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Full text of "A treatise on typhoid fever and its homoeopathic treatment"

TREATISE 



TYPHOID FEVER 



HOMCEOPATHIC TREATMENT. 

rSSw 



AUGUSTUS RAPOU, 

MEMBER OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AT PARIS 




TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH, 



ARTHUR ALLEYN GRANVILLE. 



NEW-YORK: 

WILLIAM RADDE, 322 BROADWAY 

18 5 3. 



wcr 

53 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1853, 

ByWilliam Raddk, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Hie Southern District of 

New- York. 



HENRY LUDVV1Q' Printer, 45 Vesey-street. 



INDEX. 

Fag.. 

Of the general nature of Fever, 1 

Of the nature of Typhoid Fever, 6 

Of the causes of Typhoid Fever, and of the circumstances 

which favor its development, 12 

Lesion of the Tissues, 23 

Lesion of the Functions, 25 

Description of the invasion and development of Typhoid 

Fever, ------- - - - 28 

Treatment of Typhoid Fever, 48 

Note on Quinine, 13 

Note on Bleeding, 24 

Note on Revulsions, - - - 37 

Note on Purgatives, 77 

Note on Hydropathy, --------85 

Note on Tonics, - 94 



HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES. 

Wm. Radde, 322 Broadway, New- York, respectfully informs the Homceo- 
pathic Physicians, and the friends of the System, that he is the sole Agent for 
the Leipzig Central Homoeopathic Pharmacy, and that he has always on hand 
a good assortment of the best Homoeopathic Medicines, in complete sets or by 
single vials, in Tinctures, Dilutions and Triturations ; also Pocket Cases of 
Medicines ; Physicians' and Family Medicine Chests to Laurie's Domestic (60 to 
82 Remedies).— EPP'S (60 Remedies)— BERING'S, (60 Remedies to 102).— 
Small Pocket-cases, at $3, with Family Guide and 27 Remedies. — Cases con- 
taining 415 Vials with Tinctures and Triturations for Physicians. — Cases with 
260 vials of Tinctures and Triturations to Jahr's New Manual, or Symptomen- 
Codex. — Physicians' Pocket Cases with 60 Vials of Tinctures and Triturations. — 
Cases from 200 to 300 Vials with low and high dilutions of medicated pellets.— 
Cases from 50 to 80 Vials of low and high dilutions, &c, <fec. Homoeopathic 
Chocolate. Refined Sugar of Milk, pure Globules, <fec, Arnica Tincture, the best 
specific remedy for bruises, sprains, wounds, &c. Arnica Plaster, the best ap- 
plication for Corns. Urtica wrens, and Dr. Reisig's Homoeopathic Pain Ex- 
tractor are the best specific remedies for Burns. Also, Books, Pamphlets, and 
Standard Works on the System, in the English, French, Spanish, and German 
Languages. 



A 

TREATISE 



TYPHOID FEVER 



HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT. 



We often find certain morbid dispositions which 
give a peculiar stamp to most diseases, and which 
themselves form a particular class of disease. From 
certain causes, as yet but little known, these morbid 
dispositions acquire a high degree of intensity, be- 
come epidemics which sweep off whole populations, and 
leave behind them an endemical disposition no less 
fatal. This is the quid divinum of Hippocrates, 
which it is so highly important for the scientific man 
to understand thoroughly so as to avoid the necessity 
of employing ineffectual and sometimes dangerous re- 
medies. 

At the present day, in consequence of both moral 
2 



A TREATISE ON 



and physical causes, real inflammatory fevers have 
become a matter of very rare occurrence. The greater 
number shew in the course of the disease some new 
feature, destructive and malignant, which prevents 
any salutary crisis, weakens excessively the body, and 
attacks directly the sources of life, like the worst 
kind of miasma. There is now scarcely a simple 
acute disease that does not shew signs, more or less 
marked, of this ataxic, adynamic, this quid divinum 
character ; it is the medical constitution of the pre- 
sent generation. Broussais, who mistook this pheno- 
menon, fell into the greatest disrepute, dragging with 
him innumerable victims. Better appreciated by 
eclectic physicians, this morbid disposition was never- 
theless combatted by most ineffectual remedies. Anti- 
septic, revulsive and tonic remedies, all proved them- 
selves useless. What could these rational remedies 
do to counteract a cause of special nature ? The only 
resource was to apply specific medicines which should 
have a special relationship to the disease. These 
means were the only ones capable of attacking the 
disorder in a direct manner, resulting in most cases 
in complete triumph. Experience of old has given 
us abundant proofs of this. The object of this 
paper is to make known this specific treatment, com- 
monly called homoeopathic, as applied to the treat- 
ment of those diseases which are like the type of 
the actual medical constitution, and which of late 
years have been recognized under the name of Ty- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



phoid fevers. We trust that conscientious allopathic 
practitioners, who must all deplore the inefficiency of 
their science in the treatment of these malignant 
fevers, 'will not refuse to study and adopt this method, 
the success of which has been proved, and is daily 
proved by innumerable cases. 

There are a great variety of typhoid affections, such 
as putrid, adynamic, malignant, ataxic. It is not 
our intention to treat of these various morbid condi- 
tions, but of that one only which has been so well 
defined by Drs. Bretonneau and Louis, and which is 
characterized by an intestinal exanthema, followed by 
ulceration. 

The uniform existence of this intestinal exan- 
thema in patients attacked by one of these kinds of 
fevers, called by the ancients putrid or malignant and 
by the moderns typhoid fevers, is an important dis- 
covery, which allows one to appreciate more intimately 
the peculiar nature of the disorder, and gives a wider 
field to judge of the correct remedy. 

Up to the present time the indications of the pro- 
per treatment to be adopted in the cure of acute 
diseases have been taken from the sanguineous reac- 
tion which almost always accompanies these disorders, 
and which is designated by the name of fever. This 
phenomenon has always been so wrongly interpreted, 
the prejudices which it has engendered are so nume- 
rous and so firmly fixed, that we can easily under- 
stand the cause of the numerous erroneous methods 



A TREATISE ON 



of treatment which the ordinary practice of medicine 
has from time to time made use of. Let us for one 
moment examine the pathology of this subject which 
is intimately connected with the object of this paper. 

The respirations and pulsations of the heart 
measure regularly the course of life ; but how often 
is not this regularity destroyed by an infinity of 
dangers and obstacles ! Even the very elements which 
sustain life are subjected to a thousand causes which 
tend to destroy it. Nature resists the injurious influ- 
ence of physical forces not by inertia but by reaction. 
The natural excitants are quickly transformed into 
irritants. A reaction of the vital powers takes place; 
the vessels are distended ; the pulsations of the heart 
quicken ; the respiratory organs become oppressed ; 
circulation is increased ; and so fever is produced. 
This is the first, the grand law of pathology. If it is 
misunderstood, then indeed is the whole of therapeu- 
tics false. 

Fever therefore, is an element common to all dis- 
eases where the organism still possesses its reac- 
tive powers. It is a general state which gives no 
particular indication of the nature of the disease. 
And yet it is from this common element that these 
indications have been derived ; a fundamental error 
from which has sprung all those fallacious me- 
thods of treatment which constituted and still con- 
stitute the science of medicine. It is taught in the 
medical schools that three-fourths of all diseases 



TYPHOID FEVER. 9 

are fevers, instead of saying that three-fourths of all 
diseases present indications of fever. 

Fevers were classified. In the same class were 
placed disorders which had nothing in common hut 
the febrile reaction. There is the inflammatory 
fever (as though fevers were not essentially inflam- 
matory.) There are fevers which are not so, such as 
nervous fever, which only appears febrile; putrid 
fever, which commences with a reaction, but is soon 
entirely free from any. Where can we find two 
expressions so diametrically opposed to each other? — 
typhoid, which means a state of stupor, and fever, 
which means a state of high excitability. In fact it 
is no fever at all, except it is so at the outset, or 
when the special typhoid element is but little marked, 
as is seen in certain cases of meningitis and gastro- 
enteritis, which helps then to complicate them.. 

Not only was the error made of giving to fever an 
importance which it has not, as a source of indica- 
tion, but the error was completed, entailing fatal con- 
sequences, in mistaking the nature of this morbid 
phenomenon. We cannot here enumerate the diversi- 
fied opinions entertained in the various schools as to 
the nature of fever ; we can sum them all up in this ; 
some said that fever was a pathological entity, a 
disease sui generis, terminating for the most part 
in an alteration of the humors, a total prostration of 
strength. It was to be combatted with febrifuge me- 
dicines, then by tonics, by antispasmodics ; substan- 



10 A TREATISE ON 

ces which ordinarily would aggravate the disease by 
increasing the irritation. 

This notion of fever predominated in the schools 
up to the time of Broussais. This physician at once 
saw how false and dangerous it was, and laboriously 
made it a study, in order to have an opinion adopted 
that was diametrically contrary but not the less false 
than the other, and even more fruitful in fatal results. 

According to Broussais, fever does not constitute 
a special morbid state, a pathological entity, but only 
a symptom ; and this symptom invariably denotes a 
phlogosis, an internal inflammation, a vital excitabi- 
lity, an increase of strength which it is necessary to 
diminish, to repress, to combat by diet, emollients 
and bleeding. 

Common sense, simple observation, assisted by 
this powerful critic, superseded at once, at least in 
France, the old drug medicines ; but Broussais wished 
to construct for himself a medical edifice, and as a 
basis he gave out a definition of fever as erroneous 
as the one he has combatted. According to him fever 
is the result of inflammation ; it is the symptom 
which reveals it, which makes known its presence. 
The greater the fever is, the more intense is the in- 
flammation, and as this latter always consists of an 
over-excitability, an increase of vital force, fever 
always presents indications for an antiphlogistic treat- 
ment, that is to say, a debilitation by diet, emollients 
and leeches. Who can tell the enormous harm done by 



TYPHOID FEVER. 11 

this pernicious system ? Would to heaven that the 
pSlypharmacy of olden times had never been de- 
throned ! Its bad effects were at least individual, and 
but little perceptible among the mass. It is true 
that the patients did not all die a natural death, but 
the convalescents returned to the enjoyment of their 
full strength. Consequent upon Broussais system of 
fever, life was attacked at its very source, and gene- 
rations debilitated. But a few years sufficed to prove 
the fallacy of the system. 

Practitioners, at the present time, without either 
principle or well founded opinions, enter into the 
treatment "of fevers at hap-hazard. They employ 
means as different and multifarious, — according to 
no rule or law, — as are their ideas upon the subject; 
they practise eclecticism according to stated rules laid 
down by the Parisian faculty, and which amounts in 
reality to a negation of all sound medical science. 
We see them, at the commencement of typhoid fevers, 
when the reaction is most powerful, open a vein, ac- 
celerate the depression of the strength, aggravate 
the ataxy, and then prescribe innumerable excitants, 
which they call tonics, and which the weakened or- 
ganism can no longer sustain and therefore end by de- 
stroying it. Others chase away the salutary reaction 
with opiates. Others again burthen it and annihilate 
it by frightful revulsions. It would indeed require a 
large volume to enumerate all the methods adopted 
in ordinary medicine for the cure of typhoid fever. 



12 A TREATISE ON 

Who could count the number of cases, in which, if they 
had been left to themselves, nature herself would 
have brought about a cure ? 

Fever is not, and never is, a disease in itself, it is 
a symptom common to most maladies a symptom more 
or less developed, which forms in itself, in certain 
cases, the whole of the apparent phenomena, as for 
example in traumatic fever. 

Fever is to the organism what inaction is to 
matter; it is its manner of resisting the causes of 
destruction. Fever is a reaction of life, a manifesta- 
tion essentially salutary, which it is sometimes ne- 
cessary to moderate, but never utterly to destroy. 
A pure and perfect fever promises a rapid and radical 
cure. Where the fever is wanting, the reaction is 
also missing, and with it all hopes of recovery must 
be dismissed. (I am here alluding to acute diseases.) 
What is there more difficult than to drive away those 
morbid states where the fever shews itself from time 
to time in an incomplete, light, fitful manner; con- 
ditions which are so improperly called nervous fever, 
and those in which we observe jerking, irregular, 
convulsive efforts of an impotent reaction trying to 
triumph over a change either moral or physical? 

Fever is the basis of the prognosis ; it is to the 
diagnosis but of a secondary utility, and furnishes but 
little indication as to the proper mode of treatment 
to be adopted. To endeavor to make it of service in the 
classification of diseases, as has been done up to the 



TYPHOID FEVER, 13 

present time, is to mistake strangely the first prin- 
ciples of pathology, and gives birth to numerous bad 
methods of treatment. There are therefore no ataxic, 
malignant, mucuous, putrid, or typhoid fevers, &c, 
but only peculiar morbid conditions, but too often 
wanting the salutary phenomenon of fever, and which 
absolutely exact, in order that they may be treated 
with success, a profound knowledge of their peculiar 
or special nature. 

Intermittent fevers ought to be considered as 
nervous disorders accompanied with febrile reaction. 
Joseph Frank had already said : " Great care must 
be taken in distinguishing intermittent fevers from 
continuous fevers. They are widely different from 
each other. It is impossible to set forth a general 
theory that shall apply equally to both." We will 
also add that it would he still more difficult to unite 
in one and the same catalogue all intermittent fevers ; 
some proceed from a species of miasmatic poisoning, 
others from a modification which is purely dynamical. 
Some succumb to quinine, others are aggravated by it.* 

* It is sufficiently well known that intermittent fevers are 
not all of a similar character, and are not all cured by quinine. 
Nevertheless, the greater number of allopathic physicians 
occupy themselves but little in discovering those that require 
this remedy and those that exact some other specific. They 
administer the febrifuge in every case, but in very many 
cases where quinine is not proper, this substance develops 
its toxical effects. Not observing any good results, the prac- 
titioner increases the dose, and with it the evil it produ- 
2* 



14 V TREATISE ON 

There are some which resemble ataxic fevers ; they 
are equally malignant and fatal ; even some are mis- 
taken for neuralgia. The intermission, like fever, 
is a phenomenon, one common to a number of morbid 
conditions. To explain these diseases, by calling 
them fever and intermission would be to misunder- 
stand their nature entirely, and subject them to a 
uniform and sometimes inefficacious treatment of 
anti-periodics. 

Diseases, manifest themselves by external or in- 
ternal symptoms, and we must not judge of them by 
one only of these phenomena, but by all of them. This 
is not to say that all the symptoms are of the same 
importance. Far from it ! some of them are charac- 
teristic, and a collection of a small number of them 
suffices for the practitioner, and allows him to 
judge precisely the nature of the disorder. We say, 
that of all morbid phenomena, that one, to which the 
greatest importance has been given, in order that it 
may be a guide in practice, viz., fever — is the one which 
is of the least consequence. We have already stated 
the fatal results of this error, and therefore will 
pursue the subject no further. 



ces. This fatal practice changes, in a manner often deep and 
durable, vigorous constitutions which up to that period were 
hale and strong, and brings on asthenia, dropsies, swellings 
of the spleen, chronic gastrites, engorgements of the abdo- 
men, et cetera, almost always incurable, and which are so often 
the result of the treatment of intermittent fevers by ordinary 
physicians. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 15 



Let us now analyze the nature of typhoid fever, 
commencing by throwing aside all idea of fever, and 
submitting to an attentive examination the peculiar 
symptoms which characterize it, and from this we 
shall then be able to draw the right conclusion as to 
its proper treatment : a treatment that shall be exact, 
scientific, based upon positive principles, and which 
experience daily proves to be true. 

