : 

Grace be to you, and 
peace from God our Fa- 
ther, and from the Lord 
Jefus Chrift. 

I ^ Brother, i. c. either in the common Faith; and fo, as we have already remarked, he fre- 
quently calls all the Converted, as Rom. I, i 3. and in other Places ; or Brother in the Work of 
the Miniftry, vid. Rom. XVI. 11. i Cor. XIII. 10. To which we may add, that St. Paul may 
fce fuppofed to have given Timothy the Title of Brother here for Dignity's fake, to give him a Re- 
putation above his Age amongft the Corhthiavs^ to whom he had before fcnt him, with fome 
kind of Authority to reftify their Diforders. Timothy was but a young Man, when St. Paul writ 
his firft Epiftle to him, as appears, i Tim. IV. ii. Which Bpiftle, by the Confent of all, was 
writ to Timothy after he had been at Corinth ; and in the Opinion of fome very learned Men, 
not lefs than Eight Years after : And therefore his calling him Brother here, and jjining him 
with himfelf in writing this Epiftle, may be to let the Corinthians fee, that though he were fo 
young, who had been fent to them, ycc it was one whom Sc, Paul thought fit to treat very much 
as an Equal, 

^ Achaia, the Country wherein Orhth flood. 



Chap. r. 

SECT. IL '^^■ 

C H A P. I. :^.^ VII. i6. 


THIS firfl Part of this Second Epiftle of St. Paul to the Cor in- 
thianSy is fpent in juftifying himfelf againfl feveral Imputa- 
tions from the oppofite FacSlion, and fetting himfelf right in the 
Opinion of the Corinthia?i5 : The Particulars whereof we iliall take 
notice of in the following Numbers. 


CHAR I. 3 14. 


HE begins with juftifying his former Letter to them, which had 
afflidedthem, vid. Chap.Yll. 7, 8. by telling them, that he 
thanks God for his Deliverance out of his Afflicftions, becaufe it en- 
ables him to comfort them, by the Example both of his Afflid:ion 
and Deliverance i acknowledging the Obligation he had to them and 
others, for their Prayers and Thanks for his Deliverance, which he 
prcfumes they could not but put up for him, fmce his Confcience 
bears him witnefs (which was his Comfort) that in his Carriage to 
all Men, and to them more efpecially, he had been diredl and fin- 
cere, without any felf or carnal Intereft, and that what he writ to 
them had no other Delign but what lay open, and they read in his 
Words ; and did alfo acknowledge, and he doubted not but they 
(hould always acknowledge, part of them acknowledging already, thac 
he was the Man they gloried in, as they ftiall be his Glory in the 
Day of the Lord. From what St. Paul fays in this Sedlion, (which, 
if read with Attention, will appear to be writ with a Turn of great 
Infmuation) it may be gathered, that the oppofite Faction endea- 
voured to evade the Force of the former Epiftle, by fuggefting, 

X thac 



Chap. I. that whatever he might pretend, St. Paul was a cunning, artificial, 
^'^'''^^^^' felf-interefled Man, and had fome hidden Defign in it ; which 
Accufation appears in other Parts aifo of this Epiftle, as Chap. IV. 


^ "PJLefred be the God ' and Father of our 
JLJ Lord Jefus Chrift, the Father of Mer- 

4. cies, and God of all Confolation, who com- 
forteth me in all my Tribulations, that I may 
be able to comfort them ^, who are in any 
Trouble, by the Comfort which I receive from 

5. him : Becaufe, as I have fuffered abundantly 
for Chrift, fo through Chrift I have been a- 
bundantly comforted j and both thefe for your 

6. Advantage. For my Afflidlion is for your 
Confolation and Reliefs j which is efFe<fted by 
a patient enduring thofe Sufferings, whereof 
you fee an Example in me : And again, when 
I am comforted, it is for your Confolation and 
Relief, who may expert the like from the fame 

~ compaffionate God and Father. Upon which 
Ground I have firm Hopes, as concerning you ; 
being aftured, that as you have had your fliare 
of Sufferings, fo ye fhall likewife have of 

o^ Confolation. For I would not have you ig- 
norant, Brethren, of the Load of the Affli- 
ctions in jifia, that were beyond meafure 
heavy upon me, and beyond my Strength ; fo 
that I could fee no way of efcaping with Life. 



BLefled be God, even 
the Father of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift, the Fa- 
ther of mercies, and the 
God of all comfort ; 

Who coaiforteth us in 
all our tribulation, that 
we may be able to com- 
fort them which are in any 
trouble, by the comfort 
wherewith we our felves 
are comforted of God. 

For as the fufferings of 
Chrift abound in us, fo 
our confolation alfo a- 
boundeth by Chrift. 

And whether we be 
afHi(ftcd, it is for your 
confolation and falvation, 
which is effectual in the 
enduring of the fame fuf- 
ferings which we alfo fuf- 
fer: or whether we be 
comforted, it is for your 
confolation and falvation. 

And our hope of you 
IS lledfaft, knowing that 
as you are partakers of the 
fufferings, fo ftiall ye be 
alfo of the confolation. 

For we would not, bre- 
thren, have you ignorant 
of our trouble which came 
to us in Afia, that we 
were preflld out of mea- 


3 *= That this is the right Tranflation of the Greek here, fee Eph. I, 3. and i Pet. T. 3, 
die fame Words are fo tranftated ; and that it agrees with St, Paul's Senfe, fee Eph. I. 17. 

4 '* He means here the Corinthians^ who were troubled for their Mifcarriage towards him ; 
vid.Chap. VII. 7. 

6 * 2<yT»e<flt> Relief, rather than Salvation ; which is underftood of Deliverance from Death 
and Hellj but here ic fignifies only Deliverance from their grefcnc Sorrow. 




Chap. I. 

fure, above flrength, info- 
much that we defpaired 
even of life : 
9 But \vc had the ftn- 
tence of death in ourfelves, 
that we fhould not iruft in 
our fel\ es, but in God 
which raiferh the dead. 

10 Who delivered us from 
fo great a death, and doth 
deliver: in whom we truft 

I that he will yet deliver us: 

11 You alfo helping toge- 
ther by prayer for us, that 
for the gift beftowed upon 
us by the means of many 
perfons, thanks may be gi- 
ven by many on our behalf. 

II For our rejoicing is this, 
the teftimony of our con- 
fcience, that in fimplicity 
and godly fincerity, not 

i with flefhly wifdom, but 
by the grace of God, we 
have had our converfation 
in the world, and more 
abundantly to you-wards. 

i^ For we write none other 
things unto you, than what , 
you read or acknowledge, 
and 1 truft you fhall ac- 
knowledge even to the 

As alfo you have ac- 


knowledged us m part, 
that we are your rejoicing, 
even as ye alfo are ours in 
the day of the Lord Jefus. 

But I had the Sentence of Death in my felf, 
that I might not truft in my felf, but in God, 
who can reftore to Life even thofe who are 
actually dead} who delivered me from fo immi- 
nent a Danger of Death, who doth deliver, 
and in whom I truft he will yet deliver me: 
You alfo joining the Afliftance of your Prayers 
forme; fo that Thanks may be returned by 
many, for the Deliverance procured me by the 
Prayers of many Perfons. For I cannot doubt 
of the Prayers and Concern of you, and many 
others for me, fmce my glorying is this, viz, 
the Teftimony of my own Confcience, that in 
Plainnefs of Heart, and Sincerity before God, 
not in fleftily Wifdom ^, but by the Favour of 
God diredling me ^ 1 have behaved my felf 
towards all Men, but more particularly towards 
you. For I have no Delign, no Meaning in 
what I write to you, but what lies open, and 
is legible in what you read : And you your 
felves cannot but acknowledge it to be fo ; 
and I hope you fhall always acknowledge it to 
the End ; as part of you have already acknow- 
ledg'd that I am your Glory \ as you will be 
mine at the Day of Judgment, when being my 
Scholars and Converts, ye ftiall be faved. 


II *■ what Flejbly Wifdom is, may be feen Chap. IV. 1,5. . . , , 

^ This ctAx' h y Ae(T/ 05b, But in the Tavour of God, is the fame with a\K% X**^ ®** 

« aCv kixol^ The Favour of Cod that w with me, i. e. by God's favourable Afliftance. 

1 4 ^ That I am yuur Glory ; whereby he fignifies that Pare of them which ftuck to him and own A 

him as their Teacher :' In which Senfe Glorying is much ufed, in thefe Epiftles to the Corinthians, 

upon the Occaficn of the feveral Partifans boafting, fome that they were of Pauly and others of 







X 2 




Cliap. r. 

""^ SECT. II. N. 2. 

CHAP. I. 15.— II. 17. 

C O N T E N "T S. 

H E next Thing St. Paul juftifies, is his not coming to them, 
_ St. Paul had promifed to call on the Corinthia?is in his way to 
Macedonia., but failed. This his Oppofers would have to be from 
Levity in him, or a Mind that regulated it felf wholly by carnal 
Intereft ; vid. ver. 17. To which he anfwers, that God himfelf 
having confirmed him amongll: them, by the Undlion and Earneft of 
his Spirit, in the Miniftry of the Gofpel of his Son, whom he Paul 
had preached to them fteadily the fame, without any the leafl Va- 
riation, or unfaying any thing he had at any time delivered, they 
could have no ground to fufped him to be an unftable, uncertain 
Man, that would play fail and loofe with them, and could not be 
depended on in what he faid to them. This is what he fays. 

Chap. I. 15 22. 

In the next Place he, with a very folemn AlTeveration, profeiTes 
that it was to fpare them, that he came not to them. This he ex- 
plains, Chap. I. 23. and II. 1 1. 

He gives Jinother Reafon, Chap. 11. 12, 13. why he went on to 
Macedonia, without coming to Corinth, as he had purpofed ; and 
that was the Uncertainty he was in, by the not coming of T'itus^ 
whaf Temper they were in at Corinth. Having mentioned his Jour- 
ney to Macedonia, he takes notice of the Succefs which God gave to 
him there and every where, declaring of what Confequence his 
Preaching was both to the Salvation and Condemnation of tho(e 
who received or rejedted it; profefiing again his Sincerity and Difin- 
tereftednefs, not without a fevere Reflection on their falfe Apoftle. 

All which we find in the following Verfes, ''oi-z. Chap. II. 14- 17. 

and is all very luitable, and purfuant to his Defign in this Epiflle, 
Which was to eftablidi his Authority and Credit amongft the Corin- 





AN D in this confi- 
dence I was minded 
to come unto you before, 
that you might have a fe- 
cond benefit : 

16 And to pafs by you into 
; Macedonia, and to come 

again out of Macedonia 
unco you, and of you to 
be brought on my way to- 
ward Judea. 

17 When I therefore was 
thus minded, did I ufe 
lightnefs? or the things 
that I purpofe, do 1 pur- 
pofe according to the flwfh, 
that with me there ftioiild 
be yea, yea, and nay, nay ? 

18 But as God is true, our 
• word toward you was not 

yea, and nay. 

19 Por the Son of God, Jc- 
fusChrid, whowss preach- 
ed among you by us, even 
by me, and Silvanus, and 
Timotheuj, %\as not yea 
and nay, but in him was 

10 For all the promifes of 
God in him are yea, and 
in him amen, unto the 
glory of God by us. 

ii ■ Now he which ftablifli- 
eth us with you in Chrilt, 
and hath anointed us, is 

•jj >yho hath alfo fealeJ us. 


HAving this Perfwafion (viz,) of your 
Love and Efteem of me,' I purpofed to 
come unto you e'er this, that you might have 
a fecond Gratification ' ; and to take you in my 
way to Macedonia^ and from thence return to 
you again, and by you be brought on in my 
way to Judca. If this fell not out fo as I pur- 
posed, am I therefore to be condemned of Fic- 
klenefs .? or am I to be thought an uncertain 
Man, that talks forwards and backwards ; one 
that has no regard to his Word, any farther 
than may fuit his carnal Interefl .f* But God is 
my Witnefs, that what you have heard from me 
has not been uncertain, deceitful, or variable. 
For Jefus Chrift, the Son of God, who was 
preached among you by me, Qud Sihanus, and 
Titnotheus, was not, fometimes one thing, and 
fometimes another 5 but has been {hewn to be 
uniformly one and the fame, in the Counfel or 
Revelation of God, (for all the Promifes of God 
do all confent ^nd ftand firm in him) to the 
Glory of God by my Preaching. Now it is 
God who eflablifhes me with you, for the 
preaching of the Gofpel, who has anointed", 
and alfo fealed ^ me, and given me the Ear- 


I 5 ^ By the Word '/jdcii which our Bibks tranflate Ee^ift or Grace, 'tis plain the Apoftle 
means his being prefenc an;ong them a fecond Time, without giving them any Grief or Dilplca- 
fure. He had been with them before almoft two Years together, with Satisfaction and Kindnefs: 
He intended them another Vifit ; but it was, he fays, that they Inight have the like Gratifica- 
tion, i, e. the like Satisfaction in his Coiupany a fecond Time ; which is the fame he iays, 

icor. n. I. ■ 

II ^ Ano-nted, i. e, fet apart to be an ApoUle by an extraordinary Call. Priefts and Prophets 
w^re fet apart by Anointing, as well as Kings. 

za ' Sealed, i. e. by the miraculous Gif s of the Holy Ghoft ; which are ?n Evidence of the 
Tiuihs he brings from God, as a Seal is of a Letter. 




1 3. 








Chap. I. 

1^ '^ 



nell: ^ of his Spirit In my Heart. Moreover, 
I call God to witnefs, and may I die if it is not 
fo, that it was to fpare you, that I came not 
yet to Corinth : Not that I pretend to fuch a 
Dominion over your Faith, as to require you 
to believe what I have taught you without co- 
ming to you, when I am expe(fled there to 
maintain and make it good, for 'tis by that 
Faith you ftand ; but I forbore to come, as one 
concerned to preferve and help forv/ards your 
Joy, which I am tender of, and therefore de- 
clined coming to you, whilil I thought you in 
an Eftate that would require Severity from me, 
that would trouble you ". 

I purpofed in my felf, 'tis true, to come to 
you again ; but I refolved too, it fhould be 


and given the earned of 
the Spirit in our hearts. 

Moreover, I call God 2.5 
for a record upon my foul, 
that to fpare you I came 
not as yet unto Corinth. 

Not for that we have 14 
dominion over your faith, 
but aie helpers of your 
joy : for by faith ye ftand. 

But I determined this I 
with ray felf, that I would 

'" Earmjl of Eternal Life ; for of that the Spirit is mentioned as a Pledge, in more Places than 
one, vid. 2 Cor. V. 5. Eph. I. 13, 14. All thcfe are Arguments to fatisfy the Corinthians that 
St. PauI was nor, nor could be a fhuffling Man, tl^at minded not what he faid, but as it ferved 
his turn. 

The Reafoning of St. P/T«/, vcr. 18 — n. whei^by he would convince the Corinthians that 
he is not a fickle., unfteady Man, that fays and unfays, as may fuit his Humour or Intereft, be- 
ing a little obfcurc, by reafon of the Shortncfs of his Stile here, which has left many Things to 
be fupplied by the Reader, to connect the Parts of the Argumentation, and make the Deduftion 
clear ; I hope 1 (hall be pardon'd, if I endeavour to fct it in its clear Light, for the fake of ordi- 
nary Readers. 

God hach ftt me apart to the Miniftry of the Gofpel by an extraordinary Call, has attefied my 
Million by the miraculous Gifts of the Holy Ghoft, and given me the Earneft of eternal Life ia 
my Heart by his Spirit, and hath confirmed me amonglt you in preaching the Golpel, which is all 
uniform, and of a piece, as I have preach'd it to you, without tripping in the leaft ; and there, 
to the Glory of God, have {hewn that ail the Promifes concur, and are unalterably certain in 
Chrift : I therefore having never falter'd in any thing I have faid to you, and having all thcfe 
Attcllations of being under the fpccial Diredion and Guidance oF God himfelf, who is unaltera- 
bly true, cannot be lufpcded of dealing doubly with you in any thing relating to my Miniftry. 

24 " It is plain St. Paul's DoSrine had been oppofed by (bmc of them at Corinth^ vid, i Cor, 
XV. II. His Apodlcfliipqueliioned, iCor. IX. i,i. z Coc XIII. 5. He himfelf triumphed over, 
as if he durft not come, 1 Cor. IV. 18. they faying his Letters were weighty and powerful, but 
his bodily Prefcnce weak, and his Speech contemptible, i Cor. X. lo. This being the State his 
Reputation was then in at Corinth, and he having ptomifcd to come to them, i Cor XVL $. he 
Qould not but think it necelfary to cxcufc his failing them, by Rcafons that lliould be both con- 
vincing and kind ; fuch as are contained in this Vcrfc, in the Scnfe given of ic. 

1 without 



not come again to you m 
1 For if I make you fbrry, 
who is he then that ma- 
keth me glad, but the fame 
which is made forry by 

3 And I wrote this fame 
unto you, left when I 
came, I fhould have for- 
row from them of whom 
I ought to rejoice, having 
confidence in you all, ihac 
my joy is the joy of you 

4 For out of much affli- 
dion and anguifh of hearr, 
I wrote unto* you with 
many tears ; not that you 
fhould be grieved, but 
that ye might know the 
love which I have more 
abundantly unto you, 

y But if any have caufed 
grief, he hath not grieved 
me, but in part : that t 
may not overcharge you 

without bringing Sorrow with me " : For if I 
grieve you, who is there, when I am with you, 
to comfort me, but thofe very Perfons whom 
I have difcompofed with Grief? And this very 
Thing p, which made you fad, I writ to you, 
not coming my felf, on purpofe, that when I 
came, I might not have Sorrow from thofe 
from whom I ought to receive Comfort ; ha- 
ving this Belief and Confidence in you all, that 
you, all of you, make my Joy and Satisfad:ioii 
fo much your own, that you would remove all 
caufe of Difturbance before I came. For I writ 
unto you with great Sadnefs of Heart, and many 
Tears j not with intention to grieve you, but 
that you might know the Overflow of Tender- 
nefs and Affedtion which I have for you. But 
if the Fornicator has been the Caufe of Grief, 
I do not fay he has been fo to me, but in fome 
degree to you all,, that I may not lay load on.him '' ; 


I * That this is the Meaning of this Verfe, and not that he would not come to them in 
Sonow a fecond Time, is paft doubt, (ince he had never been with them in Sorrow a firft 
Time ; vid. z Cor. I. 15. 

3 P Keti iy^a.4^ vfAiv r^To ctvrl. And I writ to you this very thing. That \y^.\A^ l writ, 
relates here to the firft Epiftle to the Corinthians^ is evident, becaufe it is fo ufed in the very 
next Verfe ;. and again, a little lower, ver. 9. What therefore is it, in his firft Epiftle, which 
he here calls tbto ai/to, this -very Thing-y which he had writ to them ? I anfwer, the Punifli- 
ment of the Fornicator. This is plain by what follows here, to ver, 1 1. efpccially if it be com- 
pared with I Cor. IV. zr. and V, 8. For there he writes ro them to punifh that Pcrfon ; whom 
if he, St. Paul, had come himfelf before it was done, he muft have come, as he calls it, wick 
a Rod, and have himfelf chaftifed : But now that he knows that the Corinthians had punifti'd 
him in compliance to his Letter, and he had had this Trial of their Obedience, he is fo far from 
continuing the Severity, that he writes to them to forgive him, and take him again into their 

5 ^ Sx.Paul being fatisfied with the Corinthians for their ready Compliance with his Orders, 
in his former Letter, to punifh the Fornicator, intercedes to have him reftored ; and to that end 
lelfcns his Fault, and declares, however he might have caufed Grief to the Carinthiani, yet he 
had caufed none to him. 




Chap. ir. 








the Corre6Vion he hath received from the Ma- 
jority of you, is fufficient in the Cafe: 'So that, 
on the contrary ■", it is fit rather that you for- 
give and comfort him, left he ^ fhould be iVv al- 
lowed up by an Excefs of Sorrow. Where- 
fore, I befeech you, to confirm your Love to 
him ; which I doubt not of. For this alfo was 
one End of my writing to you, 'viz. to have 
a Trial of you, and to know whether you are 
ready to obey me in all Things. To whom you 
forgive any thing, I alfo forgive. For if I have 
forgiven any thing, I have forgiven it to him 
for your fakes, by the Authority and in the 
Name of Chrift; that we may not be over- 
reached by Satan, for we are not ignorant of 
his Wiles. Furthermore, being arrived at 
^roas, becaufe "Titus, whom I expected from 
Corinth with News of you, was not come, I 
was very uneafy ' there ; in fo much, that I 
made not ufe of the Opportunity which was 
put into my Hands, by the Lord, of preaching 
the Gofpel of Chrift, for which I came thither. 
I haftily left thofe of Troas^ and departed thence 
to Macedonia. But Thanks be to God, in that he 


Sufficient to fuch a man ^ 
IS this punifhment which 
was iiiflided of many. 

So that contrariwife ye 7 
ought rather to forgive 
him, and comfort him, left 
perhaps fuch a one iliould 
be fwallowed up with 
overmuch fbrrow. 

Wherefore, I befeech 8 
you, that yc would con- 
firm your love towards him. 

For to this end alfo did 9 
I write, that I might know 
the proof of you, whether 
ye be obedient in all things. 

To forgive any 10 
thing, I forgive alfo : for 
if I forgave any thing, to 
whom I forgave it, for 
your fakes forgave I it, in. 
the perfon of Chrift : 

Left Satan fhould get an if 
advantage of us: for we are 
not ignorant of his devices. 

Fiirchermorc, when I r j 
came to Troas to preach 
Chrifl's gofpel, and a door 
was opened unto me of the 

I had no reft in my fpi- j » 
rit, becaufe I found not 
Titus my brother : but ta- 
king my leave of them, 1 
went from thence into Ma- 

Now thanks be unto 14 

7 '' TavavTiov, On tie contrary^ here, has nothing to refer to but hmCA^Z-, Over-charge, ia 
the 5th Verfe ; which makes that to belong to the Fornicator, as 1 have esplain'd it. 

*" 'o roiijoi, fuch an one., meaning the Fornicator. Ic is obfcrvable how tenderly St, Paul 
deals with tht Corinthians in this Epiitle; for though he treats of the Fornicator from the 5th to the 
10th Vcrfcinclufively, yet he never mentions him under that or any other difobliging Title, but in 
the foft and inoffcnfive Terms of any one ^ or fuch an one. And that poflibly may be the Kcafba 
•why he fays y.? zTn^a^Wy indefinitely, without naming the Perfon ic relates to. 

II * How uneafy he was, and upon what Account, fee Chap.VW. <, 16. It was not 

barely for Titus'^ Abfcnce, but for wane of the News he brought with him. Chap. VH. 7. 




God, which always cati- 
fcch us to triumph in 
Chrift, and maketh mani- 
fcft the favour cf his kr.ovv- 
Icdge by uy in every place. 

15 For we arc unto God a 
fweet favour cf ChriO, in 
them that are faved, and 
in cheni that pcrilh. 

16 To the one we are the 
favourof death unto death ; 
and to the other the favour 
of life unto life: and who 
is fuiScient for thcfe things ? 

j^ For we are not as many, 
which corrupt the word of 
God: but as of fincericy, 
but as of God, in the fii^ht 
of God fpeak we in Chrift. 


always makes me triumph every where ''j thro' 
Chrift, who gives me Succefs in preaching the 
Gofpel, and fpreads the Knowledge of Chrift 
by me. For my Miniftry and Labour in the 
Gofpel, is a Service or fweet-fmelling Sacrifice 
to God, through Chrift, both in regard of 
thofe that are faved, and thofe that perifh : 
To the one my Preaching is of ill Savour, un- 
acceptable and offenfive, by their rejecting 
whereof they draw Death on themfelves j and 
to the other, being as a fweet Savour, accepta- 
ble, they thereby receive eternal Life : And 
who is fufficient for thefe Things "^ ? and yet, 
as I faid, my Service in the Gofpel is well- 
pleafing to God. For I am not as feveral "" are, 
who are Huckfters of the Word of God, preach- 
ing it for Gain ; but I preach the Gofpel of 
Jefus Chrift in Sincerity : I fpeak as from God 
himfelf, and I deliver it as in the Prefence of 


Chap. ir. 


14 "^ Who makes me triumph every ivhere, i. e. in the Succefs of my Preaching in my Journey- 
to Macedonia, and alfo in my Viftory at the fame time at Corinth over the falfe Apoflles, my Op- 
pofers, that had raifed a Faction againft me amongft you. This, I think, is Sc Paul's Meaning, 
and the Reafon of his ufing the Word Triumph^ which implies Conteft and ViCtovy, though he 
places that Word fo, as modeftly to cover it. 

16 ^^ rid. Chap. m. 5,6. 

17 ^ This, I chink, may be underfiood of the falfe Apoftle. 





Chap irr. 


SECT. 11. N. 3. 

CHAP. Ill I. VII. 16. 


HI S fpeaking well of himfelf, (as he did fometlmes in his tirll 
Epiftie, andvvith much more Freedom in this, which, as it 
feems, had been objed;ed to him amongft the Corinthians) his Plain- 
nefs of Speech, and his Sincerity in preaching the Gofpel, are the 
Things which he chiefly juftifies in tliis Sedtion many ways. We 
fhall obferve his Arguments, as they come in the Order of St. FauV^ 
Difcourfe ; in which are mingled, with great Infmuation, many 
ExprefTions of an overflowing Kindnefs to the Corinthians^ not with- 
out fome Exhortations to them. 



Do I begin again to commend my felf ^ ; 
or need I, as fome ''', commendatory Let- 
ters to, or from you ? You are my commen- 
datory Epiflle, written in my Heart, known 
and read by all Men. I need no other com- 
mendatory Letter, but you, being manifelled 
to be the commendatory Epiftle of Chrift, 
written on my behalf; not with Ink, but with 
the Spirit of the living God j not on Tables of 
Stone % but of the Heart, whereof I was the 




Do we begin again to 
copmend oar felvcs ? 
or need we, as fome o- 
thers, epiftles of commen- 
dation to you, or letters of 
commendation from you \ 

Ye are our epiftle writ- 
ten in our hearts, known 
and read of all men: 

Forafn)uch as yc are 
nianifcftly declared to be 
the epililc of Chrill, mini- 
ftred by us, written not 
with ink, but wich the 

T 5^ This is a plain Indication that he hai been blamed amonofl them for conmendinc him- 
felf. _ • ^ 

* Seems to intimate, that their falfe ApoAle had got himfelf recommended to them by Letters, 
and fo had introduced himH-lf into that Church. 

3 ^ The Senfc of S:. faul in this 3d Verfc, is plainly this. That he needed no Letters of Co.»- 
mendation to them, but that by their Converfion, and the Gnfpcl written not with Ink, but 
with the Spirit of God, in the Tables of their Hearts, and not in Tables of Stone, by his Minidry, 
was as clear an Evidence and Tcftimony to them of his Miirion from Chrift, as the Law writ in 
Tabks of Srone was an Evidence of Mofes's MilTion ; fo that he, St. P.t«/, needed no other Rc- 
cojwcctwiatwn ; This is what is to be underftood by. this Vcrfc, unlets wc will make the Tables 




Chap. rrr. 


Spirit of the living Go.i ; Amanuenfi?, /. e, your Converfion was th^ Effeft 

not in tables of Itoiic, biic r T\;f •ii. , hAju*r r> n j 

in ficm'y tables of the of Qw Minin:ry. " And this fo great Conhd^iice 4. 
heart. have I, thro' Chrift in God. Not as if I were 5. 

4 And fuch truft have we fufficient of mv lelf to reckon ' upon any thinsr, 

through Chnit to Govl- ^ r i r i on-- ai m- 

^vard? as or my lelr; but my buthciency, my Ability 

•y Not that wc are fuffici- to perform anv thing, is wholly from God: 
cnc of our fei.cs to think ^^^ ^^^ fitted'and enabled me to be a Miniller 6. 

any thing as or our Iclves : r i xt i-ri n 

but our fufflcicncy is of 01 the JNcw Teltamenti not or the Letter "^j but 
Go«^- ,^ , , of the Spirit j for the Letter kills % but the 

C Who alio hath made us 
able minifiers of the new 
tcftamenr, not of the let- 
ter, but of the Spirit : for 


of Stor.e to have no Signification here. But, to fay as he does, that the Corinthians bein^ writ 
upon in thcrr Hearts, net with Inic, but wiih the Spirit of God, by the Hand of St. Patd^ was 
Chrifi's ccmmendatory Letter of hini, being a pretty bold Eypreilion, liable to the Exception of 
the captious Part of the Corinthians ; he, to obviate all Imputation of Vanity or Vara-glory herein, 
immediately fubjoins what follows in the next V'crfe. 

4 '' As if he had faid, But mifiake me nor, as if I4»oaftecl of my felf ; this fj great Boafling 
that I ufe, is only my Confidence in God, through Chrift : For it was God that made me a Mi- 
jiifter of the Gofpel, that beficwed on me the Ability for it ; and whatever I perform in it, is 
wholly from him. 

5 "^ n5Toi-3-ji3-/f, Trujlj a milder Term for Bcafiing ; for fo Sc. Paul ufes ir. Chap. X. 7. com- 
pared with ver. S. where alfb Ao^/(^4cS6», ^-er, 7. is ufed, as here, for counting upon one's fclf. 
St. Paul alfo ufes 'nk-roi^ctf, for thou boafiefi, Rom. II. 19. which will appear, if compared with 
wr. 17. Or if Koy'iatt^cti fhall rather be thought to fignify here, to difcover by Reafbning, then 
the Apofile's Senfe will run thus: " Not as if I were fiifRcient of my felf, by the Strength of my 
** own natural Parts, to attain the Knowledge of the Gofpel-Trutbs that I preach ; but my 
'* Ability herein is all from God," But in whatever Senfe Koyicet<^Ai is here taken, 'tis certain 
T/, which is tranflated ar^y things muft be lioiitted to the Subjeft in hand, tiiz. the Gofpel that 
he preached to them. 

6 ^ 'Ovy^]Q-y a\kx Tvivfji.ciT©-, Sot of the Let ter, hut of the Spirit. By exprefling 
himfelf, as he dots here, St. Paul may be undcrilood to intimate that the Keiv tejlament^ or 
Covenant, was alfo, tho' obfcurely, held forth in the Law : For he fays he was conftituted a Mi- 
nifter, 'rv-v'udt.7(Qr, of the Spirit, or fpiritual Meaning of the Law, which was Chrfft, (as he tells 
us himfeif, ver. 17.) and giveth Life, whilft the Letter killeth. But both Letter and Spirit muft 
be underflood of the fame Thing, viz. The Letter of the Law, and the Spirit of the Law. 
And, in faft, we find St. Paul truly a Minifier of the Spirit of the Law ; efpecially in his Epiflle 
to the Hebreus, where he (hews what a fpiritual Senfe ran through the Mofaical Inflitution and 

The Letter kills, i. e. pronouncing Death, without any way of RemifTion, on all Tranl^ 
gr«flbrs, leaves them under an irrevocable Sentence of Death; but the Spirit, i.e. Chrift, 
i/er. 17. who is a quickning Spirit, i Cffr.XV.45. giveth Life, 

Y 2 Spirit 



Chap, III. 





Spirit gives Life. But if the Miniliry of the 
Law written in Stone, which condemns to 
Death, were fo glorious to Mojes, that his Face 
fhone fo that the Children of IJrael could not 
fleadily behold the Brightnefs of it, which was 
but temporary, and was quickly to vanilh ^ ; 
how can it be otherwife, but that the Mini- 
ftry of the Spirit, which giveth Life, (hould 
confer more Glory and Lultre on the Minivers 
of the Gofpel ? For if the Miniflration of 
Condemnation were Glory, the Miniftry of 
Juftihcation ^ in the Gofpel doth certainly 
much more exceed in Glory : Though even 
the Glory that Mofeis Minifhration had, was 
no Glory, in comparifon of the far more ex- 
celling Glory of the Gofpel-Miniflry ^ Far- 
ther, if that which is temporary, and to be 
done away, were delivered with Glory, how 


the lerter killeth, but the 
Spirit givech life. 

But if the miniftration 7 
of death written and en- 
graven in (bnes, was glo- 
rious, fo chat the children 
oflfraci could not ttedfaft- 
ly behold the face of Mofes, 
tor the g'ory of his coun- 
tenance j which giory was 
to be done aw^ay ; 

How fhall not the mi- 8 
niltration of the Spirit be 
rather glorious ? 

For if the rainifiration 9 
of condemnation be glory, 
much more doch the mini- 
ftration of righteoufnefs 
exceed in glory. 

For even that which 10 
was made glorious, had 
no glory in this refped, 
by reafon of the glory that 

For if that which is il 
done away was glorious. 

7 ^ Ki(!iyAvi\i>i done aivay^ is applied here to the Shining of Mofes^s Face, and to the Law, 
■ver. II, aAd 13. In all which I'iaces it is ufcd in the Picfent Tcnfe, end has the Signification of 
an Adjective, ftanding for temporary, or of a Duration, whofe End was ccrcrmined, and is 
oppofcd to 7u fjciiovTi, that which remaineth, i e. that which is latUng, and hath no predeter- 
mined End fct to it, as -ver. \i. where the Gofpel difpenfacion is called to «efoc, that which 
remainetb. This may help us to underftand "im J'i^^M eii d'oca.v., tier. 18. from Glory to Glory ^ 
which is manifcltly oppofed to S'o^i) KO.Ta.f'], the Glory dore aivay^ of this Vtrfe, and fo 
plainly fignifies a continued, lafting Glory of the Minifters of the Gofpel ; which, as he tells us 
there, confifted in their being changed into the Image and clear Reprcfentation of the Lord him- 
felf, as the Glory oi Mcfes conlilted in the tranfitory Brightnefs of his Face, which was a faint 
Reflcdion of the Glory of God appearing to him in the Mount. 

9 ^ A/ctK.oj'ifit THf J^incttoavvtH, the Min'firaticn of Righteoufnefs ; fo the Miniftry of the Gofpel 
is called, becaufe by the Gofpel a Way is provided for the Jultification of thofe who have tranf- 
orelTed : But the Law has nothing but rigid Condemnation for all TranfgrtflorSj and therefore 
is called here tie Miniftration of Condemnation. 

10 ^ Though the (hewing that the Miniftry of the Gofpel is more glorious than that of the 
Law, be what St. Paul is upon here, thereby to jufiify himfelf, if he has affumed fome Autho- 
rity and Commendation to himfelf, in his Miniftry and Apoftlcfhip ; yet in his thus induftrioufiy 
placing the Miniftry of the Gofpel in Honour above that of Mo/es, may he not polfibly have an 
Eye to the Judaizing, falfe Apoftle of the Corinthians, to let them fee what little Regard was to 
be had to that Miniltration, in comparifon of the Miniftry of the Gofpel \ 




Chap. Iir. 



(J siuch more that which re- much rather IS that which remains, without be- 
,. '"'s:dt" ?ht°"hac we i"g done away, to appear in Glory ' ? Where- 12. 

have fuch hope, we ufe fore having fuch Hope ^y we ufe great Free- 
great pUinnefs of fpeech. dom and Plainnefs of Speech. And not asM?/^j, 13. 

I? And not as Moles, , ir m i • -n* i -i i 

which put a vail over his ^^o put a Vail over his Face, do we vail the 

face, that the children of Light, fo that the Obfcurity of what we deliver, 

I ifrael could not fiedfafliy ([^q^jI^ hinder ' the Children of Ifrael from 


II ' Here St. Paul mentions another Pre-eminency and Superiority of Glory in the Gofpel over 
the Law, 'viz. That the Law was to ceafc and to be abolifh'd, but the Gofpel to remain and 
never be abolifh'd. 

la ^ Such Hope : That St. Paid by thcfe Words means the fo honourable Employment of an 
Apoflle and Minilier of the Gofpel, or the Glory belonging to his MiniRry in the Gofpel, is evi- 
dent by the whole foregoing Comparifon which he has made, which is all along between 
x^ictnovidLy tke Minijiry of the Law and of the Gofpel, and not between the Law and the Gofpel 
themfelves. The calling of it Hope, inflead of Glory here, where he fpeaks of his having of it, 
is the Language of Modtlly, which more particularly fuiccd his prefent Purpofe : For the Con- 
clu(Ton, which in this Vcifc he draws from what went before, plainly fliews the Apoftlc's Dc- 
(ign, in this Difcourfe, to be the jutlifying his fpeaking freely of himfelf and others, his Argu- 
jaent amounting to thus niuch: 

Having therefore fb honourable an Employment, as is the Miniftry of the Gofpel, which far 
exceeds the Minillry of the Law in Glory, tho' even that gave fo great a Luflre to Mofes's Face, 
that the Children of 7/»''^e/. could not with fixed Eyes look upon him ; I, as becomes one of fuch 
Hopes, in fuch a Poft as fets mc aoove all mean Coanderations and Compliances, ufe great Free- 
dom and Plainnefs of Speech in all Things that concern my Miniftry. 

I 3 ^ n^J< t5 jUj) cfiiv'nTAi, &c. That the Childrefi of Ifrael could vot Jleilfajlly kok, Stc. 
Sf.Paul is here juftifying in himfelf, and other Minillcrs of the Gofpel, the Plainnefs and Open- 
nefs of their Preachi(2g, which he had alTerted in the immediately preceding V'crfe. Thcfe Words 
therefore here, muft of nccefUty be underftood not of Mofes, but of the Miniftcrs of the Gofpel, 
1./X. That it was not the Obfcurity of their Preaching, not any thing vailed, in their way of pro- 
pofing the Gofpel, which was the Caufe why the Children o( Ifrael did not underfl-and the Law 
to the bottom, and fee Chrift, the End of it, in the Writings of Mo/^/, Whzi St. Paul fays iii 
the next Verfe, But their Minds were blinded.^ for until this Day remaitieth the fame Vail untaken 
aivay^ plain !)■ determines the Words we are upon, to the Senfe I have taken thc-m in ? For 
■what Senfe is thii \ Mofes put a Vail over his Face, fo that- the Children of Ifrael could net fee the 
End of the Law ; but their Minds were blinded, for the Vail remains upon them until this Day. 
But this is very good Senfe, and to St. Paufs Purpofe, viz. *' Wc, the MinifUrs of the Gofp.], 
*'" fpeak plainly and openly, and put no Vail upon our felves, zs Mofes i\'^, whereby to hinder 
" the ^ews from feeing Chrift in the Law ; but that which hinders them, is a Blindncfs on their 
** Minds, which has been always en them, and remains to this Day." This fcems to be an 
obviating an Objection which fome among the Corinthians might make to his boafiing of fo much 
Plainnefs and Clearnefs in his Preaching, viz. If you preach the Gofpel, and Chrift contained 
in the Law, with fuch a fhining Clearnefs and Evidence, how comes it that the yews are noc 
converted to it ? His Reply v, " Their Unbelief comes no; from any Obfcurity in our Preaching, 
" but from a B'dndnefs which refts upon their Minds to this Day ', which fhall be taken away, 
." when they turn to the Lord, 

- feeing 

1 66 


Chap. III. 


leeing in" the La\Y, which was to be done a- 
way, Chrill-, who was the End '" of the Law : 
J4. But their not ieeing ir, is from the Blmdnefs of 
their own Minds j for unto this Day the fame 
Vail remains upon their Underftandings, in 
reading of the Old Tellament, which Vail is 
done away in Chrifr, /. e. Chrift, now he is 
come, fo exaftly anUvers all the Types, Prefi- 
gurations, and Predidions of him in the Old 
Tell:amcnt, that prefently, upon turning our 
Byes upon him, he vifibly appears to be the 
Perfon defigned, and all the Obfcurity of thofe 
Paflages concerning him, which before were 
not underftood, is taken away, and ceafes. 

15. Neverthelefs, even until now, when the Wri- 
tings o{ Mofcs are read, the Vail " remains upon 
their Hearts ; they fee not the fpiritual and 

16. evangelical Truths contained in them. But 
when their Heart iliall turn to the Lord, and 
laying by Prejudice and Averfion, dial I be wil- 
ling to receive the Truth, the Vail (hall be 
taken away, and they fliall plainly fee him 
to be the Perfon fpoken of and intended °. 

17. But the Lord is th^ Spirit ^ whereof we are 
Miniiiers ; and they who have this Spirit, 
have liberty % fo that they fpeak openly and 

18. freely: But we, all the faithful Minifters of 

N O 1: E S. 


loo'-; to th3 tn'\ of :ha: 
which is abounded. 

Bjt ;hLir minds were 
biijiJed : for iiiuil this da/ 
remaincth the fame vail 
untaken away, in the 
reading of the Old Tt^i- 
merit; which vail ii dene 
away in Chiilt. 

But even u:noc^^sQay, 15 
when Mofes is read, rhe 
vail is Upon their heart. 

Neverthelefs, when it ^6 
fhal] turn to the Lord, the 
vail fhall be taken awav. 

Now the Lord is that 17 
Spirit: and where the Spi- 
rit of the Lord is, there 
is liberty. 

But we all with open i3 
face, beholding as in a 

"> Vld. Rom. X. 1 4. 

15 "St. Paul pofllbly alludes here to the Cufto.ii of the '/e<ws^ which continues ftill in the Sy- 
nagogue, that when the Law is read, they put a Vail over their Faces. 

16 ° When this fliall be, fee Rom. XI. 15 17. 

17 '' O /fe Kv^iQ- To 'TTVUjfjt.A ^, but the Lord ts that Spirit : Thefc Words relate to ver. 6. 
vt-here he fays, that he is a Minifler, not of the Letter of the Law, no: of the outfide and literal 
Senfc, but of the myfticai and fpiritual Meaning of it ; which here he tells us is ChriQ. 

'^ There is Liberty ; becaufe the Spirit is given only to Sons, or thofc that are free. Sec 
Kom, VIII. 15. Gal. IV, 6,7. 



Chap, Iir. 


glafs the glory of the the New Teftament, not vailed "■, but with 
Lord are changed into Couiitenances, as Mirrors refledtins; the 

the fame image, tjom r r 1 t j 1 1 • 1 • 

glory to glory, even as by Lrlory oi the L<ora, are Changed into his very 
theSpiiit of cheLord. Image, by a continued Succeflion of Glory, as it 

were iireaming upon us fron:i the Lord, who is the 
Spirit who gives us this Clearnefs and Freedom. 

N Ot E S. 

18 '^ St. Paul juHifics his Freedom and Plainnefsof Speech, by his being made by God himfelf 
a Minifter of the Gofpel, which is a more glorious Miniftry than that of A:o/ef, in promulgating 
the Law. This he does, fromwr. 6. to ver.iz, inclufively. From thence, to the End of the 
Chapter, he juAifies his Liberty of fpeaking; in that he, as a Miniikr of the Gofptl^ being illu- 
niinaced with greater and brighter Rays of Light than Mo/es, was to fpeak (as he did) with 
niore Freedom ajid Clearnefs than Mo/es had done. This being the Scope of St. Paul in this 
Place, 'tis viliblc, that all from thefe Words, Who put a Fail ttpon his Face, ver. 1 5. to the be* 
ginning of "uer. x8. is a Parenthefis ; which being laid afide, the Comparifon between the Mini- 
iters of the Gofpel and Meffs, ftands clear : " Mo/es with a Vail covered the Brightnefs and Glory 
" of God, which fhone in his Countenance ; but we, the Minillers of the Gofpel, with open 
* Countenances, ;titT07rrf/^6//U'o/, reflecting as Mirrors the Glory of the Lord." So the Word 
KctTOTTf i^ofxivoi mud hgniiy hcrc-f &nd r\oi beholding as in a Mirror ; becaufe the Comparifon is 
between the Minitlcrsof the Gofpel and M^fes, and not between the Minillers of the Gofpel and 
the Children of Jfrael: Now the Adion oi beholding was the Action of the Children of Ifraely buc 
oi pining or refeBing the Clory received in the Mi»tnt,, was the Adion of Mo/es ; and therefore ic 
niuil be fomething anfwering that in the MiniHers of the Gofpel wherein the Comparifon is made, 
as is farther manifeft in another exprcfs Part of the Comparifon between the vailed Face o£ Mo/es j 
ver. I 5. and the open Face of the Minifters of the Golpd in this Verfe, The Face oi Mo/es was 
vailed, that the bright Shining, or Glory of God remaining on ic, or reflected from it, mighc 
not be feen , and the Faces of the Miniliers of the Gofpel are open, that the bright Shining of 
the Gofpel, or the Glory of Chrifl, may be fcen. Thus the Juftnefs of the Comparifon flands 
fair, and has an eafy Scnfe; which is hard to be made out, if Kctro7n^i^'ou,iiot be tranflated 
beholdirg as in a Clajs. 

Thv avriiv eiKot'o. jt/.5Tci//oj2'tf/v.«-^A, fVe are changed info that very Image^ i. e. the Refltdion 
of the Glory of Chrift from us is fb very bright and clear, that v/e are changed into his very 
Image ; whereas the Light that ilionc in Mt)/es\ Countenance, was buc a faint Refieiftion of the 
Glory which he faw when God Oiew'd him his Back-Par:s, Exod XXXIII. 13. 

Ato Jo^Hf cT? S'o^a.i-i from Clcry to Glory, u e. with a continued Influx and renewing of 

Clory, in oppolttitiR to the fhining of Mi>/es'i Face, which dccay'd and difappeat'd in a little 

while, ver. 7. 

Kct->:tT«f ^ Kv§lis -r iiU'jiT©-, as from the Lord the Spirit, i e. as if tiiis Irradiation 0/ Light 

and Glory came immsijiately from thcSoirrce of it, the Lord himfclf, who is that Spirit whereof 

we arc the Miniflers, ver.fy, which givcih Life and Libcity, ver. 17. 

This Liberty he here f^^caks .of, ver. ij. is -Trapsnffla., Liberty of Speech, mentiJ'ned ^'5r. 11. 

the Subjeft of St. I'4«/V Dr.courfe here ; as is farther manifed from what immediately follows ia 

tlic fix firft Verfei of the next Chapter, whereiff an atccniivc Readti may find a very ckar 

Con.mcnt on this i5ch \'trre we ajie upon, which is there txphin'd in the Scnfe we have given 

cf it. 

2 Seeing 



Chap- IV. 


1. Seeing therefore I am intrufted with fuch 
a Miniftry as this, according as I have received 
great Mercy, being extraordinarily and mira- 
culoufly called when I was a Perfecutor, I do 
not fail ^ nor flag ; I do not behave my felf 
unworthily in it, nor. mifbecoming the Ho- 
nour and Dignity of fuch an Employment : 

2. But, having renounced all unworthy and in- 
dired: Defigns, which will not bear the Light, 
free from Craft, and from playing any de- 
ceitful Tricks in my preaching the Word of 
God, I recommend my felf to every one's Con- 
fcience, only by making plain ' the Truth 
which I deliver, as in the Prefence of God. 

3. But if the Gofpel which I preach, be obfcure 
and hidden, it is fo only to thofe who are loft: 

4- In whom being Unbelievers, the God of this 
World " has blinded their Minds ^, fo that 
the glorious '^ Brightnefs of the Light of 
the Gofpel of Chrift, who is the Image of 

N O "t E S, 

I ^ 'OvH. €>£.)t£t>t~/t>t«i', we faint not, is the fame with toK^ Trappt^ffia, y^^u^jii^Aj we ufe grent 
Vlainnejs of Speech, ver. 11. of the foregoing Chapter, and fignifies in both Places the clear, plain, 
direft, didntercfted Preaching of the Gofpel ; which is what he means in that figurative way of 
Speaking in the former Chapter, efpecially the laft Verfe of it, and which he more plainly ex 
prclTes in the five or fix firlt Verfes of this: The whole Bufincfs of the firft Part of this Epiftle 
being, as we have already obferved, to jufiify to the Corinthians his Behaviour in his Miniftry, 
and to convince them, that in his preaching the Gofpel he hath been plain, clear, open and candid, 
without any hidden Defign, or the lead Mixture of any concealed, fecular Intereft. 

z ^ ^ATetTAixid-at, ru. KovTTTci rni df^Cvm, have renounced the hidden Things oj Diponefyy 
and TH (pAVi^d(^ii tTh oiKij^eicti, by Manifejiation of the Truth : Thefe Expreflions explain dva.- 
KlKO.KKviJ.iJ.'ivu ■u^^^accTru, ivith open Faccy Chap III. 13. 

4 V The God of this World, i.e. the Devil; fo called, becaufe the Men of the World worfhip- 
ped and obcy'd him a s their God. 

•^ 'ETj?A«y<7£ Tct uoniJ.stTa, blinded their Minds, anfwers lyru^ud-n Tet vonuttTAi their Minds 
ivere blinded, Chap. III. 1 4. And the fecond and third Verfe of this, explains the i jth and 14th 
Verfes of the preced ing Chapter. 

* As^ct, Glory, here, as in the former Chapter, is put for Shining and Brightnefs , fo that 
euAfyi^ioifTtii J^'o^m Ta' Xf/r8, is the Brightnefs or Clearncfs of the Dodrine wherein Chrift is 
manirefted in the Gofpel, 



Therefore feeing we ' t 
have this miniliry, as we 
have received mercy, we 
faint not : 

But have renounced the i 
hidden things of dillio- 
nefty, not walking in 
crafcinefs, nor handling 
the word of God deceit- 
fully, but by manifeftation 
of the truth, commending 
our felves to every mans 
confcience in the light of 

But if our gofpel be hid, J 
it is hid to them that are 
lofl : 

In whom the god of this ^ 
world hath blinded the 
minds of them which be- 
lieve nor, left the light 
of the glorious gofpel of 
ChriU^, who is the image 
of God, fhould fhine unto 



God, cannot enlighten them. For I feek not 
my own Glory or fecular Advantage in preach- 
ing, but only the propagating of the Gofpel 
of the Lord Jefus Chrift; profeffing my itlf 
your Servant for Jefus fake. For God, who 
made Light to fhine out of Darknefs, hath en- 
lightned alfo my dark Heart, who before faw 
not the End of the Law, that I might Qommu- 
nicate the Knowledge and Light of the Glory 
of God, which fhines in the Face ^ of Jefus 
Chrift. But yet we, to whom this Treafure of 
Knowledge, the Gofpel of Jefus Chrift, is com- 
mitted to be propagated in the World, are but 
frail Men ; that fo the exceeding great Power 
that accompanies it, may appear to be from God, 
and not from us. I am prefTed on every lide, 
but do not ftirink ; I am perplexed, but yet 
not fo as to defpond ; Perfecuted, but yet not 
left to fmk under it ; thrown down, but not 
llain : Carrying about every where in my Body 
the Mortification, /. e. a Reprefentation of the 
Sufferings of the Lord Jefus ; that alfo the Life 
of Jefus, rifen frofh the Dead, may be made ma- 
nifeft by the Energy that accompanies my preach- 


6 y This is a Continuation ftill of the Allegory of Mofts^ and the Ihining of his Face, &c, 
Co much infixed on in the foregoing Chapter. 

For the Explication whereof, give me leave to adJ here one Word more to what I have fail 
upon it already. MofeSy by approaching to God in the Mount, had a Communication of Glcrf 
or Light from him, which irradiated from his Face when he defcended from the Mount : Mo/es 
put a Vail over his Face, to hide this LJglt or Glory ; for both thefe Names St. Paul ufes in thii, 
and the foregoing Chapter, for the fame Thing. But the Glory or Light of the Knowledge of 
God, more fully and clearly communicated by Jefus Chrift, is facd here to fiine in his Face: And 
in that Refpeft it is that Chrift, in the foregoing Verfe, is called by St. Paul the Imags of Godi 
and the Apoftlcs are fai'd, in the laft Verfe of the precedent Chapter, to be transformed into the 
fame Image y from Glory to Glory, i. e. by their large and clear Communications of the Knowledge 
of God in the Gofpel, they are faid to be transformed into the fame Image, and to reprefent as 
Mirrors the Glory of the Lord ; and to be as it were the Images of Chrift, as Qhrift is (as wc arc 
told here, wr. 4.) the Image of God, ' " -- 

Z ing 

5 For we preach not our 
felves, but Chrift Jefus 
the Lord ; and our feives 
your fervants for Jefus 

6 For God who command- 
ed the light to fhine out 
of darknefs, hath fhined 
in our hearts, to give the 
light of the knowledge of 
the glory of God, in the 
face of Jefus Chrift. 

7 But we have this trea- 
fure in earthen veiTels, that 
the excellency of the power 
may be of God, and not 

of UJ. 

8 We are troubled on eve- 
ry lide, yet not diftrefTed ; 
we are perplexed, but not 
in defpair; 

p Perfecuted, but not for- 
fakcn ; caft down, but not 
10 Always bearing about 
in the body, the dying of 
the Lord Jefus, that the 
life alfo of Jefus might be 
made manifeft in our body. 






Chap. IV. 

1 1. ing in this frail Body. For as long as I live, 
I {hall be expofed to the Danger of Death for 
the fake of Jefus, that the Life of Jefus rifen 
from the Dead, may be made manifefl by my 
Preaching and Sufferings in this mortal Flerfi 

12. of mine. So that the preaching of the Gofpel 
procures Sufferings and Danger of Death to me, 
out to you it procures Life, /. e. the Energy of 
the Spirit of Chrifl, whereby he lives in, and 

13. gives Life to thofe who believe in him. Ne- 
verthelefs, though Suffering and Death accom- 
pany the preaching the Gofpel, yet having the 
fame Spirit of Faith that David had, when he 
faid, I believe, therefore have I fpokenj I alfo 

14- believing, therefore fpeak: Knowing that he 
who raifed up the Lord Jefus, fhall raife me up 
alfo by Jefus, and prefent me with you to God. 

i^» For I do and fuffer all Things for your fakes, 
that the exuberant Favour of God may abound, 
by the Thankfgiving of a greater Number, to 
the Glory of God, /. e. I endeavour by my Suf- 
ferings and Preaching to make as many Con- 
verts as I can 5 that fo the more partaking of 
the Mercy and Favour of God, of which there 
is a plentiful and inexhauftible Store, the more 
may give Thanks unto him i it being more 
for the Glory of God, that a greater Num- 

16. ber fhould give Thanks, and pray to him. For 
which Reafon I faint not % I flag not ; but tho' 
my bodily Strength decay, yet the Vigour of my 


For we which live, are i 
alway delivered unto death 
for Jefus fake, that the 
life alfo of Jefus might be 
made manifeft in our mor- 
tal ftelli. 

So then death worketh in i 
us, but life in you. 

We having the fame I 
fpirit of faith, according 
as it is written, I belie- 
ved, and therefore have 
I fpoken : we alfo believe, 
and therefore fpeak ; 

Knowing that he which l^ 
raifed up the Lord Jefus, 
ftiall raife up us alfo by 
Jefus, and fliall prefent us 
with you. 

For all things are for r^ 
your fakes, that the abun- " 
dant grace might, throuoh 
the thankfgiving of many, . 
redound to the glory of 

For which caufe we faint i ( 
not; but tho' our outward 
man perifti, yet the inward 
man is renewed day by day* 

j6 * 1 faint tiet. What this fignifies, we have fcen, ver. i. Here St. Paul gives another 
Proof of his Sincerity in his Miniftry, and that is the Sufferings and Danger of Death, which he 
daily incurs by his Preaching the Gofpel : And the Reafon why thoU- Suffciings and Dangers 
deter him nor, nor make him at all flag, he tells them, is the All'urance he has that God, thro' 
Chrift, will raife him again, and rewar4 him with Immortality in Glgry. This Argument h« 
piirfuesj Ci^/, IV. 7.- & V. 9. " " rh : .r;r-.-'— — o 

i,ni ~ V Mind 




Chap. V. 

-17 For our light affliftion, 
which is buc for a mo- 
ment, workcch for us a 
far more excceJino and 
eternal weight of glory ; 

18 While we look not at 
the things which are feen, 
but at the things which 
are not feen : for the things 
which arc feen, are tem- 
poral ; but the things 
which are not feen, are 

I For we know, that if 

Mind Is dally renewed : For the more my Suf- 
ferings are here in propagating the Gofpel, 
which at word are but tranlient and light, the 
more will they procure me an exceedingly far 
greater Addition of that Glory ^ in Heaven, 
which is folid and eternal ; I having no regard 
to the vifible Things of this World, but to the 
invifible Things of the other; for the Things 
that are feen, are temporal, but thofe that are 
not feen, are eternal. 

For I know, that if this my Body, which is 
our earthly houfe of this j^u^ as a Tent for mv foiournin^ here upon 

tabernacle were dmolved, -i- 1 r ru • j-/r i j t /i 11 

we have a building of God, Earth foF a fhort time, were diffolved, I fhall 
an houfe not made with have another of a divinc Original ; which (hall 
hands, eternal in the hea- j^^^^ j-j^^ Buildings made with Mens Hands, be 

fubjc<5l to decay, but fhall be eternal in the 
Heavens. For in this Tabernacle '' I groan 
earneflly, defiring, without putting off this 
mortal, earthly Body, by Death, to have that 
celeftial Body fuperinduced ; if fo be, the co- 
ming ^ of Chrift fhall overtake me in this Life, 
before I put off this Body, For we that are 
in the Body, groan under the Preffures and 
Inconveniencies that attend us in itj which yet 
we are not therefore willing to put off, but 
had rather, without dying, have it changed "* 
into a celeftial, immortal Bodyj that fo this 
mortal State may be put an End to, by an im- 

17 * Weight of Glory. What an Influence ^^.VauTi Hebrev^ had upon his Greeli, is every 
^here vifible : *^3!3 in Hebre^v fignifies to be heavy^ and tv be glorious ; Sr. Paul in the Greek joins 
them, and fays, Weight of Glory. 
I *" Vid. Ver 4. 

3 ' That the Apoftle look'd on the Coming of Chrift as not far off, appears by what he fays, 
1 TheJf.lV. 15. & V. 6. which Epifile was written' fome Years before this. See alfb to the fame 
Purpofe, I Cor. I. 7. &VII. 29, ^i. & X. 11. Rom. XIII. 11, 12. Heb.X. 37. 

4 '^ The fame that he had told thera in the firft Epiftle, Chap. XV. 5 i. fhould happen to 
thofe who ftiould be alive at Chrift's coming. This, I muft own, is no very eafy PalTage : 
Whether we underftand by yviivoit naked, as I do here, the State of the Dead, unclothed 

Z I with 


J For in this we groan 
earneftly, defiring to be 
cloathcd upon with our 
houfe which is from hea- 
'vcn : 

5 If fo be, that being 
cloathed, we (hall not be 
found naked. 

4 For we that are in this 
tabernacle do groan, being 
burdened : not for that we 
would be uncloathed, but 
doathed upon, that mor- 
tality might be fwallowed 
up of life. 







Chap. V. 

Now he that hath T' 
wrought us for the felf- 
fame thing, is God, who 
alfo hach given unto us 
the earneft of the Spirit. 

Therefore we are al- 6* 
ways confident, knowing 
that whilft we are at home 
in the body, we are abfent 
from the Lord : 

(For we walk by faith>, f 
not by fight) 

We are confident, I fay,. Z 
and willing rather to be 
abfent from th. body, and 
to be prefent with - the - 

Wherefor* we labour,.; 9 
that whether prefent or 
abfent, we may be accept- - 
ed of him. 

5. mediate Entrance into an Immortal Life. Now 
it is God who prepares and fits us for this im- 
mortal State ; who alfo gives us the Spirit, as 

6. a Pledge " of "it. Wherefore, being always un- 
daunted *", and knowing that whilft I dwell 
or fojourn in this Body, I am abfent from my 

7. proper Home, which is with the Lord (for I 
regulate my Condud:, not by the Enjoyment 
of the vifible Things of this World, but by my 
Hope and Expedation of the invifible Things 

8. of the World to come) I, with Boldnefs \ 
preach the Gofpel ; preferring in my Choice 
the quitting this Habitation, to get home to 

9. the Lord. Wherefore, I make this my only 
Aim, whether flaying « here in this Body, or 
departing « out of it, fo to acquit my felf, as 

JSI r E S, 

•with immortal Bodies, till the Refurreftion ; which Senfe is favour'd by the fame Word, .1 Cor. 
XV. 37. or whether we underftand the cloathing upotJy which the Apoftle defires, (o be thofe im- 
mortal Bodies which Souls (hall be cloathed with at the Refurredion ; which Senfe of cloathing, 
uptn, fcems to be favour'd by I Cor. XV. 53, 54. and is that which one fhould be inclined to, 
were it not accompanied with this Ditficuhy, i/iz. that then it would follow that the Wicked 
ihould not have immortal Bodies at the Rcfurreftion : For whatever it be, that St, Paul here, 
means by being cloathed upon^ it is foniething that is peculiar to the Saints, wh« ha^ the Spirit 
of God, and fhall be with the Lord in contra-diftindion to others, as appears from the following 
iVerfes, and the whole Tenor of this Place. 

5 * The Spirit is mentioned, in more Places than one, as the Pledge and Earneft of Immoc-. 
tality i more particulaiJy, Epb.l. 13, 14. which, compared with Rom.VlU. 13. fhews that the 
Inheritance, whereof the Spirit is the Earneft, is the fame which- the Apoftle Ipeaks of here, viz. 
the Pofleflion of immortal Bodies. 

6j S ^ QctppbyTii and ■d-a.ppSfxiVy ive are confident^ fignifies in thefe two Verfes the fame that 
jTx. iKKAKAfJ-iVy ive faint noty does, Chap. IV. I, & 16. 1. e. I go on undauntedly, without flag- 
ging, preaching the Golpel with Sincerity, and dire(^ Plainncfs of Speech. This Conclufion 
which he draws here from the Confideration of the Rejfurreftion and Immortality, is the fame, 
that he makes upon the fame ground, Chap. IV. 14, i6. 

9 8 E/T£ £f/*H//«(/T«f, iiniKS'n^.^vriiy 'whether Jiaying in the Body., or going out of it^ i. c. 
whether I am to ftay longer here, or fuddenly to depart. This Senle the foregoing Verfc leads 
us toi and what he fays in this Verfe, that he endeavours (whether ep/n^Kj-, or £*cr«/<c«t') /<k 
le <well-pUafing to the Lord, i.e. do what is him, fhews, that neither of thefe 
Words can fignify here his being with Chrift in Heaven : Por wiien he^ is there, the time of 
endearouring tq approve hir»fdf is over. 






For we muft all appear 
before the j.idgment-feac 
of Chriit, that every one 
inay rcreivc the things 
don<; in his body, accord- 
ing to that he hath done, 
■vvhi^'her it be good or bad, 

Knowino therefore the 
terror of the Lord, we 
p^rfwade men ; buc we 
are made manifcft unco 
God, and I truQ alfo are 
made manifcfl in your con- 

For we commend not 
our fclves a£;ain unto you, 
but give you occalion to 
glory on our behalf, that 
you may have fome- 
whac to anfwer chem 

to be acceptable to him ^ For we. muft all 
appear before the Judgment-Seat of Chrift, 
that every one may receive according to what 
he has done in the Body, whether it be good 
or bad. Knowing therefore this terrible Judg- 
ment of the Lord, I preach the Gofpel, per- 
fwading Men to be ChriiUans : And with what 
Integrity I difcharge that Duty, is manifeft 
to God ; and I truft you alfo are convinced of 
it in your Confciences. And this I fay, not 
that I commend ' my felf again, but that I 
may give you an occafion not to be alhamed 
of me, but to glory on my behalf; having 
wherewithal to reply to thofe who make a 
ihew of glorying in outward Appearance,- 

N O T E s: 

*• St. Pattlf from chap. IV. jz. to this Place, has, to convince them of his Uprightnefs in his 
Miniftry, been fhewing that the Hopes and fure Expedation he had of eternal Life, kept him 
fteady and refolute, in an open, fincere Preaching of the Gofpel, without any Tricks, or de- 
ceitful Artifice. In which his Argument ftands thus : "^ Knowing that God, who raifed up 
" Chrift, will raife me up again, 1, without any Fear or Confideration of what it may draw 
*' upon me, prwch the Gotpel faithfully, making this Account, that the momentaneous AfHi- 
" ftions which for it 1 may fuffer here, which are but flight, in comparifon of the eternal Things 
** of another Life, will exceedingly increafe my Happinels in the other World, where T long to 
" be i and therefore Death, which brings me home to Chriit, is no Terror to me ; all my Care 
*' is, that whether I am to ftay longer in this Body, or quickly to leave it, living or dying, I 
** may approve my felf to Chrift in my Miniftry." In the next two Verfcs he has another Argu- 
ment, to fix in the Corinthiavs the fame Thoughts of him; and that is the Punifhment he (hall 
receive at the Day of Judgment, if he fhouid negleft to preach the G<3fpel faithfully, and not en- 
deavour fincerely and earneftly to make Converts to Chrift. 

I i ' From this Place, and feveral others in this Epiftle, it cannot be doubted but that his 
fpeaking well of himfclf, had been objeded to him, as a Fault. And in this lay his great Diffi- 
culty, how to deal with this People : If he anfwer'd nothing to what was talk'd of him,' his 
Silence might be interpreted Guilt and Confulion ; if he defended himfeif, he was accufed of 
Vanity, Self-commendation, and Folly. Hence it is chat he ufes fo many Reafons to fhew, that ' 
his whole Carriage was upon Principles far above all worldly Confiderations ; and tells them 
here, once for all, that the Account he gives of himfeif is only to furnilh them who are his 
Friends, aad.ftuck to hmi, with-matter <© juftify ihcmfelves in their Meem of him, and to reply- 
to the contrary Fadion. 






Chap, v. 



Without doing fo inwardly in their Hearts ^. 

1-3 For if ' I am belides my felf "', in fpeaking 
as I do of my felf, it is between God and me, 
he muft judge, Men are not concerned in it, 
nor hurt by itj or if I do it foberly, and upon 
good ground ^ if what I profels of my felf 
be in reality true, it is for your fake and ad- 
vantage. Por 'tis the Love of Chrift con- 
ftraineth me ; judging, as I do, that if Chrifl. 
died for all, then all were dead ; and that if 
he died for all, his Intention was, that they 
who by him have attain'd to a State of Life, 
fhould not any longer live to themfelves alone, 
feeking only their own private Advantage, but 
fhould employ their Lives in promoting the 
Gofpel and Kingdom of Chrift, who for them 

1 6. died, and rofe again. So that from henceforth 
I have no regard to any one, according to the 
Flefh ", /". e, for being circumcifed, or a Jew, 



which glory in appearance, 
ami not in hearc. 

For whether we be be- ' 3 
flies our felves, ic is to 
God : or whether we be 
fober, ic is for your caufe. 

For the love of ChiilU4 
conflraineth us, becaufe 
we thus judge, that if one 
died for all, then were all 
dead : 

And chat he died for all, 15 
that they wluch live,{hould 
not henceforth live unto 
themfelves, but unto him 
which died for them, and 
rofe again. 

Wherefore henceforth 16 
know we no man after the 
flefli : yea, though we have 
known ChiiA after the 
fiefli, yet now henceforck 


^ This may be underftcod of the Leaders of the oppofite Fafiion, who, as 'cis inanifeft from 
Chnp.\. 7, 15. & XI. li, ii, 1 J. pretended to fomething that they gloried in, though St. Paul 
aflures us they were fatisfied in Confcience that they had no folid Ground of glorying. 

