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Full text of "New homoeopathic pharmacopoeia & posology : or the mode of preparing homoeopathic medicines, and the administration of doses"

LIBRARY 
AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR HOMOEOPATHY 






NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 
Bethesda, Maryland 

Gift of 
The National Center for Homeopathy 




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H M <E P A T H I C 

PHARMACOPEIA & P0S0L0GY; 



OR THE 



MODE OF PREPARING HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES, 



A N D THE 



ADMINISTRATION OF DOSES. 

COMPILED AND TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN WORKS OF 

BUCHBfEB AND GRUNER, 

AND THE FRENCH WORK OF 

J A II R . 
TDitlj (Original (fontriJuttions 

B Y 

CHARLES J. HEMPEL, M.D. 



N E W -YORK: 

WILLIAM RADDE, 322 BROADWAY. 

J. E. STOHLMANN, 24 NORTH-WILLIAM-ST. 

JUNCTION OF CHATHAM. 



185 0. 



LIBRARY 
AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR HOMOEOPATHY 



W6K 
o.-L 



ENTERED 

According to Act of Congress, in the year 1850, by 

WILLIAM ItADDE, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District 
of New- York. 






H. LUDWIO AND CO., PRINTERS, N.Y. 



PREFACE. 



The work which we here offer to the public, contains 
all the new remedies, also every thing interesting and use- 
ful which is contained in the various pharmacopoeias now 
used by homoeopathic physicians, especially those of Gru- 
ner, Jahr, and Buchner. Gruner's work is arranged in 
alphabetical order, whereas Buchner classes the medicinal 
substances which we now use in our school, or which we 
may use at some future day, under the three great heads 
of Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdoms, adopt- 
ing suitable subdivisions for each head. Jahr's arrange- 
ment is a modification of Buchner 's; but, Buchner' s being 
more strictly scientific, we have preserved it in the main, 
excepting some very slight modifications. From Gruner 
we have transferred into our work the method which he 
pursues in preparing our medicines. In all cases where 
Gruner's and Buchner 's or Gruner's, Jahr's, and Hahne- 
mann's methods differ, the reader will find all of them ex- 
plained, it being left to his judgment to select either for his 
preparations. 

CHS. J. HEMPEL. 

New. York, March, 1850. 



HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES. 



Wm. Radde, 322 Broadway, New- York, respectfully informs the Homoeo- 
pathic Physicians, and the friends of the System, that he is the sole Agent 
for the Leipzig Central Homoeopathic Pharmacy, and that he has always on 
hand a good assortment of the best Homoeopathic Medicines, in complete 
sets or by single vials, in Tinctures, Dilutions and Triturations ; also, 
Pocket Cases of Medicines ; Physicians' 1 and Family Medicine Chests to 
Laurie's Domestic (60 to 82 Remedies)— EPP'S (58 Remedies)— HERING'S 
(82 Remedies).— Small Pocket-Cases, at $3, with Family Guide and 27 
Remedies.— Cases containing 415 Vials with Tinctures and Triturations for 
Physicians.— Cases with 260 Vials of Tinctures and Triturations to Jahr's 
New Manual, or Symptomen-Codex— Physicians' Pocket Cases with 60 Vials 
of Tinctures and Triturations.— Cases from 200 to 300 Vials with low and 
high dilutions of medicated pellets.— Cases from 50 to 80 Vials of low and 
high dilutions, etc., etc. Homoeopathic Chocolate. Refined Sugar of Milk, 
pure Globules, etc. Arnica Tincture, the best specific remedy for bruises, 
sprains, wounds, etc. Arnica Plaster, the best application for Corns, Urtica 
urens, the best specific remedy for Bums. Also, Books, Pamphlets, and 
Standard Works on the System, in the English, French, and German lan- 
guages. 



GENERAL VIEW 

OF SUBSTANCES TREATED OF IN THIS WORK. 

With indication of the attenuation of the most used of each medicine 
and of the method {dry or humid) by which each one is ordinarily 
prepared. 



Note 1. — The letter a. placed at the end of the name of a 
medicine, indicates that it is prepared immediately with 
alcohol ; the letters tr., on the other hand, indicate that the 
three first attenuations of a medicine are made by tritura- 
tion with sugar of milk. As to those wich are followed by 
the two signs tr. and a., they are such as may be prepared 
either the one way or the other, but preferably by tritura- 
tion. Finally, the letters aq. indicate that the first attenu- 
ation is made with pure water, the second with diluted alco- 
hol, and that it is not until the third that we make use of 
alcohol undiluted. 

Note 2. — The asterisk (*) placed before a name, indicates 
the medicines which, in default of being yet experimented 
with, do not form a part of the Materia Medica, though they 
are treated of in the Pharmacopoeias. The substances pre- 
ceded by a small zero (°), are those which are not medicines 
properly so called, but which we have nevertheless thought 
proper to treat of in this work. 

Note 3. — The cipher, placed at the end of the name of me- 
dicines, indicates the attenuation most generally used by 
Hahnemann and his disciples ; those substances which have 
no cipher appended to them, are medicines the proper dose 
of which is not yet ascertained. stands for tincture. 

* Absinthium, a. Aconitum Napellus. a. 0, 6, 18, 30. 

* Aceti acidum. aq. Actsea spicata. a. 
° Acetum. ° Adeps suilla. 
Acidum benzoicum. aq. ° ^Ether sulfuricus. 

fluoricum. aq. JSthusa Cynapium. a. 

" nxnlicum. aq. Agaricus muscarius. a. 0, 6, 24-, SO. 



VI 



GENERAL VIEW OF 



Agnus castus. a. 0, 9, 1 8. 

* Albumen, tr. 
° Alcool. 

* Allium sativum, a. 
Aloes gummi. tr. a. 0. 
Alumina, tr. 30. 
Ambra grisea, tr. 3, 6. 

* Ammoniacum gummi. tr. 
Ammonium carbonicum. tr. 3, 18. 

* Ammonium causticum. aq. 
Ammordum muriaticum. tr. 12. 
Anacardium orientale. tr. a. 30. 
Angustura. tr. a. 
Antimonium crudum, tr. 3, 12. 

* Antimonium metallicum, tr. 
°Aqua destillata. 

* Aquilegia vulgaris, a. 

* Archangelica officinalis, a. 
Argentum foliatum. tr. 3, 6. 
*Argentum nitricum. aq. 
*Aristolochia Clematitis_. a. 
*Armoracia officinalis, a. 
Arnica montana. a. 0, 6, 12. 
Arsenicum album, a. tr. 3, 18, 30. 

* Arsenicum citrinum. tr. 

* Arsenicum metallicum. tr. 

* Arsenicum rubrum. tr. 
Artemisia vulgaris, a. 
Arum maculatum. a. 
Asa fcetida. a. 9. 
Asarum europseum. a. 12. 

* Asparagus officinalis, a. 

* Atriplex olida. a. 
Aurum foliatum. tr. 3, 12. 

* Aurum fulminans. a. 
Aurum muriaticum. a. 

* Barbus. tr. 

* Baryta acetica. aq. 
Baryta carbonica. tor. 3, 18. 

* Baryta caustica. a. 
Baryta muriatica. 0, 3, 18. 
Belladonna, a. 0, 12.30. 
Berberis vulgaris, a. 30. 
Bismuthum. tr. 3, 30. 

* Bismuthum metallicum. tr. 

* Boletus Satanas. tr. 
Borax veneta. tr. 3, 30. 
Bovista. tr. 30. 

* Bromium. a. 

Brucea anti-dysenterica. tr. a. 
Bryonia alba. «. 12. 



* Cahinca. a. 
Caladium seguinum. a. 30. 

* Calcarea acetica. aq. 
Calcarea carbonica. tr. 3.30. 

* Calcarea caustica. aq. 

* Calcarea muriatica. aq. 
Calcarea phosphorica. tr. 

* Calcarea sulmrica. tr. 

* Calendula officinalis, a. 
Camphora. a. 0. 

* Cancer fluviatilis. a. 

* Cancrorum oculi. tr. 
Cannabis sativa. a. 0, 3, 12. 
Cantharis. a. 0, 3, 12. 
Capsicum annuum. a. 9. 
Carbo animalis. tr. 15. 
Carbo vegetabilis. tr. 3, 15. 
Cascarilla. tr. a. 
Castoreum. a. 30. 
Causticum. a. 30. 

Cera, Ceratum, Cereoli. 
Chamomilla vulgaris, a. 12. 
Chelidonium majus. a. 0. 

* Chenopodium glaucum. a. 
China, tr. a. 0, 9, 30. 
Cicuta virosa. a. 30. 
Cimex lectularius. a. 
Cina. a. 9. 

Cinnabaris. tr. 9. 
Cinnamomum. tr. a. 
Cistus canadensis, a. 15. 
Clematis erecta. a. 9. 
Coccionella septempunctat. a. 3. 
Cocculus. a. 12. 
Coffea cruda. tr. a. 9. 
Colchicum autumnale. a. 15. 
Colocynthis. a. 30. 

* Conchse. tr. 30. 
Conium maculatum. a. 30. 
Convolvulus arvensis. a. 
Copaivse balsamum. a. 0, 3. 
Corallium rubrum. tr. 3, 30. 
Crocus sativus. a. 6. 

* Crotalus horridus. tr. 30. 
Croton tiglium. tr. a. 
Cubebae. tr. a. 

* Cuprum aceticum. aq. 

° Cuprum carbonicum, tr. 
Cupmm metallicum. tr. 3. 30. 

* Cuprum sulfuricum. tr. 
Cyclamen europseiun. a. 3. 



SUBSTANCES TREATED IN THIS WORK. 



VH 



Daphne indica. a. 
Diadema Aranea. tr. a. 30. 
Dictamnus albus. a. 
Digitalis purpurea, a. 0, 30. 
Drosera rotundifolia. a. 30. 
Dulcamara, a. 24. 
Elaterium. a. 

* Electricitas. 
Eugenia jambos. a. 
Eupat. perfoL a. 
Euphorbium officinal .tr. a. 30. 
Euphrasia officinalis, a. 3. 
Evonymus europseus. a. 6. 
Ferrum. tr. 3. 12. 

* Ferrum aceticum. aq. 
Ferrum chloratum s. muriat. aq. 
Ferrum magneticum. tr. 

* Fernim oxydat. hydratum. tr. 
Filix mas. a. 0, 9. 

* Formica rufa. a. 
Fragaria vesca. a. 

* Galvanismus. 

* Genista scoparia. a. 

* Ginseng, tr. a. 
Glonoine. 

Granatum. a. 0, 12. 
Graphites, tr. 3, 30. 
Gratiola officinalis, a. 9. 
Guaco. a. 
Guaiacum. tr. a. 3. 
Haematoxylum Campechian. a. 9. 
Helleborus niger. a. 0, 12. 
Hepar subfur. calc. tr. 3. 

* Heracleum sphondylium. a. 

* Hydrocyani acidum. aq. 
Hyosciamus niger a. 0, 12. 

* Hypericum perforatum, a. 
° Ichthyocolla. 

Ignatia amara. tr, a. 15. 
ifiicium anisatum. a. 
Indigo, tr. 30. 
Iodium. a. 30. 
Ipecacuanha, tr. a. 9. 
Jalappa. tr. a. 

* Jalappse magisterium. tr. a. 
Jatropha Curcas. tr. 30. 

* Juglans regia. a. 

* Juncus pilosus. a. 
Kali bichromicum. to: 

Kali carbonicum. tr. aq. 3, 30. 



* Kah causticum. a. 
Kah chloricum. aq. 0, 3. 

Kah hydriodicum. tr. 3., or aq. 
Kalmia latifolia. a. 
Kreasotum. a. 3. 30. 
Lachesis. tr. 30. 
Lactuca virosa. a. 12. 
Lamium album, a. 3. 
Laurocerasus. a. 6. 
Ledum palustre. a. 15. 
Lobelia lnflata. a. 
Lobeha cardinalis. a. 

* Lolium temulentum. a. 

* Lupulus. a. 
Lycopodium. tr. 24. 
Magnes artificialis. 

* Magnesia calcinata. 
Magnesia carbonica. tr. 30. 
Magnesia muriatica. aq. 
Magnesia sulfurica. tr. 
Manganum carbonicum. tr. 30. 

* Manganum aceticum. a. 

* Manganum metallicum. tr. 
*Meloe majalis. 

* Meloe proscaraba3us. a. 
Menyanthes trifoliata. a. 30. 
Mephitis putorius. tr. 30. 
Mercuriahs perennis. a. 
Mercurius (vivus et solub.) tr. 1, 3, 30 . 

* Mercurius acetatus. tr. 
Mercurius corrosivus s. sublim. aq. 

3, 12. 

* Mercurius dulcis, tr. 

* Merc, prrecip. albus. tr. 
*Merc. prase, ruber, tr. 
Mezereum. a. 0, 3, 15. 
Millefolium, a. 0. 

* Molybdenum, tr. 

* Molybdaeni acidum. tr. 
Moschus. tr. 1, 3. 
Muriatis acidum. aq. 3. 
Natrum carbonicum. tr. 12. 

* Natrum causticum. aq. 
Natrum muriaticum. tr. 12. 
Natrum nitricum. tr. 

* Natrum sulfuratum. tr. 
Natrum sulfuricum. tr. 
Niccolum carbonicum. tr. 30. 
Nitrum. tr. 24. 

Nitri acidum. aq. 3. 



GENERAL. VIEW UK .SUBSTANCES, &.C. 



Nitri spiritus dulcis. 
Nux juglans. a. 
Nux raoschata. tr. 3, 12, 30. 
Nux vomica, tr. a. 15. 

* CEnanthe crocata. tr. a. 6. 
Oleander, tr. a. 6. 

Oleum animale. tr. 30. 
Oleum jecoris morrhuaj. tr. a. 
Oleum olivarum. 
Oniscus Asellus. tr. a. 

* Ononis spinosa. a. 
Opium, tr. a. 0, 6. 

* Osmium, tr. 

* Ovi membrana. tr. 

* Hadus avium, a. 
Pseonia officinalis, a. 3. 
Paris quadrifolia. a. 9. 
Petroleum, tr. 18. 30. 
Petroselinum. a. 0, 3. 
Phellandrium aquaticum. tr. a. 6. 
Phosphorus, tr. 3, 30. 
Phosphori acidum. aq. 3. 

* Pichurim. tr. a. 
Pinus sylvestris. a. 18. 
Platina. tr. 3, 6. 

* Plumbum aceticum. tr. 
Plumbum metallicum. tr. d, 12. 
Podopliyllum peltatiun. «. 
Prunus spinosa. «. 3. 
Pulsatilla nigricans, a. 12. 
Ranunculus bulbosus. a. 12. 
Ranunculus sceleratus. a. 12. 
Rapbanus. a. 

Ratanhia. tr. a. 30. 

Rhabarbarum. a- 0. 

Rhododendrurh chrysanthurn a. IS. 

Rhus radicans. ". 

Rhus toxicodendron, a. 30. 

Rhus vernix. a. 30. 

'"Rosmarinus officinalis, a. 

Ruta graveolcns. a. 12. 

Sabadilla. «. 30. 

Sabina. r<. 24. 

° Saccharum lactis. 

° Saccharum sacchari. 

Sambjucus mgra. a. 3. 

Sanguinaria canadensis. 

Sapo domesticus. a. 

: - Sassafras, a. 

Sassaparilla, tr. a. 12. 

oc-calt rornutum. 0, S. 



* Sedum acre. a. 
Selenium, tr. 30. 
Senega, tr. a. 9. 
Senna, a. 6. 
Scpiae succus. tr. 30. 

* Serpentaria. tr. a. 

* Serpyllum. a. 
Silicea. tr. 30. 

Solanum mammosum. a. 15. 
Solanum nigrum, a. 15. 
Spigelia. tr. a. 0, 3, 30. 
Spongia tosta. a. 3. 
Squilla maritima. a. 18. 
Stannum. tr. 0. 
Staphysagria. a. 30. 
Stramonium, a. 12. 
Strontiana carbonica. tr. 30. 

* Strontiana caustica. a. 
Sulfur, tr. 1, 3, 30. a. 0. 

* Sulfur alcoolisatum. a. 
Sulfuris acidum. aq. 3. 
Symphytum, a. 
Tabacum. a. 6. 
Tanacetum vulgare. a. 
Taraxacum, a. 3. 
Tartarus emeticus. tr. 3, 12, 
Tartari acidum. a. 

Taxus baccata. «. 

Terebinthinse oleum, a. 

Teucriiun mar, ver. a. 9. 

Thea sinensis s. caesarea. a. 3. 

Theridion curassavicum. a. 30. 

Thuya occidentahs, a. 0, 3, 12. 

Tonga tr. <i. 

Triosteum perforatum, a. 

Tussilago pet. a. 

*Ulmus campestris. a. 

Urtica urens. a. 

Uva ursi. a. 

Valeriana officinalis, a. 12. 

Veratrum album, a. 12. 

Verbascum Thapsus. o. 3. 

* Verbena officinalis, a. 

Vinca minor. «. 

3 Vinum. 

Viola odoratn. a. '.'. 

Viola tricolor, a. 9. 

Zincum metallicimi. tr. 30. 

Zincum sulfuricum. ir. 

Zingiber officinalis, a. 

J Zf>o ma^netismuG. 



PHARMACOPOEIA. 



PART I. 

CONTAINING THE GENERAL RULES. 



§ 1. PREFATORY REMARKS. 

The adequate and perfectly reliable preparation ot 
the remedial agents is of the utmost importance to 
physicians of every school, but more particularly to 
homoeopathic physicians on account of the minuteness 
of the doses with which they operate. 

It is, therefore, indispensable, that every one who 
undertakes to prepare homoeopathic medicines, should 
be thoroughly acquainted with the demands of tht 
homoeopathic healing art ; for, without this know- 
ledge, it is impossible that we should be able to pre- 
pare the homoeopathic remedial agents in the true 
spirit and in conformity with the rules of that science. 

After premising these remarks, which we recom- 
mend to the consideration of pharmaceutists, we will 
now furnish a brief description of the utensils and the 
operations intervening in, and required for the prepa- 
ration of homoeopathic remedial agents. 

The utensils used by homoeopathic pharmaceutists 
are the same as those that are found in every well 
arranged pharmacy, except that they require to be 
used with more care. 
1 



4, GENERAL RULES. 

§ 2. HOM(EOPATHIC LABORATORIES. 

The room in which homoeopathic medicines are 
prepared, including the pounding-, cutting, triturating, 
&c, should be dry, airy, light, and protected from the 
rays of the sun, as well as from smoke, dampness, dust, 
and all emanations that might vitiate the air of the 
room. 

§ 3. UTENSILS. 

In this room all the utensils used for the prepara- 
tion of homoeopathic medicines should be kept, espe- 
cially the mortars, glass-vessels, corks, balances, 
spoons, spatulse, &c. Copper and brass vessels 
should be avoided ; if a mortar of metal should have 
to be used on account of the hardness of some sub- 
stances, it should be an iron one, which is to be per- 
fectly smooth on the inner surface, and should be kept 
polished constantly ; except such iron mortars, those 
which are made of white marble and provided with 
hard wooden pestles, are generally sufficient ; for the 
triturations, unglazed porcelain mortars should be 
used ; mortars made of serpentaria are too soft. 

The 'knife which is used for cutting fresh roots and 
herbs, should be well polished and free from rust ; for 
rust decomposes a great many vegetable juices in- 
stantaneously. The boards and blocks upon which the 
plants are cut, should be cleansed immediately after 
being used. 

The Vegetable juices should be expressed in vege- 
table bags or cloths, using a separate piece of cloth 
for each plant ; the smell, taste and colour of the plant 
adhere to the cloth, and cannot be removed by 
washing. 

A press may be used to express the juice, taking 
care, however, to employ a porcelain, stone, or, in the 
case of tinctures, tin press-plate. 

All vials, no matter for what use thev are destined, 
have to be rinsed in hot and then in cold water; the wa- 



MECHANICAL OPERATIONS. * 

ter is then allowed to run down, after which the vials 
are dried in a hot oven. The same rule applies to 
the jars in which the medicines are to be preserved. 

All vials should be closed with corks ; they are to 
be selected with great care : all hard, porous and dark- 
coloured corks being rejected. It is not well to soak 
them in boiling water, since this gives them an irre- 
gular shape, and a dingy colour. As soon as the corks 
shrink or become soft, new corks should at once be 
chosen. Vials containing liquids that affect the corks, 
should be closed with glass stoppers. 

We will here repeat what we said above in speak- 
ing of iron vessels, that all the utensils used in a ho- 
moeopathic laboratory have to be kept perfectly 
clean. After triturating drugs for a long time, part 
of the triturated substance will adhere to the two 
sides of the mortar so firmly, that it cannot be washed 
off ; it will, therefore, be necessary to wash the mor- 
tar with fine sand, and afterwards to dry it in a hot 
oven for the purpose of removing the odour which 
might have remained behind. After the trituration of 
acids, the adhering particles should first be acted upon 
by some suitable acid. 

§ 4. MECHANICAL OPERATIONS. 

Having briefly spoken of the utensils, we will now 
describe the various mechanical operations occurring 
in a homoeopathic laboratory, reserving to ourselves 
the right of supplying omissions on more particular 
occasions. 

It is the business of the pharmaceutist to transform 
crude drugs into remedial agents, which shall contain 
the medicinal powers inherent in the original drug, in 
such a state of development as will secure, in the best 
possible manner, their ready and complete action 
upon the human organism. Such agents will either 
appear in a dry or liquid form. All substances which, 
in their natural condition, are insoluble, have to 
undergo a previous preparation, by means of which 



4 GENERAL RULES. 

their utmost solubility in some liquid vehicle is se- 
cured. This previous preparation is Hahnemann's 
process of trituration. 

§ 5. TRITURATIONS. 

According to Hahnemann, the triturating process 
should be carried on in the manner described in the 
first volume of the Chronic Diseases. For the con- 
venience of the reader, we will transcribe Hahne- 
mann's remarks entire. 

"All those homoeopathic drugs which constitute the 
pure materia medica,* are prepared in the manner 
pointed out below ; the following anti-psorics come 
under this remark :f silica, barita carbonica, cal- 
carea carbonica, natrum carbonicum, ammonium 
carbonicum, magnesia carbonica, c arbo vegeta- 
bilis, carbo animalis, graphites, sulphur, antimo- 
nium crudum, antimonium, gold, platina, iron, zinc, 
copper, silver, tin. Lumps of these metals, not the 

* Vegetable substances which can only be had dry, are triturated in 
the same way. The millionth trituration may then be dissolved, like 
all the other substances, either in water or alcohol. In this state they 
may be preserved much better and bnger than the common tinctures, 
which easily spoil. Of the juiceless vegetable substances, oleander, thuja, 
mezereum, you may take one grain and a half, the fresh leaves, bark, 
roots, &c, and convert them into the millionth trituration, with three 
times one hundred grains of sugar of milk. Of this trituration you take 
one grain, and carry it through the vials, obtaining in this way any de- 
gree of potency that may be desired. Shake each vial twice, first 
carrying the arm up, then down. The same process of trituration may 
be resorted to in regard to the recently obtained medicinal juices. 
Squeeze the juice out of the substance, triturate one drop of it with the 
necessary quantity of sugar of milk to obtain the millionth trituration. 
Of this you take one grain, dissolve it in an equal proportion of water 
and alcohol, and then carry a drop of this mixture through the series 
of the twenty-seven vials, obtaining in this way the degree of potency 
that is desired. By triturating the juice first, the medicinal virtues of the 
drug are better developed than by simply mixing the juice with the alco- 
hol by means of two shakes. I know this from experience. 

t Phosphorus, which so easily oxydizes in the open air, is dynamized 
in the same manner, and may be dissolved in either liquid. There are 
some precautionary rules to be observed, which will be pointed out 
below. 



TRITURATIONS. 



foil, are rubbed upon a hard, fine hone under water, 
or sometimes under alcohol, for ex. : iron. Of these 
pulverized substances, you take one grain ; mercury 
may be used in the liquid state ; of petroleum, you 
take one drop instead of one grain. Pour this grain 
into an unglazed porcelain mortar. Then you take 
thirty-three grains of sugar of milk, and mix them 
with the drug by triturating the mass with some force 
for about six minutes by means of a porcelain pestle ; 
before you triturate, stir the mass for a little while 
with a spatula. Having triturated the mass, you stir 
it again for about four minutes, scraping up that part 
which covers the bottom of the porcelain mortar, and 
also that which adheres to the pestle ;* then you tri- 
turate again with great force for six minutes, without, 
however, adding anything new. This mass you 
scrape up again, for four minutes, add another thirty- 
three grains of sugar of milk, stir the new compound 
for a moment with the spatula, then triturate it for 
six minutes with the pestle, scrape it up for four mi- 
nutes, triturate again with great force for six minutes, 
scrape the mass up again for four minutes, then add 
the last thirty-three grains of sugar of milk, and with 
this last added portion proceed as with the two 
former. This powder you enclose in a well-corked 
glass, and mark it with the name of the substance, 
and the figure 100; to show that this is the one hun- 
dredth potency of the substance, f 

* When the process of trituration is completed, mortar, pestle, and 
spatula, are to be repeatedly immersed in boiling water, being carefully 
wiped and dried after every immersion. The mortar, pestle, and spatula, 
may then be exposed to a red-hot heat. This will suffice to satisfy even 
the most anxious minds that no atom of the medicinal substance has re- 
mained adhering to either mortar, pestle, or spatula. 

+ The preparation of the one hundredth potency of phosphorus by 
pulverization requires some modifications. First you take one hun- 
dred grains of sugar of milk, and, by means of fifteen drops of water, you 
make them into a sort of paste in the mortar. Then you cut one gram 
of phosphorus into twelve pieces, kneading them into a paste by means 
of the moistened pestle, together with the one hundred grains of sugar 



6 GENERAL RULES?. 

In order to prepare the degree 10000, you take one 
grain of the degree Too", and add to it thirty-three 
grains of sugar of milk. Stir up this mass for a mo- 
ment with the spatula. Then triturate it for six 
minutes, stir it up for four minutes, triturate again for 
six minutes, and then stir up again for four. After 
this you add the second thirty-three grains of sugar of 
milk, proceed then as before ; afterwards add the last 
thirty-three grains of sugar of milk, stir up and tritu- 
rate again as before, and enclose the mass in a well- 
corked vial marked 10000. 

To prepare the deg ree 1 000000 or I , you take one 
grain of the degree lOOOO, and go through the pro- 
cesses of stirring and triturating in the same way as 
before, employing upwards of an hour for the prepa- 
ration of each different potency. 

For the sake of establishing a sort of uniformity 
in preparing homoeopathic remedies, and especially 
the anti-psorics, I never carry the process of tritu- 
ration above the millionth degree. From this degree 
I derive the dilutions in their various degrees of 
potency. 

For the process of trituration a certain force should 
be employed ; not too much, however, to cause the 
mass to adhere too tenaciously to the mortar to be 
scraped up in the space of four minutes. 

From the millionth degree of trituration the dilu- 

of milk, the portions of the mass which remain adhering to the pestle 
being scraped off again while the process of kneading is carried on. In 
this way the phosphorus molecules may be triturated during the first two 
periods of six minutes each, into invisible atoms, without "a spark being 
elicited. During the third period of six minutes, the mass being suffici- 
ently pulverized, the kneading may be replaced by trituration. During 
the next eighteen minutes the process of trituration is carried on with 
moderate force, the mass being scraped up every six minutes ; this 
scraping can be easily accomplished on account of the mass being but 
slightly adherent either to the mortar or the pestle. After the sixth tri- 
turation the powder shines but feebly in the open air, and has but little 
smell. _It is then enclosed in well corked vials, and marked Phos- 
phorus 100. The next two degrees of potency, loooo and f , are prepared 
in the same way as those of the other dry medicinal substances. 



TRITURATIONS. 7 

tions* in the various degrees may be obtained by- 
dissolving these triturated substances in alcohol or 
water. Chemistry is not acquainted with the fact 
that all substances, after having been triturated up to 
the millionth degree, can be dissolved either in alcohol 
or water. 

Sugar of milk cannot be dissolved in pure alco- 
hol ; this is the reason why the first dilution should 
be composed of one half water, and one half alcohol.* 

To one grain of the millionth trituration you add 
fifty drops of distilled water, and turn the vial 
several times around its axis. By this means the 
sugar of milk becomes dissolved. Then you add fifty 
drops of good alcohol,f and shake the vial twice, 
first carrying the arm up and then down. Only two 
thirds of the vial ought to be filled with the solution.^ 

This vial is then marked with the name of the 
medicine, and the number 100 I. Of this solution 
you take one drop, and mix it with 99 or 100 drops of 
pure alcohol, shaking the vial twi ce aft er it has 
been corked. This vial is marked 10000 I. Of this 
solution you again take one drop, mixing it with 99 
or 100 drops of pure alcohol. Then shake the vial 
twice, and mark it ioooo I. Of this potency you again 
take a drop, and mix it with 99 or 100 drops of pure 
alcohol, shaking this third vial twice, and marking 
it II. In the same way you continue t he pr e paration 
and marking of the higher potencies 100 II, 10000 II, 
fil.§ The intermediate vials are put in perpendicular 

* In the beginning of my practice I gave a small portion of a grain 
of the millionth trituration at a dose. But the uncertainty of this mode 
of exhibiting the remedy, led me to the discovery of preparing the 
dilutions, and to the use of the globules, any definite number of which 
may be moistened with the dissolved drug. Homoeopathy being based 
upon a law of nature, it should avoid and exclnde all uncertainties. 

t These quantities are measured by means of vials which contain ex- 
actly fifty drops. It would be too tedious to count fifty drops of water, 
especially when the water does not flow easily out of the vial. 

t It is well to provide the vial with a mark stating the number of 
shakes, and the date when the solution was prepared. 

§ Frequent observation has convinced me that it is better to shake the 



8 GENERAL RULES. 

boxes, and are kept in the dark in order not to be 
affected by the light of day. In practice, only the 
full vials are used. 

The shaking being accomplished by means of 
moderate strokes with the arm, it is expedient that 
the vials should be large enough to have only two 
thirds of their volume filled with the hundred drops. 

Vials that have contained one medicine, ought 
never to be used for any other, even if they should 
have been previously rinsed with great care." 

The details of the mode of trituration proposed by 
Hahnemann have been somewhat modified by our 
pharmaceutists. Though it is acknowledged by all 
that trituration is the best mode of developing the 
medicinal powers of the drug, and that the triturating 
process should be conducted with the greatest care, 
order and regularity; yet it has not been deemed 
necessary to observe the details in the very same 
manner as they have been proposed by Hahnemann. 
It has not been deemed derogatory to the scientific 
character of homoeopathy to modify the number of 
minutes which Hahnemann prescribes for the various 
details of the process, or to increase the number of 
shakes in preparing the dilutions. Griiner, for in- 
stance, who is one of the most distinguished pharma- 
ceutists of our school, adopts the following mode of 
preparing the triturations and dilutions : 

"Weigh carefully a portion of the drug, add to it an 
equal portion in weight of powdered sugar of milk 
(using the coarser kind for firm or tenacious substan- 
ces), and triturate both the sugar and the drug in a 

vials twice only, in order to develop the medicinal virtue of the drug just 
enough to affect the disease in a proper manner. By shaking the vial ten 
times, as I was in the habit of doing, the proportion between the progres- 
sively developed intensity of action of the mediciual properties of the drug 
and the degree of the potency, was destroyed in favour of the former. 
The object of the dynamizing process is to develop the intensity of action 
of the medicinal properties of the drug, at the same time as that action 
is reduced to a milder tone. Two shakes are sufficient to establish the 
true proportion between these two effects. 



TRITURATIONS. 9 

mortar of sufficient capacity, until both have been 
transformed into a homogeneous mass as respects co- 
lour and fineness. At intervals, the substance which 
adheres to the mortar and pestle should be scraped 
off with a horny, or, if necessary, iron spatula. The 
homogeneous character of the preparation depends, 
in a great measure, upon the strict fulfilment of this 
condition. 

It is impossible to limit the duration of this first 
process by a general rule. This depends upon the 
greater or lesser degree of solidity of the drug. In 
every case, however, it should be continued for at 
least half an hour. There are substances, such as 
Lycopodium, which require several successive tritu- 
rations before their particles are entirely broken up, 
After the first trituration is terminated, and the drug- 
particles and those of the sugar of milk are sufficient- 
ly intermingled, a second portion of sugar of milk, 
being equal to three times the quantity of the former, 
is added, and the trituration is continued for another 
half hour, including the scraping; after which the last 
portion of sugar, equal to five times the quantity of 
the first portion, is poured into the mortar, and the tri- 
turating process continued until the whole mass pre- 
sents a perfectly homogeneous compound, even when 
viewed through a glass. This compound will- of 
course weigh ten times as much as the original drug. 
It is called the first trituration, and designated by No. 1. 

We now take a certain portion of this first tritura- 
tion, add to it nine times its weight of sugar of milk, 
and triturate these two substances together for three 
quarters of an hour in the manner described above, 
except that a little more sugar of milk may be added 
the first time than was used in making the first tritu- 
ration. This second trituration is designated by the 
figure 2. Of this second trituration we make the 
third, in the same manner as before. 

Before commencing the triturating process, care 
should be had to dry the vessels, drugs and sugar, as 
1* 



10 



GENERAL RULE?. 



perfectly as possible, and, moreover, to divide hard 
and tenacious substances as finely as can be. As re- 
gards the dividing of the metals, this process will be 
indicated more in detail in speaking of the different 
meials. Hones should not be used. Salts and preci- 
pitnt s, and the like, should first be reduced to a fine 
powder. The same observation applies to vegetable 
substances. 

Two different substances should jiot be triturated 
side by side, nor should more than 500 grains be un- 
dertaken at once. The quantity prepared should not 
last over a year, and should, therefore, be regulated 
by the demand. 

The triturating process may be continued as far as 
possible. Hahnemann closes it with the third tritu- 
ration, continuing the dynamizing process in a liquid 
form. We know by experience, that these higher dyna- 
mizations in the liquid form are perfectly efficacious." 

§ 6. DYNAMIZATIONS. 

It is contended by some that the original drug con- 
tains a spiritual agent which is the truly curative 
power of the drug, and is developed or set free by the 
triturating and shaking processes. Others contend 
that the development of the curative powers of a drug 
is a purely mechanical thing, and that the mechanical 
breaking up of the constituent particles of the drug 
constitutes that development. By the former, these 
successive developments of the original substance are 
called dynamizations, or potentizations ; by the latter, 
attenuations. These different opinions lead to impor- 
tant practical results. Those who believe in the doc- 
trine of dynamization, feel bound, under certain cir- 
cumstances, to continue the dynamizing process up to 
the 30th, and even 8000th potency, as they term it, or 
attenuation; whereas those who reject this doctrine, 
seldom employ homoeopathic preparations beyond the 
third trituration or dilution. The homoeopathic phar- 
maceutist has nothing to do with these theories ; his 



DILUTIONS, &.C. 11 

business is to furnish preparations as they are de- 
manded by physicians, and to employ every possible 
care in making them. 

§ 7. DILUTIONS OR LIQUID DYNAMIZATIONS.* 

Two-thirds of a vial are filled with one part of the 
third trituration and nine parts of distilled water, and 
shaken together at an ordinary temperature until the 
triturated substance is completely solved by the li- 
quid. This dilution is marked 4. It should be borne 
in mind, that this dilution should only be prepared for 
present use ; the inssoluble medicinal particles con- 
tained in the liquid, gradually sink to the bottom; and 
although the mixture can apparently be restored by 
renewed shaking, yet its curative qualities are prob- 
ably more or less altered. 

The fifth dilution is prepared of the fourth, by mix- 
ing up one part of the fourth with nine parts of dilute 
alcohol (see : Alcohol). For all successive dynami- 
zations or dilutions, strong alcohol is used in the pro- 
portions above indicated. 

§ 8. ARRANGEMENT AND NUMBERING OF THE VIALS. 

Before commencing the attenuations, as many vials, 
containing about one or two drachms, should be pre- 
pared, as dynamizations or attenuations are required ; 
they should be corked, and the names of the medi- 
cines and the potences marked on the corks. Labels, 
exhibiting these names and potences, should likewise 
be pasted on the vials. Afterwards, each vial should 
be filled with 90, or, if sufficiently large, with 180 
drops of alcohol. Into the vial marked with the 
lowest number, 10, or, if the vial should contain 180 
drops of alcohol, 20 drops of the medicine should 
then be dropped, and a few vigorous shakes given to 
the vial. 

From this first vial we fill ten or twenty drops into 
the next following, and prepare the next dynami- 

*See the preceding chapter. 



12 GENERAL RULES. 

zation in a similar manner by shaking the vial. And 
so on through the whole series. 

The proportion of 10 to 100 has been substituted by 
a great many homoeopathic physicians for the old cen- 
tesimal scale adopted by Hahnemann. According to 
this scale, the proportion of sugar of milk or alcohol 
to the medicinal substance is as 1 to 100. Otherwise 
the attenuating or dynamizing process is carried on 
in the same manner as for the decimal scale, 1 to 10. 

§ 9. SOLUTION OF SALTS, OILS, &C. 

Soluble salts, ethereal oils, and similar substances, 
instead of being triturated, are dissolved from the 
first. By triturating them, their constituent elements 
would be partially disunited, and a great many exer- 
cise a decomposing influence upon sugar of milk, 
which first manifests itself at the termination of the 
triturating process, and continues in the vial contain- 
ing the medicine, as may be inferred from the sourish 
smell emanating from such preparations after the 
lapse of months. 

Salts are dissolved in pure water, ethereal oils in 
the strongest kind of alcohol. With a few excep- 
tions, the decimal scale may be preserved, mixing one 
part of th s drug with nine parts of water or alcohol. 
Salts which cannot be dissolved in this proportion, 
are dissolved in the proportion of 5 to 95, this pre- 
paration being marked with a fraction, the propor- 
tional relation of the drug to the vehicle, in this case 
¥ V To obtain the first dilution, we take 20 parts of 
the above preparation and mix them with 80 parts 
of alcohol ; the second and all successive dilutions are 
formed in the proportion of 1 to 10. 

In general, in order to obtain the first dilution of 
any tincture, we proceed in this way : Take as many 
drops of the tincture, as are equal to the denomi- 
nator of the fraction marked on the label, and add 
to them as many drops of alcohol as will be equal to 
the difference between the above mentioned denomi- 



ATTENUATION OF TINCTURES. 13 

nator and the number 100. Mix them by shaking the 
vial 15 or 20 times by means of vigorous strokes of 
the arm, and mark this dilution 1. Then continue 
the dynamizing process either in the proportion of 
1 to 100, or 1 to 10. 

The following precautionary rules should be ob- 
served in preparing these solutions of salts, &c. 

§ 10. PRECAUTIONARY RULES. 

1. The solutions should be prepared at an ordi- 
nary temperature, and the room where they are kept 
should not be subject to variations of temperature, so 
that either the crystallization by cold or the conden- 
sation by warmth might be guarded against. 

2. In order to prevent any possible decomposition, 
the solutions should not be exposed to the light 
of day. 

3. The liquid should only be used as long as it re- 
mains perfectly clear and transparent ; it should be 
thrown away as soon as it becomes dim, or flocks, 
borders or crystals show themselves. 

4. Only corks of the best quality should be used, 
since corks used for solutions decay more readily than 
corks used for the alcoholic attenuations. 

5. To form the second dilution of such solutions, 
dilute alcohol should be used ; from the third dilution 
upwards the strongest kind of alcohol may be em- 
ployed. 

To these rules we will add those which require to 
be observed in preparing the dilutions of essences 
and tinctures. The preparation of the essences and 
tinctures themselves will be described hereafter. 

§ 11. ATTENUATION OF TINCTURES. 

1. Tinctures which have been prepared from dry 
plants by means of strong alcohol, require to be di- 
luted with the same kind of alcohol, according to the 
decimal scale. On the contrary, 



14 GENERAL RULES. 

2. Tinctures which had been prepared with dilute 
alcohol, and essences in the first, and sometimes even 
in the second potence, require to be diluted with 
dilute alcohol, in order that they might be obtained 
clear and without sediment, which always deteriorates 
the preparation. 

Having premised these general rules, we will now 
describe the mode of preparing tinctures from plants, 
which varies according to their constituent particles 
and chemical composition. 

§ 12. PREPARATION OF THE TINCTURES. 

We will arrange all the plants from which tinc- 
tures are prepared, in three classes, corresponding to 
the different modes adopted for the preparation of 
tinctures ; by this means we shall, moreover, be en- 
abled to avoid unnecessary repetitions in the second 
part of this work : for all we shall have to do, will be 
to refer to the class to which the plant we are speak- 
ing of, belongs. 

FIRST CLASS. 

To the first class belong all barks, roots, seeds, 
leaves, &c, which are preserved and prepared in a 
dry state. These substances should first be reduced 
to a coarse powder, after which they are mixed with 
alcohol in the proportion of 1 to 10, and, for a fort- 
night, kept in a glass-jar which is to be closed with 
wet bladder, being vigorously shaken once a day. 

To obtain a strong tincture from substances which 
are not very soluble in alcohol, we should first tritu- 
rate them, dry, for about one hour, and then transform 
them into a fine paste by adding a little alcohol. 

This proceeding should be carried on at the usual 
temperature ; nor should the tincture be exposed to 
the decomposing agency of the solar rays. 

After the lapse of a fortnight, the liquid should be 
separated from its substratum by the ordinary means, 



SECOND CLASS. 15 

pressure, and, having allowed it to settle for 24 hours, 
it is filtered through white blotting paper, and then 
kept for use. 

The strength of the alcohol used in the preparation 
of the tinctures must correspond to the nature of the 
plant. Strong alcohol of from 70 to 80 per cent, 
should be used for some, dilute alcohol for others. 

The general rules, however, laid down above, re- 
main unaltered in every case. The degree of strength 
of the alcohol to be used, will be separately indicated 
for each plant, and, if any particular rules should 
have to be observed, they will likewise be mentioned 
in their appropriate places. 

Tinctures from fresh plants are prepared different- 
ly from those of dry ones. We adopt two different 
modes of preparation, agreeably to the greater or 
lesser quantity of juice which the plants contain. 

SECOND CLASS. 

All those plants or portions of them, the juice of 
which can be obtained in a sufficient quantity by 
squeezing it out by means of a good press, constitute 
the second class* This altogether mechanical pres- 
sure being insufficient to obtain all the efficacious 
constituents of the plant, especially the volatile and 
resinous parts : it is indispensable to subject the resi- 
due to the action of strong alcohol, for which purpose 
we take a quantity of alcohol equal in weight to that 
of the obtained juice, and no more, even if the residue 
should not even be covered by the alcohol. In the 
meanwhile the vegetable juice which was obtained 
in the first instance, is kept in a lightly-guarded glass- 
vessel in a cool cellar. After the lapse of from one 
to three days, before, however, the juice has had time 
to ferment or become decomposed, the residue is 

* Before pressing out the juice, the plant should first be cut in small 
small pieces, and then pounded in a stone-mortar ; otherwise the expres- 
sion of the juice would be exceedingly imperfect. 



16 GENERAL RULES. 

again subjected to pressure, and the tincture thus ob- 
tained will contain the larger portion of the extract- 
able matter, as may be inferred from the taste, smell 
and colour of the tincture, and is then mixed with the 
juice obtained by the first pressure. This mixture 
having been allowed to settle for several days, it is 
then filtered and kept for use. 

Tinctures obtained in this way, are termed essences, 
in contradistinction to the tinctures obtained from 
dry plants. 

THIRD CLASS. 

Many plants, even when fresh, contain so little 
juice that only a very small quantity can be obtained 
even by the most persevering efforts. These form 
the third class. They are first cut in small pieces, 
after which we add double their quantity of strong al- 
cohol in weight, and then proceed as with the tinc- 
tures of the first class.* 

A similar proceeding has to be adopted with such 
plants as, by their external appearance, might seem 
to belong to the second class, but the juice of which 
is so thick that it cannot be extracted by mere 
pressure. 

The tinctures belonging to either of these three 
classes, should always be clear and without sediment. 
If a sediment should form in two or three months, 
which is the case with many essences, the liquid has 
to be filtered a second time. 

§ 13. SELECTION OF THE PLANTS. 

In the selection of plants, we should be guided by 
the following general rules : 

It is scarcely necessary to remark, that drugs of the 
best quality only should be used for our preparations. 

* Let it be understood, that, in speaking of the preparation of essences 
or tinctures, we always use strong alcohol, from 70 to 80 percent., unless 
the strength of the alcohol should be specially indicated. 



SELECTION OF FRESH PLANTS. 17 

Nevertheless, a selection may be made even if the 
drugs should appear ever so good externally. We 
sometimes get pieces of rhubarb which seem very 
sound externally, but are mouldy and worm-eaten 
within ; or seeds may appear perfectly sound, if 
judged by their colour and shape, and yet be power- 
less and altered within ; not to speak of the admix- 
ture of heterogeneous particles. 

Pharmaceutists should never forget, that the effi- 
cacy of the small doses with which the homoeopathic 
physician operates, depends in a great measure upon 
the purity and genuine power of the original sub- 
stance, and that it is, therefore, their highest duty to 
select every drug, even to the minutest portion, with 
the greatest care. Besides this does not require as 
much time as would seem, owing to the small quan- 
tities of medicine which are used in homoeopathic 
practice. 

§ 14. SELECTION OF FRESH PLANTS. 

In selecting fresh plants, the following points should 
be considered : 

a) As a general rule, the plants which grow wild 
are preferable to those that are cultivated in gardens, 
even if we can only obtain them dry, provided no vo- 
latile particles get lost by the drying.* 

b) Regard should be had to the place where the 
plants grow, for the locality has considerable in- 
fluence on the development of their medicinal virtues ; 
the luxuriant, tall and juicy appearance of a plant, is 
no guarantee for its possessing the highest quantity of 
medicinal virtue ; nor should plants which prefer a 

* Foreign plants may be ordered as follows: They should be cut in 
small pieces at the place where they grow, and then be covered with an 
equal quantity of alcohol in weight, or with double that quantity, accord- 
ing as the greater or lesser quantity of the juice may require. By means 
of a press, a very powerful tincture may be obtained from plants thus 
digested. 



18 6ENERAL RULES. 

dry soil and much sun, be gathered from a damp and 
shady locality ; or vice versa. 

c) None but sound and regularly formed plants 
should be used ; all distorted, half dried, decayed or 
otherwise injured plants should be rejected ; nor 
should plants be used which, through old age, have 
acquired a woody consistence. 

d) The plants should be kept clean, that is to say, 
free from mud, &c. They ought never to be washed, 
especially the roots ; it is by far better to beat or 
brush the dirt off. It is likewise important that 

e) The plants should not be inhabited by insects 
whose bodies or chrysalides might get into the es- 
sence or tincture. 

f) Plants should not be gathered during the early 
morning-dew, nor immediately after a shower; nor 
should they be carried about during the excessive 
heat of the day, or be closely packed. 

g) It is a matter of course, that one variety of 
plants should not be confounded with another ; plants 
gathered by paid persons, should be subjected to the 
most careful examination, lest heterogeneous sub- 
stances should remain admixed to the plant we wish 
to prepare for use. 

Whatever drugs may hereafter be introduced into 
our Materia Medica, they will have to be prepared 
by one of the above described modes. Let us now 
pass over to an examination of the vehicles by means 
of which the attenuations are prepared. These vehicles 
are : alcohol, water, sugar of milk, and, when used, 
they should be just as pure as the medicinal substan- 
ces themselves. 

§ 15. ALCOHOL. 
Alcohol {spiritus vini, spiritus vi^i alcoholisatus, 
spirits of wine, alcoholized spirits of wine) is always 
the product of art, and is formed every time that su- 
gar comes in contact with a fermentable matter in 
water, and at a suitable temperature ; the alcohol is 



ALCOHOL. 19 

developed in the course of fermentation, which, after 
this phenomenon, has been termed spirituous or alco- 
holic. Alcohol may be obtained from a great num- 
ber of vegetable substances, such as wine, beer, 
cider, malt, dregs of grapes, sugar-cane juice, germi- 
nating cerealia, pounded cherries, molasses, juice of 
carrots or beets, potatoes, honey, &c. 

Alcohol is always the same, no matter from what 
substance it is obtained, except that we have to em- 
ploy means more or less complicated to obtain it pure. 
In every case it contains more or less water, and 
very often is mixed either with acetic acid, or a small 
proportion of prussic acid or empyreumatic oil, &c, 
according to the substances from which it has been 
extracted. Alcohol Avhich comes from the labora- 
tories of chemists or pharmaceutists, and is obtained 
from the residue of some chemical preparation, such 
as the resin of jalap, is the least suitable. Nor 
should we employ alcohol extracted from potatoes, 
since it contains a large quantity of empyreumatic 
oil, which cannot be entirely removed even by means 
of the chloride of lime or pulverized charcoal. Even 
in the alcohol prepared from rye or wheat this oil 
is often found ; but in this case it is sufficient to 
mingle the spirit with a suitable quantity of pure 
olive-oil, and to shake it from time to time for several 
days ; in this way the empyreumatic oil combines 
with the olive-oil, and floats on the surface of the al- 
cohol, whence it may easily be removed. 

Pure and perfectly anhydrous alcohol is a colourless 
liquid, remarkably fluid, of a sweet and penetrating 
odour, a burning and pungent flavour ; when rubbed be- 
tween the hands, it should not lather, nor emit any fo- 
reign odour. Its specific weight is much less than that 
of water, in which it dissolves perfectly and in all 
proportions, with disengagement of heat. When ex- 
posed to the air, it partially evaporates, and the re- 
mainder loses its power by becoming saturated with 
the moisture of the atmosphere, for which it has a 



20 GENERAL RULES. 

very strong affinity. Alcohol burns with a flame 
which is white at the centre and blue at the edges, 
and leaves no residue. It dissolves a great many sub- 
stances, such as phosphorus and sulphur (both in 
small quantities), the fixed alkalies, balsams, resins, 
camphor, sugar, volatile oils, extractive matter, &c. 

Acids are strikingly affected by alcohol ; some are 
simply dissolved by it, others are transformed by it 
into ether. 

Perfectly pure alcohol has a specific gravity of 
0,791. It then does not contain a trace of water, in 
other words, is perfectly anhydrous, and marks by the 
alcoholmeter 100 degrees of force. However, alcohol 
of this strength is never used. There is always more 
or less water mixed with the alcohol of the shops, or 
with that which is used in medicine. According to 
the proportions with which water is mixed with it, 
we generally distinguish four kinds of alcohol, viz : 
1) The alcohol of commerce, this being the weakest 
quality ; specific gravity 0,910 or 0,920. 2) Rectified 
spirits of wine, dilute alcohol, obtained by mixing equal 
parts of water and strong alcohol ; specific gravity 
0,890 to 0,900, and degree of concentration 60°. 
3) Best rectified spirits of wine, or strong alcohol: spe- 
cific gravity 0,830 to 0,840, and degree of concentra- 
tion 75 to 80°. 4) Absolute alcohol : specific gravity 
0,810 to 0,820, and degree of concentration from 96 to 
100°. 

§ 16. RECTIFICATION OF SPIRITS OF WINE. 

Brandy, unless it should have a strength of 60°, 
should first be raised to this degree of strength by 
means of a careful rectification over recently burnt 
and coarsely pulverized charcoal, taking care to sepa- 
rate the part which passes over at the end, and which 
contains the largest amount of brandy, from that 
which passed over first. This being done, seven- 
eighths of large glass-globes are filled with it, intro- 
ducing at the same time a suitable quantity, say, the 



RECTIFICATION OF SPIRITS OF WINE. 21 

16th part of recently burnt and at the same time 
coarsely pulverized charcoal. In a few weeks, during 
which period the globes are to be agitated several 
times, the alcohol is separated from the powder by 
rapid filtration, and then well stirred up in a carefully 
closed alembic, with the 12th part of ordinary, skim- 
med cow's-milk. The distillation can then be carried 
on according to the usual rules. Two conditions, 
however, require to be fulfilled, in order to secure the 
obtention of a superior product. 

The first, is, to cause the vapours of the alcohol to 
pass through a layer of fresh, coarsely pulverized 
charcoal, which is to be arranged in the alembic 
above the level of the liquid, by means of the follow- 
ing contrivance, and which, at the same time, pre- 
vents the too rapid passage of the vapours. A per- 
forated tin-disk of the size of the inner periphery of 
the alembic, which is to be divided in the middle and 
united again by means of hinges, is introduced into 
the alembic, resting upon four short supporters which 
are soldered to the sides of the alembic at the re- 
quired elevation. A layer of charcoal-powder, of 
from H to 2 inches in height, is spread upon this disk. 

The second condition is the peculiar shape of the 
helm, which should be rather narrow and elongated, 
so as to secure the repulsion of a large quantity of 
the ascending vapours, and the passage only of those 
which have the least specific gravity. 

A second distillation of the alcohol thus obtained 
will only be necessary, if, at a normal temperature, 
the alcoholometer should range below 70°, and the 
brandy which was used for the first distillation, was 
of an inferior quality. This point has to be decided 
by the taste, and still more by the smell of the alco- 
holic vapours rising from a warm hand. Alcohol thus 
obtained contains about 75 to 80 per cent., and can be 
used for attenuations as well as for the preparation of 
tinctures. We will term it strong alcohol. 



22 GENERAL RULES. 

§ 17. DILUTE ALCOHOL. 

Dilute alcohol is obtained by mixing equal parts in 
volume of strong alcohol and water. This is used for 
the preparation of various kinds of tinctures, and the 
first attenuation of essences. The weaker alcohol 
which passes over towards the close of the distillation, 
should never be used in the place of dilute alcohol, as 
its smell and taste are never quite pure. Dilute alco- 
hol is, in every case, to be obtained by the direct mix- 
ture of equal parts of alcohol and water. 

§ 18. ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL, OR ALCOHOL FORTIUS. 

To obtain the strongest kind of alcohol, which is 
required for the solution of volatile oils, phosphorus, 
sulphur, and some other substances, we resort to the 
following simple method of evaporation recommended 
by Soemmering. 

After having carefully cleansed the bladder, we 
blow it up through a glass-tube attached to it, and 
suspend it in the air to dry. Having dried it, we paint 
it over with a thin coat of fishglue, and then dry it a 
second time. We then fill fths of the bladder with al- 
cohol of at least 70°, close the glass-tube by means of a 
small piece of fine wet bladder, and suspend it over a 
stove by means of a thread tied round the tube, at a 
temperature of from 30° to 40° R. This temperature 
should vary as little as possible. In about 8 or 10 
days the water, contained in the alcohol has so com- 
pletely evaporated through the bladder, that the 
strength of the alcohol has risen to 95°, or even more, 
and may rise still more if the process of evaporation 
be continued. Alcohol obtained in this way looks a 
little turbid or coloured, or, when taken out of the 
bladder, has a sweetish smell, like sugar ; it has there- 
fore to be distilled over recently burnt charcoal before 
it is fit for use. 



WATER. 23 



§19. WATER. 



Among all the vehicles used in homoeopathy there is 
not one that is more free from medicinal virtue, proper- 
ly so called, than pure "water ; but, on the other 
hand, nothing is more rare than to find this fluid in 
nature in a perfectly pure condition. Under what- 
ever form water presents itself, it is more or less 
charged with foreign matters, such as gas, salts, 
earths, &c. The purest quality of water is rain- 
water, which, as well as distilled water, has neither 
odour, nor taste, nor colour ; besides the atmospheric 
air contained in this water, there is but a small 
portion of fixed matters ; only after a storm, we find, 
occasionally, a trace of nitric acid combined with 
ammonia. The water of springs and wells constantly 
contain many kinds of neutral salts, earths, and 
muriatic compounds. As to the waters of rivers, 
lakes, and ponds, in inhabited countries, it can scarce- 
ly ever be used for homoeopathic purposes, excepting, 
however, such water as we use in New-York, and 
known as the Croton. 

Homoeopathy uses water for three different pur- 
poses, viz. : 1. for the chemical operations, which the 
purification of many primitive substances requires; 
2. for the preparation of some of the attenuations ; 
and 3. for the administration of medicines in the form 
of watery solutions. For the last of these uses, we may 
use river - or spring- water well filtered ; for the che- 
mical operations, rain-water procured during a calm, 
answers in all cases ; but for the preparation of the 
attenuations, we must have the purest water we can 
possibly obtain. The distilled water, which is found 
in common pharmacies, is not suitable ; for even if 
it has not been distilled in copper, or other metallic 
vessels, it is always to be feared that it is impreg- 
nated with foreign matters, derived from substances 
which, perhaps, but a short time previously, had been 
distilled in ihe same apparatus, and the remaining 



24 GENERAL RULES. 

particles of which are not sufficiently removed by 
the means of cleansing resorted to by common phar- 
maceutists. 

A perfectly pure water must either be prepared 
by the homoeopathic physician or a conscientious 
homosopathic pharmaceutist. The most suitable 
water to distil is rain-water, if we take care, as we 
have above remarked, not to procure that which 
falls during a storm, or when the sun shines. We 
must not, even in an ordinary rain, gather the first 
rain that falls, since this contains the impurities 
suspended in the air ; it is only after rain has fallen 
four or six hours that we are able to gather the 
water in its purest condition. Still this water con- 
tains a certain quantity of carbonic acid, and hence, 
before submitting it to distillation, we will do well 
to boil it in a porcelain vase and let it cool. 

The water which is used for the purpose of solving 
medicinal substances, should be perfectly free from 
salt, clay, or metallic particles, which are found in 
well-water. Snow- and rain-water, though purer than 
well-water, yet frequently contain a little earth, dust, 
soot, &c, and should not be used without being fil- 
tered. 

To obtain a perfectly pure water, it should be dis- 
tilled in vessels of porcelain or glass, taking care, in 
order to free the retort from all medicinal odours, to 
distil over a few pounds rather hot, and to throw them 
away as long as a little acetate of lead will render 
the product turbid. When the liquid in the retort is 
diminished two-thirds, the distillation must cease. The 
purity of the distilled water should be tested by means 
of appropriate chemical re-agents. It should be ob- 
served, that the fire under the apparatus has to be in- 
creased gradually, and that the neck of the retort has 
to be kept at a moderate temperature, by means of 
wet cloths, so that the vapour, in passing, may not 
dissolve even a trace of silex or alkali from the sides 
of the vessel. 



ETHER. 25 

The distilled water should be put into bottles or 
new jars of yellow glass, which have first to be 
carefully cleansed with part of the same water, 
and which should be kept in a cool place. 

§ 20. ETHER. 

Sulphuric ether, or, simply, ether (cether sulphuri- 
cus, spiritus sulphurico-ethereus) is a light, volatile, 
odorous and inflammable liquid. Like the other 
hydratic ethers, as the phosphoric, arsenic ethers, &c, 
it is composed of two volumes of bicarbonated hy- 
drogen gas, and one volume of vapour of water, so 
that it tnay be considered either as alcohol deprived 
of a certain proportion of the elements of water, or 
as a hydrate of bicarbonated hydrogen. Recently 
prepared, it is neither alkaline nor acid ; and when 
burnt, it shows no trace of sulphuric acid, an evi- 
dent proof that the sulphur does not enter into its 
composition. It dissolves in ten times its weight of 
water, but with alcohol and all the essential oils 
it unites in all proportions. The fixed oils also, the 
strong acids, balsams, several kinds of resins, phos- 
phorus, sulphur, bromine, and many hydrochloric 
salts, are perfectly soluble in ether. It is obtained 
by mixing concentrated sulphuric acid and alcohol, 
and distilling the mixture in a sand-bath. (See 
Mitscherlich's Chemistry, vol. r, p. 97.) 

In homoeopathy, we are not acquainted with any 
ethereal preparation, except phosphorus, which some 
have proposed to substitute for the alcoholic pre- 
paration of this substance. This substitution of 
ethereal tinctures for alcoholic tinctures, not only 
for phosphorus, but also for many other substances, 
may not be unsuitable. 

Ether, such as it is found in our shops, under the 

name of rectified ether, contains a little alcohol, of 

which it is freed by shaking it for a short time 

with double its volume of water, and when it is 

2 



26 GENERAL RULES. 

separated from the water, pour it on quick lime, 
with which it should be shaken at intervals for some 
days. In afterwards distilling this mixture, until 
there remains in the retort about two-thirds, the 
third which has passed into the recipient is per- 
fectly pure ether. Often, however, we find it adul- 
terated with a quantity of sulphuric acid, or other 
acids. The adulteration with water is known by 
the watery fluid which remains upon exposing, at a 
mean temperature, a small portion of ether to eva- 
poration. The presence of sulphuric acid betrays 
itself by its disagreeable odour, and that of other 
acids by their reddening the tincture of t lacmus. 
Finally, to preserve ether free from all deterioration, 
it should be put into little bottles, the mouths of which 
terminate in points, so that they may be hermeti- 
cally sealed by the flame of a spirit lamp. Ether 
which has been deteriorated by the action of the 
air or light, is less volatile, of an acrid and burn- 
ing taste, and miscible with water in all proportions. 
By shaking together equal portions of ether and 
distilled "water, we obtain a milky mixture, which, if 
left undisturbed, will gradually separate into its compo- 
nent parts, ether and water. If more than one eighth 
part of its volume gets lost, this is a proof that it was 
mixed with alcohol. 

§ 21. SUGAR OF MILK. 

Sugar of milk is the third vehicle used in homoeo- 
pathy. It is an essential constituent of milk, and is 
obtained by inspissating and crystallizing the whey. 
The sugar of milk of the shops is more or less mixed 
up with dust, wood, soot, &c, sometimes mouldy or yel- 
lowish, and has a musty smell and an unpleasant taste. 

To free the sugar of milk from all heterogeneous 
particles, we reduce it to a coarse powder, and dis- 
solve it by boiling it in double its quantity of distilled 
water. While yet boiling hot, we filter it through 
white blotting paper which is spread over a new fil- 
tering-cloth, into an earthen vessel of sufficient size. 



GLOBULES. 27 

and which should contain as much strong alcohol as 
we had used water for the solution of the sugar of 
milk. As soon as these two liquids come in contact 
with each other, the sugar of milk is precipitated in 
the shape of pointed crystals, which accumulate at the 
bottom, or adhere to the sides of the vessel. After 
the filtering, and before setting the vessel aside for 
cooling, it is advisable to stir the liquid well with a 
clean stick, in order to secure a more perfect inter- 
mingling of the particles. The whole process should 
be carried on at the lowest possible temperature 
which facilitates the precipitation of the sugar of milk. 
After the Japse of a few days, the liquid which floats 
over the sugar of milk is poured off* slowly, and the 
sugar, having been detached from the sides and bottom 
of the vessel, is washed once or twice with distilled 
water, after which it is spread in thin layers on clean 
paper over sieves, and carefully dried. It is then pul- 
verized as finely as possible in an iron mortar, which, 
however, requires to be perfectly clean, free from odour, 
smooth and polished. As a matter of course, the sieve 
which is used for the sugar of milk should be a very 
fine one, and not be used for other purposes. 

The sugar should be kept in a dry and airy place, 
in well closed glass or wooden jars. 

§ 22. GLOBULES. 

These are made by confectioners, and are composed 
of sugar and starch ; they can be had of various sizes, 
from that of a millet-seed to that of buck-shot. The 
whitest, driest and hardest should be selected for me- 
dicinal use ; they should all be of equal size, and not 
mixed with sugar-dust. 

After having moistened the globules with the medi- 
cine, in some suitable vial, we turn them out on paper 
with raised edges, and agitate them until they cease to 
adhere one to the other. Should we afterwards wish 

* The alcohol which is contained in this liquid, can be distilled out 
again, if carefully done, and is as good as before, though weaker. 



28 «ENERAI. RULE3. 

to put them into the same bottle in which we had 
moistened them, we should take care to dry it also be- 
fore making use of it. The complete desiccation of 
the globules, before bottling them, is absolutely indis- 
pensable, since, without that precaution, they fall into 
powder in a short time, and lose their medicinal 
virtue. 

§ 23. HOW THE MEDICINES ARE TO BE KEPT. 

Triturations should be kept in glass- vials with nar- 
row orifices ; they are to be closed with cork-stoppers, 
and those which contain volatile, strong-smelling sub- 
stances, should, in addition, be closed with soft, dry 
bladder. The vials are to be provided with labels in- 
dicating the names of the remedies and the potencies, 
and are to be placed in alphabetical order, in drawers 
of sufficient depth, each compartment containing the 
potencies of one remedy.* 

Essences and tinctures are to be kept in well cork- 
ed and well covered two or three ounce vials, in se- 
parate drawers. If necessary, large jars may be filled 
with the liquid, which should likewise be kept se- 
parately. 

The various preparations, triturations, as well as 
essences or tinctures, should be well guarded against 
the light of day. Bismuth, the mercurial preparations, 
phosphorus, hepar sulphuris, &c, require moreover 
to be kept in vials covered with black paper, or with 
a preparation of copal and incandescent soot. This 
varnish, if well dried in a hot oven, is not only very 
durable, but can easily be renewed. f 

The dilutions of the respective remedies should like- 
wise be kept separately from each other, in half ounce 
vials of a cylindrical shape, each vial being carefully 
labelled. The proper way would be to arrange draw- 

* Triturations and dilutions should never bo kept in the same drawer. 

t The bottom and neck of the vial should not be covered, so that one 
may be able to see whether the vial is clean inside. 



OF THE DISPENSATION, &C. 29 

ers or boxes in compartments, assigning a compart- 
ment to each particular series of dilutions, and again 
subdividing the compartments by means of 1 tie 
pieces of pasteboard, so that each vial of the same 
series would likewise be separated from its neighbour. 
Not only should the vials be labelled, but the names 
of the remedies and the potencies should likewise be 
marked on the corks. 

§ 24. OF THE DISPENSATION OF HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES. 

If a trituration be prescribed, we mix the desired 
portion with a sufficient quantity of sugar of milk, 
in an unglazed mortar, proceeding gradually as in 
making the triturations themselves. To mix a drop 
of medicine with sugar of milk, we use mortars that 
are glazed within, for this reason, that the moistened 
mass adheres but slightly, and the mixing is completed 
without much trouble. 

If we wish to prescribe pellets, we ^rst prep ire a" 5 
many little heaps of sugar of milk as we wish to pre- 
scribe powders, and then add to each heap the pre- 
scribed number of globules, after which we close the 
paper. Should we wish the pellets to act more 
promptly and with more energy, we first dissolve them 
in a spoonful of water, and then either swallow the 
liquid at once, or else we dissolve the pellets in a 
larger quantity of water, and take a table- or tea- 
spoonful every two or three hours, as the case 
may be. 

A third mode of administration is to make the 
patient smell the medicine. For this purpose we put 
a single globule, impregnated with the prescribed 
attenuation, in a vial such as we make use of to pre- 
serve the saturated globules, and we insert the vial 
uncorked in one of the nostrils of the patient, who in- 
spires the emanations proceeding from the globule. 
To increase the effects of olfaction, Hahnemann has 
lately preferred dissolving the globule in equal parts of 
alcohol and water, in a vial capable of holding about 



30 GENERAL RULES. 

150 drops; having shaken the mixture some seconds, 
the patient smells of it. By this process the powers 
of the globule are more developed, and the surface 
which is acted upon by the medicinal emanations is 
much larger. 

In homoeopathic prescriptions, we generally make 
use of the same abbreviations as those which are 
found in the Repertories. In the formulae, we usu- 
ally designate the number of required globules by a 
cipher, placed like the numerator of a fraction above 
the cipher indicating the degree of attenuation. 
Thus, Aurum r % means three globules of the 15th at- 
tenuation of Aurum. Others indicate the number of 
globules by points ; above all, the Germans, who then 
mark the attenuation by a Roman cipher, as for ex- 
ample : Aurum V • • •, or, Aurum V ° ° °, which, in 
each case, means, Aurum 15th, three globules. Oth- 
ers, especially in prescribing drops or grains, write 
as follows : Aurum 15th gtt ij, or, gr. ij, &c, which 
means Aurum 15th, two drops or two grains. To in- 
dicate the quantity of sugar of milk that is to be added 
to the medicine, we write, below the line mentioning 
the medicine, pulv. sacch. lact., q. s., if this quantity 
should not exceed two or three grains ; otherwise, 
if we wish to add more, we indicate the quantity by 
grains, &c. The same remarks apply to the water 
in which we would dissolve the dose, and which we 
generally indicate thus : Aq. dest. unc. 4 or 6, &c. 

If desirable, we add to the medicinal powders a few 
powders of sugar of milk without medicine, and indi- 
cate, on the same line which contains the name of the 
medicine, the numbers of the powders containing the 
medicine, and under this in another line, the numbers 
of the powders containing the sugar of milk alone. 
For example : if we wish to give the patient six 
powders, three with, and the other three without me- 
dicine, we would write, in case the powders should 
have to be taken alternately : 



OF THE DENOMINATION, &C. 31 

Aurum T %. Nos. 1. 3. 5. 
Pulv. sacch. lact. q. s. Nos. 2. 4. 6. 
Or else, if the three first of these powders contain 
the medicine : 

Aurum T 3 T . Nos. 1. 2. 3. 
Pulv. sacch. lact. q. s. Nos. 4. 5. 6. 
Another still more simple way consists in placing 
the numbers of the powders containing the sugar of 
milk, behind those which contain the medicine, and 
separate them from the latter by the following sign, 
(#), as for example : 

Aurum 3/15. Nos. 1. 3. 5. # 2. 4. 6. ; 
or : 

Aurum 3/15. Nos. 1. 2. 3. # 4. 5. 6. 

§ 25. OF THE DENOMINATION OF H0MC80PATHIC ATTENUATIONS. 

We have said, in former chapters, that unattenu- 
ated alcoholic preparations are termed essences or 
tinctures. As regards attenuations, the French simply 
designate them by the names of their numbers, viz. ; 
1st, 2d, 3d, &c, applying this denomination exclusively 
to preparations made in the proportion of 1 to 100. 
Of the preparations made according to the decimal 
scale, every other preparation only is termed 1st, 2d, 
3d, &c. The fraction of the primitive drop in each 
attenuation can easily be ascertained, since all the de- 
nominators of these fractions increase as the powers 
of 100. In the first attenuation each drop contains 
the 100th part of the primitive drop ; in the second, 
the 100 2 or the 10,000th ; in the third, the 100 3 or the 
1,000,000th part, &c, so that in the 30th each drop 
will contain the 100 30 or 100,000 10 part of the primitive 
drop. 

Preparations made according to the decimal scale, 
might likewise be termed 1st, 2d, 3d, &c, in succes- 
sive order, provided it is stated on the label and cork 
that the decimal scale has been followed ; thus : 1st at- 
tenuation (dec), 2d (dec), &c. 



32 



GENERAL RULES. 



The Germans frequently adopt the method of de- 
signating the attenuations by the fraction which each 
one contains of the primitive drop ; they say, for in- 
stance : millionth, billionth, trillionth, &c, as far as de- 
cillionth, meaning by the millionth attenuation that it 
contains the one-millionth part of the primitive drop. 
But in speaking of the billionth attenuation, the Ger- 
mans do not mean the same thing as we do in Ame- 
rica ; for by a billion the Germans Understand a mil- 
lion multiplied by itself, and so by a trillion they un- 
derstand a billion multiplied by itself, and so forth ; 
hence the billionth attenuation, in our language, 
would contain three times three ciphers, whereas in 
the German it is meant to contain four times three 
ciphers. 

Every third attenuation is designated, in Germany, 
by a Roman cipher, each additional unit in the Ro- 
man cipher corresponding to three ordinary ciphers. 

The following is a complete table of designations 
used in Germany, for the attenuations made in the 
proportion of 1 to 100. 

Mother tinctures. 6 

First attenuation = 1 = 100 =s hundredth. 

Second " = 2 = 10,000 = ten thousandths. 

Third « = 3 = I = millionths. 

Fourth " = 4 = 100 I = hundred mil- 

lionths. 

Fifth ■ -= 5 = 10,0001= ten thousand 

millionths. 

Sixth " = 6 = II = billionths. 

Seventh " = 7 = 100 II = hundred bil- 

lionths. 

Eighth « = 8=10,00011= ten thousand 

billionths. 

Ninth " = 9 = III = trillionths. 

Tenth " = 10 = 100 III = hundred tril- 

lionths. 



OF THE DENOMINATION, &.C. 



33 



Eleventh attenuation = 11 = 10,000 III = Ten thou- 
sand trillionth i. 
Twelfth M = 12 = IV = Qu 'rilli- 

onths. 



And so on : 
Fifteenth 

Eighteenth *' 

Twenty-first " 

Twenty-fourth u 

Twenty-seventh " 

Thirtieth 



= 15 = V 

= 18 = VI 
= 21 = VII 
= 24 = VIII 
= 27 = IX 
= 30 =X 



= Quintilli- 

onths. 
= Sextilli- 

onths. 
= Septilli- 

onths. 
= Octilli- 

onths. 
= Nonilli- 

onths. 
= Decilli- 

onths. 



2* 



POSOLOGY. 



PART II. 



PARTICULAR REMARKS 



ADMINISTRATION OF HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES. 

The particular mode in which homoeopathic medi- 
cines should be administered, has been the subject of 
a good deal of discussion ; but there exists just as 
great a diversity of opinions on that subject now as 
when the discussion first commenced. It is impos- 
sible to exclusively adopt any of the views about 
doses for which their respective adherents are con- 
tending, without unnecessarily limiting the curative 
resources offered by the homoeopathic Materia Me- 
dica. Though the question of doses has been ex- 
amined in several of our former publications, yet it 
has never been fully and philosophically discussed. 
It behooves, therefore, that, in this pharmacopoeia, 
the student of homoeopathy should be offered cer- 
tain rules for the administration of medicines, which 
will guide him with tolerable safety in particular 



PARTICULAR REMARKS, &.C. 35 

cases. We will examine these rules under the fol- 
lowing heads : 1. What potencies or attenuations should 
be principally used ? 2. In what form should the medi- 
cine be given ? 3. Magnitude of doses. 4. Repetition 
of doses. 5. Alternation of medicines. 6. At what time 
of day should the medicine be taken ? 



1. What potencies or attenuations should be principally 

used ? 

Before entering upon the discussion of this subject, 
we will, for convenience's sake, divide the whole 
series of potencies now in use, into four classes : lower, 
middle, higher, and highest potencies. The lower po- 
tencies or preparations range from the original forms 
of drugs (tinctures, or primitive chemical, vegetable, 
mineral or metallic substances) up to the 6th attenu- 
ation ; the middle potencies from the sixth to the 30th 
attenuation ; the higher potencies from the 30th to the 
200th, and the highest potencies from the 200th to any 
attenuation above that number. All these different 
potencies are used by their respective adherents, and 
are proclaimed by them as the best and most useful, 
or rather, only useful preparations. The student of 
medicine should not allow himself to be beguiled into 
a passive adherence to any one of these exclusive 
preferences. His duty and the interests of the sick, 
require that he should acquaint himself with all the 
views now existing in the homoeopathic ranks, relative 
to the doses which should be used in particular cases ; 
that he should subject these views to a close and im- 
partial investigation, adopt such of them as agree 
with his judgment, and reduce them to practice with 
caution and discrimination. The student of homoeo- 
pathy should scorn to swear by the words of his 
master. If this blind allegiance should be required of 
him by his master, this gentleman makes himself 



36 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

liable to the suspicion of charlatanism and unenlight- 
ened intolerance ; and, on the other hand, the student 
who submits to this species of despotism, is entirely 
unfit to practise the sacred art of healing. The series 
of potencies is like the gamut in music. A skilful 
artist may indeed construct a harmony with the vari- 
ous vibrations of the same chord, but what a much 
more beautiful and perfect harmony he might con- 
struct by a proper combination of all the sounds that 
can be elicited from all the chords of his instrument ! 
This is likewise true in regard to the various attenu- 
ations of a homoeopathic remedial agent. Either of 
the four classes into which we have divided the whole 
series of potencies, may be sufficient, in the hands of 
an able practitioner, to heal the sick ; but the cure 
will most assuredly be effected more promptly, and 
will be more thorough and permanent, by selecting 
from the whole series whatever attenuations may 
seem, in his independent judgment, to be suitable to 
the case, than by confining himself, from prejudice or 
habit, to one or two attenuations in preference to any 
other. This, however, is not literally true in all cases. 
It has been remarked by many impartial observers of 
the effects of the various attenuations of the same sub- 
stance, that, under certain circumstances, they are all, 
from the lowest to the highest, appropriate and even 
absolutely necessary in the treatment of disease. Many 
a patient has been sacrificed, under homoeopathic treat- 
ment, by the condemnable routine-habits and pre- 
judices of physicians. How many patients might 
have been saved from death, if their physicians had 
dared to give a few drops of the tincture of Aconite, 
instead of contenting themselves with a pellet of the 
30th or 200th attenuation ! Cases have come to our 
knowledge where the patients were left to die, not be- 
cause they were not given the right remedy, but ii? 
consequence of not receiving the appropriate dose, and 
where, perhaps, a stronger preparation was so clearly 
and unequivocally indicated, that the delinquent 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 37 

physician would have been declared guilty of mal- 
practice by a tribunal of enlightened and unprejudiced 
practitioners of his school. 

There are homoeopathic practitioners who would 
fain believe that it is immaterial what attenuation we 
use, provided we select the right remedy. This is a 
great and even dangerous mistake. We invite the 
student of homoeopathy to reject this doctrine, no mat- 
ter from what quarter it may come. We are assured 
that Hahnemann, in his latter days, confined himself 
exclusively to the 30th or some higher potency. If 
this be true, it by no means follows that Hahne- 
mann's example should be imitated. We are not in- 
formed of the success of his practice; we know, in- 
deed, that his practice was very large, but this is no 
proof whatever of his treatment having been a 
successful one in all cases. A physician's practice is 
scarcely ever proportionate to the real merits of the 
treatment he pursues ; on the contrary, it depends 
chiefly upon accessary causes, so much so, that many 
a deserving physician, distinguished by his skill and 
learning, is scarcely able to get along in the world ; 
whereas an ignorant pretender, who happens to be a 
bold and intriguing tactician, is looked upon as the 
leading man of the profession. If a physician succeed, 
by dint of manoeuvring, in spreading among the 
people the belief that he is the cleverest physician in 
the place, the deluded people will run to him in pre- 
ference to any other, though much superior man. Of 
course, these remarks do not apply to Hahnemann. 
They are simply intended to show that a large prac- 
tice is no proof of a physician's superior skill and suc- 
cess, and that, therefore, the large practice, which 
Hahnemann enjoyed in Paris, cannot be adduced as 
an argument in favour of the exclusive preference, 
which Hahnemann is said to have given to the high- 
er potencies. 

It does not admit of discussion, that the medicine 
which we prescribe must correspond to the disease. 



38 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

What we mean by this term " correspond " is this, that 
the medicine, in its action upon the healthy organism, 
must respond to, or be exactly similar to the patho- 
logical state ; or, in other words, to the disease for 
which the* medicine is given. The disease is, so to 
say, a problem of which the medicine should be the 
exact and perfect solution. This, however, it can only 
be, on condition, that it should be administered to the 
patient in appropriate proportions and forms. And 
here, we are naturally led to inquire : 

2. How, or in what form, should the medicine be admi- 
nistered to the patient ? 

Much, in this respect, depends upon the patient's 
taste. There are those who cannot swallow a powder 
composed of sugar of milk without feeling sick at the 
stomach. In such a case, it is a matter of course that 
we should not insist upon the patient taking the me- 
dicine in powder-form, but that he should be allowed 
to take it in such a manner as would not excite any 
unpleasant sensations in the organism. A good deal 
depends upon the disease which we are called upon 
to treat. There are pulmonary diseases which render 
the use of water exceedingly unpleasant and even dis- 
tressing ; water, in many cases of this kind, excites a 
most distressing cough, and it would not only be cruel 
but highly injudicious if we would pertinaciously pre- 
scribe watery solutions. In such cases, powders, 
drops or globules should be resorted to. Other pa- 
tients cannot swallow cold water without its produc- 
ing a most unpleasant irritation of the nerves of the 
stomach, terminating even in vomiting, rush of 
blood to the head, vertigo, fainting, sweat as from 
anxiety, and a variety of other distressing symptoms. 
How unwisely we should act, if, in such cases, we 
would administer our medicines in water ! 

The intensity of the disease is another chief consi- 
deration by which we should be guided in selecting 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 39 

one mode of administration in preference to any other. 
It is almost universally admitted by the physicians of 
our school, that, in all acute diseases, the medicines 
act better if administered in the shape of a watery 
solution. If we prescribe tinctures, we dissolve from 
one to ten and even more drops, as the case may re- 
quire, in a common tumblerful of water, first dropping 
the tincture into a perfectly clean and empty tumbler, 
and then pouring in the water, which should be fresh 
and as clear as possible, from a certain height, by 
which means the water will become sufficiently im- 
pregnated with the medicinal particles ; or, if we see fit 
to administer globules, we dissolve 8 or 10 of them in 
a common tumblerful of water, first allowing them to 
dissolve at the bottom of the tumbler, and then turn- 
ing the solution some 15 or 20 times from one tumbler 
into another backward and forward, taking care to 
always pour the water from a sufficient height. It is 
scarcely necessary to remark, that the tumblers should 
always be covered and as little exposed to heat and 
light as possible. We may likewise observe, that, in 
case more than one watery solution should be pre- 
scribed at a time, a separate spoon requires to 
be used for each medicine, and that the spoon should 
never be left in the solution, but should be placed on 
the saucer with which the tumbler is covered. Any 
thing may be used for the purpose of covering the 
tumbler, provided it does not communicate an un- 
pleasant, heterogeneous taste to the liquid contained 
in the tumbler, and provided it affords sufficient pro- 
tection from dust, emanations, odours, or whatever 
influences might weaken or otherwise deteriorate the 
medicinal virtues of the solution. If we should wish 
to administer a trituration in water, we dissolve 
about one grain of the trituration in the same way as 
has been described for the globules. 

It sometimes happens that we wish to administer 
the globules in a dry state. In this case we roll as 
many globules as wc desire the patient to take, upon 



40 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

a perfectly clean piece of white paper, or into a per- 
fectly clean and dry silver spoon, and, by this means, 
transfer them to the back part of the tongue. Here 
they should be allowed to dissolve before being swal- 
lowed. But, as the tongue is scarcely ever perfectly 
clean, the best mode of proceeding, in case we should 
intend to administer the medicine in doses of globules, 
would be, to dissolve each dose of globules in a spoon- 
ful of water, or else to swallow a spoonful of water, 
and then to place the globules upon the tongue. 

If we should have to administer tinctures and water, 
or sugar of milk does not agree with the patient, the 
best mode of administration would then be to mix 
one or more drops of the tincture, as the case may be, 
with a small teaspoonful of the best powdered white 
loaf-sugar, and divide this into the required number, 
say 10 or 12, of powders, which the patient then takes 
dry on his tongue. 