Typhoid fever has become the . scourge of the 
present age, being found as characteristic symptoms 
of the pest and the small pox, to both of which it 
bears a close resemblance. It is in the air we 
breathe ; it makes daily fresh victims and nothing can 
shelter us from its attacks ; for can we avoid fa- 
tigues of body and mind, both of which evidently 
predispose the constitution to its attacks 1 By some 
mysterious and terrible affinity, it singles out from 
preference, youth and the prime of life and strength, 
from fifteen to thirty-five years of age. It sometimes 
redoubles in intensity, and becoming epidemic will 
sweep off from among a whole population all the young 
and vigorous. These ravages generally occur in 
country communities ; in large towns it seems to pick 
out its victims with more nicety ; but it will make a 
permanent stay there. It seems, like the sword of 
Damocles, continually suspended over the heads of 
families who are blessed with young, promising and 
intellectual members of a vigorous constitution. The 



16 A TREATISE ON 



place likewise where most of the young men are sent 
to finish their education in Paris, predisposes the body 
in a most extraordinary manner to attacks of ty- 
phoid fever. It therefore very naturally inspires great 
dread to parents and others, and we cannot be too 
particular in giving every detail that relates to its 
medical history : this is the reason why I prefaced 
this subject with the various notions that are en- 
tertained of the nature of this disease and its treat- 
ment at the present day. 

Typhoid fever forms part of a natural class of dis- 
eases, in which the febrile reaction is irregular. Some- 
times very intense, and easily subdued, subject to a 
thousand modifications, as though the vital powers 
were obeying an occult and powerful toxical cause ; 
diseases in which the whole organization is affected, 
in which also is manifested, at the end of a certain 
preparatory period, a very distinct pathological con- 
dition either upon the skin or upon the mucus mem- 
brane ; — eruption, ganglion, ulcers, or flux ; diseases 
in which the blood undergoes a vast change, a veritable 
decomposition as has been proved by many, particularly 
by Professor Andral. They are naturally divided 
into two groups ; eruptive and non-eruptive fevers.* 

The first group comprises variola, rougeole, scar- 
latina, febrile urticaria, miliary sweat, and an- 

* We make use of the expression fever, to accomodate our- 
selves to the received term ; for it would be necessary, in order 
to give a correct idea of these diseases, to create a new word. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 17 



thrax. The second group includes typhoid fever, 
typhus and its varieties, epidemical dysentery, the 
pest, yellow fever, asiatic cholera ; and no douht 
there are, belonging to one or the other of these 
groups, several morbid affections, the real character 
of which we have not been able to understand as yet. 

Let it be observed, that all these diseases are 
the result of an infection, of a poisoning of the or- 
ganism, of a profound change of the animal sub- 
stance, by a miasma or virus. As to the nature of 
these infecting agents, which have as yet escaped all 
scientific investigations, it imports us but little to 
know, because their various effects permit us, accord- 
ing to the law of similarities, to find the different 
remedies proper to combat them. 

From this point of observation we at once discover 
the true character of typhoid fever, and its proper 
treatment. This manner of viewing the subject is 
not the result of a preconceived theory nor the expla- 
nation of one solitary case, and therefore applied by 
analogy to others, but it proceeds from a general, ex- 
tended and accurate observation. It cannot be denied, 
that the characteristics common to the diseases we 
have been mentioning, form a very natural group, 
and establish among themselves, the most intimate 
relation the one to the other. Each of these charac- 
teristics goes to prove, the existence of an infectious 
cause. All these diseases are either contagious, or 
epidemic, or susceptible of becoming so. They attack 



18 A TREATISE ON 



suddenly persons of the most robust constitution, en- 
joying the most perfect health, and living in the rigid 
observance of the most salutary hygea. They present 
all the most violent general symptoms and a total 
alteration of the humors, even before any visible local 
. lesion is produced ; we remark a depression, some- 
times the most complete prostration, often an aber- 
ration of the febrile reaction, which seems to be acted 
upon by a puissant morbid power. This deleterious 
agent masters it, crushes it. It would destroy in a 
few days, in a few moments, the most vigorous con- 
stitution ; and yet it will spare the weakest. 

All depends here upon the idiosyncrasy, upon the 
susceptability of the individual, to receive the impres- 
sion of this deleterious agent. From the moment that 
this morbid leaven operates, the physiological laws 
are seriously changed. The vital reaction ceases 
to be a safe-guard of the organism. One can as- 
sist the efforts of nature, but one must not rely upon 
their efficacy. Rational medication ought to give 
place to the use of these special medications which 
attack the disease direct, which attack its very 
essence, weaken it, as in cholera and all eruptive 
fevers, or destroy it entirely, as in all malignant 
fevers. The use of the specific method, commonly 
called homoeopathic, is then, I must repeat, an impe- 
rative duty. None but a criminal indifference, igno- 
rance, or want of faith would dispense with it. 

The effects of poisons, of virus, and of venoms 



TYPHOID FEVER. 19 



upon the organism, draw the veil and shows us the 
nature of these diseases. One is struck by the great 
similarity which exists between the pest and the bite 
of the viper, between yellow fever and the bite of the 
lachesis-trigonocephalus (rattlesnake), between the 
bite of certain insects and anthrax, between vac- 
cine and varioloid, between the poisoning by white 
henbane, or the preparation of copper and cholera, be- 
tween the poisoning by small doses of arsenic and 
typhoid fever. 

The close affinity of these miasmatic diseases, and 
the intimate relations which connect the two natural 
groups in which we have classed them, are manifested 
in a thousand ways. Thus, in exanthematic fevers, 
the eruption is often insignificant, and we very often 
see in typhoid fever, the skin covered with vesi- 
cles ; and in cholera, there is a constant change of 
the Briiner follicules. Confluent small-pox and typhus 
show a very similar lesion of the intestinal glands.* 
Typhoid fever and sweat often accompany cholera, 
which might have been seen in the epidemic at Vienna 
in 1836, and in the one which made such ravages in 
Burgundy and Champagne in the year 1849. We 
could cite other examples and bring forward other 
proofs, but the above suffice to establish the fact, that 
there is a class of miasmatic diseases, of which typhoid 

* We ourselves were a witness to one case where the cha- 
racteristics of typhus and variola were mixed up and inter- 
mingled to such an extent, that the most shrewd observer could 
not tell to which of these diseases it belonged. 



20 A TREATISE ON 

fever forms a part. The intimate nature of these de- 
leterious agents, as likewise of all other agents, is 
unknown to us. Their presence is not revealed in a 
direct manner to our senses. We only know them 
by their effects, and the variety of these effects allows 
us to distinguish the difference of their various 
natures, and indicates to us the toxical medications, 
most proper to combat them. 

Let us now examine one of these miasmatic affec- 
tions, — typhoid fever ; its causes, its symptoms, its 
progress, its varieties, and its various modifications. I 
will explain all this in a few pages, as the circum- 
stances have come under my observation. I do not 
pretend to set forth a treatise ex professo. I propose 
only to furnish documents that shall establish an 
exact and complete treatment of this disease, which is 
blindly combatted by allopathic physicians, without 
following any rule, without method and consequently 
without success. 

The fatigues of the body and mind, physical exer- 
tion carried to excess, at the period when the organism 
is developing itself, are most powerful causes of 
typhoid fevers ; but yet these are only accessory causes, 
which would be without action, were there not a pe- 
culiar disposition in the individual, or in the constitu- 
tion to take it, at the time being. At certain periods, 
this disease will not show itself; at other times it 
makes its appearance without any apparent cause. It 
often attacks individuals, up to that time, enjoying per- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 21 

feet health, who had neither undergone any. privation, 
nor run into any excesses. Doctor Andral and seve- 
ral other physicians have observed, that the air of 
Paris predisposes in a most peculiar manner all stran- 
gers to the disease, who were not yet acclimated. 
We have made the same observation with respect 
to Lyons. It is likewise the same in all grand 
centres of population ; it would seem that the ty- 
phoid miasma is a special product of an atmosphere 
vitiated by the emanations of a large congregation 
of human beings, having a particular physical con- 
dition, the peculiarities of which are as yet un- 
known ; it is likewise endemic in towns, but it sel- 
dom shows itself in country places, except in an epi- 
demic form ; in this it is like other miasmatic dis- 
eases ; pest, cholera, variola, yellow fever, all reign 
in the neighborhood of their original home, viz., the 
mouths of the Ganges, the Nile and the Mississippi, 
and from thence spread themselves epidemically over 
the whole surface of the earth.* 

All virulent miasmatic affections have a special 
origin peculiar to themselves, the source of which it 
is sometimes difficult to trace, but an approximation 
may be come at, by studying the history of the pro- 
gress of their development. None of them have that 
vulgar origin, to which they are attributed by some 
physicians. We have before stated and we again 

* It is not positively ascertained the precise spot in America 
from whence variola first took its origin. 



22 A TREATISE ON 

repeat it, that without an exact knowledge of the spe- 
cific method, it is impossible to prescribe a proper 
treatment; gross diagnostic errors are fallen into, both 
of treatment, and even of hygea. Luckily the latter 
are harmless and only serve to expose the ignorance of 
the mistaken practitioner, or rather of his false science. 
It is in vain that experience proves that there is no con- 
nection between the cause and effect, with respect to 
the growth, the development, the extension of these 
diseases and the filth of towns, the exhalations of 
sewers, infectious localities, and muddy streets ; it is 
continually persisted that such are the causes of this 
bad hygienic state of things, which however has 
nothing to do with the matter. The faculty signals 
the enemy and the corporation replies to it. Com- 
mittees of investigation are formed, offices are made, 
&c. ; scientific reports are published on the dangers 
of miasmas ; they sweep, ventilate and cleanse ; but 
still the epidemic is not lessened. It seeks out and 
attacks its victims without distinction, in the palace 
as well as the hovel ; makes fearful ravages in the 
fine and fashionable avenues, whilst at the same time 
it spares the most sickly, crooked and dirty labyrinths. 
Blinded, in consequence of the want of an exact know- 
ledge of the specific, one expects that the hygienic 
laws shall render an account, if not of the origin, at 
least of the development and aggravation of these dis- 
eases. Another expects that the ordinary treatment 
will combat them. Nature will not bend itself to 



TYPHOID FKVER. 23 



these theories ; nothing is efficacious against these pe- 
culiar disorders, but the specific method. But the 
prejudices of the allopathic faculty prevent them from 
taking into consideration these assertions, which never- 
theless are founded on facts. They continue to descant 
upon hygienic precautions, and to endeavor to hide 
under the cloak of doctoral phrases the radical impo- 
tence of the ordinary practice of medicine. 

Most physicians maintain that typhoid fever is not 
contagious. This opinion is correct ; and yet not ab- 
solutely so. This disease, at the height of its deve- 
lopment, in the typhus stage, is decidedly contagious. 
The more it recedes from this stage the less it is con- 
tagious, and we may safely state, that typhoid fever, 
such as we find it in the present day, is not contagious. 

As we have before mentioned, the difference of age 
has a great influence as regards the liability to con- 
tract this disorder. The age which it most clings to, 
is from fifteen to thirty years ; it is scarcely ever 
seen in subjects from fifty-five to seventy years of 
age ; at the age of seventy appear the adynamic 
fevers, but they are not typhoid, the special intes- 
tinal lesion existing then no longer. 

This lesion, which characterizes typhoid fever, and 
belongs solely to it, consists of a papular swelling of 
the glands of Peyer and the follicles of Briiner, followed 
by ulceration. It is the constant accompaniment of 
real typhoid fever, as has been explained by Drs. Louis 
and Chomel. This alteration of tissue is not the only 



24 A TREATISE ON 



one that is observed, since several others are produced, 
the nature of which we will examine into, for without 
an exact knowledge of these lesions, it is impossible to 
appreciate the real value of the symptom, and conse- 
quently to choose the proper remedies. 

In well defined typhoid fever, the blood is changed, is 
decomposed. It loses its red color and its fibrinous con- 
sistency. It is to this change that must be attributed 
to a great extent, the adynamy of these fevers, as also 
their ataxy, for the healthy reaction not being able 
to take place, the efforts of nature are lost in confused 
manifestations. From this decomposition of the blood, 
which renders it more fluid, proceed the slight bleed- 
ings at the nose which are observed at the commence- 
ment of the disease, and the terrible, but fortunately 
less frequent, intestinal haemorrhage. 

In the face of this impoverished blood, we shudder 
at the phlebotomy which is practiced in the treat- 
ment of typhoid fever, more especially during the 
first thirty years of the present century. What a long 
and fatal experience has it not required, to bring con- 
viction to the minds of physicians as to the perni- 
cious use of the lancet !* 



* Ought we not to be surprised at the multiplicity of cases 
in which bleeding is recommended by the allopathic school? 
At one time it is the amount of blood they would diminish, at 
another it is its orgasm they would moderate. They practice 
it to prevent or diminish congestions, to stop haemorrhages, to 
thin the thickened blood, to subdue pains, to calm the various 
irritations which occur in the innumerable species of special 



TYPHOID FEVER. 25 



There is another important observation we make 
resulting from the examination of this blood ; it is 
that the buffy-coat is not, as has been said, a certain 

inflammatory affections. In a word, if phlebotomy is not prac- 
tised with all the ancient vigor, it at any rate predominates 
over all other more rational systems, which are considered 
secondary to it. 

Allopathic physicians recommend bleeding with a fearful 
rashness ; gum syrup, calming potions, letting a few ounces 
of blood,— these are a matter of course ; nor is the latter pre- 
scription more seriously studied than the administering of 
anodyne drinks. It would seem as though there was never any 
hesitation in taking away blood, even when the indications 
for it are not over positive, and when therefore there must be a 
great latitude. One cannot too much denounce this fatal 
' prejudice. What is the constant and certain effect of san- 
guinary emissions ? It is to debilitate the strength ; to destroy 
or lessen the vital reaction. This course of treatment- may be 
proper in a few very rare cases ; but, whereas, in the treatment 
of affections called typhoid, it is most essential to preserve the 
whole force of the reaction, one can easily conceive that 
bleeding then becomes the irrational course to pursue, the 
most vicious one could possibly imagine, and the most op- 
posed ' to the cute one is striving at : it delivers helpless to 
the morbid cause, the preservative principle, and leaves the 
organism without defense. 

The physician who has frequent recourse to the lancet, ought 
always to dread the supervention of a false inflammatory 
state, of one of those pernicious typhoid, putrid conditions, in 
which blood-letting is mortal, but which unfortunately is not 
generally remarked until it is too late.* 

* See History of the Homaopathic Medical Doctrine, the Critical examination 
into Allopathic Medications. Vol. II. p. 311. 



26 A TREATISE ON 

indication of a purely inflammatory state ; for we ob- 
serve it in the blood taken from patients affected with 
typhoid fever, which is soft, black, poor in fibrine and 
in hematosine. This white fibrinous deposit exists 
every time that the pulmonary tissue is seriously 
affected in this fever, and even when the prostration 
of strength is complete. There are some physicians 
who, upon an examination of this buffy-coat, feel them- 
selves justified in opening the vein again, thus de- 
stroying the last resources of a wavering existence. 

From the putrid fluidity of the blood arises the 
scorbutic state of the mouth which is often seen in a 
number of typhoid cases. In this condition a blackish 
blood often oozes out, carbonized, which coats the teeth 
with a dark brown layer. This mechanical effusion 
is sometimes otherwise produced ; the epithelium dries 
up, chaps ; blood issues from these chaps, coagulates 
at the surface and forms a crust. This black plastering 
of the tongue must not be confounded with the sabur- 
ral coloring which occurs in certain kinds of typhoid 
fevers, and in all adynamical affections of old age. 

It is rare that the pulmonary texture is not 
changed; it presents all the degrees of lesion peculiar 
to inflammations of the chest. But there is one that is 
peculiar to typhoid fever ; it is a soft, red hepatization 
similar to the tissue of the spleen in individuals who 
have died of malignant intermittent fever. 

There are also very often sanguinary effusions in the 
cavity of the pleura. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 27 

In a great many subjects there is no local symp- 
tom which discovers the existence of, sometimes the 
most intense, pulmonary lesions ; in others, we ob- 
serve a most marked difficulty of respiration, without 
the autopsy revealing any pulmonary lesion whatever. 

The typhoid state sometimes produces a very deeply 
colored jaundice. This must not be attributed to bile, 
but to the peculiar change of the blood, a phenomenon 
which is common in other miasmatic diseases. 

Engorgement of the parotid glands occurs in 
some cases, but always as a dangerous complication ; 
it is never a critical phenomenon. 