I 3 ' St. Paulf from the ijch Verfe of this Cha.pter, to Chap. VI. 12. gives another Reafon for 
his difinterefted Carriage in Preaching the Gofpel ; and that is his Love to Chrilt, who, by hi» 
Death, having given him Life, who was dead, he concludes, that in Gratitude he ought not to 
live to himfelf any more. He therefore being as in a new Creation, had now no longer any 
Regard to the Things or Perfons of this World ; but being made by God a Minifter of the 
Golpel, he minded only the faithful Difcharge of his Duty in that Arabaffy, and, purfuant there- 
unto, took care that his Behaviour fliould be fuch as he defcribes, Chap. VI. 3 'to. 
."" Befides my felf, i.e. in fpeaking well of my felf in my own Juftificacion. He that ob- 

ferves what St. Paul fayj. Chap. XI.' i. & 16 ii. C}:>ap. Xil. 6, Sc 1 1, will fcarce doubt but 

that the fpeaking of himftlf, as he did, was by his Enemies called Glorying, and imputed to hioa 
as Folly and Madnels. 

16 " This may be fuppofed to be faid with RefleAion on their yewifb falfe Apoftle, who glo- 
ried in his Circunicilioo, and perhaps that he had feen Chrift in the Ficlb, or was fome way re^ 
Jated to iiim. 




Chap. V. 

know we him no more. 

7 Therefore if any man 
be in Chiift, he is a new 
creature : old things are 
pa{t away, behold, all 
things are become new. 

8 And all things are of 
Godj who hath reconciled 
us to himfelf by Jefus 
Chrift, and hath given to 
us the miniftry of recon- 
ciliation ; 

9 To wir, that God was 
in Chrift, reconciling the 
world unto himfelf, not 
imputing their trefpafles 
unto them ; and hath 
committed unto us the 
word of reconciliation. 

Now then we are am- 
bafladors for Chrift, as 
though Gjd did befeech 
you by us : we pray you 
in Chrift's ftead, be ye re- 
conciled to Go:i. 

1 For he hath made 'him 
10 be fin for us, who knew 
no fin ; that we might be 
made the righteoufnefs of 
God in him. 

For If I my felf have gloried in this, that Chrift 
himfelf was circumcifed, as I am, and was of 
my Blood and Nation, I do fo now no more 
any longer. So that if any one be in Chrift, it 17: 
is as if he were in a new Creation °, wherein 
all former mundane Relations, Considerations 
and Interefts p, are ceafed, and at an end ; all 
Things in that State are new to him, and he 18. 
owes his very Being in it, and the Advantages 
he therein enjoys, not in the leaft meafure to 
his Birth, Extraction, or any legal Obfervances 
or Privileges, but wholly and folely to God 
alone J reconciling the World to himfelf by 19. 
Jefus Chrift, and not imputing their Tref- 
pafles to them. And therefore I, whom God 
hath reconciled to himfelf, and to whom he 
hath given the Miniftry, and committed the 
Word of this Reconciliation, as an Ambaflador 20; 
for Chrift, as tho' God did by me befeech you, 
I pray you, in Chrift's ftead, be ye reconciled 
to God. For God hath made him fubjedt to 21. 
SuiFerings and Death, the Puniftiment and 

N O t E S. 

17 ° Gal.yi. 14. may give (bme light to this Place. To make this i<5th and 17th Verfes co- 
herent to the reft of St. Paul's Difcourfe here, they muft be underltood in reference to the falfe 
Apoftle, againft whom St. Paul is here juftifying himfelf ; and makes it his main Bufinefs in this, 
as well as his former Epiftle, to ftiew what that falfe Apoftle gloried in, was no juft Caufe of 
boafting. Purfuant to this Defign of finking the Authority and Credit of that falfe Apoftle, 
St. Paul, in thefc and the following Verfes, dexreroully infinuates thefe two Thing? : ij}, That 
the Miniftry of Reconciliation being committed to him, they fhould not forfake him, to hearken 
to, and follow that Pretender. 2^/y, That they being in Chrift, and the new Creation, fhould, 
as he doej, not know any Man in the Flefti ; not eftecm or glory in that falfe Apoftle, becaufe he 
might perhaps pretend to have feen our Saviour in the Flelli, or have heard him, or the like. 
Krltr/f, (ignifies Creation; and is Co tranilaced, ilow, VIII. zz. 

P Tst d^-)^xia, old Things J perhaps may here mean the ^<wifi Oeconomy ; for the falfe Apoftle 
wasa^'^ty, and as fuch alFumed to himfelf fome Authority, probably by Right of Blood and 
Privilege of his Nation, t/Zrf. 1 Cbr. XI. ai, ir. But that St. P<7«/ here tcUs them, now undci- 
the Gofpel, is all antiquated, and quite out of doors. 





Chap. VI. 








Confequence of Sin, as if he had been a Sinner, 
tho' he were guihy of no Sin; that we, in and 
by him, might be made righteous by a Righ- 
teoufnefs imputed to us by God. 

I therefore working together with him, be- 
feech you alfo, that you receive not the Fa- 
vour of God, in the Gofpel preached to you, 
in vain \ (For he faith, I have heard thee in 
a Time accepted, and in the Day of Salvation 
have I fuccour'd thee : Behold, now is the ac- 
cepted Time ; behold, now is the Day of Sal- 
vation) Giving no Offence to any one in any 
thing, that the Miniftry be not blamed : But in 
every thing approving my felf as becomes the 
Minifter of God, by much Patience in Afflidi- 
ons, in Neceffities, in Streights, in Stripes, in 
Imprifonments, in being toffed up and down, in 
Labours, in Watchings, in Faftings j by a Life 
undciilcd, by Knowledge, by Long-fufferings, 
by the Gifts of the Holy Ghoft, by Love un- 
feigned ; by preaching the Gofpel of Truth 
fmcerely, by the Power of God aflifting my Mi- 
niftry, by Uprightnefs of Mmd, wherewith! am 
armed at all Points, both to do and to fuffer ; 
by Honour and Difgrace, by good and bad Re- 
port, as a Deceiver % and yet faithful ; as an 
obfcure, unknown Man, but yet known and 
owned ; as one often in danger of Death, and 
yet, behold, I live ; as chaftened, but yet not 
killed J as forrowful, but yet always rejoicing j 

' N O f E S. 


We then at workers to- l 
gether wich him, befcech 
you alfb, that ye receive 
not the grace of God in 

(For he faith, I have ■ 
heard thee in a time ac- 
cepted, and in the day of 
falvation have I fuccourej 
thee : behold, now is the 
accepted time : behold, 
now is the day of falva- 

Giving no offence in 
any thing, that the mi- 
nitlry be not blamed : 

But in all things appro- 
ving our fclves as the mi- 
nifters of God, in much 
pati. nee, in afflidions, in 
neccflicies, in diftrefles. 

In ftripes, in imprifon- 
ments, in tumults, in la- 
bours, in watchings, ia 

By purenefs, by know- 
ledge, by long-fuffering, 
by kindncfs, by the Holy 
Ghoft, by love unfeigned. 

By the word of truth, 
by the power of God, by 
the armour of righteouP- 
nefs, on the right hand 
and on the left ; 

By honour and difho- 
nour, by evil report and 
gooJ report ; as deceivers, 
and yet true ; 

As unknown, and yet 

well known ; as dying, 

and behold, we live ; as 

chaftened, and not killed ; 

As forrowful, yet al- 

1 "^ Receive the Grace of God in vnin^ is the fame wi;h believing in vain^ I Cor. XV. i. i. e. 
receiving the Doif^rine of the Gofpel for true, and proftiTing Chriftianity, without perfiriino in it, 
•r performrng what the Gofpel requires. 

8 ■■ Deceiver ; a TitJe, 'cis like, he had received from fome of the oppoGtc Faflion at Corinth^ 
\U.Cbap. XII. 1 6. 




way rejoicing ; as poor, 

yet making many rich ; as 

having nothing, and yec 

p&fTeiling all things. 
I O ye Coiinthians, our 

mouth is open unto you, 

our heart is enlarged. 
!i Ye are not ftraitned in 

tis, but ye are ftraitned in 

your own bowels, 
[ J Now for a recompenfe 

in the fame, (\ fpeak as 

unto my children) be ye 

alfo enlarged. 

14 Be ye not unequally yo- 
ked together with unbe- 
lievers : for what fellow- 
(hip hath righteoufnefs 
with un righteoufnefs ? 
and what communion 
hath light with darki\efs ? 

1 5 And what concord hath 
Chrift with Belial ? or 
what part hath he that 
believeth with an infidel ? 

16 And what agreement 
hath the temple of God 
with idols ? for ye are the 
temple of the living God ; 
as God hath faid, I will 
dwell in them, and walk 
in them ; and I will be 
their God, and they (hall 
be my people. 

17 Wherefore come out 
from among them, and 
be ye feparate, faith the 
Lord, and touch not the 
unclean tiling ; and I will 
receive you. 

18 And will be a father 
unto you, and ye {hall be 
my fons and daughters, 
iaich the Lord almighty. 


II. '"Another Argument St. Paul makes ufe of to Juftify and excufe hisPlainnefs of Speccfe 
to the Corinthiansy is, the great AffgAion he has for them, which he here breaks •ut into an 
Kxprefllon of, in a very pathetical manner. This with an Exhortation to feparatc fVooi Ido- 
laters and Unbelievers, is what he inlifts on, from this Place to Cb, VII. i6. 

14 ' rid. Ch. VII. I. 

1 5 '' Belial u a general Name for all the falfe Gods worlhipped by the idolatrous Centttes. ^ 

A a Having 


as poor, yet making many rich ; as having no- 
thing, and yet pofTeffing all things. 

O ye Corinthians, my Mouth is opened to 
you, my Heart is enlarged ^ to you, my Af- 
fedtion, my Tendernefs, my Compliance for 
you, is not ftreight or narrow. 'Tis your own 
Narrownefs makes you uneafy. Let me fpeak 
to you, as a Father to his Children; in return, 
do you likewife enlarge your Affections and 
Deference to me. Be ye not affociated with 
Unbelievers, have nothing to do with them in 
their Vices or Worfhip * ; for what Fellow- 
fhip hath Righteoufnefs with Unrighteoufnefs ? 
What Communion hath Light with Darknefs ? 
What Concord hath Chrift with Belial V? 
Or what part hath a Believer with an Unbelie- 
ver ? What Agreement hath the Temple of 
God with Idols ? For ye are the Temple of 
the living God, as God hath faid, I will dwell 
in them, among them will I walk, and I will 
be their God, and they (hall be my People: 
Wherefore come out from among them, and 
be feparate, faith the Lord, and touch not the 
unclean thing j and I will receive you to me. 
And I will be a Father to you, and ye (hall be my 
Sons and Daughters, faith the Lord Almighty. 


Chap. Vr. 









Chap. VII. 

1, Having therefore thefe Promifes, (dearly Be- 
loved) let us cleanfe our fe Ives from the De- 
filement of. all forts of Sins, whether of Body 
or Mind, endeavouring after perfedl Holinefs 

2. in the fear of God. Receive me, as one to be 
hearken'd to, as one to be follow'd, as one that 
hath done nothing to forfeit your Efleem. I 
have wrong'd no Man : I have corrupted no 

3. Man : I have defrauded no Man *" : I fay not 
this to refle(ft on your Carriage towards me : 
* For I have already aflured you, that I have 
fo great an Affection for you, that I could live 

4, and die with you. But in the Tranfport of my 
Joy, I ufe great Liberty of Speech towards you. 
But let it not be thought to be of ill Will, for I 
boall much of you ; I am filled with Comfort, 
and my Joy abounds exceedingly in all my Af- 

^, flidtions. For when I came to Macedonia, I 
had no Refpite from continual Trouble that be- 
fet me on every fide. From without I met 
with Strife and Oppofition in Preaching the 
Gofpel : and within I was filled with Fear up- 
on your Account, left the falfe Apoftle con- 
tinuing his Credit and Fad:ion amongft you, 
ihould pervert you from the Simplicity of the 

6. Gofpel ^. But God, who comforteth thofe 
who are caft down, comforted me by the co- 
ming of Titus, not barely by his Prefence, but 
by the Comfort I received from you by him,. 

- when he acquainted me with your great Defire 
of conforming your felves to my Orders j your 
Trouble for any Negle(5ts you have been guilty 


2 ^ This feems to insinuate the contrary Behaviour of their falfe Apoftle. 

3 "" Vid. I Cor. IV. }. z Cor. X. i. & XI. 10, zi. & XUI. 3. 

>_,ymch.xl. 3. 

Having therefore thefe' 1 
promifes (dearly beloved) 
let us cleanfe our felves 
from all filchinefs of the- 
fleili and fpirit, perfeftr 
ing holiaefs in the fear of- 

Receive us : we have ' 
wronged no man, we have 
corrupted no man, we 
have defrauded no man. 

I {peak not this to con^-J 
demn you : for I have 
faid before, that you are 
in our hearts to die and 
live with you. 

Great is-my,boldnefsof4 
fpeech toward you, great 
ii my glorying of you . I 
am filled with comfort, I , 
am^ exceeding joyful in all 
our tribulation. 

For when we were $ 
come into Macedonia, our 
flelh had no reft, but we 
were troubled on every 
fide ; without were fight-? 
ings, within were fears. 

Neverchi Lfi, God that 6 
comforteth thofe that are 
caft down, comforted us 
by the coming. of Titus : 

And not by his coming 7 
only, but by the conlbla- 
tion wherewith he was 
comforted in you, whea 
he told us your earneft de- 
fire, your mourning, your 
ferveac mind toward me ; 





of towards me; the great Warmth of your Af- 
fedion and Concern for me ; fo that I rejoy- 
ced the more for my paft Fears, having writ 
to you a Letter, which I repented of, but now 
do not repent of, perceiving that though that 
Letter grieved you, it made you fad but for a 
fhort time : But now I rejoice not that you 
were made forry, but that you were made 
forry to Repentance. For this proved a bene- 
ficial Sorrow, acceptable to God, that in nothing 
you might have caufe to complain that you 
were damaged by me. For godly Sorrow 
worketh Repentance to Salvation not to be re- 
pented of: But Sorrow rifing from worldly In- 
tereft, worketh Death. In the prefent cafe 
mark it, » that godly Sorrow which you 
had, what Carefulnefs it wrought in you, to 
conform yourfelves to my Orders, ver, 15. yea 
what clearing your felves from your former 
Miscarriages ; yea, what Indignation againft 
thofe who led you into them ; yea, what Fear 
to offend me ' j yea, what vehement Delire 
of fatisfying me j yea, what Zeal for me j yea, 
what Revenge againft your felves for having 
been fo mifled. You have (hewn your felves 
to be fet right *, and be as you fhould be in 



II" St. Paul writinjg to thofe who knew the Temper they were in, and what were the Ob- 
ie«s of the feveral Paffions which were raifed in them, doth both here, and in the yth Verfc 
forbear to mention by, and to what they were moved, out of Modefty and Refpeft to them. 
This isnecelkry for the Information of ordinary Readers, to be fupplied as can be beft collefted 
Irom the mam Defign of the Apoftle in thefe two Epiftles, and from feveral Paffases giving 
MS light m It. 6 D 6 

^ vid. Ver. 15. * Clear. This Word anfwers very well ctyvi( in the Creek ; but then to 
k !u V" ^"^r-^i '' generally underftood to fignify not to have been guilty ; which could not 
be the Senfe of the Apoftle, he having charged the Corimhians fo warmly in his firft Epiftle. 
«is meanmg muit therefore be, that they had now refolved on a contrary Courfe, and were 
» lar dear, i. e. were fet right, and in good Difpofition again, as be defcribea it in the 

A a » former 


fo that I rejoyced the 

g For though I made you 
forry with a letter, I do 
not repent, though I did 
repent : for I perceive 
that the fame epiftle 
made you forry, though 
it were but for a feafon. 

9 Now I rejoyce, not that 
ye were made forry, but 
that ye forrowed to re- 
pentance : for ye were 
made forry after a godly 
manner, that ye might 
receive damage by us in 

10 For godly forrow work- 
eth repentance to falvati- 
pn not to be repented of : 
but the forrow of the 
world worketh death, 

1 1 For behold, this felf 
fame thing that ye for- 
rowed after a godly 
ibrt, .what carefulnefs ic 
.wrought in you, yea, 
what clearing of your 
felves, yea, what indigna- 
tion, yea, what fear, yea, 
what vehement dedre, 
yea, what zeal, yea, what 
revenge : in all things ye 
have approved your felves 
CO be clear in this matter. 







Chap, VII. 


12. every thing by this Carriage of yours -j*. If 
therefore I v^^rote unto you concerning the For- 
nicator, it was not for his fake that had done, 
nor his that had fufFered the wrong, but princi- 
pally that my Care and Concern for you might 
be made known to you, as in the Prefence of 

13. God 5 therefore I was comforted in your Com- 
fort : but much more exceedingly rejoiced I in 
the Joy of l^itus, becaufe his Mind was fet at 
cafe by the good Difpofition he found you all 

14. in towards me ^ So that I am not afhamed 
of having boafted of you to him. For as all that 
I have faid to you is Truth, fo what I faid to 
^itus in your Commendation, he has found to be 

jr. true, whereby his AfFedion ta you is abun- 
dantly increafed, he carrying, in his Mind the 
univerfal Obedience of you all unanimoufly to 
me, and the manner of your receiving him 

NQt E S. 


Wherefore though I n 
wrote unto you, I did it 
not for his caufe that had 
done the wrong,nor for his 
caufe that fufFered wrong, 
but that our care for you 
in the fight of God might 
appear unto you. 

Thereforcwe were com- ^ 2 
forted in your comfort : 
yea, and exeedingly the 
more joyed we for the joy 
of Titus, becaufe his fpirit 
was refrefhed by you all. 

For if I have boafted *4 
any thing to him of you^ 
I am not afhamed ; buc 
as we fpeak all things to 
you in truth, even fo our 
boafting which I made be- 
fore Titus is found- a truth. 

And his inward affe^r- If 
on is more abundant tor^ 
ward you, whilfl he re- 
membreth the obedience 
of you all, how with fear 
and trembling you receir 
ved him. 

former Pirt of this Vcrfe. | And therefore I think iu t£ rr^clyixetTti may beA be rendered 
ip faSj i. t, by your Sorrow,, your Fear, your Indignation, your Zeal, €f<:, I think it can- 
not well be tranflated J» ibis matter^ underl^anding thereby the Punifhraent of the Fornicator. 
For that was not the matter St. faul had been fpeaking of ; but the Corinthians fiding with 
the falfe Apoftle againft him, was the Subjeft of the preceding Part of this, and of the three 
or four foregoing Chapters, wherein he juftifies himfelf againlt their Slanders, and invalidates 
the Pretences of the adverfe Party, This i« that which lay chiefly upon hii Heart, and which 
he labours might and main both in this and- the former Epiftle to redify, as the Foundation 
of all the Diforders araongft them ; and confeqiiently is the matter wherein he rejoices to 
find them all fet right. Indeed, in the immediately following Vcrfe, he mentions his having 
•writ to them concerning the Fornicator, but it i> only as an Argument of his Kindnefs and 
Concern for them : But that what was the great Caufe of his Rejoicing, what it was that gave 
him the great Satisfaftion, was the breaking the Faftion, and the re-uniting them all, to 
himfelf, which he exprelfes in the Word ali^ emphatically ufed, ver. i j, 1 5. and from 
thence he concludes thus, ver. \6. I rejoice therefore that t have Confidence in you in all Things, 
Hb Mind was now at reft ; the Partizansof his Oppofer the falfe Apoftle having forfaken 
that Leader whom they had fo much gloried in, and being all now come over to St. Paul, 
he doubted not but all would go well, and fb leaves off the Subjcft he had been upon in th« 
feven foregoing Chagterfj vizit the Juftification of himfelf, with here and there Reflexions on 
that falfe Apoftle. 
1 } '' vid. ver. I f V 

I, With 






16 I rejoice therefore, that with Fear and Trembling. I rejoice therefore, 16-. 
in alHhlngs. ^^^ '" ^°" ^^^^ ^ ^^ve Confidence in you in all Things. 

I' ' I lli^— ^— ■— i ■ I I »— ■— — — 1 I Ml ■ I I — 


CHAP. VIIL I. IX. 15. 


THE Apoftle having employ'd the feven foregoing Chapters 
in his own Juftification, in the Clofe whereof he exprelTes the 
great Satisfaction he had in their being all united again in their AfFe- 
&ion and Obedience to himj he, in the two next Chapters, exhorts 
them, efpecially by the Example of the Churches of Macedonia^, to 
a liberal Contribution to the poor Chriftians in Judea,. 



we do you to wit 

of the grace of God be- 
fiowed on the churches of 
Macedonia : 

J. How that in a great tri- 
al of afBidion, the abun- 
dance of their joyj and 
their deep poverty, abound- 
ed unco the riches of their 

J For to their power (I 
bear record) yea,, and be^ 


Moreover^ Brethren^ I make known to 
you the Gift \ which, by the Grace of 
God, is given in the Churches of Macedonia^ 
viz. that amidft the Afflidlions '^ they have 
been much tried with, they have, with exceed- 
ing Chearfulnefs and Joy, made their very low 
Eftate of Poverty yield a rich Contribution of 
Liberality; being forward of themfelves (as I 
muft bear them witnefs) to the utmofl of their 

N O "T E S. 

I * X*e<<, which is tranflated Cracey Is here ufed by St.PaW for Gift or Liberality; and is Co 
ufed, ver. 4, 6, 7, 9, 19. & I C«r. XVI. 5. It is called alfo ;t*'e'f ®-^5 '** ^^fi of God , becaufe 
God is the Author and Procurer of it, moving their Hearts to it. Befides, J^iJ^oy-wttv iv cannot 
fignify hefio<wed on, bur given in ox by. 

z ^ How ill difpos'd and rough to the Chriflianj ^he Maadonianf were, may be fun^ 

jiajJiw, 6cxvii. 

Power ; 




4. Power ; nay, and beyond their Power, ear- 
neftly intrcating me to receive their Contribu- 
tion, and be a Partner with others in the Charge 
of conveying and diftributing it to the Saints. 

5. And in this they out-did my Expectation, who 
could not hope for fo large a Collection from 
them. But they gave themfelves firft to the 
Lord ; and to me, to difpofe of what they had, 
according as the good Pleafure of God fliould 

6. direct. Infomuch, that I was moved to per- 
fwade TituSj that as he had begun, fo he would 
alfo fee this charitable Contribution carried on 

7. among you till it was perfected ; that as you 
excel in every thing, abounding in Faith, in 
Well-fpeaking, in Knowledge, in every good 
Quality, and in your Affedtion to me, ye might 
abound in this A6t of charitable Liberality alfo. 

8. This I fay to you, not as a Command from 
God, but on occalion of the great Libera- 
lity of the Churches of Macedoniay and to 
fhew the World a Proof of the genuine, noble 
Temper of your Love'. For ye know the 


yond their power, they 

were willing of themfelves, 

Praying us with much 
intreaty, that we would 
receive the gift, and take 
upon us the fellovvlnip of 
theminiftring to the faints. 

And this they did, not 
as we hoped, but firft gave 
their own felvcs to the 
Lord, and unto us by the 
will of God. 

Infomuch that we de- 
fired Titus, that as he had 
begun, fj he would alio 
finifh in <you the fame 
grace alfo. 

Therefore, as yc abound 
in every thing, in faith, ia 
utterance, and knowledge, 
and in all diligence, and 
in your love to us ; fee 
that ye abound in this 
grace alio. 

I fpeaic not by com- 
mandment, but by occafioa 
of the forwardnefs of o- 
thers, and to prove th« 
(liicerity of your love. 

8 ' To T«f v/x9Ti£eiii dyaTnf yv'xytov J^okiixa^uv^ peiving the ff'orld a Py*of of the genuine 
Temper cf their Love : Thus, I think, it ftiould be rendred. St. Paul, who is fo careful all along 
in this Epiftle, to fhcw his Edeem and good Opinion of the Corinthians^ taking ail Occalions to 
fpeak and prefume well of them, whereof we have an eminent Example in thefe Words, Te 
abound in your Love to4ts, in the immediately preceding Verfc ; he could not, in this Piace, fo far 
forqet his Dclign of treating them very tenderly, now they were newly return'd to him, as to 
ttllthem, that he fent Titus for the promoting their Connibution, to make a Trial of the Since- 
rity of their Love. This had been but an ill Exprellion of that Cor^Jence, which, Chap.VU. 16. 
he tells them, he has in them in all Things. Taking therefore, as without Violence to the Words 
one may, J^oKiy-d^^JV for drawing out a Proof, and yrt](nov for genuine, the Words very well 
«xprefs St. Paul's obliging way of flirring up the Corintbi.ins to a liberal Contribution, as I have 
underliood them : For St. P^/^rs Difcourfe to them briefly ftands thus ; " The great Liberaiify 
*' of the poor Macedonians^ made mc lend Titus to you, to carry on the CoUeftion of your Charity, 
** which he had begun, that you who excel in all other Virtues, might be eminent alfo in this. 
*• But this I urge, not as a Command froin God, but upon Occahon of others Liberality, lay 
•* before you an Opportunity of giving the World a Proof of the genuine Temper of your Charity; 
*' which, like that of your other Virtue;, loves not to come behind that of others." 




9 For ye know the grace 
of our Lord Jefus Chrift, 
that though he was rich, 
yet for our fakes he became 
poor, that ye through his 
poverty might be rich. 
lO And herein I give my 
advice : for this is expedi- 
ent for you who have be- 
gun before, not only to do, 
but alfo to be forward a 
year ago. 
J I No\v therefore perform 
!f the doing of it i that as 
there was a readinefs to 
will, fo there may be a 
peiformance alfo out of 
that which you have. 

For if there be firft a 
willing mind, it is accepted 
accotiiing to that a man 
hath, and not according 
to that he hath not. 

For I mean not that o- 
ther men may be eafed, 
and yju burdened : 
14 B'Jt by an equality, that 
now at this time your a- 
bundance may be a fupply 
for their want, that their 
abundance alfo may be a 
fupply for your want, that 
there may be an equality : 
1^ As it is written, He 
that had gathered much, 
had nothing over; and he 
that had gathered little, 
had no lack. 
I^ But thanks be to God, 
which put the fame earneft 
care into the heart of Titus 
for you. 
17 For indeed he accepted 
! the exhortation, but being 



Munificence *" of our Lord Jefus Chrift, who 9. 
being rich, made himfelf poor for your fakes, 
that you by his Poverty might become rich. 
I give you my Opinion in the Cafe, becaufe it 10. 
becomes you fo to do ; as having began not only 
to do fomething in it, but to {hew a Willing- 
nefs to it above a Year ago. Now therefore 1 1. 
apply your felves to the doing of it in earned j 
fo that as you undertook it readily, fo you 
would as readily perform it, out of what you 
have : For every Man's Charity is accepted by 12. 
God according to the Largenefs and Willing- 
nefs of his Heart in giving, and not according 
to the Narrownefs of his Fortune. For my I3- 
meaning is, not that you fhould be burdened to 
eafe others, but that at this time your Abun- 
dance fhould make up what they through Wane 
come fhort in, that in another Occafion their I4« 
Abundance may fupply your Deficiency, that 
there may be an Equality: As it is written, ^S* 
He that had much, had nothing over ; and he 
that had little, had no lack. But Thanks be to 16. 
God, who put into the Heart oi Titus the fame 
Concern for you j who not only yielded to my 
Exhortation ^, but being more than ordinary 17* 
concerned for you, of his own Accord went un- 


9 ^ Th %ctei:', the Grace^ rather the Munificence ; the Signification wherein St.P<T«/ufes ydtxfj 
ever and over again in this Chapter, aad is tranliaced Gift, ver, 4. 
17 ^ Vid. Ver. 6. 


1 84 













to you ; with whom I have fent the Brother ^^ 
who has Praile through all the Churches for 
his Labour in the Gofpel, (and not that only, 
but who was alio chofen of the Churches to 
accompany me in the carrying this Colle(flion, 
which Service I undertook for the Glory of our 
Lord, and for your Encouragement to a liberal 
Contribution) to prevent any Afperfion might 
be caft on me by any one, on occafion of my 
meddling with the Management of fo great a 
Sum ; and to take care, by having fuch Men 
join'd with me in the fame Truft, that my In- 
tegrity and Credit ihould be preferved, not 
only in the fight of the Lord, but alfo in the 
fight of Men. With them I have fent our Bro- 
ther, of whom I have had frequent Experience 
in fundry Affairs, to be a forward, adtive Man; 
but now much more earneftly intent, by reafon 
of the ftrong Perfwafion he has of your contri- 
buting liberally. Now whether I fpeak of Titus^ 
he is my Partner, and one who with me pro- 
motes your Litejeft; or the two other Brdthren 
fent with him, they are the Meffcngers of the 
Churches of Macedonidy by whom their Col- 
lection is fent, and are Promoters of the Glory 
of Chrift. Give therefore to them, and by them 
to thofe Churches a Demonftration oi your 
Love, and a Juftification of my boailing of you. 
For as touching the Relief of the poor 
Chriftians in Jerufalettty it is needlefs for me 
to write to you. For I know the Forward- 
jriefs of your Minds, which I boafled of on 


1 8 •"' This Brother moft take to be St, Luke^ who now was, 
Si. Vaul\ Coni^auion in his TravcU. 


more forward, of his own 
accord he went uato you. 

And we have fent with 18 
him the brother, whofe 
praife i$ in the gofpel, 
througliout all the churches ; 

(And not that only, but 19 
who was alfo chofen of 
the churches to travel with 
us with this grace, which 
is adminidred by us to the 
glory of the fame Lord, 
and declaration of your 
ready mind) 

Avoiding this, that no iO 
man ihould blame us in 
this abundance, which is 
adminiftred by us: 

Providing for honeftit 
things, not only in the 
lighc of the Lord, but alfo 
in the light of men. 

And we have fent with i^ 
them our brother, whom 
we have oftentimes pro- 
ved diligent in many things, 
but how much more dili. 
gent, upon the great con- 
fidence which i have in 

Whether any do enquire * J 
of Titus, he is my partner, 
and fellow helper concern- 
ing you: or our brethren 
be enquired of, they are 
the meifengers of the chur- 
ches, and the glorv of 
Chrift. ' 

Wherefore fhew ye to 14 
them, and before the 
churches, the proof of your 
love, and of our boalbng 
on your behalf. 

For as touching the mi- i 
niftring to the faints, it is 
fupcrfluous for me to write 
to you. 

For I know the for- a 

and had been a long whila 






Chap. IX. 

wardnefs of your mind, your behalf to the Macedonians, that • Achaia 
':£' of^MlllS: was ready a Year ago, and your Zeal in this 

Matter hath been a Spur to many others. Yet 
I have fcnt thefe Brethren, that my boafting 
of you may not appear to be vain and ground- 
lefs in this part : But that you may, as I faid, 
have your Collection ready, left if perchance 
the Macedonians fhould come with me, and 
find it not ready, I (not to fay you) fliould be 
afhamed in this Matter v^^hereof I have boaft- 
ed. I thought it therefore necelTary to put 
the Brethren upon going before unto you, to 
prepare things by a timely notice before- hand, 
that your Contribution may be teady, as a free 
Benevolence of yours, and not as a niggardly 
Gift extorted from you. This I fay. He who 
foweth fparingly, fhall reap alfo fparingly ; and 
he who foweth plentifully, iliall alfo reap plen- 
tifully. So give as you find your felves difpo- 
fed every one in his own Heart, not grudging- 
ly, as if it were wrung from you ; for God 
loves a cheerful Giver. For God is able to make 
every charitable Gift ^ of yours redound to 
your Advantage, that you having in every 
thing always a Fulnefs of Plenty, ye may a- 
bound in every good Work ( as it is written, 

that Achaia was ready a 
year ago ; and your zeal 
hach provoked very many. 

3 Yec have I fent the 
brethren, left our boafting 
of you fhould be in vain 
in this behalf; that, as I 
faid, ye may be ready : 

4 Left haply \i they of 
Macedonia come with me, 
and find you unprepared, 
we (that we ii.'^ not, you) 
fhould be afhamed in this 
fame confident boafting. 

5 Therefore I thought it 
ncceflary to exhort the 
brethren, that they would 
go before unto you, and 
make up before hand your 
bounty, whereof ye had 
notice before, that the 
fame might be ready as a 
matter of bounty, and not 
as of covetoufnefs. 

6 But this I fay, He 
which foweth fparingly, 
Ihall reap alfo fparingly ; 
and he which fowech 
bountifully, fhall reap alfo 

7 Every Man according 
as he purpoffcth in his 
heart, fo iet him give ; 
not grudgingly, or of ne- 
ceflity : for God loveth a 
cheerful giver. 

g And God is able to 
make all grace abound to- 
wards you ; that ye al- 
ways having all fufficien- 
cy in all things, may a- 
bound to every good 
work : 


1 ' Achaia^ i. e. the Church of Corinth, which was made up of the Inhabitants of that Town, 
and of the circumjacent Parts of Achaia. Vid. Ch. I. i. 

8 ^ y^Atxiy Grace, rather Charitable Gift or Liberality^ as ic Cgnifies in che former Chapter, 
And as che Context determines the Senfe here. _ _ 

Bb He 










He hath fcattered, he hath given to the Poor, 
and his Liberality ' remaineth for ever. Now 
he that fupplies Seed to the Sower, and Bread 
for Food ; fupply and multiply your Stock of 
Seed •", and increafe the Fruit of your Libe- 
rality) enrich'd in every thing to all Benefi- 
cence, which by me as inftrumental in it, pro- 
cureth Thankfgiving to God. For the Perfor- 
mance of this Service doth not only bring Sup- 
ply to the Wants of the Saints, but reacheth 
farther, even to Godhimfelf, by many Thankf- 
givings ( whilft they having fuch a Proof of 
you in this your Supply, glorify God for your 
profefTed Subjedlion to the Gofpel of Chrifl, 
and for your Liberality in communicating to 
them, and to all Men, and to the procuring 
their Prayers for you, they having a great In- 
clination towards you, becaufe of that gracious 
Gift of God beftowed on them by your Libe- 
rality. Thanks be to God for this his un- 
fpeakable Gift, 


(As it is written, He 9 
hath difperfed abroad ; he 
hath given to the poor : . 
his righteoufnefs remain- 
eth for ever. 

Now he that miniftreth ^0 
feed to the fower, both 
minifter bread for your, 
food, and multiply your 
feed fown, and increafe 
the fruits of your righte- 

Being enriched in every 1 1 
thing to all boantifulnefs, 
which caufeth through us 
thankfgiving to God. 

For the adminiftration 12 
of this fervice, not only 
fupplieth the want of the 
faints, but is abundant al- 
fo by many thankfgivings 
unto God ; 

(Whiles by the experi- IJ 
ment of this miniftration, 
they glorify God for your 
profelfed fubjeftion unto 
the gofpel of Chrift, and 
for your liberal diftributi- 
on unto them, and unto 
all men) 

And by their prayer 14 
for you, which long after 
you, for the exceeding 
grace of God in you. 

Thanks be unto God ^5 
for his unfpeakable gift. 

9, 10 ^ ^iKumvi/n, Righteoufnefi, rather Liberality ; for fo .^/<rvm in Scripture-Laneuaee 
often fignihes. And fo Matt. VI. 1. for Usu/xocri/Vm', Alms, fome Copies have cT/x^ct/oVyVwy 
Liberality. And io ^o/eph, Matt. I. 19, is called J'Uctiof jttft, benign. 

10 •" Scrofof, Seed jown, rather your Seed and Seed-plot, i. e. Increafe your Plenty to be laid 
out- in charitable ufes. 




Chap, X. 

C H A P. X. I 




ST. Paul having finifhed his Exhortation to Liberality In their 
Colledion for the Chriftians at Jenifalem, he here reaffams his 
former Argument, and profecutes the main Purpofe of this Epiftle, 
which was totally to reduce and put a final End to the adverfe Fa- 
isflion, (which feems not yet to be entirely extind) by bringing 
the Corinthians wholly off from the falfe Apoftle they had adhered 
to ; and to re-eftabli£h himfelf and his Authority in the Minds of 
all the Members of that Church. And this he does by the Steps 
contained in the following Numbers. 


SECT. IV. N. u 

CHAP. X, I 6. 


E declares the extraordinary Power he hath in Preaching the 
Gofpel, and to punifh his Oppofers amongft them. 


- 1^ [Ow I Paul my felf 


^^T O W I the fame Paul, who am (as 'tis faid 

ie nietS and "g'entk^ i>l amongft " you ) bafe and mean when 
nefs of Chrift, who in prcfent with you, but bold towards you when 
prefencc am bafe among abfent, befeech you by the Meeknefs'and Gen- 


^ " Vid. ver, 10. 

Bb z 




Chap. IX. 

2. tlenefs ° of Chrift -, I befeech you, I fay, that 
I may not, when prefent among you, be bold 
after that manner. I have refolv'd to be bold 
towards fome, who account that in my Condud: 
and Miniftry I regulate my felf wholly by car- 

3. nal Confiderarions. For though I live in the 
Flefli, yet I do not carry on the Work of the 
Gofpel (which is a Warfare) according to the 

4. Flelh. (For the Weapons of my Warfare are 
not fleflily p, but fuch as God hath made 
mighty to the pulling down of ftrong Holds, 
i. e. whatever is made ufe of in Oppofition) 

5. Beating down human Reafonings, and all the 
touring and mofl elevated Superilru<5lures rai- 
fed thereon by the Wit of Men againft the 
"Knowledge of God, as held forth in the Gofpel, 
captivating all their Notions, and bringing 

6. them into Subjediion to Chrift ; And having by 
me in a Readinefs, Power wherewithal to pu- 
nifh and chaftife all Difobedience ; when you, 
who have been mifled by your falfe Apoftle, 
withdrawing your felves from him, fhall return 
to a perfect Obedience ''. 

you, but being abfent atn 
bold toward you. 

But I befeech you, that ^ 
I may not be bold vvhen 
I am prefent, with that 
confidence wherewith I 
think to be bold againd 
fome which think of us, 
as if we walked according 
to the flefh. 

For though we walk in j 
the flefh, we do not war 
after the flefh : 

(For the weapons of our 4 
warfare are not carnal, 
but mighty through God, 
to the pulling down of 
flrong holds.) 

Calling down imagina- 5 
tions , and every high 
thing that exalteth it felf 
againft the knowledge of 
God, and bringing into 
captivity every thought to 
the obedience of Chriit : 

And having in a readi- 6 
nefs to revenge all difobe- 
dience, when your obedi^ 
ence is fulfilled. 



" St. Paul thinking it Ec to forbear all Severity till he had by fair means reduced as many 
of the contrary I'arty as he could, to a full SubmilVion to his Authority, (vid. Ver. 6.) begins 
here his Difcourfe by conjuring them by the Mecknefs and Gentkncfs of Chrift, as an Example 
that might excufe his Delay of exemplary Punifliment on the Ringleaders and chief Offenders, 
without giving them rcafon to think it was for want of Power. 

4 P What the oTAct ffet^KiKity tht carnal Weatovs, and thofe other oppofed to them, which 
he calls J^wolta -vfi Qicoy mighty through Cod^ are, may be feen if we read and compare 
I Cor. I. 15, 14. & II. I, z, 4, 5, 11, I 3. 1 Cor. IV. 1, 6. 

6 '^ Thofe whom he fpeaks to here, are the Corinthian Converts, to whom this Epiftle 
is written. Some of thefc had been drawn into a Fadion againft St. Paul ; thefe he had 
been, and was endeavouring to bring back to that Obedience and Submilfion which the 
reft had continued in to him as an Apoftle of Jefus Chrift. The Corinthians cf thcfe two 
forts are thofe he means, when he fays to them, Ch. II. 5. & do. VII. 13, 15. Tou all, 
i. e. all ye Chriftians of Corinth and Achaia. For he that had raifed the Fadion amongft 
ihfem, and given fo much trouble to St. pauli was a Stranger aad a ^*w, Vid. Ci. XL ^^. 




SECT. IV. N. 2. 

CHAP. X. 7 18. 

C N T E N f S. 

T. Paul examines the falfe Apoftle's Pretenfions, and compares 
his own with his Performances. 

Chap. X. 


m T~XO ye look on things 

I J after the outward 
appearance ? if any man 
truft to himfelf, that he is 
Chrift's, let him of himfelf 
think this again, that as 
he is Ch rift's, even fo are 
we Chrift's. 

8 For though I fhould 
boaft fomewhat more of 
our authority, (which the 
Lord hath given us for edi- 
fication, and not for your 
deftruaion) I fhould not 
be afhamed : 

g That I may not ftem as 
if I would terrify you by 
10 For his letters (fay they) 
are weighty and powerful, 
but his bodily prefence is 
weak, and his fpeech con- 


DO ye judge of Men by the outward Ap- 7, 
pearance of Things ? Is it by fuch Mea- 
fures you take an Eftimate of me and my Ad- 
vcrfaries ? If he has Confidence in himfelf that 
he is Chrift's, i. e. affumes to himfelf the Au- 
thority of one employed and commiflioned by 
Chrift ' ; let him, on the other fide, count thus 
with himfelf, that as he is Chrift's, fo I alfo am 
Chrift's. Nay, if I ftiould boaftingly fay fome- 8. 
thing more ^ of the Authority and Power, 
which the Lord has given me for your Edifica- 
tion^ and not for your Deftrudion *, I ftiould 
not be put to ftiame *. But that I may not 9. 
feem to terrify you by Letters, as is objedted 
to me by fome, who fay, that my Letters are 10. 
weighty and powerful, but my bodily Pre- 
fence weak, and my Difcourfe contemptible > 

N O t E S. 

crept in amcngft them, after Sr. J^aul had gather'd and eftabli{hM that Church, i Cor, III. 6, lo, 

1 Cor. X. 1 5, i6. Of whom St. Paul feems to have no Hopes, Chap. XI. 1 5 15, and thtts- 

fore he every where threatens, i Cc^. IV. 19. and here particularly, ver.6, & i r. to make an 
Example of him and his Adherents, (if any were fo obflinate to ftick to him) when he had 
brought back again all the Corinthians that he could hope to prevail on. 

7 ' Vid. C^4p. XI. 3 J. 

8 ^ More^ vid. C^<t/». XI. 13. * Another Reaibn infinuated by the Apollle for his forbearing 
Severity to them. 

« jJbeuU mt he put to fiame^ i, €. the Truth would juftify me in it. 




Chap, X. 





let him that fays fo, reckon upon this, that 
fuch as I am in Word by Letters when I am ab- 
fent, fuch fhall I be alfo in Deed when pre- 
fent. For I dare not be fo bold, as to rank or 
compare my felf with fome who vaunt them- 
felves : But they meafuring themfelves within 
themfelves '', and comparing themfelves with 
themfelves, do not underftand '\ But I, for 
my Part, will not boaft of my felf hi what has 
not been meafured out, or allotted to me "^y 
i. c. I will not go out of my own Province to 
feek Matter of Commendation, but proceeding 
orderly in the Province which God hath mea- 
fured out, and allotted to me, I have reach'd 
even unto you, /. e. I preach'd the Gofpel in 
every Country as I went, till I came as far 
as to you. For I do not extend my felf far- 
ther than I fhould, as if I had fkipp'd over 
other Countries in my way, without proceed- 
ing gradually to you ; no, for I have reach'd 
even unto you in Preaching of the Go- 
ipel in ^11 Countries as I pafTed along ^ i 


li ^" This is fpoken ironically; iv kcLVToti^ amongfl themfelves ^ rather within themfelves: 
For, in all likelihood, the Faftion and Oppoficion againll St. Paul was made by one Perfon, aa 
we before obfervcd. For though he fpeaks here in the Plural Number, which is the fofcer and 
decenter way in fuch Cafts, ycc we fee, in the foregoing Vcrfc, he fpeaks direftly and exprefly 
as of one Perfon ; and therefore kv iAvroii may, moll conlbnancly to the ApoIUe's meaning here, 
be underftood to (ignify ivithin tlemfelves^ i. e. with what they find in themfelves : The whole 
Place fhewing, that thb Perfon made an Eftimate of himfelf only by what he found in himfelf; 
and thereupon preferr'd himfelf to St. Paul, without confidcring what St. Paul wat, or had 

^ Do not ftnderfiand ; that they ought not to intrude themfelves into a Church planted by ano- 
ther Man, and there vaunt themfelves, and fet themfelves above him that planted it i which is 
the Meaning of the four next Verfes. 

13 ^ "A/zeTfrt, here, and in t/fr. i<;. doth not (ignify immenfc, or immoderate, but (bmething 
that hath not been meafured out and alloted to him , fomething that is not committed to him, nor 
within his Province. 

14 y This fecms to charge the falfe, pretended Apofile, v/ho had caufcd all this Difturbance 
in the Church of Corinth^ that without being appointed to it, without preaching the Gofpel in 
his way thither, as became an Apoftle, he had crepe into the Church of Corinth, 

z Not 

Let fuch an one think i^i I 
this, that fuch as we ate 
in word by letters, whea 
we are abfent, fuch will 
we be alfo in deed when 
we are prcfent. 

For we dare not make i^ 
our felves of the number, 
or compare our felves with 
fome thnt commend them- 
felves; but they meafuring 
themfelves by themfelves, 
and comparing themfelves 
amonglt themfelves, arc 
not wife. 

But we will not boaft r.J 
of things without our mea- 
fure, but according to the 
mcafure of the rule which 
God hath diftributed to us, 
a meafure to reach even 
unto you. 

For we ftretch not our 14 
felves beyond our meafure, 
as though we reached not 
unco you ; for wc are come 
as far as to you alfo, ia 
preaching the gofpel of 
Chrift : 



Chap. rx. 

"i Not boafting of things 
wichout our meafurc, that 
is, of other mens labour ; 
but having hope when 
your faith is increafed, 
that we fball be enlarged 
by you, according to our 
rule abundantly ; 

6 To preach the gofpel in 
the regions beyond you, 
and not to boaft in ano- 
ther man's line, of things 
made ready to our hand. 

7 But he that gloricth, let 
him glory in the Lord. 

8 For not he that com- 
mendcth himfelf is appro- 
ved, but whom the Lord 

Not extending my Boafling ^ beyond my own 
Bounds, into Provinces not allotted to me, 
nor vaunting my felf of any thing I have dene 
in another's Labour \ i. e. in a Church plant- 
ed by another Man's Pains; but having hope 
that your Faith increafing, my Province will be 
enlarged by you yet farther : So that I may 
preach the Gofpel to the yet unconverted Coun- 
tries beyond you, and not take Glory to my 
felf from another Man's Province, where all 
Things are made ready to my Hand ^ But he 
that will glory, let him glory or feek Praife 
from that which is committed to him by the 
Lord, or in that which is acceptable to the 
Lord. For not he who commends himfelf, 
does thereby give a Proof of his Authority or 
MifTion; but he whom the Lord commends, > 
. by the Gifts of the Holy. Ghofl ^ - 


1^ * Bcajlingi i. e. intermeddling, or afluming to my felf Authority to meddle, or Honour for ■ 

15, i'6 ^ Here St. Paul vifibly taxes the falfe Apoftle for coming into a Church, converted and 
gathered by another, and there pretending to be fome-body, and to rule all. This is another 
Thing that makes it probable, that the Oppofition made to St, Paul, was but by one Man, thac 
had made himfelf the Head of an cppolite Faftion : For it is plain it was a Srranoer, who came 
thither after St. Paul had planted this Church ; who pretending to be more an Apoftle thaa ' 
Si. Paul, with greater Illumination, and more Power, fet up againfl; him to govern that Church 
and withdraw the Corinthians from following St. Paul, his Rules and Dodrine. Now this can 
never be fuppofcd to be a Combination of Men, who came to Corinth with that Defign ; nor thac 
they were different Men that came thither feparately, each fetting up for himfi;lf, for then they 
would have fallen out one with another, as well as with St. Paul: And in both Cafes Sc. Paul 
muft have fpoken of them in a different way from what he does now. The fame Charader and 
Carriage is given to them all, throughout both thefe Epiftles i and i Cor. Ill lo. he plainly fpeaks 
of one Man. That fetting up thus to be a Preacher of the Gofpel amongft thofe that were already 
Chriflians, was looked upon by St. Paul to be a Fault, we may fee, Rom. XV. zo. 

1 8 ^ 'Tis of thcfc Weapons of his Warfare that St. Paul fpeaks in this Chapter ; and *tis bjr 
them that he intends to try which is the true Apoftle, when he comes to chcm. 


1 6, 



9-E C T, 

Chap. XI. 


SECT. IV. N^. 

CHAP. Xl. I 6. 


HE fhews, that their pretended Apoflle bringing to them no 
other Saviour, or Gofpel j nor conferring greater Power of 
Miracles than he [St. Paul] had done, was not to be preferr'd be- 
fore him. 




WOuld you could bear with me a little in 
my Folly ^ j and indeed do bear with me. 
For I am jealous over you, with a Jealoufy that 
is for God : For I have fitted and prepared you 
for one alone to be your Hufband, viz. that I 
might deliver you up a pure Virgin to Chrift. 
But I fear, left fome way or other, as the Ser- 
pent beguiled Eve by his Cunning, fo your 
Minds fhould be debauch'd from that Sin- 
£lenefs which is due to Chrift \ For if 


;ald to God ye 
could bear with me 
a little in my folly ; and 
indeed bear with me. 

For I am jealous over 
you with godly jealoufy: 
for I have efpoufcd you 
to one husband, that I 
may pi t font you as a chafle 
virgin to Chrift. 

But I fear, left by any 
means, as the fcrpcnt be- 
guiled Eve through his 
fubtilty, fo your minds 
fliould be corrupted from 
the fimplicity ihac is ia 


I ^ Folly, fo he modeftly calls his fpcaking in his own Defence. 

^ '' 'AtAotmt©- twj eii 70V Xe<roc, The Simplicity that is in, rather, towards Chrifi^ anfwers 
to yi etVtTfi Xf/S"«> to one Husband Chriji, in the immediately foregoing Vcrfe "• For ivi^ oney is 
not put there for nothing, but makes the Meaning plainly this ; " I have formed and fitted you 
*' for one Perfon alone, one Husband, who is Chrift : I am concerned, and in care, that you 
*' may not be drawn afide from that Submiilion, that Obedience, that Temper of Mind that is 
** due fingly to him; for I hope to put you into his Hands polTelfed with pure Virgin Thoughts, 
•" wholly fixed on him, not divided, nor roving after any other, that he may take you to Wife, 
*' and marry you to himfelf for ever." 'Tis plain their Pcrvcrter, who oppofcd St. Pau]^ was 
a Jeiu, as we liave feen, 'Twas from the ^ews^ from whom, of all profelling Chriftianity, 
St. Paul had moft Trouble and Oppofition : For they having their Hearts fet upon their old Reli- 
gion} endeavoured to mix Judaifin and Chriftianity together. We may fuppofe the Cafe here to 
be much the fame with that which he more fully exprelfes in the Epiftlc to the Galatians ; parti- 
cularly, Gal. 1.6 II. &C^<i;. IV. 9 II. & 16 II. ScChap.V. i 13. The 

Meaning of this Place here feems to be this : " I have taught you the CTofpel alone, in its pure 
*' and unmixed Simplicity, by which only you can be united to Chrift ; btit I fear, left this your 
" new Apoftlc fhould draw you from it, and that your Minds iTiould no: ftick to that fingly, but 
*' (hould be corrupted by a mixture oi yudaifm.'* After the like manner Sr. Paul cxprcflls Chri- 
ftians being delivered from the Law, and their Freedom from the ritual Obfervances of the fewf, 
by being married to Chrift, B,ox>u VII. 4. which Place may give fome light to this. 




4 Vox if he that cometh, 
preachech another Jefus 
whom we have not prea- 
ched, or if ye receive ano- 
ther fpirit, which ye have 
noc received, or another 

' gofpel, which ye hav« not 
accepted, ye might well 
bear with him, 

^■^ For I fuppofe T was not 
s whit behind the very 
chiefeft apoftles. 
6 But though I be rude in 
fpeech, yet not in know- 
ledge ; but we have been 
throughly made manifeft 
among you in all things 


this Intruder who has been a Leader amongfl 
you, can preach to you another Saviour, whom 
I have not preached j or if you receive from 
him other or greater Gifts of the Spirit, than 
thofe you received from me ; or another Go- 
fpel than what you accepted from me, you 
might well bear with him, and allow his Pre- 
tenfions of being a new and greater Apoflle. 
For as to the Apoflles of Chnft, I fuppofe I 
am not a whit behind the chiefeft of them. 
For though I am but a mean Speaker, yet I am 
not without Knowledge, but in tivery ' thing 
have been made manifeft unto you,.,;, e. to be 
an Apollle. '^ '-/ 

Chap. XT. 


SECT. IV. iV. 4. 

CHAP. XI. 7— 15» 

C O N T E N r S. 

HE juftifies himfelf to them, in ii'is having taken nothing of 
them. There had been great Talk about this, and Objedi- 
ons raifed againfl St. Paul thereupon ; Fid. 1 Cor. IX. 1 — 3. As if by 
this he had difcover'd hinHclf nd^t Co b^ an Apoftle : To which he 
there anfwers, and here touches it again, and anfwers another Ob- 
jection, which it feems was made, viz. that he refiifed to receive- 
Maintenance from. them out of Unkindnefs to them. 

C c 




Chap. XI. 





1 1. 



i\ V E I committed an Offence ^ in aba- 
^^ fing myrelf to work with my Hands, 
jieglecfting my Right of Maintenance due to me 
as an Apoflle, tiiat you might be exalted in 
Chriftianity, becaufe I preached the Gofpel of 
God to you gratis F 1 robb'd other Churches, 
taking Wages of them to do you Service : And 
being with you, and in want, I was chargeable 
to not a Man of you. For the Brethren who 
came from Macedonia, fupplied me with what 
I needed : And in all things I have kept my 
felf from being burdenfome to you, and fo will 
I continue to do. The Truth and Sincerity I 
owe to Chrifl:, is in whac I fay to you, viz. 
This Boafting of mine (liall not in the Regions 
oi Achat a be flopp'd in me. Why fo ? Is it be- 
caufe I love you not ? For that God can be my 
Witnefs, he knoweth. But what I do and 
fhall do ^ is, that I may cut off all Occafion 
from thofe who, if I took any thing of you, 
would be glad of that Occafion to boart, that in 
it they had me for a Pattern, and did nothing 
but what even I my felf had done. For thefe 
are falfe ^ Apoftles, deceitful Labourers in the 
Gofpel, having put on the counterfeit Shape 


HAVE I com.-nicted an j 
oftence in abafing 
my lelf, tiiac you mighc 
be exalted, becaufe I have 
preached to you the Go- 
iptl of GoJ freely ? 

I robbed other Church- g 
es, taking wages of them 
to do you fcrvice. 

And when I was pre- p 
Tliu with you and wanted, 
I was chargeable to no 
man : for that which was 
lacking to me, the bre- 
thren which ca;ne from 
Macedonia fupplied : and 
in all things I have kcpc 
my felf from being bur- 
denfome unto you, and fo 
will I keep my felf. 

As the truth of Chrifl; lo 
is in me, no man llull flop 
me of this boafting in the 
regions of Achaia. 

Wherefore? becaufe In 
love you not ? God know- 

But what I do, that I n 
will do, that I may cut 
off occafion from them 
which defire occafion, that 
wherein they glory, they 
may be found even as 

For fuch are falfc 
apoflles, deceitful wor- 


7 * The adverfc Party made it an Argument againft St. Paul^ as an Evidence that he was 
no Apoftle, fince he took not from the Corinthians Maintenance, i Cor. IX, i — 3. Another 
Objcdion laifed againft him from hence, was. That he would receive nothing from them, 
becaufe he loved them not, z Cor. XI. H. This he anfwcrs here, by giving another reafon 
for his fo doing. A third Allegation was, that it was only a crafty Trick in him to catch them, 
z Cor- XII. 16. which he anfwcrs there. 

iz ^ k] 'TToinTu, that I -zviJl do, rather and ivill dt ; fo the Words Aand in the Greek, and do 
not refer to tjer. 10. as a Profefnon of his Refolution to take nothing of them ; but to ver. 1 1. 
to which it is join'd ; (hewing that his rcfufing any Reward from them, was not out of Un- 
kindnefs, but for another reafon. 

I J 8 They had queftioned St. PauTs Apoftlefhip, i Cor. IX. becaufe of his not taking Main- 
tenance of the Corinthians, He here direftly declares them to be no true Apoflles. 




kers, transforining them- 
felves inco the ApolUtsof 

14 And no marvel ; 'or 
fatan himfelf is transfor- 
med into an angel of light. 

1 5 Therefore ic is no great 
thing if his rainiiiers alfo 
be transformed as the mi- 
niflers of righteoufnefs ; 
whofe end (hall be accor- 
ding to their works. 


and Outfide of Apoftles of Chrift : And no mar- 
vel ; for Satan himfelf is fometimes transformed 
into an Angel of Light. Therefore it is not 
ilrange, if fo be his Minifters are difguifed fo 
as to appear Minifters of the Gofpel ; whofe 
End fhall be according to their Works. 


Chap, xr; 


SECT. IV. N. 5. 

CHAP. XI. 16 3:3. 


HE goes on in his Juftification, refle(fling upon the Carriage of 
the falfe Apoftle towards the Corinthians, v. 16 — 21. He 
compares himfelf with the falfe Apoftle in what he boafts of, as be- 
ing an Hebrew, v. 2 r, 22. or Minifter of Chrift, v. 23, and here 
St. Paid enlarges upon his Labours and Sufferings. 


16'T Say again, Let no man 

\ think me a fool , if o- 
therwjfe, ytc is a fool re- 
ceive me, that I may boa(t 
my felf a little. 
17 That which Ifpeak, I 
fpeak it not afur the 
Lord, but as it were fco- 
liftily in this confidence of 
boa (ling. 

i^*' Vid. ver, 18,. 


ISay again, Let no Man think me a Poof, 
that I fpeak fo much of my felf : or at leafi 
if it be a Folly in me, bear with me as a Fool, 
that I too, as well as others *", may boaft my 
felf a little. That which I fay on this Occafi- 
on is not by Command from Chrift, but, as it 
were, foolifhly in this matter of Boaftin^. 




€ c 


Cbap. XT. 








•J : 

Seeing that many glory 18 
after the flefh, I will glo- 
ry alfo. 

for ye fuffer foolS glad- 19 
ly, feeing ye youf Iclves 
are wife. 

For ye fufter if a man 10 
bring you iaco bondage, 
if a man devour you, if a 
man take of you, if a. man 
exalt himftlf, if a man 
fmiiv you on the face. 

I fpcak. as concerning -i 
reproach, as though we 
had been weak. : howbeit, 
wljerein foever any is 
bold ( I fpeak foolifhly ) I 
am bold alfo. 

Are they Hebrews ? foii 
am I : are they Ifraelites ? 
fo am I : are they the feed 
of Abraham ? fo am I : 

Are they minifters of^J 
Chrift ? (I fpeak as a fool ) 
I ao) more : in l^onra 

Since many glory in their Circumcifion or Ex- 
tra<5lioii V J wilt ' glory alib. For ye bear 
with F^ol'S'-^^ " eafily, • bei-ng your felves wife. 
^ Fbr you bear wkfe- it if a Man bring yoii 
into Bondage '", /. ^. domineer over you, 
and ufe you like his Bondmen ; If he make a 
Prey of you j If he take or extort Prefents or a 
Salary from you ; If he be elevated and high 
amongfl you 3 If he fmite you on the Face, 
/. e. treat you contumeliouily. I fpeak accord- 
ing to the Reproach that has been caft upon me, 
as if I were weak,. /. ^.,' deflitute of what might 
fupport me in Digniry^and Authority equal to 
this falfe Apoftle, as if I had not as fair Pre- 
tences to Power arid' Profit amongfl: you as he. 
Is he an Hebrew ", /. e. by Language an He- 
brew? fo am I : Is h« an Ifraelites truly of 
the 'Jewijlj Nation, and bred up in that Reli- 
gion? fo am i : Is he of the Seed of Abraham, 
ireally defcended from him ? and not a Profe- 
l5rte bf a foreign Extradlion ? fo am I : Is he a 

¥'fy r E s. 

18 'nW. Ch.Xir. n. 

19 ^ After the Flejb. What this glorying after the Fle/b was in particular here, vltj. ver. ii, 
viz.- being a Jew by defcent. 

zo * Spoken iromcally for Dheir bearing with the Infolencc and Covetoufnefs of their falfe 

'" The Bondage here meant, was, Subjedion to the Will of their falfe Apoftle, as appears 
i>y thefoUowing Particulars of this Verfc ; and not Subjeftion to the jewip Rites. For if that 
^ad been, St. Paul was fo zealous againli it, that he would have fpoke more plainly and 
warmly, as we fee in his Spiltlc to the GaiatianSy and not have touched it thus, only by the 
b.yc, nightly, in a doubtful ExprelTion. Befides, it is plain no fuch thing was yet attempted 
openly, only St. Paalwzs afraid of it ; Vid. ver. ^. 

, ^i " /i ke an Vebnevi ? Having in the; foregoing Vcrfc fpoke in the Singular Number, I have 
DCen fain to continue on the fame Number here, though different from that in the Text, to 
avoid an Inconfillency in the Paraphrafc, which could not but fhock the Reader. But this I 
would be underftood to do, without impofitig my Opinion on any body, or pretending to 
change the Text : But as an Expofitor, to tell my Reader that I think, that though St. Paul 
fays they^ he means but one ; as ofcen when he fays wc, he means only himfclf, the reafoa 
whereof I have given elfcwhere, 

"''^ ' 2 Mini- 



Chap. XL- 


more abundant, in ftripes 
above meafi;rc, in prifons 
' ^ttore frequent, in deaths 

14 Of the Jews five times 
received I forty ftripes, 

'fave one. 

15 Thrice was I beaten 
with rods, once was I (lo- 
ned, thrice I furfcred fhip- 
wrack ; a night and a day 
I have been in the deep : 

26 In journeying often, in 
perils of waters, in perils 
of robbers, in perils by 
mine own countrymen, in 
p""er1ls by the heathen, in 
perils in the city, in perils 
in the wildernefs, in perils 
in the fea, in perils among 

' falfe brethren ; 

X7 In wearinefs and pain- 
fulnefs, in watchings of- 
ten, in hunger and third, 
in faftings often, in cold 
and nakednefs. 

jj Befides thofe things 
that are without, ' that 
which Cometh upon me 
daily, the care of all the 

29 Who is weak, and I am 
not weak ? who is offend- 
ed, and I burn not ? 

,Q If I muft needs glory, 
I will glory of the things 

Minifter of Jefus Chrift ? (I fpeak in my foolifh 
way of hoafting) I am more fo : In toilfome 
Labours I furpafs him ; in Stripes I am exceed- 
ingly beyond him ^ in Prifons I have been 
oftner ; and in the very Jaws of Death more 
than once. Of the Jews 1 have five Times re- 
ceived forty Stripes, fave one : Thrice was I 
whipp'd with Rods j once was I ftoned j thrice 
fhipwracked; I have pafled a Night and a Day 
in the Sea : In Journeyings often ; in Perils by 
Water, in Perils by Robbers, in Perils by my 
own Countrymen, in Perils from the Heathen, 
in Perils in the City, in Perils in the Country, 
in Perils at Sea, in Perils amongft falfe Bre- 
thren: In Toil and Trouble, and fleeplefs 
Nights often ; in Hunger and Thirft ; in 
Faftings often 5 in Cold and Nakednefs. 
Befides thefe Troubles from without, theDiftur- 
bance that comes daily upon me from my Con- 
cern for all the Churches. Who is a w^eak Chri- 
flian, in danger through Frailty or Ignorance to 
be milled, whofe Weaknefs I do not feel and 
fuffer in, as if it were my own? Who is ad:ually 
mifled, for whom my Zeal and Concern does 
not make me uneafy, as if I had a Fire in me? 
If I mull be compelled ^ to glory % I will 


23 ° 'Er '7rK\)yaii vin^Ca.KXopTcot^ in Stripes abtve Meafure^ rather in Stripes exceedirigi Tot 
thefe Words, as the other Particulars of this Vtrfe, ought to be taken comparatively with refe- 
rence to the falfe Apoftle, with whom St. P^«/ is comparing himlelf in the Miniftry of the Gofpel : 
Unlefs this be under Itood fo, there will feem to be a difagreeable Tautology in the following 
Verfes ; which, taking thefe Words in a comparative Senfe, are Proofs of his faying, I» Strides 
1 am txceedinpjy beyond him, for of the ]gws fve Times, &c. 

;o P Ccmpelledy vid. C^<Jp. XII. 1 1. 

*> By Yi.Av'/A^^^i which is tranllated (bmetimes to glory, and fometimcs to loafi, the Apoftle 
all along, where he applies it to himfelf, means nothing but the mentioning fbme commendable 
AiUon of his without Vanity or Oilenta:ioD, but barely upon neceifity on the prefent Occafion. 









Chap. XII. 

glory of thofe Things which are of my weak 

31. and fuffering lide. The God and Father of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift, who is blelfed for ever, 

32. knoweth that I lie not. In Damafcas, the Go- 
vernour under Aretas the King, who kept the 
Town with a Garrifon, being defirous to appre- 

33. hend me, I was through a Window let down 
in a Baiket, and efcaped his Hands. 

which concern mine infir- 

The God and Father of Jl 

our Lord Jefus Chriii, which 
is blefled for evermore, 
knoweth that I lie not. 

In Damafcjs, the gover- 34 
nour under Artcas the king, 
kept the city of the Da- 
mafcenes with a garrifon, 
defirous to apprehend me ; 

And through a window J 5. 
in a basket was I let dowji 
by the wall, and efcaped 
his hands. 



SECT. IV. N 6. 


E makes good his Apofllefliip by the extraordinary Vifions and 
Revelations which he had received^ 




F I muft be forced to glory ' for your 
_ fakes, for me it is not expedient, I will 
come to Vifions and Revelations of the Lord. 
I knew a Man, by ^ the Power ofChrift, above 
fourteen Years ago, caught up into the third 
Heaven ; whether the intire Man, Body and 
all, or out of the Body in an Extafy, I know 
not, God knows. And I know fuch an one ^, 



T is not expedient for 
me doubtlefs to glory : 
I will come to vifions and- 
revelations of the Lord. 

I knew a man in Chrift, 
above fourteen years agoj 
(whether in the body, I 
cannot tell ; or whether 
out of the body, I cannot 
tell: God knoweth) fuch 
an one caught up to the 
third heaven. 

AxkI Iknew fuch a man 


1 ' 'EiAAVX^^at J'ilt If I mujt glory^ is the reading of fome Copies, and is juftificd by 
ver. 50. of the foregoing Chapter, by the vulgar Tranflation, and by the Syriacj much to the 
feme Purpofe, and fuiting better with the Context, renders the Senfe clearer. 

' «" f Modtltly f^akiiig of himfelf in a third Perfon, 






(whether in the boJy, or 
out of the body, I cannot 
tell : God knoweth.) 
A How that he was caiiqht 
up into paradife, anJ heard 
unfpeakable words, which 
ic 13 not lawful for a man 
to utter. 

5 Of fuch an one will I 
glory : yet of my fdf I^ 
■will not glory, but in mine 

6 For though I would de- 
flre to glory, I fhall not 
be a fool ; for 1 will fay 
the truth : but now I for- 
bear, left any man fhould 
think of me above that 
which he fccth me to be, 
or that he heareth of me. 