Hahnemann has proposed another mode of admi- 
nistering the homoeopathic agent, and that is by ol- 
faction. For this purpose we put one or two globules 
in a vial of some two or three inches in length and 
about one-third of an inch in diameter, cork it well, 
and, if we wish to use it, introduce the orifice of the 
vial, uncorked, into one of the nostrils of the patient, 
requesting him at the same time to inhale the ema- 
nations arising from the globules by means of several 
strong inspirations through the nose. This process 
should be repeated once, or even twice or three times 
a day. We do, however, not hesitate to confess that 
we have very little confidence in this mode. Hahne- 
mann was induced to resort to this mode, by the sup- 
posed excessive sensitiveness of certain persons to the 
action of certain medicines, or rather of medicine gen- 
erally. This sensitiveness, however, did not exist, 
and, what he supposed to be a medicinal aggravation, 
was one of the thousand phenomena which characterize 
a constitutional and therefore habitual state of nerv- 
ous irritation, known under the popular designations 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 4t 

of hysteria, hypochondria, spinal affections, or under 
the more dogmatic names of infarctus, abdominal 
congestions, spinal irritation, &c. We mean to show 
this more fully and conclusively in some future publi- 
cation. There is no doubt, however, that, in some 
cases, olfaction may be a useful mode of adminis- 
tering the homoeopathic medicine. But, in such a 
case, it is our belief that the medicine of which the 
patient is requested to smell, should not be exhibited 
in the diminutive shape of one or two globules, but in 
a respectable quantity, say a number of drops of the 
tincture, or a number of grains of the original sub- 
stance. Some time ago, for instance, we were called 
to prescribe for a lady, who was suffering with 
sick headache. She had been liable to such attacks 
for years past, and they generally lasted from 36 to 
48 hours, and were exceedingly distressing. The 
symptoms indicated Aconite, of which we left a 
quarter of an ounce to be used in the present as well 
as in subsequent attacks. The present attack had 
just been setting in, and, according to the usual expe- 
rience of the patient, it ought to have lasted some 30 
or 40 hours at least. Shortly after we left, her little 
son, who was playing by her side, broke the vial, and 
the mother involuntarily inhaled for a few minutes 
the emanations of the tincture, after which the head- 
ache disappeared quite suddenly. We have since 
tried this mode of olfaction in subsequent attacks, 
with 5 or ten drops of the tincture, without the least 
perceptible benefit. It may readily be admitted that 
every medicinal subject is surrounded with a distinct- 
ive sphere of emanations, but there are substances 
that are more particularly endowed with a power to 
affect the olfactory nerves, and these substances it is 
which, if any, we should administer by olfaction, 
but in sufficient quantity to preserve the original 
emanations. 

In chronic diseases, Hahnemann has proposed an- 
other mode of administration, which is as follows : 



42 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

We dissolve a few globules, say five or six, in ten 
tablespoonfuls of filtered water, and of this solution we 
take one tablespoonful, and mix it with a bottleful of 
filtered water, which should, at the same time, contain 
a tablespoonful of the best brandy, and a little pulver- 
ized charcoal, the brandy being intended to preserve 
the water from decomposition, and the charcoal to 
carry down whatever foul particles might have form- 
ed in the liquid. This mixture requires, of course, 
to be shaken once or twice a day, and should be 
allowed to settle before it is used. Although the 
magnitude and repetition of the dose are foreign 
to this article, yet we will state, in this place, that a 
tablespoonful of such a solution should, according to 
Hahnemann's directions, be taken once a day, either 
in the morning before breakfast, or two or three 
hours after supper. 

Lastly, we will mention another mode which has 
been resorted to by some, in order not only to dilute 
the original preparation as much as possible, but at 
the same time to develop to a greater extent its 
inherent curative properties. This mode consists in 
dissolving a drop of the lower preparation, either 
tincture or trituration, in a tumblerful of water, mix 
it well by turning the solution a number of times 
from one tumbler into another, and then take a 
tablespoonful of this solution, and mix it with an- 
other tumblerful of water as before. Of this second 
solution we may again take a tablespoonful, and 
mix it with a third tumblerful of water, and so on, 
through any number of tumblers. The last solution 
is then administered in tablespoonful doses. In our 
own practice we seldom go higher than the second 
solution, from which we derive all the advantages we 
desire. 

We would admonish the homoeopathic student not 
to imitate the ridiculous practices which have crept 
into the homoeopathic school, such as placing a few 
pellets of the homoeopathic medicine into the hands 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, AtC. 43 

of the patient, in order to communicate to him the me- 
dicinal impression through the skin. If such a thing 
have ever been possible in a single case, which we, 
however, are disposed to doubt, it is most assuredly 
an exception among a million, and should never be 
mentioned as a possible thing for many. 

Let us now pass to the third subject of our exa- 
mination : 

'3. Tlie magnitude of doses. 
This has been a subject of controversy for years 
past, and the question is no nearer a settlement now 
than it was years ago. The most speculative soph- 
isms, relative to the magnitude of doses, have been 
elevated to the rank of principles, and have either 
been consecrated by blind routine, or, without having 
produced the least change in the treatment of disease, 
have been admired by the unthinking and ignorant 
as the effusions of genius. With few exceptions, wis- 
dom was scarcely ever consulted in these speculations 
about doses. And yet, the subject seems to be quite 
simple, and really does admit of an easy and satisfac- 
tory solution. Only be unprejudiced, and desirous of 
discovering the truth. 

At the beginning of his homoeopathic practice, 
Hahnemann was in the habit of using the tinctures 
and lower triturations. After a while he stumbled 
upon the doctrine of medicinal aggravations, which he 
arrived at speculatively rather than by positive ex- 
perience. This, at least, is quite likely, though we 
are unable to assert the fact upon positive testimony. 
He must naturally have been led to the thought, that 
inasmuch as he prescribed his remedy for a state, to 
the symptoms of which the action of the medicine 
upon a healthy person was exactly analogous, the 
first effect of the remedy must have been to aggravate ' 
more or less the symptoms of the disease. And this 
idea being once fixed in his mind, how could he suf- 
ficiently guard himself against the tendency to con- 



44 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

sider true medicinal aggravations, what was in fact 
a new development, a different state of the disease ? 
To meet this difficulty, to do away with these medi- 
cinal aggravations, and, at the same time, secure the 
patient the whole benefit of the curative influence of 
the remedy, Hahnemann hit upon his well known and 
previously described mode of attenuating the medi- 
cine, using alcohol for the liquid, and sugar of milk 
for the dry attenuations. The discovery that, by 
means of this process of attenuation, the curative 
powers of the remedial agent were rendered more 
active, were, so to say, spiritualized, was made at a 
later period. 

It seems unnecessary to record in this place all the 
pretended discoveries of the speculative thinkers of 
our school, respecting the size and repetition of the 
dose. They are, in most cases, abstractions, more or 
less ingenuous, to be sure, but nevertheless without 
the least practical value. We must have rules, of 
course, by which we might be guided in the selection 
of either tinctures or potencies, and it is the duty of 
every homoeopathic practitioner to contribute by his 
own experience to a positive and satisfactory solution 
of the problem of doses. We do possess even now 
rules which seem to be sufficient for all practical pur- 
poses, and we shall endeavour to explain them to the 
student of homoeopathy, reminding him at the same 
time of the great latitude which, in spite of all exist- 
ing rules, is enjoyed by homoeopathic physicians as 
respects the determination of the proper size of the 
dose in particular cases. And yet, though every 
practitioner is disposed to arrogate to himself the 
most perfect liberty of choice, the student of homoeo- 
pathy will be struck with the harsh and obstinate ex- 
clusivism with which the various opinions respecting 
doses, oppose each other in our school. It is his 
business to study them all, and afterwards to de- 
termine for himself, by careful observation, what 
course he ought to pursue in this matter. He will 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 45 

find, for example, that some physicians confine them- 
selves to the lower preparations exclusively, others 
use only the middle potencies ; some again the higher, 
and others the highest potencies. Physicians who 
pursue this course, undoubtedly deprive themselves 
of a great many means of cure, or subject their pa- 
tients to an unnecessarily prolonged treatment. 
What course, then, is the student of homoBopathy to 
pursue in the presence of all this confusion? By 
what rules is he to be guided in the administration 
of his medicines, and more particularly in the deter- 
mination of the quantity of medicine he ought to pre- 
scribe for his patient ? We will tell him what course 
we pursue ourselves, in conjunction with all the most 
enlightened and best educated practitioners of our 
School, leaving it to him either to do likewise, or to 
modify this course as he may see fit. 

The magnitude of the dose must necessarily and 
does principally depend upon two points : 

1 ) The intensity of the disease, and 

2) The greater or lesser willingness on the part 
of the sick organism to receive the medicinal im- 
pression. 

Let us subject these conditions to a more particu- 
lar examination : 

That the size of the dose ought to be proportionate 
to the intensity of the disease, seems to be self- 
evident. As a general rule, we resort to the lower 
preparations in the treatment of all diseases that run 
a rapid course, or which, unless speedily checked, 
would soon lead to disorganizations, or the complete 
destruction of tissues. This does not only mean acute 
diseases, properly speaking, but also chronic diseases 
of great intensity and affecting the general organism 
in a dangerous and disorganizing manner. Starting 
from this position, we prefer the lower preparations : 

1) For all acute fevers with or without local in- 
flammations ; 



46 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

2) For all remittent fevers with local inflam- 
mations ; 

3) For all intermittent fevers and all intermittent 
diseases of an acute character, such as fever and 
ague, inflammatory neuralgia, &c. ; 

4) For all chronic diseases, with tendency to ter- 
minate in disorganizations, such as : syphilis, tuber- 
culous and scrofulous swellings, &c. 

5) For nervous diseases, which readily terminate 
in the destruction of parts, or in a permanent de- 
rangement of the functional power of the part affect- 
ed ; such as the various forms of acute nervous irri- 
tation, spinal irritation, seated or shifting congestions, 
spasms, convulsions, apoplexy, &c. 

6) For actual disorganizations, suppurations, ulcer- 
ations, such as blennorrhoea of the lungs, uterus, va- 
gina, phagedenic ulcers, schirrus, enlargements of or- 
gans, &c. 

As a general rule, it is safe to employ the lower 
attenuations in the treatment of the aforesaid dis- 
eases. We say, as a general rule ; for in a number 
of cases of these very diseases, the -middle or higher 
attenuations may be more conducive to a speedy 
and permanent cure. It is utterly impossible to 
furnish rules that will prove Safe and invariable 
guides to the beginning practitioner ; in spite of 
rules, he will soon feel compelled to rely upon his 
own powers of observation, his own judgment, and 
to pursue the very opposite course of what was 
pointed out to him in the books. Physicians who 
practise in the same families from year to year, enjoy 
great advantages over the beginning practitioner, as 
respects the dose which should be prescribed under 
certain circumstances. They are afforded frequent 
opportunities of studying the constitution of their 
patients and the character of the diseases to which the 
families are most liable, and hence they are better 
able to judge by the apparent phenomena of the dis- 
ease to what an extent the internal organism is 
affected, and how much medicine it will require to 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 47 

make a curative impression on the disease, and 
whether the same medicine should be continued after 
this first impression is obtained, or whether another 
medicine should be substituted for, or given in alter- 
nation with it. The beginning practitioner, being de- 
prived of these advantages of steady observation, has 
to steer his course in respect to doses with great 
caution, though even in his case the difficulties are 
by no means overwhelming, provided he enters upon 
the practice of his profession with a full knowledge 
of the pharmacodynamic virtues of our drugs, and of 
the various observations made by reliable practition- 
ers at the bed-side of their patients, regarding the 
efficacy of the various attenuations of our remedial 
agents. It being the legitimate right of every prac- 
titioner to deduce rules of practice from the clinical 
observations he is enabled to make, the student of 
homoeopathy must expect to find a good deal of spe- 
culative reasoning mixed up with sound practical 
teaching, and to see one class of practitioners attack 
the statements of another class, in many cases with a 
good deal of bitterness of feeling. What is the 
student of homoeopathy to do in the presence of these 
apparently perplexing circumstances, these contra- 
dictory statements and inferences ? To the in- 
telligent student there is but one way left, and this is 
to hear every side, to listen to every opinion, and 
then to judge for himself and pursue a perfectly in- 
dependent course. 

We have named various classes of diseases for 
which the lower attenuations seem to be preferable. 
We would now modify this general proposition, by 
stating that this preference is by no means absolute. 
The beginning practitioner should have some posi- 
tive rules to set out with in his career ; and the 
general propositions expressed in the preceding 
paragraph, are intended to subserve this purpose. 
We have already admitted that these propositions 
are not absolutely true, and the student will soon 



48 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

find, after starting on his own responsibility, that we 
do not possess a single rule in regard to the adminis- 
tration of drugs that can be implicitly relied upon. 
This is not only true as respects the magnitude, but 
also the repetition and alternation of doses. In this 
present article we confine ourselves to the magnitude 
of doses. 

Let us take an acute disease, pleurisy. We mean 
the acute form chararacterized by synochal fever, 
stitches in the side, excessive painfulness to the 
touch, oppression of breathing, &c. 

In many cases one or two doses of the thirtieth 
potency of Aconite will suffice to effect a radical 
cure; in other cases, on the contrary, the same dis- 
ease, with apparently the same symptoms, will re- 
quire repeated doses of the strong tincture, provided 
we mean to do the patient justice, and cure him 
according to the principle of Celsus, " cito, tute et 
jucunde." Or, let us take a case of inflammatory 
rheumatism, for which we will suppose Aconite to 
be the true remedy. Do we not all know that many 
severe cases of articular rheumatism have been per- 
fectly cured with the middle potencies of Aconite, 
in an incredibly short period of time, and that other 
cases, on the contrary, had to be treated with mas- 
sive doses of the tincture ? As for ourselves, we can 
answer this question in the affirmative, and we do 
so answer it with the consciousness of having ob- 
served the different effects of our remedy in appa- 
rently the same cases with an impartial and truth- 
loving mind. 

Or, let us take another class of diseases, neuralgia. 
The specific remedy for the various forms of neu- 
ralgia, with scarcely an exception, is Aconite, as we 
shall have abundant opportunities of showing on 
future occasions. Now what dose shall we give the 
patient when he requests aid for his boring, jerking, 
burning, lancinating, screwing, twisting, hard-ach- 
ing, ticking, or other pain? As we said above, Aco- 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &<J. 49 

nite is the speciiic remedy for this Protean disease, 
and the only question is as to the quantity which 
will control the adversary with the best and spee- 
diest effect. In one case where the paroxj-sms had 
returned every evening for two months in succes- 
sion, with increasing violence, and were character- 
ized by a sensation as if the malar bone were 
twisted round and would be torn out with red-hot 
pincers, we succeeded in affording immediate, com- 
plete and permanent relief to the patient, by means 
of one spoonful of a solution of six globules of the 
thirtieth attenuation of Aconite in a tumblerful of 
water. In another case characterized by a sensa- 
tion as if red-hot daggers were plunged into the 
deltoid muscle, we had to resort to fomentations 
of hot brandy and massive doses of the tincture 
of Aconite ; the paroxysms had been increasing in 
violence for a fortnight past, and for three nights 
past the patient, a lady, had almost been senseless 
on account of the pain ; she was relieved in about 
half an hour, and has never had an attack since ; 
it is now two years. In this case we gave the 
Aconite in three drop doses of the strong tincture 
every five minutes. These cases are merely men- 
tioned as illustrations, though we might adduce a 
considerable number of similar cases, all of them 
corroborative of the fact that, if we mean to do 
full justice to the patient, we have to determine 
the dose, in every case, upon its own merits. In 
other cases of neuralgia the internal use of Aconite 
seems to be entirely inefficacious. In all such cases 
we resort to the external application of the remedy. 
We mix a few drops of the strong tincture, say 
from 5 to 10, with a spoonful of good brandy, and 
rub this mixture upon the affected part, every five 
or ten minutes, until the relief is complete. It is 
instantaneous in every case, though in some cases 
the application requires to be renewed several times 
before the pain is entirely subdued. We have lately 
3 



50 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

treated several highly interesting cases of neuralgia 
by means of the external application of Aconite. 
For the benefit of the student, we will mention two 
of them. In one case the pain was seated in the 
left supra-orbital nerve. The paroxysm set on 
about 6 o'clock in the morning, went on increasing 
until one or two o'clock in the afternoon, and then 
passed off, leaving the part excessively sore and 
sensitive, and the patient, a lady of about 30 years, 
very much distressed and debilitated. The pain, 
in this case, was agonizing, and the patient was 
almost stupid while the paroxysm lasted. The strong 
tincture of Aconite was used in the manner above 
described, during the paroxysm. This paroxysm ran 
a much milder and. shorter course, and was the last 
the patient had to endure. The part felt somewhat 
numb and sensitive for a week or two after the 
disappearance Of the paroxysms, but these sjnmptoms 
gradually disappeared. The second case presented 
the following group of symptoms: The patient, a 
lady of about 35 years, had been afflicted with neu- 
ralgia of the left side of the face for about two 
months past. She had scarcely been able to sleep 
a wink during that time. The pains were shooting, 
burning, throbbing, with great soreness of the parts. 
The whole cheek was affected and the pain ex- 
tended even into the ear and down the side of the 
neck. We prescribed a little Aconite in water, to 
be taken internally. Next morning there seemed 
to be a little improvement, but so slight that the 
patient was scarcely willing to own it. We then 
applied the Aconite externally as above, and that 
night the patient slept without waking until morn- 
ing, when the pain had almost entirely disappeared. 
Next day the patient was entirely free from pain* 
We treat a number of cases of nervous toothache. 
The tooth is generally decayed, and the pain comes 
on in consequence of walking in the wind, standing 
in a draught, getting the feet wet, and similar kinds 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &('. 



of exposure. In many of these cases when the tooth 
feels sore to the touch, as if ulcerated, and the gums 
have a whitish look as if an abscess would form, 
Mercury is the specific remedy, which we then ge- 
nerally administer low ; but in a great many other 
cases, when the pain is a throbbing, hard-aching, 
agonizing pain, and the tooth is, generally speak- 
ing, not sensitive to the touch, except in cases of 
purely inflammatory toothache accompanied with 
synocha or synochus, Aconite is the specific remedy. 
In some of these cases the strong tincture of Aco- 
nite, if used internally, sets the patient almost crazy ; 
in other cases, immediate relief is obtained by intro- 
ducing into the hollow tooth a little cotton saturat- 
ed wif h one or two drops of the strong tincture ; 
other cases again require the middle attenuations of 
Aconite, or a double diluted solution of one drop of 
the tincture. It is impossible to do more for the 
student than to state facts of observation. 

In many sections of our country, fever and ague 
is a prevailing disease. We will suppose Arsenic 
and Cinchona to be two of the principal specifics 
for this disorder. We have treated cases with the 
thirtieth potency of Arsenic to our most perfect sa- 
tisfaction; whereas, in other cases, we had to use 
the first trituration. So with Cinchona. We have 
treated the severest cases with a few pellets of the 
thirtieth potency of Cinchona, cutting the disease 
short after the first paroxysm; whereas, in other 
cases, we had to use the tincture of Cinchona, and, 
in some cases, even a few grains of Quinine. These 
are facts of observation which every practitioner is 
at liberty to doubt, but which are satisfactorily es- 
tablished in our own mind. Now we would ask, 
if it be true that, under various circumstances, the 
suitable remedy has to be used in various quanti- 
ties, what is to become of the poor student who has 
been taught to confine himself to the use of one 
portion of our series of attenuations? There is 



5'2 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

danger whether he confine himself to the exclusive 
use of the lower or the middle and higher potencies ; 
but, in our opinion, the danger is greater in the 
latter case. In this matter Ave can speak from ex- 
perience, and we advise the beginning practitioner, 
if he be desirous of saving himself a great many 
heartburnings and bitter disappointments, to take 
heed of our warning voice, to cut himself loose 
from all authority, and to love and practise the 
good and the true, no matter by what side of our 
or any other school in medicine it may be offered. 

First be sure that you select the right remedy, 
and then learn to use it. Beginning practitioners are 
very apt to jump from one remedy to another, be- 
cause they do not observe any immediate effects 
from it. This mode of practising is mere guess-work, 
and is necessarily the result of ignorance. If a 
physician be not sufficiently acquainted with the 
Materia Medica, he ought not to set up as a prac- 
titioner of medicine, at any rate not on his own re- 
sponsibility. No physician should prescribe a remedy 
unless he is positively sure that it is the right one, 
and, if he be sure of this, it is his duty to use it per- 
severingly, in various forms and potencies, and to 
continue its use until it has done all the good that 
can be expected from it. In a vast number of dis- 
eases, a single remedy will be found to be sufficient 
for a cure; indeed, if the physician be sure of his 
remedy and use it properly and perseveringly, he will 
obtain results that could not have been obtained by 
the usual routine-practice, which sometimes requires 
the use of half a dozen remedies for the most ele- 
mentary disease, and boasts of effecting a cure which 
was entirely owing to the unassisted efforts of na- 
ture. 

As regards chronic diseases, it is generally supposed 
that the higher attenuations are preferable to the 
lower. This is true in many cases, but in others it 
is not true. The itch has frequently- been cured with 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 53 

the higher attenuations of Sulphur, but there are 
likewise cases that require the use of massive doses 
of Sulphur, and even the application of the sulphur- 
ointment. A chancre may have often yielded to the 
30th attenuation of Mercury : but it is now an univer- 
sally admitted fact, that the lower preparations of 
Mercury are much more reliable in the treatment of 
the various forms of syphilis than the higher. The 
lower attenuations are likewise preferable in all 
chronic diseases that threaten to terminate in the 
destruction or disorganization of organs, extensive 
suppurations, ulcerations, congestions, &c. Even in 
purely nervous diseases, hysteria, hypochondria, 
mania, &c, it may sometimes be necessary to resort 
to the lower attenuations. It is not only proper, 
but useful and frequently even necessary to com- 
mence the treatment of these diseases with the 
middle or higher attenuations ; but if the same me- 
dicine should have to be used for a long time in suc- 
cession, it may become necessary to use the lower 
preparations, though it may sometimes be of advan- 
tage to the patient that the use of the higher prepa- 
rations of the same substance should occasionally be 
resumed. In some cases it is useful to use the lower 
and higher attenuations of the same remedy in alter- 
nation. We are unable to assign any positive reasons 
for this mode of administration, except that we have 
observed beneficial effects to arise from it in many 
cases. In chronic eruptions, not syphilitic, the middle 
or higher attenuations may be resorted to first, to be 
afterwards followed by the lower, if necessary. In a 
case of phagedenic ulcers of the forehead and face, 
which broke out shortly after vaccination and had 
probably been caused by impure matter, a complete 
cure was effected in three days by two pellets of the 
800th potency of Arsenic. The cure would probably 
have been effected just as well by the first tritura- 
tion ; but inasmuch as it is important that we should 
ascertain as nearly as possible the limit beyond 



54 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

which the attenuated drug would cease to act, it is 
perfectly proper that we should select chronic cases 
for such experiments, provided we can do so without 
injuring the patient or unnecessarily protracting the 
treatment. 

It is therefore idle to say that of such a substance 
we had better use the lower, and of another sub- 
stance the higher attenuations. This would not even 
be true in regard to substances that possess more in- 
herent power than others : for we are very often 
obliged to use the lowest preparations of Arsenic or 
Aconite, whereas a few globules of the thirtieth po- 
tency of Chamomile will sometimes relieve the pa- 
tient as by a charm. Because a remedy is naturally 
more poisonous than another, it does not follow that 
we must administer it, on that account, in smaller 
doses. On the contrary, it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that the more powerful the drug is in its 
crude state, the weaker will be, proportionally, the 
attenuations ; and vice versa, the weaker the drug in 
its crude form, the more powerful will be, proportion- 
ally, the attenuations. So that we may expect 
more intense effects from the higher attenuations 
of Lycopodium, Coffea, Chamomilla, and the like, 
than from the lower preparations of these substances ; 
and, on the other hand, more intense effects from 
the lower preparations of Arsenic, Nux vomica, 
Aconite, and the like, than from the higher attenua- 
tions of these agents. Be this as it may, we are 
obliged to admit that all these general rules are based 
upon speculation, and very unsafe guides in practice. 
After all, the safest mode of practice is to treat every 
case independently of any other, and to prescribe 
such a dose of the appropriate remedy as will make 
a curative impression upon the disease. That there 
must be a proportionate amount of willingness in 
the patient's organism to receive this impression, ad- 
mits of no doujbt. We will examine this point very 
briefly. 

Persons who have never taken homoeopathic me- 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &.C. 55 

dicines are generally more easily impressed by them 
than others who have already been under homoeo- 
pathic treatment. This is particularly true in regard 
to inflammatory diseases, where, after a protracted 
alloeopathic treatment, a single dose of Aconite will 
sometimes relieve the patient as by enchantment. 
This remark applies likewise to organs that are 
acted upon for the first time by a certain medicine, 
though the same medicine might have been given to 
the same patient for diseases affecting other organs 
For instance, the patient may have taken so much 
Mercury, even in homoeopathic doses, for certain 
affections of the liver, that this organ refuses to re- 
ceive any further impression from that agent; but 
supposing he should be attacked with sore throat, 
and, for the first time, should take Mercury for this 
affection, provided, of course, that Mercury is the 
specific remedy : the action of the medicine will be 
speedily perceived by the diseased part. So with 
every other medicine. 

Affections of the larger nervous trunks require, as a 
general rule, to be treated with massive doses of the 
specific remedy. These trunks do not seem to be as 
easily impressed by medicine as other portions of the 
nervous system, from which we may infer, as has 
indeed been verified by observation, that the more 
central the diseased nervous mass, the more delicate 
should be the medicinal influence which is brought 
to bear upon it, of course within certain limits ; and, 
on the other hand, the more distant the diseased 
nerves from the central portions of the nervous system, 
the more massive should be the dose. This is certain- 
ly true as a general proposition, so much so, that 
the more external portions of the nervous system 
require very often to be acted upon by means of 
a suitable external application of the appropriate re- 
medial agent. This fact has been abundantly veri- 
fied in neuralgia, and in a variety of cutaneous 
affections-, such as itch, sycosis, syphilis; even the 
poultices which we apply to inflammatory tumours, 



56 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

abscesses, &c, may be regarded as fit illustrations 
of our general proposition. 

Hahnemann and his first disciples were possessed 
of a sacred horror against all external applications. 
He would only allow of the external use of Thuja 
in sycosis, and, in cutaneous affections generally, 
he advised to rub a weak dilution of the specific 
remedy upon those parts of the skin which were 
free from the eruption. But why should not reme- 
dies, if applied directly to the diseased spot, act 
more speedily than in this round-about way ? If it 
be at all true that, under certain circumstances, 
the remedies should be applied externally, then it 
must be true, a fortiori, that their curative influence 
is perceived the more speedily and thoroughly, the 
more exactly they are applied to the diseased spot. 
The whole question, therefore, turns on this single 
point : Is it at all proper that remedies should be 
applied externally? This question might be an- 
swered by another question : Why should not reme- 
dies, under certain circumstances, act from without 
inwards just as well as from within outwards, or 
even more expeditiously and thoroughly ? The in- 
most vital process is undoubtedly carried on from 
within outwards ; but the vital forces are likewise 
affected by external influences, either pleasantly or 
unpleasantly. These external influences stimulate 
the vital forces into action ; without them life would 
become extinct, and why should not a medicinal 
substance be, in certain conditions of the organism, 
the most appropriate stimulus for its harmonious 
activity, or rather for the restoration of that har- 
mony ? The rule for the external application of 
remedies in larger quantities seems to be quite 
simple : if the external morbid phenomena should 
have been evolved from within, the remedy should 
be administered internally, though it may be per- 
fectly proper, in some cases, to combine the exter- 
nal and internal use of the same medicine ; and in 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 57 

all cases where the external phenomena are not 
strictly evolved from within, but where the gene- 
ral organism is involved sympathetically in conse- 
quence of the local disturbance, the external or 
local application of the remedy is not only proper, 
but sometimes even necessary. 

Physicians are sometimes called upon to relieve 
their patients of drug-symptoms. Large doses of 
Mercury, for instance, may have disorganized the 
mucous membranes, and a group of symptoms may 
have developed themselves which may indicate 
Mercury as their specific remedy. Or we will state 
the case in this way : Supposing Mercury is the 
specific remedy for the ailments to which a certain 
individual is constitutionally liable, and supposing 
this individual had been poisoned by massive do- 
ses of that drug, what dose of Mercury should 
be given in case the original ailments should again 
make their appearance, and Mercury should be in- 
dicated as before? Undoubtedly the middle or 
higher attenuations. We would advise the middle 
attenuations, for the higher attenuations of Mercury 
seem ineffectual. This remark does not only apply 
to Mercury, but to every other drug. It has even been 
proposed and successfully tried in some cases, to 
combat drug-symptoms by the higher preparations 
of the substance which had produced the drug-dis- 
ease We may here remark incidentally, that by 
drug-symptoms we do not understand the symptoms 
caused by actual poisoning, but the dynamic morbid 
state, or even the pathological disorganizations which 
may have remained in the organism after the im- 
mediately poisonous effects of the drug had been 
subdued ; such as : a constitutional disposition to 
ptyalism, congestion and ulceration of the mucous 
membranes, &c, produced by the abuse of Mercury ; 
or a disposition to stupor, delirium and convulsions, 
by Opium ; or emaciation and atrophy by the 
abuse of Iodine ; or a slate of debility, general ner- 
3* 



58 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

vous derangement, a sensation of gnawing or empti- 
ness at the pit of the stomach, or even delirium tre- 
mens, caused by the abuse of alcoholic drinks. All 
such dynamic diseases produced by the abuse of 
drugs require to be treated by small doses, or rather 
the middle attenuations of the very substance which 
caused the disease, provided always that we see at 
all fit to employ them as the curative agents in 
the case before us. 

After all this reasoning, if we were asked to lay 
down positive rules for the magnitude of doses, we 
would be obliged to confess to our inability to do 
so. However, we will help the student along to 
the best of our power, and therefore propose the 
following rules for his first guidance : 

1) Use the lower preparations in all diseases 
which depend upon an acute irritation of the capil- 
lary nerves, such as acute fevers with or without 
local inflammations. 

2) In all chronic diseases with tendency to dis- 
organizations, especially in syphilis, sycosis, malig- 
nant leucorrhcea, extensive suppurations and ulce- 
rations. 

3) In all nervous diseases, with tendency to dis- 
organizations, such as spasms, convulsions, &c. 

4) In acute congestions, congestion of the brain, 
and the thoracic and abdominal viscera. 

5) In all acute diseases which run a rapid course, 
and are disposed to terminate fatally, such as : 
cholera, carditis, gastritis, apoplexy, &c 

6) In a great many cases where the same medi- 
cine has to be continued for a long time, it may be 
desirable to give the medicine in gradually increas- 
ed doses. 

Use the middle and higher attenuations : 

1) In all diseases which remain as sequela? to 
acute affections. 

2) In chronic eruptions without tendency to dis- 
organizations. 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &C. 59 

3) In purely nervous affections, such as vertigo, 
hysteria, hypochondria, without tendency to disorga- 
nizations. 

4) In all cases where a certain medicine had 
been used to excess, and where the same medicine 
is again indicated by the symptoms. 

5) In all cases of disease of the more central por- 
tions of the nervous system, such as typhus cere- 
bralis, delirium tremens, &c. 

6) In a great many cases where the diseased part 
is for the first time acted upon by the homoeopathic 
agent. 

These rules admit of a great many exceptions. 
We therefore advise the student to apply them 
with care and discretion, and now enter upon an 
examination of the fourth subject of our essay, 

The repetition of the dose. 
This subject is so intimately connected with the 
former, that a great many of the suggestions which 
we have offered in our examination of the magni- 
tude of doses, likewise apply to their repetition. 
In the early period of homoeopathy, it was thought 
proper by Hahnemann and his disciples to give but 
one dose, and to watch its effects before administer- 
ing a second dose of the same medicine. This me- 
thod, however, has been abandoned by most ho- 
moeopaths, and the most arbitrary diversity has been 
substituted in the place of this uniformity. It would 
be impossible to watch the effects of a single dose 
in every case ; physicians who have a large practice 
to attend to, could not do their patients justice, if this 
rule were a fundamental principle in the homoeo- 
pathic treatment of disease ; the practice of homoeo- 
pathy would become impossible, except upon a very 
limited scale. It is indeed unnecessary to apprehend 
all the dreadful consequences which, according to 
the speculative geniuses of our school, must result 
from an untimely repetition of the dose : if the re- 



60 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

medy prescribed should be the truly curative agent 
in the case, and the first dose should produce an im- 
provement in the state of the patient, it need not be 
feared that a second or third dose will destroy the 
good effects of the former, as has been wrongly 
supposed by some writers. The great point is, in 
the first place, to select the proper remedy, and, if it 
be administered in a proper dose, the repetition 
thereof can easily be regulated. A little practice 
will suffice to an intelligent beginner to work out for 
himself a certain mode of prescribing ; until this 
point is reached, he may avail himself of the follow- 
ing general suggestions in reference to the repetition 
of doses : 

1) In acute fevers, with or without local inflamma- 
tions, repeat the dose every hour, or at farthest every 
two hours. 

2) In chronic diseases with tendency to disorgani- 
zations, especially in syphilis, sycosis and malignant 
leucorrhoea, repeat the dose three times a day. 

3) In extensive or deep-seated suppurations and 
ulcerations, repeat the dose three times a day ; if, 
however, the suppurative process should have deve- 
loped itself out of a phlegmonous inflammation of 
the part, it may be expedient to repeat the appropri- 
ate remedy every two hours at least. 

4) In acute spasms and convulsions the remedy 
may be repeated every ten or fifteen minutes ; when 
the spasms recur at intervals of weeks or months, the 
specific remedy may be repeated every morning or 
evening, or even twice or three times a day. 

5) In acute congestions, such as congestion of the 
brain, lungs, liver, or any other organ, the remedy 
should be repeated every hour. 

6) In cholera, carditis, gastritis, apoplexy, or any 
other acute disease, which runs a rapid course and 
is disposed to terminate fatally, the medicine may bo 
repeated every five, ten, <»r fifteen minutes. 



On the administration, &c. 61 

7) In the sequelae of acute affections, the medicine 
may be repeated three or four times a day. 

8) In chronic eruptions, give the medicine once or 
twice a day. 

9) In nervous affections, without tendency to dis- 
organizations, such as vertigo, hysteria, hypochondria, 
local spasms, &c, give the medicine three or four 
times a day. 

10) In acute diseases of the higher portions of the 
nervous system, the medicine may be repeated every 
half hour, or every hour, or even two hours, accord- 
ing as the symptoms are more or less threatening. 
In simple typhus cerebralis, for instance, or in me- 
ningitis, in delirium tremens, or even in acute hydro- 
cephalus, we would advise to give the medicine 
every two hours ; though we are persuaded that an 
hourly repetition of the dpse would not do any injury 
to the patient. 

If a decided improvement should have been obtain- 
ed, the medicine may then be continued at longer 
intervals, until the patient is able to do without any. 

This is a suitable opportunity of warning the stu- 
dent and the beginning practitioner against an error 
which is but too frequently committed by the practi- 
tioners of our school. We allude, not to the too fre- 
quent repetition of the same medicine, but to the un- 
necessary change of medicines in treating a case. 
There are practitioners who use ten, fifteen different 
medicines in a case where an intelligent physician, 
one who is thoroughly acquainted with his Materia 
Medica, would effect a cure in a much easier and 
more expeditious way by means of one or two reme- 
dies. This kind of treatment is either the result of 
ignorance or of a want of faith in the efficacy of our 
remedies. There are diseases where it is necessary 
to employ different remedies, but there is scarcely a 
disease, even the higher forms of typhus, which can- 
not be effectually controlled by at most three or four 
remedies. In manv diseases, where the books advise 



62 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

the use of several remedies, one single remedy is fre- 
quently sufficient to a cure. Thus in regard to in- 
flammatory diseases, with or without local inflamma- 
tions, we are advised to commence the treatment 
with Aconite, and to change this medicine for Bryo- 
nia, Belladonna, or some other remedy, as soon as 
the synocha is subdued, and a state of synochus has 
taken its place. Now this is all wrong. If a medi- 
cine have produced a decided improvement in the 
symptoms, that is, if the symptoms remain the same, 
but are less intense, or if only some of them have 
disappeared and others remain with the same degree 
of intensity, the original medicine which caused this 
modification of the primitive group, should be con- 
tinued by all means, for this reason : that such a modi- 
fication of the original disease is not an evolution of 
a new group of symptoms, but simply a reduction of 
the former symptoms to a lesser degree of intensity. 
Let us suppose a case of inflammatory rheumatism, 
with a full and bounding pulse, high fever, pains in 
the joints and bones, swelling and inflammation of 
certain parts, or any of the other manifold symptoms 
which characterize this disease. Of course we would 
prescribe Aconite, and after using three or four doses 
of this medicine, we will suppose that the fever 
has not only abated, but has been entirely subdued, 
the pains in the joints and bones are less, and 
the inflammation is considerably reduced. This 
change in the symptoms does not constitute a new 
group requiring a different remedy ; on the contrary, 
the same remedy is still indicated, and, if continued, 
will speedily remove the remaining symptoms. As a 
general rule, the books do not distinguish between a 
reduction of the original symptoms to a lesser degree 
of intensity, and the evolution of a new or differe ' 
group of symptoms constituting a different pha. !•, 
or stage of the original disease, and requiring a 
different treatment. In the higher forms of typhus, 
for instance, groups of symptoms will sometimes de- 
velop themselves, which arc pathologically distinct 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &.C. "** 

from each other, and which therefore make it incum- 
bent upon the practitioner to change the medicine. 
As there is a reduction of the original symptoms to a 
lesser degree of intensity, so there may be an in- 
crease of these symptoms to a higher degree of in- 
tensity. 

Supposing a patient had undergone allaeopathic 
treatment for phlegmonous inflammation, or for such 
a species of inflammation as we would prescribe 
Aconite for in our practice, Aconite would still be in- 
dicated as corresponding with the original disease. 
The increase of symptoms would not constitute a new 
group pathologically distinct from the original group; 
it would simply be the original disease elevated to a 
higher degree of intensity, but absolutely identical 
in a pathological point of view, and therefore requir- 
ing the same treatment that would have been insti- 
tuted from the commencement. 

It is of the utmost importance that the student of 
homoeopathy should have these facts impressed upon 
his mind. An incredible amount of injury is inflicted 
upon the sick by the random sort of prescribing that 
a great many practitioners resort to, and which, if 
universally practised, would be a death-blow to our 
art and a disgrace to our profession. 

On the alternation of medicines. 
The alloeopathic custom of combining several medi- 
cines in one preparation, is not admitted in homoeo- 
pathic practice. It may happen, however, that two 
medicines are indicated at the same time, though 
such a thing must necessarily be very rare. If this 
should be the case, the medicines are given in alter- 
nation, first one dose of one, then, at a suitable inter- 
val, a dose of the second, then again a dose of the 
former, and so forth, until it may be deemed desir- 
able to institute a change of treatment. Sometimes 
two doses of one medicine may be given in succes- 
sion, then one dose of the second medicine, then 



G4 PARTICULAR RKMARKS 

again two doses of the former, and so on, until the 
treatment requires to be changed. 

Physicians who prescribe upon proper principles, 
and with a full knowledge of the nature of the 
symptoms, will scarcely ever deem it necessary to 
prescribe two different remedies at the same time. 
The custom of alternating two different remedies, 
has had its origin in a one-sided view of the nature 
of disease. If the symptoms of a disease were view- 
ed as they ought to be, as the phenomenal manifes- 
tation of an internal state, and if their pathological 
connection and dependence upon each other were 
properly known, it would most probably never be ne- 
cessary to prescribe two remedies at the same time. 
It is only when symptoms are viewed superficially, 
without reference to their internal unity, that it 
seems as though they were disconnected and required 
more than one remedy at a time. The method, 
adopted by many practitioners, of selecting a remedy, 
is, to take a record of the symptoms according to a 
certain plan, and then to select from among the reme- 
dies which constitute our Materia Medica, one that 
has as nearly as possible the same symptoms, and, 
if one remedy do not suffice, they will select another 
one besides, in order to be sure that the symptoms 
of the disease are, as they term it, " covered " by the 
remedies. This mode of selecting a remedy, refers 
exclusively to the subjective symptoms, the indivi- 
dual sensations of pain which are experienced by 
the patient ; it does not take cognizance of the pa- 
thological state of which these subjective sensations 
of pain are the mere external characteristics. 

Let us suppose a case, for the sake of elucidating 
our views. We are not acquainted with any differ- 
ence in the organic structure of the nerves, and yet 
their functions differ greatly from each other. This 
difference is owing to the difference existing between 
the tissues over which the nerves are distributed. 
If the eye were not. constructed as it is, the optic 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &.C. 65 

nerve would not enable us to see ; or if the nose were 
not constructed as it is, the olfactory nerve would 
not enable us to smell. There is no essential differ- 
ence between the olfactory and the optic nerves, but 
there is an essential difference between the structural 
organization of the nose and that of the eye. Or, let 
us take the pneumo-gastric nerve, which is both a 
nerve of sensation and motion. It is a nerve of sen- 
sation simply because it supplies the lining mem- 
brane of the respiratory and digestive passages, and 
it becomes a nerve of motion when it supplies the 
muscles and muscular coats of the same canals. The 
pneumo-gastric nerve supplies branches, on the one 
hand, to the larynx, the lungs, and the heart; and, 
on the other, to the pharynx, the oesophagus, the 
stomach, and the solar plenus. These different parts 
could not fulfil their organic functions without the 
assistance or vitality which they derive from that 
nerve. The branches of the nerve are essentially 
the same ; the functional differences reside in the 
structural organization of the parts over which the 
branches are distributed. 

These facts, which are well established in anatomy, 
lead to important practical results in the treatment 
of disease. Let us suppose, for example, a diseased 
condition of the pneumo-gastric nerve, an acute irri- 
tation of this nerve, or, to use the modern phrase, a 
case of neurosis, in which the various branches of 
the pneumo-gastric nerve are principally involved : 
Such a pathological slate would necessarily be cha- 
racterized by the most diversified symptoms, symp- 
toms which would apparently be disconnected, and yet 
would constitute one identical group ; for the irritation 
would be the same in every branch of the nerve, but 
the symptoms characterizing the irritation would 
differ according as the structural organization of the 
part affected would differ from that of another part. 
We might have dryness, soreness and heat in the 
larynx, with constant tickling, disposition to cough 



66 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

and hawk ; stricture across the chest, or oppression 
and soreness of the chest ; aching pain or weight in 
the region of the heart, or palpitation of the heart ; 
loss of appetite, and coated tongue, nausea, oppres- 
sion of the stomach, sensitiveness and fullness or 
bloatedness in the region and pit of the stomach, or 
a hard aching pain in the pit of the stomach ; or sen- 
sation as of a cold stone in the pit of the stomach ; sore- 
ness of the bowels, looseness or constipation ; and a 
variety of other symptoms, which it is needless to 
mention. If this or a similar group of apparently 
disconnected symptoms should occur in practice, the 
first thing that a physician would have to do, would 
be to trace the internal pathological connection of the 
symptoms ; in this way he would find out that they 
constitute an unitary group characterizing a certain 
irritation of the various branches of the pneumo-gas- 
tric nerve, and that the remedy which is to be pre- 
scribed for this group, must be one that will affect 
the pneumo-gastric nerve in a similar manner, though 
this similarity does not necessarily imply an exact 
reproduction, in our provings upon the healthy or- 
ganism, of the various symptoms constituting the 
natural group. 

Suppose now a physician were to prescribe for 
such a group as we have described, without consid- 
ering the symptoms in their totality as phenomenal 
signs of an identical pathological state, which, after 
all, is the true and essential disease, what will be 
the consequence ? The consequence will necessarily 
be, that he will endeavour to find a remedy which has 
the same or similar phenomenal signs in our Materia 
Medica, and, if one remedy be not sufficient, he will 
select two, and, if need be, three remedies, to " cover, " 
as it is termed, all the symptoms. It will be perceiv- 
ed, that this mode of selecting a remedy leaves all 
the essential features of the disease out of conside- 
ration, and necessarily leads the ph} r sician to this 
vicious mode of alternately using several remedies 
at a time. 



ON THE ADMINISTRATION, &.C. 67 

We can scarcely conceive . of a case where the 
alternate use of several remedies at a time is required 
by the state of the patient. We will except the case 
where a particular pathological state develops, or 
rather excites, a pre-existing constitutional irritation. 
In syphilis, for instance, we may require to employ, 
together with the specific remedy, an appropriate 
medicine for the constitutional derangement which the 
particular malady may have excited. So in measles, 
scarlatina, and the like. All these diseases may ex- 
cite a peculiar state of nervous irritation to which 
the patient was constitutionally exposed, but which 
had remained subdued or latent previous to the break- 
ing out of the particular malady. Bilious fever, 
measles, scarlatina, variola, and various other dis- 
eases, may be treated in such a manner that the 
patient, although the particular disease has disap- 
peared, is left deaf or blind. Such sequelae would be 
prevented if the particular disease were appropri- 
ately treated with the specific remedy, and a suitable 
remedy were at the same time administered to sub- 
due the constitutional irritation which was roused by 
the disease, and which but too frequently lead to such 
disastrous consequences as the loss of a" special sense, 
or the permanent derangement of some other organic 
function. Nevertheless, although this view of the 
case seems to be plausible enough, yet it is liable to 
this objection : that, if the truly specific remedy be 
selected for the particular disease, this specific reme- 
dy will likewise prove the best remedy for the con- 
stitutional irritation. If this irritation should mani- 
fest itself in spite of our treatment, we would consider 
it as a proof that the best possible or the truly speci- 
fic remedy had not been selected for the particular 
malady. If, in prescribing Belladonna for scarlet- 
fever, a state of nervous irritation should develop it- 
self, for which Belladonna was not indicated as the 
specific remedy, we would, as a general rule at least, 
doubt the specific adaptation of Belladonna to this 



68 PARTICULAR REMARKS 

particular case of scarlatina. And so in any other 
case. We admit, however, that cases of this kind 
may turn up where it may be desirable to resort to 
the simultaneous use, in alternation, of course, of two 
remedies, one for the particular disease, and the 
other for the constitutional irritation. These cases 
are, however, very few, and we would therefore ad- 
vise the beginning practitioner, not to indulge in 
this alternate use of two medicines without due re- 
flection and discretion. 

At what time of day should the medicines he taken ? 

Very little remains to be said on this subject. 
The fact is, that scarcely anything can be said on this 
subject, for this reason, that it is not stated in our 
Materia Medica, at what hour of the day the medi- 
cines were taken, and how many hours elapsed before 
they developed their pathogenetic effects. It is sup- 
posed that some medicines act better if taken in 
the morning, others if taken in the evening before 
retiring. Mercury and Nux vomica, for instance, are 
supposed to act better if taken in the evening, Pulsa- 
tilla if taken in the morning. Rules like these are 
of very little use, were it only for this reason, that they 
could only be applied to half a dozen remedies, and 
that even these would constitute exceptions in a 
number of cases. In acute cases, it is a matter of 
course, that the medicine has to be administered on 
the spot, on account of the urgency of the case ; and 
as regards chronic cases, if the medicine be other- 
wise indicated by the symptoms, it will prove ser- 
viceable, no matter at what hour of the day it is ad- 
ministered. Hahnemann himself never bound him- 
self to any hour ; he administered Mercury in the 
morning as well as in the evening, and always with 
success, provided the medicine was specifically indi- 
cated. 

In paroxysmal diseases it may perhaps be expedient 
to administer the medicine immediately after the pa- 



ON THK ADMINISTRATION, &C. 69 

roxysm. In fever and ague, for instance, we prefer 
giving the medicine as soon as the sweating stage 
has set in. Some follow the same rule in the treat- 
ment of periodical asthma, or periodical spasms and 
convulsions. In periodically recurring neuralgic 
affections we likewise administer the medicine imme- 
diately after the paroxysm ; but if the pain should be 
too agonizing, and the intervals between the attacks 
very irregular, we do not hesitate to employ the pro- 
per remedy during the attack. 

The old school forbids the administration of medi- 
cines during the menstrual period. As regards old 
school medicines, this regulation is very proper, for 
these medicines are given in such massive doses, that 
they derange the whole organism, and might, on this 
account, violently interfere with the process of men- 
struation. Homoeopathic medicines, on the contrary, 
do not interfere with any of the organic functions of 
the organism ; these medicines are strictly curative, 
and their curative action is exercised in a direct man- 
ner, without the least detriment to any of the func- 
tions that do not require the interference of art. 
There is therefore no reason why homoeopathic me- 
dicines should not be administered during as well as 
between the catamenial periods. 



SPECIAL PHARMACOPCEIA. 

PART III. 

The following arrangement, from Jahr's Pharmacopoeia, has 
been deemed of sufficient interest to be transcribed into this work. 



ON THE PREPARATION AND MODE OF OBTAINING 
EACH MEDICINE IN PARTICULAR. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL VIEW OP THE SUBSTANCES WHICH COMPOSE 
HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACY. 



Of Homoeopathic Medicines in General. 

Homoeopathy employs, generally, as medicines, the 
same simple substances as the old'school, and in like 
manner obtains them from the three kingdoms of na- 
ture. But, as homoeopathic pharmaceutics is govern- 
ed neither by chemistry nor natural history, but by 
pharmacodynamics, (the medicinal power of drugs,) and 
as, in accordance with the principles of this doctrine, no 
remedial substance can be admitted into the Materia 
Medica without having been previously studied in its 
pure effects upon the healthy organism, it is very 
natural that the homoeopathic pharmacopoeia should 
not be so rich in remedial agents as that of the old 
school. Those, the effects of which upon the healthy 
organism are known, amount to about two hundred, and 
from this number at least one fifth might be deducted, 
if we were disposed to be very rigorous, and only 
to admit those of which the pathogenetic symptoms are 
recorded in full. Nevertheless, as it may be useful to 



PHARMACOrCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 71 

be acquainted with all those substances which have 
been examined by homoeopathic physicians, we have 
determined to mention them all in this pharmacopoeia, 
and have added even those whose names only have 
been mentioned in the annals of our science. 

Hence in the following chapters there will be found 
the description of more than three hundred substances 
from the three kingdoms of nature, whilst in our 
Symptomen-Codex but about two hundred and sixty 
are mentioned ; but all those which are not described in 
our Godex, are remedies of which the name only is 
known, and which cannot be prescribed without having 
been studied (as to the effects) on the human system in a 
healthy state. It is true, that if, in the pharmacopoeia, 
we once pass the limits pointed out by the pure Ma- 
teria Mcdica, there is no reason why we should not go 
further, and take not only all the substances found 
in the Materia Medica of the old school, but also all 
those which the inexhaustible resources of nature may 
furnish us. Hence we have often deplored the ten- 
dency shown by our school to register every year 
more than ten new remedies in its pharmaceutic code, 
frequently without studying either of them ; and with 
all our pains in endeavouring to ascertain the prin- 
ciple on which one name was registered in preference 
to another, we have been able to discover nothing but 
mere caprice. 

If we cast a rapid glance over the genera and fami- 
lies whence the remedies of which we make use are 
derived, it will appear very evident that we are far 
from having even all the most efficacious substances, 
and that, if we wished to give a description of all 
those which deserve to be studied, it would almost be 
necessary to write a dictionary of Natural History. 
It has, therefore, appeared to be the most simple plan, 
to give a general view, as well of the substances 
whose effects have been studied, as of those which 
have been proposed only in the homoeopathic pharma- 
copoeias, in order that every one, on seeing the defiei- 



72 HOMOEOPATHIC 

encies shown by this view, may easily draw his own 
inferences as to what remains to be done. As for the 
description of the substances, we go no further than 
to give those which have been, thus far, mentioned 
in the writings of our school ; in treating, in each di- 
vision, those whose pathogenetic effects are not en- 
tirely unknown, and also those of which, at this time, 
we know nothing but the names, and the pathogenetic 
descriptions of which it would be in vain to look for 
in the whole homoeopathic bibliography. 

1. Animal Substances. 

The remedies heretofore taken from the animal 
kingdom by homoeopathy, are much less numerous 
than those derived from the other kingdoms of nature. 
Among the ancients, physicians preferred directing 
their attention to this kingdom, either because it more 
nearly approaches the human species, or because the 
good or evil which might be caused by animals more 
strongly excited their curiosity. The number of ani- 
mal substances submitted to experimentation is thus far 
limited to certain entire insects, and to some parts ex- 
tracted from the bodies of certain other animals, as 
well as to some excretory products, such as musk, cas- 
toreum, &c. Thus the animal substances used in ho* 
moeopathy, may be divided into three classes, viz. 
1st. Entire Animals ; 2d. Animal Matters ; 3d. Ani- 
mal Concretions and Zoophytes. 

The animal substances used in homoeopathy, are 
twenty-six in number, viz. : 

1. Animals, experimented on : Aranea diadema, 
Cantharides, Coccionella septempunctata, Theridion 
curassavicum ; — proposed for experiment : Cancer asta- 
cus, Formica, Meloe majalis, Melolontha vulgaris, Onis- 
cus asellus. 

2. Animal Matter, experimented on : Ambra grisea, 
Barbus, Crotalus, Lachesis, Mephitis, Moschus, Oleum 
animale, Sepia ; — proposed for experiment : Album ovi, 
Membrana ovi, Oleum jecoris morrhvcp. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOI.OGT. 73 

3. Animal Concretions and Zoophytes, experiment- 
ed on : Conches, (Calcarea,) Corallium rubrum, Spongia 
marina ; — proposed for experiment : Cancerum oculi. 

2. Vegetable Substances. 

The plants belonging to the homoeopathic pharma- 
copoeia, are, as those of the old school, taken from 
nearly all the classes of the vegetable kingdom. The 
different plants mentioned in the homoeopathic phar- 
macopoeias amount to about 150 ; but of this number 
the pathogenetic effects of scarcely 100 are well known; 
and there are more than 30 whose physiological effects 
are not indicated in our Materia Medica, and conse- 
quently, their names only are mentioned. In the general 
view which we propose to give, we shall enumerate the 
plants according to the natural families of Jussieu, and 
shall place between parentheses those whose powers 
are not known to the Materia Medica. Among these 
last, several have, nevertheless, been quoted in our 
Symptomen-Codex, though we could only give their 
names ; these are they which, though placed between 
parentheses, are subsequently found printed like the 
others, in italic type ; whilst those of whose effects 
we have as yet no knowledge, are printed in Roman 
letters. 

Among the 50 first natural families of Jussieu, the 
homoeopathic pharmacopoeia reckons from 70 to 80 
remedies, viz. : 

I. Class. — Fungi : Agaricus muse., (Boletus satanas,) 
Bovista ; — Musci : Ltjcopodium ; — Filices : (Filix 
masc.) 

II. Class. — Aroide^: : Arum maculatum, Caladium 
seguin ; — Gramine^e : (Lolium temulentum,) Secale cor- 
nutum.) 

III. Class. — Asparagi : (Asparagus,) Paris quadr., 
(Sassafras,) sarsaparilla ; — Jungi : Colchicum, (J uncus 
pilos.,) Sabadilla, veratrum ; — Asphodele/e : (Allium 
sativ., (Aloes,) Squilla marit. ; — Iris : Crocus sativ, 

4 



74 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



IV. and V. Class. — Cann^e : Zingiber ; — Aristolo- 
chle : (Aristolochia.) Asarum europ., (Serpentaria.) 

VI. Class. — Thymele^e : Daphne indica, Mezereum ; 
— Lauri : Camphora, (Cinnamomum,) Nux moschata, 
(Aichurim ; — Poligone.e : Rhabarbarum ; — Atriplices : 
(Atriplex olida.) (Chenopodium.) 

VIII. Class. — Lysimachi^e : Cyclame neurop., Meny- 
anthes ; Pediculares : Euphrasia, Ratanhia, Senega ; 
— Jasmines : (Olea europaea ;) — Vitices : Agnus castus, 
(Verbena ;) — Labiatve : Lamium album, (Rosmarinus 
offic.,) (Thymus,) Teucrium ; Scrophulari^e : Digitalis, 
Gratiola ; — Solane^e : Belladonna, Capsicum, Dulca- 
mara, Hyoscyamus, Solanum nigrum, Solan, mammos., 
Stramonium, Tabacum, Verbascum ; — Convolvuh : 
(Convolvulus arvens..) (Jalappa ;) — Gentians : Spige- 
lia ; — Apocine^e : Ignatia, Nux vomic, Oleander, (Vin- 
cetoxicum.) 

IX. Class. — Rhododendra : Ledum palustre, Rhodo- 
dendron ; — Eric;e : Uva Ursi. Alinea. X. Class. — 
Chicurace^e : Lactuca viros., Taraxacum ; — Corymbi- 
fer^e : Arnica, (Artemisia vulg.) (Calendula,) Chamo- 
milla, Cina, Millefolium, Tanacetum vulg. 

Among the other six classes of the natural families 
of Jussieu, the homoeopathic pharmacopoeia counts 
almost as many remedies as in the preceding, viz. : 

XI. Class. — Dipsacete : Valeriana ; — Rubiace^e : (ca- 
hinca,) China, Cojfea, Ipecacuanha ; — Caprifolia : 
Sambucus. 

XII. Class. — Arali^e : Ginseng ; — Umbelifer/e : 
JEtnusa, (Ammoniac urn gummi,) (Arch angelica,) As- 
safcetid, Cicuta, Conium. Heracleum, (GEnanthe cro- 
cata,) (Pctrosclinum,) Phellandrium, Vinca minor. 

XIII. Class. — Ranunculace^e : Aconitum, (Aclaa spi- 
cata,) (Aquileja,) Clematis, Helleborus nig., Pceonia, 
Pulsatilla, Ranunculus bulb., Ranunculus sceler., Sta- 
physagria ;— Papaverace^e : Chelidonium, Opium,' San- 

guinaria canad. ; Crucifer/e : (Cochlearia ;) Hype- 

rica : Hypericum perforatum ; Aurantia : (Citron,) 
Rhra ecsrtveva ; CrtPPARiDRB : Drosrrn ; Magnot.t v. ; 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 75 

(Anisum stellatum ;) — Menisperma : Cocculus ; — Ber- 
berides : Berberis ; — Cisti : Cistus canad., Viola odo- 
rata, Viola tricol. ; — Rut,e : (Dictammnus,) Guajacum, 
Ruta. 

XIV. Class. — Semperviv^; : (Sedum acre ;) — Myrti : 
Eugenia, Granatum ; — Rosacea : (Fragaria vesc.,) 
Laurocerasus, (Primus padus,) Prunus spinosa ;— Le- 
guminoste : Copaivce Balsam, (Genista,) Hcematoxilum 
campech., Indigo, (Ononis,) Senna, Tongo ; — Terebin- 
th ace^e : Anacardium, Brucea dysent., Rhus toxic, 
Rhus vernix ; — Rhamni : Eronymus europ. 

XV. Class. — Euphorbi/e : Cascarilla, Croton tiglium, 
Euphorbium, Jatropha ; Cucurbitace^e : Bryonia, Co- 
locynthis ; — Urtic^e: Cannabis, (Cubebce,) (Lupulus,) 
(Urtica urens ;) — Amentace^e : (Ulmus campestr. ;) 
— Conifers : Sabina, Taxus baccata. Therebinthina, 
Thuja. 

3. Inorganic Substances and Chemical Products. 
The mineral substances and chemical products which 
belong to the homoeopathic pharmacopoeia, are found, 
as in that of the old school, among the non-metallic 
bodies, the acids, the alkalies, the earths, the metals, 
and the compounds of the latter. The number of 
these substances acknowledged by homoeopathy, 
amounts in all to 100, sixty of which have been stu- 
died on the healthy subject, whilst the other forty are 
only mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. We intend to 
notice them, making use of the Latin names under 
which these substances are known in the writings of 
our school, and which differ but little from those gener- 
ally in use. In adopting, for the exposition of the pa- 
thogenetic symptoms in the Materia Medica, the alpha- 
betic order of remedies, it has been found most con- 
venient to unite as much as possible all products de- 
rived from the same base ; instead, therefore, of writ- 
ing, as usual, acidum nitricum, acidum plwsphoricum, 
&c, we have preferred nitri acidum, phosphori acu 
dvm. &r.. in order to place the first of those remedies 



76 HOMOEOPATHIC 

near nitre, and the other near phosphorus. In like 
manner with the names murias barytce, carbonas bary- 
ta, &c, in place of which we have preferred baryta 
muriatica, baryta carbonica, &c, in order to be enabled, 
in the alphabetical order of the Materia Medica and 
the repertories, to place or arrange them near each 
other ; and so on, with all the names of this kind. 
The remedies which are found among the non-me- 
tallic bodies, the acids and the alkalies, are in all 30, 
the pathogenetic effects of 15 only being known, 
viz. : — 

1. Non-metallic bodies, studied : Carbo animalis, 
Carbo vegetabilis, Graphites, Iodium, Kreasotum, He- 

par-sulfuris, Petroleum, Phosphorus, Selenium, Sulfur ; 
proposed for study : Alcohol sulfuris, Bromium, Natrum 
sulfuratum, (sulphuret of soda.) 

2. Acids, studied : Muriatis acidum, Nitri acidum, 
Phosphori acidum, Sulfuri acidum, Tartari acidum ; 
proposed for study : Aceti acidum, Hydrocyani acidum, 
Molybdceni acidum. 

3. Ethers, proposed for study : Nitri spiritus dulcis. 

4. Alkalies, studied : Causticum; proposed for study : 
Kali causticum, Natoum causticum, Ammonium causti- 
cum ; Calcarea caustica, Baryta caustica, Strontiana 
caustica, (Sapo domesiicus.) 

The earths and the earthy and alkaline salts thus far 
admitted in homoeopathy, amount in all to twenty-five, 
twenty-two of which have been studied on the healthy 
human system, viz. : 

1. Earths, studied: Alumina, Silicea. 

2. Carbonates, studied : Ammonium carbonicum, Ba- 
ryta carbonica, Calcarea carbonica, Kali carbonicum, 
Magnesia carbonica, Natrum carbonicum, Strontiana 
carbonica. 

3. Nitrates ; studied : Kali nitricum, Natrum nitri- 
cum. 

4. Chlorates, studied : Kali chlo?*icum. 

5. Sulphates, studied : Magnesia sulfurica, Na- 
trum sulfuricum ; proposed for study: Calcarea sul- 
furic/. {Gypsum.) 



PHARAIACOPC31A AND POSOLOOY. 77 

6. Borates, studied : Borax. 

7. Acetates : Baryta acetica, Calcarea acetica. (ki 
general, carbonates of substances are preferred to 
their acetates.) 

8. Hydrochlorates, studied : Ammonium muriaticum, 
Baryta muriatica, Magnesia muriatica, Natrum muria- 
ticum ; proposed for study : Calcarea. muriatica. 

9. Hydriodates, studied : Kali hydriodicum. 

10. Phosphates, studied : Calcarea phosphor ata. 
Among the metals and their compounds, forty-two 

in all are found in the homoeopathic pharmacopoeia, 
eighteen of which have been studied as regards their 
pure effects, viz. : 

1. Perfect Metals, studied : Argentum, Aurum, Pla- 
tina ; proposed for study : Argentum nitricum, Aurum 
fulminans, Aurum muriaticum. 

2. Metals of the second order, studied : Mercurius 
vivus et solubilis, Mercurius corrosivus, Mercurius sul- 
phur atus ruber, (Cinnabaris,) Niccolum ; proposed for 
study : Mercurius dulcis, Mercurius prcecipitatus ruber, 
Mercurius acetatus, Mercurius pracipitatus albus, Os- 
mium. 

3. Metals of the third order, studied : Manganum 
aceticum ; proposed for study : Manganum metallicum. 

4. Metals of the fourth order, studied : Cuprum 
metallicum, Ferrum aceticum, Ferrum magneticum, 
Ferrum metallicum ; proposed for study : Cuprum 
carbonicum, Cuprum sulfuricum, Cuprum aceticum, 
Ferrum muriaticum, Ferrum oxydat. hydrat. 

5. Metals of the fifth order, studied : Antimonium 
crudum, Bismuthum nitricum, Plumbum, Stannum, Tar- 
tarus stibiatus, Zincum ; proposed for study : Anti- 
monium metallicum, Bismuthum metallicum., Plumbum 
aceticum, Zincum sulfuricum. 

6. Metals of the sixth order, studied : Arsenicum ; 
proposed for study : Arsenicum metallicum, Arsenicum 
citrinum, (auri pigmentum.) Arsenicum rubrum, Molyb- 
denum. 



78 



HOMOEOPATHIC 

CHAPTER II. 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

OF THE PREPARATION OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 



A) Entire animals. 

1. Diadem a, Aranea diadema, Epeira diadema ; Fr., 
Araignee porte-croix, Araignee diademe, Araignee 
a croix papule ; Ger., Kreuzspinne ; Eng., Diadem 
spider. ^ 

This spider is found all over Europe, in stables, on 
old walls, &c., is distinguished by its ovoid body, often 
as large as a small nut, and a longitudinal line on the 
back, composed of yellow and white points, and tra- 
versed by three other similar lines. In order to pre- 
pare this spider for homoeopathic use, Dr. Gross re- 
commends a puncture to be made in the belly of the 
living insect, and to collect on 100 grains of sugar of 
milk the serosity that flows out, and to make the three 
first attenuations by trituration. According to Dr. 
Hering, however, the preferable way is to macerate 
the whole insect in Alcohol, and at the end of some 
months prepare the alcoholic attenuation. The web 
which, according to Sadillot, is composed of a sub- 
stance soluble in water, of a resinous and a sweetish- 
bitter substance, &c, is used to arrest the bleeding of 
small wounds, leech-bites, &c. 
Antidote : Mercury. 

2. Cancer astacus, Astacus Jluviatilis , river-crab. 

The common crab is a decapodous Crustacea which 
inhabits, in Europe, the borders of streams, small 
rivers, and even of lakes and ponds, where it keeps 
in holes and under stones. 

Its body is oblong, generally cylindrical ; the tail 
broad and long, covered with transverse scales, and 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND l'uSOLUGY. 79 

furnished with swimming scales on the sides and at 
the extremity, turning in under themselves. The fore- 
part of the body terminates in a short point jutting out 
between the eyes. It has ten claws, the two fore- 
claws terminating in strong and dentated pinchers. 
Any member of its body, when destroyed or mutilated, 
is easily regenerated. The crabs change their cal- 
careous coat every year, and at that time are found 
in their stomachs two hard, calcareous bodies, called 
crab's eyes, which are intended to furnish the proper 
material towards the reproduction of the new coat. 
The female carries under her reverted tail, first her 
eggs, then her young, until they attain a certain 
size. River-crabs are the best. 

According to Caspari's directions, we mash them 
alive, in a stone-mortar, to a fine paste, pour on it 
double its volume of Alcohol, express the juice,), and 
preserve it for use. (Arch. I, 2. p. 14.) 

Antidote : Aron. diadem., in one case. 

3. Cantharis, Cantharis vesicatoria, Meloe vesicatorius, 
Lyita vesicatoria ; Fr., Cantharide, Cantharide des 
boutiques; Ger., Kaniharide, Spanische Fliege ; Eng., 
Cantharides, Spanish Fly. 
jg&This fly of the middle and south of Europe, appears 
in the months of May and June, especially on the 
white poplar, privet, ash, elder and lilac, &c. It is 
a coleopterous insect, about half an inch long, of a 
golden^yellow-green ; head inclined, almost cordiform ; 
antennae filiform, * of twelve joints, black ; antennulae 
equally filiform, the [posterior swollen at the extrem- 
ity ; eyes large, of a deep brown ; mouth with an 
upper lip and two bifid jaws ; body elongated, almost 
round and cylindric ; two wings ; elytra? soft, demicy- 
lindric, marked with longitudinal streaks ; head and 
feet full of whitish hairs ; the odour is sweetish, nau- 
seous ; taste very acrid, almost caustic ; the larvae 
of these insects have a yellowish- white body, formed of 
three rings, six short feet, rounded head, two short 



80 HOiMCEOPATHIC 

filiform antennae, two jaws and four feelers. They 
live in the ground, feed on roots, there undergo their 
metamorphosis, and do not come out till they are 
perfect insects. The best preparation for homoeo- 
pathic purposes, consists in crushing the large fe- 
male flies, and making the three first attenuations by 
trituration : the mother tincture may be prepared by 
means of 20 parts of alcohol, in which we may digest 
eight days the powder of cantharides. Before powder- 
ing these insects, we must assure ourselves that they 
are neither worm-eaten nor pulverulent, but fresh, 
very dry, whole and smooth ; the small ones are not 
near so good as the larger. 

Antidote : Camphor. Coffee aggravates the symp- 
toms. 

4. CoCCIONELLA SEU COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA, Chrt/SO- 

mela septempunctata, L. ; Fr., Coccinelle, Bete a dieu ; 
Bete du bon dieu ; Ger., Sonnenkafer, Johanniskafer, 
Frauenkafer, Himmelskuh, Sommerkdlbchen ; Eng., 
Lady-bird, Lady-cow. 

This hemispherical scarabaeus lives in the hedges, 
on wheat, in the meadows, and on umbelliferous 
plants. It is a small coleopterous insect of the size 
of a pea, black body, elytrae red, and marked with 
seven black points. When touched, it draws in its 
feet, looks like dead, and exudes in the tarsal joints a 
viscid, fetid, black juice. During life, this insect con- 
tains an acrid, volatile substance, of the odour of 
opium, which is lost when dried, so that it is import- 
ant to crush them while still living, after which we 
pour on the crushed mass 20 parts of alcohol, and de- 
cant the liquid at the end of 8 days. 

5. Formic arum spiritus. Formica rufa ; Fr., Fourmi, 
Fourmi rouge; Ger., Ameise, rothe or Waldameise) 
Engl., ant, red ant. 

The ants are hymenopterous insects of the family 
of heterogynes. Their characters are : a flattened, 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 81 

rust-coloured chest ; black head ; a big, oval abdo- 
men, attached to the corslet by a pedicle which bears 
a small scale or vertical knot ; antennae filiform and 
broken ; antennulae of unequal size ; mandibles 
strong ; tongue truncated, concave, short. There are 
male, female and neuter ants. The two former, 
when fully developed, have four long, white, trans- 
parent wings ; they leave the hills, fly in the air and 
there couple ; the males die shortly after, the females 
return to the hills. Only few of them are admitted, 
which lay eggs and are taken care of by the neuters 
as among the bees. The females and neuters have, 
at the extremity of their abdomen, two glands, by 
means of which they secrete a peculiar liquor which 
is acid, and which, on a fine delicate skin, creates 
itching and eruptions. 

For homoeopathic purposes we gather the ants 
by placing a stick covered with honey near the hill, 
or else by burying a bottle with a narrow neck and 
honey at the bottom inside in the hill as far as the 
neck ; when this bottle is filled with ants, we take it 
out, pour the ants into a new bottle, cover them with 
three times their volume of alcohol, and decant the 
liquid at the end of six or eight days. 

The spirit ofants,formicarum spiritus, is acrid and 
pungent, and has an acid, smarting taste. (Hyg. 
V. 449.) 

6. Meloc majalis et proscarab^eus ; Fi\, Ver de maiet 
proscarabee ; Ger., Rother und schwarzblauer Mai- 
wurm ; Eng., Oil-beetle.* 

These two insects belong to the genus meloe. The 
latter is without wings, an inch or an inch and an 
half long, and about as big as a finger. It is soft, 
with the head bent downwards as that of the can- 
tharis, antennae moniliform, of twelve joints, corslet 
almost rounded, and flexible, punctuated elytrae 

* They must not be confounded with the common may-beetle (scara- 
baeus melolautha). 

4* 



82 HOMCEOPATHIC 

which cover scarcely one half of the oval abdomen. 
The colour of the head, feet and abdomen, verges on 
the reddish. The fore-feet have five, the hind-feet 
four joints. 

The meloe majalis is the smaller of the two ; its 
body is coppery-red, or bronze-black ; the elytrse 
are black-green, and the back is furnished with red 
incisions. 

The two kinds have a disagreeable odour, and 
emit, when seized, an acrid, yellowish humour, stain- 
ing the fingers, and smelling something like the violet, 
of a sweetish taste at first, then acrid and caustic, 
and causing an itching and eruptions (blisters) on the 
skin. 

These insects are found all over Europe in the 
spring, on the grass, low plants, on dry meadows and 
sunny hills. They have to be gathered with great 
care, so that the juice which they emit should not get 
lost, and they should at once be placed in the vessel 
in which they are to be kept. We prepare them in 
the same way as crabs. (Hyg. IV. 346.) 

7. Oniscus asellus ; Millepeda ; Fr., Cloporte ordi- 
naire, millepied ; Ger., Kellerassel, Kellerwurm, 
Tausendbein ; Eng., Common wood-louse. 

This little animal is from three to six lines long ; 
it has 14 feet, four antennas, of which two are short, 
and almost entirely concealed ; the others cetaceous, 
bent, having five or six joints ; its body is oval, cover- 
ed with many crustaceous pieces, transverse, sub-im- 
bricated, and provided at the extremity with two 
short and very simple appendages, The colour is 
gray, more or less deep, verging on the blue or brown, 
with yellowish streaks or spots. The oniscus is found 
in cellars, under stones, in humid places, and seems 
to shun the light ; when touched, it rolls up in a heap ; 
the taste is sweetish, nauseous ; the odour disagree- 
able, ammoniacal. 



PHARMA0OPO3IA AND POSOLOGY. 83 

The three first attenuations are prepared by tritura- 
tion ; the tincture by 20 parts of alcohol (Arch. IV., 1, 
and XVII., 2).* 

8. Theridion curassavicum : Fr., Araignee noire du 
Curacoa; Ger., Feuerspinnchen ; Eng., Black spider 
of Curacoa. 

This little black spider, which is known by its ter- 
rible poison, is often found at Curacoa, where the 
negroes call it aranja ; its body is of the size of a 
cherry-stone, with a black chest ; the feet are like- 
wise black and covered with short and stiff hairs ; 
it is distinguished by three points of a lively, orange- 
red, placed at the back part of the body, and the larg- 
est of which, above the anus, is of the size of a pin's 
head. The youngest are of a beautiful velvet-black, 
marked with several white lines, composed of drop- 
like points from before backwards ; their feet are 
transparent, brownish, as is the case with most young 
spiders. The females are marked with similar stripes, 
but larger and disposed in cross-form, of a yellow 
colour ; the middle stripe terminates in the spot 
above the anus. On their bellies they all have a 
square, yellow spot, which is notched on the edges, 
and occupies nearly the whole extent of the belly. 

We put the whole spider in alcohol, macerating it for 
weeks and even months, and then decant the clear 
liquor, which is the mother-tincture. (Arch. XIV., 1.) 

B) Animal substances. 
1. Album ovi. 

The white of egg is of a gelatinous appearance, and 
contains nitrogen. It is a white, semitransparent, 
viscous fluid, enclosing the yolk, and surrounded and 
traversed by a thin, fibrous membrane, and furnished 
with numerous vessels ; it is inodorous, insipid, mis- 

* The oniscus asellus should not be confounded with the oniscus arma- 
dillo, L., which has several feet and no bifid tail 



84 HOMOEOPATHIC 

cible with water, coagulable by heat, alcohol, ether, 
strong acids, and tannin. According to Bostock, 100 
parts of the white of eggs contain 80 parts of water, 
4,5 non-coagulable matter, 15,5 albumen, and some 
slight traces of soda, sulphur, sulphate and muriate of 
soda, phosphate of lime, and benzoic acid. Put into 
alcohol, it loses almost all its water, and coagulates, 
the alcohol at the same time dissolving its mucus and 
soda. 

For homoeopathic purposes, we use the fresh white 
of eggs, and make the three first attenuations by tri- 
turation. 

2. Membrana ovi, membrane of the ovum. 

The white pellicle (chorion), which is situated be- 
tween the shell and the white, is dried and then tri- 
turated. Bute macerated it in alcohol, together with 
the shell. It is used for excoriations, wounds, and su- 
perficial ulcers ; the surface which is turned towards 
the white is applied to the wound, after which it is 
gently and evenly pressed to the wound by means of 
a soft and fine cloth ; as soon as it is dry, it adheres 
without a bandage. (Arch. XVI. 3, and Hygea.) 

3. Ambra grisea seu ambrosiaca, Ambra vera seu ma- 
ritima; Fr., Ambre gris ; Ger., Graucr ambra ; Eng., 
Ambergris. 

This substance, which Cartheussen and Neumann 
looked upon as bitumen, and Bergmann as a gum-re- 
sin, was a long time considered by others as a sort of 
camphor, a submarine fungus, an altered mixture of 
wax and honey, an excremental product of the croco- 
dile or of certain birds, &c. At present, almost all the 
savans agree that it is the product of the intestines of 
certain whales, and consider it a biliary concretion. 
This product is gathered floating on the waves or cast 
on the coasts of India, Africa, and even of France. 
The most esteemed is that from the coasts of Sumatra 
and Madagascar. Ambergris, such as it comes to us. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AIVD POSOLOGT. 85 

is usually in balls more or less large, opaque, rough 
to the touch, formed of concentric layers, friable, 
lighter than water, spongy, of a grayish-brown with- 
out, traversed within by black or yellowish-red veins, 
and full of whitish specks, that give out a strong 
odour ; often it comes in shapeless masses, very large, 
in which are found the jaw-bones of the sepia otop. 
and of the sepia moscata L., and which are frequently 
covered with a black crust of a bituminous odour ; 
the taste of it is flat ; when rubbed or heated, it emits 
a strong agreeable odour, like that of benzoe ; its con- 
sistence is that of wax ; it softens under the fingers, is 
fusible and almost completely volatile in the fire ; 
when approached by a candle, it promptly inflames, 
and burns with a vivid light. The more the alcohol 
is diluted, the less amber enters in solution ; ether 
dissolves it completely, and if this solution be treated 
with alcohol, a white precipitate takes place, resem- 
bling wax, which is ambrine. The clearness of this 
product often causes it to be adulterated, either with 
meal or with the excrements of certain birds, or else 
it is artificially manufactured with benzoin, storax 
and laudanum ; but in all these cases there is not the 
same fusibility and volatility as when pure. Those 
who would make new experiments on the pathoge- 
ness of this substance, may prepare it in solution in 
ether ; but such as wish to base their practice on the 
experiments of Hahnemann, must in every case make 
the three first attenuations by trituration, the fourth by 
equal parts of alcohol and water, and the rest with 
alcohol. 

Antidotes: Camph., Nux vom. ; less frequently Puis. 

4. Axungia porci ; Adeps svilla ; Fr., Graisse, graisse 

de pore, axonge ou sain-doux ; Ger., Fett, Schweine- 

fett ; Eng., Hog's lard, axonge. 

We transcribe this article from Jahr's Pharmaco- 
poeia : 

The use which homoeopathy makes of the soft fat 



86 



HOMEOPATHIC 



of animals is very restricted. The majority of ho- 
moeopaths never make the least use of it in any case, 
and those who do use it use pig's fat {axungia porci, 
adeps suilla), united with wax, to preserve denuded 
surfaces from the contact of the air, or else alone, 
putting it on their hands in cases of delivery of 
women. Even for these purposes, others prefer olive 
oil. However that may be, fat should always be pre- 
ferred to almond oil, or goose grease, which some 
physicians are in the habit of employing ; above all, 
it should be fresh and good. In all animal fats, but 
especially in that of the pig, there is developed, when 
spoiled, a strong poison, which frequently produces 
by absorption the most lamentable effects. Good 
axonge, purified and suitably prepared, should be 
white, solid, clotted, very fusible, and of a feeble but 
peculiar odour, and of a sweetish, agreeable, fatty 
taste, neither bitter, nor acrid, nor empyreumatic. 
We obtain this fat from the pig (sus 'scrota, L.) which 
contains it in large quantities about the kidneys, epi- 
ploon, &c. ; when taken from these parts, it must be 
freed from the blood, fibres, &c, which it contains, by 
fusion and filtration. In 100 parts of pure fat, there 
are 62 parts of elaine and 38 stearine, proportions, 
however, which are susceptible of variations. Fi- 
nally, pork fat, like most other fat, is soluble in ether, 
but very little in alcohol, and not at all in water ; it 
divides or extinguishes mercury, and dissolves sulphur 
as well as phosphorus. When strongly heated, in 
contact with air, it decomposes, emits a white and 
pungent smoke, takes on a colour more or less deep, 
and inflames. Submitted to distillation, it gives a' 
little water, carbonic acid gas, acetic and sebacic acid, 
much carburetted hydrogen gas, a great quantity of 
fat matter becomes more soft and fluid, and at last 
a very little spongy charcoal, easily incinerated. In 
treating it with an alkali or a metallic oxyde, we obtain, 
besides the sebacic acid which distillation produces' 
yet two others, one of which is margaric acid, the 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND FOSOLOGY. 87 

other oleic acid, and both of which are equally found 
in all kinds of fat. Finally, the qualities which pork 
fat has yet in common with the other kinds of fat, 
are such that hydrogen, boron, nitrogen, charcoal, 
exercise no action upon it ; exposed to the air, it be- 
comes rancid, by absorbing oxygen, and at times by 
developing sebacic acid. 

5. Castoreum ; Fr., Castoreum ; Ger., Bibergeil ; Eng., 

Castor. 

The castor {castor fiber) lives in the north of Asia 
and America, as well as in several countries of Eu- 
rope, such as Poland, Russia, &c. It is very rare at 
present in Germany and France. The castor is the 
secreted product of the preputial glands of the animal, 
placed longitudinally under the skin of the abdomen, 
of both male and female, between the root of the tail 
and the posterior parts of the thighs, behind the pelvis. 
It is a soft substance,, of syrupy consistence, of a dirty 
yellow, having a strong odour, and an acrid biting- 
taste ; it easily mingles with the saliva and adheres 
to the teeth. In its natural state, the castor is con- 
stantly found traversed by membranous partitions ; 
in the dry state, it is brown and easily friable ; the 
pouches which contain it are two, one above the 
other ; the uppermost is the smallest ; they are 
united by a common excretory duct, and both adhere 
to the kind of pouch in which they are placed, and 
which is common to the genital parts and the anus of 
the animal. It is these two pouches still united by 
their excretory duct, that we find in commerce under 
the name of castor, though, rigorously speaking, this 
name is only due to the resinous substance which 
they contain. We distinguish in commerce two kinds: 
1st. Siberian castor, the most used of all. 2d. Eng- 
lish or Canadian castor, less esteemed ; Siberian cas- 
tor, generally dried in the smoke, after putting it in 
pigs' bladders, comes to us in little bags, heavy, round 
below, pointed at the top, almost conical, gibbous, of 



88 HOMOEOPATHIC 

a deep brown, surrounded on the outside with a kind 
of membranous envelop, traversed within by more 
dense membranes, between the layers of which the 
castor, properly so called, is found ; the odour of this 
kind is strong enough, slightly bitter, biting, aromatic. 
The English or Canadian castor comes to us in small 
pyriform or elliptical bags, membranous and very 
black ; it is drier, stiffer, more friable and of a clearer 
colour than the Siberian ; its odour and taste are less 
striking and less disagreeable, sometimes even with 
the odour of ammoniac ; castor is one of those sub- 
stances which the industry of these days adulterates 
most frequently ; we often find sand, lead, or other 
metallic matters, so as to augment the "weight ; in 
other cases we have galbanum, gum ammoniac, and 
even wax. In England, they even manufacture it out 
and out, which consists frequently of a mixture of 
dried blood, gum and honey, put into the gall-blad- 
ders of the sheep or calf, but which is always of a 
finer appearance than the true castor. These adulter- 
ations and imitations are easily detected, inasmuch as 
this kind of castor is of more feeble odour, without 
partitions in the interior, of a resinous hue, strong, 
and entirely soluble in alcohol. The good and true 
castor should be dry, of a very perceptible odour, and en- 
closed in bags which have never been opened. Heat, 
humidity and the air easily alter this substance, so 
that we must preserve it with care. For homoeo- 
pathic use, we prepare the castor, in mingling one 
part of this substance with ten of alcohol, digesting it 
8 days, taking care to shake it occasionally. At the 
end of this time, we decant the clear liquid and pre- 
serve it under the name of mother tincture of castor. 

Antidotes : Camphor and Opium. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGi'. 89 

6. Cera ; Fr., Cire ; Ger., Wachs ; Engl., Wax.— 
Ceratrum ; Fr., Cerat ; Ger., Wachssalbe ; Eng., 
Cerate. — Cereoli ; Fr., Bougies ; Ger., Kerzchcn ; 
Engl., Bougies. — Charta cerata ; Fr., Papier cire ; 
Ger., Wachspapier ; Eng., Wax-paper. 