In typhoid fever there is no part of the organism 
that shows so great a complication of disorders as the 
nervous centres, and yet we can find no apparent lesion 
after death. Also we find the most aggravated cere- 
bral symptoms disappear quickly under a specific and 
well directed treatment. The disorders in the hearing, 
in the sight, contraction or dilatation of the pupils, the 
modifications of the sensibility of the skin, and of the 
caloric, are all driven away when the intestinal lesion, 
which affects the brain sympathetically, disappears. 

The stomach is seldom the seat of ulceration. 
It very often shows in the great cul-de-sac, injec- 
tions and softenings of the mucus membrane, but 
nothing special to characterize this disease. 

The duodenum is nearly always exempt from 
change : we never see any ulceration of the follicules ; 
the 'principal exanthema is located in the small in- 
testine. 



28 A TREATISE ON 



Dr. Andral has vainly searched for this exanthema 
in the intestine of individuals who have died of other 
acute diseases. He has only sometimes found a very 
unequal development of the follicles, but nothing that 
had the least resemblance to the typhoid exanthema. 

It has been stated that this exanthema follows a 
regular course and has its phases similar to those of 
the small-pox. Nevertheless it often ends in a diffe- 
rent manner, by resolution or by ulceration. The cica- 
trization of the ulcers has been confirmed by exami- 
nation in persons who have accidentally died during 
convalescence. 

The large intestine is generally healthy, with the 
exception of the ccecum, which is usually covered with a 
confluent eruption. But it is the particular seat of a 
very abundant gazeous production almost characteris- 
tic of typhoid fever. In many subjects the distention 
of the colon by the gas is so great, that this intestine 
is visible to the eye through the abdominal wall, inflates 
the diaphragm, lodges in the epigastrium and might 
be mistaken for the stomach. The cause of this 
accumulation of gas cannot be from changes of the 
colon, because in general it is less deranged than the 
small intestine. 

This peculiar inflammation of the follicles, this 
typhoid exanthema, is produced with the fever, and 
continues with it throughout. But yet we know, the 
disease does not lie there, it lies deeper ; for we no- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 29 

notice in this disease, as in all other miasmatic affec- 
tions, that the organic lesion has scarcely ever any 
relation with the severity of the symptomatic system. 
The tongue shows here, more than in any other dis- 
ease, a great variety of modifications, which have this 
peculiarity, that they have no relation whatever to 
the state of the stomach, but to the state of the 
typhoid affection. Those physicians therefore who 
judge of the disposition of the first stages, by an in- 
spection of the tongue, commit an error often fatal. 
Thus, a tongue which is dry and red at the edges does 
not indicate the use of emollients and antiphlogistics, 
and purgatives and diet would entail the most serious 
consequences. The tongue only indicates the nature 
and extent of the typhoid affection. If the cerebral 
system is particularly attacked, the tongue is red, 
quivering ; if it is the lung, the tongue is saburral ; 
if it is the abdomen, the tongue becomes dry, black in 
the middle, red at the edges. These symptoms recur 
the oftenest and are the least deceptive. 

Nausea and vomiting sometimes occur in the first 
stage, diminish as the disease progresses, and finally 
disappear when the adynamic stage has become well 
established. If they show themselves in the last 
stage, we may suspect the existence of a peritonitis 
from perforation. 

The stomach is nearly always passive ; patients do 
not complain of colics. One single symptom shows 
a deep lesion of the intestinal tube : it is a very acute 
3 



30 A TREATISE ON 



pain, produced in the right iliac cavity when pressed 
with the hand. If feeling is not entirely dead through 
stupor, the patient is agitated at this pressure and 
utters a cry of pain. Slight rumblings which take 
place at this touch, and the insensibility of the whole 
of the remainder of the abdomen to this pressure, is 
one of the characteristics which at once informs the 
experienced practitioner of the existence of typhoid 
fever. 

There is likewise a functional disorder of the intes- 
tines, constipation or diarrhoea. The latter recurs more 
often at Paris than at Lyons, — in which place constipa- 
tion very generally prevails. At the outset of the 
disorder, diarrhoea is but slight ; at the end and du- 
ring convalescence, it is always a dangerous phe- 
nomenon, which is caused by the non-cicatrization 
of the intestinal ulcers. We have already stated that 
the treatment of typhoid fevers with constipation is 
very simple and satisfactory. 

It has been said that diarrhoea is an indication of 
irritation of the large intestine ; it has been con- 
sidered as a sign of colic, and it has been thought, 
that if the lesions are limited to the diseased intestine, 
there must necessarily be constipation. But this is 
not the case. — Diarrhoea, like most of the other phe- 
nomena, proceeds from the special typhoid ulceration. 
The large intestine has been found to be perfectly 
healthy, in subjects who up to death were laboring 
under a severe diarrhoea. It is possible for diarrhoea 



TYPHOID FEVER. 31 



to be induced by the extremity of the diseased intes- 
tine being affected. 

The urine presents very frequent modifications, and 
furnishes a very valuable index to show the extent 
of the morbid state in its various stages and to direct 
surely the alimentary regimen of the convalescent. 
There is no disease where an examination of the urine 
is so important, and yet it is entirely neglected by the 
greater number of practitioners. For my part, it is 
my guide, and it has never deceived me. The pulse, 
the tongue, the aspect of the countenance may lead 
one into error ; but the urine invariably indicates the 
true state of the patient. That of the night and day 
should be kept separately in tumbler-glasses, in order 
that we. may be able to judge well of its different de- 
grees of color, limpidity, and the nature of the deposit. 

At the commencement of the disease the urine is 
turbid, whitish, and remains in this state without 
forming any deposit. Soon after, when the disease is 
confirmed, it becomes perfectly limpid and of a normal 
color. During several succeeding days it seems to 
remain unchanged. Yet, if we hold the glass con- 
taining the urine up to the light, we then notice a 
slight turbidness in the upper portion. During the 
following days this turbidness gradually descends, — 
always however suspended, — so that the upper and 
lower portions of the urine remain limpid, whilst the 
• centre is of a dubious, opal color, perfectly separated 
from the others; in proportion as this cloud descends, 



32 A TREATISE ON 



we may augur that the disease is approaching a favor- 
able crisis. 

As soon as this discoloration touches the bottom of 
the glass, it changes its nature and is transformed 
into a sandy deposit of a grey-rose color, a portion of 
which sticks to the sides of the glass. When this 
takes place an almost certain cure may be counted on. 

This deposit, which increases day by day, becomes 
generally very abundant, so as even to reach the 
height of two inches in a champagne-glass of urine. 
It is then composed of a rose-colored powder deposited 
upon a bottom of thick mucus. From this moment 
the patient may be given some food, such as broth 
and other light soups. When the deposit becomes 
again purely sandy and begins to decrease, the cure 
is certain. Without loss of time, a tonic diet must be 
prescribed, roast meats, wine and water, solid soups ; 
if this is not done, the salutary reaction is stopped at 
the most favorable stage for its development, and a 
convalescence is then brought about which is more 
dangerous than the primitive disease. The pulse 
then becomes quick and precipitate ; the cheeks are 
colored; a little dry cough or frequent diarrhoetic 
stools indicate the development of a passive pneumo- 
nia or of a diarrhoea from exhaustion. • The sovereign 
remedy for this is good wholesome food. I have no 
doubt whatever but that a great number of typhoid 
cases, which fortunately had attained a stage of con- 
valescence, notwithstanding allopathic remedies, be- 
came the victims to the Broussaisian system of diet 



TYPHOID FEVER. 33 



and regimen. I know of several examples of this. I 
shall never forget being called in to a little patient 
who was reduced to the last stage of putrid adynamic 
fever, abandoned by the doctors, and saving it by 
means of a certain diet prescribed from the moment 
of my first visit. 

The examination of the urine serves as a sure guide 
to the alimentary regimen to be adopted, and allows 
us to avoid the errors of excess or of too slight a 
diet. If it is red and clear, all nutritious food must 
be stopped ; if it becomes pale, slightly turbid, ac- 
companied by a small deposit, powerful nourishment 
must be given ; if the deposit is abundant, we must 
be more cautious. 

I do not know if the urine goes through the same 
process of change in cases of typhoid fever which ter- 
minate fatally. It is most probable that it remains 
limpid or contains a sediment. I had once occasion to 
observe this. 

The pulse varies very much, being at times slow, 
very slow, and at others quick, strong or weak. Nev- 
ertheless, it is generally quick, particularly at night. 
We must well distinguish this quickness from that 
which takes place when all typhoid phenomena have 
disappeared. This latter proceeds from nervous ex- 
citability, sustained by a too severe diet, and which 
disappears as the patient recovers his strength. 

The functional disorders of the respiratory system 
have no relation to the severity of the lesions which 
anatomy discloses after death. In this, more than 



34 A TREATISE ON 

in any other disease, immense changes of the pa- 
renchyma originate and are developed in a most 
completely latent manner, and often the disorgani- 
zation of the lung is brought about, before one has 
even an idea that it was affected. It is therefore 
important, in these diseases, to use the stethe- 
scope often ; for pneumonia is liable to be developed 
suddenly and during any stage. The practised eye 
of the physician will recognize it from the following 
symptoms : — a small dry cough, precipitate and 
somewhat difficult breathing, acceleration of the 
pulse, which becomes very feeble, increased prostra- 
tion, and bright redness of the cheeks. This state of 
the lungs, has the greatest analogy to the adynamic 
pneumonia of old age, and cannot be distinguished 
from it but by the tout ensemble of the other ty- 
phoid phenomena, which is wanting in this kind of 
pneumonia. 

The warmth of the skin has, like the pulse, great 
variety. It has no relation to the degree of intestinal 
irritation. We have before said that a well defined 
disturbance in the warmth of the skin, — pungent 
heat in some places, and ice-like coldness in others (I 
do not speak of the extremities), — indicated a parti- 
cipation of the brain, or of its membranes with the 
typhoid irritation. The caloric anomalies appear to 
me to be phenomena peculiar to cerebral typhoid fever. 

In a great many subjects the skin is covered with 
a variety of eruptions,— petechia, vibices, sudaminas, 
pustules, miliary eruptions, purples, variolous pustules. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 35 

The petechia generally shew themselves on the trunk, 
and but seldom on the upper part of the neck or on 
Mie limbs. Andral never noticed any either on the 
face or legs. I was however a witness of a case where 
the whole cutaneous surface was covered with salient 
pustules. 

The size uf these blotches varies from that of a 
flea bite to that of a lentil, although generally of a 
round form they are nevertheless sometimes of an 
oval or elongated shape, and form a rash Avhich is 
not perceptible to the sight but only to the touch. 
They have several shades ; being of a pretty vivid 
rose colour, when they show themselves at the time 
when the adynamic symptoms are not very strongly 
developed, but as the stupor increases, they take a livid 
or brownish hue. They seem to have acquired a full 
growth at the moment of their first appearance ; they 
remain five or six days, fade, and then disappear 
without leaving the slightest trace. The petechia 
eruption is often solitary ; but very often likewise be- 
comes confluent, and shows some analogy to a rougeole 
eruption. Very often these petechia appear and 
disappear several times in the course of the disease. 
In extreme adynamia produced by loss of blood, the 
petechia generally show themselves of a sudden, fade 
and disappear according as strength is acquired. Cri- 
tical petechia have been spoken of. Andral observed 
twice the disappearance of the petechia coincide with 



36 A TREATISE ON 



a very evident amelioration. I have never made the 
same observation. I have on the contrary, remarked 
that the disease is serious in proportion to the pe- 
techia being numerous, and that their number and ex- 
tent correspond pretty nearly with the number and 
the size of the intestinal ulcers. 

The livid blotches, called vibices, seem to be no- 
thing but a variety of the petechia eruption; it is 
much less frequent. 

The sudaminas is an eruption not less frequent 
and characteristic of typhoid fever. These are little 
watery bladders, transparent, perfectly limpid, like 
drops of dew, having the appearance as though they 
could be spread out with the finger, but which never- 
theless easily resist friction. The sudaminas make 
their appearance a long time after the pustules and 
towards the third stage of the disease. They appear 
on the neck, no where else, and on the sides of the 
neck more particularly. They are very ephemeral and 
leave on disappearing small whitish pimples. During 
the eruption of the sudaminas, the skin of the neck 
is dry, hot, and of a brownish color. We have our- 
selves noticed a case of confluent sudaminas, forming 
large vesicles, similar to vesicatory blisters. 

It is with a remarkable facility that the skin, in 
individuals attacked with typhoid fever, becomes gan- 
grenous and ulcerated in the spots where there has 
been a slight irritation. This circumstance renders 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



the application of blisters so often prescribed by allo- 
pathic physicians so very dangerous * 

* We do not deny but that revulsives are sometimes useful ; 
but this method like all others of the school, has the great in- 
convenience of being too often used. There is no disease of 
any standing but what they make use of a certain number of 
revulsives. It is a Maniere de faire they have which admits 
of no exception ; and he that dies without a blister, dies not 
according to the rule of their science. In the more obstinate 
and more tedious affections, they add setons, moxas, cauteri- 
zation, plasters, frictions with stibium tartar, croton oil, &c. &c. 
The patient is martyred in an atrocious manner. The mul- 
titudes who die under this usage do not complain, and the few 
who fancy they receive relief, or who survive these tortures, 
serve to perpetuate this mistaken, blind and brutal method. 

Revulsives employed out of their place, or in excess, excite 
fever and induce a continued reaction, under the influence of 
which the economy is wasted, is weakened and even ends in 
death. This result is very marked in all typhoid affec- 
tions. Therefore they ought to be feared in this kind of 
disease, where the blood from the very commencement has 
a great tendency to change, and where the reaction is easily 
followed by grangrene. 

* Revulsive medication, left to itself, without the intervention 
of specific agents, is entirely powerless in the treatment of 
special affections ; at the most it can only delay the fatal ter- 
mination, in diminishing the irritation of the organic system 
of the patient ; this however is a result by no means always 
sure, as we sometimes see an entirely contrary effect. In an 
allopathic point of view, we admit that revulsives may be 
useful in the commencement of inflammations, when they are 
not yet localized, or when the localization is feeble and easily 
3* 



38 A TREATISE ON 



The skin of typhoid patients is nearly always dry 
and sticky. A genuine amelioration never takes place 
before it recovers its normal state. The sweat is 
par excellence the critical phenomenon ; it always 
announces an approaching convalescence. The above 
then are the principal anatomical and functional chan- 
ges which typhoid fever present. Their true appre- 
ciation, neglected in the allopathic schools, is of very 
great importance to the homoeopathic practitioner who 
is desirous to act with a knowledge of cause, to 
leave the smallest possible opening for any diag- 
nostic errors, and to administer remedies according 
to the precise indications brought to light. He must 
take every symptom into consideration ; their assem- 
blage, their relative value, the order in which they 
are produced ; these are the circumstances, on which 
depend his choice of a remedy. What do allopathic 
physicians care about these things 1 They have vo- 
luminous treatises on typhoid fever, ending in a few 
miserable pages devoted to vague therapeutical pre- 
scriptions, equally applicable to any other diseases. 

liable to be displaced. If this is not the case, a risk is run by 
their means, of increasing their general reaction, and con- 
sequently the local inflammation. Professor Brousseau goes 
further and says : " Whatever may be the efforts made with 
the aid of revulsives to stop the progress of a pneumonia, of a 
hepatitis, of a pustulous eruption of the skin or of mucus 
membranes, none ever succeed." * 

* History of the Homceopathic Medical Doctrine, Vol II. p. 321. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 39 



They in them describe well the glands of Peyer, and 
intestinal ulcerations, the changes of the blood, the 
enervation of the tissues. In their hospitals anato- 
mical lesions are studied ; but it is only in the ho- 
moeopathic schools we learn to cure them. 

Typhoid fever does not always constitute a disease 
uniform in character. It shows itself in a great many 
shapes which may be said to belong to the following 
types : cerebral typhoid, pneumo-typhoid and ab- 
dominal typhus, according to the functional changes 
of the brain, of the lungs and of the intestines. 