7 And left I fliould be ex- 
alted above m.cafure thro' 
the abundance of the reve- 
lations, there was given to 
me a thorn in the flefli, 
the roertenger of Satan to 
buffet me, left 1 ftiould be 
exalted above meafure. 

8 For this thing I befought 
the Lord thrice, that it 
might depart from me. 

9 And he faid unto me. 
My grace is fufficient for 
thee : for my ftrength is 
made perfect in weaknefs. 
Moft gladly therefore will 
I rather glory in my in- 
firmities, that the power 
of Chrift may reft upon 

lo Therefore I take plea- 
fure in infirmities, in re- 


Chap. XIT. 

whether In the Body, or out of the Body, I know 
not, God knows ; that he was caught up into 
Paradife, and there heard what is not in the 
Power of Man to utter : Of fuch an one I will 
glory ; but my felf I will not mention with 
any boafting, unlefs in Things that carry the 
Marks of Weaknefs, and fliew my Sufferings. 
But if I fliould have a mind to glory in other 
Things, I might do it without being a Fool; 
for I would fpeak nothing but what is true, 
having Matter in abundance : * But I forbear, 
left any one fliould think of me beyond what 
he fees me, or hears commonly reported of me. 
And that I might not be exalted above meafure, 
by reafon of the abundance of Revelations that 
I had, there was given me a Thorn in the 
Flefli ", the MeiTenger of Satan to buffet me, 
that I might not be over-much elevated. 
Concerning this Thing I befought the Lord 
thrice, that it might depart from me : And he 
faid, My Favour is fufficient for thee j for my 
Power exerts it felf, and its Sufficiency is {cen. 
the more perfedlly, the weaker thou thy felf art. 
I therefore moft willingly choofe to glory, ra- 
ther in Things that fliew my Weaknefs, than in 
my Abundance of glorious Revelations, that the 
Power of Chrift may the more vifibly be fcen 
to dwell in me : Wherefore I have Satisfa(fi:ion 
in Weakneffes, in Reproaches, in Neceffities, 
in Perfecutions, in Diftreffes, for Chrift's fake. 
For when I, look'd upon in my outward State, 




N O "T E S, 

6 ♦ Vid. ver.7. 

7 ' Tfjorn i» the TUfi : What this was in particular, St. Paul having thought fit to conceal it, 
is not cafy for thofe who come after to difcover, nor is it much mataial. 







appear weak -, then, by the Power of Chrift 
which dweUeth in me, I am found to be ftrong. 
I am become foolifh in glorying thus ; but it is 
you who have forced me to it. For I ought to 
have been commended by you, fmce in nothing 
came I behind the chiefeft of the Apoflles, 
though in my felf I am nothing. 



proaches, in neceflitiesj in 
perfecutions, in diftrefle? 
for Chrift's fake : for when 
I am vveakjthen am I ftrong. 

I am become a fool in ii 
glorying,ye have compelled 
me : for I ought to have 
been commended of you : 
for in nothing am I behind 
the very chiefeft apoftles, 
though I be nothing. 

SECT. IV. N. 7. 

CHAP. XII. la, 15. 


y "YE continues to juflify himfelf to be an Apoftle, by the Miracles 
^r\ he did, and the fupcrnatural Gifts he beftowed amongft the 




Ruly the Signs whereby an Apoftle might 
be known, were wrought among you by 
me, in all Patience ^ and Submiffion under 
the Difficulties I there met with, in miraculous, 
wonderful and mighty Works, performed by me. 
For what is there which you were any way 
fhorten'd in, and had not equally with other 
Churches ", except it be that I my felf was not 
burdenfome to you ? Forgive me this Injury. 

N O r E S. 

11 ^ This.may well be uuderftogd to reflefl on the Haughtinefs and PUnty wherein the falfe 
Apoftle lived amongft chem. 
1 3 * Vid. 1 Ccr. I. 4—7. 


TRuly the figns of an 1 
apolile were wrought 
among you in all patience, 
in figns, and wonders, and 
mighty deeds. 

For what is it wherein 
ye were inferior to other 
churches, except it be that 
I my felf was not burden- 
fome to you \ Forgivci 
me this wrong. 





SECT. IV. N. 8. 

CHAP. XII. 14--- 21. 


E farther juftifies himfelf to the Corinthiam, by his pafled 
Difintereilednefi, and his continued kind Intentions to them. 

20 1 

ch. xir. 


BE hold, the third time 
I am ready to come 
to you ; and I will not be 
burdenfome to you : for I 
feek not yours, but you : 
for the children ought 
not to lay up for the pa- 
rents, but the parents for 
the children. 

And I will very gladly 
fpend and be fpent for 
you, though the more a- 
bundantly I love you, the 
lefs I be loved. 

But be it fo, I did not 
burden you : neverthelels 
being crafty, I caught you 
with guile. 

Did I make a gain of 
you by any of them whom 
I fent unto you ? 

I defired Titus, and 
with him I fent a bro- 
ther: did Titus make a 
gain of you? vvalked we 
not in the fame fpirit ? 
walked we not in the 
fame fteps ? 


BEhold this is the third time I am ready to 
come unto you, but I will not be burden- 
lome to you ; for I feek not what is yours, but 
you : for 'tis not expeded, nor ufual, that Chil- 
dren fhould lay up for their Parents, but Pa- 
rents ^ for their Children. I will gladly lay 
out whatever is in my PolTeflion or Power ; 
nay, even wear out and hazard myfelf for your 
Souls b, though it fhould fo fall out, that the 
more I love you, the lefs I Ihould be beloved 
by you ^. Be it fo, as fome fuggeft, that I 
was not burdenfome to you ; but it was in 
truth out of cunning, with a defign to catch 
you with that trick, drawing from you by 
others what I refufed in Perfon. In anfwer to 
which I ask, Did I by any of thofe I fent unto 
you make a Gain of you ? I defired Titus to go 
to you, and with him I fent a Brother : Did Titus 
make a gain of you? Did not they behave them- 
felres with the iame Temper that I did amongfl 
you ? Did we not walk in the fame Steps, i. e, 
neither they nor I received any thing from you- 






» Vid. I Cor. W. 14, 15. 
'' Vid. 2 Tim. ii. 10. 
' Vid. Ci>ap. vi. 12, 13. 

D d 





Again, ^ Do not, upon my mentioning my 
fending of Titus to you, think that I apologize 
for my not coming myfeif : I fpeak as in the 
Prcfence of God, and as a Ciiriftian, there is no 
fuch thing. In all my whole Carriage towards 
you, Beloved, all that has been done has been 
done only for your Edification. No, there is no 
need of an Apology for my not coming to you 
fooner : for I fear, when I do come I fnall not 
find you fuch as I would, and that you will find 
me fnch as you would not. I am afraid, that 
among you there are Difputes, Envyings, Ani- 
mofities. Strifes, Backbitings, Whifperings, 
11 Swellings of Mind, Diflurbances. And that 
my God, when I come to you again, will hum- 

Again, think you that 19 
we excufe ourfelves unto 
you ? we fpeak before God 
in Chrill ; but we do all 
things , dearly beloved , 
for your edifying. 

For I fear, lelt when I 20 
come I fhall not find yoj 
fuch as I '.vould, and that 
I fhill be found unto you 
fjch as ye would not : 
leR there be debates, en- 
vyings, wraths, ilrifes, 
backbitings, whifperings, 
fwellings, tumu ts : 

And leil when \ come 2| 
agiin, my God .'.ill hum- 
ble me among you, and 
thnt 1 flull bewail many 
which have iinncd alrca- 


19 ^ He had before gi\^n the Rcafr.n, Chap. i. 23. of his not coming to them, with the like 
Alieveiation that he ufcs here. If we trace the Thread of St. Pai/Ps Difcourfe here, we may 
obferve, that having concluded the Juflificstion of himfelf and his ApolUelhip by his part Afti- 
ons, z>er. 13. he had it in his Thoughts to tell them how he would deal with the falfe Apoftle 
and his Adherents when he came, as he was ready now to dc. And therefore folemnly begins," 
ver. 14. With liel'o/d, and tells them now tbe third time he was ready to come to them, to 
which joining ( what much upon his mind ) that he would not be burdcnfome to them when 
he came, this fuggeilcd to his thoughts an Objedion, {vix.) that this perfonal Shynefs in him 
was but Cunning, fcr that he dcfign'd to draw Gain from them by other Hands. From which 
he clears himfelf by the Inuance of Titus, and the Brother whom he had fent toeether to tbem^ 
who were as far from receiving any thing 'Vom them as he himfelf. Titus and his other Mefien- 
gcr leing thus mentioned, he thought it.neceflary to obviate another Sufpicion that might be 
raifed in the Minds of fome of them, as if he mentioned the fending of thofe two, as an: Apo- 
.logy for his not coming Iiimfelf : this he difclaims utterly; and to prevent any Thoughts of that 
kind, f 'cmnly protcfts to them, that in all his Carriage to them, he had done nothing but for 
their cation, nor had any other Aim in any of hi') Aftions but purely that; and that he 
forbore coming merely out ot Refpecl and good Will to them. So that all from Beheld this third 
time I am ready- io ccme to you, ver. 14. to this Third time I am coming to you, ch. xiii. i. muft 
he look'd on as an incidcnt'Difcourfe that fell in occafionally, though tending to the (ame piir- 
pofe with the reft ; a way of writing very ufual with oiu- ApofJe, and with other Writers, who 
aboimd in Quicknefs and \'aricty of Thoughts as he did. Such Men are often, by new m.>tter 
rifing in their way, put by iVom what they were going and had begun to fiy; which therefore 
they are fain to' take up again, and continue at a diilance; which St. P^/// docs here after the 
Interpofition of eight Verfes." Other Inltanpes of the like kind may be found ia other places of 
St. Fauf% Writings. 




dy, and have not repented 
of the uncleannefs, and 
fornication, and lafcivi- 
oufnefs which they have 


ble me amongft you, and I fhall bewaiJ many 
who have formerly finned, and have not yet 
repented of the Uncleannefs, Fornication, and 
Lafcivioufnefs, whereof they are guilty. 


Ch. XIII. 

SECT. IV. N. 9. 



HE reaflumes what he was going to fay, Chap, xii. 14. and tells 
them how he intends to deal with them when he comes to 
them, and afTures them, that however they queftion it, he fhall be 
able, by Miracles, to give proof of his Authority and Commiflion 
from Chiift. 

'His is the third time 
I am you 

THIS is now the third time I am coming 
to you ; and when I come I fhall not fpare 
you, having proceeded according to our Savi- 
our's Rule, and endeavoured by fair means firft 
to reclaim you, before I come to the laft extre- 
mity. And of this my former Epiftle, wherein 
I applied my felf to you, and this wherein I 
now, as if I were prefent with you, foretell 
thofe who have formerly finned, and all the 
reft, to whom, being now abfent, I write, 
that when I come I will not fpare you, I fay, 
thefe two Letters are my WitnefTes according to 
our Saviour's Rule, which fays. In the Mouth 
of two or three WitnefTes every Word fhall be 
eftablifhed ^ Since you demand a Proof of 

N r E S. 

z ' In the Mouth of tu:o or three WitneJJcs Jhall every Word be eftablijhed. Thefe words 
fccm to be quoted from the Law of our Saviour, Matth. xviii. 1 6, and not from the Law of 

D d 2 Mt-m 

1 TPl 

in the mouth of two or 
three witneffes fhjll every 
word be eftrtblifhed. 

2 I told you before, and 
foretel you as if I were 
prefent the fecond time ; 
and being abfent, now I 
write to them which here- 
tofore nave finned, and to 
all other, that if I come 
again, I will not fpire: 

•X Since ye feek a proof of 
Chrjft fpeaking in me. 


my Miffion, and of what I deliver, that it is ^ b^uHrmfshty^in 

dictated by Chrift fpeaking in me, who mult vou.' 

be acknowledged not to be weak to you-ward, ' ./«'• though he was cu- 

r rr • > <r i r i • T> cified through weaknefs, 

but has given lufncient Marks ot his rower a- yet he Uveth by the power 

monsft you. For though his Crucifixion and of God : for we aifo are 

T^ *p "' • 1 A ( c ^\T I r weak in him, but we fnall 

Death were with Appearance * or Weaknels, nve with him by the pow- 

yet he liveth with the Manifeftaticn ^ of the er of God toward you. 
Power of God appearing in my punilliing you. 

N r E S. 

Mofes in Deutercnonf^, not only becaufc the Words are the fame with thofe in St. Maith^zv, but 
from the Likenefs of the Cafe. In Deuteronomy the Rule given concerns only Judicial Trials : 
In St. Matthew it is a Rule given for the Management of Perfuafion ufed for the recl.iiming an 
Offender, by fair Means, before coming to the utmoft Extremity, which is the Cafe of St. Paul 
here. In Deuteronomy the Judge was to hear the Witnefies, Detit. xv'ii. 6. and xix. 15. In 
St. Matthew the Party was to hear the Witnefies, Matth. xviii. 17. which was aUo the Cafe of 
St. P/z/.'/ here; the WitnefTes which he means that he made ufe of to perfuade them being his 
two Epiilles. That by WitnefTes he means his two Epiflles, is plain from his way of exprelfing 
himfelf here, where he carefully fets down his telling them twice, [viz. ) before in his former 
Epiflle, Chap. iv. 19. and now ifecond ivne in his fecond EplRle ; and alfo by thefe words, ui 
'PTu^eov TO J«y7i£?v, As if I were prefent with you a fecond time. By our Saviour's Rule, the 
offended Perfon was to go twice to the. Offender; and therefore St. Paul hy%. As if I zoerezL'ith 
you a fecond time, counting his Letters as two perfonal Applications to them, as our Saviour di- 
refled fho.'ld be done before coming to rougher Means. Some take the WitnefTes to be the three 
MefTengers by whom his firfl Epiflle is fuppofed to be fent. But this would not be according to 
the Method prefcribcd by our Saviour in the place from which St. Paul takes the Words he ules; 
for there were no WitnefTes to be made ufe of in the firft Application ; neither, if thofe had 
been the WitnefTes meant, would there have been any need for St. Paul fo carefully and ex- 
prefly to have fet down ui 7nx{uv tb i'^nzs^'y as if prefefit a fecond time, Words which in that 
cafe would be fuperfluous. Befides, thofe three Men are no- where mentioned to have been fent 
by him to perfuade them, nor the Corinthians required to hear them, or reproved for not having 
done it : And laftly, they could not be better WitnefTes of St. PauPs Endeavours twice to 
gain the Corinthians by fair Means, before he proceeded to Severity, than the Epiflles them 

4 '^ 'E^ a&tt'Hd^, through Weaknefs; In J'uvduiUi Qi^, by the Power of God, I have render'd 
with Appearance of Weaknefs, and with the Manifefiation of the Power of God; which I think 
the Senfe of the Place, and the StiJe of the Apoftle will jultify. St. Paul fometimes ufes the 
Greek Prepofitions in a larger Senfe than that Tongue ordinarily allows. Farther it is evident, 
that i/'^ join'd to tt^tfHctf has not a cafual Signification; and therefore in the Antithefis c* S^j- 
(jA^dji &<?, it cannot be taken cafually. And it is ufual for St. Paul in fuch cafes to continue 
the fame Word, though it happens fometimes feemingly to carry the Senfe another way. In 
Iliort, the Meaning of the place is this: " Though Chriil in his Crucifixion appeared weak and 
*' defpicable, yet he now lives to fhevv the Power of God in the Miracles and mighty Works 
'* which he does : So J, though I by my Sufferings and Infirmities appear weak and contempti- 
^- bje, yet ihall I live to fhcw the Power of God in punifhing you miraculoufly. 

3 You 




Examine your felves, 
whether ye be in the 
fliith, prove your own 
lelvcs: know ye not yowr 
own felves, how that Je- 
fus Chrirt is in you, ex- 
cept ye be reprobates ? 

Bui I truft that ye fhall 
know that we are not re- 

Now I pray to God that 
ye do no evil ; not that we 
ihould appear approved, 
but that ye fliould do that 
which is honeft, though 
we be as reprobates. 

For we can do nothing 
againft the truth, but for 
the truth. 

For we are g!ad when 
we are weak, and ye are 
flrong: and this alio we 
wlfh, even your perfecti- 

Therefore I write thefe 
things being abfcnt, left 
being prelent I fhould ufe 
fharpnefs, according to 

You examine me whether I can by any miracu- 
lous Operation give aProof that Chrifl: is in me. 
Pray examine your lelves whether you be in the 
Faith; make a trial upon your felves, whether 
you your felves are not fomewhat deftitute of 
Proofs ^ ; or are you fo little acquainted with 
your felves, as not to know whether Chfilt be in 
you? But if you do not know your felves whe- 
ther you can give Proofs or no, yet I hope you 
fliall know that 1 am not unable to give 
Proofs ^ of Chrift in me. But T pray to God 
that you may do no Evil, wifhing not for an 
Opportunity to ihew my Proofs ^ ; but that 
you doing what is right, I may be as if I had 
no Proofs ^^, no fupernatural Power : For 
though I have the Power of punifhing fuperna- 
tural! y> I cannot fhew this Power upon any of 
you, unlefs it be that you are Offenders, and 
your Punifhment be for the Advantage of the 
Gofpel'. I am therefore glad when I am weak, 
and can inflid no Punifhment upon you, and 
you are fo ftrong, /. e. clear of Faults, that ye 
cannot be touched. For all the Power I have 
is only for promoting the Truth of the Gofpel; 
whoever are faithful and obedient to that, I can 
do nothing to, I cannot make Examples of 
them, by all the extraordinary Power I have^ 
if I would. Nay, this alfo I wilh, even your 
Perfedion. Thele things therefore I write to. 


_ 5, 6, 7. '' 'kioKiuai, tranflated here Reprobates, 'cis plain, in thefe three Verfes, has no fach 
Signification, Reprobation being very remote from the Argument the Apoftle is here upon: But 
the word dt,^')u{Mi is here ufed for one that cannot give proof cf Chrifl being in him ; one that 
is deftitute of a fupernatural Power :- for thus ftands St. Paul's, Difcourfe, z>er. 3. ^ Jhyj^lui ^«- 
lei-n, ver. 6. -yyuT^.hi 877 «/. uJ^iufiOi iJ(^v, Sifiu you Jeck a Proof, ycujhail knew that I am 
not dejlitute of a Proof. 




Ch. XIII. 



vou, beine; abfent, that when I come I may not ^}^ ^ P^^^"" . ^^^<^^ ^^« 

•' , ' P ' J . 1 T» t • 1 1 Lord hath given me to e- 

\1lZ Seventy, according to the rower which the dification, and not to de- 

"Ltd hith given me for Edification, not for .ftru<^ion- 


CHAP. XIII. II— 13. 



Ilnally, Brethren, farewell. Bring your 

r felves into one well united, firm, unjarriiig 
Society K Be of good comfort; be of one 
mind ; live in peace, and the God of Love and 

12 Peace Ihall be with you : Salute one another 

13 with a holy kifs: All the Saints Iklute you. The 

14 Grace of our Lord Jel'us Chrift, and the Love 
of God, and the Communion of the Holy Ghofi: 
be with you all. Jme?h 


} finally. Brethren, Are- 
well : be perfeft, be of 
g.od comfort, be of one 
mind, live in peace ; xid 
the God of love and peace 
fhall be with you. 

Greet one another with r 
an holy kifs. 

All the faints falute \ 

The erace of our Lord |, 
Jefus Chrilt, and the love 
of God, and the commu- 
nion of the holy Ghoft, be 
with you all. Amen. 

ii » The fame that he exhorts them to in the beginning of the firll Epiflle, ch. 
ver. 10. 





O N T H E 


From Co- 
rinth, Jn- 
no Mra 
Vulg. 57. 
T O T H E Heroniii^ 


S T N P S I S. 

EFORE we take into Confideration the Eplftle to theRo- 
mans in particular, it may not be amils to premile, That 
the miraculous Birth, Life, Death, Refurreclion and Afcen- 
fion of our Lord Jelus Chrift, were all Events that came 
to pafs within the Confines o^yudea-^ and that the ancient Writinga 
of the Jewilh Nation, allowed by the Chriftians to be of Divine 
Original, were appealed to as witnelling the Truth of his Million, 
and Doctrine, whereby it was manifcft that the Jews were the De- 
pofitaries of the Proofs of the Chriftian Religion. This could not 
chule but give the Jews^ who were owned to be the People of God, 
even in the Days of our Saviour, a great Authority among the Con- 
vert Gentiles, who knew nothing of the Meflias they were to be- 
lieve in, but what they derived from that Nation, out of which he 
and his Dcdrine fprung. Nor did the Jews fail to make ufe of this 
Advantage ilveral ways, to the Difturbance of the Gentiles that 
embraced Chriftlanity. The Jews, even thofe of them that recei- 
ved thelGofpel, were, for the mofl part, fo devoted to the Law o£ 
Mujts and their ancient Rites, that they could by no means bring 


2o8 ROMANS. 

Synopfis- themfelves to think that they were to be laid afide. They were 



every where ilifF and zealous for them, and contended that they 
were neceflkry to be obferved even by Chrlftians, by all that pre- 
tended to be the People of God, and hoped to be accepted by him. 
This gave no imail Trouble to the newly converted Gentiles, and 
was a great Prejudice to the Gofpel, and therefore we find it com- 
plained of in more Places than one: Vid. ABs xv. i. i Cor. xi. 3. 
G^/. ii. 4. and V. i, 10, 12. '^hil.Vn. i. Ci?/. ii. 4, 8, i^. T//-. i. i o, 1 1 , 
i^.,&i\ This Remark may ferve to give light, not only to this 
Epiftle to the KomcviSy but to feveral other of St. <J^atd's Epiflles J 
written to the Churches of converted Gentiles. 

As to this Epiftle to the Romans ^ the Apoftle*s principal Aim in 
k lecms to be to perfuade them to a fteady Perfeverance in the Pro- 
feilion of Chriftianity, by convincing them that God is the God of 
the Gentiles as well as the Jews ; and that now under the Gofpel 
there is no Difference between Jew and Gentile. This he docs fe- 
veral ways. 

I. By fhewing that though the Gentiles were very finful, yet the 
Jews, who had the Law, kept it not, and fo could not, upon account 
of their having the Law ( which being broken, aggravated their 
Faults, and made them as far from righteous as the Gentiles them- 
felves) have a Title to exclude the Gentiles from being the People 
of God under the Gofpel. 

1. That Abraham was the Father of all that believe, as well Un- 
clrcumcifed as Circumcifed ; fo that thofe that walk in the Steps of 
the Faith of Abraham^ though uncircumcifed, are the Seed to which 
the Promife is made, and fhall receive the Bleffing. 

3. That it was the Purpofe of God from the Beginning, to take 
the Gentiles to be his People under the Meflias, in the place of the 
Jews, who had been fo till that time, but were then nationally re- 
jeded, bccaufc they nationally rejeded the Meflias, whom he fent 
to them to be their King and Deliverer; but was received by but a 
very fmall Number of them ; v/hich Remnant was received into 
the Kingdom of Chrift, and fo continued to be his People with the 
converted Gentiles, who all together made now the Church and 
People of God. 

4. That the Jewifli Nation had no Rcafon to complain of any 
Unrighteoufnels in God, or Hardfhip from him in their being caft 
off for their Unbelief, fince they had been warned of it, and they 
might find it threatned in their ancient Prophets, Befides the rai- 


ROMANS. 2op 

fing or deprefling of any Nation is the Prerogative of God's Sove- ^^^J^^^ 
reignty. Prtlervation in the Land that God has given them being 
not the Rip;ht of any one Race of Men above another. And God 
might, \vhu\ he thought fit, rejea the Nation of the Jews by the 
icime Sovereignty whereby he at firft chole the Pofterity of Jacob 
to be his People, paffing by other Nations, even fuch as defcendcd 
from Abraham and Jfaac : But yet he tells them, that at laft they 
fhall be reftored again. 

Befides the Affurance he labours to give the Romans, that they 
are by Faith in Jefus Chrift the People of God, without Circumci- 
fion or other Obfervances of the Jews, whatever they may fay, 
which is the main drift of this Eplfde, it is farther remarkable, 
that this Epiftle being writ to a Church of Gentiles in the Metro- 
polis of the Roman Empire, but not planted by St. 'Paul himfelf, 
he as Apoftle of the Gentiles, out of care that they ftiould rightly 
underftand the Gofpel, has woven into his Difcourfe the chief Do- 
ctrines of it, and given them a comprehenfive View of God's deal- 
ing with Mankind, from firft to laft, in reference to eternal Life. 
The principal Heads whereof are thefe. 

That by Adam's Tranfgrefllon Sin enter'd into the World, and 
Death by Sin, and fo Death reigned over all Men ixom Adam to 

That by Mofes God gave the Children of Ifrael ( who were his 
People, /'. e. owned him for their God, and kept themfelves free 
from the Idolatry and Revolt of the Heathen World) a Law, which 
if they obey'd, they ftiould have Life thereby, /. e. attain to Im- 
mortal Life, which had been loft by Adam's Tranfgreflion. 

That though this Law which was righteous, juft and good, were 
ordained to Life, yet not being able to give Strength to perform 
v.'hat it could not but require, it failed by realbn of the Weaknefs 
of human Nature to help Men to Life. So that though the Ifrae- 
liteshad Statutes, which if a Man did he fliould live in them; yet 
they all tranfgrefled, and attain'd not to Righteoufnefs and Life by 
the Deeds of tlie Law. 

That therefore there was no way to Life left to thofe under the 
Law, but by the Righteoufnefs of Faith in Jefus Chrift, by which 
Faith alone they were that Seed of Abraham., to whom the Bleffing 
was promis'd. 

This was the State of the IfraeJttes. 
As to the GentUe World he tells them ^ 

E e That 


Synopfis. That though God made himfelf known to them by legible Cha- 


raders of his Being and Power vifible in the Works of the Creati- 
on, yet they glorified him not, nor were thankful to him: they 
did not own nor worfliip the one only true invifible God, the Crea- 
tor of all things, but revolted from him, to Gods fet up by thcm- 
felves in their own vain Imaginations, and worfhipped Stocks and 
Srones, the corruptible Images of corruptible Things. 

That they having thus call off their Allegiance to him their pro- 
per Lord, and revolted to other Gods, God therefore call them off, 
and gave them up to viie Affedions, and to the Condud of their 
own darkened Hearts, which led them unto all forts of Vices. 

That both Jews and Gentiles being thus all under Sin, and co- 
ming Ihort of the Glory of God : God by fending his Son Jellrs 
Chrifl, fhews himlclf to be the God both of Jews and Gentiles, 
fince he jufiifieth the Circumcifion by Faith, and the Uncircumcifi- 
on through Faith, fo that all that believe are freely juftificd by his 

That though Juflification unto Eternal Life be only by Grace, 
through Faith in Jelus Chrift, yet we are to the utmoft of our 
Power fincerely to endeavour after Righteoufnefs, and from our 
Hearts obey the Precepts of the Gofpel, whereby we become the 
Servants of God ^ for his Servants we are whom we obey, whether 
of Sin unto Death, or of Obedience unto Righteoufnefs. 

Thefe are but forne of the more general and comprehenfive Heads 
of the Chriftian Dodrine, to be found in this Epiftle. The De- 
fign of a Synopfis will not permit me to defcend more minutely to 
Particulars. But this let me fay, that he that would have an en- 
larged View of true Chriftianity, will do well to iludy this Epi- 

Several Exhortations fuited to the State that the Chriftians of 
.Rome were then in, make up the latter part of the Epiftle. 

This Epiftle was writ from Corinth the Year of our Lord, ac- 
cording to the common Account, 57, the third Year of 
Nero., a little after the fecond Epiftle to the Cor'mth'ijus. 


S E C T. I. 

CHAP. I. I--IS. 

INTR D UCTIO N, with his Profcffion of a Defire to fee them. 


Chap. r. 


PAU L a fervant of Je- 
ius Chrifl, called to 
be an apoitle , feparated 
unto the gofpel o^ God, 

( Which he had promi- 
fed afore by his prophets 
in the holy fcriptures) 

Concerning his Son Je- 
fus Chrillour Lord, which 
was made of the feed of 
David according to the 

And declared to be the 
Son of God with power, 
according to the fpirit of 
holinefs, by the refurre- 
dion from the dead : 


PJUL3, Servant of Jcfus Chriil:, called ^ to 
be an ApoRie, feparated ^ to the Preach- 
ing of the Gofpel of God ( which he had here- 
tofore promifed by his Prophets in the Holy- 
Scriptures) concerning his Son Jefus Chrift our 
Lord, who according to the Flefh, i. e. as to 
the Body which he took in the Womb of the 
bleffed Virgin his Mother, was of the Pofterity 
and Linage of David "" according to the Spirit 
of Holinefs ", /. e. as to that more pure and 
jpiritual part, which in him over-ruled ail, 
and kept even his frail Flefh holy and fpotlefs 
from the leaft taint of Sin ^, and wasof another 
Extraction, with moft mighty Power P declared 

N r E s. 

I ^ Called. The manner of his being called, fee AUs xl. 1—22. 
' Separated, vid. Ads xiii. 2. 

3 "' Of David, and fo would have been regifter'd of the Houfe and Linage of David, as 
both his Mother and reputed Father were, if there had been another Tax in his Days. Vid. 
Lukex'i. 4. Matth. xiii. 55. 

4 " According to the Spirit cf Holinefs, is here njanifellly oppofed to, according to the Flejh, 
in the forego' ng Verfe; and fo mi;lt mean that more pure and fpiritual Part in him, which by 
'".ivine Extraction he had immediately from God; unlefs this be fo underftood, the Antithefis u 


° Sec Paraphrafe, Chap. viii. 3. 

P 'Ec <f\ui<t^ii, u-ith Pczier : He that will read in the Original what St. Paul dys, Epb. i. 
19. 20. of the Power which God exerted in raifing Chrift from the dead, will hardly avoid 
thinking that he there fees St. Paul labouring for Words to exprefs the Greatnefs of it. 

E e 2 to 



1 1 



q to be the Son of God by his Refurredion from 
the dead, by whom I have received Favour, 
and the Office of an Apoftle, for the bringing 
of the Gentiles every where to the Obedience 
of Faith, which I preach in his Name; of 
which Number, /. e. Gentiles that I am fent to 
preach to, are ye who are already called, '' and 
become Chriftians: To ail the Beloved of God % 
and called to be Saints, who are in Kome^ 
Favour and Peace be to you from God our 

In the firit place I thank my God through 
Jefus Chrift for you ail, that your Faith is fpo- 
ken of throughout the whole World. For God 
is my Witnefs, whom I ferve with the whole 
bent of my Mind in preaching the Gofpcl of 
his Son, that without ceafing I conftantly make 
mention of you in my Prayers, requefting ( if 
it be God's Will, that I may now at length, if 
polTible, have a good Opportunity ) to come 
unto you. For I long to fee you, that I may 
communicate to you fome fpiritual Gift ^ for 
your Eftablifhment " in the Faith ; that 




By whom ^ve have re- 5 
ceived grace and apollle- 
fhip, for obedience to the 
faith among all nations for 
his name : 

Among whom are ye 6 
alfo the called of jefus 

To all that be in Rome, 7 
beloved of God, called to 
be laints: Grace to you, 
and peace from God oar 
Father, and the Lord Je- 
fus Chrift. 

Firftj I thank my God 8 
through Jefus Chrift for 
you all, that your faith is 
fpoken of throughout the 
whole w'orld. 

For God is my witnefs, 9 
whom I ferve with my 
fpirit in the gofpel of his 
Son, that without ceafing 
I make mention of you 
always in my prayers, 

Making rcqucit (if by lO 
any means now at length 
I might have a profpe- 
rous journey by the will 
of God) to come unto 

For I long to fee you, 1 1 
that I may impart unto 
you fome fpiritual gift. 

1 Declared does not cxaftly anfwer the word in the Original, nor is it perhaps cafy to find a 
word in Englijh that perfedly anfwers hei^.vT©- , in the Scnfe the Apoftle ufcs it here ; lei^nv 
fignifies properly to bound, terminate, or circumfcribc; by which Termination the Figure of 
things fcnfible is made, and they are known to be of this or that Race, and arc diftinguifhed 
from others. Thus St. Paul takes Chrift's Refurre6lion from the Dead, and his cntring into 
Immortality, to be the moft eminent and charafteriftical Mark, whereby Chrift is certainly known, 
and, as it were, determined to be the Son of God. 

7 f To take the Thread of St. PauFs Words here right, all from the word Lord in tlie middle 
of "jer. 3. to the Beginning of this 7th, muft be read as a Parenthefis. 

6 & 7 ' Called of Jefus Chrift; called to be Saints; beloved of God; arc bu.t different Expref- 
fions for Profeflbrs of Chriftianity. 

1 1 ' Spiritual Gift. If any one defire to know more particularly the fpiritual Gifts, he may 
jead I Cor. xii. 

" EJlablipmcnt. The Jezvs were the Worftiippcrs of the true God, and had been for many 
'Ages his People, this could not be denied by the Chriftians. Whereupon tlicy were very apt to 



to the end you may be 

That is, that I may be 
comforted together with 
vou, by the mutual faith 
both of you and me. 

Now I would not have 
vou ignorant, brethren, 
that oftentimes I purpofed 
to come unto you (but was 
let hitherto) that I might 
have fome fruit among 
you alfo, even as among 
ether Gentiles. 

T am debtor both to 
the Greeks, and to the 
Barbarians ; both to the 
wife, and to the unwife. 

So, as much as in me is, 
I am ready to preach the 
gofpel to you that are at 
Rome alfo. 



is ^, that when 

I am among you, I may be 
comforted together with you, botli with your 
Faith and my own. This I think fit youfliould 
know, Brethren, that I often purpofe to come 
unto you, that I may have Ibme Fruit of my 
Miniftry among you alfo, even as among other 
Gentiles. I owe what Service I can do to the 
Gentiles of all kinds, w'hether Greeks or Bar- 
barians, to both the more knowing and civili- 
zed, and the uncultivated and ignorant j fo that 
as much as in me lies, I am ready to preach the 
Goipel to you alfo who are at Rome, 


porfuade the convert Gentiles, that the Aleffias was promifed, and fent to the Jewifh Nation 
alone, and that the Gentiles could claim, or have no benefit by him ; or if they were to receive 
any benefit by the Aleffias, they were yet bound to obferve the Law of Mofes, which was the 
way of Worfhip which God had prefcribed to his People, This in feveral Places very much, 
fliook the Gentile Converts. St. P^/// makes it (as we have already obferved) his bufmefs in this 
Epiftle, to prove that the Meffias was intended for the Gentiles as much as for the Jews; and that 
to make any one Partaker of the Benefits and Privileges of the Gofpel, there was nothing more 
required but to believe and obey it : And accordingly here in the Entrance of the Epillle, he 
wiflies to come to Rome, that by imparting fome miraculous Gifts of the Holy Ghoft to them, 
they might be edablifhed in the true Notion of Chriftianity againft all Attempts of the Jews, 
who would either exclude them from the Privileges of it, or bring them under the Law of Mo- 
fcs. So where St. Paul cxprefTes his Care that the Coloffians fliould be ejlablipcd in the Faitb, 
Col. ii. 7. it is vifible by the Context, that what he oppofed was Judaifm. 

12 ^ That is. St. P^/^/ in the former Verfe had fiid, that he defired to come amongfl: them 
to eftablifh them ; in thefe Words, that is, he explains, or, as it were, recals what he had faid, 
that he might not feem to think them not fufliciently inftruded or eltablilhed in the Faith ; and 
therefore turns the End of his coming to them, to their mutual rejoycing in one another's Faith, 
•vhen he and they came to lee and know one another. 






Chap, I. 

214 ROMANS. 

SECT. 11. 

CHAP. I. 16-- II. 29. 


ST. ^aulm this Sedion Ihews, that the Jews exclude themfelves 
from being the People of God under the Gofpel, by the fame 
Reafon that they would have the Gentiles excluded. 

It cannot be fufficiently admired how skilfully, to avoid offend- 
ing thofe of his own Nation, St. -PaulhciQ enters into an Argument 
fo unpleafmg to the Jews, as this of perfwading them, that the Gen- 
tiles had as good a Title to be taken in to be the People of God un- 
der the Meflias, as they themfelves; which is the main Defign of 
this Epiftle. 

In this latter part of the firft Chapter, he gives a Defcription of 
the Gentile World in very black Colours, but very adroitly inter- 
weaves fuch an Apology for them, in refped of the Jews, as was 
fufficient to beat that afTuming Nation out of all their Pretences to 
ii Right to continue to be alone the People of God, with an Exclu- 
fion of the Gentiles. This may be lecn if one carefully attends to 
the Particulars that he mentions relating to the Jews and Gentiles, 
and obferves how what he fays of the Jews in the lecond Chapter, 
anfwers to what he had chaiged on the Gentiles in the firfl. For 
there is a fccret Comparifon of them one with another runs through 
thcfe two Chapters, which as foon as it comes to be minded, gives 
fuch a Light and Luftre to St ^^////'s Difcourfe, that one cannot but 
admire the skilful turn of it; and look on it as the moft Ibfr, the 
moll beautiful, and moft preffing Argumentation that onefliall any 
where meet with altogether: hncc it leaves the Jews nothing to 
fay for themi'clvcs, why they fnould have the Privilege continued 
to them under the Gofpel, of being alone t!ie People of God. Ail 
tlie things they Itood upon, and boafted in, giving them no Prefe- 
rence in this reipecl: to the Gentiles ; nor any ground to judge them 
to be uncapnble or unworthy to be their Fellow-Subjcds in the 
Kingdom of chc Meffiiis. This is what he fays, fpeaking of them 
♦ nationally. But as to every ones perfjnal Concern in a future 
State, he affares them, both Jews and Gentiles, that the Unrigh- 
2 teous 

ROMANS. 219 

tcous of both Nations, whether admitted or not into the vlfible Chap. I. 
Communion of the People of God, are liable to Condemnation. 
Thole who have finned without Law, fhall perilh without Law; 
and thole who have fmned in the Law, fliall be judged, /. e, con- 
demned by the Law. 

Perhaps fome Readers will not think it fuperfluous, iflgivea 
fhort Draught of St. haul's Management of himfelf here, for allay- 
ing the Sowrenefs of the Jews againll the Gentiles, and their Of- 
fence at the Gofpel for allowing any of them place among the Peo- 
ple of God under the Mefhas. 

After he had declared that the Gofpel is the Power of God unto 
Salvation to thofe who believe, to the Jew firft, and alio to the 
Gentile, and that the way of this Salvation is revealed to be by 
the Righteoulheis of God, which is by Faith : he tells them, that 
the Wrath of God is alfo now revealed againft all Atheifm, Poly- 
theifm. Idolatry, and Vice whatfoever of Men, holding the Truth 
in Unrighteoufnefj ; becaufe they might come to the Knowledge of 
the true God, by the vifible Works of the Creation, io that the 
Gentiles were without Excufe for turning from the true God to 
Idolatry, and the.Worlhip of falfe Gods; whereby their Hearts 
were darkned, io that they were without God in the World. 
Wherefore God gave them up to'vile Affetlions, and all manner of 
Vices ; in which State, though by the Light of Nature they know 
what was right, yet underftanding not that fuch things were wor- 
thy of Death, they not only do them themfelves, but abllaining 
from Cenfure, live fairly, and in Feliowihip with thofe that do 
ihem. Whereupon he tells the Jews, that they are more inexcu- 
fable than the Heathen, in that they judge, abhor, and have in 
Averflition the Gentiles for what they themfelves do with greater 
Provocation. Their Cenfure and Judgment in the Cafe is unjuft 
and wrong: But the Judgment of God is always right and j aft, 
which will certainly overtake thofe who judge others for the lame 
things they do themfelves; and do not confider that God's For- 
bearance to them ought to bring them to Repentance. For God 
will render to every one according to his Deeds; to thofe that in 
Mcekncls and Patience continue in well-doing, everlafting Life ; 
but to thoie who are cenforious, proud and contentious, and will 
not obey the Gofpel, Condemnation and Wrath at the day of 
Judgment, vyhether they be Jews or Gentiles : For God puts no 
Difference between them. Thou that art a Jew boadefl that God 




Chap. I. is thy God ; that he has enhghten'd thee by the Law that he him- 
^^"^""^^"^ fc'f gave thee from Heaven, and hath by that immediate Revelation 
taught thee what things are excellent and tend to Life, and what 
are evil and have Death annexed to them. If therefore thou trani- 
grefleft, doit not thou more difhonour God and provoke him, than 
a poor Heathen that knows not God, nor that the things he doth 
deferve Death, which is their Reward? Shall not he, if by the 
Light of Nature he do what is conformable to the revealed Lav/ 
of God, judge thee who haft received that Law from God by Re- 
velation, and breakeft it? Shall not this rather than Circumcifion 
make him an Ifraelite ? For he is not a Jew, /. e. one of God's Peo- 
ple, who is one outwardly by Circumcifion of the Flefh, but he 
that is one inwardly by the Circumcifion of the Heart. 




FOR I am not afham'd to preach the Go- 
fpel of Chriil, even at Koine it felf, that 
Miftreis of the World: For whatever it may 
be thought of there y by that vain and haugh- 
ty People, it is that wherein God exerts him- 
felf, and fhews his Power ^ for the Salvation 
of thofe who believe, of the Jews in the lirft ^ 
place, and alio of the Gentiles. For therein is 
the Righteoufnefs ^ which is of the Free 
Grace of God through Jefus Chrift revealed to 
be wholly by Faith % as it is written, ^he 




FO R I am not afha- 1 
ined of the gofpcl of 
CJhrill : for it is the power 
of God unto ftlvation, to 
every one that behevcth, 
to the Jew firft, and alfo 
to tlie Greek. 

For therein is the righ- 1 
tcoufnefs of God revealed 
from faith to faith : as it 
is \vritten, The juft fliall 
live by faith. 

16 ''^ Vid. ver. 22. and i Cor. i. 21. 
■^ Vid. Eph. i. 19. 

a Firfi. The jews had the firft Offers of the Gofpcl, and were always confider'd as thofe who 
were firll regarded in it. Vid. Luke xxiv. 47. Mattb. x. 6. h xv. 24. Acts xiii. 46 h xvii. 2. 

17 '' A/y^/cj-wj'rt ^"i, The Righteoufnefs of Cod; called fo, becaufe it is a Righteoufnefs of his 
Contrivance, and his bcftowing. It is God that jujjifieth. Chap. iii. 2r — 24, 26, 30. Sc viii. 33. 
Of which St. Paul fneaks thus, Phil. iii. 9. Njt having mine ozun Righteoufnefs whick is of the Lawy 
but that zchich is through the Faith of Chrifi, the Righteoufnefs which is of God by Faith. 

<■ From Faith to Faith. The Dehgn of St. Paul here being to fhew, that neither Jews 
nor Gentiles could by Works attain to Righteoufnefs, i. e. fuch a perfeft and compleat Obe- 
dience whereby tlicy could be juilificd, which he calls their own Righteoufnefs, Chap. x. ^. 



For the wrath of God 
is revealed from heaven 
againft all ungodlinefs , 
and unrighteoufnefs of 
men, who hold the truth 
in unrighteoufnefs. 

Becaufe that which, 
may be known of God, 
is manifeft in them ; for 
God hath (hewed it unto 



Jtifi Jhall live by Fatth. And 'tis no more than 
need, that the Gofpel, wherein the Righteoul- 
nels of God by Faith in Jefus Chrift is revealed, 
fhould be preach'd to you Gentiles, fince the 
Wrath of God is now revealed ^ from Heaven 
by Jefus Chrift, againft all Ungodlinefs « and 
Unrighteoufnefs of Men f, who live not up 
to the Light that God has given them s . Be- 
caufe God in a clear Manifeftation of himfelf 
amongft them, has laid before them ever fmce 
the Creation of the World, his Divine Nature 



jj He here tells them, that in the Gofpel the Righteoufnefs of God, i. e. the Righteoufnefs of 
^ which he i- the Author, and which he acceprs in the way of his own Appointment, is revealed 
from Fnith to Faith, I e to be all through, from one end to the other, founded in Faith. If 
this he not the Senfe of this Phrafe here, it will be hard to make the following Words, as it is 
written. The Jujijhall live bj Faith, cohere : but thus they have an eafy and natural Connexion, 
{vi'z.) whoever are juftified either before without, or under the Law of MofeSy or under the 
Gofpel, are juftified,- not by Works, but by Faith alone. Vid. Gal. iii. ii. which clears this 
Interpretation. The fame Figure of fpeaking St. Paul ufes in other Places to the fame purpofe ; 
Chap. vi. 19. Servants to Iniquity unto Iniquity, i. e. wholly to Iniquity. 2 Cor. iii. 18. Front 
Glory to Glor-j, i. e. wholly glorious. 

18 "^ Now'revealed. Vid. Jas xvii. 30, 31. God now commandeth all Men every where to re- 
pent, becauje he hath appointed a Day in the which he will judge the World in Righteoufnefs by the 
Man whom he hath ordained. Thefe Words of St Paul to the Athenians give light to thefe here 
I to the Romans. A Life again after Death, and a Day of Judgment, wherein Men fhould be all 
I brought to receive Sentence according to what they hid done, and be punifhed for their Mifdceds, 
■ was what was before unknown, and was brought to light by the Revelation of the Gofpel from 
Heaven, 2 Tim. i. 10. Matth. xv 41. Luke xii. 27. & Rom. ii. 5. he calls the Day of Judgment 
the Day of Wrath, confonant to his faying here, the Wrath of Ged is revealed. 

' "A7^ei<tjf, Ungodlinefs, feems to comprehend the Atheifm, Polytheifm, atid Idolatry of the 
Heathen World; as (f^nutu, IJnrightecufnef, their other Mifcarriages and vicious liives, ac- 
cording to which they are diilinaiy threatned by St. Paul in the following Verfes. The fame 
Appropriation of thefe Words, I think, may be obferved in other Parts of this E- 

f Of Men, \. e. Of all Men, or as in that xviith of ABs before cited, all Men every where, 
7. e. all Men of all Nations: Before it was only to the Children of Ifrael, that Obedience and 
TranfgrelTion were declared and propofed as Terms of Life and Death. 

e Who hold the Truth in Unrighteoi/fmfs, i. e. Who are not wholly without the Truth, but 
yet do not follow what they "have of it, but live contrary to that Truth they do know, or 
negleft to know what they might. This is evident from the next Words, and for the fame 
Reafon of God's Wrath given, chap, ii. 8. in thefe Words, Who do not obey the Truth, but obey 
Un r ig b t eoufnefs . 

F f and 







For the invifible things ; 
of him from the creation 
of the world are clearly 
feen, being underflood by 
the things that are madCj 
even his eternal power 
and Godhead j fo that 
they are without excufe : 

Becaufe that when they 
knew God, they glorified 
him not as God, neither 
were thankful, but be- 
came vain in their ima- 
ginations, and their foolifh 
heart was darkened. 

ProfefTmg themfelves 
to be wife, they became 
fools : 

And changed the glory 
of the uncorruptible God, 
into an image made like 
to corruptible man, rnd 
to birds, and four foot- 
ed beafts, and creeping 

and eternal Power; fo that what is to be 
known of his invifible Being, might be clear- 
ly diicovered and underftood from the viiible 
Beauty, Order, and Operations obfervable in 
the Conftitution and Parts of the Univerfe, by 
all thole that would caft their Regards, and ap- 
ply their Minds ^ that way : Infomuch that 
they are utterly without Excufe : For that 
when the Deity was fo plainly difcovered to 
them, yet they glorified him not as was fuita- 
ble to the Excellency of his Divine Nature : 
nor did they with due Thankfulnefs acknow- 
ledge him as the Author of their Being, and 
the Giver of all the Good they enjoyed : but 
following the vain Fancies of their own vain 
' Minds, fet up to themfelves fictitious no 
Gods, and their foolifh Underftandings were 
darkened: Aifuming to themfelves the Opini- 
on and Name '^ of being wife, they became 
Fools : And quitting the incomprehenfible Ma- 
]efty and Glory of the eternal incorruptible 
Deity, fet up to themfelves the Images of cor- 
ruptible Men, Birds, Beafts, and Infeds, as 
fit Objecls of their Adoration and Worfhip. 


20 ^ St. Paul fays, i'c»/A'tf ){^^fjf.3, If they are minded they are feen : The invifible things 
of God lie within the Reach and Difcovery of Mens Realbn and Underllandings, but yet they 
muft exercife their Faculties, and employ their Minds about them. 

21 ' 'K/MiimiK^r-.ef cv Tiii <S)(t'Koy7(xoi<i ciij'Ttov, became vain in their Imaginations ox Reafonings. 
^hat it is to become vain in the Scripture-Language, one may fee in thefe words. And they 
foUozoed vanity, and became vain, and went after the Heathen, and made to themfelves inolten 
Images, and zvorjhipped all the Hofl of Heaven, and ferved Bi^.X, 2 Kings xv'n. 15, 16. And ac- 
cordingly the forfaking of Idolatry, and the Worfhip of falfe Gods, is called by St. Paul, turn- 
ing from Fanities to the living God, Afls xiv. 1 5. 

22 I' idryjy.'Tii Vt) 'm%d, ProfeJJing themfelves to be wife; Though the Nations of the Heathens 
generally thought themfelves wife in the Religions they embraced, yet the Aportle here having 
all along in this and the following Chapter ufed Greeks for Gentiles, he may be thought to have 
an ej'e to the Greeks, among whom the Men of Study and Enquiry had affumcd to themfelves 
the name of orf e/, wife. 



Wherefore God alfo 
gave them vp to unclean- 
ncfs, through the lufts of 
their own hearts,, to dif- 
honoUr their own bodies 
between themfelves : 

Who changed the truth 
of God into a lie, and 
worfhippcd and ferved the 
creature more than the 
Creator, who is bleffed 
for ever. Amen. 

For this caufe God 
gave them up unto vile 
affeftions : For even their 
women did change the na- 
tural ufe into that which 
is againfl nature : 

And likewife alfo the 
men, leaving the natural 
ufe of the woman, burned 
in their luft one toward 
another, men with men 
working that which is 
unfeemly, and receiving 
in themfelves that recom- 
pcncc of their error which 
was meet. 

And even as they did 
not like to retain God in 
their knowledge, God 



Wherefore they having forfaken God, he alio 
left them to the Lufts of their own Hearts, 
and that Uncleannefs their darkned Hearts 
led them into, to dishonour their Bodies among 
themfelves : Who fo much debafed themfelves, 
as to change the true God who made them 
for a Lie ^ of their own making, worfhip- 
ping and ferving the Creature, and things even 
of a lower Rank than themlelves, more than 
the Creator, who is God over all, bleffed for 
evermore. Amen. For this Caufe God gave 
them up to Ihameful aud infamous Lulls and 
Pailions : For even their Women did change 
their natural Ufe into that which is againft 
Nature: And likewife their Men leaving alfo 
the natural Ufe of the Women, burned in their 
Lufts one towards another, Men with Men 
pradifmg that which is fliameful, and recei- 
ving in themfelves a fit Reward of their Er- 
ror, /*. e. Idolatry "^ And " as they did 
not fearch out ^ God whom they had in the 
World, fo as to have him with a due acknow- 


Chap. I. 






25 ' The falfe and fiftitious Gods of the Heathen are very fitly called in the Scripture Zw. 
Amos ii. 4. jfer. xvii. 19, 20. 

27 ■■' Error; Co Idolatry is called, 2 PeL ii. 18. As they againft the Light of Nature debafed 
and difhonoured God by their Idolatry, 'twas a juft and fit Recompence they received, in being 
left to debafe and difhonour themfelves by unnatural Lufts. 

28 ^ Afiil. This Copulative joins this Verfe to the 25th, fo that the Apoftle will be better 
underftood, if all between be lo'ok'd on as a Parenthefis ; this being a Continuation of ^vhat he 
was there faying, or rather a Repetition of it in fhort, which leads him into the Thread of his 

° 'CvK iJ'onjuMim.v, did net like, Tixt\iCT did not try or fearch, for the GV^^i Word fignifies to 
fearch and find out by fearchlng: So St. Paul often ufes it, chap, ii. i8. & xii. 2. compared, & 
xiv. 22. Epb. v. 10. 




lap. I. 







ledgment P of him, God gave them up to an 
unrearching and unjadicious q Mind, to do 
things incongruous, and not meet "^ to be 
done; Being filled \vith all manner of Iniquity, 
Fornication, Wickednefs, Covetouthefs, Ma- 
lice, full of Envy, Contention, Deceit, Malig- 
nity even to Murder, Backbiters, Haters of 
God, Iniulters of Men, Proud, Boafters, In ven- 
ters of new Arts of Debauchery, difobedient to 
Parents, Without Underftanding, Covenant- 
breakers, without natural Affection, implaca- 
ble, unmercifal : Who tho they acknow- 
ledge the Rule of Right ^ prefcribed them 
by God, and difcovered by the Light of Na- 
tuie, did not yet underftand ^ that thofe who 




gave them over to a repro- 
bate mind, to do thofe 
things which are not con- 
venient : 

Being filled with all 
unrighteoufnefs, fornicati- 
on, wickednefs, covetouf- 
nefs, malicioufnefs, full 
of envy, murder, debate, 
deceit, malignity ; whi- 

Backbiters, haters of 30 
God, defpiteful, proud, 
boailers, inventers of evil 
things, difobedient to pa- 

Without underftanding, 
covenant-breakers, with- 
out n::tural afFedion, im- 
placable, unmerciful. 

Who knowing the judg- 
ment of God (that they 
which commit fuch 



N r E s. 

P 'F.f ^yvotjf.i, Toith Jtcknowkdgment. That the Gentiles were not wholly without the 
Knov.ledge of God in the World, St. Paul tells us in this very Chapter; but they did not ac- 
knowledge him as they ought, ver. 21. They had God h;^p ^av, but «>c iJhxjuaauv ty^e^v 
ttv.-i.v h ^yvcocei, but did not fo improve that Knowledge, as to acknowledge or honour 
him as they ought. This Verfe feems in other Words to cxprefs the fame that is faid, 
ver. 2 1 . 

°- ''Eli A-f^'yjury :kf, to a reprobate Mind, rather to an unfearching Mind, in the Senfe of 
St. Paul, who often ufes Compounds and Derivatives in the Senfe wherein a little before he ufed 
the Primitive Words, though a little varying from the precife Greek Idiom ; an Example 
whereof we have in this very word aUvjix^ , 2 Cor. xiii. where having, z'er. 3. ufed J'oKtixv^ 
for a Proof of his Million by fupernatural Gifts, he ufes a.<^i>{j\j.@- for one that was deftitutc of 
fuch Proofs. So here he tells the Romans, that the Gentiles not excrcifing their Minds to fcarch 
out the Truth, and form their Judgments right, God left them to an unfearching unjudicioas 

Ison explorantibui permijjit mentem non cxphratriccm. 

' A Difcourfe like this of St. Paul here, wherein Idolatry is made the Caufe of the enormous 
Crimes and profligate Lives Men run into, may be read, Wifdovi xiv. ii, ksc. 

^2 ^ To Jn^iuuu T» 3tK, thr Judgment of God, might it not he translated, the ReHitude of 
Cod? i. e. That Rule of Reftitude which God has given to Mankind in giving than Rcafon : 
As that Righteoufnefs which God icquircs for Salvation, in the Gofpel is called the Right eoujnefs 
of God, ver. 17. Rectitude in the Tranflation being ufed in this appropriated Senle, as JiKouiufAA 
is in the Original. Vid. Note, chap. ii. 26. 

' *Gy< cttNTOJOT?, Did not underftand that they who commit. See. This Reading is jnitificd 
by the C.'errncnt, and another ancient Manufcript, .-?s well as by that v.hich the old Latin 
VcrCon foJIow'd, as well as GUment, Ijidore, aiid Occumenius, and will probably be ihoiit'lit 





things are worthy of death) ^jj f,jch things were worthy of Death, do " 
WpiLiu^eSn'^hemtha^ not Only do them themielves, but live well to- 
do them. gether without any Mark of Dif-efteem or Cen- 
J^^lTo^'Z.rlt fi^rc with them that do them. « Therefore 

thou art unexcufable, O Man, who ever thou 



the more genuine by thofe who can hardly fuppofe that St, Pan! fhould affirm, that the Gen- 
tile World did know, that he who offended againft any of the Dire6lions of this natural Hule of 
Reditude, taught or difcoverable by the Light of Reafon, was -".vorthy of Death; efpecially if 
we remember what he fays, cknp. v. 13. That Sin is not impi/tedj tvhen there is no pofitive 
La:c : undi chap. vii. 9. / zvas alive zvitho-it the Lmu once: Both which Places fignifying that 
Men did not know Death to be the Wages of Sin in general, but by the Declaration of a pofi,- 
tive Law. 

'• Si'jj/it/sxS'H TcTf fst^'.as>i7j, have pleafure in thofe that do them. He that confiders that 
the Deiign of the Apoille here, manifeft in the imnjedistely following Words, i- to combat the 
Animofity of the Jews rg,-init the Gentiles; and vh..t there could not be a more cfFedual way 
to fhame them into a more modeft and mild Temper, than by fhewing them th;.t the Gentiles, 
in all the Darknefs that ' linded them, and the Extravagancies they run into, were never gailty 
of fuch an Abfurdity as rh's, to cen^ire and i'eparate from others, and fhew an implacable Aver- 
fion to them, for what they themielves were equally gui'ty of: He, I \\y, that conliders this, 
will be eafily perlu^ded to underlland audt/:--*. here a.s I do, for a Complacency that avoided 
ccnfuring or breaking with them who were in the fame State and Courfe of Life with themfelves, 
that did nothing amifs but what they themfelves were equdly guilty of. There can be nothing 
clearer than that ^u.cij■.^\s^, have plc.if ire, in this Verfe, is oppofed to x^ij'wi, judgeft, in the 
next Verfe ; without which I do not fee how it is poGible to make out the Inference which the 
Apoftle draws here. 

I • Therefore : This is a Term of Illation, and fhews the Confequence here drawn from the 
foregoing W J rds. Therefore the Jew i? inexcuf?.: le in judging, becaufe the Gentiles, with all 
the Darknef that was on their Mind.'!, were never guilty of fuch a Folly, as to judge thofe who 
were no more faulty than themfelves. For the l-etcer underftanding ©f this Place, it may not 
perhaps be amifs to fet the whole Argumentation of the Apoltle here in its due Light. It 
ftands thus: " The Genti es acknowledged the Reflitude of the Law of Nature, but knew not 
•' that thofe who break any of ts Rules, incurred Death by their Tranfgreflron : But as much 
" in the dark as they were, they arc not guilty of any fuch Abfurdity as to condemn others, 
*' or refufe Communication with them as unworthy of their Society, who are no worfe than 
•' themfelves, nor do any th'ng but wha* they themfelves do equally with them; but live frr 
" Complacency on fair Terms with them, without Cen;ure or Separation, thinking as well of 
" their Condition as of their own: Therefore if the blinded He.ithen do {o, thou,. O Jew, art 
" inexcuGbie, who having the Light of the revealed Law of God, and knowing by it that 
*' the Breaches of the Law merit Death, doll judge others to Perdition, and Ihut them out 
" from Salvation, for that which thou thyfelf art equally guilty of, vi%. Difobedience to the 
" Law. Thou, a poor, ign r.-.n:, conceited, fUlible Man, fits in Judgment upon other.-;, and 
" committeil the fame things :hou condcmnell them for; But this thou mayell be fure, that the 
" Judgment a&d Ccndemn.nion of God is right and f rm, and will certainly be executed upon 
" thoi'e who do fuch things. For thou who adiud;ell the Heathen to Condemnation for the fame 
♦* things which thou doit thv fei:', canlt thou im.igine that thou thy fclffiiaD efcape tlie Judgment 



art y that jadgeft ^ or cenfureft another ; 
For wherein thou judgeft another, thou con- 
demncfl: thy felf: For thou that judgeft art a- 
llke guilty in doing the fame things. But this 
we are fure of, that the Judgment that God 
pafles upon any Offenders, is according to ^ 
Truth, right and juft. Canft thou who doft 
thofe things which thou condemneft in another, 
think that thou fhalt efcape the condemn- 

iV r £ S. 


fo.ever thou art chat judg- 
eft : for wherein thou 
judgeft another, thou con- 
demneft thyfelf ; for thou 
that judgeil, doft the fame 

But we are fure that the 
judgment of God is ac- 
cording to truth, againft 
them which commit fuch 

And thinkeft thou this, 
O man, that judgeft them 
which do fuch things, and 

*' of God? God, whatever thou may 'ft think, is no Refpefter of Perfons : Both Jews as well 
" as Gentiles, that are perverfly contentious againft others, and do not themfelves obey the 
" Gofpel, fhall meet with Wrath and Indignation from God: And Gentiles as well as Jews, 
" whom the Goodnefs and Forbearance of God bringeth to Repentance, and an humble fub- 
" miifive Acceptance of the Gofpel, fhall find Acceptance with God, and eternal Life in the 
" Kingdom of the MefTus; from which if thou art contentious to fliut out the Gentiles, thou 
" manifeftly fhutteft out thy felf 

y O Man, zvhofoever thou art. It is plain from cvr. 17, & 27. and the whole Tenor of this 
Chapter, that St. Paul by thefe Words means the Jews ; but there are two vifible Rcafons why 
he fpeaks in thefe Terms : i/?. He makes his Conclufion general, as having the more Force, 
but lefs Oilcnce, than if he had bluntly named the Jews, whom he is very careful in all this 
Epiftle to treat in the fofteft manner imaginable. 2dly, He ufes the Term Man emphatically, 
in Oppofition to God in the next Verfe. 

'■' "J'ldgejl. There will need nothing to be faid to thofe who read this Epiftle with the leift 
Attention, to prove that the y'//^^^/;/^ which St. P/^a/ here fpeaks of, was that Averfion which 
the. Jews generally had to the Gentiles; fo that the unconverted Jews could not bear with the 
Thoughts of a Meffiis, that admitted the Heathen equally with them into his Kingdom; nor 
could the converted Jews be brought to admit them into their Communion, as the People of 
Gqd now equally with themfelves; fo that they generally, both one and t'other, judg'd them 
unworthy the Favour of God, and out of Capacity to become his People any other way, but 
by Circumcifion, and an Obfervance of the ritual Parts of the Law ; the Inexcufablenefs and Ab- 
furdity whereof St. Paul fhews in this Chapter. 

2 * According to Truth, doth, I fuppofe, fignify not barely a true Judgment, which will 
fland in Oppofition to erroneous, and that will not take effeft, but fomething more, /. e. ac- 
cording to the Truth of his Prediftions and Threats. As if he had faid, " But if God in Judg- 
" ment caft off the Jews from being any longer his People, we know this to be according to 
*' his Truth, who hath forewarned them of it. Ye Jews judge the Gentiles not to be received 
" into the People of God, and refufe them Admittance into the Kingdom of the Meflias, 
"—though you break the Law as well as they, you judge as prejudiced pafFionate Men. But 
*' the Judgment of God againrt you will ftand firm." The Reafon why he does it fo covertly, 
may be that which I have before-mentioned, his great Care not to fliock the Jews, efpecially 
here in the beginning, till he had got faft hold upon them. And hence pofhbly it is that he 
tails obeying the Gofpel, skying theTruth, ver. 8. and ufes other the like foft E-vprcluons in 
this Chapter. 



dofl the fame, thnt thou 
fhalt efcape the judgment 
of God? 

Or defplfeft thou the 
ricJies of hi? goodnefs, 
and forbearance, and long- 
fuffering, not knowing 
that the goodnefs of God 
leadcth thee to repen- 
tance ? 

But after thy hardnefs 
and impenitent heart , 
treafureft up unto thy felf 
wrath again ft the day of 
wrath, and revelation of 
the righteous judgment of 
God ; 

Who will render to 
every man according to 
his deeds : 

To rhem, who by pa- 
tient continuance in well- 
doing, feek for glory, and 
honour, and immortality, 
eternal life : 

But unto them that are 
contentious, and do not 
obey the truth, but obey 
unrighteoufnefs, indigna- 
tion, and wrath ; 

Tribulation andanguifh 
upon every foul of man 
that doth evil, of the Jew 
firft, and alfo of the Gentile. 



ing Sentence of Gcd ? or illghtcft thou the 
Riches of his Goodnefs, Forbearance and long- 
Suffering, not knowing nor confidering that the 
Goodneis of God ought to lead thee to Repen- 
tance ? But layeft up to thy felf Wrath and 
Punifhment, which thou wilt meet with at 
the day of Judgment, and that ju ft Retributi- 
on which fhall be awarded thee by God in pro- 
portion to thy Impenitency, and the Hardnefs 
of thy Heart; Who will retribute to every one 
according to his works, viz. Eternal Life to all 
tliofe who by Patience ^ and Gcntlenefs in 
Well-doing feek Glory and Honour, and a State 
of Immortality : But to them who are conten- 
tious * and froward, and will not obey the 
Truth '^, but fubjed themfelves to Unrigh- 
teoufnefs. Indignation and Wrath \ Tribulati- 
on and Anguifh, fhall be poured out upon eve- 
ry Soul of Man that worketh Evil, on the Jew 
firft, and alfo on the Gentile. But Glory, Ho- 
nour and Peace, fhall be bellowed on eve- 
ry Man that worketh Good, on the Jew 


N r E s. 

7 ^ Patience in this Verfe is oppofed to Contentious * in the next, and feems principally to 
regard the Jews, who had no Patience for any Confideration of the Gentiles, but with a flrange 
Pecvifhnefs and Contention, oppofed the Freedom of the Gofpel in admitting the believing 
Gentiles into the Franchifes of the Kingdom of the Meflias, upon equal Terms with them- 

8 -^ Though by Truth the Gofpel be here meant, yet I do not doubt but St. Paul ufed the 
term Truth with an Eye to the Je^vs, who though fome few of them received the Gofpel, yet 
even a great Part of thofe few join'd with the relt of their Nation in oppofing this great Truth 
ot the Gofpel, That under the Meflias the Gentiles who believed were the People of God, as 
well as the Jews, and as fuch were to be received by them. 








firfl <i, and aifo on the Gentile. For with 
God there is no leiped of Pcrlbns. For all 
that have finned without having the pofitive 


of G( 

which was ij;iven the Ifraelites 
Ihall perifh ^ without the Law; and all who 
have iinned being under the Law, Ihall be 
judged by the Law. ( For the bare Hearers of 
the Law are not thereby juft or righteous in the 
fight of God \ but the Doers of the .l,avv, they 
who exadly perform all that is coirimanded in 
it Ihall be juftified. For vsl-cn the Gentiles 
who hav^e no pofitive Law L.'r\^en them by 
God ^y do by the Diretliou oi .:hc Light of 


But glory, honour, and i* 
peace, to every man that 
worketh good, to the Jew 
firil, and alfo to the Gen- 

For there is no refpefl it 
of perfons with God. 

For as many as have i2 
finned without law, fhall 
alfo pcrilh without law: 
and as many as have fin- 
ned in tlie law, Ihall be 
judged by the law, 

( For not the hearers of ij 
the law are juft before 
God, but the doers of the 
law fhall be juflified. 