Wax is used in homoeopathy, to seal hermetically, 
bottles which contain very volatile substances, as also 
to prepare an ointment, to make bougies, and a kind 
of wax-paper to envelop bottles when sent to a dis- 
tance. It holds a middle rank between vegetable and 
animal products. We obtain it by separating the 
honey from it by expression, after which we melt it 
in hot water, to purify it still more ; it is then called 
crude wax ; it is yellow, and of an aromatic honey- 
smell and taste, ductile, variable in quality ; in com- 
merce, it is sometimes adulterated with lard, the fe- 
cula of potatoes, or artificially coloured; in the first 
case, it is greasy to the touch ; and in the second, 
there is a residue when dissolved in spirits of turpen- 
tine ; honey gives it its yellow colour ; its natural 
colour is white, and when yellow, it is purified by the 
prolonged action of water, air and light ; and when 
run into moulds, we find it in commerce under the 
name of white wax or wax in cakes (cera alba seu in 
tabulis). In this state wax is an insipid substance, of 
a pleasant odour, but weak, dry, friable, insoluble in 
water, soluble, when cold, in the fixed oils, and, when 
hot, in the essential oils, as also, but in small propor- 
tions, in alcohol and ether ; its gravity is 0.960, to 
0,966, fusible at a heat of 60 to 68°, inflammable and 
volatilizable. Like all the fat substances, it is formed 
of two different principles, cerine and myricine, and 
contains a little free margaric acid. With the fixed 
oils it forms cerates ; potash and soda convert it into 
soap. Submitted to distillation, it gives out water, 
acetic acid, a large amount of odorous oil, and a con- 
crete oil, to which we give the name of butter of wax, 
and which, when rectified, furnishes what was for- 



UO HOMOEOPATHIC 

merly called oil of wax. Wax, or at any rate a simi- 
lar substance, is found in the vegetable kingdom, ex- 
uding from various trees in different parts of the 
world ; it is also to be seen, in a pulverized state, on 
fruit, as raisins, prunes, oranges, &c, as also on the 
bark of the root of ipecacuanha ; on the leaves of 
trees, forming a sort of varnish ; in lac ; in the green 
fecula of many plants, especially in that of the cab- 
bage. In homoeopathy, we use the wax of bees, well 
cleaned and blanched and purified. We first make 
an ointment with it, to dress ulcers and even denuded 
surfaces. For this purpose, we dissolve the wax in 
hot water, then mix it with equal parts of olive oil, 
allowing it to cool ; we preserve it under the name 
of pure cerate (ceratum Galeni) ; that found in the 
shops is always scented with rose-water, and should 
never be used by the homoeopathic physician ; that 
having opium or sugar of lead, &c, in it, should also 
be discarded. As to bougies, (cereoli,) homoeopathy 
cannot set them aside altogether, though it never need 
make so free a use of them as those who know no 
method of treating strictures of the urethra except 
cauterization. We prepare them by rolling linen 
cloth impregnated with wax into small cylindrical 
forms ; but it is more advantageous to make them out 
of cat-gut. For this purpose we take a cord and 
stretch it between two pieces of wood, and rub it 
with pumice-stone, in order to cleanse it of all the 
small filaments which adhere to it. We then warm, 
over a spirit-lamp, a mixture of 6 parts of yellow 
wax and one part of olive oil, of which we pour a 
part on a piece of cloth, with which we rub the cord 
gently, taking care to rub it sufficiently to prevent the 
wax from getting cold and the cloth from becoming 
stiff; by this means we obtain bougies sufficiently 
large and even. Finally, to procure cerated paper, 
{charta cerata), which serves to envelop the medi- 
cines sent to a distance, we prepare it by pouring 
the wax on a piece of paper, placed on a warm 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 91 

stone, and by spreading it in a uniform manner by- 
means of a dry sponge. 

7. Cyprinus barbus ; Fr., Barbeau ; Ger., Barbe ; Eng., 
Barbel. 

This fish lives in the clear running waters of Asia 
and the south of Europe, and is frequently caught in 
those of France. It is distinguished by the four 
feelers on the upper jaw to which it owes its name. 
The body is commonly covered with a viscous mucus ; 
its flesh is white, tender, and tastes the more agree- 
ably the older the fish is, but is of difficult digestion 
to weak stomachs. The eggs are considered poison- 
ous, and contain an acrid and bitter substance. For 
homoeopathic purposes we take two grains of the 
fresh eggs of a large adult barbel, from which we 
prepare the three first attenuations by trituration. 

8. Ichthyocolla, colla piscium ; Fr., Ichthyocolle, colic 
de poisson ; Ger., Hausenblase ; Eng., Ichthyocolla, 
fish-glue. 

Fish-glue is originally prepared from the swimming 
bladder of fish of the genus accipenser, the huso, stur- 
geon, also of the silurus glanis. The former are found 
in the European seas, the Wolga, Nile, &c. We ob- 
tain it either by boiling the bladder, and then allow- 
ing it to cool down to thin membranes, or by taking 
out the internal shining membrane, rolling it up, and 
drying it. It comes to us in tablets, or else in cylin- 
ders of the thickness of the finger, white or whitish- 
yellow, more or less transparent, dry, coriaceous, 
inodorous, and of a slimy, insipid taste. The best 
kind comes from Moscow ; it is whitish, translucid 
like dry horn, perfectly inodorous, and consists of 
thin membranes. That of Hungary comes in masses 
of double the size of that of Moscow ; it is yellow 
and not at all transparent. Another kind, which has 
a brownish colour, is obtained by boiling the bones, 



92 HOMCEOPATHR' 

fins, intestines, &c, of other large sea - and sweet- 
water fish. 

Water dissolves the glue, forming a solid, tenacious, 
transparent jelly, which is insoluble in anhydrous 
alcohol. 

It is used to give lustre to silk, to clarify wine, 
make the English courtplaster, &c. 

9. Lachesis, Trigonocephalus lachesis ; Fr., Trigono- 
cephale a losanges, (venin dentaire du trigono- 
cephale a losanges ;) Ger., Lachesis Schlangengift ; 
Eng., Lance-headed viper. 

Snake poison is procured from the poison-bags 
which are found in the upper jaw of these reptiles. 
In the Homoeopathic Archives, published by Dr. Stapf, 
and also in the Bibliotheque de Geneve, we find Dr. 
Hering's account of the means which he employed to 
obtain from a living trigonocephalus a drop of its poi- 
son. This consisted in pressing with the finger the 
poison-bag, and collecting a drop of the poison from 
the extremity of the tooth on the sugar of milk, and 
preparing the three first attenuations by trituration. 
The lachesis or trigonocephalus inhabits the hot coun- 
tries of South America ; it attains a length of up- 
wards of 7 feet, and its poison-fangs have nearly one 
inch in length ; the skin is of a reddish-brown, marked 
along the back with large rhomboidal spots of a 
blackish-brown, each of which encloses two spots of 
the colour of the body. The poison resembles saliva, 
only it is less viscous, but limpid, inodorous, and with- 
out any marked taste, the colour being somewhat 
greenish ; at the extremity of the fang, it easily forms 
into drops, and falls without threading ; but on the 
tongue it produces a slight astringent sensation ; ex- 
posed to the air, it soon concretes into a dry yellow 
mass, which, for a long time, preserves its poisonous 
qualities. The poison of all these serpents has this 
peculiarity, that it may be swallowed without incon- 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOi.V. 93 

venience, whilst, introduced into a wound, or injected 
in a vein, it produces the most dreadful accidents, and 
generally death. 

Antidotes : Ac. phosph.. Bell., Merc, Nux vom. 

10. Moschus ; Moschus moschiferus ; Fr., Musk ; Ger., 

Moschus, Bisam ; Eng., Musk. 

This substance comes from a mammiferous ruminat- 
ing animal of the deer kind, which inhabits the high 
mountains of the East, Siberia, China, Thibet, &c. 
The part which contains the musk, consists of a hairy 
bag, from two to three inches long, placed under the 
belly of the old male, near the sexual parts, behind 
the navel ; this membranous bag, thin and dry, con- 
tains a fat and black humour, of a slightly bitterish 
taste, of a peculiar, strong, penetrating odour, and 
which is the true musk ; these bags of musk come 
to us in leaden boxes, or in cases of wood, lined 
with lead. We distinguish two kinds in commerce : 
1st. Tonquin or Eastern musk, (the Thibet musk of 
the Germans,) coming from the kingdom of Tonquin 
or Thibet. This is the best, and comes to us in bags 
of the size of a pigeon's egg, more or less rounded, 
covered with reddish, bristle-shaped hairs, moderately 
filled, and containing from 200 to 300 grains of musk ; 
it looks like coagulated blood, and consists of small 
lumps of a deep brown, soft and unctuous to the touch, 
slightly moist, and often mingled with hairs and tra- 
versed by membranous shreds which shine like mother 
of pearl. 2d. The second sort is the Siberian or Ka- 
bardin musk, coming from Siberia; it is in elongated 
bags, pointed at one end, sometimes worm-eaten, 
covered with a thick skin, long hairs, whitish, silvery, 
traversed by membranes, and of a weak odour, very 
disagreeable, somewhat like the sweat of the horse. 
Musk is frequently found adulterated with sand, lead, 
iron, and other heavy substances ; some bags are 
opened and other matters introduced, and even alto- 
gether filled with artificial musk: this may be dis- 



94 HOMCEOPATHIC 

covered by the section of the bags and their closure 
oy stitching ; they also present places deprived of 
hair. The true and veritable musk, when rubbed 
on paper with water, should not present to the touch 
sandy points, and should have a colour of a yellow- 
ish tinge. Musk out of the bag is almost always 
adulterated, and is not proper for medicinal use. For 
homoeopathic purposes, we take the Tonquin musk, 
of which we make the three first attenuations by 
trituration. Should we wish the tincture of this sub- 
stance, we digest it with 20 parts of dilute alcohol. 
Antidote: Camphor. 

11. Oleum jecoris aselli seu morrhlmg ; Fr., Huile de 
morrue ; Ger., Leberthran, Stockfisch-Leberthran ; 
Eng., Cod-liver oil. 

Cod-liver oil is a greasy, liquid substance, which is 
obtained from the liver of several kinds of codfish, 
morrhua, callarias, molva, &c, chiefly on the coasts of 
France, England and Norway, by exposing the liver 
to the heat of the sun, or by putrefaction. Hence 
there are two kinds of this oil ; that which is obtain- 
ed by exposure to the sun, is thick, of a fine golden- 
yellow, of a sweet odour, sweet, oily taste, and a 
specific gravity of 0,921. This kind comos from Nor- 
way, and is called the white oil. The second sort, 
which is called the brown oil, and is obtained by pu- 
trefaction and by boiling the liver, is more turbid, of 
a deep brown colour, disagreeable, nauseous odour, 
and of an acrid, slightly bitter taste. It dissolves in 
ether and absolute alcohol ; it imparts to distilled 
water, if shaken with it, a straw-colour; exposed to 
the air, it becomes dry. For homoeopathic purposes, 
we use the white oil, which, according to modern in- 
vestigations, contains bromine and iodine. The first 
three attenuations are made by trituration. 

12. Sacoharum Lactis, sugar of milk, (son Part T.) 



PIIARMACOPCEfA AND POSOT.OGV. 95' 



13. Sepi,e succus, sepia officinalis ; Fr., Seiche ordi- 
naire, encre de seiche ; Ger., Tintenfish, Sepiensaft ; 
Eng., inky juice of the cuttle-fish. 

This is an excretory liquor, contained in a bag in 
the abdomen of the Sepia octopoda, and is known 
under the name of cuttle-fish ink, or drawing sepia. 
It is blackish-brown, and is used by these animals to 
darken the water when they wish to catch their prey 
or escape from their pursuers. 

The sepia is a cephalopodous mollusc, without an 
external shell, from one to two feet long, soft, gelati- 
nous, of a brown colour, verging on the red, and 
spotted black ; its body is rounded, elliptical, and en- 
closed in a sac furnished with a fleshy fin on both 
sides, along its whole length. The head is separated 
from the body by a neck, is salient and round, and 
provided with salient eyes of a lively red. The 
mouth is surrounded by ten arms which are peduncu- 
lated, very large, and furnished with suckers. 

The ink-bag is found separate from the liver, and 
deeper in the abdominal cavity ; its external duct 
ends in a kind of funnel, and opens near that part of 
the neck where the anus of the animal is situated. 
In the back is found an oval-oblong, moveable bone, 
somewhat convex, cretaceous and spongy. This fish 
lays a multitude of eggs of the size of peas, which 
adhere to stems like the grains of grapes, and are 
called sea-grapes (uvse marinas.) 

It comes to us from the Mediterranean, enclosed in 
its bag, in which it has been dried. An artificial 
sepia is sold for drawing, which contains gum and 
other substances, and should not be used in homoeo- 
pathy. We make the three first attenuations by tri- 
turation. 

Antidotes : Aeon., Antim., Tart, emet., Spir. nitr. 
dulc, vegetable acid*. 



96 HOMOEOPATHIC 

14. Mephitis putorius, Viverra putorius ; Fr., Putois mo- 
fette, Putois ou mofette d'Amerique, Conepate ; 
Ger., Nordamerikanisches Stinkthier ; Eng., Skunk, 
Polecat. 

The polecat is a quadruped of the family of martins, 
inhabiting the United States ; it is of the size of a 
martin, with round head ; snout elongated, three-row- 
ed moustaches on the upper jaw, a dry nose, and the 
neck a little marked. Its coat is black, but it has a 
white streak along the back from the back to the tail, 
and two others on each side parallel to the first ; the 
posterior part of its body is larger than that of the 
martin ; its tail is as if cropped, and furnished with 
long hairs, and nearly all white ; the under part of the 
body is whitish ; the forepart of the feet elongated and 
fortified with five strong nails ; near to the anus, there 
is, as in all the genus viverra, a pouch where follicu- 
lar glands deposit an unctuous matter of such an in- 
fectious and insupportable odour, that at the approach 
of the animal, at the moment when he squirts his 
liquor, the respiration is stifled, and asphyxia seems 
near at hand. This liquor is nearly puriform, of a 
deep-yellow colour, and of an alliaceous smell. We 
make the three first attenuations by trituration, 

15. Oleum animale ^ethereum, Oleum Dippelii, Oleum 
animale Dippelii, Oleum pyro-animale depuratum, 
Oleum cornu rectificatum, Oleum cornu cervi recti- 
ficatum; Fr., Huile animale etheree, huile de Dip- 
pel ; Ger., JEtherisches Thierdl,Thierol-JEther, Hirsch- 
horngeist ; Eng., ^Ethereal animal oil, or Dippel's 
animal oil. 

We obtain this oil by distilling dry stag's horn, bone, 
ivory, or any other animal matter, even hair, silk, 
wool, &c. The fetid oil thus obtained is again sub- 
mitted to repeated and slow distillations at a temper- 
ature of about 60°. For every new distillation a fresh 
vessel is used, and four times its volume of water 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND P0S0L0GY. 97 

first added to the oil. The distillation is repeated 
until we obtain a perfectly colourless oil. In this 
state, it is a limpid fluid, of a specific gravity of 0,75, 
inflammable, of a disagreeable, penetrating odour, and 
a taste which is at first acrid, then bitter and cool- 
ing. It is very volatile, and usually white ;' but 
when exposed to the light, it becomes yellow, then 
brownish, at last of a blackish-brown, and at the 
same time thicker; it can be mixed with alcohol 
and ether in every proportion ; with water in a 
small quantity. To test the purity of the oil. we let 
a drop fall on white paper, and then expose it to the 
air ; if the oil is pure, not a spot remains. To test 
the presence of any vegetable essential oil, as turpen- 
tine, &c., we mix it with double its volume of alco- 
hol, shaking the mixture well, and then filter it 
through blotting-paper moistened with alcohol ; the 
animal oil remains behind, whilst the alcohol passes 
through, carrying with it the vegetable oil. To pre- 
serve the oil from the influence of the air and light, 
which changes its colour and consistence, it is ne- 
cessary to keep it in black bottles, furnished with 
ground glass stoppers, and covered with carefully 
tied prepared bladder. The inverted bottles should 
be placed in water, a little beyond their orifices. 
There is now sold a kind of oleum animate Dipp. which 
is clear and colourless, and remains unchanged by 
the light or air. This oil is, perhaps, not reliable. 
The dilutions are prepared with alcohol fortius. 

16. Carbo animalis ; Fr., Charbon animal ; Ger., Thier- 

kohle ; Eng., Animal charcoal. 

Animal charcoal has been used by a great many 
of the older physicians. It is an ingredient of the 
well known remedy for cancer, " Jean de St. Come de 
Baseilhac." 

According to Weise, the best mode of obtaining 
animal charcoal is to take a piece of veal with the 
ribs (the bones should form only one-third of the whole 



98 HOMOEOPATHIC 

weight), cut it in moderately small pieces, and then 
roast it in a coffee-roaster over a sufficiently brisk 
fire, turning the roaster all the time, until the inflam- 
mable air begins to appear in the shape of small 
flames, -which show themselves round the roaster ; 
after which the roasting is to be continued for a 
quarter of an hour ; if the roasting were continued 
until the inflammable air ceases to appear, the pre- 
paration would lose all its efficacy, and it produces 
a smell from the mouth as of foul eggs. 

To prepare this substance for homoeopathic pur- 
poses, place a thick piece of oxhide on burning coal, 
and let it burn until the flame ceases ; then place the 
burning charcoal quickly between two slabs of stone, 
or in a well-closed crucible, in order to extinguish it 
immediately ; for if it should be allowed to burn ex- 
posed to the air, the greater portion of it would be 
destroyed. 

Besides the animal matter, oxhide contains a cer- 
tain quantity of tannin, which, when burnt, leaves, 
according to Proust, carbonate of potash. Animal 
charcoal retains less of the form of the carbonized body 
than vegetable charcoal ; it is less inflammable, its 
interstices are more considerable ; frequently it has a 
more sensible metallic lustre, gives out carbonic 
acid, and takes up another element in the place. 

The powder should be kept in well corked glasses. 

We prepare the triturations from the recently burnt 
coal. 

Antidote : Camphor. 



C. Animal Concretions and Zoophytes. 

1 . Conch/e ; Testce ostrece. 

The common oyster is a shell which is bivalve and 
almost round. One of the valves is flattened, and 
with an even border ; the other is marked with pro- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOtOGY. 90 

minences like the tiles on a roof. Oysters exist on 
the sandy or rocky beach of seas, forming beds, or 
attached to rocks, roots, &c, or perfectly free. The 
shells are composed of a calcareous substance. Ac- 
cording to Roger, 100 parts of oyster-shell contain 
95,18 of carbonate of lime, 1,88 of phosphate of lime, 
0,40 of silex, and 0,45 of animal matter. When cal- 
cined, they are changed almost entirely into carbo- 
nate of lime or quicklime, according to the degree 
of heat which was employed. 

In homoeopathy we do not use the whole shell, but 
only the white part enclosed between the lamelhe. 
We term this substance, when prepared, Calcarea 
carbonica. (See this substance). 

2. Lapides, seu Oculi cancrokum ; Fr., Yeux d'ecre- 
visse ; Ger., Krebsaugen ; Eng., Crab's-eyes. 
These are natural calcareous concretions, which are 
at first of a milky consistence, and afterwards become 
indurated. They are found in the stomach of this 
animal at the time when it changes its coat. They 
are circular bodies, convex on one side, flat on the 
other, concave towards the centre, smooth, hard, rose- 
coloured or white, formed by layers, inodorous, and 
of an earthy taste. According to Dulk. 100 parts 
contain 63,10 parts of carbonate of lime, 17,30 phos- 
phate of lime, 11,43 animal matter soluble in water, 
with some traces of sodium and chlorate of sodium ; 
4,33 of animal matter insoluble in water; 1,33 of phos- 
phate of magnesia ; 1,41 of soda. We obtain them from 
Astrachan, Moldavia, Poland, where the crabs are 
pounded and allowed to decay, and the flesh is after- 
wards washed off with water. Artificial crab's-eyes 
are composed of chalk, glue, ichthyocolla, and are not 
formed by layers ; dissolved in nitric acid, they leave 
no membranous, gelatinous residue ; they adhere 
firmly to the tongue, and, placed in hot water, they 
fall to powder. In homoeopathy, the natural crab's- 
eyes are prepared by trituration. 



100 HOMOEOPATHIC 

3. Corallium rubrum, Isis nobilis ; Fr., Corail rouge ; 
Ger., Rothe Koralle ; Eng., Red coral. 

Red coral (Corallia rubra) is the calcareous covering 
of certain polypi which inhabit the Mediterranean, 
especially on the coast of Africa and in the Greek 
Archipelago, where they stick fast, by a broad disk- 
shaped foot, to the submarine rocks. By their form 
and structure, corals resemble a bush deprived of 
its leaves, or else they form, by the agglomera- 
tion of a great many individuals, a kind of rock 
of great extent. The trunk is rounded, or a little 
compressed, of the thickness of about an inch at its 
base, furnished irregularly with lateral branches, each 
one of which terminates in a rounded knot ; this knot 
is the true living part of the polypus ; it is covered by 
a soft and marrowy pellicle, and serves as the habi- 
tation of a great number of worms, which all belong 
to the order of Zoophytes, and which are united by 
a substance common to them all. In taking off this 
pellicle which covers the knot, we find the stony, cel- 
lular axis, consisting of concentric layers, deposited 
one after the other by these animals. The coral is 
torn off the rocks by fishermen and divers, and caught 
by means of nets and instruments arranged for that 
purpose. For homoeopathic use, we take the small 
pieces, which are striated without, branchy, and often 
covered with a white calcareous substance. The three 
first attenuations are made by trituration. 

4. Spongia marina tosta ; Fr., Eponge maritime tor- 
rifiee ; Ger., Gebrannter Mecrschwamm ; Eng., 
Burnt sponge. 

This is looked upon by many naturalists as the 
skeleton of a polymorphus polypus, whilst others re- 
gard it as an entirely vegetable substance inhabited 
by certain polypi. The sponge is an informal mass, 
tenacious, rough, elastic, porous, sometimes branchy, 
covered with a gelatinous mucus, and composed of 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND PO3OL0GY. 101 

thin fibres which anastomose with each other ; it is 
generally brownish or yellowish, rounded, fiat below, 
convex above ; it is frequently found in the Mediter- 
ranean and Red Sea, attached to rocks. 

In homoeopathy, we use the ordinary sponge, of 
common size, as is sold by druggists, free from all 
stony concretions. To prepare it, we cut it in pieces, 
put it into a roaster, and turn this over burning char- 
coal, until the pieces become brown and can be pul- 
verized without much trouble. This pulverized 
sponge is of a black-brown colour, empyreumatic 
odour, a disagreeable, salt taste. It easily attracts the 
humidity of the air, and, when boiled in water, fur- 
nishes a yellow decoction emitting a scarcely percep- 
tible smell of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

We prepare the tincture according to the rule laid 
down for Class 1st. It ought to have a strong taste 
and smell of Iodine. 

Antidote : Camphor. 



CHAPTER III. 



VEGETABLE KINGDOM, 

AND THE MEDICINES WHICH WE DERIVE FROM IT. 



Vegetable medicines are either whole plants or 
parts, or products of plants, and may be classified as 
follows, according as we employ either the whole, or 
part of the plant. 

1. Entire plants. 

2. Leaves, blossoms, stems. 
* 3. Barks and wood. 

4. Roots. 



102 HOMOEOPATHIC 

5. Fruits and seeds. 

6. Resins and balsams. 

7. Fungi (herpes, moss). 

8. Vegetable products obtained 

a) by chemical processes. 

b) by fermentation. 

c) by combustion. 



1. Entire plants. 

1. Allium sativum; Fr., Ail ; Ger. , Knoblauch ; Eng., 
Garlic. — Liliacece. 

Garlic is originally from the Levant and middle of 
Europe, but is cultivated almost every where in 
kitchen gardens ; it grows also spontaneously. 

The root is round, of a pungent, insupportable and 
diffusible odour ; it consists of many oblong, pointed 
bulbs, set one in another, and covered by three en- 
velops. The stem is from 2 to 3 feet high, round, 
furnished with leaves to the middle. The leaves are 
disposed in two rows, linear, furrowed, pointed, ob- 
long, of a blue-green, and glabrous. 

We gather the whole plant in May and June, and 
after having stripped the single parts of their skins, 
we prepare, according to Class 2d, an essence of a 
yellow colour. 

2. Aquilegia vulgaris ; Fr., Ancolie vulgaire ; Ger., 
Ackelei ; Eng., Columbine. — Ranunculacece. 

This plant grows in almost every country of Eu- 
rope, in woods, woody low grounds, forests, and on 
the sides of mountains. The perennial root is 
branchy, of a deep brown without, white within ; the 
stem is from one to three feet high, thin, branchy, 
somewhat downy, reddish ; the leaves are biternate, 
of a blue-green beneath, of a deeper colour above, 
incised, indented. The folioles are petiolate, round, 
rhomboidal or ovoid ; the flowers at the edges of the 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND I'USULOOY. 103 

stem and branches are pendant, blue or brown, rarely 
rosy, disposed in corymbs, provided with reflected 
cornets. The seeds are oval oblong, small, of a shin- 
ing-black, tasting first sweetish, then bitter. 

We gather the entire plant at the period of blos- 
soming. 

Antidotes : Camph., Ignat. 

3. Arnica Montana ; Fr., Arnique des montagnes ; Ger., 

Bergivohlverleih ; Eng., Mountain arnica, Leopard's 

bane. — Corymbiferce. 

This plant inhabits the high mountains of middle- 
Europe, and airy mountain-pasturages. The arnica 
which grows on a mossy soil, is not proper for ho- 
moeopathic use. 

The root is of the size of a goose-quill, almost verti- 
cal, as if bit off, of a coffee-brown externally, and a 
dingy white internally, provided with fine fibres 
which start from the sides of the root, and possess a 
pungent taste like that of alum. The stem is from 
one to one and a half foot high, erect, rounded, 
shaggy, downy, simple or branchy ; the branches are 
opposite, shaggy, downy ; the leaves sessile, with 
even margins, shaggy, oval, the upper surface being 
of a dark and the lower of a pale green ; those which 
are near the root, are disposed in circles, four by 
four. The flowers are large, radiated, of a beautiful 
yellow. The flowers are often soiled by the eggs of 
the musca Arnicae, of which they have to be cleaned 
before using them. 

We gather the plant when in flower, from May till 
July, and use the root, which is the most important 
part, the leaves near the root, and the flowers. From 
two parts of the root, one part of the leaves, and one 
part flowers, we prepare a tincture of a saturated 
brownish-yellow colour, according to Class 3d. 

Antidotes : Camph., Ipec. Wine aggravates the 
symptoms. 

The Arnica-plaster is prepared in the following man- 
ner : One ounce of the best ichthyocolla is soaked in 



104 HOMCEOPATHII 

water, cut in fine pieces, and dissolved by boiling it 
with a sufficient quantity of water. After being re- 
duced by evaporation to four ounces, it is then mixed 
with a warm infusion of the root of Arnica, and 
spread on taffetas of a yard in width until one fourth 
of the whole mass remains; to this we add one ounce 
of the tincture of Arnica, and spread the whole of it 
on the taffetas. The plaster made of flesh-coloured 
taffetas has a darker colour than the simple adhesive 
plaster, and, when moistened, smells very strongly of 
Arnica. 

4. Artemisia vulgaris ; Fr., Armoise commun ; 
Ger., Gemeiner Beifuss ; Eng., Mugwort. — Corym- 
biferce. 

This plant is found all over Europe, where it grows 
along the highways, barren places, among rubbish, 
in fields and their borders, along ditches, &c. It is 
a perennial plant, of an agreeable odour, and an aro- 
matic, bitter taste. 

The root is cylindric, crooked, divided at the upper 
part in several long branches, and at the lower fur- 
nished with a number of long fibres, and a little rug- 
ged along its whole length. It is said to attain all its 
power in the month of November. The stem is 
erect, glabrous, branchy, indented, rough, from 4 to 
feet high ; the leaves are large, winged, pinnatifid, 
white and downy beneath ; the flowers are numerous, 
small, in corymbs, of a rusty-yellow, calix imbricated, 
a little hairy. Should not be confounded with the 
Artem. campestris L. 

The root should be dug in November, in dry 
weather. We do not wash it, but beat the dust off. 
dry and pulverize it. A tincture of a yellow-brown 
colour and little taste is prepared from it, according 
to Class 1st. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AMD POSOLOGV. 105 

5. Artemisia Absinthium ; Fr., Absinthe ; Ger., Wer- 

muth, bitterer Beifuss ; Eng., Wormwood. — Corym- 

biferce. 

This plant, originally from Greece, grows at pre- 
sent all over Europe, in dry, sunny, stony places. 

The root is oblique and hairy; the stem erect, quad- 
rangular, striated, somewhat downy, branchy, from 
2 to 4 feet high, with numerous leaves, of a greenish 
ash-gray colour on the upper, and a silver-gray colour 
on the lower surface ; the flowers are tubular. The 
whole plant has, in the fresh state, a strong aromatic, 
pungent, disagreeable odour, and a very bitter taste. 
We gather the entire plant when in flower, (July or 
August,) and prepare it according to Class 1st. 

G. Asarum Europium ; Fr., Asaret, cabaret d'Europe, 

oreille d'homme ; Ger., Haselwurz ; Eng., Asara- 

bacca. — Aristolochice. 

This plant grows in the whole of Northern Europe, 
in shady woods, and among under-wood. The root is 
rampant, filamentous, brown, of a strong aromatic 
smell resembling that of Valerian, and a nauseous 
acrid, somewhat bitter taste ; the stems are short, 
shaggy, somewhat inclined, and terminate in two 
leaves which are attached to pedicles of from 3 to 4 
inches long, kidney-shaped, with even margins, of a 
shining dark-green on the upper, and a grayish- 
green on the lower side, sometimes slightly covered 
by hairs, and traversed by veins disposed in the form 
of a net ; the flowers spring up from the point of par- 
tition of the leaves ; it has a short pedicle, is shaggy 
on the outer side, green-red, and of a dark purple-red 
within. 

The root should be dug in March and April during 
the period of flowering ; it has an unpleasant smell 
resembling that of pepper and valerian, and we pre- 
pare from it a dark-brown tincture of strong odour 
and an acrid taste, according to Class 3d. 

Antidotes : Camphor and the vegetable acids. 
5* 



100 HOMtEOPATHIC 

7. Atriplex olida, Chenopodium olidum seu vidvaria ; 
Fr., Arroche fetide, anserine (patte d'oie) fetide, 
vulvaire ; Ger., Stinkender Gdnsefuss ; Eng., Stink- 
ing goosefoot. — Atriplices. 

This plant, which is different from the atriplex sa- 
tiva, grows in the south of Europe, in uncultivated 
spots, at the foot of walls, &c. The root is an- 
nual ; the stem recumbent, branchy ; leaves pe- 
dunculate, rhomboidal, entire, of a gray-green, the 
lower side covered with a powder resembling meal; 
flowers glomerated, panicled ; seeds lentil-shaped, of 
a shining black. The entire plant emits an offensive 
smell, resembling that of putrid herring-brine, and 
has a repulsive, salt taste. The plant is gathered in 
the flowering season, and used entire for the mother- 
tincture. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

8. Atropa belladonna ; Fr., Belladonne, morelle furi- 
euse ; GcY.,Wolfs-Kirsclie, Tollkraut ; Eng., Deadly, 
night-shade. — Solanece. 

This perennial plant grows almost all over Europe, 
in forests, cleared woods, hilly regions, on the borders 
of forests. 

The root is . cylindrical, of a middling thickness, 
slightly ligneous, bent like a knee, rounded, brown- 
ish-yellow on the outside, whitish within, succulent, 
of a stupefying smell, and a nauseous, sweetish taste ; 
it transforms the natural saliva into froth. The stem 
is erect, round, from 3 to 5 feet high, of a reddish- 
brown, striated, branching off into three parts ; the 
leaves, which are attached by short foot-stalks to the 
stem, are in pairs of unequal size, longer at the root 
and shorter higher up, oval, pointed at both extremi- 
ties, entire, pretty smooth, of a dusky green colour on 
their upper surface, and paler beneath. The flowers, 
which are supported upon solitary peduncles and rise 
from the axils of the leaves, are about an inch long, 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POsOLOGV. 107 

of a dingy green-yellow, with brownish veins, violet 
at the forepart ; the fruit is a roundish berry, with a 
longitudinal furrow on each side, at first green, after- 
wards red, ultimately of a deep-purple colour, bearing 
considerable resemblance to the black cherry, except 
that it has a nauseous, slightly sweetish taste ; it 
contains numerous seeds in two distinct cells, and has 
a sweetish, violet-coloured juice. 

Before the period of flowering, in the months of 
June or July, we gather the leaves, especially those 
near the root and the lower pedunculated leaves, from 
which we prepare, according to Class 2d, an essence 
of a saturated yellow-brown colour, narcotic smell, 
and a nauseating taste. 

Antidotes : Op., Hyos., Puis., Vinum, Hep. sulph., 
Camphor. — To counteract the berries, strong coffee 
should be used. 



9. Calendula officinalis ; Fr., Souci, souci des jardins, 
soleil ; Ger., Ringelblume, gemeine Ringelblume ; 
Eng., Common Marigold. — Radiatae. 

This annual plant, originally from the south of 
Europe, is now cultivated in all our gardens. The 
root is of a pale-yellow, cylindric, hairy ; the stem 
erect, angular, hairy, branchy, from 6 to 12 inches high ; 
leaves inversely oval, or lanceolate, spatula-shaped, 
entire or slightly sinuous, alternate, sessile, somewhat 
fleshy and downy ; flowers large, of a yellow-red, 
broad, solitary, terminal, of a disagreeable, slightly 
aromatic odour, and a sourish, slimy, bitter taste. 
In sultry weather, sparks similar to electric sparks 
have been seen issuing from these flowers ; the seeds 
are curved, muricated, the inner seeds subulate, the 
outer boat-shaped, with a furrow on the back. 

We gather the plant when in flower, towards the 
end of July, and prepare an essence from the flowers, 
buds and young leaves, according to Clasg 2d. 



108 HOMOEOPATHIC 

10. Chamomilla, Matricaria chamomilla, Chamomilla 
vulgaris ; Fr., Chamomille commun ; Ger., Feld- 
kamille ; Eng., Common chamomile. — Corymbiferce. 
This annual plant grows in uncultivated fields, 

among wheat and corn, especially in sandy regions, 
all over Europe. 

From the fibrous root shoot up several stems, erect, 
striated, ramose, naked, from one to two feet long ; 
the leaves are sparse, the lower double, the upper 
single, pinnated and dark-green ; the flowers are 
numerous, white, with yellow disk, and in corymbs ; 
calyx hemispherical, imbricated, scariose ; the recep- 
tacle naked and conical ; the stems are swollen at the 
top, the covering scales tiled, blunt, green, skinny at 
the margin, whitish or brownish. 

The common chamomile is frequently confounded 
with the Roman chamomile, from which it is distin- 
guished by its perennial stalk, its chaffy receptacle, 
its hollow peduncles, the green scales of the calyx, and 
by its rays being mostly turned in. 

From the flowering plant we prepare, according to 
Class 3d, a greenish-brown tincture, possessing in a 
high degree the taste and smell of the plant. 

Antidotes : Aeon., Camph., Cocc, Cojf., Ign., Nux t\, 
Puis. 

11. Chenopodium glaucum ; Fr., Anserine glauque, 
patte d'oie verdatre ; Ger., Graue Melde, graugriincr 
Gdnsefuss; Eng., Oak-leaved goose-foot. — Atriplices. 

This plant grows most frequently in villages, out- 
skirts of towns, on farms, about dunghills, and in 
.places where their drainage accumulates. It has a 
branchy stem, of about a foot high, generally recum- 
bent, and often marked with streaks of a beautiful 
red or whitish-green ; the leaves are oblong, obtuse, 
with a few indentations, gray or bluish-green on the 
upper, and whitish on the lower surface. The glo- 
merated flowers are enclosed in branchy spikes, and 
shoot up from the axillae of the leaves and the extre- 



IMlARMACorCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 109 

mity of the stem. The plant flowers from July till 
fall ; we prepare from it a tincture. 

12. Drosera rotundifolia, Rorella ; Fr., Drosere a 
feuilles rondes. ros6e du soleil ; Ger., Sonnenthau ; 
Eng., Sundew — Capparidece. 

This plant grows on turfy ground, thickly covered 
with short moss, in the north of Europe, Bavaria, in 
northern Asia and America. The perennial root is 
thin, of a deep brown ; stem erect, thin, glabrous, 
rough, from 2 to 8 inches high, and, previous to flow- 
ering, rolled upon itself at the summit. The leaves 
have long peduncles, are circular or transversely 
oval, disposed in a circle, somewhat juicy and break- 
ing easily, of a pale-green on the lower surface, and 
on the upper surface covered with many red hairs 
which are provided, at their extremities, with purple- 
red follicles, which, when exposed to the sun, exude 
a clear, slimy juice. The flowers, alternate, on short 
peduncles, white, open during dry, fine weather for a 
moment about noon. 

From the whole plant, including the flowers, we 
prepare in July and August, a tincture, according to 
Class 3d., of a saturated, yellow-red-brown colour, 
without much taste, and without any smell. It should 
be carefully guarded from the light of the sun. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

13. Euphrasia officinalis ; Fr., Euphraise officinale ; 
Ger., Augentrost ; Eng., Eye-bright,— PedicularecB. 

This annual little plant grows in the meadows, on 
the borders of forests, all over Europe. We have 
many varieties of it. The principal or the best- 
known variety is found on humid meadows, and 
is the variety used in homoeopathy. The root is 
very small, hairy ; the stem rounded, downy, from 
5 to 12 inches high, ramose at the base, and some- 
times simple ; leaves alternate, sessile, oval, obtuse, 



116 HOMOEOPATHIC 

glabrous, thick, sharp-toothed ; flowers axillary, in a 
terminal spike ; calyx cylindric, four-leaved ; corolla 
white, labiated, lobed ; capsule double, oval, oblong ; 
anthers two-horned, spinous at the base, on one of the 
lobes. We gather the entire plant when in flowers, 
in July and August, principally from meagre, sunny 
places, and prepare a tincture from it, excepting the 
root, according to Class 3d, of a dark-yellow brown 
colour, and weak herby smell. 
Antidotes : Camplior and Bell. 

14. Polypodium Filix mas; Aspidium filix mas; Fr., 

Fougere male ; Ger., Mannliches Farrenkraut ; Eng., 

Male fern. — Filices. 

This beautiful fern grows all over Europe, in Asia 
and America, in shady woods, hedges, by old walls. 

It has a perennial, horizontal root, a foot long and 
from two to three inches thick, from which numerous 
annual fronds or leaves arise, forming tufts from one 
foot to four feet in height. These rudimentary leaves 
are of a greenish-black externally, and covered with 
rust-coloured scales, pulpy internally, of a greenish- 
white, bitterish, acrid taste, and a nauseous, mouldy 
or mossy odour ; between them the thin filaments of 
the root grow out from above downwards ; the frond 
is oval, lanceolate, acute, pinnate, and of a bright- 
green colour ; the leaves are deeply divided into lobes 
of an oval shape, crenate at the edges, and gradually 
diminish from the base of the pinna to the apex ; 
the fructification is in small dots, 8 by 8, or 10 by 10, 
on the back of each lobe, in two rows, of a beautiful 
brown colour at the period of maturity. The plant 
is easily confounded with the arthyrium filix foemina, 
which in some countries grows still more frequently 
than the male fern, but whose root is ascending and 
shorter than that of the male fern ; it also turns black 
when dried, whereas the root of the male fern be- 
comes brown. 

We gather the plant in the summer-months. That 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOG*. Ill 

which grows on stony declivities, towards the north, 
is considered the most efficacious. Of the recently 
dug root we take the inner marrow, and we likewise 
take the youngest rudimentary leaves which are 
neither withered nor gangrened, of a bright-green 
colour, a strong, sweetish-offensive smell and similar 
taste, which afterwards becomes bitterish-acerb and 
slightly astringent. Both are stripped of their brown 
epidermis, after which we prepare, according to Class 
2d, with alcohol fortius, an essence of a dark-brown 
colour. 

15. Fragaria vesca ; Fr., Fraisier vulgaire ; Ger., 
Gemeine Erdbeere ; Eng., Wood-strawberry. — Ro- 
sacea. 

This perennial plant grows in woods, meadows, 
fields, and hills, over the whole of Europe and a 
great portion of America. The root is brown, hori- 
zontal, with long, creeping sprouts that take root 
again ; stem erect, round, hairy, of the length of a 
finger and more ; leaves ternate, plicated, petiolated, 
downy on the upper surface and hairy on the lower ; 
flowers white, inodorous ; berry oval, red, of a deli- 
cious odour and exquisite taste. 

We prepare the tincture from the plant when in 
flower. 

1G. Gratiola officinalis; Fr., Gratiole des boutiques; 
Ger., Gnadenhraut, wilder Aurin ; Eng., Hedge hys- 
sop. — Scrofularice. 

This annual plant inhabits the wet meadows,borders 
of ponds and ditches, the bed of rivers, and the bor- 
ders of lakes, all over the south and temperate part 
of Europe. 

The root is rampant, horizontal, white, hairy ; stem 
erect, quadrangular, a foot high, articular ; leaves 
opposite, sessile, lanceolate, saw-like, glabrous, of a 
bright-green, the lower leaves being marked with 
five, the upper with three nerves; flowers axillary, 



112 HOMCEurATlIlC 

solitary, pedunculated, of a reddish-white ; the plant 
has scarcely any odour, but a repugnant, bitter, 
acrid taste. The seeds are numerous, small, oblong. 
We gather the plant in May, previous to its flower- 
ing, and prepare from it an essence according to Class 
2d, of a saturated green-brown colour and a very bitter 
taste. 

17. Hypericum perforatum, Fuga demonum, herba 
St. Johannis, herba solis ; Fr., Millepertuis, chasse 
diable, herbe St. Jean ; Ger., Johanniskraut, Hexeu- 
kraut, Hartheu, Konradskraut. — Hypericince. 

This is a common plant, in fields, along hedges, 
roads, &c. Stem two-edged, erect, from one to two 
feet high ; leaves sessile, oval, lanceolate, marked 
with lines, and a great many transparent points 
which look like perforations ; the edges of the leaves 
are rolled back ; flowers in panicles, with short pe- 
dicles, star-shaped, yellow, with black dots at the 
edges, calyx five-lobed, with five long, straight pe- 
tals ; stamina numerous, united in three fasces : the 
fruit forms four capsules, with three valves, brown-red, 
shining like resin. 

We gather the plant in August, soon after it has 
done flowering, and prepare from it* a tincture ac- 
cording to Class 3d, of a dark purple-red colour, and 
a slightly balsamic odour. 

18. Lactuca virosa, Herba lacluccs fcetidce, seu Intybi 
angusti ; Fr., Laitue vireuse ; Ger., Giftlattich ; 
Eng., Strong-scented lettuce. — Chicoracece. 

This perennial plant inhabits the South of Europe, 
and grows on hills, ramparts, waste places, heaps of 
rubbish, along hedges and walls, and is also culti- 
vated in gardens. 

* According to Gruner, the tincture should be prepared from the seed- 
capsules. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 118 

Its stem is from 3 to 4 feet high, erect, rounded, of 
a gray-green, at first filled with marrow, afterwards 
tubular, prickly near the base, above smooth, and di- 
vided into branches, marked here and there with 
blood-red spots, and containing a white milk. The 
leaves are horizontal, sessile, clasping half of the 
stem, with fine or very sharp indentations, prickly at 
the lower part of the mid-rib ; the upper leaves are 
sagittal lanceolate, undivided, the lower large, oblong, 
not indented, but the margins somewhat broken ; the 
flowers are small, of a pale-yellow colour, disposed 
in panicles, at the* extremity of the branches and 
stems. The fruit is black. The plant has a very 
offensive and pungent smell and a bitter taste, and 
contains in all its parts a white, milky juice, smart- 
ing on the tongue, and with a bitter taste. 

We gather the plant when flowering, in July or 
August, and with the exception of the older, woody 
portions of the shaft, we prepare from it, according 
to Class 2d, an essence of a yellow-brownish co- 
lour.* 

Antidotes : Vegetable acids, and coffee. 

19. Lolium temulentum; Fr., Ivraie des bles ; Ger., 
Taumellolch, Tollkorn, Taumclkorn ; Engl., Bearded 
darnel. — Graminece. 

The darnel grows among wheat, chiefly among oats 
and barley, in rainy seasons. The annual root is 
thready, without leaves, the stem is erect, strong, 
stiff, glabrous ; leaves linear, broad, with sharp ed- 
ges ; spike long, many-flowered ; the leaflets alter- 
nate, close over each other, imparting to the upper 
portion of the stem an appearance as if twisted to and 
fro ; the calyx of the uppermost leaflet has two 
valves, the corol-valves are twice as small as the 
calyx, the outer valve is provided with a long, 

* Lactucarium is the white, rather thick milky juice which is obtained 
by incising the plant, and dries when exposed to the air, forming scales 
or lumps of a yellow-brownish colour. 



J 14 



IlOMCEurATUlC 



straight, stiff beard. The seeds are poisonous, and have 
a stupefying odour and acrid taste. 

We gather the plant in August, when the seeds are 
ripe, and prepare from it, according to Class 3d. a 
tincture without odour, of a greenish-brown-yellow 
colour. 

20. Onoxis spinosa ; Fr., Bugrane, arretc-boeuf ; Ger., 
Dornige Hauhecliel ; Eng., Common rest-harrow. — 
Legumiaosce. 

This perennial vegetable is found all over Europe, 
where it grows in uncultivated fields, dry pasturages, 
along roads, hedges, &c. 

The root is as thick as the finger, branchy, dipping 
into the ground two feet and upwards, of a reddish- 
brown externally, and whitish internally, of a sweet- 
ish-slimy and somewhat acrid-bitter taste ; stem re- 
cumbent below, erect above, round, ligneous, branchy, 
spiny ; leaves petiolate, sparse, ovoid, serrated, hairy 
on both sides, the lower ternate, the upper single ; 
flowers solitary, axillary, with short peduncles, of a 
pale purp urine colour or with rosy veins. 

We gather the plant before flowering, and, accord- 
ing to Class 3d, prepare a tincture from it of a red- 
brown colour.* 

21. Paris auADRiroLiA ; Fr., Parisette a quatre feuilles, 
raisin de renard, etrange-loup ; Ger., Vierblutterige 
Einbeere ; Eng., True-love. — Asparagi. 

This plant grows all over Europe, in wet woods, 
thickets, in plains as well as on mountains. 

The root is perennial, vertical, rampant, rounded, 
jointed, fleshy, whitish. Stem erect, single, round, 
unifloral, a foot high, herbaceous ; leaves at the top 
of the stem, with short peduncles, broad-elliptical or 
oval, pointed, entire, glabrous, disposed as a cross, 

* According to Gruuer, the tincture is tote prepared from the root 
alone. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 115 

shining beneath, veined, with sharp edges and three 
or four nerves ; calyx four-leaved, of a greenish-yel- 
low ; peduncle from one to two inches long, and fur- 
rowed ; flower of a yellowish-green; berry dark-blue, 
shining, slightly quadrangular. The fresh leaves and 
berries have a disagreeable and narcotic odour ; the 
root has a pungent odour and a nauseous taste. 

We gather the plant when in flower, from April 
till June, and, according to Class 2d, prepare from it 
an essence of a brown-yellow colour, and a bitter- 
ish taste. 

Antidotes : Coffee and Camphor. 

22. Petroselinum sativum ; Fr., Persil ; Ger., Peter- 
silie ; Eng., Parsley-root. — Umbelliferce. 

Parsley grows wild in the Levant, Greece, Sardinia, 
Sicily, and is cultivated in all our gardens. 

The biennial root is spindle-shaped, whitish, fleshy, 
from which shoot up stems of from 2 to 4 feet high, 
glabrous, striated, with long and thin branches ; the 
leaves at the root are compound, pinnated interna- 
ries, with smooth and three-lobed leaflets, notched 
at the margin ; in the cauline leaves the segments of 
the leaflets are linear and entire ; the flowers are 
small, pale-yellow, and disposed in terminal com- 
pound umbels, with a general involucre of one or two 
leaves and partial ones composed of 6 or 8 leaflets ; 
flower of a greenish-yellow ; seeds small, ovate, flat 
on one side, convex on the other, of a bluish-green 
colour, marked with five longitudinal ridges ; they 
have a strong, aromatic odour and taste. 

We gather the plant in August, when the seeds 
are ripe, and prepare, according to Class 1st, a tinc- 
ture of a pale green colour.* 

* According to Gruner, the tincture is to be prepared from the seeds 
alone. 



110 H01VKEOPATMC 

23. Pulsatilla nigricans seu pratensis, Anemone pra- 

tensis ; Fr., Pulsatilla noiratre, anemone des pr6s, 

coque lourde; Ger., Wiesen-Pulsalille, Kitchcnschelle ; 

Eng., Pulsatilla, meadow-anemone, wind-flower. — 

Ranunculacece. 

This perennial plant grows in sandy pasture- 
grounds, on hills and sunny declivities, in Germany, 
France, Denmark, Sweden, Russia and Turkey. 

Root ligneous, deep, spindle-shaped, thick ; stem 
simple, erect, rounded, from 3 to 5 inches high ; the 
leaves, which are but imperfectly developed before 
the period of flowering, are radical, petiolate, bipin- 
natifid ; at the top of the shaft is the bell-shaped, 
black-violet-brown flower, with the folioles bent at 
the point ; the flower hangs slightly over during the 
flowering-period. The involucre of the flower is com- 
posed of three leaflets with a number of linear lancet- 
shaped indentations which first are close under the 
flower, but afterwards a little removed from it in 
consequence of the peduncle growing longer ; the 
whole plant is covered with many white, soft, silky 
hairs, and has a woolly, soft appearance. It is in- 
odorous, but when squeezed, gives out a pungent 
vapour which frequently draws tears from the eyes. 
It should not be confounded with the common Pulsa- 
tilla, anemone pulsatilla. This plant grows on dry and 
sterile land, and flowers in the spring alone ; whereas 
the black-coloured pulsatilla flowers a second time 
in August and September. The pulsatilla nigricans 
is much more hairy than the anemone, has a much 
more shaggy shaft, which is bent at the top, and it is 
also distinguished from it by its flower, which is 
hanging, almost twice as small as that of the ane- 
mone, much darker, with the petals bent back at the 
top, whereas the petals of the anemone are straight. 

We gather the flowering plant, without the root, 
in the month of April, and prepare from it, according 
to Class 3d, a tincture of a light greenish-brown 
colour and a burning taste. 



PHARMACOrCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 117 

Antidotes: Vinegar, Camphor, Coffee, Nux vom., 
Ign. 

24. Ranunculus bulbosus ; Fr., Renoncule bulbeuse ; 
Ger., Knolliger Hahnenfuss ; Eng., Bulbous crow- 
foot, butter-cups. — Ranunculacece. 

This perennial plant grows in meadows, pastu- 
rages, along roads, and in the woods, all over Europe 
and North- America. 

It has a bulbous, filamentous, white root, which 
sends up annually several erect, round, tubular, 
shaggy, branching stems, from 9 to 18 inches high, 
many-flowered, and covered with whitish, soft hairs. 
Leaves radical, the lower ones with long peduncles, 
the upper ones sessile and clasping part of the stem, 
leaves ternate, trifid, the upper ones sessile, digitate, 
with rough hairs ; flowers bright-yellow, solitary, 
glossy, upon furrowed, angular peduncles, at the end 
of the stem ; leaflets of the calyx shaggy without, 
yellow within, reflexed as far as the middle, or bent 
downwards against the flower- stalk ; the petals are 
obcordate and arranged so as to represent a small 
cup in shape ; at the inside of the claw of each petal 
is a small cavity which is covered with a minute- 
wedge-shaped emarginate scale ; the fruit consists of 
numerous naked seeds collected in a spherical head ; 
stems, leaves, peduncles and calyx are hairy. 

We gather the entire plant in June, while flower- 
ing ; we then first prepare a tincture from the herb 
according to Class 2d, and then from the root accord- 
ing to Class 3d, and mix the tinctures thus obtained, 
which will produce a tincture of a deep-brown 
colour.* 

Antidotes : Camph., Bryo., Puis., Rhus t. 

* According to Gruncr, the root alone is used. 



118 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



25. Ranunculus sceleratus, Herba sardoa ; Fr., Re- 
noncule scelerate, herbe sardonique, grenouillette 
d'eau ; Ger., Gift-Hahnenjuss, Wasser-Eppich ; 
Eng., Marsh crowfoot, celery-leaved butter-cup. — 
Ranunculacece. 

This plant grows in ditches, on the banks of rivers, 
wet meadows, marshy, swampy grounds, &c, in all 
Europe, Siberia, Egypt, Canada. 

Root composed of many whitish, pretty long fibres; 
stem erect, of the thickness of a finger below, vis- 
cous, hollow, branchy, panicled, multifloral, glabrous, 
shining, green, from one to one and a half foot high ; 
leaves glabrous, succulent, the radical leaves on long 
peduncles, reniform, tri-lobed, irregularly notched or 
trifid ; lower pedunculated leaves ternate ; upper 
leaves smaller and shorter, composed of three linear 
entire leaflets ; the peduncles of the flowers downy, 
channelled ; calyx reflexed, flowers small, of a pale 
lemon-yellow ; fruits numerous, small, oval or berry- 
shaped. Blossoms from June to September. 

We prepare a tincture according to Class 2d,* of a 
bright brown-yellow colour and smarting taste. 

Antidotes : Pulsatilla ; perhaps also wine and 
coffee. 

26. Sedum acre ; Fr., Sedon acre, poivre de muraille, 
vermiculaire brulante, petite joubarbe ; Ger., 
Schwarzer Mauerpfeffer ; Eng., Biting stone-crop, 
small houseleek. — Sempervivce. 

This small plant grows throughout France and 
Germany, on old walls, dry hills, rocks, in ditches, &c. 

Root weak, hairy, perennial ; stems erect, thready, 
without leaves, supporting erect, flowering and flower- 
less peduncles, leaves short, oval, thick and fleshy, 
and, at their broad basis, shaped like the pointed 
half of an egg, concave on the lower surface ; the 

* According to Ornner, the root i> not used in the preparation of the 
tincture. 



PHARMACOPEIA AND POSOLOGY. 119 

whole plant has an acrid, burning, nauseating taste, 
which continues a long time. 

The Sedum sexangulare is distinguished from the 
former by its longer, cylindrical leaves, which are 
tasteless and distributed in 6 rows. The Sedum re- 
Jiexum is generally taller, its leaves are cylindrical 
and awl-shaped, and bent downwards from the stem ; 
it has no taste. 

We gather the plant before flowering, in May, and 
prepare from it, according to Class 2d, an essence of a 
pale brownish-yellow colour and an acrid taste. 

27. Leontodon taraxacum ; Fr., Dent de lion ; Ger., 
Lowenzahn ; Eng., Dandelion. — Chicoracece. 
This perennial plant grows spontaneously in most 
parts of the world, in grass-plots and pasture- grounds, 
during the whole of summer. The leaves, which 
spring immediately from the root, are long, pinnati- 
fid, generally runcinate, the divisions indented, 
smooth, and of a fine green colour ; the flower-stem 
rises from the midst of the leaves, six or more inches 
high ; it is erect, simple, smooth, naked, hollow, fra- 
gile, with a large gold-coloured flower at the end, 
which closes in the evening and opens again in the 
morning ; calyx smooth and double, with the outer 
scales bent downwards ; the florets are very numer- 
ous, ligulate, and toothed at their extremities ; the 
receptacle is convex and punctured ; the seed-down 
is stipitate, and at the period of maturity is disposed 
in a spherical form, and is so light and feathery, as 
to be easily borne away by the wind, with the seeds 
attached. The whole plant contains a milky, soapy 
juice, of a saltish, bitter taste. 

We gather the entire plant, with the root, in April 
and May, before it begins to flower, especially that 
which grows on meagre, stony soil, and prepare from 
it an essence according to Class 2d, of a light yellow- 
brown colour. 

Antidote: Camph. 



120 HOMCEOFATHTC 

28. Thymus Serpyllum ; Fr., Serpollet ; Ger., Quendel, 
Feldthymian ; Eng., Wild thyme.— Labiacea. 

This perennial little plant is very common in France 
and Germany, and grows on sunny hills, pasture- 
grounds, along roads and ditches. 

Root ligneous, branchy ; stems some erect, others 
creeping, downy, thin, ligneous, quadrangular ; leaves 
oblong-oval, glabrous or hairy, on short peduncles, 
blunt or rounded, dark-green on the upper surface, 
paler and spotted on the lower, veined ; flowers blue- 
red or reddish-blue in capitate verticils at the end of 
the stems. 

From the flowering plant we prepare a tincture ac- 
cording to Class 2d. 

29. Verbena officinalis ; Fr. Verveine commune ; 
Ger., Eisenkraut ; Eng., Common vervain. — Ver- 
benacece. 

Grows in Germany and the south of Europe, in 
sandy places, along roads, hedges, on heaps of rub- 
bish. — Verbenacece. 

Root deep, fusiform, hairy, ligneous ; stem erect, 
quadrangular, farrowed, from one to two feet high, 
with decussated branches, leaves opposite, not pe- 
dunculated, rugose, scabrous, pinnafid, incised and 
notched. 

Flowers alternate, sessile, of a reddish-white, with 
short peduncles, forming long spikes, paniculate, at 
the end of the peduncles and stems ; calyx five-lobed, 
hairy ; the small, lilac-coloured flowers have a con- 
tracted throat, enclosing the stamina. The whole 
plant is inodorous, and has a slightly astringent 
taste. 

39. Vinca minor ; Fr., Pervenche, petite pervenche ; 

Ger., Wintergrun, kleines Sinngrun ; Eng., Lesser 

periwinkle. — Apocynece. 

This small plant grows in all Europe, in dry and 
shady forests, and among underwood, on the ground. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AN T D POSOLOGY. 121 

and among stones, and is also cultivated in gardens. 
— Apocyncce. 

Root rampant, with long hairs below ; stem recum- 
bent, round, thin, from 6 to 12 inches high, the flower- 
bearing branches erect ; leaves opposite, elliptical, 
lanceolate, pedunculated, entire, shining, coriaceous, 
ever-green, flowers solitaiy, axillary, blue, on long pe- 
duncles, infundibuliform. 

We gather the herb while flowering, and, according 
to Class 2d, prepare from it a brown-green essence. 

31. Viola odorata ; Fr., Violette de Mars; Ger., 
Veilchen, Miirzveilchen ; Eng., Sweet violet. — Vio- 
lacece. 

This is a native of Europe, growing in woods, 
hedges, gardens, vineyards, and in shady places. 

Root ramose, fibrous, creeping, the runners of the 
root being furnished with fibrous roots ; leaflets on 
long peduncles, roundish, heart-shaped, obtuse, notch- 
ed, glabrous or downy, flower-stems uni floral, axil- 
lary, filiform, erect, glabrous ; flowers violet, less fre- 
quently of a rose-colour, irregularly entire or glab- 
rous. 

We gather the entire plant in March and April, 
while flowering, and prepare from it, according to 
Class 2d, an essence of a dark-brown colour, and a 
slight violet taste, distinctly resembling that of Ipeca- 
cuanha. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

32. Viola tricolor, Jacea ; Fr., Pensee ; Ger., Frci- 
sam-Veilchen, Stiefmutterchen ; Eng., Heart's-casc. 
— Violacece. 

This annual plant grows all over Europe and also 
on the Alps, in fields, pasture-grounds, along the bor- 
ders of forests and meadows, and in gardens. 

Root hairy, branchy ; stem triangular or quadran- 
gular, recumbent, glabrous, with branches erect ; 
leaves having the odour of peach-kernels when rnb- 
6 



122 



HOMCEOPATHIC 



bed, alternate, pedunculated, more or less downy, the 
lower ones oval-oblong, the upper ones lanceolate ; 
all the leaves are notched, serrated ; flower-stems 
axillary. 

We gather the kinds that bear yellow and blue 
flowers. 

Antidote : Camphor. 



2. Leaves, Flowers, Stems. 

The leaves and herbs should be gathered in dry 
weather, previous to flowering, after they have at- 
tained their full growth ; except those plants which 
flower before the leaves make their appearance. 
The gathering should neither take place early in the 
morning when the dew is still on the ground, nor too 
late in the day, especially in hot summer-days, when 
the sun has dried up the juice. The leaves should 
be separated from their stems, and all the wilted or 
yellow leaves thrown aside ; hard and ligneous stems 
should likewise be thrown away. It may happen, 
however, especially with Alpine plants, that we do 
not succeed in finding any without blossoms ; in such 
a case we gather the leaves (and, if necessary, the 
roots likewise) of those only that are in flower, omit- 
ting all those which, from some cause or other, have 
not yet begun to blossom. 

The flowers, for the most part, contain a greater or 
lesser amount of volatile oils, colouring matter and 
tannin ; they should be gathered in dry weather, not 
too long after the flowers have expanded, and after 
the dew had been dried by the rays of the sun. They 
must be prepared immediately after being gathered. 

The stems are cut off after the leaves are grown, or, 
which is still better, at the commencement of the 
fall-season, when they contain the largest amount of 
juice. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 123 



a) Leaves and stems of European plants. 

1. Aconitum napellus ; Fr., Aconit napel ; Ger., Ei- 
sen/iiitlein, Mdnchskappe, Sturmhut, Wolfswurz ; 
Eng., Large, blue wolfs bane, monkshood, aconite. 
— Ranunculacece. 

This plant grows all over Europe, and is even 
cultivated in gardens. For homoeopathic purposes, 
we use that which grows on the summit of the Alps, 
in Switzerland, Stiria, on the mountains of Bohe- 
mia and Silesia, at a greater elevation above the 
sea than Veratrum. 

The stem of this plant is cylindric, rounded, erect, 
from 2 to 3 feet high ; leaves petiolated, divided in- 
to 5 or 6 lobes, palmated ; the lobes are wedge-shap- 
ed, pinnafid, alternate, dark-green on the upper, and 
light-green on the lower surface, shining on both 
sides. Flowers deep-violet, seldom pale-blue or 
whitish, panicled at the end of the stem ; calyx null ; 
two nectaries pedicelled and revolute, short, thick ; 
seeds acute, triangular, rugose on the back. 

We gather the wild plant in June and July, when in 
flower, except the root, and prepare an essence from it 
according to Class 2d, of a dark brown-yellow colour, 
a strongly narcotic smell, and a nauseous and slight- 
ly bitter taste.* 

2. ^Ethusa Cynapium ; Fr., Cigue des jardins, petite 
cigue; Ger., Gartenschierling ; Eng., Garden-hem- 
lock. — Umbelliferce. 

This annual plant is found in most European 
countries, along hedges, on fields, heaps of rubbish, 
and in gardens among parsley, &c. 

This plant may be confounded with the chervil, 
parsley, and poisonous hemlock. What distinguishes 

* This is according to Buchner and Gruner, but it is now well known 
that the best part of the plant is the root, from which we prepare the 
most powerful tincture. 



124 H0MCE0PATI1IC 

the aethusa and chervil is this, that the leaves of the 
chervil exhale an agreeable odour when rubbed, whilst 
those of the garden-hemlock develop a sickening smell ; 
the seeds of the hemlock are globular and striated, 
those of the chervil elongated ; in the aethusa the 
involucelle exists on one side only, whereas in the 
chervil it is complete ; the parsley is a biannual 
plant, or even perennial, the aethusa annual ; lastly, 
the leaves of parsley are large and cuneiform, the 
hemlock-leaves are cut off. From the cicuta virosa 
it is distinguished by this, that the cicuta virosa is 
spotted, whereas the aethusa is striated. 

We gather the plant when in flower, in June and 
August, and prepare from it, according to Class 2d, 
an essence of a light brown-yellow colour and a 
pretty strong taste and smell. 

3. Aristolochia Clematitis ; Fr., Aristoloche vul- 
gaire ; Ger., Gemeiner Osterluzei ; Eng., Common 
birth wort. — Aristolochiacece. 

This perennial plant is found in Germany, France, 
and Tartary, along hedges, roads, in vineyards, un- 
cultivated fields, &c. 

Root rampant, round, jointed, contorted, of a 
yellowish- brown ; stem generally single, erect, 
slightly contorted, furrowed, pithy within, the lower 
portion furnished with oblong-oval, brownish scales, 
from one to three feet high ; leaves with long 
peduncles, obtusely triangular, cordiform, obtuse 
or indented, of a dark-green on the upper, and 
a blue-green on the lower surface. Flowers axil- 
lary, of a dirtj'-yellow. The whole plant emits a 
strong and disagreeable odour, and has a bitter, 
acrid and balsamic taste. 

We gather the herb in June.* 

* According to Gruncr, vrc dig irp the root in April or September, and 
prepare from it a tincture according: to Olas^ 3d. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGV. J 25 

4. Asparagus officinalis ; Fr., Asperge vulgaire ; Ger., 
Gewohnlicher Spargel; Eng., Asparagus. — Asparagi. 
This plant is a native of Europe, and is found 

in sandy places, near the sea-coast, in meadows, 
along the borders of forests ; it is frequently culti- 
vated in gardens. 

The root is composed of a short shaft terminating 
in a cluster of round, long, white fibres. From this 
root spring up several herbaceous, round, glabrous 
stems, near three feet high ; leaves in fascicles, about 
an inch long, glabrous ; flowers small, of a green- 
ish-yellow, solitary and axillary ; fruit bacciform, 
of a scarlet-red, three-celled, with two or three black 
seeds. 

We gather the young shoots (turiones Asparagi), 
which are used as food, and, according to Class 3d, 
prepare an essence from them of little smell and 
taste, and a pale straw-yellow colour. 

5. Cannabis sativa ; Fr., Chancre cultive ; Ger., Hanf ; 
Eng., Hemp. — Urticece. 

Hemp is originally from Persia, according to oth- 
ers from India, and is found wild in all those coun- 
tries where it is cultivated. 

Stem erect, angular, from 3 to 4 feet high, that 
of the female plant still higher, hairy, almost simple ; 
leaves stipulate, digitate, the inferior opposite, the 
superior alternate ; leaflets lanceolate, pointed, ser- 
rated, those of the male plant of a yellowish, and 
those of the female plant of a dark green; male 
flowers in axillary and terminal panicles, of a green- 
ish white, female flowers at the summit of the 
branches, forming spikes, furnished with a number of 
leaves. Both the male and female flowers emit a 
strong, balsamic-narcotic odour, especially in damp 
evenings. 

In May and June, during the period of flowering, 
we gather the flowering tops and upper leaflets, es- 
pecially of the female plants, and prepare from them 



12t) HOMCHOPATIUC 

a tincture, according to Class 3d, of a dark green- 
brown colour and the odour of the flowers. 
Antidotes : Camphor. 

6. Clematis erecta, Flammula Jovis ; Fr., Clematite 
droite ; Ger., Brenn-Waldrebe ; Eng., Upright vir- 
gin's bower. — Ranunculacece. 

From the bushy root shoot up annually erect, 
naked stems, branchy above, from 4 to 7 feet high, 
of a green and sometimes reddish colour ; leaves op- 
posite, pinnated ; leaflets oval, lanceolated ; flowers 
white, panicled, at the end of the branches. 

From the flowering plant we prepare, according 
to Class 3d, an essence of a dark blue-green colour 
and acrid taste. 

7. Conium maculatum ; Fr., Grande cigue ; Ger., Ge- 
Jleckter Schierling ; Eng., Hemlock. — Umbellifera. 

This plant grows in gardens, along roads, hedges, 
and on fields ; it is fond of good, cultivated soil. 

The biennial root is cylindrical, white, spindle- 
shaped ; stem herbaceous, branching, from 3 to 6 
feet high, round, hollow, smooth, shining, slightly 
striated and marked with brownish-purple spots ; the 
lower leaves are tripinnate, more than a foot in 
length, shining, and attached to the joints of the 
stem by sheathing petioles ; the upper are smaller, 
bipinnate, and inserted at the divisions of the 
branches ; both have channelled footstalks and incised 
leaflets, of a deep-green on their upper surface, and of 
a paler green on their lower ; the flowers are very 
small, white, and disposed in compound, terminal 
umbels ; the fruit is roundish, ovate, striated, tubercu- 
lous, and disposed of two plano-convex, easily se- 
parable seeds, which have on their outer surface 
five crenated ribs ; being rubbed between the fin- 
gers, the plant emits a fetid, musky, disagreeable 
odour : this odour is sufficient to distinguish it from 
parsley, the odour of which is aromatic ; parsley has 



rHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 127 

no spotted stems, nor hollow petioles, nor are the 
leaves of such a sombre hue ; the leaves of parsley 
are oval, trifid, incised and indented, those of the 
hemlock oval-oblong or lanceolate, deep pennafid, 
the lobes incised or serrated. 

We gather the plant when it begins to flower, 
except the flower, and prepare from it, according 
to Class 2d, an essence of a light brown-green co- 
lour, and of an exceedingly offensive, narcotic smell. 

Antidotes : Coffea, Spir. nitr. dulc. 

8. Digitalis purpurea ; Fr., Digitale pourpree ; Ger., 
Rather Fingerhut, Waldglocke ; Eng., Purple fox- 
glove.^ — Scrophularioe. 

This beautiful plant grows on basalt and por- 
phyry declivities, on fields, in the valleys of Southern 
Europe, on the mountains of the Rhenish Palatinate, 
<fec, and is frequently cultivated in gardens. The 
biannual or perennial fibrous root sends forth large 
tufted leaves, and a single, erect, downy, leafy stem, 
from two to five feet high, terminating in an ele- 
gant spike of purple flowers ; the lower leaves 
are ovate, pointed, about eight inches long and 
three inches wide, standing upon short, winged foot- 
stalks ; the upper are alternate, sparse, lanceolate; 
both the upper and lower leaves are obtusely ser- 
rated at their edges, and have wrinkled, velvety 
surfaces, the upper of which is of a fine deep-green 
colour, the lower paler and more downy ; the flow- 
ers are numerous and attached to the upper part of 
the stem by short peduncles, generally in such a 
manner as to hang down upon one side ; at the 
base of each peduncle is a floral leaf, which is ses- 
sile, ovate, and pointed ; the calyx is divided into 
five segments, the uppermost of which is narrower 
than the others ; the corolla is monopetalous, bell- 
form, swelling on the lower sides, irregularly divided 
at the margin into short obtuse lobes, and in shape 
and size bearing some resemblance to the end of 



128 HOMCEOPATHIC 

the finger of a glove ; the mouth of the corolla is 
guarded by long, soft hairs; its general colour is 
bright-purple, but sometimes the flowers are whitish ; 
the internal surface is sprinkled with black spots 
upon a white ground ; the filaments are white, cur- 
ved and surmounted by large, yellow anthers ; the 
style, which is simple, supports a bifid stigma ; the 
seeds are very small, numerous, of a dark colour, 
and enclosed in a pyramidal, two-celled capsule. 

"We gather the leaves of the wild flowering plant, 
on dry days, and, according to Class 2d, prepare from 
it an essence of a dark brown-green colour, and an 
offensive, slightly narcotic odour. 

Antidotes : Opium, Nux vom., vegetable acids. 

9. Heracleum Sphoxdylium, Branca ursina ; Fr., Berce, 
fausse branc-ursine, branc-ursine d'Allemagne ; 
Ger., Heilkraut, falsche Barenklau ; Eng., Common 
cow-parsnip. — Vmbelliferce. 

This plant is found all over Europe, in meadows, 
and on the borders of woods. The root is thick, fusi- 
form, branchy, yellowish without, whitish within ; 
stem from 3 to 6 feet high, erect, furrowed, cover- 
ed with stiff hairs, fistulous, branchy at the top ; 
leaves pinnate and full of asperities ; leaflets divid- 
ed. When young, this plant contains a juice which 
is sweetish to the taste ; when older, the juice be- 
comes acrid, of a bitter taste, and biting ; when ap- 
plied to the skin, the juice causes it to swell, and 
produces even inflammation and ulcerations. 

From the flowering plant we prepare, according 
to Class 2d, an essence of a iight brownish-yellow 
colour and a nauseous-bitter taste and smell.* 

Antidotes : Camphor, vegetable acids. 

10. Hyoscyamus niger ; Fr., Jusquiame ; Ger., Bilsen- 
kraut ; Eng., Henbane. — Solanece. 

This plant grows in Germany, in a great part of 

* According to Gruner, the essence should be prepared from the root 
alone. 



PHAKMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 129 

France, North-America, and Asia, and is chiefly- 
found in gravelly places, waste lands, the vicinity 
of dwellings, along highways, &c. It is a biennial 
plant, with a long, tapering, whitish, fleshy, some- 
what branching root, bearing considerable resem- 
blance to that of parsley, with which it is sometimes 
confounded ; the stem is erect, round, branching, from 
one to three feet in height, and thickly furnished 
with leaves ; these are large, oblong, ovate, deeply 
sinuated, with pointed segments, undulated, soft to 
the touch, amplexicaule at their base ; the upper 
leaves are generally entire ; both the stem and 
leaves are hairy, viscid, and of a sea-green colour ; 
the flowers form long, one-sided, leafy spikes, at the end 
of the branches, hanging downwards ; they are com- 
posed of a calyx, with five pointed divisions, a funnel- 
shaped corolla, with five unequal, obtuse segments at 
the border, five stamina inserted into the tube of the 
corolla, and a pistil with a blunt, round stigma ; they 
are of a dark-yellow colour, beautifully variegated 
with purple veins ; the fruit is a globular, two-celled 
capsule, covered with a lid, invested with the per- 
sistent calyx, and containing numerous, small, irre- 
gular, brown or ash-coloured seeds, which are dis- 
charged by the horizontal separation of the lid ; the 
whole plant has a rank, offensive smell. 

At the period of flowering, we gather the leaves 
and flowering stems of the plant, and, after removing 
the ligneous stems, prepare from it, according to 
Class 2d, an essence of a brown-green colour, pos- 
sessing in a high degree the odour of the plant. 
Antidotes : Camph., Stram., Bell. 

11. Ledum palustre ; Fr., Ledon des marais, romarin 

sauvage ; Ger., Sumpfporst, wilder Rosmarin ; Eng., 

Wild rosemary, marsh-tea. — Rosacea?. 

This plant grows in moist, swampy, muddy places 

in the North of Europe, Silesia, Bohemia, &c, also 

in France, Asia and America ; it is likewise cultivat- 

6* 



130 HOMOEOPATHIC 

ed in gardens. The bush is an evergreen, from 2 to 3 
feet high, with 3 or several clustering, rounded 
branches, covered with a rust-coloured fur ; the bark 
of the stem is ash-coloured ; leaves with short pe- 
duncles, lance-shaped, rolled back on the edges, 
hard, glabrous above, green and shining ; of a red 
rust-colour beneath, and downy. In the fresh state 
the leaves have a strong, resinous, stupefying odour, 
and a bitter, astringent, nauseous taste ; flowers 
white, sometimes rosy, in spikes or terminal corymbs. 

We gather the leaves and flowers during the pe- 
riod of flowering, and prepare from them, according 
to Class 3d, a tincture of a dark-brown colour, strong 
odour, and terebinthine taste. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

12. Menyanthes trifoliata, Trifolium fibrinum ; Fr., 
Menyanthes, trefle d'eau ; Ger., Bitterklee, Fieber- 
klee ; Eng., Buckbean, marsh-trefoil. — LysimachicB. 
This plant is a native of Europe and North-Ame- 
rica, and grows on the borders of, and in flowing 
water, in ditches, wet meadows, swamps, &c. Root 
perennial, long, thick, jointed, filamentous, brown 
without, and spongy within ; stem round, rooting, 
creeping first, then erect, a foot long ; leaves on long 
peduncles, at the end of the stem, ternate, furnished 
at their base with sheathing stipules ; the leaflets 
are obovate, entire, or obtusely denticulate, smooth, 
beautifully green on their upper surface, and paler 
beneath ; the scape or flower-stalk is erect, smooth, 
round, longer than the leaves, and terminated by a 
conical raceme of whitish, somewhat rose-coloured 
flowers ; calyx five-parted, corolla funnel-shaped, 
with a short tube, and a five-cleft, revolute border, 
covered on the upper side with numerous, long, 
fleshy fibres ; anthers red and sagittate ; germ ovate, 
supporting a slender style which is longer than the 
stamina, and terminates in a bifid stigma ; the fruit 



PBARMAG0P03IA AND POSOLOGY. 131 

is an ovate, two-valved, one-celled capsule containing 
numerous seeds. 

We gather the herb in autumn, dry it quickly, and 
prepare from it, according to Class 1st, a tincture of 
a dark green-brown colour and very bitter taste. 
The medicinal virtues of the dried plant are superior 
to those of the fresh. 

Antidotes : Camphor. 

13. Achillea millefolium ; Fr., Millefeuille, herbe au 
charpentier ; Ger., Schafgarbe ; Eng., Milfoil, yar- 
row. — Corymbiferce. 

This plant is found all over Europe, in Western 
Asia and North America, and grows on meadows, 
on the borders of fields and roads, in pastures, 
&c. Its perennial root is oblique, rampant, hairy ; 
stems numerous, simple, erect, rounded, furrowed, 
tubulous, downy, from one to two feet high ; leaves 
downy, radical, pinnatifid, so finely and numerously 
divided that they are hidden one by the other. The 
herb of this plant has a balsamic odour, and a bitter, 
acrid, burning taste ; the flowers are small and in co- 
rymbs. 

During summer we gather the plant when it be- 
gins to flower, and the stem is not yet hard, prefer- 
ring a sunny, rocky or meagre location ; we prepare, 
according to Class 2d, an essence of a yellow-brown 
colour, and bitter taste. 

14. Nerium Oleander ; Fr., Laurier rose ; Ger., Lor- 
beerrose ; Eng., Oleander, rosebay. — ApocynecB. 
The oleander grows on the borders of rivers and 
lakes, in southern Europe, Greece, Asia minor, the 
East Indies, and Africa, as well as on the rocks of 
Corsica, and is cultivated in our gardens ; roots lig- 
neous, branchy ; stems branchy, dull, 9 to 10 feet 
high, and several inches thick ; leaves with short pe- 
tioles, coriaceous, linear-lanceolated, evergreen, hav- 
ing nerves below ; flowers disposed in bouquets, nu- 



132 HOMOEOPATHIC 

merous, opening in succession, rosy, or white. All 
the parts of the plant have an acrid and bitter taste. 

We gather the leaves of the flowering plant, and 
prepare from them, according to Class 3d, a tincture 
of a dark brown-green colour. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

15. Laurooerasus, Prunus laurocerasus ; Fr., Laurier 
cerise ; Ger., Kirscldorbeer ; Eng., Cherry laurel. — 
Rosacea;. 

This bush grows in Persia, on the Caucasus, in 
Asia Minor, and in all the Levant ; in France, on the 
lower Rhine and Maine ; it can be cultivated in the 
open ground, and in France it is nearly naturalized. 
It is an evergreen tree, rising from 4 to 20 feet in 
height, with long spreading branches, which, as well 
as the trunk, are covered with a smooth, blackish 
bark ; the leaves, which stand alternately on short, 
strong footstalks, are oval-oblong, from 5 to 7 inches 
in length, acute, finely serrated, firm, coriaceous, 
smooth, beautifully green and shining, with oblique 
nerves and yellowish glands at the base ; the flowers 
are small, white, strongly odorous, and disposed in 
simple axillary racemes ; *the fruit consists of oval 
drupes, very similar to small black cherries, both in 
their shape and internal structure. The fresh leaves 
have an aromatic odour and taste, very like the bitter 
almond ; they contain hydrocyanic acid. 

We gather the leaves during the summer-months, and 
prepare from them, according to Class 3d, a tincture 
of a saturated black-green colour, and the odour and 
taste of the bitter almond. 

Antidotes : Cojf., Camph., Ipec. 

16. Padus avium, Prunus pad us ; Fr., Patier, meri- 
sier en grappe ; Ger., Ahlkirsche, Elsenbeere ; 
Eng., Bird-cherry. — Rosacea. 

This plant is a native of the North of Europe and 
Asia, where it grows in moist woods, on the borders 



PHARMAC0PC1UA AND POSOLOGT. 133 

of forests, in valleys, &c. It is from 8 to 30 feet high ; 
leaves oval, elliptic, serrated, somewhat wrinkled, 
nerved ; flowers white, odorous, lateral, in long, 
hanging bunches ; berries globular, black, of the size 
of a little pea, and of a disagreeable odour. 

We gather the bark of the younger branches be- 
fore the bush begins to flower ; it has a stupefying 
odour, resembling that of bed-bugs and laurocerasus. 
We prepare from it, according to Class 3d, a tincture 
of a dark-brown colour and the above described taste 
and smell. 

17. Rosmarinus officinalis ; Fi\, Romarin officinal ; 
Ger., Gemeiner Rosmarin ; Eng., Rosemary. — La- 
biacecB. 

Rosemary is an evergreen shrub, 3 or 4 feet high, 
with an erect stem, with many long, slender ash-co- 
loured branches ; leaves numerous, sessile, opposite, 
more than an inch long, one-sixth of an inch broad, 
linear, entire, obtuse at the summit, turned back- 
wards at the edges, firm, smooth and green on 
the upper surface, whitish and somewhat downy 
beneath ; the flowers are pale blue or white, large, 
in opposite groups at the axills of the leaves, 
towards the ends of the branches ; seeds 4, oblong, 
naked ; the plant grows spontaneously along the 
Mediterranean, and is cultivated in all our gardens. 

From the leaves we prepare a tincture of a yellow- 
green colour and a balsamic acrid-bitter taste. 

18. Rhus toxicodendron, Sumac venenata, L. ; Fr., 
Arbre a poison, Sumac veneneux ; Ger., Gift- 
sumach ; Eng., Poison oak. — Terebinthinacece. 
This shrub grows in fields, woods, and along fences, 

all over North- America, and has been introduced into 
Europe ; it is one to three feet high, with leaflets 
angularly indented ; and pubescent beneath ; root 
reddish, branchy ; stems erect, bark striated, of a 
gray-brown, and full of numerous papillae of a deep- 
brown ; leaves pinnated, long petioles, of a yellow- 



134 HOMOSOFATHIC 

ish-green, veined ; folioles almost 3 inches long, oval, 
incised, shining, and of a deep colour above, pale- 
green and pubescent beneath ; flowers small, of a yel- 
lowish-green, in axillary spikes ; fruit monosperm, 
oval, of a whitish-gray, marked with five furrows ; 
the whole plant contains a yellowish-brown, milky 
juice, which blackens on exposure, and which has a 
penetrating, nauseous odour ; at certain times of the 
year there forms around the plant an atmosphere, 
which, according to some authors, extends to the 
distance of 20 feet, and which is poisonous during 
all the time the sun is not shining on the tree ; the 
effects produced are erysipelatous inflammations and 
pustulous eruptions ; affections which also arise when 
we rub the leaves or touch the branches recently cut 
or broken ; we must, therefore, handle this plant 
with the greatest caution, when in the fresh state. 
Many authors agree in saying that the Rhus radi- 
cans has absolutely the same properties as the Rhus 
toxicodendron; but as this assertion, true as to the 
general facts, is not sufficiently proved as to the de- 
tails which homoeopathy requires, we must be careful 
not to mistake the two plants ; the Rhus radicans is 
distinguished from Rhus tox. by its leaves being al- 
most entire and glabrous, whilst those of the last 
are incised and pubescent beneath, and by its stems 
being recumbent and creeping, whereas those of the 
Rhus tox. are erect. 

We gather the leaves after sunset, on damp, sultry 
days, selecting shady localities, in May and June, 
before the period of flowering, and prepare from 
them, according to Class 3d, a tincture of a dark- 
yellow colour. 

Antidotes : Bry., Coff., Camph., and Sulph. 

19. Rhus vep.nix ; Fr., Sumach vernicifere ; Ger., Fir- 
niss-Sumach; Eng., Swamp-sumach. — Terebinthina- 
cece. 

This tree is originally from Japan and North-Ame- 
rica. It is a beautiful shrub or small tree, from 10 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOCY. 135 

to 15, or even 30 feet high; the bark of the trunk 
is of a dark-gray, the branches are of a lighter 
colour ; the extreme twigs and petioles are of a 
beautiful red ; leaves pinnate, with 4 or 5 pairs of 
opposite leaflets, and an odd terminal one ; these are 
oblong or oval, entire or slightly sinuated, accumi- 
nate, smooth, and, except the one at the end, nearly 
sessile ; the flowers are dioecious, small, greenish, 
and arranged in loose axillary panicles ; berries 
small, roundish, and of a greenish white. When cut, 
there exudes a resinous juice which blackens in the 
air, and of which the people of China and Japan 
make a varnish. According to some authors, the at- 
mosphere of this tree is even more poisonous than 
that of the Rhus tox. 