A disease consisting of a general infection of the 
blood and tissues, it leaves no function in a normal 
state. Nevertheless all are not diseased to the same 
extent on account of the different occasional causes, 
such as of age, of temperament, of a multitude of cir- 
cumstances the influence of which it is impossible to 
determine : such or such an organic formation is af- 
fected in a peculiar manner, and its morbid phenomena, 
dominating the whole of the other symptoms, give to 
the typhoid affection a peculiar character. There is 
therefore a great dissimilarity in fevers, and one could 
not make a concise and perfect description of them. 
Practice shows us daily new cases, different from any 
others before observed, and having no other relation 
to them than the ataxy, the adynamy, and the sui- 
generis eruption of the intestinal tube. 

Typhoid fever is often insidious. It requires ex- 
quisite tact, and consummate experience to recognize it 



40 A TREATISE ON 

■when it first appears. It may present itself in the 
shape of any local inflammation, of a gastritis, of a 
bronchitis, of an angina, &c. We have seen it sud- 
denly produced, after a painful weariness of short 
duration, after a violent inflammatory fever. In se- 
rious cases the disease commences with a violent 
headache, nausea and syncope. In general the follow- 
ing are the premonitory symptoms ; the patient is 
uneasy, without being able to say what he feels ; he 
is fatigued ; sleeps badly ; has no appetite ; bleeds 
at the nose drops of blackish blood ; his head is heavy; 
has vertigo ; his ideas are confused ; his legs tremble ; 
he feels a desire to go to bed. The two first nights, 
his sleep is troubled with painful nightmares. The 
following morning, the patient no longer complains ;. 
he replies at length and states in a sharp tone of 
voice that he is well. The face is sharp ; the eyes 
are brilliant and animated ; the arteries • throb, the 
pulse is full, large ; the lips dry, thirst violent, the 
tongue whitish, speckled with red spots ; the belly in- 
flated : he is constipated ; the urine is scanty and 
of a dark colour. 

From the third to the sixth day the stupor in- 
creases. The patient replies to direct questions only, 
and with difliculty, but always in a slow and clear 
manner. He mutters ; the tongue trembles and be- 
comes dry, thick, and covered with a brownish sub- 
stance. The inflation of the abdomen increases, ap- 
pears indolent, except in the right iliac cavity where 



TYPHOID FEVER. 41 

the patient complains of a sharp pain, and utters a 
cry when it is pressed with the hand. The skin is 
dry, burning. Here and there on the trunk are seen 
some rose colored pustules of the form of very small 
lentils. Later an eruption of round vesicles ap- 
pears on the neck, transparent, limpid, similar to drops 
of dew, which disappear at the end of thirty-six or 
forty-eight hours, leaving small whitish pimples. 
Sometimes the sudaminas are not apparent, and we 
only see the mealy dust. The patient lies without 
motion on his back. We only observe contraction of 
the fingers and of the tendons of the forearm. The 
atmosphere is impregnated with a sui generis odor 
difficult to define, but which instantly informs the 
experienced practitioner of the presence of typhoid 
fever. 

At this period the disease begins to take one of 
the three forms we have above mentioned. — If the 
brain is attacked, the whole of the symptoms are influ- 
enced by the disorder of this organ ; one would think 
that it was a cerebral fever : fury, convulsions, cries, 
singing, contractions of the face, haggard eyes, dilata- 
tion or contraction of the pupils, trembling, redness of 
the tongue, tension of the pulse up to the moment of 
the general collapse which precedes the last agony. 

If the lungs are affected in a special manner, this 
state is easily mistaken for the adynamic pneumonia 
of old age. A loose cough first causes a gelatinous 
expectoration, which will stick to a glass, of a rose 



42 A TREATISE ON 



color, which little by little takes a brown tinge, now 
that of the lees of wine, then that of the juice of 
dried plums, and becomes fluid. The features of the 
face quickly alter, the nose becomes sharp, the tem- 
ples are flattened, the pulse wiry ; life rapidly 
ebbs away, without any other apparent reaction than 
a slight febrile movement at night, with a bright red, 
or violet color of the cheeks. 

The abdominal form is the most frequent and the 
least dangerous. Here we see no morbid phenomenon 
add itself to the symptoms of the first period, which 
continues progressively to develop itself. The skin 
becomes drier and hotter. The rose colored pus- 
tules are embroAvned, and increased particularly on the 
trunk. We have even seen them encroach upon the 
hands. The stupor is complete ; the patient answers 
no questions and is insensible to all stimulants. The 
lips are dry and blackish, as also the gums and the 
tongue ; the teeth look as though covered by a coat 
of mat colored varnish ; the abdomen is inflated, and 
then a colicky diarrhoea generally succeeds the original 
obstinate constipation. 

To these three principal morbid forms may be as- 
cribed all typhoid states ; but it would be impossible 
to describe all its varieties, nor would it be of any 
practical use could it be accomplished. — That which is 
most important is to be able to recognize the peculiar 
infection, to distinguish at the commencement, typhoid 
affections from those which are not such. The follow- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 43 



ing are a few distinguishing signs which will greatly 
assist the observer. The inflammatory action of ty- 
phoid fever makes its first attacks with violence, 
and soon gives way to a depression of strength. In 
simple acute diseases the contrary takes place ; the 
excitability goes on progressively increasing to the 
highest pitch that it can attain. In typhoid fever the 
patient does not complain ; he replies after a long 
pause and in. a sharp and prompt manner ; his eyes 
are brilliant, and animated with a strange excitement, 
as in acute idiocy. In simple inflammatory affections, 
the patient is restless, complains, looks and replies 
in a natural manner. It is remarked that after a ge- 
neral febrile reaction the disease localizes itself, 
leaving several organic symptoms in their normal 
state. In typhoid fever, on the contrary, the whole 
economy is soon affected. We do not remark this 
assemblage of morbid phenomena, of a regular de- 
velopment, peculiar to inflammatory fevers ; but the 
eye of the experienced physician very quickly recog- 
nizes this functional disorder which the ancients de- 
signated ataxy. The look is aminated and the features 
indicate stupor; the tongue is dry, arid, the skin 
burning, and there is no thirst ; the pulse is variable, 
large and slow, or small and quick, without any appa- 
rent cause. A puissant morbid power rules the vital 
reaction and upsets it at its own pleasure. 

To distinguish typhoid affections at the commence- 
ment of their development, is one of the difficulties of 



44 A TREATISE ON 

practice. We daily see physicians reputed to be 
skilful and enlightened, miscontrue this character up 
to one of the most advanced periods, and prescribe a 
homicidal remedy, Avhich they most certainly would 
have avoided had they been able to recognize the true 
nature of the disease. Lately two children fell sick, 
both of them complaining of undefinable uneasiness 
with pain on being pressed in the right iliac cavity. 
One of them, according to the advice of its physician, 
allowed leeches to be applied to this spot, and died 
on the second day. The other was to have taken a 
purgative. I was then called in. This child, natu- 
rally gay, had a dull eye, an exhausted appearance, a 
yellow color, the tongue dirty, the pulse slow, he 
complained of general lassitude, confused head, want 
of appetite, constipation ; he had just passed through 
the nose a few drops of a very black colored blood. 
The abdomen slightly inflated, and painful on pres- 
sure of the right iliac cavity. Under the influence 
of the proper remedies, the disease went regularly 
through is various stages in fifteen days. None of 
the characteristic phenomena were wanting — the 
tongue from being dirty became dry and rough, the 
teeth and gums fuliginous. At first there were foetid 
and scanty diarrhoctic stools, then constipation, twitch- 
ings of the tendons of the forearm, four or five pe- 
techia on the trunk ; towards the last stage, there 
was a very fleeting eruption of sudarnina on the 
neck ; skin hot and dry ; pulse full, soft, and of a 



TYPHOID FEVER. 45 



normal quickness ; swelling of the right lung with a 
mucous, whistling rattle. The urine, at first very 
clear showed a sediment which fell little by little and 
gave place to an abundant sandy deposit. The com- 
plexion was aminated and the replies slow. There 
were wanting none of the peculiarities of an abdominal 
typhoid fever. Nevertheless the physician of the 
place, an old and well known practitioner, much 
esteemed, very learned, wished to persuade the pa- 
rents, that their child had not the slightest shadow 
of typhoid fever, but it was only in an insignificant 
morbid state, owing to some gastric derangement. No 
doubt he would have prescribed a purgative or leeches, 
perhaps both. No doubt the poor child's fate would 
have been the same as his companion, or the disease, 
aggravated by such a treatment, would have "brought 
it to death's door, after wading through liniments, 
plasters, drugs, and other potions of the kind which 
allopathic medicine, when it arrives at its wit's end, 
heaps upon its patients without order or method. 
What a contrast does this medication not offer to the 
specific treatment, which proceeds in a manner that 
is always regular, according to the nature of the 
symptoms, spares the vital forces, gently induces the 
reaction, conducts the disease through its most se- 
rious stages without adding anything to its se- 
verity ! By taking it at its commencement, at its 
very first appearance, we often reduce it so that it 



46 typhoid pe\ er. 



becomes but a slight indisposition, and prevents its 
having scarcely ever any fatal results. 

I know that this assertion will not readily meet 
with credit. How ! will be said, the least accident, 
the least indisposition may, under certain circum- 
stances, occasion death, and you pretend to take away 
all danger from one of the most serious diseases ! 
Let us be well understood. — One may die from a 
prick, from a chill, of nothing. — One may die from 
typhoid fever, when treated homceopathically. There 
are sometimes combined circumstances which drag 
one fatally and irresistibly into the tomb, but these ac- 
cessory circumstances which are exceptional and the 
only fatal ones, cannot cause a disease to be called 
dangerous which is not so in itself. Well then, we 
maintain that typhoid fever taken in time is not 
at all dangerous when treated homceopathically. 
Of seventy or eighty cases which I have treated 
up to the present time, a great number of which 
were greatly advanced in the disease before I 
was called in, not one terminated fatally ; all with- 
out exception recovered.* And yet there were some 
of all degrees of intensity, of every variety ; several 

* I cannot count as unsuccessful two cases of young persons 
attacked with cerebral fever in consequence of the suppression 
of their menses, accompanied by a typhoid of a doubtful cha- 
racter which were confided to us in an advanced stage, three 
or four days before death, when convulsions, faintings and de- 
lirium had set in. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 47 

appeared beyond the reach of science, and left no hope 
to the physician. This is a fact we would submit to 
the serious consideration of our brother practitioners, 
— a positive fact. For, in a word, the greater number 
of these patients were members of families well known 
in this city. To dispute this fact is therefore not 
possible. Who is there, that has up to the present 
time, confided to us a case of typhoid fever that we 
have allowed to die ! * I do not publish this statement 

* Since we have written these lines, this misfortune has hap- 
pened to us, and under circumstances which it is important 
should be known. Two young people belonging to the same 
family, returned to their parents at Lyons, very ill ; they came 
from the neighboring town of P...., where typhoid fever was 
raging. They shortly became bedridden, and showed all the 
characteristics of the disease, from which they recovered per- 
fectly in a short time, under the treatment of homoeopathic 
remedies. But at the worst stage of the disease, one of their 
brothers who was in a school the sanitory condition of which was 
most perfect, and who himself was enjoying excellent health, 
paid them a visit, and shortly after was attacked with typhoid 
fever. The disease followed its regular course and seemed as 
though it would terminate like the two others, when in conse- 
quence of food that was given without permission, at the very mo- 
ment when the urine began to deposit, delirium came on sudden- 
ly, the pulse became most alarmingly weak, and the skin of a 
sharp and burning dryness. The urine immediately changed 
its nature ; it only showed a suspended eneoreme, and death 
soon followed. This case might induce one to think that 
typhoid fever was contagious. It shows the necessity of exa- 
mining the urine in order to prescribe food, and the correctness 
of the indications furnished by this secreted liquid- I must 



48 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

from any self-conceit, nor from any personal vanity of 
my own talents ; but the whole merit rests upon the 
method of treatment, a method too little known, not 
sufficiently appreciated ; Ave therefore proclaim it 
aloud. To speak the truth, I do not think that it can 
be considered an ordinary result. It is most probable 
that the proportion of mortality is in general three 
or four per cent., and our school already possesses suf- 
ficient documents to establish this. 

This dreadful disease, submitted to homoeopathic 
treatment, loses therefore to a great extent not only 
the severity common to it, but also that which is 
added to it by empirical and debilitating medications, 
which have been universally employed up to the pre- 
sent day. 

ON THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID FEVER. 

The homoeopathic school possesses precious clinical 
studies upon this disease, among others those of Doc- 
tor Bartle, military physician, who during many years 
employed the new method in the hospitals. We can- 
not follow a better guide, in considering the treatment 
of typhoid fever ; to it we will add our own personal 
experience, in the most concise form possible, in order 

mention that this poor young man was attacked some years 
previously with violent ringworm in the face which had resist- 
ed every remedy. This inveterate itchlike disposition no 
doubt rendered the action of the homoeopathic remedies less 
efficacious. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 49 

to give allopathic physicians in a few pages, certain 
and precise indications that shall be a guide to them. 

Under the therapeutical head, we may divide the 
course of typhoid affection into three stages : the first 
which we will call the vegetative stage or the pre- 
monitory stage, requires, according to the symptomatic 
system, the following remedies : Pulsatilla, Nux-v., 
Mercur., Dulcam., Bryon., Rhus, Ipecac, Veratr., 
Digital, and China. 

Pulsatilla is the most efficacious remedy in lethar- 
gic, lymphatic constitutions, where shiverings predo- 
minate, an absence of thirst and appetite, bad mouth, 
white tongue, nausea, mucous vomitings, mucous stools, 
an unhappy and crying mood. The sixth dilution 
may be administered, one drop or three globules in a 
tablespoonful of pure water every twelve, six, or three 
hours, until the symptoms are distinctly modified or 
changed, otherwise proceed with one of the following 
medicines. 

When bilious or gastric symptoms predominate, 
with tenesmus or constipation, from the third to the 
twelfth dilution of Nux-vom. maybe used, twice a day, 
— four globules or one to two drops in a tablespoonful 
of pure water at a dose. 

Mercurius is particularly efficacious in individuals 
of a nervous-lymphatic constitution, who are delicate 
and weak, with a pale, yellowish countenance, a tongue 
covered with a very thick layer, putrid, taste insipid, 
little thirst, painful sensibility of the epigastrium 



50 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



and of the hepatic region; stools copious, liquid, 
clouded, slightly bloody. A grain, or as much as will 
stand on the point of a penknife, of the first or second 
trituration is administered, every two or three hours. 
Under the influence of this medication, the stools be- 
come less frequent, bilious, and less watery ; the painful 
sensibility of the abdomen disappears little by little, 
and with it all the other morbid symptoms. We have 
every reason to believe that this substance prevents 
the formation of intestinal ulcerations. 

Dulcamara is a successful remedy when the dis- 
ease has been preceded by a chill (hot and cold). 
When there is a clean tongue, an absence of any gas- 
tric disturbance, yellow fluid stools, accompanied with 
rumblings, gripings, pressure in the belly, painful ab- 
domen, particularly about the navel. This medica- 
ment given in the first dilution, one drop or four glo- 
bules every three or six hours soon causes the abdo- 
minal pains to cease, renders the stools less frequent 
and more solid, and induces a general perspiration, du- 
ring which the fever disappears. 

Bryonia is given when the disease threatens to 
pass into the second stage, and where there are al- 
ready nervous indications : tearing, throbbing, ce- 
phalalgia, starting, disgust, nausea, vomiting, whitish 
tongue, bitter mouth, dryness of the throat, thirst, 
vesicular eruptions on the lips and in the mouth, 
cramplike tension of the stomach, sensibility of the 
epigastrium on pressure, painful abdomen, emission of 



TYPHOID FEVER. 51 

-wind, constipation, urine scanty and turbid, voice 
hoarse and weak, cough in the morning, with pains 
in the side on coughing and drawing in a deep 
breath, pains in the joints and limbs, distressing las- 
situde ; from the third to twelfth dilution, one drop or 
three globules every three hours, until amelioration or 
change. 