For when the Gentiles 14 
v.'hich have not the law, 

9 & to "^ The Jew fir fii and alfo the Gentile. We fee by thefe two Verfcs, and chap. i. 16. 
that St Paul carefully lays it down, that :here was now under the Gofpel no other National Di- 
ftind1;ion between the Jews and the Gentiles, but only a Priority in the Ofler of the Gofpel, 
and in the Defign of Rcvards and Punilhinenti, according as the Jews obey'd, or not. Which 
may farther fatisfy us, that the Diilinftion wliich St. Paul inalls on fo much here, and all 
through the finl Part ot this Epiftle, is National ; the Compariion being between the Jews as 
nationally the People of God ; and the Gentiles, as not the People of G.d before theMeffias; 
and that under the Meffias, the Profefibrs of Chriftianity, confiding moll: of converted Gentiles, 
were the People of God, owned and acknowledged as fuch by him, the unbelieving Jews being 
rejeded, and the unbelieving Gentiles never received ; but that yet perfonally both Jews and 
Gentiles, every fmgle Perfon, fhall be punifhed for his own particular Sin, as appears by the 
two next Verfes. 

12 ■■ ATmAB/'TW/, Jball perijhi xfi^Jcni'reu, Jball be judged. Thofe under the Law, St, Paul 
fays, fhall he judg'd by the Law ; and this is eafy to conceive, becaufe they were under a politive 
Law, wherein Life and Death were annex'd, as the Reward and Punifhment of Obedience and 
Difcbedience ; bat of the Gentiles, who were not under that pofitive Law, he liiys barely that 
they fhall />fr//i'. St. P<7/// does not ufe thefe fo eminently differing ExprefHons for nothing; 
they will, I think, give fome light to chap. v. 13. and my Interpretation of it, if they lead us 
no farther. 

14 ' M*) viyxiv i^y-nx, having not the Law, or not having a Law. The Apofile by the 
word Law generally in this Epiille fignifying a pofitive Law given by God, and promulgated by 
a Revelation f:om Heaven, with the Sanftion of declared Rewards and Punifhments annexed to 
it, it is not improbable that in this Verfc (where by the Greek Particle he fb plainly points out 
the Law of Mofes) by vo^j.©-, without the Article, may intend Lazo in general, in his Senfe of 
a.La:j ; and fo this Verfe may be tranflated thus ; For zvhen the Gentiles, who have not a Law, do 
by Nat; re the things contained in the Law ; thefe not having a Law, are a Law to tkemfelves. 
And fo ver. i z. As many as have finned, being under a Law, fhall be judged by a Lazv. For 
though from Adam to Chrift there was no revealed pofitive Law, but that given to the Ifraelites; 
yet it is certain, that hy Jefus Chrift a pofitive Lav/ from Heaven is given to all Mankind, and 
that thofe to whom this has been promulgated by the Preaching of the Gofpel, are all under it, 
and ihall be judg'd by it. 



do by nature the things 
contained in the law, 
thefe having not the law, 
arc a law unto them- 
fclves : 

Which iliew the worl: 
of the law written in 
their hearts, their confci- 
cnce alfo bearing witnef?, 
and their thoughts the 
mean while accufing, or 
clfc excufing one another) 

In the day when God 
fliall judge the fecrets of 
men by Jcfus Chrift, ac- 
cording to my gofpel. 

Behold, thou art called 
a Jew, and refteft in the 
law, and makeft thy boaft 
of God; 

And knoweil his will, 
and approveft the things 
that arc more excellent. 



Nature obferve or keep to the moral -Rectitude 
contained in the pofitive Law given by God to 
the Ifraelites, they being without any pofitive 
Law given them, have neverthelels a Law 
v/ithin themlelves; And fhew the Rule of 
the Law written in their Hearts, their Con- 
fciences alio bearing witneis to that Law, they 
amongft themfelves, in the realbning oi their 
own Minds, accufing or excufing one another) At 
the Day of Judgment, when as I make known 
in my preaching the Gofpel &, God fhall 
judge all the Adions of Men by Jefus Chrift. 
Behold thou art named ^' a Jew; and thou 
with fatisfadion refteft in the Privilege of ha- 
ving the Law, as a mark of God's peculiar Fa- 
vour ', whom thou glorieft in, as being thy 
God, and thou one of his People; a People 
who alone know and worlhip the true God ; 
And thou knoweft his Will, and haft the 
Touchftone of things excellent ^, having 

1 6 



t6 E According to my Co/pel, \. e. as I make known in my preaching the Gofpel. That this 
is the Meaning oY this Phrafe, may be feen 2 Tim. ii. 8. And of St. PauPs declaring of it in 
his Preaching, we have an Inflance left upon Record, JSls xvii. 31. 

17 ^ '^7n\ofJ^ff.i^^, thou art naj/ied, emphatically faid by St. Paul; for he that was fuch a Jew- 
as he defcribes'in the following Verfes, he infills on it, was a Jew only in Name, not in Reality ; 
for fo he concludes, ver. 28 & 29. he is not in the Elleem of God a Jew, who is fo outwardly- 

17 — 20 ' In thofe four Verfes St. P^/^/ makes ufe of the Titles the Jews afiumed to them- 
felves, from the Advantages they had of Light and Knowledge above the Gentiles, to fhew them 
how inexcufable they were in judging the Gentiles, who were even in their own account fo 
much beneath them in Knowledge, for doing thofe things which they themfelves were alfo 
guilty of. 

17 ' Vid. Mic. iii. 1 1. ' 

18 ^Td Sia.((ik^viu, ^igm^zz things excellent, convenient, controverted, or differing. In cither 
of thefe Senfes it may be underftood here, though the lait, viz. their Difference in refpeft of 
lawful and unlawful, I think may be pitch'd on, as moft fuited to the Apoftle's Defign here, 
and that which the Jews much Hood upon, as giving them one great Pre-emingnce above the 
defiled Gentiles. 

G e been 









been Educated in the Law. And takeft upon 
thee as one who art a Guide to the Blind ^, a 
Light to the ignorant Gentiles who are in 
daikncfs ^, an Inftrufter of the Foolifh ', a 
Teacher of Babes, having an exacl Draught, 
and a compleat Syftem ^'^ of Knowledge and 
Truth in the Law. Thou therefore who art a 
Mader m this Knowledge, and teacheft others, 
teachcft thou not thy felf ? Thou that preacheft 
that a Man fhould not Ileal, doft thou Ileal ? 
2 2 Thou that declareft Adultery to be unla3vful, 
doft thou commit it? Thou that abhorreft I- 
dols, doft thou commit Sacrilege ? Thou who 
glorieft in the Law, doft thou by breaking of 
the Law diflionour God: For the Name of 
God is blafphcmcd amongft the Gentiles, by 
reafbn of your Mifcarriages, as it is written ". 
Circumcifion ° indeed, and thy being a Jew, 
profiteth P, if thou keep the Law : But if 
thou bcaTranfgreftbrof the Law, thy Circum- 
cifion is made Uncircumcifion j thou art no way 


being inftrufted out of the 

And art confident that 
thou thy felf art a guide 
of the blind, a light of 
them which are in dark.- 

An imlruftoi- of the 
foolifh, a teacher of babes, 
which halt the form of 
knowledge, and of the 
truth in the lav.'. 

Thou therefore which 
teacheil another, teacheil 
thou not thy felf? Thou 
that preached a man 
fhould not Ifeal, dort thou 
Heal ? 

Thou thqt f^yefl; a 
nun fliould not commit 
adultery, doft thou com- 
mit adultery ? thou th;'.i: 
abhorreit idols, dort thou 
commit facrilege ? 

Thou that makeft thy 
boaft of the law, through 
breaking the law diflao- 
nourcil: thou God? 

for the name of God 
is blafphemed among the 
Gentiles through you, as 
it is written. 

For circumcifion verily 
profiteth, if thou keep 
the law : but if thou be a 


tg, 20 ' BUtiJ, in Darinefs, Foolijh, B^l>es, were Appellations which the Jews gave 
to the Gentiles, fignifying how much inferior to thcmfelves they thought them in Know- 
ledge. . . , ' 

20 "* M3pijft.'ff7f, Form, feems here to be the lame with Tvyr© , Form, eh. vii 17. i. e. fuch 
a.. Draught as contained and reprcfcnted the Parts and Lineaments of the whole. For it is to be 
remembred, that the Apoftle iifes thefe Expreflions and Terms here in the fame Senfc the Jews 
fpnke them of themfelves vauntingly over the Gentiles, he thereby aggravating their Fault inr 
judging the Gentiles as they did. 

24^ " See 2 Sa'n. xii. 14, Ezck, xxxvi. 23. . . 

2-5>. ° Cfrcumcijicn is here put for being a Jew, as being one of the chief and mod difcriminating 
Rit£3.of that, People. 

P Profiteth if tkou ke^p the L<tw ; Becaufc a Jew that kept the Law was to have Life therein. 
Lev. :;iviii. 4.. 

* better 



breaker of the law, th7 better than an Heathen. If therefore an un- -^ 

circumcilion is made un- . •/- i /^ mi i i t-> o • 

circumcifion. cncnmciled Lrentiie keep the moral Kecvi- 

Thercfore, if the un tudes 1 of the Law, fhall he not be rcckon'd 

circumcilion keep the , j r -r ^ • -r j 

righteournefs of the h\v, *^^^ accountcd 01, as u he Were circumciica 

fh:ill not his uncircumci- and 


26 1 Ta fiK'MUfLa.TU n lOfXH, The Rlghteoufnefs of the Lazo. I have taken the Liberty to ren- 
der it, The Rectitudes of the Law, in an appropriated Senfe of the word Reftitucie, in Imitation of 
St. Paul, who ufes JiKsucauei'm here for all thofe Precepts of the Law which contain in them any 
Part of the nat '.ral and eternal Rule of Reciitude, which is made known to Men by the Light oi 
Reafon. This Ruic of their Adions ail Mankind, uncircumcifed as well as circumcifed, had, and 
is th:it which St. Paul calls '^ly.auduA t» 3tK, ch i. 32. Becaufe it came from God, and vvas 
mjde by him the moral Rule to all Mankind, being laid within the Difcovery of their Reafon, 
which if they kept to, it was T^>,<ati7<a, Righteoufnefs to them, or they were judified. And 
this Rule of r.IoraUty St. P/7:v/ favs the Gentile World did acknowledge. So that SiKono^xa. ra 
£i«, ch. i. 32. fignifies that Rule of Right taken in general, and J)K<udua,-m. tk I'CjWb here 
fignifies the particular Branches of it contained in the Law oi Mofes. For no other part of the 
Law of Mfes could an Heathen be fuppofed to obferve or be concerned in : And therefore thofe 
only can be the liy.cuu/.'ja.nv. n i o^.\s here meant. If we confider the various Senfes that Tranflators 
and Expofiters have given to this Term J'lKeuuyji, in the feveral places of St. PauTs EpiHiles, where 
it occurs, we £h?.l! have occafion to think, that the Apoftle ufed this word with great Latitude and 
Variety of Significations; whereas I imagine, that if we carefully read thofe Pallages, we fhall 
find that he ui'cd it every wherein the fame Senfe, /. e. for that Rule which if complied with, 
juftified, or rendered perfed, the Perfon or thing it referr'd to. For Example, 

Rom. i. 32. J^iKtijuiMt. S^K, tranflated the "Judgement of God, is that Rule of Right, which 
if the Heathen World had kept and pcrfeftly obey'd, they had been righteous before God. 

Rom. ii. 26. j\iy,cuKi!jLA-Tv Tb vofj.z. The Righteoufnefs of the Law, are thofe Precepts of the 
Law oi Mofes, which if the Uncircumcifed whom he there fpeaks of had kept, they iiad been righ - 
teous before God. 

Rom. V. 16. ^E/i J)/.eue,>^, to Juf if cation, is to the obtaining of Righteoufnefs. 

Rom. V. 18. A'|ic< J)KaLtd/uA7&, By one Righteoufnefs, is by one Afb whereby he was jufti- 
F.ed or compleatly perfefted to be what he had undertaken to be, viz. the and Sa- 
viour of the World. For it was iha. im.'^ud'nov, or as fome Copies read it, Sia, Tm^ujs.r'Qr, 
by his Suffering, viz. Death on the Crofs, that he was perfefled, Heb. ii. 9, 10. &xiv. 15.^ 

V. 7 9. Rom. V. 10. Phil. ii. 8. CoL i. 21, 22. Rom. viii. 4. t-j JiKolc^t^ut rsPVAv, The 

Righteoufnefs of the Law. Here, as Rom. ii. 26. it is that Rule of Right contained in the Law, 
which if a Man exadly performed, he was righteous and perfedl before God. 

Heb. ix. I. siKauco,u.t-nt. KcL^eicu, Ordinances of Divine Service, are thofe Rules or . Precepts 
concerning the outward Worfhip of God, which when conformed to render it perleft, and fuch 
as was right and unblameable before God. 

Heb. ix. 10. Jiy^eucouef.-m cttfuoc,. Carnal Ordinances, .ire fuch Rules concerning rJtual Per- 
formances, as when obferv'd, juftified the Flefh. By thefe Obfervances, according as they were 
prefcribed, the FleHi or natural outward Man obtained a. legal outward Holinefs or Righteou'.ncfs, 
.there was no Exception againll him, but he was freely admitted into the Congregation>and into 
the Sanftuary. 

Gg 2 1« 




and every way a Jew ? And fhall not a Gen- 
tile, who in his natural State of LTncircunicifi- 
on fulfils the Law, condemn "^ thee who not- 
withftanding the Advantage of having the 
Law and Circumcifion, * art a 


fion be counted for cir- 
cumciHon ? 

And fhall not uncir- 
cumcilion which is by na- 
ture, if it fulfil the law, 
judge thee, who by the 
letter and circumciiioa 
dolt tranfgrels the law ? 


N 7" E S. 

In the f-imc Senfe S)v.cutS\j.(fm is alfoufcdin the Apocalyps. 

7?^!'. XV. 4. Tet SiKajufjui.TzL a^ heLV'-coj^mi', "^i' by Judgments are made manifejl, \. e. tho/c 
Terms whereupon Men were to bejullified before God, were clearly and fully made known under 
the Gofpel. Here, ^% Rom. i. they are called t/iy.oiftj/xetTW ^w, the Terms which God had pre- 
fcribed to Men for their Jultification. And, 

Rev. xix. 8. Tct c/)«ctv4)V-ct7w r «?«'<yi', The Right eoufnefs of the Saints, i. e. The Performances 
whereby the Saints ll.ind jultified before God. 

So that if we will obferve it, J)Kalf^'y.ei. is the Rule of Right, as having God for its Author, it 
is J'lKcuC'iu'j. .^K ; As contained in the Precepts of the Law, 'tis J)x.cuui/.ai,-ni t« lOfxs ; As it concerns 
the external inftituted Rites of the Leviticnl Worfhip of God, it is JiKeuuuA-m hx^eiOi', As it 
concerns the outward Legal or Ritual Holinefs of the Jews, hh j'lKouuy.etTVi, an^KOi ; Ai it is in 
holy Men made perfed, it is J'D-audn/.a.ra. <l-)'iuv. 

Jt may not be amifs to take a little notice alfo of St. Pa»/''s Ufe of the other Term here, vo(jt.Q-, 
Law, which he commonly puts for a pofitive Rule given to Men, with the Sanation of a Penalty 
annexed ; and in particular frequently ( fometimes with, fometimes without the Particle ) for the 
Law oi' Mofes, without naming what Law he means, as if there had been no other Law in the 
World, as indeed there was not any other in St. PauPs Notion of a Law, from the Fall to our 
5'aviour's time, but only the Law given by God to the Ifraclites by the hand of Mofes. Under 
\ he Gofpel the Law of Mofes was abrogated : But yet the J' to v'oyi^i wei e not abrogated. 
The tPiKaJc^(^.^ tx S^k not only flood firm, but was by the Divine Authority promulgated anew by 
fefus Chriil, the King and Saviour of the World. For 'tis of this that he fays, that he is not come 
to defrci (he Laze, but to fulfil it, i. e. to give it pofitivcly and plainly its full Latitude and Extent, 
and fet thefe S'tKoju^a.-m tv (ty.oiK in their due Light and full Force; and accordingly we fee all 
the Branches of it more exprefly commanded, and with Penalties more vigoroufly enforced on allhis 
Subjtfts by our Saviour and his Apoilles, than they were in the Law oi' Majes. 

Thus we fee bv the Doflrine of St. Paul znd the New Telbment, there is one and the fame 
Rule of Re61itudc fct to the Actions of all Mankind, Jews, Gentiles, and Chriftians; and that 
failing of a cnmpleat Obedience to it in every tittle, makes a Man unrighteous, the Confequencc 
whereof is Death. For the Gentiles that have finned without a Law, fhall perifh without .1 
Law; the Jews that have finned having a Law, fhall bejudg'd by that Law; but that both 
Jews and Gentiles fhnll be laved from Death, if they believe in Jefu-s Chrift, and fincerely endea- 
\-our after Righte^ ufnefs, thoi:gh they do not attain unto it, their Faith bemg accounted to them 
for Rightcoufnefs, Rem. iii. 19 24. 

2-7 ' fudge ikce. This he faith profocuilng the Defign he began with, cvr. 1 . of fhewing the 
JRojly arnl L^nreafonablencfs of the Jews in judging the Gentiles, and denying them Admittance 
?nd Fellcvi/fliip with themfclves in the Kingdom of the Meffias. 

' It is plain that ^y Nature, and^y the Letter andCircumcifion, are there oppofed to one another, 
and mean the one a Xian in his natural State, v/holly a Stranger to the Law of God reavealed by 
AV/c-.f, and the ether a Jew obfcrving the external Rites contained in the Letter of that Law. 




For he is not a Jew, 
w^Iiich is one outwardly » 
neither is that circumci- 
fion, which is outward in 
the Flcfh : 

But lie is a Jew, which 
is one inwardly, and cir- 
cumcifion is that of the 
heart, in the fpirit, and 
not in the letter, whofe 
praife is not ot men, but 
of God. 

of the Law ? For he is not a Jew who Is one 
in outward Appearance and Conformity f; 
nor is that the Circamcifion which renders a 
Man acceptable to God, which is outwardly 
in the Flefh. But he is a Jew, and one of the 
People of God, who is one in an inward Con- 
formity to the Law : and that is the Circumcifi- 
on which avails a Man, which is of the Heart ", 
according to the Ipiritual Senle of the Law, 
which is the purging our Hearts from Iniquity 
by Faith in Jefus Chrift, and not in an exter- 
nal Obfervance of the Letter, by which a Man 
cannot attain Life ^ ; fuch true Ifraelites as 
thefe, though they are judg'd, condemn'd, and 
rejected by Men of the Jewifh Nation, are 
never thelefs honoured and accepted by God. 


28 ' Vid. ch. \t. 6,. 7. Ga/. vi. 15, 16. 

29 " St. Pd///'s Expoficion of this, fee Pbi/. iii. 3. Co!, ii. iii 

* Letter, vid. e^. vii. 6. 2 Cor. iii. 6, 7. compared- with xvii. 


Chap. III. 




CHAP. m. 1--31. 


IN this Third Chapter St. ^ W goes on to fhew that the Natio- 
nal Privileges the Jews had over the Gentiles, in being the 
People of God, gave them no peculiar Right, or better Title to 
the Kingdom of the MefHas, than what the Gentiles had. Becaufe 
they as well as the Gentiles all finned, and not being able to attain 
Righteoufnefs by the Deeds of the Law more than the Gentiles, 
Juftilication was to be had only by the Free Grace of God through 



2,30 ROMANS. 

Chap. III. paith in Jefus Chriil \ lb that upoQ their Believing, God, who is 
the God not of the Jews alone, but alfo of the Gentiles, accepted 
the Gentiles as well as the Jews ; and now admits all who profefs 
Faith in Jefus Chrift, to be equally his People. 

To clear his way to this, he begins with removing an Objedlion 
of i:he Jev/s, ready to lay • If it be fo as you have told us in the fore- 
"going Sedion, that it is the Circumcifion of the Heart alone that 
availetli, what Advantage have the Jews, who keep to the Cir- 
cumcifion of the Flefh, and the other Obfervanccs of the Law, by 
being the People of God ? To which he anfwers, tha*" the Jews had 
many Advantages above the Gentiles; but yet that in refped of 
their Acceptance with Cjod,und?r the Gofpel, they had none at all. 
'He declares that both Jews and Gentile are Sinners, both equally 
iincapable of being juftified by their own Performances: That God 
was. equally the God both of Jews and Gentiles, and out of his 
"Free Grace juftifjied thofe, ai^d only thole who believ'd, whether 
Jews or Gentiles. 


IF it he thus, that Qrcumcifish ^ « 'PdMare of T ;\ 7 Hat advantage then : 
■ . ,. ' / T 7 TT ' .:C V V hnth the lew? or 

Obedience to the Law becomes IJnctrcupicjjton \. ,^,,},.,f ^^^^^ .-^ J^^^.^ ^^ 

and that the Gentiles who-kej^t^ R.if^J'^^^iffufnefjM'' drctimcifion ? 

moral part of the Law^ fhalV-'jkdgethe ^feivs phttt^ 

tranf^re/s the Law. what ^dva?ita^eJoave_ the^^^^^ 

'Jews? or what -Projit is there of Circumcifion ? I 

anfwer. Much every way y ; ' chietiy" fhap Much every way : chief- ; 

God particularly prefent amongft them reveal- ly, becaufe th.-.t unto them 

ji'-\yr*j jiir-ii 3 ju* ^'\ir.* were committed the ora- 

ed his Mind and WilJ, and engaged himjcit in ^jesof God. 
Piomifes to them, by Mofes and other his Pro- 
phets, which Oracles they had, and kept a- 
mongft them, whilfr the reft of Mankind had 
no fuch Communication with the Deity, had 
no Revelation of his Purpofes of Mercy to 
Mankind, but were, as it vrere, without God 

iV or E S. 

2 ^ A Lin of the Advantages the Jcv/s had over the Gentiles he gives, cb. ix. 4, 5. but licre 
. mcnficois only one of them that-was moil: proper to his prefent purpofc. 



For \vh:\t if fome did 
not believe: fhill their 
unbelief make the Fnith 
of God without eftefl ? 

God forbid: yea let 
God be true, but every 
man a liar ; as it is writ- 
ten, That thou mighteft 
be juftlfied in thy fayings, 
and mighteft overcome 
when thou art judged. 

But if our unrightcouf- 
nefs commend the righ- 
teoufnefs of God, what 
fhall we fay ? Is God un- 
righteous who takcth 
vengeance ? ( I fpeak as a 
man ) 

God forbid : for then 
how fliall God judge the 
world ? 



In the World. For though fome of the Jews, 
who had the Promifes of the Meflias, did not 
believe in him when he came, and fo did not 
receive the Righteoufnefs which \^ by Faith in 
JefusChrift; yet their Unbelief cannot render 
the Faithfulneis and Truth of God of noeifea:, 
who had promifed to be a God to JbrjhjmAnd. 
his Seed after him, and blefs them to all Gene- 
rations ^ No, by no means. God forbid 
that any one fhould entertain fuch a Thought: 
Yea, let God be acknowledged to be true, and 
every Man a Liar, as it is written, That thou 
mighteft be jufiif^'d in thy Sayings^ and might eji 
overcome when thou art judged. 

But you will fay farther, If it he fo that our 
Sinjahiefs cornmendeth the Righteoufnefs of God 
fhewn in keeping his word ^ given to our forefa- 
thers^ what ffj all I fay, Is it not hijufiice in God to 
pinifo us for it, and cafl us of(^ I muff be under- 
flood to fay this in the '^erfon of a carnal Man 
pleading for himfelf) God forbid : For if God be 
unrighteous, how Ihall he judge the World ^ 



(h. ix. 

How this was made good, St. Paul explains more at large in the following Chapter, and 

6 13. 

That b) the Righteoufnefs cfGod, St. Paul here intends God's Faithfulnefs in keeping his 
ifeoffaving Believers, Gentiles as well as Jews, by Righteoufnefs through Faith in Jefur 
Chrili, is plain, z^i-r. 4, 7, 26. '^t. FauPz great Defign here, and all through the eleven firlt 
Chapters of th's Epiftle being to convince the Romans, that God purpofcd, and in the Old Tefta- 
ment declared, that he would receive and fave the Gentiles by Faith in the Mellias, which was 
the only way whereby Jews or Gentiles { they being all Sinners, and equally deftitute of Righ- 
teoufnefs by Works ) were to be faved. This was a Doftrinc whicli the Jews could not bear, and' 
therefore the ApoAlc here in the Perfonofa Jew, urges, and in his own Pcrfon anfwers their Ob- 
jedions againll it, confirming to the i?u//7/7;75 the Veracity and Faithfulnefs of God, on whom 
they might with all Afurance depend for the Performance of whatever he had faid. 

6 This which is an Argument in the Mouth of Abraham; Gen. xviii, 25. St. Paui very 
.ippofitely makes ufe of to llcp the iMouths of the blafphcmous Jews. 




^ For If the Truth and Veracity of God hath the 
more appeared to his Glory ^ by reafon of my Lie '^, 
i. e. 7ny SIjj^ why yet am I condemned for a Sin- 
ner .^ and piinlfloed for It ? Why rather foald not 
this be thought aright Confetpence^ and aju/i Ex- 
ctife P Let us do Evil that good may coine oj Ity 
that Glory ynay come to God by It, This ' Ibme 
malicioufly and flanderoufly report us Chrifti- 
ans to fay, for which they deferve and will 
from God receive Punifhment as they defervx. 

Are we fews then In any whit a better Condition 
than the Gentiles ^? Not at all. For I have 
already s brought a charge of Guilt and Sin 


For if the truth of -j 
God hath more .ibounded 
through my He unto his 
glory ; why yet am I alfo 
judged as a finner ? 

And not rather, as we g 
fee flanderoufly reported, 
and as fome affirm that 
we f\y, Let us do evil , 
that good may come ? 
whofe damnation is jull. 

What then ? are we ^ 
better than they ? No in 
no wife : for we have be- 
fore proved both Jews 
and Gentiles, that they 
are all under fm i. 


7 "= For. This Particle plainly joins what follows in this and the next Verfc to vengeatice in 
the 5th Verfe, and fliews it to be, as it is, a Continuation of the Objedion begun in that Vcrfe; 
why St. Paul broke it into pieces by intruding the tth Verfe in the middle of it, there is a very 
plain Reafon. In the Objecftion there were two things to be correded; \ft. The charging God 
with Unrighteoufnefs, which as foon as mentioned, it was a becoming Interruption in St. Pivul 
to quafh immediately, and to flop the Jews Mouth with the words of Abraharn. zdly. The other 
thing in the Objection wasafalfe Calumny upon tlie Chrillians, as if they preaching Juflification 
by Free Grace, faid, Let us Jo Evil that Good may come of it. To which the Apoille-s Anfwer was 
the more diftinft, being fubjoin'd to that Branch feparated from the other. 

'' Lie. The Senfe of the Place makes it plain, that St. Paul by Lie here means Sin in general, 
but feems to have ufcd the word Lie, as having a more forcible and graceful Antithefis to the 
Truth of God, which the Objertion pretends to be thereby illuflratcd. 

8 " Some. 'Tis pait doubt that thefe were the Jews. But St. Paul always, tender towards his 
own Nation, forbears to name them, when he pronounces this Sentence, that their caftingofFand 
Deftrudlion now at hand, for this Scandal and other Oppofition to the Chriftian Religion, was 

9 f Having in the fix foregoing Verfcs jullified the Truth of God, notwithftanding his cart- 
ing ofi'the Jews, and vindicated the Doftrine of Grace againft the Cavils of the Jews, which two 
Objedions of theirs came naturally in his way, the Apoftle takes up here again the Jews Quellion 
propofed, ver. i. and urges it home to the cafe in hand. Ti iv 'uJjye;:^ti6.ito, being but the fame 
with 77 «;■ <cfe<ocrov ffv l^J^cuv, ver. i. Have Jews then any Preference in the Kingdom of the Mrf- 

Jras> To which he anfwers. No, not at all. That this is the Meaning, is vifiblc from the whole 
Chapter, where he lays both Jews and Gentiles in an equal State in reference to Jultifica- 

8 Already, viz. ch. ii. 3. where St. P/7i'/ under the gentler Compellation ofO Mm, charges 

the Jews to be Sinners as well as the Gentiles, and irr. 17 24. fliews, that by having the 

Law they were no more kept from being Sinners than the Gentiles were without the Law. 
And this Charge againfl tliem, that they were Sinners, he here proves againft them from the 
Tcllimony of their own Sacred Books contained in the Old Tcilamcnt. 





As it is written. There 
is none righteous, no not 
one ; 

There is none that un- 
rferftandeth, there is none 
th.u ieckcth after God. 

They are all gone out 
of the way, they are toge- 
ther become unprofitable, 
there is none that dotli 
good, no not one. 

Their throat is an open 
fepulchre ; with their 
tongues they have ufed 
deceit ; the poilbn of afps 
is under their lips; 

Whole mouth is full of 
ciirfing and bitternefs. 

Their feet are fwift to 
fhed blood. 

Dcftrudlion and mifery 
are in their ways : 

And the way of peace 
have they not known. 

There is no fear of God- 
before their eyes. 

Now we know that 
what things foever. the 
law faith, it faith to them 
who are under the law ; 
that every mouth may be 
flopped, and all the world 



both againft Jews and Gentiles, and urged that 
thc^re is not one of thcni clear, which I fhall 
prove now againft you Jews ; For it is writ- 
ten, There ts none f'tghteous^ no not one : there h 
none that underjlandeth^ there is none thatjeeketh 
ajtcr God. They are a JI gone out of the way .^ they 
are together become unprofitable.^ there is none that 
doth good^ no not one, Their Throat is an open 
Sepulchre ; zvith their Tongues they have ufed/De- 
ceit \ the -Voifon oj Afps is under their Lips^ whoje 
Mouth is full of Curfng and Bitternefs. Their 
Feet are fwift to fed Bloody Defrutiion and Mi- 
fry are in their ways., and the way of^Peace have 
they not known. There is no Fear of God before 
their Eyes. This is all laid in. the Scicred Book 
of our Law ^ : And what is laid there, we 
know is laid to the Jews, who are under the 
Law, that the Mouth of every Jew that 
would juftify himlelf might be ftopp'd, and 
all the World, Jews as well as Gentiles, may 
be forced to acknowledge themfelves guilty be- 
fore God. From whence it is evident, that by his 
own Performances, in Obedience to a Law ^ 


Chap. III. 


1 1 






19 ^ The Lnw here fignifies the whole Old Teftament, which containing Revelations from 
God in the Time of the Law, and being to thofe under the Law of Divine Authority, and a 
Rule as well as the Law itfelf, it is fometimes in the New Teftament called the Lazv, and fo our 
Saviour himfelf ufes the Term Law, John x. 34. The Meaning of St. Paul here is. That the 
Declarations of God, which he had cited out of the Old Teftament, were fpoken of the Jews, 
who were under the Difpenfation of the Old Teftament, and were, by the Word of God to 
them, all of them pronounced Sinners. 

20 ' '£^ gj^ai' viyMf I fliould render, by Deeds of Lazo, i. e. by Aflions of Conformity to a 
Law requiring the Performance of the J)Kcuii>yM. S^?, the right Rule of God "( mentioned 
fhi:p. I. 32.) with a Penalty annexed, no Flefh can bejuftified: But every one failing of an exaft 
Conformity of his Aftions to the immutable Reftirude of that eternal Rule of Right, will be 
found unrighteous, and fo incur the Penalty of the hvx. That this is the Meaning oVi^'^n. voy.Hf 
is evident, bccaufe the Apoftles Declaration here is concerning all Men, mrra oap^- But we 
know the Heathen World were not under the La^v of Mofcs. And accordingly St. Paul does not 
(.ly, ot. ?f5'&'i' Ti \'oy.t, by the Deeds of the Lavj, but c'^ i^yjiv ^owk, by Deedt of Law. Though 
in t!ic foregoing and following "\''erfe, where he would fpecify the Law di Mofes, he ufes the 
Article with n^'Q- three times. 

H h no 







no ^ Man can attain to an exa£l Conformity 
to the Rule of Right, fo as to be righteous in 
the fight of God. For by Law, which is the 
publifhing the Rule with a Penalty, we are 
not delivered from the Power of Sin, nor can 
it help Men to Righteoufnefs ^ ; but by Law 
we come experimentally to know Sin in the 
Force and Power of it, fince we find it pre- 
vail upon us notwithftanding the Punifhment 
of Death is by the Law annexed to it ^. But 
now the Righteoufnefs of God, that Righ- 
teoufnefs which he intended, and will accept, 
and is a Righteoufnefs not within the Rule 
and Rigour of Law, is now made manifefl: and 
confirmed by the Teftimony of the Law and 
the Prophets, which bear witnefsto this Truth, 
that Jelus is the Meflias, and that it is accord- 
ing to his Purpofe and Promife, That the 
Righteoulhefs of God by Faith in Jcfus the 
Mefiias, is extended to and beftowed on all 
who believe in him ", ( for there is no Diffe- 
rence between them. They have all, both 
Jews and Gentiles, finned, and fail of attain- 
ing that Glory ^ which God hath appointed 
for the Righteous ) being made righteous gra^ 
tts by the Favour of God through the Re- 


may become guilty before 

Therefore by the deeds 20 
of the Law there Ihall no 
flefli be juftiiied in his 
fight : for by the Law is 
the knowledge of fin. 

But now t'ae righteouf- 21 
nefs of God without the 
law is manifefted, being 
witneiTed by the law and 
the prophets; 

Even the righteoufnefs 22 
of God, which is by faith 
of Jefus Chrift unto all, 
and upon all them that 
believe ; for there is no 
difference : 

For all have finned, and 23 
come iTiort of the glory 
of God; 

Being juftlned freely by 24 
his grace, through the 
redemption that is in Jc- 
fus Chriit : 

N r E s. 

^ No MiTi. St. Paul ufes here the word Flefi) for Man emphatically, as that wherein the Force 
ef Sin is fcated. Vid. chap. vii. 14, & i8. & viii. 14. 

' The Law cannot kelp Men to Righteoufnefs. This, which is but implied here, he is lar^e and 
exprefs in chap. vii. And is faid exprefsly, chap. viii. 3. Gal. iii. 21. 

" Chap. vii. 13. 

22 " Vid. chap. X. 12. Gal. iii. 22 ■28. 

23 ° Here rhe Glory that comes from God, or by his Appointment, is called the Glcry of^ 
God, as the Righteoufnefs which comes from him, or by his Appointment is called the Righteouf 
■fief of God, chap. i. 17. and the Rule of moral Redlitude, which has God for its Author, or is 
appointed by him, is called /v«ou'f<j(Uit -:-<.», chap.i. 32. That this is the Glory here meant, 
\id. chap. ii. 7, io. In the f.une Senfe the GLyy vf Cod is ufcd, chap. v. z. 


ROMANS. 25^" 

Chap. IIL 


2 J Whom God hath fet dcmption P which IS by Jefus Chrlft; Whom 25 

ttoug^° ^;:irC" h"; God hath fet forth to be the Propitiatory or 

blood, to declare his righ- McTcy-fcat ^ in his own Blood % for the 

teouiaefs for the remiifi- Manifeftation of his [ God's } Righteoufueis S 


24 ^ Redemption fignifies Deliverance, but not Deliverance from every thing, but Deliverance 
from that, to which a Man is in Subjcftion or Bondage. Nor does Redemption by Jefus Chnll 
import there was any Compenfation made to God by paying what was of equal Value, in confi- 
deration whereof they were delivered; for that is inconfillcnt with what St. Fj///exprefsly favs 
here, ciz. that Sinners are jullified by God gratis, and of his free Bounty. What this R^- 
dejfiption is, St. Paul tells us, Eph. i. 7. Col. i. 14. even the Forgivenefs of Sins. Bat if St. Paul 
had not been fo exprefs in defining what he means by Reder.ption, they yet would be thought 
to lay ro o much (trefs upon the Criticifm of a Word in the Tramlation, who would thereby 
force from the Word in the Original a neceflary Senfe, which 'tis plain it hath not. That Re- 
deeming in the facred Scripture-Language fignifies not precifely paying an Equivalent, is fo clear, 
that nothing can be more. I fhall refer my Reader to three or four places amongft a great Num- 
ber ; Exod.vx. 6. Deut. vii. 8. & xv. 15. & xxiv. i3. But if any one will, from the literal 
Signification of the word in Englijh, perfdl in it againil St Paul's Declarations, that it necefla- 
rily implies an equivalent Price paid, I defire him to confider to whom; And that, if we will 
ftr'iftly adhere to the Metaphor, it muft be to thofe whom the Redeemed are in Bondage to, 
and from whom we are redeemed, viz. Sin and Satan. If he will not believe his own Syileni 
for this, let him believe St. P/^a/'s Words ; Tit. ii. 14. Who gave hi mfe If for us, that he might 
redeem us from all iniquity. Nor could the Price be paid to God in Stridnefs of Juftice, (for 
that is made the Argument here) unlefs the fame Perfon ought, by that ftrift Juilice, to have both 
the Thing redeem'd, and the Price paid for it* Redemption. For 'tis to God we arc 
redecm'd by the Death of Chrill:, Rev. v. 9. Thou waftjlain, and haft redeemed us to God by thy 

25 1 'iKA-^eiov, fignifies Propitiatory, or Mercy-Seat, and not Propitiation, as Mr. Mede has 
rightly obfei-ved upon this Place in his Difcourfe of God's Houfe, §. i. 

■■ The Alexandrine Copy omits the words J\iA ■m<^.u<;, liy Faith; which feems conformable to 
the Senfe oftheApolHe here: He fays, God hath fet forth Cbrift to be the Propitiatory in 
his Blood. The Atonement under the Law, was made by Blood fprinkled on the Propitiatory or 
Mercy-Seat, Lev. xvii. 14. Chrift, fays St. Paul here, is now fet out and fliewn by God to be 
the real Propitiatory or Mercy-Seat in his own Blood ; fee Heb. ix. 25, 26. where the Sacrifice of 
himfelf is oppofed to the Blood of others. God has fet him out to be fo, to declare his Righ- 
teoufnefs ; the Mercy-Seat being the Place where God fpake and declared his Pleafare, Exod. xxv. 
22. Nu;nb. vii. 8, 9. And it was there where God always appeared, Lev. xvii. 2. It was the 
Place of his Prefence, and therefore he is faid to dwell between the Cherubims, Pfil. Ixxx. 1, 
zKingsxix. 15. for between the Cherubims was the Mercy-Seat. In all which Refpefts, our 
Saviour, who was the Antitype, is properly called the Propitiatory. 

' AiKcuo'jmn, Right eoujnef, feems to be ufed here in the fame Senfe it is ver. 5. for the 
Righteoufnefs of God, in keeping his word with the Nation of the Jews, notwithftanding 
their Provocations : And indeed, with the following Words of this Verfe, contains in it a far- 
ther Anfwer to the jews Infinuation of God's being hard to their Nation, by fhewing that 
God had been v^ry favourable to them, in not calling them off as they had deferved, till, ac- 
cording to his Pxomife, he had fent them the Meifias, and they had rejcftedhim. 

H h 2 by 


Chap. HI. 




by pailing over * their Tranfgreffions for- 
merly committed, which he had bore with 
hitherto, fo as to with-hold his Hand from 
calling off the Nation of the Jews as their paft 
Sins deferved, for the manifeftine of his Righ- . . ,.,,-,. 

r r . 1- • ^11 -1 J^u him which beheveth in 

teomnels " at this time ^., that he might be j^f^j 
juft in keeping his Promife, and be the Juftifier 

of every one, not who is of the Jewiih Nation or 

Extraction, but of the Faith > in Jefus Chrilt. 

on of iins that are paft, 
through the forbearance of 
God ; 

To declare, I fay, at 26 
this time his righteouf- 
nefs : that he might be 
juft, and the juitifier of 


* A/a r 7!Ufi7iv, iy ptjffing over- I do not remember any place where Tm'pecii fignifies Re- 
miffion or Forgivenefs, but paffing by, or pajjing over, as our Tranflation has it in the Marginr, 
i. e. over-looking, or, as it were, not minding; in which Senfe it cannot be applied to the pall 
Sins of private Perfons, for God neither remits nor pafies them by fo as not to take notice of 
them. But this m^itm r 's^vyi^y' ^f duafv/Mi-nty, p^JJing over ■paft Sins, is fpoken national- 
ly, in refpeft of the People of the Jews ; who though they were a very fmful Nation, as appears 
by the Places here brought againil them by St. Paul, yet God pafled by all that, and would not 
be hindred by their paft Sinfiilnefs, from being juft in keeping his Promife, in exhibiting to them 
Chrift the Propitiatory. But though he would not be provoked by their paft Sins, fo as to caft 
them off from being liis People before he had fent them the promifed Meflias to be their Saviour ; 
yet after that, when at the due time he had manifefted his Righteoufnefs to them, that he might 
be juft, and the Juftifier of thofe who belicvg in Jefus, he no longer bore with their finfal Ob- 
ftjnacy ; but when they rejected the Saviour (whom he had fent according to his Promife) from 
being their King, God rejcfled them from being his People, and took the Gentiles into his 
Church, and made them his People jointly and equally with the few believing Jews. This is 
plainly the Scnfe of the Apoftle here, where he is difcourfing of the Nation of the Jews, 
and their State in comparifon with the Gentiles; not of the State of private Perfons. 
Let ^any one without Prcpofleffion attentively read the Context, and he will find it to 
be {q. 

26 " Aiy.ajo(rw>'t^< h^T^, his Righteoufnefs, is here to be underftood in both Scnfes in which 
St. Prfft/had ufed it before in this Chapter, viz. -jer. 5, & 22. as it is manifeft by St. PauVi 
explaining of it himfclf in thefe" Words immediately following: That he might be juft, and the of Mm who believeth in Jefus, which are the two Senfcs wherein the Righteoufnefs of 
God is ufed. 

^ At this time, viz. The Fulnefs of Time, according to his Promife. 
\ X Toj' cft rnviKi'lAa-v: If this Phrafe had been tranflued, hi?n that is of the Faith of Jefus, 
as it h, chap. iv. 16. & Gal. iii. 7. rather than him which believeth in Jefus, it would better have 
expreffed the Apoftle's Meaning here, which was to diftinguifti cl in "m^ax, thofe zvbo are of 
Faith, from :< t". /afe/Tc «-?■<, or q\ wj, r6f/.», thofe who are of the Circumcifion, or thofe who are 
of the Lavj, fpeaking of them as of two Sorts or Races of Men, of two different Extradions. 

To underftand thii Place fully, let any one read, chap.'w. 12 16. Gal.m. 7 10. where 

lie \\\\\ find the Apoftle's Senfe more at large. 


TEXT. ■ 

Where is boafting then ? 
It is excluded. By what 
law ? Of w orks ? Nay : 
but by the law of ftith. 

Therefore we conclude, 
that a man is juftified by 
faith without the deeds of 
the law. 

Is he the God of the 
Jews only ? Is he not alfo 
of the Gentiles? Yes, of 
the Gentiles alfo : 

Seeing it is one God 
which ftiall juftify the cir- 
cumcifion by faith, and 
uncircumcifion through 



What Reafbn then have you Jews to glory ^ 
and fet yourfelves fo much above the Gentiles 
in judging them as you do ? None at all : 
Boafting is totally excluded. By what Law ? 
By the Law of VVorks ? No, but by the Law 
of Faith. I conclude therefore ^^ that a 
Man is juftified by Faith, and not by the 
Works of the Law ^. Is God the God of the 
Jews only, and not of the Gentiles alio ? Yea 
certainly of the Gentiles alfo. Since the time 
is come that God is no longer one to the Jews, 
and another to the Gentiles, but he is now be- 
come one and the fame ^ God to them all, 
and will juftify the Jews by Faith, and the 
Gentiles alfo through Faith, who by the Law 
o^ Mofes were heretofore fhut out ^ from be- 






27 ^^ The Glorying here fpoken of, is that of the Jews, I.e. their judging of the Gentiles, 
and their Contempt of them, v.hich St. Paul had before in feveral places taken notice of And 
here, to take down their Pride and Vanity, he tells them, it is wholly excluded by the Gofpel, 
wherein God, who is the God of the Gentiles as well as of the Jews, juftifieth by Faith 
alone the Jews as well as the Gentiles, fmcc no Man could be juftified by the Deeds of the Law. 
This feems to be faid to the converted Jews, to rcop their thinking that they had any Advantage 
over the Gentiles under the Gofpel. No, fays he, the Gofpel, which is the Law of Faith, 
lays you equal with the Gentiles ; and you have no ground to alTume any thing to your fclve?, 
or fet your felves above them now under the Meflias. This, and all the reil: to this purpofe in 
this Epiule, is faid to eftablifh the converted Romans in their Title to the Favour of God, equally 
with the Jews in the Gofpel, and to fortify them againil any Diiturbancc might be given them 
bv the Dretending Jews; ^vhich is the principal Defign of this Epiftle, as we have already ob- 
fcr\ed. ' 

2S '' Therefore, this Inference is drawn from what he had taught, ver. 23. 

' Vid. Afts ?:iii^ 39. chap. viii. 3. Gal. ii. 16. 

30 '^,''^7n\^ ^i c ^0^, Jir.ce God is one. He that will fee the Force of St. Paul\ Reafoning 
here, muft look to Zachary xiv. 9. from whence thefe Words are taken j where the Prophet 
fpeaking of the Time when the Lord fc all be King over all the Earth., and not barely over the 
little People fhut up in the Land of Canaan, he fays. In that day there pall be one Lord, i. e. 
God fliall not be as he is now, the God of the Jews alone, whom only he hath known of all 
the People of the Earth ; but he fhall be the God of the Gentiles alfo, the fame merciful, re- 
conciled God to the People of all Nations. This Prophecy the Jews underflood of the Times 
of the Meflias, and St. PaJ here prefles them with it. 

^ It was impofliblc for remote Nations to keep the Law of Mofes, a great Part of the Wor- 
lliip required by it being local, and confined to the Temple at Jsrufaleni. 




Chap. IV. 

^ I ina the People of God. Do we then make the , ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^f^l yo'J 3! 

•^ -.or ri r 1 TV jn. • ^^^ ^^^^^ tlirough Faith? 

Law ^ iniij2,nmcant or uielcis by our Doctrine God forbid: yea wc qQa- 
of Faith? By no means: but on the contrary bliflitheLaw. 
we eftablifli s and confirm the Law. 


31 ^ H'ofzov, Lata, is here repeated twice without the Article, and it is plain that by it St. Paul 
does not mean precifely the Moiaical Law, but fo much of it as is contained in the natural and eter- 
nal Rule of Right mentioned ch. i. 32. & xi. 26. and is again by a poutive Command re-enadled 
and continued as a Law under the Meffns. Fid. Mat. xxviii. 20. 

8 Eftablijh. The Doflrine of Juftificationby Faith neceflarily fuppofeth a Ruleof Righteoufnefs, 
which thofe who are Juftiiied by Faith come fliort of; and alfo a Punilhment incurr'd, from wliich 
they arc fet free by being Juftified : and fo this Doflrine eftablifhes a Law, and accordingly the 
moral part of the Law of Ms/?/, that JIkcuuuo, tJ ^», as the Apoftle calls it in the place above 
quoted, cb. i. 32. is enforced again by our Saviour and the Apolllcs in the Gofpel, with Penalties 
annexed to the Breach of it. 


CHAP. IV. 1—25, 

S*T. ^atil having in the foregoing Section cut off all glorying 
I from the Jews, upon the account of their having the Law, 
and fhewn that that gave them no manner of Title or Pretence to 
be the People of God, more than the Gentiles, under the Meilias ; 
and fo they had no Reafon to judge or exclude the Gentiles as they 
did; he comes here to prove that their lineal Extradion from their 
Father Jhraham^ gave them no better a Pretence of glorying, or of 
letting themfelves upon that account above the Gentiles now in the 
time of the Gofpel. 

T. Becaufe Abraham himfelf was jullified by Faith, and fo had 
not whereof to glory, for as much as he that receiveth Righteouf- 
nefs as a Boon, has no Reafon to glory : but he that attains it by 

1, Becaufe 




'1. Becaufe neither they who had Circumcifion derived down to Chap. IV. 
them, as the Pofterity of Abraham^ nor they who had the Law ; 
but they only who had Faith were the Seed oi Abraham^ to whom 
the Promife was made. And therefore the BlefTing of Juftitication 
was intended for the Gentiles, and beltowed on them as well as on 
the Jews, and upon the fame Ground. 


W^Hat fhall we ky 
then, that Abra- 
ham our Father, as per- 
taining to the Flefh, hath 
found ? 

For if Abraham were 
juftified by works, he 
hath whereof to glory, but 
not before God. 

For what faith the 
fcripture ? Abraham be- 
lieved God, and it was 
counted unto him for 


WHat then fhall we fay of Abraham our 
Father according to the Flefti ^^ ^hat 
has he obtained ? Has not he found matter of 
glorying? Yes, if he were juftified by Works, 
he had matter of Glorying ', he might then 
have gloried over the reft of the Gentile World 
in having God for his God, and he and his 
Family being God's People • but hehadnoSub- 
jed of glorying before God, as it is evident 
from Sacred Scripture, which telleth us that 
Jhraham believed God, and it was counted to 
him for Righteoufnefs. Now there had been 
no need ofanyluch Counting, any fuch Allow- 
ance, if he had attained Righteoufnefs by 


1 ^ Our Father according to the Flejh. St. Paul fpeaks here as lineally defcended from j^Bra^ 
ham, and joins himfelf herein with the rell of his Nation, of whom he calls Abraham the Fa' 
thef according to the Flefh, to diftinguifh the Jews by Birth, from thofe who were Abraham''3 
Seed according to the Promife, viz. thofe who were of the Faith of Abraham, whether Jews 
or Gentiles, a Diftirj^cion which he infifts on all through this Chipter. 

2 ■ Kad^/ua, tranilated here glorying, I take to fignify the fame with y^vyJC'mt, tranflated 
Foaftiiig, chap. ii. 17, ^3. in which Places it is ufed to fignify the Jews valuing themfelves up- 
on feme national Privileges above the reft of the World, as if they had thereby fome peculiar 
Kight to the Favour of God above other Men. This the Jcwifh Nation thinking themfelves 
alone to h.ive a Title to be the People of God, exprefTed in their judging the Gentiles whom 
they defpifcd, and look'd on as un'.vorthy and uncapable to be received into the Kingdom of the 
McffivS, and admitted into FcilcwHiip with their Nation under the Gofpel. This Conceit of 
theirs St. Paul oppofes here, and makes it his bufmefs to fhew the Falftocd and Groundlefnefs of 
it all through the eleven firll Chapters of this Epillle. J ask, whether it would not help the 
Englifh Reader the better to find and purfue the Senfe of St. Paul, if the Greek Term were 
every where render'd by the fainc EngliHi Word? Whether Bo.ijiing or Glorying, I think of no 
gicat Confcquence, fo one of them be kept to. 









Works of Obedience exadly conformable and 
coming up to the Rule of Righteoufnefs. 
For what Reward a Man has made himfelf a 
Title to by his Performances, that he receives 
as a Debt that is due, and not as a Gift of Fa- 
vour. But to him that by his Works attains 
not Righteoufnefs, but only believeth on God 
who juftifieth him, being ungodly \ to him 
Juflification is a Favour of Grace : becaufe his 
Believing is accounted to him for Righteouf- 
nefs, or perfcd Obedience. Even as D^z^/tf fpeaks 
of the BlefTednefs of the Man to whom God 
Teckoneth Righteoufnefs without Works, fay- 
ing, BlelTed are they whole Iniquities are 
forgiven, and whole Sins are covered. Blef- 
fcd is the Man to whom the Lord will not 
reckon ^ Sin. Is this BlefTednefs then up- 
on the Circumcifed only, or upon the Un- 
circumcifcd alio ? For we fay that Faith was 
reckon'ci to Abraham for Righteoufnefs. When 
therefore was it reckon'd to him ? When he 
was in Circumcifion or in Uncircumcifion ? 
Not in Circumcifion, but in Uncircumcifion. 
For he received the fign of Circumcifion, a Seal 
of the Rightcoufneis of the Faith, which he 
had being yet uncircumcifcd 

Now to him that work- 
eth, is the reward not rec- 
koned of grace, but of 

Bat to him that work- 
eth not, bur believeth on 
him that juililieth the un- 
godly, his faith is counted 
for righteoufnefs. 

Even as David alfo de- 
fcribeth the blefledneli of 
the man unto whom God 
imputeth righteoufnefs 
without works,. 

Saying, Bleffed are they 
whofe iniquities are for- 
given, and whofe fins are 

BlelTcd is the man to 
whom the Lord will not 
imput-e fin. 

Cometh this blefTcdnefs 
then upon the circumcili- 
on only, or upon the un- 
circumcifion alfo ? For 
we fay that faith was rec- 
koned to Abraham for 

How was it then rec- 
koned ? when he was in 
circumcifion, or in uncir- 
cumcifion ? not in cir- 
cumcifion, but in uncir- 

And he received the 
fign of circumcifion, ^ 

, that he might 

N r E s. 

5 '^' Tor (tnCn, him being ungodly. By thefe Words St. Paul plainly points out Abraham, 
who was a.TiQm, ungodly, i. e. a Gentile, not a Worfhippcr of the true God when God called 
him. P'id. Note, chap. i. l8. 

8 ' l\o-)'iiTy\J), reckoneth. What this imputing or reckoning of Righteoufnefs is, may be fcen 
in vcr. 8. z'iz. the not reckoning of Sin to any one, the not putting Sin to his account : the 
Apoftle in thefe tr/o Verfes ufing thefe two Exprellions as equivalent. From hence the Expref- 
fion of blotting out of Iniquity, fo frequently ufcd in Sacred Scripture, may be undcrltood, /. e. 
the flriking it out of the account. iXoytin^^ fignifics to reckon or account, and with a Da- 
tive Cafe, to put to any ones account; and accordingly, ver. 3, 4, 5. it is tranflated counted ox 
reckon'd ; which word for the fl\ke of Englifli Readers I have kept to in this, and vcr. 8, & 

II »" See Gen. xvii. 11. 

2 be 




fcal of the Righteoufnefs 
of the Faith, which he 
had yet being uncircnm- 
cifed; that he might be 
the Father of all them 
that believe, though they 
be not circumcifcd ; that 
righteoufnefs might be 
imputed unto them alfo: 

And the Father of cir- 
ci'mcifion to them who 
are not of the circumcifi- 
on only, but alfo walk vci 



be the Father of all thofe who believe, bt;Ing 
uncircumcifed, that Righteoufnefs might be 
reckon'd to them alfo \ And the Father of the 
Circumcifed, that Righteoufnels might be rec- 
kon'd not to thofe who were barely of the Cir- 
cumcifion, but to fuch of the Circumcifion as 
did alfo walk in the fteps of the Faith of our 
Father Abraham^ which he had being uncir- 
cumcifed ". For the Promife ° that he 

\i & 12 " What Righteoufnefs reckon'd to any one, or as it is ufually called imputed Righ- 
teoufnefs, is, St Paul explains, vtr. 6 8. Whom this BiefTmg belongs to, he enquires, 

ver. 9- and here, ver. ti, & 12. he declares who are the Children of Jbraham, that from him 
inherit this Bleffing, ver. \\. he fpeaks of the Gentiles, and there fhews that Abraham, who was 
juftified by Faith before he was circumcifed { the want whereof the Jews look'd on as a diftinguifhing 
Mark cf a Gentile) was the Father of all thofe among the Gentiles, who fhould believe without 
being circumcifed. And here, r^r. 12. he fpeaks of the Jews, and fays, \[\7X Abraham \v^^^ their 
Father: But not that all fh'ould be juftified who were only circumcifed; but thofe who to their Cir- 
cumcifion added the Faith o^ Abraham, which he had before he was circumcifed. That which mifled 
thofe who miftook the Senfe of St. P^/// here, feems to be their not obferving, thatTr/f »;t c4t 7n?t- 
TtiJ.m, is referred to, and governed by «'< tb acj tS;7v'a.i, which muft be fuppofed repeated here after 
TTET^aa, fl^TTftJif. Or ehe the Apoftle's Senfe pnd Argument will not ftand in its full Force, but 
the Antithefis will be loft ; by preferving of which the Senfe runs thus; A^iti the Father of the 
Circumcifed, that Righteoufnefs might be imputed to thofe who, &c. Another thing very apt to 
miflead them, was the joyning of uovov only, to 8;c not, as if it were k y.6vov ttj/j, nof only thofe 
li'ho are of the Circumcifion ; v/hereas it fhould be underftood as it ftands joyn'd to <:^TT>y.n(, and fo 
<3fe<7'/>M< (.■'oycv arebeft tranflated barely Circumcifion, and the Apoftle's Senfe runs thus ; That he 
night be the Father of the Gentiles that believe, though they be not Circumcifed, that Righteoufnefs 
might be imputed to them alfo ; And the Father of the Jews, that Righteoufnefs might be imputed not 
to them -who have Circumcifion only, but to them zvho alfotvalk in thefieps of the Faith of our Father 
Abraham, which he had being uncircumcifed. In which way of underftanding this Paffage, not 
only the Apoftle's meaning is very plain, eafy and coherent, but the Conftruction of the Greek ex- 
aflly correfpond to that oiver. 1 1. and is genuine, eafy, and natural, which any other way will 
be very perplexed. 

13 " 7]^^ /"/-(Jw/Zr here meant is that which he fpeaks of, ver. 1 1 . whereby y^^r^j^/z;,? was made 
the Father of all that fhould believe all the World over, and for that Re.ifonhe is called KAKfoi'6/:/®- 
xej-fXB, Heir or Lord cf the World. For the Believers of all Nations of the World being given to 
him for a Poiterity, he becomes thereby Lord and PofTefTor ( for fo //^/ramongft the Hebrews fig- 
nified ) of the World. For 'tis plain the Apoftle in this Vcrfe purfues the Argument he wis upon ^ 
in the two former. And 'tis alfo plain that St. Paul makes Circumcifion to be the Seal of the 
Promile made to -r^^r.7i'(^?OT, Gen. 12. as well as of that made to him. Gen. 17. and fo both thefe 
to be but one Covenant, and that of <-^. 17. to be but a Repetition and farther Explication of the 
former, as is evident from this Chapter, compared with Gal. iii. In both which the Apoftle 
argues, that the Gentiles were intended to be juftified as well as the Jews, and that both Jews and 
Gentiles, who arc juftified, arc juftified by Faith, and not by the Vv^'orks of the Law. 

1 i Ihould 



Chap. IV. 





fhould be Pofleflbr of the World, was not that 
Ahraham^ and thole of his Seed, who were 
under the Law, ftiall by virtue of their ha- 
ving and owning the Law, be pofTelTed of it \ 
but by the Righteoufnefs of Faith, whereby 
thofe who were without the Law, fcatter'd all 
over the World, beyond the Borders of Ca- 
naan^ became his Pofterity, and had him for 
their Father P , and inherited the Blefling of 
J unification by Faith. For if they only who 
had the Law o^ Mofes given them, were Heirs 
of Jbrabam, Faith is made void and ufelefs q, 
it receiving no Benefit of the Promife which 
was made to the Heirs of ^^aj^.7/72's Faith, and 
fo the Promife becomes of no effect. Becaufe 
the Law procures them not Juftification % 
but renders them liable to the Wrath and Pu- 
nilhment of God ' , who by the Law has 
made known to them what is Sin, and what 
Punifhment he has annexed to it. Fot there 
is no incurring Wrath or Punifhment where 
there is no Law that fays any thing of it K 


the fteps of that Faith of 
our Father Abraham, 
which he had being yet 

For the promife that ,, 
he fhould be the heir of 
the world, was not to A- 
braham, or to his feed 
through the law, but 
through the Righteoufnefs 
of Faith. 

For if they which are 14 
of the law be heirs, faith 
is made void, and the 
promife made of none ef- 

Becaufe the law work- 15 
eth wrath : for where no 
law is, there is no tranf- 

NorE s. 

V Gal. iii. 7. 

14 '1 See Gal. iii. 18. 

15 ■■ Ch. viii. 3. Gal. iii. 21 . 

» St& ch. iii. 19, 20. & V, 10, 13, 20. & vii. 7, 8, 10. i Cor. xv. 56. Gal.'m. 19. John 
ix. 41- & XV. 22. 

^"^Ov «ji £41 v'o(j.©-, i/i Tiafc'.Cctmf, of ihaf, concerning ivhich there is no Lacv with the SanBi- 
en cf a Punijhment annexed, there csn be no Tranfgrejji on incurring Wrath or Punipment. Tlius 
it may be renderd if we read » with an Afpiration, as Tome do. But whether it be taken to fignify 
where or whereof, the Senfe will be the fxme. For <^^C«t<77jhere, to make St. PauPs Argument 
ef Force, muft fignify fuch a TranfgreJJion as draws on the TranTgreflbr Wrath and Punifhment by 
the Force and Sanftion of a Law. And fo the Apoitle's Propofition is made good, that 'tis the 
Law alone that expofes us to Wrath, and that is all that the Law can do, for it gives us no Power 
to perform. 

2 There- 



Therefore the Inheritance "^ is of Faith, that 
it might be merely of Favour, to the end that 
the Promife might be fure to all the Seed of 
Jhraham ; not to that part of it only which has 
Faith, being under the Law; but to that part 
alio who without the Law inherit the Faith 
Q>{ Jhraham., who is the Father of us all who 
believe, whether Jews or Gentiles ( As it is 
written ^, I have made thee a Father of ma- 
ny Nations ) I fay the Father of us all (in the 
account of God, in whom he believed, and who 
accordingly quickned the Dead, /. e. Abraham 
and Sarah., whofe Bodies were Dead \ and cal- 
leth things that are not as if they were y ) : 
Who without any Hope, which the natural 
Courfe of things could afford, did in hope be- 
lieve, that he fhould become the Father of ma- 
ny Nations, according to what God had fpo- 
ken, by God's fhewing him the Stars of Hea- 
ven, faying. So pall thy Seed be. And being 
firm and unfhakcn in his Faith, he regarded 
not his own Body now dead, he being about 
an hundred Years old ; nor the Deadnefs of 
Sarah's Womb; He ftagger'd not at the Pro- 
mife of God through Unbelief, but was ftrong 
in Faith, thereby giving Glory to God ; 
By the full Perfwafion he had that God was 
able to perform what he had promifed : 


16 " The Grammatical Conftru£lion does not feem much to favour Inheritance, as theWord to 
e lupplied here, becaule it does not occur in the preceding Verfes. But he that obferves St. 

Faursw2.y of Writing, who more regards Th'ngs than Forms of fpeaking, will be fatisiied, that it 
is enough that he mentioned Heirs, ver. 13, & 14. and that he does mean Inkerltance here. Gal. 
iii. 18. puts it part doubt. 

17 =* See Gen. xvii. 16, 
' Gen. XV. 5. 

I i 1 And 

Therefore it is of Faith, 
that it might be by ; 
to the end the promife 
might be fure to all the 
feed, not to that only 
which is of the law, but 
to that alfo which is of 
the faith of Abraham, 
who is the Father of us 

( As it is written, I 
have made thee a father 
of many Nations ) before 
him whom he believed, 
even God who quickeneth 
the dead, and callcch 
thofe things which 
be not, as though they 
were : 

Who againft hope be- 
lieved in hope, that he 
might become the father 
of many nations , accor- 
ding to that which was 
fpoken, So fhall thy feed 

And being not weak 
in faith , he confidered 
not his own Body now 
dead, when he was about 
an hundred years old, nei- 
ther yet the deadnefs of 
Sarah's womb. 

He ftaggered not at the 
promife of God through 
unbelief; but was ftrong 
m faith, givmg glory to 
God : 

And being fully per- 
fuaded, that what he had 


Chap. IV. 








Chap. IV. 




And therefore it was accounted to him for 
Righteoafnefs. Now this of its being rec- 
koned to him, was not written for his fake 
alone, But for ours alfo, to whom Faith alfo 
will be reckon'd for Righteoufnefs, viz. to as 
many as believe in him who raifed Jefus our 
Lord from the dead ^, Who was delivered to 
Death for our Offences % and was raifed a- 
gain for our ^ Juftification. 


promifed, he was able 
alfo to perform. 

And tlierefore it was 22 
imputed to him for righ- 

Now it was not writ- 23 
his fake alone, 
imputed to 

ten for 
that it was 
him ; 

But for us alfo, to 
whom it fliall be impu- 
ted, if we believe on him 
that raifed up Jefus our 
Lord from the dead, 

Who was delivered for 
our offences, and was rai- 
fed again for our Juftifica- 




24 ^ St. Paul ktms to mention this herein particular, to Hie w the Analogy between -</<fr<7/5'tf//;*s 
Faith, and that of Believers under the Gofpel ; fee ver. 17. 

25 ^ See Rom. iii. 25. & v. 6, 10. Eph. i. 7, 11, 16. & v. 2. Col. i. 14, 20 22. 1 Tim.ii. 

6. Tit. ii. 14. 

^ 1 Cor. XV. 17. I have fet down all thefe Texts out of St. Paul, that in them might be feen his 
own Explication of what he fays here, viz. That our Saviour by his Death attoned for our Sins, and 
fowe were innocent, and thereby freed from the Punifhment due to Sin. But he rofe again to af- 
ccrtain to us eternal Life, thcconfequence of Juftification : for the Reward of Righteoafnefs is eternal 
Life, which Inheritance we have a Title to by Adoption in Jefus Chrift. But if he himfelf hadnot 
that Inheritance, if he had not rofe into the pofTeflion of eternal Life, we who hold by and under 
him, could not have rifen from the dead, and fo could never have come to be pronounced righteous, 
and to have receiv'd the Reward of it, everlafting Life. Hence St. Pav// tells us, i Con xv. 17, 
tha* ifChriJlbenot raifed, our Faith is vain, we are yt in our Sins, i. e. as to the Attainment of 
eternal Life 'tis all one as if our Sins were not forgiven. And thus he rofe for our Juftification, i. e. 
to afTure to us eternal Life, the confequcnce of Juftification. And this I think is confirmed by our 
Saviour in thefe words, Becaufe I live j^ pall live alfo, John xiv. 1 9. 




CHAP. V. I--II. 


ST. ^aul in the foregoing Chapters has examined the glorying 
of the Jews, and their valuing themfelves fo highly above the 
Gentiles, and fhewn the Vanity of their boafting in Circumcifion 
and the Law, fince neither they nor their Father Jbrahjm were 
juftified, or found Acceptance with God by Circumcifion, or the 
Deeds of the Law : And therefore they had no Realbn lb, as they 
did, to prefs Circumcifion and the Law on the Gentiles, or exclude 
thofe who had them not, from being the People of God, and unfit 
for their Communion in and under the Gofpel. In this Section he 
comes to fhew what the Convert Gentiles, by Faith without Cir- 
cumcifion or the Law, had to glory in, viz. The hope of Glory, 
ver. 2. Their Sufferings for the Gofpel, ver. 3. And God as their 
God, ver. 11. In thefe three it is eafy to obferve the Thread and 
Coherence of St. I^aul's Dilcourfe here, the intermediate Verfes 
(according to that abounding with Matter, and overflowing of 
Thought he was fiifd with) being taken up with an incidental train 
of Confiderations, to fhew the Reafon they had to glory in Tribu* 


I "TT^Herefore being jufti- '' H '^ 

J. fiej by Faith, we I 

have peace with God, m. 