We gather and prepare the plant as the previous 
one. 

20. Ruta graveolens ; Fr., Rue fetide, rue des jar- 
dins : Ger., Stinkende Raute ; Eng., Rue. — Rutacece. 

This is a perennial plant, from 2 to 3 feet high ; 
root ligneous, branchy, vertical ; stems numerous, 
herbaceous, erect, round, branching ; leaves doubly 
pinnate, glaucous, with obovate, sessile, obscurely 
crenate. somewhat thick and fleshy leaflets ; flowers 
yellow, and disposed in a terminal branched corymb 
upon subdividing peduncles ; calyx persistent, with 4 or 
5 acute segments ; the corolla consists of 4 or 5 con- 
cave petals, somewhat sinuate at the margin ; stamina 
usually ten, sometimes only eight. The odour of the 
plant is very strong and disagreeable ; it has a bitter, 
nauseous, hot and acrid taste. 

We gather the leaves together with the buds while 
these are yet closed, and prepare from them, accord- 
ing to Class 2d, an essence of a dark-brown colour, 
and a smell and taste like that of the plant. 

Antidote : Camphor. 



136 KOMCEOPATHIO 

21. Sabina, Juniper us Sabina ; Fr., Sabine ; Ger., 
Sadebaum ; Eng., Savin. — Coniferce. 

This shrub grows on the dry mountains of middle 
Europe, in Provence, Spain, Italy, the ancient coun- 
try of the Sabines, Greece, Russia, North-America ; 
it is also cultivated in gardens ; it is an evergreen, 
rising from three or four to 15 feet high, with nu- 
merous erect, pliant branches, very much subdivid- 
ed ; the bark of the young branches is of a light 
green, that of the trunk rough, and of a reddish- 
brown ; the leaves, which completely invest the 
younger branches, are numerous, small, erect, firm, 
smooth, pointed, of a dark-green colour, glandular in 
the middle, opposite, and imbricated in four rows ; 
the flowers are male and female on different trees ; 
the fruit is a blackish-purple berry, of an ovoid 
shape, marked with tubercles, the remains of the 
calyx and petals, and containing three seeds. We dis- 
tinguish two varieties of this plant, the male and 
female savin. That called male is the one which 
bears fruit, and which should be called female ; it 
is smaller than the other ; its leaves resemble those 
of the cypress, being less scattered than those of the 
female savin. The Juniperus virginiana, or com- 
mon red cedar, is sometimes substituted in the shops 
for the savin, to which it bears a very close resem- 
blance ; the two species, however, differ in their 
taste and smell ; in the /. virginiana, moreover, the 
leaves are sometimes ternate. The tops and leaves 
of the savin have a strong, disagreeably balsamic 
odour, and a bitter, acrid taste. 

In the month of April we gather the tops of the 
younger branches, and prepare from them, according 
to Class 3d, a tincture of a saturated dark green- 
brown colour, and the odour and smell like that of 
the plant. 

Antidote : Camphor. 



PHARMACOl'CEIA AMD l'OSOLOGY. 137 

22. Solanum dulcamara ; Fr., Douce-amere, morelle 
grimpante ; Ger., Bittersusser Nachtschatten ; Eng., 
Bitter-sweet, woody night -shade. — Solanecs. 

This perennial plant grows over almost all Europe, 
in moist places, in ditches, on the borders of rivers, 
along hedges, &c. ; it is a climbing shrub, with a 
slender, roundish, branching, woody stem, which 
rises to 6 or 8 feet in height ; the leaves are alter- 
nate, petiolate, ovate, pointed, veined, soft, smooth, 
and of a dull green colour ; the flowers are disposed 
in elegant clusters, somewhat analogous to cymes 
and standing opposite to the leaves ; calyx very 
small, purplish, and divided into five blunt persisting 
segments ; corolla wheel-shaped, with pointed reflect- 
ed segments, which are of a violet-blue colour, with 
a darker purple vein running longitudinally through 
their centre, and two shining, greenish spots at the 
base of each; filaments very short, and support large, 
erect, lemon-yellow anthers, which cohere in the 
form of a cone around the style ; the berries are of 
an oval shape and a bright scarlet colour, and con- 
tinue to hang in beautiful bunches after the leaves 
have fallen ; the odour of the leaves and stems is 
somewhat nauseous, and narcotic ; their taste is first 
sweet, then bitter. 

In April or October we gather the green stems 
covered with a gray epidermis, pliant, not ligneous, 
and prepare from them, according to Class 3d, a tinc- 
ture of a dark brownish-green colour and bitter-sweet 
taste. 

23. Solanum nigrum ; Fr., Morelle noire ; Ger., 
Schwarzer Nachtschatten ; Eng., Black or garden- 
nightshade. — Solanece. 

This annual plant grows all over Europe, in culti- 
vated grounds, on the edges of ditches, at the base of 
walls, &c. Root thready, branchy, ligneous; stem 
herbaceous, erect, angular, from one to two feet 
high ; leaves alternate, petiolate, oval, toothed ; 



138 HOMCEOPATH1C 

flowers in bunches, pedunculated, lateral, white ; 
berries spherical, black; all the plant, especially 
the berries, are considered poisonous ; all the parts 
of this vegetable have, in a fresh state, an insipid 
taste, and a narcotic, nauseous odour, which becomes 
musky when dried. 

We gather the ripe berries, not the roots, of the 
flowering plant (in the later part of summer this plant 
has buds, flowers, ripe and unripe berries at the same 
time), and prepare from them, according to Class 2d, 
a tincture of a dark-brown colour and a narcotic 
odour and taste. 

Antidote : Secale corn. ? 

24. Staphysagria, Delphinium Staphysagria ; Fr., 
Staphysaigre, herbe aux pous ; Ger., Stephanskor- 
ner, Lausekraut ; Eng., Stavejacre. — Ranunculace.es. 
This plant grows in the south of France, Italy, 
Greece, and in the whole of Southern Europe ; it 
is one or two feet high, with a simple, erect, downy 
stem, and with palmate, 5 or 7 lobed leaves, support- 
ed on hairy footstalks ; the flowers are bluish, or 
purple, in terminal racemes, with pedicles that are 
twice as long as the flower, and bracteoles inserted 
at the base of a pedicle ; the nectary is four-leaved 
and shorter than the petals, "which are five in number, 
the uppermost projected backwards, so as to form a 
spur, which encloses two spurs of the upper leaflets 
of the nectary; the seeds are contained in straight, 
oblong capsules ; the root is cylindric, perennial, 
somewhat branchy and hairy below ; seeds large, 
irregularly triangular, wrinkled, externally brown, 
internally whitish and oily, bitter, acrid, bu ^mg, 
full of little holes, of a blackish-gray ; when masheu, 
it develops a disagreeable odour ; taste bitter and 
very acrid. 

Before preparing the tincture from the pulverized 
seed, it is expedient to free it from its fatty oil by 
frequently pressing it between blotting paper. The 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 139 

black seeds should not be used, but only the grayish 
or heavy brown ones. The tincture is of a pale straw- 
yellow, to be prepared according to Class 1st. 
Antidote : Camphor. 

25. Stramonium, Datura stramonium ; Fr., Stramoine, 
pomme epineuse ; Ger., Stechapfel ; Eng., Thorn- 
apple. — SolanecB. 

The thorn-apple is an annual plant of rank and 
vigorous growth, usually about 3 feet high, but in 
a rich soil 6 feet or more ; the root is spindle-shaped, 
almost vertical, ligneous, fibrous, whitish ; the stem 
is erect, round, smooth, somewhat shining, simple 
below, dichotomous above, with numerous spreading 
branches ; the leaves, which stand on short, round 
footstalks in the forks of the stem, are 5 or 6 inches 
long, of an ovate, triangular form, irregularly sinu- 
atea and toothed at the edges, unequal at the base, 
of a dark-green colour on the upper surface, and 
pale beneath ; the flowers are large, axillary, solitary 
and peduncled, having a tubular, pentangular, five- 
toothed calyx, and a funnel-shaped corolla with a long 
tube, and a waived, plaited border, terminating in 
five acuminate teeth ; the upper portion of the calyx 
falls with the deciduous parts of the flower, leaving 
its base, which becomes reflexed, and remains at- 
tached to the fruit, which is a large, fleshy, roundish, 
ovate, four-valved, four-celled capsule, thickly covered 
with sharp spines, and containing numerous seeds, 
attached to a longitudinal receptacle in the centre 
of each cell ; it opens at the summit. It is doubtful 
to what country this plant originally belonged ; many 
European botanists refer it to North- America, while 
we in return trace it to the old Continent. Nuttall 
traces it to South-America or Asia. In the United 
States it is found everywhere, on dung-heaps, road- 
sides, and commons, &c. 

We prepare the tincture, according to Class 1st, 
from the seeds ; it has a yellow-brownish colour, cha- 
racterized by a beautiful green reflection ; the ab- 



140 HOMOEOPATHIC 

sence of this reflection, or the deposition of a brown 
resinous layer on the sides of the vessel, would indi- 
cate that the tincture is old, and has lost a good 
deal of its medicinal virtues. 

Antidotes : Nux vom., Tab., Acet., Succus citr., Berb. 

26. Tabacum, Nicotiana tabacum ; Fr., Tabac ; Ger., 
Tabak ; Eng., Tobacco. — Solanece. 

This plant, which is originally from South America, 
is at present cultivated in most parts of Asia and 
Europe, as well as in the colonies, in Africa, &c. 
It is an annual plant, with a large, fibrous root, and 
an erect, round, hairy, viscid stem, which branches 
near the top, and rises from 3 to 6 feet in height ; 
the leaves are numerous, alternate, sessile, and some- 
what decurrent, very large, ovate-lanceolate, pointed, 
entire, slightly viscid, and of a pale-green colour ; the 
lowest are often two feet long and four inches broad ; 
the flowers are disposed in loose terminal panicles, 
and are furnished with long, linear, pointed bractes 
at the divisions of the peduncle ; calyx bell-shaped, 
hairy, somewhat viscid, and divided at its summit 
into five pointed segments ; the tube of the corolla 
is twice as long as the calyx, of a greenish hue, 
swelling at the top into an oblong cup, and ultimate- 
ly expanding into a five-lobed, plaited, rose-coloured 
border ; the whole corolla is very viscid ; the fila- 
ments incline to one side, and support oblong an- 
thers ; the pistil consists of an oval germ, a slender 
style longer than the stamina, and a cleft stigma; 
the fruit is an ovate, two-valved, two-celled capsule, 
containing numerous reniform seeds, opening at the 
summit ; the odour of the fresh plant is poisonous and 
fetid ; the taste is bitter, acrid, and nauseous. 

From the leaves of the flowering plant we prepare, 
according to Class 2d, an essence of a brown-green 
colour and a feebly narcotic odour. 

Antidotes : Camph., Ipec, Nux vom. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 141 

27. Tanacetum vulgare ; Fr., Tanaisie commune ; Gei\, 
Gemeiner Rainfarn ; Eng., Common tansy. — Corym- 
bifercB. 

This is a perennial, herbaceous plant, rising 2 or 3 
feet in height ; the root is rampant, branchy, hard, 
fibrous ; the stems are strong, erect, obscurely hexa- 
gonal, striated, often reddish, branched towards the 
summit, and furnished with alternate, doubly-pinna- 
tifid leaves, the divisions of which are notched or 
deeply serrated ; the flowers are yellow, and in dense 
terminal corymbs ; each flower is composed of nu- 
merous florets, of which those constituting the disk 
are perfect and five-cleft, those of the ray very few, 
pistillate, and trifid ; the calyx consists of small 
imbricated, lanceolate leaflets, having a dry scaly 
margin ; the seeds are small, oblong, with 5 or 6 ribs, 
and crowned by a membranous pappus. Tansy is 
cultivated in our gardens, and grows wild on the 
road-sides and old fields, in the United States and 
Europe ; the whole plant has a disagreeable, cam- 
phrous odour ; its taste is bitter and aromatic. 

From the flowers we prepare, according to Class 3d, 
a tincture of a greenish-yellow colour, and strong 
taste and odour. 

28. Taxus baccata ; Fr., If ; Ger., Eibcnb a u?n ; Eng., 
Yew. — ConifercB. 

This tree grows on the mountains of Tyrol, in 
mountainous and shady forests, in Scotland, Sweden, 
Prussia, on the Caucasus, and in Siberia. 

It often attains an age of several hundred years ; 
its bark is thin, of a deep-brown ; the wood is of a 
brown-red, small-grained, more or less veined, very 
hard and almost incorruptible ; leaves linear, plane, 
of a blackish-green, perennial ; flowers with short 
peduncles, axillary ; fruit berriform, of a lively red ; 
perforated at the top, enclosing a kind of nut which 
contains a whitish, fleshy and oily kernel, that can be 
eaten. 



142 HOMOEOPATHIC 

Iii March or April we gather the youngest twigs, 
and prepare from them, according to Class 3d, a tinc- 
ture of a dark-brown colour and bitter taste. 

29. Thuja occidentals, arbor vitce ; Fr., Thuja du 
Canada; Ger. , Lebensbaum ; Eng., Tree of life. 

This evergreen tree, which is originally from Ca- 
nada, is much more cultivated in Germany than in 
France ; it is a branchy tree from its root, sometimes 
rising some 30 feet in height ; the branches are flat, 
compressed, and standing out on all sides ; leaves 
short, evergreen, overlapping like tiles, with obtuse 
scales, disposed in four ranks ; cones terminal, almost 
smooth, of a brown-yellow ; seeds flattened. It is 
distinguished from the thuja of China, inasmuch as, 
rubbed between the fingers, the leaves of this last 
develop no aromatic resinous odour, which the thuja 
of Canada does ; moreover, the branches of the thuja 
of China are ascendant and straight, and not stand- 
ing out on all sides as those of the other ; its strobiles 
are rough, and the scales of its leaves are pointed. 

In May, at the period of flowering, we select the 
youngest branches, with their blossoms, of a brown- 
ish-yellow colour, a balsamic odour, and shining like 
resin ; and, after separating from them the woody 
ribs by peeling them off, we prepare, according to 
Class 3d, a tincture of a dark blackish-green colour, 
and a very strong, not offensive, balsamic odour. 

Antidotes : Camphor, and Nitric acid. 

30. Uva ursi, Arbutus uva vrsi, Arctostaphylos offici- 
nalis ; Fr., Raisin d'ours, Arbousier, Busserole ; 
Ger., Bdrentraube ; Eng., Bearberry. — Ericinece. 
This is a low, evergreen shrub, with trailing stems, 

the young branches of which rise obliquely upwards 
for a few inches ; the leaves are scattered upon short 
petioles, obovate, acute at the base, entire, with a 
rounded margin, thick, coriaceous, smooth, shining. 



rHARMACOPOSFA AND POSOLOGY. 143 

and of a deep green colour on their upper surface, 
paler, and covered with a net-work of veins beneath ; 
the flowers, which stand on short reflexed peduncles, 
are collected in small clusters at the ends of the 
branches ; the calyx is small, five-parted, of a reddish 
colour, and persistent ; the corolla is ovate or urceo- 
late, reddish-white, or white with a red lip, transpa- 
rent at the base, contracted at the mouth, and divid- 
ed at the margin into five short reflexed segments ; 
stamina ten, with short filaments and bifid anthers ; 
germ round, with a style longer than the stamina, 
and a simple stigma ; the fruit is a small, round, de- 
pressed, smooth, glossy, red berry, containing an in- 
sipid mealy pulp and five cohering seeds. This shrub 
inhabits the northern latitudes of Europe, Asia, and 
America ; it prefers a barren soil, gravelly hills, and 
elevated sandy plains; the leaves are inodorous 
when fresh, but when dry and powdered acquire an 
odour not unlike that of hay ; their taste is bitterish, 
strongly astringent, and ultimately sweetish. 

The leaves should be gathered in autumn ; they 
contain a good deal of tannin, by which property they 
can be distinguished from other leaves. The tincture 
is prepared according to Class 2d. 

31. Verbascux\i Tiiafsus ; Fr., Bouillon blanc, molline, 

bonhomme ; Ger., Konigskerze ; Eng., Mullein. — 

SolanecB. 

This plant grows in northern America, and in 
northern and middle Europe, along road-sides, waste 
fields, &c. It is biennial, with an erect, round, hairy 
stem, which rises from 3 to 6 feet high, and is irre- 
gularly beset with large, sessile, oblong or oval, 
somewhat pointed leaves, indented at the margin, 
woolly on both sides, and decurrent at the base ; the 
flowers are yellow, and disposed in a long, close, 
cylindrical, terminal spike. 

We gather the blossoms and leaves of the plant, 
and prepare from them, according to Class 3d. a 



144 HOMCEOFATIIIC 

tincture of a dark yellow-brown colour, and a slightly 
herbaceous odour, which is entirely deprived of* the 
pleasant smell of the dried flowers. 
Antidote : Camphor. 

b) Leaves of exotic (non- European) plants. 

1. Caladium seguinum, Arum seguinum ; Fr. Pediveau 
v6neneux ; Ger., Gif tiger Aron ; Eng., Poisonous 
pediveau, dumb cane caladium, — Aroidece. 

This plant grows in the neighbourhood of Para- 
maribo ; it is very poisonous. It forms a bush with 
a round stem, naked, from 5 to 6 feet high, green, 
milky ; leaves ovoid, smooth, pointed, amplexicaule. 
The juice of this plant leaves an indelible stain on 
linen, and is so caustic that, if put upon the tongue 
or in the mouth, it produces swelling, inflammation, 
and loss of speech. 

We prepare an essence from the leaves, according 
to Class 2d. 

Antidotes : Caps., Ign., Merc, Zing. 

2. Rhododendron Chrysanthum, Andromeda Gmelini ; 
Fr., Rosage a fleurs jaunes, rose de Siberie, rose de 
neige de Siberie ; Ger., Siberische Schneerose ; Eng., 
Yellow-flowered rhododendron. — Rcsacece. 

This plant grows on the high mountains of Siberia, 
Kamtschatka, &c. ; it is a beautiful, evergreen shrub, 
about a foot high, with spreading branches, and oblong, 
obtuse, thick leaves, narrowed towards their footstalks, 
reflexed at the margin, much veined, rugged, and 
deep-green upon their upper surface, ferruginous or 
glaucous beneath, and surrounding the branches upon 
strong petioles ; flowers large, yellow, on long pe- 
duncles, and arranged in terminal umbels ; the corolla 
is wheel-shaped, with its border divided into five 
roundish, spreading segments ; flower-buds ferrugi- 
nous, downy ; seeds very small ; odour of the leaves 
acrid and nauseous, resembling that of rhubarb ; 
taste bitter and acrid. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 145 

We prepare from the leaves, according to Class 
1st, a tincture of a dark-brown colour and an astrin- 
gent taste. 

Antidotes : Rhus tox., Camph., Clemat. erect. 

Some physicians employ the Rhododendron ferrugi- 
neum, which is frequently found on the Alps of 
southern Germany. 

Leaves elliptical, indented at the margin, fringed, 
paler on the lower surface, dotted as with resin ; 
flower-clusters of a rose colour. (Hyg. V., 449.) 

3. Cassia senna seu acutifolia ; Fr., Sene ; Ger., Se- 
nesblatter ; Eng., Senna. — Leguminosce. 

We distinguish the following kinds : 1. Cassia acu- 
tifolia; 2. C. elongata; 3. C. lanceolata; 4. C. ob- 
ovata; 5. C. ovata. The best Cassia is that which 
comes from the C. acutifolia, and is known in 
commerce as the Alexandrinian cassia. 

This vegetable is a species of shrub, from 2 to 3 
feet high, with a straight, woody, branching, whitish 
stem ; the leaves are pinnate, alternately placed upon 
the stem, and have at their base two small, narrow, 
pointed stipules ; the leaflets, of which from 4 to 6 
pairs belong to each leaf, are almost sessile, oval-lan- 
ceolate, acute, oblique at their base, nerved, from 
half an inch to an inch in length, and of a yellowish- 
green colour ; the flowers are yellow and disposed in 
axillary spikes ; the fruit is a flat, elliptical, obtuse, 
membranous, smooth, grayish-brown, bivalvular le- 
gume, about an inch long and half an inch broad, 
scarcely, if at all, curved, and divided into 6 or 7 cells, 
each containing a hard, heart-shaped, ash-coloured 
seed. The senna of commerce is often mixed with 
the leaves of the Coriaria myrtifolia, and still more 
frequently with the oval, entire, whitish and downy 
leaves of the Cynanchum arguel of Delile. 

The leaves which we use, should be entire as much 



146 HOMOEOPATHIC 

as possible, not old, or having turned yellow by damp- 
ness, and should not be mingled with thick peduncles. 

From the pure leaves we prepare, according to 
Class 1st, a tincture of a very dark brown-green 
colour. 

Antidotes : Chamom., Aloes. 

4. Spigelia anthelmintica ; Fr., Spigelie anthelmin- 
tique, Brinvilliers, Poudre aux vers ; Ger., Wurm- 
treibende Spigelia ; Eng., Pink-root. — Gentianece. 

This annual plant grows in South America, Brazil, 
Cayenne, the Antilles, &c. Root hairy, blackish on 
the outside, white within ; stem herbaceous, rounded, 
upright, fistulous, one to one and a half feet high ; 
leaves terminal, to the number of four, disposed in 
form of a cross, oval or lanceolate, entire, glabrous ; 
flowers simple, forming a thin and elongated spike, 
white ; seeds, small, black. When fresh, this plant 
has a poisonous, fetid odour, which, in a close room, 
may even cause narcotism ; the taste is nauseous and 
remains a long time on the tongue. It is on account 
of its deleterious qualities, that, in French, this plant 
is called Brinvilliers, the name of the Marquis Brin- 
villiers, well known for his numerous acts of poison- 
ing. We prepare from it, according to Class 1st, a 
tincture of a pale-green colour. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

5. Teucrium jviarum verum, Herba Cyriaci seu Cor- 
TUS.E seu Mari syriaci, Summitates Mari veri ; 
Fr., Germandree maritime ; Ger., Katzenkraut / 
Eng., Cat-thyme. — Labiacece. 

This shrub grows in the Levant, and on the Medi- 
terranean, chiefly in Spain, Germany, and in France ; 
it is also cultivated in gardens ; stem straight, ligne- 
ous, branching, glabrous below, downy above ; leaves 
opposite, petiolated, oval-obtuse, of a clear green; 
flowers rosy, at the end of the branches, in thp axilla' of 



rilAitMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 147 

the leaves. The whole plant has an aromatic cam- 
phorous odour, which is peculiarly agreeable to cats ; 
taste bitter, acrid, and hot. 

From the fresh, or the well preserved dry plant, 
without the root, we prepare, according to Class 3d, a 
tincture of a green colour and a considerably strong 
odour and taste. 

Antidotes : Camph., Opium. 



6. Thea sinensis, Thea viridis ccesarea ; Fr, The de 
Chine, The vert imperial ; Ger., Chinesischer Thee, 
griiner oder Kaiserthee ; Eng., Imperial green tea. 
— Aurantia. 

This tree, which, in the natural state, attains a height 
of near 30 feet, grows in China, Japan, and in general 
all over the eastern portion of Asia ; leaves peren- 
nial, coriaceous, thick, glabrous, shining, alternate, 
oval-oblong, pointed, 2 inches long, 1 broad, serrated, 
short petioles ; flowers white, large, short peduncles, 
axillary, calyx in five divisions ; corolla 3 to 9 petals ; 
capsules globular, with 3 cells, containing each one 
or two seeds, round, bitter, oily, of the size of a little 
nut. For domestic use, the black teas are the best ; 
but for medical use we prefer the green. The green 
as well as the black teas are of different kinds ; that 
which we use in homoeopathy under the name of 
thea casarea is not the veritable imperial tea, but the 
green tea known under the name of gunpowder tea ; 
the true imperial is never seen in Europe, though all 
the merchants pretend to sell it ; it is reserved for 
the emperor exclusively, or for the grandees of the ce- 
lestial empire. 

According to Class 1st, we prepare a tincture of a 
dark green-brown colour. 

Antidotes: China, Ferr., Tliuj, 



148 



HOMEOPATHIC 



c) Blossoms. 



1. Lamium album ; Fr., Ortie blanche ; Ger., Weiss- 
bienensaug, weisse Taubnessel ; Eng., Dead nettle. 
— LabiacecB. 

This plant grows in France and Germany, along 
hedges, highways, ditches, &c, and flowers almost 
all summer. Root cylindric, ramose, hairy; stem 
straight, quadrangular, downy, simple ; leaves petio- 
lated, cordiform, sharp, serrated, veined below ; flow- 
ers white, axillary, sessile ; verticillae of from 10 to 20 
flowers. 

From the flowering plant, we prepare, according 
to Class 2d, an essence of a brown colour, inodorous, 
and of very little taste. 

2. Crocus sativus ; Fr., Safran cultive ; Ger., Sa- 
fran ; Eng., Saffron. — Iridece. 

The saffron is originally from Greece, Persia, and 
other oriental countries, and is now cultivated in 
Austria, France, Italy and Germany. It needs a black 
earth, somewhat gravelly, light, neither moist nor 
clayey, and which has not been manured for some 
time, a year at least. The saffron has a bulb of the 
size of a small nut ; we put the bulbs in the earth to 
the depth of 10 inches, to preserve them from the 
frost. One pound of dry saffron requires five pounds 
of green saffron, and one pound of this last requires 
more than 100,000 flowers. The only part that is 
used of the flower are the three stigmas which the 
pistil bears; they are dried and sold under the name 
of saffron ; these stigmas are of a bright colour, yel- 
lowish-red, and a very strong aromatic odour ; the 
saffron is found in commerce in the dry state, and 
formed in shape of loaves. We distinguish several 
kinds : 1. Levant saffron, the best and dearest of all ; 
2d. Austrian saffron, very pure, and unmixed with the 
pistils ; 3d. French or Italian saffron : 4th. English 



PHARMACOrCElA AND POSOLOGV. 149 

saffron ; and last of all, Spanish saffron, the least esti- 
mated of all ; the saffron of commerce is a compound 
of reddish delicate filaments ; if good, it is not mixed 
with whitish or tangled filaments, which is always 
an evidence of the presence of pistils and stamina, 
parts which have none of the virtues of the stigmas ; 
it should be unctuous to the touch, but little friable, 
of an agreeable odour, a sweetish aromatic taste, and 
of a yellow colour so intense ftiat the saliva becomes 
easily coloured, and a very small quantity colours in 
a very short time much alcohol or water ; it is often 
adulterated with the flowers of carthamus, calendula, 
punica granatum, &c, or even with smoked fibres of 
beef ; we easily recognise the first of these frauds, in 
pouring water upon it, which swells up the foreign 
bodies, whilst the second is discovered by the odour 
which the meat develops when we cast a little on hot 
coals. 

According to Class 1st, we prepare from it a tinc- 
ture of a deep gold-yellow colour, and possessing in a 
high degree the odour and taste of saffron. 

Antidotes : Aconite, Opium. 

3. Prunus spinosa ; Fr., Prunellier, epine noire ; Ger., 
Schlehdorn, Schwarzdorn ; Eng., Wild plum-tree, 
sloe-tree. — Rosacea. 

This tree grows in Germany and France, along 
hedges and borders of forests ; it is from 3 to 9 feet 
high ; bark of a blackish-gray ; peduncles unifloral, 
solitary, ternate ; flowers white, opening before the 
leaves ; leaves oval - lanceolate, serrated, downy 
below ; fruit small, round, of a blackish-red, hoary 
at its maturity, of an acrid taste. 

In dry weather we gather the flowers when 
entirely open, and prepare from them, according 
to Class 3d, a tincture of a dark-yellow colour, and 
possessing the odour and taste of the flower. 



150 HOMCEOPATHIC 

3. Barks and woods. 

The barks (cortices) contain resin, gum, ethereal 
oil, and other substances, which sometimes exude 
after wounding the surface of the bark. The barks 
of resinous trees are gathered before or during the 
development of the leaves and blossoms ; those of 
non-resinous plants are gathered late in the fall ; 
the trunks should be ffom 2 to 4 years old. Spoiled 
parts of the bark should be thrown away, and the 
good parts cleansed of the adhering moss or any 
other heterogeneous things. 

The woods (ligna) require to be gathered early in 
the spring, before the sap begins to rise ; the trees 
or bushes should be neither too young nor too old. 
Of the resinous woods we select the heaviest pieces, 
throwing away splinters and all the decayed parts. 

a) Barks of European plants. 

1. Daphne Mezereum ; Fr., Bois de gentil, laureole 
femelle ; Ger., Seidelbast; Eng., Mezereon. — Thy- 
melecB. 

This is a very hardy shrub, from 3 to 4 feet high, 
with a branching stem, and a smooth, dark gray 
bark, easily separable from the wood. The leaves 
spring from the ends of the branches, are deciduous, 
sessile, obovate-lanceolate, entire, smooth, of a pale- 
green, somewhat glaucous beneath, and about two 
inches long; the flowers appear before the leaves, 
early in spring, and sometimes bloom even amidst 
the snow ; the leaves are of a pale rose-colour, high- 
ly fragrant, and disposed in clusters of 2 or 3 flowers 
each, forming together a kind of spike at the upper 
part of the stem and branches ; at the base of each 
cluster are deciduous floral leaves ; the fruit is oval, 
shining, fleshy, of a bright-red colour, and contains a 
single, round seed; another variety produces white 
flowers and yellow fruit. The daphne mezereum can 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 151 

easily be distinguished from the daphne gnidium, 
the flowers of which appear before the leaves ; they 
are disposed in bunches and not naked on the wood 
like those of the mezereum ; they are linear-lanceo- 
late, and its berries are much smaller than those of 
the mezereum. 

We gather the bark early in the spring, before the 
bush begins to blossom, cut it, while fresh, in as fine 
pieces as possible, and prepare from it, according to 
Class 3d, a tincture of a yellow-brownish colour and 
a burning taste. 

Antidotes : Camphor, Merc. 

2. Pbunus Padus (see : Leaves, &c). 

3. Sambucus nigra ; Fr., Sureau ; Ger., Hollander ; 
Eng., Common European elder. — Caprifolia. 

This tree is found in the hedges of France, and of 
a great part of Europe, near villages, &c, and rises 
to a height of from 18 to 20 feet ; the stem is very 
branchy towards the top, has a rough, whitish bark, 
and is filled with a rather whitish pith, which is light 
and spongy ; leaves opposite, pinnate ; folioles oval, 
pointed, dentated in two-thirds of their upper extre- 
mity ; flowers disposed in cymes ; calyx five-celled ; 
corolla wheel-shaped, with 5 obtuse and concave 
lobes ; fruit elongated, umbilical, berry-shaped, 
black ; the pulp is of a purplish colour. In homoeo- 
pathy we employ the second (interior) bark of the 
young branches, which is without smell, and has at 
first a sweetish, then a slightly bitter, acrid, nauseous 
taste ; from this bark we prepare, according to Class 
3d, a tincture of a brown-green colour, and a strong, 
offensive, smell and taste. This tincture should al- 
ways be designated as tinct. corticis Samb., whereas 
the tincture which we simply designate as tinct. 
Sambuci, is prepared from the blossoms and the two 
adjoining leaves. 

Antidotes : Arsen., Camph. 



152 



nOMCEOPATHIC 



4. Ulmus campestris ; Fr., Orme des champs, ormeau ; 
Ger., Gemeine Ulme, Riister ; Eng., Common elm- 
tree. — Amintacece. 

This tall tree is found in France and Germany, in 
forests, villages, towns, along roads, in parks, before 
castles, &c. ; leaves oval, thick, rough, unequal at 
their base, serrated ; flowers lateral, almost sessile, 
glomerated, appearing before the leaves, in spring ; 
fruit thin, membranous. 

The tincture is prepared according to Qlass 3d. 

b) Barks and woods of exotic (non-European) plants. 

1. Angustura, Angustura cortex; Fr., Angusture 
vraie, Ecorce de Bonplandia trifoliata ; Ger., An- 
gustura-Rinde ; Eng., Angustura bark. — Rutacece. 

The true Angustura is the bark of a tree of equa- 
torial America, called by Wildenow, Bonplandia tri- 
foliata, and belonging to the genus Galipea. The 
bark which is sent to us, has, generally, a yellowish- 
gray colour, like that of the yellow cinchona. We 
prefer, for homoeopathic use, pieces of from 2 to 6 
inches long, and one line thick, slightly rolled, and 
smooth within, dotted without with little white points 
on a coloured base, and covered with a whitish enve- 
lop, spongy, and easily detached. These pieces 
should show a shining texture when broken, porous, 
of the colour of cinnamon, of a disagreeable aromatic 
odour, of an aromatic, bitter, penetrating taste. Re- 
duced to powder, the angustura ought to have a co- 
lour like that of rhubarb. The false angustura, on 
the other hand, is always in large, hard, heavy bits, 
of a dull, white fracture, covered outwardly with a 
powder of the colour of rust or gold, without aromatic 
odour, and not succeptible of producing an alcoholic 
tincture which becomes turbid on the addition of 
water, which always takes place in that of the true 
angustura. 
We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 153 

a saturated yellow-brown colour, and a slightly aro- 
matic bitter taste. 
Antidote : Cqffea. 

2. Brucea anti-dysenterica ; Fr., Brucee ; Ger., 
Braune Brucea ; Eng., Antidysenteric brucea. — 
Terebinthacece. t 

This bush grows in Abyssinia ; leaves pinnated, 
unpaired, composed of six opposite and serrated foli- 
oles, dioecious ; calyx in four leaflets ; four petals. 
The bark of this bush resembles that of Angustura, 
but may be distinguished by the following character- 
istic differences: 1, The bark of brucea comes in 
larger pieces, and they have on their upper surface 
reddish-brown spots, or else of a grayish- white ; 

2, it is excessively bitter, without aroma. 
This bark is not resinous. 

According to Class 1st, we prepare from it a yellow 
tincture possessing the taste of the bark. 
Antidote : Cqff. 

3. Cortex Chinee, Cinchona officinalis ; Fr., China ; 
Ger., Chinarinde ; Eng., Peruvian bark. — Rubiacece. 
The tree whence this bark is obtained, grows in 

the environs of Loxa, in Peru ; and that from which 
we obtain the royal quinquina, on the high moun- 
tains of South America. There are a great many 
kinds of quinquina, all different in their effects, ac- 
cording as they have been selected from the branch- 
es or the trunk of such or such a kind of quinquina 
tree, as well as according to the age of the tree. The 
best kinds are the royal yellow, from the cinchona 
angustifolia of Ruiz, or from the lancifolia of Mutis, 
and the quinquina loxa or Peruvian bark, from the 
cinchona condaminea of Humboldt. The former 
comes to us in rolled or flat pieces, some of which are 
covered with the epidermis, others entirely or par- 
tially deprived of their epidermis ; these pieces differ 
in size and thickness, from i to 1" in diameter, to 
from 1 to 5" in breadth, and from I to %" in thick- 



154 HOMCEOrATHIC 

ness, the difference depending upon the age of the 
branches and trunks, from which the pieces were 
gathered. The royal yellow is generally of a red- 
dish-yellow within, fibrous fracture, studded with 
shining points, and covered with foliated lichens ; the 
loxa comes to us in finer and thinner pieces, more 
rolled, of a brownish-gray, mingled with white spots 
without, of a reddish-brown within, brown and 
smooth fracture, of a musty odour, bitter taste, styp- 
tic, and almost balsamic. We procure it enclosed in 
skins. The good cinchona barks should be of a 
medium thickness, very dry, of a peculiar odour, per- 
fectly bitter, as free as possible from lichens, of a 
brownish-red or blackish without, cinnamon-colour 
or red-yellow within ; the fracture of these barks 
should neither be fibrous nor pulverulent, but smooth 
and somewhat shining. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
saturated red-brown colour, and a strong, not dis- 
agreeably bitter taste. 

Antidotes: Ferr., Ipec, Am., Bell., Verat. 

4. Laurus Cinnamomum ; Fr., Cinnamome, laurier can- 
nelier, cannelle ; Ger., Zimmt ; Eng., Cinnamon. — 
Laurinece. 

The true cinnamon is the bark of the laurel cinna- 
mon, a tree which grows in the isle of Ceylon, East 
Indies, as well as in the Islands of Sumatra and Java, 
and on the coast of Malabar. It attains a height of 
from 20 to 30 feet ; its roots are covered with a bark 
which has the smell of camphor ; its wood is hard, 
and the inner part without odour ; leaves three nerv- 
ed, oval-oblong, nerves disappearing towards the 
summit ; flowers are small, whitish, disposed in pa- 
nicles, of an exquisite odour, which is perceived at 
some distance; berries oval, of a bluish-brown, spot- 
ted with white. When the sap is abundant, the bark 
of this tree is easily peeled off; the exterior bark is 
rejected, which is thick, gray, rough, the second only 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 155 

is preserved, which is thin ; it is cut in pieces and 
exposed to the sun ; it rolls upon itself of the size of 
a ringer, and its colour becomes of a rusty yellow. 

The good cinnamon ought to be of an extremely 
agreeable odour, penetrating, soothing, and of a 
sweetish taste, slightly heating, with an after taste 
somewhat pungent, and a little styptic. Should it 
have a strong taste, acrid, slightly bitter, and resem- 
bling the clove-berry, it is a sign that it is of an in- 
ferior quality, or even another kind of bark. 

We prepare the tincture according to Class 1st. 

5. Cascarilla, Croton eleutheria ; Fr., Cascarille ; 

Ger., Cascarilla-Rinde ; Eng., Cascarilla. — Euphor- 

biacecs. 

The bark used in homoeopathy under the name of 
Cascarilla, is not, as has been thought, the bark of 
croton cascarilla, but that of croton eleutheria ; a bush 
from 5 to 6 feet in height, and which grows in Peru, 
Paraguay, the Antilles, and above all, in the Isle of 
Eleutheria, so that it was formerly called Eleuthe- 
rian; the stem is branched, and covered with a 
brown bark, of which the external coat is rough and 
whitish ; the leaves are long, very narrow, somewhat 
pointed, entire, of a bright-green colour on the upper 
surface, downy, and of a silvery whiteness on the 
lower ; they are placed alternately on short foot- 
stalks ; the 'flowers are small, greenish, and disposed 
in long, terminal spikes; the bark comes to us in 
pieces, from 2 to 4 inches long, rolled on itself, solid, 
friable, moderately thick, whitish-gray, streaked, and 
covered with a kind of lichen without, of a brownish- 
gray, and smooth within ; fracture red, ligneous, dull, 
a little aromatic, of a bitter taste, piercing and hot ; 
thrown on coals, this bark burns quickly, emitting a 
musky odour. The best kind is that whose fracture 
exhibits resinous, shining particles. We prepare, ac- 
cording to Class 1st, a tincture of a yellow colour and 
pretty strong taste and odour. 



156 HOMOEOPATHIC 



6. Cistus canadensis ; Fi\, Ciste heliantheme ; Ger., 
Sonnenroschen ; Eng., Canadian rock-rose. — Cisti- 
nece. 

This plant grows in the north of the American 
continent ; it is a bush with stipules, semiligneous, 
recumbent ; leaves lanceolate-oblong, slightly hairy, 
white beneath ; calyx very downy, flowers yellow, 
at the end of the branches, on 3 to 6 thin, hairy pe- 
duncles ; calices five-lobed, revolute, hairy ; petals 
5 in number, large, of a beautiful gold-yellow. 

7. H^ematoxilon Campechianum ; Fr., Bois de Cam- 
peche ; Ger., Campeschenholz ; Eng., Campeachy- 
logwood. — Leguminosce. 

The wood of this tree is much used for black, vio- 
let and gray dyes ; it is chiefly found in Mexico and 
on the West India islands, and attains a height of 
50 feet. Trunk of the tree crooked, covered with a 
dark, rough bark ; the branches are also crooked, 
with numerous smaller ramifications which are fur- 
nished with sharp spines ; the sap-wood is yellowish, 
but the interior layers are of a deep-red colour ; the 
leaves are alternate, pinnate, composed of 3 or 4 
pairs of sessile, nearly obcordate, obliquely nerved 
leaflets ; flowers in axillary spikes or racemes, 
near the ends of the branches ; calyx brownish- 
purple ; petals of a lemon-yellow colour. It comes 
to us in large sticks, heavy, compact, blackish- 
brown externally, having an odour like that of the 
violet, and a sweetish-astringent and afterwards 
bitterish taste. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture 
of a yellow-brown colour and the above mentioned 
taste. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 157 

8. Sassafras, Laurus sassafras ; Fp., Sassafras, Lau- 
rier-sassafras ; Ger., Sassafras-Baum ; Eng., Sassa- 
fras. — Laurinece. 

This tree grows in America, 30 to 50 feet high, and 
a trunk about one foot in diameter ; bark of trunk 
rough, deeply furrowed, and grayish ; that of the ex- 
treme branches and twigs smooth, and beautifully 
green ; leaves alternate, petiolate, downy when 
young, variable in form and size ; some oval, entire, 
others lobed, generally three-lobed ; flowers frequently 
dioecious, small, pale yellowish-green colour, disposed 
in racemes, springing from the branches below the 
leaves, with linear bractes at their base ; corolla di- 
vided into 6 oblong segments ; male flowers have 9 
stamens ; the hermaphrodite, on a different plant, 
have only 6, with a simple style ; fruit an oval drupe, 
of the size of a pea ; deep-blue when ripe, on a red 
pedicle, enlarged at the extremity, like a cup, for its 
reception. Treated by nitric acid, the wood of sassa- 
fras turns red, which may distinguish it from its adul- 
terations ; the infusion and decoction are equally red. 
For homoeopathic purposes, we take a piece of the 
wood, with all its bark, reduce it to a fine powder, 
and prepare a ticture according to Class I. 

4. Roots. 

The roots of annual plants should be gathered in 
the fall, for they soon die after the seeds are ripe ; 
those of biennial plants should be gathered in the 
spring, before the stems have grown up ; the roots of 
perennial plants should be gathered in the second or 
third year, in the spring or fall, before the roots be- 
come ligneous. The roots of trees and bushes are 
dug up in the spring, while the bark can yet be peel- 
ed off. No roots should ever be dug up in the sum- 
mer, except those of annual plants. Exotic roots 
should not be mouldy, moist, ligneous or worm-eaten. 



158 HOMCEOPATHIC 



«) Roots of European plants. 

1. Act^ea spicata, Chryslophoriana ; Fr., Christopho- 
riane, Herbe St. Christophe ; Ger., Christophs- 
Kraut ; Eng., Herb Christopher, baneberry. — Ra- 
nunculaceoe. 

This plant grows in thickets and mountain-woods, 
and is found all over Europe. Its perennial root is 
black outside, yellow within, spongy, of a disagreeable 
odour, nauseous taste ; stem herbaceous, from 2 to 
3 inches in height ; leaves pedunculated, brilliant ; 
flowers in long terminal spikes ; berries black, soft, 
ovoid. 

2. Archangelica, Arckangelica officinalis, Angelica 
Arckangelica, L. ; Fr., Angelique, Angelique arch- 
angelique ; Ger., Engelwurz ; Eng., Garden ange- 
lica. — Umbellifcrce. 

This plant inhabits the north of Europe and Asia, 
as well as the mountains of France and middle Ger- 
many ; in the low countries of the north of Germany 
it is found near the rivers ; root biennial, large, cy- 
lindric, wrinkled, hairy, and branchy, of a brown- 
gray or reddish without, white within, of a strong 
aromatic odour, agreeable enough, and of a taste at 
first sweetish and biting, and then bitter ; stem her- 
baceous, rounded, striated, fistulous, branchy, from 4 
to 6 inches high ; leaves alternate, amplexicaule, bi- 
pinnate, with lobed folioles, serrated ; flowers termi- 
nal, in umbels, yellow, greenish, nearly ephemeral. 
We use the root of the wild plant, not that of the 
gardens. 

3. Armoracia, Armoracia rusticana, Cochlearia armo- 
racia; Fr., Rainfort, rainfort officinal, grand rainfort, 
cranson, cran de Bretagne ; Ger., Meerrettig, Ge- 

meiner Meerrettig, Kren ; Eng., Horse-radish. 

Cruciferce. 

This herbaceous plant grows in wet places, on the 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGV. 159 

sides of ditches and rivers, and above all in the West 
of France, as well as Germany, &c. Root cylindric, 
thick as the arm, long, branchy, vertical ; yellowish 
without, whitish within, of an acrid and biting taste ; 
stem upright, branchy on top, 1 to 3 inches high, 
angular, striated, glabrous, as well as the whole 
plant ; radical leaves, petiolate, large, upright, green, 
oval-oblong, scolloped ; those of the stem small, al- 
most sessile, pinnatifid, lanceolate, linear ; flowers 
small, white, in long terminal bunches ; calyx has 
4 ovate, deciduous leaves, and the corolla an equal 
number of obovate petals, twice as long as the calyx, 
and inserted by narrow claws ; the pod is small, 
elliptical, crowned with the persistent stigma, and 
divided into two cells, each with 4 or 6 seeds. 
We prepare a tincture, according to Class 1st. 

4. Arum maculatum ; Fr., Aron tachete, Gouet, Pied 
de veau ; Ger., Gefleckter Aron, Aronswurzel ; 
Eng., Wake robin, Cuckoo pint. — Aroidea. 

This plant is found all over Europe, in the umbra- 
geous forests and thick and shady woods. The root 
is tuberous, fleshy, of a brownish-yellow on the out- 
side, and white and feculent within ; the leaves are 
large, radical, hastate, sagittate ; lobes deflexed ; 
spadix club-shaped, obtuse, shorter than the spathe ; 
the shaft rising up from the root to a cubit in height, 
cylindric, channelled, carrying on its summit a single 
spathe. The berries are of the colour of cochineal, 
and contain 1, 3, 5 seeds. In the fresh state, this 
plant has an acrid, biting taste, like that of pepper, 
and is full of a milky, acrid, and caustic juice. 

We prepare a tincture, according to Class 3d. 

5. Berberis vulgaris ; Fr., Epine vinette ; Ger., Sauer- 
dorn ; Eng., Barberry.— Berberides. 

This bush grows all over Europe as well as in 
some parts of Asia and North America. It is a plant 



160 HOMOEOPATHIC 

with alternate leaves. The calyx is parted beneath 
by a spine ; the flowers come out in bunches from the 
middle of this six-leaved calyx ; 6 petals ; 2 glands 
at their base ; style null ; two-seeded berry. The 
root of this plant is branchy, with fibrous bark, of a 
strong peculiar odour, of a very bitter taste. We 
use in homoeopathy the small branches of the roots, 
or better still, the bark of the branches of the root of 
moderate size, because the large roots are too fibrous. 
We prepare the tincture according to Class 1st. 

6. Bryonia alba ; Fr., Bryone blanche ; Ger., Zaun- 
rube ; Eng., White bryony, wild hops. — Cucurbita- 
cecs. 

It is not the bryonia dio'ica but the bryonia alba, of 
which Hahnemann made use in his experiments ; 
and though in Belgium and in certain parts of Ger- 
many the bryonia dio'ica is more abundant than the 
bryonia alba, it is not so in France, nor in all Ger- 
many, where the bryonia alba may be found about 
the hedges, if not in abundance, at any rate as 
abundantly as the bryonia dio'ica. The perennial 
root of this plant is as large as the arm, or at times 
even as the thigh ; it is fleshy, succulent, branchy, of 
a yellowish-white, circularly wrinkled without, acrid, 
bitter, disagreeable to the taste, and of a nauseating 
odour, which, however, disappears by desiccation. 

Its climbing stalk rises sometimes to the height of 
many feet ; it is glabrous, creeping, channelled, and 
armed with spiral creepers ; its leaves are alter- 
nate, angular, hispid, tuberculous on both sides, rough 
to the touch, palmated, five-lobed, the middle of 
which is trifid, elongated; flowers axillary, monoe- 
cious, in bunches, the male being supported on very 
long peduncles, the female larger than the male ; 
calyx five-toothed, sharp ; corolla 5 divisions ; sta- 
mina 5, of which 4 are united 2 and 2 by the fila- 



PHARMACOPCErA AND POSOLOGY. 161 

ments and the anthers, the 5th free ; berries round, 
black, (those of dio'ica red,) polyspermous. 

We prepare the alcoholic tincture according to 
Class 3d ; if prepared according to Class 2d, it depo- 
sits a copious sediment, even after repeated nitra- 
tions. 

Antidotes : Camph., Coff., Rhus. t. 

7. Chelidonum majus ; Fr., Grande chelidoine ; Ger., 

Schollkraut, Schwalbenwurz ; Eng., Celandine. — 

PapaveracecB. 

This perennial plant grows all over Germany, as 
well as in France, in waste places, old walls, hed- 
ges, borders of highways, near habitations, &c. ; 
the root is fusiform, of the thickness of a finger, of a 
reddish-brown without, yellowish within, containing, 
as well as all parts of the plant, an acrid yellow 
juice ; stem ramose, hairy, one to two feet high ; 
leaves thin, winged, pinnatifid, bluish- green beneath, 
clear green above ; flowers yellow, axillary, or ter- 
minal ; peduncles in umbels ; umbel simple, of 4 or 5 
rays ; calyx caduceous and two-leaved ; corolla of 
4 petals; petals ligulate, threads united with the 
anthers, imitating petals ; silique polyspermous, uni- 
locular, linear, thin. 

We prepare the tincture according to Class 2d. 

8. Cicuta virosa; Fr., Cicutaire veneneuse, Cigue' 
d'eau; Ger., Wasser-Schierling ; Eng., Water-hem- 
lock, cow-bane. — Umbellifera. 

This perennial plant inhabits the borders of ditches 
and rivulets, swamps, meadows, ponds, lakes, &c, 
all over Germany, and the north and west of France ; 
the root is thick, white, fleshy, elongated, transparent, 
full of hairs, and hollow ; it contains in its bark a 
yellow juice; its odour is strong and disagreeable, 
its taste acrid and caustic; stem straight, from one 
to two feet high, ramose, fistulous, glabrous, stria- 



1C2 HOMOEOPATHIC 

ted ; leaves compound, 2 or 3 times winged, with 
lanceolate, incised leaflets, like the teeth of a saw ; 
umbels loose, naked ; involucelles 3 or 5 rayed ; 
flowers white, uniform ; fruit ovoid, furrowed with 
10 small entire sides. 
We prepare an essence according to Class 2d. 

9. Colchicum auctumnale ; Fr., Colchique, tue chien, 
Veillotte, safran des pres, safran batard ; Ger., 
Herbstzeitlose ; Eng., meadow-saffron. — Juncece. 
This perennial plant grows in many districts of 

Germany, France, and the south of Europe, in mea- 
dows', where it flowers in autumn, and announces 
the beginning of winter. The root forms a bulb of 
the size of a pigeon's egg ; it is furnished with fibrous 
radicles at its base, round on one side and flat on the 
other ; naturally it is covered with dark coats, of 
which the external one is brown, the inner shining 
and of a clear colour ; in the fresh state it contains 
a milky juice of an acrid taste, bitter, and of a dis- 
agreeable odour ; the flower rises in autumn imme- 
diately from a lateral bulb which the bulb of the pre- 
ceding year has produced, and which has grown 
during the winter and spring ; the flowers are rosy- 
coloured, with long tubes, disappearing in a few 
days, and are followed by leaves only in the following 
spring ; the leaves are large, flat, erect, spear-shaped, 
about 5 inches long, and one inch broad at the base, 
and come off with the capsules, which are triangu- 
lar, sessile, three-pointed ; the seeds are round, ovoid, 
wrinkled, of a deep brown. 

We prepare a tincture, according to Class 2d ; some 
prefer the seeds to the root. 

Antidotes : Nux v., Puis., Bell., Camph. 

10. Cyclamen Europium ; Fr., Cyclame, pain de pour- 
ceau ; Ger., Erdschiebe, Schweinsbrod ; Eng., Sow- 
bread. — Lysimachice. 

This plant grows in shady places and hilly regions, 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 163 

at the foot of the Alps, in the middle of Europe, in 
Tartary, &c. ; it is also cultivated in gardens. Root 
thick, flat, orbicular, forming a kind of flat surface, 
brown without, whitish within ; the flat root is fur- 
nished with a multitude of long filaments. Leaves 
radical, pedunculated, rounded, veined, green, bril- 
liant above, of a purple-red beneath, spotted white 
near the edge ; flowers of a fine purple, or white 
and red ; corolla revolute ; berries covered with a 
capsule. 

We prepare, according to Class 3d, a tincture of a 
brownish colour, no smell, and a somewhat acrid- 
nauseous taste. 

Antidote : Puis. ? 

11. Dictamnus alb us ; Fr., Dictamne, fraxinelle ; Ger., 
Diptam-, Asch-Specht, or Eschenwurzel ; Eng., White 
fraxinella, bastard dittany. — Rutacece. 

This perennial plant grows in the south of Ger- 
many, in Italy, France, Russia, in mountain-woods, 
and on stony hills. Root elongated, of the thickness 
of a finger, branchy, succulent, somewhat spongy ; 
stem upright, from 2 to 3 feet high, slightly angu- 
lar, streaked green, furnished with red, resinous 
glands, and terminating in a beautiful spike ; leaves 
alternate, shining, pinnated ; flowers terminal, in 
spikes, of a snowy-white or a clear red, with stripes 
of a deeper colour ; seeds ovoid, black. When fresh, 
the whole plant emits a strong, resinous odour, and 
exhales a quantity of ethereal oil, which, upon a 
candle being approached in a dry and hot air, in- 
flames without any injury being done to the plant. 

We prepare, according to Class 3d, a tincture of a 
straw-yellow colour, and possessing in a considerable 
degree the smell of the plant. Of the larger roots we 
only use the bark. 



164 HOJICEOPATHIC 



12. Gentiana lutea ; Ger., Gelber or edler Enzian ; 
Eng., Gentian. — Gentianece. 

The root which we obtain in the shops, is from 3 
to 1 1 lines long, and from one half to one line thick, 
with several principal heads, somewhat ramose, cy- 
lindrical, thinning off towards the end, bent and con- 
torted, of a dirty, red rust-colour, or a little lighter, 
a peculiar, nauseous odour, and a penetrating, bitter, 
long-continuing taste. 

We select pieces of the root of a moderate thick- 
ness, not worm-eaten or old, and prepare from them, 
according to Class 1st, a tincture of a yellow-brown- 
ish colour and a very bitter taste. 

13. Helleborus niger; Fr., Hellebore noir; Ger., 
Schwarze Niesswurz ; Eng., Black hellebore, christ- 
mas-rose. — Ranunculaceas. 

This plant grows in the mountain-forests of middle 
and southern Europe, on the Alps, &c. The root is 
perennial, knotted, blackish on the outside, white 
within, and sends off a number of long, simple, depen- 
dent fibres, of a brownish-yellow when fresh, but 
changing to a dark-brown when drying ; leaves pe- 
date, of a deep-green colour, standing on long foot- 
stalks that spring directly from the root ; each leaf 
is composed of 5 or more leaflets, one terminal and 
2 or 3 or 4 on each side, supported on a single, par- 
tial petiole ; leaflets ovate, lanceolate, smooth, shin- 
ing, coriaceous, the upper portion being serrated ; 
the flower-stem, which also rises from the root, is 
from 6 to 8 inches high, round, tapering, reddish to- 
wards the base, bearing one or two large pendent, 
rose-like flowers without calyx, which is supplied by 
floral leaves ; the petals, which are 5 in number, are 
large, roundish, concave, spreading, and of a white 
or pale-rose colour, with occasionally a greenish 
tinge. 

The recent root has a rancid, offensive smell, some- 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY 165 

what similar to that of the Senega-root ; its taste is 
acrid-bitterish. 

We dig up the root immediately after the plant 
has begun to flower, and prepare from it, according 
to Class 1st, a tincture of a brownish straw-yellow 
colour and little smell. 

Antidotes : Camph., China. 

14. Juncus pilosus, lucula pilosa ; Fr., Jonc poilu; 
Ger., Haarige Binse ; Eng., Hairy rush. — Juncecs. 

This plant grows all over Europe ; root oblique, 
with runners ; stems gramineous, erect, simple, thick 
and smooth ; leaves radical, lanceolate, sharp, fur- 
nished at their edges with long, soft, scattered hairs ; 
flowers in corymbs. 

We gather the root of the flowering plant in March 
or May, and prepare from it, according to Class 3d, 
a tincture of a light yellow-brown colour. 

The juncus effusus is abundantly found on moist, 
marshy meadows, on the borders of ponds and ditch- 
es. Root rampant, branchy, furnished on one side 
with a number of long fibres, dipping into the ground; 
it resembles grass, the blades from 1 to 2 inches high, 
has the colour of grass, is very smooth, round, stiff, 
marrowy within, furnished at the base with yellow 
or reddish-brown sheaths or scales ; panicle com- 
posed of numerous flowers, pedunculated, turned to 
one side. 

The juncus glomeratus is distinguished from the 
former by its finely streaked blades and shorter pe- 
duncles. Tincture as above. 

15. Pjeonia officinalis ; Fr., Pivoine officinale ; Ger. f 
Gichtrose ; Eng., Peony. — Ranunculacece. 

This perennial plant grows in the forests of Switz- 
erland, Carinthia, Silesia, and is likewise cultivated 
in gardens. Root oblong, rounded, thick, and pro- 



166 HOMOEOPATHIC 

vided with brown tubercles disposed like strings of 
pearls, of an offensive, stupefying smell. Leaves al- 
ternate, petiolated, cut short, with oval leaflets, 
lobed, the lower leaves biternate, the upper ones 
simply ternate ; flowers large, of a fine purple co- 
lour. 

We gather the root in spring, immediately after 
the leaves begin to bud, and prepare from it, accord- 
ing to Class 2d, an essence of a beautiful red colour. 

16. Raphanus, radix raphani nigri s. hortensis ; Fr., 
Rainfort ; Ger., Sommer- or Winterrettig ; Eng., 
Rad ish . — CrucifercB. 

The large, rounded, turnip-shaped root, which some- 
times weighs several pounds, has a black or black- 
gray epidermis, a white, compact, very juicy pulp, 
and a remarkably acrid taste and smell. 

Hollow or dry roots should not be used ; roots of 
a moderate size are preferable. We dig up the root 
in May or June, and prepare from it, according to 
Class 2d, an essence of a pale-yellow colour and 
acrid odour. (Compare the article Armoracia.) 

17. Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana minor ; Fr., Va- 
16riane officinale, valeriane sauvage, petite vale- 
riane ; Ger., Baldrian-Wurzel ; Eng., Valerian., — 
Dipsacece. 

This perennial plant grows almost every where, 
in marshy low-grounds as well as on dry hills, the 
latter being preferable. 

The perennial root of this plant has a cylindrical 
white stalk, whence shoot off fibrous, scaly branches, 
of a white colour within, and brown without. Stem 
from 2 to 6 feet high, obtusely quadrangular below, 
furrowed above, fistulous, simple, erect, hairy ; 
leaves opposite, pinnatifid ; folioles lanceolate, ser- 
rated ; flowers reddish (rose-colour), or whitish; ter- 
minal or axillary, in panicles composed of infundi 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 167 

biliform little flowers ; calyx dentated ; corolla of 
5 irregular divisions. 

If carefully dried, the root has an aromatic, cam- 
phorous odour, and a bitter, aromatic taste. The 
colour of the fresh stalk is of a light-brown or red- 
dish-gray ; when dry, the colour is darker, even to 
a blackish-brown, lighter under the epidermis. 

The root from the Alpine regions is the best ; we 
prepare from it, according to Class 1st, a tincture of 
a reddish-brown colour and strong taste and smell, 
using dilute alcohol for that purpose. 

Antidotes : Camph., Coff., Bell, and Merc. 

18. Veratrum album, Helleborus albus ; Fr., Varaire, 
veratre blanc ; Ger., Weisse Niesswurz ; Eng., 
White hellebore. — Colchiacece. 

The white hellebore grows in pasture-lands of the 
high mountains of France, Bavaria, Tyrol, Stiria, Si- 
lesia, Austria, Hungary, &c. 

The perennial, short, thick, abruptly terminating 
root is simple, firm, rugose, brownish without, white 
within, sending off a number of juicy fibres of the 
size of a grass-blade ; the fresh root has an offen- 
sive smell, and a burning-acrid, bitterish taste ; the 
smell and efficacy of the dried root are less than those 
of the fresh. Stem from 1 to 4 feet high, round, fis- 
tulous, almost entirely covered by the sheaths of the 
leaves, downy above ; lower leaves oval, the upper 
ones oblong, lanceolate, all of them provided with 
numerous nerves, glabrous on their upper, and downy 
on their lower surface. Flowers pale-green, disposed 
in terminal panicles. 

From the dry root we prepare, according to Class 
1st, a tincture of a yellow-brown colour, and the 
above described taste. 

Antidotes : Aeon., Camph.. China, Coff* Ipec, 
Sulph. 



1G8 HOIKEOPATHIC 



b) Roots of exotic (non- European) plants. 

1. Cahinca seu cainca, Cahinca cdinana. Chiococca 
racemosa; Fr., Cainca, Racine de cainca; Ger., 
Kainka-Wurzel ; Eng., Cahinca-root. — Rubiacea>. 

This shrub grows in Brazil and the Antilles. Stem 
from 5 to 10 feet high; leaves opposite, oval-pointed, 
entire ; flowers pedunculated, whitish, axillary, in 
pendant bunches ; fruit berriform, whitish, mono- 
spermous ; root branchy, of a reddish-brown, consist- 
ing of cylindric pieces, from \h to 2 feet long, and of 
the thickness of a goose-quill or finger; it is fibrous, 
marked all along with furrows of a deep colour, 
covered with brown bark, annular, thin, fleshy ; epi- 
dermis of a dirty white. Beneath this fleshy part is 
found a white wood, which is the axis of the root. 
The epidermis of the bark is of a resinous aspect 
when broken, of disagreeable taste, bitter, a little 
acrid and slightly astringent, producing a roughness 
in the throat ; the woody part has neither taste nor 
odour. The odour of the root is acrid, volatile, dis- 
agreeable, somewhat like that of valerian. 

We prepare from the bark of the root, according to 
Class 1st, a tincture of a light brownish-yellow co- 
lour. 

2. Convolvulus, Jalappa, s. Ipomcea jalappa, Ipo- 
mcea macrorrhiza ; Fr., Jalap ; Ger., Trichter- 
Winde ; Eng,, Jalap. — Convolvulacece. 

This creeper grows in the environs of Mexico, 
Vera Cruz, in Florida, and Carolina. The tuber 
either comes whole or divided longitudinally into 
two parts, or in transverse circular slices ; the entire 
tubers are irregularly roundish, or ovate and pointed 
or pear-shaped, usually much smaller than the first, 
and marked with circular and vertical incisions, made 
to facilitate their drying ; in this state the root is pre- 
ferred, as it is less apt to be defective, and is more 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 169 

easily distinguished from the adulterations than when 
sliced ; the tuber'' is heavy, compact, hard, brittle, 
with a shining, undulated fracture, exhibiting numer- 
ous resinous points, distinctly visible with the micro- 
scope ; it is externally brown and wrinkled, internally 
of a grayish colour, diversified by concentric darker 
circles, in which the matter is denser and harder than 
in the intervening spaces ; the odour of the root 
when cut or broken is heavy, sweetish, and rather 
nauseous ; the taste is sweetish, somewhat acrid and 
disagreeable ; it yields its active properties partly to 
water, partly to alcohol, and completely to dilute alco- 
hol. For homoeopathic purposes we must not use the 
light pieces, of a clear brown outside, whitish or pale- 
gray within, nor those which are not shiny, nor striat- 
ed, spongy, worm-eaten, nor too friable. 

We prepare a tincture, according to Class 1st, 
from the heaviest and most resinous pieces, which 
have to be dried with care, and then finely pulverized. 
It has a brownish, straw-yellow colour. 

3. Ginseng, Panax quinquefolium ; Fr., Ginseng, 
Panax a cinq feuilles ; Ger., Ginseng, fiinfbldtterige 
Kraftwurzel; Eng., Ginseng. — Araliaceat. 
This plant is a native of America, China, Tartary, 
&c, where it is a panacea for all ills. Root fleshy, 
somewhat spindle-shaped, from 1 to 3 inches long, 
about as thick as the little finger, terminated by se- 
veral slender fibres ; when dried, it is yellowish-white 
and wrinkled externally; within is a hard, central 
portion, surrounded by a soft, whitish bark ; a feeble 
odour and sweet taste, slightly aromatic, resembling 
liquorice-root; stem smooth, round, one foot high, 
divided at the summit into 3 leaf-stalks, each of 
which supports a compound leaf, consisting of 5, or 
more rarely of 3 or 7 petioled, oblong, obovate, acu- 
minate, serrate leaflets ; the flowers are polygamous, 
small, greenish, and arranged in a simple umbel, sup- 
ported by a peduncle ; calyx five-toothed ; corolla 
8 



170 HOM030PATHIC 

five-petalled ; fruit, kidney-shaped scarlet berries, 
crowned with the styles and calyx, and containing 2 
or 3 seeds. Besides the kind we have just described, 
and which should alone be used in homoeopathy, 
there are many others, which are sold for the true 
ginseng, and which it will be necessary to distin- 
guish. 

According to Gruner, the Chinese root is not sent 
to Europe, and the symptoms of ginseng must there- 
fore have been obtained from the Sium sisorum Willd., 
which comes to us mixed with the Senega. 

We prepare a tincture according to Class 1st. 

i. Ipecacuanha, Cephaelis ipecacuanha ; Fr., Ipecacu- 
anha ; Ger., Brechwurzel ; Eng., Ipecacuanha. — 
Rubiacece. 

We distinguish in commerce three sorts of ipeca- 
cuanha, to wit : 1st. Ipecac, black or striated, obtained 
from the psychotria emetica. 2d. Ipecac, white or 
undulating, obtained from the Richardsonia scabra of 
Brazil, and from the viola ipecac, L. 3d. Ipecac, 
gray, coming from the cephaelis ipecac. It is this last 
that we employ in homoeopathy ; it comes from Brazil 
also, where the plant which furnishes this root, grows 
in shady places of the provinces of Pernambuco and 
of Bahia, at Mariana as well as on the Antilles ; it is a 
small shrubby plant with a root from 4 to 6 inches 
long, about as thick as a goose-quill, marked with 
annular rugae, simple or somewhat branched, descend- 
ing obliquely into the ground, and here and there 
sending forth slender fibrils ; the stem is 2 or 3 feet 
long ; but being partly under ground, and often pro- 
cumbent at the base, usually rises less than a foot in 
height ; it is slender ; in the lower portion leafless, 
smooth, brown, or ash-coloured and knotted, with 
radicles frequently proceeding from the knots ; near 
the summit pubescent, green, and furnished with 
leaves seldom exceeding 6 in number; these are 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOI.OGT. 171 

opposite, petiolate, oblong, obovate, acute, entire, 
from 3 to 4 inches long, from 1 to 2 broad, darkish- 
green and somewhat rough on their upper surface, 
pale, downy and veined on the lower ; at the base of 
each pair of leaves are deciduous stipules, amplexi- 
caule, membranous at their base, and separated 
above into numerous bristle-like divisions ; the flow- 
ers are very small, white, and collected to the number 
of 8, 12, or more, each accompanied with a green 
bracte, into a semi-globular head, supported upon a 
round, solitary, axillary footstalk, and embraced by a 
monophyllous involucre, deeply divided into 4, some- 
times 5 or 6 obovate, pointed segments ; the fruit is 
an ovate, obtuse berry, which is at first purple, but 
becomes almost black when ripe, and contains 2 
small, plano-convex seeds ; the interior of the root is 
resinous, white, and traversed by a white line ; the 
whole root has a feeble but disagreeable odour, 
and a mucilaginous, slightly bitter and nauseous 
taste. 

The root of the Richardsonia scabra {white ipecac.) 
is longer, softer, and more flexible ; the epidermis of 
it is of a clearer gray ; the rings less near, and deeper ; 
the fracture less resinous ; the tatse not at all bitter. 

For homoeopathic use, we employ, as above said, 
the cephaelis ipecac, or gray ipecac. The whitish or 
yellowish roots which are found mixed with this sort, 
should be rejected, as well as those which are spongy, 
and also such as have no rings. 

We prepare a tincture from it, according to Class 
1st, of a light-brown colour. 

5. (Enanthe crocata ; Fr., (Enanthe safrane ; Ger., 
Safran-Dolde; Eng., Hemlock water dropwort. — 
UmbellifercB. 

This plant is natural to France, Spain, where it 
grows in marshes, watery meadows, and along rivu- 
lets. Stem erect, from 18 to 30 feet high, cylindric, 



172 HOMOEOPATHIC 

fistulous, containing a yellow juice ; leaves twice or 
thrice pinnated, large, of a deep green, with folioles 
oval-cuneiform ; umbels of pretty long rays, from 12 
to 30 in number ; flowers white ; seeds oval, oblong, 
terminated by persistent styles. The root of this 
plant, the only part we use in homoeopathy, consists 
of many hinge-like branches, of the size of a beet, 
containing a white, milky juice, becoming yellow on 
exposure ; the taste is sweetish, which is the reason 
of the frequent poisonings by this plant ; it is the most 
dangerous vegetable we know ; a bit of the root, 
about the size of a cherry, causes death in a few 
hours. 

We gather the roots of the flowering plant in June 
or August, and prepare from them, according to Class 
2d, an essence of a yellow-green colour ; from the 
dry root we prepare a tincture according to Class 1st. 

6. Punica granatum ; Fr., Grenadier ; Ger., Granaten- 
baum ; Eng., Pomegranate. — Myrtacecc. 

This tree is a native of the southern parts of Asia, 
Africa, America, and Europe, and is also cultivated 
in the botanic gardens of northern Europe. 

It is from 15 to 18 feet high; leaves lanceolate, 
opposite and alternate, flowers of a bright red ; fruit 
globular, surmounted by the calyx, coriaceous, suc- 
culent and fleshy ; seeds numerous, reddish-blue, 
shining, and of a purple-red on the upper surface. 

The best bark comes to us from the East-Indies ; 
it is also obtained from France and Italy ; it comes to 
us in irregular, flat or rolled-up pieces of different 
sizes. Only the outer bark of the root is used in 
medicine. It is of a brown-yellow colour, friable, 
covered with a fine, pale-brown epidermis, now and 
then with a greenish tinge, inodorous, with a rather 
bitter taste when chewed ; it tinges the saliva yellow 
and is slightly astringent. With water it leaves a 
yellow trnce on paper, which is transformed into a 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 173 

rose-colour by acids, into brown by alcalies, and into 
blue by the sulphate of iron. 

The tincture of the dry root should be prepared 
according to Class 1st. 

7. Ratanhia, Krameria triandria ; Fr., Ratanhia de 
Perou, kramer a trois etamines ; Ger., Ratanhia ; 
Eng., Rhatany root. — Poligalece. 

This bush was first discovered by Ruiz in 1779 ; 
it grows on the sides of the Andes, in Peru and Quito, 
principally in Huamaco. 

The root is composed of a branchy stalk of different 
size, from 4 to 8 lines long, and a few inches thick, 
from the sides and the lower parts of which shoot up 
round branches and numerous fibres of a few lines 
in thickness ; they are contorted, and are sometimes 
bent in the shape of a knee. It is ligneous, of a dark 
blue-red and cracked externally, and of a reddish- 
yellow internally, with a dark-red bark ; the branches 
of the root have an earthy odour and an acerb, 
astringent, slightly bitter taste, tinging the saliva 
dark-red. 

We select the middle branches which are still 
completely covered by the substance of the bark, and 
prepare from them, according to Class 1st, a tincture 
of a saturated brown-red colour and an astringent 
taste. 

8. Rheum, Rhabarbarum ; Fr., Rhubarbe ; Ger., Rha- 
barber ; Eng., Rhubarb. — Polygonece. 

This root is a native of middle and northern Asia. 
The best kind of rhubarb is obtained from two varieties 
growing on the mountains of China and on the Hima- 
laya mountains, the Rheum palmatum, with palmated 
leaves and a large spike of white flowers, and the 
Rheum Emodi or australe Don., likewise with large, 
round, downy leaves, and spikes of red flowers. In- 
ferior kinds are obtained from the Rheum Rhaponti- 



174 



HOMCEOPATHIC 



cum, compactum, undulatum, L., growing in Russian 
Tartary. This kind is, however, considered by some 
superior to the former. 

The root is short, annular, light, spongy, of a saffron 
colour, with rose-coloured spots, a peculiar aromatic, 
nauseous smell, and a bitter, astringent, somewhat 
disagreeable taste ; to the saliva it imparts a saffron 
colour without becoming viscid or glutinous. 

The Russian root comes to us in flat, or in round- 
ish, cylindrical angular pieces with wide foramina ; 
these pieces are of different sizes and moderate weight. 
The yellow pulverulent covering arises from the 
pieces being rubbed against each other during the 
transport ; on removing it, a brownish-yellow surface 
traversed by white, retiform veins, is exhibited ; on 
cutting the root, it exhibits a bright brownish colour, 
with white and red spots, crystalline and resinous, 
shining ; when chewed it makes a noise like sand, 
imparts a strong, yellow tinge to the saliva, and has 
a disagreeably acerb, bitter taste. 

We select the heaviest pieces of a homogeneous 
colour, and prepare from them, according to Class 
1st, with dilute alcohol, a tincture of a saturated 
dark yellow colour, and the well-known rhubarb- 
taste. 

9. Sassaparilla, radix SassaparillcB s. Sarsaparilla? 
s. Salsaparillce s. Sarsce; Fr., Salsapareille ; Ger., 
Sassaparilla ; Eng., Sarsaparilla. — Asparagi. 

The best pharmaceutists consider the subsequently 
named varieties as the best. Smilacin, the efficient 
agent of Sarsaparilla, is principally found in these 
varieties, namely, in their ligneous portion and the 
epidermis. 

1. Sarsaparilla from Honduras. 

2. Sarsaparilla from Veracruz or Caraccas. 

3. Sarsaparilla from Lisbon, Brazil, or Peru. 

The roots should be mealy internally, of a yellow- 



rHARMACOl'CBIA AND POSOLOGT. 175 

ish-white, not friable nor worm-eaten, but compact 
and easily split longitudinally. The root is inodorous 
and has only an earthy smell when tied up in bundles , 
it has a slimy, somewhat bitterish, scraping taste. 
Roots with a too thick, partially detached bark, pro- 
minently marked with wrinkles, and of a light, yel- 
lowish leather-coloured epidermis, should be rejected. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of 
a pale-yellow colour, but without either taste or smell. 

Antidote : Camphor. Vinegar seems to increase 
the symptoms. 

10. Sciixa maritima, Radices ScillcB s. Squillce rubra 
s. Pancratii veri s. Ornithogali, Cepa marina ; Fr., 
Scille maritime ; Ger., Meerzwiebel ; Eng., Squills, 
sea-onion. — Asphodeli, liliacece. 

The true squilla maritima grows near the sandy 
beach of the Mediterranean ; it is a perennial plant, 
of which we use only the bulbs covered with red 
membranes. We obtain them either fresh or dry, 
generally, however, in the latter form. 

The whole bulb weighs about several pounds, is 
covered externally with membranous, red-brown, 
transparent scales, beneath which we find the thick, 
fleshy, succulent scales, which are at first of a pale 
violet, and afterwards, towards the middle, of a white 
colour. From the pretty broad base come off, in a 
circle, numerous, thick, round, long fibres, and at 
the opposite point we observe the green germ. The 
dried bulbs come to us in whole scales, or split once 
and singly detached, still more frequently in narrow 
segments of several inches in length, half an inch in 
breadth and a few lines in thickness. They are yel- 
lowish-white, generally pliable and tenacious, horny, 
and imbibe humidity from the air very readily. 
They are inodorous, and have an offensive, nauseous, 
bitter taste. 

Since these bulbs do not contain any volatile sub- 



176 HOMOEOPATHIC 

stance, and the fresh bulbs are apt to deteriorate 
much more readily than the dried ones, it is advisable 
to use the latter in preference to the former. We 
select bulbs of a very white colour and fleshy consist- 
ence, not the brown or even half-roasted bulbs, nor 
the thin, coloured, membranous, inefficient scales ; 
cut them in small pieces, and then prepare them with 
dilute alcohol, according to Class 1st. The tincture 
thus obtained is of a pale straw colour, lighter than 
a tincture from the fresh bulb, but equally effica- 
cious. 
Antidote : Camphor. 

11. Senega, poligala Senega; Fr., Poligala de Vir- 
ginie, senega ; Ger., Senega-Wurzel ; Eng., Seneca 
snake-root. — Pedicularece. 

This plant is a native of North America, Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Canada. Its perennial 
root is of the size of a goose-quill or thicker, generally 
less, branchy, contorted, interlaced, from 2 to 6 lines 
long, with a knotty head of half a line in thickness, 
from which the branches shoot up. Externally it is 
of a gray-brownish-yellowish colour, longitudinal] y 
rugose, frequently rugged, rough ; when cut, it shines 
like resin, is of a yellowish-white internally, fragile, 
ligneous, of an offensive rancid smell, and an ex- 
tremely nauseous taste, exciting the saliva, and leaving 
a scraping sensation in the throat ; the pulverized 
root causes sneezing. 

We prepare, accoi'ding to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
pale-yellow colour. 

Antidotes : Am., Bry., Bell., Camph. 

12. Aristolochia serpentaria ; Fr., Serpentaire de 
Virginie, aristoloche serpentaire ; Ger., Virginische 
Schlangenwurzel, Virginische Osterluzei ; Eng., Vir- 
ginia snake-root. — Aristolochice. 

This plant is found on the mountains and in the 



PHARMACOPCSIA AND TOSOLOGT. 177 

shady woods of Virginia, Carolina, and South Ame- 
rica. 

The root is composed of a short, thin, cylindrical, 
contorted stalk, furnished with thin, pliable, fre- 
quently closely interlaced fibres of from 1 to 4 lines 
long, of a dark gray-brown colour, and lighter inter- 
nally. It has a strong smell, similar to that of Cam- 
phor or Valerian ; taste aromatic, pungent-bitterish. 

The tincture should be prepared according to Class 
1st ; it has a pale yellow-brown colour and strong 
smell. 

13. Zingiber officinale, Ammomum Zingiber; Fr., 
Gingembre ; Ger., Ingwer ; Eng., Ginger. — Cannae. 

This plant is a native of the East Indies, and is 
moreover cultivated in the West Indies and in tropi- 
cal America. 

Root rampant, consisting of a thick stalk which is 
divided like a hand, into flat, rugged, fleshy tubers of 
from 1 to 3 inches long and almost an inch in thick- 
ness, of a dirty-yellow colour, and an aromatic smell 
and acrid taste. 

The tubers are furnished with single fibres. From 
the root arise herbaceous, glabrous stems with nar- 
row, acuminated, glabrous leaves ; flower-shaft short, 
oval, obtuse ; flowers yellowish-white. In commerce 
there are two kinds of zingiber, one white, the other 
black, a difference which arises simply from the more 
or less accurate method of drying the root. In ho- 
moeopathy we use the roots that come by the way 
of Malabar and Bengal, light-coloured, compact, 
heavy, of a strong smell and burning taste. Roots of 
an entirely white colour should not be used, as this 
whiteness is probably the result of bleaching. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
yellow colour and a strong smell and taste. 



1 78 MOMCflor ATHIC 



2. Fruit and seeds. 



Fruit (fructus) and berries (baccae) are not, gene- 
rally speaking, gathered until they are ripe ; some are 
gathered unripe because they then contain the larg- 
est amount of medicinal power. The fruits which 
we obtain fresh, should be carefully cleansed of all 
unripe, decayed or worm-eaten pieces, after which 
they are prepared according to one of the three 
Classes mentioned above. 

The seeds have to be gathered when completely 
ripe, but before they fall off. Some of the seeds are 
used with, others without their capsules. Oily seeds 
easily become rancid. 

a) Seeds of European plants. 

1. Evonymus europ^us ; Fr.,Fusain, bonnet de pretre ; 
Ger., Spindelbaum, Pfaffenhutchen ; Eng., Spindle- 
tree. — Rhamnacece. 

This bush grows all over Europe, in hedges and 
woods, and sometimes rises to the size of a tree. 
Leaves lanceolate, indented, small, of a pale green, 
with four petals, supported on dichotomous stems, in 
panicles. The fleshy capsule, which is generally 
four-celled, and of a rose-colour when ripe, contains 
4 roundish seeds of a saffron-colour, disagreeable 
smell and bitter taste. 

From the ripe seeds and their capsules (in Oct.) 
we prepare, according to Class 3d, a tincture of a 
saffron-colour and no taste. 

2. Humulus lupulus ; Fr., Houblon : Ger., Hopfen ; 
Eng., Hops. — Urticece. 

This well-known plant grows in hedges, where it 
forms a perennial root, sending up numerous annual, 
angular, rough, flexible stems, which twine around 
neighbouring objects in a spiral direction, from left to 



NiARMACOrOEIA AND POBOLOffY. 179 

right, and climb to a great height ; leaves opposite, 
standing upon long footstalks ; smaller sometimes 
cordate, larger 8 or 5 lobes ; all are serrate, of a 
deep green colour on the upper surface, and, together 
with the petioles, extremely rough, with minute 
prickles ; at the base of the footstalks are 2 or 4 
smooth, ovate, reflexed stipules; flowers numerous, 
axillary, and furnished with bractes ; male flowers 
yellowish-white, arranged in panicles ; the females, 
which grow on a separate plant, are pale green, and 
disposed in solitary, peduncled aments, composed of 
membranous scales, ovate, acute, and tubular at the 
base ; each scale bears a roundish, compressed germ, 
and two st}>-les, with long, filiform stigmas ; the 
aments are converted into ovate, membranous cones 
or strobiles, the scales of which contain each, at their 
base, two small seeds, surrounded by a yellow, gra- 
nular, resinous powder. For homoeopathic purposes 
we use the female flower-buds of the plant, gathered 
at the beginning of September, and prepare from 
them, according to Class 3d, a tincture of a dark 
brown-red colour, and an aromatic bitter taste. 

3. Pheliandrium aquaticum ; Fr., Phellandre aqua- 
tique, Cigue aquatique, Fenouil d'eauf Ger., Was- 
serfenchel ; Eng., Water hemlock. — UmbellifercB. 

This biennial plant grows in almost all the swamps 
and aquatic spots of Europe ; root horizontal, crook- 
ed, oblique, resembling a turnip ; stem from 2 to 6 
feet high, fistulous, striated, thick, light, branchy, 
glabrous ; leaves tripinnate, petiolated, glabrous, com- 
pound, with short peduncles and equal rays; invo- 
lucre null or of one foliole ; involucelle of 6 or 8 
folioles ; flowers white, with 5 cordiform petals ; fruit 
ovoid, oblong, slightly compressed, flattened on one 
side and convex on the other, glabrous, resembling 
the seeds of anise, striated or furrowed, and turned 
over by the teeth of the calyx. When at maturity, 



180 HOMCEOPATHIO 

these grains are larger, of a stronger odour, and 
greenish-yellow ; the odour is pungent, disagreeable, 
and acrid ; the taste aromatic and nauseous. We 
must not confound these seeds with those of the 
Slum latifolium, the grains of which are smaller, 
more striated, of a deeper colour, crooked, of an odour 
and taste altogether different. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
light brown colour, and the taste and odour of the 
seeds. 

4. Secale cornutum, Clavus secalinum ; Fr., Ergot; 

Ger., Mutterkorn, Bockshorn ; Eng., Ergot, spurred 

rye. 

This morbid alteration of the seed-bud of rye (and 
several other cereajia) has been attributed to vari- 
ous causes. 