Rhus-t. is proper when there is confusion of the 
head, shooting in the brain, dry burning heat, shoot- 
ings in the head, tension and stiffness in the nape 
of the neck, aggravated at night and in moving. 
This medicament is also good when there are eratic 
pains in the nape of the neck and the breasts with 
fatigue and lassitude of the limbs, in the most acute 
state of the first stage, when the nervous symptoms 
begin to show themselves, when the tongue is covered 
with a crust, diarrhoea with rumblings, shiverings, 
vertigoes, contraction of the eyelids, alternate changes 
of color in the face, dryness of the throat, vomiting of 
the ingesta, yawning, heavy head, pressure on the 
eyes, painful feeling at any noise or light, somnolence, 
weakness of the memory, tendency to delirium, the 
lower lip and tongue blackish : from the third to the 
twelfth dilution, one drop or three globules every two 
or three hours, until relief or change ensues. 

Ipecacuanha succeeds in cases which are of a 
very gastric character with choleraic state, stools 
fluid and of a light green color : from the first to the 
third dilution, one drop or four globules every two 



52 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

hours ; if no relief takes place within twenty-four hours, 
pause four hours and proceed with another remedy. 

Veratrum-alb. has proved itself to be of great 
efficacy when the disease commences with vomitings 
and fluid stools, with cold limbs and cold sweats. 
In a case which belonged to the second stage, in 
which the extremities to the elbows and knees were 
cold as marble and covered with petechia, the pulse 
scarcely apparent, the belly extremely painful with 
involuntary stools, this medicament was the only effi- 
cacious one. It was administered from the sixth to the 
twelfth dilution in globules, at first every two hours, 
then at an interval of one and two hours. This se- 
rious case was promptly subdued ; the petechia, 
it is true, were obstinate for about fifteen days. 

Digitalis is useful in nervous lymphatic constitu- 
tions, when there is a dilatation of the pupils, perfectly 
clean tongue, pulse slow and regular, prostration of 
strength, pressure and fulness of the epigastrium, dis- 
gust, sickness, and even vomitings : from the first to 
the third trituration, one grain or as much as will 
stand on the point of a penknife ; or four globules 
every three hours until amelioration or change. 

China is given when the disease presents the appear- 
ance of a slow fever {schleichend) (Ger.) : Paleness 
of the face, cephalalgia, dimness of sight, ringing in 
the ears, weakness of hearing, coated tongue, dryness 
and bad taste in the mouth, thirst, nausea, pressure 



TYPHOID FEVER. 53 



on the epigastrium, which is sensible to the touch ; 
inflation and sensibility of the belly ; watery stools, 
lientery, scanty urine, difficult respiration, pres- 
sure on the chest, shooting and tearing pains in the 
limbs ; anxiety, sleeplessless, coldness particularly 
in the hands and feet. The tincture of the 3d dilu- 
tion one drop in a tablespoonful of water, or three glo- 
bules, every three hours until signs of improvement 
set in, in which case the intervals between the doses 
must be lengthened from three to six and twelve hours. 

In the second stage, which several practitioners de- 
signate under the name of the animal * or inflam- 
matory gastric stage, we must have recourse to the 
following remedies ; Pulsatilla, Mercurius-dulcis, 
Bryonia, Rhus, Acid.-phosph. Chamomilla, Bel- 
ladonna, Aconite, Calcar., Carbo,Coccul., Hyosciam., 
Sulphur, and to hydropathy. 

Pulsatilla in weak and relaxed constitutions, 
with little or no thirst, gastric weaknesses, pale or 
yellow complexion, phlegmatic temperament, anxious 
moral disposition, chagrin ; bitter mouth, tongue co- 
vered with a whitish or greenish layer, anorexy, slimy 
vomitings ; from the 3d to the 6th dilution, one drop, 
in a tablespoonful of pure water, three or four times 
during the twenty-four hours, until amelioration or 
change. 

* This term is peculiar to the physiological theories of the 
Germans ; they use it in contradistinction to the term vegeta- 
tive, which name they give to the premonitory stage. 
4 



54 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



Mercurius-dulcis is good in undeveloped gastric 
states : painful sensibility of the whole abdo- 
men, aqueous stools, almost discolored or mixed 
with fleecy substances, or like the washings of 
flesh, occurring more particularly in the night. Its use 
must be discontinued when the tongue becomes dry 
and delirium shows itself; the first trituration must 
be given, one grain very two or three hours. Under 
the influence of this medicament, the stools become 
bilious, more solid, less frequent, the painful sensibi- 
lity of the abdomen disappears, and with it all the 
other morbid symptoms. Dose, see Mercurius-so- 
lubilis in former pages. 

The cases in which Bryonia is applicable are those 
which have the appearance of febris nervosa ver- 
satalis or cerebral typhus, when strong delirium is 
accompanied with intense febrile heat, violent thirst 
with dryness and a vesicular eruption in the in- 
terior of the mouth ; the epigastrium sensible to 
pressure, inflation of the belly, dark colored urine, 
shooting pains in the side of the chest in coughing 
and breathing strongly ; inclination to sleep during 
the day, restlessness at night, pulse small, and soft; 
clammy sweats, trembling of the hands : from the third 
to the twelfth dilution, one drop in a tablespoonful of 
pure water every two or three hours, but if no im- 
provement takes place after the sixth dose proceed 
with another remedy. The old homoeopath of Pres- 
burg, Doctor Anelli, has, in the course of his long 



TYPHOID FEVER. 55 



practice, always found this indication for Bryonia. 
On this head he tells me : " Typhoid fevers are fre- 
quent in Preshurg and have almost always a peculiar 
character. They generally commence by a very 
marked coldness, accompanied by vertigo, which last 
during about an hour. It is replaced by an intense 
heat, which continues during two days, decreasing 
little by little ; then comes delirium, insensibility, 
and the patient dies insensibly at the end of a few 
weeks in a state of profound stupor. Its most re- 
markable feature consists in the absence of abdominal 
symptoms. Under allopathic treatment, most of 
the cases have had a fatal termination ; the same 
result takes place when left entirely to the resources 
of nature. If a cure is being effected, then, towards 
the end of the 20th day a complete deafness comes on ; 
this critical phenomenon, of good augury begins on the 
fifth day by homoeopathic treatment, under the influence 
of which the mortality descends to almost zero. Bryo- 
nia is the medicine indicated, and sometimes suffices 
in itself to bring the disease to a good termination." 
Rhus is useful in every stage of the disease. It 
is particularly beneficial when the whole of the symp- 
toms have the character of febris nervosa stupida, 
as well as when the alvine stools are extremely co- 
pious. It is one of the most powerful medicines ; 
it brings back the strength by stopping or moderating 
the fatal colliquative diarrhoea, and diminishes the 
intensity of the cerebral congestion. It is adminis- 



56 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

tered the same as Bryonia, to which it bears the 
greatest possible analogy. 

Prostration with semi unconsciousness, scorbutic 
appearance of the buccal membrane, extreme slowness 
both in replies and motions, and watery colliquative 
diarrhoea require Acidum-phosphor. : from the 1st to 
the 3d dilution, one drop or four globules every two 
hours, in a tablespoonful of pure water. This medi- 
cine has effected many of the most beautiful cures 
of typhoid fever, with both my father and myself. 
We must add to the indications given by Bar tie — a great 
number of petechia,* — profuse sweats ; a blond deli- 
cate constitution, white skin. 

The following various symptomatic groups show 
when Chamomilla ought to be used: redness and 
febrile heat of the cheeks in the afternoon, with in- 
flation of the parotids, redness and dryness of the 
buccal membrane, tongue shrivelled and covered with 
a dark crust, putrid and bitter taste, foetid breath, inor- 
dinate desire to drink fresh water ; when there is nausea, 
bitter vomiting, pressure on the stomach, colic, a 
very sensible pain in the abdomen on pressure, watery 
stools of a greenish yellow color, urine with yellowish 
fleecy deposit ; when there is any catarrh, hoarseness, 
mucous rattle in the chest, a tickling in the trachea caus- 
ing cough ; oppression, sleeplessness, soporific state with 

* Flat jutting out spots, of a light brown color, and very dif- 
ferent from the so-called petechia. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 57 



startings, vivid dreams, pressure on the sternum, 
shooting pains, burning in the chest, sub-delirium, dry 
febrile heat, anxiety, nervous irritation, sighs, sobs ; 
take one drop in a tablespoonful of water, or four 
globules of the 6th dilution, two or four times in the 
twenty-four hours, until amelioration or change. 

Belladonna is given in inflammatory cases where 
the pulse is full, hard, quick, the pulsation of the ca- 
rotid arteries evident, the countenance animated, vul- 
turelike, the skin hot and dry, the tongue red, dry } 
thirst violent, the abdomen tympanitic, the urine turbid 
of a deep color ; when the patient complains of head- 
ache or when he is prostrated, delirious, with the eyes 
brilliant and fixed, cries, restlessness during sleep, 
frightful dreams ; from the 3d to the 12th dilution may 
be used. It is very eflicacious to alternate with the 3d 
dilution of Aconite every two or three hours, when in- 
tense febrile heat persists, accompanied with involun- 
tary fluid stools. These medicines generally induce 
perspiration which is the forerunner of a general ame- 
lioration. Dose: Four globules or one drop in a 
tablespoonful of pure water every two hours. 

Bartle makes free use of Calcarea-carb. at the 
end of the second stage or the beginning of the third, 
when the intestinal ulcers seem to form, and when the 
diarrhoea does not give way to the ordinary homoeo- 
pathic remedies. He prescribes this remedy some- 
times alone (the 30th dilution, one drop two or four 
times in the twenty-four hours), sometimes alternated 



58 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



with the medicine which answers best to the ap- 
pearance of the general symptoms ; the repetition of 
the dose is then more frequent (from six to eight times 
in the course of the day). An alternation every three 
hours with Belladonna gives the best results. We 
commence with the 30th dilution. If there is not a 
change for the better within the twenty-four hours, we 
descend to the 24th, 18th, 12th and sometimes even to 
the 6th. The change for the better manifests itself 
in the sensibility of the abdomen, in the meteorism, 
agitation and anxiety ; the stools become more con- 
sistent and less frequent. Dose : Three globules or 
one drop in a tablespoonful of pure water, but if dis- 
tinct improvement supervenes (without intervening 
apparent aggravation) the intervals should be ex- 
tended to six hours. 

Phosphorus is used with success at the end of the 
2d stage, when there are sanguinary chokings of the 
lungs (hepatization) with oppression and anxiety. 
In typhoid pneumonia, when Aconite 3d repeated 
brings about no change for the better, when the ex- 
pectoration is purulent and foetid, Phosphorus is ex- 
cellent. The proper dose is from the 6th to the 12th 
dilution, one drop or three globules in a tablespoon- 
ful of water three or four times a day, until relief 
or change ensues. 

Bartle has often obtained from Sulphur, prompt 
and happy results, in cases where Rhus, Bryonia, 
Acidum and Phosphoricum were powerless. Theindi- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 59 



cations for this remedy are : countenance very pale, eyes 
dull, itching eruptions on the lips, burning dryness 
of the mouth, watery stools mostly at night ; shoot- 
ings in the chest, dry cough, more marked in the 
evening and at night ; oppression, sleeplessness, 
uneasy agitated sleep ; hot dryness of the skin, with 
quiet pulse. Employ the 2d trituration one grain, or as 
much as will go on the point of a penknife ; or three 
globules once or twice a day, until permanent amelio- 
ration or change. 

Pulsatilla 12th dilution and Cannabis from the 
1st to the 3d dilution are beneficial in retention 
of urine or painful and difficult stools. Hyos- 
ciamus cures frequent desire to urinate, or the 
impossibility to do so. It must be given from the 
3d to the 9th dilution. Dose: One drop or four 
globules in a tablespoonful of pure water. 

Aconite and Belladonna are very good at the 
outset of the fever, when the inflammation of the pa- 
rotids commences. Every time that Bartle had to do 
with inflammatory swellings of the parotids, he sub- 
dued them invariably with Belladonna from the 12th 
to the 6th dilution ; and in certain refractory cases 
by Bellad. 12th, alternated with Calcarea-carbon- 
ica, from the 12th to the 30th dilution. The reduction 
of the glands, followed by convalescence, has always 
been the result of this treatment. Dose : One drop, 
or three globules from two to four hours, according to 
the urgency of the case, until amelioration or change. 



60 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



Aconite and Belladonna, either separately or 
alternated, at intervals of three hours generally brings 
about the reduction of the tonsils, more especially 
when the inflammation is phlegmonous and the redness 
of a deep color. When the color is pale and the 
tonsils are covered with little pale ulcers, Bryonia 
is the best remedy. 

Belladonna, the 6th dilution causes, in general, 
better than any other substance, — sleep. Dose: One 
drop or four globules in a tablespoonful of water, 
every three hours. If no relief takes place in twenty- 
four hours, proceed with another remedy, according to 
circumstances. 

Pulsat., Rhus and Sulphur, are successfully 
made use of in bleedings of the nose, each one applied 
to the symptom to which it particularly belongs, or 
conjointly with the remedy, that is appropriate to the 
whole symptoms. Bartle made use of the first or 
third dilutions in these cases. Dose. The same as 
for Belladonna. 

As regards the treatment by cold water, the ex- 
tended field which this therapeutical procedure has 
taken in the present day, induces me to give word for 
word what Bartle says upon this subject in his 
" History of Homoeopathy;" — "Pure cold water 
produces a better sanguinification and, administered 
as a drink, it produces the most agreeable sensation 
to the feverish ; moderately used externally, it vi- 
vifies and comforts the nervous svstem ; it is favor- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 61 



able to the reaction ; it renders the economy more 
sensible to homoeopathic remedies; it induces the 
crises by the urine and particularly by perspiration ; 
it powerfully aids the action of the medicaments 
administered to this end. It often happens, that 
towards the end of the second stage, the most proper 
medicines cause no favorable change, and even cause 
an aggravation ; then by the use of fresh water em- 
ployed both internally and externally we obtain sa- 
lutary alterations, and under its influence the aggra- 
vation caused by the medicaments gives place to a 
convalescent effect. 

" The use of hydro-therapeutical processes does not 
only not hurt, in general, the action of homoeopathic 
remedies, but they are to the latter very powerful 
auxiliaries in the treatment of serious typhoid fevers. 
The simultaneous application of both methods causes 
abundant sweats which rid the organization of the 
deleterious and morbid fluids, and re-establishes 
thereby the equilibrium of the functions. 

" The patient may, from the commencement of the 
disease to the end, quench his thirst as often as he 
pleases with small quantities of fresh water, may 
gargle the dry and burning mouth, bind his hot and 
painful head with wet cloths, leave upon his tympani- 
tic and suffering abdomen wetted linens, well wrung 
out, which must be often renewed. In constipation 
and diarrhoea he may make use of cold clysters; when he 
complains of a general, dry and burning heat, his body 



62 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

may be rapidly rubbed all over, and when this 
does not suffice he ought to be wrapped in wet 
sheets. As long as there is no diarrhoea, the pa- 
tient may drink as much water as he likes ; but di- 
rectly diarrhoea commences, he must take less, for fear 
of increasing the stools. Thirst, dryness and hotness 
in the throat, must then be quenched by frequent 
garglings. Severe cerebral congestions with cepha- 
lalgia and dryness of the skin call for the fre- 
quent application of wet linens, slightly wrung 
out. The result is always a great relief to the pa- 
tient. This decided reduction of heat, prevents vio- 
lent cerebral reactions which would otherwise prove 
dangerous. In tympanitic distention of the abdomen 
accompanied with pains, the whole of the lower belly 
should be covered with wet linens ; they must be 
wrung out and not renewed until they are nearly dry. 
They must be covered over with precision, with a dry 
cloth or even oil skin. The result is a condensation 
of the abdominal gases, consequently a diminution 
of the tympanitis, and a marked improvement in the 
pain of the part affected. 