Herefore being juftified by Faith, we ^ 

peace witn kj,o<\, j^ havc Pcacc with God through our Lord 
through our Lord Jefus Jcius Chrift, By whom wc havc had admit- 
2 By whom aifo we have tancc through Faith into that Favour in v/hich 

accels by faith into this 


«: Wf, i. e. we Gentiles that are not under the Law, 'Tis in their Names that St. Pafil fpeab 
in the. three Lft Verfes of the foregoint, Chapter, and all through this Seflion, as is evident from 
the Illation here, Therefore beifi'/ jtijl Hed bv Faith, we. It being an Inference dr.iwn from his 
h wng proved in the ^nrmcr Chapter, that the^Promife was not to the Jews alone, but to the 
Gci; '"ies ..If J : And rh t Jutification was not by the Law, but by Faith, and confequently defigncd 
for the Gentiles as weJ as the Jews. 



Chap. V. 






we have flood, and glory ^ in the hope of 
the Glory which God has in ftore for us. And 
not only fo, but we glory in Tribulation alfo, 
knowing that Tribulation worketh Patience ; 
And Patience giveth us a Proof of our lelves, 
which furniflies us with Hope ; And our Hope 
maketh not afhamed, will not deceive us, be- 
caufe ^ the Senfe of the Love of God is 
poured out into our Hearts by the Holy Ghoft, 
which is given unto us *. For when we Gen- 
tiles were yet without Strength f, void of all 
Help or Ability to deliver our lelves, Chriftin 
the time that God had appointed and foretold, 
died for us, who lived without the Acknow- 
ledgment and Worfhip of the true God f. 
Scarce is it to be found, that any one will die 
for a juft Man, if peradventure one fliould 
dare to die for a good Man ; But God recom- 
mends, and herein fhews the Greatnefs of his 
Love ^ towards us, in that whilft we Gen- 
tiles were a Mafs of profligate Sinners s, Chrift 



grace wherein we ftand^ 
and rejoice in hope of the 
glory of God. 

And not only fo, but 
we glory in tribulations 
alfo, knowing that tribu- 
lation worketh patience j 

And patience, experi- 
ence ; and experience, 

And hope maketh not 
afl-iamed,- becaufe the 
love of God is fhed abroad 
in our hearts, by the holy 
Gholt which is given unto 

For when we were yet 
without ftrength, in due 
time, Chrill died for the 

For fcarcely for a righ- 
teous man will one die 
yet peradventure for a 
good man fome would 
even dare to die. 

But God commendeth 
his love towards us, in 
that while we were yet 
finners, Chrill died for 



2 '' Ki/v;;)^iu-t^cf, tve g'Ory. The fame word here for the Convert Gentiles that he had ufed 
before for the boafling of the Jew?, and the fame word he ufed where he examin'd what AbrahaT?i 
had found. The taking notice whereof, as we have already obferved, may help to lead us into the 
Apollle's Senfe : And plainly fhew us here, that St. Pauliix this Sedion oppofes the Advantages 
the Gentile Converts to Chriftianity have by Faith, to thofe the Je.vs gloried in with fo mucli 
Haughtinefs and Contempt of the Gentiles. 

5 "" Becaufe. * The Force of this Inference feems toftand thus. The hope of eternal Happi- 
nefs, which we glory in, cannot deceive us, becaufe the Gifts of the Holy Gholl bellowed upon us, 
aflure us of the Love of God towards us, th« Jews themfelvcs acknowledging that tiie Holy Gholl 
is given to none but thofe who are God's own People. 

8 f Another Evidence St. Pa/// gives them here of the Love of God towards them, and the 
ground they had to glory in the hopes of eternal Salvation, is the Death of ChrilHor them, whilit 
they were yet in their Gentile Eflate, which he defcribes by calling them, 

6, 8 f ■f'Ai>hiHi, zuithout Strength; ''hnCet';, ungodly; ' Af^cL^Toiho), Sinners; '£;^5£f/, 
Efie?nies : Thefe four Epithets arc given to them as Gentiles, they being ufed by St Paul, as the 
proper Attributes of the Heathen World, asconTidcr'd in contradiltindion to the Jevvifli Nation. 
What St. Pau' fiys of the Gentiles in other places will clear this. The helplcfs Condition of the 
Gentile World in the St.ue of Gcntilifm, fignified here by a.fnv^'ii, z^'ithcut Strength, he terms. 





Cel. ii. ?3. dead in Sifi, a Stlte, if any, ofWeaknefs. And hence he fays to the Romans convei- 
ted to Jefus Chrift ; Tei/d yourfehes unto God, ns thoje that are hlivefrom the dead, and your fehes 
as Injlruments of Righteoufnefs tnUo God, ch. vi. 13. How he dcfcfibes AoiCeiM', Ungodlinefs, men- 
tioned ri'. i. 1 8. as the proper State of the Gentiles, we may kt ver. 21, 23. That he thoiicrht 
the Title «.6«if ttc-Ao/, Si?:r;ers, belong'd peculiarly to the Gentiles, in Contradiftinftion to the 
Jews, he puts it pafl doubt in thefe words, We zvho are Jezus by Nature, and not Sinners of the 

Gentiles, Gal. ii. 15. See alfo ch. vi. 17 Z2. And as for g;^9£^/, Enemies, you have the 

Gentiles before their Converfion to Chriftianity fo called. Col. i. 21. St. Paul, Eph. ii. 1--13. 
defcribes the Heathens a little more at large; but yet the Parts of the Charader he there gives 
them, we may find comprifed in thefe four Epithets j the dSnveii, weak, ver. 1,5. the dnCiiiy 
ungodly, and «',«tfp-7»Ao/, Sinners, ver. 23. and the £;/9'j/, Enemies, ver. 11, 12- 

If it were remembred that St. Paul all along, through the eleven firft Chapters of this Epiftle, 
fpeaks nationally of the Jews and Gentiles, as 'tis vifible he docs, and not perfonally of fingle 
Men, there would be his Difficulty and fewer Mifiakes in underftanding this Epillle. This one 
place we are upon is a fufficient Inftance of it. For if by thefe Terms here, we fhall underftand 
him to denote all Men perfonally, ]&ws as well as Gentiles, before they are favingly inorafted 
into Jefus Chrift, we fliall make his Difcourfe hei-e disjointed, and his Scnfe mightily perplex'd, 
if at all confillent. 

That there were fome among the Heathen as innocent in their Lives, and as far from En- 
mity to God as fome among the Jews, cannot be quefticn'd. Nay, that many of them were 
not *V.f fif, but nCofA*.oi, Worlhippers of the true God, if wc could doubt of it, is manifell 
out of the Aels of the Apojiler, but yet St. Paul, in the Places above quoted, pronounces them 
all together, cts^f^f and a^.qi, (for that by thefe two Terms applied to the fame Perfons, he 
means the fame, ;. e. fuch as did not acknowledge and worfhip the true God, feems plain) un- 
godly, and Sinners of the Gentiles, as nationally belonging to them, in Contradillinflion to the 
People of the Jews, who were the People of God, whilft the other v.'ere the Provinces of the 
Kingdom of Satan: Not but that there were Sinners, heinous Sinners, among the Jews; but 
the Nation, confider'd as one Body and Society of Men, difown'd and declar'd a^ainli:, and op- 
pofed itfelf to thofe Crimes and Impurities which are mentioned by St. Paul, chap. i. 21, ije. 
as woven into the religious and politick ConlHtutions of the Gentiles. There they had their 
full Scope and Swing, had Allowance, Countenance and Protection. The idolatrous Nations 
had, by their Religions, Laws and Forms of Government, made themfelves the open Votarier, 
and were the profeffed Subjedts of Devils. So St. Paul, 1 Cor. x. 20, 21. truly calls the Gods 
they worlhipped and paid their Homage to. And fuitably hereunto, their religious Obfcrvances 
'tis well known, v, ere not without great Impurities, which were of right charged upon them, 
when they had a Place in their facred Offices, and had the Recommendation of Re'igion to "-ive 
them Credit. The reft of the Vices in St. PauPs black Lift, which were not wann'd at their 
Altars, and fofter'd in their Temples, were yet by the Connivance of the Law cherifh'd in 
their private Houfes, and made a Part of the uncondemned Actions of common Life, and had the 
Countenance of Cuftom to authorize them, even in the beft regulated and moft civilized Govern- 
ments of the Heathens. On the contrary, the Frame of the Jewiih Commonwealth v.-as found- 
ed on the Acknowledgment and Worfhip of the one only true invifible God, and their Laws re- 
quired an extraordinary Purity of Life, and Striftnefs of Manners. 

That the Gentiles were ftiled t/fle^i. Enemies, in a political or national Senfe, is plain from 
Epb.W. where they are called, Jlfens from the CctnmoNzcealtb of Kvitl, and Strangers from the 
Covenant. Abraham, on the other fide, was aWzd the Friend cfGcd, i. e. one in Covenant with 
him, and his profefied Subjeft, that owned God to the World: And fo were his Pofterity the 
People of the Jews, whilft the reft of the World were under Revolt, and lived in open Rebellion 
againft him, vid. Ifa. xli. 8. And here in this Epiftle St. Paul exprefly teaches, that when the 
Nation of the Jews, by rejecfting of the Meffias, put themlelves out of the Kingdom of God, 
and were caft off from being any longer the People of God, they became Enemies, and the 
Gentile World were reconciled. See Chap. xi. 15, 28. Hence St. Paul, who was the Apoftle 
oi the Gentiles, calls his performing that Office, the Minijiry cf Reconciliation, 2 Cor. v. 15. 



Chap. V. 


N r E S. 

And here in this Chapter, r'.v. i . the Privilege which they receive by the accepting of the Co- 
venant of Grace in Jefus Chrift, he tells them is this, that they have Pence zvtth God, i. e. arej 
no longer incorporated with his Enemies, and of the Party of the open Rebels againll him inJ 
the Kingdom of Satan, being return'd to their natural Allegiance in their owning the one true'' 
fupreme God, in fubmitting to the Kingdom he had fet up in his Son, and being received by 
him as his Subjects. SuitabI)^4iereunto ^l. James, fpeaking of the Converfion of the Gentiles 
to the ProfefTion of the Gofpel, fays of it, that God did vifit the Gentiles, to take out of them 
e People for his "Name, Aflc xv. 14. & ver. 19. he calls the Converts, thofe who from among the 
Gentiles are turned to God. 

Befides what is to be found in other Parts of St. Paufs Epiilles to juftify the taking of thcfe 
Words here, ns apply'd nationally to the Gentiles, in Contradiltincftion to the Children of Ifraely 
that which St. P/7/// fays, ver. \o, 11. makes it neceffary to underftand them fo. We, fays he, 
ivhen zve were Enemies were reconciled to God, and fo eve now glory in him, as our God. We 
here mull unavoidably be fpoken in the Name of the Gentiles, as is plain not only by the whole 
Tenor of this Sedion, but from this Paffige of glorying in God, which he mentions as a Pri- 
vilege now of the believing Gentles, furpaffing that of the Jews, whom he had taken notice 
of before, chap. ii. 17. as being forward to glory in God as their peculiar Right, though with 
no great Advantage to themlelvcs. But the Gentiles who were reconciled now to God by 
ChrilVs Death, and taken into Covenant with God, as many as received the Gofpel, had a new 
and better Title to this glorying than the Jews. Thofe that now are reconciled, and glory in 
God as their God, he fays, were Enemies. The Jews, who had the fame corrupt Nature 
common to them with the rcll of Mankind, are no where that I know called ln-J^i, Enemies, 
or <ta\Ceii, ungodly, whilft they publickly owned him for the-r God, and profelled to be his 
People. But the "Heathens \vcre deem'd Enemies, for being Aliens to the Commonwealth of 
Ifrael, and Strangers from the Covenants of Promife. There were never but two Kingdoms in 
the World, that of God, and that of the Devil : thefe were oppofite, and therefore the Subjeds 
of the latter could not but be in the State of Enemies, and fall under that Denomination. The, 
Revolt from God was univerfal, and the Nations of the Earth had given themfelves up to Ido- 
latry, when God called Abraham, and took him into Covenant with himfelf, as he did afterwards' 
the whole Nation of the Ifraelites, whereby they were re-admitted into his Kingdom, came 
under his Proteftion, and were his People and Subjefts, and no longer Enemies, wliilit all the 
refl: of the Nations remain'd in the State of Rebellion, the profeiled Subjefls of other Gods, 
who were Ufurpers upon God's Right, and Enemies of his Kingdom. And indeed if the four 
Epithets be not taken to be fpoken here of the Gentile World in this political and truly evan- 
gelical Senfe, but in the ordinary fyflematical Notion applied to all Mankind, as belonging uni- 
vcrfally to every Man perfonally, whether by Profeflion Gentile, Jew or Chrifiian, before he 
be adually regenerated by a faving Faith, and an efFedual tlirough Converfion, the illative 
Particle Wherefore, in the beginning of ver. 12. will hardly conned it and what follows to the 
foregoing Part of this Chapter. But the eleven firfl: Verfes mull be taken for a Parenthefis, 
and then the Therefore in the beginning of this fifth Chapter, which joins it to the fourth with 
a very clear Connexion, will be wholly infignificant ; and after all, the Senfe of the 12th 
Verfe will but ill fodder with the End of the fourth Chapter, notwithllanding the Wherefore 
which is taken to bring them in as an Inference. Whereas thefe eleven firfl Verfes being fuppo- 
fed to be fpoken of the Gentiles, makes them not only of a piece with St. Paul's Dcfign in the 
foregoing and following Chapters, but the Thread of the whole Difcourfe goes very fmooth, 
and the Inferences (uflier'd in with Therefore in the lil Verfe, and with Wherefore in the 12th 
Verfe) are very eafy, clear and natural from the immediately preceding Vcrles. That of the 
ill Verfe may be feen in what we have already faid, and that oi the 12th Verfe in fhort flanJs 
thus : We Gentiles have hy Chrift received the Reconciliation, which we cannot doubt to be intended 
for us as well as for the Jews, fence Sin and Death enter' d into the World by Adam, the cojnmon 
Father of us all. And a: by the Difobedicnce of that one. Condemnation of Death came on all; 
fs by the Obedience of one, Juftif cation to Life came upon all, 

3 died 


Much more then being 
now juftified by his blood, 
wc fli.ill be faved from 
wrath through hhn. 

For if when we were 
enemies, we were recon- 
ciled to God by the death 
of his Son ; much more 
being reconciled, we fhall 
be faved by his life. 

And not only fo, but ' 
we alfo joy in God, 
through our Lord Jefus 
Chrill, by whom we 
have now received the 



died for ns. Much morS therefore now being 
juftified by his Death, fhall we through him 
be delivered from Condemnation ^^ at the day 
of Judgment. For if when we were Ene- 
mies \^ we were reconciled to God by the 
Death of his Son, much more being reconciled 
fhall we be laved by his Life. And not on- 
ly ^ do we glory in Tribulation, but alfo in 
God through our Lord Jefus Chrift, by whom 
now ^^ we have received Reconciliation. 



Chap. V. 


1 1 

9 ^ What St. Paul here calls Wrath, he calls the Wrath to come^ \ ThefT. i. lO. and generally 
in the New Tellament Wrath is put for the Puni(hment of the Wicked at the lalt Day. 

II 'Oi/ (jtiv'jv (Ti, And not only Jo, I think no body can with the leall Attention read this 
Seftion, without perceiving that thefe Words join this Verfe to the ;}d. The Apodle in the 
2d Verfe fays, We the Gentiles who believe, glory in the Hofes of an eternal fplendid State of 
Blifs. In the 3d Verfe he -adds i (j-oiou Ji, And not only fo, but our Affliftions are to us matter 
of glorying J which he proves in the feven following Verfes; and then, ver. 1 1. adds, ' uovu Jfe*, 
Atid not only fo ; but we glory in God alfo as our God, being reconciled to him in Jefus Chrift. 
And thus he (hews that the Convert Gentiles had whereof to glory, as well as the Jews ; and 
were not inferior to them, though they had not Circumcilion and the Law, wherein the Jews 
gloried fo much, but with no ground in comparifon of what the Gentiles had to glory in, by 
Faith in Jefus Chrift, now under the Gofpel. 

* 'Ti true, we Gentiles could not formerly glory in God as our God, that was the Privilege 
of the Jews, who alone of all the Nations owned him for their King and God, and were his 
People in Covenant with him. All the reft of the Kingdoms of the Earth had taken other 
Lords, and given themfelves up to falfe Gods, to ferve and worfliip them; and fo were in a 
State of War with the true God, the God of Ifrael. But now we being reconciled by Jefus 
Chrift, whom we have received, and own for our Lord, and thereby being return'd into his 
Kingdom, and to our ancient Allegiance, we can truly glory in God as our God, which the 
Jews cannot do, who have refufed to receive Jefus for their Lord, ^vhom God hath appointed 
Lord over all things. 

K k 



C h'a p. v. I2--VII. 25. 

CON r E N r s. 

THE Apoftle here goes on with his Defign of fhewing that 
the Gentiles under the Gcfpel have as good a Title to the 
pavour of God as the Jews, there being no other way for either 
Jew .or Gentile to find Acceptance with God but by Faith in Jefus 
Chrift. In the foregoing Section he reckon'd up fevcral Subjeds 
of glorying which the Convert Gentiles had without the Law, and 
concludes them with this chief and principal matter of glorying, 
even God himfclf, whom, now that they were by Jefus Chrift 
their Lord reconciled to him, they could glory in as their God. 

To give them a more full and fatisfactory Coniprehenfion of 
this, he leads them back to the Times before the giving of the 
Law, and the very Being of the Jewifh Nation ; and lays before 
them in fhort the whole Scene of God's Occonomy, and his Deal- 
ing with jMankind from the Beginning, in reference to Life and 

1. He teaches them, that by Jdim's Lapfe all Men were brought 
into a State of Death, and by Chrift's Death all are reftored to 
Life. By Chrift alio as many as believe aie inftatcd in Eternal 

2. That the Law when it came laid the JJraeUtes fafter under 
Death, by enlarging the Offence which had Death annexed to it. 
For by the Law every Tranlgreflion that any one under the Law 
committed, had Death for its Panifhm.ent, notwithftanding which 
by Chrift thofe under the Law who believe receive Life. 

3. That though the Gentiles who believe come not under the 
Rigor of the Lavv^, yet the Covenant ol' Grace which they are un- 
der, requires that they Ihould not be Servants and VaiTals to Sin, 
to obey it in the Lufts of it, but fincerely endeavour after Righte- 
oulhef^, tlie end whereof would be everlafting Life. 

4. That the Jews alio who receive the Gofpel, are deliver'd 
from the Law^ not that the Law is Sin 5 bat bccaufe though the 
Law forbid the obeying of Sin as well as the Goipel, yet not ena- 


ROMANS. 2^1 

blfng them to rcfift their finful Lufls, but making each compliance Chap, v- 
M'ith anv finful Luft deadly, it fettles upon them the Dominion of 
Sin by Death, from which they are delivered by the Grace of Goci 
alone, which frees them from the Condemnation of the Law for 
every aclual TranfgreHion, and requires no more but that they 
fliould with the whole bent of their Mind ferve the Law of God, 
and not their carnal Lufts. In all which Cafes the Salvation of the 
Gentiles is wholly by Grace, without their being at all undei^ tl^ 
Law. And the Salvation of the Jews is wholly by Grace alfb, 
without any Aid or Help from the Law : From which alfo by 
Chrift they are delivered. 

Thus lies the Thread of St. ^jul's Argument; wherein we may 
uc how he purfues his Defign of latisfying the Gentile Converts at 
Roinc^ that they were not required to fubmit to the Law of Mofes ; 
and of fortifying them againfl the Jews, who troubled them about 

For the more diftincl and eafy Apprehenfion of St. haul's dif^ 
courfing on thefe Four Heads, I fhall divide this Sedion into the 
Four following Numbers, taking them up as they lie in the Order 
of the Text. 

SECT. VI. N, I. 

CHAP. V. 12--- 19. 

c N r E N r s. 

HEre he inftrucls them in the State of Mankind in general 
before the Law, and before the Separation that was made 
thercoy of the Jfraehtes from all the other Nations of the Earth. 
And here he fhews, that Adam tranfgrefling the Law which forbid 
him the eating of the Tree of Knowledge upon pain of D.ath, 
forfeited Immortality,- and becoming thereby mortal, all his Pofte- 
rity defcending from the Loins of a mortal Man, were mortal top, 
and all died, though none of them broke that Law but Jdun him- 
Jelf : But by Chrifi they are all reftored to Life again. And God 
iaftifying thofj who believe in Chrift, they are reilored to their 
Primitive State of Righteoulhefs and Immortality ; lb that the 

K k 2 Gentiles 



Chap. V. Gentiles being the Defccndants of Jddm as well as the Jews, ftand 
' as fair for all the Advantages that accrue to the Pofterity of Jdam 
by Chrift, as the Jews thcmfelyes, it being all wholly and folely 
from Grace. 




T 7f 7 Herefore to give you a State of the 
Y Y whole Matter, from the beginning, you 
mult know, that as by the Ad of one Man 
Adam^ theFatherof us all, Sin entered into the 
World, and Death, which was the Punilhment 
annexed to the Offence of eating the forbiden 
Fruit, entered by that Sin, for that all Jdams 
Pofterity thereby became mortal ^ 'Tis 
true indeed. Sin was univerfaily committed in 
the World by all Men, all the time before the 
poHtive Law of God delivered by Mofes : but 


WHercfore as by one i z 
man fin enter'd in- 
to the world, and death 
by fin; and fo death paf- 
fed upon all men, for that 
all have finned. 

For until the law fin 13, 
was in the world, but Jin 


12 ' Have Jinned, I have rendered became mortal, following the Rule I think very neceflary 
for the underftanding St. PauVz Epiftles, [viz..) the making him as much as is poflible his own 
Interpreter, i C'^r . xv. 22. cannot be denied to be parallel to this place. This and the follow- 
ing Verfes here being, as one may fay, a Comment on that Vcrfe in the Corinthians, St. Paul 
treating here of the fame matter, but more at large. There he fays, As in Adam all die; which 
Words cr.imot be taken literally, but thus. That in Adam all became mortal. The fame he fays 
here, but in other Words, putting, by a no very unufual Metonymy, the C;,ufe for the Eftecft, 
(z'/z.) the Sin of eating the forbidden Fruit, for the Eflcdt of it on Adam, z'iz. Mortality, and 
in him on all his Pofterity: A mortal Father infefled now with Death, being able to produce 
no better thsn a mortal Race. Why St. Paul differs in his Phrafe here from that which we find 
he ufed to the Corinthians, and prefers here that which is harder and more figurative, may per- 
haps be eafily accounted for, if we confider his Stile and ufual way of writing, wherein is 
Ihewn a great liking of the Beauty and Force of Antithefis, as ferving much to Illuftration and 
Impreflion. Jn the xvth of Corinthians, he is fpeaking of Life reftored by Jefs Chrift, and 
to illuftrnte and fix that in their Minds, the Death of Mankind Jjcft fervcd : Here to the Ro- 
mans he is difcourfing of Righteoufnejs reftored to Men by Chrift, and therefore here the term 
Sin is the moft natural and propcreft to fet that off. But that neither aftual or imputed Sin ie 
meant here, or ver. 19. where the fame way of Expreffion is ufcd, he that has need of it mav 
fee proved in Dr. Whitby upon the Place. If there can be any need of any other Proof, when 
it is evidently contrary to St. Paui\ Defign here, which is to fhew, that all Men, from Adam 
to Mojesy died fokly in confeq^uence of Adaf/i\ TranfgrelEon, fee vsr. 17. 




is not imp-itea when there >x.h as true ^ that there is no certain dctcr- 

is no law. • 1 T> • n. rr ^ o • • t 

.|. iSieverthelcrs,dcat'i reign- mmcd runilnment amxedtoSin without a po- 

fitive " Law declaring it. Nevertheiefs we 


13 ™ 'OvK ?Uo>«3, ^s not imputed', fo ourTranflation, but pofTibly not exaflly to the Senfe 
of the Apoftle: 'EaXo>/«i/ fignifies to eckon, but cannot be interpreted reckon to, which is the 
Meaning of impute, without a Pcrfon affigned to whom it is imputed. And fo we fee when 
the word is ufed in that Senfe, the Dative Cafe of the Perfon is fubjoin'd. And therefore it is 
well tranfl.ued, Philem. xviii. If he owes thee any thing, sm«/ j>A(3>«, put it to my account, 
reckon or impute it to me. Befides, St. Paul here tells us, the Sin here fpoken of as not rec- 
kon'd, was in the World, and had adual Exiftence during the Time between Adam and Mofes i 
but the Sin which is fuppofed to be imputed, is Adam's Sin which he committed in Paradife' 
and was not in the World during the Time from Adam till Mofes, and therefore sMo>hP cannot 
here figni^y tmputed. Sins in facred Scripture are called Debts ; but nothing can be brought to 
accounts, as a Debt, till a Value be fet upon it. Now Sins can no way be taxed, or a Rate fet 
upon them, but by the pofitive Declaration and Sanftion of the Lawmaker. Mankind, without 
the pofitive Law of God, knew by the Light of Nature, that they tranfgrefTed the' Rule of 
their Nature, Reafon, which didated to them what they ought to do. But without a pofitive 
Declaration of God their Sovereign, they could not tell at what rate God tax'd their Trefnalfes 
againll this Rule ; till he pronounced that Life fhould be the Price of Sin, that could not be 
afcertained, and confeouently Sin could not be brought to account : And therefore we fee that where 
there was no pofiti\'e.Law afHxing Death to S n, Men did not look on Death as the Wa-^es of 
Retribution for their Sin ; they did not account that they p.iid their Lives as a Debt and 
Forfeit for their Tranfgreffion. This is the more to be confider'd, becaufe St. Paul in this 
Epiftle treats of Sin, Punifliment and Forgivencfs, by way of an Account, as it were of Debtor 
and Creditor. 

He will be farther confirmed in the Senfe of thefe Words, who will be at the pains io com- 
pare chap. iv. 15. & V. 13, 20. & vii. 8, 9, together. St. Paul, chap iv. 15. fiys. The Lazo 
worketh Wrath, i. e. carrieth Punifhment with it. For zvhere there is no Lazo, there is no Tranf- 
grejjion. Whereby is not meant, that there is no Sin where there is no pofitive Law, ( the con- 
trary whereof he fays in this Verfe, viz. that Sin -zvas in the World all the time before the 
Laze) but that there is no Tranfgreilion with a Penalty annexed to it without a pofitive Law. 
And hence he tells the Romans, ch.ip i. 32. that they knew not that thofe Things deferved 
Death, \_z>id. Note, chap. i. 32.] but it w;:s by the ro.ative of God only, that^Men knew 
th;vt Death was certainly annexed to Sin, as its certain and unavoidable Pimifiament; and fo 
St. 'Pavi? argues, chap. vii. 8, 9. 

'- Na'y.s, Lazo. Whether St Paul by j/c/i/©- here means Lazo in general, as for the mod 
part he does where he omits the Article; or whether he mean-- the Law of Mofes in particular 
in which Seme he commonly joins the Article to vofx ■> ; this is plain, that St. PauPs Notion 
oi J Law wos conformable to that given by Mefes ', and fo he ufes the word vo^<&, in Eno-lifh 
Ln^.i, for the pofitive Command of God, with a Sandion ot a Penalty annexed to it ; of which 
kind there never having been any one given tc any People, bit that by Mofa to the Children 
o ijraiL till the Revelation of the Will of God by Jeius Chriil to all Mankind, which for fe- 
ver 1 Renlcns is always called the Gofpcl, in Contradiftindion to the Law oi Mofes; when 
Si. Paul fpeaks of Law in genera), it reduces itfelf in Matter of Fad to the Law of Mofes. 



Chap, V. 



fee that in all that fpace of time, which was 
before the pofitive Law of God byi\/^j, Men 
from the beginning of the V/orld died all as 
well as their Father Adam^ though none of 
them but he alone had eaten of the forbidden 
Fruit o, and thereby, as he had committed 
that Sin, to which Sin alone thePuniihmentof 
Death was annexed by the pofiti^^e Sanction ot 
God denounced to Adam^ who was the Figure 
1 J and Type of Chrift who was to come. But 
yet though he were the Type of Chrift, yet the 
Gift or Benefit received by Chrift, is not ex- 
actly conformed and confined to the dimenfi- 
ons of the Damage received by Adim'?> Fall. 
For if by the Lapfe of one Man the multi- 
tude P, /". t\ all Men died ^, much more 
did the Favour of God, and the Free Gift by 
the Bounty or Good-will which is in Jelus 
Chrift, exceed to the multitude '', /. €. to all 


ed from Adam to Mofcs, 
even over them that had 
not finned after the fxmili-, 
tude of Adam's tranfgref- 
fion, who is the figure of 
him that was to come ; 


But not as the offence, 
fo alfo is the free gift. 
For if through the offence 
of one many be dead, 
much more the grace of 
God, and the gift by grace, 
which is by one man, Je- 
fus Ghrill, hath abounded 
unto many. 


t4 * In this Verfe St. Pau/'proves, that all Men became mortal by Adam^% eating the for- 
iiidden Fruit, and by that alone, becaufe no Mail can incur a Penalty without the Sandion of a 
pofitive Law declaring and eibblifliing that Penalty ; but Death was annexed by no pofitive 
Law to any Sin, but the eating the forbidden Fruit: and therefore Mens dying before the Law 
oi Mofes, was purely in confequence oi Adivris Sin, in eating the forbidden Fruit; and the 
pofitive Sanction of Death annexed to it,* an evident Proof of Man's Mortality coming from 

15 1' 'Ot rrtry.o', & 7ir>.) ttiV.b?, I fuppofe may be underllood to ftand here for the Multitude, 
or collective Body of Mankind. For the Apollle in exprefs Words afi'urcs us, i Cor. xv. 22- 
^hat in Adam nil died, and /;; Chrijl all are Jnade alive : And fo here, ver. 18. All Men ^tW 
under- the Condemnation of Death, and all Men were rellored unto JuiHfication of Life ; which 
all Men, in the very next Words, ver. 19. are called a/ 7nh>,ci, the ?:;a)!y. So that the riany, 
in the former part of this Verfe, and the w^/.'j at the end of it, comprehending all Mankind, 
mull be equal The Comparifon therefore, and the Inequality of the things compared, lies not 
here between the Numbers of thofe that died, and the Numbers oi ti'.ofe that fhail be rcftorod 
to Life : But the Comparifon lies between the Perfons by whom this general Death, and this 
general Kcfloration to Life came, Adam the Type, and Jcilis Chrift the Antitype; and it fecms 
to lie' in this, that Ada/ns Lapfe came barely for the Satisfiftion of his own Appetite and Defire 
of Good to himfglf, but the P«.clloration was from the exuberant Bounty and Good-will of 
thrill towards Min, who at the Coit of his own painful Dwth purclufcd Life for them. Tlic 



And not as it was by 
one that finned, fo is the 
gift : for the judgment 
was by one to condemna- 
tion ; but the free gift is 
of many offences unto 

For if by one man's of- 
fence, death reigned by 
one ; much more they 
which receive abundance 
of grace, and of the gift 
of righteoufncfs , Jhall 




Men. Furthermore, neither is the Gift as was 
the Laple, by one Sin I For the Judgment 
or Sentence was for one '^ OiTence to Con- 
demnation : But the Gift of Favour reaches 
notwithftanding many *^ Sins, to JufLificati" 
on of Life ^ For if by one Lapfc Death 17 
reigned by reafon of one Offence, much more 
fliall they who receiving the s Surplufage of 
Favour, and of the Gift of Righteoufnefs, reign 


Want of taking the Comparifon here right, and the placing it amifs iri;i .greater Number reflored 
to Life by Jefus Chrift, than thofe brought into Death by Ada?ri% Sin^^ith led ibme Men fo far 
out of the way, as to alledge, tliat Men in the Deluge died for their own Sins. 'Tis true, they 
did fo ; and fo did the Men of Sodotn and Gomorrah^ and the Philiilines cut off by the Ifraelites, 
• r.nd multitudes of others: But 'tis as true, that by their own Sins they were not made mortal: 
They were fo before by their Father Adorns eating the forbidden Fj-uit ; ib that what they paid for 
their own Sins was not Immortality, which they had not, but a itw Years of their own finite 
Lives ; which having been let alone, would every one of them, in a ihort time, have come to 
ah end. It cannot be denied therefore, but that it is as true of thefe, as any of the relt of 
Mankind before Mojcs, that they died folely in Adam, i^s St. Paul has proved in the three pre- 
ceding Verfes, And 'tis as true of them, as of any of the reft of fvlankind in general, that 
they died in Adam. For this St. Paul exprefly alTerts of all, that in Adam all died, i Cor. xv. 
22. and in this very Chapter, ver. i8. in other Words. It b then a flat Coutradiclion to 
St. Paul to fay, that thofe wliom the Flood fwept away did not die in Adam. 

16 "1 Ai'£^of AfMi^Ti-jxtl©-, by one Sin j fo the Alexajidrine Copy reads it more conformable 
to the Apoftle's Senfe. For if jicf, ere, in this Verfe be to be taken for the Perfon of Adam^ 
and not for his one Sin of eating the forbidden Fruit, there will be nothing to aafwcr ttdW.w/ 
tS^iH u [jji.-ru>v , mafiy Offences here, and fo the Comparifon St. Paul is upon will be loll ; where- 
as it is plain that in this Verfe he fhev/s another Difproportion in the Cafe, wherein Adam the 
Type comes Hiort of Chriil the Antitype ; and that is, that 'twas but for one only Traufgrefhon 
that Death came upon all Men : But Cfirift reilores Life unto all, notwithftanding multitudes of 
Sins. Thefe two ExcelTes, both of the good Will of the Donor, and of the Greatnels of the 
Gift, are both reckon'd up together in the follov/ing Vtik, and arc there plainly exprefled hi 
«5fevarfw<«' <^ ^eii'&' >y '^ c'>'^f£«t?, the Excefs of the Favour in the greater Good-will and Coft of 
the Donor; And the Inequality of the Gift itielf, whiclr exceeds, zs nany exceeds one; or the 
Deliverance from the Guilt of ;';any Sins, does the Deliverance from the Guilt of one. 

' T^icYti, Of Ufc, \sh\.mdi\n-x]xt Alexandrine Copy. And he that will read ver. i8. will 
fcarce incline to the leaving of it oiit here. 

17 Surplufage, fo istiJOHO. fign'-fies. The Surplufige of ;^<«'ei7©"» Favx/r, was the painfyl 
Death of Chrift, whereas the Fall coft Adam no more Pains but eating the Fruit. The Sur- 
plufage of /' f-;« f, the Gift or Benefit received, was juftification to Life from a multitude of 
Sins, whereas the Lo.''s of Life came upon all Men only for one Sin; but al] Men, how guilty 
foever of many Sins, are reftored to Liic. 



Chap. V. 




in Life by one, even Jefus Chrift. There- 
fore t as by one " Offence ( viz. ) Jdam's 
eating the forbidden Fruit, all Men fell under 
the Condemnation of Death, fo by one Ad of 
Righteoufnefs , viz. Chrift's Obedience to 
Death upon the Crofs ^, all Men are reftored 

reign m life bv one, Jefus 

Therefore as by the of- 1 1 
fence of one, judgment 
came upon all men to 
condemnation : even fo 
by the righteoufnefs of 
one, the free gift came 
upon all men unto juftifi- 
cation of life. 

N r E S. 

18 ' 7';&^rr/^/v here is not ufed as an Illative, introducing an Inference from the immediately 
preceding Verfes ; but is the fame therefore which begnn ver. 12. repeated here again with Part 
of the Inference that was there begun and left incompleat, the Continuation cf it being inter-, 
rupted by the Intervention of the Proofs of the firft Part of it. The Particle As immediately 
following //^'^r^r^, vcr. 12. is a convincing Proof of this, having there or in the following 
Verfes nothing to anfwer it; and fo leaves the Senfe imperfefl and fufpended, till you come to 
this Verfe, where the fame Reafoning is taken again, and the fame Protafts or firft Part of the 
Coniparifon repeated : and then the Jpodofis or latter Part is added to it, and the whole Sentence 
made compleat ; which to take right, one muft read thus, ver. 12. 'Therefore as l?y one Man Sin 

entred into the Wof'ld, r.nd Death by Sin, and fo Death pajjed upon all Men, Sec. z^er. 18. 

I fay. Therefore as b.y the Offence of one, Judgment tame upon all Men to Condemnation; even fo 
by the Righteoufnefs of one, the free Gift came upon all Men to Jujlification of Life. A like In- 
terruption of v/hat he began to fay, may be feen 2 Cor. xii. 14. and the fame Difcourfe, after 
the Jnterpofition of eight Verfes, began again, chap. xiii. i. not to mention others that I think 
may be found in St. PauPs Epiftles. 

■ That ivoi '^'^tScoiacl]!^ ought to be render'd one Offence, and not the Offence of one Man; 
and fo ivoi JiKeuccy^lQr, one Act cf Righteoufnefs , and not the Righteoufnefs oj one, is reafonable 
to think : Becaufe in the next Verie St. Paul compares one Man to one Alan, and therefore 'tis 
fit to underftand him here ( the Conltrufliori alfo favouring it ) of one Faft compared with 
one Fad, unlefs we will make him here (where he feems to ftudy Concifenefs) guilty of a Tauto- 
logy. But taken as I think they fhould be undcritood, one may fee a Harmony, Beauty and 
Fulnefs in this Difcourfe, which at firft fight feems fomewhat obfcure and perplexed. For thus 
in thcfe two Verfes, 18, 19. he fhews the Correl'pondence of Adam the Type with Chrift the 
Antitype, as we may fee, ver. 14. he defigned, as he had fhevvn the Difparity between them, 
fer. 15, 16, 17. 

^ That this is the Meaning of //' siof //Xouft'f&s']©-, is plain by the following Verfc. 
St. Paul e\ cry one may obfcrvc to be a Lover of Antithefis. In this Verfe it is 4 6i '&^-nfeo- 
fjUL]& , one perverfe A£l of Tranfgrcffion; and 6"3> J'y(.euu!JU)?\fyr , one right Ail of Submijfon : 
In the next Verfe it is <z&^w.H, Dijobedieme, and uttom*'), Obedience, the fame thing being 
meant in both Verfes. And that this Jiyauufxc, this Aft oi Obedience, whereby he procured 
Life to all Mankind, was his Death upon the Crofs, I think no body queftion.s, fee ver. 7-9. 
Heb. ii. 10, 14. Phil. ii. 8. And that Si/. 01(000.70., when applied to Men, fignifies Adtions 
conformable to the Will of God, fee Rev. xix. 8. 



lO For as by one man's dif- 
obedience many were made 
finncrs; fo by the obedi- 
ence of one (hail many be 
made righteous. 

/. e. be reiior'd to Life again as if they 



to Life..y. For as by one Man's DIfobedl- i^ 
ence many were brought into a -State of Mor- 
tality, which is the* State "of Sinners' '^ 3 ' fo by 
the Obedience of one (ball many be made righ- 
•rj'^e^'e not; gmnexs. 


y By J)KaJcoa7( (mi, Jtijiification cf Life, which are the Words of the Text, is not meant 
that Righteoufnefs by Faith which is to eternal Life. For eternal Life is no v. ' .re in Sacred 
Scripture mentioned as the Portion of all Men, but only of the Saints. But the j .ijf if cation of 
Life here fpokcn o-;'is .what-ailAlen partake Tn'bythe Ecqefit, of, Cbrill's Death, by which they 
are jullificd from all that was brought upon them by J/iamh' 'ii'm, i. e. they are difcharged 
from De.\th, the Confequence of Jdairi's TranTgrelfion ; and refiorcd to Life, to (land or fall by 
that Plea of Righteoufnefs which they can make, either of their own by Works, or of tlie 
Righteoufnefs of God by Faith. 

19 '"■ Smners. Here St. Paul nk"^ the fame I^Ietonymy as above, ver. 12. putting Sinners for 
Mortal, whereby the Antithefis to Righteous is the more lively. 

SECT. IV. A^. 2. 

CHAR V. 20, 21. 

c N r E N r s. 

ST. 'Taul purfuing his Defign in this Epiftle of fatisfying the 
Gentiles that there was no need of their fubmitting to the Law 
in order to their partaking of the Benefits of the Gofpel, having in 
the foregoing tight Verfes taught them, that Jdam's one Sin had 
brought Death upon them all, from which they were allreftoredby 
Chrift's Death, with Addition of eternal Blifs and Glory to all 
thofe who believe in him ; all which being the effeci: of God's Free 
Grace and Favour to thole who were never under the Law, ex- 
cludes the Law from having any part in it, and fo fully makes out 
the Title of the Gentiles to God's Favour, through Jefus Chriit, 
under the Gofpel, without the Intervention of the .La\y. Here, 

L 1 ^ <- ■"- f^r 



Chap. V. for the farther Satisfadion of the Gentile Converts, he fliews them 
^^^^'^^^ in thefe two Verfes, That the Nation of the Hebrews who had the 
Law, were not delivered from the State of Death by it, but rather 
plunged deeper under it by the Law, and fo flood more in need of 
Favour, and indeed had a greater abundance of Grace afforded 
them for their Recovery to Life by Jefus Chrift, than the Gentiles 
themfelves. Thus the Jews themfelves not being faved by the 
Law, but by an excefs of Grace, this is a farther Proof of the 
Point St. ^aul was upon, ( viz. ) that the Gentiles had no need of 
the Law for obtaining of Life under the Gofpel. 


20 TPHis was the State of all * Mankind be- ]Vl^e3?thai'the'of! " 
M fore the Law, they all died for the one fence might Abound : but 
-^ru^'-^c^!^, Lapfe or fence of one Man, which ^vherc ftu abounded , 
was the only Irregularity that had Death an- 
nexed to it : but the Law entered and took 
part over a fmall part of Mankind ^, that 
there this -TTztpJ-moofjuty Lapfe or Offence^ to 



20 ' There can be nothing plainer, than that St. Paul here in thefe two Vcrfc* makes a Com- 
parifon between the State of the Jews, and the State of the Gentiles, as it ftands defcribed in 
the eight preceding Verfes, to fhew wherein they differ'd or agreed, fo far as was neceflary to 
his prcfent Purpofe of fatisfying the Convert Romans, that in reference to their Intercll in the 
Gofpe], the |ews had no Advantage over them by the Law. With what reference to thofe 
eight Verfes St. Paul writ thefe two, appears by the very Choice of his Words. He tells them, 
ver. 12. that Death by Sin, e^'rvAdT, entered mio the World; and here he tells them, that the 
Law (for Sin and Death were cnter'd already) raf«0TiA3t, enter' d a little; a w-ord that, fet in 
oppofition to «'ffTiA,5t, gives a diftinguifliing Idea of the Extent of the Law, fuch as re.illy it 
was, little and narrow, as was the People of Ij'rael, (whom alone it reached) in refpcfl of all 
the other Nations of the Earth, with whom it had nothing to do. For the Law of Mofes was 
given to //V,^^/ alone, and not to all Mankind. The Vulgate therefore tranflates this word right, 
J'ubintravit, it £!iter\i, but not far; i. e. the Death which followed upon the .accouni of the Mo- 
fiical Law reigned over but a fmall Part of Mankind, r/z. the Children of Ifracl, who alone 
were under th.,t Law ; whereas by Adand Tranfgreffion of the pofitivc Law given him in Pa-. 
radifc, Death pafFcd upon all Men. 

" "fyif, that. Some would have this fignify barely the Event, and not the Intention of 
the Lawgiver, and fo underitand by thefe Words, that the Offence might abound, the Incrcafc 
of Sin, or the Aggravations of it, as a Confcqiicnce of the Law. But it is to be rcmem- 
bied, ih.1t St. Paul here fcts forth the Difference which God intended to put by the I,aw 
which he gave them, between the Children of Ifrael and the Gentile World, in refpcft of 
Life and Death, Life and Death being the S.ibjefl St. Paul upon. And tlicrcfore to 


Chap. V. 

ROMANS. i^p 


boundf '^ """'^ ""^'^ ** '^^^^^^ Death was annexed, might abound, /. e. 

the multiplied Tranfgreflions of many Men, 
VIZ. all that were under the Law of Mofes^ 
might have Death annexed to them by the po- 
fitive Sandion of that Law, whereby the Of- 
fence ^ to which Death was annexed did a- 
bound, /. e. Sins that had Death for their Pu- 
nilhment were increafed. But by the Good- 

N r E S. 

mention barely accidental Confequencei of the Law that made the DifFerence, had come fhort 
of St. PafiPs Purpofe. 

Ail Mankind was in an irrecoverable State of Death by Ada?Ti% Lapfe. 'Tvvas plainly the 
Intention of God to remove the Ifraelites out of this State by the Law: and (o he favs himfelf 
that he gave them Statutes and Judgments, which if a Man do,' he JJjall live in them. Lev. xviii. r! 
And fo St. Paul tells us here, chap. vii. lo. that the La^jo was ordained for Life. Whence it 
neceilarily follows, that if Life were intended for their Obedience, Death was intended them 
for their Difobedlence : And accordingly Mofes tells them, Deut. xxx. 19. that he had fet before 
them Life and Death. Thus by the Law the Children of Ifrael were put into a new State : 
And by the Covenant God made with them, their remaining under Death, or their Recovery 
of Life, was to be the Confequence, not of what another had done, but of what they them- 
felves did. They were thenceforth put to ftand or fill by their own Aftions, and the Death. 
they fufFer'd was for their Tranfgreflions. Every OiFence they committed againll the Law, 
did by this Covenant bind Death upon them. 'Tis not eafy to conceive that God Ihould give 
them a Law, to the end Sin and Guilt fhould abound amongft them ; but yet he might and 
did give them a Law, that the Offence which had Death annexed fhould abound, /. e. that 
Death, which before was the declared Penalty but of one Offence, fhould to the ]tvi% be made 
the Penalty of every Breach by the Sandtion of this new Law; which was not a Hardfhip, but 
a Privilege to them. For in their former State, common to them with the reft of Mankind, 
Death was unavoidable to them. But by the Law they had a Trial for Life: Accordingly our 
Saviour to the young Man, who asked what he fhould do to obtain eternal Life, anfwers, Keep 
the Commandments. The Law increafmg the Offence, in this Senfe had alfo another Benefit, viz.. 
That the Jews perceiving they incurred Death by the Law, which was ordained for Life, might 
thereby, as by a School-mailer, be led to Chrifl to feck Life by him. This St. Paul takes 
notice of. Gal. iii. 24. 

"= TlAeJ.^U(/M is another word, fliewing St. PauPs having an eye in what he fays here, to 
what he faid in the foregoing Verfes. Our Bibles tranflate it Offence; it properly fignifics Fall, 
and is ufed in the foregoing Verfes, for that Tranfgreffion which by the pofitivc Law of God 
had Death annexed to it, and in that Senie the Apollle continues to ufe it here alfo. There 
w:xs but one fuch Sin before the Law given by Mo/es, viz. Jdam's eating the forbidden Fruit. 
But the pofitive Law of God given to the Ifraelites made all their SinsYuch, by annexing the 
Penalty of Death to each TranlsieiTion ; and thus the Offence abiunded, or was increafed bv the 

L 1 2 neis 


. PylR^PHRjlSE. ' rEXT. 

nefs of God where Sin ^ with Death annex- 
ed to it did aboand, Grace did much more a- 
a I bound =. That as Sin had reigned or ftew-d .a'iirla.hrtv^r' 
its Mailery in the Death ot the IjraeTites^ who might gnce reign through 
were under the Law, 'io Grace in its turn righteoufneis unto eternal 

'. . ^.^ life, by Jelus Lhrilt our 

might reign, or ihevv its Maltery, by jaltity- Lord. 
ing them from all thofe many Sins which they 
had committed, each whereof by the Law 
brought Death with it, and \o beftowing on 
them the Righteoufnefs of Faith, inflate them 
in eternal Life, through Jefus Chriil our Lord. 


^ Sin. That by Sin St. Paul means here fuch Failure, as by the Saniflion of a pofitlve Law 
had Death annexed to it, the beginning of the next Verfe fhews, where it is declared to be fuch 
Sin as reigned in or b\ Death ; which all Sin doth not, all Sin is not taxed at that rate, as ap- 
pears by ver. 13. fee Note. The Article join'd here both to (^^-^ufxa. and etuoL^va, for it is 
7B f^^'KJC'^'Jus., and >) ttuapiia, the Offence and the Sin, limiting the general Signification of 
thofe Words to fome particular fort, feems to point out this Senfe. And that this is not a mere 
groundlefs Criticifm, may appear from cvr. 12, & 13. where St. Pa:// uks ttfyutf 77 z in thefe two 
difFerent Senfes, with the Diftinftion of the Article and no Article. 

■-' Grace might much more abound. The reft of Mankind were in a State of Death only for one 
Sin of one Man. This the Apoftle is exprefs in, not only in the foregoing Verfes, but clfe- 
where. But thofe who were under the Law (which made each Tranfgreffion they were guilty of 
mortal) were under the Condemnation of Death, not only for that one Sin of another, but al- 
fo for every one of their own Sins. Now to make any cne righteous to Life from many, and 
thofe his own Sins, befides that one that lay on him before, is greater Grace, than to beftow 
on bim Juftincation to Life only from one Sin, and that of another Man. To forgive the Pe- 
nalty of nunv Sins, is a greater Grace to remit the Penalty of one. 


ROMANS. z6i 

S E C T. VI K 3. 

C II A P. VI. 1 — 23. 


ST. "^^w/ having in the foregoing Chapter very much magnified 
Free Grace, by Ihevving that all Men having loft their Lives 
by Jdam's Sin, were by Grace through Chriit reftored to Life a- 
gain ; and alfo as many of them as believed in Chrift, were re- 
eftablifhed in Immortality by Grace ; and that even the Jews 
who by their own TrefpafTes again ft the Law had forfeited their 
Lives over and over again, were alfo by Grace reftored to Life 
Grace fuperabounding where Sin abounded, he here obviates a 
wrong Inference, which might be apt to mi (lead the Convert Gen- 
tiles, ( VIZ. ) Therejore let us continue in Sin, that Grace may abound. 
The contrary whereof he (hews, their very taking upon them the 
Profeflion of Chriftianitv, required of them by the very initiating 
C'jremony of Baptifm, wherein they were typically buried with 
Chrift, to teach them that they, as he did, ought to die to Sin * 
and as he role to live to God, they fhould rife to a new Life of 
Obedience to God, and be no more Slaves to Sin in an Obedience 
and Refignation of themfelves to its Commands. For if their Obe- 
dience were to Sin, they were VafLds of Sin, and would certainly 
receive the Wages of that Mufter, which was nothing but Death : 
But if they obeyed Righteoufnels, i. e. fincerely endeavoured 
after Righteoulhefs, though they did not attain it, Sin ihould 
not have Dominion over them, by Death, /. f. fhould not brin^- 
Death upon them. Becaufe they were not under the Law 
which condemned them to Death for every Tranfgreflion \ but 
under Grace, which by Faith in Jefus Ciiiift jaftiiied them to 
eternal Life from their many Tranfgrefiions. And thus he fhews 
the Gentiles not only the no Necefluy, but the Advantage of their 
not being under the Law. 





WHat fhall we fay then? Shall we conti- 
nue in Sin that Grace may abound ? 
God forbid : How can it be that we ^, who 
by our embracing Chriftianity have renounced 
our former fmful Courfes, and have profefTed a 
Death to Sin, fhould live any longer in it ? 
For this I hope you are not ignorant of, that 
we Chriftians, who by Baptifm were admit- 
ted into the Kingdom and Church of Chrift, 
were baptized g into a Similitude of his 
Death; We did own fome kind of Death by 
being buried under Water; which being buri- 
ed with him, /. e. in Coutormity to his Burial, 
as a Confeilion of our bein^ dead, was to fig- 
nify, that as Chrift was raifcd up from the 
Dead into a glorious Life with his Father, even 
fo we, being raifcd from our typical Death and 


W/Hat fii all we fajr 
VV then? flull we 
continue in fin, that grace 
may abound ? 

God forbid : how Ihall 
we that are dead to fin^ 
live any longer therein ? 

Know ye not that fo 
many of us as were bap- 
tized into Jefus Chrill:, 
were baptized into his 
death ? 

Therefore we are buri- 
ed with him by baptifm 
into death: that like as 
Chrift was raifed up from 
the dead by the glory of 
the Father, even fo wc 

N r E S. 

2 '' We, 2. e. I and all Converts to Chriftianity. St. Paul in this Chapter fhews it to be the 
Profeflion and Obligation of all Chriftians, even by their Baptifm, and the typical Signification 
of it, to be dead to Sin, and alive to God, /. e. as he explains it, not to be any longer VafTals 
to Sin in obeying our Lufts, but to be Servants to God in a fincerc Purpofe and Endeavour of 
obeying him. For whether under the L.iw, or under Grace, whoever is a Vail'al to Sin, /. e. 
indulges himfelf in a compliance to his fmful Lufts, will receive the Wages which Sin pays, i.e. 
Death. This he ftrongly reprcfcnts here to the Gentile Converts of Rome, ( for 'tis to them he 
fpeaks in this Chapter) that they might not miftake the Slate they were in, by being not under 
the Law, but under Grace; of which, and the Freedom and Largenefs of it, he had fpoken 
fo much, and fo highly in the foregoing Chapter, to let them fee, that to be under Grace was 
not a State of Liccnfc, but of exaft Obedience in the Litention and Endeavour of every one 
under Grace, though in the Performance they came fhort of it. This ftrifl Obedience, to 
the utmoft reach of everv one's Aim and Endeavours, he urges as ncceflarv, becaufe Obedience 
to Sin unavoidably produces Death ; and he urges as reafonable tor this very Reafon, that they 
were not under the Law, but under Grace. For as much as all the Endeavours attcr Righte- 
oufnefs of thofe who were under the Law was loft Labour, ftnce any one flip forfeited Lil'e : Bat 
the fmcere Endeavour? after Righteoufnefs of thofc who were under Grace, were fare to faccccd 
to the attaining the Gift of eternal Life. 

3 ° Aia. in the Hclleniftick Greek fometimcs fignifics into, and fo our Tranflition renders 
it, 2 Pit. ii. 3. And if it he net fo taken here, the Force of St. P.iu/'s Argument is loft, 
which is to fl'.cw ir/to wlint State of Life we ought to be raifcd out of Baptifm, in Similitude 
and Conformity to that State of Life Chrift was raifed into from the Gra\c. 



alfo fhould walk in new- 
nefs of Life. 

For if we have been 
planted together in the 
likencfs of his Death : 
we fhall be alfo in the 
likenefs of his refurredi- 
on : 

Knowing this, that our 
old man is crucified with 
him, that the body of fin 
might be deltroyed, that 
henceforth wc fhould not 
ferve fin. 

For he that is dead, is 
freed from. fin. 



Burial in Baptifm, fhould lead a new fort of 
Life wholly different from our former in fome 
Approaches towards that heavenly Life that 
Chrift is rilen to. For if we have been ingraf- 
ted into him in the Similitude of his Death, 
we fhall be alfo in a Conformity to the Life 
which he is enter'd into by his Refurre£lion. 
Knowing this, that we are to live lb, as if our 
Old Man, our wicked and corrupt flefhly 
felf ^ which we were before, were crucified 
with him, that the Prevalency of our carnal 
finful Propenfities which are from our Bodies, 
might be deftroyed, that henceforth we fhould 
not ferve Sin ' as Vaffals to it. For he that 
is dead is fet free from the Valfalage ^ of Sin, 
as a Slave is from the VafTalage of his Maftcr. 

Chap. Vr. 


6 *■ Set Ga/. V. 24. Eph. iv. 22- Col. ii. ii. 1 Pet. iv. i. 

' It will conduce much to the undcrftanding of St. Pau/ in this and the two folio^ving Cliap- 
ters, if it be minded that thefe Phrafes, to ferve Sin, to be Servants of Sin, Sin reign in our mortal Bo- 
dies, to obey Sin in the Lufis tf our Bodies, to yield our Members Inflritments cfUnrighteoufnefs unto 
Sin, or Servants eflJncltaiinefs, and to Iniquity unto Iniquity, to be free from Righteoufnefs, to walkf 
live, or to he after the F/efh, to be carnally minded, all fignify one and the fame thing, viz. the 
giving our felvcs up to the Condu(n; of our finful, carnal Appetites, to allow any of them the Com- 
mand over us, and the Conduft and Prevalency in determining us. On the contrary, that 
walking after the Spirit, or in Netvnefs of Life, the Crucifixion of the Old Man, the DeJlruSiion 
tf the Body of Sin, the Deliverance from the Body of Death, to be freed from Sin, to be dead to 
Sin, alive unto God; to yield \'ourfelves unto God, as thofe who are alive from the dead; yield 
your Members Servants of Righteoufnefs unto Holinefs, or Inflruments of Righteoufnefs unto God ; 
to be Servants of Obedience unto Righteoufnefs, made free from Sin, Servants of Righteoufnefs ; to 
be after the Spirit, to be fpiritually minded, to mortify the Deeds of the Body, do all fignify i. 
conftant and flcady Purpofe, and fincere Endeavour to obey the Law and Will of God in every 
thing; thefe fevcral Expreflions being ufcd in fcvcral places, as bcfl; fcrvcs the Occafion, and il- 
luflrates the Senfe. 

7 '•* The Tenor of St. PauTs Difcourfe here fhews this to be the Scnfc of this Verfe ; and to 
be afi'ured that it is fo, we need go no farther than ver. 11, 12, 13. lie makes it his Bufinefs 
in this Chapter, not to tell them what they certainly and unchangeably are, but to e.xhort them 
to be whr.t thev o'.:ght, and are engaged to be by becoming Chriilians, viz. that they ojght 
10 emancip.'.te thcmfclves from the Valialage of Sin ; not that they .vcre fo emancipated vvitliout 
anv danger of Return, for then he could not have laid what he docs, ver. i, 12,13. which fuppo- 

.fes it in their Pov.xr to continue in their Oo'jdiencc to Sir., or return 10 that Waifalage if they 

2 ' Now 


1 1 




Now if we underftand by our being buried in 
Baptifm, that we died with Chrift, we cannot 
but chink and believe, that we fhould live a 
Life conformable to his ; knowing that Chrift 
being raifcd from the dead, returns no more to 
a mortal Life, Death hath no more Dominion 
over him, he is no more lubjcct to Death. 
For in that he died, he died unto Sin : i.e. up- 
on the account of Sin once ' for all: But his 
Life now after his Relurcdion, is a Life 
wholly appropriated to God, with which Sin 
or Death fhall never have any more to do, or 
come in reach of In like manner do you alfo 
make your reckoning, account your lelves 
dead to Sin *", freed from that Mafter ; fo as 
not to fuffer your felvcs any more to be com- 
manded or employed by it, as if it were ftill 
your Mafter; but alive to God, /. e. that it is 
your Bufinels now to live wholly for his Ser- 
vice, and to his Glory ", through Jelus 
Chrift our Lord. Permit not therefore Sin to 
reign over you, by ^ your mortal Bodies, 
which you will do if you obey your carnal 



_ Nov.- if we be dead i 
^vith Chriil:, we believe 
that we fhail alfo live with - 
him : 

Knowing that Chrift ( 
being railed from the dead, 
dieth no more; death hath 
no more dominion over 

For in that he died, he K 
died unto fin once : but in 
that he liveth, he liveth 
unto God. 

Likeuife reckon ye alfo i 
yourielves to be dead in- ■ 
deed unto fin; but alive " 
unto God through Jefus 
Chriil; our Lord. 

Let not fin therefore i 
reign in your mortal body, 
that ye fliould obey it in 
the lulls thereof. 

10 ' See I^M. IX. 26—28. I Pet. iv. 1, 2, 

1 1 '^ Si;i is here fpoken of as a Perfon, a Profopopreia made ufe of all through this and the 
following Chapter, which muft be minded if we will underftand them right. The like Exhor- 
tation upon the fame ground, fee i Pet. iv. i— -3. 

" See Ga/. ii. 19. 2 Cor. v. 15. Rom. vii. 4. The Force of St. Pau/'s Argument here feems to 
be this; In your Baptifm you are engaged into a Likenefs of Chrift's Death and Refurreftion. He 
once died to Sin, fo do you count your felves dead to Sin. He rofe to Life, wherein he lives 
wholly to God, fo muft your new Life, after your Refurrcdion from your typical Burial in the Wa- 
ter, be under the Vaftalage of Sin no more, but you muft live entirely to the Service of God, to 
whom you are devoted in Obedience to his Will in all things. 

12 "In yoi/r v'.ortal Bodies, iv in the Apoftle's Writings often fignifies iv- And he here, as alfo 
in the following Chapter, ver. 18, & 24. and ellewhere, placing the Root of Sin in the Body, 
his Scnfe fccms to be. Let not Sin reign over you by the Liijls of your mortal Bodies. 



13 Neither yield ye your 
members as inflruments of 

I unrighteoufnefs unto j(ln: 
but yield your fclves unto 
God, as thole that are 
alive from the dead ; and 
your members as inflru- 
ments of righteoufnefs un- 
to God. 

14 For fin fhall not have 
dominion over you : for 
ye are not under the law, 
but under grace. 

15 What then } fliall we 
fm, becaufe we are not 



Lufts: Neither deliver up your Members P 
to Sin, to be employ'd by Sin, as Inflruments 
of Iniquity, but deliver up yourfelves unto 
God, as thofe who have got to a new Life 
from among the Dead q, and chnfing him 
for your Lord and Mafter, yield your Mem- 
bers to him, as Inftrumens of Righteoalhefs. 
For if you do fo, Sin fhall not have Dominion 
over you >■, you ftiall not be as its Slaves, la 
its Power, to be by it delivered over to Death. 
* For you are not under the Law in the legal 
State, but you are under Grace, in the Goipel- 
ftate of the Covenant of Grace. What then, 
Ihail we fin becaufe we are not under the 





13 P Sinful Lufls, at Icaft thofe to which the Gentiles were mofl: eminently enflaved, 
fcem fo much placed in the Body and the Members, that they axe called the Memberj, 
Co/, iii. 5. 

^ 'Ek nxfiuv. From among the dead. The Gentile World were dead in Sins, Eph.u. i, ^. 
Col.xi. 13. thofe who were converted to the Gofpel were raifed tp Life from among thofe 

14 ■■ Sinjhallfiot have Dominion over you, i, e. Sin Ihall not be your abfolute Mafter to dif- 
pofe of your Members and Faculties in its Drudgery and Service as it pleafes ; you fhall not be 
tinder its Controul in abfolute Subjeftion to it, but your own Men that are alive, and at your 
own Difpofal, unlefs by your own free Choice you enthral your felves to it, and by a volun- 
tary Obedience give it the Command over you, and are willing to have it your Mafler. It 
muft be remernbrcd, that St. Paul here, and in the following Chapter, perfonates Sin as flri- 
ving with Men for Maflcry to deilroy them. 

» For. The Force of St. PauPs Reafoning here ftands thus : You are obliged by your taking 
on you the Profeffion of the Gofpel, not to be any longer Slaves and VafTals to Sin, nor to be 
under the Sway of your carnal Luib, but to yield yourfelves up to God to be his Servants in x 
conftant and fincere Purpofe and Endeavour of obeying him in all things ; this if you do, Sin 
fhall not be able to procure your Death ; for you Gentiles are not under the Law which con- 
demns to Death for every the leaft Tranfgreffion, though it be but a flip of Infirmity ; but by 
your Baptifm are entred into the Covenant of Grace, and being under Grace, God will accept 
of your fincere Endeavours, in the place of exaft Obedience, and give you eternal Life through 
lei'us Chrift; but if you by a willing Obedience to your Lulls make your felves VafTals to Sin, 
Sin, as the Lord and Mafter to whom you belong, will pay you with Deaths the only Wagej 
that Sin pays. 

M m 



Chap. VI. 




Law, but under the Covenant of Grace * ? 
God forbid. . Know ye not that to whom you 
fubje£t your felves " as Vaffals, to be at his 
beck, his Vaflals you are whom you thus obey, 
whether it be of Sin, which Vaffalage ends in 
Death ; or of Chrift in obeying the Golpel, to 
the obtaining of Righteoufnefs and Life. But 
God be thanked, that you who were the Vaf- 


under the law, but under 
grace ? God forbid. 

Know ye not, that to 16 
whom ye yield yourfelves 
fervants to obey, his ler- 
vants ye are to whom ye 
obey ; whether of fin un- 
to death, or of obedience 
unto righteoufnefs ? 

But God be thanked, ij 
that ye were the fervants 

N r E s. 

15 ' What is meant by being u?jder Grace, is ep.fily underftcod by the undoubted and obvious 
Xlcaning of the parallel Phrafe under the Law. They, 'tis unqucrtion'd, were under the Lazv, 
who having by Circumcifion, the Ceremony of Admittance, been received into the Common- 
wealth of the Jews, owned the God of the Jews for the'.r God and King, profefTing Subjeftion 
to the Law he gave by Mofes. And fo, in like manner, he is tinder Grace, \vho having by Bap- 
tifm, the Ceremony of Admittance, been received into the Kingdom of Chrili, or the Society 
of Chriftians, called by a peculiar Name the Chrillian Church, owns Jcfus of Nazareth to be 
the Meffias his King, profcffing Subjeftion to his Law dclivcr'd in the Gofpel. By which it is 
plain, that being under Grace is fpoken here, as being under the Law is, in a political and na- 
tional Senfe. For whoever was circumcifed, and owned God for his King, and the Authority 
of his Law, ceafed not to be a Jew or A'Icmber of that Society by every or any Tranfgrellion of 
the Precepts of that Law, fo long as he own'd God lor his Lord, and his Siibjeftion to that 
Law; fo likewife he who by Baptifm is incorporated into the Kingdom of Chrift, and owns 
him for his Sovereign, and himfelf under the Law and Rule of the Gofpel, ceafes not to be a 
Chriftian, though he offend againft the Precepts of the Gofpel, till he denies Chrift to be his 
King and Lord, and renounces his Subjeftion to his Law in the Gofpel. But God, in taking a 
People to himfcif to be his, not doing it barely as a temporal Prince, or Head of a politick So- 
ciety in this World, but in order to his having as many as in obeying him perform the Conditions 
necefTarv, his Subjefts for ever in the State of Immortality reliored to them in another World, 
has, fuice the Fall, ercfled two Kingdoms in this World, the one of the Jews immediately i:nder 
himfelf, another of Chriftians under his Son Jefus Chrift, for that farther and more glorious End 
of attaining eternal Life; which Prerogative and Pr'vilege of eternal Life does not belong to the 
Society in general, nor is the Benefit granted nationally to the whole Body of the People of ei- 
ther of ihefe Kingdoms of God, but perfcnaJly to fuch of them who perform the Conditions re- 
quired in the Terms of each Covenant. To thofe who are Jews, or under the Law, the Terms 
are perfect and compleat Obedience co every Tittle of the Law, Do this and live To thofe who 
are Chriftians, or under Grace, the Terms are fincere Endeavours after perfcft Obedience, though 
not attaining it, as is m^uiifeft in the remaining part of this Chapter, where St. Paul acquaints 
thofe who ask whetiier they pall fin, becaufe they are not urder the Law, but under Grace; that 
though they are under Grace, yet they v. ho obey Sin, are the Vaflals ot Sin ; and thofe who are 
the Vaflals of Sin flial! receive, the Wages o! Sin. 