According to Decandolle, who calls it Sclerotium 
clavus, this alteration is caused by a fungus which 
prevents the development of the grain from the com- 
mencement, and grows up in its stead. This opinion 
is supported by the circumstances attending the ap- 
pearance and growth of the morbid grain ; it occurs 
principally in fertile ■ years when hot weather fre- 
quently alternates with warm rain. It is seated be- 
tween the awns as a cylindrical, somewhat curved, 
angular body, longitudinally rugose, and frequently 
resembling the fenugreek, from one half to one inch 
long, of a deep brown- violet without, and a yel low- 
white, and sometimes a violet-white within, viscid, 
having an offensive, rancid smell like a fungus, and 
a flat, sweetish taste. 

From the fresh grains, which should be gathered 
before the corn is ripe, we prepare, according to Class 
3d, a tincture of a dark hyacinth-red colour. 

Triturations are inadmissible, for it is a well known 
fact that triturated secale will soon spoil, and the 
sooner, the fresher it was prepared. 

Antidotes ; Campfwr, and Solan* nigr. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOUr. 181 



5. Agnus castus, Vitex agyius castus ; Fr., Gattillier 
commun ; Ger., Keusch-Lamm ; Eng., Chaste tree. 
— Gattiliers or Verbenacece. 

This plant derives its name of agnus castus, (chaste 
lamb,) from the circumstance of the Greek ladies 
covering their beds with the leaves of it, during the 
absence of their husbands, to prevent any impure 
ideas. It is a bush which, on account of its beauti- 
ful leaves, is cultivated in our gardens, but which 
grows naturally along the basin of the Mediterra- 
nean, in Provence, in Greece, on sandy spots, and at 
the foot of rocks. It often attains a height of from 
3 to 6 feet, and is very branchy ; the leaves are five 
digitated folioles, lanceolated ; flowers a great many, 
in long spikes, very apparent, of a violet-blue ; ber- 
ries dry, divisions monosperm, resembling the pepper 
in grain. 

We prepare of the leaves and flowers, or better 
still, of the berries, provided they can be had fresh, 
a tincture, according to Class 3d, of a dark brown- 
green colour and strong smell. 

b) Fruits and seeds of exotic (non- European) plants. 

1. Anacardium orientale, Semecarpus anacarpus ; 
Fr., Anacarde, Feve de Malac ; Ger., Elephanten- 
Laus, Malahka-Nuss ; Eng., Malacca bean. — Tere- 
binthinacece. 

This tree with gray bark is found in the Indies, 
where it grows in old forests. The fruit it bears is 
enclosed in a spongy receptacle. It is surrounded 
by two envelopes, between which is found an acrid, 
caustic, black fluid. It is of this fluid (not of the 
whole part, as the homoeopathic pharmacopoeias say) 
that, according to Hahnemann, we ought to make the 
preparation ; they are the effects of the fluid, not of 
the fruit that Hahnemann has published. We pre- 



182 HOM(EOrATHI« 

pare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a saturated 
brown colour, without smell, and of an acrid, burning 
taste. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

2. Illicium anisatum ; Fr., Anis etoile, Anis de la 
Chine, Badiane ; Ger., Anis, Stern-Anis ; Eng., 
Star anise seed. — Magnoliacece. 

The vegetable which furnishes the anise seed, 
grows in China, in Japan, the Philippines, &c. It is 
a bush something like the laurel, with aromatic bark, 
yellow axillary flowers, calyx of 6 leaves, 27 petals, 
many two-valved capsules, monosperm, disposed 
around ; fruit star-shaped, formed by the assemblage 
of 6 or 8 capsules, oval, compressed, uni- valve, close 
at the base and open above, containing each one 
seed, shining, oval and flattened. This fruit has an 
aromatic odour, intense and agreeable, and an acrid, 
bitter, hot and piercing taste. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
light straw-yellow colour. 

3. Capsicum annuum ; Fr., Piment, Poivre long ou 
poivre de Cayenne ; Ger., Spanischer Pfeffer ; Eng., 
Cayenne pepper. — Solanece. 

This annual plant is originally from the East In- 
dies, but it is also found in South America, in the 
West Indies, in the isles of the Pacific Ocean, in the 
interior of Africa, &c. It may be raised any where 
abundantly : the stem is thick, roundish, smooth, and 
branching, rises to 2 or 3 feet in height, and supports 
ovate, pointed, smooth, entire leaves, which are placed 
without regular order on long foot-stalks ; the flow- 
ers are solitary, white, and stand on long peduncles 
at the axills of the leaves ; the calyx is persistent, 
tubular, and five-cleft ; the corolla monopetalous and 
wheel-shaped, with the limb divided into 5 spreading, 
pointed, and plaited segments ; the filaments short, 



PHARMACOrCBIA AND rOSOLOGY. 183 

tapering, and furnished with oblong anthers ; the 
germen ovate, supporting a slender style, which is 
longer than the filaments, and terminates in a blue 
stigma ; the fruit is a pendulous, pod-like berry, light, 
smooth, and shining, of a bright scarlet, orange, or 
sometimes yellow colour, with 2 or 3 cells, contain- 
ing a dry, loose pulp, and numerous flat, kidney-shap- 
ed, whitish seeds. 

For homoeopathic use, we take the capsules of the 
native, not cultivated plant, cut them with scissors 
in narrow stripes, and prepare, according to Class 
1st, a red tincture, without smell and of a burning 
taste. 

Antidotes : Camph., China. 

4. Cina, Artemisia contra, Semen contra ; Fr., Ar- 
moise d'Alep (non de Judee) ; Ger., Z witters amen, 
Wurmsamen ; Eng., Worm-seed. — Corymbiferce. 
The opinion which attributes the seed known under 
the name of semen contra, to the worm-seed of Judea, 
is all but generally adopted. We distinguish in com- 
merce two kinds : the semen contra of Aleppo, or of 
the Levant, and the semen contra of Judea and Bar- 
bara/. According to the botanist, Nees van Esembeck, 
the first of these kinds comes from the artemisia con- 
tra, whilst the other, the semen contra of the Indies, 
comes from the artemisia conglomerata, that is to say, 
the wormwood of Judea. According to Kunze, it is 
the artemisia santonica palmata and odoratissima 
which furnish this seed ; whilst according to Sanders, 
it comes from a kind of chenopodium. The best kind 
is that which comes from Aleppo or the Levant ; it is 
greener than the other ; all the parts are glabrous, 
its flowers rather large, its odour more free, more 
aromatic ; it is less mixed with foreign matters, 
dust, small sticks, &c. ; its fragments not broken. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
dark yellow-green colour, and a peculiar, unpleasant- 
ly aromatic smell and bitterish taste. 



184 



liOMOSUPATHIC 



5. Cocculus, Menispermum cocculus ; Fr., Coque de 
Levant ; Ger., Kockelskbrner ; Eng., Cocculus indi- 
cus. — Menispermece. 

The plant from which we gather these fruits, is a 
kind of bush which grows in the East Indies, in Egypt, 
on the coast of Malabar, and in the isles of Ceylon, 
Java and Celebes, on rocks and stones, and on the 
shores of the sea ; its fruits come to us in a dry state ; 
they are inodorous, spherical, reniform, of a black or 
brown-gray, of the size of a small pea, wrinkled, re- 
sembling laurel berries. They are surrounded with 
two barks, of which the first is hard, ligneous, dull, 
and the second, white and still harder, enclosing a 
white almond which has an acrid, caustic and bitter 
taste, whilst the barks are almost insipid. 

For homoeopathic uses we powder the almond with 
the barks, and prepare, according to Class 1st, a 
tincture of a brownish straw-yellow colour, which, 
at a temperature below the freezing point, deposits 
margaric acid on the sides of the vessel, in the 
shape of wart-shaped little lumps. By filtering the 
liquid in the cold, we free it from the acid without 
injury to the preparation. 

Antidotes : Camph., and Nux vom. 

6. Coffea arabica, Coffea cruda ; Fr., Cafe moka, 
Cafe cru ; Ger., Roher Kaffee ; Eng., Mocha coffee. 
— Rubiacece. 

The tree which bears this well known fruit, is ori- 
ginally from Arabia Felix and Ethiopia, where it 
attains a height of 20 .or 30 feet, but it is now culti- 
vated in equatorial America and in many European 
countries with perfect success. The fruit of this tree 
is a berry, which, green at first, becomes afterwards 
red, and at last almost black ; in each berry are found 
two hard grains, enveloped with a kind of paper-like 
membrane, and forming each one a demi-ovoid ; these 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND PUSOLOGY. 185 

grains are the well known seeds known under the 
name of crude coffee. We particularly distinguish 
4 kinds : 1st. Mocha coffee, so called from the town 
of Mocha, in Arabia. This is the best quality, and 
is distinguished by its small grains, very fragrant, 
yellow, rounded, coming from monospermous fruit. 
2d. Bourbon coffee, in grains more elongated, but 
generally also rounded, having, however, less odour 
than those of Mocha. 3d. Java coffee, which has a 
rusty-yellow colour. 4. Martinique coffee, the least 
estimated. 

Having been well dried at a moderate tempera- 
ture, we powder it finely, and prepare from it. accord- 
ing to Class 1st, a tincture of a yellow-brown co- 
lour, using dilute alcohol. 

Antidotes : Aeon., Cham., Ign., Nux vom., Puis. 

7. Colocynthis, Cucumis colocynthis ; Fr., Colo- 
quinte ; Ger., Koloquinte ; Eng., Bitter cucumber, 
Colocynth. — Cucurbitacece. 

The colocynth is a species of cucumber originally 
from Japan, which now grows at the Cape of Good 
Hope, in Arabia, Syria, the isles of the Archipelago 
and southern Spain. The fusiform root of this plant 
gives birth to stems which trail upon the ground, or 
rise upon neighbouring bodies, to which they attach 
themselves by their numerous tendrils; leaves of a 
triangular shape, many-cleft, variously sinuated, ob- 
tuse, hairy, of a fine green colour on the upper sur- 
face, rough and pale on the lower, and standing 
alternately upon long petioles ; flowers solitary and 
yellow, appearing singly at the axills of the leaves ; 
fruit a globular berry or pepo, of the size of a small 
orange, yellow and smooth when ripe, containing 
within a hard coriaceous rind, a white, spongy, me- 
dullary matter, enclosing numerous ovate, compres- 
sed, white seeds ; the pulp of this fruit is cellular, 



186 



HOMCKOPATHIC 



spongy, light, white, almost inodorous, but of an 
excessive bitterness. We receive this fruit, deprived 
of its rind, from Aleppo and Alexandria ; the white, 
dry and light fruit is the best ; often also we meet 
with, under the name of colocynth, the fruit of an- 
other cucurbitaceous plant of the size of a small 
apple, but these fruits are rounder and lighter than 
the true cucumbers ; their outer rind adheres strong- 
ly to the dried pulp, and is very fragile ; the taste 
of this pulp is also very bitter, but the bitterness is 
much less intense than that of the colocynth. 

To prepare this last for homoeopathic purposes, we 
powder the marrow of the fruit without the seeds, 
and prepare from it, according to Class 1st, a tinc- 
ture of a dark straw-yellow colour, and a very bitter 
taste. 

Antidotes : Camph., Caust., Cham., Cqff., Staph. 

8. Croton tillii seu Tiglii, Semen Cataputice minoris, 
nuces catharticcB americance ; Ger., Purgir-Kbrner, 
Granatill-Korner ; Eng., Croton-oil. — Euphorbiacece. 

The seeds which are sent us from India, are 
oval-oblong, obtuse at both ends, from 3 to 4 lines 
long, and from 2 to 2^ lines thick, furnished with a 
somewhat projecting suture ; beneath the thin, brown- 
ish-yellow, somewhat dark-spotted, brittle shell, we 
find a yellowish- white, inodorous kernel, which has 
at first a mild-oily taste that shortly after becomes 
burning-acrid, and causing a violent scraping in the 
throat. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of 
a brown-yellowish colour and burning taste. If we 
wish to obtain the fat oil instead of the tincture, we 
have to dissolve it in 10 times its amount of alcohol 
fortius. The triturations soon become rancid. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGT. 187 



9. Cubeb^, Bacccs seu semen Cubebarum, piper cau- 
datum ; Fr., Cubebes ; Ger., Kubeben, Stiel-, Schwanz-, 
or Kubeben- Pfeffer ; Eng., Cubebs. — Urticece. 

Cubebs are the unripe berries of a bush that is a 
native of the East Indies. They are globular and 
provided with peduncles. They are of the size of 
ordinary peas, covered with a black-brown shell that 
encloses a kernel of a homogeneous colour ; the shell 
has a pleasant, aromatic smell, but little taste ; the 
kernel has a bitterish, acrid taste, like pepper. The 
peduncle cannot be broken off without injuring the 
shell. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
light-brown colour, possessing the taste and smell of 
the berries. 

The heavier and smoother the berries, the better 
they are. 

10. Dipterix odobata Willd., Fabce de Tonco seu 
Tongo seu de Tonca seu Tunca ; Ger., Tonko- or 
Tonga-Bohne ; Eng., Tongo-bean. — Leguminosce. 

Of the two varieties, which are offered by drug- 
gists, we prefer those from Holland. They are ob- 
long, straight, or sometimes somewhat curved, from 
1 to li lines long, and 2 to 4 lines thick, flat, shining 
like grease, brownish-black, containing beneath the 
thin shell a light brown, mealy, two-lobed kernel, 
between which we sometimes discover, in older 
beans, the substance called Cumarin or Tonko-Cam- 
phor, resembling the crystals of benzoic acid. The 
smell of these beans is similar to that of the flowers 
of clover ; the taste is aromatic, acrid-bitterish. 

We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of 
a straw-yellow colour. 

Antidote : Acetum. 



188 noMasoPATHic 



11. Eugenia jambos s. jambosa; Fr., Jambos, Jame 
rosade ; Ger., Jambus - Myrthe ; Eng., Malabar 
plum-tree, or rose-apple. — Myrtacece. 

This beautiful tree is a native of the Indies and 
the warm countries of America ; it is never without 
flowers or fruit, and attains a height of 20 to 40 
feet ; the bark of the trunk is of a reddish-brown, 
that of the branches cracked but smooth ; leaves 
alternate, entire, lancinated, veined, and full of 
points, in length 6 to 8 lines, of a deep green above, 
of a pale green below ; peduncles terminal, ramose, 
multifloral ; flowers large, of a dull yellow ; fruit 
almost spherical, of the size of a medium pair, of a 
fine pale yellow, approaching to the rose ; seeds mo- 
nosperous, with 4 angles, and enveloped in a thin 
pellicle ; the fruit is eaten, but the seeds, and above 
all the envelop, are considered poisonous ; the root of 
this tree is, it is said, one of the most violent poi- 
sons. 

According to Dr. Hering, the tincture should be 
prepared from the fresh seeds. 

12. Jatropha curcas ; Fr., Medicinier, gros pignon 
de Jude, figue infernale, ricin d'Amerique ; Ger., 
Schwarze Brechnuss, grosse Purgirnuss, Hbllen- 
feige ; Eng., Purging nuts, Barbadoes nuts, infernal 
fig. — Euphorbiacece. 

We obtain the seeds of this plant from Cuba, the 
Antilles and South America ; they are black-brown, 
dotted with light brown stripes and points, from 7 to 
10 lines long, and 3^ to 4 lines in breadth, and al- 
most of the same thickness ; the shell encloses a 
whitish, almond-like kernel, at first of a mild, and 
afterwards an acrid, scraping taste. 

The tincture is prepared according to Class 1st. 

Antidotes : Oleum crotonis, and Camphor. 



PUAEMACOl'CEIA AND VOSOLOGY. 189 

13. Ignatia amara, Strychnos Ignatii ; Fr., Feve St. 
Ignace ; Ger., Bittere Fiebernuss ; Eng., Bean of St. 
Ignatius. — Apocynece. 

This species of strychnos forms a sort of vine, the 
leaves of which are ovoid and shining ; it grows from 
the Philippine isles as far as Cochin China ; the fruit 
is of the size of a melon, and contains 20 to 24 
seeds. The seeds (beans of St. Ignatius) are of the 
size of a large almond, and a little more than an 
inch long, irregular, angular, hard and stone-like, 
glabrous, inodorous, and semi-transparent ; on the 
outside they are of a blackish-gray or clear-brown, 
striated, downy ; inside they are of a brown-yellow, 
and somewhat shining ; they have a somewhat dis- 
agreeable, musky odour, and an excessively bitter 
taste ; the best are the largest, heaviest, and those 
which have not been opened. In commerce this fruit 
is actually extremely rare, and the majority of drug- 
gists sell impudently the grains of nux vomica for 
those of the bean of St. Ignatius. Those of the nux 
vomica are of a greenish-gray, very flat, having the 
form of a coat-button, whilst those of the St. Ignatius' 
bean are of a blackish- or brownish-gray, of the form 
of an almond, and angular. 

We scrape the bean in very thin, pliable stripes, then 
dry them at a moderate temperature (over warm 
water for instance), reduce them to a fine powder in 
a mortar, and prepare a tincture of a pale straw- 
yellow colour and bitter taste. 

Antidotes : Am., Camph., Cocc, Coff., Nux vom., 
Acetum. 

14. Lycopodium clavatum, Lycopodium pollen; Fr., 
Lycopode, Pied de loup; Ger., Barlapp-Samen, 
Streupulver, Hexenmehl ; Eng., Club-moss, wolfs- 
claw. — LycopodinecB. 

The plant which furnishes the powder known 
under the name of lycopodium, or vegetable sulphur, 



190 HOMEOPATHIC 

is a species of moss which grows in Europe, above 
all in Finland and Russia, in stony and hilly places, 
covered with wood ; we gather the powder from the 
spike of the plant by roasting and beating it towards 
the end of summer ; the stem of this plant is creep- 
ing, filiform, ramose, from 3 to 4 feet long ; the re- 
cumbent branches are sterile, the upright ones fertile ; 
leaves rounded within, lance-shaped, entire, or tooth- 
ed, nerveless, ending in a white point, filiform ; spikes 
straight, cylindric, 2 to 3 inches long, formed of 
scales arranged like tiles ; capsules reniform, yellow, 
axillary, unilocular, with 2 valves, containing seeds 
which form the lycopodium of commerce. It is a 
powder extremely fine, of a pale yellow, unctuous to 
the touch, inodorous, insipid, adhering to the finger, 
inmiscible in water, on which it floats inflammable 
and very light ; it is often adulterated with the pollen 
of the pine, sawdust, fecula, powdered chalk and lime, 
or other powders coloured yellow by gamboge. In 
this last case, the fraud may be detected by the red 
tint which a solution of potash gives to the lycopo- 
dium, and as to those with other powders, we recog- 
nise them, inasmuch as when put on water these 
powders become impregnated with it, and sink, 
whilst the lycopodium floats ; the powder of chalk, and 
that of lime, sink at once, and betray themselves still 
more evidently by the effervescence which they pro- 
duce with acids ; the adulterations with the pollen of 
the pine, or that of the fir, are discovered by the re- 
sinous odour which these substances exhale when 
rubbed between the hands ; the presence of fecula 
may be detected by iodine. We make the three first 
attenuations by trituration. 
Antidotes : Camph., Puis. 

15. Nux moschata, Myristica moschata;' Fr., Noix 
muscade, Muscadier ; Ger., Muskat-Nuss ; Eng., 
Nutmeg. — Laurinece {Myristicecs) . 
The nutmeg tree grows in the isles of Banda, Am-' 



fHARMACOPCHIA AND POSOLOOT. 191 

boyna, the Moluccas, and is cultivated in many tro- 
pical climates ; it bears much resemblance to the 
pear-tree ; it rises to the height of 20 or 30 feet ; the 
bark is of a deep gray-green, glabrous ; branches 
strong, hanging ; leaves attenuate, oblong, lanceo- 
late, entire, aromatic ; fruit hanging, of the size of a 
hen's egg, coming to maturity nine months after the 
flowering ; this fruit is of a blackish-brown, and com- 
posed of 3 parts by order of superposition, to wit : 
1st. the pulp, exterior coat, of a rosy-white, thready ; 
2d., the arillas, or mace, second coat, consisting of a 
sort of reticulated copolc, viscous, thin ; of an aro- 
matic odour, and an acrid, balsamic taste ; 3d., the 
nut, which is formed of two parts, the shell and the 
kernel. The shell is smooth, grayish, hard, firm, fur- 
rowed ; the kernel or nutmeg, properly so called, is 
ovoid, flattened at the two ends, of the size of a 
pigeon's egg, veined and marbled, of a woody con- 
sistence, and oleaginous. The fruit is gathered three 
times a year ; the gathering of March is the best ; 
that of July is the most abundant, and that of Novem- 
ber the least abundant of all. 

For homoeopathic use we choose the small nuts, 
obtuse on both sides, which are fresh, heavy, and 
exude a yellowish, fragrant oil when pricked ; they 
must not be worm-eaten, and not break to pieces 
when cut. 

We prepare a yellow tincture, according to Class 
1st. 
Antidotes : Camphor, caroway. 

16. Nux vomica, Strychnos nux vomica ; Fr., Noix vo- 
mique ; Ger., Brechnuss, Krcihenavge ; Eng., Vomit- 
nut. — Apocinece. 
The nux grows in the East Indies, in the island of 

Ceylon, on the coasts of Coromandel, Malabar, &c. 

The tree is of a moderate size, with numerous strong 

branches, covered with a smooth, dark, gray bark ; 

the young branches are long, flexuous, very smooth. 



192 HOMOEOPATHIC 

dark green, and furnished with oval, roundish, entire, 
smooth and shining leaves, having 3 or 4 ribs, and 
placed opposite to each other on short footstalks ; 
the flowers are small, white, funnel-shaped, and dis- 
posed in terminal corymbs ; the fruit is a round berry, 
as large as an orange, covered with a smooth, yellow, 
or orange-coloured, hard, fragile rind, and containing 
numerous seeds imbedded in a juicy pulp ; the seeds 
are flat, circular, about § of an inch in diameter^ and 
2 or 3 lines in thickness, generally somewhat curved, 
with a depression on one side, and a corresponding 
prominence on the other ; they are thickly covered 
with fine, silky, shining, ash-coloured, or yellowish- 
gray hairs, attached to a thin, fragile coating, which 
closely invests the interior nucleus or kernel ; this is 
very hard, horny, usually whitish, and semi-trans- 
parent, sometimes dark-coloured and opaque, and of 
very difficult pulverization ; they are destitute of 
odour, but have an acrid, very bitter taste, which is 
much stronger in the kernel than in the investing 
membrane. 

We first scrape the nut in thin slices, dry them at a 
moderate temperature, after which they are easily re- 
duced to a fine powder, from which we prepare a 
tincture according to Class 1st, of a straw-yellow 
colour and bitter taste. 

Antidotes : Camph., Caff., Cocc, Aeon., Cham., Ign., 
Puis., Vinum. 

17. Oleum olivarum ; Fr., Huile d'olive ; Ger., Baum- 

67 ; Eng., Olive-oil. 

This oil is used in homoeopathy as an antidote in 
some cases of poisoning, and also for the preparation 
of a cerate. We obtain it by expression from the 
fruit of the olive-tree, (Olea Europaea, L.,) originally 
of the family Jasmineae, Juss., and Decandria mono- 
gynia, L., originally from Africa, but at present 
growing spontaneously in France, Spain, Italy, &c. 
It js an evergreen ; leaves opposite, very "rarelv 



PHARMACOPEIA ANl> POSOLOGY. 193 

alternate, green above, shining and silvery beneath, 
bitter, aromatic, and somewhat tartish to the taste ; 
it grows slowly, lives for ages, and sometimes attains 
a size of G feet in diameter ; its wood is very heavy, 
hard, granulated, veined, yellowish ; its bark is 
grayish, split, wrinkled, inodorous and bitter ; the 
little white flowers are axillary, in bunches ; its fruit, 
the olive, is oval oblong, of a deep green, or blackish, 
and contains, in a tartish flesh, a very hard seed ; 
it is from this fruit that we extract the olive-oil ; the 
best is obtained from fruit scarcely ripe ; there is 
then but little bitterness, but when too ripe this is 
the case. Olive oil is of a whitish or straw-yellow 
colour, or greenish, according to the degree of matu- 
rity of the fruit from which it has been extracted ; 
the good quality is whitish, unctuous, but little so- 
luble in alcohol, very soluble in ether, of a feeble 
odour, of a sweetish and agreeable taste, concreting 
in a cold of 8° to 10° above zero, inflammable with a 
clear flame. In commerce it is often adulterated with 
the oil of poppy, linseed, rapeseed, &c. ; a fraud 
which may be detected by its greater weight, and by 
its less easy concretion in the cold, or when shaken 
in a bottle half full, it becomes frothy or filled with 
bubbles. Exposed to the air, it easily becomes ran- 
cid ; but properly secured, it may be kept pure for 
years. 

Compare : Cera. 

18. Pichurim, Laurus pichurim ; Fr., Laurier Pichu- 
rim, Noix de Para ; Ger., Pichurim- Bohne ; Eng., 
Pichurim bean laurel — Laurinece. 
This vegetable grows in South America. In com- 
merce we find two kinds. 1st. The larger kind (fabas 
pichurim majores). Qd. The smaller (fabae pichu- 
rim minores). The first are the best ; these are 
composed of two lobes, of a very marked aromatic 
odour, convex on one side, flat on the other, oblong- 
oval, 1 to 2 inches long, bv 6 to 12 lines broad, ob- 
9 



194 HOMOEOPATHIC 

tuse at both ends, of an acrid and slightly peppery 
taste ; the concave side of the bean is a little crack- 
ed, of a blackish-brown ; the other side is smooth, of 
a clearer colour, marked by a longitudinal furrow ; 
the inside is reddish-yellow, full of darker points. 
We prepare, according to Class 1st, a tincture of 
a light brownish-yellow colour. 

19. Sabadilla, Semen sabadillce s. sabatiglice s. ceba- 
dillce, hordeum causticum ; Ger., Sabatill-Korner, 
Lause-Samen, Laus-Kbrner. — Veratrece (Colchia- 
cece). 

The bulb is furnished with numerous fibres, and is 
surrounded with brown, membranous scales ; from 
the bulb shoot up glabrous, linear, acuminate, entire 
leaves of 4 inches long and 3 lines broad, carinated 
on their posterior surface, and somewhat furrowed. 
Stem herbaceous, simple, glabrous, almost leafless. 
The flowers form a simple cluster, or with a few 
branches only, at the end of the stem ; the larger por- 
tion of the flowers are male flowers, and fall off", after 
which the pedunculated flowers turn to one side. 
Capsules oblong, three-crested, three-horned, three- 
celled, each cell containing 2 seeds, elongated, black, 
a little wrinkled, pointed at the ends, flat on one side 
and convex at the other, somewhat curved, 2 to 3 
lines long, whitish within, hard, inodorous, and of an 
exceedingly acrid, burning, and durable taste ; the 
taste of the capsules is very bitter. 

For homoeopathic use, Ave take the seeds with 
their capsules, and prepare, according to Class 1st, an 
inodorous tincture of a brown-yellow colour. 

Antidotes : Camphor, Puis. 

20. Solanum mammosum ; Ger., Zitzenformiger or war- 
zenartiger Nachtschatten. — Solanece. 

This bush is a native of Virginia, Barbadoes, Caro- 
lina, the West Indies and Antilles, and grows in 
hedge?" and on oultivated places. 



PUARMAC0PO3IA AND POSOLOGF. 195 

Stem herbaceous, furnished with prickles and long 
hairs, erect, branchy, from 3 to 4 feet high ; leaves 
large, generally more broad than long, cordiibrm, ir- 
regularly-angular, lobed, shaggy on both sides, with 
yellow nerves on the lower surface, the mid-rib fur- 
nished with dark-yellow prickles ; flowers scattered, 
panicled, of a pale-gray ; berries macuniform, yel- 
low. 

From the berries we prepare an essence according 
to Class 2d. 

21. Delphinium Staphysagria. (See: Staphysagria.) 

6. Resins and Balsams. 

Resins (resinae) are the ethereal oils of several 
trees and bushes, which have become inspissated by 
the access of air, or dried balsams of various shades 
of colour, from white to dark red-brown, of a peculiar 
aromatic resinous taste, and generally of an aromatic 
odour, imparted to them by the adhering ethereal 
oils. From trees the resins flow spontaneously after 
an incision is made ; from bushes they are extracted 
by means of alcohol, or they are obtained by expres- 
sion or boiling. Resins are soluble in alcohol (ex- 
cept caoutchouc) and ether, but completely insoluble 
in water. A few resins only crystallize ; most of 
them have no definite shape, are transparent, and of 
various colours. They are without taste or smell, 
and whatever taste or smell they have, is derived 
from the admixture of the heterogeneous substances. 

Most resins are hard, of vitreous fracture, and in 
the cold, are easily reduced to powder. 

Gum-resins, generally from the family of the um- 
belliferaj, are naturally composed of mucilaginous 
and resinous parts, and are not entirely soluble either 
in water or alcohol. In some plants the gum-resins 
form the sap which is obtained by expression from 
the fresh plants, or bv making incisions in the living 



196 



HOMOEOPATH FC 



ones. Gum-resins are softer than the real resinS ; 
by means of alcohol we only succeed in extracting 
the resinous constituents ; mixed with water they 
form a milky solution. They are most completely 
dissolved in vinegar. Most gum-resins are furnish- 
ed in the shape of dry, firm masses of a strong smell 
and taste. 

Balsams (balsama) are combustible liquids of 
greater or lesser fluidity, viscous, soluble in alco- 
hol, insoluble in water, of strong smell and aromatic, 
resinous taste ; when distilled, they furnish ethereal 
oil, and the residue is resinous. They flow out as a 
thin juice, either spontaneously or after incisions are 
made in the plant, gradually inspissate in the open 
air ; or they are obtained from various parts of the 
plant by boiling the latter with water. 

The resins and gum-resins of whose action on the 
human organism we are more particularly acquaint- 
ed, are the following : 

1. Aloes, Gummi s. succus aloes, aloes succotrina s. 
soccotarina s. lucida ; Fr., Aloes ; Ger., Aloe; Eng., 
Aloes. — Liliacece. 

This is the dried juice of the plant, of a bright- 
shining, yellow-greenish-black appearance, and of a 
red-brown if seen towards the light in thin pieces, of 
a brittle fracture like that of a shell, feeble myrtle- 
like odour, and an excessively bitter, lasting taste. 

We prepare a tincture, according to Class 1st, 
with strong alcohol, of a dark red-brown colour, and 
possessing in a high degree the colour and taste of 
the aloes. 

2. Ammoniacum, Gummi ammoniacum ; Fr., Gomme 
ammoniaque; Ger., Ammoniak, Armenisclies Gummi; 
Eng., Gum ammoniac. — Umbelliferce. 

Gum ammoniac is a green resinous substance, 
which flows from an umbelliferous tree, a native of 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND TOSOLOGY. 197 

Africa, and of some parts of the East Indies. Accord- 
ing to the account of Fontanier, it flows in grains 
more or less large ; it is collected about June, and 
sent to us. In commerce we distinguish two kinds : 
1st. Gum ammoniac pure, or amygdaloid, which is in 
small, round, agglomerated grains, of a dull reddish- 
yellow, shining and greasy in its fracture, not trans- 
parent, whitish within, odour strong, taste acrid, bit- 
ter, and disagreeable, partly soluble in water, with 
which it forms a milky mixture, half soluble in alco- 
hol ; 2d. Gum ammoniac impure, in lumps, in masses 
more or less large, of a dirty yellow colour, mingled 
with the refuse of seeds, earths, sand, &c. ; of a 
feeble, balsamic odour ; of a bitter, resinous, and 
acrid taste, softening between the fingers, puffing up 
on coals, when it crepitates, blackens, and emits an 
alliaceous smell. It dissolves in ether, and only in 
small quantity in vinegar and alcohol. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritu- 
ration, or we prepare a tincture with strong alcohol. 

3. Gummi gutti seu guttm s. gamb& s. gambogiai, gutta 
gamba s. gambogia ; Ger., Gummigutt, Gummigutti, 
Gutti ; Eng., Gamboge. — Guttiferce. 

This drug comes to us in dense masses, either 
cylindrical, from 1 to 3" in diameter, and 12" in 
length, or in irregular lumps of several pounds in 
weight, of a dirty green-yellow surface, and bearing 
impressions of leaves. The shell-like fracture is of a 
shining brown-yellow, the drug leaves a light-yellow 
trace on paper, and, if applied with water, the line 
is of a shining gold-yellow. Little taste at first, 
afterwards scraping ; no smell. 

The tincture is prepared according to Class 1st ; it 
is of a gold-yellow colour. 



198 



HOMOioiwnm. 



4. Asafcetida, Ferula asafcetida ; Fr., Gomme resine 
de ferule ; Ger., Slinkasand Teufelsdreck ; Eng., 
Asafoetida. — Umbelliferce. 

The substance which we use under this name is 
the gum-resin of the ferula asafcetida, a perennial 
plant which is found in Persia, Media, Lybia, Syria, 
and even in India. To obtain the gum, which the 
ancients already knew under the name of succus cyre- 
naicus, we cut the root of the plant, and let the juice 
run out, which at first is white, but which becomes 
yellow on exposure, and concretes into a substance 
composed of rusty-coloured, irregular pieces, more or 
less large, mixed with pieces of a white colour, 
of a very strong and very fetid alliaceous odour, 
and acrid taste. In commerce we distinguish 
three kinds of asafoetida, viz : 1st. Asafoetida in 
grains, {asafcetida in granis,) which is in small 
pieces of a yellowish- or brownish-red, a little unctu- 
ous to the touch, and of a shining colour on fracture ; 
2d. Asafoetida in tears, asafcetida amygdaloides,) the 
most abundant sort, and consisting of grains agglome- 
rated, or in a brownish mass mixed with white mor- 
sels, like to broken almonds ; 3. Rock asafoetida, (asa- 
fcetida petr&a,) consisting of pieces of a yellowish- 
white with little white shiny points. 

For homoeopathic use, we prefer the first of these 3 
kinds, the asafoetida in grains, and we prepare a tinc- 
ture according to Class 1st, of a saturated brown- 
red colour. 

Antidotes : Camphor, China, Caust., Electric, Puis. 

5. Euphorbium officinale ; Fr., Euphorbe officinale ; 
Ger., Wolfsmilch, Euphorbien-Harz ; Eng., Euphor- 
bium spurge. — Euphorbia ceai. 

This gum-resin is extracted from several kinds of 
euphorbia growing in the warm regions of Africa, 
chiefly at the Cape, along Mount Atlas, &c. In the 



rilARMACOPCEIA AND PCSOLOGY. 199 

fresh state, it is a milky juice which flows out in 
abundance on incision ; it comes to us in irregular 
pieces or in rounded tears, about the size of a pea or 
larger, often forked and perforated with one or two 
small conical holes, produced by the prickles of the 
plant, around which the juice has concreted, and 
which sometimes remain in the holes ; the masses 
are occasionally large and mixed with impurities, 
the surface is dull and smooth, bearing some resem- 
blance to that of tragacanth ; consistence somewhat 
friable, light yellowish-red ; odour scarcely percep- 
tible ; taste at first slight, but afterwards excessively 
acrid and burning ; colour of the powder yellowish ; 
triturated with water, it renders it milky and is par- 
tially dissolved ; alcohol dissolves a large portion, 
forming a yellow tincture, which becomes milky on 
the addition of water. We must be careful in mak- 
ing the powder, as it is very acrid ; we should place 
a band over the eyes and nose, &c. It burns with a 
bright white flame, emitting an agreeable odour. 

According to Class 1st, we prepare a tincture of 
a brownish-yellow colour and a burning taste. 

Antidotes : Camph., lemon-juice. 

6. Guaiacum officinale ; Fr., Gai'ac, Gayac ; Ger., 
Guajak-Harz ; Eng., Guaiacum, gum resin. — Ru- 
tacece. 

The plant from which we receive the gum resin, 
known under the name of gum guaiacum, is a large 
and beautiful tree which grows in South America, 
especially at St. Domingo, Jamaica, Brazil, &c. The 
wood and bark of this tree are found in commerce in 
large pieces, irregular, hard, but fragile ; the bark is 
compact, gray outside, spotted, resinous, and appa- 
rently greasy ; the wood is of a sweetish-bitter, acrid, 
burning taste, and generally inodorous, but when 
burnt, giving out an aromatic smoke ; the inner part 
of this wood is of a deep-green colour, and contains 



200 



HOMOEOPATHIC: 



much resin ; the outer part is more yellow, lighter, 
and less resinous. It is from this wood we obtain 
by decoction the resin of guiac, but we also obtain it 
in a direct way, in the country itself, where it oozes 
from the tree, either naturally or in consequence of 
incisions made in it ; it comes to us in masses, hard, 
large, irregular, semi-transparent, of a deep brown or 
green outside, of a bluish-green, and full of white and 
brown spots inside, with a waving and shining frac- 
ture, and of a specific weight of 1.205 to 1.228. It 
is without odour, but of a slightly bitter taste, which 
pricks the tongue a little ; it is very friable, and af- 
fords a powder of a grayish-white, which, on exposure 
to the air, soon becomes green. It is soluble in alco- 
hol, and but slightly in water. It is at times adulte- 
rated with the resin of the pine tree, but on throwing 
a little of this resin on the fire, the smell of turpen- 
tine will soon discover this mixture. Often, also, it 
is mixed with colophony, which is revealed by caustic 
potash, which forms a clear solution, whilst the 
resin of guaiac is pure, and a troubled one when there 
is any colophony present. 

We prepare a tincture of a dark-brown colour, ac- 
cording to Class 1st. 

7. Jalapp^e magisterium ; Fr., Resine de Jalap, Ma- 
gistere de jalap ; Ger., Jalappenharz ; Eng., Resin 
of Jalap. — Convoloulacece. 

Jalap root (see description) contains in its sub- 
stance the tenth part of its weight of resin, which 
may be extracted by alcohol, in digesting the root in 
this liquid, mingling afterwards the tincture with 
water, and submitting the whole to distillation. The 
resin of jalap is of a dull and yellow-green colour 
without, fracture of a brown-yellow, shining but 
little, opaque, friable, of an acrid, bitter taste. When 
warmed or rubbed, it exhales the odour of the root ; 
in alcohol it dissolves easily ; this resin is frequently 
adulterated with charcoal or powdered jalap, with 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 201 

the resin of the pine, of guaicum, of white agaric, &c; 
the adulteration with these resins is easily detected, 
inasmuch as oil of turpentine dissolves them, whilst 
it leaves the resin of jalap undissolved. 

8. Opium, Papaver somniferum ; Fr., Opium, Pavot 
somnifere ; Gew, Opium, Mohnsaft ; Eng., Opium, 
White poppy. — Papaveracece. 

The white poppy is an annual plant, with a round, 
smooth, erect, glaucous, often branching stem, rising 
2 or 3 feet in height, and sometimes attaining 5 or 
even 6 feet in favourable situations ; the leaves are 
large, variously lobed and toothed, and alternately 
disposed upon the stem, which they closely embrace ; 
flowers terminal, very large, and of a white or silver- 
gray colour, with a tinge of violet at the base ; 
calyx smooth, two-leaved, which fall when the petals 
expand ; these are usually four in number ; the 
germen, which is smooth and globular, supports a 
radiated stigma, and is surrounded by numerous short 
and slender filaments, with erect, oblong, compressed 
anthers ; the capsule is smooth and glaucous, of a 
rounded shape, from 2 to 4 inches in diameter, some- 
what flattened at top and bottom, and crowned with 
the persistent stigma, the diverging segments of which 
are arranged in a circle upon the summit ; it con- 
tains numerous minute white seeds, which, when per- 
fectly ripe, escape through small openings beneath 
the stigma ; all parts of the poppy are said to con- 
tain a white, opaque, narcotic juice ; it most abounds 
in the capsule, and there the virtues of the plant 
most reside. Opium is the dried juice of these cap- 
sules, and comes to us in brown cakes of a greasy, 
shining appearance and bitter taste, acrid and narco- 
tic, and of a strong odour, which becomes weaker 
when older. We find in commerce five kinds : 1st. 
Red opium, from Constantinople ; it is in flat cakes, 
weighing from one half to two pounds and an half, 
9* 



202 



IIOMlKOFATIlIi; 



reddish without and within, of a rank odour, but not 
so strong as the black opium ; 2d. Black opium, from 
Smyrna; 3d. Brown opium, from Egypt ; 4th. Indian 
opium, a variety of the black ; 5th. Opium in tears, 
from Persia ; Gth. Yellow opium, from Greece. The 
strongest of these is the black, from Smyrna, and the 
kind we use in homoeopathic preparations ; it comes 
to us in large round cakes, of a black colour, of a 
strong, rank odour, enveloped in leaves of the poppy, 
and sprinkled with the seeds of the Rumex patientia ; 
in the finer parcels the colour internally is of alight 
brown ; in the inferior it is darker ; a peculiarity of 
this kind is, that when cut into and then torn, nu- 
merous minute shining tears are observable, bearing 
some resemblance to small seeds, but readily distin- 
guishable by pressure between the fingers ; they 
are formed from the drops of juice. As to the 
other kinds, they are much more rare, and but sel- 
dom found in commerce. 

We make the three first attenuations by trituration, 
or we prepare a tincture with dilute alcohol, accord- 
ing to Class 1st. 

Antidotes : Acidum mur., Camph., Coff. Ipec. 

b) Liquid resins or natural balsams. 

1. Copaiva ralsamum s. Copahu ; Ger., Kopaiva- or 
Copaiv- Balsam, Copahu, Copabu-Balsam, iveisscr 
Peru-Balsam ; Eng., Balsam of Copaiva. — Le<*u- 
minosai. 

The copaiva-tree, copaivera officinalis Jacq., is a 
native of Brazil and the neighbouring countries and 
is likewise cultivated on the Antilles. 

The Brazilian balsam is the best. It is not too 
thick or tenacious, of an oily consistence, pale-yellow, 
very clear ; it has an aromatic but not offensive 
smell, and at first a mild, oily, but afterwards an 
acrid, bitterish taste. 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOI.OGY. 203 

We dissolve it in strong alcohol. The solution 
must be quite clear, and of a pale straw-yellow 
colour. 

2. TEREBiNTHiNiE oleum ; spiritus s. essentia terebin- 
thincB gallicce ; Ger., Terpenthin-Spiritus, Terpen- 
thingeist, Terpenthinol ; Fr., Huile de terSbenthine ; 
Eng., Spirits of turpentine. — Coniferce. 

All the varieties of pine furnish the thick balsam 
which is well known under the name of turpentine ; 
it is of different purity and quality ; the volatile oil 
is manufactured by distilling the turpentine with 
water. This oil is clear as water, has a scarcely 
perceptible yellow appearance, is very fluid, of a pe- 
culiar penetrating odour, and a burning taste. 

For medical use we take the best French oil, and 
slowly distil it over water, in a glass-retort ; it is 
then perfectly white, has a less pungent smell, but 
is much more volatile than before. It has to be 
guarded from the light in small vials, otherwise it 
soon becomes again resinous, coloured, and acquires 
an offensive smell. 

It is prepared in the same way as the oleum ani- 
mate. Both the oleum animale and the oleum tere- 
binthinae being exceedingly volatile, it is self-evident 
that they cannot be triturated without losing their 
virtue.* 

* The following method has been proposed to purify turpentine. Mix 
8 parts of turpentine with one part of alcohol 0,80, shake them well to- 
gether, and let the mixture stand quietly ; in a few minutes the oil sinks 
to the bottom of the vessel, and the alcohol, which contains the resinous 
portion of the oil in solution, can be poured off. This washing should be 
repeated 3 or 4 times, after which, according to Nimmo, the oil is quite 
pure, and, according to Vanquelin, contains about one-fifth of alcohol 
which is attracted by the water without the mixture becoming milky on 
being shaken. This seems to be a very good method to obtain a small 
quantity of pure turpentine. 



201 HOMCEoPATIHC 



7» Fungi. 

The fungi are principally gathered in the latter 
part of summer ; they have to be carefully cleaned 
of worms, and of all other injurious or heterogeneous 
substances. Fungi generally contain a crystalline 
fat, a semi-fluid oil of a buttery consistence, vegetable 
albumen, a saccharine matter, two kinds of nitro- 
geneous matter, one of which is soluble in water and 
in alcohol, the other in water only, salts of potash and 
ammoniac, various kinds of acid, such as : fungic 
acid, boletic acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, the 
parenchymatous structure of the fungus, and water. 

1 . Agaricus muscarius ; Ger., Fliegenschwamm, Flie- 
genpilz ; Eng., Bug agaric. — Fungi. 

This fungus grows from August to October, in Eu- 
rope, Asia, and America, and is found in pine and 
birch forests. 

Upon first coming out of the ground, it is oval and 
enclosed in a soft, fleshy envelop ; the young stem is 
short and thick, bulbous at the base, generally hollow 
when old, from 4 to 6 inches long, the part above the 
middle being provided with a white, membranous 
ring ; the cap is at first eminently vaulted, after- 
wards it becomes flatter, is of a scarlet-red, furnished 
with yellowish-white scales which are sometimes 
wanting, with a white border, or a border with 
brown-yellow stripes ; pulp yellowish, or white, or 
reddish, the lamellae radiate from the middle to the 
margin ; it has an offensive smell and a burning- 
acrid taste. 

For medicinal purposes, we select the younger fungi, 
the stem of which is not hollow, cleanse them of the 
adhering earth by scraping it off, remove the epider- 
mis from the stem and cap, and reduce the whole to 
a paste, from which wc prepare, according to Class 



PHARMACOPOEIA AiND POMOLOGY. 205 

2d, an essence of a reddish-yellowish colour, and pos- 
sessing the taste and colour of the fungus. 
Antidotes : Camphor, Coffee, Wine, and Puis. 

2. Boletus satanas ; Ger., Satan'spilz ; Eng., Satan's 
fungus. — Fungi. 

It is found in forests, in summer and fall. Cap 
thick, dense, of a pale yellow ; orifice of the little 
tubes dark-red ; stem big, dark-red, the upper portion 
furnished with bars. 

According to Phoebus, it is a variety of the boletus 
luridus Schiiff. 

3. Lycoperdon bovista ; bovista officinalis ; Ger., Bo- 
vist, Kugelschwamm, Staubschwamm, Wolfsrauch, 
Bubonfist ; Eng., Lycoperdon, puckfist, puff ball. — 
Fungi. 

This fungus is found in almost all Europe, especi- 
ally at the commencement of fall, on pas-ture-grounds, 
and dry meadows. It is almost globular, gradually 
terminating at the base in a big, folded stem. It is 
from one line to one inch in diameter ; when young, 
it is white, afterwards dirty-yellow, and finally chang- 
ing to a dark-brown colour. The inside is at first 
white and succulent, afterwards greenish and pappy, 
lastly brown and dry as dust. It has an offensive 
smell, and an insipid, mouldy taste. 

We gather the fungus when perfectly ripe, and pre- 
pare from it, according to Class 1st, a tincture of a 
Drown colour and very little taste. Triturations can 
only be made from the mouldy dust ; the envelop can- 
not be pulverized. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

8. Vegetable products, 

Obtained : a) by chemical operations. 

b) by fermentation. 

c) by combustion. 



206 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



1. Saccharum officinarum ; Fr., Sucre ; Ger., Zucker ; 
Eng., Sugar. — Graminece. 

The sugar-cane grows in the tropical regions of 
either hemisphere, especially in the East and West 
Indies, and on several South-sea islands. 

The juice of the ripe stems having been pressed 
out, it is mixed up with a little lime for the purpose 
of removing the vegetable glue, after which it is 
boiled and allowed to cool, when the sugar crystal- 
lizes, and is known under the name of cassonade. 

This first sugar is refined in the mother-country, 
but more frequently in Europe ; the clarified juice 
is inspissated, and loaf-sugar made out of it. It has 
a very sweet taste, and can be dissolved in water, 
and also in alcohol, in indefinite proportions. 

2. Agetum ; Fr., Vinaigre ; Ger., Essig ; Eng., Vi- 
negar. 

Vinegar is obtained by exposing wine or some 
other alcoholic fluid to the access of air, and the in- 
fluence of warmth ; the fluid gradually becomes tur- 
bid and warmer than the surrounding atmosphere. 
Finally the liquid becomes clear again, and has a 
sour smell and taste. When distilled, it gives off 
acetic acid diluted with water. The principal con- 
stituent of vinegar is acetic acid, which is derived 
from the alcohol contained in the wine. 

In medicine we use the following kinds of vinegar : 

a) Common vinegar, obtained by the sour fermen- 
tation of various substances, such as : Wine, beer 
fruit, beets. Wine-vinegar is the best kind of 
vinegar. Vinegar can be mixed with water and al- 
cohol in every proportion. 

• 

b) Distilled vinegar, obtained by distilling wine- 
vinegar with one-sixteenth of its weight of pulver- 
ized charcoal ; the distillation is to be continued 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 207 

from a retort until the acid which passes over looks 
clear and colourless. 

c) Acetic acid. 

We use vinegar as an antidote. 

3. Indigofera tinctoria L., color indicus ; Fr., Indigo ; 
Ger., Indigo ; Eng., Indigo. — Leguminosce (Papilio- 
nacece.) 

This plant, which forms an erect, branchy bush, 
covered with a short, white down, grows in the East 
Indies, wild, in large quantity. 

The valuable dye-stuff is contained in the epider- 
mis of the leaves, and is obtained by means of a pe- 
culiar process of fermentation. Tt comes to us in 
loose, light, dry lumps of a few cubic inches, or in 
irregular pieces of a deep dark-blue, with a fiery, cop- 
pery, scintillating lustre, and strongly adhering to the 
fingers ; it has a shelly fracture, and has neither 
taste nor colour. It floats on water, is insoluble both 
in water and alcohol, but is completely soluble in 
concentrated sulphuric acid, and volatilizes by ex- 
posure to heat. 

We prepare triturations. 

4. Vinum; Fr., Wine ; Ger., Wein ; Eng., Wine. 
Wine is obtained from the juice of grapes by sub- 
jecting it to fermentation at a temperature of from 
15° to 18° R. 

We employ wine as an antidote, and sometimes as 
a stimulant. 

5. Spiritus vini ; Fr., Esprit de vin ; Ger., Weingeist ; 
Eng., Spirits of wine. 

In the treatment of burns, several physicians em- 
ploy the spirits of wine warm. We warm it in a cup 
which is to be placed on a stove, and until this gets 
warm, we heat some in another cup by setting fire 



208 



HOHCEOFATHIC 



to it. With this warmed alcohol the burnt parts are 
moistened, which is to be continued as long as an 
aggravation of the pain is experienced after the appli- 
cation. It can likewise be employed for large burns 
by dipping clean linen rags into the spirit, and keep- 
ing them constantly moist when applied. The appli- 
cation is not well possible when half the body is 
burnt, and deep wounds have been caused by the 
burn ; nor can it be applied to burns in the neigh- 
bourhood of the eye and of other delicate organs. 
It is of very little use after cold water had been ap- 
plied. 

Linen rags moistened with spirits of wine, are an 
excellent application to bedsores ; or the spirits may 
be used as a wash. 

6. Laurus Camphor a L-, gummi camphor -ce, camphora 
chinensis s. japonica, camfor, caphura, cafur, canfer ; 
Fr., Camphore ; Ger., Kampher, Kamphor, Kamfer, 
Kapher ; Eng., Camphor. — Laurinece. 

This tree is a native of China, Japan, and Cochin- 
china ; the Chinese call it Tchange. It is an ever- 
green, the bark of the trunk uneven, gray -brown. 
From this tree we obtain the Chinese or Japanese 
camphor. There is another much rarer and finer 
sort obtained in the islands of Sumatra or Bornea, 
from the Nyobalanus camphora Caleb. The branches 
of this tree crack spontaneously, and an oil flows 
from these cracks, which, when exposed to the air, 
acquires the consistence of camphor. This kind of 
camphor is said to be clear as glass, somewhat less 
unctuous to the touch, less volatile, and of a stronger 
smell. 

Camphor comes to us in disks of from 1 to 2 pounds 
weight ; they are globular below, and generally per- 
forated in the middle, of a shining, crystalline ap- 
pearance. It has a peculiar, exceedingly penetrating 
smell, and a somewhat acrid, warmiiur. aromatic-bal- 



PHARMACOPOEIA ANJJ POSOLOGV. 209 

samic, afterwards cooling and bitterish taste ; when 
chewed, it feels to the teeth like wax ; it is unctuous 
to the touch, white, friable, tenacious, of granulary 
fracture, crystallizing in white, transparent octaedra, 
or hexaedra ; by the addition of a few drops of alco- 
hol, ether or oil, it may be reduced to a fine powder, 
and possesses a specific weight of 0,996 ; it volatilizes 
in the open air, is easily inflammable, and burns 
with a profusely smoking flame, without leaving a 
corbonaceous residue ; it is easily soluble in ether, 
alcohol, fat, and ethereal oils, not so soluble in vine- 
gar, and least in water. 

We prepare a solution with strong alcohol in the 
proportion of 1 to 10, which is to be regarded as the 
first attenuation. It ought to be quite colourless and 
of a strong smell and taste. 

Antidotes : Opium, Spir. nitr. dulc. 

7. Carbo vegetabilis ; Fr., Charbon vegetal; Ger., 

Hohkohle, PJlanzenkohle, vegetabilische Kohle; Eng., 

Vegetable charcoal. 

We select the firmest pieces of beech- or birch- 
charcoal, of middle weight, and divested of their 
bark, clearly showing the texture of the wood, and 
allowing us to infer, from a certain bright lustre, that 
the carbonizing process was perfect. These pieces, 
after being divided in lumps of the size of a fist, are 
again made red-hot, and then speedily extinguished 
in an earthen vessel provided with a well fitting 
cover ; having been allowed to cool, and the ashes 
which may have formed having been blown oft", the 
pieces are pulverized very finely, and the powder is 
kept in closed vessels in a dry place. The powder 
of vegetable charcoal is blacker than that of ani- 
mal charcoal, and, in the light of the sun, has a 
scintillating appearance, even when ever so fine. It 
is without smell or taste. 

It is prepared like animal charcoal. 

Antidotes : Camph., Cof., Ars. 



210 HOMOEOPATHIC 

CHAPTER IV. 

MINERAL KINGDOM. 



Formerly mineral substances were divided into 
earths, salts, metals, and combustible minerals. Ac- 
cording to the new division, we have metallic and 
non-metallic minerals (metals, metalloids, and a-metal- 
lic or non-metallic bodies). The minerals which we 
employ in homoeopathy, are generally subjected to 
chemical manipulations, in order to obtain them pure, 
free from all heterogeneous substances. We will first 
treat of a-metallic or non-metallic bodies ; then of the 
acids, alkalies, earths, salts ; and lastly, of the metals 
and their compounds. To the first and the last in 
this list belong all those chemically simple substances 
which we have as yet been unable to reduce to sim- 
pler forms, either by physical or chemical means, and 
which by their union, if effected in the requisite pro- 
portions, reproduce the substances of which they are 
the constituent elements. 

A-metallic and combustible substances. 

1. Bromium ; Fr. Bromine ; Ger., Brom ; Eng., Bro- 
mine. 

We take sea-water or the mother-brine of salt- 
sources, and, by means of evaporation, down to one- 
third, and crystallization, we free it from the salt and 
the free muriatic acid contained in it. As long as a 
precipitate forms, we add sulphuric acid, in order to 
free the solution from lime. With from six to nine 
pounds (of the original quantity) we mix, in a re- 



FHARMACOrCEIA AND POSOLOOY. 211 

tort with a short neck and a carefully fitting glass- 
helm, one ounce of finely powdered manganese, and 
two ounces of sulphuric acid, which should be diluted 
with two ounces of water ; we boil this mixture, 
after all the interstices had been previously stopped in 
the most careful manner. To the beak of the helm 
we attach a glass-tube which is to be directed into a 
tubulated receiver, where it should rest on red-hot 
chloride of calcium. As soon as brown vapours cease 
to develop themselves, the work is done, and is to be 
discontinued at once. With a suitable receiver, such 
as : a tubulated retort, the rectification of bromine 
can be accomplished directly as soon as the receiver 
is separated from the alembic, and the tubulus is well 
closed. 

The rectification of bromine requires to be con- 
ducted with great care. We have to guard against 
the noxious vapours of bromine, the distillation has 
to be conducted slowly and at a moderate tempera- 
ture, and the receiver should be kept as cool as pos- 
sible. The best plan is to conduct the whole ope- 
ration in the open air, and with the mouth bandaged. 

Bromine is a liquid of a dark brown-red colour ; in 
thick layers it is not transparent ; in thin layers it is 
transparent, of a beautiful fiery red ; it has a suffo- 
cating odour, resembling that of chlorine, and irritat- 
ing the eyes a good deal. It has to be kept in vials 
with glass-stoppers, in a cool place. 

We prepare the attenuations with strong alcohol. 

2. Graphites, plumbago, percarburet of iron ; Fr., 
Graphite, plombagine, percarburet de fer ; Ger., 
Graphit,Reissblei ; Eng., Graphite, plumbago, black- 
lead, carburet of iron. 

Pure graphite is a mineral carbon containing ten 
parts of carbon to one of iron. It is occasionally 
found in mines ; those of England and Passau are re- 
garded as the best. A species of artificial graphite 



212 



nOMCEOPATHIC 



is formed in high furnaces, during the smelting of 
iron. It is a gray, blackish, shining substance, unc- 
tuous to the touch, insipid, inodorous, and used for 
pencils, called lead-pencils. 

To prepare graphite for medical use, it must be 
boiled for an hour in a sufficient quantity of rain- 
water, after which the fluid is to be decanted and 
the graphite to be digested in a solution of equal parts 
of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, diluted with 
twice their volume of water. After repeatedly stir- 
ring the mixture for 24 hours, decant the fluid, wash 
the residue with rain-water, and dry it. 

Graphite thus prepared, should be prepared still 
further as follows : Take small portions of the gra- 
phite, and mix them with coarsely powdered sugar 
of milk and a sufficient quantity of water to reduce 
the whole to a thickly paste by rubbing down the 
mixture without cessation in a mortar of some size. 
This rubbing is to be continued until the water has 
evaporated and the mass begins to form little lumps. 
Boiling-hot water is then poured over the whole, in 
order to dissolve the sugar of milk and to separate 
the coarser from the finer particles of graphite. 
This graphite is washed repeatedly, dried, and em- 
ployed for the triturations. 

Antidotes : Ars., Nux v., Vinum. 

3. Iodium, Iodina ; Fr., lode ; Ger., lod, lode, Iodin ; 
Eng., Iodine. 

This combustible, simple, non-metallic body derives 
its name from the beautiful violet colour of its va- 
pour. This substance is found in a variety of marine 
plants, in most of the sponges, molluscs, polypi, &c. 

Iodine appears in the form of thin, scaly lamina;, 
of a black-gray, with a metallic lustre, but very little' 
tenacity. Its bluish colour is somewhat like that of 
sublimed arsenic or plumbago, and its odour ap- 
proaches that of chlorine. Tt has an acrid, acerb 



THARMACOPCEIA ANU POSOLOQY. 213 

astringent, pungent taste, which continues on the 
tongue for a long while. Iodine is perfectly soluble 
in 10 parts of strong alcohol. This first solution has 
a dark red-brown, scarcely transparent colour, and 
leaves a brown-yellow stain on the skin. Tritu- 
rations are unavailable, and even the above solution 
has to be prepared fresh for use, and should be kept 
in vials with glass-stoppers. 

The iodine of commerce is generally damp, and 
adulterated with other substances, such as graphite, 
sulphuret of antimony, &c. To purify it, we add an 
equal quantity of iron-filings, and sublime it over a 
spirit-lamp. 

Antidotes : China, 'Coffee, Camphor. 

4. Kbeasotum; Fr., Kreasote; Ger., Kreasot ; Eng., 

Kreasote. 

This substance is found in different kinds of tar, 
in the smoke of wood, in empyreumatic acetic acid, 
&c. Dr. Reichenbach, of Blansko, has obtained it 
from vinegar of wood ; but the proportion of kreasote 
furnished by this liquid is but inconsiderable. The 
body which furnishes it most abundantly is the tar 
of the beech tree. For this purpose this tar is distilled, 
the oil obtained is rectified ; at first it produces 
eujrion, and afterwards a kind of kreasote, which falls 
to the bottom when dropped into water. By chang- 
ing the receiver, these two last fluids are easily sepa- 
rated, the last of which, the kreasote, is taken, the 
acetic acid which renders it impure is removed by 
means of carbonate of potassa, after which the ace- 
tate of potassa is separated by water, the krea- 
sote, which floats in masses on the water, is collect- 
ed and dissolved in the lixivium of potassa, which at 
the same time separates a portion of eupion. This 
last substance being separated, the lixivium is satu- 
rated with sulphuric acid, in order to isolate the 
kreasote. The kreasote obtained is to be dissolved 



214 



HOMCEOPATHIS 



afresh in the lixivium of potassa, and the process is 
to be repeated until the kreasote no longer contains 
any trace of eupion. Pure and perfectly anhydrous 
kreasote is a colourless, transparent fluid, slightly 
oleaginous, and strongly reflecting the light ; a little 
greasy to the touch, of a penetrating smell, an acrid, 
caustic taste, with a sweetish after-taste, not showing 
either acid or alkaline properties, evaporating easily, 
and perfectly soluble in alcohol nnd ether. 

Cozzi prepares it in the following manner : Tar 
is heated in a retort with a helm, and the product of 
the distillation is received in a cylinder which is half 
filled with water. At the bottom of the substance 
which passes over, we find impur6 kreasote. This 
substance is saturated with sulphuric acid diluted 
with half its quantity of water. The kreasote now 
rises to the surface in the shape of an oleaginous, 
black substance, and is passed by the application of 
heat through a boiling mixture of acid and water, 
after which it is exposed to the air for 3 days. The 
liquid which has become darker, is now distilled 
again from a retort heated by a spirit-lamp, and the 
substance which passes over, is subjected a few 
t imes to the same treatment, until the kreasote ap- 
pears quite pure. 

Antidote : Mercurius ? 

5. Petroleum, Oleum petrce, Naphtha montana ; Fr., 
Huile de petrole ; Ger., Bergol, Steinol ; Eng.',' 
Petroleum, Barbadoes tar. 

This substance, which exudes from the earth 
through the fissures of rocks, and which is found 
floating on the water, most frequently occurs in Asia 
particularly in Persia, and in Europe, principally in 
Italy, near Modena, as also in the South of France, 
in Switzerland, Bavaria, and Hungary. There are 
four sorts, viz, 1st. Black petroleum, {Oleum petrcs 
nigrum.) a substance of a dark brown colour, thick 



PHARMACOPCELA AND POSOLOGV. 21ft 

viscous, insupportably fetid, and liable to concrete 
in the air ; 2d. Red petroleum, (01. petr. rubrum,) of 
a yellowish-red, more fluid than the preceding, of an 
empyreumatic smell, and subject to thicken in the air ; 
3d. White petroleum, (01. petr. album,) of yellow- 
wine or honey-colour, leaving a residuum, and giving 
out a bituminous smell when burned ; 4th. Mountain 
naphtha, (Naphtha montana,) the finest kind, perfectly 
limpid, colourless, very fluid, volatile, very inflam- 
mable, and of an aromatic smell. 

In homoeopathy we use the third kind, the white 
petroleum. It should be very fluid and of a very clear 
yellow, which shows that it is not adulterated with 
the fixed vegetable oils. But, for greater certainty, 
it may be tested by mixing it with sulphuric acid ; 
this acid does not act on it, but converts the fixed 
oils which may be mixed with it, into a kind of sul- 
phuret. Another test, still more simple, consists in 
letting fall a few drops of it on very white paper ; if 
the petroleum is pure, these drops evaporate in a 
free and warm atmosphere without leaving the slight- 
est trace of grease. To ascertain that it is not 
adulterated with oil of turpentine or any other vege- 
table essential oil, mix it with an equal quantity of 
spirits of wine ; shake the mixture, then by filtering 
through filtering-paper which has previously been 
moistened with spirits of wine, the pure petroleum is 
obtained, which remains on the paper, whilst the spi- 
rits of wine, combined with the other oil, pass 
through the filter. 

For some time past, there has been found in com- 
merce a clear yellow essential oil, which is derived 
from pit coal, and which, when used to adulterate 
petroleum, is not detected by those marks which show 
the presence of oil of turpentine. This oil does not, 
like oil of turpentine, redden test-paper, nor does it 
inflame when mixed with a compound of sulphuric 
and fuming nitric acid ; but what serves to detect 
its presence is, that it has a peculiar, empyreumatic. 



•>Uj 



HOMCEOPATHIC 



penetrating, and very disagreeable smell, which re- 
peated rectifications with water even will not suffice 
to destroy. We dissolve it in strong alcohol. 
Antidotes : Cannabis, and Nux vom. 

6. Phosphorus ; Fr., Phosphore ; Ger., Phosphor ; 
Eng., Phosphorus. 

This substance, well known by its property of re- 
taining the rays of light, never occurs native, but, 
united with oxygen, exists in the blood, flesh, brain, 
teeth, and many species of grain : in the mineral 
kingdom it is found as phosphate of lime in the 
mountains of Estremadura, &c. In a state of perfect 
purity, it is transparent, colourless, or of a yellowish- 
white, solid, ductile, crystallizable, inflammable, in- 
soluble in water, but slightly so in ether and alcohol. 
To purify phosphorus so as to render it suitable for 
homoeopathic use, it is sufficient to remelt it fre- 
quently under water, or to press it, under hot water, 
through closely woven cloth, or to distil it in a glass 
retort, the beak of which is plunged into a receiver 
full of water. If the phosphorus is of a red colour, 
it will be sufficient to put it into water to which 
nitric acid has been added, and to heat the water 
until it boils. The adulteration of phosphorus by 
sulphur is detected by its greater hardness and deep 
colour. 

As for the attenuations of this substance, there are 
three modes of making them, viz : 1. By trituration 
with sugar of milk, explained by Hahnemann ; 
2. By sulphuric ether, for the first attenuation ; 3, By 
alcohol alone. To make the first attenuation of 
phosphorus by means of ether, take one hundred 
drops of well rectified sulphuric ether, and introduce 
into it one grain of phosphorus in small pieces. 
This should be done in a cool place, and in a well 
stopped bottle. The solution being effected, after 
shaking the bottle, take two drops, which are to be 






PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 217 

mixed with one hundred drops of alcohol, which give 
the second attenuation. The others are all made with 
alcohol, in the usual manner. But, as it has not 
been proved that sulphuric ether does not affect the 
virtues of the medicine with which it is mixed, the 
preparation with pure alcohol should be preferred. 

Dr. Stapf used the following method : Mix, in a 
bottle, 5 grains of purified phosphorus, with 500 drops 
of anhydrous alcohol ; place the bottle, slightly cork- 
ed, in a vessel filled with hot water, to melt the con- 
tents. That being done, cork the bottle tightly, 
shake until the solution is entirely cold, when the 
phosphorus will be found divided in a large number 
of small globules. Close the bottle hermetically, tie 
a prepared bladder over the cork, place it in a cool 
and dark place, and shake it as often as possible. 
At the end of some weeks, or still better, of some 
months, the alcohol will be found completely satu- 
rated with phosphorus. This preparation should be 
kept in a dark vial; it is colourless, develops, when 
powdered on the hand, vapours of phosphorus, and, 
if shaken with water, becomes milky. It must not 
redden the tincture of lacmus. 

Antidotes : Camph., Cojf., Nux vom., Vinum. 

Phosphori acidum, acidum phosphoricum ; Fr., Acide phospho- 
rique ; Ger., Phosphorstiure ; Eng., Phosphoric acid. 

Phosphoric acid is found in the three kingdoms of nature, most 
frequently in the animal kingdom, and almost always combined 
with bases. 

The best modes of obtaining phosphoric acid, are: 1st, from 
bones ; 2d, by treating phosphorus with nitric acid. 

1st : Place in a porcelain vessel one pound of calcined and well 
powdered bones, pour on them a pound of concentrated sulphuric 
acid, let the whole stand for 24 hours, stirring it frequently with a 
glass spatula; then add 2 pounds of concentrated alcohol, mix all 
together, and put it into a cloth bag, which submit to the action of 
a press. The fluid being thus expressed, let it stand for 2 days to 
clarify. Then decant the clear portion, inspissate it over the fire 
in a porcelain vessel, and fuse it by raising it to a red heat. The 
product is the phosphoric acid desired ; it should be perfectly trans- 
10 



218 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



parent, and clear as crystal. Take it while still hot, break it in 
pieces, and place it in a well stopped bottle to prevent the contact 
of the air from causing it to deliquesce. The first attenuation is 
made with distilled water, the second with a mixture of equal parts 
of alcohol and water, and only with the third we begin to use com- 
mon alcohol, 

2d : Introduce a portion of phosphorus into a retort, cover it 
with 13 parts of nitric acid of the strength of 1,20 ; place the 
whole in an iron cup with sand, and apply the gentle flame of a 
spirit-lamp. First, colourless vapours will rise, smelling of 
phosphoretted hydrogen ; then come the red fumes of nitrous 
acid. After the nitric acid has ceased to act, and the phos- 
phorus is all dissolved, the liquid is to be allowed to evaporate in a 
porcelain cup. When about 8 parts of the liquid are still left, the 
cup suddenly fills with red vapours, which continue as long as 
phosphorous acid and nitric acid are left behind. When the red 
vapours cease to form, we add another quantity of nitric acid, and 
continue adding small portions of nitric acid until the red vapours 
cease to appear, and the whole of the phosphorus is oxydized. To 
complete the removal of every trace of acid, we require to heat 
the phosphoric acid as long as there is the least smell of nitric 
acid, or as long as we discover a trace of it by dipping into the pre- 
paration a little glass stick moistened with caustic ammonia. If 
stronger nitric acid should be employed for the oxydation of phos- 
phorus than the one above mentioned, the phosphorus has to be 
added gradually, in small pieces, lest it should inflame. Phospho- 
ric acid prepared from the phosphorus of the shops, generally con- 
tains arsenious acid, from which it is freed by the following pro- 
cess. Add a little water, and pass a current of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen through it. The arsenious acid will now make its appear- 
ance in the shape of sulphuret of arsenic. The liquid is now al- 
lowed to stand for several days in a lightly covered capacious 
glass, in a moderate temperature, which, after this period, is raised 
to 50° R., by which means the sulphuret of arsenic is completely 
separated from the liquid, and every trace of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen likewise removed.* 

The liquid is now filtered a last time, and allowed to evaporate 
over a moderate fire down to the specific gravity of 1,15. This 
liquid will be found to contain one-fifth of dry, nitreous acid. 

It is to be kept in vials with glass-stoppers. 

Attenuations as above. 

Antidotes: Camph., Cqff., Sulph,, Rhus l. 

* If the third attenuation, which is to be prepared with strong alcohol should 
become turbid, this would arise from the presence of a small portion 'of sili- 
ceous acid ; in this case, before we continue the attenuating process the 3d 
attenuation has to be allowed to stand until the acid has sunk to the bottom • 
the clear liquid requires tol* filtered again, before we ran uk it fir the re- 
maining attenuations 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGV. 219 



7. Selenium ; Fr., Selenium ; Gei\, Selcn ; Eng., Se- 
lenium. 

This very remarkable substance, discovered by 
Berzelius in 1817, is rarely found, and always combin- 
ed with other metals, such as lead, copper, cobalt, bis- 
muth, mercury, silvej-, &c. It is thus found in Norway, 
Sweden, Transylvania, and some parts of the Hartz. 
It has also been found in the magnesia of commerce. 
This metal is solid at the ordinary temperature, of a 
deep lead-gray, of a blood-red brilliancy at the edges, 
brittle, very fusible, volatile, acidifiable, and of a spe- 
cific gravity of 4.31. When finely pulverized, it forms 
a scarlet-red powder, and has neither taste nor smell. 
For homceopathic use, take metallic selenium, 
which is easily reduced to powder by simple tritu- 
ration. The three first attenuations are made by 
trituration. 

Antidotes : Ign., Puis. 

8. Sulfur s. Sulphur; Fr., Soufre ; Ger., Schwefel ; 
Eng., Sulphur, Brimstone. 

Sulphur is found in nature in considerable abun- 
dance, either native, as in the vicinity of many vol- 
canos, or combined with various metals, composing 
the sulfurets called pyrites ; with hydrogen in sul- 
phurous waters, or with oxygen as sulphurous or 
sulphuric acids, and with these acids forming sul- 
phates. Lastly, it is found in many organic substan- 
ces, such as the flowers of the elder, the linden, in car- 
mine, mustard, anise, in leguminous plants, white of 
egg, and hair. On the large scale, sulphur is procu- 
red from pyrites by simple distillation, or from native 
sulphur ; obtained in either way, it is in two distinct 
forms, viz : 1st, cylinders or rolls, the shades of which 
vary, according to their purity ; 2d, in fine powder, 
known as flowers of sulphur or sublimed sulphur. 
This last, which alone is used in homoeopathy, is ob- 



220 



IIOMCEOPATHIC 



tained by mixing equal parts of roll sulphur and white 
sand, this is introduced into a glass retort, and distil- 
led in a sand-bath. The flowers of sulphur thus pre- 
pared contain generally a little sulphuric acid, which 
is removed by frequent washings in pure water, and 
drying on blotting-paper ; after which they are known 
in commerce under the name of washed flowers of sul- 
phur. For homoeopathic purposes,however, these wash- 
ed flowers of sulphur are not sufficiently pure, on which 
account, before using them, they should be washed 
afresh with alcohol to free them completely from the 
least trace of sulphuric acid which might adhere to 
them. Flowers of sulphur frequently, also, contain 
arsenic, which is known by their orange-yellow co- 
lour, as well as by their alliaceous odour when 
thrown on burning coals. Occasionally, selenium may 
be present in sulphur, in which case it will be of a 
dirty-yellow. When pure, sulphur is of a canary- 
yellow, insoluble in water, but soluble in 200 times 
its weight of alcohol. In its natural state, it occurs 
generally crystallized, or in amorphous masses with 
a shining fracture, and so brittle as to break in the 
hand. When strongly heated it is volatilized, and in- 
flames on the contact of air. To prepare the attenu- 
ations, take washed flowers of sulphur, which wash 
afresh in alcohol ; then if you wish to obtain tritu- 
rated sulphur (sulfur trituratum), make the three first 
attenuations by trituration. The tincture of sulphur 
(tinctura sulfuris s. spiritus vini sulfuratus) is obtain- 
ed by mixing together in a small bottle one hundred 
drops of the best alcohol with 5 grains of flowers of 
sulphur washed, (and purified by a fresh washing 
with alcohol,) this bottle after being corked is slightly 
shaken ; then, at the end of 24 hours, the clear liquid 
is decanted into another bottle, and kept under the 
name of Tincture of Sulphur. One drop of this pre- 
paration mixed with 10 drops of alcohol, will form 
the second attenuation, and so on of the rest. 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND FOSOLOGY. 221 



Sulfuris acidum, Aciium sulfuricum s. sulfuris, acidum vitrioli ; 
Fr., Acide sulphurique, Acide vitriolique ; Ger., Schwefelsaurer 
Vitriol; Eng., sulphuric acid, vitriolic acid, oil of vitriol. 

This acid is found in nature, sometimes in a free state, but usual- 
ly combined with water. It has, however, been also found in the 
form of small acicular crystals, in many grottos of volcanic moun- 
tains ; it constitutes an important ingredient, together with muriatic 
acid, in the so-called sour springs, in North America. But it is 
principally as combined with bases that this acid abounds in nature. 
When entirely anhydrous, it is in white, opaque crystals, like 
amianthus, volatile at the ordinary temperature, susceptible of 
uniting with the hydrogen of the atmosphere, and of forming va- 
pours with it. In commerce there are two kinds of this acid, viz. : 
1. The sulfuric acid of Nordhausen, or of Saxony, a brownish 
liquid, fuming, and almost completely anhydrous. 2. English 
sulfuric acid, which is obtained by the combustion of sulphur in 
vast leaden chambers. This last is not fuming, it is less concen- 
trated than that of Nordhausen. For homoeopathic purposes, we 
use the first of these, the sulphuric acid of Nordhausen, known under 
the name of fuming sulphuric or vitriolic acid ; but before using it, 
it is indispensable to subject it to a fresh distillation. For this 
purpose, introduce it into a glass retort heated in a sand-bath ; 
the first product which passes into the receiver, is perfectly anhy- 
drous sulphuric acid, and as soon as this has passed over in the 
form of white vapours, the ebullition of the acid ceases. Then the 
receiver must be changed, and the real distillation carried on by 
carefully increasing the heat of the fire : it is to be continued un- 
til only the tenth part of all acid used remains in the retort. The 
product of this distillation is pure concentrated sulphuric acid, 
which combines with water under whatever form it may be 
presented to it. The first attenuation is made with distilled 
water ; the second with aqueous alcohol ; and it is only with the 
third that we can begin to use strong alcohol. Pure sulphuric acid 
is perfectly colourless and inodorous, and of the specific gravity of 
1.840. 

The dangerous ebullition of the acid is prevented by introducing 
a platina-wire of a spiral shape into the retort ; the operation is 
much facilitated by constantly adding a fresh supply of red-hot 
coal, and arranging it round the sidejs of the retort, rather than 
placing it underneath. The neck of the retort should be situated 
as low as possible. 

Antidotes : Nux vom., Puis. 



222 



HOMCEOrATIIlC 



Sulfur alcoolisatum, Alcool sulfuris Lampadii, Carboretum sul- 
furis, Carbonium sulfuratum ; Fr., Soufre alcoolise, Alcool de 
soufre, Soufre carbone ; Ger., Schwefel- Alcohol ; Eng., Car- 
buret of sulphur. 

We obtain this compound of carbon and sulphur by the distil- 
lation of sulphuret of iron with carbon, or by passing the vapour 
of sulphur through a porcelain tube filled with burning coals. Carbu- 
ret of sulphur is a colourless, transparent fluid, of an acrid taste, and 
a fetid and penetrating smell; it is very volatile, insoluble in 
water, but very soluble in alcohol. The attenuations should be 
made with alcohol. 



Hepar sulfuris calcareum ; Calcarea sulfureta, Sulfuretum 
calcis ; Fr., Foie de soufre calcaire, Sulfure de chaux ; Ger., 
Kalkartige Schicefelleber, Kalkschivefel ; Eng., Sulphuret of lime. 

This substanca is a combination of sulphur with calcium, known 
since the close of the last century, and produced in 1768 by Canton. 
It may be economically obtained by decomposing, at a high tem- 
perature, sulphate of lime by carbon. For homoeopathic purposes 
it is procured by direct combination of oyster-shells with sulphur. 
For this purpose, a mixture of equal parts of the calcareous sub- 
stance situated between the lamina? of the oyster-shells, finely 
pulverized, and well washed, and purified flowers of sulphur, are 
kept at a white heat for ten minutes, after which they are pre- 
served in a well stopped bottle. Sulphuret of lime is a yellow or 
reddish mass, porous, friable, and very slightly soluble in water, 
with which it gives a hydrosulphuret. The three first attenuations 
are made by trituration. It should be kept in vials covered with 
black paper. 

Antidotes: Veg. ac, Bell., Puis. 

Natrum sulfuratum, Sulfuretum soda ; Fr., Soude sulfurte, 
Sulfure de soude; Ger., Schwefel- Natrum; Eng., Sulphuret of 
soda. 

To prepare this sulphuret, take equal parts of sulphur and 
sub-carbonate of soda, fuse- them together at a gentle heat in 
a covered crucible until the mass no longer effervesces after 
which pulverize the mass while still hot, and put it into well 
stopped bottles. The three first attenuations should be made by 
trituration. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 223 



Acids. 

All acids (organic as well as inorganic, perfect as 
well as imperfect, solid, fluid, and aeriform) are, 
generally speaking, compound bodies, which, with 
a base, form a salt ; the property of forming salts 
when combined with a base, is common to all acids ; 
but not all acids taste sour, nor do all acids discolour 
vegetable juices. Acids are either organic or inor- 
ganic. Organic acids contain both oxygen and 
hydrogen, except oxalic acid, which does not contain 
hydrogen ; inorganic acids contain either oxygen or 
hydrogen. Acids have great affinity to water, alka- 
lies, alkaline earths, and metallic oxydes ; acids which 
contain little or no water, are called concentrated, 
and, when they do contain water, dilute acids. The 
water of dilute acids should not be confounded with 
the water with which every acid can be diluted at 
libitum, and which can be removed again by the 
application of heat. Acids, generally, have a sourish 
taste, are almost all of them soluble in water, red- 
den the tincture of lacmus, except silicic acid. 
Acids should be kept in glass vials provided with 
ground glass-stoppers. 

Mineral acids. 

1. AciDUM MOLYBD^NI, See MOLYBDENUM. 

2. Muriatis acidum, Acidum muriaticum s. hydrochlo- 
ricum ; Fr., Acide muriatique ou hydrochlorique ; 
Ger., Sahsciure ; Eng., Muriatic acid. 

This acid is rarely found in a free state in nature ; 
it occurs, combined with water, in the neighbourhood 
of volcanoes, and combined with sodium in the three 
kingdoms of nature. To obtain it artificially, disti 



224 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



together, in a retort sufficiently large. 6 pounds of 
common salt, and 8 pounds of concentrated sulphuric 
acid, with 4 pounds of water, causing the gas to pass 
into a receiver containing 4 pounds of distilled water, 
in order to condense it. If the product of this distil- 
lation is of a yellow colour, or contains sulphuric 
acid, precipitate it by chloride of barium, and distil 
it afresh, or rectify it by re-distilling it with half a 
pound of common salt ; the coloured portion which 
first passes into the receiver is to be rejected ; that 
which comes over afterwards is pure hydrochloric 
acid, which is to be kept in bottles with ground glass 
stoppers. The hydrochloric acid of commerce is 
never pure ; it contains, nearly always, sulphuric 
acid, chloride of iron, sulphurous acid, and even ar- 
senic ; when pure and in a fluid state, this acid is 
colourless, limpid, and of a pungent smell and very 
acrid taste ; it d«es not freeze, nor diffuse fumes like 
concentrated aclJL Placed in contact with organic 
substances, it destroys them, and combined with alco- 
hol, it forms a kind of ether, so that the three first 
attenuations cannot be made with either sugar of 
milk or alcohol. The first, therefore, is made with 
distilled water ; the second, with a mixture of equal 
parts of alcohol and water, and we begin to use 
common alcohol only with the third. 

3. AciDUM NITRICUM, See NlTRUM. 

4. Spiritus nitri pulcis, see NlTRUM. 

5. Acidum phosphoricum, see Phosphorus. 

6. Acidum sulphuricum, see Sulphur. 

Vegetable acids. 
1. Acidum tartaricum, see Tartarus emeticus. 






PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 225 



2. Acetum acidum, Acidum aceticum ; Fr., Acide ace- 
tique ; Ger., Essigsuure ; Eng., Acetic acid. 

Thi c acid has been found only in the animal or 
vegetable kingdoms, where it occurs in great abun- 
dance, either in a free state, as in the gums, &c, or 
as a salt combined \ i lime, potassa, alumine, or 
magnesia. It is obtained by distilling in a sand-bath 
to dryness 61 ounces of crystallized acetate of lead, 
with 18 ounces of sulphuric acid diluted with 6 
ounces of water, and rectifying the product with 2 
ounces of manganese in case the product should be 
rendered impure by sulphuric acid ; or with one 
ounce s?f* acetate of potassa, if it should contain lead. 
Acetic acid is liquid, colourless, of a lively and pene- 
trating, but agreeable smell ; of a hot and pungent 
taste, volatile, inflammable, and strongly attractive 
of water, on which account it must be kept in bottles 
hermetically closed. It unites with water in all pro- 
portions, and dissolves in alcohol, with which it forms 
an ether. The attenuations, therefore, must be made 
like those of sulphuric, nitric, and muriatic acids. It 
dissolves camphor and ethereal oils, resins, gum-re- 
sins, and balsams. 

Animal acids. 

I. Hvdrocyani acidum; Acidum hydrocyanicum ; Fr., 
Acide prussique ; Ger., Blausaure ; Eng., Hydrocy- 
anic acid, Prussic acid. 