"For obstinate constipation, luke-warm water 
lavements are made use of to commence with, then 
cold water, which has never failed to produce the 
desired effect. If looseness comes on, starch is mixed 
with the liquid of the lavement, one drachm to every 
two ounces of water given after every stool. The ir- 
ritation of the large intestine is thus very sensibly 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



diminished. As I have before observed, if towards 
the end of the second period the remedies homceo- 
pathically indicated do not bring about any favorable 
reaction, if the intensity of the dry heat does not 
diminish, and if the exacerbations at night become 
stronger, I have recourse to the external application 
of cold water to induce the critical sweats. When 
this application is to be made, I choose the moment'of 
the greatest heat, completely undress the patient, rub 
him briskly with a sponge, first of all dipped in luke- 
warm and then in cold water. I then dry him im- 
mediately and put him again to bed. This process is 
not always sufficient, and when it is not so, I place 
the patient in an ordinary footbath, sprinkle him 
several times with warmish and then with entirely 
cold water ; at the same time I have his whole body 
rubbed with the palm of the hand, (this is a much 
gentler and more efficacious way than friction with 
linen recommended by Priessnitz). The change for 
the better manifests itself by a -permanent diminution 
of the heat ; respiration becomes easier, circulation is 
freer, the pulse normal, sleep quiet. In this state ? 
the patient is enveloped in a wetted sheet well wrung 
out, covered over with a dry covering ; he is warmly 
covered up, and the appearance of perspiration is pa- 
tiently waited for. If at the end of one hour it does 
not appear, the wet sheet is renewed, and another 
hour is passed ; then if it does not come and the heat 
increases, the sprinklings are to be renewed followed 



64 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

by the wet sheets until the object is attained. The 
perspiration is generally profuse and emits a strong 
odor. This generally brings about the crisis of the 
disease. Care must be taken, during the envelope- 
ments or swaddlings, to keep up fresh wet linens on 
the head, whilst the feet have only a dry wrapping. 
The wet cloths ought not to go below the ankles. 

" When the heat is intense, the lotions and swath- 
ings must be renewed every two hours, sometimes 
every hour. When the meteorism is very severe, the 
cold linens on the abdomen must be combined with the 
general envelope of the wet sheet. When perspira- 
tion is produced, it must be kept up by frequent 
drinks of clear cream, broth, and water that has re- 
mained some time in the room. As soon as the per- 
spiration diminishes or it is considered advisable 
to stop it, the whole body ought to be rubbed with 
lukewarm water, the patient placed in a clean bed, 
covered moderately, and we should entirely cease the 
use of all hydro-therapeutical agents. Fresh air must 
often be let into the room, and the linen of the bed 
often changed." 

In the third stage of the disease the following 
remedies are prescribed : Bryonia, Rhus, Acid.- 
phosphor., Opium, Calcarea-carb., Nux-vom., Hep.- 
sulph., Aeon. Phosph., China, Arsenicum, Chamom., 
Arnica, Acid.-nit. and hydropathic means. 

Bryonia is efficacious in cases of violent delirium, 
strong febrile heat, violent thirst, great dryness of 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



the skin, small vesicles in the mouth and ulcer3 on 
the lips, painful inflammation of the epigastrium, the 
helly sensible to the touch, involuntary emission of 
urine and excrement, oppression, moral depression, 
sleepiness without sleep, complaining, muttering, sub- 
delirium, agitation, miliary eruption. Dose : from 
the 3d to the 12th dilution, one drop in a tablespoon- 
ful of pure water, or four globules every three hours 
until improvement or change takes place. 

Rhus is generally given with Bryonia alternated 
every two days ; it is particularly useful when the 
patient is in a soporific and prostrate state, the extreme 
weakness which prevents him making the least move- 
ment, very abundant watery diarrhoea, involuntary 
urinating and stools. It is also good when the decom- 
position of the blood is making rapid strides which is 
seen by epistaxis and petechial eruption. It is given 
from the 3d to the 15th dilution. Acid., Phosphor. 
ought to be alternated with Rhus every two days, 
when there is a general stupor of all the organs, when 
the tongue is dry, teeth covered with a crust, lips 
blackish, frequent and dry cough, constant decubitus, 
continual delirium or low muttering, carpologia, fixed 
look, desire to run away, skin dry and burning, abun- 
dant involuntary watery stools ; pulse quick, weak, 
intermittent. The general dose is one drop of the 
1st dilution, in a tablespoonful of pure water, or four 
globules, administered eight or ten times in the 
twenty-four hours, In desperate cases, where the 



66 ON THE TREATMENT OP 

prostration is similar to the last agony, Acid.-phos- 
in tincture is prescribed, from two to six drops in 
a wineglassful of pure water, to be taken in teaspoon- 
ful doses every hour. This preparation is given as 
an injection for internal intestinal hasmorrhage. 

Belladonna has the special property of often 
causing in the disease an important modification, and 
giving it altogether a different and favorable direction. 
It is generally given in the 6th dilution, sometimes 
in the 12th, more rarely in the 1st. The indica- 
tions when this medicament is to be used are ge- 
neral erethism, violent delirium, strong internal and 
external heat, redness and swelling of the face, dry 
tongue, absence of sleep; it is also good when the 
patient is in a soporific state, without complaining, 
without wishing for anything, except to drink ; in- 
convenience and sometimes an impossibility to swal- 
low, eyes fixed, brilliant, mouth open by the fall- 
ing of the inferior jaw, tongue hard, which can- 
not be protruded from the mouth, deafness ; drinks 
eagerly and little at a time ; tympanitic abdomen, 
involuntary stools and urinating ; a tendency to slip to 
the bottom of the bed, to protrude his legs from 
the bed-clothes, carpologia, sleepiness without sleep, 
intermittent pulse. In these cases Belladonna has 
always been found a successful agent. Dose: One 
drop, or four globules, in a tablespoonful of pure 
water, every two hours, until six doses have been 
taken, and then only every six hours, until decided 
amelioration or change. 



TYPHOID FEVEr. 



67 



Opium has been given with much success in a state 
of perfect coma, the pulse slow, full, but depressed, 
slight muttering, carpologia, fixed ^ok. rough skin, 
dry tongue, involuntary and foetid stools — 2d and 3d 
dilution. Dose : The same as directed for Bel- 
ladonna. 

Calcarea-carbonica is advised at the commence- 
ment of this stage, during the formation of the in- 
testinal ulcerations. It is often useful to alternate 
it with Rhus or Belladonna at intervals of six 
hours, according to the case. It is good in cases of 
frequent haemorrhage from the lungs. We should 
commence with the 30th dilution, and descend pro- 
gressively to the 6th. If Calcar. does not cause the 
epistaxis to cease, we must have recourse to the first 
dilution of Hep ar- sulphur is. Dose : One drop or 
three globules in a tablespoonful of pure water every 
six hours, until benefit results, or a change of the 
symptoms indicates a different remedy. 

Nux-vomica is used when there are intestinal 
cramps, obstinate constipation which cause conges- 
tion towards the head or towards the chest. Dose : 
The same as directed for Calcar ea-carb. 

In the over-excited arterial system, good effects are 
obtained from Aconite. It is alternated with Bel- 
ladonna in cases of inflamed parotid glands, and 
Belladonna with Calcarea when the febrile reaction 
has ceased. For stitch in the side with fever, Aconite 
is alternated with Arnica, 3d dilution, or with Bry- 



68 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

onia. Dose : The same as directed for Belladonna. 

Towards the end of the third stage, when the seat 
of the disease seems to be fixed upon the chest, when 
there is pulmonary congestion, hepatization, and in con- 
sequence thereof dyspnoea, stitch in the side, mucous 
rattle, abundant expectorations of sanguinary mucus 
and even of foetid sanies, Phosphor is very effica- 
cious (it is with Bryonia the best medication against 
typhoid pneumonia). From the 4th to the 12th dilu- 
tion, one drop in a tablespoonful of pure water, from 
three to six times a day. Dose : The same as di- 
rected for Calcarea-carb. 

China succeeds, in the last stage, in driving away 
nocturnal sweats, accompanied with a progressive 
weakening, obstinate constipation, with clean tongue 
and a flaccid state of the abdomen. Dose : The same 
as directed for Belladonna. 

Arsenicum* this powerful mitigator, which several 
physicians have extolled in the treatment of typhoid 
fever, has scarcely ever been used with effect by 
Dr. Bartle : a fresh proof that affections com- 
bined under the same pathological denomination, are 
far from being identical, that the insignificant shades 
in the symptomatic appearance may be the indication 
of a very great difference as to the nature of the dis- 
ease, and therefore indicate the use of very different 
medicines ; from which we ought to deduce the 

* Dr. Rapou uses the term Metallum instead of Arsenicum-album. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



69 



necessity of taking into consideration the whole of 
the symptoms. 

Of Arsenicum, Bartle says as follows : The use of 
Arsenicum in cases which I have here spoken of, has 
not in general given us very good results, notwith- 
standing my having administered it in various dilu- 
tions and repeated doses. Once only, where the fever 
became slow (schleichend) (Grer.), and was accom- 
panied by copious watery stools, preceded by an ex- 
treme sensation of weakness,* pains in the abdomen 
and violent thirst, Arsenicum, 9th dilution, alternated 
with Chamomile 6th, produced a very prompt change 
for the better. Under its influence, a hard swelling 
was produced in the calf of the leg, accompanied by 
violent pains, which put an end to the typhoid 
affection. The patient having before suffered from 
scrofula, I gave him every day one drop of the 2d di- 
lution of Iodine, which drove away the hard swelling 
and the pain." Dose : The same as directed for 

Calcarea. 

When Acid-phosphor, brings about no ameliora- 
tion in intestinal haemorrhage, Nitric-acid must be 
used alone or alternated with another remedy ho- 
mceopathically indicated, in doses of one drop of the 
first dilution. To these are added wet linens to the 
lower part of the abdomen. If by this the desired re- 
sult is not obtained, Nitric-acid mu st be administer ed 

* This phenomenon is a characteristic symptom of this 
medicament. 



70 ON THE TREATMENT OP 

as an injection (four or six drops for every two or 
three ounces or a wineglassful of water) ; it is rare that 
the intestinal haemorrhages do not cease under this 
treatment ; but when we are obliged to resort to the 
injections, the case is very serious aud almost always 
mortal. In contusions of the sacrum, lotions of alco- 
holized water or simple starch, is advantageously 
combined with the indicated homoeopathic remedies, 
which are generally Rhus, Arnica, Belladonna, 
Nitric-acid. Dose : The same as directed for Bel- 
ladonna. 

Cold water produces good results, even in the 
third stage of this disease, in cases where the me- 
dicines do not bring about favorable reactions. 
The patient is made to drink small quantities at a 
time. In cerebral congestion and in painful tym- 
panitis, cold linens are applied to the head and on 
the abdomen, which are renewed until the disap- 
pearance of the symptoms and the appearance of 
perspiration. Against obstinate diarrhoea, (amylaces) 
injections are used, followed by wrapping up in the 
cold sheets, when the skin is dry and burning, which 
is ordinarily the case. If this is not sufficient to pro- 
duce the desired effect, and the patient remains in a 
state of stupor and insensibility, he is to be placed in 
an empty footbath, and then sprinkled with cold water, 
whilst at the same time several persons rub him with 
their hands. During this treatment, urine or profuse 
sweats come on; the patient comes to again, the 



TYPHOID FEVER. 71 



tongue becomes loosened and moist, the stools become 
more solid and less frequent, and a favorable termina- 
tion takes place. From that moment all hydro-thera- 
peutical remedies must be entirely dispensed with, 
and the cutaneous exhalation favored by warmly 
covering up the patient. If there is cough with thick 
expectoration, cold water must not be used, but heated 
to lukewarmness. 

Several morbid conditions remain after the cure of 
the typhoid affection, and require a special treatment ; 
these are : sub-cutaneous petechial haemorrhage, 
contusion or ulceration of the skin of the back, and 
particularly of the sacrum consequent upon the decu- 
bitus, parotitis, deafness, furuncles, metastatic abcess, 
miliaria, an eruption similar to scabies, diarrhoea, 
cough with or without expectoration, nocturnal sweats, 
oedema of the inferior extremities, and lastly abdomi- 
nal phthisis. 

It is seldom necessary to administer any medi- 
cines against sanguineous cellular effusions. They 
disappear of their own accord under the influence of a 
good diet and with the increase of strength. But still, 
if the absorption delays for any length of time, it may 
be stimulated much by the administration of a few 
doses of Arnica of the sixth dilution ; one drop or four 
globules in a tablespoonful of pure water, every four 
hours, until amelioration or change. 

Belladonna, repeated in low dilutions, third or 
sixth, promptly lessens the inflammation of the skin 



72 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



of the sacrum, produced by long decubitus. If the 
affected part becomes gangrenous, recourse must be 
had to Carb.-veg., given internally in high dilutions, 
twenty-fourth or thirtieth, whilst the sores are at 
the same time powdered with the first triturations. 
China, Arsenicum and Sulphur are also good reme- 
dies given internally when Carbo-veg. does not stop 
the progress of the gangrene. China favors the for- 
mation of granulations and cicatrization. Silicea 
is given when the disorder extends to the bony tis- 
sue. To these various medicaments must be added 
frequent lotions, fresh air and clean linen. 

Dose: One drop or three globules in a tablepoon- 
ful of pure water every three hours. If no relief 
takes place within twenty-four hours, pause six hours, 
and proceed with another remedy, according to cir- 
cumstances. 

The parotitis disappears under the influence of 
Belladonna and Calcarea alternated at intervals 
of six hours. Belladonna alternated, according to 
the case, with Sulphur, Lycopod., or Silicea is an 
excellent remedy to put an end to the interminable 
production of furuncles. Belladonna and Hepar- 
sulphuris also cure metastatic abscesses. 

Dose : The same as directed for Belladonna. 

The miliary eruption requires Rhus, Bryonia and 
Sulphur. We must avoid even the use of lukewarm 
water, which will often cause fatal metastasis. In the 
eruption analogous to the itch, lotions and lukewarm 



TYPHOID FEVER. 73 



baths are on the contrary favorable ; we administer 
then, according to the cases, Sulphur, Mercur., 
Carbo-veg., Caust., Rhus, Acid-nitric, Lycopod. 

Dose: The same as directed for Belladonna. 

Continuous diarrhoea, which generally comes on 
after constipation, and which is not caused by a sa- 
burral state or a chill, requires the use of China in 
repeated doses from the first to the sixth dilution ; 
take one drop or four globules in a tablespoonful of 
pure water three times at intervals of four hours, and 
then at intervals of eight hours, until amelioration or 
change. 

Continual cough, accompanied or not by expecto- 
ration, generally gives way to Ipec. third, and if it 
comes on at night, to Sulphur, second or third tritu- 
ration, one or two globules once a day. This medica- 
ment, in the same doses, prevents nocturnal sweats, 
when the strengthening diet of the convalescent pa- 
tient does not stop them. 

Diarrhoea which comes on during convalescence, 
after a long and obstinate constipation, is often a 
very bad omen, and generally indicates the develop- 
ment of an intestinal phthisis. Patients attacked 
with this dread affection complain of periodical colics 
and of a sensation of burning in the abdomen particular- 
ly at the junction of the transverse colon. The appetite 
is good, the tongue clean, of a deep red color, the belly 
soft, seldom inflated ; in pressing with the hand upon the 
region of the coecum, a noise as of a liquid agitation is 



74 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



heard, and the patient then experiences an acute pain ; 
there is much rumbling in the belly, particularly at 
night, like the noise made in decanting wine. In the 
beginning of the disease, diarrhoea shows itself only 
at night ; it afterwards appears during the day, but 
it is always most frequent at night. The stools are 
at first of a light-brown color, then we observe bloody 
streaks ; at last they appear composed of a putrid 
sanie mixed with black and foetid blood ; urine at rare 
intervals, red and turbid ; hectic fever increasing at 
night ; lastly nocturnal sweats, colliquative diarrhoea, 
excessive falling oif in flesh, — death. 