16 ''^■m.YJ^VA, Obedicnet. * That which he calls here fimply \)7m.yu^v. Obedience, he in other 
places calls w/7c>ciH Trisif-sr, Obedience of Faith ^ and varetxew Titf X^'^"' Obedience of Cbrijf, 
meaning a Reception of the Golpel of Chrift. 




of iin ; but ye have obey- 
ed from the heart that 
form of Doflrine which 
was delivered you. 

1 8 Being then made free 
from lin, ye became the 
fervants of righteoufnefs, 

19 I fpeak after the man- 
ner of men, becaufe of 
the infirmity of your flefh ; 
for as ye have yielded 
your members Servants to 
uncleannefs, and to ini- 
quity, unto iniquity j e- 
ven {o now yield your 
members fervants to righ- 
teoufnefs, unto holinefs. 

20 For when ye were the 
fervants of lin, ye were 
free from Rightcoufnefi. 


fals of Sin, have fincerely, and from your Heart, 
obeyed fo as to receive the Form, or be call 
into the Mould of that Dodrine under whole 
Diredion or Regulation ^ you were put, 
that you might conform your felves to it. 
Being therefore fet free from the VafTaUge of 
Sin, you became the Servants or Vaflals of 
Righteoufnefs y. (I make ufe of this Meta- 
phor of the palling of Slaves from one Mailer to 
another, ^ well known to you Rjomansy the 
better to let in my meaning into your Under- 
Handings that are yet weak in thefe Matters, 
being more accuftomed to flefhly than fpiritual 
things ) For as you yielded your natural * 
Faculties obedient flavilh Inftruments to Un- 
cleannefs, to be wholly employed in all man- 
ner of Iniquity ^, fo now ye ought to yield 
up your natural Faculties to a perfect and rea- 
dy Obedience to Righteoufnefs. For when you 
were the Vaflals of Sin, you were not at all 
fubjed to, nor paid any Obedience to Righte- 
oufnefs : Therefore by a parity of Reafon, now 
Righteoufnefs is your Mafter, you ought to 


Chap. vr. 




N r E s. 

17 " 'E/j 0;/ :T«pecA)'3ifTE, unto lohtch ytu were delivered \ No harfli, but an elegant Exprefllon, 
if we obferve that St. Paul here fpeaks of Sin and the Gofpel, as of two Mafters, and that thofe 
he writes to were taken out of the hands of the one, and delivered over to the other, which they 
having from their Hearts obeyed, were no longer the Slaves of Sin, he whom they obeyed being 
by the Rule of the foregoing Verfe, truly their Mailer. 

18 '£/bA<u^7t T« cOx^/os-iuiji, Ye became the Slaves of Righteoufnefs. This will feem an harfh 
Expreflion, unlefs we remember that St. Paul going on Hill with the Metaphor of Mailer and 
Servant, makes Sin and Righteoufnefs here two Pcrfons, two diftindl Mafters, and Men paffing from 
the Dominion of the one into the Dominion of the other. 

19 '• ^A.v^.u-7nvov K<i.yj>, I fpeak after the manner of Men. He had fome reafon to make fome 
little kind of Apology, for a Figure of Speech which he dwells upon (juitc dgwa to the end of 
this Chapter. 

* Members, fee ch. vii. 5. Note. 

'' T» Iniquity unto Iniquity, fee Note, cb. i. 17. 

M m 2 ^/ 

2d8 ROMANS. 


Chap Vr. 




pay no Obedience to Sin. What Fruit or Be- 
nefit had you then in thofe things, in that 
Courle of Things, whereof you are now afha- 
med ? For the end of thofe things which are 
done in Obedience to Sin is Death. But now 
being fet free from Sin, being no longer Val^ 
fals to that Mafter, but having God now for 
your Lord and Matter, to whom you are be- 
come Subje<Sts or Vaflals, your Courfe of Life 
tends to Hoiinefs, and will end in everlafting 
Life. For the Wages ^ that Sin pays is 
Death : But that which God's Servants receive 
from his Bounty, is the Gift ^ of eternal 
Life through Jefus Chrift our Lord. 

What fruit had ye then 21 
in thole things whereof 
ye are now afhamed ? for 
the end of thofe things is 

But now being made 22 
free from fin, and become 
fervants to God, ye have 
your fruit unto olinefs, 
and the end everlafting 

For the wages of (in is 3j 
death : but the gift of God 
is eternal life, through 
Jcfus Chrift our Lord. 


±3 ' *rhe JFages cf Sin, does not fignify here the Wages that is paid for finning, but the Wa- 
ges that Sin pays. This is evident not only by the Oppofition that is put here in this Verfe 
between rhe Wagfs of Sin and the Gift of God, viz. That Sin rewards Men with Death for 
their Obedience ; but that which God gives to thofe, who believing in Jefus Chrift, labour 
finccrely after Righteoufnefs, is Life eternal. But it farther appears by the whole Tenor of 
St. PauPs Difcourfe, wherein he fpeaks of Sin as a Perfon and a Mafter, who hath Servants, 
and is ferved and obeyed ; and fo the Wages of Sin being the Wages of a Perfon here, muft be 
what it pays. 

^ The Gift of Gcd. Sin pays Death to thofe who are its obedient Vaflals : But God rewards, 
the Obedience of thofe, to whom he is Lord and Mafter, by the Gift of eternal Life. Their 
utmoft Endeavours and higheft Performances can never entitle them to it of Right ; and fo it i» 
£0 them not Wages, but a free Gift. See (hap. iv. 4. 



ROMANS. z69 

S E C T. VL A^ 4. 

CHAP. VII. 1—25. 


ST. Taul in the foregoing Chapter addreillng himfelf to the 
Convert Gentiles, fliews them, that not being under the Law 
they were oblig'd only to keep themfelves free from a VafTalage 
of Sin, by a fincere Endeavour after Righteoufnefs, forafmuch as 
God gave eternal Life to all thole who being under Grace, /. e. be- 
ing converted to Chriftianity, did lb. 

In this Chapter addrefling himfelf to thofe of his own Nation in 
the Roman Church, he tells them, that the Death of Chrift ha- 
ving put an end to the Obligation of the Law, they were at their 
I Liberty to quit the Obfervances of the Law, and were guilty of no 
Difloyalty in putting themfelves under the Gofpel. And here St. 
^aulfhews the Deficiency of the Law, which rendered it necelTary 
to be laid afide by the Coming and Reception of the Gofpel. Not 
that it allowed any Sin, but on the contrary forbid even Concu- 
pifcence, which was not known to be Sin without the Law. Nor 
was it the Law that brought Death upon thofe who were under it, 
but Sin, that herein it might Ihew the extream malignant Influ- 
ence it had upon our weak flefhiy Natures, in that it could prevail 
on us to tranfgrefs the Law ( which we could not bat acknowledge 

• to be holy, jufl: and good ) though Death was the declared Penalty 
of every Tranfgrefllon : But herein lay the Deficiency of the Law 
as fpiritual, and oppofite to Sin as it was, that it could not mafter 
and root it out, bat Sin remained and dwelt in Men as before, and 

-by the Strength of their carnal Appetites, which were not fubdued 
by the Law, carried them to Tranfgrellions that they approved 
not. Nor did it avail them to difapprove or ftruggle, fince though 
the bent of their Minds were the other way, yet" their Endeavours 
after Obedience delivered them not from that Death which their 
Bodies or carnal Appetites, running them into Tranfgreflions 
brought upon them. That Deliverance was to be had from Grace' 
by which thofe who patting themfelves from under the Law into 
the Gofpel-State, were accepted, if with the bent of their Minds 

3 • they 



Ch^vlL they fincerely endeavour'd to ferve and obey the Law of God 
though fometimes through the Frailty of their Fiefh they fell into 

This is a farther Demonftration to the Converted Gentiles of 
Romey that they are under no Obligation of fubmitting themlelves 
to the Law, in order to be the People of God, or partake of the 
Advantages of the Gofpel, fince it was neceflary even to the Jews 
themfelves to quit the Terms of the Law, that they might be de- 
livered from Death by the Gofpel. And thus we fee how fteddily 
and skilfully he purfues his Defign, and with what Evidence and 
Strength he fortifies the Gentile Converts againll all Attempts of 
the Jews, who went about to bring them under the Obferyances of 
the Law of Mofes. 



Have let thofe of you who were formerly 
Gentiles, fee that they are not under the 
aw, but under Grace ^ : I now apply my 
felf to you, my Brethren of my own Nation ^, 
who know the Law. You cannot be ignorant 
that the Authority of the Law reaches or con- 
cerns a Man s fo long as he liveth and no 
longer. For ^ a Woman who hath an Hul- 



Now ye not, bre- 
thren, (for I fpeak 
to them that know the 
law ) how that the law 
hath dominion over a man 
as long as he liveth ? 

For the woman which 
hath an husband, is bound 


1 "^ See ehap. vi. 14. 

* That his Difcourfe here Is addrefled to thofe Converts of this Church, who were of the 
Jewifh Nation, is fo evident from the whole Tenor of this Chapter, that there needs no more 
but to read it with a little Attention to be convinced of it, efpecially ver. 1,4,6. 

2 Kvetdiei T» ctf'w «Ttf, Hatb Dominion over a Man. So we render it rightly: But I imagine 
we underftand it in too narrow a Senfe, taking it to mean only that Dominion or Force which 
the Law has to compel or reftrain us in things which we have otherwife no mind to; whereas it 
feems to me to be ufed in the Conjugation Hiphil, and to comprehend here that Right and 
Privilege alfo of doing or enjoying, which a Man has by Vertue and Authority of the Law, 
which all ceafes as foon as he is dead. To this large Senfe of thefe Words, St. PauPs Ex- 
preflions in the two next Verfes feem fuited ; and fo underllood, have a clear and eafy Meaning, 
as may be feen in the Paraphrafe. 

2 *> For. That which follows in the 2d Verfe, is no Proof of what is faid in the ill Vcrfe, 
either as a Reafon or an Inllance of it, unlefs wjca^jh be taken in the Senfe I propofe, and then 
the whole Difcourfe is cafy and uniform. 


by the law to her husbnnd, 
fo long as he liveth: hut 
if the husband he de?,d, 
Jhe is loofed from the law 
of her 

3 So then if while her 
hu-^band liveth, fhe be 
married to another man, 
fhc Hiall be called an adul- 
terefs : but if her huf- 
band be dead, fhe is free 
from that law ; fo that 
fhe is no adulterefs, tho' 
fhe be married to another 

j^ Wherefore, my bre- 
thren, ye alfo are become 
to the law by the 



band, is bound by the Law * to her living 
Husband \ but if her Husband dieth, (he is 
loofed from the Law which made her her Hui- 
band's, becaufe the Authority of the Law 
whereby he had a Right to her, ceafed in re- 
fped of him as loon as he died. Wherefore fhe 
fnall be called an Adulterefs, if while her Hul- 
band liveth fhe become another Man's. But 
if her Husband dies, the Right he had to her 
by the Law ceafing, fhe is freed from the Law, 
fo that fhe is not an Adulterefs, though Ihe be- 
come another Man's. So that even ye, my 
Brethren ^% by the Body of Chrift ^, are 
become dead "^ to the Law^ whereby the Do- 


Ch. vir. 


1^. r E s. 

* 'A-ra Tx rojU^ *n h^li. From the Law of her Husbn?id. This ExprefHon confirms the Senfc 
above-mentioned. For it can in no Senfe be termed the Lazo of her Husband, but as it is the 
Law whereby he has the Right to his Wife. But this Law, as far as it is her Husband's Law, 
as far as he has any Concern in it, or Privilege by it, dies with him, and fo fhe is loofed from 

4 *= K(W uf/f^V» ^ ^^fi^ ^ ^^fo, is not added here by Chance, and without any Meaning, 
but fhews plainly that the Apoftic had in his Mind feme Perfon «r Perfons before-mentioned, 
who were free from the Law; and that muft be cither the Woman' mentioned in the two fore- 
going Vcrfes, as free from the Law of her Husband, becaufe he was dead ; or elfe the Gentile 
Converts, mentioned chap. vi. 14. as free from the Law, becaufe they were never under it. If 
we tliink it) refers to the Woman, then St. PauPs Senfe is this ; Te are alfo free from the Law, 
as zvell as j'uch a Woman, and ma') without any Imputation fubje£t yourfelves to the GofpeL If we 
take )i^ to re*er to the Gentile Converts, then his Senfc is this ; Even ye alfo, my Brethren, 
are free from the Law as we! I as the Gent He Converts, and as much at liberty to fubjett yourfelves 
to th'! Gofpel as they. I confefs myfclf moll inclin'd to this latter, both becaufe St. Paul\ main 
drif"t is to fhcw, that both Jews and Gentiles are wholly free from the Law; and becaufe e Sa- 
ra -m5i/7\ T&r -oM^, Ye have been made dead to the Lazv, the Phrafe here us'd to exprefs that 
Freedom, feems to refer rather to the ill Verfe, where he fays, The Law hath Dominion over a 
M.rn as long as he liveth, implying and no longer, rather than to the two intcr\-ening Verfes, 
where he f.'ys, not the Death of the Woman, but the Death of the Husband fets the Woman 
free ; of which more by and by. 

' By the B'^ds) of Chrift, in which you as his Members died with him ; fee Col. :i. 20. and fo 
by a lile Figure Believers are faid to be circumcifed with him. Col- ii. 11. 

"' Are become dead to the Law. There is- a great deal of needlefs Pains taken by fome to 
rec. ncile this Saying cf St. Paul to the two immediately preceding Verfes, which they 
fappofe do require he fhculd have faid here what he does ver. 6. viz. that the law was dead, 
;hut fo the Pcri'ons here fpcken of might rightly anfwcr to the Wife, who there reprefentt 


271 ROMANS. 

Ch. VII. 


minion of the Law over you has cenfed, that ^"'^y °f ^^"(^'' ^^^^ y* 

_ , , /• 1 • rk i- 1 1 T> • • Inould be married to ano- 

you Ihould lubject your lelves to the L^ominion thcr, even to him who is 
of Chrift in the Gofpel, which you may do raifed from the dead, that 

., 1 -r> J r -Di ^u T we fhould bnng forth 

wih as much Freedom trom Blame, or the im- f^uit unco God. 

putation of Difloyalty ", as a Woman whofe 

Hasband is dead, may without the Imputation 

of Adultery marry another Man. And this 

making your feJves another's, even Chrift's, 

who is rilen from the dead, is, that we • 

Ihould bring forth Fruit unto God P. For 


them. But he that will take this Paflage together, will find that the firft part of this 4th Verfe 
refers to err. i. and the latter part of it to ver. 2, k 3. and confequcntly that St. jPaul had 
fpoken improperly, if he had l;iid what they would make him fay here. To clear thii, let us 
look into St. Piv/Ps Reafoning, which plainly ftands thus ; The Dominion of the Lazv over a Man 
ceafes zvhen he is dead, ver. i . Ton are become dead to the Lazv by the Body of Chrift, ver, 4. 
And fo the Dominion of the Laio over you is ceafed i then you are free to put your/elves under th( 
Dominion of another, which can bring on you no Charge oj Dijloyalty to him who had before the 
Dominion over you, any more than a Woman can be charged tvith Adultery, zvhen the Dominion of 
her former Husband being ceafed by his Death, Jhe rnarrieth htrfelf to another Man. For the \J(^ 
of what he fays, ver. 2, & 3. is to fatisfy the Jews, that the Dominion of the Law over then\ 
being ceafed by their Death to the Law in Chrift, they were no more guilty of Difloyalty br 
putting themfclves wholly under the Law of Chrill in the Gofpel, than a Woman was guilty 
of Adultery, when the Dominion of her Husband ceafing, fhe gave herfclf up wholly to ano^ 
ther Man in Marriage. 

" Difoyalty. One thing that made the Jews fo tenacious of the Law was, that they looked 
wpon it as a Reward from God, and a Difloyalty to him their King, if they retain'd not th^ 
Law that he had given them. So that even thofe of them who embraced the Gofpel, thought 
it ncceflary to obferve thofe Parts of the Law which were not continued, and as it were re* 
cnaflcd by Chrift in the Gofpel. Their Miftake herein is what St. Paul, by the Jnftance 
of a Woman marrying a Second Husband, the former being dead, endeavours to convince thenj 

° We. It may be worth our. taking notice of, that St. Paul having all along from the be- 
ginning of the Chapter, and even in this \ery Sentence faid Te, here with neglefl of Grammar 
on a fudden changes it into We, and fays, that zve Jhould, &c. I fuppofe to prefs the Argu- 
ment the ftronger, by fliewing himfelf to be in the fame Circumftances and Concern with 
them, he being a Jew as well as thofe he fpoke to. 

P Fruit unto Cod. In thefe Words St. Paul vifibly refers to chap. vi. 10. where he faitij, 
that Chrift In that he liveth, he liveth unto Gcd ; and therefore he mentions here his being rai- 
fed Jrom the dead, as a Realon for i\\c\r bringing forth Fruit unto Cod, i.e. living to the Ser- 
vice of God, obeying his Will to the utmoft of tJicir Power, which is the fame that he fays, 
fhap. viii. 1 1. 


ROMANS. 2.75 

Ch. VIL 


For when we were in vvhen we wcre after fo flefhly "^ a manner un- c 

the fleih, the motions of , , t i i 1 /- • • 

iins which were by the "^i" the, as not to Comprehend the ipin- 
kw, did work in our tual meaning of it, that direded us to Chrift 
fVukuntodcath.'"^ '^^^ ^^^ Ipiritual end of the Law, our iinful Luft "^ 

that remained in us under the Law s, or in 
the State under the Law, wrought in our 
Members, /. e. ikt our Members and Facul- 
ties t on Work in doing that whofe end was 


5 <> P^hn we were in the Flejh. The Underftanding and Obfervance of the Law in a bare 
literal Senfe, without looking any farther for a more fpiritual Intention in it, St. Paul calls be- 
ing in the Fiejh. That the had befides a literal and carnal Senfe, a fpiritual and evangelical 
Meaning, fee 2 Cor. iii. 6, & 17. compared. Read alio ver. 14, 15, 16. where the Jews in the 
Flefh are dcfcribed; and what he fays of the ritual Part of the Law, fee Heb. ix. 9, 10 which 
whilft they lived in the Ohfcrvance of, they were in the Flefh. That Part of the Mofaical Law 
was wholly about flefhly things. Col. ii. 14—23. was feated in the Flefh, and propofed no other 
but temporal flefhly Rewards. 

■■ YlA^fMtiO. r cLf^Pvior, VitQTuWy PaJJions of Sin, in the Scripture Greek (wherein the Ge- 
nitive Cafe of the Subftantive is often put for the Adjedlive) finful PaJJions or Lujls. 

* T* t/)rt T« .'o.otb, which tvere by the Latv, is a very true literal Tranflation of the Words, 
but leads the Reader quite away from the Apoftle's Senfe, and is fain to be fupported ( by 
Interpreters that fo undcrlland it) by faying that the Law excited Men to fin by forbidding it. A 
llrange Imputation on the Law of Godj fuch, as if it be true, mufl make the Jews more de- 
filed with the Pollutions fet down in St. Pd///'s black Lift, chap. i. than the Heathens them- 
fclves. But .^erein they w;ll not find St. Paul of their Mind, who befides the vifible Diltin- 
flion wherewith he fpeaks of the Gentiles all through his Epiftles, in this refpe;fi: doth here, 
ver. 7. declare quite the contrary ; fee alfo i Pet. iv. 3, 4. If St. PauF?. Ufe of the Prepofltion 
J)aL a little backwards in this very Epiitle wcre remember'd, this and a like PafTage or two 
more in this Chapter would not have fo harfh and hard a Senfe put on them as they have. T«/ 
'm';^0VTniv // tttipuC^jcjoi, our Tranflation renders, chap. iv. 1 1 that believe though they be not 
circumeifed; where they make ii ety^iCv^cu, to iignify during the State, or during their being 
under Uncircumcifion. If they had given the fame Senfe to Jid ^o(/a here, which plainly 
fignifies their being in the contrary State, /. e. under the Law, and render'd it, finful Af- 
fediovs which they had, thd' they zoere under the Laza, the Apoftle's Senfe here would have 
been Q.\(y, clear, and conformable to the Defign he was upon. This Ufe of the word //* I 
think we may find in other Epiftles of St. Paul, to. //<fc t5 otoix&t^, 2 Ccr. v. 10. may polTi- 
bly with better Senfe be underitood of things done during the Body, or during the bodily State, 
than by the Body; and fo i Tim. ii. 15. Jtct -nKio^iicis, during the State of Child-bearing. Nor 
is this barely an Helleniftical.Ufe of Sia; for the Greeks themfelves fay cA" r.fy.i^ai, during 
the Day; and fict yoititi, during the Night. And fo I think Jiei rk Iviyj^if^h, Eph. iii. 6. 
fhould be underftood to fignify in the Time of the Gofpel, or under tiie Gofpel-Difpenfa- 

' Members here doth not fignify barely the fieflily Parts of the Bcdy in a reilrainM Senfe, 
but the animal Faculties and Powers, all in us that is employed as an Inftrumcnt in th.e Works of 
the Flefh, which are reckon'd up. Gal. v. X9---21. fome of which do not require the Members 
of our Bcdy, taken in a itricfl Senfe for the outw.ard grofs Parts, but only the Faculties of our 
Minds for their Performance. 

N n Death. 


Ch. VII. 



But now we are deli- 6 
vered from the law, that 
being dead wherein we 
were held ; that we fhoiild 
ferve in newnefs of fpirit, 
and not in the oldnefs of 
the letter. 

What fhall ^ve fay then ? 7 
is the law fin ? God for- 
bid. Nay, I had not 
known fin, but by the 
law : for I had not known 

Death ". Bat now the Law under which we 
were heretofore held in Subjcclion being dead 
we are let free from the Dominion of the Law, 
that we (hould periorm our Obedience as un- 
der the new ^^ and fpiritual Covenant of the 
Gofpel, wherein there is Remiilion of Frail- 
ties, and not as ftill under the old Rigor of the 
Letter of the Law, which condemns every one 
who does not perforin exad Obedience to eve- 
ry tittle ^. What fhall we then think, that 
the Law, becaul'e it is let afide, was unrighte- 
ous, or gave any allowance, or contributed a- 
ny thing to Sin y ? By no means ; For the 
Law on the contrary tied Men ftrider up from 


" Kci^Tnipofiiaai t^ Suvctra, Bringing forth Fruit unto Death, here is oppofed to bringing 
forth Fruit unto God, in the end of the foregoing Veath. Death here being confider'd as « 
"Alafter whom Men ferve by Sin, as God in the other place is confider'd as a Matter, who gives 
life to them who ferve him in performing Obedience to his Law. 

6 "■■ In Nezvnefs of Spirit, i. e. Spirit of the Law, as appears by the Antithefis, Oldnefs of 
the Letter, i. e. Letter of the Law. He fpeaks in the former part of the Verfe of the Law as 
feeing dead, here he fpeaks of it being revived again with a new Spirit. Chrift by his Death 
abolifhed the Mofaical Law, but revived as much of it again, as was ferviceable to the Ufc of 
his fpiritual Kingdom under the Gofpel, but left all the Ceremonial and purely Typical Part 
dead, Col. ii. 14 18. The Jews were held before Chrift in an Obedience to the whole Let- 
ter of the Law, without minding the fpiritual meaning which pointed at Chrift. This the Apo- 
file calls here ferving in the Oldnefs of the Letter, and this he tells them they fhould now leave, 
as being freed from it by the Death of Chrift, who was the end of the Law for the attaining of 
Righteoufnefs, ch. x. 4. /. e. in the fpiritual Senfe of it, which 2 Cor. iii. 6. he calls Spirit, which 
Spirit, ver. 16. he explains to be Chrift. That Chapter and this Verfe here give light to one a- 
nother. Serving in the Spirit then is obeying the Law, as far as it is revived, and as it is expLiin'd 
by our Saviour in the Gofpel, for the attaining of Evangelical Righteoufnefs. 

^ That this Senfe alfo is comprehended in not ferving in the Oldnefs of the Letter, is plain from, 
■what St. Paul fays, 2 Cor. iii. 6. fhe Letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth Life. From this 
killing Letter of the Law, whereby it pronounced Death for every the leaft Tranfgreftion, they 
were alfo delivered, and therefore St. Faul tells them here, ch. viii. 15. that they have not recei- 
^•ed the Spirit of Bondage again to fear, i. e. to live in perpetual Bondage and Dread under the 
inflexible Rigor of the Law, under which it was impoflible for them to expeft ought but Death. 

7 ' Sin. That Sin here corriprehends bolh thcfe Meanings exprellcd in the Paraphrafe, appears 
from this Verfe, where the Striftnefs of the Law againft Sin is aflcrtcd in its prohibiting of Defircs, 
aadfrom ver. iz- where its Reditude is afTcrted. 



]uft, except the law had 
faid. Thou fhalt not co- 
8 But fin taking occallon 
by the commandment, 
wrought in me all man- 
ner of concupifcence. For 
without the law fia was 



Sin, forbidding Concupilcenfe, which they did 
not know to be Sin but by the Law. For 
I ^ had not known Concupifcence to be Sin, 
unlefs the Law had faid, Thou Jh ah not covet. 
Neverthelefs Sin taking Oportunity ^ during 
the Law ^, or whilft I was under the Com- 
mandment, wrought in me all manner of Con- 
cupilcence: For without the Law Sin is dead, 
f not able to hurt me j And there was a time. 


* /. The Skill St. Paul ufes in dexteroufly avoiding as much as poffible the giving Offence 
to the Jews, is very vifible in the word / in this place. In the beginning of this Chapter, 
where he mentions their Knowledge in the Law, he fays 77. In the 4th Verfe he joins himfelf 
with them, and fays ff^e. But here, and fo to the end of this Chapter, where he reprefents the 
Power of Sin, and the Inability of the Law to fubdue it wholly, he leaves them out, and fpeaks 
altogether in the firit Perfon, tho' it be plain he means all thofe who were under the Law. 

8 ^ St. Paulhzxe, and all along this Chapter, fpeaks of Sin as a Perfon endeavouring to com- 
pafs his Death ; and the Senfe of this Verfe amounts to no more but this, that in matter of 
Faft that Concupifcence which the Law declared to be Sin, remained and exerted itfelf in him,, 
notwithftanding the Law. For if Sin, from St. Paul^ Profopopeia, or making it a Perfon» 
fhall be taken to be a real Agent, the carrying this Figure too far will give a very odd Senfe to 
St. PauPs Words, and, contrary to his Meaning, make Sin to be the Caufe of itfelf, and of 
Concupifcence, from which it has its Rife. 

^ See Note, ver. 5. 

"^ Dead. It is to be remembved, not only that St. Paul all along this Chapter makes Sin % 
Perfon, but fpeaks of that Perfon and himfelf as two incompatible Enemies, the Being and 
Safety of the one confifting in the Death or Inability of the other to hurt. Without carrying 
this in mind, it will be very hard to underftand this Chapter. For Inftance ; in this place 
St. Paul had declared, ver. 7, that the Law was not abolifhed, becaufe it at all favour'd or pro- 
moted Sin ; for it lays Reftraints upon our very Defircs, which Men without the Law did not 
take notice to be fmful : Neverthelefs Sin perfiiling in its Defign to deftroy me, took the Op- 
portunity of my being under the Law, to ftir up Concupifcence in me ; for without the Law^ 
which annexes Death to Tranfgreflion, Sin is as good as dead, is not able to have its Will oit 
me, and bring Death upon me. Conformable hereunto St. Pitul fays, i Cor. xv. 56. ne Strength 
of Sin is the Law, i. e. it is the Law that gives Sin the Strength and Power to kill Men. 
Laying afide the Figure which gives a lively Reprefentation of the hard State of a well-minded 
Jew under the Law, the plain Meaning of St. Paul here is this; " Tho' the Law lays a ftrifter 
" Reftraint upon Sin than Men have without it, yet it betters not my Condition thereby, be- 
" caufe it enables me not wholly to extirpate Sin, and fubdue Concupifcence, though it hath 
" made every Tranfgreflion a mortal Crime. So- that being no more totally fecured from of- 
*' fending under the Law than I was before, I am under the Law expofed to certain Death.'* 
This deplorable Eftate could not be more feelingly expreffed than it is here, by making Sin. 
( which ftill remain'd in Man under the Law) a Perfon who implacably aiming at his Ruin, cun- 
ningly took the Opportunity pf ^xgiling Concupifcence in th«fe to. whom the Law had made it 

N n 2 once 


Ch. vir. 





once ^ when I being without the Law, was 
in a State of Life ; bat the Commandment co- 
ming, Sin got Life and Strength again, and I 
found my felf a dead Man ; And that very 
Law which was given me for the attaining of 
Life S was found to produce Death ^ to 
me. For my mortal Enemy Sin taking the 
Oportunity of my being under S the Law, 
llew me by the Law, which it inveagled ^ 
me to difobey, i.e. TheFrailty and vicious In- 
clinations of Nature remaining in me under the 
Law, as they were before, able ftill to bring 


For I was alive with- g 
out the law once : but 
when the commandment 
came, fin revived, and I 

And the commandment lo 
which was ordained to 
life, I found to be unto 

For fin taking occafiton n 
by the commandment, de- 

NorE s, 

9 ^ rioTS, once. St. Paul declares there was a time once ^vhen he was in a State of Life. 
When this was, he himfelf tells us, viz. when he was without the Law, which could only 
be before the Law was given. For he fpeaks here in the Person of one of the Children of If- 
rael, who never ceafed to be under the Law fince it was given. This Tixtii therefore muft de- 
fign the Time between the Covenant made with Abraham and the Law. By that Covenant 
Abraham was made Blejfed, i. e. delivered from Death. That this is fo, vid. Gnl. iii. 9, i^c. 
And under him the Ijraelitei claim'd the Bleffing, as his Pofterity, comprehended in that Cove- 
nant, and as many of them as were of the Faith of their Father, faithful Abraham, were blef- 
fed with him. But when the Law came, and they put themfelves wholly into the Covenant of 
Works, wherein each Tranfgrcfllon of the Law became mortaJ, then Sin recovered Life again, 
and a Power to kill; and an Ijraelite now under the Law, found himfelf in a State of Death, a 
dead Man. Thus we fee it correfponds with the Defign of the Apoftle's Difcourfe here. In the 
fix firft Verfes of this Chapter he (hews the Jews that they were at Liberty from the Law, and 
might put themfelves folely under the Terms of the Gofpel. In the following Part of this 
Chapter he fliews thenrj, that it is neceffary for them fo to do ; fince the Law was not able to 
deliver them from the Power Sin had to deftroy them, but fubjeftcd them to it. This Part of 
the Chapter fhewing at large what he fays, chap. viii. 3. and fo may be iooked on as an Expli- 
cation and Proof of it. 

10 " That the Commandments of the Law were given to the Ifraelites, that they might 
have Life by them ; fee Lev. xviii. 5. Matth. xix. 7. 

^ The Law which was jufl, and fuch as it ought to be, in having the Penalty of Death an- 
nexed to every TranfgrefTion of it, Ga!. iii. 10. came to produce Death, by not being able {o 
to remove the Frailty of humjn Nature, and fubdue carnal Appetites, as to keep Men entirely 
free from all Trefpafles againft it, the leaft whereof by the Law brought Death. See chap. viii. 
3. Gal. iii. 21. 

H P The Senfe wherein I underftand J/*' (7» ro/y.w, by the Lnzv, vcr. 5. is very much con- 
firmed by /;* -^ cyTcAwf, in this and vcr. 8 by which Interpretation the whole Difcourfe is 
made pliin, eafy, and confonant to the Apodle's Purpofc. 

'' Inveagled. St. Paul feems here to allude to what Eve faid in a like Cafe, Gen. iii. 13. and 
ufes the word dcaived in the fame Senfe fhe did, /. e. drew me in. 

% me 


ceived me, and by it flew 


12 Wherefore the law is 
holy ; and the command- 
ment holy, and juft, and 

13 Was then that which is 
good, made death unto 
me ? God forbid. But fin 
that it might appear fin, 
working death in me by 
that which is good; that 
fin by the commandment 
might become exceeding 



me into Tranfgreflions, each whereof was 
mortal Sin, had by my being under the Law, 
a iure Oportunity of bringing Death upon 
me. So that '» the Law is holy, juft and 
good, fach as the eternal, immutable Rule of 
Right and Good required it to be. Was then 
the Law, that in it felf was good, made Death 
to me? No ^% by no means: Bat it was Sin 
that by the Law was made Death unto me, to 
the end that the Power ' of Sin might appear, 
by its being able to bring Death upon me, by 
that very Law that was intended for my Good, 
that fo by the Commandment the Power "^ of 




1 2 '"095, /o that, ver. 7. he laid down this Pofition, that the Law was riot Shi, ver. 8, 9, 
10, II. he proves it by fhewing, that the Law was very ftrift in forbidding of Sin, fo far as to 
reach the very Mind and the internal Aifls of Concupifcence, and that it was Sin that remaining 
under the Law (which annexed Death to every Tranfgreflion) brought Death on the Ifraelites, 
he here infers, that the Law was not finful, but righteous, juji^ and good, juft fuch as by the 
eternal Rule of Right it ought to be. 

13 ^ No. In the five foregoing Verfes the Apoftle had proved, that the Law was not Sin. 
In this and the ten following Verfes he proves the Law not to be made Death ; but that it was 
given to fl^ew the Power of Sin which remain'd in thofe under the Law, fo flrong, notwith- 
Itanding the L.iw, that it could prevail on them to tranfgrefs the Law, notwithftanding all its 
Prohibition, \vith the Penalty of Death annexed to every Tranfgreffion. Of what \J{& this 
Ihewing the Power of Sin by the Law w^s, we may fee. Gal. iii. 24. 

' Th.U a,yM.c.-n^ m^ \Ij?-Sff 3.>m' etuafTtuhof, Sin e.xceedirg Jinfuly is put here to fignify the 
great Power of Sin or Luit, is evident from the following Difcourfe, which wholly tends to 
fliev.-, that let a Alan under the Law be right in his Mind and Purpofe, yet the Law in hi? 
Members, /. e. his carnal Appetites, would carry him to the committing of Sin, tho' his Judg- 
ment and Endeavours were averfe to it. He that remembers that Sin in this Chapter is alf 
along reprefented as a Perfon whofe very Nature it was to feek and endeavour his Ruin, will not 
find it hard to underftand, that the Apoftle here by Sin exceeding fififul, means Sin ftrenuoufly 
exerting its finful, i. e. deftruftive Nature with mighty Force. 

■" "Ifa •yivri-rt:, that Sin tnight become, i. e. might appear to be. 'Tis of Appearance he fpeaks 
in the former Part of this Verfe, and fo it muft be underftood here, to conform the Senfc of the 
Words, not only to what immediately precedes in this Verfe, but to the Apoltle's Defign in this 
Ch-^pter, ^vhere he takes pains to prove that the Law was not intended any way to promote Sin; 
and to underftand by thefe Words that it was, is an Interpretation that neither Holy Scripture 
nor good Scnfe will allow. Tho' the facred Scripture fhculd not, as it does, give many Inftan- 
CC3 of putting being for appearing. Vid. chap. iii. 20. 




Sin and Corruption in nic might be fhewn to 

14 be exceeding great \ For we know that the 
Law is fpiritual, requiring Actions quite oppo- 
fite " to our carnal Aifeclion.s. But I am lb 
carnal as to be enflaved to them, and forced 
againft my Will to do the Drudgery of Sin, as 
if I were a Slave that had been fold into the 
hands of that my domineering Enemy. For 
what I do is not of my own Contrivance. 

ij ° For that which I have a Mind to I do 
not \ and what I have an Averlion to, that I 

16 do. If then my tranfgrefling the Law be what 
I in my Mind am againft, it is plain the Con- 
lent of my Mind goes with the Law, that it is 

i 7 good. If ^Oy then it is not I a willing Agent of 
my own free Purpofe that do what is contrary 
to the Law, but as a poor Slave in Captivity, 
not able to follow my own Underftanding and 
Choice, forced by the Prevalency of my own 
fmful Affections, and Sin that remains (lill in 

iS me, notvvithftanding the Law. For I know 
by woful Experience, that in me {y'lz^ in my 
Flefh P, that part which is the Seat of Qds- 



For we know that the '4 
law is fpiritual : but I am 
carnal, ibid under fin. 

For that which I do, I i J 
allow not : for what I 
would, that I do not; but 
what I hate, that do J. 

If then I do that which i5 
I would not, I confent 
unto the law, that it is 

Now then, it is no more 1 7 
I that do it, but fin that 
dwelleth in me. 

For I know that in me 1 8 
(that is, in my flefh) dwel- 
leth no good thing : for 

14 " Ylvdiiiavytii, fpiritual, is ufed hereto fignify the Oppofition of the Law to our carnal 
Appetites. The Antithefis in the following Words makes it clear. 

I 5 ° 'Oti yivuaKa, I do not know, i.e. it is not from my own Underftanding or Forecaft of Mind. 
The following Words, which are a Reafon brought to provethis faying, give it this Senfe. But if 
i }ifU7Kju be interpreted, I do not approve, what in the next Words is brought for a Reafon will be 
but a Tautology. 

18 P St. /'/7A/confidershimfelf, and in himfelf other Men, as confifting of two part?, which 
be calls Flejh and Mind, fee ler. 25. meaning by the one the Judgment and Purpofe of his Mind, 
guided by the Law or right Reafon ; by the other his natural Inclination pufliing him to the Satis- 
tadlion of his irregular finful Defires. Thefe he alfo calls, the one the Lazv of his Members, and 
the other the Law of his Mind, ver. 23. and Gal. 5. 16, 17. a place parallel to the ten lalt Verfes 
cf this Chapter, he calls the one Flejh, and the other Spirit. Thefc two are the Subjed of his 
Difco. rfe in all this part of the Chapter, explaining particularly how by the Power and Prevalency 
of the flefhly Inclinations, not abated by the Law, it comes to pafs, which he fays, ch. viii. 2, 3. 
that the Law being tueak by reafn of the Fiejh, could notfet a Man free from the Power and Domini- 
tn of Sin and Death. 



to will is prefent with me, 
but how to perform that 
which is good, I find not. 
in For the good that I 
would, I do not : but the 
evil which I would not, 
that I do. 

20 Now if I do that I would 
not, it is no more I that 
do it, but fin that dwel- 
leth in me. 

21 I find then a law, that 
when I would do good, 
evil is prefent with me. 

22 For I delight in the law 
of God, after the inward 

23 But I fee another law 
in my members, warring 
againft the law of my 
mind, and bringing me 



nal Apetites, there inhabits no good. For in 
the Judgment and Pnrpote of my Mind, I am 
readily carried to a Conformity and Obedience 
to the Law : but the Strength of my carnal Af- 
fections not being abated by the Law, I am 
not able to execute what I judge to be right, 
and intend to perform. For the Good that is 
my purpofe and aim, that I do not : But the 
Evil that is contrary to my Intention, that in 
my Practice takes place, /. e. I purpofe and aim 
at univerfal Obedience, but cannot in fad at- 
tain it. Now if I do that which is againft the 
full bent and intention of me 4 my felf, it is 
as I faid before, not I my true felf who do it^ 
but the true Author of it is my old Enemy Sin, 
%vhich ftill remains and dwells in me, and I 
would fain get rid of. I find it therefore as by 
a Law fettled in me, that when my Intentions 
aim at Good, Evil is ready at hand, to make 
my Adions wrong and faulty. For that which 
my inward Man is delighted with, that which 
with Satisfaction my Mind would make its 
Rule, is the Law of God. But I fee in my 
Members ^ another Principle of Action equi- 
valent to a Law ^ directly waging War a- 


20 ^ *Ov bthtiiiya, I would not, 7 in the Greek is very emphatical, as is obvious, and denotes 
the Man in that part which is chiefly to be counted himfelf, and therefore with the like Emphafis, 
ver. 25. is called rtt/T^'? 5^a, / ;« y czunfeff. 

23 • St. Pdul here and in the former Chapter, ufes the \\ord Members for the lower 
Faculties and Affeftions of the animal Man, which are as it were the Inftruments of Ani- 

s He having in the foregoing Verfe fpoken of the Law of God as a Principle of Adion, but yet 
fuch a ^ had not a Power to rule and influence the whole Man fo as to keep him quite clear from Sin, 
he here fpeaks oi natural Inclination as of a Li:-u, alfoa law in the Me/ubers, and a Law of Sin 
in ihe 'iAembers, to fliew that it is a Principle f Operation in Men even under the Law, as fteady 
and ccnltant in its D'redion and ImpuKt: to Sin, as the Law is to 01?edienve^ and failed not thro* 
the Frailty of the Flelh often to prevail. 



Ch. VI J. 









gainft that Law which my Mind would fol- 
low, leading me captive into an unwilling Sub- 
jedion to the conftant Inclination and Impulfe 
of my carnal Appetite, which as fteadily as if 
it were a Law, carries me to Sin. O miferable 
Man that I am, who fhall deliver me t from 
this Body of Death? The Grace of God "^ 

into captivity to the law 
of fin, which is in my 

wretched man that I 24 
am, who Ihall deliver me 
from the body of this 
death ! 

1 thank God, through 25 

24 ^ What is that St. ?aul fo pathetically defires .to be delivered from ? The State he had been 
defcribing was that of human Weaknefs, wherein notwithftanding the Law, even thofc who 
were under it, and fincerely endeavoured to obey it, were frequently carried by their 
carnal Appetites into the Breach of it. This State of Frailty he knew Men in this 
World could not be deliver'd from. And therefore if we mind him, it is not that but the Con- 
fequence of it, Death, or fo much of it as brings Death, that he enquires after a Deliverer from. 
Who jhall deliver me, fays he, from this Body ? He does not fay of Frailty but af Death ? What 
jball hinder that my carnal Appetites that fo often make 7ne fall into Sin, Jhall not bring Death 
upon me, tvhich is awarded me by the Law ? And to this he mfwers. The Grace of God through our 
Lord Jefus Chriji. 'Tis the Favour of God alone through Jefus Chrill: that delivers frail Man 
from Death. Thofe under Grace obtain Life upon fincere Intentions and Endeavours after O- 
bedience, and thofe Endeavours a Man may attain to in this State of Frailty. But good Intention 
and fincere Endeavours are of no behoof againft Death to thofe under the Law, which requires 
compleat and pundual Obedience, but gives no Ability to attain it. And fo it is Grace alone 
through Jefus Chrift, that accepting of what a frail Man can do, delivers from the Body ofDeath. 
And thereupon he concludes with Joy, So then I being now aChriftian, not any longer under the 
Lazv, but under Grace, this is the State I am in, whereby I jhall be deliver'd from Death, Izvithmy 
whole Bent and Intention devote my felf to the Law of God in jincere Endeavour after Obedience, 
though m'i carnal Appetites are enflaved to, and have their natural Propenjity towards Sin. 

25 " Our Tranflators read cv;^<tc/s-<y T&f ^«, I thank God: The Author of the Vulgar, ^fl( 
*rv S\v, The Grace or Favour of God, which is the reading of the Clermont and other Greek Ma- 
nufcripts. Nor can it be doubted which of thefe two Readings fhould be followed by one who con- 
fiders, not only that the Apcftle makes it his bufinefs to ihcw that the Jews ftood in need of Grace 
for Salvation, as much as the Gentiles : But alfo that /i-^' Grace of God is a dircftand appofite An- 
fwer to who Jhall deliver me ? which if we read it, / thank God, has no Anl.ver at all ; an Omiffi- 
on the like whereof I do not remember any where in St. Paul's way of Writing. This I am fure, 
it renders the Pallage obfcure and imperfedl in it fclf. Bui much more difturbs the Senfe, if we 
obferve the Illative therefore, which begins the next Verfe, and introduces a Conclufion e.ify and 
natural, if the Queltion, who flpall deliver me ? has for anfwer. The Grace of God. Otherwife it 
will be hard to lind Premifes from whence it c.-.n be drawn. For thus Ibnds the Argument plain 
and eafy. Tl«: Law cannot deliver from the Body of Death, i. e. from thofe carnal Appetites 
which produce Sin, and fo bring Death. But the Grace of God through Jefus Chrill, which par- 
dons Lapfcs where there is fincere Endeavour after Righteoufnefs, delivers us from this Bodv that 
it doth not dcllroy us. From whence naturally rckilts this Conclufion, There is tbcri fore now 
no Gandemnation, tScc. Eut what it is grounded on in the other Reading, I confefs I do not fee. 





Jefus Chrift our Lord, through Jefus Chrift our Lord. To comfort 
myrdrfovM'; u^o! niy iclf therefore as that State requires for my 
God; but with the fleih Dclivcrancc ffom Death, I my fcif '^ with full 
the law of fin. Purpofe and fincere Endeavours of Mind, give 

up my felf to obey the Law of God, thouf, h my 
carnal Inclinations are enflaved, and have a 
conftant Tendency to Sin. This is all I ^ can 
do, and this is that and all what I being under 
Grace is required of me, and through Chrill 
will be accepted. 


^ 'AvTzi iyu, I myfe/f, i. e. J the Man, with all my full Refolution of Mind: 'At/TOfand 
\yii might have both of them been fpared, if nothing more had been meant here than the Nomi- 
native Cafe to AAcjJ)'<y; fee Note, ver. 20. 

y AaA<jJ,V, I ferve, or I make my felf a Vajfal^ l. e. I intend and devote my whole Obedience. 
The Terms of Life to thofe under Grace St. Pii:il tells us at large, chap. 6. are SiK^o-yiwxt tS 
iTiKMoawJif, and -itJ ^a, to become Vaflals to Righteoufnefs and to God; confonantly he fays 
here, djiii i')(>>, I tnsfelf, I the Man, being now a Chriflian, and fo no longer under the 
Law, but under Grace, do what is required of me in that State; /IsiAcsL'fc', I become a Vaffal to 
the Law of God, /. e. dedicate myfelf to the Service of it, in fincere Endeavours of Obedi- 
ence ; and fo auTOf "r^<^, I the Man, fliall be deliver'd from Death: for he that being under 
GrLice makes himfelf a Vaffal to God in a ftcady Purpofe of fincere Obedience, Ihall from him 
receive the Gift of eternal Life, though his carnal Appetite, which he cannot get rid of, ha- 
ving its Bent towards Sin, makes him fometimes tranfgrefs ; which would be certain Death to 
him, if he were flill under the Law. See chap. vi. 18, and 22. 

And thus St. Paul having fliewn here in this Chapter, that the being under Grace alone, 
without being under the Law, is necelTiry even to the Jews, as in the foregoing Chapter he 
had (hewn it to be to the Gentiles, he hereby demonftratively confirms the Gentile Converts in 
their Freedom from the Law, which is the Scope of this Epiftle thus far. 

O o SECT. 


CHAP. VIII. 1—39. 



ST.'?^?//having, ch,6. Ihewn that the Gentiles who were not under 
the Law, were faved only by Grace, which required that they 
Ihould not indulge themfelves in Sin, but fteadily and fincerely en- 
deavour after perfed Obedience : Having alfo, cb. 7. fhevvn that 
the Jews, who were under the Law, were alfo faved by Grace 
only, becaufe the Law could not enable them wholly to avoid Sin, 
which by the Law was in every the leaft flip made Death ; he in this 
Chapter ihews, that both Jews and Gentiles who are under Grace, 
i, e. Converts to Chriftianity, are free from Condemnation, if they 
perform what is required of them; and thereupon he fets forth the 
Terms of the Covenant of Grace, and prefTes their Obfervance, viz, 
not to live after the Flefh, but after the Spirit, mortifying the 
Deeds of the Body ; foralrnuch as thole that do io are the Sons of 
God. This being laid down, he makes ufe of it to arm them with 
Patience againft Affliclions, affuring them, that whilft they remain 
in this State, nothing can feparate them from the Love of God. 
nor fhut them out from the Inheritance of eternal Life with Chrift 
in Glory, to which all the Sufferings of this Life bear not any the 
leaft Proportion. 



Here is therefore ^ now ^ no Condem- T^here is therefore 
nation ^ to, /. e. no Sentence or Death 


1 ^ therefore. This is an Inference drawn from the Jail Verfe of the foregoing Chap- 
ter, where he faith, that it is Grace that delivers from Death, as we have ahcady ob- 

* New. Now that under the Gofpel the Law is abolifli'd to thofe who entertain tlie 

' The Condemnation here fpoken of, refers to the Penalty of Death annexed to every Tranf- 
greflion by the Law, whereof he had difcQurfcd in the foregoing Chapter, 



tion to them which aie 
in Chrift Jefus, who^walk 
not after the flefh, but af- 
ter the Spirit. 

For the law of the Spi- 
rit of life in Chr:lt Jekis, 
hath mads me free from 
the law of fm and death. 

For what the law could 




Ch. virr. 

fliall pals 


pais upon thole who are v^tinitians ^, n 
io be they obey ^ not the finful Lufts of the 
Flefh, but follow with Sincerity of Heart the 
Dictates of the "= Spirit ^ in the Gofpel. 
For the s Grace of God which is effectual to 
Life has let me free from that Law in my 
Members which cannot now produce Sin in me 
unto Death K For this (viz. the delivering 
us from Sin) being beyond the Power of the 

N r E S. 

^ In Chriji Jefus, exprefled chap. vi. 14. by under Grace, and Gal. iii. 27. by having put ofi 
ChriJ}, all which ExprefTions plainly fignify, to any one that reads and confiders the Places, the 
profefling the Religion, and owning a Subjeftion to the Law of Chrift, contain'd in the Gofpel; 
which is, in fhort, the Profeffion of Chriftianity. 

^ Yiiei-T!O.Te (P , Walkirig, or who zvalk, does not mean that all who are in Chrift Jefus do walk 
not after the Fle/h, but after the Spirit; but all who being in Chrift Jefus, omit not to walk fo. 
This, if the Tenor of St. PauTs Difcourfe here can fuiter any one to doubt of, he may be fatif- 
fied, is fo from ver. 13. li ye live after the Flefli. The j^ he there fpeaks to, are no lefs than 
thofe that, chap. i. 6, 7. he calls the Called of Jefus Chrifl, and the Beloved of God, Terms 
equivalent to being in Jefus Chrifl, fee chap. vi. 12— 14. Gal. v. 16 — 18. which Places compa- 
red together, fticw that by Chrift we are deliver'd from the Dominion of Sin and Luft; fo that it 
fhall not reign over us unto Death, if we will fet ourfelves againft it, and fincerely endeavour 
to be free : A voluntary Slave who enthrals himfelf by a willing Obedience, who can fet 
free ? 

= Flefh and Spirit fcem here plainly to refer to F/efh, wherewith, he hy?, he fervcs Sin, and 
Mind wherewith he ferves the Law of God, in the immediately preceding Words. 

f Walking after the Spirit, is, z-er. 13. explained by mortifying the Deeds of the Body through 
the Spirit. 

2 ^ That it is Grace that delivers from the Law in the Members, which is the Law of Death, 
is evident from chap. vii. 23--25. why it is called a Law, may be found in the Antithefis to 
the Law cf Sin and Death, Grace being as certain a Law to give Life to Chriftians that live 
not after the Flefh, as the Influence of fmful Appetites is to bring Death on thofe who are not 
under Grace. In the next place, why it is called the Law of the Spirit of Life, has a Reafon, 
in that the Gofpel which contains this Doiflrine of Grace, is dift.itcd by the fame Spirit that 
raifcd Chrift from the dead, and that quickens us to Newnefs of Life, and has for its End the 
conferring of eternal Life. 

^ The Law of Sin and Death. Hereby is meant that u-hich he calls the I^w in his Members, 
chap. vii. 23. where it is called the Law of Sin; and cvr. 24. it is called the Body of Death, 
from which Grace delivers. " This is certain, that no body who confiders what St. Paul has 
faid, ver. 7, & 13. of the foregoing Chapter, can think that he can cill the Law of Mofes, the 
Law of Sin, or the Lazv of Death. And that the Law of Mofes is not meant, is plain from his 
Reafoning in the very next Words. For the Law of Mcfes could not be complain'd of as being 
weak, for not delivering thofe under it from its felf ; yet its Weaknefs might, .ind is all along, 
chap. vii. as well as ver. 3. complain'd of, as not being able to deliver thofe under it from their 
carnal finful Appecites, and the Prevalence of them. 

Oo 2 




Law, which was too weak ^ to tnafter the -yXo",g*"he''M,: 
Propeniities of the Flefh, God lending his bon God fending his own Son 
inFlefh, that in all things except Sin, was like i" ^^'^ li^enefs of finful 
unto our frail finful Flelh ^^ and fending ' 
him alfo to be an Offering "^ for Sin, he put 
to Death, or extinguilhed cr fuppreffed Sin " 


3 ' Weak ; the Weaknefs, and as he there alfo calls it, the Unprofitablenefs of the Law, is again 
taken notice of by the Apoftle, Heb. vii. i8, 19. There were two Defeds in the Law where- 
by it became unprofitable, as the Author to the Hebrews fays, fo as to make nothittg^ perfe^. 
The one was its inflexible Rigor, againft which it provided no Allay or Mitigation; it left no 
place for Atonement ; the leaft Slip was mortal; Death was the inevitable Punifhment of Tranf- 
greffion by the Sentence of the Law, which had no Temperament: Death the Offender muft 
fjfFer, there was no Remedy. This St. P^a/'s Epiftles are full of; and how we are delivered 
from it by the Body of Chrifl, he fhews, Heb. x. 5—10. The other Weaknefs or Defedl: of 
the Law was, that it could not enable thofe who were under it, to get a Mailery over their Flefh, 
or flefhly Propenfities, fo as to perform the Obedience required. The Law exafted compleat 
Obedience, but afforded Men no Help againfl: t'reir Frailty or vicious Inclinations. And this 
reigning of Sin in their mortal Bodies, St. Paul fhews here how they are delivered from, by the 
Spirit o"f Chrifl enabling them, upon their fincere Endeavours after Righteoufnefs, to keep Sin 
under in their mortal Bodies in conformity to Chrift, in whofe Flefh it was condemned, execu- 
ted, and perfeftly extinfl, having never had there any Life or Being, as we fhall fee in the 
following Note. ' The Provifion that is made in the New Covenant againfl both thefe Defefts 
of the Law, is in the EpiiUe to the Heirezvs exprcffed thus : God will make a new Covenant 
with the Houfe of Ifrael, wherein he will do thefe two things; He -will write his Law in their 
Hearts, and he will be merciful to their Iniquities. See Heb. viii. 7-— 12. 
^ See Heb. iv. 15. 

1 Kef/, and, joins here in the Likcnefs, Sec. with to be an Offering ; whereas if and be made to 
copulate fending and condemned, neither Grammar nor Senfe would permit it : nor can it be 
imagined the Apoflle fliould fpeak thus : God fending his Son, and condemned Sin : But God 
fending his czvn Son in the Likenefs of finful Flep, and fending him to be an Offering for Sin, 
with very good Senfe joins the ALinner and End of his fending. 

^ ri'.e' A/MLpnof, which in the Text is tranflated/sr Sin, fignifics an Offering for Sin, as the 
Margin of our Bibles takes notice: See 2 Cor. v. 21. Heb. x. 5— -10. So that the plain Senfe 
is, God fent his Son in the Likcnefs of fuful Flef>, and fent him an Offering for Sin. 

" KaT5>£/!/y«, condemned. The Profopopeia, whereby Sin was confidercd as a Perfon all the fore- 
going Chapter, being continued on here, thi condemning of Sin here cannot mean, as fome 
would have it, that Chrill was condemned for Sin, or in the place of Sin ; for that would be 
to fave Sin, and leave that Perfon alive which Chrifl came to deflroy. But the plain Meaning 
is, that Sin itfelf was condemned or put to Death in his Flefli, i. e. was fuffer'd to have no Liic 
nor Being in the Flefh of our Saviour: He was in all Points tempted as we are, yet without 
Sin, Heb. iv. 15. By the Spirit of God the Motions of the Flelh were fupprefTcd in him. Sin 
was crufhed in the Egg, and could never fallen in the leaft upon him. This farther appears to 
be the Senfe by the following Words. The Antithefis between n^TVLiqiifJut, ver. i. and tr^rixf/ifi 
herCj will alfo fhew why that Word is ufed here to exprcfs the Death or No being of Sin in 
our Saviour, 2 Cor. v. 2. i Pet. ii. 22. Tliat St. /'tf/// fometiraes uf(:s Condemnation for putting 
to Death, fee chap. v. i6, & 18. 





flefh, and for fin condemn- j^ the Flefli, /. 6. fending his Son into the 
^'rhaTthe righteoufnefs World with the Body wherein the Flelh could 
of the law might be fui- ncver prevail to the prodncina; of any one Sin, 

filled in lis, who walk not ^ ., ^ _ i rp, . , ^,. ■[-,•' , \ 

after the flefh, but after to the end, That Under this Example ot 

the fpirit. Flelh ^ vvhcrein Sin was perfectly mafter'd 

' t'l^f io^y'S:. 'ind excluded from any Life, the moral Redi- 

things of the fleni : but tudc of the Lavv^ might be conformed to ^ by 

they that are after the ^^^^ abandoning the Lults of the Flelh, 

ipint, the things of the ' /-. • j r ^^^'-^y 

fpirit. follow the Guidance of the Spirit in the Law 

6 For to be carnally mind- of our Mlnds, and make it our bufinefs to live 

ed, IS death J but to be p , t-.i r. i r , r^ . . -^ 

not alter the tlelh, but after the Spirit. For 
as for thofe who i are ftill under the Diredi- 
on of the Flefh and its finful Appetites, who 
are under Obedience to the Law in their Mem- 
bers, they have the Thoughts and Bent of their 
Minds fet upon the things of the Flefh, to o- 
bey it in the Lufts of it : But they who are 
under the fpiritual Law of their Minds, the 
Thoughts and Bent of their Hearts is to fol- 
low the Didates of the Spirit in that Law. 
For ' to have our Minds fet upon the Satif^ 
faction of the Lufts of the Flefh, in a flavifh 
Obedience to them, does certainly produce and 

N r E s. 

4 » T3 J)/.aJuuA ffv fo//», 7he Righteoufnefs of the Law. See Note, chap. ii. 26. 

P Fulfilled does not here fignify a compleat exaft Obedience, but fuch an unblameable Life, by 
fincere Endeavours after Righteoufnefs, as fhews us to be the faithful Subjefts of Chrift, exempt 
from the Dominion of Sin, fee chap. xiii. 8. Gal. vi. 2. A Defcription of fuch who thus ful- 
filled the Righteoufnefs of the Law, we have Luke i. 6. As Chrift in the Flefh was wholly ex- 
empt from all Taint of Sin, fo we by that Spirit which was in him fhall be exempt from the 
Dominion of our carnal Lufts, if we make it our Choice and Endeavour to live after the Spirit, 
irr. 9, 10, II. For that which we are to perform by thac Spirit, is the Mortification of the 
Deeds of the Body, ver. 17. 

t, '^ 0\ yQ} OTt'eKo, oi'TE<, Thofe that are after the Flefh, and thofe that are after the Spirit^ 
are the fame with thofe that walk after the Flefh, and after the Spirit. A Defcription of thefe 
two different Sorts of Chriftians, fee Gal. v. 16— -26. 

6 ' For joins what follows here to ver. 1. as the Reafon of what is here laid down, (viz.) 
Deliverance from Condemnation is to fuch Chriftian Converts only, who walk not after the Flefh, 
but after the Spirit* For, iffc. 



Ch. vjir- 


ch. viir. 



bring Death Upon us: but ourfettingour felves 
ferioufly and fincerely to obey the Didates 
and Direction of the Spirit, produces Life * 
and Peace, which are not to be had in the 
contrary carnal State, Becaufe to be carnally 
minded ^ is dire£l Enmity and Oppofition a- 
gainft God ; for fuch a Temper of Mind, given 
up to the LuftsoftheFlelh, is in no Subjedion 
to the Law of God, nor indeed can be ", it 
having a quite contrary Tendency. So then 
^ they that are in the FJelh, /. e. under the 
flelhly Difpenlation of the Law y, without 
regarding Chrift the Spirit of it, in it cannot 


ipirtually minded, is life 
and peace : 

Becaufe the carnal mind 7 
is enmity againft God : 
for it is not fubjed to the 
law of God, neither in- 
deed ca-i be. 

So then they that are 8 
in the Flefh, cannot pleafe 


* See Gal. vi. 8. 

7 ' ^^vnfjut >?■ (Ttt^ui, fliould have been tranflated here /£7/5^r<7r«^//y w/W^y, as it is in the fore- 
going Verfe, which is juftified by tpci/'i<jj n 'f aa^/joi, do mind the things of the Flejh, ver. 5. 
which fignifies the employing the Bent of their Minds, or fubjedling the Mind entirely to the ful- 
iilling the Lulls of the Flelh. 

" Here the Apoftle gives the Reafon why even thofe that are in Chrift Jefus, liave received the 
'Gofpel, and are Chrillians (for to fuch he is here fpeaking) arc not faved unlefs they ceafe to walk 
after the Flefli, becaufe that runs direflly counter to the Law of God, and can never be brought 
into t^onformity and Subjedtion to hii Commands. Such a fettled Contravention to his Precepts 
cannot be fufFer'd by the fupream Lord and Governor of the World in any of his Creatures, with- 
ont foregoing his Sovereignty, and giving up the eternal immutable Rule of Right, to the over- 
turning the very Foundations of all Order and moral Redlitude in the intelleftual World. This 
even in the Judgment of Men themfelves will be always thought a necelTary piece of Jullice for the 
keeping out of Anarchy, Difordcr and Confufion, that thofe refra<Elory Subjefls who fet up their 
own Inclinations for their Rule againft the Law, which was made to rellrain thofe very In- 
clinations, fhould feel the feverity of the Law, without which the Authority of the Law, and Law- 
maker, canno':bepreferved. 

8 " This is a Conclufion drawn from \\hat went before. The whole Argumentation Hands 
thus : They that are under the Dominion of their carnal Lulls cannot pleafe God ; therefore they 
who are under the carnal or literal Difpenfation of the Law, cannot pleafe God, becaufe they have 
not the Spirit of God : Now 'tis the Spirit of God alone that enlivens Men fo as to enable them 
to call off the Dominion of their Lulls. See Gal. iv. 3 6. 

^ Oj if cv^id ov-ni, ^hey tbat,are in the Flejh. He that fhall confider that this Phrafe is applied, 
xb. vii. 5. to the Jews, asreJling in the bare literal or carnal Senfe and Obfervance of the Law, 
will not be avcrfe to the undcrllanding the fame Phrafe in the fame Senfe here, which I think is 
the only place befides in the New Tellamcnt, ci* cth? ;a «I) is ufcd in amoral Senfe. 
This J dare fay, it is hard to produce any one Text, wherein 7t) it imfujis ufed 
?o fignifie a Man's being under the Power of his Lulls, which is the Senfe 



f) But ye are not in the 
flefh, but in the fpirit, if 
fo be that the fpirit of 
God dwell in you. Now 
if any man have not the 
fpirit of Chrill, he is 
none of his. 

[ o And if Chrift be in you, 
the body is dead becaufe 
of fm ; but the fpirit is 
life, becaufe of righteouf- 

[ \ But if the fpirit of him 
that raifed up Jefus from 
the dead, dwell in you; 
he that raifed up Chrift 
from the dead, fliall alfo 
quicken your mortal bo- 



pleafe God. But you arc not In that State of 
having all your Expedation from the Law, and 
the Benefits that are to be obtain'd barely by 
that, but are in the fpiritual State of the Law, 
i. e. the ^ Gofpel, which is the end of the 
Law, and to which the Law leads you. And 
^o having received the Gofpel, you have there- 
with received the Spirit of God : For as many 
as receive Chrift, he gives Power to become 
the a Sons of God : And to thofe that are his 
Sons God gives his Spirit ^. And if Chrift 
be In you by his Spirit, the Body is dead as to 
all Adivity to Sin *^, Sin no longer reigns in 
it, but your finful carnal Lufts are mortified. 
But the Spirit ^ of your Mind liveth, u e. is 
enlivened in order to Righteoufnefs, or living 
righteoufly. But if the Spirit of God who had 
Power able to raife Jefus Chrift from the dead, 
dwell in you, as certainly it does, he that rai- 
fed Chrift from the Dead, is certainly a- 
ble, and will by his Spirit that dwells in 
you, enliven even f your mortal Bo- 


Ch. VIII- 




wherein it is and muft be taken here, if what I propofe be rejefied. Let it be alfo remembred 
th.\t St. Paul mzlsi it the chief Bufmefs of this Epiftle (and he feldom forgets the Defion he 
is upon) to perfuade both Jew and Gentile from a Subjection to the Law, and that the Aro-u- 
ment he is upon here, is the Weaknefs and Infufficiency of the Law to deliver Men from the 
Pov.'cr of Sini and then perhaps it will not be judg'd that the Interpretation I have given of 
thefe Words is altogether remote from the Apoftle's Senfe. 

9 ^ See 2 Cor. iii. 6-- 18. particularly v(r. 6, 13, 16. 
•' See yobn i. 12, 
^ See Ga/. iv. 6. 

10 "^ See cbap. vi. i — 14. 
20. Efh. iv. Z2, 23. Co/, ii. 

See Ep/j. iv. 23. 

which explains this place, particularly ver. 2, 6, u, t. 
II. Sc iii. 8---10. 