This acid has only been found in the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. It occurs ready-formed in many 
plants, such as the lauro-cerasus, the peach tree, the 
apricot tree, the wild plum tree, &b. For homoeo- 
pathic use, the acid prepared according to Schroder's 
method has been generally adopted. According to 
this author, prussic acid is obtained by introducing 
one ounce of prussiate of potassa, well pulverized, 
10* 



220 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



into a glass retort, the extremity of the neck of which 
is placed in a receiver containing one ounce of alcohol 
of 26°, and cooled with ice. That being done, pour 
on the salt a mixture of two ounces of phosphoric 
acid of a specific gravity of 1.13, and 3 ounces of spi- 
rits of wine of 26°, and heat the retort as long as any- 
thing passes over into the receiver. When the pro- 
duct is cold, mix it well with so much spirits of wine 
of 26° as that the whole shall make 6 ounces, and 
keep it in small bottles hermetically closed. Concen- 
trated prussic acid is an inodorous, slightly acid, and 
very volatile fluid. Exposed to the air, it evaporates, 
and absorbs so much caloric that the remainder con- 
geals. It is of a lively and suffocating smell, which, 
when the acid is very dilute, resembles that of bitter 
almonds or laurocerasus. The taste is first cooling, 
then acrid, and finally burning. 

The attenuations of this acid must be made with 
strong alcohol, and kept in bottles hermetically 
closed ; they have to be frequently renewed, as this 
acid is very liable to be decomposed. 

Antidote : Liquor ammonii caustici. 

2. AciDUM FORMICARUM, See FoRMICAKUM SPIRITUS, 

Alkalies. 

Alkalies are compound bodies, consisting of oxygen 
and a metallic base, and have a great affinity for 
acids, combined with which they lose their alkaline 
properties, and form powerful basic salts. Thev are 
never found pure in nature, but always combined 
with acids ; if freed from these acids by chemical 
means, they become caustic, or pure alkalies. They 
are easily soluble in water, possess a peculiar, burn- 
ing-acrid taste, and a lixivial odour. The earths and 
metals which are dissolved in acids, are, with few 
exceptions, precipitated again by alkalies, unless the 
precipitated substance is dissolved again by the neu- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 227 

tral salt, or by the excess of alkali. With sulphur 
they form sulphurets. The metallic bases of alka- 
lies have a metallic lustre, are white as silver, turn 
speedily bluish in the open air, are soft as wax, and 
lighter than water ; in the open air and in water they 
become oxydized instantaneously. 

1. Kali causticum, Potassa caustica ; Fr., Potasse 
caustique, potasse ; Ger., Gewachs-Laugensalz, kau- 
stisches Kali ; Eng., Potassa, caustic potassa. 

Potash derives its name from the fact that it con- 
stitutes a part of all vegetable substances except 
those which grow near the sea-shore, in a soil im- 
pregnated with the muriate and carbonate of soda. 
It is likewise found in a number of mineral sub- 
stances, in the nitrate of potash, silicate of potash, 
and even in animal bodies. Potash is obtained by 
the incineration of plants in the open air, lixiviating 
the product, and evaporating the lye to dryness. 
The potash of commerce is never pure, but contains, 
besides several accidental impurities, various salts, 
especially the sulphate and muriate of potassa. 

Caustic potash, which we use for various prepara- 
tions, is colourless or yellowish, of a peculiar smell, 
and a burning, corrosive taste. The mass which is 
obtained by evaporation, is white, brittle, exceedingly 
caustic, deliquesces in the open air, is soluble in alco- 
hol, and, when dissolved, attacks glass unless much 
diluted. 

Caustic potash may be prepared in the following 
manner : In a silver or well polished iron kettle dis- 
solve 3 parts of the carbonate of potash with 12 
times their volume of water, add gradually 2 parts of 
caustic lime, and boil the mixture until lime-water 
ceases to be made turbid, when a little of the boiling 
mixture is passed into it through a filter. The whole 
is then filtered through a bag of bleached linen, the 
residue in the kettle is washed with hot water, fil- 



228 HOMCEOFATillW 

tered, the mixed liquids are poured back into the 
kettle, which had previously been cleansed, and the 
quantity is reduced by boiling until it is equal to three 
times the volume of the carbonate of potash originally 
employed. Then pour the liquid into another vessel, 
close this well, allow the liquid to settle, and finally 
pour it back into the kettle, boil it again over a brisk 
fire until the mass becomes inspissated, and, on cool- 
ing, assumes a consistent form. This mass is then 
carefully melted in a silver crucible, in order to re- 
move every trace of the water of crystallization, after 
which it is to be poured upon a well polished metal- 
lic sheet, and, while warm, put up in warmed vials. 

Anthrahokali is a solution of anthracite in caustic 
potash. Dissolve one part of carbonate of potash in 
10 or 12 parts of boiling water ; to the boiling solution 
add as mueh hydrated lime as is required to separate 
the carbonic acid from the potash ; as soon as this 
is accomplished, the liquid ceases to be agitated by 
an acid, nor is it made turbid by limewater. Filter 
the liquid as quickly as possible, and evaporate it 
over a fire until it ceases to foam, when it flows like 
oil, with a smooth surface. Mix 7 ounces of the 
caustic potash thus prepared with 5 ounces of finely 
powdered anthracite, remove the vessel from the fire, 
and grind the mixture with a warmed pestie until a 
homogeneous black powder is obtained. Fill this 
powder in warmed glass-vials, guard it well against 
the access of air, and keep it in a dry place. 

The lithanthrakohali sulphur atum is obtained in a 
similar way, after first adding to the quantity of 
anthracite to be prepared, one-tenth part of pure sul- 
phur, and mixing the two to a fine powder by tritu- 
ration. 

Anthrakokali is a black, delicate, colouring powder 
of a somewhat alkaline, acrid taste, causes a burn- 
ing sensation on the tongue, has no taste, or else a 
taste like soot, imbibes humidity from the atmos- 



JMIARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGV. 229 

pheric air, does not deliquesce, loses the imbibed hu- 
midity in dry air, together with the alkaline taste ; 
after imbibing humidity, the particles adhere to each 
other. Five to ten grains of the preparation readily 
dissolve in an ounce of distilled water, the solution 
having a blackish-brown colour which must remain 
even after the solution had been standing a good 
while and the tasteless powder had settled, so that 
only thin layers of the liquid are transparent. By 
these qualities we test the excellence of the prepa- 
ration. 

We prepare triturations, which, however, should 
always be made in dry air and in a warmed mortar, 
and should be kept in well closed vials. 

Sapo domesticus s. sebaceus ; Fr., Savon ; Ger., Seife; 

Eng., Soap. 

This is a combination of fat with potash and soda, 
which is soluble in water, and foams. 

For medicinal purposes we use the castile-soap. It 
is applied to burns, dissolving it first in alcohol, and 
it is used in cases of poisoning by arsenic. 

2. Natrum causticum, Soda caustica ; Fr., Soude 
caustique ; Ger., Kaustisches Natrum ; Eng., Caustic 
soda. 

Natrum is found in large quantities in the mineral 
kingdom, either free or combined with other sub- 
stances; it has also been termed mineral alkali. It is 
found in the free state in the natrum-lakes of Egypt, 
and in many lakes of Hungary ; it is likewise found 
in warmer climates, in the state of efflorescence, on 
the bottom of dried-up marshes ; all we have to do 
is to collect this soda, wash it, and free it from all 
earthy particles. It is also found combined with mu- 
riatic acid in various kinds of salt, sea-salt, rock-salt, 
&c, and with sulphuric acid in the sulphate of soda. 
We likewise obtain it from the ashes of several 



230 HOMOEOPATHIC 

marine plants (Varec, Kelp). Natrum is found in 
large quantities in the animal kingdom. After the 
lye is cleared by filtration, the soda is deposited in the 
shape of crystals. 

Caustic natrum may be prepared as follows : Dis- 
solve one part of crystallized carbonate of soda in 
eight parts of water, boil this solution with one-fourth 
of pulverized caustic lime, and then proceed as in 
the case of caustic potash. 

Caustic soda is soluble in water, and also in alco- 
hol. 

3. Ammonium causticum ; Fr., Ammoniaque liquide ; 
Ger., Wdsseriges Ammonium ; Eng., Water of am- 
monia, Solution of Ammonia. 

Ammonia, known under the name of volatile alkali, 
is found in the three kingdoms of nature, although 
not always formed ; but it is formed whenever, 
during the putrefaction and fermentation of animal 
and vegetable matter, nascent hydrogen and nitrogen 
are in contact and exposed to the air. This alkali 
also occurs, but combined with sulphuric or hydro- 
chloric acid, in certain lakes and many volcanic pro- 
ducts, as likewise in the vegetable kingdom, in the 
flowers and fruits of numerous plants, particularly 
the tetradynamice. It is a colourless, transparent gas, 
of an acrid and caustic taste. It is very soluble in 
water, which combines with it in all proportions, and 
which, when it has absorbed the third of its weight 
of it, that is to say, when completely saturated with 
this gas, takes the name of Water of Ammonia. This 
fluid has all the physical properties of gaseous am- 
monia, except the form. 

For homasopathic purposes, concentrated water of 
ammonia, that is, the completely saturated prepara- 
tion, is used, the attenuations of which are made 
with alcohol. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY*. 231 

Liquid ammonia may be prepared as follows : To 
a portion of caustic lime add one-third in weight of 
pure water, reducing it to a very fine powder, which 
is to be separated from the remaining stones by 
means of a filter. Add to this powder, in an iron or 
earthen retort, as much of pulverized sal ammoniac 
as is equal in quantity to the quicklime used, and mix 
both powders as perfectly as possible by gradually 
adding a sufficient quantity of water to form the 
whole mass into moist balls. Into the mouth of the 
retort we introduce, through a perforated cork, a 
bent glass-tube, which requires to be secured to the 
retort by means of a good cement, with which all the 
interstices should be carefully closed. The external 
long branch of the tube is to go to the bottom of a flask 
placed in a dish with distilled water ; the access of 
air to the interior of the flask is likewise to be pre- 
vented by carefully closing the interstices with the 
above mentioned cement. Before dipping the flask 
into the water, it is expedient to let it pass through 
a small intermediate vessel with lime-milk, in order 
to absorb the carbonate of ammonium or the sal 
ammoniac which might likewise pass into the re- 
ceiver. 

By means of a careful application of heat, the 
work progresses rapidly and safely, and is termi- 
nated as soon as ammoniacal gas ceases to develop 
itself. The distillate, when weighing three times as 
much as the sat ammoniac originally used, has a spe- 
cific gravity of 0,970. It must be colourless, clear, 
free from all empyreumatic odour, free from lime, and 
should be preserved in well closed vials. 

The first attenuation is prepared with water, in 
the proportion of 1 to 10; for the other attenua- 
tions we use alcohol. 

Alkaline earths. 
The alkaline earths are likewise oxydes of me- 
talloids, consisting of oxygen and metalloids. In 



232 HOMOEOPATHIC 

nature they are always found combined with acids, 
most frequently with carbonic acid ; they are soluble 
in water, attract carbonic acid from the atmosphere, 
and form pretty powerful basic salts ; they have a 
sharp smell and taste. In water they form insoluble 
combinations with carbonic acid, which, however, 
can be dissolved by an excess of carbonic acid. 

1. Calcakia. 

This earth is found in every kingdom of nature, al- 
ways in combination with acids, especially carbonic, 
sulphuric and phosphoric acid ; it is also found in 
combination with silica. Pure calcaria is white, and 
feels light, though it has a specific gravity of 2,3. It 
is not fusible, and has an acrid, caustic taste like 
lye, and almost smells like it when water is poured 
upon the earth. It has a great affinity for water, 
&c. Further particulars will be furnished els A'here. 
Pure calcaria is not used in medicine ; besides the 
compound of calcaria with acids, we use the follow- 
ing preparations : 

2. Causticum ; Fr., Causticum ; Ger., JEtzstoff, JEtz- 
stoff-Tinctur ; Eng., Caustic. 

Take about 2 pounds of lime recently burnt, and 
after having steeped it for a minute in distilled water, 
place it in a dry bowl, where, after the develop- 
ment of much heat and vapour, it soon falls into 
powder. Two ounces of this powder, mixed in a por- 
celain mortar, with an equal quantity of bi-sulphate 
of potassa, previously fused at a high heat, form, 
with two ounces of boiling water, a thick mass, 
which is to be placed in the alembic. It is then dis- 
tilled until entirely desiccated. The product of the 
distillation, weighing about an ounce and an half, 
which has the transparency of water, contains the 
causticum in a state of concentration. Its taste is ex- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND FOSOLOGY. 233 

tremely astringent, and produces a sensation of burn- 
ing in the throat. This liquid conceals, like water, 
at a very low temperature ; it much accelerates the 
putrefaction of animal substances plunged in it. 
Hydrochlorate of baryta does not detect in it the 
presence of sulphuric acid, nor does the oxalate of 
ammonia that of any trace of lime. 

Ten drops of this fluid mixed with 90 drops of 
spirit of wine, give the first attenuation ; the subse- 
quent attenuations are made like those of all tinc- 
tures. 

Formerly, Hahnemann prepared the 

TlNCTURA ACKIS SINE KALI 

in the following manner : 

Take the acrid tincture of antimony, the strongest 
is blood-red, saturate it with concentrated nitric acid 
until it begins to redden litmus paper ; or, having 
taken the strong tincture of antimony, recently pre- 
pared, pour into it, drop by drop, sulphuric acid, 
(containing 100 drops of water to 150 of acid,) until 
it begins to act on the blue test paper ; the slight ex- 
cess of acid is destroyed by means of a little quick- 
lime. Another preparation, analogous to this, but a 
little less powerful, is obtained by treating caustic 
potassa by alcohol, which, in like manner, is freed 
from potassa by sulphuric acid. 

There is still another which is prepared with slak- 
ed lime, on which the very strongest alcohol is pour- 
ed, and which is afterwards neutralized by sulphuric 
acid. Although less coloured, and not so powerful as 
the second, it produces, nevertheless, the same medi- 
cinal effects when given in stronger doses. 

SpIRITUS CALCARE/E CAUSTIC.E. 

An ounce of quick lime is introduced in a previously 
warmed glass-vessel, and 5 ounces of water poured 



234 IIOJKEOl'ATllK' 

over it. The vessel is well corked and left to coo!, 
after which the lime will be found transformed into a 
tine powder, to which 5 ounces of pure alcohol are 
added. After several days, during which the mixture 
is frequently shaken, the liquid is filled in small vials 
and well guarded against the access of air. {Koch, 
on Influenza.) 

2. Baryta. 

This earth is principally found in sulphate of ba- 
rytes which contains, moreover, a small portion of 
strontian ; it is likewise found, although much less 
frequently, in withcrite, and, in combination with 
silica, in staurolite. 

Baryta is most easily obtained by dissolving the 
muriate of barytes in distilled water, and precipita- 
ting the solution with carbonate of potash, afterwards 
washing and drying the precipitate. In this way, 
we obtain the carbonate of baryta, which we then 
mix with from 6 to 10 parts of vegetable charcoal, 
form it into a ball by means of gum, and place it in 
a crucible, in which it is surrounded with pulverized 
coal, cover it with a smaller crucible, and then ex- 
pose it to the heat of a pair of good bellows in a fur- 
nace. The earth which is thus obtained, is of a gray- 
ish-white colour, easily friable, anhydrous, of a caustic 
taste, effervesces with acids, develops heat by the ad- 
dition of water, and is soluble in this liquid in consi- 
derable quantity. Boiling water dissolves a still 
larger quantity of baryta; on cooling, it is precipita- 
ted from this solution in the shape of feathery or hex- 
aedral prismatic crystals. 

Caustic baryta is obtained by the following pro- 
cess : Mix in a crucible 4£ parts of pulverized sul- 
phate of barytes, and one part of lampblack, and ex- 
pose the mass to the heat of a furnace until it has a 
grayish-white appearance. Then let it cool, place it 
in an iron pan, pour upon it 8 times its quantity of 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 235 

water, boil it, and add copper-filings until sulphuret- 
ted hydrogen ceases to be developed when acetic acid 
is poured upon a drop of the boiling mass. Filter 
the liquid while yet boiling hot, into a warmed bottle, 
which is to be well closed and put aside. The re- 
sidue on the filter is principally a demi-sulphuret of 
copper. 

From the filtered alkaline liquid, caustic baryta 
is precipitated during the process of cooling in the 
shape of prismatic crystals : the water of crystalli- 
zation is removed by heat. The crystals are placed 
upon a filter, and dried. The liquid passing through 
the filter is water of barytes, which still contains ^\ of 
crystallized caustic baryta. 

3. Sthontian. 

This earth derives its name from Strontion in Eng- 
land, where it was first discovered in combination 
with carbonic acid, in the shape of a fossile (strontia- 
nite). Strontian occurs very rarely in nature, and 
has the same relation to baryta, as soda to potash. 
It is obtained pure and caustic in the same manner as 
baryta ; it is lighter than this earth, has a less astrin- 
gent, caustic taste, but a stronger taste than calcaria. 
Boiling water dissolves half of its Aveight, &c. 

Earths proper. 

The earths proper consist of metalloids and oxygen. 
They do not become caustic by burning, are insoluble 
in water, are not fusible per se ; they are friable, 
without taste or odour. They are found very fre- 
quently in nature. 

1. Magnesia calcinata s. pura ; Fr., Magnesie cal- 
cinee ; Ger., Gebrannte Magnesia ; Eng., Calcined 
magnesia. 
Pure magnesia is not found in nature, but it oc- 



236 homoeopathic 

curs, combined with carbonic acid, in magnesite ; with 
silicic acid in meerschaum, serpentine, &c. ; with nitric 
acid in bittern, or the mother-water of salt-works, <fcc. 
It is also a component part of many animal and vege- 
table matters. Calcined magnesia is obtained by cal- 
cining sub-carbonate of magnesia, until it no longer 
effervesces with weak hydrochloric acid. It is a sub- 
stance more or less caustic, according to its degree 
of calcination, slightly alkaline, white, pulverulent, 
almost insipid, and insoluble in water. Exposed to 
the air, it is easily transformed into sub-carbonate, 
on which account, the bottles in which it is kept 
should have ground-glass stoppers. The magnesia 
of commerce is sometimes adulterated with quicklime, 
or carbonate of lime ; in the first of these cases, it be- 
comes heated with the contact of air, and colours 
corrosive sublimate yellow when triturated with it ; 
if, on the contrary, it contains sub-carbonate of lime, 
it effervesces with liquids. 

2. Alumina, Aluminum oxydatum, Argilla pura ; Fr., 
Alun, argile ; Ger., T/wnerde, Alaunerdc ; Eng., 
Alumine. 

After silex, alumine is one of the most widely dis- 
seminated substances in nature, and is found almost 
pure in the sapphire, in corundum, and in adamantine 
spar. Combined with acids, such as the phosphoric, 
the sulphuric, <fec, it forms icavellite and aluminite, 
but in general it is found combined with other earths, 
or metallic oxides, in clays, schists, &c. It is extract- 
ed from alum, which is a supersulphate of alumine 
and potassa or ammonia, by pouring an excess of 
ammonia into a slightly concentrated solution of this 
salt ; the precipitate which is formed, being care- 
fully washed and dried, is pure alumine. It is a 
white powder, very fine, soft to the touch, tasteless, 
infusible, it adheres to the tongue, forms a paste with 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 237 

water without dissolving in it, and, in general, ab- 
sorbs water with avidity. 

According to Hartlaub and Trinks, alumina is best 
prepared as follows : Dissolve common alum in boil- 
ing water ; crystallize it several times in succession, in 
order to free it from the oxide of iron. If perfectly 
freed from the iron, it forms a clear solution with 
caustic potash, without any residue ; whereas, if some 
more iron be present, it will deposit yellow flocks. This 
purified alum is dissolved in boiling water, and the so- 
lution is mixed with a solution of carbonate of potash 
as long as a precipitate continues to form, after which 
carbonate of potash is added in excess, with which 
the solution is slightly saturated. The precipitate is 
then separated from the solution by means of blotting- 
paper, washed several times in succession, and dis- 
solved in pure nitric acid. If the solution should not 
be quite clear, it is filtered, and the alumina is preci- 
pitated by means of the carbonate of ammonium. 
In order to free this precipitated alumina from all 
saline particles, it should be repeatedly washed with 
distilled water, slightly pressed between several 
sheets of blotting-paper, and dried at the air. 

Of this powder we prepare triturations. 

3. Silicea pura ; Fr., Silice ; Ger., Kieselerde ; Eng., 
Silex. 

This earth is found in nature in considerable mass- 
es, either pure, as in rock-crystal, or combined with 
various oxides ; quartz, the sandstones, the pyrites, 
and in a great measure the agates, the opals, &c, con- 
sist nearly altogether of it. To obtain this earth 
pure, take half an ounce of rock-crystal, which reduce 
into fragments by frequently heating it red hot, and in- 
stantly plunging it into cold water ; or if rock-crystal 
cannot be procured, take the same quantity of white 
and pure sand, which must be washed in distilled vine- 
gar : mix either one or the other with 2 ounces of efflo- 



238 HOMOEOPATHIC 

resced sub-carbonate of soda, and melt the whole in an 
iron crucible until all effervescence ceases and it be- 
comes clear ; after which, pour it on a flat piece of 
marble. The result will be a crystalline glass, 
which, after cooling, is to be put in a vessel, with 
four times its weight of distilled water, then covered 
with paper. The solution will soon take place, and 
the siliceous earth will fall to the bottom of the 
vessel, whilst the supernatant will contain nothing 
but pure soda. To cause a more rapid precipitation 
of the silex, which is in a state of such minute di- 
vision, a little alcohol may be added to the water. 
The precipitate being entirely formed, it is to be 
collected on filtering-paper, and pressed between 
many sheets of it, after which it is to be exposed to 
the air, in a warm place. The silex thus obtained is 
a fine, white powder, harsh to the touch, gritting 
between the teeth, and without taste or smell. The 
three first attenuations are made by trituration. 

Antidotes : Camph., Hepar s. 

Vegetable basic salts (alkaloids.) 

There is a class of bodies in the vegetable king- 
dom which possess the properties of basic salts, and 
are sometimes termed "Vegetable alkalies." Mor- 
phin was discovered by Scrturner in 1816 ; Pelletier 
and Caventon discovered similar substances in the 
varieties of Strychnos, in the Veratrum album, and 
the Peruvian bark. They are generally found in 
plants, in the form of salts, in combination with ve- 
getable acids, sometimes with an acid which is pecu- 
liar to the plant, and are most easily obtained from a 
watery infusion of the plant, saturated with a free 
acid ; the liquid having been reduced by evaporation, 
the alkaloids can be precipitated with potash or by 
boiling the liquid with the hydrate of some earth, 
especially manganese. Most alkaloids are very little 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 239 

soluble in water ; vegetable colouring matters preci- 
pitated together with the alkaloids, are removed 
partly by means of a weak solution of potash, partly 
by means of cold or tepid alcohol, &c* 

1. MORPHIUM PURUM. 

Cut 1 ounce of the best Opium into small pieces, 
boil it with 6 or 8 times its quantity of distilled water, 
and repeat this 2 or 3 times. The extracts which 
are obtained in this way, are put together and re- 
duced by evaporation, until their specific gravity is 
1,020 or 1,030, after which they are mixed with a 
solution of 1 drachm of the bicarbonate of potash 
in | ounce of water ; the liquid is filtered after the 
lapse of 24 hours, then heated until it boils, and set 
aside for 48 hours. The morphium which is found 
deposited after this period, is dissolved in 8 times its 
quantity of distilled water, to which a few drops of 
dilute sulphuric acid had been added ; with this so- 
lution we mix 1 ounce of strong alcohol, digest it 
with a little animal charcoal, filter the liquid, and 
saturate the filtered liquid with caustic ammonia un- 
til the alkaline reaction has distinctly set in. In a 
few days, the crystals of morphium will make their 
appearance ; they may be collected on a filter, and 
washed with distilled water. In case the morphium 
should not be quite white, we dissolve it again in 
water and alcohol, digest it with animal charcoal, 
and repeat the filtering and crystallizing processes as 
described above. The solution of morphium which 
is to be purified by means of animal charcoal, should 
be very much acidulated, since animal charcoal part- 
ly absorbs acids. The morphium which is thus ob- 
tained is quite free from narcotin, which is always 
present if a solution of morphium in muriatic acid 
becomes turbid by the addition of carbonate of pot- 

* Compare Bcrzelina vr., p. 2 C>. 



210 HOMOEOPATHIC 

ash. The crystals of morphium form white, shining, 
transparent, rectangular, truncated columns, air-proof, 
inodorous, of bitter taste. 
We prepare triturations. 

Morphium aceticum ; Acetas morphii s. morphicus ; 
Acetate of morphium. 

We obtain this substance by dissolving the pure 
morphium in concentrated vinegar until the solution 
is perfectly saturated, after which we reduce the 
solution by evaporation at a slightly raised tempera- 
ture, previously adding a slight excess of acid. The 
crystals form clusters of delicate, prismatic needles, 
of a yellowish-white colour and the odour of vinegar. 

In a similar manner we obtain other salts of mor- 
phium by means of other pure acids. 

We prepare triturations. 

The alkaloids obtained from the Peruvian bark are 
distinguished by their intense cinchona-taste, and the 
crystals of these alkaloids shine like mother-of-pearl. 
Many are soluble in water, and some of them in al- 
cohol and ether. The soluble ones are precipitated 
by oxalic, vinous, and gallic acid, and by their salts. 

2. Chininum sulphuricum, Sulphas quinicus ; Sulphate 
of quinine. 

It is prepared upon a large scale, a) as basic qui- 
nine, which, after perfect evaporation, crystallizes in 
the shape of narrow, elongated, somewhat pliable 
needles, shining like mother-of-pearl, or in the shape 
of scales. It is scarcely soluble in cold water, but 
readily so in boiling water ; it is likewise easily so- 
luble in alcohol, but not easily in ether. When 
heated, it melts soon, and looks like molten wax ; 
when heated very much, it assumes a beautiful red 
appearance, and finally burns without leaving a re- 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND PSSOLOGV. 241 

sidue. It easily crumbles in a warm and dry place ; 
b) as neutral quinine, the crystals of which are colour- 
less, transparent, rectangular, quadrilateral prisms ; 
it reddens lacmus-paper, but does not taste sour. It 
dissolves in 11 parts of water of 12° R. ; it readily 
dissolves in alcohol, but very little in anhydrous alco- 
hol. It crumbles by exposure to the air, and by so 
doing loses, according to Baup, 24,G6 p. c. water. 

The sulphate of quinine of the shops is frequently 
adulterated with the sugar of manna, gypsum, mag- 
nesia, alumina, boracic acid, sulphate of ammonium, 
sugar, sugar of milk, starch-fecule, gum, stearine, sul- 
phate of cinchonine, and salicine. According to 
Dufios, the purity of the sulphate of quinine is esta- 
blished by the following facts : it burns without a 
residue when heated in a platina spoon over a spi- 
rit lamp ; a solution of quinine in concentrated sul- 
phuric acid is perfectly colourless ; and if we pour 
liquid caustic potash upon it, not the least odour of 
ammoniacum is perceived. (Salicine turns red by 
pouring concentrated sulphuric acid upon it, whereas 
quinine forms a perfectly colourless solution with 
that acid. Horn. Zeitg. XIII., 363.— Journal fur Arz~ 
neimittel, No. II.) 

ClNCHONIUM SULPHURICUM. 

This substance is obtained while making the qui- 
nine ; its crystals are the first to be deposited from the 
extracts of the different kinds of Peruvian bark (the 
brown rather than the yellow varieties), both of which 
contain at the same time the cinchonine and the qui- 
nine, while the quinine remains in the mother-lye. 

The basic sulphate of cinchonine is obtained by 
boiling considerably diluted sulphuric acid with an 
excess of pure cinchonine, and then filtering the solu- 
tion while yet boiling-hot. During the process of 
cooling, the salt is deposited in white, transparent, 
reotangnlnr columns. Its relation to concentrated sul- 
11 



242 HOMOEOPATHIC 

phuric acid is the same as to the sulphate of quinine, 
and it acts in the same way as quinine when exposed 
to the heat of a spirit-lamp. 
We prepare triturations. 

3. Phosphate of quinine forms acicular crystals, 
colourless, transparent, shining somewhat like mother- 
of-pearl. It is sparingly soluble in water, but readily 
so in alcohol. (Arch. IX., 3.) 

4. Veratrine ; it has an acrid and burning, but not 
bitter taste. It is inodorous, but the dust of veratrine 
causes a violent sneezing ; it is soluble in alcohol, but 
very little soluble in ether. {Horn. Gazette, iv., 48.) 

5. Salicine forms colourless, pyramidal crystals, or 
scales, has a very bitter, aromatic taste, melts in a 
warm temperature, dissolves in cold, but more readily 
in hot water, in alcohol, not in ether, &c. (Hyg. V, 
45, and 146.) 

6. Strychninum ; Strychnine. 

This alkaloid is found in the nux vomica, the Ignatius' 
bean, the spurious angustura-bark, and probably in 
other varieties of the family strychnos (generally in 
company with brucine). It is obtained in the follow- 
ing manner : 

A certain quantity of pulverized nux vomica is re- 
peatedly extracted with from 4 to 5 times its quan- 
tity of alcohol of 60 to 70 p. c, the different extracts 
are mixed together, and slightly acidulated with mu- 
riatic acid ; the alcohol is then removed by distilla- 
tion, the watery residue is poured off from the resin- 
ous parts, after which a saturated watery solution 
of the bicarbonate of potash is added to a slight ex- 
cess. The mixture is then filtered, and to the filtered 
mixture we add as much liquid caustic ammonia as 
we had before added of a solution of potash. The 
whole is left standing for 48 or more hours, the re- 






PHARMACOPOEIA AND P0SOL0GY. 243 

sidue is collected in a filter, dried, and an extract is 
formed, in a few hours, with 4 times its quantity of 
anhydrous alcohol, during which period it has to be 
shaken several times. This operation is repeated 
after pouring off the first portion of alcohol. The 
undissolved residue is collected in a filter, dried, and 
repeatedly boiled with water until the decoction, 
after cooling, ceases to be coloured brownish-red by 
the addition of a few drops of the most concentrated 
nitric acid, which change of colour indicates the 
presence of brucine. The undissolved remaining 
strychnine is again dissolved in dilute alcohol, filter- 
ed, and crystallized by slow evaporation. The crys- 
tals are small, white, quadrilateral columns, terminat- 
ing in obtuse points. 

Strychninum nitricum ; the nitrate of strychnine. 

We dissolve the crystals of pure strychnine in very 
much diluted nitric acid, filter the solution, and eva- 
porate it at a very slightly increased temperature. 
The crystals are in clusters, white, pliable, shining 
like silk. They are soluble in water and dilute al- 
cohol- 

Strychninum sulphuricum. 

This is prepared in the same manner as the pre- 
vious salt, with pure, dilute sulphuric acid, and has 
the same properties. 

We prepare triturations from all these different 
varieties of strychnine. 

Salts. 

By salt we generally understand a compound of 
some base (metallic oxyde, alkali, earth) with an 
acid. There are two kinds of salts, amphid-salts and 
haloid-salts ; the former are either oxygen- or sulphur- 



244 HOMOEOPATHIC 

salts ; the oxygen-salts being the more numerous, 
consisting of an oxygen-acid and a base. We dis- 
tinguish them into neutral, acid, and basic salts. A 
salt is neutral which does not manifest in its ac'ion 
on vegetable colours, acid or alkaline properties, 
and consists generally of one equivalent of acid unit- 
ed to one equivalent of base, this last containing one 
equivalent of oxygen. In the acid salts the acid pre- 
vails over the base ; basic salts are those in which 
there is present more than one equivalent of base for 
each equivalent of acid. 

Haloid salts consist of a simple body of the chlo- 
rine family united with a metal, as chloride of sodium, 
iodide of potassium, &c. The sulphur-salts are ana- 
logous to the oxygen-salts, except that the sulphur 
takes the place of the oxygen. Double salts are form- 
ed by the union of two simple salts. 

The true neutral salts have, for bases, either sub- 
oxides or protoxides. The quantity of acid with 
which metallic oxides are disposed to unite in their 
most neutral salts, is subject to a remarkable propor- 
tion, being one equivalent for each atom of oxy- 
gen which the base contains. Salts in which this 
law is observed to hold, are generally described as 
neutral, even though their action on vegetable colours 
may indicate a preponderance of acid. 

Salts which form in the water, unite chemically 
with a certain quantity of water, upon which their 
colour and form depend (water of crystallization) ; 
some salts lose this water by exposure to a dry air, 
and crumble. Salts are either soluble in water, and 
then form crystals of a peculiar salt taste, or else they 
are insoluble and not crystallizable in powder, and 
tasteless. 



PHARMACOPCE1A AND POSOI.OGY. 245 

a) Oxygen-salts. 

Carbonates. 

These salts are decomposed more readily than any 
other ; their common properties are the following : 
they are decomposed by most acids with efferves- 
cence, giving- out carbonic acid gas ; when exposed 
to a red heat they lose their carbonic acid (except 
the carbonates of potash) ; the carbonates of potash 
likewise lose their carbonic acid when heated in tubes 
and the vapours of water acting upon them. If mix- 
ed with pulverized coal and made red-hot, they give 
out a large quantity of carbonic oxide gas. 

1. Ammonium cakbonicum, Carbonas (sub) ammonii ; 
Sal volatile anglicanum ; Fr., Ammoniaque car- 
bonate, Sous-carbonate d'ammoniaque, Alcali vo- 
latil concret, Sel volatil d'Angleterre ; Ger., Fliich- 
tigcs Laugcnsalz ; Eng., Carbonate of ammonia. 

Formerly this salt was procured from animal sub- 
stances submitted to the action of fire ; but when 
obtained in this manner, it is rendered impure by an 
oily matter which discolours it, and furnishes but 
very variable preparations, charged with the animal 
oil of Dippel, and sometimes even with hydrocyanic 
acid, which necessarily modify its properties. This 
salt is obtained pure by the distillation of a mixture 
of muriate of ammonia, of sub-carbonate of lime, of 
potash, or of soda. For this purpose, triturate to- 
gether one-half ounce of sal-ammoniac, and the 
same quantity of crystallized carbonate of soda; in- 
troduce this mixture into a vial not closely corked, 
and which is placed in a sand-bath up to the level of 
the mixture. The action of the lire having sublimed 
the carbonate of ammonia into the upper part of the 
vial, it is to be broken, in order to remove the salt. 



246 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



This salt is white, of a fibrous appearance, of the 
same smell and taste as liquid ammonia, very soluble 
in cold water, partially decomposed by hot water, 
very volatile, even at the ordinary temperature ; it 
is decomposed by the alkalies, and effervesces with 
acids. It should be carefully guarded against light 
and moisture ; we prepare from it a watery solution 
in the proportion of 1 to 10, from which the alco- 
holic attenuations are prepared as usual. 

Antidotes : Camph., Calc. sulph. 

2. Baryta carbonica, Carbonas (sub) baryta. ; Fr., 
Baryte carbonatee, sous - carbonate de baryte ; 
Ger., Baryt, Schwererde ; Eng., Carbonate of ba- 
rytes. 

Carbonate of barytes is but rarely found native ; 
thus far it has only been discovered in England, in 
Siberia, and in Styria, where it occurs massive, and 
differs visibly from heavy spar (sulphate of barytes) 
in dissolving completely in nitric acid. 

For homoeopathic use, it is prepared in the follow- 
ing manner : 

Crystallized chloride of barium, well pulverized, 
is to be boiled for 2 minutes with 6 parts of alcohol, 
in order to free it from the chloride of strontium, 
which might be mixed with it ; the powder is then 
to be dissolved in 6 parts of boiling distilled water, 
and precipitated by carbonate of ammonia ; the pre- 
cipitate is to be repeatedly washed with distilled wa- 
ter, and then dried. We prepare triturations. 

This salt is a delicate, white powder, without smell 
or taste, soluble in muriatic, nitric, and acetic acids, 
with which it effervesces. 

Antidote : Camphor. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 247 



3. Calcarea carbonica, Carbonas {sub) calcis ; Fr., 
Chaux carbonatee, Sous-carbonate de chaux ; Ger., 
Kalkerde, Kohlensaure Kalkerde ; Eng., Carbonate 
of lime, chalk. 

The sub-carbonate of lime is met with in great 
abundance in nature ; more or less pure, it consti- 
tutes the marbles, chalk, a species of alabaster, lime- 
stone, various stalactites, &c. It is found dissolved 
in small quantities, in many gaseous mineral waters, 
in well waters, &c. ; it forms, in part, the basis of the 
skeletons of animals, of coral, of the nacre of pearl, 
of egg-shells, of the shells of Mollusca, of various 
concretions, &c, in which it often occurs associated 
with phosphate of magnesia and animal matter. 
For homoeopathic use, we take the sub-carbonate of 
lime derived from the animal kingdom, and particu- 
larly that furnished by the shell of the oyster. For 
this purpose we bruise a somewhat thick and well 
cleaned oyster-shell, and take 10 grains of the snow- 
white, calcareous substance which is found between 
the two surfaces ; this is to be triturated with 100 
grains of sugar of milk, after which two successive 
triturations are to be made, before dissolving them 
and making the remaining attenuations with alcohol. 
The carbonate of lime thus obtained, it is not, in fact, 
rigorously pure ; but as a medicine, it is to be preferred 
to all other preparations, inasmuch as this is the one 
that has been experimented on under the name of 
sub-carbonate of lime. 

Griiner recommends the following mode of obtain- 
ing pure carbonate of lime : 

Boil oystershells in water for half an hour, then 
brush every single shell in order to remove all the im- 
purities which might still adhere to it, and spread 
them in a furnace with a good draught of air, upon 
red-hot coal, layer by layer, placing between each 
2 layers of the shells a layer of dead coal : then 



248 HOMOEOPATHIC 

make the whole pile red-hot by means of the blower. 
and maintain this heat until a piece of shell, when 
taken out, looks perfectly white and can be reduced 
to a fine powder without trouble. The whole is now 
removed with great caution, so that the shells are not 
mixed up with coal or ashes ; they are placed in a flat 
cup, and exposed to the open air until the lime has 
absorbed a sufficient quantity of carbonic acid, which 
will take more or less time according - to the quantity 
to be prepared. If, by pouring a little dilute acid 
upon pulverized lime, we are satisfied that all the 
quicklime is removed, the whole mass is placed in a 
mortar, reduced to a fine powder, and sifted through 
a piece of fine linen, in order to separate all the 
coarser particles. We thus obtain a dazzling-white, 
exceedingly porous, inodorous powder, which requires 
to be prepared with great care. 

Calcarea caustica s. pura ; Calx ; Calcium orydalurn, 
Oxydum calcicum; Fr., Chaux caustique ou vive ; 
Ger., Gebrannter Kalk ; Eng., Quicklime, Pure 
lime. 

Oyster-shells are treated in the same way as de- 
scribed in the previous article, except that the red 
heat is kept up more vigorously, and long enough to 
expel every trace of carbonic acid, in order to test 
which, we have to try a piece of shell from every 
layer. After which they are immediately triturated 
in a mortar, sifted through linen, and kept for use in 
hermetically closed bottles. 

For medicinal use we prepare, according to Class 
1st, a tincture with dilute alcohol. This tincture 
{spiritus calcarecB causticce) is to be carefully guarded 
against the access of air, and prepared fresh as soon 
as we discover the least trace of carbonic acid in it. 

The common mode of preparing it, is as follows : 
Introduce one ounce of quicklime into a heated bottle, 
pour over it 50 ounces of water; cork the bottle, 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 249 

and let it stand till cold. Then shake the bottle and 
add to the mixture 50 ounces of concentrated alcohol. 
After several days, during which the bottle is fre- 
quently to be shaken, decant the fluid into small 
vials which are to be closed hermetically. This 
tincture is of a pale straw-yellow colour, caustic taste, 
and calcareous odour. 

4. Kali carbonicum, Carbonas (sub) potasses ; Sal 
tartar i ; Fr., Potasse carbonatee, Sous-carbonate 
de potasse, Sel de tartre ; Ger., Kali, kohlensaures 
Kali, Gewachs-Laugensalz ; Eng., Carbonate of 
potassa, sub-carbonate of potassa. 

Sub-carbonate of potassa is found in the ashes of 
all vegetables, except those which grow on the sea- 
shore, and is obtained either by igniting tartar, by 
the deflagration of nitre with carbon, or by heating 
to a red heat sulphate of potassa with carbon, iron, 
and sub-carbonate of lime. It is procured in the 
large way by lixiviating wood-ashes, and evapora- 
ting the product to complete dryness. In order to de- 
stroy the foreign substances that might be associated. 
with potash thus obtained, the whole is calcined in 
furnaces built for the purpose, until the product ac- 
quires a whitish colour. There is also in commerce 
a sub-carbonate of potash, which is obtained by the 
incineration of the residue of the grapes after the 
wine is expressed ; this is much purer than common 
potash, and is almost entirely soluble in water. To ob- 
tain sub-carbonate of potassa, such as is used in homoe- 
opathy, moisten with a little water 4 drachms of cream 
of tartar, (super-tartrate of potassa,) so as to form 
a ball, which is to be wrapped in paper, and suffered 
to dry ; it is afterwards heated red-hot on burning 
coals. This operation finished, place the ball in a 
porcelain saucer, covering it with a cloth, carry it 
into a cellar, where it is to be left to absorb moisture 
from the air for fifteen days. By this means the po- 
11* 



C 50 HOMOEOPATHIC 

tassa is separated from the lime, so that it contains 
no portion of it. 

Another mode of obtaining this salt is as follows : 
Mix carefully one portion of finely pulverized, 
pure crystallized saltpetre with 2 portions of finely 
pulverized purified cremor tartari ; detonate the mix- 
ture in a well polished, heated iron crucible, lixiviate 
the black mass thus obtained with distilled water, 
filter the liquid, and evaporate it in a porcelain cup, 
until a dry powder remains. Expose this powder to 
the open air, in order that it should deliquesce, and 
all the lime which might have got into the prepa- 
ration through the cream of tartar, should be re- 
moved. After the lapse of a few weeks, we add wa- 
ter to separate this carbonate of lime, filter the li- 
quid, dry it again, and keep it in well closed bottles. 
It is a perfectly white powder, and easily and com- 
pletely soluble in a little water. The first and second 
attenuations are made with water, the third with di- 
lute alcohol. 

Antidotes : Camph., Coff., Spir. nitr. dale. 

5. Magnesia carbonica, Carbonas (sub) magnesia ; 
Fr., Magnesie carbonatee, Carbonate (sous) de 
magnesie ; Ger., Bittererde, Talkerde, Kohlensaure 
Talkerde ; Eng., Carbonate of magnesia. 

This salt frequently occurs native, but more usually 
in the form of a white, earthy mass, than crystallized. 
It is prepared artificially by decomposing the sulphate 
of magnesia, dissolved in water by means of a solu- 
tion of sub-carbonate of potassa, collecting and wash- 
ing the precipitate. The greater the purity of the 
sulphate of magnesia and of the carbonate of potassa, 
the weaker the dilutions ; the more care taken in the 
washings, and the more rapid the drying, the lighter, 
whiter, and more valuable in commerce is the mag- 
nesia obtained. The best is that which comes from 



FHARMACOPOHA AND POSOLOGT. S51 

England. This salt, usually in large cubic masses, 
of a dead white, is soft to the touch, insipid and in- 
odorous, adheres strongly to the tongue, effervesces 
with acids ; fire decomposes it, pure water does not 
dissolve it, but in carbonated water it dissolves al- 
most entirely. It is often adulterated by carbonate 
of lime, which is detected by the insoluble residuum 
left on dissolving it in weak sulphuric acid. To pre- 
pare the magnesia used in homoeopathy, take 10 parts 
of the whitest and lightest, which triturate with 90 
parts of sugar of milk. 

Antidotes: Calc, Natr.mur. 

6. Natrum carbonicum, Carbonas (sub) soda; Fr., 
Soude carbonatee, Sous-carbonate de soude ; Ger., 
Mineralisches Laugensah ; Eng., Carbonate of soda. 

This salt is found native ; it abounds in Egypt, in 
a valley called the Natron-Lakes, and is crystallized 
in these lakes by natural evaporation ; it is also the 
basis of the waters of Vichy and other thermal wa- 
ters, and is found in the plants growing on the ma- 
ritime coasts of France. It is prepared on a large 
scale in Egypt, Spain, and France, by the incinera- 
tion of the plants which grow on the sea-shore ; these 
ashes are sold under the name of artificial soda ; they 
are of a blackish colour, and contain all those impu- 
rities found in ordinary ashes, such as various sul- 
phates, muriate of soda, carbon, and silex. The 
Spanish, or Alicant barilla, is considered the best ; 
the most impure is the Kelp ; it contains iodide of 
soda. There is another kind which comes from Hun- 
gary, and is purer than any other ; it is found in that 
country at the bottom of lakes which have been dried 
up by the heat of the sun. It is also prepared by 
heating sulphate of soda, charcoal, and lime, to a 
red heat, and lixiviating the product. For homoeo- 
pathic use, we take rough carbonate oi sod*, which 



252 HOMOEOPATHIC 

is purified by submitting it to a fresh crystallization. 
For this purpose, this salt is first washed, dissolved by 
heat, and the solution suffered to cool, taking care to 
stir it from time to time with a spatula, to prevent 
the formation of regular crystals. The crystallized 
salt is then placed in a funnel, the end of which is 
closed with a little cotton, and when the adherent 
moisture has run off, it is to be wet from time to time 
with a fresh quantity of distilled water, observing 
that the last has drained off before more is added. 
When the water which drains off is no longer cloud- 
ed by the addition of nitrate of silver, after having 
been saturated with nitric acid, it will be unneces- 
sary to continue the washing, as the salt remaining 
in the funnel will be pure sub-carbonate of soda. 
This salt, when pure, has a cooling, slightly alkaline 
taste ; on exposure to the air, it effloresces ; it is in- 
soluble in alcohol, but dissolves in twice its weight of 
cold water. The three first attenuations are made 
by trituration, or we may prepare an aqueous solu- 
tion in the proportion of 1 : 10. 
Antidote : Camphor. 

7. Strontiana carbonica, Carhonas Strontiance ; Fr., 
Strontiane carbonatee, Carbonate de Strontiane ; 
Ger., Sironlian-Erde, Kohlensaurer Strontian ; Eng., 
Carbonate of Strontian. 

This salt is found in nature in a fossil state, and 
known under the name of Stronlianite, but it is ex- 
tremely rare. To procure it suitable for homoeopathic 
use, take sulphate of strontian, known by the name 
otpoudre des Celestins, boil it in water for an hour, 
one part with 3 times its weight of carbonate of po- 
tassa, or soda, filter it rapidly, wash the residuum, 
dissolve it in nitric acid, crystallize it carefully, and 
lastly, precipitate the salt by sub-carbonate of soda. 
It may also be obtained, by heating to redness, in a 
crucible, sulphate of strontian, with one-sixth of its 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGT. 258 

weight of charcoal powder; this will produce sulphu- 
ret of strontian (foie de strontiana,) which dissolve in 
boiling water, and afterwards precipitate the salt by. 
means of sub-carbonate of potassa, or the sulphur 
may be precipitated by nitric acid, and the solution 
of nitrate of strontian thus obtained, be decomposed. 
Finally, we may attain the desired result by prepa- 
ring hydrochlorate of strontian as we prepare hydro- 
chlorate of baryta, and by afterwards decomposing 
the salt produced by subcarbonate of soda. The 
first of these three methods is that commonly adopted. 

The three first attenuations are prepared by tritu- 
ration. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

Nitrates. 

We assign this place to the nitrates, in conse- 
quence of the plan we have adopted to arrange the 
salts agreeably to their greater or lesser liability to 
decomposition. The nitrates are, all of them, easily 
soluble in water ; by burning them alone, without 
the admixture of any other substance, they first give 
off oxygen, then nitrogen; if spread on red-hot coal, 
they detonate. This detonation takes place with the 
more readiness and intensity if the nitrates are mixed 
up with combustible bodies, the base either being set 
free or left in combination with the new acid pro- 
duced by the combustion. By pouring concentrated 
sulphuric acid upon the nitrates, and gently warming 
the mixture, the red fumes of nitrous acid will show 
themselves. 

8. Nitrum, Nitras potassce, Kali nitricum, Sal petrce ; 
Fr., Nitre, Potasse nitrate, Nitrate de potasse, Sal- 
petre ; Ger., Salpetersaures Kali, Salpeter ; Eng., 
Nitrate of potassa, Nitre, Saltpetre. 

This saline substance is daily found in stables, eel- 



254 HOMOEOPATHIC 

lars, and other places in the vicinity of animal or ve- 
getable putrefaction. Nitrogen, oxygen, and potassa 
are its component parts, potassa being its base, and 
nitric acid being formed by the combination of the 
two others. This salt is found in old walls and rub- 
bish, in various minerals, in the water of some lakes, 
in certain animal matters, (the wood-louse among 
others,) and, above all, in many plants. In most 
cases, this salt is obtained artificially, by lixiviating 
what are called saltpetre earths, and submitting the 
product to many successive purifications, which give 
the products known as rough saltpetre, &c, and final- 
ly what is called refined saltpetre, which is judged 
to be entirely free from the foreign salts which the 
preceding sorts may still contain. For homoeopathic 
use, however, the nitre requires still to be purified. 
For this purpose, dissolve it in twice its weight of 
boiling water, add to this solution a solution of car- 
bonate of potassa, until no longer discoloured ; then 
filter through filtering-paper covered with a layer of 
charcoal powder of the thickness of a knife-blade, 
after which evaporate it, and crystallize by exposing it 
in a cool place. The nitre thus obtained still con- 
tains common salt, which is got rid of by dissolving 
it in an equal weight of boiling water, and stirring it 
until cold, in order to prevent the formation of regu- 
lar crystals. When the nitre is thus completely pre- 
cipitated, it is put into a filter sprinkled with water, 
the water it contains is suffered to drain off, and it is 
then dried on blotting-paper. Nitre thus purified and 
triturated, forms a powder entirely dry and of a daz- 
zling white, whilst that which contains foreign salts, 
is of a white more or less dirty, and liable to attract 
moisture from the atmosphere. The three first atte- 
nuations of this salt are made by trituration, or a wa- 
tery solution may be formed in the usual propor- 
tion. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGT. 255 



Nitri acidum, Acidum nilri s. nitricum, Aquafortis; Fr.,Acide 
nitrique, Eau forte; Ger., Salpetersdure, Scheidewasser ; Eng., 
Nitric acid, Aqua fortis. 

This acid is not found native in a free state, but it exists in all 
nitrates combined with a base. To. obtain this acid as used in 
homoeopathy, pulverize 4 drachms of perfectly pure nitre, intro- 
duce this into a small retort coated with clay ; add an equal quan- 
tity of phosphoric acid of an oily consistence ; shake the mixture 
slightly, expose it to the flame of a spirit-lamp, and pure nitric 
acid which does not fume, and of a specific gravity of 12,00, will 
come over. Pure nitric acid is fluid at the ordinary temperature, 
colourless ; exposed to a considerable degree of cold, it congeals ; 
it boils more readily than water, is of an acid and caustic taste, 
and has a weak and disagreeable smell ; it destroys organic mat- 
ters, and colours them yellow. The attenuations of this acid 
can neither be made with sugar of milk nor with pure alcohol, 
with which it forms an ether ; the first is therefore made with 
toater, the second with alcohol diluted with twice its volume of 
water, and it is only with the third that we can begin to use 
common alcohol. 

If it should contain muriatic acid, the liquid will be rendered 
turbid by adding the nitrate of silver ; if it contain sulphuric acid, 
the nitrate of barytes will form a precipitate. 

Antidotes : Camph., Con., Hep. s., Mez., Sutyh. 

Nitri spiritus dulcis, Spiritus nitri dulcis, Spirilus cctheris ni- 
tratus, Spiritus nitrico-ccthereus, JEther nitricus s. nitri, Naphtha 
nitri; Fr., Esprit de nitre dulcifie, Ether nitrique alcoolise ; 
Ger., Versusster Salpetergeist ; Eng., Spirit of nitrous ether, 
Sweet spirit of nitre. 

The ether used in homoeopathy, under the name of nitric ether, 
is not the nitric ether of the moderns, but that which is known 
by the name of alcoholized nitric ether. It is obtained by submit- 
ting to distillation a mixture of six parts of alcohol and one of ordi- 
nary nitric acid of a specific gravity of 1,30, and rectifying the 
product by calcined magnesia in order to remove the free acid 
and a kind of yellow oil it usually contains. Ether thus obtain- 
ed is kept in well stopped bottles, care being taken to fill them 
completely, and to tie prepared bladder over the stopper ; because 
ether, when exposed to the air, is very liable to become acid, on 
account of the nitrous acid which is combined with the alcohol, 
and which is oxydized by the oxygen of the air, or by attracting 
the moisture of the air, which causes this acid to become disen- 
gaged and to appear in its free Btate. Alcoholized nitrio ether is 



256 



HOMEOPATHIC 



colourless, perfectly limpid, of a strong and agreeable smell, a 
sweetish and aromatic taste, miscible in water and alcohol in all 
proportions ; it becomes acid in the air, and evaporates at a low 
temperature without leaving any residuum. That of commerce is 
frequently rendered impure by hydrochloric or nitric acid ; in 
this case, by dissolving it in water, and adding some drops of a 
solution of silver, a precipitate will be obtained. Is used as an 
antidote of many medicines. 

9. Natrum nitricum, Nitras sodce ; Fr., Soude ni- 
tratee, Nitrate de soude ; Ger., Salpetersaures Na- 
trum ; Eng., Nitrate of soda. 

This salt, known under the name of cubic or rhom- 
boid nitre, is found native in India and in Peru, in 
the desert of Atacama, where it forms a mine of 40 
leagues in extent, and whence it is even introduced 
into France. In this state, nevertheless, it is not en- 
tirely pure ; it contains, on the contrary, sulphate of 
soda, hydrochlorate of soda, and some traces of cal- 
careous salt. It may be prepared artificially, by 
dissolving sub-carbonate of soda in three parts of hot 
water, and adding to the solution, while still hot, 
nitric acid until there is no longer any effervescence, 
and it does not redden litmus paper. The fluid ob- 
tained is then filtered, in order to clarify it, exposed 
to a moderate heat, and evaporated to the consist- 
ence of a syrup, or until it begins to crystallize ; 
after which it is allowed to settle, and kept cold for 
2 or 3 days. At the end of that time, the fluid is 
decanted, the crystals are dried on blotting-paper, 
and kept in a bottle hermetically closed. The crys- 
tals of this salt are usually cubic or rhomboid ; the 
slower the evaporation, the more beautiful the crys- 
tals ; they dissolve readily in three parts of cold, 
and in one of hot water, and even in alcohol, but in 
minute quantities. This salt has a cooling and bit- 
ter taste ; exposed to the air, it attracts moisture 
without, however, deliquescing. The three first at- 
tenuations are prepared by trituration, or we prepare 
a watery solution in the usual proportions. 



fUARMACorCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 257 



Chlorates. 

The general properties of the chlorates are as fol- 
lows: They have a cooling salt taste like the nitrates, 
from which the chlorates are distinguished by the 
fact, that, if mixed with combustible substances, 
they detonate more easily and rapidly, and that, if 
heated without any previous admixture, they are de- 
composed more easily, giving off oxygen, and leaving 
chlorides, not bases, behind ; their decomposition 
by concentrated sulphuric acid takes place with a 
very distinct noise, and is sometimes accompanied 
with the development of light and warmth. These 
salts do not affect vegetable colours, by which they 
are distinguished from chlorides ; nor do they possess 
any odour of chlorine. 

10. Kali chloricuju, Chloras potassa ; Fr., Potasse 
muriat.ee, Chlorate de potasse, Muriate oxygenee 
de potasse ; Ger., Chlorsaures Kali ; Eng., Chlorate 
of potassa. 

This salt is procured by passing a current of chlo- 
rine through a solution of caustic potassa ; after seve- 
ral days, the operation is stopped, the shining scales 
found at the bottom of the vessel are collected, and 
washed with a little cold water to remove the hydro- 
chlorate of potassa and chloride of potassium they 
might contain ; then, after completely purifying them, 
they are dissolved in hot water, and suffered to crys- 
tallize. This salt must not be confounded with the 
chloride of potassa, nor with that of potassium. 

It is inrhomboidal plates, of a pearly white, brittle, 
of a cool, harsh taste, soluble in 15 times its volume 
of cold water; it is fusible on burning coals, it de- 
tonates by a blow, and inflames on contact with sul- 
phuric acid, which causes it to be used for the che- 
mical matches which inflame on being dipped into sul- 
phuric acid. If chlorate of potassa dissolved in dis- 



258 homoeopathic 

tilled water becomes cloudy on the addition of a so- 
lution of silver, it shows that it is rendered impure 
by the chloride of potassium ; and if, at a red heat, 
the residuum exhibits alkaline properties, we may 
conclude that it contains nitre. 

We prepare first a watery solution of ~ ; the first 
attenuation is made with dilute, and the subsequent 
attenuations with strong alcohol. 

Antidotes : Bell., Puis. 

Phosphates. 

1. Calcarea phosphorata s. pi-iosphorica, PJiosphos cal- 
cis ; Fr., Chaux phosphate e, Phosphate de chaux ; 
Ger., Phosphorsaure Kalkerde ; Eng., Phosphate of 
lime. 

We obtain this preparation perfectly pure by de- 
composing the acetate of calcarea with the phos- 
phate of soda (using one part of the former to one 
part and a half of the latter) ; for this purpose we 
dissolve the two salts, each by itself, in a sufficient 
quantity of water, and then mix them together. The 
phosphate of lime which falls down in the shape of a 
crystalline powder, is carefully washed with pure 
water, collected on a filter, and dried ; it is white 
and porous. 

We prepare triturations. 

Sulphates. 

Sulphates are distinguished by the following pro- 
perties : They are insoluble in alcohol, and may, 
therefore, by means of it, be precipitated out of their 
watery solutions. The alkaline and earthy sulphates, 
and the sulphates of metallic oxydes, are gene- 
rally soluble in water; the sulphates of alkaline 
earths, on the contrary, are either insoluble in 
water, or soluble only in very small quantities. 
The salts which are soluble in water, are recog- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 259 

nisable by the addition of a salt of barytes, soluble 
in water 

Dry salts are reduced by mixing them with pulver- 
ized coal, and making them red-hot in a crucible ; 
their base remaining as a sulphuret, whereas before 
it was a sulphate ; in such a case, alkaline sul- 
phates leave hepar sulphuris, and, if the heat should 
be raised very high, the sulphur is expelled from 
many of them, the base remaining behind pure, &c. 

11. Magnesia sulphurica, Sulfas magnesice, Sal angli- 
canum ; Fi\, Magnesie sulfatee, Sulfate de mag- 
nesie, Sel d'Epsom ; Ger. , Schwefelsaure Talkerde ; 
Eng., Sulphate of magnesia, Epsom salts. 

This salt is frequently found in nature, either in 
mineral waters, or in the form of crystals, on the 
Alps, in Switzerland, at Montmartre, &c. It is pre- 
pared artificially by the evaporation and distillation 
of the mother-waters, (bittern.) or by various other 
processes, all of which furnish preparations, more or 
less impure. The greatest part of the sulphate of 
magnesia of commerce comes from Epsom, in Eng- 
land, under the name of Epsom Salts ; the mineral 
waters of Seidlitz, of Seidschutz, and of Egra, furnish 
also a large quantity ; but the purest is that which is 
extracted from the earths and stones of the mountain 
of La Garde, near Genoa ; nevertheless, even this 
last is far from being entirely pure. In general, none 
of the sulphate of magnesia of commerce is pure, and 
never can be used in homoeopathy without being pu- 
rified by repeated distillations and crystallizations. 
In order to separate it from the alkaline or earthy 
salts with which it may be combined, dissolve it in 
an equal volume of boiling water, filter the solution 
while hot, and set it aside to crystallize. If it con- 
tains metallic salts, it is purified by heating it to a 
red heat, or by boiling its aqueous solution with sub- 



260 HOMOEOPATHIC 

carbonate of magnesia, after which it is to be filter- 
ed while still boiling, and set to crystallize. 

If magnesite (a mineral formed by the sub-carbo- 
nate of magnesia) can be procured, it would be bet- 
ter to prepare this salt ourselves. For this purpose, 
dilute sulphuric acid with 2, 8 parts of its volume of 
water, add pulverized magnesite as long as there is 
an excess of acid ; in this manner is obtained a mass 
of crystals, which must be exposed for some time to 
the influence of the air, to separate the oxide of iron 
usually found in magnesite. It is then dissolved in 
water, filtered, and suffered to crystallize afresh. 

Magnesia crystallizes from a warm, saturated so- 
lution in the shape of smooth, large crystals with 6 
sides, whereas the crystals of the shops are elongated 
and pointed (formed by stirring the lye while the 
crystals are forming), it has a bitter, cooling salt 
taste, is easily soluble in water, not in alcohol, and, 
by exposure to the air, slowly crumbles, forming a 
white powder. 

The magnesia of commerce generally contains the 
muriate of magnesia, in which case it attracts humi- 
dity from the air ; sometimes it is mixed with metallic 
salts. We purify it by dissolving it in double its 
quantity of hot water, and boiling the solution for 
some time, after having previously added some car- 
bonate of magnesia ; the solution is then filtered and 
set aside to cool and crystallize. By frequently stir- 
ring the solution, the formation of large crystals is 
prevented, and small, white, pointed needles are form- 
ed, which are separated from the mother-lye, washed 
with a little dilute alcohol, and afterwards speedily 
dried at a moderately raised temperature. 

For medicinal purposes, it is best to form a watery 
solution in the usual proportions, and to prepare from 
it the alcoholic attenuations. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 261 



12. Natrum sulphuricum, Sulfas sodce, Sal Glauber I; 
Fr., Sulfate de soude, Sel de Glauber; Ger., Schive- 

felsaures Natrum, Glaubersalz ; Eng., Sulphate of 
soda, Glauber's salt. 

This salt is found tolerably abundant in nature, 
either in a state of efflorescence, on the surface of 
rocks, in lands abounding in sea-salt, or in a state of 
solution in the water of the ocean, in that of various 
lakes, mineral springs, &c. It occurs in Siberia, 
Sweden, Italy, and Bohemia. It is not always ma- 
nufactured directly, but is often obtained as an ac- 
cessary product in the manufacture of other salts. 
The sulphate of soda of commerce is never perfectly 
pure ; it often contains sulphate of magnesia, or of 
copper, and sometimes even of lead. In the first of 
these cases, potash produces a precipitate, and if it 
contains copper, ammonia colours it blue, while the 
lead in it will discolour the water in which the salt 
is dissolved. 

To free it from all these foreign substances, dis- 
solve it in water, crystallize it afresh, and dry it at a 
moderate heat. This salt, when pure, forms crystals of 
great beauty, they are channelled hexahedral prisms 
with dihedral terminations ; but, exposed to the air, 
they fall down into a white powder, known under 
the name of sal mirabile delapsum. This salt is in- 
soluble in alcohol, but it dissolves in 3 parts of water, 
at the same time absorbing caloric. For homoeopa- 
thic use, it is taken in crystals ; the three first atte- 
nuations are made by trituration. 

13. CUlcarea sulphuric a, Sulphas calcis ; Fr., Chaux 
sulfatee, sulfate de chaux; Ger., Schwefelsaurer 
Kalk ; Eng., Sulphate of lime. 

This salt is found in nature crystallized, and forms, 
under the names of Plaster of Paris. Gypsum. &.c. 



262 HOMOEOPATHIC 

entire mountains. It is obtained as an accessory 
product in extracting phosphoric acid from calcined 
bones, as well as in preparing tartaric acid. When 
to a solution of lime in sulphuric, hydrochloric, or 
nitric acid, the sulphate of an alkaline substance is 
added, the sulphate soon precipitates, and the less 
this solution contains of water, the more rapid will 
be the precipitation, and the more pulverulent the 
product obtained. The sulphate of lime dissolves in 
500 times its weight of water ; it is entirely insoluble 
in alcohol. 

The three first attenuations must be made by tri- 
turation. 



Borates. 

With most earths and metallic oxides, the borates, 
if fused, form glass of various clearness and colour, 
tinge a flame green, and, if dissolved in water and 
treated with sulphuric acid, they precipitate the bora- 
cic acid in the shape of crystals which shine like 
mother-of-pearl. 

Borax Veneta, Boras, Sub-boras, Soda, Natrum bo- 
racicum ; Fr., Borax, sous-borate de soude, soudc 
boratee ; Ger., Borax, Boraxsaurcs Natrum ; Eng., 
Borax, borate of soda. 

Crude Borax is known under the name of Tincal, 
and comes from Asia, either crystallized or in irre- 
gular masses, which are usually coated with a greasy 
or soapy substance. Three kinds of borax are known 
in commerce, that of India, that of Bengal, and 
the Chinese. Borax is purified by melting it by 
means of fire, dissolving it in water, and crystallizing 
it ; this was formerly done at Venice ; hence its 
name, Borax Veneta. 

Borax is a neutral salt, composed of boracic acid 
and soda; the soda predominates, and is not com- 



rHARMACOP(EIA AND POSOLOGT. 263 

pletely saturated with the acid. When purified, this 
salt is in white hexaedral or octahedral prisms, 
slightly efflorescent, its surface becoming covered 
with a powdery substance like flour ; it dissolves in 
12 parts of cold and in 2 parts of hot water, but is 
insoluble in alcohol. 

The three first attenuations are effected by tritu- 
ration. 

Antidotes: Merc, Camph., Coff. 

Acetates. 

Acetates are known by pouring upon them, either 
when dry, or in a highly concentrated solution, a 
little sulphuric acid, after which the peculiar odour of 
acetic acid is at once perceived ; we know them like- 
wise by the scarcely soluble crystalline precipitates 
which are formed by acting upon the acetates with 
a few drops of the nitrate of silver, or of some mer- 
curial oxide. If the solution be warm, the precipitate 
is not formed till the solution cools down. When 
heating the acetates, they give off combustible gases 
and an empyreumatic oil, and the pure bases remain 
behind in combination with coal. 

1. Baryta acetica, Acetas barytce ; Fr., Baryte ac6- 
tatee, Acetate de baryte ; Ger., Essigsaurer Baryt ; 
Eng., Acetate of baryta. 

This preparation is now no longer used in homoeo- 
pathy, the carbonate of baryta is preferred ; it has the 
same medicinal properties, besides which it has this 
advantage, that it may be treated by trituration, and 
thus furnish preparations less subject to alteration. 

Dissolve carbonate of baryta in acetic acid, che- 
mically pure, and evaporate the fluid to the point of 
crystallization. Ten grains of the crystallized salt 



264 



HOMCEOrATIII* 



are dissolved in 90 drops of distilled water, which 
gives the first attenuation; the second is made with 
aequous alcohol, the rest with common spirits of wine. 

The best way to prepare the attenuations is as 
follows : Prepare, according to the decimal scale, a 
solution of the acetate of barytes, in one part of strong 
alcohol and 3 parts of pure water, which solution we 
will term " liquor bar} r tae aceticae." From this solu- 
tion we prepare the second attenuation with dilute, 
and all succeeding attenuations with strong alco- 
hol. 



2. Calcarea acetica, Acetas calcis ; Fr., Chaux ace- 
tatee, Acetate de chaux ; Ger., Essigsaurer Kalk ; 
Eng., Acetate of lime. 

This preparation is no longer in use ; all homoeo- 
paths prefer the carbonate of lime, which possesses 
the same properties, and has moreover the advantage, 
of being more suitable for trituration, and thus fur- 
nishing more unalterable preparations. 

The following is the mode of making this prepa- 
ration: Boil oyster-shells for an hour in river- water, 
then, after having bruised them with a wooden mallet, 
dissolve them in distilled vinegar ; by degrees bring 
the solution to the boiling point, in a porcelain vessel 
and leave it in that state till saturated. That being 
done, filter the liquid, and let it evaporate to one-fifth, 
also in a porcelain vessel. This substance is of a 
deep yellow colour, and in time lets fall a brown- 
ish mucilaginous substance, the precipitation of 
which renders it clear. Mixed with alcohol in equal 
parts, this solution will not become mouldy. The 
attenuations are all made with alcohol. 

Antidote : Camphor. 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 265 

b) Haloid salts. 
Muriates. 

The muriates which have an alkali or earth for 
base, are soluble in water and in alcohol, and re- 
main unchanged by combustion. Some obtain an 
excess of base by combustion, and magnesia and the 
earths proper lose the greater, part of their acid. 
Rubbed together with manganese, they give off chlo- 
rine if a little concentrated sulphuric acid is poured 
upon the mixture. Anhydrous acids are incapable 
of removing the muriatic acid from the muriates. 

1. Ammonium muriaticum, Murias s. hydrochloras 
ammonii, Sal ammoniacum ; Fr., Ammoniaque mu- 
riate, Muriate ou hydrochlorate d'ammoniaque, 
Sel ammoniaque ; Ger., Salmiak, Sahsaures Am- 
monium; Eng., Muriate of ammonia, Hydrochlo- 
rate of ammonia, Sal ammoniac. 

This salt is found in considerable quantities in 
the neighbourhood of volcanoes, in coal-mines, in 
lakes, mineral waters, plants, and even in the urine 
and excrements of certain animals, &c. It is manu- 
factured at Clichy and Grenelle, near Paris, by dis- 
tilling animal matters, decomposing the sub-carbo- 
nate of ammonia they furnish by means of sulphate 
of lime, and the sulphate of ammonia, which results, 
by muriate of soda. This process gives a sal am- 
moniac more or less pure ; but it is sometimes 
adulterated by muriate of soda, which is easily de- 
tected by its decrepitating in the fire ; in other ca- 
ses it contains also a little oxide of lead, which 
may be discovered by its non-volatility. Before ma- 
king use of this salt in homoeopathy, it will, there- 
fore, be always necessarv to purify and crystallize 
12 



266 HOMOEOPATHIC 

it, not only to separate from it foreign substances, 
but because it is more easily triturated when in the 
form of crystals than sublimed. For this purpose, 
filtered water is boiled in a porcelain vessel, into 
which sal ammoniac, sublimed and pulverized, is 
introduced until complete saturation takes place ; 
this solution, while still in a state of ebullition, is fil- 
tered into another vessel of porcelain, which is set in 
a cool place in order to crystallize. At the end of 
24 hours, the liquid is decanted, is immediately made 
to boil, and the process goes on as before. The crys- 
tals obtained are placed on blotting-paper, and well 
dried in heated air, after which they are kept under 
the name of ammonium muriaticum depuratum. Of 
this preparation we make three triturations. 

Pure muriate of ammonium is perfectly white, dry, 
and completely neutral ; it has an acrid, pungent, 
saltish taste, accompanied with a sensation of cold- 
ness, and forms double feathery, white crystals, which 
are, properly speaking, composed of small pyramids 
with 6 surfaces, which neither deliquesce nor crumble 
in the air, completely volatilize over a fire, and, if 
thrown upon red-hot coal, impart to the flame a blu- 
ish-green tinge. Ammonium is tenacious, heavy, 
pulverizable ; it dissolves in 3 parts of cold and equal 
parts of boiling water, but is less soluble in alcohol. 
The presence of sulphate among the crystals of 
ammonium is tested by a solution of the muriate of 
barytes which forms an insoluble precipitate ; if 
iron be present, the ammonium has a more or less 
yellow colour, and a solution of this impure ammo- 
nium is tinged blackish by the tincture of galls. 

Instead of the triturations we may prepare a wa- 
tery solution in the proportion of 1 to 10, from which 
we afterwards prepare the alcoholic attenuations. 

Antidotes : Camph., Coff., Spir. nitr. dulc. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 2G7 



2. Baryta muriatica, Terra ponderosa salila, Barytes 
muriaticus, Baryum oxydatum rnuriaticum, Baryta 
hydrochlorica, Hydrochloras baryticus, Chloretum 
baryi cum aqua; Fr., Baryte muriatee, Hydro- 
chlorate de baryte, Muriate de baryte ,■ Ger., 'Sah- 
saurer Baryt, Sahsaure Schwererde ; Eng., Muri- 
ate of barytes, Hydrochlorate of barytes. 

Prepare a mixture of 4| parts of finely pulveriz- 
ed sulphate of barytes, 1 "part of lamp-black, and 
3 parts of liquefied chloride of calcium; heat this 
mixture in a Hessian crucible, keeping it over the 
fire as long as the little flames of carbonic oxide gas 
rise from the thick-flowing mass, after which the 
mass is taken out by means of an iron spoon, and 
left to cool ; pulverize it after cooling, add distilled 
water, then filter and evaporate. Crystals will form 
which require to be dissolved repeatedly in order to 
become perfectly pure; they are colourless, trans- 
parent, quadrilateral tables of a tolerable specific 
gravity, air-proof, and of a bitterish-acrid taste. 

We prepare the attenuations in the same way as 
has been described for baryta acetica. 

3. Calcarea muriatica, Murias s. hydrochloras cal- 
cis ; Fr., Chaux muriatee, Muriate ou hydrochlo- 
rate de chaux ; Ger., Sahsaurer Kalk ; Eng., Chlo- 
ride of calcium, Muriate of lime. 

This salt is found in sea-water, in the bittern or 
mother-water of saltworks, and is obtained as an 
accessory product during the preparation of spirit 
of ammonia, of sub-carbonate of ammonia, &c. 
It is procured pure by saturating sub-carbonate 
of lime (prepared oyster-shells) with sulphuric acid. 
This salt, crystallized, contains 49,13 of water, ra- 
pidly attracts moisture from the atmosphere, and 
readily deliquesces. It is verv soluble in water and 



268 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



in alcohol, and all the attenuations should be pre- 
pared with the latter. 



4. Magnesia muriatica, Murias s. hydrochloras tnog- 
nesice ; Fr., Magnesie muriatee, Muriate ou hy- 
drochlorate de magnesie ; Ger., Salzsaure Talk- 
erde ; Eng., Muriate of magnesia. 

This salt is found in many mineral waters, in some 
saline waters, and in sea- water which contains 3.50 
parts in 30. To obtain this salt suitable for homoeo- 
pathic purposes, take pure and hot hydrochloric acid, 
procured by distilling sea-salt with an equal weight 
of phosphoric acid, (melted by fire, and afterwards 
fallen down in a state of oleaginous deliquescence), 
dissolve in it as much magnesia as possible, at 80° R., 
filter the solution while hot, and evaporate it to dry- 
ness at a uniform heat. This salt, which is very de- 
liquescent, must be kept in a corked bottle ; it has a 
very bitter taste, effervesces with acids, is decompo- 
sed by heat, and is difficult to crystallize. 

The three first attenuations are made by trituration. 

Antidote : Camphor. 

5. Natrum muriaticum, Murias s. hydrochloras soda, 
sal culinare ; Fr., Soude muriatee, Muriate ou hy- 
drochlorate de soude, Sel de Cuisine ; Ger., Salz- 
saures Natrum, Kuchensalz ; Eng., Chloride of so- 
dium, Muriate of soda, Common salt. 

This salt is found native and anhydrous, {salfossile 
s. gemma) in various parts of Europe, as in France, 
near Vic, &c, either in mines, or forming mountains, 
as in Spain. It also exists in sea-water, in salt 
springs, and in many mineral waters. The common 
salt of commerce always contains a little magnesia, 
sulphate, and chloride of lime. To free it from these 
salts, dissolve one part in three parts of boiling dis- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 269 

tilled water ; filter the solution, and let it crystallize 
at a temperature of 40° II. This salt, which, by its 
taste, gives a name to what is called salt, when pure, 
is not altered by exposure to the air, is colourless, 
fusible, and even volatile to a certain degree ; it is 
very soluble in water, particularly when cold ; it 
does not dissolve in alcohol, and sulphuric and nitric 
acid decompose it. 

For homoeopathic use, we take the crystals with 
pyramidal hollows in the sides of the cubes. 

The three first attenuations are made by trituration. 

Antidotes : Camph., Nitri spir. dulc. 



Iodates. 

A solution of hydriodic acid or of a metal produces, 
with nitrate of silver, a curdy pale-yellow precipitate ; 
iodine imparts a blue colour to starch. They are 
disposed to become basic, and, as bases, are frequently 
soluble in water. When rubbed together with man- 
ganese and moistened with sulphuric acid, they give 
off, when warmed, vapours of iodine, whereas the 
vapours of bromine are of a hyacinth-red colour. 

The simplest way to obtain this substance is as 
follows : Dissolve iodine in caustic potash until the 
solution is perfectly neutralized, which is known by 
the solution assuming a light brown-red appearance 
if an excess of iodine should be added. The mixture 
is evaporated to dryness in a polished, iron crucible ; 
heated until it deliquesces, kept in that Condition for 
some time but moderately, and then poured off. Af- 
ter cooling, the mass is distilled in double its quan- 
tity of distilled water, the solution is filtered and 
evaporated. The crystals which now form, are co- 
lourless, transparent cubes, of an acrid-saltish taste, 
becoming somewhat moist when exposed to the air, 
and soluble in less than their own quantity of water. 



270 HOMCEOFATHIC 

The watery solution is preferable to the tritura- 
tions. 

Kali hydriodtcum, Hydriodas potasses ; Fr., Po- 
tasse hydriodique, Hydriodate de potasse ; Ger., 
Hydrio'dsaures Kali ; Eng., Hydriodate of potassa. 

To obtain this preparation, place in contact with 
each other one part of pure iodine, with 4 parts of 
water, and \ part of iron-filings. There is a slight 
disengagement of heat, and the liquid becomes deep- 
brown. Heat this last gently until it becomes clear 
like water. Then filter and boil it, adding pure 
carbonate of potassa until all the iron is separated. 
If too much carbonate of potassa has been added, it 
must be neutralized by a small quantity of pure hy- 
drocyanic acid. The fluid then consists of hydriodate 
of potassa, it is to be filtered and carefully evaporat- 
ed until crystals are obtained, which are laid aside 
and dried. When dry, this is no longer hydriodate, 
but iodide of potassa ; nevertheless, even in its dry 
state, this substance is known by physicians under 
the name of hydriodate of potassa. It is formed of 
white cubic crystals, of an acrid and pungent taste, 
like salt, slightly deliquescent, and entirely soluble in 
water and alcohol. The iodide of potassa of com- 
merce is occasionally adulterated with chloride of 
potassium, which is detected by the red colour ob- 
tained on dissolving one part of this iodide in 12,000 
parts of water, to which is added a little solution of 
platina. 

We use in homoeopathy not the liquid hydriodate of 
potassa, but the substance in the state of crystals, 
that is to say, the iodide, 10 parts of which are to be 
treated with 90 parts of sugar of milk. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 271 



Bromates. 

Kali hydrobromicum ; Kali s. Kalium bromatum s. hy- 
dro-bromalum, Brometum kalii s. kalicum, Brotnu- 
retum potassicum ; Eng., Hydrobromate of potash. 

It is prepared from pure bromine in the same way 
as the hydriodate of potash is from iodine. Its crys- 
tals are white, transparent cubes, or quadrilateral 
tables shining like mother-of-pearl ; they are air- 
proof, easily soluble in water, of a pungent-saltish, 
and at the same time cooling taste. 

We first prepare an aqueous solution. 

OF THE METALS AND THEIR COMBINATION'S. 

Metals are elementary bodies possessed of a pecu- 
liar lustre, which is increased by polishing them, or 
by friction ; they are opaque, heavy, dense, flexible, 
ductile, fusible, and the principal conductors of ca- 
loric and electricity ; at the ordinary temperature 
they are solid, except quicksilver, crystallized, or at 
least capable of crystallization. Most metals are 
without odour or taste, and all of them are insoluble 
in water, alcohol or ether. In nature we find them 
either pure, that is, without combination with some 
heterogeneous substance, or combined with other 
metals, or combined with sulphur alone, or sulphur 
and other metals, or in the form of oxides or salts. 

They combine with oxygen in various proportions, 
in which case they lose their specific gravity, their 
hardness, ductility, and lustre, and assume an earthy 
appearance ; they likewise combine with sulphur and 
chlorine. Metals which are easily oxydized, are 
called ignoble metals ; those which resist the action 
of oxygen, noble metals. 



272 



HOMCEOFATHl* 



Metals have a great affinity for acids, by which 
they are dissolved and changed to some kind of co- 
loured liquid; to do this, however, the metals have 
first to be oxydized. By evaporation and crystalli- 
zation we obtain, from these solutions, the metallic 
salts, which are generally coloured and heavy, and, 
if soluble, possess a styptic taste, by which property 
they are distinguished from other salts. 

Metals combine 

1) with oxygen, 

2) with metalloids, 

3) with each other ; 

4) they do not combine with oxides unless 
they themselves had first been oxydized. 



1. Noble metals, 

Which are not easily oxydized, either at a low or 
high temperature, and' the oxides of which are 
reducible per se. 

1. Platina ; Fr., Platine ; Ger., Platina ; Eng., Pla- 
tina. 

This metal, of a silver- white, has as yet only been 
found in America, Spain, Russia, and the auriferous 
sands of the Rhine ; it usually occurs in the form of 
small grains, commonly alloyed with other metals, 
from which it is very difficult to separate it. When 
pure, this metal is of a rather deeper colour than 
silver, very ductile, nearly infusible, heavier and 
more unalterable than any other metal ; it is not 
oxidized in water, nor at any temperature. 

To prepare it for homoeopathic use, take 20 grains 
of chemically pure platina, dissolve it in aqua regia, 
with heat ; dilute the solution in a suitable quan- 
tity of water, into this plunge a rod of well polished 
steel, around which the platina will be seen precipi- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND FOSOLOGY. 273 

tating and forming a crystalline crust. The metal 
obtained in this way is a spongy mass, iron-gray, with- 
out lustre, soft, porous, and of little density. It should 
be frequently washed in distilled water, and well 
dried. 

According toRau,pure platina in powder may also be 
obtained by boiling the chloride with alcohol ; the 
metal is precipitated by this process, and, if carefully 
washed in distilled water, it forms a preparation en- 
tirely suitable. 

One grain of the powder obtained by either of 
these two processes, is used to make the attenuations, 
if pure platina in leaves sufficiently thin, like those 
of gold or silver, cannot be procured. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 

Antidote : Puis. 

Platina muriatica, Chlorus platinicus ; Eng., Muriate 

of platina, Chloride of platina. 

Dissolve platina-wire in aqua regia, evaporate it 
to dryness at a moderate temperature, but so as to 
prevent decomposition ; we obtain a dark brown-red 
salt, which is to be dissolved in 9 times its quantity of 
dilute alcohol, and kept for use as Platina muriatica 1, 
from which we prepare the alcoholic attenuations. 
We keep it in vials with ground glass stoppers. 

2. Aurum foliatum, Aurum purum ; Fr., Or en 
feuilles, Or pur; Ger., Gold, Blattgold ; Eng., Gold 
leaf, pure gold. 

This perfect metal is most generally found native, 
sometimes alloyed with other metals, such as silver, 
iron, lead, sulphur, &c. ; it abounds most in South 
America, Mexico, Peru, Siberia, and Hungary ; 
much of it is found in the form of dust in the sand 
of rivers, from which it is separated by washing. 
12* 



274 HOMOEOPATHIC 

Gold coin is never free from alloy ; in order to pro- 
cure it entirely pure, a piece of gold, first reduced into 
thin leaves, is to be dissolved in aqua regia ; this so- 
lution is to be evaporated to complete dryness, the 
dry residuum is to be again dissolved in distilled wa- 
ter, to which a solution of sulphate of iron is to be 
added, until no further action takes place. In this 
manner a deep-red precipitate, almost black, is ob- 
tained, which, after having been washed in weak mu- 
riatic acid and distilled water, gives, when melted, 
pure gold. 