We succeed sometimes in stopping the progress 
of this dreadful affection by the use of Pulsat., then 
Belladonna and Calcarea-carb., given alter- 
nately at intervals of six hours. In the first few epi- 
demics Bartle had to treat, he obtained some success 
with Arsenicum and Sulphur, in high or thirtieth 
dilutions, and alternated. In the more recent ones, 
Carbo-veg., from the thirtieth to the twelfth dilutions, 
given by drops in pure water, every three or six hours, 
were found to be much more efficacious. It is to these 
latter we refer here. During the two first stages, it 
is necessary to administer several times in twenty- 
four hours a few spoonsful of light broths or barley- 
water. 

Dose : One drop or three globules in a tablespoon- 
ful of pure water every six hours until four doses have 
been given, and then every twelve hours. If no im- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



75 



provement takes place select another remedy, and 
proceed in the same manner. 

Cold water is preferable to any thing else as a 
drink ; nevertheless, when diarrhoea exists, it is pru- 
dent to moderate its use and to quench the thirst by 
frequently gargling the mouth with cold water. The 
atmosphere of the room must be often changed, as 
well as the linen, the patient moderately covered up, 
and a moderate temperature kept up. 

In the third stage, we should try to nourish a little 
more. Several times during the day barley-water, 
panada, or milk should if possible be given. Greasy 
broths and white meats, veal or fowl must not be 
allowed until convalescence is well established. The 
use of beef or mutton, of wine or beer, requires a cer- 
tain degree of strength which comes but slowly. 

Fruit is entirely interdicted, on account of its ten- 
dency to induce diarrhoea. 

The average mortality of the patients treated by 
Dr. Bartle was one-twelfth. This proportion will 
appear to much greater advantage when we consider 
that the greater number of typhoids received into 
the hospital were already in the second stage of the 
disease and much debilitated by diarrhoea. With 
regard to those which showed only the premonitory 
symptoms of the disease, they were nearly all promptly 
cured, and are not included in the number of pa- 
tients treated. Thus then, the homoeopathic method 
proves itself to be equally efficacious in preventing 



76 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



this disease, in staying its progress, and in conduct- 
ing it to a good issue when it is fully developed. The 
advantage of this medication greatly surpasses all 
other methods that have been and are in use, up to 
the present day. In order to complete these indica- 
tions, I will give here, what I wrote to my father in 
1842, at which time I was studying the treatment of 
typhoid fever in the homoeopathic hospital of Vienna 
in Austria. 

"I have revisited our homoeopathic hospital of Vi- 
enna. It is the sweetest bijou of an hospital that you 
can imagine, with its gardens, its lofty rooms,boarded, 
whitewashed, well ventilated, and ornamented with 
that luxury of little ornaments with which it so plea- 
ses the Sisters of Charity to embellish the dwellings 
of the poor. The morning round of visits still con- 
tinues to be frequented by a certain number of young 
doctors who have just completed their allopathic 
studies, and desire to instruct themselves in the new 
method. This stream of young doctors is being con- 
tinually renewed as others leave, and is a nursery 
most prolific and inexhaustible of homoeopathic prac- 
titioners who scatter themselves over the whole em- 
pire. But the sisters of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, 
whose head-quarters are annexed to this hospital, con- 
tribute perhaps more to the extension of homoeopa- 
thy ; for the hospitals which are being built in the 
country will have them, and the sisters in their turn 
insist, as a condition, that our method shall be intro- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 77 



duced, which, say they, cures very well and with 
scarcely any outlay of pharmacy. They succeed 
sometimes when the government interest is not over 
strong. It is in this way our school has enrolled 
under its banner the hospitals of Lintz and Kremsir. 
What a happy and blessed combination is the domestic 
direction of the Sisters of St.-Vincent-de-Paul and ho- 
moeopathic medication, the best care taken both of soul 
and body ! These new establishments have an indescrib- 
able charm in themselves of peace and well-being. 
There, the patient is not in dread of a brutal treat- 
ment, such as leeches, blisters, cauterizing, purga- 
tives,* nauseous potions, — all these disgusting and 

* " There is nothing more pernicious, says Ettmuller, than 
the use of purgatives in putrid fevers. Let physicians there- 
fore be careful to avoid them in the course of this disease, par- 
ticularly when the petechies or blotches make their appear- 
ance ; let them abstain from using the gentlest, even clysters 
or suppositories, so that nature may not be interfered with." 
A large number of celebrated practitioners, amongst others, 
Hoffmann, Stoll, Huxham, convinced of the danger of purga- 
tives in putrid fevers, and even in any species of acute febrile 
disease, have almost banished them from their practice, and 
advise that one should be very careful in their use. But, per- 
haps, out of respect for the prejudices of their time, they do 
not rise up against this dangerous plan with sufficient vehe- 
mence, but still prescribe it, although very rarely, in cases 
where it is unmistakably deleterious. 

In abdominal adynamic fevers the digestive passages are 
the seat of an inflammation in which purgatives (all of which 



78 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



painful manipulations are unknown. The morbid 
affection goes through its stages regularly and peace- 
are substances more or less irritating) increase the disorder in 
the most fatal manner. They concentrate upon this weak 
point the morbid activity, and render the salutary reaction im- 
possible. Then come on all the phenomena which indicate 
an abdominal nervous congestion : shivers, acrid dryness of 
the skin, wiry, small, irregular pulse, extreme prostration, 
inextinguishable thirst, colliquative diarrhoea, hippocratic 
face, petechies, and death. At other times purgatives limit 
themselves in producing abnormal symptoms. But in all 
cases they fetter the course of the disease, cause the patient 
to run more or less risks, retard recovery, or render it impos- 
sible. 

Purgatives are only useful when it is necessary to drive 
out from the digestive canal toxical matters, indigested or 
indigestible. In every other case they are hurtful ; and our 
school proclaims it so, plainly and straightforwardly, as 
one of the most undeniable facts of medicine. When, through 
a perturbation purely dynamical, there has been formed in 
he digestive passages an accumulation of secreted substances, 
accompanied by a tendency to throw off both ways, then 
purgatives are indicated as favoring these natural tendencies. 
The same indication presents itself when this state exists 
sine materia. This medication is then entirely homoeopathic, 
as it then is a question of operating through the vital reaction. 
It is so self-evident, that vomitus vomitu curantur is perhaps of 
more ancient date than Hippocrates. 

With the exception of this case, evacuation produced by 
purgatives, is a forced, a morbid evacuation, and which in it- 
self can never be salutary. The expelled fluids are the re- 
sult of irritation of the intestinal cavities, of the secretion 



TYPHOID FEVER. 79 



fully nearly always in a favorable manner, under the 
action of simple medicaments, which are revolting to 

which is the consequence, and not of the vicious humors en- 
closed in the digestive tube. These evacuations are never of 
any use, and oppose themselves sometimes to those which na- 
ture would have been able to have produced herself; for the 
purgative irritation ends by drying up the mucous membrane, 
and thereby renders constipation more obstinate than be- 
fore. 

In ascitis or general drop?y it is in vain that the intes- 
tines are forced to a serous hyper-secretion, nothing but in- 
sufficient stools are produced, accompanied by tenesmus, which 
increases the weakness, the irritation, the hectic fever, and has- 
tens a fatal termination. We have been a witness of it too of- 
ten not to proclaim it aloud. But the rational indication ap- 
pears so evident, that allopathists do not keep count of these 
daily deceptions, but still continue on undisturbed, as formerly. 

Considered as revulsives, purgatives and emetics have a real 
value. Nevertheless the homoeopathic method, almost entirely 
proscribes them ; firstly, because they would disturb the action 
of its medicated agents ; and secondly, because there is al- 
ways a danger inherent to the irritation of the intestinal mu- 
cous membrane, and because the revulsion on the skin can 
fulfil the whole indication, if it is effected and managed with 

skill. 

There are some purgative and emetic specifics which are 
employed with success as special modificators of the diges- 
tive passages. These means are taken from the homoeopathic 
method. It is exactly according to the principles of similari- 
ties that stibium tartar, and ipecacuanha cure certain gastric 
derangements, and that sublimate succeeds in certain dysen- 
teries. 



80 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

none of the senses. Natural disorders are softened 
and brought to a happy issue, without the addition of 
new sufferings. The devoted hand of the sister makes 
the bed so well, their gentle words know so well how 
to calm pain, that one would wish to breathe the last 
breath of life here, if one had no mother. And yet 
how many people have placed themselves as adver- 
saries to this happy combination of a simple, agree- 
able, efficacious medicine, and the tender cares and 
consolations which religion alone can give ! What 
sorrowful thoughts involuntarily take possession of 
the mind and heart in looking upon the obstacles 
which, particularly in France, are thrown in the way 
of the realization of so great a blessing to humanity ! 
It is deplorable that thousands are expended in 
drugging the sick, to their detriment, but they have 
as excuses for so doing, scientific fallacies. That which 
it is not easy to understand, is, that Paris, the native 
city of the sisters of charity, prefers to hire menials 
to tend the sick instead of having them in her hospitals, 
and thus sends them into the midst of the Turks of 
Constantinople and the Arabs of Syria. 

The diseases which predominate in the homoeopa- 
thic hospital at Vienna are simple pneumonias and 
typhoid fevers. The latter is endemical to Austria, 
since the great wars of the empire, and particularly 
since the cholera. The homoeopathic practitioners of 
this country have therefore acquired great experience 
in the treatment of this disease ; and as I understand 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



81 



that it has broken out epidemically in Lyons, I send 
you an account of its treatment here. 

In Vienna simple abdominal typhus is the most 
common ; the brain and lungs are not so often attacked 
as in France ; the decomposition of the blood is also less 
decided ; the petechies not so marked, and the bleed- 
ing at the nose, in the commencement of the disorder, 
is also of unfrequent occurrence. The disease there- 
fore is the regular evolution of the peculiar ulcera- 
tion of the large intestine combined with morbid 
phenomena which are physiological consequences : 
fever, harsh dryness of the skin and tongue, meteorism 
and sensibility of the abdomen on being touched, par- 
ticularly in the right iliac cavity, diarrhoea, not co- 
pious and very foetid, dryness of the mouth, excessive 
weakness, stupor and death in more than half of the 
cases. 

The treatment in the homoeopathic hospital is very 
simple, and is crowned with success in nine cases out 
of ten : the directing physician, Dr. Fleishmann, uses 
first of all Bryonia (from the second to the sixth 
decimal dilution, a few drops in three or four ounces, 
or a teacupful of pure water, from six to eight tea- 
spoonsful a day) if the patient has been brought into 
the hospital from the very commencement of the dis- 
ease, which is often the case. Generally speaking 
however the disease is in an advanced stage, and he 
then at once prescribes Arsenicum or Acid-phosph., 
the former in the fourth to the sixth, and the latter 



82 ON THE TREATMENT OP 



from the second to the fourth dilution, given like 
Bryonia, lessening the repetitions in proportion as 
the disease loses its acuteness. Acid-phosphor, is 
used in preference in young patients of fair com- 
plexion, with a white and delicate skin, when the 
diarrhcetic stools are very abundant and slightly foetid. 
These two medicaments are in general used, without 
any change, to the end of the disease. 

In this clinical treatment, Arsenicum is the foun- 
dation remedy, the one used in nine cases out of ten ; 
all the others are employed mostly as accessories, to 
counteract any secondary symptoms. Homoeopathic 
practitioners are well acquainted with the resem- 
blance there is between the toxical effects of this 
substance and the characteristic phenomena of abdo- 
minal typhus ; but the study has here been more 
entered into. Two years ago there appeared in the 
Homoeopathic Journal of Vienna, a very curious 
article by Dr. Hausmann on metallic intoxication, 
considered in a dynamico-physiological and anatomo- 
pathological light. He shews that this intoxication 
constitutes, under its various phases, a special morbid 
state, always like itself, and having with abdominal 
typhus the same traits of resemblance as the mer- 
curial diatheses with venereal disease. He thus ends 
the article : " Metallic ileo-typhus and abdominal 
typhus are, with relation to the physiological and 
anatomical phenomena, two morbid states bearing a 
remarkable similarity. Arsenicum, the producer of 



TYPHOID FEVER. 83 



metallic ileo-typhus, cures abdominal typhus. In the 
hospital of the sisters of Mercy at Vienna, there were 
received, in 1841. one hundred and sixty-seven cases 
which were treated by this remedy in homoeopathic do- 
ses. There were one hundred and fifty-six cures." The 
proportion of nine-tenths is about the yearly average. 

Yet our method can shew still more flattering re- 
sults, and the mode of treatment of Fleischmann is 
not entirely free from reproach. Thus, he does not 
attack the disease at its commencement with the in- 
dicated medicament with sufficient promptness, but 
waits until it takes the character for which Arsenicum 
is proper. He thus allows the evil to increase, and 
exposes the patient to a long and precarious con- 
valescence. This is sometimes the case of which he 
himself is aware. In the second place, he is wrong 
to persist in the same medicament when the disease 
has changed its aspect and taken the hectic form. 

Abdominal typhus has been endemical in Vienna 
since the great wars of the empire, and the cholera has 
twice communicated to it a fresh degree of intensity. 
One might say that it almost shares the morbid king- 
dom with the diseases of the respiratory passages, 
which are also very common. During my stay at the 
hospital, about thirty cases of typhoid fever were re- 
ceived, four only of which had a fatal termination. 
Their average duration was two weeks, during which 
the disease rapidly ran through all its stages, but with- 
out missing a single one, bringing the patient some- 



84 ON THE TREATMENT OF 

times down to the very last stage of cerebral exhaustion 
or of.marasmus and general debility. What is particu- 
larly commendable in this treatment, is not the ar- 
resting of the disease, or its forced ejectment, but 
the rapidity of its progress, the favorable proportion 
of cures, and the promptness of the recovery. It was 
these quick recoveries that I mostly admired. It is 
most interesting to compare homoeopathic cures with 
those which are effected by the old school, so slow, so 
precarious, so complicated. We can thus form an 
exact idea of the therapeutical action of the new 
method, and fully deprecate the injustice of the re- 
proach which is made against us by our adversaries re- 
garding our anti-physiological pretensions to render 
miasmatic affections abortive. 

I will add some information collected elsewhere : 
In private practice, particularly here, where the 
homoeopathic physician, is in general the practitioner 
of the house (Hausarzt), the doctor is called in from 
the very first signs of disease, long before it has arrived 
at the stage where Arsenicum is the requisite remedy. 
Bryonia, Belladonna, or Rhus is first administered. 
— Bryonia, if shooting pains are predominant in the 
abdomen, in the chest or the head, which is often 
the case, dry cough, bitter mouth, pains in the joints, 
febrile exacerbations at night, intermingled with heat 
and shivers ; Belladonna, when there is cerebral 
congestion, red and swollen cheeks, expectoration, 
or sanguinary stools ; Rhus, for ataxic symptoms. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 85 

variable pulse, and great prostration of the nervous 
system. When the disease is prolonged and seems 
inclined to pass into the consumptive hectic fever 
state without any favorable reaction, we may gene- 
rally bring about a favorable termination with a few 
doses of Carbo-veg., fourth trituration, or from the 
fifth to the sixth dilution. This powerful agent, 
efficaciously stimulates the vital force ; in a higher 
dilution, say from the twelfth to the thirtieth, its 
action would perhaps be more complete, but less 
prompt. Dose: One drop of the dilution, or as 
much of the trituration or powder as will stand on 
the point of a penknife, or three globules in a ta- 
blespoonful of pure water every four hours, until 
three doses have been given, and then every six hours. 
If no relief takes place, select another remedy. The 
salutary excitation which this drug produces is often 
an indispensable condition for the use of the hydro- 
therapeutical processes. * 

* The appearance of the hydro-therapeutical method is an 
event most remarkable in the medical history of modern 
times : It represents the first revolution produced in the ra- 
tional school through the influence of homoeopathic ideas, the 
first systematic transformation of the old school into the new 
doctrine. Priessnitz takes Hahnemann for granted. He most 
likely would have accomplished nothing without the latter ; 
his instinctive talent would have been useless, lost, had he not 
found a path, ready traced out by a vigorous arm, through the 
mass of allopathic systems. From this point of view, adopt- 
ed by most hydropathic German writers, and the only one 
5* 



86 



ON THE TREATMENT OF 



It becomes sometimes necessary to endeavor to 
increase the functional activity of the much de- 

which gives a correct idea of the origin and value of hydro- 
pathy, it will easily be seen why the examination into this 
method should find a place in this book. 