II '^ To us into the true Senfe of this Veric, we need only obferve, that St. PauJ 
having in the four firft Chapters of this Epiftle fhewn, that neither Jew nor Gentile could be 
juftified by liic Law ; and in the fifth Chapter, how Sin enter'd into the World by Jt/cj^/i, and 
reigned by L*<;ath, from which 'twas Giaq^, and not the Law, that dcliver'd Men : Jn the 

288 ROMANS. 

Ch. VIII. 


fixth Chapter he fheweth the Convert Gentiles, that though they were not under the Law, 
but under Grace, yet they could not be faved, unlefs they call off the Dominion of Sin, and 
became tlie devoted Servants of Rightcoufnefs, Vv'hich was what their very Baptifm taught 
and required of them: And in Cbap. vii. he declares to the Jews the Weaknefs of the Law, 
which they fo much flood upon ; and fhews that the Law could not deliver them from the 
Dominion of Sinj that Deliverance was only by the Grace of God, through Jeftis Chrifl: 
from whence he draws the Confequence which begins this eighth Chapter, and fo goes on 
with it here in two Branches, relating to his Difcourfe in the foregoing Chapter, that compleat 
it in this. The one is to fhew, that the Law of the Spirit of Life, /. e. the new Covenant in 
the Gofpel, required that thofe that are in Chriil Jefus fhould live not after the Flefh, but after 
the Spirit. The other is to fhew how, and by whom, fmce the Law was weak, and could not 
enable thofe under the Law to do it, they are enabled to keep Sin from reigning in their mortal 
Bodies, which is the San6\ification required. And here he fhews, that Chrillians are delivered 
from the Dominion of their carnal fmful Lufts by the Spirit of God that is given to them, 
and dwells in them, as a new quickning Principle and Power, by which they arc put into the 
State of a fpiritual Life, wherein their Members are made capable of being made the Liflru- 
ments of Rightcoufnefs, if they pleai'e, as living Men alive now to Righteoufnefs, fo to employ 
them. If this be not the Senfe of this Chapter to ver. 14. I defire to know how cc^ex Zv in 
the firft Verfe comes in, and what Coherence there is in what is here faid. Befides the Con- 
nexion of this to the former Chapter contained in the Illative Therefore, the very Antithefis of 
the ExprefTions in one and t'other, fhew that St. Paul in writing this very Verfe, had an eye 
to the foregoing Chapter. There it was 5in that dzoelleth in me, that was the a<fl:ive and over- 
ruling Principle : Here it is the Spirit of God that dwellcth i7i you, that is the Principle of your 
fpiritual Life. There it was, who f^all deliver me from this Body of Death ? Here it is, God 
by his Spirit fiali quicken your mortal Bodies, i.e. Bodies, which as the Seat and Harbour of 
fmful Lull?; tliat pofFefs it, are indifpofed and dead to the Actions of a fpiritual Life, and have 
a natural Tendency to Death. In the fame Senfe, and upon the fame account he calls the Bo- 
dies of the Gentiles their mortal Bodies, chap. vi. iz. where his Subjefl is as here. Freedom 
from the Reign of Sin, upon which account they are there ftiled, ver. 13. JUve from the dead. 
To make it yet clearer, that it is Deliverance from the Reign of Sin in our Bodies that 
St. /*/?«/ fpeaks of here, I defire any one to read what he favs, chap. vi. i---i4. to the Gen- 
tiles on the fame Subjeft; and compare it \vith the 13 firfl Vcrfes ©f this Chapter; and 
then tell me whether they have not a mutual Correfpondencc, and do not give a grc 
light to one another? If this be too much Pain.s let him at leaft read the two nextVerfc:. 
and fee how they could polTibly be, as they are, an Inference from this nth Verfe, if the of ■^our mortal Bodies in it mean any thing but a quickning to Newnefs of Life, or 
to a fpritual Life of Pvighteoufnefs. This being fo, I cannot but wonder to fee a late 
learned Commentator and Paraphrafl pofitive, that ^wstto/iWh .to -S-chtbl auijui-m. CfJfi><^') fhall 
quicken your mortal Bodies, does here fignify, Jhall raife your dead Bodies out pf the Grave, 
as he contends in his Preface to his Paraphrafe on the EpifUes to the Corinthians ; ^oo-'ty-.v 
quicken, he fays, imports the fame with tyeifHt/ raife. His Way of proving it is very re- 
markable; his Words are, !^&)077r./e7i' and kye^'ipc^.y, are, as to this matter \z>iz. the Refurredlion] 
Words 0/ the fune Import, i. e. where in difcourfmg of the Refr.rrcftion, i^^uoTniHv quicken, 
is ufed, it is of the fame Import with iyeipHr, raife. But what if St. Paul, which is the 
Qneltion, be not here fpeaking of the Rpfurreftion ? why then according to our Author's 
own Confcflion, (uoTzttHi, quicken, does not neceffarily import the fame with lyeifeiv, raife. 
So that his Argument to prove that St. Pi?/// here, by the Words in qucflion, means the rai- 
fing of their dead Bodies out of the Grzvz, is hut a fair begging of the Queflion ; which is 
enough, I thihk, for a Commentator that hunts out of his way for Controverfy. He 
might therefore have fpared the C,cco-^oietv quicken, which he produces out of St. J^oh/i v. 2\. 
as of no force to his pmpofe, till he had proved that St. Paul here in Rumans viii- 11. was 
Jpeaking of the Refurredion 0' Mens Bodies out of the Grave, which he will never do till 



dies, by his Spirit that clics ^, (that Sin fliall not have the Ible Power 

dvvelleth in you. i n ^ ^ \ i •» 7 i_ 1 

^ iind Rule tncre) but your iviembers may be 



he can prove that flrJfT* mortal, here fignifies the fame with y^xfei dead. And I demand of him-, 
to fhow 6t«7ij' mortal any where in the New Teftament attributed to any thing void of Life, 
•vViniv ?nortal always fignifies the thing it is join'd to, to be living ; fo that (uaintixs ^. xj tw -S-oit* 
CLiUM.'T^.xiufiu'', Jbali quicken ez'cn your mortal Bodies, in that learned Author^s Interpretation of 
thefe Words of St. Paul, here lignify, God Jhall raife to Life your living dead Bodies ; which no 
one can think in the fofteft Terms can be given to it, a very proper way of fpcaking ; though 
it be very good Senfe and very emphatical to fay, God Jhall hy his Spirit put into even your 
mortal Bodies a Principle cf Immortality or fpiriiual Life, which is the Senfe of the Apoftle 
here; fee Gal. vi. 8. And fo he may find ^uti-miv'Jau ufed. Gal. iii. 21. to the fame purpofe it 
is here. I next defire to know of this learned Writer, how he will bring in the Refurreftion 
of the Dead into this place, and to fhew what Coherence it has with St. PauTs Difcourfe here, 
and how he can join this Verfe with the immediately preceding and following, when the Words 
under Confideration are render'd, Shall raife your dead Bodies out of their Graves at the laji 
day? It feems as if he himielf found this would make but an aukward Senfe Handing in this 
place with the reft of St. PauPs Words here, and fo never attempted it by any fort of Paraphrafe, 
but has barely given us the Englifh Tranflation to help us, as it can, to fo uncouth a Meaning 
as he would put upon this Pafiage; which muft make St. Paul, in the midil: of a very ferious, 
Ibong and coherent Difcourfe, concerning walking not after the Flefh, but after the Spirit, 
skip of a fudden into the mention of the Refurreftion of the Dead; and having juft mention'd 
it, skip back again into his former Argument. But I take the liberty to affare him, that 
St. Paul has no fu'ch Starts from the matter he has in hand, to what gives no Light or 
Strength to his prefent Argument. I think there is not any where to be found a more perti- 
nent clofe Arguer, who has his eye always on the Mark he drives at. This Men woiuld find, 
if they would Itudy him as they ought, with more Regard to' Divine Authority than to Hypo- 
thefes of their own, or to Opinions of the Seafon. I do not fay that he is every where clear 
in his Expreffions to us now : But I do fay he is every where a coherent, pertinent Writer ; 
and where-ever in his Commentators and Interpreters any Senfe is given to his Words, that 
disjoints his Difcourfe, or deviates from his Argument, and looks like a wandering Thought, it 
is eafy to know whofe it is, and whofe the Impertinence, his or theirs that father it on hinr. 
One thing more the Text fuggefts concerning this matter, and that is. If by quickning your 
mortal Bodies, &c. be meant here the raifing them into Life after Death, how can this be 
mentioned a? a peculiar Favour to thofe who have the Spirit of God ? For God will alfo raifer 
the Bodies of the Wicked, and as certainly as thofe of Believers. But that which is promifed 
here, is promifed to thofe only who have the Spirit of God: And therefore it muft be fome- 
thing peculiar to them, [viz.) that God fliall {o enliven their mortal Bodies by his Spirit, 
which is the Principle and Pledge of immortal Life, that they may be able to yield up them- 
felves to God, as thofe that are alive from the dead, and their Members Servants to Righteouf- 
nefs unto Holinefs, as he expreffes himfelf, chap.'wx. 13, and 19. If any one can yet doubt 
v.'hether this be the Meaning of St. Paul here, I refer him for farther Satisfadion to Sr. Paul 
himfelf, in Eph. xi. 4---6. where he will find the fame Notion of St. Paul exprefTcd in the 
fame Terms, but fo, th:.t it is impoffible to underftand by ?^eoo7niHV or iyti^^v (which are both 
ufed there as well as here) the Refurreftion of the dead out of their Graves. The full Expli- 
cation of this Verfe may be feen, Eph. i. 19. and ii. lO. See alfo Col. ii. 1 2, 13. to the fame: 
purpofe ; and Rsm. vii. 4. 

' Z&o7Tc/tW« Kj, Jhall quicken even your mortal Bodies, feems more agreeable to the Ori- 
ginal, tlun Jhall alfo qjdcken your mortal Bodies; for the ^ dgth not copulate ^uo7nii)7^ with 

P p i'iy.eic^fr 













made living Inrcruments of Righteoufnefs. 
Therefore Brethren, we are not under any 
Obligation to the Flcfn to obey the Lufts of it. 
For if ye live after the Flefh* that mortal part 
Ihall lead you to Death irrecoverable j but if 
by the Spirit, whereby Chrift totally lupprefFcd 
and hinder'd Sin from having any Life in his 
Flefh, you mortify the Deeds of the Body s, 
ye fhall have Eternal Life. For as many as are 
led by the Spirit of God, they are the Sons of 
God, of an immortal Race, and confequent- 
ly like their Father immortal ^ For ye have 
not receieed the Spirit of Bondage ^ again, 
^ to fear; but ye have received the ^ Spirit 
Ox' God, (which is given to thole who having 
receiv'd Adoption are Sons) whereby we are 
all enabled to call God our Father "'. The 
Spirit of God himfclf beareth witnefs " with 
our Spirits, that wc are the Children of God. 
And if Children, then Heirs of God, Joynt- 
heirs with Chrift, if \o be we fufFcr o with 
him, that we may alfo be glorified with him. 


Therefore, brethren, we 1 2 
are debtors not to the 
flelh, to live after the 

For if ye live after the 1 3 
flefh, ye fhall die : but if 
ye through the fpirit do 
mortify the deeds of the 
body, ye Ihall live. 

For as many as are led 1 4 
by the fpirit of God, they 
are the fons of God. 

For ye have not recei- 1 3 
ved the fpirit of bondage 
again to fear ; but ye have 
receiv^ed the fpirit of a. 
doption, ^vhereby we crv 
Abba, Father. 

The fpirit it " beareth 16 
witnefs with our fpirit, 
that we are the children 
of God. 

And if children, then 17 
heirs ; heirs of God, and 
joint-heirs with Chrift : if 
fo be that we fufter with 
him, that we may be alfo 
glorified together. 


lyei^af, for then it muft have been «J ^uoTniiniTH; for the place of the Copulative is between 
the two Words that it joins, and fo muft neceftarily go before the latter of them. 

13 s Deedj of the Body : what they are, may be feen. Gal. v. 19, {jV. as we have already re- 

14 •» In that lies the Force of his Proof, that they fliall live. The Sons of mortal Men are 
mortal, the Sons of God are like their Father, Partakers of the Divine Nature, and are immor- 
tal. Sec 2 Pet. i. 4. Hel/. ii. 13 — 15- 

15 ' What the Spirit of Bondage is, the Apoftle has plainly declared, Heb. ii. 15. See Note, 
ver. 21. 

^ J gain, i. e. Now again under Chrift, as the Jews did from Mofcs under the Law. 
' See Gal. iv. 5, 6. 

•" Abba, Father. The Apoftle here expreftes this filial AfTurancc in the fame words that our 
Saviour applies himfelf to God, Mark xiv. 36. 

16 " See the fame thing taught, 2 Cor. iv. 17. and v. 6. Epb.'i. 11 14. and Gal. 

iv. 6. 

17 ° The full Senfc of this you may take in St. PauTs, own Words, 2 Tim. ii, 11, 12. 



i3 For I reckon, that the 
fufterings of this prcfent 
time, are not worthy to 
be compared with the glo- 
ry which fliall be revealed 
in us. 

IQ For the earnefl: expefla- 
tion of the creature wait- 
eth for the manifcftation 
of the fons of God. 

20 For the creature w<is 
made fubjed to vanity, 
not willingly, but by rea- 
fon of him who hath fub- 
jeded the lame in hope : 

21 Becaufe the creature it 
felf alfo fliall be delivered 
from the bondage of cor- 



For I count that the Sufferings of (his tranfito- 
ry Life, bear no proportion to that glorious 
State that fhall be hereafter ^ revealed and 
fet before the Eyes of the whole World at our 
Admittance into it. For the whole Race of 
q Mankind, in an earnelt Expexlation of this 
unconceivable glorious ^ Immortality that 
fhall be beftowed on the ^ Sons of God (For 
Mankind created in a better State, was made 
fubjecl to the ^ Vanity of this calamitous 
fleeting: Life, not of its own Choice, but by 
the Guile of the Devil ", who brough Man- 
kind into this mortal State) Waiteth in hope 
^5 that even they alfo Ihall be delivered from 

NO rE S. 

1 8 P Revealed. St. Paul fpeaks of this Glory here, as what needs to be revealed to give us- 
a right Conception of it. It is impoflible to have a clear and full Comprehenfion of it till we 
tafte it. See how he labours for Words to cxprefs it, 2 Cor. iv. 17, i^c. a place to the fame 
purpofe with this here. 

19 "I K77cn<, Creature, in the Language of St. Paul, and of the New Teltament, fignifies 
Mankind; efpecially the Gentile World, as the far greater Part of the Creation. See Col. i. 23, 
Mark xvi. 15. compared with Matth. xxviii. 19. 

■• Immortality. That the thing here expeded was immortal Life, is plain from the Context, 
and from that parallel place, 2 Cor. iv. 17. and v, 5. the Glory whereof was fo great, that it 
could not be comprehended, till it was by an adual exhibiting of it revealed. When this Reve- 
lation is to be, St. Peter tells us, i Pet. i. 4-- 7. 

^ ' A-nnp-hv-^tv r i^wV, Rez^elatmi of the Sons, i. e. Revelation to the Sons. The Genitive Cafe 
often in the New Teftament denotes the Objeft. So Rom. i. 5. -^ctwYt m^ui fignifies Obedi- 
ence to Faith : Chap. iii. 22. J/kcujctluj'h :&tS eOst tttj^w? 7>S>'^^' ^"^ Right eoufiiefs that God ac- 
cepts ly Faith in^ ChriJI : Chap, iv.^ii. JiHcutcwl)] tti^.cjc, jtighteoufnefs by Faith. I'i hj7nvJ.K\,-i^i 
here be render'd Revelation, as k-Tny^y^vz^htMcfj in the foregoing Verfe is render'd revealed, 
(and 'twill be hard to find a Reafon why it fhould not) the Senie in the Paraphrafe w'lW be 
very natural and eafy. For the Revelation in the foregoing Verfe is not of, but to the Sons 
of God. The Words are ^im!r,a.> vtp^Uxca h< ^/Mi. 

20 ' The State of Man in this frail fhort Life, fubjefl; to Inconveniencies, Sufh^rings, and 
Death, may very well be called Vanity, compared to the impaffible Eftate of eternal Life, the 
Inheritance of the Sons of God. 

• Devil. That by he th-at fubjcaed it, is meant the Devil, is probable from the Hifloiy, 
Cen. iii. and from Hel/. ii. 14, 15. Col. ii. i :;. . 

21 ^ \\7nAJr'^.Jj W \h-mh (.77, Waiteth in hope; that the not joining /// hope to waiteth, by 
placing it in the beginning of the 21II Verfe, as it ftands in the Greek, but joining it to/; z^- 
jeaed thefajne, by placing it at the end of the 20th Verie, has mightily obfcurcd the Meaning- 
of this Paflage ; which taking all the Words betv/een of God and in hope for a Parcnthefis, is as 
cafy and clear as. anv thing can be, and then the next word 077 will have its proper Signification. 
that, and not kca-iji. 

P p 2 this 










this Subjedion to Corruption y, and fhall be 
brought into that glorious Freedom from Death 
which is the. proper Inheritance of the Chil- 
dren of God. For we know that Mankind, 
all ^ of them, groan together, and unto this day 
are in pain, as a Woman in Labour, to be de- 
livered out of the Uneafinefs of this mortal 
State. And not only they, but even thofe 
who have the firft Fruits of the Spirit, and 
therein the Earneft ^ of eternal Life, we our 
felves groan ^ within our felves, waiting for 
the Fruit of our Adoption, which is, that as 
we are by Adoption made Sons, and Coheirs 
with Jefus Chrift, fo we may have Bodies like 
unto his moft glorious Body, fpiritual and im- 
mortal. But we muft wait with Patience, for 
we have hitherto been laved but in Hope and 
Expe6lation : But Hope is of things not in prc- 
fent Pofleflion or Enjoyment. For what a 
Man hath, and feeth in his ow^n hands, he no 
longer hopes for. But if we hope for what is 
out of fight, and yet to come, then do we 
with Patience wait for it ^. Such therefore 
are our Groans, which the Spirit in aid to our 


>' ^\iKHct ^ (p^fjf.<, Bofidage of Corruption, i. e. the Fear of Death; fee ver. 15. and Heb. ii. 
15. Corruption fignifies Death or Deftruftion, in oppofition to Life cvcrlafting. See 
Gul. vi. 8. 

22 ^ How David groaned under the Vanity and Shortnefs of this Life, may be feen, 
PJal. Ixxxix. 47, 48. which Complaint may be met with in every Man's Mouth ; fo that even 
thofe who have not the firll Fruits of the Spirit, ivhereby they are afTured of a future happy 
Life in Glory, do alfo defire to be freed from a Subjeflion to Corruption, and have uneafy Long- 
ings after Immortality. 

23 » See 2 Cor. v. 2, 5. Eph. i. 13, 14. 

^ Read the parallel Place, 2 Cor. iv. 17. and v. 5. 

25 " What he fays here of Hope, is to fhew them, that the Groaning in the Children of 
God before fpoken of, was not the Groaning of Impatience, but fuch wherewith the Spi- 
rit of God makes Intciceflion for usj better than if we exprelTed our felves in Words, vcr. 
*9 23. 



niption, into the glorious 
liberty of the children of 

For we know that the 22 
whole creation groaneth 
and travelleth in pain to- 
gether unt'.l now : 

And not only they, biit 23 
our lelves alfo, which 
have the firfl: fruits of the 
fpirit, even we our felves 
groan within our felves, 
waiting for the adoption, 
to wit, the redemption of 
our body. 

For we are faved by 24 
hope : but hope that is 
feen, is not hope : for 
what a man feeth, why 
doth he yet hope for ? 

But if we hope for that 25 
we fee not, then do we 
with patience wait for it. 

Likewile the fpirit alfo 26 
helpelh our infirmities 
for we know not what 





Ch. VIII. 

wc fhould pray for as ^ve 
. ought : but the fpirit itfelf 
maketh interceflion for us 
v/ith groanings which can- 
not be uttered. 
'27 And he that fearcheth 
the hearts, knoweth what 
is the mind of the fpirit, 
becaufe he maketh inter- 
ccffion for the faints, ac- 
cording to the will of God. 

28 And we know that all 
things work together for 
good to them that love 
God, to them who are the 
called according to his 

29 For whom he did fore- 
know, he alfo did prede- 
llinate to be conformed 
to the image of his Son, 
that he might be the firft- 
born among many bre- 

30 Moreover, whom he 
did predeftinate, them -he 
alfo called : and whom he 
called, them he alfo jufti- 
fied ; and whom he juftl- 
fied, them he alfo glori- 

Infirmity makes ufe of. For we know not 
what Prayers to make as we ought, but the 
Spirit it felf layeth for us our Requefts before 
God in Groans that cannot be ex:prefled in 
Words. And God the Searcher of Hearts, 
who underftandeth this Language of the Spi- 
rit, knoweth what the Spirit would have, be- 
caule the Spirit is wont to made Interceilion 
for the Saints ^ acceptably to God. Bear 
therefore your Sufferings with Patience and 
Conftancy, for we certainly know, that all 
things work together for good to thole that 
love God, who are the Called according to his 
purpofe of calling the Gentiles ^. In which 
purpofe the Gentiles, whom he fore-knew as 
he did the Jews ^, with an Intention of Kind- 
nefs, and of making them his People, he pre- 
ordained to be conformable to the Image of 
his Son, that he might be the firft-born, the 
chief amongft many Brethren s. Moreover, 
whom he did thus pre-ordain to be his People, 
them he alfo called, by fending Preachers of 
the Gofpel to them : And whom he called if 
they obey'd the Truth ^, thofe he alfo jvSi • 
fied, by counting their Faith for Righteoui- 





N r E s. 

27 ^ The Spirit promifed in the Time of the Gofpel, is called the Spirit of Supplicationa, 
Zacb. xii. 10. 

28 = Which Purpofe was declared to Abrahaniy Gen. xviii. 18. and is largely infilled on by 

St. Paul, Eph. iii. i 11. This, and the Remainder of this Chapter, feems faid 10 confirm 

the Gentile Converts in the Affurance of the Favour and Love of God to them through Chrift, 
tho' they were not under the Law. 

29 ^ See cb/jp. xi. 2. Amos iii. 2. 
E See Eph. i. 3 7. 

30 ^ Mafiy are called, and few are chofen, fays our Saviour, Matth. xx. 16. Many, both 
Jews and Gentiles, were called, that did not obey the Call. And therefore, ver. 32. 'tis thofe 
who are chofen, who he faith are juftified, i, e. fuch as were called, and obey'd, and confe- 
^uently were chofen. 



Ch. VIII. 



nefs : And whom he juftificd, them he alfo 
glorified, viz, in his purpofe. What fhall we 
fay then to thefe things ? If God be for us, as 
by what he has already done for us it appears 
he is, who can be againffc us? He that Ipared 
not his own Son, but delivered him up to 
Death for us all, Gentiles as well as Jews, how 
fliall he not with him alfo give us all things ? 
Who fhall be the Profecutor of thole whom 
God hath chofen ? Shall God who juftifieth 
them ' ? Who as Judge fhall condemn them? 
Chrift that died for us, yea rather that is rifen 
again for our Juftification, and is at the right 
Hand of God, making Interceflion for us ? 
Who fhall feparate us from the Love of Chrift ? 
Shall Tribulation, or Diftrcfs, or Perfecution, 
or Famine, or Nakednefs, or Peril, or Sword? 
3^ For this is our Lot, as it is written, For thy fake 
we are hilled all the day long^ we are accounted as 
Sheep for the Slaughter. Nay in all thefe things 
we are already more than Conquerors by the 
Grace and AiTiftance of him that loved us. 
For I am ftcadily perfwaded, that neither 
the Terrors of Death, nor the Allurements of 
Life, nor Angels, nor the Princes and Powers 
of this World j nor things prefent j nor any 

N r B S. 









What fhall we then dy 
to thefe things ? if God 
be for us, who can be a- 
gainil us ? 

He that fpared not his 32 
own fon, but delivered 
him up for us all, how 
fhall he not with him alfo 
freely give us all things ? 

Who fliall lay any thing ; :^ 
to the charge of God's 
ele£l ? It is God that julli- 
ficth ; 

Who is he that con- ■ia 
demneth ? It is Chrirt that 
died, yea rather that is ri- 
fen again, who is even at 
the right hand of God, 
who alfo maketh intercefli- 
on for us. 

Who fhall feparate us 35 
from the love of Chrift ? 
fhall tribulation, or di- 
flrefs, or perfecut'on, or 
famine, or nakednefs, or 
peril, or fword ? 

(As it is written, For ^5 
thy fake we are killed all 
the day long ; we are ac- 
counted as flieep for the 

Nay, in all thefe things 5^ 
we are more than conque- 
rors, through him that 
loved us. 

For I am pcrfuaded, 5^ 
that neither death, nor life, 
nor angels, nor principa- 
lities, nor pov/crs, nor 
things prefent, nor things 
to come. 

3-3 ' Reading this with an Interrogation, makes it needlefs to add any Words to tlie Text 
to make out the Senfe, and is more conformable to the Scheme of his Ai-g-umentatioa here, as 
appears by ver. 35. where the Interrogation cannot be avoided; and is as it were an Appeal to 
them themfelves to be Judges, whether any of thofe things he mentions to them (reckoning up 
thofe Vv'hich had moft Po^ver to hurt them) could give them juft Caufe of Apprehenfion, If'ho 
Jhall accufe you ? Jhall God zvho jujiifies you? Who pall condemn you ? Chrijl tkat died for you ? 
What can be more abfurd than fuch an Imagination ^ 


ROMANS. zpt; 

. Chap. IX. 


fliaii be able to feparate nor the depth ot Mifery ; nor any thing elfe 
whi^^"]s'S^Chrii[M:t vvhatlbever fl.all be able to feparate us from 
our Lord. ^hc I.ove of God which IS in Chrift Jefus our 



CHAP. IX. I.— X, 21. 


THere was nothing more grating and ofFenfive to the JewsJ 
than the Thoughts of having the Gentiles joyn*d with them, 
and partake equally in the Privileges and Advantages of the King- 
dom of the Mefliah : And which was yet worfe, to be told that 
thole Aliens fliould be admitted, and they who prefumed them- 
felves Children of that Kingdom to be Ihut out. St. <^aul who 
had infiftcd much on this Dodrine, in all the foregoing Chapters 
of this Epiftle, to fhew that he had not done it out of any Averlion 
or Unkindnels to his Nation and Brethren the Jews, does here ex- 
prefs his great Affection to them, and declares an extream Concern 
for their Salvation. But withal he fhews, that whatever Privi- 
leges they had received from God above other Nations, whatever 
Expe£lation the Promifes made to their Forefathers might raife ia 
them, they had yet no juft Reafon of complaining of God's deal- 
ing with them now under the Gofpel, fince it was according to his 
Promife to Abraham^ and his frequent Declarations in Sacred Scrip- 
ture. Nor was it any Injuftice to the Jewilh Nation, if God by 
the fame Sovereign Power wherewith he preferred Jacob (the 
younger Brother, without any Merit of his) and his Pofterity to be 
his People, before Jijaii and his Pofterity whom he rejedcd. The 
Earth is all his ; nor have the Nations that poffcfs it any Title of 
their own, but what he gives them, to the Countries they inha- 
bit, nor lo the good things they enjoy, and he may difpoiTcfs or 




Chap. IX. exterminate them when he pleafeth. And as he deftroy'd the 
,>^VN^ Egyptia}2s for the Glory of his Name, in the Deli\rerance of the 7/- 
raelitesj fo he may according to his good pleafure raife or deprels, 
take into Favour or reject the feveral Nations of this World. And 
particularly as to the Nation of the Jews, all but a fmall Remnant 
were rejeded^ and the Gentiles taken in, in their room, to be the 
People and Church of God, becaufe they were a gainlaying and 
difobcdient People, that would not receive the Mefliah, whom he 
had promifed, and in the appointed time lent to them. He that 
will with moderate Attention and Indifferency of Mind read this 
Ninth Chapter, will fee that what is faid of God's exercifing of an 
abfolute Power, according to the good pleafure of his Will, relates 
only to Nations or Bodies Politick of Men incorporated in civil So- 
cieties, which feel the Effects of it only in the Profperity or Calamity 
they meet with in this World, but extends not to their eternal 
State in another World, eonfider'd as particular Peribns, wherein 
they ftand each Man by himfclf upon his own bottom, and fhall fo 
anfwer feparately at the Day of Judgment. They may be punifh- 
ed here with their Fellow-Citizens, as part of a fmfal Nation, and 
that be but temporal Chaftifement for their Good, and yet be ad- 
vanced to eternal Life and Blifs in the World to come. 


IAs a Chriftian fpeak Truth, and my Con- T ^ 
fcience, guided and enlighten'd by the Ho- ence 

Say the truth in Chrift. j 
lie not, my confci- 
_ alfo hearing me wit- 

^ . iy Ghoft, bears me witnefs. That I lie not in "^'\'" '^<^ ^o'y ^hoit, 

my Profeffion of great Heavinefs and continual vinefs'and ^ontS for- ' 

^ Sorrow of Heart, I could even wifh that '^ the row in my heart. 

Deftruflion and Extermination to which my ^/"U- Tv-"wed ^ 

Brethren the Jews are devoted by Chrift, ^^m Chrift for my bre- 

might, if it could favc them from Ruin, be dirs";oThetm:"'''°" 
executed on me in the Head of thole my Kinf- 

iv r £ .s-. 

3/ 'Aret^^, arcf/rfeJ, ^ZZm, which the Septuagint render yt?/?^//^m/7, flgnifies Perfonsor 
Thing, devoted to btllruaion aad Extermination. The Jewifh Nation were now an Anathema, 
d^lhnd to De!Uua:on. St. Paul to exprefs his Affertion to them, fays, he could wifli to favc; 
tiiemiiomit, to become an Anathema, and be dellroy'd himfelf, 



ROMANS. 2^7 

Chap. IX" 


^ Who are ifraeiites ; to men after the Flefh ; Who are Ifraelttes^ a Na- 

loX' -d"t gt.;; tion dignified with thefe Privileges, which 

and the covenants, and were peculiar to them. Adoption, whereby 4 

.t O=°of ' God? :nd they were in a particular manner the Softs 6f 

thepromifes; God ^ \ The Glory "^ of the Divine Pre- 

5 y^r^'V^ *^^ ^'*'''''' fence amoneft them. Covenants " made be- 

and of whom as concern- o _ 

ing the flefh, Chrift came, twccn them and the great God ot Heaven and 

fldforever^AiSjf^^'^' Earth. The moral Law o, a Conftitution 

6 Not as though the word of Civil Government, and a Form of Divine 
of God hath taken none Worlhip prcfcribcd by God himfclf, and all 
aii^irraei,°'^which ^are^of the Promifes of the Old Teftamcnt, had the _ 
Ifraei: Patriarchs to whom the Promifes were made 

for their Fore-fathers P ; And of them as to 
his flefhiy Extraftion Chrilt is come, he who 
is over all, God be blefied for ever, Amen. I 6" 
commiferate my Nation for not receiving the 
promifed Meffiah now he is come, and I fpeak 
of the great Prerogatives they had from God 
above other Nations-, but 1 lay not this as if 
it were poflible that thePromife of Godfhould 
fail of Performance, and not have its effed ^. 
But it is to be obferved for a right underftand- 
ing of the Promife, that the fole Defcendants 
of Jacob or Ifrael do not make up the wholes 

N r E S, 

4 ' Adoption, Exod. iv. 22. Jer. xxxi. 9. 

"" Glor^y which was prcfent with the Ifraeiites, and appear'd to them in a great fliining 
Brightnefs out of a Cloud. Some of the Places which mention it are thefe following, Exod. 
xiii. z\. Lev. ix. 6. and xxiii. 24. Numb. xvi. 42. 2 Chron. vii. i — 3. Ezek.n.^. andxUii. 2,3. 
compared with chap. i. 4, 28. 

n Covenants. See Gen. xvii. 4. Exed. xxxiv. 27. 

*" Nci^tw^tfTTrt, The giving of the Law, whether it fignifies the extraordinary giving of the 
Law by God himfelf, or the exaft Conftitution of their Government in the moral and judidal 
Part of it (for the next word Ka^eiat., Service of God, feems to comprehend the religions Wor- 
fhip) this is certain, that in either of thefe Senfes it was the peculiar Privilege of the Jews, and 
what no other Nation could pretend to. 

5 P Fathers ; who they were, fee Exod. iii. 6, 16. A8s vii. 32. 

6 s See chap. iii. 3. JVord of God, i. e. Promife, fee ver. 9. 

Q^q Nation 






Nation of Ifrael % or the People of God 
comprehended in the Promife ; Nor are they 
who are the. Race of Jhrahcim all Children, 
but only his Pofterity by Ifaac^ as it is faid, In 
Ifaac Ihail thy Seed be called : That is, the 
Children of the Flefh defcendcd out of Jbra- 
ham's Loins, are not thereby the Children of 
God % and to be efteemed his People ; but 
the Children of the Promife, as Ifaac was, are 
alone to be accounted his Seed. For thus runs 
the Word of Promife, Jt this time I will come 
and Sarah pall have a Son. Nor was this the on- 
ly Limitation of the Seed of Abraham^ to whom 
the Promife bclong'd, but alfo when Rebecca 
had conceived by that one oi Jhraham's liTue 
to whom the Promife was made,, viz. our Fa- 
ther 7/^w^, and there were Twins in her Womb, 
of that one Father, before the Children were 
born, or had done any Good or Evil S ^^ 



Neither becaufe they 
are the feed of Abraham, 
are they all children : but 
in Ifaac fhall thy feed be 

That is. They which 
are the children of the 
flefli, thefe are not the 
children of God : but the 
children of the promife 
are counted for the feed. 

For this is the word of 
promife, At this time will 
I come, and Sarah fliall 
have a fon. 

And not only this, but 
when Rebecca alfo had 
conceived by one, even 
by our father Ifaac, 

{ For the children being 
not yet born, neither Jia- 

»■ Bee chap. iv. 16. St. Paul ufes this as a Reafon to prove that the Promife of God failed." 
not to have its Effed, though the Body of the Jewifh Nation rcjefled Jefiis Chriil, and were 
therefore nationally rejeftcd by God from being any longer his People. The Reafon he gives 
for it is this, That the Pofterity of Jaco^ or //rae/ were not thofe alone Avho were to make 
that //rae/, or that chofcn People of God, which were intended in the Promife made to J/>ra- 
ham; others befides the Dcfccndants of Jacob were to be taken into this Ifrael, to conftitute 
the People of God under the Gofpel : and therefore the calling and coming in of the Gentiles 
was a fulfilling of that Promife. And then he adds in the next. Vcrfe, that neither were all 
the Potkrity of ^^r^?/^/?;// comprehended in that Promife; fo that thofe who were taken in, in 
the Time of the Mefliah, to make the Ifrael oi God, were not t.ikcn in, becaufe they were the 
natural Defcendants from Abraham, nor did the Jews claim it for all his Race. And this his 
proves by the Limitation of the Promife to Abraham\ Seed by Ifaac only. All this he docs to 
iliew the Right of the Gentiles to that Promife, if they believed :. fince that Promife concern- 
ed not only the natural Defcendants cither oi Abraham ox Jacob, but all thofe who were of 
the Faith of their Father Abraham, of whomfoever defcended; fee chap. iv. 11 — 17.. 

8 ^ Children of Cod, i. c. People of God, fee ver. 26. 

1 1 < 'Neither having dofie good or evil. ■ Thcfc Words, may poifibly have been added by 
St. f/^c/ to the foregoing (which may perhaps feem full enough of thcmfclves) the more ex- 
prefsly to obviate an Objcftion of the Jews, who might be ready to fay, that Efau was rciedcd 
becaufe he was wicked; as they, did of Ifhmael, that he was rejected becaufe lie was the Son of 




ving done any good or e- 
vil, that the piirpofe of 
God according to ele<ftion 
might Hand, not of works, 
but of him that calleth) 

It was faid unto her. 
The elder fhall ferve the 

As it is written, Jacob 
have I loved, but Efau 
have I hated. 

What fhall we fay then ? 
Is there unrighteoufnefs 
with God? God forbid. 

For he faith to Mofcs, 
I will have mercy on 
whom I will have mer- 
cy, and I will have com- 



fhevv that his making any Stock or Race of 
Men his peculiar People, depended Iblcly on 
his own Parpofe and good Pleaiure in chufing 
and calling them, and not 0:1 any Works or 
Delerts of theirs ; he ading here in the Cafe of 
Jacob and Efau., according to the Predetermina- 
tion of his own Choice, it was declared unto 
her, that there were two Nations " in her 
Womb, and that the Defcendants of the Elder 
Brother fliould ferve thofe of the Younger, as 
it is written, Jacob have I loved '^, fo as to 
make his Pofterity my chofen People ; and Efaii^ 
I put fo much behind him y, as to lay his 
Mountains and his Heritage wafte ^ What 
Ihall we fay then, is there any Injuftice with 
God in chufing one People to himlelf before 
another, according to his good pleafure ? By 
no means. My Brethren, the Jews themfelves 
cannot charge any fuch thing on what I fay, 
fince they have it from Mofes himfelf % that 


Chap. IX. 





!2 " See Gen xxv> 23. And it was only in a national Senfe that it is there fxid, The Elder 
Jhdll ferve the Younger, and not perfonally, for in that Senfe it is not true j which makes it plain, 
that thefe Words, cvr. 

13 ^ Jacob have I loved, and Efau have I hated, are to-be taken in a national Senfe, for the 
Preference God gave to the Pofterity of one of them to be his People, and poUefs the promifed 
Land before the other. What this Love of God was, fee Dcut. vii. 6 —8. 

>■ Hated. When it is ufed in facreJ Scripture, as it is often comparatively, it figniiies only to 
polipone in our Elleem or Kindnefs ; for this I need only give that one Example, Luke xiv. 
26. fee Mai. i. 2, 3. 

•' From the 7th to this 13th Verfe proves to the Jews, that though the Promife was made to 
Abraham and his Seed, yet it was not to all Abraharri's Pofterity, but God firft chofe Ifaac and 
his Iluie: And then again of Ifaac, (who was but one of the Sons of Abraham) when Rebecca 
had conceived Twins by him, God of his fole good pleafure chofe Jacob the younger, and his 
Pofterity, to be his peculiar People, and to enjoy the Lsnd of Promile. 

15 » See Exod. xxxiii. 19. It is obfcrvablc that the Apoftle, arguing here with the Jews, to 
vindicate the Juftice of God in cafting them oft-" from being his People, ufes three forts of Ar- 
gun\ents; the firft is the Tcftimony of Mofes, of God's alferting this to himfelf by the Right 
Of his Sovereignty ; and this was enough to ftop the Mouths of the Jews. The fecond from 
Rcafon, z'Cr. 19—24. and the third from his Frediitions of it to the Jews, and the Warning. 
he gave them of it before-hand, vcr. 2y-2(). which we fliall confider in their places. 

ciq i 



Chap. IX. 







paffion on whom I will 
have compaffion. 

So then it is not of him 16 
that willeth, nor of him 
that runneth, but of God 
that fheweth mercy. 

For the fcripture faith 
unto Pharaol;, Even for 
this fame purprf? have I 
raifed thee up, that I 
might fhew my po.'^'cr in 
thee, and that my name 
might be declared through- 
out all the earth. 

Therefore hath he mer- 
cy on whom he will have 

God declared to him that he would be graci- 
ous to whom he would be gracious ; and 
fliew Mercy on whom he would fhew Mer- 
cy. So then neither the purpofe of Ifaac 
who defigned it for Efau^ and willed ^ him 
to prepare himfelf for it \ Nor the Endeavours 
of Efau^ who ran a hunting for Venifon to 
come and receive it, could place on him the 
Blefling ^ but the Favour of being made in his 
Pofterity a great and prolperous Nation, the 
peculiar People of God, preferr'd to that which 
fhould delcend from his Brother, was bellow- 
ed on Jacob by the mere Bounty and good 
Pleafure of God himfelf. The like hath Mofes 
left us upon Record of God's Dealing with 
'Pharaoh and his Subjects the People of Egypt y 
to whom God faith ^ , Even for this Ja?ne pur- . 
pofe have I raifed thee up, that I jnight fhew my 
'\Power hi thee, and that my l^lame might be re- 
nowned through all the Earth. ^ Therefore 
that his Name and Power may be made 
known and taken notice of in the World, he 
is kind and bountiful « to one Nation, and 
lets another go on obftinately in their Oppofiti- 
on to him, that his taking them off by fome 
fignal Calamity and Ruin brought on them by 


16 ^ Willeth T^nA rufjneth, confider'd with the Context, plainly direfls us to the Storj', Gen. 
xxvii. where, vcr. 3-- 5. we read Ifaach Purpofe, and Ej'auh going a hunting: and ver. 28, 29. 
v.'e find whr.t the BleiEng was. 

1 7 -^ Exod. ix. 1 6. 

18 ^ Therefore. That his Name and Power may be made known, and taken notice of in all 
the Earth, he is kind and bountiful to one Nation, and lets another go on in their Oppoiition 
and Obilinacy againft him, till their taking off, by fome fignal Calamuy and Ruin brought on 
them, may be itzn and acknowledged to be the Effeft of their ftanding out againft God, as in 
the Cafe of Pharoah. 

'■ EAt£^, Hath Mercy. That by this Word is meant being bountiful in his outward Difpen- 
f^tions of Power, Greatnefs, and Protcti^ion to one People above another, is plain from the 
tUrec preceding Verks. 




mercy, and whom he will, 
he hardneth. 

19 Thou wilt fay then un- 
to me, Why doth he yet 
find fault: For who hath 
refilled his will? 

20 Nay, but O man, who 
art thou that replieft a- 
gainft God ? fhall the 
thing formed fay to him 
that formed it. Why haft 
thou made me thus ? 



the vifible Hand of his Providence, may be 
^Q^vi and acknowledged to be an Effect of their 
ftanding out againfthim, as in thcCafeof -:/^/;j- 
raoh: For this end he is bountiful to whom he 
will be bountiful, and whom he will he per- 
mits to make fuch an Uie of his Forbearance 
towards them, as to perfift obdurate in their 
Provocation of him, and draw on themfelves 
exemplary Deftruction ^. To this Ibme may 
be ready to fay, Why then does he find fault ? 
For who at any time hath been able to refill 
his Will ? Say you fo indeed ? But who art 
thou, O Man, that replyeft thus to God ? 
Shall the Nations g that are made great or 



t^ r E s. 

f Hardens. That God's hardening fpoke of here is what we have explain'd it in the Para- 
phrafe, is plain in the Inftance of Pharaoh, given ver. \y. as may be (ttn in that Story, Ex- 

od. vii xiv. which is worth the reading, for the underftanding of this place : See alfo 

ver, 22. 

20 ? Here St. Pr.r/l fhews that the Nations of the World, who are by a better Ri^ht in the 
Hands and Difpofal of God, chan the Clay in the Power of the Potter, may, wi^thout any 
queftion of his Jullice, be made great and glorious, or be pulled down, and brought into Con- 
tempt as he pleafes. That he here fpsaks of Men nationally, and not perfonally, in reference 
to their eternal State, is evident not only from the beginning of this Chapter, where he ihews 
his Concern for the Nation of the Jews being call oii from being God's People, and the In- 
Ihnces he brings of Ifaac, oi Jacob and Efau, md of Pharaoh ; but it appears alfo very clearly 
in the Verfes immediately follov/ing, whereby the Vejfels of Wrath Jilted for Defn/siion, he 
manifeftly means the Nation of the Jews, w^ were now grown ripe, and fit for the Deflrudion 
he was bringing upon them. And by VeffeL of Mercy the Chriftian Church, g.nther'd out of a- 
fmall Colkaion of Convert Jews, and the reft made up of the Gentiles, who together we-e 
from thence-forwards to be the People of God in the room of the Jevvifh Nation, now caft off 
as appears by ver. 24. The Senfe of which Verfes is this : " How dareft thou, O Man, to 
♦' call God to account, and queftion his Jullice in cafting oii" his ancient People the Jews ;' what 
" if God willing to pnnifh that finful People, and to do it fo as to have his Power known, 
" and taken notice of in the doing of it : ( For why might he not raife them to t!iat Purpo'c 
'< as well as he did Pharaoh rnd his Egyptians) ; what, I fay, if God bore with them a lone- 
" time, even after they had delcrved his Wrath, as he did with Pharaoh, that his Hand might 
" be the more eminently vifiole in their Deftruclion ? /\nd that alfo at the fnne time he might 
" with the mftre Glory make known his Goodnefs and Mercy to the Gentiles, whom, accord- 
" ing to his Purpofe, he was in a Rcadinefs ro receive into the glorious State of bc'i" his 
•» People under the GofpcL" "" '^ 






little, ftiall Kingdoms that are raifed or dc- 
prefled, fay to him in whole hands they are, to 
dilpofe of them as he pleafes, Why halt thou 
made me thus ? Hath not the Potter Power 
over the Clay of the fame Lump, to make this 
a Veflel of Honour, and that of Dilhonour ^^ ? 
But what haft thou to lay, O Manof J//^^</, if 
God wilUng to fliew his Wrath, and have his 
Power taken notice of in his Execution of it, 
did with much long fuffering \ bear with 



Hath not the potter z\ 
power over the clay, of 
the fame lump to make 
one velTel unto honour, 
and another unto diflio- 
nour ? 

What if God willing zz 
to fiicw his wrath, and to 
make his power known, 
endured with much long- 
fu fleering the vefTels of 
^vrath fitted to deftrudi- 


21 ^ Vejj'el mito Honour, and Vcjel unto Dljhonour, fignifies a thing defigned by the Maker tc) 
ari honourable or difhonourablc Ufe : Now why it may not defign Nations as well as Per"- 
fons, and Honour and Profperity in this World, as well as eternal Happinefs and Glory, or Mi- 
fery and Punifhment in the World to come, I do not fee. In common Reafon this figurative 
Expreflion ought to follow the Senfe of the Context : And J fee no peculiar Privilege it hath 
to wreil and turn the vifiblc Meaning of the Place to fomething remote from the Subject in 
hand. I am fure no fuch Authority it has from fuch an appropriated Senfe fettled in facred 
Scripture. This were enough to clear the Apoftle's Senfe in thcfe Words, were there nothing 
elfe ; but Jer. xviii- 6, 7. from whence this Initance of a Potter is tal;en, fliews them to have 
a temporal Senfe, and to relate to the Nation of the Jews. 

22 ' Endured with f?iuch long- fuffering. Immediately after the Inftancc of Pharaoh, whom 
God faid he raifed up to fhew his Power in him, cw. 17. 'tis fubjoin'd, cvr. 18. and whom he 
will he hardeneth, plainly with reference to the Story of Pharaoh, who is faid to harden him- 
felf, and whom God is faid to harden, as may be feen Exod. vii. 3, 22, 23. and viii. 15, 32. 
and ix. 7, 12, 34. and X. 1, 20, 27. and xi. 9, lO. and xiv. 5. What God's Part in hardening 
is, is contained in thefe Words, endured with much long-f'ffering. God fends Mofcj to Pharaoh 
with 5/^;?/ ; Pharaoh\ Magicians do the like, and fo he is not prevailed with. God fends 
Plagues ; whilll the Plague is upon him, he is mollified, and promifes to let the People go : 
But as foon as God takes oft* the Plague, he returns to his Obftinacy, and refufes, and thus 
over and over again; God's being intreatcd by him to withdraw the Severity of his Hand, 
his gracious Compliance with Pharaohh Defirc to have tlie Punidiment removed, was what 
God did in the Cafe, and this was all Goodnefs and Bounty. But Pharaoh and his People 
made that ill Ufe of his Forbearance and Lohg-fufFering, as ftill to harden themfelves the 
more for God's Mercy and Gcntlenefs to them, till they bring on themfelves exemplary 
Deftrudlion from the vifible Power and Hand of God employ'd in it. This Carriage of 
theirs God fofefaw, and fo made ufe of their obilinate, perverfe Temper for his own 
Glory, as he himfelf declares, Exod. vii. 3- ■■ c;. ahd viii. 18. and ix. 14, 16. The Apoftle, 
by the Inllance of a Potter's Power over his Clay, having dcmonllrated, that God by his Do- 
minion and Sovereignty, had a Right to fet up or pull down what Nation he pleafcd ; and 
might, without any InjulHce, take one Race into his particular Favour to be his peculiar 
People, or rejcft them, as he thought fit, does in this Verfe apply" it to tlic Subjcvft in hand, 
{viz ) the calling off of the Jcwilh Nation, whereof he Ipeaks here in Terms that plainly 




And that he might maice thc finful Nation of the Jcws, cvcn whcii they 

gw"of St: A 'of were proper Objeas of that Wrath, fit to have 

mercy, which he had afore it pourcd out upon them in their Deftrudion ; 

prepared unto glory? rj^j^^^ k he might make koown the Riches of 23 

bven us whom he iiath o j 

called, not of the Jews his Glory ^ On thofe whom, being Objeds of 
only, but alfo. of the Gen- jhis Mercy, he had before prepared to Glory ? E- 

Ycn us Chriftians, whom he hath alio called, not ^4 

iv r £ S. 

make a Parallel between this and his dealing with the Egyptians, mentioned vcr. 17, and there- 
fore that Story will beft explain thisVerfe, that thence will receive its full Light. For it feems 
a fomewhat flrarige fort of reafoning, to fiy, God to flie\v his Wrath, endured with much 
Long faffering thofe who deferred his Wrath, and were fit for Deftruflion. But he that will 
read in Exodus, God's dealing with Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and how God palled over Pro- 
vocation upon Provocation, and patiently endured thofe who by their firfl Refufal, nay by their 
former Cruelty and Oppreffion of the Ifraelites, deferved his Wrath, and were fitted for De- 
ftruftion, that in a more fignal Vengeance on the Egyptians, and glorious Deliverance of the 
Ifraelites, he might (hew his Power, and make himfelf be taken notice of, will eafily fee the 
llrong and eafy Senfe of this and the following Verfe. 

23 ^ Kcuhct, And that: The Vulgate has not And, and there arc Greek MS S. that juflify 
that Omilhon, as well as the Senfe of the Place, which is difturb'd by the Conjunftion And.. 
For with that reading it runs thus ; And God, that he might make hiozun the Riches of his Glory y. 
(s'c. A learned Paraphraft, both againft the Grammar and Senfe of the place, by his own Au- 
thority adds, _/?»^wV mercy, where the facred Scripture is lilent, and fays no fuch thing; by 
■which way we may make it fay any thing. If a Verb were to be inferted here, 'tis evident it mult 
fome way or other anfwer to endured in the foregoing Verfe ; but fuch an one will not be eafy 
to be found that will fuit here.. And indeed there is no need of iirj for and being left out, the 
Senfe, fuitable to St. PauTs Argument, here runs plainly and fmoothly thus; What have yoii 
Jews to complain of, for God's rejeBing you from being any longer his People, and giving you up to 
be over-run and fubjeiied by the Gentiles, and his taking them in his People in your room ? He 
has as much Power over the Nations oj the Earth, to make fome of than mighty and fourijhing,. 
and others mean and weak, as a Potter has over his Clay, to make what fort of Vefjels he pleafes 
ef any Part of it. This you cannot deny. God might from the beginning have made you afmally. 
neglefled People : But he did not ; he made you the Pojlerity of Jacob, a greater and mightier Peo- 
ple than the Poferitj of his elder Brother Efau ; and made you alfo his ozon People, plentifully 
provided for in the Land of Promife. Nay, when your frequent Revolts and repeated Provocations- 
bad made you ft fr Dejlruilion, he with Long-fuffering forbore you, that tiozv, tinder the Gofpelf. 
executing his Wrath on you, he might manifeji his Glory on us zuhom he hath called to be his People^, 
confijiing of a f mall Remnant ofjezus, and of Converts out of the Gentiles, zuhom he had prepared 
for this Glory, as he had foretold by the Prophets Hofea and Ifaiah. This is plainly St. Paul's 
Meaning, That God dealt as is defcribed, ver. 22. with the Jczvs, that he might manifell his 
Glory on the Gentiles', for fo he declares over and over again, Chap. xi. ver. 11,12, 15, 19, 20, 
28, 30. 

' Make knoivn the Riches of his Glory on the Veffels of Mercy. St. Paul, in a parallel' 
place, Col. i. has fo fully cxplain'd thefe Words, that he that will read vcr. 17. of that 
Chapter with the Context there, can be in no m.mner of doubt what St. Paul means> 



Chap. IX. 









only of the Jews, but alio of the Gentiles, as 
he hath declared in Ofee : I will call them my 
people^ who were not my people^ and her beloved^ 
who was not beloved. Jnd itjljall come to pajs^ that 
hi the place where it wasjaid unto them^ Ye are 
not my people \ therefo all they he called^ the Children 
of the Irj'ing God: IJalah crieth alfo concerning 
Ifrael : Though the number of the Children of If- 
rael he as the fan d of the Sea, yet it is but ^ a 
remnant thatjhall befaved. For the Lordfnifhing 
mid contraEling the account in Right eoufnefs, jhall 
make a fhort or fmall remainder " /;/ the earth. 
And as Ifaiah faid before, Unlefs the Lord of 
Ho/is had left us a feed ^, we had been as Sodomy 
and been made like unto Gomorrah , we had utter- 
ly been extirpated. What then remains to be 
faid but this ? That the Gentiles, who fought 
not after Righteoufnefs, have obtain'd the 
Righteoufnefs which is by Faith, and thereby 
are become the People of God ; but the Chil- 
dren of IJraely who followed the Law, which 
contained the rule of Righteoufnefs, have not 
attained to that Law whereby Righteoufnefs 
is to be attained, /. e. have not received the 
Gofpel P, and fo are not the People of God. 


A" r E s. 




As he faith alfo in O- 
fee, I will call them my 
people, which were not 
my people ; and her, be- 
loved, which iyas not be- 

And it fhall come to 
pafs, that in the place 
where it was faid unto 
them. Ye are not my peo- 
ple; there ftiall they be 
caUed, the children of 
the living God. 

Efaias alfo crieth con- 
cerning Ifrael, Though 
the number of the chil- 
dren of Ifrael be as the 
fand of the fea, a rem- 
nant fhall be faved. 

For he will iinifh the 
work, and cut it fhort in 
righteoufnefs : becaufe a 
fhort work will the Lord 
make upon the earth. 

And as Efaias faid be- 
fore, Except the Lord of 
fabaoth had left us a feed, 
we had been as Sodoma, 
and been made like unto 

What fhall we fay then, 30 
That the Gentiles which 
followed not after righ- 
teoufnefs, have attained 
to righteoufnefs, even the 
righteoufnefs which is of 
faith : 




27 ™ B,u a remnant. Tiieie needs no more but to the Tex?:, to fee this to be the 

28 " l\oy)V Qvji7ijun.o!^o!f Trviiicra ; Shall make a contrafted or little Account, or Overplus; a 
Metaphor taken from an Account \vhercin the matter is fb ordered, that the overplus or remainder 
Handing flill upon the Account, is very little. 

29 ° A feed, Ifaia-h\. 9. The words are, avenCnrall remnant. 

31 P See Chap, x, 3. & xi. 6, 7. The Apoftle's diefign in this and the following Chapter, is to 
fhew the reafon why the Jews were caft off from being the People of God, and the Gentiles ad- 
mitted. From whence it follows, that by attaining to r'ightcoufr.ejs, and to the law tf 
right f.ctjjKC}i here, is meant not attaining to the Righteoufnefs which puts particular Perfons 
into the llnte of JulVification and. Salvation ; but the acceptance of that Law, the 
profeflion of ti)at Religion wherein that Righteoufnef? is exhibited ; which profeffion of 
I that 






But Ifrael, which fol- 
lowed after the law of 
righteoufnefs, hath not at- 
tained to the law of righ- 

Wherefore ? Becaufe 
they fought it, not by 
faith, but as it were by 
the works of the law: 
for they Humbled at that 
ftumbling ftone ; 

As it is written, Be- 
hold, I lay in Sion a ftum- 
bling-ftone, and rock of 
offence : and whofoever 
believeth on him, fhallnot 
be afliamcd. 

Brethren, my heart's de- 
fire and prayer to God for 
Ifrael, is that they might 
be faved. 

For I bear them record, 
that they have a zeal of 
God, but not according 
to knowledge. 

For they being ignorant 
of God's righteoufnefs, 
and going about to efta- 
blifli their own righteouf- 
nefs, have not fubmitted 
themfelves unto the righ- 
teoufnefs of God. 

For Chrift is the end of 
the law for righteoufnefs 
to every one that believeth. 


How came they to mifs it ? Becaufe they 
fought not to attain it by Faith; but as if it 
were to be obtained by the Works of the Law. 
A crucified MefTiah was a Stumbling-block to 
them q; and at that they Humbled, as it is 
written, Behold I lay in Sion a Ji umhl'mg-hlock^ 
and a rock of offence., and whofoever believeth in 
him f jail not he afhamed. Brethren, my hearty 
Dcfire and Prayer to God for Ifrael is, that they 
may be faved. For I bear them witnefs, that 
they are zealous '^ and as they think for God 
and his Law ; but their Zeal is not guided by 
true Knowledge : For they being ignorant of 
the Righteoufnefs that is of God, viz. that 
Righteoufnefs which he gracioufly beftows and 
accepts of; and going about to eftablifh a Righ- 
teoufnefs of their own, which they feek for in 
their own Performances, have not brought 
themfelves to fubmit to the Law of the Gofpel, 
wherein the Righteoufnefs of God, /. e, Righ- 
teoufnefs by Faith, is offered. For the end of 
the Law « was to bring Men to Chrift, that 
by believing in him every one that did fo might 
be juftified by Faith j For Mofes dffcribeth the 


Chap. X. 





that which is now the only true Religion, and owning ourfelves under that Law which is now 
folely the Law of God, puts any colleftive Body of Men into the State of being the People of 
God. For every one of the Jews and Gentiles that attained to the Law of Righteoufnefs ^ or to 
Righteoufnefs in the Senfe St. Paul fpeaks here, /. e. became a ProfefTor of the Chriftian Reli- 
gion, did not attain to eternal Salvation. In the fame Senfe muft Chap. x. 3. and 3ci. 7, 8. be 

33 1 See I Cor. i. 23. 

2 ' This their Zeal iot God^ fee defcribed, JSi, xxl. I'jmmm^ii, and zxil. 3.' 

4 > Sec Gal. iii. 24. 



Right eouC- 


Chap. xr. 




Righteoufnefs that was to be had by the Law 
thus : That the man which doth the things requl- 
red In the law, JJjall have life thereby. But the 
Righte'oulhefs which is of Faith fpeaketh after 
this manner : Say not in thine heart, who [hall 
afcend into Heaven^ that is, to bring down the 
Meffiah from thence, whom we exped perfo- 
nally here oi\ Earth to deliver us? Or who jh all 
defcend into the deep^ i. e. to bring up Chrift 
again from the Dead to be our Saviour ? You 
miftake the Deliverance you cxpcd by the Mef- 
fiah, there needs not the fetching him from the 
other World to be prefent with you: The deli- 
verance by him is a deliverance from Sin, that 
you may be made Righteous by Faith in him \ 
and that fpeaks thus ; The word is nigh thce^ even 
inthyinouth^ and in thy heart \ that is, the word 
of Faith, or the Dodrine of the Gofpel which we 
Preach, ^ viz. If thou fhalt confefs with thy 
month ", i. e. openly own Jellis the Lord, 

1. e. 


For Mofes defcribeth the 
righteoufnefs which is of 
the law. That the man 
which doth thofe things, 
Ihall live by them. 

But the righteoufnefs 
which is of faith, fpeaketh 
on this wife. Say not in 
thine heart, Who fhall 
afcend into heaven ? ( that 
is, to bring Chrift down 
from above.) 

Or, who rtiall defcend 
into the deep ? (that is, to 
bring up Chrift again from 
the dead.) 

But what faith it ? The 
word is nigh thee, even 
in thy mouth, and in thy 
heart : that is the word of 
faith which we preach. 

That if thou flialt con- 
fefs with thy mouth the 
Lord Jefus, and fhalt be- 


8 ' St. PW had told them, ver. 4. That the End of the Law was to bring them to Life bv 
Faith in Chrift, that they might be juftified, and fo be faved. To convince them of this, he 
brings three Verfes out of the Book of the Law itfelf, declaring that the way to Life was by 
hearkening to that Word which was ready in their Mouth and in their Heart, and that there- 
fore they had no reafon to rejeft Jefus the Clirift, becaufe he died and was now removed in- 
to Heaven, and was remote from them ; their very Law propofed Life to them by fomething 
nigh them, that might lead them to their Deliverer: By Words and Doftrines that might be al- 
wavs at hand, in their Months, and in tlieir Hearts, and fo lead them to Chrift, /. e. to that 
Faith in him which the Apoftle preached to them. 1 fubmit to the attentive Reader, whether 
this be not the Meaning of this place. 

9 " The Expedlation of the Jews was, that the Mefllah, who was promifcd them, was to 
be their Deliverer; and fo far they were in the right. But that which they cxpefted to be de- 
livered from, at his appearing, was the Power and Dominion of Strangers. When our Saviour 
came, their reckoning was up ', and the Miracles which Jcfus did, concurr'd to perfuade them 
that it was he : But his obfcure Birth and mean Appearance fuited not with that Power and 
Splendor they had fancied to themfelvcs he fhould come in. This, with his denouncing to 
them the Ruin of their Temple and State at hand, fet the Rulers againft him, and held the Bo- 
dy of the Jevvs in fufpenfe till his Crucifixion ; and that g.u'e a full turn of tlicir Minds from 
him. They had figured him a mighty Prince at the Head of their Nation, fetting them free 



lieve in thine heart, that 
God hath raifed him 
from the dead, thou Ihalt 
be faved. 

'O For with the heart man 
believeth unto righteouf- 
nefs, and with the mouth 
confeffion is made unto 

> I For the fcripture faith, 
Whofoever believeth on 
him, fhall not be afha- 

12 For there is no diffe- 
rence between the Jew 
and the Greek : for the 
fame Lord over all, is 
rich unto all that call up- 
on him. 



i. e. Jefas to be the Meffiah, thy Lord, and {halt 
believe in thy Heart, that God hath railed him 
from the Dead, ^ othervviie he cannot be be- 
lieved to be the MelTiah, thou fhalt be laved. 
*Twas not for nothing that Mo/es in the place 
above-cited mentioned both Heart and Mouth, 
there is ufe of both in the cafe. For with the 
Heart Man believeth unto Righteoufnefs, and 
with the Mouth confellion y is made unto Sal- 
vation. For the Scripture faith, whofoever be- 
lieveth on him Jh all not be ajloamed^ Ihall not re- 
pent his having believed, and owning it. The 
Scripture faith whofoever^ for in this cafe there 
is no diftindion of Jew and Gentile. For it is 
he the fame who is Lord of them all, and is 
abundantly bountiful to all that call upon him. 


1 1 


N r E s. 

from all foreign Po.vcr, and themfelves at eafe, and happy under his glorious Reign. But when at 
the Paflbver the whole People were Witneffes of his Death, they gave up all thought of Deliverance 
by him. He was gone, they faw him no more, and 'twas paft doubt a dead Man could not be the 
Meffiah or Deliverer, even of thofe who believed him. 'Tis againilthefe Prejedices that what St. 
Pau/ fays in this and the three preceding Verfes feems direfted, wherein he teaches them, that there 
was no need to fetch the Meffiah out of Heaven, or out of the Grave, and bring him perfonallya- 
mong them. For the Deliverance he was to work for them, the Salvation by him was Salvation 
from Sin, and Condemnation for that ; and that was to be had by barely believing and owning him 
to be the Meffiah their King, and that he was raifed from the Dead : by this they would be faved 
without his Perfonal Prefence amongft them. 

"^ Raifed him from the dead. The Doftrine of the Lord Jefus being raifed from the Dead, is 
certainly one of the moft fundamental Articles of the Chriftian Religion ; but yet there feems an- 
other Reafon why St. Paul here annexes Salvation to the belief of it, which may be found ver. j. 
where he teaches, that it was not neceffiuy for their Salvation, that they fhould have Chrii]: out 
of his Grave perfonally prefent amongll them ; and here he gives them the Reafon, becaufe if they 
did but own him for their Lord, and believe that he was raifed, that fufficed, they fhould be 

lo y Believing and an open avowed profeiTion of the Gofpcl, are required by our Saviour, 
M^irk xvi. 1 6. 

R r 2 








For whofoever fhall call ^ upon his name fhall 
be faved. But how fnall they call upon him 
on whom they have not believed ? And how 
Ihall they believe on him of whom they have not 
heard ? And how fiiall they hear without a 
Preacher ? A.nd how Ihall they preach except 
they be lent ^ ? As it \s written, How heauti' 
fill are the feet of them that preach the gofpel of 
peace ^ and bring glad tidings of good things? But 
though there be Meflengers lent from God to 
preach the Golpel, yet it is not to be expeded 
that all Ihould receive and obey it ^ For 


For whofoever fhall jj 
call upon the name of the 
Lord, fhall be faved. 

How then fliall they i* 
call on him, in whom they 
have not believed ? and 
how fhall they believe in 
him ot whom they have 
not heard? and how fhall 
they hear without a prea- 
cher ? 

And how fhall they ^ - 
preach, except they be 
fent ? as it is written. 
How beautiful are the 
feet of them that preach 
the gofpel of peace, and 

13 ^ Whoever hath with care look'd into St. Paul's Writings, mull own him tobeaclofe Rea- 
loner that argues to the Point; and therefore if in the three preceding verfes he requires an open 
profeflion of the Gofpel, I cannot but think that .7// /^^/r.?// tf/^/^^-Zw, ver. 12. figniiics all that 
are open profefled Chriflians ; and if this be the meaning of calling upon him, ver. 1 2. it is plain 
it mufl be the meaning of calling upon his name, ver. 13. a Phrafe not very remote from na?ning 
his name, which is ufed by St. Paul for profefTmg Chrillianity, 2 Tim. ii. 19. If the meaning of 
the Prophet Joe/, from whom thefe words be taken, be urged, I fhall ojily fay, that it will be an 
ill Rule for interpreting St. Paul, to tie up hisufe of any Text he brings oiitof the OldTeftament, 
to that which is taken to be the meaning of it there. We need go no farther for an Example than the 

6, 7, 8, Verfes of this Chapter, which I de fire any one to read as they ihnd, DeuL 30. 1 1 14. 

and fee whether St. Paul ufes them here in the fame fenfe. 

15 ^ St. Pau/h careful every where to keep himfelf as well as poFibly he can, in the minds 
end fair efteem of his Brethren the Jews ; may not therefore this, with the two foregoing Verfes, 
be undcrfiood as an Apology to them for profefling himfelf an Apolllc of the Gentiles, as he does 
by the Tenor ofthisEpiftle, and in the next Chapterin words at length, ver. 13. In this Chapter 
ver. I 2. he had fhewed that both Jews and Greeks or Gentiles were to be faved only by receiving 
the Gofpel of Chrift. And if fo, it was neceflary that fomebody fliould be fent to teach it them, 
and therefore the Jews had noreafon to be angry with any that was fent on that Employment. 

16 ^ But they have not all obeyed. This feems an Objedion of the Jews to what St. Paulhzd. 
faid, which he anfwers in this and the following vcrfe. The Objeflion and Anfwcr feems to ftand 
thus: You tell us that you are fent from God to preach the Gofpel; If it be fo, how comes it that 
all that have heard, have not received and obeyed; and fince, accordingto what you would infinuate, 
the MefTengersof good Tidings (which is the import of Evangilxn Greek, and Gofpel m Englifh) 
were fo welcome to them ? To this he anfwers out of Ifaiah, that the McfTengers fent from God 
were not believed by all. But from thofe words of Ifaiah, he draws an Inference to confirm the 
Argument he was upon, viz. that Salvation cometh by hearing and believing the Word of God. 
He had laid it down, ver. 8. that it was by tlieir having p»'^, -m^.cci, the word of faith, nigh them 
or prefent with them, and no^ by the bodily prefence of their. Deliverer amongft them, that 
they Avcre to be faved. Thisf^fw, word, he tells them, ver. 17. is by preaching brought to be 
a('1ually prefent with them and the Gentiles ; fy that it was their own fault it they believed it not 
to Salvation. 








bring glad tidings of good 
things ? 

But they have not all o- 
beyed the gofpel. For E- 
Taias faith, Lord, who 
hath believed our report ? 
So then faith cometh 
by hearing, and hearing 
by the word of God. 

But I fay, have they 
not heard ? yes verily, 
their found v.ent into all 
the earth, and their words 
unto the ends of the 

But I fay, Did not \{- 
rael know >. Firll Mofes 
faith, I will provoke you 
to jealoufy by them that 
are no people, and by a 
foolilli nation I will anger 

But Efaias is very bold, 
and faith, I was found of 
them that fought me not ; 
I was made manifeft un- 
to them that asked not 
after me. 