Pure gold is very brilliant, of an orange-yellow 
colour when in mass, and of an emerald-green when 
in a state of fusion, or when reduced to very thin 
leaves, and held up against the light ; it is inodorous, 
insipid, difficult of fusion, crystallizable, soft, very 
tenacious, malleable in the highest degree, and of a 
specific gravity of 19.257. Water, air, fire, do not 
alter it, even when in leaves ; but a strong electric 
discharge transforms it into a purple powder, with- 
out, perhaps, changing its chemical properties. 

If perfectly pure gold can be obtained in leaves, it 
is in the most convenient form to make the three usual 
triturations ; the other attenuations are made by the 
liquid way. 

Antidotes : Asa fast., Merc, Vinum, Smelling of 
Camphor. 

Aup.um muriaticum, Murias s. Deuto-chloretum auri ; 
Fr., Or muriate, Muriate or Deuto-chlorure d'or ; 
Ger., Sahsaures Gold; Eng., Muriate or Deuto- 
chloride of gold. 

This salt is in small quadrangular prisms or trun- 
cated octohedrons, of a beautiful yellow, becoming 
green when dried in vacuo, fusible at a moderate 
heat, very deliquescent, inodorous, but slightly bitter, 
styptic, and leaving a metallic after-taste. It is ob- 
tained by dissolving one part of pure metallic gold 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 275 

in a mixture composed of 1 part of nitric, and 2 
parts of hydrochloric acid, evaporating the solution 
to dryness at a moderate heat, and dissolving the pro- 
duct afresh in hydrochloric acid. It is soluble in alcohol 
and in ether. The concentrated solution is saffron- 
yellow, inclining to red. The great deliquescence of 
this salt renders its preservation very difficult, and 
on this account, the old school, in its preparations, 
directed it to be mixed with common salt, by evapo- 
ration, which would not answer for homoeopathic 
preparations. Trituration with sugar of milk has 
been attempted, but without favourable results. The 
attenuations should be made with alcohol, the first 
with dilute alcohol in the proportion of 1 : 10. It 
should be kept in dark bottles with glass stoppers. 

Aurum fulminans ; Fr., Or fulminant; Ger., Knall- 

gold ; Eng., Fulminating gold. 

This metallic substance, which at first was obtain- 
ed by combining oxide of gold with ammonia, is more 
advantageously prepared by means of pure chloride 
of gold. It is thus procured by precipitating the 
chloride by ammonia, after which the" precipitate is 
washed and dried at a moderate temperature. It is 
a solid, yellow, insipid substance, detonating with 
violence by friction or a blow, so that the bottles con- 
taining it should be covered only with paper. Hence 
it follows, that it should never be submitted to tritu- 
ration. 

3. Argentum, Argentum foliatum ; Fr., Argent ; 
Ger., Silber, Blattsilber ; ' Eng., Silver, Silver-leaf. 

This metal, known from the earliest ages, is found 
in nature either in the native state, or combined 
with different substances, such as gold, mercury, io- 
dine, selenium, sulphur, lead, &c. It occurs in 
France, and in nearly all countries, but principally 
in Mexico and Peru. That which is found in com- 



276 HOMOEOPATHIC 

merce is generally alloyed with other metals, and 
chiefly with copper. Pure silver is obtained by dis- 
solving the silver of commerce in muriatic acid, and 
by heating strongly the product obtained, with carbo- 
nate of soda. If silver-leaf of undoubted purity 
could be obtained, it would be the most convenient 
for medical use ; the thinnest leaves must be 
chosen, which, when placed between the eye and the 
light, appear of a beautiful blue, and translucent, 
and dissolve completely in nitric acid. If the leaves 
contain copper, the solution will exhibit a bluish 
tint, which, when too intense, indicates that the sil- 
ver must be rejected as unsuitable for homoeopathic 
purposes. If the leaves contain lead, it will be de- 
tected by adding sulphuric acid to the solution ; di- 
luted with 60 parts of water, a white precipitate will 
be thrown down, which is sulphate of lead. 

We first make three triturations with sugar of 
milk; the rest of the attenuations are made in the 
liquid way. 

Antidote : Merc. 

Argentum nitricum, Nitras argenti ; Fr., Argent ni- 
trate, Nitrate d'argent ; Ger., Salpetersaures Sil- 
ber ; Eng., Nitrate of silver. 

The salt we indicate by this name, is not the fused 
nitrate of silver, called also lapis infernalis or lunar 
caustic, but the crystallized nitrate of silver. To ob- 
tain this salt, take the purest silver, dissolve it at a 
moderate heat in twice its weight of pure nitric acid, 
which gives a perfectly colourless solution if pure 
silver is used ; whereas, if it contain copper, the so- 
lution will have a greenish-blue colour. This so- 
lution is then evaporated and set to crystallize. 
When pure, this salt is in colourless, transparent, 
thin plates, varying in form, of a caustic, styptic and 
metallic taste ; it does not attract humidity from the 
atmosphere, but is partially decomposed by the light. 



PHARMACOrCEIA AND POSOLOGT. 277 

It dissolves in equal parts of cold water, and in two 
parts of boiling alcohol, which nevertheless abandons 
it, so that it retains but a very small portion of it 
when cold. Notwithstanding this, it would perhaps 
be better to make the first solution in boiling alcohol, 
than to prepare it by triturations with sugar of milk ; 
the solution thus made, would retain sufficient por- 
tions to constitute the first attenuation, from which 
the others might be made with cold alcohol, in the 
usual manner. 

According to Gruner, the first solution should be 
made in water, in the proportion of 5 to 95. 

Lapis infernalis is obtained by melting the crys- 
tals of the nitrate of silver, which thus lose their 
water of crystallization. It is in rods of a light- 
gray colour, dissolves completely in 2 parts of water, 
forming a limpid, colourless solution. Good lapis 
infernalis is of a white or white-gray colour, a mo- 
derately firm cohesion, and exhibits in the recent 
fracture a perfectly crystalline, radiating starry tex- 
ture. 

Antidote : Salt. 

2. Transition-metals, 

Distinguished from the former by the fact that they 
become oxydized at a high temperature, though 
slowly and almost imperceptibly. 

1. Niccolum carbonicum ; Fr., Nickel carbonate ; 
Ger., Kohlensaures Nickel ; Eng., Carbonate of 
nickel. 

Nickel in a metallic state and entirely pure, is 
white, with a shade of gray ; it acts by attraction on 
the magnetic needle, and may acquire poles ; exposed 
to heat with contact of air, it is converted into a pure 
green oxide. The substance from which it is usually 



278 



HOMOEOPATHIC 



obtained, is Kupfer nickel, in which it is found com- 
bined with arsenic and iron. It occurs ,in nature 
under many forms, and in various combinations. In 
the mines in different parts of Germany, of France, 
(at Ste. Marie aux Mines, and at Allemont,) and of 
England, arsenical nickel usually occurs, which is 
found coated with oxide of nickel. It frequently ac- 
companies arsenical cobalt. The nickel of commerce 
is in porous masses, of a dark gray, which are ob- 
tained by first preparing, in the wet way, oxide of 
nickel, which is afterwards reduced by means of a 
small quantity of pulverized charcoal. 

To obtain this metal, as used in homoeopathy, 
dissolve it in dilute nitric acid, and evaporate the 
solution to dryness ; re-dissolve, and again evaporate 
to dryness, repeating this process 3 or 4 times. Dis- 
solve the product of the last evaporation in liquid 
caustic ammonia, which must be entirely free from 
carbonic acid ; this may be ascertained by trying 
whether or not it produces a precipitate by hydrochlo- 
rate of lime. The solution is then evaporated to 
dryness, after which the dry mass is mixed with 2 or 
3 times its weight of black flux, (a mixture of 2 parts 
of tartar, and one part of nitre decomposed in a red- 
hot crucible,) placed in a crucible, and kept in a hot 
fire for half an hour, or three quarters. From the 
product thus obtained, the attenuations are made, the 
three first of which are prepared by trituration. 

2. Osmium ; Fr., Osmium ; Ger„ Osmium ; Eng., Os- 
mium. 

This metal, discovered in 1804, by Tennant, is 
found in the ore of platina, combined with iridium. 
To obtain it, pulverize in a steel mortar the hard in- 
soluble particles, which remain when platina is dis- 
solved in aqua regia, and which arc a compound 
of osmium and iridium. Wash this powder in hydro- 
chloric acid, add an equal part, by weight, of anhy- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 279 

drous nitre, introduce the mixture into a porcelain 
retort with a glass-receiver, tubulated, and which, by- 
means of a tube, is in communication with a bottle 
containing liquid ammonia, in order to be better able 
to collect and fix all the osmium which is developed. 
The receiver should be kept cool, and all the inter- 
stices carefully stopped. The retort is then brought 
to a white heat, and the temperature kept up until 
no more bubbles of gas are formed in the ammonia. 
The saline mass which remains in the retort, is then 
dissolved in cold water, and mixed, in a bottle with 
a ground glass stopper, with aqua regia containing 
nitric acid in excess. This being done, the mixture 
is subjected to distillation, taking care not to suffer 
the osmic acid, which is very volatile, to evaporate. 
To the solution of osmic acid thus obtained, add 
hydrochloric acid in excess, and plunge into it a rod 
of zinc, on which the metallic osmium will soon be- 
gin to precipitate. In this state, osmium is black or 
bluish-black, easily pulverized, infusible, and volatile 
when in contact with oxygen. 

Antidote : Phosphoric acid. 

3. Mercurius vivus, Hydrargyrum vivum., Argentum 
vivum ; Fr., Mercure vif, Vif argent; Ger., Mercur, 
Quecksilber ; Eng., Mercury, Quicksilver. 

This metal is found in various forms, and in differ- 
ent combinations, either amalgamated with silver, or 
united with sulphur, as cinnabar, &c. ; there are 
mines of it in Hungary, Transylvania, Russia, Spain, 
Peru, and the East Indies. In commerce, this metal 
is often alloyed with lead and bismuth ; it is freed 
from these metals by boiling on its surface an aqueous 
solution of mercurial nitrate for about an hour, care 
being taken to renew the water as it evaporates. 
This solution takes up the lead and the bismuth, and 
deposits in their place its mercury, which unites with 



280 



HO.MCEOPATI1IC 



the other. The purest mercury may be obtained by 
the distillation of artificial cinnabar with iron-filings ; 
sulphuret of iron is formed, and the mercury passes 
over into the receiver, which should be filled with 
water. This mercury is then collected on a piece of 
leather, and, by means of a press, is freed from all 
humidity. In a state of perfect purity, mercury is of 
a very brilliant tin-white, without an iridescent pel- 
licle, fluid at the ordinary temperature, and evapo- 
rates easily in the air. Placed in a spoon, and heated 
over the fire, it should not decrepitate, nor leave any 
residuum on being evaporated; the water in which 
it is triturated or shaken should remain clear ; vine- 
gar, after having been in contact with it, should not 
acquire a sweetish taste, &c. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 

Antidotes : Hepar sulph., Camph., Op., Chin., Elect., 
Asa fat., Aur., Rhus tox. 

a) Mercurius solubilis Hahnemanni griseus, Hydrar- 
gyrum oxydulatum nigrum ; Fr., Mercure soluble 
de Hahnemann ; Ger., Hahnemann's auflosliches 
Quecksilber ; Eng., Black oxide of mercury. 

This mercurial preparation is neither an oxide nor a 
protoxide of mercury, but an ammoniaco-mercurial 
subproto nitrate, which, as it does not keep well, and 
is very liable to pass to the maximum of oxidation, 
should be prepared in a very small quantity at a 
time. Hahnemann himself has long since abandoned 
this preparation, preferring to it, in all cases, that of 
metallic mercury, which we have mentioned above. 
Nevertheless, as there are many homoeopathic phy- 
sicians who imagine that metallic mercury is not 
so efficacious as the uncertain preparation, black 
oxide of mercury, we will point out the method re- 
commended by Hahnemann to obtain it. 



THARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 281 

Having purified the mercury, as described above, 
it is dissolved, cold, in common nitric acid, which re- 
quires many days ; the salt which results is dried on 
blotting-paper, and triturated in a glass mortar for 
half an hour, adding { of its weight of the best alco- 
hol. The alcohol which has been converted into 
ether is thrown aside, and the trituration of the 
mercurial is continued with fresh alcohol, for half an 
hour each time, until this fluid no longer has the smell 
of ether. That being done, the alcohol is decanted, 
and the salt dried on blotting-paper, which is renew- 
ed from time to time. Afterwards it is triturated for 
a quarter of an hour, in a glass mortar, with twice 
its weight of distilled water ; the clear fluid is de- 
canted, the salt is again washed by a second tritura- 
tion with a fresh quantity of water, the clear fluid is 
united to the preceding, and thus we have the 
aqueous solution of all that ihe saline mass contained 
of mercurial nitrate really saturated. The residuum 
is composed of other mercurial salts, of chloride and 
sulphate. Finally, this aqueous solution precipitates, 
by caustic ammonia, the so-called black oxide of mer- 
cury, (blackish-gray oxidule of mercury}) the three 
first attenuations of which are made by trituration. 

Gruner prepares this substance as follows: 

Treat 3 parts of pure mercury with 4 parts of pure 
concentrated nitric acid of a specific gravity of 1,28, 
which should be first diluted with 6 parts of water, 
exposing the mixture to a gradually increased heat, 
until 2 parts of the mercury are dissolved (which can 
be ascertained by pouring off the liquid, and weigh- 
ing the undissolved mercury) ; the hot solution is 
diluted with 12 parts of distilled water, and, while 
warm, is filtered into a vessel containing 4 times the 
quantity of cold, distilled water ; the two liquids are 
carefully mixed, after which a mixture of 1| parts of 
caustic ammonia of 0,95 specific gravity and 8 parts 
of distilled water is to be added by pouring the mix- 



282 HOMCEOPATHIC 

ture into the vessel in a thin, uninterrupted stream, 
during which time the mercurial solution should be 
stirred all the time, in order to effect the mixing up 
of the two liquids so much more completely. Allow 
the black precipitate to settle, pour off the super- 
natant liquid as speedily as possible, mix the preci- 
pitate with distilled water, filter and wash it. Then 
drain it between several layers of blotting-paper, 
and press it between them by means of heavy stones, 
after which the powder is to be exposed in the open 
air, guarding it, however, against the light, and com- 
pletely excluding all artificial warmth. By this me- 
thod we obtain a velvet-black, delicate, insipid pow- 
der, thoroughly homogeneous as regards its compo- 
sition, not exhibiting any globules of metallic mer- 
cury, and completely volatilizing when exposed to 
the action of heat. It should be kept in well-closed, 
black vials, as well as the triturations. 

We may observe that the mercury which is con- 
tained in the liquid that was poured off the first pre- 
cipitate, may be precipitated by the addition of caus- 
tic ammonia as long as the precipitated mercury 
continues to exhibit a tile-gray colour; it is dried 
and set aside until we gradually have collected 
enough of it to reduce the mercury. 

Antidotes : Aur., Bell, Chin., Hep. s., Iod., Acid 
nitr., Sep., Sulph., &c. 

b) Mercurius dulcis, Hydrargyrum muriaticum mile, 
Murias s. Proto-chloretum mercurii, Calomelas ; 
Fr., Mercure doux, Mercure muriate, ou Proto- 
chlorure de mercure, Calomel ; Ger., Versusstes 
Quecksilber, Calomel ; Eng., Mild chloride of mer- 
cury, Sub-muriate of mercury, Calomel. 

This salt occurs native in the Palatinate and in 
Spain, under the name of horn quicksilver. It is 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 283 

obtained artificially by various methods, which, how- 
ever, do not all furnish uniform preparations. 

For homoeopathic use, the following process has 
been proposed. Moisten 4 parts of corrosive sublimate 
with a little alcohol, and after trituration in a glass ' 
mortar, add 3 parts of metallic mercury, and tritu- 
rate until the small globules of mercury disappear. 
Then dry the mixture at a gentle heat, sublime it, 
triturate the product, sublime it afresh, pulverize it, 
add alcoholized spirit of wine, and digest it until the 
corrosive sublimate is completely dissolved. This 
being done, separate the powder from the alcohol, 
and dry it. Pure calomel is of a dazzling white, un- 
alterable in the air, volatile in the fire, and almost 
tasteless.. 

The three first attenuations should be made by tri- 
turation. 

According to Gruner, this preparation is most ad" 
vantageously obtained by dissolving the nitrate of 
mercury in 16 parts of water, and acting upon it with 
a solution of 9 parts of water and 1 part of common 
salt as long as a precipitate continues to form ; this 
should be at once and perfectly washed with pure 
cold water, and dried at a moderate temperature. 
Two parts of the dissolved mercury require about 
one part of common salt to be precipitated. 

The calomel, as well as the triturations, should be 
guarded from the light. 

c) Merccjrius corrosivus, Mercurius sublimatus, Deuto- 
chloretum hydrargyri, Hydrargyrum corrosivum ; 
Fr., Sublime corrosif, Deuto-chlorure de mercure; 
Ger., JElzsublimat, Quecksilberchlorid ; Eng., Cor- 
rosive sublimate, Corrosive chloride of mercury. 

The most simple mode of obtaining this salt, con- 
sists in distilling together to dryness, in a glass re- 
tort, 3 parts of pure metallic mercury, and 5 parts of 



284 HOMOEOPATHIC 

concentrated sulphuric acid ; the saline mass which 
results, is triturated with equal parts of common salt, 
the whole being afterwards sublimed in a sand-bath. 
This salt may also be obtained by a very simple me- 
thod, in the wet way, by dissolving red precipitate 
in hydrochloric acid, and evaporating the solution 
either to dryness, or for crystallization. Corrosive 
sublimate is prepared in the large way in laborato- 
ries ; those of Holland furnish it in boxes of the size 
of subliming vessels ; that of England is in masses 
of the form of loaves weighing from 12 to 16 pounds 
each. When obtained by the wet way, this salt ap- 
pears in elongated prismatic acicular crystals, of a 
beautiful white, and of great purity; obtained by the 
dry way, it is in loaf-like masses, of a dead-white in 
the centre, transparent at the circumference, convex, 
and polished on the upper side, bristling with crys- 
tals on the lower, of a disagreeable metallic taste, 
dissolving in 16 parts of cold, and in 3 parts of boiling 
water, in 2| parts of cold, and \\ of boiling alcohol, 
or in 3 parts of ether. Many organic substances, 
such as oil, fat, sugar, concentrated alcohol, starch, 
&c, transform it into chloride of mercury, when 
placed in contact with it ; on this account it appears 
to be improper to treat this salt by triturations with 
sugar of milk ; the first attenuation, on the contrary, 
is made with water, the second with aqueous alco- 
hol, and it is only with the third that we begin to use 
common alcohol. 

According to Gruner, we may dissolve it in distil- 
led water in the proportion of 1 to 19, designating 
this preparation as ~o 5 the next preparation should 
be made with dilute alcohol in the proportion of 2 to 
8 (numbering this preparation 2), and all subsequent 
attenuations should be prepared with strong alcohol. 

If the corrosive sublimate should contain calomel, 
this remains behind in the solution, and, by the ad- 
dition of lime-water, assumes a black colour. 



PHARMACOPCEfA AND POSOLOGY. 285 



d) Mercukius pr^cipitatus ruber, Hydrargyrum oxy- 
datum rubrum ; Fr., Precipite rouge, Oxyde rouge 
de mercure ; Ger., Rather Prcecipitat ; Eng., Red 
oxide of mercury, Red precipitate. 

Dissolve 2 parts of mercury in 3 parts of nitric acid, 
at first exposing the mixture to a gentle heat, which 
is to be gradually increased ; evaporate the solution 
to dryness, triturate the residuum with pure mercury 
till the globules disappear, moistening the powder 
from time to time with pure water ; dry the mass, 
heat it to redness in an open vessel, until no more 
red vapours form ; after which, reduce the residuum, 
when cold, to powder by trituration. Red precipitate 
thus obtained forms a fine powder of a beautiful 
clear red ; it is inodorous, but has a disagreeable, 
acrid and styptic taste. The action of light renders 
it darker, and decomposes it ; it is scarcely soluble 
in water and alcohol. 

The first three attenuations must be made by tri- 
turation. 

Gruner prepares it as follows : The red oxide of 
the shops, the purity of which should first be tested 
by the complete volatilization of the mercury in a 
hot iron spoon, is, in a glass or porcelain mortar, re- 
duced to the finest kind of a powder, by adding an 
adequate quantity of water. After this, a quantity of 
distilled water is added, and the whole is boiled for 
a time in a suitable vessel, stirring the solution all 
the while. After the solution has stood a little, the 
water is poured off, and the orange T coloured powder 
is repeatedly washed until the water which is used 
for that purpose, ceases to react acid. We then col- 
lect it in a filter, dry it in the dark, and keep it in 
vessels in which it, as well as the triturations, is to be 
carefully guarded from the light. 



286 HOMCEOPATHIC 



e) Mercurius acetatus, Acetas mercurii, Hydrargy- 
rum ocetatum ; Fr., Mercure acetate, Acetate de 
mercure ; Ger., Essigsaures Quecksilber ; Eng., 
Acetate of mercury. 

Acetic acid does not act strongly on metallic mer- 
cury, but it readily combines with the oxides of that 
substance. Acetate of mercury is obtained by the 
solution of deutoxide of mercury in acetic acid, or by 
the solution of a mixture of acetate of potassa with 
nitrate of mercury. For this purpose, introduce into 
a glass retort deutoxide of mercury, or sub-carbonate 
of mercury ; pour upon it 8 parts of distilled water, 
place the mixture in a sand-bath, and when it com- 
mences boiling, add acetic acid until the mercurial 
oxide is dissolved. That being effected, filter the fluid 
as quickly as possible, set it aside, and let it crys- 
tallize. This salt, when pure, forms white crystals, 
greasy to the touch, lamellar, and brilliant ; it is fix- 
ed, becomes black by the combined action of light 
and humidity, is difficultly soluble in water, and com- 
pletely insoluble in alcohol. 

The three first attenuations should be made by tri- 
turation. But in general, metallic mercury is pre- 
ferred, and the acetate of mercury is not more used 
than the other acetates. 

f) Mercurius pr^ecipitatus albus, Hydrargyrum ammo- 
niato-muriaticum ; Fr., Precipite blanc, (des an- 
ciens,) Oxy-chlorure ammoniacal de mercure ; Ger., 
Weisser Prcecipitat ; Eng., Ammoniated mercury, 
White precipitate. 

Dissolve together in one pound of hot distilled water, 
one ounce of corrosive sublimate, and the same quan- 
tity of purified sal ammoniac ; when the solution is 
cooled and filtered, add an aqueous solution of sub- 
carbonate of soda, until a white precipitate is form- 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 287 

ed, which is to be filtered and washed on the filter 
with cold water, until the water passes from the filter 
perfectly pure and tasteless ; the product is then to 
be dried by exposing it to a current of air. The same 
salt may be obtained by a much more simple me- 
thod, which consists in dissolving corrosive sublimate 
in 20 parts of cold distilled water, and adding, little 
by little, with constant stirring, liquid ammonia, until 
a white pulverized precipitate no longer forms. 
White precipitate is a powder of a dead-white, of a 
disagreeable acrid and metallic taste, insoluble in 
alcohol, and very sparingly soluble in water, by which 
it is decomposed, if it remains long in contact with it. 
The first three attenuations should be made by tri- 
turation* 

g) Cinnabaris, Sulfuretum hydrargyri rubrum, Mer- 
curius sulfuratus ruber; Fr., Cinnabre, Sulfure 
rouge de mercure, Mercure sulfure rouge, Vermil- 
ion ; Ger., Zinnober, Schwefel-Quecksilber ; Eng., 
Cinnabar, Red sulphuret of mercury, Bi-sulphuret 
of mercury. 

This mercurial substance is found native in abun- 
dance, particularly in Spain, in Illyria, in Friuli, in 
Peru, often in amorphous masses, combined with ar- 
senic, but frequently, also, crystallized. It is obtained 
artificially by submitting to sublimation 6 parts of 
pure mercury with one part of refined* sulphur. The 
purest native cinnabar comes from China ; that of 
Hungary, also, is very pure. 

Artificial cinnabar, which alone is used in homoeo- 
pathy, is in voluminous masses, of an aciculated ap- 
pearance, of a violet-gray, but when reduced to pow- 
der, of a lively and pure red, without mixture of yel- 
low ; it has neither taste nor smell, and is insoluble 
in water and alcohol. The cinnabar of commerce is 
frequently adulterated with minium, (rouge d'Angle- 
terre,) or other usually fixed substances ; but these 



288 HOMOEOPATHIC 

adulterations are seldom found, except in pulverized 
cinnabar, whilst that which is in masses is almost al- 
ways pure. It is, however, better to prepare it for 
ourselves. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 

Antidotes : Sulph., Chin., Op., Nitr. ac. 

h) Mercurius bijodatus ; Eng., Iodide, Biniodide of 
mercury. 

This mercurial compound is obtained by precipi- 
tating 8 parts of the chloride of mercury with 10 
parts of the iodide of potash. Each of these two so- 
lutions should be considerably diluted, and an excess 
of the iodide of potash should be avoided, because, 
otherwise, part of the precipitate would be dis- 
solved again by the iodide. The fiery scarlet-red 
precipitate is to be carefully washed, and dried at a 
moderate temperature ; it is insoluble in water, rea- 
dily fusible, volatile, soluble in alcohol. 

We prepare triturations. 

i) Mercurius nitrosus, Nitras hydrargyrosus ; Eng., 
Nitrate of mercury. 

To 20 parts of pure mercury add, in a very flat 
porcelain cup, a mixture of 9 parts of concentrated 
nitric acid of 1,2 specific gravity, and 27 parts of 
distilled water ; cover it lightly, and let it stand in a 
dark and cool place until the white, octahedral crys- 
tals of the desired salt cease. From time to time they 
are taken off the mercury upon whose surface they 
are floating, after which we wash them speedily with 
a little alcohol, and then dry them between layers of 
blotting-paper ; this done, they are kept in a well- 
corked glass-bottle. They are air-proof, and com- 
pletely soluble in slightly acidulated water. The best 
way to administer it. is in the form of an aqueous 



PHAKMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 289 

solution, which* is to be prepared, in the usual propor- 
tions, with water that had been slightly acidulated 
with a few drops of nitric acid. The solution should 
be kept in dark vials. 



2. Ignoble metals 

which are easily oxydized in the open air at any temperature, and 
cannot be restored icithout intermediate agents. 

A) Metals which, by oxydation, are not changed to 
Acids : 

a) Metals which are only fusible by being con- 
stantly kept at a white heat. 

Manganum metallicum, Manganesium ; Fr., Man- 
ganese ; Ger., Mangan, Braunstein-Metall ; Eng., 
Manganese, Metallic manganese. 

This metal is found in nature in the state of oxide, 
or combined with sulphur, as a colouring matter in 
many fossils, or a component part of mineral waters. 
The pure metal is of a silver-gray, without taste or 
smell ; having a slight metallic lustre, the fracture 
granular, easily filed and reduced to powder. 

The three first attenuations of this metal reduced 
to powder should be prepared by trituration. 

a) Manganum aceticum, Acetas mangani; Fr., Man- 
ganese acetate, Acetate de manganese ; Ger., 
Essigsaurer Braunstein ; Eng., Acetate of manga- 
nese. 

When this preparation was still used in homoeo- 
pathy, it was obtained by boiling the carbonate of 
manganese with distilled vinegar until the acid was 
completely saturated, and evaporating the solution to 
a syrupy consistence. The attenuations were all made 
with alcohol. 

13 



290 nOMCEOFATHIO 



b) Manganum carbonicum, Manganesium,Carbonas (sub) 
mangani ; Fi\, Manganese carbonate, Sous-carbo- 
nate de manganese ; Ger., Braunstein ; Eng., Car- 
bonate of manganese. 

Hahnemann mentions the acetate of manganese, 
but homoeopathic physicians generally prefer the 
carbonate, the effects of which are the same as those 
of the acetate, but which possesses the advantage 
over the latter, that it can be treated by trituration, 
and thus furnishes preparations less susceptible of 
alteration. 

To obtain the carbonate, triturate well together 
equal parts in weight of black oxide of manganese 
and of crystallized sulphate of iron, to which add a 
little syrup of sugar in order to make the whole into 
a paste, of which form balls of the size of a hen's 
egg ; these must be heated among burning coals, 
and kept for some minutes at a white heat. The so- 
lution of this mass in distilled or rain-water, contains 
sulphate of manganese, while the residuum consists 
of oxide of manganese in excess, mixed with oxide of 
iron. Introduce into the fluid carbonate of soda, 
which throws down a white powder ; this is to be 
repeatedly washed and then dried. This powder is 
carbonate of manganese ; the three first attenuations 
are to be made by trituration. 

These various operations should be carried on as 
rapidly as possible, nor should the vials be any lar- 
ger than the quantity of the fluids which are to be 
mixed, requires, on account of the great affinity of 
manganum for oxygen, which renders it necessary 
that the action of the air should be excluded as much 
as possible. The powder should first be drained be- 
tween several layers of blotting-paper, and the drying 
should be completed in a warm mortar. 



PIIARMACortEIA AND POSOLOGY. 291 



The Acetate of Manganese 

Is prepared by dissolving, at a warm temperature, 
recently made carbonate of manganese in concentra- 
ted vinegar, until the solution is completely satura- 
ted ; the solution is then filtered, and the crystals 
slowly formed by evaporation. They are colourless 
rhomboidal prisms, at most of a shining pale-red, 
air-proof, and readily soluble in water. 

We prepare a watery solution in the proportion 
of 1 to 10. 

Antidotes : Coff., Ipec. 



b) Metals which are readily fusible at a white 
heat : 

8. Ferrum, Ferrum metallicum ; Fr., Fer, Fer metal- 
lique ; Ger., Eisen, metallisches Eisen ; Eng., Iron, 
Metallic iron. 

This metal is found in the three kingdoms of na- 
ture, but it rarely occurs native, and, perhaps, only 
in aerolites, in a mountain in Missouri, in another in 
the department of Isere, in France, in the mines of 
Saxony, in Brazil, in Senegal, and in the island of 
Bourbon. Metallic iron is solid at the ordinary tem- 
perature, of considerable hardness, large-granular, 
somewhat lamellated, acquiring a sensible odour by 
friction, of a bluish-gray, very difficultly fusible, the 
most tenacious of metals, very ductile, but more suc- 
ceptible of being drawn into wire than of being roll- 
ed. The iron of commerce is occasionally mixed 
with cast iron, which is discovered by the black spots 
which are formed in treating it with hydrochloric 
acid, or with sulphuric acid diluted with 3 times its 
volume of water. Iron, also, frequently contains cop- 
per, which is detected by treating it with sulphuric 
acid and caustic ammonia. For this purpose, dis- 



29*2 HOMOEOPATHIC 

solve iron in dilute sulphuric acid, as mentioned 
above ; add caustic ammonia in excess, and filter 
the solution until it appears perfectly limpid, and 
does not alter by exposure to the air. If it exhibits 
a strongly bluish tint, and if, when mixed with pure 
sulphuric acid, it gives a precipitate of copper upon 
immersing in it a piece of polished iron, we are 
certain of what it contains. But if, on the contrary, 
after evaporating the ammoniacal solution to about 
T V, no trace of a precipitate can be discovered by 
the same process, the iron may be considered as 
perfectly free from copper. 

To prepare iron for homoeopathic use, it is pulver- 
ized by means of a good file, which gives iron-filings, 
a powder which every homoeopathic physician should 
prepare for himself, since the iron-filings of commerce 
are seldom free from other metals. 

The three first attenuations of this powder are made 
by trituration. 

Before triturating the iron, both mortar and pestle, 
and even the sugar of milk, should be slightly warmed, 
in order to remove all dampness. The work should 
be continued without any interruption whatsoever, 
for this reason, that the oxygen of the air is constantly 
busy in oxydizing the iron. 

Antidotes : Chin., Hep., Ipec, Puis., Veratr., Arsen. 

a) Ferrum chloratum s. muriaticum, Murias s. hydro- 
chloras ferri ; Fr., Muriate ou hydrochlorate de 
fer; Ger. , Sahsaures Eiscn ; Eng., Muriate or hy- 
drochlorate of iron. 

This salt is obtained by the combination of pure 
iron-filings with hydrochloric acid ; the solution is fil- 
tered and evaporated to crystallization. The salt 
thus obtained is of a beautiful greenish-blue, less 
green than the sulphate of iron, of a well marked 



PHARxMACOPGEIA AND POSOLOGY. 293 

styptic taste, and easily soluble in water and in alco- 
hol. 

The three first attenuations are made by trituration. 

To prepare this substance, Gruner uses the hydra- 
ted oxide of iron, the preparation of which will be 
found mentioned under the head of "Ferrum aceti- 
cum ;" this hydrate is dissolved in pure muriatic acid, 
the liquid is filtered, and a tincture formed in the 
same manner as is indicated for Ferrum aceticum. 
It has a saturated dark yellow-brown colour, and 
should be well guarded from the light. 

According to Gruner, the triturations are inadmis- 
sible ; it should be administered in the same manner 
as is mentioned for the acetate of iron. 

b) Ferrum aceticum, Acetas ferri ; Fr., Fer acetate^ 
Acetate de fer ; Ger., Essigsaures Eisen ; Eng., 
Acetate of iron. 

We may say of this as of all the acetates, it is no 
longer in use. When this preparation was in use, it 
was obtained by heating iron wire to a white heat, 
quenching it in acetic acid, evaporating the solution, 
and drying the residuum. 

The attenuations, as far as the third, were made 
with sugar of milk ; but all homoeopaths now prefer 
metallic iron. Those, however, who wish to use the 
acetate of iron, may prepare it in the following man- 
ner : Dissolve one part of the sulphate of iron in 8 
times its quantity of distilled water, heat the mixture 
until it boils, and keep adding small quantities of 
concentrated nitric acid as long as effervescence takes 
place. Let the liquid cool, and then add liquid caus- 
tic ammonia, wash the precipitate carefully, and col- 
lect it on a filter. 

Of this fresh hydrated oxide of iron introduce little 
by little into concentrated vinegar, as much as will 
dissolve at a moderate temperature. This solution 
of the acetate of iron should always be reduced to 



294 HOMOEOPATHIC 

the specific gravity of 1,05, and we should prepare 
of it either 

a) The tincture, by mixing one part of the solution 
with one part and a half of strong alcohol ; or 

b) We should dry it in a vapour-bath, and keep the 
powder in well-corked vials for trituration. 

It should be remarked, that the salts of iron, and, 
of course, the acetate, are easily decomposed. Hence 
the evaporation to dryness should be conducted with 
great care, and the attenuations of the tincture should 
not be prepared beforehand ; whenever the tincture is 
to be used, give it in drop-doses, dissolving every drop 
fresh in water. 

c) Ferrum oxydatum hydratum, Hydras oxijdi fcrri, 
Carbonas (sub) ferri, Rubigo ; Fi\, Oxyde de fer, 
Oxyde de fer hydrate ou carbonate, Sous carbo- 
nate ou hydrate de fer ; Rouille ; Ger., Eisen-Oxyd- 
Hydrat, hohlensaures Eisen, Rost ; Eng., Carbonate 
of iron, Rust of iron. 

The most simple method of obtaining this salt, is 
to dissolve in hot water sulphate of iron, filter the 
solution, and add an aqueous solution of sub-carbo- 
nate of soda as long as any precipitate forms ; this is 
to be separated by means of a filter, after which it 
is to be dried and kept in a well-corked bottle. This 
salt forms a fine powder, brownish-red, inodorous, 
and not attracted by the magnet. 

According to Gruncr, both the sulphate of iron and 
the sub-carbonate of soda should be dissolved in 20 
times their volume of boiled water which had been 
allowed to cool before using it. The precipitate 
should be washed with the same kind of water, and 
after having been drained and pressed between lay- 
ers of blotting-paper, the powder should be tied up 
in a well-cleaned pig's bladder, and dried at a tem- 
perature of 15 to 20° R. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 295 

The powder has a brownish-green or gray colour, 
and should be prepared fresh every year. 

The triturations should be prepared with very dry 
sugar of milk, and in a dry room. 

d) Ferrum magxeticum, Ferrum oxydulatum magne- 
ticum, Lapis magneticus ; Fr., Fer magnetique, 
Deutoxide de fer, Pierre d'aimant ; Ger., Magnet- 
stein, Magnctisches Eisenerz ; Eng., Magnetic oxide 
of iron, Loadstone. 

This is a natural combination of protoxide and per- 
oxide of iron. The loadstone of a black colour is 
preferred to the brown or reddish. We pulverize it, 
and prepare the three first attenuations by trituration. 

9. Cuprum, Cuprum metallicum ; Fr., Cuivre, Cuivre 
metallique ; Ger., Kupfer, Metallisches Kupfer ; Eng., 
Copper, Metallic copper. 

Copper is found in nature in great abundance ; 
sometimes native in different forms, sometimes as 
an oxide combined with other substances. We 
have native-pyritous, pyritous-hepatic, gray copper, 
sulphuret, red oxydule, arseniferous oxydule, muriate, 
blue carbonate, green carbonate, arseniate, &c It 
is found native chiefly in North America, and in 
Siberia. There are also copper mines in Swe- 
den, Norway, Silesia, Bavaria, France, England, 
Hungary, &c. It is said also to be found in many 
plants, such as, Helen., Dulcam., and in the ashes of 
Quinquina, of Coffea, &c. It is said to be found in 
the greatest purity in the island of Cyprus, whence 
its name of x«wf ««, copper. Metallic copper is com- 
monly obtained from its sulphuret by successive 
roastings and the use of charcoal ; the product is 
known in commerce by the name of rosettes. Pure 
copper is in a solid metal, of an orange-red, very bril- 
liant, harder than gold and silver, more sonorous 
than all other metals, the most ductile of all, after 



296 HOMOEOPATHIC 

platina and silver, very malleable, acquiring a very 
peculiar and disagreable smell by being rubbed. The 
best is that which comes from Japan, in the shape of 
small ingots. To render copper available for homoeo- 
pathic use, we take one of these ingots, and melt 
parts of it with 2 of solid nitre, a process by which 
the metals which might be combined with the copper 
remain in the scoriae ; we dissolve the copper thus ob- 
tained in an acid, and then plunge an iron or zinc rod 
into the solution ; the copper will soon adhere to the 
rod in the form of a powder. 

Another method of obtaining pure copper in powder, 
consists in dissolving 3 parts of perfectly pure sul- 
phate of copper in 8 parts of boiling water, to which 
8 parts of honey are added, stirring the whole to- 
gether, and causing it to boil for half an hour ; it is 
then to be removed from the fire, and a large quan- 
tity of cold water added to it, the fluid is to be de- 
canted, the copper reduced to powder is to be placed 
on a filter, washed, and dried by exposure to a mo- 
derate heat. Of the powder obtained by one or other 
of these methods, take one grain, and triturate it with 
100 parts of sugar of milk ; the process which con- 
sists in grinding copper under water, dn a grindstone, 
in order to obtain the powder, is less likely to give 
pure preparations. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 

Gruner remarks, that the little rods of zinc which 
are used for the precipitation of the copper, can easily 
be prepared by casting pure zinc in a mould as is 
used for the preparation of lapis infemalis. While 
the decomposition of the zinc is going on, the solution 
requires to be stirred all the time, by means of a wooden 
or porcelain spatula, in order to cause the black brown 
pellicles or scales of copper to fall to the bottom 
of the vessel ; by this means we obtain nothing but fine 
scales of copper, whereas, without this precaution, 
the copper would be deposited in thick laminae which 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 297 

it would be difficult to triturate. After the precipi- 
tate has been carefully washed with distilled water, 
it should then be well shaken, in a well-closed bottle, 
with a proportionate quantity of recently prepared 
sulphurous acid, for about 5 or 10 minutes ; this will 
impart to the precipitate the true red-brown copper 
colour. The sulphurous acid has to be removed by 
repeated careful washing, and after the precipitate 
had been collected on a filter, and drained, and 
pressed between layers of blotting-paper, it should be 
finally dried by rubbing it in a well-warmed porce- 
lain mortar. 

Antidotes : Cocc, Nux v., Ipec, Hep. s., Bell., China, 
Merc. 

a) Cuprum carbonicum, Carbonas (sub) cupri ; Fr., 
Cuivre carbonate, Sous-carbonate de cuivre ; Ger., 
Kohlensaures Kupfer ; Eng., Carbonate of copper. 

This salt exists in nature in the form of blue 
carbonate, malachite, and anhydrous carbonate. It 
is obtained artificially by precipitating a solution of 
copper diluted with water, by sub-carbonate of po- 
tassa, and washing the precipitate with cold water. 
This salt is of a magnificent blue, frequently crys- 
tallized, but often, also, in earthy masses of a sky- 
blue, easily pulverized. 

The three first attenuations should be made by 
trituration. 

b) Cuprum sulfuricum, Sulfas cupri, Vilriolum cupri 
s. cosrulcum ; Fr., Cuivre sulfate, Sulfate de cuivre, 
Vitriol bleu ou de cuivre ; Ger., Schwefelsaures 
Kupfer, Kupfer vitriol ; Eng., Sulphate of copper, 
Blue vitriol. 

This salt is found in nature, in the galleries of 
copper mines, or in solution in the waters flowing 
from mines containing it, whence it is extracted by 
13* 



298 HOMCEOFATH1C 

evaporation. To procure it suitable for medical 
purposes, heat copper with concentrated sulphuric 
acid, dissolve the product in water, and let it crystal- 
lize. This salt is in large crystals of a beautiful 
blue colour, of a metallic smell, disagreeable, styptic. 
When heated, it loses its water of crystallization, and 
becomes a white powder, which is anhydrous sul- 
phate of copper. The blue vitriol of commerce is 
almost always rendered impure by iron or zinc, on 
which account the homoeopathic physician should 
prepare it himself. 

The sulphate of copper of the shops generally con- 
tains zinc and iron. It is freed from these substances 
by dissolving the sulphate in 5 times its quantity of 
water, and inserting into the solution, for several 
weeks, a stripe of polished copper, the iron gradually 
falls down as a yellow oxide, the solution is filtered, 
and the filtered liquid allowed to crystallize. Only 
the first crystals which form should be used, since 
the sulphate of zinc which remained behind in the 
solution, would like crystallize, if we were to wait 
too long. The crystals of the sulphate of copper 
must be carefully guarded from the access of air. 

The three first attenuations should be made by tri- 
turation. 

c) Cuprum aceticum, Acetas cupri, JErugo, Viride 
ceris ; Fr., Cuivre acetate, Acetate de cuivre, Ver- 
det, Vert-de-gris ; Ger., Essigsaures Kupfer, Grim- 
span ; Eng., Acetate of copper, Verdigris. 

This preparation is no longer used in homoeopathy, 
since all are satisfied that metallic copper is supe- 
rior to it. To obtain acetate of copper, dissolve ver- 
digris in pure acetic acid until the solution is com- 
pletely saturated, then evaporate the acid slowly and 
dry the crystals on blotting-paper. 

The first attenuation is made with distilled water, 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 299 

the second with aqueous alcohol, and the remainder 
with strong alcohol. 

d) Cuprum arsenicosum ; Eng., Arsenious oxide of 
copper, Scheele's green. 

Boil 3 parts of pulverized white arsenic with 8 
parts of caustic potash in 16 parts of water, until the 
arsenic is deposited in the shape of a powder. Pour 
this liquid into a hot solution of 8 parts of the sul- 
phate of copper, and 48 parts of water, stirring the 
mixture all the time ; wash the precipitate well, and 
dry it at a moderate temperature. It is of a pale- 
green colour. 

We prepare triturations. 

c) Metals which are readily fusible and not 
volatile. 

10. Stannum ; Fr., Etain; Ger., Zinn ; Eng., Tin. 

This metal, known from the remotest antiquity, is 
rarely found native, but frequently in the state of 
an oxide, particularly in the East Indies and England. 
The purest tin is that which comes from the East In- 
dies ; next to it, the English is the best ; but it con- 
tains a small portion of arsenic, which renders it hard. 
The tin of commerce is almost always impure ; in 
general, it contains copper, lead, bismuth, and even 
arsenic ; adulterations which are detected by the dull 
white of this tin when melted, whereas pure tin 
has the appearance of amalgam. The presence of 
copper is made known by liquid ammonia ; that of 
bismuth by distilled water, with which the solution of 
tin in nitric acid should be mixed ; that of lead by a so- 
lution of sulphate of soda, which should be added to 
the preceding solution, and by the white precipitate 
which takes place. The presence of zinc is known by 
means of a solution of carbonate of potassa, whioh is to 



300 HOMCEOPATHIC 

be added to the solution of tin in nitric acid, when 
freed from the copper and lead : this will give a white 
precipitate, which, after being dried, will show a yel- 
low colour upon being heated. The presence of ar- 
senic is shown by the yellow precipitate, produced 
by hydro-sulphuric acid. To free tin from the arse- 
nic it may contain, tin in leaves reduced to fine 
powder is to be deflagrated with nitre, the product is 
to be washed and heated to redness on burning 
coals. Metallic tin thus purified is placed, in order 
to pulverize it, in a hot mortar, and triturated with 
very dry and fine common salt; it is then dissolved in 
distilled water, which leaves the tin in powder as 
a residuum. This powder is used to make the atte- 
nuations, if pure tin in thin leaves cannot be procured. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 

The best stannum comes from the mines of Saxony 
and England. In order to test its purity, we melt it 
at as low a temperature as possible, and then pour 
it upon a stone-tablet or into some other suitable 
mould. If perfectly pure, it will exhibit an entirely 
smooth and shining surface, without showing the 
least symptoms of crystallization. 

To prepare stannum for medicinal purposes, we 
first melt it and pour it into some deep vessel with 
pure water ; we thus obtain thin folioles which can 
easily be dissolved. 

We weigh a certain quantity of these folioles, and, in 
some suitable vessel, pour concentrated, pure muriatic 
acid on them, and dissolve them by applying moderate 
heat. We may employ for this purpose a polished cop- 
per vessel, provided we take care that a little tin should 
remain undissolved. By continuing to add muriatic 
acid, we gradually effect the complete solution of the 
metal. Filter the solution, and then add 100 times 
as much water as we had originally dissolved of the 
metal. By introducing sticks of zinc, we effect the 
galvanic reduction of the metal, observing all the 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND rOSOLOGY. 301 

rules which the reader will find stated under Plum- 
bum. 

Antidote : Puis. 

11. Plumbum metallicum ; Fr., Plomb metallique ; 
Ger., Metallisches Blei ; Eng., Metallic lead. 

Lead rarely occurs native, but it is frequently found 
as a salt, particularly as a sulphuret, known under 
the name of galena, as a chloride, as a seleniuret, or 
as a carbonate. It is very common in France, Eng- 
land, Savoy, Spain, and many other countries. It is 
obtained by smelting galena with iron, but the lead 
of commerce is usually mixed with copper and iron. 

To procure pure lead, dissolve the lead of com- 
merce in nitric acid, dilute the solution properly with 
water, and plunge into it a rod of zinc, around which 
the lead soon begins to precipitate and crystallize in 
the form of a tree. Perfectly pure lead may also be 
obtained by heating to a red heat, in a clay crucible, 
nitrate of lead, until every trace of nitric acid dis- 
appears ; after which the oxide is reduced by means 
of charcoal ; or, heat acetate of lead in a glass retort, 
and shake it until all the lead is precipitated. Pure 
lead is a bluish-gray metal of little tenacity, soft, 
easily colouring paper, sufficiently ductile, but not 
suitable for making wire. It has a specific smell 
when rubbed, and a slight metallic taste. 

To make the attenuations, take the powder pro- 
duced by the first mentioned process ; the three first 
attenuations are made by trituration. 

To obtain pure lead in form of a powder, the gal- 
vanic process of reduction by means of rods of zinc 
is the most convenient. We dissolve a certain quan- 
tity of the crystals of the acetate of lead in 100 
times their quantity of distilled water, and lay into 
from 4 to 6 ounces of this solution, in a por- 
celain cup, a few polished rods of zinc as described 
in the article Cuprum. The decomposition takes 



302 HOMOEOPATHIC 

place immediately, and continues as long as the re- 
duction of the acetate of lead is not completed. If 
this process of reduction is to succeed entirely, the 
following rules should be observed: 1. The leaden 
crystals which cluster around the rods of zinc 
should be frequently detached, in order to prevent 
the formation of thick laminae which it would be 
difficult to pulverize; 2, the liquid which now con- 
tains acetate of zinc, should be poured off as soon as 
the reduction ceases, and a fresh solution of the ace- 
tate of lead should be added ; 3, as soon as the ope- 
ration is concluded, the precipitate which is a dark- 
gray, loose, porous mass, though still cohering in 
lumps, should be washed with hot, distilled water, 
avoiding every mechanical pressure lest the soft mass 
should be pressed into firm balls ; 4, as soon as the 
water which is used for washing, flows off quite clear, 
the precipitate should be collected in a filter, the 
liquid should be removed by gently pressing the pre- 
cipitate between the fingers, after which the metal 
is to be taken out of the filter, and pressed with the 
hand between several layers of blotting-paper until 
the metal ceases to adhere to the paper ; finally, we 
gently rub the metal in a warmed porcelain mortar, 
in order to effect its perfect desiccation. 

Antidotes : Alumin., Bell., Electr., Hyosc, Op., Plat., 
Strain. 

a) Plumbum aceticum, Acetas plwnbi, Saccharum sa- 
turni ; Fr.,Plomb acetate, Acetate de plomb, Sucre 
de saturne ; Ger., Essigsaures Blei, Blei-Zucker ; 
Eng., Acetate of lead, Sugar of lead. 

To obtain this preparation, to which indeed metal- 
lic lead is now preferred, take English acetate of lead, 
dissolve it in hot distilled water, set it in a warm 
place that it may crystallize, then evaporate the re- 
maining fluid one-half, and let it crystallize afresh. 
The crystals have a sourish-sweet smell, a styptic 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 303 

taste, they effloresce slightly in the air, and carbonic 
acid decomposes them. In the dry state, acetate of 
lead should possess the qualities mentioned, it should 
be perfectly white, and soluble in 1| parts of water 
and in alcohol. If mixed with nitrate of lead, it is 
less soluble, not so white, and detonates when placed 
on burning coals. It is frequently adulterated with 
acetate of lime. When not well kept, it is yellowish 
and less soluble. 

The three first attenuations should be made by tri- 
turation. 

b) Plumbum carbonicum, Magisterivm plumbi, Cerussa, 
Carbonas plumbicus ; Eng., Carbonate of lead. 

We obtain this substance by the decomposition of 
a diluted solution of the pure acetate of lead with the 
carbonate of soda. The loose, dazzling- white preci- 
pitate is carefully washed, collected in a filter, and 
dried at a moderate temperature. It is a heavy, 
though loose, very delicate and white powder, of 
which we prepare triturations. 

12. Antimonium metallicum, Stibium ; Fr., Antimoine, 
Antimoine metallique ; Ger., Spiessglanz ; Eng., 
Antimony, Regulus of antimony. 

This metal rarely occurs native, but frequently as an 
oxide, or sulphuretted oxide, and most generally as a 
sulphuret. It is obtained in the state of regulus by 
cast iron, which, by means of heat, combines with the 
sulphur, and leaves the antimony in a metallic state. 
It is principally in Hungary, Bohemia, Sweden, Eng- 
land, and Spain, that this metal is procured from the 
mines, and it is exported in cakes, the surface of 
which exhibits a species of crystallization frequently 
compared to the leaf of the fern. Antimony is a me- 
tal of a silvery- white, with a slight bluish tint, bril- 
liant, harder than tin and lead, crystallizable, fu- 



304 HOMOEOPATH IC 

sible, volatile, combustible, of a perceptible taste 
and smell, very brittle, and easily pulverized. 

The three first attenuations must be made by tri- 
turation. 



Antimonium crudum, Stibium sulfuratum nigrum, 
Sulfuretum antimonii ; Fr., Sulfure ou Proto-sulfure 
d'antimoine, Antimoine cru ; Ger., Schwefel-Spiess- 
glanz ; Eng., Crude antimony, Sulphuret of anti- 
mony. 

This mineral is very common in France ; it is found 
in compact masses, formed of needle-shaped crystals. 
It is of a dark bluish-gray colour, less brilliant than 
metallic antimony, but more fusible ; specific gravity 
4,133 to 4,516. It is easily pulverized, and gives, 
when pure, a reddish-brown powder, whilst that of 
commerce has a blackish colour. It is without taste 
or smell, is insoluble in water, and not volatile, but 
in a state of powder it oxidizes partially. Its pow- 
der is often adulterated with iron ; in this case, by 
heating and detonating it with 3 parts of nitre, a 
yellowish residue is obtained. It is also frequently 
mixed with galena, which is discovered by dissolving 
the powder in 8 parts of nitric and hydrochloric 
acid, and by treating the residue, well washed, with 
hydro-sulphuretted water ; if the mixture acquires a 
yellowish-red colour, the powder is pure ; if it be- 
comes black, it is mixed with galena. If crude anti- 
mony is mixed with oxide of manganese, we obtain, 
by heating it with nitre, a greenish mass, and there 
is no detonation ; finally, if adulterated with iron con- 
taining arsenic, the nitrate of silver will detect it. 

In all cases, to make sure of the purity of this me- 
tal, it ought not to be taken in the form of powder, 
but as it is found, in the crude state, and those pieces 
having the largest and most brilliant laminae should 
be selected. The pieces must be pulverized and 
ground with water on a hard stone, which, after se- 



PHARMACOrCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 305 

vera! repetitions, will give a blackish powder, per- 
fectly pure, without smell or taste, and insoluble 
either in water or alcohol. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 

Pure sulphuret of antimony may be prepared as 
follows: Mix 13 parts of pure, finely pulverized an- 
timony with 5 parts of washed flowers of sulphur, in- 
troduce the mixture, little by little, into a red-hot cru- 
cible, melt it, and, after adding half a part of dry 
kitchen salt, keep it in a melting condition for half an 
hour. Take the slowly cooling mass out of the cru- 
cible ; the part of the metal which has remained on 
the bottom of the crucible and has not yet been 
changed to a sulphuret, is to be separated from the 
rest by striking it with a hammer; the sulphuret is 
then to be pulverized, and afterwards, by means of 
water, it is to be reduced upon a hone to a perfectly 
homogeneous powder, from which we prepare the 
triturations. 

Antidotes : Hep, s., Merc. 

Tartarus emeticus s. srrBiATUs, Antimonium tar- 
taricum, Tartras potassii et antimonii ; Fr., Tartre 
emetique ou stibie, Tartrate antimonie de pctxsse, 
Tartrate de potassium et d'antimoine ; Ger., Spicss- 
glanz-Weinstein, Brech-Weinstein ; Eng., Tartrate 
of antimony and potnssa, Tartarized antimony, 
Emetic tartar. 

To obtain this salt, take equal parts of oxide of 
antimony, {Stibium oxydatum griseum,) and pure tar- 
tar, pulverized, digest them together for an hour in 
a porcelain vessel, with equal parts of distilled water, 
and when the mass reaches the boiling point, add 5 
times its weight of boiling distilled water, filter the 
solution while hot, and let it crystallize. The first 
crystallization being completed, decant the fluid, and 
crystallize afresh, and repeat the operation an- 



30C nOMCEOPATHIC 

til the crystals are entirely colourless ; then triturate 
all the crystals obtained, dissolve them in 15 times 
their weight of cold distilled water, filter ihe solu- 
tion, crystallize afresh, pulverize the crystals, and put 
the powder into a well-stopped bottle. 

Emetic tartar of commerce contains iron, copper, 
or sulphuret of antimony, so that for homoeopathic 
use it is necessary to prepare it ourselves. To make 
the attenuations, first make a thick paste by tritura- 
ting 100 grains of sugar of milk with 15 drops of dis- 
tilled water, add 10 grains of pure emetic tartar, and 
proceed as usual. The two succeeding attenuations 
are made by trituration, without, however, moisten- 
ing the sugar of milk. 

Antidotes : Puis., Ipec, Asa. 



Tartari acidum, Acidum tartari s. tartaricum ; Fr., Acide tar- 
trique ou tartarique ; Ger., Weinstein- Stiure ; Eng., Tartaric 
acid. 

Heretofore this acid has been found only in the vegetable king- 
dom ; combined with potassa, it occurs especially in the juice of 
the grape ; with other acids or in a free state, in the root of the 
dandelion, in the pine-apple, potato, acid cherries, tamarinds, and 
green mulberries. It is obtained artificially from tartar. To ef- 
fect this, take carefully purified sub-carbonate of lime, to which add 
water, and make it boil, then mix with it pure tartar, pulverized as 
long as the mass continues to effervesce ; this will require about 
100 parts of tartar to 23 of sub-carbonate of lime. By this ope- 
ration, the free tartaric acid drives off the carbonic acid, so that 
the products which are formed contain tartrate of lime, and a neu- 
tral salt, which is soluble tartrate of potassa. In order to obtain 
the tartaric acid, we begin by adding to this solution hydrochlorate 
of lime, and continue to do so as long as a precipitate of tartrate 
of lime forms. Lastly, we digest together the two precipitates 
with diluted sulphuric acid, by which process the tartaric acid 
separates and crystallizes, when evaporation takes place. This 
salt, when entirely pure, is in crystals, very acid and very soluble, 
white, transparent, inodorous, and perfectly dry. If it attracts 
moisture from the air, it shows that it contains malic, sulphuric, 
or nitric acids. The presence of sulphuric acid is detected by 
nitrate of barytes ; that of nitric acid by the peculiar smell when 
tartaric acid containing it is heated ; that of metallic salta, by 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 307 

hydro-sulphuric and gallic acids ; that of calcareous salts by the 
insolubility of these salts in alcohol. 

All the attenuations are made with alcohol. 



13. Bismuthum metallicum, Marcasita ; Fr., Bismuth 
metallique ; Ger., Wismutk-Metall ; Eng., Metallic 
bismuth. 

This metal occurs in nature in different states, 
either native or as an oxide, or combined with sul- 
phur ; it is found in Bohemia, Saxony, France, in 
Normandy, &c. It is obtained in the large way from 
its ores, by means of heat ; but the metal thus pro- 
cured usually contains arsenic, iron, &c. To sepa- 
rate it from these, dissolve it in nitric acid, and pre- 
cipitate it by means of water. Then dry the precipi- 
tate, add black flux, and reduce it in a crucible at a 
low heat. The metal is found at the bottom of the 
crucible, and may easily be freed from the saline 
mass which covers it. It is a yellowish-white la- 
mellar brittle metal, but little affected in the air, very 
fusible, burning with a bluish flame, and easily pul- 
verized. 

The three first attenuations are to be prepared by 
trituration. 

Bismuthum, Bismuthum nitricum precipilatum, Bis- 
muthi magislerium ; Fr., Bismuth, Magistere de 
bismuth, Sous-nitrate de bismuth, Blanc de fard, 
Blanc d'Espagne ; Ger., Wismuth, Salpetersaures 
Wismuth; Eng., Sub-nitrate of bismuth. White oxyde 
of bismuth, Magistery of bismuth, Pearl White. 

To obtain this salt, dissolve metallic bismuth in a 
sufficient quantity of nitric acid, pour the solution, 
drop by drop, into from 50 to 100 times its volume 
of pure water, taking care to stir it well, and at the 
end of 2 hours decant carefully the liquid ; add to 
this last a quantity of water equal to the preceding, 



308 HOMOEOPATHIC 

but containing some drops of sub-carbonate of po- 
tassa, and stir it up well with the salt. That which 
finally subsides is, after some hours, separated from 
the supernatant fluid, and thoroughly dried on blot- 
ting-paper. The small quantity of sub-carbonate of 
potassa added to the solution the second time, is in- 
tended to free it from any portions of arsenic or anti- 
mony it might contain, and which, unless separated 
by the potassa, would remain combined with the preci- 
pitate. Pure sub-nitrate of bismuth is in the form of 
powder, of a brilliant-while, composed of small na- 
creous particles, considerably heavy, inodorous, and 
almost insipid, dissolving in water with great diffi- 
culty. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 

Gruner prepares this substance in the following 
manner : Into 4 parts of concentrated nitric acid, 
w r hich is to be slightly warmed in a capacious glass 
flask, introduce, little by little, in small quanti- 
ties, one part of coarsely pulverized metallic bismuth, 
stopping as soon as a gray precipitate falls down, or 
as soon as the decomposition of the nitric acid ceases. 
Decant the liquid, evaporate it in a porcelain cup 
to | of its volume, and set it aside to crystallize. 
Wash these crystals of the nitrate of bismuth with a 
little concentrated muriatic acid, then triturate them 
with 4 times their quantity of hot, distilled water, and 
then pour the mass, stirring it all the time into a 
large glass vessel containing 20 times the quantity 
of the salt. The precipitate is repeatedly washed 
with pure distilled water until this flows off tasteless. 
It should then be collected on a filter, drained, and 
pressed between layers of blotting-paper, and put up, 
as well as the triturations, in dark vials. 



FIIAKMACOrCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 309 



14. Zincum metallicum ; Fr., Zinc ; Ger., Zink ; Eng., 
Zinc. 

This metal occurs abundantly in nature, but al- 
ways in combination either with sulphur, as in blende 
or pseudo-galena, with oxygen as in tutty, or with 
oxygen and silex as in calamine, &c. It is obtained 
in the large way from calamine, as in France, or 
from blende, as in England. It is a metal of a bluish- 
white, very brilliant, of a lamellar fracture, tenacious, 
difficult to file, but very ductile, brittle, and pulver- 
izable at a temperature of 205° R., and fusible at 
360°. When rubbed between the fingers, it commu- 
nicates to them a peculiar smell and taste ; exposed 
to the air, it is oxidized and coated with a thin gray- 
ish pellicle. 

Two kinds of this metal are met with in commerce, 
viz. : 1st, That from the East Indies, or China; and 
2d, That from Goslar. These two kinds always con- 
tain more or less lead, and frequently in addition, tin, 
iron, or cadmium. To detect these adulterations, 
dissolve one part of zinc in 4 parts of pure nitric 
acid ; if the solution is clear, there is no tin, for its 
presence would be shown by a white precipitate ; 
on neutralizing the solution by sub-carbonate of 
soda, there will be a precipitate of oxide of iron, if it 
contains iron ; or, on adding hydrocyanite of iron, the 
iron in the solution will give a white precipitate. 
Finally, if lead be present, the sulphate of potassa 
added to the solution will throw down a white preci- 
pitate. 

To prepare this metal for homceopathic use, rub 
under water a piece of pure metallic zinc on a fine 
hone, dry the gray powder thus obtained, and make 
the three first attenuations by trituration. 

Gruner proposes the following mode of obtaining 
pure zinc : 



310 HOMCEorATinc 

Melt a piece of the zinc of commerce with an ad- 
dition of sulphur, stirring the liquid mass with a 
wooden spatula as long as scoriae form on the sur- 
face. If the sulphur should burn away on the surface 
without forming scoriae, ihe mass is allowed to cool, 
and the scoriae are removed from the pure metal. 

Melt this pure metal a second time, and pour the 
liquid into a heated, polished, iron mortar, after 
which it can be pulverized ; the coarser pieces are 
separated, and the same proceeding is instituted until 
a sufficient portion of the powder of zinc is obtained. 
The powder is then sifted through linen, and used 
for the triturations. 

Antidotes : Campli., Jgn., Hep. s. 

a) Zincum oxydatum ; Lana philosophica, Flores zinci, 
Calx zinci, Zincum album ; Eng., Oxide of zinc. 

The best mode of preparing this oxide is as fol- 
lows : Prepare a solution of the best metallic zinc in 
dilute sulphuric acid, until completely neutralized. 
Decant the clear liquid off" the undissolved residuum 
into a wide, open vessel, and introduce into it for 
some weeks, stripes of rolled zinc, by which means 
the heterogeneous metals which are mixed up with 
the solution, are precipitated. Filter the solution at 
the lapse of this period, and let a current of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen pass through it ; if a precipitate 
should fall down, we filter again, and add a decoction 
of gall-apple, in order to separate the iron contained 
in the solution; add the white of an egg, then heat 
the black liquid until it boils, filter it, and set it 
aside to crystallize. 

Dissolve the crystals in 10 times their quantity of 
hot, distilled water, and precipitate by adding a solu- 
tion of pure carbonate of soda. Wash the precipi- 
tate, which is loose and of a dazzling white, well; col- 
lect it in a filter, drv it. triturate it, and heat it in a 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGT. 311 

porcelain crucible over a moderate fire until the car- 
bonic acid is all removed. 

The sulphur-yellow colour which makes its appear- 
ance during the heating, scarcely a trace remains 
after cooling. This oxide of zinc is a loose, light, 
inodorous, insipid powder, of which we prepare tri- 
turations. 

b) Zincum sulfuricum, Sulfas zinci, Vitriolum album 
s. zinci ; Fr., Sulfate de zinc, Vitriol blanc ou de 
zinc ; Ger., Schwefelsaures Zink ; Eng., Sulphate 
of zinc, White vitriol. 

This salt, known under the name of white vitriol, 
&c, is manufactured on a large scale near Goslar, 
in the Hartz, where it also occurs native. It comes 
to us in masses, having the form of sugar-loaves, or 
in small crystals like those of Seidlitz salt, with 
which we should be careful not to confound it. The 
sulphate of zinc of commerce is seldom pure ; it ge- 
nerally contains sulphate of iron, or sulphate of cop- 
per. It is freed from these foreign substances by 
dissolving and crystallizing it afresh, or by precipita- 
ting the other metals by means of a rod of zinc plun- 
ged into the solution. This salt is crystalline, white, 
unalterable in the air, very soluble in water, fusible 
in the fire in its water of crystallization, inodorous, 
and of a disagreeable taste. 

The three first attenuations are made by tritura- 
tion. 



B) Metals which, by oxydation, form Acids. 

15. Arsenicum album, Acidum arseniosum ; Fr., Arse- 
nic Oxyde blanc d'arsenic, Acide arsenieux ; Ger, 
Arsenik, Arsenige Sdure ; Eng., Arsenious acid, 
White arsenic. 
The substance used in homoeopathy under the name 

of arsenic, is arseninvs acid. This acid is found in 



312 HOMCEOPATH10 

nature, but that of commerce, improperly called 
arsenic, is furnished by the ores of arsenical cobalt, 
from which it is extracted by sublimation. It is 
found in compact masses, heavy, white or yellowish, 
usually opaque at the surface, transparent and vitre- 
ous internally ; exposed to the atmosphere, this opacity 
increases, and the arsenic at the same time becomes 
lighter and more soluble ; its taste is sweetish, very 
slight, almost insipid. It is seldom adulterated ; still 
it has been found mixed with chalk. In order to pre- 
pare it for homoeopathic use, we introduce, agreeably 
to the old prescriptions of Hahnemann, 1 grain into 
a somewhat long vial with a narrow neck, with 1 
drachm of distilled water ; this vial is to be exposed 
to the flame of a spirit lamp, until the arsenic is dis- 
solved, taking care to add water as it evaporates. 
An equal quantity of alcohol is then to be added, that 
is to say, 1 drachm, and the whole to be well mixed ; 
that being done, 1 drop of the preparation is to be 
added to 1000 drops of a mixture of equal parts of 
water and alcohol (of 80° to 90°) ; of this fluid, drop 
10 drops into a bottle containing 90 drops of alcohol ; 
this bottle, containing the second attenuation, is label- 
led No. 2 ; all the succeeding attenuations are made 
in the usual manner. Of late, Hahnemann has sub- 
stituted for this process that which is used for all 
minerals, and agreeably to which it is sufficient to 
triturate 10 grains of white arsenic with 90 grains of 
sugar of milk, making thus three triturations in succes- 
sion, and the remaining attenuations by means of al- 
cohol. 

Dr. Knorre suggests the following method of pul- 
verizing arsenic : Triturate one grain of arsenic in a 
mortar, adding a teaspoonful of the strongest alco- 
hol ; this proceeding can be accomplished in a few 
minutes ; then mix with this arsenic the fourth part 
of the sugar of milk which is to be used, pulverizing 
it previously very finely ; triturate the whole to- 
gether and mix very carefully ; this being done, add 
little by little the rp*t of the sugar of milk. This 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND FOSOLOGY. 813 

proceeding is according to experience ; for every 
painter knows, that, by means of some liquid body, 
water, for instance, he can speedily change to the 
finest powder dyes, such as ceruse, cinnabar, chrome- 
yellow, &c, which, of themselves, are insoluble in 
water. 

Antidotes : Sesquioxide of iron, Ipec, Nux v. 

a) Arsenicum citrinum, Sulfuretum arsenici Jlavum, 
Aurum pigmentum; Fr., Arsenic jaune-citron, Sul- 
fure d'arsenic jaune, Orpiment ; Ger., Rauschgelb, 
Gelbes Schwefel-Arsen., Operment ; Eng., Orpiment, 
King's-yellow. 

This metallic substance occurs native in Hungary, 
Servia, and Wallachia, and the Levant. It is tender, 
slightly flexible, composed of translucid, brilliant la- 
mina?, which sometimes have a bright polish, of a 
lemon-yellow, verging to green, diffusing on the fire 
a suffocating smell of garlic and sulphur. It is also 
obtained by fusing together 61 parts of metallic arse- 
nic and 39 parts of sulphur, and submitting the whole 
to sublimation ; or by passing a current of hydro-sul- 
phuric acid into a watery solution of arsenious acid, 
or of an arseniated alkali mixed with hydrochloric or 
any other acid. The sulphuret of arsenic thus pre- 
pared takes the name of false orpiment, or of sulphu- 
ric oxide of arsenic. 

b) Arsenicum rubrum, Sulfuretum arsenici rubrum, 
Rubinus arsenicalis ; Fr., Arsenic rouge, Sulfure 
d'arsenic rouge, Realgar ; Ger., Rother Arsenic, 
Rothes Schwefel-Arsen, Realgar ; Eng., Realgar. 

This mineral is found in the craters of many vol- 
canos, where it has been produced by sublimation, 
particularly at the Solfatara, near Naples, and at 
Guadaloupe, where it is called red sulphur (soufre 
rouge). It is seen on the St. Gotthard combined 
14 



14 HOMCEOPATHIO 

with dolomite, or quartz, in many mines, such as those 
of Nagyag, in Transylvania ; it occurs in transparent 
crystals of different forms, of a scarlet-red. It is ob- 
tained artificially by subliming a mixture of native 
arsenic and sulphurous pyrites ; or by fusing together 
metallic arsenic with orpiment. The product of this 
operation bears the name of artificial realgar, or that 
of artificial red sulphuret of arsenic. It is of a brown- 
red, in solid masses, concrete, amorphous, and gives, 
when triturated, an orange-yellow powder. 

c) Arsenicum metallicum, Arsenicum ; Fr., Arsenic 
metallique ; Ger., Arsen ; Eng., Metallic arsenic. 

This metal occurs native in a lamellar form, 
under the name of cobalt ore, or Jly powder, or com- 
bined with oxygen, as arsenious acid, in the form of 
acicular crystals, or in the form of sand, and united 
with other metals. It is obtained by sublimation from 
arsenical cobalt, and is in lamellar pieces, brittle, of 
a brilliant steel-gray, very alterable in the air, very 
volatile, combustible, insipid, and inodorous, but dif- 
fusing an alliaceous smell when dried on burning 
coals. It is easily pulverized ; in consequence, how- 
ever, of its great inflammability, it is necessary to 
pulverize a very small quantity at a time. 

The three first attenuations are effected by tritu- 
ration. 

16. Molybdenum; Fr., Molybdene ; Ger., Wasserblei; 
Eng., Molybdenum. 

This metal is found in nature only in the state of a 
sulphuret. It is of a bluish-gray, hard, brittle, very 
refractory, almost insoluble, and acidifiable. It is ob- 
tained by the reduction of one of its oxides, or by 
that of molybdic acid with hydrogen. Nitric acid 
and aqua regia dissolve it, sulphuric acid converts 
it into a brown mass, 



PHARMACOPOEIA AXD POSOI.OGT. 315 

For homoeopathic use, the metal in powder must 
be taken, and the three first attenuations are to be 
made by trituration. 



MolybdjEni acidum, Acidum molyhdicum ; Fr., Acide molyb- 
dique ; Ger., Molybdan-S dure ; Eng., Molybdic acid. 

To obtamlhis acid, calcine sulphuret of molybdenum at a red 
heat in an open vessel, and extract the acid by means of caustic 
ammonia. To free it from this combination, precipitate it by 
nitric or acetic acid, or expose the compound to a high heat, and 
wash the acid obtained in water, dry and melt it in a glass vessel 
or a platina crucible. This is a white, porous, light mass, fusible, 
volatile, becoming yellow at a high temperature, of a metallic taste, 
soluble in 570 parts of cold water. 

The three first attenuations should be made by trituration. 



SPRING- AND WELL-WATER. 

Good water has the following qualities :. 1. It is per- 
fectly transparent, limpid, without colour, smell, or 
taste, and is of a pearly brilliancy when poured out ; 
2, it does not deposit a sediment ; 3, it readily dis- 
solves soap ; 4, it is not rendered turbid by the addition 
of a solution of alkali or silver ; it is easily heated 
over a fire, and cools again as easily. Cold water is 
now employed for the following objects : 

a) As a beverage in all acute and chronic diseases ; 
it is the most natural and simple beverage, but should 
never be boiled when it is to be used as such, inas- 
much as it loses its peculiar properties, and all the 
volatile constituents escape. 

b) As an enema, sometimes with an addition of oil, 

&c. 

c) As an injection ; by means of a syringe, it is intro- 
duced into certain cavities or canals of the human 
body. 

d) For purposes of washing and general cleanliness, 
for which cold water cannot be sufficiently recom- 
mended. 



316 HOMCEOPATHIC 

e) For frictions with flannel, which are particularly 
useful in the case of nervous and hysteric females. 

/) Fomentations, in the case of wounds, contusions, 
sprains, fractures ; to prevent secondary haemorrhage 
after injuries or surgical operations ; it may be ap- 
plied to bedsores, in which case a little alcohol should 
be mixed with it. We distinguish cooling and warm- 
ing fomentations. The former require to be changed, 
the latter are left undisturbed, guarded from the 
access of air. 

g) For the purpose of wrapping up the whole body 
in a wet sheet. 

A) For affusions and instillations. 

i) As a bath ; we have whole baths, half baths, 
foot- and hand-baths, sitz-baths, plunge-baths, drop- 
baths, douches, shower-baths, submersions of the 
whole body or parts of the body. 

We distinguish cold, cool, tepid, warm, hot baths. 

A cold bath strengthens the body, it stimulates the 
circulation, promotes the secretions, &c, provided the 
patient is not too weak ; warm and hot baths are, 
generally speaking, weakening. 

Cold water is, as a general rule, preferable to 
warm, provided it is properly used ; if water is to do 
much good, it should be used all over, externally and 
internally. 

Water can be used as an emetic. Drink first cold, 
then tepid water, after which the vomiting will take 
place without difficulty. Water is the best emetic ; 
1, it is mild, and does not irritate the digestive appa- 
ratus ; 2, it is cooling, and diminishes the heat which 
generally prevails in the digestive organs when de- 
ranged ; 3, it is dissolving ; it dissolves the mucus and 
other substances in the stomach ; 4, it is heavy, the 
dissolved substances float on the water, and can 
easily be carried off when the stomach contracts ; 
5, it can be used in large quantities, for it facilitates 
the vomiting when the stomach is not empty. 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND POSOLOGY. 317 



MINERAL WATERS. 

Mineral waters are either cold, tepid, or hot ; in 
the latter case they are termed thermce (aquce ther- 
males.) 

A chemical analysis of these mineral waters is not 
sufficient to acquaint us with their medicinal proper- 
ties. These have to be discovered by experimenta- 
tion upon the living organism. The moment a mine- 
ral water is decomposed by chemical action, its es- 
sential properties are destroyed, and it ceases to be 
what nature made it. 

Mineral waters, provided their action on the living 
organism is known, are unquestionably the property 
of homoeopathy. Although composed of a variety of 
elements, yet they constitute an essential, living unit, 
the elements of which constantly obey the same law 
of combination, and, in their combined form, con- 
stantly affect the organism in the same unchangeable 
manner. All compound bodies to which the fore- 
going remarks apply, may be used as remedial agents 
by homoeopathic physicians, provided they are pos- 
sessed of medicinal powers. 

IMPONDERABILIA. 

Electricity. 

The following are the different modes of employing 
electricity : 

1. The electric bath (balneum electricum) ; the pa- 
tient, who is standing or sitting upon the insulating 
bench, is connected with the electric machine by 
means of a chain, and the electric fluid is imparted 
to him in different degrees. If the patient should not 
be able to leave his bed, this would have to be insu- 
lated by providing it with glass feet. 

2. Sparks (scintillas) ; if the parts from which they 



318 HOMOEOPATHIC 

are drawn, or into which I they are caused to strike, 
should be very sensitive, we employ, in order to mo- 
derate the unpleasant sensation, a pointed conductor, 
which is enclosed in a glass or ivory tube. 

3. Electric awra"(aura electrica) ; the electric fluid 
is communicated by means of points, especially when 
the organs are very sensitive, The finer the points, 
the milder the effect ; the blunter the points, the 
stronger the effect. 

4. The Leyden battery ; this mode of communicat- 
ing electricity, requires a good deal of caution ; it 
is ad visible to impart the shock by means of an im- 
perfect conductor, such as a moist hemp-string. 

5. Friction by means of flannel ; one side of the 
globe of an exciter is covered with flannel, and the 
affected part is passed near it, either to receive or 
communicate electricity. 

Galvanism. 

For medicinal purposes we use a pile composed of 
from 60 to 100 double-plates soldered together with tin, 
of from 2 to 3 inches in diameter, and £ of an inch in 
thickness ; the plates are generally composed of copper 
and zinc. The pile is constructed upon a frame rest- 
ing upon glass feet. First, we place upon the frame 
a plate of zinc, provided with a hole to which we 
fasten a brass, copper, or iron wire ; upon the zinc- 
plate we put a piece of cloth well moistened with 
salt-water ; then follows a double-plate with the cop- 
per below, &c. The last part of the pile is a simple 
copper-plate with a hook and hole, to which the other 
wire is attached. 

Galvanism is administered in two principal modes: 

1. A continuous galvanic current, which takes place 
when the pile remains closed ; and 

2. The interrupted action of the pile, or shock, which 
takes place when the contact of the affected parts 



PHARMACOl'CBIA AND POSOLOGY. 310 

with the pile is momentarily interrupted and again 
restored. 

We distinguish the following different kinds of 
galvanic action : 

a) The galvanic bath ; either the affected part is 
put in a vessel with salt-water, into which one of 
the poles is introduced and the other pole applied to 
the affected part not in the liquid ; or, both arms or 
feet are put in two different vessels with salt-water, 
and a pole is introduced into each. 

b) The firm armatures or casings, consisting of me- 
tallic plates or rods of different sizes, corresponding ex- 
actly to the shape of the affected part ; they are fasten- 
ed by means of bandages, and are provided with a small 
hook to fasten the poles to. For affections of the eyes, 
we use concave plates ; for affections of the ears, we 
employ rods ending in a little ball. 

c) The metallic brush ; the galvanism is communica- 
ted to the affected part by means of a plate provided 
with points. 

d) The moist sponge ; it is fastened to the point of a 
metallic conductor, and the galvanic current is re- 
ceived through it. 

Magnetism. 

Magnes artificial^, Magnetismus mineralis ; Fr., 
Aimant artificiel, Magnetisme mineral ; Ger., Kunst- 
licher Magnet, Miner alischer Magnetismus ; Eng., 
Artificial magnet, Mineral magnetism. 

Mineral magnetism is the mass of phenomena 
which is produced by the magnetic condition, either 
natural or artificial, of certain metals. We call 
magnetic condition, the faculty, which these metals 
acquire, naturally or artificially, to attract iron, steel, 
nickel, and cobalt, and we give the name of natural 
magnet to mineral iron, which especially is in this 
condition. What is understood by artificial magnet, 
is any piece of metal which acquires the faculty of 



320 HOMEOPATHIC 

attracting iron, and has its poles directed towards 
those of the earth. All bodies, without distinction 
of the property they possess of conducting electricity 
and heat, are capable of propagating afar the mag- 
netic polarization : but iron enjoys this peculia- 
rity in a higher degree than any other. Any piece 
of iron may be rendered as magnetic as a natural 
magnet, and it is of this metal, or rather of steel, that 
we generally make use to fabricate artificial magnets. 
The best steel for this purpose is the English ; next, 
the German. To make these magnets, friction is em- 
ployed, which consists in rubbing with a sufficiently 
large magnet, a piece of steel, placed in the direction 
of the axis of the earth, until it has acquired mag- 
netic properties. But if we have not a magnet to 
render the steel magnetic, we can still bestow that 
property on it, by fixing transversely bars of steel 
bent suitably to form horse-shoe magnets, around the 
electrical conductors which serve for lightning rods 
on large edifices. The form given to large artifi- 
cial magnets, which are used to prepare other mag- 
nets, is usually that of a horse-shoe, and often many 
magnets are united so as to form only one. In every 
magnet, the magnetic virtue shows itself in prefer- 
ence at the two extremities, called the magnetic 
poles. When we suspend a magnetic bar of steel by 
a thread, we find one of those poles turn towards the 
North, the other South, thus distinguished into North 
and South pole. In approaching two magnets, one to 
the other, we find the poles of the same name repulse 
each other, whilst those of different names attract 
each other ; and so it is, that when we magnetize a 
bar of steel by friction, the end that has been rubbed 
with the North pole, will represent the South pole, 
and vice versa. When the magnet remains a long 
time inactive, it easily loses its power ; hence there is 
generally given to it a casing (armature), which consists 
in a bar of iron, attached to its two poles, and by which 
is suspended a weight proportional to the strength of 



PHARMACOPCEIA AND POSOLOGY. 321 

the magnet, thus obliging it to exert constantly its 
whole attractive property. To prepare small arti- 
ficial magnets, such as are used in homoeopathy, we 
take a small rod of English steel, about 8 inches long, 
and 1^ or 2 broad, and 6 to 8 lines in thickness ; 
this rod should be tempered, until it becomes elastic 
and not frangible like glass. In order afterwards to 
communicate, the most promptly and the most easily 
possible, to this rod, the greatest magnetic force it is 
susceptible of acquiring, we must take especial care 
not to snatch away violently the pole of the magnet 
with which we have just rubbed it, because, by such 
a procedure, we should take away, each time, a 
great part of the force which the rod has received. 
Hence it is proper to cause the magnet to slip gently 
on a very thin plate of iron, when it has arrived at 
the end of the rod, so that its passage from the steel 
to the plate may be easy and almost imperceptible. 
But it is still necessary that the plate which covers 
the two ends of the rod, be continued under it, in 
order to keep up constantly the magnetic current be- 
tween the two poles. We must then take a small 
band of tin plate, of the same length as the steel 
rod we wish to magnetize, and a few lines long- 
er ; we place the steel rod on the plate, and raise the 
two ends of it, in the form of a hook, above the two 
extremities of the rod, so that they do not cover it but 
by about half a line ; each of these ends being thus 
turned up and marked, the one with the letter N 
(north), the other with the letter S (south), we place 
horizontally the plate of iron, the extremity N turned 
towards the north, until the magnetic property of the 
rod is obtained. As to the rod of steel, we mark it 
exactly in its middle with chalk or ink ; each of these 
halves is then marked in two places, the first of which 
is placed at § of each half, in counting from the 
middle towards the extremity, and the second at |, 
in counting from the first towards the extremity, as 
exhibited on the following page. 
14* 



822 HOMOEOPATHIC 

N e ft a, b « S 

< r d 

The rod thus divided and placed in the plate, as 
related, we communicate to it the magnetic virtues 
by means of an artificial horse-shoe magnet, strong 
enough to attract 10 or 12 pounds. To effect this, we 
place perpendicularly the south pole on the middle of 
the rod, at the point a, and we slide it over all the 
north half to the extremity N, whence we bring it 
back, in describing a considerable arch in the air, 
to the point b on the same side ; there we place it 
anew perpendicularly, and slide it, as in the first 
manoeuvre, to the extremity N ; we bring it back, in 
a similar manner, by describing an arch in the air to 
the point c, on the same side, whence we slide it the 
last time to the extremity N. When that is accom- 
plished, we take the steel rod out of its plate, which 
rests immoveable in the same place, and mark with 
the letter N the extremity of the half which we have 
just rendered magnetic by the south pole of the mag- 
net ; it has become the north pole. Returning now 
the rod into its plate, so that its extremity N is under 
the crotchet S, and its other extremity, which has not 
yet been magnetized, is under the crotchet N of the 
plate. The magnetization of this extremity is then 
made equally in the northern direction of the heavens ; 
only this time it is with the north pole of the magnet 
that we operate, and that we place it successively, 
and always vertically, on the points a, b, and c, in 
gliding it each time, beyond the crotchet N, and bring- 
ing it back each time, by describing an arch in the 
air ; in this way we produce the south pole, which 
we mark S. By this process, indicated by Hahne- 
mann, the rod has acquired as much power as can 
be communicated to it by six passes. To preserve 
this power, we surround it with strong thread in 



PHARMACOPOMA AND POSOLOUY. 323 

screw form, or else we put in a case two magnetic 
rods of the same form, placed in such a manner that 
they mutually touch by their opposite poles, and so 
encased that they cannot move. For a dose, it is suf- 
ficient that the patient touch the suitable pole with 
the end of the finger, one or two minutes, according 
to circumstances, and for that it is not at all neces- 
sary to take the magnet out of its case. 