Hydropathy, according to most of its partizans, has its 
foundation, its reason, in the general fact of the reaction 
which the living organization is endowed with. One endea- 
vors, in exciting this reaction to establish the energy of the vi- 
tal manifestations, and by a particular perseverance upon cer- 
tain weakened parts, to bring about the equilibrium of the for- 
ces. If the vital strength of the person possessed its primi- 
tive vigor, such as nature gave to the first generations, it is 
probable that in most cases, she would herself drive away the 
morbid influences, and would require no auxiliary to cure the 
diseased body. But as in the present day it no longer possess- 
es the energy of the first ages, it is necessary to come to its aid. 

Hydropathic processes have the effect to stimulate the 
vital reactions to the required degree, in order to give acuteness 
to chronic states, and to favor, in acute states, the happy crisis 
and the salutary work of nature. No method brings about 
more efficaciously these results ; it is the hygienic, the phy- 
siological practice par excellence. 

In the end, there is no clashing between this method and 
homoeopathy, but on the contrary a perfect harmony. There 
is no difference except with regard to the means and the pro- 
cesses, and even these, being purely physiolegical, do not 
disturb in any manner the special influences of the medicated 
substances. 

Abundant observations permit us to see how much the ac- 
tion of hydro-therapeutical processes resembles that of ho- 
moeopathic remedies ; that both produce curative aggrava- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 87 



pressed intestinal canal. To this end, Dr. George 
Schmidt administers with much success Mercurius- 



tions ; that they favor the symptomatic development and the 
evolution of the disease so that, as Attomyr would say, it ma- 
tures early, fades and disappears. 

The general effect of cold water, is to force the disease to 
show itself; and, by thus developing all its symptoms, it 
permits homoeopathy to exercise upon the disorder its entire 
strength. 

The activity given to the secretive and excretive functions 
drives away all foreign matters, frees the economy from minute 
medicinal infections, and thus destroys one of the most fre- 
quent causes of ill-success, in homoeopathic treatment. 

We thus see, that the two methods have numerous relations 
to each other of the highest importance ; they appear to 
complete and to sustain each other, in several points. It is 
thus that the German homoeopathists have understood it, and 
Frank d'Osterode and Starke of Silberberg, among others, 
have become the champions for the union of the two methods. 
But to this objections have arisen. It has been asked, what is 
the relative value of these methods ; what is the sphere of ac- 
tion of this one, and to what extent ought that to operate ? The 
partizans of Priessnitz, for the most part, assert that hydropathy 
is of general use, that it covers the whole range of therapeutics, 
and only requires an auxiliary and secondary specific medication. 
The Homoeopaths reverse the foregoing assertion, but are not 
contented with simply asserting it,— they prove it. Several 
of our fellow practitioners, amongst whom is the distinguished 
Dr. Ott of Mecklenberg, occupy themselves in a particular 
manner to determine this question of practice. This latter 
gentlemen has just published a pamphlet on this subject, in 



ON THE TREATMENT OF 



dulcis first trituration (centesimal) and Rhubarb 
(same preparation)- 



which he announces for publication shortly, a work on this 
subject ex profess o. 

Before giving our own observations upon this subject, I 
think it better to give the opinions of a practitioner who in our 
school, in Germany, is considered as an authority. We read 
the following in an article upon hydro-therapeutics by Dr. 
Kurtz (of Frankenstein-Silesia,) Hygea Journal : 

" One of the greatest advantages we find in hydropathy, is 
that it introduces into the economy, nothing heterogeneous 
or toxical. I was particularly struck with its high importance 
in medicinal disorders. I was obliged to admit how often 
without knowing it we have to deal with affections of this de- 
scription, and how precious is a method which either drives 
away this affection, or else indicates its presence. It is of no 
less importance in other chronic diatheses. Several fortunate 
cures, of which I was an eye witness, have led me to think 
that hydropathy was the realization of the idea, which the an- 
cients had expressed under the name of re-incorporation." 

" All practitioners know how very often it is difficult in in- 
dividual cases of chronic diseases, to discover the true charac- 
ter of the disorder. There is no one who has not observed 
that the most reasonable remedy that could be given accord- 
ing to appearances, has produced no apparent change, most 
likely because it does not answer to the true nature of the dis- 
order, which is but imperfectly developed by the symptoms. 
Every one will then be pleased in being made acquainted with 
a method which brings to light, though only for a short time, 
the primitive phenomena of the disease. If these remarks are 
taken into some little consideration, the indication of the dis- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



89 



As typhoid fever does not acquire its full develop- 
ment except under the form of typhus, it is advisable 

ease will be discovered with facility and the proper remedy 
easily found. 

"In extremely intense and malignant diseases, where the 
curative tendency of nature threatens to succumb, no other 
remedy is equal to hydropathy to produce free and efficacious 
reactions. Amongst others, are cases of scarlatina, where, fol- 
lowing upon the disappearance of the symptoms, various bad 
changes manifest themselves ; in croup, according to the expe- 
rience of the physicians of St. Petersburg ; in typhus with 
insensibility ; in cholera (Attomyr cites a case of cholera be- 
ing cured by the patient having thrown himself into a ditch full 
of water :) but in order to obtain these results, an energetic 
application must be adopted. He who contents himself with 
a few cold applications when the whole body ought to be re- 
peatedly wrapped up in a damp sheet, or satisfies himself 
with shower baths of five or ten minutes duration, instead of 
cold water baths of an hour, in which the extremities ought 
to be violently rubbed by several persons, he, I say, who only 
thus imperfectly carries out the principle and necessarily finds 
that it does no good, should not denounce the method." 

This hydro-therapeutical method therefore, joined to ours, 
possesses advantages which are incontestible and most pre- 
cious ; but, isolated, left to itself, without the intervention of 
our means, it becomes a remedy more baneful than curative, 
and has all the inconveniences of everything else that is of a 
general application and that does not descend to details. I t 
requires individuals capable of reaction, and it remains neces- 
sarily powerless against a large number of special morbid 
states where this faculty of reaction is seriously altered. This 
use of cold water puts the reaction too strongly into play, in 



90 ON THE TREATMENT OF 



to consult the clinic advices given under this head by 
Dr. Bartle, who has treated this disease in the large 



acting out of bounds upon the functions of nutrition and ex- 
cretion. Besides, it is evident that this increased propulsion 
of life cannot be acquired but at the expense of its duration. 
One fortifies for the time being, by taking from the future ; for 
the treatment of Priessnitz is long and tedious from ten 
months to two, three, or four years. It is a violent proceeding 
of reaction against the evil, which must indeed exhaust the 
economy, as a physician of Prague, Dr. Hirsch, informed me 
he had several times remarked. This method will always ex- 
cite a general reaction, in which the whole system, all the 
functions, are more or less put into play, from which results a 
frightful over-excitation. In order to act upon the diseased 
part, the whole organization is violently shaken. It is wrong 
that hydropaths are guided in practice by the state of the cir- 
culation ; for, on the one hand, the quickening of the pulse is 
no criterion of the degree of violence with which the economy 
is impressed ; and on the other hand, circulation is always in- 
creased during perspiration. Of nine people whom Kurtz 
treated to ascertain this, he found that the average pulsa- 
tion exceeded 90 per minute. The power of reaction must 
be excessive indeed, otherwise its manifestation, if the treat- 
ment exacts that it should be provoked for any length (in 
chronic diathesis, in rheumatism, in gout, &c.,) would ex- 
haust the economy instead of curing it. In persons who react 
with difficulty these severe applications are always followed 
by a febrile state, which wears out life. Hydropathy must 
be entirely rejected in these cases. 

We have sometimes seen serious consequences result from 
the application of simple wet linens, applied according to rule, 
but to persons weak and delicate. These are the cases in 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



91 



military hospitals of southern Austria, where it 
shews itself in various shapes. These prescriptions. 



which the fumigating method should be made use of, which 
spares the constitution all the shocks of the reaction.* If it 
is made to follow the varied applications of cold water, we have 
all the resources that hydropathy professes to possess. The 
fumigating method, on this account, appears in my opinion des- 
tined to become extensive ; it completes the system of Priess. 
nitz, by making itself applicable to all ages, to all tempera- 
ments and to the various pathological conditions. This use- 
ful combination is beginning to be brought about. My father 
lately examined, in one of the numerous hydro-therapeutical 
establishments on the shores of the Rhine, that of Gleis- 
weiler, a fumigatory apparatus, which the directing physician, 
Dr. Schneider, makes use of to provoke reactions and per- 
spiration in persons who are weakened or of a delicate con- 
stitution, and in cases where fear might be entertained of 
internal congestions. In fact, if in such cases the remedial 
measures are not proportioned to the feeble resistance of 
the patient, a veritable congestion begins, and the patient may 
suddenly expire. The method of Giannini (which consists 
of plunging the fevered patient in cold water during the pe- 
riod of the chills,) made use of without the above mentioned 
precautions having been taken, has furnished numerous fatal 

examples, f 

Whilst the hydro-therapeutical methods violently solicit the 
general reaction, what a difference is there not in the homoeo- 
pathic method ! Here the drug action is produced upon an 
already determined point, by dynamical agents, which, having 

* See T Rapon Treatise on the Fumigating Method, or on the Medical use of 
Baths and Douches of Vapor, Paris, 1824, 2 Volumes in 8vo. 

+ Of the nature of Fevers and the best mode of treatment, translated from 
the Saltan, with annotations, by N. Heurteloup, Paris, 1808, 2 vol. in 8vo. 



92 ON THE TREATMENT OP 

the greater number of which we have mentioned in 
this work, do not differ from those which we use with 

only an affinity for this point, requires from the organic 
whole a reaction barely perceptible. There is therefore but a 
feeble reaction, and at the point only where it is required (not 
including exceptional aggravated cases ;) this reaction, though 
feeble in itself, is nevertheless energetic therapeutically, be- 
cause it is special. Hydropathy to gain its ends must dis- 
turb the whole economy. 

Another more serious inconvenience of the cold water 
method, is the relying upon too many accessory considera- 
tions, observations of detail, and in not being able to combine 
the practical rules in a few general, certain, and invariable 
precepts, so that it may be applied without danger, after having 
consecrated to its study a respectable quantity of time and at- 
tention. For in a word, in medicine there is a limit to the 
errare humanum est, but in hydropathy there is none. One 
may injure greatly if one is not skilful ; one may jeopardize 
life if one does not re-establish health. Everything depends 
upon the modus faciendi. If the linens are left on too long, 
an antiphlogistic effect is produced ; and if they are renewed 
at certain intervals, an excitation is brought about. The prac- 
tice of this method essentially consists in these small details 
where errors, and inattentions must necessarily happen, caus- 
ing serious consequences from the importance of the reaction 
which is brought into play. Knowledge acquired by long ex- 
perience barely suffices to avoid them ; one requires an instinct, 
an observing genius which Vincent Priessnitz possessed to so 
high a degree, which it is not the fate of all to possess, 
and which makes many say that his method will disappear 
with him We do not go so far, but still we believe that it 



TYPHOID FEVER. 93 

entire success in the sporadic cases of our pa- 
tients. 

During the whole course of treatment, the pre- 
scription of medicines must not cause hygienic atten- 
tions and a proper alimentary regimen to be lost sight 
of. The admitting fresh air into the patient's cham- 
ber, friction with the hand or with flannel, on the dried 
up, shrunken parts, fomentations and injections of 
lukewarm water, gargling with fresh water, applica- 
tion of cold linens to the forehead, unctions of oil of 
arnica applied to the diseased and painful parts, all 
these little attentions gently induce vital reaction and 
prevent dangerous complications. The science and 
experience of the physician shew themselves in these 
hygienic attentions, no less than in the use of proper 
remedies. 

It is also important to direct the diet ; it is the most 
delicate part, the most difficult one of the whole 
treatment, and one that requires the most accurate 
medical knowledge. The physician who is ignorant of 
the rules which ought to preside at the prescribing 
of the diet, will never succeed in the treatment of 
typhoid fevers. Usually, in the ordinary practice of 
medicine, too little importance is attached to these 
things. They resort rather to blisters, and to potions, 



will lose its pretensions as a general method, when its creator 
is gone, but that it will yet exist as an auxiliary of homoeopa- 
thy. 



94: ON THE TREATMENT OF 

than to supply the real imperative wants of this poor 
organization, which a light hroth would re-establish, 
but which is extinguished under the influence of ponder- 
ous drugs. I have not the slightest doubt but that a 
considerable proportion of patients perish, victims of 
this treatment. Of this we have had the most strik- 
ing proofs. In a private family two little boys fell 
sick at the same time of typhoid fever ; same symp- 
toms, same severity, same allopathic treatment. One 
of the children died begging for food, which was refus- 
ed him because the pulse was febrile. The other one 
likewise craving for nourishment, by chance stumbled 
upon some boiled chestnuts, swallowed them with 
avidity, and in a short time recovered. It is true 
that, with this little patient, as was the case with the 
one I mentioned before in the course of this pamphlet, 
the cessation of the adynamy and the return of the 
digestive faculties coincided with the first doses of 
homoeopathic remedies. 

But, in the anxiety to raise the strength, one must 
guard against the use of those substances, so-called 
tonics, which are prescribed by most doctors to their 
patients for that purpose, and which generally have 
no other result, than to cause them to pass from an 
over excited state to one of extreme weakness, which 
is often incurable. * 

* To administer tonics, to fortify the organization, is an opera- 
tion purely physiological which comes within the limits of hy- 
gea. A tonic, stimulating, strengthening medication is not 



TYPHOID FEVER. 



95 



understood ; for evidently it is the tonics par excellence in dis- 
eases which are the remedies that cure. A wrong application 
made to the patient of the properties of certain medicines 
upon the healthy man gave rise to this pretended medication. 
From the fact that iron, quinine, bitters, cause in the normal 
state, a general excitation, a kind of phlogosis, it has been 
concluded that these substances would be proper to rouse re- 
action in the weakened patient. But this excitation adds not 
to the strength of the healthy man ; it is simply a perturba- 
tion, and the use that is made of it in disease is a vicious ap- 
plication of a false analogy. But, some will say, quinine, 
tannin, aromatics, are antiseptics, they therefore exercise 
truly a favorable action in the preservation of life. Assured- 
ly if these substances are applied to skins threatened with 
gangrene, they may retard or prevent it by developing a cer- 
tain degree of reaction. The hot iron would act better, 
and common kitchen salt just as well. And indeed how can 
one think that these substances taken internally and altered 
by the digestive and circulating systems can possibly retain 
the properties which they possess (iron excepted) physically 
and chemically? Clinical experience has given the- lie to 
these preconceived opinions, and adynamic fevers pursue 
without any change their fatal progress under the action of 
bitters, of polygala and of other excitants. 

Since the fall of Broussaisism, the allopathic school makes 
again an abuse of these pretended tonics, seeking in the pass- 
ing and deceiving excitation which they produce, a remedy 
for the real depression which is brought about but too often by 
bleeding- 

Tonification, if we may use the term, is a general property 
that belongs to all agents under certain circumstances. That 
which we^ens in one case strengthens in another. We can- 
not say of medicaments, more than of heat or cold, that they 
are tonic ; this quality is inherent to no agent ; and if one can 



96 ON THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID FEVER. 



establish anything fixed with regard to this, it is that medi- 
cinal substances, well denned, are all strengthening and 
vice versa. In this light, the tonic medication of the old school 
would be much better called : —debilitating medication. 



• \HHs