But to Ifrael he faith. 
All day long I have Itretch- 
ed forth my hands un- 
to a difobedient and gain- 
faying people. 



i/?//j^ hath foretold that they Ihould not^ ^^y^'ng> 
Lord who hath believed cur report ? That which 
we may learn from thence is, that Faith com- 
eth by hearing, and hearing from the Word of 
God, /. e, the revelation of the Gofpel in the 
writings of the Sacred Scriptures, communicated 
by thole whom God fends as Preachers thereof, 
to thofe who are ignorant of it; and there is 
no need that Chrift fhould be brought down 
from Heaven, tobeperfonally with you, to be 
your Saviour. It is enough that both Jews 
and Gentiles have heard of him by Meffengers, 
whofe Voice is gone out into the whole Earth, 
and Words unto the Ends of the World, far be- 
yond the bound of Judea, 

But I ask, did not Ifrael know "^ this, that 
the Gentiles were to be taken in and made the 
people of God? Firft Mojes tells it them from 
God, who fays, I will provoke you to jealoufy by 
them who are no people ; and by a fooUjh Nation I 
will anger you. But IJaiah declares it yet much 
plainer in thefe words ; I was found of them 
that fought me not ; I was made manifeft to them 
that ashed not after me. Knd to Ifrael., tofhew 
their refufai, he faith ; Ml day long have I 
Jiretchsd forth my hands unto a difbedient and 
gainfiytng people. 






19 ^ Did not Ifrael knozu ? In this and the next Verfes St. Paul feem? to fuppofe a reafonins-:- 
©f the Jews to this purpofe, viz. That they did not dei'erve to be call off, becaufe they did not 
know that the Gentiles were to be admitted, and fo might be excufed if they did not embrace a 
Religion wherein they were to mix with the Gentiles > and to this he anfwers in the following 

S E C T. 


CHAP. XL 1—36. 


THE Apoftle in this Chapter goes on to ftiew the future State 
of the Jews and Gentiles, in refpcd of Chriftianity, viz. 
That though the Nation of the Jews were for their Unbelief rejeded, 
and the Gentiles taken in their room to be the People of God, yet 
there was a few of the Jews that believed in Chrift, and lb a fmall 
Remnant of them continued to be God's People, being incorpora- 
ted with the converted Gentiles into the Chriftian Church. But 
they Ihall, the whole Nation of them, when the Fulnels of the 
Gentiles is come in, be converted to the Gofpel, and again be rc- 
ftor'd to be the People of God. 

The Apoftle takes occaflon alfo from God's having rcjedled the 
Jews, to warn the Gentile Converts, that they take heed : Since 
if God caft off his ancient People the Jews for their Unbelief, the 
Gentiles could not exped to be preferved, if they apoftatized from 
the Faith, and kept not firm in their Obedience to the Gofpel. 



fay then. Has ^ God wholly caft away his T Say then, God 

•^ , T c u-u-T)i:)i- cail away his people ? 

People the Jews from being his People ? God forbid. For i alfo 

By no means. For I my felf am an Ifraelite, -im an iiVaeiite, of the 

of the Seed of Abraham^ of the Tribe of Benja- tr?be of Benj'amb'. ° 

?;2/;;. God hath not utterly caft off his People . God hath not caft away 

, ir 1 jp"i.ii' 1* his people which he fore- 

whom he lormerly owned ^ with lo pecuhar ,.„g[^, ^^^^ ^^ „q^ ^^^^^ 

a Refped. Know ye not what the Scripture the fcripture futh of EH- 
faith concerning ^/it/jr" How he complain'd to 

as ? how he maketh in- 


1 <i This is a Queftion in the perfon of a Jew, who made the Objedions in the foregoing 
Chajt.T, and continues on to objcdl here. 

2 " See C/'ap. viii. 29. 



terceffion to God againft 
Ifrael, faying, 

Lord, they have killed 
thy prophets, and digged 
down thine altars ; and 
J am left alone, and they 
feek my life. 

But what faith the an- 
fwer of God unto him ? 
J have referved to my felf 
feven thoufand men, who 
have not bowed the knee 
to the image of Baal. 

Even fo then at this 
prefent time alfo there 
is a remnant according 
to the eleftion of Grace. 

And if by Grace, then 
is it no more of works : o- 
therwifc grace is no more 
grace. But if it be of 
works, then it is no more 
grace : othenvife work 
is no more work. 



the God of Ifrael in thefe Words : Lord^ they 
have killed thy 1?rophcts.^ and have digged down 
thine Altars^ and of all that worfipped thee^ I 
alone am left^ and they feek my Lfe aljo. But 
what laith the Anlwer of God to him ? I have 
referved to my felf feven thoufand Men .^ who have 
not bowed the Knee to Baal f, /. e. have not 
been guilty of Idolatry. Even fo at this time 
alio there is a Remnant referved and fegrega- 
ted by the Favour and free Choice of God. 
Which Refervation of a Remnant, if it be by 
Grace and Favour, it is not of Works &, for 
then Grace would not be Grace. But if it 
w^ere of Works, then it is not Grace: For then 
Work would not be Work, /. e. Work gives a 
Right, Grace beftows the Flavour where there 
is no Right to it j fb that what is conferred by 

.N r E S. 

4 ^ B^al and Baalim was the name whereby the falfe Gods and Idols whicli the HeatJiens 
worfhipped were fignified in Sacred Scripture ; See Judges xi. ii ,13. Hi/, xi. 2. 

6 ^ It is not of works. This exclufion of Works, feems to be miftaken by thofc who extend it 
to all manner of difference in the Perfons chofen, from thofe that were rejeded ; for fuch a choice 
as that excludes not Grace in the Chufer, but Merit in the Chofen. For it is plain that by VVurks 

here St. Paul mans Merit, as is evident alfo from Cbap. iv. 2 4. The Law required compleat 

perfeft Obedience : He that performed that, had a right to the Reward ; but he that failed and 
came ftiort of that, had by the Law no right to any thing but Death. And fo the Jews being all 
Sinners, God might without injuftice have caft them all off^; none of them could plead a right to 
his Favour. If therefore he chofe out and referved anv, it was of mecr Grace, tho' in his Choice 
hepreierr'd thofe who were the bell difpofed and moft inclined to his Service. A whole Province 
revolts from their Prince, andtake Arms againft him ; He refolves to pardon fome of them. This 
is a purpofe of Grace. He reduces them under his Power, and then chufes out of them as Veilels 
of Mercy, thoie that he finds leaft infeftcd with Malice, Obftinacy and Rebellion. Thi.^ Choice 
neither voids nor abates his purpofe of Grace, that ftands firm ; but only executes it fo as may bed 
comport with his Wifdom and Goodnefs. And indeed without fome regard to a Difference in the 
things taken from thofe that are left, I do not fee how it can be called Choice. An handful of Peb- 
bles, for Example, may be taken out of a Heap ; they are taken and feparated indeed from the reft, 
but if it be witliout any regard to any Difi'erence in them from others rejedled, I doubt whether 
any body can call them chofen. 





the one, cannot be afcrib'd to the other. How 
is it then? Even thus • Ifrael^ or the Nation of 
the Jews, obtained not what it leeks ^' ; but 
the Eledion ', or that part which was to re- 
main God's Elect cholen People, obtained it, 
but the reft of them were bHnded ^ : Ac- 
cording as it is written \ God bath given them 
the Spirit of Slumber ; Eyes that they Jhoald not 
fee^ and Ears that they Jhotild not hear, unto this 
day. And David faith "^, Let their liable he 
made a Snare and a 'Trap, and a Stumbling-block, 
and a Kecompence unto them : Let their Eyes be 
darkned, that they may not fee, and bow down their 
Bach alway. What then, do I fay that they 
have io ftumbled as to be fallen paft Recove- 
ry? By no means: But this I fay, that by their 
Fall, by their Rejcdion for refufing " the 
Gofpel, the Privilege of becoming the People 
of God, by receiving the Dodrine of Salvation, 
is come to the Gentiles, to provoke the Jews 
12 to Jealoufy. Now if the Fall of the Jews 
hath been to the enriching of the reft of the 
World, and their Damage an Advantage to 





Wlut then ? Jfrael kth 7 I 
not obtained that which jj 

he feeketh for ; but the 
eledion hath obtained it, 
and the reft were blind- 
ed : 

According as it is writ- 8 
ten, God hath given them 
the fpirit of flumber, eyes 
that they fhould not fee, 
and ears that they fhould 
not hear, unto this day. 

And David faith. Let 9 
their table be made a 
fnarc, and a trap, and a 
ftumbling-block, and a 
recompenfe unto them. 

Let their be dark- lO 
ned, that they may not 
fee, and bow down their 
back alway. 

I fay then. Have they U 
ftumbled that they fhould 
fall .? God forbid ; but 
rather through their fall 
falvation is come unto 
the Gentiles, for to pro- 
voke them to jealoufy. 

Now if the fall of them ij ( 
be the riches of the 
world, and the diminifh- 

7 »> What it feehy i. c. That Righteoufnefs whereby it was io continue the People of God ; 
fee ch. ix. 31. It may be obferv'd, that St. /»««/'$ Difcourfe being of the National Privilege of 
continuing the People of God, he fpeaks here, and all along of the Jews in the colleflivc term 
Jfrael. And fo likewife the Remnant, which were to remain his People, and incorporate with the 
Convert Gentiles, into one Body of Chriftians, owning the Dominion of the one true God, in 
the Kingdom he had fet up under his Son, and owned by God for his People, he calls the E- 

» EleBion, a colleiflive Appellation for the Part elefted, which in other places he calls Remnant. 
This Remnant or Eleflion, call it by which name you pleafe, were thofe who fought R'ghteoufnefs 
Vy Faith in Chrift, and not by the Deeds of the Law, and fo became the People of God, that 
People which he had chofen to be his. 

'' Blinded, fee zCor. iii. 13 16. 

• 8 ' Written, Ifa. xxix. 10. & vi. 9, 10. 

9 ■" Saith, Pfal.lxix. 22, 23. 

1 1 1 That this is the meaning of Fall here, fee ASli xiii. 46. 




fng of them the riches of 
the Gentiles : how much 
more their fulncfs ? 

For I fpeak to you Gen- 
tiles, in as much as I am 
the Apoftle of the Gen- 
tiles, I magnify mine of- 
fice : 

14 If by any means I may 
provoke to emulation 
them which are my flefh, 
and might fave fome of 

15 For if the cafting away 
of them be the reconci- 
ling of the world; what 
ihall the receiving of 
them be, but life from 
the dead ? 

16 For if the firft-fruit be 
holy, . the lump is alfo 
holy : and if the root be 
holy, fo are the branches. 

17 And if fome of the 
branches be broken off, 
and thou being a wild o- 
live-trec, were grafFed in 
amongfl: them, and with 
them partakeft of the 
root and fatnefs of the 
olive-tree ; 

18 Boaft not againft the 
branches : but if thou 



•the Gentiles, by letting them into theChurch, 
how much more Ihall their Completion be fo, 
when their whole Nation fhall be reftored ? 
This I fay to you Gentiles, forafmuch as being 
Apoftle of the Gentiles, I magnify o mine 
Office : If by any means I may provoke to E- 
mulation the Jews, who are my own Flelh and 
Blood, and bring fome of them into the way 
of Salvation. For if the calling them off be a 
means of reconciling the World, what Ihall 
their Reftoration be, when they are taken a- 
gain into Favour, but as it were Life from the 
dead, which is to all Mankind of all Nations ? 
For if the Firft-fruits ^ be holy q and ac- 
cepted, the whole Produd of the Year is holy, 
and will be accepted. And if Abraham^ Ifaac 
and "Jacoh^ from whom the Jewifh Nation had 
their Original, were holy, the Branches alio 
that Iprang from this Root are holy. If then 
fome of the natural Branches were broken off : 
If fome of the natural Jews, of the Stock of 
IfraeJy were broken off and rejeded, and thou, 
a Heathen of the wild Gentile Race, were ta- 
ken in, and ingrafted into the Church of God 
in their room ; And there partakeft of the Blef^ 
fings promifed to Abraham and his Seed, be not 

A^ r £ 5. 


Chap. Xr. 






13 ° St. P<7iz/ magnified his Office of Apoftle of the Gentiles, not only by preaching the Gofpel 
to the Gentiles, but in afluring them farther, as he does, ver. 12. that when the Nation of the 
Jews ihall be reftored, the Fulnefs of the Gentiles fhall alfo come in. 

16 P Thefe Allufions the Apoftle makes ufe of here, tofhew that the Patriarchs, the Rooto^t\A 
Jewifh Nation, being accepted by God ; and the few Jewilh Converts which at firfl enter'd into 
the Chriftian Church, being alfo accepted by God, are as it were/r/ Fruit i or Pledges, that God 
will in due time admit the whole Nation of the Jews into his vifible Church, to be his peculiar 
People again. 

1 Holy : By Holy is here meant that rehuive Holinefs whereby any thing hath an Appropriatioit 
to God. 









fo conceited of thy felf, as to fhew any Dif-* 
refped ^ to the Jews. If any fuch Vanity 
polTelTes thee, remember that the Privilege 
thou haft in being a Chriftian, is derived to 
thee from the Promife made to Abraham and his 
Seed; but nothing accrues to Abraham or his 
Race by any thing derived from thee. Thou 
wilt perhaps fay, the Jews were rejefted to 
make way for me. Well let it be fo : But re- 
member that *twas becaufe of Unbelief that 
they were broken off, and that 'tis by Faith 
alone that thou haft obtained, and muft keep 
thy prefent Station. This ought to be a Warn- 
ing to thee, not to have any haughty Conceit^ 
of thy felf, but with Modefty to fear. For if 
God fpared not the Seed of Abraham.^ but caft 
off even the Children of Ifrael,, for theirUnbe- 
lief, he will certainly not fparc thee, if thou 
art guilty of the like Mifcariage. Mind there- 
fore the Benignity and Rigor of God ; Rigor 
to them that ftumbled at the Gofpel and fell, 
but Benignity to thee, if thou continue within 
the Sphere of his Benignity, /. e, in the Faith 
by which thou partakeft of the Privilege of 
being one of his People : Otherwife even thou 
alio ftialt be cut off. And the Jews alfo, if 
they continue not in Unbelief, Ihall be again 
grafted into the Stock of Abrahatn^ and be re- 


boaft, thou beared not 
the root, but the root 

Thou wilt fay then, ^9 
The branches were bro- 
ken off, that I might be 
graffed in. 

Well ; becaufe of un- 20 
belief they were broken 
off, and thou ftandeft by 
faith. Be not high min- 
ded, but fear. 

For if God fpared not 21 
the natural branches, take 
heed left he alfo fpare not 

Behold therefore the 22 
goodnefs and feverity of 
God : on them which fell, 
feverity ; but towards 
thee, goodnefs, if thou 
continue in his goodnefs : 
otherwife thou alfo fhalt 
be cut off. 

And they alfo, if they 23 
abide not ftill in unbelief 

N r E s, 

1 8 ' Boafinot <i7alnft the Branches. Tho the great Fault that moft diforder'd the Church, and prin- 
cipally exercis'd 'the Apoftlc's Care in this Epiftle, was from the Jew? preffing the Neceffity of le- 
{^al Obfervanccs, and not brooking that the Gentiles, tho Converts to Chriftianity, fiiould be ad- 
mitted into their Communion, without being circumcifed : Yet it is plain from this Verfe, as alfo 
ch xiv. 3, 10. that the Convert Gentiles were not wholly without fault on tlieir fide, in treating 
the Jews with Dif-efteem and Contempt. To this alfo, as it comes in his way, he applies fit Rc- 
jnfedics, particularly in this Chapter, and ch. xiv. „ , , . n , 




ihall be grafFed in : for 
God is able to graff them 
in again. 

For if thou were cut 
out of the olive-tree 
which is wild by nature, 
and wert grafted contrary 
to nature into a good o- 
live-tree ; how much 
more fhall thefe which be 
the n:itural branches, be 
graiFed into their own o- 
live-tree ? 

For I would not, bre- 
thren, that ye fhould be 
ignorant of this myftery 
{!clt ye fliould be wife in 
your own . conceits] that 
blindnefs in part is hap- 
ned to Ifrael, until the 
fulnefs of the Gentiles be 
come in. 

And fo all Ifrael Ihall 
be faved : as it is writ- 
ten. There fhall come out 


Chap. Xi; 

eftabllfhed the People of God. For however 
they are now Icattered, and under Subjeclion 
to Strangers, God is able to colled them again 
into one Body, make them his People, and fet 
them in a flourifhing Condition in their own. 
Land '. For if you who arc Heathens by 2^ 
Birth, and not of the promiled Seed, were, 
when you had neither Claim nor Inclination to 
it, brought into the Church, and made the 
People of God ; how much more fnall thofe 
who are the Pofterity and Defcendantsof him 
to whom the Prcmife was made, be rcftored to 
the State which the Promiie veiled in that Fa- 
mily? For to prevent your being conceited of ij 
your felves, my Brethren, let me make known 
to you, which has yet been undilcovered to 
the World, {viz.) that the Blindnefs which 
has fallen upon part of Ifrael^ fhall remain up- 
on them but till the time be come wherein the 
whole t Gentile World Ihall enter into the 
Church, and make ProfelFicn of Chriftianity. 
And \o ail Ifrael fhall be converted ^ to the -^ 


23 ' This gyaft'nig in again, feenis to import, that the Jews fhall be a flourifhing Nation again, 
profefGng Chriftianity in the Land of Promife, for that is to be re-inflated again in the Promifc 
made to Abraham, Ifaac and Jac-jb. This St. Paul might, for good Reafons, be with-held from 
fpeaking out here : But in the Prophets there are very plain Intimations of it. 

25 ' nA»;f<i/<tf, The iv//z?<f/} of 'the Jews, c^r. 12. is the whole Body of the Jewifh Nation pro- 
feffing Chriflianitv ; And therefore here TrKnpufAO. r i^vav, The Fulnefs of the Gentiles, mull be 
the whole Body of the Gentiles profelhng Chri'ftianity. And this r^r. 15. fcems toteach. For 
the Refurrcftion is of all. 

26 " -Zc'^nJ), fiall be faved. "Tis plain that the Salvation that St. Vaul in this Difcourfe con- 
cerning the Nation of the Jews, and the Gentile World in grofs, fpeaks of, is not eternal Happi- 
nefs in Heaven, but he means by it the ProfefTion of the true Religion here on Earth. Whether 
it be that that is as far as Corporations or Bodies Politick can go, towards the Attainment of eter- 
nal Salvation, I -vill not enquire. But this is evident, that being faved, is ufcd by the Apoftle 
here in this Senfc. That all the Jewifh Nation may become the People of God again, by taiung 
up the ChriHian Profeflion, may be eafily conceived. But that every Perfon of fuch a Chnllian 
Nation, fhall au.)in eternal Salvation in Heaven, I think no body can imagine to be here m- 

Sf 2 



Chap. XI. 





Chriftian Faith, and the whole Nation become 
the People of God : As it is written, Tberejhall 
come out of Sion the Deliverer y and jhall turn a- 
way Vngodlinefs from Jacob. For this is my Co- 
venant to them^ when I Jhall take away ^ their 
Sins, They are indeed at prefent Strangers to 
the Gofpel, and fo are in the State of Ene- 
mies y, but this is for your fakes : Their Fall 
and Lofs is your enriching, you having ob- 
tained Admittance through their being caft out : 
But yet they being within the EleSion that 
God made of Abraham, Ifaac and Jacoh^ and 
their Pofterity, to be his People, are ftill his 
beloved People, for Jhraham^ Ifaac 2ind Jacob's 
fake, fromwhom they are defended. For the 
Favours that God fhew'd thofe their Fathers, 
in calling them and their Pofterity to be his 
People, he doth not repent of j but his Pro- 
mife, that they Ihall be his People Ihall Hand 
good ^. For as you the Gentiles formerly 
flood out, and were not the People of God, 
but yet have now obtained Mercy, fo as to be 
taken in through the ftanding out of the Jews, 



of Sion the deliverer, and 
fliall turn away ungodli- 
nefs from Jacob. 

For this is my cove- ay 
nant unto them, when I 
Ihall take away their fins. 

As concerning the ^o- 28 
fpel, they are enemies for 
your fake, but as touch- 
ing the eleftion, they are 
beloved for the fathers 

For the gifts and cal- 29 
ling of God are without 

For as ye in times paft 30 
have not believed God, 
yet have now obtained 
mercy through their un- 
belief : 

27 * take azoay, i. e. Forgive their SifiSy and take away the Puni/hmcnt they lie under for 

28 y *£%9dji, Enemies, fignifies Strangers or Aliens, i.e. fuch as are no longer the People of 
God. For they are called Enemies in oppofition to Beloved, in this very Verfe. And the Reafon 
given why they are Enemies, makes it plain, "that this is the Senfe, [viz..) For the Gentiles fake, 
i. e. They are rejected from being the People of God, that you Gentiles may be taken in to be the 
People of God in their room, ver. 30, The fame Signification has Xy^t^h Enemies, ch. v. 10. 
TfJ]"" c/jAyyihrn iX'^epi' ^' concerning the Gofpel-Enemies, i. e. all thofe ^vho not embracing the 
Gofpel, not receiving Chrift for their King and Lord, are Aliens from the Kingdom of God, and 
all fuch Aliens are called ix^e^h Enemies, And fo indeed were the Jews now : bat yet_ they 
were yjiT luKoyvv ■/■■)<u.-?r,nzt, iis touching the EleBion, beloved, i. e. were not adlually within the 
Kingdom of God his People, but were within x\\q. Ele^ion, which God had made of ^o'/^nj/',?///, 
Jjaai and Jacob, and their PoUerity to be his People, and fo God had ftill Intentions of Kindnefs 
to them for their Fathers fake, to make them again his People. 

29 ^ So God's Repenting is explained, Nutnl/. x\\n, 19 .w m^— 24. 



31 Even fo have thefe al- 
fo now not believed, that 
through your mercy tJiey 
alfo may obtain mercy. 

32 For God hath concki- 
ded them all in unbelief. 




who fubmit not to the Gofpel ^ : Even 
they now have flood out by rcafon of your be- 
ing in Mercy admitted, that they alio through 
the Mercy you have received, may again here- 
after be admitted. For God hath put up toge- 
ther in a State of Revolt from their Allegiance ^ 

N r E S. 

30 * See JSIs xiii. 46. 

32 ^ "'Etid'TTH^HdM, In Unbelief. The L//;^^///^ here charged nationally on Jews and Gentiles 
in their turns in this and the two preceding Verfes, whereby they ceafed to be the People of God, 
was evidently the difowning of his Dominion, whereby they put themfelves out of the Kingdom 
which he had and ought to have in the World, and fo were no longer in the State of Subjefts, but 
Aliens and Rebels. A general View of Mankind will lead us into an eafier Conception of St. Paul\ 
Dodrine, who all through this Epiftle confiders the Gentiles, Jews, and Chriflians, as three diftinft 
Eodies of Men. 

God by Creation had no doubt an unqueftionable Sovereignty over Mankind;, and this was a£ 
£rft acknowledg'd in their Sacrifices and Worfhip of him. Afterwards they withdrew themfelves 
from their Subiaifn on to him, and found out other Gods, whom they worfhiped and ferved. 
This Revolt from God, and the Confequence of it, God's abandoning them, St. Paul defcribes, 
ch. i. 18. 32. 

In this State of Revolt from God were the Nations of the Earth in the times of Abraham. 
And then Abraham, Ifaac and Jacob, and their Pofterity the Ifraelites, upon God's gracious Call, 
return'd to their Allegiance to their ancient and rightful King and Sovereign, own the one invifi- 
ble God, Creator of Heaven and Earth, for their God, and fo become his People again, to whom 
he, as to his peculiar People, gave a Law. And thus remain'd the Diftinftion between Jews and 
Gentiles, i. e. the Nations, as the word fignifies, till the time of the Meffiah, and then the Jews 
ceafed to be the People of God, not by adiredl Renouncing the God ol Ifrael, and taking to them- 
felves other falfe Gods whom they worfhiped : but by oppofing and rejedling the Kingdom of 
God, which he purpos'd ar that time to fet up Avith new Laws and Inilitations, and to a more 
glorious and fpiritual purpofe under his Son Jefus Chrift : Him God fent to them, and him the 
Nation of the Jews refus'd to receive as their Lord and Ruler, tho he was their promifed King and 
Deliverer, anfweringall the Prophecies and Types of him, and evidencing his Miffionby his Mira- 
cles. By this Rebellion againft him, into whofe hand God had committed the Rule of his King- 
dom, and appointed Lord overall things, the Jews turn'd themfelves out of the Kingdom of God, 
and ceas'dto be his People, who had now no other People but thofe who leceiv'd and obey'd his 
Son as their Lord and Ruler. This v/as the ctTrMeiU, Unbelief, here fpoken of. And I would 
be glad to know any other Senfe of Believing or Unbelief, wherein it can be nationally attributed 
to a People (as vifioly here it is) whereby they fliall ceafc, or come to be the People of God, or 
vifible Subiefts of his Kingdom here on Earth. Indeed to enjoy Life and Eltate in this, as well as 
other Kingdoms, not only the owning of the Prince, and the Authority of his Laws, but alfo O- 
bedience to them is required. . For a Jew might own the Authority of God, and his Law given by 
Mcfes, andfobe a true Subjeft, and as much a Member of the Commonwealth o? I/rael, as any 
one in it, and yet forfeit his Life by Difobedience to the Lav/. And a Chriftian may own the Au- 
thority of Jefus Chrilt, and of the Gofpel, and yet forfeit eternal Life by his Difobedience to the- 
Precepts ot it, as may be feen, el\ vii. 8, 9. 




3i8 ROMANS. 


Chap. XI 





to him, as it were in one Fold, all Men, both 
Jews and Gentiles, that through his Mercy 
they might all, both Jews and Gentiles, come 
to be his People, u e. he hath fufFer'd both 
Jews and Gentiles in their turns not to be his 
People, that he might bring the whole Body, 
both of Jews and Gentiles, to be his People. 
O the depth of the Riches of the Wifdom and 
Knowledge of God ^ ! How unfearchable are 
his Judgments, and his ways not to be traced. 
For who hath known the Mind of the Lord? 
Or who hath fat in Counfel with him ? Or 
who hath been before-hand with him, in be- 
llowing any thing upon him, that God may 
repay it to him again ^ ? The Thought of 
any fuch thing is abfurd. For from him aU 
things have their Being and Original; By hini 
they are all order'd and dilpofed of, and for 
him and his Glory they are ail made and re- 
gulated, to whorri be Glory for ever. Amen. 

that he might have mer- 
cy upon aU. 

O the depth of the jj 
riches both of the wif- 
dom and knowledge of 
God ! how unfearchable 
are his judgments, and 
his ways pall iinding out I 

For who hath known 3^ 
the mind of the Lord, or 
who hath been his coun- 
feller ? 

Or who hath firft given , - 
to him, and it fhall be ' ■* 
recompenfed unto him a- 
gain ? 

For of him, and through , 
him, and to him, are all ' 
things : to whom be glo- 
ry for ever. Amen. 

A' r E s. 

■3,:^ '^ This emphatical Conrliifion icems in a fpecial manner to regard the Jews, whom the A- 
pollle would hereby teach Modefty and SubmilTion to the over-ruling Hand of the all-wife God, 
whom thev are very unfit to call to account for his dealing [o fwourably with the Gentiles. His 
Wifdom and Ways are infinitely above their Comprchcnfion, and will they take upon them to ad- 
vife him what to do ? Or is God in their Debt ? Let them fay for what, and he fliall repay it to 
them. This is a very flrong Rebuke to the Jews, but delivered, as we fee, in a way very gentle 
and inoftenfive. A Method which the Apoltle endeavours every where to obfcrve towards his 

35 '* This has a manifeft rcfpedl to the Jews, who claim'd a Right to be the People of God fo far, 
that St. Pau/, ch. ix. 14. finds it necefl^\ry to vindicate the Juftice of God in the Cafe, and docs 
here in this QuelUon expofe and filence the Folly of any fuch Pretence. 


ROMANS. 5ip 

ch. xir- 

S E C T. X. -^^ 

CHAP. XII. I— 21. 


ST. Taiil In the end of the foregoing Chapter, with a very fb- 
lemn Epiphonema, clofes that admirable Evangelical Difcourle 
to the Church at Rome, which had taken up the elev^en foregoing- 
Chapters. It was addrefled to the two forts of Converts, viz. 
Gentiles and Jews, into which, as into two diftincl Bodies, he all 
along through this Epiftle divides all Mankind, and confiders them 
as ib divided into two feparate Corporations. 

1. As to the Gentiles, he endeavours to fatisfy them, that the 
they for their Apoftacy from God to Idolatry, and the Worfhip of 
Falfe Gods, had been abandon'd by God, had lived in Sin and 
Blindnefs, without God in the World, Strangers from the Know- 
ledge and Acknowledgment of him, yet that the Mercy of God 
through Jefus Chrift was extended to them, whereby there was a 
way now open'd to them to become the People of God. For 
fince no man could be faved by his own Rightcoufnefs, no not the 
Jews themlelves, by the Deeds of the Law, the only way toSalva- 
tion, both for Jews and Gentiles, was by Faith in Jefus Chrift. 
Nor had the Jews any other way now to continue themfelvcs the 
People of God, than by receiving the Gofpcl, which way was o- 
pen'd alfo to the Gentiles, and they as freely admitted into the 
Kingdom of God now erefted under Jefus Chrift, as the Jews, and 
upon the fole Terms of Believing. So that there was no need at all 
for the Gentiles to be circumcifed to become Jews, that they might 
be partakers of the Benefits of the Gofpel. 

2. As to the Jews, the Apoftle's other great Aim in the foregoing 
Difcourfe, Is to remove the Offence the Jews took at the Gofpel, 
becaufe the Gentiles were received into the Ciiurch as the People 
of God, and were allowed to be Subjeds of the Kingdom of the 
MefTiah. To bring them to abetter Temper, he Ihews them from 
the Sacred Scripture, that they could not be faved by the Deeds of 
the Law, and therefore the Doctrine of Rightcoufneis by Faith 
ought not to be lb ftrange a thing to them. And as to their being 

^ for 

320 ROMANS. 

Ch. XII. for their Unbelief rejeded from being the People of God, and the 
^^^"^^^^^ Gentiles taken in in their room, he fliews plainly, that this was 
foretold them in the Old Teftament ; and that herein God did 
them no Injuftice. He was Sovereign over all Mankind, and 
might chufe whom he would to be his People, with the fame 
Freedom that he chofe the Pofterity of Abraham among all the Na- 
tions of the Earth, and of that Race chofe the Defcendants of Ja- 
cob before thole of his Elder Brother Efau^ and that before they had 
a Being, or were capable of doing Good or Evil. In all which 
Difcourfe of his 'tis plain the Election fpoken of, has for its Object 
only Nations or coUeclive Bodies Politick in this World, and not 
particular Perfons, in reference to their eternal State in the World 
to come. 

Having thus finiihed the principal Defign of his Writing, he here 
in this, as is ufual with him in all his Epiftles, concludes with pra- 
£lical and moral Exhortations, whereof there are feveral in this 
Chapter, which we fhall take in their Order. 


IT being fo then that you are become the 
People of God in the room of the Jews, do 
not ye fail to offer him that Sacrifice that it is 
reafonable for you to do, I mean your Bo- 
dies % not to be {lain, but the Lulls thereof 
being m_ortified, and the Body cleanfed from 
the Spots and Blemifhcs of Sin, will be an ac- 
ceptable Offering to him, and fuch a way of 
Worlliip as becomes a rational Creature, which 
therefore I bcfecch you by the Mercies of God 
to you, who has made you his People to pre- 
fent to him. And be not conformed to the Fa- 


IBefeech you therefore. 
Brethren, by the mer- 
cies of God, that ye pre- 
fent your bodies a living 
facrifice, holy, acceptable 
unto God, which is your 
realonable fervice. 

And be not conformed 


1 " Your Bod'in. There feem to be two Reafons why St. PauV^ firft Exhortation to them is, 
to prefent their Bodies undcfiled to God : (i.) Bccaufe he had before, efpecially ch. vii. fo much 
infilled on this, that the Body was the great Source from whence Sin arofe. (2.) Becaufe the Hea- 
then World, and particularly t\\t Romans, were guilty of thofc vile AfFeftions which he mentions, 
ch. i. 24 I .27. 





ch. xir. 

to this world: but be ye 
transformed by the renew- 
ing of your mind, that ye 
may prove what is that 
good, and acceptable, and 
pen'eft will of God. 

For I fay, through the 
grace given unto me, to 
every man that is among 
you, not to think of hlm- 
felf more highly than he 
ought to think; but to 
think foberly, according as 
God hath dealt to every 
man the meafure of fdth. 

For as we have many 

fhlon of this World ^ : But be ye transformed 
in the renewing of your Minds g, that you 
may upon Examination find out, what is the 
good, the acceptable and perfect Will of God, 
which now under the Golpel has fhewn it felf 
to be in Purity and Holinefs of Life : the ri- 
tual Obfervances which he once inftituted not 
being that his good, acceptable and perfed 
Will which he always intended, they were 
made only the Types and preparatory way to 
this more perfed State under the Gofpcl K 
For by vertue of that Commiffion, to be the 
Apoftle of the Gentiles, which by the Favour 
of God is bellowed on me, I bid every one of 
you, not to think of himlelf more highly than 
he ought to think, but to have Ibber and modeit 
Thoughts of himfelf, according to that mea- 
fure of fpiritual Gifts ', which God has be- 
ftowed upon him. For as there are many 


z f To the fajhion of this World; or, as St. Peter exprefx'es it, not fajhioning your felves accord- 
ing to your former Lujis in the time of Ignorance. 

? Transformed in the renetoing of your Minds. The State of the Gentiles is thus defcribed, 
Eph. iv. 17—19. As walking in the Vanity of their Minds, having the UnderJlarJing darkened, 
being alienated from the Life of God through the Ignorance that is in them; becaufe of the Blind- 
nefs of their Hearts, -who being pafl feeling, hare given thewfehes over unto Lafcivioufnefs, to work 
all Vncleanr.ejs with greed incfs, faflling the Lufts of the Flefp and of the Mind. And C<5/. i. 21 . 
Alienated and Enemies in their Minds by wicked Works. The renezi'ng therefore of their Minds^ 
or, as he fpeaks, Eph. iv. in the Sptrit of their Minds, was the getting into an Eftate contrary 
to what they were in before, {viz.) to take it in the Apofile's own words; That the Eyes of their 
Vnderftandings might be enlightened ; and that tkey m-y put on the nezo Man, that is renewed in 
Knowledge after the Image of him that created him; that ye walk as Children of the Light, pro- 
ving what is accept cole to the Lord, having no F^llorvjhip ■:Lith the Works of Darknefs : That they 
be not unzvife, but under/landing zvhat is the Will of the Lord : For 'his is the Will of God, even 
your SanElification. That you fhould abjiain from Fornication. That every one of you fhould 
knoio how to poffefs his Veffel in Sanaif cation and Honour, n-.t in the Lufls of Concupifcence, even as 
the Gentiles that know not God. 

h In thefe two firft Vcrfes of this Chapter is fhewn the Preference of the Gofpel to the Gen- 
tile State and the Jewilh Inftitut'on. 

3 ' Mi^oy OT^«^-5, Mcaftre of Faith; fome Copies read We<7©-> of favour ; either of them 
CiprQfs the fame thing, 1. e. Gifts of the Spi:it. 

T t 



Ch. XII. 





Members in one and the fame Body, but all the 
Members are not appointed to the fame Work ; 
So we who are many make all but one Body 
in Chrift, and are all Fellow-Members one of 
another ^\ But having according to the re- 
fpeclive Favour that is bellowed upon us, eve- 
ry one of us different Gifts ^ whether it be Pro- 
phecy ', let us prophefy, according to the 
proportion of Faith '", or Gift of Interpreta- 
tion, which is given us, /. e. as far forth as we 
are enabled by Revelation, and an extraordina- 
ry Illumination to underftand and expound it, 


meftibers in one body, and 
all members have not the 
fame office : 

So we being many are 
one body in Chrift, and 
every one members one of 

Having then gifts, dif- 
fering according to the 
grace that is given to us, 
whether prophecy, let us 
prophefy according to the 
proportion of faith: 


5 ^ The fame Simile to the fame purpofe, fee i Cor. xii. 

"6 ' Prcpkecy is enumerated in the New Teltament among the Gifts of the Spirit, and means 
cither the Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, and explaining of Prophecies already delivered, or 
foretelling things to come. 

™ According to the Proportion of Faith. The Context in this and the three preceding Verfes 
leads us, without any Difficulty, into the Meaning of the Apollle in this Expreffion. i Cor. xii, 
and xiv. ihew us how apt the new Converts were to be puft up with the feveral Gifts that were 
beflowed on them ; and every one, as in like Cafes is ufual, forward to magnify his own, and to- 
carry it farther than in reality it extended. That it is St. PauPs Defign here to prevent or regu- 
late fuch Diforder, and to keep every one in the exercifing of his particular Gift within its due 
Bounds, is evident, in that exhorting them, ver. 3. to a fober Ufe of their Gifts, (for 'tis in re- 
ference to their fpiritual Gifts he fpeaks in that Verfc) he makes the meafure of that Sobriety to 
be that Meafure of Faith or fpiritual Gift which every one in particular enjoy 'd by the Favour of 
God, ;. e. That no one fliould go beyond that which was given him, and he really had. But 
befides this, which is very obvious, there is another Paflage in that Verfe, which, rightly con- 
fider'd, ilrongly inclines this way. I fay, through the Grace that is given unto me, fays St. Paul. 
He was going to reflrain them in the Excrcife of their diftinft fpiritual Gifts, and he could not 
introduce what he was going to fay in the Cafe with a more perfuafive Argument than his own 
Example : " I exhort ( fays he) that every one of you, in the Exercife and Ufe of his fpiritual 
•' Gift, keep within the Bounds and Meafure of that Gift which is given him. I myfclf, in 
" giving you this Exhortation, ^q\x. by the Grace given unto me; I do it by the CommifEon 
*• and Power given me by God, and beyond that I do not go." \\\ one that had before declared 
himfelf an Apollle, fuch an Expreffion as this here ( if there were not fomc particular Rea- 
fon for it) might fecm fuperfluous, and to fome idle, but in this View it has a great Grace 
and Energy in it. There wants nothing but the Study of St. PauPs Writings to give us a 
juft Admiration of his great Addrefs, and the Skill wherewith all that he fays is adapted 
to the Argument he has in hand: " I (fays he) according to the Grace given me, dire£l 
*• you every one in the Ufe of your Gifts, which according to the Grace given you are difte- 
"' rent, whether it be the G'ft of Prophecy, to prophefy according to the Proportion or Mea- 
*' fure of that Gift or Revelation that he hath. And let him not think that becaule fome things 

♦' are. 


7 Or miniftry, let us wait 
on our miniltring; or he 
that teacheth, on teaching; 

3 Or he that exhorteth, 
on exhortation : he that 
giveth, let him do it with 
iimplicity ; he that ruleth, 
with diligence ; he that 
fheweth mercy, with chear- 

9 Let love be without dif- 
fimulation. Abhor that 
which is evil, cleave to 
that which is good. 
iO Be kindly afFeftioned 
one to another ; with bro- 
therly love, in honour 
preferring one another : 

1 1 Not flothful in bufinefs : 
fervent in fpirit; lerving 
the Lord : 

12 Rejoicing in hope ; pa- 
tient in tribulation; con- 
tinuing inflant in prayer : 

13 Dillributing to the ne- 
ceffity of faints; given ta 

i.^ Blefs them which per- 

fecute you : blefs, and 

curfe not. 
I^ Rejoice with them that 

do rejoice, and weep with 

them that weep. 
16 Be of the fame mind 

one towards another. 

Mind not high things. 



and no farther : Or if it be Miniftry, let us 
wait on out Miniftring : He that is a Teacher 
let him take care to teach. He whofe Gift is 
Exhortation, let him be diligent in exhorting : 
He that giveth let him do it liberally, and 
without the Mixture of any Self-Intereft : He 
that prefideth ", let him do it with Dili- 
gence : He that Iheweth Mercy, let him do it 
with Chearfulnefs. Let Love be without Dif- 
fimulation. Abhor that which is evil, ftickto 
that which is good. Be kindly affedioned one 
towards another with brotherly Love ; in ho- 
nour preferring one .another. Not flothful in 
Bufinefs ; but adive and vigorous in Mind, 
diteding all to the Service of Chrift and the 
Gofpel. Rejoicing in the Hope you have of 
Heaven and Happinefs • patient in Tribula- 
tion; frequent and Inftant in Prayer: Forward 
to help Chriftians in Want, according to their 
Neceffities ; given to Hofpitality. Blels them 
who perfecute you : blefs and curfe not. Re- 
joice with them that rejoice, and weep with 
them that weep. Be of the fame Mind one to- 
wards another. Do not mind only high things ; 
but fuit yourfelves to the mean Condition and 

Ch. XIL 






** are, therefore every thing is revealed to him." The fume Rule concerning the fame matter 
St. Pau/ gives, Epb. iv. 6, that every Member Ihould aft according to the Aleafure of its own 
Strength, Power and Energy ; i Cor. xiv. zg—. — 32. may alfo give light to this place. This 
therefore is far from fignifying that a Man in interpreting of Sacred Scripture fhould explain the 
Senfe according to the Syllem of his particular Sedt, which each Party is pleafed to call the A- 
Tia/ogy of Faiih. For this would be to make the Apollle to fet that for a Rule of Interpretation, 
which iiad not its Being till long after, and is the Produft of fallible Men. 

The Menfure 0/ Faith, vcr. 3. and Froportion of Faith, in thisVerfe, fignifies the fame thing, 
xi'Z.. fo much of that particular Gift which God was pleafed to bellow on any one. 

8 " 'O c!^j/stt«V'©"j tie that ruleth, fays ourTranflation; the Context inclines to the Scnfs 
I have taken it in; See Vitringa de S;jnagog. 1. 2. c. 3. 

T t 2 low 


Ch. XII. 








low Concerns of Perfons beneath you. Be not 
wife in your own Conceits. Render to no 
Man Evil for Evil : But take care that your 
Carriage be fueh as may be approved by all 
Men. If it be poffible, as much as lieth in 
you, live peaceably with all Men. Dear- 
ly beloved, do not avenge yourfelves, but 
rather leave that to God. For it is written, 
Vengeance h miney I will repay it^ faith the 
Lord, Thereforeif thine Enemy hunger, feed 
him ; if he thirft, give him Drink ; if this 
prevail on him, thou fubdueft an Enemy, and 
gaincft a Friend; if he per-fifts flill in his En- 
mity, in ^o doing thou heapeft Coals of Fire 
on his Head, /. e, expofeft him to the Wrath 
of God, who will be thy Avenger. Be not 
overcome and prevailed on, by the Evil thou 
receiveft, to retaliate \ but endeavour to mafter 
the Malice of an Enemy in injuring thee, by a 
Return of Kindnefs and good Offices to him. 

but condefcend to men of 
low eftate. Be not wife ia 
your own conceits. 

Recompenfe to no man ^7 
evil for evil. Provide 
things honefl in the fight 
of all men. 

If it be poffible, as 18 
much as lieth in you, live 
peaceably with all men. 

Dearly beloved, avenge 19 
not yourfelves, but rather 
give place unto wrath : for 
it is written. Vengeance is 
mine ; I will repay, faith, 
the Lord. 

Therefore if thine ene- 20 
my hunger, feed him ; if 
he thirlt, give him drink : 
for in fo doing thou fhalt 
heap coals of fire on his 

Be not overcome of 21 
evil, but overcome evil 
with good. 


Ch. XIIT, 

ROMANS. 32^ 



c N r E N r s. 

THIS Sedion contains the Duty of Chriftfans to the Civil Ma- 
giftrate. For the underftanding this right, we muft confider 
thele two things. 

1. That thefe Rules are given to Chriftians that w^re Members 
of a Heathen Commonwealth, to fhew them that by being made 
Chriftians and Subjects of Chrift's Kingdom, they were not by the 
Freedom of the Gofpel exempt from any Ties of Duty or Subjecti- 
on, which by the Laws of their Country they were in, and ought 
to obferve, to the Government and Magiftrates of it, though Hea- 
thens, any more than any of their Heathen Subjeds. But on the 
other fide, thefe Rules did not tie them up any more than any of 
their Fellow-Citizens, who were not Chriftians, from any of thofe 
due Rights, which by the Law of Nature, or the Conftitutions of 
their Country, belonged to them. Whatfoever any other of their 
F'ellow-Subjeds, being in a like Station with them, might do with- 
out finning, that they were not abridged of, but might do ftill be- 
ing Chriftians. The Rule here being the fame with that given by 
St. ^aul^ I Cor. vii. 17. ^s God has called every one^ fo let him walk. 
The Rules of Civil Right and Wrong that he is to walk by, are to 
him the fame they were before. 

2. That St. '^aul in this Diredion to the Romans., does not fo 
much delcribe the Magiftrates that then were in Rome^ as tells 
whence they, and all Magiftrates every where, have their Authori- 
ty ; and for what end they have it, and Ihould ufe it. And this he 
does as becomes his Prudence, to avoid bringing any Imputation on 
Chriftians from Heathen Magiftrates, efpecially thofe infolent and 
vicious ones of Rome., who could not brook any thing to be told 
them as their Duty, and fo might be apt to interpret fuch plain 
Truths laid down in a dogmatical way, into Saucinefs, Sedition, 
or Treafcn; a Scandal cautioufly to be kept off" from the Chriftian 
Doctrine. Nor does he in what he fays, in the leaft flatter the 
Roman Emperor, let it be either Claudius^ as fome think j or Neroy 

3 as 




Ch. XIII. as others, who then was in Poffeflion of that Empire. For he fpeaks 
^ here of the Higher lowers, i. e. the Supreme Civil Power, which 
is in every Commonwealth derived from God, and is of the fame 
Extent every where, /. e, is abfolute and unlimited by any thing 
but the End for which God gave it, (viz.) the Good of the People 
fincerely purfued, according to the beft of the Skill of thofe who 
fhare that Power, and fo not to be refilled. But how Men come 
by a rightful Title to this Power, or who has that Title, he is 
wholly filent, and fays nothing of it. To have meddled with that 
would have been to decide of Civil Rights, contrary to the Defign 
and Bufinefs of the Gofpel, and the Example of our Saviour, who 
refufed meddling in fuch Cafes with this decifiveQueftion, I'Fho made 
me a Judge or Divider over you ? Luke xii. 14. 


LET every one of you, none excepted °, be T ET every foulbefub. 
r I.' CL 1 ^\. ^' -n ^tl X-« J^" ""^^o the higher 

lubject to the over-ruhng Powers P of the powers. For there « no 

Government he lives in. There is no Power 



I • Ez'ery one, however endowed with miniculous Gifts of the Holy Ghoft, or advanced to 
any Dignity in the Church of Chrift. For that thefe things were apt to make Men over-value 
themfelvcs, is obvious from what St. Paul {^.ys to the Xlorinthinm, i Cor. xii. and here to the 

Rrjm/im, chap. xii. 3 5. But above all others, the Jews were apt to have an inward Re- 

luftancy and Indignation againft the Power of any Heathen over them, taking it to be anunjuft 
and tyrannical Ufurpation upon them, who were the People of God, and their Betters. Thcfe 
the Apoflle thought it necelFary to rcftrain, and therefore fays in the Language of the Jews, 
Every Soul, i. e. every Perfon among you, whether Jew or Gentile, mult live in SubjeAion to 
the Civil Magilirate. \Vc fee by what St. Peter fays on the like Occafion, that there was great 
need that Chrillians fhould have this Duty inculcated to them, left any among them fhould ufe 
their Lil->erty for a Cloak of Malicioufncfs or Misbehaviour, i Pet. x\. 13 — 16. The Doflrine 
of Chrillianity was a Doftiine of I/ibcrty. And St. Paul in this Epiille had taught them, that 
jll Chrillians were free from the Mofaical Law, Hence corrupt and iniftaking Men, efpccially 
Jcuifh Converts, impatient, as we have obfervcd, of any Heathen Dominion, might be ready 
to infer that Chriltians were exempt from Subicclion to the Laws of Heathen Governments. 
This he obviates by telling thcra, That all other Governments derived the Power they had from 
God, as well as that of the Jews, tho' they had not the whole Frame of their Government im- 
mediately from him as the Jews had. 

p Whether we take Powers here in the Abilraifl for Political Authority, or in the Concrete for 
the Perfons de failo, exercifing Political Power and Jurii'didion, the Senfe will be the fime, 
viz. that Chrillians, by virtue of being Chriltians, are not any way exempt from Obedience to 
the Civil Magillratcs, nor ought by any means to refill them, tho' by what is faid, ver. 3. it 



power but of God: the 
powers that be, are or- 
dained of God. 

Whofoever therefore re- 
fifteth the power, refifteth 
the ordinance of God : and 
they that refift, fhali re- 
ceive to themfelves dam- 

For rulers are not a ter- 
ror to good works, but to 
the evil. Wilt thou then 
not be afraid of the power } 
do that which is good, and 
thou fhalt have praife of 
the fame : 

For he is the minifter 
of God to thee for good. 
But if thou do that which 
is evil, be afraid; for he 
beareth not the fword in 
vain : for he is the mini- 
ft€r of God, a revenger 
to execute wrath upon 
him that doth evil. 

Wherefore ye muft needs 
be fubjed, not only for 
wrath, but alfo for con- 
fcience fake. 

For, for this caufe pay you 
tribute alfo : for they are 
God's minillers, attending 



but what is from God : The Powers that arc 
in Being are ordained by God: So that he 
who refifteth the Power, refifteth the Ordi- 
nance of God ; and they that refift will be 
puniftied by thofe Powers that they refift. 
What fliould you be afraid of? Rulers are no 
Terror to thofe that do well, but to thofe that 
do ill. Wilt thou then not live in dread of the 
Civil Power? Do that which is good and right, 
and then Praife only is thy Due from the Ma- 
giftrate. For he is the Officer and Minifter of 
God appointed only for thy good. But if thou 
doeft amifs, then thou haft reafon to be afraid. 
For he bears not the Sword in vain. For he is 
the Minifter of God, an Executioner of Wrath 
and Punift^ment upon him that doth ill. This 
being the End of Government, and the Bufinefs 
of the Magiftrate, to cherifli the good, and 
punifh ill Men, it is neceffary for you to fubmit 
to Government, not only in Apprehenfion of 
the Punifhment which Difobedience will draw 
on you, but out of Confcience, as a Duty re- 
quired of you by God. This is the Reafon 
why alfo you pay Tribute, which is due to the 
Magiftrates, becaufe they employ their Care, 
Time and Pains for the publick Weal, in pu- 


N 1* £, S, 

fcems that St. Paul meant here Magiftrates having and exercifmg a lawful Power. But whether 
the Magiftrates in being were or were not fuch, and confequently were or were not to be obey- 
ed, that Chriftianity gave them no peculiar Power to examine. They had the common Right 
ef others their Fellow- Citizens, but had no diftinft Privilege as Chriftians. And therefore we 
fee, ver. 7. where he enjoins the paying of Tribute and Cuftom, ^V. it is in thefe Words ; 
Render to all their Dues, Tribute to zuhom Tribute is due, Honour to whom Honour, &c. But who 
it was to whom any of thefe, or any other Dues of Right belong'd, he decides not ; for that he 
leaves them to be determined by the Laws and Conftitucions of their Country, 




R M A N S. 


nlflilng and reftraining the Wicked and Vici- 
ous, and in countenancing and fupporting the 
Virtuous and. Good. Render therefore to all 
their Dues: Tribute to whom Tribute is due, 
Cuftom to whom Cuftom, Fear to whom Fear, 
and Honour to whom Honour. 

continually upon this very 

Render therefore to all 
their dues : tribute to 
whom tribute is due, cu- 
ftom to whom curtora, 
fear to whom fear, honour 
to whom honour. 






CHAP. XIII. 8—14. 

E exhorts them to Love, which is in effed the fulfilling of 
the whole Law. 


OW E nothing to any body but Affedion 
and good Will mutually to one another; 
foj he that loves others fincerely, as he does 
himfclf, has fulfilled the Law. For this Pre- 
cept, Thou fhalt not commit Adultery, Thou 
ihalt not kill, Thou fhalt not Iteal, Thou fhalt 
not bear falfe Witnefs, Thou fhalt not covet ; 
and whatever other Command there be con- 
cerning ibcial Duties, it in fhort is compre- 
hended in this, Thou fhalt love thy Neighbour 
as thy feif Love permits us to do no harm to 
our Neighbour, and therefore is the ful^Uing 
of the whole Law of the lecond Table. And 
all this do, confidering that it is now high 
time that we roule our fdves up, fhake off 
Sleep, and betake our felves with Vigilancy 
and Vigor to the Duties of a Chriftian Life. 
For the rime of your Removal out of this place 
«f'Exercile and Piobationerfiiip is nearer than 

OW E no man any 
thing, but to love 
one another: for he that 
loveth another, hath ful- 
filled the law. 

For this. Thou fhalt 
not commit adultery, Thou 
fhalt not kill. Thou fhalt 
not fleal. Thou fhalt not 
bear falfe witnefs. Thou 
fhalt not covet; and if 
there be any other com- 
mandment, it is briefly 
comprehended in this fay- 
ing, namely. Thou fhalt 
love thy neighbour as thy 

Love worketh no ill to 
his neighbour : therefore 
love is the fulfiUing of the 

And that, knowing the 
time, that now it is high 
time to awake out of 
fleep : for now is our fal- 





vation nearer than when 
we believed. 

The night is far fpent, 
the day is at hand : let us 
therefore call off the works 
of darkncfs, and let us put 
on the armour of light. 

Let us walk honelUy as 
in the day; not in rioting 
and drunkennefs, not in 
chambering and wanton- 
nefs, not in ftrife and en- 
vying. : I ■ 

But put ye on the Lord 
Jeius Chrift, and make 
not provifion for the flefh, 
to fulfil the lufts thereof. 


when you firft enter 'd into the Profeflion of 
Chriftianity ^ The Night, the dark State of 
this World, wherein the Good and the Bad 
can fcarce be diftinguifhed, is far fpent. 'The 
Day that will fhew every one in his own Drcls 
and Colours, is at hand. Let us therefore put 
away the Works that we Ihould be aftiamed qf 
but in the dark ; and let us put on the Drefs J^ 
and Ornaments, that we fliould be willing to 
appear in in the Light. Let our Behaviour- 
be decent, and our Carriage fach as fears not 
the Light, nor the Eyes of Men ; not in dif- 
orderly Feaftings and Drunkennefs ; not in Dal- 
liance and Wantonnefss- nor in Strife and 
Envy ^ But walk in Nevvnefs of Life, in 
Obedience to the Precepts of the Gofpel, as be- 
comes thofe who are baptized into the Faith of 
Chrift ; and let not the great Employment of 
your Thoughts and Cares be wholly in making 
Provifion for the Body, that you may have 
wherewithal to fatisfy your carnal Lufts. 


jbh. xnr. 




N r E s. 

ti, 12 "i It feems by thef^ two Verfes, as if St. Pau/ hok''d upon Chrift's coming as not far 
off, to which there are feveral other concurrent Paffages in his Epiflles: See i Cor. i. 7. 

12 ■■ "O'TTha, Armour. The word in the Greek is often ufed for the Apparel, Clothing, and 
Accoutrements of the Body. 

1 3 « Thefe he feems to name with reference to the Night which he had mentioned, thefe be- 
ing the Diforders to which the Night is ufually fet apart. 

' Thefe probably wer^ fet down with regard to univerfal Love and Good-will, which he was 
principally here prcffing them to. 





Ch. XIV. 


CHAP. XIV. I. XV. rj. 


ST. ^aul inftru£ts both the Strong and the Weak in their mutual 
Duties one to another, in relped of things indifferent, teach- 
ing them that the Strong fhould not ufe their Liberty where it 
might offend a weak Brother : Nor the Weak cenfure the Strong 
for ufing their Liberty. 


HTM that is weak in the Faith, /*. e. not 
fully perfuaded of his Chriftian Liberty 
ill trie Ufe of fome indifferent thing, receive 
you into your Friendfhip and Converfation ", 
without any CoJ.dnefs or Diftindtion ; but do 
not engage him in Difputes and Controverfies 
about it. For fuch Variety is there in Mens 
Perfuafions about their Chriftian Liberty, that 
one believetli that he may without Reftraint 
eat all things \ another is fo fcrupulous that he 
eateth nothing but Herbs. Let not him that 
is perfuaded of his Liberty, and eateth, defpife 
him that through Scruple eateth not : And let 
not him that is more doubtful and eateth not, 
judge or cenfure him that eateth, for God hath 


HIM that is weak in 
the ftith receive you, 
but not to doubtful difpu- 

For one believeth that 
he may eat all things: a- 
nother who is weak, eat- 
eth herbs. 

Let not him that eat- 
eth, defpife him that eat- 
eth not J and let not him 
which eateth not, judge 


1 " That the Reception here fpokcn of is the receiving into familiar and ordinary Converfa- 
tion, is evident from ch,^p. xv. 7. where he directing them to receive one another mutually, ufcs 
the fame word ■s^c.oKxij.Cavi^, i. e. live together in a hcQ and friendly manner, the weak with 
the itrong, and the itrong with the weak, without any regard to the Differences among you 
»bout the Lawfulnefs of any indifferent things. Let thofe that agree or diiFer. concerning the Ufe 
©f any iBdUSerent thing, live together all alike, 


him that eateth : for God 
hath received him. 

Who art thou that judg- 
efl: another man's fervant ? 
to his own maftcr he 
ftandeth or falleth : yea, 
he fhall be holden up : for 
God is able to make hirti 

One man efteemeth one 
day above another : ano- 
ther efteemeth every day 
alike. Let every man be 
fully pcrfuaded in his own 

He that regardeth the 
day, regardeth it unto the 
Lord; and he that re- 



received ^^ him into his Church and Family : 
And who art thou that takeft upon thee to 
judge the Domeftick of another, whether he 
be of his Family or no? *Tis his own Matter 
alone who is to judge whether he be or fhall 
continue his Domeftick or no : What haft thou 
to do to meddle in the Cafe ? But trouble not 
thy ielf, he Ihall ftand and ftay in the Family. 
For God is able to confirm and eftablifti him 
there ^\ One Man judgeth ^ one Day to be 
fet apart to God more than another, another 
Man judgeth every Day to be God's alike. 
Let every one take care to be fatisfied in his 
own Mind touching the Matter. But let him 
not cenfure y another in what he doth. He 
that obferveth a Day, obferveth it as the Lord's 
Servant, in Obedience to him; And he that 


Ch. x\v. 


N r E s. 

4. ^ Sy him that edtith, ver. 3. St. Paul feems to mean the Gentiles, who were lefs fcrupii* 
\ows in the Ufe of indifferent things ; and by him that eateth Kst, the Jews, Who made a great 
Diftin6tion of Meats and Drinks, and Days, and placed in them a great, and, as they thought, 
heceffary Part of the Worfhip of the true God. To the Gentiles the Apoftle gives this Caution* 
That they fhould not contemrt the Jews, as weak narrow-minded Men, that laid fo much ftrefs 
on Matters of fo fmall moment, and thought Religion fo much concerned in thofe indifferent 
things. On the other fide, he exhorts the Jews not to judge that thofe who negledled the Jewifh 
Obfcrvances of Meats and Days were ftill Heathens, or would foon apoflatize to Heathenifm 
again : No, fays he ; God has received them, and they are of his Family ; and thou hall nothing 
to do to judge, whether they are or will continue of his Family, or no ; that belongs only to 
him, the Matter of the Family, to judge, whether they fhall flay or leave his Family* or no. 
But, notwithftanding thy Cenfure or hard Thoughts of them, they fhall not fall off or apoftatize ; 
for God is able to continue them in his Family, in his Church, notvvithflanding thou fufpedleft, 
from their free Ufe of things indifferent, they incline too much> or approach too near to Genti- 

5 " The Apoflle having in the foregoing Verfc ufed KpivHV a,7>.i'^iav l/xiTHV, for judging any 
•one to be or not to be another Man's Servant or Domeftick, he fcems here to continue the u'ord 
HfivHV in the fame Signification, i. e. for judging a Day to be more peculiarly God's. 

y This may be concluded to be the Apoffle's Senfe, becaufe the thing he is upon here, is to 
keep them from cenfuring one another in the Uk of things indifferent; particularly the Jews 
from judging the Gentiles in their Neglefl of the Obfervancc of Days or Meats. This judging 
being what St. Paul principally endeavoured here to reftrain, as being oppofite to the Liberty of 
the Gofpel, \vhich favoured a Negleft of thefe Rituals of the Law which were now antiquated. 
See Ga/. iv. 9 u. and v. i, 3. 

U u 2 obferveth 


Ch. X-IV^ 




obferveth it not, pafTes by that Obfervance as 
the Lord's Servant in obedience alfb to the 
Lord. He that eateth what another out of 
Scruple forbears, eateth it as the Lord's Ser- 
vant : for he giveth God Thanks. And he 
that out of Scruple forbeareth to eat, does it 
alio as the Lord's Servant : for he giveth God 
Thanks even for that which he doeth, and 
thinks he may not eat. For no one of us Chri- 
ftians liveth as if he were his own Man, per- 
fectly at his own Difpofal : and no one ^ of us 
dies fo. For whether we live, our Life is ap- 
propriated to the Lord • or whether we die, to 
him we die as his Servants. For w hether we 
live or die we are his, in his Family, his Do- 
meflicks'^, appropriated to him. For to this 
End Chrift died, and rofe, and lived again, 
that he might be Lord and Proprietor of us ^ 
both dead and living. What haft thou then 
to do to judge thy Brother, who is none of thy 
Servant^ but thy Equal ? Or how darcft thou 

gardeth not the day, to 
the Lord he doth not re- 
gard it. He that eateth, 
eateth to the Lord, for he 
giveth God thanks; and 
he that eateth not, to the 
Lord he eateth not, and 
giveth God thanks. 

For none of us liveth to 
himfclf, and no man dieth 
to himfelf. 

For whether we live, 
we live unto the Lord;, 
and whether we die, we 
die unto the Lord : whe- 
ther we live therefore, or 
die, we are the Lord's. 

For to this end Chrift 
both died, and rofe, and 
revived, that he might be 
Lord both of the dead and 

But why doll thou 
judge thy brother ? or 



7 * ^OvJ\cii fhould, I fuppofe, be taken here with the fame Limitation it hath in, the former 
Part of the Verfe wit'li the Pronoun M^'i- ; and fo fliould here, as tlrere, be rendered in Erigliih, 
no one of us, and not, 7io Man. St, ?aul fpeaking here only of Chriftians, this Senfe of kS'tti 
the next Verfe fcems to confirm. 

■ 8 * Thefe Words, we nre the Lord''s, give an eafy Interpretation to thefe Phrafes of eating and 
living, &c. to the Lord : For they make them plainly refer to what he had laid at the latter end of 
ver.^,' For God hath receit-ed him; fignifying that God had receivad all thofe who profefs the 
Gofpel, and had given their Names up to jcfus Chriil, into his Family, and had made them his 
Domeftitks. And therefore we fhould not judge or cenfure one another, for that every Chaiitlian 
was the Lord's DcmelHck, appropriated to .him as his menial Servant ; And therefore all that he 
'did in that State, was to be looked on as done to the Lord, and not to be accounted for to any 
body elfe. 

9 • Ki^e<<iV«, might be Lord; mull be taken fo here as to make this agree with the foregoing 
Verfe. There it was we, i. e. we Chriltians, whether we live or die, are the Lo;-d's Propriety : 
•For the LordtUedand rofe again, that we, whether Jiving or dying, fiiovild be his. 


1 1 








why doft thou fet at 
nought thy brother? for 
we fhall all Hand before 
the judgment- feat of 
Chrlft. ' ■" "■ 

For it is written. As I 
live, fiith the Lord, eve- 
ry knee fliall bow to me, 
Tiiid every tongue fhall con- 
fefs to God. 

So then every one of 
us Ihall give account of 
himfelf to God. 

Let us not therefore 
judge one another any 
more : but judge this ra- 
ther, that no man put a 
ftumbling-block, or an oc- 
cafion to fall in his bro- 
ther's way.- 

I know, and am per- 
fuaded by the Lord Jefus, 
that there is nothing un- 
clean of itfelf : but to him 
that efteemeth any thing 
to be unclean, to him it 
is unclean. 

But if thy brother be 
grieved with thy meat, 
now walkeft thou not 
charitably. Dcllroy not 
him with thy meat, for 
whom Chrill died. 

Let not then your good 
be evil fpoken of 

For the Kingdom of 
God is not meat and 
drink, but rightcoufnef=, 
and peace, and ioy in the 
Holy Ghoft. 


to think contemptibly of hinl For we ihal], 
thou, and he, and -an of us, be bought 'before? 
the Judgment-Seat of Chrift, and' thae we 
iha'll anfwer every one for himfolf to our "-Lord 
and.Mafter. For it is written,- ^:^j'ir7/t?i>, fiith 
the Lord, every Knee Ihctll how to me^ ' cind every 
'Tongue foali confefs to God, ' So then- every one 
of us fhall give an account' of hi rhfelf to God. 
Let us not therefore take lipon us'to judge one 
another; but rather come to this Judgment or 
Deterrnination of Mind, that no Man put '^ a 
Stumbling-block, or an Occafiori of falling m 
liis Brother's way. -I know, a'nd'afn fiiliy afftr- 
red by the Lord Jefus, that there is nothing un- 
clean or unlawful to be eaten of itfelf. But to 
him that accounts any thing to be unclean, to 
"him it i's 'ulicley /' " Baft ' ff thy Brother be 
grieved ^ with thY' Meat, -thy Carriage is ufi- 
charitable to him.^ ■ Deftroy not him with 
thy Meat, for whom Chriit died. Let not 
then your Liberty, ?vhich is a Good ^ you en- 
joy under the Go'fpel, be eVil fpoken of.- For 
the Privileges and Advantages of the Kingdom 
of God, do not corifift m the Enjoyment of 
greater Variety ' of Meats abd Drinks, But in 
Uprightnefs of Life, PeAte of all Kinds, and 
Joy in the Gifts andBtnefits of the Holy Ghoft 

1 1 






N T'E S, 

13 f He had before reproved the Weak that cenfured the Stro^ng in. the Ufe of their Liberty. 
He (.omes now to reftrain the Strong from offending their Vv'cak Brerhren by a 'too free Ufe^^cf 
their Liberty, in not forbearing the Ufe of it where it might g;re Offence tu the Weak- " 

15 *= Grieved aots not here fignify fimply, made forrowful for what thou doeil; but brought 
into Trouble and Difcompofure, or receives an Hurt or Wound, as every one does, who by ano- 
ther's Example does what he fuppoi'es to be unlawful. This Senre--iii conflrmed in the words, 
Dfjiroy not him with thy Meat : And alfo by what he fays, 1 Cor. viii. 9- — 13. in the like 

16 '^ Sec 1 Cor. X. 30- 

3 under 


Ch. XIV. 







under the Gofpel. For he that in thefe things 
pays his Allegiance and Service to Jelus Chrift, 
as a dutiful Subject of his Kingdom, is accep- 
table to God', and approved of Men. The 
things therefore that v^e fet our Hearts upon 
to purfue and promote, let them be fuch as 
tend to Peace and Good-will, and the mutual 
Edification of one another. Do not for a little 
Meat deftroy a Man that is the Work * of 
God, and no ordinary Piece of Workmanfhip. 
*Tis true, all Sort of whollbme Food is pure, 
and defileth not a Man's Confcience. But yet 
it is evil to him who eateth any thing fo as to 
offend his Brother. It is better to forbear 
Flelh, and Wine, and any thing, rather than 
in the Uih of thy Liberty, in any indifferent 
things, to do that whereby thy Brother ftum- 
bleth, or is offended, or is made weak s.