Zoomagnetismus, Mcignelismus anhnalis, Mesmeris- 
mus ; Fr., Zoomagnetisme, Magnetisme animale, 
Mesmerisme ; Ger., Thierischer Magnetismus, Mes- 
merismus ; Eng., Animal magnetism, Mesmerism. 

Animal magnetism is the aggregate of phenomena 
produced by the influence of an invisible action of 
one individual on another, and which consists in plac- 
ing the nervous system in a condition which, in it- 
self, is not morbid, but on the contrary, exalts the 
vital forces, and can thus contribute to the cure of 
diseases. The action of this agent has as yet been 
principally observed on the human subject, although 
it is proved that the animals also, and even individu- 
als of the vegetable kingdom, experience its effects. 
The zoo-magnetic influence of one individual upon 
another is known under the name of magnetic mani- 
pulation, because it is generally performed by the 
imposition of hands, or by easy and slow passes, 
made with the hands, from the head to the body and 
extremities, in the course of the nerves. Mesmer was 
the first who called the attention to this agent, which 
seems to have been known to the ancients ; it was 
lost, however, and revived about 30 years ago, and 
since has been cultivated at times with much zeal ; 
but so long as superstition was mingled with it, and 
charlatans took it up, it was abandoned anew, the 
good with the bad. We generally begin the magnet- 



324 HOMCEOFATH1C 

ic manipulations by putting ourselves in communi- 
cation with the patient, either by the contact of 
hands, or by the imposition of the hands on the vertex, 
or simply by inspection, or else by slow passes, di- 
rected from the vertex to the knees of the patient, in 
such a way, that the palm of the hand is directed to- 
wards the patient, in the descending pass, and the 
back of the hand in the ascending movement which 
succeeds, and to accomplish this last movement, the 
operator should remove his hands to a distance from 
the patient whom he is magnetizing. The manipu- 
lations may afterwards undergo many modifications, 
according whether we make the passes with the thumb 
only, or with the fingers closed or separated, &c. &c. 
The intention to do his patient good, should 
predominate in the mind of the operator, who should 
himself enjoy the best health possible, so that, 
instead of appeasing the sufferings of the patient, 
he may not communicate his own. The hands of 
the operator should have the natural heat of the 
body; cold hands act but little, or even not at all. 
As to the manipulation itself, it should take place in a 
retired place, calm, tranquil, and not exposed to the 
noise of every comer ; he should, moreover, be en- 
dowed with a vital force superior to that of the pa- 
tient ; for otherwise, instead of imparting it to him, he 
will subtract it ; hence the reason why young persons 
are more appropriate than the aged, and debilitated 
persons should never undertake to magnetize any 
one. As to sex, a woman can as well magnetize 
a man, as a man can a woman, provided she has a 
stronger vital force than the man. The time most 
favourable, is the morning, or after mid-day ; the 
most unfavourable is the evening, because at that 
part of the day patients are generally more excited 
and more irritable than during any other part. The 
imposition of hands and ventilation are the weakest 
degrees in which mesmerism can be applied ; after 
these comes the application of flannel magnetized, 



PHARMACOPOEIA AND FOSOLOGY. 325 

which the patient puts on the pit of the stomach, if 
to combat wakefulness, or on the suffering part, if to 
calm pain, &c. Water can also be magnetized, and 
then drank by the patient ; and it can even be sent 
to a distance, provided it be well secured in a bottle, 
and wrapped in magnetized cotton. All these, how- 
ever, can only be accomplished by perfectly healthy 
physicians ; for, otherwise, as above related, we 
should run the risk of increasing instead of appeasing 
the pains and ailments of the patient. 

We have extracted the foregoing remarks on the 
use of the imponderable agents in the treatment of 
disease, from Buchner's Pharmacopoeia, except the 
last paragraph on clairvoyance, which is from Jahr's. 

We coincide with Jahr and Hahnemann in opinion, 
that clairvoyance should not be resorted to either 
to obtain a correct diagnosis of the disease, or to 
find out the proper remedy for it. We are free to 
admit, that we believe not only in the possibility, but 
also in the actual existence of a state of clairvoyance, 
with this modification, however, that in all cases 
where such a state exists, it exists as a natural gift 
or mode of existence, which it is beyond the power 
of man to create. This view is founded upon opi- 
nions which we do not deem it necessary to explain 
here, but which we, for the present, shall continue 
to adhere to, for this reason, that we have never wit- 
nessed a satisfactory state of artificially excited 
clairvoyance, although we have been present at a 
number of exhibitions of clairvoyants, who, in every 
instance, made a most bungling work of the exami- 
nation which they were requested to institute into a 
case. Moreover, a state of clairvoyance is not neces- 
sarily a state of truth. A clairvoyant may be in a 
state of falsehood just as well as any person in a na- 
tural state. If a clairvoyant naturally believes in 
alloeopathic compounds, he will prescribe them in the 
clairvoyant state. Clairvoyance is an exaltation of 
the original conditions of the natural reason ; if this 



326 HOMOEOPATHIC 

reason be false, how can a state of clairvoyance be 
true 1 It will be so much the more false. The re- 
velations of a clairvoyant amount to nothing, except 
in so far as they are approved of by our reason. 
Reason, in the end, is the tribunal before which the 
great and vital questions of diagnosis and treatment 
have to be decided. 

Animal magnetism, applied in moderation, is made 
use of in homoeopathy, but is never employed to 
put the patient in the state called somnambulism, nor 
for rendering them clairvoyant, so as to indicate 
themselves the medicines that should be given them. 
Those are errors which homoeopathy rejects, as they 
merit ; and if here and there homoeopaths may be 
found who use animal magnetism in the sense just 
mentioned, they do so after their own views and opi- 
nions, and not according to the principles of our doc- 
trine, which is equally removed from sornnambulism 
and the teachings by the clairvoyant, as it is from the 
therapeutic principles of the old school. The only 
advantage which homoeopathy counsels us to draw 
from the therapeutic agent which constitutes magnet- 
ism, is the faculty which it possesses of strengthening 
the vital forces, or else to calm the patient, to appease 
the over-excitement of the nervous system, and often 
thus to arrest the most severe pains, when wisely 
and suitably administered. (See Hahnemann's Orga- 
non, on this article.) 



APPENDIX. 



The first notice of a substance, afterwards called 
Glonoine, was given by Sobrero, of Paris, in Comptes 
Rendus, February, 1847. Dr. C. Hering had a small 
quantity of it prepared by a Philadelphia chemist, in 
December, 1847. In 1848, Dr. A. Zumbrock, of Phila- 
delphia, found, after many experiments, a better and 
easier mode of preparing it than that given by So- 
brero ; viz. : Mix 2 volumes of sulphuric acid of 
1.83 specific gravity, and 1 volume of nitric acid of 
1.43 specific gravity, in a large vessel; put this ves- 
sel in a freezing mixture ; after having become per- 
fectly cold, pour into it 2 volumes of Glycerine,* by 
little and little, constantly stirring it, and avoiding 
carefully all elevation of temperature. The whitish, 
honey-like mixture pour into a large quantity of cold 
water, when the new substance will subside to the 

* Glycerine, or Scheele's Sweet, is disengaged when oils and fats are 
acted on by a solution of caustic alkali or oxide of lead, the latter 
uniting with the fatty acid, forming soap when alkali has been taken, 
and lead-plaster when oxide of lead. Glycerine from the manufacture of 
lead-plaster, is now sold in the drug-stores ; it contains, however, a large 
quantity of lead, which is to be precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and it is then evaporated to the consistence of syrup. 



328 APPENDIX. 

bottom, it being heavier than water. Wash it well 
with water, so that no trace of acid remains ; put it 
in a wide glass tube, the bottom of which having 
been drawn out to a point with a small opening ; let 
it stand, the closed small opening downwards, until it 
has become perfectly clear, some water and a white 
substance swimming on top of it ; then open the 
small orifice, and let the clear fluid carefully run into 
a glass-bottle, which is to be closed by a glass stopper. 
Sobrero got rid of the water by dissolving the sub- 
stance in alcohol and ether, and evaporating over 
sulphuric acid by means of an air-pump ; a costly 
and tedious way. 

It was named by Dr. C Hering, " Glonoine," from 
Gl o, for Oxyd of Glycyl, that is, Glycerine ; n o for 
nitric acid, and the termination ine. 

Dr. Zumbrock found the specific gravity to be 1.557 
at 70° F., soluble in 6,212 parts of alcohol and 780 
parts of water. 

Glonoine explodes like gun-cotton, with a bright 
blue flame, leaving red fumes of nitric acid. 

Parallele : 

Glycerine. Glonoine. 

Colourless, somewhat yellow ; slighly yellow. 

Not crystallizing ; the same. 

Thick, like syrup; like olive-oil. 

Of a sweet taste ; pungent and aromatic. 

No odour ; an aromatic odour. 

Solveable in water and alcohol solveable in 780 parts of water 

in all proportions ; and in 6^ of alcohol. 

Not soluble in ether ; soluble in ether. 



Acidum benzoicum ; Ger., Benzoe-Blumen ; Eng., Ben- 
zoic acid. 

This acid should be procured from the gum benzoin. 
It is obtained either by sublimation or by dissolving 
the gum in alkaline water, then decomposing the ben- 



APPENDIX. 329 

zoates thus formed, by the addition of an acid, and 
afterwards purifying the benzoic acid thus precipi- 
tated, by washing it with cold water, which dis- 
solves but T i„ of its weight of the acid, whilst boil- 
ing water dissolves ^V- The process of obtaining the 
benzoic acid by sublimation, is directed by the United 
States and London Pharmacopoeias, and the acid 
thus procured, is, for various reasons, that which is 
to be preferred for medicinal use. (Transactions of 
the Amer. Institute of Homoeopathy.) 

Acidum fluoricum ; Ger., Fluss-spath-Saure ; Eng., 
Fluoric acid. 

This acid is prepared by acting on the mineral 
called fluor spar, carefully separated from siliceous 
earth, and reduced to fine powder, with twice its 
weight of concentrated sulphuric acid. (Amer. Inst, 
of Homoeop.) 

Acibum oxalicum ; Ger., Kleesdure ; Eng., Oxalic 
acid. 

The excess of acid in the binoxalate of potassa, 
is neutralized by the carbonate of potassa, and the 
neutral oxalate is decomposed by the acetate of lead. 
In consequence of a double decomposition, a precipi- 
tate of an oxalate of lead is obtained. This is to be 
well washed and dried, and decomposed by means 
of one-third of its weight of strong sulphuric acid, 
previously diluted with ten times of its weight of 
water: An insoluble sulphate of lead is formed, and 
the oxalic acid being liberated, may be made to crys- 
tallize by evaporation. The mother waters, by fresh 
evaporation, furnish fresh portions of crystals, until 
quite exhausted. By this process, a very pure acid 
may be obtained. 

Its purity may readily be tested by dissolving it in 
a sufficient quantity of water, adding carbonate of 



330 appendix. 

lime cautiously until effervescence ceases, filtering, 
drying the precipitated oxalate of lime, and observ- 
ing, that, for every 100 grains of oxalic acid, if pure, 
there should be a product of about 205 grains of oxa- 
late. As, however, in operating on a small quantity, 
a slight difference of weight, which might be pro- 
duced by the presence of tartrate of lime, along with 
the oxalate in the precipitate, might not be observed, 
the purity of the acid may be still more satisfactorily 
ascertained by digesting the supposed oxalate of lime 
in a solution of tartaric acid, and again drying it. 
Should any tartrate have been present, it will have 
been taken up by the acid solution, which will be in- 
dicated by the loss of weight in the precipitate. 
(Amer. Inst, of Homoeopathy.) 

Elaterium, Momordica claterium ; Eng., Wild or 
squirting cucumber ; Fr., Concombre sauvage ; 
Ger., Eselsgurken. — Cucurbitacece. 

The elaterium of the shops is sometimes found to 
be very inferior, if not entirely inert. The active 
principle of the momordica elaterium resides more 
particularly in the juice, which is lodged in the centre 
of the fruit (around the seeds), and which spontane- 
ously subsides from it. (Amer. Inst, of Homozop.) 

Eupatorium perfoliatum ; Ger., Durchwachsener Was- 
serdost ; Eng., Bone-set, Thorough-wort, Cross-wort, 
Ague-weed. — CorymbifercB. 

Leaves connate-perfoliate, broadest at the base, 
oblong serrate, acuminate, rugose, rough, narrow 
above, tomentose beneath, decussate ; the 2 or 3 up- 
per pairs of leaves are sessile ; under surface paler 
than the upper ; stem villous, erect, round, from 2 to 
4 feet high, and divided towards the top into decus- 
sating branches, of a grayish-green colour, but often 



APPENDIX. 331 

purplish towards the base. Flowers terminal, white, 
in fastigiate corymbs on short, hairy peduncles ; flo- 
rets 12 or 14 in number. Anthers deep-blue or black. 
Seeds black, pappus pilose. Root perennial, grows 
nearly horizontal. Blooms from the latter end of 
July to the beginning of November, and grows 
throughout North America, in meadows and other 
low grounds, along the course of small streams, &c, 
generally in small patches, but occasionally covering 
an acre, or more, of ground. 

We prepare an alcoholic tincture from the leaves 
and flowers of the plant. (Amer. Institute of Ho- 
moeopathy.) 

Guaco ; Ger., Guaco-Pfianze, giftwidrige Mekanie ; — 
Composites. 

This plant was recommended for Asiatic cholera. 
Stems long, rounded, contorted, furrowed, of a green- 
ish-gray, scintillating-shining wood, of the thickness 
of about 2 lines. Leaves sparse, petioled, oval, slight- 
ly indented, hairy on the under side ; flowers in pa- 
nicles, on the sides of the younger branches. 

We prepare a tincture from the upper and fee- 
bler portions of the stems, from the leaves and flow- 
ers. 

HiEMAToxYLON, Lignum C 'ampechianum ; Ger., Blau- 
hoh, Campechenholz. — Leguminosce. 

This wood comes to us from Mexico, either in 
large blocks of a reddish-yellow colour, and a bloody- 
red within, or in thin chips of some inches long and 
a few lines thick. It is pretty heavy, dense, has a 
feeble violet odour, a sweetish, astringent, and after- 
wards bitterish taste, tinging the saliva violet-red. 

We prepare a tincture, according to Class 1st, of 
a brown-yellow colour. 



332 APPENDIX. 



Kalmia latifolia ; Eng., Mountain-laurel, ivy-bush. — 
Rliododendra. 

An evergreen shrub, from 3 to 12 feet high, and 
grows on shaded rocky hills. Leaves petioled, insert- 
ed on the sides and extremities of the branches, scat- 
tered, in threes ; oval, acute, entire, coriaceous, 
smooth on both sides, under side the palest ; corymbs 
terminal, siscid and pubescent, simple or compound, 
with opposite branches, and made up of slender pe- 
duncles, supported at base by ovate, acuminate 
bractes. Flowers rose-red, sometimes white. Flow- 
ers in the latter end of May. 

We prepare a tincture from the leaves. 

Lobelia inflata ; Ger«, Aufgeblasene Lobelie ; Eng., 
Indian tobacco, Emetic-herb. 

The Lobelia inflata is a biennial inelegant plant, 
about one foot, and from that to two feet high. The 
root is fibrous, yellowish- white, of an acrid taste, re- 
sembling that of tobacco. Stem upright, always soli- 
tary, angular, leafy, very pubescent, sometimes hirsute, 
and very much branched about mid-way. Branches 
axillary, shorter than the stem, which rises from 
6 to 10 inches above the top of the highest branches. 
The leaves are irregularly scattered and alternate, 
sometimes crowded, oval, generally sessile, with the 
margins unequally indented with tooth-like serra- 
tures. The flowers are numerous, situated on termi- 
nal leafy racemes, and supported on short axillary 
peduncles. The corolla is monopetalous and labi- 
ate ; the lower lip three, and the upper two-toothed, 
is of a pale blue colour externally, and delicate vio- 
let within. The calyx-leaves are awl-shaped, and 
the length of the corolla. Seeds numerous, very 
small, and contained in egg-shaped, inflated capsules, 



APPENDIX. 333 

which have given rise to the specific appellation of 
the plant. — Barton. 

Samuel Thomson, who considered himself the dis- 
coverer of the medical properties of the Lobelia in- 
flata, appears to have watched its growth with an 
almost paternal affection, and therefore the following 
extract from his account of the emetic herb, as he 
terms it, will not be without interest.* 

" The emetic herb may be found in the first stages 
of its growth at all times through the summer, from 
the bigness of a six cent piece to that of a dollar, and 
larger, lying flat on the ground, in a round form, like 
a rose pressed flat, in order to bear the weight of 
snow which lays on it during the winter, and is sub- 
ject to be winter-killed, like wheat. In the spring, it 
looks yellow and pale, like other things suffering from 
the wet and cold ; but when the returning sun spreads 
forth its enlivening rays upon it, it lifts up its leaves, 
and shoots forth a stalk to the height of from 12 to 
15 inches, with a number of branches, carrying up its 
leaves with its growth. In July, it puts forth small, 
pale-blue blossoms, which are followed by small pods, 
about the size of a white bean, containing numerous 
very small seeds. This pod is an exact resemblance 
of the human stomach, having an inlet and an outlet 
higher than the middle ; from the inlet it receives 
nourishment, and by the outlet discharges the seeds. 
It comes to maturity about the first of September, 
when the leaves and pods turn a little yellow; this 
is the best time to gather it. It is what is called by 
the botanists, a biennial plant, or only of 2 years 
existence." 

" This plant is common in all parts of this country. 
Wherever the land is fertile enough to yield support 
for its inhabitants, it is to be found. It is confined to 
no soil which is fit for cultivation, from the high- 
est mountains to the lowest valleys. In hot and wet 

* New Guide to Health, or Botanic Physician, page 43. 



334 APPENDIX. 

seasons, it is most plenty on dry and warm lands ; in 
hot and dry seasons, on clayey and heavy land. 
When the season is cold, either wet or dry, it rarely 
makes its appearance ; and if the summer and fall 
are very dry, the seed does not come up, and, of 
course, there will be very little to be found the 
next season. I have been in search of this herb from 
Boston to Canada, and was not able to collect more 
than two pounds ; and in some seasons, I have not 
been able to collect any." (Amer. Inst, of Horn.) 

Lobelia cardinalis ; Eng., Scarlet lobelia ; Ger., Ro- 
the Cardinal 'sblume ; Fr., La cardinale. 

Erect, simple, pubescent ; leaves ovate-lanceolate- 
acuminate, erose - denticulate ; raceme subsecund, 
many - flowered, the organs longer than the corolla. 
{Amer. Inst, of Horn.) 

Mercurialts perennis ; Ger., Waldbingelkraut, aus- 
dauerndes Bingelkraut. — Euphorbiacece. 

This plant grows in shady mountainous forests, in 
strong or humid soil ; root rampant, with nodose, 
verticillate-fibrous joints ; stem simple, low, leafless 
at the lower part, leaves on short peduncles, dentated, 
with short hairs, elliptico-lanceolate. 

At the period of flowering, we prepare an essence 
from the whole plant, including the root, according to 
Class 2d. 

Podophyllum peltatum ; Ger., Schildblatteriger En- 
tenfuss ; Eng., May-apple, Duck's-foot. — Ranuncu- 
laceai. 

Stem erect, one foot high, two-leaved, one-flowered; 
leaves peltate, palmate, lobate ; lobe cuneate, in- 
cised. Blooms in May. Flowers white ; fruit mature 
in the latter end of August, lemon-coloured, of the 
size of a large plum, and slightly maculated with 



APPENDIX. 335 

brownish dots ; the pulp to the taste at first is faintly- 
nauseous, but agreeably sub-acid, and much esteemed 
by many persons. It is said, the pigeons of Carolina 
are fattened by eating it. 

Root perennial, creeping, from 3 to 6 feet in length, 
about twice the size of a goose quill, of a rich yel- 
lowish-brown colour externally, and feeble yellow- 
ish-white within. The main root is round and smooth, 
except that it is interrupted every 3 or 4 inches by 
knuckled joints, from which grow out numerous light- 
coloured fibres. One of these joints which mark the 
successively annual attachments of the stem, is add- 
ed to the length of the root every year. 

The root of the Podophyllum peltatum, according to 
the chemical analysis made by Dr. Staples, contains 
resin, gum, or mucilage, soluble in cold water, ama- 
din, colouring matter, extractive matter, ligneous 
fibre, and a minute quantity of an insipid substance 
soluble in sulphuric ether, from which it crystallizes 
in minute acicular crystals. 

The leaves and root are the parts used in medicine. 
The leaves emit a strong, narcotic odour, and have 
a nauseous taste. The root has a fresh nauseous 
smell and somewhat bitter taste. In popular phrase, 
the leaves are said to be poisonous, the root medici- 
nal, and the fruit edible. The fruit is aperient. 

This plant is emphatically a native, as it is indige- 
nous to North America only, and is found growing luxu- 
riously throughout the boundaries of the United States. 
It chiefly inhabits rich, loamy woodiands, but is fre- 
quently found growing in meadows, near small 
streams, and other low grounds. 

We prepare a tincture from the root and leaves. 
(Amer. Inst, of Horn.) 

Sanguinaria canadensis ; Eng., Blood-root. — Papave- 

racea. 

A spring plant, abundant in all hilly countries, from 
Canada to Florida, wherever thorn is a rich soil and 



336 APPENDIX. 

shade in summer, but avoiding the sea-coast and the 
high mountainous regions. It blooms as early as 
April, and the elegance of its leaves and flowers and 
its graceful growth is so great, peculiar and indescrib- 
ably beautiful, that no delineation of it has yet ap- 
peared sufficiently graceful to those who know it. 
In appearance somewhat similar to the Hepatica, its 
leaves are delicate, and of a gray-green, like those 
of the Celandine, its flowers white and deciduous like 
those of the poppy, all scarcely higher than a hand. 
The root is perennial, of the length and thickness of a 
finger, knotty, fleshy and praemorse. Root, stem and 
leaves contain a yellowish - red juice, like as the 
Chelidonium a pure yellow, and the Papaver a 
white. 

The leaves continue their growth after the time 
of flowering ; and when the seeds ripen, have a more 
common appearance, nearly resembling the Asarum. 
This is considered the best time to dig the root, which 
is the only part employed ; the leaves, and especially 
the seeds, being considered poisonous. (Amer. Inst, 
of Horn.) 

Triosteum perfoliatum ; Ger., Breiiblatteriger Drei- 
stein ; Eng., Horse-Gentian, Fever-root, Wild ipe- 
cac, &c. — Caprifoliacece. 

Leaves large oval, acuminate, abruptly narrowed 
at the base, connate, sub-pubescent beneath, the two 
uppermost pairs are small and convoluted till after 
the inflorescence is past, when they become develop- 
ed to the full size, and assume a brownish-purple 
colour. Flowers axillary, sessile and whorled in trip- 
lets, 3, 6 or 9 around the stem ; blooms in the latter 
end of May. Corolla reddish purple above, striated 
below, and pubescent. The berries are ovate, com- 
monly 6 in a whorl, sometimes purple, but generally 
of an orange colour ; they have 3 divisions, each 
containing one hard seed, and ripen in September. 



APPENDIX. 337 

The plant inhabits rich hilly woodlands, and the 
edge of cultivated grounds, and grows from 2 to 4 
feet high, several stalks arising from the same root. 
The stems are about § of an inch in diameter, simple, 
erect, cylindrical, pubescent, and of a green colour. 
The root is perennial, contorted, tuberculated or gib- 
bous, of a brownish colour, giving off horizontal 
branches from 18 inches to 2 feet in length, about the 
size of a finger in diameter, yellowish externally and 
whitish internally. 

From pharmaceutical experiments, it has been ob- 
served that when the plant is treated with water, it 
yields a larger quantity of active extract than when 
treated with alcohol, and that the alcoholic extract 
is perfectly soluble in water. The leaves yield the 
largest quantity of soluble matter, but that obtained 
from the root possesses the greatest activity. 

Both the leaves and the root of the triosteum are 
quite bitter to the taste. The root is also nauseous to 
the taste, and has an odour somewhat resembling 
ipecacuanha. {Amer. Instit. of Homozop.) 

Urtica urens ; Ger., Brenn-nesscl ; Eng., Common 

nettle. — Urticece. 

Leaves small, oval, indented, five-nerved on the 
under side, of a light-green colour. These character- 
istics distinguish it from the Urtica adioica (large 
nettle). It flowers from July to October. We gather 
the ripe seeds, free them, after drying, from their 
green envelops, and prepare from the small, smooth 
grains of a pale yellowish-gray colour, a tincture 
of a pale yellow-green colour, according to Class 1st. 

Athamanta oreoselinum ; Ger., Berg-Petersilie ; Eng., 

Mountain-parsley. 

Root perennial, almost simple, yellowish-gray, fur- 
nished with a cluster of brown fibres. Stem erect, 
with fine furrows, glabrous, not very branchy, from 
1 to 2 feet high. Radical leaves petioled, large, tri- 
15 



338 APPENDIX. 

pinnate ; leaflets oval, deeply indented, glabrous ; 
the teeth terminate in white points. Corymbs ter- 
minal. Involucrum consists of a number of lanceo- 
late, revolute leaflets. Petals white. The ripe fruit 
is almost round, flat, with a broad border of a pale 
yellow. Thf root smells like carrot ; it has an aro- 
matic bitter taste. 

[To page 222.] Hepar sulfuris calcareum. — 
Gruner prepares this substance in the following 
manner : Mix carefully equal parts of pure caustic 
alkali and pure sulphur, press them down as tightly 
as possible in an earthen crucible, and, to prevent 
impurities from getting into the mass, cover it with 
a layer of moist pulverized chalk of one inch or half 
an inch in thickness, pressing it down with the finger ; 
after covering the crucible, expose it to a fire which 
is to be slight at first, but which is to be increased 
suddenly as soon as the crucible begins to glow ; keep 
it for half an hour in this red heat. Then take it out 
of the fire, let it cool slowly, remove the cover of 
chalk with great care, take out the contents, which 
will be found to possess a strong odour of sulphuret- 
ted hydrogen gas, reduce them to a homogeneous 
powder by trituration, and put up this powder with 
all possible speed in vials which are to be well corked 
and guarded from the light. Of this powder we pre- 
pare the triturations. 

Daphne indica, Daphne odora ; Fr., Laureole de Chine ; 

Ger., Indischer Seidelbast ; Eng., Sweet - scented 

purge laurel. — Thymelece. 

This plant is a native of China, with oblong-oval, 
glabrous, alternate leaves ; flowers white, odorous, 
almost sessile, forming a beautiful, well filled, glome- 
rated bouquet at the end of each branch. We pre- 
pare a tincture according to Class 1st, unless we can 
procure an essence from the recent plant. 



APPENDIX. 339 

Genista sgoparia ; Fr., Genet a balai ; Ger., Geniste, 
Ginster, Pfriemenkraut ; Eng., Common broom. — 
Leguminosce. 
This shrub frequents the woods and sandy lands of 

France and Germany ; stem branchy, angular ; 

leaves ternate and solitary ; flowers bell - shaped. 

We use the tender branches, from which we express 

the juice. 

Juglans regia ; Fr., Noyer commun or royal, Noix 
commune ; Ger., Nussbaum, welsche Nuss ; Eng., 
English walnut. — Terebinthinacece. 
We separate the shell from the nut, before it is 

ripe, cut it in pieces, and prepare from it an essence 

according to Class 2d. 

Pinus sylvestris ; Fr., Pin sauvage ; Ger., Gemeine 

Kiefer; Eng., Wild pine. — Coniferce. 

This tree is common in the forests of northern Eu- 
rope ; it is distinguished by its pyramidal form and 
its coniform flowers. From the young shoots or buds 
which we gather in spring, we prepare an essence 
according to Class 2d. 

[To page 269.] — Kali hydriodicum. The last para- 
graph on this page, under the head of " Iodates," 
should be read as the continuation of the article " Kali 
hydriodicqm," on page 290. 

Symphytum officinale ; Eng., Comfrey. — Boracineoe. 

This perennial plant is found all over Europe, in 
damp ditches, on meadows, along ponds, rivulets. 
Root large, cylindrical, branchy, from 1 to 2 inches 
long, several inches thick, fleshy, covered with a black 
or dark-brown epidermis, white internally, easily bro- 
ken, inodorous, of slimy consistence. Stem 3 inches 
high, branchy, angular, hairy ; radical leaves elon- 
gated, lanceolate, entire ; the leaves of the stem ses- 
sile, decurrent. Flowers purple-red or white, canuli- 
form, in corymbs, at the end of the stems. We gather 
the root in fall, and prepare from it a tincture aeeord- 



340 APPENDIX. 

ing to Class 2d. It is brown, and has a feeble, earthy 
smell. 

Tussilago petasites ; Eng., Colt's - foot. — Grows 
along rivulets and ditches in northern Europe. Flow- 
ers canuliform ; leaves oblong-cordiform, indented, 
hairy on the lower surface, lobes inclined towards each 
other. The whole plant has a penetrating, disagree- 
able, watery, flat odour ; it is a diuretic and sudorific. 
We prepare from it a tincture. 

Ranunculus acris ; Eng., Crow-foot. — Is found all 
over Europe ; root of the size of a goose-quill, oblique, 
fibrous ; radical leaves palmated, deeply indented ; 
stem erect, branchy ; flowers of a beautiful gold-yel- 
low, at the end of the branches, supported upon round, 
not furrowed pedicles. We gather the whole plant 
while flowering, in May and June, and prepare from 
it, according to Class 2d, an essence of a brown-yel- 
low colour and acrid taste. 

Ranunculus flammula ; Eng., Marsh-ranunculus. — 
Grows on damp meadows, along rivulets and marshes, 
all over Germany. Root articular, rampant. Leaves 
alternate, entire or indented, the lower pedunculated, 
the upper amplexicaule, all of them bald. The small, 
numerous, yellow flowers, supported on long, round 
pedicles, grow out from their sides and extremities. 
We gather the whole plant while flowering, in sum- 
mer, and prepare from it, according to Class 2d, an 
essence of a similar colour and taste as those of the 
preceding variety. 

Phytolacca decandra ; Eng., Poke. — A description 
of this plant, and its preparation for medicinal uses, 
will be furnished in the second volume of the Trans- 
actions of the American Institute of Homceopathy, by 
Dr. Williamson of Philadelphia. In the United States 
Dispensary the root is principally recommended. 

Kali bichromioum ; Eng., Bichromate of potash. — 
The symptoms which we possess of this substance, 
were evolved from the bichromate of the shops. 

Cimex lectularius ; Eng., Bed-bug. — We crush the 
incppf while nlivo, And macerate it in alcohol. 



INDICES 



OF THE LATIN AND ENGLISH NAMES OF THE DIFFERENT 
SUBSTANCES TREATED OF IN THIS WORK. 



Z^" In this Index, the words printed in italics are the Latin names which we 
prefer using in Homoeopathy. 



Absinthium, Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood. 
Acetas barytae, v. Baryta acetica. 

calcis, v. Calcaria acetica. 

cupri, v. Cuprum aceticum. 

ferri, v. Ferrum aceticum. , 

mangani, v. Manganum aceticum. 
mercurii, v. Mercurius acetatus. 

plumbi, v. Plumbum aceticum. 
Aceti acidum, Acidum aceticum, Acetic acid 
Acetum, acidum acetosum, Vinegar. 
Achillsea millefolium, v. Millefolium. 
Acidum aceticum, v. Aceti acidum. 

acetosum, v. Acetum. 

arseniosum, v. Arsenicum album. 

benzoicum. ..... 

fluoricum. ..... 

formicarum, v. Formica. 

hydrochloricum, v. Muriatis acidum. 

hydrocyanicum, v. Hydrocyani acidum. 

molybdicum, v. Molybdmni acidum. 

nitricum, v. Nitri acidum. 

oxalicum. ..... 

phosphoricum, v. Phosphori acidum. 

sulfuricum, v. Sulfurus acidum. 

tartaricum, v. Tartari acidum. 
Aconitum napellus, Aconite. 
Actaa spicata, Herb Christopher. 
Adeps suilla, Axungia porci, Hog's lard. 
^Erugo, v. Cuprum aceticum. 
JEither nitricus, v. Nitri spiritus dulcis. 
^Ether sulfuricus, Ether. .... 

JEthusa cynapium, Garden hemlock. 



PAGE. 

105 
263 
264 
298 
293 
289 
286 
• 302 
225 
206 
131 
225 
206 
311 
328 
329 

80 
223 
225 
315 
255 
329 
217 
221 
306 
123 
158 

85 
298 
255 

25 
123 



342 



Agaricus muscarius, Bug Agaric. 
Agnus castus, Vitex agnus castus, Chaste tree, 
Albumen, Album ovi, Albumen. 
Alcool, Spiritus vini alcoolisatus, Alcohol. 
Alcool sulfuris, v. Sulfur alcoolisatum. 
Allium sativum, Gar he. .... 
Aloes gummi, Aloes. .... 
Alumina, Aluminium oxydatum, Alumine. 
Arnbra grisea, Ambergris. 
Amrnoniacum gummi, Gum ammoniac. 
Ammonium carbonicum, Carbonate of ammonia. 
causticum. Water of ammonia. 
muriaticum, Hydrochlorate of ammonia 
Amomum zingiber, v. Zingiber. 
Anacardium orientate, Malacca bean. 
Andromeda Gmelini, v. Rhododendron. 
Anemone pratensis, v. Pulsatilla. 
Angehca archangehca, Angelica. 
Angustura, Angusturoe cortex, Angustura bark. 
Axisum stellatum, lllicium anisatum, Star anis seed. 

Anthrakokah. 

Antimonium crudum, Crude antimony. 

metallicum s. regulinum, Regulus of antimony, 
Antimonium tartaricum, v. Tartarus emeticus. 
Apium petroselinum, v. Petroselinum. 
Aqua. Aqua destillata, Water. , 

Aqua fortis, v. Nitri acidum. .... 

Aquilegia vulgaris, Columbine. .... 

Aranea diadema, v. Diadema. .... 

Arbor vitae. 

Arbutus uva ursi, v. Uva ursi. .... 

Archangelica officinalis, Angehca archangehca, Garden 
Arctostaphylos officinalis, v. Uva ursi. 
Argcnturnfoliatum, Silver. ..... 

nitricum, Nitrate of silver. 
Argentum vivum, v. Mercurius vivus. 
Argilla pura, v. Alumina. ..... 

Aristolochia clematitis, Common birthwort. 
Aristolochia serpentaria, v. Serpentaria. 
Armoracia, Armoracia officinalis, Horse-radish. 
Arnica montana, Mountain arnica. . , 

Arsenicum album, White arsenic. .... 

citrinum, Aurum pigmentum, Orpiment. 

metallicum, Arsenium, Metallic arsenic. 

rubrum, Realgar, Realgar. 

Artemisia absinthium. 

Artemisia contra, v. Cina 

judaica, v. Cina. , 

Artemisia vulgaris, Mugwort. .... 

Arum maculatum, Wake-robin. .... 

Arum seguinum, v. Caladium seguinum. . 



angelic 



204 

181 

83 

18, 207 
222 
102 
196 
236 
84 
196 
245 
230 
265 
117 
181 
144 
186 
158 
152 
182 
228 
304 
303 
305 
115 

23, 315 
255 
102 
78 
142 
142 
158 
142 
275 
276 
279 
236 
124 
176 
158 
103 
311 
313 
314 
313 
105 
183 
183 
104 
159 
144 



INDICES. 



343 



Asafcetida, Ferula asa-foetida, Asafcetida. 

Asarurn europceum, Asarabacca. ..... 

Asparagus officinalis, Asparagus. .... 

Aspidium filix mas, v. Filix mas. . . . . 

Astacus fluviatilis, v. Cancer Jluviatilis. 

Athamanta oreoselinum. ...... 

Atriplex olida, Chenopodium olidum, Stinking goose-foot. 
Atropa belladonna, v. Belladonna. . . . , 

Aurum foliatum s. purum, Gold leaf. 

fulminans, Fulminating gold. 

muriaticum, Muriate of gold. 
Aurum pigmentum, Orpiment, v. Arsenicum citrinum. 
Axungia porci, Axonge v. Adeps suilla. 



B 

Balsaruum copaivse, v. Copaivce balsamum, 
Barbus, Cyprinus barbus, Barbel, 
Baryosma tongo, v. Tongo, .... 
Baryta, 

acetica, Acetate of baryta, 

carbonica, Carbonate of barytes, 

caustica, Caustic baryta, 

muriatica, Hydrochlorate of barytes, 
Belladonna, Atropa belladonna, Deadly nightshade, 
Berberis vulgaris, Barberry, ..... 
Bismuthum, Bismuthi magisterium, Magistery of bismuth, 
metallicum, Metallic bismuth, 
nitricum prmcipitatum, 
Boletus satanas, Lurid boletus, 
Bonplandia trifoliata, v. Angustura, 
Borax veneta, Sub-boras natri, Borax, 
Bovista, Lycoperdon bovista, Puff ball, 
Branca ursina, v. Heracleum sphondylium, 
Bromium, Bromine, ..... 

Brucea anti-dysenterica, Anti dysenteric brucea, 
Bryonia alba, White bryony, 



C. 

Cahinca s. Cainca, Cahinca cainana, Cahinca root, 
Caladium seguinum, Arum seguinum, Poisonous pediveau, 

Calcarea, 

Calcarea acetica, Acetate of lime, 

carbonica, Carbonate of lime, 

caustica, s. pura, Quick lime, 

muriatica, Muriate of lime, 

phosphorica, Phosphate of lime, 

sulfurica, Sulfate of lime, 
Calcarea suffurata, v. Hepar sulfuris, 
Calcium oxydatum, . 

Calx, 

Calendula officinalis, Common marygold, . 



344 



INDICES. 



eyes 



Calomelas, Calomel, v. Mercurius dulcis, 

Camphora, Laurus camphora, Camphor, 

Cancer fluviatilis s. Astacus, River-crab, 

Cancrorum oculi, Lapides cancrorum, Crab's 

Cannabis sativa, Hemp, 

Cantharis, Meloe vesicatorius, Cantharides, 

Capsicum annuum, Cayenne pepper, 

Carbo animalis, Animal charcoal, 

vegetabilis, Vegetable charcoal, 

Carbonas ammonias, v. Ammonium carbonicum 
barytas, v. Baryta carbonica, 
calcis, v. Calcarea carbonica, 
cupri, v. Cuprum carbonicum, 
ferri, v. Ferrum oxydatum hydratum, 
magnesias, v. Magnesia carbonica, 
mangani, v. Manganum carbonicum, 
niccoli, v. Niccolum carbonicum, 

plunibi, 

potassas, v. Kali carbonicum, , 

sodas, v. Natrum carbonicum, 
strontianse, v. Strontiana carbonica, 

Carbonium sulfuratum, v. Sulfur alcoolisatum, 

Carburetum ferri, v. Graphites, 

sulfuris, v. Sulfur alcoolisatum, 

Cascarilla, Croton cascarilla, Cascarilla, 

Cassia senna, v. Senna, 

Castoreum, Castor, ..... 

Causticum, Tinctura acris sine kali, Caustic, 

Cephaelis ipecacuanha, v. Ipecacuanha, 

Cera, Ceratum, Wax, Cerate, 

Cereoli, Bougies, v. Cera, .... 

Cerussa, ....... 

Chamomilla vulgaris, Matricaria chamomilla, Comm 

Charta cerata, v. Cera, Wax-paper, 

Che/idonium majus, Celandine, 

Chenopodium glaucum, v. Oak-leaved goose-foot, 

Chenopodium olidum, v. A triplex olida, 

China, Cinchona officinalis, Peruvian bark, 

Chininum phosphatum, 
sulphuricum, 

Chiococca racemosa, v. Cahinca, 

Chloras potassae, Chlorate of potassa, v. Kali chloricum, 

Chloretum (deuto-) auri, v. Aurum muriaticum, 

mercurii, v. Mercurius corrosivus, 
(proto-) mercurii, v. Mercurius dulcis, 

Chrysomela septempunctata, v. Coccionella, 

Christophoriana, ...... 

Cicuta vivosa, Water hemlock, .... 

Cimen lectularius, .:.... 

Cina, Semen contra, Worm-seed, .... 
Cinchona officinalis, v. China, 



chamomile, 



INDICES 



345 



Cinchoninum sulphuricum, 

Cinnabaris, Cinnabar, .... 

Cinnamomum, Cinnamon, 

Cistus canadensis, Canadian rock-rose, 

Clematis erecta, Virgin's bower, 

Coccionella s. Coccionella, Lady-bird, 

Cocculus, Menispermum cocculus, Coccnlus indicu 

Cochlearia armoracia, v. Armoracia, 

Cojfea cruda s. arabica, Mocha coffee, 

Colchicum autumnale, Meadow-saffron, 

Colla piscium, v. Ichthyocolla, 

Colocynthis, Cucumis colocynthis, Colocynth, 

ConcJue, Testae ostreae, Oyster-shell, 

Conium maculatum, Hemlock, - . 

Convolvulus jalappa, Jalap, v. Jalappa, 

Copaivce balsamum, Balsam copaiba, 

Corallium rubrum, Red coral, 

Cortex angusturce, v. Angustura, 

peruviana s. China?, Quinquina, v. China, 

Coumarouma odorata, v. Tongo, 

Crocus sativus, Saffron, .... 

Crotalus horridus, v. Lachesis, 

Croton cascarilla, v. Cascarilla, 
eleuteria, v. Cascarilla, 

Croton tiglium, Croton-tree, 

Cubeba;, Piper cubeba, Cubebs, 

Cucumis colocynthis, v. Colocynthis, 

Cuprum aceticum, Acetate of copper, 

Cuprum arsenicosum, .... 

Cuprum carbonicum, Carbonate of copper, 
metallicum, Metallic copper, 
sulfuricum, Sulfate of copper, 

Cyclamen europceum, Sow-bread, 

Cyprinus barbus, Barbel, v Barbus, 

D. 

Daphne indica, Sweet scented spurge-laurel, 

Daphne mezereum, v. Mezerevm, 

Datura stramonium, v. Stramonium, 

Delphinium staphysagria, v. Staphysagria, 

Deuto-chloretum auri, v. Auruin muriaticum, 

mercurii, v. Mcrcurius corrosivu 

Diadema, Aranea diadema, Diadem spider, 

Dictamnus albus, Bastard dittany, 

Digitalis -purpurea, Purple fox-glove, 

Dipterix, odorata, v. Ton go, 

Drosera rotundifolia, Sundew, 

Dulcamara, Solanum dulcamara, Bitter-sweet, 



E 



Elaterium, 

ELectricitas, Electricity, 
^ 15* 



346 



INDICES. 



Eleuteria, Croton eleuteria, v. Cascarilla, . 
Epeira diadcma, v. Diadema, .... 

Eugenia jambos, Malabar plum-tree, 

Eupatorium perfoliatum, 

Euphorbium officinarum, Euphorbium spurge, 
Euphrasia officinalis, Eye-bright, 
Evonymus europceus, Spindle tree, 

F 
Ferrum, Ferrum metallicum, Metallic iron, 

aceticum, Acetate of iron, 

chloratum, s. muriaticum, Hydrochlorate of 

magneticum, Magnetic oxide of iron, 

oxy datum hydratum, Carbonate of iron, 
Ferrum hydratum oxydatum, v. Ferrum oxy datum, 

muriaticum, v. Ferrum chloratum, 

oxydulatum magneticum, v. Ferrum magnetic 
Ferula asa foetida, v. Asa fcetida, 
Filix max, Polypodium s. aspidium fil. m., Male fern, 
Flammula jovis, v, Clematis erecta, 
Flores zinci, ■•.... 
Formica rufa, Ant, Red-ant, 
Frag aria vesca, Wood-strawberry, 
Fuga daemonum, v. Hypericum perforatum, 

G 
Galvanismus, Galvanism, 
Genista scoparia, Common broom, 
Gentiana lutea, ..... 

Ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Ginseng, 

Glonoine, 

Granatum, Punica granatum, Pomegranate, 
Graphites, Graphite, 
Gratiola officinalis, Hedge-hyssop, 
Guseco, ....... 

Guaiacum officinale, Guaiacum. 
Gummi ammoniacum, v. Ammoniacum, 
Gummi gutli, ..... 

H 

Hamatoxylum campechianum, Campeachy logwood, . 156, 331 

Helleborus albus, v. Veratrum album, ..... 167 

Helleborus niger, Black hellebore, 164 

Hepar sulfuris calcare urn, Sulphuret of lime, . . . 222 338 

Heracleum sphondylium, Cow-parsnip, ..... 128 

Herba Sancti-Joannis, v. Hypericum perforatum, 

sardoa, v. Ranunculus sceleratus, 
Humulus lupulus, v. Lupulus, 
Hydrargyrum acetatum, v. Mercurius acetatus, 

ammoniato-muriaticum, v. Mercurius praeipit. albus, 
muriaticum corrosivum, v. Mercurius corrosivus, 
muriaticum mite, v. Mercurius dulcis, 



INDICES. 



347 



Hydrargyrum oxydatum rubrum, v. Mercurius prcecipit. ruber 

oxydulatum nigrum, v. Mercurius solubilis, 

vivum, v. Mercurius vivus, 
Hydras oxydi ferri, v. Ferrum oxydatum hydratum, 
Hydriodas potassse, v. Kali hydriodicum, . 
Hydrochloras ammonise, v. Ammonium muriaticum, 

barytas, v. Baryta muriatica, 

calcis, v. Calcarea muriatica, 

ferri, v. Ferrum chloratum, 

magnesise, v. Magnesia muriatica, 

sodae, v. Natrum muriaticum, 
Hydrocyani acidum, Hydrocyanic acid, 
Hyoscyamus niger, Henbane, .... 
Hypericum perforatum, St. John's wort, 



Ichthyocolla, Colla piscium, Isinglass, 

Jgnatia amara, Strychnos Ignatia, Bean of St. Ignatius, 

Illicium anisatum, v. Anisum stellatum, 

Indigo fera tinctoria, Indigo, .... 

Iodium s. Iodina, Iodine, ...... 

Ipomsea Jalappa, Jalap, v. Jalappa, 

Ipecacuanha, Cephaelis ipecacuanha, Ipecacuanha, 

Isis nobilis, v. Corallium rubrum, .... 



Jacea, v. Viola tricolor, . 

Jalappa, Ipomaea Jalappa, Jalap, . . 

Jalappa magisterium, Resin of Jalap, 

Jambos, v. Eugenia jambos, 

Jatropha curcas, Purging-nuts, 

Juglans regia, English walnut, or Nux juglans, 

Juncus pilosus, Hairy-rush, 

Juniperus sabina, v. Sabina, . . 

K 

Kali bichromicum, bichromate of potash. 

Kali carbonicum, Carbonate of potassa, 
causticum, Caustic potassa, 
chloricum, Chlorate of potassa, 
hydriodicum, Hydriodate of potassa, 

Kali hydrobromicum, or bromatum, 

Kali nitricum, v. Nitrum, 

Kalmia latifolia, . . • 

Krameria triandra, v. Ratanhia, 

Kreasotum, Kreasote, 



Lachesis, Lance-headed viper, 
Lactuca virosa, Strong-scented lettuce, 
Lactucarium, • 



340 
249 
221 
251 
340, 270 
271 
253 
332 
173 
213 



348 



INDICES. 



Lamium album. Dead-nettle, 

Lana philosophica, ...... 

Lapis magneticus, v. Ferritin magneticum, 

Lapides Cancrorum, v. Cancrorum oculi, 

Lapis infernalis, ...... 

Lauro erasutt, Prunus Laurocerasus, Cherry-laurel, 
Laurus camphora, v. Campliora, 

cinnamomum, v. Cinnamomvm, 

Pichurim, v. Piehurim, 

sassafras, v. Sassafras, .... 
Ledum palustre, Wild-rosemary, 
Leontodon taraxacum, v. Taraxacum, 
Lithanthrak kali, Sulphuratum, 
Lobelia inflata, ....... 

Lobelia carJinalis, 

Lolium temulentum, Bearded darnel, . 

Lucula pilosa, v. Juncus pilosus, 

Lupulus, Humulus lupulus, Hops, 

Lycoperdon bovista, v. Bouista, 

Lycopodium clavatum, Lycopodii pollen, Club-moss, 

Lytta vesicatoria, Cantharides, v. Cantharis, . 

M. 
Magisterium Bismuthi, v. Bismulhum, 

Jalappoe, v. Jalappa; magisterium, 

Plumbi 

Magnes, Lapis magneticus, v. Ferrum magneticum, 
Magnes artifcialis, Artificial magnet, 
Magnesia calcinata s. pura, Calcined magnesia, 
carbonica, Carbonate of magnesia, 
muriatica, Muriate of magnesia, 
sulfur ica, Sulfate of maguesia, 
Magnetismus animalis, v. Zoo-mag net ismus, 

mineralis, v. Magnes artifcialis, 
Manganum aceticum, Acetate of manganese, . 
carbonicum, Carbonate of manganese 
metallicum, Metallic manganese, 
Marcasita, Bismuth, v. Bismulhum metallicum, 
Marum verum, v. Teucrium marum verum, 
Matricaria chamomilla, v. Chamomilla, 
Meloe majalis, Oil-beetle, 

proscarabaus, v. Meloe majalis, 
Meloe vesicatorius, cantharides v. Cantharis, 
Membrana ovi, v. Oui membrana, 
Menispermum cocculus, v. Cocculus, 
Menyanlhes trifoliata, Buck-bean, 
Mephitis putorius, Skunk, 
Mercurialis perennis, .... 

Mercurius acetifies, Acetate of mercury, 
Mercurius bijoditus, or jodatus, 

oorrosivus, corrosive sublimate, 



148 
310 
295 

99 
277' 
132 
208 
154 
193 
157 
129 
119 
228 
332 
334 
113 
165 
178 
205 
189 

79 



307 

200 

303 

295 

319 

235 

250 

268 

259 

323 

319 

289, 291 

290 

289 

307 

146 

108 

81 

81 

79 

84 

184 

130 

96 

334 

286 

288 

283 



INDICES. 



349 



Mercurius dulcis, Calomel, .... 

nitrosus, ...... 

prcecipitatus albus, White precipitate, 

prceci/i/tatiis ruber, Red precipitate, 

Meratrius solubUis Hahnemann.!, Black oxyde of mercury, 

vivus, Mercury, Quicksilver, 
Mercurius sublimatus, v. Mercurius corrosivus, . 

sulfuratus ruber, v. Cinnabaris, 
Mesmerismus, mesmerism, v. Zoo-magnetismus, 
Mezereum, Daphne mezereum, Mezereon, 
Millefolium, Achillaea millefolium, Milfoil, 
Millepeda, v. Oniscus asellus, .... 

Mohibdaenum, Molybdenum, ..... 

Moli/bdaeni acidum, Acidum molybdicum, Molybdic acid 

Momordica elaterium, 

Morphium aceticum, 

Morphium purum, . ...... 

Moschus, Musk, , 

Murius ammonia?, v. Ammonium muriaticum, 

auri, t. Aurum muriaticum, 

baryta?, v. Baryta muriatica, 

calcis, v. Calcarea muriatica, 

ferri, v. Ferrum chloratum, 

magnesia?, v. Magnesia muriatica, 

mercuhi, v.JMercurius dulcis, 

potassa?, v. Kali chloricum, 

soda?, v. Natrum muriaticum, 
Muriatis acidum, Acidum muriaticum, Muriatic acid, 
Murides s. murina, Bromine, v. Bromium,. 
Myristica moschata, v. Nux moschata, 

N 

Naptha montana, v. Petroleum, 

nitri, v. Nitri spiritus dulcis, 
vitrioli, v. jEther sulfuricus, 
Natrum carbonicum, Carbonate of soda, 
causticum, Caustic soda, 
muriaticum, Muriate of soda, 
nitricum, Nitrate of soda, 
sulfuratum, Sulfuret of soda, 
sulfuricum, Sulfate of soda, 
Natrum boracicum, v. Borax, .... 

Nerium Oleander, v. Oleander, .... 
Niccolum carbonicum, Carbonate of nickel, 
Nicotiana tabacum, v. Tabacum, 
Nitrasargenti, v. Argentum nitricum, 

bismuthi, Nitrate of Bismuth, v. Bismuthum. 

hydrargyrosus, 

potassa, Nitrate of potassa,v. Nitrum, 
soda?, v. Natrum nitricum, 
Nitrum, Kali nitricum, Nitre, Nitrate of potasaa, 



282 
288 
286 
285 
280 
279 
283 
287 
323 
150 
131 

82 
314 
315 
330 
240 
239 

93 
265 
274 
267 
267 
292 
268 
282 
257 
268 
223 
210 
190 



214 
255 
25 
251 
229 
268 
256 
222 
261 
262 
131 
277 
140 
276 
307 
288 
283 
256 
268 



350 



INDICES. 



Nitri acidum, Acidum nitricum, Nitric acid, 
spiritus dulcis, Sweet spirit of nitre, 

Nuxjuglans, or regia, .... 

Nux moschata, Nutmeg, 
vomica, Nux vomica, 



O 

Oculi cancrorum, v. Cancrorum oculi, 
(Enanthe crocata, Hemlock water dropwort, 
Oleander, Nerimn oleander, Oleander, 
Oleum animale Dippelii, Dippel's animal oil, 

jecoris morrhua s. aselli, Cod-liver oil, 

olivarum, Olive oil, 
Oleum cornu cervi, v. Oleum animale, 

petrse, v. Petroleum, 
Oliva, Olive, v. Oleum olivarum, 
Oniscus asellus, Common wood-louse, 
Ononis spinosa, Common rest-harrow, 

Opium, Opium, 

Osmium, Osmium, .... 

Ovi membrana, Egg-membrane, 
Ovi album, v. Albumen, 



acid, 



Padus avium, Prunus padus, Bird-cherry, 
PcBonia officinalis, Peony, 
Panax quinque folium, v. Ginseng, 
Papaver somniferum, v. Opium, 
Paris quadrifolia, True-love, 
Percarburetum ferri, v. Graphites, 
Petroleum, Petroleum, .... 
Petroselinum sativum, Parsley-root, 
Phellandrium aquaticum, Water-hemlock 
Phosphas calcis, v. Calcarea phosphorica, 
Phosphorus, Phosphorus, 
Phytolacca decandra, 

Phosphori acidum, Acidum phosphoricum, Phosphoric 
Pichurim, Pichurim-bean laurel, .... 
Pinus sylvestris, Wild-pine, 
Piper cubeba, v. Cubebce, 
Platina, Platina, .... 

Platina muriatica, 
Plumbago, v. Graphites, 
Plumbum aceticum, Acetate of lead, 
Plumbum carbonicum, 
Plumbum metallicum, Metallic lead, 
Podophyllum peltatum, 
Polygala Senega, v. Senega, 
Polopodium filix mas, v. Filix mas, 
Potassa carbonica, caustica, nitrica, &c., v. Kali carbonicum, caus 
ticum, nitricum, tyc. 



INDICES. 



351 



Prsecipitatus albus, v. Mercurius pracipitatus albus, 
ruber, v. Mercurius preecipitatus ruber, 
Proscarabteus, v. Meloe majalis et Proscarabaus, 
Proto-chloretum mercurii, v. Mercurius dulcis, 
Prunus laurocerasus, v. Laurocerasus, 

padus, v. Padus avium, ..... 

Prunus spinosa, Wild plum-tree, .... 

Punica granatum, v. Granatum, ..... 

Pulsatilla nigricans s. pratensis, Pulsatilla, 

R 

Ranunculus acris, crowfoot, 

Ranunculus bulbosus, Butter-cups, .... 

Ranunculus fiamula. ........ 

sceleratus, Cherry-leaved butter-cups, 

Raphanus, 

Ratanhia peruviana, Rhatany-root, .... 

Rhabarbarum, Rhubarb, 

Rheum, Rhubarb, v. Rhabarbarum, .... 

Rhododendrum chrysanthum, Yellow-flowered rhododendron. 
Rhus radicans, ....... 

Rhus toxicodendron, Poison oak, 

vernix s. veneta, Swamp-sumach, 
Rorella, Drosera rotundifolia, ..... 

Rosmarinus officinalis, Rosemary, . • ■ • 

Rubigo, Ferrum oxy datum hydratum, Hyd. oxide of iron, 
Rubinus arsenicalis, Realgar, v. Arsenicum rubrum, 
Rata graveolens s. hoi-tensis, Rue, . 

S 
Sabadilla, Veratrum sabadilla, Cevadilla, 
Sabina, Juniperus sabina, Savine, 
Saccharum lactis, Sugar of milk, 

officinarum, 
Saccharum saturni, v. Plumbum aceticum, 
Sal ammoniacum, v. Ammonium muriaticum, 
anglicanum, v. Magnesia sulfurica, 
culinare, v. Natrum muriaticum, 
Glauberii, v. Natrum sulfuricum, 
petrse, Saltpetre, v. Kali nitricum, 
tartari, v. Kali carbonicum, 
volatile anglicanum, v. Ammonium carbonicum, 
salicinum, ..... 

Sambucus nigra, Common European elder, 
Sanguinaria canadensis. Blood-root, 
Sapo domesticus, Soap, 
Sassafras, Laurus sassafras, Sassafras, 
Sassaparilla s. Sarsaparilla, Sarsaparilla, 
Scilla maritima, v. Squilla maritima, 
Secale cornutum, Ergot, 
Sedum acre. Biting stone-crop, 
Selenium, Selenium, . 



352 INDICES. 

Senecarpus anacardium, v. Anacardium oricntale, . . 181 

Semen cataputias minoris, 186 

contra, v. Cina, ....... 183 

sabadillae, v. Sabudilla, 194 

Senega, Polygala senega, Senega snake-root, . . . 1*76 

Senna, Cassia senna, Senna, 145 

Sepia, Succus sepiae, Inky juice of the cuttle-fish, . . 95 

Serpentaria virginiana, Virginia snake-root, . . . 176 

Serpyllum, Thymus serpillum, Wild thyme, . . . 120 

Silicea, Silex, 237 

Smilax sassaparilla, v. Sassaparilla, 174 

Soda carbonica, caustica, muriatica, <fec, v. Natrum carbonicum, 
causticum, muriaticum, fyc. 

Solanum dulcamara, b. Dulcamara, 137 

Solanum mammosum, Nipple-nightshade, .... 194 

nigrum, Black-nightshade, . . . . . 137 

Spartium scoparia, v. Genista scoparia, .... 338 

Sphondylium, v. Heracleum spondylium, . . . ■ 128 

Spigelia anthelmia, Pink-root, ....'. 146 
Spiritus sethereus nitratus s. nitrico-aethereus, v. Nitri spiritus 

dulcis, 255 

calcarese caustica?, ...... 233 

sethereus sulfuratus s. sulfurico-aethereus, v. JEtlier sul- 

furicus, Ether, ..... 25 

vini, v. Alconl, 18, 207 

Spongia marina tosta, Burnt sponge, .... 100 

Squilla maritima, Squill, . 175 

Stannum, Tin, 299 

Staphysagria, Delphinium staphysagria, Stavesacre, . . 138 

Stibium, v. Antimonium metallicum, ..... 303 

sulfuratum nigrum, v. Antimonimn crudum, . . 304 

Stramonium, Datura stramonium, Thorn-apple, . . 139 

Strontiana carbonica, Carbonate of strontian, . . . 252 

caustica, s. pura, Caustic strontian, . . . 235 

Strychninum, 242 

nitricum, . . . ... . . 243 

sulphuricum, ....... 243 

Strychnos ignatii, v. Ignatia, 189 

nux vomica, v. Nux vomica, 191 

Subcarbonas ammonise, barytae, calcis, <fec, v. Carbonas amrnonise, 
barytae, calcis, &c. 

Succus sepiae, v. Sepia, 95 

Sulfas calcis, v. Calcarea sulfurica, ..... 261 

cupri, v. Cuprum sulfuricum, ..... 297 

magnesiae, v. Magnesia sulfurica, .... 259 

sodae, v. Natrum sulfuricum, ..... 261 

zinci, v. Zincum sulfuricum, ..... 311 

Sulfur alcoolisatum, Carburet of sulphur, .... 222 

Sulfur, s. sulphur, Sulphur, Tincture of sulphur, . . . 219 

Sulfuretum antimonii, • 304 

araenici flavum, v. Arsenicum citrinwm, . . 318 



INDICES. 



353 



Sulfuretum arsenici rubrum, v. Arsenicum rubrum, 
calces, v. Hepar sulfuris, 
hydrargyri rubrum, v. Cinnabaris, 
sodse, v. Natrum sulfuricum, 

Sulfuris acidum, Acidum sulfuricum, Sulfuric acid, 

Sulphas quininus, 

Sumac venenata, v. Rhus vernix, 

SympLitum officinale, . 

T 
Tabacum, Nicotiana tabacum, Tobacco, 
Tanacetum vulgare, Common tansy, 
Taraxacum, Leontodon taraxacum, Dandelion, 
Tartarus emeticus s. stibiatus, Emetic tartar, 
Tartari acidum, Acidum tartaricum, Tartaric acid, 
Tartarus potassse et ammonii, v. Tartarus emeticus, 
Taxus baccata, Yew, .... 

Terebinthince oleum, Turpentine, 
Testa? ostra?, v. Concha, . . . • 

Teucrium, marum verum, Cat-thyme, 
Thea sinensis s. caesarea, Imperial green tea, 
Theridion curassivicum, Black spider of Curacao, 
Thuya occidentalis, Tree of life, 
Thymus serpillum, v. Serpyllum, 
Tinctura acris sine kali, v. Causticum, 

sulfuris, v. Sulfur, . 

Tongo, Baryosma tongo, Tonka-bean, 
Trifolium fibrinum, v. Menyanthes, 
Trigonocephaly lachesis, v. Lachesis, 

Triosteum perfoliatum, 

Tussilago petasites, 

U 
Ulmus campestris, Common elm-tree, 
Urtica urens, s. minor, Stinging-nettle, 
Uca ursi, Arbutus uva ursi, Bear-berry, 

V 

Valeriana officinalis s. minor, Valerian, 
Veratrinum, ....•• 
Veratrwm album, White hellebore, 
Veratrum sabadilla, v. Sabadilla, . 
Verbascum thapsus, Mullein, . _ . 
Verbena officinalis, Common vervain, 
Vinca minor, Lesser periwinkle, 
Vinum, "Wine, ■ • 

Viola odorata s. martia, Sweet violet, 

tricolor, Jacea, Heart's-ease, 
Viridi seris, v. Cuprum aceticum, 
Vitex agnus castus, v. Agnus castus, 
Yitrioli acidum, v. Sulfuris acidum, 

naphtha, v. Miher sulfuricus, 



354 INDICES. 

Vitriolum album, s. zinci, v. Zincum sulfuricum, . . 311 

coeruleum s. cupri, v. Cuprum sulfuricum, . . 297 

Viverra putorius, v. Mephitis putorius, 96 

Vulvaria, v. Atriplex olida, ...... 106 



Zincum album, .....-.•• 310 

Zincum metallicum, ........ 309 

Zincum oxydatum, 310 

Zincum sulfuricum, Sulfate of zinc, ..... 311 

Zinziber officinale, Ginger, . . . . . , . 177 

Zoo-magnetismus, Animal magnetism, ..... 323 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Note. — By means of this Index, those who do not recollect the Latin name 
of any substance will be enabled to find it upon referring to the preceding 
Index. It was not thought necessary to annex the pages. 



Absinth, Artemisia absinthiam. 
Acetate of baryta, Baryta acetica. 
lime, Calcarea acetica. 
copper, Cuprum aceti- 

cum. 
iron, Ferrum aceticum. 
mercury, Mercurius ace- 

ticus. 
lead, Plumbum aceticum. 
Acid, acetic, Aceti acidum. 
acetous, Acetum. 
arsenious, V.Arsenicum album, 
formic, V. Formica, 
hydrochloric, V. Muriatis aci- 
dum. 
hydrocyanic, Hydrocyani aci- 
dum. 
molybdic, Molybdseni. 
nitric, Nitri. 
phosphoric, Phosphori. 
prussic, V. Hydrocyani. 
sulphuric, Sulfuris. 
tartaric, Tartari. 
vitriolic, V. Sulphuris. 
Aconite, Aconitum. 
Agaric, bug, Agaricus. 
Albumen, Albumen. 
Alcohol, Alcool. 
Ahnonds, oil of, Oleum Amygda- 

larum. 
Aloes, Aloe. 
Alumine, Alumina. 
Ambergris, Ambra grisea. 
Ammonia, Ammonium. 
Ammonia, carbonate of, V. Ammo- 
nium carbonicum. 
Ammoniac, gum., Ammoniacum 

gummi. 
Angelica, garden, Archangelica. 
Angustura, Angustura. 



Anis seed, star, Anisum stellatum. 
Ant, red, Formica rufa. 
Antimony, Antimonium. 
Aqua fortis, v. Nitri acidum. 
Arnica, mountain, Arnica. 
Arsenic, Arsenicum. 
Asafcetida, Asafcetida. 
Asarabacca, Asarum. 
Asparagus, Asparagus. 
Axonge, Adeps suilla. 

Balsam Copaiba,Copaiva3 balsamum. 

Barbel, Barbus. 

Barberry, Berberis. 

Bark, Peruvian, China. 

Barley, Hordeum. 

Barytes, Baryta. 

Bear berry, uva ursi. 

Benzoic acid, Acidum benzoicum. 

Bichloride of mercury, Mercurius 

corrosivus. 
Bichromate of potash, Kali bichromi- 

cum. 
Bind-weed, Convolvulus arventis. 
Biniodide of mercury, Mercurius 

jodibus. 
Bird-cherry, Padus avium. 
Birthwort, common, Aristolochia. 
Bismuth, Bismuthum. 
Biting stone-crop, Sedum acre. 
Bitter-sweet, Dulcamara. 
Black-lead, Graphites. 
Blood-root, Sanguinaria canadensis. 
Boletus, lurid, Boletus satanas. 
Boneset, eupatorium perfohatum. 
Borax, Borax. 
Bougies, V. Cera. 
Buck-bean, Menyanthes. 
Broom, common, Genista scoparia. 
Bromine, Bromium. 



356 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Brucea, Brucea antidysenterica. 

Bryony, Bryonia. 

Bug agaric, Agaricus muscarius. 

Cacao, Cacao. 
Cahinca, Cahinca. 
Calomel, Mercurius dulcis. 
Camphor, Camphora. 
Canadian rock-rose, Cistus cana- 
densis. 
Cantharides, Cantharides. 
Carbon, Carbo. 

Carbonate of ammonia, Ammonium 
carbonicum. 
barytes, Baryta car- 

bonica. 
lead, Plumbum carbo- 
nicum. 
lime, Calcarea. 
copper, Cuprum car- 
bonicum. 
iron, Ferrum. 
magnesia, Magnesia 

carbonica. 
manganese, Manga- 

num carbonicum. 
nickel, Niccolum. 
potassa, Kali, 
soda, Natrum. 
strontian, Strontiana 
carbonica. 
Carburet, per, of iron, Graphites. 
Carburet of sulphur, Sulfur alcooli- 

satum. 
Cascarilla, Cascarilla. 
Castor, Castoreum. 
Cat-thyme, Teucrium. 
Caustic, Causticum. 
Celandine, Chelidonium. 
Cerate, v. Cera. 
Cevadilla, Sabadilla. 
Chamomile, Chamomilla. 
Charcoal, Carbo. 
Chaste-tree, Agnus castus. 
Cherry, common-winter, Chysalis 
alkekengi. 
laurel, Lauro cerasus. 
Chestnut, Castanea. 
Chlorate of potassa, Kali chloricum. 
Chloride of gold, Aurum muriati. 
cum. 



Chloride bi, of mercury, Mercurius 
corrosivus. 
proto, of mercury, Mer- 
curius dulcis. 

Chocolate, v. Cacao. 

Cinnabar, Cinnabaris. 

Cinnamon, Cinnamomum. 

Club-moss, Lycopodium. 

Cocculus, Cocculus. 

Cock-chaffer, Melolontha. 

Cod-liver oil, Oleum jec. morrhua:. 

Coffee, raw, Coffea cruda. 

Colocynth, Colocynthis. 

Colt's foot, v. tussilago retajites. 

Columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

Comfrey, v. Symphytum. 

Copaiba, balsam, Copaivas balsa- 
mum. 

Copper, Cuprum. 

Coral, red, Corallium rubrum. 

Corrosive sublimate, Mercurius cor- 
rosivus. 

Cow-parsnip, Heracleum sphondy- 
lium. 

Crab, river, Cancer fluviatilis. 

Crab's eyes, Cancrorum oculi. 

Croton, oil, Croton. 

Crowfoot, v. Ranunculus acris. 

Cubebs, Cubebae. 

Cuttle-fish, Sepia, 

Dandelion, Taraxacum. 

Darnel, bearded, Lolium temulen- 
tum 

Deadly-nightshade, Belladonna. 

Dittany, Dictamnus. 

Egg-membrane, Membrana ovi. 

Elder, Sambucus. 

Electricity, Electricitas. 

Elm-tree, Amer., Ulmus campestris. 

Ergot, of rye, Secale cornutum. 

Ether, nitric, Nitri spiritus. 
sulphuric, ^Ether. 

Euphorbium spurge, Euphorbium. 

Eye-bright. Euphrasia. 

Fluoric acid. Acidum fluoricum. 

Fox-glove, Digitalis. 

Galvanism, Galvani^mus. 

Gamboge, v. Gummi gutti. 

Garlic, Alhum. 

Ginger, Zingiber. 

Ginseng, Ginseng. 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



357 



Goose-foot, Chenopodium. 

stinking, Atriplex. 
Graphite, Graphites. 
Gum arabic, Gummi arabicum. 

Hairy rush, Juncus pilosus. 
Heart's-ease, Viola tricolor. 
Hedge-hyssop, Gratiola. 
Hellebore, white, Veratrum album, 
black, Helleborus niger. 
garden, iEthusa cyna- 
pium. 
Hemp, Cannabis. 
Henbane, Hyoscyamus. 
Herb-Christopher, Actaea spicata. 
Hemlock, Conium maculatum. 
■water, Cicuta virosa. 
Hop, Lupulus. 
Horse-gentian, Triosteum perfolia- 

tum. 
Horse-radish, Raphanus. 
Hydrate of iron, Ferrum oxydatum. 
potassa, Kali hydriodi- 
cum. 
Hydrochlorate of ammonia, Ammo- 
nium muriaticum. 
of barytes, Baryta 

muriatica. 
of lime, Calcarea. 
of iron, Ferrum chlo- 

ratum. 
of magnesia, Mag- 
nesia muriatica. 
of soda, Natrum mu- 
riaticum. 
Ignatius, St., bean of, Tgnatia amara. 
Indian tobacco, Lobelia inflata. 
Indigo, Indigo. 
Iodine, Iodium. 
Ipecacuanha, Ipecacuanha. 
Iron, Ferrum. 
Isinglass, Ichthyocolla. 

Jalap, Jalappa. 
Kreasote, Kreasotum. 

Lady -bird, Coccionella septempunc- 

tata. 
Lance-headed viper, Lachesis. 
Lard, Hog's, Adeps suilla. 
Lead, Plumbum. 



Lemon-juice, Citri Succus. 
Lettuce, strong-scented, Lactuca vi- 
rosa. 
Lime, Calcarea. 
Liquorice, Liquiritia. 
Lime, sulphuret of, Hepar Sulfuris. 
Lizard, gray, Lacerta agilis. 
Loadstone, Ferrum magneticum. 
Logwood, Hsematoxylum. 

Magistery of Bismuth, Bismuth ma- 

gisterium. 
Magnesia, Magnesia. 
Magnet, artificial, Magnes artifi- 
ciahs. 
natural, Ferrum magneti- 
cum. 
Magnetism, animal, Zoo-magnetis- 
mus. 
mineral, Magnes artifi- 
ciahs. 
Malabar plum-tree, Eugenia jambos. 
Malacca bean, Anacardium. 
Male fern, Felix mas. 
Manganese, Manganum. 
Marsh-ranunculus, v. Ranunculus 

flammula. 
Marygold, common, Calendula offi- 
cinalis. 
May-apple, Podophillum peltatum. 
Meadow-saffron, Colchicum. 
Mercury, Mercuriu3. 
Mesmerism, Zoo-magnetismus. 
Mezereon, Mezereum. 
Milfoil, Millefolium. 
Molybdenum, Molybdaenum. 
Mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia. 
Mountain-parsley, Athamanta oreo- 

selinum. 
Mngwort, Artemisia. 
Mullein, Verbascum thapsus. 
Muriates v. Hydrochlorates. 

of gold, aurum muriati- 
cum. 
of platina, Platina muria- 
tica. 
Musk, Moschus. 

Nettle, dead, Lamium album, 
stinging, Urtica urens. 
Nickel, Niccolum. 



358 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Nightshade, black, Solanum nigrum, 
nipple, Solanum mam- 
mosum. 
Nitre, Nitrum, 

Nitrate of silver, Argentum nitri- 
cum. 
bismuth, Bismuthi nitras. 
potassa, Nitrum. 
i soda, Natrum nitricum. 
Nutmeg, Nux moschata. 
Nux vomica, Nux vomica. 

Oil of almonds, Oleum amygdal. 
animal, Oleum animale. 
cod-liver, Oleum jec. morrhuse. 
olive, Oleum olivarum. 
of turpentine, Terebinthina. 
beetle, Meloe proscarabseas s. 
niajahs. 
Oak-leaved goose-foot, Chenopodium 

glaucum. 
Oleander, Oleander. 
Olives, oil of, Oleum olivarum. 
Opium, Opium. 
Orpiment, Aurum pigmentum. 
Osmium, Osmium. 
Oxalic acid, Acidum oxalicum. 
Oxide, white, of arsenic, Arsenicum 
album, 
magnetic, of iron. Ferrum 

magneticum. 
hydrated, of iron, Ferrum 

oxy datum, 
black, of mercury, Mercurius 

solubilis. 
of zinc, zincum oxydatum. 
Oyster-shells, Concha. 

Paper, waxed, v. Cera. 
Parsley, Petroselinum. 
Pediveau, poisonous, Caladium. 
Peony, Pseonia. 
Pepper, Cayenne, Capsicum an- 

nuum. 
Percarburet of iron, Graphites, 
Periwinkle, lesser, Vinca minor. 
Petroleum, Petroleum. 
Phosphate of lime, Calcarea phos- 

phorica. 
Phosphorus, Phosphorus. 
Pichurim, (bean laurel,) Pichurim. 



Pine, wild, Pinus silvestris. 
Pink-root, Spigelia. 
Platina, Platina. 
Plumbago, Graphites. 
Plum tree, wild, Prunus spinosa. 
Poison oak, Rhus toxicodendron. 
Poke, phytolacca decandra. 
Polecat, Mephitis putorius. 
Pomegranate, Granatum. 
Poppy, Papaver. 
Potash, Kali. 

Precipitate, white, Mercurius prseci- 
pitatus albus. 
red, Mercurius prsecipi- 
tatus ruber. 
Protochloride of Mercury, Mercurius 

dulcis. 
Prussic acid, v. Acidum hydrociani 

cum. 
Puff-ball, Bovista. 
Pulsatilla, Pulsatilla. 
Purging-nuts, Jatropha. 
Quicksilver, Mercurius. 
Radish, horse, Amoracia. 
Realger, Arsenicum rubrum. 
Red precipitate, Mercurius praecipi- 

tatus ruber. 
Resin of Guaiacum, Guaiacum. 
Resin of Jalap, Jalappse magisterium 
Rest-harrow, common, Ononis spi- 
nosa. 
Rhatany-root, Ratanhia. 
Rhododendron, yellow flowered- 
Rhododendron. 
Rhubarb, Rhabarbarum. 
Rosemary, Rosmarinus. 

wild, Ledum palustre. 
Rue, Ruta. 
Rust of iron, Ferrum oxydatum. 

Saffron, Crocus sativus. 

meadow, Colchicurn. 
Saltpetre, Nitrum. 
Savine, Sabina. 
Sal ammoniac, Ammonium muriati, 

cum. 
Salt, common, Natrum muriaticum. 

Epsom, Magnesia sulfurica. 
Salt, glauber, Natrum sulfuricum. 
Salt, of tartar, Kali carbonicum. 
Sarsaparilla, Sarsaparilla. 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



359 



Sassafras, Sassafras. 

Scarlet lobelia, Lobelia cardinalis. 

Selenium, Selenium. 

Senna, Senna. 

Sepia, Sepia. 

Silex, Silicea. 

Silver, Argentum. 

Skunk, Mephitis putorius. 

Snake-root, Virginia, Serpentaria 

virginica. 
Soap, Sapo domesticus. 
Soda, Natrum. 

Sow-bread, Cyclamen Europaeum. 
Spider, diadem, Aranea diadema. 

black, Theridion. 
Spindle-tree, Evonymus Europseus. 
Spirits of Nitre, Nitri spiritus. 

"wine, Alcohol. 
Sponge, Spongta marina. 
Squill, Squilla maritima. 
St. John's-wort, Hypericum perfora- 
tum. 
Stavesacre, Staphysagria. 
Strawberry, Fragaria vesca. 
Strontian, Strontiana. 
Sub-carbonates, v. Carbonates. 
Sublimate, corrosive, Mercurius cor- 

rosivus. 

Sugar, of cane, Saccharum sacchari. 

of milk, Saccharum lactis. 

of lead, Plumbum aceticum. 

Sulphate of lime, Calcarea sulfurica. 

copper, Cuprum sulfuri- 

cum. 
magnesia, Magnesia sul- 
furica 
Soda, Natrum sulfuricum, 
zinc, Zincum sulf. 
Sulphur, Sulfur. 

Sulphuret of antimony, Antimonium 
crudum. 
yellow, of arsenic, Arseni- 
cum citrinum. 
red, of arsenic, Arsenicum 

rubrum. 
of lime, Hepar sulfuris. 
red, of mercury, Cinna- 

baris. 
of soda, Natrum sulfura- 
tum. 
Sumach, swamp, Rhus vernix. 



Sundew, Drosera. 

Sweet-scented spurge laurel, Daphne 
indica. 

Tame poison swallow-wort, Vince- 

toxicum. 
Tansy, Tanacetum. 
Tartar, emetic, Tartarus emeticus. 
Tea, Chinese, Thea sinensis. 
Thorn-apple, Stramonium. 
Thyme, wild, Serpyllum. 
Tin, Stannum. 
Tincture, acrid, without potassa, 

Tinctura acris sine kali. 
Tonco bean , Tongo. 
Tree of life, Thuya occidentalis. 
True love, Paris quadrifolia. 
Turpentine, Terebinthina. 

Upright virgin's bower, Clematis 
erecta. 

Valerian, Valeriana. 
Verdigris, Cuprum aceticum. 
Vermilion, Cinnabaris. 
Vervain, Verbena. 
Vinegar, Acetum. 
Violet, sweet, Viola odorata. 
Vitriol, white, Zincum sulfuricum. 
blue, Cuprum sulfuricum. 

Wake-robin, Arum. 
Walnut, English, Juglans regia. 
Water, distilled, Aqua destillata. 
Water hemlock, Phellandrium aquat- 

icum. 
Wax, Cera. 

White hellebore, Veratrum album. 
Wild cucumber, elaterium. 
Wild plum-tree, Prunus spinosa. 

rosemary, Ledum palustre. 

thyme, Serpyllum. 
Wine, Vinum. 

Wood-louse, Oniscus asellus. 
Wormwood, Absinthium. 
Wormseed, Cina. 

Yew, Taxus baccata. 

Zinc, Zincum. 



W. RADDE, 

PUBLISHER, 322 BROADWAY, NEW-YORK. 



HOJIflEOPATHIC BOOKS. 

Just issued, a New Edition of 

JTAHR'S NEW MANUAL OF HOWEOPATHIC PRAC- 
TICE, Edited, with Annotation*, by A. Gerald Hull, 

M. D. This is the fourth American edition of a very celebrated work, 
by the eminent Homoeopathic Professor Jahr, and it is considered the best 
practical compendium of this extraordinary science that has yet been 
composed. 

Complete Repertory, one volume, bound, $3. 
JTAHR'S NEW MANUAL, originally published under 
the name of Symptomen-Codex. (Digest of Symptoms.) This work is 
intended to facilitate a comparison of the parallel symptoms of the 
various homoeopathic agents, thereby enabling the practitioner to dis- 
cover the characteristic symptoms of each drug, and to determine with 
ease and correctness what remedy is most homoeopathic to the existing 
group of symptoms. Translated, with important and extensive additions 
[from various sources, by Charles Julius Hempei, M. D., assisted by 
James M. Quin, M. D. ; with revisions and clinical notes by John F. 
Gray, M. D. ; contributions by Drs. A. Gerald Hull, and George W. 
Cook, M. D., of New- York; and Drs. C. Hering, J. Jeanes, C. Neidhard, 
W. Williamson, and J. Kitchen, of Philadelphia. With a Preface by 
Constantine Hering, M. D., 2 vols. Bound, 1S48. $11 00. 
LAURIE, DR. J., HOITKEOPATHIC DOMESTIC MEDI- 
CINE, with the Treatment and Diseases of Females, 
Infants, Children, and Adults. 5th American edition much enlarged with 
additions by A. Gerald Hull, M. D. 1849. Bound, $1 50. 
LAURIE, DR. J., ELEMENTS OF HOMOEOPATHIC 
Practice of Physic. An Appendix to Laurie's Domestic, containing also 
all the diseases of URINARY AND GENITAL ORGANS. Bound, 1849. 
$125. 
J AUK'S CLINICAL GUIDE, or. Pocket Repertory. Trans- 
lated from the German, by Chs. J, Hempei, M. D., bound, (just pub- 
lished). $150. 
HAHNEMANN'S ORGANON OF HOMOEOPATHIC MEDI- 
cine. 3rd American Edition, with improvements and additions from the last 
German Edition, and Dr. C. Hering s introductory remarks, 1848, Bound, 
$1 00. 
RAU'S ORGANON, of the specific Healing Art of Homoeo- 
pathy. Translated by Chs J. Hempei, M.D. 1843. $125. 
HAHNEMANN, DR., MATERIA MEDICA PURA, Trans- 
lated and edited by Charles Julius Hempei, M. D. 4 vols. 1846. $6. 
E. STAFF'S ADDITIONS TO THE MATERIA MEDICA 

PURA. Translated by C.J. Hempei, M. D. $150, 
HAHNEMANN, DR. S„ THE CHRONIC DISEASES, their 
specific Nature and Homoeopathic Treatment. Translated and edited by 
Chs. J. Hempei, M.D. , with a Preface, by Constantine Hering, M. D.. 
Philadelphia 8vo. 5 vols. Bound. 1845. $7. 
TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 
Homoeopathy. 1846. Bound. $1 50.